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Full text of "Various Census of India"

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REPORT 



ON THE 



CENSUS OF BRITISH INDIA, 



TAKEN ON THE 



17th February 1881. 



Vol. III. 




LONDON: 

PRINTED BY EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE, 

PBINTBBS TO THE QUEEN'S MOST EXCELLENT llAJESTT. 

FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. 
1883. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page 
Alphabetical list of castes, Tamil ......... i 

„ „ Tdugu - - 25 

„ „ Canarese .-..--- --49 

„ „ Malajalam -.-.. ---53 

„ ,, caste names found in the Census schedules in certain provinces • - - 59 

List of occupations of males by group heads --- ----.71 

Index of trades and occupations under each group head ...... 39 



APPENDIX. 



Appendix A. — Extracts from provincial reports regarding density of population ... i 

„ B. — ^Extracts from Punjab report on peculiarities of the Hindoo and Mahammedan 

religions as practised in the Punjab - - - - - - vi 

„ C. — ^Extracts from Mr. Baines' report on sex and age in Bombay - - - - xxii 

„ D. — ^Extracts from Bengal and Punjab reports on the age statistics of those provinces - xxx 

„ E. — ^Extracts from Mr. Baines' report on ** Civil Condition " in Bombay - - . xlii 

„ F. — ^Extracts from the North-West Province report and the Punjab report on the age tables xlix 

jf G. — ^Extract from Bombay report on statistics of instruction * • ... Ixvii 

„ H. — ^Extracts from Bombay report on caste in Bombay . - - . - xc 

„ J. — ^Extracts from Punjab report on castes -.--..- cxx 



K. — Statistics regarding occupations combined with agriculture - 
L. — Extracts from Punjab report on civil condition - 



- cxxxvii 
cxliv 



Y 5747. 1060.— 10/83. I 1370. 



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Alphabetical List of the Tamil Oaste Names. 



Abhisheka. 

Acha. 

Aohakasniyur Parayan. 

Achakavalan. 

Achara Setti. 

Acharana Kalian. 

Acharavakam Setti. 

Acharayakathan. 

Achariyan. 

Achavelldlan. 

Achi. 

Achivarathan Setti. 

Achu Velai Kammalan. 

Adappakaran. 

Adicherial. 

Adina Setti. 

Adippan. 

Adippu Kannan. 

Adiyan. 

Advaitam Parayan. 

Adubagiam Setti. 

Adu Meppavan. 

Agama Setti. 

Agamudayan. 

Agamudaya. 

Agaram. 

Agaratha. 

Agaravelur. 



Agastiar. 

Aggiani. 

Agili Idayar. 

Aginur Setti. 

Agni. 

Agnisaktiamibana Kulam. 

Agdza Palli. 

Aiiastha Maravan. 

Ainutban. 

Aiya Parayan. 

Aiyar. 

Aiyavari. 

Aiyar. 

Aiyangar. 

Akali Kurumlear. 

Akatba. 

Akatbdn Kudi. 

Akirilu Setti. 

Akkd Kuttam. 

Akkali. 

Akkandapadi Maravau. 

Akkar. 

Akkarai. 

Akkayagd Setti. 

Akkilavalai Paniar. 

Akorapalaya Setti. 

Akutdta Eed(j^ 

Akkuvdr Setti. 

Y 5747. 1060 — 8/88. 1 1370. 



Alaga Kattu Parayan. 

Alagara. 

Alajiri. 

Alambadi. 

Alamattu Kalian. 

Alatbur Kallar. 

Alavan. 

Alavar Matbam. 

AUsavan. 

Alia. 

Alijan Setti. 

Alkurumbar. 

Allar. 

AUi. 

Alvar. 

Amadakki Vellalan. 

Amantbakaran. 

Amaratbu Kurumbar. 

Ambaya. 

Ambala. 

Ambglakdra Adumekkap- 

patta Oddar. 
Ambalakaran. 
Ambalakavundan. 
Ambalattdn. 
Ambalavarigal. 
Ambauari Maravan. 
Ambattan. 
Ambikaran. 
Ambudian. 
Ambunattar. 
Ambunattu Kallar. 
Amburaja Kalian. 
Aminada Navidau. 
Amithulavar. 
Ammakadai PalU. 
Ammakkara Parayan. 
Ammala. 
Amman Sakkili. 
Ammanar Vellalan. 
Ammu. 

