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There are none who know Tirol but are forward to 
express regret that so picturesque and so primitive a 
country should be as yet, comparatively with other 
tracks of travel, so little opened up to the dilettante 

It is quite true, on the other hand, that just in pro- 
portion as a country becomes better known, it loses, 
little by little, its merit of being primitive and even 
picturesque. Intercourse with the world beyond the 
mountains naturally sweeps away the idiosyncracies of 
the mountaineers ; and though the trail of progress which 
the civilized tourist leaves behind him cannot absolutely 
obliterate the actual configuration of the country, yet 
its original characteristics must inevitably be modified 
by the changes which his visits almost insensibly occa- 
sion. The new traditions which he brings with him of 
vast manufacturing enterprise and rapid commercial 
success cannot but replace in the minds of the people 
the old traditions of the fire-side and the FUd, with 


their dreams of treasure-granting dwarfs and the Berg- 
8egen dependent on prayer. The uniform erections of 
a monster Hotel Company, * convenient to the Eailway 
Station,' 'supersede the frescoed or timbered hostelry 
perched on high to receive the wayfarer at his weariest. 
The giant mill-chimneys, which sooner or later spring 
up from seed unwittingly scattered by the way-side, not 
only mar the landscape with their intrinsic deformity, 
but actually strip the mountains of their natural 
covering, and convert wooded slopes into grey and 
barren wastes ; l just as the shriek of the whistle over- 
powers the Jodel-call, and the barrel-organ supersedes 
the zitther and the guitar. 

Such considerations naturally make one shrink 
from the responsibility of taking a part (how insigni- 
ficant soever) in directing the migration of tourists 
into such a country as Tirol. I have heard a Tirolese, 
while at the same time mourning that the attractions 
of his country were so often passed over, express this 
feeling very strongly, and allege it as a reason why he 
did not give the result of his local observations to the 
press ; and I listened to his apprehensions with sympa- 

. * This is what the introduction of manufactories is doing in Italy 
at this moment. The director of a large establishment in Tuscany, 
-which devours, to its own share, the growth of a -whole hill-side every 
year, smiled at my simplicity when I expressed regret at hearing that 
no provision was made for replacing the timber as it is consumed. 

\ , 


thy. But then these ohanges must be. The attempt 
to delay them is idle ; nor would individual abstention 
from participating in the necessary movement of events 
have any sensible effect in stemming the even course of 
inevitable development. Circumstances oblige us con- 
tinually to co-operate in bringing about results which 
we might personally deprecate. 

' In whatsoe'er we perpetrate 
We do but row ; we're steered by fate.' 

And after all, why should we deprecate the result ? 
We all admire the simple mind and chubby face of 
childhood; yet who (except the sentimental father in the 
French ballad, ' Reste toujours petit ! ') would wish to 
see his son in petticoats and leading-strings all his 
days. The morning mists which lend their precious 
charm of mystery to the sunrise landscape must be 
dispelled as day advances, or day would be of little use 
to man. 

The day cannot be all morning ; man's life cannot 
be all infency; and we have no right so much as to 
wish — even though wishes avail nothing — that the 
minds of others should be involved in absurd illusions 
to which we should scorn to be thought a prey our- 

Nature has richly endowed Tirol with beauty and 
healthfulness ; and they must be dull indeed who, 

/ - 

viii PREFACE. 

coming in search of these qualities,' do not find them 
enhanced an hundredfold by the clothing of poetry 
with which the people have superindued them. Who, 
in, penetrating its mountain solitudes, would not thank 
the guide who peoples them for him with mysterious 
beings of transcendent power ; who interprets for him, 
in the nondescript echoes of evening, the utterances of a 
world unknown ; and in the voices of the storm and of 
the breeze the expression of an avenging power or the 
whisperings of an almighty tenderness. 

But then — if this is found to be something more 
than poetry, if the allegory which delights our fancy 
turns out to be a grotesque blunder in the system of 
the peasant who narrates it, — it cannot be fair to wish 
that he should continue subject to fallacious fancies, 
in order that we may be entertained by their recital. 

It is one thing for a man who has settled the grounds 
of his belief (or his unbelief) to his best satisfaction in 
any rational way, to say, 4 1 take this beautiful alle- 
gory into my repertory ; it elevates my moral percep- 
tions and illustrates my higher reaches of thought;' 
but it is quite another thing if one reasons thus with 
himself, 'My belief is so and so, because a certain 
supernatural visitation proves it;' when actually the 
said supernatural visitation never took place at all, and 
was nothing but an allegory, or still less, a mere freak 
of fancy in its beginning. 


Perhaps if the vote could be taken, and if desires 
availed anything, the general consensus of thinking 
people would go in favour of the desire that there 
had been no myths, no legends. But the vote would 
involve, the consequence that we should have antece- 
dently to be possessed of a complete innate knowledge 
of the forces of being, corresponding to the correct 
criteria, which we flatter ourselves do indwell us of the 
principles of beauty and of harmony. If there are any 
who are sanguine enough to believe that science will 
one of these days give us a certain knowledge of how 
everything came about, it is beyond dispute that for long 
ages past mankind has been profoundly puzzled about 
the question, and it cannot be an uninteresting study 
to trace its gropings round and round it. 

Perfect precision of ideas again would involve per- 
fect exactness of expression. No one can flail to regret 
the inadequacies and vagaries of language which so 
often disguise instead of expressing thought, and 
lead to the most terrible disputes just where men 
seek to be most definite. If we could dedicate one 
articulate expression to every possible idea, we should 
no longer be continually called to litigate on the mean- 
ings of creeds and documents, and even verbal state- 

But when we had attained all this, we should have 
surrendered all the occupation of conjecture and all 


the charms of mystery ; we should have parted with all 
poetry and all j&nx d } esprit. If knowledge was so posi- 
tive and language so precise that misunderstanding had 
no existence, then neither could we indulge in metaphor 
nor Sgayer la mature with any play on words. In fact, 
there would be nothing left to say at all ! 

Perhaps the price could not be too high; but in 
the meantime we have to deal with circumstances as 
they are. We cannot suppress mythology, or make it 
non-existent by ignoring it. It exists, and we may as 
well see what we can make of it, either as a study or a 
recreation. Conjectures and fancies surround us like 
thistles and roses ; and as brains won't stand the wear 
of being ceaselessly carded with the thistles of con- 
jecture, we may take refuge in the alternative of amus- 
ing ourselves on a holiday tour with plucking the roses 
which old world fancy has planted — and planted no- 
where more prolifically than in Tirol. 

In speaking of Tirol as comparatively little opened 
up, I have not overlooked the publications of pioneers 
who have gone before. The pages of Inglis, though 
both interesting and appreciative, are unhappily almost 
forgotten, and they only treat quite incidentally of the 
people's traditions. But as it is the most salient points 
t of any matter which must always arrest attention 
first, it has been chiefly the mountains of Tirol to 


which attention has hitherto been drawn. Besides the 
universally useful * Murray ' and others, very efficient 
guidance to them has of late years been afforded in 
the pages of * Ball's Central Alps,' in some of the con- 
tributions to 'Peaks, Passes, and Glaciers;' in the 
various works of Messrs. Gilbert and Churchill ; and 
now Miss A. B. Edwards has shown what even ladies 
may do among its Untrodden Peaks. * The aspects of 
its scenery and character, for which it is my object 
on the other hand to claim attention, lie hidden among 
its Valleys, Trodden and Untrodden. And down in its 
Valleys it is that its traditions dwell. 1 

If the names of the Valleys of Tirol do not at 
present awaken in our mind stirring memories such a& 
cling to other European routes whither our steps are 
invited, ours is the fault, in that we have overlooked 
their history. The past has scattered liberally among 
them characteristic landmarks dating from every age, 
and far beyond the reach of dates. Every stage even of 
the geological formation of the country — which may 
almost boast of being in its courage and its probity, 
as it does boast of being in the shape in which it is 
fashioned, the heart of Europe — is sung of in popular 
Sage as the result of some poejracally conceived 

1 Except the Legends of the Marmolata, which I have given in 
• Household Stories from the Land of Hofer ; or, Popular Myths of Tirol/ 
I hardly remember to have met any concerning its prominent heights. 



agency ; humdrum physical forces transformed by the 
wand of imagination into personal beings ; now 
bountiful, now retributive ; now loving ; now terrible ; 
but nearly always rational and just. 

To the use of those who care to find such gleams 
of poetry thrown- athwart Nature's work the following 
pages are dedicated. The traditions they record do 
not claim to have been all gathered at first hand from 
the stocks on which they were grown or grafted. A life, 
or several lives, would hardly have sufficed for the work. 
In Germany, unlike Italy, myths have called into 
being a whole race of collectors, and Tirol has an 
abundant share of them among her offspring. Not 
only have able and diligent sons devoted themselves 
professionally to the preservation of her traditions, but 
every valley nurtures appreciative minds to whom it is 
a delight to store them in silence, and who willingly 
discuss such lore with the traveller who has a taste 
for it. 

That a foreigner should attempt to add another to 
these very full, if not exhaustive collections, would 
seem an impertinent labour of supererogation. My work, 
therefore, has been to collate and arrange those tra- 
ditions which have been given me, or which I have 
found ready heaped up ; to select from the exuberant 
mass those which, for one reason or another, appeared to 
possess the most considerable interest ; and to localise 

PREFACE. xiii 

them in such a way as to facilitate their study both by 
myself and others along the wayside ; not neglecting, 
however, any opportunity that has come in my way of 
conversing about them with the people themselves, 
and so meeting them again, living, as it were, in their 
respective homes. This task, as far as I know, has not 
been performed by any native writer. 1 

The names of the collectors I have followed are, to 
all who know the country, the best possible guarantee 
of the authenticity of what they advance ; and I subjoin 
here a list of the chief works I have either studied my- 
self or referred to, through the medium of kind helpers 
in Tirol, so as not to weary the reader as well as my- 
self with references in every chapter : — 

Yon Alpenburg : Mythen und Sagen Tirols. 

BrandiB : Ehrenkranzel Tirols. 

H. J. yon Collin : Kaiser Max auf der Martinswand : ein G-edicht. 

Das Drama des Mittelalters in Tirol. A. Fickler. 

Hormayr : Taschenbuch fur die Vaterlandische Geschichte. 

Meyer : Sagenkranzlein aus Tirol. 

Nork : Die Mythologie der Volkssagen und Volksmarchen. 

Die Oswaldlegende und ihre Beziehung auf Deutscher Mythologie. 

Oswald v. Wolkenstein : Gedichte. Reprint, with introduction by 

Perini : I Castelli del Tirolo. 
Der Filger durch Tirol ; geschichtliehe und topographische Bes- 

chreibung der Wallfahrtsorte u. Gnadenbilder in Tirol u. 


1 I published much of the matter of the following pages in the first 
instance in the Monthly Packet, and I have to thank the Editor for my 
present use of them. 


A. Pickler ; Friihlieder aus Tirol. 

Scherer : Geographie und Geschichte von Tirol. 

Simrock: Legenden. 

Schneller : Mahrchen und Sagen aus Walsch-Tirol. 

Stafler : Das Deutsche Tirol und Vorarlberg. 

Die Sage von Kaiser Max auf der Martinswand. 

J. Thaler : Geschichte Tirols von der Urzeit. 

Der Untersberg bei Salzburg, dessen geheimnissvolle Sagen der 

Vorzeit, nebst Beschreibung dieses Wunderberges. 
Vonbun: Sagen Vorarlbergs. 
Weber : Das Land Tirol. Drei Bander. 
Zingerle : Konig Laurin, oder der Bosengarten in Tirol. 

Die Sagen von Margaretha der Maultasche. 

Sagen, Marchen u. Gebrauche aus Tirol. 

Der beruhmte Landwirth Andreas Hofer. 

I hope my little maps will convey a sufficient 
notion of the divisions of Tirol, the position of its 
valleys and of the routes through them tracked in the 
following pages. I have been desirous to crowd them 
as little as possible, and to indicate as far as may be, by 
the size and direction of the words, the direction and 
the relative importance of the valleys. 

Of its four divisions the present volume is concerned 
with the first (Vorarlberg), the fourth (Walsch-Tirol), 
and with the greater part of the valleys of the second 
(Nord or Deutsch-Tirol.) In the remoter recesses of 
them all some strange and peculiar dialects linger, which 
perhaps hold a mine in store for the philologist. Yet, 
though the belief was expressed more than thirty 
years ago 1 that they might serve as a key to the 

1 See Steub ' tJber die Urbewohner BatienB und ihren Zusammen- 
hang mit den Etruskern. Munich, 1843/ quoted in Dennis' Cities and 
Cemeteries of Etruria, i. Preface, p. xlv. 

PREFACE. % , xv 

Etruscan language, I believe no one has since been at 
the pains to pursue this most interesting research. In 
the hope of inducing some one to enter this field of 
enquiry, I will subjoin a list of some few expressions 
which do not carry on their face a striking resemblance 
to either of the main languages of the country, leav- 
ing to the better-informed to make out whence they 
come. The two main languages (and these will suffice 
the ordinary traveller for all practical purposes), are 
German in Vorarlberg and North Tirol, Italian in 
Walsch-Tirol, mixed with occasional patches of Ger- 
man ; and in South-Tirol with a considerable prepon- 
derance of these patches. A tendency to bring about 
the absorption of the Italian-speaking valleys into 
Italy has been much stimulated in modern times, and 
in the various troubled epochs of the last five-and- 
twenty years Garibaldian attacks have been made 
upon the frontier line. The population was found 
stedfast in its loyalty to Austria, however, and all these 
attempts were repulsed by the native sharp-shooters, 
with little assistance from the regular troops. An active 
club and newspaper propagandism is still going on, 
promoted by those who would obliterate Austria from 
the map of Europe. For them, there exists only Ger- 
man-Tirol and the Trentino. And the Trentino is now 
frequently spoken of as a province bordering on, instead 
•of as in reality, a division of, TiroL • 


Although German is generally spoken through- 
out Vorarlberg, there is a mixture of Italian expressions 
in the language of the people, which does not occur at 
all in North-Tirol : as 

fazanedle, for a handkerchief (I\s\. fazzoletto.) 
gaude, gladness (Ital. g audio.) 
guttera, a bottle (Ital. gutto a cruet.) 
' gespusa, a bride (Ital. sposa). 

gouter, a counterpane (Ital. coltre), 

schapd, the hat (peculiar to local costume), (Ital. cappdlo, a 

The k in many German words is here written with ch ; 
and no doubt such names as the Walgau, Walserthal, 
&c., commemorate periods of Venetian rule. 

Now for some of the more 4 outlandish ' words : — 

baschga' (the final n, en, rn, &c. of the German form of the 
infinitive is usually clipped by the Vorarlbergers, even in 
German words, just as the Italians constantly clip the final 
letters of their infinitive, as anda' and andar' for andare, 
to walk, &c.) to overcome. 

hattd, to serve. 

putze* or buetza\ to sew or to piece. 

hdss, clothing. 

res, speech. 

tobel, a ravine. 

feel, a girl ; spudel, an active girl ; schmel, a smiling girl. 

hattel, a goat ; miitl, a kid. 

Atti, 1 father, and datti, 'daddy? 

fret, pleasant. 

zoana, a wattled basket. 

schlutta and schoope, a smock-frock. 

taibe, anger. 

1 See it in use below, p. 28, and comp. Etruscan Res. p. 302, note. 

PREFACE, xvii 

kiba\ to strive. 

rerd to weep. 1 

musper, merry. 

tribUierd, to constraiji. 

waedle, swift. 

raetig werden, to deliberate. 

TripstruU, = Utopia. 

wec^ spruce, also vain. 

laegla, a little vessel. 

hengest, a friendly gathering of men.* 

koga, cursed, also corrupted. 

fegga, a wing. 

krom, a gift. 

blaetz, a patch. 

grind, a brute's head, a jolterhead. 

bratza, a paw, an ugly hand. 

brieggd, to pucker up the face ready for crying. 

deihja, a shepherd's or cattle-herd's hut. 8 

also dieja, which is generally reserved for a hut formed 

by taking advantage of a natural hole, leaving only 

a roof to be supplied. 
garreg, prominent. (I think that gareggiante in Italian 

is sometimes used in a similar sense.) 

Other words in Vorarlberg dialect are very like 
English, as : — 

Witsch, a witch. 
PfuUe, a pillow. 

1 Somewhat like pleurer. A good many words are like French, as 
gutscMe, a settle (couche) ; schesa, a gig ; and gespusa, mentioned above, 
is like epouse ; and au, for water, is common over N. Tirol, as well 
as Vorarlberg, e.g. infra, pp. 24, 111. &c. 

2 Comp. Etrus. Bes. 339-41. 

• Several places have received their name from having grown round 
such a hut ; some of these occur outside Vorarlberg, as for instance 
Kuhthei near St. Sigismund {infra, p. 331) in the Lisenthal, and 
Niederthei in the CEtzthal. 


xviii PREFACE. 

rdt, wrath. 

gompd, to jump. 

gutta, a galley. 

also datti and schmel, mentioned already. 

Aftermotig (after-Monday) is a local name for Tuesday. 

In Walsch-Tirol, they have 

carega, a chair. 

bagherle, a little carriage, a car. 
troz, a mountain path. • 
Malga, 1 equivalent to Alp, a mountain pasture. 
zufolo,* a pipe. 

And Turlulu (infra, p. 432) is nearly identical in form and 
sound with a word expounded in Etrus. Researches, p. 299. 

Of *8alvan' and ' Gannes/ I have already spoken.* 

But all this is, I am aware, but a mere turning 
over of the surface ; my only wish is that some one of 
stronger capacity will dig deeper. Of many dialects, 
too, I have had no opportunity of knowing anything at 
all. Here are, however, a few suggestive or strange 
words from North and South Tirol : — 

Pill, which occurs in various localities 4 of both 
those provinces to designate a place built on a little 
hill or knoll, is identical with an Etruscan word to 
which Mr. Isaac Taylor gives a similar significance. 5 
I do not overlook Weber's observation that 'Pill is 
obviously a corruption of Buchel (the German for a 
a knoll), through Buhel and Buhl ; ' but, which pro- 

1 Comp. ma = earth, land, Etrus. Res. pp. 121, 285. 

2 Comp. subulo, Etrus, Res. 324. Dennis i. 339. 
8 Infra, p. 411. 

4 See e.g., infra, p. 202. 
* Etrus. Res. p. 330. 


ceeds from which is often a knotty point in questions 
of derivation, and Weber did not know of the Etruscan 

ZiUer and celer I have already alluded to, 1 though 
of course it may be said that the Tirolean river had 
its name from an already romanised Etruscan word, and 
does not necessarily involve direct contact with the 
Etruscan "vocabulary. 

Grau-wutzl is a name in the Ziilerthai for the Devil. 

Duel, for disease of any kind. 

Giglj a sheep. 

Kiess, a heifer. 

TrieL, a lip. 

Bueg, a leg. 

knospen stands in South-Tirol for wooden shoes, and 

fokazti for cakes used at Eastertide. (Focaccia is used for 
' cake ' in many parts of Italy, and ' dar pan per focaccia ' is 
equivalent to ' tit for tat' all over the Peninsula.) 

It remains only to excuse myself for the spelling of 
the word Tirol. I have no wish to incur the charge of 
* pedantry ' which has heretofore been laid on me for 
so writing it. It seems to me that, in the absence of 
any glaring mis-derivation, it is most natural to adopt 
a country's own nomenclature; and in Tirol, or by 
Tirolean writers, I have never seen the name spelt with 
&y. I have not been able to get nearer its derivation 


than that the Castle above Meran, which gave it to the 
whole principality, was called by the Komans, when 

1 P. 79. 


they rebuilt it, Teriolis. Why they called it so, or what 
it was called before, I have not been able to learn. 
The English use of the definite article in naming 
Tirol is more difficult to account for than the adoption 
of the y, in which we seem to have been misled by the 
Germans. We do not say * the France ' or c the Italy ; ' 
even to accommodate ourselves to the genius of the 
languages of those countries, therefore, that we should 
have gone out of our way to say 6 the Tyrol ' when the 
genius of that country's language does not require us 
so to call it, can have arisen only from a piece of 
carelessness which there is no need to repeat. 




Introductory remarks on the use of myths, legends, and traditions ; 
their imagery beyond imitation ; have become a study ; now a 
science ; Prof. M. Miiller ; Rev. G-. W. Cox — Karl Blind on attrac- 
tions for the English in Germanic mythology; mythological per- 
sons of Tirol — Mythological symbols in art ; in poetry ; Dante on 
popular traditions ; their record of thoughts and customs ; Tullio 
Dandolo; Depping; Tirolean peasants • . . page 1 

Our introduction to Tirol — Excursions round Feldkirch ; the Katzen- 
thurm ; St. Fidelis ; St. Eusebius — Rankweil — Fridolios-kapelle 
— Valduna — S. Gerold — Route into Tirol by Lindau — Bregenz, 
birthplace of Flatz — Legend of Charlemagne ; of Ulrich and Wen- 
delgard — Ehreguota — Riedenberg school — the natural preserves of 
Lustenau — Merboth, Diedo, and Ilga — Embs; its chronicles; 
Swiss embroidery ; Sulphur baths ; Jews' synagogue — Lichtenstein ; 
Vaduz; Hot sulphur-baths of Pfaffers; Taminaschlund ; Luzien- 
steig * 12 

From Feldkirch to Innsbruck — The Pass of Frastanz ; Shepherd lad's 
heroism; the traitor's fate — S. Joder and the Devil — Bludenz — 
Montafon ; who gave it its arms — Prazalanz — The Tear-rill ; 
Kirschwasser — Dalaas— Silberthal — DasBruederhiisle — Engineering 
of the Arlberg pass — Stanzerthal — Hospice of St. Christof— Wies- 
burg— Ischgl ; its ' skullery ' — Landeck — Legend of Schrofenstein — 
Sharpshooter's monument — Auf dem Fern — Nassereit — Tschirgants 
Branch road to Fiissen — Plansee — Lechthal — Imst — Pitzthal — 
Growth of a modern legend — Heiterwang — Ehrenberger Klauze 
Archenthal — Vierzehn Nothhalfer 24 


A border adventure ; otir party ; our plans ; our route — Aarau — Ror- 
schach ; its skeleton-Caryatid* — Oberriet — Our luggage overpowers 
the station-master— Our wild colt — Our disaster— Our walk — Our 
embroideress guide — The* Rhine ferry — The Rhaetian Alps — Alten- 
stadt — Schattenburg — British missionaries to Tirol — Feldkirch, 
festa, costumes — Our luggage again — Our new route — Our posti- 
lion — The Stase-saddle — The Devil's House — The Voralberger- 
ghost pagb 39 



Kufstein — Pienzenau's unlucky joke — Ainliffen — Rocsla Sandor; the 
Hungarian lovers — National anthem — Thierberg — A modern 
pilgrim — Der Biisser — Public memorials of religion — Zell — Otto- 
kapelle — Kundl — S. Leonhard auf der Wiese ; its sculptures — Henry 
IPs vow — The Auflanger-Briindl — Rattenberg — Rottenburg — St. 
Nothburga; her integrity, charity, persecution, patience, piety, 
observance of Sunday ; judgment overtakes Ottilia : Nothburga's 
restoration ; legend of her burial — Henry VI. of Rottenburg and 
Friedrich mit der leeren Tasche — Character of each — Henry's lite- 
rary tastes; his mysterious fate — The fire spares Nothburga' s 
cell — Mining legend 53 



The Zillerthal — Conveyances — Etruscan remnant — Thumeggand Tratz- 
berg across the river — Strass — Corn or coin ? — The two churches of 
Schlitters — Castles of the Zillerthal — The peace of Kropfsberg — 
• The only Fiigen '—The patriot Riedl— Zell— Expulsion of Luthe- 
rans — Hippach— Hainzenberg; ultra co-operative gold mines — 
Mayrhof — Garnet mills — Maria-Rastkapelle — Hulda — Tributary 
valleys — Duxerthal — Hinter-Dux — Hardiness of the people — Le- 
gends of the frozen wall — Dog's-throat valley— The Devil's path — 
The Zemmer glacier — Schwarzensteingrund .... 79 

CONTENTS. xxiii 




Zillerthal customs — Games — Spirits play with gold skittles — Pedlar 
of Starkenberg — Dances : Schnodahiipfl : Hosennagler — Cow-fights 
— Kirchtag — Primizen and Sekundizen — Carneval — Christnacht — 
Kloubabrod — Sternsingen — Gomacht — Weddings — Zutrinken — Cus- 
toms of other valleys — The cat, patron of courtship . page 92 

Kundl again — Wiltschenan — Niederaich — Kundlburg — Oberau — Nie- 
derrau — Thierberg — Silver-mines — Legends of dwarfs and Knappen 
— Moidl and the gold-cave — Legend of the Landmark — Der Umge- 
hende Schuster — Perchtl, Pilate's wife — Comparative mythologists — 
Wodin, Wilder Jager, Wilhem Tell — Symbolism in tales of enchanted 
Princesses — Perahta, the daughter of Dagha — Brixlegg — Burgleck- 
ner — Claudia de' Medici — Biener's dying challenge — The Bienerwei- 
ble—Sandbichler, the Bible-commentator . . . .110 




Jenbach — Wiesing — Thiergarten — Kramsach — Brandenberger Ache — 
Voldepp — The Mooserthal — The Mariathal — Rheinthalersee — 
Achenrain — Mariathal, village and ruined Dominican convent — 
Georg von Freundsberg — The Brandenbergerthal — Steinberg — Hei- 
maththal, Freiheitthal — The gold-herds of the Reiche Spitze — Die 
Kalte Pein — Mariastein — The irremovable image — Jenbach — Wies- 
ing — The Thiergarten — The Achenthai — The Kasbachthal — The 
Blue Achensee — Skolastica — Pertisau — Buchau, Nature's imitation 
fortress — Tegernsee — The Achen-pass— The judgment of Achensee 
— Playing at ball in St Paul's cathedral — Legend of Wildenfeld — 
Eben — The escape of the vampire — Stans — Joseph Arnold — Tirolean 
artists — The Stallenthal — St. Georgenberg — Unsere liebe Frau zur 
Linde — Viecht, Benedictine monastery, library, sculpture — Vom- 
perthal — Sigmundslust — Sigismund the Monied — Terfens — Maria- 
larch — Volandseck — Thierberg — S. Michael's — S. Martin's—The 
Gnadenwald — Baumkirchen — Fritzens — External tokens of faith — 


The holy family at home — Frost phantoms — Hall ; Miinzthurm ; 
Sandwirthezwanziger ; salt-works ; Speckbacher ; Waldaufischer-Ka- 
pelle ; S. Saviour's ; institutions of Hall — Johanniswiirmchen ; Bauern- 
krieg — Excursions round Hall ; the Salzberg ; the explorations of the 
' Fromme Eitter ; ' grandeur of the salt-mines ; salt-works ; visit of 
Hofer and Speckbacher ; the Salzthal — Absam ; the dragons of Schloss 
Melans; Count Spaur's ride to Babylon ; combat with the toad — Max 
Miiller on legends — The image on the window-pane ; the Gnaden- 
N mutter von Absam; Stainer the violin-maker — Mils — Griinegg — 
Schneeberg — The Gnadenwald — The Glockenhof ; the Glockengiesser; 
his temptation, condemnation, and dying request — The Loreto- 
kirche — Heiligenkreuz — Taur — Thiirl — The Kaisersaule — St. Bo- 
medius, St. Vigilius and the bear ; the spectre priest — Bum, land- 
slip page 125 




Schwatz, its situation ; effigy of S. John Nepomuk ; his example ; the 
village frescoes ; a hunt for a breakfast ; the lessons of traveller's 
fare ; market ; church ; its size disproportioned to the population; the 
reason of this — Schwatz a Boman station ; silver-mines ; prosperity ; 
importance; influence of miners of Saxony; reformation; riots; po- 
lemical disputes ; decline ; copper and iron works ; other industries ; 
misfortunes. History of the parish church ; peculiar construction ; 
the Knappenhochaltar ; monuments ; Hans Dreyling ; altar-pieces ; 
Michaels-kapelle ; its legend ; churchyard ; its reliquary and holy , 

oil ; the Bobler and the gossip's corpse ; penance and vision of the ( 

unmarried — Franciscan church — characteristics of the inns ; singular 
use of the beds ; guitar playing — Blessed Sacrament visits the sick 
— Freundsberg ; the ruined castles of Tirol ; Georg von Freundsberg; J 

his prowess, strength, success ; devotion of his men ; sung of as a 
hero ; his part in the siege of Borne, sudden death, and ruin of hi 8 
house ; tower ; chapel — Weird-woman ; her story ; her legends ; 
Oswald Milser of Seefeld ; the bird* catcher of the Goaslahn ; strange 
birds ; chamois ; the curse of the swallow — Hospital; chapel — Tobacco ; 
factory girls at benediction — Pews in German churches . . 168 




Falkenstein ; exhausted mines ; religious observances of miners ; tokens 
of their craft — Buch — Margareth — » Galzein — Kugelmoos — The 
Schwaderalpe — The Kellerspitze — Troi — Arzberg — Heiligenkreuz- 
kapelle— Baierische-Rumpel — Pill — The Weerthal, Schloss Ret- 
tenberg ; its spectre warder — The Kolsassthal — Wattens — Walchen 
— Mols — The Navisthal — Lizumthal; the Blue Lake — Volders — 
Voldererthal — Hanzenheim — Friedberg — Aschbach, why it is in the 
parish of Mils — Hippolitus Guarinoni, page to St. Charles, physician 
of the poor ; religious zeal ; church of St. Charles, Servitenkloster, 
the Stein des Gehorsams ; analogous legend — Rinn ; S. Anderle's 
martyrdom; the Judenstein; lettered lilies — Aversion to Jews — 
Voldererbad — Ampass — Lans — The Patscherkofl — The Lansersee ; 
the poor proprietor and the unjust noble — Sistrans ; legend of its 
champion wrestler — Heiligenwasser .... page 200 



Our greeting ; characteristics of the people ; Innsbruck's treatment of 
Kaiser Max; the (Estereichisher hof ; our apartment ; mountain 
view ; character of the town ; its history — Wilten ; the minster ; 
myth of Haymon the giant; his burial-place; parish church; 
Marienbild unter den vier Saulen ; relic of the thundering legion — 
First record of Innsbruck; chosen for seat of government; for 
residence by Friedl mit der leeren Tasche — Character of Tirolean 
rulers — the Goldene-Dachl-Gebaude — Sigismund the Monied ; his re- 
ception of Christian I. ; condition of Tirol in his time ; his castles ; 
abdication — Maximilian; builds the Burg; magnificence of his reign ; 
legends of him ; his decline — Charles. Quint; cedes Tirol to Ferdinand 
I.; his wise administration ; quiets popular agitation ; Charles Quint's 
visits to Innsbruck ; attacked by Maurice, Elector of Saxony ; carried 
into Carinthia in a litter ; death of Maurice — Ferdinand I., the Hof- 
Kirche ; Maximilian's cenotaph ; its bas-relief; statues ; Mirakel-Bild 


desH. Anton; Fiirstenchor; abjuration of Queen Christina — Introduc- 
tion of Jesuits; results — The' Fromme Siechin'— Ferdinand II.; 
his peaceful tastes; romantic attachment; Philippine Welser; 
menage at Schloss Ambras ; collections ; curiosities ; portraits ; 
Philippine's end , . . page 225 


innsbrucx (continued). 

Wallenstein's tow — Theophrastus Paracelsus ; his mysterious dealings 
— The Tummelplatz — The Silberne Kapelle — Earthquake and 
dearth ; their lessons — Ferdinand's devotion to the Blessed Sacra- 
ment; analogous legend of Eudolf of Hapsburg — Ferdinand's 
second marriage— The Capuchin Church — Maximilian the Deutsch- 
meister ; introduces the Servites — Paul Lederer — Maximilian's 
hermitage — S. Lorenzo of Brindisi — Dreiheiligkeitskirche — Pro- 
visions against ravages of the Thirty Years' War — The Siechenhaus 
— Leopold V. ; dispensed from his episcopal jurisdiction and vows ; 
Marries Claudia de' Medici — Friedrich v. Tiefenbach — Festivities 
at Innsbruck — The Hofgarten — Kranach's Madonna, Mariahulfs- 
kirche built to receive it ; translation to the Pfarr-kirche under 
Ferdinand Karl — Ferdinand Karl — Regency of Claudia de' Medici; 
administrative ability; Italian influences — Sigismund Franz — 
Claudia Felicita — Charles of Lotharingia — War of succession ; 
Bavarian inroad of 1703 ; the Pontlatzerbriicke ; Baierische-Rumpel 
— St. Annensaule — Joseph I. — Karl Philipp ; builds the Land-haus J 

and gymnasium, restores the Pfarrkirche; stucco and marble 
decorations ; frescoes ; preservation of Damian Asam — Strafarbeits- 
haus — Church of S. John Nepomuk ; his popularity ; canonisation — 
Maria Theresa ; her partiality for Innsbruck ; example ; Prussian 
prisoners ; marriage of Leopold ; death of Francis I. ; the Triumph- 
pforte, the Damenstift —Joseph II. — Archduchess Maria Elizabeth 
— Pius VI. passes through Innsbruck — Leopold II. — Repeal of 
Josephinischen measures — Francis II. — Outbreak of the French 
revolution — -Das Madchen v. Spinges — The Auferstehungsfeier — 
Archduchess Maria Elizabeth — Grottesacker — Treaty of Pressburg 
— ' The Year Nine ' — Andreas Hofer — Peace of Schonbrunn — Speck- 
bacher ; successes at Berg Isel ; Hofer as Schutzen-Kommandant ; 
his moderation, simplicity, subordination ; his betrayal ; last hours ; 

CONTENTS. xxvii 

firmness; execution— Kestoration of Austrian rule — Hofer's monu- 
ment — Tirolese loyalty in 1848 — The Ferdinandeum ; its curiosities 
— Early editions of German authors — Paintings on cobweb — The 
Schiess-stand — Policy of the Viennese Government, constitutional 
opposition of Tirol — Population of Innsbruck . . page 265 




Excursions from Innsbruck — Miihlau ; new church ; Baronin Sternbach 
— Judgment of Frau Hiitt — Biichsenhausen — Weierburg — Maria- 
Brunn — Hottingen ; monuments in the Friedhof — Schloss Lichten- 
thurm — The Hottingerbild ; the student's Madonna; stalactites — 
Excursion to Zirl — Grossen Herr-Gott Strasse — Kranebitten — The 
Schwefelloch — The Hundskapelle — The Zirlerchristen — Gross- 
solstein — The Martinswand ; danger of the Emperor Maximilian ; 
Collin's ballad ; who led the Kaiser astray ? — His importance in 
Europe ; efforts to rescue him ; the Blessed Sacrament visits him ; 
unknown deliverer — Martinsbiihl — Traditions of Kaiser Max — Zirl 
— Fragenstein ; its hidden treasure — Leiten — Reit — Seefeld — The 
Heilige Blutskapelle — The Seekapelle — Scharnitz — Isarthal — Porta 
Klaudia — Dirstenohl — The beggar-woman's prayer; vision of the 
peasant of Dorf . 310 

Unter-Perfuss— Selrainthal — TheMelach — Rothenbrunn — Fatscherthal 
— The Hohe Villerspitz — Sonnenberg — Magdalenen-Briindl — Cha- 
racter of the Selrainthalers — Ober-Perfuss ; Peter Anich — Kematen 
— Vols ; the Blasienberg ; S. Jodok — The Galwiese — The Schwarze- 
Kreuzkapelle ; Holzl's vow — Ferneck — Berg Isel — Noise of the rifle 
practice — Count v. Stachel — Natters and Mutters — Waidburg — • 
The Nockspitze — Gotzens — Schloss Vollenberg ; Oswald v. Wolken- 
* stein — Birgitz — Axams — The Sendersthal .... 329 




Val di Lagarina — Borghetto — Ala — Roveredo — Surrounding castles — 
Dante at Lizzana — The Slavini di S. Marco — La Busa del Barbaz ; 


xxviii CONTENTS. 

its myths — Serravalle — Schloss Junk — The Madonna del Monte — 
Industries — Chapel of S. Columban — Trent, Festa of St. Vigilius ; 
comparison between Trent and Rome ; the Domkirche ; its notabilia ; 
Sta. Maria Maggiore ; seat of the council ; assenting crucifix ; cen- 
tenary celebration ; legend of the organ-builder— Church of St. 
Peter ; Chapel of S. Simonin ; club ; museum ; Palazzi ; Palazzo 
Zambelli, Teufelspalast ; its legend ; General G-allas — The Madonna 
alle Laste ; view of Trent — Dos Trento — St. Ingenuin's garden ; St. 
Album's apples — Lavis — French spoliation — Restitution — Walsch 
Michel page 340 

Tributary valleys — Val di Non ; Annaunia — Rochetta Pass Walschmetz 
— Visiaun — Spaur Maggiore — Denno— Schloss Belasis— The Seiden- 
baum^Tobel "Wild-see — Cles ; Tavola Clesiana ; Roman remains ; 
the Schwarzen Felder — SS. Sisinus, Martyrius and Alexander — 
Val di Sole — Livo— Magras; Val di Rabbi; San Bernardo — Male — 
Charles Quint's visit — Pellizano — Val di Pejo — Cogolo — Corno 
de' tre Signori — Val Vermiglio — Tonale; the witches' sabbath 
there — Tregiovo — Cloz — U-Liebe Frau auf dem Gampen — Fondo — 
Sanzeno — Legend of the three brothers : mithraic bas-relief — The 
Tirolean Petrarch — St. Romediusthal ; legend of St. Romedius ; 
angelic consecration ; conversion of the false penitents ; extra- 
ordinary construction and arrangement of the building ; romantic 
situation ; fifteen centuries of uninterrupted veneration — Castel 
Thun ; attachment of the people to the family ; a Nonesade ; 
aqueduct — Dombel ; its Etruscan Key ; its import . . 358 

The Avisiothal — Val di Cembra ; its inaccessibility — Altrei ; presenta- 
tion of colours — Fleimserthal ; Cavalese ; its church a museum of 
Tirolese Art ; local parliament ; legend of its site ; handsome new 
church — Fassathal — Moena — Analogous English and French tradi- 
tions — Marriage customs of the^ valley — The Feuriger Verrather — 
Vigo — The Marmolata ; its legends — St. Ulrich . . .374 




Val Sugana — Baselga — The Madonna di Pine ; legend of the Madonna 
di Caravaggio — Pergine ; miners ; the Canoppa — The Schloss — 
Marriage customs of the valley— Lake Caldonazzo — St. Hermes at 
Calzeranica — Bosentino — Nossa signora del Feles — The sleeper of 


Valle del Oreo — Caldonazzo — Lafraun; legend of the disunited 
brothers — Borgo, the Italian Meran — Franciscan convent ; Castel 
Telvana ; dangers of a carneval procession ; Connt Welsburg's vow 
— Gallant border defences — Stalactite caves of Costalta — Sette 
Comuni — Castelalto — Strigno — Castelrotto — Cima d'Asta — Qua- 
razza garnet quarry — Ivano — Grigno ; Legend of St. Udalric — Castel 
Tesino — Canal San Bovo to Primiero— Tale of Virginia Loss; 
humble heroism — Le Tezze ; modern heroes . . . page 382 

Judicarien ; Its divisions — Castel Madruzz ; Cardinal Karl Madruzz ; 
his dispensation ; its conditions — Abraham's Garden — Sta. Massenza; 
Bishop's Summer Palace — Loreto-kapelLe — The Rendenathal; St. 
Vigilius; his zeal; early admission to the episcopate; missionary 
labours ; builds churches ; overthrows idols ; his stoning ; his burial ; 
the rock cloven for his body to pass ; the Acqua della Vela ; the 
bread of Mortaso — S. Zulian ; his legend ; his penitence — Caresolo ; 
its frescoes; another memorial of Charles Quint; his estimation of 
Jews — New churches — Legends of Condino and Campiglio — Riva on 
the Garda-see ; its churches ; its olive branches — The Altissimo di 
Nago; view from S. Giacomo; optical illusion — Brentonico — The 
Ponte delle Streghe — Mori ; tobacco cultivation . . . 400 

Character of Walsch-Tirol folklore — Orco-Sagen ; his transforma- 
tions in many lands ; transliterations of his name in Tirol — The 
Salvan and Gannes ; perhaps Etruscan genii — Salvanel ; Bedelmon ; 
Salvadegh — The Beatrik, identified with Dietrich von Bern — The 
Angane — What came of marrying an Angana — The focarelli of 
Lunigiana — The Fil6 — Froberte — Donna Berta dal nas longh — The 
discriminating Salvan— The Angana' s ring; tales of the Three Wishes 
and the Faithful Beasts ; legend of the Drei Feyen of Thai Vent — 
Legend of St. Kummerniss ; her effigy in Cadore ; the prevailing 
minstrel — Turlulu — Remnants of Etruscan language — Storielle da 
rider* — The bear-hunters — The horrible snail — How to make a 
church tower grow — Social customs perhaps derived from Etruscan ; 
similar to those of Lombardy and Lunigiana — All Souls' Day; feast 
of Sta. Lucia ; Christmas ; St. Anthony's Day ; Carneval ; Giovedi 
de' Gnocchi ; St. Urban — Popular sayings about thunder, crickets, 
brambles, cockchafers, swallows, scorpions —Astronomical riddles 408 



Kufstein Frontispiece. 


The Valleys of Tirol .... to face p. 12 

Unterinnthal and Neighbourhood of Innsbruck „ 53 

Walsch-Tirol „ 341 








Fable and Truth have shed, in rivalry, 

Each her peculiar influence. Fable came, 

And laughed and sang, arraying Truth in flowers, 

Like a young child her grandam. Fable came, 

Earth, sea, and sky reflecting, as she flew, 

A thousand, thousand colours not their own. — Rogers. 

' Traditions, myths, legends ! what is the use of record- 
ing and propagating the follies and superstitions of a 
bygone period, which it is the boast of our modern en- 
lightenment to have cast to the winds ? ' 

Such is the hasty exclamation which allusion to 
these fantastic matters very frequently elicits. With 
many they find no favour because they seem .to yield no 
profit ; nay, rather to set up a hindrance in the way. of 
progress and culture. 



Yet, on the other hand, in spite of their seeming 
foolishness, they have worked themselves into favour 
with very various classes of readers and students. There 
is an audacity in their imagery which no mere sensa- 
tion-writer could attempt without falling Phaeton-like 
from his height ; and they plunge us so hardily into a 
world of their own, so preposterous and so unlike ours, 
while all the time describing it in a language we can 
understand without effort, that no one who seeks occa- 
sional relief from modern monotony but must experience 
refreshment in the weird excursions their jaunty will- 
o'the-wisp dance leads him. But more than this ; their 
sportive fancy has not only charmed the dilettante ; they 
have revealed that they hold inherent in them mysteries 
which have extorted the study of deep and able thinkers, 
one of whom ! insisted, now some years ago, that ' by this 
time the study of popular tales has become a recognized 
branch of the studies of mankind; ' while important and 
erudite treatises from his own pen and that of others 2 
have elevated it further from a study to a science. 

All who love poetry and art, as well as all who are 
interested in the study of languages or races, all who 
have any care concerning the stirrings of the human 
mind in its search after the supernatural and the infinite,* 
must confess to standing largely in debt, in the absence 
of more positive records of the earliest phases of thought, 
to these various mythologies. 

1 Professor Max Miiller, Chips from a German Workshop. 

2 Rev. G. W. Cox, Prof. De G-ubernatis, Dr. Dasent, &c. 


Karl Blind, in a recent paper on ' German Mytho- 
logy,' l draws attention to some 'interesting considera- 
tions why the Germanic traditions, which we chiefly 
meet with in Tirol, should have a fascination for us 
in this country, in the points of contact they present 
with our language and customs. Not content with 
reckoning that ' in the words of the Eev. Isaac Taylor 
we have obtruded on our notice* the names of the 
deities who were worshipped by the Germanic races ' 
on every Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday 
of our lives, as we all know, he would even find the 
origin of ' Saturday ' in the najne of 4 a god " SaBtere " 
hidden, (a malicious deity whose name is but an alias 
for Loki,) of whom, it is recorded, that once at a great 
banquet he so insulted all the heavenly rulers that 
they chained him, Prometheus-like, to a rock, and 
made a serpent trickle down its venom upon his face. 
His faithful wife Sigyn held a cup over him to pre- 
vent the venom reaching his face, but whenever she 
turned away to empty the cup his convulsive pains 
were such that the earth, shook and trembled. . . . 
Few people now-a-days, when pronouncing the simple 
word " Saturday," think or know of this weird and pa- 
thetic myth. 2 . . . When we go to Athens we easily think 
of the Greek goddess Athene, when we go to Eome we 
are reminded of Eomulus its mythic founder. But 

1 In the Contemporary Review for March 1874. 

2 Mr. Cox had pointed it out before him, however, and more fully, 
Mythology of the Aryan Nations, ii. 200. 

B 2 


when we go to Dewerstone in Devonshire, to Dews- 
bury in Yorkshire, to Tewesley in Surrey, to Great 
Tew in Oxfordshire, to Tewen in Herefordshire — have 
a great many of us even an inkling that these are 
places once sacred to Tiu, the Saxon Mars? When 
we got to Wednesbury, to Wanborough, to Woodnes- 
borough, to Wembury, to Wanstrow, to Wanslike, to 
Woden Hill, we visit localities where the Great Spirit 
Wodan was once worshipped. So also we meet with 
the name of the God of Thunder in Thudersfield, 
Thundersleigh, Thursleigh, Thurscross, Thursby, and 
Thurso. The German Venus Freia is traceable in 
Fridaythorpe and Frathorpe, in Fraisthorpe and Freas- 
ley. Her son was Baldur, also called Phol or Pol, the 
sweet god of peace and light ; his name comes out at 
Balderby, Balderton, Polbrook, Polstead and Polsden. 
SaBtere is probably hidden in Satterleigh and Satter- 
thwaite ; Ostara or Eostre, the Easter goddess of Spring, 
appears in two Essex parishes, Good Easter and High 
Easter, in Easterford, Easterlake and Eastermeaf. 
Again Hel, the gloomy mistress of the underworld, has 
given her name to Hellifield, Hellathyrne, Helwith, 
Healeys and Helagh — all places in Yorkshire, where 
people seem to have had a particular fancy for that 
dark and grimy deity. Then we have Asgardby and 
Aysgarth, places reminding us of Asgard, the celestial 
garden or castle of the -^Esir — the Germanic Olympus. 
And these instances might be multiplied by the hun- 
dred, so full is England to this day of the vestiges of 



Germanic mythology. Far more important is the fact 
that in this country, just as in Germany, we find current 
folk-lore ; and quaint customs and superstitious beliefs 
'affecting the daily life, which are remnants of the an- 
cient creed. A rime apparently so bereft of sense as 

Ladybird, ladybird, fly away home ! 
Thy house is on fire ! 
Thy children at home ! 

can be proved to refer to a belief of our forefathers in 
the coming downfall of the universe by a great con- 
flagration. The ladybird has its name from having 
been sacred to our Lady Freia. The words addressed 
to the insect were once an incantation — an appeal to 
the goddess for the protection of the soul of the un- 
born, over whom in her heavenly abode she was sup- 
posed to keep watch and ward, and whom she is asked 
to shield from the fire that consumes the world. .... 
If we ever wean men from the crude notions that haunt 
them, and yet promote the enjoyment of fancies which 
serve as embellishing garlands for the rude realities of 
life, we cannot do better than promote a fuller scientific 
knowledge of that circle of ideas in which those moved 
who moulded our very speech. We feel delight in the 
conceptions of the Greek Olympus. Painters and poets 
still go back to that old fountain of fancy. Why should 
we not seek for similar delight in studying the figures 
of the Germanic Pantheon, and the rich folk-lore con- 
nected with them ? Why should that powerful Bible 
of the Norse religion, which contains such a wealth of 


striking ideas and descriptions in language the most 
picturesque, not be as much perused as the Iliad, the 
Odyssey, or the ^Eneid ? Is it too much to say that 
many even of those who know of the Koran, of the - 
precepts of Kou-fu-tsi and of Buddha, of the Zenda- 
vesta and the Vedas, have but the dimmest notion of 
that grand Germanic Scripture ? . . . 

6 Can it be said that there is a lack of poetical con- 
ception in the figure of Wodan or Odin, the hoary 
ruler of the winds and the clouds, who, clad in a flowing 
mantle, careers through the sky on a milk-white horse, 
from whose nostrils fire issues, and who is followed at 
night by a retinue of heroic warriors whom he leads 
into the golden shield-adorned Walhalla ? Is there a 
want of artistic delineation in Freia — an Aphrodite 
and Venus combined, who changes darkness into light 
wherever she appears — the goddess with the streaming 
golden locks and siren voice, who hovers in her sun- 
white robe between heaven and earth, making flowers 
sprout along her path and planting irresistible longings 
in the hearts of men ? Do we not see in bold and well- 
marked outline the figure of the red-bearded, steel- 
handed Thor, who rolls along the sky in his goat-drawn 
car, and who smites the mountain giants with his magic 
hammer? Are these mere spectres without distinct 
contour? . . . are they not, even in their uncouth 
passions, the representatives of a primitive race, in 
which the pulse throbs with youthful freshness? Or 
need I allude to that fantastic theory of minor deities, 


of fairies and wood-women, and elfin and pixies and 
cobolds, that have been evolved out of all the forces of ' 
Nature by the Teutonic mind, and before whose bust- 
ling crowd even Hellenic imagination pales ? 

'Then what a dramatic power has the Germanic 
mythology ! The gods of classic antiquity have been 
compared to so many statues ranged along a stately , 
edifice ... in the Germanic view all is active struggle, 
dramatic contest, with a deep dark background of 
inevitable fate that controls alike gods and men.' 

Such are the Beings whom we meet wandering all 
over Tirol; transformed often into new personalities, 
invested with new attributes and supplemented with 
many a mysterious companion, the offspring of an ima- 
gination informed by another order of thought, but all 
of them more living, and more readily to be met with, 
than in any part of wonder-loving Germany itself. 

Apart from their mythological value, how large is 
the debt we owe to legends and traditions in building 
up our very civilization. Their influence on art is 
apparent, from the earliest sculptured stones unearthed 
in India or Etruria to the latest breathing of sym- 
bolism in the very reproductions of our own day. In 
poetry, no less a master than Dante lamented that their 
influence was waning at the very period ascribed a few 
years ago as the date of their taking rise. Extolling 
the simpler pursuits and pleasures of his people at a 
more primitive date than his own, ' One by the crib 
kept watch,' he says, ' studious to still the infant plaint 



' with words which erst the parents' minds diverted ; 

t another, the flaxen maze upon the distaff twirling-, 

recounted to her household, tales of Troy, Fiesole, and 
Eome.' l Their work is patent in his own undying pages, 
and in those of all true poets before and since. 

Besides all this, have they not preserved to us, as in 
a registering mirror, the manners and habits of thought 
of the ages preceding ours ? Have they not served to 
record as well as to mould the noblest aspirations of 
those who have gone before ? ' What are they,' asks 
an elegant Italian writer of the present day, 2 treating, 
however, only of the traditions of the earliest epoch of 
Christianity, ' but narratives woven beside the chimney, 
under the tent, during the halt of the caravan, em- 
bodying as in a lively picture the popular customs 
of the apostolic ages, the interior life of the rising 
(nascente) Christian society? In them we have a 
delightful opportunity of seeing stereotyped the great 
transformation and the rich source of ideas and sen- 
timents which the new belief opened up, to illuminate 

1 . the common people in their huts no less than the patri- 

cians in their palaces. Those even who do not please 

1 L' una vegghiava a studio della culla, 
E consolando usava 1' idioma, 
Che pria li padri e le madri trastulla : 
L' altra traendo alia rocca la chioma 
Favoleggiava con la sua famiglia 
De' Troiani, e di Fiesole, e di Roma. 

Dantb. Paradiso, xt. 120 5. 
2 Tullio Dandolo. 


to believe the facts they expose are afforded a genuine 
view of the habits of life, the manner of speaking and 
behaving — all that expresses and paints the erudition 
of those men and of those times. Thus, it may be 
affirmed, they comment beautifully on the Gospels, and 
in the midst of fables is grafted a great abundance of 

' If we would investigate the cause of their mul- 
tiplication, and of the favour with which they were 
received from the earliest times, we shall find it to 
consist chiefly in the need and love of the marvellous 
which governed the new society, notwithstanding the 
severity of its dogmas. Neophytes snatched from the 
superstitions of paganism would not have been able 
all at once to suppress every inclination for poetical 
fables. They needed another food according to their 
fancy. And indeed were they not great marvels 
(though of another order from those to which they were 
accustomed) which were narrated to them ? The aggre- 
gate mass was, however, increased by the way in which 
they lived and the scarcity of communication ; every 
uncertain rumour was thus readily dressed up in the 
form of a wonderful fact. 

4 Again, dogmatic and historical teaching continued 
long to be oral ; so that when an apostle, or the apostle 
of an apostle, arrived in any city and chained the inte- 
rest of the faithful with a narration of the acts of Jesus 
he had himself witnessed or received from the personal 
narrative of witnesses, his words ran along from mouth 


to mouth, and each repeater added something, sug- 
gested by his faith or by his heart. In this way his 
teaching constituted itself into a legend, which in the 
end was no longer the narrative of one, but the expres- 
sion of the faith of all. 

4 Thus whoever looks at legends only as isolated 
productions of a period most worthy of study, without 
attending to the influence they exercised on later 
epochs, must even so hold them in account as literary 
monuments of great moment.' 

Nor is this the case only with the earliest legends. 
The popular mind in all ages has evinced a necessity for 
filling up all blanks in the histories of its heroes. The 
probable, and even the merely possible, is idealized ; 
what might have been is reckoned to have happened ; 
the logical deductions as to what a favourite saint or 
cobbold ought to have done, according to certain fixed 
principles of action previously ascribed to his nature, 
are taken to be the very acts he did perform ; and thus, 
even those traditions which are the most transparently 
human in their origin, have served to show reflected 
in action the virtues and perfections which it is the 
boast of religion to inculcate. 

A Flemish writer on Spanish traditions similarly re- 
marks, ( Peoples who are cut off from the rest of the 
world by such boundaries as seas, mountains, or wastes, 
by reason of the difficulty of communication thus occa- 
sioned, are driven to concentrate their attention to local 
events ; and in their many idle hours they work up their 



myths and tales into poems, which stand them in stead 
of books, and, in fact, constitute a literature.' l 

Europe possesses in Tirol one little country at least 
in whose mountain fastnesses a store of these treasures 
not only lies enshrined, but where we may yet see it in 
request. Primitive and unsophisticated tillers of the 
soil, accustomed to watch as a yearly miracle the welling 
up of its fruits, and to depend for their hopes of sub- 
sistence on the sun and rain in the hand of their Creator, 
its children have not yet acquired the independence of 
thought and the habit of referring all events to natural 
causes, which is generated by those industries of pro- 
duction to which the human agent appears to be all in 
all. Among them we have the opportunity of seeing 
these expositions of the supernatural, at home as it 
were in their contemporary life, supplying a represen- 
tation of what has gone before, only to be compared to 
the revelations of deep-cut strata to the geologist, and 
the unearthing of buried cities to the student of history. 
It is further satisfactory to find that, in spite of our re- 
pugnance to superstition, this unreasoning realization 
of the supernatural has in no way deteriorated the 
people. Their public virtues, seen in their indomitable 
devotion to their country, have been conspicuous in all 
ages, no less than their heroic labours in grappling 
with the obstacles of soil and climate ; while all who 
have visited them concur in bearing testimony to their 
possession of sterling homely qualities, frugality, 

1 Pepping, Romancero, Preface. 



morality, hospitality; and, for that which is of most 
importance to the tourist, all who have been among 1 
them will bear witness to the justice of the remark in 
the latest Gruide-book, that, except just in the more 
cultivated centres of Innsbruck, Brixen, and Botzen, 
you need take no thought among the Tiroleans con- 
cerning the calls on your purse. 

My first acquaintance with Tirol was made at Feld- 
kirch, where I had to pay somewhat dearly for my love 
of the legendary and the primitive. Our plan for the 
autumn was to join a party of friends from Italy at 
Innsbruck, spend some months of long-promised enjoy- 
ment in exploring Tirol, and return together to winter 
in Borne. The arrangements of the journey had been 
left to me ; and as I delight in getting beyond railways 
and travelling in a conveyance whose pace and hours 
are more under one's own control, I traced our road 
through France to Bale, and then by way of Zurich and 
Borschach and Oberriet to Feldkirch (which I knew to 
be a post-station) as a base of operations, for leisurely 
threading our mountain way through Bludenz and 
Landeck and the intervening valleys to Innsbruck. 

How our plan was thwarted l I will relate presently. 
I still recommend this line of route to others less en- 
cumbered with luggage, as leading through out-of-the- 

1 The usual fate of relying on Koad-books. Ours, I forget whether 
Amthor's or Trautwein's, said there was regular communication between 
Oberriet and Feldkirch, and nothing could be further from the fact, as 
will be seen a few pages later. 

« I 




way and unfrequented places. The projected railway 
between Feldkirch and Innsbruck is now completed as 
far as Bludenz ; and Feldkirch is reached direct by the 
new junction with the Borschach-Chur railway at Buchs- 
station. 1 

Feldkirch affords excursions, accessible for all, to 
the Margarethenkapf and the St. Veitskapf, from either 
of which a glorious view is to be enjoyed. The latter 
commands the stern gorges through which the 111 makes 
its final struggles before losing its identity in the Bhine 
— struggles which are often terrific and devastating, for 
every few years it carries down a whole torrent of pebbles 
for many days together. The former overlooks the more 
smiling tracts we traversed in our forced march, locally 
called the Ardetzen, hemmed in by noble mountain 
peaks. Then its fortifications, intended at one time to 
make it a strong border town against Switzerland, have 
left some few picturesque remains, and in particular 
the so-called Katzenthurm, named from certain clumsy 
weapons styled 6 cat's head guns,' which once defended 
it, and which were ultimately melted down to make 
a chime of peaceful bells. And then it has two or 
three churches to which peculiar legends attach. Not 
the least curious of these is that of St. Fidelis, a local 
saint, whose cultus sprang up as late as the year 
1622, when he was laid in wait for and assassinated by 
certain fanatical reprobates, whose consciences his 
earnest preaching had disturbed. He was declared a 

1 If Pfaffers is visited by rail (see p. 23), it is convenient to take it 
before Feldkirch. 


martyr, and canonized at Eome in 1746. The sword 
with which he was put to death, the bier on which his 
body was carried back into the town, and other things 
belonging to him, are venerated as relics. About 
eight miles outside the town another saint is venerated 
with a precisely similar history, but dating from the 
year 844. This is St. Eusebius, one of a band of Scotch 
missionaries, who founded a monastery there called 
Victorsberg, the. oldest foundation in all Vorarlberg. St. 
Eusebius, returning from a pilgrimage one day, lay down 
to sleep in this neighbourhood, being overtaken by 
the darkness of night. Heathen peasants, who had 
resisted his attempts at converting them, going out 
early in the morning to mow, found him lying on the 
ground, and one of them cut off his head with his 
scythe. To their astonishment the decapitated body 
"rose to its feet, and, taking up the head in its hands, 
walked straight to the door of the monastery, where 
the brethren took it in and laid it to rest in the church- 
yard. A little further (reached most conveniently by 
a by-path off the road near Altenstadt, mentioned 
below,) is Eankweil. In the church on Our Lady's 
Mount (Frauenberg) is a little chapel on the north side, 
where a reddish stone is preserved (Der rothe Stein in 
der FridolinskapeUe), of which the following story is 
told. St. Fridolin was a Scotch missionary in the 
seventh century, and among other religious houses had 
founded one at Miisigen. Two noblemen of this neigh- 
bourhood (brothers) held him in great respect, and 


before dying, one of them, Ursus by name, endowed 
the convent with all his worldly goods. Sandolf, the 
other, who did not carry his admiration of the saint to 
so great a length as to renounce his brother's rich in- 
heritance, disputed the possession, and it was decided 
that Fridolin must give it up unless he could produce 
the testimony of the donor. Fridolin went in faith to 
Grlarus, where Ursus had been buried two years before. 
At his call the dead man rose to his feet, and push- 
ing the grave-stone aside, walked, hand-in-hand, with 
his friend back to Eankweil, where he not only sub- 
stantiated Fridolin's statements, but so effectually 
frightened his brother that he immediately added to 
the gift all his own possessions also. But the story 
says that when the judgment requiring him to produce 
the testimony of the dead was first given, Fridolin 
went to pray in the chapel of Eankweil, and there a 
shining being appeared to him, and told him to go to 
Glarus and call Ursus ; and as he spoke Fridolin's knees 
sank into the ' red stone,' making the marks now seen. 1 
The reason given why this hill is called Our Lady's 
Mound is, that on it once stood a fortress called Schon- 
berg. Schonberg having been burnt down, its owner, 
the knight of Hornlingen, set about rebuilding it ; but 
whatever work his workmen did in the day-time, was 
destroyed by invisible hands during the night. A pious 
old workman, too, used to hear a mysterious voice saying 

1 See further quaint details and historical particulars in Vonbun, 
Sagen Vorarlbergs, p. 103-5. 


that instead of a fortress they should build a sanctuary 
in honour of the mother of God. The knight yielded 
to the commands of the voice, and the church was 
built out of the ruins of his castle. In this church, 
too, is preserved a singular antique cross, studded with 
coloured glass gems, which the people venerate because 
it was brought down to them by the mountain stream. 
It is obviously of very ancient workmanship, and an 
inscription records that it was repaired in 1347. 

Winding round the mountain path which from 
Eankweil runs behind Feldkirch to Satteins, the con- 
vent of Valduna is reached ; and the origin of this 
sanctuary is ascribed to a legend, of which counterparts 
crop up in various places, of a hermit who passed half 
a life within a hollow tree, 1 and acquired the lasting 
veneration of the neighbouring people. 

Another mountain sanctuary which received its 
veneration from the memory of a tree-hermit, is S. 
Gerold, situated on a little elevation below the Hoch 
Grerach, about seven miles on the east side of Feldkirch. 
It dates from the tenth century. Count Otho, Lord of 
Sax in the Ehinethal, was out hunting, when the bear 
to which he was giving chase sought refuge at the foot 
of an old oak tree, whither his dogs durst not follow it. 
Living as a hermit within this oak tree Count Otho 
found his long lost father, S. Grerold, who years before 
had forsaken his throne and found there a life of con- 
templation in the wild. 2 The tomb of the saint and 

1 Vonbun, pp. 113-4. 

* Historical particulars in Vonbun, pp. 110-1. 


his two sons is to be seen in the church, and some 
curious frescoes with the story of his adventures. 

Another way to be recommended for entering Vorarl- 
berg is by crossing Lake Constance from Eorschach to 
Lindau, a very pleasant trajet of about two hours in 
the tolerably well-appointed, but not very swift lake~ 
steamers. Lindau itself is a charming old place, formed 
out of three islands on the edge of the lake ; but as it 
is outside the border of Tirol, I will only note in favour 
of the honesty of its inhabitants, that I saw a tree laden 
with remarkably fine ripe pears overhanging a wall in 
the principal street, and no street-boy raised a hand to 

The first town in Tirol by this route is Bregenz, 
which reckons as the capital of Vorarlberg. It may be 
reached by boat in less than half an hour. It is well 
situated at the foot of the Gebhartsberg, which affords 
a most delightful, and in Tirol widely celebrated, view 
over Lake Constance and the Appenzel mountains and 
the rapid Ehine between ; and here, at either the Post 
Hotel or the Black Eagle, there is no lack of car- 
riages for reaching Feldkirch. Bregenz deserves to be 
remembered as the birth-place of one of the best 
modern painters of the Munich-Eoman school, Flatz, 
who I believe, spends much of his time there. 

Among the objects of interest in Bregenz are the 
Capuchin Convent, situated on a wooded peak of the 
Gebhardsberg, founded in 1636 ; on another peak, S. 
Gebhard auf dem Pfannenberge, called after a bishop 



of Constance, who preached the Christian faith in the 
neighbourhood, and was martyred. Bregenz has an an- 
cient history and high lineage. Its lords, who were 
powerful throughout the Middle Ages, were of suffi- 
ciently high estate at the time of Charlemagne that 
he should take Hildegard, the daughter of one of them, 
to be his wife, and there is a highly poetical popular tale 
about her. Taland (a favourite name in Vorarlberg) 
was a suitor who had, with jealous eye, seen her given 
to the powerful Emperor, and in the bitterness of his 
rejected affection, so calumniated her to Charlemagne, 
that he repudiated her and married Desiderata, the 
Lombard princess. 1 Hildegard accepted her trial with 
angelic resignation, and devoted her life to tending 
pilgrims at Eome. Meantime Taland, stricken with 
blindness, came to Eome in penitential pilgrimage, 
where he fell under the charitable care of Hildegard. 
Hildegard's saintly handling restored his sight — not 
only that of his bodily eyes, but also his moral percep- 
tion of truth and falsehood. In reparation for the evil 
he had done, he now led her back to Charlemagne, con- 
fessed all, and she was once more restored to favour and 
honour. Bregenz has also another analogous and equally 
beautiful legend. One of its later counts, Ulrich V., 
was supposed by his people to have died in war in 
Hungary, about the year 916. Wendelgard, his wife, 
devoted her widowhood to the cloistral life, but took 
the veil under the condition that she should every 

1 Vonbun, pp. 86-7. 



year hold a popular festival and distribution of alms in 
memory of her husband. On the fourth anniversary, as 
she was distributing her bounty, a pilgrim came forward 
who allowed himself the liberty of kissing the hand 
which bestowed the dole. Wendelgard's indignation 
was changed into delight when she recognized that the 
audaciously gallant pilgrim was no other than her own 
lord, who, having succeeded in delivering himself from 
captivity,- had elected to make himself thus known to 
her. Salomo, Bishop of Constance, dispensed her from 
her vow, and Ulrich passed the remainder of his life at 
Bregenz by her side. Another celebrated worthy of 
Bregenz, whose name must not be passed over, is 
* Ehreguota ' or c Ehre Guta,' a name still dear to every 
peasant of Vorarlberg, and which has perpetuated itself 
in the appellation of Hergotha, a favourite Christian 
name there to the present day. She was a poor beggar- 
woman really named Guta, whose sagacity and courage 
delivered her country people from an attack of the Ap- 
penzell folk, to which they had nearly succumbed in 
the year 1408 ; it was the < honour ' paid her by her 
patriotic friends that added the byname of 6 Ehre,' and 
made them erect a monument to her* One of the 
variants of the story makes her, instead of a beggar- 
woman, the beautiful young bride of Count Wilhelm of 
Montfort-Bregenz ; some have further sought to identify . 
her with the goddess Epona. 

Pursuing the journey southwards towards Feld- 
kirch, every step is full of natural beauty and legen- 

o 2 


dary interest. At first leaving Bregenz you have to 
part company with Lake Constance, and leave in the 
right hand distance the ruins of Castle Fussach. On 
the left is Riedenberg, which, if not great architec- 
turally, is interesting as a highly useful institution, 
under the fostering care of the present Empress of 
Austria, for the education of girls belonging to fami- 
lies of a superior class with restricted means. From 
Fussach the road runs parallel to the Bhine ;• there is 
a shorter road by Dornbirn, but less interesting, which 
joins it again at Gotzis, near Hohenembs. The two roads 
separate before Fussach at Wolfurth, where there is an 
interesting chapel, the bourne of a pilgrimage worth 
making if only for the view over the lake. The 
country between S. John Hochst and Lustenau is 
much frequented in autumn for the sake of the shoot- 
ing afforded by the wild birds which haunt its secluded 
recesses on the banks of the Bhine at that season. At 
Lustenau there is a ferry over the Rhine. 

The favourite saints of this part of the country are 
Merboth, Diedo, and Ilga — two brothers and a sister 
of a noble family, hermit-apostles and martyrs of the 
eleventh century. Ilga established her hermit-cell in 
he Schwarzenberg, just over Dornbirn, where not only 
all dainty food, but even water, was wanting. The 
people of Dornbirn also wanted water ; and though she 
had not asked the boon for herself, she asked it for her 
people, and obtained from the hard rock, a miraculous 
spring of sparkling water which even the winter cold 



could not freeze* Ilga used to fetch this water for 
her own use, and carry it up the mountain paths m 
her apron. One day she spilt some of it on the rock 
dear her cell on her arrival, and see ! as it . touched 
the rock, the rock responded to the appeal, and from 
out there flowed a corresponding stream, which has 
never ceased to flow to this day. 

The most important and interesting spot between 
Bregenz and Feldkirch, is Embs or Hohenembs, with 
its grand situation, its picturesque buildings and its 
two ruined castles, which though distinguished as Alt 
and Neu Hohenembs, do not display at first sight any 
very great disparity of age ; both repay a visit, but the 
view from Alt Hohenembs is the finer. The virtues 
and bravery of the lords of Hohenembs have been duly 
chronicled. James Von Embs served by the side of 
the chevalier Bayard in the battle of Kavenna, and 
having at the first onset received his death wound, 
raised himself up again to pour out his last breath in 
crying to his men, ' The King of France has been our 
fair ally, let us serve him bravely this day I ' His 
grandson, who was curiously enough christened James 
Hannibal, was the first Count of Embs, and his descen- 
dants often figure in records of the wars of the Aus- 
trian Empire, particularly in those connected with the 
famous Schmalkaldischer Krieg, and are now merged 
in the family of Count Harrach. 

The ' Swiss embroidery ' industry here crosses the 
fihine, and, in the female gatherings which it occasions, 


as in the ' Filo ' of the south, many local chronicles and 
legends are, or at least have been, perpetuated. 

In the parish church, I have been told by a traveller, 
that the cardinal's hat of S. Charles Borromeo is pre- 
served, though why it should be so I cannot tell; and I 
think I have myself had it shown me both at Milan 
and, if I mistake not, also at the church in Borne 
whence he had his ' title.' 

The ascent to Neu Hohenembs has sufficient diffi- 
culty and danger for the unpractised pedestrian to 
give it special interest, which the roaring of the water- 
fall tends to excite. A little way beyond it the water 
was formerly turned to the purpose of an Italian 
pescheria (or fish-preserve for the use of the castle), 
which is not now very well preserved. Further up still 
are the ruins of Alt Hohenembs. There are also 
prettily situated sulphur baths a little way out of the 
town, much frequented from June to September by the 
country people. It is curious that the Jews, who have 
never hitherto settled in large numbers in any part of 
Tirol, have here a synagogue ; and I am told that it 
serves for nearly a hundred families scattered over the 
surrounding country, though there are not a dozen even 
at Innsbruck. 

All I have met with of interest between this and 
Feldkirch, I have mentioned under the head of excur- 
sions from Feldkirch. 

Stretching along the bank of the Rhine to the 
eouth of Feldkirch, is the little principality of Lich«* 


tenstein or Liechtenstein, a territory of some three 
square miles and a half in extent, which yet gives its 
possessor — lately by marriage made a member of Eng- 
lish society — certain seignorial rights. The chief in* 
dustry of the people is the Swiss embroidery. Vaduz, 
its chief town, is situated in its centre, and above it, in 
the midst of a thick wood, is the somewhat imposing 
and well kept up castle of Lichtenstein. Further south, 
overhanging the Rhine, is Schloss Gutenberg, and 
beyond, a remarkable warm sulphur spring, which runs 
only in summer, at a temperature of 98° to 100° Fahren- 
heit ; it is crowded by Swiss and Tiroleans from June 
to September, though unknown to the rest of the world. 1 
It was discovered in the year 1240 by a chamois-hunter, 
and was soon after taken in charge by a colony of Bene- 
dictine monks, established close by at Pfaffers, who con- 
tinued to entertain those who visited it until it was taken 
possession of by the Communal Council of Chur, and the 
monastery turned into a poor-house. The country round 
it is exceedingly wild and romantic, and there is a cele- 
brated ravine called the Tamina-Schlund, of so-called 
immeasurable depth, where at certain hours of a sunny 
day a wonderful play of light is to be observed. Pfaffers 
is just outside the boundary of Tirol ; the actual boun- 
dary line is formed by the Ehsetian Alps, which are 
traversed by a pass called Luziensteig, after St. Lucius, 
6 first Christian king of Britain,' who, tradition says, 

1 It may also be reached by railway as it is but three or four miles 
£rom Bagatz, two stations beyond Buchs (p. 13). 


•preached the gospel to Lichtenstein. 1 The road from 
Feldkirch to Innsbruck first runs along the Illthal, which, 
between Feldkirch and Bludenz is also called the Wall- 
gan, *nd merges at Bludenz into the Walserthal on the 
left or north side. On the right or south side are the 
Montafonthal, Klosterthal, and SilberthaL 

Soon after leaving Feldkirch the mountains narrow 
upon the road, which crosses the HI at Felsenau, form- 
ing what is called the gorge of the 111, near Frastanz. 
Round this terrible pass linger memories of one of the 
direst struggles for independence the Tiroleans ever 
waged. In 1499 the Swiss hosts were shown the inlet, 
through the mountains that so well protect Tirol, by a 
treacherous peasant whom their gold had bought. 2 A 
little shepherd lad seeing them advance, in his burning 
desire to save his country, blew such a call to arms upon 
his horn that he never desisted till he had blown all the 
breath out of his little body. The subsequent battle was 
fierce and determined ; and when it slackened from loss 
of men, the women rushed in and fought with the 
bravest. So earnestly was the cause of those who fell 
felt to be the cause of all, that even to the present time 
the souls of those who were slain that day are remem- 
bered in the prayers said as the procession nears the spot 

1 It has been suggested by an eminent comparative mythologist that 
it is natural Luc-ms should be said to have brought .' the Light of the 
Gospel ' to men of IAckt-enstem. 

2 The traitor was loaded with heavy armour and thrown over the 111 
precipice. See Vonbun's parallel with the tradition of the Tarpeian rock, 
p. 99 n. 2. 



when blessing the fields on Rogation-Wednesday. On 
the heights above Valduna are the striking ruins of a ♦ 
convent of Poor Clares, one of those abandoned at the 
fiat of Joseph II. It was founded on occasion of a hermit 
declaring he had often seen a beautiful angel sitting and 
singing enchantingly on the peak. Below is a tiny lake, 
which lends an additional charm to the tranquil beauty 
of the spot. The patron saint of the Walserthal is St. 
Joder or Theodul (local renderings of Theodoric), and 
his legend is most fantastic. St. Joder went to Borne to 
see the Pope ; the Pope, in commendation of his zeal, 
gave him a fine bell for his church. Homewards went 
St. Joder with his bell, but when he came to the moun- 
tains it was more than he could manage, to drag the bell 
after him. What did he then do ? He bethought him 
that he had, by his prayers and exorcisms, conjured the 
devil out of the valley where he had preached the faith, 
so why should not prayer and exorcism conjure him to 
carry the bell for the service of his faithful flock ? If St. 
Joder's faith did not remove mountains it removed the 
obstacles they presented, and many a bit of rude carving 
in mountain chapels throughout the Walserthal shows 
a youthful saint, in rich episcopal vestments, leading by 
a chain, like a showman his bear, the arch enemy of 
souls, crouched and sweating under the weight of the 
bell whose holy tones are to sound his own ban. 1 

Bludenz retains some picturesque remnants of its 

1 Notably at Raggal, Sonntag, Damuls, Luteins, and also in Lich- 
tenstein. — Vonbun, pp. 107-8. 


old buildings. It belonged to the Counts of Sonnen- 
berg, and hence it is said that it is often called by that 
name ; but it is perhaps more probable that the height 
above Bludenz was called Sonnenberg, in contrast with 
Schattenberg, above FeldMrch, and that its lords de- 
rived their name from it. The story of the fidelity of 
Bludenz to Friedrich der leeren Taacke, I have 
narrated in another place. 1 

The valley of Montafon has for its arms the crosB 
keys of St. Peter, in memory of a traditionary but ana- 
chronistic journey of Pope John XXIII. to the Council 
of Constance, in 1414.* In memory of the same 
journey a joy-peal is rung on every Wednesday through- 
out the year. 

A little way south of Bludenz, down the Montafon 
valley, is a chapel on a little height called S. Anton, 
covering the spot where tradition says was once a 
mighty city called Prazalanz, destroyed by an ava^- 
lanche. Near here is a tiny stream, of which the 
peasants tell the following story: — They say up the 
mountain lives a beautiful maiden, set to guard a 
treasure, and she ean only be released when some one 
will thrice kiss a loathsome toad, 8 which has its place 
on the cover of the treasury, and the maiden feels as- 
a — „ ne ^rj ever make the venture. She weepB 

pp. 92-8. 

alogooB cases quoted in Saga* ftotn th» Far East, pp- 



evermore, and they call this streamlet the * Trachna- 
bachle ' — the Tear-rill. 

The valley of Montafon is further celebrated for its 
production of kirschwasser. 

Opposite Dalaas is a striking peak, attaining an 
elevation of some 5,000 feet, called the Christberg. 
On the opposite side to Dalaas is a chapel of St. 
Agatha ; in the days of the silver mining of Tirol, in 
the fifteenth century, silver was found in this neigh- 
bourhood. On one occasion a landslip imprisoned a 
number of miners in their workings. In terror at 
their threatened death, they vowed that if help reached 
them in time, they would build a chapel on the spot to 
commemorate their deliverance. Help did reach them, 
and they kept their vow. The chapel is built into the 
living rock where this occurred, and a grey mark on 
the rock is pointed out as a supernatural token which 
cannot be effaced, to remind the people of the deliver- 
ance that took place there. It is reached from Dalaas 
by a terribly steep and rugged path, running over the 
Christberg, near the summit of which may be found, 
by those whom its hardships do not deter, another 
chapel, or wayside shrine, consisting of an image of the 
Blessed Virgin under a canopy, with an alcoved seat 
beneath it for the votary to rest in, called * Das Brueder- 
hiisle,' and this is the reason of its name :— The wife of 
a Count Tanberg gave birth to a dead child; in the 
fulness of their faith, the parents mourned that to the 
soul of their little one Christian baptism had been 


denied, more than the loss of their offspring. In pur- 
suance of a custom then in vogue in parts of Tirol, if 
not elsewhere, the Count sent the body of the infant to 
be laid on the altar of St. Joseph, in the parish church, 
in the hope that at the intercession of the fosterfather 
of the Saviour it might revive for a sufficient interval 
to receive the sacrament of admission into the Christian 
family. The servant, however, instead of carrying his 
burden to the church at Schruns (in Montafonthal), 
finding himself weary by the time he had climbed up 
the Christberg, dug a grave, and buried it instead. The 
next year there was another infant, also born dead ; this 
time the Count determined to carry it himself to the 
church, and by the time he had toiled to the same spot 
he too was weary, and sat down to rest. As he sat he 
heard a little voice crying from under the ground, ' dtti, 
niim twS 6 met ! ' l The Count turned up the soil, and 
found the body of his last year's infant. Full of joy 
he carried both brothers to the altar of St. Joseph, at 
Schruns ; here, continues the legend, his prayer went up 
before the divine throne ; both infants gave signs of 
life before devout witnesses ; baptism could be validly 
administered, and they, laid to rest in holy ground. 2 

After Dalaas the road assumes a character of real 
grandeur, both as an engineering work and as a study 
of nature. The size of the telegraph poles alone 
(something like fourteen inches in diameter) gives an 

1 Father ! take me also with you. 
* Vonbun, pp. 115-7. 




idea of the sort of storms the road is built to resist ; so 
do the veritable fortifications, erected here and there, to 
protect it from avalanches. 

The summit (6,218 ft.) of the Arlberg, whence the 
province has its name — and which in turn is named from 
Schloss Arlen, the ruins of which are to be observed 
from the road— is marked by a gigantic crucifix, over- 
hanging the road. An inscription cut in the rock 
records that it was opened for traffic (after three hard 
years of labour) on St. James's day, 1787; but a con- 
siderable stretch of the road now used was made along 
a safer and more sheltered pass in 1822-4, when a re- 
markable viaduct called the Franzensbriicke was built. 
Two posts, striped with the local colours, near the cru- 
cifix above-named, mark the boundary of Vorarlberg 
and Oberinnthal. As we pass them we should take leave 
of Vorarlberg ; but it may be convenient to mention in 
this place some few of the more salient of the many 
points of interest on the onward road to Innsbruck. 

The opening of the Stanzerthal, indeed, on which 
the road is carried, seems to belong of right to Vorarl- 
berg, for its first post-halt of S. Christof came into 
existence through the agency of a poor foundling boy 
of that province, who was so moved by the sufferings 
of travellers at his date (1386), that he devoted his 
life to their service, and by begging collected money 
to found the nucleus of the hospice and brotherhood 
of S. Christof, which lasted till the time of Joseph 
II. The pass at its highest part is free from snow 


only from the beginning of July to September, and in 
the depth of winter it accumulates to a height of twenty 
feet. The church contains considerable remains of the 
date of its founder, Heinrick das Fmdelhind ; of this 
date, or not much later, must be the gigantic statue of 
S. Christopher, patron of wayfarers. 

The Stanzerthal, without being less grand, presents 
a much # more smiling prospect than that traversed 
during the later part of the journey through Vorarl- 
berg. The waters of the Rosanna and the Trisanna 
flow by the way ; the mountains stretch away in the 
distance, in every hue of brilliant colouring; the 
whole landscape is studded with villages clustering 
round their church steeples, while Indian-corn-fields, 
fruit-gardens in which the barberry holds no insig- 
nificant place, and vast patches of a deep-tinted wild 
flora, fill up the picture. 

At Schloss Wiesburg is the opening into the Patz- 
naunthal, the chief village of which is Tschgl, where 
the custom I have heard of in other parts of Tirol, and 
also in Brittany, prevails, of preserving the skulls of 
the dead in an open vault in the churchyard, with their 
names painted on them. Nearly opposite it, off the 
left side of the road lies Griins or Grins, so called be- 
cause it affords a bright green patch amid the grey of 
the rocks. It was a more important place in mediaeval 
times, for the road then ran beside it ; the bridge 
with its pointed arches dates from the year 1639. 
Margareta Maultasch, with whose place in Tirolese 



history we must make acquaintance further on, had 
a house here which still contains some curious mural 

Landeck * is an important thriving little town, with 
the Inn flowing through its midst. It has two fine 
remains of ancient castles : Schloss Landeck, now used 
partly as a hospice; and Schloss Schrofenstein, of 
difficult access, haunted by a knight, who gave too 
ready ear to the calumnies of a rejected suitor of his 
wife, and must wander round its precincts wringing his 
fettered hands and crying 4 Woe ! ' On the slope of 
the hill crowned by Schloss Landeck stands the parish 
church. Its first foundation dates from the fifteenth 
century, when a Landecker named Henry and his wife 
Eva, having lost their two children in a forest, on vow- 
ing a church in honour of the Blessed Virgin, met a 
bear and a wolf each carrying one of the children ten- 
derly on its back. It has a double-bulbed tower of 
much later date, and it was restored with considerable 
care a few years back ; but many important parts re- 
main in their original condition, including some early 
sculpture. In the churchyard are two important monu- 
ments, one dating from the fifteenth century, of Oswald 
Y. Schrofenstein ; the other, a little gothic chapel, con- 
secrated on August 22, 1870, in memory of the Lan- 

1 The story of its curious success against the Bavarians in 1703, 
p. 287-8. From Landeck there is a fine road (the description of which 1 
belongs to Snitt-Tirol), over the Finsterxniinz and Stelvio, to the baths 
of Bormio or Worms. 



deck contingent of the Tirolean sharpshooters, who 
assisted in defending the borders of Walsch-Tirol in 
1866. 1 About two or three miles from Landeck there 
is a celebrated waterfall, at a spot called Letz. 

Imst was formerly celebrated for its breed of canary- 
birds, which its townsmen used to carry all over Eu- 
rope. The church contains a votive tablet, put up by 
some of them on occasion of being saved from ship- 
wreck in the Mediterranean. It has a good old inn, once 
a knightly palace. From Imst the Pitzthal branches 
southwards ; but concerning it I have not space to en- 
large, as the more interesting excursion to Fiissen, on tbe 
Baravian frontier, must not be passed over. The 
pleasantest way of making this excursion is to engage a 
carriage for the whole distance at Ismt, but a diligence 
or ' Eilwagen,' running daily between Innsbruck and 
Fiissen, may be met at Nassereit, some three miles along 
the Gunglthal. At Nassereit I will pause a moment to 
mention a circumstance, bearing on the question of the 
formation of legends, which seemed to take considerable 
hold on the people, and was narrated to me with a mani- 
fest impression of belief in the supernatural. There 
was a pilgrimage from a place called Biberwier to a 
shrine of the Virgin, at Dormiz, on August 10, 1869. 
It was to gain the indulgence of the Vatican Council, 

1 The chief encounter occurred at a place called Le Tezze, near 
Primolano, on the Venetian border, where the Tiroleans repulsed the 
Italians, in numbers tenfold greater than their own, and no further 
attempt was made. The anniversary is regularly observed by visiting 
the graves on August 14 ; mentioned below at Le Tezze. 


and the priest of Biberwier in exhorting his people to 
treat it entirely as a matter of penance, and not as a 
party of pleasure, had made use of a figure of speech bid- 
ding them not to trust themselves to the bark of worldly 
pleasure, for, he assured them, it had many holes in it, 
and would swamp them instead of bearing them on to 
the j oys of heaven. Four of the men, however, persisted 
in disregarding his warning, and in combining a trip 
to the Fernsee, one of two romantically situated moun- 
tain lakes overlooked by the ancient castle of Sig- 
mundsburg, on a promontory running into it and with 
its Wirthshaus 4 auf dem Fern' forming a favourite 
though difficult pleasure-excursion. The weather was 
treacherous ; the boat was swamped in the squall which 
ensued, and all four men were drowned. From Nassereit 
also is generally made the ascent of the Tschirgants, 
the peak which has constantly formed a remarkable 
feature in the landscape all the way from Arlberg. 

