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Full text of "Varieties of oats for Illinois"

AGRICULTURE 

LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 



no. 



- 353 



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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

Agricultural Experiment Station 



BULLETIN No. 339 



VARIETIES OF OATS FOR ILLINOIS 

By G. H. DUNCAN and W. L. BUBLISON 




URBANA, ILLINOIS, DECEMBER, 1929 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PLACE OF OATS IN ILLINOIS AGRICULTURE 23 

VARIETY TESTS OF OATS 24 

Tests in Northern Illinois 25 

Tests in Central Illinois 27 

Tests in Southwestern Illinois 31 

HULL-LESS OATS vs. HULLED VARIETIES 33 

RATE OF SEEDING OATS 33 

DISTANCE BETWEEN DRILL ROWS 37 

COLD RESISTANCE OF OAT VARIETIES 40 

SUMMARY 42 

ORIGIN AND DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES.. 43 



Urbana, Illinois December, 1929 

Publications in the Bulletin series report the results of investigations made or sponsored 
by the Experiment Station. 



VARIETIES OF OATS FOR ILLINOIS 

By G. H. DUNCAN and W. L. BuRLisoN 1 

Approximately four million acres of Illinois land are devoted every 
year to the growing of oats. In spite of the fact that oats during the 
last few years have been considered an unprofitable crop, there has 
been no perceptible falling off in their production either in Illinois or 
in the United States as a whole. Neither does the world's production 
show any tendency downward. 

Because of the several advantages possessed by oats they are likely 
to continue to be grown extensively for many years. There is a 
marked tendency at the present time, however, to substitute barley 
and soybeans for a part of the oats crop, but this has not materially 
reduced the oat acreage in Illinois. Since oats are grown on such a 
large area, and so generally return an unsatisfactory income, espe- 
cially when the grain is sold in the open market, 2 it is especially im- 
portant that the highest-yielding varieties be selected for growing and 
the most economical methods be employed in their culture. This bul- 
letin gives the results of variety tests and experiments on different 
rates and methods of seeding made by the Illinois Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station during the past fourteen years. 

PLACE OF OATS IN ILLINOIS AGRICULTURE 

Adapted to Corn-Belt Rotations. Even tho oats as a crop do not 
return a great direct profit, they do render benefits which are some- 
times overlooked. According to the practice in the corn belt, oats 
commonly follow corn in the rotation, and they probably are better 
adapted to this particular position in the rotation than any other crop. 
Oats may be sown before the work of preparing the corn land is press- 
ing. They can be broadcast and worked into the soil rather roughly 
with fairly satisfactory results. Even tho the yield of oats is increased 
by seeding on plowed ground that has been worked down to a good 
seed bed and by sowing with a drill, the practical method seems to be 
in favor of broadcast seeding and covering with a disk. The great 
advantage of this method is the fact that a relatively large area can 
be seeded in a short time. The time saved will usually yield greater 

>G. H. Dungan, Assistant Chief in Crop Production, and W. L. Burlison, 
Chief in Crop Production and Head of Department of Agronomy. 

The price of oats naturally varies with the combined supplies of oats and 
other feedstuffs, more particularly with corn. In this connection Department 
Bulletin 1351 of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, "What Makes the Price 
of Oats," by Hugh B. Killough, 1925, will be of interest to many readers. 

23 



24 BULLETIN No. 339 {.December, 

returns when applied toward preparing the land for corn, making it 
possible to plant the corn crop a few days earlier. 

The system of rotating corn and oats is not so injurious to the 
productivity of the soil as growing corn every year. On the Morrow 
plots at the University of Illinois, where corn has been grown every 
year since 1879 without soil treatment, the last 23-year average yield 
of corn is 25.1 bushels an acre, whereas on the nearby plot that has 
been cropped to corn and oats alternately, the yield of corn for the 
same period is 35.6 bushels an acre. The average yield of oats during 
this period is 34.0 bushels an acre. The average value of the crops 
produced each year on the corn and oats plot, according to the average 
December 1 price, is $4.57 an acre more than that of the corn from 
the continuous-corn plot. 

It is commonly conceded that changing from corn to oats and then 
back to corn is not a good rotation, yet there are certain advantages 
in the practice. Also the cost of labor required to produce a crop of oats 
is considerably less than that needed to grow a crop of corn. Another 
advantage which the culture of oats affords is the opportunity of ob- 
taining a stand of clover. Altho barley is generally conceded to be 
the best nurse crop for clover and alfalfa, it is not greatly superior in 
this respect to the early-maturing varieties of oats. 

Have Assured Place on Livestock Farms. Oats are an excellent 
feed for growing animals, and for that reason they have a place on 
every livestock farm. When fed in the right way they will return an 
income far in excess of any general market price that has been re- 
ceived for them since 1920. 



VARIETY TESTS OF OATS 

The varieties chosen for use in these experiments were either well 
known and generally grown in some section of the state, or were new 
varieties that possessed desirable characteristics and promise of being 
adapted to some part of Illinois. 