Amuthu Udayau. 
Amutbudaya Kumma. 
Anadi. 
Anaga Palli. 
Anarkura Setti. 
Anar PaUan. 
Anasur. 

Anathi Lingam. 
Aflavatliu. 
Andailum Pallan. 
Anda. 
Andaroa. 
Andavathra. 
Andhra. 

Andhra Vaishnava. 
Andhravd.1. 

A 



Andhnilu. 

Andi. 

Angala Parayan. 

Angamkndi Setti. 

Angamur PaUan. 

AngapaUan. 

Angayan Parayan. 

Angia Pulli. 

Angudi. 

Anibu Kattai Maravan. 

Anisari. 

Ani Teburgan. 

Anja. 

Anjakar. 

Anja. 

Anjulanattu Ilamaya. 

Anjura PaUan. 

Anjuvarnattu Kalian. 

Anna. 

Annvala Paruan. 

Anni PaUan. 

Ansayan. 

Antba. 

Anthavamsam. 

Anthisira. 

Anthi vettuvan. 

Anthiyaran Sanyusi. 

Antbiyatbur. 

Anula. 

Anuppa. 

Anuppan. 

Ann Sakkili. 

Anuthra Kshatny a. 

Anva Sakkili. 

Api Shanan. 

Appadu Kalian. 

Appidi Kavarai. 

Appu. 

Arachal Oddan. 

Aradhya. 

Arakali Mudali. 

Arakka Palli. 

Aramudu. 

Aranattu Velldla. 

Arapa Kavundan. 

Ara. 

Arasa Kavundan. 

Arasakkaran. 

Arasanattu. 

Arasuguli Kavundan. 

Arasu. 

Aratta Kusumban. 

Arava. 

Aravada Kusumban. 

Arvan. 

Aragan. 

Archakan. 



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Archakan Aiyangdi. 

Arerara. 

Aribattan Achari. 

Ari. 

Arindur Setti. 

Arinjur. 

Aripaya Setti. 

Aripayola Korovan. 

Arivera Setti. 

Ariviar Setti. 

Ariyakkuttadi. 

Amattu Velldlan. 

Ardkia Setti. 

Arpadi. 

Arukkan. 

Arulpathu. 

Aruppa. 

Aruppu and Aruppukaran. 

Aruon Pallan. 

Aru Sakkili. 

Aniva Setti. 

Aruv^lu. 

Arvu. 

ArvTimba Kattu Vellalan. 

Aryau. 

A-Setti. 

Al-Thuluvan. 

Arya. 

Asaivan. 

Asarak. 

As^ri. 

Ashtha Kollan. 

Ashthantra. 

Ashtasdlisra Braliinan. 

Ashtha Vadnyan. 

Atchaya. 

Athaya. 

Athah Reddi 

Athara Pallan. 

Athi. 

Athiyuv^n. 

Attamvdkam Setti. 

Attn. 

Auli Marathi. 

Avala. 

Avalagrdma Navidan. 

Avapadiravan. 

Avilu Setti. 

Avinlinga Pallan. 

Aya. 

Ayalurtharan Setti. 

Ayan. 

Ayanattu Kalian. 

Ayappu Kanakkan. 

Ayarkattu Pandaram. 

Ayasazhi. 

Ayavarthu Setti. 

Ayirakutta Malachi. 

Aydthi. 

Azhukku Edukkiravan. 



Bada. 

Badaja Jedan. 

Badayi. 

Badagar. 

Baggia. 

Bairdgi. 

Bai Vanian. 

Bajani. 

Ba Kavundan. 

Bala Gudakkan. 

Baldji. 

Balakanur Todvian. 

Bdlakavarai Sakkili. 

Bala. 

Balan Kunna Kattiya. 

Balegar Setti. 

Balija. 

Balli Vareyan. 

Bana. 

Bangi Golla. 

Bankapuram Setti. 

Banniar Setti. 

Banthu GroUan. 

Barathanathu Pallan. 

Barathi Nil Tattan. 

Basaraeltaj. 

Bashia. 

Basmar. 

Beltha. 

Belu Reddi. 

Beri. 

Besta. 

Bhakta. 

Bharatar. 

Bhatragulu. 

Bhuvaisian. 

Birhmachuic. 

Bdgam. 

Bdgi. 

B(5i Matha Kollan. 

Bokkilavan. 

Bokkisha. 

Bokkishan. 

BoUa. 

