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* ILLUSTRATED 'BIOGRAPHIES OF 
THE GREAT Q4RTISTS. 



SIR ANTONY VAN DYCK. 



^iC*^ 




Published in Monthly Volumes, 

A NEW SERIES OF 

ILLUSTRATED BIOGRAPHIES 

OF 

THE GREAT ARTISTS. 

TITIAN From the most recent authoritifes. 

By Richard Ford Heathy B,A., Hertford Coll. Oxford. 

REMBRANDT From the Text of C. VosmAer. 

By y. /r. Mollett, B.A., Brasenose ColL Oxford, 

RAPHAEL From theText of J. D. Passavant. 

By N. D^AnverSf Author of ^* Elementary History of Art, ^^ 

VAN DYCK & HALS . From the most recent authorities. 
By Percy P, Head, Lincoln Coll. Oxford, 

HOLBEIN From the Text of Dr. Woltmann. 

By the Editor, Author of ''^Life ami Genius of Rembrandt, ^^ 

TIN^TORETTO From recent investigations. 

By W, Roscoe Osier, Author of occasional Essays on Art, 

TURNER From the most recent authorities. 

By Cosmo Monkhotise, Author of " Studies of Sir E. Latulseer,'* 

RUBENS From recent investigations. 

By C. W. Kelt, M.A,, Hertford Coll. Oxford, 

GIOTTO From recent investigations. 

By Harry Quitter, M,A,, Trinity College, Cambridge, 

THE LITTLE MASTERS From the most recent authorities. 
By IV. B. Scott, Author of ''Lectures on the Fine Arts," 

LIONARDO From recent researches. 

By Dr, J, Paul Richter, Author of ''Die Mosaiken von RavennaJ** 

VELAZQUEZ From the most recent authorities. 

By Edwin Stowe, B,A,, Brasenose Coll. Oxford, 

HOGARTH From the most recent authorities. 

By Austin Dobson, Author of " Vignettes in Rhyme," &>c. 

MICHELANGELO . . . From the most recent authorities. 

By Mrs. C, Heaton, Author of"77ie History of Albrecht Diirer,'* 




SIR ANTONY VAN CYCK, 
From thi porlrail by himnlfin the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 



" The whole world without Art would be one great wilderness,' 







VAN DYCK 



BY PERCY RENDELL HEAD 



LINCOLN COLLEGE, OXFORD. 







■ . -rp'^va ■] 




LONDON: 

SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, & RIVINGTON, 

CROWN BUILDINGS, FLEET STREET. 

1879. 



T^ ^T M"^" 'T'T 



2/a 



2uCL 



PREFACE. 

A WRITER on art or art-history, who neither claims 
to have elicited new facts or cleared np old errors 
by independent research, nor ventures to imagine that he 
can contribute much that is valuable to the mass of assthe- 
tic literature which is poured forth almost too freely upon 
the reading public of the present day, may reasonably be 
expected to offer some apology for his appearance in the 
field. In the present case such a defence is not far to 
seek ; and a very brief review of the existing literature of 
the subject will be sufficient to show that something of 
the scope of the present work is not only justified but 
required. The books which at present hold the place of 
the principal authorities concerning the life and works of 
Van Dyck, excellent as they are, are books almost entirely 
beyond the range of the English general reader. Mr. W. 
H. Carpenter's Pictorial Notices, which is the only work of 
importance on the subject existing in our own language, 
and from which I have extracted much of my most valu- 
able material, is an expensive quarto, and copies are now 
rarely to be met with. The French and German treatise?, 
by M. Michiels and Dr. Lemcke, have not been translated ; 
and however well known and esteemed they may be among 
those who have made a special study of the history of art, 



vm PREFACE. 

are not likely to be widely read in this country. These 
three books are the authorities on which my account of 
Van Dyck for the most part depends. I have done all in 
my power to verify their statements, reconcile their dis- 
crepancies, and correct their occasional errors, by a careful 
comparison of the earlier biographies and of original 
documents. In dealing with the numerous points of 
interest that connect themselves incidentally with my 
subject, I have attempted, with a due regard to brevity, 
to omit nothing of material importance which could throw 
light upon the narrative. For this purpose it has been 
necessary to consult various books, too numerous to 
mention, which have no direct bearing on the subject. 

It is proper to mention that the bibliographical list 
which will be found on page xii. includes only comparatively 
recent books on Van Dyck. These reproduce all that is 
material in such biographies as those of Bellori, Hou- 
braken, Felibien, and Deschamps, and give ample references 
to assist those who are desirous of pushing their researches 
back to the earliest authorities. 

My thanks are especially due to my friend Mr. W. Ray, 
of Lincoln College, for many valuable suggestions, and for 
his kind assistance in revision. 

P. II. H. 




CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER I. 

Page 

Antwerp at the End of the Sixteenth Century — Van Dyck's 
Parentage, Birth, and Student Days— First Visit to England 
—1599 to 1622 , , 1 

CHAPTER II. 

Italian Journey — Five Years' Residence in Antwerp — 1623 to 

1632 20 

CHAPTER III. 

Foreign Art in England — Van Dyek received at Court — Is 
Knighted — Mode of Life — Marriage — Disappointments — Death 
of VanDyck--1632 to 1641 38 

CHAPTER IV. 
Van Dyck's Paintings — Portraits in England .... 60 




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



VAK DTCK. 



ofTaDvrk 
ofSTBdk 



and HoIt ChOA. 

Ok Ftub SdJuBTS 

L and tke Harq[iiss 






ofHuuhsM 



vidi Princes Clojks and Ji 



IS 
Si 



C9 




BIBLIOGRAPHY— VAN DYCK. 

CAKPEKTER, IVTLLIAM HOOKHAM. Pictorial Notices, oonsist- 
ing of a Memoir of Sir A. Van Djdk, with a Descriptive Catftlogne of 
the Etchings executed by him, &c. London, 1844, 4to. 



MICmELS, JOSEPH XAVIER ALFRED. Rubens et F&ole 
d'Anyers. Paris, 1854, 8yo. [The above is a reprint, with slight 
additions, of part of the same author's '^Histoire de la Peintnre 
Flamande et Hollandaise."] 

LEMOEE, CARL. Kunst und Rlinstler, des Mittelalters und ^r 
Neuzeit. Herausgegeben von Dr. Robert Dohme. " Anton Van 
Dyck," yon C. Lemcke. Leipzig, 1875. 

WIBTRAL, Dr. F. Llconographie d'Antoijae Van Dyck, d'^pres les 
jrecherches de H. Weber. Leipzig, 1877, 8yo. 




VAN D Y C K. 



ANTWEBP AT THE END OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY — YAK 
DTCK'S PAKENTAOE, BDtTB, AKD STUDENT DAYS — FIKST VISIT 
TO ENGI.AND. 

1599-1622. 

ANTOON TAN DUCK or DYCK, the son of a mer- 
chant of Antwerp, was bom in that city on the 22iid 
of March, 1599, He came into the world under favourable 
auspices for the career that lay before him. To be bom 
into (be £imilyofawell-to-do burgher of thegreat Flemish 
city at that epoch, was to enter upon life in the midst of 
surroundings eminently propitious to the development of 
a genius whose natural bent was towards the fine arte; 
it was to have ihe full assurance of the careful and reverent 
cultivation of such an instinct as a priceless gift of nature. 
There is nothing to tell here of the familiar story of 
youthful genius weighed down by the contempt of nn- 
sympatbising gxiardians, or struggling into light through 
a long and painful combat with adverse circumstances, 
such as has often oust its shadow of bitterness over tho 



2 VAN DYCK. 

whole course of an inteUectual life. The young Antony 
could meet with nothing but encouragement within the 
circle of his home. A citizen of Antwerp, wealthy and 
respected, as was the elder Van Dyck, was sure to be a 
man of refined tastes and keen appreciation, with know- 
ledge of and feeling for art, if not himself a practical 
ailist. 

Antwerp, though the material supremacy of the city 
had departed, was still the chosen home of that culture, 
once the spontaneous outcome of national vitality, which 
adorned it in the time of its utmost prosperity and renown. 
From the day when the terrible siege of Antwerp termin- 
ated with its submission (1585), when the gates were 
opened to the Duke of Parma, and the city given over to 
pillage, its political and commercial greatness was no 
more ; but in ihe lighter graces which make life beautiful 
it maintained and increased its distance beyond all rivals. 
A glance at the history of an institution which cannot be 
left out of sight in narrating the life of an Antwerp 
painter will illustrate how closely the popular love and 
reverence for art was bound up with the municipal life of 
the town. 

As early as 1414 we find mention of the existence of a 
privileged confraternity of artists, enrolled under the pro- 
tection of the Artist-Evangelist, Saint Luke. In 1434 an 
ordinance of the magistrates granted certain privileges to 
the society, and imposed certain regulations on its mem- 
bers. On the 22nd of July, 1442, a decree was issued by 
the first magistrate of Antwerp, formally incorporating it 
as the Guild of Saint Luke, naming the various kinds of 
craftsmen included in it, and fixing its statutes in detail. 
The preamble of this document recites, that the church- 



GUILD OP SAINT LUKE. 6 

wardens of Notre Dame had granted a cHapel in that 
church for the use of the members of the guild, who had 
"begun to decorate it richly ** in honour of God and of 
Saint Luke ; " but the work had been stopped before com- 
pletion, as the guild was unwilling to incur great expenses 
while its legal position was undefined and insecure. The 
list of the four-and-twenty trades the pursuit of which 
entitles to membership, has the appearance of a very 
heterogeneous mixture ; but all the occupations enumer- 
ated, from that of the painter or sculptor down to the 
humble labour of typefounders and carpenters, are more 
or less connected with the decorative arts. 

After being established by law on ^a firm basis, the 
guild increased rapidly in numbers and importance. It 
received additional privileges, and was 'endowed from the 
revenues of the State. It incorporated -some minor societies 
of a similar character, having for their object the cultiva- 
tion of rhetoric and the drama. In the contests, dramatic, 
artistic, and literary, between such associations in different 
towns, which were a favourite amusement of the Flemings 
of those days, the prot^g^s of Saint Luke were very fre- 
quently the victors. On occasions of public rejoicing in 
Antwerp, the guild was the life and soul of the festivities : 
its carpenters and joiners erected the triumphal arches ; 
its carvers and painters adorned them : if the city enter- 
tained distinguished guests, its rhetoricians composed and 
declaimed panegyrics, which, we are informed, were often 
anything but admirable. The archives of the guild con- 
tain accounts of many of these fetes. The presiding 
officers of the guild were two, styled Chief and Dean, and 
chosen annually. The title of Prince was an honorary 
dignity, sometimes conferred on persons of noble birth 

B 2 



4 VAN DYOK. 

who took an^ interest in art, and whose countenance might 
be valuable to the fraternity. The complete list of Chiefs, 
Deans, and Princes, from 1454 to 1778, is extant, and now 
preserved at the Antwerp Museum, The registers of the 
guild, which record the names of all its members, whether 
masters or students, and which also contain an account of 
all receipts and expentses, date from 1453, and go down 
without interruption to the time of the French invasion in 
1794. These registers em:body a mass of valuable bio- 
graphical information, and throw light on the career of 
nearly every artist of any note in Antwerp during the 
period over which they extend, including the subject of 
the present memoir. That such an institution was capable 
of affording the most precious encouragement and guidance 
to yoijing artists, is manifest. In its widely spread in- 
fluence upon society, it performed a work of not less value 
and importance. Embracing within the scope of its associ- 
ation so many classes, with such varied interests, it fostered 
and instructed the popular interest in the things of art to 
which its own existence was due, and leavened the whole 
mass with some measure of taste, refinement, and cultiva- 
tion. The result of this influence in society is, until the 
appearance of genius, only to produce an uninteresting 
level of cultured mediocrity ; but when genius appears, 
it finds the way has been made smooth for it, and a fairer 
start secured than it generally gets in the vulgar world. 
Van Dyck's case is in this respect a. typical one. 

Frans van Dyck, the father of the painter, carried on 
a profitable business in Antwerp as a manufacturer of silk 
and woollen stuffs. The business had been well established 
by the industry of his ancestors, had passed into his hands 
in a flourishing condition, and gave him the enjoyment of 



VAN dyok's familt. 5 

a secure and sufficient fortune. He was twice married- 
first to Cornelia Kersboom, and again, in 1590, to Maria 
Cuypers. Tlie first marriage appears to have been without 
issue ; the second wife bore him twelve children during 
their sixteen years of wedded life. Antony was the 
seventh child, bom on the date mentioned above, and 
baptized on the following day in the Cathedral Church of 
Notre Dame. It is hardly necessary to seek a particular 
reason for the promptitude with which the new-born in- 
fant was made secure within the pale of the Church ; but 
it may be remarked, in passing, that the Van Dyck family 
was distinguished by peculiar piety, and devotion to the 
observances of the Catholic religion — characteristics which 
were not so strikingly apparent in the after life of its 
most famous scion. One of the brothers of Antony, named 
Theodore, took holy orders, and became a Canon of the 
Abbey of Saint Michael, and Pastor of Minderhout. Four 
of the sisters, Cornelia, Susannah, Elizabeth, and Anne, also 
embraced a spiritual career; Anne became a Facontine 
nun, and the other three took the veil in the Convent of 
the Beguinage. 

A story, generally repeated by the elder biographers on 
the slender authority of an old guide-book, claims a Dutch 
origin for both parents of the painter, — asserting that 
they belonged originally to the town of Bois-le-Duc in 
North Brabant ; that Frans van Dyck there practised 
the art of glass-painting with more reputation than 
profit; and that, finding his means still further reduced 
as his art became unfashionable, he changed his resi- 
dence to Antwerp, for the sake of embarking in a more 
lucrative enterprise. This account, long accepted as rest- 
ing on grounds plausible enough, has now been finally 



6 VAN DYCK. 

disposed of by direct evidence. A monumental inscrip- 
tion, discovered in the Cathedral at Antwerp, places 
beyond a doubt the nature of Van Dyck's business, and 
the fact of its hereditary transmission. Frans van Dyck 
was certainly neither a Dutchman nor a glass-painter. 

But, although there is thus no reason to suppose that 
Antony's father had much- practical knowledge of art, it 
was otherwise with his mother. Maria Cuypers was in 
her own way an artist of no mean pretensions. She was 
celebrated for a rare degree -of skill in embroidery ; and the 
productions of her needle were sought after not less for 
the originality and beauty of their design than for their 
delicacy and finish in execution. A pleasing anecdote, 
which calls to mind many an ancient and modem legend 
about the mothers of great men, pictures her as diligently 
engaged on the work which was regarded as her master- 
piece, while enceinte with the child who was to make her 
name famous for ever in the annals of art. It was a large 
composition in coloured silks, representing as a central 
design the subject of Susannah and the Elders, surrounded 
by a border worked with interlacing boughs and foliage. 

A mother's love, guided by sympathy with a kindred 
power, was quick to discover, and rejoice in the signs of 
precocious genius which speedily became manifest in the 
yputhful Antony. She undertook the direction of his 
studies from, a very early age, and continued to watch 
over the development of his splendid gifts until a too early 
death deprived him of her loving and able instruction. 
She died on the 17th of April, 1607, when Antony was just 
eight years old. By this time it was abundantly evident 
that the boy was possessed of faculties much above the 
common. His father, far from unwilling that his son 



HENDJIIK VAN BALEN. 7 

should devote himself to a career -which reckoned among 
its votaries many of the most illustrious men of their native 
city, made careful provision for the continuance of his 
artistic studies. Two years more -were spent in over- 
coming by assiduous practice all the difficulties of a 
beginner. At the age of ten Van Dyok had mastered the 
rudiments of art, and was in a condition to profit by the 
more advanced discipline in the studiS of a painter of 
eminence. 

Hendrik van Balen was the master selected • He was an 
historical painter of great merit, and had studied in his 
youth under Adam van Noort, a man of genius and skill, 
whose dissolute habits alone prevented his attaining to a 
position of the highest eminence. Van Noort's school 
produced several illustrious painters ; besides Van Balen, 
the great Eubens himself, Jordaens, Sebastian Franck, and 
others, were among his pupils. From his tuition, Van 
Balen proceeded to Italy, where he spent several years in 
assiduously studying the great examples of Italian art, ^ 
and at the same time producing many original pictures. 
On his return to Antwerp he obtained an immediate and 
signal success ; the demand of the public for his works, 
and of students for his tuition, was greater than his time 
could supply. His tastes led him especially to the illustra- 
tion of classical mythology; Ovid's Metamorphoses contained 
his favourite repertory of subjects. His other works were 
mostly taken from sacred history. His chief care was 
bestowed upon the figure-painting, the landscapes being 
generally executed by another hand. The most eminent 
of his many pupils, after Van Dyck, was Snyders. 

Van Dyok entered the studio of Van Balen, according to 
the registers of the Guild, in 1609, Young as he was, he 



8 VAN DYCK. 

quickly surpassed all his compeers. As his knowledge 
and powers increased, he came under the sway of that 
brilliant influence which turned the eyes of all the new 
generation of artists towards the rising star of Eubens. 
That great painter had returned from Italy in the zenith 
of his powers, and stepped at once into a place of un- 
disputed pre-eminence among the painters of Antwerp. 
Van Dyck, already conscious that his allegiance was due 
to supreme excellence alone, strove eagerly to obtain the 
favour of adfnission among the illustrious master's dis- 
ciples. His uncommon abilities attracted the favourable 
notice of Eubens, and his desire was easily granted. The 
change of masters took place after he had spent about five 
years in Van Balen's studio, and, consequently, when he 
was between fifteen and sixteen years of age. 

In this new field of study the path to supremacy among 
his associates was as easily mounted as before. Van Dyck 
soon became the first and favourite pupil. The esteem in 
which his skill was held is witnessed by the fact that 
Eubens chose him for the task of preparing sketches of 
his famous pictures for the engraver to work from. This 
is a singular mark of confidence in so young a pupil. 
Work of this kind must fall short of perfection, not only 
if it fails to reproduce the form of the original with 
absolute mechanical exactness, but also if the copyist is 
lacking in that subtle sympathy with the spirit of his 
model which makes him more than the imitator — ^the 
interpreter of his work. Among the pictures on which 
Van Dyck was thus employed is mentioned the tine Battle 
of the Amazons, which Lucas Vorstermans engraved. 

There is a well-known anecdote, which slIho serves to 
indicate the high degree of excellence and facility in 



STUDY UNDER RUBENS, 9 

workmanship to which Van Dyck had now attained. It 
was the daily habit of Euhens, after the morning's work 
was finished, to take a long ride into the country for 
exercise. The key of his studio, which was closed during 
his absence, was entrusted to the care of an old female 
servant named Valveken. This worthy dame was not 
always proof against the blandishments or perhaps the 
bribes of the students, who sought and frequently obtained 
admission to the studio during prohibited hours, in order 
to observe at their leisure the method of the master in his 
unfinished work. One day, a number of the young men 
being assembled there, some rough play began, and one of 
theiu, Diepenbeck, was pushed against a newly painted 
picture, standing on the easel with its colours not yet dry. 
The throat and chin of the principal figure were efiaced. 
General consternation ensued. At last a bold spirit, 
Jan van Hoeck, offered a desperate suggestion. " There 
are," said he, " three hours of daylight still left us. We 
must do our best to repair the damage, and, if possible, 
avoid discovery." He ended by proposing Van Dyck as 
the fittest to undertake the task. Van Dyck with some 
trepidation consented. He set to work, and before evening 
completed a faithful restoration of the destroyed part, 
which satisfied his friends so well that they resolved to 
take the chance of its deceiving the master. When the 
next morning came, Rubens scrutinised the picture closely, 
but with evident complacency. " This throat and chin," 
he remarked to his quaking pupils, " is by no means the 
worst piece of painting that I did yesterday." Further 
examination enabled him to detect the touch of a strange 
hand ; but, on obtaining a confession of the whole incident, 
he was so pleased with the skill of the deception that he 



10 VAN DYCK. 

readily forgave all concerned in the audacious escapade, 
and in tlie infringement of his rules which brought it 
about. The story may or may not be true ; it is, at any 
rate, characteristic, and a tradition of this kind is almost 
certainly based on actual occurrences; but some bio- 
graphers, with a taste for solid facts, have been very 
unlucky in their attempts to determine the identity of the 
picture which figures in it. One considers that the 
accident happened to the figure of the Magdalen in the 
celebrated Descent from the Cross ; but this picture was 
finished and sold in 1612, when Van Dyck was still under 
the tuition of Van Balen. Another had the picture of 
Saint 'Sebastian, in the Church of Saint Augustine, pointed 
out to him as the one in question ; but it is equally certain 
that this was not painted tiU 1628, when Van Dyck had 
left his student days far behind. 

On the 11th of February, 1618, Van Dyck was enrolled 
as a master in the registers of the Guild of Saint Luke. 
The honour is said to be unprecedented in the case of a 
painter who had not yet completed his nineteenth year. 
In the same year he joined an association for mutual 
aid which had been founded by the artists of Antwerp. 
His success was now attested by evidence more un- 
mistakeable than any amount of praise; he sold his 
pictures, and sold them well. The Christ hearing the Cross, 
which is still to be seen in the Church of the Dominicans, 
is the most memorable work executed by him at this date. 
He also painted some admired portraits; one of these, 
representing Eubens, Lucas Vorstermans the engraver, 
and two other artists, was formerly in the possession of 
Sir Joshua Eeynolds. 

Li 1620 the Jesuits of Antwerp contracted with Eubens 



GROWING REPUTATION. 11 

■for the decoraiion of their churchy The agreement, signed 
on the 29th of March, stipulated for thirty-nine pictures, 
to be executed in the first place by his best pupils, and 
afterwards retouched and perfected by his own hand. 
Van Dyck alone among the pupils is mentioned by name. 
The latest German biographer, Professor Lemcke, attempts 
to diminish the significance of this as a testimony to his 
increasing fame, by pointing out that the Jesuits* preference 
for Van Dyck might probably be the effect of gratitude 
for the devotion of his pious family to the interests of 
religion. The cavil seems rather far-fetched ; the clergy, 
at any rate the Jesuit clergy, have not generally had the 
reputation of being much swayed by sentiment in matters 
of business ; and it is unlikely that the insertion of such a 
clause in the contract would proceed from any other motive 
than a desire to secure the highest possible excellence in 
the work for which they were to pay. 

Another interesting document, of little later date, is open 
to no such objection, and affords undeniable proof of the 
public esteem in which the young artist was now held. 
This is a paragraph at the end of a long letter written 
from Antwerp, dated the 17th of July, 1620, and addressed 
to the Earl of Arundel by some person unknown, who uses 
the Italian language, and is conjectured to have been an 
agent of that nobleman — one of many employed by him 
in his munificent patronage of the arts. The letter is 
principally concerned with certain pictures commissioned 
by the Earl, on which Eubens was at the time engaged ; 
it ends as follows (the translation is taken from Mr. 
Carpenter's valuable book, where the original is also 
reprinted) : 

" Van Dyck lives with Eubens ; and his works are 



12 Vi.K DYCK. 

beginning to be scarcely less esteemed than tbose of 
his master. He is a young man of one-and-twenty ; his 
parents are persons of considerable property in this city; 
and it will be difficult to induce him to remove, especially 
as he must perceive the rapid fortune which Eubens is 
amassing." 

