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Full text of "Valley of the upper Maumee River, with historical account of Allen County and the city of Fort Wayne, Indiana"











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^e:]sje:ai_o^y col.lhction 


Upper Maumee River 





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Democrat Printing Company, Madison, Wis. 



Aboit township 885 

Acadeniie 210 

Adams township 305 

Allen, Col. John 133 

Annals of the township a05 

Areola 898 

Besancon 401 

Big Leg, murder of 186 

Bondie, Antoine 134 

Border warfare "4 

Bouquet, Gen 54, 65 

British expedition against Fort 

Wayne 146 

British occupation 54 

Canal, land office 801 

Cedar Creek township 331 

Cedarville 333 

Centerville 422 

Churches in the township 456 

Church, Lutheran, in Allen 

county 465 

Emanuel's, The 471 

Oar Creek 472 


New Haven 

St. John's (Fort Wayne). 
CHoagland) . . 

St. John 
St. Paul's. 
St. Peter's 
Trinity . . . 

Clark, Gen. George R 


Cold and drought 196 

Commanders at Ft. Wayne, 

106, 164 

Concordia college 472 

Coureurs de Bois 42 

Drainage 285 

Early exjplorations 43 

Edwardsburg 388 

Eel River township 300 

Expeditions from Fort Wayne 


Fallen Timber, battle of 103 

Farm settlement 201 

Fort Dearborn massacre 1 30 

Fort Defiance 101 

Fort Meigs, siege of 151 , 159 

Fort Miami (old) 52,10-i 

Fort, thT French 52, 108 

Fort Miami, capture of 60 

Fort Recovery 100 

Fort Stephenson, siege of liiO 

Fort Wayne 106,111,143 

Fur trade 111,164,179 

Game, early 20^ 

Oamelin, journal of 77 

Geology and physical geogra- 

Girty,' Simon'. '.'.'.'.'. .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.' 89 

Glacial action 171 

Godef roi, Francis 62,212 

Hardin, Col. John 76,83,98 

Harmar's Ford, battle 35,85 

Harrison, Gov. W. H 

110,113,116, 180, 123, 186, 139, 143, 

153,158, 163. 
Heller's Corners, battle near. 84 

Hesse Cassel 4:^3 

Hoagland 423 

Huntertown 314 

Indiana, territory of 110 

Indians, distribution of 23 

Intrigues of British 89,100 

Introduction 19 

Jackson township 396 

Jefferson township 400 

Johnston, Stephen, killing of. 135 

Kekionga 67 

LaBalme, expedition of 70 

Lake township 291 

Land cession disputes. . . 73,99,133 

Land office 198 

La Salle, journeys of 45 

at Kekionga 47 

Leo 333 

Logan, Capt 137, 1,39, 147 

Lutheran church In Allen Co. . 465 
McCulloch, Hugh, reminls. 


Madison township 

Mails, early 183, 185 

Maples 401 

Marion township 431 

MassiUon 482 

Maumee, first map of 44 

Maumee township 387 

Maumee Valley Monumental 

Association vi 

Maysville 351 

Metea 134 

I ambuscade of 141 

Miami, fort, on Maumee 106 

massacre at 153 

Miamis, description of 24-30 

principal chiefs 30 

early history 37 

treaties with 197 

Middletown 433 

.Milan township 390 


uroe township 

rris, Capl,., at Kekionga., 

Oliver, Wm.,adventu 
Peace of Ghent. , . , . . 
Peltier, Louis, remii 

±,^ t JL-^vJ'i; 

Perry township 312 

Pleasant township 447 

Pontiac, conspiracy of 56 

death of 68 

Portage to Wabash . 47 , 49 , 53 , 55 , 108 

Prehistoric remains 21 

Pi-ophet, The 112,115,126 

Regimental Buttons 165 

Relief of Fort Wayne 140 

Residents, early, at Fort 

Wayne 186 

Richardville, Chief 165 

Riley, Capt. James 184 

River Raisin, battle of 149 

Royal Americans, The 54 

Schools in Allen county 480 

monroevUle 491 

private and church 481 

public 483 

township 491 

Settlement and development. . 179 

Settlers, customs of 202 

Shane, Anthony 156 

Shawnee run 185 

Siege of Fort Wayne 132 

Sprmgfield township 350 

St. Clair's campaign 87 

St. Joseph township 211 

Strata, geologic. . .. 


Tecumseh 104 

confederacy of . . < 109 

at Fort Wayne 126 

in war of 1812 139, 153, 159 

Tippecanoe, battle of 126 

Townships, formation of 205 

Traders, early 134, 183 

Treaties, early 73 

of Greenville 107, 163 

at Fort Wayne 110, 119 

atVincennes 122 

withMiamis 197 

Urbana 333 

Wabash-Erie trough 171 

WaUen 210 

Miamis and Iroquois.. 38, 51, 53 

Indians and English 56 

Revolutionary 68 

Federal and Indian 81 

of 1812 127 

Washington, observations of . . 72 

interest in the west 95 

Washington township 209 

Wayne, Gen. Anthony 167 

campaign of 95 

Wayne township 205 

Wells, Captain 103, 129, 131 

White Pigeon, expedition to.. 156 

Williamsport 433 

Woodburn 387 



Allen, Thomas 

Alligear, John D 

Anastutz, John 

Anderson, A. H 

Andrews, Rapm. and s 

Antrup, Henry E 

Archer, John 

Argo, M. E 

Ashley, George L 

Ashton, Ambrose 

Bacon, Henry 

Bair, Simon 

Baldwin, Timothy 


ass. - 



ass. J 



iutr, J. B 







id I) 







f" '. 


n. Til 


. . . 395 Hauk, Samuel 

... 337 Hayes, H. F 

. . . .331! Haves. John. . 
.. -MO I Heihvavtii. Michael. 

Beams, Henry W. . . 
Beclcman. Edward. 
Beeliman, Fred 

Blelie, -William. 
Blume. Martin . 

Bolide,' Henry.. 
Boston. Alexanti 
Boulton, Henry 
Brandeberry. Al 
Brandeberi'\-. G. 
Breman, Cl'iarle: 

rooks. W. B 

Darroch, A. M 

Dan.sharlv, Alfred , 
DelaKranire. Constant. 
Dever, John . 
Diederich, Rev. H. W.. 

Dorsey, George 

Dorsey, Robert 


Oreenwell. C. L 




Greslev. .lolin 



Griei. Joseph H 




Griffin, A. U 




Grilifith, John 




Grodrian, Frederick, and 







Gronauer, Joseph 


Gros.iean. John 

'^n.ss. Rrv, Cliarles 

i.i-nlM.r, cliristian 



Gunip.George.'.'.!'.'.'.'.;' ,' 



Hairtey, George 




Haiflev. .Tohn B 




Hake, John, and sons. . . 


Hall, Alvin 

La F 




ITan, ill,,,,. William A.... 



?,ti; H„,per, Edward 

477 j Harrod family 

883 Harter, William H 
383 I Hathaway, Stephen.. 

403 Landin. Michael 

430 Lane, Chest erX.... 
376 Lapp, Valentine. . . . 
306 I Larimore, Thomas. 


Lasselle Gen Hvacii 
LauienLe Oluti 

Little H 
Little Tuitle 
LoLhnei J ihn 
Lorn IS Cliarle', 
Lu\ellml H ^\ 
Mi-Ciit-t Juhn 
McConibs Jdmeh 
McConnel J(»lni 
Mcuo} & ■\\ 
McC roi > James 
McDciniut WilbOnJi 
McKn David 
McKee TtiomisL 
McLam Aelson a 

McMaketi Henry C 
M^.^abb 'ftilliam J 
Madden W W 
Mai He Ephraim 
Mai tm L>a\ id 
Masson John B 
Matthens Samuel 
Mercei Jacob 
Meikel Chiiles 
Metcalt M ^ 
Me^eI Fieil A 
Mevei Ire.l nil si 
Me^pl H c ^\ 
Mevei T H F i 
Mlllei H r C 

PfeifEei JohnL 
Poinbett John b 
Puce Moses B 
Puce Richard 
Eipp ( eoige 
Ripp John 
Rpdelsheimei D b 

iiiei W H 

.helderlti Charles 
Reicheldiit l facob 

-hcUeilel JohnD 

Reichelleitu ^\inilmj 
Repp Petei 

R.Wis Lull 
P ^els Oiiiu 
P >se Chn tr 


Stellhorn J H 
Stephenson J ihn D 
Stevicl Jacob 
Stickney Mij B F 
Stirlen 4Llei.ander 
Stilling \V r 
Stock Rev S F C F 
Strasb Mori i& 
Surtus John 
Sutten field William 

aidner John 
Swift Dr C F 
Taylor AlfiedM 
Tajloi lohu 
Tielkei L .n. id 


J .hn 

Mo 1 \\illuiii I 
Moi. Ill I 
Mor!t7 John M 
Movidj John \\ 
Moudj MairinL 
MuUei, W M 
M>eis John 
Neff P J 
Nettelhoist Louis 
Notebtine Daniel 
Notestme Jacob 
Notebtine Peter 
Notestme Uiiah 
Nusbaum Geoi ge W 
Nuttle A D 
Oberholtzei W O 
Oiuo Fledeuck 
Paft W m 
Paikei Chiistnn 
Paiker Times D 
Parkei Tjhn P 
Parnm Euf;eni 
Painin Fiancis 
Peltiei James 
Peltiei Louis 
Pepe \UKUbt 
Pel not Conbtant 
Peteis John 

bleui, n Re\ Otto 

simnicis D W 

Simon Solomon 

Small Joseph md t imiK 

Smith Jirvis 

bmitle\ Jicob and Imah 

Sniilei Pluhp 

■snvdcr VnthouY 

Sn\d, r (re , I ere R 

"^nvdei Aicliolis 

bpencpr C"l John 
Spindlei William A 
Spm<llti W s 
bpiankel John 
Squues L D 
btau Gilbert and bons 









ell D 






Lst r 


Bell,R. c 

Boltz, ferd. ¥.... 
Dawson, E. J 
■Dougall, Allen H 
Fostra-, D. N., 
Godfrey, G. L. 
Harper, Edward . . 

Hettler, C. F 

Jones, Jasper W 
MeClellan, U. A. O 
McDonald, R. T.. 

Niezer. J. b 

O'Connor, Bernard 
Peltier, J. C '. 


Randall, F. P 



Robertson, R. S.. 



Robinson, J. M 



Rogers, L. M 


Shirley. Robert B... 


Wayne, Anthony.... 



This patriotic association had its origin through the action of the 
" Pioneer association of the Maumee valley," at its annual meeting held 
in 1885, on the battlefield of " Fallen Timber." 

A committee was then and there appointed to take into consideration 
and devise ways and means to secure the possession and control, and to 
protect and commemorate the most important historical points, such as 
battlefields and forts, in the Maumee valley. 

The result of the deliberations of the committee, was the incorpora- 
tion, under the laws of Ohio, of the Maumee valley monumental associa- 

The incorporators were all residents of Ohio, and were: D. W. H. 
Howard, of Fuhon county; Asher Cook, of Wood county ; WilHam Baker, 
R. B. Mitchell, Samuel M. Young, R. C. Lemmon, Mavor Brigham, 
Henry Bennett, Richard Mo.tt, John C. Lee, Foster R. Warren and John 
R. Osborn, of Lucas county. 

The articles of incorporation were filed in the otfice of the secretarj' 
of state of Ohio, on the 28th day of Jul}-, 18S5. Prior to this formal 
organization, however, the incorporators had perfected an organization 
by the election of a board of directors, and through an executive com- 
mittee consisting of D. W. H. Howard, Asher Cook, and J. C. Lee, 
presented a memorial to congress, which resulted in an appropriation 
for a survey of the various historical localities, which survej' has been 
under the charge of Gen. O. M. Poe, of the engineer corps, U. S. 
arm}^ who has rendered to congress an exhaustive report of the survey 
of all the historic grounds of the valley, as well as Put-in-Bay, and 
recommends their purchase, improvement, and marking by substantial 
monuments, at an estimated cost of $65,000. 

Originally the membership was restricted to residents of the valley, 
but that rule has been abrogated, and any person interested may become 
a member on the payment of $1. 

Much of the success of the association thus far is due to the patriot- 
ism, zeal and energy of Gen. John C. Lee, of Toledo, its able, earnest 
and efficient secretar}-. 

The first annual meeting of the association was held on the battlefield 
of Fallen Timber, Lucas county, Ohio, August 20, 1885. The board 
of directors there elected were Hon. Richard Mott, Samuel M. Young, 
of Toledo, Ohio; Hon. Asher Cook, of Perrysburgh, Ohio; Chief Justice 
M. R. Waite, Hon. Thomas Dunlap, of Toledo, Ohio; Mr. Joel Foot, of 
Wood countv, Ohio: Hon. Reuben C. Lemmon, Foster R. Warren, 


esq., Col. D. W. H. Howard, of Fulton county, Ohio; Reuben B. 
Mitchell and Daniel F. Cook, of Lucas county; Peter Mangus of Defi- 
ance county; John C. Lee, of Toledo; J. Austin Scott, of Ann Arbor, 
Mich., and Hon. S. H. Cately, of Fulton county. 

At a meeting of the board of directors on the 2Sth of August, 18S5, 
Chief Justice M. R. Waite was elected president; Col. D. W. H. How- 
ard, first vice president; Hon Richard Mott, second vice president; Hon. 
Asher Cook, third vice president; Foster R. Warren, treasurer; John 
C. Lee, secretary'. Executive committee: Col. D. W. H. Howard, Hon. 
Asher Cook and John C. Lee. 

The same persons constituted the board of directors and officers 
during the two succeeding years. In 188S, Hon. Richard Mott having 
deceased as well as Chief Justice Waite, five members of the board 
were elected at the annual meeting in Fort Wayne, the terras of regu- 
lai-ly expiring members being filled by the re-election of the same mem- 
bers, and the vacancies from death, by the election of Lieut. Gov. 
Robert S. Robertson and Hon. Franklin P. Randall of Fort Wayne. 

At the meeting of the board of directors on the 28th of August, the 
directorship to which Peter Mangus had been elected was declared va- 
cant by reason of his having failed to appear and accept the office, and 
President R. B. Hayes was elected to fill that vacancy. At the same 
time officers for the ensuing year were elected as follows : President, 
R. B. Hayes; first vice president, Robert S. Robertson; second vice 
president, Samuel H. Cateley; third vice president, D. W. H. Howard; 
secretary, J. C. Lee; treasurer, Reuben B. Mitchell; executive com- 
mittee, b. W. H. Howard, Asher Cook and J. C. Lee. 

At the annual meeting held August 8th, 1889, on Old Fort Defiance, 
the three out-gomg members of the board of directors were re-elected, 
and since that time there has been no meeting of the board of directors 
for the election of officers for the ensuing year. This meeting will be 
held at no distant day. 

The prominent points sought to be protected, and marked by monu- 
ments, are: 

1. Fort Miami, seven miles from Toledo on the north bank of the 
Maumee (Miami of the Lakes), established in 1680 as a militar}' and 
trading post by an expedition sent out by Frontenac, then French gov- 
ernor of Canada, but abandoned after a few 3'ears of occupation. Re- 
occupied in 1785 by Glencoe, British governor of Canada, as a military 
post, it fell into the hands of Gen. Wayne, August 20, 1794. In pur- 
suance of the treaty between Great Britain and the United States, it 
was abandoned in 1795, and was again occupied by the British in 181 3, 
and became memorable for the massacre of Col. Dudley's soldiers when 
made prisoners by the forces of Proctor and Tecumseh. 

2. Fort Defiance, erected by Gen. Waj'ne in August, 1794, at the 
confluence of the Auglaize and the Maumee. 

3. " Fallen Timber," the site of the famous battle of Wayne with 
the Indians under "Turkey Foot," August 16, 1794. 


4. Fort Industr}', built by Wayne at the mouth of Swan creek, now 
the site of the city of Toledo, after the battle of " Fallen Timber." 

5. Fort Wayne, at the head of the Maumee, built by Wa^ne in 1794. 

6. Fort Meigs, built by Gen. Harrison in February, 1813, on the 
southwest bank of the Maumee ten miles above Toledo, and besieged 
by Proctor and Tecumseh for several days in May, and again in July, 
of that 3'ear. 

7. Put-in-Ba}', where the dead of Perry's memorable naval batde 
are buried. 

It is hoped that ere long, through the instrumentality- of this societj-, 
all these historic spots will be owned b}^ the United States, and marked 
with appropriate monuments, to perpetuate the memorj^ of the heroic 
deeds of the pioneer soldiers of America on the western frontier, and to 
preserve them as sacred spots which may not only serve as memorials 
of valor, but be forever object lessons in patriotism for the generations 
to come. 


In the preparation of this work the biographical sketches are usually 
arranged in connection with those parts of the general history to which 
they seem most appropriately to belong. This does not in any instance 
imply that these sketches were written by the person whose name may 
appear at the head of such chapter. In fact they were not written b}' 
the writers of the various portions of the work who have composed the 
chapters on the general history. The biographical sketches were com- 
piled almost exclusively by a corps of men trained for that parcicular 
work. The large number of these which the book contains, needs no 
apology when the most enlightened sense of our civilization has ap- 
proved the growing custom of publishing biographies of living persons, 
and thereby rendering the facts of history secure while the witnesses 
are yet able to judge of their accuracy. 

The Publishers. 





In preparing a history of the Valiey of the Upper Maumee, it is no part 
of the plan to give a full account of the early discoveries upon the vast 
territory ^^•hich \\as opened to the inspection of the world by Columbus, 
or of the travels and explorations of those hardy adventurers, who, led 
either by curiosit}', or the search for wealth and honors, became fhe 
pioneers of civilization in the new world, but rather to be restricted 
to those explorations and events which connect themselves with the 
opening and settlement of this region of our country. 

It is said that history repeats itself, and that this is true, is illustrated 
in many ways, and in none more vividly than in the explorations in 
Africa now passing under the observation of the living. We read of the 
adventures of a Livingstone and a Stanley, giving no thought to the fact 
that they are repeating the adventures of La Salle and others, and 
opening to civilization and settlement that hitherto unknown continent, 
just as La Salle and his compeers opened a path through the unknown 
wilds of Amei-ica. 

Then, as now, men were induced to undergo the fatigues and perils 
which are the lot of explorers, by motives of widely various character. 
Love of adventure may have been the impulse with some, but with 
most of them, it was search for wealth, for power, and for fame; wealth 
by obtaining new possessions, or trading in the products of the newly 
discovered countries; power, by becoming the leaders and governors in 
the new states or empires to be formed; and fame for themselves and 
posterity, by reason of the rank or honors they hoped to attain in the 
conquest and government of the new world they aided in opening, set- 
tling and placing among the nations of the world. Such were the 
powerful inducements which led men then as now, to abandon home, the 
advantages of ci\-ilization, and everything dear to civilized man, to be- 
come the companions of savages, to traverse an unbroken country 
through forest and marsh, enduring fatigue and the terrors of disease, 
as well as dangers to them before unknown and not even to be 

The first explorers of America were men cast in heroic mold, whether 
he were the traveler for adventure and discover)', the trader in search 
of peltries and furs, the seeker for gold, the seeker for the fountain of 
youth, or the priest and devotee who hoped to save souls for the king- 
dom of heaven. 

We see the noble-born cavalier leaving the ball-rooms and salons of 
London and Paris, to become the explorer of America, the inmate of 


Indian huts, in order to surve}- a new state Avhich he may claim for his 
sovereign, and perchance become its governor. 

We. see the speculative trader, sent, perhaps, to represent some pow- 
erful trading company, enduring the same privations, in order to amass 
new wealth. We see the adventurer, seeking the El Dorado whose 
sands are golden, and whose dew drops congeal and become diamonds, 
incur all the dangers of sa-\'age life, that he may suddenly acquire great 
treasure; and in their train, we see the cowled and hooded priest, willing 
to die or endure the tortures of the fagot and the stake, that he ma}- 
claim for his sovereign the souls of the heathen he encounters, and for 
himself a heavenly crown. 

The example of each and all of these hard}" adventurers and brave 
explorers is instructive, and has left an impress upon the centuries which 
will not soon be effaced. The grandeur and nobilit}' of soul they exhib- 
ited when confronted b}' the most appalling dangers, and in the presence 
of a living terrible death, are well worthy of stud}' and emulation, but 
their story has no place in a work like this, except as it connects itself 
with the record of the Maumee Valle}-, and that is what it is aimed to 
collate in this effort at local history. 

The prehistoric remains of the region will be briefly mentioned, 
followed by a notice of the Indian tribes known to have possessed 
this part of the country. The next section will illustrate the period of 
discover}', and this will be followed by the history of the settlement, and 
devotion to the purposes of civilization. In preparing this historical sketch, 
many original sources have been searched, and credit should be given 
to such pioneers in Western history as have marked the way before us. 

That part which embodies the military movements on the Maumee is 
largely taken from such works as Brice's History of Fort Wayne, Western 
Annals, and Dillon's History of Indiana. The w^orks consulted are: 
Life of the Cavalier de La Salle, French; Margry's Exploration and 
Discoveries, French; Hennepin's Nouvelles Decouvertes, French; 
Du Pratz' Louisiane, French; Parkman's Discovery of the Great 
West, Parkman's Conspiracy of Pontiac, Parkman's Jesuits in North 
America, Parkman's Frontenac and New France, Dillon's History of 
Indiana, Dillon's Historical Notes, American Antiquarian, Magazine of 
American History, Western Annals, Colden's History of the Five 
Nations, McClung's Western Adventures, Washington's Journal, Penn- 
sylvania Historical Society Publications, American State Papers, United 
States Statutes — Indian Treaties, Imlay's North America, Colonial 
History of New York, Documentary History of New York, Hopkins' 
Mission to Fort Wayne, 1804; Brice's History of Fort Wayne, Helm's 
Allen County History, INIcCoy's History of Baptist Indian ]Missions, 
Bancroft's United States, Lossing's Revolution, Lossing's War of 1812, 
McAfee's War of 1812, Dawson's Sketches in Fort Wayne Times, 
Williams' History First Presbyterian Church, Drake's Life of Tecumseh, 
Burnet's Notes on the North West Territory. 



SONG before the era of Columbus, the valley of the Missis- 
sippi had been occupied by a comparatively dense population, 
and research tends to prove that it was inhabited, long before 
the advent of the red man known to the explorer, by a people 
w-hose history is lost forever", but which appears to have been 
fixed and permanent in habits, at least in a degree surpassing 
the races which followed it. This race, to which the in- 
definite name of the Moundbuilders has been given, had made 
some advances toward civilization, judged by the aboriginal standard, 
but did not rise much above the condition of barbarism, and perhaps 
was less civilized than the Aztecs. The origin and the fate of this 
race are shrouded in mystery. We know it was always the custom of 
the red savage to incorporate in his tribe the women and children and 
sometimes the men of conquered enemies, and it is probable that the 
remnants of the Moundbuilders were thus amalgamated with the con- 
quering race, which would also acquire some of the habits of the con- 
quered, and in some degree the language. In this wav the difference 
in language and habits of the various tribes inhabiting the countrv ma}; 
be parti}' explained. The remains of the early race appear to be closeh' 
related to the monuments of the races of the extreme south, and there 
is reason to believe that those tribes which inhabited the lake regions 
were driven south, and there the industry and peaceful habits which 
characterized them made a stronger impress upon the peoples which 
inhabited those regions at the era of discovery. Northern Indiana has 
many proofs of the presence of this race, and they have left some of 
their monuments in the valley of the Upper Maumee, but not so exten- 
sive as are found in other regions. 

While some of the race were making settlements along the Ohio, 
others had passed up the Mississippi, discovered the Great Lakes, and 
mined copper to some extent on the shores of Lake Superior. Colonies 
had occupied Michigan, and as far south as the Kankakee in Indiana, 
and it is from them, perhaps, that Allen county received the marks of 
occupation. All along the valley of Cedar creek, in Dekalb countv, 
their mounds and earthworks appear in considerable number, but are 
less numerous southward. Few, if any, are found along the Maumee, 
and the only traces of their settlement are along Cedar creek, or in the 
neighborhood of its junction with the St. Joseph. 


On Cedar creek, near Stoner's station, was erected a group of four 
mounds. Two of them were on a line north and south, and about forty 
feet apart, and about fifteen rods east were two others, about the same 
distance apart, and on a line east and west. Excavations of two re 
vealed a large number of human bones, arrow heads and sorne copper 
ornaments. Another mound was exxavated by the author, but there 
were found only lumps of charcoal and a layer of hard-baked earth at 
the base. Four miles south of these, on the Coldwater road, is a large 
oblong mound which was only partially explored, but in which were 
found a perforated piece of ribboned slate, much charcoal and a stratum 
of baked earth. At Cedarville were three mounds about a hundred 
feet apart, lying on a line nearly parallel with the river. These were 
found to contain charcoal in considerable quantities, as far as explored. 
Descending the St. Joseph, to the homestead of Peter Xotestine, an old 
settler, there was found by early relic hunters a circular mound, called a 
■'• fort," which was finally conquered by the plow. Numerous fragments 
of pottery, flint and stone implements, and a large and rude pipe of pottery 
were found at this place. On the west side of the river, opposite the 
site of the Antrap's mill, is a semi-circular mound with its ends on the 
river bank. It is about 600 feet in arc. Ver}' large trees had grown 
upon this work and gone to decay since its erection, and the falling of" 
trees unearthed many fragments of pottery and flints. At the mouth 
of Cedar creek was the most southern mound in the county, possessing 
the usual characteristics. 

The mound burial was a distinction of importance between these older 
peoples and the red men, for the Indians rarely erected mounds over the 
remains of their dead. The three most prominent Indian burying 
grounds were on the series of sand hills in the west end of Fort Wayne: on 
the St. Joseph, just north of the city, near the site of the Miami town: and 
at Cedarville, on the banks of the St. Joseph. The latter place appears 
to have been a site of considerable importance in a period of which not 
the slightest historical trace remains. 

Stone implements have been found in the county in considerable quan- 
tity, but they belonged in large part to the red men, though some of 
these relics are of a beauty of finish that seems foreign to the character 
of the aborigines with whom the early settlers had to do. Flint arrow- 
heads and spear-heads, of ever}- degree of finish and size, some neatly 
beveled, flint knives and scrapers, and stone ornaments and totems of 
various kinds, have been collected and adorn various cabinets. 


The region about the the head of the Maumee presented many 
attractions to the aboriginal inhabitants of the country. The Maumee is 
formed bv the intersection of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's rivers, and 
itself flows in a northeasterly direction into Lake Erie. Almost inter- 
locking with the headwaters of the St. Joseph are the sources of Eel 
river flowing in a southwesterlv direction to find the Wabash, while the 


headwaters of the St. Mary's in Hke manner ahiiost interlace with the 
more southerh- sources of the same river. 

But a short distance from the head of the Maumee, the Aboit and 
Little rivers have their rise in and near the prairie, and their waters go 
to swell the volume of the Wabash as well. The two water systems 
thus he in a valley having the same general trend southwestwardl}- from 
the head of Lake Erie to the embouchure of the Wabash into the Ohio, 
but forming a remarkable watershed near the head of the Maumee, the 
waters from one side of the prairie, and the almost imperceptible divide, 
flowing northeasterl}- to the lake, and through the St. Lawrence sj'Stem 
into the x\tlantic, while the waters from the other side of the same 
prairie, by a route as long, seek and find a discharge into the gulf of 
Mexico. Heavily wooded, with openings here and there, which formed 
the beautiful prairies, or upon the alluvial bottoms bordering the rivers, 
it was a paradise for the fishermen and hunters who made it their home. 
Nature easily supplied the simple wants of the forest dwellers who 
preceded the white men, and there are many evidences that a spot thus 
favored by nature was a favorite dwelling place for the aboriginal 
tribes who claimed it as their own. Besides these advantages it was 
the gateway for the migrations of the various tribes that were wont 
from an early period to communicate at great distances with each other. 
Commencing at any point between Buffalo and the gulf, the voyager 
could float from one point to the other except for a short portage from 
the Maumee to the Little river, over which he would be obliged to 
carr}- his light canoe. Here, for a long period, dwelt the Miamis, and, 
with their kindred tribes, the Pottawatomies, the Shawnees, and tlie 
Delawares, all a part of the Algonquin sept, which, in its various di- 
visions occupied a very large portion of what is now the United States 
east of the Mississippi, had their principal town, the capital of an incom- 
plete and loosel}- bound confederacy. The Miamis were the head of 
this family, and next in rank were the Delawares, after whom came the 
Shawnees. Of kin to these were the Peorias, Kaskaskias, Weas, and 
Piankeshaws, collectively known as the Illinois Indians. Allied to 
them and belonging to the same Algonquin family were the Ottawas or 
Tawas, the Chippewas, the Nipissings, Ojibwas, the Kickapoos, and the 
Sacs and Foxes. Near them, on the east, were the Huron Iroquois, or 
the W3-andots, whose principal town was near Sandusk}-.* 

It is no part of this history to trace the origin, migrations, wars, and 
downfall of the various Indian tribes, except in so far as thej- relate to 
the history of this region. Others have so well written the histor}- of 

' The spelling of tribal names adopted here is mainly that of Schoolcraft and Drake. The 
various forms of each, if pronounced as their originators intended, would be very similar in sound, 
though tire orthograpliy is diverse. Thus Maumee differs from Miami, originally pronounced 
Me-ah-me, only in the slurring of the first unaccented vowel. The two words are really identical, 
but while the explorer wrote of the MTanri of the Ohio and the Miami of the Lake, the rivers are 
now distinguished by a ]->artial change to English ))ronunciation, and known as the Maumee and 
the Miami. The " Nle-ah mee> " were also sometimes called Omees. The name of the -Shawnees has 
been written Shawanoe, .Santanas, Shawanon, Chouanon, etc. The name survives in such various 
geographical forms as Shawano, Santee, and Suwanee. 


this fast vanishing race, that it is unnecessary, and would be out of place 
here, to more than attempt to give an outline of those principal tribes 
which have dominated the valley we are describing. The great Algon- 
quin sept was the most extended, and had the greatest number" 
of dialects. They roamed at will from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, 
from the Arctic belt to the gulf. They met the early settlers at Pl3miouth 
and on the Potomac and Roanoke, and whenever the tide of civilization 
flowed towards the father of waters, it was met by parts of the same 
great family of the aboriginal tribes. The Indian knew no personal 
ownership of soil, and no other right of ownership than occupation by 
his tribe. He shunned the white man, and many a remnant of eastern 
tribes sought new hunting grounds towards the west, after trying to 
overcome inexorable fate by defying the incoming wave, and again 
met and fought their white enemies, whom they considered invaders of 
their new homes. 

Among the western tribes which held the great basin east of the 
Mississippi none were greater in rank than the Miamis. Known froni 
earl}' times as " Linnewas," or "Minnewas," which means men, and larter 
by the various names of " Omees," " Aumees," " Omamees," "Twigh- 
twees"-or "Twa-twas," they were met everywhere, a century ago, in 
that vast territory from Detroit to the Ohio b}- way of the Great Miami, 
down the Ohio into the Mississippi, up that river to the region of the 
lakes. They proudly called themselves " men," and were considered 
the most stable, heroic and resolute of the western tribes. The several 
bands of this great tribe were located nearly as follows : The Miamis on 
the head waters of the Miami of the lake (the Maumee), on the St. 
Joseph of the lake near South Bend, and at Chicago. The Weas and 
the Piankeshaws were on the Wabash and southward. The Peorias 
were on the Illinois. The Mascoutins were between the Illinois and 
the Wabash. The Cahokias, the Kaskaskias, and the Tamawis were 
toward the Mississippi in w^hat is now the state of Illinois, and the 
Michigammies were located at Des Moines. They all spoke one 
language, with but slightly varying dialects, and all were known as kin 
to, and part of, the Miamis proper. This confederacy was at an 
earl}' period at w^ar with the Sioux and Sacs and Foxes, and after many 
}^ears of war, but few were left except the Miamis and the Weas, on 
the Maumee and Wabash, the remnants of the others being few and 

The Miamis, with whom we have most to do, were feared by their 
enemies and were much sought as allies by those tribes needing assist- 
ance. By their position, they were destined to play an important part 
in molding the destinies of the New World, and they have left a deep im- 
press upon the early history of the country. Their customs and habits 
were such as were common to all the savage tribes. In summer they 
hunted and fished, or made war upon other tribes with whom they came 
in contact. Before they came in contact with the whites, their arms 
were a spear or javelin, a bow and quiver of arrows, all pointed with 


barbs of stone, and the "casse tete," or "head-breaker," which was 
either the well- formed stone axe or hatchet fastened to a handle b}^ 
withes, or the stone enclosed in a rawhide, the handle being twisted 
and hardened strips of the same material. In winter they gathered in 
their villages, and passed the time in games and plaj'. The women 
were the workers, the men were veritable lords and masters. They 
raised corn, and some small fruits and vegetables near the permanent 
villages, but were generally improvident, feasting to-day, and fasting 
to-morrow. Their clothing was made of the skins of deer and other 
animals, the women being well" clad with attempts at ornament, while 
the men were more than half naked and tattoed the exposed portions of 
the skin. They had one custom peculiar to themselves. They were 
monogamists, and if the wife were unfaithful, the husband could cut off 
her nose and send her away. They were hospitable to their friends but 
ver}^ cruel to their enemies. When a captive was taken in war he was 
certain to be put to death with the most cruel tortures by slow fire, the 
ceremony of living cremation often taking the whole of a day before 
the hapless victim was permitted to end his sufferings in death. No sex 
or condition was spared these cruel torments, unless some who had lost 
a member of their family chose to adopt the prisoner to take the place 
of the deceased. 

They had one custom of peculiar atrocity. They seemed at an early 
period to have practiced cannibalism r^uite generally, but later, it was 
confined to eating prisoners of war, and finally the horrible practice 
seems to have become the prerogative of certain families — an honorary 
distinction, as it were. As a means of terror to their enemies, they 
early formed here what was commonly known as a " man-eating so- 
ciety," which, to make it the more fearful to their opponents, was firmly 
established on a hereditar\' basis, confined to one family alone-, whose 
descendants continued to exercise, by right of descent, the savage rites 
and duties of the man-eating family. For these enormities, the Sacs 
and Foxes, when they took am- of the Miamis prisoners, gave them up 
to their women to be buffeted to death. They speak also of the Mas- 
coutins with abhorrence, on account of their cruelties. In proof qf the 
foregoing, relative to the society of man-eaters among the Indians at 
this point, General Lewis Cass, m a speech delivered at the canal 
celebration of Jul}- 4th, 1843, in " Swinney's Grove," near the site of the 
present Catholic cemetery, said: "For many years during the frontier 
history of this place and region, the line of your canal was a bloody 
war-path, which has seen many a deed of horror. And this peaceful 
town has had its Moloch, and the records of human depravity furnish 
no more terrible examples of cruelty than were offered at his shrine. 
The Miami Indians, our predecessors in the occupation of this district, 
had a terrible institution whose origin and object have been lost in the 
darkness of aboriginal history, but which was continued to a late period, 
and whose orgies were held upon the very spot where we now are. It 
was called the man-eating society, and it was the duty of its associates 


to eat such prisoners as were preserved and delivered to them for tliat 
purpose. The members of this societ}- belonged to a particular family, 
and the dreadful inheritance descended to all the children, male and fe- 
male. The duties it imposed could not be avoided, and the sanctions of 
religion were added to the obligations of immemorial usage. The feast 
was a solemn ceremony, at which the whole tribe was collected as actors 
or spectators. The miserable victim was bound to a stake, and burned 
at a slow fire, with all the refinements of cruelt}- which savage ingenuity 
could invent. There was a traditionary ritual, which regulated with re- 
volting precision the whole course of procedure at these ceremonies. 
Latterly the authority" and obligations of the institution had declined, 
and I presume it has now wholly disappeared. But I have seen and 
conversed with the head of the family, the chief of the society, whose 
name was White Skin — with what feehng of disgust, I need not attempt 
to describe. I well knew an intelhgent Canadian, who was present at 
one of the last sacrifices made at this horrible institution. The victim 
was a young American captured in Kentucky, toward the close of our 
revolutionar}^ war. Here where we are now assembled, in peace and 
security, celebrating the triumph of art and industry-, within the memory 
of the present generation, our countrymen have been thus tortured, and 
murdered, and devoured. But, thank God, that council-fire is extin- 
guished. The impious feast is over; the war-dance is ended; the war- 
song is sung; the war-drum is silent, and the Indian has departed to 
find, I hope, in the distant west, a comfortable residence, and I hope also 
to find, under the protection, and, if need be, under the power of the 
United States, a radical change in the institutions and general improve- 
ment in his morals and condition. A feeble remnant of the once power- 
ful tribe which formerly won their way to the dominion of this region 
by blood, and by blood maintained it, have to-day appeared among us 
like passing shadows, flitting round the places that know them no more. 
Their resurrection, if I may so speak, is not the least impressive spec- 
tacle which marks the progress of this imposing ceremony. They are 
the broken columns which connect us with the past. The edifice is in 
ruinSj and the giant vegetation, which covered and protected it, lies as 
low as the once mighty structure which was sheltered in its recesses. 
They have come to witness the first great act of peace in our frontier 
historj', as their presence here is the last in their own. The ceremonies 
upon which you heretofore gazed with interest, will never again be seen 
b}' the white man, in this seat of their former power. But thanks to our 
ascendency, these representations are but a pageant; but a theatrical ex- 
hibition which, with barbarous motions and sounds and contortions, shows 
how their ancestors conquered their enemies, and how they glutted their 
revenge in blood. To-day, this last of the race is here — to-morrow 
they will commence their journey towards the setting sun, where their 
fathers, agreeable to their rude faith, have preceded them, and where 
the red man will find rest and safety." 

Many instances of the treatment of the prisoners whose misfortune 


it was to fall into the hands of these merciless demons of the forest, and 
whose sufferings by torture and at the stake are a part of the histor}- of 
this now beautiful region where men now enjoy undisturbed the bless- 
ings of peace, and whose bodies served as torches to light the pathway 
of the new civilization which was destined to overspread and develop 
the virgin west, could be given, but the description of one would serve 
for all. In 1789, John May, of Virginia, was appointed government 
surveyor of lands for Kentucky, and started down the Ohio, with 
Charles Johnston, a youth of twent}-, as clerk, on the boat of Jacob 
Skj-les, a merchant who was taking a stock of goods into the wilderness. 
Another young man named Flinn, and two sisters named Fleming, were 
passengers. It was in the spring of 1790 that the}- started, and on 
reaching the mouth of the Scioto, they were decoyed to land by the 
piteous appeals of two white men, whom the Indians had captured, and 
now compelled to act as decoys to lure their compatriots into the hands 
of the savages. Landing to save these men the}' were themselves 
attacked. Flinn was captured as he leaped to the shore. One of the 
girls was killed and Skyles wounded. The hapless prisoners were dis- 
tributed to the different bands and taken north to the Miami villages. 
Flinn was tortured and burned at the stake. The tirst news of his fate 
was received from a Delaware, who returned from the Miami villages 
with the intelligence that Flinn had been burned at the stake a few days 
before. He declared that he was present and assisted in torturing him, 
and had afterward eaten a portion of his flesh, which he declared "was 
sweeter than bear's meat. " 

A Canadian trader who was also present, described the scene. Fhnn 
had at first entertained strong hopes of being adopted, but a wild coun- 
cil was held in which the most terrible sentiments regarding the whites were 
uttered, and the resolution proclaimed that henceforth no quarter should 
be given to any age, sex or condition. Flinn was seized and fastened to 
the stake. He appealed to the trader to save him, and he ran to the 
village and brought out several kegs of rum which he offered as a ran- 
som. The Indians in a rage, broke in the heads of the kegs and spilled 
the rum upon the ground. The trader then brought out 600 silver 
brooches, but the Indians scornfully rejected them, and threatened the 
trader with the same fate if he again interfered. He communicated his 
ill success to Flinn, who heard him with composure, and only said, 
" Then all I have to saj- is, God have mercy upon my soul." The scene 
of torture then commenced with whoops and yells, which struck terror 
to the heart of the trader, but which Flinn bore with heroic fortitude. 
Not a groan escaped him. He walked calmly around the stake for 
several hours, until his flesh was roasted, and the fire had burned down. 
An old squaw approached to rekindle it, but Fhnn, watching his oppor- 
tunity, gave her so furious a kick in the breast, that she fell back in- 
sensible, and for some time was unable to take further part in the torture. 
The warriors then bored his ankles, and passing thongs through the 
sinews, confined them closely to the stake, so that he was unable to 


offer further resistance. His sufferings continued for many hours, until 
at last terminated by the tomahawk. 

Skyles was also conducted to one of the towns on the Maumee, near 
the scene of Flinn's terrible execution, and was, according to custom, 
compelled to run the gauntlet. The Indian boys were his principal tor- 
menters, one of the urchins displaying particular dexterity in the infernal 
art. He procured a stout thorn switch upon which the largest thorn 
was left, and this, as Skyles passed him, he drove up to the head into 
his naked back. It was left there, and carried by Skyles sticking in his 
flesh, to the end of his painful career. He was then turned over to his 
master, and made himself so useful and agreeable to his squaw, that one 
night she confided to him that his death had been resolved upon, to take 
place the following day. He could not at flrst believe it, but listening 
while they thought him sleeping, talking with her daughter, a girl of 
fifteen, all hope was dispelled. Ths old squaw thought he was a good 
man and ought to be saved, but the young girl exulted over the pros- 
pect of witnessing his torture. When they at last fell asleep, Skyles 
took the Indian's rifle, shot bag and corn pouch and started for the 
river. He plunged in and swam across, but ruined the gun in so doing, 
and threw it away. He started southward through the woods, but be- 
came bewildered, and after a hard tramp of six hours, found himself at 
the river where he had crossed. He wandered about for several days 
almost starved, and almost in despair entered a village from which the 
warriors were fortunately absent, and went into a trader's booth where 
he found a white man trading with some squaws. As he had blackened 
himself, he was not recognized, but made himself known to the trader, 
who assured him he would aid him, but that he was being sought for 
and was in great danger, and must leave at once. He told him of a 
boat, under charge of an English captain, which had gone down the 
Maumee laden with furs, and which he might overtake, and took him 
to the river where was a skiff, which he immediatel}' took and 
started down the river. He was fortunate enough to overtake the 
Englishman, was aided b}' him and taken to Detroit, whence he finally 
reached the United States. 

Johnston had been ransomed from the Indians b}^ a Mr. Duchouquet, 
a French trader, at Sandusky, and while 3'et with him, the Cherokees, 
to whom Miss Fleming had fallen as a prisoner, and had also been taken 
to the Miami villages, returned after wasting their booty with their 
usual improvidence, bringing her with them. Her dress was tattered, 
her cheeks sunken, her eyes discolored with weeping, and she appeared 
wholly wretched. Johnston applied to the traders to aid in delivering 
her and they promptly complied. A white man, who had been taken 
from Pittsburgh when a boy and had been adopted among the Indians, 
and had known her there, where her father kept a small tavern, went 
with them; as soon as she saw him, she burst into tears,, and implored 
him to save her from her cruel fate. He zealously engaged in the work, 
and solicited the intercession of an old chief known as " Old King 


Crane," telling him the pardonable lie that the woman was his sister. 
The old man went to the Cherokee camp to try his eloquence upon 
them, but was refused with insults. This exasperated him, and he 
returned to his village in a passion, announcing that he would collect his 
young men and rescue the white squaw bj' force. This Whittaker ap- 
plauded, and urged haste, lest the Cherokees, in dread of losing their 
prisoner, might put her to death. Before daA^ight King Crane assem- 
bled his )'oung men, and advanced on the Cherokee camp. He found 
all but the miserable prisoner in a sound sleep. She had been stripped 
naked, her bod}- painted black, and in this condition had been bound to 
a stake, around which hickory poles had been collected, and every 
arrangement completed for burning her alive at daylight. She was 
moaning in a low tone, and was so exhausted as not to be aware of the 
approach of her deliverers until King Crane cut her cords with his 
knife. He then ordered his 3'oung men to assist her in putting on her 
clothes, which they did with the utmost indifference. He then awakened 
the Cherokees and informed them that the squaw was his, and if they 
submitted quietly, well; but if not, he and his young men were ready 
for them. The}^ were indignant, but in the presence of superior armed 
numbers, finallj' expressed a willingness to give her up, but hoped he 
would not be such a "beast" as to refuse to pay her ransom. Ke 
replied, that as he had her in his own hands, he vs'ould ser\'e them right 
not to give them a single brooch, but that as he disdained receiving an}-- 
thing from them without an equivalent he would pa}^ thefn 600 brooches. 
He then returned with her to Lower Sandusk}-, and placing her in 
charge of two trusty Indians, sent her to Pittsburgh. The Cherokees 
loudly protested and paraded the town that evening in war paint, declar- 
ing that they would not leave the town until they had shed the blood of 
a white man in revenge for the loss of their prisoner. 

Such was the fate of many a noble character among those who 
sought new homes in this region, and such were the scenes which fre- 
quently were witnessed where now stands the populous and peaceful 
cit}' of Fort Wayne., The principal burning place at this point, was on 
the north bank of the Maumee, at the point where the St. Joseph and 
St. Mary's unite to form that river, though it is known that some cap- 
tives were burned at the stake, up the St. Mary's, near the site of the 
Godfrey place, on what is known as the Richardville reserve. 

The Miamis had some considerable knowledge of agriculture, and 
had permanent lodges at their village sites, as well as the portable ones 
they used when scattered for the hunting season. 

Their burial customs were probabl}- not unlike those of other tribes. 
Cremation was not customary for the dead — only for living captives. 
They were not, at least in modern times, mound builders. Near their vil- 
lage sites are always found cemeteries, in which the deceased was laid in 
a recumbent position, in a shallow grave. With the dead was generally 
placed his weapons, his ornaments, and a dish or jar containing food, 
and thus we often discover in these graves stone hatchets, flint spear and 


arrow heads, beads and trinkets, and remains of potter^^ Another form 
of burial was known to be practiced among them, but this was probably 
resorted to when death came to them while away on hunting or war 
parties. No grave was prepared, but the bod\' was placed in a hollow 
log, the ends of which were closed, or a log would be split and its 
halves hollowed to receive the corpse, when it would either be tied with 
green withes, or confined to the earth by crossed stakes driven into the 
ground, surmounti;d b}' a rider. Again, the body would be placed upon 
the earth and a pen.of logs erected over it, each course being drawn in, 
until they met at the top in a single log, heavy enough to keep the pen 
thus formed from being overturned by the beasts of the forest. 

Principal Chiefs of the Miainis. — Aque-ncch-qua was chief, and 
signed the first treaty between the British and Miamis, July 23, 1748- 
He lived in Turtle village, a few miles northwest of Fort Wayne, and 
here in 1751,* his son, the famous Little Turtle, w'as born. 

Upon his death, Little Turtle (Me-che-can-noch-qua) became chief of 
the tribe. His mother was a Mohican, and was a woman of superior 
quahties, some of which she transmitted to her child. His courage, sa- 
gacity', and extraordinary talents, were developed at an earU' age, and 
when but a boy, his influence with his own tribe as well as with others 
of the confederation, was almost unbounded; his skill in the management 
of an army was not surpassed by those trained and schooled in the pro- 
fession of arms. He was victorious in many a hotly contested battle, 
and it was not until he met " the man who never sleeps," as he called 
Gen. Wayne while addressing a council of war, did he meet his equal. 
Of a very inquiring turn of mind, he never lost an opportunity to gain 
some valuable information upon almost ever}' subject or object that at- 
tracted his attention; and sought by every means in his power, during 
the latter days of his life, to relieve his people from every debasing 
habit — encouraging them only in the more peaceful, sober, and indus- 
trious wa^-s of life. In 1797, accompanied by Capt. Wells, he visited 
Philadelphia, where he enjoyed the society of the distinguished Count 
Volney, and the Polish patriot, Kosciusko, and others. While in Phila^ 
delphia, he had his portrait painted, by order of the president. Stopping 
at the same house with Turtle, in Philadelphia, was an Irish gentleman, 
somewhat remarkable as a wit, who made it a point to " poke fun "' at 
the chief whenever an occasion offered. He and Turtle happening to 
meet one morning in the studio of Stewart, the artist engaged in paint- 
ing each of their portraits, the Irishman observed Turtle in. a rather 
thoughtful mood, began to rally him upon his sober demeanor, and sug- 
gested, through Capt. Wells, that it was because of his inability to cope 
with him in the jocular contest.' At this Turtle brightened up. " He 
mistakes," said he, to Capt. Wells, in reply; "I was just thinking of 
proposing to the man to paint us both on one board, and here I would 
stand, face to face wifli him, and confound him to all eternity." 

*Some histories say Turtle was born in 1747, but in 1S04 he stated to the Quakers who then 
visited Ft. Wayne, that he had seen fifty-three 


In the latter part of iSoi, he again with other chiefs visited the east, 
and at a council held at Baltimore on the 26th of December, with a com- 
mittee of the yearly meeting of Friends, he made a speech in which he 
spoke of the tools and two plows given him b}^ the Philadelphia Friends, 
and said he had used them until they were worn out and useless to him. 
He added : " It is the real wish of your brothers, the Indians, to engage 
in the cultivation of our lands, and although the game is not 3'et so 
scarce but that we can get enough to eat, we know it is becoming 
scarce, and that w'e must begin to take hold of such tools as we see in 
the hands of the white people." He attributed most of the e\nls exist- 
ing among the Indians to the liquor they had learned to drink from the 
whites, and said that it caused the young men to say: "We had better 
be at war with the white people," adding, " this liquor that they intro- 
duce into our country is more to be feared than the gun or the toma- 
hawk. There are more of us dead since the treaty of Greenville, than w-e 
lost by the years of war before, and it is all owing to the introduction of 
this liquor among us," and after a touching description of the woes 
thus caused he declared that he wished what he had said might be 
made pubhc. 

In 1S03, Little Turtle for the Miamis, and Fi\-e Medals for the 
Pottawatomies, Joined in a letter to the "Friends" at Baltimore, in which 
they express their pleasure that the president had prevented the traders 
from selling liquor to their people, and their fears that he might be 
persuaded to permit the traffic, adding " if he does, 3'our red brethren 
are lost forever," but at the same time expressing the hope that "the 
Great Spirit will change the minds of our people, and tell them it will 
be better for them to cultivate the earth than to drink \vhiskey." The 
following year, 1804, a delegation from the Baltimore yearly meeting 
was sent to Fort Wa3'ne on a mission of amelioration to the Indians, and 
there met both these chiefs. Little Turtle was then " but half well," as 
he said. His complaint was the gout, and on the interpreter telling him 
his complaint was one that belonged to great folks and gentlemen, he 
said: " I alwa^-s thought I was a gentleman." 

At the general council of the Indians called to meet this delegation, 
which assembled at Fort Wayne, April 10, 1804, the subject of teach- 
ing agriculture to the Indians was the principal theme of discussion. 
Little Turtle expressed regret that his people had not accepted the idea 
of cultivating their lands, much as he had tried to convince them of its 
necessit}^ and his hope that the words of the Friends might turn their 
minds. A Friend named Philip Dennis had agreed to remain, intend- 
ing to live among them to teach them practical farming. Little Turtle 
explained that the other chiefs and himself had agreed that he should be 
at neither of their villages, "lest our j'ounger brothers should be jealous 
of our taking him to ourselves. We have determined to place him on 
the Wabash, where some of our families will follow him, where our young 
men, I hope, will follow him, and where he will be able to instruct them 
as he wishes." The point thus selected for the first " agricaltural 


college " established in the west, was a little below Huntington, at a place 
then called "the boatyard," from the fact that Gen. Wilkinson had built 
some flat-boats there, to transport baggage and material down the river. 
The experiment was not a success, and Dennis found by experience that 
Little Turtle's misgivings in regard to the industry of the young men 
were fully verified. After he had enclosed his farm, only one, or at 
most two, of the red men e-s-inced any disposition to labor. They would 
take a seat on a fence, or in the trees near his work, and watch with 
apparent interest his plowing and hoeing, but without offering to lend a 
helping hand. He left in the fall, discouraged, and so ended the first 
attempt to teach the savage the arts of peace. 

In 1S07, Little Turtle again visited Baltimore and Washington, ac- 
companied by Richardville and other chiefs. He desired to have a flour 
mill erected at Fort Wayne, and appeared earnestl}' desirous of pro- 
moting the interests of his people. He is described as having a coun- 
tenance placid beyond description and possessed of a ver}' cordial 
disposition. On this visit he was entertained with other chiefs at the 
house of a former friend. He was the first to enter the parlor, bowed 
gracefully as he was introduced to the famil}', and in a short address, 
gracefully acknowledged his pleasure at meeting the wife and children 
of his friend. Fie exceeded all the other chiefs in dignity of appear- 
ance — a dignity which resulted from the character of his mind. He 
was of medium stature, with a complexion of the palest copper shade, 
and did not wear paint. His hair was worn full and had no admixture 
of gray. He was then dressed in a coat of blue cloth witli gilt butttms, 
pantaloons of the same color, and buff waistcoat. He, together with 
the others, wore leggins and moccasins, and had gold rings in his ears. 
This dress was completed b}' a long, red, military sash around his waist, 
and a cocked hat surmounted by a red feather. On entering a house, 
he immediatel}' removed the hat, and carried it under his arm. Alto- 
gether he was graceful and agreeable to an uncommon degree, and was 
admired b}' all who made his acquaintance. 

On the 14th day of July, 1S12, Little Turtle died in his lodge at the- 
old orchard, a short distance north of the confluence of the St. Marj^'s 
and St. Joseph, in the yard fronting the house of his brother-in-law, 
Capt. Wilham Wells. Turde had suffered for many months previous 
with the gout, and came here from Little Turtle village, to be treated by 
the surgeon at the fort. It was a solemn and interesting occasion. 
After the treaty of Greenville, Turde had remauied the true and faith- 
ful friend of the Americans and the United States government. Tecum- 
seh strove hard to gain his confidence and aid, but without effect, for 
nothing could move him from his purpose of peace and good-will towards 
the Americans. In the language of one who was present at his burial: 
" His body was borne to the grave with the highest honors, by his great 
enemy, the white man. The muffled drum, the solemn march, the 
funeral salute, announced that a great soldier had fallen, and even 
enemies paid tribute to his memory." His remains were interred about 


the center of the old orchard, with all his adornments, implements of 
war, a sword presented to him by Gen. Washington, together with a 
meclal, with the likeness of Washington thereon — all laid by the side of 
the bod}-, and hidden beneath the sod in one common grave. The 
exact spot of his grave is now unknown. Such was Me-che-can-noch-qua 
— the bravest among the brave, and wisest among the wise of the In- 
dians of the northwest — leading an army of braves to sure victor}' one 
hour — cutting and slashing, as with the ferocity of a tiger, at one mo- 
ment — and as passive and gentle as a child the next. Ever may his 
gentler and better deeds be perpetuated by the American people. 

He was succeeded by Pe-chon, who was present at, and was one of 
the signers of, the treaty of July, 1814, at Greenville, and who died soon 
after at the residence of Richardville, who succeeded him as chief of the 

John Baptiste Richardville,* whose Indian name was " Pe-che-wa," or 
" The Wild Cat,"' was the son of Joseph Drouet de Richardville, who 
was of noble lineage, and was probably engaged as an officer in the 
French service in Canada, before being lured into the western wilds, by 
the prospect of amassing wealth in the fur trade. He was for a long 
time a trader among the Indians here, and took for a wife, as was 
customary at that date, Tah-cum-wah, a daughter of Aque-noch-qua, 
and sister of Little Turtle. Their son was born about 1761, in a hut 
under the boughs of the historic apple tree, which stood near the con- 
fluence of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's, but has long since disappeared. 

Among the many thrilling and interesting incidents and narrations, as 
frequently recited by the chief to the late Allen Hamilton, he gave, some 
years ago, an account of his ascent to the chieftainship of his 
tribe. The occasion was not onl}' thriUing and heroic, but, on the part 
of his famous mother and himself, will ever stand in history as one of 
the noblest and most humane acts known to any people, and would 
serve as a theme, both grand and eloquent, for the most gifted poet or 
dramatist of any land. It was in a wild and barbarous age. Kekionga 
still occasionall}' echoed with the shrieks and groans of capti\'e men; 
and the young warriors of the region still rejoiced in the barbaric cus- 
tom of burning prisoners at the stake. A white man had been captured 
and brought in by the warriors. A council had been convened, in 
which the question of his fate arose in debate and was soon settled. He 
was to be burned at the stake, and the braves and villagers generally 
were soon gathered about the scene of torture, making the air resound 
with their triumphant shouts of pleasure at the prospect of soon enjoy- 
ing another hour of fiendish merriment at the expense of a miserable 
victim of torture. Already the man was lashed to the stake, and the 

*According to Taiiquay's "Dictionnaire Genealogique des Families Canadieiines," there married 
at Champlain March iS, 16S7, Claude Droiiet, Sieur de Richardville, officer, born in 1657, son of 
Claude, Attorney, and Appolline Soisson, of Chartres. He had eight children, and it is reason- 
able to believe that from one of his sons descended that Drouet who was father of Jean Baptiste 
Druet de Richardville, whose name is written in numerous treaties and carved on the monument 
which marks his grave as John B. Richardville. 



torch that was to ignite the cumbustible material placed about the same 
was in the hands of the brave appointed. But rescue was at hand. 
The man was destined to be saved from the terrible fate that sur- 
rounded him ! Young Richardville had for some time been singled out 
as the future chief of the tribe, and his heroic mother saw in this a propi- 
tious and glorious moment for the assertion of his chieftainship, by an 
act of great daring and bravery — the rescue of the prisoner at the 
stake. Young Richardville and his mother were at some distance, but 
sufficiently near to see the movements of the actors in the tragedy about 
to be enacted, and could plainl\' hear the coarse ejaculations and shouts 
of triumph of the crowd. At that moment, just as the torch was about 
to be applied to the bark, as if touched bj' some angelic impulse of love 
and pity for the poor captive, the mother of young Richardville placed 
a knife in her son's hand, and bade him assert his chieftainship by the 
rescue of the prisoner. The magnetic force of the mother seemed 
instantly to have inspired the young warrior, and he quickl}' bounded 
to the scene, broke through the wild crowd, cut the cords that bound 
the man, and bid him be free. All was astonishment and surprise; and 
though by no means pleased at the loss of their prize, yet the young 
man, their favorite, for his daring conduct, was at once esteemed as a 
god b}^ the crowd, and then became a chief of the first distinction and 
honor in the tribe. The mother of Richardville now took the man in 
charge, and soon quietly placing him in a canoe and covering him with 
hides, in charge of some friendly Indians he was soon gliding down the 
placid current of the Maumee, bej'^ond the reach of the turbulent 
warriors of Kekionga. 

At a later period in the life of the chief, being on his way to Wash- 
ington, he came to a town in Ohio, where, stopping for a little while, a 
man came up to him, and suddenly recognizing in the stranger the coun- 
tenance of his benefactor and deliverer of years before, threw his arms 
about the chief's neck, and embraced him with all the warmth of filial 
affection. He was indeed the rescued prisoner; and the meeting be- 
tween the two was one of mingled pleasure and surprise. In stature, 
Richardville was about five feet ten inches, with broad' shoulders, and 
weighed about one hundred and eighty pounds. His personal appear- 
ance was attractive; graceful in carriage and manner. Exempt from 
any expression of levit}- — he is said to have " preserved his dignity un- 
der all circumstances." His nose was Roman, his e3'es were of a light- 
ish blue, and slightly protruding, " his upper lip firmly pressed upon his 
teeth, and the under one slightly projecting." That he was an Indian 
balf-breed, there can be no doubt. His own statements, and unvarying 
traditions conclusively prove that he inherited his position through his 
mother, by the laws of Indian descent, and contradict the theory that he 
was a Frenchman who obtained the chieftainship by tricker}' or pur- 
chase. In appearance he was remarkable in this — he was neither red 
nor white, but combined both colors in his skin, which was mottled or 
spotted red and white. His mother was a most remarkable woman. 


Chief Richardville was an onlj' son, and much beloved by her. Her 
reign continued for a period of some thirty j'ears, prior to the war of 
1812, during which time, according to the traditions of the Indians, "she 
ruled the tribe with a sway, power, and success as woman never ruled 
before." After her reign, " she retired and passed the mace of power to 
her son." Richardville was taciturn and was dignified in manner, a habit 
often almost assuming the form of extreme indifference; yet such was 
far from his nature, for he ever exercised the warmest and most attentive 
regard for all of his people and mankind in general; and " the needy 
never called in vain ; his kind and charitable hand was never withheld 
from the distressed of his own people or from the stranger." So 
wisely did he manage the affairs of his tribe, with such wisdom and 
moderation did he adjust and settle all matters relating to his people, 
that he was not only held in the highest estimation by the Indians gen- 
erally, throughout the northwest, but honored and trusted as their law- 
giver with the most unsuspecting confidence and implicit obedience, 
alwa3'S adjusting affairs between his own people, as well as all inter- 
tribal relations, without resort to bloodshed. A patient and attentive 
listener, prudent and deliberate in his action, when once his conclusions 
were formed he rarely had occasion to change them. Averse to 
bloodshed, except against armed resistance, he was ever the strong and 
consistent friend of peace and good-will. 

Many were the vivid recollections he recited years ago to early set- 
tlers. At the time of Harmar's movements and defeat, he was a boy 
of some ten or twelve years of age. But his narration of the way the 
Indians stole along the bank of the river, near the pomt, long since 
known as '-Harmar's ford," was most thrilling. Not a man among the 
Indians, said he, was to fire a gun until the white warriors under Harmar 
had gained the stream, and were about to cross. Then the red men in 
the bushes, with the rifles leveled and ready for action, just as the de- 
tachment of Flarmar began to near the center of the Maumee, opened a 
sudden and deadly fire upon them; and horses and riders fell in the 
stream, one upon the other, until the river was literally strewn from bank 
to bank with the slain, both horses and men; and the water ran dark 
with blood. 

There seemed, in the settling of this section of the country, a 
rivalry between the settlers and the Indians, as to who should tender the 
chief the highest respect, for all admired who knew him. 

At the treaty of St. Mary's, in iSi8, a reserve of nine sections of 
land was made to him, including a tract some four or five miles from 
Fort Wayne, up the St. Mary's river, which, since his death, has been 
in the hands and keeping of his descendants, and is now owned by 
Archange (daughter of La Blonde, the first daughter of the chief), 
wife of James R. Godfroy, whose interesting family, with some three or 
four other persons, relatives of the same, living near, now constitute 
the only remnants of the once powerful Miami tribe in this part of their 
old stronghold. They have all long since assumed the garb of civiliza- 


tion, and successfully till one of the finest bodies of land in the north- 

Richardville was at the treaties of Greenville in 1795, Fort Wayne in 
1803, and Vincennes in 1S05. He participated also, as civil chief of the 
tribe, in the treaty of St. Mary"s, October 6, 1805, and went to Wash- 
ington with Little Turtle in 1807. 

About 1827, he built a house on the reservation on the St. Mary's. 
He had three daughters, La Blonde, Susan and Catharine. The daugh- 
ter of La Blonde married James Godfrey, who has long Hved at the old 
residence of the chief. Richardville was manj' years a trader at Fort 
Waj'ne, but in 1S36 moved his goods to the forks of the Wabash, and 
continued business there a long time, although he retained his family 
residence near Fort Wayne, having for his housekeeper at the forks of 
the Wabash, Margaret La Folia, a French woman of prepossessing ap- 
pearance. He was held in high esteem, and was the lawgiver of his 
people, trusted by them with the utmost confidence, and obeyed implic- 
itly. He died at his famil}? residence on the 13th of August, 1841; and 
to-daj-, in the Catholic cemeter}-, on the confines of his birth-place, is to 
be seen an enduring marble shaft, erected by his daughters, commem- 
orating the beloved and famous chief of the Miamis. 

Francis La Fontaine, whose Indian name was To-pe-ah, perhaps a 
contraction of the Pottawatomie name, To-pe-na-bin, was the immediate 
successor of Pe-che-wa (Richardville), as the principal chief of the 
Miamis. He was the hneal descendant of La Fontaine, who, during 
the latter part of the eighteenth century, was sent out by the French 
government in connection with the provincial management of Canada. 
His father was of French e.xtraction, and at one time a resident of De- 
troit; his mother was a Miami woman, whose name does not appear 
very frequently in the history of the tribe, but who was, nevertheless, a 
woman of considerable force of character, as manifested in the qualities 
of her son. He was born near Fort Wayne, in iSio, and spent a great 
portion of his life in its immediate vicinity. When about the age of 
twenty-one years, he was married to Catharine (Po-con-go-qua ), a 
daughter of Richardville. In his younger dajs, he was noted for great 
strength and activity, and was reputed to be the most fleet of foot 
in the tribe. His residence was on the south side of the prairie, between 
Huntington and Fort Wayne, on lands granted by the treaties of October 
23, 1834, and November 6, 1838. Manifesting great interest in the wel- 
fare of his tribe, he became ver}' popular, and, after the death of Chief 
Richardville, in 1841, he was elected principal chief of the Miamis. 
Subsequently, he moved to the forks of the Wabash, and resided in the 
frame building near the road, a few rods west of the fair grounds — the 
place belonging to his wife, who inherited it from her father. 

When, under the provisions of their final treat}' with the United 
States, his tribe, in the fall of 1846, moved to the reservation set apart 
to them, west of the Mississippi, he went with them and remained dur- 
ing the winter. The following spring he started homeward. At that 


time, the route of travel was from the Kansas Landing (now Kansas 
City), down the Missouri and Mississippi, to the mouth of the Ohio; up 
the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash, and thence up the latter stream 
to La Fayette — all the way by steamboats. At St. Louis, he was taken 
sick, and his disease had made such progress that, upon his arrival at 
La Fayette, he was unable to proceed further, and died there, on the 
13th of April, 1847, at the age of thirty-seven years. He was em- 
balmed at La Fayette, and his remains were brought to Huntington, 
where he was buried in the grounds now occupied by the Catholic 
church. His body was subsequently removed to the new cemetery. 
At the time of the removal of his body, so perfect had been the embalm- 
ing, little evidence of decay was manifested. 

He was a tall, robust man, weighing about 350 pounds, and gener- 
ally dressed in Indian costume. There are two portraits of him remain- 
ing, one painted b}' Freeman, and one by R. B. Croft. About twenty 
months after his death, his widow married F. D. Lasselle, of Fort 
Wayne, but lived only a short time. Of her seven children b}- La Fon- 
taine, but two are now living — Mrs. Archange Engleman, in Hunting- 
ton, and Mrs. Esther Washington, who removed to Kansas. 

Early Historx of the Miamis. — At what period in their history the 
Miamis made Kekionga their " Central Cit}'," can not be definitehr 
stated, but it was probably nearly contemporaneous with the early white 
settlements on the Atlantic coast. This statement is at variance, no 
doubt, with the opinions entertained b}' others, who believe that from 
time immemorial, "when the memory of man runneth not to the con- 
trary,'" this t3'pical band of the Algonquin family had inhabited and 
possessed this, to them, classic ground. The statement made by Little 
Turtle, in his address to Gen. Wayne, at the treaty of Greenville, in 
August, 1795, which is confirmed b_y the narratives of the early French 
voyageurs, is wholly inconsistent with such an assumption. That intelli- 
gent Miami chief said: "I hope you will pay attention to- what I now 
say to you. I wisli to inform you where your younger brothers, the 
Miamis, live, and also the Pottawatomies of St. Joseph, together with 
the Wabash Indians. You have pointed out to us the boundary line be- 
tween the Indians and the United States; but I now take the liberty to 
inform 3'ou that the line cuts off from the Indians a large portion of 
country which has been enjoyed by my forefathers from time immemorial, 
without molestation or dispute. The prints of my ancestors' houses are 
everywhere to be seen in this portion. I was a little astonished at hear- 
ing you and my brothers who are now present, telling each other what 
business yoM had transacted together heretofore, at Muskingum, con- 
cerning this country. It is well known to all my brothers who are now 
p-esent, that \x\\ forefather kindled the first fires at Detroit; thence he ex- 
tended his lines to the west waters of the Sciota; thence to its mouth; 
from there down the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash; and thence to 
Chicago, on Lake Michigan. At this place I first saw my elder brothers, 
the Shawnees. I have now informed vou of the boundaries of the 


Miami nation, where the Great Spirit placed my forefather long ago, 
and charged him not to sell or part with his lands, but preserve them 
for his posterity. This charge has been handed down to me." When 
thev left the parent stock in the east, by what route the}' migrated west- 
ward, will probably never be known, and their own traditions in regard 
to it were vague and uncertain. 

The first historical account of the tribe since it became known under 
the distinct name of Miamis, was in the year 1669, when they were found 
in the vicinity of Green Bay, by the French missionary. Father Allouez, 
and later b}' Father Dablon. In 16S0, both of these renowned and de- 
voted priests visited a town of the Miamis and Mascoutins, on the Fox 
river, above Lake Wmnebago. St. Lusson, a French officer in the 
Canadian forces, found them at Green Bay during the same jear. They 
received him with marked distinction, giving a sham battle for his enter- 
tainment, as well as the game of la crosse. On his return he gave a 
marvelous account of the dignit}- and state of the Miami chief who was 
his host and entertainer. From there they passed to the southward of 
Lake Michigan, in the vicinity of Chicago, subsequently locating on the 
St. Joseph of Lake Michigan, establishing there a village, another on the 
river Miami (Maumee) of Lake Erie, and a third on the Wabash, 
called Ouiatenon. 

Some part of the tribe seems to have remained after the migration 
mentioned, for in 1673 Marquette visited the town of the Miamis for- 
merly visited by Allouez and Dablon. On reaching the village he found 
a cross planted in its center. The Indians had decorated it with dressed 
deer skins, red girdles, bows and arrows, and other ornaments, in honor 
of the great Manitou of the French. He describes the Miamis as wear- 
ing long locks of hair over each ear, and says of the Mascoutins and 
Kickapoos, that they were mere boors as compared with their Miami 
townsmen. It may be, however, that prior to their location at Green 
Bay, they first assumed the character of a distinct tribe at Detroit, as 
stated by Little Turtle, and, in various wanderings, spread thence over 
the valley of the Scioto to the Ohio, and thence to the Wabash and 
northward, inhabiting from time to time, every portion of the territory 
they claimed, and of which their proprietorship was recognized by the 
surrounding tribes. 

In 1680, the Iroquois decreed in their councils a war against the Illi- 
nois, then a numerous and powerful tribe. The chief town of the Mia- 
mis was on the way, and although the Miamis were kinsmen to the 
Ilhnois, the wily Iroquois visited them and induced them to join in the 
invasion as their allies. This was more easily accompHshed, because 
there had been a jealousy of long standing between the two tribes, and 
the Miamis were unaware that they were already marked out bj^ their 
treacherous allies, the Iroquois, as their next victims, and that one purpose 
of the alliance was doubtless to reduce the fighting number of the Mia- 
mis by means of this war with the Illinois. About the middle of Sep- 
tember, the allies approached the Vermilion river, where the Illinois, 


warned of the invasion, had hastened to meet them, and were posted in 
the open prairie near the margin of the river. The Iroquois and their 
alhes were numerous, and were armed in great measure with guns, pis- 
tols, and swords, obtained from the whites, while most of the Illinois 
were armed only with the primitive weapons of the savage, only about 
a hundred of them being armed with modern weapons. They exhibited 
every evidence of bravery and eagerness to meet the invaders, 3'elling, 
dancing and brandishing their weapons in the presence of their foes, who 
responded with similar manifestations of eagerness for the fra}-. Not- 
withstanding this apparent eagerness no battle was fought, and yielding 
to the mediation of La Salle, who had espoused their cause, the Illinois 
finally withdrew. 

Subsequently, the Iroquois crossed to the Illinois side of the river, 
took possession, and erected a rude fort for immediate protection. Under 
the guise of making a treaty of peace, they prepared for a rnerciless 
slaughter of their victims. The French being withdrawn, the Illinois 
unfortunateh' for themselves, separated into different bands and scat- 
tered. The Iroquois, foiled in finding a living foe, wreaked their ven- 
geance upon the dead, tearing down the burial scaffolds, and violating 
the graves, giving the bodies to the dogs or burning them, and fixing the 
skulls on stakes. They then pursued the fleeing Illinois to the Missis- 
sippi, scattering the remnants of the once powerful tribe in every direc- 
tion. Few of the men were killed, but many women and children were 
captured, and for some time the Iroquois revelled in the tortures they 
inflicted upon these unhappy victims. At length, sated with their atroci- 
ties, the conquerers withdrew, taking with them a host of captives whose 
lives had been spared, not from any instinct of mercy, but because they 
could make them useful as slaves by incorporating them in their tribe. 
The total number of their prisoners has been stated as more than seven 

In 1686 the Miamis were located on the Ba}' des Puans (Green Bay.^ 
Wisconsin). There they were attacked by their former allies the 
Iroquois, and suffered greatly at their hands, these tierce warriors desir- 
ing by the destruction of the Miamis to make themselves masters of 
Michillimackinac and of the ba}-, including in their objects the destruction 
of the Christian missionaries, and the extinction of the trade by way of 
the lakes, or the control of it for themselves. During the same year, 
Denonville writes that the Five Nations are making a large war party, 
supposed to be against the Oumiamis and other savages of the Bay des 
Puans, who were attacked this year, one of their villages having been 
destroyed- by the Iroquois, on receiving notice whereof the hunters of 
those tribes pursued the Iroquois, whom they overtook and fought with 
considerable vigor, having recovered several prisoners and killed many 
of the Iroquois. During the years 1686-7 there were frequent diffi- 
culties between the Iroquois and Miamis, which occasioned much uneasi- 
ness among the English colonial officials, and the English governor called 
a council of his Iroquois allies to ascertain the true condition of affairs. 


It was held at Albany on the 5th of August, 16S7, when he proposed 
to them to send messages to the Ottawas, Twightwees and the further 
Indians, and some of the prisoners from those tribes were sent to make 
a covenant chain with them. 

On the following dav, one of the Maquase (Mohawk) sachems, 
named Sindachsegie, made a speech to the governor, explaining the 
cause of the disturbance between them and those nations in alliance with 
the French. He said : " Wee are resolved to speake the truth, and all 
the evill we have done them is that about six j^eares agoe, some of the 
Sinnekes and some of the Onnondages went aboard of a French Barke 
att Onnyagaro, that was come to trade there, and took out of the said 
Barke a Caske of Brandy and cutt the Cable." It occurred, also, that 
in September, of the preceding year, the Senecas had visited the coun- 
try of the Omianies (Miamis), and in a warhke expedition had taken of 
them 500 prisoners and lost twentA'-nine killed, two of them in foray, 
and twentj'-seven when the Touloucics (Outaouacs) and Illinois caught 

Ten 3-ears later, Peter Schuyler and others, on behalf of the Senecas, 
in a communication to the English governor, Fletcher, dated September 
28, 1697, made this statement: " Wee are sorrj' to have it to tell you 
the loss of our brethren, the Sinnekes, suffered in an engagement with 
3-e Twichtwichts Indians; our young men killed several of the enemj^, 
but, upon their retreat, some of their chiefe capts. were cut off. You 
know our custome is to condole ye dead, therefore, we desire you give 
us some for these Beavours; soe laid down ten Beavr. skins. The 
Wampum was immediate!}^ given them for said skins, and the day fol- 
lowing appointed for a conference upon the first proposition made b}' 
them for powder & lead, &c." Further statement is made concerning 
the war between the Five Nations and the Miamis, in Robert Living- 
ston's report to the secretary of Indian affairs, in April, 1700, from 
which it would seem that thfe war had been pending between these par- 
ties for many years, taken in connection with the preceding statement. 
He recommends "That all endeavors be used to obtain a peace between 
the 5 Nations and the Dowaganhaas, Twichtwicks & other far Nations 
of Indians whom the Governor of Canada stirs up to destroy them, not 
only the 5 Nations have been mortall enemies to the French & true 
to the English, but because they hinder his trade with the said far 
Nations, trucking with them themselves and bringing the beavers 

In a subsequent communication by the same writer, on the 29th of 
August of the same year, a better reason is given, perhaps, for the de- 
sire to induce a cessation of hostilities between those belligerent nations. 
"Brethren: You must needs be sensible that the Dowaganhaes, 
Twichtwicks, Ottawa & Diononades,and other remote Indians, are vastly 
more numerous than 3-ou 5 Nations, and that, by their continued warring 
upon j-ou, they will, in a few years, totally destroy 3'ou." 

In 1736, there was an enumeration of the Indian tribes with thenum- 


ber of their warriors and the armorial bearings of each nation, supposed 
to have been prepared by M. de Joncaire, a Frenchman who had been 
adopted into the Seneca tribe. 

He mentions tirst the Pottawatomies, who call themselves the gover- 
nor's eldest sons. They were located at the village of St. Joseph, on the 
river of that name (the St. Joseph of Lake Michigan) and numbered 
about one hundred warriors. He mentions that they had with them ten 
Miamis, who bear in their arms a crane. 

He classes the Miamis under the head of " Lake Erie and its depen- 
dencies on the south side," and says of them : " The Miamis have for 
their device the hind and the crane. These [the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies] are the two principal tribes. There is likewise the device of 
the bear, and they numbered 200 men bearing arms. The Ouyattanons, 
Peauguichias, Petikokias are the same nation, though in different vil- 
lages. They can place under arms 350 men. The devices of these 
savages are the serpent, the deer, and the small acorn." 

In November, 1763, Sir William Johnson gave an account of the 
present state of the Indians, and mentions as a part of the Ottawa con- 
federac}-, the Miamis or Twightwees, located near the fort on the 
Miami river, numbering over 250 men. He says: "The Twightwees 
were originally a very powerful people, who, having been subdued by 
the Six Nations, were permitted to enjoy their possessions. There are 
many tribes and villages of them, but these are all that are certainly 

In 1765, the Miami confederacy was composed of the following 
branches, situated and having warriors in number, viz. : Twightwees, at 
the head of the Maumee river, with 250 available warriors; the Ouia- 
tenons, in the vicinity of Post Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, with 300 
warriors; the Piankeshaws, on the Vermillion river, with 300 warriors, 
and the Shockeys, on territory 13'ing on the Wabash, between Vincennes 
and Post Ouiatenon, with 200 warriors. At an earher period, probably, 
the Miamis, with their confederates, were able to muster a much more 
formidable force, as the citation from the representatives of the Five 
Nations would seem to show. 

In 1748, the English merchants and traders secured a limited trade 
with the Miamis, much, it is said, in consequence of the failure of the 
French traders, who had, during the preceding century, held the suprem- 
acy, to supply the increasing wants of the Miamis, especiall}- those on 
the borders of the Ohio and its tributaries. Thus a favorable influence 
was exerted on the part of the Miamis toward the English, which 
resulted in a treaty of alliance and friendship between the English and 
the Twightwees (Miamis) on the 23d of July of the same year, whereby 
the latter became and were recognized as " Good Friends and Allies of 
the English Nation, subjects of the King of Great Britain, entitled to the 
privilege and protection of the English Laws." This treaty was signed 
by the representatives, " Deputies from the Twightwees (or Miamis) on 
or about the river Ouabache, a branch of the river Mississippi," three 


in number, the first and principal of whom was Aque-noch-qua, head 
chief of the Miamis, and the father of Me-che-can-noch-qua(LitdeTurtle), 
at. that time and for man}' years previous a resident of the Turtle vil- 
lage in this vicinit)'. 

By their several treaties with the United States, the Miamis have 
ceded an aggregate of 6,853,020 acres of land. Aggregate of land 
given in exchange, 44,640 acres, the aggregate value of which was 
^55,800. The aggregate consideration paid for these lands, in 
money and goods, $1,205,907; total consideration paid, $1,261,707, as 
shown by the records of the department at Washington. 


The period when the white man first wended his way through the 
wilderness, and set his foot upon the spot where was the seat of au- 
thority among the Miamis, and where now rise the spires of the busy 
city of Fort Wayne, cannot with anjr certainty be determined. The first 
intrepid explorer was doubtless one of that class, who either from love 
of a life of wild adventure, or from desire to avoid the punishment due 
for misdemeanors committed, either in France, or the settlements on 
the St. Lawrence, joined the horde of adventurers known as " coureurs 
de bois," or wood rangers, and paddled his canoe along the borders of 
Lake Erie, thence up the Maumee to the portage, and perhaps still fur- 
ther down the Wabash in search of peltries, which he conveyed back 
to the settlements, or, if he feared to return, sold them to intermedi- 
ate traders. 

" The Coureur de Bois " was an unique figure in American history. 
Careless and rollicking in disposition, he fearlessly plunged into the 
wilds of the interior, freely mingling with the tribes he happened to come 
in contact with, making himself at home and welcomed in their villages, 
becoming one of them by adopting their habits and dress, allowing him- 
self to be painted and sometimes adopted into their tribes, making love 
to, and contracting a temporary marriage with, the dusky girl who was 
willing to become the mistress of the wigwam of the pale-face; broke 
these bonds and ties to form others whenever his fortunes or his fancy 
took him to another village; returned by long voyages for occasional 
visits to the old settlements, where he spent his time in wild carousals 
until he had lost the wealth his peltries had brought him, when he 
would again plunge into the forest to seek some one of his deserted 
wives, and spend another period in amassing the necessar}' supplies for 
another visit and another debauch. Sometimes he left the scenes of 
civihzed life behind him forever, and remained among his savage com- 
panions, becoming one of them, in so far as one born in civilization can 
become in truth a savage. Wild and reckless as he was, savage as he 
might become, he was the precursor of the advance of civilization, and 
blazed the path through hitherto trackless wilds for the entrance of the 
explorer and the priest, who led the advance, and became the pioneers 


of the western world. Let us treat his follies and his crimes with 
lenient judgment, for he, unwittingly perhaps, but nevertheless certainly, 
performed an inestimable service to the world, and to us who now enjoy 
the blessings of a civilization he seemed to flee from and shun. 

That the route b}' way of the head of the Maumee and its portage 
to the Wabash was known and traversed at an early date may be said 
to be known with certainty, although any records of such travels may 
be wanting. The reader should remember that for many years after 
the discovery of America, the learned of the world believed it to be a 
part of the Indies, and they long sought a passage over our continent, 
to reach the South sea and the treasures of Cathay. It was not till 
long after La Salle discovered the Mississippi, that it dawned upon 
their minds that a new continent had been discovered, an unknown half 
of the world opened for future empire. In the mean time, the explorer 
and, priest had followed fast upon the footsteps of the wood ranger and 
fur trader, and it is the record of their adventurous footsteps, as they 
opened and took possession of the valle}' of the Mississippi, and more 
particularl}' of the valley of the Maumee, with which we have to deal. 

As early as 1504, and perhaps at an eariier date, the fisheries of 
Newfoundland were known and visited by the hardy and venturesome 
fishermen of France, and a map of the St. Lawrence was made in 1506, 
by Denys, a citizen of Honflieur. In 1508, Thomas Aubert of Dieppe 
sailed up the St. Lawrence, and from that time commenced an inter- 
communication and trade between the French and the Indians of the in- 
terior, which gradually extended to distant points. When Capt. John 
Smith discovered the Chesapeake, he discovered among the Indians of 
that region, articles of civihzed manufacture, which must have come 
from the French settlements on the St. Lawrence through the Iroquois. 
Quebec was founded in 160S, and became the center from which wood 
ranger, trader, explorer, and priest, radiated in every direction, sowing 
seeds which were to fructify, and produce a marvelous harvest, far in 
the future. 

The great profits realized from the fur trade were inducements 
for adventure, and numerous traders and other adventure-loving spirits 
found their way to the extensive domain of New France. Among 
these, of course, members of the society of Jesus were found, and, in 
161 1, a mission had been established among the Indians of that region. 
From that time forward, vigorous efforts were made for the furtherance 
of trade in connection with the establishment of missions for the conver- 
sion of the Indians. By means of the assiduous perseverance of the 
French. traders and priests, these efforts were generally attended with 
success. As a result, it is stated that up to 1621, 500 convents of the 
RecoUets had been established in New France. In 1635, ^ Jesuit col- 
lege was founded at Quebec. During that year, Champlain, the first 
governor of New France, died, and with him much of the zeal incident 
to prosperous settlements. 

The immediate successor of Champlain as governor, was Chasteau- 



fort, who was superceded by De Montmagny, in 1636. With this lat- 
ter appointment, a change in the affairs of the government was noticea- 
ble, the fur trade becoming the principal object of attention. A 
consequence of this policy was the exploration of other new territory, to 
enlarge the arena of trade. Rude forts were erected as a means of de- 
fense to the trading-houses and a protection to the trade. Not far 
remote — a never-failing auxiliary — was the chapel of the Jesuit, sur- 
mounted by a cross. Gradually, these explorations extended westward 
and southward along the margin of the lakes and their tributaries. 

Champlain had in 1611-12, ascended as far as Lake Huron, which 
he called " the Fresh Sea,"' passing by the Maumee on his way. In 
1640, Fathers Charles Raymbault and Claude Pijart were chosen and 
sent as missionaries to the Algonquins of the north and west. Where 
they labored is not known, but it is probable that they went little further 
than here at that early date. In August, 1604, two j'oung and adven- 
turous fur traders joined a band of Algonquins, and made a voyage of 
500 leagues, coming in contact with many tribes, and even with the 
Sioux beyond Lake Superior. 

The importance of maps, in tracing doubtful questions in histor}-, is 
frequently overlooked. It may be said, without fear of dispute, that 
when we find a map upon which the site of habitations and the rivers 
and other topographical features are delineated even with a reasonable 
degree of exactness, that region has been visited by some one who care- 
fully noted his discoveries, and was skilled in the work he sought to ac- 
complish; and it is from such a map, that we know that the site of Fort 
Wayne was known at an earlier date than any recorded history has 

In 1657, Sanson, who was the royal geographer of the French 
king, prepared a map of " Le Canada, ou Nouvelle France," on which 
Lake Erie is displa3fed, with a river flowing into it from the southwest, 
for a distance, and from a direction, clearl}' representing the Maumee in 
its course from the site of Fort Wayne to the lake. The St. Mary's 
and the St. Joseph are not represented, indicating that their courses had 
not }-et been explored. In this map we have indubitable evidence that 
the Maumee had been traversed by intrepid French explorers prior to 


On the 8th of August, 1660, Father Claude Allouez set out on a mission 
to the far west, and for many years thereafter was the spiritual adviser 
and saintly father of the Miamis, beloved b}' them, and devoting his life 
to their temporal and spiritual welfare. He found them between Green 
Bay and the head of Lake Superior. Two years later, he returned to 
Quebec, and urged the establishment of permanent missions among the 
western tribes, and succeeded so well that on his return in 1668 he was 
accompanied by Fathers Claude Dablon and James Marquette, then 
recently from France. 

In 1669, Monsieur Talon, the intendant of justice, etc., for the prov- 
ince of New France, having visited France, and received instructions 


from the king to push the discoveries into the interior, appointed Robert 
Caveher, Sieur de La Salle, a man of wonderful energy, sagacit}-, 
braver}' and discretion, with instructions " to penetrate further than has 
ever been done, * * * to the southwest and south"; to keep a 
journal of his adventures in all instances, and on his return to reply to 
the written instructions embraced in his commission. These instructions 
required, also, that he take possession of all the new territory discov- 
ered, in the king's name, displaying the arms of France and issuing 
■proces verdaux to settlers to serve as titles. Reporting this appointment 
to the king, he remarked: "His Majesty will probabl}' have no news 
of him before two years from this, and when I shall return to France." 
At the same time, with like instructions, Sieur de $t. Lusson was ap- 
pointed to penetrate to the west and northwest. 

Subsequently, in February, 1671, M. Colbert, the king's secretary, 
in a communication addressed to the intendant, sajs: "The resolution 
you have taken to send Sieur de La Salle toward the south, and Sieur 
de St. Lusson to the north, to discover the South sea passage, is very 
good; but the principal thing to which you ought to apply yourself in 
discoveries of this nature, is to look for the copper mine." 

As a part of the annual report to the king, in November of the same 
year, he makes this announcement: " Sieur de La Salle has not yet 
returned from his journey to the southward of this country. But Sieur 
de Lusson is returned, after having advanced as far as 500 leagues from 
here (Quebec), and planted the cross and set up the king's arms in 
presence of seventeen Indian nations, assembled on this occasion, from 
all parts, all of whom voluntarily, submitted themselves to the dominion 
of His Majest\', whom alone they regard as their sovereign protector." 
This meeting was held at the Falls of St. Mary, north of Lake Michigan. 
He reports, also, that " according to the calculations made from the 
reports of the Indians and from maps, there seems to remain not more 
than 1,500 leagues of navigation to Tartary, China and Japan. Such 
discoveries must be the work either of time or of the king." The route 
■pursued by La Salle in his adventure is, to some extent, a matter of 
conjecture, since no record made by himself is now known to be extant, 
except so much as relates to his starting out on such an expedition with 
Messrs. Dollier and Gallinee; and becoming dissatisfied with the pro- 
posed plans of these two gentlemen, to his pursuing a route more in 
accord with his own judgment. Having thus separated from them, 
after a short period of silence, we hear of him a few leagues to the 
southward of Lake Erie, approaching the head-waters of the principal 
tributary of the Ohio, the Alleghanv, no doubt, which he descends until 
met by a great fall in the river, understood to be the Falls of the Ohio, 
at Louisville. Here the direct narrative ends, and we are left to a con- 
sideration of pertinent circumstances for tracings of him during the 
succeeding two or three j'ears. This was in the fall of 1669. 

The correspondence of the government officials, from time to time, 
during the period of his absence, show that he had not yet returned. 


Indeed, it was stated in the beginning that his return was not expected 
until the expiration of two years, at least; and later that he returned 
accordingly — all these facts tending to show that his movements were 
full3- known b}' the authorities aforesaid, and were in compliance with 
instructions. Such being the conditions, let us examine, from the 
context, whether he retraced his steps, as some have affirmed, or took a 
different route to reach the point contemplated. This objective purpose 
was to find the outlet of the great river supposed to run to the southwest 
or south and fall into the Vermilion Sea (Gulf of CaHfornia), on the 
western border of the continent. Animated with a desire to accomplish 
his mind's ideal of a more direct route to China and Japan, such as 
seemed to control his actions about the time of his separation from his 
companions in the vicinity of Lake Erie, is not presumable even, that 
he was so easily discouraged as to turn back after having reached the 
Falls of the Ohio, almost in direct line with his contemplated route. 
The less objectionable probabihty is that he either continued thence 
down the Ohio river to the Mississippi, the great " Father of Waters," 
or started overland toward the line of northern lakes, which might dis- 
charge an outlet to the westward. Or, again, he may have so far 
retraced his steps as to enable him to ascend one of those larger 
tributaries of the Ohio, the Scioto or Miami, toward the western 
extremit}^ of Lake Erie, whence, proceeding northward, he may have 
traversed the strait to Lake Huron, and along the eastern boundary of 
the peninsula of Michigan to the strait of Michillimackinac; thence, 
passing to the westward around Green Bay and down the west side of 
Lake Michigan to its southern border. Leaving this point, his route 
seemed to lie in the direction of the Illinois, crossing which, he is said 
to have traced its course to the Mississippi, and, perchance, descended 
its muddy channel. This route is in part conjectural, but not wholly 
so, since the nearest approach to an account of his travels yet produced, 
incidentally refers to that portion of his travels after leaving Lake Erie, 
at a period subsequent to his passage down the Ohio. 

Taking into consideration all the facts pertinent to the issue, thus far 
developed, the more probable route, after leaving the Falls of the Ohio, 
at Louisville, was down that river to the mouth of the Wabash, since, on 
a manuscript map, drawn in 1673, ^"d still extant, exhibiting the area of 
discovery at that date, the Mississippi river is not shown, but the Ohio 
is traced a short distance below the Falls, and a part of eastern and 
northern Illinois dehneated thereon. From this, the inference is natur- 
ally and reasonabl}' drawn that, with the information manifest^ in the 
possession of the compiler of that map, who must have been, at the 
same time, cognizant of the movements of M. de La Salle, if not a com- 
panion, it is highh' probable that if the Mississippi had been then discov- 
ered, or La Salle had descended the Ohio below the mouth of the 
Wabash, these additional areas of discover}' would have been repre- 
sented also. "And this," says Mr. Parkman (who is the possessor of 
this map), in his account of M. de La Salle's proceedings at that time, 


" is very significant, as indicating the extent of La Salle's exploration of 
the following 3-ear, 1670." 

Accepting this probability as true — and there seems to be little 
reason to doubt it — that he ascended the Wabash, where did he leave 
that stream? The obvious answer is, that if he subsequentl}' embarked 
on the western extremity of Lake Erie, and ascended the strait to Lake 
St. Clair and beyond, as we have seen, he must have traversed it to 
"the carrying-place" on " La Riviere du Portage," or Little river, and 
thence, by the portage, to the river " de la Roche" (Maumee), at 
Kekionga, and down that river until it debouches into Lake Erie. 
This is the more probable, too, in view of the further fact that, being a 
trader as well as a discoverer, the greater inducement was in favor of 
the central or chief village of the Miamis, not only the principal arena 
of trade, but the great con\'erging point of all the sources of informa- 
tion, as stated by Little Turtle in his address to Gen. Wajme at the 
treaty of Greenville; and his statement was not mere speculation, but 
founded on the traditions of his fathers from time immemorial. Hence, 
the route was practical, since it offered the means of acquiring more 
complete and accurate information than was obtainable from any other 
source, concerning what he most desired to know. 

That this theory is correct, is strongh' supported by his own claim, 
as we shall see hereafter, that he discovered the route by way of the 
Maumee to the Wabash, and by the account he gave of his later move- 
ments in 1676, when he built a fort at Crevecceur, "for the protection of 
the trade in those countries," as he had already done for several years, 
in the rivers Oyo, Ouabache and others in the surrounding neighborhood, 
which flow into the Mississippi, * * * adding, " the countries and 
rivers of the Oj'o and Ouabache were inhabited by our Indians, the 
Chouanons, Miamis, and Illinois." If he had traversed the Wabash, 
and traded along it several 3'ears prior to 1676, at what time is it prob- 
able these voyages were made and the trading done ? At what other 
time than in the fall of 1669, and during the years 1670 and 1671 ? If 
not within that period, when P for we have no account of his having done 
so between the years 1672 and 1676, the date at which the above ac- 
count commences. Furthermore, if he was trading at that time on the 
Wabash, then his articles of trafl'lc passed up La Riviere du Portage, 
were transported over "the carr3ang-place " to the St. Mary's, reshipped 
and taken down the Maumee to Lake Erie. What more probable 
route? What more natural point for the location of a fort, palisaded 
according to the necessities for protection and defense, than that at the 
head of the portage, on the St. Mary's ? Without direct proof to 
the contrary, the propositions will be accepted as true, that he traded 
along the upper Wabash in 1669-71, visited Kekionga and perhaps 
established there one of his fortified trading posts, and used it as a base 
for his operations in that region. 

The mission at Sault Ste. Marie was permanently established in 1668, 
and, the year following, Father Marquette having succeeded AUouez at 


La Pointe, the latter then estabhshed himself at Green Bay, whence 
that earnest Father began to enlarge his held of labor, visitincr the 
countries to'\;he southward and westward of Lake Michigan. Although 
we have no direct account of the exact period when the mission was 
established among the Miamis, yet in view of the direction pursued by 
Allouez about this time, it is fair to presume that Kekionga was vis- 
ited by one or more of these priests as early as 1669 or 1670, for, in 
May, 167 1, a grand council of all the adjacent tribes, including the 
Miamis, previously visited or communicated with, was held at Sault Ste. 
Marie, in whose presence and with whose consent the governor general 
of New France took " possession, in the name of His Majesty, of all the 
lands l3"ing between the east and west, and from Montreal to the south, 
so far as it could be done." 

Meanwhile, x\llouez had been pursuing his labors among the Miamis, 
and extending the beneficent influence of his holy faith; but it appears to 
have been reserved to Marquette to estabhsh a mission among them, 
and erect there the standard of the cross, in the 3'ear 1673. On the 
i8th of May, 1675, Marquette died near the river that has since taken his 
name, near the margin of the lake, in western Michigan. Allouez 
died also, soon after, in the midst of his labors among the Miamis. 

As early as 1672, so considerable a trade had grown up about the 
head-waters of the Maumee that the attention of the provincial govern- 
ment was drawn to the necessity of establishing and maintaining a military 
post for its protection. That such a post was established seems proven 
b}' the fact that in the account of transactions during 1696-7, it appears 
that Frontenac ordered the Sieur de Vincennes to the command of this 
post, and in a like report for 1704, it appears that he was again sent to 
command the same post by reason of his formerly having been stationed 
there, as appears from the statement as follows : 

" Dispatched Father Valliant and Sieur de Joncaire to Seneca, and I 
sent Sieur de Vinsiene to the Miamis with m}' annexed order and mes- 
sage to be communicated to them. 

"Sieur de Vinsiene, my lord, has been formerlj' commandant at the 
Miamis (,1697), by whom he was much beloved; this led me to select 
him in preference to any other to prove to that nation how wrong they 
were to attack the Iroquois — our allies and theirs — without any cause; 
and we — M. de Beaucharnois and I — after consultation, permitted said 
Sieur de Vinsiene to carry some goods and to take with him six men 
and two canoes." 

Again, in a communication from Vandrueil to Pontchartrain, dated 
October 19, 1705, the following further statement occurs: "I did my- 
self the honor to inform you last year that I regarded the continuance of 
the peace with the Iroquois as the principal affair of this country, and as 
I have always labored on that principle, it is that also which obliged me 
to send Sieur de Joncaire to the Senecas and Sieur de Vinsiene to the 

In 16S0, the route to the Mississippi by way of the Maumee and the 


Wabash is clearl3' alluded to b}' Pere Allouez, who says: "There is at 
the end of Lake Erie, ten leagues below the strait, a river by which we 
can traverse much of the road to the Illinois, being navigable to canoes 
about two leagues nearer than that by which they usually go there," 
i. e., by way of the St. Joseph of the Lake, and the Kankakee. 

That the great, lion-hearted, but unfortunate La Salle, the grandest 
character among the early American explorers, knew of, and had him- 
self discovered this route, can hardly be doubted in the light of some 
fragments of his writings, though the records which he alwa3rs carefully 
kept of his explorations of this particular region were probably lost 
when his transports were wrecked, and their contents engulfed in the 
St. Lawrence, as he was returning to Quebec. In 1681, as he was 
about to start on his second expedition to the Mississippi, he drew up a 
will, in which he made the following devise: "I do give, cede and 
transfer, to the said Sieur Fleet, in case of mj' death, * * * all my 
rights over the countrj' of the Miamis, Illinois, and others to the south- 
ward, with the settlements among the Miamis." In a report made by 
him to Frontenac in 1682, he mentions the route by the Maumee and 
Wabash to the Mississippi as the most direct. Notwithstanding this 
fact, the early explorers and traders long continued to go around by the 
route through the lakes to the site of Chicago, and thence to the Father 
of Waters, sometimes b}- the way of Green Ba}', and the Illinois and 
Fox rivers, or by the head of Lake Michigan up the St. Joseph of the 
Lake, to the site of the present city of South Bend, thence b}' portage 
to the Kankakee, and down that river. Why they should so long travel 
by these tedious and difficult routes, when a shorter and easier one was 
well known, was long a mystery to the historian, until a hitherto unpub- 
lished letter of La Salle threw a flood of light upon the subject, and 
cleared away the mysterj-. 

It is well known that about the time of the advent of the white man, 
the great Iroquois confederacy' was waging a war of extermination 
against the Algonquin tribes, of which the Miamis and the Illinois were 
a part, and that their savage forays left a bloody trail through all this 
section of the country to the banks of the Mississippi. It was b}^ 
reason of these murderous sallies, and the fact that the lower and shorter 
route was infested by roving bands of these savage warriors, enemies 
of the French, as well as of the Algonquins, that the longer route was 
followed. La Salle himself says, in a letter dated October, 1682, 
" Because I can no longer go to the Illinois but by the Lakes Huron and 
Illinois (Michigan), the other wavs -which I have discovered by the head 
of Lake Eric, and by the western coast of the same, becoming too 
dangerous by frequent encounters with the Iroquois." This letter is 
important, because it not onl}' proves that he had tra\-ersed thi« route 
prior to that date, but also that he actuall}' discovered it, and that his 
feet have trod the ground upon which a populous city now stands, when 
there was nothing to meet his view but a small cluster of Indian 
wigwams, and the unbroken forest surrounding it. We may consider 


this disputed question as proven, for La Salle was noted for stating none 
but exact facts, and when he says " I have discovered the route," it may 
be accepted as the truth. 

When did he discover it ? is the question which yet remains un- 

Hennepin says: "From this lake [Erie] to the Mississippi they 
have three different routes. The shortest by water is up the river 
Miamis or Ouamis, on the southwest of Lake Erie, on which river they 
sail about one hundred and fift}^ leagues without interruption, when they 
find themselves stopped by another landing of about three leagues, 
which they call a carrying-place, because they are generally obliged to 
carry their canoes overland in those places to the next river, and that 
where they next embark is a very shallow one, called La Riviere du 
Portage ; hence the}- row about forty leagues to the river Ouabach, and 
from thence about one hundred and twenty leagues to the riVer Ohio, 
into which the Ouabach falls, as the river Ohio does about eighty 
leagues lower into the Mississippi, which continues its course for about 
three hundred and fifty leagues directly to the Bay of Mexico." 

It is not only of interest, but importance, to trace briefly the move- 
ments of the great La Salle, for they were of weightier bearing 
upon the future of this region than those of any other explorer. Dur- 
ing the period of the explorations of La Salle, he seemed to have been 
surrounded not only by the ordinary dangers which beset him on his 
journeys among savage tribes, but by greater dangers arising from the 
machinations of envious persons or rivals for fame among his own 
nationality. The tongue of malice and the hand of treachery always 
followed him wherever he went, and finally brought him to an untimely 
death, at the hands of a traitorous assassin. Much of this he attrib- 
uted to the machinations of a rival order of the church, and there is 
doubtless much to prove that his worst enemies were the priests who 
belonged to an order different from that of which he was a devout and 
conscientious member, and these envious rivals had much to do in mak- 
ing his great work of disco\'ery more dangerous,- and in hindering his . 
efforts to Christianize and civilize the Indian tribes of this region. In 
December, 1679, he- left '^^ ^°^'^ °f ^^^^ Miamis of St. Joseph and went 
up that river to the Miami town where South Bend now stands. Five 
miles from there was one of the heads of the Kankakee by which he 
was to proceed to the Illinois. When he arrived at their village near 
Peoria, and was endeavoring to win their favor, he was met b}' intrigue. 
A Mascoutin chief named Monso, attended by several Miamis, reached 
the village and denounced him as a spy of the Iroquois. This La Salic 
attributed to Father Allouez, and in a letter to Frontenac, written in 
1680, he states his conviction that Allouez, who was then stationed with 
the Miamis, had induced them to send Monso and his companions on 
their sinister errand. There had long been a jealousy between the Mi- 
amis and the Illinois, although they were kindred and neighbors, and the 
Iroquois, with deep cunning, strove to foment the Miamis to make war 


upon the Illinois, at a time when it is believed that they intended to 
make the Miamis their next victims, and Membre states that the ene- 
mies of La Salle intrigued successfully among the Miamis for the same 

In 1 68 1, La Salle, in order to defeat the purposes of conquest of the 
Iroquois, tried to gather about him at Fort Miamis, the Shawnees, the Illi- 
nois and the Miamis, and to reconcile the latter, and teach the Miamis the 
folly of their league with the Iroquois. In this effort he had little success, 
until a band of Iroquois, returning from the massacre of the Tamaroes, 
a sept of the Illinois, on the Mississippi, met and slaughtered a band of 
Miamis near the Ohio, and not only refused satisfaction, but remained 
and established themselves in three forts in the heart of the Miami 
country. La Salle went among the Illinois and succeeded in gaining 
their good will and returned to Fort Miami, and thence to the village at 
the portage between the Kankakee and the Saint Joseph. Here he 
found some emissaries from the Iroquois, whom he boldl}- rebuked and 
threatened in such manner that they secretly left. This convinced the 
Miamis of the deceit that had been practiced upon them bj' the Iroquois, 
and gave La Salle great standing and influence among them. He met 
here several bands of Indians lately come from the east, from Rhode 
Island, New York and Virginia, whence they had migrated on account 
of the encroachments of the whites. These he called to a council, and 
promised them protection and new homes in the west. They, in return, 
promised their aid in reconcihng the Miamis with the Illinois. The next 
da}- the Miamis met in grand council, and were won over by the grace 
and eloquence of La Salle, and a bond of amity and defense was 
entered into. 

In 1682, the Iroquois were preparing to renew their warfare upon 
the Western tribes, particularly upon their late allies, the Miamis. La 
Salle determined to assist the latter, and gathered them and their allies 
into one great camp at Fort St. Louis on the Illinois river. There were 
the Illinois, numbering 1,200, the Miamis, from the St. Joseph and 
Kankakee, numbering 1,300, the Shawnees, Weas, Piankeshaws, and 
others, to the number in all, of 3,800 warriors. The Iroquois hesitated, 
and that summer passed in peace, but in March, 1683, they besieged the 
place for six days, when, finding their enemies well prepared, and under 
the command and direction of so able a leader as La Salle, thev at 
length withdrew. In 171 2, the Miamis were found again on the Maumee 
and the Wabash, and the Illinois were located on the river of that name. 
Both were much reduced by their long warfare with the Iroquois, and 
had dwindled so much that Father Marest, who then visited them, found 
but three villages, though Father Rasles, who visited them in 1723, found 
eleven. This difference in the number of villages found, may have arisen bv 
reasons of the visits being made at different seasons, as the}- scattered 
in summer for hunting and fishing, and gathered in villages in winter 
for feasting and merrymaking. 

During the period between La Salle's attempt to gather them into a 


confederacy, and this period, little mention is found in histor}- of the use 
of the route from the mouth of the Maumee to the Wabash, doubtless 
because of its being shunned on account of the murderous forays of the 
Iroquois, but the author of Western Annals states that in 1716 a route 
was established to the Mississippi, up the Maumee to the site of Fort 
Wayne, thence by a portage to the Wabash, and thence by way of 
the Wabash and Ohio, to the Mississippi. 

Colden's History of the Fiye Nations, published in 1745, contains a 
map showing the portage from the St. Mary's to the "Ouabache," one 
from the St. Joseph of the Maumee to Huakiki" (Kankakee), and one 
from the Kankakee to the St. Joseph of Lake Michigan. Parkman 
sa5^s: "at the middle of the iSth century * * two posts on 

the Wabash, and one on the Maumee made France the mistress of the 
great trading highwaj- from Lake Erie to the Ohio." History and 
tradition inform us that a French fort was destroyed here in 1747. If 
this be true, it must soon haye been re-established, for in 1749, Captain 
Bienyille de Celeron, a chevalier of the order of St. Louis, was sent 
bj' the Marquis de Gallissoniere, then goyernor of Canada, with orders 
to descend the Ohio and take possession of the countrj^ in the name of 
the French king. He descended the Ohio to the mouth of the great 
Miami, burjdng inscribed leaden plates at various points on his route, 
thence up the Miami to about Fort Loramie, thence across the portage 
and down the St. Mary's to the head of the Maumee. His party com- 
pleted the portage on the 25th of September, and arrived at Kiskakon, 
then the Indian name for the site of Fort Waj-ne. It was then a 
French post, under the command of M. de Ra3-mond. It was called 
Kiskakon from a branch of the Ottawas that removed here from 
Michillimackinac, where they had resided as late as 1682. Here 
de Celeron provided pirogues and provisions for the descent of the 
Maumee to Lake Erie. The Miami chief, " Pied Froid," or Cold Foot, 
resided in the village. He appears not to have been very constant in 
his allegiance either to the French or the English. Leaving Kiskakon 
on the 27th of September, part of the expedition proceeded overland 
to Detroit, and the remainder descended the riyer by canoe. 

A map of the route traversed by de Celeron, prepared by Father 
Bonnecamp, who accompanied the expedition, shows with considerable 
exactness the course of the St. Mar3-'s and Maumee, and the fort is lo- 
cated in the bend of the St. Mary's, south and east of the river. Ac- 
cording to this map this fort stood not far from the late residence of 
Hon. Hugh McCulloch, which agrees with existing traditions. Vandreuil 
mentions the Fort Miamis on the Maumee in i75i- This must h-^ve 
been our Fort Miami, for, although there were four forts of that name in 
the west, the other Fort Miami of the Maumee was not erected until 
early in 1794, and then by the British. 

It is interesting to note that Gen. George Washington, who was 
sent to Fort Duquesne on a mission to the French commandant by 
Goy. Dinwiddie, accompanied his report of his expedition with a map 


of the western ^country which indicates that if he could not himself tell 
an untruth, he could prepare maps which did. On his map a mountain 
range is located as trending from the northeast to the southwest within 
the peninsula of Michigan. On the east side of the mountain range, the 
" Miamis river," a very short stream, has its source, and flows directly 
east to Lake Erie, while the " Obaysh," or " River St. Jerome," rises 
on the" same side of the range apparentl}' near where the city of Jackson 
now stands, and flows onl}- a little west of south to the Ohio. 

In 1758 this route was described b}^ Du Pratz in his " Histoire de 
Louisiane." He says: " From the Missouri to the Oubache [the Ohio], 
is a hundred leagues. It is by this river one goes to Canada, from New 
Orleans to Quebec. The voyage is made b}' going up the river to the 
Oubache [OhioJ, then they go up this river to the river of the Miamis 
[the Wabash], continue this route to the portage and when the}' reach 
this place, seek natives of this nation, who make the portage in the 
space of two leagues. This road completed, they find a small river 
which flows into Lake Erie." 

The French were then in possession of all west of the Alleghanies, 
but their domination was destined soon to come to an end. Historians 
have laid little stress upon one fact which perhaps more than any other 
gave direction to and changed the destiny of the new world. But for 
the savage war so long and relentlessly waged by the Iroquois against 
the w^estern Indians, which rendered this route dangerous to traverse, 
and still more so for permanent occupation, there can be little doubt that 
the French would, long before this period, have established a strong, 
well manned and well equipped cordon of forts extending from the Saint 
Lawrence through the lakes, up the Maumee and down the Wabash to 
the Mississippi, and thence to the gulf, assuring the perpetuity of their 
power and firml}' establishing a Gallic empire in America. As it was, 
the weak garrisons of the scattered palisaded forts of the west fell 
quickly before the arms of Great Britain, and most of them were sur- 
rendered and formally transferred to that power in the fall of 1760. 

We have thus traced the history of the early explorations which 
opened this region, and established conclusively that the white man vis- 
ited it long before the era of its settlement, and if anything were wanting 
to place far back in time the period of this partial occupation, it is a sig- 
nificant fact that the Indian names of the two rivers whose confluence 
form the Maumee, have been lost, or at least, are disputed, they having 
"from time immemorial" been known only by the names of St. 
Joseph and St. Mary's, names doubtless conferred upon them b}- that 
devoted pioneer priest, who so early assumed the spiritual charge of the 
Miamis, and who was probably the first to erect, at the junction of the 
rivers he so christened, the symbol of Christianity', the cross of the Christ 
whose devoted servant he was. He, and his companion soldiers of the 
cross, deserve long to be remembered as the forerunners of a civiHzation 
they dreamed not of. 



It was on the 29th of November, 1760, that Detroit fell into the 
hands of the British, and soon after, an officer was sent southward to 
take possession of Fort Miami at the head of the Maumee, and of Fort 
Ouiatenon on the Wabash, both of which were intended to, and did, 
guard the communication between Lake Erie and the Ohio.' This 
officer was Ensign Holmes, in command of a detachment of the Sixtieth 
Rifles, or " Royal Americans." A force not greater than 800 men 
from this historic regiment, garrisoned all the posts of the west, and 
stood for )-ears between the savage hordes and the advancing settle- 
ments, which were the vanguard of our present civilization. 