Bombali Tdti. 

Bommankala Toddiyar. 

Bonnua Reddi. 

Boudili. 

Bousti. 

Botta Vaunar. 

Bottukatti. 

Bottu Vellalar. 

Bdvandi. 

Bdya. 

Bdyi. 

Brahachar anam . 

Brahmo. 

Bubu Parayar. 

Budubudukar. 

Budu Halvakki. 

Bundigar. 

Bunt Baliger. 

Bynas. 



Chakala. 

Chandrakula Rajah. 

Chunnambu Parayan. 

Cochi. 

Colaredas. 

Conjfeveram Ihandaman- 

dalathar. 
Coorg. 



Dasakayar. 

Dasan. 

Dasa. 

Dasan Setti. 

Dasari. 

Dasi. 

Daya Keravan. 

Desa. 

Desadi Parayan. 

Desam Setti. 

Desanga Brahmin Nadhva. 

Desanthri. 

Desa. 

Desastha. 

Desigan. 

Desu Reddi. 

Desur. 

Detaib. 

Deva. 

Devadiga. 

Devanga Setti. 

Devangulu. 

Devangu Sudra. 

Denar Adiyal. 

Devaraja. 

Dena Vaisiyar Setti. 

Devandra. 

Dikshathar. 

Dimnar. 

Dingiri. 

Dobi. 

Domnara. 

Dora. 



Echan. 

Eda. 

Eddan. 

Edi Kudiyanavan. 

Edu. 

Ekala Thoddiya Nayakan. 

Ekali. 

Ekambathia Vadugar. 

Ekanda Reddi. 

Bkarili ThcJddiyan. 



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Eki Idavan. • 


Eruthu Kavarai. 




Ekila Sdku. 


Eruvanndn. 




Ekiliyan. 


Ervalu. 




Ekinattu Reddi. 


Esa. 




Elai. 


Esalalan Vellalan. 


icha. 


JBlaiyandi. 


Esili. 


lohanur Boga Agamu- 


Elaiyar Oddar. 


Etha. 


diyan. 


Elam. 


Ethi. 


Idachi Maravan. 


Elama Reddi. 


Ethiman Idayan. 


Ida. 


Elanattu. 


Ethukula Golla. 


Idakkaradi Reddi. 


Elangandttan. 


Ethur Kulam. 


Idangai. 


Elaragai Ariyur Setti. 


Ethurannan. 


Idavankan. 


Elaragi Setti. 


Ettaluman Okkili. 


Idavathu Palli. 


Elayathu Kudi Setti. 


Ettama Sakiri. 


Idaya. 


Elian. 


Ettan. 


Idayan. 


Eli Makan. 


Ettanattu Reddi. 


Idiga. 


Ellabili Raja. 


Ettapathu Kulam. 


tdi^ 


EUakdpu. 


Etti. 


Idingai. 


EUakar. 


Ethuthukaran. 


Iduja Kammavar. 


Ellappa Reddi. 




Iduvakayal Kalian. 


EUiyar. 




Ika Golla. 


BUu Vaniyan. 




Ikki Koravan. 


Elunku Thoddiyan. 




Ila Idayan. 


Eluthu Vagappu Kam- 


Gandla. 


Ilai. 


mala Thattan. 


Gangadi Gonda. 


Ilakkimdr Kammalan. 


Emalai Palli. 


Ganika Mudali. 


Ilamagan. 


Emarayapiratti. 


Garadi. 


Ilamakan. 


Embrandiri. 


Gazulu. 


Ilangadi. 


Emmanar. 


Geadapadi Kavarai. 


Ilathur. 


Emukukara. 


Gengadigdra. 


Ilavan Kambala Naikan. 


Enadi. 


Genga Reddi. 


Ilavar Kambalattan. 


Enakurumber. 


Gentu. 


Ilayathukadi Setti. 


Enal Velldlan. 


Gentukal Setti. 


Ilija Setti. 


Enata Setti. 


Ginala Uriya. 


Hivakai Setti. 


Endan Vaunin. 


Giri Gosayi. 


Iluppa Setti. 


Engar Setti. 


Gudvil. 


Iluva. 


Enga Vettuvan. 


Gokula Vellalan. 


Iluvan. 


Eni Mugan. 


Golla. 


Iluvanachi. 


Ennai Altappattavan. 


Gdpala. 


Iluvasan. 


Ennaikaran. 