An attempt was made to obtain pure seed of all new varieties, and 
after their introduction care was taken to keep down the percentage 
of mixtures with other varieties by hand-separating the plants in ad- 
joining plots before harvest, and by taking special pains to clean the 
separator thoroly after threshing each variety. Even with this care, 
some mixing occurred, and it was found desirable in some instances 
to obtain a new supply of pure seed or to carefully hand-rogue the 
mixed varieties in the field before they were harvested. By these 
methods it is believed that the purity of the varieties was maintained 
to a sufficiently high degree to make the yield data reliable. 

The different varieties were grown in comparative test plots on 
soil that received enough rock phosphate, limestone, and either animal 



1929} VARIETIES OF OATS FOR ILLINOIS 25 

manure or crop residues to keep the land in a good state of pro- 
ductivity. 

The oats were sown with an 8-inch disk drill at the rate of 8 pecks 
per acre. The plots at Urbana, and during part of the period, those 
at DeKalb, were 6 drill rows wide, and either 8 or 16 rods long, with 
a 16-inch space between varieties. This made it possible to have four 
replications at DeKalb and eight replications at Urbana. During most 
of the time covered by these tests the plots at DeKalb and Alhambra 
were 1 rod wide and 16 rods long with a 16-inch alley between va- 
rieties. 

The weights of grain at threshing time were used in calculating the 
yields. The average yield of each variety was determined, but this 
means little in comparing varieties that were grown during different 
years. The average yield of each variety is therefore compared, on a 
percentage basis, with the average of all varieties grown during the 
same years. For example, lowar oats on the DeKalb field have been 
grown for eight years (1921-1928) and have yielded an average of 
75.2 bushels an acre. The average yield of all varieties grown during 
the same eight-year period is 68.8 bushels. Counting 68.8 as 100 per- 
cent, 75.2 has a value of 109.3 percent, which is considered as the 
percentage rating of lowar. 

The experiment fields from which records were obtained are located 
in three different sections of the state: at DeKalb, in DeKalb county; 
at Urbana, in Champaign county; and at Alhambra, in Madison 
county. 

The yields of varieties grown up to and including the season of 
1916 were published in Bulletin 195 of this Station. Only those va- 
rieties that were grown in and since 1917 are included in the present 
bulletin, but in calculating the average yields and percentage ratings 
of the different varieties, all available data have been used, including 
results prior to 1917. 

Tests in Northern Illinois 

The five leading varieties among the 43 tested on the DeKalb field 
since 1916 are Silvermine 6-403 (an Illinois selection), lowar, Albion 
(Iowa 103), Richland (Iowa 105), and Kanota, ranking in the order 
named (Table 1). 

The early and medium-late varieties of oats have a close race for 
first place in yield. The odds, however, during the last ten-year 
period, have been slightly in favor of the early varieties. The aver- 
age percentage rating of the five highest-producing early varieties 
lowar, Albion, Richland, Kanota, and Sixty-Day 13-304 is 105.66, 
which is 1.6 percent or a little over 1 bushel more than that of the 
five highest-yielding, medium-late varieties Silvermine 6-403, logren, 
Silvermine, Great American, and Scottish Chief. 



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Many people place emphasis on the straw of oats as an 
product of the crop,, and for that reason prefer the later maturing va- 
rieties since they produce more straw than the earlier varieties. Under 
some conditions the larger yields of straw may more than offset the 
lower avenge grain-yielding ability of midseason oats. It may be 
worthy of mention, however,, that the quality of the straw from early 
oats is superior to that from late or imAaMum oats because of its 



Tests in SiimlfcaiiliiB Maws 

Of the 16 varieties that have been tested at Alhambra,. in south- 
western Illinois, for a minimum of four years,, the best six are Vic- 
tory, Silvermme, Albion, Burt* Sixty-Day, and lowar, in the order 
named (Table 3). 

One of the serious handicaps to successful oat production on the 
Alhambra field and on the tight-clay subsoils of southern TH** is 
the frequent impossibility of sowing the oats early enough. The im- 
pervious character of the subsoil and the relatively heavy spring rain- 
fall frequently make the surface soil too wet to work until after the 
normal oat-seeding date. When oats are sown late, they usually come 
into the heading stage at a time when the moisture supply is lHiifMi. 
The yield, under such conditions, is greatly reduced. The best ex- 
ample of such unfavorable conditions at Alhambra occurred in 1922. 
when 11.1 bushels per acre was the highest yield obtained and two 
varieties failed completely. 

Late seeding is believed by some to be the greatest factor in low 
oat yields in southern Illinois. In planning the oat-variety tests at 
Alhambra for the season of 1927, h was decided to sow the oats at 
approximately the correct time irrespective of the ft^jMnn of the soiL 
Accordingly on March 11 one series of 18 plate was "mndded-ni.^ The 
soil had been fall-plowed and altho the field was soft and had some 
water Mml"*e, in the depressions,, there was no particular difficulty 
exp-frifrj'T-.i m Bowing the Mfa wiUi hane-danai fiaY ftnfl Dnrciz 
the night following there came a heavy rain which covered the field 
with a sheet of surface water, "mMmc further seeding operations at 
that time impractical. lte^lff.m| that tfi^ haaanl of t*yli"ig the soil 
while wet becomes greater with the advance of the season, no aUnupi 
was made to seed the other series on this field until the soil was dry 
enough to work nicely. This occurred on April 27. 