A history of this gallant regiment would form a large portion of the 
history of the French and Indian wars, from the Hudson and Lake 
Champlain to the Mississippi, and the subsequent wars down to the 
revolutionarv period, but unfortunately that history is lacking, except as it 
can be gleaned from scattered documents and scant}' traditions. " The 
Roj-al Americans " was organized in 1S55 under the direction of the 
Duice of Cumberland, expressly for service in America. It was intended 
to consist of four battalions of 1,000 men each, to be raised from the 
German and Swiss emigrants, and £81,178 was voted by parliament to 
raise and equip it. German and Swiss officers were to be provided, and 
an act of pariiament authorized them to be commissioned. Henry 
Bouquet was a Swiss of the canton of Berne, and was a soldier from 
boyhood, serving under the king of Sardinia, and subsequently under 
the king of Holland. He accepted a lieutenant-coloners commission in 
the regiment in 1755, and was colonel of the first battahon at this 
period. He was made a brigadier general in 1765, and has left a heroic 
record, written on many bloody fields of Indian warfare. 

Some of the battalions were filled from the Scotch emigrants who 
had left the highlands of Scotland on account of their participation in 
the rebellion of 1745, and these brave, hardy and experienced troops 
won distinction in the north and west, at Lake George, Bushy Run, and 
on other fields of danger and valor; stretching the thin lines of their Httle 
battalions almost half across the continent, and making possible the ex- 
tension of the new Anglo-Saxon empire in the wilds of the interior of 
the continent. They were the guide posts, and the living wall \vhich 
hned the great highway from the east to the west, upon which marched, 
with slow but steady tread, the advance guard of the mighty hosts of 
civilization which were beginning to press forward with eager footsteps 
and a grand impulse toward the setting sun. The regiment was hon- 
ored with the post of danger in all the Indian wars along its very ex- 
tended front. One of its battalions was pitted against Montcalm, and 
defended Fort George on the lake of that name. The story of its 
massacre and narrow escape from annihilation has been made immortal 
in the pages of history and romance. Another battalion guarded the 


Pennsj-lvania frontier, and the rest were scattered among all the' forts 
of the western countiy, exposed to all the horrors and dangers of savage 
warfare. They were the first soldiery of an English speaking race 
whose martial tread was heard upon the banks of the upper Maumee, 
and whose guns held the Indians in subjection here until overpowered 
b}^ the last great uprising of an embittered, despairing race, in its futile 
and expiring attempt to stay the tide which was about to overwhelm it. 

At the close of the French struggle, so great had been the havoc 
among the various tribes of the northwest, that, from the estimates of 
Sir William Johnson, it is presumed there were not more than 10,000 
fighting men to be found in the whole territory lying " between the Mis- 
sissippi on the west, and the ocean on the east; between the Ohio on 
the south, and Lake Superior on the north"; which, according to a fur- 
ther estimate by Sir William, in 1763, placed the Iroquois at 1,950; the 
Dela wares at about 600; the Shawnees at about 300; the Wyandots 
at about 450; the Miamis, with their neighbors, the Kickapoos, at about 
Soo; while the Ottawas, Ojibwas, and a few wandering tribes, north- 
ward, were left without any enumeration at all. At that period, so thin 
and scattered was the population, thai, even in those parts which were 
thought well populated, one might sometimes journey for days together 
through the twilight forest, and meet no human form. Broad tracts 
were left in solitude. All Kentucky was a vacant waste, a mere skir- 
mishing ground for hostile war parties of the north and south. A great 
part of upper Canada, of Michigan, and of Illinois, besides other por- 
tions of the west, were tenanted bj' wild beasts alone. At this period, 
sa3?s Parkman, "the Shawanoes had fixed their abode upon the Scioto 
and its branches. Farther toward the west, on the waters of the Wabash 
and the Maumee, dwelt the Miamis, who, less exposed, from their posi- 
tion, to the poison of the whiskey keg, and the example of debauched 
traders, retained their ancient character and custom in greater purit}^ than 
their eastern neighbors." " From Vincennes," saj's the same writer, 
" one might paddle his canoe northward up the Wabash, until he reached 
the little wooden fort of Ouiatenon. Thence a path through the woods 
led to the banks of the Maumee. Two or three Canadians, or half- 
breeds, of whom there were numbers about the fort, would carry the 
canoe on their shoulders, or, for a bottle of whisky, a few Miami Indians 
might be bribed to undertake the task. On the Maumee, at the end of 
the path, stood Fort Miami, near the spot where Fort Waj-ne was after- 
ward built. From this point one might descend the Maumee to Lake 
Erie, and visit the neighboring Fort of Sandusky; or, if he chose, steer 
through the strait of Detroit, and explore the water}^ wastes of the 
northern lakes, finding occasional harborage at the little military posts 
which commanded their important points. Most of these western posts 
were transferred to the English during the autumn of 1760; but the set- 
tlements of the Illinois (Kaska.skia, Cahokia, etc.) remained several 
3rears longer under French control." 

The Indians of the northwest had lost their French father, and with him, 


for a time, their trinkets, and much besides in the form of powder, balls, 
etc., that they had long annualty been accustomed to receive from that 
quarter. They could hardly realize, notwithstanding the many whisperings 
to that effect, "that their French father was forever divested of his power in 
America, and that his rule this side of the great waters had ceased. 
They believed the oft repeated stories t^at their French father " had of 
late years fallen asleep," and that his numerous vessels and soldiers 
would soon be moving up the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, to drive the 
English from their dominions, leaving them again in quiet possession of 
their former hunting grounds. Every means was now resorted to by the 
French, scattered about the wilderness, to arouse the savages, and their 
efforts were not in vain. The rancor of the Indians was greath' in- 
creased from time to time, until at length, after a lapse of two years, a 
great scheme was developed for the overthrow and destruction of the 
English and the various posts so recently occupied by them. As had 
been frequent at other periods among the aborigines in the wilds of the 
new world, a great prophet suddenly- began to exert a powerful influence 
among the tribes of the northwest. He held his mission vinder the 
Great Spirit, and earnestl}' enjoined upon the tribes to return again to 
their primitive habits — to throw away the weapons, apparel, etc., ob- 
tained from the pale-faces. Here, said he, is the starting point of suc- 
cess. The force of the new prophet's teachings was truly great, and 
the tribes came from long distances to hear him. For the most part his 
suggestions were much regarded by the tribes; but the weapons of the 
white man could not be dispensed with. These they retained. The 
prophet was a Delaware, and the great leader of the movement was an 
Ottawa chieftain, whose Indian name was Pontiac. 

For over two years. Forts Miami and Ouiatenon remained in compara- 
tive security. The loth of Februar}', 1763, at length arriving, a treaty 
of peace was concluded at Paris, between France and England — the 
former surrendering to the latter all claims to the vast region lying east 
of the Mississippi, making the Father of Waters the boundary line of 
the British possessions in America. A few months later, on the 7th of 
October, the English government, " proportioning out her new acquisi- 
tions into separate governments," set apart " the valley of ^ the Ohio and 
adjacent regions as an Indian domain," and, by proclamation, strictly for- 
bade " the intrusion of settlers " thereon. But the seeds of future trouble 
had long since been sown, and the little forts in the wilderness, here 
(Fort Miami) and at Ouiatenon, were destined ere long to hear the 
murmurs of war. . The great plot of Pontiac, and the efforts of the 
Delaware prophet for the destruction of the English and the capture of 
the posts so recently lost by the French, were rapidl}' though silently 
maturing. Intimations and surmises were all that could be gained, so 
still and cautious were the movements of the savages; and the first 
really positive assurance of the efforts and designs of the Ottawa chief- 
tain and his followers, was disclosed at Fort Miami, opposite the present 
site of Fort Wayne. 


With the utmost vigilance, and the greatest possible activity, Pontiac 
was pushing forward his scheme of destruction. War belts were dis- 
patched to various tribes at a distance, inviting them to join in the over- 
throw of the invaders and capture of the forts; and soon the entire Al- 
gonquin race with the Senecas, the Wyandots, and many tribes from the 
valley of the lower Mississippi, were induced to join in the great scheme. 
The ensign of the Sixtieth Rifles was still in command, with a small 
body of men, at Fort Miami; and it was through Holmes that the first 
positive information of the plot of the Indians was received. 

One day, early in the month of March, 1763, Holmes was startled 
by a friendl}^ admonition. A neighboring Indian, through some acts of 
kindness, perhaps, on the part of Holmes, had formed a strong friend- 
ship for the ensign. The Indian told him that the warriors of one of the 
villages near by had recently received a bloody belt, with a " speech," 
pressing them to kill him (Holmes) and demolish the fort here, and 
which, whispered the friendlj' Indian, the warriors were then making 
preparation to do. The peril was imminent, and Holmes began at once 
to look about him. Summoning the neighboring Indians to a council, he 
boldly charged them with the design, which they finally acknowledged, 
with seeming contriteness and regret, charging the whole affair upon a 
tribe at another locality in the region. Holmes obtained the belt, and, 
from a speech of one of the chiefs of the Miamis, was at least partially 
induced to entertain the behef that all would now be tranquil. 

A few daj^s later, and the following letter, from Ensign Holmes, 
at this point, was on its way to Major GladvV3'n, commanding at Detroit: 
"Fort Miamis, March 30TH, 1763. 

" Since my Last Letter to You, wherein I Acquainted You of the 
Bloody Belt being in this village, I have made all the search I could 
about it, and have found it out to be True ; Whereon I Assembled all 
the Chiefs of this Nation (the Miamis), and after a long and troub- 
lesome Spell with them, I Obtained the Belt, with a Speech, as you will 
Receive Enclosed; This Affair is very timely Stopt, and I hope the 
News of a Peace will put a Stop to any further Troubles with these 
Indians, who are the Principle Ones of Setting Mischief on Foot. I 
send You the Belt with this Packet, which I hope You will Forward to 
the General." 

Signs of coming trouble with the Indians at length became more 
apparent. They had now begun to hang about the forts, with impene- 
trable faces, asking for tobacco, gunpowder and whisky. Now and 
then some slight intimation of danger would startle the garrison, and an 
English trader, coming in from the Indian villages, would report that, from 
their manners and behavior, he suspected them of mischievous designs. 
Occasionally, some half-breed would be heard boasting in his cups, that 
before the next summer he would have English hair to fringe his hunt- 

By the 27th of April, 1763, Pontiac having nearly matured his plans, 
great numbers of the villages and camps of the western tribes, including 


all grades and ages, women and children, assembled to celebrate the 
savage rites of war; magicians consulted their oracles, and prepared 
charms to insure success; man}' warriors, as was the Indian custom be- 
fore great events in war, withdrew to the deep recesses of the forest, or 
hid in caves to fast and pray, that the Great Spirit might give them 
victory. A grand council was convened at the river Ecorces, where 
Pontiac delivered to the vast throng a speech both eloquent and artful. 

On the morning of the great council, several old men, heralds of the 
camp, had passed to and fro among the lodges, calling the warriors to 
attend the meeting. Thej' came from their cabins — the tall, naked 
figures of the wild Ojibwas, with quivers slung at their backs, and light 
war-clubs resting in the hollow of their arms: Ottawas, wrapped close 
in their gaud}' blankets; Wj-andots, fluttering in painted shirts, their 
heads adorned with feathers, and their leggins garnished with bells. 
All were soon seated in a wide circle upon the grass, row within row — 
a grave and silent assembly. Each savage countenance seemed carved 
in wood, and none could have detected the passions hidden beneath that 
unmovable exterior. Pipes, with ornamented stems, were Hghted and 
passed from hand to hand. 

Placing himself in the center of the silent multitude, with long, black 
hair flowing about his shoulders, stern, resolute, with an imperious, per- 
emptor}^ bearing, like that of a man accustomed to sweep away all op- 
position by force of his impetuous will, Pontiac began at once to arouse 
his auditors by a recital of the injustice of the English, and by drawing a 
contrast between the conduct of the French and the British toward the 
tribes assembled; presenting to them the terrible consequences of Eng- 
lish supremacy — persisting that it was the aim of the British to 
destroy and drive them from the land of their fathers. The}- have 
driven away the French, he recounted, and now they seek an opportunity 
to remove us also. He told them that their French father had long 
been asleep, but that now he was awake again, and would soon return 
in his many canoes to regain his old possessions in Canada. 

Every sentence was rounded with a fierce ejaculation; and as the 
impetuous orator proceeded, his audience grew restless to spring at once' 
into the bloody arena of battle and bury the scalping knife and toma- 
hawk in the bodies of the enemy. Turning to the opposite side of savage 
nature, appealing to their sense of the mysterious, in a somewhat mel- 
lowed tone, though still as earnest in demeanor, he said: 

" A Delaware Indian conceived an eager desire to learn wisdom from 
the Master of Life; but being ignorant where to find him, he had re- 
course to fasting, dreaming, and magical incantations. By these means 
it was revealed to him, that, by moving forward in a straight, undeviat- 
ing course, he would reach the abode of the Great Spirit. He told his 
purpose to no one, and having provided the equipments of a hunter — 
gun, powder-horn, ammunition, and a kettle for preparing his food — 
he setforth on his errand. For some time he journeyed on in high hope 
and confidence. On the evening of the eighth day, he stopped by the 


side of a brook, at the edge of a small prairie, where he began to 
make ready his evening meal, when looking up, he saw three large 
openings in the woods, on the opposite side of the meadow, and three 
well-beaten paths which enter them. He was much surprised, but his 
wonder increased, when, after it had grown dark, the three paths were 
more clearly visible than ever. Remembering the important object 
of his journey, he could neither rest nor sleep; and leaving his fire, 
he crossed the meadow, and entered the largest of the three open- 
ings. He had advanced but a short distance into the forest, when a 
bright flame sprang out of the ground before him, and arrested 
his steps. In great amazement, he tui-ned back, and entered the 
second path, where the same wonderful phenomenon again encountered 
him; and now, in terror and bewilderment, j-et still resolved to perse- 
vere, he pursued the last of the three paths. On this he journeyed a 
whole day without interruption, when, at length, emerging from the for- 
est, he saw before him a vast mountain of dazzling whiteness. So pre- 
cipitous was the ascent, that the Indian thought it hopeless to go farther, 
and looked around him in despair; at that moment, he saw, seated at 
some distance above, the figure of a beautiful woman arrayed in white, 
who arose as he looked upon her, and thus accosted him: ' How can you 
hope, encumbered as you are, to succeed in 3'our design? Go down to 
to the foot of the mountain, throw away your gun, your ammunition, 
your provisions and your clothing; wash yourself in the stream which 
flows there, and then you will be prepared to stand before the Master of 
Life!' The Indian obe^-ed, and then began to ascend among the rocks, 
while the woman, seeing him still discouraged, laughed at his faintness 
of heart, and told him that, if he wished for success, he must climb bj- 
the aid of one hand and one foot only. After great toil and suffering, 
he at length found himself at the summit. The woman had disappeared 
and he was left alone. A rich and beautiful plain lay before him, and at 
a little distance he saw three great villages, far superior to the squalid 
dwellings of the Delawares. As he approached the largest, and stood 
hesitating whether he should enter, a man gorgeously attired stepped 
forth, and taking him by the hand, welcomed him to the celestial abode. 
He then conducted him into the presence of the Great Spirit, where the 
Indian stood confounded at the unspeakable splendor which surrounded 
him. The Great Spirit bade him be seated, and thus addressed him : 
'I am the maker of heaven and earth, the trees, lakes, rivers, and all 
things else. I am the maker of mankind; and because I love you, you 
must do my will. The land on which you live I made for you and not 
for others. Why do you suffer the white man to dwell among you? 
My children, you have forgotten the customs and traditions of your 
fathers. Wh}' do you not clothe yourselves in skins as the}^ did, and use 
the bows and arrows and stone-pointed lances, which they used? You 
have bought guns, knives, kettles and blankets of the white man, until you 
can no longer do without them; and what is worse, you have drunk the 
poison fire-water, which turns you into fools. Fling all these away; 


live as your wise fore-fathers lived before you. And, as for these 
English — these dogs dressed in red, who have come to rob you of N'our 
hunting-grounds, and drive away the game — j^ou must lift the hatchet 
against them, wipe them from the face of the earth, and then you will 
win my favor back again, and once more be happ}' and prosperous. The 
children of your great father, the King of France, are not like the 
English. Never forget that they are 3^our brethren. They are very 
dear to me, for they love the red men, and understand the true mode of 
worshiping me!' With some further admonition from the Great Spirit, 
of a moral and religious nature, the Indian took leave of the Master of 
Life, and returned again to terra firma, where, among his people, he told 
all he had seen and heard in the wonderful land of the Great Spirit.'" 

After this address all was ripe for action. Pontiac's words had 
spread a fire among the great throng of listeners that nothing short of a 
desperate defeat would smother. The first blow was destined to fall 
upon Detroit. • 

The stor^' of the attempt, and of its frustration b}- the prompt ac- 
tion of Maj. Gladwyn, who had been warned of the plot by his Ojibwa 
mistress, has been too often told to need repetition here. Nine posts, 
held b\' the English, had been included in the great conspiracy and 
sought to be captured, viz.: Detroit, Presque-Isle, Michillimackinac, 
Miami, Ouiatenon, Le Boeuf, Venango, Fort Pitt, and Fort Sandusky. 
The plan of capture seems to have embodied the cunning and resolution 
of Pontiac at every point; and preparations similar to those at first mani- 
fested at Detroit, were apparent at every post essayed to be taken; 
which one after another, excepting Detroit alone, fell into the hands of 
the Indians. Many were the bloody scenes enacted. 

On the i6th of May, Sandusk-s' fell; on the ist of June, Ouiatenon 
was captured, Michillimackinac on the i2th, and Presque-Isle, on the 
15th of June. After Presque-Isle was taken, the little posts of Le Boeuf 
and Venango shared its fate; farther south, at the forks of the Ohio, a 
host of Delaware and Shawnee warriors were gathering around Fort 
Pitt, and havoc reigned along the whole frontier. 

Father Jonois, a Jesuit missionar}-, had reached Detroit and convened 
to the garrison a letter from Capt. Etherington, at Michillimackinac, 
giving an account of the capture of that post. Soon after, a letter from 
Lieut. Jenkins, at Ouiatenon, telHng of the captui-e of that post, was re- 
ceived b}' Maj. Gladwyn. Close upon these tidings, came the news 
that Fort Miami was taken. 

Holmes had been carefully watching the Miamis, although his fears 
had been somewhat quieted by the conference concerning the bloody 
belt. But unknown to him, savage ingenuit}- and deception were at 
work, and the ensign was destined to fall a victim to the perfidy of the 

The 27th of May had come. All nature was radiant with the beau- 
ties of spring. The expanding foliage of the forest waved gracefully 
over and partly shut out from the blaze of the sunlight the sweet-scented 


wild flcwers that grew profusely beneath the majestic oaks, maples and 
S3'Camores, that lined the margins of our beautiful rivers. An Indian 
girl,* with whom Holmes had for some time been intimate, and in whom 
he placed much confidence, was compelled b}' the conspirators to come 
to the fort and tell Holmes that there was a sick squaw l3"ing in a wig- 
wam not far from the fort, and express a desire that he should go and 
see her. Unsuspect'ng, and kindly desiring to relieve the supposed sick 
squaw, he was soon without the enclosure, and advancing with cautious 
steps in the direction of the hut indicated. Nearing a cluster of huts, 
which are said to have been situated at the edge of an open space, hid- 
den from view bv an intervening spur of the woodland, the girl directed 
him to the hut wherein lay the supposed invalid. Another instant he 
fell bleeding to the ground, and the sudden crack of two rifles echoed 
over the little garrison. Startled, the sergeant thoughtlessly' passed 
without the fort to ascertain the cause of the shots, when, with trium- 
phant shouts, he was seized by the savages. This, in turn, brought the 
soldiers within, about nine in all, to the palisades of the garrison, when 
a Canadian, of the name of Godfroy, accompanied b}' two other white 
men, stepped forth and demanded a surrender of the fort, with the 
assurance to the soldiers that if they at once complied their lives would 
be spared; but, refusing, they should all be killed without mere}'. The 
garrison gate soon swung back upon its hinges, and English rule at this 
point for a time ceased to be. 

Encouraged by the fall of this weak and almost ungarrisoned post, 
Pontiac renewed his efforts to unite the tribes and destroy the remaining 
western forts, particularly' aiming at the capture of Detroit. But the 
campaign he had already made had led to a vigorous movement on the 
part of the English government for the chastisement of the Indians. 
The plan of this campaign contemplated two armies — one to be led by 
Colonel Bouquet, and the other by Colonel Bradstreet, the former to 
move towards Fort Pitt, and to the country of the hostile Shawnees 
and Dela wares, along the Scioto and Muskingum rivers; while Brad- 
street was to push forward to Detroit. The one led by Bradstreet 
reached Detroit on the 26th of August, and reheved that long suffering 
and almost disheartened garrison, and the Indians gave up the hope of 
its capture. 

Pontiac and his followers, sullen and intractable, left Detroit, and he 
again took up his abode, for the time, on the Maumee, a few miles be- 
low the site of Fort Wayne, whence he is said to have sent a haughty 
defiance to the English commander at Detroit. Many of the Indians 
about Detroit went with Pontiac, leaving there but a few remnant tribes, 
who, for the most part, exhibiting a desire for peace, were soon given 

* Mrs. Suttenfield, lately deceased, stated that she became acquainted with this woman in 1815, 
when she had a son, a man of some years, who, the squaw said, was Saginash (English); and 
from the age of the man, the inference is drawn that he was a son of Holmes. After leaving 
here, the woman took up her residence at Raccoon Village. She lived to a great age, and was known 
to many of the early settlers of Fort Wayne. 


a council at that point, on the 7th of September. Upon the condition — 
which they are said to have not understood at all, and which, not under- 
standing, they accepted — that they become subjects of the king of 
England, a treaty of peace was concluded with them. At this council 
were present portions of the Miamis, Pottawatomies, Ottawas, Ojib- 
was. Sacs, and Wyandots. Said Wasson, an Ojibwa chief, to the Eng- 
lish commander, on this occasion : " My Brother, last year God forsook 
us. God has now opened our eyes, and we desire to be heard. It was 
God's will you had such fine weather to come to us. It is God's will 
also that there should be peace and tranquility over the face of the earth 
and of the waters" — openly acknowledging that the tribes he repre- 
sented were justly chargeable with the war, and deeply regretted their 

Before quitting Sandusky, Bradstreet had sent Captain Morris, 
accompanied by a number of Canadians and friendly Indians, toward 
the countr}' of the lUinois, to treat with the Indians of that portion of the 
west. Ascending the Maumee in a canoe, he approached the camp of 
Pontiac, and was met by about 200 Indians, who treated him with great 
violence, while they offered a friendly welcome to the Iroquois and Cana- 
dian attendants. Accompanied by this clamorous escort they moved to- 
ward the camp. At its outskirts stood Pontiac himself. He met the 
ambassador with a scowling brow, and refused to offer his hand. " The 
English are liars," was his first fierce salutation. He then displayed a 
letter, addressed to himself, purporting to have been written by the king 
of France, containing as Morris declared, " the grossest calumnies 
which the most ingenious malice could devise, to incense the Indians 
against the English." The old story had not been forgotten. " Your 
French father," said the writer, " is neither dead nor asleep; he is already 
on his wa}-, with sixty great ships, to revenge himself on the English, 
and drive them out of America." It is evident that the letter had 
emanated from either a French officer, or more probabty a French fur 
trader, who, for his own aggrandizement, sought to arouse the antipathy 
of the natives to the further encroachment of the English. 

" The Indians led me," says Morris, " up to a person who stood ad- 
vanced before two slaves (prisoners of the Panis nation, taken in war 
and kept in slavery), who had arms, himself holding a fusee with the 
butt on the ground. By his dress and the air he assumed, he appeared 
to be a French officer: I afterwards found he was a native of old 
France, had been long in the regular troops as a drummer, and that his 
war name was St. Vincent. This fine-dressed, half-French, half-Innian 
figure desired me to dismount; a bear-skin was spread on the ground, 
and St. Vincent and I sat upon it, the whole Indian army, circle within 
circle, standing around us. Godefroi sat at a Httle distance from us; 
and presently came Pontiac, and squatted himself, after his fashion, 
opposite to me. This Indian has a more e.xtensive power than ever was 
known among that people; for every chief used to command his own 
tribe, but eighteen nations, by French intrigue, had been brought to 


unite, and choose this man for their commander, after the English had 
conquered Canada; having been taught to beheve, that, aided by France, 
they might make a vigorous push and drive us out of North America. 
* * * * Pondiac said to my chief: 'If you have 

made peace with the Enghsh, we have no business to make war on them.. 
The war-belt came from you.' He afterward said to Godefroi: ' I will 
lead the nations to war no more; let 'em be at peace if they chuse it; but 
I myself will never be a friend to the English. I shall now become a 
wanderer in the woods; and if they come to seek me there, while I have 
an arrow left I will shoot at them.' He made a speech to the chiefs," 
continues Morris, " who wanted to put me to death, which does him 
honor; and shows that he was acquainted with the law of nations; ' We 
must not,' said he, ' kill ambassadors; do we not send them to the Flat- 
Heads, our greatest enemies, and they to us? Yet these are always 
treated with hospitality.' " 

After relieving the part}' of all but their canoe, clothing and arms, 
they were permitted to resume their course without further molestation. 
Quitting the inhospitable camp of Pqntiac, with poles and paddles, 
against a strong current, they continued their course up the beautiful 
Maumee, and in seven days from leaving Sandusky, in the morning they 
arrived within sight of Fort Miami, which, from the time of its capture, 
the previous year, had been without a garrison, its onl\' occupants being 
a few Canadians who had erected some huts within the enclosure, and 
a small number of Indians. The open ground in the vicinity of the fort, 
at that time, was occupied by the wigwams of the Kickapoos, a large 
body of whom had lately arrived. On the opposite side, hidden by an 
intervening strip of forest, stood the Miami villages. 

Having brought the canoe to a place of landing, a short distance be- 
low the fort, the attendants strode off through the strip of woods toward 
the village; and it is stated as most fortunate that Morris remained be- 
hind, for, scarcely had his attendants traversed the woods, than they 
were met by a band of savages, armed with spears, hatchets, and bows 
and arrows, seeking to destroy the Englishman. Morris' chiefs en- 
deavpred to dissuade them from their purpose, and succeeded in so far 
as sparing his life. But coming up, in a few moments, to where Morris 
stood, they began to threaten him and treat him very roughl_y, and took 
him to the fort, where he was commanded to remain, and the Canadians 
forbidden to admit him to their huts. A deputation of Shawnee and 
Delaware chiefs had recently come to the Miami village, with fourteen 
war-belts, with a view of arousing the Miamis again to arms agamst the 
English; and it was to these that was mainly ascribed Morris' treatment. 
From this point they had proceeded westward, arousing to war all the 
tribes from the Mississippi to the Ohio", avowing that they would never 
make friends with the English — that they would fight them as long as 
the sun shone. 

Morris had not long remained at the fort, when two Miami warriors 
came to him, and with raised tomahawks grasped him by the arms, 


forced him without the garrison, and led him to the river. Walking 
forward into the water with him, Morris' first thought was that the 
Indians sought to drown him, and then take his scalp; but instead they led 
him across the stream, then quite low, and moved toward the center of 
the Miami village, on the west side of the St. Joseph. N earing the 
wigwams, the Indians stopped and sought to undress him: but finding 
the task rather difficult, the}' became quite angry and Morris himself, in 
rage and despair, tore off his uniform. Then tying his arms behind him 
with his sash, the Indians drove him forward into the village. Speedily 
issuing from the wigwams to receive the prisoner, the Indians gathered 
about him like a swarm of angry bees, giving vent to terrific j-ells — 
" sounds compared to which, the nocturnal bowlings of starved wolves 
are gentle and melodious." The largest portion of the villagers were 
for killing him; but a division arising between them, as to what was 
best to do with him, then was developed a vociferous debate. Finally 
the Canadians, Godfroy and St. Vincent, who had followed him to the 
village, came forward and interceded with the chiefs in behalf of their 
prisoner. A nephew of Pontiac was among the chiefs, a j-oung man, 
possessing much of the bold spirit of his uncle, who heroicall}' spoke 
against the propriety of killing the prisoner; and Godfroy insisted 
" that he would not see one of the Englishmen put to death, when so 
many of the- Indians were in the hands of the army at Detroit." A 
Miami chief, called the Swan, is also represented as having protected the 
prisoner, and cut the sash binding his arms. Morris, beginning now to 
speak in his own defense, was seized by a chief called the White Cat, 
and bound to a post by the neck; at which another chief, called the 
Pacanne, rode up on horseback, cut the band with his hatchet, giving 
Morris his freedom again, exclaiming " I give this Englishman his life. 
If you want Enghsh meat, go to Detroit or to the lake, and 3'ou will 
find enough of it. What business have you with this man, who has 
come to speak with us? " The determined words of Pacanne had the 
desired effect. A change of feeling began to show itself: and the 
prisoner, without further words, was driven out of the village, whither 
he made his way to the fort. On his way, it is stated, an Indian met 
him, and, with a stick, beat his exposed body. 

His position was yet most critical; for while the Canadians in the 
fort were disposed to protect him, they were yet loath to lay themselves 
liable to distrust, and the same warriors who had taken him to the 
village were now lurking about, ready to embrace the first opportunity 
to kill him; while the Kickapoos, near b}', had sent him word that if 
the Miamis did not kill him, they would whenever he passed their camp. 
On considering whether he should pi'oceed on his journey to the Illinois, 
his Canadian and Indian attendants strongl}' urged him to go no farther; 
and on the evening of this day they held a council with the Miami 
chiefs, wherein it became more evident that his situation was most 
perilous. Messages were continuall}- reaching him, threatening an end 
to his life, should he attempt to fulfill his mission, and a report was also 


conveyed to him that several of the Shawnee deputies were returning 
to the o-arrison expressly to kill him. Under these circumstances, 
he speedil}' pushed his bark toward Detroit, where he arrived on the 
17th of Septeniber. 

The expedition under Bouquet penetrated to the center of the Dela- 
ware towns, and into the most extensive settlements of the Shawnees, 
about 150 miles from Fort Pitt. With a large body of regular and pro- 
vincial troops, he soon humbled these tribes, and compelled them to deliver 
all the prisoners in their possession. During the frontier struggles, for 
some years prior to Bouquet's campaign, hundreds of families along the 
borders had been massacred and many carried away to the forest by the 
Indians; and when Bouquet started on his expedition to the interior, he 
was eagerly joined by many who, years before, had lost their friends. 
Among the many prisoners brought into the camp (over 200 in all), 
'husbands found their wives, and parents their children, from whom they 
had been separated for }-ears. Women, frantic between hope and fear, 
were running hither and thither, looking piercingly into the face of ever}' 
child. Some of the little captives shrank from their forgotten mothers, 
and hid in terror in the blankets of the squaws that had adopted them. 
Some that had been taken away young, had grown up and married In- 
dian husbands or Indian wives, now stood utterh' bewildered with con- 
flicting emotions. A young Virginian had found his wife; "but his little 
bo}', not two years old when captured, had been torn from her, and had 
been carried off, no one knew where. One da}-, a warrior came in lead- 
ing a child. x'Vt first, no one seemed to own it. But soon the mother 
knew her offspring, and screaming with joy, folded her son to her 
bosom. An old woman had' lost her grand-daughter in the French 
war, nine years before. All her other relatives had died under the 
knife. Searching with trembling eagerness, in each face, she at last 
recognized the altered features of her child. But the girl had for- 
gotten her native tongue, and returned no answer, and made no sign. The 
old woman groaned, and complained bitterly, that the daughter she 
had so often sung to sleep on her knee, had forgotten her in her old 
age^ Soldiers and officers were alike overcome. " Sing," said Bouquet 
to the old lady, "sing the song j-ou used to sing."' As the low, trem- 
bling tones began to ascend, the wild girl seemed startled, then listening 
for a moment longer, she burst into a flood of tears. She was indeed 
the lost child, but all else had been effaced from her memorj', save the 
recollection of that sweet cradle song. The tender sensibilities were for- 
eign, as a general rule, to the Indian heart; indeed, they held such 
emotions in contempt; but when the song of the old lady was seen by 
them to touch the captive's heart and bring her again to a mother's 
arms, they were overcome with sympathy. Many captive women who 
returned to the settlements with their friends soon afterward made their 
escape, and wandered back to their Indian husbands, so great was the 
change that had taken place in their natures. 


The British having subdued the tribes of the northwest, and com- 
pleted definite treaties with them at Niagara, contemplated a further 
move to the west and north, with the purpose of securing the country 
and posts along the Illinois and Mississippi. Of this Pontiac soon be- 
came aware, and leaving his place of seclusion on the Maumee, with 
four hundred of his chiefs, about the close of autumn he passed up to 
Fort Miami and after a short stay to the Wabash, and on to the Mississippi, 
arousing the tribes at ever}' point to prepare to meet and destroy the 
English. Having gained the French settlements and other places where 
the French traders and habilans were to be met, and where the flag of 
France was still displayed, he received encouragement from the French 
fur traders and engages^ who dreaded the rivalry of the English in the 
fur trade. They insisted that the king of France was again awake, and 
his great armies were coming; "that the ba3-onets of the white-coated 
warriors would soon glitter amid the forests of the Mississippi." But 
Pontiac seemed doomed to disappointment and failure; and after repeated 
efforts, having visited New Orleans to gain the aid of the French gov- 
ernor of Louisiana, he returned to the west. 

Determining to try the virtue of peace proposals in advance of the 
army, Sir William Johnson sent forward two messengers, Lieut. Eraser 
and George Croghan, to treat with the Indians on the Mississippi and 
Illinois. After many hardships, and the loss of their st.ores, through 
the severity of the winter, they reached Fort Pitt, whence, after some 
delay. Eraser, with a few attendants, made his way down the Ohio for 
a thousand miles; then coming to a halt, he met with very rough treat- 
ment from the Indians. A short time afterward, in the month of May, 
1765, Croghan, with some Shawnee and Delaware attendants, moved 
down the Ohio as far as the mouth of the Wabash, where the party was 
fired upon by the Kickapoos and several of the attendants killed. Crog- 
han and the remainder were taken prisoners, but finally proceeded to 
Vincennes, where, finding many friendly Indians, they were well received, 
and the Kickapoos strongh' censured. From that point they went to 
Ouiatenon, arriving there on the 23d, where also Croghan found many 
friendl}- Indians. Here he made preparations for a council, and was met 
by a large number of Indians, who smoked the pipe of peace with him. 
Soon receiving an invitation from St. Ange to visit Fort Chartres, further 
down, Croghan, accompanied by a large number of Indians, left Ouia- 
tenon. for that point, and had not journeyed far when he met Pontiac 
and a large body of chiefs and warriors. Pontiac shook the hand of 
Croghan, who at once returned with the party to Ouiatenon, where a 
great concourse of chiefs and warriors were gathered. 

Pontiac complained that the French had deceived him, and offered 
the calumet and peace-belt, professing concurrence with the Ouiatenon 
chiefs in their expressions of friendship for the English. At the conclu- 
sion of this meeting, collecting the tribes here he had desired to meety 
he soon took up his line of march, followed by Pontiac and a large num- 
ber of chiefs, and set out toward Detroit, crossing over to Fort Miami 


and the village arljacent. Having kept a regular journal of his mission, 
from which the foregoing is principally drawn, he wrote at this point: 

"August 1st (1765). The Twigtwee village is situated on both 
sides of a river called St. Joseph. This river where it falls into the 
Miami [MaumeeJ river, about a quarter of a mile from this place, is lOO 
yards wide, on the east side of which stands a stockade fort somewhat 
ruinous.* The Indian village consists of about forty or fift}' cabins, 
besides nine or ten French houses, a runaway colony from Detroit dur- 
ing the late Indian war; they were concerned in it, and being afraid of 
punishment, came to this point, where ever since they have spirited up 
the Indians against the EngHsh. ***** The coun- 
try is pleasant, the soil is rich and well watered. After several confer- 
ences with these Indians, and their dehvering me up all the English 
prisoners they had, on the 6th of August we set out for Detroit, down 
the Miamis river in a canoe." 

Arriving on the 17th of August, he found many of the Ottawas, 
Pottawatomies and Ojibwas, and in the same council hall in which 
Pontiac had poured out his impassioned orator}^ to seduce the Indians 
into his great conspiracy, Croghan convened the relenting tribes, and 
addressing them in their own style, succeeded in extracting terms of 
peace in September, and a promise from Pontiac that he would visit 
Oswego in the spring to conclude the final terms of a treaty with the 
commandant. Sir William Johnson. Croghan then returned to Niagara. 

About the period of the first snow, the Forty-second regiment of 
Highlanders, a hundred stronc^, having moved down the Ohio from Fort 
Pitt, commanded by Capt. Sterling, arrived at Fort Chartres. The 
■fleiir dc Us of France was soon lowered, and, in its stead, the English 
planted their standard. When spring came, Pontiac, true to his word, 
left his old home on the Maumee, for Oswego, where he soon arrived, 
to make a great speech, and '-seal his submission to the English" forever. 
With his canoe laden with presents he had received at the great coun- 
cil of Oswego, he proceeded toward the Maumee, where he is said to 
have spent the following winter, living in the forest with his wives and 
children, and hunting like an ordinary warrior. In the spring of 1767, 
considerable discontent was manifested among the tribes " from the 
lakes to the Potomac." The Indians had been disturbed in the posses- 
sion of their lands, and began the commission of atrocities along the 
frontier. Pontiac had strangely kept out of the way. That he had 
been party to the agitation along the border, was not known, but manv 
had their suspicions. For two years subsequentl}', few, if any, but his 
immediate friends, knew of his whereabouts. In the month of April, 
1769, however, he again visited the Illinois, and though his object was 
unknown, the English were excited by his movements. He soon after- 
ward went to the French settlement at St. Louis, where he was 

* It is worthy of notice that an English guinea dated 1765, the year of Croghan's visit, was 
found on the site of this old fort, and is now in possession of the writer. It is probably a speci- 
men of the first British gold used to purchase An 


murdered. The account of his death is, that he was killed by an Illinois 
Indian, of the Kaskaskia tribe; that havinf^ feasted with some of the 
Creoles of Cahokia, opposite the site of St. Louis, he became drunk, 
and while he was entering an adjacent forest, the murderer stole upon 
him and dispatched him with a tomahawk. It was said that the assassin 
had been instigated to the act b}' an Englishman of the name of Will- 
iamson, who had agreed to give him a barrel of whisky, with a prom- 
ise of something besides, if he would kill the Ottawa chieftain. Says 
Gouin's account: "From Miami, Pontiac went to Fort Chartres, on the 
Illinois. In a few 3'ears, the English, who had possession of the fort, 
procured an Indian of the Peoria nation to kill him. The news spread 
like lightning through the country. The Indians assembled in great 
numbers and attacked and destroyed all the Peorias, except about thirty 
families, which were received into the fort." Thus, the death of Pontiac 
was revenged. His spirit could rest in peace. 


Revolutionary -period. — The British flag had no sooner waved in 
supremacy over the western frontier, than its lustre began to wane, and 
the power it represented began to lose its prestige on the American 

The principles from which grew the American revolution were already 
asserting themselves, and the thunders of a new war which was destined 
to change the policy of nat'ons, began to be heard. During all the 
long years of the struggle for independence, the western frontier was 
■again the scene of savage warfare, and, instigated bj' the British, and 
ty their own revengeful instinct, the tomahawk and scalping knife were 
again seized by willing and ruthless hands, in the west, and long were 
held suspended, like the sword of Damocles, over the heads of 
the hardy setders of the western frontier. These settlers were born in 
the midst of danger, and were warriors almost from the cradle. Even 
the women were of heroic mold, often themselves defending their homes 
and loved ones from danger, and alwa3's encouraging their husbands 
and brothers, and teaching their children, to bravel}' sustain their man- 
hood in all the trials and dangers which surrounded them. So, when 
the war for independence came, when it was found that Great Britain, 
not content to meet her unruly sons in the open battle field, was secretlj' 
inciting the Indians to a murderous war along the frontier, there was 
little difficulty in raising hard}' bands of brave men, skilled in the war- 
fare of the woods, burning to avenge the slaughter of near relatives 
by their savage foes. With an iron will and endurance, these brave 
men responded to the call of country, and sprang to the defense of their 
hearthstones, no matter how humble the roof which covered them, and 
went forth to conquer gloriously, or perchance die a fearful death by 

The first campaign of importance was that of Gen. George Rogers 



Clark, sent by Gov. Patrick Henry of Virginia, with a volunteer force 
to attack the British outpost at Kaskaskia, in 1778. The history of this 
campaign under its great-souled commander reads in some particulars 
like a chapter from the romances of the cla3's of chivalry. The expedi- 
tion resulted in the capture of all the far western British posts, Kaskas- 
kia, Cahokia and Vincennes, in the face of largely superior forces and 
almost insuperable difficulties. The forts were manned by Americans, 
and the prowess of Clark's gallant forces soon made his name a terror 
among the Indians. Virginia extended her jurisdiction over these parts 
by creating the county of Illinois, and even the French settlers at Vin- 
cennes became friendly and peace seemed assured. 

But when the news of Clark's success reached Detroit, bj' way of the 
Maumee, Hamilton, the British governor, determined to recapture the posts. 
With eighty regulars, a large number of Canadian mihtia, and 600 In- 
dians, he ascended the Maumee, crossed over to the Wabash, and made 
a rapid movement upon Vincennes, thinking to take the fort b}' storm, 
and destroy all within the garrison. When the enemy approached, 
Capt. Helm, who was in command, was not to be dismayed. With an 
air as confident as if the fort were full of soldiers, he leaped upon the 
bastion near a cannon, and swinging his lighted match, shouted with 
great force as the enemy advanced, "Halt! or I will blow3'outo atoms!" 
At this the Indians precipiLately took to the woods, and the Canadians 
fell back out of range. Fearing that the fort was well manned, and 
that a desperate encounter would ensue, Hamilton offered a parley. 
Capt. Helm declared that he would fight as long as a man was left to 
bear arms, unless permitted to march out with the full honors of war, 
which was after some parle}^ agreed upon, and the garrison consisting of 
Helm and five men all told, marched out, to the astonishment of the 
British commander. But Helm was afterward detained in the fort as a 

The season now being late and unfavorable, Hamilton took no further 
steps toward the capture of the other posts till spring. In the mean- 
time Clark, toward the last of January, 1779, received information of 
the recapture, and on the 7th of February, with 130 men, he took up 
his line of march through the forest for Vincennes, a distance of 150 
miles, ordering Caplain Rogers, with forty men, on board a large keel- 
boat, with two four-pounders and four swivels, to ascend the Wabash 
to within a few miles of the mouth of White river, there to await 
further orders. The march through the wilderness was one of peril 
and hardship. The river bottoms were inundated, and, as they moved 
through these lowlands, the soldiers were often, while having to feel for 
the trail with their feet, compelled to hold their guns and ammunition 
above their heads. Their food on the march was parched corn and 
jerked beef. At length, on the evening of the 23d of February, arriv- 
ing within sight of the fort, Clark ordered his men to parade about the 
summit of a hill overlooking the fort, keeping them marching for some 
time. By this stratagem the British commander was led to believe a 


large force was approaching — at least i,ooo men, he thought, with 
colors plainl}- visible. During the night a ditch was dug to within rifle- 
shot of the fort, and before da^'-break, a number of men were stationed 
there to pick off the garrison, and every gunner showing his head was 
shot by the unerring hunters. On the 25th the fort was surrendered, 
and Hamilton, Major Hay and a few others, as instigators of Indian 
murders on the frontier, were sent to Virginia to answer for the crimes 
charged upon them. They were put in irons and held for a time in 
close confinement in retaliation for the massacres that had occurred, but 
were finall}- released at the suggestion of General Washington. This 
achievement oa the part of Clark and his brave comrades left them in 
possession of all the lower portion of .the west until the close of the 
revolution, when, at the treatv of peace with tjie British in 1783, on the 
basis of its having been conquered and held by Col. Clark, Great Britain 
conceded all of this region to the United States. 

At the period of the revolution Kekionga had become a place of 
much importance, in trading and tnilitary points of view, and as such, 
ranked next to Detroit and Vincennes. It was, according^, occupied by 
the British as a post or seat of an official for Indian affairs. Col. Clark, 
on the capture of Vmcennes, had meditated an expedition against this 
place, as well as against Detroit; and though he seems never to have 
abandoned the idea, yet he could not succeed in his arrangements. But 
while the subject was still fresh in the minds of Clark and the inhabit- 
ants of the lower Wabash, another individual made his appearance to 
undertake what even the daring Clark with greater resources, did not 
deem prudent to venture upon. This was La Balme, a native of France, 
who had come to this country as an officer, with the French troops un- 
der La Fayette, in 1779. It is not known whether he came to the west 
on his own responsibility, or whether he was directed by some authority; 
but he is found in the summer of 1780, in Kaskaskia, raising volunteers 
for an expedition against the post of Kekionga, with the design in case 
of success, of extending his operations against Detroit. At Kaskaskia, 
he succeeded in obtaining only twent}- to thirtv men. With these he 
proceeded to Vincennes, where he sought recruits. But his expedition 
was looked upon as a forlorn hope, and it met with the encouragement, 
generally, of onl_y the less considerate. 

It is quite certain, that though a generous and gallant man, he was 
too reckless and inconsiderate to lead such an expedition. Sometime in 
the fall of 1780, with as is supposed, fifty to sixty men, he proceeded up 
the Wabash on his adventure. He conducted his march with such cau- 
tion and celerity, that he appeared at the village of Kekionga before 
the watchful inhabitants had warning of his approach. The sudden ap- 
pearance of a foe, unknown as to character, numbers and designs, threw 
them into the greatest alarm, and they fled on all sides. La Balme took 
possession of the place without resistance. It was probably his intention, 
in imitation of Clark's capture of Kaskaskia, to take the village and its 
inhabitants by surprise, and then by professions of kindness and friend- 


ship, to win them over to the American cause; but the inhabitants, 
including some six or eight French traders, eluded his grasp. His occu- 
pation of the village was not of long duration. After making plunder 
of the goods of some of the French traders and Indians he retired and 
encamped near the Aboit creek, not far from the place where that stream 
was crossed by the Wabash and Erie canal. The Indians having soon 
ascertained the number and character of La Balme's men, and learning 
that they were Frenchmen, were not disposed at first to avenge the 
attack. But two of the traders, Beaubien and La Fontaine, indignant 
at the invasion and plunder of the place, were not disposed to let the in- 
vaders off without a blow, and incited the Indians to follow and attack 
them. The warriors of the village and vicinity rallied under the lead of 
their war chief. Little Turtle, and falling on La Balme's camp in the 
night time, massacred the entire party. La Balme's expedition may 
not have been impelled by the most patriotic motives, nor guided by 
wise counsels, nor attended with results beneficial to the country' ; yet 
it is an interesting event connected with the earlj- historj^ of the upper 
Maumee valle}'. 

Kortlnoest Territory. — The need of some form of government for 
the growing settlements in the west, together with the fact that large 
numbers of the soldiers of the disbanded armies of the revolution were 
read}' and willing to emigrate and found new homes, if guaranteed the 
necessary protection of the laws, led congress to hsten to their demands, 
and in 1787, the ordinance was passed which created the 'f North 
West Territorj'," and provided a government therefor. This terri- 
tory consisted of all of the lands lying northwest of the Ohio and east 
of the Mississippi, and comprised all of what are now the states of Ohio, 
Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin. Virginia ceded all her rights 
in the territory to the United States, and her example was followed by 
all the other states which claimed title under their original charters, 
which generalU' granted them the lands to the westward indefinitely. 

In July, 1788, the seat of government was located at Marietta, Ohio, 
in the place called " Campus Martius." General Arthur St. Clair, a distin- 
guished officer in the revolutionary war, was appointed governor, 
Winthrop Sargent, secretar}', and three judges formed the executive 
council. The governor and judges were authorized to adopt for the 
new territor\', laws from the other states not inconsistent with the ordi- 
nance, and under the laws so enacted the territory thrived for many 

For the most part, the settlers of the northwest territor}- were men 
who were valiant soldiers and had spent much of their fortunes in the 
revolutionar}' war. Such was the character of a party of emigrants, 
under the leadership of General Rufus Putnam, which left New Eng- 
land in 1787-8, and descending the Ohio, began the settlement of Adel- 
phia, later named Marietta, bringing with them, and re-establishing there, 
mart}' of the primitive habits and customs of their ancestors. First 
erecting substantial buildings for their families, they set about the 


organization of a church and a "school, toward which all contributed 
" with a right good wiir"; and these were the first institutions of the 
kind established in the northwestern territory. 

A year later, in 1789, the first settlement was formed at or near 
the present site of Cincinnati, Ohio, which was first called Losantiville. 
Fort Washington was established there, and it was from that point 
that the first movement under Gen. Harmar was made against the Indians 
at the present site of Fort Wayne, under the administration of General 
Washington, in October, 1790. It was also from that region, which, at 
an early period was known as '■ the settlements," that came most of the 
earlier settlers of Fort Wayne, then still known as the Miami village or 
Omi.* The subsequent expeditions of Gens. St. Clair and Wayne also 
started from Fort Washington. 

During 17S0, 1781, to 1785-6, difficulties had arisen between the 
colonial government and the Spanish on the lower Mississippi, as to 
the navigation of that river, and the possession of a large part of the 
western territor}', and there was much trouble with the Indians of the 
west, more especialh' along the Ohio, which continued to embarrass the 
settlements for some time. In addition to these troubles people in the 
southwest, early in that period, began and continued for several j-ears, 
to manifest considerable dissatisfaction. The government had permitted 
the Spaniards of the south to control the navigation of the Mississippi; 
many privations had come upon the people of the west in consequence, 
and "distrust of the government had gradually given rise to a desire for 
dissolution, especialh' in Kentucky, which, at that period was yet a part 
of Virginia. Washington had recognized this, and soon presented im- 
portant suggestions, as he had done before the revolution, relative to the 
organization of commercial and navigation companies, as the best means 
of protecting and cementing the interests of the east and west. In a 
letter to Gov. Benjamin Harrison in the year 17S4 he strenuously urged 
the importance of binding together all parts of the Union, and especially 
the west and east, with the indissoluble bonds of interest, with a view^ 
to prevent the formation of commercial and consequent political connec- 
tions with either the Spaniards on the south, or the English on the 
north. He recommended the speedy surve}- of the Potomac and James 
rivers; of the portage to the waters of the Ohio; of the Muskingum, 
and the portage from that river to the Cuyahoga; for the purpose of 
opening a water communication for the commerce of the Ohio and the 
lakes, to the seaboard, which he denominated as an object of great po- 
litical and commercial importance. To Richard Henry Lee, in the 
same year, Washington wrote : " Would it not be worthy of the wis- 
dom and attention of congress to have the western waters well explored, 
the navigation of them fully ascertained and accurately laid down, and a 
complete and perfect map made of the country, at least as far westerly 
as the Miamis running into the Ohio and Lake Erie, and to see how the 

* " A corrupt orthography and abridgment of the French term Aux Miamis; as Au Cas is a 
corruption of Aux Kaskaskias." 


waters of these communicate with the river St. Joseph, which empties 
into Lake Michigan, and with the Wabash ? for I cannot forbear ob- 
serving that the Miami village points to a very important post for the 

It was not a custom with the French, at any of their settlements in 
the west, to make large purchases of lands from the Indians; small 
tracts about their settlements invariably served to supply their wants. 
At the treat}' of Paris in 1763, these small grants about the forts of Detroit, 
Vincennes, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, etc., were all that they ceded to the 
British, and at the close of the revolution, in 17S3, when Great Britain 
transferred her western claims to the United States, she might be said 
to have had no right to convey anything but what she had previousl}^ 
received from France, excepting the guarantee of the Six Nations and 
the southern tribes to a part of the land south of the Ohio; and it could 
be asserted that none of the territory claimed b}- the Miamis, western 
Delawares, Shawnees, Wyandots or Hurons, and some other tribes still 
to the west and north could be ceded to the United States by this treat}-. 
But a different view of the matter was taken b}' congress. Concluding 
that the treat}- guaranteed to the United States the full right to all terri- 
tory then transferred, and at the same time considering the right of the 
Indians to the territory as forfeited by acts of warfare against the 
colonial government during the struggle for independence, the govern- 
ment made no movement toward a purchase of the lands from the In- 
dians, but began to form treaties of peace with them, and to suggest its 
own boundar}' lines. 

The stipulations of the treaty of October, 17S3, had contemplated 
one great council of all the tribes; but in March, 17S4, this plan was changed 
to that of holding councils with each separate tribe or nation; and the 
commissioners appointed by the government to superintend these affairs, 
refusing to pay further attention to the subject of a general council with 
the northern tribes, in October, 17S4, against the wishes of Red Jacket, 
Brant, and other chiefs of the Iroquois, terminated the treaty of Fort 

It was in this way that the United States obtained the right possessed 
by the Iroquois to the western territory, north and south of the Ohio. 
Though publicly and honorably concluded, the legality was questioned 
by, many of the Iroquois, who claimed that the treaty was with only a 
part of the Indian tribes ; and that it was the desire of the tribes that 
the United States government should treat with them as a body, includ- 
ing all the Indians bordering upon the lakes of the north. In January 
of the following year (17S5), a treaty was concluded with the 
Wyandots, Delawares, Chippewas and Ottawas; but the legality of 
the former treaty seems not then to have been questioned, by the 
Wyandots and Delawares, at least; and yet it was asserted at a general 
council of some sixteen tribes of northwest Indians, in 1798) that the 
treaties of Forts Stanwix, Mcintosh, and Finney (the latter at the mouth 
of the Miami), were the result of intimidation, and held only with single 


tribes, at which, they asserted, the Indians had been invited to form 
treaties of peace, but instead forced to make cession of land. In 
Januar}', 1786, a third treat}' was held b}' the United States, at Fort 
Finney, with the Shawnees; and the Wabash tribe being invited to be 
present, would not go. In 1789, confirmatorj' of preceding treaties, the • 
fourth and fifth treaties were held at Fort Harmar, one with the Six 
Nations; the other with the W3-'andots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, 
Pottawatomies, and Sacs; and it seems, from speeches made at a subse- 
quent council of the confederated tribes, more particularly of the lake 
(1793), that they would not accept these treaties as at all binding upon 
them. Said one of the chiefs at this latter council: 

"Brothers: We are in possession of the speeches and letters which 
passed on that occasion [council convened by Gov. Arthur St. Clair, in 
1788], between those deputied bv the confederate Indians, and Gov. St. 
Clair, the commissioner of the United States. These papers prove that 
your said commissioner in the beginning of the year 17S9, after having 
been informed bv the general council of the preceding fall that no bar- 
gain or sale of any part of these lands would be considered as valid or 
binding, unless agreed to by a general council, nevertheless persisted in 
collecting together a few chiefs of two or three nations only, and with 
them held a treat}- for the cession of an immense country, in which they 
were no more interested than as a branch of the general confederacy, 
and who were in no manner authorized to make any grant or cession 

"Brothers: How then was it possible for you to expect to enjoy 
peace, and quietly to hold these lands, when your commissioner was in- 
formed, long before he held the treaty of Fort Harmar, that the consent 
of a general council was absolute^ necessary for the sale of any part 
of these lands to the United States." 

From these facts it will be seen why the expeditions of 1790-91 and 
1793-94, with the efforts of 1811-12 and '13, met with such stubborn 
and relentless resistance from the Miamis and other tribes, as detailed 
in subsequent pages. The impression that they would without remuner- 
ation or merc}', be despoiled of their lands and at length driven away, 
seems to have gained possession of the tribes of the northwest before 
and during the early campaigns of Harmar, St. Clair and Wayne; and 
the Miamis — though, as it would seem from Gamelin's journal, a strong 
spirit of unity did not prevail among the different tribes before and dur- 
ing 1780 — led the way under Little Turtle, with formidable effect. 

A/i Indian War Cloud. — With a feeling of bitterness toward the 
United States, small bands of Indians had begun in the spring of 1789 
to attack the settlements along the western borders of Virginia and 
Kentuck}'. The secretary' of war, General Knox, in a report to the 
president, June 15, 1789, presented this subject as follows: 

" B}- information from Brigadier-General Harmar, the commanding 
officer of the troops on the frontier, it appears that several murders have 
been lately committed on the inhabitants, by small parties of Indians, 


probably from the Wabash countr}-. Some of the said murders having 
been perpetrated on the south side of the Ohio, the inhabitants on the 
waters of that river are exceedingly alarmed, for the extent of six or 
seven hundred miles along the same. It is to be obser\ed that tlie 
United States have not formed an}' treaties with the Wabash Indians; on 
the contrary, since the conclusion of the war with Great Britain, hos- 
tilities have almost constantly existed between the people of Kentucky 
and the said Indians. The injuries and murders have been so reciprocal 
that it would be a point of critical investigation to know on which side 
they have been the greatest. Some of the inhabitants of Kentucky 
during the past year, roused b}- recent injuries, made an incursion into 
the Wabash countr}'-, and possessing an equal aversion to all bearing the 
name of Indians, they destroyed a number of peaceable Piankeshaws 
who prided themselves in their attachment to the United States. Things 
being thus circumstanced, it is greatly to be apprehended that hostihties 
may be so far extended as to involve the Indian tribes with whom the 
United States have recently made treaties. It is well known how strong 
the passion for war exists in the mind of a young savage, and how easily 
it may be inflamed, so as to disregard -every precept of the older 'and 
wiser part of the tribes who ma}' have a more just opinion of the force 
of a treaty. Hence, it results that unless some decisive measures are 
immediately adopted to terminate' those mutual hostilities, they will 
probably become general among all the Indians northwest of the Ohio. 

" In examining the question how the disturbances on the frontiers 
are to be quieted, two modes present themselves by which the object 
might perhaps be effected — the first of which is by raising an army 
and extirpating the refractory tribes entirely; or secondly, by forming 
treaties of peace with them in which their rights and limits should be 
explicitly defined, and the treaties observed on the part of the United 
States with the most rigid justice, by punishing the whites who should 
violate the same. 

" In considering the first mode, an inquiry would arise, whether, un- 
der the existing circumstances of affairs, the United States have a clear 
right, consistently with the principles of justice and the laws of nature, 
to proceed to the destruction or expulsion of the savages on the Wabash, 
supposing the force for that object easily attainable. It is presumable 
that a nation solicitous of establishing its character on the broad basis of 
justice, would not only hesitate at but reject every proposition to benefit 
itself by the injury of any neighboring community, however contemptible 
and weak it may be, either with respect to its manners or power. 
When it shall be considered that the Indians derive their subsistence 
chiefly by hunting, and that, according to fixed principles, their popula- 
tion is in proportion to the facility with which they procure their food, 
it would most probably be found that the expulsion or destruction of the 
Indian tribes have nearly the same effect; for if they are removed from 
their usual hunting-grounds, they must necessarily encroach on the hunt- 
ing-grounds of another tribe, who will not suffer the encroachment with 


impunit}- — hence they destroy each otlier. The Indians, being the prior 
occupants, possess the right of the soil. . It can not be taken from them 
unless b)' their free consent, or by the right of conquest in case of a just 
war. To dispossess them on any other principle, would be a gross vio- 
lation of the fundamental laws of nature, and of that distributive justice 
which is the glor_y of a nation. But if it should be decided, on an ab- 
stract view of the question, to be just to remove by force, the Wabash 
Indians from the territory- they occupy, the finances of the United States 
would not at present admit of the operation. 

" By the best and latest information, it appears that on the Wabash 
and its communications, there are from 1,500 to 2,000 warriors. An ex- 
pedition against them, with a view of extirpating them, or destro3ing 
their towns, could not be undertaken with a probabilit}' of success with 
less than an army of 2,500 men. The regular troops of the United 
States on the frontiers are less than 600; of that number not more than 
400 could be collected from the posts for the purpose of the expedition. 
To raise, pav, feed, arm, and equip 1,900 additional men, with the neces- 
sar}' officers for six months, and to provide ever}; thing in the hospital 
and quartermaster's line, would require the sum of $200,000, a sum far 
exceeding the ability of the United States to advance, consistently with 
a due regard to other indispensable objects." 

On the 26th of August, 1789, about 200 mounted volunteers, under 
the command of Colonel John Hardin, marched from the Falls of the 
Ohio to attack some of the Indian towns on the Wabash. This expe- 
dition returned to the Falls on the 28th of September, without the loss 
of a man — having killed six Indians, plundered and burnt one deserted 
village, and destro5'ed a considerable quantity of corn. 

In a letter addressed to President Washington, bearing date Sep- 
tember 14, 17S9, Governor St. Clair pointed out with great care the 
embarrassments which would surround an expedition against the Indians 
on the Wabash, and the danger of precipitating a frontier Indian war, 
and considerable correspondence on the subject passed between President 
Washington and Governor St. Clair, and it was determined to make an 
effort for the government and safety of the western settlements. 

About the ist of January, 1790, Governor St. Clair, with the judges 
of the supreme court, descended the Ohio, from Marietta to Fort Wash- 
ington, and on the 8th of January, 1790, the governor and Winthrop 
Sargent, secretary' of the territory-, arrived at Clarksville, whence they 
proceeded to the Illinois country, to organize the government in that 
quarter. Before the governor left Clarksville, he sent to Major Ham- 
tramck, the commanding officer of Post Vincennes, dispatches contain- 
ing speeches which were addressed to the Indian tribes on the Wabash. 
The latter officer, on the 15th of April, dispatched Antoine Gamelin 
with these speeches of St. Clair, which Gamelin delivered at all the vil- 
lages bordering this stream, and came as far east as Kekionga. The 
following is the journal of Gamelin, which will give the reader a fair 
notion of the spirit of the Miamis at that period : 


" The first village I arrived to, is called Kikapouguoi. The name 
of the chief of this village is called Les Jambes Croches. Him and his 
tribe have a good heart, and accepted the spetich. The second village 
is at the river du Vermilion, called Piankeshaws. The first chief and 
all his warriors, were well pleased with the speeches concerning the 
peace: but they said they could not give presentlj- a proper answer, 
before they consult the Miami nation, their eldest brethren. They 
desired me to proceed to the Miami town (Ke-ki-ong-ga}'), and, by 
coming back to let them know what reception I got from them. The said 
head chief told me that he thought the nations of the lake had a bad 
heart, and were ill disposed for the Americans : that the speeches would 
not be received, particularlv by the Shawnees at Miamitown. * * 

The nth of April, I reached a tribe of Kickapoos. The head chief and 
all the warriors being assembled, I gave them two branches of white wam- 
pum, with the speeches of his excellency Arthur St. Clair, and those of 
Major Hamtramck. It must be observed that the speeches have been 
in another hand before me. The messenger could not proceed further 
than the Vermilion, on account of some private wrangling between <he 
the interpreter and some chief men of the tribe. Moreover, something 
in the speech displeased them verv much, which is included in the third 
article, which sa3'S, '■I do iiozv make you the offer of peace : accept it, or reject 
it as vo/t please.'' These words appeared to displease all the tribes to 
whom the first messenger was sent. Thev told me they were men- 
acing; and finding that it might have a bad effect, I took upon m3-'self 
to exclude them; and, after making some apology, they answered that 
he and his tribe were pleased with my speech, and that I could go up 
without danger, but they could not presently give me an answer, having 
some warriors absent, and without consulting the Ouiatenons, being the 
owners of their lands. They desired me to stop at Quitepiconnoe 

£Tippecanoe], that they would have the chiefs and warriors of 
>uiatenons and those of their nation assembled there, and would receive 
a proper answer. They said that they expected by me a draught of 
milk from the great chief, and the commanding officer of the post, for 
to put the old people in good humor; also some powder and ball for the 
j'oung men for hunting, and to get some good broth for their women 
and children : that I should know a bearer of speeches should never be 
with emptj' hands. The}' promised me to keep their young men from 
stealing and to send speeches to their nations in the prairies for to do 
the same. 

"The 14th April, the Ouiatenons and the Kickapoos were assem- 
bled. After my speech, one of the head chiefs got up and told me, 
'\ou, Gamelin, my friend and son-in-law, we are pleased to see in our 
village, and to hear bv your mouth, the good w'ords of the great chief. 
We thought to receive a few words from the French people; but I see 
the contrary. None but the Big Knife is sending speeches to us. You 
know that we can terminate nothing \\ithout the consent of our brethren 


the jMiamis. I invite you to proceed to their village and to speak to 
them. There is one thing in your speech I do not like; I will not tell of 
it; even was I drunk, I would perceive it; but our elder brethren will 
certainly take notice of it in your speech. You invite us to stop our 
young men. It is impossible to do it, being constantly encouraged by 
the British.' Another chief got up and said — 'The Americans are 
ver}' flattering in their speeches; many times our nation went to their 
rendezvous. I was once mj^self . Some of our chiefs died on the route ; 
and we always came back all naked; and you, Gamelin, you come with 
speech, with empty hands. ' Another chief got up and said to his young 
men, ' If we are poor, and dressed in deer skins, it is our own fault. 
Our French traders are leaving us and our villages, because you plun- 
der them ever}' da}-; and it is time for us to have another conduct.' An- 
other chief got up and said — ' Know ye that the village of Ouiatenon 
is the sepulchre of all our ancestors. The chief of America invites us to 
go to him if we are for peace. He has not his leg broke, having been 
able to go as far as the Illinois. He might come here himself; we should 
be glad to see him at our village. We confess that we accepted the ax, 
but it is by the reproach we continually receive from the English, and 
other nations, which received the ax first, caUing us women; at the 
present time they invite our 3'oung men to war. As to the old people, 
they are wishing for peace.' They could not give me an answer before 
they received advice from the Miamis, their elder brethren. 

"The iSth April I arrived at the river a Tx^nguille [Eel river]. 
The chief of the village [which was on the north side of Eel river, six 
miles above the confluence of that stream with the Wabash], and those 
of war were not present. I explained the speeches to some of the tribe. 
They said they were well pleased; but they could not give me an an- 
swer, their chief men being absent. They desired me to stop at their 
village coming back; and they sent with me one of their men for to hear 
the answer of their eldest brethren. 

"The 23d April I arrived at the Miami town. The next day I got 
the Miami nation, the Shawnees and Delawares all assembled. I 
gave to each nation two branches of wam.pum, and began the speeches, 
before the French and English traders, being invited by the chiefs to 
be present, having told them myself I would be glad to have them pres- 
ent, having nothing to say against anj- body. After the speech I showed 
them the treaty concluded at Muskingum [Fort Harmar], between his 
excellency. Governor St. Clair, and sundry- nations, which displeased 
them. I told them that the purpose of this present time was not to' sub- 
mit them to any condition, but to offer them the peace, which made dis- 
appear their displeasure. The great chief told me that he was pleased 
with the speech; that he would soon give me an answer. In a private 
discourse with the great chief, he told me not to mind what the Shaw- 
nees would tell me, haviflg a bad heart, and being the perturbators of all 
the nations. He said the Miamis had a bad name, on account of the 



mischief done on the river Ohio; but he told me, it was not occasioned 
by his young men, but by the Shawnees; his young men going out only 
for to hunt. 

"The 25th of i\pril, Blue Jacket, chief warrior of the Shawnees, 
invited me to go to his house, and told me — 'My friend, by the name 
and consent of the Shawnees and Delawares, I will speak to you. We 
are all sensible of your speech, and pleased with it; but, after consulta- 
tion, we can not give an answer without hearing from our father at 
Detroit; and we are determined to give you back the two branches of 
wampum, and to send you to Detroit to see and hear the chief, or to 
stay here twent}' nights for to receive his answer. From all quarters 
we receive speeches from the Americans, and not one is alike. We 
suppose that they intend to deceive us. Then take back your branches 
of wampum.' 

" The 26th, five Pottawatomies arrived here with two negro men, 
which they sold to English traders. The next day I went to the great 
chief of the Miamis, called Le Gris. His chief warrior was present. 
I told him how I had been served by the Shawnees. He answered me 
that he had heard of it; that the said nations behaved contrary to his 
intentions. He desired me not to mind those strangers, and that he 
would soon give me a positive answer. 

" The 28th of April, the great chief desired me to call at the French 
trader's and receive his answer. 'Don't take bad,' said he, 'of what I 
am to tell you. You may go back when you please. We can not give 
you a positive answer. We must send your speeches to all our neigh- 
bors, and to the lake nations. We can not give a definite answer with- 
out consulting the commandant at Detroit.' And he desired me to render 
him the two branches of wampum refused by the Shawnees; also a 
copy of speeches in writing. He promised me that, in thirt}^ nights, he 
would send an answer to Post Vincennes by a young man of each ntttion. 
He was well pleased with the speeches, and said to be worth}' of attention, 
and should be communicated to all their confederates, having resolved 
among them not to do anything without a unanimous consent. I agreed 
to his requisitions, and rendered him the two branches of wampum and 
a copy of the speech. Afterward he told me that the Five Nations, so 
called, or Iroquois, were training something; that five of them, and three 
Wyandots, were in this village with branches of wampum. He could 
not tell me presently their purpose, but he said I would know of it very 

"The same day Blue Jacket, chief of the Shawnees, invited me to 
his house for supper; and, before the other chiefs, told me that after 
another deliberation, the}' thought necessary that I should go myself to 
Detroit for to see the commandant, who would get all his children as- 
sembled to hear my speech. I told them I would not answer them in the 
night; that I was not ashamed to speak before the sun. 

"The 29th of April I got them all assembled. I told them that I was 
not to go to Detroit; that the speeches were directed to the nations of 


the river Wabash and the Miami: and that, for to prove the sincerity of 
the speech,' and the heart of Gov. St. Clair, I have willingly given a copy 
of the speeches to be shown to the commandant at Detroit; and accord- 
ing to a letter wrote by the commandant of Detroit to the Miamis, Shaw- 
nees and Delawares, mentioning to you to be peaceable with the 
Americans, I \\ould go to him ver}' willingh', if it was in my directions, 
being sensible of his sentiments. I told them I had nothing to say to the 
commandant; neither him to me. You must immediateh' resolve if you 
intend to take me to Detroit, or else I am to go back as soon as possi- 
ble. Blue Jacket got up and told me, 'My friend, we are well pleased 
with what you say. Our intention is not to force you to go to Detroit. 
It is only a proposal, thinking it for the best. Our answer is the same 
as the Miamis. We will send in thirty nights, a full and positive answer 
b}' a young man of each nation by writing to Post Vincennes.' In the 
evening. Blue Jacket, chief of the Shawnees, having taken me to sup- 
per with him, told me in a private manner, that the Shawnee nation was 
in doubt of the sincerity of the Big Knives, so called, having been 
alread}- deceived by them. That they had lirst destroyed their lands, 
put out their fire, and sent awa}- their 3'oung men, being a hunting, with- 
out a mouthful of meat; also had taken awa^^ their women — wherefore 
many of them would, with a great deal of pam, forget these affronts. 
Moreover, that some other nations were apprehending that offers of 
peace would, may be, tend to take away by degrees, their lands, and 
would serve them as they did before: a certain proof that thev intend to 
encroach on our lands, is their new settlement on the Ohio. If they 
don't keep this side [of the Ohio] clear, it will never be a proper recon- 
cilement with the nations Shawnees, Iroquois, Wj^andots and perhaps 
many others. Le Gris, chief of the Miamis, asked me in a private dis- 
course, what chiefs had made a treaty with the Americans at Musking- 
dum'[Fort Harmar] ? I answered him that their names were mentioned 
in the treaty. He told me he had heard of it some time ago; but they 
are not chiefs, neither delegates who made that treaty — they are only 
young men who, without authority and instructions from their chiefs 
have concluded that treaty, which will not be approved. They went to 
the treaty clandestinely, and they intend to make mention of it in the 
next council to be held. 

" The 2d of May I came back to the river a I'Anguille. One of the 
chief men of the tribe being witness of the council at Miami town, re- 
peated the whole to them; and whereas, the tirst chief was absent, they 
said they could not for the present time give answer, but they were 
willing to join their speech to those of their eldest brethren. ' To give 
j-ou proof of an open heart, we let you know that one of our chiefs is gone 
to war on the Americans :^but it was before we heard of you, for cer- 
tain they would not have been gone thither.' They also told me that a 
few days after I passed their village, seventy warriors, Chippewas and 
Ottawas, from Michillimackinac, arrix-ed there. Some of them were 
Pottawatomies, who meeting in their route the Chippewas and Ottawas, 




joined them. ' We told them what we heard b}' you; that 3'our speech 
is fair and true. We could not stop them from going to war. The 
Pottawatomies told us that, as the Chippewas and Ottawas were more 
numerous" than them, they were forced to follow them.' 

" The 3d of May I got to the Weas. They told me that they were 
waiting for an answer from their eldest brethren. ' We approve very 
much our brethren for not to give a definite answer, without informing 
of it all the lake nations; that Detroit was the place where the fire was 
lighted; then it ought first to be put out there; that the English com- 
mandant is their father, since he threw down our French father. They 
could do nothing without his approbation.' The 4th of May I arrived 
at the village of the Kickapoos. The chief, presenting me two branches 
of wampum, black and white, said : ' My son, we can not stop our young 
men from going to war. Every da}' some set off clandestinely for that 
purpose. After such behaviour from our young men, we are ashamed 
to say to the great chief at the Illinois and of the Post Vincennes, that 
we are busy about some good affairs for the reconcilement; but be per- 
suaded that we will speak to them continually concerning the peace; and 
that, when our eldest brethren will have sent their answer, we. will join 
ours to it.' The 5th of May I arrived at Vermilion. I found nobody 
but two chiefs; all the rest were gone a-hunting. They told me they 
had nothing else to say but what I was told going up." 

Gov. St. Clair being at Kaskaskia, early in June of this j'ear, received 
from Major Hamtramck the following, bearing date Post Vincennes, 
May 22d, 1790: "I now inclose the proceedings of Mr. Gamelin, by 
which )'our excellenc_y can have no great hopes of bringing the Indians 
to a peace with the United States. The 8th of May, Gamelin arrived, 
and on the nth some merchants arrived and informed me that, as soon 
as Gamelin had passed their villages on his return, all the Indians had 
gone to war; that a large party of Indians from Michillimackinac, and 
some Pottawatomies, had gone to Kentucky; and that three days after 
Gamelin had left the Miami village, an American was brought there and 

Hannar^s Campaign. — Being induced to believe from the dispatches 
received from Hamtramck, that there was no possibility of forming a 
treaty of peace with the Miamis and other tribes banded with them, 
St. Clair quit Kaskaskia and reached Fort Washington on the 13th of 
July. Having consulted with General Harmar, and concluding to send a 
formidable force against the Indians about the head-waters of the Wabash, 
b}^ authority of President Washington, on the 15th of Juh% he addressed 
circular letters to a number of lieutenants of the western counties of 
Virginia [Kentucky] and Penns3'lvania, for the purpose of raising 1,000 
militia in the former, and 500 in the latter. The regular troops then in 
service in the west General Harmar estimated at about 400 efllcient men, 
with whom the militia were to operate as follows: Of the Virginia 
militia, 300 were to rendezvous at Fort Steuben, and, with a garrison at 
that post, to proceed to Vincennes, to join Major Hamtramck, who had 


orders to call to his aid the militia of that place, and move up the Wa- 
bash, attacking such Indian A'illages along that river as his force might 
seem adeq^uate to. The 1,200 militia remaining were to join the regu- 
lar troops, under General Harmar, at Fort Washington. That the 
British commandant at Detroit might know the true cause of the move- 
ment, on the 19th of September Gov. St. Clair addressed a letter to him, 
assuring the said commandant that the purposes of the United States 
were pacific in so far as their relations to Great Britain were concerned; 
that the expedition was to quell the vindictive and intolerable spirit of 
the Indians toward the settlements against which the}' had so long, so 
inhumanh' and destructively carried on their savage warfare. That the 
English, toward Lake Erie, notwithstanding this spirit of candor and 
courtesy on the part of St. Clair, gave aid to the Indians in their efforts 
against the United States during 1790-91, the evidence is clear enough; 
but to what extent they did so, was not fully known. The following 
paragraphs from a certificate of one Thomas Rhea, taken in the early 
part of 1790, will give some indication of the encouragement given the 
Indians by the British. 

" At this place, the Miami," said Rhea, in his account, " were Col- 
onels Brant and McKee, with his son Thomas; and Captains Bunbury 
and Silvie, of the British troops. These officers, &c.,were all encamped 
on the south side of the Miami or Ottawa river, at the rapids above 
Lake Erie, about eighteen miles; they had clever houses, built chiefly 
by the Pottawatomies and other Indians; in these they had stores of 
goods, with arms, ammunition and provision, which they issued to the 
Indians in great abundance, viz.: corn, pork, peas, &c. The Indians 
came to this place in parties of one, two, three, four and five hundred at 
a time, from different quarters, and received from Mr. McKee and the 
Indian officers, clothing, arms, ammunition, provisions, &c., and set out 
immediatelj' for the upper Miami towns, where they understood the 
forces of the United States were bending their course, and in order to 
supply the Indians from other quarters collected there, pirogues loaded 
with the above-mentioned articles were sent up the Miami [Maumee] 
river, wrought by French Canadians." 

About the middle of September, the Virginia militia began to gather 
about the mouth of Licking river, opposite Cincinnati, for the most part 
badly armed and equipped; they were organized by General Harmar, 
and formed into three battalions, under Majors Hall, McMullen and Ra}', 
with Trotter as lieutenant-colonel. About the 24th of September, came 
the militia of Pennsylvania, also badly prepared, and many of them sub- 
stitutes — "old, infirm men, and young boys." These were formed into 
one battalion, under Lieut.-Colonel Truby and Major Paul; while four 
battalions of militia, subject to General Harmar's command, were com- 
manded b}^ Col. John Hardin. Majors John Plasgrave Wj'lles and 
John Doughty commanded the regular troops, in two small battalions. 
The artiller}' corps, with but three pieces of ordnance, was under the 
command of Captain William Ferguson; while under James Fontaine 


was placed a small battalion of light troops or mounted militia. The 
whole army contained about 1,453 regular and raw militia troops. The 
militia under Col. Hardin, on the 26th of September, advanced from 
Fort Washington into the country, for the double purpose of opening a 
road for the artillery and obtaining feed for their cattle. On the 30th 
of September, the regular troops marched, commanded b\- General 
Harmar, and on the 3d day of October joined the militia. A journal of 
the dail}' movements of the army was regularl}' kept by Captain John 
Armstrong, of the regulars, up to its an-ival at the Miami village. 

x\fter an uninterrupted march of sixteen da}S, on^the afternoon of 
the 15th of October, Colonel Hardin, with an advanced detachment, 
stole upon Kekionga, onl\' to find it deserted by men, women and chil- 
dren. A few cows, some vegetables, about 20,000 bushels of corn in 
the ear, and empty wigwams, were all that greeted them; and the mili- 
tia, in much disorder, soon began to scatter in search of plunder. On 
the 17th, about one o'clock, the main body of the army came up and 
crossed the Maumee to the village. Major McMuUen, having discov- 
ered the tracks of women and children leading to the northwest, so re- 
ported to General Harmar, and the latter on the morning of the i8th, 
detailed Col. Trotter and Majors Hall, Ray and McMullen, with 300 
men, among whom were thirtj' regulars, forty light-horse, and 230 ac- 
tive riflemen. Furnished with three da3's' provision, the}' were ordered 
to reconnoiter the country around the village. About one mile from 
the encampment, an Indian on horseback was discovered, pursued and 
killed b}^ a part of the detachment, under Trotter; and before returning 
to the main bod}' another Indian was seen, "when the four field officers 
left their commands and pursued him, leaving the troops for the space 
of about half an hour without any direction whatever." Being inter- 
cepted by the fight-horsemen, one of whom he had wounded, the Indian 
was at length despatched. Changing the route of his detachment, and 
moving in different directions, till night. Col. Trotter, contrar}- to instruc- 
tions, returned to the Miami village. 

In consequence of the disorderl}' course of the militia on their ar- 
rival. General Harmar ordered cannon to be fired for the purpose of 
calling them to ranks, and also harangued the officers on the bad results 
liable to follow such indifference. On the i8th he issued the following 
general order: 

"Camp at the Miami Village, Oct. 18, 1790. 

"The general is much mortified at the unsoldierlike behavior of 
many of the men in the army, who make it a practice to straggle from 
the camp in search of plunder. He, in the most positive terms, forbids 
this practice in future, and the guards will be answerable to prevent it. 
No party is allowed to go beyond the line of sentinels without a com- 
missioned officer, who, if of the militia, will appl}- to Col. Hardin for his 
orders. The regular troops will apply to the general. All the plunder 
that may be hereafter collected, will be equally distributed among the 
army. The kettles, and everj^ other article already taken, are to be 


collected by the commanding officers of battalions, and to be delivered 
to-morrow morning to JMr. Belli, the quartermaster, that a fair distribu- 
tion may take place. The rolls are to be called at troop and retreat 
beating, and every man absent is to be reported. The general expects 
that these orders will be pointedly attended to; they are to be read to 
the troops this evening. The army is to march to-morrow morning 
early for their new encampment at Chillicothe, about two miles from 
hence. "Josl\h Harmar, Brigadier-General.'''' 

Col. Hardin having asked for the command of the troops returned 
to camp under Trotter, for the remaining two da3'S, Gen. Harmar put 
that officer in command, and he on the next da}- led the detachment 
along an Indian trail to the northwest, in the direction of the Kickapoo 
villages. Coming to a point, near a morass, some five miles distant 
from the confluence of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph rivers, where on 
the preceding day there had been an Indian encampment, the detach- 
ment came to a halt, and was stationed in readiness for an attack should 
the enemy still be near. A half hour passed with no alarm. The or- 
der now being given to the front to advance, all marched forward ex- 
cept the company under Faulkner, which not having received the order, 
was left behind. Having advanced some three miles, two Indians afoot, 
with packs, were discovered ; but they dropped their burdens at the sight of 
the troops and were soon lost sight of. The absence of Faulkner at 
this time becoming apparent, Major Fontaine, with a portion of the cav- 
alry, was sent in pursuit of him, on the theory that he was lost. 

The report of a gun to the front soon fell upon the attentive ear of 
Captain Armstrong in command of the regulars — an alarm gun, per- 
haps, suggested he. He had discovered the "tracks of a horse that 
had come down the road and returned." Captain Armstrong also ob- 
served the fires of the Indians in the distance. Hardin thought the 
Indians would not fight, and moved forward in the direction of the fires, 
neither giving orders or preparing for an attack. The band of 300 was 
now several miles from camp and marching tlirough the forest, unaware 
that the enemy was in ambush, and Little Turtle was the leader. Be- 
hind the fires lay the red men with guns leveled. No sooner had the 
troops approached the fires than a destructive volley burst upon them 
from the ambush. The militia were panic stricken, and all but nine 
began a precipitate flight for the camp of Gen. Harmar. Hardin had 
retreated with them, and in vain strove to rally them. The regulars 
bravely faced the enem\', and returned the fire. The nine remaining 
militia were pierced bj- the balls of the enem}-, and twenty-two of the 
regulars fell, Captain Armstrong, Ensign Hartshorn, and some five or 
six privates, alone making their escape. This bloody engagement was 
near the place now known as " Heller's Corners." 

Having, after the departure of Hardin in the morning, destroyed the 
Miami village, Harmar moved about two miles down the Maumee to 
the Shawnee village, known as Chillicothe. On the 20th he issued the 
following order: 


"Camp at Chillicothe, one of the Shazvnese tozviis, \ 
on the Onice river, Oct. 20th, 1790. [ 

"The part}' under command of Captain Strong is ordered to burn 
and destroy everj- house and wigwam in this village, together with all 
the corn, etc., which he can collect. A party of 100 men (militia), 
properly officered, under the command of Col. Hardin, is to burn and 
destroy effectuall}-, this afternoon, the Pickaway town, with all the corli, 
etc., which he can find in it and its vicinitjr. 

" The cause of the detachment being worsted yesterday, was entirely 
owing to the shameful, cowardly conduct of the militia, who ran awa}', 
and threw down their arms, without firing scarcely a single gun. In 
returning to Fort Washington, if any officer or men presume to quit the 
ranks, or not to march in the form that they are ordered, the genera) 
will most assuredly order the artillery to fire on them. He hopes the 
check they received j-esterday will make them in future obedient to 
orders. Josiah Harmar, Brio-adier-Gencral.'''' 

From the scene of the smoking remains of the Indian village of 
Chillicothe, at ten o'clock on the morning of the 21st, the ami}' under 
Harmar began march toward Fort Washington, and proceeded about 
seven miles, when a halt was made and the troops encamped for the 

The evening was clear and beautiful — ushering in a glorious Oc- 
tober night. There was no sign of the enemy and the hoarse calls of 
the night owl, mingled with the voices of the soldiery, were all the 
sounds that fell upon the attentive ears of the sentinels. 

Reassured by this peaceful outlook, a desire for revenge came to 
the mind of Colonel Hardin. His desire for the chastisement of the In- 
dian was by no means appeased by burning villages. The Miamis had 
perhaps returned to the village immediately after the departure of the 
army, thought he, and a most propitious opportunity was presented to 
return and surprise them. He urged upon General Harmar "that, as he 
had been unfortunate the other day, he wished to have it in his power to 
pick the militia and try it again." He sought to explain the cause of 
the mihtia not meeting the Indians on the 19th; and insisted that he 
wished to vindicate their valor. The earnest demeanor of Hardin pre- 
vailed, and Harmar. gave his consent, as he was anxious that the In- 
dians should be as well subdued as possible, that they might not give 
the arm}.- trouble on its March to Fort Washington. That night Hardin 
set out, intending to strike the Miami village before dayhght. Under 
his command a body of 340 militia, and sixty regulars under Major 
Wyllys, took up its line of march, in three columns, the regulars in the 
center and the militia to the right and left. Captain Joseph Ashton 
moved at the head of the regulars, while Major Wyllys and Colonel 
Hardin were in his front. Contrar}- to Hardin's hopes, some delay hav- 
ing been caused by the halting of the militia, the banks of the Maumee 
were not gained till after sunrise. Indians were soon discovered by the 
spies, and Major Wyllys called the regulars to a halt, and ordered the 


militia on to a point in front, and presented his plan of attack to the 
commanding officers of the detachment. Major Hall was directed, with 
his battalion, to move round the bend of the Maumee, cross the St. 
Mary's and take a position in the rear of the Indians, until an attack 
should be made by Major McMullen's battalion. Major Fontaine's 
cavalry, and the regular troops under Major Wyllys, who were 
all ordered to cross the Maumee at or near the ford. Hardin 
and Wyllys had aimed to surround the Indians in their encampment; but 
Maj. Hall, having reached his flanking position unobserved, disregarded 
the orders given by firing upon an Indian that appeared in sight before 
the general attack was made. This startled the Indians, and small 
squads of them being seen hurrying awa}' in many directions, the}- were 
rapidly pursued, contrary to orders, by the militia under McMullen and 
the cavalry under Fontaine, leaving Wyllys, at the head of the regu- 
lars, without support. In crossing the Maumee they were attacked by 
a superior bod}' of Indians, under the lead of Little Turtle, and at 
length, after the fall of Wyllys and the larger part of the regular troops, 
were forced to retreat. Major Fontaine, at the head of the mounted 
militia, in a charge upon a small body of Indians, was killed, and a con- 
siderable number of his men fell, and the remainder sought safety in 
retreat. While the regulars were being slaughtered by Little Turtle, 
the militia under Hall and McMullen, at the confluence of the St. Mary's 
and St. Joseph, were briskly engaged with small parties of Indians, but 
when they learned of the misfortune of the regulars they scurried 
away toward the camp of Harmar. A single horseman having reached 
the camp of the main army with the news of the defeat about ii 
o'clock a. m., Harmar at once ordered Major Ray, with his battalion, to 
advance to the aid of the retreating forces. But the effect of the panic 
on the militia was too great — but thirty men could be prevailed on to 
advance to the rescue under Major Ray, and those had gone but a short 
distance when they were met by Hardin and the retreating forces. 
Gaining the encampment. Colonel Hardin, flushed with excitement, and 
still entertaining a strong desire to fight the Indians, urged Harmar to 
set out at once with the entire force for the Miami village. But Har- 
mar would not venture a return. Said he: "You see the situation of 
the army; we are now scarcely able to move our baggage; it will take 
up three days to go and return to this place; we have no more forage 
for our horses; the Indians have got a very good scourging; and I will 
keep the army in perfect readiness to receive them, should they think 
proper to follow." 

The remains of Major Wyllys and Fontaine and eight other officers 
and men who fell in the engagement with Little Turtle, were buried in 
trenches near the river, some twenty rods below the site of the residence 
of J. J. Comparet, which was built just above the fatal ford. Before 
the destructive fire of the red men the soldiers fell in such numbers that 
the water, then of no great volume, became bloody. One of the sol- 
diers wounded here, John Smith, managed to conceal himself on the 


bank, and after witnessing the triumph of the savages, escaped down 
the Maumee and reached Fort Washington. Returning with Gen. 
Wayne, he became a resident of the village about the fort 

The militia had now become little better than wooden men in the 
eyes of Gen. Harmar. He had lost all faith in them, and on the morn- 
ing of the 23d of October, after a loss of 183 killed and thirty-one 
'wounded, the army again took up its march for Fort Washington, where 
it arrived on the 4th of November. Among the killed in this campaign 
were Maj. Wyllys and Lieut. Ebenezer Frothingham, of the regulars; 
Major Fontaine, Captains Thorpe, McMurtre}' and Scott, Lieutenants 
Clark and Rogers, and Ensigns Bridges, Sweet, Higgins and Thielkeld, 
of the militia. The loss on the part of the Indians was thought to be 
about equal to that of the forces under Harmar. 

Major Hamtramck, who had moved from Vincennes up the Wabash, 
had proceeded with his command to the mouth of the Vermilion river, 
and after laying waste several deserted villages, returned again to Vin- 
cennes. The campaign of 1790 against the Indians of the northwest 
was now closed, and the chilling blasts of another long, dreary winter, 
with its anxieties, its hardships, and its perils, had begun to set in about 
the lonely settlements. 

St. Cla/r''s Campaign. — The defeat of Harmar gave great encour- 
agement to the Indians, as well it might, and brought corresponding de- 
pression to the settlements. So elated were the savages, that they 
renewed their attacks upon the frontier settlements with greater vigor 
and ferocity, if possible, than ever before, rendering it necessary for the 
settlers to combine and take prompt measures for their safety. Meet- 
ings were held all along the frontier. The government was freel}" criti- 
cised and in many instances severely denounced for the inefficient 
management of the campaigns of the past. Particularh-, they denounced 
as unwise, the appointment of regular army officers, unused to Indian 
warfare, to command the mihtia, which was composed of men accus- 
tomed to study the Indian and his cunning from bo3fhood, and the}' 
earnestly implored the president to employ onl}' the militia, under officers 
of its own choosing, for frontier defense, offering at once to raise a force 
sufficient not only for frontier defense, but to carry an aggressive war 
forthwith into the Indian country'. This was not granted, but the presi- 
dent readily favored the increase of the regular army on the frontier, 
and appointed Gen. St. Clair to the command. 

On the third of March, 1791, congress passed the "act for raising 
and adding another regiment to the militia establishment of the United 
States, and for making further provision for the protection of the 
frontier." It was proposed to place an army of some 3,000 men un- 
der the command of St. Clair. On the 21st of March, instructions were 
addressed, b}^ the secretary of war, Gen. Henry Knox, to that general, 
which show what importance was attached to the possession of 
Kekionga. Said the secretar}': "While you are making use of such 
desultory operations as in your judgment the occasion may require, you 


will proceed vigoroush' in eveiy preparation in j-our power, for the 
purpose of the main expedition ; and having assembled your force, and 
all things being in readiness, if no decisive indications of peace should 
have been produced, either by the messengers or b}- the desultory oper- 
ations, you will commence your march for the Miami village, in order to 
establish a strong and permanent military post at that place. In your 
advance 3-ou will establish such posts of communication with Fort Wash- 
ington, on the Ohio, as ypu may judge proper. The post at Miami vil- 
lage is intended for awing and curbing the Indians in that quarter, and 
as the only preventive of future hostilities. It ought, therefore, to be 
rendered secure against all attempts and insults of the Indians. The 
garrison which should be stationed there ought not onh- to be sufficient 
for the defense of the place, but alwa3^s to afford a detachment of live 
or six hundred men, either to chastise any of the Wabash or other hos- 
tile Indians, or to secure any convoy of provisions. The establishment 
of said post is considered as an important object of the campaign, and 
is to take place in all events. In case of a previous treaty, the Indians 
are to be conciliated upon this point if possible; and it is presumed good 
arguments ma}' be offered to induce their acquiescence. » * * 
Having commenced your march upon the main expedition, and the In- 
dians continuing hostile, you will use ever}' possible exertion to make 
them feel the effects of 3four superiority; and, after having arrived at 
the Miami village, and put your works in a defensible state, you will 
seek the enemy with the whole of 3'our remaining force, and endeavor 
by all means possible to strike them with great severitj-. * * * 
In order to avoid future wars, it might be proper to make the Wabash, 
and thence over to the Maumee, and down the same to its mouth at 
Lake Erie, the boundary [between the people of the United States and 
the Indians], excepting so far as the same should relate to the Wyan- 
dots and Delawares, on the supposition of their continuing faithful to 
the treaties. But if they should join in the war against the United 
States, and your army be victorious, the said tribes ought to be removed 
without the boundary mentioned." 

Following this Brig.-Gen. Scott, of Kentucky, marched with about 
Soo mounted men toward Ouiatenon, and destroj-ed the villages and 
cornfields, and in a light with the Indians killed thirty and took fift3--one 
prisoners. On the 5th of July, Gen. James Wilkinson was sent in com- 
mand of another expedition against the Wabash and Red ri\-er Indians, 
and destroyed a number of towns and cornfields. These campaigns were 
undertaken principally with the object of weakening the strength, and 
destroying the resources of the Indians on the Wabash, and thus giv- 
ing material aid to Gen. St. Clair in the campaign he was preparing to 
enter upon against the Miamis at Kekionga, but the}- accomplished 
little in that direction and served to increase the hatred of the Miamis, 
who, filled with desire for revenge, instead of slackening their efforts, or 
ceasing to make war upon the Americans, began to call to their aid 
numerous warriors from the surrounding tribes of the Pottawatomies, 


Kickapoos, Delawares, Ottawas, Wyandots, and other tribes of the 
northwest. While Gen. St. Clair was making preparations to estab- 
lish a military post at the Miami village, Little Turtle, the Shawnee 
chief Blue Jacket, and the Delaware chief, Buck-ong-a-helas, were ac- 
tively engaged in an effort to organize a confederacy of tribes sufficientl}^ 
powerful to drive the white settlers from the territory — receiving aid 
and counsel from Simon Girty, Alexander McKee, Matthew Elliott (the 
latter two sub-agents in the British Indian department), and from a num- 
ber of British, French and American traders who generally resided 
among the Indians, and supplied them with arms and ammunition in ex- 
change for peltries. 

This Girty was a noted character in all the frontier Indian wars. A 
renegade white man who allied himself with the Wyandots, and for 
many years was their leader in battle, as well as the planner of their 
campaigns, he exhibited a savageness of disposition, and a heartlessness 
in witnessing (if he did not direct), the torture bv his savage allies of 
their white prisoners, which display almost unparalleled depravity, but 
by means of it, he no doubt obtained and held a supremac}' of control 
over their minds. He was often at the Miami villages of the Maumee, 
and is said to have resided for some time at the town of Chillicothe, two 
miles east of Fort Wayne, at the bend of that river. 

It was unfortunate for the success of the movements against the 
Indian tribes, that although in the treat}- of 1783 with Great Britain it 
was declared in the seventh article of that document that the king 
would, " with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, 
or carr\-ing away any negroes or propert}' of the American inhabitants, 
withdraw all his forces, garrisons and fleets from the United States, and 
from every post, place and harbor within the same, yet, at the time of 
Harmar's, St. Clair's and Wayne's campaigns, he still held and gar- 
risoned the posts of Niagara, Detroit and MichiUimackinac. From these 
points, under the plea that that part of the treaty of 1783, relating to 
the collection and payment of all debts theretofore contracted with and 
due to the king's subjects, had not been faithfulU^ complied with by the 
Americans, the English government continued, from time to time, to 
give aid and comfort to the Indians and others in open warfare upon the 
United States forces and the settlements along the Ohio, and at other 
points in the west. According^, while Gen. St. Clair was preparing to 
march upon the Miami village, the British at Niagara, Detroit and 
MichiUimackinac, were using what means they could to defeat the pur- 
poses of the United States; and an insight into their movements, at that 
time in league with the Indians, would doubtless have discouraged St. 
Clair in his effort to capture the Miami village, or to establish a mil- 
itary post at this point. But the effort was destined to be made; and 
after much delay and many impeding and perplexing circumstances, in 
the early part of September, 1791, the main body of the armj-, under 
General Butler, marched from the vicinity of Fort Washington, and, 
moving northward some twenty-five miles, on the eastern bank of the 


river Miami erected a post, which they called Fort Hamilton. On the 
4th of October the army continued its march, and having advanced 
forty-two miles from Fort Hamilton, they erectea Fort Jefferson, six 
miles south of Greenville, Ohio. The season was now far advanced, 
and the 24th of October had arrived before the army again moved for 
the Miami village. 

Some of the militia deserted, heav}- rains fell, provisions became 
short, a reconnoitering party was fired upon, two were killed and one 
supposed to have been taken prisoner, and St. Clair was sick, during the 
nine days' march which followed. On the 3d of November the main 
army reached the site of Fort Recovery, and encamped at the head- 
waters of the Wabash, in view of several small creeks, about fifty 
miles from the Miami village. The chill of winter now begun to be felt 
— snow had alread}^ fallen. Some Indians were seen but the}^ fled as 
soon as observed. 

The famous Shawnee chief Tecumseh had been placed in charge of 
a part}' of spies and scouts, with which he had hung upon the route of 
the army of St. Clair as it advanced toward Greenville, and reported the 
movements and strength of his forces to the head chiefs of the Indians. 
The advance and general movement of St. Clair thus became well known 
to the confederated tribes and their allies, and this information inspired 
them with the determination to draw the army into their power by wiles 
and stratagems, and, if possible, destroy it. Under the lead of the fa- 
mous Little Turtle, and Buckongahelas, and Blue Jacket, the renegade 
Simon Girt}- and several other white men, they prepared to meet St. 
Clair with a force of 1,400 warriors. 

This force was assembled for review on an extensive plain about five 
miles southwest of the village on the banks of the St. Mary's [part of the 
Richardville reserve]. A considerable altercation arose among the Indians 
on the review ground relative to a commander-in-chief. Some were in 
favor of Buckongahelas, while others favored Little Turtle. At length 
Buckongahelas settled the controversy by yielding the command to 
Little Turtle, saying that he was the younger and more active man and- 
that he preferred him to himself. This reconciled the opposing factions 
and Little Turtle took command. 

He divided his warriors into bands or messes, to each mess twenty 
men. It was the duty of four of this number alternately to hunt for 
provisions. At noon of each day the hunters were to return to the main 
army with what they had killed, and by this regulation his commissariat 
was well supplied during the seven days they were advancing to the field 
of battle. 

Meanwhile, at the camp of St. Clair, a site afterward known as Fort 
Recovery, the commander desiring a place of safety for fhe knapsacks 
of the soldiers, had, on the evening of the arrival of the army, concluded 
" to throw up a slight work," and then after the arrival of the regiment 
still on the way, to move on and attack the enemy. But before the sun 
had risen on November 4, following that hour which is accounted 


the darkest just before day, the Indian whoop startled the army of St. 
Clair, just getting under arms. A furious attack burst from the dark- 
ness, upon the militia, which soon gave way, and came rushing into the 
camp, through Major Butler's battalion, creating the wildest disorder on 
every side, and closely pursued b}' the Indians. The fire of the front 
line checked the red men, but almost instantly a very heav}' attack be- 
gan upon that line; and in a few minutes it was extended to the second 
likewise. The greatest pressure was directed against the center of each, 
where was placed the artiller^^ from which the men were repeatedly driven 
with great slaughter. Perceiving but little effect from the fire of the 
artillery, a baj^onet charge was ordered, led by Lieut.-Col. Darke, which 
drove the Indians back some distance, but they soon returned to the 
attack and the troops of Darke were, in turn, compelled to give way; 
while, at the same time, the enemy had pushed their way into camp by 
the left flank, and the troops there also were in disorder. Repeated 
charges w^ere now made by Butler's and Clark's battalions, but with 
great loss; manj' officers fell, leaving the raw troops without direction — 
Major Butler himself being dangerous^ wounded. In the Second regi- 
ment every officer had fallen, except three, and one of these had been 
shot through the body. 

The artillery being now silenced, half the army fallen and all the 
officers killed, except Captain Ford, who was ver}^ badly wounded, it be- 
came necessary to regain the trail from which the troops were now 
cut off, and to make a retreat if possible. For this purpose the remnant 
of the arm}^ was formed, as well as circumstances would admit, toward 
the right of the encampment, from which, by the way of the second 
line, another charge was made upon the enemy, as if with the design to 
turn the right flank, but in fact to gain the route. This was effected, and as 
soon as it was open, the militia took the lead, followed by the troops, 
Major Clarke with his battalion covering the rear. Everything was now 
in confusion. The panic had produced a complete rout. The camp 
and artillery were all abandoned — not a horse was left alive to remove 
the cannon; and the soldiers threw away their arms and accoutrements 
as they ran, strewing the path for miles with them. The retreat began 
about half-past nine o'clock and continued a distance of twenty-nine 
miles, to Fort Jefferson, where the survivors arrived soon after sunset, 
St. Clair having lost thirtj'-nine officers killed, and 593 men killed 
and missing; twenty-two ofUcers and 242 men wounded. The loss in 
stores and other valuable property was estimated at $32,810.75. 

The officers who fell in this memorable occasion were: Major Gen- 
eral Richard Butler; Lieutenant Colonel Oldham, of the Kentucky mil- 
itia; Majors Ferguson, Clarke, and Hart; Captains Bradford, Phelon, 
Kirkwood, Price, Van Swearingen, Tipton, Smith, Purdy, Piatt, Guth- 
rie, Cribbs, and Newman; Lieutenants Spear, Warren, Boyd, McMath, 
Bead, Burgess, Kelso, Little, Hopper and Lickens; Ensigns Balch, 
Cobb, Chase, Turner, Wilson, Brooks, Beatty, and Purdy; Quarter- 
masters Reynolds and Ward; Adjutant Anderson, and Dr. Grasson. 



The officers wounded were: Lieutenant Colonels Gibson, Darke, and 
Sargent (adjutant general) ; Major Butler; Captains Doyle, Trueman, 
Ford, Buchanan, Darke and Hough; Lieutenants Greaton, Da\'idson, 
De Butts, Price, Morgan, McCroa, Lysle, and Thompson; Ensign 
Bine's; Adjutants Whisler and Crawford, and the Viscount Malartie, 
volunteer aid-de-camp to the commander-in-chief. 

In this engagement, Little Turtle displa3'ed feelings of humanity to- 
ward his retreating foes, of which few examples have been recorded in 
the history of Indian warfare, and which reflect honor on his character. 
On beholding the soldiers fleeing before the exasperated Indians, and 
falling every moment under the merciless blows of the tomahawks, his 
heart revolted, and ascending an eminence he gave a peculiar cry, which 
commanded his forces to cease from further pursuit and return to their 
camps. He also sent out messengers to inform them, wherever they 
might be, that they must be satisfied with the carnage, having killed 
enough. But this humane effort was of little effect. 

Many women had followed the army of St. Clair in its march to- 
ward the Miami village, preferring to be with their husbands rather 
than remain behind. Most of them were destroyed or captured, 
and after the flight of the remnant of the army, the Indians began to 
avenge their own real and imaginar}^ wrongs by perpetrating the most 
horrible acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living and 
dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believing the whites made 
war merely to acquire land, the Indians crammed cla^_and_sancl into the 
eyes and down the throats of the d3'jjig_and_the dead. The unfortunate 
women who feTl~behirfdTirTlTe" pnhic-stricken retreat, were subjected to 
the most indecent cruelty which the ingenuity of their lustful and merci- 
less captors could devise, and the bodies of some of them were found 
with stakes as large as a man's arm driven through them. 

B. Van Cleve, who was in the quartermaster-general's department, 
of the army of St. Clair, gave the following narrative of the affair: 
"On the fourth [of November] at daybreak, I began to prepare for re- 
turning [to Fort Washington], and had got about half my luggage on 
m}- horse, when the tiring commenced. We were encamped just within 
the lines, on the right. The attack was made on the Kentuck}^ militia. 
Almost instantaneously, the small remnant of them that escaped broke 
through the line near us, and this line gave away. Followed by a tre- 
mendous fire from the enemy, they passed me. I threw m}" bridle over 
a stump, from which a tent pole had been cut, and followed a short dis- 
tance, when finding the troops had halted, I returned and brought my 
horse a Httle further. I was now between the fires, and finding the 
troops giving away again, was obliged to leave him a second time. As 
I (Quitted him he was shot down, and I felt rather glad of it, as I con- 
cluded that now I should be at liberty to share in the engagement. 
My inexperience prompted me to calculate on our forces being far 
superior to any that the savages could assemble, and that we should 
soon have the pleasure of driving them. Not more than' five minutes 


had yet elapsed, when a soldier near me had his arm swinging with a 
wound. I reijuested his arms and accoutrements, as he was unable to 
use them, promising to return them to him, and commenced firing. The 
smoke was settled down to within about three feet of the ground, but I 
generally put one knee to the ground and with a rest from behind a 
tree, waited the appearance of an Indian's head from behind his cover, 
or for one to run and change his position. Before I was convinced of 
my mistaken calculation, the battle was half over and I had become 
familiarized to the scene. Hearing the firing at one time unusually 
brisk near the rear of the left wing, I crossed the encampment. Two 
levy officers were just ordering a charge. I had fired away my ammunition 
and some of the bands of my musket had flown off. I picked up an- 
other, and a cartridge box nearly full, and pushed forward with about 
thirty others. The Indians ran to the right, where there was a small 
ravine filled with logs. I bent m^? course after them, and on looking 
round, found I was with only seven or eight men, the others having 
kept straight forward and halted about thirty yards off. We halted 
also, and being so near to where the savages lay concealed, the second 
fire from them left me standing alone. My cover was a small sugar 
tree or beech, scarcely large enough to hide me. I fired away all my 
ammunition; I am uncertain whether with any effect or not. I then 
looked for the party near me, and saw them retreating and half wav 
back to the lines. I followed them, running my best, and was soon in. 
B}' this time our artillery had been taken, I do not know whether the 
first or second time, and our troops had just retaken it, and were charg- 
ing the enemy across the creek in front; and some person told me to look 
at an Indian running with one of our kegs of powder, but I did not see 
him. There were about thirty of our men and officers lying scalped 
around the pieces of artillery. It appeared that the Indians had not 
been in a hurry, for their hair was all skinned off. 

"Datiiel Bonham, a young man raised by my uncle and brought up 
with me, and whom I regarded as a brother, had by this time received a 
shot through his hips and was unable to walk. I procured a horse and 
got him on. My uncle had received a ball near his wrist that lodged 
near his elbow. The ground was literally covered with dead and dying 
men. Happening to see my uncle, he told me a retreat was ordered, 
and that I must do the best I could and take care of m3rself. Bonham 
insisted that he had a better chance of escaping than I had, and urged 
me to look to my own safet}- alone. I found the troops pressing like a 
drove of bullocks to the right. I saw an officer whom I took to be 
Lieut. Morgan, an aid to Gen. Butler, with six or eight men, start on a 
run a little to the left of where I was. I immediately ran and fell in with 
them. In a short distance we were so suddenh' among the Indians, who 
were not apprised of our object, that they opened to us and ran to the 
right and left without firing. I think about 200 of our men passed 
through them before they fired, except a chance shot. When we had 
proceeded about two miles most of those mounted had passed me. A 


bov had been thrown or fell off a horse and begged my assistance. I 
ran, pulling him along about two miles further, until I had become nearly 
exhausted. Of the last two horses in the rear, one carried two men and 
the other three. I made an exertion and threw him on behind the two 
men. The Indians followed us but about half a mile further. The 
boy was thrown off some time afterwards, but escaped and got in safel}-. 
My friend Bonham I did not see on the retreat, but understood he was 
thrown off about this place, and lay on the left of the trace, where he 
was found in the winter and was buried. I took the cramp violently in 
my thighs and could scarcely walk, until I got within a hundred yards of 
the rear, where the Indians were tomahawking the old and wounded 
men; and I stopped here to tie my pocket handkerchief around a man's 
wounded knee. I saw the Indians close in pursuit at this time, and for 
a moment my spirits sunk and I felt in despair for my safety. I consid- 
ered whether I should leave the road, or whether I was capable of any 
further exertion. If I left the road the Indians were in plain sight and 
could easil}- overtake me. I threw the shoes off mj^ feet and the cool- 
ness of the ground seemed to revive me. I again began a trot, and 
recollect that, when a bend in the road offered, and I got before half a 
dozen persons, I thought it would occupy- some time for the enemy to 
massacre them before my turn would come. B}- the time I had got to 
Stillwater, about eleven miles, I had gained the center of the flying 
troops, and, like them, came to a walk. I fell in with Lieut. Shaumburg, 
who, I think, was the onl}' officer of artillery that got away unhurt, with 
Corp. Mott, and a woman who was called red-headed Nance. The lat- 
ter two were both crying. Mott was lamenting the loss of his wife, and 
Nance that of an infant child. Shaumburg was nearl}' exhausted, and 
hung on Mott's arm. I carried his fusee and accoutrements and led 
Nance; and in this sociable way we arrived at Fort Jefferson a little after 

" The commander-in-chief had ordered Col. Darke to press forward 
to the convoys of provisions, and hurry them on to the army. Major 
Truman, Captain Sedan and mj^ uncle were setting forward with him. 
A number of 'soldiers, and packhorsemen on foot, and myself among 
them, joined them. We came on a few miles, when all, overcome with 
fatigue, agreed to a halt. Darius Curtus Orcutt, a packhorse master, 
had stolen at Jefferson, one pocket full of flour and the other full of 
beef. One of the men had a kettle, and one Jacob Fowler and myself 
groped about in the dark until we found some water where a tree had 
been blown out of root. We made a kettle of soup, of which I got a 
small portion among the many. It was then concluded, as there was a 
bend in the road a few miles further on, that the Indians might under- 
take to intercept us there, and we decamped and traveled about four or 
five miles further. I had got a rifle and ammunition at Jefferson from a 
wounded militiaman, an old acquaintance, to bring in. A sentinel was 
set, and we laid down and slept until the governor came up a few hours 
afterward. I think I never slept so profoundly. I could hardly get 


awake after I was on 013- feet. On the day before the defeat, the ground 
was covered with snow. The fiats were now filled with water frozen 
over, the ice as thick as a knife-blade. I was worn out with fatigue, 
with my feet knocked to pieces against tlie roots in the night, and splash- 
ing through the ice without shoes. In the morning we got to a camp of 
packhorsemen, and amongst them I got a doughbov or water-dumpling, 
and proceeded. We got within seven miles of Hamilton on this day, 
and arrived there soon on the morning of the sixth." 

On the 26th of December following, notwithstanding the ill-fortune 
which seemed to follow all movements against the Miamis, Gen. 
Knox, secretar}- of war, again urged the estabhshment of a strong mili- 
tary post at the head of the Maumee. In 1792, Rev. Samuel Kirkland 
was sent on a mission to the western Indians, one point of his journey to 
be the Miami village, -to urge the Indians to make peace, and to learn 
what number was engaged against St. Clair, but he accomplished little 
b}' his mission. The 12th of May of the same year, Capt. Truman 
was sent from the Ohio river to the Maumee, on a similar errand, but 
was killed by an Indian on his way. 


George Washington, as early as 1750, had become as deeply inter- 
ested in the great west as any enthusiast of the past few decades. His 
brothers were ofiicers of the Ohio company, organized in 1749, '^"'^ 
Washington, surve3'ing in the Shenandoah valle^v, and dreaming of the 
future, obtained such broadened views of the destiny of the colonies, 
that the grand idea of a vast nation which should bind together all these 
regions, possessed his mind. He held fast to the conception of western 
development, even during the darkest hours of the revolution, and when 
some one coming to him with a rumor that Russia had made an alliance 
with England to crush the colonies, asked the heroic leader if that were 
true, what was to be done, Washington replied: "We will retire to the 
valley of the Ohio, and there be free." After the war he made a trip 
over the Alleghanies, and returned with a stronger national inspiration 
than ever, so that he wrote to La Fayette: " The honor, power and true 
interests of this country must be measured on a continental scale." Sub- 
sequentl}' he made another western trip of seven hundred miles on 
horseback through the Indian countr}-, and it was after that excursion 
that he wrote the letter to Benjamin Harrison, governor of Virginia, and 
great-grandfather of the president of the United States, which has been 
mentioned on a previous page. 