The advice of Eubens was now that his pupil should 
proceed to Italy, and put the finishing touch to his train- 
ing by the study of the unrivalled art of the great Italian 
masters. At the same time he counselled him to make 
portrait painting his special pursuit, and to devote his 
best energies to that department, paying less attention to 
historical and sacred art. The benefit that Eubens him- 
self had derived from the study on the spot of the great 
Venetian colourists proves the sincerity — the good which 
Van Dyck undoubtedly got from following it proves the 
soundness — of the first of these pieces of advice ; the whole 
of Van Dyck's subsequent career confirms the wisdom and 
genuine insight of the second. Yet Eubens has been 
accused of having been moved simply by jealousy in giving 
both. It is said that he not only feared the rivalry of Van 
Dyck as an artist in the particular line which he followed 
himself, but had also been made uneasy by the attentions 
which the handsome young pupil paid to his wife Isabella, 
and so had a double motive for wishing to get him out of 
Antwerp. The latter half of the story is highly improb- 
able, for Isabella was a stout middle-aged lady, gifted 
with discretion at least equal to her personal charms. It 
is also quite inconsistent with what we know of the fine 
and generous character of Eubens, to impute to him envy 
of the talents of any brother artist. An equally spiteful 
and equally absurd account has been given of his conduct 



VISIT. TO ENGLAND. 13 

to Jacob Joidaens : having obtained for that painter, when 
young, the opportunity of doing some important work in 
distemper, he was accused of laying a scheme to weaken 
his vigour as a colourist when he should return to the use 
of oils. As a matter of fact, the practice of Rubens was 
exactly the opposite ; he never lost an opportunity of 
encouraging and assisting a promising aspirant. Professor 
Lemoke, in commenting on the question, again seems 
disposed to look on the darker side of things, and gloomily 
hints that in these old stories there is always a kernel of 
truth. 

The proposed journey to Italy was postponed in con- 
sequence of an invitation to visit the English Court. In 
all probability this proceeded from the Earl of Arundel, 
who had been led by his correspondence with agents and 
friends abroad to take a strong interest in Van Dyck, One 
friend with whom the Earl held frequent communication 
was Sir Dudley Carleton, a connoisseur like himself, then 
stationed as British Ambassador at the Hague. Carleton 
had often assisted the Earl in the purchase of pictures and 
in his dealings with foreign artists ; he was now watching 
with interest the movements of Van Dyck, and perhaps 
had a share in inducing him to go to England. A letter 
from Sir Tobie Matthew to Carleton, dated the 25th of 
November, 1620, informs him of Van Dyck's arrival in 
London, and says that a pension of £100 a year had been 
granted to him by the King. There seems to be no official 
record of this pension, which we should expect to find if it 
had really been granted, or at least if it had ever been 
paid. Perhaps Van Dyck's departure, much earlier than 
had been at first contemplated, forfeited the fruits of the 
King's liberality before the first instalment became due. 



14 VAN DYCK. 

Very little indeed is known about the events of this short 
visit. Mr. Carpenter was the first to print the following 
interesting document relating to it. It is an entry in the 
Order Books of the Exchequer : 

Jovis xxvi of February 1620-1 
By order dated xvi of Feb' 1620 



Anthony Vandike in 
reward for Service 



To Anthony Vandike the some of one hun- 
dred pounds by way of reward for speciall 
service by him pformed for his Ma"* without 
accompt imprest or other charge to be sett 
uppon him for the same or for anie pert 
thereof 

The phrase special service need not be regarded as having 
much significance. It might have heen used of a merely 
gratuitous present. "What is more probable is that the 
£100 was payment for a portrait of the King. There is, 
in the Eoyal Collection at Windsor Castle, a portrait of 
James I., always attributed to Van Dyck ; but formerly 
accounted for, in ignorance of the fact that the painter 
was in England during the lifetime of that Sovereign, by 
the supposition that it was painted by Charles's command 
fix)m materials left by some inferior artist. The interest 
attaching to this picture is much heightened by the know- 
ledge that in all likelihood it was painted from the life, 
and was among the first of Van Dyck's English portraits — 
possibly the very first in that great series of lasting records 
of princes, nobles, statesmen, scholars, soldiers, and fair 
women, which stand in dozens of palaces and mansions up 
and down the land among the most precious heirlooms of 
the English aristocracy. Among the various portraits ot 
the Earl of Arundel there is one (the one engraved by 
Hollar of the Earl in armour holding a baton in the right 



VISIT TO HOLLAND. 15 

hand) in which the apparent age of the sitter leads to the 
conclusion that it also must have been painted at this 
time. These conjectures are all that can be told of what 
Van Dyck did in England. The date of his departure 
is ascertained by this entry in the Kegister Books of the 
Privy Council : 

28 Feb. 1620-1 



Lord Steward 
Lord Chamberlien 
Lord Arundell 
& Bp Winton 
Mr. Seer. Calvert 
M' of the Wards 



A passe for Anthonie van Dyck gent his 
Ma**** servaunt to travaile for 8 months he 
havinge obtayned his Ma"" leave in that 
behalf As was sygnifyed by the E of 
Arundell 



There are two points of perplexity in this document. 
Why should Van Dyck be named "his Majesty's servant?" 
He was not even a British subject. And why does his 
leave only extend over eight months ? He did not in fact 
visit England again for more than eight years, and it does 
not appear that he left in 1621 with any intention of 
returning. It is plausibly suggested that he may have 
held some honorary office in the court of James, obtained 
by the interest of the Earl of Arundel ; and this conjecture 
may perhaps be taken in connection with Sir Tobie 
Matthew's story of his having received a pension. As to 
the limitation of the period of absence, Professor Lemcke 
offers an explanation which is both ingenious and probable. 
A journey into Holland, on the invitation of Frederick of 
Nassau, Prince of Orange, which was formerly thought to 
have taken place after the artist's return from Italy, is 
now proved, by comparison of the dates of certain portraits, 
to have closely followed the English visit ; Van Dyck was 
certainly painting at the Hague in 1622. Now the twelve 



16 VAH DYCK. 

yeATH* truce between Spain and the United Provinces 
expired in April 1621, and hostilities were immediately 
recommenced* Belgium being at that time, under the 
independent rule of the Archduchess Isabella and her 
husband, intimately connected with the Spanish Crown, 
was regarded with no friendly feeling by the Dutch. A 
Belgian subject travelling in Holland ran the risk of 
being molested, Lemcko accordingly connects the pass 
given to the painter with his Dutch journey, and supposes 
it to have been granted to him in order that he might 
travel in safety as a servant of James I., under the 
protection of a British passport. 

During his residence at the Hague, Van Dyck painted 
several portraits ; the Prince and Princess of Orange with 
their family, Christian Duke of Brunswick, Ernest Count 
of Mansfeld, and many other persons of renown. A scarf 
which covers the Duke of Brunswick's armour on the left 
side in this portrait, was placed there to conceal tbe loss 
of his left ai-m, shot off recently at the Battle of Fleurus. 

Van Dyck*s visit to Frans Hals must have occurred at 
this time, as he passed on his way to or from the Hague 
through Haarlem, where the latter artist lived. Hals was, 
as usual, not at home when the visitor arrived. Van Dyck, 
rather cruelly counting on some amusement to be got out 
of the known eccentricities of his brother artist, suppressed 
his name, and announced himself as a wealthy stranger 
and a patron. Hals was fetched in all haste from the 
tavern where he was infallibly to be found, rejoicing in 
the society of Bacchanalian rustics. The stranger wanted 
to sit for his portrait, but had only two hours to spare. 
Canvas, colours, brushes, were ready in an instant, and 
Hals fell upon the work with his wonted impetuosity. 




SYNDIC MEERSTRATEN. 
from the painting bj Van Dyck in thl Caatl GalUry. 



BETT7BK TO ANTWERP. 17 

The two bours were not quite gone before the picture was 
ready for the sitter's inspection. He praised it highly, 
and professed an astonishment not altogether feigned at 
the speed of its execution. " But," said he, " painting is 
doubtless an easier thing than I thought. Let us change 
places, and see what I can do." They changed places. 
Hals soon saw that the man before him was no stranger to 
the tools he was handling. In Tain he speculated who it 
could be.. But when the second picture was finished, in 
still less time than the first, and proved to be not inferior 
in merit, the mystery was solved, Hals rushed at his 
guest, and clasped him round the neck in a fraternal hug. 
" The man who can do that," he cried, " must be either 
Van Dyck or the Devil." 

It is stated, but on slight authority, that Van Dyck on 
leaving Holland went for a short time to Paris, invited by 
Bichelieu. Whether this visit really took place or not, no 
certain record of it exists. Eubens was also in Paris about 
this time, engaged on the great series of paintings ordered 
by Marie de Medicis for the decoration of the gallery of 
the Luxembourg. 

Towards the end of 1622 the artist was recalled to 
Antwerp by the tidings of his father's mortal illness, and 
arrived just in time to receive his last words. Frans 
van Dyck died on the 1st of December. On his death-bed 
he exacted from his son a promise to paint a picture for 
the chapel of the Dominican Sisters, whose unremitting 
care and kindness had attended him throughout his illness. 
This debt of gratitude was not redeemed until seven years 
afterwards. Van Dyck then painted the great Crucifiadony 
which remained in their church till 1785. It was then sold 
for 6000 florins to the Academy of Antwerp, which still 



18 VAST DYOK. 

possesses it. Beneath the cross he introduced the figures 
of Saint Dominic, the founder of their order, and Saint 
Catherine of Siena, the mystic bride of Christ. At the 
foot of the cross stands a great stone bearing an inscription 
in memory of the artist's father : 

Ne patris sui manibus terra gravis esset hoc aaxum cruci 
advolvehat et huic loco donahai Antonius van Dyck. 
A child-angel leans upon the stone, holding in his hand 
a torch reversed and well-nigh extinguished. Saint 
Catherine, crowned with thorns, and in an agony of tears, 
clasps the Saviour's feet. Dominic stands a little aside, 
with upturned face and extended arms, seeming to cry out 
an impassioned appeal against the crime. Between the 
saints, in their bitter grief and horror, the angel is calm, 
and even joyful ; though one hand holds downwards the 
failing torch of life, with the other he points upwards at 
the dying Lord, the consummation of whose pain is yet 
the perfection of His victory. From the clouds above a 
little group of pitying angels watch the scene. It is a 
picture that rises to sublimity of conception ; one of many 
such proofs that the painter's deliberate choice of portraiture 
did not arise from failure, or fear of failure, in a more 
ambitious line. 

This picture was not painted, as was said above, until 
1629. Meanwhile, almost immediately after the death of 
his father. Van Dyck resolved to undertake the journey 
to Italy which Rubens had advised, and which he was 
contemplating before the tempting invitations from the 
courts of England, Holland, and perhaps France, drew 
him aside from his purpose. He took leave of his master 
and friend with cordiality on both sides. They inter- 
changed handsome presents. Van Dyck gave Eubens 




JACOB VAN Bl-S. ¥ CIS.^ 
From the painting by Van Dyck, al tke Trifl' 



„Hui5, AT«st rda.i' 



DEPABTUBE FOB ITALY. 19 

tliree pictures from his own hand ; a portrait of Bnbens' 
wife Isabella, an Eece Homo, and a Christ seized upon the 
Mount of OUves, The last was a spirited night scene, lit 
np with the glare of torches. It had thenceforth the place 
of honour in the chief room of Bubens' honse, and no 
visitor was allowed to depart without learning to appre- 
ciate its merits and sbare the owner's admiration. Bubens 
chose the finest horse in his stable as a gift to Yan Dyck 
in return, and sped him on his journey. This was again 
interrupted, almost on the threshold, by a counter-attrac- 
tion. But the romantic episode of Saventhem deserves a 
fresh chapter. 



2 



CHAPTER n. 

TTALUK JODRSET — FIVE YEABa' EESIDEKCE IH ANTWERP. 

1623-1632. 

STARTING on hiB aonthward journey, Van Dyct passed 
throngli Brassels, and rode towards Lonvain. But 
he had not ridden far before he tamed aside from his 
Tonte, moved by a stronger attraction than the entbnsiasm 
of atndy or the desire for fame. He had anconmbed to 
love, and must liBger by the side of his charmer. Tonng, 
ardent, and handsome, Van Dyck was made of infiammable 
material, soon kindled by passion, and well fitted to inspire 
passion in return. The spark fell npon the tinder. For 
the time, the adrice of bis master, the wiishos of his friends, 
the promptings of his own ambition, were alike nnheeded ; 
although, as we shall see, the lover oonld not qnlte 
eliminate the artist. 

About hve miles icota Brussels, a little to the left of the 
high road, lay the seclnded hamlet of Saventhem. It was 
the dwelling-place of a young and heantifnl girl, Anna van 
Ophem by name, of whom we know scarcely anything 
besides her name, and that she was yonng and beautiful. 
She held a curious ofiGce at the court, as Mistress of the 
In&nta Isabella's hounds ; but what was the nature of 
her duties, and what the social position they implied, ia 



BOMANOir. 21 

tuiknown. Some years later, when tJbeir youthful romanoe 
had died a natural death, Van Dyck painted his early 
love surrounded by her canine chargea The picture, a 
large one, with each animal's name inscribed beneath his 
portrait, was seen by Mensaert, in 1763, at the Castle of 
Tervueren, near Brussels. 

Anna van Ophem, then, had ensnared the susceptible 
painter's heart with meshes strong enough to draw him 
aside from the path of interest and, one might almost say, 
of duty. He must have spent several months in this 
rustic retreat ; the time, however, was not altogether 
wasted, even from an artistic point of view, for two 
admirable pictures, painted at his mistress's request for 
the parish church of Saventhem, were produced during 
his sojourn. M. Michiels, in his excellent biography of 
Van Dyck, draws upon his imagination for the romantic 
details of the courtship, and bravely indeed does Pegasus 
soar away with the learned Frenchman. He describes 
how the lover approaches over the pastures, passes up the 
brook side, and knocks at Anna's door. She appears^ 
looking more beautiful than ever; and, as he urges his 
suit, cannot find it in her heart to be cruel. "In this 
poetic retreat — where nothing was heard but the uniform 
note of the titmouse and the tuneful melodies of the 
nightingale, where the sun shone only upon gracious 
landscapes, where the light of the moon streamed like a 
shining fluid upon the foliage of weeping willows — all 
counselled love, all breathed of tenderness, the balmy scent 
of the meadows, and the silence of the plain. Van Dyck 
thought no more of pressing on his journey ; he turned to 
grass the steed he had from Bubens, and wandered along 
the slopes of the hillsides, beneath the bashful shades, 



22 VAN DYOK. 

among the meadow flowers, with his lovely mistress. 
When Nature, so often thwarted, has joined two sym- 
pathetic sonls, two hearts made for one another, she seems 
to rejoice in their enchantment She drinks, as they do 
from the magic cup; she surrounds them with illusions 
that make herself more fair ! " 

Bubens learned with little patience how his pupil was 
dreaming away his time of opportunities. Bemonstrances 
from a distance were of no avail; at last he sent the 
Chevalier Nanni, also bound for Italy, in hopes that Van 
Dyck might be persuaded to accompany him. This in- 
trusion from the outer world broke the spell. Van Dyck 
took a hasty leave of his mistress, and resolutely set his 
face towards the south. 

So far the old story. But the Ithuriel spear of German 
criticism has made sad havoc with its poetry. Professor 
Lemcke sets to work in a spirit of coldblooded rationalism 
to dear up the truth about those glowing tropes of M. 
Michiels ; and the result is as irritating to the lover of the 
picturesque as it is creditable to the historian's acumen. 
For suppose that Van Dyck wished to go to Italy with 
Nanni, and that Nanni kept him waiting; that in the 
meantime he accepted from the Archduchess a commission 
to paint her pack of hounds with its fair custodian, and 
went to Saventhem to execute it ; that having still time 
to spare he undertook two pictures for the parish church, 
and possibly amused himself with a little flirtation in the 
intervals of business, until Nanni should appear. What 
version of the story could be more probable, and what 
more ruthlessly prosaic ? 

The two Saventhem pictures were certainly not an 
o£fering inspired by love alone, as the artist's receipt has 



THE SAVEJNTMEU PIOTUBES. 23 

been discovered for 200 florins, the price of one of them. 
The subject of this was Saint Martin dividing his doah with 
two Beggars, The Saint is represented by the figure of Van 
Dyck himself upon the horse that Bubens gave him. The 
other picture was a Holy Family, in which Anna and her 
parents are said to have been the models for the Virgin 
and two attendant saints. Both pictures are remarkably 
fine examples of the master's earlier manner. They have 
always been regarded with peculiar pride and affection by 
the inhabitants of Saventhem ; an affection owing perhaps 
as much to the sentimental associations with which tra- 
dition has invested them as to their intrinsic value. This 
feeling in conflict with the envy of connoisseurs, inspired, 
doubtless, by the latter cause alone, has brought about 
more than one exciting episode in local history. About 
the year 1750 the parish authorities took upon themselves, 
without the consent of the inhabitants or of the Oount of 
Konigseck, seigneur of the district, to sell the Saint Martin 
to one Gerard Hoet, a collector at the Hague, for 4000 
florins. As soon as Hoet began to remove his purchase, 
the villagers rose in a body, armed with implements of 
husbandry, surrounded the church, and forced his work- 
men to replace the painting. Hoet only escaped personal 
maltreatment by scrambling through a hedge into the 
priest's back garden, and taking to flight across the fields 
to Brussels. A more successful raid was made by a French 
detachment, which occupied Saventhem in 1 806, under the 
command of Lieutenant Barbier Valbone. This officer, 
himself a skilful portrait painter and a competent critic, 
represented to the home government the value of the same 
picture, and received instructions to transport it to the 
Louvre. Again the peasants made a stout resistance, and 



24 TAN DTOK. 

reinforoements bad to be summoned from Brussels to over- 
come it. Tbe picture was carried off, and remained in 
Paris until 1816, wben it was restored by order of the 
victorious Allies. It has since passed safely through a 
third adventure of the same kind. About the middle of 
the present century a rich American bribed a small gaug 
of thieves with the promise of 100,000 francs to attempt 
its removal. They broke into the church by night, and 
were discovered, just in time, through the barking of a dog. 
The thieves got clear away, but the picture was happily 
saved. Since that time a watchman has been stationed in 
the church every night. The companion picture, the 
Holy Family, was, according to Mensaert, cut up into sacks 
for grain by the foragers of the French army ; but this 
appears to be a mistake. M. Mols asserts that it still 
hangs over the altar of the Virgin, in Saventhem Church. 
We hear no more of Van Dyck before his arrival in 
Italy. Even the route by which he travelled is unknown. 
His first destination was Venice. Here, in the midst of 
the noblest productions of the first school of art in the 
world, his time was almost wholly engrossed by study 
and practice. Sketch-books remain to attest the severity 
of his self-discipline, crowded with memoranda from the 
treasures of Venetian galleries. The great masters of 
colour were assiduously copied, Titian above all, Paul 
Veronese, Giorgione, and Bellini. Especially the portraits 
of Titian confirmed Van Dyck in the knowledge of his own 
true vocation. Titian in portrait reached perhaps as near 
perfection as is possible for man; after him the second 
place belongs, unless our own Sir Joshua be permitted to 
dispute it, to no one but Van Dyck. Withal he is no 
mere imitator of the Venetians ; aided by the study of 



YENIOE AND GENOA. 25 

their method, informed by the possession of their secret, 
he still rests upon native genius his true title to renown. 
He differs from Titian in portrait, as he differs from Eubens 
in historical painting; not with the difference between 
pupil and teacher, follower and leader, but with that which 
must exist between a great, and an even greater, master. 

Hard study and the pursuit of pleasure, which, to one 
of Van Dyck's ardent temperament and keen capacity for 
enjoying life becomes a necessity of existence, left little 
space for original and paying work. Funds ran short, 
and the artist was confronted with the necessity of finding 
some more immediately profitable employment. In this 
strait he bethought himself of the hearty welcome which, 
nearly fifteen years ago, Rubens had received among the 
merchant princes of Genoa. Counting on as warm a 
greeting, he set out from Venice, and on arriving at 
Genoa was not disappointed with his reception. His 
fame had preceded him; his merits found ready and 
enthusiastic appreciation; honour and riches poured in 
upon him in a crowd of commissions from the noblest and 
wealthiest families of the city. Illustrious scions of the 
magnificent houses of Balbi, Spinola, Raggi, Pallavicino, 
Brignole, Durazzo, competed for the honour of sitting to 
the young Flemish painter for portraits which are still 
the pride of the Genoese galleries. Among the most 
celebrated are two noble equestrian portraits of Antonio 
Giulio Brignole and Giovanni Paolo Balbi ; Pallavicino in 
his robes of office as ambassador at the Papal Court; 
Spinola in white armour ;. and a portrait, accounted the 
finest in Genoa, of a Marchioness of Durazzo, seated in a 
dress of yellow silk, between two daughters, robed in blue 
and gold. 



26 VAN DTOK. 

One of our engravings is taken from a portrait still at 
Genoa. The Marchionesa of Brignole hangs in the Brignole 
Palace. It is a full length standing figure, dressed in 
blue silk embroidered with gold, with pearls among the 
dark hair. The face, seen in three-quarter view, indicates 
about three and twenty as the lady's probable age. By 
her side stands a chair covered with scarlet cloth ; a parrot 
is perched on the chair. 

The well-known White Boy in the Durazzo Palace, re- 
presents a child of that family, about eight years of age, 
in a dress of white satin. He stands leaning his right arm 
on the back of a chair ; the left hand holds a gold chain 
hung round his neck. On the chair is a parrot ; at the 
boy's feet a monkey busy with some fruit. 

A few classical and sacred pictures were also painted at 
Genoa. One was a Christ, judged worthy to hang in the 
Balbi Palace as companion to another rendering of the 
same subject by Correggio. The Brignole Palace contains 
a picture of The Tribute Money, bearing strong marks 
of the influence of Titian. A Virgin and Child, and a 
Coriolanus, were at the same time painted for the Durazzo 
family. 

In the course of the year 1623 Van Dyok left Genoa for 
Bome, where he resided nearly two years. He was, at 
first, a guest in the house of Cardinal Bentivoglio, the 
historian and diplomatist, who had been Papal Nuncio at 
the court of Brussels, and was now the great patron of 
Flemish artists in Eome. One residt of this visit was the 
superb portrait of the Cardinal now in the Pitti Palace at 
Florence ; a masterpiece, perfect in truth of delineation, 
glowing with the rich harmonious colours of the Venetians, 
instinct with vivid insight into the characteristics of the 




LA MARCHESA ADORNO Dl BRIGNOLI. 
Fram Ike painting by Van Dytli, in the f'ala-.ao Brif,™>'''-. 