The road to Fussen passes by Sigmundsburg, Fernsee 
and Biberwier mentioned in the preceding narrative 
also the beautiful Blendsee and Mittersee (accessible 
only to the pedestrian) or rather the by-paths leading 
to them. Leermoos is the next place passed, — a strag- 
gling, inconsiderable hamlet, but affording a pleasing 
incident in the landscape, when, after passing it, the 
steep road winds back upon it and reveals it again far 
far below you. It is, however, quite possible to put up for 
a night with the accommodation afforded by the Post 
inn, and by this means one of the most justly celebrated 



[natural beauties may be enjoyed, in the sunset effects 
produced by the lighting up of the Zugspitzwand. 

Next is Lahn, whose situation disposes one to believe 
the tradition that it has its name from the avalanches 
{Lawinen^ locally contracted into Lahne) by which the 
valley is frequently visited, and chiefly from a terrible 
one, in the fifteenth century, which destroyed the vil- 
lage, till then called Mitterwald. A carrier who had 
been wont. to pass that way, struck with compassion at 
the desolation of the place, aided in providing the 
surviving inhabitants to rebuild their chapel, and tra- 
dition fables of him that they were aided by an angel* 
The road opens out once more as we approach Heiter- 
wang; there is also a post-road hence to Ammergau ; here, 
a small party may put up at the Eossl, for the sske of 
visiting the Plansee, the second largest lake of Tirol, on 
the right (east) of the road ; on the left is the opening of 
the Lechthal, a difficult excursion even to the most 
practised pedestrian. For those who study convenience 
the Plansee may be better visited from Eeutte. 

After Heiterwang the rocks close in again on the 
road as we pass through the Ehrenberger Klause, cele- 
brated again and again through the pages of Tirolese 
history, from the very earliest times, for heroic defences ; 
its castle is an important and beautiful ruin ; and so 
the road proceeds to Eeutte, Fiissen, and the much 
visited Lustschloss of Schwangau ; but as these are in 
Bavaria I must not occupy my Tirolese pages with 
them, but mention only the Mangtritt, the boundary 


pass, where a cross stands out boldly against the sky, 

in memory of S. Magnus, the apostle of these valleys. 

The devil, furious at the success of the saint with his 

conversion of the heathen inhabitants, sent a tribe of 

wild and evil men, says one version of the legend, a 

formidable dragon acording to another, to exterminate 

him ; he was thus driven to the narrow glen where the 

fine post-road now runs between the rocks beside the ^//,v v i„/^ 

roaring Lech. Nothing daunted, the saint sprang 

across to the opposite rock whither his adversaries, who 

had no guardian angels' wings to 6 bear them up',' durst 

not pursue him ; it is a curious fact for the comparative 

mythologist that the same pass bears also the name of 

Jusulte (Saltus Julii) and the tradition that Julius 

Caesar performed a similar feat here on horseback. 

Near it is a poor little inn, called ' the White House,' 

where local vintages may be tasted. 

Eeutte has two inns ; the Post and Krone, and from 
it more excursions may be made than I have space to 
chronicle. That to Breitenerang is an easy one; a 
house here is pointed out as having been built on the 
spot where stood a poor hut which gave shelter in his > 
last moments to Lothair II. ' the Saxon' overtaken by 
death on his return journey from the war in Italy, 1 137 ; 1 
what remained of the old materials having been con- 
scientiously worked into the building, down to the most 
insignificant spar; a tablet records the event. The 
church, a Benedictine foundation of the twelfth century, 
was rebuilt in the seventeenth, and contains many speci- 

D 2 


mens of what Tirolese artists can do in sculpture, wood- 
carving, and painting. A quaint chapel in the church- 
yard has a representation in stucco of the 6 Dance of" 

The country between this and the Plansee is called 
the, Achenthal, fortunately distinguished by local mis- 
pronounciation as the Archenthal from the better 
known (though not deservingly so) Achenthal, which we 
shall visit later. The Ache or Arche affords several 
water-falls, the most important of them, the Stuibfall, is 
nearly a hundred feet in height, and on a bright evening 
a beautiful ' iris ' may be seen enthroned in its foam. 

At the easternmost extremity of the Plansee, to be 
reached either by pleasure boat or mountain path, near 
the little border custom-house, the Kaiser-brunnen flows 
into the lake, so called because its cool waters once af- 
forded a refreshing drink to Ludwig of Brandenberg, 
when out hunting : a crucifix marks the spot. There 
is also a chapel erected at the end of the 17th century, 
in consequence of some local vow, containing a picture 
of the 'Vierzehn Nothhelfer;' and as the so-called 
* Fourteen Helpers in Need '• are a favourite devotion all 
over North-Tirol I may as well mention their legend 
here at our first time of meeting them. The story is 
that on the feast of the Invention of the Cross, 1445, 
a shepherd-boy named Hermann, serving the Cister- 
cian monks of Langheim (some thirty miles south of 
Mayence) was keeping sheep on a farm belonging to 
them in Frankenthal not far from Wiirtzburg, when he 
heard a child's voice crying to him out of the long 


grass; he turned round and saw a beautiful infant 
with two tapers burning before it, who disappeared as , 
he approached. On the vigil of S. Peter in the fol- 
lowing year Hermann saw the same vision repeated, 
only this time the beautiful infant was surrounded by 
a court of fourteen other children, who told him they 
were the 'Vierzehn Nothelfer,' and that he was to, 
build a chapel to them. The monks refused to believe 
Hermann's story, but the popular mind connected it 
with a devotion which was already widespread, and by 
the year 1448 the mysteriously ordered chapel was 
raised, and speedily became a place of pilgrimage. 
This chapel has been constantly maintained and en- 
larged and has now grown into a considerable church ; 
and the devotion to the 6 Fourteen Helpers in Need ' 
spread over the surrounding country with the usual 
rapid spread of a popular devotion. 1 

1 Following are the names of the fourteen, but I have never met 
any one who could explain the selection. 1. S. Acatius, bishop in Asia 
Minor, saved from death in the persecutions under Decius, 250, by a 
miracle he performed in the judgment hall where he was tried, and in 
memory of which he carries a tree, or a branch of one, in pictures of 
him. 2. S. JEgidius (Giles, in German, Gilgen), Hermit, of Nimes, 
nourished in his cell by the milk of a hind, which, being hunted, led to 
the discovery of his sanctity, an episode constantly recurring in the 
legendary world. Another poetical legend concerning him is that a 
monk, having come to him to express a doubt as to the virginity of 
Our Lady, S. Giles, for all answer traced her name in the sand with his 
staff, and forthwith fall-bloom lilies sprang up out of it. 3. S. Bar- 
bara. A maiden whom her heathen father shut up in a tower, that 
nothing might distract her attention from the life of study to which he 
devoted her ; among the learned men who came to enjoy her elevated 
conversation came a Christian teacher, and converted her; in token 
of her belief in the doctrine of the Trinity she had three windows made 


The chief remaining points of interest in the further 
journey to Innsbruck, taking it up where we diverged 
from it at Nassereit, are mentioned later in my excur- 
sions for Innsbruck. 

in her tower, and by the token her father discovered her conversion, de- 
livered her to judgment, and she suffered an incredible repetition of 
martyrdoms. She is generally painted with her three-windowed tower 
in her hand. 4. S. Blase, Bishop of Sebaste and Martyr, a.d. 288. He 
had studied medicine, and when concealed in the woods during time of 
persecution, the wild beasts used to bring the wounded of their number 
to his feet to be healed. Men hunting for Christians to drag to justice, 
found him surrounded by lions, tigers, and bears ; even in prison he 
continued to exercise his healing powers, and from restoring to. life a 
boy who had been suffocated by swallowing a fishbone, he is invoked as 
patron against sore throat. He too suffered numerous martyrdoms. 
6. S. Christopher. 6. S. Cyriacus, Martyr, 309, concerning whom many 
legends are told of his having delivered two princesses from incurable 
maladies. 7. S. Dionysius, the Areopagite, converted by S. Paul, and 
consecrated by him Bishop of Athens, afterwards called to Home by 
S. Peter, and made Bishop of Paris. 8. S. Erasmus, a bishop in Syria, 
after enduring many tortures there, he was thrown into prison, and 
delivered by an angel, who sent him to preach Christianity in Italy, 
he died at Gaeta 303. At Naples and other places he is honoured as S. 
Elmo. 9. S. Eustachius, originally called Placidus, a Eoman officer, 
converted while hunting by meeting a stag which carried a refulgent cross 
between its horns ; his subsequent reverses, his loss of wife and children, 
the wonderful meeting with them again, and the agency of animals 
throughout, make his one of the most romantic of legends. 1 0. S. George. 
11. S.Catherine of Alexandria. 12. S.Margaret. 13. S. Pantaleone, 
another student of medicine ; when, after many tortures, he was finally 
beheaded, the legend tells us that, in token of the purity of his life, 
milk flowed from his veins instead of -blood, a.d. 380. 14. S. Vitus, a 
Sicilian, instructed by a slave, who was his nurse, in the Christian 
faith in his early years ; his father's endeavours to root out his belief 
were unavailing, and he suffered a.d. 303, at not more than twelve 
years of age. The only link I can discover in this chain of saints is 
that they are all but one or two, whose alleged end I do not know, as 
S. Christopher, credited with having suffered a plurality of terrible 
martyrdoms. To each is of course ascribed the patronage over some 
special one of the various phases of human suffering. 


Before closing my chapter on Vorarlberg I must 
put on record, as a warning to those who may choose 
to thread its pleasant valleys, a laughable incident 
which cut short my first attempt to penetrate into 
Tirol by its means. Our line of route I have already 
named. 1 Our start was in the most genial of August 
weather ; our party not only harmonious, but humor- 
ously inclined ; all our stages were full of interest and 
pleasure, and their memory glances at me reproachfully 
as I pass them over in rigid obedience to the duty 
of adhering to my programme. But no, I must devote 
a word of gratitude to the friendly Swiss people, and 
their kindly hospitable manners on all occasions. The 
pretty bathing establishments on the lakes, where the 
little girls go in on their way to school, and swim 
about as elegantly as if the water were their natural 
element; the wonderful roofs of Aarau ; its late-flowering 
pomegranates ; and the clear delicious water, tumbling 
along its narrow bed down the centre of all the streets, 
where we stop to taste of the crystal brook, using the 
hollow of our hands, pilgrim fashion, and the kind 
people more than once come out of their houses to 
offer us glasses and chairs ! 

I must bestow, too, another line of record on the 
charming village of Rorschach, the little colony of 
Catholics in the midst of a Protestant canton. Its 
delicious situation on the Boden-see ; our row over the 
lake by moonlight, where we are nearly run down by 
one of the steamers perpetually crossing it in all 

1 P. 12. 


directions, while our old boatman pours out and loses 
himself in the mazes of his legendary lore ; the strange 
effect of interlacing moonbeams, interspersed by golden 
rays from the sanct lamps with Turner-like effect, seen 
through the open grated door of the church ; the gro- 
tesque draped skeleton supporting the roof of one of 
the chapels, Caryatid fashion and the rustic procession 
on the early morning of the Assumption. 

So far all had gone passing well; my first mis- 
giving arose when I saw the factotum of the Oberrfet 
station eye our luggage, the provision of four English 
winterers in Borne, and a look of embarrassed astonish- 
ment dilate his stolid German countenance. It was 
evident that when he engaged himself as ticket-clerk, 
porter, * and everytingf he never contemplated such a 
pile of boxes being ever deposited at his station. We 
left him wrapt in his earnest gaze, and walked on to 
see what help we could get in the village. It was a 
collection of a half-dozen cottages, picturesque in their 
utter uncivilization, clustered round an inn of some 
pretensions. The host had apparently heard of the 
depth of English purses, and was delighted to make 
his premieres arme& in testing their capacity. Of 
course there was c no arguing with the master of ' the 
only horses to whose assistance we had to look for 
carrying us beyond the mountains, which now some- 
how struck us as much more plainly marked on the 
map than we had noticed before. His price had to be 


ours, and his statement of the distance, about double 
the reality, had to be accepted also. His stud was 
soon displayed before us. Three rather tired greys 
were brought in from the field, and made fast (or 
rather loose) with ropes to a waggon, on which our for- 
midable Gepdck was piled, and took their start with 
funeral solemnity. An hour later a parcel of boys had 
succeeded in capturing a wild colt destined to assist 
his venerable parent in transporting ourselves in a 
6 shay,' of the Gilpin type, and to which we managed 
to hang on with some difficulty, the wild-looking 
driver good-naturedly volunteering to run by the 

Off we started with the inevitable thunder of Ger- 
man whip-cracking and German imprecations on the 
cattle, sufficient for the first twenty paces to astonish 
the colt into propriety. No sooner had we reached 
the village boundary, however, than he seemed to 
guess for the first time that he had been entrapped 
into bondage. With refreshing juvenile buoyancy he 
instantly determined to show us his indomitable spirit. 
Resisting all efforts of his companion in harness to pro- 
ceed, he suddenly made such desperate assault and 
battery with his hind legs, that one or two of the 
ropes were quickly snapped, the Jehu sent sprawling in 
the ditch on one side, and the travelling bags on the 
other ; so that, but for the staid demeanour of the old 
mare, we should probably in Wo minutes more have 


been 'nowhere.' Hans was on his feet again in an 
instant, like the balanced mannikins of a bull-fight, 
and to knot the ropes and make a fresh start required 
only a minute more ; but another and another exhibi- 
tion of the colt's pranks decided us to trust to our own 
powers of locomotion. 

A bare-footed, short-petticoated wench, who as- 
tonished us by proving that her rough hands could 
earn her livelihoood at delicate 4 Swiss' embroidery, 
and still more by details of the small remuneration 
that contented her, volunteered to pilot us through the 
woods where we had quite lost our way ; and finding 
our luggage van waiting on the banks of the Bhine for 
the return of the ferry, we crossed with it and walked 
by its side for the rest of the distance. 

Our road lay right across the Ardetzen, a basin of 
pasture enclosed by a magnificent circuit of mountains, — 
behind us the distant eminences of Appenzell, before us 
the great Rhsetian Alps, and at their base a number of 
smiling villages each with its green spire scarcelydetach- 
ing from the verdant slopes behind. The undertaking, 
pleasant and bright at first, grew weary and anxious as 
the sun descended, and the mountains of Appenzell 
began to throw their long shadow over the lowland we 
were traversing, and yet the end was not reached. At 
last the strains of an organ burst upon our ears, Jights_ 
from latticed windows diapered our path,, and a train 
of worshippers poured past us to join in the melodies 
of the Church, sufficiently large to argue that our 


stopping-place was attained. We cast about to find 
the Qasthof zur Post to which we were bound, but all 
in vain, there was no rest for us. 

Here indeed, Feldkirch fuit, but here it was no 
more. In the year 909, the Counts of Montfort built 
themselves a castle on the neighbouring height of 
Schattenburg, (so called because the higher eminences 
around shade it from the sun till late in the morning,) 
and lured away the people from this pristine Feldkirch 
to settle themselves round the foot of their fortress. 
Some of the original inhabitants still clung to the old 
place, and its old Church of St. Peter, that very church 
whose earlier foundations, some say, were laid by monks 
from Britain, S. Columban and St. Gall, who, when the 
people were oppressed by their Frankish masters, came 
and lived among them, and by their preaching and 
their prayers rekindled the light of religion, working 
out at the same time their political relief ; the former 
subsequently made his way, shedding blessings as he 
went, on to Italy, where he died at the age of ninety, 
in 615 ; the latter founded, and ended his days 
at the age of ninety-five, in the famous monastery 
which has given his name to the neighbouring Swiss 

The descendants of this remnant have kept up the 
original settlement to this day with the name of Alten- 
stadt, while the first built street of the present thriving 
town of Feldkirch still retains its appellation of the 


It seemed a long stretch ere we again came upon 
an inhabited spot, but this time there was no mistake. 
All around were the signs of a prosperous centre, the 
causeways correctly laid out, new buildings rising on 
every side, and — I am fain to add — the church dark 
and closed ; in place of the train of worshippers of 
unsophisticated Altenstadt, one solitary figure in mourn- 
ing weeds was kneeling in the moonlight at a desk 
such as we often see placed under a cross against the 
outer wall of churches in Germany. 

Before five next morning I was awakened by the 
pealing organ and hearty voices of the Feldkirch 
peasants at Mass in the church just opposite my win- 
dow. I dressed hastily, and descended to take my place 
among them. It was a village festival and Mass suc- 
ceeded Mass at each of the gaily decorated altars, and 
before them assembled groups in quaint costumes from 
far and near. 1 As each half hour struck, a bell sounded, 
and a relic was brought round to the high altar rails, 
all the women in the church going up first, and then 
all the men, to venerate it. 

Our first care of the day was to engage our carriage 
for Innsbruck. We were at the Post hotel, and had 
the best chance there ; for besides its own conveyances, 
there were those of the post-office, which generally in 
Germany afford great convenience. Not one was there, 

1 Among these not the least remarkable were some specimens of 
the unbrimmed beaver hat, somewhat resembling the Grenadier's bear- 
skin, only shorter, which is worn by the women in various parts of 
Tirol and Styria. 


however, that would undertake our luggage over the 
mountain roads. The post-master and his men all 
declared that at every winding of the passes there would 
be too great risk of overturning the vehicle. It was in 
vain we argued that the same amount had often accom- 
panied us over higher mountains in Italy ; it was clear 
they were not prepared for it. There was a service for 
heavy goods by which it could be sent ; there was no 
other way, and they did not advise that. They could not 
ensure any due care being taken of it, or that it should 
reach within three or four weeks. Four or five hours 
spent in weighing, measuring, arranging, and arguing, 
advanced our cause not a whit ; there was no plan to be 
adopted but to return by Oberriet to Eorschach, cross 
lake Constance to Lindau, and make our way round by 
Augsburg, Munich, and Eosenheim ! 

It was with great reluctance we relinquished the 
cherished project. Our now hated luggage deposited in 
a waggon, as the day before, we mounted our rather 
more presentable, and certainly better horsed vehicle, 
in no cheerful mood, for, besides the disappointment, 
there was the mortification which always attaches to a 
failed project and retraced steps. 

4 The Herrschaften are not in such bright spirits as 
the sun to-day ! ' exclaimed our driver, when, finally 
tired of cracking his whip and shouting to his horses, 
he found we still sat silent and crest-fallen. He wore 
the jauntiest costume to be found in Europe, after that 
of his Hungarian confrere, a short postilion jacket, 


bound and trimmed with yellow lace, a horn slung 
across his breast by a bright yellow cord, and a hat 
shining like looking-glass cocked on one side of his 
head, while his face expressed everything that is pleasant 
and jovial. 

4 How can one be anything but out of spirits when 
one is crossed by such a stupid set as the people of your 
town? Why, there is no part of Europe in which they 
will even beb'eve it possible ! ' 

' Well, you see they dortt understand much, about 
here,' he replied, with an air of superiority, for he was 
a travelled postilion, as he took care to let us know. 
4 In Italy they manage better ; they tie the luggage 
on behind, or underneath, where it is safe enough. 
Here they have only one idea — to stick it on the 
top, and in that way a carriage may be easily upset 
at a sharp turn. You cannot drive any new idea into 
these fellows; it is like an echo between their own 
mountains, whatever is once there, goes on and on and 
on.' I showed him the map, and traced before him the 
difference in the length of the route we should have 
taken and that we had now to pursue. I don't think he 
had ever understood a map before, for he seemed vastly 
pleased at the compliment paid - to his intelligence. 
* Ah ! ' he exclaimed, c if we could always go as the crow 
flies, how quickly we should get to our journey's end ; 
or if we had the Stase-Sattel, as they used to have— 
wasn't that fine ! ' 

* The Stase-Sattel,' I replied, 'what is that V 



c What ! don't you know about the Stase-Sattel — at 
that place, Bludenz, there,' and he pointed to it on the 

map,' i where you were telling me you wanted to have 
gone, there used to live an old woman named Stase, 
and folk said she was a witch. She had a wonderful 
saddle, on to which she used to set herself when she 
wanted anything, and it used to fly with her ever so 
high, and quicker than a bird. One day the reapers 
were in a field cooking their mess, and they had for- 
gotten to bring any salt — and hupf! quick I before the 
pot had begun to boil she had flown off" on her saddle 
to the salt-mines at Hall, beyond Innsbruck, and back 
with salt enough to pickle an ox. Another time there 
was a farmer who had been kind to her, whose crops 
were failing for the drought. She no sooner heard of 
his distress than up she flew in her saddle and swept 
all the clouds together with her broom till there was 
enough to make a good rainfall. Another time, a boy 
who had been sent with a message by his master to the 
next village had wasted all the day in playing and 
drinking with her ; towards dusk he bethought himself 
that the gates would be shut and the dogs let loose, so 
that it was a chance if he reached the house alive. But 
she told him not to mind, and taking him up on her 
saddle, she carried him up through the air and set him 
down at home before the sun was an inch lower.' 

' And what became of her ? ' I inquired. 

4 Became of her 1 why, she went the way of all such 
folk. They go on for a time, but God's hand overtakes 



them at the last. One day she was on one of her wild 
errands, and it was a Fest-tag to boot. Her course took 
her exactly over a church spire, and just as she passed, 
the Wandlung bell l tolled. The sacred sound tor- 
mented her so that she lost her seat and fell headlong 
to the ground. When they came out of church they 
found her lying a shapeless mass upon the stone step of 
the churchyard cross. Her enchanted saddle was long 
kept in the Castle of Landeck — maybe it is there yet ; 
and even now when we want to tell one to go quickly 
. on an errand, we say, " Fly on the saddle of Dame 
Stase." ' 

6 You have had many such folk about here,' I ob- 
served seriously, with the view of drawing him out. 

' Well, yes, they tell many such tales,' he answered ; 
' and if they're not true, they at least serve to keep 
alive the faith that Grod is over us all, and that the 
evil one has no more power than just what He allows. 
There's another story they tell, just showing that,' he 
continued. ' Many years ago there was a peasant (and 
he lived near Bludenz too) who had a great desire to 
have a fine large farm-house. He worked hard, and 
put his savings by prudently ; but it wouldn't do, he 
never could get enough. One day, in an evil hour, he 
let his great desire get the better of him, and he called 

1 The bell called in other countries the Elevation bell, is in Germany 
called the Wandlung, or change-qf-the-elements bell. The idiom was 
worth preserving here, as it depicts more perfectly the solemnity of the 
moment indicated. 


the devil in dreiteufelsnamen 1 to his assistance. It 
was not, you see, a deliberate wickedness — it was all in 
a moment, like. But the devil came, and didn't give 
him time to reflect. " I know what you want," he 
said ; " you shall have your house and your barns and 
your hen-house, and all complete, this very night, with- 
out costing you a penny ; but when you have enjoyed 
it long enough, your old worn-out carcass shall belong 
to me." The good peasant hesitated ; and the devil, 
finding it necessary to add another bait, ran on : " And 
-what is more, I'll go so far as to say that if every stone 
is not complete by the first cock-crow, I'll strike out 
even this condition, and you shall have it out and 
out" The peasant was dazzled with tbe prospect, and 
could not bring himself all at once to refuse the accom- 
plishment of his darling hope. The devil shook him 
by the hand as a way of clenching the bargain, and 

'The peasant went home more alarmed than re- 
joiced, and full of fear above all that his wife should 
inquire the meaning of all the hammering and bluster- 
ing and running hither and thither which was to be 
heard going on in the homestead, for she was a pious 
God-fearing woman. 

6 He remained dumb to all her inquiries, hour after 
hour through the night ; but at last, towards morning, 
his courage failed him, and he told her all. She, like 
a .good wife, gave back no word of reproach, but cast 

1 The threefold invocation, supposed to be supremely efficacious. 



about to find a remedy. First she considered that he 
had done the thing thoughtlessly and rashly, and then 
she ascertained that at last he had given no actual con- 
sent. Finally, deciding matters were not as bad as 
might be, she got up, and bid him leave the issue 
to her. 

4 First she knelt down and commended herself and 
her undertaking to God and His holy saints ; then in 
the. small hours, when the devil's work was nearly 
finished, she took her lamp and spread out the wick so 
that it should give its greatest glare, and poured fresh 
oil upon it, and went out with a basket of grain to 
feed the hens. The cock, seeing the bright light and 
the good wife with her basket of food, never doubted 
but that it was morning, and springing up, he flapped 
his wings, and crowed with all his might. At that 
very moment the devil himself was coming by with 
the last roof-stone. 1 At the sound of the premature 
cock-crow he was so much astonished that he didn't 
know which way to turn, and sank into the ground 
bearing the stone still in his hand. 

6 The house belonged to the peasant by every right, 
but no stone could ever be made to stay on the vacant 
space. This inconvenience was the penance he had to 
endure for the desperate game he had played, and he 

1 In Tirol the roofs are frequently made of narrow overlapping 
planks, weighed down by large stones. Hence the origin of the German 
proverb, * If a stone fall from the roof, ten to one but it lights on a 
poor widow ; ' — equivalent to our « Trouble never comes alone.' 


took it cheerfully, and when the rain came in he used 
to kiss his good wife in gratitude for the more terrible 
chastisement from which she had saved him/ 

The jaunty postilion whipped the horses on as he 
thus brought his story to a close, or rather cracked his 
whip in the air till the mountains resounded with it, 
for he had slackened speed while telling his tale, and 
the day was wearing on. 

4 We must take care and not be late for the train,' 
he observed. ' The Herrschaften have had enough of 
the inn of Oberriet, and don't want to have to spend a 
night there, and we have no Vorarlberger-geist to speed 
us now-a-days.' 

6 Who was he ? ' I inquired eagerly. 

' I suppose you know that all this country round 
about here is called the Vorarlberg, and in olden time 
there was a spirit that used to wander about helping 
travellers all along its roads. When they were benighted, 
it used to go before them with a light ; when they 
were in difficulties, it used to procure them aid ; if one 
lost his way, it used to direct him aright ; till one day 
a poor priest came by who had been to administer a 
distant parishioner. His way had lain now over bog, 
now over torrent-beds. In the roughness of the way 
the priest's horse had cast a shoe. A long stretch of 
road lay yet before him, but no forge was near. 
Suddenly the Vorarlberger-geist came out of a cleft in 
the rock, silently set to work and shod the horse, and 
passed on its way as usual with a sigh. 

B 2 


6 " VergdUgott ! " l cried the priest after it. 

" 6 God be praised ! " exclaimed the spirit. " Now 
am I at last set free. These hundred years have I 
served mankind thus, and till now no man has per- 
formed this act of gratitude, the condition of my 
release." And since this time it has never been seen 

We had now once more reached the banks of the 
Ehine. The driver of the luggage van held the ferry 
in expectation of us, and with its team it was already 
stowed on board. Our horses were next embarked, and 
then ourselves, as we sat, perched on the carriage. A 
couple of rough donkeys, a patriarchal goat, and half-a- 
dozen wild-looking half-clothed peasants, made up a 
freight which^ seemed to tax the powers of the crazy 
barge to the utmost ; and as the three brawny ferrymen 
pulled it dexterously along the guide rope, the waters 
of the here broad and rapid river rose some inches 
through the chinks. All went well, however, and 
in another half-hour we were again astonishing the 
factotum of the Oberriet station with a vision of the 
< (repack ' which had puzzled him so immensely the day 

1 ' May God reward it.' 





-*c '• - -^ 




and f 

Ifeignbourliood of Innsbruck 





. . . . * Peasant of the Alps, 
Thy humble virtues, hospitable home, 
And spirit patient, pious, proud, and free ; 
Thy self -respect, grafted on innocent thoughts ; 
Thy days of health, thy nights of sleep, thy toil 
By danger dignified, yet guiltless ; hopes 
Of cheerful old age, and then a quiet grave 
With cross and garland over its green turf, 
And thy grandchildren's love for epitaph, 

This do I see! 

Byron {Manfred), 

When, after our forced ctttour, we next penetrated into 
Tirol, it was by the way of Kufstein. Ruffled as we 
had been in the meantime by Bavarian ' RohheitJ we 
were glad to find ourselves again in the hands of the 
gentle Tirolese. 

Kufstein, however, is not gentle in appearance. Its 
vast fortress seems to shed a stifling gloom over the 
whole place ; it looks so hard and selfish and tyrannical, 
that you long to get away from its influence. Noble 
hearts from honest Hungary have pined away within 
its cold strong grasp ; and many a time, as my sketch- 
book has been turned over by Magyar friends, the 
page which depicted its outline — for it wears a grand 



and gallant form, such as the pencil cannot resist — has 
raised a deep sigh over the ' trauriges Andenken ' it 
served to call up. 1 

When Margaretha Maultasch ceded the country she 
found herself unable to govern, to Austria at the earnest 
request of her people, in 1363, it was stipulated that 
Kufstein, Kitzbiihl, and Eattenberg, which had been 
added to it by her marriage with Louis of Bradenburg, 
should revert to Bavaria. These three dependencies 
were recovered by the Emperor Maximilian in 1504, 
the two latter accepting his allegiance gladly, the for- 
mer holding out stoutly against him. The story of the 
reduction of this stronghold is almost a stain on his 
otherwise prudent and prosperous reign. 

Pienzenau, its commander, who was in the Bavarian 
interest, had particularly excited his ire by setting his 
men to sweep away with brooms the traces of the small 
damage which had been effected by his cannon, placed at 
too great a distance to do more than graze the massive 
walls. Philip von Eecenau, Regent of Innsbruck, mean- 
time cast two enormous field-pieces, which received the 
names of Weckauf and Purlepaus. These entirely turned 
the tide of affairs. Chronicles of the time do not men- 
tion their calibre, but declare that their missiles not only 
pierced the c fourteen feet-thick wall' through and 
through, but entered a foot and a half into the living 
rock. Pienzenau's heart misgave him when he saw the 

1 The frontispiece to this volume (veiy much improved by the artist 
who has drawn it on the wood). 



work of these destructive engines, and hastened to 
send in his submission to the Emperor ; but it was too 
late. ' So he is in a hurry to throw away his brooms 
at last, is he ?' cried Maximilian. 6 But he should have 
done it before. He has allowed the wall of this noble 
castle to be so disgracefully shattered, that he can 
make no amends but by giving up his own carcass to 
the same fate.' 

No entreaty could move the Emperor from carrying 
out this chastisement, and some five^and-twenty of the 
principal men who had held out against him were con- 
demned to be beheaded on the spot. When eleven had 
fallen before the headsman's sword, Erich, Duke of 
Brunswick, sickening at the scene of blood, pleaded so 
earnestly with the Emperor, that he obtained the par- 
don of the rest. The eleven were buried by the pious 
country-people in a common grave ; and who will may 
yet tread the ground where their remains rest in a 
little chapel built over their grave at Ainliff (dialectic 
for eleven), on the other side of the river Inn* 

Its situation near the frontier has made it the scene 
of other sieges, of which none is more endeared to Tiro- 
leans than that of 1809, when the patriot Speckbacher 
distinguished himself by many a dauntless deed. 

If Kufstein has long had a truce to these stirring 
memories, many a fantastic story has floated out of it 
concerning the prisoners harboured there, even of late 
years. The Hungarian patriot brigand, Bocsla Sandor 
(Andrew Boshla), who won by his unscrupulous daring 



quite a legendary place in popular story, was long con- 
fined here. He was finally tried and condemned (but 
I think not executed) at Szeghedin, in July 1870 ; 454 
other persons were included in the same trial, of whom 
234 under homicidal charges ; 100 homicides were 
laid to his charge alone, but there is no doubt that his 
services to the popular cause, at the same time that 
they condoned some of his excesses, in the popular judg- 
ment may have disposed the authorities to exaggerate 
the charges against him. The whole story is fantastic, 
and even in Kufstein, where he was almost an alien, 
there was admiration and sympathy underlying the 
shudder with which the people spoke of him. A much 
more interesting and no less romantic narrative, was 
told me of a Hungarian political prisoner, who formed 
the solitary instance of an escape from the stony walls 
of the fortress. His lady-love — and she was a lady by 
birth — with the heroic instincts of a Hungarian 
maiden, having with infinite difficulty made out where 
he was confined, followed him hither in peasant dis- 
guise, and with invincible perseverance succeeded, first 
in engaging herself as servant to the governor and then 
in conveying every day to her lover, in his soup, a 
hank of hemp. With this he twisted a rope and got 
safely away ; and this occurred not more than six or 
seven years ago. 

St. Louis's day fell while we were at Kufstein — the 
name-day of the King of Bavaria; and being the 
border town, the polite Tiroleans make a compli- 


mentary fete of it. There was a grand musical Mass, 
which the officers from the Bavarian frontier attended, 
and a modest banquet was offered them after it. The 
peasants put on their holiday attire — passable enough 
as far as the men are concerned, but consisting mainly 
on the women's behalf in an ugly black cloth square- 
waisted dress, and a black felt broad-brimmed hat, 
with large gold tassels lying on the brim. After Mass 
the Bavarian national hymn was sung to the familiar 
strains of our own. 

All seemed gay and glad without. I returned to 
the primitive rambling inn; everyone was gone to 
take his or her part in the Kufstein idea of a holiday. 
There were three entrances, and three staircases ; I 
took a wrong one, and in trying to retrace my steps 
passed a room through the half-open door of which I 
heard a sound of moaning, which arrested me. I 
could not find it in my heart to pass on. I pushed the 
door gently aside, and discovered a grey-haired old 
man lying comfortlessly on the bed in a state of torpor. 
I laid him back in a posture in which he could breathe 
more freely, opened his collar and gave him air, and 
with the aid of one or two simple means soon brought 
him back to consciousness. The room was barely 
furnished ; his luggage was a small bundle tied in a 
handkerchief, his clothes betokened that he belonged 
to the respectable of the lower class. I was too de- 
sirous to converse with a genuine Tirolean peasant to 
refuse his invitation to sit down by his side. I had 


soon learnt his tale, which he seemed not a little 
pleased to find had an interest for a foreigner. 

His lot had been marked by severe trials. In early 
youth he had been called to lose his parents ; in later 
life, the dear wife who had for a season clothed his 
home again with brightness and hope. In old age he 
had had a heavier trial still. His only child, the son 
whom he had reared in the hope that he would have 
been the staff of his declining years, whom he had 
brought up in innocence in childhood, and shielded from 
knowledge of evil in early youth, had gone from him, 
and he knew not where to find him. The boy had 
always had a fancy for a roving adventurous life, but 
it had been his hope to have kept him always near 
him, free from the contamination of great cities. 

I asked if it was not the custom in these parts for 
young men to go abroad and seek employment where it 
was more highly paid, and come back and settle on their 
earnings. But he shook his head proudly. It was so 
in Switzerland, it was so in some few valleys of Tirol, 
and the poor Engadeiners supplied all the cities of 
Europe with confectioners ; but his son had no need to 
tramp the world in search of fortune. But what had 
made him most anxious was, that the night before his 
son left some wild young men had passed through the 
village. They were bold and uproarious, and his fear 
was that his boy might have been tempted to join them. 
He did not know exactly what their game was, but he 
had an idea they were gathering recruits to join the law- 


less Garibaldian bands in their attempts upon the Roman 
frontier. With their designs he was confident his son 
had no sympathy. If he had stopped to consider them, 
he would have shrunk from them with horror ; and it 
was his dread that his spirited love of danger and 
excitement had carried him into a vortex from which he 
might by-and-by be longing to extricate himself in vain. 
It was to pray that the lad might be guided aright that 
he made this pilgrimage up the Thierberg — no easy 
journey for one of his years. He had come across hill 
and valley from a village of which I forget the name, but 
situated near Sterzing. 

4 But Sterzing itself is a place of pilgrimage,' I said, 
glad to turn to account my scanty knowledge of the 
sacred places of the country. 4 Why did you come all 
this way ? ' 

4 Indeed is Sterzing,' he replied, 4 a place of bene- 
dictions. It is the spot where Sterzing, our first 
hermit, lived, and left his name to our town. But this 
is the spot for those who need penance. There, in that 
place,' and as I followed the direction of his hand I saw 
through the low lattice window the lofty elevation of the 
Thierberg like a phantom tower, enveloped in mist, 
standing out against the clear sky beyond, and wondered 
how his palsied limbs had carried him up the steep. 
* In that place, in olden time, lived a true penitent. 
Once it was a lordly castle, and he to whom it belonged 
was a rich and honoured knight ; but on one occasion 
he forgot his knightly honour, and with false vows led 



astray ^an unthinking maiden of the village. Soon, 
however, the conviction of his sin came back to him 
clear as the sun's light, and without an hour's hesitation 
he put it from him. To the girl he made the best 
amends he could by first leading her to repentance, 
then procuring her admission to a neighbouring convent. 
But for him, from that day the lordly castle became 
as a hermit's cell, the sound of mirth and revelry and 
of friendly voices was hushed for ever. The memory of 
his own name even he would have wiped out, and would 
have men call him only, as they do to the present day, 
6 der Busser 9 — the Penitent. And so many has his 
example brought to this shrine in a spirit of compunc- 
tion, that the Church has endowed it with the indul- 
gence of the Portiuncula.' 

What a picture of Tirolese faith it was ! Instead of 
setting in motion the detective police, or the telegraph- 
wire, or the second column of the 'Times,' this old man 
had come many miles in the opposite direction from 
that his child was supposed to have taken, to bring his 
burden and lay it before a shrine he believed to have 
been made dear to heaven by tears of penance in 
another age, and there commend his petition to God 
that He might bring it to pass, accepting the suffering 
as a merited chastisement in a spirit of sincere peni- 
tence ! 

He was feeling better, and I rose to go. He pressed 
my hand in acknowledgment of my sympathy, and I 
assured him of it. It was not a case for more substan- 


tial charity ; I had gathered from his recital that he 
had no lack of wordly means. I only strove at parting 
to kindle a ray of hope. I said after all it might not 
be so bad as he imagined; his boy had been well 
brought up, and might perhaps be trusted to keep out 
of the way of evil. It was thoughtless of him not to 
seek his father's blessing and consent to his choice of 
an adventurous career, but it might be he had feared 
his opposition, and that he had no unworthy reason for 
concealing his plans. There was at least as much 
reason to hope as to despond, and he must look forward 
to his coming hack, true to the instincts of his moun- 
tain home, wiser than he had set out. 

His pale blue eye glistened, and he gasped like 
one who had seen a vision. 4 Ay ! just so ! Just so it 
appeared to me when I was on the Thierberg this 
morning ! And now, in case my weak old heart did 
not see it clearly enough, God, in His mercy, has sent 
you to expound the thing more plainly to me. Now I 
know that I am heard.' 

Poor old man I I shuddered lest the hope so strongly 
entertained should prove delusive in the end. I may 
never know the result ; but I felt that at all events as 
he was one who took all things at God's hands, nothing 
could, in one sense, come amiss ; and for the present, 
at least, I saw that he went down to his house com- 

I strolled along the street, and, possessed with the 
type of the Tirolean peasant, as I received it from this 

' f 


old man, I conceived a feeling of deeper curiosity for 
all whom I met by the way. I thought of them as of 
men for whom an unseen world is a reality; who 
estimate prayer and sacraments and the intercession of 
saints above steam-power and electricity. At home 
one meets with one such now and then, but to be 
transported into a whole country of them was like 
waking up from a long sleep to find oneself in the age 
of St. Francis and St. Dominic. 

Whatever faults the Tirolese may have to answer 
for, they will not arise from religion being put out of 
sight. No village but has its hillside path marked 
with < the Way of the Cross ; ' no bridge but carries the 
statue of S. John Nepomucene, the martyr of the Con- 
fessional ; no fountain but bears the image of the local 
saint, a model of virtue to the place; no lone path 
unmarked by its way-side chapel, or its crucifix shielded 
from the weather by a rustic roof; no house but has its 
outer walls covered with memories of holy things ; no 
room without its sacred prints and its holywater stoup. 
The churches are full of little rude pictures, recording 
scenes in which all the pleasanter events of life are 
gratefully ascribed to answers to prayer, while many 
who cannot afford this more elaborate tribute hang up a 
tablet with the words Hat geholfen (' He has helped me '), 
or more simply still, 6 aus DankbarkeiV Longfellow 
has written something very true and pretty, which I do 
not remember well enough to quote ; but most will call 
to mind the verses about leaving landmarks, which a 


weary brother seeing, may take heart again ; and it is 
incalculable how these good people may stir up one 
another to hope and endurance by such testimonies of 
their trust in a Providence. Sometimes, again, the 
little tablets record that such an one has undertaken a 
journey. c N. N. reiset nach i\T., pray for him ;' and we, 
who have come so far so easily, smile at the short dis- 
tance which is thought worthy of this importance. The 
Gott segne meine Reise — 'May God bless my journey' — 
seems to come as naturally to them, however, as 'grace 
before meat ' with us. But most of all, their care is 
displayed in regard to the dear departed. The spot 
where an accident deprived one of his life is sacred to 
all. ' The honourable peasant N". N. was run over here 
by a heavy waggon ; ' — ' Here was N. N. carried away by 
the waters of the stream ; ' with the unfailing adjunct, 
'may he rest in peace, let us pray for him; 5 or sometimes, 
as if there were no need to address the recommendation 
to his own neighbours, ' Stranger! pray for him.' 

The straggling village on the opposite bank, of the 
Inn is called Zell, though appearing part of Kufstein. 
It affords the best points for viewing the gloomy old 
fortress, and itself possesses one or two chapels of some 
interest. At Kiefersfelden, at a short distance on the 
Bavarian border, is the so-called Ottokapelle, a Gothic 
chapel marking the spot where Prince Otho quitted his 
native soil when called to take possession of the throne 
of Greece. 


Kundl, about an hour from Kufstein, the third 
station, by rail, 1 though wretchedly provided with 
accommodation, is the place to stop at to visit the 
curious and isolated church of S. Leonhard auf der 
Wiese (in the meadow), and it is well worthy of a visit. 
In the year 1004 a life-sized stone image of St. Leonard 
was brought by the stream to this spot ; ' floating,' the 
wonder-loving people said, but it may well be believed 
that some rapid swollen torrent had carried the image 
away in its wild course from some chapel on a higher 
level. The people not knowing whence it came, reckoned 
its advent a miracle, and set it up in the highway, that 
all who passed might know of it. It was not long before 
a no less illustrious wayfarer than the Emperor Henry II. 
came that way, and seeing the uncovered image set up 
on high, stopped to inquire its history. When he had 
heard it, he vowed that if his arms were prosperous 
in Italy he would on his return build the saint an 
honourable church. Success indeed attended him in the 
campaign, and he was crowned Emperor at Pavia, but 
St. Leonard and his vow were alike forgotten. The 
year 1012 brought him again into Italy through Tirol, 
and passing the spot where he had registered his vow 
before, his horse, foaming and stamping, refused to 
pass the image or carry him further. The circumstance 
reminded him of his promise, and he at once set to 
work to carry it out worthily. The church was com- 

1 Of the Brizenthal and the Gebiet der grossen Ache we shall have 
to speak in a later chapter, in our excursion from Worgl to Vienna.' 


pleted within a few years, but an unhappy accident 
signalized its completion. A young man who had 
undertaken to place the ornament on the summit was 
seized with vertigo in the moment of completing his 
exploit, and losing his balance was dashed lifeless on to 
the ground below. 1 His remains were gathered up 
tenderly by the neighbours, and his skull laid as an 
offering at the foot of the crucifix on the high altar, 
where it yet remains. An inscription to the following 
effect is preserved in the church : ' a.d. 1019 Praesens 
ecclesia Sti. Leonhardi a sancto Henrico Imperatore ex- 
structa, et anno 1020 a summo Pontifice Benedicto VIII. 
consecrata est,' though there would not seem to be any 
other record of the Pope having made the journey. 
S. Kunigunda* consort of Henry II., bore a great 
affection to the spot, and often visited it. 

The image of St. Leonard now in the church bears 
the date of 1481, and there is no record of the time when 
it was substituted for the original. 2 The interior has 
suffered a great deal during the whitewash period ; but 
some of the original carvings are remarkable, particu- 
larly the grotesque creatures displayed on the main 
columns. On one a doubled-bodied lion is trampling 
on two dragons ; on another a youth stands holding the 
prophetic roll of the book of revelation, and a hideous 

1 The comparative mythologist can perhaps tell us why this story 
crops up everywhere. I have had occasion to report it from Spain in 
Patranas. Curious instances in Stober Sagen dts Elsasses. 

2 S. Leonard is reckoned the patron of herds. See Pilger dutch 
Tirol, p. 247. 


symbolical figure, with something of the form of a 
bear, cowers before him, showing a certain resemblance 
to the sculptures in the chapel-porch of Castle Tirol. 
Sound the high altar are ten pilasters, each setting 
forth the figure of a saint, and all various. A great 
deal of the old work was destroyed, however, when it 
was rebuilt, about the year 1500. 

Between St. Leonhard and Batfield runs the Aufl- 
angerbrundl — so called from the Angerberg, celebrated 
as itself a very charming excursion from Kundl — a 
watercourse directed by the side of the road through 
the charity of the townspeople of Eattenberg and 
Eatfeld, in the year 1424, with the view that no way- 
farer might faint by the way for want of a drink of pure 
and refreshing water. 

Eattenberg is a little town of some importance on 
account of the copper works in the neighbourhood, but 
not much frequented by visitors, though it has three 
passable inns. It is curious that the castle of Eot- 
tenburg near Eothholz, though so like in name, has a 
different derivation, the latter arising from the red earth 
of the neighbourhood, and the former from an old 
word Rat, meaning ' richness,' and in old documents it 
is found spelt Rat in berc (riches in the mountain). 
This was the favoured locality of the holy Nothburga's 
earthly career. 

St. Nothburga is eminently characteristic of her 
country. She was the poorest of village maidens, and 
yet attained the highest and most lasting veneration of 


her people by the simple force of virtue. She was 
born in 1280. The child of pious parents, she drank in 
their good instructions with an instinctive aptitude. 
Their lessons of pure and Christian manners seemed as it 
were to crystallize and model themselves in her conduct ; 
she grew up a living picture of holy counsels. She 
was scarcely seventeen when the lord of Castle Eotten- 
burg, hearing of her perfect life, desired to have her in 
his household. Her parents, knowing she could have 
no better protectors, when they were no more, than their 
honoured knight Henry of Eottenburg and his good wife 
Grutta, gladly accepted the proposal. In her new sphere 
Nothburga showed how well grounded was her virtue. 
It readily adapted itself to her altered position, and she 
became as faithful and devoted to her employers as she 
had been loving and obedient to her parents. In time 
she was advanced to the highest position of trust in the 
castle, and the greatest delight of her heart was fulfilled 
when she was nominated to superintend the distribution 
of alms to the poor. Her prudence enabled her to dis- 
tinguish between real and feigned need, and while she 
delighted in ministering to the one, she was firm in 
resisting the appeals of the other. Her general up- 
rightness won for her the respect of all with whom she 
had to do, and she was the general favourite of all 

Such bright days could not last ; the enemy of God's 

1 Anna Maria Taigi, lately beatified in Borne, was also a maid- 

f 2 


saints looked on with envy, and desired to c sift ' her 6 as 
wheat.' The knight's son, Henry VI., in process of time 
brought home his bride, Ottilia by name ; and according 
to local custom, the older Knight Henry ceded his 
authority to the young castellan, living himself in com- 
parative retirement. Ottilia was young and thoughtless, 
and haughty to boot, and it was not without a feeling- 
of bitter resentment that she saw both her husband and 
his parents looked to Nothburga to supply her defici- 
encies in the management of the household. She resolved 
to get rid of the faithful servant, and her fury against 
her was only increased in proportion as she realized 
that the perfect uprightness of her conduct rendered 
it impossible to discover any pretext for dismissing 

For Nothburga it was a life of daily silent martyr- 
dom. There were a thousand mortifications in her 
mistress's power to inflict, and she lost no opportunity 
of annoying her, but never once succeeded in ruffling 
the gentleness of her spirit. c My life has been too 
easy hitherto,' she would say in the stillness of her own 
heart ; ' now I am honoured at last by admission to the 
way of the Cross.' There was no brightness, no praise, 
no subsequent hope of distinction, to be derived from 
her patience ; they were stabs in the dark, seen by no 
human eye, which made her bleed day by day. Yet she 
would not complain, much less seek to change her 
Service. She said it would have been ungrateful to her 
first benefactors and employers to leave them, so long 


as she could spend herself for them, and ungrateful to 
God to shirk the trial He had lovingly sent her. 

A crucial test of her fidelity, however, was at hand. 
The day came when Knight Henry and Gutta his wife 
were called to their long rest, and with them the chief 
protection of Nothburga departed. She was now almost 
at Ottilia's mercy. One of the first consequences of 
this change was that she was deprived of her favourite 
office of relieving the poor ; and not only their customary 
alms were stopped, but their dole of food also ; and as a 
final provocation, she was required to feed the pigs with 
the broken meat which she had been accustomed to 
husband for the necessitous. 

The good girl's heart bled to see the needy whom 
she had been wont to relieve turned hungry away. The 
only means that occurred to her of remedying the evil 
in some measure, was to deny herself her own food 
and distribute it among them. Eestricting her own 
diet to bread and water, she saved a little basketful, 
which she would take down every evening when work 
was done to the foot of the Leuchtenburg, where the 
poorest of the castle dependents lived ; and the blessing 
which multiplied the loaves in the wilderness made her 
scanty savings suffice to feed all who had come to beg 
of her. 

That Nothburga contrived to feed the poor of a 
whole district, in spite of her orders to the contrary, of 
course became in time a ground of complaint for Ottilia. 
She had now a plausible reason for stirring up the 




Knight Henry against her. He had always defended 
her, out of regard for his parents' memory ; but coming 
one evening past the Leuchtenburg, at Ottilia's instiga- 
tion, he met Nothburga with her little burden, and 
asked her what she carried. 

Here the adversary of the saints had prepared for 
her a great trial, says the legend. She, in her innocence, 
told fairly and honestly the import of her errand ; but 
to the Knight's eyes, who had meantime untied her 
apron, the contents appeared, the legend says, to be 
wood shavings ; and further, putting the wine-flask to 
his lips, it seemed to him to contain soap-suds. To her 
charitable intention he had made no objection, but at 
this, which appeared to him a studied affront, he was 
furious. He would listen to no explanation, but, re- 
turning at once to the castle, he gave Ottilia free and 
full leave to deal with the offending handmaiden as 
she pleased. Ottilia readily put the permission into 
effect by directing the castle guard to forbid her, on 
her return, ever again to pass the threshold of the 

This blow told with terrible effect on the poor girl. 
During her service at the castle both her parents had 
died ; she had now no home to resort to. Putting her 
trust in God, however, she retraced her steps alone 
through the darkness, and found shelter in a cottage of 
one of her clients. Her path was watched by the 
angels, who marked the track with fair seeds ; and even 
to this day the hill-side which her feet so often pressed 


on her holy errand is said to be marked with a peculiar 
growth of flowers. 

The next day she applied to a peasant of Eben to 
engage her as a field labourer. The peasant was ex- 
ceedingly doubtful of her capacity for the work after 
the comparatively delicate nature of her previous mode 
of life. Her hardy perseverance and determination, 
aided by the grace of God, on which she implicitly 
relied, overcame all obstacles, and old Valentine soon 
found that her presence brought a blessing on all his 
substance. She had been with him about a year, when 
one day, being Saturday, he was very anxious to gather 
in the remainder of his harvest before an apprehended 
storm, and desired Nothburga, with the other reapers, 
to continue their labours after the hour of eve, when 
the holy rest was reckoned to have commenced. Noth- 
burga, usually so obedient to his wishes, had the courage 
to refuse to infringe the commandment of religion ; and 
to manifest that the will of God was on her side, showed 
him her sickle resting from labour, suspended in the 
air. Valentine, convinced by the prodigy, yielded to 
her representations, and her piety was more and more 
honoured by all the neighbours. 

Soon after this, Ottilia, in the midst of her health 
and strength, was stricken with a dangerous illness. 
In presence of the fear of death she remembered her 
harsh treatment of Nothburga, and sent for her to make 
amends for the past. As the good girl reached her 
bed-side she was just under the influence of a frightful 


attack of fevered remorse. Her long golden hair 
waved in untended masses over the pillow, like the 
flames of purgatory; her eyes glared like wheels of 
fire. Unconscious of what was passing round her, and 
filled only with her distempered fancies, she cried 
piteously : ' Drive away those horrid heasts I don't let 
them come near me ! And why do you let those pale- 
faced creatures pursue me with their hollow glances ? 
If I did deny them food, I cannot help it now ! Oh ! 
keep those horrid swine off rae ! If I did give them 
the portion of the poor, it is no reason you should let 
them defile me and trample on me ! ' 

Nothburga was melted with compassion, and her 
glance of sympathy seemed to chase away the horrid 
vision. Come to. herself, and calm again, Otillia recog- 
nized her and begged her pardon, which we may well 
believe she readily accorded ; and shortly after, having 
reconciled herself to God with true compunction, she 
fell asleep in peace. 1 

Henry proposed to Nothburga to come and resume 

1 I have throughout the story reconciled, as well as I could, the 
various versions of every episode in which local tradition indulges. One 
favourite account of Ottilia's end, however, is so different from the one 
I have selected above, that I cannot forbear giving it also. It repre- 
sents Ottilia rushing in despair from her bed and wallowing in the 
enclosure of the pigs, whence, with all Henry's care, she could not be 
withdrawn alive. All the strength of his retainers was powerless to 
restrain the beasts' fury, and she was devoured, without leaving a trace 
behind ; only that now and then, on stormy nights, when the pigs are 
grunting over their evening meal, some memory of their strange repast 
seems to possess them, and the wail of Ottilia is heard resounding hope- 
lessly through the valley. 


her old post in the castle, and moreover to add to it 
that of superintending the nurture of his only boy. 
Nothburga gladly accepted his offer, but, in her strict 
integrity, insisted on accepting no remission from the 
three years' service under which she had bound herself 
to Valentine. This concluded, she was received back 
with open arms at Castle Eottenburg, whither she took 
with her one of Valentine's daughters to instruct in 
household duties, that she might be meet to succeed 
her when her time should come. 

Days of peace on earth are not for the saints. Her 
fight was fought out. The privations she had 
undergone in sparing her food for the poor, and her 
subsequent exposure in the field, brought on an illness, 
under which she shortly after sank. In conformity with 
her express desire, her body was laid on a bier, to which 
two young oxen were yoked, and left to follow their 
own course. The willing beasts tramped straight away 
over hill and dale and water-course till they came to 
the village of Eben, then consisting of but a couple of 
huts of the poor tillers of the soil, and Valentine's 
homestead ; now, a thriving village, its two inns crowded 
every holiday with peasants, who make their excursions 
coincide with a visit of devotion to the peasant maiden's 
shrine. A small field-chapel of St. Euprecht was then 
the only place of devotion, but here next morning the 
body of the holy maiden was found carefully laid at the 
foot of the altar, and here it was reverently buried, and 
for centuries it has been honoured by all the country 


round. 1 In 1434 the Emperor Maximilian, and Chris- 
topher, Prince-Bishop of Brixen, built a church over 
the spot, of which the ancient chapel served as the 
quire. In 1718 Gaspar Ignatius, Count of Kiinigl, 
the then Prince-Bishop, had the remains exhumed, and 
carried them with pomp to the neighbouring town of 
Schwatz, where they were left while the church was 
restored, and an open sarcophagus prepared for them to 
remain exposed for the veneration of the faithful, which 
was completed in 1738. In 1838 a centenary festival 
was observed with great rejoicing, and on March 27, 
1862, the cycle of Nothburga's honour was completed 
in her solemn canonization at Eome. 

The lords of Eottenburg had had possession of this 
territory, and had been the most powerful family of 
Tirol, ever since the eighth century ; one branch ex- 
tending its sway over the valleys surroundiDg the Inn, 
and another branch commanding the country bordering 
the Etsch ; Leuchtenburg and Fleims being the chief 
fortress-seats of these latter. Their vast power greatly 
harassed the rulers of Tirol. In every conflict between 
the native or Austrian princes and the Dukes of Bavaria 
their influence would always turn the scale, and they 
often seem to have exercised it simply to show their 
power. Their family pride grew so high, that it became 

1 Grimm has collected (Deutcke Sagen, Nos. 349 and 350) other 
versions of the tradition of oxen deciding the sites of shrines which, 
like the story of the steeple, meets us everywhere. A similar one con- 
cerning a camel is given in Stober's Legends of Alsace. 


a proverb among the people. It was observed that just 
during the period of the holy Nothburga's sojourn in 
the castle the halo of her humble spirit seemed to ex- 
ercise a charm over their ruling passion. That was no 
sooner brought to a close than it once more burst forth, 
and with intenser energy, and by the end of a century 
more so blinded them that they ventured on an attempt 
to seize the supreme power over the land. Friedrich 
mit der leeren Tasche was not a prince to lose his rights 
without a worthy struggle ; and then ensued one which 
was a noteworthy instance of the protection which 
royalty often afforded to the poor against the oppres- 
sions of a selfish aristocracy in the Middle Ages. Fried- 
rich was the idol of the people : in his youth his hardy 
temperament had made him the companion not only of 
the mountain huntsman, but even of the mountain 
hewer of wood. Called to rule over the country, he 
always stood out manfully for the liberties of the 
peasant and the burghers of the little struggling com- 
munities of Tirol. The lords and knights who found 
their power thereby restricted were glad to follow the 
standard of Henry VI., Count of Bottenburg, in his 
rebellions. Forgetting all patriotism in his struggle 
for power, Henry called to his aid the Duke of Bavaria, 
who readily answered his appeal, reckoning that as soon 
as, by aiding Henry, he had driven Friedrich out, he 
would shortly after be able to secure the prize for him- 

The Bavarian troops, ever rough and lawless, now 


began laying waste the country in ruthless fashion. A 
Bavarian bishop, moved to compassion by the sufferings 
of the poor people, though not of his own flock, 
pleaded so earnestly with the Duke, that he made 
peace with Friedrich, who was able to inflict due chas- 
tisement on Henry, for, powerful as he was, he was no 
match for him as a leader. He fell prisoner into 
Friedrich's hands, who magnanimously gave him his 
liberty ; but, according to the laws of the time, his 
lands and fiefs were forfeit. Though the spirit of the 
high-minded noble was unbroken, the darling aim of 
his race which had devolved upon him for execution 
was defeated ; his occupation gone, and his hopes 
quenched, he wandered about, the last of his race, not 
caring even to establish himself in any of the fiefs 
which he held under the Duke of Bavaria, and which 
consequently yet remained to him. 

The history of Henry VI. of Bottenburg has a 
peculiarly gloomy and fantastic character. Ambitious 
to a fault, it was one cause of his ill success that he 
exercised himself in the nobler pursuits of life rather 
than in the career of arms. Letters of his which are 
still preserved show that he owed the ascendancy he 
exercised over his neighbours quite as much to his 
strength of character and grasp of mind as to his title 
and riches. No complaint is brought against him in 
chronicles of the time of niggardliness towards the 
Church, or of want of uprightness or patience as a 
judge ; he is spoken of as if he had learned to make 


himself respected as well as feared. But he lived apart 
in a lofty sphere of his own, seldom mixing in social 
intercourse, while his refined tastes prevented his 
becoming an adept in the art of war. Friedrich, on 
the other hand, who was a hero in the field by his 
bravery, was also the favourite of the people through 
his frank and ready-spoken sympathy. Henry had 
perhaps, on the whole ? the finer — certainly the more 
cultivated — character, but Friedrich was more the 
man of the time ; and it was this doom of succumbing 
to one to whom he felt himself superior which pressed 
most heavily on the last of the Eottenburgers. What 
became of him was never known ; consequently many 
wild stories became current to account for his end : 
that he never laid his proud head low at the call of 
death, but yet wanders on round the precincts where he 
once ruled ; that his untamable ambition made him a 
prey to the Power of Evil, who carried him off, body 
and soul, to the reward of the proud ; that, shunning 
all sympathy and refusing all assistance, he died, un- 
tended and unknown, in a spot far from the habitations 
of men. It would appear most probable, however, that 
his death, like his life, was a contrast with the habits of 
his age : it is thought that, unable to bear his humilia- 
tion, he fell by his own hand within a twelvemonth of 
his defeat. 

The deliverance from this powerful vassal, and the 
falling in of his domains, tended greatly to strengthen 
and consolidate Friederich's rule over Tirol, and ulti- 


mately to render the government of the country more 
stable, and more beneficial to the people. 

Not long after Henry VL's disappearance a myste- 
rious fire broke out in the old castle on two separate 
occasions, laying the greater part of it in ruins. But 
on each occasion it was noticed that the devouring 
element, at the height of its fury, spared the litle room 
which was honoured as that in which the holy Nothburga 
had dwelt. 

A gentler story about this neighbourhood is of 
a boy tending sheep upon the neighbouring height, 
who found among some ruins a beautiful bird's-nest. 
What was his surprise, on examining his treasure, 
to find it full of broken shells which the fledglings 
had cast off and left behind them, but shells of a 
most singular kind* Still greater was his astonish- 
ment when, on showing them at home, his parents 
told him they were no shells, but pieces of precious 
ore. The affair caused the peasants to search in the 
neighbourhood, and led to the discovery of one of 
those veins of metal the working of which brought so 
great prosperity to Tirol in the fifteenth century, and 
which are not yet extinct. Their discovery was always 
by accident, and often by occasion of some curious inci- 
dent, while the fact that such finds were to be hit upon 
acted as a strong stimulant to the imagination of a ro- 
mantic and wonder-loving people, giving belief to all 
sorts of fables to tell hpw the treasure was originally 
deposited, and how subsequently it was preserved and 





' / may venture to say that among the nations of Europe, and I have 
more or less seen them all, I do not know any one in which there is so 
large a measure of real piety as among the Tyroleans. . . . I do not re- 
collect to have once heard in the country an expression savouring of scep- 
ticism. 1 — Inglis. 

The Zillerthal claims to bear the palm over all the 
Valleys of Tirol for natural beauty — a claim against 
which the other valleys may, I think, find something 
to say. 

There is an organised service of carriages (the road 
is only good for an em&panner — one-horse vehicle) into 
the Zillerthal, at both Brixlegg and Jen bach, taking be- 
tween four and five hours to reach Zell, an hour and 
a-half more to Mayrhofen. Its greatest ornaments 
are the castles of Kropfsberg, Lichtwer, and Matzen ; 
the Eeiterkogel and the Grerlos mountains, forming the 
present boundary against Salzburg ; and the Ziller, with 
its rapid current which gave it its name (from celer), 1 

1 It is perhaps to be reckoned among the tokens of Etruscan residence 
among the Ehsetian Alps, for Mr. Isaac Taylor finds that the word 
belongs to their language. (Etruscan Researches, pp. 333, 380.) 


its tributary streams might very well have received the 
same appellation, for their celerity is often so impetuous 
that great damage is done to the inhabitants of the 

Before starting for the Zillerthal I may mention two 
castles which may also be seen from Jenbach, though 
like it they belong in strictness to the chapter on the 
Left Inn-bank. One is Thurnegg by name, which was re- 
stored as a hunting-seat by Archduke Ferdinand ; and 
at the instance of his second wife, the pious Anna 
Katharina of Mantua, he added, a chapel, in order that 
his hunting-parties might always have the opportunity 
of hearing Mass before setting out for their sport. 

Another is Tratzberg, which derived its name from 
its defiant character. It is situated within an easy walk 
of Jenbach. Permission to visit it is readily given, for it 
counts as a show-place. It may be taken on the way to 
S. Georgenberg and Viecht, but it occupies too much 
time, and quite merits the separate excursion by its 
collections and its views. Frederick sold it in 1470 to 
Christian Tanzel, a rich mining proprietor of the neigh- 
bourhood, who purchased with it the right to bear the 
title of Knight of Tratzberg. No expense was spared 
in its decoration, and its paintings and marbles made it 
the wonder of the country round. In 1573 it passed 
into the hands of the Fuggers, and at the present day 
belongs to Count Enzenberg, who makes it an occasional 
residence. A story is told of it which is in striking* 
contrast to that mentioned of Thurnegg. One of the 


knights of the castle in ancient time had a reputation 
for caring more for the pleasures of the chase than for 
the observances of religion. Though he could get up at 
an early hour enough at the call of his Jdger's horn, 
the chapel bell vainly wooed him to Mass. 

In vain morning by morning his guardian angel 
directed the sacred sound upon his ear ; the knight only 
rolled himself up more warmly in the coverlet, and said, 
6 No need to stir yet, the dogs are not brought round 
till five o'clock.' 

6 Ding — dong — dang ! Come — to— Mass ! Ding — 
dong — dang ! ' sang the bells. 

4 No, I can't,' yawned the knight, and covered his ear 
with the bed-clothes. 

The bell was silent, and the knight knew that the 
pious people who had to work hard all day for their 
living, and yet spared half an hour to ask God's blessing 
on their labours, were gone into the chapel. 

He fancied he saw the venerable old chaplain bowing 
before the altar, and smiting his breast ; he saw the 
faithful rise from their knees while the glad tidings of 
the Gospel were announced, and they proclaimed their 
faith in them in the Creed ; he heard them fall on their 
knees again while the sacred elements were offered on 
the altar and the solemn words of the consecration pro- 
nounced ; he saw little Johann, the farrier's son, bow his 
head reverently on the steps, and then sound the three- 
fold bell which told of the most solemn moment of the 
sacred mysteries ; and the chapel bell took up the note, 




and announced the joyful news to those whom illness or 
necessity forced to remain away. 

Then ' hark ! what was that ? The rocks under the 
foundation of the castle rattled together, and all the 
stones of its massive walls chattered like the teeth of an 
old woman stricken with fear. The three hundred and 
sixty-five windows of the edifice rattled in their case- 
ments, but above them all sounded the piercing sound 
of the knight's cry of anguish. The affrighted people 
rushed into the knight's chamber ; and what was their 
horror when, still sunk in the soft couch where he was 
wont to take his ease, there he lay dead, while his throat 
displayed the print of three black and burning claws. 
The lesson they drew was that the knight, having re- 
ceived from his guardian angel the impulse to repair 
his sloth by at least then rising to pay the homage 
which the bell enjoined, had rejected even this last good 
counsel, thereby filling up the measure of his faults. 
For years after marks were shown upon the wall as 
having been sprinkled by his blood! 

The first little town that reckons in the Zillerthal 
'is Strass, a very unpretending place, and then Schlitters. 

At Schlitters they have a story of a butcher who, 
going to Strass to buy an ox, had scarcely crossed the 
Zill and got a little way from home, than he saw lying 
by the way-side a heap of the finest wheat. Not liking 
to appropriate property which might have a legitimate 
owner, he contented himself with putting a few grains 
in his pocket, and a few into his sack, as a specimen. 


As he went by the way his pockets and his sack began 
to get heavier and heavier, till it seemed as if the weight 
would burst them through. Astonished at the circum- 
stance he put in his hand, and found them all full of 
shining gold. As soon as he had recovered his com- 
posure, he set off at the top of his speed, and, heeding 
neither hill or dale, regained the spot where he had first 
seen the wheat. But it was no more to be seen. If he 
had had faith to commend himself to God on his first 
surprise, say the peasants, and made the holy sign of 
redemption, the whole treasure would have been his. 

There is another tradition at Schlitters of a more 
peculiar character. It is confidently affirmed that the 
village ouce boasted two churches, though but a very 
small one would supply the needs of the inhabitants. 
Hormayr has sifted the matter to the bottom, and ex- 
plains it in this way. There lived in the neighbourhood 
two knights, one belonging to the Eottenburger, and 
the other to the Freundsberger family. Now the latter 
had a position of greater importance, but the former 
possessed a full share of family haughtiness, and would 
not yield precedence to any one. In order not to be 
placed on a footing of inferiority, or even of equality, 
with his rival, he built a second church, which he might 
attend without being brought into contact with him. No 
expense was spared, and the church was solidly built 
enough ; but no blessing seemed to come on the edifice 
so built, no pains could ever keep it in repair, and at last, 
after crumbling into ruin, every stone of it disappeared. 



Kropfsberg is a fine ruin, belonging to Count Enzen- 
berg, seen a little above Strass, on a commanding height 
between the high road and the Inn. It is endeared to 
the memory of the Tiroleans by having been the spot 
where, on St. Michael's Day, 1416, their favourite 
Friedrich mit der leeren Tasche was reconciled with his 
brother Ernst der Eiserne, who, after the Council of 
Constance had pronounced its ban on Frederick, had 
thought to possess himself of his dominions. 

The largest town of the Zillerthal is Fiigen, a short 
distance below Schlitters, and the people are so proud 
of it, that they have a saying ever in their mouths, 
4 There is but one Vienna and one Fiigen in the world !' 
It doubtless owes its comparative liveliness and prosper- 
ity to its chateau being kept up and often inhabited by 
its owners (the Countess of Donhof and her family). 
This is also a great ornament to the place, having been 
originally built in the fifteenth century by the lords of 
Fieger, though unhappily the period of its rebuilding 
(1733) was not one very propitious to its style. The 
sculpture in the church by the native artist, Nissl, is 
much more meritorious. The church of Eied, a little 
further along the valley, is adorned with several 
very creditable pictures by native artists. It is the 
native place of one of the bravest of the defenders of 
throne and country, so celebrated in local annals 
of the early part of the century, Sebastian EiedL He 
was only thirty-nine at his death in 1821. Once, on 
an occasion of his fulfilling a mission to General 


Blucher, he received from him a present of a hussar's 
jacket, which he wore at the battle of Katzbach, and it 
is still shown with pride by his compatriots. 

The Zillerthal was the only part of Tirol where 
Lutheranism ever obtained any hold over the people. 
The population was very thin and scattered, conse- 
quently they were out of the way of the regular means of 
instruction in their own faith ; and it often happened, 
when their dwellings and lands were devastated by inun- 
dations, that they were driven to seek a livelihood by 
carrying gloves, bags, and other articles made of chamois 
leather, also of the horns of goats and cattle, into the 
neighbouring states of Germany. Hence they often 
came back imbued with the new doctrines, and bringing 
books with them, which may have spread them further. 
This went on, though without attracting much attention, 
till the year 1830, when they demanded permission to 
erect a church of their own. The Stande of Tirol were 
unanimous, however, to resist any infringement of the 
unity of belief which had so long been preserved in the 
country. The Emperor confirmed their decision, and 
gave the schismatics the option of being reconciled with 
the Church, or of following their opinions in other 
localities of the empire where Lutheran communities 
already existed. A considerable number chose the latter 
alternative, and peace was restored to the Zillerthal. 
Every facility was given them by the government for 
making the move advantageously, and the inhabitants, 
who had been long provoked by the scorn and ridicule 



with which the exiles had treated their time-honoured 
observances, held a rejoicing at the deliverance. 

At the farther end of the valley is Zell, which 
though smaller in population than Fiigen, has come to 
be considered its chief town. Its principal inn, for 
there are several — zum Post — if I recollect right, 
claims to be not merely a Gasthaus, but a Gasthof. 
The Brauhaus, however, with less pretension, is a 
charming resort of the old-fashioned style, under the 
paternal management of' Franz Eigner, whose daugh- 
ters sing their local melodies with great zest and taste. 
The church, dedicated to St. Vitus, is modern, having 
been built in 1771-82 ; but its slender green steeple is 
not inelegant. It contains some meritorious frescoes 
by Zeiler. The town contains some most picturesque 
buildings, as the Presbytery, grandiloquently styled 
the Dechanthof, one or two educational establishments, 
several well-to-do private houses, and the town-hall, 
once a flourishing brewery, which failed — I can hardly 
guess how, for the chief industry of the place is sup- 
plying the neighbourhood with beer. 

A mile beyond Zell is Hainzenberg, where the pro- 
cess of gold-washing on a small scale may be studied, 
said to be carried on by the owner, the Bishop of 
Brizen, on a sort of ultra-co-operative principle, as a 
means of support to the people of the place, without 
profit to himself. There is also a rather fine waterfall 
in the neighbourhood, and an inn where luncheon may be 
had. The most interesting circumstance, perhaps, in 


connexion with Zell is the Kirchweih-fest, which i8 
very celebrated in all the country round. I was not 
fortunate enough to be in the neighbourhood at the 
right time of year to witness it. On the other side of 
the Hainzenberg, where the mountain climber can take 
his start for the. Gerlozalp, is a little sanctuary called 
Marid-rastkapelle, and behind it runs a sparkling 
brook. Of the chapel the following singular account is 
given : — In olden time there stood near the stream a 
patriarchal oak sacred to Hulda ; 1 after the introduc- 
tion of Christianity the tree was hewn down, and as 
they felled it they heard Hulda cry out from within. 
The people wanted to build up a chapel on the spot in 
honour of the Blessed Virgin, and began to collect the 
materials. No sooner had the labourers left their 
work, however, than there appeared an army of ravens, 
who, setting themselves vigorously to the task, carried 
every stone and every balk of wood to a neighbouring 
spot. This happened day after day, till at last the 
people took it as a sign that the soil profaned by the 
worship of Hulda was not pleasing to heaven, and so 
they raised their chapel on the place pointed out by 
the ravens, where it now stands. 

After Mayrhof, the next village (with three inns), in 
the neighbourhood of which garnets are found and 

1 ' Hulda was supposed to delight in the neighbourhood of lakes and 
streams ; her glittering mansion was under the blue waters, and at the 
hour of mid-day she might be seen in the form of a beautiful woman 
bathing and then disappearing.' — Wolf, Deutsche Gotterlehre, See also 
Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, pp. 164-8. 

/ . 


mills for working them abound, the Zillerthal spreads 
out into numerous branches of great picturesqueness, 
but adapted only to the hardy pedestrian, as the Floi- 
tenthal, the Sondergrundthal, the Hundskehlthal(Dog's- 
throat valley), the Stillupethal, with its Teufelsteg, a 
bridge spanning a giddy ravine, and its dashing series 
' of waterfalls. The whole closed in by the Zemmer 
range and its glaciers, the boundary against South- 
Tirol, said to contain some of the finest scenery and 


best hunting-grounds in the country. It has been also 
called the ' el Dorado ' of the botanist and the minera- 

- logist. The most important of these by-valleys is the 
Duxerthal, by non-Tiroleans generally written Tuxer- 
thal, a very high-lying tract of country, and con- 
sequently one of the coldest and wildest districts of 

- Tirol. Nevertheless, its enclosed and secluded retreat 
retains a saying perhaps many thousand years old, that 

t once it was a bright and fertile spot yielding the richest 
pastures, and that then the population grew so wanton 
in their abundance that they wasted their substance. 
Then there came upon them from above an icy blast, 
before which their children and their young cattle sank 
down and died ; and the herbage was, as it were, bound 
up, and the earth was hardened, so that it only brought 
forth scarce and stunted herbs, and the mountain which 
bounded their pleasant valley itself turned to ice, and 
is called to this day die gefrorene Wand, the frozen 
wall. The scattered population of this remote valley 
numbered so few souls, that they depended on neigh- 




bouring villages for their ecclesiastical care, and during 
winter when shut in by the snow within their natural 
fastnesses, were cut off from all spiritual ministration, 
so that the bodies of those who died were preserved in 
a large chest, of which the remains are yet shown, 
until the spring made their removal to Mattrey possible. 
In the middle of the seventeenth century they num- 
bered 645 souls, and have now increased to about 
1,400 ; about the year 1686 they built a church of 
their own, which is now served by two or three priests. 
For the first couple of miles the valley sides are so 
steep, that the only level ground between them is the 
bed of an oft-times torrential stream, but yet they are 
covered almost to the very top with a certain kind of 
verdure ; further on it widens out into the district of 
Hinterdux, which is a comparatively pleasant cheerful 
spot, with some of the small cattle (which are reared 
here as better adapted to the gradients 'on which they 
have to find their food,) browsing about, and sundry 
goats and sheep, quite at home on the steeps. But 
scarce a tree or shrub is to be seen — just a few firs, and 
here and there a solitary mountain pine ; and in the 
coldest season the greatest suffering is experienced from 
want of wood to burn. The only resource is grubbing 
up the roots remaining from that earlier happier lime, 
which but for this proof might have been deemed 

The hardships which the inhabitants of this valley 
cheerfully undergo ought to serve as a lesson of dili- 



gence indeed. The whole grass-bearing soil is divided 
among them. The more prosperous have a cow or 
more of their own, by the produce of which they live ; 
others take in cows from Innsbruck and Hall to graze. 
The butter they make becomes an article of merchan- 
dise, the transport of which over the mountain paths 
provides a hard and precarious livelihood for a yet 
poorer class ; the pay is about a halfpenny per lb. per 
day, and to make the wage eke out a man will carry 
a hundred and a woman fifty to seventy pounds through 
all weathers and over dangerous paths, sleeping by 
night on the hard ground, the chance of a bundle of 
hay in winter being a luxury ; and one of their snow- 
covered peaks is with a certain irony named the Fed- 
erbett. They make some six or seven cwt. of cheese 
in the year, but this is kept entirely for home con- 

The care of these cattle involves a labour which 
only the strongest constitution could stand — a con- 
tinual climbing of mountains in the cold, often in the 
dark, during great part of the year allowing scarcely 
four or five hours for sleep. Nor is this their only 
industry. They contrive also to grow barley and flax ; 
this never ripens, yet they make from it a kind of 
yarn, which finds a ready sale in Innsbruck; they 
weave from it too a coarse linen, which helps to clothe 
them, together with the home-spun wool of their sheep, 
Also, by an incredible exercise of patience, they manage 
to heap up and support a" sufficient quantity of earth 


round the rough and stony soil of their valley to set 
potatoes, carrots, and other roots. Notwithstanding all 
these hardships, they are generally a healthy race, re- 
markable for their endurance, frugality, and love of 
home. Neither does their hard life make them neglect 
the improvement of the mind ; nowhere are schools 
more regularly attended, although the little children 
have many of them an hour or two's walk through the 
snow. The church is equally frequented ; so that if 
the great cold be sent, as the legend teaches, as a 
chastisement, 1 the people seem to have had grace given 
them to turn it to good account. 

The Zemgrund, Zamsergrund, and the Schwarzen- 
steingrund, are other pedestrian excursions much recom- 
mended from Mayrhof, but all equally require the aid 
of local guides, and have less to repay toil than those 
already described. 

Travellers who merely pass through Tirol by rail 
may catch a sight of the mountains which hem in the 
Duxerthal, just after passing the station of Steinach; 
on their left hand, when facing the south. 

1 One version of the legend says, the Frozen WaU was formed out of 
the quantities of butter the people had wasted. 

9 2 




Deep secret springs lie buried in man's heart, 
Which Nature's varied aspect works at will ; 
Whether bright hues or shadows she impart, 
Or fragrant odours from her breath distil, 
Or the clear air with sounds melodious fill ; 
She speaks a language with instruction fraught, 
And Art from Nature steals her mimic skill, 
Whose birds, whose rills, whose sighing winds first taught 
That sound can charm the soul, and rouse each noble thought. 

Lady Chablotte Bust. 

We had parted from the Zillerthal, and had once more 
taken our places in the railway carriage at Jenbach for 
a short stage to reach Kundl, 1 as a base of operations 
for visiting the Wildschonau, as well as the country on 
the other side of the Inn. The entry was effected with 
the haste usual at small stations, where the advent of 
a traveller, much more of a party of tourists, is an ex- 
ceptional event. The adjustment of our bags and rugs 
was greatly facilitated by the assistance of the only 
occupant of the compartment into which we were 

1 This excursion was made on occasion of a different journey from 
that mentioned in Chapter i. Of course, if taken on the way from 
Kuf stein to Innsbruck, you would take the Wildschonau before the 


thrust ; and when we had settled down and expressed 
our thanks for his urbanity, I observed that he eyed us 
with an amused but not unpleasant scrutiny. At last 
his curiosity overcame his reticence. ' I have frequent 
occasion to travel this way to Munich and Vienna,' he 
said, c and I do not remember ever to have fallen in 
with any strangers starting from Jenbach.' 

The conversation so opened soon revealed that our 
new friend, though spending most of his time in the 
Bavarian and Austrian capitals, nevertheless retained 
all a mountaineer's fondness for the Tirolese land, 
which had given him birth some seventy years before. 
He was greatly interested in our exploration of the 
Zillerthal, but much annoyed that we were leaving 
instead of entering it ; had it been the other way, he 
said, he would have afforded us an acquaintance with 
local customs such as, he was sure, no other part of 
Europe could outvie. I assured him I had been disap- 
pointed at not coming across them during our brief 
visit, but fully hoped on some future occasion to have 
better success. He warmly recommended me not to 
omit the attempt, and for my encouragement cited a 
local adage testifying to the attractions of the valley — 

Wer da kommt in's Zillerthatl 

Der kommt gewiss zum Zweitenmal. l 

He was interesting us much in his vividly-coloured 
sketches of peasant life, when the train came to a 

1 Whoever comes into the Zillerthal is sure to visit it a second 



stand ; the guard shouted ' Kundl,' and we were forced 
to part. He gave us an address in Munich, however, 
where we were afterwards fortunate enough to find 
him ; and he then gave me some precious particulars, 
which I was not slow to garner. 

He seemed to know the people well, having lived 
much among them in his younger days, and claimed 
for them — perhaps with some little partiality — the 
character of being industrious, temperate, moral, and 
straightforward, even above the other dwellers in Tirol ; 
and no less, of being physically the finest race. Their 
pure bracing mountain air, the severe struggle which 
nature wages with them in their cultivation of the 
fruits of the soil> and the hardy athletic pursuits with 
which they vary their round of agricultural labour, 
tend to maintain and ever invigorate this original 
stock of healthfulness. Their athletic games are in- 
deed an institution to which they owe much, and 
which they keep up with a devotion only second to 
that with which they cultivate their religious obser- 
vances. Every national and social festival is celebrated 
with these games. The favourite is the scheibenschie88en, 
or shooting at a mark, for accuracy in which they are 
celebrated in common with the inhabitants of all other 
districts of the country, but are beaten by none ; their 
stutze (short-barrelled rifle) they regard more in the 
light of a friend and companion than a weapon, and 
dignify it with the household name of the bread- 
winner. Wrestling is another favourite sport ; to be 



the champion wrestler of the hamlet is a distinction 
which no inhabitant of the Zillerthal would barter for 
gold. The best ' Haggler J 4 MairrafferJ and 6 Roblar ' — 
three denominations of wrestlers — are regarded some- 
what in the light of a superior order of persons, and 
command universal respect. In wilder times, it is 
true, this ran into abuse ; and some who had attained 
excellence in an art so dangerous when misapplied 
betook themselves to a life of violence and freebooting ; 
but this has entirely passed away now, and anything 
lil^e a highway robbery is unheard of. The most chival- 
rous rules guard the decorum of the game, which every 
bystander feels it a point of honour to maintain ; the 
use even of the stossring, a stout metal ring for the 
little finger, by which a telling and sometimes dis- 
figuring blow may be given by a dexterous hand, is 
discouraged. It is still worn, however, and prized more 
than as a mere ornament — as a challenge of the wearer's 
power to wield it if he choose, or if provoked to show his 
prowess. Eunning in races — which, I know not why, they 
call springen — obtains favour at some seasons of the year. 
At bowls and skittles, too, they are famous hands ; and 
in their passion for the games have originated a number 
of fantastic stories of how the fairies and wild men of 
the woods indulge in them too. Many a herdsman, on 
his long and solitary watch upon the distant heights, 
gives to the noises of nature which he has heard, but 
could not account for, an origin which lives in the im- 
agination of those to whom he recounts it on his return 


home ; and his fancies are recorded as actual events. But 
that the spirits play at skittles, and with gold and silver 
balls, is further confirmed by peasants who have lost 
their way in mists and snow-storms, and whose troubled 
dreams have made pleasant stories. One of these, 
travelling with his pedlar's pack, sought refuge from 
the night air in the ruined castle of Starkenberg, the 
proud stronghold of a feudal family, second only in im-r 
portance to the Eottenburgers, and equally brought 
low by Friedrich rnit der leeren Tasche. The pedlar 
was a bold wrestler, and felt no fear of the airy haunters 
of ruined castles. He made a pillow of his pack, and 
laid him down to sleep as cosily as if at home, in the 
long dank grass ; nevertheless, when the clock of the 
distant village church — to whose striking he had been 
listening hour by hour with joy, as an earnest that by 
the morning light he would know how to follow its 
guiding to the inhabited locality it denoted — sang out 
the hour of midnight, twelve figures in ancient armour 
stalked into the hall, and set themselves to play at 
bowls, for which they were served with skulls. The 
pedlar was a famous player, and nothing daunted, took 
up a skull, and set himself to play against them, and 
beat them all ; then there was a shout of joy, such as 
mortal ears had never heard, and the twelve spirits 
declared they were released. Scarcely had they disap- 
peared, when ten more spirits, whom the pedlar con- 
cluded like the last to be retainers of the mighty 
Starkenberger of old, entered by different doors, which 


they carefully locked behind them, and then bringing 
our hero the keys, begged him to open the doors each 
with the right one. The pedlar was a shrewd fellow ; 
and though doors, keys, and spirits were each alike of 
their kind, his observation had been so accurate that 
he opened each with the right key without hesitation, 
whereupon the ten spirits declared themselves released 
too. Then came in the Evil One, furious with the 
pedlar, who was setting free all his captives, and swore 
he would have him in their stead. But the pedlar 
demanded fair play, and offered to stake his freedom 
on a game with his Arch-Impiety. The pedlar won, 
and the demon withdrew in ignominy ; but the released 
spirits came round their deliverer, and loaded him 
with as much gold and valuable spoil as he could 

This story seemed to me to belong to a class not 
unfrequently met with, but yet differing from the 
ordinary run of legends on this subject, inasmuch as 
the spirits, who were generally believed to be bound 
to earth in penance, were released by no act of Christian 
virtue, and without any appeal to faith ; and I could 
not help asking my old friend if he did not think this 
very active clever pedlar might have been one of those 
who according to his own version had indulged in free- 
booting tendencies, and that having with a true Zil- 
lerthaler's tendencies pined to return to his native 
valley, he had invented the tale to account for his 
accession of fortune, and the nature of his possessions. 