Gopichanthanam Patnul 


Imalai. 


Ennaiku Velldlan. 


Karan. 


Imonar. 


Enna Muppanar. 


Gopikara Venalar. 


Inam Tachan. 


Ennai Vaniyan. 


Gdsayi. 


Inanjoli. 


Enthdtlian Idayan. 


Gonda. 


Inavar. 


Epan. 


Gonlikara. 


Inda Kulam. 


Erulannan. 


Gouravar. 


Indra. 


Erala Oddan. 


Goviagar. 


" !ndravan Setti. 


Eramula Reddi. 


Grama Maniam. 


Ingadi Setti. 


Eramandi. 


Gramani. 


1 V. 

ln]i. 


Eraranan. 


Gurukkal. 


; Taja Pusali. 


Era Sakkili. 




'. Tajati Vellalan. 


Era Shandn. 




^Tam Golla. 


Eravar. 




'. Tanattu Panikkar. 


Er GoUa. 




'. "randi. 


Eri. 




Tangatha Vellalan. 


Erisi Vellalan. 


Hajama. 


TankoUi Vannan. 


Erra. 


Havika Ganika. 


Irankuvinja Vannan. 


Erudamba Idayan. 


Halu Kurumbar. 


Iravagam. 


Erukalaradu. 


Harura Badaga. 


Ira Vannan. 


EniTnadakkara Wayakan.: 


Hasa. 


Irayer or Ikayer. 


Erumaik^ran. 


Hinajathi. 


Irivathi. 


Erumaikara. 


Holaya. 


Iriyan. 


Bruthukdra. 


Housi Palli. 


Iriya Vannan. 



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Irujathi. 

Irula. 

Irulan Panikkan. 

Irulil Pandaram. 

Irumdttan. 

Irumbu. 

Inisaliyan. 

Irusan. 

Iruthdli Kattugira 

kalan. 
Iruthi Reddi. 
Iruthukkdran. 
Iruvattur Velldlan. 
Isak^du Yanian. 
Isandttu. 
Isanga. 
Isangandttu. 
Isangatha Velldlan. 
Iga Parayan. 
Isana Yellalan. 
iBmara. 

Isukkar Kalian. 
Isukkn Nittdr. 
Isuppukkdran. 
Ithakara Karavan. 
Itharajati VelMlan. 
Itikanakkan. 
Ittan. 
Ivishani Kanarithi. 



Jangamdndi. 
Janga. 
Jangari. 

Jankudu Kavarai. 
Jasathur. 
Jatipillai. 
Jattu. 
Jayananthi. 
Kai- Jelar. 

Jens KoUa Kambalam. 

Jetti. 

Jeyasakthi. 

Jikkari. 

Jinakathan. 

Jinathar Paran. 

Jithuman. 

Joda Velialan. 

Jogi. 

Josiyar. 

Jothinagaram Vaniyar. 



Jadar. 

Jagannathan. 

Jaga Setti. 

JagatMr Vadugar. 

Jainia. 

Jainiar. 

Jaini. 

Jakala. 

Jakkulavdr. 

Jalari. 

Jamakdla Andi. 

Jama. 

Jamanugar. 

Jampu. 

Jana. 

Janakar. 

Janaknrumathi. 

Janam. 

Janappan. 

Janayaga Setti. 

Jdndlu Kammavdr. 

Jdndra. 

Jangola. 

Jangolar. 

Jangoliga. 

Jangam. 

Jangama. 



Kabbinatha Kelasa Ma- 

driva. 
Kapilia Kavundun. 
Kambli Kununhan. 
Kachavan Sudra. 
Kachi. 
Kadahudar. 
Kadalai Setti. 
Kadauthai. 
Kada Addan. 
Kadar. 

Kadasalkaran. 
Kadaya. 
Kadayil Sunnambu Vir- 

kivavan. 
Kadaya. 
Kadi Karanam. 
Kadiminai Kurumba. 
Kadukkar. 
Kaduvelli Karavan. 
KagapuUi. 
KaUarvali Maravau. 
Kagimala Parayan. 
Ka Idayan. 
Kaikari. 
Kaikathu Kari. 
Kaikatti. 
Kaikattu Setti. 
Kaikola. 

Kaikunda Shanan. 
Kaikuravan. 
Kailasi. 
Kaimmadikan. 
Kain Jadi. 
Kaipar Vadugan. 
Kaisa Sakkili. 
Kaithaja Vellala. 
Kai Vellala. 