The stand of plants was more uniform on the late-sown plots. 
On the early-sown plots there was a number of patches where the 
oats were drowned out. However, the height of plants and the general 
vigor of the crop were decidedly in favor of the March 11 seeding, 
which yielded an average of 53.7 bushels an acre, as against 2&1 
bushels for the later seeding. It is recognized that it may not be ad- 



32 



BULLETIN No. 339 



[December, 




FIG. 1. PANICLE, SPIKELET, AND THRESHED GRAIN OF HULL-LESS OATS (A), 

COMPARED WITH SIXTT-DAY, A HULLED VARIETY (B) 
The glumes of hull-less oats are more open in arrangement and each 
spikelet contains more grains which are less compact than those of Sixty- 
Day and other hulled varieties. On the average, the hulls on hulled 
varieties make up approximately 30 percent of the weight of the grain. 



visable to sow oats in the mud as a general practice, and the fact is 
also appreciated that the results of a single experiment should not 
serve as the sole basis for recommendations, yet the results of this test 
seem to substantiate the general belief that one of the great hazards 
to successful oat growing in southern Illinois is late seeding. 



1929} 



VARIETIES OF OATS FOR ILLINOIS 



33 



HULL-LESS OATS vs. HULLED VARIETIES 

A variety of hull-less oats has been grown in the test plots at 
Urbana during the past five years (Table 4) . During two of the five 
years the hull-less oats have outyielded the average of all hulled varie- 
ties in terms of quantity of hulled grain produced per acre. The aver- 
age superiority of the hull-less is 75.0 pounds. This gives the hull-less 
type a percentage rating of 101.9, which would place it fourteenth 
among the 44 varieties grown on the Urbana field. 

Yields of hull-less oats can be compared fairly with yields of hulled 
varieties only after they have been reduced to a hull-free basis. On 
the average, the hulls on hulled varieties constitute approximately 

TABLE 4. HULL-LESS OATS: ANNUAL YIELDS COMPARED WITH AVERAGE YIELD 
OF ALL HULLED VARIETIES GROWN DURING SAME YEARS, URBANA 

(Pounds grain per acre) 







All hulled 


varieties 


Difference 


Percentage 
rating of hull-less 


Year 


Hull-less 


Threshed 
grain 


Hull-free 
kernels 


above or 
below 
hulled 


based on average 
weight of hull- 
free kernels of all 
hulled varieties 


1924. . 


1 571.5 


2 329.6 


1 630.7 


- 59.2 


96.4 


1925 


934.5 


1 427.2 


999.0 


- 64.5 


93.5 


1926 


2 144.0 


2 688.0 


1 881.6 


+262 .4 


113.9 


1927 


1 102.5 


1 872.0 


1 310.4 


-107.9 


84.1 


1928 


1 923.2 


2 256.0 


1 579.2 


+344.0 


121.8 


Average . . . 


1 535.1 


2 114.6 


1 480.2 


+ 75.0 


101.9 



30 percent of the weight of the grain. Thirty percent has therefore 
been deducted from the average yields of the hulled varieties grown 
in these tests during the same years as the hull-less, in order to put 
them on a comparable basis with the hull-less. 

Hull-less oats are considered by some growers to be superior to 
hulled varieties for feeding to hogs and poultry. Along with this ad- 
vantage, however, may be mentioned the difficulty which some growers 
have had from the spoilage of hull-less oats in storage. The moisture 
content of hull-less oats, for safe storage in a bin, must be below that 
required for satisfactory storage of hulled varieties. Hull-less oats 
also shatter somewhat worse than hulled varieties after they are ma- 
ture. The loose character of the chaff surrounding the grain of hull- 
less oats may be observed in Fig. 1. 

RATE OF SEEDING OATS 

Oats, or any other crop, should be seeded thickly enough to secure 
the number of plants that will utilize the space and available soil 
nutrients to the best advantage. Since oat plants are capable of con- 



34 



BULLETIN No. 339 



[December, 



siderable adaptation thru stooling, as well as thru the development 
of large or small panicles, the rate of seeding may vary rather widely 
without materially influencing the yield of grain. Some varieties seem 
able to adjust to varying rates of seeding more readily than others. 
The results of a test of 6- and 10-peck seedings with 13 varieties in 
1911 are shown in Table 5. 