I think my friend was a little piqued at my unmasking 
his hero, but he allowed it was not an improbable solu- 
tion for the origin of some similar tales. 

Prizes, he went on to tell me, are often set up for 
excellence in these games, which are cherished as marks 
of honour, without any reference to their intrinsic 
value. And so jealously is every distinction guarded,* 
that a youth may not wear a feather or the sprig of 
rosemary, bestowed by a beloved hand, in his jaunty 
hat, unless he is capable of proving his right to it by 
his pluck and muscular development. 

Dancing is another favourite recreation, and is pur- 
sued with a zest which makes it a healthful and useful 
exercise too. The Schnodahupfi and the Hosennagler 
are as dear to the Zillerthaler as the Bolera to the 
Andalusian or the Jota to the Aragonese ; like the 
Spanish Seguidillas, too, the Zillerthalers accompany 
their dance with sprightly songs, which are often 
directed to inciting each other not to flag. 

Another amusement, in which they have a certain 
similarity with Spaniards, is cow-fighting. But it is 
not a mere sport, and cruelty is as much avoided as 
possible, for the beasts are made to fight only with each 
other, and only their natural weapons — each other's 
horns — are brought against them. The victorious cow 
is not only the glory and darling of her owner, who 
loads her with garlands" and caresses; but the fight 
serves to ascertain the hardy capacity of the animals 
as leaders of the herd, an office which is no sinecure, 


when they have to make their way to and from 
steep pastures difficult of access. 1 Bam and goat fights 
are also held in the same way, and with the same 

The chief occasions for exercising these pastimes 
are the village festivals, the Kirchtag, or anniversary 
of the Church consecration, the Carnival season, wed- 
dings and baptisms, and the opening of the season for 
the Scheibenchiessen ; also the days of pilgrimages to 
various popular shrines ; and the Primizen and Sehin~ 
dizen — the first Mass of their pastors, and its fiftieth 
anniversary — general festivals all over Tirol. 

A season of great enjoyment is the Carnival, which 
with them begins at the Epiphany. Their great delight 
then is to go out in the dusk of evening, when work is 
over, disguised in various fantastic dresses, and making 
their way round from house to house, set the inmates 
guessing who they can be. As they are very clever in 
arranging all the accessories of their assumed character, 
changing their voice and mien, each visit is the occa- 
sion of the most laughable mistakes. In the towns, the 
Carnival procession is generally got up with no little 
taste and artistic skill. The arch-buffoon goes on 
ahead, a loud and merry jingle of bells announcing his 
advent at every movement of the horse he bestrides, 
collects the people out of every house. Then follow, 

1 In the Vintschgau (see infra) the leading cow has the title of 
Proglerin, from the dialectic word proglen, to carry one's head high. 
She wears also the most resounding bell. 

h 2 

" «j T* - .'V 


also mounted, a train of maskers, Turks, soldiers, 
gipsies, pirates ; and if there happen to be among them 
anyone representing a judge or authority of any sort, 
he is always placed at the head of the tribe. In the 
evening, their perambulations over, they assemble in 
the inn, where the acknowledged wag of the locality 
reads a humorous diatribe, which touches on all the 
follies and events, that can be anyhow made to wear a 
ridiculous aspect, of the past year. 

Christmas — here called Christnacht as well as 
Weiknacht — is observed (as all over the country, but 
especially here) by dispensing the Kloubribrod, a kind 
of dough cake, stuffed with sliced pears, almonds, nuts, 
and preserved fruits. The making of this is a particular 
item in the education of a Zillerthaler maiden, who has 
a special interest in it, inasmuch as the one she pre- 
pares for the household must have the first cut in it 
made by her betrothed, who at the same time gives her 
some little token of his affection in return. Speaking of 
Christmas customs reminded my informant of an olden 
custom in Brixen, that the Bishop should make presents 
of fish to his retainers. This fish was brought from the 
Garda-see, and the Graf of Tirol and the Prince- 
bishop of Trent were wont to let it pass toll-free 
through their dominions. A curious letter is extant, 
written by Bishop Eotel, ' an sarribstag nach Stce. 
Barbara, 1444,' courteously enforcing this privilege. 

The Sternsingen is a favourite way of keeping the 
Epiphany in many parts of the country. Three youths, 



one of them with his face blackened, and all dressed to 
represent the three kings, go about singing from home- 
stead to homestead ; and in some places there is a 
Herod ready to greet them from the window with 
riming answers to their verses, of which the fol- 
lowing is a specimen: it is the address of the first 

Konig Kaspar bin ich gennant 
Komm daher aus Morgenland 
Xomm daher in grossen Eil 
Vierzehn Tag, fiinftausend Meil. 
Melchores tritt da herein. 1 

Melchior, thus appealed to, stands forward and sings his 
lay ; and then Balthazar ; and then the three join in a 
chorus, in which certain hints are given that as they 
come from so far some refreshment would be accept- 
able ; upon which the friendly peasant-wife calls them 
in, and regales them with cakes she has prepared ready 
for the purpose, and sends them on their mountain-way 
rejoicing. Possibly some such custom may have given 
rise to the institution of our ' Twelfth-cake.' In the 
(Etzthal they go about with the greeting, ' Gelobt sei 
Jesus Christus zur Gromacht.'* Another Tirolean cus- 
tom connected with Epiphany was the blessing of the 
stalls of the cattle on the eve, in memory of the stable 
in which the Wise Men found the Holy Family. 

1 ' Kaspar my name : from the East I came : I came thence with 
great speed : five thousand miles in fourteen days : Melchior, step in/ 
lingerie gives a version of the whole set of rimes. 

8 See Bitten Brauche u. Meinungen des Tiroler Volto, p. 81. 


Their wedding fetes seem to be among the most 
curious of all their customs. My friend gave me a 
detailed account of one, between two families of the 
better class of peasants, which he had attended some years 
back ; and he believed they were little changed since. 
It is regarded as an occasion of great importance ; and 
as soon as the banns had been asked in church, the 
bridegroom went round with a chosen friend styled a 
Hochzeitsbitter, to invite friends and relations to the 
marriage. The night before the wedding (for which 
throughout Tirol a Thursday is chosen, except in the 
Iselthal, where a preference for Monday prevails), 
there was a great dance at the house of the bride, who 
from the moment the banns have been asked is popu- 
arly called the Kanzel-Braut. 6 Bather, I should say,' 
he pursued, ' it was in the barn ; for though a large 
cottage, there was no room that would contain the 
numbers of merry couples who flocked in, and even the 
barn was so crowded, that the dancers could but make 
their way with difficulty, and were continually tumbling 
over one another ; but it was a merry night, for all 
were in their local costume, and the pine-wood torches 
shed a strange and festive glare over them. The next 
morning all were assembled betimes. It was a bitterly 
cold day, but the snow-storm was eagerly hailed, as it 
is reckoned a token that the newly-wedded pair will be 
rich ; we met first at the bride's house for what they 
called the Morgensuppe, a rough sort of hearty break- 
fast of roast meat, white bread, and sausages ; and 


while the elder guests were discussing it, many were 
hard at work again dancing, and the young girls of the' 
village were dressing up the bride — one of the adorn- 
ments de rigueur being a knot of streamers of scarlet 
leather trimmed with gold lace, and blue arm-bands 
and hat-ribbons ; these streamers are thought by the 
simple people to be a cure for goitres, and are frequently 
bound round them with that idea. At ten o'clock the 
first church bell rang, when all the guests hastily 
assembled round the table, and drank the health of the 
happy pair in a bowl from which they had first drank. 
Then they ranged themselves into a procession, and 
marched towards the church, the musicians leading the 
way. The nearest friends of the bridal pair were styled 
" train-bearers," and formed a sort of guard of honour 
round the bride, walking bare-headed, their hats, 
tastily wreathed with flowers, in their hands. The 
priest of the village walked by the bride on one side, 
her parents on the other. She wore a wreath of rosemary 
— a plant greatly prized here, as among the people of 
Spain and Italy, and considered typical of the Blessed 
Virgin's purity — in her hair ; her holiday dress was con- 
fined by a girdle, and she held her rosary in her hand. 
The bridegroom was almost as showily dressed, and wore 
a crown of silver wire ; beside him walked another priest, 
and behind them came the host of the village inn, a 
worthy who holds a kind of patriarchal position in our 
villages. He is always one of the most important men 
of the place, generally owns the largest holding of land, 


and drives one or two little trades besides attending to 
the welfare of his guests. But more than this, he is 
for the most part a man of upright character and 
pleasant disposition, and is often called to act as adviser 
and umpire in rural complications. 

4 The procession was closed by the friends and neigh- 
bours, waiting two and two, husband and wife together ; 
and the church bells rang merrily through the valley 
as it passed along. 

4 The ceremonial in the church was accompanied 
with the best music the locality could afford, the best 
singers from the neighbouring choirs lending their 
voices. To add to the solemnity of the occasion, 
lighted tapers were held by the bridal party at the 
Elevation; and it was amusing to observe how the young 
people shunned a candle that did not burn brightly, 
as that is held to be an omen of not getting married 
within the year. At the close of the function, the priest 
handed round to them the Jokannissegen, a cup of 
spiced wine mixed with water, which he had previously 
blessed, probably so called in memory of the miracle 
at the wedding-feast recorded in the Gospel of that 

4 The band then struck up its most jocund air, and 
full of mirth the gladsome party wended their way to 
the inn. After a light repast and a short dance, and 
a blithesome Trutzlied, they passed on, according to 
custom, to the next, and so on to all the inns within a 
radius of a few miles. This absorbed about three or 


four hours ; and then came the real wedding banquet, 

which was a very solid and long affair — in fact, I 

think fresh dishes were being brought in one after 

another for three or four hours more. Even in this 

there was a memory of the Gospel narrative, for in 

token of their joy they keep for the occasion a fatted 

calf, the whole of which is served up joint by joint, not 

omitting the head ; this was preceded by soup, and 

followed by a second course of sweet dumplings, with 

fruit and the inevitable pickled cabbage, which on this 

day is dignified with the title of Ehrerihraut. After 

this came a pause ; and the musicians, who had been 

playing their loudest hitherto, held in too. The " best 

man " rose, and went through the formula of asking the 

guests whether they were content with what had been 

set before them, which of course was drowned in a 

tumult of applause. In a form, which serves from 

generation to generation with slight change, he then 

went on to remark that the good gifts of meat and 

drink of which they had partaken came from the hand 

of God, and called forth the gratitude of the receiver, 

adding, " Let us thank Him for them, and still more in 

that He has made us reasonable beings, gifting us with 

faith, and not brutes or unbelievers. If we turn to 

Him in this spirit, He will abide with us as with them 

of Cana in Galilee. Therefore, let all anger and malice 

and evil speaking be put away from us, who have just 

been standing before the most holy Sacrament, and let 

us he united in the bonds of brotherly love, that His 


Blood may not have been poured out for us in vain. 
And to you, dear friends, who have this day been 
united with the grace-giving benediction of the Church, 
I commend this union of heart and soul most of all, 
that the new family thus founded in our midst may 
help to build up the living edifice of a people praising 
and serving God, and that you walk in His way, and 
bring up children to serve Him as our forefathers have 
ever done." There was a good deal more in the same 
strain ; and this exhortation to holy living, from one of 
themselves, is just a type of the intimate way in which 
religion enters into the life of the people. His con- 
cluding wish for the well-being of the newly married 
was followed by a loud " Our Father " and " Hail Mary " 
from the assembled throng. 

'After this came a great number more dishes of 
edibles, but this time of a lighter kind ; among them 
liver and poultry, but chiefly fruits and sweets ; and 
among these many confections of curious devices, 
mostly with some symbolical meaning. When these 
were nearly despatched, wine and brandy were brought 
out by the host ; and by this name you must under- 
stand the master of the inn ; for, true to the paternal 
character of which I have already spoken, it is always 
his business to cater for arid preside over bridal 
banquets. At the same time the guests produced 
their presents, which go by the name of Waisat, and all 
were set down in a circumstantial catalogue. They are 
generally meted out with an open hand, and are a 



great help to the young people in beginning their 

c The musicians, who only got hasty snatches of the 
good things passing round, now began yet livelier 
strains, and the party broke up that the younger mem- 
bers might give themselves to their favourite pastime, 
dancing; and well enough they looked, the lads in 
brilliant red double-breasted waistcoats, their short 
black leather breeches held up with embroidered belts, 
and their well-formed high-pointed hats with jaunty 
brim, going through the intricate evolutions, each 
beating the time heartily, first on his thighs and then 
on his feet — schuhplatteln they call it — and followed 
through the mazy figures by his diandl (damsel), 
in daintily fitting satin bodice, and short but ample 

4 The older people still lingered over the table, and 
looked on at the dance, which they follow with great 
interest ; but there is not a great deal of drinking, and 
'it is seldom enough, even in the midst of an occasion 
for such exceptional good cheer, that any excess is 
committed. A taste for brandy — the poor brandy of 
their own manufacture — is however, I confess, a weak- 
ness of the Zillerthalers. The necessity for occasionally 
having recourse to stimulants results from the severity 
of the climate during part of the year, and the fre- 
quently long exposure to the mountain air which their 
calling requires of them. At the same time, anything 
like a confirmed drunkard is scarcely known among 


them. Its manufacture affords to many an occupation ; 
and its use to all, of both sexes, is a national habit. 
They make it out of barley, juniper, and numbers of 
other berries (which they wander collecting over all the 
neighbouring alps), as well as rye, potatoes, and other 
roots — in fact, almost anything. Every commercial 
bargain, every operation in the field, every neighbourly 
discussion, every declaration of affection even, is made 
under its afflatus. An offer of a glass of the cordial 
will often make up a long-harboured quarrel, a refusal 
to share one is taken to be a studied affront ; in fact, 
this zutrinken, as they call it, comes into every act 
and relation of life. In the moderate bounds within 
which they keep its use, it is undeniably a great boon 
to them ; and many a time it has been the saving of 
life in the mountains to the shepherd and the milk- 
maid, the snow-bound labourer or retarded pedlar.' 

I was curious to know what customs the other 
valley had to replace those of the Ziller. My friend 
informed me they were very similar, only the Ziller- 
thalers were celebrated for their attachment to and 
punctual observance of them. He had once attended a 
wedding in the Grodnerthal which was very similar to 
the one lie had already described, yet had some distinct 
peculiarities. Though a little out of place, I may as 
well bring in his account of it here. There, the be- 
trothal is called der Handschlag (lit. the hand-clasp), 
and it is always performed on a Saturday. The fathers 
of the bride and bridegroom and other nearest relations 


are always present as witnesses ; and if the bride does 
not cry at the projected parting, it is said she will 
have many tears to shed during her married life. The 
first time the banns are asked it is not considered 6 the 
thing ' for the betrothed to be present, and they usually 
go to church on that occasion in some neighbouring 
village ; on the second Sunday they are expected to 
appear in state, the bridegroom wearing his holiday 
clothes and a nosegay in his hat or on his right breast. 
The bride always wears the local costume, a broadish 
brimmed green hat, a scarlet boddice and full black 
skirt, though this is now only worn on such occasions ; 
on the day of the wedding, to this is added a broad 
black satin ribbon round her head, and round her waist 
a leather girdle with a number of useful articles in 
plated copper hanging from it. On each side are 
arranged red and green streamers with very great 
nicety, and no change of fashion is suffered in their 
position ; she is expected to wear a grave mien and 
modest deportment ; this is particularly enjoined. The 
guests are also expected to don the popular costume ; 
the girls green, the married women black hats. On 
the way to the church the bridegroom's father and his 
nearest neighbour came forward, and with many ceremo- 
nies asked the bride of her friends, and she went crying 
coyly with them. After the church ceremony, which 
concludes as in Zillerthal with the cup of S. Johan- 
nessegen, the bridesmaids hand in a basket decked 
with knots of ribbon, containing offerings for the 


priests and servers, and a wreath, which is fastened 
round the priest's arm who leads the bride out of 
church. The visit to the neighbouring inn follows ; 
but at the wedding feast guests come in in masquerad- 
ing dresses bringing all manner, of comical presents. 
The dance here lasts till midnight, when the happy- 
pair are led home by their friends to an accompani- 
ment of music, for which they have a special melody. 
The next day again there are games, and the newly 
married go in procession with their friends to bear 
home the trousseau and wedding gifts, among which is 
always a bed and bedding. On their way back beggaxs 
are allowed to bar the way at intervals, who must be 
bought off with alms. On the Sunday following the 
bride is expected again to appear at church in the 
local costume, and in the afternoon all the guests of 
the wedding day again gather in the inn to present 
their final offering of good wishes and blessings. Girls 
who are fond of cats, they say, are sure to marry early ; 
perhaps an evidence that household virtues are appre- 
ciated in them by the men ; but of men, the contrary 
is predicated, showing that the other sex is expected to 
display hardihood in the various mountaineering and 
other out-door occupations. 1 

Kundl, whither we were bound before being 

1 Its origin may be traced further back than this, perhaps. The cat 
was held to be the sacred animal of Freia (Schrader, Germ, Myth.), and 
the word freien, to woo, to court, is derived from her name. (Nork.) 


tempted to make this digression, gives entrance to the 
Wildschonau according to modern orthography, the 
Witschnau, or Wiltschnau, according to local and 
more correct pronunciation (sometimes corrupted into 
Mitschnau), as the name is derived from wiltschen, to 
flow, and au, water, the particular water in this case 
being the Kundler-Ache, which here flows into the Inn. 
It is a little valley improving in beauty as you pursue 
it eastwards, not more than seven leagues in length, 
and seldom visited, for its roads are really only fit for 
pedestrians; hence its secluded inhabitants have ac- 
quired a character for being suspicious of strangers, 
though proverbially hospitable to one another. One 
of its points of greatest interest is the church of St. 
Leonhard, described in the last chapter. * Overhanging 
the road leading from it to Kundl, stand the remains 
of the castle of Niederaich, now converted into a farm 
stable, and its moat serving as a conduit of water for 
the cattle. At the time it was built by Ambrose Blank 
in the sixteenth century, the silver mines then in work 
made this a most flourishing locality. At that time, 
too, there stood overlooking the town the Kundlburg, 
of which still slighter traces remain, the residence of 
the Kummerspruggers, who, in the various wars, always 
supported the house of Bavaria. The chief industry of 
Kundl at present is the construction of the boats which 
navigate the Inn, and carry the rich vproduce of the 
Tirolean pastures to Vienna. Oberau is situated on a 
commanding plateau, and its unpretending inn < auf 

* / l ■ "■' 


dem Kdlerf offers a good resting-place. The church 
was burnt down in 1719, and the present one, remark- 
able for its size if for nothing else, was completed just 
a hundred years ago. It is, however, remarkable also 
for its altar-piece — the Blessed Virgin between S. 
Barbara and S. Margaret — by a local artist, and far 
above what might be expected in so sequestered a situa- 
tion. At a distance of three or four miles, Niederau is 
reached, passing first a sulphur spring, esteemed by the 
peasants of the neighbourhood. The openest and most 
smiling — most friendly, to use the German expression 
— part of the valley is between Auffach and Kelchsau, 
where is situated Kobach, near which may be seen 
lateral shafts. of the old mines extending to a distance 
of many hundred feet. From Kelchsau a foot-path 
leads in an hour more to Horbrunn, where there is a 
brisk little establishment of glass-works, whose produc- 
tions go all over Tirol. Then westwards over the 
Plaknerjoch to Altbach, passing Thierberg (not the 
(same as that mentioned near Kufstein), once the chief 
' seat of the silver-works, its only remaining attraction 
being the beautiful view to be obtained from its heights 
over the banks of the Inn, and the whole extent of 
country between it and Bavaria. From Altbach it is 
an hour more back to Brixlegg. 

The memory of the former metallic wealth of 
the valley is preserved in numerous tales of sudden 
riches overtaking the people in all manner of different 
ways, as in the specimens already given. Here is a 


similar one belonging to this spot. A peasant going 
out with his waggon found one day in the way a heap 
of fine white wheat. Shocked that God's precious gift 
should be trodden under foot, he stopped his team 
and gathered up the grain, of which there was more 
than enough to fill all his pockets ; when he arrived at 
his destination, he found them full of glittering pieces 
of money. The origin of the story doubtless may be 
traced to some lucky take of ore which the finder was 
able to sell at the market town ; and the price which he 
brought home was spoken of as the actual article 
discovered. Another relic of the mining works may 
perhaps be found in the following instance of another 
class of stories, though some very like it doubtless refer 
to an earlier belief in hobgoblins closely allied to our 
own Eobin Groodfellow. I think a large number date 
from occasions when the Knappen or miners, who 
formed a tribe apart, may have come to the aid of the 
country people when in difficulty. 

The Unterhausberg family was once powerful in 
Wiltschnau. When their mighty house was building, 
the great foundation-stone was so ponderous that it 
defied all the efforts of the builders to put it in its 
place. At last they sat down to dinner ; then there 
suddenly came out of the mountain side a number of 
Wiltschnau dwarfs, who, without any effort, lowered the 
great stone into its appointed place ; the men offered 
them the best portion of their dinner, but they refused 
any reward. The dwarfs were not always so urbane, 



however, and there are many stories of their tricks : 
lying down in the pathways in the dark to make the 
people tumble over them ; then hiding behind a tree, 
and with loud laughter mocking the disaster; ! throw- 
ing handfuls of pebbles and ashes at the peasant girls 
as they passed ; getting into the store-room, and mixing 
together the potatoes, carrots, grain, and flour, which 
the housewife had carefully assorted and arranged. 
It was particularly on women that their tricks were 
played off; and this to such an extent that it became 
the custom, even now prevailing, never to send women 
to the Hochalm with the herds, though they go out 
into other equally remote mountain districts without 
fear, for their Kasa (the hut for shelter at night, here 
so called, in other parts Sennhiitte,) was sure to be 
beset with the dwarfs, and their milk-pails overturned. 
All these feats may, I think, be ascribed in their 
origin to the Knappen. 

The neighbourhood of Thierberg has a story which 
I think also has its source in mining memories. ' On 
the way between Altbach and Thierbach you pass two 
houses bearing the name of " beim Thaler" In olden 
time there lived here a peasant of moderate means, who 
owned several head of cattle ; Moidl, the maid, whose 

1 The merry mocking laugh was a distinguishing characteristic of 
Robin Goodfellow. ' Mr. Launcelot Mirehouse, Rector of Pestwood, 
Wilts, did aver to me, super verbu?a sacerdotis, that he did once heare 
such a lowd laugh on the other side of a hedge, and was sure that no 
human lungs could afford such a laugh.' — John Aubrey, in Thorns' 
Anecdotes and Traditions, Camb. Camden Society, 1839. 



duty it was to take them out to pasture on the sunny 
hill-side, always looked out anxiously for the first 
tokens of spring; for she loved better to watch the cows 
and goats browsing the fresh grass, or venturously 
climbing the heights, to sitting in the chimney-corner Av 
dozing over the spinning-wheel. One day as she was 
at her favourite occupation, she heard a noise behind 
her, and turning round saw a door open in the mountain 
side, and two or three little men with long beards 
peeping out. Within, all was dazzling with gold like 
the brightest sunshine. The walls were covered with 
plates of gold, placed one over the other like scales, and 
knobs of gold like pine-apples studded the vault. The 
little men beckoned to Moidl to come in, but she, like a 
modest maiden, ran home to her father; when he 
returned with her, however, to the spot, the door was 
no more to be found.' I think it may very well be 
imagined that Moidl came unawares upon the opening 
of a lateral shaft, and listened to the accounts which 
the Knappen may have amused themselves with giving 
her of the riches of their diggings ; while she may very 
naturally have been afraid to explore these. The 
disappearance of the mysterious opening is but the 
ordinary refrain of marvellous tales. 

The Witschnauers cannot be accused of any dreamy 
longings after the recurrence of such prosperous times. 
They are among the most diligent tillers of the land 
to be found anywhere; the plough is carried over 
places where the uneven gradients make the guiding. of 

i 2 

< t 



horses or oxen a too great expenditure of time ; in such 
places they do not disdain to harness themselves to the 
plough, and even the women take their turn in relieving 
them. Of one husbandman of olden time it is narrated 
that he was even too eager in his thrift, and carried his 
furrow a little way on to his neighbour's land year by 
year, so that by the time he came to die he had 
appropriated a good strip of land not his own. His 
penance was, that after death he should continually 
tread up and down the stolen soil, dragging after him 
a red-hot ploughshare, in performing which his wail 
was often overhead — 

weh ! wie is der Fflug so heiss 
Und niemand mir zu helfen weiss ! l 

until one of his successors in the farm, being a particu- 
larly honourable man, removed the boundary-stone back 
to its original position. He had no sooner done so than 
he had the satisfaction of hearing the spectre cry — 

Erlost, Gott sei Dank, bin ich jetzt 
Der Markstein iet auch rechtgesetzt. 2 

Another class of legends has also a home in this 
locality. It is told that a peasant from Oberau was 
going home from Thierbach, one Epiphany Eve. It was 
a cold night ; his feet crunched the crisp snow at every 
step ; the air was clear, and the stars shone brightly. 

1 woe ! the plough like fire glows, 
And no one how to help me knows. 

2 Released am I now, God be praised, 

And the bound-stone again rightly placed. 


The peasant's head, however, was not so clear as th 

sky, for he came from the tavern, where he had bee 

spending a merry evening with his boon companion 

Thus it happened that instead of walking straight oi 

he gave one backward step for every three forward, lit 

the Urngehwide Schuster ; l and thus he went staggerin 

about till he came to the Rastbank, which is even y< 

sought as a point where to rest and overlook the vie\ 

It struck twelve as he seated himself on the bencfc 

then suddenly behind him he heard a sound of mar 

voices, which came on nearer and nearer, and then t) 

Berchtl in her white clothing, her broken ploughshai 

in her hand, and all her train of little people 2 swe] 

clattering and chattering close past him. The lea 

was the last, and it wore a long shirt which got in tl 

way of its little bare feet, and kept tripping it u; 

The peasant had sense enough left to feel compassio: 

so he took his garter off and bound it for a gird 

round the infant, and then set it again on its wa; 

When the Berchtl saw what he had done, she turn* 

back and thanked him, and told him that in return f< 

his compassion his children should never come to wan 

This story, I think there is little doubt, may be genuine 

your Wiltschenauer is as fond of brandy as your Zille: 

thaler, and under its influence the peasant may vei 

1 The haunting cobbler — a popular name for ' the wandering Je-w 
in Switzerland they call him ' Der Umgehende Jud.' 

2 (The souls of all unbaptized children.) Borner, VolJcssagi 
p. 133. 


likely have passed a troubled night on the Rastbank. 
What more likely to cross his fancy on the Epiphany 
Eve than the thought of a visit from the Berchtl and her 
children (they always appear in Tirol at that season, and 
in rags and tatters 1 ) ; his own temperament being com- 
passionate, that he should help the stumbling little one, 
and that the Berchtl should give him promise of reward 
was all that might be expected from certain premises. 
But what are those premises ? Who was the Berchtl ? 
If you ask a Tirolean peasant the question, he will pro- 
bably tell you that the Perchtl (as he will call her) is 
Pontius Pilate's wife, 2 to whom redemption was given 
by reason of her intervention in favour of the Man of 
Sorrows, but that it is her penance to wander over the 
earth till the last day as a restless spirit ; and that as 
the Epiphany was the season of favour to the Gentiles, 
among whose first-fruits she was, it is at that season she 
is most often seen, and in her most favourable mood. It 
must be confessed that some of his stories of her will 
betray a certain amount of inconsistency, for he will 
represent her carrying off children, wounding belated 
passengers, and performing many acts inconsistent with 
the character of a penitent soul, and more in accor- 
dance with that of the more ancient 4 Lamia.' 

If you address your question to Grimm, or Wolf, 

1 A precisely simi lar superstition is mentioned in Mrs. Whitcomb's 
recently published volume as existing in Devonshire. "We shall meet 
Berchtl again in the neighbouring * Gebiet der Grossen Ache ' on our 
excursion from * Worgl to Vienna.' 

2 Procula is the name given her in the Apocryphal Gospels. 


Simrock, Kuhn, Schwartz, or Mannhardt, or any who 
have made comparative mythology their study, he will 
tell you that the stories about her (and probably all 
the other marvellous tales of the people also) are to be 
traced back to the earliest mythological traditions of a 
primeval glimmering of religion spread abroad over the 
whole world ; and to the poetical forms of expression 
of a primitive population describing the wonderful but 
constantly repeated operations of nature. 1 That the 
wilder Jdger was originally the god Wodin, the hunter 
of unerring aim, that his impetuous course typifies the 
journey of the sun-god through the heavens, 2 his 
mighty arm represents his powerful rays ; and in even so 
late a tale as ' that of William Tell, he will see the 
last reflections of the sun-god, whether we call him Indra, 
or Apollo, or Ulysses.' 3 He will tell you that all ' the 
countless legends of princesses kept in dark prisons and 
invariably delivered by a young bright knight can all 
be traced back to mythological traditions about the 
spring being released from the bonds of winter ; th£ 

1 * It is now known that such tales are not the invention, of indi vidual 
writers, but that they are the last remnants — the detritits, if we may say 
bo — of an ancient mythology ; that some of the principal heroes bear the 
nicknames of old heathen gods ; and that in spite of the powerful dilu- 
tion produced by the admixture of Christian ideas, the old leaven of 
heathendom can still be discovered in many stories now innocently told 
by German nurses, of saints, apostles, and the Virgin Mary.' — Max 
Miiller, Chips from a German Workshop. 

* Compare Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations, vol. ii. p. S64, 
and passim. 

9 Max Miiller. Review of Dasents Works, 


sun being rescued from the darkness of night ; the 
dawn being brought back from the far west ; the waters 
being set free from the prison of clouds/ l And of the 
Berchtl herself, he will tell you that she is Perahta (the 
bright), daughter of Dagha (the day), whose name has 
successively been transformed into Perchtl and Bertha; 
brightness or whiteness has made her to be considered 
the goddess of winter ; who particularly visited the earth 
for twelve winter nights/and spoilt all the flax of those 
idle maidens who left any unspun on the last day of the 
year ; 2 who carries in her hand a broken plough in 
token that the ground is hardened against tillage ; whose 
brightness has also made her to be reckoned the all- 
producing earth-mother, with golden hair like the 
waving corn ; the Hertha of the Swabian ; the Jortha of 
Scandinavian ; 3 the Berecynthia of the Phrygian ; 4 and 
to other nations known as Cybele, Rhea, Isis, Diana. 5 

Such ideas were too deeply rooted in the minds of 
the people to be easily superseded ; as my friend, the 
Feldkirch postilion, said, they went on and on like 
the echoes of their own mountains. 4 The missionaries 
were not afraid of the old heathen gods ; . . . . their 
kindly feeling towards the traditions, customs, and preju- 
dices of their converts must have been beneficial ; . . . . 

1 Max Miiller. Comparative Mythology, 

2 A tradition still held of the Berchtl in many parts of Tirol. 
8 Nork. Mythologie der Volkssagen. 

4 Abb6 Banier. Mythology Explained from History. Vol. ii. Book 3, 
p. 564, note a. 

* Nork, Banier, &c. Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations, vol. i. 
pp. 317-8 and note, gives other connexions of the Legend; and at vol. 
ii. p. 306, and note to p. 365. 


they allowed them the use of the name AUfadir, whom 
they had invoked in the prayers of their childhood, 
when praying to Him who is u our Father in heaven." ' 
And as with the greater, so with the less, the mighty 
powers they had personified and treated as heroes and 
examples lived on in their imagination, and their 
glorious deeds came to be ascribed to the new athletes 
of a brighter faith. Then, < although originally popular 
tales were reproductions of more ancient legends, yet 
after a time a general taste was created for marvellous 
stories, and new ones were invented in large numbers. 
Even in these purely imaginative productions, analogies 
may be discovered with more genuine tales, because 
they were made after the original patterns, and in 
many cases were mere variations on an ancient air.' * 
More than this, there came the actual accession of 
marvels derived from the acts inspired by the new 
faith; but it cannot be denied that the two became 
strangely blended in the popular mind. 

Brixlegg presents some appearance of thriving, 
through the smelting and wire-drawing works for the 
copper ore brought from the neighbourhood of Schwatz. 
It also enjoys some celebrity as the birthplace of the 
Tirolean historian Burgleckner, whose family had been 
respected here for generations ; and it is very possible 
to put up for the night at the H&rrenhaus. It is not 
much above a mile hence to Eattenberg, of which I 
have already spoken. 

1 M. Miiller. Review of Kelley's Indo-European Traditions. 


Eattenberg was, in 1651, the scene of a tragic 
event, sad as the denouement of many a fiction. The 
high-spirited consort of Archduke Leopold V., Claudia 
de' Medici, who, at his death, governed the country so 
well, and by her sagacity kept her dominions at peace, 
while the rest of Germany was immersed in the horrors 
of the Thirty Years' War, yet did not altogether escape 
the charge of occasional harshness in collecting the 
revenues which she knew so well how to administer. 
Her chancellor, Wilhelm Biener, a trusty and devoted 
servant and counsellor, drew on himself considerable 
odium for his zeal in these matters. On one occasion 
he got into a serious controversy with Crosini, Bishop of 
Brixen, concerning the payment of certain taxes from 
which the prelate claimed exemption* and in the course 
of it wrote him a letter couched in such very unguarded 
terms, that the bishop, unused to be so dealt with, 
could not forbear exclaiming, 'The man deserves to 
lose the fingers that could write such an intemperate 
effusion ! ' The exclamation was not thought of again 
till years after. 

Claudia died in 1648, and then the hatred against 
Biener, which was also in some measure a hatred of 
races, for Claudia had many southerners at her court, 
broke forth without hindrance. He was accused l of 

1 Weber says the only accusation was grounded on a pasquinade 
against Claudia found among his papers, but that he should calumniate 
her seems inconsistent with his general character. Though his unsparing 
lampoons on his adversaries had excited them more than anything else 
against him. 



appropriating the State money he had been so earnest in 
collecting, and though tried by two Italian judges, he was 
ultimately condemned, in 1651, to lose his head, Biener 
sent a statement of his case to the Archduke Ferdinand 
Karl ; and the young prince, believing the honesty of 
his mother's faithful adviser, immediately ordered a 
reprieve. The worst enemy and prime accuser of the 
fallen favourite was Schmaus, President of the Council, 
this time a German, and he contrived by detaining the 
messenger to make him arrive just too late in Eatten- 
berg, then still a strong fortress, where he lay confined, 
and where the sentence was to be carried out. 

Biener had all along steadfastly maintained his 
innocence ; and stepping on to the scaffold, he had again 
repeated the assertion, adding, 4 So truly as I am inno- 
cent, I summon my accuser before the Judgment-seat 
above before another year is out.' l When the executioner 
stooped to lift up the head before the people, he found 
lying by its side three fingers of his right hand, without 
having had any knowledge that he had struck them off, 
though he might have done so by the unhappy man 
having raised his hand in the way of the sword in the 
last struggle. The people, however, saw in it the fulfil- 
ment of the words of the bishop, as well as a ghastly 
challenge accompanying his dying message to President 
Schmaus. Nor did they forget to note that the latter 
died of a terrible malady some months before the close 

1 Compare Gebhart, vol. ii. p. 24D. 


of the year. Biener's wife lost her senses when she 
knew the terrible circumstances of his death ; the con- 
solations of her director and of her son, who lived to 
his ninetieth year in the Francescan convent at Inns- 
bruck, were alike powerless to calm her. She escaped 
in the night, and wandered out into the mountains no 
one knows whither. But the people say she lives on to 
be a witness of her husband's innocence, and may be 
met on lonely ways proclaiming it, but never harming 
any. Only, when anyone is to die in Buchsenhausen, 1 
where her married life passed so pleasantly, the 'Biener- 
weible ' will appear and warn them. It is a remarkable 
instance of the easy way in which one myth passes into 
another, that though this event happened but a little 
over two hundred years ago, the Bienerweible and the 
Berchtl are already confounded in the popular mind. 2 

Another name prized in Tirolese annals, which must 
not be forgotten in connexion with Battenberg, is 
Alois Sandbichler, the Bible commentator, who was 
born there in 1751. He passed a brilliant career as 
Professor in the University of Salzburg, but died at the 
age of eighty in his native village. 

The neighbourhood of Brixlegg is very pretty, and 
the views from the bridge by no means to be over- 

1 Near Innsbruck. 

* Staffler, Das Deutsche Tirol, toI. i. p. 751 ; and Thaler, Geschichte 
# Tirols v. der Urzeit, p. 279. 




The killes, where dwelled holy saintes, 

I reverence and adore 
Not for themselfe but for the saincts 

Which han been dead of yore. 
And now they been to heaven forewent, 

Their good is with them goe ; 
Their sample onely to us lent, 

That als we mought doe soe. — Spensee. 

We have hitherto been occupied almost exclusively 
with the right bank of the Inn. We will now return 
to Jenbach, as a starting-point for the beauties of 
the left bank. 

Near the station of Jenbach is a * RestaurationJ 
which bears the singular title of ' ziim Tolerantz? In 
the town, which is at some little distance on the Kasbach 
stream, the 'Post ' affords very decent accommodation ; 
The dining-room of the more primitive 4 Brau ' is a 
neat building in the Swiss style, and commands a pros- 
pect which might more than compensate for even worse 
fare than it affords. Jenbach had its name from being 
situated on the further side of the Inn from that on 
which the old post-road had been carried. There are 


extensive iron-foundries and breweries, which give the 
place a busy aspect, and an air of prosperity. 

The excursions from Jenbach are countless. Be- 
tween the stations of Brixlegg and Jenbach lie only 
Miinster and Wiesing, with nothing remarkable, except 
that the church of Wiesing, having been struck by light- 
ning in 1782, was rebuilt with stones taken from the 
neighbouring Pulverthurm, built by the Emperor 
Maximilian, in 1504, but destroyed by lightning at the 
same time as the church. Count Tannenberg's park 
(Thiergarten), near here, is a most curious enclosure of 
natural rock, aided by masonry, and stocked with deer, 
fish, and fowl. Then Kramsach, and in the woods near 
it the Hilariusbergl, once inhabited by two hermits, and 
still held sacred : also the strangely wild Eettengschoss 
and its marbles ; and several remarkable Alpine peaks, 
particularly the Zireinalpe and its little lake, bear- 
ing a memory of Seirens in its traditions as well as 
in its name. Here another river Ache runs into the 
Inn, distinguished from that on the opposite side, as the 
Brandenberger Ache. At its debouche stands Voldepp, 
whence the Mariathal and the Mooserthal may be 
visited, and 'the neighbourhood is rich in marbles 
used in the churches of Innsbruck. ' 1 The Mooser- 
thal is remarkable for three small lakes, which can 
be formed and let off at pleasure ; they are the pro- 
perty of the Barons of Lichtenthurm, who fatten 

1 Ball's Central Alps. 



carp in them. The lowest of the three, the Khein- 
thalersee, has the prettiest surroundings. Weber says 
they are all fed by subterranean currents from the 
mountains. Ball ( i Central Alps') treats them as over- 
flowings of the Inn. 

The most flourishing town of the Mariathal is 
Achenrain, ' where there are extensive brass-works. 
Mass is said for the out-lying operatives in the Castle- 
chapel of Lichtenthurm. The village of Mariathal is very 
snugly situated, almost hidden by its woods from the 
road. Its chief feature is the deserted convent of Domi- 
nicanesses founded in the thirteenth century by Ulrich 
and Konrad v. Freundsberg ; their descendant, Georg v. 
Freundsberg, celebrated in the Thirty Years' War, 
whom we learn more about when we come to Schwatz, 
also endowed the nuns liberally, bidding them pray 
for him ; his effigy may still be seen in the church 
of Mariathal ; and the convent, even in its present 
condition, is a favourite pilgrimage. Hence a rocky 
defile of wild and varied beauty, and many miles in 
length, leads into the Brandenbergerthal, which reaches 
to the Bavarian frontier. Its highest point is the 
Steinberg, to be recognized in the distance by its pyra- 
midal form, which is situated within what the Ger- 
mans graphically term a cauldron (Gebirgskessel) of 
mountains, and is shut off from all communication 
with the outer world by the snow during the winter 
months. The Brandenbergers have been famous for their 
patriotism and defence of their independence during 


all the various conflicts with Bavaria, and they love to 
call their native soil the Heimaththal and the Freiheit- 
thal. The only tale of the supernatural I have met 
with as connected with this locality is the following ; 
it has a certain wild grasp, but its moral is not easy to 
trace ; it is analogous, however, to many traditions of 
other places. 

6 One of the Jochs surrounding the Brandenber- 
gerthal was celebrated for its rich grasses ; on its 
" aim" l the cattle often found pasturage even late in 
the winter. , The Senner 2 here watching his flocks was 
visited one Christmas Eve by an old man in thick 
winter clothing, with a mighty pine-staff in his hand ; 
he begged the Senner on the coming night to heat his 
hut as hot as ever he could, assuring him he would 
have no cause to regret his compliance. The Senner 
thought it was a strange adventure, but congratulated 
himself that it might be the means of propitiating 
the goblins, of whose pranks in the winter nights he 
was not without his fears. So he heaped log upon log 
all day, till the hut was so hot he could hardly bear it. 
Then he crept under a bench in the corner where a 
little chink gave a breath from the outer air, and 
waited to see what would come to pass. Towards mid- 
night he heard steps approaching nearer and nearer, 
and then there was a sound of heavy boots stamping 
off the snow. Immediately after, seven men stepped 

1 Pasture-ground lying at the base of a mountain. 

2 Alpine herdsman. 


into the room in silence. Their boots and clothes were, 
all frozen as hard as if they had been carved out of 
ice, and their very presence served to cool down the 
air of the hut to such an extent that the Senner was 
now obliged to rub his hands. When they had stood 
a considerable space round the fire without uttering a 
word, they all seven left the hut as silently and solemnly 
as they had entered it. The Senner now crawled out 
of his hiding-place, and a loud cry of joy burst spon- 
taneously from his lips, for his hat, which he had 
left on the table, was full of bright shining golden 
zwanzigers. These seven,' the legend goes on to 
say, 4 were never seen but this once. They were the 
seven Ooldherds of the Reiche Spitze (on the Salzburg 
frontier) ; for up there there are exhaustless treasures, 
but whatever a mortal takes of them during life, he 
must suffer the Cold Torment and keep watch over it 
after death ; and of such there have been seven in the 
course of the world's ages.' 

With regard to ' the Cold Torment,' 1 they have 
the following legend in the neighbourhood of Inns- 
bruck : — There was once a peasant who had been very 
unlucky, and got so deep in debt that he saw no way 
of extricating himself. Unable to bear the sight of 
his starving family, he wandered out into the forest, 

1 Respecting the curious idea of the Jcalte Pein, consult Alpenburg, 
Mythen Tirols. ; Vernalken, Alpensagen ; Beckstein, Thwringer Sagen~ 
buck. See also Dr. Dasertt's remarks about Hel in Popular Tales from 
the Norse ; and Dante (notably Inferno, cantos vi. xxii. xxiv.) introduces 
cold among the pains of even the Christian idea of future punishment. 



until at last he met a strange-looking man in the old 
Frankish costume, who came up to him and said, 4 You 
are poor indeed, and know no means of help.' 6 Most 
true,' replied the peasant ; ' of money and good counsel I 
can use more than you can have to bestow.' ' I will help 
you,' said the strange-looking man ; i I will give you as 
much money as you can use while you live, and all you 
have to do for it will be to bear the Cold Torment for 
me after you die ; nothing but that, only just to feel 
rather too cold, and all that time hence — what does 
it matter ? ' The peasant retraced his steps, and as he 
drew near home his children came out to meet him 
with their pinafores full of. gold, and all about the 
house there were heaps of gold, more than he could 
use ; and he lived a merry life till the time came for 
him to die. Then he remembered what was before 
him ; so he called his wife to him, and got her to make 
him a whole suit of the thickest rough woollen cloth, and 
stockings, hood, and gloves of the same. In the night, 
before they had buried him, his boys saw him, just as 
the De profundis bell rang, get up from the bed in all 
this warm clothing, and shut the gate behind him, and 
go out into the forest to deliver the spirit which had 
enriched him. 1 

1 Here we have quite the Etruscan idea of providing against after- 
death needs with appliances connected with the mortal state. Dennis 
(Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, vol. i. p. 34) mentions more material 
traces of Etruscan beliefs at Matrei, on the north side of the Brenner. 
Somewhat further south more important remains still have of late years 
been unearthed, as we shall have occasion to note by-and-by. 

The story in the text, in its depiction of self-devotion, has much 


To the north-east of this valley, and still on the left 
bank of the Inn, is the favourite pilgrimage of Maria- 
Stein. I have not learnt its origin, but there is a 
tradition that, in 1587, Baron Schurff, to whom the 
neighbouring Castle of Stein then belonged, being 
desirous to take the precious likeness of the Blessed 
Virgin honoured there to his Bavarian dwelling, thrice 
attempted the removal, and on each occasion it was 
found by the next morning restored to its original 
sanctuary, which is in a chapel at the top of a high 
tower. The castle was a dependency of the Freunds- 
bergers of Schwatz, till the family died out. It was 
subsequently bestowed by the Archduke Sigismund on 
one of his supporters, to whom he gave also the title 
of Baron Schurff. Afterwards it came into possession 
of Count Paris von Klotz, who gave it to form a pres- 
bytery and school for which it is still used. Among its 

analogy with a Chinese legend told to me by Br. Samuel Birch, of the 
British Museum, concerning a man who sacrifices his own life in order 
to put himself on fighting terms with a cruel spirit which torments that 
of his dead companion. In its details it is like the story I have pointed 
out in Folklore of Rome (the ' Tale of the Pilgrim Husband,' pp. 361-3 and 
xvii), as the most devious from Christian teaching of any of the legends I 
have met with in Home ; and it is particularly noteworthy in connexion 
with Mr. Isaac Taylor's summary of the Etruscan creed (Etruscan Re" 
searches, p. 270). ' The Turanian creed was Animistic. The gods needed 
no gifts, but the wants of the ancestral spirits had to be supplied : the 
spirits of the departed were served in the ghost-world by the spirits of 
the utensils and ornaments which they had used in life.') And in effect 
we, find in every collection of the contents preserved at the opening of 
Etruscan tombs, not only gems and jewellery and household utensils, 
but remains also of every kind of food. 

x 2 


treasures was a Slave codex of Homilies of the early 
fathers ; Count Klotz had a reprint made from it at 
Vienna* A little lake (Maria Steinersee) at no great 
distance affords excellent fish called Nasen, whence 
the neighbouring dale is called Nasenthal; and from 
several points there are most enjoyable views of the 
hohe Salve and the little towns of Worgl, Kirchbiihel, 
and Haring across the river. 

Jenbach affords also numerous mountain walks 
through the Achenthal: a favourite one is over the 
Mauriz Alp, to Maurach, which has many points of 
interest to the geologist. For those who are not fond 
of pedestrianism, there is a splendid drive along the 
road — one of the old highways to Bavaria and the 
north of Europe. An accident is of very rare occur- 
rence; but some parts of it are rather frightful. 
For those whose nerves are proof against the fears 
suggested here and there, there is immense enjoy- 
ment to be found, as it winds its way along the ro- 
mantic woody Kasbachthal, round — indeed through — 
the wild and overhanging rocks, or, supported on piles, 
runs close along the edge of the intensely blue Achen 
lake, under the over-arching Spiel-joch, steep as a wall. 
The first place to halt at is Skolastica, where there 
is a pretty, much-frequented swimming-school; and 
whence even ladies have ascended the Unnutzjoch over 
the Kogl. It is often crowded in the season, as also are 
all the little towns round the lake — Achenthal, Pertisau, 


Buchau. Several excellent varieties of fish, which are 
the property of the Monastery of Viecht, and the 
pleasure-fares across the waters, afford means of subsis- 
tence to a little population of boatmen, who have made 
their nests on the rocks wherever there is a foot of level 
ground. Pertisau, however, is on a green smiling spot, 
and is a relief to the majestic wildness of the rest of 
the surrounding scenery. . A very extraordinary effect 
may be observed at a short distance out from Buchau. 
The mountain outline on the right hand appears to be 
that of a regular fortress, with all professional accessories, 
bidding defiance to the neighbourhood : it is only as 
the boat approaches quite near, that you see it is only 
one of those tours de farce with which nature often 
surprises us ; as, for example, in the portrait of Louis 
XVI. in the outline of the Traunstein, seen from Baura. 

From the village of Achenthal the road runs, 
through the Bavarian frontier, to the well-known baths 
and Bavarian royal Lustechloss — until 1803 a Bene- 
dictine monastery — of Tegernsee, through Pass-Achen, 
celebrated in the patriotic struggles of 1809. 

The Achensee is the largest and one of the most 
beautiful lakes of Tirol. It is fed partly by mountain 
streams, and partly by subterranean springs. The 
people tell a warning tale of its first rising. They say 
that in olden times there was a stately and prosperous 
town on what is now the bed of the lake; but the 
inhabitants in their prosperity forgot (rod so far, that 
the young lads played at skittles along the aisles of the 


church, even while the sacred office was being sung, 
and the Word of God preached. A day came ; it was a 
great feast, but they drove their profane sport as usual, 
and no one said them nay ; ' and so a great flood rose 
up through the floor ; rose above their heads ; above the 
church roof; above the church steeple; and they say 
that even now, on a bright calm day, you may see 
the gilt ball of the steeple shining under the waters, 
and in the still moonshine you may hear the bell ring 
out the midnight hour. There are many other tales 
of such swift and righteous judgments lingering in 

The lower eastern ridge of the Harlesanger or 
Hornanger Alpe, is, on account of its stern and barren 
character, called theWildenfeld. This is howit received 
its name. Ages ago, it was a very paradise of beauty 
and fruitfulneBB. All the choicest Alpine grasses grew 

1 There is something like this in Bean Milnmn's Annals 0/ St. Paute 
Cathedral: — ' " Others," adds Bishop Braybroke, "by the instigation of 
the devil, do not scruple to play at ball, and other unseemly games, 
within the church (he is speaking of St. Paul's), breaking the costly 
painted windows, to the amazement of the spectators." ' Speaking of 
the post-Reformation period, the Dean adds : ' If, when the cathedral 
was more or less occupied by sacred subjects, the invasion of the sanc- 
tuary by worldly sinners resisted all attempts at suppression ; now, that 
the daily service bad shrunk into mere forms of prayer, at best Into a 

mere ' Cathedral Service,' it cannot be wondered at that the 

i, which all tie splendour of the old ritual could not maintain, 
----'- . M Puritanism rose in the ascendant.' Mr. Long- 
Three Cathedrals, p. S4- 8), quotes the very stringent 
Fere issued for the repression of such practices: 
una true tor would say, these afford the reason why, 
is profaned like the church of Achensee, it did not 

* t 


there in abundance ; but with these riches and plenty 
the pride of the Senners and milkers waxed great too ; 
and as a token of their reckless wastefulness, it is 
recorded that they used rich cheeses for paving-stones 
and skittles. One ancient Senner, like another Lot, 
raised his feeble but indignant voice against them, but 
they heeded him not. One day, as he mused over the 
sins of his people, a bright bird, with a plumage such 
as he had never seen before, fluttered round him, 
warbling, 4 Eighteous man, get thee hence ! righteous 
man, get thee hence ! ' The old man saw the finger of 
God, and immediately followed the guiding flight 
of the bird to a place of safety, while a great peak 
from the Harlesanger fell over the too prosperous Jock, 
buried its impious inhabitants, and spread desolation all 
around. There is now a pilgrimage chapel. 

Another excursion, which must not be omitted, from 
Jenbach, is that to Eben, which lies a little off the high 
road, at some elevation, but in the midst of a delightful 
table-land (hence its name) of most fruitful character. 
As the burial-place of St. Nothburga, it is still a spot of 
great resort. Unhappily, not all those buried here 
were so holy as the peasant saint. A tradition is pre- 
served of one wicked above others, though he seemed 
all fair to the outward eye, and the Church consequently 
admitted him to lie in holy ground. But he felt the 
Eye of One above upon him, and he could not rest ; 
and in his struggles to withdraw himself from that 
all-searching gaze, he bored and bored on through the 

» » 

i I 


consecrated earth, till he had worked his way out into 
the common soil beyond. A horse-shoe, deeply graven 
in the 'Friedhof boundary, and which no one has 
ever been able to wall up, marks the spot by which 
he passed ; and the people call it the 6 Escape of the 
Vampire.' l 

The unpretending village of Stans, situated in the 
midst of a very forest of fruit-trees, at no great distance 
from Jenbach, is the birth-place of Joseph Arnold, one 
of the religious artists, of whom Tirol has produced so 
many. Without winning, of some it may be said without 
meriting perhaps, much fame for themselves in the 
world, without attaining the honour of founding a 
school, they have laboured painstakingly and success- 
fully to adorn their village temples, and keep alive the 
faith and devotion of their countrymen. Almost where- 
ever you go in Tirol you find praiseworthy copies of 
paintings, whose titles are connected with the celebrated 
shrines of Italy, modestly reproduced by them, or some 
fervent attempt at an original rendering of b, sacred 
subject, by men who never aspired that their names 
should reach beyond the echoes of their own beloved 
mountains. The prior of Viecht, Eberhard Zobel, dis- 
covered the merits of Joseph Arnold and drew him 
from obscurity, or rather from one degree of obscurity 

1 Nork (Mythologie der VolJcsagen, vol. ix. p. 83) gives other signifi- 
cations to horse-shoes found in the walls of old churches, but does not 
mention this instance. Concerning the origin of the superstition about 
vampires, see Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations, vol. i. p. 363 ; also 
p. 63 and p. 429. 


to another less profound, had him instructed according 
to the best means within his attainment, and gave him 
occupation in the monastery. His homely aspirations 
made him content with the sphere to which he was 
native, and he never went far from it. The altar- 
piece in the church of Stans, representing St. Lawrence 
and St. Ulric, is his work and his gift. 

From Stans there is a path through the grand 
scenery of the Stallenthal, leading to the shrine of St. 
Georgenberg. For a time the pretty villages of the 
Innthal are lost to sight, and you pass a country known 
only to the wild game, the hunter, and the pilgrim ; 
the bare rocky precipices relieved only here and there 
with woods, while the Stallen torrents run noisily 
below. Who could pass through such a neighbourhood 
and not think of the crowds of pilgrims who, through 
ages past, have approached the sacred spot in a spirit 
of faith and submission, bearing their sins and their 
sorrows, the burden of th«ir afflictions, moral and 
physical, and have gone down to their homes com- 
forted ? 

A wonderful shrine it is : a rock which might seem 
marked out ' from the beginning ' to be a shrine ; shut 
out by Nature from earthly communication ; piercing 
the very sky. You stand beneath it and long for an 
eagle's wings to bear you aloft : there seems no other 
means of access. Then a weary winding path is shown 
you, up which, with many sloping returns upon your 
former level, and crossing the roaring stream at a giddy 


height, you at last reach an Absatzbrucke — a bridge or 
viaduct — over the chasm, uniting the height you have 
been climbing, with the cliff of S. George. It is a long* 
bridge, and only made of wood; and you fancy it 
trembles beneath your anxious tread, as you span the 
seemingly unfathomable abyss. A modest cross, which 
you cannot fail to observe at its head, records the 
marvellous preservation of a girl of twenty-one, named 
Monica Eagel, a farm-servant, who one fine morning 
in April 1831, in her zeal to gather the fairest flowers 
for the wreath she was weaving for the Madonna's altar, 
attempted to climb the treacherous steep, and losing 
her footing slipped down the cliff, a distance of one 
hundred and forty feet. The neighbours crowded to the 
spot, with all the haste the -dangerous footing would 
admit, and though they had no hope of finding her 
alive. She was so far uninjured, however, that she was 
able to resume work within the week. 

The buildings found perched at this height cannot 
fail to convey a striking impression ; and this still more 
do the earnest penitents, who may nearly always be found 
kneeling within. First, you come upon the little chapel 
of the 6 Schmerzhaften Mutter ,' with a little garden of 
graves of those who have longed to lie in death as they 
dwelt in life — near the shrine ; among them is that of the 
Benedictine Magnus Dagn, whose knowledge of music is 
referred to in the following simple epitaph, ' Magnus 
nomine, major arte y maximus virtute? Opposite it is 


the principal church, containing in one of its chapels 
one of those most strange of relics, which here and there, 
have come down to us with their legends from 6 the 
ages of faith.' In the year 1310, when Eupert I. was 
the fourteenth abbot of St. Greorgenberg, a priest of the 
order 1 was saying Mass in this very chapel. Just at the 
moment of the consecration of the chalice a doubt 
started in his mind, whether it were possible that at 
his unworthy bidding so great a mystery should be 
accomplished as the fulfillment of the high announce- 
ment, ' This is My Blood.' In this condition of mind 
he concluded the words of consecration ; and behold, 
immediately, in place of the white wine mingled with 
water in the chalice, he saw it fill with red blood, over- 
flowing upon the corporal ; some portion of this was 
preserved in a vial, set into a reliquary on the altar. 
Bound the church are the remains of the original 
monastery, in which the monks of Veicht generally 
leave some of their number to minister both to the 
spiritual and corporal needs of pilgrims. 

It seems difficult to fix a date for the origin of this 
pilgrimage, one of the most ancient of Tirol. There is 
a record that in 992 a chapel was consecrated here to 
our Lady of Sorrows, by Albuin, Bishop of Brizen ; but 
it was long before this 8 that Bathold, a young nobleman 
of Aiblingen in Bavaria, 6 having learnt the hollowness 
of the joys his position promised him, made up his 

1 Cre-bhart. * ' Probably early in the ninth century.' — 8cherer, 


mind to forsake all, and live in the wilderness to Grod 
alone.' He wandered on, shunning the smooth and 
verdant plains of his native lands, and the smiling 1 
fruitful amenities of the Innthal, till at last he found 
himself surrounded by wild solitudes in the valley of 
the Stallen ; plunging into its depths, his eye alighted 
on the almost inaccessible Lampsenjock. Then choosing- 
for his dwelling a peak, on which a few limes had found 
a ledge and sown themselves, he cut a little cave for his 
shelter in the rock beneath them, and there he lived 
and prayed. But after a time a desire came over him 
to visit the shrines of the mightiest saints ; so he took 
up his pilgrim staff once more, and sped over the 
mountains and over the plains, till he had knelt at the 
limine Apostolorum, and pressed his lips upon the soil, 
fragrant with the martyr's blood. Nor was his zeal yet 
satisfied. There was another Apostle the fame of whose 
shrine was great ; and c a year and a day ' brought our 
pilgrim to S. Iago de Compostella. Then, having thus 
graduated in the school of the saints, he came back to 
his solitude under the lime-trees on the rock, to practise 
the lessons of Divine contemplation he had thus imbibed 
in the perfume of the holy places. 

He did not come back alone. From the great 
storehouse of Borne he had brought a treasure of sacred 
art — a picture of the Madonna, for which his own hands 
wrought a little sanctuary. From far and near pious 
people came to venerate the sacred image ; and 6 Unsere 
liebe Frau zur LindeJ was the watch-word, at sound 


of which the sick and the oppressed revived with 

One day, it chanced that & young noble, whom 
ardent love of the chase had led into this secluded 
valley, turned aside from following the wild chamois, 
to inquire what strange power fascinated the peasants 
into attempting yon steep ascent. Curious himself to 
see the wonder-working shrine, he scaled the peak, and 
found to his astonishment, in the modest guardian of 
the picture, the elder brother who long ago had ' chosen 
the better part.' In token of his joy at the meeting, 
he made a vow to build on the spot a chapel, as well as 
a place of shelter for the weary pilgrim. His under- 
taking, was no sooner kndwn than all the people of the 
neighbouring valleys, nobles and peasants, applied to 
have their part in the work. Thus supported, it was 
begun in right earnest ; but the workmen had no sooner 
got it fairly in hand than all the blessing, which for so 
long had been poured out on the spot, seemed suddenly 
to be quenched. Nothing would succeed, and every 
attempt was baffled ; and one thing, which was more 
particularly remarked, was that the men were continu- 
ally having accidents, and wounding themselves with 
their tools. More strange still, every day two white 
doves flew down from above, and carefully picking out 
every chip and shaving on which blood had fallen, 
gathered them in their beaks and flew away. Finding 
that no progress could be made with the work, and that 
this manoeuvre of the doves continued day by day, the 


pious Keinhold resolved to follow them ; and when he 
atlast succeeded in finding their hiding-place, there lay 
hefore him, neatly fashioned out of the chips which the 
doves had carried away, a tiny chapel of perfectly sym- 
metrical form. 1 The hermit saw in the affair the guiding 
hand of God, demanding of him the sacrifice of seven 
years' attachment to his cell; and cheerfully yielding obe- 
dience to the token, requested his brother that the chapel 
should be erected on the spot thus pointed out. Theo- 
hald willingly complied, and dedicated it to the patron 
of chivalry, St. George. The fame of Eeinhold's piety, 
and of his wonderful chapel, was bruited far and near ; 
and now, not all who came to visit him went back to 
their homes. Many youths of high degree, fired by 
the example of the hermit sprung out of their order, s 5 
applied to join him in his life of austerity ; and soon a * . 
whole colony had established itself, Camaldolese-fashion, 
in little huts round his. There seems to have been no 
lack of zealous followers to sustain the odour of sanctity 
of St. Georgenberg ; early in the twelfth century, the 
Bishop of Brixen put them under the rule of^S. Bene- 
dict, to whose monks Tirol, and especially Unterinnthal, 
already owed so great a debt of gratitude, for keeping 
alive the faith. His followers endowed it with muoh 
of the surrounding land, which the brothers, by hard 
manual labour, brought into cultivation. They were 
overtaken by many heavy trials in the course of ,cen- 

1 Burglechner. Pilger dureh Tirol. Panzer. Miilhenhof. 



turies : at one time it was a fire, driven by the fierce 
winds, which ravaged their homestead ; at another time, 
avalanches annihilated the traces of their industry. At 
last, the spirit of prudence prevailing on their earlier 
energetic hardiness, it was resolved to remove the 
monastery to Viecht, where the brothers already had a 
nucleus in a little hospital for the sick among them, 
and where also was the depot for their cattle-dealing — a 
Viehzuchthof, 1 whence by corruption it derived its name. 
The execution of this idea was commenced in 1705. 
The abbot, Celestin Bohmen, a native of Vienna, had 
formerly held a grade of officer in the Austrian artillery. 
Nothing could exceed the zeal with which he took the 
matter in hand ; and plans were laid out for raising the 
building on the most extensive and costly scale. So 
/ grand an edifice required large funds ; and these were 
not slow to flow in,, for St. Greorgenberg was beloved by . 
all the country round. When he saw the vast sums in. 
his hand, however, the old spirit of the world, and its 
covetousness, crept over him again, and a morning 
came when, to the astonishment of the brotherhood, 
the abbot was nowhere to be found — nor the gold ! The 
progress of the work was effectually arrested for the 
moment ; but zeal overcame even the obstacle presented 
by this loss, and by 1750 Abbot Lambert had brought 
to completion the present edifice, in late Eenaissance 
style, which, though imposing and substantial, forms 
but one wing of Celestin Bohmen's plan. 

1 Lit a * cattle-breeding-farm.' 


If the spirit of the world came over Abbot Celestin 
in the cloister, the spirit of the cloister came back upon 
him in the world ; and it was not many years before he 
came back, full of shame and contrition, making open 
confession of his fault, and placing himself entirely in 
the hands of his former subjects. Though at this time 
the monks were yet in the midst of their anxieties for 
the means for carrying on the work, they suffered 
themselves to be ruled by a spirit of Christian charity, 
and refused to give him up to the rigour of the law ; 
and he ended his days with edifying piety at Anras, in 
the Pusterthal. 

A great festival was kept at Viecht, in 1845, in 
memory of the consecration, which was attended by 
sixty thousand persons, from Bavaria as well as Tirol. 

The library contains an interesting collection of MSS. 
and early printed books in many languages, and is par- 
ticularly rich in works illustrative of Tirolean history. 
In the church are some of Nissl the elder's wood- 
carvings, which are always worth attention. The con- 
fessionals are adorned with figures of celebrated peni- 
tents, by his hand ; and other noteworthy works will 
be found in a series of nine tableaux, showing 
forth the Passion ; also the crucifix over the high altar, 
and four life-sized carvings. In all these he was as- 
sisted by his pupils, Franz Thaler, of Jenbach, who 
afterwards came to have the charge of the Vienna 
cabinet of antiquities, and Antony Hiiber, the most 
successful of his school. Perhaps the finest specimen 


of all is a dead Christ, under the altar, remarkable for 
the anatomical knowledge displayed. Like many 
another mountain sanctuary isolated and exposed to 
the wind, this monastery has more than once been 
ravaged by fire; in 1868 it was in great part burnt 
down, and the church-building zeal of Tirol is still 
being exercised with great energy and open-handedness 
in building it up again. A festival was held there in 
October 1870, when five bells from the foundry of 
Grassmayr of Wilten were set up to command the 
echoes of the neighbourhood ; great pains are now beiag 
taken to make the building fireproof.. 

Close opposite Viecht lies Schwatz ; L a number of 
straggling houses, called 6 die lange Grasse,' on the 
Viecht side belong to it also ; between them there is a 
bridge, which we will not cross now, but continue a 
little further along the left bank; this, though less 
rich in smiling pastures than the right, has many 
points of interest. The next village to Viecht isf 
Vomp, situated at the entrance of the Vomperthal, the 
sternest and most barren in scenery or settlements of 
any valley of Tirol, and characterized by a hardy' 
pedestrian as 'frightfully solitary, and difficult of 

1 It follows that (when mountain scenery is not the special object 
with the tourist) it is better to visit Viecht when staying at Schwata 
(Chapters vi. and vii.) than from Jenbach, at least it is a much less toil- 
some ascent on this side from Viecht to S. Greorgenberg, the most inter- 
esting point of the pilgrimage-. At S. Georgenberg there is a good 
mountain inn. 


access: even the boldest Jagers,' he adds, 'seldom 
pursue their game into it.' The village church of 
Vomp once possessed a priceless work of Albert Durer, 
an < AnconaJ showing forth in its various compart- 
ments the history of the Passion ; but it was destroyed 
in 1809, when the French, under Deroi, set fire to the 
church in revenge for the havoc the Tirolean sharp- 
shooters had committed among their ranks. Joseph 
Arnold (in 1814) did his best to repair the loss, by 
painting another altar-piece, in which we see a less 
painful than the usual treatment of the martyrdom of 
St. Sebastian : the artist has chosen the moment at 
which the young warrior is being bound to the tree 
where he is to suffer so bravely. Above the village stands 
the once splendid castle of Sigmundslust, one of the 
hunting-seats of Sigismund the Monied (der Munz- 
reiche), 1 now the villa of a private family of Inns- 
bruck, Sioeabona by name. Vomp is also the birth- 
place of Joseph Hell, the wood-carver. 

Crossing the Vomperbach, and the fertile plain it 
waters, you reach Terfens, which earned some renown 

1 In his rragn, 1440-90, it was that the silver-mines of Tirol were 
discovered; and the abundant influx, to the extent of 500 cwt. annually, 
of the precious metal into his treasury, led him to treat its stores as ex- 
haustless ; though the richest monarch of his tame, his easy open-handed 
disposition continually led him into debt, and made his subjects Anally 
induce him in his old age to resign in favour of his cousin, the Emperor 
Maximilian I. It is a token of the simplicity of the times, that one of 
he gravest reproaches against, him was that he indulged in the luxury 
of silk stockings I He married Eleanor, daughter of James IL of 


in the wars of ' the year nine.' Outside the village is a 
little pilgrimage chapel, called Maria-Larch, honoured 
in memory of a mysterious image of the blessed Virgin, 
found under a larch fir on the spot, similar to the 
legend of that at Waldrast. 1 

Passing the ruin of Volandseck, the still inhabited 
castle of Thierberg (the third of the name we have 
passed since we entered Tirol) and the village of S. 
Michael, you come to S. Martin, the parish church of 
which owes its endowment to a hermit of modern 
times. There was in the village a convent, deserted, 
because partly destroyed by fire* In 1638, Greorge 
Thaler, of Kitzbuhel, a man of some means and posi- 
tion, came to live here a life of sanctity : he devoted 
six hours a-day to prayer, six to sleep, and the rest to 
manual labour. He maintained a chaplain, and an old 
servant who waited on him for fifty years. At his 
death, he left all he possessed to supply the spiritual 
needs of the hamlet. After leaving S. Martin's, the 
scenery grows more pleasing : you enter the Gnaden-* 
wald, so called, because its first inhabitants were ser^ 
vants of the earlier princes of Tirol, who pensioned 
them off with holdings of the surrounding territory. 
It occupies the lowland bordering the river, which 
here widens a little, and affords in its recesses a number 
of the most romantic strolls. Embowered on its border, 
near the river, stands the village of Baumkirchen, with 

1 See infra in the StaJbayerthaL 
l 2 


its outlying offshoot of Fritzens now surpassing it in 
importance, as it has been chosen for the railway-station. 
The advance of the iron road has not stamped out the 
native love for putting prominently forward the external 
symbols of religion. I one day saw a countryman 
alight here from the railway, who had been but to Inns- 
bruck to purchase a large and handsome metal cross, 
to be set up in some prominent point of the village and 
it was considered a sufficiently important occasion for 
several neighbours to go out to meet him on his return 
with it. Again, on the newer houses, probably called 
into existence by the increased traffic, the old custom 
of adorning the exterior with frescoes of sacred subjects 
is well kept up. This is indeed the case on many- 
other parts of the line ; but at Fritzens, I was par- 
ticularly struck with one of unusual merit, both in its 
execution and its adaptation to the domestic scene it was 
t© sanctify. I would call the attention of any traveller, 
who has time to stop at Fritzens to see it : the treatment 
suggests that I should give it the title of ' the Holy 
Family cub homej so completely has the artist realized the 
lowly life of the earthly parents of the Saviour, and may 
it not be a comfort to the peasant artizan to see before 
his eyes the very picture of his daily toil sanctified in 
its exercise by the hands of Him he «o specially reveres ? 
An analogous incident, which I observed on another 
occasion, .comes back to my memory : it happened, I 
think, one day at Jenbach. The train stopped to set 
down & Sister s>£ iGharity, w!ho had come to nurse some 



sick person in the village. The ticket-collector, who 
was also pointsman, was so much occupied with his 
deferential bowing to her as he took her ticket, that 
lie had to rush to his points 6 like mad,' or his reverent 
feelings might have had serious consequences for the 
train ! So religious indeed is your whole entourage 
while in Tirol, that I have remarked when travel- 
ling through just this part in the winter season, that 
the very masses of frozen water, arrested by the frost 
as they rush down the railway cuttings and embank- 
ments, assumed in the half-light such forms as Dore 
might give to prostrate spectres doing penance. The 
foot-path on to Hall leads through a continuance 
of the same diversified and well-wooded scenery we 
have been traversing hitherto ; but if time presses, it 
is well to take the railway for this stage, and make 
Hall or Innsbruck a starting-point for visiting the 
intervening places. 

Hall is the busiest and most business-like place we 
have come to yet, and the first whose smoky atmosphere 
reminds us of home. There is not much to choose 
between its two inns the 'Schwarzer'Bar' and the 
< Schwarzer Adler.' The industry and the smoke of Hall 
arises from the salt-works, from which Weber also 
derives its name (from okas, salt ; though why it should 
have been derived from the Greek he does not explain). 
The first effect which strikes you on arriving, after the 
smokiness, is the sky-line of its bizarrely-picturesque 
steeples, among the most bizarre of which is the 


Milnzthurm (the mint-tower), first raised to turn into 

money the over-flowing silver stores of Sigismund the 

Monied; and last used to coin the 8cmdwvrth8zwdnziger 9 

the pieces of honest old Hofer's brief but triumphant 

dictatorship. The town has in course of time suffered 

severely from various calamities : fire, war, pestilence, 

inundation, and, on one occasion, in 1670, even from 

earthquake ; the church tower was so severely shaken, 

that the watchman on its parapet was thrown to the 

ground; the people fled from their houses into the 

fields, where the Jesuit fathers stood addressing them, in 

preparation for their last end, which seemed imminent. 

Loss of life was, however, small; nevertheless, the 

Offices of the Church were for a long time held in the 


open air. Notwithstanding all these reverses, the trade 
in salt, and the advantageous municipal rights granted 
them in earlier times, have always enabled the people 
to recover and maintain their prosperity. In the 
various wars, they have borne their part with signal 
honour. One of their greatest feats, perhaps, occurred 
on May 29, 1809. Speckbacher had led his men to a 
gallant attack on the Bavarians at Volders, blowing up 
the bridge behind him, and then marched to the relief 
of Hall ; the Bavarians were in possession of the town 
and bridge, and as they had several pieces of artillery, 
it was not easy for the patriots to carry it ; nevertheless, 
as their ammunition was failing, and Speckbacher 
having refused to agree to a truce, 'because he saw the 
advantage accruing to him through this deficiency, they 



destroyed the Hall bridge, as they thought, and retreated 
homewards under cover of the night. Speckbacher 
discovered their flight early in the morning, and lost no 
time in addressing his men on the importance of at 
once taking possession of their native town : the men 
were as usual at one with him, and not one shrank 
from the perilous enterprise of regaining the left bank 
by such means as the tottering remains of the bridge 
afforded ! 

Joseph Speckbacher, who shares with Andreas Hofer 
the glories of ' the year nine,' was a native of Rinn, a 
village on the opposite bank ; but he is honoured with 
a grave in the Pfarrkirche, at Hall, bearing the following 
inscription? with the date of his death, 1820 : 

Im Kampfe wild, doch menschlich ; 
In Frieden still und den G-esetzen treu ; 
War er als Krieger, Unterthan und Mensch, 
Der Ehre wie der Liebe werth. * 

Another object of interest, in the same churchyard, 
is a wooden crucifix, carved by Joseph Stocker in 1691 ; 
as well as the monuments of the Fiegers, and other high 
families of the middle ages. In the church itself is a 
' Salvator Mundi ' of Albert Durer, on panel ; the altar- 
piece of the high altar is by Erasmus Quillinus, a pupil 
of Rubens. One of the chapels, the Waldaufische 
Kapelle, was built in 1493-5, by one Plorian von 

1 In battle impetuous, yet merciful ; in time of peace tranquil, and 
faithful to his country's laws : -whether as a warrior, a subject, or an 
individual, worthy of honour as of love. 


Waldauf, to whom an eventful history attaches. He 
was a peasant boy, whom his father's severity drove 
away from home : for a long time he maintained him- 
self by tending herds ; after that he went for a soldier 
in the Imperial army, where his talents brought him 
under the special notice of the Emperor Frederick, and 
his son Mazimilian I., who took him into their councils 
and companionship. Maximilian made him knight of 
Waldenstein, and gifted him with lands and revenues. 
His love of adventure took him into many countries. 
On one journey, being in a storm at sea, the memory of 
his early wilfulness overcame him, and he vowed that 
if he came safe to land, he would build a chapel in 
his Tirolean home. He subsequently fixed on the 
Pfarrkirche of Hall, as that in which to fulfil his vow, 
being the parish church of the castle of Kettenberg 
which Maximilian had bestowed on him, and enriched 
it with a wondrous store of relics, which he had collected 
in his journeyings. Above 40,000 pilgrims flocked 
from every part of Tirol, to assist at the consecration ; 
and a goodly sight it must have been, when singing und 
bearing the relics aloft, they streamed down the moun- 
tain side and across the river, the last of the procession 
not having yet left the gates of Castle Rettenberg, while 
the foremost had already reached the chapel. 

There are other churches in Hall; where that of 
S. Saviour now stands was once a group of crazy 
cottages ; but one day, in the year 1406, in one of them 
a poor man lay dying, and the priest bore him the holy 


Viaticum, which knows no distinction between the 
palace and the hovel : the furniture was as rickety as 
the tenements themselves; the only table, on which 
the priest had deposited the sacred vessels, propped 
against the wall for support, gave way by some accident, 
and the Santis8irno was thrown upon the floor. Johann 
von Kripp, a wealthy burgher, hearing of what had 
befallen, bought the cottages, and in reparation for the 
desecration, built a church on the spot, with the dedi- 
cation, zum Erloser. 

The town is well provided with educational and 
charitable institutions ; the latter comprising a mad- 
house worth seeing, under Professor Kaplan, and a deaf 
and dumb school. The Franciscan monastery is, I think, 
the only unsuppressed religious house. In the Rathhaus 
is preserved a quaint old picture, representing the 
Emperor Sigismund, in hunting costume, coming to 
ask the assistance of the men of Hall against a conspi- 
racy he had discovered in Innsbruck, assistance which 
loyal Hall was not slow to supply. Its situation made 
it a place of some importance to the defences of the 
country ; and the regulations for calling the inhabitants 
under arms were very complete, so that this service was 
promptly rendered. 

An amusing story is told in evidence of the ready 
gallantry of the men of Hall. There was a time when 
Hall was at feud with the neighbouring village of Taur : 
the watchman, stationed t on the tower by night-time, 
rang the alarm, and announced that the enemy was 


advancing with lanterns in their hands ; at the call to 
arms, every man jumped from his bed, and seized his 
weapon, eager to display his prowess against the foe. 
Prudent Salzmair l Zott, anxious to spare the shedding 
of neighbours' blood, hastily donned a shirt of mail 
over his more penetrable night-gear, and proposed to 
ride out alone with a flag of truce, to know what meant 
the unseasonable attack. The warlike burghers with 
difficulty yielded to his representations, and not having 
the consolations of the fragrant weed wherewith to 
wile away their time, set to sharpening their swords 
and axes, and outvieing each other with many a fierce 
boast during his absence. 

Meantime, Salzmair Zott proceeded on his way 
without meeting the ghost of a foe, or one ray from 
their lanterns, till he came to Taur itself, where every- 
thing lay buried in peaceful silence. Only as he came 
back he discovered what had given rise to the alarm : 
it was midsummer-tide, and a swarm of little worms of 
St. John 2 was soaring and fluttering over the fields like 
a troop provided with lanterns. So with a hearty laugh 
he despatched the townsmen, ready for the fight, back 
to their beds. And even now this humorous imitation 
of the Bauernkrieg * is a by-word for Quixotic enter- 

Of all the numerous excursions round Hall, the 

1 Steward of the salt-mines. 2 Johannmuurmchen, fire-flies. 

9 Peasants' war. 


strangest and most interesting is that to Salzberg, the 
source of the salt, the crystalizing of which and des- 
patching it all over Tirol, to Engadein and to Austria, 
forms the staple industry of Hall. It is a journey of 
about three hours, though not much over eight miles, 
but rugged and steep, and in some parts rather frightful, 
particularly in the returning descent, for the Salzberg 
lies 6,300 feet above the sea : but there is a road for an 
einspanner all the way; entrance is readily obtained, and 
the gratuities for guide, lighting up, and boat over the 
subterranean salt lake, exceedingly moderate. There are 
records extant which shew that there were salt-works 
in operation in the neighbourhood of Hall early in the 
eighth century, but these would appear to have been 
fed by a salt spring which flowed at the foot of the 
mountain. In the year 1275, however, Niklas von 
Bohrbach, who seems to be always styled der fromme 
Ritter (the pious knight), frequently when on his 
hunting expeditions in the Hallthal, observed how the 
cattle and wild game loved to lick certain cliffs of the 
valley; this led him to test the flavour, and finding it 
rich in salt, he followed up the track till he came to 
the Salzberg itself, where he prudently conjectured 
there was an endless supply to be obtained. 1 Ever 
since this time the salt has been worked pretty much 
in the same way, namely, by hewing, later by blasting, 
vast chambers in the rock, which are then filled with 
water and closed up : at the end of some ten or twelve 

1 Burglechner. 



months, when the water is supposed to be thoroughly 
impregnated, it is run off through a series of conduits 
to Hall, where it is evaporated, a hundred pounds of 
brine yielding about a third the weight of salt. A con- 
siderable number of these chambers, an acre or two in 
extent, have been excavated in the course of time, and 
you are told that it would take more than a week to walk 
through all the passages connecting them. 6 Cars filled 
with rubbish pass you as you thread them,' says an 
observant writer, 'with frightful rapidity; you step 
aside into a niche, and the young miners seated in the 
front look like gnomes directing infernal chariots. 
The crystallizations in some of these chambers lighted up 
by the torches of a party of visitors have a magical 
effect, and recall the gilded fret-work of some Moorish 
palaces. There is a tradition that Hofer and Speek- 
bacher, who never, before their illustrious campaigns, 
had wandered so far as these few miles from their respec- 
tive homes, took advantage of the lull succeeding their 
first triumph at Berg Isel, to come over and visit the 
strange labyrinths of the Salzberg. It is hardly possible 
to exaggerate the effect which such a scene might pro- 
duce on minds so imaginative, and at the same time so 
unsophisticated. It is not difficult to believe that they 
regarded such a journey like a visit to the abode of the 
departed great, or that in presence of the oppressive 
grandeurs of nature they should have matured their 
spirit for the defence of their country which was to con- 
found the strategy of practised generals. 


Keturning through the dark forests of pine and the 
steep cliffs of the Hallthal, otherwise called the Salz- 
thal, you are arrested by the hamlet of Absam, which 
in your hurry to push forward you overlooked in the 
morning. Before reaching it you observe to the east, 
on an eminence rising out of the plain, Schloss Melans, 
now serving as a villa to a family of Innsbruck. The 
peasants have a curious story to account for the rudely 
sculptured dragons which adorn some of the eave-boards 
of their houses, though no singular mode of ornamenta- 
tion, and by others accounted for differently. 1 They 
say that in olden time there was a wonderful old hen 
which laid her first egg when seven years old, and when 
the egg was hatched a dragon crept out of it, 2 which 
made itself a home in the neighbouring moor, and the 
people in memory of the prodigy carved its likeness on 
their houses. 

In Absam itself once lived a noble family of the 
name of Spaur, which had a toad for a bearing on their 
shield, accounted for in the following way : — * A certain 
Count Spaur had committed a crime by which he had 
incurred the penalty of death ; his kinsmen having put 
every means in motion to get the sentence remitted, 

1 Colin de Plancy, LSgendes dea sept pechte capitaux, Appendice ; and 
Nork, Mythologie der Volkssagen, point out that the dragon, sacred to 
Wodin, was placed on houses, town gates, and belfries, as a talisman 
against evil influences. See also some remarks on the two-fold character 
of dragons in mythology in Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations, i. 428. 

2 Compare Leoprechting, Aus dem Lechrain, page 78. Miillenhof 
Sagen der Herzogthiimer Schleswig Holstein u. Lauenburg, page 237. 


his pardon was at last accorded them on the condition 
that he should ride to Babylon the Accursed, and bring 
home with him a monstrous toad which infested the tower. 
So the knight rode forth to Babylon the Accursed, and 
when he drew near the tower the monstrous toad came 
out and seized the bridle of the knight's horse; the 
knight, nothing daunted at the horrid apparition, lifted 
his good sword and hewed the monster to the ground, 
bringing the corpse back with him as a trophy.' 

What audacious tales ! Could anyone out of a dream 
put such ideas together ? No writer of fiction, none 
but one who believed them possible of accomplishment ! 
4 Who can tell what gives to these simple old stories 
their irresistible witchery ? ' says Max Miiller. ' There 
is no plot to excite our curiosity, no gorgeous descrip- 
tion to dazzle our eyes, no anatomy of human passion to 
rivet our attention. They are short and quaint, full 
of downright absurdities and sorry jokes. We know 
from the beginning how they will end. And yet we sit 
and read and almost cry, and we certainly chuckle, and 
are very sorry when 

Snip, snip, snout, 
This tale 's told out. 

Do they remind us of a distant home — of a happy 
childhood? Do they recall fantastic dreams long 
vanished from our horizon, hopes that have set never 
to rise again ? . . . . Nor is it dreamland altogether. 
There is a kind of reed life in these tales — life such as a 
child believes in — a life where good is always rewarded; 


wrong always punished ; where everyone, not excepting 
the devil, gets his due ; where all is possible that we 
truly want, and nothing seems so wonderful that it 
might not happen to-morrow. We may smile at those 
dreams of inexhaustible possibility, but in one sense the 
child's world is a real world too.' 