Washington wished to encourage settlements in the Ohio region and 
beyond, and had a strong antipathy for the land-jobbers, speculators 
and monopolizers, a " parcel of banditti " he called them, who might 
" skim the cream of the country at the expense of the suffering ofiicers 
and soldiers who fought and bled to obtain it." Throughout all the 
efforts to subdue and colonize the west, the majestic will of Washington 


was the ruline^ force. Strange as it may appear to a. citizen of the com- 
monwealth of Indiana, in the closing decade of the nineteenth century, 
his poHcy of opening the western lands was one of the pretexts for abuse 
and invective which has not been surpassed in the politics of later days. 
A strong party which opposed him would have preferred the mihtary 
force of the government, if any were used, to be directed southward to 
open the Mississippi. The nation, in the year 1889, knows Washington 
better than he was ever known, even by his contemporaries. But 
among all that has been said and written of the father of his country, 
nothing causes a more inspiring realization of his profound wisdom and 
marvelous political insight than the words he addressed to those who 
advocated the polic}- of southern aggression. " The problem of the 
Mississippi will settle itself," he said, "if we simply let it alone and 
think only of multiplying communications between the west and the 
Atlantic." Less than a century later, the west, to which Washington 
threw his influence, was strong enough to again settle " the problem of 
the Mississippi," and establish the foundation principles of the northwest 
territory from the lakes to the gulf. 

As has been indicated, the issue of the campaign of St. Clair had 
political bearings as well as military. If it failed the enemies of Wash- 
ington could declaim with greater reason against the " waste " of money 
upon the " wild west." Furthermore, it was emphatically a campaign 
by Washington, in all but personal leadership. He had thrown himself 
heart and soul into the preparation for the campaign, and planned the 
movement to Kekionga with a knowledge of details made possible by 
his experience as an Indian fighter. 

The courier reached the president's house at Philadelphia, on a Decem- 
ber day, and Washington was called from the side of his wife at a reception 
to receive the news of a tragedy rivalling that of the defeat of Braddock 
at Fort DuQuesne. He read the dispatch, and quietly returned to the re- 
ception and calmly and courteous!}' met every guest until all at a late 
hour had departed. Then in grim silence he walked up and down the 
room, his secretary alone being with him. Suddenly he broke the si- 
lence with a thunderous outburst: "It's all over; St. Clair defeated,' 
routed, the officers nearly all killed, the men by wholesale; the rout 
complete; shocking to think of, and a surprise into the bargain. Here 
at the very spot I took leave of him, I wished him success and honor. 
You have your instructions, I said to him, from the secretary' of war. I 
had a strict eye to them, and will add but one word: beware of a sur- 
prise. I repeat it, beware of a surprise. You know how the Indian 
fights us. He went off with that as my last solemn warning thrown into 
his ears. And yet, to suffer that army to be cut to pieces, hacked, 
butchered, tomahawked, by a surprise, the very thing I guarded him 
against. O God! O God! he is worse than a murderer. How can he 
answer to his country-? The blood of the slain is upon him, the curse 
of widows and orphans, the curse of heaven." He walked long in 
silence, and then said, "This must not go beyond this room." Then 



again, "Gen. St. Clair shall have Justice. I will hear him without pre- 
judice. He shall have full justice." 

Mankind knows Washington better, and loves him more, because the 
revelation alike of his passionate, warmly human nature, and the supreme 
self-control that inspired the closing declaration, did get " beyond that 
room." St. Clair received just and considerate treatment, and the presi- 
dent at once set about the formation of an army to renew the advance 
toward Kekionga. The arm}- of the republic was re-organized on the 
basis of five thousand soldiers, and was styled the Legion of the United 
States. As major-general commanding this army, Washington consid- 
ered Gen. Lee; but there were objections, and he selected Gen. Anthony 
Wayne, although there were grumblings thereat in Virginia. Wayne 
had won the admiration of the people by his daring and desperate valor 
and uniform success in the revolution. Whenever recklessness led him 
into danger, genius enabled him to alight on his feet where others would 
have been irretrievably ruined. He was selected because a rapid cam- 
paign was contemplated, but even the energy of both he and his chief 
could not hasten the march of events. Wayne was given two brigadiers, 
James Wilkinson and Thomas Posey, who had served honorably in the 
war of the revolution. Pittsburg was appointed as the rendezvous of 
the forces, and here Gen. Wayne arrived in June, 1792, to find a per- 
plexing task before him. Many of the officers experienced in Indian 
warfare had fallen in the disastrous campaigns of Harmar and St. Clair, 
others had resigned, and nearly all the forces were without any knowl- 
edge of tactics and innocent of the meaning and importance of discipline. 
He began a dailj^ drill of these raw levies to prepare for the impending 

But some time was destined to elapse before his movement was 
effectively under way against the stronghold on the Maumee. The 
opposition to western development compelled the government to 
exhaust every peaceful resource before waging another costh' war, while 
a strong partj^ was opposed to any efforts tending toward conciliation, 
especially with the British who had been for five years inspiring the 
northwestern Indians to bloodshed, as well as committing depredations 
themselves at sea. The embassies that were sent out to treat with the 
Indians protested against any movements on the part of Gen. Wayne, 
on the ground that the}' tended to enibarrass their diplomatic efforts, 
while Gen. Wayne no doubt felt the settlement of the trouble lay alto- 
gether in his hands. Furthermore, before he was ready to advance in 
force, the effect of European complications was felt, and it happened 
that the war which the republic of France waged against combined 
Europe delayed the establishment of Fort Wayne for many months. 
The government at Washington was embarrassed by the extraordinary 
conduct of Genet, minister of France, who, among other schemes, sent 
four agents to Kentucky to raise an army to invade Louisiana, then 
under Spanish dominion; and even the brave and discreet Gen. George 
Rogers Clark accepted a commission from the agents of Genet as 


" major-general of the armies of France." The enHstment of the army 
for the gigantic filhbustering scheme of clearing the Mississippi of 
Spanish forts was actively under way in Kentuck}'. Not oiily there, but 
throughout the union, a large and active part}', in fact nearl}' all " pop- 
ular sentiment," was in favor of an open alliance with the French, and 
an attack on Louisiana. This would have involved another immediate 
war with Great Britain on the part of a young, experimental govern- 
ment, with a bankrupt treasury; and all the actions of the English ap- 
peared to indicate that such a conflict was courted. Against this 
seemingly popular movement, though he was incensed at the British, 
and none more desired to chastise them, Washington stood firm as a 
rock, unmoved by a storm of abuse and misrepresentation and carica- 
ture. Throughout this most critical period his wonderful self-control was 
often nigh to exhaustion, but he finally triumphed. He maintained the 
national idea, that America must not allow her destinies to be associated 
with those of an}' other land, nor go to war as a subordinate of a for- 
eign power, but should hold herself aloof as the equal of an}' nation, 
looking first of all to her own interests and self-development. 

The negotiations for peace with the Indians made subsequently to 
St. Clair's defeat should be briefly noticed, as they throw much light 
upon the reason whv Wayne was compelled to adx'ance to the place 
which now bears his name. While Gen. Wayne was making his 
army ready, the government from early in 1792 until August, 1793, was 
constantly employing messengers with speeches, commissioners to 
make treaties, and spies with secret instructions. The Indians were as- 
sured that the United States made no claim to any land not already 
ceded by treaties. Major Hamtramck, stationed at Vincennes, con- 
cluded treaties of peace with some of the W^eas and Eel river Indians, 
and subsequently Gen. Rufus Putnam at the same place made a treaty 
with some of the Wabash and Illinois tribes, on the basis that the land 
they occupied was theirs, and that the United States should not attempt 
to take it without purchase. But these were exceptions, and the proud 
Miamis and their alHes still stood aloof. To them, Gen. Wilkinson 
sent two messengers. Freeman and Gerrard, April 7, 1792. They were' 
captured by a party of Indians, who, on learning that they were embas- 
sadors, started with them for the Maumee. But the messengers were 
too inquisitive about the country and the strength of the savages, and 
•their escort, concluding that the pale-faces were spies, killed them when 
within one day's march of the Indian camp. Undeterred by their fate, Maj. 
Alexander Truman, of the First regiment, and Col. John Hardin, of 
Kentucky, started on the same mission of peace from Fort Washington 
in May. They carried an eloquent letter, inviting the Indians to send 
a deputation to Philadelphia to talk with the president, and assuring them 
that they would not be despoiled of their lands. The embassadors were 
never seen again; but William May — who was with Freeman's party, and 
had deserted it according to orders, so that he might safely work his 
way back to the arm}' with news, was captured afterward and sold to 



traders at the rapids — saw and recognized the scalps of the unfortunate 

The last effort for peace was made bj^ Benjamin Lincoln, Beverly 
Randolph and Timothy Pickering, who were appointed commissioners, 
and given private instructions which bound them to insist that the United 
States would gi\'e up none of the territory between Lake Erie and the 
Ohio, which had been ceded at the treat}' of Fort Harmar, in 17S9, but 
that if it clearly appeared that the Miamis and other tribes had a right 
to anj- of that land, and had not taken part in the treaty, they should be 
reimbursed for their interest in the territory. They were met at Ni- 
agara b}' Capt. Brant and other Indians representing, they said, the 
Five Nations, Wyandots, Shawnees, Delawares, Muncies, Miamis, Chip- 
pewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, JMingoes, Cherokees and Nantokokis, 
assembled on the Maumee. The commissioners were cheered by the 
talk of these diplomates and sent back a petition to Secretary Knox, to 
restrain the activity of Gen. Wayne until they could have an opportunity 
to again meet the red embassadors with their white belts and wampum. 
The}' proceeded to the Detroit river, where they were met by Buckon- 
gahelas and others who, adopting the plan of letter writing, had a paper 
ready, in which the United States was offered this ultimatum — the Ohio 
must be the boundary line, and all the v»'hites must be removed beyond 
it. The commissioners objected that large numbers of whites had set- 
tled in this territory and the United States had given them lands which they 
could not^now be dispossessed of without injustice. To this, the Indians, 
after returning to the council, where were the British agents, ingeniously 
rejoined that the large amount of mone}' proposed to be paid them for 
their land had better be divided among these settlers, to extinguish their 
claims. They emphatically declared that the English had no right to 
convey any of the northwest to the United States, and that they re- 
fused to recognize the exclusive right of America to purchase their lands. 
The position of the Indians was in fact that they had a right to dispose 
of their lands to the English or any other nation they chose. 
This issue was an important one, in the then critical condition of 
the government, menaced by French intrigue, and with the British 
holding posts in the territory and thereby practically supporting the 
Indian policy. The commissioners could not settle it, and retired. 
It remained for Anthony Wayne to decide by his famous campaign 
against Kekionga, the question of the ownership of the northwest terri- 
tory, now the seat of magnificent commonwealths which, as the most 
energetic members of an indissoluble Union, exert a dominant influence 
over the affairs of the western hemisphere. 

During the period of negotiation the savages had continued to skir- 
mish along tht; frontier, committing many atrocities, while the little forts 
which were established a short distance from Cincinnati, toward Keki- 
onga, were held by a few patient soldiers, shirtless, shoeless and with 
several months' pay overdue. Major-General Wayne was near Fort 
Washington in October, 1793, and on the 7th marched for Fort 


Jefferson with 2,600 regulars and about 400 auxiliaries. With unerring 
sagacity he wrote to Washington that the great tranquility just then pre- 
vailing proved to him that the Indians were massing for a battle, and in 
his plans he indicated a policy of taking advantage of the inability of 
the Indians to remain long massed without exhausting their provisions. 
Advancing to a point between Fort Jefferson and the field of St. Clair's 
battle, Gen. Wayne built a fort which he named Greenville for his 
friend Gen. Greene, and halted for the winter, sending home the militia. 
Two days before Christmas he sent Major Henr}' Burbeck with eight 
companies of infantr}' and a detachment of artillery, to take possession 
of the fatal field of 1791, and there on the site of St. Clair's rout, was 
erected Fort Recovery, aptly named. This midwinter approach 
appears to have startled the Indians for the time, and the}- sent 
a message expressing a desire to make peace, which was evidently in- 
tended to secure delaj*. But the activity of the French party gave the 
Indians enough time to collect their bands. 

During this winter and the early spring the great intrigue reached a 
climax, and Wayne was required in April to send a detachment to make 
a fortification below the mouth of the Tennessee river, to overawe the 
proposed Louisiana army. It was just a little earlier that Lord Dor- 
chester, governor general of Canada, told a number of Indian chiefs that 
" he would not be surprised if Great Britain and the United States would 
be at war in the course of a j'ear." As if in earnest of this declaration, 
Lieutenant-Governor Suncoe was ordered to establish a British post at 
the foot of the Maumee rapids, within the territory ceded b}- England to 
the United States. Not only the British, but the Spanish, were preparing 
to take advantage of a war alliance between the United States and 
France; the governor of Louisiana invaded the American territor}', and 
during this critical spring of 1794, a messenger from the Spaniards came 
up to the Maumee to assure the Indians of the co-operation of the oc- 
cupants of the great river. It was not remarkable that under these 
circumstances, in the midst of these endless and mysterious intrigues 
which involved the fate of nations on both sides of the Atlantic, that the 
Indians boldly demanded that the northwest territory should be aban- 
doned, or that the advance of Gen. Wa\ne was marked by extreme 
caution. Another defeat like that of St. Clair would have been •' inex- 
pressibly ruinous," as Washington himself declared, and would have 
involved the welfare of the young repubHc. 

Wayne still remaining quiet, on the 30th of June, 1794, the Indians 
took the offensive at Fort Recover}'. • In the morning of that da}', under 
the walls of the fort. Major McMahon, with an escort of ninety riflemen 
and fifty dragoons, was fiercely assailed by a body of some 1,500 Indians. 
Assisted by a number of British agents and a few French Canadian vol- 
unteers, the Indians, during a period of about twenty-four hours, made 
several sallies upon the fort, but finding their efforts unavailable, retired. 
The loss to the garrison, however, was by no means trifling — twenty- 
two men being killed and thirty wounded, and three were missing; 221 


horses were killed, wounded and missing. The Indians carried 
away their dead during the night, by the light of torches, so that only 
ei^ht or ten of their warriors were found dead near the fort. Major 
McMahon, Capt. Hartshorne, Lieut. Craig and Cornet Torr3% fell on 
this occasion. 

Major-Gen. Scott with some i,6oo mounted \-olunteers arrived at 
Fort Greenville on the 26th of July, and now it was time to move. 
Wayne had waited patiently. Now he struck with rapidity considering 
that his way lay through unbroken primeval forests. On the 28th the 
army began its march upon the Indian villages along the Maumee. 
Some twenty-four miles to the north of Fort Recovery, Wajme built 
and garrisoned a small post which he called Fort Adams. From this, 
on the 4th of August, the arm}' moved toward the confluence of the 
Auglaize and Maymee rivers, where it arrived on the 8th of August, 
Here a strong stockade fort, with four blockhouses for bastions, was 
erected and called Fort Defiance. On the 14th of August, Gen. Wayne 
wrote to the secretary of war: "I have the honor to inform 3'ou that 
the army under my command took possession of this very important 
post on the morning of the 8th inst. ; the enemy on the preceding even- 
ing having abandoned all their settlements, towns and villages, with such 
apparent marks of surprise and precipitation, as to amount to a positive 
proof that our approach was not discerned by them until the arrival of 
a Mr. Newman, of the quartermaster-general's department, who deserted 
from the armj- near the St. Mar3''s. * * * I had made such demon- 
strations, for a length of time previously to taking up our line of march, 
as to induce the savages to expect our advance by the route of the Miami 
villages, to the left, or toward Roche de Boeuf by the right, which 
feints appear to have produced the desired effect, by drawing the atten- 
tion of the enemy to those points, and gave an opening for the army to 
approach undiscovered by a devious, i. e., in a central direction. Thus, 
sir, we have gained possession of the grand emporium of the hostile In- 
dians of the west, without loss of blood. * * * Ever3'thing is 
now prepared for a forward move to-morrow morning toward Roche de 
Boeuf, or foot of the rapids. * * * Yet I have thought proper 
to offer the enem}' a last overture of peace; and as they have ever}-- 
thing that is dear and interesting now at stake, I have reason to expect 
that they will listen to the proposition mentioned in the enclosed copy of 
an address dispatched yesterday by a special flag [Christopher Miller], 
who I sent under circumstances that will insure his safe return, and which 
may eventually spare the effusion of much human blood. But should 
war be their choice, that blood be upon their own heads. America shall 
no longer be insulted with impunity. To an all-powerful and just God 
I therefore commit myself and gallant army." 

■ In his address to the Indians, as dispatched b}' Miller " to the Del- 
awares, Shawnees, Miamis, and Wyandots, and to each and every 
of them: and to all other nations of Indians northwest of the Ohio, 
whom it may concern," General Wayne said : " Brothers — Be no 


longer deceived or led astra}- by the false promises and language of the 
bad white men at the foot of the rapids; they have neither the power 
nor inclination to protect you. No longer shut your eyes to y(jur true 
interest and happiness, nor your ears to this last overture of peace. 
But, in pitj' to your innocent women and children, come and prevent the 
further effusion of j'our blood. Let them experience the kindness and 
friendship of the United States of America, and the invaluable bless- 
ings of peace and tranquility." He urged them also — "each and 
every hostile tribe of Indians to appoint deputies " to assemble without 
delay " in order to settle the prehminaries of a lasting peace." The 
answer brought bj^ Miller upon his return, on the i6th, was, " that if he 
(Gen. Wayne) waited where he was ten days, and then sent Miller to 
them, they would treat with him; but that if he advanced, they would 
give him batde." 

Many of the Indians felt no little distrust as to their ability to defeat 
the great chief of the Americans who was making so masterful an ad- 
vance with sleepless vigilance. A man afterward known as Captain 
Wells, who, at the age of twelve years, had been captured in Kentuckj^ 
and adopted by the Miamis, and who had lived to manhood and raised a 
famil}' among them, began to feel a strange conflict in his mind. He 
had fought by the side of Little Turtle against both Harmar and St. 
Clair; and it was said of him, that afterward, in times of calm reflection, 
with dim memories still of his childhood home, of brothers and play- 
mates, he seemed to have been harrowed by the thought that amongst 
the slain by his own hand, may have been his kindred. He had resolved 
to break his attachment to the tribe, even to his wife and children. In 
this state of mind, with much of the Indian characteristics, he invited 
Little Turtle to accompany him to the " Big Elm," about two miles east 
of Fort Wayne. Wells there told the chief his purpose. " I now leave 
your nation," said he, " for my own people. We have long been friends. 
We are friends 3-et until the sun reaches that height," indicating an hour. 
" From that time we are enemies. Then if j-ou wish to kill me, you ma}'. 
If I want to kill you I may." At the time indicated Wells crossed the river, 
and was lost to the view of his old friend and chieftain. Little Turtle. 
Moving in an easterly course to strike the trail of Wayne's forces, he 
was successful in obtaining an interview with the general, and thereafter 
proved the fast friend of the Americans. This movement of Wells 
was a severe blow to the Miamis. To Turtle's mind it seemed to be an 
unmistakable foreboding of speedy defeat to the confederated tribes 
of the northwest. 

On the 15th of August, Gen. Wajme moved toward the foot of the 
rapids, and came to a halt a few miles above that point, on the iSth, 
and the next da}^ began the erection of a temporary post for the recep- 
tion of stores and baggage, and began to reconnoiter the enemy's en- 
campment, which lay "behind a thick, bushy wood and the British fort." 
This was Fort Miami, situated at the foot of the rapids on the north- 
western bank of the Maumee, near the site of Maumee Citv- 


The post established bj- Wayne was named Fort Deposit. The 
Miamis were now undecided as to policy notwithstanding the fact that 
they had succeeded in defeating the former expeditions of Harmar and 
St. Clair. At a general council of the confederated tribes, held on the 
19th of August, Little Turtle was most earnest in his endeavors to per- 
suade the Indians to make peace with Gen. Wayne. Said he, " We 
have beaten the enem\- twice under different commanders. We cannot 
expect the same good fortune to attend us alwa3-s. The Americans are 
now led by a chief who never sleeps. The nights and the days are 
alike to him, and during all the time that he has been marching on our 
villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young men, we have 
never been able to surprise him. Think well of it. There is something 
whispers me, it would be prudent to listen to his offers of peace." But 
his words were little regarded. One of the chiefs of the council even 
went so far as to charge him with cowardice, which he readily enough 
spurned, for there were none-braver or more read}' to act where victor}- 
was to be won or a defense required, than Little Turtle. The council 
broke up, and Little Turtle, at the head of his braves, took his stand 
to give battle to the advancing army. The best account of the engage- 
ment is that given by Wayne in his report to Secretary Knox: 

" At eight o'clock on the morning of the 20th the army again ad- 
vanced in columns agreeably to the standing order of marc^i: the legion 
on the right, its flank covered by the Maumee: one brigade of mounted 
volunteers on the left, under Brigadier-General Todd, and the other in 
the rear, under Brigadier-General Barbee. A select battalion of mounted 
volunteers moved in front of the legion, commanded by Major Price, 
who was directed to keep sufficiently advanced so as to give timely no- 
tice for the troops to form in case of action, it being yet undetermined 
whether the Indians would decide for peace or war. 

"After advancing about five miles. Major Price's corps received so 
severe a fire from the enemy, who were secreted in the woods and high 
grass, as to compel them to retreat. The legion was immediately 
formed in two lines, principally in a close, thick wood, which extended 
for miles on our left and for a very considerable distance in front, the 
ground being covered with old fallen timber, probably occasioned by a 
tornado, which rendered it impracticable for the cavalry to act with 
effect, and afforded the enemy the most favorable covert for their savage 
mode of warfare. They were formed in three lines, within supporting 
distance of each other, and extending for near two miles, at right angles 
with the river. I soon discovered, from the weight of the fire and ex- 
tent of their lines, that the enemy were in full force in front, in posses- 
sion of their favorite ground, and endeavoring to turn our left flank. I 
therefore gave orders for the second line to advance and support the 
first; and directed Major-General Scott to gain and turn the right flank 
of the savages, with the whole of the mounted volunteers, by a circuit- 
ous route; at the same time I ordered the front line to advance and 
charge with trailed arms, and rouse the Indians from their coverts at the 


point of the baj'onet, and when up, to deUver a close and well-directed 
fire on their backs, followed by a brisk charge, so as not to give them 
time to load again. 

"I also ordered Capt. Mis Campbell, who commanded the legion- 
ar}' cavalry, to tm-n the left flank of the enemj- next the river, and which 
afforded a favorable field for that corps to act in. All these orders 
were obej-ed with spirit and promptitude; but such was the impetuosity 
of the charge by the first line of infantry, that the Indians and Canadian 
militia and volunteers were driven from all their coverts in so short a 
time that, although ever}- possible exertion was used by the officers of 
the second line of the legion, and by Generals Scott, Todd, and Barbee, 
of the mounted volunteers, to gain their proper positions, but part of 
each could get up in season to participate in the action; the enem}' be- 
ing driven, in the course of one hour, more than two miles through the 
thick woods already mentioned by less than one-half their numbers. 
From every account, the enemy amounted to 2,000 combatants.* The 
troops actuall}- engaged against them were short of 900. This horde of 
savages, with their allies, abandoned themselves to flight, and dispersed 
with terror and dismay, leaving our victorious army in full and quiet 
possession of the field of batde, which terminated under the influence of 
the guns of the British garrison." 

Both the foresight and the valor of Little Turtle were now no longer 
to be questioned. At the council, on the night before the attack, he 
saw the end of all their efforts against the army of Wayne; and the In- 
dians soon began to realize that their stronghold was lost. 

Though it is not positively known whether Tecumseh was at the 
council or not, yet it is recorded in the narrative b}- Anthony Shane, 
that he led a party of Shawnees in the attack upon the army of Gen. 
Wayne. It was in this engagement that he first encountered the " white 
chief," William Henrj^ Harrison, with whom, a few years later, he had 
so much to do. Says the account of Shane : " He occupied an advanced 
position in the battle, and while attempting to load his rifle, he put in a 
bullet before the powder, and was thus unable to use his gun. Being 
at this moment pressed in front b_v some infantry, he fell back with his 
party, till they met another detachment of Indians. Tecumseh urged 
them to stand fast and fight, saying if any one would lend him a gun, 
he would show them how to use it. A fowling-piece was handed to him, 
with which he fought for some time, till the Indians were again compelled 
to give ground. While falling back, he met another party of Shawnees; 
and, although the whites were pressing on them, he rallied the Indians, 
and induced them to make a stand in the thicket. When the infantry 
pressed close upon them, and had discharged their muskets into the 
bushes, Tecumseh and his party returned the fire, and then retreated 

"There were about 450 Delawares, 175 Miamis, 275 Shawnees, 225 Ottawas, 275 Wyandots, 
and a small number of Senecas, Pottawatomies, and Chippewas. The number of white men 
who fought in defense of the Indians in this engagement, was about seventy, including a corps of 
volunteers from Detroit, under the command of Captain Caldwell. 


till they had joined the main body of the Indians below the rapids of 
the Maumee." 

To quote Wayne's report, " the bravery and conduct of every officer 
belonging to the arm}^ from the generals down to the ensign, merit my 
highest approbation. There were, however, some whose rank and situ- 
ation placed their conduct in a very conspicuous point of view, and which 
I observed with pleasure and the most lively gratitude. Among whom 
I must beg leave to mention Brig.-Gen. Wilkinson and Col. Hamtramck, 
the commandants of the right and left wings of the legion, whose brave 
example inspired the troops. To those I must add the names of m3r 
faithful and gallant aids-de-camp, Captains De Butt and T. Lewis, and 
Lieut. Harrison, who, with the adjutant-general. Major Mills, rendered 
the most essential service by communicating my orders in every direc- 
tion, and b}' their conduct and braverj- exciting the troops to press for 
victory. Lieut. Covington, upon whom the command of the cavalry 
now devolved, cut down two savages with his own hand, and Lieut. 
Webb one, in turning the enemy's left flank. The wounds received b}^ 
Captains Slough and Prior, and Lieutenants Campbell, Smith [an extra 
aid-de-camp to Gen. Wilkinson], of the legionary infantry, and Capt. 
Van Rensselear of the dragoons, Capt. Rawlins, Lieut. McKenny and 
Ensign Duncan of the mounted volunteers, bear honorable testimony of 
their bravery and conduct. 

"Captains H. Lewis and Brock, with their companies of light infantry, 
had to sustain an unequal fire for some time, which they supported with 
fortitude. In fact, every officer and soldier who had an opportunit}^ to 
come into action displayed that true braver}- which will always ensure 
success. And here permit me to declare, that I never discovered more 
true spirit and anxiety for action, than appeared to pervade the whole 
of the mounted volunteers; and I am well persuaded that, had the 
enemy maintained their favorite ground for one-half hour longer, they 
would have most severety felt the prowess of that corps. But, while I 
pay this tribute to the living, I must not neglect the gallant dead, among 
whom we have to lament the early death of those worth}' and brave 
officers, Capt. Mis Campbell, of the dragoons, and Lieut. Towles, of 
the light infantry of the legion, who fell in the first charge." 

Of the killed and wounded in this engagement, according to the 
report of Gen. Wayne, the regular troops lost twenty-six killed, and 
eighty-seven wounded. Of the Kentucky volunteers, seven were killed 
and thirteen were wounded; and nine regulars and two volunteers died 
of their wounds before the 2Sth of the month. "The loss of the enemy 
was more than double that of the Federal army," and " the woods were 
strewn for a considerable distance with the dead bodies of Indians." 

The army remained three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, on the field of battle, during which time all the houses and 
cornfields were consumed and destroyed for a considerable distance 
both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within pistol shot of the 
garrison, who were compelled to remain quiet spectators of this general 


devastation and conflagration, which was Wayne's method of teaching 
the Indians that the British were powerless. x\mong the property de- 
stroyed were the houses and stores of Col. McKee, the British Indian 
agent, and principal stimulator of the war. 

On the 27th, the army started upon its return march for Fort De- 
fiance, laying waste, as it moved, villages and cornfields for a distance 
of some fifty miles along the Maumee. While the American forces 
occupied position within range of the British fort at the rapids, from 
the afternoon of the 20th to the forenoon of the 23d, five letters passed 
between Gen. Wayne and Major Campbell, who commanded Fort 
Miami with 460 men and 12 cannon; the first coming from the British 
commander, enij^uiring the cause of the army of the United States ap- 
proaching so near his majesty's fort, asserting that he knew " of no war 
e.xisting between Great Britain and America." To this Gen. Wayne re- 
phed : " Without questioning the authority or the propriety, sir, of your 
interrogator}', I think I maj-, without breach of decorum, observe to you, 
that, were you entitled to an answer, the most full and satisfactor\' one 
was announced to you from the muzzles of mj- small arms, 3'esterday morn- 
ing, in the action against the horde of savages in the vicinit)' of your 
post, which terminated gloriously to the American arms; but, had it 
continued until the Indians, etc., were driven under the influence of the 
post and guns you mention, they would not have much impeded the 
progress of the victorious army under my command, as no such post 
was estabhshed at the commencement of the present war between the 
Indians and the United States." To which in turn, the British com- 
mander rejoined that the insults that had been offered the British, would, 
if repeated, compel him to have recourse to measures which the nations 
might regret. Waj-ne in reply reminded Campbell that he was com- 
mitting a hostile act in occupying a fort within the limits of the United 
States, and ordered him to retire peacefully within the limits of the 
British lines. To which the British commandant rephed that he cer- 
tainly would not abandon the post at the summons of anj- power what- 
ever, until he received orders to that effect from those he had the honor 
to serve under, or the fortunes of war should oblige him so to act, and 
again warned Wayne to beware of the cannon. 

Reaching Fort Defiance again, the army soon began improving the 
works, and here remained till the morning of the 14th of September, 
1794, when the legion began its march for Kekionga, whither it 
arrived at 5 o'clock p. m., September 17, and on the following daj- the 
troops fortified their camps, while " the commander-in-chief reconnoit- 
ered the ground and determined on the spot to build a garrison." Work 
began on" the fort September 24th and on the 17th of October Wayne 
forwarded a description of the works to the war department. 

On the morning of the 2 2d of October, 1794, the fort was in readi- 
ness, and Lieut.-Col. Hamtramck assumed command of the post, with 
the following sub-legions: Capt. Kingsbury's ist; Capt. Greaton's 2d; 
Captains Spark's and Reed's 3d ; Capt. Preston's 4th; and Capt. For- 


ter's of artillery; and after firing fifteen rounds of cannon, Col. Ham- 
tramck christened the post — Fort Wa3-ne. Not less important than the 
shot that " echoed round the world " was the glad outburst of cannon, 
saluting the stars and stripes as it floated over this stockade fort in the 
heart of a boundless and lonely forest region. It signalled the birth of 
the imperial great west. 

On the 28th of October, Gen. Wayne, with the main body of the regu- 
lars, took up his line of march for Fort Greenville, arriving there on the 2d of 
November. As the tidings of the victory of Wayne flew from town to town 
in the east, from settlement to settlement in the west, they awakened a 
thrill of inexpressible joy, that told how much more had been accom- 
phshed than the most sanguine had dared to expect. Congress, by res- 
olution, complimented Wayne and his arm}'. The heart of Washington 
was cheered as it had not been since he assumed the presidency. His 
administration was lifted be\'ond reproach; the continental policy he 
had so patienth' fought for was forever established, the voice of faction 
which had embittered his life was hushed. The young republic sud- 
denl}' acquired a strength and vigor of policy which Washington and 
Hamilton had striven almost in vain to impart. The Indians of the 
south at once hushed their warlike demonstrations. Ninety days after 
the battle of the Maumee, Minister Jay was able to conclude a satis- 
factory treat}^ with Lord Grenville. This was effected on the 19th of 
November; and one of its main stipulations was that of a withdrawal, 
"on or before the first day of June, 1796, of all troops and garrisons, 
from all posts and places within the boundary lines assigned to the 
United States b}- the treaty of peace of 1783." 

After the battle of the Maumee, Wayne had continued to invite the 
Indians to a friendly meeting, but they for some time seemed to be * 
depending upon support from the British. While Waj-ne was inviting 
them to meet him at Greenville to conclude a treat}', Lieut. -Gen. Sim- 
coe. Col. McKee, and other officers of the British Indian department, 
persuaded Little Turtle, Blue Jacket, Buckongahelas and other dis- 
tinguished chiefs, to agree to hold an Indian council at the mouth of 
Detroit river. 

But when the news of Ja\''s treaty reached the Indians, they felt 
their last hope of aid from the English fading away, and began seriously 
to think of peace. During the months of December and January, 
1794-5, small parties of Miamis, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawatomies, 
Sacs, Delawares and Shawnees visited Gen. Wayne at his head(|uarters 
at Greenville, signing preliminary articles of peace, and agreeing to meet 
Wayne at Greenville on or about the 15th of June, 1795, with all the 
sachems and war-chiefs of their nations, to arrange a final treaty of 
peace and amity. 

During the period that elapsed between the departure of Wayne for 
'Fort Greenville until the 17th of May, 1796, Col. Hamtramck remained 
in command at Fort Wayne; and nothing of a very important nature 
occurred during that time, the garrison being principally occupied in 


receiving parties from the various tribes, issuing rations to them, and 
otherwise endeavoring to bring about friendly relations with the dis- 
heartened savages, who had grown weary of a losing cause. 

True to their promise, in the early part of June, 1795, deputations 
from the different tribes began to arrive at Greenville. The treaty, 
which was one of much interest throughout, lasted from the i6th of 
June to the loth of August, many of the principal chiefs making strong 
speeches, and each nation openly and separately assenting to the articles 
and stipulations of the treaty. At the conclusion of his speech to the depu- 
ties on the loth of August, at the termination of the treaty, Gen. Wayne 
addressed the assemblage as follows : " I now fervently pray to the Great 
Spirit, that the peace now established may be permanent, and that it 
may hold us together in the bonds of friendship, until time shall be no 
more. I also pray that the Great Spirit above may enlighten your 
minds, and open your eyes to your true happiness, that }'our children 
may learn to cultivate the earth, and enjoy the fruits of peace and in- 
dustry. As it is probable, m}- children, that we shall not soon meet again 
in public council, I take this opportunity of bidding you all an affection- 
ate farewell, and wishing 3'OU a safe and happy return to your respect- 
ive homes and families." 

Little Turtle took a leading part in this treaty as he had in war, and 
he was the one selected to make a final protest against part of the 
boundary line proposed by Wayne. Speaking for the Pottawatomies, 
Weas and Shawnees, he asked that the boundary be put east of the 
present limits of Indiana at the south; and in regard to the lands to be 
taken in the Indian region, he said : " We wish you to take the six 
miles square on the side of the river where your fort [Wayne] now 
stands, as your younger brothers wish to inhabit that beloved spot 
again. The next place j-ou pointed out was the Little river, and said 
you wanted two miles S(|uare at that place. This is a request that our 
fathers the French and British, never made us; it was alwaj'S ours. The 
carrying place has heretofore proved, in a great degree, the subsistence 
of your younger brothers. That place has brought us, in the course of 
one day, the amount of one hundred dollars. Let us both own this 
place and enjo}' in common the advantages it affords." Wayne replied: 
" I have traced the lines of two forts at Fort Wayne ; one stood near 
the junction of the St. Joseph's with the St. Marj^'s and the other not 
far removed on the St. Mary's, and it is ever an established rule among 
Europeans to reserve as much ground around their forts as their cannon 
can command." As to the portage at Little river, as a source of wealth, 
" It may be true, but the traders laid the expense on their goods, and 
the Indians on the Wabash paid it." By this venerable argument, the 
Indians were persuaded to surrender the control of their commerce. 

At this treaty the Indians ceded the land east of this line : from the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga river down to the portage to -the Muskingum, 
west to the portage between the Miami and St. Mary's; thence to Fort 
Recovery; thence to about the mouth of the Kentuckv river. 


Within the present limits of Indiana, tlie following isolated tracts 
were ceded, besides the southeastern strip east of the boundary: One 
tract of land, six miles square, at the confluence of the St. Mar}- and St. 
Joseph rivers; one tract of land, two miles square, on the Wabash 
river, at the end of the portage from the head of the river Maumee, 
and about eight miles westward from Fort Wayne; one tract of land, 
six miles S(|uare, at Ouiatenon, the old Wea town on the river Wa- 
bash; one tract of 150,000 acres, near the falls of the Ohio, which tract 
was called the " Illinois Grant," or " Clark's Grant ; " the town of Vin- 
cennes, on the river Wabash, and the adjacent lands to which the Indian 
title had been extinguished; and all similar lands, at other places, in 
possession of the French people, or other white settlers among them. 

The happy conclusion of this treat}- alone was needed to complete 
the victor}- of the Maumee. A feeling of rejoicing pervaded the coun- 
try. The hopes of Washington were at last realized, in the tide of em- 
igration that set in from the eastern states. Many immigrants selected 
sites along the Ohio, the Scioto, and Muskingum rivers; while others 
began settlements in the fertile regions lying between the Miami and 
Maumee. Log cabins arose here and there in the vast domain, the chil- 
dren raised in which were to colonize Indiana. 

tecumseh's confederacy. 

Indiana Territory. — For nearly fifteen years after the events which 
terminated with the treat}- of Greenville, peace reigned, and the settle- 
ments gradually increased toward the west. In the summer of 1796 
Gen. Wayne returned to the northwest to supervise the evacuation of 
the British posts, and by his orders, about the 17th of May of this year. 
Col. Hamtramck left Fort Wayne, passing down the Maumee to Fort 
Deposit, and on the nth of July the British fort, Miami, at the foot of 
the rapids, was evacuated, Capt. Moses Porter taking possession with 
federal troops. On the 13th of July, Col. Hamtramck took possession 
of the post at Detroit. Col. Thomas Hunt, with the first regiment, 
remained at Fort Wayne. In December, upon the death of Gen. Wayne, 
Gen. James Wilkinson was put in command of the western army of the 
United States. 

On the 23d of April, 179S, a legislative session was convened at 
Cincinnati, which closed on the 7th of May, participated in by Winthrop 
Sargent, acting governor, and John Cleves Symmes, Joseph Oilman 
and Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., territorial judges. On the 29th of Oc- 
tober Gov. St. Clair issued a proclamation, directing the qualified 
voters of the northwestern territory to hold elections in their respective 
counties on the third Monday of December, to elect representatives 'to 
a general assembly, to convene at Cincinnati on January 22, i799- The 
representatives having met at the appointed place, in compliance with 
the ordinance of 17S7 for the establishment of a legislative council, nomin- 
ated ten persons whose names were forwarded to the president of the 
United States, who, on the 2nd of March, 1799, selected Jacob Burnett, 


James Findlay, Henry Vanderburgh, Robert Oliver and David Vance, 
as suitable persons to form the legislative council of the territory, which 
selection was, on the following da)', confirmed by the senate. The leg- 
islature met again at Cincinnati on September i6, i799j and was fully 
organized on the the 24th, Henr}' Vanderburgh being elected president, 
and William C. Schenk secretary' of the council. In the house of rep- 
resentatives were nineteen members, representing the counties of Ham- 
ilton, Ross, Wavne, Adams, Knox, Jefferson and Washington. On 
the 3d of October, of this 3-ear, the names of two candidates, 
William H. Harrison and Arthur St. Clair, Jr., to represent the north- 
west territory in congress, being presented to that body, Harrison was 
chosen — he receiving eleven votes and the other ten. 

In 1800, a division of the territory was made, and on the 13th of 
May William Henr}- Harrison was appointed governor of Indiana terri- 
tory. The seat of government was established at Vincennes, the only 
other military post in Indiana, more convenient than Fort Wa3'ne, on ac- 
count of its accessibility from the Ohio by the Wabash. There the gov- 
ernor met with the judges on Monday the 12th of January, iSoi, to 
promulgate "such laws as the exigencies of the times" might call for, 
and for the " performance of other acts conformable to the ordinances 
and laws ot congress for the government of the territory." 

From the time of the formation of the new territor}' until 1810, the 
principal subjects of attention were land speculations, the adjustment of 
land titles, the question of negro slavery, the purchase of Indian lands 
by treaties, the organization of territorial legislatures, the extension of 
the right of suffrage, the division of the Indiana territory, the move- 
ments of Aaron Burr, and the hostile views and proceedings of the 
Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, and his brother, the prophet. 

With hope for good-will between the United States and the Indians 
of the northwest. Governor Harrison, at an early period of his adminis- 
tration, made efforts to induce the different tribes to engage in agricul- 
tural and other pursuits of a civihzed nature, to the end that they might 
be more agreeably situated and live more in harmon}' with the settlers. 
Being also invested with power to negotiate treaties between the gov- 
ernment and the different tribes in the Indian Territory, and to extin- 
guish by such treaties, the Indian title to lands, the governor was most 
actively employed from 1802 to 1805. 

On the 17th day of September, 1802, at a conference held at Vin- 
cennes, chiefs and head men of the Pottawatomie, Eel river, Pianke- 
shaw, Wea, Kaskaskia, and Kickapoo tribes appointed the Miami 
chiefs. Little Turtle and Richardville, and the Pottawatomie chiefs, 
Winnemac and Topinepik to adjust by treat)' the extinguishment of cer- 
tain Indian claims to lands on the Wabash, near Vincennes. On the 7th 
of June, 1803, Governor Harrison held a treaty at Fort Wayne, with 
the Delaware, Shawnee, Pottawatomie, Eel river, Kickapoo, Pianke- 
shaw, and Kaskaskia tribes, whereby was ceded to the United States 
about 1,600,000 acres of land. 


During this period, abandoning schemes for war, the Indians 
seemed mainh' to have betaken themselves to the forest and prairies in 
pursuit of game; and the result was that a considerable traffic was 
steadily carried on with them by fur-traders of Fort Wayne and Vln- 
cennes, and at small trading posts which were established on the Wabash 
river and its tributaries. The furs which were obtained from the In- 
dians were generally transported to Detroit. The skins were dried, 
compressed, and secured in packs. Each pack weighed about loo 
pounds. A pirogue, or boat, that was sufficiently large to carry forty 
packs, required the labor of four nien to manage it on its voyage. In 
favorable stages of the Wabash river, such a vessel, under the manage- 
ment of skillful boatmen, was propelled by poles fifteen or twenty miles 
a day, against the current. After ascending the river Wabash and the 
Little River to the portage near Fort Wayne, the traders carried their 
packs over the portage, to the St. Mary's where the}' were again placed 
in pirogues, or in keelboats, to be transported to Detroit. At that place 
the furs and skins were exchanged for blankets, guns, knives, powder, 
bullets, intoxicating liquors, etc., with which the traders returned to their 

But already the mutterings of another Indian war began to be 
heard. The restless savages, chafing under the restraints of their sur- 
roundings, and always discontented and revengeful, began to grow un- 
eas}', and to listen to the voice of the ever-present instigator of revolt. 

Tecumsch and the Prophet. — The period approached during which 
the Shawnee nation was to present its highest types, Tecumseh, whom 
an author has called the Philip of the west, but who was in ability far 
above the need of such an historical association, and Capt. Logan, one 
of the bravest of Indians. 

Tecumseh was born on the Mad river, six miles below Springfield, 
Ohio, about 1768. His father, Puckeshinwa, a chief, died in battle, 
leaving six sons and a daughter. The fourth child was Tecumseh, or 
Shooting-Star; the sixth and seventh, Lawlewasikaw and Kumskawkaw, 
who were twins. According to Anthonj- Shane, Tecumseh was also 
brought forth at the same birth. Tecumseh, in his boyhood, frolicked 
in sham battles, and became expert with the bow and arrow. His first 
engagement was against the Col. Logan who brought up the Indian 
Logan, and in his second skirmish with the whites, he was so revolted 
at the burning of a prisoner that he resolved never to witness or permit 
another outrage of the kind, a resolve he religiously observed. He 
sought adventures and speedily became famous, not onl}' as a daring 
fighter, but the best hunter among the Shawnees. His skirmishes with 
the Kentuckians spread a terror of the young leader among the Amer- 
icans. While Harmar was leading his expedition against Kekionga, 
Tecumseh was making an excursion through Ohio, in all essentials the 
same as those of the errant knights of an earlier age. He returned to 
assist in the attack on Fort Recovery, and watch Wayne's advance, and 
at the battle of the Maumee was first opposed to WiUiam Henry Har- 


rison. Subsequently he attended various conferences with the settlers, 
and addressed without embarrassment large assemblages, which were 
awed by his magnificent presence and wonderful eloquence. 

He was humane in the treatment of prisoners; his political schemes 
were sound in conception, and he was patient and masterly in their ex- 
ecution. We may take as a just estimate of his character these words 
by Gen. Harrison, written soon before the battle of Tippecanoe: "The 
implicit obedience and respect which the followers of Tecumseh pay to 
him, is reall}' astonishing, and more than an^' other circumstance be- 
speaks him one of those uncommon geniuses which spring up occasion- 
ally to produce revolutions and overturn the established order of things. 
If it were not for the vicinity of the United States, he would, perhaps, 
be the founder of an empire that would rival in glory Mexico and Peru. 
No difficulties deter him. For four years he has been in constant mo- 
tion. You see him to-day on the Wabash, and in a short time hear of 
him on the shores of Lake Erie or Michigan, or on the banks of the 
Mississippi; and wherever he goes he makes an impression favorable to 
his purposes." 

In 1798, the Delawares residing on the White river invited Tecumseh 
and his followers to encamp with them, and he remained there several 
years. In 1805, some of the Shawnees on the .headwaters of the 
Auglaize sent word to Tecumseh to come to the Tah-wah towns and 
endeavor to unite the nation, and the Shawnees on the Mississinewa be- 
ing invited at the same time it happened that the two parties met at 
Greenville, where Lawlewasikaw persuaded them to stop. This brother 
of Tecumseh was an audacious, assertive man, given to boasting, and 
lacking in firmness and talent for command. About this time an old 
Shawnee prophet died, and Lawlewasikaw was prompted by his ambi- 
tion for influence to grasp the dead man's place, a comfortable and 
important office. He changed his name to Tenskwatawah, The-Open- 
Door, in significance of his teachings of a new wav of life. In Novem- 
ber, 1805, he assembled the Shawnees, Wyandots, Ottawas and Senecas 
in considerable numbers at Wapakoneta, and made his first appearance 
in the character which he had assumed, and in which he was to exert a 
great influence as far as the upper lakes and beyond the Mississippi. It 
appears that nothing was then said about the confederacy, but he en- 
deavored to win the reverence of the tribes by a claim of having been 
admitted to the glories of the " happy hunting grounds " of the future 
existence. He had, he asserted, fallen into a trance, during which his 
companions thought him dead, and had begun preparations for his burial 
when he returned to earth from the clouds. He was inspired, he said, 
to warn the Indians to give up drunkenness, to which he himself had been 
addicted, and he told them that he had seen all the drunkards who had 
died, in the dwelling of the devil, with flames continually burning from 
their mouths; which vivid picture led many to renounce the use of "fire- 
water." He denounced the practice of intermarriage with the whites, 
and called on the red men to abandon all weapons and garments they 



had learned to use since the white occupation. The old and infirm they 
should tenderh' care for, and all propert}' should be held in common. 
Especially did he inveigh against witchcraft, which many believed in. 
In some way he learned the date of an approaching eclipse of the sun, 
and foretelling it, caused the Indians to believe he had supernatural 
power. Contrary to the sentiments of his brother, he began denounc- 
ing various Indians for witchcraft, and ordering them to be burned at the 
stake. Several Delawares were the first victims, and an old woman 
was toasted over the fire for four days. The old chief Teteboxti was 
burned on a pile he had himself helped to build, seeing that his death 
was inevitable. Finally, on the preparation for the destruction of an- 
other woman, her brother suddenl}- awakening to good sense took her 
from the prophet, and boldly rebuked him, considerably checking his 

On hearing of these cruelties, which, however, are not without par- 
allel. Governor Harrison sent them a speech opening with these words: 

"My Children: — My heart is filled with grief, and my eyes are 
dissolved in tears at the news which has reached me. You have been 
celebrated for your wisdom above all the tribes of red people who in- 
habit this great island. Your fame as warriors has extended to the 
remotest nations, and the wisdom of your chiefs has gained for you the 
appellation of graiidfa/kers, from all the neighboring tribes. From 
what cause, then, does it proceed, that 3'ou have departed from the wise 
counsel of 3'our fathers, and covered j'ourselves with guilt?" He ad- 
jured them to drive the " imposter from them, and cease such abominable 
wickedness," and closed: "I charge you to stop your bloody career; 
and, if j'ou value the friendship of your great father, the President — if 
you wish to preserve the good opinion of the Seventeen Fires, let me 
hear by the return of the bearer, that you have determined to follow 
my advice." 

The Prophet's influence was greatest with the Kickapoos, next with 
the Delawares; most of the chiefs of his own nation were opposed to 
him, and complained of him at Fort Wayne. In the spring of 1S07, he 
and Tecumseh assembled several hundred Indians at Greenville, and 
though little could be found out concerning the object of the meeting, 
great apprehension was felt at the settlements south of there. Capt. 
William Wells, who had been appointed Indian agent at Fort Wayne, 
received a letter from the president addressed to the leaders, requesting 
them to remove without the limits of the government's purchase, and 
Anthony Shane, a half-blood Shawnee, was sent to invite Tecumseh and 
his brother to come to Fort Waj-ne and hear the letter. Tecumseh re- 
plied that his fire was kindled on the spot appointed by the Great Spirit, 
and if Capt. Wells had any communication to make he must come there, 
and in six days. Shane was sent again at the day fixed, and read a 
copy of the letter to the Indians. Tecumseh was offended that Wells 
should presume to employ an ambassador in treating with him, and 
made a speech to the Indians of remarkable power. "These lands are 


ours," he cried, " as to boundaries the Great Spirit knows none, nor will 
his red people acknowledge any." Then turning to Shane, he remarked 
with statel}- indifference, " If my great father, the president of the Seventeen 
Fires, has anything more to say to me, he must send a man of note as his 
messenger. I will hold no further intercourse with Capt. Wells." 

Instead of dispersing, the Indians continued to flock to Greenville. 
Full}' 1,500 had passed and repassed Fort Wayne, in their visits to the 
prophet, before the summer of 1807 had fairly set in. Messengers and 
runners passed from tribe to tribe, and were greatly aided bj- British 
agents in their mj'sterious operations. 

At the close of summer, reliable persons bore testimony that nearly 
a thousand Indians, in possession of new rifles, were at Fort Wayne and 
Greenville, all under the control of the prophet. 

The alarm had now become so general, that the governor of Ohio, 
in September, sent a deputation to Greenville to ascertain the meaning 
of the gathering. The commissioners were well received by the In- 
dians — a council was called, and the governor's message read; at the 
close of which, one nf the commissioners addressed them in explanation 
of their relationship to the United States government, urging them to 
desist from all aggressions and remain neutral, should a war with Eng- 
land ensue. Having heard the commissioner attentively, according to 
Indian usage they asked to be permitted to meditate upon the matter 
until the next day. Blue Jacket, who commanded in the battle with 
Gen. Wayne, was appointed to deliver the sentiments of the council; 
and at its re-assembling, that chief, through the interpreter, said: 

" Brethren : — We are seated who heard you yesterdaj'. You will 
get a true relation, so far as our connections can give it, who are as fol- 
lows: Shawnees, Wyandots, Pottawatomies, Tawas, Chippewas, Win- 
nepas, Menominees, Malockese, Lecawgoes, and one more from the 
north of the Chippewas. Brethren, you see all these men sitting be- 
fore you, who now speak to you. 

" About eleven days ago we had a council, at which the tribe of 
Wyandots, the elder brother of the red people, spoke and said God 
had kindled a fire, and all sat around it. In this council w-e talked over 
the treaties with the French and the Americans. The Wyandot said 
the French formerly marked a line along the Alleghan}' mountains, 
southerly, to Charleston [S. C.j. No man was to pass it from either 
side. When the Americans came to settle over the line, the English 
told the Indians to unite and drive off the French, until the war came on 
between the British and the Americans, when it was told them that King 
George, by his officers, directed them to unite and drive the Americans 

" After the treat}- of peace between the English and the Americans, 
the summer before Wayne's army came out, the English held a council 
with the Indians and told them if they would turn out and unite as one 
man, the}' might surround the Americans like deer in a ring of fire, and 
destroy them all. The Wyandot spoke further in the council. We see, 


said he, there is like to be war between the English and our white 
brethren, the Americans. Let us unite and consider the sufferings we 
have undergone, from interfering in the wars of the English. They 
have often promised to help us, and at last, when we could not withstand 
the arm_y that came against us and went to the English fort for refuge, 
the English told us, 'I cannot let }'ou in; you are painted too much, my 
children.' It was then we saw the British deal treacherously with us. 
We now see them going to war again. We do not know what they are 
going to fight for. Let us, my brethren, not interfere, was the speech 
of the Wyandot. 

" Further, the Wyandot said, I speak to you, my little brother, the 
Shawnees at Greenville, and to you our Httle brothers all around. You 
appear to be at Greenville to serve the Supreme Ruler of the universe. 
Now send forth your speeches to all our brethren far around us, and let 
us unite to seek for that which shall be for our eternal welfare, and unite 
ourselves in a band of perpetual brotherhood. These, brethren, are 
the sentiments of all the men who sit around you; they all adhere to 
what the elder brother, the Wj'andot, has said, and these are their sen- 
timents. It is not that they are afraid of their white brothers, but that 
they desire peace and harmony, and not that their white brethren could 
put them to great necessity, for their former arms were bows and ar- 
rows, by which they get their hving." 

The Prophet, who improved every occasion to advance his own 
importance, informed the whites why his people had settled upon 

"About nine years since," said he, "I became convinced of the errors 
of my ways, and that I would be destroyed from the face of the earth if 
I did not amend them. Soon after I was told what I must do to be 
right. From that time I have continually preached to my red brethren, 
telling them the miserable situation they are in by nature, and striving 
to convince them that they must change their lives, live honestly and be 
just in all their dealings, kind to one other and also to their white 
brethren; affectionate in their families, put away Ij'ing and slandering, 
and serve the Great Spirit in the way I have pointed out; the}' must 
never think of war again; the tomahawk was not given them to go at 
war with one another. The Shawnees at Tawa town would not listen to 
me, but persecuted me. This made a division in the nation; those who 
adhered to me removed to this place, where I have constantly preached 
to them. They did not select this place because it looked fine or was 
valuable, for it was neither; but becau.'^e it was revealed to me that this 
is the proper place where I must establish m}' doctrines. I mean to ad- 
here to them while I live, for they are not mine but those of the Great 
Ruler of the world, and my future life shall prove to the whites the sin- 
cerity ot my professions. In conclusion, my brethren, our six chiefs shall 
go with you to Chillicothe." 

Tecumseh, Roundhead, Blue Jacket and Panther, returned with the 
commissioners to Chillicothe, where a council was called, in which they 


gave the governor positive assurances that they entertained none but 
peaceful intentions toward the whites. A speech which Tecumseh de- 
livered at the tinie occupied between three and four hours in its delivery. 
It was eloquent and masterl}-, and showed that he possessed a thorough 
knowledge of all the treaties which had been made for years. While he 
expressed his pacific intentions if fairly treated, he told the go\-ernor to 
his face that ever}- aggression or settlement upon their lands would be 
resisted, and that no pretended treaties would insure the squatters safet\-. 
Stephen Ruddell acted as interpreter upon the occasion. The governor, 
convinced that no instant danger was threatened Fort Wa3-ne, disbanded 
the militia he had called into service. The chiefs returned to their 
people, and for a short time the settlers were free from apprehension. 

Not long afterward the settlements were thrown into excitement b}- 
the murder of a man named Myers by the Indians, near where is now 
the town of Urbana, Ohio; and many of the settlers returned to their 
old homes in Kentuck}-. Being ordered to deliver up the murderers, 
Tecumseh and his brother disclaimed any knowledge of them — said 
they were not of their people. A council was finalh' held at Springfield 
with two parties of Indians, one from the north, the other from Fort 
Wayne, under Tecumseh. Being embittered against each other, each 
party was quite anxious that the other should receive the blame for the 
murder. Says Drake, the party from the north, at the request of the 
commissioners, left their arms a few miles behind them, but Tecumseh 
would not consent to attend unless his followers were allowed to keep 
theirs about them, adding that his tomahawk was his pipe, and he might 
wish to use it. At this a tall, lank-sided Pennsylvanian, who was stand- 
ing among the spectators, and had no love for the glittering tomahawk 
of the self-willed chief, cautiously stepped up, and handed him a greas}-, 
long-stemmed clay pipe, respectfully intimating that if he would onl}- 
deliver up his dreadful tomahawk, he might use that article. The chief 
took it between his thumb and finger, held it up, looked at it a few sec- 
onds, then at the owner, who all the time was gradually backing away 
from him, and instantly threw it, with a contemptuous sneer, over his 
head into the bushes. The commissioners being compelled to waive 
this point, the council proceeded; and the verdict was, that the murder 
was an individual affair, sanctioned by neither party — which brought 
the council to a close, with a reconciliation of both parties, and the sat- 
isfaction of the settlers. 

But the protestations of Tecumseh and the Prophet could not allay 
the uneasiness of the settlements; and before the end of the fall Governor 
Harrison sent the following speech, by an Indian agent, to the 
Shawnees : 

"My Children: — Listen to me; I speak in the name of your father, 
the great chief of the Seventeen Fires. 

" My children, it is now twelve years since the tomahawk, which you 
had seized by the advice of your father, the king of Great Britain, was 
luried at Greenville, in the presence of that great warrior, Gen. Wayne. 


" My children, you then promised, and the Great Spirit heard it, that 
you would in future live in peace and friendship with your brothers, the 
Americans. You made a treaty with 30ur father, and one that con- 
tained a number «f good things, equally beneficial to all the tribes of the 
red people, who were parties to it. 

"My children, 3'ou promised in that treaty to acknowledge no other 
father than the chief of the Seventeen Fires; and never to listen to the 
proposition of any foreign nation. You promised never to lift up the 
tomahawk against any of your father's children, and to give him notice 
of an)- other tribe that intended it; your father also promised to do some- 
thing for you, particularly to deliver to you ever}^ year a certain quan- 
tity of goods; to prevent any white man from settling on your lands 
without your consent, or to do you any personal injury. He promised to 
run a line between your land and his, so that you might know your own: 
and 3'ou were to be permitted to live and hunt upon your father's land, 
as long as you behaved yourselves well. My children, which of these 
articles has your father broken? You know that he has observed them 
all with the utmost good faith. But, my children, have you done so? 
Have j'ou not always had your ears open to receive bad advice from the 
white people beyond the lakes? 

"M3' children, let us look back to times that are passed. It has 
been a long time since you called the king of Great Britain father. 
You know that it is the dut)' of a father to watch over his children, to 
give them good advice, and to do ever3' thing in his power to make 
them happ3'. What has this father of 3'ours done for 3'ou, during 
the long time that 3'ou have looked up to him for protection and advice ? 
Are you wiser and happier than you were before 3'OU knew him, or is 
your nation stronger or more respectable ? No, m3' children, he took 
3-0U b3^ the hand when you were a powerful tribe; 3'Ou held him fast, 
supposing he was 3'our friend, and he conducted you through paths filled 
with thorns and briers, which tore 3'Our flesh and shed your blood. 
Your strength was exhausted, and 3'ou could no longer follow him. 
Did he sta3' b3^ 3'OU in your distress, and assist and comfort you ? No, 
he led 3-ou into danger and then abandoned 3'OU. He saw 3'Our blood 
flowing and he would give 3'ou no bandage to tie up your wounds. This 
was the conduct of the man who called himself 3'our father. The Great 
Spirit opened 3'our e3'es; 3'Ou heard the voice of the chief of the Seven- 
teen Fires speaking the words of peace. He called 3'ou to follow him ; 
3'OU came to him, and he once more put 3'ou on the right wa)-, on the 
broad, smooth road that would have led to happiness. But the voice of 
3'our deceiver is again heard; and, forgetful of 3'our former sufferings, 
3'OU are again listening to him. My children, shut 3rour ears and mind 
him not, or he will lead 3'ou to ruin and miser)'. 

" My children, I have heard bad news. The sacred spot where the 
great council fire was kindled, around which the Seventeen Fires and ten 
tribes of their children smoked the pipe of peace — that very spot where 
the Great Spirit saw his red and white children encircle themselves with 


the chain of friendship — that place has been selected for dark and 
bloody councils. My children, this business must be stopped. You 
have called in a number of men from the most distant tribes, to listen to a 
fool, who spake not the words of the Great Spirit, but those of the devil, 
and of the British agents. My children, 3'our conduct has much alarmed 
the white settlers near you. They desire that you will send away those 
people, and if they wish to have the impostor with them, they can carry 
him. Let him go to the lakes; he can hear the British more distinctly." 

The Prophet's repl}' was, that evil birds had sung in the governor's 
ears; and he denied any correspondence with the British, protesting that 
he had no intentions whatever of disturbing the settlements. Tecumseh 
continued to urge a confederacy and the Prophet's influence extended. 
Even the Ojibways, far up the lakes, and their neighbors, came down in 
great numbers, and exhausting their provisions, were fed at Fort Wayne 
by order of Gov. Harrison. 

The Pottawatomies and Kickapoos having granted them a tract of 
land, Tecumseh and the Prophet, in the spring of 1808, removed to 
Tippecanoe, where he collected some Shawnees and about 100 from 
the northern tribes. The Miamis and Delawares, being friendly to the 
whites, were greatly opposed to their coming, and even sent a delega- 
tion to stop them. But Tecumseh boldly told the part}- they were not 
to be thwarted in their purposes to ameliorate the condition of their 

In August, the Prophet, accompanied by several of his followers, 
visited Governor Harrison, at Vincennes, protesting, as formerly, that 
his purposes were peaceable. In the course of his speech he made these 
remarkabty wise and just observations: 

" The Great Spirit told me to tell the Indians that he had made them, 
and made the world — that he had placed them on it to do good and not 
evil. I told all the red-skins, that the way they were in was not good, 
and that they ought to abandon it. That we ought to consider ourselves 
as one man: but we ought to live agreeably to our several customs, the 
red people after their mode and the white people after theirs; particu- 
larly, that they should not drink whisk}'; that it was not made for them, 
but the white people, who alone knew how to use it; and that it is the 
cause of all the mischiefs which the Indians suffer; and that they must 
always follow the directions of the Great Spirit, and we must listen to 
him, as it was He that made us; determine to listen to nothing that is 
bad; do not take up the tomahawk, should it be offered by the British 
or by the Long-Knives; do not meddle with anything that does not be- 
long to you, but mind 3'our own business, and cultivate the ground, that 
your women and your children may have enough to live on. 

"I now inform you that it is our intention to live in peace with our 
father and his people forever, and I call the Great Spirit to witness the 
truth of my declaration. The religion which I have established for the 
last three years, has been attended to by the different tribes of Indians 
in this part of the world. These Indians were once different people; 



they are now but one ; they are all determined to practice what I have 
communicated to them, that has come immediately from the Great Spirit 
through me. 

"I have listened to what you have said to us. You have promised 
to assist us. I now request you, in behalf of all the red people, to use your 
exertions to prevent the sale of hquor to us. We are all well pleased to 
hear you say that 3'ou will endeavor to promote our happiness. We give 
you every assurance that we will follow the dictates of the Great Spirit." 

To test the influence of the Prophet over his followers. Gov. Harri- 
son held conversations with and offered them spirits, but they always re- 
fused, and he became almost convinced that the Indian was sincere in 
his professions, and had no other ambition than to ameliorate the condi- 
tion of his race. 

During the following year Tecumseh and the Prophet sought quietly 
to add strength to their movement. Both were engaged in a deep 
game; and while the Prophet seemed the leading spirit, Tecumseh was 
yet the prime mover. The Prophet attempted but little without first 
getting the advice of his brother, though it is evident he was most 
headstrong in much that he undertook. 

In the spring of 1809, Capt. Wells sent word to Gov. Harrison that 
manj' of the Indians were leaving the Prophet because of his requiring 
them to become parties to a scheme for the massacre of the inhabitants 
of Vincennes. The governor began the organization of two companies 
of militia, to garrison a post two miles from that town. But the Prophet's 
followers dispersed before the close of the summer. 

On the 30th of September, 1809, Gov. Harrison concluded another 
treaty at Fort Wayne, in which the Delaware, Pottawatomie, Miami and 
Eel river tribes participated. According to this treaty, the Indians ceded 
about 2,900,000 acres of land, principally situated on the southeastern side 
of the river Wabash, and below the mouth of Raccoon creek, a little stream 
which empties into the Wabash, near what is now the boundar}' of 
Parke county. The chiefs of the Wea tribe, in the following month, 
having met Gov. Harrison at Vincennes, acknowledged the legality of 
this treaty; and by a treaty held at Vincennes on the 9th of December 
following, the Kickapoo tribe also confirmed the treaty. Up to this 
time, the fend ceded to the United States by treaty stipulations between 
Governor Harrison and the different tribes of Indiana territor}-, amounted 
to 29,719,530 acres. 

Having received, through a reliable source, information regarding 
an effort of Tecumseh and the Prophet to incite the Indians against the 
settlements, and that those who had left the ranks of the Prophet had 
again returned to his support;, and further, that the British had their 
agents quietly at work among the tribes thus banded, and that the In- 
dians were boasting to American traders that they were getting their 
ammunition without cost, Gov. Harrison, through instructions from the 
secretary of war, in Jul}', 1810, began to prepare for the protection of 
the frontier. 


As the summer of iSio advanced, it became more and more evident 
to Governor Harrison that the true purpose of Tecumseh and the 
Prophet was to make war upon the whites. Early in June, Leatherlips, 
subsequently known as the "Doomed Warrior," a chief of the Wyandots, 
who held the " great belt," was accused of witchcraft and sentenced to 
death, and the sentence was carried out by breaking his skull with a 
tomahawk. From the best information Governor Harrison could ob- 
tain, this charge of witchcraft was made by the Prophet, and its penalty 
inflicted only against and upon those friendl3' to the United States. A 
few weeks after the death of the W3-andot chief, he learned that a plot 
was nearly matured for the surprise and massacre of the garrisons at 
Fort Wayne, Detroit, Chicago, Vincennes and St. Louts. Tecumseh 
and the Prophet were moving secretly but surety to that end. 

There was still much opposition to the proposed union and war, and 
such chiefs as Winnemac, and various civil chiefs, remained friendty 
to Gen. Harrison. From one of the lowas Harrison learned that a 
British agent had recently visited the Prophet, and encouraged the latter 
to continue in his efforts to unite the tribes, but to await a signal from the 
British before carrjdng out their designs against the Americans. 

Finding that the most constant watchfulness was necessary, Gov. Har- 
rison dispatched two agents to Tecumseh and his brother to ascertain, if 
possible, their real designs. Receiving the agents very courteously, in 
reply to the inquiries made, the Prophet told the agents that the assem- 
bling of the Indians upon that spot was by the explicit command of the 
Great Spirit. 

The agent told him that his movements had excited so much alarm 
that the troops of Kentucky and Indiana were being called out, and 
preparations were being made for trouble. 

In answer to the questions of the agents as to the cause of his com- 
plaints against the United States, the Prophet replied that his people had 
been cheated of their lands. Though told that his complaints would 
readil}' be listened to b}' Gov. Harrison, at Vincennes, the Prophet re- 
fused to go, saj'ing that while there upon a former occasion he was 
badly treated. 

Receiving this information, the governor at once wrote to the secre- 
tary, stating the cause, and telling him that all this caviling was merely 
a pretext on the part of Tecumseh and the Prophet; that he had been 
as liberal in the conclusion of treaties as his understanding of the views 
and opinions of the government would permit, and that none of the tribes 
had just cause for complaint. 

Having heard, in July, that the Sacs and Foxes had formed an 
alliance with the Prophet, and were ready and willing to strike the Amer- 
icans at any time, Governor Harrison sent the following address to the 
Prophet by a confidential interpreter: 

" Notwithstanding the improper language which you have used 
toward me, I will endeavor to open your eyes to your true interests. 
Notwithstanding what bad white men have told you, I am not your per- 


sonal enemy. You ought to know this from the manner in which I 
received and treated you on your visit to this place. 

" Ahhough I must say that you are an enemy to the Seventeen Fires, 
and that you have used the greatest exertions with other tribes to lead 
them astray. In this, you have been in some measure successful; as I 
am told they are ready to raise the tomahawk against their father; yet 
their father, notwithstanding his anger at their folly, is full of goodness, 
and is always ready to receive into his arms those of his children who 
are willing to repent, acknowledge their fault, and ask for his forgiveness. 

" There is yet but little harm done, which may easily be repaired. 
The chain of friendship which united the whites with the Indians may 
be renewed, and be as strong as ever. A great deal of that work de- 
pends upon you — the destiny of those who are under you, depends 
upon the choice you may make of the two roads which are before you. 
The one is large, open and pleasant, and leads to peace, security and 
happiness; the other, on the contrary, is narrow and crooked, and leads 
to misery and ruin. Don't deceive yourselves; ao not believe that all 
the nations of Indians united are able to resist the force of the Seven- 
teen Fires. I know your warriors are brave, but ours are not less so; 
but what can a few brave warriors do against the innumerable warriors 
of the Seventeen Fires ? Our blue-coats are more numerous than you 
can count; our hunters are like the leaves of the forest, or the grains of 
sand on the Wabash. 

" Do not think that the red-coats can protect j'ou; they are not able to 
protect themselves. They do not think of going to war with us. If 
they did, you would, in a few months, see our flag wave over all the 
forts of Canada. 

" What reason have you to complain of the Seventeen Fires ? Have 
they taken any thing from you ? Have they ever violated the treaties 
made with the red-men ? You say that they have purchased lands 
from them who had no right to sell them; show that this is true, and the 
land will be instantly restored. Show us the rightful owners of those 
lands which have been purchased — let them present themselves. The 
ears of your father will be open to your complaints, and if the lands 
have been purchased of those who did not own them, they will be re- 
stored to their rightful owners. I have full power to arrange this busi- 
ness; but if 3-ou would rather carry your complaints before your great 
father, the president, you shall be indulged. I will immediately take 
means to send you, with those chiefs which you may choose, to the city 
where your father lives. Every thing necessary shall be prepared for 
your journey, and means taken for your safe return." 

After hearing this speech, the Prophet told the interpreter that, as 
his brother intended to pay Governor Harrison a visit in a few weeks, 
he would let him carry the reply to the governor's message. Receiv- 
ing this information. Governor Harrison sent a message to Tecumseh, 
requesting him to bring but a small body of his followers, as it was in- 
convenient for him to receive many. To this Tecumseh paid no regard, 


and on the I2th of August, 1810, with four hundred warriors, all armed 
with tomahawks, war-clubs, and "painted in the most terrific manner," 
he began to descend the Wabash. Arriving near Vincennes, on the 
morning of the 15th, attended by about fifteen or twenty of his warriors, 
Tecumseh approached the house of the governor, who, in company with 
the judges of the supreme court, several arm}- officers, a sergeant and a 
dozen men, besides a large number of citizens, waited upon the portico 
of his house to receive the chief. 

During the milder season of the year, to hold a council other than in 
a grove, with logs or turf to sit upon, was distasteful to the Indians, and 
to the invitation to come forward and take seats upon the portico, he 
objected, signifying that it was not a fit place to hold a council, and at 
his request the governor and his attendants took seats beneath a grove 
of trees before the house. 

With a firm and elastic step and with a proud and somewhat defiant 
look, Tecumseh advanced to the place where the governor and those 
who had been invited to attend the conference were sitting.- This place 
had been fenced in to prevent the crowd from encroaching upon the coun- 
cil. As he stepped forward he seemed to scan the preparations which 
had been made for his reception, particularly the military part of it, with 
an eye of suspicion — by no means, however, with fear. As he came in 
front of the dias, an elevated portion of the place upon which the gover- 
nor and the officers of the territor}- were seated, the governor invited 
him, through the interpreter, to take a seat with him and his counselors, 
premising the invitation by saying that it was the wish of their "great 
father," the president of the United States, that he should do so. Paus- 
ing for a moment, at the utterance of these words by the interpreter, and 
extending his tall figure to its greatest height, he looked upon the troops 
and then upon the crowd about him. Thus, for a moment, with keen, 
piercing eyes fixed upon Gov. Harrison, and then upward to the sk}-, he 
raised his sinewy arm toward the heavens, with a tone and gesture ex- 
pressive of supreme contempt for the paternit}' assigned him, and in a 
clear, loud, full voice, exclaimed: 

"My Father? — The sun is my father — the earth is m}' mother — 
and on her bosom I will recline." Having finished, he stretched himself 
with his wai-riors on the green sward. The effect is said to have been 
electrical — for some moments there was a perfect silence throughout 
the assembly. 

Gov. Harrison said to Tecumseh through the interpreter, that he had 
understood he had complaints to make, and redress to ask for certain 
wrongs which he, Tecumseh, supposed had been done his tribe, as well 
as the others; that he felt disposed to hsten to the one, and make satis- 
faction for the other, if it was proper he should do so. That in all his 
intercourse and negotiations with the Indians, he had endeavored to act 
justly and honorably with them, and believed he had done so, and had 
heard of no complaint of his conduct until he learned that Tecumseh 
was endeavoring to create dissatisfaction toward the government, not 


only among the Shawnees, but among the other tribes dwelling on the 
Wabash and Illinois; and had, in so doing, produced a great deal of mis- 
chief and trouble between them and the whites, b}' averring that the 
tribes, whose land the government had lately purchased, had no right to 
so sell, nor their chiefs any authority to convey. That the governor had 
invited him to attend the council with a view of learning from his own 
lips whether there was any truth in the reports, and to learn from him 
whether he, or his tribe, had any cause of complaint. against the whites; 
and if so, as a man and a warrior, openly and boldly to avow it. That, 
as between himself and as great a warrior as Tecumseh, there should 
be no concealment — all should be done by them under a clear sky, and 
in an open path, and with these feelings on his own part, he was glad to 
meet him in council. 

In appearance, Tecumseh was accounted one of the most splendid 
specimens of his tribe — who claimed that they were the first created 
and most perfect of men. Tall, athletic and manly, dignified and grace- 
ful, he was the bean ideal of an Indian chieftain. In- a voice, at first low, 
but distinct, Tecumseh replied, stating at length his objections to the 
treat}' at Fort Wajme, made by Gov. Harrison in the previous year; and 
in the course of his speech, boldly avowed the principle of his party to 
be that of resistance to every cession of land, unless made by all the 
tribes, which he contended, formed but one nation. He admitted that 
he threatened to kill the chiefs who signed the treaty of Fort Wayne; 
and that it was his fixed determination not to permit the village chiefs, 
in future, to manage their affairs, but to place the power with which 
they had been heretofore invested, in the hands of the war chiefs. The 
Americans, he said, had driven the Indians from the sea-coast, and would 
soon push them into the lakes; and while he disclaimed all intention of 
making war upon the United States, he declared it to be his unalterable 
resolution to make a stand, and resolutely oppose the further intrusion 
of the whites upon the Indian lands. He concluded with a brief but 
impassioned recital of the various wrongs and aggressions upon the 
Indians from the commencement of the revolutionary war. 

The governor rose in reply, and in examining the right of Tecumseh 
and his party to make objections to the treaty of Fort Wayne, took 
occasion to say, that the Indians were not one nation, having a common 
property in the lands. The Miamis, he contended, were the real owners 
of the tract on the Wabash, ceded by the late treaty, and the Shawnees 
had no right to interfere in the case; that upon the arrival of the whites 
on this continent, they had found the Miamis in possession of this land, 
the Shawnees being then residents of Georgia, from which they had 
been driven by the Creeks, and that it was ridiculous to assert that the 
red men constituted but one nation; for, if such had been the intention 
of the Great Spirit, he would not have put different tongues in their 
heads, but have taught them all to speak the same language. 

The governor having taken his seat, the interpreter commenced ex- 
plaining the speech to Tecumseh, who, after listening to a portion of it, 


sprang to his feet, and began to speak with great vehemence of manner. 
The governor was surprised at his violent gestures, but as he did not 
understand him, he thought he was making some explanation, and suf- 
fered his attention to be drawn toward Winnemac, a friendly Indian ly- 
ing on the grass before him, who was renewing the priming of his pistol, 
which he had kept concealed from the other Indians, but in full view of 
the governor. His attention, however, was again attracted toward 
Tecumseh, by hearing Gen. Gibson, who was intimately acquainted with 
the Shawnee language, say to Lieut. Jennings, " Those fellows intend 
mischief; you had better bring up the guard." At that moment, the 
followers of Tecumseh seized their tomahawks and war-clubs, and 
sprang upon their feet, their eyes turned upon the governor. As soon 
as he could disengage himself from the arm-chair in which he sat, he 
rose, drew a small sword which he had by his side, and stood on the de- 
fensive, Capt. G. R. Floyd who stood near him, drew a dirk, and the 
chief Winnemac cocked his pistol. The citizens present were more nu- 
merous than the Indians, but were unarmed; some of them procured 
clubs and brick-bats, and also stood on the defensive. The Rev. Mr. 
Winans, of the Methodist church, ran to the governor's house, got a 
gun, and posted himself at the door to defend the family. During this 
singular scene, no one spoke, until the guard came running up, and ap- 
peared to be in the act of firing, when the governor ordered then not to 
do so. He then demanded of the interpreter an explanation of what 
had happened, who replied that Tecumseh had interrupted him, declar- 
ing that all the governor had said was /aJse: and that he and the Seven- 
teen Fires had cheated and imposed on the Indians. 

The governor then told Tecumseh that he was a bad man, and that 
he would hold no further communication with him ; that as he had come 
to Vincennes under the protection of a council-fire, he might return in 
safety, but he must immediatel}^ leave the village. Here the council 
terminated. During the night, two companies of militia were brought 
in from the countr}-, and that belonging to the town was also called out. 
Next morning Tecumseh requested the governor to afford him an op- 
portunity of explaining his conduct on the previous day — declaring that 
he did not intend to attack the governor, and that he had acted under 
the advice of some of the white people. The governor consented to 
another interview, it being understood that each party should have the 
same armed force as on the previous da}-. On this occasion the deport- 
ment of Tecumseh was respectful and dignified. He again denied hav- 
ing any intention to make an attack upon the governor, and declared 
that he had been stimulated to the course he had taken, by two white 
men, who assured him that one-half the citizens were opposed to the 
governor, and willing to restore the land in question; that the governor 
would soon be put out of ofhce, and a good man sent to fill his place, 
who would give up the land to the Indians. When asked by the gov- 
ernor whether he intended to resist the survej' of these lands, Tecumseh 
replied that he and his followers were resolutely determined to insist 


upon the old boundary. When he had taken his seat, chiefs from the 
W_yandots, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Ottavvas and Winnebagoes, spoke 
in succession, and distinctly avowed that they had entered into the 
Shawnee confederacy, and were determined to support the principles 
laid down by their leader. The governor, in conclusion, stated that he 
would make known to the president the claims of Tecumseh and his 
party, to the land in question; but that he was satisfied the government 
would never admit that the lands on the Wabash were the property of 
any other tribes than those who occupied them when the white people 
first arrived in America; and, as the title to these lands had been derived 
by purchase from those tribes, he might rest assured that the right of 
the United States would be sustained b}' the sword. Here the council 

On the following day. Gov. Harrison visited Tecumseh in his camp, at- 
tended only by the interpreter, and was politely received. A long conver- 
sation ensued, in which Tecumseh again declared that his intentions were 
reall}- such as he had avowed them to be in the council; that the policy 
which the United States pursued, of purchasing land from the Indians, 
he viewed as mighty water, read}' to overflow his people; and that the 
confederacy which he was forming among the tribes to prevent any 
individual tribe from selling without the consent of the others, was the 
dam he was erecting to resist this mighty water. He stated further, 
that he should be reluctantly drawn into war with the United States; and 
that if he, the governor, would induce the president to give up the lands 
lately purchased, and agreed never to make another treaty without the 
consent of all the tribes, he would be their faithful all}', and assist them in 
the war, which he knew was about to take place with England; that he pre- 
ferred being the ally of the Seventeen Fires, but if the}' did not comply 
with his request, he would be compelled to unite with the British. The 
governor replied, that he would make known his views to the president, 
but that there was no probability of its being agreed to. "Well," said Te- 
cumseh, " as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great 
Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce him to give up this 
land; it is true, he is so far off, he will not be injured by the war; 
he may sit still in his town and drink his wine, while you and I will have 
to fight it out." This prophec}', it will be seen, was literally fulfilled; 
and the great chieftain who uttered it, attested that fulfillment with his 
blood. The governor, in conclusion, proposed to Tecumseh that in the 
event of hostilities between the Indians and the United States, he should 
use his influence to put an end to the cruel mode of warfare which the 
Indians were accustomed to wage upon women and children, and upon 
prisoners. To this he cheerfully assented; and it is due to the memory 
of Tecumseh to add, that he faithfully kept his promise. 

Camfaign of Tippecanoe. — Not long after this council, a Winnebago 
chief, who had been employed to watch the proceedings of Tecumseh, 
brought word to Gov. Harrison that the former was sending to each of 
the tribes a large wampum belt, with a view of uniting them in one 


great confederation ; and that, upon a return of the belt, he saw a Brit- 
ish agent fairly dance with joy — adding, with tears in his eyes, that he 
and all the village chiefs had been deprived of their power, and that the 
control of everything was in the hands of the warriors, who were greatly 
opposed to the United States. The governor of Missouri sent word 
that the Sac Indians had allied themselves to the confederacy; that Te- 
cumseh himself was then doing all in his power to induce the tribes west 
of the Mississippi to join him; to which were added the reports of dif- 
ferent Indian agents, who were generally of opinion that the period for 
a war with the Indians would soon arrive. 

Earl}- in 1811, as a part of the annuity to the Indians, Gov. Har- 
rison sent a boat load of salt up the Wabash, a portion of which was to 
be given to the Prophet for the Shawnees and Kickapoos; but, upon the 
arrival of the boat at the point where the Prophet had his lodges, he 
made bold to seize the entire cargo, alleging as a reason for so doing 
that he had 2,000 men to feed, who had been without salt for two years. 
Upon being informed of this. Gov. Harrison felt justified in demanding 
aid from the government, and made application to the secretary of war 
to have Col. Boyd's regiment, then at Pittsburg, sent immediately to him, 
requesting, at the same time, to receive authority to act on the offensive 
as soon as it was known that the Indians were in actual hostilitj- against 
the United States. The governor's apprehensions were well founded, 
and it soon became an acknowledged fact that Vincennes was to be the 
first point of attack. 

A council was held in which Tecumseh participated, but was defiant, 
and closed an impassioned speech with the prophetic declaration: "I will 
stamp my foot at Tippecanoe, and the ver}' earth shall shake." This 
was on the 30th day of Jul}', iSii, and in the early morning of the 6th 
of November, was fought the battle of Tippecanoe, where, in the defeat 
of the Prophet, the gallant Harrison and his small but heroic army won 
lasting fame. Here the Prophet lost his influence, for he had made war 
against the orders of Tecumseh, then absent in the south. The 
latter on his return was deeph' dejected. He sent word to Gov. Har- 
rison that he wished to visit the president, but upon Gov. Harrison de-' 
dining to allow him an escort, he refused to visit Washington. 

Tecumseh at Fort Wayne. — One of the strange inconsistencies of the 
dealings of the general government, which has been apparent to the 
present day, is exhibited by what followed. Only a few days after the 
battle of Tippecanoe, on the 22d of November, 1810, the period for the 
annual meeting of the Indians to receive their annuities, having arrived, 
the}' began to assemble at Fort Wayne in great numbers. John John- 
son was then Indian agent here. Many of the chiefs in attendance 
were fresh from Tippecanoe, claiming their portions of the annuity 
equally with the most peaceful of the tribes — representing that the 
Prophet's followers had him in confinement, and purposed taking his life; 
that he was chargeable with all their troubles; together with many other 
stories of a similar character, all more or less, in the main untrue, 


especially as regarded the Prophet's confinement. But the stories pre- 
sented to Col. Johnson had the desired effect and he was induced thereby 
to inform the government that the Indians were all favorable to peace, 
and that no further hostilities should be committed against them ; and 
yet, saj's M'Afee, in most of the nations here assembled, a British fac- 
tion was boiling to the brim, and ready to flow on our devoted frontiers, 
wherever the British agents might think proper to increase the fire of 
their hostilit}'. The old council-house was located near the spot lately oc- 
cupied b}' Michael Hedekin. It was a two-story log building, about 
sixty feet long, by about twenty wide; and stood but a short distance 
to the southwest of the' fort. It was in this building the agent Hved. 

The assemblage of the Indians to receive their annuity at the hands 
of Col. Johnson, after the battle of Tippecanoe, consisted principally of 
chiefs and head men of the Miamis, Delawares, the Pottawatomies, and 
Shawnees. Col. Johnson, on this occasion, made them a speech, pre- 
senting the importance of an adherence to peaceable relations on the 
part of the tribes and the United States, telling them that the president 
was desirous of living in peace and friendship with them; and that par- 
don would be granted to any of the hostile tribes who would put away 
their arms and be peaceable. To this Black-Hoof, a Shawnee chief, 
responded in behalf of all the tribes present, assuring him that they all 
had the strongest desire to lay hold of the chain of peace and friendship 
v^'ith the United States. It was believed that this expression was sincere 
on the part of the Shawnees and a large number of the Delawares; but 
that the Miamis and Pottawatomies had little or no intention of being 
peaceable after receiving their annuities. Little Turtle, now in the de- 
cline of life and influence, was the strenuous advocate of peace, but a 
majority of his people followed the counsels of Tecumseh. The Indians 
generally made great pretensions to a desire for peace. 

Tecumseh made his appearance at Fort Wayne some time during 
the month of December. The result of his brother's recklessness had 
affected him deeply. His scheme was broken, but he was still for war — 
for freedom — for the expulsion of the white race that occupied the ancient 
hunting ground of his fathers. His air was haughty, and he was still 
obstinate in the opinions he had embraced. He made bitter reproaches 
against Harrison, and at the same time had the presumption to demand 
ammunition from ■ the commander at Fort Wa3'ne, which \j'as refused 
him. He then said he would go to his British father, who would not 
deny him. He appeared thoughtful a while, then gave the war-whoop, 
and went awa}' to join the British at Maiden. 

W«r zvith Great Britain. — Such was the spirit in which Tecumseh 
left Fort Wayne on this memorable occasion; and early in the spring of 
1812, he and his party began to put their threats into execution. Small 
parties began to commit depredations on the frontier settlements of In- 
diana and Illinois territories, and part of Ohio. Twenty scalps were 
taken in Indiana territory alone before the first of June; and the peo- 
ple were compelled to protect themselves by going into forts. Volunteer 


companies of militia were organized, and the Indians were frequently 
pursued, but trenerall}' without success, as they fled at once after com- 
mitting their depredations. Governor Harrison asked permission of the 
war department to raise a mounted force to penetrate to their towns, 
with a view of chastising them. But this was sefused, the government 
hesitating to disturb them in that way at that time, fearing the}' would 
take a more active part with the British. The government was imbued 
with a "peace on any terms " policy, and the Indians accepted all that 
was given them, and laughed at the credulity of the giver. In June, 
1812, war was declared with Great Britain, and congress passed acts au- 
thorizing the recruiting of the army, and the emplo3ment of 100,000 

During this month the president made a requisition on the state of 
Ohio for 1200 militia, and the famous Fourth regiment, under com- 
mand of Col. Miller, which had sometime before been ordered to the 
relief of Vincennes, was now ordered to Cincinnati, to join the militia, 
which was ordered by Governor Meigs to rendezvous on the 29th of 
April, at Dayton. As directed by the secretarjr of war, on the 25th of 
May following, Governor Meigs surrendered the command of the army 
to General Hull, for some time previous governor of Michigan territor}', 
but who had been appointed a brigadier-general in the United States 
arm}'. From Da3'ton the array under Hull marched for Staunton on the 
I St of June. From Staunton it marched to Urbana. Here Governor 
Meigs and General Hull held a council with twelve chiefs of the Shaw- 
nee, Mingo and Wyandot nations, to obtain leave from them to march 
the army through their territoiy, and to erect such forts as might be 
deemed necessary. This was promptly granted, and every assistance 
which they could give the army in the wilderness was promised. Gov- 
ernor Meigs had held a council with these Indians on the 6th, in which 
it was agreed to adhere to the treaty of Greenville. On the loth of 
June, the Fourth regiment, under Col. Miller, made its appearance at 
Urbana, and was escorted into camp through a triumphal arch, adorned 
with an eagle, and inscribed with the words, "Tippecanoe — Glory." 

From Urbana the army, on the i6th, moved as far as King's Creek,' 
and from this point opened a road as far as the Scioto, where the}' built 
two block-houses, which they called Fort M'Arthur, in honor of the offi- 
cer whose uegiment had opened the road. To this fort the whole army 
came on the 19th, and on the 21st Col. Findley was ordered to open the 
rord as far as Blanchard's fork, on the Auglaize, whither the army, ex- 
cepting a guard left at Fort M'Arthur, marched on the 2 2d. Here, amid 
rain and mud, another block-house was erected, which was called Fort 
Necessity. From Fort Necessity the army moved to Blanchard's fork, 
where Col. Findley had built a block-house, named in honor of that offi- 
cer. A road was shortly after, under direction of Col. Cass, cut to the 
rapids, and the main army soon encamped on the banks of the Maumee, 
opposite the old battle ground of Gen. Wayne. From this point, after 
a day or two's rest, the army mo\ed down just below the old British 


fort Miami. For a considerable period, the movements of the army 
under Hull were directed toward Detroit and the region of the lakes, and 
there, a great disaster was destined soon to come, which not only caused 
great perturbation among the settlers and frontier posts, but which 
reall}' threatened them with destruction. 

From the time of his abrupt departure from Fort Wayne up to the 
breaking out of the war of 1812, Tecumseh had plotted against the 
Americans, and from the first hostile movements of the British, had 
allied himself to their cause, and begun to take a most active part with 
the enemy, in whose army he was made a brigadier-general in the serv- 
ice of the king. Early in August, at the head of a party of Shawnees, 
accompanied by a number of British soldiers, he made an attack upon a 
company of Ohio militia sent to escort some volunteers engaged in 
bringing supplies for the army. This occurred at Brownstown, and was 
the tirst action after the declaration of war. Tecumseh and his party 
succeeded in drawing the compan}- into an ambush, in which it suffered 
considerable loss, and it was then followed bv Tecumseh in its retreat 
toward the river Ecorce. The movements of the arm}' under Hull were 
directed toward Detroit, which became the headquarters of that force. 
Hull prepared orders to be sent to the forts giving warning of the neces- 
sity of preparing for defense, but there was remarkable delay in 

The garrison at Mackinaw not having received the order of Gen. 
Hull, written about the 5th of July, relating to the declaration of war, 
that post was surrendered on the 17th of that month, which caused Gen. 
Hull to declare that the whole northern hordes of Indians would be let 
loose upon him. Fort Dearborn, at Chicago, was in a position as 
hazardous as that of Mackinaw. Toward the last of Jul}', Gen. Hull 
began to think seriously of the situation at Chicago, and of the relief 
of the garrison under Capt. Heald, which was being surrounded by a 
party of Indians in communication with Tecumseh, which, though not yet 
attempting any acts of violence was only awaiting the necessary encour- 
agement from the enemy. Hull took action by sending an express to 
Major B. F. Stickney, then Indian agent at Fort Wayne, requesting him 
to at once extend to Capt. Heald all the information, assistance and ad- 
vice within his power, who was ordered to accept of such aid, and to con- 
form to such instructions as he might receive from the Indian agent at 
Fort Wayne. Instructions were accordingly prepared by Major Stick- 
ney to accompany the order of Gen. Hull, and an agent dispatched to 
Chicago. In this letter Capt. Heald was promised military aid as soon 
as it was possible to render it. 

Capt. William Wells was at that time Indian sub-agent here. He 
was a great favorite with the Miamis, and accounted a perfect master of 
everything pertaining to Indian life, both in peace and war, and withal a 
stranger to personal fear; and, says Major Stickney, "if Gen. Wayne 
desired a prisoner to obtain information, Capt. Wells could always fur- 
nish one." This capable man was selected to lead a party to the aid of 


Capt. Heald, and Major Stickney suggested the raising of a band of 
thirty warriors. These he selected from the Miamis. The Pottawat- 
omies were known to be in the vicinit}' of Chicago, and the fact of 
Wells being a favorite with the Miamis made the former tribe unfriendly 
toward him, there having arisen an enmitj- between the two tribes. So 
that Wells' position was at best, should trouble arise upon their arrival 
at Fort Dearborn, a most precarious one, a fact that he was by no means 
unacquainted with. But his nature was fearless. On the 3d of August, 
with his braves well equipped b}' the agent, he set out full of hope and 
courage, for the relief of the garrison at Chicago, whither they arrived 
on the 1 2th. 

Wells and his party had not been long at the fort before he discov- 
ered unmistakable evidences of coming trouble. A large number of 
Pottawatomies and Winnebagoes, professing friendship, were encamped 
about the fort; and for some time Tecumseh and the British, through 
their runners, had kept up a regular correspondence with the Indians. 
On the night of the 14th, a runner having arrived among the Indians 
with the news from Tecumseh that Major Vanhorn had been defeated 
at Brownstown ; that the arm}' under Hull had returned from Canada to 
Detroit; and that there was prospect of success, the Indians at once de- 
cided to remain no longer inactive. 

Wells was warmly attached to Capt. Heald. The latter had married 
his niece, and she was with her husband to share the dangers that sur- 
rounded them. 

On the arrival of Wells with his warriors at the fort, Capt. Heald 
informed him that he had received the dispatch from the agent at Fort 
Wayne, with the order of Gen. Hull, and had then called together all 
the Indian warriors in his neighborhood, and had entered into a treaty 
with them. The leading terms were, that he was to deliver up to 
the Indians the fort with all its contents, except arms, ammunition and 
provisions necessary- for their march to Fort Wa3'ne. The Indians on 
their part were to permit him to pass unmolested. Wells at once pro- 
tested against the terms of the treat}-. There was a large quantity of ■ 
ammunition and whisky in the fort. These, he declared, they should 
not have. He urged that if the Indians had the whisky they would get 
drunk, and pay no regard to the treaty; and he was for throwing the 
ammunition and whisky into the lake. The Indians learned what was 
going on, and determined to attack Heald and his party, at the first con- 
venient point, after they should leave the fort. Wells understood In- 
dian character so perfectly that he was aware of their intentions at a 

As soon as it was da3-break. Wells saw that the tomahawk was 
sharpening for them, and told Heald they must be off as quick as possi- 
ble, hoping to move before the Indians were ready for them. No time 
was to be lost. Topeeneebee, a chief of the St. Joseph band, had, early 
in the morning, informed Mr. Kinzie of the mischief what was in- 
tended by the Pottawatomies, who had engaged to escort the detach- 


ment; and urged him to relinquish his design of accompanying the 
troops by land, promising him that the boat containing himself and 
family should be permitted to pass in safety to the St. Joseph. This offer 
was declined by Mr. Kinzie, on the ground that his presence might op- 
erate as a restraint upon the fury of the savages, so warmly were the 
greater part of them attached to himself and family. 

As the garrison marched out on the morning of the 15th, the band 
struck up the Dead March, as if some invisible force had impressed 
upon them the fate many of them were soon to meet; and on they 
moved, solemn and thoughtful, in military array, Capt. Wells taking the 
lead, at the head of his little band of Miami warriors, his face black- 
ened. Taking their route along the lake shore, as they gained a range 
of sand hills lying between the prairie and the beach, the escort of Pot- 
tawatomies, some 500 in number, instead of continuing along the beach 
with the Americans and Miamis, kept the level of the prairie. The}^ 
had marched about a mile and a half, when Capt. Wells, who had ridden 
a little in advance with the Miamis, suddenly came galloping back, ex- 
claiming: " They are about to attack us; form instantly, and charge 
upon them," teUing his niece not to be alarmed, that " they would not 
hurt her, but that he would be killed." No sooner had he ceased to 
speak, than a volley was fired from among the sand hills. The little 
company being hastil}^ brought into line, charged rapidly up the bank. 
A veteran, some seventy years, was the first to fall. Capt. Wells fell, 
pierced with many balls, and in the words of Mrs. Kinzie, " Pee-so- 
tum held dangling in his hand a scalp, which, by the black ribbon 
around the queue, I recognized as that of Capt. Wells." Their leader 
being killed, the Miamis fled; one of their chiefs, however, before leav- 
ing the scene of the disaster, rode up to the Pottawatomies, exclaimed 
to them: " You have deceived the Americans and us. You have done 
a bad action, and brandishing his tomahawk, I will be the first to head 
a party of Americans to return and punish your treachery;" and then 
galloped away over the prairie in pursuit of his companions, who were 
rapidly starting for Fort Wayne. " The troops," wrote Mrs. Kinzie, 
"behaved most gallantlj-. They were but a handful; but the}' seemed 
resolved to sell their lives as dearlj' as possible. Our horses pranced 
and bounded, and could hardl}' be restrained, as the balls whistled among 

The Indians made desperate attempts to rush upon and tomahawk 
the soldiers, but every such effort was bravely repulsed. Several women 
and children were killed; and the ranks at length became so reduced 
as not to exceed twent}' effective men; yet they were undaunted and 
resolute, and remained united while able to fire. Withdrawing a dis- 
tance, the Indians sent a French boy to demand a surrender. The bo}' 
was Capt. Heald's interpreter, who had deserted to the side of the In- 
dians in the early part of the engagement. Advancing very cautiously 
toward the Americans, a Mr. Griffith advanced to meet him, intending 
to kill him for his conduct in deserting; but the boy declaring that it was 


the only war he could save himself, and at the same time appearing 
quite sorry for having been obliged to act as he did, he was permitted 
to approach. He said the Indians proposed to spare the lives of the 
Americans, if they would surrender. But the surviving soldiers all re- 
fused. The bo}' soon returned, saying the Indians were very numerous, 
and strongl}' urged Mr. Griffith to use his endeavors to bring about a 
surrender, which was at length consented to. The men having laid 
down their arms, the Indians came forward to receive them; when, in 
the face of their promise, they tomahawked three or four of the men; 
and one Indian, it is stated, with the fur}- of a demon, approached Mrs. 
Heald, with his tomahawk raised to strike her. Much accustomed to 
danger, and being well acquainted with Indian character, with remark- 
able presence of mind she looked him earnestly in the face, and smiling 
said: " Surely you will not kill a squaw." The Indian's arm fell, and the 
brave lady was protected by the barbarous hand that was about to rob 
her of life. She was the daughter of Gen. Samuel Wells, of Kentucky, 
who fought most valiantly at the battle of Tippecanoe. The rage of 
the Indians was lavished upon the bod}" of Capt. Wells. After this 
massacre, his head was cut off, and as his character was unequaled for 
braverv, the Indians took his heart from his body, cooked it, and divided 
it among themselves in very small pieces. They religioush' believed 
that each one who ate of it, would thereby become as brave as he from 
whom it was taken. 

In accordance with their ancient custom, the Indians now divided the 
prisoners. Captain Heald and wife and Mr. Griffith being selected by 
the Ottawas, were taken by this band to the lake shore, beyond the mouth 
of the river St. Joseph. Having been severely wounded, they consid- 
ered their fate as inevitably sealed; but Griffith's eye fell upon a canoe, 
at a convenient point, sufficiently large to hold them, and one night soon 
afterward they succeeded in making their escape, traversing the lake in 
this frail bark some 200 miles to Mackinaw, where the British com- 
mander enabled them to reach the United States in safet}'. 

On the next day after this disaster Gen. Hull filled the cup of mis- . 
fortune in the west b}- surrendering Detroit without firing a gun, to an 
inferior British force, consisting of some 700 troops and about 600 In- 
dians, under command of Gen. Brock. This placed the whole territor}- 
in the hands of the British. Said Gen. Brock, in writing to his superior 
officer: " When I detail my good fortune, you will be astonished." 
The nation shared his astonishment and added thereto disgust. 


The success of the Indians at Chicago gave them courage for still 
greater efforts for the overthrow of the whites, and the old dream was 
revived of driving them beyond the Ohio. With few exceptions, the 
tribes were now determined in their course, and devoted to the British 
interests. The few tribes continuing friendly to the United States were 


threatened with extermination by Tecumseh, who imagined he was fast 
bringing his great scheme to an issue by the aid of the EngHsh. Pos- 
sessing an excellent memor}', and being well acquainted with every 
important position in the northwest, he was able to point out to the 
British many important advantages. Before crossing at Detroit, at the 
time of Hull's surrender. General Brock took occasion to inquire of 
Tecumseh what sort of a country he should have to pass over, should 
he conclude to go beyond. Taking a roll of elm bark, and extending it 
on the ground by means of four stones, Tecumseh drew his scalping- 
knife, and began to etch upon the bark the position of the coun- 
try, embracing its hills, roads, rivers, morasses, and woods, which 
being a demonstration of talent quite unexpected in Tecumseh, greatly 
delighted the Briton. His position and influence — strengthened by the 
British, and joined by a numerous army of his own blood — were now 
formidable, and he was determined to render them as potent as his 
strength and advantages would permit. 

His great plan was now the siege and massacre of Fort Wayne and 
Fort Harrison (near Terre Haute). The Pottawatomies and Ottawas, 
aided b}- the British under Major Muir, were to lead in the movement 
upon Fort Wayne, while the Winnebagoes, and a portion of the Miamis 
who had been persuaded to join the Tecumseh party, were to surprise 
and capture Fort Harrison. The first of September was appointed as 
the earliest period of attack. 

The government, in the meantime, had begun most active measures 
for the renewal and prosecution of the war. Talk of invasion of Canada, 
by Niagara, was soon upon the breeze and the British commander, Gen. 
Brock, early heard the rumor. Ohio and Kentuckj', upon receipt of the 
news from Detroit, were aroused to patriotic determination. The gov- 
ernor of Ohio ordered the remaining portion of the detached militia of 
his state, numbering some 1,200 men, to be formed and marched to Ur- 
bana, under command of Brig. -Gen. Tupper; while the secretary of war 
had previously called on Gov. Scott, of Kentuck}', for a body of 1,500 
men, embracing the regulars enlisted in that state. In the earl)' part of 
May, the governor of Kentuck}' had organized ten regiments, some 
5,500 men, as the quota of that state. Among the many patriots of 
Kentucky who so eagerly enMsted under the standard of their country, 
was Col. John Allen, who took command of the rifle regiment. He was 
a lawyer of much distinction and a man in great favor with his fellow- 
citizens. From him Allen county derived its name. 

After the massacre at Chicago, those Pottawatomies engaged in it 
spent several weeks about Fort Dearborn, and divided the spoils which 
had been given them. They then retired to their villages on the St. 
Joseph of Lake Michigan, where they were assembled in council by 
British emissaries, who instigated them to lay siege to Forts Wa^-ne and 
Harrison. The British agents promised that in case the Indians would 
besiege those forts, and prevent their evacuation b}' the garrisons, the}' 
should be joined in one moon by a large British force from Maiden and 


Detroit, with artillery, who would be able to demolish the stockades, and 
would give up to the savages the garrisons for massacre and spoils. The 
siege was to be commenced in twent}- days after the council adjourned. 

At this time there was a trader residing near Fort Wayne, of French 
extraction, Antoine Bondie. He was about fift}- j-ears of age, and had 
lived among the Indians from the time he was twelve years old. He 
was an extraordinarj- character. At one time he would appear to be 
brave and generous, at another meanly selfish. He was recognized bj- 
the Miamis as one of their tribe — married one of their squaws, and con- 
formed to their habits and mode of life. The hostile Pottawatomies, 
desirous of saving him from the destruction which they contemplated 
for the garrison, sent Metea, chief of their tribe, and a famous orator, 
to inform him of their intentions and his danger. Metea went to his 
cabin in the night, and under an injunction of great secrec}-, informed 
him of all that was contemplated. He offered to come for Bondie and 
his family before the siege was commenced, with a sufficient number of 
pack horses to remove them and their moveable property to a place 
of safety. Bondie did not decline the offer. 

The morning after Metea had made this revelation, Bondie, accom- 
panied by Charles Peltier, a French interpreter, went to the agent ver}' 
early, and with many injunctions of secrecy, informed him of it all. 
The agent was thankful for the information, but was doubtful whether 
to credit or reject it, as a mistake in a matter of so much importance, 
either wa}-, would prove ruinous to his character and cause his disgrace- 
ful ejection from the important office which he held. He had been but 
three months in office or in the countrj- and was acquainted with but few 
persons. The character of Bondie was not known to him, and the 
nature of his communication was such as to require great secrecy, and 
if true, immediate preparation for the defense of the fort. Stickney 
sent a note to Capt. Rhea, the commanding officer of the garrison, de- 
siring a meeting with him in the open esplanade of the fort, where there 
could be no one to overhear what might be said. This officer having 
been long in the country had ever}' opportunity of knowing Bondie. 
He met the agent, heard his communication and dismissed it by observ- 
ing that Bondie was a trifling fellow and no reliance could be placed 
upon what he said. This increased the perplexity of the agent. 
He sent for Bondie and his interpreter, to have a cross-examination. 
This being completed, it remained for the agent either to pass the mat- 
ter without notice and incur the chances of the siege by the Indians 
of the two posts, to be followed by a regular force of British troops 
with artiller}% without any preparation for defense or relief from abroad, 
or to report the information, without attaching to it his official belief in 
its correctness, in which case it would have no effect. In weighing and 
comparing chances and consequences, he determined that it was better 
that he should be ruined in his reputation, and the government suffer all 
sacrifices consequent upon the falsitv of the report, than that they should 
both suffer if it proved true. He, therefore, sent a second time to Capt. 


Rhea, and declared his intention to make the report and give it his 
sanction. He informed him that he had just received a dispatch from 
Gov. Harrison, from Vincennes, sa3'ing that he was going to Cincinnati, 
where he must be addressed, if necessary', and that he should send an 
express to him, directed to that city, and another to Captain Taylor, at 
Fort Harrison. When nearly ready to dispatch his messenger, Capt. Rhea 
sent a note to him requesting that he would delay his express to Cin- 
cinnati, until he could write a letter to the governor of Ohio, inform- 
ing him of the report. Stickney complied with this request, and the 
express was sent with letters to Gov. Harrison and Gov. Meigs. Active 
preparations were now begun b}- the little garrison of lOO for 
defense. Such men as could be spared with teams were emplo\red to 
send off ladies who were there, with children, to the frontier; and it was 
subsequently ascertained that within a few hours after the messengers 
had started, the Indians drew their lines around the fort. 

On the Sth of August, Major Stickney was prostrated by severe ill- 
ness, from which he did not become convalescent for twelve days. He was 
then conveyed from the agency house to the fort for safet3^ It was now 
very plain that the statement of Bondie was no fiction. He, with his In- 
dian family, moved into the fort. The Indian warriors, to the number of 
some 500, as then supposed, assembled in the neighborhood of the fort; 
and it was evident tliat they had hopes of getting possession of it by 
stratagem. They would lie in wait near the fort, day after day, a few 
near, but the majorit}- of them as much out of sight as possible. 
Those near were watching an opportunity to force the sentries, but these 
were so faithful to their duty, that no chance was presented. Stephen 
Johnston, who was a clerk in the United States factory store, feeling 
very solicitous about the safety' of iiis wife (who had been sent to the 
frontier in a delicate situation), accompanied by Peter Oliver and a dis- 
charged militiaman, attempted to elude the vigilance of the Indians, and 
visit the place of her abode. They left at lo o'clock at night. When 
a short distance south of what is now known as the Hanna homestead, 
Johnson was fired upon by six Indians and killed instantly. Before the 
Indians could reload their pieces, the remaining two men made good 
their retreat to the fort; and for a reward of $20, an Indian was induced 
to bring in the body of Mr. Johnston. The Indians disclosed their pur- 
poses bv other violent acts. One one occasion two soldiers were sent 
out on "horseback, three or four miles, to drive in some cattle. One of 
them was taken prisoner, the other made his escape. The Indians ob- 
tained possession of both horses. The}^ killed cattle and hogs near the 
fort, stole horses, and committed many other minor depredations. 

Both parties wished to delay the final conflict — Major Stickney, to 
give time for Gen. Harrison to send the fort the necessary relief; and 
the Indians, from daily expectation of the arrival of the British force 
which had been promised them. The Indians, however, did not cease 
to emplo}' many devices and stratagems, to accomplish their object 


before the arrival of the British. An Indian would occasionally come near 
the fort, and hold conversation with an interpreter, who would be sent 
out for that purpose. The interpreter would be informed that the depre- 
dations had been committed by the young men, contrary to the wishes 
of the chiefs — - that the chiefs wished for peace. At length the Indians 
expressed a desire to be admitted to see . the commandant of the post, 
that they might agree upon some terms for a cessation of hostilities; and 
asked for a signal by which they might approach the fort and be per- 
mitted to talk with their white father. A white cloth was accordingly 
sent to them to be used as a flag of truce. For several da3-s they de- 
la3'ed making use of the flag, and continued their depredations. The 
agent finally sent a message to them, b}' an Indian, that they had dirtied 
his flag, and he could not suffer them to retain it any longer; that they 
must return it immediately. The next daj^, the whole body of Indians 
moved up to the fort, bearing the white flag in front, evidenth- hoping 
to obtain the admission of a large number of their warriors. But the 
agent was too well acquainted with Indian character to be deceived. 
Having with difficulty, being yet ill, walked to the gate, he designated 
by name the chiefs to be admitted, who, upon their entrance one by one, 
were disarmed by the guard, and examined very closely. Thirteen 
only were admitted, who followed the agent to his sleeping apartment. 
The officers in the garrison remained in their quarters. The agent now 
addressed a note to Capt. Rhea, desiring that the guard should be 
paraded and kept under arms during the continuance of the council. In 
accordance with the customs of such occasions, tobacco was presented 
to the chiefs that they might smoke. 

When the pipes began to go out, Winnemac, the Pottawatomie, 
rose and addressed the agent, declaring that the Pottawatomies had no 
hand in killing Johnston, and that the chiefs could not control their 
young men. The soldiers and horses had been taken without the 
knowledge or consent of the chiefs, in opposition to whose wishes the 
young men had committed all their depredations. " But," continued 
Winnemac, " if mj- father wishes for war, I am a man." At this ex- 
pression the chief struck his hand upon his knife, which he had con- 
cealed under his blanket. Bondie, who was present, and understood 
fully what was said, jumped quickly to his feet, and striking his knife 
sharpl_v, shouted in Pottawatomie, " I am a man too." The interpreter 
turned" pale, and the faces of the chiefs present bore a look of disap- 
pointment, as the}- saw the guard parading under arms. The confer- 
ence was closed, and, although Major Stickney was convinced of the 
treachery, as the chiefs had been admitted under a flag of truce, they 
were permitted to go out unmolested. The plan of the Indians on this 
occasion was subsequentl}- divulged. They were to obtain an entrance 
into the fort, for as many as possible. Winnemac was to be the speaker. 
When he should come to the expression "I am a man," he was to dis- 
patch the agent. Other chiefs were to rush to each of the officers' quar- 


ters, to massacre them, and others were to open the gates of the fort, 
to the force without. The work was then to be finished, by butchering 
every soul in the fort. 

The commandant, Captain Rhea, who was unfortunatel}^ addicted to 
his cups, invited Winnemac to his quarters and held a long consultation 
with him there. The agent learned from the interpreter that the captain 
had made great professions of friendship to the chief, and had invited 
him to breakfast with him in the morning. .Going to attempt to dissuade 
from so rash a proceeding, he found the captain in such a state of intox- 
ication that it was useless to attempt to reason with him, so he sought 
the two heutenants, Ostrander and Curtis, and informed them of what 
had taken place, and giving it as his opinion that an attack would be 
made the next morning, urged upon them the necessity of all possible 
preparation. The next morning, aroused by the hring of rifles, the 
agent stepped out upon a galler}- that projected from the second story 
of his quarters, and saw two soldiers fall, -mortallv wounded, about fifty 
yards from the fort. He then ascertained that no preparations had been 
made in anticipation of an attack. All was confusion in the garrison. 
The two men were taken into the fort, and died about one o'clock that day. 