BESIDENOE IN ROME. 27 

sitter. A Crucifixion was also painted for the Cardinal; 
and, about the same time, an Ascension and an Adoration of 
the Magi, both commiBsions from the Pope, which are still 
at Monte Cavallo. The noble families of Braschi, Colonna, 
Corsini, and others^ commissioned Van Dyck for portraits. 
There is a striking picture, now at Petworth, of Sir 
Bobert Shirley and his lady, in oriental costume. This, 
too, was painted during the artist's residence in Bome. 
Shirley, an Englishman who had married a Persian lady 
of noble birth, had been sent on a mission to the Court of 
Pope Gregory XY., to solicit aid for the Shah against the 
Turks. 

Now that his purse was full again, Van Dyck's profuse 
habits and carelessness about expenditure attracted atten- 
tion even among the luxurious Eomans, and earned for 
him the sobriquet of il pittore cavalieresco. The refinement 
of his person and style of living formed a strong contrast 
to the manners of a majority of his fellow-countrymen 
abroad. The Flemish or Dutch art student was too often 
a debauched and disreputable fellow, who found his ideal of 
felicity in a tavern pot, a pipe of tobacco, and the caresses of 
a tipsy courtesan. Not the strongest claims of co-nationality 
oould have induced the elegant Van Dyck to become a 
partner in these boorish orgies, and it is possible that some 
of his compatriots had good reason to imagine themselves 
slighted. The sense of being at once eclipsed and despised 
by this fastidious rival aroused all the malignity of the 
pettiest spirits among them. It is even said that the 
slanders they industriously circulated drove Van Dyck 
from Bome; though it is difiQcrult to believe that his 
reputation could then be so seriously injured by the dis- 
paragement of envious obscurity. Be that as it may, the 



28 VAN DYOK. 

painter quitted Rome, intending to return to Genoa. He 
made a short stay in Florence, where his friend Justus 
Sustermans held the position of court painter. The por- 
trait of Sustermans, painted without doubt at this time, 
was also etched by Van Dyck, and is included in the 
collection known as the Centum Iconea, After leaving 
Florence, Van Dyck happened to fall in with the Countess 
of Arundel, then travelling in Italy with her two sons. 
The painter, bearing in grateful memory the friendly 
assistance given him by the Earl during his stay in 
England, gladly turned to accompany the party as far as 
Turin, but resisted a pressing invitation to return with 
them to England. He made little stay in Turin; and 
after paying hurried visits to Milan, Brescia, and some 
other cities, went direct to Genoa. There he was sure not 
only of public appreciation, but of the warmest welcome 
from personal friends. Among these was a painter, also a 
native of Antwerp, Cornelius de Wael by name, in whose 
house Van Dyck stayed during the present visit. It was 
but a short one, for a tempting opportunity presented 
itself of extending his travels to Sicily. A vessel was 
about to start for Palermo ; the Chevalier Nanni, who had 
accompanied him from Saventhem across the Alps, was 
going there ; Van Dyck resolved to sail with him. 

His reception in Sicily was flattering enough. The 
most remarkable portraits which he painted were those of 
the Viceroy, Prince Philibert of Savoy, and of the cele- 
brated Sofonisba Anguissola. This distinguished lady, 
one of the few first-rate artists that her sex has produced, 
was then in her ninety-second year, and perfectly blind, 
but in full possession of her rare intellectual powers. 
Her favourite topic of conversation was the art to which 



RETX7EN FROM ITALY. 29 

her life had been devoted ; and Van Dyck was afterwards 
accustomed to declare that he had learned more about 
portrait painting from the talk of a blind woman than 
from the study of the greatest masterpieces. 

The pleasant Sicilian sojonm was cut short too soon by 
a virulent outbreak of the plague. The Viceroy was 
among the first victims struck down by it. Van Dyck 
avoided the danger by an immediate return to Genoa. 
After again residing for a short time in that city, he took 
a homeward course, and arrived in Antwerp about the 
end of 1626. 

Although returning with all the prestige of a great 
success in Italy, the head-quarters of his art, he found it 
hard at first to force his way into public fisivour in his 
native city. Like the full moon among the stars, the 
renown of Rubens extinguished every lesser light. The 
populace, dazzled by his glory, would hardly allow any 
distinctions of merit among his confessed inferiors. 
Master and tyro were confused in one class, and Van Dyck 
found that he had for a time to struggle like an unknown 
man. The story goes that walking one day with the elder 
Teniers in the street, he pointed out a fat brewer as the 
only patron he had found. The brewer came to treat for 
a portrait, but ridiculed the exorbitant demand of two 
pistoles as the price ; and, when he found the artist could 
not be beaten down, angrily withdrew the commission. 
Encouragement came however at length, and from the 
very quarter where the difficulty originated. Eubens 
heard of the hard case his friend and pupil was in, and 
eagerly embraced the opportunity of serving him. He 
paid him a visit, exhorted him to fortitude and persever- 
ance, and finished by buying up every completed pic- 



so VAN DTGIL 

ture in his studio. But what, after all, most materially 
helped his advancement, was the departure of Eubens on 
a diplomatio mission from the Infanta Isabella to the 
courts of Madrid and London. This left a fair field for 
secondary merit, and Van Dyck, who easily surpassed all 
contemporaries, except the absent master, began to be 
sought after. 

The first considerable picture painted after the return 
from Italy appears to have been the altarpiece of a chapel 
in Notre Dame, which was appropriated to the Confra- 
ternity of the Virgin, at Termonde. The subject was the 
Adoration of the Shepherds. A member of the Confraternity 
had treated with the artist for the picture, and the price 
agreed upon was 400 florins. But the congregation, on 
viewing their purchase, considered this sum excessive, 
and declined to carry out the bargain. Van Dyck, in his 
impecunious state, counted himself lucky in being able to 
induce the individual with whom he originally contracted 
to take the burden on his own shoulders, on condition of 
having his portrait painted gratuitously. The two 
pictures remained in this person's possession until he 
died. He left the Adoration of the Shepherds by will to the 
Chapel, and his heirs retained the portrait, which soon 
became worth many times the sum paid to the artist 
for both. 

In 1628 one of the brothers of the Augustine monastery, 
Van der Meeren by name, obtained for Van Dyck an order 
for an altarpiece in their chapel. This picture, representing 
Saint Augustine in Eestasyy is a noble work, and would be 
finer still if its effect had not been sadly marred by the 
interference of the monks. The figure of the Saint, robed 
in white, and supported by angels, formed a central mass 



PAINTINa AT HOME« 31 

of light. The artist had nqjb considered that the black 
habit is a distinguishiDg mark of the Augustine order; 
he was compelled to change the colour, and sacrifice the 
harmony of his design. For this reason the painting 
should not be judged without a comparison of the fine 
eugraving by Pieter de Jode, or the exquisite sketch en 
grisailU ftx)m which that engraving was made ; in neither 
of these does the defect appear. Two portraits are intro- 
duced into this picture ; the kneeling monk, and the figure 
of Saint Monica in the foreground, are respectively likenesses 
of the painter's friend Van der Meeren, and his sister 
Susannah, the Beguine nun. 

In the case of the Augustines there was again a difficulty 
about payment. Van Dyck had to present them with a 
second picture, a small Christy before he could obtain his 
due. He then received 600 florins ; a century later the 
convent sold the smaller picture for considerably more 
than this sum. The purchase of the Saint Augustine is 
recorded on the convent registers : 

1628. Moc anno procurata est pidura admodum elegans^ 
sancti Augustini in extasi contemplantis divina attributa, a 
domino Van Dyck depicta. Oonstitit 600 florenis. 

Demands for Van Dyck's works now began to come in 
thick and fast. It is hopeless to attempt a chronological 
account of his proceedings during the five years spent in 
his native country before he took up a permanent abode 
in England. A mere enumeration of his principal achieve- 
ments must suffice. 

The Crucifixiony painted for the church of the B^coUets 
at Mechlin, but now transferred to the cathedral of that 
city, has extorted the following warm expression of praise 
from the sober judgment of Sir Joshua Seynolds : 



32 VAN DYCK. 

" This picture on the whole may be considered as one of 
the first pictures in the world, and gives the highest idea 
of Van Dyck's power ; it shows that he had tmly a genius 
for history painting, if it had not been taken off by 
portraits." 

A picture of the same subject, in the church of 
Saint Michael at Ghent, is somewhat similar to the above 
in treatment. It is now irreparably injured by unskilful 
cleaniug, but enough remains to show that it must have 
been a glorious painting. The figure of the Virgin Mother, 
in particular, could hardly be surpassed for its pathetic 
rendering. 

Two of our engravings are from pictures of this period. 
The Marriage of Saint Catherine, reproduced after the 
engraving by Bolswert, was formerly in the Church of 
tlie KecoUets, at Antwerp. It is a composition full of ex- 
quisite grace and tenderness. The Virgin Mother, seated 
beneath the shade, keeps her loving gaze fixed on the 
Holy Babe upon her knees. Saint Catherine, by their side, 
bends forward in adoration; her hands, one of which 
holds a palm-branch, are crossed upon her breast. 

To Bolswert we also owe a fine engraving of the grand 
Ecce Homo of the Potsdam Gallery. In a strong stone 
dungeon seven tormentors surround the bound and patient 
Christ. A soldier in full armour is about to put the crown 
of thorns upon His head. Another, kneeling in mock 
reverence, proffers the reed-sceptre. A knave behind the 
Saviour, grinning maliciously, lifts one hand to bu£fet Him, 
while with the other he slily pulls His hair. All the 
seven are splendid types of animal vigour of the coarser 
kind ; only their faces are deformed with the hateful 
impress of scoi-n and cruelty. The kneeling soldier's back 




christ crowned with thorns. 
[ecce homo.'\ 

Frcm tkepainHng iy Van Dyck, in tht Potsdam QoXUty. 



RELIGIOUS PICTURES. 33 

is finely articulated; too finely indeed, for, irresistibly 
suggesting that it was intended as a tour de force, it en- 
dangers the true end of noble art by distracting the 
spectator's attention from the motive of the picture to the 
details of its execution. 

The dean and canons of Courtray secured the services 
of Van Dyck for the magnificent Baising of the Cross which 
still hangs in the church of Saint Martin. An amusing 
anecdote concerning this picture has been long repeated, 
but is almost certainly without foundation in fact. The 
chapter, it is said, ignorantly and insultingly condemned 
ihe picture before it had been set in the position for which 
its effect was calculated. The workmen employed to place 
it, sympathising with the artist's mortification, although 
they dared not dispute the august judgment of the 
occlesiastics, cheered him with the suggestion that it was 
a good large piece of canvas, and would cut up into famous 
window-blinds. Unfortunately for the story a letter is in 
existence, addressed by Van Dyck to a M. Braye, one of 
the canons, acknowledging the receipt of 600 florins as 
the price of the picture, and of a present of a dozen 
wafer cakes (a Courtray speciality). In this letter Van 
Dyck also warmly expresses his pleasure at the satis- 
faction which his work has given to the dean and 
the other canons, and promises to grant a favour re- 
quested by M. Braye, by placing the sketch for it in his 
possession. 

Space will not allow more than a passing mention of 
other celebrated paintings of this period. A second 
Marriage of Saint Catherine, equal, if not superior, in beauty 
to the one above described, passed in 1820 into the posses- 
sion of the Englinh king, and is now at Buckingham 

D 



34 TAN DYCK. 

Palace. The Mystic Marriage of the MonJc Hermann JoaepJiy 
in whicli the Virgin descends from heaven to give her 
hand as the reward of his life of perfect holiness, and The 
Infant Christ Crowning Saint Bosalie, are both now to b& 
found at Vienna. A wonderfully solemn and sublime con- 
ception of the Dead Christ in the lap of His Mother adorns the 
Academy of Antwerp. More than thirty important pieces, 
of sacred art might bo enumerated, which were undertaken 
by Van Dyck at the request of various religious bodies 
during these five years spent in Flanders. To them a host 
of portraits must be added. The most noteworthy are 
those of the Archduchess Isabella, the Cardinal Infanta, 
Marie de Medicis, queen-mother of France, and her son 
Gaston Duke of Orleans, who had both taken refuge in 
Brussels from the machinations of Eichelieu ; the eques- 
trian portraits of Prince Thomas of Savoy, and the Dukes 
of Alva and Aremberg ; portraits of John Maldenis, bishop 
of Antwerp, of Antony Triest, bishop of Ghent, of the 
Abbe Scaglia, and other ecclesiastical dignitaries. 

At the same time Van Dyck was engaged in a long series 
of exquisite sketches en grisaille, the portraits of his most 
eminent contemporaries in nearly every walk of life.. 
Many of the sketches were engraved and published by- 
Martin Vanden Enden ; many were etched by the artist's 
own hand. Of all his works none better repay careful; 
study than these marvellous etchings, especially the 
portraits of his fellow ai*tists. In such subjects he is at 
his best, untrammelled by conventionality, by flattery, by 
haste. His sitters are equals and friends, men of the same 
pursuits, the same knowledge and sympathies, and he 
studies them at his ease ; dwells fondly on each familiar 
feature ; makes every line and wrinkle of the countenance 




THE VIRGIN AND HOLY CHILD, WITH ST. CATHERINE. 
71 the fainting hy Van Dyck, in tht possission aj Ike Diike 0/ IftstmrnM. 



PORTRAITS. 35 

add a telling phrase to the history of thought and caro 

and passion inscribed upon it ; 

" poring on a face, 
Divinely thro' all hindrance finds the man 
Behind it, and so paints him that his face. 
The shape and colour of a mind and life, 
Lives for his children, ever at its hest 
And fullest." 

The portrait of Snyders is an admirable specimen of those 
etchings, an example not to be surpassed in force and 
delicacy. 

The number of engraved portraits in Vanden Enden's 
collection which represent leading commanders in the 
Thirty Years' War makes it almost certain that Van Dyck 
must have visited Germany during this period, for the 
purpose of painting or sketching them. Gustavus 
Adolphus, the Emperor Ferdinand, the illustrious generals 
Wallenstein, Tilly, and Papenheim, are among the person & 
depicted. 

After Van Dyck's death most of the plates for these en- 
gravings and etchings came into the possession of one 
Giles Hendrix, who published from them, at Antwerp, in 
1645, the celebrated book known as the Centum Iconea; the 
full title of the work ran as follows : 

Iconea Principum, Virorum Doctorum, Pictorum, Chalcogra- 
pJiorum, Siatuariorum, nee non Amatorum pictoriae artis numero 
centum ah Antonio Van Dyck piciore ad vivum expressae ejusq, 
8umptihu8 acre inciaae. 

Although Van Dyck's success was now complete, and his 
fame established on the firmest possible footing, he was 
still exposed to perpetual annoyance from the envy and 
malice of those whom he excelled. He seems to have been 
always liable to be unduly irritated by such attacks, which 

D 2 



36 VAN DYCK. 

lie could have well afforded to treat with merited disdain. 
But as the taunts of his countrymen had driven him from 
Rome, so did the innuendoes of jealous inferiors disgust 
him with his native city. Schut, Van Hoeck, and others, 
made every effort to disparage his works by unjust and 
carping criticisms, which would have been perfectly harm- 
less if left unnoticed, but which the artist's sensitive spirit 
was unable to endure. Without at first deliberately re- - 
solving to expatriate himself, he turned his attention to those 
possibilities which the liberal encouragement of foreign 
art in England opened to his view. In 1629 he made a 
journey to London, which was perhaps partly an experiment. 
He remained for some weeks as the guest of his friend George 
Geldorp, at his house in Drury Lane. His host was also a 
native of Antwerp, and a portrait painter, whose residence 
had long been fixed in England. During his stay Van 
Dyck failed, from some unexplained cause, to attract the 
attention of the King, but found, according to the received 
tradition, a patron in the Earl of Northumberland, then 
newly released from imprisonment in the Tower. He 
seems to have visited Petworth, to paint the portraits of 
that nobleman's family. 

Afar returning to Antwerp, Van Dyck paid a flying visit 
to Paris. A portrait of M. Chartres, a well-known dealer 
in objects of art, is the principal trace of this excursion. 

An anecdote belonging to the last days of the artist's 
residence in his native country shall be set down for what 
it is worth, but is in all probability mythical. It relates 
the distressing fact that Antony dared to poke fun at a 
bishop ; a prelate bearing the same Christian name as the 
painter, remarkably corpulent, and otherwise unidentified. 
Going to paint the episcopal portrait, Van Dyck found 




FEANS SNYDERS. 
11 the Etching by Van Dyck. 



QUARREL WITH GERBIER. 37 

no servant in attendance to adjust his easel and painting 
implements. He calmly waited. " Make haste," cried the 
bishop. "Do you want me to get your tools for you?" 
" I supposed," replied the artist, " from the absence of your 
servants, that 3'ou wished to reserve that honour for your- 
self." The colossal churchman jumped up in a rage, ex- 
claiming : " Antony, Antony, you are a little creature, but 
you contain plenty of venom ! " The artist beat a retreat, 
turning at the door for a parting shot ; " Antony, Antony, 
you are big enough, but, like the cinnamon-tree, the outside 
is the best part of you ! " It is to be hoped the bishop was 
not too severely affected by the sarcasm, which is not more 
brilliant than the average of historic jokes. 

The last recorded episode in Van Dyck's career before he 
quited Flanders for ever was a curious quarrel with Sir 
Balthazar Gerbier, who afterwards became his friend. This 
Gerbier was also a native of Antwerp, a hanger-on of the 
English court, of indifferent merit as an artist, but well 
skilled in court intrigue. He was now in Brussels, employed 
in secret negotiations about the Spanish treaty. It appears 
from his letters that in December 1631 he bought a picture 
by Van Dyck, which he sent to the Lord Treasurer Weston, 
in order that the latter might present it as a new year's 
gift to the king. Van Dyck untruthfully denied the 
genuineness of the work, and brought his denial, by means 
of his correspondence with Geldorp, to the knowledge of 
the Lord Treasurer. This was done to injure Gerbier, who, 
having been instructed to persuade Van Dyck to go to 
England, had been too precipitate in his arrangements for 
that end to suit the latter*s caprice. Gerbier was at last 
compelled to obtain a legal attestation from the seller that 
the picture was what it pretended to be. This document 



38 VAN DYCK, 

was drawn up only a week or two before Van Dyck left 
for England, and nothing more is heard afterwards of the 
affair. If the artist's conduct does not appear in a very 
creditable light, it must be remembered that Gerbier's own 
letters are the only evidence of the story; he was a 
notoriously shifty and untrustworthy man, and, no doubt, if 
we could hear the other side, the affair would assume quite 
a different complexion. 



^ 


^^jrMfgS/M 




^ 







CHAPTER III. 

EESIDESCE IN ESOLAND — DEATH OF VAH DVCK, 

1632-1641. 

ENGLAND, which, from the time of Henry VIII. 
downwards, was ever ready and eager to welcome 
the representatiTBa of foreign art with lavish hospitality, 
<!Ould as yet boast of no native school of art, hardly in- 
deed of a single considerable artist. The influence of the 
Eenaiseance — which, on the continent, was most powerful 
in its effect upon the manual arts of painting, architecture, 
and sculpture — in this country rather declared itself in 
that magnificent outburst of literary activity which makes 
the chief glory of the glorious Elizabethan era. The 
contrast is strong between the Netherlands, where almost 
every city could show its own school of painting and its 
own illustrious masters, while literature was chiefly re- 
presented by the doggerel odea and pedantic orations of 
the chambers of rhetoric ; and England, producing litera- 
ture unrivalled since the age of Pericles, with art, so far 
as it was of native growth at all, entirely in the hands of 
a few indiSerent portrait painters, whose names are now 
remembered only by the curious. The nation was, how- 
ever, redeemed by its liberal patronage of exotic art fixim 
the reproach of insensibility. Many artists of the first 
eminence visited this country, and some toot np a per- 



40 VAN DYOK. 

manent abode here. Holbein was, before Van Dyck, tlia 
most illustrious example ; Antonio More enjoyed the 
favour of Queen Mary ; Vansomer, My tens, and Cornelius 
Janssens came over in the reign of James I. The court 
and the wealthy nobles collected ; and to be something of 
a virtuoso was essential to the character of a man of 
fashion. The accession of Charles to the throne gave a 
new impulse to the cultivation of these tastes. Charles 
had in him no small share of the artistic temperament, 
and possessed as a connoisseur all the knowledge and 
discrimination that he lacked as a politician. The pursuit 
of art and letters, which his predecessors regarded as the 
becoming ornament of their high position, was with him 
a passion. His generous and judicious patronage has 
left its mark upon national culture, and would have left a 
stronger mark if it had not been to a great degree obliter- 
ated in the civil convulsions that avenged upon the whole 
commonwealth his incapacity as a ruler. After his acces- 
sion the royal collection, already respectable, was enriched 
by numerous purchases effected through commissioners 
and agents stationed in all parts of Europe. The Duke of 
Mantua's gallery — the finest collection of paintings known 
to exist — was bought for the English crown at a price 
exceeding £20,000. The cartoons of Raphael, which have 
been recently moved from the Hampton Court Gallery to 
the South Kensington Museum, were secured by Charles 
on the advice of Rubens, who informed him of their 
existence in a neglected state at Arras. Many additions 
to the collection were presents from ministers and courtiers, 
who found that they could offer no more acceptable gift 
than a picture or a statue. The picture mentioned 
above, which Gerbier bought of Van Dyck, and conceming^ 



ART IN ENGLAND. 41 

"which the dispute arose, was bought in order that Lord 
Weston might present it to the king. 

The magnificent collection, amassed with so much 
trouble and expense, was soon scattered by Puritan van- 
dalism. In 1645 the parliament ordered its dispersion. 
Such works as contained an element of superstition were 
destroyed ; the rest were sold by auction. At the Restora- 
tion efforts were made to recover, by process of law, such 
works of art as could be traced; but the attempt was 
successful in only one instance ; the equestrian portrait of 
Charles, by Van Dyck, was thus reclaimed from one 
Leemput, a Dutchman, who had bought it at the sale. A 
number of pictures were given back as presents, but by 
far the greater part of the collection was gone beyond hope 
of restoration. 

Among private patrons the first name is that of Thomas 
Howard, Earl of Arundel, whom Evelyn calls ** the great 
Maecenas of all politer arts, and the boundless amasser of 
antiquities." This nobleman surpassed in his devotion 
to his favourite pursuits even the enthusiasm and learning 
of his royal master. At his expense, and under his direc- 
tion, a skilful agent gathered from all parts of Greece, and 
carried safely from Samos to London, the great collection 
of ancient marbles, of which the most important part, 
bearing the founder's name, remains in the possession of 
the University of Oxford. 

It was through having attracted the favourable notice 
of Arundel, that Van Dyck had been encouraged to make 
his fruitless visit to England in 1629. The earl's re- 
commendation had then little weight at court. During 
the life of Buckingham he was excluded from the royal 
confidence by the hostility of the favourite ; but after tho 



42 VAN DYCK. 

hand of the assassin had set Charles free from that evil in- 
fluence, Arundel's sterling qualities could assert themselves, 
^nd his advance began. In 1632, when, with his Majesty's 
sanction, he repeated the invitation to Van Dyck, the 
artist could not have found a more influential protector. 