A singular event, or curious popular fancy, obtained 
for Absam the honour of becoming a place of pilgrimage 
at the end of the last century. It was on January 17, 
1797 ; a peasant's daughter was looking idly out of win- 
dow along the way her father would come home from the 
field ; suddenly, in the firelight playing on one of the 
panes, she discerned a well-defined image of the Blessed 
Virgin, 6 as plain as ever she had seen a painting.' Of 
course the neighbours flocked in to see the sight, and 
from them the news of the wonderful image spread 
through all the country round ; at last it made so much 
noise, that the Dean of Innsbruck resolved to investigate 
the matter. A commission was appointed for this object, 
among their number being two professors of chemistry, 
and the painter, Joseph Schopf. Their verdict was 
that the image had originally been painted on the 
glass; that the colours, faded by time, had been re- 
stored to the extent then apparent by the action of the 
particular atmosphere to which they had been exposed. 
The people could not appreciate their arguments, nor 
realize that any natural ineans could have produced so 
extraordinary a result. For them, it was a miraculous 

p » 


image still, and accordingly they put their faith in it 
as such ; nor was their faith without its fruit. It was a 
season of terrible trouble, a pestilence was raging both 
among men and beasts ; General Jouberthad penetrated 
as far into the interior as Sterzing ; everyone felt the 
impotence of ' the arm of flesh' in presence of such dire 
calamities. The image on the peasant's humble 
window-pane seemed to have come as a token of 
heavenly favour ; nothing would satisfy them but that 
it should be placed on one of the altars of the church, 
and the ' GnadenmvMer l von Absam ' drew all the 
fearful and sorrowing to put their trust in Heaven 
alone. Suddenly after this the enemy withdrew his 
troops, the pestilence ceased its havoc, and more firmly 
than ever the villagers believed in the supernatural 
nature of the image on the window-pane. 

Absam has another claim to eminence in its famous 
violin-maker, Jacob Stainer, born in 1649. He learnt 
his art in Venice and Cremona, and carried it to such 
perfection, that his instruments fetched as high prices 
as those made in Cremona itself. Archduke Ferdinand 
Karl, Landesfurst of Tirol, attached him to his court. 
Stainer was so particular about the wood he used, that 
he always went over to the Grletscher forest clearings 
to select it, being guided in the choice by the 
sound it returned when he struck it with a hammer. 
Towards the end of his life the excitement of the love 
of his calling overpowered his strength of mind, and 

1 Mother of mercy. 


the treatment of insanity not being then brought to 
perfection at Absam, one has yet to go through the 
melancholy exhibition of the stout oaken bench to 
which he had to be strapped or chained when violent. 1 
Mils affords the object of another pleasant excur- 
sion from Hall, reached through the North, or so called 
Mils, gate, in an easy half-hour ; around it are the old 
castles of Grriinegg and Schneeburg, the former a 
hunting-seat of Ferdinand II., now in ruins; the 
latter well-preserved by the present noble family of 
the name. Those who have a mind to enjoy a longer 
walk, may hence also find a way into the peaceful 
shady haunts of the Gnadenwald. Some two hundred 
years ago there lived about half way between Hall and 
Mils a bell-founder, who enjoyed the reputation of 
being a very worthy upright man, as well as one given 
to unfeigned hospitality ; so that not only the weather- 
bound traveller, but every wayfarer who loved an 
hour's pleasant ehat, knocked, as he passed by, at the 
door of the Olockenhof. Among all the visitors who 
thus sat at his board, none were so jovial as a party of 
wild fellows, whose business he was never well able to 
make out. They always brought their own meat and 
drink with them, and it was always of the best ; and 
money seemed to them a matter of no account, so 
abundant was it. At last he ventured one day to 
inquire whence they acquired their seemingly bound - 

1 A touching story has been made out of his history in Alpen Blv/men 


1 62 


less wealth. ' Nothing easier, and you may be as rich 
as we, if you will ! ' was the answer ; and then they 
detailed their exploits, which proved them knights of 
the road. Opportunity makes the thief. The proverb 
was realized to the letter ; the Glockengieaser had been 
honest hitherto, because he had never been tempted 
before ; now the glittering prize was exposed to him, 
he knew not how to resist. His character for hospi- 
tality made the Olockenhof serve as a very trap. The 
facility increased his greed, and his cellars were filled 
with spoil and with the skeletons of the spoiled. 
Travellers thus disappeared so frequently that conster- 
nation was raised again and again, but who could ever 
suspect the worthy hearty Glockengiesser ! Though 
the new trade throve so well, there was one quality 
necessary to its success in which the Glockengiesser was 
wanting, and that was caution. Just as if there had 
been nothing to hide, he let a party of sewing-women 
come one day from the village to set his household 
goods in order ; and when they retired to rest at night, 
one of them, who could not sleep in a strange house, 
heard the master and his gang counting their money 
in the cellar. Astonished, she crept nearer, and over- 
heard their talk. 'We should not have killed that 
fellow,' said one ; ' he wasn't worth powder and shot.' 
6 Pooh ! ' replied another, 6 you can't expect to have 
good luck out of every murder. Why, how often a 
cattle-dealer kills a beast and doesn't turn a penny out 
of it.' The seamstress did not want to hear any more ; 


she laid her charge at the town-hall of Hall next 
morning ; the officers of justice arrested the bell- 
founder and his associates, and ample proofs of their 
guilt were found on the premises. Sentenced to death, 
in the solitude of his cell, he yielded to the full force 
of the reproaches of his conscience ; he made no defence, 
but hailed his execution as a satisfaction of which his 
penitent soul acknowledged the justice. However, he 
craved two favours before his end ; the one, to be 
allowed to go home and found a bell for the lieff Frau 
Kirche in Mils ; the second, that this bell might be 
sounded for the first time at his execution, which by 
local custom must be on a Friday evening at nine 
o'clock. 1 Both requests were granted, and his bell con- 
tinued to serve the church of Mils till the fire of 
August 1791. 

Another walk from Hall is the Loreto-Kirche, in- 
tended as an exact copy of ' the Holy House,' by Arch- 
duke Ferdinand and his wife, the pious Anna Katharina 
of Gonzaga, who endowed it with a foundation for per- 
petual Masses for the repose of the souls of the reigning 
House of Austria ; it-was at one time a much visited 
pilgrimage, so that though it had three chaplains 
attached to it, monks from Hall had often to be sent 
for to supplement their ministrations. Ferdinand and 
Anna often made the pilgrimage on foot fron 
bruck, saying the ' stations ' as they went, at certa 

1 This was designed bo as to coincide with the time wheat]; 

throughout the world were saying the Be JPrqfundU. 


chapels which marked them by the way, and of which 
remains are still standing. It would be an interesting 
spot to trace out : I regret that we neglected to do 
so, and I do not know whether it is now well kept up. 

Starting again by the North gate of Hall, and 
taking the way which runs in the opposite direction 
from that leading to Mils, you come, after half an 
hour's walk through the pleasant meadows, to Heiligen 
Kreiiz ; its name was originally Gumpass, but it had 
its present name from the circumstance of a cross 
having been carried down stream by the Inn, and re- 
covered from its waters by some peasants from this 
place, by whom it was set up here. So great is the 
popular veneration for any even apparent act of homage 
of Nature to ' Nature's God,' that great crowds con- 
gregated to see the cross which had been brought to 
them by the river ; and it was found necessary in 
the seventeenth century to erect the spot into a distinct 
parish. Heiligen Kreuz is much resorted to for its 
sulphur baths, also by people from Hall as a pleasing 
change from their smoky town, on holidays. 

Striking out towards the mountains, another half- 
hour brings you to Taur, a charming little village, 
standing in the shelter of the Taureralpe. Almost close 
above it is the Thiirl, a peak covered to a considerable 
height with rich pasture ; at its summit, a height of 
6,546 ft., is a wooden pyramid recording that it was 
climbed by the Emperor Francis L, and called the 
Kaisersaiile. There are many legends of S. Eomedius 


connected with Taur, one of which is worth citing, in 
illustration of the confidence of the age which con- 
ceived or adapted it, in the efficacy of faith and obedi- 
ence. S. Eomedius was a rich Bavarian, who in the 
fourth century owned considerable property in the 
Innthal, including Taur. On his return from a pil- 
grimage to Eome, he put himself at the disposal of 
S. Vigilius, the apostle of South Tirol, who despatched 
him to the conversion of the Nonsthal, where he lived 
and died in the odour of sanctity. He was not un- 
mindful of his own Taur, but frequently visited it to 
pour out his spiritual benedictions. He was once there 
on such a visit, when he received a call from S. Vigilius. 
Regardless of his age and infirmities, he immediately 
prepared for the journey over the mountains to Trent. 
His nag, old and worn out like his master, he had left 
to graze on the pastures at the foot of the Taureralpe, 
so he called his disciple David, and bid him bring him 
in and saddle him. Great was the consternation of 
the disciple on making the discovery that the horse 
had been devoured by a bear. Saddened and cast 
down, he came to his master with the news. Nothing 
daunted, S. Eomedius bid him go back and saddle the 
bear in its stead. The neophyte durst not gainsay his 
master, but went out trusting in his word ; the bear 
meekly submitted to the bidding of the holy man, who 
bestrode him, and rode on this singular mount into 
Trent. It is only a fitting sequel that the legend 
adds, that at his approach all the bells of Trent rang 


out a gladsome peal of welcome, without being moved 
by human hands. 

The lords of Taur gave the name to the place by 
setting up their castle on the ruins of an old Eoman 
tower {twrris; altromanisch, tour). S. Eomedius is 
not the only hero from among them ; the chronicles of 
their race are full of the most romantic achievements ; 
perhaps not the least of these was the construction of 
the fortress, the rambling ruins of which still attest 
its former greatness. Overhanging the bank of the 
Wildbach is the chapel of S. Eomedius, inhabited 
by a hermit as lately as the seventeenth century^ 
though the country-people are apt to confuse him with 
S. Eomedius himself I 1 One dark night, as he was 
watching in prayer, he heard the sound of tapping 
against his cell window. Used to the exercise of hos- 
pitality, he immediately opened to the presumed way- 
farer : great was his astonishment to see standing 
before him the spirit of the lately deceased parish 
priest, who had been his very good friend. 'Have 
compassion on me, Frater Joshue ! ' he exclaimed ; fi for 
when in the flesh I forgot to say three Masses, for 
which the stipend had been duly provided and received 

1 A similar fact for the comparative mythologist is recorded p. 123-4, 
in the case of the Bienerweible. While these sheets were preparing 
for the press, a singular one nearer home was brought under my notice. 
A little girl being asked at a national school examination, ' What David 
was before he was made king ? ' answered, ' Jack the Giant-killer/ This 
is a noteworthy instance of the hold of myths on the popular mind ; it 
did not proceed from defective instruction, for the school is one of the 
very first in its reports, and the child not at all backward. 



by me, and now my. penance is fearful ; ' as he spoke 
he laid his hand upon a wooden tile of the hermit's 
lowly porch, who afterwards found that the impression 
of his burning hand was branded into the wood. ' Now 
do you, my friend, say these Masses in my stead ; pray 
and fast for me, and help me through this dreadful 
pain.' The hermit promised all he wished, and kept 
his promise ; and when a year and a day had passed, 
the spirit tapped again at the window, and told him 
he had gained his release. The tile, with the brand- 
mark on it, may be seen hanging in the chapel, with 
an inscription under it attesting the above facts, and 
bearing date 7th February, 1660. 1 

At a very short distance further is another inte- 
resting little village, Bum by name. It is situated 
close under the mountains, the soil of which is very 
friable. A terrible landslip occurred in 1770 ; the 
noise was heard as far as Innsbruck, where it was at" 
tributed to an earthquake. Whole fields were covered 
with the cttbrw, some of which were said to be carried 
to a distance of a mile and a half; the village just 
escaped destruction, only an outlying smithy, which 
was buried, showed how near the danger had come* 
If time presses, this excursion may be combined with 
the last, and the Loreto-Kirche taken on the way back 
to Hall. 

1 Concerning dtr feurige Mann, and the mark of his burning hand, 
see Stober Sagen des EZsasses, p. 222-3. 

1 68 




The world is full of poetry untvrit ; 

Dew-woven nets that virgin hearts enthrall, 

Darts of glad thought through infant brains that flit, 

Hope and pursuit, loved bounds and fancies free — 

Poor were our earth of these bereft, . . 

Aubrey de Vbbb. 

It is time now to return to speak of Schwatz, of 
which we caught a glimpse across the river as we left 
Viecht ; l and it is one of the most interesting towns, 
and centres of excursions, in Tirol. It was a morning 
of bright promise which first brought us there by the 
early hour of 8.15. To achieve this we had had to rise 
betimes; it was near the end of August, when the 
mid-day sun is overpowering ; yet the early mornings 
were very cool, and the brisk breezes came charged with 
a memory of snow from the beautiful chains of moun- 
tains whose base we were hugging. The railway sta- 
tion, as if it dared not with its modern innovation in- 
vade the rural retreat of primitive institutions, was at 
a considerable distance from the village, and we had a 

1 At page 145. 


walk of some fifteen or twenty minutes before we came 
within reach of even a chance of breakfast. 

My own strong desire to be brought quite within 
the influence of Tirolean traditions perhaps deadened 
my sensations of hunger and weariness, but it was not 
so with all of our party ; and it was with some 
dismay we began to apprehend that the research of the 
primitive is not to be made without some serious sacri- 
fice of ' le comfortable.' 

Our walk across the fields at last brought us to 
the rapid smiling river; and crowning the bridge, 
stood as usual S. John Nepomuk, his patient martyr's 
face gazing on the effigy of the crucified Saviour he is 
always portrayed as bearing so lovingly, seeming so 
sweetly all-enduring, that no light feeling of discontent 
could pass him unrestrained. Still the call for break- 
fast is an urgent one with the early traveller, and there 
seemed small chance of appeasing it. Near the sta- 
tion indeed had stood a deserted building, with the 
word ' Restauration ' just traceable on its mouldy walls, 
but we had felt no inclination to try our luck wit! 
them ; and though we had now reached the village, 
seemed no nearer a more appetising supply. No ( 
had got out of the train besides ourselves ; not a s. 
appeared by the way. A large house stood prominen 
on our right, which for a moment raised our hopes, 1 
its too close proximity to a little church forbad us 
expect it to be a hostelry, and a scout of our pa 
brought the intelligence that it was a hospital ; anotl 


building further on, on the left, gave promise again, 
because painted all over with frescoes, which might be 
the mode in Schwatz of displaying a hotel-sign; but no, 
it proved to be a forge, and like the lintels marked by 
Morgiana's chalk, all the houses of Schwatz — as indeed 
most of the houses of Tirol — were found to be covered 
with sacred frescoes. At last a veritable inn appeared, 
and right glad we were to enter its lowly portal and 
find rest, even though the air was scented by the 
mouldering furniture and neighbouring cattle-shed; 
though the stiff upright worm-eaten chairs made a 
discordant grating on the tiled floor, and a mildewed 
canvas, intended to keep out flies, completed the gloom 
which the smallness of the single window began. 

A repeated knocking at last brought a buxom maid 
out of the cow-shed, who seemed not a little amazed 
at our apparition. ' Had she any coffee I coffee, at 
that time of day — of course not! 9 True, the un- 
punctuality of the train, the delivery of superfluous 
luggage to the care of the station-master, and our 
lingering by the way, had brought us to past nine 
o'clock — an unprecedented hour for breakfast in 
Schwatz. ' Couldn't we be content with wine? in 
a couple of hours meat would be ready, as the 
carters came in to dine then.' Meat and coffee at the 
same repast, and either at that hour, were ideas she 
could not at first take in. Nevertheless, when we 
detailed our needs, astonishment gave way to compas- 
sion, and she consented to drop her incongruous pro- 


positions, and to make us happy in our own way. Ac- 
cordingly, she was soon busied in lighting a fire, run- 
ning to fetch coffee and rolls — though she did not, as 
happened to me in Spain, ask us to advance the money 
for the commission — and very soon appeared with a 
tray full of tumblers and queer old crockery. The 
black beverage she at last provided consisted of a de- 
coction of nothing nearer coffee than roasted corn, figs, 1 
or acorns ; and the rolls had the strangest resemblance 
to leather ; but the milk and eggs were fine samples of 
dairy produce, for which Schwatz is famous, and these 
and the luscious fruit made up for the rest. 

I remember that the poet-author of one of the most 
charming books of travel, in one of the most charm- 
ing countries of Europe, 2 deprecates the habit travel- 
writers have of speaking too much about their fare ; 
and in one sense his remarks are very just. Where this 
is done without purpose or art, it becomes a bore ; but 
'love itself can't live on flowers;' ahd as, however 
humiliating the fact, it is decreed that the only abso- 
lutely necessary business of man : s life is the catering 
for his daily bread, it becomes interesting to the ob- 
servant to study the various means by which this 
decree is complied with by different races, in different 
localities. It is especially noteworthy that it is just 
in countries made supercilious by their oulture that 

1 ' Feigen-Kaffee? made of figs roasted and ground to powder, is sold 
throughout Austria. 

2 Aubrey de Vere's Greece and Turkey. 


these matters of a lower order engross the most atten- 
tion, and just those who consider themselves the. most 
civilized who are the most dependent on what have 
been termed mere ' creature comforts.' These poor 
country folks, whom the educated traveller often passes 
by as unworthy of notice in their benighted ignorance 
and superstition-— while they would not forego their 
salutation of the sacred symbol by the way-side, which 
marks their intimate appreciation of truths of the 
highest order — put us to shame, by their indifference 
to sublunary indulgences. We had come to Tirol 
to study their ways, and I hope we took our lesson on 
this occasion, well. We were not feasted with a sump- 
tuous repast, such as might be found in any of the 
monster hotels, now so contrived, that you may pass 
through all the larger towns of Europe with such simi- 
larity to home-life everywhere, that you might as well 
never have left your fireside ; but we were presented with 
an experience of the struggle with want ; of that hardy 
face-to-face meeting with the great original law of labour, 
which our modern artificial life puts so completely out 
of sight, that it grows to regard it as an antiquated fable, 
and which can only be met amid such scenes. 

The matutinal peasants were packing up their 
wares — which when spread out had made a picturesque 
market of the main street — by the time we again sal- 
lied forth, and we were nearly losing what is always one 
of the prettiest sights in a foreign town. At the end 
rose the parish church, with a stateliness for which the 

1 • 


smallness of the village had not prepared us; but 
Schwatz has a sad and eventful history to account for 
the disparity. 

Schwatz was once a flourishing Soman station, and 
even now remains are dug out which attest its ancient 
prosperity ; but it had fallen away to the condition of a 
neglected Hausergruppe by the fourteenth century, 
when suddenly came the discovery of silver veins in the 
surrounding heights. A lively bull, 1 one day tearing 
up the soil with his horns in a frolic, laid bare a shining 
vein of ore. The name of Grertraud Kandlerin, the 
farm-servant who had charge of the herd to which he 
belonged, and brought the joyful tidings home to 
Schwatz, has been jealously preserved. From that 
moment Schwatz grew in importance and prosperity ; 
and at one time there was a population of thirty thou- 
sand miners employed in the immediate neighbourhood. 
The Fuggers and Hochstetters of Augsburg were 
induced to come and employ their vast resources in 
working the riches of the mountains ; and native 
families of note, laying aside the pursuit of arms, 
joined in the productive industry. Among these were 
the Fiegers, one of whom was the counsellor and 
intimate friend of the Emperor Maximilian, who 
followed his remains to their last resting-place, at 
Schwatz, when he died in ripe old age, leaving fifty- 
seven children and grandchildren, and money enough 

1 Burglechner. a.d. 1409. 



to enrich them all. His son Hanns married a daughter 
of the Bavarian house of Pienzenau ; and when he 
brought her home, tradition says it was in a carriage 
drawn by four thousand horses. Many names, famous 
in the subsequent history of the country, such as the 
Tanzls, Jochls, Tannenbergs, and Sternbachs, were thus 
first raised to importance. This outpouring of riches 
stimulated the people throughout the country to search 
for mineral treasures, and everywhere the miners of 
Schwatz were in request as the most expert, both at 
excavating and engineering. Nor this only within the 
limits of Tirol ; they had acquired such a reputation by 
the middle of the sixteenth century, that many distant 
undertakings were committed to them too. They were 
continually applied to, to direct mining operations in 
the wars against the Turks in Hungary. Their coun- 
termines performed an effective part in driving them 
from before Vienna in 1529; and again, in 1739, they 
assisted in destroying the fortifications of Belgrad. 
Clement VII. called them to search the mountains of 
the Papal State in 1542 ; and the Dukes of Florence 
and Piedmont also had recourse to their assistance about 
the same time. In the same way, many knotty disputes 
about mining rights were sent from all parts to be 
decided by the experience of Schwatz ; and its abundance 
attracted to it every kind of merchandise, and every 
new invention. One of the earliest printing-presses 
was in this way set up here. 

But a similarity of pursuit had established a com- 


munity of interest between the miners of Schwatz and 
their brethren of Saxony ; and when the Eeformation 
broke out, its doctrines spread by this means among 
the miners of Schwatz, and led at one time to a com- 
plete revolution among them. Twice they banded 
together, and marched to attack the capital, with 
somewhat communistic demands. Ferdinand I., and 
Sebastian, Bishop of Brixen, went out to meet them 
on each occasion at Hall, and on each occasion succeeded 
in allaying the strife by their moderate discourse. 
Within the town of Schwatz, however, the innovators 
carried matters with a high hand, and at one time 
obtained possession of half the parish church, where 
they set up a Lutheran pulpit. Driven out of this 
by the rest of the population, they met in a neigh- 
bouring wood, where Joham Strauss and Christof Soil, 
both unfrocked monks, used to hold forth to them. 

A Franciscan, Christof von Munchen, now came to 
Schwatz, to strengthen the faith of the Catholics, and 
the controversy waged high between the partisans of 
both sides ; so high, that one day two excited disputants 
carried their quarrels so far before a crowd of admiring 
supporters, that at last the Lutheran exclaimed, ' If 
Preacher Soil does not teach the true doctrine, may 
Satan take me up into the Steinjoch at Stans ! ' and as 
he spoke, so, says the story, it befell : the astonished 
people saw him carried through the air and disappear 
from sight ! The credit of the Lutherans fell very 
sensibly on the instant, and still more some days after, 


when the adventurous victim came back lame and 
bruised, and himself but too well convinced of his 

Nevertheless the strife was not cured. Somewhat 
later, there was an inroad of Anabaptists, under whose 
auspices another insurrection arose, and for the time the 
flourishing mining works were brought to a stand-still. 
At last the Government was obliged to interfere. The 
most noisy and perverse were made to leave the coun- 
try, and the Jesuits from Hall were sent over to hold a 
mission, and rekindle the Catholic teaching. Peace 
and order were restored : four thousand persons were 
brought back to the frequentation of the sacraments ; 
but the BergseffenJ add the traditions, which had been 
the occasion of so much dissunion, was never re- 
covered. From that time forth the mining treasures 
of Schwatz began to fail ; and after a long and steadily 
continued diminution of produce, silver ceased alto- 
gether to be found. Copper, and the best iron of Tirol, 
are still got out, and their working constitutes one of 
the chief industries of the place ; the copper produced 
is particularly fit for wire-drawing, for which there is 
an establishment here. Another industry of Schwatz 
is a government cigar manufactory, 2 which employs 
between four and five hundred hands, chiefly women 
and children, who get very poorly paid — ten or twelve 

1 Mineral wealth — lit. Mountain-blessing. 

* I was told there that it had been reckoned that 500,000 cigars are 
smoked per diem in Tirol. 



francs a-week,. working from: five in the morning' till 
six in the evening, with two hours' interval in the 
middle of the day. There are pottery works,, which 
also employ many hands ; and many of the women 
occupy themselves in knitting woollen clothing for the 
miners. The pastures of the neighbourhood are likewise 
a source of rich in-comings to the town ; but with all 
these industries together, Schwatz is far below the level 
of its early prosperity. Instead of its former crowded 
buildings, it now consists almost entirely of one street ; 
and instead of being the cynosure of foreigners from all 
parts, is so little visited, that the people came to the 
windows to look at the unusual sight of a party of" 
strangers as we passed by. In place of its early 
printing-press, its literary requirements are supplied 
by one little humble shop, where twine, toys, and traps', 
form the staple, and stationery and a small number of 
books are sold over and above ; and where, because we 
spent a couple of francs, the master thereof seemed to 
think he had driven for that one day a roaring trade. 

Other misfortunes, besides the declension of its 
'Bergsegen,' have broken over Schwatz. In 1611 it 
was visited by the plague, in 1 670 by an earthquake ; 
but its worst disaster was in the campaign of 1809, when 
the Bavarians, under the Duke of Dantzic, and the 
French, under Deroi, determined to strike terror into 
the hearts of the country-people by burning down the 
town. The most incredible cruelties are reported to 
have been perpetrated on this occasion, many being 



such as one cannot bear to repeat; so determined was 
their fury, that when the still air refused to fan the 
flames, they again and again set fire to the place at 
different points ; and the people were shot down when 
they attempted to put out the conflagration. General 
Wiede was quartered in the palace of Count Tannen- 
berg, a blind old man, with four blind children ; his 
misfortunes, and the laws of hospitality, might have 
protected him at least from participation in the 
general calamity; but no, not even the hall where 
the hospitable board was spread in confidence for the 
unscrupulous guest, was spared. Once and again, 
as the inimical hordes poured into, or were driven 
out of, Tirol, Schwatz had to bear the brunt of their 
devastations, so that there is little left to show what 
Schwatz was. The stately parish church, however, 
suffered less than might have been expected : in the 
height of the conflagration, when all was noise and 
excitement, a young Bavarian officer, over whom sweet 
home lessons of piety exercised a stronger charm than 
the wild instincts of the military career which were 
effecting such havoc around, collected a handful of trusty 
followers, and, unobserved by the general herd, succeeded 
in rescuing it before great damage had been done. 

The building was commenced about 1470, 1 and 
consecrated in 1502. What remains of the original 
work is in the best style of the period ; the west front 

1 The date of death on the tombstone of Lukas Hirtzfogel, whom 
tradition calls the architect of this church, is 1475. 


is particularly noteworthy. The plan of the building 
is very remarkable, consisting of a double nave, each 
having its aisles, choir, and high-altar ; this peculiar 
construction originated in the importance of the 
Knappen, or miners, at the time it was designed, and 
their contribution to the building fund entitling them 
to this distinct division of the church between them 
and the towns-people; one of the high-altars still goes 
by the name of the KTiappenhochaltar. The roof, like 
those of most churches of Tirol and Bavaria, is of copper, 
and is said to consist of fifteen thousand tiles of that 
metal — an offering from the neighbouring mines. The 
emblem of two crossed pick-axes frequently introduced, 
further denotes the connexion of the mining trade 
with the building. Whitewash and stucco have done 
a good deal to hide its original beauties, but some fine 
monuments remain. One in brass, to Hanns Dreyling 
the metal-founder, date 1578, near the side (' south ') 
door, should not be overlooked : the design embodies a. 
Eenaissance use of Ionic columns and entablature in 
connexion with mediaeval symbols. Below, are seen 
Hanns Dreyling himself in the dress of his craft, his 
three wives, and his three sons habited as knights 
(showing the rise of his fortunes), all under the protec- 
tion of S. John the Baptist. Above, is portrayed the 
vision of the Apocalypse, God the Father seated on His 
Throne, surrounded by a rainbow, with the Book of 
Seven Seals, and the Lamb: at His Feet the four 
Evangelists ; around, the four-and-twenty elders, with 

N 2 


their harps, some wearing their crowns, and some stretch- 
ing t6em out as a humble offering before the Throne; 
in front kneels the Apostolic Seer himself, gazing, and 
with his right hand pointing, upwards, yet smiting his 
breast with the left hand, and weeping that no one was 
found worthy to open the seals of the book. Below the 
epitaph, the monument bears the following lines : 

Mir gab Alexander Colin den Fossen 
Harms Loffler hat mich gegossen. 

Alexander Colin, of Malines, and Hans Loffler, were, 
like Hans Dreyling, Schmelzherm of eminence, and 
connected with him by marriage, thus they naturally 
devoted their best talent to honour their friend and 
master. We learnt to appreciate it better when we 
came to see their works at Innsbruck. The nine altar- 
pieces are mostly by Tirolean painters. The Assump- 
tion, on one high-altar, is by Schopf ; the Last Supper 
on the other — the KnappenhochaUar — by Bauer of 

The * north * side door opens on to a narrow strip of 
grass, across which is a Michads-kapeUe, as the chapel 
we so often find in German churchyards — and where 
the people love to gather, and pray for their loved and 
| 08 t — is here called. It is a most beautiful little specimen 
of middle-pointed, with high-pitched roof and traceried 
-window. A picturesque stone-arched covered exterior 
.staircase, the banister cornice of which represents a 
narrow water-trough, with efts chasing each other in 


and out of it, leads to the upper chapel,, wljich was 
in some little confusion at the time of our visit, as it, 
was under restoration ; two or three artists were in the 
lower chapel, painting the images of the saints in the* 
fresh colours the people love. After some searching, 
I found out a figure of a dead Christ, which I was 
curious to see ; because^ before coming to Schwatz, I 
had been told there was one which had been dearly 
prized for centuries by the people ; that once on a time 
there had come night by night a large toad, and had> 
stood before the image, resting on its hinder feet, tha 
two front ones joined as if in token of prayer ; and na 
one durst disturb it, because they said it must be u, 
suffering soul which they saw under its form/ I spok& 
to one of the artists about it, to see if this was the 
right image, and if the legend was still acknowledgedr 
He answered as one who had little sympathy with the; 
mysteries he was employed to delineate ; he evidently 
cared nothing for legends, though willing to paint 
them for money. It was the first time I had met 
with this sort of spirit in the neighbourhood, and was 
not surprised to learn he was not of Tirol, but froiq 
Munich. , 

A door opposite the last named opens into the 
churchyard, filled with the usual black and gold cast^ 
iron crosses, and the usual sprinkling of some of a, 
brighter colour ; each with its stoup of holy water and 
weihwedd, 1 and its simple epitaph, 'Hier ruhet in 

1 Brush for sprinkling holy-water. 


Friede ' Besides the large crucifix, which always 

stands in the centre promising redemption to the faith- 
ful departed, is a stout round pillar of large rough 
stones, surmounted by a lantern cap with five sharp 
points, each face glazed, and a lamp within before some 
relic, always kept alight, for the people think 1 that the 
holy souls come and anoint their burning wounds with 
the oil which piously feeds a churchyard lamp. Twinkling 
fitfully amid the evening shadows* over the graves, and 
over the human skulls and bones, of which there hap- 
pened fortuitously to be a heap waiting re-sepulture 
after some late arrangement of the burying-ground, it 
disposed one to listen to the strange tales which are 
told of it. There was once a Robler of Schwatz, well- 
limbed, deep-chested, full of confidence and energy, 
who had won the right to wear the champion feather * 
Against the whole neighbourhood. But not content to 
be the darling of his home, and the pride of his valley, 
he must needs prove himself the best against all comers. 
In fear of the shame of a reverse after all his boasts, he 
resolved to ensure himself against one, by having re- 
course to an act, originally designed probably as a test 
of possessing, but commonly believed by the people to 
be a means of winning, invincible strength of nerve, 
and which is described in the following narrative. 
Opportunity was not lacking. Death is ever busy, 
and one day laid low an old gossip, who was duly buried 

1 See note to p. 140. 
* See p. 95* 


with all honour by her children and children's children 
to the third generation. Now was thfe time for our 
brave Robler. That first night that she rested in the 
* field of peace,' he rose in the dead of the night — a dark 
starless night, just as it was when we stood there — and 
the lamp of the shrine resting its calm pale rays upon 
the graves. The great clock struck out twelve, with a 
rattling of its cumbersome machinery, which sounded 
like skeletons walking by in procession; our Robler 
quailed not, however, but approached the new grave, 
scattered the earth from over it with his spade, raised 
up the coffin, opened it, took out the corpse, dressed 
himself in its shroud, and lifted the ghastly burden on 
to his strong shoulders. Never had burden felt so 
heavy; it seemed to him as though he bore the Freunds- 
berg on his back ; though sinking and quailing, he 
bore it three times round the whole circuit of the 
enclosure, laid it back in the coffin, and lowered the 
coffin into the grave ; triumphantly he showered 
the earth over it, and took quite a pleasure in shaping 
the hillock smoothly and well. Then suddenly, to his 
horror, with a click like the gripe of a skeleton, he 
heard the clapper of the old clock raised to mark the 
completion of the hour within which his task, to be 
effectual, must be accomplished. Meantime, it had 
come on to rain violently, and the big drops pattered 
on the stones, like dead men tramping all around him ; 
it happened to fall heavily round us, and the simile 
was so striking, I could not forbear a grim smile. It 


seemed to him' as if he never could dash through their 
midst in time ; still he made the attempt boldly, and 
actually succeeded in swinging himself over the church- 
yard wall before the hammer had fallen, and, what was 
most important, still bearing round his shoulders the 
shroud of the dead. Nevertheless his heart was full of 
anxiety with the thought that he had disturbed the 
peace of the departed ; it seemed to him as if the old 
gossip had run after him to claim her own, and with 
her burning hand had seized the fluttering garment, 
and torn a piece out of it, just as he cleared the wall. 
For days after, the sexton saw the piece, torn and 
burnt, fluttering over her grave, but never could make 
out how it got there. The Itobler, however, was now 
proof against every attack ; no one could wear a feather 
in his presence, for he was sure to overcome him, and 
make him renounce the prize. What did he gain, 
however, by his uncannily-earned prowess? A little 
temporary renown and honour, and the fear of his kind; 
but all through the rest of his life, at the Wandkung 1 
of the Holy Mass, the pure white wafer, as the priest 
raised it aloft, seemed black to his eyes, and when he 
came to die, there was no father-confessor near to 
whisper absolution and peace. 

A most singular legend, also attached to this spoty 
dates from the time when the Jesuit Fathers held 
their missions after the expulsion of the Lutherans.- 

1 See note top. 48. .; 


With the fervour of new conversion, the people ascribed 
to their word the most wonderful powers ; and their 
simple unwavering faith seems to have been a loan of 
that which removes mountains/ Among those whom a 
spirit of penance moved to come and make a general 
confession of their past lives was a lady no longer 
young, of blameless character, but unmarried. The: 
fathers, as I have already implied, enjoyed the most 
unbounded confidence of the people ; and the most 
unusual penance was accepted in the simplest way. To 
this person the penance enjoined was, that she should 
for three nights watch through the hour of midnight 
in the church, and then come and give an account of 
what she had seen. Being apparently a person of a 
strong mind, she was satisfied with the assurance of the 
father that no harm would happen to her, and she ful- 
filled her task bravely. When she came to narrate 
what had passed, she said that each night the church 
had been traversed by a countless train of men, women, 
and children, of every age and degree, dressed in a 
manner unlike anything she had seen or read of in the 
past ; the features of all quite unknown to her, and yet 
exhibiting a certain likeness, which might lead her to 
believe they might be of her own family, and all wearing 
an expression indescribably sad ; she was all anxiety to 
kuow what she could do for their relief, for she felt sure 
it was to move her to this that they had been revealed to 
her. : The father told her, however, this was not at all 
the object of the vision : that the train of people she 


had seen was an appearance of the generations of 
unborn souls, who might have lived to the eternal 
honour and praise of God if she had not preferred her 
ease and freedom and independence to the trammels 
of the married state ; * for,' said he, 4 your choice of con- 
dition was based on this, not on the higher love of God, 
and the desire of greater perfection. Now, therefore, 
reflect what profit your past life has borne to the glory 
of God, and strive to make it glorify Him in some way 
in the future.' 

The Franciscan church was built about the same 
time as the other, and has some remains of the beautiful 
architecture of its date. Over the credence table is a 
remarkable and very early painting on panel, of the 
genealogy of our Lord. Within the precincts of the 
monastery are some early frescoes, which I did not see ; 
but they ought not to be overlooked. One subject, 
said to be very boldly and strikingly handled, is the 
commission to the Apostles to go out and preach the 
Gospel to the nations. 

The day was wearing on, and we had our night's 
lodging to provide ; the inn: where we had breakfasted 
did not invite our confidence, despite of the pretty 
Kranach's Madonna which smiled over the parlour, and 
the good-natured maid who deemed it her business to 
wait behind our chairs while we sipped our coffee ; so 
we walked down the long street, and tried our luck at 
one and another. There were plenty of them : and 
they were easily recognized now we knew their token, 


for each has a forbidden-fruit-tree painted on the wall 
with some subject out of the New Testament surmount- 
ing it, to show the triumph of the Gospel over the Fall; 
while the good gifts of Providence, which mine host 
within is so ready to dispense, are typified by festoons 
of grape-vines, surrounding the picture. Those which 
let out horses have also a team cut out in a thin plate 
of copper, and painted proper, as heralds say, fixed at 
right angles to the doorpost. Nevertheless, the inte- 
riors were not inviting, and at more than one the 
bedding was all on the roof, airing ; and the solitary 
maid, left in charge of the house while all the rest of 
the household were in the fields harvesting, declared 
the impossibility of getting so many beds as we wanted 
ready by the evening. Dinner at the Post having 
somehow indisposed us for it, we at last put up at the 
Krone, which was very much like a counterpart of our 
first experience. Nothing could exceed the pleasant 
willingness of the people of the house ; but both their 
accommodation and their cleanliness was limited ; and 
besides a repulsive look, there was an unaccountable 
odour, about the beds, which made sleeping in them 
impossible. My astonishment may be imagined, when 
on proceeding to examine whether there were any articles 
of bedding that would do to roll oneself up in on the 
floor, I found that the smell proceeded from layers of 
apples between the mattresses, which it seems to be the 
habit thus to preserve for winter use ! 

The rooms were large and rambling, and filled with 


Cumbersome furniture, Setae of which must, I think, 
have been made before the great fire of 1809* As in 
all the other houses, a guitar hung on the wall of the' 
sitting-room ; and after many coy refusals, the daughter 
of the house consented to sing to it one or two melodies 
very modestly and well. 

You do not sleep very soundly on the floor, and by. 
six next morning the tingling of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment bell sufficed to rouse me in time to see how the: 
Schwatzers honour 6 das hochwurdigste Out, 91 as it 
passed them on its way to the sick. Two little boys in 
red cassocks went first, bearing red banners and holy- 
water ; two followed in red and yellow, bearing a canopy 
over the priest, and four men carried lanterns on long- 
poles. The rain of the previous night had filled the 
road with puddles, but along the whole way the pea-; 
sants were on their knees. To all who are afflicted 
with long illnesses, it is thus carried at least every month. 

The morning was bright and hot, but the ruined 
castle on the neighbouring Freundsberg looked tempt- 
ingly near; and we easily found a rough but not 
difficult path, past a number of crazy cottages, the 
inhabitants of which, however poor and hard worked* 
yet gave us the cheerful Christian greeting, c Grelobt 
sei Jesus Ghristus ! ' as we passed. Near the summit 
the cottages cease ; and after a short stretch in the 

1 ' The most precious good/ or 'possession;' a Tirolean expression 
for the Blessed Sacrament. 


burning sun, you appreciate the shade afforded by a 
tiny chapel, at the side of a crystal spring, welling up 
out of the ground, its waters cleverly guided into a 
conduit, formed of a hollowed tree, which supplies all 
the houses of the hill-side, and perhaps accounts for 
their being so thickly clustered there. The last wind 
of the ascent is the steepest and most slippery* The 
sun beat down relentlessly, but seemed to give unfail- 
ing delight to myriads of lizards, adders, and grass- 
hoppers, who were darting and whirring over the 
crumbling stones in the maddest way. Historians, 
poets, or painters, have made some ruins so familiarly 
a part of the world's life, and their grand memories of 
departed glories have been so often recounted, that 
they seem stereotyped upon them. Time has shattered 
and dismantled them, but has robbed them of nothing, 
for their glories of all ages are concrete around them 
still. But poor Freundsberg ! who thinks 'of it ? or of 
the thousand and one ruined castles which mark the 
* sky-line' of Tirol with melancholy beauty? Each 
has, however, had its throb of hope and daring, and its 
day of triumph and mastery, often noble, sometimes—. 
not so often as elsewhere — base. Freundsberg is no 
exception. For two hundred years before the Christian 
era it was a fortress, we know : for how long before 
that we know not ; and then again, we know little of 
what befell it, till many hundred years after, in the 
twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries, its lords 


were known as mighty men of war. It reached its 
highest glory under Captain Greorg, son of Ulrich and 
a Swabian heiress whose vast dowry tended to raise the 
lustre of the house. 

Georg von Freundsberg entered the career of anas 
in early youth, and rose to be a general at an age when 
other men are making their premieres armes. At 
four-and-twenty he was reckoned by Charles Quint 
his most efficient leader. Over the Swiss, over the 
Venetians, wherever he led, he was victorious. The 
victory at Pavia was in great measure due to his 
prowess. His personal strength is recorded in fabulous 
terms ; his foresight in providing for his men, and his 
art of governing and attaching them, were so remark- 
able, that they called him their father, and he could 
do with them whatever he would. They recorded his 
deeds in the terms in which men speak of a hero: 
they said that the strongest man might stand up 
against him with all his energy, and yet with the little 
finger of his left hand he could throw him down ; that 
no matter at what fiery pace a horse might be running 
away, if he but stretched his hand across the path he 
brought it to a stand ; that in all the Emperor's stores 
there was no field-piece so heavy but he could move it 
with ease with one hand. They sang of him : 

Georg yon Freundsberg, 
von grosser Sterk, 
ein theurer Held ; 
behielt das Fejd 


in Streit nnd Krieg. 

den Feind niederslieg 

in aller Schlacht. 

er legt Got zu die Er nnd Macht.' 1 

The last line would show that to a certain extent he 
was not untrue to the traditions of his country ; never- 
theless, his success in war, and his love for the Emperor, 
carried him so far away from them, that when the siege 
of Some was propounded, he not only accepted a com- 
mand in the attack on the ' Eternal City,' but raised 
twelve thousand men in his Swabian and Tirolean pos~ 
sessions to support the charge, None who have pon- 
dered the havoc and the horrors of that wanton and 
sacrilegious siege will care to extenuate the guilt of 
any participator in it. It is the blot on Greorg von 
Freundsberg's character, and it was likewise his last 
feat. He died suddenly within the twelvemonth, aged 
only fifty-two, leaving his affairs in inextricable con- 
fusion, and his estate encumbered with debts incurred 
in raising the trQops who were to assist in the desola- 
tion of the < Holy City.' 

His brothers — Ulrich, Bishpp of Trent, and Thomas, 
who like himself followed the military calling — earned 
a certain share of respect also ; but no subsequent 
member of the family was distinguished, and the race 
came to an end in 1580* The castle fell into ruin ; and 

1 George of Freundsberg ; a man of great strength ; a worthy hero ; 
master of the field in combat and war ; in every battle the enemy fell 
before him. The honour and power he ascribed to God* 


as if a curse rested on it, when it was used again, 
it was to afford cover to the Bavarians in firing 
upon the people in 1809! I do not know by what 
local tradition, but some motive of affection still renders 
the chapel a place of pious resort ; and a copy of 
Kranach's * Mariahilf ' adorns the altar. The remaining- 
tower affords a pleasing outline. 

I returned to the chapel by the brook, and sat 
Sown to sketch it, though rather too closely placed 
under it to view it properly ; there is always an inde- 
finable satisfaction in making use of these places of 
pious rest, which brotherly charity has provided for the 
unknown wayfarer. When, after a time, I looked up 
from my paper, I saw sitting outside in the sun a 
strange old woman, the stealthy approach of whose 
shoeless feet I had not noticed. I advised her to come 
in and rest; and then I asked her how she came to 
walk unshod over the stones of the path, which were 
sharp and loose, as well as burning hot, while she 
carried a pair of stout shoes in her hand. < That doesn't 
hurt,' she replied indignantly; 'it's the shoes that 
hurt. When you put your foot down you know where 
you put it, and you take hold of the ground ; but when 
you have those things on, you don't know where your 
foot goes, and down you go yourself. That's what 
happened to me on this very path, and see what came 
of it.* And she bared her right arm, and showed that 
it had been broken, and badly set, and now was 
withered and useless — she could do no more work to 



support herself. I asked her how she lived, and she 
did not like the question, for begging, it seems, is for- . 
bidden. But I said it was a very hard law, and then 
she grew more confidential; and after a little more 
talk, her wild weird style, and her strong desire to tell 
my fortune, showed me she was one of those dangerous 
devotees who may be considered the camp-followers of 
the Christian army, whose chance of ingratiating them- 
selves seems greatest where the faith is brightest, and 
who there work all manner of mischief, overlaying 
simple belief with pagan superstition ; but at the same 
time, such an one is generally a very mine for the com- 
parative mythologist, and in this individual instance 
not without some excuse in her misfortunes. For, 
besides the unlucky disablement already named, she 
had lost not only her house, home, and belongings, but 
all her relations also, in a fire. It is not surprising if 
so much misery had unhinged her mind. Her best 
means of occupation seemed to be, when good people 
gave her alms, to go to a favourite shrine, and pray for 
them ; and I fully believe, from her manner, that she 
conscientiously fulfilled such commissions, for I did not 
discover anything of the hypocrite about her.. Only 
once, when I had been explaining what a long way I 
had come on purpose to see the shrines of her country, 
she amused me by answering, in the most inflated style, 
that however far it might be, it could not be so far as 
she had come — she came from beyond mountains and 
seas, far, far, ever so far — till I looked at her again, 


and wondered if she were a gipsy, and was appro- 
priating to her personal experience some of the 
traditional wanderings of her race. Presently she ac- 
knowledged that # her birth-place was Seefeld, which I 
knew to be at no great distance from Innsbruck, per- 
haps ten miles from where we stood. Yet this tone of 
exaggeration may have arisen from an incapacity to 
take in the idea of a greater distance than she knew of 
previously, rather than from any intention to deceive ; 
and her ' seas ' were of course lakes, which when spoken 
of in the German plural have not even the gender to 
distinguish them. 

When she had once mentioned Seefeld, she grew 
quite excited, and told me no place I had come from 
could boast of such a marvellous favour as God had 
manifested to her Seefeld. I asked her to tell me 
about it. 'What! don't you know about Oswald 
Milser ? ' and I saw my want of recognition consigned 
me to the regions of her profoundest contempt. 6 Don't 
you know about Oswald Milser, who by his pride 
quenched all the benefit of his piety and his liberality 
to the Church ? who, when he went to make his Easter 
Communion one grune DonTierstag, 1 insisted that it 
should be given him in one of the large Hosts, which 
the priest uses, and so distinguish him from the 
people. And when the priest, afraid to offend the 
great man, complied, how the weight bore him down, 

1 Maundy Thursday. 



down into the earth ; ' and she described a circle with 
her finger on the ground, and bowed herself together 
to represent the action ; ' and he clung to the altar 
steps, but they gave way like wax ; and he sank lower 
and lower, 1 till he called to the priest to take the fear- 
ful Host back from him.' 'And what became of 
him ? ' I asked. c He went into the monastery of 
Stamms, and lived a life of penance. But his lady 
was worse than he: when they told her what had 
taken place, she swore she would not believe it ; " As 
well might you tell me," she said, and stamped her 
foot, " that that withered stalk could produce a rose ; " 
and even as she spoke, three sweet roses burst forth 
from the dry branch, which had been dead all the 
winter. Then the proud lady, refusing to yield to the 
prodigy, rushed out of the house raving mad, and was 
never seen there again; but by night you may yet 
hear her wailing over the mountains, for there is no 
rest for her.' Her declamation and action accompanying 
every detail was consummate. 

I asked her if she knew no such stories of the 
neighbourhood of Schwatz. She thought for a moment, 
and then assuming her excited manner once more, she 
pointed to a neighbouring eminence. ' There was a 
bird-catcher,' she said, 'who used to go out on the 
Ooaslahn there, following his birds ; but he was quite 

1 Stober Sagen des EUassea records a legend of a similar judgment 
befalling a man who, in fury at a long drought, shot off three arrows 
against heaven. 

o 2 


mad about his sport, and could not let it alone, feast 
day or working day. One Sunday came, and he could 
not wait to hear the holy Mass. " I'll go out for an 
hour or two," he said ; " there'll be time for that yet." 
So he went wandering through the woods, following 
his sport, and the hours flew away as fast as the birds ; 
hour by hour the church bell rang, but he always said 
to himself he should be in time to catch the Mass of 
the next hour. The nine o'clock Mass was past, and 
the clock had warned him that it was a quarter to ten, 
and he had little more than time to reach the last 
Mass of the day. Just as he was hesitating to paek up 
his tackle, a beautiful bird, such as he had never seen 
before, with a gay red head, came hopping close to his 
decoy birds. It was not to be resisted. The bird- 
catcher could not take his eye off the bird. " Dong ! " 
went the bell ; hop ! went the bird. Which should he 
follow? The bird was so verify near the lime now; 
there must be time to secure him, and yet reach the 
church, at least before the Gospel. , At last, the final 
stroke of the bell sounded ; and at the same instant 
the beautiful bird hopped on to the snare. Who could 
throw away so fair a chance ? Then the glorious 
plumage must be carefully cleansed of the bird-lime, 
which had assisted the capture, and the prize secured, 
and carefully stowed away at home. It would be too 
late for Mass then ; and the bird-catcher felt the full 
reproach of the course he was tempted to pursue, 
nevertheless he could not resist it. On he went, home- 


wards ; now full of buoyant joy over his luck, now cast 
down with shame and sorrow over his neglected duty. 
He had thus proceeded a good part of his way, before 
he perceived that his burden was getting heavier and 
heavier; at last he could hardly get along under it. 
So he set it down, and began to examine into the 
cause. He found that the strange bird had swelled 
out so big, that it was near bursting the bars of its 
cage, while from its wings issued furious sulphurous 
fumes. Then he saw how he had been deceived ; that 
the delusive form had been sent by the Evil One, to 
induce him to disobey the command of the Church. 
Without hesitation he flung the cursed thing from 
him, and watched it, by its trail of lurid flame, rolling 
down the side of the Gbaslahn. But never, from that 
day forward, did he again venture to ply his trade on a 
holy day. 

4 Such things had happened to others also,' she said. 
'Hunters had been similarly led astray after strange 
chamois ; for the power of evil had many a snare for 
the weak. Birds too, though we deemed them so 
pretty and innocent, were, more often than we thought, 
the instruments of malice.' And it struck me as she 
spoke, that there were more crabbed stories of evil 
boding in her repertory than gentle and holy ones. 
4 There is the swallow,' she instanced : ' why do swallows 
always hover over nasty dirty marshy places ? Don't 
you know that when the Saviour was hanging on the 
Cross, and the earth trembled, and the sun grew dark 


with horror, and all the beasts of the field went and 
hid themselves for shame, only the frivolous 1 swallows 
flitted about under the very shadow of the holy rood, 
and twittered their love songs as on any ordinary day. 
Then the Saviour turned His head and reproached- the 
thoughtless birds ; and mark my words, never will you 
see a swallow perched upon anything green and fresh/ 

I was sorry to part from her and her legendary 
store ; but I was already due at the station, to meet 
friends by the train. She took my alms with glee, and 
then pursued her upward way barefooted, to make some 
promised orisons at the Freundsberg shrine. 

It was a glowing afternoon ; and after crossing the 
unshaded bridge and meadows, to and from the railway, 
I was glad to stop and rest in a little church which 
stood open, near the river. It was a plain whitewashed 
edifice, ornamented with more devotion than taste. 
When I turned to come away, I found that the west 
wall was perforated with a screen of open iron-work, on 
the other side of which was an airy hospital ward. 
The patients could by this means beguile their weary 
hours with thoughts congenial to them suggested 
by the Tabernacle and the Crucifix. A curtain hung 
by the side, which could be drawn across the screen 
at pleasure. There were not more than four or 
five patients in the ward at the time, and in most in- 
stances decay of nature was the cause of disease. 
There is not much illness at Schwatz ; but admittance 

1 Leichtsinnig. 


to the simple accommodation of the hospital is easily 
conceded. Schwatz formerly had two, but the larger 
was burnt down in 1809. The remaining one seems 
amply sufficient for the needs of the place. 

There was 'Benediction ' in the church in theevening, 
for it was, I forget what, saint's day. The church was 
very full, and the people said the Eosary in common 
before the Office began. A great number of the girls 
from the tobacca factory came in as they left work, and 
the singing was unusually sweet, which surprised me, 
as the Schwatzers are noted for their nasal twang and 
drawling accent in speaking. I learnt that there are 
several Italians from WJalsch-Tirol settled here, and 
they lead the choir. It is edifying to see the work- 
people, after their day's toil, coming into the church as 
if it was more familiar to them even than home ; but 
one does not get used to seeing the uncovered heads of 
the women, though indeed with the rich and luxuriant 
braids of hair with which. , Nature endows them, they 
might be deemed 6 covered ! e^^ugh. 

A more familiar sight to a» English eye is the seat- 
filled area of the German churches. Confessedly it is 
one of the home associations which one least cares to 
see reproduced, but the pews of the German churches 
are less objectionable than our own ; they are lower, 
and not so crowded, and ample space is always left for 
processions, so they interfere far less with the architec- 
tural, design*. 





4 Par tout oil touche votre regard vous rencontrez aufond sous la forme 
qui passe, un mysthre qui demeure . . . chacun des mystbres de ce rnonde 
est la figure, V linage de celui du monde super ieur ; de sorte que tout ce que 
nous pouvons connaitre dans Vordre de la nature est la revelation meme 
de Vordre divin.' — Cheve, Visions de VAvenir. 

Falkenstein, which may be reached by a short walk 
from Schwatz, is worth visiting on account of the in- 
formation it affords as to the mode of working adopted 
in the old mines both of silver and copper. This was 
the locality where the greatest quantity of silver was 
got ;- it was particularly noted also for the abundance 
and beauty of the malachite, found in great variety 
and richness of tints ; the turquoise was found also, 
but more rarely. The old shaft runs first hori- 
zontally for some two miles, and then sinks in two 
shafts to a depth of some two hundred and thirty 
fathoms. The engineering and hydraulic works seem 
to have been very ingenious, but the description of 
them does not come within the sphere of my present 
undertaking. It does, however, to observe that over this, 
as over everything else in Tirol, religion shed its halo. 




The miners had ejaculatory prayers, which it was their 
custom to utter as they passed in and out of their place 
of subterranean toil; and an appropriate petition for 
every danger, whether from fire-damp, land-slips, defec- 
tive machinery, or other cause. Their greeting to each 
other, and to those they met by the way, in place of 
the national 4 Gelobt sei Jesus Christus,' was 4 Gott 
gebe euch Gliick und Segen I' 1 ' For their particular 
patron they selected the Prophet Daniel, whose preser- 
vation in the rocky den of the lions, as they had seen it 
portrayed, seemed to bear some analogy with their own • 
condition. Of their liberality in church-building I 
have already spoken ; but many are the churches and 
chapels that bear the token — a crossed chisel and ham- 
mer on a red field — of their contribution to its expense. 
There are many other walks to be made from Schwatz* 
First there is Buck, so called from the number of beech- 
trees in the neighbourhood, which afford pleasant shade, 
and diversify the scenery, in which the oastle of Tratz- 
berg across the Inn 2 also holds an important part. 
Further on is Margareth, surrounded by rich pastures, 
which are watered by the foaming Margarethenbach. 
Then to the south-east is Galzein, with a number of ' 
dependent ' groups of houses,' particularly Kugelmoos, 
the view from which sweeps the Inn from Kufstein to 
Innbruck. Beyond, again, but further south, is the 
Schwaderalpe, whence the iron worked and taken in 

1 God prosper and bless you J a Supra, pp. 80-2. 


depot at Schwatz is got ; and the Kellerspitze, with the 
little village of Troi, its twelve houses perched as if by 
supernatural handiwork on the spur of a rock, and 
once nearly as prolific as Falkenstein in its yield of 
silver. The exhausted — deaf (tcmb) as it i& expres- 
sively qualified in German — borings of S. Anthony 
and S. Blaze are still sometimes explored by pedes- 

Arzburg also is within an hour's walk. It was once 
rich in copper ore, but is now comparatively little 
worked. Above it is the HeiligenkrenzkapeUe, about 
which it is told, that when, on occasion of the baierische- 
Rumpel * in 1703, the bridge of Zirl was destroyed, 
the cross which surmounted it being carried away by 
the current, was here rescued and set up by the country- 
people, who still honour it by frequent pilgrimages. 

Starting again from Schwatz by th& high-road, 
which follows pretty nearly the course of the Inn, you 
pass a succession of small towns, each of which heads 
a valley, to which it gives its name, receiving it first 
from the tojrent which through each pours the aggre- 
gate of the mountain streams into the river, all affording 
a foot-way through the Duxerthal into the- further ex- 
tremity of the Zillerthal — Pill, Weer, Kolsass, Wattens, 
and Volders. 

First, there is Pill, a frequent name in Tirol, and de- 
rived by Weber from Buhl or Bucld, a knoll ; it is the 
wildest and most enclosed of any of these lateral valleys, 

1 Rout of the Bavarians. 


and exposed to the ravages of the torrent, which often 
in winter carries away both bridges and paths, and 
makes its recesses inaccessible even to the hardy herds- 
men. The following story may serve to show how 
hardy they are : — Three sons of a peasant, whose wealth 
consisted in his grazing rights over a certain tract of 
the neighbouring slopes, were engaged one day in 
gathering herbage along the steep bank for the kids of 
their father's flock. The steep must have been difficult 
indeed on which they were afraid to trust mountain 
kids to cater for themselves ; and the youngest of the 
boys was but six, the eldest only fifteen. The eldest 
lost his balance, and was precipitated into the roaring 
torrent, just then swollen to unusual proportions ; he 
managed to cling fast behind one of the rocky projections 
which mark its bed, but his strength was utterly 
unable to bear him out of the stream. The second 
brother, aged ten, without hesitating, embraced the 
risk of almost certain death, let himself down the side 
of the precipice by olinging to the scanty roots which 
garnished its almost perpendicular side. Arrived at the 
bottom, he sprang with the lightness of a chamois across 
the foaming waters on to the rock where the boy was 
now slackening his exhausted hold, and succeeded in 
dragging him up on to the surface ; but even there there 
seemed no chance of help, far out of sound as they were 
of all human ears. But the youngest, meantime, with 
a thoughtfulness beyond his years, had made his way 
home alone, and apprised the father, who readily found 
the means of rescuing his offspring. 


The break into the Weerthal is at some little distance 
from the high road ; its church, situated on a little high- 
level plain, is surrounded with fir-trees. A little lake is 
pointed out, of which a similar legend is told to ' the 
judgment of Achensee,' which is indeed one not infre- 
quently met with ; it is said that it covers a spot where 
stood a mighty castle, once submerged for the haughti- 
ness of its inhabitants, and the waters placed there that 
no one might again build on the site for ever. The 
greatest ornament of the valley is the rambling ruin of 
Schloss Eettenberg, on its woody height, once a fortress 
of the Eottenburgers ; afterwards it passed to Florian 
Waldauf, whose history I have already given when 
speaking of Hall. 1 It was bought by the commune in 
1810, and the present church built up out of the 
materials it afforded, the former church having been 
burnt down that year. The old site and its remains 
are looked upon by the people as haunted by a steward 
of the castle and his wife, who in the days of its 
prosperity dealt hardly with the widow and the orphan, 
and must now wander sighing and breathing death on 
all who come within their baleful influence. A shepherd 
once fell asleep in the noontide heat, while his sheep 
were browsing on the grass-grown eminence. When he 
woke, they were no longer in sight ; at last he found 
them dead within the castle keep. c Guard thy flock 
better,' shouted a hoarse voice, * for this enclosure is 

1 See pp. 151-2. 


mine, and none who come hither escape me.' None 
ventured within the precincts after this ; but many a 
time those who were bold enough to peep through a 
fissure in the crazy walls reported that they had seen 
the hard-hearted steward as a pale, weary, grey-bearded 
man, sit sighing on the crumbling stones. 

The Kolsassthal merges into the Weerthal and is 

hardly distinguished from it, and affords a sort of 

counterpart, though on more broken ground, to the 

Gnadenwald on the opposite side of the river. It is from 

this abundance of shady woods that its name is 

derived, through the old German hwl, cool, and sazz, 

a settlement. In the church, the altar-piece of the 

Assumption is by Zoller. The church of Wattens has 

an altar-piece by a more esteemed Tirolean artist, 

Schopf ; it represents S. Laurence, to whom the church 

is dedicated. The many forges busily at work making 

implements of agriculture, nails, &c, keep you well 

aware of the thrift and industry of the place; its 

prosperity is further supported by a paper manufactory, 

which has always remained in the hands of the family 

which started it in 1559, and supplies the greater part 

of Tirol. A self-taught villager, Joseph Schwaighofer, 

enjoyed some reputation here a few years ago as a 

guitar maker. The Wattenserthal, like the Kolsassthal, 

is also very woody, and contains some little settlements 

of charcoal-burners ; but it is also diversified by a great 

many fertile glades, which are diligently sought out for 

pasture. At Walchen, where a few shepherds' huts are 


clustered at the confluence of two mountain streams, 
the valley is broken into two branches — one, Mols, 
running nearly due south into the Navisthal, by paths 
increasing in difficulty as you proceed; the other, 
Lizumthal, by the south-east to Hinterdux, passing at 
the Innerlahn the so-called 6 Blue Lake,' of considerable 
depth. 1 

Following the road again, Volders is reached at 
about a mile from Wattens. As at the latter place, 
your ears are liberally greeted with the sounds of the 
smithy. Volders has quite a celebrity for its production 
of scythes ; some ten or twelve thousand are said to be 
exported annually. The Post Inn affords tolerable 
quarters for a night or two while exploring the neigh- 

The prolific pencil of Schopf has provided the church 
with an altar-piece of the Holy Family ; though an 
ancient foundation, it does not present any object of 
special interest. 

The Voldererthal runs beneath some peaks dear tp 
Alpine climbers, the Grafmarterspitz, the GHunggeser, 
the Kreuzjoch, and the Pfunerjoch. Its entrance is 
commanded by the castles of Hanzenheim, sometimes 
called Starkelberg, from having belonged to a family of 
that name, and used as a hospital during the campaign 

1 Grimm (Deutsche Sagen, No. 492) gives an interesting legend of 
the Hasslacherbrunnlein (half way between Kolsass and Wattens) and of 
the resistance offered by the inhabitants of Tirol to the Roman inva- 
sion of their country. 


of 1809 ; and Friedberg, which is still inhabited, having 
been carefully restored by the present owner, Count 
Albert von Cristalnigg. It was originally built in the 
ninth or tenth century, as a tower to guard the bridge ; 
it gave its name to a powerful family, who are often 
mentioned in the history of TiroL At the end of the 
thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth centuries, it 
was one of the castles annexed by Friedrich rait der 
leeren Tasche. It contains also the Voldererbad, a 
mineral spring, which is much visited, but more con- 
veniently reached by way of Windegg than through the 
valley itself. 

In the Voldererwald is a group of houses, Aschbach 
by name, which belongs ecclesiastically to the parish of 
Mils, on the opposite side ; and the following story is 
given to account for the anomaly : — At the time when 
the territory of Volders belonged parochially to Kolsass 
(it must have been before the year 1630, as it was that 
year formed into an independent parish), the neigh- 
bourhood was once ravaged by the plague. A farmer 
of Aschbach being stricken by it, sent to beg the 
spiritual assistance of the priest of Kolsass. The priest 
attended to the summons ; but when he reached the 
threshold of the infected dwelling, and saw what a 
pitiable sight the sick man presented, his fears got the 
better of his resolution, and he could not prevail on 
himself to enter the room. Not to leave his penitent 
entirely without comfort, however, he exhorted him to 
repentance, heard his confession,, and absolved him from 


where he stood ; and then uncovering the sacred Host, 
bid him gaze on it in a spirit of faith, and assured him 
he should thereby receive all the benefit of actual 
Communion. The visit thus completed, he hurried 
back to Kolsass in all speed. Meantime the sick man, 
not satisfied with the office thus performed, sent for the 
priest of Mils, who, supported by apostolic charity, 
approached him without hesitation, and administered 
the sacred mysteries. Contrary to all expectation, the 
farmer recovered, resumed his usual labours, and in due 
course garnered his harvest. In due course also came 
round the season for paying his tithe. With commend- 
able punctuality the farmer loaded his waggon with the 
sacred tribute, and started alacritously on the way to 
Kolsass. Any one who watched him might have ob- 
served a twinkle of his eye, which portended some 
unusual denouement to the yearly journey. As he ap- 
proached Kolsass the twinkle kindled more humorously, 
and the oxen felt the goad applied more vigorously. 
The pastor of Kolsass turned out to see the waggon 
approaching at the unusual pace, and was already 
counting the tempting sheaves of golden corn. To his 
surprise, however, his frolicsome parishioner wheeled 
round his team before he brought it to a stand, and 
then cried aloud, ' Graze, Father ! yes, gaze in faith on 
the goodly sight, and believe me, your faith shall stand 
you in stead of the actual fruition ! ' With that he drove 
his waggon at the same pace at which he had come, 
straight off to the pastor of Mils, at whose worthy feet 
he laid the tithe. And this act of * poetical justice ' was 


ratified by ecclesiastical authority as a censure on the 
pusillanimity of the priest of Kolsass, by the transfer of 
the tithing of Aschbach to the parish of Mils. I have 
met a counterpart of this story both in England and in 
Spain ; so true is it, as Carlyle has prettily said, that 
though many traditions have but one root they grow, 
like the banyan, into a whole overarching labyrinth. 

The stately Servitm-klo8ter outside Volders suggests 
another adaptation of this metaphor. From the root of 
one saint's maxims and example, what an ' over-arching 
labyrinth ' of good works will grow up and spread over 
and adorn the face of the earth, even in the most 
distant parts. In the year 1590 there was born at 
Trent a boy named Hyppolitus Guarinoni, who was 
destined to graft upon Tirol the singular virtues of St. 
Charles Borromeo. Attached early to the household of 
the saintly Archbishop of Milan, Ghiarinoni grew up to 
embody in action his spirit of devotion and charity. By 
St. Charles's advice and assistance he followed the study 
of medicine, and took his degree in his twenty-fifth 
year. Shortly after, he was appointed physician in 
ordinary to the then ruler of Tirol, Archduke Ferdinand 
II. His fervent piety marked him as specially fit to be 
further entrusted with the sanitary care of the convent 
founded some years before by the Princesses Magdalen, 
Margaret, and Helena, Ferdinand's sisters, at Hall, and 
called the Konigliche Damenstift. 1 All the time that 

1 The suppression of this and several other convents, in 1783, was 
a measure sufficiently unpopular to almost neutralize the popularity 




was left free by these public engagements he spent by 
the bedsides of the poor of the neighbourhood. The care 
of the soul ever accompanied his care for their bodies, 
and many a wanderer owed his reconciliation with 
heaven to his timely exhortations. Just about this 
time the incursions of the new doctrines were making 
themselves felt in this part of Tirol, and some localities, 
which from their remoteness were out of the way of 
regular parochial ministrations, were beginning to listen 
to them. Guarinoni discovered this in the course of his 
charitable labours, for which no outlying Sennerhutte 
was inaccessible. In 1628 he obtained special leave, 
though a layman, from the Bishop of Brixen, to preach 
in localities which had no resident pastor ; he further 
published a little work which he used to distribute 
among the people, designed to show them how many 
corporal infirmities are induced by neglect of the whole- 
some maxims of religion. Besides the restored unity 
of the faith in his country, two other monuments of his 
piety remain : the Church of St. Charles by the bridge 
of Volders, and the Sanctuary of Judenstein. In his 
moments of leisure it was his favourite occupation to 
commit to writing for the instruction of posterity the 
traditional details of the life of St. Nothburga, and of 
the holy child Andreas of Binn, which were at his date 

Joseph II. enjoyed as son of Maria Theresa. The suppression was not, 
however, accompanied by spoliation ; the funds were devoted to provide 
a moderate stipend to a number of women of reduced circumstances be- 
longing to noble families. 

• L 


even more rife in the mouths of the peasantry of the 
neighbourhood than at present. He only died in 1654, 
having devoted himself to these good works for nearly 
half a century. 

The church by which he endeavoured to bring 
under observation and imitation the distinguishing 
qualities of St. Charles, was erected on a spot famous 
in the Middle Ages as a bandit's den ; the building 
occupied thirty-four years, and was consecrated but a 
short time before his death. Baron Karl von Fieger, 
from whom he bought the site, a few years later added 
to it the Servite monastery, which, though it exhibits 
all the vices of the architecture of its date, yet bears 
tokens that its imperfections are not due to any stint 
of means. Its three cupolas and other structural ar- 
rangements are designed in commemoration of the 
Holy Trinity — a mystery which is held in very special 
honour throughout Austria. In the decorations, later 
benefactors have carried on Guarinoni's intention, the 
acts of St. Charles being portrayed in the frescoes, 
completed in 1764, by which Knoller has earned some 
celebrity in the world of art for himself and for the 
church : they display his conversion from the stiffer 
German style of his master, Paul Trogger, to the Italian 
manner. That over the entrance conveys a tradition of 
St. Charles, predicting to Guarinoni, while his page, that 
he would one day erect a church in his honour ; that 
of the larger cupola is an apotheosis of the saint. The 
picture of the high-altar sets forth the saint minister- 



ing to the plague-stricken ; it is Knoller's boldest at- 
tempt at colouring. 

Near the entrance door may be observed a con- 
siderable piece of rock built into the wall, entitled by 
the people 4 Stein des Gehorsams, 1 its history being 
that at the time when the church was building it was 
detached from the rock above by a landslip, and 
threatened the workmen with destruction. Its course 
was arrested at the behest of a pious monk, who was 
overseeing the works. 2 

After passing the Servitenkloster a footpath may 
easily be found which leads to Judenstein and Rinn, the 
seat of one of the much-contested mediaeval beliefs 
accusing the Jews of the sacrifice of Christian children. 
It may be better, in describing this stem of this banyan, 
to visit Rinn the further place first, and take Juden- 
stein on our way back. The country traversed is well 
wooded, and further diversified by the bizarre outlines 
of the steeples of Hall seen across the river, while the 
mighty Grlunggeser-Spitz rises 7,500 feet above you. 
It invites a visit for its amenity and its associations, 
though the relics of the infant Saint ' Anderle' are no 
longer there. His father died, it would seem, while he 
was a child in arms ; his mother earned her living in the 

1 Stone of Obedience. 

2 I have met with another sprout of this banyan at the Monastery of 
the Sacro Speco in the Papal State, where a huge fragment of rock, so 
nicely balanced that it looks as if a breath might send it over the cliff, 
is pointed out as having stood still for centuries at the word of S. Bene- 
•dict, who bid it * non dannegiare % sudditi mm.' 


fields, and while she was absent used to leave her boy 
at Pentzenhof in charge of his godfather, Mayr. One 
day, when he was about three years old — it was the 12th 
July 1462 — she was cutting corn, when suddenly she 
saw three drops of blood upon ner hand without any 
apparent means of accounting for the token, one with 
which many superstitions were connected. 1 Her 
motherly instincts were alarmed, and, without an in- 
stant's consideration, she threw down her sickle and 
hurried home. A little field-chapel to St. Isidor the hus- 
bandman, St. Nothburga, and St. Andrew of Kinn, was 
subsequently built upon this spot. Arrived at Mayr's 
house, the forebodings of her anxious heart were re- 
doubled at not finding her darling playing about as he 
was wont. The faithless godfather, taken by sur- 
prise at her unexpected return, only stammered broken 
excuses in answer to her reiterated inquiries. At last 
he exclaimed, thinking to calm her frenzy, 4 If he is 
not here, here is something better — a hat full of golden 
pieces, which we will share between us.' He took down 
his hat, but to his consternation instead of finding it 
heavy with its golden contents, there was nothing in 
it. but withered leaves ! At this sight he was over- 
come with fear and horror ; his speech forsook him, 
and his senses together, and he ended his days raving 

1 Wolf, Beitrage zur deutschen Mythologie, vol. ii. pp. 17-21. 
Muller, Niedersacksische Sagen, p. 51. Miillenhoff, Sageihder Herzog- 
thumer ScMeswig Holstein u Lanenburg, p. 184. 

# l 


The distracted mother, meantime, pursued her in- 
quiries and perquisitions ; but all she could learn was 
that certain Jews, 1 returning from their harvesting at 
Botzen, had over-tempted Mayr by their offers and 
persuaded him to sell the child to them, but with the 
assurance that he should come to no harm. Little re- 
assured by the announcement, she ran madly into the 
neighbouring birchwood, whither she had learned they 

1 So strong is the prejudice in Tirol against Jews, that it is said to 
be most difficult to find any one who will consent to act the part of 
Judas in the Passion plays. 

There is a very strong personal dislike to Judas throughout Tirol, 
and I have also heard that the custom of burning him in effigy occurs 
in various places. Karl Blind, in the article quoted above, (p. 3,) 
accounts for this custom in the following way : ' After the appearance 
of fermenting matter it was said ' (in what he calls the germanic mytho- 
logy) ' that there rose in course of time — even as in Greek mythology — 
first a half-human, half-divine race of giants, and then a race of Gods ; 
the Gods had to wage war against the giants and finally vanquished 
them. Evidently the giants represent a torpid barren state of things 
in nature, whilst the Gods [signify the sap and fulness of life which 
struggles into distinct and beautiful form. There was a custom among 
the Germanic tribes of celebrating this victory over the uncouth Titans 
by a festival, when a gigantic doll was 'carried round in Guy Fawkes 
manner and at last burnt. To this day there are traces of the heathen 
practice. In some parts of Europe, so-called Judas-fires, which have 
their origin in the burning of the doll which represented the giants or 
jotun. In some places, owing to another perversion of things and 
words, people run about on that fe.te-day shouting * burn the old Jew ! ' 
The jotun was in fact, when Christianity came in, first converted into 
Judas and then into a Jew, a transition to which the similarity of the 
sound of the words easily lent itself.' No doubt jotun sounds very like 
Juden but not all coincidences are consequences, and it is quite possible 
that the old heathen custom had quite died out before that of burning 
Judas in effigy began, as it certainly had before Guy Fawkes began to 
be so treated* The same treatment of Judas' memory occurs, too, in 
Spain on the day before Good Friday. 


had bent their steps, and there came upon the lifeless 
body of her treasure, hanging bloodless and mangled 
from a tree. A large stone near bore traces of having 
been used as a sacrificial stone, and the clothes, which 
had been rudely torn off, lay scattered about ; the many 
wounds of his tender form showed by how cruel a 
martyrdom he had been called to share in the massacre 
of the Innocents. 

His remains were tenderly gathered and laid to 
rest, and his memory held in affection by all the neigh- 
bourhood ; nevertheless, though there were many 
signs of the supernatural connected with the event, it 
did not receive all the veneration it might have been 
expected to call forth. 

About ten years later a similar event occurred at 
Trent, and the remains of the infant S. Simeon were 
treated with so great honour that the people of Einn 
were awakened to an appreciation of the treasure they 
had suffered to lie in their churchyard almost un- 
heeded. 1 The Emperor Maxmilian I. contemplated 
building a church over the spot where the martyrdom 
occured, hence call Judenstein. His intentions were 
frustrated by the knavery of the builder, and only a 
small chapel was built at this time ; and though on occa- 
sion of its consecration the relics of the child martyr 
were carried thither in solemn procession, they were still 
for some time after preserved at Einn. It was Hippolitus 

1 S. Simeon of Trent is commemorated in the Roman Breviary (on 
the 25th March). S. Andreas of Einn has not received this honour. 


Ghiarinoni to whom the honour is due of saving the 
spot from oblivion. The chisel of the Tirolese sculptor 
Nissl has set forth in grotesque design a group of Jews" 
fulfilling their fearful deed. A portrait of Ghiarinoni 
was likewise hung up there. The relics were trans- 
lated thither with due solemnity in 1678. An afflux 
of pilgrims was immediately attracted, and the nu- 
merous tablets which crowd the walls attest the estima- 
tion in which it has been held. Then the people 
began to remember the wonders that had surrounded 
it. The ghost of Godfather Mayr, which for two 
centuries had been frequently met howling through 
the woods, now seemed to have found its rest, for it 
was never more seen or heard. And they recalled how 
a beautiful white lily, with strange letters on its petals, 
had bloomed spontaneously on the holy infant's grave; 1 
that when a wilful boy, Pogler by name, snapped the 
stem while they were still pondering what the unknown 
letters might mean, he had his arm withered; and 
further that for generations after, every Pogler had 
died an untimely or a violent death. How in like 
manner, for seven consecutive winters, the birch-tree, 
on which the innocent child's body was hung by his 
persecutors, put forth fresh green sprouts as if in 

1 Keller, in his Volkslieder, p. 242, gives an analogous legend of a 
poor idiot boy, who lived alone in the forest and was never heard to say 
any words but * Ave Maria.' After his death a lily sprang up on. his 
grave, on whose petals ' Ave Maria ' might he distinctly read. It is a 
not unusal form of legend ; Bagatta, Admiranda orbis Christiani, gives 
fifteen such. 


spring, and how when a thoughtless woodman one day 
hewed it down for a common tree, it happened that he 
met with a terrible accident on his homeward way, 
whereof he died. It may well be imagined that where 
such legends prevailed Jews obtained little favour ; so 
that to the present day it is said there is but few Jew 
families settled among them, though they are numerous 
and influential in other parts of the Austrian dominion. 1 

1 The ballad concerning the analogous English Legend of Hugh of 
Lincoln seems to demand to be remembered here : — 

(showing the cruelty 07 a Jew's daughtee). 

A* the boys of merry Lincoln, 

"Were playing at the ba', 
And up it stands him, sweet Sir Hugh, 

The flower among them a'. 

He kicked the ba' there wi' his feet, 

And keppit it wi' his knee, 
Till even in at the Jew's window, 

He gart the bonny ba' flee. 

( Cast out the ba' to me, fair maid, 

Cast out the ba' tome;' 
' Never a bit/ says the Jew's daughter, 

1 Till ye come up to me.' * 

' Come up, sweet Hugh ! come up, dear Hugh ! 

Come up and get the ba' ; ' 
' I winna come, I minna come, 

"Without my bonny boys a'.' 

She's ta'en her to the Jew's garden, 
Where the grass grew long and green ; 

She's pu'd an apple red and white, 
To wyle the bonny boy in. 


Another memory yet of Hippolitus Guarinoni 
lingers in the neighbourhood. By a path which 
branches off near Judenstein to the left (going from 
Volders and following the stream), the Volderbad is 
reached ; a sulphur spring discovered and brought into 
notice by him, and now much frequented in summer, 

When bells were rung and mass was sung, 

And every bairn went home ; 
Then ilka lady had her young son, 

But Lady Helen had none. 

She row'd her mantle her about, 

And sair, sair, 'gan to weep ; 
And she ran into the Jew's house 

When they were all asleep. 

' The lead is wondrous heavy, mither, 
The well is wondrous deep ; 
A keen penknife sticks in my heart, 
Tis hard for me to speak. ' 

' Gae hame, gae hame, my mither dear, 
Fetch me my winding-sheet ; 
And at the back of merry Lincoln, 
'Tis there we twa shall meet.' 

Now Lady Helen she's gane hame, 
Made him a winding-sheet ; 

And at the back o' merry Lincoln, 
The dead corpse did her meet. 

And a' the bells o' merry Lincoln 
Without men's hands were rung ; 

And a* the books o' merry Lincoln, 
Were read without men's tongue ; 

Never was such a burial 
Since Adam's days begun. 


perhaps as much for its pleasant mountain breezes as 
for the medicinal properties of the waters. 

There is another interesting excursion which should 
be followed before reaching Innsbruck, but it is more 
easily made from Hall than from Volders, though still 
on the right bank of the Inn. The first village on it 
is Ampass, a walk of about four miles from Hall 
through the most charming scenery ; it is so called 
simply as being situated on a pass between the hills 
traversed on the road to Hall. Then you pass the re- 
mains of the former seat of the house of Brandhausen ; 
and following the road cut by Maria Theresa through 
the Wippthal to facilitate the commerce in wine and 
salt between Matrei and Hall, you pass Altrans and 
Lans, having always the green heights of the Pat- 
scherkofl smiling before you, an easy ascent for those 
who desire to practise climbing, from Lans, where the 
Wilder Man affords possible quarters for a night. 1 A 
path branching off from the Mattrei road leads hence 
to Sistrans, a village whose church boasts of having 
been embellished by Claudia de' Medici. Its situation 
is delightful ; the green plain is strewed with fifteen 
towns and villages, including Hall and Innsbruck, and 
behind these rise the great range of alps, while on 
the immediate foreground is the tiny Lanserse which 
will afford excellent Forellen for luncheon. The bed 
of this same Lansersee, it is said, was once covered 

1 There is a carriage-road reaching nearly to the top of the Lan- 


with a flourishing though not extensive forest, its wood 
the only substance of a humble peasant, who had re- 
ceived it from his fathers. A nobleman living near 
took a fancy to the bit of forest ground, but instead of 
offering to purchase it, he endeavoured to set up some 
obsolete claim in a court of law. The judge, afraid 
to offend the powerful lord, decided in his favour. The 
poor man heard the sentence with as much grief at the 
dishonour done to his forefathers' honour as distress at 
his own ruin. 4 There is no help for me on earth, I 
know,' said the poor man. ' I have no money to make 
an appeal. I may not contend in arms with one of 
noble blood. But surely He who sitteth in heaven, 
and who avenged Naboth, will not suffer this injustice. 
As for me, my needs are few ; I refuse not to work ; the 
sweat of my brow will bring me bread enough ; but 
the inheritance of my fathers which I have preserved 
faithfully as I received it from them, shall it pass to 
another? ' and in the bitterness of his soul he wept 
and fell asleep ; but as he slept in peace a mighty 
roaring sound disturbed the slumbers of the unjust 
noble ; it seemed to him in his dream as though the 
foundations of his castle were shattered and the floods 
passing over them. When they awoke in the morning 
the forest was no more to be seen — a clear calm lake 
mirrored the justice of heaven, and registered its 
decree that the trees of the poor man should never 
enrich the store of his unscrupulous neighbour. 


Sistrans was once famous for a champion wrestler 
who had long* carried off the palm from all the country 
round ; but like him of Schwatz, he was not content 
with his great natural strength ; he was always afraid 
a stronger than he might arise and conquer him in 
turn ; and so he determined to put himself beyond the 
reach of another's challenge. To effect this he ar- 
ranged with great seeming devotion to serve the Mass 
on Christmas night; and while the priest's eye was 
averted, laid a second wafer upon the one that he had 
had laid ready. The priest, suspecting nothing, con- 
secrated as usual; and then at the moment of the 
Wandlung^ when the priest was absorbed in the 
solemnity of his act, as he approached to lift the 
chasuble he stealthily abstracted the Host he had sur- 
reptitiously laid on the altar. The precious talisman 
carefully concealed, he bound it on his arm the instant 
Mass was over ; and from that day forth no one could 
stand against him. And not only this, but he had 
power too in a multitude of other ways. Had any- 
one committed a theft, it needed but to consult our 
wrestler ; if he began saying certain words and walking 
solemnly along, immediately, step by step, were he 
far or near, the thief, wherever be was, was bound by 
secret and resistless impulse to tread as he trod, and 
bring back the booty to the place whence he had taken 
it. Was anyone's cattle stricken with sickness, it 
needed but to call our wrestler ; a few words solemnly 




pronounced, and the touch of his potent arm, sufficed 
to restore the beast to perfect health. Moreover, no 
bird could escape his snare, no fox or hare or chamois 
outrun him for swiftness. 

Thus all went well ; he had played a bold stake, and 
had won his game. But at last the time came for him to 
die. Weary of his struggles, and even of his successes, 
our wrestler would fain have laid his head to rest under 
the soft green turf of the field of peace, by the way- 
side of those who pass in to pray, and lulled by the 
sound of the holy bells. But in vain he lay in his bed ; 
death came not. True, there were all his symptoms in 
due force — the glazed eye and palsied tongue and 
wringing agony ; but for all that he could not die. At 
last, the priest, astonished at what he saw, asked him 
if he had not on his conscience some sin weighty above 
the wont, and so moved him to a sense of penance that 
he confessed his impiety with tears of contrition ; f and 
it was not till he had told all, and the priest had re- 
ceived the sacred particle he had misused, that, shriven 
and blessed, his soul could depart in peace. There is 
a spot outside Sistrans called the Todsunden^marterle^ 
but whether it has any connection with this tradition, 
or whether it has one of its own, I have not been able 
to learn. 

A couple of hours further is the pilgrimage chapel 
of Heiligenwasser, which is much visited both by the 
pious and the valetudinarian. Its history is that in 


1606 two shepherd boys keeping their father's herd 
upon the mountains lost two young kine. In vain they 
sought them through the toilful path and beneath the 
burning sun ; the kine were nowhere to be found. At 
last in despair of any further labour proving successful, 
they fell on their knees and prayed with tears for help 
from above. Then a bright light fell upon them, and 
the Gnadenmutter appeared beside them, and bid them 
be of good cheer, for the cattle were gone home to 
their stall ; moreover she added, < Drink, children, for 
the day is hot, and ye are weary with wandering. , 
4 Drink I' exclaimed the famished children, 6 where 
shall we find water ? there is no water near! ' but even 
as they spoke the Gnadenmutter was taken from their 
sight, but in the place where the light surrounding her 
had shone there welled up a clear and bubbling stream 
between the rocks, which has never ceased to flow 
since. The boys went home, but had not the courage 
to tell how great a favour had been bestowed on them ; 
yet they never went by that way without turning to 
give glory to God, and say a prayer beneath the holy 

Fifty years passed. One of them was an infirm old 
man, and no longer went abroad so far, the other was 
attended in his labours by the son of a neighbour, 
a lad who had been dumb from his birth. When 
the lad saw the herdsman kneel down by the spring 
and drink and pray, he knelt and drank and prayed 


too ; when lo ! no sooner had the water passed his lips 
than he found he had the power of speech like 
any other. The narration of the one wonder led to 
that of the other. The people readily believed, and 
before the year was out a chapel had been raised upon 
the spot. 