About the 3d of September, a most interesting occurrence took 
place. A white man and three Indians arrived at the fort, on horseback, 
"in full yell." It was the Indian yell of triumph. The white man 
proved to be William Oliver. He was accompanied by Capt. Logan 
and his two Shawnee companions. The garrison had long been in 
weary suspense, not knowing whether the express to Gov. Harrison 
had got through or not, and every day in expectation that the British 
force would arrive. All were on tiptoe to hear the news — William Oli- 
ver had arrived in defiance of 500 Indians — had broken through their 
lines and reached the fort in safet}-. He reported that about 2,000 vol- 
unteers had assembled in Kentucky, and had marched to Cincinnati. 
Harrison having received the dispatch from the agent at Fort Wayne, 
had determined to march to its relief. Ohio was raising volunteers. 
Eight hundred were then assembled at St. Mar3''s, sixty miles south of 
Fort Wayne. The}^ intended to march to the rehef of the fort in three 
or four da3'S. 

WilHam Oliver, about twenty-three years of age, was a sutler with 
the garrison at Fort Wayne, but had made a visit to Cincinnati, and did 
not until he had returned as far as Piqua, learn of the siege. He imme- 
diately joined a rifle company, expecting to advance at once to the relief; 
but becommg impatient determined to go to Cincinnati and induce Col. 
Wells to advance with the Seventeenth regiment, or else try to reach 
the fort alone and encourage his friends to hold out. He found Har- 
rison at Cincinnati, who assured him the troops would march at once. 
Oliver declared his intention of going through the Indian lines to carry 
the news to the fort, but the general warned him of the danger, and as 
he shook hands with him, observed " that he should not see him again." 
In four days he overtook the militia at the St. Mary's and learned that 


scouts reported the Indians in great foyce on the route to the fort. But 
he had taken his Hfe in his hand and would not abandon the enterprise. 
On the next day, Gen. Thomas Worthington, then an Indian commis- 
sioner, joined him, and the}' secured an escort of sixty-eight militia and 
Logan and fifteen otlier Shawnees. On the second day, thirty-six of 
the party became frightened and returned; the remainder in the evening 
camped twenly-four miles from Fort Wa3me. Here Worthington and 
the rest were persuaded to remain, while Oliver, Logan, Captain John 
and Bright-Horn pushed on. 

Well armed and mounted, they started at daybreak of September 
3d, and cautioush' advanced. When within five miles of the fort, Logan 
discovered that the Indians had dug holes on either side of the trace, 
alternatel}', at such distances as to protect themselves from their own 
fire, and were read}- to meet all attempts at communication. The party 
consequently struck across the countr}- to the Maumee, which they 
reached a mile and a half below the fort. Tying their horses in a 
thicket, the}' crept forward until they discovered .that the garrison was 
still in possession. They then returned to their horses, remounted, and 
riding at the greatest speed reached the gate of the esplanade. Finding 
this locked they rode down the river bank, and ascended to the northern 
gate. Fortune had favored them, for just at this time, the Indian hos- 
tiles were engaged in concocting another plan to capture the fort by 
stratagem, and at the gate tlie apparition of Oliver and his men sur- 
prised Winnemac and Five Medals, who were about to ask admittance 
with treacherous designs. Said one of the lieutenants of the fort: "The 
safe arrival of Oliver at this particular juncture ma}' be considered 
miraculous. One hour sooner or one hour later, would no doubt have 
been inevitable destruction both to himself and his escort. It is gener- 
ally believed by those acquainted with the circumstances, that not one 
hour, for eight days and nights preceding or following the hour which 
Mr. Oliver arrived, would have afforded an opportunity of any safety." 

Oliver prepared a hasty letter to Washington, and Logan and his 
companions, supplied with new rifles, were cautiously let out of the 
gate, whence they started at the utmost speed of their horses. The 
hostiles made a desperate effort to intercept them, but the anxious gar- 
rison soon heard the couriers' yells of triumph far beyond the besieg- 
ers' lines. > 

From the 5th the siege was active. An incessant firing was 
kept up day and night; several times the buildings were set on fire by 
burning arrows which were shot within the stockade, but the vigilance 
of the garrison prevented a conflagration. A few days after Oliver's 
arrival, the Indians, in the evening, gained possession of a trading house 
near the fort, and from this point demanded a surrender. Protection 
was promised in that case, but extermination if the fort was carried by 
storm. To emphasize their demand, they claimed to have received 
large reinforcements, some pieces of British cannon, and artillerists; the 
demand was refused, and then with hideous yells, the savages swarmed 


in upon the fort, opening a heavy fire, in which two cannon joined. 
Ever}' man in the garrison capable of duty stood at his post with sev- 
eral stands of loaded rifles at hand. Curtis", the acting lieutenant, gave 
orders not to fire until the enemy had approached within twenty-five 
paces. This order was executed and such a destructive fire opened 
that in twenty minutes the Indians retreated with a loss of eighteen 
men. It was afterward discovered that the cannon used were made of 
logs by some British traders. Only three loads were fired from them 
before they burst. 

Gov. Harrison was so popular, that the governor of Kentucky disre- 
garded the state law, and made him brigadier-general of the Kentucky 
"militia, whom he led as rapidly as possible to the relief of Fort Wayne. 
The faithful Shawnees met the advancing army at Piqua, Ohio, where 
the message of Ohver was delivered to Gen. Harrison, who drew his 
men together, and made them a speech. Said he: "If there is a man 
under my command who lacks the patriotism to rush to the rescue, he, 
by paying back the money received from the government, shall receive 
a discharge, as I do not wish to command such." But one man re- 
sponded to the proposition. His name was Miller, of the Kentucky 
militia; and having obtained his discharge, on the morning of the 6th, 
his comrades, not willing to let him return without some special mani- 
festation of appreciation, put him on a rail, carried him around the lines 
to the music of the Rogue's March, and down to the Miami, where they 
took him off the rail, let him into the water and baptized him in the 
name of "King George, Aaron Burr, and the Devil." As he emerged, 
the men stood on the bank and threw handsful of mud at him, then, 
forming into two fines in an adjacent lane, made him run the gauntlet, 
each one contributing a handful of dirt. Harrison learned at this time 
that Gen. Winchester was to command, but that officer being yet in the 
rear, the hero of Tippecanoe resolved to push on and save Fort Wayne. 

On the moi'ning of the 6th the army began its march for Fort 
Wayne, encamping that evening in the woods some twelve miles from 
Piqua. Early on the morning of the yth [Monda}'], the army resumed 
its march, made fifteen miles, and encamped on a branch three and a 
half miles from the St. Mary's. September 8th, they marched to St. 
Marj^'s where they lay tifi next day. There they were joined by 200 
mounted volunteers under Col. Richard M. Johnson, who had volun- 
teered forthirt}' days, onhearing that Fort Wayne was besieged. Wednes- 
day', September 9th, the}' marched eighteen miles to Shane's Crossing, 
where they overtook a regiment of Spo men from Ohio, under Colonels 
Adams and Hawkins, who had started on to the relief of Fort Wayne. 
From this point Logan and four Shawnee companions acted as scouts 
for the army. Cols. Adams and Hawkins joined the arm}' and aU 
marched together, numbering about 3,500 men. They marched ten 
miles and encamped. A strong detachment of spies under Capt. James 
Sugget of Scott county, marched considerably ahead of the army, and 
Sugget came upon the trail of a large party which he immediately pur- 


sued. After following the trail some distance he was fired on by an In- 
dian, who had secreted himself in a clump of bushes so near to Sugget 
that the powder burnt his clothes, but the ball missed him. The Indian 
jumped from his covert and attempted to escape, but Andrew Johnson, 
of Scott's, shot him. At the crack of the gun, the Indian's gun and 
blanket fell. Supposing that he had killed him, and being eager in pur- 
suit of the trail, the}' made no halt; but before the}' could overtake the 
Indians they had to give up the pursuit on account of the lateness of the 
hour and the distance they were ahead of the army. On returning to 
where the Indian was shot they found the gun and blanket, but he had 
escaped. They followed the blood for some distance and found pieces of 
his handkerchief, which he had cut into plugs to stop the blood, but he 
had bled so profusely that it had forced them out of the wound. On re- 
turning to camp Logan held up the bloody blanket and exhibited it as 
he rode along flie line. Orders were immediately issued for the troops 
to turn out and make a breastwork around the encampment, and before 
dark the same was fortified by a breastwork made by cutting down 
trees and piling them on each other. A strong picket guard was de- 
tailed and posted at a considerable distance from the line. Orders were 
given that in case two shots were heard in quick succession, the men 
were quickly to repair to the breastwork, and several alarms brought 
them to their post, but they proved to be false, arising from the fears of 
the militia, unused to war, although it was ascertained afterward that 
the Indians were prepared to attack had they not found the pickets so 

On Saturday, September 10, after an early and scant breakfast, the 
army resumed its march toward Fort Wayne. From St. Mary's it 
moved in two lines, one on the right, and the other on the left of the 
trace, at a distance of about 100 yards therefrom, while the wagons 
kept the trace. Sugget's spies went ahead, and on coming to 
where they had left the trail of the wounded Indian, they again took it, 
and after following it a short distance, found his dead body. When he 
found he could not survive, he broke bushes and covered himself with 
them in order to hide his body. 

The Indians prepared to draw Harrison into an ambush and give 
battle at a swamp five miles southeast of the fort, but finding him too 
wary and his force too strong, they kindled extensive fires to create an im- 
pression with the garrison that a battle had occurred, and then retreated 
past the fort in apparently great confusion, hoping to draw out the gar- 
rison. But this, final ruse failed, and the Indians withdrew, ending a 
weary watch of about twenty days' duration. When Harrison perceived 
the stand of the enemy at the swamp, a halt was made, and the army 
disposed for battle. Col. Hawkins, of the Ohio mounted volunteers, 
left the lines and went some distance from the road. Being partly con- 
cealed by a clump of bushes, one of his men took him for an Indian and 
shot him through. The ball entered between the shoulders and came 
out at the breast, but fortunatel}' did not prove mortal. 


At the first grey of the morning of the I2th of September, the dis- 
tant halloos of the disappointed savages revealed to the anxious inmates 
of the fort the approach of the army. Great clouds of dust could be 
seen from the fort, rolling up in the distance, as the soldiery under Gen. 
Harrison moved forward to the rescue; and in the evening, the 
army stood before the fort, while the woods resounded with the glad 
shouts of welcome to Harrison and the brave hoys of Ohio and 

The ambuscade at the five-mile swamp was directed by Metea, the 
most noted chief of the Pottawatomies, who at this time was in the 
zenith of his power. His villages were on the St. Joseph river, one at 
the table-land where Cedarville now stands, the other seven miles from 
Fort Wayne, gn the section afterward known as the Bourie reserve. 
While preparing his ambuscade at the marsh, he was attacked by Major 
Mann and a few skirmishers, and shot by the Major. The chief's arm 
was broken, but he made his escape, although both' pursued by the offi- 
cer. Metea lived in the vicinity of Fort Wayne until May, 1827, when 
he died from poison, administered it is supposed b)' some Indians who 
were incensed at him for his adherence to the treaty of 1826. He was 
buried on the sand-hill near the site of Fort Wa3'ne college. 

The garrison during the siege had been well supphed with provis- 
ions, and there was a good well of water within the inclosure. Among 
the means of defense were four small field pieces. If it could be pro- 
tected from fire, the post was able to withstand a considerable Indian 
siege. Capt. McAfee, a source of much of the information concern- 
ing this period, gave this militar}' estimate of the fort: "It is delight- 
full}- situated, on an eminence on the south bank of the Miami of the 
lakes, immediately below the formation of that river by the junction of 
the St. Mary's from the southwest with .the St. Joseph's from the north. 
It is well constructed of block houses ancl picketing, but could not resist 
a British force, as there are several eminences on the south side, from 
which it could be commanded b}' a six or nine pounder." The garrison 
had lost but three men. From subsequent information, it was believed 
that the Indian loss was about twenty-five. Eight were seen to fall. 
One Indian was killed at a distance of 300 yards, while stand- 
ing in the St. Mary's river. A soldier named King, with a long, heav}^ 
rifle, fired, and the ball took effect in the back of the savage between 
his shoulders, and he fell into the water. This feat was witnessed by 
the whole garrison. 

Previous to the beginning of the siege, there were several dwellings 
near the fort, forming a little village, but these were now in ruins, hav- 
ing been burned, as well as the government factory, by the hostiles. The 
handsome farm in the fork of the rivers, belonging to Captain Wells, 
and still known as the Wells reserve, was overrun and his buildings 
destroyed. The corn which had been cultivated by the villagers was 
nearly all gone, and the remnants served as forage for Harrison's 


Capt. Rhea had been so utterly incompetent that immediately after 
the arrival of Gen. Harrison, Lieuts. Ostrander and Curtis preferred 
charges against him, and called upon Major Stickney, the agent, as a 
witness. The general assembled his principal officers as a board of in- 
quiry, and it was shown that Rhea was drunk six days during the siege. 
Gen. Harrison, out of consideration for the advanced age of the captain 
granted him leave to resign by the ist of January. • 


On the second da}' after the arrival of the army. Gen. Harrison 
formed fwo detachments, with orders to destroy the Indian villages in 
northeastern Indiana, the first division being composed of the regiments 
under Cols. Lewis and Allen, and Captain Garrard's troop of horse, 
under Gen. Payne, accompanied by Gen. Harrison; the second divi- 
sion, under Col. Wells, accompanied by a battalion of his own regiment, 
under Major Davenport (Scott's regiment), the mounted battalion under 
Johnson, and the mounted Ohio men under Adams. 

In order that the Indians' means of subsistence might also be cut off, it 
was determined while destroj'ing the villages to cut up and destroy the 
corn and 6ther products. After a march of a few miles, the troops un- 
der Payne came to the Miami villages, at the forks of the Wabash, 
where, finding the villages abandoned, the troops were ordered to cut 
up the corn and delitroy the vegetables in the field adjacent. At this 
point was observed the tomb of a chief, built of logs, and bedaubed 
with cla}^. This chief was laid on his blanket, with his gun and his 
pipe b}^ his side, a small tin pan on his breast, containing a wooden spoon, 
and a number of earrings and brooches — all deemed necessary, no doubt, 
on his journey to the other woij^d. 

On the i6th of September the bc5dy under Col. Wells had advanced 
to the Pottawatomie village, known as Five Medals, on the Elkhart river, 
near the site of Goshen. Having crossed the river, about three miles 
above the village, and formed in order of battle, in a plain thinly timbered, 
the division advanced to the right and left of the village, and then sur- 
rounded it; but, to the regret of all, the place was found deserted, the In- 
dians having abandoned it two da^'S before, leaving behind considerable 
quantities of corn, gathered and laid on scaffolds to dry, with abundance 
of beans, potatoes and other vegetables, which furnished an ample store 
of provisions for the men and forage for the horses. This village was 
called Five Medals, from a chief of that name, who made it his residence. 
On a pole, before the door of that chief, a red flag was himg, with a 
broom tied above it; and on another pole at the tomb of an old woman, 
a white flag was flying. The body of the old woman was entire, sitting 
upright, with her face toward the east; and a basket beside her, con- 
taining trinkets, such as owl and hawk bills and claws, a variety of bones, 
and bunches of roots tied together; all of which indicated that she had 
been revered as a sorceress. In one of the huts was found a morning 


report of one of Hull's captains, also a Liberty Hall newspaper, printed 
at Cincinnati, containing an account of Gen. Harrison's army. Several 
coarse bags, which appeared to have contained shot, and pieces of boxes 
with London and Maiden printed on them, were also picked up in the 
cabin; which proved that these Indians were intimately connected with 
the British, and had been furnished with information by some one, per- 
haps, in our own country. This village, with some seventy acres of corn, 
was destroyed, and after a most fatiguing march, from the effects of 
which one man died soon after the return of the division, the force ar- 
rived again at the fort on the iSth, a few hours after the bod}' under 
Payne had returned. 

On the day before the return of these divisions. Col. Simrall, with a 
regiment of dragoons, armed with muskets, and numbering some 320 
men, also a compan}' of mounted riflemen, under Col. Farrow, from 
Montgomery county, Ky., had arrived at the fort; and on the evening 
of the return of Payne and Wells, Gen. Harrison sent them to destroy 
the village called Turtle, some twenty miles northwest of the fort, with 
orders not to molest the buildings formerly erected b}' the United States 
for the benefit of Little Turtle, whose friendship for the Americans had 
ever been fiVm after the treaty of Greenville. 

In addition to these movements, Gen. Harrison took the precaution 
to remove all the undergrowth in the locality surrounding the fort, ex- 
tending toward the confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Mar3''s, to 
where now stands Rudisill's mill, and westward to the point now occu- 
pied by the Port Wayne college, thence southeast to about the site of 
the residence of the late Allen Hamilton, and to the east down the 
Maumee a short distance. So well cleared was che ground, including a 
large part of the present area of the city of Fort Wayne, that it was 
said that a sentinel " on the bastions of the fort, looking westward, could 
see a rabbit running across the grounds as far as so small an object was 
discernible by the naked eye." Bv this " extensive clearing" the Indians 
were left without any shelter for ambush. Some thirty or forty acres, 
of what is yet known as the Cole farm, extending to the junction of the 
rivers, and just opposite the Maumee, was then known as the Pubhc 
Meadow, and had long been a considerable open space. 

Gen. Harrison made an official report of his transactions to the war 
department, and about the 19th of September Brig.-Gen. James Win- 
chester arrived at the fort to take command of the first division of Ken- 
tucky troops. Gen. Winchester had seen service in the revolutionary 
struggle, and at this period was somewhat advanced in 3-ears. He was 
a man of some wealth, and resided in Tennessee, where he is said to have 
lived many 3rears in a degree of elegant luxurj' and ease, which was not 
calculated to season him for a northern campaign in the forest. 

Gen. Harrison was ever a favorite with his soldiers, and commanded 
in a remarkable degree the love and confidence of both the rank and 
file. When Gen. Winchester arrived to take command of the forces 
there was great dissatisfaction among the troops. Indeed, so great was 


the aversion to the change, that many of the militia were disposed not 
to be under his command, and it was with much difficulty that Gen. Har- 
rison and the field officers succeeded in reconciling them to the change 
of officers. During no other war of the United States was the value of 
a true leader so thoroughly demonstrated as in the campaign against the 
Miamis. The men were persuaded to march under Gen. Winchester, with 
the confident belief that Gen. Harrison would sooner or later again 
assume command of them. He did become commander-in-chief on the 
24th; and while the unfortunate Winchester's career ended at the river 
Raisin, he won lasting fame at the river Thames. 

On the 19th the command of the troops at the fort was transferred to 
Gen. Winchester, and any part of the infantry which he might deem 
necessarj' to the extension of his plans was placed at his disposal. 

The same evening Gen. Harrison started toward Piqua, to take 
command of the forces collecting in the rear; and to arrange for a 
mounted expedition against Detroit — intending to surprise that point by 
marching on a route but little known, from Fort Wayne up the St. 
Joseph, and thence to the headwaters of the river Raisin. His troops 
consisted of three regiments from Kentucky, under Barbee, Payne and 
Jennings; three companies of mounted riflemen from the -same state, 
under Capts. Roper, Bacon and Clarke; also a corps of mounted Ohio- 
ans who had rendezvoused at Dayton on the 15th, in obedience to a call 
by Govs. Meigs and Harrison, commanded by Col. Findlej', who had 
re-entered the service since the surrender of Gen. Hull. 

On the 20th Gen. Harrison met the mounted men and the regiment 
of Jennings at St. Marj-'s (Girty Town), the remainder of the infantry 
being still further in the rear. The general having left orders at Fort 
Wayne for Johnson's battalion and Col. SjmralFs dragoons, which were 
not included in Gen. Winchester's command, to return to St. Mary's as 
early as possible. Major Johnson, on the morning of the 20th, began his 
-line of march, but after an advance of some twenty miles, was met by 
orders from Gen. Harrison, to return to Fort Wayne again, and there 
await further orders. The force returned, excepting Ensign Wm. Hol- 
ton, with about twenty-five men of Capt. Ward's company, who refus- 
ing to obey orders, started for Kentuck}'. 

General Winchester had now removed his camp to the forks of the 
Maumee; and earh^ on the 22d of September, he moved down the north 
side of that stream, over very nearly the same route as that by which 
Gen. Wayne's army had reached the Miami villages in 1794, intending 
to go as far as Fort Defiance, at the mouth of the Auglaize, with a view 
of forming a junction there with the infantry in the rear, who were to 
come from the St. Mary's, by way of the Auglaize. 

Before leaving the forks of the Maumee, Winchester issued the 
following order: 

"The front guard in three lines, two deep in the road, and in 
Indian files on the flanks at distances of fifty and one hundred yards, as 
the ground will admit. A fatigue party to consist of one captain, one 




ensign, two sergeants, and two corporals, with fiftj' men, will follow the 
front guard for the purpose of opening the road. The remainder of the 
infantry to march on the flanks in the following order: Colonels Wells 
and Allen's regiments on the right, and Lewis' and Scott's on the left. 
The general and brigade baggage, commissaries and quartermaster's 
stores, immediateh' in the rear of the fatigue part}'. The cavalry in the 
following order: Capt. Garrard and twenty of his men to precede the 
guard in front, and equally divided at the head of each line; a lieutenant 
and eighteen men in the rear of the whole army and baggage; the bal- 
ance of the cavalry equally divided on the flanks or the flank lines. The 
regimental baggage wagons will fall in according to the respective ranks 
of their commanding officers. The officers commanding corps previous 
to their marching will examine carefuU}' the arms and ammunition of 
their respective corps, and see that they are in good order. They will 
also be particularly careful that the men do not waste their cartridges. 
No loaded muskets are to be put in the wagons. One-half of the fatigue 
party is to work at a time, and the others will carry their arms. The 
wagon master will attend to loading the wagons, and see that the various 
articles are put in, in good order, and that each wagon and team carry 
a reasonable load. The hour of march will be 9 o'clock this morning. 
The officer of the day is charged with this order. The hne of battle will be 
the same as that of General Harrison in his last march to Fort Wayne." 
The march down the Maumee was made with great precaution, at the 
rate of five or six miles each day, and the camp strongl}^ fortiiied ever}'- 
night. Not many miles had been gained before a party of Indians were 
discovered, and the signs were strong that there were many more in the 
region. A volunteer company of scouts having been organized under 
Capt. Ballard, Lieut. Harrison Munday, of the rifle regiment, and En- 
sign Liggett, of the 17th U. S. infantry, they were kept in advance to 
reconnoiter the countr}^ On the 25th, Ensign Liggett having obtained 
permission to proceed as far as Fort Defiance, he was accompanied by 
four men of McCracken's company from Woodford, K}'. Late that 
evening, while preparing some food, the}^ were discovered by a French- 
man and eight Indians, who surprised them with a demand to surrender. 
On being assured that they would not be hurt, and would be permitted 
to wear their arms till they entered the British camp, they surrendered; 
but the Indians and Frenchman as they walked on, concocted and exe- 
cuted the following plan for their destruction: five of the Indians, each 
having marked his victim, walked behind and one side of the men, and, 
at a given signal fired upon them. Four of them fell dead; Liggett 
escaped the first fire and sprung to a tree, but was shot while raising his 
gun. Next day Capt. Ballard, with a part of his company', being in 
advance, discovered the dead bodies and a party of Indians watching 
near them. He formed his men for action with the Maumee on his 
right, but not liking his position, and perceiving that the Indians were 
too strong for him, he fell back 200 yards and formed in a stronger posi- 
tion. The enemy supposing he had fled, filed off from their right flank 


intending to surround him on his left, and cut off his retreat. He heard 
them pass by on his left without discovering him, and then filed off by 
the left in their rear, and by a circuitous route arrived safely at the camp. 

Lieut. Munday, with another body of the scouts, presently happened 
at the same place, and discovering some Indians, who still remained 
there, formed his men and charged upon them, at the same time saluting 
them with their own yell. They fled precipitately, and Munday, on dis- 
covering their superior numbers, took advantage of their panic to with- 
draw. Next morning, the 27th, Capt. Ballard, with his spies and Capt. 
Garrard's troop of horse, accompanied b}' Major Woolford, aid to the 
general, and some other volunteers, went forward to bury the dead. 
The Indians were still in ambush; but Capt. Ballard expecting it, ap- 
proached them in a different direction, so as to disconcert their plans. 
He attacked them with a brisk fire, and Capt. Garrard immediately 
ordered a charge, on which they fled in every direction, leaving trails of 
blood from their killed and wounded. 

These Indians were the advance of _an army organized to attack 
Fort Wa3ne, consisting of 200 regulars under Major Muir, of the British 
army, with four pieces of artillery, and about 1,000 Indians, commanded 
by Elliott. They had brought their baggage and artillery by water to 
old Fort Defiance, at the mouth of the Auglaize, where they had left 
their boats and were advancing up the south side of the Maumee toward 
Fort Wayne. Upon the approach of Winchester, they threw their can- 
non into the river, together with their fixed amunition, and retreated in 
great haste. Gen. Winchester did not pursue them. 

Fort Harrison (near Terre Haute), had been besieged also, but here 
Zachar^^ Taylor, then a 3'oung captain, first drew to himself the admi- 
ration of the nation by a gallant and successful defense. 

Thus the plan of the British to take the posts of Forts Wayne and 
Harrison, then to give them up to massacre, and to turn about 1,500 
Indians loose upon the frontier to kill and laj^ waste, had come to defeat. 

The onl}' other important military event for several weeks was a 
successful though perilous movement upon a party of British and In- 
dians at the Rapids, b}^ a small bod}- of troops under Gen. Tupper, 
wherein the former were put to flight, but after the retreat a few of 
Tupper's men were killed bj- the Indians. The British and Indians now 
fell back upon the river Raisin, and Gen. Harrison prepared to establish 
at the Rapids a grand base of supplies for a campaign against Detroit 
and Canada. 

Soon after this movement, Capt. James Logan, the faithful Shawnee 
chief, had proceeded with a small number of his tribe to make observa- 
tions in the direction of the Rapids. Having met and been closely 
pursued by a superior force, he and his men were obliged to disperse 
and retreat, and Logan, with but two of his comrades. Captain John and 
Bright-Horn, succeeded in reaching the camp of Gen. Winchester. 

The second officer in command of the Kentucky troops, without the 
slightest ground, accused Logan of infidelity and giving intelligence to 


the enem_y. Indignant, and burning under the insult, Logan called in 
his friend Oliver, and told him he would start out next morning and 
either leave his body bleaching in the woods or return with such trophies 
as would vindicate his loyalty. Accordingh', on the 2 2d of November, 
accompanied by Captain John and Bright-Horn, he started down the 
Maumee about noon. Having stopped to rest, they were surprised by a 
party of seven of the enemy, mounted, among them j^oung Elliott, the 
half-breed British officer, and the celebrated Winnemac. With great 
presence of mind Logan extended his hand to the chief and pretended 
that he had left the Americans and wished to join the British. Winne- 
mac shrewdly proceeded to disarm the Shawnees, and his party sur- 
rounding them, they moved toward the British camp. But Logan 
persisted so strongly in his story that finally the arms were returned to 
him and his men. Overhearing Winnemac and Elliott talking of shoot- 
ing them down if they made a move to escape, Logan determined to 
take the offensive, and managed to give the word to his companions. 
Captain John put some extra bullets in his mouth, with the expression 
"Me chaw heap tobac." It was soon determined to encamp for night, 
and as the British party scattered somewhat, Logan and his men opened 
fire upon them. By the first fire both Winnemac and Elliott fell; by 
the second a young Ottawa chief lost his life, and two more of the en- 
emj' were mortally wounded about the conclusion of the combat. But 
at this time Logan himself, as he was stooping down, received a ball 
just below the breast-bone which ranged downward and lodged under 
the skin of his back. Bright-Horn was also wounded by a ball which 
passed through his thigh. As soon as Logan was shot, he ordered a re- 
treat; he and Bright-Horn, wounded as they were, jumped on the 
horses of the enem}- and rode to Winchester's camp, a distance of 
twenty miles, in five hours. Captain John, after taking the scalp of 
Winnemac, also retreated in safety and arrived at the camp next morning. 

Logan had wiped out the imputation against him, but he died after 
two or three days of extreme agon}'. He endured the pain with great forti- 
tude and died satisfied. " More firmness and consummate bravery has 
seldom appeared on the militar}- theatre," said Winchester, in his letter 
to the commanding general. " He was buried with all the honors due 
to his rank, and with sorrow as sincerely and generally displayed, as I 
ever witnessed," said Major Hardin, in a letter to Gov. Shelb}'. 

Spemika-lawba, the High Horn, one of the Machachac tribe of Shaw- 
nees, obtained the name of Logan from Col. Logan, of Kentucky, who- 
captured him when a boy, and made him for several years a member 
of his family. He finally returned to his tribe and became a civil chief. 
It has been stated, manifestly without reason, that he was related to Te- 
cumseh. He married an Indian maiden, who, when young, had been 
taken prisoner by Col. Hardin, in 1789. In the army he had formed an 
attachment for Major Hardin, son of the colonel, and son-in-law of Gen. 
Logan, and on his death bed, requested him to see that the money due for 
his services was faithfully paid to his famih'. He also requested, that 


his famil}- might be removed immediate]}' to Kentucky, and his children 
educated and brought up in the manner of the white people. Logan was 
widely known as a friend of the whites. He was one of the guides for 
Gen. "Hull, and prior to the siege of Fort Wayne, he was intrusted by 
John Johnston, of Piqua, with the delicate and dangerous duty of bringing 
the women and children from the threatened post. He conducted 
twenty-five women and children 100 miles in safety, and did not sleep 
from the time he left Fort Wayne until he arrived at Piqua. 

About the time of Tupper's expedition to the Rapids, Gen. Harrison 
determined to send an expedition of horsemen against the Miamis, 
assembled in the towns on the Mississinewa river, a branch of the Wa- 
bash. A deputation of chiefs from those Indians met Gen. Harrison at 
St. Mary's, early in October, and sued for peace, agreeing to abide by 
the decision of the president, and in the meantime to send in five chiefs 
to be held as hostages. The president replied to the communication of 
the general on this subject, that, as the disposition of the several tribes 
would be known best by himself, he must treat them as their conduct 
and the public interest might, in his judgment, require. The hostages 
were never sent in, and further information of their intended hostility 
was obtained. At the time of their peace mission, they were alarmed 
by the successful movements which had been made against other tribes 
from Fort Wayne, and by a formidable expedition which was penetrat- 
ing their country under Gen. Hopkins. But the failure of that expedi- 
tion was soon afterward known to them, and they determined to 
continue hostile. A white man by the name of William Connor, who 
had resided many years with the Delawares, and had a wife among 
them, but who was firmly attached to the American cause in this war, 
was sent to the towns to watch the movements of the Miamis. He 
visited the villages on the Mississinewa river, and was present at several 
of their councils. The question of war with the United States and 
union with the British was warmly debated, and there was much division 
.among the chiefs, but the war party at last prevailed. The presence 
of Tecumseh, and afterward the retreat of Gen. Hopkins, rendered them 
nearly unanimous for war. 

To avert the evils of their hostility, was the object of the expedition 
against Mississinewa. Said Harrison : " The situation of this town, as 
it regards one line of operations, even if the hostility of the inhabitants 
was less equivocal, would render a measure of this kind highly proper; 
but from the circumstance of Gen. Hopkins' failure it becomes indispens- 
able. Relieved from the fears excited by the invasion of their country, 
the Indians from the upper part of the Illinois river, and to the south of 
Lake Michigan, will direct all their efforts against Fort Wayne and the 
convoys which are to follow the left wing of the army. Mississinewa 
will be their rendezvous, where they will receive provisions and eveiy 
assistance they may require for any hostile enterprise. From that place 
they can, by their runners, ascertain the period at which every convoy 
may set out from St. Mary's and with certainty intercept it on its way to 


the Maumee Rapids. But that place being broken up, and the provi- 
sions destroyed, there will be nothing to subsist anj^ body of Indians, 
nearer than the Pottawatomie towns on the St. Joseph of the lake." 

This expedition numbered about 600 mounted riflemen, under 
Lieut. -Col. Campbell. It left Franklinton on the 25th of November, by 
way of Dayton and Greenville; and reached the Indian towns on the 
INIississinewa toward the middle of December, suffering much from the 
cold. In a rapid charge upon the first village, eight warriors were killed, 
and fort}--two taken prisoners, including men, women and children. 
About half an hour before day, the morning following this charge, the 
detachment was attacked by the Indians, and after a sharp but short en- 
counter, in which Campbell lost eight killed, and fortj'-eight wounded, 
the enemy fled precipitatel}' with a heavy loss. 

Learning from a prisoner that Tecumseh was within eighteen miles 
of them, with a body of 600 warriors, with the number of wounded then 
to be cared for, it was deemed advisable to return, and the detachment, 
having previously destroyed the towns they had approached, started 
upon their return march, and reached Dayton during the early part of 
January. The good effect of the expedition was soon felt, as it disclosed 
who were friends and who were enemies among the Indians. 

The winter being severe, and unfavorable to transportation, the army 
of Harrison suffered many privations for the want of sufficient provisions 
and clothing: 3'et though it was midwinter in the wild and trackless 
forests, the government and people were impatient, and anxiety was 
manifest for a forward march against the British. 

At the River Raisin. — On January loth, 1813, Gen. Winche.ster 
having received orders to advance toward the British lines, reached the 
Rapids, preceded b}^ a detachment of 670 men, under Gen. Payne, who 
had been ordered to attack a party of Indians gathered in an old fortifi- 
cation at Swan creek. A large stone house was built within the en- 
campment, at the Rapids, to secure the provisions and baggage. A 
considerable quantity of corn was also gathered in the fields, and 
apparatus for pounding and sifting it being made, it supplied the troops 
with very wholesome bread. 

It soon became apparent that an attack was meditated by the British 
upon the forces under Winchester, they having heard through some 
Indians of the advance of the army. Consequently, on the morning of 
the 17th, Gen. Winchester detached Col. Lewis, with 550 men, for the 
river Raisin ; and a few hours later, Lewis' detachment was followed by 
no more under Col. Allen. On the morning of this day Gen. Win- 
chester sent a message to Gen. Harrison, acquainting him with the 
movements made, and desiring a reinforcement, in case of opposition in 
an effort to possess and hold Frenchtown. With this express was also 
sent word that 400 Indians were at the river Raisin, and that Elliott was 
expected from Maiden, with an expedition to attack the camp at the Rapids. 

Early on the morning of the 19th, the messenger reached Gen. Har- 
rison, who ordered another detachment to proceed at once to the Rapids, 


which reached there on the morning of the 20th, accompanied by the 
commander-in-chief. In the meantime, on the iSth, the troops under 
Lewis and Allen, who had proceeded toward the river Raisin, to occupy 
Frenchtown, had been attacked by the enemy, who were driven back, 
with considerable loss, leaving the town in the possession of the federal 
forces. On receipt of news of this action, Gen. Winchester set out with 
250 men for the relief of the forces at Frenchtown, and arrived at the 
river Raisin on the 20th. The British and Indian advance, under Col. 
Proctor, was preparing to renew the attack of the i8th, and on the night 
of the 2 1 St advanced unobservecfver}' near the American lines. Earl}- 
on the morning of the 2 2d, the enemy, from a position within about 300 
3-ards of the American lines, opened a heavy fire with cannon and 
musketr}-, and soon succeeded in nearl}^ surrounding the camp. 

The Americans fought bravely, but were overpowered, and an indis- 
criminate slaughter followed. In their confusion and dismay, the Ameri- 
cans attempted to pass down a long narrow lane, through which the 
road ran from the village. The Indians were on both sides, and shot 
them down in great numbers. A large partj^, which had gained the 
wood, on the right, were surrounded and massacred, nearly 100 men 
being tomahawked within the distance of 100 yards. The most horrible 
destruction overwhelmed the fugitives in every direction. 

Captain Simpson was shot and tomahawked at the edge of the 
woods, near the mouth of the lane. Col. Allen, who has been before 
mentioned, though wounded in his thigh, attempted to rally his men 
several times, entreating them to halt and sell their lives as dearl}' 
as possible. He had escaped about two miles, when, at length, 
wearied and exhausted, and disdaining perhaps to survive the defeat, he 
sat down on a log, determined to meet his fate. An Indian chief, ob- 
serving him to be an officer of distinction, was anxious to take him pris- 
oner. As soon as he came near the Colonel, he threw his gun across 
his lap, and told him in the Indian language to surrender and he should 
be safe. Another savage having, at the same time, advanced with a 
hostile appearance. Col. Allen, by one stroke of his sword, laid him 
dead at his feet. A thn-d Indian, near by, had then the honor of shoot- 
ing one of the first and greatest citizens of Kentucky. Capt. Mead, 
of the regular army, who had fought by the side of Col. Daviess, when he 
fell in the battle of Tippecanoe, was killed where the action was com- 
menced. Finding that the situation of the corps was rendered desperate 
b)- the approach of the enemy, he gave orders to his men — " M3' brave 
fellows, charge upon them;" and a moment afterward he was no more. 

A party with Lieut. Garrett, consisting of fifteen or twenty men, 
after retreating about a nule and a half, was compelled to surrender, and 
and all massacred, but the lieutenant. Another part}- of about thirty 
men had escaped nearl}' three miles, when thej- were overtaken b)- the 
savages, and havmg surrendered, about one-half of them were shot and 
tomahawked. In short, the greater part of those who were in the re- 
treat, fell a sacrifice to the fury of the Indians. The snow was so deep, 


and the cold so intense, that they were soon exhausted, and unable to 
elude their pursuers. Gen. Winchester and Col. Lewis, with a few 
more, were captured at a bridge, about three-quarters of a mile from the 
village. Their coats being taken from them, they were carried back to 
the British lines. 

A part}^ under Majors Graves and Madison, having placed them- 
selves behind some picketing, maintained their position and fought 
bravely, until an order, i-eported as coming from Gen. Winchester, was 
brought by Proctor, who was accompanied b}^ one of his aids, desiring 
them to surrender. Major Madison remarked " that it had been cus- 
tomary^ for the Indians to massacre the wounded and prisoners after a 
surrender, and that he would not agree to any capitulation, which Gen. 
Winchester might direct, unless the safety and protection of his men 
were stipulated." To which Proctor replied: "Sir, do you mean to 
dictate to me ? " "No," said Madison; "I mean to dictate for m3^self, 
and we prefer selling our lives as dearly as possible, rather than be 
massacred in cold blood." 

Terms embodying positive protection to all having at length been 
agreed upon, Madison surrendered and his party reached Maiden in 
safet}'. But the Indians soon returned to the scene of disaster, and be- 
gan an unmerciful slaughter of the wounded, stripping them, and even 
setting fire to the houses in which many of them were sheltered, burn- 
ing them with the buildings. In this terrible affair about 400 Americans 
were killed and 520 made prisoners. 

When Gen. Harrison received news of the opening of the engage- 
ment, he ordered Perkin's brigade to proceed to his relief, and soon 
after mounted his horse and overtook some reinforcements under Payne. 
But they had not proceeded far when the}' were met by some men from 
the scene of defeat, who told the sad storj^ of the fate that had befallen 
their comrades. Its effect was to ner^'^e Gen. Harrison to push on with 
greater speed. However, another party was met, and, after a council 
as to the wisdom of proceeding, it was deemed proper to venture no 
nearer the scene of disaster, as no succor could be rendered the victims 
of the furious red men and merciless British opponents, and a further 
advance would only tend to furnish more material for massacre and de- 
feat. Subsequent to the battle, the British sent Gen. Winchester, Col. 
Lewis and Major Madison to Quebec, where and at Beaufort thej'' were 
confined till the spring of 1S14. 

S/ci^-c of Fort JMcigs. — After these events little of importance oc- 
curred until the latter part of April. On the i6th of February, the 
governor of Kentucky, in compliance with a law that had been recently 
passed in that state, had ordered a draft of 3,000 men, to be organized 
into four regiments, under Colonels Dudley, Boswell, Cox and Caldwell, 
under the command of Gen. Green Clay. As the season advanced, it 
became evident that the British would soon make an attack on the 
American lines at Fort Meigs, Flarrison's base on the Maumee; and this 
was made the more certain from the fact that the enemy had recently 


learned the situation of affairs in the American army from a prisoner 
they had taken. This condition of affairs was communicated to the war 
department, and the propriety of calling out the remainder of the Ken- 
tuck}' draft, to be placed at Fort Wa^-ne to keep the Indians in check, 
was pressed upon the attention of the government. 

Both the American and British armies became active in their move- 
ments; and the British commander made bold to assert that he would 
march the northwestern army under Gen. Harrison, to Montreal by the 
first of June. During the latter part of April, the British had often«been 
seen, in small bodies, near Fort Meigs, by scouts sent out by the com- 
manding-general; and on the 26th of April, the enemy's advance was 
observed at the mouth of the bay. On the 2Sth, as Captain Hamilton 
was descending the Maumee, with a small reconnoitering party, he 
beheld the whole force of the British and Indians coming up the river 
within a few miles of the fort. The British, with a force of 3,000, took 
possession of old Fort Miami, just below the scene of Wa3'ne's engage- 
ment with the Indians in 1794, opposite and two miles below Fort Meigs. 
Three batteries were erected opposite Fort Meigs, and the Indians, 
occupying the south side of the river, invested the garrison. 

About the ist of May, the British, having completed their batteries, 
commenced a heavy cannonade against Fort Meigs, which '. ;as contin- 
ued for five da3-s, with but httle effect. The American batteri s returned 
the fire, but with little energy, not wishing to waste ammunition. 

Tecumseh and the Prophet, with a body of some 600 Indians, since 
the fatal affair at the Raisin i-iver (^ Tecumseh not having been present 
at that engagement), had joined the British, and were directing the In- 
dian operations against the Americans. 

About the time of the opening of the British batteries, Gen. Har- 
rison had expected a reinforcement under Gen. Green Clay; and when 
the movements of the British became fully apparent, Capt. Oliver, 
accompanied by a white man and an Indian, was sent as a messenger to 
Gen. Cla^s with letters also for the governors of Ohio and Kentucky. 

Fears had been entertained that the enemy would at length make an 
effort to gain a nearer approach to the fort, and erect a battery on the 
same side of the river. This was done on the 3d, and three field pieces 
and a howitzer were opened upon the American camp from a clump of 
bushes on the left, but were soon hushed b}' a few shots from the eigh- 
teen pounders of the American batteries. Changing their position, the 
batteries were again opened, but with little effect. Said Col. Wood, of 
the American forces: "With a plenty of ammunition, we should have 
been able to blow John Bull almost from the Miami. * * * 
It was extremel}^ diverting to see with what pleasure and delight the In- 
dians would yell, whenever in their opinion considerable damage was 
done in camp by the bursting of a shell. Their hanging about the 
camp, and occasionally coming pretty near, kept our hues almost con- 
stantly in a blaze of fire; for nothing can please a Kentuckian better 
than to get a shot at an Indian — and he must be indulged." 


With a reinforcement of some 1,200 Kentuckians, Gen. Clay soon 
drew near. Capt. Oliver had met him at Fort Winchester. Gen. Har- 
rison immediately sent an order to Gen. Clay, which was deHvered by 
Capt. Hamilton, requesting him to detach " about 800 men from his 
brigade, and to land them at a point he would direct, about a mile or a 
'mile and a half above Camp Meigs. I will then conduct the detachment," 
continued Gen. Harrison, " to the British batteries on the left [north] 
bank of the river. The batteries must be taken, the cannon spiked, 
and carriages cut down; and the troops must then return to their 
boats and cross over to the fort. The balance of 3'our men," said he, 
" must land on the fort side of the river, opposite the first landing, and 
fight their way into the fort through the Indians." 

As soon as Capt. Hamilton had delivered the orders. Gen. Clay, who 
was then in the thirteenth boat from the front directed him to go to Col. 
Dudley, with orders to take the twelve front boats and execute the 
plans of Gen. Harrison on the left bank, and to post the subaltern with 
the canoe on the right bank, as a beacon for his landing. 

Col. Dudley gained the British batteries, and the British flag was cut 
down, amid the cheers of the American garrison. Gen. Harrison, who 
had been watching with great concern, through his field glass, from a 
battery next to the river, the movements of Dudley across the river, 
discovered that Dudley pursued the British, after spiking the guns, and 
was in imminent danger, if he did not at once obey the previous orders 
to retire as soon as that object was accomplished. 

Tecumseh was on the south side, where a sortie from the fort was 
made to engage him, but seeing the movements opposite, he crossed the 
river and fell upon the rear of Dudley, whose right and center had moved 
two miles from the fort in pursuit of the enemy. The general sent 
Lieut. Campbell to warn Dudley of his danger, but he could not reach 
him in time. The left column still holding the batteries, was attacked b}^ 
the British, largely reinforced, who overpowered the Americans, cap- 
turing some at the batteries, while others fled to the boats. The right 
and center being surrounded, surrendered. Col. Dudley had received 
a wound, and was finally tomahawked by the savages. The number 
that escaped and regained the fort was less than 200. The prisoners 
were taken down to headquarters, put into Fort Miami, and the Indians 
permitted to occupy the surrounding rampart, and amuse themselves 
by loading and firing at the crowd, or at any particular individual. Those 
who preferred to inflict a still more cruel and savage death, selected 
their victims, led them to the gateway, and there under the eye of Gen- 
eral Proctor, and in the presence of the whole British army, tomahawked 
and scalped them. 

For about two hours these acts of unmitigated ferocity and barbarity 
to the prisoners of war continued; during which time, upward of twenty 
prisoners were massacred in the presence of the magnanimous Britons, 
to whom they had surrendered. The chiefs, at the same time, were 
holding a council on the fate of the prisoners, in which the Pottawato- 


mies, who were painted black, were for killing the whole, and by their 
warriors the murders were perpetrated. The Miamis and Wyandots 
were on the side of humanity, and opposed the wishes of the others. 
The dispute between them had become serious, when Tecumseh came 
down from the batteries, riding at great speed. M^'ith fury, he struck 
down two Indians about to murder a prisoner, and drawing his toma- 
hawk, dared the horde to attempt to kill another American. He de- 
manded to be told where Proctor was, and seeing him, sternly inquired 
why he permitted the massacre. " Sir," said Proctor, " \^our Indians 
cannot be commanded." " Begone," retorted Tecumseh, " you are unfit 
to command; go and put on petticoats." Still later he said to the noble 
Briton, for whom he had contempt: "I conquer to save, 3-ou to murder." 

The prisoners were retained at Fort Miami till night, many of the 
wounded for hours experiencing excruciating torments, and then were 
placed in the British boats and carried down the river to the brig Hun- 
ter and a schooner, where several hundred of them were stowed away 
in the hold of the brig, and kept there for two days and nights. Being 
fina% liberated on parole, however, these prisoners were landed at the 
mouth of Huron river, below the Sandusky ba}'. 

The division which landed on the Fort Meigs side of the river gained 
the works with little loss, and took part in a general sortie in which the 
British were severelj- punished and many taken prisoners. The disaster 
to Col. Dudley was only a lamentable incident in a day that, in spite 
of it, terminated to the glor}- of the American arms. The siege was 
soon abandoned, and Fort Miami evacuated. The Indians, who had 
been promised great things, including the person of Gen. Harrison for 
torture, were very much discouraged b}' the weakness of the great 
father across the sea. 

Expeditions from Fort Waxne. — During much of the time after the 
transfer of the scene of warfare to the lower Maumee, but little of 
marked interest had occurred at Fort Wajme. The garrison had been 
watchful; the Indians had been active in the region, but their attention 
had mainly been called to the Rapids. 

The principal object of the expeditions against the Indians, from 
Fort Wa3-ne and other points, as the reader will remember, was to de- 
stroy their provisions and means of subsistence, thereby disabling them 
from aiding the British in the spring of 1813. Richard M. Johnson, who 
had witnessed the effect of these movements and the efficienc}'- of the 
mounted riflemen, had, on his return to congress, laid before the war 
department a plan for a mounted e.xpedition against the tribes during 
the winter of 1S12-13. 

The good effects of the expeditions were stated by him to be: "Se- 
curity to the northwestern frontiers from Fort Wayne to the Mississippi — 
to the convoy's of provisions for the northwestern army, when its force 
was diminished in the spring, and the neutralitv of the savages in future, 
from the powerful impression that would be made on their feare; that 
the winter season would be most favorable for the movement — enabhng 


the horsemen, while snow was on the ground, and the leaves off the 
bushes, to hunt out and destroy the Indians prowling about." 

With this view, two regiments, consisting of about 1,280 men, were 
proposed to be emplo3'ed, which were considered sufficient to traverse 
the entire Indian country, from Fort Wayne to the lower end -of, and be- 
yond. Lake Michigan, thence by way of the Illinois river, back to the 
river Ohio, near Louisville; and to disperse and destroy all the tribes of 
Indians and their resources to be found within that compass. Col. John- 
son also presented this project to the governor of Kentucky', and it was 
finally submitted by the secretary of war to Gen. Harrison on the 26th 
of December, 1812. Said the secretary in this communication : "The 
president has it in contemplation to set on foot an expedition from Ken- 
tucky of about 1,000 mounted men, to pass b}- Fort Wayne, the lower 
end of Lake Michigan, and around b}' the Illinois back to the Ohio near 
Louisville, for the purpose of scouring that countr}-, destroying the pro- 
visions collected in the Indian villages, scourging the Indians themselves, 
and disabling them from interfering with your operations. It is expected 
that this expedition will commence in February [1S13]; and it will ter- 
minate in a few weeks. I give you the information, that you may take 
it into consideration in the estimate of those arrangements vou ma}^ find 
it necessary to make, for carr3ang into effect the objects of the govern- 
ment. I send you a copy of the proposed plan, on which I wish to hear 
from you without dela^^ You will particularly state, whether you can 
effect these objects in the manner which is suggested by adequate por- 
tions of the force now in the field; and in that case, whether it will be 
better to suspend the movement of this force until the spring." 

The general plans of Harrison were adopted, and Col. Johnson's 
regiment was accepted and ordered to proceed at once to Fort Wa3-ne, 
where Johnson was to take command of that post, and the posts on the 
Auglaize; also to make incursions into the country of the Indians; to 
scour the northwestern frontiers; and, if possible, to cut off small par- 
ties who might infest the forest, or be marching from the Illinois and Wa- 
bash toward Maiden and Detroit — never to remain at one place more 
than three days. An officer from each regiment was sent back to raise 
another body of men. The regiment under Johnson was officered as 
follows: R. M. Johnson, colonel; James Johnson, lieutenant-colonel. 
First battahon — Duval Payne, major; Robert B. McAfee, Richard 
Matison, Jacob Elliston, Benjamin Warfield, John Payne (cavahy), 
Elijah Craig, captains. Second battalion — David Thompson, major; 
Jacob Stucker, James Davidson, S. R.' Combs, W. M. Price, James 
Coleman, captains. Staff — Jeremiah Kertly, adjutant; B. S Cham- 
bers, quartermaster; Samuel Theobalds, judge-advocate; L. Dickinson, 
sergeant-major. James Sugget, chaplain and major of the spies; 
L. Sandford, quartermaster-sergeant; subsequently added, Dr. Ewing, 
surgeon, and Drs. Coburn and Richardson, surgeon's mates. 

The regiment arrived at Fort Meigs on the ist of June, 1813. From 
this point Col. Johnson proceeded alone to the Indian village of Wapak- 


oneta, on the Auglaize, to procure some Shawnee Indians to act as 
guides and spies; and after a few days returned with thirteen Indians, 
among whom was Anthony Shane, whose father was a Frenchman, in 
whom great confidence was placed by the north\vestern army. Shane 
had been an active opponent of Wayne, in 1794, but after the treaty of 
Greenville had been a most faithful friend of the United States. 

On the 5th of June, Johnson broke camp, and when the troops 
reached Shane's crossing of the St. Mary's, about forty miles from Fort 
Wayne, they were halted and drilled for some time, and there remained 
over night. Heavy rains having but recentl}^ fallen, the St. Mar3''s was 
found impassable; and on the following morning a rude bridge was 
formed over this stream by felling trees across it, upon which the army 
crossed with their baggage and guns, while their horses were got over 
by swimming them by the side of the fallen timber. The remainder of 
the route to Fort Wayne proved ver}^ difficult; all the flats and marshes 
being covered with water, and the roads very miry. Reaching the 
fort on the evening of the 7th of June, it was found that the boats had 
all gained the common landing place, at the base of the hill, just below 
the garrison, in safet}^, but one which had stranded on a sand-bar a 
short distance above, in sight of the fort; and while attempting to get 
the boat off, the boatmen were fired upon by some Indians lurking near, 
and two of the men killed, while the third in attempting to swim to the 
shore was drowned. Arriving a little in advance of the regiment, Col. 
Johnson and staff, as soon -as it was possible to get ready, mounted their 
horses and crossed to the boat. The Indians at once fired upon their 
advance and then retreated. 

The scouts suggested that the Indians were considerably stronger 
than the partj^ under Col. Johnson, and a pursuit was deferred until the 
arrival of the regiment, when a chase was continued for some ten miles; 
but rain beginning to fall heavily, the party was compelled to return to 
the fort again, without having gained sight of the Indians. 

On the next day, after a council of officers, the expedition was 
formed to proceed in the direction of the southeast end of Lake Michi- 
gan. The regiment, toward evening, deposited their heavy baggage in 
the fort; supplied themselves with ten daj-s' provisions, and crossed 
the St. Marj^'s, to encamp for the night in the forks opposite the garri- 
son, where the river had now just begun to rise, though on the even- 
ing of the 5th, it had been at the top of its banks at Shane's crossing, 
but forty miles from its mouth by land. 

Early on the following day, the regiment took the Indian trail leading 
toward the Pottawatomie village of Five Medals, which had been de- 
stroyed the previous year, but which it was thought had been rebuilt. The 
regiment marched fort}' miles this day. Stopping now to rest and per- 
mit their horses to graze, with a view to an attack upon the Indian vil- 
lage at daylight the next morning, a heavy rain came up, preventing the 
execution of the plan; but after encountering many obstacles in crossing 
high waters and marshes, they arrived at the Elkhart river before it had 


risen so as to be impassable, and in half an hour afterward the village of 
Five Medals was gained and surrounded, but found unoccupied. 

Determining now to visit a village on the other side of the St. 
Joseph of the lake, known as Paravash, on the morning of the nth 
the regiment began its march, but upon arriving at the St. Joseph, and 
finding it impassable, further movement upon this village was abandoned. 
A rapid advance was now made eastward upon the White Pigeon town, 
arriving there in the afternoon of that day, meeting a few Indians on the 
way, who made their escape in a canoe across a stream on the route, 
which was also found impassable. The village of White Pigeon had 
long been the most extensive Indian town in that region; and the main 
trace of the Indians, from Chicago and the Illinois country to Detroit, 
passed directly through this town, but appeared to have been but little 
traversed that spring. Near this village the regiment encamped till the 
following day, when, having fulfilled his instructions to visit this trace 
with a view to intercepting any movements of the enemy that might be 
making by this route, and finding also that the provisions of the troops 
had been considerably damaged by the rains encountered, Col. Johnson 
determined to return to Fort Wa3'ne; and as there was an Indian trail 
leading directly from White Pigeon to Fort Wayne, the regiment took 
this path for the fort, where it arrived on the 14th after a march, with 
heavy rains every day, of some 200 miles. 

Though not encountering the Indians in his route, or finding them at 
either of the villages visited, yet the movements of the expedition under 
Col. Johnson greatly increased his knowledge of the countr}-; and it was 
ascertained that all the Indians in the British service who had been en- 
gaged in the siege of Fort Meigs, were still mainly held and maintained 
in the vicinit}- of Maiden. 

x\fter a few days' sta};- at Fort Wayne, the regiment under Johnson 
proceeded down the Maumee, with an escort of provisions, to Fort 
Winchester. The provisions were placed in boats, with a number of 
men to man them, while the troops moved along the road opened by 
Gen. Winchester, on the north side of the Maumee, encamping every 
night with the boats. Arriving at Fort Winchester, Col. Johnson re- 
ceived a dispatch from Gen. Harrison, recommending him to make an 
attack on the enemy at Raisin and Brownstown. This advice, though 
by no means explicit, Col. Johnson sought to carry out, feeling that any 
suggestion emanating from Harrison should be executed, if possible. 
But, owing to his horses being much exhausted by the expedition from 
Fort Wayne, as well as for lack of a sufficient number of men, a de- 
tachment of his regiment having been engaged in escorting provisions 
from St. Mary's, he was unable to carry out immediately the plan pro- 
posed by Gen. Harrison. Its execution was considered most hazardous 
indeed; to have attempted a march of a hundred miles, through swamps 
and marshes, and over difficult rivers, with guides not ver}^ well ac- 
quainted with the countr}-, and -with horses greatly worn down, to attack 
a body of Indians who could, in a few hours, raise more than double the 


force of the regiment of 700 men then -under Johnson, required some 
consideration as well as time and preparation. 

Fortunately for the regiment, on the next day an express arrived 
from Gen. Cla}-, commanding at Fort Meigs, with information that the 
British and Indians threatened to invest that place again, and requesting 
that Col. Johnson would march his regiment there immediately for its 
relief. Such was the zeal and promptitude of both officers and men, 
that in half an hour they were all ready to march, and commenced cross- 
ing the Maumee, opposite the fort. The heads of the column were then 
drawn up in close order, and the colonel, in a short and impressive ad- 
dress, instructed them in their duties. If an enemy were discovered, 
the order of march was to be in two lines, one parallel to the river, and 
the other in front, stretching across from the head of the former to the 
river on the right. He concluded with saying: "We must fight our 
way through any opposing force, let what will be the consequences, as 
no retreat could be justifiable. It is no time to flinch — we must reach 
the fort or die in the attempt." Every countenance, responsive to the sen- 
timents of the speaker, indicated the same desperate determination. 
The ground on which the enemy had gained their barbarous triumph 
over Dudley was again to be traversed; and his allies would doubtless 
hope to realize another 5th of May, in another contest with Kentucky 
militia. The regiment arrived at ten o'clock in the night, opposite Fort 
Meigs, without molestation, and encamped on the open plain between 
the river and the hill on which the British batteries had been erected. 
Information, gained from a Frenchman and an American prisoner, who 
arrived at Fort Meigs on the 20th of June, was to the effect that the 
British were determined to renew the attack on the fort, and were 
to start for that purpose about that period. At this time, Gen. Harri- 
son was at Frankhnton, where he was made acquainted with the deter- 
mination of the British. 

Before quitting Franklinton he held an important council with some 
chiefs of the friendly Indians of the Delaware, Shawnee, Wyandot and 
Seneca tribes, informing them that a crisis had arrived, which required 
all the tribes who remained neutral, and who were willing to engage in 
the war, to take a decided stand either for the Americans or against 
them — that the president wanted no false friends — that the proposal of 
Gen. Proctor to exchange the Kentucky militia for the tribes in our 
friendship indicated that he had received some hint of their willingness 
to take up the tomahawk against the Americans — and that to give the 
United States a proof of their disposition, they must either remove with 
their families into the interior, or the warriors must accompany him in 
the ensuing campaign and fight for the United States. To the latter 
condition, the chiefs and warriors unanimously agreed; and said they had 
long been anxious for an invitation to fight for the Americans. Tahe, 
the oldest Indian in the western country, who represented all the tribes, 
professed, in their name, the most indissoluble friendship for the United 
States. Gen. Harrison then told them he would let them know when 



they would be wanted in the service; "but," said he, "you must con- 
form to our mode of warfare. You must not kill defenseless prisoners, 
old men, women or children." By their conduct, he also added, he 
would be able to tell whether the British could restrain their Indians from 
such horrible cruelty. For if the Indians fighting with him would for- 
bear such conduct, it would prove that the British could also restrain 
theirs if the}^ wished to so — humorously telling them he had been in- 
formed that Gen. Proctor had promised to deliver him into the hands of 
Tecumseh, if he succeeded against Fort Meigs, to be treated as that 
warrior might think proper. "Now," continued he, "if I can succeed 
in taking Proctor, you shall have him for your prisoner, provided you 
will agree to treat him as a squaw, and only put petticoats upon him; for 
he must be a coward who would kill a defenseless prisoner." 

The government, with considerable reluctance, employed Indians 
against the Indians in the service of the British, as a measure of self- 
defense; but it was demonstrated that the North-American savage is 
not such a cruel and ferocious being that he cannot be restrained by 
civilized man within the bounds of civilized warfare. In several in- 
stances, strong corps of Indians fought under the American standard, 
and were uniformly distinguished for their orderly and humane conduct. 

British Discomfiture. — On the ist of July, General Harrison set out 
from Fort Meigs for Lower Sandusky, accompanied by seventy mounted 
men, under command of Capt. McAfee. Soon after his departure, the 
Indians began again to invest the vicinity of Fort Meigs; and late on the 
evening of the 20th of July, the vessels of the British army were to be 
seen in the Maumee, some distance below the fort. Early on the fol- 
lowing morning, a picket-guard, of some eleven men, having been sent 
to a point about 300 yards below the fort, were surprised b}' the Indians, 
and seven of them killed. At this time a large body of British and In- 
dians were seen encamped below old Fort Miami, on the north side of 
the river; and the woods in the rear of the fort were soon after possessed 
by the Indians, who occasionally fired into the fort, and captured some 
horses and oxen. 

On the 23d, with a body of some 800 Indians, Tecumseh was seen 
moving up the river, with a view, as was supposed, of attacking Fort 
Winchester. On the 25th, the enemy removed his camp to the south 
side of the river, which induced the belief that an attempt would be 
made by the British to take the fort by storm. Gen. Harrison was kept 
advised of the movements of the British; but his force was not sufiicient 
to enable him to reach the garrison as he had wished, though he con- 
tinued to assure Gen. Clay that all needed aid would reach him from 
Ohio and other points in good season. On the evening of the 26th, 
some hours after the arrival at the fort of the express from Gen. Harri- 
son, heavy firing was commenced on the Sandusky road, about the 
distance of a mile from Fort Meigs. The discharge of rifles and mus- 
.ketry, accompanied by the Indian yell, could be clearly distinguished; 
and by degrees the apparent contest approached toward the fort, though 


sometimes it appeared to recede. It lasted about an hour, and came in 
the end near the edge of the woods. The general pronounced it a 
sham battle, intended to draw out the garrison to relieve a supposed 
reinforcement. A few discharges of cannon at the fort, and a heavy 
shower of rain, at length put an end to the scheme, no doubt to the 
great mortification of its projectors. The express from Gen. Harrison 
had providentially arrived in time to preserve the garrison from the pos- 
sibility of being deluded by this artifice of the enemy. On the next 
day the British moved over to their old encampment, and on the 28th 
embarked in their vessels and abandoned the siege. The force which 
Proctor and Tecumseh brought against the fort in this instance was 
about 5,000 strong. A greater number of Indians were collected by 
them for this expedition than ever were assembled in one bod}' on an}- 
other occasion during the war. 

Having raised the siege of Fort Meigs, the British sailed round into 
Sandusky bay, while a competent number of their Indian alhes moved 
across through the swamps of Portage river, to co-operate in a combined 
attack on Lower Sandusky, expecting, no doubt, that Gen. Harrison's 
attention would be chiefly directed to Forts Winchester and Meigs. The 
general, however, had calculated on their taking this course, and had 
been careful to keep patrols down the bay, opposite the mouth of Por- 
tage river, where he supposed their forces would debark. Gen. Clay 
now took care to acquaint Gen. Harrison with the movements of the 
British, and on the 29th of July, the messenger from Fort Meigs having 
reached him, he called a council of war, consisting of McArthur, 
Cass, Ball, Paul, Wood, Hukill, Holmes and Graham. 

By the 31st of July, the enemy had approached so near Fort Stephen- 
son, which was held by Major Croghan, as to be able to throw their 
shells about; and a flag was soon seen approaching the garrison, which 
was met by Ensign Shipp. The bearer of the flag had been instructed 
by Gen. Proctor, who accompanied the fleet, to demand a surrender of 
the fort, which was positively refused, Shipp replying that it was the 
determination of the commander of the garrison to defend it to the last 
extremity, and to disappear amid the conflagration that should destrov 
it. The Indians, as on former occasions, " were not to be restrained," 
and the bearer of the flag expressed his "great pity that so fine a young 
man should fall into the hands of the savages." An Indian at this mo- 
ment came out of an adjoining ravine, and advancing to the ensign, took 
hold of his sword and attempted to wrest it from him. The Englishman 
interfered, and having restrained the Indian, affected great anxiety to get 
Shipp safe into the fort. The enemy now opened a fire from their 
six-pounders in the gunboats and the howitzer on shore, which they con- 
tinued through the night with but little intermission, and with very little 
effect. The forces of the enemy consisted of 500 regulars, and about 
800 Indians, commanded by Dickson, the whole being commanded by 
General Proctor in person. Tecumseh was stationed on the road to 
Fort Meigs with a body of 2,000 Indians, expecting to intercept a 
reinforcement on that route. 

Reuben J.Dawsdn. 


The enemy had directed their fire against the northwestern angle of the 
fort, which induced the commander to beheve that an attempt to storm 
his works would be made at that point. In the night Capt. Hunter was 
directed to remove the six-pounder to a block-house from which it would 
rake that angle. B\' great exertion Hunter accomplished this in 
secrecy. The embrasure was masked, and the piece loaded with a half 
charge of powder, and double charge of slugs and grape shot. 

EarU' on the morning of the 2d, the enemy opened fire with their 
howitzer and three six-pounders, which they landed in the night and 
planted in a point of woods about 250 yards from the fort. About 4 
o'clock p. m., the\' concentrated the fire of all their guns on the north- 
west angle, which convinced Major Croghan that they would endeavor 
to make a breach and storm the works at that point. Late in the even- 
ing, when the smoke of the firing had completely enveloped the fort, 
the enemy made the assault. Two feints were made toward the south- 
ern angle, where Capt. Hunter's lines were formed; and at the same 
time a column of 350 men were discovered advancing through the smoke 
within twenty paces of the northwestern angle. A heavj' fire of mus- 
ketry was opened upon them from the fort, which threw them into some 
confusion. Col. Short, who headed the principal column, soon rallied 
his men, and led them with great bravery up to the brink of the ditch. 
After a momentarj' pause, he leaped into the ditch, calling to his men to 
follow him, and in a few minutes it was full. The masked port-hole was 
now opened, and the six-pounder, at the distance of thirty feet, poured 
such destruction among them, that but few who had entered the ditch 
were fortunate enough to escape. A precipitate and confused retreat 
was the immediate result, although some of the officers attempted to 
rally their men. The other column, which was led b}' Col. Warburton 
and Major Chambers, was also routed in confusion by a destructive fire 
from the line commanded by Capt. Hunter. The whole of them fled 
into the adjoining wood, beyond the reach of the small arms of the fort. 
During the assault, which lasted half an hour, the enemy had kept up 
an incessant fire from their cannon. They left Col. Short, a lieutenant, 
and twenty-five privates dead in the ditch; and the total number of 
prisoners taken was twent3^-six, most of them badly wounded. Major 
Muir was knocked down in the ditch, and lay among the dead till dark- 
ness of the night enabled him to escape in safety-. The loss of the gar- 
rison was one killed and one slightly wounded. The total loss of the 
enemy was calculated at about 150 killed and wounded. 

When night came on, which was soon after the assault, the wounded 
in the ditch were found to be in a desperate situation. Complete relief 
could not be brought to them b}^ either side with any degree of safety. 
Major Croghan, however, relieved them as much as possible — conveying 
them water over the picketing in buckets, and a ditch was also opened 
under the picketing, by means of which those who were able and will- 
ing, were encouraged to crawl into the fort. 

About 3 o'clock, on the morning of the 3d, the British and Indian 


force commenced a disorderly retreat. So great was their precipitation 
that they left a sail boat behind, containing some clothing and a consid- 
erable quantity of militar3' stores; and on the next day seventy stands of 
clrms and some braces of pistols were picked up around the fort. Their 
hurr}^ and confusion was caused by the apprehension of an attack from 
Gen. Harrison, of whose position and force they had probably received 
an exaggerated account. 

At the council held with Mc Arthur, Cass and others, about the ist of 
August, it had been determined that Major Croghan should abandon Fort 
Stephenson as "untenable against heav}^ artiller}-;" and as this fort was 
considered of little value as a military post, it was also concluded to de- 
stroy it at the moment of evacuation. Gen. Harrison immediately dis- 
patched an order to that effect to Major Croghan, which, the messenger 
and his Indian guides having lost their way, failed to reach him in time. 
Then deeming it unsafe, in view of the near approach of the enemy, to 
attempt an evacuation and retreat, after a council with his officers, the 
most of whom readily coincided with him. Major Croghan at once started 
the messenger on his return to Gen. Harrison with the following note: 

"Sir, I have just received 3-ours of yesterday, lo o'clock p. m., or- 
dering me to destroy this place and make good m}' retreat, which was 
received too late to be carried into execution. We have determined to 
maintain this place, and b}' heavens we can." 

[4is main reason for writing thus positivel}' was, that he feared that 
the messenger might be captured, and the note fall into the hands of the 
British. But Gen. Harrison, without knowing fully the motive of 
Croghan in thus replying to his order, presumed it to indicate diso- 
bedience of orders, and on the following morning. Colonel Wells, with an 
escort, was sent to relieve him, and Croghan was ordered to report at 
headquarters. His explanation of his course and the meaning of his 
note, received the ready approval of Harrison, and Croghan was at once 
ordered to return to his post and resume its command, with written or- 
ders similar to those he had received before. 

In an official report of this siege, Gen. Harrison said: "It will not be 
among the least of Gen. Proctor's mortifications, to find that he has been 
baffled bj^ a youth, who has just passed his twentj^-first year. He is, 
however, a hero worth)- of his gallant uncle, George R. Clark." 
<' Never was there," said General Harrison, " a set of finer j-oung fel- 
lows, viz: Lieutenants Johnson and Baylor of the Seventeenth, Anthony 
of the Twenty-fourth, Meeks of the Seventh, and Ensigns Shipp and 
Duncan of the Seventeenth." Lieutenant Anderson of the Twenty- 
fourth was also commended for marked ^ood conduct; and soon after 
the siege of Fort Stephenson, Major Croghan was brevetted a lieutenant- 
colonel by President Madison; while the ladies of Chillicothe, Ohio, pre- 
sented him with a splendid sword, accompanied by an appropriate 

A little party of Wyandot Indians, after the retreat of the British 
from Fort Stephenson, were sent down the bay, with other scouts, fo r 


the purpose of intercepting the retreat of the enemy. Succeeding in 
capturing a few British soldiers, who had been left in the general retreat, 
the Indians brought them to the camp, without doing them anj' injury; 
and, conscious that the}' had done their dut}', they were frequently seen 
telling the story to their brother warriors, and laughing at the terror 
which had been manifested b}- the soldiers, who, no doubt, expected to 
be massacred or carried off and destro3'ed by torture. 


Soon after the events just described, occurred Perry's victory on 
Lake Erie, which caused the British arm}-, so latel}' filled with elation 
over the hope it entertained of an easy victory over the frontier militia, 
the untrained men of the west, to put an end to all further attempts in 
that direction, and the theater of war was now transferred to Canada. 
At the great victory at the Thames, the powerful Tecumseh was killed, 
and the Indians who had followed him in the belief, as he had taught 
them, that he was invulnerable, became totally disheartened, and lack- 
ing leaders with as warlike instincts as he, they were ready, and more 
than willing, to sue for peace. Indeed, before Gen. Harrison marched 
his army in pursuit of the British, the Ottawas and Chippewas had asked 
for peace, which he had promised them on condition that they would 
bring in their families, and raise the tomahawk against the British. To 
these terms they readil}' acceded, and before his return the Miamis and 
Pottawatomies had solicited a cessation of hostilities from Gen. McAr- 
thur on the same conditions. Even the ferocious Mai-pock, of the Pot- 
tawatomies, now tendered his submission, and an armistice was concluded 
with seven of the hostile tribes, which was to continue till the pleasure 
of the president was known. They agreed to deliver up all their pris- 
oners at Fort Wayne, and to leave hostages in security for their good 
behavior. Separated from their allies and deprived of their leader, 
they were now glad to accept the American friendship on any terms, 
that would save them from extermination by famine and the sword. 

Gen. Harrison, feeling that the secretary of war entertained a dis- 
like for him, resigned his position as commander-in-chief of the western 
forces on the nth of Ma}', 1814. Prior to his resignation, however, he 
had arranged for a treaty at Greenville, where, on the 22d of July, with 
Gen. Cass, on behalf of the United States, they had met the friendly 
Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Senecas, and concluded a peace with 
the Miamis, Weas and Eel river Indians, and certain of the Pottawat- 
omies, Ottawas and Kickapoos; all of whom had engaged to join the 
Americans, should the war continue; but all need of their services was 
ended by the treaty of Ghent, December 24, 1814. 

The conference of July, 1814, at Greenville, was one of the largest 
that had ever been held with the tribes, and Pecon, as the representative 
of the Miamis, with 113 others, were signers of the treaty. 

Twenty years had now elapsed since the fort was built at the head 


of the Maumee by Gen. Wayne, and it had withstood the ravages of 
time and the efforts of the Indians to destroy it remarkably well. From 
the period of Col. Hamtramck's occupation, after the departure of 
Gen. Wa3'ne, it was in charge of various officers. After the resigna- 
tion of Capt. Rhea, in 1S12, Capt. Hugh Moore assumed command, 
who in 1813 was superseded by Joseph Jenkinson. In the spring of 

1814, Major Whistler became its commander, who was succeeded in 

1815, by Major Josiah H. Vose, who continued in command until its 
abandonment, April 19, 1819. Soon after the arrival of Major Whistler 
to assume command here, it was feared that the Indians might again 
make an effort to capture the post, and it being much out of repair, and 
most uncomfortable for the garrison in many respects. Major Whistler 
applied to the war department for permission to rebuild it, which was 
granted by Gen. Armstrong, and the main structure was replaced by new 
pickets and the officers' and other quarters within the enclosure were 
rebuilt. Though many Indians continued, for several years after the war 
of 181 2, to congregate here for purposes of trade, to receive their annuity; 
and also from a feeling of sympath}' and attraction for the scene of their 
old home and gathering-place, aside from some petty quarrels among 
themselves, in which killings often occurred, nothing war-like was ever 
again manifest in the relations of the Indians and the whites. 

Still remote from the " settlements," Fort Wayne continued as in 
former j-ears, to exist as an object of special interest to the nation as a 
frontier post, it not being known what conflicts might sooner or later 
call it into action again, in defense of the northwest. 

Attached to the fort, running west to about where the " Old Fort 
House" was located, near Lafayette street, embracing about one acre 
of ground, was an excellent and well cultivated garden belonging to the 
commanding officer, alwaj's filled in season with the choicest vegetation. 
Still to the west of this was the company's garden, extending to about 
where the Hedekin House now stands, which was also well tilled. The 
road then mainly used, extended westward from the fort along what is 
now the canal, to the corner of Barr and Columbia streets. 

Just to the south of the fort, in what is now called "Taber's Addition," 
was located the burial ground of the garrison, where also were interred 
others not immediately connected with the tort. Lieut. Ostrander, who 
had thoughtlessly fired upon a flock of birds passing over the fort, had 
been reprimanded by Capt. Rhea, and because of his refusal to be tried 
b}' a court-martial, was confined in a small room in the garrison, where 
he subsequently died, was among the number buried in this place. 

Fort Wayne was then on the route for the transmission of immense 
quantities of furs, consisting principally of beaver, bear, otter, deer and 
coon, which were collected on the Wabash and Illinois rivers, and nearly 
all of which passed over the portage. They were the principal staple 
of the country, and among the traders the only currenc}', so that when 
debts were contracted, or payments to be made, notes were usually 
drawn payable in furs. 


By means of this currenc}' dry goods, boots, shoes, hardware, etc., 
were sold at very high prices to the Indians and others, by which 
means, and the early purchase of lands, at a very low figure, many in 
after years became very wealthy. Richardville, civil chief of the Miamis, 
who was licensed as a trader with the Indians as early as 1815, be- 
came the wealthiest Indian in America by this trade and the sale of 
lands. Schoolcraft estimated his wealth some years prior to his death 
at about $200,000 in specie; much of which had been so long buried in 
the earth that the boxes in which the mone}' was enclosed had mainty 
decaj^ed, and the silver itself become greatly blackened. 

Soon after the war of 181 2 broke out, with many other members 
of the tribe, including his family, this chief had made his way to the 
British lines for protection, intending, doubtless, to render some aid to 
the enemy, for but few among the tribes of the northwest remained neu- 
tral or failed to give aid in some way to the British cause. At the close 
of the war in 1814, he returned and passed on up the St. Mary's, 
about three miles from Fort Wayne, where he encamped. Major 
Whistler, desiring to see him, sent an interpreter, Crozier, requesting 
the chief to come immediately to the fort, which he did. The treaty of 
Greenville was then about to take place, and the major desired that the 
chief should be present, and so requested him; but Richardville was 
very indifferent about the matter, hesitated, and returned to his camp. 
A few days later, however, he came back to the fort, where he was now 
held as a hostage for some ten days, when he at length consented to at- 
tend the treaty, and was soon after accompanied thither by Robert For- 
syth, a paymaster, who was on his way with a chief, Chondonnai, who 
had been implicated in the massacre at Chicago, and William Suttenfield 
joined the party. 

In iSiS several French traders came to Fort Wayne, but not meet- 
ing with such inducements as they had desired, passed on after a few 
days, to the more remote regions of the west, where furs were sup- 
posed to be more abundant. In this year there were also a number of 
treaties held with the Indians at St. Mary's, Ohio, under the direction of 
Gov. Jennings and Benjamin Parke, of Indiana, and Gen. Lewis Cass, 
of Michigan. 

The departure of the troops, in the following year, is said to have 
left the little band of citizens extremely lonesome, but henceforth peace 
instead of war was to reign about the historic confluence of the St. 
Joseph and St. Mary's. 

No history has recorded what regiments were represented in the 
various garrisons which occupied Fort Wayne, but a collection of mili- 
tary buttons found in and about the site of the fort, and now in the 
posession of the writer, will doubtless furnish an approximate knowledge 
of who were its defenders. 

These buttons were worn b}' soldiers of the First, Second, Third, 
Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fif- 
teenth regiments of infantry, the First light artillery, and a rifle regiment. 


Besides these numbered buttons, are several, representing no regi- 
ment, many of which were doubtless worn prior to the date of designating 
commands b}' numbers upon the buttons. 

The oldest and most archaic in appearance is a flat pewter button 
with a rude eagle impressed. The next is shghtl}' convex with the 
eagle and stars as upon the earl}' United States coins. Then follows 
a convex button with an eagle standing on a shield, with the legend 
"United States Infantry," in the outer circle. A convex button with 
the eagle bearing a shield upon which is the letter I, in script. A 
flat button with a large letter I, in script, and a single star below. 
A flat button with the eagle over an oval, inscribed i Rt. A flat 
brass button with a bugle enclosing the figure i, all surrounded by fifteen 
stars. A flat brass button with eagle, but no number or stars. A flat 
brass button with eagle perched on a cannon, below which is inscribed 
I Regt. A flat brass button with script monogram L. A., below which 
is an oval of stars enclosing the figure i. A flat brass button with 
similar monogram, below which is a wreath enclosing an arrow. A 
flat silver-plated button with initials L. D. 

Other buttons are without device of any kind to indicate the com- 
mand to which the wearer belonged. And those who wore them have 
long since departed, leaving no other record of the pioneer heroes who 
opened, and held open, the "glorious gate " to the west, until the army 
of civilization could enter and take possession, and reap the fruits of 
their heroic daring. Let us not forget, but ever hold in grateful re- 
membrance the brave men whose valor and privations secured to us 
this rich and favored region of our great country. 

As has appeared in these pages, the importance of the head of the 
Maumee as a strategic point had not escaped the attention of the states- 
men and militar}' leaders of the new republic, and most of the cam- 
paigns in the west, if not all of them, were directed toward securing a 
post here, as the key to the western and southwestern country. Now 
at the opening of the era of peace, with which the writer will close 
this account of the early history of the Valley of the Upper Maumee, 
the attention of the generals of commerce was as strongly directed to 
this as a strategic point for industrial development. 

McAfee, in his " History of the Late War," said in referring to the 
Wabash and St. Mary's : " A canal at some future day will unite these 
rivers, and thus render a town at Fort Wayne, as formerly, the most 
considerable place in that country;" and in 1819, Capt. James Riley, a 
surveyor, suggested the connection of the Maumee with the Wabash 
by means of" a canal, a feat which was long afterward accomplished. 
This pioneer, making the ways straight for the coming civilization, with 
the voice of a true and sagacious prophet, hailed Fort Wayne as the 
" future Emporium of Indiana." 




A patriotic Pennsylvanian author, of half a century ago, defending 
the gallantry of his people, wrote: "They ask for our illustrious dead! " 
" At the sound, from his laureled grave in old Chester, springs to life 
again the hero of Pennsylvania's olden time, the undaunted general, the 
man of Paoli and of Stony Point, whose charge was like the march of 
the hurricane, whose night assault stunned the British as though a thun- 
derbolt had fallen in their midst. We need not repeat his name. The 
aged matron, sitting at the farm-house door of old Chester, in the 
calm of summer twilight, speaks that name to the listening group of 
grandchildren, and the old revolutioner, trembling on the verge of the 
grave, his intellect faded, his mind broken, and his memory almost gone, 
will start and tremble with new life at the sound, and as he brushes a 
tear from the quivering eyelid of age, will exclaim with a feeling of pride 
that a weight of years cannot destroy, 'I — I, too, was a soldier with Mad 
Anthony Wayne! ' " 

* * * 

In the month of September, 1777, rumors of war startled the homes 
in the valley of the Brandywine. Gen. Howe, with some 17,000 well- 
armed soldiers, had landed above the Susquehanna, and was to sweep 
like a tornado over the plains between him and the city of Philadelphia. 
To oppose him came Washington, with his ill-clad Continentals, from 
the du'ection of Wilmington. On the morning of the nth there stood 
under a great chestnut tree, not half a mile from Chadd's ford, gath- 
ered around the one who towered above them all, majestic and graceful 
in form, a group of officers among whom could be seen the sagacious 
Greene, the rugged brow of Pulaski, the bluff good-humored visage 
of Knox, the frank, manly face of DeKalb; a boy whose blue eyes 
sparkled and whose sandy hair fell back gracefully from a noble fore- 
head — Lafayette; and there also, with his eyes abrim with reckless 
daring, was the young hero of the north, who should be the theme of a 
thousand legends — Anthon}' Wayne. In the afternoon, Wayne, with 
his men, held a hill commanding Chadd's ford, fighting in the fields he 
had traversed in his boyhood wanderings. In stature the general was 
not more than an inch above the medium. His form was hardy and 
vigorous. Beneath the plume of red and white that surmounted his 
chapeau was the face of a warrior, broad forehead, aquiline nose, clear 
hazel eyes. Five thousand men, under Gen. Knyphausen, were moving 
to the attack. Over their heads floated the banners of Hesse and 
Anspach. Not of their own will, but by their rulers, the}' were hired 
to fight for the imbecile king, who occupied himself catching flies in his 


palace, while men who had not learned what freedom was, were rav- 
aging the homes of heroes who were brave enough to swear that thev 
and their land should be subject to no potentate nor regal power. The 
battle waged fiercely and attack after attack was repulsed until finally 
Knyphausen, glittering in black and gold, charged at the head of his 
guard, 400 ruthless dragoons, with whom war was a trade and slaughter a 
pastime. To meet these, Wayne shouted one command, " Come on," to 
his 200 troopers, and then under a blue flag on which gleamed the thir- 
teen stars, he crashed against the overpowering force of the foreigners. 
His gallant band of Continentals charged in a wedge that drove the 
enem}- apart in confusion. The Hessians were hurled back at the saber's 
edge, into the river and across it, and the left wing of the army was 
triumphant. Just at this moment, the remainder of the arm\' of Wash- 
ington began a retreat before superior numbers, but Wa^'ne had saved 
the day from disaster, and he was the last to leave the field. 

* * * 

A few days later Wayne and his men were watching the movements 
of the British near Paoli, when the enemy suddenl}' appeared in force 
to give him battle. On account of the nature of his operations he was 
ready to move, and immediately ordered a retreat under the command 
of an inferior officer, while he remained on the field to protect the rear. 
Three orders were necessarj'to bring the subordinate to understand that 
he must move rapidlj-, and in consequence the British under Lord Grey 
■were able to cut off a body of the Continentals. "It was "charge for 
England and St. George "; then a cry for quarter, and the brutal re- 
sponse, "Cut them down. No quarter." One hundred and fifty Conti- 
nentals were butchered bj- the soldiers of England. After this the watch- 
word was, " Remember Paoli." 

* # * 

Nearl}' two years later Wayne avenged Paoli in a wa}- eternally to 
the glory of Americans. The British had seized Stonj^ Point, a precipi- 
tous hill commanding King's Feny on the Hudson, then the ordinary 
path of communication between the middle and eastern states. On two 
sides the hill was washed by the river, and the other approaches were 
covered b}- water except at low tide. The enem)- encircled the posi- 
tion with a double row of abatis, and on the summit placed a fortifica- 
tion bristling with artiller}-. It was confidently believed to be impregnable. 
There was but one to entrust with the attempt to capture this fort, An- 
thony Wayne. The army and country- were overwhelmed with gloom. 
He must strike for the honor of Washington and the welfare of the na- 
tion, as he was again called on to do in 1792. He accepted the task 
without hesitation, and at midnight after the 15th of July, 1779, his com- 
mand was at the morass ready to advance. There were two columns to 
close in from opposite sides. First in each line was a forlorn hope of 
twenty men, with axes to cut awa}- the abatis, then a small advance party 
followed b}- the main command. x\t the head of one regiment Wayne 
placed himself, and gave the order: "The first man that fires his piece 


shall be cut down. Trust to the bayonet. March on." As the troops 
were wading the morass, the sentinels at the fort perceived them and the 
rattle of drums came down the night air. Hardl}^ had the axe begun 
its work on the abatis, than a torrent of grape-shot and musketry poured 
down upon the assailants. The forlorn hopes were swept away, but their 
places were taken, and in the face of a whirlwind of fire and roaring of 
cannon that shook the hill, the Continentals marched steadily upward, 
teeth clenched, bayonets fixed, without a word or the click of a hammer. 
A ball struck Wayne on the forehead and he fell, but rising again cried 
out, "March on, carry me into the fort, and if I must die, I will die at 
the head of the column." With such a leader the patriots were invin- 
cible. In a moment their steel flashed in the lurid light on the fortifica- 
tions; both columns met in the enclosure, and the British begged for' 
quarter as the patriots did at Paoli. Not a man was injured after the 
surrender, and every cry for quarter was sacredly heeded. So Anthony 
Waj'ne avenged Paoli. 

This was the most brilliant affair of the war for independence. For 
many days nothing was talked of in Philadelphia but the glory of Gen. 
Wayne. Washington complimented him, and congress passed eulogistic 
resolutions. Lafayette sent word across the sea that he was " particu- 
larly delighted in hearing that this glorious affair had been conducted 
by my good friend Gen. Wayne." Wayne's wound was slight, and in 
an hour after the victory he was able to write a message to Washington, 
which has become historic: 

" Dear General: — The fort and garrison, with Col. Johnston, are 
ours. Our officers and men behaved like men who are determined to 
be free." 

* * * 

These glimpses of the revolution illustrate the hero's gallant service. 
But much more could be told: of how, at the battle of Germantown, 
Wayne led one division, and in the retreat saved the arm}- by his un-. 
daunted courage; of how during the weary winter which Washington 
spent at Valley Forge, Wajme skirmished through New Jersey, re- 
peatedly fighting the enemy; of the famous battle at Monmouth, where 
Wayne with 700 men, attacked and engaged the greater part of the 
British army, and being deserted b}- the retreat of Lee, managed to 
retire without loss, until he met Washington, under whom he then 
returned to win the day; or of that memorable occasion, when Lafayette 
having mistaken the force of the enemy about to retreat across the 
James toward Yorktown, sent Wayne with 700 to attack the rear. No 
incident of the war is more characteristic of the impetuous valor and 
cool discretion of Wayne than that event. He found he had struck 
the entire British arm}?, the wings of which immediatel}? advanced to 
enclose his regiment. Without the slightest hesitation he ordered a 
charge, and his little force drove the enemy back from their front at the 
point of the bayonet. Thinking that this movement could only be 


inspired by confidence in an army near at hand, the enemy drew back its 
advance, and Wayne was able to retreat in safety before the true situ- 
ation was realized. 

Anthony Wayne, though not distinctively a cavalry officer, was in the 
essential qualities of soldiership and personal influence the Sheridan of 
the revolution. A braver man never lived. There was nothing he 
feared to attempt; and he dared do, not only what others could, but 
deeds from which they shrank. The terrible power which he infused 
into a column of attack, was not equaled until the days of Winchester 
and Five Forks. His name became a synonym for unapproachable 
daring and invincible valor, and among all Washington's lieutenants, 
none can be more justly coupled with him in admiration. His history 
in detail can here be but briefly mentioned. He was born in Chester 
count}^, Penn., January i, 1745, a grandson of an Anthony Wayne who 
was a captain under William of Orange. As a boy he drilled his 
schoolmates and he neglected his books for stories of battle, but on be- 
ing shown the necessity of stud}', was as rapid and successful in that 
domain as in all his enterprises. Dr. Franklin selected him to survey 
lands in Nova Scotia, and subsequently he married, and became a mem- 
ber of the Pennsylvania legislature. As early as 1764 he read the signs 
of the times and began organizing military companies and drilling them. 
He was called to the front as a colonel in January?, 1776, joined the expedi- 
tion to Canada, was there wounded and became noted for valor, and sub- 
sequently was made a brigadier-general, a rank he held at Brandywine. 
After the surrender at Yorktown he went to Georgia at the head of 
400 regulars and drove the British from that state in little more than a 
month, surprised and defeated the Creeks at Ogechee, and within a few 
days rendered the tribe inoffensive. When the British evacuated Charles- 
ton he and his men marched in at their heels amid huzzas and 'blare 
of trumpets. He became a legislator again, and served until he was 
appointed commander-in-chief of the United States army in 1792. 
, Returning to Philadelphia after the Maumee campaign, February 6, 
1796, he was met four miles from the cit}' b}' a military escort, and as 
he entered the city, there was a salute of cannon, the church bells joined 
in the chorus, and all business was suspended to honor the hero. It was 
expected that he would be appointed secretary of war, but intrigue was 
revived in the west, and Wajme was again sent to the Lake Erie region 
with almost autocratic powers. With consummate wisdom he quelled all 
disturbances. Then saiHng for Presque-Isle, the last post he was to 
visit before returning to the east, he was seized with the gout, which, 
attacking the stomach, caused his death December 15, 1796. Separated 
in early manhood from a family he loved, to fight for his country from 
the St. Lawrence to the Carolinas, he sacrificed all the comforts and 
joys of life to America, and after winning the great west, died in the 
line of dut}', hundreds of miles from home and civihzation. Long may 
the fair city which has arisen where he trod the forests, honor and keep 
green the memory of Major-General Anthon}- Wayne. 



LLEN COUNTY is crossed by the parallel of 41 north 
latitude, the meridian of 85° west longitude and the an- 
nual isothermal of 51° F. Its average elevation is not far 
from 800 feet above sea level. Physically it forms a part 
of the Wabash-Erie region, a shallow trough which ex- 
tends from Lake Erie southwestward nearly to the borders 
of Illinois. This trough is about 200 miles long, 100 miles 
wide and 200 feet deep. Allen county lies exactly midway 
of its length, and from a point just west of Fort Wayne, the bottom of 
the trough slopes gently toward either end. Along the axis of the 
trough extends one uninterrupted river channel, occupied at present, 
however, by different streams; from Lake Erie to Fort Wayne by the 
Maumee, at Fort Wayne for two miles by the St. Mary's, thence for 
twenty miles b}^ the Little river prairie, thence by the Little Wabash 
river to its junction with the main stream, and thence by the Wabash 

The Wabash-Erie trough is crossed transversely by a series of cres- 
centic or arrowhead shaped ridges which are parallel with the southwest 
shore of Lake Erie, and have their convex sides or angles directed 
toward the southwest. These determine the position of the drainage 
lines, so that the principal streams which flow down the sides of the 
trough to the axial channel, the Mississinewa, the Salamonie, the Wabash 
above Huntington, the St. Mary's and the Auglaize on the south, 
and the x\boit, the St. Joseph and the Tiffin on the north, follow closely 
the western faces of the ridges. The general course of these streams 
indicates that they were once tributaries of the Wabash, but at present 
the eastern four join the Maumee and turn back upon themselves, so 
that in a course of ten miles the waters of the St. Joseph suffer a change 
in direction of 160°. Geologists are now prepared to explain the cause 
of this anomalous behavior. 

The face of the earth in northern Indiana is covered by a vast sheet 
of clay, sand, gravel and boulders, the thickness of which in Allen 
county ranges from 40 to 280 feet. The pebbles and boulders are found 
to be composed of a variety of materials, of which quartz, granite, 
sienite, greenstone and silicious slate are most common. These are 
very hard minerals and entirely different from the limestone rock which 
underlies the rei^ion. The most casual observer would notice that some 


of the citizens of Allen count_y are foreigners and came from Germany, 
France or Ireland. In the same way geologists recognize these bould- 
ers as being emigrants, and as having come from the region north of the 
great lakes. Our soil is largely made up of foreign materials, and to 
the whole mass has been given the name of drift. The drift is distrib- 
uted over the United States north of the Ohio and Missouri rivers, and 
has been deposited from continental glaciers, or vast sheets of ice which 
repeatedh- descended southward from the Canadian highlands. During 
the last glacial occupation the southern edge of the ice was divided into 
tongues or lobes, each of which pushed southward as far as the slope of 
the country' and the temperature permitted. One of these ice-tongues, 
after passing through the basin of Lake Erie, emerged from its south- 
west end and traversed the Wabash-Erie trough. The weight of an 
ice-sheet from 1,000 to 5,000 feet thick causes it to grind, plane and 
scratch the rock surface over which it passes, to scoop out and reduce to 
powder the soft rocks and to wear away, round and groove the harder 
ones. The materials thus prepared are pushed and carried forward by 
the glacier, and finally deposited b}- the melting of the ice. The ex- 
treme edge of the ice may remain in the same position for hundreds of 
years, while the whole mass is moving slowly toward that Hmit 'where 
the ice melts as fast as it comes. Along such a line a great accumula- 
tion of material occurs, forming a ridge of drift called a terminal moraine. 
In the case of the Erie lobe, owing to some coinparativel}- sudden 
changes of climate, the melting was not uniform, but periods of rapid 
melting and retreat alternated with periods during which its edge was 
stationary. Each of these halting places is marked b}- a moraine or 
ridge of drift like a breastwork thrown up to cover the retreat of an 
army; and the parallel, crescentic ridges which cross the Wabash-Erie 
trough are terminal moraines of the Erie ice-lobe. During the melting 
of the ice immense volumes of water flowed away through various 
channels, the main drainage line being the St. Joseph- Wabash, then 
connected through the Little river prairie. As soon as the ice-fort was 
withdrawn to a line east of Fort Wayne, the trough sloped toward the 
ice, and the water being dammed back by the moraines to the westward 
formed the Maumee lake which, at a point four miles east of Fort 
Wayne, discharged its surplus by a short river flowing westward into 
the St. Joseph-Wabash. 

Allen county is naturally divided into six regions : ( i ) the Maumee 
lake region, (2) the St. Mary's and St. Joseph moraine, (3) the St. 
Mary's basin, (4) the St. Joseph valley, (5) the Wabash- Aboit moraine, 
(6) the Aboit and Eel river region. The Maumee lake region com- 
prises the township of Maumee and portions of Scipio, Jackson, Milan, 
Jefferson, Adams, St. Joseph and Springfield. Its surface is very nearly 
level and contains large tracts of swamp which are difficult of'drainage. 
The soil is chiefl}- a black alluvium with large areas of clay and streaks 
and ridges of sand and gravel. All its peculiarities are such as would 
result from an occupation of the region for many }'ears by a shallow 


lake. It is bounded on the southwest and northeast by a well marked 
beach line known as the Van Wert and Hicksville ridges. The Van 
Wert ridge upon the eastern border of Indiana is broken up into four 
which enter Allen county in sections 14, 15, 10, 11, 2 and 3, Monroe 
township. The principal and last formed ridge passes across sections 2, 
3 and 4, Monroe, into section 32, Jackson. Then there is a gap of two 
miles, to pass through which the branches of Flat Rock creek gather 
from the west, south and southeast. The ridge begins again in section 
36, Jefferson, and traverses sections 25, 23, 22, 21 and 16. Here it is 
double for about half a mile and thence westward lies upon the edge of 
the St. Mary's moraine, so that in sections 17 and 18, Jefferson, and 
12 and II, Adams, its northern face is high and bold. Near New 
Haven, it ends in a bluff about forty feet high, which is curved back 
southwards, the cemetery being located upon its apex. The Van Wert 
road follows the ridge prett}' closely. " Irish i-idge," in sections 9, 10 
and 14, Jefferson, seems to be an off-shore sand-bar, but may have been 
temporarily the shore line. The Van Wert ridge is a superficial pile 
of sand and gravel from 10 to 30 feet high and from 5 to 20 rods wide, 
and presents all the characteristics of a lake beach. 

The Hicksville ridge begins in section 4, St. Joseph township, and 
pursues a very direct course to the northeast corner of the count}', be- 
ing well indicated upon the map by the Hicksville road. It is for the 
most part more bold and continuous than the Van Wert ridge, chiefly 
because it coincides with the margin of the St. Joseph moraine. These 
ridges are prolonged westward to Fort Wayne, upon the sides of the 
channel through which the Maumee lake emptied into the St. Joseph- 
Wabash. In sections 14 and 15, Adams, there is a gap a mile and a 
half wide through which the St. Mary's river once emptied into the lake. 
It brought down a great quantity of sand which was deposited as a 
delta at its mouth. The New Haven delta extends from the center of 
section 5, Jefferson, westward five miles, and has an average width of 
one mile. Its northern boundar}' is marked by a conspicuous bluff, 
which once formed the south shore of the outlet of the lake. The 
Maumee river traverses the lake region in a very tortuous course, with 
a sluggish current which flows at the bottom of a channel twent}- to 
forty feet deep. East of New Haven no stream of any size enters it 
from the south, the drainage being eastward parallel with the Maumee 
to the Auglaize. Near the northern border of the Maumee lake re- 
gion " fountain " or artesian wells are numerous. Flowing water is 
struck at depths of from thirty-five to forty-five feet, a copious stream 
of which rises to the surface, being fed by reservoirs in the gravel beds 
of the St. Joseph moraine. The water-bearing gravel often contains 
rounded fragments of coal never larger than a cherry. 

The St. Mary's and St. ^Joseph moraine is the most extensive and im- 
portant ridge in the Wabash-Erie region. It extends along the right 
bank of the St. Mary's river and the left bank of the St. Joseph from 
Lima, Ohio, to Hudson, Michigan. It has been compared to a dead 


wave on the surface of the ocean, hardly perceptible to the eye on ac- 
count of its smoothness, but revealed by its effect on everything that 
encounters it. The crest of the ridge can be easily traced upon the map, 
since it forms the watershed between the St. Mary's and the Auglaize, 
and between the St. Joseph and the Maumee, being about four miles dis- 
tant froni the rivers on the west and sometimes thirty miles from those 
on the east. In Allen county, south of the Maumee, the Wayne trace 
follows the crest very closely. It is a slightlj- rolling strip of country 
four or five miles wide, elevated from Hhy to eighty feet above the gen- 
eral level, and occupying the greater portion of the townships of Madi- 
son, Marion and Adams, part of Wayne, and the whole space between 
the Hicksville ridge and the St. Joseph river. A former channel of the 
St. Mary's cuts through the moraine from the great bend of that river 
in section 6, Marion township, along the course of Merriam's creek, 
the Trier ditch and Six-mile creek, to New Haven. It has a nearly 
uniform width of one-quarter of a mile, and its bottom is from fort}- to 
sixtv feet below the summit of the moraine. 

The St. Mary's basin lies almost entirely on the left bank of that river 
and consists in Indiana of a flat strip of country ten or twelve miles wide, 
occupying in Allen county. Pleasant township and portions of Marion, 
Lafayette and Wayne. The St. Mary's river is a sluggish, muddy 
stream, almost without bluffs or flood plain, the highest water seldom 
being more than sufficient to fill its channel. Its minimum flow has been 
estimated to be from 1,500 to 2,000 cubic feet per minute. In its lower 
course it has been tossed about from one channel to another repeatedly. 
The Six-mile creek channel, probably the oldest, has been described. A 
second channel leaves the present river at the southeast corner of sec- 
tion 22, Wayne township, and extends southwestward to section 35, 
about where it joins the Wabash-Erie channel. The Bluffton road 
crosses it at Chief Godfrey's. It now forms an arm of the prairie six 
miles long and one-half mile wide. A third and later channel leaves the 
river one mile below the second, near M. Strack's, and extends west- 
ward two and one-half miles to the Wabash-Erie channel. 

The broad Wabash-Erie channel, above mentioned and previous!}' 
referred to, deserves careful description. From the western apex of the 
Maumee lake in section 3, Adams township, to Fort Wayne, it originally 
gave passage to the waters of that lake westward. It is bounded on 
the north by a continuation of the Hicksville ridge, which, as it 
approaches the St. Joseph, curves sharply northward, parallel with that 
river, to a point two miles above its mouth. The new asylum for the 
feeble minded is built upon the edge of this bluff. The Wabash-Erie 
channel passes through the northern half of the city of Fort Wayne. 
Lines down from the Allen county jail to St. Vincent's orphan asylum, 
and from the Fort Wayne college to Linde#wood cemetery cross the 
channel at right angles. From Fort Wayne it extends southward twenty- 
seven miles, with a breadth varying from one, to one and a half miles. 
It is bounded on the north by a bluff forty to sixty feet high, and on the 


south by a system of ridges and bluffs hereafter described. This portion 
o£ the channel was originally occupied by a stream which carried the 
united waters of the Maumee lake, the St. Joseph and the St. Mary's, 
into the Wabash river below Huntington. This stream, which I have 
called the Wabash-Erie river, was thirty miles long, one mile wide, and 
may have had a depth of from 60 to lOO feet. For more than twenty 
miles, the channel is now occupied by a marsh called the Little river 
prairie, through which meanders an insignificant stream, the successor 
and heir of a river once comparable with the Detroit or the Niagara. 

In the triangular space bounded by the Six-mile creek channel, the 
second St. Mary's channel and the Wabash-Erie channel are grouped a 
series of sand and gravel ridges, variously called bj' geologists kames 
and osars. They are portions of, or appendages to, the St. Mary's 
moraine. On the east the system is almost continuous with the Van 
Wert ridge, being separated from it by the Six-mile creek gap. Kama 
No. I forms the western border of that gap in section 15, Adams, on 
the farm of D. Rodenbeck. It is a file of gravel twent}- rods wide, 
twentj' feet high and half a mile long. Kame No. 2 lies on the eastern 
border of the city of Fort Wayne and extends from a point east of the 
Vordermark homestead westward about one mile to Holton avenue. It 
has been pactiall}^ removed for the new freight j-ards of the P., Ft. W. 
& C. railway. West of these yards it rises in a conical hill, the summit 
of which is the highest point of the St. Mary's moraine in Allen county. 
Kame No. 3, very symmetrical and one-fourth of a mile long, extends 
parallel with No. 2 about forty rods north of its eastern end. Kame No. 
4 begins near the Main street bridge over the St. Mary's, and extends 
southward one mile to Shawnee run. In the neighborhood of Fort 
Wayne college it has been graded down thirt}- or fort}' feet. The 
Swinnev gravel pit has been extensively excavated out of it. The old 
Catholic cemetery and Riedmiller's grove are situated upon it. A low 
spur crosses Broadway near the McCulloch park. Kame No. 5 extends 
along Walnut street from Fairfield avenue to Shawnee run. Kame No. 
6 begins south of the corner of Creighton avenue and Broadwa}', passes 
westward through the grounds of B3-ron Thompson, curves southward 
along Thompson avenue and ends at " the high banks " of the St. Mary's. 
Kame No. 7 begins north of the Allen countj- poor farm and extends 
southward one mile to the third St. Mary's channel. In front of the 
infirmary it forms the left bank of the St. Mary's river and is about forty 
feet high. Kame No. 8 lies west of No. 7 in the north halves of sec- 
tions 21 and 20, Wayne township. It is verj' irregular, built along three 
parallel axes but not complete on either. Two branches extend north- 
ward from St. John's cemeterj- into section 16. West of the cemeter}' 
it is broken by gaps into a series of conical hills. Its western end at G. 
Rapp's is broad and slopes genth- toward the prairie. It forms the 
north bank of the third St. Mary's channel. Kame No. 9 begins in a 
broad, high mass which occupies nearly the whole of the southwest 
quarter of section 22 on the east of the Bluffton road between Chief 


Godfrey's and M. Strack's. It has been extensively excavated for 
moulding sand. Thence two branches extend westward, the southern 
along the south Hne of section 21 to its west line, the northern through 
the middle of sections 21 and 20. Kame No. 10 is also double and 
occupies the north half of section 29. Kame No. 11 lies a few rods 
south of the west end of No. 10. Nos. 9, 10 and 11 are parallel, en 
echelon, and form the divide between the second and third channels of 
the St. Mary's. 

To this system belong several small islands in the Wabash-Erie 
channel, now the prairie. The Wabash railway crosses one on the 
west line of section 20 and another on the line between sections 19 and 
30. The latter is known as Midway island. The most interesting and 
characteristic kame of the series forms Fox island in section 25, Aboit 
township. It is plainly visibly a few rods to the south of the Wabash 
railway, but should be visited to be appreciated. A road recently opened 
across the prairie gives easy access to its western end. Here one 
beautifully symmetrical ridge, lithe and graceful as a serpent, sweeps in 
a gentle curve like the Italic letter (5), three fourths of a mile long, 
20-25 f^^t^t high and as steep as sand can be piled. Several wings 
and branches upon either side enclose coves and land-locked bays; and 
covered (as it still is) with luxuriant forests and embraced in mid-channel 
by the waters of the great river, it must have been one of the most 
charming and unique parks in the world. 

The question of the origin and formation of kames is still an 
unsettled one. The present state of opinion among geologists inclines to' 
the theor}' that they were in some way produced by sub-glacial streams 
or in dry cracks and tunnels under the ice; the materials ma}' have 
fallen in from the top of the ice sheet, or they may have been squeezed 
and scraped up from below by the enormous pressure and unequal 
motion of its mass. 

The St. Joseph valley lies between the St. Joseph moraine on the 
east and the Aboit moraine on the west. It has a nearty uniform width 
of a little more than half a mile, and is bounded b)' well marked bluffs 
often broken into several terraces. Between these the present river 
winds from side to side with a strong and clear stream, its minimum 
flow being estimated at 4,000 cubic feet per minute. As in the case 
of the St. Mary's, the basin of the St. Joseph hes almost wholly upon 
its western side, being fed from numerous lakes and streams in Steuben 
and Noble counties. Careful examination shows it to have been once 
a much larger stream than at present, to have flowed at a level about 
thirty-flve feet higher and to have discharged its waters through the 
Wabash-Erie channel into the Wabash. 

The Wabash- Aboit moraine is similar in character to the St. Mary's 
and St. Joseph moraine and parallel with it. It extends along the right 
bank of the upper Wabash river to the village of Murray, Wells 
county, thence into the southwest corner of Allen county, where it turns 
to the northeast and fills the space between the St. Joseph valley on the 

^^^^^ ^-5^^^^ 


east, and the valleys of the Aboit river and Cedar creek on the west. It 
occupies the greater part of the townships of Lafayette, Aboit, Wash- 
incrton, Perr}^ and Cedar Creek. The moraine has a breadth varying 
from four to eight miles and an elevation of from 80 to 120 feet above 
the St. Joseph river. It is a broad, rolling table land, the chief material 
of which is a gravell}' cla}', with frequent mounds, ridges and patches of 
sand and gravel. Along the line between Lafayette and Aboit town- 
ships, it is cut in two by the Wabash-Erte channel, on either side of 
which bluffs rise to a height of from 60 to 125 feet, the hill at Bow- 
man's, section 8, La Fayette, being 873 feet above tide. In the north- 
ern part of the count}' it is cut across again by the gorge of Cedar 
creek, 50 to 100 feet deep and 800 feet wide. At the bend of Cedar 
creek, in sections 3, 10 and 11, Perry township, the moraine rises to an 
extraordinary height, where "Dutch Ridge " attains an elevation on the 
farm of H. Hensinger, of more than 100 feet above the creek and 925 
feet above tide, being the highest point in Allen county. This region 
abounds in precipitous bluffs and deep ravines and deserves the name 
of the Alps of Allen. Its picturesque beauty is heightened by the pres- 
ence of a few small lakes, Viberg's and HoUopeter's in section 7, Cedar 
Creek, being gems of their kind, and typical specimens of morainic 
lakes. ' 

The Aboit and Eel River region comprises the townships of Lake 
and Eel River, and portions of Aboit and Perry. The Aboit and Eel 
rivers have their sources in a marshy prairie which lies in wide, tortuous 
channels, with various tongues, peninsulas and islands of dry land 
between. West of Huntertown the prairie is two or three miles wide, 
and from a bold bluff *on the north shore the view across the marsh, 
diversified with wooded points and islands, is worthy of an artist's pencil. 
Living and extinct lakes are not rare, the largest being Mud lake, in sec- 
tions, Lake township, and White lake, section 3, Eel River. The north- 
west half of Eel River township hes upon the borders of the moraine 
formed between the Saginaw and the Erie ice-lobes, and is quite hilly. 
The peculiar morainic topography of mound and hollow, although upon 
a miniature scale, gives sufficient variety and irregularity to render this 
the most pictures(|ue portion of the county. 

Concerning the rocks which underlie the drift in Allen county noth- 
ing is known except in the isolated spots where deep well borings have 
been made. These are quite numerous in the vicinity of Fort Wayne. 
They all pass through the same strata and show that the variations of 
thickness and level are very slight. The following table embodies all 
the important geological results: 



Court Ho 


Fort \Va\ 


Section 4, 

j Perry Towr 


Surface above tide 



Shale (Hudson) 

Shale (Utica) 

Limestone (Trenton). 

I 1,040 

Total depth, 




The bed rock in the southern half of Allen count}' is undoubtedly 
upper Silurian of the Niagara or waterlime group; in the northern part 
probably Devonian of the corniferous group, but the line of parting can 
hardly be conjectured. The chapter upon outcrops in Allen county 
resembles the famous one upon snakes in Ireland. Rumors are afloat 
of the existence of stone quarries at various localities, but all have proved 
to be mythical. There are strong indications that rock lies very near 
the surface in the bed of the Maumee at Bull Rapids; in the bed of the 
St. Mary's, on the farm of J. J. Essig, section 29, Marion township, and 
on the farm of J. Akey, section 35, Adams township. Mr. Frank Ran- 
dall, jr., late of the county surveyor's office, reports a ledge of limestone 
upon the bank of the Aboit river, in section 20, Aboit township. 

The surface of Allen county, together with that of the greater part 
of Indiana, remains to-day substantially as tht mighty stamp of the 
glacier moulded it. To it we owe our landscape, our soil, our wealth and 
prosperity. Agriculture and brick manufacture are the onl\- occupations 
in the countv which depend upon the geological structure. Agricultur- 
ally the land ma}' be divided into three classes: (i) Lacustrine land: 
lake bottom without muck; soil chiefly fine, tough clay with occasional 
streaks of sand and gravel; drainage difficult. (2) Bottom or muck 
land: the largest tracts are inter-moraine in old drainage channels, and 
basins of extinct lakes; soil black and mucky. (3) Moraine land: high 
and rolling; soil gravelly clay with mounds and ridges of sand and 
gravel; drainage easy. Perhaps in no other county of the state has 
drainage been more important or undertaken upon a larger scale. The 
Eel river ditch, completed in 1S87, is eleven miles long and drains 3,000 
acres of marsh. The Little river ditch, completed in 1889, with all its 
branches has a total length of forty miles, and furnishes an outlet for 
the water which falls iipon 200,000 acres of land. At an expense of 
$170,000, 35,000 acres of marsh have been converted into rich farming 
lands, and a fertile source of miasma has been removed, greatly to the 
improvement of the sanitary condition of 50,000 people. This may be 
said to be the closing chapter in the history of the Wabash-Erie river. Its 
channel can never be obliterated, but nothing less than some great con- 
vulsion of nature can now divert it from the dominion and use of man. 