It is interesting to know that so early as the end of 
1629 Charles I. had recognised the merit of Van Dyck, 
and commissioned Mr. (afterwards Sir) Endymion Porter, 
a gentleman of the court, then residing in Flanders, to 
purchase a historical painting from his brush. An auto- 
graph letter of Van Dyck's, discovered among Porter's 
papers, acknowledges the receipt of £72 as the price of 
the picture. The letter is dated Antwerp, 6th December, 
1629. In the order books of the Exchequer, three months 
later, occurs an entry authorising the repayment of this 
sum to Porter, in addition apparently to a small commission 
in recompense for his services. 

23rd March 1629-30 
By Order dated 23rd March 1629 



bought of him 



Endymion Porter • To Endymion Porter Esq: one of the Grooms 
Esq. for a picture , of his Majesties Bedchamber the some of 7BI. 

for one picture of tlie Storie of Reynaldo and 
Armida bought by him of Monsieur Yandick 
of Antwerpe and delivered to his Ma"* without 
accompt as per letter of privy seal 20 March 
1629. 

Soon afterwards there came into the king's possession 
n portrait by Van Dyck of a court musician, Nicholas 
Laniero by name, which excited great admiration, and 
is said to have been the immediate cause of Charles's 
resolution to have Van Dyck at the court. The portrait 
is thus described in a MS. catalogue, existing in the 



PORTRAIT OF LANIERE. 43 

British Museunj, of the collection removed from Saint 
James's to Whitehall : 

Done by Sir Anthony ! 34 Item, ye Picture of Nicholas Laneer, 
Yandike beyond ! master of his Maj*^' Musick half a figure in a 
the seas. { carved all over gilded frame. 



On the dispersion of the royal collection, this pictnre was 
put up to auction on the 2nd of November, 1649, and 
purchased by Laniere himself. Walpole, in his life of 
Mrs. Mary Beale, quotes an interesting passage from the 
manuscript diary of her husband, relating to the same 
picture : 

"1672.* 20 April. 

* K * « m « « jljjj,^ Lely told me at the same time 

as he was most studiously looking at my Bishop's picture, 
of Vandyke's, and I chanced to ask how Sir Antony cou'd 
possibly divise to finish in one day a face that was so 
exceeding full of work, and wrought up to so extraordinary 
a perfection. — I believe, said he, he painted it over 
fourteen times. And upon that he took occasion to speak 
of Mr. Nicholas Laniere's picture of Sr. Anto. V. D., 
doing which, said he, Mr. Laniere himself told me he 
satt seaven entire dayes for it to Sr. Anto. and that he 
painted upon it of all those seaven dayes both morning 
and afternoon, and only intermitted the time they were at 
dinner. And he said likewise, that though Mr. Laniere 
satt so often and so long for his picture, that he was not 
permitted so much as once to see it, till he had perfectly 
finished the face to his own satisfaction. This was the 
picture which being showed to King Charles the first, 
caused him to give order that V. Dyck shou'd be sent for 
over into England." 



44 VAN DYOK. 

The artist arrived in London about the end of March, 
or the beginning of April, 1632. He was received at court 
with every mark of distinction and favour. Pending the 
choice of a suitable residence, he was lodged in the house 
of Edward Norgate, a gentleman who had been employed 
by the Earl of Arundel as an agent in the search after 
and purchase of the treasures of his collection. Van Dyck's 
personal expenses were borne for the present by the 
crown; the order to pay Norgate at the rate of fifteen 
shillings a day for the board and lodging of his guest and 
one servant, is contained in a Privy Seal warrant of the 
2l8t of May, 1632. It was perhaps the king's intention, 
though the design was not carried out, to present the 
painter with a house built expressly for him. There is a 
memorandum in the State Paper office, in the handwriting 
of Sir Francis Windebanke, which contains, under the 
heading " Things to be done," the following item : " To 
speak with Inigo Jones concerning a house for Vandike." 
After a little time, apartments were assigned to him in 
the Blackfriars, where the buildings on the site of the 
old monastery were now used for the reception of distin- 
guished guests and proteges of the court. These houses, 
from their situation and the character of the rooms, were 
especially fit for the residence of artists, and Van Dyck 
found himself lodged in the close neighbourhood of other 
brethren of the craft. Besides the house in the Blackfrairs, 
a summer residence was found for him at Eltham, in Kent, 
This was possibly a suite of rooms in the large mansion 
there belonging to the king ; or it may have been an old 
house in which Vertue found some sketches illustrating 
scenes from Ovid, and ascribed by tradition to this artist's 
hand. 



AT BLACKFEIARS. 45 

Van Dyck's social gifts, added to the reputation of his 
talents, speedily won him an immense popularity among 
the fastidious society of London. Handsome in person, 
engaging in manner, brilliant in conversation, boasting a 
European celebrity, and treated with marked favour by 
the sovereign, he naturally became the " lion " of the day. 
His studio was the resort of fashionable crowds. The 
king himself would frequently drop down in his barge 
from Whitehall to Blackfriars, to spend an afternoon in the 
fascinating society of the artist, to join in technical and 
critical discussion, or to exchange reminiscences of contin- 
ental travel. Meanwhile his brush was kept constantly 
employed. Within three or four months after his arrival, 
lie had painted, besides many portraits of the nobility, a 
whole length of the king, a half length of the queen, and 
the fine picture of the Boyal Family, now at Windsor, 
which shows the king and queen seated in their royal 
Tobes, the young Prince Charles leaning against his 
father's knee, and the infant Princess Mary in her mother's 
arms. 

Van Dyck's good fortune and the rapid preferment he 
enjoyed caused the keenest mortification to several con- 
temporary artists who had, like himself, but with less 
brilliant success, made the venture of migration from the 
Low Countries to England. Among these was Daniel 
Mytens, a skilful portrait painter, who held office as one of 
" the king's picture drawers," with a salary of £20 a year. 
On the appointment of Van Dyck to be Principal Painter 
in Ordinary, which followed shortly after his arrival, 
Mytens sought the king in a fit of jealous disgust, and 
asked for permission to withdraw to the Hague. Charles 
took pains to smooth his ruffled temper, and, assuring him 



46 VAN DYCK. 

that work enough would be found to employ more aitista 
still, if more should come, persuaded him to recall his 
hasty decision to depart. My tons remained for a time, 
but was unable to conquer his chagrin at finding himself 
thrown into the background by the new-comer, and after 
a year or two quitted England. 

In July 1632 Van Dyck received the honour of knight- 
hood. His name is thus entered in a manuscript list of 
the knights made by Charles I., extant in the State Paper 
Office : 

'* July 5, 1632. Sir Anthony Vandike, principalle 
Paynter in Ordinary to their Majesties at St. James's." 

The king at the same time presented him with a 
miniature of himself, enclosed in a case set with diamonds, 
and suspended from a valuable gold chain. 

Among the distinguished persons in whose society Van 
Dyck moved, one of his most intimate friends was the 
celebrated Sir Kenelm Digby. Sir Kenelm's wife. Lady 
Venetia Digby — a lady whose rare personal beauty and 
sweetness of disposition endeared her to every acquaintance 
— was no less than four times painted by Van Dyck, in the 
year following his arrival in England. On the 1st of 
May, 1633, an early and sudden death snatched her away 
from husband and friends ; and the ai*tist, who had loved 
to portray her in life, paid his tribute to her memory in 
the sad but beautiful death-bed picture now in the gallery 
of Earl Spencer at Althorp. She is represented lying as 
if in sleep, with an expression of perfect tranquillity on 
her features, whose pallor alone indicates the presence of 
death ; by her side a plucked and faded rose. The picture 
seems to realize the thought expressed by Habington in 
his touching poem on her death : 



LADY VENETIA DIGBY. 47 

" She past away 
Po sweetly from the world, as if her clay 
Lay only down to slumber." 

One of Van Dyck's portraits of Lady Digby is a curious 
example of emblematic art. Although her discretion, in 
an age of comparative laxity, was so remarkable as to call 
forth a special encomium from Lord Clarendon, who speaks 
of her as a lady "though of extraordinary beauty, of as 
extraordinary fame," it could not secure her against the 
voice of calumny. Slanders were uttered, only to bo 
despised ; and Sir Kenelm chose to express his contempt 
for them by requesting his artist friend to paint her 
allegorically, as Prudence triumphant over the Vices. 
Bellori's minute description of this interesting picture is 
worth quoting : 

" It occurred to the same gentleman (Sir K. Digby) to 
have the lady, his wife, painted on a large canvas in the 
semblance of Prudence, sitting in a white robe, with a 
coloured veil and girdle of gems. She extends her hand 
towards two white doves, and the other arm is encircled 
by a serpent. She has a beam beneath her feet, to which 
are bound, in the foim of slaves, Deceit with two faces. 
Anger with furious aspect, lean Envy crowned with 
serpents, Profane Love blindfold, with clipped wings and 
broken bow, his arrows scattered and his torch extinguished; 
with other naked figures the size of life. Above, a glory 
of angels, with instruments and singing, three of them 
holding the palm and the garland over the head of 
Prudence, in token of victory and triumph over the Vices ; 
and the motto taken from Juvenal : 

Nullum numcn abest si sit Prudentla." 
During the first year or two the greater part of Van 



48 VAN DYCK. 

Dyck's time must have been taken up with his commissions 
from the court. The large number of works which he 
-executed at the royal command is shown by several 
warrants for payments made to him, which may be seen 
printed in full in the appendix to Carpenter. On the 
17th of October, 1633, a pension of £200 a year was 
conferred upon him. But, in spite of this prosperity, his 
profuse and expensive habits were productive of perpetual 
•embarrassments. In the luxury and splendour of his style 
of living he vied with the wealthy nobles whom he enter- 
tained. His hospitality was unbounded; he not only 
kept open house for his friends, but frequently, when 
painting a portrait, would insist on detaining the sitter to 
partake of an excellent dinner, in order that he might 
istudy at his ease the characteristics of each face when 
relaxed in the complete satisfaction and tranquillit}'' which 
mark the condition of the Englishman who has well 
dined. Ho was also pleased to figure as a patron of the 
fine arts, and was especially liberal towards musicians, 
whose aid he deemed indispensable to the perfection of 
any social entertainment. 

Another considerable drain upon the painter's resources 
was caused by the susceptibility of a heart still as little 
proof against the seductions of female beauty as in the 
youthful days of Saventhem. His liaisons were numerous. 
The most notorious of his mistresses was a Margaret Lemon, 
whose portrait was several times painted by her lover, and 
reproduced by the engravers. 

Besides these illicit connections. Van Dyck caused, if 
report spoke true, many a flutter in high-bom bosoms. 
A love affair with Lady Stanhope went so far as to excite 
general remark, and was expected to end in marriage ; but 



MONET TBOXTBLES. 49 

it was broken off, if the following letter is to be believed, 
by an occurrence showing such a lamentable defeat of 
gallantry by greed on the lover's part as would excuse 
any degree of severity on the lady's. The letter is written 
by Lord Conway to the Lord Deputy Wentworth, on the 
22nd January 1636, and, after mentioning the news of 
Lady Stanhope's intended marriage to Lord Cottington, 
goes on to say : 

"You were so often with Sir Anthony Vandike, that 
you could not but know his Gallantries for the love of that 
Lady ; but he is come off with a Coylioneria, for he disputed 
with her about the price of her Picture, and sent her word, 
that if she would not give the price he demanded, he could 
sell it to another who could give more." 

This letter is also valuable, among the very meagre 
contemporary records which we possess relating to Van 
Dyck's career, as it proves that he was on terms of 
intimacy with the illustrious and ill-fated Earl of Strafford. 
He painted more portraits of Strafford than of any other 
man in England, except the king. 

An anecdote concerning Van Dyck's pecuniary troubles, 
and his frank confession of them, should not be omitted 
here. One day, as the king was sitting with the Earl of 
Arundel, then lord steward of the household, in the artist's 
studio, and the conversation of the minister turned upon 
some one of the monarch's ever recurring financial dif&- 
culties, Charles, turning to Van Dyck with a smile 
inquired : " As for you, knight, do you know what it is to 
be put about to find a thousand pounds or two ? " " Yes, 
indeed, Sire," was the reply. "A man whose house is 
always open to his friends, and his purse to his mistresses, 
is likely to make acquaintance with empty coffers." 

E 



60 VAN DYCK. 

Unhappily for himself Van Dyck was not content to 
remedy these deficiencies by increased industry, still less 
by the retrenchment and economy that was even more 
necessary, but was deluded into wasting precious time, 
substance, and health in the wild and chimerical search 
after the philosopher's stone. Half the money earned in 
legitimate employment went into the pockets of impostors, 
who encouraged his folly. The more he lost the harder he 
now worked to replace it ; and the unremitting sedentary 
toil, joined with the excitement of his experiments and the 
noxious fumes in the laboratory, told terribly upon a consti- 
tution already enei-vated by a long course of luxury and 
pleasure. A friend who came from Flanders to visit him 
at this time found him brooding over his crucible, pale, 
emaciated, and haggard — an old man before his time. 

The king and the artist's friends came to the conclusion 
that a good marriage would be the best thing to steady his 
purposes and introduce him to a more equable existence. 
The influence of Charles arranged a suitable match, and 
his kindness provided that the lady should not come 
empty handed. She was a lady belonging to the house- 
hold of Queen Henrietta, by name Maria Kuthven. Her 
father, Dr. Patrick Ruthven, was a physician of considerable 
note, the fifth son of William fourth Lord Ruthven and first 
Earl Gowrie. During the preceding reign he had been 
imprisoned in the Tower for a supposed complicity with 
his father's political conspiracies, and had suffered severe 
reverses of fortune. Maria brought no dowry to her 
husband beyond the portion provided for her by the royal 
liberality. This may not have been large ; but her noble 
ancestry and high connections — three of her aunts were re- 
spectively Duchess of Montrose, Duchess of Lennox, and 



MAKBIAGE. 51 

Countess of Athol — were considerations of no small weight 
to a husband whose native genius formed his only title to 
distinction. The date at which the marriage took place 
cannot be determined ; it could hardly, however, have been 
much earlier than 1640. It may be remarked here, that 
the scantiness of all records concerning Van Dyck's career 
in England is most singular in an epoch about which we 
have in general abundant sources of information. He 
lived in London ; he moved in the highest circles of society ; 
he was personally and even intimately known to a number 
of persons whose private letters and personal history are 
accessible ; one would expect to find plenty of interesting 
detail about one who made so prominent a figure in the 
social world. The case is exactly the reverse : half of his 
biography rests upon tradition or conjecture ; and of the 
remainder, by far the most considerable part is extracted 
from such formal documents as have already been frequently 
cited. 

Although of the works executed by Van Dyck in England 
his portraits are much the most numerous and important, 
he did not altogether eschew historical painting, by which 
in former days he had first woix fame and success. Bellori, 
in his life of the master, gives an account of the chief works 
of this kind undertaken between 1632 and his death, which 
is sufficiently interesting and exhaustive. Bellori says : 

" For the same person (namely Sir Kenelm Digby) he 
painted Christ taken down from the cross, with Joseph and 
Nicodemus, who anoint him before depositing him in the 
tomb ; with the Magdalen, and the Virgin who is fainting ; 
together with other devotional pictures : Saint John the 
Baptist in the desert ; the Magdalen rapt in ecstasy at the 
harmony of angels ; Judith with the head of Holofemes, 

E 2 



52 VAN DYOK. 

a half length; the dying Saviour, given by the same 
gentleman to the Princess de Guemen^, in Paris. He like- 
wise painted the portrait of a dark lady in the dress of 
Pallas, armed, with a plume in her helmet, a most beautiful 
and animated head. For the Earl of Northumberland he 
painted a Crucifixion, with five angels, who, in golden cups, 
collect the blood from the wounds ; beneath the cross are 
arranged the Virgin, Saint John, and the Magdalen. For 
King Charles, besides portraits and other pictures, he 
painted the Dance of the Muses with Apollo in the midst 
of Parnassus; and another of Apollo flaying Marsyas, 
Bacchanals, a dance of Cupids playing whilst Yenus sleeps 
with Adonis. And as there wais, amongst other men of 
notable parts in that court, one Nicholas Laniere, painter 
and musician, he drew him in the likeness of David playing 
on the harp before Saul. He painted the portrait of the 
Duchess of Kichmond, daughter of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, and this by its singular beauty left it in doubt 
whether art or nature had the greater merit, represent- 
ing her in the form of Venus ; accompanied by another 
portrait, of the son of the Duke of Hamilton, quite naked, 
armed as Love, with quiver and bow. He depicted the 
Countess of Portland and the Duchess of Aubigny in the 
habit of Nymphs. He painted a lady as Venus attended 
by an Ethiop, the goddess viewing herself in a glass and 
smiling at the negro, as if she compared him with her own 
fairness. For the queen he executed a Madonna, with the 
Child and Saint Joseph, looking at a dance of angels on 
the earth while others of them are singing in the air, with 
the view of a beautiful landscape.*' 

Mr. Carpenter prints a document preserved in the State 
Paper Office, written apparently by Van Dyck himself, 



BOYAL PABSIMONY. 53 

which seems to show that as the national troubles in- 
creased court patronage became more honourable than 
lucrative. It is a memorandum of arrears, amounting to 
a very considerable sum, due from the crown to the 
artist. The paper is undated, but appears to belong to 
the year 1638 or 1639. The prices charged, whose 
moderation seems to leave little to complain of, have been 
revised by the least indulgent of assessors. The cor- 
rections are probably from the hand of Bishop Juxon ; he 
was lord treasurer from 1635 to 1641, and found it 
necessary to relieve the privy purse by a severe system 
of retrenchment. It seems hard that the impecunious 
painter, whose unpaid pension was a grievance sufficient 
in itself to entitle him to pity, should have been made a 
victim of this new enthusiasm for economy. The document 
runs as follows ; the figures in the second column show 
the alterations made by the minister : 

Memoire pour 8a Mag*^ Le Boy. 

Pour moUtiTes du veu' conte . • • . 8?f . 

Une teste d'lm veliant poete • • . • S8& 12 

+Le Prince Henri 502. 

Le Boi alia ciasse 206^. 100 

Le Eoy vestu de noir au Prin*^ Palatin aveoq sa 

moUure . 841. 30 

Le Prince Carles avecq le dncq de Jaro Princesse 

Maria, P-^ Elizabet, P* Anna . . . 2001 100 

Le Boy vestu de noir au M' Morre ayeoq sa 

moUure 84f. 26 

+Une Beyne en petite forme .... 20Z. 

+XJne Beyne vestu* en blu* .... 30Z. 

+Une Beyne Mere 502. 

+ Une Beyne vestu en blano .... 502. 

La Beyne pour Mons' Bamino . . . 202. 15 

La Beyne pour M' Bamino • • • • 202; 15 



M VAN DYOK. 

La Beyne pour la Beyne de Boheme . . 801. 15 
+La Beyne en petite forme .... 201, 

La Bejne envoye a Mons Fielding . . « 96f. 20 
+Le Prince Carlos en armes pour Somerset . 40Z. 
Le Boy alia Beyne de Boheme . • . 20fc 15 
Le Boy en Armes doune au Baron Wart5 , 60?. 40 

La Beyne au de Baron 60if. 40 

Le Boy la Beyne le Prince Carlos au Tambas' 

Hopton 90e. 75 

+Une Beyne vestu en blu donne au Conte 

d'OUande 602. 

+Deux demis portraits della Beyne du veu Conte 60Z. 
Une piece pour la maison a Green Witz . . lOOZ. 
Le dessein de Boy et tons le Chevaliers . 
The totall of all such Pictures as his Ma**" is 

to paye for in his accoumpt rated by the Eong 

and what his Ma**" doth allow of, amownts 

unto five hundred twentie eight pownde . 528 
The other pictures w*** the King hathe marked 

w*** a cross before them the Qneene is to paye 

for them and her Ma*** is to Bate them. 
The Arrere of the Pention beeing five yeares 

amownts unto one thousand pownds att two 

hundred pownds p aiium . ... 1000 

More for the pictures w"*^ Sir Arthur Hopton 

had into Spaine 0075 

The totall of all amowntes unto . . • 1603Z. 
The pictures for the queene .... 2002. 

Five years pension lOOOZ. 

Endorsedj Sir Anthony Yandike. 

It will be noticed that the pictures marked with a cross 
for the queen's appraisement are cut down even more 
unsparingly than the rest, the sum total of the claim 
being reduced from £380 to £200. The picture here 
described as " Le Eoi alia Ciasse" is probably the ex- 
ceedingly fine portrait, now in the Louvre, of the king 
in hunting gear. The group of the five royal children 



SKETCHES FOB WHITEHALL. 55 

whicli Stands sixth in tlie list, is now at Windsor Castle. 
" Monsieur Bamino " is the Eoman sculptor Bernini, to 
whom the two portraits of the queen were sent to serve as 
models for a bust. He had already executed one of the 
king, from the sketch by Van Dyck of his face in three 
different aspects which is now at Windsor. This bust 
was destroyed, or perhaps stolen, at the time of the 
great fire at Whitehall in 1698. It is said that Bernini 
on receiving Van Dyck's picture was struck by the 
expression of sorrowful dignity on the monarch's coun- 
tenance. " Ecco I il volto funesto I " he exclaimed — 
words which may seem to have been prophetic of the 
melancholy fate in store for Charles, 

Soon after Sir Antony's marriage the defeat of an 
important project on which he had set his heart was the 
occasion of very severe mortification. Eubens had adorned 
the ceiling of the banqueting room at Whitehall with 
some magnificent frescoes, and Van Dyck hoped that he 
might be allowed to complete the scheme of decoration by 
other frescoes upon the walls. He chose as his subject 
the history of the Order of the Garter, which was to be 
illustrated in four compartments, each occupying a whole 
side of the room. The sketches en grisaille for the in- 
tended pictures were completed, and sent in for the king's 
approval. They represented respectively the Institution of 
the Order by Edward III., the Procession of the Knights 
in their habits, the Ceremony of Installation, and Saint 
George's Feast. But the cost of the work was too great for 
the impoverished state of the Exchequer, and the design 
was reluctantly abandoned. The sum demanded is by some 
said to reach the extravagant amount of £75,000 ; it can 
hardly be doubted that there is a mistake in the figures, 



56 VAN DYCK. 

and that tlie riglit reading is £7500. The latter is not 
by any means an immoderate estimate, considering that 
Eubens had received £3000 for his work on the ceiling 
alone. 

This disappointment had a grave effect upon the artist's 
already broken health. He sought distraction from 
illness and morbid spirits in a journey to his native city. 
His wife accompanied him. They arrived in Antwerp 
during the autumn of 1640, and were received by the 
citizens with nothing short of enthusiasm. The Guild of 
Saint Luke held special f^tes in honour of their presence, 
and all Antwerp joined in the public welcome to its 
illustrious native and his bride. It does not appear that 
Van Dyck had severed his connection with Antwerp by 
taking up his residence in England. He paid an occasional 
flying visit to Flanders; and we find that in 1634 he had 
been elected to serve as dean of the guild, an office which 
in his case must have been simply honorary. 

Information reached him while in Antwerp that the 
French king, Louis XIII., intended to adorn the great 
gallery of the Louvre with paintings similar to those which 
Eubens had executed for the Luxembourg. Hoping to 
secure the commission. Van Dyck hastened to Paris, and 
spent two months there, but without success. The king 
entrusted the work to Nicholas Poussin, who had just 
arrived from Italy in obedience to the royal summons. 
Poussin, after all, never executed the work, as the envious 
intrigues of Simon Vouet and others against him had so 
much success that the design fell through. 