Many centuries have been numbered, 
Since in death the monarch slumbered 
By the convent' 8 sculptured portal, 

Mingling with the. common dust ; 
But his good deeds, through the ages 
Living in historic 'pages, 
Brighter grow and gleam immortal, 

Unconsumed by moth or rust. 


I shall not easily forget my first greeting at Inns- 
bruck. We had come many days' journey from the 
north to a rendezvous with friends who had travelled 
many days' journey from the south ; they were to 
arrive a week earlier than we, and were accordingly to 
meet us at the station and do the hosts' part. But it 
happened that the station was being rebuilt, and the 
order of 'No admittance except on business' was 
strictly enforced. The post-office was closed, being 
4 after hours,' and though the man left in charge, with 
true Tirolean urbanity, suffered us to come in and turn 
over the letters for ourselves, we failed to find the one 



conveying the directions we sought. So with no fixed 
advices to guide us, we wandered through the moun- 
tain capital in search of a chance meeting. We had 
nearly given up this attempt in its turn in despair of 
success, when 6 Albina,' a little white Eoman lupetto 
dog, belonging to the friends of whom we were in 
search, came bounding upon me. It was more than 
two years since I had taken leave of her in the Eternal 
City, but her affectionate sympathy was stronger than 
time or distance ; and here, far from all aid in the 
associations of home, and while the rest of her party 
were yet a great way off — almost out of sight — she 
had spied me out, and came to give her true and hearty 

It is a pleasant association with Innsbruck, a revela- 
tion of that pure and lasting love which dog-nature 
seems to have been specially created to convey ; but it 
was not of Innsbruck. Innsbruck — Schpruck, as the 
indigenous call it — though the chief, is the least 
Tirolean town of Tirol. It apes the airs and vices of 
a capital, without having the magnificence and con- 
venience by which they are engendered. 

There is a page of Tirol's history blotted by a deed 
which Innsbruck alone, of all Tirol, could have com- 
mitted, and which it indeed requires its long and 
otherwise uniformly high character for both exceeding 
hospitality and exceeding loyalty to cancel. The sub- 
ject of it was its own Kaiser Max, whose prudence 
in governmental details and gallantry in the field and 


in the chase had raised him in the popular mind to the 
position of a hero. When he had come to them 
before, in his youth, in his might, and in his imperial 
pomp, he had been sung and f§ted. The people had 
acclaimed him with joy, and his deeds were a very 
household epic ; while he in turn had extended their 
borders by conquest, and their privileges by concessions. 
But now he had come back to them, worn out with war 
and cares and age. He felt that his end was near, and 
it was to Tirol, with which he had always stood in 
bonds of so much love, that he turned to spend his few 
declining years. But Innsbruck, when it saw him thus, 
seems to have forgotten his prowess and his benefits, 
and to have remembered only a pitiful squabble about 
payment of the score for the maintenance of his house- 
hold at his last visit. A ruler who had spent himself 
in bettering the condition of his people might well, in 
the days of his weariness and sadness of heart, have 
expected to meet with more liberality at their hands ; 
but from Innsbruck, where — little obscure provincial 
town as it was — he had so often held his court, which 
had been raised in importance and singularly enriched 
by royal marriages and receptions and other costly 
ceremonies celebrated there at his desire, and which by 
his example and instigation had become the residence 
of many nobles who had learnt under his administration 
to value peaceful study above the pursuit of war — 
from Innsbruck he had most of all to expect. And 
yet on this occasion, as he lay ailing and restless on his 

q a 


couch, the neighing and tramping of his horses dis- 
turbed his fitful slumbers ; and rising in the early dawn 
to ascertain the cause, he beheld the team which had 
brought him from the Diet at Augsburg, left out unfed 
and untended in the streets, because the people said he 
should not run up another score with them. With a 
moderation he would not perhaps have practised in his 
younger days, he quietly went on his way, to die at 
Wels on the Trann. 

I have often pictured the pale sad face of the old 
Emperor as he turned from that sight, and thought of 
the sickness of his heart as one of history's most touch- 
ing lessons of the world's inconstancy. Perhaps it 
predisposed me against Innsbruck ; perhaps I was 
inclined to be a little unjust ; but, at all events, it 
prepared me not to be surprised if its people should 
prove more sophisticated than their fellow-countrymen. 
It was quite what I expected, therefore, when I was told 
that in the older inns of the class wherein one generally 
finds a refreshing hospitality and primitiveness, the 
absence of comfort was not compensated by correspond- 
ing simplicity of manners. 

In the Oesterreichisher Hof, one of those provincial 
pieces of pretentiousness which those who travel to 
learn the characteristics of a country should, under 
ordinary circumstances, avoid, we found the pleasantness 
of its situation sufficient to make us forget all else ; and 
indeed, considered as a copy of a Vienna hotel, it is 
not a bad attempt. There is a room which on Sundays 


is set apart for an English service. On a subsequent 
visit we found a large new hotel (Europa), rather near 
the railway station, preferable to it in some respects, 
and there are many others besides. 

I have spoken of the pleasant situation, and our 
apartment was situated so as fully to enjoy it ; we had to 
ourselves a whole suite of little rooms, with a separate 
corridor running along the back of them, from the win- 
dows of which we could make acquaintance, under the 
alternating play of sunshine, moonbeam, or lightning, 
with the range of mountains which wall in Tirol. The 
Martinswand and Frauhiitt, with their romantic memo- 
ries ; the Seegruben-spitze and the Kreuz-spitze, 
rugged and wild ; the grand masses of the Brandjoch 
and the lesser Solstein, and the greater Solstein already 
wearing a lace-like veil of snow; while the quaint 
copper cupolaed towers of Innsbruck conceal the 
Rumerjoch and the Kaisersaiile; and in the front of 
the picture, the roofs with their wooden tiles afford a 
view of the mysteries of apple-drying, and a thousand 
other local arts of domestic economy. If our furniture 
was not of the most elegant or abundant, it was all the 
more in keeping with such wild surroundings. 

The character of the town itself partakes of the 
same mixture of quaint picturesqueness with modern 
pretension which I have already observed in that of the 
people and the hotel. The Neustadt, as the chief 
street is called, remarkable for its width, tidiness, and 
good paving, is no less so for its old arcades in one part, 


and the steep gables in another, and the monuments of 
faith which adorn its centre line. At one end it is 
closed in by the stern gaunt mountain, at the other by 
Maria Theresa's triumphal arch. There are other 
streets again, straight, modern, and uniform; the 
Museum Strasse, and the Karl Strasse, and the Land- 
haus Grasse, 1 but you soon come to an end of them ; and 
then you find yourself in a suburb of most primitive 
quality ; your progress arrested, now by the advance of 
the iron road, now by the placid gentle Sill, now by the 
proudly flowing Inn. The mediaeval history of Inns- 
bruck is signalized by a number of fires which destroyed 
many of its antiquities: To the first of these it owes 
the suggestion that the town needed a water supply, 
acted upon by Meinhard II., and the monks of Wilten, 
in the formation of the Klevne SUl, which continues 
still as useful as ever ; but other fires again and again 
laid it in ashes, so that very little of really old work 
survives, though there are manyfoundations of early date, 
the buildings of which have been again and again 
rebuilt. The very oldest of these is the monastery 
of Wilten, now a suburb a little way outside the 
Triumphpforte, originally the seat of the suzerains 
who created the town. 

The history of its origin is one of the most re- 
markable myths of the country, and is a very epitome 
of the history of the conflict of Heathendom with 

1 The best shops are in the Franziskanergrnben. 


The Eomans had found here a flourishing town even 
in their time, and they made of it an important station, 
calling it Valdidena, whence its present name ; coins 
and other relics of their sojourn are continually dug 
out of the soil. Tradition has it, however, that Etzel 
(Attila) laid the city in ruins on his way back from the 
terrible battle of Chalons. It continued, nevertheless, 
to be a convenient and consequently frequented station 
of the intercourse between the banks of the Po and 
the Ehine. When Dietrich von Bern (Theodoric of 
Verona) announced his expedition against Chriemhilde's 
Garden of Eoses at Worms, one of the mightiest who 
responded to his appeal, and who did him the most 
signal service in taking the Eose-garden, was Heime, 
popularly called Haymon, a giant 4 taller and more 
powerful than Goliath.' Eeturning in Theodoric's vic- 
torious train, he came through Tirol. As he approached 
Valdidena he found his passage barred by another giant 
named Thyrsus, living near Zirl, who has left his name 
to the little neighbouring hamlet of Tirschenbach. 
Thyrsus had heard of Haymon's prowess, and as his 
own had been unchallenged hitherto, he determined to 
provoke him to combat. Haymon was no less fierce 
than himself, and scarcely waited for his challenge to 
rush to the attack. But anyone who had looked on 
would have guessed from the first moment on which 
side the advantage would fall. Thyrsus was indeed 
terrible of aspect; higher in stature than Haymon, 
his shaggy hair covered a determined brow ; his hardy 



skin was bronzed by exposure to weather and lying on 
the rocks ; his sinews were developed by constant use, 
and their power attested by the tree torn up by the 
roots which he bore in his hand for a club ; at each 
footfall the ground shook, for he planted his feet with 
a sound of thunder, and his stride was from hill to hill. 
But Haymon's every movement displayed him practised 
in each art of attack and defence. Less fierce of ex- 
pression than Thyrsus, his eyes were ever on the watch 
to follow every moment of his antagonist, and like a 
wall of adamant he stood receiving all his thrusts with 
a studied patience, giving back none till his attacker's 
.strength was well-nigh exhausted. Then he fell upon 
him and slew him. An effigy of the two giants yet 
adorns th« wall of the wayside chapel at Tirschendorf. 

Haymon was still in the prime of manhood, being 
about thirty-five, and this was but one of his many 
successful combats. Nevertheless, it was destined to be * 
his last, for a Benedictine monk of Tegernsee coming 
by while he was yet in the first flush of victory, 
succeeded so well in reasoning with him on the worth- 
lessness of all on which he had hitherto set his heart, 
and on the superior attractions of a higher life, that 
he then and there determined to give up his san- 
guinary career, and henceforth devote his strength to 
the service of Christ. 

In pursuance of this design he determined to build 
with his own hands a church and monastery on the site 
of the ruined town of Valdidena, by the banks of the 



Sill. With his own hands he quarried the stone and 
felled the timber ; but in the meantime the Evil One 
in the form of a huge dragon had taken possession of 
the place. Never did he let himself be seen ; but 
when he came to lay the foundation, Haymon found 
every morning that whatever work he had done by day, 
the dragon had destroyed by night. Then he saw that 
he must watch by night as well as work by day, and by 
this means he discovered with what manner of adversary 
he had to deal. The dragon lashed the ground with his 
tail in fury, just as the wild wind stirs up the sea, and 
filled the air with the smoke and sparks he breathed 
out of his mouth. Haymon saw that with all his 
strength and science he could not overcome so terrible 
an enemy ; nevertheless, he did not lose heart, but 
commended himself to Grod. Meantime, the streaks 
of morn began to appear over the sky, and at sight of 
them the dragon turned and fled. Haymon perceived 
his advantage, and pursued him ; by-and-by the rocks 
bounding the path contracted, and at last they came to 
the narrow opening of a cave. As soon as the dragon 
had got his head in and could not turn, Haymon raised 
his sword with a powerful swing, and calling on Grod to 
aid his stroke, with one blow severed the monster's 
head from the trunk. As a trophy of his feat, he 
cut out the creature's sting, which was full two feet 
long, and subsequently hung it up in the Sanctuary, and 
something to represent it is still shown in the church 
of Wilten. 


After this, the building went on apace ; and when it 
was completed, he took up a huge stone which had been 
left over from the foundation of the building, and 
flung it with the whole power of his arm. It sped 
over the plain for the space of nearly two miles, till it 
struck against the hill of Ambras, and rolled thence 
down again upon the plain, ' where it may yet be seen ; ' 
and with all the land between he endowed the monas- 
tery. Then he called thither a colony of Benedictines 
to inhabit it, and himself, lived a life of penance as the 
lowest among them for eighteen years ; and here he 
died in the year 878.. Another benefit which he con* 
ferred on the neighbourhood was rebuilding the bridge 
of Innsbruck. 1 Tradition says he was buried on the 
right hand side of the high altar, and even preserves 
the following rough lines as his epitaph : — 

Als Tag und Jahr verloffen war 

Achthundert schon verstrichen 

Zu siebzig acht hats auch schon g'macht 

Da Heymons Tod verblichen. 

Der tapfere Held hat sich erwahlt 

Ein Kloster aufzufiihren 

Gab alles hinein, gieng selbst auch drein, 

Wollts doch nicht selbst regieren. 

Hat loblich gelebt, nach Tugent gstrebt 

Ein Spiegel war er alien ; 

Biss hin rise her, ist nicht mehr er, 

Ins Grab ist er hier g* fallen. 

Many fruitless searches have been made for his 
body; the last, in the year 1644, undermined great 

1 Grimm, Deutsche Sagen, No. 139. 


part of the wall of the church, and caused its fall. 
The popular belief in the existence of the giants 
Haymon and Thyrsis has found a forcible expression 
nevertheless in two huge wooden figures, placed at the 
entrance of the Minster Church. 

-The parish church of Wilten has a more ancient 
and curious relic in the Mutter Oottes unter den vier 
Saulen 9 l of which it is said, that the Thundering 
Legion having been stationed at Valdidena about the 
year 137, had this image with them; that on one 
occasion of being ordered on a distant expedition they 
buried it under four trees, and never had the opportunity 
of recovering it. That when Eathold von Aiblingen 
made his pilgrimage to Eome, he brought back with 
him the secret of its place of concealment, exhumed it, 
set it up on the altar under a baldachino with four 
pillars, where it has never ceased to be an object of 
special veneration. This received a notable encourage- 
ment when Friedrich mit der leeren Tasche, wandering 
in secret through the country with his trusty Hans von 
Miillinen after the ban of the empire had been pro- 
nounced against him, knelt before this shrine, and 
prayed a blessing on his unchanging devotion to it. 
The sequel made him believe that his prayer was 
heard; and when he was once more established in 
his possessions, he caused himself and his friend to 
be portrayed kneeling at the shrine to seek protec- 

1 Under four pillars. 


tion under the fostering mantle of the Virgin, and had 
the picture hung on the wall of the church opposite. 

The name of Innsbruck first occurs in a record of 
the year 1027, on occasion of a concession granted 
to the chapel of 8. Jakob in der Au — S. James's in 
the Field — probably the spot on which the stately 
Pfarrkirche now stands. Prior to this, the little settle- 
ment of inhabitants, whom the commerce between 
Germany and Italy had gathered round the Inn-bridge, 
could only satisfy the obligation of the Sunday and 
Holy-day mass by attendance in the church of Wilten ; 
now, the faculty was granted to their own little chapel. 

Its situation made it a convenient entrepot for 
many articles of heavy merchandise, and, as years went 
by, a dwelling-place of various merchants also. All 
this time it was a dependency of the monks of Wilten. 
In 1180, Berthold II. von Andechs, acquired from 
them by treaty certain rights over the prospering town. 
His successor, Otho I., surrounded it with walls and 
fortifications, and built himself a residence, on the 
entrance of whioh was chiselled the date of 1234, and 
the inscription, — 

Dies Hans stehet in G-ottes Hand 
Ottobnrg ist es genannt. 

And on the same spot, in an old house overlooking the 
river Inn, some remains of this foundation may be 
traced, to which the name of Ottoburg still attaches. 
In 1239 it was treated to the privilege of being 


the only depot for goods between the Ziller and the 
Melach; other concessions followed, maintaining its 
ever-rising importance. In 1279 Bruno, Bishop of 
Brixen, consecrated a second church, the Morizkapelle, 
in the Ottoburg. But though both its temporal and 
spiritual lords appear to have encouraged its growth by 
every means in their power, and though there are 
records of occasional noble gatherings within its pre- 
cincts, it was not till after the cession of Tirol to Austria 
by Margaretha Maultasch that the convenience of its 
central situation, and its water communication by the 
Inn and Danube with other towns of the empire, 
suggested its adoption as the seat of government of the 

The fidelity of the towns-people to Duke Eudolf IV. 
of Austria at the time of a Bavarian invasion, elicited 
a further outpouring of privileges from their ruler, 
putting beyond all dispute in a short time the priority 
of Innsbruck over all the towns of Tirol. 

Friederich mit der leeren Taache made it his resi- 
dence, and his base of operations for reducing the Eot- 
tenburgers and other powerful nobles, who during the 
late unsettled condition of the government had set at 
naught his power and oppressed the people. In this he 
received the warmest support of the Innsbruckers, 
which he in turn repaid by granting all their wishes. 

The singular loyalty of the Tirolese, and their good 
fortune in having been generally blessed with upright 
and noble-minded rulers, make their annals read like a 


continuous heroic romance. The deeds of their princes 
have for centuries been household words in every 
mountain home of Tirol. None have had a deeper place 
in their hearts than the fortunes of Friedl, and never 
was any man more fortunate in his misfortunes. Before 
they yet knew what manner of prince he was, the ban 
of the empire had made him a penniless wanderer. 
Reduced to a condition lower than their own, the 
peasants wherever he passed gathered round him, and 
swore to stand by him, and concealed his hiding-places 
with the closest fidelity. One night he came weary 
and wayworn to Bludenz in Vorarlberg, seeking shelter 
before the impending storm. The night-watch had the 
closest orders to beware of strangers, for an incursion of 
the imperial army was expected, and every stranger 
might be a spy; no entreaty of Friedl on his friend 
Hans could shake his obedience to orders. When the 
Prince declared who he was, the man said, ' Would it 
were Friedl indeed ! ' but added that he would not be 
taken in by the pretence, however well devised. At 
last the outcast obtained from him that he would send 
for an innkeeper to whom he was known. Mine host at 
once recognised his sovereign, and received him with 
joy. The Thorwachter trembled when he found what 
he had done, but Frederick commended his steadfast- 
ness heartily, and invited him to dine at his table next 
day. While he was here, the Emperor summoned the 
burghers to give up his prisoner ; but the Bludenzers 
sent answer that ' they had sworn fealty to Duke Fre- 


derick and the House of Austria, and they would not 
break their oath.' This spirited reply would probably 
have brought an army to their gates had Frederick 
remained among them ; but in order to save them from 
an attack, for which they were little prepared, he took 
his departure, — by stealth, or they would not have 
suffered him to depart, even for their own safety's sake. 
At other times he would earn his day's food by manual 
labour before he disclosed to his entertainers who he 
was, and then he would only partake of the same frugal 
fare, and the same hard lodging, as the peasants who 
received him. By these means he became deeply 
endeared to the people, who thus knew he was one who 
felt for their privations, and shared their feelings and 
opinions, and did not treat them with supercilious con- 
tempt like one of the nobles. 

When by these wanderings Frederick had discovered 
how deeply the people loved him, he arranged with the 
owner of the Kofherhof in the Oetztal a plan by which, 
on occasion of a great fair at Landeck, always crowded 
by people from all the country round, he appeared in 
the character of principal actor in a peasant-comedy, 
which set forth the sufferings of a prince driven from 
his throne by cruel enemies, wandering homeless 
among his people, then calling them to arms, and 
leading them to victory. The excitement of the people 
at the representation exceeded his highest expectations. 
Loud sobs and cries accompanied his description of the 
Prince's woes ; but when he came to sing of the people 


following their prince's call to arms, their ardour 
became quite irresistible. The enthusiasm was conta- 
gious ; Frederick could no longer contain himself; he 
threw off his disguise, and declared himself their Friedl. 
It needed no more ; unbidden they proffered their alle- 
giance and their vows to defend his rights to the last 
drop of their blood. The enthusiasm of the Landeckers 
soon spread over the whole country; and when the 
Emperor Sigismund and Ernst der Eiserne and Fre- 
derick's other foes found his people were as firm as their 
own mountains in his defence, they gave up the attempt 
at further persecution, and concluded a truce with him. 

In his prosperity he did not forget the peasants who 
had stood by him so loyally. While he tamed the power 
of their oppressors, he did all he could to lighten their 
burdens ; and to many, who had rendered him special 
service, he marked his gratitude by special favours. 
Thus, to Kuzo of the Eofnerhof he granted among 
other privileges the right of asylum on his demesne, 
which was put in use down to the year 1783. We have 
already seen his conflict with Henry of Eottenburg, 1 
and in the same way he tamed the overgrown power of 
other nobles. In the course of our wanderings we shall 
often find the popular hero's name stored up in the 
people's lore. 

In connection with Innsbruck, he is well known to 
the most superficial tourist as the builder of the 
Goldene Dachl-gebaude. 

1 See p. 60. 


And what is the goldene Dachl-Gebaude ? — It is a 
most picturesque addition to, and almost all remain- 
ing of, what in his time was the Furstenburg, or 
princely palace, having a roof of shining gilt copper 
tiles, sufficiently low to be in sight of the passer-by ; 
but the account the best English guide-book gives the 
tourist of its origin is so wanting in the true apprecia- 
tion of Friedl's character, that I am fain to supply the 
Tirolese version of it. The above account says that it was 
built in 1425 ' by Frederick, called in ridicule "Empty 
Purse," who, in order to show how ill-founded was the 
nickname, spent thirty thousand ducats on this piece 
of extravagance, which probably rendered the nick- 
name more appropriate than before.' Now, to say that 
he was called ' Empty Purse' thus vaguely would imply 
that it was a name given by common consent, and 
generally adopted. To say that he built the Golden 
Roof only to show that such a nickname was ill-founded, 
is simply to accuse him of arrogance. To treat it as 
an extravagance which justified the accusation, is to 
convict him of folly. 

But the government of Frederick 1 — which is felt 
even yet in the present independent spirit of Tirol, which 
consolidated the country and made it respected, which 
set up the dignity of the Freihof and the Schildhof 
the foundation of a middle class as a dam against 
the encroachments of the nobility on the peasantry, 

1 Of the earlier history of Tirol we shall have to speak-when we come 
to Schloss Tirol and Greifenstein. 




which yet lives on in the hearts of the people, was an 
eminently prudent administration, and the story 
does not fit it. If, instead of resting satisfied with this 
compendious but flippant account, you ask the first true 
Tirolese you meet to expound it, he will tell you that 
Friedl had grown so familiar with peasant life that 
he despoiled himself to better the condition of his 
poorer subjects, not only by direct means, but by his 
expeditions in their defence, and also in forbearing to 
exact burdensome taxes. The nickname was not given 
him by general consent; nor at all, by the people; it 
was the cowardly revenge of those selfish nobles who 
could not appreciate the abnegation of his character. 
Frederick saw in it a reproach, offered not so much to 
himself as to his people; it seemed to say that the 
people who loved him so well withheld the subsidies 
which should make him as grand as other monarchs. 
To disprove the calumny, and to show that his people 
enabled him to command riches too, he made this 
elegant little piece of display, which served also to 
adorn his good town of Innsbruck; but he did 
not on that account alter his frugal management of his 
finances ; so that when he came to die, though he had 
made none cry out that he had laid burdens on them, 
he yet left a replenished treasury. l 

This is still one of the notable ornaments of 
Innsbruck. The house is let to private families, but 

1 Consult ZoUer, Ge&chichtc der Stadt Innsbruck ; and Staffler, das 
Deutsche Tirol. 

i . 


the 'gold-roofed' Hrker 9 or oriel, is kept up as a 
beloved relic almost in its original condition. There is 
a curious old fresco within, the subject of which is 
disputed ; and on the second floor there is a sculptured 
bas-relief, representing Maximilian and his two wives, 
Mary of Burgundy and Maria Bianca of Milan, and the 
seven coats of arms of the seven provinces under 
Maximilian's government. 

Sigismund 6 the Monied,' Frederick's son and succes- 
sor (1430-93), is more chargeable with extravagance, 1 
but his extravagance was all for the advantage of 
Innsbruck. The reception he gave to Christian I., 
King of Denmark, when on his way to Rome, is a 
striking illustration of the resources of the country in 
his time. Sigismund went out to meet him at some 
miles 1 distance from the capital, with a train of three 
hundred horses, all richly caparisoned; his consort 
(Eleanor of Scotland) followed with her suite in two 
gilt carriages, and surrounded by fifty ladies and 
maidens on their palfreys. The King of Denmark 
stayed three days ; every day was a festival, and the 
magnificent dresses of the court were worthy of being 
specially chronicled. There seems to have been no lack 
of satin and velvet and ermine, embroidery, and 
fringes of gold-work. 

Nor was mental culture neglected; for we find 
mention, at the same date, of public schools governed 

1 See p. 146. 
b 2 


by ' a rector,' which would seem to imply that they had 
something beyond an elementary character. The im- 
pulse given to commerce by the working of the silver- 
mines also had the effect of causing some of the chief 
roads of the country to be made and improved. The 
most lasting traces of Sigismund's reign, however, are 
the ruined towers which adorn the mountain land- 
scapes. Wherever we go in Tirol, we come iipon some 
memory of his expensive fancy for building isolated 
castles as a pied a terre for his hunting and fishing 
excursions, still distinguished by such names as Sig- 
mundskron, Sigmundsfried, Sigmundslust, Sigmunds- 
burg, Sigmundsegg, and which we shall have occasion 
to notice as we go along. His wars were of no great 
benefit to the country, but his command of money 
enabled him to include Voralberg within his frontier. 
Sigismund was, however, entirely wanting in adminis- 
trative qualities. This deficiency helped out his extra- 
vagance in dissipating the whole benefit which might 
have resulted to the public exchequer from the silver- 
works of his reign ; and at last he yielded to the whole- 
some counsel of abdicating in favour of his cousin 

Maximilian (1493-1519) is another of the household 
heroes of Tirol. Even after he was raised to the throne 
of empire he still loved his Tirolean home, and his 
residence there further increased the importance of the 
town of Innsbruck. He built the new palace in the 
Eennplatz, called the Burg, which was completed for 


his marriage with Maria Eianca, daughter of Galeazzo 
Maria Sforza, of Milan. Splendid was the assemblage 
gathered in Innspruck for this ceremonial. Three yearsi 
later it was further astonished by the magnificence of 
the Turkish Embassy; and the discussion of various 
treaties of peace were also frequently the means of 
adding brilliancy to the court, and prosperity to the 
town. His other benefits to the city, and Innsbruck's 
unworthy return to him, I have already mentioned in 
the beginning of this chapter. 

Many a fantastic Sage is told of Maximilian in the 
neighbourhood, which we shall find in their due places. 
The fine hunting-ground Tirol affords was one of its 
greatest attractions for him ; it led him, however, to 
introduce certain game-laws, and this was one prin- 
cipal element in bringing about the decline of 
his popularity in the last years of his life. At his 
death this disaffection broke out, and caused one of 
the most serious insurrectionary movements which have 
disturbed the even tenour of Tirolese loyalty. To this 
was added the influence of Lutheran teaching, the 
effects of which we have seen in the Zillerthal. 

This spirit of discontent had time to gain ground 
during the first years of Maximilian's grandson and 
successor, Charles Quint, whose immensely extended 
duties drew his attention off from Tirol. Very shortly 
after his accession, however, he made over the German 
hereditary dominions, including Tirol, to his brother 
Ferdinand, who established his family in this country. 


His wise administration and prudent concessions soon 
conciliated the people ; though severe measures were 
also needed, and the year 1529 was signalized in Inns- 
bruck by some terrible executions. These were forgotten 
when, in the year 1531, Charles Quint, returning vic- 
torious from Pavia, on his way to Augsburg stayed and 
held court at Innsbruck; Ferdinand met him on the 
Brenner pass, and accompanied him to the capital. 
When Charles reached the Burg, Ferdinand's children 
received him at the entrance ; and the tenderness with 
which he greeted and kissed them was remarked by the 
people, on whom this token of homely affection had a 
powerful effect. Electors and princes, spiritual and 
temporal, came to pay their homage to the Emperor ; 
and Innsbruck was so filled with the titled throng, 
that the Landtag had to remove its session to Hall. 
Ferdinand's other dominions, and the question of the 
threatened war with Turkey, necessitated frequent 
absences from Innsbruck. During one of these (in 1 5 34) 
the Burg was burnt down, and his children were only 
rescued from their beds with difficulty. The great 
Hall, called the goldene Saal, and the state bedroom, 
which was so beautifully ornamented that it bore the 
title of das Parodies, were all reduced to ashes. In 
1541 Innsbruck was once more honoured by a visit of 
the magnificent Emperor ; and again, ten years later, 
he took up his residence there, that he might be near 
the Session of the Council of Trent. It was while he 
waS living here peacefully in all confidence, and almost 


unattended, that Maurice, Elector of Saxony, having 
suddenly joined the Smalkald League, treacherously 
attempted to surprise him, marching with a consider- 
able armed force through pass Fernstein. Charles, 
who was laid up with illness at the time, was enabled 
by the loyal devotion of the Tirolese to escape in the 
night-time and in a storm of wind and rain, being 
borne in a litter over the Brenner, and by difficult 
mountain paths through Bruneck into Garinthia. 
Maurice, baffled in his scheme, exercised his vengeance 
in plundering the imperial possessions, while his fol- 
lowers devastated the peasants' homes, the monastery of 
Stams, and other religious houses that lay in their way. 
The sufferings of the Tirolese on this occasion doubt- 
less tended to confirm them in their aversion for the 
Lutheran League. Maurice's end was characteristic, 
and the Tirolese, ever on the look-out for the super- 
natural, were not slow to see in it a worthy retribu- 
tion for his treatment of their Emperor. Albert 
of Brandenburg refused to join in the famous Treaty of 
Passau, subsequently concluded by Maurice and the 
other Lutheran leaders with the Emperor. This and 
other differences led to a sanguinary struggle between 
them, in the course of which Maurice was killed in 
battle at Sieverhausen. 

Ferdinand the First's reign has many mementos in 
Innsbruck. He built the Franciscan church, other- 
wise called the heiligen Kreuzkirche and the Hofkirche t 
which, tradition says, had been projected by his grand- 


father, Kaiser Max, though there is no written record 
of the fact ; and he raised within it a most grandiose 
and singular monument to him, which has alone sufficed 
to attract many travellers to Tirol, The original object 
of the foundation of the church seems to have been 
the establishment of a college of canons in this centre, 
to oppose the advance of Lutheran teaching. It was 
begun in 1543, the first design having been rejected by 
Ferdinand as not grand enough, and consecrated in 
1563. He seems to have been at some pains to find a 
colony of religious willing to undertake, and competent 
to fulfil, his requirements ; and not coming to an 
agreement with any in Germany or the Netherlands, 
ultimately called in a settlement of Franciscans from 
Trent and the Venetian provinces, consisting of twenty 
priests and thirteen lay-brothers. The chief ornaments 
of the building itself are the ten large — but too slender 
— red marble columns, which support the plateresque 
roof. The greater part of the nave is taken up with 
Maximilian's monument — cenotaph rather, for he lies 
buried at Wiener-Neustadt, the oft-contemplated trans- 
lation of his remains never having been carried into 
effect. It was Innsbruck's fault, as we have seen, that 
they were not originally laid to rest there, and it is her 
retribution to have been denied the honour of housing 
them hitherto. The monument itself is a pile upwards 
of thirteen feet long and six high, of various coloured 
marbles, raised on three red marble steps ; on the top 
is a colossal figure, representing the Kaiser dressed in 


full imperial costume, kneeling, his face being directed 
towards the altar — a very fine work, cast in bronze by 
Luigi del Duca, a Sicilian, in 1582. The sides and 
ends are divided by slender columns into twenty-four 
fine white marble compartments, 1 setting forth the 

1 For the convenience of the visitor to Innsbruck, but not to interrupt 
the text, I subjoin here a list of the subjects. (1.) The marriage of 
Maximilian (then aged eighteen) with Mary of Burgundy at Ghent. (2.) 
His victory over the French at Guinegate, when he was twenty. (3.) 
The taking of Arras thirteen years later; not only are the fighting folk 
and the fortifications in this worthy of special praise, but there is a bit 
of by-play, the careful finish of which must not be overlooked ; and the 
figure of one woman in particular, who is bringing provisions to the 
camp, is a masterpiece in itself. (4.) Maximilian is crowned King of 
the Romans. The scene is the interior of the Cathedral of Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle : the Prince is seated on a sort of throne before the altar ; the 
Electors are busied with their hereditary part in the ceremony; the 
dresses of the courtiers in the crowd, and the ladies high above in their 
tribune, are a perfect record for the costumier, so minute are they in 
faitfulness. (5.) The battle of Castel della Fietra, or Stein am Calliano r 
the landscape background of which is excellent ; the Tirolese are seen 
driving the Venetians with great fury before them over the Etsch 
(Adige). (6.) Maximilian's entry into Vienna (1490), in course of the- 
contest for the crown of Hungary after the death of Matthias Corvinus ; 
the figure of Maximilian on his prancing horse is drawn with great spirit, 
(7.) The siege of Stuhlweissenburg, taken by Maximilian the same year - y 
the horses in this tableau deserve particular notice. (8.) The eighth 
represents an episode which it niusthave required some courage to record 
among the acts of so glorious a reign ; it shows Maximilian receiving 
back his daughter Margaret, when, in 1493, Charles VIII. preferred 
Anne of Brittany to her. The French envoys hand to the Emperor two 
keys, symbols of the suzerainty of Burgundy and Artois, the price of the 
double affront of sending back his daughter and depriving him of his 
bride, for Anne had been betrothed to him. [Margaret, though endowed 
with the high qualities of her race, was not destined to bo fortunate in 
her married life : her hand was next sought by Ferdinand V. of Spain 
*br his son Don Juan, who died very shortly after the marriage. She 
was again married, in 1508, to Fhilibert Duke of Savoy, who died with- 



story of his achievements in lace-like relief. If the 
treatment of the facts is sometimes somewhat legendary, 

out children three years later. As Governor of the Netherlands, how- 
ever, her prudent administration made her very popular.] (9.) Maxi- 
milian's campaign against the Turks in Croatia. (10.) The League of 
Maximilian with Alexander VI., the Doge of Venice, and the Duke of 
Milan, against Charles VIIL of France ; the four potentates stand in a 
palatial hall joining hands, and the French are seen in the background 
fleeing in dismay. (11.) The investiture at "Worms of Ludovico Sforza 
with the Duchy of Milan. The portraits of Maximilian are well pre- 
served on each occasion that he is introduced, but in none better than in 
this one : Maria Bianca is seen seated to the left of the throne, Sforza 
kneels before them ; on the waving standard, which is the token of in- 
vestiture, the ducal arms are plainly discernible. (12.) The marriage 
at Brussels, in 1496, of Philip der Schone, Maximilian's son, with Juana 
of Spain ; the Archbishop of Cambrai is officiating, Maximilian stands 
on the right side of his son : Charles Quint was born of this marriage. 
(13.) A victorious campaign in Bohemia in 1504. The 14th represents 
the episodes of the siege of Kufstein, recorded in the second chapter of 
these Traditions (1504). (15.) The submission of Charles d' Egmont 
to Maximilian, 1505. The Kaiser sits his horse majestically ; the Duke 
of Gueldres stands with head uncovered ; the battered battlements of 
the city 'are seen behind them. (16.) The League of Cambrai, 1508. 
, The scene is a handsome tent in the camp near Cambray ; Maximilian, 
Julius II., Charles VIII., and Ferdinand V., are supposed to meet, to 
unite in league against Venice. (17.) The Siege of Padua, 1509, the 
iirst result of this League ; the view of Padua in the distance must have 
required the artist to have visited the place. (18.) The expulsion of 
the French from Milan, and reinstatement of Ludovico Sforza, 1512. 
(19.) The second battle of Ghiinegate : Maximilian fights on horseback; 
Henry VIII. leads the allied infantry, 1515. (20.) The conjunction of 
the Imperial and English forces before Terouenne : Maximilian and 
Henry are both on foot, 1613. (21.) The battle of Vicenza, 1513. (22.) 
The Siege of Marano, on the Venetian coast. The 23rd represents a 
noble hall at Vienna, such details as the pictures on the walls not being . 
omitted : Maximilian is treating with Uladisaus, King of Hungary, for 
the double marriage of their offspring — Anna and Ludwig, children of 
the latter, with Ferdinand and Maria, grandchildren of the former — an 
alliance which had its consequence in the subsequent incorporation of 
Hungary with the Empire. (24.) The defence of Verona by the Imperial 
forces against the French and Venetians. 


the details and accessories are most painstakingly and 
delicately rendered, great attention having been paid 
to the faithfulness of the costumes and buildings intro- 
duced, and the most exquisite finish lavished on all. 
They were begun in 1561 by the brothers Bernhard 
and Arnold Abel, of Cologne, who went in person to 
Genoa to select the Carrara tablets for their work ; but 
they both died in 1563, having only completed three. 
Then Alexander Collin of Mechlin took up the work, 
and with the aid of a large school of artists completed 
them in all their perfection in three years more. 
Around it stands a noble guard of ancestors historical 
and mythological, cast in bronze, of colossal propor- 
tions, twenty-eight in number. It is a solemn sight as 
you enter in the dusk of evening, to see these stern old 
heroes keeping eternal watch round the tomb of him 
who has been called ' the last of the Knights,' der letzte 
Hitter. They have not, perhaps, the surpassing merit 
of the Carrara reliefs, but they are nobly conceived 
nevertheless. For lightness of poise, combined with 
excellence of proportion and delicacy of finish, the 
figure of our own King Arthur commends itself most 
to my admiration ; but that of Theodoric is generally 
reckoned to bear away the palm from all the rest. They 
stand in the following order. 

Starting on the right side of the nave on entering, 
we have : 

1. Clovis, the first Christian King of France, 


2. PMlip ' the Handsome,' l of the Netherlands, Maxi- 

milian's son, reckoned as Philip I. of Spain, 
though he never reigned there. 

3. Eudolf of Hapsburg. 

4. Albert II. the Wise, Maximilian's great-grandfather. 

5. Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths. (455-526.) 

6. Ernest der Eiseme, Duke of Austria and Styria. 


7. Theodebert, Duke of Burgundy. (640.) 

8. King Arthur of England. 

9. Sigmund der Munzreiehe, Count of Tirol. (1427- 


10. Maria Bianca Sforza, Maximilian's second wife. 

(Died 1510.) 

11. The Archduchess Margaret, Maximilian's daughter. 

1 2. Cymburgis of Massovica, wife of Ernest der Eiseme. 

(Died 1433.) 

13. Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, father of 

Maximilian's first wife. 

14. Philip the Good, father of Charles the Bold. 

Founder of the Order of the Golden Fleece. 

This completes the file on the right side ; on our 
walk back down the other side we come to — 

15. Albert II., Duke of Austria, and Emperor of Ger- 

many. (1397-1439.) 

16. Emperor Frederick I., Maximilian's father. (1415- 


1 Called by the French Philippe * le Beau,' in distinction from their 
own ' Philippe le Bel.' 



17. St. Leopold, Margrave of Austria; since 1506 the 

patron saint of Austria. (1073-1136.) 

18. Eudolf, Count of Hapsburg, grandfather or uncle of 

' Eudolf of Hapsburg.' 

19. Leopold III., 'the Pious,' Duke of Austria, Maxi- 

milian's great-grandfather ; killed at Sempach, 

20. Frederick IV. of Austria, Count of Tirol, surnamed 

4 mit der leeren Tasche.' 

21. Albert I., D. of Austria, Emperor. (Born 1248; as- 

sassinated by his nephew John of Swabia, 1308.) 

22. Godfrey de Bouillon, King of Jerusalem in 1099. 

23. Elizabeth, wife of the Emperor Albert II., 

daughter of Sigismund, King of Hungary and 
Bohemia. (1396-1442.) 

24. Mary of Burgundy, Maximilian's first wife. (1457- 


25. Eleonora of Portugal, wife of the Emperor Frede- 

rick III., Maximilian's mother. 

26. Cunigunda, Maximilian's sister, wife of Duke Albert 

IV: of Bavaria. 

27. Ferdinand ' the Catholic' 

28. Johanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, and 

wife of Maximilian's son, Philip I. of Spain. 

There is a vast difference in the quality both of the 
design and execution of these statues ; the greater num- 
ber and the more artistic were cast by Gregor Loffler, 
who established a foundry on purpose at Buchsenhausen ; 
the rest by Stephen and Melchior Godl, and Harms 


Lendenstreich, who worked at Miihlau, a suburb of 
Innsbruck. All honour is due to them for the produc- 
tion of some of the most remarkable works of their 
age ; but it was some unknown mind, probably that of 
some humble nameless Franciscan, to whom is due the 
conception and arrangement of this piece of symbolism. 
It originally included, besides the statues already enu- 
merated, twenty-three others, of saints, which were to 
have received a more elevated station, and it is for this 
reason that they are much smaller in size. They are 
now placed in the so-called * Silver Chapel,' and are too 
frequently overlooked ; but it is necessary to take them 
into account in order worthily to criticize this great 
monument. They are as follows : — 1. St. Adelgunda, 
daughter of Walbert, Count of Haynault. 2. St. Adel- 
bert, Count of Brabant. 3. St. Doda, wife of St. Arnulf, 
Duke of the Moselle. 4. St. Hermelinda, daughter of 
Witger, Count of Brabant. 5. St. Guy, Duke of Lotha- 
ringia. 6. St. Simpert, Bishop of Augsburg, son of 
Charlemagne's sister Symporiana, who rebuilt the mo- 
nastery of St. Magnus at Fiissen. 7. St. Jodok, son of 
a king of Great Britain; he wears a palmer's dress. 
8. St. Landerich, Bishop of Metz, son of St. Vincent, 
Count of Haynault, and St. Waltruda. 9. St. Clovis. 
10. St. Oda, wife of Duke Conrad. 11. St. Pharaild, 
daughter of Witger, Count of Brabant. 12. St. Eein- 
bert, brother of the last. 13. St. Roland, brother of 
St. Simpert. 14. St. Stephen, King of Hungary. 15. St. 
Venantius, martyr, son of Theodoric, Duke of Lotha- 


ringia. 16. St. Waltruda, mother of St. Landerich 
(No. 8). 17. St. Arnulf, husband of St. Doda (No. 3), 
afterwards Bishop of Metz. 18. St. Chlodulf, son of St. 
Waltruda (No. 16), also Bishop of Metz. 19. St. Ghidula, 
sister of St. Albert, Count of Brabant. 20. St. Pepin 
Teuto, Duke of Brabant. 21. St. Trudo, priest, son of 
St. Adela. 22. St. Vincent, monk. 23. Bichard Cceur- 
de-Lion. A series of men and women, all more or 
less closely connected with the House of Hapsburg,, 
selected for the alleged holiness of their lives or 
deeds under one aspect or another. It needs no 
laboured argument to show the appropriateness 
of thus representing to the life the solidarity of 
piety and worth in the great hero's earthly family, 
though a few words may not be out of place to distin- 
guish the characters allied only or chiefly by the ties 
of the great family of chivalry. These are — 1. King 
Arthur (No. 8), representative of the mythology of 
the Bound Table. 2. Boland (No. 13 in the series of 
the saints), representing the myths of the Twelve Peers 
of France. 3. Theodobert (No. 7), who received a 
hero's death in the plain of Chalons at the hand of 
Attila, to be immortalized in the Western Niebelungen 
Myths. 4. Theodoric (No. 5), celebrated as < Dietrich 
von Bern' in the Eastern. 5. Godfrey de Bouillon 
(No. 22), representing the legendary glory of the 
Crusades. 1 

1 This monument earned Ferdinand the title of the Lorenzo de.' 
Medici of Tirol. 


The two other statues, of a later date — -St. Francis 
and St. Clare— are by Moll, a native of Innsbruck, who 
became a sculptor of some note at Vienna. The pic- 
ture of St. Anthony over the altar of the Confraternity 
of St. Anthony, on the Epistle side of this church, has 
a great reputation among the people, because it re- 
mained uninjured in a fire which in 1661 burnt down 
the church of Zirl, where it was originally placed. 1 
Five years later it was brought hither for greater 
honour, and was let into a larger painting by Jele of 
Vienna, representing a multitude of sick and suffering 
brought by their friends to pray for healing before it. 
There is not much else in this church that is note- 
worthy (besides 4 the Silver Chapel,' which belongs to 
the notice of Ferdinand II.). What there is may be 
mentioned in a few lines, namely — the Fiirstenchor, 
or tribune for the royal family, high up on the right 
side of the chancel, with the adjoining little chapel 
and its paintings, and cedar-wood organ, the gift of 
Julius II. to Ferdinand I. ; the quaint old clock ; and 
the memory that Queen Christina of Sweden made her 
abjuration here 28th October 1655. Her conduct on 
the occasion was, according to local tradition, most 
edifying. She was dressed plainly in black silk, c with 
no other ornament than a large cross on her breast, with 
five sparkling diamonds to recall the glorious Wounds 

1 St. Anthony being the patron invoked against accidents by fire ; 
also against erisypelas, which in some parts of England even is called 
* St. Anthony's fire.' 


of the Kedeemer. The emphasis with which she re- 
peated the Latin profession of faith after the Papal 
nuncio did not pass unnoticed. The Ambrosian Hymn 
was sung at the close of the ceremony, and the church 
bells and town cannon spoke the congratulations of the 
Innsbruckers on this and the subsequent days of her 
stay among them. Among other tokens of gladness, 
several mystery plays (which are still greatly in vogue 
in Tirol) were represented. Another public ceremony 
of her stay was the translation of Kranach's Madonna, 
the favourite picture of Tirol, brought to it by Leo- 
pold V. The original altar-piece of the Hofkirche, by 
Paul Troger — the Invention of the Cross — was removed 
by Maria Theresa to Vienna, because the figure of the 
Empress Helena was counted a striking likeness of 

The introduction of the Jesuits into Tirol, and the 
subsequent building of the Jesuitenkirche in Innsbruck, 
and the labours of B, Peter Canisius among the people, 
was also the work of Ferdinand I. The peaceful 
prosperity which his wise government procured for the 
country, while wars and religious divisions were dis- 
tracting the rest of Europe, gave opportunity for the 
development of its literature and art-culture. 1 

One melancholy event of his reign was the out- 
break in its last year, of a terrible epidemic, which 
committed appalling ravages. All who could, including 

1 Weber, Das Land Tirol, vol. i. p. 218. 



the royal family, escaped to a distance ; and those who 
had been stricken with it were removed to the Siechen~ 
haua, and isolated from the rest of the population. As 
has frequently happened on similar occasions, the dread 
of the malady operated to deprive the sick of the help 
of which they stood in need. It was when the plague 
raged highest, and the majority were most absorbed 
with the thought of securing their own safety, that a 
poor woman of the people, named Magaretha Hueber, 
rising superior to the vulgar terror, took upon herself 
cheerfully the management of the desolate Siechen- 
haus. The example of her courage was all that was 
needed to bring out the Christian confidence and 
charity of the masses ; and to her devotion was owing 
not only the relief of the plague-stricken, but the 
moral effect of her spirit and energy was also not 
without its fruit in staying the havoc of the contagion ; 
and she is still remembered by the name of die fromme 

Shortly before his death (which happened in 1 564), 
Ferdinand had his second son, Ferdinand II., publicly 
acknowledged in the Landtag of Innsbruck, Landes- 
furst of Tirol. His own affection for the country had 
prevented him from suffering its interests to be ever 
neglected by the pressure of his vast rule ; and now 
when his great age warned him that he would be able to 
watch over it no longer, he determined to give it once 
more the benefit of an independent government. 

Ferdinand II. seems to have had all the excellent 


administrative qualities of his father in the degree 
necessary for his restricted sphere of dominion. His dis- 
position for the culture of peaceful arts was promoted by 
the happiness of his family life. The story of his early 
love, and his marriage in accordance with the dictates 
of his heart, in an age when matrimonial alliances were . 
too often dictated by political considerations alone, 
have made one of the romances dearest to the popular 
mind. The natural retribution of a disturbance of \ 
the regular succession to the throne followed, but with 
Tirol's usual good fortune the consequences did not 
prove disastrous, as we shall see later on. 

Situated at the distance of a pleasant hour's walk 
from Innsbruck, and forming an exceedingly picturesque 
object in the views from it, is Schloss Ambras, in. 
ancient times one of the chief bulwarks of the Inn- 
thai. Ferdinand I. bought it of the noble family of 
Schurfen at the time when he nominated his son to the : 
government of the country, and it always remained, 
Ferdinand II.'s favourite residence. Hither he brought 
home the beautiful Philippine Welser, whose grace and 
modesty had won his heart at first sight, as she leant 
forward from her turret window to cast her flowery 
greeting at the feet of the Emperor Charles Quint 
when he came into Augsburg, and the young and hand- 
some prince rode by his side. Philippine had been : 
betrothed by her father to the heir of the Fugger 
family, the richest and most powerful of Augsburg ; 
but her eyes had met Ferdinand's, and that one glance 

s 2 


had revealed to both that their happiness lay in union 
with each other. Fortunately for Philippine she pos- 
sessed in her mother a devoted confidant and ally. True, 
Ferdinand could not rest till he had obtained a stolen 
interview with her ; but the true German woman had 
confidence in the honour and virtue of the reigning 
House, and the words Philippine, who was truth itself, 
reported were those of true love, which knows no 
shame. Nevertheless, the Fugger was urgent, and old 
Weber — a sturdy upholder of his family tradition for 
upright dealing — never, they knew, could be brought 
to be wanting to his word. The warm love of youth, 
however, is ever a match for the steady calculation of 
age. While the fathers Welser and Fugger were 
counting their money-bags, Ferdinand had devised a 
plan which easily received the assent of Philippine^ 
affection for him, the rather that her mother, for whom 
a daughter's happiness stood dearer than any other 
consideration, gave it her countenance and aid. At an 
hour agreed, Ferdinand appeared beneath the turret 
where their happiness was first revealed to them ; at a 
little distance his horses were in waiting. Not an 
instant had he to wait ; Philippine, already fortified by 
her mother's farewell benediction, joined him ere a 
pang of misgiving had time to enter his mind, an old 
and trusted family servant accompanying her. Safely 
the fugitives reached the chapel, where a friendly priest 
— Ferdinand's confessor, Johann Cavalleriis — waited to 
bless the nuptials of the devoted pair, the old servant 


acting as witness. Old Franz Welser was subsequently 
induced to give his approval and paternal benediction ; 
and if his burgher pride was wounded by his daughter 
marrying into a family which might look down upon 
her connexions, he had the consoling reflection that he 
was able to give her a dowry which many princes might 
envy ; and also in the discovery of a friendly antiquary, 
that even his lineage, if not royal, was not either to be 
despised, for it could be traced up to the same stock 
which gave Belisarius to the Empire ! 

Ferdinand's marriage was, I believe, never known to 
his father ; though there are stories of his being won 
over to forgive it by Philippine's gentle beauty and 
worth, but these are probably referable to the suc- 
ceeding Emperor. However this may be, the devoted 
pair certainly lived for some time in blissful retirement 
at Ambras ; and after his brother, Maximilian II., had 
acknowledged the legality of Ferdinand's marriage — on 
the condition that the offspring of it should never claim 
the rank of Archdukes of Austria — Ambras, which had 
been their first retreat, was so endeared to them, that 
they always loved to live there better than anywhere else. 
There were born to them two sons — Karl, who after- 
wards became a Cardinal and Bishop of Brixen ; and 
Andreas, Markgrave of Burgau, to whom Ferdinand 
willed Ambras, on condition that he should maintain 
its regal beauties, and preserve undiminished the rich 
stores of books and rare manuscripts, coins, armour, 
objects of vertu, and curiosities of every sort which it 


had been the delight of his and Philippine^ leisure 
;hours to collect. This testamentary disposition the son 
judged would be best carried out by selling the place to 
the Emperor Eudolf II. in 1606; and Ambras has 
accordingly ever since been reckoned a pleasure-seat of 
the imperial family. The unfortunate love of centra- 
lization, more tfyan the fear of foreign invasion, which 
iras the ostensible pretext, deprived Tirol of these 
treasures. They were removed to Vienna in 1806, 
where they may be visited in the Belvedere Palace, the 
•promise of restoring them, often made, not having yet 
been fulfilled. Among the remnants that are left, are 
still some tokens of Ferdinand's taste and genius, and 
•some touching memorials of thirty years of happi- 
ness purer and truer than had often before been com- 
bined with the enjoyment of power. There are some 
pieces of embroidery, with which Philippine occupied 
her lonely hours while Ferdinand's public duties obliged 
him to be away from her, among them a well- 
executed Crucifixion ; and some natural curiosities in 
the shape of gnarled and twisted roots, needing little 
effort of the imagination to convert into naturally — 
perhaps supernaturally — formed crucifixes, and which 
they had doubtless found pleasure in unearthing in the 
woods round Ambras. At the time of my visit the 
private chapel was being very well restored, and some 
frescoes very fairly executed by Wienhold, a local 
jartist who has studied in Eome. There is still a small 


collection of armour, and a suit of clothes worn by a 
giant in the suite of Charles Quint, which would appear 
to have belonged to a man near eight feet high ; also 
some portraits of the Hapsburg family and other rulers 
of Tirol ; among them Margareta Maultasch, which, if 
it be faithful, disproves the story deriving her .name 
from the size of her mouth ; but of this I shall have 
occasion to speak later. Inglis mentions that among 
the relics is a piece of the tree on which Judas hanged 
himself, but it was not shown to me. 

The people, whose own experience fixes the law of 
suffering in their minds, will have it that these years of 
tranquil joy were not unalloyed ; but that Philippine's 
mother-in-law embittered them by her jealous bicker- 
ings and reproaches, and that these in the end led 
her to make a sacrifice of her life to the exigen- 
cies of her husband's glory. The bath is yet pointed 
out at Ambras where she is said to have bled herself to 
death to make way for a consort more conformable to 
her husband's birth. All, even local, historians, how- 
ever, are agreed in rejecting this tradition. 1 It has 
served nevertheless to endear her to the popular mind, 
for whom she is still a model of domestic virtues no 
less than a type of beauty. Scarcely is there a house in 
Tirol that ia not adorned by her image. Among other 

1 Zotter Geschichte der Stadt Innsbruck, p. 272; and Weiesegger, 
vol. vi. p. 61. 


traditions of her personal perfections, it is fabled that 
her skin was so delicate that the colour of the red wine 
could be seen softly opalized as it passed her slender 
throat. 1 

1 I have met the same hyperbole in a piece of homely Spanish 




iNNSBEUCK (continued). 

Ora conosce come iinnamora 

Lo del delgiusto rege, et al sembiante 

Del suoftdgoreUfavedere ancora. 

Dante Pabadiso, zz. 63. ' 

Another local tradition of Ambras attaches to a spot 
where Wallenstein, while a page in the household of 
Ferdinand and Philippine, fell unharmed from the 
window of the corridor leading to the dining-hall, 
making in the terrible moment a secret vow to the 
Blessed Virgin of his conversion if he escaped with 
life, which hastened the work begun doubtless by Philip- 
pine's devout example and teaching. There is another, 
again, more marvellous still, and dated from an earlier 
period, and shortly before the purchase of the castle 
by the reigning family. It is said that Theophrastus 
Paracelsus, of whom many weird stories are told, was Sj 
at one time sojourning at Innsbruck — where, another 
tradition has it, he died — and in the course of his 
wanderings in search of plants of strange healing 
powers, came to this outlying and then neglected castle. 
A peasant woman seeing him pass her cottage weary and 

1 ' Now he knows how the just monarch is beloved of Heaven ; his 
beaming countenance yet testifies his joy. 


footsore, asked him to come in and rest and taste her 
freshly-baked cakes, of which the homely odour scented 
the air. The man of strange science thanked her for 
her hospitality, and in return touched the tongs upon 
the hearth with his wonder-working book, and behold 
the iron was turned into pure gold. The origin of such 
a legend as this is easy to trace ; the book of the touch 
of which such virtue is fabled, plainly represents the 
learning of the studious savant, which brought him, as 
well as fame, pecuniary advantage, enabling him to 
astonish the peasants with payment in the precious 
•metal not often seen by them. But there are many 
others told of him, the details of which are more com- 
plicated, and wander much further from the outline of 
fact. The way in which he became possessed of his 
wonder-working power is thus accounted for. 1 One 
Sunday morning, when he was after his custom wander- 
ing in search of plants in a forest on the heights not far 
from Innsbruck, he heard a voice calling him out of a 
tree. ' Who are you ? ' cried Paracelsus. ' I am he 
whom men call the Evil One,' answered the voice; 
* but how wrong they are you shall judge ; if you but 
release me out of this tree you shall see I am 
not evil at all.' ' How am I to set about it ? ' 
asked the clever Doctor. 4 Only look straight up the 
stem of the pine opposite you, and you will see a bung 
with three crosses on it; all you have to do is to pull it 
out, and I am free ; if you do this I will show you how 
good I am by giving you the two things you most 

1 Nork, Mythologie der Vblkssagen, p. 419. 


desire, an elixir which shall turn all to gold, and another 
which shall heal every malady.' Paracelsus, lured by 
the tempting promise, pulled out the bung, and 
straightway an ugly black spider crawled out of the 
hole, and quickly transformed itself into an old man 
wrapped in a scarlet mantle. The demon kept his 
word, and gave the Doctor the promised phials, but 
immediately began threatening the frightful ven-» 
geance he would wreak on the exorcist who had 
confined him in the tree. Paracelsus now blamed 
himself for his too ready confidence in the character 
the demon had given himself for goodness, and 
bethought him of a means of playing on the imp's 
vanity. 'What a knowing man that same exorcist 
must be,' said Paracelsus, 'to turn a tall powerful fellow 
like you into a spider, and then drive you into a tree/ 
4 Not a bit of it,' replied the imp, piqued, 4 he couldn't 
have done anything of the sort, it was all my own doing.' 
4 Your own doing !' exclaimed Paracelsus, with a mocking 
laugh. ' Is that likely ? I have heard of people being 
transformed by some one of greater power than them- 
selves, never by their own.' « You shall see, though,' 
said the provoked imp ; and with that he quickly re- 
sumed the form of a spider, and crawled back into the 
hole. 1 Paracelsus, it may well be imagined, lost no 
time in replacing the bung, on which he cut three fresh 

1 Exactly the story of the fisherman and the Genius in the copper 
vessel of the Arabian Nights. It is found also in Grimm's story of the 
Spirit in the bottle, in the Norse tale of the Master Smith ; in that of 
the Lad and the Devil (Dasent) ; and in the Gaelic tale of the Soldier 


crosses to renew the spell ; and never can he again be 
released, for it was agreed never to cut down this forest 
on account of the protection it afforded to the country 
against the avalanches. 

But, it may be asked, the wonder-working phials 
once vouchsafed to men, would surely be taken good care 
of. There is a legend to provide for that too. 1 When 
the other doctors of Innsbruck found that Paracelsus 
so far exceeded them in skill, they determined to poison 
him. Paracelsus had knowledge of their plot by his 
arts, he knew too that there was only one remedy against 
the poison they had adopted, and he shut himself up, 
telling his servant not to disturb him for five days. At 
the end of the fourth day, however, the curious servant 
came into his room and broke the spell. Paracelsus had 
employed a wonder-working spider to draw out the poison, 
which it would have done in the course of five days. 
Disturbed on the fourth, Paracelsus knew he must die. 
Determined that the jealous members of his profession 
should not profit by their crime, he sent his servant 
with the two phials and bid him stand in the middle 
of the Inn-bridge and throw them into the river. 
Where they fell into the river the water was streaked 
with molten gold. 

It remains to call attention to the splendid 
and truly Tirolean panoramic view from the pretty 
terrace of Ambras, with its luxuriant trellis of passion- 

1 Von Alpenbuig, Mythen u. Sagen Tirols. 


flower and c virgin vine.' Overhanging the village of 
Ambras is the so-called Tummelplatz, where in the 
lifetime of Ferdinand and Philippine, many a gay tour- 
nament was held, but since used as a burying-place ; 
first for the military hospital, to which the castle was 
at one time devoted — and some seven or eight thousand 
patriots were interred here between 1796 and 1810 — 
and afterwards for those who fell successfully resisting 
the Italian invasion of 1859. 

Whatever was the manner of Philippine's death, it 
was bitterly lamented by Ferdinand, who found the 
usual refuge of human grief in raising a splendid 
monument to her memory, in the so-called Silheme 
Kapelle in the Hofkirche. The chapel had been built by 
him to satisfy her devotion to the doctrine of the Im- 
maculate Conception ; and in her lifetime was so called 
from the solid silver image of the Blessed Virgin, and 
the bas-reliefs of the mysteries of the rosary in the same 
metal over the altar, itself a valuable ebony carving. 
She had loved to pray there, and it accordingly formed 
a fitting resting-place for her mortal remains. Her 
effigy in marble over her altar-shaped tomb is a figure 
of exceeding beauty, and is ascribed to Alexander 
Collin ; it stands under a marble canopy. The upright 
slab is of white marble, carved in three compartments ; 
the centre one bearing a modest inscription, and the 
other two, subjects recording her charity to the living 
and the dead ; the outline of the town of Innsbruck, 
as it appeared in her day, forms the background. By 


his desire Ferdinand was buried near her ; his monu- 
ment is similarly sunk in the thickness of the wall, 
which is adorned with shields carved in relief, bearing 
the arms of his house painted with their respective 
tinctures ; and on the tomb are marble reliefs, setting 
forth (after the manner of those on Maximilian's ceno- 
taph) the public acts of his life. This chapel came to- 
be used afterwards for Italian sermons by the consorts 
of subsequent rulers of Tirol, many of whom were 

In 1572 Innsbruck was visited by a severe shock of 
earthquake, which overthrew many buildings, and so 
filled the people with alarm, that temporary wooden 
huts were built in the open field where they took 
refuge. Ferdinand and Philippine had recourse to the 
same means of safety; and while living thus, their only 
daughter, Anna Eleonora, was born. In thanksgiving 
for this favour, and for the cessation of the panic, 
the royal pair vowed a pilgrimage to Seefeld, 1 which 
they accomplished on foot, accompanied by their* 
sons ; above two thousand Innsbruckers following them. 
The general sentiment of gratitude was further testified 
by the enactment on the part of Ferdinand, and the 
glad acceptance on the part of the people, of various 
rules of devotion, which have gone to form the subse- 
quent habits of the people. Three years of dearth suc- 
ceeded the earthquake, and were accepted by the 

1 See pp. 194, 270, 324-5. 


pious ruler and people as a heavenly warning to lead 
them to increased faith and devotion. Many Lutheran 
books which had escaped earlier measures against them 
were spontaneously brought forward and burnt ; special 
devotion to the Blessed Sacrament was promoted, 
Ferdinand himself setting the example ; for whenever 
he met the Viaticum on the way to the sick, whether 
he was in a carriage or on horseback, he never failed 
to alight and kneel upon the ground, whatever might 
be its condition. This was indeed a special tradition 
of his house ; it is told of Eudolf of Hapsburg, that 
one day as he was out hunting, a furious storm came 
on, soon swelling the mountain torrents and sweeping 
away paths and bridges. On the brink of a raging 
stream, which there was no means of crossing, stood a 
priest, weather-bound on his way to carry the last 
sacrament to a dying parishioner. Eudolf recognised 
the sound of the bell, and directed his steps by its 
leading to pay his homage to the 4 hochwiirdigste GuV 
He no sooner learned the priest's difficulty than he 
dismounted, and offered him his own horse. When, 
the priest brought the animal back next day, the pious 
prince told him he could not think of himself again 
crossing a horse which had been honoured by having 
borne his Lord and Eedeemer, and begged him to keep 
it for the future service of religion. 

While Philippine's relations never sought to over- 
step the limits which imperial etiquette had set them, 
Ferdinand seems to have treated them with kind cor- 


diality. An instance of this was the magnificence with 
which he celebrated the marriage of her nephew, 
Johann von Kolourat, with her maid-of-honour, Kata- 
rina von Boimont, in 1580: the ^NeustadV or princi- 
pal street afforded space for tournaments and races 
which, lasted many days, and attracted the remaining 
votaries of chivalry from all parts of Europe. The 
festivities were closed by a splendid pageant, in which 
Ferdinand took part as ' Olympian Jove.' 

In 1582 Ferdinand married Anna Katharina Gon- 
zaga, daughter of the Duke of Mantua, who was no less 
pious than Philippine. The marriage was celebrated 
at Innsbruck with great pomp. She was the first to 
introduce the Capuchin Order into Germany. Some 
discussion in the general chapter of the Order pre- 
ceded the decision which allowed the monks to accept 
the consequences of being exposed to a colder climate 
than that to which they had been used. The first 
stone of their monastery was laid by Ferdinand and 
Anna Katharina in August 1593, at the intersection 
of the Universitats-gasse and the Sill-gasse. Ferdinand 
died the following year, regretted by all the. people, but 
by none more than by Anna Katharina, who passed the 
remainder of her days in a convent she had founded 
at Innsbruck. She died in 1621, and desired the 
following inscription to be put on her tomb : — c Miserere 
mei Lomine dum veneris i/n novissimo die.' 

The warning of the disastrous years 1572-4 was 
further turned to practical account by Ferdinand in 


his desire to relieve the distress of the peasants. In 
the first months of threatening famine he bought 
with his own means large stores of grain in Hungary 
and Italy, and opened depots in various parts of Tirol, 
where it was sold at a reasonable price. To provide a 
means of earning money for those who were shut out of 
their ordinary labour, he laid out or improved soma of 
the most important high roads; he likewise exerted himr 
self in every way to promote the commerce of the 
country. His* reign conferred many other benefits on 
the people. Many laws were amended and brought in 
conformity with the altered circumstances of the age ; 
the principle of self-taxation was established, and other 
measures enacted which it does not belong to my pre- 
sent province to particularise. . He introduced also the 
use of the Gregorian Calendar, and gave great en- 
couragement to the cultivation of letters. It was by 
his care that the most authentic MSS. of the Nibelun- 
gen poems and other examples of early literature were 
preserved to us.. 

As Ferdinand had no children by Anna Katharina, 
and those of Philippine were not allowed to succeed, 1 
the rule over Tirol went back at his death to the Em- 
peror Eudolf II., Maximilian's eldest son. In 1602, 
however, he gave over the government to his brother 
Maximilian, who is distinguished by the nam& of the 

1 They accepted their position with the usual Tirolese loyalty,, and 
never attempted to found any claims to power on the circumstance of 
their birth. 



Deutschmeister. Tirol was again fortunate in her ruler ; 
Maximilian was as pious and prudent a prince as his 
predecessors. He promoted the educational establish- 
ments of the town, and was a zealous opponent of re- 
ligious differences ; he brought in the Order of Servites 
to oppose the remaining germs of Lutheran teaching ; 
the church and monastery at the end of the Neustadt 
being built for them by Katharina Maria. There are 
some pictures in the church by Theophilus Polak, Mar- 
tin Knoller, Grasmair, and other native artists ; and 
the frescoes on the roof by Schopf are worth attention. 
A fanatic named Paul Lederer, one of the very few 
Tirol has produced, rose in this reign, and carried away 
about thirty persons to join a kind of sect which he 
attempted to form ; in accordance with the laws of the 
age, he was tried and executed, after which his fol- 
lowers were no more heard of. 

Maximilian was much attached to the Capuchins, 
and built himself a little hermitage within their 
precincts, which is still shown, where he spent all the 
time he could spare in prayer and meditation ; following 
the rule of the monks, rising with them to their night 
Offices, and employing himself at manual labour in the 
field and in the workshop like one of them. His cell 
is paneled with plain wood, the bed and chair are of 
the most ordinary make, as are the ink-stand and other 
necessary articles, mostly his own handiwork ; it has a 
window high up in the chancel, whence he could assist 


at the Offices in the church. The Empress Maria 
Theresa visited it in 1765, and seating herself in the 
stiff wooden chair, exclaimed, « What men our fore- 
fathers were I ' Another illustrious pilgrim, whose visit 
is treasured in the memories of the house, was St. Lorenzo 
of Brindisi, when on his way to found a house of the 
Order in Austria. The monks begged of him his Hebrew 
Bible, his walking-stick, and breviary, which are still 
treasured as relics. All the churches of Innsbruck and 
many throughout Tirol felt the benefit of Maximilian's 
devotion to the Church. His spirit was emulated by 
the townspeople, and when the fatal epidemic of 1611 
ceased its ravages, the burghers of Innsbruck' built the 
Dreiheiligkeitskirche 1 for the Jesuits, as a thank-offering 
that the plague was stayed. 

The temporal affairs of Tirol received no less atten- 
tion from Archduke Maximilian than the spiritual. 
With the foresight of a true statesman, he discovered the 
coming~troubles of the Thirty Years' War, and resolved 
that the defences of his country should be in a state to 
keep the danger at a distance from her borders. The 
fortified towers, especially those commanding the passes 
into the country, were all overlooked, and plans of them 
carefully prepared, all the fortifications being put in re- 
pair. The Landwehr, the living bulwarks, the ready de- 
fenders of their beloved mountain Vaterland, attracted 
his still more special attention, and he furnished them 

1 Holy Trinity Church. 


with a regulation suited to the needs of the times. He 
settled also several outstanding disputes with the Vene- 
tians, with Count Arco, and with neighbours over the 
north and west frontiers ; and an internal boundary 
quarrel between the Bishops of Brixen and Trent, The 
death of Rudolf II., in 1612, had invested him with 
supreme authority over the country, and simplified his 
action in all these matters for the benefit of the com- 

Another outburst of pestilence occurred in 1611 ; 
the old 8iechen-hau8 was not big enough for all the 
sick, and had no church attached to it. Two Jesuits — 
the professor of theology at their university, and Kaspar 
von Kostlan, a native of Brixen — assisted by a lay- 
brother, devoted themselves to the service of the sick ; 
their example so edified the Innsbruckers, that in their 
admiration they readily provided the means, at their 
exhortation, to build a church. Hanns Zimmermann, 
Dean of the Burgomasters, bound himself by a vow 
fco see to the erection of the building, and from that 
time it was observed the fury of the pestilence began to 
diminish. Maximilian bought the neighbouring house 
and appointed it for the residence of the chaplain of the 
Sieckerirhaiw and the doctors. He gave also the altar- 
piece by Stotzl, representing the three Pestschutzheili- 

1 Patron saints against pestilence : viz. 6S. Martha (because accord- 
ing to her legend «be built a hospital and ended her life tending the 
sick), Sebastian (because a plague was stayed in Borne at his interces- 
sion), and Eocchus (because of the well-known legend of his self- 
devotion to the plague-stricken). 


gen, 1 and another quaint and curious picture of the 

Maximilian died in 1618, and a religious vbw having 
kept him unmarried, the government was transferred to 
Leopold V., Archduke of Styria, again a most exemplary 
man. His father was Charles II., son of the Emperor 
Ferdinand I. ; he had orginally been devoted to the 
ecclesiastical state, and nominated Bishop of Strasburg 
and Passau ; but out of regard for the exigencies of the 
country a dispensation, of which I think history affords 
only two or three other examples, was granted him 
from Rome. He married the celebrated Claudia de' 
Medici, Duchess of Urbino. Though also Governor of 
the Low Countries, he by no means neglected the 
affairs of Tirol. Some fresh attempts of Lutherans to 
interfere with its religious unity, as well as to foment 
political dissensions, were put down with a resolute 
hand. Friedrich von Tiefenbach, sometime notorious 
as a politico-religious leader in Moravia, was discovered 
in a hiding-place he had selected, in the wild caves at 
Pfaffers 1 below Chur, and tried and beheaded at Inns- 
bruck in 1621. The selection of Innsbruck for the 
marriage of the Emperor Ferdinand II. with his second 
wife Eleonora, daughter of the Duke of Mantua, in 1622, 
revived the splendours of Maximilian's reign, for the 
Emperor stayed there some weeks with all his court ; 
the Lanckvehr turned out three thousand strong to 
form his guard of honour. It was the depth of winter, 

1 Mentioned in the chapter on Vorarlberg, p. 23. 


but the bride braved the snow ; the Count of Harrach 
was sent out to meet her on the Brenner Pass with six 
gilt sledges, and a vast concourse of people. It is re- 
corded that the Emperor wore on the occasion an entirely 
white suit embroidered with gold and pearls, on his 
shoulders a short sky-blue cloak lined with cloth of 
gold, and a diamond chain round his neck. Eleonora, 
more in accordance with the season, wore a tight-fitting 
dress of carnation satin embroidered in gold, over it a 
sable jacket, and a hat with a plume of eagles' feathers. 
The banquet was entirely served by youngTirolean nobles. 
The Emperor's present to his bride was a pearl paruve, 
costing thirty thousand ducats ; and that of the town of 
Innsbruck a purse of eighteen thousand ducats. Leopold 
was confirmed by his imperial brother in the government 
on this occasion. His own marriage was celebrated 
with scarcely less state than the Emperor's in April 1 626^ 
an array of handsome tents being pitched in the meadows 
of Wilten, where the LwndesschMzm performed many 
marksmen's feats for the diversion of the company as- 
sembled for the ceremonial. This included the Arch- 
bishop of Salzburg, who officiated in the Church func- 
tion, one hundred and fifty counts and barons, and three 
hundred of noble blood. The visit of the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany in 1628, and of Ferdinand, King of Hungary 
and Bohemia, in 1629, were other notable occasions of 
rejoicing for Innsbruck. 

Leopold benefited and adorned the town by the en- 
closure and planting of the Hofgarten, and the bronze 


equestrian statue of himself, still one of its chief orna- 
ments ; but his memory has been more deeply endeared 
to the people by the present of Kranach's Madonna, 
which they have copied in almost every church, house- 
hold, and highway of the country. It is a little picture 
on panel, very like many of its date, in which the 
tenderness of devotion beams through and redeems all 
the stiffness of mannerism ; but which we are apt to 
pass, I had almost said by the dozen, in the various 
galleries of Europe, with no more than a casual glance. 
With the Tirolese it was otherwise. Their faith-inspired 
eyes saw in it a whole revelation of Divine mercy and 
love ; they gazed on the outpouring of maternal fond- 
ness and filial confidence in the unutterable communion 
of the Mother and the Son there portrayed ; and deeming 
that where so much love reigned no petition could be 
rejected, they believed that answers to the frequent 
prayers of faith sent up before it were reaped an 
hundredfold, 1 and the fame of the benefits so derived 
was symbolized in the title universally given to the 
picture, of Maridhulfsbild. 2 Leopold being in the 
early part of his reign on a visit to the Elector of 
Saxony, on occasion of one of his journeys between 
Tirol and the Low Countries, and being lost in admira- 
tion of his collection of pictures at Dresden, received 
from him the offer of any painting he liked to select. 

1 Thirteen volumes were filled with the narrations of such * answers * 
received between 1662 and 1665. 

2 Picture of Mary * Help of Christians ' — Auxilium Christianorum. 


There were many choice specimens, but the devotional 
conception of this picture carried him away from all 
the rest, and it became the object of his selection. He 
never parted from it afterwards, and it accompanied 
him in all his journeyings. When in Innsbruck, it 
formed the altar-piece of the Hofkapelle^ whither the 
people crowded to kindle their devotion at its focus. 
After the withdrawal of the allied French, Swedish, 
and Hessian troops in 1647, the Innsbruckers, in 
thanksgiving for the success of their prayers before 
it, built the elegant little circular temple 1 on the 
left bank of the Inn, still called the Mariahiilfskirche, 
thinking to enshrine it there ; but Ferdinand Karl, 
who had then succeeded to his father Leopold, could 
not bear to part with it, and gave them a copy instead, 
by Paul Schor, inserted in a larger picture repre- 
senting it borne by angels, and the notabilities of 
Innsbruck kneeling beneath it, the Mariahiilfskirche 
being introduced into the background landscape. How- 
ever, the number of people who pressed to approach it 
"was so great that he was in a manner constrained to 
*bestow it on the Pfarrkirche only two or three years 
later, where it now remains ; it was translated thither 
•during Queen Christina's visit, as I have mentioned 
above. It was borne on a car by six white horses, the 
•crowded streets being strewn with flowers. It is a small 
picture, and has been let into a large canvas painted 

1 Inglis says that Schor was the architect of this church, and that he 
ha.d assisted in building the Vatican. 


in Schopf s best manner, with angels which appear to 
support it, and beneath St. James, patron of the church, 
and St. Alexius. A centenary festival was observed in 
memory of the translation by Maria Theresa in 1750, 
when all the precious ex votos, the thank-offerings for 
many granted prayers, were exposed to view under the 
light streaming from a hundred silver candelabra, the 
air around being perfumed by the flowers of a hundred 
silver vases. The procession was a splendid pageant, in 
which no expense seems to have been spared, the great 
Empress herself, accompanied by her son, afterwards 
Joseph II.} heading it. This was repeated — in a man- 
ner corresponding with the diminished magnificence 
of the age — in 1850, the Emperor Ferdinand I., the 
Empress Anna, and other members of the Imperial 
family, taking their part in it. 1 

The only remaining act of Leopold's reign which 
calls for mention in connexion with Innsbruck, was the 
erection of the monument to Maximilian the Deutsch- 
meister, in the Pfarrkirche, almost the only one that 
was spared when the church was rebuilt after the 
earthquakes <&f 1667 and 1689, the others having been 

1 It is painted on panel, thirty inches by twenty-one ; the figure of 
onr Lady is three quarter-length, but appears to be sitting, as the foot 
of the Divine Infant seems to rest upon her knee. The tradition 
concerning it is, that it represents an episode of the Flight into Egypt, 
when, as the Holy Family rested under a palm-grove, they were over- 
taken by a band of robbers, headed by S. Demas, the (subsequently) 
penitent thief. The Holy Child is indeed represented clinging to His 
Mother — not as in fear, or even as if need were to suggest courage to 
her, but simply as if an attack sustained in common impelled a closer 
union of affection. 


ruthlessly used — the headstones in building up the 
walls, the bronze ones in the bell-castings. 

Leopold's son, Ferdinand Karl, being under age at 
the time of his death, in 1632, he was succeeded by his 
widow, Claudia de' Medici, as regent. The troubles of 
the Thirty Years' War, in which Leopold like other 
German princes had had his chequered share, were yet 
raging. Claudia was equal to the exigencies of her 
time and country. She continued the measures of 
Maximilian the Deutechmeister for perfecting the 
defences of the country, and particularly all its inlets ; 
and she encouraged the patriotic instincts of the 
people by constantly presiding at their shooting- 
practice. The Swedish forces, after taking Constance, 
advanced as far as the Valtelin, and Tirol was 
threatened with invasion on both sides at once. By 
her skilful measures, at every rumour of an inroad, the 
mountains bristled with the unerring marksmen of 
Tirol, securely stationed at their posts inaccessible to 
lowlanders. Nothing was spared to keep up the vigi- 
lance and spirit of the true-hearted peasants. By this 
constant watchfulness she saved the country from the 
horrors of war, in which almost the whole of the Ger- 
man Empire was at that time involved. During all this 
time she was also developing the internal resources, and 
consolidating the administration of the country. Two 
misfortunes, however, visited Innsbruck during her 
reign : a terrible pestilence, and a destructive fire in 
which the Burg suffered severely, the beautiful chapel of 



Ferdinand II. being consumed, and the body of Leopold, 
her husband, which was lying there at the time, rescued 
with difficulty. After this, Claudia spent some little 
time at Botzen, and also visited Florence. It may be 
questioned whether the introduction of the numerous 
Italians about her court was altogether for the benefit of 
Tirol. They brought with them certain ways and 
principles which were not altogether in accordance 
with the German character ; and we have seen the effect 
of the jealousies of race in the tragic fate of her chan- 
cellor Biener. 1 

Ferdinand Karl having attained his majority in 
1646, Claudia withdrew from public affairs, and died 
only two years later. In his reign the introduction of 
the Italian element at court was apparent in the greater 
luxury of its arrangements, and in the greater cultivation 
of histrionic and musical diversions. The establish- 
ment of the theatre in Innsbruck is due to him. The 
marriage of his two sisters, Maria Leopoldina and 
Isabella Clara, and the frequent interchange of visits 
between him and the princes of Italy, further enlivened 
Innsbruck. The visit of Queen Christina, 3 of which I 
have already said enough for my limits, also took place 
in his reign ( 1 655). Nor did Ferdinand Karl give him- 
self up to amusement to the neglect of business, or of 

1 See pp. 123-4. 

* She was on her way to Rome, where she spent the rest of her 
life. Alexander VII. commissioned Bernini to rebuild the Porta 
del Popolo, and adorned it with its inscription, Felici, faustoque 
ingressui, in honour of her entry. 


more manly pleasures. He maintained all his mother's 
measures for the encouragement of the Schiebensckiessen, 
and had the satisfaction of seeing the departure of the 
enemy's army from his borders, which was celebrated 
by the building of Mariahiilfskirche. 1 To his love of 
the national sport of chamois-hunting his death has to 
be ascribed; for the neglect of an attack of illness 
while out on a mountain expedition near Kaltern after 
the wild game, gave it a hold on his constitution, which 
placed him beyond recovery. His death occurred in 
1 660, at the early age of thirty-four ; he left no heir. 

He was succeeded by his only brother, Sigmund 
Franz, Bishop of Gurk, Augsburg, and Trent, who 
seems to have inherited all his mother's finer qualities 
without sharing her Italianizing tendencies. With a 
perhaps too sudden sternness, he purged the court and 
government of all foreign admixture, and reduced the 
sumptuous suite of his brother to dimensions dictated 
by usefulness alone. However popular this may have 
made him with the German population, the ousted 
Italians were furious; and his sudden death — which 
occurred while, after the pattern of his father, applying 
for a dispensation to marry, in 1665 — was by the Ger- 
mans ascribed to secret poisoning ; his Tuscan physician 
Agricola having, it is alleged, been bribed to perpetrate 
the misdeed. 

Tirol now once more reverted to the Empire. 
Thpugh Leopold I. came to Innsbruck to receive the 

1 See p. 280. 


homage of the people on his accession, and a gay cere- 
monial ensued, yet it lost much of its importance by 
having no longer a resident court. While there, how- 
ever, Leopold had seen the beautiful daughter of 
Ferdinand Karl's widow, Claudia Felicita, who made 
such an impression upon him, that he married her on 
the death of his first wife. The ceremony was per- 
formed in Innsbruck by proxy only ; but the dowager- 
archduchess provided great fetes, in which the city readily 
concurred, and gave the bride thirty thousand gulden 
for her wedding present. Claudia Felicita, in her state 
at Vienna, did not forget the good town of Innsbruck ; 
and by her interest with her husband, Tirol received 
a Statthalter in the person of Charles Duke of Lotha- 
ringia, husband of his sister Eleonora Maria, widow of 
the King of Poland. Charles took up his residence at 
Innsbruck ; and though he was often absent with the 
army, the presence of his family revived the gaiety 
of the town 5 still it was not like the old days of the 
court. Charles, however, who had been originally edu- 
cated for the ecclesiastical state, was a sovereign of 
unexceptionable principles and sound judgment; and 
he did many things for the benefit of Tirol, particu- 
larly in developing its educational establishments. He 
raised the Jesuit gymnasium of Innsbruck to the cha- 
racter of a university ; and the privileges with which 
he endowed it, added to the salubrity of the situation, 
attracted alumni from far and near, who amounted to 
near a thousand in number. 



Nothing of note occurred in Tirol till 1703 — the 
Duke of Lotharingia had died in 1696 — which is a 
memorable year. The war of the Spanish Succession, 
at that time, found Maximilian, Elector of Bavaria, 
and some of the Italian princes, allied with France 
against Austria — thus there were antagonists of Austria 
on both sides of Tirol; nevertheless, no attack on it 
seems to have been apprehended ; and thus, when a 
plan was concerted for entering Austria by Carinthia 
(the actual boundaries against Bavaria being too well 
defended to invite an entrance that way), and it was 
arranged that the Bavarian and Italian allies should 
assist the French in overrunning Tirol, everyone was 
taken by surprise. Maximilian easily overcame the 
small frontier garrison. At Kufstein he met a 
momentary check, but an accident put the fortress 
in his power. Possessed of this base of operations, he 
was not long in reducing the forts of Eottenburg 
Scharnitz, and Ehrenberg, and possessing himself of 
Hall and Innsbruck. He now reckoned the country 
his, and that it only remained to send news of his 
success to Vendome, who had taken W&lsch-Tirol simi- 
larly by surprise and advanced as far as Trent, in order 
to carry out their concerted inroad through the Puster- 
thal. So sure of his victory was he, that he ordered 
the Te Deum to be sung in all the churches of Inns- 

In the meantime the Tirolese had recovered from 
their surprise, and had taken measures for disconcert- 


ing and routing the invaders ; the storm-bells and the 
Kreidenfeuer 1 rallied every man capable of bearing 
arms, to the defence of his country. The main road 
over the Brenner was quickly invested by the native 
sharp-shooters ; there was no chance of passing that 
way. Maximilian thought to elude the vigilance of 
the people by sending his men round by Oberinn- 
thal and the Finstermiinz. The party trusted with 
this mission were commanded by a Bavarian and a 
French officer. They reached Landeck in safety, but 
all around them the sturdy Tirolese were determining 
their destruction. Martin Sterzinger, Pfieger or Judge, 
of Landeck, summoned the Landsturm of the neigh- 
bouring districts, and arranged the plan of operation. 
The enemy were suffered to advance on their way un- 
hindered along the steep path, where the rocky sides of 
the Inn close in and form the terrible gorge which is 
traversed by the Pontlatzerbriicke ; but when they ar- 
rived, no bridge was there ! The mountaineers had been 
out in the night and cut it down. Beyond this point 
the steep side afforded no footing on the right bank, no 
means remained of crossing over to the left ! The 
remnants of the bridge betrayed what had befallen, 
and quickly the command was given to turn back ; in 
the panic of the moment many lost their footing, and 
rolled into the rapid river beneath. For those even 
who retained their composure no return was possible ; 
the heights above were peopled with the ready Tirolese, 

1 Kreidenfeuer — alarm fires, from Krei, a cry. 


burning to defend their country. Down came their 
shots like hail, each ball piercing its man ; those who 
had no arms dashed down stones upon the foe. Only 
a handful escaped, but at Landeck these were. taken 
prisoners; and there was not one even to carry the 
news to Maximilian. This famous success is still cele- 
brated every year on the 1st of July by a solemn 

Maximilian and Vendome remained perplexed at 
hearing nothing from each other, and without means 
of communication; in vain they sent out scouts; 
money could not buy information from the patriotic 
Tirolese. Meantime, danger was thickening round 
each ; the Landsturni was out, and every height was 
beset with agile climbers, armed with their unerring 
carbines, and with masses of rock to hurl down on the 
enemy who ventured along the road beneath them. 
The Bavarian and French leaders in the north and in 
the south only perceived how critical was their situa- 
tion just in time to escape from it, and the waste and 
havoc they had made during their brief incursion was 
recompensed by the numbers lost in their retreat. 
The Bavarians held Kufstein for. some time longer, but 
their precipitate withdrawal from all the rest of the 
country earned for the campaign, in the mouths of the 
Tirolese, the nickname of the Baierische-Rumpel. 
While brave arms had been defending the mountain 
passes, brave hearts of those whose arms were nerved 
only for being lifted up in prayer, nojb for war, were 


day by day earnestly interceding in the churches for 
the deliverance of their husbands, fathers, and brothers ; 
and when, on the 26th of July, the land was found 
free of the foe, it was gratefully remembered that it 
was S. Anne's Day, and the so-called AnnensaiUe, 
which adorns the Neustadt — the principal thoroughfare 
of Innsbruck — was erected in commemoration. 