Kajula Balija. 

Kakanakkan. 

Kakar. 

Kakatti Idayan, 

Ka Ka. 

Ka Kara. 

Kakila Brahmana, 

Kakula. 

Kaladi. 

Kalai. 

Kala Kavarai. 

Kalakkattu. 

Kalal. 

Kalandi. 

Kalangara SMndr. 

Kalankular. 

Kalan Setti. 

Kalapadayachi. 

Kalathai. 

Kalathur Vellala. 

Kalavalaryan. 

Kalavellalan. 

Kalayalam. 

Kalayal Vichar. 

Kalayanam. 

Kavi Bhatrazulu. 

Kalidas. 

Kai Idayan. 

Kalikkur. 

Kalinga. 

Kalingaraya Mudali. 

Kalingdrayan. 

Kavi Raja. 

Kalithai Valayan. 

Kaliya. 

Kaliyar, 

Kalkottan. 

Kaikattu. 

Kalkutta Ndttan. 

Kalkaravan. 

Kalla. 

Kalian. 

Kallathu Parayan. 

Kai. 

Kalli. 

Kalliyana Vannan. 

Kalloda Kurumbar. 

Kalloddan. 

Kallukara. 

Kalluli. 

Kaloddan Telungu. 

Kalpadi Idayan. 

Kaltacha Kammalan. 

Kaltacban. 

Kalusi Vadugan. 

Kaluthai Puttan. 

Kalvadi Kavari. 

Kama Devi. 

Kama Seniar. 

Kamasaka Brahmin. 

Kambadi Okkili. 

Kambala golla. 

Kambalakar Naikkam. 



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Kambalam. 


Kanni Setti. 


Karosa. 


Kambandiar. 


Kanni Katti Idayan. 


Karpura Setti. 


Kambathil adagiravan. 


Kanpigan Setti. 


Kalar. 


Kambathukara Setti. 


Kanthadi. 


Karthii Veil alar. 


Kambidayar. 


Kantharar. 


Karuguva Kammavar. 


Kambi Kattu Vadugar. 


Kantha Reddi. 


Karuhamattai. 


Kambili. 


Kanthayathikam. 


Karukkampadi Shdndn. 


Kamila Pandaram. . 


Kapa. 


Karuka Valayan. 


Kamma. 


Kapadi Shdndn. 


Karu. 


Kammakatti Maratti. 


Kapila. 


Karuligar. 


Kammakotti Reddi. 


Kapilian. 


Karumalakar. 


Xammala. 


Kapinarar. 


Karaman. 


Kammalan. 


Kappakkaran. 


Karumanar Kuthal. 


Kammar Idayan. 


Kappikkara Vell^lar. 


Karumar Kammalan. 


Eammara. 


Kappilinattu Velldlar. 


Karumba Kunimban. 


Kammavar. 


Kdpu. 


Karumbarathan. 


Kammadu. 


Kapula. 


Karumbar. 


Kampanado Soligan. 


Karakan Kanniyan. 


Karum. 


Kampanatha. 


Karakattan. 


Karupera Sawmi Kondh. 


Kampanandikulan . 


Kara. 


Karupurathu Valayan. 


Kampanada Siva chara 


Kkrakkttu Idayan. 


Karusamar. 


Tanaballa. 


Karaikar. 


Karutha. 


Kampathi. 


Kkraikattu. 


Karva Kapilian. 


Kamsala. 


Karvuthu Velldlar. 


Karuvela Setti. 


Kamsalavar. 


Karayan. 


Karyalan. 


K^na. 


Karayara Vellala. 


Kasabe. 


Kanakkan. 


Karakurukki Maravan. 


Kasap Kdran. 


Kanakkanattu Slianar. 


Karala. 


Kasa. 


Kanakka Idayan. 


Karalan. 


Kasayakkaran. 


Karuithurai Vellalan. 


Karala Vellala. 


Kasaya Maratti. 


Kanana Bali j a. 


Kkrkmani. 


Kasayan. 


Kanayani kinam Mara- 


Kararaanattu Kalian. 


Kasa Mudali Vellala. 


van. 


Karannitti Pulayan. 


Kaslanikan. 


Kanayavar Nkyanar. 


Karamaravan. 


Kashiar Setti. 


Kandalathai. 


Kariila. 


Kasi. 


Kandamarisi Nadas. 


Karappikkaran. 