OUND about the old fort, after peace came finalh* with 
►the end of the struggles of 1812-14, the scene was one of 
rare beauty. The extensive clearing made by order of 
Gen. Wayne in 1794, and again by Gen. Harrison in 1812, 
was covered with waving grass, and circling this stood the 
primeval forest, like a wall of emerald, pierced b)' three 
gates through which flowed the gleaming rivers. The 
days of Indian warfare had come to an end, the day of white settle- 
ment was yet in anticipation. Nature smiled restfuUy, and the few who 
held this frontier fort spent their days in quiet, perhaps undisturbed by 
dreams of the whirl and excitement of the city that would rise in this 
lovely park, with block after block of lofty edifices; for no one then 
could picture to himself the reality of the flood of immigration that 
would people these vast solitudes and crowd the busy cities of northern 

The first business of the vicinity consisted in the portage of goods 
and furs by way of a well-worn trail seven miles long, from the bend of 
St. Mar3''s, one mile west of the fort, to Little river, from the Maumee 
to the Wabash, and this had previous to about the year 1800, been m.ainly 
controlled b}- the mother of Richardville, who engaged a large number of 
Frenchmen with ponies, and did a business, according to the representa- 
tions made at the treaty of Greenville, that amounted to as much 
sometimes as $100 a day. Then Louis Bourie, of Detroit, established 
a branch trading house at the fort and carried on the transfer from 1S03 
to 1809, and his clerk here was an important intermediary in the shipment 
of goods for the traders from Detroit or Canada up the Maumee to 
Fort Wayne, and then b}" packhorses to the Wabash headwaters. This 
way the transportation would move in the summer and fall, and in the 
spring great collections of fur of beaver, otter, deer, coon and bear 
would pass in the other direction coming up from the wilds of Indiana 
and Illinois. 

One notable among the early traders was Hyacinth Lasselle, who 
was the first white person born at the site of Fort Wa3'ne, and it is 
believed, the first in northern Indiana. His father, Col. James Lasselle, 
removed from Montreal to the Indian village, Kekionga, opposite the 
site of the city, in the fall of 1776, having been appointed agent among 


the Indians for the British government. On February' 25, 1777, H3-a- 
cinth Lasselle was born. The famil_y remained at Kekionga until La- 
Balm's invasion in 1780, when they fled with most of the villagers down 
the Maumee. In this precipitate movement, the only daughter of the 
famity fell from their boat and was drowned. Returning to Montreal, 
Hyacinth was put in school. At the age of sixteen he became a clerk 
with his brothers, James and Francis, traders at Detroit, which he 
reached after a voyage of two months in batteaux. When peace fol- 
lowed the establishment of Fort Wayne, Hyacinth was sent by his 
brothers to trade at that post, and he was in that business here for about 
eighteen months subseijuent to May, 1795. He then descended the 
Wabash, but was a frequent visitor at the fort until 1804, when he made 
his home permanently at Vincennes. He served during the war of 
181 2, acting four years as an officer in the Rangers, and became major- 
general of militia. He died at Logansport, January 23, 1843. He 
was a great favorite with the Miamis, who called him Kekiah, or Little 
Miami, and his remarkable athletic powers made him famous among the 
Indians. The Miamis, at one time, challenged all the tribes to meet 
their Kekiah in a foot-race. The Winnebagoes, of Lake Michigan, sent 
their champion, with a delegation, and as the race neared the close with 
Lasselle in the lead, the Winnebagoes were so excited that they let fly 
their arrows at the victor, one of which pierced his thigh just as the 
race was won. As Lasselle was not seriously hurt, he prevailed on the 
Miamis to overlook the outrage, but it is not recorded that he was en- 
gaged in an}^ more international contests. Another noted trader was 
Antoine Bondie, whose important services before and during the siege 
have already been described. 

Another early birth at Fort Wayne was that of John Elliott Hunt. 
He was the son of Col. Thomas Hunt, of the First United States in- 
fantr}', who fought at Lexington, Bunker Hill and Stony Point, and 
was in command at Fort Wayne from 1796 to 179S, having his wife, 
Eunice, with him. Within the fort, John E. Hunt was born, April 11, 
179S. His early life was spent with his brother Henry at Detroit. 
He became known as Gen. Hunt, and in 1816 formed a partnership 
with Robert A. Forsyth, doing business at Maumee City. He was very 
energetic in promoting railroad and canal construction, and should be 
remembered as one of the benefactors of the Maumee valley. He was 
treasurer of Lucas county and postmaster at Toledo. Col. Hunt, the 
■old commandant, died near St. Louis in 1806. 

In May, 1814, wJien Major Whistler took command of the fort, 
among the residents are remembered the major's two daughters, William 
Suttenfield and his wife Laura, Lieut. Curtiss, Baptiste Maloch and 
wife, and James Peltier and wife. Within the stockade Hved a French 
blacksmith, Louisaneau, who came about the time of the war of 181 2, 
under government appointment. The remains of his shop were discov- 
ered in making an excavation for the residence of Judge Carson on 
Berry street, now owned by heirs of Samuel Hanna. Dr. Daniel Smith 


arrived in 1S14, from Lancaster, Ohio. Dr. Turner came in 181 5 and 
Dr. Trevitt in 1816. During the wai' of 1812, John P. Hedges was a 
clerk of John H. Piatt, commissar3'-general of the northwestern army, 
and visited Fort Wa3'ne to report on the rations at the fort. At the 
treaty of Greenville, his father, Samuel P., and he, issued rations to the 
Indians, and subsequently, in 1S14, John P. Hedges became one of the 
residents of the village at Fort Waj-ne. At this date George and John 
E. Hunt resided near the fort with a store of goods; Peter Oliver and 
Perr}' Kercheval, a clerk of Major Stickne\''s. A more extended notice 
of some of these pioneers and their descendants can here be appro- 
priately given. 

The son of a union between the IMaloch and Peltier families, is Louis 
Peltier, the oldest living resident of Fort Wayne. The history of his 
parents is romantic and interesting. James Peltier, his father, was one 
of the early French traders, and a favorite with the Indians. After he 
had been carrying on this business here six or seven years, Baptiste 
Maloch, also a trader, and his wife, came to the post in 1807, bringing 
with them their sprightly grand-daughter, Emeline Chapeteau, who in 
1S14 became the wife of James Peltier. Miss Chapeteau was a great 
friend of the savage inhabitants of the region. On landing she was 
named b}' the Indians, "Golden Hair." Some time prior to the famous 
siege of 1812, she accompanied a pleasure party to the home of a French 
family a short distance down the Maumee. The party was menaced by 
a crowd of unfriendl}' Indians as soon as it was out of sight of the fort. 
Mile. Chapeteau was at once appealed to bv the white part}- for pro- 
tection, and she managed to persuade the Indians to allow them to pro- 
ceed without further molestation. At another time, when she happened 
to be alone in a cabin without the fort, a party of Indians made a sally 
upon the latter, and retiring baffled, some of them came to her lonely 
abode, and entered, but finding her, the}' made no hostile demonstra- 
tions, contented themselves with obtaining food and using the floor as a 
sleeping place. After they left in the morning, an officer ventured out, 
and finding Mile. Chapeteau, to his surprise alive, insisted that she 
should remain within the fort, and she there resided with her uncle, 
David Bourie, during the subsequent siege. She was a native of Detroit, 
born in 1792, so that her life was spent, up to a good age, among the 
stirring scenes of frontier posts. After the death of James Peltier, at 
about eighty years of age, she married Mr. Griswold, and in February, 
iS76,she passed awa}'. Three of her children are living. Louis Peltier, 
the second, was born at the old fort, March 14, 1814. When a boy, he 
learned tfie Miami tongue, and traded with that tribe until 1832. He 
then began the cabinet-maker's trade with James Wilcox, and four rears 
later succeeded to the business, adding to it undertaking in 1840. This 
business he continued for man}- years, being engaged twenty-four 3'ears 
at his stand, opposite where is now Root &Co.'s store. This venerable 
citizen is a man of strict honestj^ and integrity, has been affectionate in 
his family, and has the good will and reverence of the community. 


Throughout his long career he did a successful business, being known 
as one of the leading undertakers in northern Indiana, but so fair and 
equitable and lenient were his transactions, that in all his life he sued 
but one man. Politicallj' he was a whig, but since Gen. Scott's cam- 
paign has been a democrat. He was married in 1833 to Laura Gush- 
ing, who died in 1850, and in 1856 he was united to Mar}- Nettlehorst, 
a native of Germany. He has three children, James C. and Ellen, b}- 
the first marriage, and Angeline b}- the second wife. James C., who 
carries on the undertaking business, was born in Fort Wayne Septem- 
ber 21, 1S43. He attended the Catholic schools of the city, and studied 
two 3'ears at Notre Dame, his college work being interrupted by the 
w'ar. In 1862 he enlisted in Compan}- K, Twelfth Indiana, and the fol- 
lowing August was wounded at Richmond, K.\. He was honor- 
abh- discharged in the winter of 1862 on account of physical disabilit}-. 
He then went into business with his father, and since 1S82 has conducted 
the establishment in his ow-n name. He is widely known as one of the 
leading undertakers of Indiana; is a Catholic in faith; and politically is 
a democrat. A prominent member of the Sion S. Bass post, G. A. R., 
he is the only one who has served two terms as commander, which 
position he filled in 1887-S. He was married December 25, 1866, to 
Selena F. Wadge, a native of England, and thej- have two children, 
William H. and Laura A. Mrs. Peltier is a member of the Episcopal 

The river St. Mary's was a favorite route for the coming of visitors 
and settlers from " the settlements " in southwestern Ohio, and for a 
long period many flat-boats and pirogues would come down that river 
and tie up at the landing just above the fort. Among those who came 
by that route, as early as 1814, were William Suttenfield and his wife, 
and a party of friends, who made their home in the fort. Mr. Sutten- 
field was for a considerable period a non-commissioned officer at the 
fort, and for many months after his arrival, was employed with a squad 
of three or four men in bringing provisions and goods to the garrison 
from Piqua and other points. He was short and slender and ver}' active 
and frequently declared that the Indians could not catch him. He sub- 
sequently arose to the rank, or title at least, of colonel. The first house 
in what is now called the old plat was erected bj- Mr. Suttenfield, at the 
northwest corner of Barr and Columbia streets, and he and his wife re- 
sided there many years in the comfortable log house. Mrs. Laura Sut- 
tenfield was born in Boston, Mass., in 1795, and survived her husband 
many years. She numbered among her friends in the early da3's, the 
agent, Major B. F. Stickney, a manly soldier, to whom so m^lch credit 
belongs for the saving of Fort Wayne from capture in 1S12, Gen. John 
Tipton and Col. John Johnson, two important leaders in their era. 

Major Benjamin F. Stickney, appointed an Indian agent b}- Presi- 
dent Jefferson, was one of the most famous pioneers of the Alaumee 
valley. After leaving Fort Wayne, about 1820, he settled at Swan 
Creek, and he and Samuel Allen founded Vistula, which became part 


of Toledo. . There was a question of boundaiy between Ohio and 
Michigan, and Stickney was the leader in the " secession " of the Toledo 
settlement from Ohio to Michigan, and afterward, during times of 
canal speculation, back to Ohio. The last move resulted in the Toledo 
war of 1835, worthy of the pen of " Diedrich Knickerbocker." Of this, 
Stickney was the hero. He was a man of considerable attainments, and 
had an estimable wife, Mary, daughter of the celebrated Gen. Stark. 
His eccentricities furnished much amusement, especially his selection of 
names for his children, the boys being dubbed One, Two, etc., and the 
girls named after the states. 

In 1815 the fort was rebuilt, logs being hauled by the soldiers from 
the forest, covering the site of the residence of Samuel Hanna, deceased, 
and that vicinit}-. About the buildings a stockade was made of pickets, 
twelve and a half feet long, put in in sets of six, with a cross piece, two 
feet from the top, let in and spiked. They were flrml}' planted in a 
trench three and a half feet deep. Aside from the rivers there were no 
available routes in an}- direction, although there was the Wayne trace 
which could be followed by horsemen to Fort Recovery, one toward 
the site of Chicago, along which the carrier of the militar)^ mail found 
no hut or trace of white men until he reached Fort Dearborn; shorter 
traces tha; led down the Maumee on each side, and one to the reserva- 
tion of the unfortunate Capt. Wells on Spy run. The fording places 
■ were Harmar's, loo rods below the old Maumee bridge, now obliterated, 
and one above it. At the former ford the tirst observation of indepen- 
dence day that is recorded, occurred in iSio, by Capt. Rhea and other 
officers, who took dmner under an old elm, afterward known as the 
" post office," because on that very day the courier arrived with mail 
from Detroit and government dispatches. By this route, the mail was 
carried to Chicago and Green Bay for several years. In 1817, Major 
Whistler was removed to Missouri, being succeeded by Major Josiah H. 
Vose, of the Fifth regiment, who held command until April, rSip, when, 
much to the regret of the few settlers and traders, the fort was abandoned 
forever, and only the campfires of the numerous Indians and their noisy 
pow-wows, remained to furnish a variety to the life of the pioneers at 
the site of the future city. Among the residents then, were John B. 
Bourie, one of the eariiest traders, and Samuel Hanna and James Bar- 
nett. Mr. Hanna built a hewn log house on the corner of Columbia and 
Barr, and he and Barnett opened a wholesale house to supply traders, 
in the following year, 1820. Their goods came from Boston by ship 
to New York, by way of Albany to Buffalo, by lake to Swan Creek 
(Toledo), and thence up the Maumee on pirogues. In 1820, Francis 
Comparet engaged in the Indian trade, and became with Alexis Co- 
quillard, who afterward did business at South Bend, and Benjamin B. 
Kercheval, who became Indian agent, who came at the same time, the 
agents of the American Fur Company, which was established here in 
1820. George W. and William G. Ewing began trading in 1S22 and in 
1825 Peter Kiser established himself as a butcher and issued rations to 


the Indians at the forks of the Wabash and on Eel river while treaties 
were being made with them. Allen Hamilton made his home here in 
1823, as deputy register, and soon became the confidential adviser of 

The status of the settlement at about this time may be inferred from 
the letters of Capt. -James Riley, who came from his survey in Ohio, to 
visit the plaqe in 1819, and was impressed by the remarkable possibili- 
ties of the location as a "depot of immense trade." He said: "The 
fort is now only a small stockade. No troops are stationed here, and 
less than thirty dwelling houses, occupied b)' the French and Ameri- 
can families, form the settlement. But as soon as the land shall be sur- 
veyed and offered for sale, inhabitants will pour in from all quarters to 
this future thoroughfare between the east and the Mississippi river. I 
was induced to visit this place for curiosity, to see the Indians receiving 
their annuities and to view the country. While here at that time, lev- 
eled the portage-ground from the St. Mary's to Little river, and made 
some practical observations, as aftertime has shown them to be." He 
wrote that the St. Mar3^'s had been almost covered with boats at every 
freshet for several j-ears. He describes this as a "central point combining 
more natural advantages to build up and support a town of importance, 
as a place of deposit and trade and a thoroughfare, than anv point he 
had seen in the western country." He said at this time there were assem- 
bled about 1,000 whites from Ohio, Michigan, Indiana and New York, ' 
to trade with the Indians during pa3'ment, and that they brought whisky 
in abundance, which they dealt out to the Indians and kept them contin- 
ually drunk and unfit for business. Horse-racing, drinking, gambling, 
debauchery, extravagance and waste were the order of the daj- and 
night, and the Indians were the least savage and more christianized, and 
the example of those whites was too indelicate to mention." This Capt. 
Rilej^ had a world-wide notoriety on account of his shipwreck and captivity 
on the coast of Africa. 

He advised the speedy survej- of the lands which soon followed, and 
every inducement to rapid settlement, and encouragement b}' the gov- 
ernment of this " future emporium of Indiana." As an earnest of his 
faith he purchased a number of tracts at Willshire, moved his famil}- there, 
laid off a town, built a grist-mill, and surveyed, in 1822, all the country 
on both sides of the St. Mary's, embracing Fort Wayne, and also about 
twent}' townships, of six miles square, between the St. Mary's and the 
Maumee. It will not detract from the value of his historical statements 
to recall that Capt. Rile}^ was famous for snake stories, and that his 
most famous one related that snakes were so numerous in a certain field 
he was running a line across, that ever and anon an angr}- serpent would 
fasten its fangs in his leathern breeches. Slashing their heads off with 
his knife, he calmU' proceeded, and after completing his work, found 
thirt^'-eight snake heads fastened to him. One of the houses outside 
the fort, but within range, was the council house, the headquarters of 
the Indian agent. The first was destroyed in the siege of 181 2, but a 


new one was built in 1816, on lots 32 and 33, the county addition, and was 
first occupied by Major B. F. Stickney. This building was subsequently 
replaced by the residence of Mr. Hedekin, and the old council house 
well is still in use. The year following the erection of this house, 
Major Stickney, in a letter to the superintendent of Indian affairs, gives 
some interesting observations concerning the aborigines. He spoke 
despondingly of the prospect of civilizing the Indians, the insurmounta- 
ble obstacles being the insatiable thirst for intoxicating liquors on their 
part, and the thirst for gain on the part of the white people. Not only 
were thev averse to the civilization of the whites, but viewed the charac- 
ter of the latt-er in an unfavorable light on philosophical grounds, believ- 
ing them to be alwaj-s actuated by motives of trade and speculation. 
Said he: "All the Miamis and Eel River Miamis,^are under m}' charge, 
about 1,400 in number; and there are something more than 2,000 
Pottowatomies who come within mj- agency." The Indians gathered 
here in great numbers during 1S15, to receive rations according to the 
treaty of Greenville, and the}- remained in the countr}^, harmless in their 
relations to the whites, until about 1846, when all those not installed 
upon reservations were transferred to the plains beyond the Mississippi, 
a change which they endured with patient sorrow, for the power of the 
Miamis ended forever with the days of Little Turtle, their famous 

In 1822 the little village had a postoffice, of whom Samuel Hanna 
was the functionary; the Maumee mail came once a week by horseback, 
Mr. Suttenfield being the contractor. For one trip the Fort Dearborn 
mail was carried on foot by Samuel Bird, a Pleasant township settler, 
an old soldier who rebuilt the fort. He carried mail several years. In 
1824 hotels were added to the conveniences by William Suttenfield and 
Alexander Ewing, who each paid a license of $12.50, and each occupied 
corners at the intersection of Columbia and Barr streets. " Washington 
Hall," as Ewing's tavern was known, was managed by him until 1829, 
when Robert Hood and Abner Gerard became the proprietoi^s, and they 
in turn were succeeded b}' Samuel Sauer. To give an idea of the 
population at this time it may be stated that in 1823, when Indiana was 
divided into two congressional districts, and John Test was elected to 
congress from the first district, there were only about fifty votes cast in 
the whole of northern Indiana. In 1822 two famous men. Gen. Lewis 
Cass, and the historian, H. R. Schoolcraft, landed from a canoe b}' which 
they had come up the IMaumee, en route to the Mississippi. A notable 
feature of the town site at that time was a pond, covering about one 
lot, lying about half a square east of the court-house and between Berry 
and Columbia streets. A little brook meandered from the southwest 
down the west side of what is now Harrison street past the Berrj^ Street 
Methodist Episcopal church, into the St. Mary's. Near the site of the 
church was a " fishing hole," much frequented. Among' the hazel bushes 
along this creek the Indians were accustomed to idle', and on its banks one 
day a Shawnee Indian, being asked to drink out of the stream by a Miami, 



received as he was stooping a deadly knife-thrust from his companion. 
The Shawnees who were encamped to the southeast were enraged, and 
two days later a band of that tribe painted and armed for the frav, came 
up and halted upon an elevation at what is now the corner of Clinton 
and Washington streets. Diplomacy was at once brought into action, 
and it was managed to appease the outraged tribe b}' the gift of several 
horses, and many trinkets and other goods. Thus, the stor}- goes, the 
creek came to be known as Shawnee run. 

Another famous Indian murder was the killing of a half-breed Indian- 
negro woman, by Newelingua, or Big-Leg, a Miami. The woman, 
whom he claimed as a slave, frequently stole meat from his cabin, he 
asserted, and he finally threatened to kill her if she did not desist. Her 
kleptomania was unconquerable, however, and she fled to Fort Wayne 
and took service in a white family to escape her fate. Big-Leg kept 
his promise, however. Finding her doing a washing, he stealthity crept 
up, and plunged a knife through her body. Looking at her corpse, he 
exclaimed, "Wasn't that nice!" The settlers took a different view of 
it, and although the not infrequent murders among the Indians were 
unpunished, except by their own vendetta, the villagers decided to draw 
the line at invasion of their homes for such outrages. Big-Leg was con- 
sequenth' imprisoned in the old'county jail. Being told that he would 
be hung he was concerned about what the nature of that ceremony was, 
and linall}' concluded that it was something like the weighing of venison 
by the traders. He communicated this to his friends, who soon brought 
a dog near the jail, where Big- Leg could have a glimpse of them, and 
proceeded to " weigh " the canine with a rope about his neck upon an 
improvised scaffold. The violent contortions of the victim of this experi- 
ment gave the Indian a great aversion to "weighing," and he pleaded 
that he might be shot instead. His friends desired his release, and 
sought to exchange another Indian of less importance for him. He was 
prosecuted by James Perry, before Judge Charles H. Test, William N. 
Hood, associate judge, at the May, 1830, term of circuit court, and con- 
victed, but recommended to mercy. The governor pardoned him, and 
he moved to Kansas, with other Miamis in 1848. 

Among the well-known residents of Fort Wayne between 1812 and 
1838, besides those already mentioned, were F. D. Lasselle, who became 
a merchant on the south side of Columbia street, and subsequently sold 
out to the Miami Indians, the store being then managed b}- Chapine 
(Richard Chute); William S. Edsall, a trader, associated with the 
Ewings; James Aveline (or St. Jule, as he was then called, father of 
Francis Aveline) who came from Vincennes previous to 1824; the father 
of Zenas Henderson, who kept a trading house at the site of the Dewald 
store, and was succeeded b}- his son (Zenas Henderson & Co. were 
licensed in 183 1 to keep a ferry across the St. Mary's at the old ford, 
where the county road crosses leading to Pigeon Prairie, Mich.); Peter 
Gibeau, who manufactured cand}', and his father, said to have lived to 
the age of one hundred and five 3'ears; Ribedeau, Francis Minie and 


John B. Bequette, who manufactured trinkets for the traders all o\er the 
west; Benjamin Smith, a grocer; Anthon\' L. Davis, the first count}' 
clerk; Stephen Coles; Joseph L. and Thomas W. Swinney, respectively 
sheriff and treasurer; Thomas Johnson, a prominent law3'er; James 
Lillie, Samuel Lillie, who opened a hotel in 1S35; Anthony Lintz, a shoe- 
maker; Dr. Lewis G. Thompson, O. W. Jefferds, still living, proprietor 
of the woolen mill; Henry Cooper, the first school teacher and a famous 
lawyer; Rohert Hood and Benjamin Cushman, who were the associate 
judges in 1S37; Hon. I. D. G. Nelson and David H. Colerick, both dis- 
tinguished in law; John Cochrane, builder of many of the old mansions; 
Samuel Sauer, a hotel keeper; Merchant W. Huxford; James B. Dubois, 
a jolly French tailor; Jesse L. Williams, Henry Rudisill, Royal W. 
Taylor, Philo Taylor, Samuel Freeman, merchants; F. P. Randall, 
Henry and John Steer, Thomas Hamilton, a merchant, brother of Allen ; 
William Rockhill, one of the first county commissioners and justices, 
afterward congressman; Hugh Hanna, in 1S26-7, and John Majors, 1836, 
pioneer carpenters; John Spencer, receiver public moneys; John E. Hill; 
Thomas Tigar, founder of the Sciif/)iel: George W. Wood, of the same 
paper; John M. Wilt, L. P. Ferry, a prominent lawyer; Philo Rumse)-, 
now living at Omaha; Major Samuel Edsall, who became state senator; 
Robert E. Fleming, clerk of the circuit court for sixteen years; Will- 
iam H. Coombs, a distinguished lawyer; Michael Hedekin, who became 
a contractor on the canal; Hon. Hugh McCulloch; Marshall S. Wines, 
a contractor on the canal, miller and legislator; John Trentman and 
Oliver Morgan, who each founded famous business houses; Wilham N. 
Hood, an associate judge; Joseph Holman; David Pickering, elected 
sheriff in 1830; Dr. James Ormiston; Capt. Robert Brackenridge, reg- 
ister of the land office; Philip C. Cook, 1S28, blacksmith; Isaac Mar- 
quis, and Absalom Holcomb, who built the first tannery- in 1828. 

Among the first farmers near by was Capt. Hackley, son-in-law of 
Capt. Wells, who cultivated in a primitive way a few acres now in the 
northern part of the city. 

While the treat}' of Greenville (1S14) was going on, Peter Edsall 
and wife, from New York, kept a boarding house in a shanty, and saved 
enough to move to St. Mary's, where a similar gathering enabled them 
to clear enough to buy a farm on Shane's prairie. The father died and 
the mother and nine children moved to Fort Wayne in 1824. Before 
this the eldest boj-s, Samuel, John and Simon, made frequent trips to 
Fort Waj-ne, and cut hay on the prairie west of the fort where the 
water stood so high that the grass had to be carried to high ground to 
dry. Then Capt. Rile}' resided at Willshire, but there was only one 
house between Shane's prairie and Fort Wayne, that of George Ayres, 
on Twenty-four mile creek. The widow Edsall occupied a cabin on the 
St. Mary's, near the usual route of the Indians to the rival trading es- 
tablishments of the Ewings, Barnett & Hanna, and Comparet & 
Coquillard. William S. Edsall was an attache of the corps of United 
States topographical engineers, under Col. Shriver, which was detailed in 


1826 to survey a route for the Wabash & Erie canal. An idea of the 
fataHty that accompanied that work may be obtained from the fact that 
after beginning work at Fort Waj'ne in the spring of that year, but 
very little was done before the entire party was prostrated by sickness, 
and soon afterward Col. Shriver died at the old fort. Col. Asa Moore 
succeeded him, and the survey was continued to the mouth of the Tip- 
pecanoe, and continued down the Maumee in 1827-8, until Col. Moore 
also fell a victim to the malaria. Young Edsall established a ferry and 
soon became acquainted with W. G. Ewing, and eventually became a 
clerk with the Ewings. He subsequentl}^ took charge of a branch 
house at Huntington, where he became county clerk and recorder. In 
1836 he returned to Fort Wayne, and formed a partnership with his 
brother Samuel. In 1839 ^""^ became a partner in the great firm of 
Ewing, Edsall & Co. In that spring he took a horse-back ride through 
the west, as far as Madison, Wis. He became register of the land of- 
fice in 1S43, and in 1846, became a partner of his brother in merchan- 
dise and milling. The Edsalls originated the plank road from Fort 
Wayne to Bluffton about this time, a ver}- important enterprise. In 
1853, they made a contract for making the road-bed of the Wabash rail- 
road from the state line fort3--seven miles, and carried the job through, 
although the}- received little pa}' until the}- had completed the work, and 
meanwhile wages had risen, and the cholera had swept off workmen 
by hundreds. These are only instances of the large and beneficent en- 
terprises in which the Edsalls were engaged. The second railroad they 
also did much to secure. Major Samuel Edsall died in February, 1865. 
In 1868, at the close of three years' business life in Chicago, William S. 
was elected clerk of the circuit court by the unanimous vote of the 

Hon. Hugh McCulloch visited Fort Wayne in 1833, on the invitation 
of Dr. Lewis G. Thompson, whom he met at South Bend. He was 
making a 'trip of inspection, starting from Boston, and, says the distin- 
guished writer, in his " Men and Measures of Half a Century," " Fort 
Wayne was about as uninviting in every respect except its site as any 
of the towns through which I had passed." " In 1833, the stockade of 
the fort, enclosing two or three acres, and a number of hewn log houses, 
was still standing." " Uninviting as Fort Wayne was in many respects 
it was fortunate in the character of its settlers — intelligent, far-seeing, 
wide-awake men, among the most prominent of whom w-as Samuel 
Hanna, one of that class to which the west has been indebted for its 
public improvements. Commencing business in a small way with his 
brother-in-law, James Barnett, he became the leader in all enterprises 
which were undertaken for Fort Wayne, and the country around it; the 
most important of which were the Ohio & Indiana, and tlie Fort 
Wayne & Chicago railroads. The construction of these roads was 
uphill work from the start. Again and again the companies were on 
the verge of bankruptcy, and nothing saved them but the faith, energy 
and unyielding tenacity of Mr. Hanna. 


" Allen Hamilton was a protestant Irishman of a respectable but im- 
poverished famil}'. He joined a small party of his countrymen who 
were about to emigrate to Canada. In due time he reached Montreal, 
and after spending a few daj'S in that city in fruitless efforts to find em- 
ployment, he proceeded on foot to New York, and being equally unsuc- 
cessful there, he pushed on in the same way to Philadelphia. Here he 
was after a weary search kindly given a place by an old Quaker, and 
this was the turning point in his life. From that day his career was one 
of uninterrupted success. In a conversation with him in the spring of 
1834, I said that a friend of mine, a ship-master, tired of the sea, was 
coming to Fort Wayne, with $15,000 in cash. ' That is a large sum,' 
said he, ' if I had that amount of clear cash, I should consider myself 
rich.' He died about twenty-five years from that time, leaving an 
estate worth a miUion or more. Nor was his good fortune confined to 
the acquisition of wealth. He was equally fortunate in his family rela- 
tions. Especially fortunate was he in having sons who (unlike the sons 
of most rich men in the United States), are adding to the estate which 
their father left them, and at the same time maintaining his good 

"William G. Ewing and his brother George W., formed the firm of 
' W. G. & G. W. Ewing.' They had come from Ohio, and with Mr. 
Hanna, Mr. Hamilton and others whom I shall mention, were among the 
first settlers of northern Indiana. As there were at that time no surplus 
agricultural productions in that section, the only business opening for 
them was trade with the Indians and white hunters and trappers in furs 
and skins. Commencing in a small way at Fort Wayne, they rapid))' 
extended their field of operations, and in a few years from that time at 
which they bought the first coonskin, the firm became one of the most 
widely known and successful in the northwest. But large and profitable 
as was their trade, the bulk of their large^ fortune was the result of 
investments in real estate, the most fortunate of which were in Chicago 
imd St. Louis. Enterprising, laborious, adventurous men the}- were, but 
so devoted to business, so persistent in the pursuit of gain, that they had 
no time to enjoy the fruits of their labors. Charles W. Ewing, their 
brother, was a lawyer, and one of the most graceful and fascinating 
speakers, one of the most accomplished and agreeable men socially, that 
I ever became acquainted with. He had a splendid physique and a 
classic face. He was an exxellent singer and story-teller. He had made 
a study of Shakespeare, and could quote the finest passages from the 
works of the great master in a manner that could hardly be surpassed 
hy distinguished actors. So thoroughly equipped was he for success in 
the higher walks of life that the most distinguished positions would have 
been within his reach, if his convivial habits had not led him into dissi- 
pation which terminated prematurely a career, the opening of which was 
full of promise. 

" Samuel Lewis, who had charge of the Wabash & Erie canal office, 
was a man of the purest character and of superior business capacity. 


His wife, a lad}- of rare intelligence, was ihe aunt of Gen. Lew Wallace, 
who is adding to his high reputation as a soldier, enviable distinction as 
a writer. The house in which Mr. Lewis lived was a double log cabin, 
the latch-string of which was always out, a cabin which was rendered 
interesting in summer b}- the beaut}' and odors of the honeysuckles and 
climbing roses which covered its walls, and in -winter by the cheerful 
blaze in its ample fireplaces, and which was always made doubly charm- 
ing bv the open-handed hospitality of its host. 

"Jesse L. "WilHams, the chief engineer of the Wabash & Erie canal, 
was living at Fort Wayne in 1833. When the state engaged in an 
extensive system of public water works he was appointed chief engineer 
of the state, and went to Indianapohs, where he remained until the entire 
system collapsed in the general financial crash of 1837, and all hopes of 
its revival had been abandoned, when he returned to Fort Wayne, where 
he recently died, the last survivor of those whom I first met there. Few 
of our civil engineers have surpassed Mr. Williams in engineering skill, 
and I have never known his equal in industry and endurance. His labors 
as chief engineer of the Wabash & Erie canal, and other public works 
in Indiana, were prodigious, but he never failed to be equal to them. 
Week after week, and month after month, every day except Sunday, on 
which he always rested, he could be found upon the line of the public 
works, usuallv in the saddle, and in the evening, and until midnight, at 
his desk. Mr. Williams acquired a large property, and he was very for- 
tunate in his family connections. His wife (the daughter of Judge 
Creighton, of Chillicothe, Ohio), who is still living, is a lady of superior 
culture, who has always been distinguished alike for her social qualities 
and active beneficence. His sons, while they do not come up to their 
father's standard in energy, will not discredit the name which they bear. 
The men whom I have thus mentioned, with Robert Breckenridge, 
register of the land office, a man who possessed the best qualities of the 
distinguished Breckenridge family of Kentucky, of which he was a dis- 
tant connection; Marshall S. M^'ines, a man of extraordinary enterprise 
and force: John Spencer, receiver of the land office; Francis Comparet, 
and John B. Bourie, Canadian Frenchmen, who were just commencing 
what soon became a large trade in furs with the Indians, made up, with 
their families and a few stragglers, the population of Fort Wayne in the 
early summer of 1833. Since then I have been thrown among people 
of all grades; I have been brought into social relations with men stand- 
ing high in public esteem; but the men of whom I have spoken, after 
the lapse of more than half a century, stand out before me in bold relief 
as remarkably intelligent, enterprising, far-seeing, and wilhal kind- 
hearted, generous men. Nor ought I to conclude what I have thought 
it proper for me to say about my early acquaintances in the west, with- 
out saying a few more words about a prominent and remarkable man, 
John B. Richardville, who succeeded Little Turtle as | civil] chief of the 
Miamis. He was a man of great natural shrewdness and sagacity, of 
whom no one ever got the better in a trade. Nor did he find an e(|ual 


in diplomatic skill among the government commissioners when treaties 
were to be made with his nation. ' He is ', said Senator Tipton, who 
often met him in councils, ' the ablest diplomat of whom I have any 
knowledge. If he had been born and educated in France, he would 
have been the equal of Talleyrand.' Although he dressed like a white 
man, and lived in a brick house, he had a commanding influence over the 
tribe. He was watchful of the interests of his people, but b}^ no means 
unmindful of his own. In all treaties, large reservations of the choicest 
lands were secured to him and not a few boxes of silver were set apart 
for his special use." Mr. McCulloch reached Fort Wayne on the 26th 
of June and remained to dehver the Fourth of July oration, and before 
he had decided to make his home here was attacked by the malarious 
diseases which every new-comer at that time had to undergo. He was 
desperately ill, but his courage and pluck carried him through. Then, 
reduced almost to a skeleton, he took possession of a little office Dr. 
Thompson had built for him and began the practice of law, which, how- 
ever, he abandoned in October, 1835, to begin as cashier of the branch 
of the State Bank that career in finance which has made his name a 
famous one. 

Louis Peltier, before mentioned as the oldest native citizen of Fort 
Wayne, kindly furnishes for this work the following additional facts regard- 
ing the city in its infanc}^ : Mrs. James Peltier came to Fort Wayne in 1S07, 
with her uncle, Baptiste Maloch and wife, and lived where now stands 
Baker's saw-mill, east of which was situated a trading post owned by 
George Hunt. The first mission was at a shant}' where the Methodist 
college now stands. 

Baptiste Maloch and wife built a house on about the third lot from 
Clinton, on Columbia street, and there started the first bakery with 
Mr. Felix as baker. On the corner of Columbia and Clinton was 
situated a hewn log house (two-storj') in which W. G. and G. W. 
Ewing conducted a dry goods store. East of Maloch's bakery 
Messrs. Anthony Davis and Walker had a dry goods store. Two lots 
from that Mr. Bourie kept a dry goods store. On the corner of Barr 
and Columbia streets Alexander Ewing kept a hotel. On the corner of 
Columbia and Barr streets ( south side ), was situated a two-story house 
where Dr. Cushman, of Vermont, the first physician in Fort Wayne, 
lived. On the north side of Columbia street where Monning's mill is 
now, was a log house in 1824 — Suttenfield's hotel. There was a 
blacksmith shop adjoining the hotel kept b}- Madore Katchee. 
Between that and the fort, Francis Aveline, grandfather of the present 
Avelines, made buckskin slippers, principally for the ladies. Mr. 
Peltier remembers when the fort was in good condition and Col. 
Tipton was acting as agent for the Indians, previous to his removal to 
Logansport. There was a porch extending around the fort under 
which a number of leathern buckets were kept, painted blue, and this 
constituted the fire department. 

The original road of which so much has been said in connection with 


the proposed Maumee river bridge, ran about 200 yards from the present 
Main street bridge, west to the gas factory. On the northwest corner 
of Barr and Columbia, Samuel Hanna and James Barnett kept a gen- 
eral store, and Mr. Hanna's residence adjoined this. Squire Dubois 
and Samuel Stophlet had a tailor shop adjoining in a frame building. 
Capt. Bourie and mother lived on the adjoining lot. Capt. Brackenridge 
was next, in a hewn log building, where he conducted the land office. 
Tom Forsythe built a hewn log house next, which was afterward occu- 
pied by Brackenridge as a residence. Adjoining was a log house occu- 
pied by a shoe-maker named Halkins. Next was a frame house built 
by Mrs. Turner; next to that another frame house in which lived Mrs. 
William Ewing, which was occupied later by Bellamy, a shoe-maker. 
Adjoining that, where Schwieter's bakery now stands, James Barnett 
built a residence which was among the first brick houses in Fort Wayne. 
He also erected a building (frame) on the northeast corner for busi- 
ness purposes. On the northwest corner Allen Hamilton erected a 
frame building; adjoining which Tom Daniels put up a frame, in which 
he had a saloon. Next Chief Richardville kept a dry goods store, 
with John Fors3-the as his clerk, and also Mr. Bruno. Benjamin Archer 
built a two-story brick next for a residence. William Henderson had 
a tailor shop in the adjoining building, which was frame; Henry Sharp 
had a hat store next; Zenas Henderson had a two-story brick building 
in which he had a hotel, baker}- and saloon combined. As it had an 
ornamental front, Tom Swinney, the fancy painter of those days, spread 
a representation of two large eagles on the gable end of the house. On 
the northwest corner of Calhoun and Columbia streets was situated a 
story and a half brick house, with a log house adjoining, which was 
occupied by Robert Hood, justice of the peace. On the next lot was 
Hugh Hanna's carpenter shop, a frame building, with residence adjoin- 
ing. Mr. Douglas, teamster, lived next. Conrad Nill had a shoe- 
maker shop next to that. Then came the Free Mason hall, where the 
canal basin was. Opposite to this was the first tanner}', a log structure. 
A brick hotel building stood next, built by Joseph Holman, who con- 
ducted the tavern. Oliver Morgan, sr., was next with a hardware store, 
and near there was Squire Comparet's frame two-story residence; then 
came Alexander Chapman, a carpenter, in a frame building; then the 
frame house of Aveline, the tailor, who was a bachelor uncle of Frank 
Aveline, who built the Aveline House. 

At the southwest corner of Calhoun and Columbia was a one-story 
frame building, built b}- Mr. Ewing, and on the southeast was the dwell- 
ing of Mr. Bruno. East of that was Lillie's hotel, a two-story brick; 
then came the residence of Dr. Thompson, a one-story brick; the resi- 
dence of Comparet, one-stor}- and a half brick; Squire Comparet's res- 
idence adjoined his father's residence, adjoining which was Comparet's 
store. The first house on the west side of Clinton street was a frame, 
occupied b}- Baptiste Becquette, silver-smith, adjoining which was his 
residence, a rude log house. On Clinton street at the corner of Main, 


Allen Hamilton occupied a two-stor}' frame house built b\' Hugh Hanna; 
at the corner of Berry, Abner Gerard lived in a two-storj- hewn log 
house; at the corner of Waj'ne, a one-story frame was occupied by Mr. 
Comey; at the corner of Lewis, a one-story frame was occupied fifty 
years ago by Father Miller; at the corner of Berrj-, northeast, Messrs. 
Rue & Crane kept a bakerv shop sixt}' years ago ; and on the southeast 
Madore Katchee had a dwelling house fifty-five yeafs ago. Mrs. Tur- 
ner's one-storv frame house stood on the corner of Clinton and Wayne 
streets; on the north side of Wa\'ne street, between Calhoun and Clin- 
ton streets, a brewery was kept by Henr}' Engle, fifty-four years ago. 
East of this lived a teamster named Strong. 

At the northeast corner of Clinton and Wayne, where the Masonic 
Temple now stands, lived Zenas Henderson, who built a brick house; 
next to that was a frame house occupied by Mr. Whiteside, and at the 
northeast corner of Wayne and Clay streets lived Mr. Damen. On the 
second lot from Clay street on the south side, was a one-story frame 
house occupied by Ta3-lor Frank fift3'-four years ago, and at the corner 
of Barr and Wayne, was then a one-story frame owned by Mr. Weller. On 
the second lot south on Barr street, stood a one-story frame house occu- 
pied by Martin Noll. 

The first hat shop was on Spy Run avenue, on Wells' reserve. It 
was owned by the Scotts, and was a one-story log structure, standing 
on the west side of the road, their residence being on the east side. 
North of Scott's was the residence of Mrs. Wells, a double log house, 
in which also lived Squire William Rockhill. From this place Mr. 
Rockhill moved to near what now is the McCulloch homestead, about 
fifty-five years ago; his house still stands on Greeley street. Colonel 
Wines, contractor, when he first came to Fort Wayne, also Hved on the 
Wells' homestead. Adjoining the Wells' farm was that of Capt. Hackley, 
who married a Miss Wells. North of that some distance, Rudisill built 
the mill and also his residence. 

Where the Foster block now stands was a two-story frame occupied 
by Col. Spencer, who had his land otHce on Main street in the public 

On Court street, adjoining Spencer's residence, was a blacksmith 
shop, owned by Mr. Holloway. On the corner of Court and Berry 
streets was a log house which was bought by Grandma Anderson. On 
the corner of Berry and Calhoun stood a one-story frame house, owned 
by Mrs. Francis Minie, and aunt of Louis Peltier; the lot was 50x60 
feet, and was bought by her for $500. Adjoining her lot on Berry 
street was a frame house in which the first gunsmith shop in Fort Wayne 
was established by Mosean, who also was a bell-maker. Next to that 
was the one-story frame residence of John Majors, a millwright by occu- 
pation. East from the government building was a one-storj' frame house 
built by Stophlet, and sold to Mrs. Peltier for $600, the lot being 60x150 
feet. Next to that was a one-story frame where Madame Hinton resided. 
The corner of Barr and Berry streets was owned by Daniel Kiser. 


Opposite Hon. F. P. Randall's residence of the present day, was in 1S35, 
a frame house owned by Patrick Ryan, who was a shoemaker. East of 
Ryan lived Dr. Thompson in a brick house. On Main street at the 
corner of Clay, was Cyrus Fairfield's blacksmith shop, and at the corner 
of Barr was a two-stor}^ frame house occupied by Hugh McCulloch,. 
in which place the first Mrs. McCuUoch died. A two-story log house, 
on the corner of Calhoun and Berry streets, was owned by John P. 
Hedges. On the next two lots were two one-stor}^ houses, in one of 
which Squire Barnett and wife lived and died. Forty-five years ago 
Mr. Tinkham lived in a one-story frame house on Washington street, 
near Ewing. In 1S42, an orphan asylum was built by Bernard Rekers, 
on the site where now stands August Trentman's residence, northwest 
corner of Wayne and Webster streets. Where now stands the Bruns- 
wick hotel was a sand bluff, and here the first garden stuff was raised 
and peddled by Grandma Morell, as she was then called. She also 
owned three lots where Jack Read's liver}- stable and Charles A. Mun- 
son's residence now are. 

Forty-three j'ears ago, the Hedekin house was built, and in 1842, 
Calvin Anderson, still hving, became the first landlord. Betset Godfrey, 
of Detroit, had a baker}- where the gas factory now stands. East of 
the bakery, Mrs. Charles Peltier lived over fifty-five years ago. On 
Superior street, at the corner of Barr, fifty-two years ago, stood a one 
story frame building, occupied by George Fallow, as a brewery; oppo- 
site," northwest corner, in 1834, was a blacksmith shop owned by Phillip 
Cook, and most of this was the fur packing establishment of Mr. Scho- 
vat about 1829; at the corner of Calhoun was a two-story log house in 
which Samuel Edsall's mother resided; and on the southwest corner, was 
a two- story frame house, built by Hugh Hanna and occupied by Capt. 
Bourie, in which Bourie and his wife both died; to the west of the latter 
was a cooper shop, owned by Gus Buerett, who made whisky kegs over 
fifty years ago. On Wells street, near the bridge, was a trading post 
keptbv a man named Douglas. The first farm in Bloomingdale, in 
1837, was owned by Hinton, who was Thomas Tigar's father-in-law. 
Another farm, opposite Swinney's, was owned by a man named Beeson. ' 
Joseph Holman, a Methodist preacher, lived on a farm north of the river, 
near Lindenwood cemetery. Near John Orff's homestead was a one- 
story building, which was the first distillery; it was owned by Squire 
Rockhill and brother. The first batch of liquor made by them attracted 
the Indians, forty or fifty in number, who began drinking with tin cups 
while it was still hot and finally got so hilarious that the proprietors had 
to send to town for Col. Tipton and James Peltier, who worked a night 
and day before they could leave the riotous crew. Where Eckarts' 
packing house now stands. Squire Rockhill built the first saw-mill, fifty- 
four or fifty-five years ago. The next saw-mill was built by Anthony 
Davis, Abel Beeson, Mr. Douglass and Peter Duprez. Duprez and his 
wife were both buried in the little orchard where Beaver's mill \Aas after- 
ward established. Before the saw-mill was completed, the owners 


became discouraged and were going to abandon the idea of corn-crack- 
ing, etc., when old Chief Richardville made them a present of $500, 
which encouraged them. He thought it might at some future date, 
keep his people from starving. On the opposite side of the river lived 
a Mr. Compton, who once became drunk and forced his son to go into 
a pen to unfasten a dog which he knew to be mad. The dog bit the boy, 
who afterward died of hj'drophobia, which so enraged the Indians that 
they sought to shoot Compton, but were driven away- 

Francis Comparet, mentioned above as one of the well-known early 
settlers of the cit}^ was born at Monroe, Mich., October 12, 179S. 
That was then an Indian trading post, and his parents were engaged in 
that business. He was raised as a trader, and learned the Indian lan- 
guages. In 1S19 he was married to Eleanor Gvvoin, a native of that 
post, and in March, 1820, they came to Fort Waj-ne, where he at once 
began to establish himself as a trader, and traveled extensivel}^ through 
the Indian territory. His trading house stood east of the alley on the 
south side of Columbia street between Clinton and Calhoun. He was 
agent for a number of years of the North American Fur Company, 
and had Henr\- Colerick as a partner in 1832-33, and subsequently 
Peter Kiser. The latter firm built a distillerv on the south bank of the 
canal, east of Comparet's residence, and Mr. Comparet built a flouring 
mill which was very important at that day. He was active and ener- 
getic in business, and rendered efficient service in advancing the interests 
of the city. From 1824 to 1829 he served as county commissioner, 
forming with William Rockhill and James Wyman the first board. He 
took part in the building of several saw- and flouring-mills, and con- 
structed the dam which forms the reservoir at Rome City, now famous 
as -a summer resort. He had six children, all born in this city: Joseph, 
born in 1S25, now resident of Washington territory; David, born in 
1831; Alexander, born in 1833, now of Hicksville, Ohio; Theodore, 
born in 1835, now of Washington, D. C; John M., born m 1837, now 
living at Blanco, Texas, and Louis, born in 1840, a resident of Des 
Moines, Iowa. In 1845 the successful career of Francis Comparet was 
cut short by death. David, the only one of his sons now residing here, 
was married at Fort Wayne in 1846, to Sarah Columbia, who was born 
in New York, in 1S37. He was for many years identified with many 
of the leading interests of Fort Wayne. His son, Charles M. Com- 
paret, was born in this cit}' in 185 1, and was educated in the city schools. 
He first engaged in the grain business with his father, and was bailiff of 
the criminal court six years under Judge Borden. In 1882 he engaged 
in the manufacture of shirts at 47 Hanna street, at which he is still en- 
gaged, doing a prosperous business, and giving employment to twenty- 
seven people. He was married in 1882 to Emma Shell, who was born 
in Clark county, Ind., and they have one child, Charles W. He is a 
member of the I. O. O. F., the K. of P., and the Patriarchal circle, and 
is in p(5litics a democrat. 

Hon. Peter Kiser, one of the most notable old settler^ of Indiana, is 


a son of Richard Kiser, who was born in Rockingham county, Va. 
Rebecca Mossland, his mother, was from Cape Ma}-, N. J. They emi- 
grated to Montgomery count)-, Ohio, where the}' were married in the 
year iSoo. Peter was born in that county in August, 1805, or in 1810, 
as stated by some of the relatives, the family record having been 
destroved by fire at an early day. Richard was a soldier in the war of 
181 2, and was at Detroit at the surrender of Gen. Hull, at that place, in 
August of that year. In 1822 the family removed to Shane's prairie, 
in Mercer county, Ohio, then a frontier setdement. Having no schools 
to attend, the youthful Peter engaged as a hand on the fiat-boats, which 
at that time conveyed the products of the northwest to New Orleans. 
As early as 1825, Mr. Kiser was employed by Gen. Tipton, then Indian 
agent at Fort Wayne, to furnish the meat rations for the Indians during 
treaties and other councils with them, which employment was continued 
b}' other agents, until 1S46. In the early years of the emigrants' Indian 
mission at Niles, in the territory of Michigan, Mr. Kiser assisted in con- 
veying provisions to that station. For several years subsequent to 183S, 
he was associated with Francis Comparet, and then, having worked in 
the pork and provision business, he erected the first market-house at 
Fort Wayne, in 1835, and was the only butcher in the town. Mr. Kiser 
was married in January, 1842, to Rebecca Snyder, of Wells county, Ind., 
and they had eight children, all boys. In 1844, he commenced the mer- 
cantile business on Calhoun street. In 1828 he joined Wayne lodge of 
Masons, and has been a worthy member to this day. He has twice 
represented Allen county in the state legislature. He is still able, though 
feeble with the weight of years, to tread the streets of the city that has 
replaced the village at the fort, and he is esteemed as one whose busi- 
ness life has been characterized by honesty and integrity, whose relations 
toward his fellow men have been distinguished by unfailing kindness and 
benevolence, from whom the poor and needy have never gone empty- 
handed, as long as he had to give. 

Co/d and Drought. — There were two periods in the early days when 
the settlement experienced remarkable extremes of climate. The win- 
ter of 1 83 1 was a most remarkable one. As early as the latter part 
of November, snow began to fall, and continued to lie upon the ground 
until the middle of March following; and the settlers, during this long 
season of snow, had a surfeit of sledding with their roughly-con- 
structed pole "jumpers," and by frolics upon the ice of the rivers sought 
to enjoy the " long and dreary winter." So intense, much of the time, 
was the cold and great the depth of the snow during this long winter, 
that — though the settlers suffered but little from lack of food — the animals 
of the forest were unable to find any prey, and the wolves, of which there 
were still vast numbers throughout the northwest, were brought to such 
a state of hunger, that their fierce bowlings were nightly heard at Fort 
Wayne, and it was unsafe for the settlers to venture far beyond the 
limits of the town. But even in this condition, the wolves would never 
make an attack upon a man unless their numbers were sufficient to insure 


success. The Indians' stores gave out during the winter and the\' suffered 
much from hunger. Some of them, it is said, were reduced to such a 
state that the}' devoured carrion. Several of them were killed and eaten 
by the wolves. 

The summer and autumn of 1S38 were signalized by a drought 
of longer duration and greater geographical extent than had been 
experienced since the first settlement of the countrj-. On the estuary of 
the Mauniee no rain fell from the 3rd of July to the 15th of October, 
and at Fort Wayne there was no rain-fall of any consequence from Juh^ 
to Christmas. The St. Mary's was so low that no provisions could be 
brought down from Ohio, and the suppl}- of provisions in town was 
finally reduced to two barrels of flour. It was not until the next March 
that three flat-boats came down, laden with flour and bacon and whisky, 
and the arrival of these necessities was duly celebrated. During this 
drought all the smaller streams throughout the region were exhausted 
and their beds became dust3\ The wild animals of eveiy kind found in 
the forests collected on the banks of the rivers, and even approached the 
town. The wet prairies became dry, the wells failed and even the bogs 
of the Black Swamp below, dried and showed great cracks in the muck. 
The excavation of the canal was then going on in the lower vallej- and 
the mortality among the laborers was frightful. 

Treaties zuttk the Miami's. — The first land in the valley of the upper 
Maumee ceded to the United States by the Indians was a " piece six 
miles square, at or near the confluence of the rivers St. Joseph and St. 
Mary's," and a piece two miles square at the portage to the Little 
river. To these tracts the Indians relinquished their rights at the 
treaty they made with Gen. Anthony Wayne, at Greenville, Ohio, 
August 3, 1795. 

On October i.6, 1818, a treat}- was concluded at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
by which the Miamis ceded the region thus bounded : Beginning at the 
Wabash river, near the mouth of Raccoon creek, thence up the Wabash 
to the reserve at its head near Fort Wayne; thence to the reserve 
at Fort Wayne; thence with the lines thereof to the St. Mary's 
river; thence up the St. Mary's to the reservation at the portage; 
thence with the line of the Wyandot session on 181 7, to the reser- 
vation at Loramie's store, thence to Fort Recovery; thence to the 
place of beginning. There were reservations to Richardville of nine 
sections, with the right to convey; to Francois and Louis Godfrey 
twelve sections, and so on, in all forty-eight sections. For this cession 
the government agreed to pay a perpetual annuity of $15,000, build a 
grist-mill and saw-mill, and furnish a gunsmith and blacksmith for the 
Indians, and give them annually t6o bushels of salt. On October 23, 

1826, a treaty was concluded at Mississinewa, by which the Miamis 
ceded all their claim to land in Indiana north and west of the Wabash, 
and of the cession just mentioned, and they were to receive for the latter 
$31,040.53 in goods, and cash $26,259.47, and annuities of $35,000 in 

1827, $30,000 in 1828, and a permanent annuity, to include the former 


one agreed upon, of $25,000, as long as the tribe existed. There were 
various other smaller considerations and annuities. At the forks of the 
Wabash, October 23, 1834, another treaty was made convej-ing much 
of the reservations, and at the same place, November 6, 1838, the 
IMiamis ceded nearl}- all that was left of the reservations for $335,680, 
and the government stipulated to possess the IMiamis of, and guarantee 
to them forever, a countr}- west of the Missouri river, to remove to, and 
settle on, whenever said tribe may be disposed to emigrate, and " this 
guarantee is hereby pledged. Said countr}^ to be sufficient in extent 
and suited to their wants and condition." The 'treaty sets out that 
whereas John B. Richardville is very old and infirm, his annuity shall be 
paid him without his removal. The latter received title again to several 
reservations and $6,800 in money. At the same place, November 28, 
1840, the residue of the " big reserve," on the south side of the Wabash, 
was ceded, for $550,000 and other consideration, and there was an 
agreement to paj^ Richardville $25,000, and Francois Godfroy $15,000 
for claims they had against the tribe. B}- the treatv of 1854, we learn 
that the Miamis ceded 500,000 acres set off to theni by act of con- 
gress, February 25, 1841, west of Missouri (Kansas), on condition that 
thej' were to each take 200 acres, and near their reserves to have 70,000 
acres in a bod}' in common and a section for school purposes. There is a 
lengthy settlement of previous transactions; the $25,000 annuit}' is to 
cease in 1855, and an annuit}' of $7,500 is to be paid for twenty vears, 
and $50,000 invested for the tribe. Finally, in 1868, the unfortunate 
Miamis, in spite of all the " forevers " and " pledges" theretofore made, 
are required to make a treaty by which they are removed to the Indian 
territory, and confederated with the Peorias, Kaskaskias, Weas, Pianke- 
shaws, and from this last refuge, if an}- of them remain, no one can sav 
how soon they will be called on to depart. 

In the spring of 1828, the Indian agency at Fort Wa3-ne was removed 
from Fort Wa3-ne to Logansport, at the suggestion of Gen. John Tipton. 
This distinguished man had up to that time served as agent at Fort 
Waj-ne, with the Miami and Pottawatomie Indians, from March, 1S23, 
and in the fall of 1S26, he secured valuable concessions from the Indians. 
John Tipton was born in Sevier count}-, Tenn., August 14, 1786. When 
seven years old, he was orphaned by the murder of his father by the 
Cherokees. In 1807, he moved with his mother to the Indiana side of 
the Ohio. He served under Harrison before and during the battle of 
Tippecanoe, became a captain and advanced to the rank of brigadier- 
general. He served as sheriff, legislator, was one of the commissioners 
whe selected Indianapolis as the capital, was one to adjust the Indiana 
and Illinois boundary, and served as United States senator from 1832 
to April 5, 1839, when he died at Logansport. 

Opening of Land to Settlement. — After the treaty of St. Mary's 
congress passed an act, approved May 8, 1822, which provided that 
this new domain " lying east of the range line separating the first and 
second ranges east of the second principal meridian extended north to 


the present Indian boundary, and north of a hne to be run, separating 
the tiers of townships numbered twenty' and twenty-one, commencing on 
the old Indian boundary, in range thirteen east of the said principal 
meridian, in Randolph count}', and the said district be bounded on the 
east by the line dividing the states of Ohio and Indiana, shall form a 
district, for which a land office shall be established at Fort Wayne." 
One of the provisions of that act was, that until the lands embraced in 
the specified limits had been surveyed, or a sufficient quantity thereof 
" in the opinion of the president, to authorize a public sale of lands 
within the same," a register of the land office and a receiver of 
public monej'S should not be appointed. Consequently those offices were 
not filled until the year following, when President Monroe appointed 
Joseph Holman, of Wayne countj-, receiver of public moneys, and 
Samuel C. Vance, of Dearborn count}-, register. The necessary 
proclamation having been issued the land office was opened for the 
sale of lands to the highest bidder, on the 2 2d of October, 1823, 
the office being located in the old fort. At this first sale, John T. Barr, 
of Baltimore, Md., and John McCorkle, Piqua, Ohio, were the most 
extensive purchasers, the principal tract being described as "the north 
fraction ol the southeast quarter of section 2, township 30 north, of 
range 12 east," upon which they subsequently laid out the original 
town of Fort Wayne, embracing 118 lots. The "Old Fort" grounds 
were not then subject to sale, having been reserved for the use of the 
Indian agency, including some forty acres. 

Alexander Ewing was also a principal purchaser at this first sale, 
entering the east half of the southwest quarter of section 2, which lies 
immediately west of the Barr and McCorkle tract, and upon which 
Ewing's and Rockhill's additions were afterward laid out. The tract 
known as the "Wells' pre-emption," lying in the forks of the St. Joseph's 
and St. Mary's rivers, having been by act of congress, May 18, 180S, 
set apart to Capt. Wells, who was authorized to enter it, when adjacent 
lands should be subject to sale, at $1.25 per acre — was purchased by 
his heirs. The offices were continued here during a period of twenty- 
one years. 

On the inauguration of President Jackson, in 1829, Capt. Robert 
Brackenridge succeeded Capt. Vance, and Gen. Jonathan McCarty, of 
Fayette county, became receiver. On the election of the latter to con- 
gress, he was succeeded by Col. John Spencer, who served until 1837. 
The officers after that date were: Receivers — 1837, Daniel Reid, of 
Wayne; 1841, Samuel Lewis, of Allen; 1841, 1. D. G. Nelson, of Allen. 
Registers — 1S37, James W. Borden, of Wayne county; 1841, William 
Polke, La Porte county; 1843, William S. Edsall, of Allen county. 

At the time of Col. Spencer's taking the office, there were but 222 
entries of sales of land on the books, and the receipts amounted to only 
about $100,000. The country around for a great distance, was then 
still an almost unbroken wilderness. Under the impulse given to spec- 
ulation and emigration in the years 1835 and 1837, the sales increased 


to an enormous extent, so much so, that in the short period of eight 
months the}^ reached the sum of JfJi, 620,637, and in a single year to over 
$2,000,000. Col. John Spencer, who held the receivership at Fort Waj'ne 
for a longer period than an}- other man, incurred, on account of the large 
amounts of money he had to handle and the dangers of communication 
with other towns, extraordinar}- expenses in the administration of his 
office, and in the auditing of his accounts a deficit was found against 
him. His propert}- was taken to meet this, and he was subjected to 
expensive and tedious litigation. He persistently contested the matter, 
and finally an accounting made under a special act of congress of 1847 
showed that instead of a deficit, there was a balance due him of over 
$500. His property was returned to him. In a pamphlet he published 
to enforce his subsequent claim for damages, he gives the following facts 
regarding his history: He was born in Kentuck}^, and emigrated to 
Dearborn county, Ind., in 1797. At the age of twenty he became an 
ensign in the Indiana militia and was soon afterward captain. At the 
age of twenty-five he was elected sheriff of Dearborn county, served 
two terms, and after an interval of one term by another, he was elected 
again and re-elected. In 1822, he was made adjutant of the Fifteenth 
militia, and two years later, major. In 1825 he organized the Fiftv-fifth 
regiment and served as its colonel six years. 

Joseph Holman, first receiver of the land office, represer.tative and 
treasurer of Allen county, was a prominent figure in the early da_ys. He 
was born near Versailles, Ky., and was married November 22, iSio, and 
went to housekeeping two days afterward in a house built b}' himself of 
logs. He came to Wayne county, Ind., in 1805, one of the very first 
settlers there. In the war of 181 2 he was a soldier, and built a "block- 
house on his farm for the protection of the neighbors. He was a mem- 
ber of the convention which framed the constitution of the state of 
Indiana in 1816. His father, George Holman, when a j-oung man was 
captured by the Indians and ran the gauntlet at Wapakoneta, and was 
sentenced to death at the stake; but after witnessing the burning of a 
companion, was saved b)' a Shawnee who had taken a fancy to him. 
Joseph Holman first became conspicuous in 1807 when he was selected 
by an anti-slaverj- "log-convention" to confer with the settlers at Clark's 
grant, concerning the nomination of a delegate to congress in opposition 
to the choice of the southern towns. He was instrumental in securing 
the election of Jonathan Jennings to that office. His brother William 
was a pioneer Methodist preacher. 

In 1827, congress by an act approved March 2, granted to the state 
of Indiana, "for the purpose of constructing a canal from the head of 
navigation on the Wabash to the foot of the Maumee rapids," ever}^ 
alternate section of land equal to five miles in width on both sides of the 
line to be fixed for the canal. Consequently, the line not being yet 
known, the sale and entr}' of land was stopped for the time, and settle- 
ment considerably retarded within the supposed limits of the canal grant, 
and it was not until 1830 that an office for the sale of canal lands was 


opened at Logansport, and not until October, 1832, that the Fort Wayne 
office did business. The minimum price of these lands was $2.50 per 
acre, but so long credit was given the purchasers that the proceeds 
availed little for the prosecution of the work. 

In the winter of 1830-31, Major Samuel Lewis was appointed com- 
missioner of the Wabash and Erie canal and the canal land office, just 
referred to, a position he held for ten years. Major Lewis was one of the 
pioneers of Allen county, and a very prominent man in the early history 
of northeastern Indiana. He was a native of Mason county, Va., son of 
Col. Lewis, who was an officer in the war of the revolution. Major 
Lewis removed to Cincinnati in 181 1, where he remained some time, and 
then at the age of twenty-one, went to Brookville, Ind., and engaged in 
business. He was elected to represent his county in the general assem- 
bty, and subsequentl}' was appointed by President J. Q. Adams, Indian 
sub-agent, to fill which position he removed to Fort Wayne in 1827. By 
President William H. Harrison he was appointed receiver at this place, 
an office he held until the official revolution following the president's 
death. His various official functions, and natural ability, made him one 
of the foremost men of the embryo citj'. While at Brookville, he was 
married to Katherine Wallace, the sister'of ex-governor David Wallace, 
of Indiana, and aunt of the distinguished soldier and author. Gen. Lew 
Wallace. Their daughter, Frances, born at this city, was in 1S75, mar- 
ried to John F. Curtice, of Fort Wayne. He is a native of Indiana, 
,born at Dublin, Wayne county, February 28, 1S50, and is the elder of two 
living children of Dr. Solon Curtice, who was born in Clark county, 
Ohio, in 1820, and his wife, Marv Hazzard, born on the eastern shore 
o*f Maryland in 1820. He received his collegiate education at the Ohio 
Wesleyan universit}- at Delaware, Ohio, which he entered in 1866, and 
was graduated in 1868. In 1869, he came to Fort Waj-ne, and after 
reading law in the office of Coombs & Miller, was admitted to the Allen 
county bar in 1871, but never practiced, the profession of the law not 
being to his taste. For several years he has been largely engaged in 
the real estate and loan business, and has been highly successful. 

About 1823,- the farm settlement in the valley of the upper Maumee 
began, though "squatters" had previously made them homes at various 
remote places. In 1S19, four j^ears previous, the nearest habitation of 
a white man on the Wayne trace was that of George Ayres, near Will- 
shire, Ohio; on the St. Joseph trace, toward Lake Michigan, the nearest 
house was that of Col. Jackson, on Elkhart prairie; about the time of 
the opening of land for settlement, the house of Joel Bristol was erected 
near Wolf lake, in what is now Noble county; to the south and south- 
west the nearest habitations of white men were the house of one Rob- 
inson, distant thirty miles on the Wabash, and the mission station of a 
few Quakers, at the forks of the Wabash, where the}- gave the Indians 
instruction in agriculture. John Stratton, coming up from Richmond in 
1824-5, mainh' by the Robinson trace, found not more than six or eight 
houses between Richmond and Fort Wayne, the best one a hewn log 


house, used as a tavern. With the opening of the lands immigration 
began at once to set in, mostly from the state of Ohio, where the pioneers 
already began to feel crowded, and where the price of land had advanced 
considerably. Many from the southeast came down the St. Mary's 
with their goods in pirogues, which was the name for the hollowed 
sycamore logs, sometimes from trees of large size and made forty feet 
in length, capable of carrying five or six tons. The propelling power 
consisted of a man in each end who stood and with long poles pushed 
the boat against the current. It was customary to charge $3.00 per ton 
for freight from Toledo on these crafts. Some pioneers journeyed b\' 
wagon, finding, when they entered the Maumee valley, that it was a 
hard road to travel, up and down the sides of steep ravines, and guided 
b}^ traces that were appropriately so called, for they were not roads. 
They found the land heavily wooded, in places covered with luxuriant 
vines, which in some instances the pioneer did not attempt at first to 
eradicate, but pushed aside as he planted the corn to find its way up 
from beneath them. The forest tangles were difficult to penetrate, and 
when the chosen spot was found then harder work followed with the 
axe, before a habitation could be made ready and the life of the settler 
be said really to begin. There was abundant supply of food ready for 
those who were ready with the rifle, and hardl}' any were not. Deer 
abounded. An old settler, Mr. Castleman, counted fort3'-five at one 
time in one drove on Little prairie, and for several years it was great 
sport to hunt deer on the Maumee. The hunter floating down silently 
in his pirogue, would find the animals in considerable numbers in the 
water to escape the mosquitoes, with only their heads protruding 
above the surface to furnish a mark for his unerring rifle. There was 
a profusion of smaller game, and the hunting of bears was a common 
thing. Daniel Notestine, an earl}' settler in the Cedar creek district, 
tomahawked two in the forests, besides killing three with his rifle. The 
Indians were yet numerous and remained man}- j^ears on their reserva- 
tions, but in the days of settlement they were peaceable and kind to 
their pale-faced neighbors. With meat in abundance, and corn, potatoes 
and wheat from the little "deadenings," the settler had few wants to be 
supplied b}' the use of monej-, and it was well that it was so, for money 
was very scarce. The only things that would at all times command 
money were the pelts of the deer, mink and coon, and they almost 
attained the dignit}' of currenc}'. Every spring, the settler's cabin would 
be well covered with coonskins, the reward of vigorous hunting, and 
each representing about $1.00. At weddings, corn bread served instead 
of cake, and venison took the place of the daintier modern dishes, but 
the marriage vows were not more lightl}- heeded. 

Ear]\ Enterfrises. — The early settlers suffered their main incon- 
venience on account of their distance from grist-mills. They must 
either make a wearisome journe\' into Ohio for a small grist, or by the 
use of a wooden mortar and pestle, crack corn into a coarse sort of 
meal, from which " johnny-cake " could be made, for the manufacture 


of which a '-johnny-cake " board hung in ever}- cabin. Or corn and 
pork could be boiled together, forming the favorite dish known as "hog 
and homin}^" A primitive grist-mill, called the " corn-cracker," was a 
great convenience to a wide region about it, although the grinding was 
of a very imperfect sort. Such a mill was put in operation in 1828 on 
Six-mile creek in Adams township, by Joseph Tbwnsend, who also 
used the water power to propel a saw-mill. Famous grist-mills in those 
days were that built by James Barnett and Samuel Hanna at the site 
of the later Esmond mills; Wines' mill, which was buih on the south 
bank of the Maumee by one Coles, and sold in 1838 to Marshall Wines; 
and the mill built by Henry Rudisill and Henry Johns on the west bank 
of the St. Joseph, the water power being gained by a dam about 300 
feet above the mill. When this mill was built in 1S30, it was hailed 
with gratitude by the settlers to the north of Fort Wayne, who had 
been traveling many miles to mill, and they all joined heartily in the 
work of constructing the dam. The demand for lumber on the part of 
the early settler was very limited. He busied himself at first in fell- 
ing the trees to make an opening, and to obtain logs for his cabin, and 
while this was being done, he, and ofttimes his wife and children also, 
slept in " God's first temples," the forests, under the shelter of a tree, 
or under a temporary hut of bark, raised on poles. The logs being cut 
into lengths, with the help of the other members of the little colony or 
the "neighbors " gathered from a wide territory, some logs without 
trimming or hewing other than the necessarj- notches at the ends, were 
laid as the foundation, and on these by means of skid-poles and forked 
sticks in the hands of the men, other similar rough logs were laid. 
The roof was made of rude clapboards, about tliree feet long, and six 
inches wide, called "shakes," laid somewhat as shingles are, and weighted 
with poles. The huge slab doors were pinned together with wooden 
pins, hung on wooden hinges, and from the wooden latch passed a buck- 
skin " latch-string " to the outside. The fight came through the door 
and down the chimney of mud and sticks or through a hole in the side 
covered by a greased cloth or paper. The stove or fire place was a 
sort of crib addition, with back walls and jams of clay. The floor was 
made of rough slabs or " puncheons," over which many a pioneer baby 
learned to walk, with many a bump. All that was needed for these build- 
ings, or for the furniture, was made by the settler himself, with maul 
and wedge and axe, and clapboards and puncheons were the only 
lumber known at first. 

But the settlers who came in after the opening of the lands in regu- 
lar form, soon demanded better accommodation, and hewn log houses 
began to appear, which were a great advance over the previous rough 
structures, often not even chinked with mud. It was not long until the 
saw-mill began to supply lumber for the settlers' wants, for none of 
these primitive structures were adopted with any other motive than to 
provide temporarily for the necessities of life. Those who loved the 
unhewn log house went further west to keep on the edge of civilization. 



In 1S35 the first steam saw-mill in northern Indiana was built b}- Ben- 
jamin Archer and his sons, on the land of David Archer, on the St. 
Joseph river, two and a half miles north of the present city Hmits. 
David Archer and his son John went to Daj'ton, Ohio, for the boiler and 
other machinery, and it was hauled through the woods to the site of the 
mill from that distant point, the boiler being drawn by six yoke of oxen, 
and the rest of the machinery by horses. The magnitude of this opera- 
tion, and its extreme tediousness, can hardly be imagined b}- one in this 
day of " fast freights." When the machine caravan reached Shane's 
prairie, bad roads were encountered, and young Archer was compelled 
to return home for another team of oxen before the journey could be 
completed. Unfortunately this mill was soon afterward destroyed by fire, 
and enterprise in this direction received a decided check in the upper 
Maumee valley. The mill was operated for three years by Benjamin 
Sunderland. The next steam saw-mill was that of Henrj' Rudisill, on 
the St. Joseph river, erected in 1841. He added an upper story and in 
that operated a carding m.ill also. In the same year that the Archers 
built their steam mill, Klinger & Comparet built a saw-mill on Beckett's 
run, which was operated by water power. 

Clearings were not made by the early settlers until a considerable 
period after the opening of the land, except by cutting away the under- 
growth of briers, grapes, haws, spice, gooseberries, pawpaws and the 
like. The bushes were cut down or grubbed out; the smaller trees 
were chopped down, and their bodies cut into lengths of twelve to fifteen 
feet, and the brush piled in heaps. The large trees were left standing, 
but "deadened" by girdhng. In a dry time the brush heaps were 
burned over; a large area was scorched by the burning of the leaves, 
and the soil underneath would then be especially fertile. Sometimes the 
brush would be piled about the larger trees, which were easily killed in 
the same operation that removed the undergrowth. To get the logs 
out of the way, there would be a "log-rolHng," to which the neighbors 
were invited, who came with wooden hand-spikes, and put all the logs in 
heaps, to be burned. The trees that did not fall were gradually cut down, 
and so the clearing proceeded hand in hand with tillage of the fields. 

The best plow at first was the bar-share, the iron part of which was 
a bar of iron about two feet long, with a broad share of iron welded to 
it. At the extreme point was a coulter that passed through a beam six 
or seven feet long, to which were attached handles of corresponding 
length. The mold-board was of wood, split out of winding timber, or 
hewed into a winding sliape. Some used on new ground only a shovel 
plow. Sown seed was brushed in with a sapling with a bush}- top, 
dragged butt forward. The harrow or drag was of primitive construc- 
tion, and was sometimes made of a crotched tree. The grain was har- 
vested with the sickle until the trees were out of the road, and the 
threshing was done with the flail, two sticks of unequal length fastened 
together with a thong, wdth which the inexperienced were in more dan- 
ger than the wheat piled on the floor. 



In an account of the settlement of those portions of the valley of 
the upper Maumee without the limits of the city of Fort Wayne, refer- 
ence will of necessit}- be frequently made to the townships as they are 
now limited, all being with slight exceptions bounded by the township 
and range lines of the government survey. In the days when the settle- 
ments were made however, these township divisions were mainly 
unknown. At the first session of the county board. May 31, 1S24, 
Wayne township was defined as embracing the whole of Allen county. 
So it remained until January, 1826, when all that portion east of the line 
between ranges 12 and 13, or broadly, that part east of the juncture of the 
rivers, was formed into Adams township. In 1828, the northern halves 
of these townships were set apart as St. Joseph township, and this was 
four }-ears later di\-ided into Washington and St. Joseph. 

The first division of Adams township was in September, 1834, when 
Root township was set off, including Marion and part of Adams county. 
Marion was given its present limits in August, 1S35. Jackson was set 
off Ma}', 1837; Jefferson and Madison, March, 1S40; Monroe in March, 
1841. From the original Washington township. Perry was set off in 
September, 1835, then embracing all township 32, range 12, the east 
half of range 11, and the territory north. Then Eel River was set apart, 
and Lake in Ma}^ 1837. Out of the former comprehensive St. Joseph 
township, Maumee was setoff in March, 1836; Cedar Creek and Spring- 
field in September, 1837; the latter at first included Scipio, which was 
established in 1S43. Milan township was created in March, 1838, with 
irregular boundaries, and was given its present hmits in September, 1840. 
From old Wayne township, Aboit was partitioned in May, 1836; Pleas- 
ant in June, 1842, and Lafayette in 1846. The boundary lines of these 
three townships were afterward adjusted somewhat to the courses of 
Little river and one of its tributaries. 


These four townships which are now limited to the district twelve 
miles square, near the. center of which the city lies, were the only town- 
ships known to the earhest settlers. Within their present limits, how- 
ever, the first rural homes of Allen county were made. The history of 
the earU' settlement of Wayne township is so intimatel}' connected with 
that of the city of Fort Wavne, that no attempt will be made to treat 
upon it further. No villages have been established in it except that 
of Lewisburg, which was platted by Lewis Mason, on section 30, Janu- 
ary 2, 1837. 

Adams Town ship. — The earliest considerable settlement was in 
Adams township, in 1823, when Jesse Adams, William Caswell, Elipha- 


let Edmunds, Charles Weeks, sr., Charles Weeks, jr., Martin Weeks, 
Israel Taylor, Philip Fall and Capt. Hurst, began to make them homes, 
at first "deadening," and in later years clearing away and ruthlessly 
destroying the heav}^ timber which encumbered the land, and was then of 
little value. Mr. Adams, who came from Rochester, N. Y., and settled near 
New Haven, was a man of much ability, and gave the township subse- 
quentl}' formed his name, not in his own honor, he declared, but in 
memory of John Quincy Adams. The closing years of his life were 
spent in Jefferson township. A daughter of this pioneer died in 1825, 
and was buried upon his farm, where a second interment, the bodv of 
Mrs. James Thatcher, was made in 1828. The spot became the ceme- 
tery for a large district, but the established cemetery afterward was 
upon land donated by D. W. Miller, in 1830, which is now included in 
the beautiful cemetery maintained by the Odd Fellows since 1875. In 
1830 Caswell and the senior Weeks removed and became the firstsettlers 
of Perry township. Henry Cooper and Judge Wolcott settled in Adams 
township in 1824, and in December of the following jear John and Jabez 
Rogers took possession of land in the woods. They were all of true 
pioneer stock, hardy, industrious and good citizens. Henry Cooper 
here laid the foundation of his fame as a lawyer by studying by the light 
of the log heaps. John Rogers came from Ohio, with a large family, 
and the survivors and their children are now among the best people of 
the count_y. In that year, 1825, a son was born to Mr. Rogers and wife, 
named John S., who was the first white child born within Adams town- 
ship. He died at Fort Wayne at the age of twenty 3'ears. The first 
hewn-log house was erected this 3'ear by Mr. Rogers, and it was an 
architectural triumph for the locality in those daj-s. This prominent old 
settler lived in the township twenty-five years, and then moved to the 
city, where he died in 1S77. I" 1826, Samuel Brown, from Ohio, settled, 
and in the following year John Mcintosh, who entered land in 1823, was 
married to Ruth, a daughter of his neighbor Brown, the ceremonj- 
being performed by Squire Jesse Adams, who had been elected at the 
first election, held on the second Monday of March of the previous year, 
at the home of Eliphalet Edmunds. Two years elapsed before the next 
marriage, of David Miller to Rachel Townsend. In 1S27 Henry Cooper 
sowed the first wheat, at a rather late season, November 15, but it 
turned out well, according to the tradition. In this year a number of 
good men were added to the population : John Blakel}', John K. Sen- 
seny, Joseph Townsend, David W. and Abraham Miller, Thomas Daniels, 
John Troutner and Judge Nathan Coleman. The year 1827 is also 
memorable as the date of the survey of the first road, from Fort Wayne 
to a point just east of the site of New Haven. It was afterward 
extended as a stage line to Defiance, Ohio, and " the river road " became 
a popular thoroughfare. Henr}' Tilburj- came in 1826 and Jeremiah 
Bateman in 1828, and in 1829 the Smith brothers, William, John, 
Thomas and Joseph, began clearing their farms. In this year immigra- 
tion began to increase so rapidly as to make an accurate record almost 


impossible. Neighbors, before so scattered, began to touch elbow in 
the march of civilization, and the smoke from many stick chimne3's told 
of happy families at home in rude cabins which were for all their rude- 
ness the shrines of peace, religion and industrj-. The tide of immi- 
grants led John Rogers, in 1832, to establish an inn on his farm, 
convenient to the river road and the Maumee, and many an immigrant's 
wagon stopped there, or pirogue hauled up to the bank to enjo)' the 
hospitahty of the " Hoosier Nest," as it was called. About the same 
time Rufus McDonald opened the " New York " inn on his farm, and 
in 1S37 the postoffice was established there, and was kept by Mr. 
McDonald until 1842. During that period the mail was carried between 
Defiance and Fort Wa3-ne, on horseback, by John Omans. 

jYciv Haven. — The land embraced in the original plat of New Haven 
was entered by one Gundy, who deadened the timber after the usual 
manner of the first settlers, and it was known as " Gundy's Deadening." 
The land passed from him to Samuel Hanna, then to Eben Burgess, 
who with his son, Henry, made the town plat March 16, 1839. Henry 
Burgess opened up the first store, and Elias Shafer kept a hotel near 
b}'. The expectations of prosperity from the canal traffic were not justi- 
fied, but the building of the Wabash railway and the "Nickle-plate " 
through the town have made it an excellent railwa)' point. In June, 
1S66, a petition was presented to the county commissioners by John 
Begue and others asking the incorporation of the town, and an election 
was ordered, which took place on June 7th, and resulted favorably to 
incorporation. In December, of the following year, upon the petition of 
A. H. Dougall and others, the corporation was made a voting precinct. 
Additions to the original plat were made b}' J. K. Edgerton in 1S54, by 
Reuben Powers in May, 1853, and Nicholas Shookman in 1S63. During 
the war, and for ten years later, there was extensive manufacture of 
staves, hoops, etc. Money was plentiful, and the town flourished as it 
has not since. But it is handsomely situated, and has manv beautiful 
and well-kept residences. The population as taken by Trustee O. D. 
Rogers, in 1885, was 1,211. A pioneer industry of the town was the 
the New Haven flouring mill, which was erected in 1856 by Amasa 
Volne}^ and John A. Powers, in the hands of one or more of whom it 
remained in whole or in part for many j^ears. An interest was owned at 
one time by Allen H. Dougall. While owned by Volne}' Powers, it was 
destroyed b}' fire, January 7, 1884. L. M. Rogers, in partnership with 
John Begue and Levi Hartzell, founded the Maumee Valley flouring 
mill in 1864, an extensive establishment. Amasa Rogers owned an 
interest subsequently, and for several years, up to 1871, it was managed 
by Louis and Charles Lepper. In the latter year a terrific explosion 
was caused by lack of water in the boiler, the proprietors and engineer 
were instantly killed, and the miller and two boys dangerously injured, 
and the building ruined. In 1875, the propert}' was purchased by Joseph 
Brudi & Co., who are still operating it with full roller process. In 1854, 
John Begue started a cooper shop, to which stave manufacture was added 


in 1S62, the Beugnot brothers becoming partners. Subsequent to 1S70, 
under the management of Schnelker, Beugnot & Co., this became a 
great establishment. 

In 1S63 the planing mill was erected by Gustav Gothe and Carl and 
Joseph Brudi at the east end of town, which is now operated by Gothe 
& Co. A stave factor}^ of considerable importance was founded in 1864 
by B. Schnelker and J. E. McKendr}^ which in May, 1876, went into the 
hands of H. Schnelker & Co., they then employing ninety-five hands, and 
consuming in their manufacture, 12,000 cords of wood annualh-. It is 
now owned by H. F. Schnelker & Co., and is an extensive manufactory. 
In 1 88 1, F. H. Bueter and A. R. Schnitker founded a handle factor}-, 
which is operated at present by Schnitker & Fischer. A large wood 
working factory is now in erection b}' M. S. Flowers. The more promi- 
nent business men at this time are : L. M. and W. S. Rogers, dry goods 
and groceries; Frank H. Bueter, general store and postmaster; G. 
Adolph Foellinger, druggist; Bartholomew Dowling, hardware; Henr}- 
Hager and Salvador Peltier, groceries; Rogers & Tustison, agricultural 
implements: O. D. Rogers, notary; Edward Harper, furniture; Mack 
& Gabet, brewers; x^mos Miller, watchmaker; Henry Blaising, Hudson 
& Butler, meat markets; Chas. W. Cook, New Haven hotel; W. 
Zeddis, harness; George C. Hathaway & Co., lumber; Jacob Scheeler, 
tile manufacturer. The first ph3'sicians were distinguished more for 
natural talent than for college diplomas. Jesse Adams practiced for 
some time, administering relief to those who were sick, and Dr. Barn- 
well, a botanical doctor, and Opp, a physician of more skill, followed him 
in this work. Dr. Philip H. Clark came in 1840, but after six years, 
removed to Ashland county, Ohio, where he is still living. Dr. W. W. 
Martin, who became a surgeon of the Forty-fourth Indiana, and afterward 
committed suicide, practiced some time in New Haven, and was followed 
by Drs. Ross, Mitten and Diggens. The physicians at present are Drs. 
John W. Bilderbach, August G. Brudi, Charles J. Gilbert, Lycurgus S. 
Null. The societies of the town are Newman lodge, No. 376, F. & A. M., 
instituted February 3, 1868; New Haven lodge. No. 253, I. O. O. P., 
instituted March 6, 1S66, which is distinguished for its work in estab- 
lishing the famous cemetery; Jesse Adams post, G. A. R., No. 493, 
organized March 12, 1887. 

In 1858, the trustees of Adams township erected a school building 
with two rooms, in which a district school was held. After the incor- 
poration, the town added two rooms to this structure, and in December, 
1866, Dr. James Anderson was emplo3'ed as principal and authorized to 
grade the school by the school board of the town, L. M. Rogers, C. E. 
Bryant and John i3egae. In 1885 this building was torn away, and a 
handsome brick building was erected, through the efforts of Trustee 
O. D. Rogers. The building contains four rooms besides an office, and 
is two stories high. The school board now consists of H. F. Schnelker, 
C. A. Miller and Joseph Brudi. The town officers are: Trustees, Dr. 
L. S. Null, D. H. F. Barbrick, J. J. Lee; marshal, Charles Bell; treas- 


^^:^^^ c^7~c^c^ y^^^^a^^e^ 


urer, B. Dovvling; clerk,' H. H. Schnelker. The newspaper of the 
town, the iVeiv Ha-cen Palladiuin, was founded October 25, 1872, by 
Thomas J. Foster, who continued to pubhsh it until June 5, 1S79, when 
it was rented by Orrin D. Rogers, who conducted it one year when the 
paper was suspended. Subsequently H. L. Williamson established the 
Ec/h\ which had a short existence. 

]Vashi)igioii Tozunship. — The next township after Wayne and 
Adams in order of settlement was Washington. Immediately follow- 
ing the beginning of the sale of lands, Reinhard Cripe, a Pennsylvania- 
German, settled on Spy run, with his family. He was one of those 
who enjoyed the sport of hunting, and his good nature made him pop- 
ular, but he left little to show for his residence when he removed a few 
years later, to Elkhart county. The first real beginning at the settle- 
ment and improvement of the township was made by the Archer fam- 
ily, which consisted of Benjamin Archer and wife, then past middle 
life, their three sons, David, John S., Benjamin, a daughter Susan and 
her husband Alexander Ballard, their daughter Elizabeth, who was the 
wife of Thomas Hatfield, also one of the party, and the daughter Sarah, 
with her husband, Edward Campbell, a French-Canadian. Andrew J. 
Moore was also a member of the party, and Adam Petit, who in 1828 
married the daughter of David Archer. Thomas Hatfield had visited 
the township in the spring, and entered land, and in November, 1825, 
accompanied by the Archers, who had removed from Philadelphia to 
Dayton, the}^ set out, and traveled thither b}- the Wayne trail, tiirough 
the boundless forests, camping out by the way during the nights, which 
were made musical by the howling of wolves and screeching of wildcats. 
Benjamin Archer was well-to-do for those days, and his sons being 
grown men, were given tracts which he purchased, to improve. David 
settled on the St. Joseph, two and a half miles from the fort; John S. 
was given a quarter section near the site of th& Catholic orphan as3-lum; 
and Benjamin went three miles to the northwest, upon land recently 
owned by Alexander McKinley. Mrs. Ballard was given a tract just 
east of the Wells reserve, but she and her husband, who worked as a 
brickmaker in the village, did not go upon it until 1830. The heirs of 
Thomas Hatfield, who was for many years a justice of the peace, and a 
minister of the gospel, still rtjtain the lands the parents settled upon at 
that time. Near the^ same locality lay the lands allotted to the Camp- 
bells. All of the family were stalwart and healthful, and the}' have sub- ' 
dued hundreds of acres of forests and changed the somber hue of green 
to the golden gleam of ripening grain on many a landscape. In the 
year of his settlement Benjamin Archer established a brick kiln on sec- 
tion 35, where his sons, principally John S., engaged in making brick, 
supplying the demand in the town until 1830. In this family occurred 
the first birth, of David, son of David and Anna Archer, born Januarv 
I, 1827, and the first marriage, of Franklin Sunderland to Rebecca 
Archer, in 1828. In 1826 Isaac Klinger entered a tract near the site of 
Bloomingdale, and took possession in the following 3'ear, when Jona- 


than Cook arrived with his family and settled on section 34. His 
brother, Philip Cook, came with him, but in 1828 married Isabel Archer 
and removed to town. His latter years were spent upon the farm he 
took in 1S27. 

Late in the year 1827, two Virginians, Lovell Yates and Richard 
Shaw, settled, but their land transactions were confined to renting and 
tilling a small field. Their main occupation was hunting, and when the 
settlers became more numerous they went further west. James Sanders 
settled in the same year. He had been a minister of the Methodist 
church, and conducted meetings occasionally at the neighbors'. A Mr. 
Hudson and family settled in 1828, and Joseph Goins in 1830. In that 
year Col. John Spencer located roads through the township, one of 
which became the highwa}- to Goshen, the other to Lima, Ind., the latter 
subsequendy made a plank road (1839-40). Next 3'ear the same engi- 
neer located the Leesburg and Yellow river roads, so that the early set- 
tlers in Washington township were especially favored with primitive 
highways. The Lima road becoming a favorite thoroughfare, Mr. Poir- 
son opened the first hotel upon it in a log building. About the year 
1828, Jonathan Chapman, or "Daddy Appleseed," established a nursery 
and sold fruit trees. In 1829, David Archer brought a number of apple trees 
from Ohio, and these were set out in the pioneer orchards. In 1832, Joseph 
Gill came in from Pickaway county, Ohio, and soon after his settlement 
on section 15 his wife Mary died and was buried in the pioneer grave- 
yard, which, one acre in extent, was donated by Thomas Hatfield, in 
1830. It is still in use. Among the subsequent early settlers were 
Joshua and George Butler, Gavin Pe3-ton and Babel Wainwright in 1S32, 
Elias Walters, John B. Grosjean and Charles Schwab, the blacksmith, in 
1834; Benjamin Sunderland in 1836. Earl}^ in the thirties Thomas Hin- 
ton, an Englishman, settled in the southeast, and he afterward kept an 
inn at the place where the Goshen road crosses the feeder canal, called 
the "Bullshead Tavern." His son, Samuel Hinton, is now an aged res- 
ident of Fort Wayne. In 1840 the population began to increase rapidly. 
The first election in the township was held in April, 1832, and John S. 
Archer was elected justice. In 1856, a tannery was established b}- Mr. 
Gray near the site of Centlivre's brewery, which became for a time a 
prosperous estabhshment, with stores in Fort Wayne, St. Louis, and 
elsewhere, but it finalU' failed. 

The village of Wallen was founded in 1870, upon lands owned by 
J. K. Edgerton, adjoining the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad, and 
the name was bestowed in honor of the then superintendent of the road. 
Additions were subsequently made b}' James P. Ross, who was the first 
postmaster, appointed in 1871. Important interests here are the saw- 
mill of Grosjean Bros., established in 1872, and their tile manufactory 
established in 1882. This, and the branch at Areola, manufacture about 
3,000 tile annually, to the amount of $8,000, and give steady employ- 
ment to about twenty-five men. 

The village of Academic, so named because of the Catholic institu- 


tion two miles east, was platted by S. Cary Evans in 1874, ^^^ ^^^ "o*^ 

Sf. "Joseph Tozfiiskip, when first created, embraced all the territory 
in northeastern Indiana north of the township line north of Fort Waj-ne, 
and west to the western extremity of the jurisdiction of Allen count}'. 
Within its present limits, to which it was reduced in 1S40, the first settler 
was Jeremiah Hudson, of Delaware, who established himself in the fall 
of 1S28, and cleared a farm on the land afterward known as the " Ogle 
half-section." Charles H. De Rome, a native of Canada, who had marr 
ried a half-breed Miami maiden at Vincennes, came to the township in 
1829, and lived on the reserve which was granted his wife, Marie Chris- 
tine. He was well educated, knew the English, French and Indian lan- 
guages, and held positions in business houses in Fort Wayne. Jesse 
Klinger, a native of Pennsylvania, who settled on the Richardville 
reserve in 1S29, and became a great favorite, and conspicuous for those 
kindly acts of neighborl}' kindness pecuhar to the early days, was fairly 
embarked in making his farm, when he died in 1835, ^"d was one of 
the first of those to be buried in the cemetery he had donated. His 
son, Samuel, born in 1830, was the iirst white native of the township. 
Thomas Griffis was another 1829 settler, and was unfortunate in losing 
the land he purchased of De Rome, on account of the president not 
giving his consent to the transfer. Another who lost his labor in the 
same way was John Klinger, a settler of 1829, who afterward improved 
a farm on the west side of the river. Other comers in this year were 
WiUiam Sturms, a famous hunter, but also an industrious farmer; Moses 
Sivotts, a good Pennsylvanian, who remained but a few3'ears; and Mar- 
tin Weeks, who settled on the ridge road. The latter was devoted to 
the chase, and was also a turbulent citizen, so amply endowed by nature 
that his neighbors were no match for him, and he was consequenth^ 
avoided. Later, however, he underwent a remarkable change and be- 
came a popular minister of the Baptist church. In 1S30, Abraham 
Dingman and William Butt came in from Ohio, and settled down to 
clearing and farming with such industry and obliviousness to,ever3'thing 
else, that they became famous as workers in a community of forest- 
fellers. John Tilbury, another man of great energy, began work in 1832, 
on a farm on the ridge road three miles east of Fort Wayne, still owned 
by his descendants. The list of new people in 1833 includes James A. 
Royce, an industrious and popular man, who was one of the earliest 
school teachers; James Porter, who subsequently removed to Washing- 
ton township; and Christian Parker, grandson of a revolutionary hero, 
who cleared a farm of 160 acres, and subsequently became the first jus- 
tice, then county commissioner, and member of the state assembly for 
four successive terms. 

In 1836, Job Lee, a quiet and pious man who had been in the war of 
181 2, came here. Others this year were True Pattee, who held relig- 
ious meetings as a minister of the Methodist church; James Ma} hew, 
John Harver, Silas, Charles and John La Vanvvay, and the Goodale 


brothers. In the list of pioneers should also be included Uriah J. Rock, 
Jeremiah Whitesides, Jedediah Hallida}^ William Matthews, Benjamin 
Coleman and Peter Parker. "Jerry" Whitesides was a conspicuous 
figure of those da3's. He was tall and slim, and had lost his right arm, 
it having been amputated half way above the elbow, leaving just enough 
to serve as a rest for a rifle, which was his inseparable companion. 
Throughout the valley of the upper Maumee he was known as Jerry 
Whitesides, the one-armed hunter. The first marriage in the township 
was performed by Justice Parker in 1835, Isaac Bush to Sarah Madden; 
and the first death was that of William Matthews, who died in 1834 
and was buried at the Maumee settlement. In 1834, at the instance of 
Christian Parker, the road which was subsequently extended as the St. 
Joseph state road, was established from town to Jacob Notestine's farm, 
and in 1836 the Ridge road was surveyed. On this highwa}', in 1838-9, 
Mr. Rossington opened a small tavern, which became well known. Pre- 
viously, the private hospitality of Christian Parker, for which he would 
accept no recompense, such was the courtesy of the good pioneer, was 
the main resource of travelers on that road. 

On a beautiful and historic tract of land, four and a half miles from 
Fort Wayne, on the St. Mary's river, now reside the descendants of dis- 
tinguished men whose names are frequently met in the annals of the 
upper Maumee valley, Richardville and Godefroi. 

Francis Godfroy, or Godefroi, which is the old French form of the 
name, was a war chief of the Miamis of great power and influence, 
succeeding Little Turtle in 181 2. His father was a Frenchman who 
took to wife a Miami maiden. Francis married Soc-a-jag-wa, a Miami 
girl, and the^' made their home on the Wabash, near Peru, about four 
miles east of the site of which town their son, James R. Godfrey, who is 
still living, was born in July, 1810. The latter came to Allen county 
about 1844 and was married to Montosoqua, daughter of La Blonde, 
the daughter of the famous civil chief of the Miamis, John Baptiste 
Richardville. She was born near Fort Wayne, in 1835, and died in 
March, 1885. They had twelve children, James, now deceased; Mary, 
now deceased; Louisa, wife of George Neid, residing on the reserve; John, 
who lives with four children on the reserve; Annie, wife of William 
Stuck; George L., and six who died in childhood. James, the oldest 
son, was born on the reserve in 1846. At the outbreak of war in 1861, 
he enlisted in the Eleventh Indiana battery, but contracting disease, 
was discharged on account of disability at Corinth, June 5, 1S62. On 
the same day that he reached home his life ended. 

George Lewis Godfre}', the youngest son of James R. Godfrey, 
was born at the family residence on the reservation, October 2, 1850. 
There he was reared and was given a good practical education in the 
public schools. He has followed farming as an avocation, residing on 
the reservation all his life. He is one of the very few Indians in Indiana 
or the countr}- who are members of secret societies, and is the highest 
in Masonr}' of any Indian in Indiana and the world. He became a 


Mason several years ago, joining Home lodge, No. 342. Since then 
he has become a member of the Fort Wayne chapter, No. 19; Fort 
Wayne council. No. 4, R. S. & M. ; Fort Wayne commandery. No. 4, 
K. T. ; Fort Wayne grand lodge of perfection, 14th degree; Urias 
council, i6th degree, and consistory S. P. R. S. of IndianapoHs. He 
is also a member of the Phoenix lodge. No. loi, K. of P., and divis- 
ion No. 12, uniform rank, and was at one time a member of the 
United Order of Foresters, passing through all the chairs of the same, 
and was also a member of the Patriarchal Circle. He is a member of 
Wayne Street Methodist Episcopal church. There are now sevent)'- 
two residents of the reserve, embracing James R. Godfrey', his children 
and grandchildren. 

Charles W. Fairfield, a prominent farmer of Wayne township, was 
born June 6, 1842, in a frame house which was built in the country, but 
now stands on Broadway street. Fort Wa3-ne, south of the Wabash rail- 
road tracks. His father, Charles Fairfield, one of the pioneers of Allen 
county, was born in Kennebunk Port, Maine, Februar}' 14, 1S09, son of 
Capt. William Fairfield, a sea captain of Kennebunk Port, who was one 
of Gen. Washington's aides-de-camp during the revolutionarj^ war. 
All the sons followed in the footsteps of their father and became sailors^ 
two of them, Oliver and Asa, rising to the position of captains. They 
participated in the war of 1S12, and were both captured on the sea by 
English men-of-war, and confined in English prisons, the former at Hal- 
ifax, N. S., for sixteen months, and the latter at Dartmouth, England, 
for six months. When Charles Fairfield was fifteen years of age he 
went to sea, and continued for thirteen j'ears, during the latter part of 
that time being in command of a vessel. In 1S35, the three brothers, 
Oliver, Asa and Charles, came to Indiana. The brothers located first 
in Fort Wayne, Oliver engaging in the bakery business, while Asa and 
Charles began farming. Asa died October 4, 1868; Oliver, March 24, 
1883, leaving Charles the oldest representative of the family in the west. 
About 1843, Mr. Fairfield removed to a farm on the St. Joseph road in St. 
Joseph township, and from there removed to Wayne township where he 
purchased over 400 acres of land on the Bluffton road. In 1862, he 
traded with the county commissioners for a farm of 290 acres, where his 
son now resides, three and one-half miles southwest from Fort Wayne. 
In May, 1889, he removed to his present home two miles from the cit}'. 
He has been a worthy citizen throughout his residence in Allen county, 
but though he has accepted with reluctance various public trusts, he has 
always lived a quiet life. Being a careful business man he has been success- 
ful financially, owning 515 acres of improved farm land and city propert}-. 
Known all over Allen count}', he is everywhere esteemed. He was 
married December 4, 1837, to Sarah A. Browning, who was born near 
Marietta, Ohio, Januarj- 18, 1815, and is the daughter of Bazalia Brown- 
ing, a native of New Jersey, who was an early settler of Ohio, a soldier 
of 1812, and a pioneer of Allen county, coming here as early as 1832. 
In 1887, Mr. and Mrs. Fairfield celebrated their golden wedding. To 


their union four sons and three daughters were born: George N., enlisted 
in iS6i, while attending Lawrence university at Appleton, Wis., in the 
Fourth Wisconsin regiment; was transferred in 1S63 to Company E, 
Sixteenth Indiana, of which he became captain, and died at Stonj- Point, 
near Vicksburg, Miss., in the fall of 1863; Olive A., now the wife of 
W. R. H. Edwards, an old citizen of Fort Wa3'ne, now of Deer Lodge 
count}-, Mont.; Charles W.; Mary F., now the Avife of Harry Davis of 
Washington territor}-; Edward B., of Montana; Frances, deceased wife 
of Cornelius Miller; Willard A., of Wayne township. Charles W. 
Fairtield was reared in Wayne township, and was educated in the log 
school-houses of that day. On April 19, 1S61, he enlisted in Company 
E, Ninth Indiana infantr}-, for ninety da3'S, and participated in the cam- 
paigns in West Virginia, in Gen. Morris' brigade, Eleventh corps, Armj' 
of the Potomac. Returning to Allen count}-, he engaged in saw-mill- 
ing for two years. During the gold excitement in Idaho in 1864, he 
joined a party of thirty-five who made the entire trip there by ox teams 
in six months. This part}^ was among the very first in the gold regions 
of southern Idaho, and they opened up the first road from North Platte 
Bridge, Neb., 400 miles to Virginia City, through the center of the 
Sioux country. The trip was a most perilous one. They were piloted 
by Bozeman, a scout, who founded Bozeman City, Mont. Two years 
later Mr. Fairfield returned to Allen county for a year, then going back 
to the mining regions, at that time only fourteen miles from the Union 
Pacific railroad. He located at Laramie City, Wy., where he was 
engaged on a contract on the Union Pacific railroad. While residing in 
Beaver Head county, Idaho, he served as sheriff for about one year. In 
the fall of 1868 he returned to Allen county, and began farming, his 
present occupation. JHe manages one of his father's farms and owns a 
good farm of 100 acres in the same township. He was married in Mon- 
tana, November 22, 1S64, to Emma Toothill, born in Pennsylvania, 
March 26, 1842, the daughter of Joseph Toothill, an Englishman, who 
died when she was in her fourth year. His wife was Hannah Smith, 
born in New York state, and died in Chicago, April 20, 1886, in her 
eighty-sixth year. Mr. and Mrs. Fairfield have had nine children, five 
of whom survive: Hattie M., wife of George M. Trick, of Pleasant 
township; George M., of the Indiana Machine Works, Fort Wavne; 
Charles E., Oliver Perry, and Ida. Mr. Fairfield is a member of Sion S. 
Bass post, G. A. R., and of Harmony lodge, I. O. O. F. 

Henry C. McMaken, a well-known farmer of Wayne township, was 
born near New Haven, Adams township, June 15, 1844. His father, 
Joseph G. McMaken, who was born near Hamilton, Ohio, February 8, 
1814, came to Allen county in the spring of 1832, with his father, Joseph H. 
McMaken, who settled at Fort Wayne, and kept for many years one 
of the first taverns, the Washington hotel, which stood on the corner of 
Calhoun and Columbia streets, the mammoth dry goods house of De Wald 
& Co. now occupying the site. In 183S, he removed to a farm in 
Adams township, and in 1847, purchased a farm on the Maysville pike, 


about three and one-half miles from the city. He was one of the best 
known citizens during his life, and after farming for years, died Decem- 
ber 13, 1864. His widow, Dorothy Ruch, was born in Alsace-Loraine, 
France, about 1818, and came at about eleven 3'ears of age to America 
with her parents, who located in Pittsburg, then removed to Starke 
county, Ohio, and in 1837, came to Fort Wayne. In 1889, she removed 
to Fort Wayne. There were twelve children born, ten of whom are 
living: Henry C; William B., farmer in Wayne township; Joseph H., 
on the homestead farm in Adams township: Sarah J., wife of S. S. Cole- 
man, of Wayne township; Anna M. ; Adelia C; J. C. F., farmer of 
Lake township; Franklin A., residing in Fort Wayne; Elizabeth, and 
Lottie M., wife of Elmer Banks, of St. Joe township. Henry C. finished 
his education at the Methodist Episcopal coUege in Fort Wayne in 1857, 
and then worked on the farm until June, 1S6 2, when he enlisted in Com- 
pany E, Fifty-fifth Indiana regiment, and served three months. He 
was captured at Richmond, Ky., August 30, 1S62, and four days later 
paroled. He was discharged at Indianapolis, September 9, 1862. 
Returning to the home farm, he worked until 1S68, and then rented a 
farm. In 1874, ^^ purchased sixty-two acres in Wayne township, his 
present farm. In 1874, he erected a two-story frame residence, and in 
1885, a la:-ge and substantial barn. April 9, 1868, he was married to 
Frances J., daughter of Adam Link, born at Newark, Ohio, December 
8, 1840. They have had seven children : Lottie May (deceased), Lucie 
L., Dora G., William H., Helen J., Adam J. (deceased), Ehzabeth. 
Mr. McMaken is a member of Sion S. Bass post. No. 40, G. A. R. 

Peter Wagner, a venerable farmer of Wayne township, residing one 
mile and a quarter south of the city limits, was born near the river 
Rhine, Germany, February 17, 1814. He left his home at Zweibrucken, 
April 6, 1S33, with his parents, Peter and Anna Maria (Gross) Wagner, 
and arriving at New York in June, 1833, they reached Alban}', 
N. Y., July 4th. Going to Buffalo on a canal boat, the family remained 
there about three months, and Peter crossed over to Canada, where he 
worked on a farm for John Forsythe, a wealthj- citizen. Returning to 
Buffalo, he joined the family and the}- reached Detroit, after a voyage 
of two weeks. They came to the Maumee river b}' wagon, being two 
weeks on the way, having to cut their way through the woods, and on 
reaching the Maumee, they completed the journey to Ft. Wayne in 
pirogues. In the spring of 1834, ^^^ father entered eighty acres of 
canal land, where he farmed until his death, about 1S54, his wife dying 
six weeks later. The}' were members of the Catholic church, and were 
well known and highly esteemed, liked by all who knew them. Of 
their ten children, three survived. Their son Peter Wagner, was mar- 
ried in 1839, *° Mary Magdalene Baker, a sister of Jacob, Killian and 
John Baker, of Fort Wayne. Her death occurred December 31, 1887. 
They had ten children > John, Catherine, Magdalene (deceased), Mary, 
Jacob, George (deceased), Elizabeth, Henry, Agnes and JuHan. When 
Mr. Wagner was married, he began farming on eighty acres of land in 


section 24, and he next purchased forty acres adjoining, in Adams town- 
ship, then eighty acres more, making a farm of 200 acres, one of the 
finest in Wayne township. In 1867, he erected a two-story brick resi- 
dence at a cost of $3,000. He also has fine houses and out buildings. 
Mr. Wagner has held various township offices, and was supervisor for 
seven j'ears. He is a member of the Cathedral Catholic church. He 
has lived an upright fife and is generally respected. 

John Wilkinson, superintendent of the Allen county asvlum and 
poor farm, was born in Washington township, February 26, 1S44. His 
father, William Wilkinson, was born' in County Cork, Ireland, about 
1S02. He married in Ireland Johanna Quinlan, who was born about 
1S04, and they immigrated in 1833 and located at Troy, N. Y., where 
the father was employed in Burden's iron works. In 1835 they located 
on a farm in Washington township, where the father farmed until his 
death in 1849. He was one of the worthy pioneers of Allen county. 
His W'idow died in 1876. They had seven children, five sons and two 
daughters, of whom one son is deceased. John Wilkinson attended the 
common schools and finished his education in the schools of Plymouth, 
Ind. He remained on the farm until 187 1, and then hved at Alexan- 
dria, Va., about one year. Returning to Allen county, and locating at 
Fort Waj-ne in 1876, he was elected a member of the city council from 
the ninth ward, and was re-elected in 1878, and again in 1880, when he 
resigned. In 1S79, while a member of the council, he was also appointed 
deput}^ clerk of the circuit court, holding that position until 1880, when 
he was appointed by the count}' commissioners superintendent of the 
Allen county asylum and poor farm, which position he has held for nine 
years with ability and to the general satisfaction. Mr. Wilkinson was 
married August 12, 1863, to Annie Maloney, who was born in Whitley 
county, Ind., the daughter of Patrick Maloney, a native of Ireland. They 
have three sons and four daughters. Mr. Wilkinson and wife are mem- 
bers of the Catholic cathedral. In politics he is a democrat. Capt. 
Francis Wilkinson, chief of police of Fort Waj-ne, is a brother to our 

Joshua Holmes, assistant assessor of Wayne township, one of the 
pioneers of Allen count}', was born in Licking count}-, Ohio, October 
13, 1813. His parents Joseph and Sarah (Haver) Holmes, natives of 
Pennsylvania, went to Ohio in early fife and were there married; the father 
being of English and Scotch, and the mother of German and Welsh, 
descent. The father, a farmer, and soldier in the war of 1812, lived to 
be sixty -three years old His father was a soldier in the revolution. 
The mother was fifty-one years of age when she died. Of their ten chil- 
dren only four survive, of whom the second born was Joshua. He was 
reared in Fairfield county, Ohio. In 1835, he visited Allen county, and 
came with his wife in 1836, arriving here September 7. In 1834 his 
father came to Allen county and entered 120 acres of land in his son's 
name, and 118 for himself. The land is situated on the Illinois road, 
four miles west of the city. Erecting a tent, he and wife lived in it 


until he could build a log cabin. In 1870, he removed to Fort Wa}-ne, 
where he has since resided. In May, 18S5, he sold' the old homestead, 
retaining 80 acres he had purchased. Mr. Holmes was married March 
8, 1836, to Mary M. Fountain, who was born in New Jersey, and reared 
in Guernsey county, Ohio. Her death occurred March 8, 1881. They 
had twelve children, six of whom survive: Sarah A., now Mrs. Thomas 
Donall}', of Pittsburg; Bayliss, now of Mississippi; George, of Hunting- 
ton county, Ind.; Clara, now Mrs. Tarn, of Mississippi; John W., of Eel 
River township, and Roland. Mr. Holmes has served as assessor of 
Wayne township for a number of years, and for the past four years has 
been assistant under John Slater. He is a member of the Second Pres- 
b3'terian church. 

Roland Holmes, son of the above, was born on the old homestead, 
February 2, 1S57. He was educated in the city and district schools, 
and for the last ten years has been follo\\-ing fanping. He was mar- 
ried on August 18, 1875, to Ida Donley, who was born in Ohio, and 
they have two children : Nora and Willie. 