It is composed of the marbles of the country ; the 
lower part red, the column white, the effigy of the Im- 
maculate Conception, which surmounts it and the sur- 
rounding rays, in gilt bronze. Bound the base stand 
St. Vigilius and St. Cassian (two apostles of Tirol), 
and St. Anne and St. George ; about them float angels, 
in the breezy style of the period. The monument was 
solemnly inaugurated on S. Anne's Day, 1706 ; and 
every year on that day a procession winds round it from 
the parish church, singing hymns of thanksgiving ; and 
an altar, gaily dressed with fresh flowers, stands before 
it for eight days under the open sky. 

Leopold I. died in 1705, and was succeeded by his 
son, Joseph I., who reigned only six years. Charles VI., 
Leopold's younger son, followed, who appointed Karl 
Philipp, Palsgrave of Neuburg, Governor of Tirol. 
He was another pious ruler, and much beloved by the 
people ; his memory being the more endeared to them, 
that he was their last independent prince. His reign 
benefited Innsbruck by the erection of the handsome 
Landhaus and the Gymnasium, and also by the exten- 
sive restoration of the Pfarrkirche. This occupied the 



site of the little chapel, the accorded privilege to 
which of hearing in it masses of obligation forms the 
earliest record of Innsbruck's history. It had grown 
with the growth of the town, and had been added to by 
various sovereigns, and we have seen it gifted with 
Kranach's Mariahilf. The earthquakes of 1 667 and 1 689 
had left it so dilapidated, however, that Karl Philipp 
resolved to rebuild it on a much larger plan. He laid 
the first stone on May 12, 1717, in presence of his 
brother, the Bishop of Augsburg, and it was consecrated 
in 1724. It has the costliness and the vices of its 
date ; its overloaded stucco ornaments are redeemed by 
the lavish use of the beautiful marbles of the country ; 
the quarrying and fashioning these marbles occupied 
a hundred workmen, without counting labourers and 
apprentices, for the whole time during which the church 
was building. The frescoes setting forth the wonder- 
working patronage of St. James, on the roof and cupola, 
are by Kosmas Damian Asam, whose pencil, and that 
of his two sons, Kosmas and Egid, were entirely devoted 
to the decoration of churches and religious houses. 
There is a tradition, that as the fervent painter was 
putting the finishing touches to the figure of the saint, 
as he appears, mounted on his spirited charger as the 
patron of Compostella, in the cupola, he stepped back 
to see the'effect of his work. Forgetting in his zeal 
the narrowness of the platform on which he stood, he 
would inevitably have been precipitated on to the 
pavement below, but that the strong arm of the saint 


he had been painting so lovingly, detached itself front 
the wall, and saved his client from the terrible fate ! l 
Other works of this reign were the Strafarbeitshaus, a 
great improvement on the former prison; and the 
church of St. John Nepomuk, in the Innrain, then a new 
and fashionable street. The canonization of the great 
martyr to the seal of Confession took place in 1730. 
Though properly a Bohemian saint, his memory is so 
beloved all through southern Germany, that all its 
divisions seem to lay a patriotic claim to him. His 
canonization was celebrated by a solemn function in the 
Pfarrkirche, lasting eight days ; and the people were so 
stirred up to fervour by its observance, that they sub- 
scribed for the building of a church in his honour, the 
governor taking the lead in promoting it. 

Maria Theresa succeeded her father, Charles VI., 
in 1742. Sbe seems to have known how to attend to- 
the affairs of every part of the Empire alike ; and thus, 
while the whole country felt the benefit of her wise- 
provisions, all the former splendours of the Tirolean 
capital revived. Maria Theresa frequently took up her 
residence at Innsbruck ; and while benefiting trade by 
her expenditure, and by that of the visitors whom her 
court attracted, she set at- the same time an edifying 

1 A leading spiritualist, who has also a prominent position in the liter < 
ary world, tells the story that one day he had missed his footing in 
going downstairs, and was within an ace of making as fatal a fall a? 
, Professor Phillips, when he distinctly felt himself seized, supported, 
and saved by an invisible hand. The analogy between the two convic- 
tions is curious. 

XT 2 


example of piety and a well-regulated life. Her asso- 
ciations with Innsbruck were nevertheless overshadowed 
by sad events more than once, though this does not 
appear to have diminished her affection for the place. 

When Marshal Daun took a whole division of the 
Prussian army captive at Maxen in 1758, the officers, 
nine in number, were sent to Innsbruck for safe custody. 
Here they remained till the close of the war, five years 
later. This, and the furnishing some of its famous 
sharpshooters to the Austrian contingent, was the only 
contact Tirol had with the Seven Years' War. Two 
years after (1765) Maria Theresa arranged that the 
marriage of her son (afterwards Leopold II.) with 
Maria Luisa, daughter of Charles III. of Spain, should 
take place there. The townspeople, sensible of the 
honour conferred on them, responded to it by adorning 
the city with the most festive display ; not only with 
gay banners and hangings, but by improving the facades 
of their houses, and the roads and bridges, and erecting 
a triumphal arch of unusual solidity at the end of the 
Neustadt nearest Wilten, being that by which the royal 
pair would pass on their way from Italy ; for Leopold 
was then Grand Duke of Tuscany. The theatre and 
public buildings were likewise put in order. Maria 
Theresa, with her husband Francis L, and all the 
Imperial family, arrived in Innsbruck on July 15, 
attracting a larger assemblage of great people than had 
been seen there even in its palmiest days. Banquets 
and gay doings filled up the interval till August 5, 


when Leopold and Maria Luisa made their entrance 
with unexampled pomp. The marriage was celebrated 
in the Pfarrkirche by Prince Clement of Saxony, 
Bishop of Batisbon, assisted by seven other bishops. 
Balls, operas, banquets, illuminations, and the national 
Freischiessenj followed. But during all these fetes, an 
unseasonable gloom, which is popularly supposed to- 
bode evil, overclouded the August sky, usually so clear 
and brilliant in Innsbruck. On the 18th, a grand opera 
was given to conclude the festivities ; on his way back 
from it Francis I. was seized with a fit, and died in 
the course of the night in the arms of his son, afterwards 
Joseph II. 

Though Maria Theresa's master mind had caused 
her to take the lead in all public matters, she was 
devotedly attached to her husband, and this sudden 
blow was severely felt by her. She could not bear that 
the room in which he expired should ever be again 
used for secular purposes, and had it converted into a 
costly chapel ; at the same time she made great im- 
provements and additions to the rest of the Burg. She 
always wore mourning to the end of her life, and always, 
when state affairs permitted, passed the eighteenth day 
of every month in prayer and retirement. A remarkable 
monument remains of both the affection and public 
spirit of this talented princess. Driving out to the 
Abbey of Wilten in one of the early days of mourning, 
while some of the tokens of the rejoicing, so unex- 
pectedly turned into lamentation, were still unremoved, 


the sight of the handsome triumphal arch reminded 
her of a resolution suggested by Francis I. to replace 
it by one of similar design in more permanent mate- 
rials. Her first impulse was to reject the thought as a 
too painful reminder of the past ; but reflection on the 
promised benefit to the town prevailed over personal 
feelings, and she gave orders for the execution of the 
work ; but to make it a fitting memorial of the occasion, 
ghe ordered that while the side facing the road from Italy 
phould be a Triumphpforte, and recall by its bas-reliefs 
the glad occasion which caused its erection, the side 
facing the town should be a Trauerpforte, and set forth 
the melancholy conclusion of the same. The. whole was 
Executed by Tirolean artists, and of Tirolean marbles. 
She founded also a Damenstift, for the maintenance 
of twelve poor ladies of noble birth, who, without 
taking vows, bound themselves to wear mourning and 
pray for the soul of Francis I. and those of his house. 
Another great work of Maria Theresa was the develop- 
ment she gave to the University of Innsbruck. 

After her death, which took place in 1780, Joseph II., 
freed from the. restraints of her influence, gave full scope 
to his plans for meddling with ecclesiastical affairs, for 
which his intercourse with Bussia had perhaps given 
him a taste. Pius VI. did not spare himself a journey 
to Vienna, to exert the effect of his personal influence 
ydth the Emperor, who it would seem did not pay much 
heed to his advice, and so disaffected his people by his 
injudicious innovations, that at the time of his death 


the whole empire, which the skill of Maria Theresa had 
consolidated, was in a state of complete disorganization. 1 
Though increased by his ill-gotten share of Poland, he 
lost the Low Countries, and Hungary was so disaffected, 
that had he not been removed by the hand of death 
(1790), it is not improbable it would have thrown off 
its allegiance also, Leopold II., his brother, who only 
reigned two years, saved the empire from dissolution 
by prudent concessions, by rescinding many of Joseph's 
hasty measures, and abandoning his policy of cen- 

One religious house which Joseph II. did not sup- 
press was the Damenstift of Innsbruck, of which his 
sister, the Archduchess Maria Elizabeth, undertook 
the government in 1781 ; and during the remainder 
of her life held a sort of court there which was greatly 
for the benefit of the city. Pius VI. visited her on his 
way back from Vienna on the evening of May 7? 1782. 
The whole town was illuminated, and all the religious 
in the town went out to meet him, followed by the 
whole body of the people. Late as was the hour (a 
quarter to ten, says a precise chronicle) he had no 
sooner reached the apartment prepared for him in the 
Burg, than he admitted whole crowds to audience, and 
the enthusiasm with which the religious Tirolese 
thronged round him surpasses words. Many, possessed 
with a sense of the honour of having the vicar of 

1 Consult Cesare Cantu Storia Universale, § xvii. cap. 21 . 


Christ in their very midst, remained all night in the 
surrounding Rennplatz, as it were on guard round his 
abode. In the morning, after hearing mass, he im- 
parted the Apostolic Benediction from the balcony of 
the Burg, and proceeded on his way over the Brenner. 

Leopold II. had not been three months on the throne 
before he came to Innsbruck to receive the homage of 
his loyal Tirolese, who took this opportunity of win- 
ning from him the abrogation of many Josephinischen 
measures, particularly that reducing their University 
to a mere Lyceum. He was succeeded in 1792 by his 
son, Francis II. ; but the mighty storm of the French 
Bevolution was threatening, and absorbed all his atten- 
tion with the preservation of his empire, and the 
defence of Tirol seems to have been overlooked. Year 
by year danger gathered round the outskirts of her 
mountain fastnesses. Whole hosts were engaged all 
around ; yet there were but a handful, five thousand at 
most, of Austrian troops stationed within her frontier. 
The importance of obtaining the command of such a 
base of operations, which would at once have afforded 
a key to Italy and Austria, did not escape Bonaparte. 
Joubert was sent with fifteen thousand men to gain 
possession of the country, and advanced as far as 
Sterzing. Innsbruck was thrown into a complete panic, 
and I am sony to have to record that the Archduchess 
Maria Elizabeth took her flight. The Austrian Generals, 
Kerpen and Laudon, did not deem it prudent, with 
their small contingent, to engage the French army. 


Nevertheless, the Tirolese, instead of being disheartened 
at this pusillanimity, with their wonted spirit rose 
as one man ; a decisive battle was fought at Spinges, 
a hamlet near Sterzing, where a village girl fought so 
bravely, and urged the men on to the defence of their 
country so generously, that though her name is lost, 
her courage won her a local reputation as lasting as 
that of Joan of Arc or the 6 Maid of Zaragoza,' under 
the title of D(t8 Mddchen von Spinges. 1 Driven out 
hence, the French troops made the best of their way 
to join the main army in Carinthia. After this the 
enemy left Tirol at peace for some years, with the ex- 
ception of one or two border inroads, which were 
resolutely repulsed. One of these is so characteristic of 

1 Since writing the above, I have been assured by one who has fre- 
quently conversed with her, that the concealment of her name arose from 
her own modesty ; it was Katharina Lanz. To avoid public notice, 
she went to live at a distance, and up to the time of her death in 1854, 
bore an exemplary character, living as housekeeper to the priest serving 
the mountain church of S. Vigilius, near Eost, the highest inhabited 
point of the Enneberg. When induced to speak of her exploits, she 
always made a point of observing that, though she brandished her 
hay-fork, she neither actually killed or wounded anyone. She had heard 
• that the French soldiers were nothing loth to desecrate sacred places, 
and she stationed herself in the church porch, determined to prevent their 
entrance ; the churchyard had become the citadel of the villagers. From 
her post of observation she saw with dismay that her people were giving 
way. It was then she rushed out and rallied them ; in her impetuosity 
she was very near running her hay-fork through a French soldier, but 
she was saved from the deed by her landlord, who, encouraged by her 
ardour, struck him down, pushing her aside. The success of her sally 
and her subsequent disappearance cast a halo of mystery round her 
story, and many were inclined to believe the whole affair was a heavenly 


the religious customs of Tirol, that, though not strictly 
belonging to the history of Innsbruck, I cannot forbear 
mentioning it. The French, under Massena, had in 
1799 been twice repulsed from Feldkirch with great 
loss. Divisions which had never known a reverse were 
decimated and routed by the practised guns of the 
mountaineers. Thinking their victory assured, the 
peasants, after the manner of volunteer troops, had dis- 
persed but too soon, to return to their flocks and 
tillage. Warily perceiving his advantage, Massena led 
his troops back over the border silently by night, in* 
tending in the morning to take the unsuspecting town 
by storm — a plan which did not seem to have a chance 
of failure. But it happened to be Holy Saturday. 
Suddenly, just as he was about to give the order for the 
attack, the bells of all the churches far and near, 
which had been so still during the preceding days, 
burst- all together upon his ear with the jubilant 
Aufer8tehung8feier. 1 General and troops, alike un- 
familiar with religious times and seasons, took the sound 
for the alarm bells calling out the Landsturm. In the 
belief that they were betrayed, a precipitate retreat was 
ordered. But the night no longer covered the march ; 
and the peasants, who were gathered in their villages 
for the Offices of the Church, were quickly collected for 
the pursuit. This abortive expedition cost the French 
army three thousand men. 

1 Celebration of the Resurrection. 


In the meantime the Archduchess had returned to 
Innsbruck, and all went on upon its old footing, as if 
there were no enemy to fear. So little was another 
disturbance expected, that the Archduchess devoted 
herself to the promotion of local improvements, in- 
cluding that of the Gottesacker. This is one of the 
favourite Sunday afternoon resorts of the Innsbruckers, 
and is well worthy of a visit. The site was .first 
destined for the purpose by the Emperor Maxi- 
rrrilian. It was gifted with all the indulgences ac- 
corded to the Campo Santo of Rome by the Pope, 
and in token of the same some earth from San 
Lorenzo fuor le mura was brought hither at the time 
pf its consecration by the Bishop of Brixen in 1510. 
It has, according to the frequent German arrangement, 
an upper and a lower chapel ; the former, dedicated to 
S# Anne ; the latter, as usual, to S. Michael, though 
the people commonly call it die Veitskapdle, on 
account of some cures of S. Vitus' dance wrought here. 
The arcades which now surround the cemetery were 
the result of the introduction of Italian customs later 
in the sixteenth century. Some of the oldest and 
noblest names of Tirol are to be found upon the monu- 
ments here, some of which cannot fail to attract atten- 
tion. The bas-reliefs sculptured by Collin for that of 
the Hohenhauser family, and those he prepared for his 
own, may be reckoned among his masterpieces. Some 
which are adorned with paintings would be very in- 
teresting if the weather had spared them more. The 


Archduchess had prepared her own resting-place here 
also, but was not destined to occupy it. The disastrous 
defeat of Austerlitz filled her with alarm, and she once 
more fled from Innsbruck, this time not to return. 

This was the year 1805, and a sad one it was for 
Tirol. The treaty of Pressburg had given Tirol to 
Bavaria, and Bavaria and Tirol had never in any age 
been able to understand each other. Willingly would 
the Tirolese have opposed their entrance; but the 
Bavarians, who knew every pass as well as themselves, 
were enabled to pour in the allied troops under Marshal 
Ney in such force, that they were beyond their power 
to resist. The fortresses near the Bavarian frontier 
were razed, and Innsbruck occupied. On February 11$ 
1806, Marshal Ney left, and the town was formally 
delivered over to Bavarian rule. The most unpopular 
changes of government were adopted, particularly in 
ecclesiastical matters and in forcing the peasants 
into the army; the University also was once more 
made into a Lyceum. But the Landsturm was not 
idle, and the Archduke Johann, Leopold's brother, 
came into Tirol to encourage them. Maturing their 
plans in secret, the patriots, under Andreas Hofer, who 
had been to Vienna in January to declare his plans and 
get them confirmed by his government, and Speck- 
bacher, broke into Innsbruck on April 13, 1809, where 
the townspeople received them with loud acclamations ; 
and after a desperate and celebrated conflict at Berg 
Isel, succeeded in completely ridding it of the invaders. 


The Bavarian arms on the Landhaus were shattered to 
atoms, and when the Eagle replaced them, the people 
climbed the ladders to kiss it. This was the first great 
act of the BefreiuTigskampfe which have made 4 the 
year Nine ' memorable in the annals of Tirol, and, I 
may say of Europe, for it was one of the noblest 
struggles of determined patriotism those annals have 
to boast, and at the same time the most successful 
effort of volunteer arms. Hofer accepted the title 
of SchiUzenko'inmandant, and was lodged in the im- 
perial Burg, while his peasant neighbours took the 
office of guards ; but he altered nothing of his simple 
habits, nor his national costume. His frugal expenses 
amounted to forty-five kreuzers a day, and he lost no 
opportunity of expressing that he did nothing on his 
own account, but all in the name of the Emperor. 
On May 19 the Bavarians laid siege to the town; 
"but the defenders of the country, supported by a few 
Tegular Austrian troops, obliged them by the end of a 
fortnight to decamp. On June 30 they returned with 
a force of twenty-four thousand men ; but other feats 
of arms of the patriots in all parts of Tirol showed that 
its people were unconquerable, and for the third time 
Hofer took possession of Innsbruck. In the meantime, 
however, the Peace of Schonbrunn, of October 25, had 
nullified their achievements, though the memory of 
their bravery could never be blotted out, and always 
asserted its power. Nor could the brave oeople, even 
when bidden by the Emperor himself ^desist, believe 


that his orders were otherwise than wrung from him, 
nor could their loyalty be quenched. Hofer's stern 
sense of subordination made him advise abstention 
from further strife, but the more ardent patriots re- 
fused to listen, and ended by leading him to join them. 
A desultory warfare was now kept up, with no very 
effectual result, but yet with a spirit and deter- 
mination which convinced the Bavarians that they 
could never subdue such a people, and predisposed 
them to consent to the evacuation of their country in 
1814 ; for they saw that 

Freedom from every hut 

Sent down a separate root, 
And when base swords her branches cut, 

With tenfold might they shoot. 

In the meantime a terrible wrong had been com- 
mitted ; the French, knowing the value of Hofer's in- 
fluence in encouraging the country-people against them, 
set a price on his head sufficient to tempt a traitor to 
X make know/his hiding-place. He was taken, and 

thrown into prison at the Porta Moli/na at Mantua, 
Tried in a council of war, several voices were raised in 
honour of his bravery and patriotism ; a small majority, 
however, had the cowardice to condemn him to death. 
He received the news of the sentence with the firmness 
which might have been expected of him, the only 
favour he condescended to ask being the spiritual 
assistance of a priest. Provost Manifesti was sent to 
him, and remained with him to the end. An offer was 


made him of saving his life by entering the French 
service, but he indignantly refused to join the enemies 
of his country. To Provost Manifesti he committed 
all he possessed, to be expended in the relief of his 
fellow-countrymen who were prisoners. He spent the 
early hours of the morning of the day on which he was 
to die, after mass, in writing his farewell to his wife, 
bidding her not to give way to grief, and to his other 
relations and friends, in which latter category was 
comprehended the population of the whole Passeyerthal, 
not to say all Tirol ; recommending himself to their 
prayers, and begging that his name might be given 
out, and the suffrages of the faithful asked for him, in 
the village church where he had so often knelt in years 
of peace. He was forbidden to address his fellow- 
prisoners. He bore a crucifix, wreathed in flowers, in 
his hand as he walked to the place of execution, which 
lie was observed repeatedly to kiss. There he took a 
little silver crucifix from his neck, a memorial of his 
first Communion, and gave it to Provost Manifesti. He 
refused to kneel, or to have his eyes bandaged, but 
stood without flinching to receive the fire of his 
executioners. His signal to them was first a brief prayer ; 
then a fervently uttered ' Hock lebe Kaiser Franz ! * 
and then the firm command, ' Fire home ! ' His 
courage, however, unmanned the soldiers ; ashamed of 
their task, they durst not take secure aim, and it took 
thirteen shots to send the undaunted soul of the peasant 
hero to its rest. It was February 20, 1810; he was 


only forty-five. The traditions of his courage and 
endurance, his probity and steadfastness, are manifold ; 
but in connexion with Innsbruck we have only to 
speak of his brief administration there, which was un- 
tarnished by a single unworthy deed, a single act of 
severity towards prisoners of war, of whom he had 
numbers in his power who had dealt cruel havoc on 
his beloved valleys. 

The Emperor for whom he had fought so nobly 
returned to Innsbruck, to receive the homage of the 
Tirolese, on May 28, 1816, amid the loud rejoicings of 
the people, preceded by a solemn service of thanks- 
giving in the Pfarrkirche. Illuminations and fetes 
followed till June 5, when the ceremony was wound up 
by a grand shooting-match, at which the Emperor pre- 
sided and many prizes were distributed. The number 
who contended was 3,678, and 2,137 of them made the 
bull's-eye ; among them were old men over eighty and 
boys of thirteen and fourteen. 

The claims of Hofer on his country's remembrance 
were not forgotten when she once more had leisure for 
works of peace. His precious t remains, which had 
been carefully interred by the priest who consoled his 
last moments at Mantua, were brought to Innsbruck in 
1823, and laid temporarily in the ServitenJcloster. On 
February 21 they were borne in solemn procession by 
six of his brothers in arms, all the clergy and people 
following. The Abbot of Wilten sang the requiem 
office. The Emperor ordered the conspicuous and 
appropriate monument to mark the spot where they 


laid him, which is one of the chief ornaments of the 
Hofkirche. The pedestal bears the inscription — 

Semen in den Befreiungskampfen gefallenen Sohnen das dankbare 

and the sarcophagus the words — 

Absorbta est mors in victoria. 

Tirol had no reason to regret the restoration of the 
dynasty for which she had suffered so much. Most of 
her ancient privileges were restored to her, and in 1826 
Innsbruck again received the honour of a University, 
and many useful institutions were founded. Francis 
came to Innsbruck again this year, and while there, 
received the visit of the Emperor of Eussia and the 
King of Prussia. Another shooting-match was held 
before them, at which the precision of the Tirolese 
received much praise ; and again for a short time in 
1835. The Archduke John, who came in 1835 to live in 
Tirol, was received with great enthusiasm ; his hardy 
feats of mountain climbing, and hearty accessible 
character, endearing him to all the people. 

The troubles of 1848 gave the Tirolese again an 
opportunity of showing that their ancient loyalty was 
vmdiminished. The Emperor Ferdinand, driven out 
of his capital, found that he had not reckoned wrongly 
in counting on a secure refuge in Tirol. It was the 
evening of May 16 that the Imperial pair came as 
fugitives to Innsbruck. Though there was hardly 
time to announce their advent before their arrival, 



the people went out to meet them, took their horses 
from the carriage, and themselves drew it into the 
town; and all the time they remained the towns- 
people and Landesschiiten mounted guard round the 
Burg. More than this, the Tirolese Kaiser-Jager- 
Regiment volunteered for service against the insurgents, 
and fought with such determination that Marshal 
Eadetsky pronounced that every man of them was a 
hero. With equal stout-heartedness the Landes- 
schutzen repelled the attempted Italian invasion at 
several points of the south-western frontier, and kept 
the enemy at bay till the imperial troops could arrive. 
These services were renewed with equal fidelity the 
next year. A tablet recording the bravery of those 
who fell in this campaign — one of the officers engaged 
being Hofer's grandson — is let into the wall of the 
Hof kirche opposite Hofer's monument. 

It was this Emperor from whom the name of Fer- 
dinandeum was given to the Museum, but it was rather 
out of compliment, and while he was yet Crown-Prince, 
than in memory of any signal co-operation on his part. 
It was projected in 1820 by Count Von Chotek, then 
Governor of Tirol. It comprises an association for the 
promotion of the study of the arts and sciences. The 
Museum contains several early illuminated MSS., in 
the production of which the Carthusians of Schnals 
and the Dominicans of Botzen acquired a singular 
pre-eminence. At a time when the nobles of other 
countries were occupied with far less enlightened pur- 


suits, the peaceful condition of Tirol enabled its nobles, 
such as the Edelherrn of Monlan, Annaberg, Dorns- 
berg, Eunglstein, and others, to keep in their employ- 
ment secretaries, copyists, and chaplains, busied in 
transcribing ; and often sent them into other countries 
to make copies of famous works to enrich their collec- 
tions. It has also some of the first works produced 
from the printing-press of Schwatz already mentioned. 
This press was removed to Innsbruck in 1529 ; Trent 
set one up about the same time. In the lower rooms 
of the Ferdinandeum is a collection of paintings by 
Tirolean artists, and specimens of the marbles, minerals, 
and other natural productions of the country. The 
great variation in the elevation of the soil affords a 
vast range to the vegetable kingdom, so that it can 
boast of giving a home to plants like the tobacco, 
which only germinates at a temperature of seventy 
degrees, and the edelweiss, which only blossoms under 
the snow. There is also a small collection of Eoman 
and earlier antiquities, dug up at various times in dif- 
ferent parts of Tirol, and specimens of native industries. 
Among the most singular items are some paintings on 
cobweb, of which one family has possessed the secret 
for generations, specimens of their works may be found 
in most of the museums of South Germany ; these 
almost self-taught artists display great dexterity in the 
management of their strange canvas, and considerable 
merit in the delicate manipulation of their pigments ; 
sometimes they even imitate fine line engravings in pen 

x 2 


and ink without injuring the fragile surface. . They 
delight specially in treating subjects of traditional 
interest, as Kaiser Max on the Martinswand, the 
beautiful Philippine Welser, the heroic Hofer, and the 
patron saints and particular devotions of their village 
sanctuaries. Kranach's Mariahilf is thus an object of 
most affectionate care. The ' web' is certainly like that 
of no ordinary spider ; but it is reported that this 
family has cultivated a particular species for the purpose, 
and an artist friend who had been in Mexico mentioned 
to me having seen there spiders'-webs almost as solid 
as these. I was not able, however, to learn any tradi- 
tion of the importation of these spiders from Mexico. 
In the first room on the second floor are to be seen the 
characteristic letter written, as I have said, by Hofer, 
shortly before his end, and other relics of him and the 
other patriots, such as the hat and breviary of the 
Franciscan Haspinger. Also an Italian gun taken by 
the Akademische Legion — the band of loyal volunteer 
students of Innsbruck university, in the campaign of 
1848 — and I think some trophies also of the success of 
Tirolese arms against the attempted invasion of the 
later Italian war, in which as usual the skill of these 
people as marksmen stood them in good stead. Anyone 
who wishes to judge of their practice may have plenty 
of opportunity in Innsbruck, for their rifles seem to be 
constantly firing away at the Schies8'8tand ; so con- 
stantly as to form an annoyance to those who are not 
interested in the subject. 


This Schie88-8tand, or rifle-butt, was set up in 1863, 
in commemoration of the fifth centenary of Tirol's 
union with Austria and its undeviating loyalty. No 
history presents an instance of a loyalty more intimately 
connected with religious principle than the loyalty of 
Tirol ; the two traditions are so inseparably interwoven 
that the one cannot be wounded without necessarily 
injuring the other. The present Emperor and Empress 
of Austria are not wanting to the devout example of 
their predecessors, but the modern theory of govern- 
ment leaves them little influence in the administra- 
tion of their dominions. Meantime the anti-Catholic 
policy of the Central Government creates great dis- 
satisfaction and uneasiness in Tirol. Other divisions 
of the empire had been prepared for such by laxity of 
manners and indifferentism to religious belief — the 
detritus, which the flood of the French revolution 
scattered more or less thickly over the whole face of 
Europe. But the valleys of Tirol had closed their 
passes to the inroads of this flood, and laws not having 
religion for their basis are there just as obnoxious in 
the nineteenth as they would have been in any former 

In concluding my notice of the capital of Tirol, it 
may be worth while to mention that the census of 
January 1870 gives it a population (exclusive of 
military) of 16,810, being an increase of 2,570 over 
the twelve preceding years. 






I taught the heart of the boy to revel 
In tales of old greatness that never tire. 

Aubrey dr Verb. 

Those who wish to visit the legend-homes of Tirol 
without any great measure of 4 roughing,' will doubtless 
find Innsbruck the most convenient base of operations 
for many excursions of various lengths to places which 
the pedestrian would take on his onward routes. Those 
on the north and east, which have been already suggested 
from Hall and Schwatz, may also be treated thus. It 
remains to mention those to be found on the west, 
north-west, and south. But first there is Miihlau, also 
to the east, reached by an avenue of poplars between 
the right bank of the Inn and the railway ; where the 
river is crossed by a suspension-bridge. There are baths 
here which are much visited by the Innsbruckers, and 
many prefer staying there to Innsbruck itself. A pretty 
little new Gothic church adorns the height ; the altar 
is bright with marbles of the country, and has a very 
creditable altar-piece by a Tirolean artist. Miihlau 
was celebrated in the Befreiungskampfe through the 


courage of Baroness Sternbach, its chief resident ; every- 
where the patriots gathered she might have been 
found in their midst, fully armed and on her bold 
charger, inspiring all with courage. Arrested in her 
chateau at Miihlau during the Bavarian occupation, no 
threats or insult could wring from her any admission 
prejudicial to the interests of her country, or compro- 
mising to her son. She was sent to Munich, and kept a 
close prisoner there, as also were Graf Sarnthein and 
Baron Schneeburg, till the Peace of Vienna. 

From either Miihlau or Innsbruck may be made 
the excursion to Frau Hiitt, a curious natural formation 
which by a freak of nature presents somewhat the 
appearance of a gigantic petrifaction of a woman with 
a child in her arms. Of it one of the most celebrated 
of Tirolean traditions is told. In the time of Noe, 
says the legend, there was a queen of the giants living 
in these mountains, and her name was Frau Hiitt. 
Nork makes out a seemingly rather far-fetched deriva- 
tion for it out of the wife der Behutete {i.e. the be • 
hatted, or covered one), otherwise Odin, with the sky 
for his head-covering. However that may be, the 
legend says Frau Hiitt liad a son, a young giant, who 
wanted to cut down a pine tree to make a stalking- 
horse, but as the pine grew on the borders of a morass, 
he fell with his burden into the swamp. Covered over 
head and ears with mud, he came home crying to his 
mother, who ordered the nurse to wipe off the mud with 
fine crumb of white bread. This filled up the measure 


of Frau Hutt's life-long extravagance. As the servant 
approached, to put the holy gift of God to this profane 
use, a fearful storm came on, and the light of heaven 
was veiled by angry clouds ; the earth rocked with fear, 
then opened a yawning mouth, and swallowed up the 
splendid marble palace of Frau Hiitt, and the rich 
gardens surrounding it. When the sky became again 
serene, of all the former verdant beauty nothing 
remained ; all was wild and barren as at present. Frau 
Hiitt, who had run for refuge with her son in her arms 
to a neighbouring eminence, was turned into a rock. 
In place of our 'Wilful waste makes woeful want,* 
children in the neighbourhood are warned from waste 
by the saying, 4 Spart eure Brosamen fur die Armen, 
damit es euch nicht ergehe wie der Frau Hiitt.' l Frau 
Hiitt also serves as the popular barometer of Innsbruck; 
and when the old giantess appears with her 4 night-cap ' 
on, no one undertakes a journey. This excursion will 
take four or five hours. On the way, Buchsenhausen is 
passed, where, as I have already mentioned, Gregory 
LofBer cast the statues of the Hofkirche. I have also 
given already the legend of the Bienerweible. As a 
consequence of the state execution which occasioned 
her melancholy aberrations, the castle was forfeited to 
the crown. Ferdinand Karl, however, restored it to 
the family. It was subsequently sold, and became one 

1 Spare your bread for the poor, and escape the fate of Frau Hiitt. 
See some legends forming a curious link between this, and that of Ottilia 
Milser in Stober Sagen des Elsasses, pp. 257-8. 


of the most esteemed breweries of the country, the 
cellars being hewn in the living rock; and its 'Bier- 
garten' is much frequented by holiday-makers. Re-* 
mains of the old castle are still kept up ; among them 
the chapel, in which are some paintings worth attention. 
On one of the walls is a portrait of the Chancellor's 
son, who died in the Franciscan Order in Innsbruck, in 
his ninety-first year. 

If time allows, the Weierburg and the MariarBriiun 
may be taken in the way home, as it makes but a 
slight digression ; or it may be ascended from Miihlau. 
The so-called Miihlauer Klamm is a picturesque gorge, 
and the torrent running through it forms some cascades. 
Weierburg affords a most delightful view of the pictu- 
resque capital, and the surrounding heights and valleys 
mapped out around. Schloss Weierburg was once the 
gay summer residence of the Emperor Maximilian, 
and some relics of him are still preserved there. 

Hottingen, which might be either taken on the way 
when visiting Frau Hiitt or the Weierburg, is a sheltered 
spot, and one of the few in the Innthal where the vine 
flourishes. It is reached by continuing the road past 
the little Church of Mariahilf across the Inn ; it had 
considerable importance in mediaeval times, and has 
consequently some interesting remains, which, as well 
as the bathing establishment, make it a rival to 
Miihlau. In the church (dedicated to St. Nicholas) is 
Gregory Loffler's monument, erected to him by his two 
sons. The Count of Trautmannsdorf and other noble 


families of Tirol have monuments in the Friedhof. The 
tower of the church is said to be a remnant of a Roman 
temple to Diana. To the right of the church is Schloss 
Lichtenthurm, well kept up, and often inhabited by the 
Schneeburg family. On the woody heights to the north 
is a little pilgrimage chapel difficult of access, and 
called the Hottingerbilde. It is built over an image 
of our Lady found on the spot in 1764, by a student of 
Innsbruck who ascribed his rapid advance in the schools 
to his devotion to it. On the east side of the Hottinger 
stream are some remains of lateral mining shafts, which 
afford the opportunity of a curious and difficult, though 
not dangerous, exploration. There are some pretty 
stalactitic formations, but on a restricted scale. 

There is enough of interest in a visit to Zirl to 
make it the object of a day's outing; but if time presses 
it may be reached hence, by pursuing the main street 
of this suburb, called, I know not why, zum grossen 
Herr-Oott, which continues in a path along an almost 
direct line of about seven miles through field and 
forest, and for the last four or five following the bank 
of the Inn. Or the whole route may be taken in a 
carriage from Innsbruck, driving past the rifle-butt 
under Mariahilf. At a distance of two miles you pass 
Kranebitten, or Kranewitten, not far from which, at a 
little distance on the right of the road, is a remarkable 
ravine in the heights, which approach nearer and 
nearer the bank of the river. It is well worth while to 
turn aside and visit this ravine, which goes by the 


name of the Schwefelloch. It is an accessible intro- 
duction on a small scale to the wild and fearful natural 
solitudes we read of with interest in more distant 
regions. The uneven path is closed in, by steep and 
rugged mountain sides, which spontaneously recall 
many a poet's description of a visit to the nether world. 
At some distance down the gorge, a flight of eight or 
nine rough and precarious steps cut in the rock, and 
then one or two still more precarious ladders, lead to 
the so-called Hundskirche, or Hundskapelle, 1 which is 
said to derive its name from having been the last 
resort of Pagan mysteries when heathendom was re- 
treating before the advance of Christianity in Tirol. 
Further on, the rocks bear the name of the Wagner- 
wand {Wand being a wall), and the great and lesser 
Lehner ; and here they seem almost to meet high above 
you and throw a strange gloom over your path, and the 
torrent of the Sulz roars away below in the distance ; 
while the oft-repeated answering of the echo you evoke 
is more weird than utter silence. The path which has 
hitherto been going north now trends round to the west, 
and displays the back of the Martinswand, and the 
fertile so-called Zirlerchristen, soon affording a pleasing 
view both ways towards Zirl and Innsbruck. There is 
rough accommodation here for the night for those who 
would ascend the Gross Solstein, 9,393 feet ; the Brand- 
joch, 7,628 feet; or the Klein Solstein, 8,018 feet — 
peaks of the range which keep Bavaria out of Tirol. 

1 The dog's church or chapel. 


As we proceed again on the road to Zirl, the level 
space between the mountains and the river continues to 
grow narrower and narrower, but what there is, is 
every inch cultivated ; and soon we pass the Markstein 
which constitutes the boundary between Ober and Un- 
ter-Innthal. By-and-by the mountain slopes drive the 
road almost down to the bank, and straight above you 
rises the foremost spur of the Solstein, the Martins- 
wand, so called by reason of its perpendicularity, 
celebrated far and wide in Sage and ballad for the 
hunting exploit and marvellous preservation of Kaiser 

It was Easter Monday, 1 490 ; Kaiser Max was staying 
at Weierburg, and started in the early morning on a 
hunting expedition on the Zirlergebrge. So far- there 
is nothing very remarkable, for his ardent disposition 
and love of danger often carried him on beyond all his 
suite; but then came a marvellous accident, the 
accounts of the origin of which are various. There 
is no one in Innsbruck but has a version of his own to 
tell you. As most often reported, the chamois he was 
following led him suddenly down the very precipice I, 
have described. The steepness of the terrible descent 
did not affright him ; but in his frantic course one by 
one the iron spikes had been wrenched from his soles, 
till at last just as he reached a ledge, scarcely a span 
in breadth, he found he had but one left. To proceed 
was impossible, but — so also was retreat. There he 
hung, then, a speck between earth and sky, or as 


Collin's splendid popular ballad, which I cannot forbear 
quoting, has it : — 

Hier half kein Sprung, 

Kein Adler-Schwung 
Denn unter ihm senkt sich die Martins wand 
Der steilste Fels im ganzen Land. 

Er starrt hinab 

In 's Wolkengrab 

Und starrt hinaus in 's Wolkenmeer 

Und schaut zuriick, und schaut umher. 
# * # * # 

Wo das Donnergebriill zu Fiissen ihm groilt 
Wo das Menschengewiihl tief unter ihm rollt : 
Da stent des Kaisers Majestat 
Doch nicht zur Wonne hoch erhoht. 

Ein Jammersohn 

Auf luft 'gem Thron 
Findet sich Max nun plotzlich allein 
Und fiihlt sich schaudernd, verlassen und klein. 1 

But the singers of the high deeds of Kaiser Max 
could not bring themselves to believe that so signal a 
danger could have befallen their hero by mere accident. 
They must discover for it an origin to connect it with 
his political importance. Accordingly they have said that 
the minions of Sigismund der Munzreiche, dispossessed 

1 His well-known daring, emulating that of the chamois and the 
eagle, was of no avail now ; for straight under him sinks the Martin's 
Wall, the steepest cliff of the whole country-side. 

He gazes down through that grave of clouds. He gazes abroad over 
that cloud-ocean. He glances around, and his gaze recoils. 

With only the thunder-roll of the people's voices beneath, there 
stands the Kaiser's Majesty. But not raised aloft to receive his people's 
homage. A son of sorrow, on a throne of air, the great Maximilian 
all at once finds himself isolated, horror-stricken, and small. 


at his abdication, had plotted to lead Max, the strong 
redresser of wrongs, the last flower of chivalry, the hope 
of the Hapsburg House, the mainstay of his century, 
into destruction; that it was not that the innocent 
chamois led the Kaiser astray, but that the conspirators 
misled him as to the direction it had taken. 

Certainly, when one thinks of the situation of the 
empire at that moment, and of Hungary, the border- 
land against the Turks, suddenly deprived of its great 
King Matthias Corvinus, even while yet at war with 
them, only four days before l ; when we think that the 
writers of the ballad had before their eyes the great 
amount of good Maximilian really did effect not only 
for Tirol, but for the empire and for Europe, and 
then contemplated the idea of his career being cut 
short thus almost at the outset, we can understand 
that they deemed it more consonant with the circum- 
stances to believe so great a peril was incurred as 
a consequence of his devotion to duty rather than in 
the pursuit of pleasure. 

Here, then, he hung ; a less fearless hunter might 
have been overawed by the prospect or exhausted by 
the strain. Not so Kaiser Max. He not only held on 
steadfastly by the hour, but was able to look round him 
so calmly that he at last discerned behind him a cleft 
in the rock, or little cave, affording a footing less pre- 
carious than that on which he rested. The ballad may 

1 ' With him/ says a Hungarian ballad, ' Righteousness went down 
into the grave : and the Sun of Pest- Of en sank towards its setting.' 


be thought to say that it opened itself to receive him. 
The rest of the hunting party, even those who had nerve 
to follow him to the edge of the crag, could not see what 
had become of him. Below, there was no one to think 
of looking up ; and if there had been, even an emperor 
could hardly have been discerned at a height of some- 
thing like a thousand feet. The horns of the hunts- 
men, and the messengers sent in every direction to ask 
counsel of the most experienced climbers, within a few 
hours crowded the banks on both sides with the loyal 
and enthusiastic people; till at last the wail of his 
faithful subjects, which could be heard a mile off, sent 
comfort into the heart of the Kaiser, who stood silent 
and stedfast, relying on God and his people. Mean- 
time, the sun had reached the meridian ; the burning 
rays poured down on the captive, and gradually as the 
hours went by the rocks around him grew glowing hot 
like an oven. Exhausted by the long fast, no less than 
the anxiety of his position, and the sharp run that had 
preceded the accident, he began to feel his strength 
ebbing away. One desire stirred him — to know whether 
any help was possible before the insensibility, which 
he felt must supervene, overcame him. Then he be- 
thought him of writing on a strip of parchment he 
had about him, to describe his situation, and to ask 
if there was any means of rescue. He tied the scroll to 
a stone with the cord of his hunting-horn, and thre\? 
it down into the depth. But no sound came in answer. 
In the meantime all were straining to find a way of 


escape. Even the old Archduke Sigismund who, though 
he is never accused of any knowledge of the alleged plot 
of his courtiers, yet may well be supposed to have 
entertained no very good feeling towards Maximilian, 
now forgot all ill-will, and despatched swift messengers 
to Schwatz to summon the cleverest Knappen to come 
with their gear and see if they could not devise a means 
for reaching him with a rope ; others ran from village 
to village, calling on all for aid and counsel. Some rang 
the storm-bells, and some lighted alarm fires ; while 
many more poured into the churches and sanctuaries to 
pray for help from on High ; and pious brotherhoods, 
thousands in number, marching with their holy em- 
blems veiled in mourning, and singing dirges as they 
came, gathered round the base of the Martinswand. 

The Kaiser from his giddy height could make oufc 
something of what was going on ; but as no answer came, 
a second and a third time he wrote, asking the same 
words. And when still no answer came — I am following 
Collins imaginative ballad — his heart sank down within 
him and he said, 6 If there were any hope, most surely 
my people would have sent a shout up to me. So there 
is no doubt but that I must die here.' Then he turned 
his heart to God, and tried to forget everything of this 
earth, and think only of that which is eternal. But 
now the sun sank low towards the horizon. While light 
yet remained, once more he took his tablet and wrote ; 
he had no cord left to attach it to the stone, so he 
bound it with his gold chain— of what use were earthly 


ornaments any more to him ? — - c and threw it down,' as 
the ballad forcibly says, c into the living world, out of 
that grave high placed in air.' 

One in the crowd caught it, and the people wept 
aloud as he read out to them what the Kaiser had traced 
with failing hand. He thanked Tirol for its loyal interest 
in his fate ; he acknowledged humbly that his suffering 
was a penance sent him worthily by heaven for the pride 
and haughtiness with which he had pursued the chase, 
thinking nothing too difficult for him. Now he was 
brought low. He .offered his blood and his life in satis- 
faction. He saw there was no help to be hoped for his 
body ; he trusted his soul to the mercy of (rod. But he 
besought them to send to Zirl, and beg the priest there to 
bring the Most Holy Sacrament and bless his last hour 
with Its Presence. When It arrived they were to an- 
nounce it to him by firing off a gun, and another while 
the Benediction was imparted. Then he bid them all 
pray for steadfastness for him, while the pangs of hunger 
gnawed away his life. 

The priest of Zirl hastened to obey the summons, 
and the Kaiser's injunctions were punctually obeyed. 
Meantime, the miners of Schwatz were busy arranging 
their plan of operations — no easy matter, for they stood 
fifteen hundred feet above the Emperor's ledge. But 
before they were ready for the forlorn attempt, another 
deliverer appeared upon the scene with a strong arm, 
supported the almost lifeless form of the Emperor — for 
he had now been fifty-two hours in this sad plight — and 



bore him triumphantly up the pathless height. There 
he restored him to the people, who, frantic with joy, let 
him pass through their midst without observing his 
appearance. Who was this deliverer ? The traditions 
of the time say he was an angel, sent in answer to the 
Kaiser's penitential trust in God and the prayers of the 
people. Later narrators say — some, that he was a bold 
huntsman ; others, a reckless outlaw to whom the track 
was known, and these tell you there is a record of a 
pension being paid annually in reward for the service, if 
not to him, at least to some one who claimed to have 
rendered it. 1 

The Monstrance, which bore the Blessed Sacrament 
from Zirl to carry comfort to the Emperor in his dire 
need, was laid up among the treasures of Ambras. 

Maximilian, in thanksgiving for his deliverance, 
resolved to be less reckless in his future expeditions, 
and never failed to remember the anniversary. He also 
employed miners from Schwatz to cut a path down to 
the hole, afterwards called the Max-H6hle, which had 
sheltered him, to spare risk to his faithful subjects, who 
would make the perilous descent to return thanks on 
the spot for his recovery ; and he set up there a crucifix, 

1 Primisser, who took great pains to collect all the various traditions 
of this event, mentions a favourite huntsman of the Emperor, named 
Oswald Zips, whom he ennobled as Hallaurer v. Hohenfelsen. This 
may have been the actual deliverer, or may have been supposed to be 
such, from the circumstance of the title being Hohenfelsen, or High- 
clifF; and that a patent of nobility was bestowed on a huntsman 
would imply that he had rendered some singular service : the family,, 
however, soon died out. 


with figures of the Blessed Virgin and S. John on either 
side large enough to be seen from below ; and even to* 
the present day men used to dangerous climbing visit 
it with similar sentiments. It is not often the tourist 
is tempted to make the attempt, and they must be 
cool-headed who would venture it. The best view of it 
is to be got from the remains of the little hunting-seat 
and church which Maximilian afterwards built on the 
Martinsbiihl, a green height opposite it, and itself no 
light ascent. It is said Maximilian sometimes shot the 
chamois out of the windows of this villa. The stories 
are endless of his hardihood and presence of mind in 
his alpine expeditions. At one time, threatened by the 
descent of a falling rock, he not only was alert enough 
to spring out of the way in time, but also seized a 
huntsman following him, who was not so fortunate, and 
saved him from being carried over the precipice. At 
another he saw a branch of a tree overhanging a yawn- 
ing abyss ; to try his presence of mind he swung himself 
on to it, and hung over the precipice ; but crack ! went 
the branch, and yet he saved himself by an agile spring 
on to another tree. Another time, when threatened by 
a falling rock, his presence of mind showed itself in 
remaining quite still close against the mountain wall, 
in the very line of its course, having measured with his 
eye that there was space enough for it to clear him. 
But enough for the present. 

Zirl affords a good inn and a timely resting-place, 
either before returning to Innsbruck, or starting afresh 

Y 2 


to visit the Isarthal and Scharnitz. The ascent of the 
Gross Solstein is made from Zirl, as may also be that 
of the Martinswand. In itself Zirl has not much to 
arrest attention, except its picturesque situation (par- 
ticularly that of its 4 Calvarienberg, 5 to form which the 
living rocks are adapted), and its history, connecting it 
with the defence of the country against various attacks 
from Bavaria. Proceeding northwards along the road to 
Seefeld, and a little off it, you come upon Fragenstein, 
another of Maximilian's hunting-seats, a strong for- 
tress for some two hundred years before his time, and 
now a fine ruin. There are many strange tales of a great 
treasure buried here, and a green-clad huntsman, who 
appears from time to time, and challenges the peasants 
to come and help him dig it out, but something 
always occurs to prevent the successful issue of the 
adventure. Once a party of excavators got so far that 
they saw the metal vessel enclosing it ; but then sud- 
denly arose such a frightful storm, that none durst 
proceed with the work ; and after that the clue to its 
place of concealment was lost. Continuing the some- 
what steep ascent, Leiten is passed, and then Reit, 
with nothing to arrest notice ; and then Seefeld, cele- 
brated by the legend my old friend told me on the 
Freundsberg. 1 The Archduke Ferdinand built a special 
chapel to the left of the parish church, called die 
Heilige Blutskapelle, in 1575, to contain the Host 
which had convicted Oswald Milser, and which is even 

1 See chapter on Schwatz. 


now an object of frequent pilgrimage. The altar-piece 
■was restored last year very faithfully, and with con- 
derable artistic feeling, by Haselwandter, of Botzen* 
It is adorned with statues of the favourite heroes of 
the Tirolese legendary world, St. Sigismund and St* 
Oswald, and compartment bas-reliefs of subjects of 
Gospel history known as 6 the Mysteries of the Kosary.' 
The tone of the old work has been so well caught, that 
it requires some close inspection to distinguish the 
original remains from the new additions. The Arch- 
duchess Eleonora provided the crystal reliquary and 
crown, and the rich curtains within which it is pre-» 
served. At a little distance to south-west of Seefeld, 
on a mountain-path leading to Telfs, is a little circular 
chapel, built by Leopold V. in 1628, over a crucifix 
which had long been honoured there. It is sometimes 
called the Kreuz-kapelle, but more often the zur-See- 
Jcapelle, though one of the two little lakes, whence the 
appellation, and the name of Seefeld too, was derived, 
dried out in 1807. There is also a legend of the site 
having been originally pointed out by a flight of 
birds similar to that I have given concerning S* 

The road then falls more gently than on the Zirl 
side, but is rugged and wild in its surroundings, to 
Scharnitz, near which you meet the blue-green gushing 
waters of the Isar. Scharnitz has borne the brunt of 
many a terrible contest in the character of outpost of 
Tirolean defences ; it is known to have been a fortress 



in the time of the Romans. It was one of the points 
strengthened by Klaudia de' Medici, who built the 
4 Porta Klaudia ' to command the pass. Good service 
it did on more than one occasion ; but it succumbed in 
the inroad of French and Bavarians combined, in 1805. 
It was garrisoned at that time by a small company of 
regular troops, under an English officer in the Austrian 
service named Swinburne, whose gallant resistance was 
cordially celebrated by the people. He was overwhelmed, 
however, by superior numbers and appliances, and at 
Marshal Ney's orders the fort was so completely de- 
stroyed, that scarcely a trace of it is now to be found. 1 

1 To the Editor of the * Monthly Packet.' 

Sib, — I think it possible that R. H. B. (to whom we owe the very 
interesting Traditions of Tirol), and perhaps others of your readers, may 
care to hear some of the particulars, as they are treasured by his family, 
of the defence of Scharnitz by Baron Swinburne. R. H. B. speaks of 
it in your number of last month. That defence was so gallant as to 
call forth the respect and admiration even of his enemies, and Baron 
Swinburne was given permission to name his own terms of surrender. 

He requested for himself, and those under him, that they might be 
allowed to retain their swords. This was granted, and the prisoners 
were sent to Aix-la-Chapelle, where everyone was asking in astonish- 
ment who were ' les prisonniers avec l'ep^e a c6te.' 

The Eagles of Austria, that had been so nobly defended by the 
Englishman and his little band, never fell into the hands of the French. 
One of the Tirolese escaped, with the colours wrapped round his body 
under his clothes, and though he was hunted among the mountains for 
months, he was never taken; and 6ome years after ho came to his 
commander in Vienna and gave him the colours he had so bravely 
defended. They are now in possession of Baron Edward Swinburne, the 
son of the defender of Scharnitz, who himself won, before he was eight- 
teen, the Order of * the Iron Crown,' by an act that well deserves to be 
called ' a golden deed ; ' and ere he was twenty he had led his first 


It is the border town against Bavaria, and is con- 
sequently enlivened by a customs office and a few 
uniforms, but it is a poor place. I was surprised to be 
accosted and asked for alms by a decent-lookiDg woman, 
whom I had seen kneeling in the church shortly before 
as this sort of thing is not common in Tirol. She told 
me the place had suffered sadly by the railway ; for 
before, it was the post-station for all the traffic between 
Munich and Innsbruck and Italy. The industries of 
the place were not many or lucrative ; the surrounding 
forests supply some employment to woodmen ; and 
what she called Dirstenohl^ which seems to be dialectic 
for Steinhol or petroleum, is obtained from the bitu- 
minous soil in the neighbourhood ; it is obtained by a 
kind of distillation — a laborious process. The work 
lasted from S. Vitus' Day to the Nativity of the Blessed 
Virgin ; that was now past, and her husband, who was 
employed in it, had nothing to do; she had an old 
father to support, and a sick child. Then she went on 
to speak of the devotion she had just been reciting in 

and last forlorn hope, when he received so severe a wound as to cost 
him his leg, which has incapacitated him for further service. 

His father received the highest military decoration of Austria, that 
of ' Maria Teresa ; ' he fought at Austerlitz and Wagram ; on the latter 
occasion he was severely wounded. Later in life, he was for many 
years Governor of Milan. 

Hoping that a short record of true and faithful services performed 
by Englishmen for their adopted country, may prove of some interest 
to your readers, and with many thanks to E. H. B. for what has been 
of so much interest to us, 

I am, Sir, yours faithfully, 

September, 1870. A. Swinbtjbnb. 


the church to obtain help, and evidently looked upon 
her meeting with me as an answer to it. It seemed to 
consist in saying three times, a petition which I wrote 
down at her dictation as follows : — ' Gott griisse dich 
Maria I ich griisse dich drei und dreizig Tausand Mai ; 
Maria ich griisse dich wie der Erzengel Gabriel dich 
gregiisset hat. Es erfreuet dich in deinen Herzen dass 
der Erzengel Gabriel den himmlischen Gruss zu dir 
gebracht hat. Ave Maria, &c.' She said she had 
never used that devotion and failed to obtain her 
request. I learnt that the origin she ascribed to it 
was this : — A poor girl, a cow-herd of Dorf, some miles 
over the Bavarian frontier, who was very devout to the 
Blessed Virgin, had been in the habit while tending 
her herds of saying the rosary three times every day 
in a little Madonna chapel near her grazing-ground. 
But one summer there came a great heat, which burnt 
up all the grass, and the cattle wandered hither and 
thither seeking their scanty food, so that it was all 
she could do to rim after and keep watch over them. 
The good girl was now much distressed in mind ; for 
the tenour of her life had been so even before, that 
when she made her vow to say the three rosaries, it 
had never occurred to her such a contingency might 
happen. But she knew also that neither must she 
neglect her supervision of the cattle committed to her 
charge. While praying then to Heaven for light to 
direct her in this difficulty, the simple girl thought 
she saw a vision of our Lady, bidding her be of good 


heart, and she would teach her a prayer to say instead, 
which would not take as long as the rosary, and would 
please her as well, and that she should teach it also to 
others who might be overwhelmed with work like her- 
self. This was the petition I have quoted above. But 
the maid was too humble to speak of having received 
so great a favour, and lived and died without saying 
anything about it. When she came to die, however, 
her soul could find no rest, for her commission was un- 
fulfilled ; and whenever anyone passed alone by the 
wayside chapel where she had been wont to pray, he 
was sure to see her kneeling there. At last a pious 
neighbour, who knew how good she had been, sum- 
moned courage to ask her how it was that she was 
dealt with thus. Then the good girl told' him what 
had befallen her long ago on that spot, and bid him 
fulfil the part she had neglected, adding, c But tell 
them also not to think the mere saying the words is 
enough ; they must pray with faith and dependence on 
God, and also strive to keep themselves from sin.' 

In returning from Zirl to Innsbruck, the left bank 
may be visited by taking the Zirl bridge and pursuing 
the road bordering the river ; you come thus to Unter- 
perfuss, another bourne of frequent excursion from 
Innsbruck, the inn there having the reputation of pos- 
sessing a good cellar, and the views over the neighbour- 
hood being most romantic, the Chateau of Ferklehen 
giving interest to the natural beauties around. Hence, 


instead of pursuing the return journey at once, a digres- 
sion may be made through the Selrainthal (Selrain, in 
the dialect of the neighbourhood, means the edge of a 
mountain) ; and it is indeed but a narrow strip bor- 
dering the stream — the Melach or M alk, so called from 
its milk-white waters — which pours itself out by three 
mouths into the Inn at the debouchure of the valley. 
There is many a ' cluster of houses,' as German ex- 
presses l a settlement too small to be dignified with the 
name of village, perched on the heights around, but all 
reached by somewhat rugged paths. The first and 
prettiest is Selrain, which is always locally called 
Kothenbrunn, because the iron in the waters, which 
form an attraction to valetudinarian visitors, has covered 
the soil over which they flow with a red deposit. Small 
as it is, it boasts two churches, that to S. Quirinus 
being one of the most ancient in Tirol. The mountain 
path through the Fatscherthal, though much sought 
by Innsbruckers, is too rough travelling for the ordi- 
nary tourist, but affords a fine mountain view, including 
the magnificent Femerwand, or glacier-wall, which 
closes it in, and the three shining and beautifully gradu- 
ated peaks of the Hohe Villerspitz. At a short dis- 
tance from Selrain may be found a pretty cascade, one 
of the six falls of the Saigesbach. Some four or five 
miles further along the valley is one of the numerous 
villages named Gries; and about five miles more of 

1 Hausergrwppe. 


mountain footpath leads to the coquettishly perched 
sanctuary of St. Sigismund, the highest inhabited point 
of the Selrainthal. It is one of the many high-peaked 
buildings with which the Archduke Sigismund, who 
seems to have had a wonderful eye for the picturesque, 
loved to set off the heaven-pointing cones of the 
Tirolese mountains. Another opening in the moun- 
tains, which runs out from Gries, is the Lisenthal, in 
the midst of which lie Juvenan and Neuratz, the latter 
much visited by parties going to pick up the pretty 
crystal spar called 4 Andalusiten.' Further along the 
path stands by the wayside a striking fountain, set up 
for the refreshment of the weary, called the Magda- 
lenenbriindl, because adorned with a statue of the 
Magdalen, the image of whose penitence was thought 
appropriate to this stern solitude by the pious founder. 
The Melach is shortly after crossed by a rustic bridge, 
and a path over wooded hills leads to the ancient 
village of Pragmar. Hence the ascent of the Sonnen- 
berg or Lisens-Ferner is made. The monastery of 
Wilten has a summer villa on its lower slope, serving 
as a dairy for the produce of their pastures in the 
neighbourhood ; a hospitable place of refreshment for 
the traveller and alpine climber, and with its chapel 
constituting a grateful object both to the pilgrim and 
the artist. The less robust and enterprising will find 
an easier excursion in the Lengenthal, a romantically 
wild valley, which forms a communication between the 
Lisenthal and the (Etzthal. 


The Selrainthalers are behind none in maintaining 1 
the national character. When the law of conscription — 
one of the most obnoxious results of the brief cession to 
Bavaria — was propounded, the youths of the Selrain 
were the first to show that, though ever ready to devote 
their lives to the defence of the fatherland, they would 
never be enrolled in an army in whose ranks they 
might be sent to fight in they knew not what cause — 
perhaps against their own brethren. The generous 
stand they made against the measure constituted their 
valley the rendezvous of all who would escape from it 
for miles round, and soon their band numbered some 
five hundred. During the whole of the Bavarian occu- 
pation they maintained their independence, and were 
among the first to raise the standard of the year 1809. 
A strong force was sent out on March 14 to reduce 
them to obedience, when the Selrainers gave good 
proof that it was not cowardice which had made them 
refuse to join the army* They repulsed the Bavarian 
regulars with such signal success, that the men of the 
neighbourhood were proud to range themselves under 
their banner, which as long as the campaign lasted was 
always found in the thickest of the fight. No less than 
eleven of their number received decorations for per- 
sonal bravery. In peace, too, they have shown they 
know how to value the independence for which they 
fought ; though their labours in the field are so greatly 
enhanced by the steepness of the ground which is their 
portion, that the men yoke themselves to the plough, 


and carry burdens over places where no oxen could be 
guided. Their industry and perseverance provide 
them so well with enough to make them contented, if 
not prosperous, that 4 in Selrain hai jeder zw arbeiten 
und zu essen' (in Selrain there is work and meat 
enough for all) is a common proverb. The women, 
who are unable for the reason above noted to take so 
much part in field-labours as in some other parts, have 
found an industry for themselves in bleaching linen, 
and enliven the landscape by the cheerful zest with 
which they ply their thrifty toil. 

The path for the return journey from Selrain to 
Ober-Perfuss — or foot of the upper height — is as rugged 
as the other paths we have been traversing, but is even 
more picturesque. The church is newly restored, and 
contains a monument, with high-sounding Latin epi- 
taph, to one Peter Anich, of whose labours in over- 
coming the difficulties of the survey and mensuration 
of his country, which has nowhere three square miles of 
plain, his co-villagers are justly proud. He was an 
entirely self-taught man, but most accurate in his ob- 
servations, and he induced other peasants to emulate 
his studies. Ober-perfuss also has a mineral spring. 
A pleasant path over hills and fields leads in about an 
hour to Kematen, a very similar village ; but the re- 
mains of the ruined hunting-seat of Pirschenheim, now 
used as an ordinary lodging-house, adds to its pictu- 
resqueness. Near by it may also be visited the pretty 
waterfall of the Sendersbach. A shorter and easier 


stage is the next, through the fields to Vols or Vels, 
which clusters at the foot of the Blasienberg, once the 
dwelling of a hermit, and still a place of pilgrimage 
and the residence of the priest of the village. The 
parish church of Vels is dedicated in honour of S. Jodok, 
the English saint, whose statue we saw keeping watch 
over Maximilian's tomb at Innsbruck. Another hour 
across the level ground of the Gralwiese, luxuriantly 
covered with Indian corn, brings us back to Innsbruck 
through the Innrain ; the Gralwiese has its name from 
the echo of the hills, which close in the plain as it 
nears the capital ; luiese being a meadow, and gal the 
same form of Schall — resonance, which occurs in 
Nachtigall, nightingale; and also, strangely enough, 
in gellen, to sound loudly (or yell). At the cross-road 
(to Axams) we passed some twenty minutes out of Vols, 
where the way is still wild, is the so-called Schwarze 
Kreuz-kapette. One Blasius Holzl, ranger of the 
neighbouring forest, was once overtaken by a terrible 
storm ; the Greroldsbach, rushing down from the Gotz- 
neralp, had obliterated the path with its torrents; 
the reflection of each lightning flash in the waste of 
waters around seemed like a sword pointed at the breast 
of his horse, who shied and reared, and threatened to 
plunge his rider in the ungoverned flood. Holzl was a 
bold forester, but he had never known a nigfrtr like 
this ; and as the rapidly succeeding flashes almost drove 
him to distraction, he vowed to record the deliverance 
on the spot by a cross of iron, of equal weight to him- 


self and his mount, if he reached his fireside in safety. 
Then suddenly the noisy wind subsided, the clouds 
owned themselves spent, and in place of the angry forks 
of flame only soft and friendly sheets of light played 
over the . country, and enabled him to steer his home- 
ward way. Holzl kept his promise, and a black metal 
cross of the full weight promised long marked the spot, 
and gave it its present name. 1 The accompanying 
figures of our Lady and S. John having subsequently 
been thrown down, it was removed to the chapel on 
Blasienberg. Ferneck, a pleasant though primitive 
bath establishment, is prettily situated on the Inns- 
bruck side of the Galwiese, and the church there was 
also once a favourite sanctuary with the people ; but 
when the neighbouring land was taken from the monks 
at Wilten, who had had it ever since the days of the 
penitent giant Haymon, it ceased to be remembered. 

Starting from Innsbruck again in a southerly direc- 
tion, a little beyond Wilten, already described, we 

1 Such offerings are met with in other parts of Tirol ; in one place- 
we shall find a candle offered of equal weight to an infant's body. They 
present a striking analogy with the Sanskrit tul&d&na or weight-gift ; 
the practice of offering to a temple or Buddhist college a gift of silver 
or even gold of the weight of the offerer's body appears not to have been- 
infrequent and tolerably ancient. Lassen (Indische AltertMimskilnde, 
vol. iii. p. 810) mentions an instance of the revival of the custom by a 
king named Shrikandradeva, who offered the weight of his own body in 
gold to the temple at Benares (circa 1025) ; and (vol. iv. p. 373) another 
in which Alcungtsothu, King of Birmah, in 1101, made a similar offer- 
ing in silver to a temple which he built at Buddhagaya. He refers 
also to earlier instances * in H. Burney's note 19 in As. Res. vol. xx* 
p. 177, and one by Fell in As. Res. vol. xv. p. 474.' 


reach Berg Isel. Though invaded in part by the railway, 
it is still a worthy bourne of pilgrimage, by reason of 
the heroic victories of the patriots under Hofer. On 
Sunday and holiday afternoons parties of Innsbruckers 
may always be found refreshing these memories of their 
traditional prowess. It is also precious on less fre- 
L / frequented occasions for the splendid view it affords of 
the whole Innthal. Two columns in the Scheisstand 
record the honours of April 29 and August 30, 1809, 
with the inscription, ' Donee erunt montes et saxa et 
pectora nostra Austriacce domini mania, semper erunV 
I must confess, however, that the noise of the perpetual 
rifle-practice is a great vexation, and prevents one from 
preserving an unruffled memory of the patriotism of 
which it is the exponent ; but this holds good all over 
Germany. Here, on May 29, fell Graf Johan v. 
Stachelburg, the last of his noble family, a martyr to 
his country's cause. The peasants among whom he 
was fighting begged him not to expose his life so reck- 
lessly, but he would not listen. ' I shall die but once,' he 
replied to all their warnings ; 4 and where could it befall 
me better than when fighting for the cause of God and 
Austria ? ' He was mortally wounded, and carried in a 
litter improvised from the brushwood to Mutters, where 
he lies buried. A little beyond the southern incline of 
Berg Isel a path strikes out to the right, and ascends the 
heights to the two villages of Natters and Mutters, the 
people of which were only in 1786 released from the obli- 
gation of going to Wilten for their Mass of obligation. 


Natters has some remains of one of Archduke Sigis- 
mund's high-perched hunting-seats, named Waidburg ; 
he also instituted in 1446 a foundation for saying five 
Masses weekly in its chapel. 

There are further several picturesque mountain 
walks to be found in the neighbourhood of Innsbruck, 
under the grandly towering Nockspitze and the Pat- 
scherkofl. Or again from either Mutters or Natters 
there is a path leading down to Gotzens, Birgitz, 
Axams, and Grintzens, across westwards to the southern 
end of the Selrainthal. Gotzens (from Gotze, an idol), 
like the Hundskapelle, received its name for having re- 
tained its heathen worship longer than the rest of 
the district around. The ruins, which you see on a 
detached peak as you leave Gotzens again, are the two 
towers of Liebenberger, and Vollenberger the poor 
remains of Schloss Vollenberg, the seat of an ancient 
Tirolean family of that name,, who were very powerful 
in the twelfth and thirteenth! centuries. It fell in to 
the Crown during the reign of Friedrich mit der teeren 
Tasche, by the death of its* last male heir. Frederick 
converted it into a state-prison. The noblest person it 
ever harboured was the poet Oswald von Wolkenstein. 
Himself a knight of noble lineage, he had been inclined 
in the early part of Frederick's reign to join his influ- 
ence with the rest of the nobillity agjainst him, because he 
took alarm at his familarity with the- common people. 
Frederick's sudden establishment of his power, and 
the energetic proceedings he immediately adopted for 



consolidating it, took many by surprise, Oswald von 
Wolkenstein among the rest. He was a bard of too 
sweet song, however, to be shut up in a cage, and 
Friedl was not the man to keep the minstrel in durance 
when it was safe to let him be at large. He had no 
sooner established himself firmly on the throne than 
he not only released the poet, but forgetting all cause 
of animosity against him, placed him at his court, and 
delighted his leisure hours with listening to his 
warbling. Oswald's wild and adventurous career had 
stored his mind with such subjects as Friedl would 
love to hear sung. But we shall have more to say of 
Oswald when we come to his home in the Grddnerthal. 

The next village is Birgitz ; and the next, after 
crossing the torrent which rushes down from the Alpe 
Lizum, is Axams, one of the most ancient in the 
neigbourhood, after passing the opening to the lone- 
some but richly pastured Sendersthal, the slopes of 
which meet those of the Selrainthal. 

The only remaining valley of North Tirol which I 
have room here to treat is the Stubay Thai. 1 Of the 
three or four ways leading into it from Innsbruck, all 
rugged, the most remarkable is called by the people 
' beim Papstl ' because that traversed by Pius VI. when 
he passed through Tirol, as I have already narrated. 
The first place of any interest is Waldrast, a pilgrim's 
chapel, dating from the year 1465. A poor peasant was 

1 I have occasion to give one of the most remarkable legends of the 
Oetzthal in the chapter on Walsch-Tirol. 


directed by a voice he heard in his sleep to go to the 
woods (Wcdd\ and lay him down to rest {East), and it 
would be told him what he should do ; hence the 
name of the spot. There the Madonna appeared to 
him, and bid him build a chapel oyer an image of her 
which appeared there, no one knew how, some years 
before. 1 A Servite monastery, built in 1624 on the 
spot, is now in. ruins, but the pilgrimage is still often 
made. It may be reached from the railway station of 
Matrey. The ascent of the Serlesspitz being generally 
undertaken from here, it is called in Innsbruck the 
Waldrasterspitz. Fulpmes is the largest village of the 
Stubay Thai. The inhabitants are all workers in iron 
and steel implements, and among other things are 
reckoned to make the best spikes for the shoes of the 
mountain climbers. Their works are carried all over 
Austria and Italy, but less now than formerly. In the 
church are some pictures by a peasant girl of this 
place. Few will be inclined to pursue this valley 
further; and the only remaining place of any mark is 
Neustift, the marshy ground round which provides 
the Innsbruck market with frogs. The church of 
Neustift was built, at considerable cost, in the tasteless 
style of the last century. The wood carvings by the 
Tirolean artists Keller, Hatter, and Zatter, however, 
are meritorious. 

1 See a somewhat similar version in Node's Mythdogie der Volk- 
sagen, pp. 895-7. 

z 2 





It is not some Peter or James who has written these stories for a little 
circle of flattering contemporaries ; it is a whole nation that has framed 
them for all times to come, and stamped them with the impress of its own 
mighty character. — Axsharouxioff, Use of Fairy Tales. 

It is time that we turn our attention to the Traditions 
of South and Walsch-Tirol, though it must not be sup- 
posed that we have by any means exhausted those of the 
North. There are so many indications that ere long 
the rule over the province, or Kreis, 1 as it is called, of 
Walsch-Tirol, may some day be transferred to Italy, 
that, especially as our present view of it is somewhat 
retrospective, it is as well to consider it first, and before 
its homogeneity with the rest of the principality is 

Walsch, or Italian-Tirol sometimes, especially of 
late, denominated the Trentino, comprises the sunniest, 
and some at least, of the most beautiful valleys of 
Tirol. The Etschthal, or valley of the Adige, which 
takes its source from the little lake Beschen, also 

1 Circle. 

- » -r *- 


called der Qrune, from the colour of its waters, near 
Nauders, traverses both South and Walsch-Tirol. That 
part of the Etschthal belonging to the latter Kreis 
takes a direct north to south direction down its centre. 
There branch out from it two main lines of valleys 
on the west, and two on the east. The northernmost 
line on the west side is formed of the Vai di Non and 
the Val di Sole ; on the east, of the Avisio valley under 
its various changes of name which will be noted in their 
place. The Southern line on the west is called Giudi- 
caria, and on the east, Val Sugana, or valley of the 

The traveller's first acquaintance with the Wcttsch- 
tirolische-Etschthal will probably, as in my own 
case, be made in the Val Lagarina, through which 
the railway of Upper Italy passes insensibly on 
to Tirolese soil, for you are allowed to get as far as 
Ala before the custom-house visitation reminds you 
that you have passed inside another government. It 
is a wild gorge along which you run, only less for- 
midable than that which you saw so grimly close round 
you as you left Verona. If you could but lift that 
stony veil on your left, you would see the beautiful 
Garda-See sparkling beside you ; but how vexatious 
soever the denial, the envious mountains interpose 
their stern steeps to conceal it. Their recesses conceal 
too, but to our less regret, the famous field of Eivoli. 

Borghetto is the first village on Tirolese soil, and 
Ala, in the Middle Ages called Sala, the first town. It 


thrives on the production of silk, introduced here from 
Lombardy about 1530. It has a picturesque situation, 
and some buildings that claim a place in the sketch- 
book. The other places of interest in the neighbour- 
hood are most conveniently visited from Roveredo, or 
Bofreit as the Germans call it, a less important and 
pleasing town than Trent, but placed in a prettier 
neighbourhood. It received its name of Roboretum 
from the Latins, on account of the immense forests of 
oak with which it was surrounded in their time. The 
road leading through it, being the highway into the 
country, bristles all along its way with ancient strong- 
holds, as Avio, Predajo, Lizzana, Castelbarco, Beseno, 
and others, which have all had their share in the 
numerous struggles for ascendancy, waged for so many 
years between the Emperor, the Republic of Venice, 
the Bishops of Trent, and the powerful families in- 
habiting them. The last-named preserves a tradition 
of more peaceful interest. At the time that Dante 
was banished from Florence, Lizzana was a seat of 
the Scaligers, and they had him for their visitor for 
some time during his wanderings. Not far from it 
is the so-called Slavini di San Marco, a vast SteinmeeVy 
which seems, as it were, a ruined mountain, such vast 
blocks of rock lie scattered on every side. There 
is little doubt the poet has immortalized the scene 
he had the opportunity of contemplating here in 
his description of the descent to the Inferno, opening 
of Canto XII. It is said that a fine city, called San 


Marco, lies buried under these gigantic fragments, con- 
cerning which the country people were very eurious, 
and were continually excavating to arrive at the trea- 
sure it was supposed to contain, till one day a peasant 
thus engaged saw written in fiery letters on one vast 
boulder, ' Beati qudli che mi volteranno' (happy 
they who turn me round). The peasant thought his 
fortune was made. There could be no doubt the pro- 
mised happiness must consist in the riches which, 
turning over the stone should disclose. Plenty of 
neighbours were ready to lend a hand to so promising 
a toil; and after the most unheard-of exertions, the 
monster stone was upheaved. But instead of a trea- 
sure they found nQthing but another inscription, which 
said ' Bene mi facesti, perchb le cosoie mi duolevano 
(you have done me a good turn, for I had a pain in 
my ribs). 1 As the peasants felt no great satisfaction in 
working with no better pay than this, the buried city 
of San Marco ceased from this time to be the object of 
their search. Nevertheless, near Mori, on the opposite 
(west) side of the river, is a deep cave called 6 la Busa 
del Barbaz,' concerning which the saying runs, that it 
was, ages ago, the lurking-place of a cruel white- 
bearded old man, who lived on human flesh, and that 

1 The sunnier and less thoughtful tone of mind in which the Italian 
particularly differs from the German character, is often to be traced in 
their legendary stories. Those of the Germans are nearly always made 
to convey some moral lesson ; this is as often wanting in those of the 
Italians, who seem satisfied with making them means of amusement, 
without caring that they should be a medium of instruction. 


whoso has the courage to explore the cave and discover 
his remains, will, immediately on touching them, be 
confronted by his spirit, who will tell the adventurous 
wight where an immense treasure lies hid. Some sort 
of origin for this fable may be found in an older 
tradition, which tells that idols, whose rites demanded 
human sacrifices, were cast down this cave by the first 
Christian converts of the Lenothal. The Slavini are 
closed by a rocky gorge, characteristically named 
Serravalle ; and as the country again opens out another 
cave on the east bank is pointed out, which was for 
long years a resort of robbers, who plundered all who 
passed that way. These were routed out by the Prince- 
bishop of Trent in 1197, and a hospice for the relief of 
travellers built on the very spot which so long had 
been the terror of the wayfarer. The chapel was 
dedicated in honour of S. Margaret, and still retains 
the name. 

Eoveredo itself is crowned by a fort — Schloss Junk, 
or Castel nuovo — which has stood many a siege, origin- 
ally built by the Venetians ; but it is more distinguished 
by its villas and manufactories. The silk trade was 
introduced here in 1580, and has continuously added to 
the prosperity of the place. Graetano Tacchi estab- 
lished relations with England at the end of the last 
century, and the four brothers of the same name, who 
now represent her house, are the richest family in 
Eoveredo. They have a very pretty family vault near 
the Madonna del Monte, a pilgrimage reached by a 
road which starts behind the Pfarrhirche of Sta. Maria. 


Another pilgrimage church newly established is the 
Madonna de Saletto. While the silk factories occupy 
the Italian hands, the Germans resident in Boveredo 
find employment at a newly-established tobacco factory. 
Much tobacco is grown in the Trentino. 

A great deal of activity is seen in Eoveredo. The 
C0T8O nuovo is a broad handsome street with fine trees, 
A new and handsome road, between the town and rail- 
way station, was laid out in the autumn of 1869. 
Outside the town is the so-called Lenoschlucht, reached 
by the Strada nuova, which crosses it by a daring 
high arched bridge. The cliff rises sheer on the right 
hand, and overlooking the dangerous precipice is the 
little chapel of S. Columban, seemingly perched there 
by enchantment. It is built over the spot where a 
hermit, who was held in veneration by the neighbour- 
hood, had his retreat. 

There are seven churches, but not much to remark 
in any of them. That of S. Eocchus was built in con- 
sequence of a vow made by the townspeople during the 
plague of 1630, to invite a settlement of Franciscans 
if it was stayed. The altar-piece is ascribed to 
Giovanni da Udine. There are several educational 
establishments, and a club which is devoted to pro- 
pagandism of Italian tendencies. 

The time to see Trent to advantage is in the month 
of June, not only for the sake of the natural beauties 
of climate and scenery, but because then falls the festa 
of S. Vigilius (26th), the evangelizer of the country, 
and the churches are crowded with all the surrounding 


mountain population, who, after religious observances 
have been duly fulfilled, indulge in all their character- 
istic games and amusements, often in representations of 
sacred dramas, 1 and always wind up with their favourite 
and peculiar illumination of their mountain sides by 
disposing bonfires in devices over a whole slope. This 
custom is the more worth noting that it is thought to 
be a remnant of fire-worship, prevailing before the 
entrance of the Etruscans. 2 

That their city was the see of S. Vigilius, and the 
seat of the great council of the Church, are reckoned 
by its people their greatest glories ; and they delight 
to trace a parallel between their city and ' great Rome/ 
They reckon that it was founded in the time of Tar- 
quinius Priscus by a colony of Etruscans, under a leader 

1 The Passion Flays of the Brixenthal, however, are reckoned the 
best. The performers gather and rehearse in the spring, and go round 
from village to village through the summer months, only, as amphi- 
theatres are improvised in the open. 

* It may be worth mentioning, as an instance of how the contagion 
of popular customs is transmitted, that on enquiring into some very 
curious grotesque ceremonies performed in Trent at the close of the car- 
neval, and called its ' burial,' I learnt that it did not appear to be a 
Tirolean custom, but had been introduced by the soldiers of the garrison 
who, for a long time past, had been taken from the Slave provinces of 
the Austrian Empire, and thus a Slave popular custom has been grafted 
on to Tirol. Walsch-Tirol, however, has its own customs for closing 
the caraeval, too. In some places it is burnt in effigy ; in some, dismissed 
with the following dancing-song (Schnodahupfl) greeting, 

Ewiva caraeval ! 
Chelige manca ancor el sal ; 
El caraeval che vien 
Lo salerem piu ben I 


named Bhsetius, who established there the worship of 
Neptune, whence the name of Tridentum or Trent. 
That they occupied and fortified the country, ajid sub- 
sequently became a power formidable to the Empire ; 
But some twenty-five years before the Christian era, 
Ehsetia, as the country round was called, was conquered 
by Drusus, son-in-law of Augustus, and colonized. An 
ancient inscription preserved in the Schloss Buon Con- 
siglio shows that Trent was the centre of the local 
government, which was exactly modelled on that of 
Rome. S. Vigilius, who spread the light of the faith 
here, was a born Eoman, and suffered martyrdom in a 
persecution emulating those of Eome in the yfear 400. 
The city endured sieges and over-running from many 
of the barbarous nations which over-ran and sacked 
Eome, ajid researches into the ancient foundations show 
that the accumulation of ruins has raised the soil, as 
in Rome, some feet above the original ground plan — 
Eanzi says more than four metres. The traces of three 
distinct lines of walls, showing just as inRome the pro- 
gressive enlargement of the city, have been found, as also 
remains of a considerable amphitheatre, and many of 
inlaid pavements, &c, showing that it was handsomely 
built and provided. To complete the parallel, it was 
under the regime of an ecclesiastical ruler that, after 
years of distress and turmoil, its peace and prosperity 
were restored. The Bishop of Trent still retains his 
title of Prince, but the deprivation of his territorial 
rule was one of the measures of secularization of 
Joseph II. 



mountain population, who, after relig 
have been duly fulfilled, indulge in all 
istic games and amusements, often in 
sacred dramas, 1 and always wind up wi 
and peculiar illumination of their m 
disposing bonfires in devices over a w 
custom is the more worth noting tha* 
be a remnant of fire-worship, pre^ 
entrance of the Etruscans. 2 

That their city was the see of S 
seat of the great council of the Ch 
by its people their greatest glories 
to trace a parallel between their cit 
They reckon that it was founded i 
quinius Priscus by a colony of Etru.- 

:— . 4 


1 The Passion Plays of the Brixenthal, L 
beat. The performers gather and rehearse ii 
from Tillage to village through the summer 
theatres are improvised in the open. 

* It may be worth mentioning, as an inst 
of popular customs is transmitted, that on 
curious grotesque ceremonies performed in Ti 
neval, and called its ' burial/ I learnt that 
Tirolean custom, but had been introduced by ■ 
who, for a long time past, had been taken fr 
the Austrian Empire, and thus aSMfrapopuL 
on to Tirol. Walsch-Tirol, how «* *" 

the carneval, too. In some plae< 
with the following dancing-so^ 



>val of the constitutions 
•ta. Maria Maggiore con- 
I , with the fathers in full 
interest, aa all the 
, though quaint and 
It has also a very 
i so much esteemed at 
aid the Town Council 
jf the organ-builder, 1 
ity with as perfect an 
he could not prevail on 
aa a last favour to be 
iich was willingly con- 
obtained access to the 
ige the stop imitating 
i invented, and which 

I thus punished the 
cipality. In the re- 
t. Peter is a chapel, 
.e infant St. Simeon, 
rtyrdom at the hands 
already had reason to 

II are shown in the 
tept in his honour on 
: name in the stone is 

more usual form of applying 
lie Kremlin. As Stolier gives 
t of the great clock. 