Effect on Acre Yields. White Bonanza, in the above test, showed 
the least ability to adjust to the seeding rate. The 10-peck seeding 
gave a net increase of 11.7 bushels an acre, or 29.8 percent, over the 
6-peck seeding. Sixty-day proved the most capable of adaptation, 
the yield of grain with the 6-peck seeding being only .9 bushel less 
than that with the 10-peck seeding. It is possible that the small- 

TABLE 5. RATE OF SEEDING: YIELDS WITH 6- AND 10-PECK SEEDIXGS OF 
DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF OATS, URBANA, 1911 

(Bushels per acre) 



Variety 


Yield at 
6-peck 
seeding 


Yield at 
10-peck 
seeding 


Difference 
in favor 
of 10-peck 
seeding 


Net gain 
for 10-peck 
seeding 


Percent- 
age net 
gain for 
10-peck 
seeding 


White Bonanza 


39 2 


51 9 


12 7 


11 7 


29 8 


Minnesota 6 


47 1 


58 


10 9 


9 9 


21 


American Banner 


43 8 


53 1 


9 3 


8 3 


18 9 


Black Gotham (impure) 
Danish White 


57.0 
57.3 


65.5 
64.4 


8.5 
6.9 


7.5 
5.9 


13.2 
10.3 


Schoenen 


63 6 


69 8 


6 2 


5 2 


8.2 


Lincoln Siber 


45 


51 2 


6 2 


5 2 


11 6 


Siberian 


58 


62 9 


4 9 


3 9 


6 7 


Twentieth Century .... 
Swedish Select. . . 


42.9 
56 4 


46.9 
60 2 


4.0 
3 8 


3.0 

2 8 


7.0 
5 


Irish Victor 


60.8 


63.4 


2.6 


1.6 


2.6 


Sixty-Day . . . . 


49.1 


50 


.9 


- .1 


- .2 


Black Gotham (pure) . . 
Average 


42.2 
50.9 


41.4 
56.8 


- .8 
5.9 


-1.8 
4.9 


-4.3 
9.6 



grained varieties can be seeded at a thinner rate than others because 
of the greater number of plants obtainable from a given weight or 
volume of seed. 

The average net gain of a 10- over a 6-peck seeding rate was 4.9 
bushels an acre, or 9.6 percent. However, the test was too limited, 
covering only one year and involving but two rates of seeding, to be 
construed to mean that a 10-peck rate of seeding is always the better. 
Some amount between 6 and 10 pecks, or in excess of 10 pecks, may 
be the proper rate. 

Further data on the rate of seeding with an 8-inch drill were ob- 
tained at Urbana and at DeKalb during the years 1915 to 1921. The 
results secured at Urbana, expressed in net yields per acre, are shown 
in Table 6. The rates of seeding varied from as low as 4 pecks to as 



VARIETIES OF OATS FOR ILLINOIS 



35 



TABLE 6. RATE OF SEEDING: SIXTY-DAY OATS SEEDED AT DIFFERENT RATES, 

URBANA 

(Net yield in bushels per acre) 



Rate of seeding 

(pecks) 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Average 
percent- 
age rating 1 


4... 


64.4 


51.2 






35.2 






87 


5 










37.0 


41 3 




94 2 


6 






83.7 


48.5 








93 9 


7 












43 6 


57 5 


98 4 


8 


69 3 


66.6 


98.0 


47 4 


38 6 


44 7 




100 


9 










36 2 


39 5 


58 3 


94 3 


10 






99 5 


50 9 




42 2 




101 1 


11 










34.7 




60.3 


97.0 


12 






99.3 


51.2 








104 7 


13 














59 


101 9 


14 






96.7 


49 1 








101 2 


15 














58 3 


100 7 


16 


76 6 


77 4 


99 1 


51 








108 9 


18 






97.1 


49.0 








101.3 



1 The percentage rating of the yields for each year was calculated by considering 
the yield of the 8-peck seeding for that year as 100 percent. 



TABLE 7. RATE OF SEEDING: SILVERMINE OATS SEEDED AT DIFFERENT RATES, 

DEKALB 

(Net yield in bushels per acre) 



Rate of seeding 
(pecks) 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Average 
1917-21 


5. . 




75.0 


67.5 


37.3 


78.7 


28.2 


57.3 


6 




76.2 


57.0 


38.4 


79.9 


26.2 


55.5 


8 


60 7 


77.6 


64 7 


43.2 


84.2 


27.4 


59.4 


10. 


70 4 


80 4 


64 2 


38 5 


84.2 


24.4 


58.3 


12 


66.7 


77.8 


64.2 


40.2 


80.9 


25.0 


57.6 


14 


62.3 


79.7 


61.5 


40.0 


79.9 


23.9 


57.0 


16 


58.0 


85.4 


58.2 


50.3 


83.3 


22.4 


59.9 



high as 18 pecks per acre. Altho not all the rates of seeding were 
represented every year, the figures indicate a tendency for the net 
yield to increase as the quantity of seed sown is increased. This, in 
the main, harmonizes with the results secured in tests at the Iowa 
Station 1 with a number of early varieties of oats. 

With Silvermine oats on the DeKalb field the maximum net yield 
was secured with a 16-peck seeding (Table 7) . 

Yields per Bushel of Seed Planted. When seed production is a 
more important consideration than economy of land, as might be the 
case when storting a new variety the seed of which is scarce, the pro- 
duction per unit of seed would be of interest rather than acre yield. 
Tables 8 and 9 give an analysis of the yields on this basis. 

'Burnett, L. C. logold oats. Iowa Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 247. 1928. 