This was another disappointment for Van Dyck; he 
returned to England, and the rest of his history is short 
and gloomy. His health steadily declined. For some 



'y 



SOKBOW AND SICKNESS. 57 

years lie had been a sufferer from gout, and this now 
brought other maladies in its train. The growing political 
troubles were bringing about the dispersion of his old 
associates. London was in a state of fierce discontent, the 
immediate precursor of open rebellion. In March 1641 
the royal family sought safety in a withdrawal that was 
the next thing to flight. The king, the Prince Charles, 
and the Duke of York, went to York ; the queen passed 
into France to her own relations. In May, Yan Dyck saw 
one of his nearest friends, and one of the greatest men of 
the age, offered up as a victim to the popular rage which 
his reckless arrogance had done so much to provoke ; for 
in that month the Earl of Strafford expiated on the scaffold 
both the errors and offences of his own brilliant career 
and the mistimed timidity of his party. In this accumula- 
tion of troubles, his friends scattered on all sides in fear and 
anger, himself surrounded in London by a populace who 
viewed his darling pursuits with contempt and hated most 
those whom he knew and loved best, Van Dyck had little 
chance of recruiting his failing energies. He soon broke 
down completely, and was btretched on a bed of sickness, 
with little hope of rising. The king, who had now re- 
turned to London from a journey into Scotland, felt a 
genuine concern for his pitiable state, and sent his own 
physicians, promising a fee of £300 in the event of his 
artist friend's recovery. Their care was spent in vain ; 
Van Dyck never rallied. He died on the 9th of December, 
1641, at the age of forty-two, in his house in the Black- 
friars. A long cortege of mourning friends followed his 
remains to their resting-place on the north side of the choir 
of old Saint Paul's, close to the tomb of John of Gaunt. 
Just eight days before he died, on the 1st of December, 



58 VAN DYCK. 

was bom the only issue of his marriage, a daughter, named 
Justiniana. The registers of Saint Anne's, Blackfriars, 
bear record, on the very day of his death : " 1641, Dec. 9th, 
Justiniana, daughter of Sir Anthony Vandyck and his 
lady baptised." The father had put off the making of his 
will until the birth of this child. The document, preserved 
at Doctors' Commons, is dated the 1st of December. It is 
given in extenso by Mr. Carpenter in his seventh Appendix. 
He leaves his property in Antwerp to his sister Susannah, 
the Beguine nun, charging her with the payment of an 
annuity of 250 guilders to another sister Isabella, and the 
obligation of supporting his illegitimate daughter Maria 
Theresa. In the event of Susannah's death, the money is 
to be received to this child's use by the four Mesdames of 
the Beguine nunnery. If Susannah and Maria Theresa both 
die, the property goes to Justiniana. His property in 
England is divided in equal shares between his wife and 
his daughter Justiniana. If Justiniana dies, half her share 
is to go to her mother and half to Maria Theresa. If both 
daughters die, the wife has, after Susannah's death, the 
use for her life of the Antwerp property, which is to pass 
afterwards to the children of a third sister, Catherine, who 
married one Adrian Dircke, a notary of Antwerp. A legacy 
of £20 is left to each manservant or maidservant living in 
the house at the time of the testator's decease. Two sums 
of £3 are left for distribution among the poor of the 
parishes of Saint Anne's and Saint Paul's respectively. 

Probate of the will was not taken out till 1663, the delay 
being apparently caused by the unsettled state of the 
country. In 1668, and again so late as 1703, efforts were 
being made by the heirs to get in the debts due to the 
estate, but with small success. 



VAN dyok's will. 59 

Lady Van Dyck was married a second time to Sir Richard 
Pryse, of Gogerddan, Montgomeryshire, first baronet of the 
name. She was this gentleman's second wife ; the marriage 
was without issue. 

Justiniana married Sir John Stepney, of Prendergast, 
Pembrokeshire, third Baronet. Their grandson was 
George Stepney, the poet, .whose life is briefly related by 
Johnson, After the death of her first husband, Justiniana 
married Martin de Carbonell, Esq. In 1661 Charles 11. 
granted her a pension of £200 a year. The payments were 
at first worse than irregular ; but after presenting several 
petitions she succeeded in obtaining the money, and from 
1670 onwards it was punctually rendered. 




CHAPTEE IV. 

TAB DTCK AS A POETKAIT PAINTER. 

IN person Yau Dyck was handBome; hU stature was 
rather below the middle height, bnt he was finely 
proportioned, and graceful in carriage. Hie face is &miliar 
to us from no leas than thirteen portraits painted by 
himself; clear-cut features, bright eyes, fair hair worn 
long and curly, and a light moustache. One of the best 
of these portraits is in the Florence Gallery. It repre- 
sents him looking round OTer his shoulder; he wears a 
lace collar and a gold chain over a black doublet. His own 
etching of himsolf closely resembles this in attitude and 
expression, but diders in the dress. A portrait in the 
possession of £arl Spencer, apparently painted at a later 
period of life, represents him with a light pointed beard. 

Considering the short term of Van Dyct'a life, the 
number of works which issued from his hand is something 
prodigious. During his latter years he indulged in ui 
excessive haste of execution, which, though to a great extent 
redeemed by his maateiy of touch, has left some marks of 
caielessnees on many of the English pictures. His 
portraits of men are as a rule more snccessFul than those of 
women ; ho evidently shared that deficient sense of the 
best oharacteristicB of female beauty which marks Bubens 



CHABAOTERISTIOS. 61 

and all his school. His skill in dealing with such acces- 
sories of a portrait as dress, furniture, and the arrange- 
ments of the background, is supreme. Everythiug is 
exactly subordinated, and directed to its proper oifice of 
leading up to the central and all important point, the face 
of the sitter. In regard, however, to one point on which 
many critics of the artist have dwelt with high praise, we 
cannot altogether echo their approval. His treatment of 
the hands in his portraits, which he always brought 
prominently into view, and which he was accustomed to 
paint, not from the sitter, but from models specially 
engaged, seems to us rather a fault than a merit. It is a 
trick which fails to be impressive, as failure always does 
attend the attempt of art to obtain an unnatural beauty 
at the expense of truth. When we see the countenance of 
a stem warrior or a thoughtful statesman attached to a pair 
of slender white hands, displayed with an air of complacent 
affectation, the effect verges closely on the ludicrous. In 
groups, again, Van Dyck is sometimes hardly successful. 
He had the power of strong centralisation of effect, which 
is displayed to perfection in his best portraits of individuals; 
but his composition, even in historical painting, is some- 
times weak; and the defect is yet more noticeable in a 
portrait group, where the absence of any governing 
dramatic idea increases the difficulty of harmonious 
arrangement. 

De Piles, in his work entitled * Cours de Peinture,' gives 
the following interesting account of Van Dyck's method 
in portrait painting : 

" The famous Jabac, a man known to every lover of the 
fine arts, who was one of Van Dyck's friends, and who had 
his portrait done by him three times, has related to me 



62 VAN DYCK. 

that one day, speaking to that painter of the small amount 
of time which he spent over his portraits, he received the 
reply that he had worked hard as a beginner, and had 
laboured over his works, both for the sake of reputation 
and to acquire quickness in execution, against the time 
when he should work for his living. This is what he 
described as Van Dyck's usual method : he appointed a 
certain day and hour for the person he had to paint, and 
never worked longer than one hour at a time upon each 
portrait, whether in rubbing-in or finishing; when his 
clock told the hour, he rose and made a bow to the sitter, 
as much as to say that enough was done for that day, and 
then arranged the day and hour for the next sitting, 
after which his servant came to prepare fresh brushes and 
palette, while he received another person to whom he had 
given an appointment. He thus worked at several por- 
traits in one day with extraordinary expedition. After 
having lightly sketched the face, he put the sitter in an 
attitude which he had previously meditated, and with 
gray paper and black and white crayons he drew in a 
quarter of an hour the figure and drapery, which he 
arranged in a grand manner and with exquisite taste. 
He then handed over the drawing to skilful persons whom 
he had about him, to paint it from the sitter's own clothes, 
which were sent on purpose at Van Dyck's request. The 
assistants having done their best with the draperies from 
nature, he went lightly over them, and soon produced by 
his genius the art and truth which we there admire. As 
for the hands, he had in his employment persons of both 
sexes who served as models." 

The most celebrated and, on the whole, the best of Van 
Dyck's works in portraiture, are naturally those which 




CHARLES I. ATTENDED BY THE MARQUIS OF HAMILTON. 
From tht pmnting by Van Dyck, in the Loiturt. 



PORTRAITS OF THE KING. 63 

were executed for the English royal family. We may 
reckon about thirty-six portraits of Charles I. ; perhaps 
the best known of all is the noble picture, with many 
duplicates, of which the original is in the Louvre. This 
is a picture which is not surpassed, if it be equalled, by any 
work of the master. Charles is shown in a picturesque 
hunting costume ; he has dismounted from his horse, a 
magnificent animal, led behind him by a page; farther 
back is a second attendant carrying a cloak. The king, 
turning half round to front the spectator, rests his left 
hand, holding a gauntlet, on the pommel of his sword, and 
his 1 ight on the top of a long cane. The landscape stretches 
away in the background to the sea, on which a vessel is 
sailing, and beyond that is a distant view of the Isle of 
Wight. Another well-known portrait, at Hampton Court, 
shows Charles in front view riding under an archway, 
attended by his equerry, the Chevalier d'Epemon. This is 
the picture which was bought by Leemput, and recovered 
at the Restoration. Another equestrian picture, in the 
Marlborough collection, in which Sir Thomas Morton is 
the king's attendant, represents a combat of cavalry in the 
background. 

It would not be easy to find in the whole range of por- 
traiture another face so impressive in every way as that 
presented in the Van Dyck portraits of Charles I. On 
the countenance of mournful dignity there rests a shadow 
of trouble past and to come, which, read by the light of 
history, seems like a revelation of the future. We ^have 
seen how the mere sight of a sketch called forth an in- 
stinctive foreboding from Bernini. It is hardly fanciful 
to trace much of the enthusiastic veneration with which 
generation after generation continued to regard the 



64 VAN DYCK. 

memory of the " martyr king," and mucli of the romantic 
interest still associated with his name, to the character of 
the portraits by which his aspect was kept in universal 
memory. It is said that these alone, among actual por- 
traits of real persons, have been used by considerable 
artists as models from which to paint the head of Christ. 
We need not overrate the influence on national thought 
capable of being exercised by works of art that are made 
everywhere familiar by copies and engravings, when we 
say that Van Dyck is accountable for no small share of the 
strangely passionate affection with which a large section 
of the English people long cherished the remembrance of 
the unhappy and unprofitable Stuarts. 

Queen Henrietta Maria, the lively and impulsive consort 
of Charles, was, after the king himself. Van Dyck's most 
frequently repeated subject. Twenty-five portraits of her 
exist, which are undoubtedly from his hand ; and, in the 
case of several others, critics have hesitated whether to 
assign them to the master himself, or to some one of the 
numerous pupils who copied his methods and his manner 
with a considerable measure of success. The accounts 
which have been handed down of Henrietta's appearance 
inform us that she was of rather less than the middle 
height, not perfectly well set in figure, and with features 
pleasing, indeed, by their expression of bright intelligence 
and by the sparkle of a pair of clear and keen black eyes, 
but which would hardly have procured a reputation as a 
beauty for any woman but a queen. Allowing for the 
amount of flattery one is prepared to expect from a 
painter who was, above all things, of the court courtly, 
this is just the impression received from the portraits by 
Van Dyck. Pose and attitude, with the details of dress 




HENRIETTA MARIA, QUEEN OF CHARLES I., WITH THE 

PRlNCiS CHARLES AND JAMES. 

Frem Ihe engraving after Van Uyclt, by Sir Robert Stra«|,e. 



THE QUEEN AND ROYAL FAMILY. 65 

and accessories, axe as perfect as they should be when 
royal magnificence guided by a Frenchwoman's taste sets 
the subject for the pencil of such a master. And if the 
beauty of the countenance be somewhat heightened, we 
know that it is idealisation and not disguise. The artist 
catches in the expression a whole history of character ; we 
seem to read in it the natural charm of wit and vivacity, 
the wayward temper, that wilfulness in the hot southern 
blood which laid the seed of so many of her troubles, 
domestic and political, and with all, the true heait of a 
loving woman, and the dignity of a queen whose frown 
could be severe, and even terrible, when need arose. The 
accompanying illustration, taken from Strange's famous 
engraving, shows Henrietta seated, in her arms the 
infant Duke of York, and Prince Charles standing by her 
side. The group of buildings seen in the distant back- 
ground bears a questionable resemblance to Westminster 
Hall and the neighbouring houses. 

There are several charming groups of the royal 
children, with or without their parents. One, of five 
figures, was mentioned in the price list of paintings given 
above ; this, as well as one of three of the children, Princes 
Charles and James, and the Princess Mary, accompanied by 
two spaniel dogs, hangs at Windsor Castle. The same 
three children, painted at an earlier age, are represented 
in a quaint and pretty portrait group now at Turin : Mary 
standing between her brothers in a dress of white satin, 
Charles to her right in scarlet, the little Duke of York 
standing on a step in a robe of blue silk. There are also 
several separate portraits of the young Prince Charles. 

It would be vain to attempt a description of even the 
most famous and remarkable among the master's numerous 

F 



66 VAN DYCK. 

portraits of the nobility and the celebrities of contemporary 
England ; we must refer the reader to the catalogue below. 
It was mentioned above that, after the king and queen, no 
one was so often portrayed by the hand of Van Dyck as 
the Earl of Strafford. For the Earl of Pembroke and the 
Earl of Northumberland the labour of his brush was called 
into constant requisition. There are few eminent noble- 
men of the day of whom he did not paint at least one 
portrait. The chief statesmen of the House^ of Commons 
were too remote from any sympathy with court circles to 
come within the artist's ken. The representatives of 
literature at the time, who numbered among them many 
names that have become immortal, were for the most part 
equally beyond his circle. Still we find that some of his 
sitters are men who will not be easily forgotten in the 
annals of English letters. Lord Herbert of Cherbury, 
Lord Falkland, Sir Kenelm Digby, Sir Henry Wotton, 
with the poets Suckling and Oarew, form no contemptible 
list, even where the names of Ben Jonson, Chapman, 
Massinger, and George Herbert have to be omitted. 
Van Dyck in turn had honour from the Muses of the day ; 
Waller addressed him in a poem ; Lord Halifax wrote verses 
on his portrait of the Countess of Sunderland; and the 
artist's death was elegised by Cowley. 

Mention was made, in the extract from De Piles quoted 
above, of the pupils and assistants whose help enabled Van 
Dyck to achieve his extraordinary rapidity of execution. 
The best known of them are John de Keyn, a native of 
Dunkirk, who came over from Flanders with the master ; 
David Beek, afterwards painter to the Queen of Sweden, 
whose quickness of hand rivalled his instructors; and 
James Gandy, a man of rare promise, who condemned 



PUPILS AND POLLOWEBS. 67 

Hmself to obscurity by going to live in Ireland, James 
Gandy's son was William Grandy, of Exeter, a painter of 
real genius, but little more than local celebrity. Eeynolds, 
who did not disdain to imitate him when yoimg, and who 
always preserved many traits of his manner, sets his best 
work on a level with that of Eembrandt. 

Among the many imitators and disciples of Van Dyck, 
whose personal relation with him was less close, William 
Dobson has been esteemed the founder of the true English 
school of art; Henry Stone attained to such skill in 
imitation of the master that it is a matter of the utmost 
diflSculty to distinguish his copies from the originals. 
Adrian Hanneman is another follower, whose transcripts 
are almost as closely faithful. It is possible, though not 
certain, that Sir Peter Lely received for some time the 
direct tuition of Van Dyck. 



F 2 



List of the Engraved Portraits in the Icones PRiNapuM, 

VIRORUM DOCTORUM, PICTORUM, CHALCOGRAPHORUM, ETC., AB 

Ant. van Dyck^ (100 Plates). Folio, AntverpioB, Oillis 
Mendricx, ( 1 641 .) 

ENOSA.VSR. 

Alvarez, Don Jos^ Paul Pontius. 

Aremberg, Albert, Prince of . . . S. Bolswert. 

Balen, Hendrik van Paul Pontius. 

Barbe, Jan Baptist S. Bolswert. 

Bavaria, WiUem Wolfgang, Duke of . . Lucas Vorsterman. 

Blancaccio, Fra Lelio ..... Nicholas Lauwers. 

Brauwer, Adriaan S. Bolswert. 

Breuck, Jacques de Paul Pontius. 

Oachopin, Jacobus de Lucas Vorsterman. 

Callot, Jacques Lucas Yorsterman. 

Oarignan, Prince de Paul Pontius. 

Colonna, Don Carlos de .... Paul Pontius. 

Gomelissen, Antonius ..... Lucas Vorsterman. 

Coster, Adam de Pieter de Jode. 

Crayer, Gaspard de Paul Pontius. 

Delmont, Deodatus Lucas Vorsterman. 

Digby, Sir Keuelm Robert Van derVoerst. 

Dyck, Antony van (Imst, on tiUe-page) . . Jakob Neefs. 

Dyck, Antony van Lucas Vorsterman. 

Ertvelt, Andreas van S. Bolswert. 

Eynde, Hubert van den .... Lucas Vorsterman. 

Ferdinand, Prince of Austria • . . Adriaan Lommelin. 

Feria, Emanuel, Count de . . . . Paul Pontius.* 

Franck, Frans, the younger .... Willem Hondius. 

Friedlandt, Albert, Duke of . . . . Pieter de Jode. 

Galle, Theodor Lucas Vorsterman. 

Geest, Cornelius van der .... Paul Pontius. 

Genevieve d'Urphe, Duchess de Croye , . Pieter de Jode. 

Gentileschi, Orazio Lucas Vorsterman. 

Gevartius, Gaspar Paul Pontius. 

Gusman, Philip de Paul Pontius. 

Gustavus AdolphuS) King of Sweden . . Paul Pontius. 



CENTUM ICONES. 69 

EKOBATES. 

Halmalius, Paulus Pieterde Jode. 

Hondius, Willem WiUem Hondius 

Honthorst, Gerard Paul Pontius. 

Hugens, Gonstantius Paul Pontius. 

Isabella, Infanta of Spain .... Lucas Vosterman. 

Jode, Pieter de Lucas Vorsterman. 

Jones, Inigo Bobert van der Voerst 

Jordaens, Jacob Pieter de Jode. 

Koeberger, Wenceslaus .... Lucas Vorsterman. 

Lievens, Jan ...... Lucas Vorsterman. 

lipsius, Justus S. Bolswert. 

Lotheringen, Margaret, Princess of . . S. Bolswert. 

Mallerij, Earel de Lucas Vorsterman. 

Medicis, Marie de Paul Pontius. 

Mildert, Jan van Lucas Vorsterman. 

MirsBus, Aubertus Paul Pontius. 

Mirevelt, Michel Willem Jacoby Delff. 

Momper, Judocus ..... Lucas Vorsterman. 

Moncada, Marquis de . . . . . Lucas Vorsterman. 

Mytens, Daniel Paul Pontius. 

Nassau, Prince of Paul Pontius. 

Nieubourg, Wolfgang, Duke of . . . Lucas Vorsterman. 

Nole, Andreas Coligno de . . . . Pieter de Jode. 

Orleans, Gkiston, Duke of ... . Lucas Vorsterman. 

Palamedes (Paul Staoyaerts) . . . Paul Pontius. 

Peirese, Nicolaus Fabrioius de . . . Lucas Vorsterman. 

Pepijn, Marten S. Bolswert. 

Poelenburgh, Comelis Pieter de Jode. 

Pontius, Paulus Paul Pontius. 

Puteanus, Eryoius Pieter de Jode. 

Bavesteyn, Jan van Paul Pontius. 

Bockox, Nicoalano Paul Pontius. 

Rombouts, Theodor Paul Pontius. 

Saftlevin, Comelis Lucas Vorsterman. 

Scaglia, GsBsar Alexander .... Paul Pontius. 

Schut, Comelis Lucas Vorsterman. 

Seghers, Gerard Paul Pontius. 



70 VAN DTCK. 

EX6RAVER. 

Snayers, Pieter Andreas Stock. 

Snellinck, Hans Pieter de Jode. 

Snyders, Frans Jacob Neefe. 

Spinola, Ambrosius, Marquis of . . . Lucas Yorsterman. 

Stalbent, Adriaan van Panl Pontius. 

Steenwijck, Hendrikvan .... Paul Pontius. 

Stevens, Pieter Lucas Yorsterman. 

Sweden, Gustayus Adolphus, King of . . Paul Pontius. 

Tassis, Antonio de Jakob Neefs. 

Tilly, Joannes Tzyerclaes, Count de . Pieter de Jode. 

Triest, Antonius Pieter de Jode. 

Tulden, Theodor van Pieter de Jode. 

IJden. Lucas van ..... Lucas Yorsterman. 

m 

Yauloo, Theodor Paul Pontius. 

Yoerst, Robert van . . . . # Bobert van derYoersi 

Yos, Gomelis de Lueas Yorsterman. 

Yos, Paul de Adriaan Lommelin. 

Yos, Simon de ..... . Paul Pontius. 

Yos, Willem de S. Bolswert. 

Youet, Simon ...... Robert van der Yoerst 

Yranck, Sebastian S. Bolswert 

WildenSfJan Paul Pontius. 

Wolfaerts, Artus ...'.. CJomelius Galle. 

Wouwer, Joames van den .... Paul Pontius. 

Etchings by Van Dyck. 

Breughel, Jan. 
Breughel, Pieter. 
Erasmus, Desiderius. 
Franck, Frans. 
Momper, Jodocus. 
Noort, Adam van. 
Pontius, Paul. 
Snellinok, Hans. 
Sustermans, Justus. 
Yorsterman. Lucas. 
Wael, Jan de. 



LIST OF POETEAITS BY VAN DYCK 

Included in the principal Pioturb Galleries op Europe : in the 
Manchester Exhibition op 1857 : the Leeds Exhibition op 1868 : 
THE Exhibition op National Portraits at South Kensington in 
1866 AND 1868 : the Royal Collections at BucmNGHAM Palace 
and Windsor Castle : and the Winter Exhibitions op the 
Works op the Old Masters, at the Eoyal Academy, prom 1870 
TO 1879. 

AlpTidbeticaUy arranged. 

THE PROPERTT OF 

Aeitvelt, (he marine painter , . . Augsburg Grallery. 
Arundel, Thomas Howard, Earl of . Duke of Sutherlaud, K.G. 
Arundel and Surrey, Thomas Howard, 

Earl of, with his Countess and their 

Children. Signed ** An. Vandyek inv. 

Ph. Fruytiers fecit 1642 " . . . Lord Stafford of Costessy. 
Arundell of Wardour, Thomas, first Lord. 