Joseph H. Grier, a worthy and substantial citizen of Fort Wayne, 
residing at the corner of Pontiac and Oliver streets, was born in Will- 
iamsport, Penn., March 16, 1838. His father, Samuel Grier, was a native 
of Williamsport. The grandfather immigrated from Ireland to Phila- 
delphia when a young man, and later became a pioneer of L3'coming 
county, Penn. He was a surveyor and laid out the plat of Williamsport, 
and also did most of the surveys for the count}- during the earl}- dajs. 
Later in life he engaged in mercantile pursuits, and was the first post- 
master of Williamsport. About 1837 Samuel Grier settled in Allen 
county, purchasing 200 acres of land in Marion township, on the Piqua 
road. He resided there until about 1852, when he removed to Michigan 
and purchased a farm in St. Joseph count}'. Later in life he retired from 
farming, and resided at Constantine, Mich., until his death, in 18S3, in 
his seventy-fourth year. His wife, Elizabeth Hetner, was born in 
Lycoming county, Penn., the daughter of an early settler. She resides at 
Constantine,- in her sixty-ninth year. Their only child, Joseph H., was 
reared in Allen county until his fifteenth year, and then finished his edu- 
cation in the schools of Florence, Mich. At twenty-four years of age 
he was married to Ellen B., daughter of B. F. Rice, a well-known citi- 
zen of South Wayne. She was born near Decatur, Ind. Mr. Grier 
began farming in St. Joseph county, Mich. In 1884 he removed to Con- 
stantine, and in March, 18S6, to Fort Wayne. Mr. Grier owns a fine 
farm of 145 acres within sight of White Pigeon, Mich., also over 100 acres 
in the southeastern suburbs of Fort Wayne, and six lots within the city 
limits. In 1887 he erected his residence just across the city limits, a 
large two-story brick structure, built in modern style, surrounded by a 
beautiful lawn, decidedly the handsomest residence in southeast Fort 
Wayne. Mr. and Mrs. Grier are members of the Methodist church. 
They have two daughters, Viola and Edna. While residing in Michigan, 
Mr. Grier was supervisor of the township of Constantine, including the 


village, from 1878 to 1882. He was four years a director of the St. 
Joseph County Agricultural society, and for four years was a director 
in the Village insurance company. He was for several years a director of 
the St. Joseph County Horse-Thief association, a " regulator " society, 
and has acted as assignee in several important cases. 

Charles F. Moellering, manager of the extensive brick-yards of 
William Moellering, in Wayne township, was born in Fort Wayne, 
December 5, 1858, son of Charles and Mary (Ehleid) Moellering, both 
natives of Germany. Charles, the father, came to America at an earl}' 
day, and to Fort Wayne during the '40's. He was a brick-mason by 
trade, and contractor, doing an extensive business for twenty-six years. 
He was for some time a partner of his brother, William Moellering. 
Later in life he removed to a farm in Wayne township, where he died 
in March, 1885, at the age of sixty-two years. His wife, Mary Ehleid, 
died in 1870, at the age of forty years. By an earlier marriage, Mr. 
Moellering had children, one of whom, Elizabeth Bradtmiller, survives. 
To the second marriage seven children were born. All of the children 
survive. The oldest, Charles F. Moellering, was reared in Fort Wajne 
and educated in the Lutheran schools. He was on the farm until 1882, 
when he took charge of William Moellering's business at the brick 
yard. He owns the old homestead of eighty acres, on the Bluffton 
road, but makes his home at the yards. He was married to Annie, 
daughter of William Schafer, who was born in Wa3'ne township in 1863. 
To this union one son, Frederick W., was born. Mr. and Mrs. Moellering 
are members of Emanuel Lutheran church. 

J. H. Stellhorn, of Wayne township, a leading farmer and .lumber- 
man, was born in Fort Wa3-ne, June 19, 1851. His father, Frederick 
Stellhorn, one of Allen countj^'s pioneers, was born in Hanover, Germany, 
in 1S18, and emigrated about 1S44, coming directly to Fort Wayne. 
He resided there until the spring of 1S61, when he purchased 100 acres 
in Wayne township. While in Fort Wayne he was engaged in the 
stone and lime business, but upon removing to the countr}-, he began 
farming and running the water-power saw-mill on the place. He is a 
prominent citizen, and for a number of years held the position of 
supervisor, and was frequently solicited to make the race for count}' 
commissioner, but always declined. His v/ife was Fredericka Moeller- 
ing, who was born in Prussia in 1824, and is the sister of William 
Moellering, of Fort Wayne. To these parents ten children were born, 
six of whom survive. The third born, J. H. Stellhorn, when fifteen years 
of age began work in his father's saw-mill, and continued until about his 
twenty-fourth year, when he purchased a steam saw-mill which he has 
since operated. His mill on the St. Mary's river, three and one-half miles 
south of the city limits, has a capacity of about 4,000 feet per day. In 
1885, Mr. Stellhorn added grist-mill machiner}-, which he operates during 
the winter months, and averages about 5,000 bushels of feed and corn- 
meal per year. He has been quite prominent in his township. He has 
been supervisor of his district, and in 1883, was elected superintendent of 


all the township roads, and served ten months until the repeal of the law. 
Since 1SS5, he has been superintendent of Simons' No. 5 pike, an 
extension of Fairfield avenue. He was married in 1874, to Eliza Kline, 
of Adams county, who died eighteen months later, leaving one child, 
who survived six weeks. He was again married in 1877, to Sophia 
Poehler, of Waj-ne township. Mr. Stellhorn and wife are membei^s of 
Lutheran Trinity church. 

Conrad Tielker, a well-known farmer of Wayne township, was born 
in Westphalia, Prussia, November 24, 1S24. His father, Christian Tiel- 
ker, was a native of Prussia, and a soldier in the Napoleonic wars. He 
and his wife died in Prussia. Conrad, in 1846, after a voyage of 
seventy-two days, landed at New York, and soon afterward arriv- 
ing at Fort Wayne, went to work in a brick-yard at $12 per 
month. Three months later he began to work on the canal, haul- 
ing stone to the city. He worked in the stone quarries at Hunting- 
ton during the winter, and in May, 1847, went to Toledo, and thence to 
Chicago, and worked on a farm two 3'ears at Yankee settlement, south- 
west of Chicago. He returned to Fort Wayne, and worked in a ware- 
house, and then bought a fourth share in a canal boat, and for three years 
was engaged iu boating, and then sold to his brother Henry. In 1852 
he purchased school land in section sixteen, at $6 per acre. In 1853 he 
removed to the farm, and built a log house, 16x14, '™ which he lived 
eighteen j-ears. In 1871, he erected a handsome dwelling, and in 1876, 
a large bank barn. In 1886, the latter was destroyed b}' fire, together 
with 800 bushels of grain and thirty-five tons of hay. His farm com- 
prises eighty-six acres of first-class land. Mr. Tielker was married 
March 13, 1853, to Wilhelmina Baade, who was born in Westphalia, 
Prussia, May 19, 1834, and came to this countr}' when ten years of 
age. They have had eight children, five of whom survive : Wilhelmina, 
Lizzie (dead), Christ, (killed b}^ being kicked by a horse), Mary, wife 
of Elias Aumann, of St. Joseph township; Frederick, living in Bloom- 
ingdale; Sophia, William and Conrad (twins), Winiam(dead). Mr. and 
Mrs. Tielker and family are members of the Lutheran church. Mr. 
Tielker is a democrat. After the defeat of his part}^ in i860, Mr. Tiel- 
ker resolved that he would not cut his hair until a democrat was elected 
president, and he kept his word for twenty-four years. Upon the 
election of Cleveland his hair was cut, which was the occasion of a 
grand frolic by a number of his old friends at his residence. In 1865, 
Mr. Tielker made a visit of seven weeks in Europe, with his parents. 

George Rapp, of Wayne township, was born in Germany, May 6, 
1825. His parents, Nicholas and Margaret (Hotz) Rapp, were natives 
of Germany, the father being a farmer by occupation. The father died 
in 1839, ^" hi^ forty-second year, and the mother in 1833, aged thirty- 
five. Their only child, George, learned the blacksmith trade, and 
when twenty-one years of age he emigrated, landing at New York, 
September 16. Going to Lancaster county, Penn., he worked at his trade 
one and a half years, and then, in 1848, located at Fort Wa\ne. He 


opened a shop on Main street, and six months later removed to Hunter- 
town, where he kept a shop until 1861. He then removed to a farm in 
Wayne township. His farm embraces eighty-six acres of good land, 
three miles west from Fort Wayne, through which passes the Wabash 
railroad. Mr. Rapp has always been regarded as one of the leading 
citizens of his township. In 1SS6 he was appointed supervisor of road 
district No. 3, and in 1887 was elected for two years. He is a member 
of St. John's Lutheran church of Fort Wa\-ne. January 4, 1848, Mr. 
Rapp was married to Elizabeth Saur, who was born in German}-, March 
19, 1828, and immigrated in 1842 with her parents, who settled in Penn- 
sylvania. Mrs. Rapp died January 29, 1882, leaving six children: 
Philip, born in 1850; Henry, 1S56; George, 1858, died 1874; Mar}^ 
1861; Lizzie, 1864; Charlej-, 186S; John, 1871. Mr. Rapp is a mem- 
ber of St. John's Lutheran church of Fort Wa3-ne, as are all his 

Oliver Lawrence, a well-known j'oung farmer of Wayne township, 
living three miles west from the cit}', was born in Wa3^ne county, Ohio, 
March 25, 1857. His father, George B. Lawrence,, was a native of 
Ohio, born in 1S34. He removed to Indiana in 1864, with his parents, 
and is at present a well-to-do farmer of Lafaj-ette township, and a mem- 
ber of the county board of equalization. His wife, Elizabeth Geitgey, 
was born in Waj'ne count}-, Ohio, in 1836. Of their children, three 
sons and two daughters, the oldest is Oliver Lawrence. He was reared 
in Lafayette township, and was educated in the district schools; also 
attending the Fort Wayne college two years. He was married Novem- 
ber lb, 1 88 1, to Parynthia Pierce, who was born in Aboit township, 
the daughter of Ossa W. Pierce, now living in Washington territory. 
Mr. Lawrence removed to Wayne township April 2, 1882, and located 
on a farm of 102 acres, where he has a fine brick residence. He has 
one son, George Winslow, born May 19, 1885. Mr. Lawrence and wife 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal church in Wayne township. 

J. B. Downing, of Wayne township, residing two miles south of the 
city, was born in New York state. May 31, 1S35. His parents, David 
and Emily (Hotchkiss) Downing, natives of Connecticut, removed from 
that state to New York, and thence to Ohio, about 1845, and settled in» 
Oxford township, Erie county, near Sandusky city, where the father 
farmed until his death, about 1857. The mother died about 1882. Of 
their ten children, six survive. J. B. Downing, in 1865, came to Allen 
county and purchased his present farm of 120 acres. He was married 
March 4, 1858, to Cynthia L. Sexton, who was born in Erie county, 
Ohio, daughter of Myron Sexton, a native of Connecticut, who settled 
in Erie county in 1826. He is now at eighty-seven years of age, a re- 
tired farmer of Seneca county, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Downing have one 
son, Myron Sexton, born October 2, 1859. ^^ ^^ ^ resident of Fort 
Wayne, and a traveling salesman for the wholesale confectionery house 
of Louis Fox. He was married in October, 1883, to Gracie, daughter 
of Henry Mensch. Mr. and Mrs. Downing are members of the Third 


Presbyterian church of Fort Wayne. Mr. Downinj^f is a member of 
Wayne lodge, No. 25, F. & A. M., of the thirty-second degree. 

The early settler of Adams township whose impress upon its his- 
tor}' seems most permanent, was John Rogers, who came from Preble 
county, Ohio, in 1S25. He was born in 17S5, in Somerset county, N. J., 
son of Simeon Rogers, who was born in that state, of Irish lineage. 
John Rogers was married at Springfield, Ohio, about 1815, to Tryphena 
J. Shipman, daughter of Jabez Shipman, whose ancestors came from 
Scotland. She was a native of Morris count}-, N. J., and was the 
second wife of Mr. Rogers. Two years later the family moved to Ver- 
non, Ind., where the}- lived three 3'ears, afterward settling on a farm two 
miles north of Paris, Preble Co., Ohio. In 1S25, they settled four miles 
east of Fort Wajme, on the south bank of the Maumee. This, Mr. 
Rogers cleared, and raised a large family of children, who honor their 
worthy parents. In 1S50, he removed to a iiome they provided for him 
at New Haven, and here and at Fort Wayne he lived until September 15, 
1877. Five of his children survive: Dorcas, wife of John Brown, of 
Fort Wayne, Lamort M., Alanson A., Orrin D. and Helen M., widow 
of Amasa Bowers, of Andrews. 

Lamort M. Rogers, an honored pioneer citizen and a prominent 
merchant at New Haven, was born at Springfield, Ohio, Januar}^ 17, 
1817. Sixty-four years Mr. Rogers has resided in Adams township, 
continuousl}'. His boyhood, youth and the lirst years of his manhood 
were spent on the homestead farm. The school privileges of those 
times were very poor, consei^uently his early schoohng was quite limited, 
but his fund of general knowledge is uow wide and varied. January 24, 
1844, before leaving the homestead, he was married to Harriet N. Cor- 
lew, who was born near Plattsburgh, N. Y., October 7, 1822, the 
daughter of Lucy (Thornton) Corlew and her husband, the latter of 
whom was born in Canada, and the former near Springfield, Vt. Soon 
after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Rogers located on another farm, 
about two miles south of his father's. There his attention was given to 
agriculture until March, 1856, when he removed to New Haven, where 
he has lived ever since. During nearly his entire residence in New 
Haven, now thirt3--three years, he has been engaged in merchandise, 
and as a business man he has become widely and favorably known 
throughout the eastern half of Allen count}'. His place of business, 
which has been headquarters for the people of the surrounding country, 
has an honorable reputation. During his residence in New Haven, Mr. 
Rogers has also dealt in grain, and for three years he was one of the proprie- 
tors of the Maumee Valley Mills, which he and two other gentlemen erected 
in 1864. He has also managed a farm which he owns in the vicinity of 
New Haven, and has dealt to some extent in real estate. Mr. Rogers 
has five children: Adelaide L., Willie S., Emma L., Frank and Jessie 
P., of whom only Willie S. and Jessie P. are living. The former is now 
the business partner of of his father. Mr. Rogers is a member of the 
Masonic and Odd Fellows lodges, of the chapter and council degrees in 


the former, and the encampment in the latter. He has the honor of being 
the first noble grand of New Haven lodge, No. 253, I. O. O. F. In 
politics, he cast his first presidential vote for WiUiam Henry Harrison, 
and since 1856 he has ardently supported the republican party. He 
has been honored with various "township and municipal offices, and for a 
period of eleven years he was postmaster at New Haven. 

Orrin D. Rogers, the fifth son of John Rogers, was born in Preble 
county, Ohio, April 2, 1824. He was but seventeen months old when 
his parents settled in Adams township. The school-house in which he 
received his first lessons was the old-fashioned cabin with greased paper 
for window lights, and slab floor. In early manhood he attended a select 
school in Fort Wayne nine months, and there received the greater part 
of his education. At the age of twent\--three he taught a term of 
school in Adams township, and subsequently taught two terms in Whitley 
county, and one in Jefferson township. April 22, 185 1, he was married 
to Clarinda Rowe, who was born at Portage, N. Y., March 16, 1833, 
daughter of Sebastian H. and Louisa (Cary) Rowe. After his mar- 
riage Mr. Rogers learned the carpenter trade, which he has followed at 
times ever since. Gaining considerable acquaintance with law, he has 
acted as collecting agent, justice of the peace and notary public. He 
has served as justice of the peace about fourteen years. In politics he 
is a republican. Mr. Rogers ser\-ed as lirst lieutenant. of Company G, 
One Hundred and Fifty-second volunteer infantry, si.x months, begin- 
ning February 22, 1S65. The date of his commission as first lieutenant 
was March 13, 1865. He was mustered out at Charleston, W. Va., on 
the 30th da_v of August following. He and wife have had five children: 
Eva A., Ella L., Clara D., Fitz Glen and a daughter that died unnamed. 
Ella L. is also dead. Mr. Rogers is a member of the G. A. R., being 
a post commander of Jesse Adams post. No. 493. 

Col. Joseph W. W^hitaker was born in Dearborn county, Ind., Janu- 
ary 10, 182 1. His parents, Daniel and Catharine (Shuman) Whitaker, 
were respectively natives of Pennsylvania and Virginia, the former 
chiefly of Scotch-Irish, and the latter of German, descent. The father 
was born about 1790, and served in the war of 1812, soon after the close 
of which he was married to Catharine Shuman, who was about two 
years his junior. For a short time afterward the}' resided in Hamilton 
count}-, Ohio, but in about 1817 they removed to Dearborn county, Ind. 
In 1835 the father came to Allen county and entered a tract of unim- 
proved land in Marion township, about ten miles southeast of Fort 
Wayne, on the old Wavne trace. Col. Whitaker came to this land in 

1836, and during about ten months was employed in improving it. In 
the fall he returned to Dearborn county, and in September, 1837, the 
entire family came and settled upon the homestead mentioned above, 
where the father and mother spent the rest of their lives, the former 
dying January 12, 1849, and the latter in April, 1874. ^n December, 

1837, Col. Whitaker went to Fort Wayne and began an apprenticeship 
at the blacksmith trade, of four 3ears with John Fairfield, by which 


time he had the trade well learned. For two or three years following 
this he worked in different places as a journeyman. March 5, 1846, he 
was married near Decatur, Ind., to Miss Susan De Vese, who was born 
in Milton township, Wayne co., Ohio, November 9, 1827, the daughter 
of Joseph and Elizabeth (Shafer) De Vese, both natives of Bucks count}', 
Penn. They were married in their native county, and about two years later 
removed to Wayne county, Ohio. In November, 1836, they located in 
Adams county, where the mother died in March, 1863, and the father in 
August, 1866. In March, 1849, Mr. Whitaker left home for California, 
whither he arrived about 100 days later, having gone across the plains. 
He was engaged at mining until the fall of 1853, when he returned 
home by way of Panama and New York, arriving in Fort Wavne in 
December. He followed his trade at Fort Wayne until 1S59, when he 
removed to New Haven. In September, 1861, he entered the service 
of the Union as captain of Company D, Thirtieth Indiana regiment. He 
served in that capacity three years, and was mustered out at Indianapolis, 
September 29, 1S64. He commanded his company- at Shiloh, Stone 
River, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, the Atlanta campaign and battle 
of Jonesboro. In February, 1865, he re-entered the service as a recruit- 
ing officer and was mustered as lieutenant-colonel of the One Hundred 
and Fifty-second Indiana volunteer regiment at Indianapolis in the fol- 
lowing month. He served in that capacity in the army of the Potomac 
until August 30, 1865, when he received his discharge at Charleston, 
W. Va. He was afterward mustered out at Indianapolis. Returning 
to his home in New Haven, he engaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1875 
he was appointed postmaster and served as such ten j'ears. Since 1885 
he has been enjoying a comfortable and happy retired life. Col. Whit- 
aker has had two children: Eugene Becklerd, born August 28, 1848, 
now a resident of New Haven, holding a responsible position with -the 
New York, Chicago & St. Louis railway, and Joseph Spafford, born 
April 23, 1S49, died March 15, 1852. Joseph was born after his father 
left for California and died before he returned. Mr. Whitaker is a 
Mason and Odd Fellow and a comrade of the Grand Army of the 
Republic. In politics he was formerly a whig, but since 1856, has been 
an ardent republican. Col. Whitaker is a man of more than ordinary 
abihty and intelHgence, and in military and civil life he has proven to be 
true and capable. He and wife have resided in the Maumee valle}' for 
more than half a century, and they are very highly esteemed. 

The Brudi brothers, prominent in the annals of Adams township, are 
sons of John George and Anna Barbara (Handi) Brudi, who were married 
in Germany, their native land. Several years after their marriage, their 
union having been blessed meanwhile with six sons and two daughters, 
the parents decided to emigrate to America. The father came over in 
1845, and bought a farm in Jefferson township, two miles southeast of 
New Haven. In the following year his wife and children came to their 
new home, all but the 3'oungest child, who died on the ocean. The 
mother passed away in 1S55, and a j-ear or so later the father returned 


to Germany. He made a visit here afterward, and died in Germany-, 
August 13, 1S6S. Tlieir sons, Carl L., Gottlieb and Joseph are men- 
tioned below. 

Carl L. Brudi was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, February' 5, 
1831. For a few years after coming to this country, he remained at 
the home of his parents, working on the farm. In 1855 he was married 
to Mrs. Barbara Frauenfalder, and with her he settled on a farm in 
section 13, Adams township, where her death occurred about six months 
after the marriage. She was a native of Switzerland, where she was 
first married, her husband dying before she came to America. April 
II, 1S5S, Mr. Brudi was married to Miss Mary M. Redenbaugh, who 
was born in Williams county, Ohio, Februar}' 21, 1S39, daughter of 
Philip and Mary (Fischer) Redenbaugh, natives of German}-. In 1863, 
Mr. Brudi removed from his farm to New Haven, where for a year and 
a half he was engaged in a lumber and shingle business. He then 
returned to the farm which he has since occupied, giving his whole 
attention to agriculture. His farm of 190 acres, of first-class land, is 
well improved. Mr. Brudi and his present wife have had ten children: 
Sophia A., William F., John George, Emma T., Henr}^ E., Carl Louis, 
August C, Gottlieb A., Mary A. and Philip C, all of whom are living 
except Sophia and Philip. William F. formerly worked for Henr}^ W. 
Bond, of Fort Wayne, and afterward purchased a flour trade from Mr. 
Bond, and is now doing a successful business. George is in Mr. Bond's 
employ as foreman. Henry is a baker at Markle, Huntington county. 
Parents and children are members of the German Lutheran church. In 
politics Mr. Brudi is a democrat. He is progressive, prosperous and 

Gottlieb Brudi was born in Wurtemberg, German}', June 14, 1833. 
He was married October 8, 1854, to Sophia Nester, a native of New 
Albany, Ind., born August 22, 1S39, daughter of Christian and Sarah 
(Webber) Nester, natives of Germany. Immediately after his mar- 
riage Mr. Brudi located on a farm one mile west of New Haven, which 
he has owned ever since, and has occupied with the exception of four 
years from the fall of 1S66, to January, 1871, when he resided at Fort 
Wayne, engaged in the grocery business. Aside from this his undivided 
attention has been given to farming, at which he has been successful. 
His farm, which is very desirably located, contains eighty acres of first- 
class land. He has recently provided it with a fish pond well stocked 
with German carp. He also owns a livery barn, business property and 
residence in Fort Wayne. He and wife have had nine children: Lizzie, 
Gottlieb (deceased), Sophia, Anna, Carrie, Amelia, Louis, Bertha and 
Martha. Mr. and Mrs. Brudi and family are members of the St. John's 
German Lutheran church, at Fort Wayne. In politics, Mr. Brudi is a 
democrat. He is a wide-awake and successful farmer, honorable and 

Joseph Brudi, a prominent miller and lumber dealer of New Haven, 
was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, February 11, 1837. He was mar- 


ried in Jefferson township to Maiy M. Wagner, in October, 1S62. 
She was born in Germany and came with her parents to America in the 
same year in which the Brudi familj^ came. In 1863 Mr. and Mrs. 
Brudi removed from Jefferson township to New Haven. In the fall of 
1864 he enhsted in Compan}- F, One Hundred and Forty-second In- 
diana volunteer infantrj', with which lie served until the close of the 
war. His service consisted chiefly of guard dut}- in the vicinity of 
Nashville, Tenn. He was mustered out at Nashville in the latter part 
of July, 1865, and was honorably discharged at Indianapolis soon after- 
ward. Mr. Brudi returned to New Haven and resumed the shingle and 
lumber business in which he had become engaged on locating there in 
1863. He has dealt in lumber ever since, and kept up the manufacture 
of shingles until about 1885. Since 1877 he has also been one of the 
proprietors of the Maumee Valley flouring mills. In the milling and 
lumbering business he is the partner of Gustav Gothe, the former busi- 
ness being conducted under the name of J. Brudi & Co., and the latter 
under the name of G. Gothe & Co. They have been partners in busi- 
ness for twenty-six j-ears. The marriage of Mr. Brudi resulted in the 
birth of eleven children: Anna, Johanna, Clara (deceased), Ottihe, 
Joseph (deceased), Frederick, Carl (deceased), Martha, Josephine, Al- 
bert and Joseph. The wife of Mr. Brudi died December 23, 1879. 
Mr. Brudi is a member of the German Lutheran church. In politics 
he is a democrat. He has served two terms as a member of the town 
board and is at present a member of the school board. 

Gustav Gothe, the well-known manufacturer of New Haven, was 
born in Fuerstenthum Schwarzburg, Sondershausen, Germany, March 
7, 1819. He is the son of Frederick Gothe, who died when Gustav was 
nineteen years of age. His mother died about a year later. At twenty- 
one years of age he took a situation in a hotel in Rodolstadt, Germany, 
and held it seven years. For four years after this he was employed in 
a hotel in Weimar, Germany. May 7, 1854, ^^ embarked at Liverpool, 
and landed at New York on the 9th of June following. He immediately 
left for Tiffin, Ohio, where he remained two 3'ears, working upon a farm 
in that vicinity a short time, but mainly engaged as a contractor, in 
grading two miles of the Tiffin railroad, now a part of the Nickle- 
plate hne. Subsequently, he came to New Haven, arriving October 18, 
1856. Here he took a contract of grading two miles of the Tiffin road, 
through New Haven, but after one-half mile of it was finished the com- 
pany collapsed and the enterprise was abandoned. In 1S58 he started a 
shingle factory in New Haven, and in 1S59 took as a partner his 
brother-in-law, Carl Brudi, and in addition to the manufacture of shin- 
gles, the firm, which had taken the name of G. Gothe & Co., engaged 
in the lumber business. Carl Brudi was superseded by his brother 
Joseph Brudi, about two years later, and the firm composed of G. 
Gothe and Joseph Brudi, has existed ever since under the name of 
G. Gothe & Co. Mr. Gothe and Mr. Brudi bought the Maumee Valley 
Flouring Mills, at New Haven, in 1875. The property, which had been 


severely \Vrecked by an explosion about four years before, was rebuilt 
by them, and they have ever since owned and operated it under the name 
of J. Brudi & Co. Mr. Gothe was married December 21, 1S58, to Miss 
Mary Brudi, sister of his business partner, who is also a native of 
Germany. Mr. and Mrs. Gothe are members of the German Lutheran 
church. In politics, Mr. Gothe is a staunch democrat. He has served 
seven 3fears as a member of the town board, and five years as treasurer. 
Mr. Gothe gives his entire attention to the superintendence of the 
Maumee Valley Mills, which under his supervision, has gained an envia- 
ble reputation. It was provided with the new roller process about 
four years ago. Mr. Gothe is much devoted to church work, and for 
as much as fifteen years he has served in a official capacity. He is one 
of New Haven's worthiest citizens. 

Herman Schnelker, who resides near New Haven, was born jn 
Germany, August 13, 1831, the son of Herman H. and Catharine 
(Tobben) Schnelker. He was reared to the age of nineteen in his 
native country, attending school between the ages of six and fifteen; at 
the latter age he was apprenticed as a shoemaker and served four 
years. In 1850 he accompanied his father, mother, one brother and 
one sister to America, to join two brothers who had come to this 
country the year before. One of them, however, was dead when his 
parents arrived, having died September 8, 1849, nine weeks after his 
arrival at Fort Wayne. The famil}' landed at New Orleans on Novem- 
ber 24, 1S50, after having been about eight weeks on the sea. They 
embarked on a Mississippi river steamer, and set out up the river. 
When about three days out from New Orleans the mother sickened 
with the cholera and two daj-s later, when the vessel neared Vicksburg, 
she died. The remainder of the family continued their journey to Fort 
Wayne, arriving on December 21. Herman remained in Fort Wayne 
three years, working at the shoemaker's trade. In 1853 he removed to 
New Haven, near where, with the exception of two years, he has resided 
since. During the first year and a half of his residence there he con- 
ducted a boot and shoe shop. In 1855 he returned to Fort Wa3'ne, and 
for two years, was engaged in the manufacture of soap and candles. 
In 1857, he became the partner of his brother, Bernard Schnelker, and 
his brother-in-law, Nicholas Schuckman, in mercantile pursuits at New 
Haven. The firm conducted a general store until 1867, and did a 
successful business. In 1867, Mr. Schnelker associated himself with 
Col. C. E. Briant, of Huntington, and George W. Hall, now deceased, in 
the manufacture of stoves, with factories at New Haven, and Delphos, 
Ohio. The firm, under the name of Schnelker, Hall & Co., did a 
profitable business three years. In 1870 Mr. Schnelker purchased the 
interests of Briant and Hall in the factor}- at New Haven, and sold to 
the latter his interest at Delphos. Soon afterward Mr. Schnelker 
entered into partnership with Bernard Schnelker, John Begue, John 
Beugnot and Anthony Beugnot in the manufacture of stoves, and the 
firm, under the name of Schnelker, Beugnot & Co., operated three 


factories at New Haven and one at Fort Wayne until 1S74. I" ^^^ 
meantime his brother, Bernard Schnelker, died in 1S71. In 1874, one 
of the factories at New Haven was sold to John Begue. From 1874 
to 1S7S, Mr. Schnelker and the Messrs. Beugnot, together with Bernard 
Schnelker's heirs, operated the two remaining factories at New Haven 
and the one at Fort Wayne. In 1878 Mr. Schnelker and the heirs 
purchased the interest of the Beugnots at New Haven, and sold to the 
Beugnots their interest at Fort Wayne. Herman Schnelker continued 
the business under the name of H. Schnelker & Co., until iSSo, when 
he sold to his brother Bernard Schnelker's widow and her son, H. F. 
Schnelker, by whom it is now conducted under the name of H. F. 
Schnelker & Co. In 1880, Herman Schnelker removed to a farm, 
where his attention has since been given to agriculture. His farm con- 
tains 167 acres and occupies an eminence a quarter of a mile south of 
New Haven, with which it is connected by a gravel walk. It is 
splendidl}- improved with brick residence and good barn, and is al- 
together a beautiful country home. Mr. Schnelker was married in 
1854, ^'^'^ has hving eight children: Louise, Bernard H., Mary E., 
Edward, William, Agnes, Herman and Albin. Mr. and Mrs. Schnelker 
are members of the Roman Catholic church. He is a member of the 
St John's Benevolent and St Joseph's School societies, and in politics he 
is a staunch democrat. He served as trustee of Adams township two 
terms and made a good officer. He is one of the county's best men. 
Henry F. Schnelker, a prominent stave manufacturer of New Haven, 
was born at that place July 7, 1854. His parents, Bernard and Mary 
G. (Lupken") Schnelker, natives of Germany, came to America before 
marriage, with their families, the Schnelker family coming in 1844 and 
the Lupken famil}-- in 1847. Bernard iirst located in Cincinnati where 
he worked at his trade, that of a blacksmith. About a year later he 
removed to Fort Wayne, where he was married to Miss Lupken, in 
about 1852. Soon afterward they removed to New Haven, where the 
father's death occurred January 29, 1871, and where the mother now 
resides. Henry F. was reared to manhood in New Haven, where he 
received his eariiest education. He afterward attended the Christian 
Brothers' school, at Fort Wayne, about two years, and still later Notre 
Dame university, near South Bend, Ind., three years. Returning home 
'he took charge of the interest of his father, then deceased, in 
the Indiana Stave company, at New Haven and Fort Wayne. Upon 
the dissolution of the company in 1876, Henry F., with his mother and 
uncle, Herman Schnelker, purchased the factory at New Haven, and it 
was conducted under the name of FI. Schnelker & Co. two years. In 1S7S 
he and his mother purchased the interest of his uncle, and they still own 
and operate the factory under the name of H. F. Schnelker & Co. In 
connection with the stave business, for two years, from 1876 to 1878, 
Mr. Schnelker was also engaged in merchandise, as the partner in a 
general store, of F. H. Bueter. In 1879 Mr. Schnelker's stave factory- 
was destroyed by fire'. In the following year he rebuilt at New Haven, 


and erected another factor}' at Pa_vne, Ohio, which he still owns and 
operates. For the past ten years he has also attended to the manage- 
ment of farms in the vicinity of New Haven, owning three farms, two 
of i6o acres each and one of 240 acres. His mother is his partner in 
both the factory and farming properties. Mr. Schnelker was married 
June 25, 1878, to Alhe J. Allen, a native of Ohio, daughter of John G. 
and Mary C. Allen, the former of whom was killed in the battle of Shiloh. 
Thev have three children: Bernadette C, Irene H. and Norbet B. Mr. 
and "Mrs. Schnelker are members of the Roman Catholic church. He 
is a member of the Catholic Knights and the Knights of St. Charles. 
He is a democrat in politics. For the past nine years he has been a 
member of the board of school trustees in New Haven. 

John B. Beugnot, of New Haven, was born in Haute-Saone, France, 
April 19, 1833. He is the son of Francis and Collet (Perregot) 
Beugnot, with whom he came to America in March, 1843. The family 
came to Massillon, Ohio, in the latter part of April, and resided in Stark 
count}-, Ohio, five years, after which they located on a farm in Jefferson 
township, where the father died in 1858. The mother's death occurred 
at New Haven in March, 1870. While in Jefferson township, Mr. 
Beugnot learned the cooper's trade, beginning it at the age of nineteen, 
and serving his apprenticeship with John Begue, his brother-in-law. In 
1854, he removed with the family of Mr. Begue to New Haven, and 
was employed for forty-eight days at grading the Wabash railway. After 
this, for eight years, he acted as foreman in Mr. Begue's cooper shop. 
In 1862, he entered into partnership with Mr. Begue in both cooperage 
and stave manufacture, Mr. Begue having estabhshed the latter in 1859. 
Anthony, a brother of Mr. Beugnot, also took an interest in 1862, and 
from that year until 1870 it was conducted by them under the name of 
J. Begue & Co. In 1870, they took in as partners, Bernard and Herman 
Schnelker, and the firm, under the name of Schnelker, Beugnot & Co., 
did an extensive business until 187S, operating three stave factories and 
two cooper shops m New Haven, and one cooper shop and one stave 
factor}' in Fort Wayne. In 1878, the firm dissolved, the two Messrs. 
Schnelker retaining the interests at New Haven and the two Messrs. 
Beugnot retaining those in Fort Wayne. In 1878, the latter removed 
the stave factory from Fort Wayne to Cecil, Ohio, where the firm has 
done an extensive stave and heading business ever since. The firm 
name until 1881 was J. B. Beugnot & Bro. Since then it has been 
J. B. Beugnot, Brother & Co., Mr. J. A. Schaab having had an interest 
since that year. For the past six years the firm has also operated in 
saw-milling in the vicinity of Cecil, and also owns a very large farm 
near that place, 200 acres of which are in cultivation. Mr. Beugnot 
was married November 27, 1856, to Miss Pelagic Girardot, a native of 
France, born September 25, 1835 to Joseph and Rene (Jacoutot) 
Girardot, with whom she came to America when she was eighteen 
years of age. Her father and mother were the parents of eleven chil- 
dren. They settled in Jefferson township, and moved to New Haven in 


1866. The father died there Ma}- 19, 1S84; the mother is still living, 
aged eighty-two, and makes her home with Mrs. Beugnot. Mr. and Mrs. 
Beugnot are members of the Roman Catholic church. Mr. Beugnot is 
a member of the St. John's Benevolent society, and in pohtics he is a dem- 
ocrat. He has served three years on the town board in New Haven, 
and two years as treasurer of the town. He has a beautiful home in 
New Haven, which is provided with all that is needed to make life 
pleasant. Mr. Beugnot ranks among the county's leading citizens, and 
as far as he is known, his reputation for honesty and uprightness is 

Hon. Lycurgus S. Null, a scholarly physician of New Haven, and 
ex-state senator and representative, was born in Columbiana county, 
Ohio, August 24, 1S39. His parents, Jesse and Lydia (Sampsel) Null, 
were respectively natives of Pennsylvania and Ohio. The paternal and 
maternal ancestors of Dr. Null came from Holland, the former settling 
near Gettysburg, Penn., and the latter in Maryland. When the doctor 
was but four j-ears old his father died. He was reared to early man- 
hood on a farm in his native county, and received a good knowledge of 
the ordinar}- branches of learning; later in youth he taught two terms 
of school. At the age of twenty he began the study of medicine with 
an uncle. Dr. Isaac Sampsell, in Morrow county, Ohio, and continued 
with him a year and a half. In 1862, at the Eclectic Medical Institute of 
Cincinnati, he attended one course of lectures. Early in 1S63, he began 
the practice of his profession in Noble county, Ind., and in October he 
came to New Haven where he has since resided, and has been, except 
a few brief interruptions, in active practice. In October, 1864, he 
enlisted in Companj- F, One Hundred and Forty-second Indiana \-olun- 
teer infantry. May 2, 1S65, he was commissioned a second lieutenant, 
and was mustered out as such July 14, 1865, at Nashville, Tenn. Return- 
ing home he resumed his practice, and during the winter of 1865-6 he 
took another course of lectures in the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cin- 
cinnati, graduating in the latter year. He has since also taken two 
courses of lectures in the Miami Medical College of Cincinnati. Dr. 
Null was married April 11, 1S76, to Susan, daughter of Levi and Mary 
Hartzell, and they have six children: Claude A. and Maude A. (twins), 
Winona, Ralph W., Jesse L. and Mary Edna, of whom Claude A. and 
Jesse L. are deceased. Dr. Null is an Odd Fellow, a thirty-second 
degree Mason and a Knight Templar. He takes an active part in poli- 
tics as a democrat, and in the fall of 1880 he was elected a member of 
the lower branch of the state legislature, and served one term. In the 
fall of 1882 he was elected state senator for four j^ears. He made a dil- 
igent and faithful officer, and discharged his duties in a creditable man- 
ner. Dr. Null is one of the able and successful physicians of the county, 
and as a citizen ranks among the best. 

August R. Schnitker, a prominent manufacturer of New Haven, 
was born in Prussia, March 8, 1847. With his parents, Christian and 
Charlotte (Diederich) Schnitker, he came to America, in the eighth year 


of his age, 1S54. The family came directly to Allen count}', and settled 
on a farm in Jefferson township, where the mother died about two years 
later. Soon afterward the father with three children, August, Charles 
and Caroline, removed to New Haven, where, in 1858, he was married 
to Wilhelmina Reihng, who is still living. The father died in 1862. 
Charles and Caroline have since died, so that Mr. Schnitker's nearest 
relative, aside from his children, is a half-brother, Christian Schnitker 
of Fort Wayne. During his early manhood Mr. Schnitker was em- 
ployed for several 3'ears in a stave factory in New Haven. In 1864 he 
began the trade of a harness maker, and served as an apprentice three 
years, the last two in Fort Wayne. In 1866 he started a harness shop 
in New Haven and has conducted a shop there ever since. In October, 
1881, he became one of the founders of the New Haven handle 
factory in partnership with F. H. Bueter. They afterward took as a 
partner Mr. Jobst Fischer, and about two years later Mr. Schnitker and 
Mr. Fischer purchased the interest of Mr. Bueter and formed the firm 
of Schnitker & Fischer. Mr. Schnitker was married January i, 1S71, 
to Hannah W. Linnemann, a native of Prussia, born November 27, 
1847. She is the daughter of Frederick and Louise Linnemann, with 
whom she came to America when a little girl. They first located in 
New York, but soon afterward removed to New Haven. Mr. and 
Mrs. Schnitker have had eight children: William F., Charles F., 
Emma W., Amelia, Henry (deceased), Frederick and two others who 
died in infanc}'. Mr. Schnitker and wife are members of the German 
Lutheran church. In politics he is a democrat. He has served as 
treasurer of the town of New Haven two j'ears, being elected in 1S80, 
and re-elected in 1881. Mr. Schnitker began business for himself with 
no means of his own whatever, and his present good circumstances 
speak very creditably of his energy and good management. 

Jobst Fischer, the well known handle manufacturer of New Haven, 
was born in Bavaria, July 19, 1S40, son of John E. and Catharine B. (Mer- 
kel) Fischer, with whom he came to America when he was between 
seven and eight years old. The family located in Onondago county, N. Y., 
where in early life he labored some on a farm, and during six to eight 
years at railroading. Before leaving Onondago count}--, N. Y., he also 
worked two or three years at coopering. In 1862 he accompanied his 
parents to Allen county, settled in Jefferson township; worked two years 
on the farm, and then came to the town of New Haven, which has been 
his home with the exxeption of nine months, ever since. For ten years 
after locating there he conducted a butcher shop. In 1875 he helped to 
re-build the Maumee Valley Flouring Mills, at New Haven, as the part- 
ner of Joseph Brudi and Gustav Gothe. He retained an interest in that 
property about two years after which Mr. Fischer formed a partner- 
ship with Frankhn Hargrave, in the tile business, and he devoted his at- 
tention to it about two years. He then resumed butchering. Two or 
three years later he purchased a one-third interest in the New Haven 
handle factorv, the other two-thirds being owned bv A. R. Schnitker 


and F. H. Bueter. Subsequently, the interest of Mr. Bueter was pur- 
chased by the other two, who have since operated under the name of 
Schnelker & Fischer. Mr. Fischer was married December i8, 1866, 
to Margaret Wagner, a native of Fort Wayne, daughter of George and 
Anna Brigitte Wagner, and they have three children: John A. G., Ernst 
C. J., and Anna C. B. The parents are members of the German 
Lutheran church. Mr. Fischer is a democrat in politics. He has served 
three years as a member of the town board of New Haven. Mrs. 
Fischer's parents, George and Anna Brigitte (Wolf) Wagner, natives 
of Germany, were married there, and in 1844 immigrated and settled at 
Fort Wayne. There the father died in 1S50. The mother now resides 
at New Haven, a venerable lady, aged seventj'-one. 

Gustav Adolph Foellinger, a prominent young druggist of New 
Haven, was born at Fort Wayne, August 23, 1855. He is the son of 
Jacob Foellinger, one of the pioneers of the Maumee valley, a historj^ of 
whom appears elsewhere in this work. His boyhood was spent in Fort 
Wayne, where he attended the ^jGerman Lutheran parochial schools 
until he was thirteen years of age, then he entered Eyser institute, a 
college at St. Louis, Mo., where he pursued his studies three years, 
obtaining in addition to Latin, French, botany and mathematics, a good 
knowledge of pharmacy. Returning home he soon afterward obtained a 
situation as clerk in a drug store at Kendallville, Ind., and held it six 
months. In April, 1872, he accepted a clerkship with Meyer Bros., 
of Fort Wayne, and continued with them three and one-half years. 
From 1875 to 1878, owing to ill health, he remained at the home of his 
father, assisting him at times in the boot and shoe business. In 1878, 
for the benefit of his health he went to Santa Fe, New Mexico, where 
for three years he held a position with the drug firm of Fischer & Co., 
Mr. Fischer being his brother-in-law. At the end of the second year 
in Santa Fe, he returned to Fort Wayne, and on Jul)^ 22, 1880, was united 
in marriage to Sophia, daughter of Henry Roemermann. Mrs. Foell- 
inger was born at Fort Wayne, October 8, 1857. She accompanied her 
husband to Santa Fe, and in iSSi, both returned to Fort Wayne, where 
in November, he engaged in the drug business. He conducted a store 
six months, and then for two years and a half held a position with Meyer 
Bros. In the spring of 1S85 he opened business at New Haven, where 
he has since been engaged. His marriage has resulted in the birth of 
three children: Adelaide, Emma and Cornelia. Mr. Foellinger and 
wife are members of the German Lutheran church. He has served as 
treasurer of New Haven, one term. 

Allen M. Hartzell, a leading young citizen of New Haven, son of 
the late Levi Hartzell, was born on the old Hartzell homestead, about 
one mile southwest of New Haven, August 25, 1856. He received his 
early education in the public schools of New Haven, and at the age of 
fourteen secured a teacher's license, and during the winter of 1S70-71 
taught a term of school in Adams township. In 187 1 he attended the 
Fort Wayne Methodist college. In 1S72-3 he attended college at 


Oberlin, Ohio, and during the winter of 1873-4 completed a commercial 
course in the A. D. Wilt Commercial college of Dayton. In 1876 he 
entered upon the stud}' of law at Fort Wayne, with Robert Stratton, 
now of jNIinneapolis. He was admitted to the bar about a year later, 
and for four years thereafter he was engaged at both the study and 
practice of law with Mr. Stratton. His legal efforts were rewarded 
with unusual success; however, though ver\' much devoted to the pro- 
fession, owing to ill-health he abandoned the practice. In September, 
1881, he engaged in milling at New Haven, he and his brother Elias 
having purchased the New Haven flouring mills. The property was 
destroyed by fire January 6, 18S2, and it has not since been rebuilt. In 
1882 Mr. Hartzell turned his attention to farming and at the same time, 
he, in partnership with his younger brother, Warren, established a dairy 
on the old homestead and the\' did a A-ery successful business for five 
years, marketing the products in Fort Wayne. They discontinued this 
in the spring of 1887, and, in connection with a large agricultural busi- 
ness, they have since given attention to the breeding of fine horses. 
Mr. Hartzell was married December 28, 1881, to Emma, daughter of 
Nathaniel and Sarah E. (De Long) Fitch. Her father formerl}' resided 
in Huntertown, where he died January i, 1877. Her mother still lives 
at that place. Mrs. Hartzell was born in Huntertown February i, 1861. 
Mr. Hartzell is a member of the I. O. O. F., and in politics he is an 
ardent republican. In the fall of 1886 he received the nomination of 
his party for the state legislature. He made a number of speeches 
throughout the county, acc^uitting himself with much credit, and by a 
strong canvass succeeded in reducing the democratic majorit}' from 
2,500 to 900. Mr. Hartzell is a young man of high moral worth and 
social standing. 

Henry Tilbuiy (deceased), one of the earliest settlers of Adams 
township, was born October 2, 1801, son of Jacob and Barbara Tilbury. 
He was married in Lancaster county, Penn., about 182 1, to Hannah 
Miller, who was born in that county February 22, 1804, the daughter of 
Daniel Miller. In 1826 they emigrated to Allen county and settled on a 
tract of land one mile east of Fort Wayne, which city then contained 
but three buildings besides the old fort. In 1S27 Mr. Tilburv removed 
to another tract he had bought in the Bourie reserve, three miles east 
of Fort Wa3'ne, where he farmed until his death, August 15, 1854; there 
his widow still resides, now a venerable lady, aged eighty-five years. 
She has lived on the same farm sixty-two years. She became the mother 
of fifteen children, as follows: George, born October 25, 1823, died 
August 15, 1838; Samuel, born February 25, 1825; Mary, born May 
27, 1826, died aged about thirty-five; Amanda, born March 25, 1829, 
died in August, 1853; Allen, born September 9, 1832, died December 
8, 1837; Nahum, born June 22, 1834, served in the Thirtieth Indiana 
regiment, was discharged on account of injuries received at Stone River, 
and later served as first lieutenant of Companj- B, One Hundred and 
Twent\'-ninth Indiana until close of war; Jarius, born July 30, 1S36, who 


served in Companj'- D, Thirtieth Indiana regiment three years, was in 
several battles and was once taken prisoner but was soon paroled, now 
lives on the old homestead in Adams township; Anthony Waj'ne, born 
April 27, 1838, is a locomotive engineer on the G. R. & I. railroad, and 
resides at Kalamazoo, Mich.; Nathan, born February 2, 1840, farmer, 
lives in St. Joseph township; Marquis, born Juty 22, 1841, also served 
in Company D, Thirtieth Indiana regiment with his brother, is a farmer, 
and resides in Milan township; Harriet, born April 7, 1843, died May 
30, 1870; Jasper, born July 22, 1845, served in Company B, One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-ninth Indiana regiment, under Capt. James Harper, 
from November 13, 1863, to the close of the war. His regiment joined 
Sherman's army at Blue Springs, Tenn., and participated with it in the 
Atlanta campaign, battles of Franklin and Nashville, after which the 
regiment was ordered to Washington, D. C, then to Wilmington, Fort 
Fisher and Newbern, N. C. ; was at Raleigh when the rebel general, 
Joseph Johnston, surrendered to Gen. Slierman. The regiment was 
afterward stationed at Charlotte, N. C, where he was discharged Au- 
gust 29, 1865. He is a farmer, and resides on the old homestead. 
Melinda, born Februar}^ 9, 1846, died Februarv 9, 1846; Henr}', born 
April 10, 1849, died August 26, 1851; Major General Winfield Scott, 
born January 26, 1852, is a cabinet-maker and resides in Fort Wayne. 
Henry Tilbur}-, in early days, also acted as mail carrier to some extent, 
and as guard when the Indians were paid. He was a member of the 
Universalist church, to which his widow also adheres. 

Henr\^ Linker, a successful farmer of Adams township, was born on 
the farm he now occupies, Aprjl 9, 1840. His parents, Englehardt and 
Anna Elizabeth (Weisheit) Linker, were born, reared and married in 
Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, and emigated to America in 1833. After 
stopping in Detroit a few months, the}^ came b}' wagon, to Allen 
county, and for about three weeks lived in the old fort. After that they 
located on an eight3--acre tract of land in section 17, Adams township, 
which the husband had entered from the government. Here he and 
wife spent the rest of their lives, he dying on the 27th of June, 1845, 
and she on July 24th, 1874. She, however, was married after her first 
husband's death, to Frederick W-eirs, who died June 11, 1858. Henry 
Linker has spent his life on the old homestead, giving his whole atten- 
tion to farming. He now owns the homestead, and as a farmer is suc- 
cessful. He was married December 21, 1865, to Caroline Gurgens, 
who was born in Hanover, German}-, August 4, 1842, daughter of 
Henry F. and Wilhelmina (Bohde) Gurgens, with whom she came to 
Allen county in June, 1848. The parents located in St. Joseph town- 
ship, where they still reside. Mr. and Mrs. Linker have had ten chil- 
dren: Anna Elizabeth, Henrj' Englehardt, Caroline Dora Elizabeth, 
Louis John August, Frederick William Ernst, Dora Louisa Christina, 
Louisa Mary Catharine, Mary Sophia Anna, Wilhelmina Augusta Marv 
and Frederick William Christian, all living except the fifth, a twin 
brother to Dora Louisa Christina, who died aged six weeks. Parents 


and children are members of the German Lutheran church. In pohtics 
Mr. Linker is a democrat. 

Henrj' Weisheit, of Adams township, was born November i, 1S43. 
His parents, Peter and Anna Catharine (Trier) Weisheit, were born, 
reared and married in Hesse-Darmstadt, German}'. They emigrated to 
America in 1832, and on reaching this countr}' came to Detroit and 
there hved one 3-ear; then coming to Allen count}' and locating on a 
160-acre tract of wood-land in section 17, Adams township, which the father 
of Henry had purchased as canal land. There the father and mother 
resided until their decease, the former dying April 8, 1877, and the lat- 
ter November 13, 1SS7. On his farm of 120 acres, Henry Weisheit 
was born, and there has resided ever since, busily occupied as a farmer. 
Mr. Weisheit was married November 12, 1S68, to Mary Schleinbacker, 
a native of Adams township, born November 10, 1S51. Her parents, 
George and Mary Schleinbacker, were natives of Germany and were 
married in America. The mother of Mrs. Weisheit was her father's 
second wife, and after her death he was again married. Mr. Weisheit 
and wife have had nine children: Margaret, Henry, Hannah, Christian, 
Mary, Martha, Frederick, Louisa and Herman, all living except Mar- 
garet, who died in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. Weisheit are members of the 
German Lutheran church; in pohtics, he is a repubhcan. He is an indus- 
trious farmer and an honorable man. 

Hon. Conrad Trier, an honored pioneer of Adams township, was 
born in Germany, August 6, iSii, the son of Henry Trier. He was 
reared in his native country, and in 1832 came to America, landing at 
Philadelphia, July 5. His father came over the same year. The hrst 
work Conrad did in this country was in Allegheny City, Penn., where 
he was employed in a hotel and livery barn eighteen months. In 1834, 
he came to Allen county and settled on land in Adams township, which 
he entered from the government. He has lived on the same farm a 
period of fifty-five years. His first house was a little log-cabin, the 
logs for which he carried on his back. For three years after he setded 
on his land he was also employed during a part of the time on the canal. 
He was married January i, 1837, to Catharine Trier, also a native of 
Germany, but in no way related to him. She came to America with 
her parents in 1836. This marriage resulted in the birth of twelve 
children : Henry, John, Elizabeth, Sophia, Christian, William, Catharine, 
Peter, Paul, Herman, Martin and Martha, of whom Christian, William 
and Catharine are dead. Mrs. Trier died in February, 1879. She was 
a member of the German Lutheran church, and her surviving husband ' 
and children are members of the same church. Mr. Trier has served 
one term as a member of the Indiana legislature and two terms as trus- 
tee of Adams township. The Maumee valley has no more worthy 
citizen. When Mr. Trier came to America, he not only possessed noth- 
ing, but was in debt $99, cost of passage of himself, his father and his 
three brothers, which was paid by his uncle. He worked hard, pros- 
pered and became one of the wealthy farmers of Allen county, owning 


at one time 640 acres of land, which, however, he has since given to 
his children. 

Herman Trier, son of the above, was born on the old homestead, 
October 10, 185 1, upon which he has always lived, and has been occu- 
pied in farming. He was married November 7, 1878, to Anna Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Valentine and Anna Lapp, born in St. Joseph township, 
August 22, 1859. The}' have the following children: Conrad V., 
Henry J., Theodore, Herman H. J. and Frieda,-of whom Theodore and 
Frieda survive. 

Elisha W. Green, a worthy and revered pioneer of Adams township, 
who resides one-half mile southeast of New Haven, was born in Claren- 
don township, Rutland co., Vt., July 29, 1815. He is the son of Wal- 
ter and Lovina (Colvin) Green, respectively natives of Vermont and 
Rhode Island. His father was a soldier in the war of 1812, and was 
the son of Peleg Green, a native of Rhode Island, who was a soldier in 
the war of the revolution. Peleg Green was a cooper, and it is related 
of him that when a lad attending school, it was a part of his daily 
work to whittle out a quart of wooden pegs, to be used to plug the 
worm holes in the barrel staves. He removed from Rhode Island to 
Vermont, where he lived to the age of more than ninety years. For 
fort}' }'ears prior to his death he was totally blind. The mother of Mr. 
Green was the daughter of Phihp Colvin, also a native of Rhode Island. 
He and his wife spent their last years in Luzerne county, Penn., both liv- 
ing beyond ninety years of age. Both the paternal and maternal ances- 
tors of Mr. Green were noted for longevity. Elisha W. was reared to 
manhood on the old homestead in Rutland county, Vt. He worked 
upon the farm in summer and attended an old-fashioned district school 
during three months of each winter, until he reached the age of 
eighteen. May 16, 1836, he set out for Allen county, a married sister 
being at that time a resident of Adams township, and reached this 
county June 20, and remained until the following fall, making his home 
with his sister and laboring at ten dollars per month. Before leaving he 
took the money thus earned and entered 120 acres of land in Adams 
township, it being the last entry made in the township. In September, 
1S36, he went to Chautauqua county, N. Y., where he remained eighteen 
months. In Marcli, 1838, he set out upon a lumber raft, in Conewango 
creek, and drifted down into the Alleghany river, thence into the Ohio, 
and down that stream to Cincinnati, being in the employ, while on the 
trip, of Pope & Cowan, Chautauqua county lumbermen. From 
Cincinnati he walked across the country to Fort Wayne, 150 miles 
in three days. Soon afterward he sold the tract of land which he 
had entered, and bought another just east of the site of New Haven, a 
town which at that time was not in existence. This land is still in his 
possession; his home farm which lies just south of it has been occupied 
by him since 1843. He has devoted himself to farming and has been very 
successful; he owns 150 acres, his wife has eighty acres, and they jointly 
own 200 more, all first-class land. Mr. and Mrs. Green have given 


liberally to worthy enterprises, and have provided comfortably for their 
children. Mr. Green formerly gave considerable attention to lumbering, 
and for sixteen }'ears he was the owner of a threshing outfit. His first 
marriage was in the fall of 1841, to Lucy Ludington, who died about a 
j-ear later, leaving one child, Lucy B., now the wife of Dr. R. S. Knode, 
formerlv a prominent ph\-sician of Fort Wayne, but now of Omaha, 
Neb. December 13, 1844, Mr. Green was married to Julia A. Do3-le, 
who was born near Crestline, Ohio, May 6, 1822. Her parents, John 
and Jane (Maxwell) Do^-le, both natives of Pennsylvania, were married 
in Jefferson county, of that state, and in an early day located in Richland 
county, Ohio. Mr. Green and his present wife have had seven children : 
Willis, bom March 13, 1846, served as a volunteer soldier in Company 
B, One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Indiana regiment, and was killed 
December 16, 1864, in the battle of Nashville; Silas, born Ma}' 6, 1848, 
married to Lucretia Johnson, by whom he has two children, Charles 
and Minnie; is a farmer in Adams township; Lavina J., born June 6, 
1850, married to Edgar S. McDonald by whom she had three children : 
Iva, who resides with her father, at Sioux Falls, Dakota, Willie Ha^-es, 
and an infant son who died in infancy — Mrs. McDonald died June 23, 
18S3; Annetta, born February 25, 1853, died March 11, 1853; Julia 
Catharine, born March 17, 1854, married to Franklin Grover, a farmer 
of Jefferson township; William J., born Julv 31, 1857, died January 10, 
1S60; and Foster M., born x\pril 25, 1S61, died December 30, 1S73. 
Mr. Green is a member of Masonic and Odd Fellows lodges, and in 
politics is a staunch republican and a strong temperance man. He served 
as trustee of Adams township one term and discharged the duties of 
the office honorably. For a great many j'ears he and wife have been 
devoted members of the Metliodist Protestant church. 

Levi Hartzell, deceased, formerly one of the most substantial men 
of Adams township, was born in Miami county, Ohio, March 3, 1813. 
He was the son of Philip and EHzabeth (Miller) Hartzell, the former a 
native of Kentucky, and the latter of Miami county, Ohio. In early 
manhood he learned the miller's trade. He was married in Miami 
county, Februar}^ 25, 1S42, to Mary Souders, who was born December 
31, 1820, the daughter of John and Sarah (Grubb) Souders, both na- 
tives of Lancaster county, Penn. Her father accompanied his parents 
to Miami county in a ver}- early day, and her mother moved to that 
county with her mother and brother at the same time. The}- had a 
family of six daughters and four sous, of whom Mrs. Hartzell was the 
oldest. A short time after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Hartzell came 
to Adams township and located in section 14, on land Mr. Hartzell had 
purchased five or six 3^ears before. He had been a resident of Adams 
township from the time he bought the land until his marriage. When 
he and his wife settled on the farm it contained but eighty acres, only 
three of which were cleared. Mr. Hartzell set about improving his land, 
and his labors were rewarded with prosperity, and adjoining lands were 
purchased until finally he owned a fine farm of 390 acres, supplied with 


a large barn, handsome brick residence and other substantial improve- 
ments. He also owned two other farms in Adams township, containing 
140 acres each, and at one time he was one of the proprietors of the Mau- 
mee Valle}' Mills at New Haven, which property he helped to erect. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hai-tzell had nine children: Joshua, Ehas, Susan, Sarah J., 
John R., Philip, Allen M., Warren S. and Lucy, all of whom are living 
except Philip and Lucy. Joshua and Elias served in the war of the 
rebellion nearly three 3'ears, under Capt. James Harper. In politics 
Mr. Hartzell was a republican, taking a very active part, and was an in- 
fluential worker. He served as assessor of Adams township six years, 
and as trustee one term. Mr. Hartzell died January 30, 1S71. He 
was an honorable, upright man, and he led a life of industry and honor. 
Mrs. Hartzell still occupies the old homestead from which she has given 
a good part to her children. She is an estimable lady and is highl}- 

Lyman Noble, of Adams township, is a native of Dutchess county, 
N. Y., born September 4, 1833, the son of Nathaniel and Elizabeth 
Noble. His mother died when he was but eleven da3-s old. Four years 
later, his father and step-mother removed to Allen count}', and settled in 
Adams township in 1837. With the exception of two years in Wayne 
township, Mr. Noble has been a successful farmer of Adams township 
ever since. He was married December 17, 1S57, to Hannah Ann Lil- 
lie, who was born withm the present limits of Fort Wayne, September 13, 
1835, the daughter of Samuel and Emily (Philleyj Lilhe. Mr. and 
Mrs. Noble have had seven children : Charles N., Edward D., Lilhe C, 
Emily H., Flora M., John M. and one other that died unnamed. The 
parents are devoted members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and 
both are very active temperance workers. Mrs. Noble is vice-president 
of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, of Fort Wayne. Her 
parents at one time occupied the old fort as their home, and one of her 
sisters was born there, and very appropriately, she was named Indiana. 
Mrs. Noble is the only living member of the Lillie family, her father, 
mother, sisters and brothers all having died. She takes a very active part 
in church work and gives encouragement to all things which have for their 
object the pubhc good. In politics Mr. Noble is a republican. The 
father of Mr. Noble was a soldier in the war of 181 2, and his grand- 
father was a soldier in the revolution, messing during the war with Gen. 
Washington. Mr. Noble is distantly related to ex-Gov. Noah Noble. 

Meinrad Seller (deceased), formerly a well-known farmer of Adams 
township, was born in Germany, October 4, 1810. His father was 
Joseph Seller, and his mother's maiden name was Helen Wirtner. In 
1836 he came to America, and after spending one j-ear in New York, 
came to Fort Wavne. He was a carpenter by trade, and as such he 
worked both in New York and Fort Wa3'ne — at the latter until 1843. 
In that year he settled upon a farm in Adams township, and there fol- 
lowed farming until his death. He was married Jul}' 13, 1844, to Bar- 
bara Allgeier, also a native of Germany, born May 8, 1827, to Lorenz 


and Salome (Brown) AUgeier, with whom she came to America in 1844. 
The family located near Fort Wayne, where the father and mother spent 
the rest of their lives. Mr. and Mrs. Seller had ten children : Joseph, 
John, Mary, Joseph, Peter, Joseph, Helen, Henry, Frank and Charles, 
of whom the first Joseph, the second Joseph, Henrj- and Charles are 
dead. Mr. Seller died April 27, 1875; he was a member of the Roman 
Catholic church, and his wife and children are also members. Mrs. 
Seller still occupies the old homestead of 196 acres of good land, which 
belongs to her and her children. John Seller, son of the above, was 
born in Adams township, October i, 1846. He spent his boyhood and 
youth on a farm, and at twent^'-one 3-ears of age began to learn the 
carpenter's trade. This for ten years he worked at in xA.dams, Jefferson, 
Madison, Marion and Wayne townships, constructing dwelling houses, 
barns, bridges, etc. February 3, 1880, he was married to Maggie, 
daughter of Matthias and Anna (Welling) Ros. She was born in x\llen 
county, in June 1858. Immediately after their marriage they settled on 
a farm in section 3, Adams township, which Mr. Seller had purchased in 
1879. There they lived happily until Maj' 13, 18S7, when their union 
was broken by Mrs. Seller's death. Since then Mr. Seller has remained 
on the farm, which contains 143 acres of fine land and has two good houses 
and barns, one of the latter having been built by Mr. Seller at a cost of 
$1,000 besides his labor. His farm is very desirably situated in the 
bend of the Maumee river. The marriage of Mr. Seller resulted in the 
birth of two children, John and Mar3\ Mr. Seiler is a member of the 
Roman Catholic church, and in politics is a democrat. He owns two 
good business houses in Fort Wayne. 

Friederich W. Hitzemann, an old and respected farmer of Adams 
township, was born in Prussia, July 3, 1S23. He is the son of Friederich 
W.and Mary Louisa (Meyers) Hitzemann, the latter of whom died in 1S25. 
He was reared on a farm, and at the age of seventeen, accompanied his 
father to America and settled in Fort Wayne, which was his home until 
1855. He helped to construct the Wabash & Erie canal, and after- 
ward gave his attention to boating on the canal for thirteen years, own- 
ing a boat during eight 3'ears of the time. In early manhood he was 
at different times in the employ of Allen Hamilton, J. W. Townley and 
William Ewing, working for each a few months. He was married 
December 29, 1853, to Mary Angehne Lindemann, who was born in 
Hanover, Germany, February 10, 1830, the daughter of Lewis and 
Mary (Drebert) Lindemann, with whom she came to America in 1842. 
In 1855, Mr. and Mrs. Hitzemann settled on a farm in section 15, Adams 
township, where they have resided ever since. Mr. Hitzemann con- 
tinued boating, however, until i860. Since then he has given his whole 
attention to agriculture. He owns a fine farm of 120 acres, which is 
splendidly improved with brick residence and good barn. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hitzemann have two children: Louisa Charlotte, wife of Henry Renne- 
kamp, of Adams township, and Frederick L., who is at home. The 
parents and children are members of the German Lutheran church. 
Mr. Hitzemann is a worthy and upright man, sociable and agreeable. 


Stephen Allf^eier (deceased), formerly a worthy citizen of Adams 
township, was born in Baden, German}-, December 26, 1S18, the son 
of Lorenz and Salome AUgeier. He came to America in 1836, and 
after spending a few years in New York came to Adams township and 
located on a tract of wood-land in section 16, becoming one of the 
early settlers of that localit}^. While in New York state he had learned 
and followed the cooper's trade, and after locating in Adams township, 
in addition to the improvement and cultivation of his land, he, for several 
years, occasionally worked at his trade. He was married at the age of 
twenty-six to Augusta Houser, who died July 22, 1854, leaving four 
children : Charles, Catharine, Frank J. and Matilda, all of whom are liv- 
ing. July 2, 1855, Mr. AUgeier was married to Mary, daughter of John 
and Barbara (Ostheimer) Baschab, natives of Germany. The}' came to 
America in about 1S34 and located in Northampton county, Penn., where 
Mrs. AUgeier was born March 25, 1836. In 1839 *^y removed to 
Starke count3% Ohio, and thence to Marion township in 1854. There her 
father died, December 22 of the same year. His wife survived him 
until October 5, 1876. B}- his second marriage Mr. AUgeier had six 
children: Mary (deceased), Henry, Daniel, Peter (deceased), August 
and Mary F. Mr. AUgeier died May 26, 1879. ^^ '^'^'^^ ^ member of 
the Roman Catholic church. Mrs. x\llgeier still occupies the home 
place, which is now owned and cultivated b}' Daniel AUgeier, the second 

Hermann Tibbet, a worthy resident of Adams township, was born in 
Hanover, Germany, September 12, 1815, son of Bernard Tibbet. He 
grew to manhood in his native countr}', attended school until he was 
past fourteen, and then worked on a farm. In 1841 he embarked at 
Bremen on June loth and landed at New York on July 23. He ar- 
rived at Fort Wayne on August 12. An older brother, George, who 
had come to America about three years before, resided in Adams town- 
ship, and with him Hermann made his home five months. His first 
work in this country' was upon a stage boat in the canal, being thus em- 
ployed twenty-two days. In 1842 he was employed four months on the 
construction of the reservoir in Paulding count}-, Ohio. For one year 
following this he was engaged in the manufacture of brick in Wayne 
township. He then began farming in Adams township. During the 
first six years he resided on a farm two miles from Fort Wayne, owned 
by Michael Hedekin. In 1851 he bought a farm in section 11, upon 
which he has resided thirty-eight years. His farm contains eighty acres 
of good land, and it is in a splendid state of improvement and cultiva- 
tion. He also owns a farm of ninety acres in section i. Mr. Tibbet 
was married November 25, i84i,to Adaline Holtal, a native of Hanover, 
born near Mr. Tibbet's birth-place, February 2, 1812. She came to Amer- 
ica on the same vessel that brought her husband, the marriage follow- 
ing soon after their arrival at Fort Wayne. They have had five 
children: Bernard, Katharine, Mary, Rosa and Theodore, of whom 
only Bernard and Mary are living. Mr. Tibbet and wife are members 



of the Roman Catholic church. He is one of his township's best citi- 
zens, and he and wife are highty esteemed. Bernard Tibbet, the oldest 
child, was born on a farm two miles south of New Haven, in Adams 
township, September 28, 1842. By occupation he is a farmer. He was 
married June 22, 1871, to Josephine Pripsing, by whom he had one 
child, Catharine, who died in childhood. His wife died Februar}' 19, 
iSSS. He is a member of the Roman Catholic church and of the 
Cathohc Knights of America and of St. John's Benevolent societ)'. 
He has filled out an unexpired term as trustee of Adams township. He 
owns twenty acres of land which adjoins the old home, and a brick busi- 
ness block in New Haven. 

Martin P. Habecker, trustee of Adams township, and one of its 
prosperous farmers, was born in Lancaster count}-, Penn., September 
19, 1837. His parents, Daniel and Elizabeth (Daugherty ) Habecker, 
were also natives of Lancaster county. The Habecker family originalU' 
came from German}', and the Daugherty family from Ireland. When 
Martin was between seven and eight years old his parents came to 
Adams township, in which they spent their lives, the mother dying March 
5, 1859, and the father, September 28, 1864. Here Martin P. has fived 
forty-four years. The family first located on a farm in section 20. Mr. 
Habecker was married March 2, 1S65, to Margaret, daughter of Charles 
and Louisa (Coleman) Doctor, the former of whom was born in Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Germany, and came to America with his parents when he 
was sixteen years old. The latter was a native of Ohio. They were 
married in Marion township, where Mrs. Habecker was born, January 
17, 1844. From 1865 to 1S6S, Mr. and Mrs. Habecker resided on the 
old Habecker homestead in section 20. In 1868 they located on the 
farm they now occupy in section 17, where they have lived with 
the exception of four years, from May 13, 1873, to April 19, 1877, when 
they resided in section 33. Mr. Habecker and wife have had five chil- 
dren: Alice Mella, Mary Violetta (deceased), Minnie Adeline, Frances 
Marion (deceased), and Martin Franklin. Mr. and Mrs. Habecker are 
members of the English Lutheran church of Fort Wayne. Mr. Habecker 
is an honorable, upright oflicial. 

Gerard Henry Christopher Rebber (deceased), an early resident of 
Adams township, was born at Bohmte in Amte Wittlage, Hanover, 
January 29, 1822. He came with his parents, Gerard Henry and 
Dorothea Rebber and two brothers and two sisters, to America, when he 
was twenty years old. The family came directly to Allen county and 
after a few months in Wayne township, removed to Adams township, 
where Mr. Rebber and his parents spent the rest of their lives, his mother 
dying in 1 851 and his father in 1870. Mr. Rebber was married in St. 
Paul's German Lutheran church, of Fort Wayne, August 16, 1849, by 
pastor Dr. Sihler, to Catherine Clara Rahen, who was born in Essen, 
Witdage, Hanover, May 9, 1826, the daughter of Henry and Henrietta 
(Dressing) Rahen. She came to America in 1847, and after spending 
a year in Syracuse, X. Y., came to Fort Wavne, where she remained 


I £/u/tU(/ T^-aJi/uAy 


until her marriage. Her father and mother came to America in 1S50, 
and located in that part of Fort Wa3-ne north of St. Mary's river. They 
were the tirst settlers, and it was a brother of Mrs. Rebber that gave it 
the name of Bloomingdale. There her father died in 1857. His wife 
about ten years later, died at the home of Mrs. Rebber, in Adams 
township. As soon as they were married, Mr. and Mrs. Rebber 
located on a farm in section 16, Adams township. In April, 1S59, they 
removed to another farm in the same section, where the family has 
resided ever since, the father dying there May 5, 1SS9. Mr. Rebber 
was a member of the German Lutheran church. Mr. and Mrs. Rebber 
had ten children: Gerard Henry, born August 7, 1850; Marie Henrietta, 
born September 29, 1851; Lewis Frederick, born October 29, 1854, 
died April 24, 1S55; Henrietta Dorothea, born October i, 1855; Frank 
Frederick Christian, born September 12, 1S57; Henry Frederick Chris- 
topher, born May 19, 1859; Henry Frederick Christian, born October 
7, 1861; John Henr}', born November 30, 1863, died January 9, 18S7; 
Sophia Elizabeth Clara, born September 28, 1S65; and Henry Frederick 
Lewis, born December 5, 1867. Mr. Rebber left two good farms of 
eighty acres each, one being the home farm in section 16, which is pro- 
vided with a handsome brick residence, good barn and other substantial 
improvements. The other farm lies in section 22, Adams township. 
Mrs. Rebber occupies the old homestead. She and the children are 
members of the German Lutheran church. Gerard Henry Rebber, the 
oldest child, has been in the employment of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
& Chicago railway since January 13, 1872. He began as a section 
hand, but June 27, 1876, he was promoted to section foreman, and he 
has since tilled that position on section 26. In 188S, his section was 
awarded first premium. He owns eighty acres of land in Adams town- 

Christian Wiese, a respected citizen of Adams township, was born 
in Prussia, March 9, 1829. He was but six years old when his father 
died. At the age of tifteen he accompanied his widowed mother to 
America. An older brother of his had come to this country four years 
before and located in Adams township, and to his home the remainder 
of the famil}' came. Christian spent one year working at the tailor's 
trade in Fort Wayne, but this proved very distasteful, and he gave it up, 
and for nine 3'ears was employed on the Wabash and Erie canal, during 
the boating season, making his home with his brother in Adams town- 
ship. He started as driver at $5 per month, and continued, with increas- 
ing wages, three years, when he and three others purchased a boat 
and he was engaged as one of its owners and steersman during the remain- 
ing six years. On retiring from the canal he took his earnings, which 
amounted to $700, and bought eighty acres of land in section 15, Adams 
township. As the price of the land was $1,200, he started $500 in debt, 
and he owed as rnuch more for improvements, etc. In 1854 he set 
about clearing, and in the course of a few years he had developed a 
good farm. It is now as nice a farm, for its size, as anv in the town- 


ship, being splendidl}' improved and desirably situated. Mr. Weise has 
accumulated enough to bu\' two other farms, one of thirty acres in sec- 
tion 28, and another of 120 acres in Fayette county, 111. The latter, 
however, he has given to one of his sons. His present wife owns a 
good residence propert}- in Fort Wayne. In 1854 Mr. Wiese was 
married to Ann Elizabeth, daughter of Peter and Anna Katharine 
Weisheit. She w-as an infant child when her mother died, soon after 
which the family removed to x\merica. She bore to Mr. Wiese eleven 
children: Sophia, Elizabeth, Christian, Charles, Martha, Louisa, Kath- 
arine, Henry, Marie, Sophia and one that died unnamed. Sophia, Eliz- 
abeth and Christian are dead. The llrst wife of Mr. Wiese died in 
18S0, and on October 16, 1881, he was married to Mrs. Lenore Boester, 
a native of Schaumburg-Lippe, Germany, born October 16, 1830, the 
daughter of Christian and Marie Mueller. She came to America in 
1856, and was married two years later to Henry Boester, who died 
October 8, 1877. By him she had five children, all deceased. Mr. and 
Mrs. Wiese are members of the German Lutheran church. He has led an 
industrious life, and he is permitted to spend his dechning 3'ears in com- 
fortable circumstances. 

John Henr}' Koehlinger, of Adams township, was born near Wetzler, 
Prussia, August 24, 1838. With his parents, Henry and Christina 
(Weber) Koehlinger,he came to America in the eleventh 3^ear of his age. 
The family landed at New York earlj- in July, 1849, and arrived at 
Fort Wayne about eight days later. They settled on a tract of wood- 
land in section 35, Adams township, where he remained helping to clear 
and cultivate the farm until he was twenty-one. There his father died 
in the latter part of July, 1868, and there his mother still resides in the 
eight3'-fourth year of her age. At the age of twenty-one, Mr. Koehlinger 
began to learn the cooper's trade in New Haven. He followed this 
until he enlisted in Company G, Twelfth Indiana volunteer infantr}-, iVpril 
28, 1861, and served until May 19, 1862, when, owing to expiration of 
term of service, he was honorably discharged at Washington City. He 
was neither wounded nor taken prisoner, but while marching from Will- 
iamsport, Md., to Martinsburg, Va., on the night of March i, 1862, he 
stepped on a stone which rolled in such a way as to throw his foot into 
a rut and his left ankle was thrown out of joint. It resulted in a per- 
manent injury. He returned home and followed the cooper's trade in 
New Haven until 1864, when he purchased an interest in a shingle and 
lumber business, and for one year he was a member of the firm of 
G. Gothe & Co. He then resumed his trade until 1869. In the fall of 
that year he bought eight)' acres of land in section 13, and located upon 
it, in the following spring. Since then his attention has been given to 
farming, at which he has been successful. He has since bought an 
additional twentj', so that he now owns a handsome farm of lOO acres. 
Mr. Koehlinger was married October 21, 1862, to Johanna Brudi, a 
native of Wurtemberg, Germany, born Januarj' 21, 1842, the daughter 
of John George and Anna Barbara (Handi) Brudi. Mr. and Mrs. 


Koehlintjer have seven sons and three dau'Thters: Gustav A., Frederick 
Edward^ Emma K., Henry G., Carl WilHam, Christian F. G., Philip A., 
Clara E., Louise S. and Gottheb Arthur. Parents and children are 
members of Emanuel's church in New Haven, in which Mr. Koehlinger 
is active and influential. He is a progressive farmer and a worth}', 
upriojht man. 

Henry C. Zollinger, a prominent citizen of Adams township, was 
born in Wiesbaden, Germany, April i8, 1841. He is the son of Chris- 
tian and Elizabeth (Kiihn) Zollinger, with whom he came to America 
when he was seven years old. The family arrived at Sandusky City, 
Ohio, earl}' in May, 1S48. In the summer of 1850, they came to Allen 
county and settled on a farm in Marion township, where the father and 
mother resided for about thirty years. The father was a turner by 
trade, and with him Henry learned the trade, beginning at the age of 
thirteen and following it at home until he was twenty-one. On August 
12, 1S62, he enlisted in the Eleventh Indiana battery, with which he 
served until late in 1S64, and was in the entire campaign from Chatta- 
nooga to Atlanta. He was taken prisoner near Chattanooga, October 
2, 1S63, but was paroled about two weeks later. He accompanied 
Sherman over a portion of the march to the sea, then returned with his 
battery to Chattanooga and to Nashville, where he was transferred to the 
Eighteenth Indiana battery, with which he served until the close of the 
war. He was discharged at Indianapolis early in July, 1865. He 
received three wounds, but none of them proved serious. Returning 
home he soon afterward settled on a tract of land which he had bought 
in section 36, Adams township, where for a year he worked at the tur- 
ner's trade. He was married April 9, 1866, to Miss Mary A. Gretzinger, 
who was born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, December 5, 1S46, the 
daughter of George and Christina Gretzinger, natives of Wurtemberg, 
Germany. Shortly after his marriage, Mr. Zollinger removed to Fort 
Wayne, where for about three years he was one of the proprietors of 
a chair factory. April 21, 1869, he returned to Adams township and 
located on a forty-acre farm which he had leased. In 1872 he bought 
an eighty-acre tract adjoining, and to this, in 1874, ^'^ added the forty 
which he had leased. His farm is in a splendid state of improvement, 
being provided with a nice residence and good barn. Mr. Zollinger has 
done but little farming himself, his farm during the greater part of the 
time being rented out. In 1870 he purchased a saw-mill which was 
located on the land he had leased, and he has owned and operated it ever 
since, doing a very large business. Since 1880, in connection with saw- 
milling, he has also been largely engaged in the manufacture of drain 
tile. Mr. Zollinger and wife have had eight children: Anna E., John L., 
Charles H., Henry A., George W. and Christian F. (twins), Julia L. 
and Maria K., all of whom are living except John L. and Charles H. 
He and wife are members of St. John's Reformed church, of Fort 
Wayne. He is a member of the Masonic and Odd Fellows lodges, and 
of the G. A. R., being a past commander in the last. In 1874 he was 


elected trustee of Adams township: he was re-elected in 1S76, and ao-ain 
elected in 1878, serving three terms to the entire satisfaction of the public. 
He takes an active part in politics, and , is an influential worker in the 
republican part}'. From 1876 to 1881 he served as postmaster at Adams 
station, resigning the position in the latter year. 

Diederich Rodenbeck, of Adams township, was born in Prussia, 
January i, 1832, the son of Frederick and Marie (Beck) Rodenbeck. 
He attended school between the ages of seven and fourteen, and spent 
his youth on a farm. In 1854 ^^ emigrated to America and came 
directly to Fort Waj'ne. The first work he did in this country was 
upon Adam Brick's farm, in Adams township, where he was emplo3-ed 
two months. In the hope of finding better emplo3-ment, in August, 
1854, he went to Indianapolis, but failing to secure work there then 
returned to Fort Wayne and during the twent}' months which followed 
he worked on a farm in Wayne township at four dollars per month. In 
the fall of 1856 his father, mother, two brothers and four sisters came to 
America and were met by him in Fort Wayne. For a month the famil}- 
remained at the place where he had been employed in Wayne township. 
They then located on a tract of land which the father had purchased in 
section 15, Adams township. There the father and mother resided until 
death, the former dying in August, 1S65, and the latter July S, 1869. 
She was born October 4, 1802. Until Jiily, 1857, Diederich remained 
on the farm with his parents, and then became employed on the Wabash 
& Erie canal and followed the life of a boatman for over five years. 
March 4, 1862, he was married to Christina Zelter, a native of 
Prussia, born February 20, 1838. She is the daughter of Henry and 
Charlotte (Schmidt) Zelter. The mother died in Germany when Mrs. 
Rodenbeck was but ten 3'ears old. She came to America in February, 
1861. Her father followed in March, 1S6S, and has since made his 
home with her. He is now in his ninety-first year, having been born 
Februar}' 4, 1799. Soon after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Rodenbeck 
located on the farm they now occupy in section 15. He owns forty 
acres besides his home farm, which contains eight}- acres of fine land, 
and is provided with a good barn and a handsome brick residence. Mr. 
Rodenbeck and wife have had ten children: Diederich (deceased), 
Sophia (deceased), the third died unnamed, Diederich, Wilhelmina, 
Sophia, Louisa, Henry, Frederick and Christina. Parents and children 
are members of the German Lutheran church. He is a progressive 
farmer and a first- class citizen. 

Henry Rodenbeck (deceased), of Adams township, was born in 
Prussia, February 23, 1829, the son of Frederick and Mary (Baade) 
Rodenbeck. He grew to manhood in his native country working upon a 
'farm. In August, 1854, he accompanied his parents to America, and 
located with them on a farm in section 15, where his father and mother 
spent the rest of their lives, the former dying in October, 1865, and the 
latter July 8, 1869. Here he also lived until his death. He was mar- 
ried September 11, 1856, to Wilhelmina Hitzemann, a native of Prussia, 


born January 3, 1832, the daughter of Conrad and Sophia (Wiebke) 
Hitzemann. Mrs. Rodenbeck came to America with a brother in 1S53, 
and her parents came in the following year and settled in Wayne town- 
ship, but afterward removed to Washington township, where the 
mother died June 20, 1871. Her father is living in his eighty-sixth 
year. Mr. and Mrs. Rodenbeck have had eight children : Mary, Louisa 
(deceased), Sophia (deceased), Louisa, Wilhelmina (deceased), Henrj% 
Wilhelmina and Frederick. Mr. Rodenbeck died April 8, 18S6. He 
was a member of the German Lutheran church, and was an honest, 
upright man and worth}^ citizen. His wife, who survives him, occu- 
pies the old homestead where she is spending the decline of life in com- 
fort. She and children are members of the German Lutheran church. 

Caspar Kern (deceased), formerly a well-known citizen of Adams, 
township, was born September 24, 1821. His parents, John Michael and 
Anna Margaret Kern, came with him to America in 1837, and settled, 
in Union county, Ohio. October 19, 1848, he was married in Franklin 
count}', Ohio, to Elizabeth Spindler, a native of Lancaster count\% Penn., 
born Ma}- 20, 1S26, daughter of Matthias and Elizabeth Spindler, who 
also were natives of Pennsylvania. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Kern resided in Union county, Ohio, until 185S. In that year the}' came 
to Allen county, and first settled m St. Joseph township. In 1861, they 
removed to Adams township, where the family has since occupied the 
same farm. Mr. Kern died April 4, 1884. His marriage resulted in 
the birth of nine children : Anna Margaret, John Jacob, David F., John F., 
Mary C, Edward F., Christian W., Lizzie M. and AnnaM., of whom Anna 
Margaret (the oldest) and David F., are dead. Mrs. Kern still occu- 
pies the old homestead, which contains 192 acres of good land. She 
and children are, as was her husband, members of the German Lutheran 

George W. McCoy, a prominent citizen of Adams township, was 
born near Greensburg, Ind., at a place now called McCoy's Station, Jan- 
uary 30, 1827. His parents, Angus C. and EHzabeth (Smith) McCoy, 
were born, the former in Washington county, Penn., March 13, 1789, 
and the latter in Loudon county, Va., May 9, 1799. They were mar- 
ried in Bourbon county, Ky., February 16, 18 15, and in 1825 they 
removed to Decatur county, Ind., where both spent their remaining years, 
the mother dying September 23, 1844, and the father in 1865. The 
paternal grandparents of George W., were Alexander and Nancy Mc- 
Coy, natives of Scotland. His maternal grandparents were Zadok and 
Nancy Smith, natives of Virginia. George W. McCoy was reared to 
manhood on a farm in his native county. At the age of twenty he en- 
tered Wabash college, at Crawfordsville, in which he completed a full 
classical course, graduating in 1853. During his college life he also 
taught about four terms of school. During the winters of 1853-4 
and 1854-5 he also taught school. In the fall of 1S56 he entered Lane 
seminary, a theological institution at Cincinnati, which he attended three 
months, intending to prepare himself for the ministry. But circum- 


Stances compelled him to give up his theological studies and return 
home. In the spring of 1857, he taught another term of school in 
Decatur county. He then engaged in the warehouse business in 
Greensburg, and for two j'ears dealt in wheat and agricultural imple- 
ments. In 1859 he removed to Fort Wayne, and for fourteen months 
was engaged in the hardware business. In i860 he located on a farm 
which he had purchased two miles northeast of Fort Wayne on the 
•Maumee gravel road. This contained 144 acres, 109 of which lay in 
Adams township and thirty-five in St. Joseph. He first located on the 
part in St. Joseph, and in 1866 he sold it and removed to the part in 
Adams township, which he has occupied ever since. He has since made 
several purchases and sales of land, owning at one time 370 acres. His 
present farms contains 220 acres. Mr. McCoy was married Januar\' 12, 
1859, to Martha J., daughter of B. W. Oakley, formerh' of Fort Wayne. 
She died September 9, 1869. March 2, 1885, he was married to Cath- 
arine C. Ginther, his present wife. His first marriage resulted in the 
birth of five children: Elizabeth S., Charles O., George, Hattie A. 
and Jennie M., of whom only Charles and Jennie are living. He has 
one child, Angus C, b}' his present wife. The latter was born in 
Union county, Ohio, December 14, 1849, daughter of Joseph and 
Fidilla (Bowersmith) Ginther, respectively natives of Tuscarawas and 
Union counties, Ohio. Her father was the son of John and Lydia 
(Demuth) Ginther, natives of Pennsylvania. Her mother was the 
daughter of Jacob and Matilda (Jenkins) Bowersmith. Mrs. McCoy's 
father was born August 3, 1826, and her mother September 16, 1S24. 
Mr. McCoy is a member of the Presbyterian church, and in politics has 
been a republican since the party was organized. Mr. McCoy is a highlv 
intelligent man, and possesses a superior education. He is in comforta- 
ble circumstances, and his friends are numerous. 

Oliver Tustison, a well-known citizen of Adams township, was born 
in Crawford count}-, Ohio, April 7, 1840, son of Nelson and Eusebia 
(Cox) Tustison. The father was born in Philadelphia, October 7, 181 1, 
and the mother in Coshocton county, Ohio, September 5, 1816. The 
father was the son of Nelson and Jane (Brown) Tustison, the former a 
native of Denmark, and the latter of Philadelphia. His mother was 
the daughter of John and Rebecca (Hull) Cox, the former a native of 
German}- and the latter of Coshocton county, Ohio. When Oliver Tus- 
tison was four years old his parents removed to Williams, now Defiance 
count}-, Ohio, where he spent his youth on a farm, two miles west of 
Hicksville, Ohio. In the spring of 1861 the family settled on the farm 
which Mr. Tustison now occupies in Adams township. Here the mother 
died February 15, 1S73, and the father, February 24, of the same year. 
Their daughter, Alvira, also died in the same month, Februarv 9, 1873. 
Mr. Tustison remained on the farm until 1864, when he went to Mon- 
tana territory; thence to Nevada a month later. There he remained 
three years engaged at farming. In 1867 he returned home by way of 
San Francisco, Panama and New York, and resumed farming at the old 


home place. October 20, 1868, he was married to Jennie M. Loveall, 
a native of Adams township, daughter of Samuel and Nancy Loveall. 
In 1869, Mr. and Mrs. Tustison removed to Marion county, 111., where 
they resided three 3'ears. Thej- returned to Adams township in 1S72, 
where Mr. Tustison has resided ever since, excepting from October, 
1886, to April, 18S9, when he resided in New Haven. During 1875 
and 1876, he was engaged in the pump business, and for the past three 
years has also dealt in agricultural implements. Aside from this his 
attention has been given to farming. His first wife died March 6, 1874. 
A child, Ina A., who was born to their marriage, had died April 25, 
1872, aged three months. Mr. Tustison's brother, Matthias M. Tustison, 
died on the 8th of April, 1872, making six deaths in the family inside of 
two years. January 11, 1S77, Mr. Tustison was married to Clara Dell, 
daughter of Orrin D. Rogers. She is a native of New 'Haven, and at 
the time of her marriage was a teacher by profession. This marriage 
has resulted in the birth of three children: Olive M., Nelson R. and 
Glenn C. Mr. and Mrs. Tustison are members of the Universalist 
church. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. lodge and encampment. 
In pohtics he is a democrat. He is now holding the office of justice of 
the peace, having been elected in 1888. 

Hezekiah W. Loveland, one of the substantial farmers of Adams 
township, was born in Glastonbury township, Hartford co., Conn., 
about eight miles from the city of Hartford, March 17, 1827. His 
parents, Luther and Lucy (Wickam) Loveland, were natives of the same 
township. His father was born March 18, 1793, the son of Pelatia and 
Mollie (Sparks) Loveland, also natives of Glastonbury township, mar- 
ried December 17, 1774. His mother was also born in 1793. Both 
his paternal and maternal ancestors had resided in Glastonbury township 
for several generations. As far back as 1653, Thomas Loveland emi- 
grated from Glastonbury, Eng., and became one of the earliest settlers 
of the new township, bearing the same name. It is thought that all per- 
sons bearing the name of Loveland in America, sprang from this same 
Thomas Loveland. The parents of Hezekiah were married May 15, 
1814. When he was a Httle child but one year old, his parents removed 
from Connecticut to Erie county, Ohio, wliere he was reared on a farm. 
In March, 1850, he went to California, where, for three years, he was 
engaged at mining. He then returned by way of Panama and New 
York. On November 9, 1S54, he was married in Defiance county, Ohio, 
to Delilah Tustison, who was born in Crawford county, Ohio, November 
II, 1835, the daughter of Nelson and Eusebia (Cox) Tustison, the for- 
mer of whom was born at Philadelphia. Immediately after his marriage, 
Mr. Loveland located on a farm in Scipio township, Allen count}-, which 
he had bought in 1849. In 1859, he removed to the old Loveland home- 
stead in Erie county, Ohio, having purchased it from his father. In 
February, 1863, he located where he now resides, in Adams township. 
With the exception of the three years he was in California, he has been 
farming, at which pursuit he has been successful. Mr. Loveland 


has had seven children : Harriet, Maria, Mary, Lucius Nelson, Eusebia 
J., Emmet O. and Ernest A., all living except Ernest A., who died in 
childhood. Mrs. Loveland died April 8, 1877. Mr. Lovejoy is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic lodge, and in pohtics is a democrat. He owns a 
farm of 140 acres, which adjoins the town of New Haven on the west, 
and has a handsome brick residence, erected in 1885. 

Francis J. Zurbuch (deceased), formerly a leading farmer of Adams 
township, was born in France, March 17, 1822, the son of Francis J. 
Zurbuch. He came to America with his father and mother when he 
was nine years old, and the family first located near Columbus, Ohio, 
but later settled in Mercer county, Ohio, where the father died. His 
widow afterward accompanied a son to Tennessee, where she died in 
1877. Francis J. spent his youth chiefly in Mercer county, Ohio. He 
worked at farmwork and in early manhood learned the cooper's trade, 
and also the trade of a stone mason. He was married in Dayton, Ohio, 
January 29, 1849, to Rachel Miller, who was born in Baden, Germany, 
May 16, 1829. She was the daughter of John and Barbara Miller, with 
whom she came to America, when she was thirteen years of age. They 
settled near Da3'ton, Ohio, where both the father and mother spent the 
rest of their lives. Mr. and Mrs. Zurbuch began their married life in 
Dayton, where they resided about foiU"teen years, Mr. Zurbuch working 
at the cooper's trade. In 1863 they came to Adams township rind settled 
about a mile northeast of New Haven, where Mr. Zurbuch was engaged 
at farming until the time of his death, on the lOth day of September, 
1877. Mr. and Mrs. Zurbuch had seven children: John, Francis J., 
Mar}', George, Anna F., Elizabeth and John, of whom the first named 
John and Mar}', are dead. Mr. Zurbuch was an honorable man and 
commanded universal respect. He was a member of the Roman 
Catholic church, as are his family. His wife with two of her sons 
occup}' the old homestead, which contains 147 acres of land and is well 

Michael Hellwarth, a substantial farmer of Adams township, was 
born in Mercer count}', Ohio, about five miles from Celina, March 5, 1S40. 
His father, George M. Hellwarth, was born January 24, 1803, in Wit- 
temberg, Germany, son of Ulrich Hellwarth. He served ten years in 
the German army and then accompanied his father to America, about 
1831, when he was twenty-eight years of age. His mother had died 
in Germany when he was but four years old. Caroline, who became 
his wife, lived only a few miles distant in the old country. They became 
engaged there, she came to America on the same vessel with him and 
their marriage followed soon after arrival. They located in Little York, 
Penn., but four years later moved to Springfield, Ohio. After resid- 
ing there three years they removed to Mercer county and occupied the 
farm upon which their son Michael was born. They were among the 
early settlers of that county and lived there until death, the mother 
dying in 1S37. The father was afterward married to Margaret Wappes, 
who still resides on the old homestead. He became the father of six- 


teen children, of whom the first five were born to his first wife. Nine 
of his children are still living. He died January 25, 1866. Michael 
was reared to manhood on the home farm, and was married to Miss 
Mary Furthmiller February 11, 1866. They soon afterward located on 
a farm adjoining his old home. October 18, 1868, he removed to Allen 
county; hved first on a farm in Jefferson township, and in the spring of 
1869 purchased his present farm in Adams township. With the excep- 
tion of one year he has given his whole attention to agriculture. He 
has a fine farm of 120 acres, with a good residence and barn. During 
the one year mentioned he was engaged at the butcher's trade in New 
Haven. The first wife of Mr. Helhvarth died November 6, 1S76, and 
on November 20, 1877, he was married to Lucinda Mosimann, a native of 
Vera Cruz, Ind., daughter of Frederick and Elizabeth Mosimann. The 
first marriage of Mr. Helhvarth resulted in the birth of five children: 
Nelson W., Clara Agnes (died aged sixteen), Cora E., John A. and 
Herman E., and by the second marriage he had one child, Delhe, who 
died, aged three months. Mr. and Mrs. Helhvarth are members of the 
Evangelical church. In politics he is a republican. He is an intelligent 
and enterprising man and an industrious and successful farmer. 

Nicholas Snyder, a prosperous farmer of Adams township, was born 
in Onondaga county, N. Y., October 19, 1839. His parents, Joseph 
and Catharine (Hullar) Snyder, were natives of Lorraine, France. His 
father was born in 1812, and came with his parents, Joseph and Mar- 
garet (Semley) Snyder, to America when he was nineteen years of 
age. They located in Onondaga county, N. Y., where both the grand- 
parents spent the rest of their hves. The mother of Mr. Snyder came 
to America with her parents, who also settled in Onondaga county, 
N. Y., but about six years later her father and mother returned to 
France. Sixteen years later they again came to America and ended 
their days in Onondaga county, N. Y. Their names were Casper and 
Christina (Shepp) Hullar. Nicholas Snyder was reared in his native 
county, working at farm work. He was married there April 14, 1863, 
to Margaret Palz, born in Lorraine, April 22, 1840, the daughter of 
Conrad and Catharine (Zengiler) Palz, with whom she came to Amer- 
ica when she was nine years old and settled in Onondaga county, N. Y., 
where her father died three years later. Her mother, for the past 
twenty-five years, has made her home with Mr. and Mrs. Snyder. She 
is now in the eightieth 3'ear of her age. From the month of March 
preceding his marriage to the spring of 1872, Mr. Snyder was in the 
employ of the New York Central & Hudson River railway. He 
began as a section hand, but at the end of one year he was promoted 
to section foreman and continued in that capacity eight years, during the 
last two of which he resided in Utica, N. Y., where he was foreman of 
the yards and work train. March 13, 1872, he resigned, and soon after 
removed to Allen county, and located in section 13, Adams township, on 
a farm which he had purchased in February, 1S72. His attention since 
then has been given to agriculture. His farm contains sixty acres of 


fine land, and it is provided with a good residence and barn, and other 
substantial improvements. Mr. and Mrs. Snyder 'have had ten children: 
Helen, Magdalena, Joseph, George, Louis N., Frederick A., William 
H., John P., Emma M., and Leo A., all living except Joseph and George. 
Mr. and Mrs. Snyder are members of the Roman Cathohc church. He 
is a member of St. John's Benevolent society. The maternal grand- 
mother of Mrs. Snyder lived to be one hundred and four 3-ears old. 
Her husband died at the age of eighty-eight. The mother of Mr. 
Snyder died in Onondago county, N. Y., November 21, 1864. In the 
following February his father was married to Mrs. Hower, whose 
maiden name was Catharine Zion. In 1865 they came to Adams town- 
ship In the spring of 1S82, they removed to Minnesota, where the 
father died July 25, 1883. His widow resides at Northfield, Minn. 

A notable character in early times was Jonathan Chapman, better 
known as "Johnny Appleseed." " If ever there lived a man who deserved 
to have a monument erected to his memor}' by any people," said a great 
nurseryman at Rochester, N. Y., " that man was Jonathan Chapman." 
The people of western Penns3'lvania, and especially those of Ohio and 
Indiana, might have appropriately raised such a monument years ago. 
Not less than 100,000 square miles of country between the Ohio river 
and the northern lakes, a famous fruit growing region, owe the origin of 
their fruitfulness largely to the peculiar labor and novel method of the 
person named. His bones lie in a neglected and forgotten grave, where 
they were placed about forty 3'ears ago; but there are some still living 
who remember well how his nurseries in the wilderness along the Ohio, 
Muskingum, Wabash and other streams, planted while he tramped 
through the woods from 1801 until 1840, supplied trees to the early set- 
tlers. He first appeared in western Pennsylvania, with earl}' settlers, 
and beyond the fact that he was born in Boston, in 1775, nothing was 
known of his antecedents, or of his famil)', except that he had a sister, 
Persis Broom. He came among the settlers carrying a bag of apple- 
seeds, which he planted through the Alleghany valley, and when that 
region became too thickl}' settled for his carrying out his novel idea, he 
entered the wilderness of Ohio with a horse loaded with leathern bags 
containing appleseeds collected at the Pennsylvania cider presses, where 
the first fruits from his pioneer orchards were used. He planted seeds 
along Licking creek, and there are a number of trees standing in Lick- 
ing count}', -which are the original growth from his seeds. Chapman 
soon became known as Johnny Appleseed and his right name was 
unknown to many of the later generations. He selected the most fertile 
spots in the many valle3's tributary to the Ohio river, sowing, it is said, as 
much as sixteen bushels of seed to the acre. When he had planted a nur- 
sery he enctoSed^it with a stout brush fence. He then left it and tramped to 
some other rich and loamy vales where he sowed and fenced as before. 
After planting along the Ohio tributaries in 1806, he planted all along 
the second route ever opened through the Ohio wilderness, which was 
from Fort Duquesne or Pittsburg via Sandusky to Detroit. When one 


Stock of seeds was exhausted, this persistent enthusiast returned with 
his leathern bags to the cider presses and obtained more. When the 
trees in these strange nurseries were large enough to be sold, and there 
were farmers in the neighborhood to buy them, the planter would visit 
them or appoint an agent to look out for the sale of them. If the far- 
mer had money Johnn}' Appleseed would take his price in cash, but he 
would accept old clothes, corn-meal, or any other article, even notes made 
payable when he called again and demanded the amount, but he was 
never known to ask payment of a note or to even keep one in his pos- 
session. What he did with these obligations is a mj^stery. If he 
received money he always gave it to need}' settlers or purchased articles 
for them which they lacked. Johnn}- Appleseed carried with him on 
his long tramps through the forest, tracts and books on the doctrines of 
Swedeaborg, of whom he was an ardent follower, and he never entered 
the cabin of a settler without reading something from one of these books, 
as a preliminary to anj'thing else. At one cabin he would tear out a few 
leaves or a chapter and leave it there for the perusal of the settler and 
and his famity, at another he would leave another section of the book, 
and so on until he had scattered a small library in tattered parts over a 
large extent of country. On subsequent rounds he would gather them 
up and leave other portions in their places. Thus he managed to fur- 
nish his reading matter to several families at the same time, the only 
objection being that as the subsequent distributions were made with no 
particular rotation of parts, the books had to be read by many of 
Johnny Appleseed's parishioners backward, and from the middle of the 
work to either end. This singular character lived the rudest and sim- 
plest of lives, and for fort}^ 3'ears slept in the woods wherever night over- 
took him, and subsisted on fruits and vegetables alone. He believed it 
a sin to kill any living thing for food, and believed it wrong to even 
prune or graft a tree to increase or improve the fruit. He said that 
there should be eaten only the natural products of the seed as God had 
ordered. He was the constant and faithful friend of all dumb brutes, 
reptiles and insects. He made the care and protection of aged and 
infirm horses his special dutj' on his rounds. If he saw a settler work- 
ing a horse that was lame or blind or afflicted in any wa}^ as settlers 
were frequently compelled to do, he would purchase it at the owner's 
price and then give it to some one who could afford to treat it gently or 
turn it loose to end its days in peaceful pasture. Hundreds of reminis- 
cences of his strange and beneficent doings are related by farmers 
from the Ohio to Lake Michigan. He always dressed in the cast-off 
clothing he received in exchange for apple trees, and made his journey 
usually barefooted and bareheaded. Once he went through the Muskin- 
gum valley arrayed in an old coffee sack, through a hole in the bottom 
of which his head was thrust, while from a hole cut in each side his 
hands and arms protruded. In the winter time he wore as a hat a large 
tin dipper, which he carried to cook his corn-meal mush in. The Indians 
regarded him as a great medicine man, and manj- stories are told of how 


his influence with the savages saved many a border family from toma- 
hawk and firebrand. He came to Allen county as soon as there were 
settlements, and established nurseries at various places. He was a short, 
" chunky " man, restless, with bright, black eyes. In expounding his 
religion or describing his apples, he was remarkably elo(]^uent, and used 
excellent language. He died jit the home of Richard Worth, on the 
St. Joseph, in 1845. 

Among those particularlv prominent in the settlement of Washington 
township, was one still a resident, John Archer, who came here with his 
father in 1825. He was born in Montgomery county, Ohio, September 
25, 1822, son of David and Anna (^Crisenbury) Archer. David Archer 
was born near Philadelphia, in 1807, and died in Washington township 
in 1861. He was elected county commissioner in 1834 and served for 
four years. He was a man of indomitable energ}'. He was a JNlason 
and a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. The mother of Mr. 
Archer was born in Boone county, Ky., and died in Washington town- 
ship at about seventy 3'ears of age. John Archer is the eldest of three 
living children in a family of eleven. In the fall of f 844 he settled on 
his present farm of 240 acres. He attended school onl}- three months 
with a teacher named Hague, but learned well his life occupation, farming. 
For nearl}- six j'ears he was one of the board of trustees of Washington 
township, and for sixteen years was trustee under the present law, his 
last term expiring in 1886; he also served four years as assessor. He 
was formerl}' an old-line whig, and is now a republican. October 4, 1849, 
he was married to Mary Poinsett, born in Montgomerj- county, Ohio, 
July 6, 1825, and they have five children living: Anna E., jNIar}' J., 
Oliver A., Winfield S. and Andrew J. Mr. Archer is the third oldest 
resident of the county living, and is one of its most honorable and 
worthy men. 

John S. Poinsett, a son of a worthy pioneer, and himself a resident 
of Washington township since childhood, has become widel}' known 
as one of the leading farmers. He was born in Hanover township, 
Montgomery county, Ohio, November 23, 181S. His father, 
Peter Poinsett, was born in New Jersey, and died in the 
county of Allen at fifty-two years of age. He married Mary Rock- 
hill, born in the same state, who died in Allen county at about 
the same age. Mr. Poinsett, the eldest of three living children, 
was raised on the farm. As earl}- as 1828, he came with his father to 
Allen count}' and remained one season and then returned to Ohio. 
About 1834 ^he family made a permanent settlement. Mr. Poinsett has 
been occupied during life as a farmer and stock dealer. About 1855 he 
settled where he now lives, and owns 220 acres of well improved land. 
He was married in 1843 to Ellen Rockhill, born in Montgomery county, 
Ohio, and they have six children: William, John, Harriet, Joseph, 
Mar}' and Edward. In politics he is a republican, and cast his first 
presidential vote for William H. Harrison. He is one of the prosperous 
men of this county, but all has been won by his own exertions. 


John B. Grosjean, a prominent pioneer of Washington township, is a 
native of France, born May 3, 1819, being one of the two survivors of 
five children of Claude and Frances Grosjean, natives of France. 
The family immigrated, reaching New York City, May 3, 1834, and on 
the 4th of June, arrived at Fort Wayne, taking a whole month to make 
the trip over land. The parents died in this count}-, man}' years ago. 
John B. Grosjean was raised on the farm, and in 1846, began farming for 
himself on the land he now owns, 137 acres of well improved land. He 
was married in 1S48, to Miss Mary Porson, who was born in France, 
April 6, 1824, daughter of Bernard and Cecilia, natives of France, who 
died in Washington township, her father in 1858 and her mother in 1870. 
They built and kept the first tavern in Washington township. Mr. and 
Mrs. Grosjean have nine living children. He and wife are members of 
the Catholic church. 

Edward Grosjean, son of the above, was born in Washington town- 
ship, July 7, 1S60, the fourth child of his worthy parents. He was 
raised on the farm, and received his education at the public schools and 
at Fort Wayne Methodist college. After leaving school he worked on 
the farm one year, and then in 1881, embarked in the saw-mill business 
on the Lima road. The next year he removed to Wallen, and has there 
been engaged in that business ever since. For si.v years he has also 
been manufacturing tile extensive^. In 1884, he became associated 
with two brothers in the firm of Grosjean Brothers, manufacturers and 
dealers in hardwood lumber and drain tile, and they have done a pros- 
perous business, now employing sixteen men. Their reputation as enter- 
prising business men is widespread. Mr. Grosjean was married in 
1881, to Martha Hudson, who was born in Allen county in i860, 
and they have one child, Ray, born in September, 1884. Mrs. Gros- 
jean is a member of the Methodist church, and he of the Catholic 
church. In politics he is a republican. He is a popular young man, 
and already occupies a leading position. 

Edward Beckman, who has been for forty-five years a resident of 
Washington township, is the son of prominent pioneer parents. His 
father, Henry Beckman, and his mother, whose maiden name was Sophia 
Tegtmeyer, were both born in Germany in 1S04, were married about 
fifty-two years ago, and came to Allen county in 1836. These vener- 
able and esteemed people yet reside in the township where they made 
their home in the forests. The older of their two living children, 
Edward, was born in this county x\pril 11, 1S41. He was raised on 
the Washington township farm where he still lives, and obtained a good 
education in the Lutheran schools. November 12, 1862, he was mar- 
ried to Eliza Gerding, who was born in Washington township in 1844. 
They have nine children: Edward H., Louis P., Louise, Sophia, 
Justa, Eliza, Frederick C, Harmon E. and Julia. Mr. Beckman has 
always occupied a high position in the esteem of the people of the 
county as a capable and straightforward man, and in 1880 the members 
of his party (democratic) testified their confidence in him by tendering 


him the nomination for township trustee. Unfortunate dissensions in 
the party alone prevented his election. He is a notable land owner and 
farmer, having 380 acres of fertile land, and his home is one of the most 
pleasant. He and family are members of the St. Paul's Lutheran church 
at Fort Wayne. 

Samuel Kariger, who lives upon his fine farm of 160 acres in Wash- 
ington township, four and a half miles northwest of the cit\', is one of 
a family of worth}- pioneers. His parents, Frederick and EHzabeth 
(Lindsay) Kariger, natives of Penns3'lvania, removed in the spring of 
1836 from Ohio to Allen county, and settled on the land above men- 
tioned. Here the father died January 21, 1846, in the fifty-ninth year 
of his age, and the mother died in 1871, in her eight3^-second year. 
Frederick Kariger was the son of John Kariger, a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, who died in Knox count)', Ohio, in 1S45. He had a brother who 
lost his life in the revolution. Elizabeth Lindsay was the daughter of 
William Lindsay, who was born near Lancaster, Penn., and died at her 
husband's Ohio home in 1S36. Samuel Kariger was born in Knox 
county, Ohio, March 22, 182 1, the youngest of six children. March 3, 
1847, he was married to Mar}' Ann Benz, who was born in Germany in 
1830, and came to Allen county in 1836. Mrs. Kariger died June 24, 1873, 
leaving four children: Catherine, Mary E., Elsie A., and John. Mr. 
Kariger, being the oldest settler in his part of the township, and an hon- 
orable citizen, is highly esteemed. In politics he is a democrat, and for 
twenty-six years he has been a member of the Presbyterian church at 
Fort Wayne. 

Among the industrious men who began their labors here prior to 
1840, should be mentioned Lucas More. This early settler of Allen 
county was born in Lehigh county, Penn., September it, 1S16. His 
father, Henr}' More, was born in Pennsylvania in 17S7, was a soldier of 
the war of 181 2, and died in Whitley county in the eighty-ninth year 
of his age. His wife, Mary Smith, died in her seventy-sixth year, in 
1878. They had eleven children, of whom the oldest, and one of the 
three living, is Lucas More. He came to Allen county in 1S37, and 
lived in Fort Wayne until 1843, when he settled upon the farm in Wash- 
ington township which he now owns. In 1843 he was married, Sep- 
tember 5th, to Magdelena Gunder, who was born in France, September 
12, 1821. They have four children: Melinda, William, Lavinia J. 
and Stephen. Mr. More cast his first presidential vote for W. H. Har- 
rison, and has been an earnest republican. His occupation is farming, 
and he is quite successful. He is one of the worthiest of the pioneers who 
have done so much to develop the county, and having made his own 
way in life, has the esteem and good-will of all. 

John C. Pfeiffer, one of the leading and most wealthv farmers of 
Allen county, was born July 27, 1821, to Christopher and Catherine 
Pfeiffer, natives of Germany, who emigrated to the United States in 
1832, and settled at Buffalo, N. Y. Eight years later they came to Fort 
Wayne, and the remainder of their lives was spent here. Mr. Pfeiffer 


came to Allen county at nineteen j-ears of age, and remained at home 
until twentj'-seven, when he settled where he now lives, three miles from 
the city, about 1855. Here he has a fertile farm of 240 acres well 
improved and of great value, which is the reward of his industrious 
career. He was married in 1849, to Margaret Bosler, a native of Ger- 
many, and they have five children : Charles, Carrie, Sophia, Edward and 
Abbie. He is a republican in politics, and he and wife are members of 
the English Lutheran church. 

Frederick W. Gieseking, a well-to-do farmer of Washington town- 
ship, was born in Lake township, November 9, 1845, the second of 
three children of Diedrich William Gieseking. His father, a native of 
Prussia, born August 13, 181 7, after two years' service in the Prussian 
army emigrated, reaching New York July 10, 1S41. He came on to 
Allen county and found employment with Charles Zigens, of Eel River 
township, and was married April 5, 1843, to Mary Joke}-, a native of 
Germany, who died November 10, 1876. By untiring industry he 
became the owner of an estate of 940 acres in this county. Subse- 
quently he became the owner of a farm of 252 acres in Washington town- 
ship. Frederick W. was educated in the public schools and the 
commercial college. He began farming for himself in 18S1 on the same 
place which his father purchased in 1868, and has a well-improved farm 
of 160 acres, three and a half miles northwest of Fort Wayne. He was 
married in 1881 to Louisa Rose, who was born in Washington town- 
ship, March 15, 1861, and they have two children: Mary L., born Janu- 
ary 10, 1884, and Clarence F., born December 20, 1887. Mr. Gieseking 
is a member of the English Lutheran church, and in politics is a 

Frederick Kammeyer, a leading farmer of Washington township, re- 
siding on section 30, was born in Germany, September 1.9, 1840, son of 
Frederick and Wilhelmina (Brenning) Kammeyer. The family came to 
Allen count}' in 1845, and here the father died two weeks after their 
arrival. The mother died in 1880. Mr. Kammeyer, the youngest of 
his father's children, was educated at the Lutheran schools of Fort 
Wayne. He settled where he now lives in 1868, and here owns lOO 
acres of well improved land, with improvements valued at $6,000. He 
was married in 1S68 to Miss Caroline Bode, who was born in Germany 
in 1845, and came to Allen county about 1856. They have five chil- 
dren: Sophia, Henrietta, Minnie, Lizzie and Matilda. A son, Fred- 
erick, died at two years of age. Politically Mr. Kammej-er was 
formerly a republican, and cast his first presidential vote for Abraham 
Lincoln, but for many 3'ears he has been a democrat, and manifests 
much interest in the political affairs of the day. By trade he is a 
machinist, and for five years, from 1863 to 1868, was in the employ of 
the Pennsylvania railway company, in the Fort Wayne shops. He and 
family are members of the Lutheran church. 