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42 BULLETIN No. 339 [December, 

SUMMARY 

Silvermine 6-403, lowar, Albion (Iowa 103), Richland (Iowa 105), 
and Kanota, in the order stated, are the highest-yielding varieties of 
oats grown for a minimum of five years on the DeKalb field, in 
northern Illinois. 

Gopher, Albion (Iowa 103), Kanota, Richland (Iowa 105), and 
State Pride (Wisconsin 7) are the most productive varieties that have 
been tested on the Urbana field, in central Illinois, for a minimum of 
four years. 

At Alhambra, in southern Illinois, the five highest-yielding oats 
tested for a minimum of four years are Victory, Silvermine, Albion 
(Iowa 103) , Burt, and Sixty-Day. An important hazard to oat grow- 
ing in southern Illinois is believed to be inability to sow the crop suffi- 
ciently early. 

Hull-less oats, over a five-year period, gave average yields com- 
paring very favorably with the best hulled varieties, considering the 
quantity of hull-free grain produced. 

A 16-peck rate of seeding proved best with Silvermine oats at 
DeKalb, but with Sixty-Day oats at Urbana the net yield increased 
as the rate of seeding increased up to a maximum of 18 pecks an acre. 

Results of seeding oats in 4- and 8-inch drill rows were not decisive. 
They were in favor of 4-inch rows during two seasons and of 8-inch 
rows during the other year of the three in which tests on width of 
drill row were conducted. Preliminary observations indicate that in 
the interest of securing- adequate stands of clover, the 8-inch drill row 
is to be preferred to closer seeding, and that even a wider drill row 
may be advisable, especially on thinner soils. 

Ability to endure early spring freezes varied considerably in the 
seedlings of different varieties. Kanota, Sixty-Day (Illinois selec- 
tion), Minota, Hull-less, Anthony, Gopher, Fowld's Hull-less, Burt, 
Cornellian, and State Pride (Wisconsin 7) proved more resistant than 
others. 



1929] VARIETIES OF OATS FOR ILLINOIS 43 

ORIGIN AND DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES 

A brief statement of the origin, when known, a general description, 
and the yield rank of the different oats used in these field trials are 
presented here. The varieties are listed in alphabetical order for the 
purpose of ready reference. In the preparation of this list liberal use 
has been made of the material contained in Bulletin 1343 of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, "Improved Oat Varieties for the Corn 
Belt," by L. C. Burnett, T. R. Stanton, and C. W. Warburton; an 
article, "Registration of Varieties and Strains of Oats," by T. R. 
Stanton, Fred Griffee, and W. C. Etheridge in Vol. 18, pages 935-947, 
of the Journal of the American Society of Agronomy; and Bulletin 
164 of the North Dakota Station, "Varietal Trials With Oats in North 
Dakota," by Theodore E. Stoa. 

Albion (Iowa 103). Product of a single plant selected from Kherson by 
Iowa Station in 1906. An early oat; grain small, white; panicle open; straw 
short and medium fine. Seed obtained from the Iowa Station in 1915. 

Yield: thirteen-year average at Urbana 62.1 bushels, rank 2; thirteen-year 
average at DeKalb 72.7 bushels, rank 3; ten-year average at Alhambra 31.4 
bushels, rank 3. 

American Banner. Developed from a small original stock of seed and 
introduced by James Vick, seedsman, Rochester, N. Y., in 1886. A midseason 
oat; grain medium large and white with short awns; panicle open, tho strains 
that go under the name American Banner possess the side panicle; straw long. 
Seed obtained from Farmers' Seed Company, Faribault, Minn., in 1902. 

Yield: twenty-four year average at Urbana 51.4 bushels, rank 27; ten-year 
average at DeKalb 60.0 bushels, rank 26. 

Anthony (Minnesota 686). Product of a cross of Victory and White 
Russian made by Minnesota Station. Anthony is similar in habit of growth to 
Victory, and in addition has proved highly resistant to black stem rust. Anthony 
has shown considerable promise in yield tests of the Minnesota Station, and is 
being increased in 1929 for distribution to Minnesota farmers. A midseason 
variety; grain white; panicle open; straw long. Seed obtained from Minnesota 
Station in 1928. 

Yield: one year at Urbana 83.3 bushels. Average of 26 varieties grown 
same year, 70.5 bushels. 

Big Four. Introduced to seed trade by John A. Salzer Seed Company, 
LaCrosse, Wis., in 1899. Origin is not known. Big Four resembles Silvermine 
in most respects. A midseason oat; grain white, medium long; panicles open, 
somewhat drooping; straw long and moderately stiff. Seed first obtained from 
above company, in 1902. 

Yield: fourteen-year average at Urbana 59.9 bushels, rank 10; thirteen-year 
average at DeKalb 67.8 bushels, rank 12; ten-year average at Alhambra 302 
bushels, rank 9. 

Black Tartarian. A late oat. Grain black or brown, long-pointed, awns 
usually present, dark colored, and twisted at the base; panicle side compact and 
stiff; straw long and moderately stiff. Seed obtained from Vaughan Seed Com- 
pany, Chicago, in 1901 and 1915. 

Yield: nine-year average at Urbana 39.7 bushels, rank 44; five-year average 
at DeKalb 53.8 bushels, rank 35. 