My limits forbid my speaking in much detail of the 
secular buildings and institutions which are, however, 
not unworthy of attention. There are clubs and 
reading-rooms — in some of which aspirations after 
union with Italy are steadily propagated. The 
spirit of loyalty to Austria, though still strong in 
many breasts, has nothing like the same influence as in 
1848-9, or in 1866, when the attacks and blandish- 
ments of the revolutionists of Italy were alike power- 
less to shake the allegiance of the Trentiners. No one 
will overlook the vast Schloss buon Consiglio in the 
Piazza d'Armi, said to be an Etruscan foundation. The 
public museum is a very creditable institution, en- 
riched in 1846 by the legacy of Count Giovanelli's 
collection, chiefly of coins and medals ; and paintings, 
not to be despised, are to be seen in the collections 
of the best families of the place — Palazzi Wolkenstein 
and Sizzo, Case Salvetti and Graudenti. Two great 
ornaments of the city are the Palazzi Tabarelli, and 
Zambelli or Teufelspcdast ; and with the legend of 
the latter I must wind up my notice of Trent. 

Greorg Fugger, a scion of the wealthy Anthony Fug- 
ger, of Augsburg, the entertainer of Charles Quint, was 
deeply enamoured of the spirited Claudia Porticelli, the 
acknowleged beauty of Trent. Claudia did not appear at 
all averse from the match, but she was too proud to yield 
herself all too readily ; and besides, was genuinely pos- 
sessed with the spirit of patriotism, to which mountain 
folk are never wanting. Accordingly, when the reply long 


pressed for from her lips came at last, it informed him 
that never would Claudia Porticelli of Tirolean Trent 
give her hand to one whose dwelling was afar from her 
native city ; she wondered, indeed, that one who did 
not own so much as a little house to call a home in 
Trent, should imagine he possessed her sympathies. 
To another this answer would have amounted to a re- 
fusal, for it only wanted a day of the time already fixed, 
of long date beforehand, for the announcement of her 
final choice. But Georg Fugger, whose vast riches had 
long nursed him in the belief that * money maketh 
man,' and that nothing was denied to him, would not 
yield up a hope so dearly cherished as that of making 
Claudia Porticelli his wife. To his determined mind 
there was a way of doing everything a man was resolved 
to do. To build a house, however, in one night, and 
that a house worthy of being the home of his Claudia, 
when men should call her Claudia Fugger, was a serious 
matter indeed. No human hands could do the work, 
that was clear ; he must have recourse to help from 
which a good Christian should shrink ; but the case was 
desperate ; he had no choice. Nevertheless, Georg 
Fugger had no mind to endanger his soul either. The 
game he had to play was to get the Evil One to build 
the house, but also to guard from letting him gain any 
spiritual advantage against him ; and his indomitable 
energy devised the means of securing the one and pre- 
venting the other. Without loss of time the devil was 
summoned, and the task of building the desired palace 


propounded. The tempter willingly accepted the under- 
taking, on his usual condition of the surrender of the 
soul of him in whose favour it was performed. Georg 
Fugger cheerfully signed the bond with his blood, 
only stipulating first for the insertion of one slight 
condition on his side — namely, that the devil should 
do one little other thing for him before he claimed his 
terrible guerdon. ' Whatever you like ! it won't be 
too hard for mel' boasted the Evil One; and they 
separated, each well satisfied with the compact. 

* The Devil's Palace has a splendid design, worthy 
the genius of Palladio,* writes a modern traveller, who 
has only seen it in its decadence. On the night in 
which it was built, it was resplendent with marbles and 
gilding and tasteful decoration ; furnished it was too, 
to satisfy the most fastidious taste, and the requirements 
of the most luxurious. With pride the devil called 
Georg Fugger to come and survey the lordly edifice, 
and name his ' final condition.' Georg Fugger was 
prepared for him ; he had taken a bushel of corn, and 
strewn it over all the floors of the vast building. 
* Look here, Meister,' he said. * If you can gather this 
corn up grain by grain, and deliver me back the whole 
number correctly, then indeed my soul will be yours ; 
but if otherwise, my soul remains my own and the 
palace too. That is my final condition.' 

The devil accepted he task readily, and with no 
misgiving of his success. True, it took all the time 
that remained before sunrise to collect all the scat- 



tered grain; still he had performed harder feats 
before that day. But the hours ran by, and still there 
were five grains wanting to complete the count; where 
could those five grains be! With a flaring torch, 
lighted at his fiercest fire, he searched every corner 
through and through, but the five grains were nowhere 
to be seen, and daylight began to appear! i Ah! the 
measure is well-heaped up,, the Fugger won't discover 
they are missing,' so the fiend flattered himself. But 
Greorg Fugger was keener than he seemed. Before his 
eyes he counted out the corn, and asked for the five miss- 
ing grains. 6 Stuff ! the measure is piled up fuH enough, 
I can't be so particular as all that. The number must 
be there.' * But it is not !' urged Fugger. ' Oh, you've 
miscounted,' rejoined the Evil One; I'm not going to 
be put off in that way. I've built your house, and I've 
collected your measure of corn, and your soul is mine ; 
you can't prove that there were five more grains.' ' Yes, 
I can,' replied Fugger ; ' reach out me your paw ; ' 
and the Devil, not guessing how he could convict him 
by that means, held out his great paw, with insolent 
confidence of manner. ' There ! ' cried Fugger, pointing 
to it as he spoke ; 4 there, under your own claws, lie 
the five grains I That corn had been offered before the 
Holy Bood, and by the power of the five Sacred Wounds 
it was kept from fulfilling your fell purpose. You 
had not collected the full number of grains into the 
measure by the morning light, so our bargain is at an 
end. Begone ! ' The Devil, self-convicted, had no 

A A 


refuge but to strive to alarm his victor by a show of 
fury, and with burning claw he began tearing down the 
wall so lately raised. But Fugger remained imperturb- 
able, for he had fairly won the palace, and the Devil 
himself had no more power over it. He could only suc- 
ceed in making a hole big enough for himself to escape by, 
which hole was for many and many years pointed out. 

But Fugger had also hereby established his claim 
to Claudia's hand, who rejoiced at the gentle violence 
thus done her ; and many happy days they spent to- 
gether in the TeufdspalasL In later years it passed 
from their family into the hands of Field-Marshal 
Grallas, who lived here in peaceful retirement after 
his renowned exploits in the Thirty Years' War, whence 
it was long called Palazzo Grallas or Grolassi ; but it 
has lately again changed hands, and thus acquired the. 
name of Palazzo Zambelli. 

The suburbs of Trent, among other excursions, offer 
the pleasing pilgrimage of the Madonna alle Lasted 
which is reached through the Porta dell' Aquila, on the 
east side of the city, by half an hour's climbing up a 
mountain path off the road to Bassano. On a spur of 
this declivity had stood from time immemorial a marble 
Maria-BUd, honoured by the veneration of the people. 
Somewhere about the year 1630 a Jew wantonly disfi- 
gured and damaged the sacred token, to the indignation 
of the whole neighbourhood. Christopher Detscher, a 

1 Laste is dialectic for a smooth, steep, almost inaccessible chalk 


German artist, devoted himself to restoring it ; but it 
Was impossible altogether to obliterate the traces of 
the injury. By some means or other, however — the 
people said by miraculous intervention — it was alto- 
gether renewed in one night; and this prodigy so 
enhanced its fame, that there was no case so desperate 
but they believed it must obtain relief when pleaded 
for at such a shrine. A poor cowherd named Antonia, 
who had been deaf all her life, was said to have re- 
ceived the power of hearing after praying there ; and 
a child, who had died before there was time to 
baptise it, a reprieve of existence long enough to re- 
ceive that Sacrament. The grateful people now im-^ 
mediately set themselves to raise a stone chapel over 
it, and by their ready alms maintained a hermit on 
the spot to guard the sacred precincts. Twelve 
years later, by the bounty of Field-Marshal Grallas, 
a community of Carmelites was established on the 
spot, which continued to flourish down to the secu- 
larization of Joseph II. The convent buildings, how- 
ever, yet serve the beneficent purpose of a Eefuge for 
foundlings and orphans. The prospect from the pre- 
cincts of the institution is very fine; between the 
distant ranges of mountains and the foreground slopes 
covered with peach trees, lies the grand old city of 
Trent, shaped, like the country of Tirol itself, in the form 
of a heart. 1 Very effective in accentuating the outline 

1 Hence Kaiser Max was wont to call Tirol 'the heart* and 'the 
Bhield ' of his empire. 

AA 2 


are the two old castles of the Buon 5 Consiglio and the 
Palazzo degli Alberi, both formerly fortress-residences 
of the Prince-Bishops of Trent, the former vieing with 
the castle of the Prince-Bishop of Salzbarg in extent 
and grandeur. The curious isolated rock of Dos Trento 
is another centre of a splendid view. The Romans 
called it Verruca, a wart. It was strongly fortified 
by Augustus, and remains of inscriptions and bas-reliefs 
are built into the wall of the ancient church of 
St. Apollinaria, occupying the site of a temple of 
Saturn. The vantage ground it afforded in repelling 
the entry of the French in 1703 obtained for it the 
name of »the FranzoservbilheL It has lately been 
newly fortified. A charming but somewhat adventu- 
rous excursion may be made on foot, by a path starting 
from the fort of the Dos Trento rock, to the cascade of 
Sardagna. Somewhere about this path, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cadine, it is said, St. Ingenuin, 1 one of the 
early evangelizers of the country, planted a beautiful 
' garden, which was a living model of the Garden of 
Eden; but so divinely beautiful was it, that to no 
mortal was it given to find it. Only the holy Albuin 
obtained by his prayers permission once to find entrance 

1 St. Ingenuin was Bishop of Saben or Seben, a.d. 585. The See, 
founded by St. Cassian, had been long vacant, and great errors and abuses 
had taken root among the people, who in some places had relapsed 
towards heathen customs. His success in reforming the manners of his 
flock was most extraordinary. He built a cathedral .at Seben, where he 
is honoured on Feburary 5, the anniversary of his death. St. Albuin, 
one of his successors, was a scion of one of the noblest families of Tirol; 
he removed the See to Brixen, a.d. 1004. 

Walsch-tirol. 357 

to ' St. Ingenuiii's Garden.' Entranced with the delights 
of the place, he determined at least to bring back some 
sample of its produce. So he gathered some of its 
golden fruits, to show the children of earth. To this 
day a choice yellow apple, something like our golden 
pippin, grown in the neighbourhood, goes by the 
name of St. Album's apple. 

The only remaining towns of any note in the line of 
the Walschtirolische Etschthal, are Lavis and S. Michel. 
Lavis is a pretty little well-built town (situated at the 
point where the torrents of the Cembra, Fleims, and 
Fassa valleys, under the name of the Avisio, are poured 
into the Etsch), remarkable for a red stone viaduct, 
nearly 3,000 feet long, near the railway station, over 
the Avisio. Lavis fell into possession of the French 
in 1796, when the church was burnt and the houses 
plundered. In 1841 — forty-five years after — a French 
soldier sent a sum of one hundred gulden to the church, 
in reparation for having carried off a silver sanct-lamp 
for his share of the booty. 

Lavis has on many another occasions stood the early 
brunt of the attacks of Tirol's foes, and its people have 
testified their full share of loyalty. There is a tradition 
that the French, having on one occasion gained posses- 
sion of it with a band two hundred strong, the people 
posted themselves on the neighbouring heights and 
harassed them in flank ; but a cobbler of Lavis, indig- 
nant at the havoc the French were making, left this 
vantage ground, and running down into the town, 


shouting ' Follow me, boys!' dispersed the French 
troops before one of his fellows had time to come up ! l 

San Michel, or Walsch Michel, is the boundary town 
against the circle of South Tirol, once the last town on 
Venetian territory. There are imposing remains here 
of a tine Augustinian priory, which originated in a 
castle given up to this object by Ulrich Count of Eppan 
in 1143; the building has of late years been sadly 
neglected ; it is now a school of agriculture. A little 
way before Walsch Michel, the railway crosses, for the 
first time since leaving Verona, to the left bank of the 
Adige, by a handsome bridge called by the people * the 
8ech8millionen Brucke' Here we leave the Etschthal 
for a time, but we shall renew acquaintance with it in 
its northern stretch when we come to visit South Tirol. 

The two northern tributary valleys of the Etschthal 
on the west are the Val di Non a and Val di Sole ^ 
among the Germans, they go by the names of Nons- 
berg and Sulzberg, as if they considered the hills in 
their case more striking than the valleys. The Val 
di Non is entered at Walschmetz or Mezzo Lombardo 
by the strangely wild and gloomy Hochettapass. 
Walschmetz is a flourishing Italian-looking town, 
whence a stellwagen meets every train stopping at 

1 This is a local application of the widsepread myth of the tailor, 
who kills * seven at one blow/ identified by Vonbun (p. 71-2) with the 
Sage of Siegfried. Prof. Zarncke has also written a great deal to show 
Tirol's place in the Nibelungenlied. 

2 Anciently Anaunium, and still by local scholars -called Annaunia, 
a possession of the Nonia family, not unknown to Roman history. 


San Michel. Conveyances for exploring the valleys can 
be hired either at the ' Corona ' or the * Eosa.' The 
Bochetta is guarded by a ruined fort fantastically 
perched on an isolated spur of rock called Visiaun pr 
II Visione, said to have formed part of a system of tele- 
graphic communication established by the Eomans. 

In the church, of Spaur Maggiore, or Spor, so 
called because the principal place in the neighbour- 
hood, which at one time all belonged to the Counts of 
Spaur, is a Wumderbild of the Blessed Virgin* which 
has for centuries attracted pilgrims from the whole 
country round* The church of the next place of any 
importance, Denno, is remarkably rich in marbles, and 
handsome for its situation ; a new altar-piece of some 
pretension, and a new presbitery, were completed here 
in August 1869. Flavone or Pflaun, the next village, is 
particularly proud of a rich silver-gilt cross, twenty-five 
pounds in weight, and set with pearls, a gift of a bishop 
of Trient. At the time of the French invasion it was 
taken to Vicenza, but as soon as peace and security 
were re-established the people would not rest till it was 
restored to them. The hamlet is adorned with a rather 
handsome municipal palazzo, built in the sixteenth 
century, when the ancient Schloss, which overhangs 
the Trisenega torrent, was pronounced unsafe after 
several earth-slips. This valley is, if possible, richer 
in such remains than any other : every mountain spur 
bristles with them. One of the most important and 
picturesque is the Schloss Belasis, near Denno, claiming 


to be the cradle of the family of that name, which has 
established itself with honour in several countries of 
Europe, including our own. Behind Pflaun are large 
forests, which constitute the riches of the higher, as 
the Seidenbaum 1 is of the lower, level of the valley. 
In its midst lies the Wildsee of Tobel, which, frozen in 
winter, serves for the transport of the timber growing 
on the further side. The safety of its condition for the 
purpose is ascertained by observing the time when the 
trace of the sagacious fox shows that he has trusted 
himself across. 

Cles, situated nearly at the northernmost reach of 
the valley, is a centre of the silk trade, and the factory- 
girls are remarkable for their tastefully adorned hair, 
though they all go barefooted. The site of a temple 
of Saturn, of considerable dimensions, has been found, 
coinciding with traditions of his worship having been 
popular here; and remains of an ancient civilization 
are continually dug up. There is a wild-looking plain 
outside the town, still called the Schwarzen Felder, or 
black fields, because tradition declares it to be the place 
where the Eoman inhabitants burnt their dead. Here 
SS. Sisinius, Martyrius, and Alexander, are believed 
to have suffered death by fire on May 29, 397, because 
these zealous supporters and missionaries of St. Vigilius 
refused to take part in a heathen festival. St. Vigilius 

1 The white mulberry, whose leaves feed the silkworm, rearing 
which forms one great industry of Walsch-Tirol, is called the Seidenbaum, 
the silk tree. 


no sooner heard of their steadfast witnessing to the 
truth, than he repaired to the spot, and after zealously 
collecting and venerating their remains, preached so 
powerfully on their holy example, that great numbers 
were converted by his word. A church was shortly 
after built here, and being the first in the neighbour- 
hood, was called Eccele&ia, whence the name of Cles. 
The devout spirit of these saintly guides does not seem 
wanting to the present inhabitants ; when the jubilee 
was held on occasion of the Vatican Council, more than 
two thousand persons went to Communion. At the not 
far distant village of Livo, on the same occasion, it was 
found necessary to erect a temporary building to supple- 
ment the large parish church, for the numbers who 
flocked in from the outlying parishes. The same thing 
occurred when the faithful were invited to join in 
prayers for the Pope after the Piedmontese invasion 
of Eome, September 20, 1870. 

On these 4 Campi neri ' was found, in the spring of 
1869, a tablet since known as the 4 Tavola Clesiana.' It 
is a thickish bronze tablet, about 18 in. by 13 in., with 
holes showing where it was attached to a wall by the 
corners. It bears an inscription in Eoman character, 
the graving of which is quite distinct and unworn, as 
if newly executed. It is as follows, and has given rise 
to a great deal of controversy among archaeologists, 
and between Professors Vallaury and Mommsen, con- 
cerning its bearing on the early history of Annauria : — 


Miunio . sllano . q . sulpicio . camerino . CoS 
idibufl . martls. bals . in . praetorio . edictum . 

ti . claudi . caesaris . augusti . gennanici . propositum 

fait . id . 
quod . infra . scriptum . est . 
ti . Claudius . caesar . augustus . germanicus . pont 

maxim . 
trib . potest . VI . imp . XI . F . F . cos . designates . 

IIU . dicit . 
cum . ex . veteribus . controversls . petentibus . aliquamdiu . 

etiam . 
temporibus ti . caesaris . patrui . mel . ad . quas . 

ordinandas . pinarium . 
apollinarem miserat . quae . tantum . modo . inter . 

comenses . essent . 
quantum . memoria . refero . et . bergaleos . is que . 

primum . apsentia . 
pertinaci . patrui . mel . 
deinde . etiam . gal . principatu . quod . ab . eo . non . 

exigebatur . 
referre . non . stulte . quidem . neglexerit . et . posteac . 

detulerit . camurius . 
statutus . ad . me . agros . plerosque . et . saltus . mel . 

iuris . esse . in . rem . 
praesentem . mlsi . plantain . iulium . amicum . et 

comitem . meum . qui * 
cum . adhibitis . procuratoribus . meis . quisque . in . 

alia . regione . 
quique . in . vicinia . erant . summa . oura . inquisierit . 

et . cognoverit . 
cetera . quidem . ut . michi . demonstrata . commentario . 

facto . ab . ipso . sunt . 
statuat . pronuntietque . ipsi . permitto . 
Quod . ad . oondicionem . anaunorum . et . tulliassium . 

et . sindunorum . 
pertinet . quorum . partem . delator . adtributam 

tridentinis . 
partem . neadtributam . quidem . arguisse . dicitur . tarn . 

et . si . 
animaduerto . nonnimium . firmam . id . genus . hominum . 

habere . civitatis . 


romanae . originem . tamen . cum . longa . usurpatione . 

in . possessionem . 
eius . faisse . dicatur . et . ita . permixtum . cum . 

tridentinis . ut . diduci . 
ab . Is . sine . gravi . splendi . municipl . iniuria . non . 

possit . patior . eos . 
in . eo . iure in . quo . esse . existimaverunt . permanere . 

beneficio . meo . 
eo . quidem . libentius . quod . plerisque . ex . eo . 

genere . hominum . etiam . 
militare . in , praetorio . meo . dicuntur . quidam . vero . 

ordines . quoque . 
duxisse . nonnulli . collecti . in . decurias . romae . res . 

iudicare . 
Quod . beneficium . Is . ita . tribuo . ut . quaecumque . 

tanquam . cives . 
romani . gesserunt . egeruntque . aut . inter . se . aut . 

cum . tridentinis . 
allsve . ratam . esse . iubeat . nominaque . ea . que . 

habuerunt . antea . 
tanquam . cives . romani . ita . habere . Is . permittam . 

A fragment of an altar was found at the same time, 
with the following words on it : — 


Livo is the first village of the Val di Sole, which 
runs in a south-westerly direction, forming nearly a right- 
angle with the Val di Non, than which it is wilder, 
and colder, and less inhabited. At Magras the Val di 
fiabbi strikes off to the north. Its baths are much 
frequented, and S. Bernardo is hence provided with 
four or five capacious hotels. A new church has just 
been built there, circular in form, with three altars, 
one of which is dedicated in honour of St. Charles 


Borromeo, who visited the place in 1583, and preached 
with so much fervour as effectually to arrest the Zuing- 
lian teaching, which had lately been imported. 

Male is the chief place of Val di Sole, and contains 
about 1,500 inhabitants. At a retreat held here last 
Christmas by the Dean of Cles, so many of them as 
well as of the circumjacent hamlets were attracted, 
that not less than 3,000 went to communion. Further 
along the valley is Mezzana, the birthplace of Antonio 
Maturi, who, after serving in the campaigns of Prince 
Eugene, entered a Franciscan convent at Trent, whence 
he was sent as a missionary to Constantinople, and was 
made Bishop of Syra, and afterwards was employed as 
nuncio by Benedict XIV. It was almost entirely 
destroyed by fire a few years ago, but is being rapidly 
rebuilt. After this place • the country becomes more 
smiling, and cheerful cottages are seen by the wayside, 
with an occasional edifice, whose solid stone-built walls 
suggest that it is the residence of some substantial pro- 
prietor. The valley widens out to a plain at Pellizano, 
round which lofty mountains rise on every side. The 
church here has a most singular fresco on the exterior 
wall, which is intended to record the circumstance that 
Charles Quint passed through in 1515. Some restoration 
or addition was made to the church at his expense, and 
a quaint inscription hints that he did it somewhat 

A few miles further the valley divides into two 
branches, the Val di Pejo and the Val di Vermiglio. 
At Cogolo, the chief place of Val di Pejo, had long 


"been stored a magnificent monstrance, offered to the 
church by Count Migaezy, who, though resident in 
Hungary, owned it for his Stammort, 1 It had long 
been the admiration of the neighbourhood, and the 
envy of visitors; but it was stolen by sacrilegious 
hands in the troubles consequent on the invasion of 
the Trentino by ' Italianissimi,' in 1849. Count Grug- 
lielmo Megaezy sent the village a new one of considerable 
value and handsome design, whose reception was cele- 
brated amid lights and flowers, ringing of bells and 
firing of mortaletti, July 18, 1869. This branch of 
the valley is closed in by the Drei Herren Spitz, or 
Corno de' tre Signori, the boundary-mark between 
the Valtellina, Bormio, and Tirol, and so called when 
they belonged to three different governments. The 
Val di Vermiglio is closed by Monte Tonale, the 
depression in whose slope forms the Tonal Pass into 
Val Camonica and the Bergamese territory. Monte 
Tonale was notorious in the sixteenth to early in the 
eighteenth century for its traditions of the Witches' 
Sabbath, and the trials for sorcery connected with 
them. 1 Freyenthurn, a ruin-crowned peak at no great 
distance, bears in its name a tradition of the worship of 

On the vine-clad height of Ozolo, above Eevo, 

1 Stammort, Cradle of his race. 

• See Un processo di Stregheria in Val Camonica, by G-abriele Rosa, 
pp. 85, 92 ; and U vero ndle scienee occudte, by the same author, p. 43 ; 
and Tartarotti Congresso delle Lammie, lib. ii. § iv. It is one of the only 
four such spots anywhere existing where Italian is spoken. 


a few miles north of Cles, is a little village named 
Tregiovo, most commandingly situated; hence, on a 
; fine day, may be obtained one of the most enchanting 
land remarkable views, sweeping right over the two 
valleys. Hence a path runs up the heights, and along 
due north past Gloz and Arz to Gastelfondo, with its 
two castles overhanging the roaring cascade of the 
Noce. Along this path, where it follows the Novella 
torrent, numbers of pilgrims pass every year to one of 
the most famed sanctuaries of Tirol — Unsere liebe Fran 
vm Wdlde, or auf dem Gampen, as the mountain on 
r which it is perched is called by the Germans ; and this 
* reach of the Nonsthl is almost entirely inhabited by 
Germans. The Italians call it le Pattade, and more 
commonly Senate. The chapel is on the site of an 
ancient hospice for travellers, which became disused, 
however, as early as the fourteenth century. A highly- 
prized Madonnabild, of great sweetness of expression, 
found in a swamp near the place, stands over the high- 
altar. A celebration of the seventh centenary of its 
being found was kept by a festival of three days from 
August 14, 1869, when crowds of pilgrimages, com- 
prising whole populations of circumjacent villages, both 
German and Italian, might have been seen gathering 
round the shrine. Fondo, though but a few miles 
distant, is a thoroughly Italian town ; and so great is 
the barrier this difference of tongue sets up, that great 
part of the population of the one never visits the other. 
It was nearly burnt down in 1865, and has hardly yet 
recovered from the catastrophe ; the church, which 


occupies a very commanding situation, was saved, and 
its fine peal of six bells. Near it is St. Biagio, where 
was once the only convent the Nonsthal ever possessed. 
Near this again is Sanzeno, which, by a tradition a 
little different from that given at Deimo, is made out 
to be the place of martyrdom of SS. Sisinius (supposed 
to be another form of the name of St. Zeno), Martyrius, 
and Alexander. Their relics, at all events, are vene- 
rated here in a marble urn behind the high-altar of the 
church, which bears the title of the Cathedral of the 
Val de Non ; and the Boman remains, which are con- 
tinually being discovered, 1 show that there were 
Bomans here to have done the martyrdom. The 
legend is, that these saints were three brothers of 
noble family, of Cappadocia, who put themselves under 
the bidding of S. Vigilius, Bishop of Trent (who was 
already engaged in the conversion of the valley), a.d. 
390. Their conversions were numerous during a series 
of years ; but on May 23, 397, the inhabitants of the 
valley, who adhered to the old teaching, desirous to 
make their usual sacrifice to obtain a blessing on their 
crops, called upon the Christian converts to contribute 
a sheep for the purpose. On the Christians refusing 
a strife ensued, of which two of the three missionaries 
were the immediate victims ; but the next day, the 

1 A mithraic sacrifice with several figures, sculptured in bas-relief, 
in white Carrara marble, in very perfect preservation, bearing the in- 
scription : 

L. P. 

has just been found at this very spot. 


third, Alexander was also arrested ; he was burnt alive, 
along with the corpses of his companions. A church 
was subsequently built on the spot where they were 
said to have suffered ; their acts may be seen in a 
bas-relief of the seventeenth century. San Zeno is also 
famous for being the birth-place of Christopher Busetti, 
whose verses, no less than the details of his life, earned 
for him the title of the Tirolean Petrarch. ' A little 
east of San Zeno is the narrow inlet into the Rome- 
diusthal, so called from S. Romedius, whom we heard 
of at Taur, 1 having chosen it for a hermitage whence 
to evangelize the Nonsthal, and in which to end his 
days. A more secluded spot could not be found on the 
whole earth. Perpendicular rocks narrow it in, leaving 
scarcely a glimpse of the sky above ; the torrent which 
files its way through it, called San Romedius-Bach, con- 
tinually works a deeper and deeper bed. Two other tor- 
rents strive for possession of the gorge (Romedius- 
schlucht), the Rufreddo and the Verdes, between them ; 
near their confluence rises a stark isolated crag, from 
whose highest point, almost like a fortress, rises the far- 
famed hermitage, accessible only from one side. The 
legend has it that S. Vigilius, knowing his exalted piety, 
conceived the idea of consecrating the cell whence his 
holy prayers had been poured out, for a chapel, but 
was warned in a vision that angels had already fulfilled 
the sacred task. When this was known, it may be 
imagined that the veneration of the people for it knew 
no bounds, and the angelic consecration is still remem- 

1 See pp. 164-6. 


bered by diligent pilgrimages every first Sunday in 
June; the Saint's feast is on January 15. The shrine 
is overladen with thank-offerings, which might attract 
the robber in so lonely a situation. Due precautions 
are taken for the preservation of the treasury; the 
chapel is surrounded by strong walls, and ingress is not 
permitted to strangers after nightfall. There is no 
record of any attempt having been made on it but 
once, some thirty years ago. On this occasion three 
men presented themselves at the gate, and urgently 
begged to be admitted to confession; their devotion 
was so well assumed, and their show of penitence so 
hearty, that the good priest could not refrain from 
letting them in. He had scarcely taken his seat in 
the confessional, however, than the three surrounded 
him, each presenting a pistol at his breast ; all three 
missed fire, and the would-be robbers, convicted by the 
portent, knelt and made a real confession of their mis- 
deeds, and left as really penitent as they had feigned to 
to be on arriving. 

The spot has never ceased to be honoured since the 
death of the saint, somewhere about 398. It is strange 
to stand between the walls of the living mountain and 
realize the fact. There are few shrines in all Europe 
which can boast of such antiquity, such unbroken tra- 
dition, and such exemption from desecration. The 
building is as singular and characteristic as the locality. 
The chapel, where the saint's remains rest, and where 
he himself raised the first sanctuary of the Nonsthal, i» 

B B 


reached by one hundred and twenty-two steps, neces- 
sarily very steep ; and on attaining the last, it must be 
a very steady head that can turn to survey the rise 
without giddiness. The interior is quite in keeping 
with the surroundings. Its light is dim and subdued, 
sufficient only to reveal the countless trophies of 
answered prayer which cover the dark red marble 
columns and enrichments. There are two other chapels 
at lower levels, one of the Blessed Sacrament, called 
del Santi88imo 9 and one over the hermitage in the 
Tock. Flanking this curious pile of chapels on chapels 
are, on one side, the priory or residence of the chaplain 
of the place, ajid on the other the Hospice for pilgrims 
and visitors, the whole forming a considerable corps de 
batwnent, and enclosed by a wall which seems to have 
grown out of the rock. Another little crag, jutting up 
as if in emulation of that so gloriously crowned, was 
made into a Gottesacker, by a late prior, and its 
churchyard cross affords it a striking termination 
too ; though not many monuments of the dead bristle 
from its sides as yet. This singularly interesting ex- 
cursion may be made direct from S. Michel by those 
who have not time for visiting the whole valley. They 
will pass several striking old castles, particularly that of 
Thun, nearly opposite Castle Bellasi, the Stammschloss 
of one of the oldest and noblest German families, 
founded by one of the dearest companions and patrons 
of St. Vigilius. No other has given so many distin- 
guished scions to the service of the Church ; Sigmund 


von Thun was the representative of the Emperor at the 
Council of Trent* There is a strong attachment be- 
tween it and the people of the valley, who delight in 
celebrating every domestic event by what they call a 
I^onesade, or poem in the dialect of the V<al di Non. 
The castle is well kept up ; the interior is character- 
istically decorated and arranged, and many curiosities 
are preserved in the library; its grounds also are 
charmingly laid out. It is supplied with water by a 
noble aqueduct, raised in 1548, right across the valley 
from Berg St. Peter ; crowned also by an ancient 
castle, but in ruins. Few will have a prettier page 
in their sketch-book than they can supply it with here. 
Half way between Sarlzeno and Fondo, by a path 
which forms a loop with that already mentioned, by 
Cloz and Arz, and just where the opening into the 
Eomediusthal strikes off, is a village named Dambel or 
Dambl, where a very curious relic of antiquity, and an 
important one for throwing light on the history of the 
earlier inhabitants of the valley, was unearthed a couple 
of years ago. It is a stout, handsome bronze key, 
14£ in. long, the bow ornamented with scroll-work, 
which at first sight suggested the idea that it had 
formed part of a comparatively modern casting of the 
Pontifical arms. Closer inspection showed that on an 
octagonal ornament of the upper part of the stem wa$ 
an inscription, not merely engraved, but deeply cut 
(it is thought with a chisel), and in perfect preservation, 
in characters described by a local antiquary as 6 parte 

B B 2 



Buniche, parte Gotiche, del Greco e Latino del 388 
dell ' era volgare, descritte da TJfila ; ma molte somi- 
gliano a quelle del Latino dell ' Ionio 741 B. c." 

The owner of the ground, Bartolo Pittschneider, 
the jeweller of the village, seems to have been digging 
the foundation for a rustic house, intending to make 
use of a remnant of a very ancient wall long thought 
to have formed part of a temple of Saturn. At a 
depth of about 18 or 20 in. he came to a sort of pave- 
ment-, or tomb or cellar covering, of roughly-shaped 
stones resting against and sloping away from the base 
of the ancient wall, so as to form a little enclosure. 
Along with the key lay some other small objects, which 
unfortunately have been dispersed, 1 but among them 
were two bronze coins of Maximinian and Constantine 
the Great, thought to indicate the date of the burial 
of the key and not that of its manufacture. 

This key was subsequently sent to Padre Tarquini,* 
and a copy has been given me of his report upon it. 
He pronounced the inscription to be undoubtedly 
Etruscan, but at the same time he did not think 

1 Too many such remnants, which the plough and the builder's pick 
are continually unearthing, have been thus dispersed. It has been the 
favourite work of Monsignor Zanelli, of Trent, to stir up the local 
authorities to take account of such things, and so form a museum with 
them in Trent. 

* Padre Tarquini — one of the rare instances of a Jesuit being made a 
Cardinal— died, it may be remembered, in February last, only about two 
months after his elevation. He had devoted much time to the study of 
Etruscan antiquities ; he published The Mysteries of the Etruscan Lan- 
guage Unveiled in 1857, and later a Grammar of the language of the 



the work of the key to be of older date than the fourth 
century of our era; inasmuch as there are other 
examples of Etruscan writing surviving to as late a 
date in remote districts; that its size and material 
(a mixture of silver and copper) denoted it to belong 
to some important edifice, and most probably to the 
very temple of Saturn amid whose ruins it was found 
buried. He found in it two new forms of letters not 
found in other Etruscan inscriptions, but says that 
similar aberrations are too common to excite surprise* 
He translated it in the following form : — c Ad intro- 
ducendum virum (1) addictum igni in Vulcani (2) 
Vivus aduratur ob perversitatem — incidendo incide 
(3) — Sceleratus est ; sectam facit ; blasphemavit — In 
aspectu ejus ascendentes limen paveant, videntes 
hoininem oblitum Ejus (4) praestare jubilationem re- 
tinenti ad cruciatum, tamquam hostem suum.' 

It would be curious to know how Mr. Isaac Taylor 
would read the inscription by his different method, for 
Padre Tarquini found a curious coincidence of circum- 
stances to afford an interpretation to his translation. 
It would seem that it was only after translating it as 
above that his attention was called to the Christian 

1 (1.) Or it might be ' ad introductionem viri.' (2.) ' Vulcano ' her© 
(precisely as in another Etruscan inscription found a few years before 
at Cembra, and translated by Professor Giovanelli) for * ignis.' (3.) 
An allusion to the custom of first piercing (sforacchiare) the bodies of 
persons to be burnt in sacrifice, which appears from the inscription found 
at S. Manno, near Perugia, and again from the appearance of the figures 
of human victims represented in the Tomba Vulcente. (4.) The deity 
of the place to which the key belonged, probably, therefore, Saturn.' 


local tradition, and then he was struck with several 
points of contact between it and them. 1. The date 
which he had already assigned to the key is that given 
by the Bollandists to the martyrdom of St. Alexander 
and his two brothers. 2. It was found within the very 
precincts where he was said to have been burnt, and 
(his translation of) the inscription commemorates a 
human burnt sacrifice (U viviimnburio). 3. The in- 
scription (by his translation) seems to allude to Chris- 
tians, to their suffering expressly for propagating their 
religion. 4. The inscription points to the sacrifice 
having taken place in an elevated situation, as it uses 
the verb 4 to ascend,' and the contemporary narrative of 
St. Vigilius to St. Chrysostom of the event, as it had 
happened before his eyes, says 'Itum est post haec in 
religiosa fastigia, hoc est altum Dei templum * * • in 
conspectu Saturni.' He further goes on to approve a con- 
jecture of the local antiquary that the key was a votive 
offering made on occasion of the martyrdom of St. Alex- 
ander with SS. Zeno and Martyrius, in thanksgiving 
for the triumph over their teaching, and inscribed 
with the above lines as a perpetual warning to their 

The Avisiothal — the northernmost eastern tributary 
of the Etschthal — consists of three valleys running 
into each other ; the Val di Cembra, or Zimmerthal ; 
the Val Fieme, or Fleimserthal ; and the Val di 
Fassa, or Evasthal. The Val di Cembra is through- 
out impracticable for all wheeled traffic. Nature 


has made various rents and ledges in its porphyry 
sides, of which hardy settlers have taken advantage 
for planting their villages, and for climbing from 
one to another; but even their laborious energy has 
not sufficed to make roads over such a surface. 
This difficulty of access has not been without its effect 
in tending to keep up the honesty, hospitality, and 
piety of the people ; but as few will be able to pene- 
trate their recesses, their characteristics will be better 
sacrificed to the exigencies of space than those of 
others. I will only mention, therefore, the Church of 
Cembra, the Hawptort (about four hours' rugged walk 
from Lavis), which is an ancient Gothic structure well 
kept up, and adorned with paintings ; and a peculiar 
festival which was celebrated on the Assumption-day, 
1870, at Altrei, namely, the presentation of new 
colours to the Schiess-stand, by Karl von Hofer, on 
behalf of the Empress of Austria. One bears a Madonna, 
designed by Jele of Innsbruck, on a banner of green 
and white (the national colours) ; the other the names 
of the Empress ('Karolina Augusta') and the word 
* AU-treu,' the original name of the village, conferred 
on it by Henry Duke of Bohemia, when he permitted 
ten faithful soldiers to make a settlement here free of 
all taxes and customs. And yet the Italians, regard- 
less of derivations, have made of it Anterivo. 

Cavalese (which can be reached in five hours by 
steUwagen running twice a day from the railway station 
at Neumarkt) stands near the point where the Val di 


Cembra (which runs nearly parallel to the railway be- 
tween Lavis and Neumarkt) passes into the Fleimser- 
thal. It is a charmingly picturesque, thriving little 
town, and should not be overlooked, for the church is 
a very museum of Tirolese art : painting, sculpture, 
and architecture, all being due to native artists, and 
highly creditable to national taste, culture, and devo- 
tion. Among these artists were Franz Unterberger, 
who was chosen by the Empress Catherine to execute 
copies from Kaffael's Loggie, Alberti, Eiccaboni, and 
others, whose fame has resounded beyond the echoes 
of their native mountains. Many private houses 
also contain works of Tirolese art. Cavalese stands 
on a plateau, overlooking a magnificent panorama, 
and shaded by a grove of leafy limes. Under these 
is a stone table, with stone seats arranged round 
it, where a sort of local parliament was formerly 
held. Eespecting the appropriation of this plateau 
for the site of the church, tradition says that in 
early times, when the church was about to be built, 
the commune fixed upon this plateau, in the out- 
skirts of the town, as the most beautiful, and there- 
fore most appropriate, situation. But the old lady, 
part of whose holding it formed, could be induced 
on no consideration to give it up. Some little time 
after, however, she had a very serious illness ; on her 
sick bed she vowed, that if restored to health she 
would devote as much of her fair meadow to the use 


of the church as a man could mow in one day. 1 She 
had no sooner registered her vow than health re- 
turned. The commune appointed a mower, and he 
mowed off the whole of the vast meadow in one day. 
The old lady always maintained that there was some- 
thing uncanny about it, and anyone can see for them- 
selves that no human mower could have done it. 
The Market-place is adorned with a very handsome 
tower. A new church is now building, after the design 
of Staidl, of Innsbruck, on the site of the little ruined 
church of St. Sebastian, which shows that the study of 
architecture is not neglected in Tirol. The space being 
very restricted, the novel expedient has been resorted to 
of placing the sacristy under the sanctuary, and with 
good effect to the external appearance. The former 
palace of the Bishops of Trent, now a prison, is not to 
be overlooked. Predazzo is the only other spot in this 
valley we will stop to look at. The extraordinary geo- 
logical formation of the neighbourhood has attracted 
many men of science to the place, whose names may be 
seen in the strangers' book. The people are singularly 
thrifty and industrious. A high road connecting it 
with Primiero is just completed, which ,is to be con- 
tinued to meet the railway projected between Belluno 
and Treviso. A new church is being raised there, of 
proportions and design quite remarkable for so remote 
a place. It was begun simultaneously with the 

1 A Tag-mahd, or 'day's mowing,' is a regular land measure in 
North Tirol. 


troubles in Italy, in 1866, and a creditable amount 
has been since laid out upon it. The lofty vaulting 
of the nave is supported by ten monolithic columns 
of granite ; the floor is paved with hard cement, ar- 
ranged in patterns formed in colour; the smaller 
pillars, doors, steps, mouldings, are all of granite; 
much of the tracery is very artistic ; the windows are 
of creditable painted glass, though not free from the 
German vice of over-shading. The architect is Michel 
Maier, of Trent ; the elegant campanile by G-eppert, 
of Innsbruck. It will be the largest church in the 
whole of Walsch-Tirol, after the Cathedral of Trent* 
The interior arrangements and decoration bid fair to 
be worthy of the structure. There is some good poly- 
chrome in the presbytery, by Ciochetti, a young artist, 
native of the village of Moena, in Fassathal, who 
in the last five years has had eleven medals from the 
Academy of Fine Arts at Venice. It is the custom 
all through the valley that each village should have 
its own gay banner, which is carried before bridal pro- 
cessions to and from the church. But at Predazzo 
they have many other peculiarities; among these is 
the following : — The night before the wedding the 
bridegroom goes to the house of the bride, accom- 
panied by a party of musicians, knocks at the door, 
and demands his bride. The eldest and least well- 
favoured member of the household is then brought 
to him, on which a humorous altercation takes place 
and a less ancient dame is brought, and so on, till all 
have been passed in review, and then the intended 

WALSCH-T1R0L. 379 

bride herself is brought at last, who admits the swain 
to the evening meal of the family. The friends and 
neighbours then come in, and bring their wedding 
gifts to the loving pair. 

, The Fassathal begins just after Moena. One of its 
"wildest legends is that of the feuriger Verrather. It 
dates from the time of the Roman invasion. The moun- 
tain-dwellers appear to have been as zealous defenders 
of their native fastnesses then as in later times, and it 
is said the conquering legions were long wandering 
Tound the confines without finding any who would lead 
them into the interior of the country. It was at last * ' 
an inhabitant of the Fassathal who betrayed the narrow 
pass which was the key to their defences, and which 
cost the liberty of the nation — all for the sake of the 
proffered blood-money. But he was never suffered to 
enjoy it ; for a flash like lightning, though under a 
clear sky, struck him to the earth, and ever since, the 
traitor has been to be met by night wrapt in flames, and 
howling piteously. 

Vigo is the principal town, and serves as the 
starting-point for the magnificent mountain excursions 
of the neighbourhood. The most difficult of these, and 
one only to be attempted by the well-seasoned Alpine 
climber, 1 is that of the massive snow-clad Marmolata, 
10,400 feet high, surnamed the Queen of the Dolomites ; 
but she is a severe and haughty queen, who knows 

1 There is no record of her summit ever having been attained before 
the successful ascent of Herr G-rohmann, in 1864. Mr. Tucker, an 
Englishman, accomplished it the next year. 


how to hold her own, and keep intruders at a distance ; 
and many who have been enchanted with her stern 
beauty from afar have rued the attempt at intruding 
on the cold solitude of her eternal penance. For the 
legends tell that in her youth she was covered with 
verdant charms, which made her the delight of the 
people ; but they were not content to use with pious 
moderation the precious gifts she had in store, and for 
some sin of theirs — some say for selfish disregard of the 
law of charity to the poor ; l some say for disregard of 
the Church's law forbidding to work on the hohe Unser- 
frauentag (the Assumption), 2 some say for unjust 

1 I have given some of the most curious of these in a coUection of 
Household Stories from the Land of Hofer. 

2 There is no tradition more universally spread over Tirol than that 
which tells of judgments falling on non-observers of days of rest. They 
are, however, by no means confined to TiroL Ludovic Lalanne, Curi- 
osites des Traditions, vol. iv. p. 136, says that the instances he had collected 
showed it was treated as a fault most grievous to heaven. ' Matthieu 
Paris, a l'annee 1200, raconte qu'une pauvre blanchisseuse ayant ose 
travailler un jour de fete fut punie d' une etrange facon ; un cochon de 
lait tout noir s'attacha a sa mamelle gauche/ He relates one or two 
other curious instances — one of a young girl who, having insisted on 
working on a holiday, somehow got the knot of her thread twisted into 
her tongue, and every attempt to remove it gave intolerable pain. Ulti- 
mately she was healed by praying at the Lady-altar at Noyon, and 
here the knot of thread was long shown in the sacristy. 

I well remember the English counterpart in my own nursery. There 
were, indeed, two somewhat analogous stories ; and I often wondered, 
without exactly daring to ask, why there was so much difference in the 
tone in which they were told, for the one seemed to me as good as the 
other. The first, which used to be treated as an utter imposture, was 
that a woman and her son surreptitiously obtained a consecrated wafer 
for purposes of incantation (we have had a Tirol ean counterpart of this 
at Sistrans, supra pp. 221-2), and in pursuit of their weird operation had 
pierced it, when there flowed thereout such a prodigious stream of blood 




striving for the possession of the soil — the vengeance 
of Heaven overtook them, and the once smiling mea- 
dows were converted into the hard and barren glacier. 
Near Vigo is a little way-side chapel, highly prized, 
because near it some French soldiers in the invasion of 
1809 lost their way, and the town was thus saved from 
their depredations ; and the legend arose that the Madon- 
nabild had stricken them blind. Several of them died of 
falls and hunger, and tradition says, that on wild nights 
notes of distress from a dying bugler's horn may be 
heard resounding still. 

The Avisio was once the boundary against Venetian 
territory ; and St. Ulrich dying on its banks, on his 
return from Eome, exacted of his disciples a promise 
that they would carry his body across, so that he might 
find his final rest on German soil. 

"that the whole place was inundated, and all the people drowned. The 
second, which was told with something of seriousness in it, (' and they 
say, mind you, that actually happened,') was of a young lady who, having 
persisted in working on Sunday in spite of all her nurse's injunctions, 
pricked her finger. No one could stop the bleeding that ensued, and she 
bled to death for a judgment ; and whether it was true or not, there was 
a monument to her in Westminster Abbey. Dean Stanley, who 
seems to have missed nothing that could possibly be said about the 
Abbey, finds place, I see, to notice even this tradition (pp. 219-20 and 
note), and identifies it with the monument of Elizabeth Eussell (born 
1575) in St. Edmund's Chapel. Madame Parkes-Belloc tells me she has 
often seen a wax figure of a lady (in the costume of two centuries later 
than Elizabeth Eussell) under a glass case in Gosfield Hall, Essex 
(formerly a seat of the Buckingham family), of which a similar tradi- 
tion is told. 




Legends are echoes of the great child-voices from the primitive world; 
so rich and sweet that their sound is gone out into all lands. 

Val Sugana is watered by the Brenta through its 
whole course, running nearly direct east from Trent. It 
is reached by the Adler Thor, and over the handsome 
bridge of S. Ludovico, through luxuriant plantations 
of mulberries and vines, and with many a summer villa 
on either hand. The road leads (at a considerable and 
toilsome distance) to the low range of hills (in Tirol 
called a Sonneriberg) of Baselga, locally named Pin6, 
whose sides are studded with a number of villages and 
groups of houses. In one of these, Verda or Gruarda 
by name, near the village of Montanaga, is the most 
celebrated pilgrimage of the Trentino — the Madonna 
di Pin&, also known as the Madonna di Caravaggio. 
It was the year 1729 ; a peasant girl, Domenika Targa, 
native of Verda, who was noted by all her neighbours 
for the angelic holiness of her life, had lost some of 
her herd upon the mountain one hot August day ; in 
her distress, she knelt down to ask for help to bring 
back her charge faithfully. Suddenly the place was 



bathed in a light of glory, and before her stood a lady 
so benign and glorious, she could be none other than 
the Himmelskonigin. i Go, my child, and tell them 
that you have seen me here, and that I have chosen 
this spot for my delight ; and that their prayers will 
be heard which they offer before the picture of the 
Madonna di Caravaggio.' The light faded away, and 
Domenika turned to seek her flock. She found them 
all in order, waiting for her to drive them home. 
There was considerable discussion after this as to what 
* Madonna di Caravaggio ' might mean ; and it was at 
last decided that it could mean nothing but the picture 
of the Madonna by Caldara, surnamed Caravaggio from 
his birthplace, venerated at Milan. Domenika could 
not leave her herds to go to Milan, and she was per- 
plexed how. to obey the vision. In her simple faith 
she addressed her prayer on high for further direction, 
and once more the heavenly sight was vouchsafed to 
her, and it was explained that the Madonnabild meant 
was not that of Milan, but the one in the little field- 
chapel of S. Anna, near Montanaga. Domenika did 
not fail to go there the next festival on which it 
was open, the Ascension Day, which was, that year, 
May 26. Above the faint light of the tapers tempered 
by the incense clouds, and amid the chanted litanies, 
of the choir, the fair Queen once more appeared to 
her in garments of gold, and surrounded by a glitter- 
ing train of attendants. Some months passed, and. 
though the people had wondered at the marvel, nothing 


had been done to commemorate it ; Domenika was 
kneeling, on September 8, the Nativity of the Blessed 
Virgin, in the Chapel of S. Anna. A sound of soft 
chanting broke on her ear, which she thought must be 
the procession of the parish coming up the hill to pray 
for rain. But as it grew nearer, the same heavenly 
radiance overspread the place, and once more she saw 
the Virgin Mother; but this time she looked stern, 
for the great favour of her visit had been overlooked, 
and she reasoned with Domenika on the ingratitude it 
betokened. Domenika honestly outspoke her inward 
cogitations on the subject — what could a poor cattle- 
herd do ? It was given her to understand that much 
might be done even by such a poor peasant, if she 
exercised energy and devotion. With new strength 
and determination, she girt herself for the task of 
building a shrine over the spot so dear to her. At first 
she met with great ridicule and scorn, but she pursued 
her way so steadily and so humbly, that all were won 
to share her convictions. Offerings for the work began 
to flow in. Those who had no money gave their corn, 
or their grapes, their ornaments, and their very clothes. 
Year by year the new church rose, according as she 
could collect the means ; and at last, on May 26, 1751, 
she had the consolation of seeing the complete edifice 
consecrated. It is a neat cruciform building, sixty- 
three feet long and fifty-three feet wide, with three 
marble altars, on one of which is a copy of the 
Madonna di Caravaggio of Milan painted by Jakob 


Moser after he had made three pilgrimages to the 
original. I was not able to ascertain what was "sup- 
posed to have been intended in the first instance by 
calling the old picture in S. Anna's field-chapel the 
Madonna di Caravaggio. Possibly the little Milanese 
town, which has givfen two painters to fame, had pro- 
duced some 'mute inglorious * 'Caravaggio,' who painted 
the earlier picture. The commemoration of Domenika's 
vision is celebrated every year in Val Pine by pilgrim- 
ages on May 26 when the most striking gatherings of 
Tirolese costume are to be observed there. 

Pergine is the first large village on returning into 
the main valley, about six miles from Trent. It well 
deserves to be better known : the neighbourhood is of 
great beauty, and the form of the surrounding heights is 
well likened by the inhabitants to a theatre. The church, 
ljuilt in 1500-45, is spacious and handsome, adorned 
in the interior with red marble columns. In the 
churchyard are the remains of the older church, where 
every Lent German sermons are still preached for the 
benefit of the scattered German population, whose 
name for the place is Persen. The German and Italian 
elements within the village are blended with tolerable 
amity. From the fourteenth to the sixteenth cen- 
turies, silver, copper, lead, and iron, were got out in the 
neighbouring Fersinathal ; and though the works are 
bow nearly given up, the Knappen then formed an 
important portion of the community. They cast the 
bell as an offering to the church when building, and it 

c c 


is still called the Knappmn — by the Italians canoppa. 
The chief industry now is silk-spinning* The greatest 
ornament of the place is the Schloss of the Bishop of 
Trent, which is well kept up, and from the roof of 
which an incomparable view is obtained. Among the 
peculiar customs of the place those concerning mar- 
riages deserve to be recorded, as they tend to show the 
character of the people. Two young men of the bride- 
groom's friends are selected for the office of Brumoli 
so called ; they have to carry, the one a barn-door 
fowl, the other a spinning-wheel, before the bride as 
she goes to and from church, to remind her of her 
household duties. After the wedding, as she returns 
with her husband to his house the door is suddenly 
closed as she approaches, and there is then carried on 
a dialogue, according to an established form, between 
her and her husband's mother — the latter requiring, 
and the former undertaking, that she will prove her- 
self God-fearing and domesticated; that she will be 
faithful and devoted to her husband, and live in charity 
with all his family. The little ceremony complete, 
the mother-in-law throws wide the door, and receives 
her with open arms. 

On the south side of the valley, opposite Pergine, 
is the clear lake of Caldonazzo, whose waters reflect the 
bright green chestnut woods around it; it is the source 
of the Brenta, and one of the largest lakes of Tirol ; 
about three miles long, and half as broad. Count 
Welfersheim, an Austrian general, and his adjutant, 


were drowned in attempting to walk over the thin ice 
on it in March 1871. On a rugged promontory jut- 
ting into its midst stands the most ancient sanckjary- 
of the neighbourhood, San Cristofero ; once a temple 
to Saturn and Diana, but adopted for a Christian 
church by the earliest evangelizers of the valley, for 
which reason the produce of the soil and waters yet 
pays tithe to the presbytery of Pergine. Other' 
villages add to the surrounding beauties of the lake, 
particularly Gampolongo, with its church of St. Teresa 
high above the green waters, and the church and her- 
mitage of San Valentin ; the latter is now used for a 
roccolo, or ' vogeltennen, by which numbers of birds of 
passage are caught on their migrations. The land is 
very poor. To eke out their living, most of the male 
inhabitants of. the villages around are wont to go out 
every winter as pedlars, with various small articles 
manufactured in the valley, and with which they are 
readily trusted by those who stay behind. On their 
return, which is always at Easter, they distribute 
honourably what they have earned for each, deducting 
a small commission. So straightforward and honourable 
are they, that though they have little idea of keeping 
accounts, and the sums are generally made out with 
a bit of chalk on the inn table, yet it is said that such 
a thing as a dispute over the amounts is utterly un- 
known. ~ The church of St. Hermes, at Calzeranica, is 
reckoned the most ancient of the whole neighbourhood ; 
remains of an ancient temple, thought to have been to 

c c 2 


Diana of Antioch, have been found when repairing it. 
In the forest behind Bosentino, a neighbouring village, 
is a pilgrimage chapel called Nossa Signora del fdes ; 
die h. Jungfrau vom Farrenkraut — St. Mary of the 
Fern. Some two hundred years ago, Gianisello, a little 
dumb boy^of Bosentino, who was minding his father's 
herd in the forest, was visited by a bright lady, who 
pointed to a tuft of fern growing under a chestnut 
tree, and bid him go and tell the village people she 
would have them built a chapel there. When the 
people heard the boy tell his story, who for all the 
twelve years of his life had never spoken a word 
before, they felt no doubt it was the Blessed Virgin 
he had seen. The chapel was soon built, and furnished 
with a painting embodying the little boy's story. In 
time of dearth, drought, epidemic, or other local cala- 
mity, many are the processions which may yet be 
seen wending their prayerful way to the chapel of St. 
Mary of the Fern. 

Among the wild and beautiful legends of this part 
of the valley is a variant of one familiar in every land. 
A young swain, the maiden of whose choice was called 
to an early grave, went wandering through the chest- 
nut groves calling for his beloved, till he grew weary 
with crying, and laid bim down in a cave to rest. A 
sweet sleep visited him, and he found himself in it at 
home as of old in the Valle del Oreo, 1 with his Filomena 
on his arm; he led her to the village church, and the 

1 It is significant of a symbolical intention that the story should 



silver-haired pastor gave the marriage blessing, while 
all the village prayed around. He brought Filomena 
home to his old house, aUe Settepergole, 1 his dear old 
father and mother welcomed her, and she brought 
sunshine into the cottage ; and when they were called 
away the old walls were yet not without life and joy, 
for it resounded to the voice of the prattling little ones* 
The little ones grew up into stalwart lads and lasses, 
who earned homesteads of their own, and erewhile 
brought another tribe of prattling little ones to his 
knee ; while Filomena smiled a bright sunshine over 
all, and they were so happy they prayed it might never 
end : but one day it seemed that the sunshine of Filo- 
mena's smile was not felt, for she was no longer there ; 
then all grew pale and cold, and with a sudden chill he 
woke. It was grey morning as he rose from the cave ; 
the cattle were lowing as they were led out to pasture ; 
he looked out towards the chestnut groves, and watched 
in their waving foliage the strange effect which had 
been the charm of his childhood, looking like rippled 
ocean pouring abroad its flood. 2 But when he reached 
the village the sights and sounds were no more so 
familiar: the old church tower was capped with a, 

thus allude to the Valle del Oreo ; the more so as I cannot hear of any 
such actual locality in Val Sugana, though ' Oreo ' has lent his name to 
more than one spot, as we shall see later. There is, however, a Val 
d'Inferno between this valley and Predazzo. 

1 Settepergole — Seven Pergolas — the name of several farms in Waisch- 
Tirol. Pergola is the name for a vine trellised to form an arbour, all 
over Italy. 

2 This effect has often been noticed here by travellers. 


steeple, of "which he never saw the like; the folk he 
met by the way were all strangers, and stared at him 
as at one who comes from far. He wandered up and 
down all the day, and everything was yet strange. At 
evening the men came back from the fields, and again 
they gazed at him estranged : once he made bold to ask 
them for 4 Zansusa,' the companion of his boyhood, but 
they shrugged their shoulders with a ' Che Zansusa ? ' 
and passed on. He asked again for ' Piero,' almost as 
dear a friend, and they pointed to a ' Piero ' with not 
one feature like his Peter. Once again he asked for 
4 Franceschi,' and they pointed to a grave, where his 
name was written indeed — ' Franceschi,' who but the 
day before had walked with him in full life and health, 
to hang a fresh wreath on Filomena's cross ! Ah ! there 
was Filomena's cross, but how changed was that too ! 
the bright gilding, on which his savings had been so 
willingly lavished, was tarnished and weather-worn, and 
not a leaf of his garland remained round it. He 
wandered no further, nor sought to fathom the mystery 
more ; he knelt on the only spot of earth that had any 
charm for him. As his knees touched the hallowed 
soil consoling thoughts of her undying affection over- 
flowed him. ' Here we are united again,' he said ; 6 in 
a little while we shall be united for ever.' 6 At last 
have I found thee ! these fifty years I have sought thee 
in vain!' The moonbeam kissed his forehead as he 
looked up, and the moonbeam bore her who had spoken. 
A fair form she wore, but still it was not the form of 


Filomena. ' Who are you, and wherefore sought you 
me ? ' he asked. < I am Death,' replied the pale maiden, 
* and for fifty years I have sought thee to lead thee to 
Filomena.' She beckoned as she spoke, and willingly 
he followed her whither the moonbeam led. 

The village of Caldonazzo, with its ancient castle, is 
another ornament of the lake. Further south is the 
village of Lavarone, or Lafraun, accessible only to 
the pedestrian. A house close to the edge of a little 
lake here is pointed out, which in olden time was 
the residence of two brothers, the owners of the 
meadow over which the lake is now spread. These two 
could never agree ; their strife grew from day to day, 
till at last one night they called each other out to settle 
their quarrels once for all by mortal combat. The noise 
of the strife within had made them oblivious to the 
strife of the elements which was waging without. The 
gust which entered as the eldest turned to open the 
cottage door, and the blinding rain, drove them back ; 
even their fierce passions seemed mastered by the fiercer 
fury without. In silence they returned into the room, 
and neither cared to raise his voice amid the angry 
voices of the storm, which now made themselves heard 
solemnly indeed. In sullen silence they passed the 
night, and during the silence there was time for reflec- 
tion ; each would have been glad to have backed out of 
the promise^ fight, but neither had the courage to 
propose a reconciliation. Sullenly they rose with the 
morning light ; the pale gold rays rested on the trees, 


now calm and tranquil, and both shuddered to carry 
their vengeance out on to the fair scene ; but neither 
dared speak, and once more the eldest opened the door. 
This time it was not the rain descending from above 
which drove him back ; it was the flood rising from 
beneath! The Centa torrent had overflowed. The 
disputed meadow had become a lake, and with their 
united efforts they scarcely kept the waters banked out. 
The community of labour, of danger, and of distress, 
ended the strife ; and though their worldly possessions 
were lost to them for ever, they had found a greater 
boon, the bond of fraternal charity. 

I must pass over Levico, near which the Brenta has 
its source, and the intervening villages ; but Borgo di 
Val Sugan' demands our attention for its beautiful 
situation. The view over both may be enjoyed by moun- 
tain climbers from the neighbouring height of Vezzena. 
Borgo is commonly called the Italian Meran, for its 
likeness with that favourite watering-place. Its build- 
ings extend over both sides of the Brenta, being united 
by a massive stone bridge, built in 1498. Those on the 
left bank were nearly destroyed by fire in 1862, but the 
rebuilding has been carried on with great spirit. Ita 
ecclesiastical buildings do not date far back ; the re- 
building of the parish church in 1727 nearly obliterated 
all traces of the earlier edifice ; its chief glories are three 
paintings it possesses, one by Titian's brother, one by 
Karl Loth, and one by Eothmayr. The fine campanile 
was added in 1760. There is also a Franciscan convent, 


but it does not date back further than 1603, there is the 
following curious tradition of its origin. 

The Sellathal leading to Sette Comuni, is narrowed 
by two mighty cliffs — the Eochetta on the south, and the 
Grrolina on the north, adorned with the ruined Castel 
San Pietro, 1 seemingly perched above all human reach. 
On a green knoll beneath it stand the lordly remains 
of Castel Telvana; its frescoes are now nearly faded 
away, only a room here and there is habitable ; but its 
enduring walls and towers show of what strength it was 
in the days long gone by — days such as those in which 
Anna, wife of Siccone di Caldonazzo, defended it with 
so much spirit against all the might of Friedrich mit 
der leeren Tasche, that she obtained the right to an 
honourable capitulation. It was bought by the Counts 
of Welsburg in 1465, and henceforth it became an 
abode of pleasure rather than a mere fortress^ Count 
Sigmund von Welsburg, who was its master towards 
the end of the sixteenth century, was particularly dis- 
posed to make his residence in their midst a boon to- 
the inhabitants of Borgo, and entered heartily into all 
the pastimes of the people. It happened thus that the 
Carneval procession of the year 1598 was invited to- 
take the Castel Telvana for its bourne ; and that the 
women might not be fatigued by the ascent, the Count 
gallantly provided them all with horses from his own 
stud. The valley resounded with merriment as they 
wended their way up in their varied and fantastic 

1 Two bronze statuettes of Apollo were found here in June 1869. 


attire. Arrived at the castle, good cheer was provided, 
which none were slow to turn to account, and the 
return was commenced in no less boisterous humour. 
At the most precarious spot of the giddy declivity, the 
courage of the foremost rider forsook her ; the Count's 
high-couraged charger, which she bestrode, perceiving 
the slackened pressure on the rein, grew nervous and 
bewildered too, and uneasy to find himself for the first 
time subjected to devious guidance. The indecision of 
the first fair cavalier alarmed her sister, who followed 
next behind — a shriek was the expression of the alarm, 
which communicated itself to the next rider, and in a 
moment a panic had possessed the whole calvacade, or 
nearly the whole ; for the few who here and there still 
retained their presence of mind were powerless to make 
those before them advance, or to keep back the threaten- 
ing tramp of those behind. The Count saw the 
danger, and the one remedy. First registering a vow, 
that if he succeeded in his daring enterprise he would 
build a convent to the honour of Grod and St. Francis, 
he set out along the brink of the narrow track, where 
there was scarce a foot-breadth between him and the 
abyss, past the whole file of the snorting horses and 
their terrified burdens. He had this in his favour, 
that every denizen of his stable recognised him as he 
went by, and his presence soothed their chafing. 
Arrived at last safely at the head of the leading steed, 
his hand on its mane was enough to restore its con- 
dence; securely he led it to the full end of the 
dangerous pass, and all the others followed in docile 



order behind. The Count did not forget his vow, nor 
would he in his gratitude allow any other hand to 
diminish the outlay he had undertaken. The convent 
buildings are now in part turned to secular uses, though 
part is also used for a hospital, where all the Bick of 
the town are freely tended. In the church is an altar- 
piece of Lazarus begging at the gate of Dives, by 
Lorenzo Fiorentini, a native artist. 

The pass I have mentioned between the Eochetta 
and the Grolina — the importance of which as a defence 
was not unknown to the Eomans, of whose remains the 
town possesses a considerable collection dug up at 
different times — was not without its share of work in 
the French invasions of 1796 and 1809. In the former, 
a handful of Tirolese successfully repulsed five. hundred 
of the enemy in an obstinate encounter of three hours* 
duration. In the latter, the place was attacked by 
tenfold greater numbers. General Euska was so in- 
furiated, not only by their determined and galling fire, 
but by the derisive shouts and gestures of the moun- 
taineers, who carried their daring so far as to fling the 
dead bodies of the soldiers they had killed down under 
the wheels of his carriage, that he ordered the pillage 
and destruction of the town. His guns were ready 
planted to pour out their murderous fire, when the 
parish priest, heading a procession of aged house- 
fathers, came to implore him to spare their homes. 
At the same moment news was brought him that two 
Austrian battalions were advancing with dangerous 
haste. One or other of the considerations thus urged 


effected the deliverance of the town, which was only 
required to buy itself off at the price of a large supply 
of provisions. 

Borgo has further advantage of the mineral spring 
of Zaberle, and a creditable theatre. Silk-spinning is 
again the chief industry of the place; and there are 
several so-called Filatoriv,m8 9 employing a great 
number of hands. The most remarkable excursions 
in the neighbourhood are to the deserted hermitage 
of San Lorenzo and the stalactite caves of Costalta, both 
in the Sellathal, whence there is a path leading to the 
curiously primitive and typically upright community of 
the Sette Comuni. 

Pursuing the valley further in its easterly course, 
I must not omit to mention Castelalto, not only Te- 
markable for its share in the mediaeval history of Tirol, 
but for being still well kept up. At Strigno, one of 
the largest hamlets of the valley, is another ancient 
castle, which after its abandonment in the fourteenth 
century acquired the name of Castelrotto. The parish 
church, rebuilt in 1827, contains a Madonna del Kosario 
by Domenichino ; and a Mater Dolorosa in Carrara 
marble, by the Venetian sculptor Melchiori. This is the 
generally adopted starting-place for the Cima d' Asta, 
the highest peak of the Trentino (8,561 feet), and com- 
manding a panorama of exceptional magnificence. 
Under favourable circumstances it is reached within 
thirty hours, sleeping in the open at Quarazza. The 
interest of the way is heightened by two considerable 


lakes; the lower, that of Quarazza, closed in by wall- 
like' cliffs, is fed by a cascade from the higher lake, 
-which receives several torrents. Near the summit is 
a garnet quarry. Just below Strigno is another inha- 
bited castle, that of Ivano, belonging to the Count of 
Wolkenstein-Trostburg, who makes it a summer resi- 
dence. The church is dedicated to S. Vindemian; near 
it was once a hermitage. Further down the valley is 
Ospedaletto, famous in border warfare, and once a 
hospice for travellers, served by monks, still a mountain- 
inn with a chapel attached. Grigno has another once- 
important castle. S. Udalric, Bishop of Augsburg, had 
occasion to pass through the village on his way to 
Eome in the time of Pope Sergius III. (a.d. 904-11), 
and left behind him so profound an impression of his 
sanctity, that the devotion of the people to his memory 
has never diminished. In the eleventh century a chapel 
was built in his honour, with the picturesque instinct 
of the people of that date, on the steep way leading to 
Castel Tesino. It was always kept in good condition 
till 1809, when it was desecrated by the French 
soldiery. It was restored within ten years, and a rustic 
piazza in front planted with lime trees, which have at 
the present time attained considerable dimensions. In 
July 1869, processions consisting of more than four 
thousand villagers met at this shrine, to. pray for 
deliverance from the heavy rains, which were causing 
the inundation of their homesteads. 

From Grigno there is a path which few persons how- 


ever will be tempted to follow, across the so-called Canal 
San Bovo, to Primiero, a country which has already 
been so ably laid open to the tourist that I need not 
attempt a fresh description of its beauties. If any one 
penetrates its recesses as far as the village of Canal San 
Bovo, I think they will not be sorry to have been advised 
to ask for a certain Virginia Loss, who has a touching 
story to tell them of her adventures. On a stormy day, 
the last of October 1869, she was making her way, though 
only thirteen, with her mother and another woman,along 
the dangerous path leading hither from the Fleimserthal, 
following their occupation of carriers. They had passed 
Panchia and Ziano, and were in the midst of the verdant 
tract known as the Sadole. The fierce wind that blew 
exhausted her poor mother's strength, and she saw no 
help but to lay down her burden by the way, and try 
to reach home with bare life. Domenica Orsingher, 
the other woman, however, who had already got on a 
good way beyond her, no sooner learned what she had 
done than, considering what a loss it must be to her, 
with a humble heroism went back to fetch the pack 
intending to carry it in addition to her own! The 
next day some men travelling by the same path found 
her body extended by the wayside. She had died of 
cold and exhaustion. 

The land is strong with such as these, 
Her heroes' destined mothers. 

Further along they found Elisabetta Loss and her 
daughter huddled together. On carrying the bodies to 



Catiria they succeded in reviving only the child. Virginia 
has a tragic story to tell of; of how her mother sank to. 
her rest, and her own unavailing and inexperienced 
efforts to call her to life ; then the horror of the ap- 
proaching night, the snow storm in which she expected 
to be covered up and lost to sight, yet had not strength 
to move away; and, worst of all, the circling flight of 
crows and ravens which she spent her last energies in 
driving with her handkerchief from her mother's face; 
and yet the presence of death, solitude and helplessness, 
made the approach of even those rapacious and ill- 
omened companions seem almost less unwelcome. The 
insensibility which ensued was probably the most 
welcome visitant of all. 

Le Tezze is a smaller village than Grrigno, but one 
that has done good service to the patriotic cause, 
having many a time stayed the advance of invading 
hosts ; and never more successfully than in the latest 
Garibaldian attempt on the Trentino, upon the cession 
of Venice by Austria after Sadowa. The tombs of the 
bold mountaineers who fell while driving back the 
tenfold numbers opposed to them are to be seen 
appropriately ranged along the stony declivity they 
defended so well. These graves are yearly visited by 
their brethren on the 14th of August. 

They fell devoted and undying, 
The very gale their deeds seems sighing ; 
The waters murmur forth their name, 
The woods are peopled with their fame, 
The silent pillar, lone and gray, 
Claims kindred with their sacred clay. 


Le Tezze is the last Tirolean village of the valley, 
•and the seat of the Austrian custom-house against 
Italy. On the other side of this frontier is the 
interesting Italian town of Primolano, whence there is 
an easier way into Primiero-thal than by crossing the 
Canal San Bovo. Val Sugana retains more of the Ger- 
man element than any other district of Walsch-Tirol. 

Judicarien or Giudicaria bifurcates westwards and 
south-westwards from the Etschthal opposite Val Sugana. 
Its first (south-west) division is called the Sarcathal 
and reaches to the Lago di Garda. Though no part of 
the beautiful Italian lake actually belongs to Tirol the 
town of Eiva overlooks it ; the country round is most 
productive in wine, silk, lemons, figs, and other fruits. 
Its pleasant' climate, the warmest in all Tirol, is due 
not only to its southern latitude, but also to its being 
the lowest land of the principality. Innsbruck is 
1,820 feet above the sea-level, Riva but 220. From 
the western division of Giudicaria there branch out 
northwards Val Rendena, north-westwards Val Breguzzo 
find Val Daone, and southwards Val Bona. The Val 
di Ledro or Lederthal, forms a parallel return towards 
the Garda-See. Here an attempt at invasion headed 
by Garibaldi was repulsed by the Innsbruck Student- 
brigade in 1866 at a pass called Bezzecca. 

Giudicaria is little explored yet it contains some 
choice scenery and traditions. Castel Madruzz, which 
•can be visited from Trent, is one of its most ancient 


and important castles. From the twelfth to the seven- 
teenth century, the family which inhabited it and bore 
its name takes a foremost place in Tirol's history. In 
the church are shown the portraits of seven of the 
family ascribed to Titian. From 1530 to 1658 four 
of its members occupied the See of Trent, and were 
successively invested with the Cardinalitial dignity. 
Cardinal Karl Madruzz became the last of his house. 
All his kindred having died without heirs, he applied 
to Eome for permission to marry — a dispensation which 
we have seen once before accorded in favour of a 
Tirolese prince. Cardinal Madruzz preferred his suit 
successively before Urban VIII., Innocent X., and 
Alexander VII., and at last obtained it, coupled with 
the proviso that he should only marry in his own 
station. As this did not accord with his intentions, 
the favour so tardily granted was never acted on. This 
fine castle had fallen into sad neglect but it is being 
restored. From its deserted terraces a glorious view is 
obtained, which takes in the two lakes of Toblino to 
the north, and Cavedine to the south, both being fed 
by the same torrents. Eound the Lago di Cavedine lie 
the flowery slopes which bear the name of Abraham's 
Garden. The Lake of Toblino is broken into by a 
picturesque promontory, bearing the castellated villa of 
the Prince-Bishops of Trent ; though on flat ground, 
the round turrets at the angles with their pointed caps 
afford a wonderful relief to the landscape. The village 
is called Sta. Massenza, from the mother of S. Vigilius, 

D D 


who died here in the odoiir of sanctity, 381. Her relics 
were translated to Trent, 1120. At the foot of the 
height on which stands Schloss Madruzz is a double 
chapel, on the model of the Holy House of Loreto, the 
legend being inscribed on the walls. 

At the westernmost reach of Giudicaria, the Rende- 
nathal branches off towards Val di Sole. It was the 
cradle of the evangelization of Tirol, for here S. 
Vigilius suffered martyrdom, 405, and the valley is 
rife with traditions of him. He appears to have been 
stirred with zeal for the propagation of the faith at a 
very early age ; and his piety and earnestness were so 
apparent that he was consecrated Bishop of Trent at 
the age of twenty. He made many conversions, and 
built a church to SS. Grervasius and Protasius, a.d. 
375. But he was not content with establishing the 
faith here, and sending out missionaries hence ; he 
would wander himself on foot through all the valleys 
where paganism still lurked, overturning idols and 
building Christian sanctuaries — more than thirty trace 
their origin to his work. Nowhere did he meet 
with so much opposition as in the Rendenathal, which 
was the last to accept the yoke of Christ. But he 
was untiring in his apostolic labours, nor could he 
rest while one token of a false religion remained 
erect. It is not to be supposed that, though he 
made many fervent converts, he effected all this with- 
out also exciting the opposition and fury of those 
whose teaching he had come to supersede. Yet though 

wAlsch-tirol. 403 

many were the snares set for him, no conspiracy against 
him succeeded till he had cast down the last idol. It 
was at Mortaso, one of the remotest villages of this 
secluded dell, he stood announcing the ' glad tidings ' 
of the Gospel from the pedestal of the image he had 
overthrown, and the population crowded round, earnestly 
garnering in his words. He had left off preaching, and 
just raised his hands in benediction, when a body of 
heathen men and women, who had long determined to 
compass his end, rushed upon the scene from the sur- 
rounding grove, and stoned him with the fragments of 
the image he had overthrown. His hearers would have 
defended him, but he knew that his hour was come, for 
his work was accomplished ; and forbidding all strife, 
he knelt down, and folding his arms on his breast 
meekly rendered up his spirit, while his constancy won 
many to the faith. His disciples reverently gathered 
his remains and bore them to Trent ; but as soon as his 
murderers were aware of their intent, they set out to 
follow them. The Christian party, delayed by the 
weight of their burden, found that their pursuers were 
fast gaining ground. In this strait, says the legend, 
they called upon the rocky wall before them — 

Apriteyi, sassa, 
Che S. Vigilio passa, 

and behold before them suddenly appeared a cleft in 
the rock, through which they passed in safety, and 
which is pointed out to this day. Another narrow 

D d 2 


cleft is pointed out near Cadine, which is said to have 
been rent asunder at his bidding, when once, at an 
earlier stage of his labours, he deemed it right to flee 
from those who would have taken his life. The Aequo, 
detta Vela now passes through it, and a dent is shown 
which is said to mark the place where the saint im- 
pressed his hand on the obedient stone. It was this 
suggested to the bearers of the bier to make a similar 
appeal on behalf of his relics. It is commonly reported 
that in Mortaso the bread never rises properly ; and 
they couple with it this tradition, that when the pieces 
of the broken idol sufficed not for all who would attack 
the saint, the women brought out loaves from the oven 
to complete the work. 

The Eendenathal also preserves the memory of S. 
Julian, called also Sent Ugiano and San Zulian in local 
dialect. His legend says he lived with his parents in 
an outlying house. On one occasion, at the time of 
day when they were usually at work in the fields, he 
heard the sound of persons entering the house, and 
turned and slew them, and only found afterwards that 
it was his parents whose lives he had taken. 1 . Struck 
with horror he devoted himself to a life of penance, 
and made a vow to live so far from the habitations of 
men that he should no more hear the cheerful crowing 

1 Very like and very unlike the legend of S. G-iuliano I met in Rome 
(Folklore of Rome), where he was supposed to be a native of Albano, 
and to haye passed his penitential time at Compostella, Gv Schott, 
Wallachische March en, pp. 281 and 375, gives a similar legend applied 
to Elias in place of St. Julian. 


of the cock or the holy chime of the church bells. 
After his death the people found that angels had 
planted roses on his grave which bloomed in winter, 
and they observed that no venomous reptile ever rested 
on it, while earth taken from it cured their sting. So 
they built a chapel in his honour on the border of the 
little lake which bears his name, at the opening of Val 
Grenova. Another interesting church in the same 
locality is that of Caresolo. Its exterior walls are 
adorned with frescoes bearing date 1519, and inside is 
an inscription recording that it was restored by the 
munificence of Charles Quint. At Pelugo, near Tione, 
where the Eendenathal branches off, he found the 
castle in possession of a Jew, and so indignant was he 
to find a once Christian fortress so occupied, that he 
had him immediately ejected and the place exorcised. 
Here, as also at Massimeno and Caderzone, all incon- 
siderable mountain villages, new churches were con- 
secrated during the Bishop of Trent's visitation in 
August 1869, showing that the spirit of S. Vigiliiis 
had not died out. In the Pfarrkirche at Condino is a 
MuttergotteesbUd, presented in 1620 by a parishioner 
who averred he had seen it shed tears. Of the church 
of Campiglio the legend runs, that when it was build- 
ing, the people being much distressed by a dearth, and 
their means hardly sufficing, the angels used to bring 
stone, wood, and other materials in the night ; and one 
pillar is pointed out which was raised before the eyes 
of the builders in broad day by invisible hands. The 


inn here occupies a hospice built by the Templars, 
hence its imposing appearance. Colini, who was 
locally called the Hofer of Walsch-Tirol, for his brave 
leadership of his countrymen in ' the year nine,' kept it 
till his death in 1862. At Pinzolo is a thriving glass- 
house, supported by Milanese capital and Venetian art 
and industry. 

Eiva, at the head of the Garda-See, is one of the 
most charming spots in Tirol. Its German name of 
Reif is not a mere corruption of the Italian name ; it; is 
an old German word, having the same signification, of 
a shore. The parish church is a really handsome 
edifice, and a great ornament to the town and neigh- 
bourhood. Outside the town is a curious octagonal 
church of the Immaculate Conception, built to enclose 
a wonder-working picture of the Blessed Virgin, by 
Cardinal Karl von Madruzz, who also founded a House 
of Friars Minor to attend to the spiritual necessities of 
the many pilgrims who came to visit it. The churches 
of S. Eoch and S. Sebastian were built on occasion of 
visitations of the plague in 1522 and 1633. The 
neighbourhood supplies the whole of Tirol with twigs 
of olive to use in the office of Palm Sunday, and all 
kinds of southern produce grow on the banks of the 
lake. It was long considered the highest latitude at 
which the olive-tree would grow, but it has since been 
successfully cultivated as far north as Botzen. In order 
to gain a full enjoyment of the beautiful scenery 
around, the Altissimo di Nago should be ascended by 


all who have the courage for a six or seven hours' climb. 
From San Giacomo, however, where there is a poor 
Wirth8hau8 and chapel, reached in not more than two 
hours, the scene at sunrise is one of inconceivable 
beauty. Behind are ranges beyond ranges and peaks 
beyond peaks of lordly alps. Before you lies the blue 
Lago di Garda, and the vast Lombard plains studded 
with fair cities, amid which you will not fail to dis- 
tinguish Milan, which some optical illusion brings so 
near that it seems it would take but an easy morning's 
walk to reach it. 

On the way hence to Mori, at about half distance, 
lies Brentonico, with a new church perched pictu- 
resquely as a mediaeval one on a bold scarped rock. The 
old parish church has a fine crypt. The Castello del 
Dosso Maggiore is a noble ruin. There is a bridge 
over a deep defile in the outskirts, called the Ponte 
deUe8trege — the Witches' Bridge — being deemed too 
daring for human builders. Mori, though named from 
its mulberry trees, is more famed for its tobacco, which 
is reckoned the best grown in Tirol. 

Walsch-Tirol has many traditions, customs and 
sayings, which differ from those of the rest of the Prin- 
cipality, more resembling those of Italy, and some of 
which it cannot be fanciful to trace back to an Etruscan 
connection. Some bear the impress of the Roman occu- 
pation, and all are strung together by an overpowering 
Germanic influence. 

The most prominent group — and their special home, 


I am assured, clusters round the Dolomite mountains — ■ 
are those concerning certain beings called 'Salvan' 
and 4 Grannes ; ' and traditions about 4 Oreo.' A local 
collector of such lore, to whom I am chiefly indebted for 
the above fact, is inclined to identify the ' Sal van ' with 
6 Oreo ; ' but I think it can be shown that they are distinct 
ideas. Both are only ordinarily, not always malicious, 
but the i Sal van ' is one of a number of sprites, Oreo 
has the dignity of being one by himselfc The Salvan 
in some respects takes the place of the wild man of 
the North, and of the satyr whom I also found called 
in Eome ' salvatico ' and 4 selvaggio.' * ' Oreo ' clearly 
takes the place of Orcus in Italy; and that of the 
' Teufel ' in German legend. Yet so are the traditions 
of neighbouring peoples intermingled, that the Germans, 
not content with their own devil, have sprightly imita- 
tions of Oreo in their 4 Nork ' and Lorg, softened in the 
intermediate Deutsch Tirol into Norg. 2 In Norway 
the same appellation is found, hardened into Nok, 
Neck, Nikr, 3 which seems to bring us round ito our own 
'Old Nick ;' for in Iceland he is * Knikur,' and, perhaps, 
he gave his name to Orkney. 4 

1 Folklore of Rome, p. 320. 

* I need not repeat the characteristics of the Tirolean Norg, which 
1 4ave given in the translation of the ' Eose-garden ' in Household Stories 
from the Land of Hofer. 

* Thorp's Northern Mythology, vol. ii. pp. 20-2. 

4 Though of course mere similarity of sound may lead one absurdly 
astray ; as if any one were to say that the old fables of rubbing a ring 
to produce the * Slave of the ring ' was the origin of the modern substi- 
tute of ringing to summon a servant ! 


It is curious, in tracing the seemingly undoubtable f ° l».J. KK [n\ 
connection between the Norg and Oreo, to observe that 
though the Norg possesses almost invincible strength, 
and often prevails against giants, yet in stature he is 
always a dwarf, while Oreo himself is considered a 
giant. But then it is the one essential characteristic 
of Oreo which forms the link between all conceptions of 
him, whether men call him Oreo, Nork, or Nyk, that 
he is a deceiver ever ; a liar from the beginning ; 
whenever he appears it is continually under some ever- 
changing, not-to-be-expected form, and only the wise 
guess what he is before it is too late. 1 Thus it hap- 
pened to two young lads of Mori, who had been up the 
mountains to visit their sweet-hearts, and corning back, 
they met Oreo prowling about after his manner when 
all good people are safe in bed asleep — this time in the 
form of an ass. The Mori lads, never thinking but 
that it was a common ass, jumped on its back. They 
soon found out their mistake, for Oreo quickly resented 
their want of discrimination, and cantered off with 
them past an old building which had once been a 
prison, and skilfully chucked them both in at the 
window. It was some days before they contrived to 
crawl out again, and not till they were nearly starved. 

1 Again, Mr. Cox (Mythology of the Aryan Nations, vol. ii. p. 221 
et seq.) says, 'the Maruts or storm winds who attend on Indra . . be- 
came the fearful Ogres in the traditions of Northern Europe . . they 
are the children of Eudra, worshipped as the destroyer and reproducer 
and . . like Hermes, as the robber, the cheat, the deceiver, the master 


But we have in English another affinity with c Oreo,' 
besides 4 01d Nick;' we have seen him take the place 
of our « ogre ' in deed as well as in name in the Eoman 
fairy tales, and in Italy he is also the bugbear of the 
nursery which we have almost literally in « Old Bogey.' 
And now Mr. I. Taylor has found another affinity for 
him if he be justified in identifying our * ogre ' with 
" the Tatar word, 4 ugry,' a thief." l 

To return to Oreo's place in Tirol, we find his name 
assumes nearly as many transliterations as his external 
appearance assumes changes. In Vorarlberg they 
have a Dorgi or Doggi (i being the frequent local ab- 
breviation for the diminutive lein, — fcfem), there con- 
sidered as one personation of the devil. The Doggi 
spreads over part of Switzerland, and overflows into 
Alsace as the Doggele. 9 In the zone of Tirol where the 
Italian and German elements of the population mingle, 
there is a class of mischievous irrepressible elfs called 
Orgen ; soft, and round, and small, like cats without 
head or feet, who establish themselves in any part of 
a house performing all sorts of annoyances, but who are 
as afraid of egg-shells as the Norgs in other parts are 
said to be. Their chief home is in the Martelthal* 
south of Schlanders in the Vintschgan, and their name 
is devoted to the brightly shining peak seen from it — 
the Orgelspitz. In the Passeyer, on the north side of 
the Vintschgan, they go by the name of Oerkelen. 