WilHam Bleke, a prominent farmer of Washington township, was 
born in Prussia, October 23, 1842. His parents, Charles and Mary 


(Gieseking) Bleke, were natives of Germany, and died in Allen county. 
William, the eldest of their two children living, came with them to Allen 
county in 1846. He was educated at the German Lutheran schools. 
In 1S66 he settled where he now lives, three and a half miles from the 
city, upon a fine farm of over 200 acres. He is a successful farmer, 
enterprising and business-like, and is a stockholder and director of the 
Leo gravel road. He is a member of St. Paul's Lutheran church, 
and in politics democratic. In 1866 Mr. Bleke was married to Sarah 
Rupp, a native of Ohio, and the}' have five children, Charles, born in 
1867; Frederick, born in 1870; William, born in 1876; John, born in 
1S78, and Augusta, born in 1875. 

John A. Houser, a successful and prominent farmer of Washington 
township, residing just north of the city limits of Fort Wayne, was born 
in Bavaria, Germany. He accompanied his parents, George and Chris- 
tina Houser, to America in 1844, when he was about seven years old. 
The famil_v first resided at New York city, where the father died a few 
yearslater. In i852Mr.Houserwithhis widowedmotherand two brothers 
came to Allen county, and settled in Washington township. October 
23, 1861, he enlisted in Company D, Nineteenth United States infantr}-, 
and served three years; after the battle of Stone River he was trans- 
ferred to Company A of the same regiment. He was in the battles of 
Shiloh, Corinth, Crab Orchard, Jackson, Stone River and Hoover's Gap. 
He was married October 24, 1S65, to Miss Catharine, daughter of 
George Snider. She died June 9, 1883, leaving six children: George A., 
Mary C, Katie, Clara, Christina R. and John A. On May 9, 1888, he 
was married to Catharine E. Prentiss. Mr. and Mrs. Houser are mem- 
bers of the Roman Catholic church. He is a member of the Catholic 
Knights of America, has served as captain of St. Bernard's branch. No. 
103, four years, and is now captain of St. John's branch. He is also a 
member of St. Joseph's society and the G. A. R. k 

Alfred Daughart}^ an honored veteran of the war of the rebellion, 
and now the efficient trustee of Washington township, was born in Stark 
county, Ohio, May 9, 1840, son of James and Rebecca (Keck) Daugh- 
arty, natives of Pennsylvania. His father died in Ohio in 1S41, where 
the mother is now living. In his youth he worked four years at the 
trade of blacksmith, but in 1861 came to x\llen count)-, and in August 
of that year enlisted in Company D, of that gallant and famous Indiana 
regiment, the Forty-fourth. In its conspicuous service he did a noble 
part. He was in the battle of Fort Donelson, and in the famous engage- 
ment at Pittsburg Landing, where his regiment stood like an iron wall 
against the advancing and triumphant rebel forces on the first da}-, he 
was one of the many who fell seriously wounded. His wound was so 
grave that it was necessary to amputate a leg. His sacrifice to the cause 
of the nation is one that commends him to the grateful esteem of his 
fellow citizens. He was honorably discharged from the service June, 
1S64, and has ever since been a resident of the city. He has been 
variously engaged, always winning in every position the confidence and 


esteem of those with whom he was associated. For six years he was 
in the employ of the Fort Wayne, Jackson & Saginaw, now Lake Shore, 
railway. Subsequently, he was connected with the Fort Wayne post- 
office for nine years. In politics he is *i republican, and though living 
in a democratic township, he was elected township trustee in- iS86 by 
sixteen majorit}^ and in 1888 was re-elected by a majority of fifty-tive, 
although the same township gave sixty-two majority for the national 
ticket of the opposition. This is a notable testimonial to his worth and 
the esteem in which he is held by his neighbors. He is a comrade, of 
the G. A. R., and in January, 1889, was installed as commander of Sion 
S. Bass post, No. 40. Mr. Daugharty was married Jul}- 3, 1864, to 
Martha E. Johnston, who was born in Greene county, Ind., in 1844. 
They have three children: Ulysses E., NelHe May, and" Walter W. He 
and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. 

Thomas H. Fleming, of Washington township, was born in County 
Longford, Ireland, May 12, 1S43. He is the son of James Fleming, 
born May 4, 1804, and his wife, Elizabeth Hysop, born in 1806, both of 
whom reside in Ireland. Of their ten children, four are living, of whom 
Mr. Fleming is the next to oldest. He was educated in Ireland, and in 
1864 emigrated to Canada, but after two years in Ontario, came to Fort 
Wayne and was for fourteen years in the employ of Hoffman Brothers, 
five years with N. G. Olds & Sons, and two years with the New York, 
Chicago and St. Louis railroad company. In 1885, he removed to his 
well-improved farm, four miles north of the city. He has made his own 
way in life and has been quite successful and is esteemed as an honor- 
able and upright man. He is a Mason of Summit Cit}' lodge. No. 170. 
In 1888, he was elected justice of the peace. Mr. Fleming was mar- 
ried June 14, 1868, to Frances Gibson, born in Ohio, August 14, 1845, 
and they have two children, Elizabeth Alice, born in 1869, and Josie 
Maud, born in 1878. He and wife are members of the Episcopal church. 

Nelson Leonard, a prominent citizen of Washington township, comes 
from one of the earliest pioneer families of Indiana. His father, Thomas 
Leonard, was born in Pennsylvania in 1784, and emigrated to Indiana 
in 1803, becoming one of the pioneer school-teachers. His father served 
under Washington, and was a descendant of one of seven brothers who 
emigrated from England to the Carohnas about the middle of the last 
century. Thomas married Anna Rathburn, born in New York in 
1786. He died in Delaware county in 1845, and she died two years 
later in Henry county. Of their five children living Nelson Leonard, 
born in Henry county. May 12, 1825, is the fourth. He was raised on 
a farm and obtained his education at the subscription schools. In 1845 
he began work for himself, and in 1847 engaged in brickmaking at 
Muncie, whither he removed his family in 1854. In 1864 he engaged 
in farming, and in 1873 came to Allen county, and made his home in 
Washington township, where he has since been engaged in brickmaking. 
He has a pleasant home two miles from the court-house, and still owns 
his Delaware county farm. He is an enterprising man, one of the 


projectors, stockholders and directors of the Leo gravel road: is a republi- 
can in politics, a member of the Methodist church, and of the Odd 
Fellows since 1S51. March 18, 1847, he was married to Drusilla 
Llewellyn, a native of West Virginia, and the}^ have five children, Han- 
nah J., Mary A., Mattie, Wilmer and Elma. 

David McKay, of Washington township, is secretary and manager 
of the Brookside Farm company, of Fort Wayne, and one of the most 
prominent horsemen of the state. He was born at Hurkledale, Annan, 
Scotland, October 9, 1849. ^^^ father, David McKay, a Scotch farmer, 
was the fourth in line of the name of David, and the son of the subject 
is the sixth of that name, making six generations of the same name. 
All the ancestors were noted horse breeders, the McKa\' familj- being 
horsemen as far back as 1745. Mr. McKay was reared on the farm in 
Scotland and given a collegiate education. For several years he bred 
horses on the home farm in Scotland, which comprises 345 acres, of 
which he owns a portion, and in 187S he came to America and settled 
near Rockford, 111. A few months later he went to Chicago, where he 
was engaged two years in importing stock from Scotland. Removing 
to Arlington Heights, twenty-two miles from Chicago, he conducted a 
stock farm and imported for two years. In 1SS4 he came to Fort 
Wa3-ne, and in company with J. H. Bass organized the Brookside Farm 
company, which has one of the largest and finest stock farms in the 
northwest. The company makes a specialty of importing and breeding 
Galoway cattle and Clydesdale horses, and their claim to the finest herd 
of Galoway cattle in America has never been disputed. Mr. McKav 
was married on October 7, 1884, to Ellen Sharp Roddick, a native of 
Scotland, and to their union three children have been born. 

Matthew Furguson, a leading farmer of Washington township, was 
born at Greensburg, Penn., December 17, 1827. His father, John Fur- 
guson, was born in Pennsylvania in 1801, and died at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
in 1859, having moved to Ohio from Penns3'lvania in 1833. His 
mother, whose maiden name was Henrietta Perkins, died at Delphos, 
Ohio, in 1873. Mr. Furguson is the only one living of six children born. 
In 1S33, he removed with his parents, to Bellefontaine, Ohio, and in 
1839, removed to St. Mary's. He was raised on the farm partly and 
obtained a common school education. In early life he worked at the car- 
penter's trade for some two years. In 1862, he enlisted in Compan}- G, 
Eight3--first regiment, at Lima, Ohio, and served for one year, being 
mustered out at the close of the Vicksburg campaign, in 1863, as second 
lieutenant. He was engaged for some time in the saw-mill business. 
In 1870, he removed to Delphos, Ohio, and for man\- 3'ears, he was con- 
nected with the Delphos Wheel company, and for twelve years, was the 
purchasing agent, and a stockholder from the organization of the com- 
pany, in 1871, until 1887. In 18S3, he bought what is known as the 
vShultz farm of 180 acres, three miles north of the court-house, and in 
March, 1885, removed to it. He was married in 1857, to Susan L. 
Nopson, who was born near Svracuse, N. Y. They have nine children: 


Henrietta, Mary J., Walter, John, Lucy, Grace, Matthew A., Anna and 
Augusta. He is a member of Hope lodge, F. & A. M., at Delphos, 

John Waters, an early settler in Washington township, was born in 
Pennsylvania, September 23, 1818. His parents, Elias and Mary 
(Clapper) Waters, were natives of Pennsylvania. They removed to 
Allen county and settled in Washington township in 1834, coming here 
from Ohio, where the family had resided for several 3'ears, having emi- 
grated there from Pennsylvania in 1820. In 1833, the year before the 
coming of the family, the father came here and secured a home. He 
died in Allen county, and the mother also. John Waters is the oldest of 
four children living of these parents. Beginning with the coming of his 
parents, Mr. Waters has been a resident of Washington township ever 
since, and his many 3'ears here, and his numerous estimable traits of 
character, have made him a host of friends. He has prospered in 
financial matters, and now has a beautiful farm, substantially improved, 
and altogether owns 505 acres of valuable land. He cast his first pres- 
idential vote for William Henry Harrison, and since the organization of 
the republican party has affiliated with it. Mr. Waters was married in 
1845, to Sarah Ann Ervin, a native of Pennsylvania. She died April 
20, 1886. Five children were born to this union: Mary L., Elias A., 
John S., Sarah A. and James W. B}- the marriages of these children 
Mr. Waters has twenty-four grand-children. 

Among the early settlers of St. Joseph township a conspicuous 
figure was Christian Parker, who was elected justice in 1834, county 
commissioner in 1839, and ^" ^^44 ^® *he whig candidate, representative 
in the state legislature, to which he was sent for four successive terms. 
He was born in Preble count}-, Ohio, September 11, 1S07, of English 
ancestors. His grandfather, Amariah Parker, fled from Cornwall to 
escape impressment into the British army, and settled near Boston in 
1 761. He and his three brothers assisted in the revolutionary- struggle, 
one of them falling at Bunker Hill, as a lieutenant-colonel. After the 
war, Amariah removed to New Jersey and married Tamar Munson, 
and lost all his fortune b}- the depreciation of continental monev. His 
son, Jacob Parker, was left an orphan at thirteen, without home, and 
he was bound out to a blacksmith at New York. Escaping from harsh 
treatment he reached Fort Washington, Ohio, and enlisted under Gen. 
Waj'ne, and fought at the battle of the Maumee, August 20, 1794, 
receiving a wound there, x^fter his discharge he settled near Middleton, 
Ohio, married Mary Loy, and settled in iSoi in Preble count}-. Chris- 
tian Parker was the son of this soldier under Wajne. He cut his way 
from Fort Wayne into the St. Joseph township forests in October, 1833, 
and before the following February had a cabin built on section 20. He 
brought with him his wife, Rachel, daughter of Henry Cassell, of 
Preble county, born August i, 1807, in Virginia. They were married 
June 18, 1829, and had the following children: Samuel C, born April 
24, 1830; Francis A. C, December 21, 1831; Harriet (deceased). 


August 22, 1833; Julia A. (died May 8, 1S68), August 7, 1835: Jacob H. 
(deceased), July 17, 1837; Allen H. (deceased), April 9, 1S39; Caro- 
line, Maj- 10, 1841; Henry C. (deceased April 20, 1875), February 4, 
1844; Maria (deceased), January 14, 1846: Oliver P., October 13, 184S; 
Marj' E. (deceased),- January 21, 1851; Winfield S. (deceased), July 
19, 1853. Mrs. Parker died February- 4, 1879, ^""^ Christian Parker 
passed awaj' August 24, 1888. Their son, Oliver P., was born on the 
St. Joseph township homestead, and there raised, receiving the common 
school education of those days. He now owns 160 acres of the old 
farm, a beautiful and productive tract of land. In 1868 Mr. Parker 
was married to Fanny Fike, born in 1844, b_v whom he had three chil- 
dren, two of whom are living, Ulysses Grant and Estella H. On 
December 24, 1876, Mr. Parker was married to Kitty Lischy, a native 
of Kosciusko countv, born April 18, 1S57, and thev have two children, 
Mabel F. R. and Pansy D. 

Uriah Notestine, well-known as a pioneer of Allen countv, is one of 
a family who have done good service in clearing away the forests and 
bringing about the splendid agricultural development of the region. He 
was born in Fairfield count}', Ohio, January 6, 1815, one of fifteen chil- 
dren of Jacob and Barbara A. (Gunder) Notestine. The familv is of 
German origin, each of Mr. Notestine's grandparents having been born 
in German}'. In 1830 the family came to Fort Wayne, reaching there 
July 14. There they remained until the spring of 1834, when they 
moved and settled on the banks of the St. Joseph in Cedar Creek town- 
ship. Here the parents died, and were buried in a spot of the ground 
purchased of the government by William Gunder, brother-in-law of 
Jacob Notestine, who bought the land of the former. Uriah Notestine 
■began work in this state as a da\- laborer, with his father, who took 
the contract for digging the race for the old Rudisill mill. He also 
worked on the dam, and he and his brother scored the timber for that 
pioneer mill. Mr. Notestine's advantages for education were slight, but 
he attended school a few terms in Ohio and one term in the old log 
school-house that stood on the site of the Allen county jail. In the 
spring of 1834 Mr. Notestine made a trip from Fort Wayne to Darke 
•county, Ohio, 120 miles through the woods on horseback, to obtain a 
■deed to the first land he bought. In 1835 he carried the mail for the 
:first time from Fort Wayne to White Pigeon, a distance of sixty miles, 
and four days were occupied by the trip. In all the adventures of the 
■early days he was a conspicuous figure, but he prospered also as a 
ifarmer, and came to own a good farm of 100 acres. Among the relics 
of olden times in his possession is a food-adze made in Virginia in 1785, 
which belonged to his mother's father. Februarj' 12, 1838, he was mar- 
ried to Melinda Bowen, who died in March, 1839, in the twentieth year 
of her age. November 12, 1841, he was married to Maria L. Royce, 
born May 22, 1823, and they had si.\- children, of whom James A., 
Aaron S., Eliza Ann, and Matilda E. are living. Mr. Notestine and wife 
are members of the United Presbyterian church. Politically he was a 


democrat, having voted for Jackson for president, but in 1SS4 became 
identified with the prohibition part}-. He ser\'ed as constable of St. 
Joseph about four years, under Justices Sivitts, Cook, Ro^ce and Eby. 

One of the earliest German settlers of Adams township was Philip 
Brueck, who emigrated to America and settled there in the woods in 
1S33, buying eighty acres of land, upon which he and his family made 
them a home. Two years later, however, they removed to St. Joseph 
township, where his son, Moritz Brueck, became a prominent farmer. 
The latter was born in Franckenau, German}', December 11, 1824, and 
passed his 3'outh among the frontier scenes of Allen county. Deprived 
of the advantages of schools he taught himself to read and write and 
became an intelligent and wide-awake citizen. He and an elder brother 
cleared the homestead in St. Joseph township, and made a fine farm out 
of the wild land. At the time of his death he owned 360 acres of valu- 
ble land, mostly in cultivation, and good buildings. He was one of the 
leading citizens, and was noted for his honesty and industry. He was 
married October 21, 1847, to Martha Elizabeth Trier, daughter of John 
H. and Christina Trier, well-known pioneers of Adams township, who 
emigrated in 1835, and settled on eighty acres, and though poor at first, 
prospered, and left a good farm of 120 acres. Mr. and Mrs. Brueck 
had the following children: Anna C, born February 24, 1850; John 
H., born March i, 1853; Adam, born March 5, 1855; Catharine E., 
born October 7, 1S57; Christian M., born November 9, i860; Heinrich 
v., born November 4, 1863; Paul W., born March 19, 1867; Jacob 
P., born April 5, 1872. Mrs. Brueck was born in Germany, Novem- 
ber 16, 1829. She is a member of the Lutheran church, as was her 
husband, with all the members of the familv, and is highly esteemed 
by all. 

John H. Bruick, one of the progressive and enterprising farmers of 
the township of St. Joseph, is a native of the county. He was born 
March i, J853, the son of Montz and Martha E. (Trier) Bruick. He 
was raised upon the farm of his estimable parents and received a com- 
mon school educati<m. He is one of the leaders among the younger 
citizens of the township, and has a fine farm of 140 acres of fertile land, 
well under cultivation, and supplied with a comfortable residence and 
good barns. He was married in 1877 to Louisa Donnenfelser, and 
their union was blessed by the birth of five children, of whom three are 
living: Clara, Otto and Paul. Mrs. Bruick was born in 1858. She and 
her husband are members of the German Lutheran church, and are 
highly esteemed. 

Of the third generation of his family in Allen county, George L. 
Ashlev, of St. Joseph township, is entitled to be called one of the 
pioneer .boys of the county. His father, George Hale Ashley, a native 
of Greene county, N. Y., born June 14, 1814, married Esther Linzey, 
who was born in New York cit}', January 18, 181 5. The father was 
an intelligent, well educated man. In 1836 he emigrated to the west, 
looking for a new home, and came to Indiana with his father, John 


Ashley, and his mother, and bought a half section of the wild land in 
Washington township. This they settled upon, built thenn a cabin, and 
there worked at clearing and improving for seven years. In 1844 
George H. Ashley went to Maumee township, with the intention of 
building a grist-mill on the Maumee river. He erected the frame work 
of the building, when he discovered that the damming of the stream 
would not be allowed, and he then abandoned the project. He settled 
there, however, and bought more wild land, and made of it a farm, 
adding it to his original purchase until he owned 256 acres. In iS64'he 
bought 160 acres in St. Joseph township, which he improved with good 
buildings, and made this his home until his death, August 7, 186S. He 
was a leading citizen wherever he lived, and while in Maumee township 
served a number of years as justice and as trustee. He and wife were 
devoted members of the Methodist Episcopal church, of which he was a 
local preacher. His wife, who shared the hardships of his pioneer life, 
died Februarj' 18, 1879. Their son, George L. Ashle}-, was born in 
Maumee township, February 2, 1853, and received his education at the 
district school and at the Methodist college at Fort Wayne. Adopting 
farming as his vocation, he has followed that successfully. In 1875 he 
was married to Josephine, daughter of Silas Darling, born March 8, 
1857. She died Januar}' 17, 1879, leaving one child, Charles, born 
March 11, 1877. February 17, 1881, he was married to Adessa, daugh- 
ter of Jeremiah and Margaret (Stoner) Miller, born June 6, 1S61. 
They have four children: Oliver, born March 29, 18S2; Oscar J., March 
5, 18S5; George S., February 7, 1887; Josie M., February 14, 1889. 
Mr. Ashley and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
He has a fine farm of 74^ acres. 

Alfred M. Taylor, of St. Joseph township, has passed through an 
eventful and busy life, and is now widely known as one of the worthy 
and deserving old citizens of Allen county. He was born Ma}- 25, 1817, 
in Orleans count)', Vt. His parents, Gideon M. and Phcebe (Wal- 
bridge) Taylor, removed with their family to Genesee count}', N. Y., 
twelve years later, where Alfred grew to manhood, and received the 
education which the common schools of those days afforded. At the 
age of twenty-one he started out for himself, and" first made a trip to 
New Orleans. He remained in the south four years, following boating 
and tending wood-yard, and overseeing a cotton plantation, and then 
went to Wisconsin, going into the mining district and driving team and 
farming for one year. Returning to New York he resumed farming 
there, and his father djing soon afterward, he was left in charge of the 
farm and familj'. He and his brother bought the farm, and subse- 
quently he obtained entire control of the homestead of 250 acres. Feb- 
ruary 18, 1846, he was married to ^lary V. Pond, who was. born in 
New Hampshire, July 11, 1822, a well-read and intelligent lady.' Thev 
remained on the homestead for ten years, and then removed to Illinois, 
where Jhey lived four years. January 5, i860, he settled on the farm 
where he now lives and which he had traded for without inspection in 


1856. It was then all woods, and he and family moved into a little log 
cabin and began clearing it. As the result of his untiring industrj^ he 
now has a fine farm of i6o acres. Mr. Taylor and wife are members of 
the Baptist church at Fort Wayne. He is a veteran Odd Fellow and 
has been a charter member of the following lodges: Oakfield lodge, 
No. 188, of Prospect Hill, N. Y.; New Haven lodge, No. 256, and Har- 
lan lodge, No. 331. He is also a member of Summit City encampment. 
•He was formerl}- a Mason. Mr. Taylor and wife are highly esteemed 
b}' their neighbors, indeed, b\' all who know them, which was evidenced 
b}^ the fact that when the post-office was established under the adminis- 
tration of President Grant, all were in favor of putting it into the hands 
of Mr. and Mrs. Taylor. Appointed in 1869, they held the ' office six- 
teen years. On the election of Cleveland they resigned, but on the ur- 
gent request of the community they consented to hold it longer, and 
Mrs. Taylor was appointed, the office being moved and the name 
changed to Thurman. Mr. Ta3lor cast his first vote for W. H. Har- 
rison, and since the organization of the republican party has voted for 
all of its presidential candidates. 

George Shordon, a well-known farmer of St. Joseph township, was 
born in Springfield township, this county, October 12, 1839. Beginning 
with the pioneer days, he has grown with the development of the 
count)', and has been an eye-witness of its marvelous development. He 
was reared to manhood at the home ©f his parents, Stephen and Cath- 
erine (Kieffer) Shordon, and received the education given in the pioneer 
school-houses. Appreciating its short-comings, he has bestowed upon 
all his children as good an education as he could obtain for them, and 
three are now teachers in the public schools. In July, 1862, he was 
married to Martha Bowers, by whom he had three children : Lilly D., 
Howard and Ethel. In the same year of his marriage he left the com- 
forts of home to enlist in Company D, Eighty-eighth Indiana infantry, 
and served faithfully until peace came. He was with his regiment in 
all its engagements except Chickamauga, being then sick; he was with 
Sherman in the march to the sea, and received an honorable discharge 
at Indianapolis in 1865. On his return home, his father deeded him 
eight}^ acres of wild land, upon which he built a cabin and began the 
work of clearing. By industrious perseverance, he now has a hand- 
some, well cultivated farm of 120 acres, with good and substantial 

William Shordon, a son of the above named Stephen and Catherine 
Shordon, was born in Springfield township, July 3, 1848. Coming with 
the famil}- to St. Joseph township, he settled where he now lives at the 
age of four or five years. Here he grew to manhood and received the 
education obtainable in those days, and remained with his parents until 
they removed to Fort Wayne. Adopting farming as his vocation, he 
followed it successfully, and now has a fine farm of ninety acres, upon 
which he lives, in St. Joseph township, as finely improved as an}- in the 
township, and 120 acres in Milan township. In addition to agriculture, 


he takes much interest in stock-raising, and gives particular attention to 
the breeding of Norman horses and Shropshire sheep. He is generally 
recognized as a valuable and prominent citizen, and has been for ten 
years the treasurer of the Maumee avenue turnpike. Mr. Shordon 
was married in 1869 to Senora Black, born June, 1S51, daughter of 
John T. Black, elsewhere mentioned. She is a member of the Catholic 
church, to which Mr. Shordon also belongs. 

A familiar name in Washington and St. Joseph townships, is that of • 
Christian F. Rose, one of the early settlers and esteemed old people. 
He was born m Germany, May 28, 181 2, the son of Frederick and 
Christina Rose. His father dying, he had after twelve years of age to 
care for the famih-, and his early 3'ears were toilsome. April 28, 1838, 
he left his native land, borrowing the money to pay his passage, and 
after arriving at Cincmnati worked there at $15 per month for the money 
to pay back the cost of his passage. After about two years in Cincin- 
nati he came on foot to Indiana and found employment at Fort Wayne 
in digging on the canal. After one summer of this he found employ- 
ment with Mr. I-Iubble for two years, and for one 3-ear with Hugh Mc- 
Culloch. By economy he saved enough from his earnings bj- 1843, to 
buy eighty acres of timber land in Washington township. In 1S44, he 
was married to Mar}- Schumaker, and they settled on the land in a log 
cabin, and began the tedious and toilsome work of clearing. The woods 
were so dense that he and his bride in going to their cabin from Fort 
Wayne, driving an ox-team, lost their way. They prospered, but in 
1853, the wife died at the age of forty-one years, leaving two children: 
one, a son, died at the age of twenty-six, and the daughter married 
Frederick Blake. In 1854 Mr. Rose married Christina Brinckman, born 
in 1829, by whom he had eight children: Christian H., Frederick, 
Henry, Theodore, Louisa, Mina, one who died ^n infancy, and William 
who died in 1888. In 187 1 Mr. Rose and family removed to St. Joseph 
township, settling where he now lives. He has a fine farm of 153 acres,- 
with a two-story brick dwelling, and a large bank barn. He and wife 
are members of the German Lutheran church, and are highly thought of. 

Christian H. Rose, eldest son of the above, now occupies the hon- 
ored position of trustee of St. Joseph township. He was born in Wash- 
ington township, November 10, 1856. His childhood was spent in that 
township, his residence in St. Joseph township beginning with the re- 
moval of the famil}^ there. May 11, 1882, he was married to Anna, 
daughter of Charles and Anna Moellering, and they have three sons: 
Theodore, born April 16, 1883; Henry, January 25, 18S6; Frederick, 
January i, 1888. Mrs. Rose was born in October, 1864. Mr. Rose 
being the eldest son in the family of his parents, much of the work of 
pioneer days fell upon him, and he is to be credited with much of the 
good results. In the spring of 1888, he was nominated by the demo- 
cratic party for trustee of St. Joseph township, and elected by thirty- 
eight majority, the highest ever received by a candidate for that office. 
His administration has alreadv added one brick school-house of the 


best model to the school facilities, and he is a competent and faithful 

In the fall of 1S40, Peter and Elizabeth (Black) Parker, the hus- 
band a native of Ohio and the wife of Virginia, came to St. Joseph 
township from Ohio, and settled in the woods on an eighty-acre tract of 
land. They brought with them their son, James D. Parker, born March 
30, of the same year, who is now one of the leading citizens of the 
township. The famil}^ settled in a little log cabin and entered heartily 
upon the work of clearing away the forest and tilling the soil. Indus- 
trious and intelligent, the father prospered in his affairs, and came to 
own a fine farm of 200 acres. He and wife were devoted members of 
the Lutheran church, and politically he was a staunch democrat. Being 
widely known as a worthy citizen he was twice chosen to serve as 
county commissioner, and his integrity and faithfulness in this position 
were never questioned. James D. Parker was reared in the pioneer 
home, and was busily occupied in youth with tlie labors of farm life. In 
i860 lie was married to Sophronia. daughter of Daniel Eby, born in 1840. 
They had three children: Anna E., Charles and Nina. Subsequent to 
the death of his first wife, Mr. Parker was married to Lovina, daughter 
of William and Sarah Wackard, by whom he has two children : William 
E. and Joseph R. Mrs. Pai'ker, who was born February 15, 1858, is a 
member of the Grace Reformed church. Mr. Parker is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. In 1S63 Mr. Parker enlisted in Com- 
pany E, One Hundred and Forty-second Indiana infantry, and served 
faithfully until the close of the war. He now owns forty-eight acres of 
the old homestead and is a worthy citizen. 

During the year 1840 Frederick Meyer, sr., emigrated from Ger- 
many to America, and coming directly to Fort Wa^^ne, found employ- 
ment on the Wabash & Erie canal. He was born November 21, 1813, 
the son of Christian and Christina Meyer, both natives of Germany. By 
economy Mr. Meyer was soon able to send to Germany for his wife, 
Christina Dinkes, to whom he had been married in 1839, and buy a little 
farm of forty acres in the woods. There the}' made their home in a 
round-pole cabin, and began a life of patient endeavor, which resulted 
in their owning a good farm of 120 acres, in St. Joseph township, well 
improved. In 1887 the wife died at the age of seventy-six, leaving si.x 
children living, out of seven born: Frederick, Henr};-, John, Mar}', 
Charles and William. Mr. Meyer, sr., is a member of the Lutheran 
church, as was his wife. He is generally known and highly esteemed 
throughout the country. John Myers, son of the above, was born in 
St. Joseph township, JVIarch 26, 1S47. Though only a boy at the time, 
he enlisted in 1864, in Company F, One Hundred and Forty-second 
Indiana infantry, under Capt. Robert Swan, and served faithfully 
until the war was over. He was honorably discharged at Indianapolis, 
in 1865. After the war .he traveled extensively through the west for 
about eight years, going twice to California. Finally, in 1877, he set- 
tled down, and was married to Sophia, daughter of Frederick Buller- 


man, and born in 1853. They have had five children, of whom two are 
living: Anna A. and Louisa. He and wife are members of the Luth- 
eran church. He is a hijrhlj' respected citizen, and has been success- 
ful linanciall}', having a good farm of 100 acres. 

Fred A. Meyer, a son of the above named Fred and Christina Meyer, 
was born in Prussia, April 14, 1S40. His introduction to this country 
was at the age of three years, and being raised b}' his parents at their 
pioneer home he experienced all the trials and privations of a frontier 
life. At twenty years of age, he started out for himself, hiring as a 
farm hand, and continued to be engaged in this way until 1863, when 
he had accumulated enough to buy the eighty acres of land where he 
now has his home. It was then covered with dense forest, but by steady 
labor, every day, and man}' a night, he made of this a pleasant and 
fertile farm. This necessary toil, however, from the daj-s of childhood, 
deprived him of those educational advantages that are now common. In 
1869 Mr. Me3'er was married to Caroline Mengensen, and the}- had six 
children, of whom four survive: Charles, Christina, Sophia and Caro- 
line. Mrs. Meyer was born in 1846. She and her husband are faithful 
members of the Lutheran church. Mr. Me\'er now has a good farm of 
100 acres, in St. Joseph township, improved with substantial buildings. 

Among the early settlers of the count}', of English origin, one of the 
most prominent is Adam Jeffries, who was born in England, July 12, 
1S22, the son of Daniel and Susannah Jeffries. In his native land he 
received a good schooling until thirteen years of age, when he entered 
the law office of John W. Wall, of Devizes, Wilts, England, as copying 
and engrossing clerk. There he was engaged until past twenty years of 
age, and such proficiency did he attain in penmanship that when a con- 
gratulatory address was to be prepared for the queen upon the occasion of 
her escape from assassination at the hands of Edwin Oxford, young Jeffries 
was selected to do the work. In 1843, he emigrated to America, and his 
twenty-first birthday occurred while he was at sea. His voyage occu- 
pied eight weeks, and he remained one week in New York city and 
another week on the Hudson river, before he came to Allen county. He 
made his home first in Eel River township, where his parents had pre- 
viously settled on a tract of forty acres. Here }'oung Jeffries worked 
on the farm in summer and taught school in winter. After he had taught 
five terms, his father was badly crippled by the falling of a tree upon 
him, and Adam had to take charge of the farm. He followed agricul- 
ture up to 1874, when he retired from participation in the farm work. His 
fife has been one of struggle and successful persistence. When he came 
to this country he had saved only $50 from his wages as clerk, having 
received only $3 a week as his highest wages. He accumulated property, 
and came to own 307 acres of land. He remained on this farm until 
1874, when he sold out and removed to Texas. Thirteen months later 
they returned to Indiana, and until 1S82, lived at Fort Wa}-ne, moving 
then to St. Joseph township, where they now live. Mr. Jeffries was 
married April 13, 1S48, to Rebecca, daughter of John and Elizabeth 


(Johnson) Ashley, early settlers from Connecticut. Mrs. Jeffries was born 
June 24, 1817, and was at the time of her marriage the widow of Aaron 
Bixby. She and husband and children are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. Mr. and Mrs. Jeffries had five children, one of whom 
died at the age of four years and another in 1SS4, leaving three living: 
Mary, Ethel and Sarah R. 

Julius Young, who came to Allen county in 1S43, is one of the in- 
dustrious settlers coming from German}', who have done so much to 
develop the county. He was born in that land December 25, 1829, the 
son of Frederick and Dorothea Young, and came to America with an 
uncle, when only fourteen 3'ears of age. Coming into a strange land, 
unable to speak a word of English, his trials were man}' and he had to 
live at first on wages that amounted to only $4 per month. About 1858 
he purchased on time fort}- acres of wild land, m St. Joseph township, 
and built a little log hut, to which in i860, he took a wife, Sarah Bret- 
teny, who shared his toil and pleasures. In 1S62, Mr. Young enlisted 
in the Eleventh Indiana battery, and served with it until it was dis- 
charged, when he enlisted in the Eighteenth battery and served until 
the close of the war. His service was gallant and faithful, during 
which he incurred disabilities for which he receives the small pension of 
$6 a month. He was honorably discharged at Indianapolis in 1865, 
and returned to his home. His perseverance as a farmer has been 
rewarded by a handsome farm of 120 fertile acres, well improved, and 
he enjoys the respect and good-will of all who know of his early struggles 
and his deserved success. Mr. Young and wife are members of the 
United Brethren church, of which he is a trustee. He has four children : 
Sarah, William, Julius and Frederick. 

John H. F. B. Meyer, a prosperous young farmer of St. Joseph town- 
ship, is a son of one of the early German settlers, John Meyer, who 
came to this count}- with his parents in 1S44, at the age of twelve years, 
and located in this township, where the family settled on eighty acres of 
woodland. John Meyer married Sophia Luhman, and by this union had 
six children, of whom five are living: HeiTry, Frederica, Mary, Dora, 
J. H. F. B. and Fred. The father was a true pioneer, who toiled long 
and faithfully to carve a home out of the wild-wood for his family. 
When he settled he first worked five years upon rented land, and then 
bought eighty acres, which he cleared and occupied until his death. He 
came to own 247 acres of farming land. He and wife were members of 
the Lutheran church, and were highly respected by all. John, their 
son, was raised on the homestead, and received a good education in the 
public and parochial schools. May 2, 18S6, he was married to Katie 
Goegline, and they have a pleasant home on the farm of eighty acres 
which Mr. Meyer owns and cultivates. 

When three years old, Henry Young, now a leading farmer of St. 
Joseph township, was brought here by his parents, Henry and Louisa 
(Blume) Young, and introduced to the scenes of pioneer life. He was 
born November 11, 1S42, in Ohio. His father being a cripple, Henry 


found it necessar}' as soon as he was old enough, to stay at home and 
attend to the farm, thereby losing all opportunities for attendance on 
school, but he is by no means lacking in practical acquirements, and has 
a good education obtained by his own efforts. In 1863 he purchased 
eighty acres of land in the woods, which he has made into a good farm, 
and added to until he now owns 295 acres of fertile and valuable land, 
handsomely kept and provided with a commodious two-story brick 
dwelling and good barn. In 1864 he was married to Louisa Sheffer, 
who was born April 26, 1842, and they have had ten children, of whom 
eight are living: John H., Mary, William, Christina, Lizzie, Christian, 
Anna and Clara. About two 3'ears after his marriage he embarked in 
saw-milling in connection with agriculture, and followed the milling busi- 
ness about eleven years. He and wife are members of the Lutheran 
church, in which he has held an official position for eighteen or twenty 

Anton F. Kohlmeier was born in Prussia, December 23, 1831, the 
son of Christian F. and Sophia L. Kohlmeier. With his family he came 
to America when about fourteen 3'ears of age, and first made his home 
at Fort Wayne, where he remained four j'ears. His father then pur- 
chased seventy-two acres of the canal lands in Washington township, a 
tract then entirely wooded, upon which they cleared a little spot to erect 
a cabin upon, and there began the career of persevering industry, which 
was rewarded at last by the possession of a beautiful and rich farm. 
Being engaged in this labor nearly all the time, Mr. Kohlmeier had no 
leisure for school, but the education he has obtained is the result of his 
own natural aptness and home stud}-. When he was sixteen years old 
he took a position with B. W. Oakley as a general chore boy^ at Fort 
Waj'ne, and a 3'ear later became a clerk, a position he held for seven 
3'ears, and received a salar}' of $4 per month. After the close of this 
seVvice he returned to the farm of his father and remained there until 
1858. In the latter 3'ear he was married to Sophia, widow of Anton 
Sleinkemper. He and wife are members of the Lutheran church, and 
he has been a warden of his church for twent3'-two 3-ears. He has 
prospered in life and now has 160 acres of land in cultivation, with good 
buildings, in St. Joseph township, and a house and lot in Fort Wa3'ne. 

Frederick Bleke, one of the progressive farmers in the vallev' of the 
St. Joseph, is a son of the worthy old settlers, Charles Bleke and his 
wife, Mary Gieseking, who came to Allen county in 1846, and bought 
260 acres of land, mosth' unimproved, upon which the3- lived until their 
death. These parents had four children, of whom onh' two represent- 
atives are hving. The3', like their parents, are prominent in the affairs 
of their townships, and highl3' esteemed b3' all. Frederick Bleke was 
born in German3', March 21, 1845, and was raised from the age of one 
3-ear on the homestead in this county. He remained with his parents 
until twenty-eight years old, when he started out for himself, and was 
given b3' his father as a reward for his faithful help, the old homestead. 
This farm of 260 acres, now in his possession, is one of the handsomest 


and best improved in St. Joseph township, and is supplied with good 
and comfortable buildings. In the Lutheran church to which he and 
family belong he is prominent, and among the people of the township 
he is highly regarded. He holds the honorable position of president of 
the Fort Wayne and Leo gravel road. Mr. Bleke was married May 
23, 1873, to Mary, daughter of C. F. Rose, and six children have been 
born to them, of whom three survive: Amelia, Louisa and Amanda. 
Mrs. Bleke was born in Allen county. May 31, 1849. 

Frederick BuUerman, now a substantial citizen of St Joseph town- 
ship, came from Germany at the age of twenty-two years, and found 
his first employment in New York state, where he worked upon a farm 
for two years. He then came to Allen county and settled in Adams 
township, vvhere he leased ninety-two acres of land densely wooded, 
which he began to clear. Mr. BuUerman was born in Germany, Sep- 
tember 7, 1822, son of Frederick and Sophia BuUerman, who followed 
him to this country two years after his arrival. In his native land he 
was educated in German, but his education in the English language was 
obtained by his own exertions. After Mr. BuUerman had toiled six 
years on the farm he leased, he managed to save enough from his hard 
earnings to make a payment on the farm he now occupies, which he 
purchased at that time. Here he renewed the toil of clearing, now 
cheered and encouraged b}' his wife, Maria Schrader, to whom he was 
married August 4, 1849. Mr. BuUerman began as a poor man, but he 
now has a fine farm of 120 acres, substantially improved, and enjoys the 
merited respect of his neighbors. He and wife are members of the 
Lutheran church. The}- have had ten children, of whom seven are 
living : Henry, now commissioner of Allen count}', Fred, William, George, 
Christian, Sophia, Mary, Maria, Mina and Anna. Mrs. BuUerman was 
born April 8, 1825. 

Among the leading settlers in 1846 were Martin and Anna Maria 
(Koester) Schaick, who settled upon forty acres of unimproved land. 
With them came their son. Christian Schaick, now a well-known citizen 
of the township, who was born at Wittenberg, Germany, July 29, 1839. 
About one year after the arrival of the family, the father died, and the 
oldest son having left home, the care of the family speedily fell upon 
Christian, who faithfully performed the duty which was thus imposed upon 
him. On this account his early life was toilsome and he was deprived 
of educational advantages. August 29, 1S62, he enlisted in Company 
D, Forty-eighth Indiana, and served at the front, gallantly and faithfully, 
with the exception of six months on furlough on account of illness, until 
he was discharged at Washington, May 30, 1865. Returning to this 
county he began clearing forty acres he had purchased while in the ser- 
vice, and renewed the experiences of pioneer life. March 30, 18.67, he 
was married to EHzabeth Griffith, born January 3, 1845, daughter of 
James and Margaret (Comfort) Griffith, natives of Pennsylvania. 
They were early settlers at Pickaway, near Columbus, Ohio, where the 
father worked as a carpenter until 1855, when they removed to Adams 


county, Ind., settling upon forty acres which they cleared. Four or five 
years later they came to Allen count}- and settled at Williamsport where 
he was postmaster during the war. Subsequently, he removed to Fort 
Wayne and remained there until his wife died, when he returned to 
Williamsport, where he now lives. Mrs. and Mrs. Schaick have had 
nine children, of whom eight are living: Margaret, George, Anna, 
Jacob, Mary, John, William and Louisa. He and wife are members of 
the English Lutheran church, and he was formerly a member of Sion 
S. Bass post, G. A. R., at Ft. Wayne. Mr. Schaick now has a good 
farm of eighty acres, well improved, in St. Joseph township. 

Prominent among the respected old German residents of the county 
is Christian Koester, sr., who was born in Germany, November 11, 1813, 
son of Kordt and Mary (Stoppenhagen) Koester. He grew to man- 
hood in his native state, and in 1846 "emigrated to America. He came 
to Fort Wajne in the same 3-ear, and worked on the canal a year and a 
half. He continued to be engaged in employment of that nature for 
several years, and in 1853 embarked in the lime and stone business at 
Fort Wayne. In this he continued for sixteen years, and did well at his 
business. In 1879 ^^ bought the farm on which he now lives, and 
moved upon it, retiring from business life. This handsome place of 
'i-S'^% acres with two-story brick dwelling and good barn he deeded to 
his son Christian. He was married in 1853 to Minnie Stellhorn, and 
they have had six children, of whom Christian is the only survivor. He 
' and wife are devoted members of the German Lutheran church. Chris- 
tian Koester, jr., was born at Fort Wayne, December 30, 1S57. He 
received a good common school education and attended Concordia col- 
lege four years. He remained in Fort Wayne until 18S0, when he was 
married April 29, to Mar}', daughter of John F. and Mary Gerke, when 
he removed to the farm above mentioned. Mrs. Koester was born 
December 5, 1861. They have three children, Minnie, Emma and Fred- 
erick. He and wife are members of the German Lutheran church, and 
are highly regarded by all who know them. He is a thorough-going 
young farmer, and besides his home, owns a good frame dwelling and 

In 1847, there came to Fort Wayne, Henry E. Antrup, son of Herman 
and Catherine Antrup, who has done his share in the development of the 
county. The parents came to America in 1838, and settled in New York. 
Henr}^ E. Antrup, now a respected citizen of St. Joseph township, was 
born in Prussia, March 27, 1827. His parents being poor, he was com- 
pelled by circumstances, to earn his own support from the age of thirteen. 
On coming to Fort Wayne, he was first employed as a boatman on the 
canal, and this was his occupation for four years. During this time he 
acquired some town propert}^ which soon appreciated in value so that 
when he sold it he was able with the proceeds, to buy 160 acres of land, 
upon which he now lives. It was nearly all in woods at the time, and 
the task of clearing it and preparing it for tillage busily occupied him 
for a considerable period. He has prospered in life, and the ninety- 


one acres he still holds is well kept and provided with buildings. In 
1S49, he was married to Harriet Ashley, daughter of John and Diana 
(Potter) Ashley, and born in 1833. To them seven children were born, 
of whom two are living: Charles E. and Henrietta. Mr. x'Vntrup has 
been a prominent citizen, was supervisor of the roads in an early day, 
and is an important member of the repubHcan party. He has of late 
years been raising fruit for the market, with success, and making a 
specialt_v of breeding Shropshire sheep. He and wife are faithful mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian church, of which he has been elder for fourteen 

Louis Juergens, a respected farmer of St. Joseph township, was born 
at Fort Wayne, July 26, 184S. His parents, Henry and Wilhelmina 
(Bode) Juergens, were natives of Germany, who came to America in 
1848, and made their home for two years in Fort Wayne. At the end 
of that period, they removed to a farm of forty acres, partly cleared, and 
ten j-ears later moved to the farm which was their subsequent residence. 
Louis was reared on the farm and as his parents were then poor, had 
little school advantages. In 1874, he was married to Louisa Busche, 
who was born in 1852, and to this union were born eight children, all 
now living: Wilhelmina, Ernst, Henry, August, Louis, Arthur and 
Adolph. Mr. Juergens has served one year as constable, then resigning 
the office, and has held the office of road supervisor one year. During 
the rebellion, he patriotically tendered his services to the government, 
but was rejected by the recruiting officers on account of his youth and 
size. He and his father and brother began in this count}' poor, but 
their energy and industry have made them prosperous, and none are 
more highly esteemed. He has a valuable farm of 125 acres, well 
improved, with a good residence and large^and commodious barn. 

John P. Lahmeyer, a native of Allen county, and a prominent 
citizen of St. Joseph township, was born in Adams township, December 
22, 1848. His parents, Frederick and Dora Lahmeyer, were early 
setders there. He was raised to manhood in Adams township, receiv- 
ing a good common school education. He served an apprenticeship as 
a carpenter, and thus became able to construct his own buildings. In 
1875 he was married to Martha Trier, who was born September, 1853, 
and this union was blessed with three children, John, Katie and Mary. 
Previous to his marriage, his father, with whom he had remained and 
worked on the farm until he was twenty-six j'ears old, rewarded his 
assistance by giving him the farm on which he now lives, 100 acres of 
fine land, well kept and provided with substantial buildings, worthy of 
the progressive region in which he lives. Mr. and Mrs. Lahmeyer are 
members of the Lutheran church, of which he has served as a trustee 
about five j'ears. 

William Waltke, one of the industrious natives of Prussia who have 
prospered in this county in spite of discouraging circumstances, was 
born July 2, 1826. At the age of one year he was left an orphan by 
the death of his father, and grew up almost without a home. In 


Prussia he received some education in German, and after coming to this 
countr}' he acquired some knowledge of the Enghsh language. In 
1849 he immigrated and landed at New York on the 7th of August. 
As he put his foot on the soil of the new land where he intended some 
way to buy him a little farm and be independent, he had but $5 in his 
pocket and this was not enough to pay his passage to Fort Wayne, his 
destination. He worked for about six weeks to obtain enough to pay 
his fare, and then came to Fort Wayne, where he obtained employment 
as a tanner. This he was engaged in for seven years, and he then 
found employment at marble cutting, which busied him sixteen j'ears. 
Out of his wages he saved enough besides supporting his famil}^ to buy 
fifty-one acres in St. Joseph township where he now lives, and has a 
handsome home. In 185 1 he was married to Hannah Gerke, who was 
born in 1832, and twelve children were born to them, of whom seven 
are living: George, Christian, Dora, William, John, Lizzie, and Sophia. 
He and wife are members of the Lutheran church. 

In 1849 Friedrich Vollmer, now a prominent farmer of St. Joseph 
township, arrived in Fort Waj'ne from Germany, in search of a new 
home in the strange land. He had with him on his arrival but 50 cents, 
which he in deference to the patriotism of his adopted country, spent in 
celebrating the fourth of July. Mr. Vollmer was born in Germany, 
January 15, 1824, son of Henry and Sophia Vollmer. He received a 
good education in his native language, and after coming to America 
speedily acquired a general knowledge of English. He remained in 
Fort Wa3-ne but a short time and then went to Crawfordsville, Ind., 
where he found work in railroad construction about three months at 
75 cents per da}-. All his savings were lost through sickness, and then 
he went to Indianapolis, where he worked on a railroad three or four 
3'ears, and managed to save $ioS, with which he made a payment upon 
the land he now owns in St. Joseph township. In 1853, he was mar- 
ried to Sophia Zuba, who died in the same year, and he then married 
Sophia Meyer, who was born December 31, 1829. Their union was 
blessed with nine children, six of whom survive: Frederick, William, 
Louis, Sophia, Mina and Lisetta. The next year after his marriage he 
went upon his farm and began the work of clearing. His years of toil 
are now rewarded by the possession of a good farm of eight}^ acres, and 
two houses and lots in Fort Wayne. 

Henry C. W. Meyer, a prosperous farmer of Allen county, was born 
in Hanover, German}% August 12, 1828, son of Henry and EHzabeth 
Meyer. The father dying when Henry was ten years of age, the latter 
was compelled by these adverse circumstances at the age of fourteen to 
seek his own fortune. By hard work and perseverance he accumulated 
the litde sum of $25, and to this there was added $40 from the estate 
of his brother. With this capital he came to America, starting April 
15, 1849. On reaching Fort Wa3'ne he was in debt $2.25 for his pas- 
sage, an amount he borrowed to secure his clothes from the transporta- 
tion agents. He found emplo^^ment as a boatman on the canal until 



1854, meanwhile having bought seventy-six acres, which he paid for 
out of his wages. In 1S54 he was married to Engel Gerke, and he and 
wife went upon their little farm, then mainly woods, which they have 
increased by wise foresight and patient industrv to landed possessions of 
246 acres, adorned with handsome and substantial buildings. Mrs. 
Meyer was born in December, 1831. She and her husband are mem- 
bers of the German Lutheran church. To their union three children 
have been born: Frederick G., Louis W. and Mary E. 

James M. Fletter, a venerable and highly esteemed citizen of St. 
Joseph township, was born in Franklin county, Penn., January 10, 1813. 
His grandfather, a native of Germany, came to this country with a Hes- 
sian regiment during the revolutionary war. His company was taken 
prisoners by the continental army, and after this ancestor of the Fletter 
family had learned the ways of the country, and understood the struggle 
for independence, he became a citizen of America and determined to 
cast his lot with the colonies. His son Jacob was born in Penns3-Ivania, 
and became a soldier of the United States in the war of 181 2, serving 
as a captain during the expedition into Canada. He was married to 
Lydia Crunkieson, and early in the twenties, with his family removed to 
Ohio and became a pioneer, clearing land and there raising his famil3^ 
He was a potter b}^ trade, at which he was also occupied. His emigra- 
tion to Ohio was caused b}' losing all his property in Pennsylvania on 
account of becoming surety for others, a favor which his kindly nature 
could not refuse. Previously he served as sheriff of Franklin county, 
and was a prominent and influential citizen. He lived in Ohio until the 
death of his wife. Their son, James M. Fletter, came to Fort Wayne 
on a prospecting tour in 183 1, and worked there a short time as a tailor, 
but the country being then very new, he returned to Ohio and there 
worked at his trade. May 26, 1836, he was married to Jane, daughter of 
Zephaniah Bell, a devoted member of the Methodist church and a good 
and true wife. She died March 6, 1846, and one of her three children 
survives, Caroline, widow of William Andrews, living in California. 
September 10, 1846, Mr. Fletter was married to Ann, daughter of 
Abraham Grose. She was born August 4, 1822, and died June 26, i860. 
Six children were born to this marriage, of whom four survive, Sarah, 
John, Ehza and William. In 1S49 ^''- Fletter removed with his family 
to St. Joseph township, upon the eighty acres which is now his home 
farm, and began life anew in a little log cabin. This was his first intro- 
duction to farming, but he was successful, and subsequently erected a 
good dwelling, which he had the misfortune to lose by fire in 18S3. 
November iS, i860, he was married to Charity, daughter of Moses 
Embre, and widow of Roscoe Bennett. Mr. Fletter, about 1864, sold 
his propert}^ and rented his farm and moved to Fort Wa3-ne and remained 
two years, and in 1883 he embarked in general merchandise in Milan 
township, and then in Perry township, but less than three years later he 
returned to his farm, which has been his residence with these excep- 
tions. Mrs. Fletter was born Januar}- 7, 1814, and is a member of the 


United Brethren church, to which Mr. Fletter also belongs, although he 
was formerl}- a Methodist. 

In 1850, among the settlers in Milan township, from beyond the sea, 
were the family of David and Mary A. (Devaux) Evard, natives of 
Switzerland. James Evard, one of the children of these worthy par- 
ents, was born in Switzerland, September 6, 1S38. He received a good 
education, both in the old country and in Allen county. He was a 
blacksmith by trade, and by industry and econom)^ earned enough at the 
anvil to purchase his fertile farm of eighty acres in St. Joseph township, 
which is his present abode. In 1861 he was one of the earliest to enhst 
for the preservation of the union, and enlisted in Company A, Thirtieth 
Indiana regiment, and served with his compan}- until the battle of Shiloh, 
where he was wounded in the left foot so as to totally disable him for 
active service. He is now the recipient of a pension from the govern- 
ment in recognition of his sacrifices for his adopted country. In 1864 
Mr. Evard was married to Coriha Bowers, who was born in 1840, and 
thev have had five children, of whom four are living: Nellie, Jennie, 
HoVtense and Lillie. The one who died was at the time of decease a 
teacher in the pubhc schools. Her death was caused by fire, which 
caught in her clothing. Mr. Evard served one term as constable, and is 
a member of the Grand Army post at New Haven. He and wife are 
members of the Grace Reformed church at Fort Wayne. 

The Goeglein famiU- of St. Joseph township, prominent in the his- 
tory of Allen county, are descendants of Daniel and Magdalena (Reu- 
ter) Goeglein, of German birth, who emigrated from Bavaria in 1S3S, 
and came to Meigs countv, Ohio, where they remained until 1865, when 
they removed to St. Joseph township and resided there until their death. 
Daniel Goeglein was a worthy, pious and honorable man. While in the 
old countr}- he was a soldier for a time in the Napoleonic war, and was 
wounded, and before he was able to return to the service. Napoleon had 
met his Waterloo. He came to this country a poor man, but by indus- 
try accumulated enough to make easy his declining years. He and wife 
are both members of the Lutheran church, and were the organizers of 
the church at Pomeroy, Ohio. He died at the age of seventj'-si.x years. 

Jacob Goeglein, son of the above, was born in Germany, January 
25, 1827. Coming with his parents to America, he helped in their la- 
bors in clearing their eighty-acre farm in Ohio. He received a good 
common school education, and is one of the intelligent and progressive 
people of the countv. Widely known throughout the county as an en- 
terprising and valuable citizen, he was chosen to serve two terms in the 
responsible position of county commissioner. Though beginning life 
with no advantages he has prospered through the exercise of his own 
talents, and now has a good farm of 220 acres, with commodious build- 
ings. Politically he is, with the other members of the family, a firm 
supporter of the democratic party. Mr. Goeglein was married in Ohio, 
to Otilia Mess, who was born in November, 1827, and they have had 
thirteen children, of whom eleven are hving: John, Jacob, Mary, 


Heniy, Abraham, Sophia, Ehzabeth, WilHam, Christian, Valentine 
and Daniel. Mrs. Goeglein and her husband are members of the 
Lutheran church. 

George Goeglein, another son of Daniel and Magdalena, was born 
in Meigs county, Ohio, June 21, 1S40. He was reared in his native state 
to the age of twenty-five, and then came to St. Joseph township, where 
his abode has since been. In 1867 he began a general merchandise 
business which he has continued to the present with considerable suc- 
cess in connection with farming. In 1872, he purchased the farm upon 
which he now resides, which includes sixt3'-seven acres and is hand- 
somely improved. He has been chosen by the people of his township 
to serve as trustee four years, a well appreciated mark of confidence 
and esteem. During President Arthur's administration he was appointed 
postmaster at the office which was created and named Goeglein, and 
since that time has served in this position to the entire satisfaction of the 
public. Mr. Goeglein was married in 1861 to Catherine Sauvage, and 
this union has been blessed with twelve children, of whom there are 
nine living: John H., George A., Valentine J., Katie M., Sophia, Will- 
iam, Gottlieb, Frederick and Theodore. Mrs. Goeglein was born in 
1839. She and her husband are members of the German Lutheran 

John Goeglein, son of the above mentioned Jacob Goeglein, was born 
in Meigs county, Ohio, June i, 1848. Coming to Indiana with his 
parents, his residence in St. Joseph township began at the age of fifteen 
years. He was the eldest child, and much of the labor of the early 
days in this county fell upon him, so that he was deprived of 
extended educational advantages. At the age of twenty-one years 
he started out for himself as the manager of a threshing machine, a 
business he followed for about six years, in connection with farming. 
He now occupies his pleasant farm of eighty acres and has a comfort- 
able home. May 4, 187 1, he was married to Anna Bruick, who was 
born in 1850, and they have had eight children, of whom seven are 
living: Christian, Martin, Louis, Herman, Edward, Elizabeth and Anna. 
Immediately after his marriage he rented the farm of J. H. Bass in St. 
Joseph township, which he occupied five years, then going upon the 
farm he now lives upon. He and wife are members of the Lutheran 

Charles Kramer, an enterprising and highly respected citizen of 
St. Joseph township, was born in Lucas county, Ohio, May 28, 1846. 
While a small child, he was brought by his parents, Frederick and 
Minnie Kramer, to Washington township, where he experienced much 
of the hard work and privations incident to the early da3-s when all who 
were old enough to assist in any way found it necessary to take part in 
the arduous duties of clearing and brush burning. His early schooling 
was necessarily limited, but he is nevertheless an intelligent and wide- 
awake citizen. At the age of twenty-one he started out for himself, 
and worked four years as a farm hand. At about twenty-five years of 


age he found employment in railroading, and was so employed for ten 
years, doing well in this business, and reaching the position of engineer. 
During seven years as engineer he did not have an accident, a record 
of which he is well proud. His savings while railroading enabled to 
make payment on a farm of 130 acres, which he sold seven j^ears later 
and purchased a farm of 247 acres, which he now occupies. Upon 
this he has a fine house and barn, and all in all has one of the best 
farms in the township. Mr. Kramer was married June 6, 1872, to 
Sophia Rose, who was. born December 22, 1S45, and the}' have had 
nine children, of whom seven are living: Charles, Emma, Eliza, Adolph, 
Henry, Amanda and Arthur. He and his wife are members of the 
German Lutheran church. 

Prominent among the German pioneers of the count}' is Henry 
Wiegmann, who was born in Germany, October 31, 1834. Left an 
orphan at the age of two years, his progress in the world was attended 
with much privation and hardship. Receiving a fair German education 
in the old country, he left there in 1S51, and came to America. He 
remained one year in New York state, and then came to Fort Wayne. 
Here he was first employed by Judge Hanna, at $6, and worked for a 
year and a half at that wages. He then began to work upon the rail- 
road, and was employed for two years carrying water and whisky to 
the men, both beverages being then considered indispensable. After 
that he hired out to Hon. F. P. Randall to make rails and clear land, 
upon the farm which he now occupies. Being economical and frugal 
he saved enough from his small earnings to start a small store in Fort 
Wayne, being the third German to open a grocery in the citj-. Two 
years later he went to Missouri and worked one \'ear, and then after 
another short stay in Allen county, went to the gofd fields of California, 
and remained four years and four months. Retui;ning with some of the 
CaHfornia gold, he re-established himself in the grocery business at 
Port Wayne, and by fair deahng built up a good trade which remained 
■^vith him while he was in business. He was a successful and prosper- 
ous business man. In 1877 he retired from business and removed to 
his farm of no acres one mile northeast of the city on the Maumee 
avenue turnpike. This is a beautiful and well improved place, and 
besides it he owns a business building and dwelling in the city. Mr. 
Wiegmann was married in 1S63, to Sophia Waltermarth, and their 
-union was blessed with nine children: Henrj', Lizza, Sophia, Friedrich, 
Karl, Wilhelm, Caroline, Friedrich and Ludwig. He and wife are 
members of the German Lutheran church. 

An industrious farmer of St. Joseph township, and prominent among the 
French settlers, is August Sarazin, who was born in France May 2, 1S38, 
the son of Silas and Sophia Sarazin. Until fourteen years of age he re- 
mained in his native land, and being poor had there no chance to obtain 
an education. Since coming to America he has by his own efforts 
learned somewhat of English, and is an intelHgent and capable citizen. 
His life has been devoted to industry, and he has prospered as a farmer. 


and though starting in this country without any advantages, now has a 
good farm of eightj'-three acres, advantageously situated, fertile and 
well-cultivated, and he has his home in a comfortable two-story brick 
dwelling house. Mr. Sarazin was married in 1866 to Josephine Bobay, 
who was born in 1842, and this union ha^ been blessed with eleven chil- 
dren, of whom ten are living: Julius, John, Pauline, August, Mary, 
Frederick, Louisa, Charles, Sophia and S3-lvester. Mr. Sarazin and wife 
are members of the Catholic church. 

Louis Lacroix, one of the leading French settlers of St. Joseph town- 
ship, was born in France, August 17, 1832, son of Xavier and Frances 
Lacroix. When about thirteen years of age he came to the United 
States and first settled in New York state, where he began work as a 
laborer at $3 per month, and remained with the same employer five 
years, his wages being gradually raised to $13 per month. After a res- 
idence of seven years in New York, at the age of twenty years he 
returned to France for the family of his father, the latter having come 
to this country with him. His mother was then dead, but he brought 
over his four sisters, which cost him $400 of his hard-earned money. 
They remained in New York one summer and then came to Perry town- 
ship, Allen county, where he first leased land, and then bought forty 
acres of woodland which he cleared. He then leased another forty and 
cleared that, and then bought eighty acres in St. Joseph township. After 
clearing this he bought sixtj' acres, of which he cleared thirteen, and 
then cleared forty acres for Mr. Griffith. In 1852 he began working on 
the Wabash railroad, and the following year worked for T. P. Anderson 
in getting out ties, and in general work. He then was employed on a 
canal boat two years to obtain monej' to pa}^ for the land he and his 
father had bought. During the early j^ears of his toilsome career he 
gained his education ; in France he was in school five winters, in this 
country he obtained two months schooling by paying six cents per week, 
and after he was twenty he worked for his board while attending school 
two months. He now has a valuable farm of 140 acres, with good 
buildings, and is a leading citizen. In 1861 he was married to Mary 
Martin, who was born December, 1843, and of their eleven children 
eight are living: Francis, Clara, Julia, Joseph, Louis, Sophia, Charles 
and Henry. He and wife are members of the Catholic church. Mrs. 
Lacroix is a daughter of Charles J. and Frances J. Martin, natives of 
France, who came to this country in 1842, and two years later settled in 
Perry township. Her father was accidentallj' drowned in the St. Joseph 
river at the bridge just north of Fort Wayne, February 19, 1861. He 
was driving home from the city, the other occupants of his wagon being 
his wife, another lady and a priest. As they drove from the approach 
the wheels struck the edge of the bridge, which was higher than the 
approach, and the sudden shock broke one of the tugs. The horses 
were then unable to hold the wagon on the steep and narrow approach 
and it ran off into the river. x\ll escaped except Mr. Martin, whose 
bod}' was not found until five weeks afterward. 


INIichael Landin, a venerable and respected citizen of St. Joseph 
township, was born in Germany, June 8, 1808, son of Michael and 
Magdalena Landin. He was a weaver b}^ trade, but most of his life in 
this country has been spent in farming. In 1836 lie emigrated to 
America and settled at Buffalo, N. Y., where he remained seventeen 
years. He then moved to Toledo, Ohio, but six months later he came 
to this countj'. After living on rented land ten years he bought 160 
acres of new land, which he cleared. He was married in 1S32 to Mary 
M. Fisher, who was born August 7, 1810, and eight children were born 
to them, of whom six are living: Barbara, Catherine, Jacob, Michael, 
John and Mar3f M. He and his wife are prominent members of the 
Catholic church. He served as trustee of his church several years in 
Buffalo, and has helped to build four churches. Mr. Landin began in 
this countr}' with nothing, but he succeeded well and was able to divide 
160 acres of valuable farming land between his sons, John and Michael, 
who are to pay the shares of the other heirs. He is now eighty-one 
3'ears of age, and his venerable wife, who has shared his toil, is aged 

Michael Landin, jr., son of the above, was born in New York, 
January 23, 1845. He assisted his father in the work of clearing and 
farming, and shared the toils of the early days. In 1S77 he was mar- 
ried to Mar}' Ley, who was born in 1855, and to their union has been 
born five children, of whom four are living: Anna M., William H., 
Katie, Mary and Edward. He and wife are members of the CathoHc 
church. The}'^ are now comfortably situated on a pleasant farm of 
eighty acres, handsomely improved with good house and barn, and are 
highly esteem.ed b}- all. 

John Landin, another son of Michael and Mary M., was born in New 
York state, February 17, 1847. He also worked with his parents and 
is now rewarded b}- possession of a handsome eightj'-acre farm. He 
was married in October, 1876, to Maggie Blinckner, who was born in 
Ohio, in 1856, and died July 15, 1887. She was a member of the Catho- 
lic church. April 10, 1887, he was married to Fannie Raw, who was 
born April 24, 1864. Mr. Landin and wife are members of the Catho- 
lic church and are popular and respected citizens. 

Martin Blume, prominent among the young farmers of St. Joseph 
township, is a son of Martin and Margaret Blume, of this township. 
The latter Martin Blume, was born in Germany, August 10, 1825, son 
of Martin and Elizabeth Blume, who emigrated with their family to 
America about 1835, ^nd settled in Pennsylvania. Four years later 
the}- moved to Perry county, Ohio, and ten years later to Hocking 
county, where they lived until death. The famil}' have done a great 
work in the clearing of land, Martin Blume, sr., having brought under 
cultivation a farm of 300 acres, which he purchased in i860. Martin 
Blume, jr., the subject of this mention, was born in Hocking county, 
Ohio, June 2, 1S53, and came to Indiana when a small boy and had a 
share in the pioneer work in which his father engaged. In 1876 he 


was married to Cecilia Evard, who was born in 1853, and to this union 
have been born seven children, of whom six are living: Nora, Catherine 
C, Albert, Charles, Bessie and Eugene. Two }-ears later he bought 
157 acres of land of his father for $3,500, $2,000 of which his father 
gave him, and the remainder he paid. Of this farm he has cleared a 
considerable portion, and has built upon it a good two-story brick dwell- 
ing. He and wife are members of the United Brethren church. 

Henr}- Bohde, an industrious and successful farmer of St. Joseph 
township, was born in Germany, January 17, 1818, the son of Frederick 
and Dora Bohde. He was reared in Hanover, and there received his 
education and learned the trade of a baker, which was his occupation 
about ten years. He was married in 1S48 to Sophia Bohnon, who was 
born about 1824, and in 1854 he and family came to America. They 
settled in St. Joseph township, where he rented land for six years. He 
then bought forty acres of wild land, and was about to clear it when his 
wife died, in i860, leaving three children: Henry, jr., Doris and Irma. 
She was a devoted member of the Lutheran church, and estimable wife, 
and was sincerely mourned. Mr. Bohde afterward boarded with his 
brother and began clearing his farm, then untouched by the hand of 
man, and in October, 1S63, he was married to Doris Karnal, and moved 
into his little log cabin on his farm. Then began a life of sturdy 
endeavor, which has been rewarded by a handsome and productive 
farm, increased now to eighty acres, and provided with a comfortable 
house and room}- barn. Though now seventy 3^ears old, Mr. Bohde is 
still active and in the enjoyment of life. He and his good wife, who 
was born May 2, 1827, are members of the Lutheran church, and are 
respected by all. Henry Bohde, jr., who has alwaj-s made his home with 
his father, was born in Germany, January 27, 1852. Coming to Amer- 
ica at two years of age, he was early thrown into the activities of 
pioneer life, and his early years were busil}- occupied with the duties of 
the farm. He was married in 1881 to Mary, daughter of John and 
Sophia Meyer, elsewhere mentioned. She was born March 9, i860. 
To this union were born four children, three of whom survive: Hannah, 
Emma and Clara. Mr. Bohde and wife are members of the Lutheran 
church. He owns forty acres adjoining the old homestead. 

Aime Chausse, who has been an industrious and valuable citizen of 
the county since 1854, "^^''^^ ^orn in Switzerland, December 4, 1828, son 
of Abraham and Emily (Marchand) Chausse. In his native country he 
received a good education, and since coming to America has taken time 
to teach himself the English language in his few leisure moments. He 
emigrated to America in March, 1S49, and first settled in Wayne county, 
Ohio. Being familiar with both the trades of carpenter and cooper, he 
followed one or the other, when not farming, and remained in Ohio until 
1854, when he came to Milan township, and settled on ninety-eight 
acres of wild land, which he purchased of F. P. Randall. In the same 
year he was married to Elise Bueche, who was born in August, 1838. 
Thev made their home on this uncultivated tract, where Mr. Chausse 


cut down the first tree, and worked hard to paj^ for the land, which he 
had bought on time. They succeeded well b}- patient industry, and in a 
few years had a productive farm adorned with good buildings. In 1869 
he sold his farm and bought fort3--three acres in St. Joseph township, all 
of which but five acres, it was necessary- for him to clear. He now 
owns a valuable place of sixty-three acres, well-improved, with a pleas- 
ant residence and good barn. He is highly esteemed by his neighbors, 
and in 1S78 he elected justice of the peace, and since then has been 
continuously elected without opposition. During the years of the Grange 
organization he was a prominent member and treasurer. He and wife 
and their famih-, consisting of four children, John, Edward, Helena and 
Bertha, are highly esteemed. 

Jacob Vonderau, one of the prosperous farmers of St. Joseph town- 
ship, was born December 8, 1S19, the son of Jacob and Barbara Von- 
derau. In German}', his native land, he received a good education, and 
after marriage in this country, through the kindness of his wife, he has 
become familiar with the English. He emigrated to America in 1842, 
arriving at New York, Jul}' 4th. He first settled in Penns3-Ivania, and 
a year later, moved further west to Union county, Ohio, which was his 
home for thirteen years. At the close of that period he came to this 
county and settled in Milan township, where he remained twenty years. 
Afterward he removed to the farm upon which he now lives. He 
was a tailor by trade in the old country, but he has been quite success- 
ful as a farmer. Beginning by renting land for twenty-five years, he 
then bought eighty acres of unimproved land, to whicli he subsequently 
added another eighty, and as he improved in circumstances he bought 
120 more, and 168 in Maumee township. He highly deserves, as he 
generally receives, the appreciative esteem of the people who know him 
and his industrious career. In 1S45 Mr. Vonderau was married to Mar- 
garet Kern, and to this union were born eleven children, all of whom are 
living. Parents and family are members of the Lutheran church. 

Herman G. Vonderau, son of the above, was born in Union county, 
Ohio, February 11, 1855. He came with his parents to Allen county at 
the age of two years, so that nearly all his life has been spent in this 
county, where he is highly esteemed, and ranked among the deserving 
and worthy citizens. In this count}' he received a good common school 
education. He was married November 24, 1878, to Catherine Griebel, 
who was born March 13, 1856, and to this union have been born three 
children: George, Mary and John. He and wife are members of the 
Lutheran church. Beginning his career as a farmer, without any assis- 
tance from his father, he has succeeded well, and now has a good farm 
of eighty acres in St. Joseph township. 

Louis Gillieron, prominent among the St. Joseph township farmers 
of Swiss origin, was born in the Alpine republic October 17, 1819. He 
was raised to manhood in his native land, and there acquired a good 
education in the French language. In 1859 he was married to Mrs. 
Mary A. Shaftef, who was also born in Switzerland, in March, 1822 


To this union has been born one child, Louis. Mr. Gillieron served in 
the arm}' of Switzerland thirteen j-ears before coming to America, and 
afterward served four months in the Union army during the war of the 
rebellion. Taken sick at the. end of that period he was honorably dis- 
charged. Though a poor man when he came to this country, he has 
prospered, through his industrious and economical habits, and now has a 
good farm of 120 acres, and a comfortable home. He and wife are 
members of the Lutheran church. His son, Louis, is married to Julia 
Guke, and they have two children, Louis and Joseph. Both are members 
of the Lutheran church. 

John T. Black, of St. Joseph township, is one of the leading farmers 
of the county. Though coming to Allen count}' at a later day than 
many others, he had already experienced at his former home all the hard 
work and privations of pioneer hfe, and his prominent position among 
the prosperous people of the county is one honestly and laboriously 
earned. Blessed with such a vigorous constitution that he has never 
been confined to bed a daj' by sickness, his life has been busily occupied. 
His grandfather came from German}', and his grandmother was of an 
EngHsh family that came to Delaware about 160 years ago. He was 
born February 22, 1S24, in Mainland. On December 20, ten j^ears 
later, his parents, John and Matilda (Lowe) Black, reached Erie county, 
Ohio, having traveled to the west with their family and goods in two 
one-horse emigrant wagons, occupying twenty-six days in the trip. The 
father brought with him $1,000 in silver, and bought 150 acres of new 
land bordering on Lake Erie. Here they built a cabin of rough hickory 
logs for their home, and father and son began the work of clearing. 
Money being scarce they had to earn what the}' got by boating wood to 
Huron. By working continuously almost day and night, the family soon 
became prosperous, and the father's lands increased in extent and value 
until they were worth $100,000. This land was divided among the 
children. The mother, a true and devoted member of the Methodist 
church, died in May, 1886, at the age of eighty-five years. The father, 
who in addition to his severe farm work, served as a soldier in the war 
of 181 2, for which he now receives a pension, still retains much of his 
eyesight and is able to walk without a cane at the age of ninety-eight 
years. John T. Black obtained his education in subscription schools in 
Maryland, and in district schools in Ohio. May 23, 1S50, he was mar- 
ried to Rachel M., daughter of Wilson and Keturah (Elson) Driver, of 
Maryland, and soon afterward settled upon the Ohio homestead which 
fell to him upon the division of his father's lands. Here he remained 
until 1864, when he removed to St. Joseph township and bought 160 
acres, of which he has made a beautiful farm. He also owns eighty 
acres in Milan township, and a house and lot in Fort Wayne. By his 
first marriage he had eight children, of whom five are living, Senora, 
Calvin, William, Marion, May. The mother died in July, 1876. Mr. 
Black served as trustee in his township in Ohio six years. He has been 
a member of the Masonic order since i860. 


Among the citizens of St. Joseph township, of German birth, who 
are comfortably situated and well-to-do, should be mentioned Valentine 
Lapp. He was born in Germany, December 5, 1827, son of Henr}' and 
Eliza Lapp. Growing to manhood in his native land he was there well 
educated, but since coming to America has not given much attention to 
the study of English. He came to America in 1858, without money, 
but coming to Allen count)-, he worked out a short time and then 
bought the farm where he now lives, and he has been able to pay for 
it, and add many more acres. First buying forty acres, he built there 
his log cabin, which has now given way to a commodious two-story 
dwelling. He soon bought another forty and cleared that also, and now 
has in all 100 acres in St. Joseph township and eighty in Milan. His 
stui-dy and estimable traits of character have won for the respect of all his 
neighbors. October 9, 1858, he was married to Elizabeth Amren, who 
was born December 26, 1832, and they have five children: Ehzabeth, 
Henr}-, Martin, John and Valentine. Parents and children are members 
of the Lutheran church, of which Mr. Lapp has been one of the trustees 
for about three years. 

Conrad Dannenfelser, a worthy and prosperous citizen of St. Joseph 
township, now deceased, was born in German^r, October 9, 1819, son of 
Henry D. Dannenfelser. He emigrated to America in 1849, and first 
made his home at Cleveland, Ohio, where he remained nine years. He 
then came to Allen county, and in 1867, moved upon the farm which was 
his home until his death. Mr. Dannenfelser came to this country a 
poor man, but was very successful in his enterprises, industrious and 
economical, and left an estate of 243 acres of well cultivated land. He 
died June 11, 1889, sincerely mourned by a great number of friends and 
acquaintances. He was one of the leading citizens of the township. 
On December 2, 1842, he was married to Dorothea Rhienfahrt, by 
whom he had five children, one of whom, Mary, survives, and after the 
death of this wife, he was married in 1855, to Catherine Mack, who 
was born December 5, 1826. She survives him with four of their five 
children, Louisa, Ernst, Alfred and George. Mrs. Dannenfelser, as 
was her husband, is a member of the Lutheran church. 

In the southwest corner of St. Joseph township is the homestead of 
Joseph W. Challenger, now deceased, who was one of the worthiest 
citizens of the township. Joseph W. Challenger was born in Twerton, 
near Bath, England, January 17, 1823, and came to America with his 
parents when a mere child, and settled in Massachusetts. Leaving 
home at the age of ten j'ears on account of ill-treatment at the hands of 
his father he was thrown upon the world, practically an orphan, and 
deprived of all educational advantages. B)^ his own efforts, however, 
he became well educated in practical matters. Becoming a machinist 
he was presently a master of his trade and for a considerable time served 
as a locomotive engineer. He invested his savings in thirty acres of 
land one and a half miles from the court-house on the Maumee avenue 
road, and cleared this and built upon it a good house and barn, making 


it a productive and pleasant place. He was married January S, 1856, 
to Margaret A. Willower, and to this union two cliildren were born : 
Frank C. and Edward D. Appreciating the value of the advantages of 
which he was deprived, he gave his sons a good education, both attend- 
ing the Fort Wayne commercial college. This worthy gentleman passed 
awa}^ April 16, 1888. The eldest son, Frank C. Challenger, was born 
December 3, 1856, at Lima, Ohio. He was raised in Fort Wayne, 
where he received a good education. June 15, 1880, he was married to 
Adelia Tilbury, daughter of Jarius and Eliza Tilbury. She was born 
in Fort Wayne, January 22, 1859. She and her husband are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal church. Their home is at the old farm, and 
they own besides that place three houses and lots and one vacant lot in 
the city. Edw'ard D. Challenger, the second son of Joseph W., was 
born at Zanesville, Ohio, October 14, i860. Coming to Indiana when 
a mere child, he grew up at Fort Waj^ne and there received a good 
education, including two years at the commercial college. February 18, 
1882, he accepted a position as bookkeeper in the boiler shops of the 
Pennsylvania railroad compan}^, which he has retained until the present, 
giving satisfaction to the companj-, and faithfull}- remaining at his post 
during all this period, except four days during the last illness of his 
father. He was married July 10, 1S83, to Edith Hutson, daughter of 
James and Sarah Hutson, and they have one child, Maude, born June 6, 
1885. He is an energetic young man, and highh' esteemed. 

William Wetzel, who was one of the prosperous farmers of St. 
Joseph township during his lifetime, was born in Germany, in 181 7, and 
died in April, 1888. He remained in his native land until 184S, and in 
1846 was married there to Mary Pilaumer, who was born in German)- 
in 1825. When they emigrated to America, they were without means, 
except to pay their passage, and after they had spent one night in the 
strange land, they were absolutely without money, and with two chil- 
dren to support. He borrowed $30 from a friend, and that carried him 
to Starke county, Ohio, where he began work as a day laborer in a 
brick yard. The next year he came to DeKalb county, and bought 
thirt}' acres of new land. This he cleared, meanwhile working for his 
living at day's labor. Subsequently he sold this land and bought another 
forty in DeKalb, which he sold and purchased eighty acres, which he 
cleared and improved. After remaining there some time, he came to 
Allen county and purchased 103 acres in St. Joseph township. To his 
marriage were born four children: William, Elizabeth, John and Henr)-. 
Mr. Wetzel was a faithful member of the German Reformed church, and 
was highl}^ thought of by all who knew him. 

Charles Lomas, now deceased, an industrious and popular citizen 
during his lifetime, was born June 29, 1835, at Manchester, England. 
He was the son of James and Ann (Ashton) Lomas. He grew to man- 
hood in his native land, and there received a good education, and learned 
the trade of a moulder, which was his occupation for many years. In 
1853, he was married in England, to Elizabeth, daughter of Edward and 


Mary (Hopwood) Simpson. She was born May 17,1835. In the same 
year they emigrated, and settled first at Brooklyn, N. Y., where they 
remained eighteen months, then going to Ohio, where they spent one 
year. Subsequentl3- thej' remained four mon':hs in Kentucky, and then 
lived in Ohio again for two years. They then came to Fort Wayne, 
where the father found employment in the J." H. Bass foundry and 
machine shops, and retained his position for thirteen years. He then 
bought the farm in St. Joseph township, where his widow now resides, 
but his Hfe was not long spared for the enjoyment of this new home. 
Two years after moving there he died November 30, 187S. He was a 
member of the I. O. O. F., and intelligent and enterprising. Since his 
death, his widow has made man}- improvements on the farm and now 
has a comfortable two-story dwelHng and a good barn. To the mar- 
riage of Mr. and Mrs. Lomas were born ten children, of whom eight 
are living: Wilham, Charles, Edward, James, Byron, Martha J., Sarah 
A., and Mary E. 


Near where the canal crossed the Aboit river La Balme and his little 
force from Kaskaskia and Vincennes encamped in the latter part of 
1780, and were surprised and slaughtered by the Indians under Little 
Turtle. It has been stated that the word "Aboit" is a corruption of the 
French "Abattoir," or slaughter-house, given on account of that bloody 
event. But in an early treaty the river is called "a Bouette^'' which is a 
form of "rt Boitte^'' and as a name for the stream signifies "Minnow 
river." This is undoubtedly the true derivation and meaning of the 
name. Unlike " a I'Anguille," the early name of Eel river, it was not 
translated, but was gradualh' transformed, and is yet often spelled Aboite. 
In the wilderness here the "Mar3-land settlement" was established in 1833. 
The colon}^, about thirty souls 'in all, was composed of the families of 
Enoch Turner, Richard Andrew, William E. Gouty and Richard Clark, 
all natives of Maryland. These were industrious and enterprising 
pioneers. The first religious services were held at the house of Mr. 
Andrew in 1834, ^y Rev. James Holman, a Methodist minister, and it 
was the regular place of meeting for a number of years. The same 
minister married Martin Kelley to Mar}-, daughter of Mr. Andrew, in 
1834, that being the first ceremony of the kind in the township. At the 
same home the first township election was held in 1836, and Mr. Andrew 
and Samuel Dunlap were elected justices. There were just about 
enough voters to form the board and furnish candidates. Enoch Turner 
donated the ground for a cemetery in 1834, and afterward gave land for 
a log church which was built in 1842, and used for that purpose and 
also for a school-house for many years. In the year of this settlement, 
1S33, Jesse Vermilyea came. He was a prominent man, and w'hen 
Aboit postofiice was established in 1839 he became the first postmaster, 
and served a considerable time. During the latter named j-ear he man- 


ufactured brick and built the first brick house in tlie township. He kept 
a small stock of goods and traded with the Indians, though he did not 
open a store. The next comers were Lot S. Bayless and Benjamin 
Rogers, who came early in 1834. In 1848 Bayless built a saw-mill on 
Aboit river. In 1833, William Hamilton purchased a tract of land, and 
in after years he amassed a considerable fortune. In 1853 he erected a 
saw-mill on Aboit river. George Bullard, a prominent citizen, came in 
November, 1835, and purchased 240 acres on section 13, which he 
cleared almost without assistance. His energy is revealed in the record 
by the fact that he built the first hewn log house in 1S36, and next year 
set out the first orchard. In the same year, through his generosity, the 
first school was taught on his land. Another among the early settlers 
was Raburn Beeson, who came from Ohio. 

Along the Little river, in portions of the townships of Wayne, Aboit 
and Lafa3'elte, a sunken basin extends for twelve miles, with an aver- 
age width of three miles, which had been a miasmatic swamp from the 
earliest settlement until a recent date. Attempts were made to drain 
it, but the enterprise was too gigantic for any other than specially 
organized effort. Finally under the drainage law of 1883, a petition 
was filed to begin proceedings for a thorough drainage S3'stem. The 
drainage commissioners. Surveyor D. M. Allen, W. W. Shoaff and 
Edward Ely reported on this petition that there were 18,000 acres 
covered with water so as to be absolutely worthless, 17,000 only avail- 
able in the dryest seasons, and that other land to the extent of 50,000 
acres would be benefited by the drainage proposed. It was proposed 
to construct forty miles of ditches. The great expense of the work caused 
many to fear that the cost would exceed the benefit and there was a 
vigorous contest. The burden which fell upon some land owners was 
indeed almost crushing. But finalty the work was ordered, and Mr. Ely 
appointed superintendent. The contract was let July 7, 1S86, to the 
Little River Ditching company, consisting of H. C. Paul, C. S. Bash, 
Joseph Derheimer, F. C. Boltz and S. B. Bond. W. H. Goshorn was 
the engineer in chief. In June, 1889, the work was practically completed 
by blasting the ditch through the limestone ledge which was the main 
barrier to drainage. This immense tract, which was formerly in wet 
seasons so flooded with water that the track of the Wabash railway was 
submerged, is now rapidly becoming a beautiful, cultivated prairie, the 
soil of which is wonderfully fertile. 

A son of one of the earl}- settlers just named, William A. Hamilton, 
was born in Aboit township, December 1,1835. His father, William 
Hamilton, first came to Allen county in 1833, from Albanj', N. Y. After 
selecting his land, he returned for his family at Cleveland, Ohio, and 
brought them to the farm where A. M. Darroch now resides. His 
wife's maiden name was Joanna Van Huzen. She died May 21, 1875, 
and his death followed eight days later. They were the parents of four 
children, three of whom are now Hving: William A., Mary and Jane A. 
William A. Hamilton was educated in the common schools, and worked 


on the farm with his father until t\\ent3--two 3-ears of age, when he 
engaged in agriculture on his own account. He was married April 15, 
1S58, to Barbara, daughter of John Scott, one of the earl}' settlers of 
Allen county. They have ten children: Annie, John A., Alice A., 
George S., Francis W., Wilson A., LilUe B., Henry, Hugh and James. 

George BuUard, one of the noted pioneers of the county, was born 
"in St. Lawrence count}-, N. Y., December 23, 1802. His father, John 
Bullard, had been a dealer in cattle on a large scale, and a lumberman 
on the St. Lawrence, and was a man of great business capacit}'. He 
was in Ogdensburg when that place was taken b}' the British in 1814, 
and lost all his property. He died in December, 1825, and his wife, 
whose maiden name was Annie Hall, died November 10, 1841. George 
Bullard, when a boy, was employed for five years by his brothers in 
their store, and afterward he rented a farm of a brother, and lived upon 
it until 1823. Then he engaged in the grocery business at Belleville, 
N. Y., and after three years of that, purchased a salt block in Onondaga 
county, of a capacity of eighty barrels a week. This he attended to 
for two years, and was subsequently engaged in the grocery business at 
Henderson until 1834. In the fall of the latter year he came to Indiana, 
and purchased 1,100 acres of land in Aboit township, paying $1.25 for 
government and $2.50 for canal land. November i, 1835, he arrived 
with his family, and took possession of the rude shanty he had built. 
The nearest neighbor west was two miles distant, roads were miserable, 
without bridges, and the market, Fort Wa3'ne, contained onh- about 700 
inhabitants, with very poor buildings. Mr. Bullard took rank then as 
one of the leaders, and he has ever since been recognized as a promi- 
nent citizen, public-spirited, sociable and generous. He has served the 
people several times as trustee, and for thirt}- years officiated as justice 
of the peace, receiving his tirst commission from Gov. Wright. He 
has resided at his present home for fift\--four years, with the exception 
of eighteen months spent in Fort Wayne, where he purchased property 
at one time. The faithful partner of his life was Rosamond Dawson, to 
whom he was married January- 12, 1827. She was the daughter of 
James Dawson, of Henderson, N. Y., and was born October 9, 1802. 
She lived to the age of eighty-three years, but never used glasses, being 
able to read a paper b\' candle-light and thread a needle to the last. 
She died Januarj- 14, 1886. Of the eleven children of Mr. and Mrs. 
Bullard, four are living. Mr. Bullard is a member of the F. & A. M. 
lodge, and Fort Wayne chapter. Royal Arch Masons. 

Notable among the pioneers of Aboit township are Samuel Cart- 
wright and wife. Samuel Cartwright was born in Rockbridge county, 
Va., May 10, 1815, son of Charles and Elizabeth (Paxton) Cartwright, 
natives of Virginia. The father was a farmer by occupation and died 
in 1832. Mr. Cartwright received a limited education in the common 
schools of Virginia, and at his father's death managed the farm with 
the assistance of his brother until twenty-one years of age. He was 
then engaged as contractor on the Miami canal for about four years, 


and subsequently came to Indiana and was variousl_y employed until 
1S45, when he purchased the land on which he now lives, settling in the 
woods. The farm now consists of 280 acres of land. He was married 
January 16, 1842, to Miss Lavina Pierce, daughter of Asa Pierce of 
Aboit township. They are the parents of three children, two of whom 
are living: Louis A., a resident of Aboit township, and James V., a 
physician at Paine, Ohio. Mrs. Cartwright is a member of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church, and attended the dedication of the first church of 
that denomination in Fort Wayne. She taught the first school in Aboit 

Oehmig Bird, of Aboit township, was born in Fort Wayne, Septem- 
ber II, 1S49. His parents, James S. and Matilda (Kick) Bird, were 
natives of Pennsylvania, who came to Allen county in 1848. The father 
ran on the first railroad train in the United States. After coming to 
Indiana, farming was his principal occupation. He died December 3, 
1855, and was followed by his widow, April 11, 1868, Mr. Bird worked 
on the farm until seventeen years of age, when he began to learn the 
carpenter's and joiner's trade which he followed for about thirteen years. 
Subsequently he resumed farming and stock-raising, his principal occu- 
pation, together with running a threshing machine. He is a worth}^ and 
enterprising man, and at present is superintendent of the Holmes gravel 
road in Aboit township. He was married November 25, 1879, ^o 
Elmira, daughter of S. B. Stouder. She was born June 24, 1859. The}^ 
have had four children, all deceased. Mr. Bird is a member of Sol. D. 
Bayless lodge, No. 359, F. & A. M., of Fort Wayne, and politically he 
is a democrat. 

John Harper, a prominent citizen of Aboit township, was born in 
Franklin count)', Penn., near Chambersburg, November 16, 1817. He 
is the son of WilHam and Rachel (Duley) Harper, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania. The father, whose occupation was farming and shoemaking, 
died February 7, 1848. Mr. Harper was educated in the common 
schools and worked with his father until twentj'-one years of age. Then 
buying a small tract of land he engaged in farming, and seven years 
later, in 1848, moved to Allen county, Ind. He purchased 200 acres 
where he now lives, and settled in the woods to develop his present fine 
farm. He was married April 28, 1S42, to Liza Byall, daughter of 
James Byall, a native of Marjiand, who served in the war of 1S12, and 
died in Ohio in 1855. Mr. and Mrs. Harper have had eight children, five 
of whom are living: Isaiah W., James B., Benjamin F., Eliza and Victoria. 
Isaiah W. is a farmer and resides near the old homestead. James B., 
lately deceased, was a prominent attorney, and Benjamin F. is in the 
same profession at Fort Wayne. Eliza is a clerk in the pension otlice 
at Washington, D. C. Politically Mr. Harper is a republican. He cast 
his first vote for William Henry Harrison in 1S40. 

John Sprankel, of Aboit township, was born in Penns3-lvania, Feb- 
ruary 19, 1825, the son of Peter and Frances (Bridenbaugh) Sprankel, 
natives of Pennsylvania. Mr. Sprankel received his education in the 


common schools of Pennsylvania, and worked on the farm with his 
father until twent3'-two years of age. He was engaged by Hatfield & 
Son, in their rolling-mill, which was run by water and situated on the 
Juniata river. After Mr. Sprankel had worked at the mill for about 
eighteen months, an overflow of the river bursted the furnaces. This 
caused the discharge of all single men there employed. It was thus 
that Mr. Sprankel became persuaded to move west. Failing to find 
work at Pittsburgh or up the Allegheny river at the Great Western 
iron works, he took a job of chopping wood until spring, and then came 
west into DeKalb county, Ind., worked for a short time for a cousin, 
and then returned east to his father. On May i, 1849, the father and 
son traveled west through Ohio, Michigan, Illinois and Indiana, by 
horse and buggy. They traveled in this way over 700 miles, examining 
lands at various places. They finally purchased the tract of land on 
which Mr. Sprankel now lives, buying 400 acres. He then engaged in 
farming and stock-raising, at which he has continued with good success. 
The farm now consists of 240 acres. Mr. Sprankel is deservedly popu- 
lar with the communit}', and he was thrice elected to fill the office of 
township trustee, the term then being one j'ear. He was married in 
September, 1849, at Manchester, Ohio, to Susan, daughter of Jacob 
Sourse. They have three children: Mary F., Josephine and J. C. F. 
Politicall}' Mr. Sprankel is a staunch republican. 

Alfred H. Bates, of Aboit township, was born in Oswego county, 
N. Y., October 23, 1836, the second of six sons born to Jeremiah and 
Lucy (Norton) Bates. The grandfather was Ephriam Bates, a native 
of Massachusetts, who married Melvina Hopkins, of the same state. 
Both lived to an advanced age. Jeremiah, who was a farmer by occupa- 
tion, died in April, 1869. His widow died in July, 1884, at the age of 
eighty-one years. Mr. Bates received his education in New York, in 
Mexico academy, and worked on the farm with his father until eighteen 
3'ears of age. October 23, 1854, he came to South Bend, Ind., where 
he worked as a farm hand for Judge Green for thirteen months. He 
subsequently Hved at Cherry Valley, III, Clinton county, Iowa, and 
Oneida, N. Y. Then he came to Allen county, and purchased the farm 
on which he now lives. In stock-raising as well as agriculture he has 
been quite successful. He pays especial attention to breeding Clydes- 
dale and Norman horses, short-horn cattle, Poland China, Cheshire 
and Chester white swine, all pure bred. Mr. Bates is a member of the 
Allen county agricultural society, and has been quite successful as an 
exhibitor. He was married September 29, 1859, ^o Ann J., the second 
daughter of Enoch Turner, late of Allen county. She died June 15, 
1865, leaving three daughters: Lucy A., Rose E. and Ann J. Octo- 
ber 21, 1865, he was married to Sarah J., the third daughter of Will- 
iam and Jane Stirk, of this township, both natives of Pennsylvania. 
Mrs. Bates' father died July 19, 1884, and her mother, December 8, 
18S7. Mr. and Mrs. Bates are the parents of three children: Frank M., 
Eudora and Arthur M. Mrs. Bates is a member of the First Baptis^ 


church of Fort Wayne. He is a member of Harmony lodge, No. 19, 
I. O. O. F. 

Wilham H. Reemer, of Aboit township, was born in Fairfield county, 
Ohio, October 2, 1849, son of John R. and Hannah (Siple) Reemer. 
The father, a native of New York, was a farmer by occupation, and 
died in 1850. In 1852, the mother came to Allen count}^, and settled on 
the Vermilyea farm, which she left shortly to spend eighteen months in 
Wayne township, but returning, made the Vermilyea farm her home for 
nineteen years. Mr. Reemer was educated in the common schools, and 
worked on the farm with his step-father until eighteen years of age. 
He has made farming and stock-raising his life occupation. He was 
married March 25, 1874, ^'^ Emily, daughter of George Wells, a native 
of Fairfield county, Ohio. She was born in 1854. They are the parents 
of four children: Ada F., Maggie H., Benjamin A., and William. 

John N. Corey, of Aboit township, was born in Seneca county, N. Y., 
January 27, 1816. His father, Benajah Corey, a native of New Jersey, 
was a millwright by trade, but followed farming also. He died March 
4, 1870. Mr. Cprey was educated in the common schools and worked 
on the farm with his father and at the lumber business until nineteen 
years of age, when he came to Ohio, and for a while worked on a canal. 
Then he rented a farm for about eight years. Afterward moving to 
Whitley county, Ind., he purchased a tract of wood land, built a log hut 
and began clearing. Here he remained until 1855, when he purchased 
the farm of 161 acres on which he now resides. Mr. Corey gives some 
attention to stock-raising also, making a specialty of breeding short-horn 
cattle and Poland China hogs. He was married to Margaret Fulk, May 
31, 1836, by whom he had eight children: Martha J., Hester A., Will- 
iam, Lida and Carohne are living; Theodore died March 27, 1864; 
Louisa died September 5, 18S2, and Emma died January 5, 1858. His 
wife having died March 13, 1864, he was married in 1S65 to Mrs. Mary 
F. Campbell, who had one daughter, Mary E. Campbell. Mrs. Corey 
is a member of the Free Methodist church. He is a republican in pol- 
itics and voted for Gen. W. H. Harrison. He is one of the enterprising 
men of Aboit township and is highly esteemed. 

Austin M. Darroch, of Aboit township, was born at Rockville, Park 
county, Ind., October 27, 1844. He is the son of Johq and Carohne 
(Puett) Darroch, both natives of Indiana. The father was a farmer by 
occupation, and is still living at Morocco, Newton county, Ind. The 
mother died in 1852. Mr. Darroch was educated in the common schools; 
he worked at farming until 1862, when he volunteered as a member of 
Company E, Ninety-ninth Indiana infantry. He served two years and 
ten months, and was in the following engagements: Vicksburg, Jack- 
son, Miss., Mission Ridge, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain and Atlanta. 
At Peach Tree Creek he had one of his fingers shot off. Being honor- 
ably discharged June 28, 1865, he returned to Newton county j» and 
again was employed in agriculture. Two years later he bought a farm 
and engaged in farming and stock-raising, in which he has been quite 


successful. Ml". Darroch, on November 11, 1S70, was married to 
Mary, daughter of William Hamilton, a native of New York, and an 
earlv settler of Allen county. They are the parents of six children, five 
of whom survive: John W., Hugh M., Johanna, Caroline and Fanny. 
Mr. Darroch is a member of Phrenix lodge. No. loi, K. of P., of Fort 
Wayne, also Sion S. Bass post, G. A. R., of Fort Wayne. Mr. Dar- 
roch's prominence as a citizen and as a democrat, led to his election in 
1886 as a representative of Allen countj- in the general assembly of 
Indiana, and he filled that position with credit to himself and count3^ 

Thomas Covington, a prominent citizen of Aboit township, was born 
in Plymouth count}-, Mass., December 18, 1836. His parents, Thomas 
and Mahala (Holmes) Covington were both natives of Massachusetts, 
where the father followed agriculture successfully. His death occurred 
May 17, 1880, and his wife died Februar}- i, 1887. Thomas Coving- 
ton received a good education in the public schools of his native state, 
and was engaged in work upon the farm of his parents until he was 
twentj'-one years of age. He then began farming and stock-raising on his 
own land, and in these pursuits has been quite successful. He was mar- 
ried April 14, 1859, *° Adeline Burt, and they have four children, Eliza- 
beth D., Kate M., Thomas E., and Mary L. Mrs. Covington was called 
away in death May 7, 1886. Mr. Covington is prominent in the councils 
of his party, the republican, and being an active and popular citizen, he 
was elected township trustee in 1S86, and in 1888 he was given the 
compliment of re-election. He is a faithful and discreet public officer. 

John R. Schoene, of Aboit township, was born in Germany, May 
9, 1828, son of Frederick and Margaret (Schaffer) Schoene. In 1834 
the father left his native land and sailed for America. Landing at Bal- 
timore, he came to Dayton, Ohio, and was engaged in a distiller}- for 
five years. He then purchased a piece of land in Williams county, Ohio, 
erected a cabin and moved into the woods. Here he followed farming 
until his death, which occurred in 1865. In that year John R. Schoene 
moved to Allen county, Ind., settling in Aboit township where he iTow 
resides. In farming he has had remarkable success, and has a place of 
160 acres of well improved land. He was married May 6, 1852, to 
Catharine Strausberger, and they have nine children: Julia, Amanda, 
Rudolph, Walter, Katie, Dorato, Wilham, Henry and Joseph. The 
family belong to the Lutheran church. 

W. J. Esterline, of Aboit township, was born in Clark county, Ohio, 
November 7, 1841, son of Adam and Elizabeth (Slaybaugh) Esterline. 
The father, a native of Maryland, was a shoemaker by occupation, and 
died in 1855; the mother who was born near Gettysburg, Penn., died July 
5, 1876. Mr. Esterline received a limited education in the common 
schools, and worked as a laborer on the farm until eighteen years of age, 
when he took up the blacksmith's trade, at which he was engaged until 
1870. He then began farming and stock-raising, at which he is still suc- 
cessfully engaged. He purchased in 1S70, the farm on which he now 
resides, consisting of 152 acres. He was married to Nancy Jt;ffries in 


1867, and they had one child, Mill}-, now deceased. Mrs. Esterline died 
December, iS68, and in 187 1 he was married to Ellen McKinle}-. They 
have seven children: Walter, Edward, Albert, Arthur, Otis, Frank and 
Chester. Mr. Esterline served his country in the late rebellion, being a 
member of Company I, Seventy-first Ohio infantry, and was in the 
engagement at Pittsburg Landing. Mr. Esterline is a member of the 
Lutheran church, also of Columbia Cit}- lodge, 189, F. & A. M. 

Daniel W. Simmers, of Aboit township, was born in Ohio, December 
3, 1845, son of Daniel and Maria (Smith) Simmers. The father, a 
native of Canada, died February 8, 1875, but the mother, a native 
Virginian, is living in Wells county, Ind. Mr. Simmers at the age of 
sixteen years, enlisted in Company C, Fifty-first Ohio infantry, and 
served one year and ten months. He was in all the engagements from 
Chattanooga to Atlanta. Returning to Ohio, he engaged in farming for 
about sixteen j-ears, and then embarked in the milling business, at Au- 
burn, Ind. Two years later he moved to Whitle}- county and engaged 
in farming and stock-raising, at which he is still engaged. In 1S81 he 
sold his farm in Whitley county, and purchased the one on which he 
now lives. Mr. Simmers was married on June 3, 1875, ^^ Amanda, 
daughter of Jonathan Michael, of Allen county. Of their six children, 
five are Hving: John U., Charles W., Jewell C, Roscoe T. and 
Ermel B. Mrs. Simmers is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
and he is a member of De Kalb lodge. No. 214, F. & A. M. 

Henry Eloph, of Aboit township, was born in Fairfield county, Ohio, 
May 4, 1835. His parents, Nicholas and Frances Eloph, natives of 
France, came to America in 1833 '^^^ ^^^^ i" 1S77 and 1867, respect- 
ively. Mr. Eloph received a limited education in the common schools of 
Allen county, and worked with his father on the farm until seventeen 
years of age. He remained on his father's farm until 1865, when he 
enlisted in the One Hundred and Fifty-second Indiana volunteers. After 
serving about seven months, he received an honorable discharge, and 
resumed farming and stock-raising, at which he continues, making a 
specialty of breeding Norman horses. He was married April 20, 1S62, 
to Mary, daughter of Joseph Rhodes, a native of Ohio They are the 
parents of four children, three of whom survive: Mary, Annie and 


Lands in this township were occupied in 1834, ^y James Hinton, 
John Ross, William Graj-less, George Slagle, Samuel Caffrey, James 
Pringle, Jacob Pearson, and Clement Ryan, and their families. Nearly 
all settled in the vicinity of the Goshen road or in the northern 
sections. The Goshen road, which had been surveyed four 3'ears 
previous, was then the only road in the township, and it was not 
until 1S36 that the second, the Yellow river road, was laid out along the 
south township line. In the same year the county road from Kraco to 


Raccoon village, was survcn-ed. In 1S35 John McClui'e, a native of 
South Carolina, settled on section 17, and remained twenty years. His 
son-in-law, Samson Pierson, arrived about the same time. In the sprinj:^ 
of 1836, Francis Sweet entered a tract in section 17, but remained in 
Fort Wayne until 1844. He became one of the prominent citizens and 
filled ail the local offices, serving fifteen years as justice subsequent to 
1846. He was the second postmaster, succeeding John Crawford, who 
was appointed in 1840, for what was known as the Taw-Taw post- 
office. Mr. Sweet held the position until 1863, acting also, after the 
establishment of the Pittsburg railroad, as carrier of the mail ffom the 
station. In 1836 the newcomers were John Anderson and James W. 
Watson, who were natives of Virginia, and Joshua Goheen, from 
Pennsylvania, a man of great enterprise, and John Savage. Other 
early settlers before 1840, were Joseph Taylor, William Caster, John F. 
Gerding and Frederick Reed. 

On the last Saturday of May, 1837, the first election occurred at the 
house of John McClure, who was the inspector. Samuel Caffrey and 
James Pringle were elected justices, and William Caster, constable. In 
the following winter the first wedding occurred, Mary Mangan to John 
Savage. In 1S49 the first steam saw-mill was erected by the plank road 
company, and the next year J. L. Peabody built a saw-mill on the Yellow 
river road near Areola, which was in operation many years. The first 
general stores were opened by the proprietors of these mills, by William 
Thorpe, who had bought the plank road mill in 1850, and b}' Mr. Pea- 
body in 1866. In an earl}' day Samson Pierson platted a village on the 
plank road in sections 16 and 17, named Pierson, but it was abandoned. 
The onh' village in the township is Areola, on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne 
& Chicago railroad. It was laid out in 1866. 

The firm of Jacob Colter & Co., now the most extensive manufact- 
urers of hardwood lumber in Allen county, was formed in 1873. In 
1S87 their mill was burned, causing a loss of $3,500, but it was rebuilt 
at once. At Areola the firm employs fifteen men, and are equipped to 
saw 8,000 feet per da}-. They also have mills at Williams Station, Mon- 
mouth, Decatur and Maples. The five mills employ seventy men, and 
produce annually about 12,000,000 feet of lumber. The}- furnish lum- 
ber to the Pennsylvania company, ship to San Francisco, and export a 
fine grade to Scotland. In 1885, the tile manufactory' of Grosjean 
Brothers, now Grosjean & Barrand, was established, and John Grosjean 
in 1 888 purchased the general stores of Victor Cavalier and William 
Rockhill. The latter now conducts a general store. James Baxter is 
ihe blacksmith and I. W. Herrold and John Blietschau are shoe dealers. 

Edward Rockhill was one of the well-known pioneers of Fort 
Wa3'ne and its vicinity. He came from his native state of New Jersey 
in 1826, and settling in the woods near the citj', at once began clearing 
awa}' the timber and opening up a farm. He built a double log cabin, 
doing the principal part of the work himself, using weight poles instead 
of nails to hold the roof on. The Indians at this time camped in the 


woods round about, and made frequent visits to the house of Mr. Rock- 
hill in quest of meal and potatoes. One peculiar habit of this pioneer 
was to inquire if thej- had money to pa\- for food; if they said they had 
he would direct them to a neighbor telling them he had none to spare, 
if without money he would furnish them with potatoes and meal. He 
and the Indians were on very intimate terms. The}' frequently visited 
Fort Wayne, and while there would spend what money they had for 
whisky, and becoming thoroughly intoxicated, often would fall by the 
wayside in the snow or on the ice. Mr. Rockhill in such cases, 
would carry them into his cabin, and keep them until sober, often 
saving lives in this way. He followed farming until his death, which 
occurred in 1848, at his cabin. Of his eight children, the third, William 
Rockhill, now a leading citizen, was born July 28, 1829, at the old home- 
stead. His educational advantages were of course limited, and he 
attended onlv one school term of three months. After the death of his. 
father he and his brother remained upon the farm until 1S51, when they 
came to Lake township and began clearing up a new farm, doing farm 
w6rk in summer and hunting deer and turke}', and trapping mink, coon,, 
etc., in winter. He lived here two years and then moved upon his 
mother's place, where he remained until 1872, when he came to Areola 
and engaged in general merchandise, also receiving the appointment of 
postmaster. In this ofBce he served in a very satisfactory manner for 
fourteen years. He continued in merchandise until_ September 8, 1888, 
when he sold his stock of goods in order that he might tear down the 
house in which he was doing business, and build one on a much larger 
scale. He now has a handsome two-stor}- brick, 38x60, with a plate 
glass front. Mr. Rockhill was married in 1S53 to Miss Harriet Bel- 
lamy. Of their eight children seven arehving: Amanda, Oliver, Louise, 
Ida, Ellen, John and William. 

William Goheen, who has been a resident of this township more 
than half a centur}-, was born in Cumberland county, Penn., March 30, 
1830. His parents were Joshua Goheen, a native of Pennsylvania, and 
his wife Ann (Pee) Goheen, a native of Maryland. They settled in 
Lake township, September 13, 1836, on the farm which their son above 
named now occupies. Here the father died April 9, 1866, and the 
mother October 5, 1878. Wilham Goheen was educated in the country 
schools, and at the age of eighteen years engaged in farming for him- 
self. He is a prominent citizen and held the position of township trus- 
tee during five years and a half. He is a member of the First Baptist 
church of Eel River, of Wayne lodge, No. 25, F. & A. M., and of the 
republican party. In 185 1 he was married to Mary Petit, and to their 
union were born four children: John N., Charles M., Alice and 
Nathaniel. This wife died August 29, 1S60. In 1861 he was married 
to Catherine Hutsell, and they have two children, Ada A. and Perry A. 
Mrs. Goheen is a member of the Methodist church. 

Cornelius Gearin, of Lake township, was born here. May i, 1843, 
son of John and Catherine (Shonchron) Gearin, natives of Ireland, who 


came to Allen county in 1837. The father is a farmer by occupation, and is 
still living at the advanced age of seventy-seven in Marion count}', Ore., 
Cornelius was educated in the pubhc schools and worked on his father's 
farm until the breaking out of the late rebellion, when he volunteered 
with Company L, First Michigan cavalr}', and served three years. He 
participated in the following engagements: Gettjsburg, Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania, Sheridan's raid to Richmond, Petersburg, Winchester, 
Fisher Hill, Cedar Creek and the battle of the Five Forks, where he 
received a grape shot wound in the left shoulder. He was sent to 
Thunderville Station, then to Petersburg, then to Point of Rock hospital, 
Hampton general hospital at Fortress Monroe, and finalty to Detroit, 
where he received an honorable discharge. He returned to Allen count}-, 
but soon afterward went to Oregon, remaining two years, after which he 
again came to Allen county and engaged in farming and stock-raising, 
which he has followed up to the present time, with a marked degree of 
success. He was married to Luc}' A., daughter of Wilham and Mary 
Manning, of Whitley county, October 2, 1869. Mr. and Mrs. Gearin are 
members of St. Patrick's Catholic church, of Areola. Politically he is 
a republican. 

John Grosjean, a well-known manufacturer of Lake township, was 
born September 14, 1851, son of John B. and Mary (Pirson) Grosjean, 
both natives of France. His father, John B. Grosjean, at the age of 
fourteen, left France, his native land, and landing at New York, came 
direct to Fort Wayne. Here he worked for one year on the canal and 
then engaged in farming, entering land from the government. He mar- 
ried Mary Pirson, a native of France, and both are now living on this 
old homestead. Their son John received an ordinary education in the 
common schools, and worked on his father's farm until twenty-one years of 
age, when he, with two of his brothers, embarked in the saw-milling 
business near Wallen. They prospered in this business until the mill 
burned, seven years later, causing a loss of about $3,000. They rebuilt 
at Wallen, and continued the business until July, 1888, when John Gros- 
jean sold his interest to his brothers. Owing to the great demand for 
tile in 1882, they engaged in its manufacture in connection with milling. 
In 1S85, they established a branch tile factory at Areola. Mr. John Gros- 
jean has done the buying and selling in the lumber business and been 
general manager of the tile factories. September 8, 1888, Mr. Grosjean, in 
partnership with Joseph Sallier, became owners of a general store at 
Areola, purchasing the stocks formerly owned by Victor Cavalier and by 
William Rockhill. They are at present doing a large business. He 
was married October 16, 1873, to Mary, daughter of James Hud- 
son, and they have had two children: Edgar and Abbie, the latter 
deceased. This lady dying February 14, 1S80, he was in 1882, mar- 
ried to Mary, daughter of Jacob Cook, and they have one child : Ernest. 
Mrs. Grosjean is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Politi- 
cally Mr. Grosjean is a repubhcan. 