Bryant Silver Plume. A midseason to late oat in time of maturity; grain 



44 BULLETIN No. 339 [December, 

white; panicle side; straw medium to long. Seed obtained from W. C. Bryant, 
Princeton, 111., in 1912. 

Yield: ten-year average at Urbana 53.1 bushels, rank 22; five-year average 
at DeKalb 65.4 bushels, rank 16; four-year average at Alhambra 21.4 bushels, 
rank 11. 

Burt. Selection made from Red Rustproof about 1878 by a man named 
Burt who is reported to have lived at the time in Greene county, southern 
Alabama. A very early oat; grain reddish-brown, characteristically flattened; 
panicle open; straw short and fine; variety as generally grown is made up of 
a number of strains which gives it a non-uniform appearance. Seed obtained for 
variety tests in 1920. 

Yield: nine-year average at Urbana 58.7 bushels, rank 9; five-year average 
at DeKalb 68.3 bushels, rank 33; six-year average at Alhambra 39.6 bushels, 
rank 4. 

Colorado 37. Selected in 1900 from a field of commercial oats in the San 
Luis Valley of southwestern Colorado by the Colorado Station. A midseason 
common oat, similar to Swedish Select; grain white with fewer awns than 
Swedish Select; panicle open; straw mid-long, stiff. Seed obtained from Colo- 
rado Agricultural College in 1927. 

Yield: one year at DeKalb 42.2 bushels; average of 13 varieties grown 
same year 57.0 bushels. 

Cornellian. A pure-line selection from Canada Cluster, made by Depart- 
ment of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, in 1912. A midseason common oat; 
grain slender, gray, awnless, with low percentage of hull; panicle open; straw 
long. Seed obtained from New York Station, Ithaca, in 1923. 

Yield: six-year average at Urbana 64.7 bushels, rank 14; five-year average 
at DeKalb 66.6 bushels, rank 30. 

Crown. A midseason oat of Swedish origin; grain white, large; panicle 
open; straw long. Seed obtained for variety tests in 1922. 

Yield: one year at Urbana 42.4 bushels; average of twenty-eight varieties 
grown same year 48.6 bushels. 

Danish White. An oat similar to Swedish Select in most respects; mid- 
season; grain white; panicle open; and straw mid-long to long. Seed obtained 
from Burpee Seed Company, Philadelphia, in 1901. 

Yield: eighteen-year average at Urbana 48.1 bushels, rank 31 ; eight-year 
average at DeKalb 61.2 bushels, rank 23. 

Early Champion. Origin unknown. Similar in appearance to selections 
with white kernels from Sixty-Day and Kherson. Slightly earlier in maturity 
than Sixty-Day; grain small, white; panicle open; straw short, fine. Seed 
purchased in 1902 from Iowa Seed Company, Des Moines, and in 1910 a new 
stock of seed was secured from Ralph Allen, Delavan, 111. 

Yield: ten-year average at Urbana 47.0 bushels, rank 39; four-year average 
at DeKalb 66.7 bushels, rank 15. 

Fowld's Hull-less. Result of a cross between Kilby Hull-less and Swedish 
Select. It is practically identical with the Liberty Hull-less. A midseason oat; 
grain hull-less, large; panicle open; straw mid-long. Seed obtained from South 
Dakota Station in 1928. 

Yield: one year at Urbana 1,721.6 pounds; average of 26 hulled varieties 
grown same year 2,256.0 pounds, which, with a 30 percent reduction for hull, is 
equivalent to 1,579.2 pounds of hull-free grain. 

Garton 5. A midseason oat; of English origin; grain white; panicle 
open; straw long. Seed obtained from Carton-Cooper Seed Company, Sugar 
Creek, 111., in 1913. 



1929] VARIETIES OF OATS FOR ILLINOIS 45 

Yield: seven-year average at Urbana 51.5 bushels, rank 32; five-year aver- 
age at DeKalb 55.6 bushels, rank 37. 

Carton Victor. A. late oat; grain black; panicle open, very large; straw 
long. Seed obtained from Garton Seed Company, Chicago, in 1911. 

Yield: four-year average at Urbana 59.8 bushels, rank 38; three-year aver- 
age at DeKalb 63.7 bushels, rank 34. 

Golden Rain. A midseason to late Swedish oat; grain yellow, mid-size; 
panicle open; straw long. Seed obtained from Svalof, Sweden, in 1922. 

Yield: two-year average at Urbana 42.3 bushels; average of 28 varieties 
grown same years 512 bushels. 

Gopher. Pure-line selection from Sixty-Day made by Minnesota Station 
in 1917. An early oat similar to Albion (Iowa 103) ; grain white, slightly 
plumper than Albion; panicle open; straw short and stiff. Seed obtained 
from Minnesota Station in 1925. 

Yield: four-year average at Urbana 69.8 bushels, rank 1; one year at 
DeKalb 81.5 bushels; average of 15 varieties grown same year 795 bushels; 
one year at Alhambra 58.9 bushels, average of ten varieties grown same year 
56.0 bushels. 