Kasikkadai Setti. 


Kandanibala Mudali. 


Karkr Vellalu. 


Kasukdra. 


Kandayan. 


Karatalu VeUdlan. 


Kasukar Vellala. 


Kandi. 


Karatha Valaya. 


Kasu. 


Kandiya Vadugan. 


Karathi. 


Kasuvan. 


Kanga. 


Karathulkaran. 


Kachirayan. 


Kangadikar. 


Karathufai. 


Kathal. 


Kangadiya. 


Karayula Kavnndan. 


Kathambattu Setti. 


Kangar. 


Karayar Mudali. 


Katha Udayan. 


Kangasikar Okkili. 


Karaya. 


Kathavergab Navidan. 


Kangathan. 


Kar. 


Kathikkaran. 


Kangudi Okkili. 


Kai'ean. 


Kathi Kshavaram. 


Kangu Shandn. 


Karikkal Idayan. 


Kathikkodan. 


Kani. 


Karikkal Vellalan. 


Kathri Tape Mater. 


Kaniga. 


Kavi. 


Kattukuthi. 


Kanikolai Pallan. 


Karima Setti. 


Kathu Valarkiranan. 


Eannada. 


Karinattu Kalian. 


Kathu Valarhira Kusavan 


Kaniyakdran. 


Ka,rikkan Vellalan 


Kattahar Varayan. 


Kaniydla. 


Karjathi Okkili. 


Kattakkar. 


Kdniyalar. 


Karkara Kayarai. 


Kattakottai Kuravan. 


Kiniydl. 


Karkar. 


Kattalai Kattu Vellalan. 


Kaniyar. 


Karkatha. 


Kattana Setti. 


Kanjian. 


Kkrkattu. 


Kattanai Vetti Setti. 


Kanii Setti. 

Kankupu. 

Kannaaa. 


Karkuruchi Maravan. 


Katta Gallan. 


Karma Reddi. 


Kattar Siviar. 


Kama GoUa. 


Kattathur Kavarai. 


Eanna. 


Kamam. 


Katti Kotti. 


Kann^. 


Kdmikar. 


Kattian. 



A 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



6 



Kattuguru Oddan. 


Kilasimai Kalian. 


Kodu. 


Kattu. 


Kilakathi Kaikala. 


Kodukkaran. 


Kattukara Setti. 


Kilakatti Kalian. 


Kodikka Vellala. 


Kattu Karavan. 


Kilakattu Parayu. 


Koduniananar PaUan. 


Kattukuthi. 


Kilanattu Agamudian. 


Kodunji Kamhalathan. 


Kavadugar. 


Kilnattu Kalian. 


Kongandttu Brahman. 


Kavakar. 


Kildr. 


Kongarayunda Dasan. 


Kavalkaran. 


Kilasakkar. 


Kojk, 


Kavalali. 


Kilasar. 


Kokai Vellala. 


Kavala Maranar. 


Kilavar Toddia Naikan. 


Kokamhalam. 


Kavalan. 


Kilgathi Paraya. 


Kokammalan. 


Kavalian. 


Kilkan Idayar. 


Kokathiri Maravan. 


Kaval Udayan. 


Kilkattu Kalian. 


Koka Vellalan. 


Kavali Kavundan. 


Kilkattu Shanan. 


Kokki Maravan. 


Kaval Karakallan. 


Killai Valanahan. 


Kokkal Kallar. 


Kavanar. 


KiUar. 


Kokkala Setti. 


Kavana Setti. 


Kilnattu. 


Kokkalvar Kamhalam. 


Kavando. 


Kilvadugar. 


Kokkidayar. 


Kavani Vaisia. 


Kingira Okkili. 


Kokkikatti. 


Kavan. 


Kiraikkara Kalian. 


Kokkoral Gollan. 


Kavannan. 


Kiraikkaran. 


Ko-kongam. 


Kavarai. 


Kiraikkara Okkili. 


Kokudi Vadugar. 


Kavundan. 


Kirakkattu Vellala. 


Ko-kusanan. 


Kavurava Naikkan. 


Kirama Thalayari Kora- 


Koladikkarai Kollan. 


Kavure. 


van. 


Kola. 


Kayadi Kambalam. 


Kiran. 


Kolaikaran. 


Kayadu Povu. 


Kira Senguntha Mudali. 


Koli. 


Kdyakkal Toddian. 


Kirayambur Setti. 