William Tracy, of Lake township, is a son of the pioneers, Thomas 


and Mai-}- Dugan Tracy, who came to this township at an earh' day, and 
had the experiences of old settlers. The Indians frequently put up with 
them for the night, wolves would howl at the door, and deer were so 
plenty that some unusually inquisitive ones would occasionally look in at 
the cabin window. William Tracy died in i86r, but his widow sur- 
vives at the age of eighty years. Their son, above named, was born at 
Bristol, Penn., April i6, 1S37. He availed himself of the pioneer schools 
to the extent of a three months' term each 3'ear, and \vorked with his 
father until he was twentj'-tive. Since then he has been engaged in 
railroading, and also farming and stock-raisirtg, and is doing well. He is 
a member of St. Patrick's church, and politically is a democrat. 

Benjamin Jones, a prominent farmer of Lake township, was born 
November 12, 1819. His father, John Jones, son of Benjamin and 
Sarah (Cadwallader) Jones, was a native of Montgomer}^ county, 
Wales, and a weaver by trade; he married Mary, a daughter of Edward 
and Ann (Evans) Humphreys, of the same county. Grandmother 
Jones lived to be of great age yet never wore glasses. She was frozen to 
de^th at the age of ninety-five. John Jones came to this country in 1841, 
and settled at Tarrytown, N. Y., where he resided two years. In 1843 he 
moved to his present home and there died April 10, 1876. His wife 
passed away August 18, 1855. Benjamin Jones came to the United 
States in 1839, and at New York city engaged in various occupations 
for the period of four years. He then came with his father to Lake 
township. He is one of six children, four of whom survive: Benjamin, 
Mary, wife of Albert Garrison, of Fort Wayne; Anna, widow of Will- 
iam Darb}-; John, a mechanic in the Wabash shops at Fort Wa3'ne. 
The latter served in Company C, Eighty-eighth regiment, which went 
into action in August, 1862. He served during the remainder of the 
war, being promoted to sergeant. Benjamin Jones was married May 
18, 1872, to Sarah C, daughter of Joseph and Caroline (Ayers) Car- 
roll. She was born June 18, 1844, near Zanesville, and came to Indiana 
with her parents in 1S46. Mr. and Mrs. Jones have one child, Mary A. 
They have a well improved farm of forty acres, on which is built a good 
house and barn. He has served as township clerk, supervisor, school 
director, etc. Politically he is a repubhcan. 

George W. Grayless, a leading citizen of Lake township, was born 
in Alice county, Iowa, November 14, 1848, the son of Charles and 
Jane Grayless. The father is a farmer by occupation, and is still living. 
The mother died in Cahfornia, May 22, 1854. George W. was edu- 
cated in the common schools of Allen county, and worked on his father's 
farm until twenty-two years of age, when he began farming for him- 
self, which occupation he has continued to the present time, together 
with stock-raising. He was married June 18, 1871, to Barbara A., 
daughter of Nathan and Barbara Smith, of Churubusco, Ind. Their 
union has been blessed by two children : Cora L. and Warren. Mr. and 
Mrs. Grayless are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. He is 
a member of Churubusco lodge, I. O. O. F. Politically he is a republican. 


B. S. Butts, a prominent citizen of Lake township, was born April 
25, 1825, ill Monroe township, Licking count}', Ohio. Fie is the second 
of ten children of Samuel and Fann}- (Bruff ) Butts. The father, a native 
of Virginia, settled in Ohio in 1799, participated in the battle of Tippe- 
canoe under Gen. Harrison and Capt. Jake Baker, and died in 1845, at 
the age of seventj'-four. The mother is, at the advanced age of eight}'- 
five years, in good health and in full possession of her mental faculties, 
being able to relate many early incidents. Their son, B. S., was edu- 
cated in the common schools of Ohio, and at the death of his father, 
began farming for himself, in which occupation he continued. In 1850 
he came to Allen county, purchasing the farm on which he now lives, 
setding in the woods and opening up what is now a very rich farm. He 
was married September 14, 1S46, to Hannah Larimore, and the}^ have 
had eight children: Sarah (died in 1869), Alonzo, Allen D., William 
W., A. J., James D., Annie B. and Mary N. They also raised a grand- 
son, Harrj' B. Young. Mr. and Mrs. Butts are members of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church and he is a member of Wayne lodge, No. 25, 
F. & A. M. 

William W. Butts, son of the above, was born in Lake township, 
October 16, 1854. He studied in common schools and worked on his 
father's farm until eighteen years old, when he began work on the rail- 
road, which he continued for three j^ears. Resuming farming in 1877, 
he moved to Arkansas where he remained one year. Returning to 
Indiana, he was employed on the railroad two years, and was then 
engaged in saw-milling for three years. Then he purchased the farm 
on which he now lives, and has successfully followed farming and stock- 
raising to the present lime. He was married on October 6, 1877, to 
Allie, daughter of Simon and Mary I. Harshbarger, old settlers of 
Whitley county, Ind. Her father, born May 23, 1832, served three 
j^ears in the late rebellion. The mother was born October 22, 1838. 
Mr. and Mrs. Butts are the parents of two children, both deceased. 

George Kronmiiller, a prominent and wealthy farmer of Lake town- 
ship, was born iVugust i, 1828. His parents, Leonard and Wilhelmina 
(Shaffer) Kronmuller, were natives of Germany, where the father was 
a farmer by trade and owner of a large tract of land. They had eleven 
children, eight of whom are living: John, residing in Wittenberg, Ger- 
many; George, Jacob, Gotlieb, residing at Hundngton; WilHam, a well- 
to-do farmer near Huntington; Wilhelmina, and Mary, wife of Gotlieb 
Kaine, of Peru, Ind. George Kronmuller came to this country in 1852 
and after living a few months in Erie count}', Penn., he went to Ken- 
tucky, and came to Fort Wayne a short time afterward. After spending 
about eight years as a laborer in a saw-mill he bought the handsome farm 
on which he now resides, which is well improved and has a large frame 
residence and a spacious barn. He was married December 28, 1856, to 
Mary, a daughter of Jacob and Catharine (Sagar) Weller. Her brother, 
George Weller, now resides in Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. Kronmuller 
have six children : Mary, wife of Charles Byer, of Churubusco ; George, 


of Goshen, Ind.; Wilhelmina, wife of William Sutter; John, Catharine, 
wife of James Butts, of Churuhusco; William C, of Goshen. John is 
associated with his father in cultivating their farm of 120 acres. Mr. 
and Mrs. Kronmiiller are members of the Lutheran church and are 
active Christian people. Politically he is a democrat, having voted that 
ticket all his life. 

Wilson R. Stirling was born July 26, 1826, son of Samuel and 
Delilah (Craig) Stirling, natives of Westmoreland county, Penn., who 
moved to Ohio in 1S30, and remained there until their deaths in 1S64 
and 186S, respectively. Wilson R. Stirling received a common school 
education, and worked with his father until twenty-two years of age. 
In '1852 he came to Allen county, and purchased the farm in Lake 
township, on which he now lives, and engaged in farming and stock- 
raising, paj'ing especial attention to Durham cattle, Berkshire hogs, and 
Southdown sheep. His farm consists of 163 acres. He was married 
November 30, 1848, to Rachel Harrison, who died September 30, 
1849. His second marriage, to Cynthia Grayless, took place January i, 
1852, and they had three children: Josiah, x\llen and Alfred, all hving. 
This lady died in April, 1857, and he was married October 5, 1857, to 
Rebecca Vanmeter, by whom he has four children: Florence, Hattie E., 
John G. and Clara B. Mr. and Mrs. Stirling are members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. He is a member of Waj'ne lodge. No. 25, 
F. & A. M. 

William W. Madden, a well-known farmer of Lake township, was 
born December 3, 1S53, the son of Wilham and Rachel (Ta3'lor) 
Madden, natives of Ohio. He was educated in the common schools 
and worked on the farm with his father until nineteen j-ears of age, 
when he began farming for himself. This occupation, together with 
dealing in stock, he still follows on an extensive scale, cultivating a valu- 
able farm of 160 acres. He was married on August 15, 1878, to 
Edith A. Hire, daughter of Elisha Hire. They have had four children : 
Joseph W., Jesse B., William A. and Bessie H., of whom William A. 
is deceased. 

Octave Boa;uf was born in the province of Jura, France, May i, 
1818. He is the son of Jacob and Joanna Boajuf, who both lived and 
died in France. He worked on a farm with his father until 1853, when 
he left his native land and landing in New York, came directly to Fort 
Wayne. Here he remained for two months working on the canal and 
then worked on the railroad for two years. Subsequently he rented a 
farm and engaged in agriculture, living on rented lands for seven 3'ears. 
At the expiration of that period he bought the farm of eighty acres on 
which he now lives. He now owns 200 acres in all. Mr. Boccuf fol- 
lows stock-raising in connection with farming. He was married in 
France, September, 1S47, to Gustine Outier, and have six children: 
Henry, Marj', August, Eugenie, Josephine and Julian. Mrs. Boa?uf 
died December 29, 1887. The family are members of St. Patrick's 
church at Areola. Mr. Bot«uf is one of the enterprising citizens of 


Lake township, and by industry, integrity and economy lie has gained 
quite an extensive property. 

Luderick Welsheimer, of Lake township, was born in Fairfield 
county, Ohio, February 22, 1829. His parents, Philip and Catharine 
(Duley) Welsheimer, were natives of Virginia. They died at their 
farm home in Ross county, Ohio, the mother in 1850, the father in 
1868. Mr. Welsheimer was educated in the common schools of Ross 
county, and worked on his father's farm until twentj'-four years of age, 
when he moved to Allen county. He has engaged in the occupation of 
farming and stock-raising, making a specialty of short-horn cattle and 
Poland China hogs. His farm consists of 224 acres, and is one of the 
best in the township. Mr. Welsheimer has served his township as jus- 
tice of the peace, and is the present assessor. He was married in 1851, 
to Elizabeth Lucas, and they have had nine children, seven of whom 
survive: Laura, Ezra L., Otto, Frank L., Nettie G., Jesse A. and Will- 
iam. Mr. and Mrs. Welsheimer are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. 

Thomas Larimore, of Lake township, was born June 12, 1S27. His 
father, Thomas Larimore, a native of Pennsylvania, married Hannah 
Young, and moved to Licking county, Ohio, where he was killed by a 
falling tree, in March, 1S32. The widow and 3-oungest son moved to 
Sparta township, Noble co., Ind., in 1849, and eight years later came to 
Lake township, where Mrs. Larimore died in March, 1866. Thomas 
was bound out after his father's death, but the master's wife d3nng a 
short time afterward the family broke up, and young Larimore was left 
among strangers. From the age of eight he led a life of hardships and 
was self-supporting. In 1848 he was married to Mahala Evans, and in 
the fall of 1850 he moved to Lake township, Allen co., bought eighty 
acres of land, and with his wife, child and a bound boy, began life in this 
state without a cent in his pocket nor a cabin on his land, and winter 
before him. But he was possessed of industrious habits and determina- 
tion. In November, 1881, he moved to Churubusco, and took charge 
of the Larimore house, having purchased the property the previous May. 
Besides this Mr. Larimore owns 400 acres of land in Lake township, 
and valuable property in Fort Wayne. He is a well-known breeder of 
short-horn cattle. Mr. and Mrs Larimore are the parents of twelve 
children, of whom Lydia, Cynthia, Thomas J., Hannah M., Levi B., 
Eli, Mary, Howard and Charley are living, and Alexander, William F. 
and Norris are deceased. Mr. Larimore is a member of Churubusco. 
lodge, 515, F. & A. M., and he and wife are members of the Baptist 
church. He has held the office of justice of the peace four years, and 
a number of minor offices. He is devoted to church work and has been 
active in the Sabbath school since 1S51. His home is a very pleasant 
one, and he has the largest barn in Allen county, in dimensions 88x53, 
and perfectly equipped. 

John Rapp, a prominent citizen of Lake township, was born in 
Wurtemberg, German}', July 16, 1S49. Five years later his parents, 


John and Margaret (Wendlenger) Rapp, with their family, left their 
native land, and arriving at New York came directly to Fort Wayne, 
where they lived a short time. They afterward resided in Whitley 
county ten years, and then moved to Lake township. The father died 
January lo, 1SS9, and the mother Maj' 10, 18S3. John Rapp was edu- 
cated in the common schools and worked on his father's farm until 
twentj'-one 3'ears of age, when he rented the farm and engaged in 
agriculture and stock-raising for himself. In 1874 he purchased the 
farm on which he now lives, of 157 acres. He was married March 14, 
1875, to Mahala E., daughter of WiUiam and Rachel Barrett, and they 
have had six children, five of whom are Hving: John W., Harry H., 
Agnes, Gertrude and Katie. By industry and economy Mr. Rapp has 
accumulated considerable property. 

Jacob Colter, a prominent manufacturer of Lake township, was born 
in Bavaria, Ma}^ 4, 1848. In 185 1 he was brought by his parents, 
Jacob and Caroline (Teppla) Colter, to i\merica, but in forty-two days 
after landing at Canal Dover, Ohio, the father died. Subsequently his 
mother married again and he had a home with his step-father until he 
was twenty-one years old, receiving a common school education. After 
teaching school one term he removed to Indiana, and settling at Coesse, 
engaged in the manufacture of hoops and staves in partnership with 
William Smith. Three years later he remove'd to Areola, and with 
P. W. Smith, established the firm of Colter & Co., which by good busi- 
ness methods, has prospered. Mr. Colter has accumulated a consider- 
able property, and has won the esteem of his associates. He is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity, and in politics is a republican. In 187S, he 
was married to Sarah Crawford, and of their six children, five are still 
hving: Olive B., William H., John H., Maud B. and Louise E. The 
family are members of the Methodist church. 

Sebastian Keller, born in Bavaria, Germany, December 10, 1831, 
son of Sebastian and Magdaline Keller, who both lived and died in their 
native land; the father was a carpenter by trade. Mr. Keller was edu- 
cated in German}^ and learned the trade of stone cutter, at which he 
worked until twenty-one years of age. He then left his native land and 
arrived at New York, October 12, 1852; after remaining there for two 
years working at his trade, he moved to Seneca county, Ohio; and two 
years later came to Fort Wayne, where he followed his trade for twelve 
years. Subsequently he engaged in business for himself, at which he 
continued about seventeen years. Selling out, he bought a farm in Lake 
township on which he has been engaged in agriculture very successfullj-, 
having one of the finest farms in the township, consisting of 233 acres. 
He wa^ married to Miss Mary Shields in 1861, and of their ten children 
eight survive: Mary, Andrew, Frank, Cecile, Annie, Edward, Harry 
and Charles. The famil}- are members of St. Patrick's church. 

Daniel Keim, a worthy citizen of Lake township, was born in Holmes 
county, Ohio, July 30, 1839, son of Solomon and Elizabeth (Hostettler) 
Keim, both natives of Pennsylvania. The father was a farmer b}- occu- 


pation. He died August i6, 1853, and the mother followed July 2, 
186S. Daniel was educated- in the common schools of Ohio, and sought 
work at the age of fourteen, being variously engaged until eighteen 
years of age when he served a two years' apprenticeship at the tanner's 
trade. At the end of this time he rented a tannery and followed the 
business for three years. In 1S62 he moved to La Grange county, Ind., 
and started a tannery the following spring, and continued in the business 
for twelve years. While there he purchased forty acres of land and 
engaged in farming. In 18S1 he moved to Allen count}" and purchased 
the farm on which he now hves, which consists of 205 acres. He was 
married October 6, 1859, to Phoebe Arnold, and they are the parents of 
nine children, eight of whom are living: George W., Solomon D., 
Rosette C, Emma G., Clara E., Charles F., William D. and Ada A. 
Mr. and Mrs. Keim are members of the German Baptist church. Mr. 
Keim takes a great interest in educational matters, and two of his sons, 
George W. and Solomon D., are teachers in Lake township. 

Jarvis Smith, a prosperous farmer of Lake township, was born 
June 26, 1844, in Gallia county, Ohio. He is the son of E. J. and Ma- 
hala Smith, natives of Ohio. The father, a farmer by occupation, is still 
living, but the mother died in Lake township in 1867. Mr. Smith was 
educated in the common schools of Allen and Whitley counties, and 
worked on his father's farm until twenty-two years of age. He then 
took up agriculture as his own business, and in this and stock-raising 
has been notabl}^ successful. He was married August 26, 1865, to 
Katie, the daughter of George Smaltz, of Aboit township, and they 
have three children : Franklin, Clarence, and Chester. The family are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal church. 


This township, so-called from the stream which drains it, received 
its first settlers in 1828, when William Kellison and his brother, from 
Darke county, Ohio, settled on section 32. They erected small cabins 
and made a deadening, and then in 1830, sold out to Adam Hull, sr., 
and went on westward. Mr. Hull was well-known throughout the 
county, and in the many rough and tumble encounters which gave zest 
to days in town, generally held his own. He built the first bridge over 
Eel river, at his own expense, and estabhshed a private toll to which 
travelers sometimes unreasonably demurred. For several years his was 
the only cabin in the neighborhood, and was the stopping place of many 
immigrants going through. In the fall of 1832, one stranger, who was 
traveling on foot, shared the cabin over night, but being taken sick 
died the next morning. A few weeks afterward a family stopped, and 
the children being sick with scarlet fever, two of them died here, and 
their bodies, with that of the stranger, were the first to be laid in the 
old grave3'-ard south of Eel river. Such instances as these, though very 
briefly narrated, reveal much of the hardships of the lives of those who 


were making new homes in the wilderness. In 1834, Mr. Hull was ap- 
pointed postmaster, there being a considerable settlement by that time 
on the Goshen road, to the south. He held the place until his death, 
September i, 4838. About 1833, Peter Heller settled, and his name 
is perpetuated as the title of the neighborhood and postoffice. Heller's 
Corners. In 1834 ^^''- Hull, aided by his neighbors, cut a road from 
that neighborhood to the east line of the township, which was the first 
highway. In this year, Joseph and John R. Johnston settled on sec- 
tions 21 and 28, and on June 11, John Valentine, from Ohio, as were 
all these early settlers, made his home on section 33. In the spring 
of 1836 there was a considerable settlement made in the east, in the 
direction of the Lima road, including John P. Shoaff, from Miami 
county, Ohio, who settled on section 13, and became justice, trustee, 
and from 1862 to t868, representative in the general assembly. Others 
who came at that date were F. C. Freeman, Samuel Hillegass, Benja- 
min Mason, Joseph Jones, Henry Bossier who established the pioneer 
smith}^ and Samuel Kniss. In April of this year the first election was 
held, and the result was as to justice, for which Messrs. Hull and Bond 
were candidates, a tie. The judge decided the matter by drawing one 
of the ballots from the hat, and Mr. Hull so won the election. Later, 
in 1836, Abram Ta3"lor came from Cu3-ahoga county, Ohio, to the Hull 
neighborhood, and William Anderson settled in the east. In 1837 
William F. Mooney and Uriah Chase settled, and between 1837 and 
1840, came R. D. Baird, Solomon Bennett, John Bennett, Caleb Ben- 
nett, John McKee, John Hathaway, Mr. Schilling, John R. Mayo, on 
whose land the first " Hickory school-house " was built and used in 
1837, and WiUiam Madden. In 1838, Joseph Jones opened a store at 
his house, on what was afterward known as the Charles Hanna farm. 
In 1852, Smith & Diffenderfer established a saw-mill on Eel river, 
and for a number of years supplied lumber for the houses built about 
that time to replace the log cabins, but it finally went to decay. Near 
it a steam grist-mill was built by Peter Heller, in 1855, and he operated 
it successfully until it was destroyed by fire. Mr. Heller had in 1837, 
succeeded to the postmastership, and the .oflice was afterward called 
Heller's Corners. In October, 1835, Asa Miller laid out on his land 
in the southwest corner of section 32, and an adjoining portion of Lake 
township, the village of " Kraco," the main street of which was 132 
feet wide. A circular tract in the center was reserved as " Miller's 
Park." The town did not materialize. 

The first school was taught in a cabin erected for that purpose in 
1837, which as it wjis built almost entirely of hickory logs, was called 
the " Hickory " school-house. Among its pupils were Thomas and 
William McKee, John M. Taylor and ''his sister, Mrs. Altha Hull. 

Adam Hull, son of the Adam Hull above mentioned as the first perma- 
nent settler of Eel River township, is now the oldest settler of that town- 
ship living. He was born May 8, 181 2, in Pendleton county, Va., and 
thence emigrated at the age of twelve years to Ohio with his parents, 


Adam and Elizabeth Hull. They made their home in Shelby county, 
Ohio, until 1832, when the family removed to Indiana. After reaching 
Fort Waj'ne they remained there nearl}' one year, and settled on the 
land which the father had bought in Eel River township. The senior 
Hull purchased 240 acres and began the work of clearing, in which he 
was assisted by his son. On this account and the absence of schools he 
did not receive much education in his youth, but is nevertheless well 
informed. His recollection of the past is vivid and he recalls many inter- 
esting incidents. In his possession are all his tax receipts since he first 
settled on his farm, and he also takes much pride in a rifle which his 
father made in Virginia, and which has served to bring much venison to 
their tables in Ohio and Indiana. Mr. Hull attended the first election 
held in the township, and was elected constable; his jurisdiction extended 
over what are now Noble, Whitley and Allen counties. He held this 
office two 3-ears and then resigned. Mr. Hull is now, though in his 
seventy- seventh year, quite hearty and active, and recalls with pleasure 
the progress of his life from the time when he began with a capital con- 
sisting of a five franc piece, a fiddle and a gun. B3' nature a pioneer, 
he has enjoyed the struggle with nature through which he has passed. 
Mr. Hull was married in 1S36 to Elizabeth Crow, by whom he had three 
children, of whom one, Adam, is living. Immediately after this mar- 
riage he entered 125 acres of land from the government, and settled on 
the same and built a log cabin in 1838. In 1845 he was married a sec- 
ond time to Hester Ann Strean, and they have had seven children, of 
whom the following survive: Maria, George W., Henry, Jane, Peter 
and Judson. Mr. Hull is now well-to-do, and is one of the esteemed 
and respected citizens of the township. He has been a member of the 
Missionary Baptist church for thirty-six years. 

A worthy and popular man in the early days, and one of the first set- 
tlers in Eel River township, was John R.Johnston, a native of Newjerse}', 
who died in 1876. When he was seventeen years old, he emi- 
grated to Greene county, Ohio. In 1834, he was married to Belinda 
Davis, who was born August 13, 181 2, and survives her husband. In 
the same }-ear they removed to Eel River township, and settled on 120 
acres of land, which Mr. Johnston had entered. This they never 
removed from. Here they went through the toilsome, yet ofttimes 
happy life of the pioneers of civilization. The}' were deeply religious, 
and became charter members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Wes- 
ley chapel, of which she has been a member for over half a centur}', 
and is the only survivor of the first members. These respected people 
had twelve children, of whom six are now living: David, Mary, Catherine, 
Susan, Emma and William H. David Johnston, the eldest, grew to man- 
hood on the old homestead, and never lived elsewhere until 1S70, when 
he bought forty acres adjoining, and built himself a neat dwelling and 
good barn. He received his education in the pioneer schools. Among 
his first teachers were Elijah Robmson, Mar}' T. Smith, George W. 
Done, G. W. Hutchell and Nancy Griswold. He began teaching when 


about nineteen years of age and taught five terms. In 1S57, he was 
united in marriage with Mary, daughter of Otho and Mary Gaudy, born 
in 1836, by whom he had eight children, of whom Clara Almeda, Inez 
I., William M., Serena and John O., are living. He and wife are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal church, in which he has been class 
leader and steward, about three years. Mr. Johnston owns a good 
farm of eighty-seven acres, and is ranked as a prominent citizen. William 
H. Johnston, the youngest son of John R., was born September 2, 1852. 
He now lives on and owns the old homestead where he grew to man- 
hood. He received a good common school education and attended one 
term at the Methodist Episcopal college at Fort Wayne. November 9, 
1S73, he was united in marriage with Sarah N. Scarlett, by whom he 
had two children: Florence A., born September 10, 1874, ^^'^^ December 
18, 1876; Emma G., born October i, 1876, died March 16, 1888. 
Their mother, now deceased, was a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. Maj' 28, 1877, he was married to LiUian J. Scarlett, born 
January 9, 1861, and they have had two children: Clarence C, born 
September 10, 1880, and Grace E., born March 21, 1S84, died' Febru- 
ar}' 15, 1888. Mr. Johnston and wife are both members of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church, and are highly respected. 

Another old settler of much prominence, Joseph Johnston, arrived 
in 1834 with his wife Martha and children, and settled on the farm 
where his son now resides. He had entered 160 acres here in the pre- 
vious 3'ear, 1833. Mr. Johnston was born in New Jersey, February 15, 
1802, and emigrated to Greene county, Ohio, in 1822, where he was 
married Februarj^ 14, 1825, to Martha Opdyke, who was born Decem- 
ber iS, 181 1. He was a distiller by trade. When he came to Allen 
county his worldly possessions consisted of two yoke of o.xen, one 
bureau, one chest and some old chairs. But in spite of this meagre be • 
ginning his industry made him triumphant over disadvantages, and he 
came to own 400 acres of land, and amassed considerable property. He 
was a good and valued citizen, a consistent member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and hightly esteemed by all. He served his town- 
ship as treasurer and clerk of the township board for several years. 
This worthy pioneer departed this life June 29, 1869, and his wife sur- 
vived him manj' years. Perr}' Johnston, son of the above, was born in 
Ohio, June 8, 1834. Nearl}' all his life has been spent in Indiana, and 
he grew to manhood on the old homestead, which is still his home. In 
1855 Mr. Johnston was married to Sarah A. Wells, who was born in 
1838, and departed this life in 1880. She was a consistent member of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, to which he also belongs. He is a 
member of the Masonic order and ■ is a representative faftner and a 
worthy- citizen. 

Jackson Valentine, of Eel River township, is a son of John Valentine, 
one of the pioneers of the township. John Valentine, a native of Ohio, 
was married in 1820, to Susannah Peters, who was born in Maryland, 
January 4, 1799. Her parents were among the pioneers of Fairfield 



county, Ohio. John Valentine and wife, with little possessions, but with 
stout hearts, came with their wagon load of household goods into the 
wilds of Indiana in 1S34, and settled in Eel River township, June 11, 
entering 120 acres of wild land. This pioneer enterprise prospered, and 
they became the owners of 227 acres of good land. In 1856, John 
Valentine went west and settled in Iowa, where he bought some land, 
and propert}' in Knoxville, intending to reside there, but becoming dis- 
satisfied in 1859, he returned to Indiana and made his home with his son 
Jackson, where he remained until his death, which occurred in 1869. He 
was a member of the Christian church, and one of the leading citizens 
and representative farmers. Jackson Valentine was born in Franklin 
county, Ohio, October 15, 1824. He received a good common school 
education and remained at home with his parents. January 6, 1850, he 
was united in marriage with Charlotte Greenewalt, by whom he had 
three children, one of whom is living, John W. She was born May 29, 
1S30, was a faithful member of the Christian church, and departed this 
life May 6, 1876. In 187S he was married to Mrs. Maria Jones, daugh- 
ter of Peter and Sarah B. Frysinger. She is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. He is a member of the Christian church. In 1868 
he was a candidate for trustee on the repubhcan ticket against John M. 
Taylor and reduced the adverse majority about half. Again in 1S80, 
running against C. L. Greenvvell, he reduced the majority to six. His 
desirable farm of 200 acres is admirably maintained and his handsome 
buildings are a testimonial to his enterprise. 

Robert L. Freeman, a prosperous farmer of Eel River township, was 
born in this township, July 26, 1843. His parents. Frame C. and Betsy 
(Simon) Freeman, came to Indiana from Ohio early in the thirties, and set- 
tled in Eel River township. The elder Freeman, like so many other sturdy 
pioneers, succeded well, and at the time of his death he owned 240 acres 
of good land. He was one of the leading citizens during his Hfetime, 
stood well in his community, and his death was mourned by all who 
knew him. Robert L. was born and lived in childhood in the old log 
cabin, but about 1849 his father built a two-story brick dwelling which 
now stands as a relic of bygone days. He enlisted in 1S62 in Company 
E, Eighty-eighth Indiana regiment, under Captain Chauncy Oakle}', but 
was mustered out under Captain C. Brown. He served three years and 
was in every battle with his regiment except one — Stone River. He 
received an honorable discharge at Indianapolis, 1865. April 15, 1866, 
he was united in marriage with Sarah J., daughter of James and Sarah 
McBride. Of their four children two are hving: Winfield S. and Charles 
Franklin; their mother who was born February 25, 1841, departed this 
life March-'i, 1879. She was a member of the United Brethren church. 
June 12, 1 88 1, he was married to Katie Ann, daughter of David and 
Catharine (Hull) Gordon, born January 19, 1862, and they have three 
children: Goldy Catharine, Sylvia E., and an infant. He has served 
his township as constable six years. He was a member of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Red Men during the lifetime of that order, and of 
the Grange. 

^^^^^^^^t:^^^^ ^c/^^9c^>^, 



Nelson Hyndman, of Eel River township, is a native of Indiana, born 
September 24, 1847. His father, John Hyndman, a native of Ireland, was 
born in 1809 and emigrated to America in 1835 with just enough money 
to bring him to land. He was four or five months crossing the sea, 
being ship-wrecked, and landing from life-boats on American soil, with- 
out any coat, but fortunately fifty cents in his vest pocket. He settled 
in Fort Wa\'ne and began work on the canal and afterward at odd jobs 
until he began blacksmithing, at which he worked several 3'ears. In 
1S44 he entered forty acres of land in Allen county and afterward traded 
this for eighty acres in Eel River township, where he settled. He lived 
a bachelor until early in the forties, when he was married to Lucy Jack- 
son, by whom he had four boys and three girls. He and wife were 
members of the Missionary Baptist church. His life is a remarkable 
illustration of the success that can be achieved by indomitable will and 
energy. He was always friendly to schools, churches and all laudable 
enterprises, and in all waj'S a leading citizen and representative farmer. 
He owned at one time 855 acres of valuable land. He was the first 
man that began the stall-feeding of cattle in Eel River township. He 
died April 20, 1874. Nelson Hyndman was born in the old log house 
in Eel River township where he grew to manhood and received a good 
common school education. In 1875 he was united in marriage with 
Mar}' Pumphrey, born March 4, 1852, b}' whom he had four children, 
three now hving: Ruah Elizabeth, Robert (deceased), Florence A., 
James A. He administered on his father's estate, which was quite a 
large one and required four years to make final settlement. His is 
among the first families of his township. He owns 160 acres of good 
land, with a good dwelling and barn. Mr. Hyndman still has the clock, 
now over fifty years old, used by his father in his bachelor days, which 
cost $40; also a secret drawer in which the old gentleman kept money. 

W. W. Shoaff, of Eel River township, of a well-known pioneer fam- 
ily, was born November 15, 1829, in Miami county, Ohio. His father, 
John P. Shoaff, was a native of Maryland, born October 12, 1804, and 
at the age of one year was taken to Ohio by his parents, who settled 
near Dayton. He remained in Ohio until Februar}' 5, 1836, when he 
settled in Allen count}^ Ind. Here he remained until February- 4, 1885, 
and then removed to Churubusco, where he died February i, 1887. Mr. 
Shoaff 's pioneer life did not permit an}' advantages of schooling, but being 
of a studious turn of mind, he improved what leisure moments he had 
'as a miller, and became (|uite well informed. February 5, 1828, he was 
united in marriage with Priscilla Freeman, who was born in Greene 
county, Ohio, January 4, 1810, and departed this life at the old homestead 
in Allen county. May 22, 1880. To this union eleven children were 
born, of whom W. W., John F., Anna E., James B., Jennie, Allen P. 
and Wade Scott, are now living. Mr. Shoaff was not a member of any 
church, but was a liberal supporter of that work.. He served his town- 
ship as justice of the peace si.xteen years, and three or four terms as 
trustee. In 1862 he was elected representative to the general assembly, 


and served three terms. His business shrewdness was early manifested 
by trading in Kve stock. By going to Ohio and bringing on milch 
cows he accommodated his neighbors and also soon began to accumulate 
considerable property. B}- good management he increased this so that 
he came into possession of over 1,400 acres of good farming land which 
is now in the hands of his children. W. W., his oldest son, was seven 
years of age when his father settled here, and his first experience in 
Allen county was in burning brush. He received a common school 
education, and attended school at Fort Wayne about two years, and the 
Methodist college two years. On March 10, 1859, ^^ married Eliza J., 
daughter of Robert and Sarah A. Work, born January 18, 1839. They 
have two children: John R. and Joseph Y. He and wife are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, and he is a member of the Masonic 
order. Mr. Shoaff has served as justice eight years, and as ditch com- 
missioner of Allen county seven 3'ears. He is one of the representative 
farmers of his county, and one of the leading citizens, and in politics has 
been a supporter of the democratic party since its organization. After 
leaving college he followed civil engineering for the Pittsburg, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago railroad. He located the Hne for the road and 
finished up two sections of forty miles which he had full charge of 
between Plymouth and Valparaiso. 

W. Scott Shoaff, the youngest son of John P. Shoaff, was born Decem- 
ber 16, 1S47, on the old homestead which his father entered from the 
government. There he grew to manhood and received a common school 
education. He remained with his father until he reached his majorit}', 
and then adopted farming as his own vocation. In 1885 he was united 
in marriage with Lena M. Jimmerson, daughter of Thomas and Mar- 
garet J. Farmer. She was born August 10, 186S. He is now one of 
the leading farmers and stock-raisers of Eel River township, and one of 
the prominent land owners of the county, holding 440 acres of good 
farming land with substantial buildings. He makes a specialty of draft 
horses and good grades of cattle. He is a member of the Masonic 

Stephen Hathaway, of Eel River township, is a native of Michigan, • 
born September 20, 1836. His father, John Hathaway, was born Octo- 
ber 12, iSii, in Washington count\-, N. Y.; emigrated to Michigan early 
in the thirties, and in 1836, came to Indiana in search of land and entered 
eighty acres in Eel River township, which he and his wife, whose 
maiden name was Hannah Chase, and their children, settled upon in 
1838. When he settled in Allen count}* he had one yoke of cattle, one 
cow, about $300 in wild-cat monej-, and very little furniture. He suc- 
ceeded by close application and frugal habits in gaining 340 acres of 
excellent land, besides some propert}' in Fort Wayne. He was one of 
the leading farmers of the county and respected by the people of his 
township. Stephen Hathaway was raised on the old homestead, and 
received a good common school education, and attended six months at 
Perry Center seminar}-. January 22, 1865, he was united in marriage 


with Mary E., daughter of Henr}- and Elizabeth (Norman) Fair, born 
January ii, 1S40. The}- have three children: Orphelia, James Sidney 
and Emma. He was elected justice of the peace in 1882, on the demo- 
cratic ticket, and was again elected in 18S6. During his terms of office 
he has had but one case before him in which he had to commit a man to 
jail, and he has done the bulk of the business of the township. His 
beautiful farm in Eel River township includes 200 acres, under a good 
state of cultivation, with substantial buildings. He is a member of the 
Masonic order. 

Levi Chase, a prominent farmer of Allen county, was born in Eel 
River township December 4, 1845, and is a descendant of a noted pio- 
neer family. His father, Uriah Chase, came with his parents from 
Michigan in 1S37, and settled in Eel River township where the grand- 
father had entered land in 1836. Here Uriah Chase grew to manhood, 
bearing his share of the burdens of the. pioneer's career. In 1842 he 
was united in marriage with Mary Jackson, and in her he found a true 
wife and helper; she survives him and is now in her sixty-sixth year. 
She is a member of the Close Communion Baptist church. They had 
five children, two of whom are now living: Louisa and Levi. The lat- 
ter was raised on the old homestead where he has since resided. In 
1S69 he was united in marriage with Sarah Bricker, born in 1847; she 
died in 1873, leaving one child, Chester. April 2, 1874, he was married 
to Sarah Rhoads, born Februar}' 2, 1849, by whom he has three chil- 
dren: Osa, Ida and Ira. He and wife are members of the Baptist 
church. He is one of the prominent farmers of this township, owning 
144 acres of desirable land. 

Notable among the old settlers of Eel River township was John 
McKee. He was born in Virginia in 1804, and subsequentl)^ came with 
his parents to Ohio, and settled near Springfield, Clark county, where 
he grew to manhood, and married Martha Lansdale, who was born in 
Maryland in 1799. He was a cabinet-maker and house-joiner by trade. 
While in Ohio he passed through the cholera plague in New Carlisle, 
which swept away 130 of the 340 inhabitants, and was kept busy at that 
time furnishing coffins. In 1836 he came to Eel River township and 
entered land, and in 1S37, he and W. M. Lansdale attempted to drive 
their wagons through, but on reaching the Black Swamp could only 
make four miles a day, and at St. Mary's village abandoned their wagons 
and came through on horseback. They arranged for the building of 
their cabin, to which they brought the family in the fall of 1837. Mrs. 
McKee died January- 17, 1839, and ^'^'^^ '''"^ ^'''^^ person buried in the 
cemetery, conveyed by her husband. Mr. McKee did an important 
work in the early settlement in the organization of Wesley Chapel church, 
and was an official member and an ordained minister of the gospel. 
In his business relations he was both popular and successful and 
came to hold 220 acres of valuable land. Thomas L. McKee, son of 
the above, was born in Ohio, June 9, 1827. He received a good com- 
mon school education in Ohio, and in this county experienced the life of 


the pioneer. At about the age of nineteen he returned to Ohio, and 
attended school about six months, then coming here and beginning teach- 
ing, at which he was engaged six or seven years, farming in summer. 
He taught two winter terms in Illinois. He was one of the first teachers 
in the county to introduce the outline system of teaching geographj-. 
In 185^ he was married to Melinda J. Rock, by whom he had two chil- 
dren, one of whom is living, Martha J., wife of Frank Alderman. Mrs. 
McKee was born in 1S34 and died in 1870. In 1S74 he was united in 
marriage with Sarah C. Gilpen, born in 1847, and of their two children, 
one is living, Zilpha Gertrude. Mrs. McKee is a member of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church. In 1853, Mr. McKee emigrated west and settled 
in Iowa, where he remained about two j'ears. Returning to Indiana he 
remained until 1857, after which he resided in Illinois two years, and re- 
moved to Kansas. Here he stayed about nine months and lost all he had 
but $2.00. He subsequently resided in Iowa about one year, in Illinois 
two or three years and then returned to the old homestead. In 1870 he 
removed to Fort Wayne and went into the produce and commission busi- 
ness with Solomon Bash and P. D. Smyser, and was so engaged un- 
til 187S, when he sold his interest and retired to the farm. He has been 
a member of the Fort Wayne lodge, I. O. O. F., No. 14, for about 
twenty-six years. His land possessions include 300 acres in Eel River 

Julius C. Mooney, one of a pioneer family in Eel River township, 
is a native of Miami county, Ohio, born September 9, 1825. His 
father, William F. Mooney, came west in search of land in 1835, and 
entered 120 acres of land in Allen county, and returned to Ohio, and 
on February 9, 1837, came with his wife Elizabeth and family and took 
possession of the cabin he had prepared for them. His life was that of 
the pioneer in general, little money but abundance of pluck. He suc- 
ceeded in life, gaining a valuable farm of 160 acres, and made for him- 
self a name for fair and honest dealing. He lived to the age of sixty-five 
years. Julius C. Mooney was twelve years of age at coming, and 
aided in the earl}^ clearing. He received such an education as could be 
obtained in the old log school-houses. In 1867 he was united in mar- 
riage with Rosa, daughter of Jacob and Marj- Morton, and this union is 
"blessed with two children, William F. artd Maude. In 1865 he enhsted 
in Company K, One Hundred and Fift3'-third regiment, under Capt. 
Young, and served about one year. He has made a success of fife, and 
•owned at one time 280 acres of good land. He now has a farm of 160 
acres, where he lives, on which he has recently built a two-stor}^ 

John S. Benward, of Eel River township, was born in Pennsylvania 
September 24, 1837, son of Isaac and Ehzabeth Benward. The mother 
was of German, and the father of English, descent. The family emi- 
grated to Allen county in 1838 and settled in Perry township, where the 
father bought eighty acres, which was improved with a double log 
house. He began to keep a hotel for the accommodation of emigrants 


and for teamsters to and from Fort Wayne and remained in this busi- 
ness until he cleared up his farm, when he began farming. After 
remaining in Perr}- township eight or ten j-ears he traded for i6o acres 
of wild lands in Eel River township where his son now lives. He built 
a log house here, but his land being low and swamp}' at that time, he 
rented his old farm in Perry where he lived four years, at the same 
time clearing his wild lands. In 1S52 he went to the gold fields of 
California and remained about four years, afterward returning to Allen 
count}' and settled on his new farm, which in the meantime had been 
well improved by his family. His death occurred about 1870. He was 
an industrious man and well-liked. John S. Benward received a good 
common school education. November 30, 1857, he was united in mar- 
riage with Eliza Jane, daughter of Abraham and Rebecca Workman, 
early settlers of Noble county. This union was blessed with six chil- 
dren, of whom Edmund C, John E., Commodore and Arthur are now 
living. Mrs. Benward was born November 30, 1839. She is a mem- 
ber of the Missionary Baptist "church. In 1S65 Mr. Benward enlisted in 
Company D, One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Indiana regiment, and was 
discharged at Indianapohs September 5, 1865. He has given much 
attention to threshing machines during the past thirty-six years and 
although he never studied engineering, is an expert in the management 
of an engine. He is popular, prosperous and owns a farm of 160 acres. 
John McCarty (deceased), was an early settler in Eel River town- 
ship, and was a successful farmer. He was a native of Ohio, born June 
4, 1 81 7, son of Samuel and Elizabeth (Wood) McCarty. Growing to 
manhood in Ohio, he attended school during a short period while 
he was too young to be of service on the farm, and as he grew older he 
became a necessity to his father, and thus drifted naturally into farming 
as his occupation in life. He shared the hardships of a pioneer life in 
Ohio before coming to Indiana. iVbout 1S41 he was married to Mary 
Douglas, born April 7, 1817, b}' whom he had five children, of whom 
two are now living: Eunice, wife of James Potter, and John Henry. In 
1844 Mr. McCarty settled in Allen county, where he remained until his 
death, which occurred August 17, 1877. During his first years here 
he had to suffer not only poverty, but the more dreaded chills and fever, 
and had to return to his old home in Ohio for a season to regain his 
former strength. Beginning again with indomitable will, the morning- 
found him with ax and maul, ready for the woods. From then till eve 
he worked hard felling heav}- timber, making rails for fencing, while 
brush-piles and log-heaps were burned after nightfall. By such hard 
work and good management, he gathered to himself 328 acres of fertile 
land. In his wife he found a true helper; in the many vicissitudes of life 
she proved herself eminently deserving, patient, kind, frugal and indus- 
trious. Sharing his toils and hai-dships, she lived to see them crowned 
with success. Mr. McCarty was a man of upright character, and was 
esteemed throughout the community in which he lived. John H., his 
youngest son, now occupies the old homestead farm, and the old log 


house in which his father first lived after coming to Allen county, is 
now standing as a relic of by-gone da3-s. Our subject was born here 
March 9, 1855. He received a good common school education. Janu- 
ar}- I, 18S0, he was united in marriage with Lucy J. Woods, born 
January 28, 1855, daughter of Albert and Nanc}' (Dunton) Woods. 
This union was blessed with three children, Arthur, Arlington Guy, and 
Nanc}' L. She is a member of the Universalist church. He was a 
member of the Independent Order of Red Men, during the lifetime of 
that order. He is a leading young farmer, and owns a half interest in 
160 acres of land. In his possession is an old English reader, bought 
by his mother December 10, 1832, which is in a good state of 

C. Luther Greenwell, a popular teacher in the public schools and 
ex-trustee of Eel River township, is a native of Ohio, born July 17, 
1845. His father, George Greenwell, was born of Irish parentage 
March 14, 1810, at Hagerstown, Md. In 1830 he removed to Miami 
county, Ohio, and was there married in 1838, to Elizabeth Blickenstaff. 
They came with their children to Eel River township in 1846, and here 
he died November 10, 1878, and his widow Jul)- 8, 1868. The}' had five 
children. Luther Greenwell received a good common school education, 
beginning in the old log school-houses, and in 1865 he began teaching 
in Steuben county. He taught one term in a school of sixty pupils, and 
twenty- two older than he, and then returned to Allen county and began 
teaching in district No. 7, Eel River township, and taught in the winters 
of 1866-7-8-9 and 1870, and taught in Perr}', district No. 5, in 1871, 
again in district No. 7, Eel River, in 1872-3, and in 1874 and '75 in dis- 
trict No. 8, Eel River township, '76 in No. i, '77 and '78 in No. 8. He 
was then elected trustee of his township on the democratic ticket, and 
served until 1882, when he again began teaching in 1883, at district No. 
8, and '84, '85 and '86, No. i. He was again elected trustee in 1S86, 
and assumed the office in the spring of '86, and served two years, and 
in the winter of '88 and '89 taught in district No. 6. In 1866 when he 
began teaching in the township there were eleven districts, and it so 
continued until 1878 when Mr. Greenwell as trustee vacated one district. 
He then renumbered the districts with the intention of making four 
sections constitute a school district, placing No. i in the northeast and 
ranging west. By the efforts of his successor it was rendered possible, 
upon Mr. Greenwell's second election, to vacate one more district, leav- 
ing nine. He built one brick school-house during his first term of 
oflice and three during the last, on the improved plan. November 7, 
1872, he was united in marriage with Fannie J., daughter of Samuel 
and Alvira Mathews, born in March, 1852. Of their four children, 
Walter S. and Franklin W. are living, and Cora E. and an infant child 
are deceased. 

Sa/nuel Mathews, an early settler and prominent citizen of Eel River 
township, was born in Richland county, Ohio, June 24, 1826, son of 
Jacob and Fannie (Smith) Mathews. He was taken by his parents to 


Huron count}-, Ohio, while quite j'oung, and he there grew to manhood, 
and received his education in the pioneer school-house. When he was 
ten 3'ears old, the death of his father threw upon him the support of the 
family, in which there were four children besides himself. In 1846 he 
was united in marriage with Alvira Rice, born March i, 1828, b}- whom 
he had eleven children, nine of whom are now living: Alfred, Fannie J., 
Mary E., Samuel J., Commodore P., Ellen A., Brittie, John W. and 
Norah. John W. has attended college at Ann Arbor and grad- 
uated in June, 1889. He is a member of the Church of God. Mr. 
Mathews came to Indiana in 1846 and settled on the farm where he now 
lives. At that time he was so poor that to pay a man for helping bring 
his effects here, he had to surrender the top from his wagon. He accu- 
mulated subsequentl}- 415 acres of good land, and now lives on a farm of 
295 acres. He is one of Allen's prominent citizens and well respected 
by all. The experience of a pioneer's wife was that of Mrs. Mathews. 
•She took upon herself such tasks as going to the woods after the cows, 
digging sassafras from which to make tea, helping her husband to pile 
brush, etc. She would go with him to help neighbors butcher and work 
all day for some heads and feet, and would sew all day for a chicken, or 
whatever they would give. 

George V. Kell, of Eel River township, was born in Perry township, 
February 3, 1S46, and grew to manhood on the old homestead of his 
parents, Jacob and Catharine Kell. He received a good common school 
education and attended Perry Center seminary about five years, study- 
ing the higher branches. On October i, 1867, he was united in mar- 
riage with Alice, daughter of N. V. and Abigail Hatch, born December 
8, 1S46, and they have had seven children: Gertrude, Louie A., Jessie, 
Beatrice, Robert, Frank and Dollie. In 1867 he and f amity made a 
trip by wagons to Iowa, where they remained six years. While there 
he was engaged in agricultural pursuits, and in 187 1 he was elected 
trustee of his township and served two years. In 1873 he returned to 
Indiana, and settled on the farm where he now Hves, which was then 
nearl}- all in timber, but now well improved. Mr. Kell makes a specialt}- 
of breeding the trotting stock of horses, and has recently purchased a 
valuable Hambletonian horse for $1,000. He served four years as 
justice of the peace of Eel River township, and is now secretary and 
a director of the Farmers' Mutual Fire association. He has 100 acres 
of good land of his own, and 177 acres belonging to his father he has 
full control of and will eventually own. He is one of the leading citi- 
zens of his township, and in politics is prominent as a democrat. 

Michael Miller, one of the worthy old settlers of Indiana, was born 
in Pennsylvania, Maj^ i, 1818. He came to Ohio with his parents when 
only nine years of age, and nine years later removed to DeKalb county, 
Ind., in the woods, where wolves were so plentiful that they would run 
the dogs under the cabin. In 1841 he married Elizabeth Trussle, and 
they had six children, four of whom are now living, Amos, Rebecca J., 
Martha and Lucy Ann. Mrs. Miller was born in 1823, and died 


February 19, 1882. While in DeKalb county he served as constable one 
year, and after removing to Allen county in 1849, he was elected trustee 
about 1S51; served three years as one of the board, and was assessor in 
1856. He has often declined to run for office. He now owns 105 acres 
of good land, and is one of the leading citizens. His parents, Henry 
and Elizabeth Ann (Sheets) Miller, natives of German}-, emigrated to 
America in 1805, without any money, understanding that they would 
have to work out their passage after their arrival. The captain of the 
vessel sold their work to the highest bidder; they were both bought by 
the same man, who was a very hard master, and as Mr. Miller demanded 
better treatment, they were sold a second time, and this time fell into 
good hands. They thus worked three years to pay for their passage. 
With such a beginning, Mr. Miller came to own 310 acres of land in 
Eel River and two sections of land in Texas, and has given to his chil- 
dren about $5,000, and to churches and benevolent institutions about 
$6,000. He has been a devoted friend of his church and generoi^s to it. 
John W. Holmes, of Eel river township, was born in Wayne town- 
ship, March 31, 1853, son of Joshua and Mary M. (Fountain) Holmes. 
In Ma}', 18S4, he removed to Washington township, remained until De- 
cember, and then came to Eel river township and settled on the farm 
where he now lives. He received a good common school education, 
and attended the Methodist Episcopal college at Fort Wayne about five 
terms. In 1S73 '^^^ ^^'^^ united in marriage with Sarah J., daughter of 
James and Elizabeth Cartwright, born May 21, 1850, and they have 
six children: Clara, Florence, Lizzie, Edith, John R., and Eddie. He 
and wife are both members of the Missionary Baptist church. Mr. 
Holmes is the present trustee of his township. Though a republican in 
a township where there was a democratic majority of fifty, he was 
elected in 1888 b}' eight majorit\\ He has a beautiful farm of 160 
acres, handsomel}' improved. He is a leading citizen and universally 


Charles Weeks and William Caswell, who removed to this part of 
the county of Allen in 1830, were the first settlers and for three j-ears 
had undisputed sway in its forests. The}^ were famous hunters, and 
spent much time in the pursuit of deer and smaller game, by which their 
larders were supplied. Both were also men of industry and cleared 
farms, but Caswell, a hardy Canadian, of great strength and endurance, 
was the more energetic and enterprising, and became prominent in the 
earl}' historj-. At his house the first election was held in October, 1835, 
and he was elected one of the justices. At his friend Weeks' house, in 
1836, the postoffice was first established, and for two or three j'ears Mr. 
Weeks was the postmaster. The next comers were Thomas Dunten 
and his nephew, Horace F. Dunten, who came from Jefferson county, 
N. Y., and were joined in the fall of the same year, 1833, b}' Ephraim H., 


father of Horace. This family was quite prominent; Horace erected the 
tirst hevvn-log house in 1S34, and soon afterward Ephraim H., jr., who 
settled in 1834, put up a frame store room on what is now a lot of Hun- 
tertown. He purchased his goods in Toledo, and had them shipped b}- 
way of the canal, and from Fort Wayne by wagons. The store pros- 
pered and was continued man}- years by "his sons. In 1835 the Lima 
road was opened to the rich prairie region of LaGrange county, and it 
became a great highway for travelers and freight. Upon this highway' 
in the vicinit}' of Huntertown, Ephraim H. Dunten, jr., opened a tavern, 
and being a genial host, had as many guests as he could accommodate. 
Several 3'ears later he built a more commodious house. He also, about 
the same time, opened a brick kiln, which, however, was not profitable. 
At a later period he was in business at Fort Wayne, but returned to 
Perr}' township and died of cholera in 1854. Other settlers in 1833, 
were Albert Wood, whose daughter Mary was the first white native, 
and Nathaniel Fitch, who married Miss Sarah De Long in 1836, that 
being the first wedding of the township. Fitch was the first blacksmith, 
opening his shop in 1837, in which same year James Vandergrift, in 
another part of the township, also engaged' in the manufacture of plow 
points and steel traps. Benjamin and Amaziah Parker came from Jef- 
ferson county, N. Y., in 1834, '^"'^ became leading citizens. In the same 
year came Jason Hatch from Penns3'lvania, and settled on Cedar Creek, 
and erected a saw-mill. He became quite popular and prominent; with 
him came his wife, Joanna, and their son, Newman V., born in 1S15, 
who married Abigail Parker in 1839, I'aised a family of seven children, 
and is still a resident of the township. Philemon Rundels, a settler of 
the same year, was also a man of ability. In 1836, George Simon came 
to the farm which was his home thereafter, and James Vandolah and 
famil}' began their residence; Schuj^ler Wheeler, a well-educated man, 
who was elected to the legislature in 1858, also came in 1836. In 1837 
there were several notable aj-rivals. William T. Hunter came and pur- 
chased the tract of land including the site of Huntertown ; he did much 
for the advancement of the township. George, Samuel, Henry and John 
Bowser were others. Some of those who settled after 1837 are Thomas 
Tucker, James Thompson, Isaac Benward, Rapin Andrews, Jacob Hil- 
legass, Vachel Metcalf, George Gloyd, L. Gloyd, James Tucker, Dr. 
E. G. Wheelock, August Martin and Samuel Shryock, but the settlers 
became so numerous that it is impossible to detail their names. The 
pioneer mill was that of Blair & Hines on Cedar creek, three miles from 
Huntertown. It was a saw-mill with a corn-cracker attachment, by 
which corn was hardly ground, but simply cracked, and was of. little 
value. The establishment was sold to Samuel Shryock in 1836, and he 
put in a run of buhrs, and founded a grist-mill. x\bout 1S52 John 
Stoner became the proprietor, and the mill is now generally known as 
the Stoner mill. It is still operated, at present by Price West. In 1848 
or 1849 the Lima road was made a plank road, and a considerable 
amount of toll annually came to its projectors. A line of stage coaches 


was established to Kendallville, and there was a large timber commerce 
over the road. But atter the railroads were built, the business was 
mostly destroyed, and the planks went to decay and were finall}^ removed. 

Hitntevtoioi. — After the completion of the Lima road, a number of 
settlers built their homes upon what promised to be a great highway, 
and William T. Hunter, one of the most prominent of these, purchased 
the tract of land embracing the site of the present town which bears his 
name. No plat was made nor town lots sold until December, 1869. 
The Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad takes the place of the old wagon 
thoroughfare as an avenue of commerce with the north. Among the 
early settlers were the Duntens, Nathaniel Fitch, Jacob Hillegass, John 
Hippenhamer, N. V. Hatch, A. I. Ketchum, Elbndge Burke, T. M. 
Andrews, Danford and Omri Parker, Solomon Simons. The first 
school near the town was taught b}- Eliza Parker in 1S35, in a log cabin 
on section 6. She was a teacher surpassing the ordinary instructors of 
her day, and with the financial aid of the settlers did valuable work. 
Matthew Montgomer}' established a school in 1837 on section 8; he was 
an able 3'oung man, and in 1846 was nominated for representative by the 
whigs against Peter Kiser. The village now has a commodious two- 
story school building, with two teachers. The earl}- business of the 
town has already been mentioned. There are now general stores kept 
by J. C. Hunter, who is the postmaster, J. E. Ballou and James New- 
man; hardware and groceries by Reuben Cone, hotel by William Clut- 
ter, notions and groceries by J. C. Gay. E. J. Scott deals in grain and 
agricultural implements, and N. C. Glazier conducts a wagon shop. A 
feed grinding establishment and flour exchange is kept by A. Snyder. 
The population in 1880 was 226. 

A prominent fraternal organization at one time was Henry King 
lodge, F. & A. M., for which a dispensation was granted March 28, 
186S. The petition for the estabhshment of the lodge bore the names 
of T. M. x\ndrews, S. A. Thornton, J. O. Beardsley, Ira A. Wert, F. C. 
Wert, H. F. Bovnton, Thomas V^andolah, Henry King, James W. Flem- 
ing, Corwin Phelps, David McQuiston, F. C. Bacon, John Anderson, 
William Ross and William Anderson. The first oflicers were installed 
by Sol D. Ba3'less, June 24, 1S69. 

William T. Hunter, the pi-ominent citizen whose name is perpetuated 
in that of the town, is mentioned in connection with his son in another 

Thomas Dunten (deceased), one of the earhest settlers of Allen county, 
was born in Vermont in 1787. He removed to Jefferson county, N. Y., 
while quite young, and remained until the early part of 1S33, when he 
came west in search of wild land, which he found in abundance in this 
region. He purchased about 400 acres in this county and returned for his 
family, which he brought to the new home in Peny township. He had 
been married in 1S13, to Margaret Mattoon, also a native of Vermont, born 
July 31, 17S9, and this union was blessed with seven children: Francis, 
Franklin (died 1SS6,) James A., Clarinda, Lucinda, SalU' (died 1871,) 


and Thomas J. Of this well known pioneer family, Lucinda is the only 
representative in Perry township. He was a man in good circumstances 
before he came west, and left a beautiful home in New York state, and 
100 acres of land, to seek his fortune in a new country, and as 
is characteristic of the man, his ambition was to make homes for his 
children, sufferinc^ all the hardships of a pioneer life to gain this end. 
He was a generous and self-sacrificing man, and he was one of the first 
in his township to take his cattle and go to the northern part of this 
state and haul corn for himself and neighbors, to keep them from perish- 
ing from hunger in the winter. This was a trip which required some 
six or seven days to make, and the country through which he traveled 
was so thinly settled, that he was compelled to sleep in the forest where 
night would overtake him. Mr. Dunten endeavored to give his children 
as good an education as could be obtained at that time, and they were 
naturall}' above the average in intelligence, and were quick to learn. 
Miss Lucinda became one of the early and successful instructors in the 
schools of Allen county, an occupation which she successfully followed 
for over twenty years. She was a pupil in the first school in Perr}^ 
township, taught by Eb. Ayres. Mr. Dunten was a leading citizen 
during his life, and his death, which occurred August 20, 1858, was 
widely mourned. 

Horace F. Dunten, the oldest living settler of Perry township, was 
born in New York, January 28, 1813, son of Ephraim H. and Abigail 
(Ball) Dunten, who with their family, came to Indiana in August, 1833. 
Ephraim was a soldier in the war of 1812. Horace Dunten entered 
forty acres the first year, and continued to accumulate land as fast as he 
earned the money, at $16 per month while working on the canal, and 
$10 per month at other work. Horace F. and Thomas Dunten in 1833, 
selected the site of the cemetery near Huntertown. In 1837 he was 
united in marriage with Almena, daughter of Henry and Anna 
(Broughton) Timmerman, who came to Indiana in 1834. To this union 
were born ten children : Granville S., Marville N., Orville A., died at the 
age of twenty-eight; Milton B., Alexander B., Winfield S., Friend B., 
Henry Clay, Mary Helen and Charles J. Four of the sons served in the 
war of the rebelHon: Orville A., a year and a half; Milton B., three 
years; Alexander a short time, and Winfield, one year. Eight of the ten 
were successful school teachers. Mrs. Dunten was born Juh^ 22, 1816. 
She has been a member of the Universalist church since its organization 
at Huntertown. Mr. Dunten though a leading citizen, never desired 
office of any kind, and held his only ofl'lce, that of constable, but about 
one year, when he resigned, and went with the tide of emigration to the 
gold fields of California, where he remained about a 3-ear and a half. 
He has succeeded well in life, and owns 200 acres of fine farming land 
which is under a good state of cultivation, with substantial buildings. 

Albert Wood (deceased), an early settler, was a native of Jefferson 
county, N. Y., born in iSio. He was raised in his native state until 
1833, when he emigrated and settled in Allen county. In the same year 


he was united in marriage with Nancy, daughter ot Ephraim and Abi- 
gail (Ball) Dunten, and this union was blessed with twelve children, 
seven of whom are now living: Marj' J., who is the first white child 
born in Perrj- township; John W., Richard F., Oscar D., Commodore, 
WiUiam and Lucy. Mr. Wood departed this Hfe in February, 187S. 
Mrs. Wood, who was born in Jefferson county, N. Y., in 181 7, is still 
enjoj'ing the comforts of a peaceful life. She is a member of the Uni- 
versalist church. Mr. Wood was not a member of any church, but was 
a friend and supporter of such organizations. Though beginning mar- 
ried life with little, he left his family no acres of fine farming land in 
Perry township, which was well improved. He was a leading citizen of 
his day and was highly respected. 

Nathaniel Fitch (deceased), one of the old settlers of Allen county, was 
a native of Penns3dvania, born July 9, 1806, son of Nathaniel and Sarah 
Fitch. In 1832 he became a settler in Allen county. He was a black- 
smith, gunsmith and locksmith, having learned the trade without instruc- 
tion. This he followed in Pennsylvania and continued the work after 
arriving here. He made all the iron for the canal locks from the Wabash 
to Fort Wayne. Circumstances denied him educational privileges, but he 
was intelligent and shrewd. June 4, 1840, he was united in marriage with 
Sarah, daughter of George and Elizabeth De Long. Her grandfather, 
George Statler, was a soldier of 1812. This union was blessed with 
fifteen children, of whom thirteen are now living : Perry, Matthias, Jane, 
Charles, Amos, Francelia, Fidelia, Harvey, Sarah E., Allen, Ida A., 
Emeline and David. Mrs. Fitch though born in 181S, is still enjoying 
life. She is a consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Mr. Fitch, being very poor, had onl}- 15 cents in his pocket when he 
started from PennS3'lvania to Indiana, and consequently- made the journey 
on foot. Beginning under such circumstances, his success was verj' re- 
markable. He came to own 2,300 acres of land, and raised a large famil}^ 
in comfortable circumstances. As might be expected, his Hfe was full of 
adventures. At one time, while at work in his shop, he was compelled 
to put off an Indian who had a gun to mend, which so enraged the red- 
skin that he sprang at him with drawn knife, and probably would have 
been hurt with the shovel Mr. Fitch was sharpening had not Chief 
Chopine interfered. Before he came to Indiana he had been accident- 
ally shot in the leg while on a wolf hunt. Again, while crossing Lake 
Erie on a side-wheel steamer, the}^ were caught in a gale, and the shaft 
becoming disabled, they were fast going to ruin, and were onl}' saved by 
breaking one of the shafts. David N. Fitch, the youngest son of 
Nathaniel Fitch, now lives on the old homestead farm with his aged 
mother. He received a good common school education and attended 
college at Fort Wa3'ne two years. In 18S7 he was united in marriage 
with Emma B., daughter of James C. and Nancy (Kidd) Stirlen. They 
have one child, James B., born January 26, 1888. Mrs. Fitch was born 
November 2, 1866. She is a member of the Lutheran church. Mr. 


Fitch is a member of the Regulators of Allen coiintv. As a young 
man he stands high in the estimation of all who know him. 

Perr}- Fitch was born January 6, 1842, in the old log house 
built b}' his father in an early day, where he grew to manhood. 
He received a common school education. In 1S64 he was united in 
marriage with Sarah E., daughter of George B. and Magdalena Gloyd. 
This union was blessed with twelve children, eight now living: William 
S., Ohver J., George B., Bert C, Kelsie D., Frank E., Claude P. and 
Pearl M. Mrs. Fitch was born April 9, 1S46. She is a member of the 
old school Baptist church. Mr. Fitch is a resident of DeKalb county, 
having removed there in 1864, where he has served his township twelve 
years as justice of the peace. He has a valuable farm of 140 acres, 
where he lives, with a two-story brick dwelling and a good barn, and 
eighty acres in Union township, DeKalb count}-. He is one of the lead- 
ing citizens of his county, and respected b}- all. Mr. Fitch is a member 
of the Masonic order. 

Matthias Fitch, the second son of Nathaniel, was born January 16, 
1843. December i, 1867, he was united in marriage with Frances, 
daughter of James and Rebecca Vandolah, and this union gave them 
nine children, six of whom are li\'ing: Schuyler, John B., Walter, Bes- 
sie, Altha and Beatrice. Mrs. Fitch was born Februar}- 19, 1S43. He 
is a member of the Regulators, and was once a member of the F. & 
A. M. He makes a specialty of raising sheep. He has 240 acres of 
good land in Perry township, improved, and 200 acres in Iowa. In con- 
nection with farming he also runs a water-power saw-mill built by his 

Amos Fitch, of DeKalb county, was born at the old homestead, 
June II, 1849, and there grew to manhood, receiving a good common 
school education. In 1878 he was united in marriage with Nancy E., 
daughter of William T. and Jane Hunter, and the}' have two children; 
Gladys, born October 15, 1881, and Roland, born September 12, 1884. 
Mrs. Fitch was born January 22, 1849. She is a member of the Uni- 
versalist church. He was a member of the Good Templars while that 
lodge was in existence at Huntertown. He possesses 160 acres of land 
given to him by his father, and upon which he has erected a two-story 
brick dwelling. He remained in Perry township on the old home place 
until 1S78, when he returned to DeKalb county and settled on the farm 
where he now lives. Harvey Fitch, eighth child of Nathaniel and Sarah 
Fitch, was married in 1880 to Etta P. Parker, daughter of Danford and 
Parmelia Parker, and they have had four children, three now living: 
Andra, Nina and Parker. He owns 160 acres of fine farming land. 

George B. Gloyd is a name conspicuous in the annals of the early 
settlement of Allen county. He was born in Virginia in 1812, and when 
nineteen years old emigrated to Ohio, whence he removed in 1832 to 
Indiana, entering 240 acres of land. He was a man of considerable ex- 
ecutive abilitv, and devoted much of his time to the construction of pub- 
lic works. His first engagement of That kind in this county was as 


superintendent ot a portion of tlie construction work on tiie Wabasli 
& Erie canal. In 1S35 he returned to Oliio, and was married Septem- 
ber 19, to Madeline Mittler, by whom he had nine children, of whom 
eight are now living: Jerome D., Lewis, Sarah E., William S., Mary M., 
Edwin G., Celia A., Verdenia (deceased), and George B. After his return 
to Indiana he took contracts on \>arious railroads, and at the time of his 
death was engaged on the Saginaw railroad. He amassed a compe- 
tency and became one of the leading citizens of his township. His 
widow, who was born June 3, 1816, yet survives. The children of 
these worthy parents are now prominent citizens of Perry township, es- 
teemed and honored by a wide circle of friends. Jerome D. Gloyd, the 
eldest, was born in Perry township, July 12, 1841. In 1S75 he was 
married to Fidelia, daughter of Nathaniel and Sarah Fitch, born in 
April, 185 1. They have four children, Estella, Madella, Otis F., and 
Norma A. Mr. Gloyd served his township as trustee four years, and 
evinced such abilit}- in this direction that he was elected county commis- 
sioner in 1882, and re-elected in 18S4, and served six years. He has a 
fine farm of 160 acres. 

William S. Gloyd was born September 8, 1852, on the homestead, 
and was there raised to manhood, receiving a common school education. 
October 11, 1888, he was married to Mary Gunger. He is a highly 
respected citizen, owns a fine farm of eighty acres, and has just com- 
pleted a handsome and commodious residence. 

Edwin G. Gloyd was born Februarj' 19, 1850. He early mani- 
fested a natural adaptation to the trade of miller, and though he never 
served an apprenticeship, he became an expert, and is now proprietor of 
the Gloyd water-mill. His land possessions are 100 acres, which he 
cultivates. Mr. Glo3'd was married April 4, 1872, to Priscilla Myers, 
who was born April 20, 1852. Of their seven children but three are 
living: Charles, Silvia and Gertrude. 

George B. Gloyd, the youngest son, was born May 21, 1858, and 
brought up on the old homestead. He has a fine farm of eight}- acres 
of the original land entered by his father, and is one of the influen- 
tial J^oung men of the township. In 1885 he was married to Emily, 
daughter of Edward B. and Lavinia Harwood, and they have one 
child, Ethel May. Mrs. Gloyd who was born in 1867, is a member 
of the Reformed Lutheran church, while he belongs to the regular 
Baptist church. 

Solomon Simon, an early settler of Allen county, was born in 1825, 
in Columbiana county, Ohio. His father, George Simon, was a native 
of Pennsylvania, and was carried across the mountain in a pack saddle 
when only six months old, to Washington count}', Penn., where he was 
raised to manhood. About 1809 he removed to Ohio and settled in 
Columbiana county. He served in the war of 181 2 about six months. 
In the fall of 1836 he removed to Allen county with his wife, Elizabeth 
Hewitt, and children, and settled in Perry township, where he lived until 
his death in 1872. In 1S52 Solomon Simon was united in marriage with 


Mary A., daughter of Daniel and iNIary (Garble) Rhoads, who settled 
in DeKalb county, when there were only six other families in the count}-. 
This union was blessed with eight children, seven of whom are now 
living: Joseph, Etta, James S., George L., Ella, Benjamin A. and Perry B. 
Mrs. Simon was born about 1830. She and her husband are members 
of the old Lutlieran church, Mr. Simon being now elder. Mr. Simon 
began life in this country without an}^ money, and made his start by 
traffic in coon skins and other furs. He is now prosperous, having a 
handsome property of 225 acres in Perry township, and 120 acres in De 
Kalb county, also a half interest in four lots in Laotto. 

James Vandolah, one of the worthy pioneers of Allen count}-, came to 
Indiana in 1832, on a tour of inspection, looking for a situation for a 
water-mill. This he found in Perry township, and then returned to 
Ohio. In 1835 he came again, and remained long enough to dig the race 
for his mill. In the fall of 1836, he emigrated with his family, and set- 
tled on the farm where Benjamin Vandolah now lives. He entered 
about 400 acres of wild land in Eel River township, 520 in Perry town- 
ship, and 160 acres in DeKalb county. He was a mill-wright, and de- 
voted much time to his trade, having worked in several m'lls throughout 
the country. He built the Shryock mill, at Leo; the Dauson mill, at 
Spencerville; the grist-mill, near Clarksville; his own mill, and a number 
of others. About 1830 he was united in marriage with Rebecca 
Tucker. Of their eight children, five are now living : Benjamin, Thomas, 
Sarah J., Francis and James. Mr. Vandolah served as one of the trus- 
tees of his township several terms. He was a leading citizen, and was 
highly respected by all who knew him. His eldest son, Benjamin Van- 
dolah, was born in Greene county, Ohio, April 14, 1834; he was brought 
to Indiana when three years of age, and on the farm where he now lives he 
grew to manhood. On October 4, 1888, he was married to Catharine 
Aaron, daughter of Michael and Ehzabeth (Pierce) Aaron. She is a mem- 
ber of the Lutheran church. He is a prosperous farmer, possessing 180 
acres of fine land in Perry township, with substantial buildings. Mr. Van- 
dolah has in his possession a very curious Indian relic, which he un- 
earthed about twelve years ago. Thomas Vandolah, the second son, 
was born in Greene county, August 31, 1836. His hfe in Allen county 
began in the same year. He received such education as could be ob- 
tained in the pioneer log school-house. In 1871 he was united in mar- 
riage with Elizabeth Vandolah, daughter of Joseph and Drusilla 
(Nickerson) Vandolah. She was born in 1842. Though never seek- 
ing office, he has always taken an interest in politics, being one of the 
leading democrats of his township. He owns 285 acres of good farm- 
ing land, and is as prominent socially as he is as a land-owner. 

John Surfus, an old and prominent farmer of Perry township, and a 
pioneer of Allen county, is a native of Ohio, born in 181 2, son of Andrew 
and Betsy (Harless)" Surfus. He left his native state in 1833 and 
settled in Allen county, Ind. Mr. Surfus was denied the privilege of 
any education, his family being poor and in need of his work. In 1842 


he was united in marriage with Ellen Belong, by whom he had twelve 
children, ten of whom are living: Stephen, George, Samuel, Andrew, 
John E., Harriet, Mar}', Ellen, Celina and Julia. When Mr. Surfus 
landed in Allen county he possessed a yoke of cattle, table, chest, set 
of chairs and oven, and their first bed was made by boring holes in the 
logs of the house and putting in sticks, which he wrapped with bark. 
In such circumstances Mr. Surfus began life in Indiana, surrounded by 
bands of Indians and wild beasts. He had no financial advantages and 
his success m life must be attributed to the energy and perseverance he 
has displayed in all his undertakings, and the unfaihng assistance of his 
true wife. They accumulated considerable property and at one time 
owned over i,ooo acres of good land in Perry township. They have lived 
to see all their children comfortablj- situated. After giving his children 
all a good home Mr. Surfus retains a residence elegantly surrounded 
with all the comforts of life. He and wife are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. Their seventh child, Andrew Surfus, 
a prosperous farmer and stock-raiser, was born September 8, 1S50. 
He received a common school education and remained with his parents 
until twenty-five years of age, when his father gave him 140 acres of 
good farming land, which he now occupies and has well impro^'ed. In 
1875 he was united in marriage with Mar}', daughter of Jacob and Sarah 
Snyder, born November iS, 1854, ^'""i '^hey have three children: Jerry 
H., born October 16, 1S76; Orville, born July 11, 1878; Eva Blanche, 
born Jul}' 25, 1880. He and wife and children are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. He makes a specialty of graded stock. 

Schuyler Wheeler (deceased) was one of the pioneers of Allen 
count}'. He was born July 22, 1802, in Massachusetts, but was taken 
to New York by his parents when only six months of age. He remained 
in Oswego county until fourteen years of age, when he removed to 
Orangeville, N. Y., where he remained until 1S36, when he settled in 
Allen county, entering 400 acres, in April. Returning to New York 
he brought his family during the summer of 1836. In 1828 he had been 
united in marriage with Lydia, daughter of Perry G. and Sophia Smith. 
This union was blessed with four children, three of whom are living: 
Juha, Commodore P., now a resident of Missouri; Columbia, the wife 
of F. C. West, who died April 19, 1888, and Almina, wife of Cyrus 
Krumlauf. Mrs. Wheeler was born in Berkshire county, Mass., in 1801. 
She was a member of the Methodist Episcopal church from sixteen 
years of age. He served an apprenticeship at the tanner's trade, at the 
age of nine years, and after he became twenty-one he formed a partner- 
ship with his father and Luther Briggs, and in connection with the tan- 
nery they also ran a boot and shoe store. He had strong elements of 
character that commanded the respect and confidence of his neighbors 
and associates. He succeeded financially, leaving 940 acres of good 
land here, and 1,800 in Missouri, and in pubhc life was honored by the 
position of representative of Allen county, in the legislature of 1859. 

Rapin Andrews, above named as an early settler, came to Perry town- 


ship with his wife, Mary Brimmer, and their children, from New York 
in 1839, ^^^ began to take a hand in the township's development. He 
was one of its most valued citizens. He was a Mason, while in New 
York, during the period of the Morgan excitement, and was a charter 
member of the first Royal Arch lodge of Allen county. He was one of 
the eleven voters at the first presidential election in Perry township, in 
1840. In 1849 he died "at the age of sixty-seven, but his widow sur- 
vived until 1884, reaching the age of eighty-five years. 

Theron M. Andrews, son of the worth}' old settlers, Rapin and Mary 
Andrews, was born March, 1822, in New York state. Theron M. 
received his early education in the log school-house, and assisted in the 
poineer work of the family. December 20, 1849, he was united in mar- 
riage with Helen L., daughter of Oliver and Clarissa Potter, born October, 
1830. To this union were born three children, Mary D., Sidney D., 
and Ida J. Mr. Andrews is one of the prominent citizens of the county, 
and during his more active days was among the foremost in its affairs. 
He served as assessor of his township from 1856 to 1857, and was elected 
township trustee, an office he resigned in 1857, to accept a higher one 
to which he was called by the people of the county, that of member of 
the board of county commissioners, and he held this important position 
until 1S60. He has served since then as one of the drainage commis- 
sioners of the county, and has been a member of the board of ec^ualiza- 
tion since that body was created. He is a member of the Masonic order 
and occupies a high position socially. One of the leading people, he is 
widel}' known and he and familj' are highl}' respected. Mr. Andrews 
has a beautiful farm in Perry township of 220 acres, thoroughly culti- 
vated, and provided with substantial buildings. 

Dexter B. Andrews, a well-known citizen of Perry township, was born 
in New York, July, 1825, another son of Rapin and Mary (Brimmer) 
Andrews. In 1839 Dexter B. emigrated with his parents and settled in 
Perry township. In 1848 he entered the shops at Fort Wayne to 
serve an apprenticeship as millwright, but never completed it. Being a 
natural mechanic, he stood at the head wherever he worked. He 
followed this trade through life In 1S49 he was united to Celeste A. 
Sauers, born at Watertown, N. Y., October 3, 1S32, daughter of Samuel 
and Mercy Gibson (Parsons) Sauers, early settlers of Allen county. 
The father cast the first democratic vote in Washington township. He 
was proprietor of the Washington hotel in Fort Wayne about five years. 
This union was blessed b}' four children, three now living: Amelia, wife 
of J. N. Bassett; Cora M., wife of L. C. Hunter, and Clara G. Mr. 
Andrews worked a number of years as a daguerreotyper, which art he 
learned from books alone. He has in his possession pictures he took in 
1853, which are as bright apparently as the day the)' were taken. He 
continued at this business in connection with his trade until 1S65. In 
1866, he entered the pension office with S. D. Bayless, where he 
remained until 1869. In March, 1852, he started on the overland route 
to the gold fields of Cahfornia, arriving August 10, 1852. He entered 


the mining region at the, mouth of Nelson Creek, and remained until 
November, when he removed to Santa Clara, and returned to Indiana in 
the spring of 1853. He is a member of the Masonic order, of Wayne 
lodge, No. 25. Mr. Andrews is one of the leading citizens of his town- 
ship, and a man respected by all. He owns ten and one-half acres of 
land in Perry, and 140 acres in Eel River township. 

David M. Shoaff, one of the pioneer settlers of Allen count}', was 
born in Hamilton county, Ohio, December 16, 1814, son of Peter and 
Elizabeth (Musselman) Shoaff. He received a good common school 
education, and served an apprenticeship at the tailor's trade, which he 
followed about twentj- years. In 1836 he was united in marriage with 
Mary Mendenhall. This union was blessed with five children. Four of 
his children are now living: -Peter, Samuel H., John P. and Emma. 
Mrs. Shoaff, who was born in 1S19, departed this fife in 1888. She was 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Shoaff and wife 
came to this country in 1839, with no money, and verj- little goods. 
Being poor, he was compelled to work out, and in the winter worked in 
the snow and storm for 50 cents per da}^, enough to buy two pounds of 
coffee of old Squire Jones. His wife's experience in the early daj'S was 
typical of what the helpmeet of the pioneer had to endure. She would 
go to the clearing with her two little babes and place them on the 
ground while she would help pick and burn brush. Mr. Shoaff now has 
a nice little farm of eighty-four acres, which is under a good state of 
cultivation. Mr. Shoaff was one of the eleven who voted at the presi- 
dential election in Perry township in 1840, and cast his vote for Harrison. 
In March, 1840, salt sold at $9.00 per barrel in Fort Wayne, and Mr. 
Shoaff being in need of some, his brother furnished the money, and he 
and F. C. Freeman made the trip in March, taking twelve daj-s to reach 
Maumee City. He returned by Fort Defiance on the ice, having very 
narrow escapes from drowning. When Mr. Shoaff built J. P. Shoaff's 
and Sijuire Jones' houses in the fall of 1S36, they were the first houses 
on the road on which he now lives between his home and Heller's Cor- 
ners, a distance of six miles. Six men helped to build these houses, out 
of whom two are now living: D. M. Shoaff and Harrison Jones. 

Phanuel W. Jack'son, a prominent farmer of Perry township, was 
born in Butterfield township, Oxford county. Me., May 19, 1827. His 
parents, Lemuel and Mercy (White) Jackson, were also natives of 
Maine. When he was six j'ears old his parents emigrated to Ohio, and 
located in a part of Richland county, now a portion of Crawford, where 
the father died six years later. Here Mr. Jackson passed his boyhood 
and received his schooling. The advantages for an education were 
ver}' poor, but he has since, however, acquired a broad knowledge and 
general information. At the age of fourteen he accompanied his sister 
and her husband, Eleazer Cummings, to Allen county, and located with 
them on the farm Mr. Jackson now occupies in Perry township. In 
December, 1841, he returned to the home of his mother in Richland 
county. At the age of twenty he accompanied his mother to Whitley 


county, Ind., and from 1S47 until 1S50, gave his attention to the well 
business. May 16, 1850, he was married to Catharine Kell, who was 
born in France, of German descent, June 29, 1824. She came to 
America with her parents, George and Magdalena Kell, when she was 
four years old. Immediatel}' after his marriage Mr. Jackson located 
on the farm he has occupied nearly forty years. In his chief occupation, 
farming, he has been successful. He owns a well-improved farm of 
120 acres, and has given more or less to his children. Besides being 
known as a first-class farmer, Mr. Jackson has acquired an extensive 
reputation as an oculist. It was twenty-five years ago that his at- 
tention was especially directed to his ability in this line, when his wife 
had a very severe disease of the e3res, which had been pronounced in- 
curable by a recognized oculist. He began a systematic study of the 
subject, determining thoroughly to acquaint himself with it, and the case 
above mentioned and others with which he was equally successful soon 
attracted the attention of the public. For the past tvvent}' years he has 
practiced quite extensivel)', and has performed a number of difficult 
cures. He has also devoted much attention to the study of medicine 
in general, and he is now one of the licensed physicians of Allen county. 
Mr. Jackson and wife had four children that lived to maturity: Mercy M., 
Cordeha M., Margaret D. and Meha N., of whom Cordeha M. died in her 
twenty-fourth year. The wife of Mr. Jackson died Januar}' 23, 1887. She 
was a member of the Baptist church. Mr. Jackson is a member of the 
same church and in politics is a democrat. He is now serving as justice 
of the peace, having been elected in the spring of 1886. 

Joseph Warner (deceased), one of the pioneer settlers of Perry 
township, was born in Adams county, Penn., September i, 1796. He 
remained in Pennsylvania until 1831, when he emigrated to Ohio and 
settled in Richland county. In the fall of 1842 he removed to Indiana. 
He bargained to clear twenty acres for forty acres, and completed the 
work that winter, and settled the next year on the forty acres. His edu- 
cation was limited, and he had to depend upon his labor for support of 
his family, and what he made was b}' honest work and good manage- 
ment. At twenty-five years of age he was united in marriage with 
Elizabeth Ebley, bj^ whom he had nine children: John (died in the 
service of the Union at Nashville), Samuel, Joseph, George, Mary, 
Amos, James, Alexander and Sophia. He and wife were both mem- 
bers of the Catholic church. He served as township treasurer one term, 
and as supervisor several years during the time of opening new roads. 
He opened all the roads in his district and proved to be an efficient 
officer. He resided in Perr}' township on his original farm until his 
death, which occurred in 1871. He became a prosperous as well as 
popular citizen, and at the time of his death owned 303 acres of valu- 
able land. Samuel Warner, his eldest son, is a native of Cumberland 
count}% Penn., born November 21, 1824. He came with his parents to 
Indiana in 1842, and had the usual pioneer experience. After receiving 
a common school education he worked at the carpenter's trade about 


eighteen j-ears, and though he never served an apprenticeship at any 
trade, he became one of the leading carpenters of his day. On June 4, 
1849, ^'^ ^^''^^ united in marriage with Julia A., daughter of Benjamin 
and Sarah (Robinson) Spencer. Of their eight children, seven 
are hving: Benjamin F., Elizabeth A., Addie, Charles H.. Lovisa S., 
William JM. and Julia A. Mrs. Warner was born in Alleghany county, 
N. Y., April 7, 1833. She is a member of the Close Communion Bap- 
tist church. Mr. Warner is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
chui-ch. He was a member of the Regulators. He has a home farm of 
131 acres in Perry township, which is well improved, with a two-story 
dwelling house, and thirt3'-five and one-half acres in Cedar Creek 

Among the notable families of Allen coimt}- are Jacob Hillegass and 
wife, pioneers of Perrj- township, and their descendants. His father, 
Michael Hillegass, was a farmer and a native of Pennsylvania. He 
was married to Anna Yeakel, and they had thirteen children. Jacob, 
the youngest of five brothers, was born February 7, 1S18, after the 
removal of the famil}- to Montgomery county, Ohio. There he was 
raised, and there he received the education which could be obtained in 
the early school-houses in the woods. May 26, 1841, in Butler count}-, 
Ohio, he was united in marriage with Lucy A. Powell, daughter of 
John and Barbara Shaffer, both natives of Pennsylvania. This union 
was blessed with seven children: Josiah D., Jerr}^ Hezekiah, Isaiah J., 
Sarah J., Mary M. and Lucy I. Mrs. Hillegass was born July 28, 1822, 
in Butler count}-, Ohio. She and husband have for many years been 
members of the Presbyterian church. Mr. Hillegass is a man in whom 
the people have alwa\-s had implicit confidence, and -in an earl}- day 
when the township board consisted of treasurer, clerk and one director, 
he served as clerk about six years, afterward being elected trustee, a 
position he held nine years. He has also served as assessor of his 
township. During his terms in these smaller ofhces, he became noted 
among his constituents as a man of energy and much decision of charac- 
ter, and this reputation led to his election as county commissioner in 
October, 1870. He was re-elected three years later. In this position he' 
acquitted himself with honor. Mr. Hillegass came to Allen county, 
April 14, 1843, and settled on the farm where he now lives. It com- 
prises 320 acres of ver}' fine farming land, well improved, with a two- 
■ story brick dwelling. He has alwaj's been a supporter of churches, 
. schools and all laudable enterprises. Though in his seventy-first year 
ihe is full}' able to enjoy the comforts with which he is so amply sur- 
rounded. His manly qualities and honest dealing have gained for him 
the respect of all who know him. Having been deprived of school 
advantages in his early years, he bestowed those privileges upon his 
children liberally. His sons, J. D., Jerry and Isaiah, were graduated at 
the University of Michigan. The first and third became lawyers, and 
the second was for several years superintendent of schools of iVllen 


county. Josiah D. died April 2, 1S75, ^nd his law partner, John Stahl, 
husband of Sarah J. Hillegass, died August 16, 1878. 

Jacob Kell, an old and successful farmer of Perry township, is a 
native of France, born Jul}- 10, 1818, son of George and Magdalene 
Kell, both of German descent. At ten years of age he emigrated with 
his parents to America, and first settled in Wayne county, Ohio. In. 
October, 1843, he removed to Indiana and settled on the farm where he 
now lives, buying eighty acres of land, and afterward entering forty 
acres, all timbered land. He began work for Mr. Newhouse, making 
rails for 75 cents per hundred, and furnished the timber and boarded 
himself. By this labor he bought his house furniture. He cleared and 
fenced ten acres, and in the summer following he raised some corn and 
potafoes. In a few years he had a beautiful farm. In 1841 he was. 
united in marriage with Catharine Weimer, and they had five children, 
three of whom are living: Solomon, George V. and Amelia E. This 
wife was born March 27, 1824, and departed this life November 2, 1852. 
She was a member of the Cedar Creek Presbyterian church. On Jul}' 
7, 1855, he was married to Catherine M., daughter of John and Mary 
(Crous) Fonei", and they had the following children: Mary Magdalene,, 
John (died at the age of seventeen), Emma, Hiram A. (died aged 
twenty-one), Edna Viola (died aged five), Bertha May and Frederick 
Jacob. Mrs. Kell was born in Pennsylvania April 19, 1828. She is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church at Huntertown. Mr. Kell 
was a member of the Regulators for the protection of property in Allen 
county. He has served his township as trustee four years. He makes 
a specialt}' of the best grades of all kinds of stock. He has prospered 
in life, and now owns about 1,000 acres of fine farming land in Allen 
county, and his home place, being the old homestead, consisting of about 
800 acres, is handsomely improved, with good buildings. His accumu- 
lations have been by industry, not through speculation, and he is 
esteemed as one of the prominent citizens and representative farmers of 
his township. 

Solomon Kell, of Perry township, was born August 23, 1842, son of 
the above named Jacob and Catharine Kell. He was raised in Allen 
county, and received a good education, attending the Perry Center sem- 
inary four or five years, and studying all the higher branches, after 
which he followed the vocation of teacher for five years. Part of this 
period, subsequent to 1868, he was a resident of Iowa. He was there 
elected trustee of his township, but after being in office two years, 
returned to Perry township. In 1865 he was united in marriage with 
Emeline, a daughter of John and Eliza Krider, born in 1845. Her 
parents were pioneers of Allen county. This union was blessed with 
five children : Alice May, Eliza M., Mabel Ellen, Charles E. and Grace 
Gertrude. Mr. Kell is a constable, or one of the riders of the " Regu- 
lators" who have done much in the past to rid Allen county of outlaws. 
Being a resolute man, he is very earnest in his work, and does his full 
share in helping to bring to punishment these enemies of law and good 


society. Like his worthy father, he occupies one of the first places in 
the estimation of his township. He has a fine farm of eight}- acres, 
with a good two-story frame dwelHng house and commodious barn. 

Constant Delagrange, one of the prosperous farmers and stock- 
raisers of Perr}' township, is a native of France, born May 24, 1831. 
He is a son of Joseph and Marj^ (Shottan) Delagrange, nati%'es of 
France, who emigrated to America, bringing Constant, then only twelve 
years of age. They settled in Ohio and bought twenty-five acres of 
land, where they remained eight years and then sold and bought eighty 
acres, which the}^ improved and' lived upon four years. Then they 
removed to Indiana and settled in Cedar Creek township. They first 
bought forty acres in the woods, and four years later sold this and bought 
sixt}- acres near Leo, where he remained three j-ears, and in 1S61 he 
bought and settled on the farm where he now lives. All of these farms 
he cleared to a considerable extent and built upon, and his present place 
is handsomely cared for. In June, 1S61, he was united in marriage with 
Ann Margaret Greavy, by whom he had fourteen children, seven of 
whom are hving: Joseph, Franklin, Constine, Josephine, August, Louis 
and Julian. Mrs. Delagrange was born in 1837 and died December 27, 
18S1. She was a member of the Catholic church, to which he also 
belongs. His vocation has always been that of a farmer and he has 
succeeded well, now owning a farm of 200 acres which is equal to the 
best. In stock-raising he makes a specialty of Norman horses. 

John B. Masson, a substantial farmer of Perry township, is a native 
of France, born December 21, 1S26. He is the son of Peter and Mar- 
garet Masson, the former of whom died when John B. was five 3'ears 
old. He lived in his native country, being employed chiefly in a vine- 
yard until eighteen years old, when he accompanied his mother and step- 
father to America. Coming directly to Fort Wayne, they settled on a 
farm in Lake township, two miles from Areola. . There he remained 
with his mother six years. December 4, 1850, he was married to Amelie 
Nicolas, also a native of France, born September 18, 1833, daughter of 
Nicolas and Marjr Nicolas, the former of whom died when Mrs. Masson 
was two 3ears old. She accompanied her mother and step-father to 
America when she was eleven years old, and they also settled in Lake 
township. About eighteen months after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Masson located on the farm the}' now occupy. Mr. Masson resides on 
his well improved farm of eighty acres, and also owns a farm of forty- 
eight acres in St. Joseph township. He and wife have six children: 
John N., Jane M., Mary J., Joseph A., Jule J. apd Adel J. Mr. and 
Mrs. Masson and children are members of the Catholic church. In pol- 
itics Mr. Masson is a democrat. 

Florentin Roy, of Perry township, is a native of France. He was 
born July 26, 1S33, to Ferdinand and Josephine (JuUiard) Roy, of 
French nativity, who on March 4, 1846, emigrated to America and 
reached Fort Wayne June 22. They purchased land in Washington 
township and remained until 1858, when they removed to St. Joseph 


township, where the mother died in 1872. The father Hved with Flor- 
entin until his death in 1878. He reached this country poor in purse, 
but came to own a farm of eighty acres. He was a worthy man and 
well-liked by his neighbors. Florentin received his education mainly 
in this country. His vocation has always been that of farmer, but in 
connection with farming he was engaged in operating a saw and shingle 
mill about five years. April 5, 1S53, he was united in marriage with 
Mary LailHot, born April 24, 1824, and they had four children, three 
now living: Louis F., Charles J., Philomine. February 15, 1865, Mr. 
Roy enlisted in Company H, One Hundred and Fift3--second regiment, 
under Capt. M. W. Wines, and received an honorable discharge at 
Charleston, August 30, 1865. He served as deputy assessor three 
3-ears and was elected constable but resigned to enlist in the war. In 
187 1 he removed to his present home in Perry township, where he owns a 
valuable farm of 17S acres. Having come here when quite 3'oung he 
and all of his father's famil}^ suffered all the privations of pioneer life. 
He is one of the leading citizens of his township and is well-known as a 
prominent politician in the democratic part}-. In 1888 he was elected 
township trustee. Mr. Roy makes a specialty' of his vineyard, and also 
gives much attention to raising German carp, having a pond of about 
two acres. He and wife are members of the Catholic church. 

George Gump, of Perry township, is a native of Miami county, Ohio, 
born August 14, 1825, son of Daniel and Margaret (Studebaker) Gump. 
In 1848 he emigrated west and settled in Perry township, and in 1856 
removed to the farm where he now lives. He received the common 
school education of his day. His occupation has always been that of a 
farmer. In 1849 he returned to Ohio and was united in marriage with 
Harriet Agenbroad, born June i, 1830, and of their thirteen children 
nine are living: Franklin, Priscilla, Alice, Jane, Madison, Marion, Cal- 
vert, Effie and Cora. Mr. Gump served as township trustee four j'ears, 
his term closing in 1888. He has also done considerable probate busi- 
ness in his township. Mr. Gump had onl}' 60 cents in money when he 
settled in the woods and began to hew out a farm, but now he looks 
with satisfaction over a handsome farm of 1S4 acres. He and wife are 
members of the German Baptist church. 

Martin V. Metcalf, a substantial farmer of Perry township, was born 
in Ashland county, Ohio, December 3, 1S45. His father, Vachel Met- 
calf, an early settler of Perrj-, was born September 20, 1816, in Ashland 
county, Ohio, where his father, Edward Metcalf, was a pioneer. In 
1842 Vachel married Amanda Otto, and in 1849 they emigrated to 
Perry township, settling upon land yet in the forest. When Martin V. 
was but four 3'ears old he accompanied his parents to Allen countx-, and 
located on the farm where his boyholsd and 3-outh were spent. In win- 
ter he went to the district school, receiving a ver3- good education for 
that da3-. In early manhood he adopted the vocation of a farmer. 
January 26, 1870, he was married to Mary E. Duly, a native of Ashland 
count3^, Ohio, born September 7, 1845, to John and Elizabeth (Ely) 


Duly. From 1S70 to 1877, Mr. and Mrs. Metcalf resided on the Met- 
calf homestead, in Perrj- township. In the latter year they removed to 
another farm in the same township. Besides this valuable farm of eight}^ 
acres, Mr. Metcalf owns a one-half interest in the old homestead of 
140 acres. He and wife have had two children. The tirst was a son 
that died in infanc}^ unnamed. The other is William Edmund, who 
was born October 29, 1881. Mr. Metcalf is one of his township's most 
worthy and respected citizens. 

Solomon Duly, of Perry township, is a native of Wayne county, 
Ohio, born November 27, 1838. His father, John Duly, was born in 
Pennsylvania, and emigrated to Ohio, and in 1849 settled in Perry town- 
ship on the farm where Solomon now Hves. Here he died June 14, 
1874. He began life in the Perry township, woods with about $900, 
and succeeded in becoming the owner of 240 acres of good land. He 
was one of the leading citizens, and he and his wife, whose maiden name 
was Elizabeth Ely, were highly esteemed. Their son, Solomon, 
received his education in the log school-houses, now passed awa}'. On 
December 14, 1S71, he was married to Lucinda, daughter of George 
and Margaret (Kairger) Bowser, earty settlers who came from Ohio 
about 1836, and settled on land which thejr entered from the govern- 
ment. This union was blessed with two children: Harr\^ E. and Edna I. 
Mrs. Duly was born July 14, 1842. She is a member of the United 
Brethren church. Mr. Duly has a fertile and well improved farm of 
eight}' acres. 

Eugene Parnin, a successful farmer of Perr}' township, is a native of 
France, born January iS, 1844, son of Gabriel and Virginia (Everard) 
Parnin. He emigrated to America with his parents when only eight 
years of age, and settled in Lake township, where he grew to manhood 
and received an education such as could be obtained at that time. His 
vocation has always been that of a farmer. In the dark days of the 
rebellion he enlisted in Company I, Forty-sixth Illinois infantry, under 
Capt. D. S. Pride, and served two years when the war ended: he 
received his discharge as corporal at Baton Rouge, La., January 20, 
1866. On February 28, 1870, he was married to Louisa Delagrange, 
born September 6, 1849, daughter of Justin and Theresa (Bonot) Dela- 
grange. Of their eight children seven are Hving: Joseph, Louis, Emma, 
August, Edward, Mar}' and George. Mr. Parnin has prospered in his 
undertakings, and by good management and close economy now owns a 
valuable farm of 120 acres in Perry township. He gives much atten- 
tion to breeding Norman horses. He is one of the leading citizens of 
the township, and is well respected. 

Solomon C. Chapman, of Perry township, is a native of Ashland 
county, Ohio, born May 18, 1838. His father, John Chapman, emi- 
grated from Ohio, October 4, 1852, and settled on the farm where his 
son now lives, where he remained until his death, Jul}- 12, 1861. By 
honest industry he was enabled to leave a good farm of eighty acres 
and an honorable name. Solomon Chapman coming to Indiana when 


about thirteen years of age, grew to manhood on the old homestead 
and received such schooling as the schools of that da}- afforded. Decem- 
ber 10, 1S61, he was married to Hannah Honora, daughter of Patrick 
and Matilda (Baird) Horn, and they had seven children: Mary J., S3-1- 
vester G., Minerva A., Hannah H., Eunice M., Catharine C. and 
Blanche H. Mrs. Chapman, who was born December 12, 1842, departed 
this hfe May iS, 1873. She was a member of the Presbyterian church. 
Mr. Chapman was deputy assessor of Perry township in 1873. He is a 
member of the Masonic order. His land-holdings in Perr}- township 
amount to 272 acres. 

John W. Hursh, one of the prominent teachers of Allen county, is 
a native of Perry township, born July 15, 1S55. He is a son of Jacob 
and Elizabeth Hursh. Growing to manhood on the old homestead farm, 
he received a good common school education and afterward attended a 
term at the Center seminar^' and at the Fort Wayne college about two 
years. In 1875 he began teaching in the country schools and has been 
so engaged since, with the exception of about two years. In 18S0 he 
was united in marriage with Jennie, daughter of George and Harriet 
Gump, and they have four children: George, John, Donnie and Bertie. 
He and wife are both members of the Methodist Episcopal church. He 
occupies the old homestead of 200 acres, of which he owns all but one 
share. He is recognized as one of the worth}- and valuable citizens of 
his township. 

Alexander Stirlen was born in Holmes county, Ohio, December 24, 
1832. His parents, Samuel and Delilah (Praig) Stirlen, natives of 
Westmoreland county, Penn., came to Ohio about 1828, traveling in 
the once familiar emigrant wagons. In 1853 Alexander settled in 
Allen county, and was employed about four years as a day laborer. He 
then farmed on shares two years, after which he purchased land. His 
schooling was that of pioneer days. In 1858 he was united in marriage 
with Magdalena, daughter of George and Magdalena Kell, early settlers 
of Allen county. She was born February 6, 1829. This union gave them 
five children: Martha, John, Wilham, George and Edgar. Mrs. Stirlen 
departed this life Februar}- 26, 1880. She was a member of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church. Mr. Stirlen has always been an active worker 
for the democratic party, but has not held office except as a school 
director four 3'ears. When he first came to Allen count}- he was with- 
out resources, and had the usual wearisome experiences of early days. 
But his success has been remarkable, and he possesses 532 acres of ex- 
cellent land in Perry and Cedar Creek townships. His home place, in 
Perry, is handsomely improved. 

James McCombs, of Perry township, was born in Irehmd, April 4, 
1828. His parents, Robert' and Margaret McCombs, emigrated to 
America when James was about two years of age, and settled in 
Claremont county, Ohio. After landing in Cincinnati, his mother was 
taken sick and died, and he was bound out to Sampson Newbrough, with 
whom he remained until twenty-one years of age. In 1850 he was 


united in marriage with Margaret Simonton, and they have had eleven 
children: Robert S., Thomas C, John S., Mar}- C, wife of John Rey- 
nolds, Joseph (deceased), James I., Theoppolis M., Emma, wife of Samuel 
Davis, William S., Hiram E. and David O. Mrs. McComb was born 
July 21, 1S33. She and husband are members of the United 
Brethren church. Mr. McCombs is a leading citizen and has served as 
trustee from 1880 to 18S4. His landed possessions are 200 acres of 
fine farming land, which were heavily timbered when he first came 

Henry A. Treace, an earl}- settler of Perry township, is a native of 
Pennsylvania, born in 1823, son of Jacob and Elizabeth Treace. He 
was taken by his parents to Ohio when only two years of age, and there 
grew to manhood. He received a common school education in the 
pioneer log school-house. In 1844 he was married to Elizabeth Clay- 
ton, born in 1821, and had by this union nine children, eight of whom 
are living: Margaret, Rosa Ann, Lottie, Jane, William, Frank, George 
and Robert. He served six years as a school director. He and wife are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal church. When Mr. Treace setded 
in Perry township he had but a shilling in money, but b}- hard, diligent 
industr}' he came to own 480 acres of good land out of which he cleared 
farms, and has given all to his children except 120 acres upon which he 
now lives. He is one of the leading citizens of his township, and is 
well respected by all. 

Alanson C. Griffin, of Perry township, is a native of New York state. 
He was born June 29, 1836, the son of Jonathan and Huldah (Dudley) 
Griffin. The mother, who is in her eightj'-first year, is still a resident of 
New York state. Mr. Griffin remained in his native state until 1864, 
when he settled in Allen count}^ and in March, 1866, occupied the farm 
where he now lives. He received a ver}' limited education, his father 
having died when he was quite young, leaving much responsibility to 
him. He began with his brother, when seventeen years of age, the 
trade of a carpenter and joiner, which he engaged in after coming to 
Indiana. He and his brother went to Canada in 1857, and built a house 
for one of his uncles. December 22, 1858, he was married to Marj^ J., 
daughter of Charles B. and Rosette (Eddy). The}' had one child, 
Viola, born September 28, 1S60. The mother of this child was born 
Februarj' 8, 1836, and departed this hfe August 8, 1863. December 31, 
1865, he was married to Henriette, daughter of John and Ellen Surfus. 
By her he had five children: Effie M., born May 6, 1867; Anna, born 
September 13, 1869; John E., born November 14, 1870; Aclie S., 
born Januar}^ 8, 1872, and Jesse, born Maj^ 14, 1876. The mother was 
born March 25, 1844, and died Ma}^ 18, 1876. December 5, 1877, he 
was united in marriage with Sarah J., daughter of James and Rebecca 
Vandolah. She is a member of the German Baptist church. Mr. Griffin 
was a member of the Masonic lodge at Huntertown during its existence, 
and passed through the chairs. He has a fine farm of eighty acres, in 
Perry township, well improved with perfect arrangements for watei-ing, 


and supplying water to his house, and i6o acres in Kingman county, 
Kansas. In connection with farming he also runs a repair shop for 

Fisher C. West was born in 1827, at Syracuse, N. Y., son of Joseph 
and Joanna (Smith) West. The father was a soldier in the war of 
1S12, and served about one year. The grandparents on both sides were 
soldiers yi the war for American independence, and the grandfather on 
the father's side served through the whole struggle and lost an eye in 
the first battle. Mr. West left his native state when about fifteen years 
of age, and settled in DeKalb county, where he remained with his 
parents about one year, and then began to learn the miller's trade, which 
he has followed more or less ever since. In 1849 he joined the great 
tide of emigration to the gold fields of California, where he was very 
successful in mining. He remained about four years, then returned to 
Indiana and purchased the farm in Perr\' township on which he now 
lives. He remained in Allen county about ten months and then began a 
series of travels, to New York city, then to the Cape V^erde, Africa, 
then to the little island of St. Helena; thence to Rio Janeiro, Brazil; thence 
to Cape Town, Africa; thence to Fort PhiUip, Austraha; thence to the 
gold mines of Australia, where he remained about eight years; then from 
Melbourne to London, England, where he remained about three months 
and then returned home. In i860 he was united in marriage with Col- 
umbia Ann Wheeler. Of their eight children, three are living: Price D., 
Curtis S. and Lena E. The mother of these children was born in 1833, 
and departed this life in 1SS8. Mr. West is an extensive land owner, 
having 937 acres of valuable land in Perry township, with brick dwell- 
ing and other substantial buildings. He also owns eighty acres in Noble 
county, about 300 in Missouri and 1,700 in Tennessee. He is an enter- 
prising man and is now boring for gas on his farm, the well being at this 
writing about 1,000 feet deep. His home farm is the very best land in 
Allen county, unsurpassed in its production of grain. Mr. West is a 
member of the F. & A. M. 


The region about the confluence of Cedar creek and the St. Joseph 
river appears to have been the seat of villages both of those mysteri- 
ous people, the mound-builders, and of Indians, at a remote epoch, and 
here it is probable that missionaries erected the cross at a date never 
recorded in history. During the present era the first to make a per- 
manent home were Jacob Notestine and family, who in the spring of 
1834, went up the St. Joseph in a flat-boat and settled near the mouth 
of Cedar creek. He found there a man named Wood, who had passed 
the winter, but eagerl}- a\'ailed himself of the boat to remove his posses- 
sions, and start for the east. The early settlers found here traces of 
former occupation, at least of the visits of the French. William Muller, 


in 1836, found upon a beech tree a French inscription and the date 1772, 
and in 1S69, John Pring found two feet beneatli the surface, in the 
vicinit}- of Cedarville, a cross, made of beech wood, fourteen feet in 
length, with the figures 1772 carved upon it. These facts have led to 
the belief that this was the site of a French mission, during the Indian 
occupation. Mr. Pring, some twenty- years before, had found on the 
banks of the creek, buried beneath the surface, fragments pf trace- 
chains, log-chains, etc., and a heap of cinders, which appear to show 
that a blacksmith's forge had been in operation there at some date 
previous to the settlement. The same gentleman, on April 28, 1S50, 
found a sword imbedded in the wood of a linn tree, which had been 
blown down the previous night, and about the same time William Muller 
discovered a cannon ball on his farm, circumstances which seem to indi- 
cate that there had been military operations here which have escaped 
the cognizance of historians. The memory of these finds aided in 
causing a great deal of excitement at a subsequent date, when a party of 
strangers from the west came to Cedar Creek, and letting it be known 
that the)- were about to fish and trap, began digging instead, apparently 
in the search of some hidden treasure. It is said that they finally 
unearthed and bore away the contents of an old, rotten chest, but 
further the traditions do not satisfy curiosity, except that it is told by 
way of explanation that these men came to find treasures buried by 
Indians, whose descendants, removed to strange lands bej-ond the great 
river, had revealed the secret. The only neighbors which the Notestines 
had during the first year were John Manning and family, who settled 
on section 15. In 1836, William Muller, coming from Ohio, cut his wa}^ 
through the forest tangles from Beckett's branch to the spot he had 
selected as his home, and after building his cabin, went to Cincinnati 
and married the lady who assisted him in his pioneer life. In 1836, also, 
came Charles C. Nettelhorst and family, Peter Sullivan and John 
Rogers, two friends of Irish nativity, and John Baker and William 
Berr}', who afterward went west. Moses Sivotts came up from St. 
Joseph township in 1838, and among the others who came between 1837 
and 1840 were M'^illiam and Joseph Shields, John Hackle}-, Aaron 
Poff, Wilham Bowser, John Hagan, Henry Updyke, Abraham Fulkerson, 
Harmon Lydecker, Joseph Silvers and John B. Blue. The two latter 
were elected the first justices, and Thomas Wilson, the first constable, 
at the election in 1837, held at the house of Jacob Notestine. The total 
poll was twelve votes. 

In 1S35 the first road was surve\-ed through the township, which 
became known as the St. Joseph road. About 1839, James Vandolah 
built a saw-mill, and afterward arranged for grinding grain. About 1S40 
Stout Price established a blacksmith forge at the site of Hamilton. In 
1847 the Leo postoffice was established near the center of the township, 
and John Manning was appointed postmaster. John B. Blue was the 
deputy and kept the office at his store. At this place grew up the 
village of Hamilton. This was a point on the mail route to northwestern 


Ohio and southern Michigan, on which Jeremiah Bowen was contractor 
and his sons, Mason and Marvin, the carriers. 

Settlers becoming numerous about Cedar creek, the village of Cedar- 
ville was laid out in the forks of the creek and St. Joseph river, in May, 
1S38, by William G. Ewing, of Fort Wayne; George M. Ewing, of 
Cass county, and Messrs. Seymour, Robinson and Peck, of Connecticut; 
but soon after the platting of Hamilton, in February, 1849, *he older 
town lost precedence. In 1S80 the population was 113. One of its 
earliest traders was Asa Miller, who took a stock of goods there from 
Fort Wayne about 1839, and built a mill. 

In 1852 John Dever established a wagon shop, and afterward a store 
at Hamihon, and managed the tirst regular boat hne on the St. Joseph. 
The village, which now is generally known as Leo, had in 18S0 a 
population of 166. 

The village of Urbana was laid out May 10, 1867, by J. C. Hursch. 
Here the Urbana mills have been conducted by M. L. Moudj- since 1S79. 

Jacob Notestine, who has been referred to as a prominent early set- 
tler of Allen count}-, was a native of Lehigh county, Penn., born in 
1790, of parents who were natives of German}'. He received a good 
common school education in his native state, and became a skillful black- 
smith, so that after his settlement in Allen count}' he was called on to 
weld a collar on the spindle of the buhr of the second flouring mill in 
Allen county. Like all his work, it was a good job. He was married 
about 181 2, to Barbara Gunder, who was born in York county, Penn., 
in 1788, and they had thirteen children, of whom six are living: Uriah, 
Peter, Daniel, Aaron, Isaiah, and Barbara Ann. Jacob Notestine, dur- 
ing the war of 181 2, enlisted, but after his company had received their 
uniforms, they were notified that their services were not needed, so that 
he did not see actual service. He and his family reached Fort Wayne, 
July 14, 1830, and first settled near Fort Wayne, near the site of the 
old Rudisill mill, and there cleared eight or ten acres. In 1834, ^^ 
entered forty-six acres where his son Daniel now lives, and in March, 
1834, the residence of the family in Cedar Creek township began. Here 
they did a great work in opening and preparing land for cultivation, and 
no family among the old pioneers more deserves an honorable place in 
the annals of the county. Possessing the characteristics of true pion- 
eers the}' succeeded in their herculean tasks, and became well-to-do, and 
the survivors are now highly esteemed by the people. Jacob Notestine 
was a prominent citizen in his time, and was one of the board of trustees 
of his township for two or three terms. He died September 16, 1853, 
and his widow's decease followed on August 3, 1S60. He was a mem- 
ber of the Lutheran and his wife of the Methodist church. 

Peter Notestine, the sixth child of the above, was born April 11, 
18 19, in Fairfield county, Ohio. Being a youth when they settled in 
Eel River township, he was an important help in the work of clearing 
and farming, and so busy was he at these duties, that he only obtained 
three months' schooling in the old log school-house before he was of age. 


Afterward he attended but three months more, but his natural shrewd- 
ness has compensated him for the advantages he missed. After 
marriage he began for himself on wild lands that his father gave him to 
clear, with the right to take what he raised. He now has a good farm 
of seventy-four acres of the old homestead. June 29, 1843, he was 
married to Jane, daughter of John Blair, a pioneer of DeKalb county. 
This union was blessed with six children, of whom five are living: 
Benjamin F., Emily J., Margaret C, Joseph H.