Great American. A midseason oat, somewhat like Silvermine; grain 
white; panicle open; straw mid-long. Seed obtained from Funk Brothers Seed 
Company, Bloomington, 111., in 1910. 

Yield: thirteen-year average at Urbana 57.8 bushels, rank 15; seven-year 
average at DeKalb 66.2 bushels, rank 8; five-year average at Alhambra 24.0 
bushels, rank 7. 

Great Avalanche. An oat said to have been developed by the late Luther 
Burbank. A midseason to late variety; grains white, short, very plump; pan- 
icle open; straw mid-long. Seed obtained from H. L. Stiegelmeier, Normal, 111., 
in 1928. 

Yield: one year at Urbana 70.9 bushels; average of 26 varieties grown same 
year 70.5 bushels. 

Hull-less. The place of origin of hull-less or naked oats is believed to be 
central and eastern Asia. These oats were grown in England as early as 1550. 
The naked oat used in the variety tests reported in this bulletin is probably a 
strain of the Chinese Hull-less. It is early to midseason in time of maturity; 
spiklets multiflorous; grain free of hull or naked; panicle open and drooping; 
straw short and slightly weaker than Sixty-Day. Seed obtained from C. S. 
Schnebley, Monica, 111., in 1924. 

Yield: five-year average at Urbana 1,535.1 pounds; average of all hulled 
varieties grown same years, less 30 percent for hull, is 1,4805 pounds. 

Hvitling. Product of pure-line selection made about 1900 by Plant Breed- 
ing Station, Svalof, Sweden, from the Probsteier oat. Similar to or identical 
with Victory. A midseason oat; grain white, medium size; panicle open, fairly 
erect; straw long, medium coarse. Seed obtained from Vaughan Seed Company, 
Chicago, in 1915. 

Yield: four-year average at DeKalb 67.3 bushels, rank 13. 

logold. Result of a single plant selection from Kherson by the Iowa Sta- 
tion in 1906. An early oat; grain yellow; panicle open; straw somewhat longer 
than most early oats, unusually stiff and notably resistant to stem rust. logold 
was developed especially for use on worn soils where most early oats are too 
short to be harvested readily with a binder. Seed obtained from Iowa Station 
in 1927. 

Yield: two-year average at Urbana 64.9 bushels; average of all the varieties 
grown same years 64.5 bushels; one year at DeKalb 84.3 bushels; average of 



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48 BULLETIN No. 339 [December, 

Yield: seventeen-year average at Urbana 51.5 bushels, rank 24; eleven-year 
average at DeKalb 582 bushels, rank 24. 

Scottish Chief. A midseason oat; grain white; panicle open; straw long. 
Seed obtained from L. L. Olds Seed Company, Madison, Wis., in 1915. 

Yield: six-year average at Urbana 49.7 bushels, rank 35; five-year average 
at DeKalb 67.5 bushels, rank 9. 

Siberian. Introduced into Ontario, Canada, from Siberia, Russia, in 1889. 
The original Siberian is similar to Silvermine. A midseason oat; grain medium 
large and white; panicles open and drooping; straw long. Seed obtained for 
variety tests in 1902. 

Yield: twenty-four-year average yield at Urbana 51.9 bushels, rank 30; 
eight-year average at DeKalb 55.6 bushels, rank 32; four-year average at Al- 
hambra 233 bushels, rank 8. 

Silvermine. Origin not definitely known, but was introduced to the seed 
trade by John. A. Salzer Seed Company, LaCrosse, Wis., in the late nineties. 
Botanitally, Silvermine is similar to Swedish Select. A midseason oat; grain 
white and fairly plump; panicles open and drooping; straw long and moderately 
stiff. Seed obtained first in 1902 from Iowa Seed Company, Des Moines. 

Yield: twenty-year average at Urbana 54.8 bushels, rank 20; fifteen-year 
average at DeKalb 64.4 bushels, rank 7; ten-year average at Alhambra 31.5 
bushels, rank 2. 

Silvermine 6-403. The product of an individual plant selection from Silver- 
mine by the Division of Plant Breeding, Illinois Station, in 1906. Time of ma- 
turity and plant characters are similar to the parent Silvermine variety. First 
grown in the general oat-variety test plots at DeKalb in 1914. 

Yield: five-year average at Urbana 45.7 bushels, rank 11; thirteen-year 
average at DeKalb 68.6 bushels, rank 1. 

Sixty-Day. An importation by the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1901 
from Dr. S. de Morzinski of Proskurov, in the province of Podolia, Russia. 
Similar to Kherson. An early oat but does not mature in sixty days as the 
name might imply; grain small, white to yellow, relatively low in percentage of 
hull; panicles open, short; straw short, with tendency to lodge on fertile soil; 
variety, as generally grown, lacks considerably in uniformity. Seed obtained 
from the South Dakota Station in 1906. 

Yield: twenty-four-year average at Urbana 58.0 bushels, rank 7; sixteen- 
year average at DeKalb 62.1 bushels, rank 29; ten-year average at Alhambra 
315 bushels, rank 5. 