Half length ..... Lord Arundell of Wardour. 
Balbi Children, The .... Dowager Countess Cowper. 
Balen, Hendrik van, the painter . . Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 
Baltimore, Anne ArundelL Lady* Bust. Lord Arundell of Wardour. 
Basset, Admiral Sir Francis. FvM 

length ...... Mr. J. F. Bassett. 

Bedford, Ann Carr, Countess of . Earl Spencer, K.G. 

Bentivoglio, Cardinal .... Pitti Palace, Florence, 

Berg, Count Henry de. . Madrid Museum. 

Bolingbroke, Family of the first Earl of. 

Seven half length portraits in a garden. Earl of Morley. 
Brignole, La Marchesa de, and Child. 

FuUl&ngth Earl of Warwick. 

BrigQoli Family Palazza Brignoli, Genoa. 

Bristol, George Digby, Earl of^ and 

William Earl of Bedford. FuU length. 

Signed **Ant: van Dyck Eques P<" . Earl Spencer, K.G. 
Brouwer, Adriaan, the painter . . Duke of Buccleuch, £.G. 



■•*» 



72 VAN DYCK. 

THE PROPESTT OP 

Buckingham, Mary Fairfax, Duchess of. 

Half length Lord Lyttelton. 

BucMngham, George Yillierd, first Duke 

of. Head only^ after his assassiruUion, IVIarquis of Northampton. 
Buckingham, Duke of, and his Brother The Queen (Windsor Castle). 
Buckingham, George Yilliers, second 

Duke of, and his brother Francis^. 

Full length Earl of Warwick. 

Burlington, Bichard Boyle, first Earl of Duke of Devonshire, K.G. 
Car, Mrs. Signed " A. Vandyck," 1660 Earl Somers. 
Carew, Thomas, tJiepoetj and Sir William 

Killigrew . . . . . The Queen (Windsor Castle). 
Carignan, Francis Thomas, of Savoy, 

Prince de The Queen. 

Carignan, Thomas of, Prince . . Berlin Gallery. 
Carignan, Prince Thomas of, on horse- 
hack Pinacoteca, Turin. 

Carlisle, Countess of .... The Queen (Windsor Castle). 
Carlisle, James Hay, Earl of. Half length Earl of Kinnoull. 
Carlisle, James Hay, Earl of. FvU length. Lord Lyttelton, 
Challoner, Sir Thomas . . . The Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg, 
Charles I. Full length, with horse and 

attendants ..... The Louvre, Paris. 
Charles I. FuU length, with horse and 

attendants Sir Charles E. Isham, Bt. 

Charles I. FuU length, wearing the 

collar and medal of the Order of St. 

George. Dated 1636 . . . The Queen. 
Charles I. in armour, mounted on a dun 

coloured horse, his equerry. Sir Thomas 

Morton, holds the king*s helmet, 

(^Sketch for the large picture at Blen- 
heim) The Queen (Buckingliam 

Palace). 
Charles I. Equestrian portrait. The 

Duke d^Esperron, hearing the king*8 

lielmet,isonfoothyhisside. . . The Queen (Windsor Castle). 
Charles I. Equestrian portrait, (A 

replica of the Windsor picture.) , . Hampton C!oart 



POBTBAITS. 



73 



Charles I. Three portrait heads in dif- 
ferent positiona, (^Painted for BeminCs 
bust.) ...... 

Charles I., on horseback 

Charles I., standing, in armour. Life 

Charles I. and Queen Henrietta 
Maria ...... 

Charles I., his Queen Henrietta Maria, 
and their sons, Charles and James 

Charles I. and Queen Henrietta Maria . 

Charles I. and Queen Henrietta Maria . 

Charles I. and Queen Henrietta Maria. 
FuU length ..... 

Charles I., The Children of King . 

Charles I., Three Children of King 

Charles I., The Children of King. 

Charles I., Three Children of 

Charles I., A Princess, daughter of, sur- 
rounded witfi flowers 

Charles, Prince, with the Princesses 
Elizabeth, Mary, and Anne,and James, 
Duke of York. Signed, and dated 
1637 

Charles, Prince, Princess Mary, and 
James, Duke of York, children of 
Charles I., with two spaniels seated at 
their feet ..... 

Charles II., when a boy aged eleven 

Charles V., on a white horse . 

Chesterfield, Catharine, Countess of, 
Daughter of Thomas, Lord Wolton. 
(^Painted about 1636.) 

Clarbrazil, The Countess of, daughter of 
the Earl of Middlesex. {Painted in 
1636.) 

Cleveland, Thomas Wentworth, first Earl 
of. Full length. Dated 1636 . 

Correllisser, Antoine .... 



THE PBOPEBTT OP 



The Queen (Windsor Castle). 
Madrid Museum. 

Sir Matthew Wilson, Bt. 

The Queen. 

The Queen. 
Dresden Gallery. 
Pitti Palace, Florence. 

The Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 
Berlin Gallery. 
Dresden Gallery. 
The Louvre, Paris. 
Pinacoteca, Turin. 

Lord Ashburton. 



The Queen. 



The Queen. 
The Queen. 
The Uflazi, Florence. 



Earl of BadncH*. 



Earl of Denbigh. 

Earl of Verulam. 
Duke of Buccleuch. 



74 VAN DYCK. 

THE PBOPSBTT 07 

Granfield, Lady Frances, wife of Bichard, 

fifth Earl of Dorset .... Lord Buckhnrst. 
Craven, William, first Earlof^ in armour, 

FuU length ..... Earl of Graven. 
Dacre, Dorothy North, Lady. Three- 

quarter size ..... Colonel North. 
Danby, Henry Danvers, Earl of. FuU 

length, robes and collar of K.G.) . Mr. F. V. Wentworth. 
Danby, Earl The Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg 
D'Aytone, The Marquis, Governor of the 

Netherlands Duke of Bacclench. 

Delawarr, Isabella Edmunds, Lady. 

FuU length Countess Delawarr. 

Denbigh, William Fielding, first Earl 

of Duke of Hamilton. 

Derby, Charlotte de la Tr^mouille, 

Countess of. Bust .... Earl of Derby, K.G. 
Derby, James Stanley, seventh Earl, his 

wife, Charlotte de la Tremouille, and 

daughter. Lady Katherine Stanley . Earl of Clarendon. 
Derby, James Stanley, seventh Earl of, 

K.G. JBust, in armour, badge of K.G. . Earl of Derby, K.G. 
Derby, James Stanley (Lord Strange), 

seventh Earl of, K.G. Full length . Earl of Derby, KG. 
Devonshire, The Countess of . . Duke of Northumberland. 
Digby, Venetia, Countess, wife of Sir 

Kenelm Digby .... The Queen (Windsor Castle). 
Digby, Venetia, Lady. Sust . Earl Spencer, K.G. 

Digby, Sir Kenelm .... The Queen (Windsor Castle). 
I^ig^y* Sir Kenelm, and Family. Half 

length, figures seated . . , Mr. Wingfield Digby. 
Doria Family, Portraits of the . . Duke of Abercom, K.G, 
Dorset, Anne Clifford, Countess of . The Queen. 
Dorset, Edward Sackville, fourth Earl of Lord Buckhnrst 
Dudley, Edward Sutton, ninth Lord . Mr. B. Almack. 
Elizabeth, The Prinoess, and the Duke 

of Gloucester, children of Charles I. 

{A study of heads) .... Lord Chesham. 
Elizabeth, Daughter of Charles . . Earl of Craven. 



PORTEAITS. 75 

THE PBOPERTT OF 

Faille, Alexander de la, Magistrate of 

Antwerp Brussels Mnsexim. 

Falkland, Lucius Gary, second Yiscoant. 

Half length, seated .... Lord Arundell of Wardour. 

Feria, The Comte de . . . . Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 
Franck, Frans, the younger, historical 

painter Duke of Buccleuch, E.G. 

Geest, Cornells van der . . Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 

Gerbier, Sir Balthazar, and his Family . The Queen. 

G^Tart, Gtaspai, jurist and historian . Duke of Buccleuch, E.G. 

Gevartius, so-called portrait of . . National Gallery. i 

Gloucester, Henry, Duke of . . The Queen (Windsor Castle). 
Grandison, William Villiers, Viscount. 

Full length Earl of Clarendon, E.G. 

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden . . Pinakothek, Munich. 
Hamilton, Mary, Duchess of, daughter 

of William, first Earl Denbigh . . Earl of Denbigh. 
Hamilton^ James, first Duke of, E.G. 

Full length Earl of Carlisle. 

Hamilton, James, Duke of . . . Earl of Denbigh. 

Hamilton, James, first Duke of . . Duke of Hamilton. 

Henrietta Maria, Queen . . . Ambrosian Library, Milan. 
Henrietta Maria, Queen. Full face, 

hair in ringlets .... The Queen. 
HenriettaMaria, Queen. Three-quarter 

face, hands crossed .... The Queen. 

Henrietta Maria, Queen Profile, . The Queen. 
Henrietta Maria, Queen. Full length, 

white silk dress .... Earl of Clarendon. 
Henrietta Maria, Queen. Life size, 

white siUc dress ... * Marquis of Lansdowne. 
Henrietta Maria, Queen, with her dwarf, 

Sir Geoflfrey Hudson . . . Earl of Portarlington. 
Henrietta Maria, Queen. Signed *' MM, 

1632." Earl of Eadnor. 

Herbert Family. {Study for the picture 

at Wilton; another is in the possession The Hermitage, St. Peters- 

of Lord Camaroon) .... burg. 
Hontsum, Legerus van, oanon of Ant' 

werp cathedral .... The Queen. 



76 VAN DYCK. 

THB PSOPEBir OF 

Huntly, George GTordon, second Marquis 

of. FuU length .... Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 
Isabella of Spain, The Infanta . . Berlin Gallery, 

Isabella of Spain The Louvre, Paris. 

Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain, 

in her vjidow's dress . . . Duke of Buccleuoh, K.G, 

Isabella Olara Eugenia^ Begent of the 

Netherlands Earl of Hopetown. 

Jode, Pieter de Duke of Buccleuch. 

Jones, Inigo Hermitage, St Petersburg. 

Jones, Inigo . , . . . The Queen. 
Jones, Inigo. Bmty with white collar . 
Jones, Inigo. Miniature^ half lengthy 

monochrome Lieut.-Gol. Inigo W. Inigo. 

Eilligrew, Thomas, and Thomas Garew. 

Signed, and dated IQI^ . . . The Queen (Windsor Castle) 
Eilligrew, Mrs. Cecilia Crofts. Bmt . M. E. H. Cheney. 

Kirk, Madame Dowager Countess Cowper. 

Laniere, Nicholas, master of the hand 

to Charles L , . . . . The Queen. 
Laud, William, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. Half length, in Episcopal habit. 

Dated 1633 Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Laud, Archbishop. {Beplica.) . . Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Laud, Archbishop .... Earl Fitzwilliam, K.G. 
Legares, The Marquis de, GrOYemor of 

Milan Duke of Buccleuoh, E.G. 

Leicester, Countess of, and Countess of 

Carlisle, daughters of Henry Percy, 

ninth Earl of Northumberland. Half 

length, seated near a fountain . . Mr. Charles Morrison. 
Leicester, Dorothy Percy, Countess of . Earl Spencer, K.G. 
Lemon, Mrs. Margaret . . . Hampton Court. 
Lennox, Catherine Howard, Duchess of The Queen. 
Le Roy, Philippe. Inscribed ** Mtatis 

«?*» 34-1630" .... Sir Bichard Wallace, Bart. 

Le Roy, the wife of Philippe. Inscribed 

"^<.««i 16-1631." . . . Sir Bichard Wallace, Bai-t. 

Liberti, Henry, organist of Antwerp Madrid Museum. 

Liberti, Henry, organist of AtUujerp Pinakothek, Munich. 



PORTRAITS. 



77 



Lipsius, Justus, historian . 
Lisle, Philip Sidney, Lord, Algernon and 
Bobert Sidney. FuU length, as children 
Lomellini Family .... 

Macclesfield of Brandon, Charles Gerard, 

Earl of . 
Malderus, John, Bishop of Antwerp 
Mallerij, Karel van, tJie engraver . 
Mallerij, Karel van, the engraver . 
Manchester, Lord Eimbolton, second 

Earl of. Half length 
Marie de Medicis .... 
Marie de Medicis .... 

Massey, General 

Maurice, Prince, K.G. Full length 
Minnes, Sir John, Kt. Half length, in 

cuirass ...... 

Monmouth, the Countess of . 
Montfort, John ..... 

Montrose, James Graham, Earl of. 

{Ascribed also to WiUiam Dohson.) . 
Morton, Anne, Countess of. Half length 
Morton, Sir William, Kt., Justice K,B, 

Bust, in scarlet robes .... 
Nassau, John, Count of . . . 
Nassau, John, Count of . . . 
Newcastle, William Cavendish, Duke of, 

K.G. Full length .... 
Newport, The Earl of. Half lengtli 
Nole, Andreas Colijns de, sculptor 
North, Dudley, fourth Lord, K.B. To waist 
Northampton, James Compton, third 

Earl of. Half length, in armour 
Northumberland, Henry Percy, ninth 

Earl of. Bust 

Northumberland,, Henry Percy, ninth 

Earl of. Full length, seated 
Northumberland, Algernon Percy, tenth 

Earl of. Full length 



THE PEOPKRTT OP 

Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 

Lord de L'Isle and Dudley. 
National Gallery, Edin- 
burgh. 

Marquis of Salisbury, K.G. 
The Queen. 
Pinakothek, Munich. 
Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 

Duke of Manchester. 
Lille Gallery. 
Pinakothek, Munich. 
Mr. G. L. Basset. 
Earl of Craven. 

Earl of Clarendon, K.G. 
Earl of Radnor. 
UfSzi, Florence. 

Earl of War wick. 
Earl Spencer, K.G. 

Mr. T. B. Bulkeley Owen. 
Piuakothek, Munich. 
Lord Ashburton. 

Earl Spencer, K.G. 
Countess of Bosebery. 
Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 
Colonel North. 

Countess Delawarr. 

Earl of Denbigh. 

Earl of Carlisle. 

Earl of Eesex. 



78 VAN DYOK. 

THE PROPBSTT OF 

Korthnmberland, Algernon Percy, Earl 

ofi his Countess, and their Child . Marquis of Salisbury, K.G. 
Northumberland, Algernon, tenth Earl of, 

K.G., his Countess, and Child. Half 

length Marquis of Salisbury, K.G. 

Odescalchi, Don Livio, nephe"^ of Pope 

Innocent IX., standing^ black dress . Sir H. H. Campbell, Bart. 
Orleans, Gkiston, Duke of . * Earl of Badnor. 

Orleans, G^iston, Duke of, FtiU length. The Queen. 
Oxford, The Countess of • • . Madrid Museum. 
Palamedes, the painter . . . Pinakothek, Munich. 

Pembroke, The Earl of • . . Dulwioh GkJlery. 
Pembroke, Philip Herbert, fourth Earl 

of, and first of Montgomery. FttU 

length, miniature .... Earl of Yarborough. 
Pembroke, Philip, fifth Earl of, and se- 
cond of Montgomery, in cuirass. Half 

length Viscount Galway. 

Pennington, Admiral Sir John, in cmroM. 

Bust Mrs. W. Willes. 

Peterborough, The first Countess of . Mr. Mordaunt F. Bisset. 
Peterborough, John, Earl of, standing. 

Life size Mr. Mordaunt F. Bisset. 

Phalsburg, Henrietta of Lorraine, Prin- 
cess ot (Signed ^Ant Van Dych, 

Eques^ fecit") . . . . Duke of Hamilton. 

Pierese, Nicholas Claude Fabri de . Duke of Buccleuoh, K.G. 
Portland, Countess of. FvU length . Lord Lyttelton. 
Portland, Bichard Weston, Earl of, E.G. 

FuU length Mr. H. J. Percival Barkes. 

Bich, Sir Charles. FuU length, standing, 

in armour Viscount Dillon. 

Bich, Lady Isabella, standing. Life size Lady Elizabeth Pringle. 
Bichardot and his Son . . . Louvre, Paris. 
Bichmond, The Duchess of . . . The Queen(Windsor Castle). 
Biohmond, The Duchess of, represented 

in the character of St Agnes . . The Queen. 
Bichmond and Lennox, Frances Howard, 

Duchess of. FuU length. Dated 

London^ 1633, .... Marquis of Bath. 



K>RTBAITS. 



79 



THE PBOPEBTY OF 

Bichmond, Mary, Duchess of, daughter 

of George ViUiers, Duke of Bucking- 
ham, with the dwarf, Mrs. Gibson . Earl of Denbigh. 
Bichmond, The Duke of . . . The Louvre, Paris. 
Bichmond, The Earl of . . . Marquis of BristoL 
Bichmond and Lennox, James Stuart, 

Duke of . . . . . . Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 

Bichmond and Lennox, James Stuart, 

Duke of. To waist . . . Mr. W. H. Pole Carew. 

Bichmond and Lennox, James Stuart, 

Duke of, with the dog who saved his life Earl of Denbigh. 
Bichmond and Lennox, James Stuart, 

Duke of. FuU lengthy standing, . Earl of Leicester, K.G. 
Bichmond and Lennox, James Stuart, 

Duke of, standing^ with dog. Life size Lord Methuen. 

Bubens, Sir Peter Paul . . . National Gallery. 

Bubens, Sir Peter Paul, Et. . . Duke of Buccleuch, E.G. 

Bubens, Sir Peter Paul, on a "horse given 

to him by Van Dyck .... Earl of Badnor. 

Bupert, Prince Earl of Graven. 

Bupert, Prince. Half length, standing, 

in armour Mr. H. C. Okeover. 

Bussell, Lady Bachek Half length, 

seated Marquis of Exeter, E.G. 

Byckaert, David Madrid Museum. 

Byckaert, Msurtin, {he painter , . Dresden Gallery. 

St. Croix, Madame .... The Queen (Windsor Castle). 

St. Croix, Maria Clara, Duchesse de . The Queen. 

Santa Croce, Countess of . . . Earl of Warwick. 

Savoy, The Duchess of . . . Duke of Aberoom, E.G. 

Scaglio, Alexander .... Pinakothek, Munich. 

Snyders, Frans, Wife of . . . Earl of Warwick. 

Southampton, Elizabeth, Countess of . Dowager Countess Cowper. 

Southampton, Bachael, first Countess of Dowager Countess Cowper. 
Spinola, Andrea, Doge of Genoa.' FuU 

length, seated Sir Henry Hawley, Bart. 

Spinola, The Marquis. . . . Earl of Hopetown. 

Stalbent, Adrien, painter . . . Duke of Buccleuch, E.G. 
Stuart, Lord John, and Lord Bernard, 

sons of the Duke of Lennox . . Dowager Countess Cowper* 



80 



VAN DYCK. 



Strafford, Thomas, Earl of . 

Strafford, Thomas 'Wentworth, first Earl 

of. FvU length, in half armour 
Strafford, Thomas, first Earl of, and biff 

secretary, Sir Philip Mainwaring, Kt. 

Half lengthy seated .... 
Sunderland, Lady Dorothy Sidney, 

Countess of. Half length. 
Sunderland, Dorothy Sidney, Countess 

of. Half length .... 
Sunderland, Lady Dorothy Sidney, 

Countess of. To waist 
Ti-afford, Sir CeciL Head only . 
Vandenburgh, Count Henry, in armour. 
Van der Borght, Burgomaster 
Van Dyck, Sir Antony, jx)r<rai* of himself 
Van Dyck, Sir Antony 
Van Dyck, Sir Antony, and the Earl 

of Bristol ..... 
Van Dyck, Sir Antony 
Van Dyck, Sir Antony 
Vane, Lady Frances. Half length 
Vane, Sir Henry, the elder. Half length 
Vane, Sir Henry, Kt., the younger. 

Three-quarters length 
Vemey, Sir Edmund, in armour. Half 

length ...... 

Vemey, Sir Edmund, standard-bearer to 

Charles I. . . . . 
Villiers, George and Francis, sons of the 

Duke of Buckingham 
Vos, Simon de, painter 
Vranck, Sebastian, battle painter . 
Wael, Lucas and Comelis de 
Wallenstein, Count of . . . 
Waller, Edmund. Full length, standing. 
Wandesford, Lord .... 
Warwick, Earl of, in armour 
Warwick, Charles Bich, Earl of . 
Wentworth, Lady Arabella . 



THB PROPERTY OP 

Earl Fitzwilliam, K.G. 
Earl of Home. 



Sir H. Mainwaring, Bt. 

Earl of Bradford. 

Lord De L*Isle and Dudley. 

Earl Spencer, K.G. 

Sir Humph, de Trafford, Bt. 

The Queen. 

Amsterdam Museum. 

National G^allery. 

The Louvre, Paris. 

Madrid Museum. 
The Queen. 
Earl Spencer, K.G. 
Sir Henry R. Vane, St. 
Sir Henry R. Vane, Bt. 

Sir Henry R. Vane, Bt. 

Sir Harry Vemey, Bfc. 

Sir Harry Vemey, Bt. 

The Queen. 

Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 

Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 

Cassel Grallery. 

Pinakothek, Munich. 

Sir H. G. P. Bedingfield, Bt. 

Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

Earl of Leicester. 

Lady Elizabeth Pringle. 

Earl Fitzwilliam, K.G. 



SA.OBED SUBJECTS. 



81 



Wharton, Sir Thomas 
Wharton, Thomas, M.D. Bud 
Wharton Family, Two Children of the . 
White, Jerry chaplain to Oliver Cromwell, 

Bttat ...... 

Widdrington, Sir William, Bt., first Lord 

Widdrington. To waist . 
William of Orange as a Boy. 
Wolfart, Artns, historical painter . 
Worcester, Edward Somerset, second 

Marquis of. Half length . 



TIIK PROPERTr OP 

Hermitage, St Petersburg. 
Royal College of Physicians. 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

Mr. G. J. A. Walker. 

Mr. Ch. Towneley. 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Duke of Baccleuch, K.G. 

Duke of Beaufort. 



There are many un-named portraits by Van Dyck in the public 
galleries of Europe as well as in private possession which are not 
mentioned in the above catalogue. 

Smith's * Catalogue Raisonne * gives a list of 971 of Van Dyck's works. 



SACRED SUBJECTS. 

Betrayal of Christ .... Madrid Museum. 

Betrayal of Christ .... Lord Methuen. 

Christ on the Cross .... Antwerp Museum. 

Christ taken down from the Cross. . Antwerp Museum. 

Christ on the Cross .... Lille Gallery. 

Christ healing the Paralytic . . The Queen. 

Christ and the Pharisee . . . Palazzo Brignoli, Genoa. 
Crowning with Thorns. {An altered copy 

of Titian^s picture at Munich.) . . Madrid Museum. 

Crucifixion, The St Jacques, Antwerp. 

Crucifixion, The Oourtray. 

Crucifixion, The Cathedral, Mechlin. 

Crucifixion of St. Peter . . Brussels Museum. 

Dead Christ. (^Small.) . The Louvre, Paris. 

Dead Christ Mr. Alfred Elmore, B.A. 

Descent of the Holy Ghost . . . Berlin G^allery. 

Entombment, The . ... Antwerp Museum. 

Four Repentant Sinners before Christ . Augsburg Gtdlery. 