1 Etruscan Researches, p. 376 and note. 
* Stober, Sagen des Elsasses, p. 30. 


Since we have seen him, too, divested of his i r ' in 
Doggi from Vorarlberg to Alsace, and the Germans 
have already given him an L in Lorg, he assumes 
a mysterious likeness to Loki himself, and as a sample 
of how elastic is language, and how misleading are 
mere sounds, though for no other purpose, it might be 
said, we had found in this Doggi a relation of the dog 
who guards the entrance to the regions of Orcus ! 

The Salvan and Gannes, as described by the local 
observer above alluded to, seem to partake very much 
of the character of the good and evil genii of the 
Etruscans, though the traditions that remain of them 
refer almost exclusively to their action on this side the 
grave. 4 Their Etruscan appellation,' says Mr. Dennis, 
4 is not yet discovered ; M when it is, it will be very satis- 
factory if it has any analogy with 'Gannes.'* The 
Gannes were gentle, beauteous, beneficent beings, 
delighting in being helpful to those they took under 
their protection ; harmful to none. The Salvans were 
hideous, wild, and fierce, delighting in mischief and 
destruction, with fiery serpents for their chief com- 
panions. They seem to have done all the mischief th«y 
could as long as their sway lasted, but they were scared 
by advancing civilization; and I have a ludicrous 

1 Cities of Etnuca, vol. ii. p. 65-8. 

8 Selvan, at all events, is a word -which, Mr. Isaac Taylor observes, 
is of frequent occurrence in Etruscan inscriptions (Et. Res. pp. 394-5), 
and its signification has not yet been fixed. And may not Gannes have 
some relation with Kan or Khan (p. 322) ? 


description of how they stood gazing down in stupid 
wonderment from their Dolomite peaks, when the first 
ploughs were brought into use in the valleys. 

Schneller, who with all his appreciation of Walsch- 
Tirol, looks at its traditions too much through German 
spectacles, gives us some little account of these beings 
too. 1 

He has also a ' Salvanel,' who seems a male counter- 
part of his Grannes, helpful and soft-natured, with no 
vice save a tendency to steal milk. In return he 
teaches mankind to make butter and cheese, and other 
useful arts, and is specially kind to little children ; his 
name bears some relation with the local word for the 

1 It is very disappointing that he has translated the great bulk of 
his vast collection of fiabe ('fiaba ' in North Italian answers to the 
' favola ' of Home) so utterly into German that, though we find ail our 
old friends among them, all the distinctive expressions are translated 
away, and they are rendered valueless for all but mere childish amuse- 
ment. Thus it is interesting to find in Walsch-Tirol a diabolical 
counterpart of the Roman story of ' Pret' Olivo,' but it would have ren- 
dered it infinitely more interesting had the collector told us what was the 
word which he translates by ' Teufel,' for it is the rarest thing in the 
world for an Italian to bring the personified * Diavolo ' or * Demonio ' 
into any light story. In the same way it is interesting to find all the 
other tales with which we are familiar turn up here, but the real use of 
printing them at length would have been to point out their characteristics. 
What was the Italian used for the words rendered in the German by 
'Witch?' Was it' Gannes' or 'strega?' or for • Giant' and 'Wild 
man : ' was it ' Torn salvadegh ' or ' salvan ' or ' orco ? ' I cannot think 
it was ' gigante.' But all is left to conjecture. Among the few bits of 
Italian he does give are two or three ' tags ' to stories, among them the 
one I met so continually in Home 'Larga la foglia' — (it was still 
' foglia ' and not ' voglia ') word for word. 


4 Jack-'o-lantern ' reflection from glass or water. But 
he found also the ' Salvan ' in his pernicious character 
under the names of 4 Bedelmon,' ' Bildermon,' and < Sal- 
vadegh.' But the most pernicious spirit that came 
in his way was the ' Beatrik,' who is an unmitigated 
fury, 1 and the natural enemy and antagonist of a gentle, 
helpful, beauteous spirit called Angane, Eguane, and 
Enguane, but possessed with his German ideas, he saw 
in the being so designated nothing but ' a witch, or per- 
haps a fairy 7 natured being.' 2 In another page he pairs 
them off more fairly with the ' Saligen Fraulein ' of 
Germany. Here is a story of their ways which was given 
me, but I do not know if it was founded on his at page 
2 15, or independently collected: — A young woodman was 
surprised one day to meet, in the midst of his lonely toil, 
a beautiful maiden, who nodded to him familiarly, and 
bid him ' good day ' with more than common interest. 
Nor did her conversation end with ' good day ; ' she 
found enough to prattle about till night fell ; and then, 
though the young woodman had been sitting by her 
side instead of attending to his work, he found he had 
a bigger faggot to carry home than he had ever made 
up with all his day's labour before. ' That was a sweet 
maiden, indeed,' he mused on his way home. 4 And 
yet I doubt if she is all right. But her talk showed 

1 Dr. Steub, in his Herbsttagen in Tirol, shows that the Beatrick may 
be identified with Dietrich von Bern. 

2 Though nothing would seem simpler than to suppose the word 
derived from the Euganean inhabitants who left their name to Val 


she was of the right stuff to make a housewife ; but 
then Maddalena, what will she say? ha! let her say 
what she will, she won't stand comparing with her ! I 
wonder if I shall see her again 1 And yet I don't think 
she's altogether right, either.' So he mused all through 
the lonely evening, and all through the sleepless night ; 
and his first thought in the morning was of whether 
he should meet that strange maiden again in the wood. 
In the wood he did meet her, and again she wiled away 
the day with her prattle ; and again and again they 
met. Maddalena sat at home weeping over her spin- 
ning-wheel, and wondering why he came no more to 
take her for a walk*; but Maddalena was forgotten, and 
one day it was her fate to see her former lover and the 
strange maiden married in the parish church. The 
woodman was not surprised to find his seiren the model of 
a wife. The house was swept so clean, the clothes so neatly 
mended, the butter so quickly churned, that though 
all the villagers had been shy of the strange maiden, 
none could deny her excellent capacity. The wood- 
man was very well satisfied with his choice ; but as he 
had always a misgiving that there was something not 
quite right with her, he could not help nervously watch- 
ing every little peculiarity. It was thus he came to 
notice that it was occasionally her custom to lay her 
long wavy tresses carefully outside the bedclothes at 
night ; he thought this odd, and determined to watch 
her. One night, when she thought him asleep, and he 


was only feigning, he observed that she took a little 
box of salve from under her pillow, and rubbing it into 
her hair, said, Schiva boschi e schiva selva (shun 
woods and forests), and then was off and away in a 
trice. Determined to follow her, he took out the box 
of salve, and rubbing it into his hair, tried to repeat 
her saying, but he did not recall it precisely, and said 
instead, Passa boschi e passa selvi (away through 
woods and forests), and away he went, faster than he 
liked, while his clothes and his skin were torn by the 
branches of the trees. He came, however, to the pre- 
cincts of a great palace, where was a fresh green 
meadow, on which were a number of kine grazing, and 
some were sleek and well-favoured, while some were 
piteously lean ; and yet they all fed on the same pas- 
ture. The palace had so many windows that it took 
him a long while to count them, and when he had 
counted them he found there were three hundred and 
sixty-five. He climbed up and looked in at one of 
them — it was the window of a great hall, where a 
number of Enguane were dancing, and his wife in 
their midst. When he saw her, he called out to her ; 
but when she heard his voice, instead of coming she 
took to flight, nor could he overtake her with all his 
strength for running. At last, after pursuing her for 
three days, he came to the hut of a holy hermit, who 
asked him wherefore he ran so fast ; and when he had 
told him, the hermit bid him give up the chase, for 


an Enguane was not a proper wife for a Christian man. 
Then the woodman asked him to let him become a 
hermit too, and pass the remainder of his life under 
his guidance. To this the hermit consented; so he 
built him a house, and they lived together in holy con- 
templation. One day the woodman told the hermit 
of what he had seen when he went forth to seek his 
wife ; and the hermit told him that the palace with 
three hundred and sixty-five windows represented this 
temporal world, with its years of three hundred and 
sixty-five days; but the fresh green meadow was the 
Church, in which the Eedeemer gave His Flesh for the 
food of all alike ; but that while some pastured on it 
to the gain of their eternal salvation, who were repre- 
sented by the well-favoured kine, there were also the 
perverse and sinful, who eat to their own condemna- 
tion, and were represented by the lean and distressed 
kine. 1 

It is less easy to collect local traditions in Walsch- 
Tirol than in any other part of the principality, but 
legends and marvellous stories exist in abundance ; 
and so long as the institution of the Filb (or out-house 
room where village gossips meet to spend their evenings 

1 It is curious to observe the story pass through all the stages of the 
supernatural agency traditional in the locality ; first the good genius of 
the Etruscans merging next into the Germanic woodsprite, then assum- 
ing the vulgar characteristics of later imaginings about witchcraft, and 
then the Christian teaching ' making use of it,' as Professor de Guberaatis 
says, ' for its own moral end. 1 


in silk-spinning and recounting tales) last, they will not 
be allowed to die out i 1 it is said that there are some 
old ladies who can go on retailing stories by the meek 
together ! And though by the nature of the case these 
gatherings must consist almost exclusively of women, 
yet it is thought uncanny not to have any man about 
the place ; in fact, that in such a case Froberte* is sure 
to play them some trick. They narrate that once 
when this happened, one of the women exclaimed, 
6 Only see I we have no man at all among us ; let's be 
off, or something will happen ! ' All rose to make 
their escape at the warning, but before they had time 
to leave, a donna Berta knocked and came in. 
6 Padrona ! donna Berta dal nas longh,' * said all the 
women together, trying to propitiate her by politeness ; 
and the nearest offered her a chair. ' Wait a little, 
and you'll see another with a longer nose than I,' re- 

1 A collection of the ' Costumi ' of Tuscany I have, without a title- 
page, but I think published about 1835, laments the growing disuse 
in Lunigiana (i.e. the country round the Gulf of Spezia, so called from 
Luna, an Etruscan city, but * not one of the twelve,* and including Carrara, 
Lucca, and Pisa) of the practice of recounting popular traditions at the 
Focardli there. These seem to be autumn evening gatherings round a 
fire, but in the open air, often on a threshing-floor ; while the able- 
bodied population is engaged in the preparation of flax, and some are 
spinning, the boys and girls dance, wrestle, and play games, and the 
old crones gossip ; but now, says the writer, they begin to occupy them- 
selves only with scandalous and idle reports, instead of old-world lore. 

2 My readers will perhaps not recognize at first sight that this is a 
corruption of Frau Bertha, the Perchtl whom we met in North Tirol. 
In the Italian dialects of the Trentino she is also called la brava Berta 
and la donna Berta. 

1 ' Your servant ! Mistress Bertha of the long nose.' Such was sup- 
posed to be the correct form of addressing the sprite. 

£ S 


plied Froberte ; and as she spoke, a second donna 
Berta knocked and entered, to whom the women gave 
the same greeting. ' Wait a bit, and you'll see another 
with a longer nose than I,' said the second donna 
Berta; and so it went on till there were twelve of 
them. Then the first said, * What shall we be at ? ' 
To which the second made answer, 6 Suppose we do a 
bit of washing :' and the others agreeing, they told the 
women to give them pails to fetch water with ; but 
the women, knowing that their intention was to have 
suffocated them all in the wash-tubs, gave them baskets 
instead. Not noticing the trick, they went down to 
the Etsch with the baskets to fetch water, and when 
they found that all their labour was in vain, they ran 
back in a great fury ; but in the meantime the women 
had all escaped to their home, and every one was safe 
in bed with her husband. But a Forberte came to the 
window of each and cried, ' It is well for you you have 
taken refuge with your husband ! ' The next night the 
women were determined to pay off the brava Berta for 
the fright they had had, so they got one of their 
husbands to hide himself in the crib of the oxen ; had 
he sat down with them, the Froberte would not have 
come at all. Not seeing him, Froberte knocked and 
came in, and they greeted her and gave her a chair, 
just as on the previous night ; and the whole twelve 
soon arrived. Before they could begin their washing 
operations, however, the man sprang out of the crib, 
and put them to flight with many hard blows ; so that 


they did not return for many a long day. The last 
day of Carneval was called il giorno delle Froberte^ 
probably because many wild pranks in which sober 
people allow themselves to indulge on that day of 
licence were laid on the shoulders of Mistress Bertha* 
But it is also said, that since the sitting of the Holy 
Council of Trent, the power for mischief of these elves 
has grown quite insignificant. Here are some few 
specimens of the multifarious stories of the FUd. 1 
Once there was a man and his wife who had two 
daughters : one pretty, but vain and malicious ; the 
other ugly, but docile and pious. The mother made 
a favourite of the pretty daughter, but set the ugly one 
to do all the work of the house ; and though she worked 
from morning to night, was never satisfied with her. 
One day she sent' her down to the stream to do the 
washing ; but the stream was swollen with the heavy 
rains, and had become so rapid that it carried off her 
sister's shift. Not daring to go home without it, she ran 
by the side of the stream, trying to fetch it back. All 
her pains were vain ; the stream went on tumbling and 
roaring till it swelled out into a big river, and she 
could no longer even distinguish the shift from the 
white foam on which it was borne along. At last, 
hungry and weary, she descried a house, where she 

1 Many of these concern the earthly wanderings of Christ and his 
apostles. I have given one of the most sprightly and characteristic of 
Schneller's, too long to be inserted here, in The Month for September, 
1870, entitled ' The Lettuce-leaf Barque/ 

e e 2 


knocked with a trembling hand, and begged for shelter. 
The good woman come to the door, but advised her not 
to venture in, for the Salvan would soon be home ; 
but the child knew nothing about the Salvan, but a 
great deal about the storm, and as one was brooding, 
and night coming on, she crept in. She had not been 
long inside, when the Salvan came home, also seeking 
shelter from the storm. ' What stink is this I smell 
of Christian flesh ? ' he roared ; and the child was too 
truthful to remained concealed, and so came forward 
and told all her tale. The Salvan was won by her 
artlessness, and not only allowed her a bed and a 
supper, but gave her a basketful of as much fine linen 
as she could carry, to make up for her loss. When 
her pretty sister saw what a quantity of fine linen the 
Salvan had given her, she determined to go and beg 
for some too ; but when the Salvan saw her coming, 
he holloaed out, 6 So you're the child who behaves so ill 
to your sister ! ' and he gave her such a rude drubbing, 
that she went back with very few clothes on that were 
not in rags. 

In selecting a specimen or two of the fiahe I will 
take first a group going by the name of * Zuam ' or 
6 Gian dalF Orso ' (Bear-Johnny), 1 because the Wolf-boy 
group is a very curious one, and this is our nearest 

1 Gathered for the above-named collection by Herr Zacchea of the 
Fassathal, in the Val di Non, Lederthal, andVal Arsa. 

WALSCH-T1R0L. 42 1 

approach to it, 1 though it deals with a bear-child and 
not a wolf-child ; a and because we have already found 
Orso and Oreo confounded in Italian folk-lore at Eome. 
The following is from Val di Non : — A labourer and his 
wife had their little boy out with them as they worked 
in the fields. A she-bear came out of the woods and 
carried him off. She treated him well, however, and 
taught him to be strong and hardy, and when he was 
twenty years old she sent him to his parents. He had 
such an appetite that he eat them out of house and 
home, and then he made his mother go and beg all 
over the country till she had enough to buy him three 
hundredweight of iron to make him a club. Armed 
with this club, he went forth to seek fortune. In the 
woods he met a giant carrying a leaden club called 
Barbiscat (' Cat's Beard'), and the two made friends 
went out together till they met another giant, who 
carried a wooden club called Testa di Molton ('Kam's 
Head '). They made friends and went out together till 
they came to a house in a town where magicians lived. 
The giant with Barbiscat knocked first, and at midnight 
a magician came out and said, ' Earthworm, wherefore 
are you come ? ' then he of Barbiscat was frightened 
and ran away. The next night the giant with Testa 
<jli Molton knocked with the same result. But the 
third night Gian dalT Orso himself knocked, and he 

1 I have mentioned the only other wolf-stories that I have met with 
in the chapter on Excursions round Meran ; and at p. 31 of this volume. 
*. Cox's Aryan Mythology, vol. i. p. 405. 


had no fear, but when the magician came out he 
knocked him down with many blows of his iron club, 
and went to fetch the other two giants. When they 
returned no magician was to be seen, only a trail of 
blood. They followed the trail till they came to a deep 
pit, and Zuam dalF Orso made the giants let him down 
by a rope. In a cave he found the wounded magician 
and three others besides, by slaying whom he delivered 
a beautiful maiden. The giants drew her up, but 
abandoned him. Then he saw a ring lying on the 
ground, and when he took it up and rubbed it two 
Moors appeared and asked him what he wanted. 4 I 
want an eagle, to bear me up to earth,' he said. So 
they brought him a big eagle, 4 but,' said they, 6 he 
must be well fed the while.' So he bid them bring 
him two shins of beef, and fed him well the while, and 
the eagle bore him to the king ; who finding he was 
the deliverer of his daughter, killed the two giants, 
and gave him plenty of gold and silver, with which he 
went back to his home and lived happily and in peace, — 
a very homely termination, welcome to the mountaineer's 
mind. In the Lederthal version he was so strong at tw$ 
years old that he lifted up the mountain under which 
the bear's den was, and ran back to his mother ; but at 
school he killed all the children, and knocked down the 
teacher and the priest, and was sent to prison. Here 
he lifted the door off its hinges, and went to the judge, 
and made him give him a sword, with which he went 
forth to seek fortune. With the two companions picked 


up by the wayside, who for once do not play him the 
trick of leaving him below in the cave, he delivers 
three princesses, and all are made happy. In another 
version, where he is called ' Filomusso the Smith,' and 
is nurtured by an ass instead of a bear, the provision 
of meat for feeding the eagle is exhausted before he 
reaches the earth, and he heroically tears a piece of 
flesh out of his own leg, and thus the flight can be 

2. The following version of the story of Joseph and 
his Brethren is quaint : — A king had three sons. The 
two elder were grown up, while Jacob (the Italian is not 
given) was still quite small, and was his father's pet. 
One day, when the king came back from hunting, he was 
quite out of sorts because he had lost the feather (la 
penna dell' uccello sgrifone) he was wont always to wear. 
When everyone had sought for it in vain, little Jacob 
came to him, and bid him eat and be of good cheer for 
he and his brothers would find the feather. The king 
promises his kingdom to whichever of the three finds it. 
Little Jacob finds the feather, and carries it full of joy 
to his brothers. The brothers, jealous that he should 
have the kingdom, kill him and take the feather to 
their father. A year after a shepherd finds little 
Jacob's bones, and takes one of them to make a fife, 
but as soon as he begins to play upon it the fife tells 
the whole story of the foul play. The shepherd takes 
it to the king, who convicts his two sons, has them put 
to death, and dies of grief. 


n £v t " 2> t ,s f ^' Here is a homely version of 'Q idipou s^ and the 
Sphinx : — A poor man owed a large debt and had 
nothing to pay it with. The rich man to whom he owed 
it came to demand the sum, and found only the poor 
man's little boy sitting by the hearth. ' What are you 
doing ? ' asked the rich man. 6 1 watch them come and 
go,' replied the boy. * Do so many people come to you 
then ? ' enquired the rich Man. ' No man, 9 replied the 
boy. Not liking to own himself puzzled, the rich man 
asked again, 'Where is your father?' 'He's gone to 
plug a hole with another hole,' replied the boy. Posed 
again, the rich man proceeded, ' And where's your 
mother ?' ' She's baking bread that's already eaten,' 
replied the boy. 

' You are either very clever or a great idiot,' now 
retorted the rich man; 'will you please to explain 
yourself ? ' * Yes, if you will reward me by forgiving 
father his debt.' The rich man accepted the terms, and 
the boy proceeded. 

' I'm boiling beans, and the bubbling water makes 
them seethe, and I watch them come and go. My father 
is gone to borrow a sum of money to pay you with, so to 
plug one hole he is making another. All the bread we 
have eaten for a fortnight past was borrowed of a neigh- 
bour, and now mother is making some to pay it back with, 
so I may well say what she is making is already eaten.' 

The rich man expressed himself satisfied, and the 
poor man was delivered from the burden of his debt. 

4. A poor country lad once went out into the wide 



world to seek fortune* As he went along he met a very 
old woman carrying a pail of water, with which she 
seemed sadly overladen. The poor lad ran after her, 
and carried it home for her. But she was an Angana, 
and to reward him she gave him a dog and a cat, and a 
little silver ring, which she told him to turn round 
whenever he was in difficulty. The boy walked on, 
thinking little about the old woman's ring, and not at 
all believing in its efficacy. When he got tired with 
his walking he laid down under a tree, but he was too 
hungry to sleep. As he lay tossing about he twirled 
the ring round without knowing what he was doing, 
and suddenly an old woman appeared before him, just 
like the one he had helped, and asked what he wanted 
of her. 4 Something to eat and drink ' was the ready and 
natural answer* He had hardly spoken it when he 
found a table spread with good things before him. He 
made a good meal, nor did he neglect to feed his dog 
and cat well ; and then they all had a good sleep. In 
the morning he reasoned, * Why should I journey further 
when my ring can give one all one wants ? ' So he turned 
the ring round ; and when the old woman appeared he 
asked for a house, and meadows, and farming-stock, and 
furniture ; and then he paused to think of what more he 
could possibly desire ; but he remembered the lessons 
of moderation his mother had taught him, and he said, 
6 No, it is not good for a man to have all he wants in 
this world.' So he asked for nothing more, but set to 
work to cultivate his land. One day when he was 


working on his land, a grand damsel came by with a 
number of servants riding after her. The damsel had 
lost her way, and had to ask him to lead her back to 
the right path. As they went, she talked to him about 
his house and his means, and his way of life ; -and before 
she had got to her journey's end they were so well 
pleased with each other that she agreed to go back 
with him and marry him ; but it was the ring she 
was in love with rather than with him. They were 
no sooner married than she got possession of the 
ring, and by its power she ordered the farm-house 
to be changed into a palace, and the farm-servants 
into liveried retainers, and all manner of luxuries, 
and chests of coin. Nor was she satisfied with 
this. One day, when her husband was asleep in 
a summer-house, she ordered it to be carried up 
to the highest tip of a very high mountain, and the 
palace far away into her own country. When he woke 
he found himself all alone on the frightful height, with 
no one but the dog and cat, who always slept the one at 
his head and the other at his feet. Though he was an 
expert climber it was impossible to get down from so 
sharp a peak, so he sat down and gave himself up to 
despair. The cat and dog, however, comforted him, and 
said they would provide the remedy. They clambered 
down the rugged declivity, and ran on together till 
they came to a stream which puss could not cross, but 
the dog put her on his back and swam over with her ; 
and without further adventure they made their way to 
the palace where their master's wife lived. With some 


cleverness they manoeuvred their way into the interior, 
but into the bed-room there seemed no chance of effect- 
ing an entrance. They paced up and down hour by 
hour, but the door was never opened. At last, when all 
was very still, a mouse came running along the corridor. 
The cat pounced on the mouse, who pleaded hard for 
mercy in favour of her seven small children. 'If I 
restore you to liberty,' said the cat, 'you must do 
something for me in return.' The mouse promised 
everything ; and the cat instructed her to gnaw a hole 
in the door, and fetch the ring out of the princess's 
mouth, where she made no doubt she kept it at night 
for safety. The mouse kept her word, and obeying her 
directions punctually, soon returned with the ring ; and 
off the cat and dog set on their return home, in high 
glee at their success. It rankled, however, in the dog's 
mind, that it was the cat who had all the glory of re- 
covering the treasure ; and by the time they had got 
back to the stream he told her that if she would not 
give him the satisfaction of carrying the ring the rest 
of the way, he would not carry her over it. The cat 
would not accept his view, and a fight ensued, in the 
midst of which the ring escaped them both and fell 
into the water, where it was caught by a fish. The cat 
was in despair, but the dog plunged in and seized the 
fish, and by regaining the ring earned equal right to 
the merit of its recovery, and they clambered together 
in amity. Their master was rejoiced to receive his ring 
once more, and by its power he got back his homestead 
and farm-stock, and sent for his mother to live with 


him, and all his life through took great care of his 
faithful dog and cat; but the perverse princess he ordered 
the ring to transfer in the summer-house to the peak 
whither she would have banished him. When all this 
was set in order he threw away the ring, because he 
said it was not well for a man to have all his wishes 
satisfied in this world. 1 


1 I have thought this one of the best specimen tales, as the two stories of 
the Three Wishes and the Three Faithful Beasts are leading ones in every 
popular mythology. I have named a good many variants in connexion 
with their counterparts in the Folklore of Rome, and a more extensive 
survey of them, together with a most interesting analysis of their pro- 
bable origin, will be found in Cox's Mythology of Aryan Nations, vol. i. 
pp. 144 and 375. I had thought that these, being strung together in the 
text 'version, was owing to a freak of memory of some narrator who, 
having forgotten the original conclusion of the former story, takes the 
latter one into it ; but, curiously enough, in the note to the last-named 
page of Mr. Cox's work, he happens actually to establish an intrinsic 
identity of origin in the two stories. The Three Wishes story has also 
a strangely localized home in the Oetzthal, which, though properly be- 
longing to the division of North Tirol, I prefer to cite here, for the sake 
of its analogies. Its particular home is in the so-called Thai Vent, on 
the frozen borders of the Gletscher described by Weber, as appalling to 
a degree in its loneliness, and in the roaring of its torrents, and the 
stern rugged inaccessibility of its peaks. Here, he says, three Selige 
, Fraulein (Weber, like Schneller, translates everything inexorably into 
German ; this may have been an Enguana) have their abode in a sump- 
tuous subterranean palace, which no mortal might reach. They are also 
called die drei Feyen, he says, forming a further identification with the 
normal legend, but he does not account for the penetration of the French 
word into this unfrequented locality. They were kind and ancillary to 
the poor mountain folk, but the dire enemies of the huntsman, for he 
hunted as game the creatures who were their domestic animals (here we 
have the nucleus of a heap of various tales and legends of the pet crea- 
tures of fairies and hermits becoming the intermediaries of super- 
natural communication). The Thai Vent legend proceeds that a young 
shepherd once won the regard of the drei Feyen; they fulfilled all his 
wishes, and gave him constant access to their palace under the sole condi- 


The following legend of St. Kiimmerniss is very popu- 
lar in Tirol. Churchill, in his ' Titian's Country,' men- 
tions a chapel on the borders of Cadore and Walsch-Tirol, 
where she is represented just as there described, but he 
does not appear to have inquired into its symbolism. 
There was once a heathen king who had a daughter 
named Kiimmerniss, who was fair and beautiful beyond 
compare. A neighbouring king, also a heathen, sought 
her in marriage, and her father gave his consent to the 
union ; but Kiimmerniss was distressed beyond measure, 
for she had vowed in her own heart to be the bride of 
heaven. Of course her father could not understand 
her motives, and to force her to marry put her into a 
hard prison. From the depths of the dungeon Kiim- 
merniss prayed that she might be so transformed that 
no man should wish to marry her ; and in conformity 
with her devoted petition, when they came to take her 
out of the prison they found that all her beauty was 
gone, and her face overgrown with long hair like a 
roan's beard. When her father saw the change in her 
he was indignant, and asked wiat had befallen her. 
She replied that He whom she adored had changed 
her so, to save her from marrying the heathen king 

tion that he should never reveal its locality to any huntsman. After some 
years the youth one day incautiously let out the secret to his father, and 
from thenceforth the drei Feyem were inexorable in excluding him from 
their society. He pleaded and pleaded all in vain, and ultimately made 
himself a huntsman in desperation. But the first time he took aim at 1 
one of their chamois, the most beautiful of the three fairies appeared to 
him in so brilliant a light of glory, that he lost all consciousness of his 
actual situation and fell headlong down the precipice. 


after she had vowed herself to be His bride alone. 
'Then shall you die, like Him you adore,' was her 
father's answer. She meekly replied that she had no 
greater desire than to die, that she might be united 
with Him. And thus her pure life was taken a sweet 
sacrifice; and whoso would like her be altogether devoted 
to God, and like her obtain their petition from heaven, 
let them honour her, and cause her effigy to be painted in 
the church. So many believed they found the efficacy 
of her intercession, that they set up memorial images 
of her everywhere, and in one place they set one up 
all in pure gold. A poor minstrel once came by that 
way with his violin; and because he had earned nothing, 
and was near starving, he stood before St. Kiimmerniss 
and played his prayer on his violin. Plaintive and 
more plaintive still grew his beseeching notes, till at 
last the saint, who never sent any away empty, shook 
off one of her golden shoes, and bid him take it for an 
alms. The minstrel carried the golden 6hoe to a 
goldsmith, and asked him to buy it of him for money ; 
but the goldsmith, recognizing whence it came, refused 
to have anything to do with sacrilegious traffic, and 
accused him of stealing it. The minstrel loudly pro- 
tested his innocence, and the goldsmith as loudly 
vociferated his accusation, till their, clamour raised the 
whole village ; and all were full of fury and indignation 
at the supposed crime of the minstrel. As their anger 
grew, they were near tearing him in pieces, when a 
grave hermit came by, and they asked him to judge the 


case. * If it be true that the man obtained one shoe 
by his minstrelsy, let him play till he obtain the other 
in our sight,' was his sentence ; and all the people 
were so pleased with it, that they dragged the minstrel 
back to the shrine of St. Kummerniss. The minstrel, 
who had been as much astonished as anyone else at his 
first success, scarcely dared hope for a second, but it 
was death to shrink from the test ; so he rested his 
instrument on his shoulder, and drew the bow across it 
with trembling hand. Sweet and plaintive were the 
shuddering voice-like tones he sent forth before the 
shrine ; but yet the second shoe fell not. The people 
began to murmur ; horror heightened his distress. 
Cadence after cadence, moan upon moan, wail upon 
wail, faltered through the air, and entranced every ear 
and palsied every hand that would nave seized him ; 
till at last, overcome with the intensity of his own 
passionate appeal, the minstrel sank unconscious on the 
ground. When they went to raise him up, they found 
that the second golden shoe was no longer on the 
saint's foot, but that she had cast it towards him. 
When they saw that, each vied with the other to make 
amends for the unjust suspicions of the past. The 
golden shoes were restored to the saint ; but the 
minstrel never wanted for good entertainment for the 
rest of his life. 

6 Puss in Boots ' figures in the Folklore of Walsch- 
Tirol as < II Conte Martin della Gatta ;' its chief point 
of variation is that no boots enter into it at all, other- 


wise the action of the cat is as usual in other ver- 

There is another class of stories in which the towns- 
people indulge at the expense of the uninstructed 
peasants in outlying districts, and which their extreme 
simplicity and naivete occasionally justify. I must 
not close my notice of the Volklore of Walsch-Tirol 
without giving some specimens of these. It may l>e 
generally observed that stories which have no particular 
moral point, and are designed only to amuse without 
instructing, are as frequent in the Trentino as they are 
rare in the German divisions of Tirol. 

Turlulii l was such a simple boy that he could not 
be made to do anything aright; and what was worst was, 
he thought himself so clever that he would always go 
off without listening to half his instructions. One day 
his mother sent him with her last piece of money to 
buy a bit of meat for a poor neighbour ; * And mind,' 
she said, 4 that the butcher doesn't give you all bone.' 
6 Leave that to me ! ' cried Turlulu without waiting for 
an explanation; and off he went to the town. The 
butcher offered him a nice piece of leg of beef. 4 No, 
no, there's bone to that,' cried Turlulu; * that won't do.' 
The butcher, provoked, offered him a lump of lights, 
Turlulu seeing it look so soft, and no bone at all to it, 

1 They are called * Lustige Geschichte,' ' Storielle da rider.' The 
Germans have a saying that ' in jede Sage haftet eine Sache ; ' the 
* Sadie' is perhaps more hidden in these than in others. I have 
pointed out counterparts of the following at Rome and elsewhere in 
Folklore of Rome. 


went *r with it quite pleased, but of course the poor 
neighbour had to starve. When his mother found 
what he had done, she was in great distress, for she had 
no money left ; so she sent him with a piece of home- 
spun linen to try to sell it. ' But mind you don't 
waste your time talking to gossiping old women,' she 
said. ' Leave that to me, mother,' cried Turluld ; and 
off he ran. As he got near the market-place, he began 
crying, ' Fine linen ! who wants to buy fine linen 1' 
Several countrywomen, who had come up to town to 
make purchases, tame to look at the quality. '-Go 
along, you gossiping old things ; don't imagine I'm 
going to sell it to you ! ' cried Turlulu, and he ran 
away from them. As he ran on he saw a capitello l by 
the wayside. When he saw the image of the Blessed 
Virgin, looking so grave and calm, he said, 'Ah, you 
are no gossip, you shall have my linen ;' and he threw it 
at her feet. ' Come, pay me ! ' he cried presently ; but 
of course the figure moved not. c Ah, I see, you've not 
got the money to-day ; I will come back for it to- 
morrow.' When he came back on the morrow the 
linen had been picked up by a passer-by, but no money 
was forthcoming. ' Pay me now,' said Turlulu ; but 
still the figure was immovable. Again and again he 
repeated the demand, till, finding it still unheeded, he 
took off his belt, and hit hard and fast upon the image. 
So great was his violence, that in a very short time he 

1 Capitello, in "Walsch-Tirol, is the same as Bildstocklein in the Ger- 
man provinces—a sacred image in a little shrine. 

F F 


had knocked it to the ground; and lo and behold, 
inside the now uncovered pedestal were a heap of gold 
pieces, which some miser had concealed there for 
greater security. ' My mother herself will own this is 
good pay for the linen,' cried Turlultl, as he filled his 
pockets, 4 and for once she won't find fault.' His way 
home lay along the edge of the pond, and as he passed 
the ducks were crying, ' Quack ! quack ! quack! ' Tur- 
lulit thought they were saying QuaMro, meaning that 
he had four pieces of gold. ' That's all you know about 
it,' cried Turlulti 5 * I've got man/ more than four, 
many more.' But the ducks continued to cry ' Quack.' 
' 1 tell you there are more than four,' reiterated Tur- 
lulti impetuously, but the ducks did not alter their 
strain. ' Then take them, and count them yourselves, 
and you'll see what a lot there are ! ' So saying, he 
threw the whole treasure into the mud ; and as the 
ducks, scared by the noise, left off their 'quack,' he 
satisfied himself that he had convinced them, and went 
home to boast to his mother of the feat. 

A showman came through a village with a dancing- 
bear. The people went out to see him, and gave him 
plenty of halfpence. ' Suppose we try our luck, and 
go about showing a bear too ; it seems a profitable sort 
of trade,' said one of the lookers-on to another. c Ay, 
but where shall we find one?' objected the man 
addressed. 4 Oh, there must be bears to be found; 
it needs only to go out and look for them.' They 
went out to look for a bear, and at last really found 


one, 1 which ran before them and plunged into a cave. 
4 I'll tell you what we'll do,' said the peasant who had pro- 
posed the adventure, * I'll creep into the cave and seize 
the bear, and you take hold of my legs and pull us both 
out together.' The other assented ; and in went the 
first. But the bear, instead of letting him seize it, bit 
off his head. The other pulled him out as agreed, but 
was much astonished to find him headless. ' Well, to 
be sure ! ' he cried, ' I never noticed the poor fellow 
came out this morning without his head. I must go 
home and ask his wife for it.' So saying, he ran back 
to the man's house. ' I say, neighbour/ he cried, ' did 
you happen to notice, when your husband went out this 
morning, whether he had his head on ? ' 'I never 
thought to look, replied the wife, « but I'll run up and 
see if he left it. in bed ; but tell me,' she added, 'will he 
catch cold for going out without his head on ? ' I don't 
know as to that,' replied the man ; ' but if he should 
want to whistle he might find it awkward I' 

A woman working in the fields one day saw a snail, 
which spread out its horns as she looked at it. In great 
alarm, she ran to the chief man of the parish, and 
told him what she had seen. He, too, was horribly 
frightened, but he mastered his fear, as became the 
dignity of his office. In order to provide duly for the 
safety of his village, he sent two trustworthy men 

1 Bears exist to the present day in Tirol. Seven were killed last 
year. A prize of from five-and-twenty to fifty florins is given for killing 
one by various communes. 

f f 2 


with a large sum of money to Trent, to buy a sharp 
sword ; and till their return placed all the able-bodied 
men on guard. When the man brought the sharp 
sword back from Trent, he called the heads of the 
Commune together, and said to them : ' I will not 
exercise my right of sending any of you in peril of his 
life, but I ask you which of you is ready to encounter 
this great danger, and whoever has the courage shall 
receive a great reward.' Hereupon two of the most 
valiant came forward as volunteers, and were invested 
with the sharp sword. In solemn silence they marched 
boldly to the field where the snail was, and they saw 
him sitting on the edge of a rotten leaf; but at the 
moment when they had screwed up their courage to 
smite him with the edge of the sword, the breeze blew 
down the leaf and the snail with it. They, however, 
thought the snail was preparing to attack them, and 
ran away so fast that they tumbled over the edge of an 

The people of a certain village were envious because 
the church tower of the neighbouring village was higher 
than theirs. So they held a council to consider what 
remedy they could apply. No one could think of any- 
thing to propose, till the oldest and wisest of them at 
last rose and advised that a great heap of hay should 
be laid by the side of their tower, so that it might eat 
and grow strong, and increase in height. The counsel 
was received with applause, and every one cheerfully 
brought his quota to the common sacrifice, till there 

WALSCH-T1R0L. 437 

was a mighty heap of hay laid at the base of the church 
tower. All the horses and asses that went by, finding 
such a fine provision of provender laid out for them, ate 
the hay ; but the people seeing the heap diminish, were 
quite satisfied, and said, 6 Our tower must be beginning 
to grow, you see how fast it eats ! ' 

In Walsch-Tirol the graves are not decked with- 
flowers on All Souls' Day, as in Germany, but on the 
other hand it is customary for the parish clergy to* 
gather their flocks round them, and say the Eosary 
kneeling amid the graves. Doles of bread, locally 
called cuzza, and alms, are given away to the poor on> 
that day, and in some places a particular soup made of 
beans. The symbolism was formerly carried so far, 
that these alms, devoted to the refreshment of the souls 
of the departed, were actually laid on the graves, as if 
it was supposed that the holy souls would come out and 
partake of the material food. And thus some even 
placed vessels of cold water as a special means of solace 
from their purgatorial pains. 1 In the north of Italy, 
the feast of Sta. Lucia (December 13) holds the place 
of that of St. Nicholas among children in Germany ; 
in Walsch-Tirol the children have the advantage of 
keeping both. 

1 A distinct remnant of Etruscan custom. It is singular, too, that 
Mr. I. Taylor finds • faba ' to have- been taken by the Romans from the 
Etruscans for a bean, but though the custom of connecting beans with 
the celebration of the departed is common all over Italy, I do not think 
the Etruscans provided their dead with beans except along with all 
other kinds of food (supra p. 130-1 note). 


In Val Arsa, part of the loaves baked on Christmas 
Eve are kept, as Cross-buns used to be among us. In 
Folgareit they have a curious game for Christmas-tide. 
A number of heaps of flour, according to the number of 
the household, are arranged on the table by the father 
of the family, some little present being covered up in 
each ; when they are thus prepared the family is ad- 
mitted, and the choice of places decided by various 
modes of contest. In several parts, particularly in the 
Eabbithal, the Lombard l custom prevails of putting a 
huge log on the fire, called the Zocco di Nataie and 
the Zocco di ogni bene, that it may bum all night and 
keep the Divine Infant from the cold. The idea, more 
or less prevalent all over Christendom, that beasts have 
the gift of speech on Christmas Eve, prevails here no 
less. A story is told of a peasant who determined 
to sit up and listen to what his oxen said. 6 Where 
shall we have to go to-morrow ? ' he heard one say. 
4 We shall have to fetch the boards for our master's 
coffin,' replied his companion. The man was so 
shocked, that he went to bed and died next day. Ani- 
mals are blessed on St. Anthony's day (January 18), as 
in Eome. 

Carnival is celebrated with representations par- 

1 The little book of Costumi spoken of above, mentions the * Zocco 
del Nataie ' as in use also in Lunigiana ; it is generally of olive-tree, and 
household auguries are drawn from the crackling of leaves and unnpe 
berries. It cites a letter of a certain Giovanni da Molta, dated 1388, 
showing that the custom has not undergone much change in five hundred 

WALSCH-T1R0L. 439 

taking somewhat of the character of 'Passion Plays,' 
though always with more or less humorous treatment 
of their subject. Till lately there lingered a curious 
pastime at this season, in which on Giovedl grasso there 
was a contest, according to fixed rules, between the 
masked and unmasked inhabitants, for certain cakes 
(gnocchi) made of Indian corn, whence the day is still 
called Oiovedl del gTiocchL It commemorated a fight 
between the men of Trent and them of Feltre, who 
tried to carry off their provision while they were 
building the walls of Trent, in the time of Theodoric 
King of the Visigoths. S. Urban is considered the 
patron of vineyards in Etschland, and on his feast his 
images are hung with bunches of grapes. 

Here are a few specimens of their popular sayings 
and customs. When it thunders the children say, Do- 
meniddio va in carozza. The chirping of a cricket, 
instead of being reckoned a lucky token, forebodes death* 
Sponsors are regarded a person's nearest relations, and 
at their funeral they go as chief mourners before all 
others. Marriages in May are avoided. The reason 


why the bramble always creeps along, instead of grow- 
ing erect, is, because once a thorny bramble, branch 
caught the hair of the Blessed Virgin ; before that it 
grew erect like other trees. Cockchafers are blind, 
because one of them once flew into the Blessed Virgin's 
face and startled her ; before that they had sight. 
Swallows are called iiccdli della Madonna, but I have 
not ascertained the reason. Scorpions, which are 
venomous in Italy, are not so in the Italian Tirol, 


because one fell once into St. Vigilius' chalice at Mass. 
I will conclude with some popular riddles, showing a 
traditionary observation of the movements of the 
heavenly bodies, but not much humour : 

Due tiandanti, 
Due ben stanti, 
E un cardinal? 1 

Gh' £ 'n pra 

Tutto garofala : 
Quanca se vien el Papa con tutta la so paperia 
En garofol sol no T6 bon de portar via ? 2 

Piatto sopra piatto, 
Uomo ben armato, 
Donna ben vestita. 
Cavalleria ben fornita ? 8 

C'6 un palazzo, vi son dodici camere, ognuna ne ha 
trenta travi, e vi son due che si corrono sempre l'uno 
dietro all' altro e non si raggiungono mai ? 4 

1 Two travellers, two prosperous ones, and a cardinal? — Answer. 
Sun and moon ; earth and heaven ; and the ocean. 

2 There is a meadow overblown with carnations, yet if the Pope 
came with all his court, not one sole carnation would he be able to carry 
off? — Answer. The heaven beaming with stars. 

* Plate upon plate ; a man fully armed ; a lady well dressed ; a 
6tud well appointed ? — Answer. Heaven and earth ; the sun ; the moon ; 
the stars. 

4 There is a palace with twelve rooms ; each room has thirty beams, 
and two are ever running after each other through them without 
ever catching each other ? — Answer. The palace is the year, the rooms 
the months, the beams the days, and day and night are always follow- 
ing each other without overlapping. 

O mein Tirol! wie ich mit Schmerzentzucken 
Dich nun geschaut vor meinen feuchten Blicken. 
So lebt dein riihrend Bild im tiefsten Sinn. 
Nimm denn, Tirol, des Schmerzbegeistrung8trunk > nen f 
Des ganz in dich Verlornen und Versunk'nen 
Liebvolles Lebewohl, mit Liebe hin'J 

Eduard Silesius. 




AARAU, 39 
Abel, Arnold, and 
Bernhard, 251 
Abraham's Garden, 401 
Absam, 157-61 
Acatius, St., legend of, 

Ache, Brandenberger, 

— Gebiet der gros- 
sen, 64 

Achen Pass, 133 
Achenrain, 127 
Achensee, 133-4 
Achenthal, 36, 132 et 

— village, 132, 133 
Adige. See Etsch 
Ainliffen, 55 

Ala, 341 

Albuin, St., 356-7 
Altbach, 112 
Altenstadt, 14, 44 
Altissimo di Nago, 

Altrans, 219 
Altrei, 375 
Ambras, 234, 259-69 
Ammergau, 34 
Ampass, 219 
Andalusiten, 331 
Andreas of Rinn, St., 

210, 211 etseq. 
Angana, 413, 425-8 


Angels assist in build- 
ing churches, 34, 405 

Annaunia, 358, 361 

Anterivo, 375 

Anthony, St., 256, 438 

Appenzel, mountains of, 

Archenthal, 26 

Ardetzen, the, 13, 42 

Arlberg, the, 29, 30 

Arthur, King, on Maxi- 
milian's monument, 

Artists of Tirol, 36, 84, 
146, 151, 160, 180, 
205, 206, 211, 216, 
248 et seq., 274, 276, 
281 and note, 290-1, 
325, 339, 354-5, 376, 

Arz, 366 

Asam,Ko8mas Damian, 

Aschbach, 207 

Asgard, 4 

Ass-boy, 423 

Au, xvii note, 24, 111 

Auferstehungsfeier, 298 

Auffach, 112 

Auflangerbrundl, . 66 

Avio, 342 

Avisio, 341, 357, 381 

Axams, 334, 337 


RUMPEL, 286-8 
Baldur, 4 
Baptism, children raised 

to life for, 27-8, 355 
Barbara, St., legend of, 

Baselga, 382 
Bauern-Comodie, 214, 

239-40, 257, 346, 

Baumkirchen, 147 
Bavarians in Tirol, 16, 


286-8, 300 ^^.,324, 

325-7, 332 
Beans, 424, 437 and note 
Bears in Tirol, 16, 31, 

165-6, 420 et seq., 

Beatrik, 413 and note 
Bedelmon, 413 
Befreiungskampfe, 310 

-1, &c. 
Belasis, Schloss, 359 
Bells rung without 

hands, 165-6,218 
Berchtl, 117, 124, 417 
Berg Isel, 156, 300 
Bernardo, St., 363 
Bertha, 417 
Beseno, 342 
Bezzecca, 400 
Biagio, St., 367 ' 



Biberwier, 32 

Bienerweible, the, 122 
-4, 312 

Birds in Tirolean my- 
thology, 87, 136, 
141-2, 196-8, 325, 
422-3, 434, 439 

Birgitz, 337, 338 

Blase, St., legend of, 38 

Blasienberg, 334 

Blendsee, 33 

Blind, Karl, 3 et seq., 
214 and note 

1 Blood, relics of the 
holy,' 139, 324-6 

Bludenz, 26, 47, 48, 238 



Borghetto, 341 

Borgo diValSugana,392 

Bormio, 31 

Bosentino, 388 

Brandenbergerthal, 1 2 7 ' 

BravaBerta, 417-8 

Bregenz, 17-9 

Breitenwang, 35 

Brenner Pass, the, 246, 
247, 278, 287 

Brenta, the,382,386,392 

Brentonico, 407 

British missionaries in 
Tirol, 23, 43 

Brixenthal, 64 

Brixlegg, 79, 112, 121, 

Brothers' strife, legend 
of, 391-2 

Bruederhuesle, the,27-8 

Bruneck, 247 

Buch, 201 

Buchau, 133 

Buchs, 13, 23 

Burgleckner, 121-2 

Buried cities (and sub- 
merged), legends of, 
26, 133, 204, 342-3 



Burning hand, legend 

of, 167 
Busa del Barbaz, 343 
Busetti, Christopher, 


Cadine, 356, 404 
Cadore, 429 
Caldonazzo, 1 ake, 386 

— Tillage, 391 
Calliano, 249 
Campiglio, 405 
Campi neri, 361-3 
Oampolongo, 387 
Canal San Bovo, 398-9 
Caravaggio, Madonna 

di, 382 
Caresolo, 405 
Carinthia, 247, 286, 297 
Carneval, 99, 100, 346, 

393-4, 419,438-9 
Castel Alto, 396 

— Barco, 342 

— del Dosso Maggiore, 

— Fondo, 366 

— Madruzz, 400 

— Nuovo, 344 

— Pietra, 249 

— Eotto, 396 

— Telvana, 393-4 

— Tesino, 397 

Cats in Tirolean my- 
thology, 110, 425, 

Cauria, 399 

Cavalese, 375-7 

Cavedine, 401 

Cembra torrent, 357 

— village, 375 
Centa torrent, 39 1 
Chamois in Tirolean 

mythology, 197, 318, 


Charlemagne, 254 

— legend of, 18-9 
Charles, St., Borromeo, 

22, 209 et seq., 363-4 

— Prince of Tirol, 285 

— Quint, 190, 245, 
246-7, 250, 259, 263, 
364, 405 

— VI., Emperor of Ger- 
many, 289 

Chinese legend, 131 
Christberg.the, 27 
Christian I. of Den- 
mark, 243 
Christina of Sweden, 
256 et seq., 280, 283 
Christmas customs, 

100, 438 
Christof, St., 29-30 
Cima d'Asta, 396 
Claudia Felicita, 285 

— de' Medici, 122, 219, 

277, 282, 283, 326 
Cles, 360-4 

Cloz, 366 

Cobweb paintings, 308 

Cockchafers, 439 

Cogolo, 365 

Cold torment, the, 129 

Colin, Alex. 180, 251 et 

seq., 269, 299 
Columban, St., 43, 345 
Condino, 405 
Constance. See Bo- 

Corno de' tre Signori,365 
Costalta, 396 
Costumes, 44, 45, 249, 

278, 385 
Cow-fighting, 98-9 
Cox, Rev. G. W., 2, 3, 

119,120, 157, &c. 
Crickets, 439 
Cristofero, San, 387 
Cyriacus, St., legend of, 


1 The simplicity of the people of this valley is celebrated in many ' Men 
of Gotham ' stories. 


Dambel, 371 
Damenstift, 20, 209, 

294, 295 
Damiils, 25 
Dance of Death, 36 
Dancing in Tirol, 98 
Dandolo Tullio, 8 
Daniel, Prophet, patron 

of miners, 201 
Dante on popular tra- 
ditions, 8 

— in Tirol, 342 

— quoted, 129, 265 
Deaf ma^e to hear, 355 
Death as a maiden, 


Denno, 359 

Devil in Tirolean my- 
thology, 25, 35, 77, 
82, 97, 233, 266, 

Devil's house, 48-9, 350 

Devonshire legend of 
Bertha, 418 

Dialects of Tirol, xvi- 
xix,28, 66, 79, 111, 
202, 330, 334, 354, 
371, 406, &c. 

Dietrich von Bern, 252, 
413 note, &c. 

Divisions of Tirols, 

Dirstenohl, 327 

Dispensations to bish- 
ops to marry, 277, 
284, 401 

Doggi, 410-1 

Dogs in Tirolean my- 
thology, 425 

Dolomites, 379, 408 

Domenichino, 396 

Donna Berta, 417-8 

Dormitz, 32 



Dornbirn, 20 
Dos Trento, 356 
Dragon, 35, 157 note, 

Drei Herren Spitz, 365 
Dreyling,Hanns, 1 79-80 
Dumb made to speak, 

223, 388 
Durer, A., picture by, 

146, 151 
Dnxerthal, 88-90, 202 
Dwarfs, 113-4 

Eben, 71, 73, 135-6 

Eguane, 413 

Ehreguota, 19 

Ehrenberger Klause, 
34, 286 

Eleanor of Scotland, 
146, 243 

Elias, 404 

Elmo, Sant', 38 

Embs, 21 

Engadeiners, the, 58 

English officers in Aus- 
trian service, 327 

Enguane, 413, 428 

Enneberg, the, 297 

Epiphany customs and 
legends, 99-101, 116 
et seq. 

Erasmus, St., legend of, 

— Quillinus, 151 

Ernst der Eiserae, 84, 
240, 252 

Erzherzog, Johann, 300 

Etruscan remains in 
Tirol, xiv note, xvi- 
xix, 79, 129-31 note, 
307,346-7, 350, d71- 
4, 40 7 et seq., 416 note, 
417 note, 438 note 1 

Etsch, 74, 249, 341 



Etschthal, 340 et seq., 

358, 439 
Euganeans, 341, 413, 

425, 428 
Eusebius, St., 14 et seq. 
Eustachius, St., legend 

of, 38 
Evasthal, 374 
Executions in Tirol, 163 

FAITHFUL beasts, 
Falkenstein, 200, 202 
Fare, travellers', the 

lesson of, 171-2 
Fassathal, 357, 374, 

379, 420 
Fatscherthal, 330 
Federbett, the, 90 
Feldkirch, 12 et seq., 22, 

24, 43 et seq., 298 
Felsenau, 24 
Ferdinand I., 80, 163, 

245 et seq., 324-5 

— II., of Tirol, 209, 
258 et seq. 

— II., Emperor of Ger- 
many, 277 

— I., Emperor of 
Austria, 281, 305 

— Karl, 123, 160, 280, 
282-3, 312 

Ferdinandeum, the, 

Ferklehen, 329 
Fern, auf dem, 33 

— Pass, 247 

— See, 33 
Ferneck, 335 
Fersinathal, 385-6 
Feuriger Mann, 167 

— Verrather, the, 379 
Feyen die drei, 428-9 


1 Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, vol. 1, pp. xxxiv-v, 'mentions 
the Etruscan remains that had been found at Mattrey (of which he gives 
a cut) and other places in Tirol up to his time. 



Fiabe, 412, 420 et seq. 

Fiddler, the prevailing, 

Fidelia, St., 13 

Fiecht. See Viecht 

Fiegers, the, 84, 151, 
173, &c. 

Fife. See Pipe 

Fig-coffee, 171 

Filo (filatorium) 33, 
396, 416-9 et seq. 

Filomusso the Smith, 

Finstermiinz, 31, 287 

Fire-worship, 346 

Flatz, 17 

Flavone, 359 

Fleims, Fleimserthal, 
74, 357, 398 

Floitenthal, 88 

Flowers in Tirolean my- 
thology, 37, 70-1, 
195, 216, 405 

Folgareib, 438 

Fondo, 366 

Fragenstein, 324 

Francis I., Emperor of 
Germany, 164, 292 

— II., Emperor of Ger- 
many, 296 

Franzensbriicke, 29 

Franzosenbiihl, 356 

Frastanz, 24 

Frauenberg, 14-16 

FrauHiitt, 311-2 

Freia, 4, 5, 6, 110 

Freihof, the, 241 

French in Tirol, the, 
160, 177, 286 0**0?.. 
296, 326, 356, 357, 
359, 381, 395-6, 

Frescoes, curious, 17, 31, 

186, 243, 364 
Freundsberg, 188 et 

Freyenthurn, 365 
Fridolinskapelle, 14-5 
Friedberg, 207 



Friedrich mit der leeren 
Tasche, 26, 75-8, 84, 
96, 207, 235, 237, 
238-43, 253, 337, 

Fritzens, 148 

Froberte, 417-9 

Frogs, 339 

Fnlpmes, 339 

Fiigen, 84, 85 

Fuggers, the, 259 et seq. 

Fuggers, the, in Tirol, 
80, 173, 350-4 

Fussach castle, 20 

Fussen, 32, 34, 254 

n ALL, St., 43 
U Gallwiese, the, 334 
Galzein, 201-2 
Gampen U. 1. Frau, 

a. d., 366 
Gannes, 408 et seq. 
Garibaldi repulsed from 

Tirol, 400 
Garnets in Tirol, 87-8, 

Gebhartsberg, St., 17 
Gefrorene Wand, the, 

Georgenberg, St., 80, 

137 et seq. 
Gerlos, 79, 87 
Germanic mythology, 4 

et seq., 416, &c. 
Gerold, St., 16 
Geroldsbach, 334 
Giacomo, San, 407 
Gian dall' Orso, 420 et 

Giants, 231, 335, 421 
— called Salvan in 

Walsch-Tirol, 420 
Gilgen, St. (Giles), le- 
gends of, 37 
Giovanni da Udine, 345 
Giudicaria, 341, 400 et 

Giuliano, St., 404 


Glockenhof, the, legend 
of, 161-3 

Glunggeser, 206, 212 

Gnadenwald, 147, 161 

Goaslahn, 195 

Godl, 253 


Gomacht, 101 

Gotham, men of, stories, 

Gotzens, 337 

Gotzis, 20 

Gbtzneralp, 334 

Grafmarterspitz, 206 

Gregorian calendar, in- 
troduction into Tirol, 

Greifenstein, 241 

Gries, 330 

Origno, 397 

Grins, 30 

Grintzens, 337 

Grodnerthal, 108, 338 

Grolina, 393 

Griinegg, 161 

Guarda, 382 

Guarinoni, Hippolitus, 

Gumpass, 164 

Gunglthal, 32 

Gutenberg, Schloss, 23 

Hall, 47, 149 et seq. 
Hanzenheim, 206 
Haring, 132 
Harlesanger, 134 
Haspinger, 308-9 
Haymon, 231 et seq., 335 
Heilige Blutskapelle, 

Heiligenkreuz, 164, 202 
Heiligenwasser, 222-4 
Heinrich das Findel- 

kind, 30 
Heiterwang, 34 


Hel, 4, 129 note 
Henry II., Emperor of 
Germany, 64-5 

— VIII. of England on 
Maximilian's monu- 
ment,' 250 

— of Rottenburg, 67 et 

— VI. of Rottenburg, 
75 et seq. 

Hilariusbergi, 126 

Hildegard, 18-9 

Hinter Judicarien, 400 

History of Tirol, 231, 
236 et seq., 346 

Hoch Gerach, 16 

Hochst St. Johann, 20 

Hofer, Andreas, 156, 

- 300-5, 308 

Hohenembs, 20-2 

Horbrunn, 112 

Horseshoes, 136 and 

Hosennagler, 98 

Host as talisman, 221-2 

Hottingen, 313 

Hugh of Lincoln bal- 
lad, 217-8 

Hulda, 87 

Hundskapelle, 315 

Hundskehlthal, 88 

rGA, St., legend of, 20 
Illthal, 13, 24 
Illumination, 346 

— of MSS., 306 
Imst, 32 
Ingeniun's garden, St., 

Innrain, 334 
Inn river. 31, 84, 111, 

126, 230, 236, 237, &c. 
Innsbruck, 225 et seq. 

— its character, 226 et 

— hotels, 228-9 

— mountains surround- 
ing it, 229 



Innsbruck streets, 230 

— suburbs, 230 et seq., 
259, 269, 278, 310 et 

— history, 226, 230 et 

— Goldene Dachl-Geb 
aude, 240-3 

— the Burg, 244, 246, 
282, 293, 301 

— churches, 247 et seq., 

257, 272, 274, 275, 
280, 290-1 

— Franciscan church, 


— Hofkirche, 247, 257 

— Maximilian's monu- 
ment, 248 et seq. 

— Silver chapel, 254, 
256, 269-70 

— Jesuitenkirche, 257 
—the plague, 258, 276, 


— the Siechen-haus, 

258, 276 

— earthquake, 270, 281 

— Capuchin church, 
272, 274 

— Servite church, 274 

— Jesuit church (Drei- 

— Hopfgarten, 278 

— Kranach's Maria- 
hiilfsbild, 279-81 
and note. 

— Mariahulfskirche, 


— Pfarrkirche, 236, 

— University, 285, 294, 
296, 300, 305 

— the Annensaule,289 

— Landhaus and Gym- 
nasium, 289 

— Church of St. John, 
Nepomucen, 291 

— The Triumphpforte, 



Innsbruck, the Gotte- 
sacker, 299 

— The St. Veitskapelle, 

Berg Isel, 300-1 
Hofer's monument, 

■— Museum (Ferdinan- 

deum), 306-8 

— Schiess-stand, 308-9 

— population, 309 
Innerlahn, 206 
Isarthal, 324, 325 
Isc'hgl, 30 

Isel Berg, 156, 300, 336 

Iselthal, 102 

Italians in Tirol, 122- 
4, 199,270,283,284, 
299, 340, 345, 350, 

Ivano, 397 

O 413 
Jenbach, 79, 80, 92-3, 

125, 132-3 
Jew, Wandering, 117 
Jews in Tirol, 22, 212- 

8, 348, 354-5, 405 
Joder, St., legend of, 25 
Jodok, St., 254, 334 
Johann Erzherzog, 300 
Johannissegen, St, 104, 

John XXIH., 26 
Joseph, St., peculiar de- 
votion to, 27-8 
Joseph I., Emperor of 
Germany, 289 

— II., Emperor of Ger- 
many, 25, 210, 281, 
293, 294, 347,355 

— and his brethren, 

Jotun-fires, 214 note 
Joubert, in Tirol, 160, 

Judas, 214 



Judenstein, 210, 212 

Judgments, sudden, le- 
gends of, 82, 88-91, 
120, 123, 133-5 and 
note, 204, 220-1,312, 
379, 380-1, 

Judicarien, 341, 400 et 

Julian, St., 404-5 

Julius II., 256 

Jussulte, 35 

Juvenau, 331 


Kaisersaule, 164 

Kaltern, 284 

Karl Philipp, 289 

Kasbach, the, 125 

Kasbachthal, 132 

Kelchsau, 112 

Kellerspitze, the, 202 

Kematen, 333 

Kirchbuhel, 132 

Klosterthal, 24 

Knappen, 1 1 3-4, 1 74 et 
seq., 201 et seq., 320, 
322, 385-6 

Kobach, 112 

Kolsass, 202, 205, 207 

Kramsach, 126 

Kranach's Lucas, Ma- 
donna, 186,192,257, 
279-81, legend, 281 

Kranebitten, 314 

Kreidenfeuer, 287 

Kreuz-kapelle, 325 

Kropfsberg, 79 

Kuf stein, 53 et seq., 286, 

Kugelmoos, 260 

Kiimmerniss, St., 429- 

Kundl,64,78,92, 110-2 

LADYBIRD, legend 
of, 5 



Lagerthal. See Val La- 

Lago di Garda, 341,400 
Lafraun, 391 
Lahn, 34 
Lakes, 25, 33, 34, 119- 

20, 126, 127, 132, 206, 

220, 325, 386, 391, 

397, 401, 402 
Lampsenjock, the, 140 
Landeck, 31-2, 48, 239- 

40, 287-8 
Landmark, legend of 

moving, 116 
Lans, 219-20 
Laste, Madonna alle, 

Lavarone, 391 
Lavis, 357, 375 
Lederer, Paul, 274 
Lederthal,400, 420,422 
Leermoos, 33-4 
Legends, the use of, 1 

et seq. 
Legends, perpetuation 

of, 9 etseq., 22, 118- 

21, 158-9, 416-7, and 

note, &c. 

— modern, 13, 32-3, 
166, and note, &c 

— their extinction, v-ix 
Legion, the thundering, 

Lehner, 315 
Leiten, 324 
Lendenstreich, Hanns, 

Lengenthal, 241 
Lenothal and Schlucht, 

344, 345 
Leonhard, St., auf der 

Wiese, 64-6, 111 
Leopold I., Emperor of 

Germany, 284, 289 
Leopold II., Emperor of 
Germany, 292-3, 295, 

Leopold V., Arch-Duke, 

122,277, 325 


Lettered lilies, 216 note 

Letz, 32 

Leuchtenburg, 70, 74 

Levico, 392 

Lichtenstein, 23, 25 note 

Lichtenttiurm, 314 

Lichtwer, 79 

Liebenberger, 337 

Lindau, 17, 45 

Lisenthal and Feraer, 

Literature, learning, & 
peaceful arts, cultiva- 
tion in Tirol, 76-8, 
257, 259, 273, 306- 

Livo, 361, 363 

Lizumthal, 206, 338 

Lizzana, 342 

Loffler, 180, 253, 313 

Loki, 3, 411 

Lombard customs, 438 

Lorenzo, St.,of JBrindisi, 

Lorenzo, San, 396 

Loreto-Kirche, 163-4, 

Lorg, 408,411 

Lothair the Saxon, 35 

Lucius, St., 23 

Luigi del Duca, 249 

Lunigiana, 417 note, 
438 note 

Lustenau, 20 

Luterns, 25 

Lutherans in Tirol, 85 

Luziensteig, 23 


— alle Laste, 354-5 

— del Monte, 344 

— di Pine, 382 
Madruzz, 400-2 
Magdalenenbriindl, 331 
Magras, 363 


Malachite, 200 
Male, 864 
Mangtritt, 34-5 
Margaret St., in Lager- 

thal, 344 
Margareth, 201 
Margarethenkapf, 13 
Margaretha Maultasch, 

30-1, 54, 237, 263 
Maria Bianca, 243, 244- 

5, 250, 252 
Mariahiilfsbild. See 

Maria-Larch, 147 
Maria-Rastkapelle, 87 
Maria-Stein, 131 
Mariathal, 126-7 
Maria Theresa, 257, 

275, 281, 291 
Marmolata, the, xi, 

Marriage customs, 102- 

10, 378-9, 386, 439 
Martin, St., 147 
Martinswand, the, 308, 

315, 316-23 
Mary of Burgundy, 243, 

249, 253 
Massena in Tirol, 298 
Massenza, Sta., 401 
Massimeno, 405 
Matthias Comnus, 318, 

and note 
Mattrey, 89, 130 note, 

339, 445 note 
Maturi, Antonio, 364 
Matzen, 79 

Maurice, Elector of Sax- 
ony, 247 
Maximilian, Emperor, 

54-5, 74, 126, 146, 

152, 173, 215, 226, 

243, 244-5, 248, 316 

et 8eq., 355 
— his acts, 249-50 

note; his monument, 

248, 281 et seq. 
~— the Deutschmeister, 




Maximilian, Elector of 
Bavaria, 286 et seq. 

Max-Hohle, 322 

Mayrhofen, 79, 87 

Medicinal and miracu- 
lous springs, 22, 23, 
112, 164, 207, 219, 
363, 396, &c. 

Meinhard IL, 230 

Melach, 330, 331 

Melans, 157 

Merboth, Diedo and 
Ilga, 20 

Mezzana, 364 

Mezzo Lombardo, 358 

Michael, St., 147 

Michel, San, 357 

Mils, 161, 207-8 

Milser, Oswald and Ot- 
tilia, 194 et seq. 

Mines and mining le- 
gends, 27, 78, 82-3, 
112, 113-5, 146, 173 
et seq., 200 et seq., 324, 

Mines gold, of the 
Bishop of Brixen, 

Minstrel, the prevailing, 

Mitschnau. See Wild- 

Mittersee, 33 

Mitterwald, 34 

Moena, 379 

Moll, 256 

Mols, 206 

Mommsen on 'tavola 
clesiana/ 361 

Montafonthal, 24, 26 

Montanaga, 382, 383 

Mooserthal, 126 

Mori, 343, 407 

Mortaso, 403 

Miihlau, 254, 254-6, 
310 et seq. 

Miiller, Professor Max, 
2, 119, 158, &c. 




Minister, 126 

Mutters, 336 

Myth-collectors, Tiro- 
lean, xii-xiv 

Mythology, Germanic, 
interest of English- 
men in, 3 et seq. 

Myths. See Legends 

NAGO, 406 
Nassereit, 32-3 
Natters, 336-7 
Nauders, 341 
Navisthal, 206 
Neumarkt, 375 
Neuratz, 331 
Neustift, 339 
Noy, Marshal, in Tirol, 

Nibelungenlied, Tirol's 

place in, 358 
Nick, 408 et seq. 
Niederaich, 111 
Niederau, 112 
Nine, the year, 147, 301, 

Noce torrent, 366 
Nockspitze, 337 
Nonsthal and Nonsberg, 

165, 358 
Nork, Norg, &c, 408 

et seq. 
Nossa,Signora del felcs, 

Nothburga, St., legends 

of, 66 et seq. t 71, 73, 

135, 210 
Novella torrent, 366 

0BERAU, 111 
Ober Perfuss, 333 
Oberriet, 12, 40, 52 
Oberinnthal, 29, 287 
Odin. See Wodan 
Oerkelen, 410 



Oetzthal, 101,239,331, 
338, 428 

Oreo-myths, 388-9, 408 
et seq. 

Orgen, 410 

Ogre, 410 

Orto d' Abraham, 402 

Ospedaletto, 397 

Ostara, 4 

Oswald, St., 325 

— Milser, 194, 324-5 

— - von Wolkenstein, 

Ottoburg, 236-7 

Ottokapelle, the, 63 

Oxen in Tirol ean myth- 
ology, 73, 438 

Ozolo, 365 

PANCHlX, 398 
Pantaleone, St, le- 
gend of, 38 

Paracelsus, Theophras- 
tus, 265 et seq. 

Passes, 24, 29, 31-2, 
133, 247, 275, 395, 
399-400, &c. 

Passeyerthal, 303, 410 

Passion-plays, 214, 346, 
438-9. See also 
' Bauern-Comodie.' 

Patscherkofl, 337 

Patznannthal, 30 

Pejo, Val di, 364 

Pellizano, 364 

Pelugo, 405 

Pergine, 385 

Pergola, 389 

Pertisau, 132 

Perugino, 348 

Pestschutzheiligen, 276, 
343, 406, &c. 

Petroleum in Tirol, 327 

Pfaffers, 13, 23, 277 

Pfannenberg, 17-8 

Pflaun, 359 

Pfunerjoch, 206 

Philippine Welser, 261 
et ffiy., 808 



Phol, 4 

Pigs in Tirolean mytho- 
logy, 72, 312 note 

Pilate's wife, 118 

Pill, xviii, 202 

Pine, pilgrimage of, 

Pinzolo, 406 

Pioneers previous in 
Tirol, x-xi, 398 

Pipe, in Tirolean my- 
thology, xviii, 423 

Pirschenheim, 333 

Pitzthal, 32 

Pius VI., 294, 295, 338 

Plansee, 34 

Plaknerjoch, 112 

Pontlatzerbriicke, 287 

Porta Klaudia, 326 

Pragmar, 331 

Prazalanz, legend of, 26 

Predajo, 342 

Predazzo, 377 ; road to 
Treviso, 377 

Primiero, 377, 398, 400 

Primolano, 32, 400 

Puss in Boots, 431-2 

Pusterthal, 286 

Quirinus, St., 330 

Ragatz, 23 
Raggal, 25 
Rankweil, 14-6 
Ratfeld, 66 
Rattenberg, 66 
Reif, 406 
Reit, 324 
Rettenberg, 152-3, 204- 

Rettengschoss, 126 
Reutte, 34, 35 
Revo, 365 
Rhaetius, 347 
Rheiche Spitze, 129 ( 


Rheinthalersce, 127 
Rhine, 13, 17,20,42,52 
Riddles, 424, 440 
Riedenberg girls' col- 
lege, 20 
Riedl, Sebastian, 84 
Ring, 409 note, 425, 428 
Rinn, 151, 212 et seq. 
Riva, 400, 406-7 
Rivoli, 341 
Robin Goodfellow, 113- 

Robler, legends of, 95, 

182-4, 221-2 
Rochetta Pass, 358-9 
— in Val Sugana, 393, 

Rocsla Sandor, 55 
Rofherhof, 239, 240 
Rofreit, 342 
Roman remains, xix-xx, 

307, 395, 407, &c 
Romedius, St., 165 
Romediussohlucht, her- 
mitage in the, 368 
Romediusthal, 368 
Rosanna, 30 
Rosemary, 103 
Rosenheim, 45 
Rost, 297 
Rothenbrunn, 330 
Rothholz, 66 
Rottenbnrg, 66 et seq., 

Rottenburger family, 66 

et seq., 83 
Roveredo, 342, 344 
Rudolf of Hapsbnrg, 

253, 271 
— II. of Tirol, 273, 

Rufreddo torrent, 368 
Ruined castles of Tirol, 

merits of, xi, 189-90 
Rum, 167 


ABEN, 356 note 
Sadole, 398 


Saetere, 4 
Saigesbach, 330 
Saligen, Fraulein, 413, 

Salvan, 408 et seq, 413, 

Salvanel, 412 
Salzbergand saltworks, 

the, 156-7 
Sandbichler, the Bible 

commentator, 124 
Sandwirth, the, 150 
Sanzeno, 367 
Sarcathal, 400 
Satteins, 16 
Saturn, temples to, in 

Tirol, 356, 360, 372- 

Sayings, popular, of 

Walsch-Tirol, 439-40 
Scharnitz, 324, 325-6 
Schattenberg, 26, 43 
Scheibenschiessen, 94 
Schildhof, the, 241 
Schlitters, 82 
Schloss Junk, 344 
Schmalkald League, 21, 

Schneeburg, 161 
Schnodahiipfl, 98, 346 
Schrofenstein, 31 
Schruns, 28 
Schwangau, 34 
Schwarzen Felder, the, 

S ch w ar zensteingrund, 

Schwatz, 145, 168, 320 

— its frescoed houses, 

— inns, 170-2, 186-8 

— history, 173 etseq. 

— mines, 173 etseq. 

— shops, 177 

— parish church, 178 
et seq. 

Schwefelloch, the, 315 
Scotch missionaries to 
Tirol, 14 et seq. 



Sculpture, curious early, 


243, 249 et seq. 
S e c h smilionen-Br iicke, 

Seefeld, 194 etseq., 270, 

Seidenbaum, the, 360 
Seirens, 126 
Sellathal, 393, 396 
Selrain, 330, 332, 338 
Senale, 366 
Sendersbach und thai, 

333, 338 
Serlesspitz, 339 
Serravalle, 344 
SetteComuni, 393, 396 
Seven Years' War, 289 
Siechin, die fromme,258 
Sigismund, St., 325, 331 
Sigismund, Emperor, 

153, 240 
— (the Monied), 146, 


Sigmund Frank, 284 
Sigmundsburg, 33, 244 
Sigmundsegg, 244 
Sigmundsfried, 244 
Sigmundslust, 146, 244 
Sigyn, 3 

Silberthal, the, 24 
Silk, 342, 344-5, 360, 

386, 396 
Silver chapel, the, 254, 

Simeon of Trent. St. 

215, 349 
Simpleton stories,432-7 
Sisinius, Martyrius, and 

Alexander, SS., 360, 

Sistrans, 21 9 ; legend of, 

221-2, 380 and note 
Skolastica, 132 
Skulls kept unburied, 

Slavini di San Marco, 

342, 343 

Q G 2 



Sleeper, legend of the, 

Snail, story of a horri- 
ble, 435-6 
Solstein, 315, 324 
Sondergrundthal, 88 
Sonnenberg in Vorarl- 

berg, 26 
Sonntag, 25 ^ A 
Spaur, 157 
— Maggiore, 359 
Speckbacher, 55, 150-1, 

156, 300 
Sphinx, 424 
Spider, 268 
Spiel-joch, 132 
Spinges, das Madchen 

von, 297 
Stainer, Jacob, 1 60-1 
Stalactites, 396 
Stallenthal, the, 137 

et seq. 
Stams, 195, 247 
Stans, 136 
Stanzerthal, 29-30 
Starkelberg, 206 
Starkenberg, 96 
Stase-Sattel, 46-8 
Steeples, legends of, 65 

and note 
Steinach, 91 
Steinberg, 127 
Stelvio, 31 
Sternsingen, 100 
Sterzing, 59, 160, 297 
Stillupethal, 88 
Stones, supernatural, 

15,212,311, 404, &c. 
Strass, 82 et seq. 
Strigno, 396-7 
Stubaythal, 147, 338, 

Stuibfall, the, 36 
Sugana, Val, 341 
Sulz, 315 
Sulzberg, 358 
Sundays and festivals, 

legends about, 71, 

196-7, 380-1 



Swallow in Tirolean 
mythology, 197, 439 

Swinburne, General, 

Swiss embroidery, 21-2, 

358 and note 

Tamina-schlund,the, 23 

Tapers, superstition 
about, 104 

Tarpeian rock, the, 
parallel, 24 note 2 

Tarquini, 1 Cardinal, on 
Etruscan remains in 
Tirol, 372-4 and note 

Tavola Clcsiana, 361-3 

Taur, 153, 164-6 

Taylor, Rev. Isaac, xvi, 
79,131, 373, &c. 

Telfs, 325 

Templars, 406 

Terfens, 146 

Teufelspalast, 350 

Teufelsteg, the, 88 

Tozze, Le, 32, 399, 400 

Thoophrastus Paracel- 
sus, 265 et seq. 

Thiorberg, 59, 112, 147 

Thiergarten, 126 

Thirty Years' War, 275, 
282, 354 

Thor, 6 

Thun family, 368-9 

Thiirl, 164 

Thurnegg, 80 

Thyrsus, 231-3 

Tiefonbach, Friedrich, 

Tione, 405 



Tirol, Schloss, six, xx, 
24, 41, 241 

Titian, 401-2 

Toads in Tirolean my- 
thology, 26, 157-8, 

Tobacco, 176, 307, 345, 

Tobel, 360 

Toblino, 401-2 

Todsundenmartcrle, 222 

Tonale, 365 

Trachnabaehle, 26 

Traitors, legends of, 24, 

Tratzberg, 80-2, 201 

Treasure legends, 26, 
324,343-4,434. See 
also Mining Legends 

Tree-hermits, 16* 

Tregiovo, 366 

Trent, 214-5, 248, 286, 
345, 439 

Trent Festa of St. Vigi- 
lius, 346 

— history, 346-7 

— churches, 348 

— legend of the cru- 
cifix, 348-9 

— St. Simeon of, 349 

— clubs, 350 

— Museum, 350, 372 

— private palaces, 350 

— Teufelspalast, 350 

— suburbs, 354 et seq. 

— Council of,246,348-9 
dispersed witches, 

Trisanna, 30 
Trisenega, 359 
Troi, 202 


Tschirgants, 33 
Turlulu, 432-4 
Turquoise in Tirol, 200 
Tuscan customs and 

traditions, 417 note 
Tuxerthall. $a?Duxer- 


UDALRIC, St., 397 
Ulrich, St., 381 
Unmarried, legend of 

the. 184-6 
Unnutzjoch, 132 
Unter Perfuss, 329 
Urban, SU, 439 

VADUZ, 23 
Val Arsa, 420, 438 

— Avisio, 341 

— Bona, 400 

— Breguzzo, 400 

— Camonica, 365 

— di Cembra, 374 

— Daone, 400 

— d'Inferno, 389 

— di Fieme, 374 

— Genova, 405 

— Lagarina, 341 et seq. 

— di Ledro, 400 

— diNon, 341, 358 et 
seq., 420, 421 

— del Oreo, 388 

— di Pejo, 364 

— di Rabbi, 363, 438 

— Rendena, 400, 402 et 

— Sella, 393, 395-6 

— di Sole, 341, 358, 
363 et seq. 

— Sugana, 341, 382 et 

1 It is noteworthy that so prominent an enquirer into Etruscan anti- 
quities should bear a patronymic so connected with Etruria as Tarquini. 

2 In Abbe Dubois' introduction to his translation of the Pantcha Tantra, 
is a story called 'La fille d'un roi change en garcon/ in which mention is 
made of a Brahman hermit who fixed his residence in a hollow tree. 


Val Vermiglio, 364 

Valduna, 16, 24-5 

Valentin, San, her- 
mitage, 387 

Vampires, 136 

Veitskapf, St., 13 

Vela, Acqua della, 404 

Vendome in Tirol, 286 
et seq. 

Ventthal, 428 note 

Verda, 382 

Verdes torrent, 368 

Verruca, 356 

Vezzena, 392 

Viecht, 80, 133 et acq., 
143 et seq. 

Vierzohn Nothhelfer, 
the, 36-8 

Views, striking, in Tirol, 
13, 17, 20, 21, 33-4, 
133, 202, 268-9, 330, 
355-6, 365-6, 376, 
386, 392, 397, 401, 
407, &c. 

Vigilius, St., 165,346-8, 

Vigo, 379-81 

Villerspitz, Hohe, 330 

Vintschgau, the, 99, 
note 410 

Visiaun, 359 

Vitus, St., legend of, 38 

Volandseck, 147 

Voldepp, 126 

Voldors, 150, 202, 206, 
207, 210 

Vollenberg, 337 

Vols, 334 

Vdmp, 145-6 




the, 315 

Waidburg, 337 

Walchen, 205 

Waldauf, Florian, 151- 

Waldrast, 147, 333-9 

Walschmetz, 358 

Walsch Michel, 358 

Walsch-Tirol, Italian 
views upon. See 

Wallachian legend, 404, 

Wallenstein's conver- 
sion, 265 

Wallgau, xv, xvii, 24 

Waterfalls, 32, 36, 86, 
88, 330, 333, 356, 
366, 397 

Wattens, 202, 206 

Weer, 202, 204 

Weierburg, 313-4 

Weight-offering, Budd- 
hist, 335 

Welser, Philippine, 259 
et seq., 308 

Wendelgard and Ulrich, 
legend of, 18-19 

Wiesburg, 30 

Wiesing, 126 

Wildenfeld, the, 134 

Wild men, 35 

Wildsehonau, the, 111 
et seq. 



Wilten, 230^*^., 278, 

Wishes, 47, 425 et seq. 
Witches' Sabbath, 365, 


— bridge, 407 

— dispersed by Council 
of Trent, 419 

Wodan, 4, 6, 119 
Wolf-boy mythology, 

420 et seq. 
Wolfurth,20 • 
Wolves in Tirol, 31 
Worgl, 132 
Worms, 31 
Wrestling, 95 

Zambelli, Palazzo, 

Zanisergrund, the, 91 
Zell, near Kufstein, 63 
Zell in Zillerthal, 79 
Zemgrund, the, 91 
Zemmerferner, 88 
Zeno, St., 367-9 
Ziano, 398 
Zillerthal, the, 79 et 

seq., 92 et seq., 202 
Zimmerthal, 374 
Zips, Oswald, 322 
Zireinalpe, 126 
Zirl, 256, 314, 323-5, 

Zocco di Natale, 438 
Zuam dalT Orso, 420 

et seq. 
Zugspitzwand, 34 
Zulian, San, 404 

*** I have endeavoured to make the nomenclature as consistent as 
possible throughout, but great diversity both of pronunciation and spelling 
prevails in Tirol itself. 




By the same Author, price 12s. 6d. 




c Miss Busk deserves great credit for the perseverance with which 
she has collected her extensive store of Eoman Folk-tales/ 


'The "Sagas from the Par East" established the reputation of the 
Author as a collector of folk-lore. ... Is a pleasing and elegant 
-writer, and scatters broadcast many philological pearls amid the 
dazzling baubles of fairyland.' Morning Post.- 

4 The collector of these Italian Stories must take a place in the 
ranks of the scanty band amongst which are numbered such men as 
Gbimm, Asbjornsen, Moe, Campbell, Powell, and Magnusson. . . . 
The present volume, while it instructs the learned, cannot fail to 
delight all who may open its pages/ 

Saturday Review. 

• To the Author is due the honour of believing, and confirming her 
belief by discovery, that our ancestors fell into a vulgar error . . . 
when they fixed their eyes upon a mythology which was far less 
moralising and elevating than that which Miss Busk has now 
discovered.' Westminster Review. 

'Excellent as have been the previous works of R. H. Busk, the 
well-known Author of Patrafias, there has been nothing from her 

cultivated pen equal to this new volume Never can one laugh 

or learn better than in the pages of this writer.' Standard. 

'Miss Busks volume has literary interest and scientific value. 
The classification of myths throws a gleam of light on human history) 
while their mere publication gives pleasure to innumerable readers. 
It is clear that Miss Busk has done her work with delight, catching 

BuSK%Folk-Lore of Borne. 

the Roman myth from the Roman month. Her volume, pleasant to 
the casual reader, is of considerable value to the scientific studen 
of history and mythology.' The Hour. 

* Miss Busk's book is exceedingly well done, and even for those 
who read only for amusement, her collection, ranging from the simplest 
nursery tales to stories which might have suggested the Decameron 
or the Cento Novelle, will be not without attraction/ The Graphic. 

* This is one of the most readable of books for those who take 
interest in folk-lore. We know how Cinderella comes to us from 
Rbodope, the Lady of the Pyramid. So, from remote resources, 
many of these tales have passed through various countries, taking 
their tone from the soil, and finally settling at Rome. The notes 
are brief and interesting ; and they pleasantly illustrate life and 
manners. For instance: Speziale, a druggist (droghkre is a grocer). 
It is a custom in Rome for the doctors of the poor to sit in druggists' 
shops ready to be called for. Young and old readers are equally 
well provided for in this handsome and entertaining volume.' 

Notes and Queries. 

* The reader of this volume is certain of being amused — no small 
recommendation. The Author has made an addition to literature. 
She has amply shewn that modern Italy has a popular mythology, 
and, on the whole, appears to bo as well provided with ghosts and 
fairies as other lands. If Authors who write books for boys and girls 
would take a few lessons out of Folk Lore, they might improve our 
juvenile literature. The age is overloaded with fact, and young folks 
might profit by marvellous fiction These Stories have con- 
siderable interest, and reflect some light upon the character and 
genius of the Italians. The difficulties in gathering them up must 

have been very great All fabulous and fairy tales have a 

charm for the young, but they form also an agreeable relief and 
relaxation for readers of all ages. They carry us out of the monotonous 
routine of daily life into regions of fancy and romance. Miss Busk's 
narratives in English have often a charming quaintness and pathes, 
with just a sufficient colouring of extravagance to indicate their 
origin.' English Churchman. 

London, LONGMANS & CO.