Sixty-Day (Selected). A mass selection from the Illinois Station strain of 
Sixty-Day made by the Division of Plant Breeding. The object of the selection 
was to secure a more uniform, and perhaps a more produ-ctive strain of this 
variety. 

Yield: three-year average at Urbana 67.9 bushels, rank 28. 

Sixty-Day 13-304. Product of an individual plant selected from Sixty-Day 
by the Division of Plant Breeding, Illinois Station. Time of maturity, and gen- 
eral plant characters are the same as Sixty-Day, except that the grain is white. 
First grown in the general oat-variety test plots in 1919. 

Yield: six-year average at Urbana 49.9 bushels, rank 12; five-year average 
at DeKalb 63.9 bushels, rank 11. 

Silver (Novelty). A late oat of Danish origin; grain white and large; 
panicle open; straw long. Seed obtained from Frokornpagniet, Mariba, Den- 
mark, in 1924. 

Yield: five-year average at Urbana 58.9 bushels, rank 40. 



1929] VARIETIES OF OATS FOR ILLINOIS 49 

State Pride. (Wisconsin 7). Pure line selection by Wisconsin Station 
from Kherson in 1907. An early oat adapted to fertile soil; grain yellow, thin- 
hulled, and small; panicle open, compact; straw short but taller than Kherson. 
Seed obtained from the Wisconsin Station in 1921. 

Yield: seven-year average at Urbana 64.5 bushels, rank 6; eight-year aver- 
age at DeKalb 67.8 bushels, rank 18. 

Swedish Select. First introduced into this country by M. A. Carleton from 
St. Petersburg Province of Russia. E. A. Bessey made a second introduction of 
this variety in 1903 from Moscow. The original section which gave rise to this 
variety was made in Sweden from the Ligowo oat. It was carried to Finland, 
thence to Russia where its possibilities of adaptation to American conditions 
were noted by Mr. Carleton. Swedish Select is midseason in maturity; grain 
large, white, usually possessing an awn; panicle open; straw long, strong. Seed 
first obtained from Iowa Seed Company, Des Moines, in 1902. 

Yield: fourteen-year average at Urbana 52.3 bushels, rank 29; seventeen- 
year average yield at DeKalb 63.3 bushels, rank 31. 

Texas Red. Also known as Rust Proof and Red Rustproof. Originated in 
southern United States, where it is grown as both a winter and a spring oat. A 
midseason oat as grown in Illinois, but some strains early and others late ; grain 
reddish-brown, characteristically flattened, thick hulled, and heavily awned; pan- 
icle open, spreading; straw medium in length. Seed obtained of C. A. Rowe, 
Jacksonville, 111., in 1909; of Clifford Slonniger, Mattoon, 111., in 1911; and 
of Funk Brothers Seed Company, Bloomington, 111., in 1915. 

Yield: twelve-year average at Urbana 57.1 bushels, rank 16; five-year aver- 
age at DeKalb 64.5 bushels, rank 20; four-year average at Alhambra 18.8 bushels, 
rank 16. 

Victory. Developed at the Plant Breeding Station, Svalof, Sweden, from 
a single plant selection out of a variety known as Probsteier. Introduced into 
this country by the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1908. A midseason 
variety; grain white and plump; panicles open, rather dense; straw tall, fairly 
stiff. Seed obtained from L. L. Olds Seed Company, Madison, Wis., in 1916, 
and from Central Illinois Seed Company, Shelbyville, 111., in 1919. 

Yield: nine-year average at Urbana 53.6 bushels, rank 23; four-year average 
at DeKalb 64.6 bushels, rank 27; four-year average at Alhambra 24.4 bushels, 
rank 1. 

White Bonanza. A midseason variety; grain medium in size, white; pan- 
icle open; straw coarse and long. Seed obtained of John A. Salzer Seed Com- 
pany, LaCrosse, Wis., in 1901. 

Yield: twenty-one-year average at Urbana 51.0 bushels, rank 18; seven-year 
average at DeKalb 61.5 bushels, rank 21; four-year average at Alhambra 20.2 
bushels, rank 13. 

White Russian. An early introduction from Europe. There is no definite 
record of its origin. A late variety, resistant to stem rust. Grain white, and 
somewhat slender; panicle side, long, and drooping; straw long; foliage heavy. 
Seed obtained of John A. Salzer Seed Company, LaCrosse, Wis., in 1915. 

Yield: six-year average at Urbana 47.2 bushels, rank 41 ; four-year average 
at DeKalb 56.9 bushels, rank 36. 

Wisconsin Wonder. (Wisconsin Pedigree No. 1). The increase of a plant 
selection made by the Wisconsin Station from a strain of oats grown locally 
under the name of White Bonanza. A midseason oat; grain white; panicle 
open, spreading; straw long and resistant to lodging even when grown on rich 
soil. Seed first obtained from L. L. Olds Seed Company, Madison, Wis., in 1915. 



50 BULLETIN No. 339 

Yield: ten-year average at Urbana 56.5 bushels, rank 26; five-year ave 
at DeKalb 66.4 bushels, rank 14; four-year average at Alhambra 21.4 bus 
rank 10.