Incredulity of St. Thomas . . . Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

Infant Saviour embracing St. John . The Queen. 

Infant Christ and St. John . . . Mrs. Morrison. 

G 



82 



VAN DYCK. 



Magdalen, St. Mary 

Madonna and Saints 

Madonna, The . 

Madonna, The :. 

Madonna, The * 

Madonna, The. JAfe size 

Tirgin and Donor 

Madonna and Donors 

Madonna and St. Anthony 

Virgin and Child 

Virgin and Child, with St. Catharine . 

Virgin and Child, and St. Catharine . 

Holy Family 

Holy Family 

Holy Family . ... 

Holy Family 

Holy Family ..... 

Holy Family 

Marriage of St. Catharine . 

Miraculous Draught of Fishes. (A study) 

Mocking of Christ, The 

Pietk, A 

Pieti 

St Anthony of Padua, holding the In- 
fant Christ 

St. Augustine in Ecstasy 

St. Francis in Ecstasy 

St. Jerome 

tBt. Martin Dividing his Cloak. {Copy of 
Bubens at Windsor,) 

«St. Sebastian 

St. Sebastian 

St. Sebastian. (A sketch,) . 

Martyrdom of St Sebastian . 

Martyrdom of Si Sebastian. 



THE PBOPBBTr OF 

Belvedere, Vienna. 
Belvedere, Vienna. 
Brunswick Gallery. 
Dulwich Gallery. 
The .Louvre, Paris. 
The Queen. 
Belvedere, Vienna. 
The Louvre, Paris. 
Brera, Milan. 
Lord Ashburton. 
Duke of Westminster, K.G. 
Duke of Westminster, K.G. 
Acad, di San Luca, Borne. 
Belvedere, Vienna. 
Hermitage, St Petersburg. 
Pinakothek, Munich. 
Pinacoteca^ Turin. 
Lady A. de Bothschild. 
The Queen. 
National Gallery. 
Berlin Gallery. 
Berlin Gallery. 
Pinakothek, Munich. 

Brussels Museum. 
St. Augustine's, Antwerp. 
Brassels Museum. 
Dresden Gkdlery. 

Saventhem, Belgium. 
The Louvre, Paris. 
Pinakothek, Munich. 
Earl of Warwick. 
NationalGallery, Edinburgh. 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 



HOTUBES. 83 

MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS. 

THE PBOPEUTT OF 

Ambrose, St, Refusing the Emperor 

Theodosius. {Copy of Budbens.) . National Gallery. 

Boys blowing Soap Babbles . . Hermitage, St Petersburg. 

Child and Dog Antwerp Museum. 

Child's Head. (Study in crayon,) . Academy of St. Luke, Borne 

Cupid and Psyche, in a landscape The Queen. 

Dffidalus and Icarus .... Earl Spencer. 
Greenwich, The old Palace at, figures 

in the foreground,, among whom are 

portraits of Charles L^Henrietta Maria, 

Lord ArundeUj and others. . . The Queen. 

Kinaldo and Armida .... The Louvre, Paris. 

Binaldo and Armida .... Duke of Newcastle. 

Samson and Delilah .... Belvedere, Vienna. 

Satyr, a Brussels Museum. 

Study of Horses (Eques Achillis) . . National Gallery. 

Study of three Horses, with their Eiders The Queen. 

Study of a Man on Horseback . . Augsburg Gallery. 

Venus and Vulcan .... Belvedere, Vienna. 




FRANS HALS. 
From an rlching by himself. 



FRANS HALS 



OF HAARLEM. 




PREFACE. 



THE importance of the position which Frans Hals 
occupies in the history of Dutch Art is a compara- 
tively recent discovery, and the literature which exists 
concerning him is naturally scanty. For the facts of his 
life I have principally relied upon the patient and minute 
researches of M. A. Van der Willigen, author of Les Artistes 
de Haarlem. This is a work of great value, replete with 
biographical and statistical information ; but inasmuch as 
its author has, with a feeling for which it is impossible to 
blame him, resolutely sacrificed all other considerations 
for the sake of accuracy and brevity, it is marked by a 
jejuneness of style hardly calculated to ensure its popu- 
larity. The publication of Unger's etchings from Hals, 
with the critical letter-press of Yosmaer, has done much 
to increase the public appreciation of the master. The 
most elaborate account of Hals known to me is the essay 
by Dr. Wilhelm Bode, in the series entitled Kunst und 
Kilmtler; and it is to this author that I must acknowledge 
myself indebted for most of the substance of my second 
chapter. 

P. Rt H. 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FRANS HALS. 



Portrait of Hals. (From an etching hy himself) 
Frans Hals and his Wife, Lysbeth Reyniers 
Junker Hamp and his Sweetheart . . . . 
Banquet of the Officers of Arquebusiers of St. George 
Portrait of an Officer 



Frontispiece 



Page 

4 
11 
14 
1 





BIBLIOGRAPHY— FRANS HALS. 

WILLIGEN, ADRIAAN VAN DER. Les Artistes de Haailpm : 
Notices Historiques, avec un precis sur la Gilde de St. Luc. Edition 
augincnt<^e. Haarlem, 1870, 8vo. 

\'OSMAER, C. Eaux fortes d'apres Frans Ilals, par William Unger. 
Avec une dtude sur le Maitre et ses oeuvres par C. Vosmaer. Leyde, 
1873, large fol. 

BODE, W. Kunst und KUnstler: "Fraiis Hals," von W. Bode. 
Leipzig, 1875. 





FRANS HALS. 



CHAPTEB L 

THB LIFE OF HALS. 

1584-1666. 

THE name of Yan Pjok is so iamiliar to Englisb ears, 
and the produotbnB of his art to EngliBh eyes, Us 
greatest trramphs are bo intimately aasooiated witli our 
own domestio history, that the country of hia adoption 
seems to have a closer property in the artist than the 
oouutry of his hirth, and it almost costs an effort to 
remember that we cannot claim him as a native painter. 
The memory of the man who stands nearest to him among 
contemporary artists of the Netherlands is perpetuated by 
no snch associations ; and it is only within late years that 
the ntterances of continental oritics have rescued the fame 
of Hak from nnmerited neglect. A quarter of a century 
ago be would hardly hare obtained more than a subordinate 
place in the classification of the great galaxy of art which 
glorifies his century and his country ; but his genius has 
since met with clearer recognition, and the eloquent 
tribute paid to it by a recent writer cannot now be accused 



2 FBANS HALS. 

of any touch of extravagance. *^ Yonng artists who wish 
to become portrait painters," writes Lord Bonald Gower, 
in his valuable little handbook to the art galleries of 
Holland^ ** and who are not spoilt by the horrors of por- 
traiture which the walls of our academy exhibit, — if there 
be one left who feels that he has the instinct and power 
of becoming a good portrait painter (the noblest walk in 
the whole flowery land of painting) — if, I say, there is 
any one with any wish to be a great and true artist, let 
him come to Haarlem and study these truly wonderful 
works of an artist whose fame, long slumbering, wiU yet 
receive its due, and whose works will hold their own with 
those of Titian, of Velazquez, of Gainsborough, and of 
Eeynolds ; for as a portrait painter Hals is on a level with 
these four, — ^in fact, he may be called the Velazquez of the 
North." 

If we had to complain of the meagre character of the 
records from which a biography of Van Dyck is to be 
extracted, the same thing is even more deplorable in the 
case of Frans Hals. His life, though twice as long as that 
of his more illustrious contemporary, was comparatively 
retired and uneventful. A stationary existence of sixty 
years in a quiet Dutch city, with the ordinary troubles 
and pleasures of a careless '* Bohemian " life, and a course 
of fair professional success, to which the artist's own &ults 
and foibles denied the triumph that his genius might have 
won, forms a somewhat tame contrast to the brilliant 
history of Van Dyck's career, diversified by extensive 
foreign travel and commerce with the princes and nobles 
of many lands, and involved in its end with the catastrophe 
of a great revolution. 

That Antwerp claims the honour of having given Hals 



BIBTH AND PABENTAGE. O 

birth is merely an accident of his origin. His ancestry 
was Dutch ; from the outset of his working life he had 
become a citizen of Holland ; and the characteristics of his 
art are decidedly opposed to those of the Flemish school, 
with Bubens at its head. 

For two centuries before the artist's birth, the Hals 
family, as its records prove, had occupied a place of high 
consideration among the patrician houses of Haarlem. 
Misfortunes consequent upon the war compelled the 
parents of Frans, in the latter part of the 16th century, 
to quit their native city and seek an asylum in Antwerp. 
There, and not, as some biographers have asserted, at 
Mechlin, Frans was bom, probably in the year 1584. 
Nothing is known certainly of the history of his early 
years; he studied probably at Antwerp in the beginning 
of his training, and, on the return of his family to Haarlem, 
entered the school of Karel van Mander. The date of this 
return can only be conjectured; we ought probably to 
place it before 1608, if we are to suppose that the " Joost 
Hals of Antwerp," who in that year was charged before 
the Haarlem magistrates for drunkenness and disorderly 
conduct in the streets, was a member of the same family. 
If this chronology be correct, it is impossible that Frans 
Hals should have been, as has been suggested, a pupil of 
Eubens ; the latter only returned to Antwerp from Italy 
in 1609. It is not unlikely, however, that the early 
masters of the two painters may have been the same, and 
this would account for a similarity between them in 
certain points, sufficient to suggest the hypothesis of their 
relation as master and pupil. Moreover, the tradition 
that Van Mander was the instructor of Hals in Haarlem 
has met with little doubt, and if true it throws still 

B 2 



4 FRANS HALS. 

farther back the date at which he began to reside there. 
Karel van Mander, who on returning from Italy settled in 
Haarlem in 1583, continued to teach there until close 
upon the time of his death, which took place at Amsterdam 
in 1606. He combined successfully the functions of a 
painter and a literary man, and is perhaps best remembered 
by his work entitled " Het Schilder Boek," a biography of 
eminent painters. He also tried his hand at poetry, and 
was the author of translations of Homer and Virgil. 

It must have been about the year 1610 that Hals married 
a young lady named Anneke Hermanszoon. On the 2nd 
of September, 1611, occurred the baptism of their son 
Herman Hals. His domestic life with this lady cannot 
have been very happy; on the 20th of February, 1616, we 
find him summoned before the magistrates for ill-treating 
her. He received on this occasion a severe reprimand for 
his drunken habits and violence, expressed much contrition, 
and. was let off on the understanding that a repetition of 
the offence would be visited with severe punishment. He 
was relieved from temptation by the death of his wife, 
which happened only a few days afterwards ; not, we are 
glad to believe, in consequence of his mishandling, but in 
the course of nature, as it was not thought necessary to 
hold any inquest or investigation concerning the causes of 
her death. 

In his second marriage Hals was more fortunate in 
finding a spouse able to make allowance for his pecu- 
liarities of conduct and temper. Her name was Lysbeth 
Eeyniers, and report says that her previous life had been 
anything but regular. They were married on the 12th of 
February, 1617, — none too soon, for in a day or two Hals 
was the parent of a daughter, who was baptized by the 



CHILDBEN OF HALS. 5 

name of Sara on the 2l8t. In spite of tbe holes in the 
lady's reputation, this seems to have been on the whole a 
satisflBustorj match. The worthy couple lived together for 
nearly fifty years, and brought up a large family. The 
chnrch registers of Haarlem record the baptisms of some of 
their children, and others are known to have existed. On 
the 21st of July, 1623, another daughter was baptized as 
Adriaentgien. On the 12th of December, 1624, a son 
received the name of Jacobus. In 1627 another son, 
Beynier, made his appearance. On the 25th of July, 1628, 
the baptism of another, Nicolaas, is recorded. The entries 
close with the name of a daughter, Maria, baptized on the 
11th of November, 1631. 

The story of Van Dyck's interview with Frans Hals, in 
1622, has been related before. It is said that on this 
occasion the younger artist urged his friend to try his 
fortune in London, and offered to introduce him there, but 
Hals, preferring ease to ambition, declined to make the 
experiment. By staying where he was, he could earn a 
competence from the exercise of his art, and could employ 
his leisure time in his own fashion among congenial 
companions ; and he failed to sympathize with the restless 
genius that craved for more than these advantages. 

The accounts of Hals's dissolute habits have undoubtedly 
been much exaggerated. Little as we know of his history, 
there is plenty of evidence to prove that he was very 
different from the mere sot which some biographers would 
have us believe him. It cannot be denied that he was 
both intemperate and improvident, and these faults were 
powerful obstacles to his advancement. If he had been 
less idle and less fond of pleasure he would have done more 
work and achieved higher fame; but a man given over 



6 FBANS HALS. 

altogether to wine-bibbing and low society would hardly 
enjoy, as Hals did^ considerable local reputation in a 
crowded profession, constant employment during a long 
working life, and a pension from the State to provide for 
the wants of his old age. As to those features in his 
character which are not praiseworthy, the historian need 
not be harsher than the artist's own contemporaries ; his 
talents were allowed to condone his faults while he lived, 
and it is with his talents that posterity is chiefly concerned. 
Even after the wife-beating episode, it does not appear that 
he was regarded with disfavour among his fellow-citizens ; 
for we find that in 1617 and 1618 Frans and his brother 
Dirck Hals were elected members of the Guild of Ehetoric, 
" de Wijngaardranken." They were also members of the 
Civic Guard, and of the Guild of Saint Luke, — ^for Haarlem, 
like Antwerp, possessed this institution. The Haarlem 
guild was incorporated by charter in 1514, and embraced, 
like the one at Antwerp, a great variety of trades. Its 
registers have been preserved, and are full of valuable 
biographical information. 

In 1642 we find Hals refusing to pay the yearly sub- 
scription of six sous exacted from members of the guild. 
Whatever his reason was, the matter must have been 
amicably arranged, for in 1644 his name appears on the 
committee, which was a small body chosen annually from 
amongst the most distinguished members of the fraternity. 
In 1661, in consideration of his poverty and his services 
to art, the aged painter was excused from payment al- 
together. 

Towards the end of Frans Hals's life, his pecuniary 
difficulties became serious. In 1652, one Jan Ykess, a 
baker, sued him for a debt of 200 Garolus guilders, 



mS DEATH. 7 

incurred for bread supplied and small loans advanced 
from time to time, and obtained possession of the artist's 
movables. The baker was not a bard-hearted creditor; 
content with a lien upon his debtor's property, he left him 
the use of it for the time being. 

In 1662 Hals was seventy-eight years old, and poverty 
pressed hard upon him. He applied for relief to the city 
administration, who readily granted an immediate dona- 
tion of fifty florins, and an allowance for one year of 
150 florins, to be paid quarterly. This staved off want 
for the time, but soon after the quarterly payments 
ceased, he had to renew his appeal to the public bounty. 
On the 16th of January, 1664, he appeared again before the 
city council, who took his case into consideration. A 
provisional order was issued that three cartloads of peat 
for fuel should be sent to him, and that those who had a 
claim against him for rent should apply to the muni- 
cipality. By the 1st of February they had come to a 
decision on his case. He obtained a pension of 200 
Carolus guilders a year, beginning from the 1st of 
October, 1663, and paid in quarterly instalments. 

Hals did not long survive to enjoy the public liberality. 
He died on or about the 26th of August 1666, in his 
eighty-second or eighty-third year, and was buried on the 
1st of September, beneath the choir of the church of Saint 
Bavon. The church books contain an entry of the pay- 
ment of the burial fee of four florins. Even this has led 
some imaginative biographers astray ; the four florins have 
been taken for the whole funeral expenses, and Hals has 
been described as descending to a pauper's grave. A 
rhyme familiar to all who are conversant with the 
literature of epitaphs will remind English readers that a 



8 FBANS HALS. 

pauper does not secure a tomb under 'the choir floor. 
The fee was evidently the customary one for permission to 
bury in the church, and if the representatives of the 
deceased had been able to spare nothing for superfluities, 
they need not have incurred it. 

The widow Lysbeth appears to have fallen into 
extreme poverty after her husband's death. On the 26th 
of July, 1675, she obtained relief to the extent of fourteen 
sous a week. After this no more is heard of her; the 
absence of any record of her death and burial probably 
implies that she died in some workhouse or pauper 
hospital. 

Four of the sons of Hals achieved a certain amount of 
distinction as artists. Herman was a painter of genre 
subjects; Nicolaas served on the committee of the guild 
in 1682; Eeynier, and another son called Frans, whose 
name does not appear on the baptismal register, also 
followed their father's profession. Mention is made of 
another son, Pieter, who went out to the East Indies ; 
what became of him is not known. 



OHAPTEH IL 

THE WOBKS OF HALS. 

T HW eight pictures b; Hak in the Haarlem MnBenm, 
which extend in the dates of their prodaction 
over nearly half a century, enable us to take a tolerably 
comprehensive survey of his artistic development. The 
first of them, dated 1616, is (with one uncertain exception) 
the earliest known work of the master. This ia the 
Bartquei of OJicerg of Ike Civie Guard, a portrait group of 
twelve figures. It belongs to a time before the artist had 
completely asserted his independence, and shows in its 
style much of the influence of the old Butch mastere, 
more particularly of Frans Pieter de Grebber, of Comelia 
Comelissen, and of Hals' own master, Earel van Mander. 
The reddish tint in this picture, the cold shadows, and & 
certain haziness, are all pecnliarities of Van Mander. The 
similarity to the style of Eubens, which has been supposed 
to be traceable in it, is purely fancifuL It must not be 
thought that because outside influences can be detected, 
the early work of Hals is deficient in freshnesB and 
originality ; on the contrary, he has so far overcome the 
chief faults of former Dutoh paintors, their stiffness in 
arrangii^ figares, their excessive fondness for brown tints, 
and uneasy variety of oolours, — he stamps hia work bo 



10 FBANS HALS. 

nnmifitakablj' with the impression of his own individuality, 
that SchreveliiLS is fully justified in his remark, made 
with regard to this very picture, " omnes supercU inuaitato 
pingendi modo, quern peculiarem hcibet" The treatment of 
the picture is bold, the grouping singularly animated, the 
heads carefully finished, the hands showing something of 
the peculiar shortness and breadth which strikes us in 
many portraits by Hals. 

Two well known genre pictures of the same year 1616 are 
wonderfully full of life and humour. The Jolly Trio, which 
was formerly at Brussels, has found its way to America, 
but an admirable copy by Dirok Hals exists- in the Berlin 
Museum. The Herring-Seller, in the possession of Lord 
Northbrook, is a portrait of a man about seventy years 
of age, who carries in one hand a basket of fish, and with 
the other holds up a herring, which he cries for sale. His 
fine black costume, and a coat of arms on the trappings of 
the horse by his side, let us know that he is no common 
fisherman, but a patrician who, drawing his income from the 
fisheries, chooses this way of showing that he is not 
ashamed of the business which has made him rich. In both 
these pictures the local colouring is a little hard and heavy ; 
in the background we have the pervading cool grey tint 
which became a marked characteristic of the artist. 

A Carouse, in the Cocret collection in Paris, belongs to 
the same period. Persons of the same type as in The Jolly 
Trio have been making merry together, and their appear- 
ance, as they sit with flushed faces and lolling tongues, 
proclaims that the genial influence of Bacchus has not been 
invoked in vain. The hardness of colouring and the red 
tints appear more pronounced in this picture than in the 
Banquet of Officers, and suggest that it may be of yet earlier 




JUNKER RAMP AND HIS SWEETHEART. 
From tki painliHg by Hals, at HaarUnt. 



EABLY PIGTUBES. 11 

date; and the presence of a large monogram of F. H. 
in Gothic initiahs does not make this supposition less 
probable. 

The picture of Juriker Bamp and his MistresSy in the pos- 
session of Madame Copes van Hasseldt, belongs to the year 
1623. The technical faults of the earlier works are now 
disappearing, and the artist approaches the maturity of his 
powers. Hals here shows himself master of the art of 
painting a laugh ; his delineation of mirth is irresistibly 
contagious. The gay Junker tosses his brimming goblet 
with a roar of side-splitting laughter, while his lady peeps 
from behind him in equally merry mood, and a noble dog, 
jealous of his master's affection, thrusts himself between 
the pair. 

Of the Bommeljpipt^eler, a perfect example of genre paint- 
ing which was produced a few years later, Hals made two 
copies; one was formerly at Mr. Goldsmith's at the 
Hague, the other is in the possession of Count Mniszech 
at Paris. Several copies by other hands exist, the best of 
which are those at Gsell and Dresden, probably the work 
of Dirck Hals, or of one of the sons of Frans. 

To this period, from about 1623 to 1630, belong a number 
of small figures, some being carefully finished studies, others 
mere sketches hastily thrown off, all of them more or less 
humorous delineations of every-day life and character. 
Such are the singing and playing children at Brussels, 
Cassel, and Konigsberg, the Fluteplayer at Berlin, and the 
Jolly ToperSj which may be found repeated in several 
galleries. 

It is interesting to inquire how the fashion of genre 
pictures originated. Some critics give the credit of intro- 
ducing the style into Holland to Honthorst and the other 



12 FBANS HALd. 

followers of Caravaggio. Others consider Karel van Mander 
as tlie real founder of a school that plays so great a part in 
Dutch art. It is possihle that the latter may have had 
great influence in determining the tastes of Frans Hals ; 
but, wherever the school may have had its more remote 
origin, it is Hals who deserves to be called the founder of 
the distinctive Dutch school of genre painting. He was 
the first to instil into his pictures the life and vigour, the 
easy comedy, the homely reality, which distinguish the 
best examples of their kind. Most of his achievements in 
this line belong to the earlier years of his working life, and 
many seem to testify to his necessities. He had to catch 
the popular taste, and to work for small prices ; and this 
partly explains the prevalent treatment of his subjects, — 
his preference, for instance, for a small canvas, and half- 
length figures. The taste which set so strongly in this 
direction was the product of national character and of the 
circumstances of the time. The Dutch of the new generation, 
in the enjoyment of peace and freedom for which they had 
fought hard, were men of strong individuality of character, 
and not a little self-conscious. They had not much of the 
spiritual, but they had shrewdness, a keen sense of humour, 
and a mighty belief in themselves. If an artist wanted 
to interest them, let him represent themselves and their 
doings ; if he could make them amusing, so much the better ; 
men who have capacity and self-confidence can afford to 
laugh at themselves. In Belgium, as in Italy, a painter 
could still find an avenue to fame in the pursuit of religious 
art ; in Holland the Eeformed Church eschewed all the 
pomps and vanities of decorations, and that avenue was 
entirely closed. Under such circumstances artists naturally 
turned to portraits and genre, each branch, in the hands of a 




PORTRAIT OF AN OFFICER. 

From ihi painting by Hals, inlhi passessienef Sir Richard Wallace. 



GENRE PAINTING. 13 

painter of genius like Hals, supplementing and strengthen- 
ing the other in its interpretation of the spirit of the time. 
Hals gained in both departments of his art by uniting them. 
Whether he is painting the portrait of some leading man, 
or the manners of the common people, he always gives us 
a straight-forward, uncompromising study of character, 
without flattery and without exaggeration, — individual 
character in the one case, national character in the other. 
For the student of history who would set before himself a 
true picture of a great age, the knowledge of manners is as 
important as the knowledge of men, and we seek in the 
works of a great artist for the interpretation of both. 

A large number of portraits belong to the same period 
as the genre pictures above mentioned, among them several 
likenesses of the learned men of Haarlem. A life-like 
portrait of Dr. Johannes Acronius, the very canvas seeming 
to breathe the air of the lecture-room, now hangs in the 
Berlin Museum. Its companion picture, representing a 
young man richly dressed, is equally happy in its contrasted 
delineation of expanding manhood. 

The life-size Portrait of an Officer, painted in 1624, and 
now in the possession of Sir Eichard Wallace, exhibits a 
faithfulness in detail and delicacy of treatment far in 
advance of any other works of that date. It is one of Hals's 
best portraits. About the same time was painted the 
wonderful picture of the artist himself and his wife, in the 
Eijks Museum at Amsterdam. The worthy pair, no longer 
young, but looking as healthy,, comfortable, and light- 
hearted, as heart could wish, recline at the foot of a 
spreading tree, in full enjoyment of the rural scene before 
them. Lysbeth is turning round with a smile, as if to 
answer some jovial sally of her husband's. Both are ia 



14 FBANS HALS. 

black, compelling a simple and uniform treatment throngli- 
out the picture, in which the familiar grey tint prevails as 
the dominant tone. 

Two important military pieces, of the year 1627, are in 

the Haarlem Museum. These are the second Banquet of 

the Civic Gvard^ and the Banquet of Adriansdoelen Officers, 

bright and festive groups full of humour and life. In a 

picture of 1633 we meet the Adriansdoelen officers again at 

table, but in a different mood. They are assembled for 

consultation in a garden behind the Shooting Hall. Some, 

among them the standard-bearer, are grouped in earnest 

conversation around the colonel ; others, in deep discussion 

over some affairs of apparent moment, have a copy of the 

Statutes to consult. Through the deep brown shade of a 

spreading tree comes a glimpse of the sky in its sunset 

glory. In 1639 the Civic Guard was again painted, 

standing at ease, with the artist himself, shown modestly 

stationed in a comer, included in the group. Hals gained 

much in reputation by these military pictures, and the 

authorities of several other Dutch towns applied to him for 

similar portraits of their corps. Houbraken mentions with 

high praise a shooting scene by Hals at Delft ; and there 

is a well-known and admired painting of the same kind in 

the Town Hall of Amsterdam. 

The portraits executed by Hals for the Berenstyn family 
are among his finest masterpieces. The portrait of Nicolaas 
Berenstyn and his wife was painted in 1629. In 1630 
comes a large picture of another Berenstyn, with his wife and 
family, full of life and spirit. The parents sit under the 
shade of a tree, watching the happy children at play with 
their nurses. The natural untroubled enjoyment of the 
little ones, the maids' participation in it, the parents' satis- 



POBTEAITS. 15 

faction in contemplating the games^ are all brought before 
ns with a vivacity which even Bnbens has never excelled. 
Very few pictures can compare with the charming portrait 
of a young girl of the same family, painted perhaps two or 
three years later. In splendid attire, in a rich red dress, 
with gold braid and veil, a large black mantle falling from 
the head with its characteristic hood, the left hand holding 
a long grey glove, the right a fan of feathers, a lady of the 
highest rank stands before us ; yet the face is that of a 
young girl of about twelve years of age, with a happy 
laughing expression, which sparkles in contrast to the 
state and stiffness of her surroundings. The treatment of 
the picture, which has unfortunately received considerable 
damage, is in some respects so unlike the master's usual 
workmanship that it has at different times been imputed 
to Velazquez, to Eubens, and to Van Dyck ; it is, how- 
ever, now universally acknowledged to be from the hand 
of Frans Hals. 

To the same time as the Berenstyn pictures belong 
several portraits of one Van Heythuysen, a great bene- 
factor to the town of Haarlem. A full-length in the Lich- 
tenstein collection lat Vienna is among the happiest efforts 
of the artist's brush. Another full-length, formerly in the 
possession of the family, is now in the Berlin Museum. A 
third was bought by Baron Rothschild at an auction in 
1865 for 35,000 francs. In this last Hals has seized the 
moment when the young man has just entered his studio, 
thrown himself in a seat, and begun to talk, to transmit 
his features to the canvas. He has run up for a moment, 
leaving his horse below ; we see him as he sat, easily, one 
leg over the other, unconscious that he was sitting for his 
portrait, the riding- whip bent in his hands, and a merry 



16 FBANS HALS. 

BTDile on his lips, called np by some sally of the painter's. 
That the young man was pleased with his impromptu 
portrait we know, for he ordered a duplicate to present to 
his father. 

The Haarlem group of Directors of the Elizabeth HospHaL 
is remarkable for the traces of Eembrandt's influence that 
appear in it. The picture has strongly-marked character- 
istics, almost entirely foreign to Hals's natural style. 
This influence, which was most strongly felt in the two or 
three years following 1640, may be traced in several other 
works of the period. A portrait of a lady in the Bridge- 
water Gallery, another of an elderly lady (dated 1639) in 
the Van der Hoop Museum at Amsterdam, the portraits 
of an old man and his wife in the possession of D. Yan der 
Keller (1643), and a portrait of a young lady seated, in 
the Stadel Museum at Frankfort, may be mentioned as 
examples. This Eembrandtesque manner was only a pass- 
ing phase of Hals's artistic development, and as it passes 
off his individuality becomes more and more decided to 
the end. 

The portrait of Descartes in the Louvre, painted in 
1655, is a strikingly characteristic work. The artist docB 
not condescend to the least disguise of the homeliness of 
his sitter's countenance, nor can the lack of personal beauty 
detract from the impression of intellectual power in the 
face. Of the same period are the large likeness of a man 
in Baron Kothschild's collection at Vienna, formerly at 
Gsell, and the portrait of a youth at Gotha. In 1660 we 
have the beautiful portrait of a young man in a large hat, 
in the Cassel Gallery, universally known through Unger's 
etching. Two admirable men's portraits, belonging to 
nearly the same time, are in private collections in Holland ; 



STYLE. * 17 

a portrait of Wilhelin Croes, in the possession of Baron 
van Pallandt of the Hague, and one of a man, which 
appeared in Mr. Neville (Joldsmith's auction in 1876. The 
Berlin Grallery contains a man's half-length portrait, dated 
1660, and the famous Hille Bohhe of Haarlem, an admirable 
genre painting of uncertain date. 

Two pictures of 1664 at Haarlem are the latest pro- 
ductions of Hals which remain to us. They represent 
respectively the Directors and Directresses of the *' Oude- 
mannenhuis" in Haarlem. The museum catalogue de- 
scribes these pictures as unfinished, but a comparison with 
other productions of Frans Hals would not lead us to 
suppose so ; nor indeed if we judge them by Eembrandt's 
standard, that a picture is finished when it conveys the 
artist's meaning, can we consider these incomplete. 

Frans Hals's style declares itself especially in the sub- 
ordination of colouring to the dominant tone. He fixes 
his subjects as he meets them in life, in ordinary day- 
light, not in extravagant or fantastic chiaroscuro. He 
chooses and regulates his lights with regard to the necessary 
colouriug of the scene represented, with a skill that at 
once proclaims him master of his craft. Occasionally he 
allows himself to use a weaker daylight, which permits 
the local colouring a certain assertion, but, if he does so, 
it is always with due regard to the gradations of shade. 
With all the brilliancy of colour he permitted himself in 
his military pieces, he still arranged his tints with the 
greatest care, and kept the flesh tones under; he en- 
courages the spiritual to dominate the material, allows to 
the dress only just what is needed to make its wearer 
understood, determines the arrangement of his pictures 
by the local colouring, and concentrates the interest 

c 



18 FRANS HALS. 

entirely upon the head as the centre of intelligence, and 
on the hands as subsidiary interpreters of character. His 
genius is marked by his treatment of the difficult costume 
of the day — the black dress with a large white collar, on 
which all the light is concentrated, as if it separated the 
head from the trunk, the soul from the body, while yet it 
is suggested as the link which keeps the two together. 

The success of Hals as a master is seen in the powerful 
influence he exercised over the works of his contemporaries, 
and in the number of more than ordinary artists who 
called themselves his pupils. Among them were the 
portrait painters, Verspronck and Van der Vinne, the 
society painters with Dirck Hals at the head of them, and 
among them some of Frans's sons ; and on the other side, 
painters of the peasant world, like Adriaan van Ostade. 
Even some of the best architectural and still-life artists, 
as well as the most celebrated genre painters of Holland^ 
Metzu, Terburgh, and Steen, all directly or indirectly 
sprang from the studio of Hals. 

An interesting record of the esteem in which he was 
held by pupils and contemporaries is found in a picture by 
Hiob Dirck Heyde, in the Haarlem Museum. It shows the 
interior of a studio, in which a number of young and 
middle-aged men are drawing from a nude model, while 
the aged painter, who presides, is leading a young man in 
at the door. The inscription on the back informs us that 
the atelier is that of Hals, as it appeared in or about the 
year 1652. The old man, who is unfortunately seen only 
from behind, is greeting Wouvermans, a former pupil, 
Eound the table sit Dirck Hals, strikingly like his brother, 
Frans, Herman, and Klaes, the sons of old Frans, Jan 
Hals, who was perhaps his nephew, Dirck van Deelen, 



PUPILS AND CONTEMPORABIES. 19 

Pieter Molyn, Gerrit Dirck Heyde, and the painter of the 
picture, Hiob Dirck Heyde, a young man of about twenty- 
three years of age. Of these Grerrit Heyde was the only one 
who was not yet a master of his art, and past the stage of 
pupildom. The presence of the others testifies that they 
recognised how much even a skilled artist might learn 
from the old master, and knew how to enjoy and appreciate 
his company. 



CATALOGUE OF 

PAINTINGS BY FEANS HALS. 



HOLLAND. 
Haablem. Painted nc 

In the Museum in the Town Hall, 

Banquet of Officers of Arquebusiers of St. George 

(12 figures). (Jorisdoelen,) 1616 

Banquet of Officers of Arquebusiers of St. George 

(11 figures) 1627 

Banquet of Officers of Arquebusiers of St Andrew. 
{Adriaemdoelen') ....... 1627 

Assembly of Officers of Arquebusiers of St. Andrew, 
with 14 life-size figures, including Colonel Jan Claar- 
zoon Los ........ 1635 

Officers and Sergeants of Arquebusiers of St. George 

(with portrait of the artist) 1 63& 

Governors of the Elizabeth Hospital .... 1641 
Governors of the Hospital for Old Men .... 1664 
Lady Governors of the Hospital for Old Women . . 1664 
Hofje van Berenteyn (almshouse). 

Portraits of Hr. Berenteyn and his Wife . . . 1629 

The Berenteyn family 1630 

A girl of the Berenteyn family 1633 

Copes van Hasselt Collection. 

" Es lebe der Wein " 1623 

Two boys singing. 

Amsterdam. 

Bijhs Museum, 

Frans Hals and Lysbeth Eeyniers 1624 

The jolly topers 1627 

A Mandoline-player 1630 

Museum van der Hoop, 

Portrait of an elderly lady ... . , 1639 

Baihhaus (Tovm Hall), 

" Doelenstuck." (A shooting gallery, with 13 figures.) . 1637 



OATALOaUE. 21 

Hr, Six van HiUigom, Pawted iw 

Portrait of a man 1630' 

The Lute-player 1625 

Hr, van der Kell&ii, 

Portrait of an old man and his wife .... 1643 

The Hague. 
Baron van PaUandt, 

Small portrait of Wilhelm Croes 1658- 

Hr» NeviUe Goldsmith. 

A copy of the " Rommelpotspeeler." 

Poi-trait of a man 1663 

BOTTSBDAM MuSEUM. 

Portrait of an old man. 

A small portrait of a man . . .... 163-^ 

A dissecting Iheatre (a sketch). 

Delft. 

Cluveniradoeleiu 

A large shooting-piece. 

BBrssm^. BELGIUM. 

Musee de Feinture, 

Small full-length portrait of W. van Heythuysen . . 1G35 
Portrait of a man ....... 1615- 

JDuke of Ar ember g. 

Two singing boys . . . . . . . 1627 

A jolly toper ' 1640 

Private Possession, 

Portraits of threechildren. 
Antwerp Museum. 

The Fisher-boy 1640 

LoxDON. ENGLAND. 

National CraUery, 

Portrait of a woman in white cap and ruff. 
Buckingham Palace, 

Portrait of a man ....... 1 636- 

Bridgewater Gallery, 

Head of an old lady 1640 

Sir Bichard Wallace, 

Portrait of an oflBcer 1624 



22 FBANS HALS. 

Earl of NorthbrooJc. Painted in 

The Herring Seller, with coat of arms .... 1616 

Hampton Court. 

Small portrait of a young man 1620 

Paeis. ^B^OE- 

Louvre. 

Portrait of Bene Descartes 1655 

Laughing women 1630 

Portrait of a lady 1650 

M. Double. 

Portrait of W. van Hey thuysen. Mcdf -length. 
Baron James Rothschild. 

Portrait of W. van Heythnysen. Whole length. 
M. Lavalart. 

Portrait of a man. 

Portrait of a woman. 
Graf Mniszech, 

Portraits of an old man and wife 1643 

Portraits of gentleman and wife 1638 

Portrait of young lady 1634 

Portrait of an elderly lady . . . . . . 1632 

Bommelpotspeeler. 

Jolly topers. 

Portrait of Dr. M. Middelhoveu 1626 

Mr. Wilson. 

Small portrait of Schrevelius and his wife . . . 1626 

Portrait of Schade van Hestrum 1645 

Portrait of Pieter van Broecke 1623 

Jolly topers. 

A fisher boy 1620 

M. Rothan. 

Portrait of a young ludy 1630 

Portrait of a man. 

Jolly topers. 
Oraf Branecki, 

Portrait of a man. 
Jf. Cocret. 

Table Company (marked F. H.) Half-lengHt. 



CATALOGUE. 



23 



GERMANY. 
Berlin Museum. 

Portrait of a young man, in a dark violet silh cloaJc 

Portrait of the preacher, Joannes Acronius . 

Portrait of a young man, toith broad-brimmed hat . 

Poi-trait of a young woman, in black dress 

A singing boy, in a cap with light blue feather 

A jolly toper, sitting at a table .... 

Hille Bobbe, the Witch of Haarlem 

Portrait of an old man, in a black velvet cloali. 

Portrait of a nobleman, with pointed beard . 

A little girl of the Bpenstein family, and her nurse 

Portrait of Tyman Oorsdorp, in a black chak 

Dbesden Gallery. 

Two portraits of men 

Portrait of a man ... ... 



Oassel Gallery. 

Jolly Topers, (marked P. H.) 
Singing boys . . . . 
Portrait of a nobleman and his wife 
Portrait of a young man 
Portraits of two gentlemen . 

GoTHA Gallery. 

Portrait of a young man 

Portrait of a yoimg man (erroneously called tlie artist) 

Frankfort, Stadel Museum. 

Portraits of a young man and his wife . 

Portrait of a young lady ..... 

Portrait of a youth ...... 



Painted in" 
1627 
1627 
1627 
1627 
1625 
16H0 
1G50 

1625 
IGSO- 
1656 



1630 
1660 

1640 
1625 
162a 
1660 
1635 

1635 
1635 

1638 
1640 
1624 



Schwerin Gallery. 

Man's Portrait (erroneously called Van Dyck). 
Drinking children — ^Laughing children. 
Young bagpipe-players — Guitar- players. 



There are many other portraits in various cities of Germany. 



24 ¥Rkm HALS. 



RUSSLAl. 

"St. FkimmrBO — the Hebmitagb. Padrsd or 

Portimit of a yomig man 16G0 

Portrait of a joath 1650 

Half-length portrait of a yoong man .... 1660 
FbrtraitofanoflSoer 1635-40 



PAINTINGS BY FRANS HALS AT THE EXHXBmON OP 
OLD MASTERS AT THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS. 

Lestt vr 

Portrait of Comelis de Wagen of Haarlem 1S7 1 Miss James. 

M of Joannes Ho(»nbeck 1S71 Miss James. 

„ of a man .... 1875 The Queen. 

*, of himself .... 1875 Mr. A. Levy. 

^ of himself .... 1875 3Ir. D. Bortoo. 

^ of himself,* signed iBtat. snse 06, 

anno 1628 .... 1876 Earl of Radnor. 

^ of his wife, signed .£tat. sos 60, 

anno 1628. . 1876 Earl of Radnor. 

„ of a Dntch lady 1877 Sir John Xeeld. Bart. 

Portraits of a gentleman and of a lady . 1877 Mrs. Newman Smith. 

Portrait of David Ferriers, the younger 1878 Mr. Lonis Mi^ville. 

„ of a Flemish gentleman . . 1878 Mr.W. C.Cartwright. 

„ of a man .... 1879 Mr. S. H. de Zoete. 

ErcniKGS. 

Many of the pictures by Frans Hals have been etched by W. Unger 
and pid>lished with descriptions by C. Yosmaer ; and in the ^ GJazette 
des Beaux-Arts," and other collections. 



* The dates would tend to prove that these cannot be the portraits 
of Frans Hals and his wife — Frans was bom in 1584. 




INDEX TO VAN DYCK. 



(The ruijnes of Pictures are Printed in Italic.) 



Auguissola, Sofonisba^ 28. 
Antwerp, siege of, 2. 
Arunde], Countess of, 28. 
Arundel, Earl of, 41. 
Arundel, Earl of, letter to, 11. 
Balen, Hcndrick van, 7. 
Beck, David, 66. 
Beutivoglio, Cardinal, 26. 
Brignole, The Marchi&ncss of, 26. 
Bolswert, Scheltius a, 32. 
Charles /., Portraits of, 41, 63. 
Bill for pictures for, 53. 
Children of 55, 65. 
Christ Bearing his Cross, 10. 
Christ Crowned with Thorns, 32. 
Crucifixion, The, (In the Academy 

at Antwerp), 17. 
Cuypers, Maria, 6. 
De Piles' mention of Van Dyck, 61. 
Digby, Sir Kenelm, 51. 
Dobson, William, 67. 
Durazzo family, portraits of the, 25. 
Eltham, House at, 44. 
English Nobility, portraits of, 66. 
Etchings, Centum Icones, 35. 
Gandy, James, 66. 
Gerbier, Sir Balthazer, 27. 



Guild of Saint Luke, 2. 

Hals, Frans, meeting with, 17. 

Henrietta Maria, Queen, 54, 64. 

Hoet, Gerard, 23. 

Holy Family t 23. 

Lanicre, Nicholas, Portrait of, 42. 

Mantua, Duke of, 40. 

Marriage of St. Catherine, 32. 

Merren, Van der, 30. 

Mytens, Daniel, 45. 

Nanni, Chevalier, 22. 

Ophem, Anna van, 21. 

Orange, Prince o/", 16. 

Order of the Garter, Sketches for 

frescos for Whitehall, 55. 
Oxford, University of, 41. 
Porter, Endymion, 42. 
Raising of the Cross, 33. 
lieyn, John de, 66. 
Eeynolds*, Sir Joshua, praise, 31. 
Saint Martin dividing his Cloak with 

Two Beggars, 22. 
Saventhem, visit to, 20. 
Stone, Henry, 67. 
Sustermans, Justus, 28. 
Van Noort, school of, 7. 
Wael, Cornelius de, 28. 



CHBONOLOGY OF VAN DYCK AND INDEX. 



A.D. 

1599. Van Dyck's birth, 1. 
Parentage, 5. 
Death of his mother, G. 
Enters Van Balen's studio, 7. 
Becomes Bubens* pupil, 8. 
Anecdote Rubens' studio, 9. 
1618. Enrolled m the Guild of 
Saint Luke, 10. 
Advised by Kubens to visit 
Italy, 12. 
1620. Visits England, 13. 

Pension granted by King of 

England, 13. 
The first of his English por- 
traits, 14. 
Journey into Holland, 15. 
Residence at the Hague, 16. 
Meeting with Frans Hals, 16. 
Goes to Paris, 17. 

1622. Called to Antwerp, 17. 
Death of his father, 17. 

1623. Starts for Italy, 18. 

Finds an attraction at Saven- 

them, 20. 
Paints the 8L Martin, 22. 
In Venice, 24. 
Received by the Merchants 

of Genoa, 25. 
His Genoese portraits, 25. 

1624. Goes to Rome, 26 
His extravagance, 27. 
Makes short stay in Florence 

and in Turin, 28. 
Meets the Countess of Arun- 
del, 28. 



A.D. 

1624. Visits Genoa again, 28. 

Goes to Sicily, 28. 
1626. Returns to Antwerp, 29. 
Letter to Canon Braye, 33. 
His Centum Icones, 35. 
Portrait of Snyders, 35. 
Supposed to have visited Ger- 
many, 35. 
1629. Came to London, 36. 

Patronized by the Earl of 

Northumberland, 36. 
Quarrel with Sir Balthazer 

Gerbier, 37. 
Patronized by the Earl of 
Arundel, 41. 

1632. Received at Court, 44. 
Received thehonour of knight- 
hood, 46. 

Meets Sir Kenelm Digby, 46. 

1633. Pension conferred, 48 
Engagement to Lady Stan- 
hope, 48. 

1610. His marriage to Maria Ruth- 
ven, 50. 

His bill against the King, 52. 

Visits Antwerp, 56 

Birth of his daughter, 58. 
1641. His death (Dec. 9), 58. 

His will, 58. 

His widow's marriage, 59. 

His daughter's marriage, 59. 

His personal appearance, 60. 

His method of painting, 62. 

Imitators and disciples, 67. 



INDEX TO FRANS HALS. 



( The Navies of Pictures arc PrifUed in Italic.) 



AcroniuSy J)r, Johannes, 13. 

Banquet of the Civic Guard, 14. 
Berenstyn Family, 14. 
Berck Hcyde, Gerrit, 19. 
Berck Heyde, Hiob, 18. 

Directors of Elisabeth Hospital, 16. 
Directors of Oudemannenhvis, 17. 

FluU Players, The, II, 

Guilds of Haarlem, 6. 

Haarlem in the 17 th century, 3. 
Haarlem Museum, eight pictures at, 

9, 10, 14. 
Hals, Frans. 

His birth (1584 ?), 3. 
His parentage, 3. 
Enters the school of Van Man- 
der, at Haarlem (1608 ?), 3. 
Marries Anneke Harmans^oon 

(1610), 4. 
Death of his wife, 4. 



Hals Frans — 

Marries Lysbeth Reyniers 
(1617), 4. 

Meets with Van Dyck, 5. 

Elected member of the Guild of 
Rhetoric (1617), 6. 

Excused payments (1661), 6. 

Obtains a pension (1663), 7. 

His death, August 26 (1666), 7. 

His family, 8. 

His pupils, 18. 
Hals and his Wife, 13. 
Hals, Dirck, 18. 
Herring Seller, The, 10. 

Jolly Trio, 18. 

Junker Samp and his Mistress, 11. 

Molyn Pieter, 18. 

Officer, Portrait of an, 18. 

Van Deelen, Dirck, 18. 

Van Heythuysen, Portrait of, 15. 

Wouvermans, 18. 





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