Kolianattu Reddi. 


Kaykkamma. 


Kiriokkili. 


Kolia. 


Kayakkur Audi. 


Kirthira. Parayan. 


Koligun. 


Kayamathu. 


Kimihalaikatti Maravan. 


Kolkoranan. 


Kayar. 


Kitliu Setti. 


Kolla. 


Kayaru. 


Ko. 


KoUai. 


Kayati. 
Kayathu. 
Kayati. 
Kavas. 


Koba. 


KoUan. 


Kobra. 


KoUathukarun. 


Kobul. 


KoUatbu Setti. 


Kochihar. • 


Kollavam Vannan. 


Ka Vellalar. 


Koda. 


Kolli. 


Kaveripatnam Setti. 


Kodagathar Kammavar. 


KoUiyagar. 


Kavinattu Kalian. 


Kodai Vellala. 


KoUu. 


Kavinavun. 


Kodaka Parayan. 


Kolnattu Viapari. 


Kavisaman. 


Kddalikkara Maravan. 


Koloiban. 


Kaviyur Idayar. 
Kavuli. 


Kddalfekkara Pandaram. 


Kolukara Karayan. 


Kddali Pallan. 


Koluna Vellalan. 


Kaval Idayar. 


Kodanasi. 


Komagal Vellalan. 


Kavundan. 


Kodangi. 


Komakonam. 


Kelakuri Velldlar. 


Kodapathi Agamadian. 


Ko-Malagali. 


Kelasi. 


Kodayanattu Vellala. 


Komalla. 


Kentha Podi. 


Kodayur Agamudian. 


Komanandi. 


Kendikotti Setti. 


Kodia. 


Komati. 


Kenga Parayan. 


Kodiki Toddian. 


Komaran. 


Kenitha Poigathi Kanarai 


Kodikkalkaran. 


Komula Vellalan. 


o 

Sekkan. 


Kodikkal Mudali Shbthi- 


Komupura Sakkili. 


Kenthanar Setti. 


karan. 


Komutbu Mudali. 


Kentikottai Reddi. 


Kodikkaran. 


Kombana. 


Kerai Shanar. 


Kodikkara Parayan* 


KombwkoUa Vellalan. 


Kesari. 


Kodikkatti Pillamiar. 


Kombwkara Kavarai. 


Kesetti. 


Kodikkatti. 


Kombwkkaran. 


Kesha Pandaram. 


Kodi. 


Koma Grollan. 


Kevalai Padi. 


Kodilu Audi. 


Kona Kollan. 


Khabul. 


Kodinar Idayan. 


Konan. 


Khandilu. 


Kodiumdali Vellala. 


Konathu Vellalan. 


Kidauai Koravar. 


Kodinattukottai. 


Kondai. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Kondakkar. 

Konda. 

Kondalan. 

Kondalian. 

Kondappianadu. 

Kondayawkottai Setti. 

Kondayan. 

Kondi. 

Kondu. 

Konga. 

Kongan. 

Konganandi. 

Konganattu. 

Kongana. 

Kongani. 

Kongari Vannan. 

Kongidu Nayakan. 

Kongidi Okkilear. 

Konia. 

Konigar Kaniar. 

Konikara Setti. 

Konineikiraachanyu Setti. 

Koni. 

Kongi Oddan. 

Konthala Vellala. 

Konthu Andi. 

Konu Segaran. 

Korayan. 

Kora. 

Kopupusari. 

Kothu-Sitti. 

Koradi. 

Korakai Vellalan. 

Korama. 

Koraudttu. 

Koran Vellalan. 

Korasakkaran. 

Korasa Parayan. 

Korathi Padi Kalian. 

Kora tha Reddi. 

Koriclii Shanan. 

Korika Konga Setti. 

Kori Koria. 

Korthi Padar. 

Korukathi Idayan. 

Kor Telunga Setti. 

Korli Kalian. 

Kosakosa Vellalan. 

Kosakosa KoUan. 

Kosali. 

Kosangatti Vellalan. 

Kosangi. 

Kosa Vellalan. 

Kosetti. 

Kosliara Setti. 

Koshath Kaunadran. 

Kosayiharan. 

Kosi. 

Kosivagi. 

Kosmirmi. 

Kosnna Jathi. 

Kottai Setti. 

Kotar. 



Kotha. 

Kothalian Maharaslitrulu. 

Kothan. 

Kothanga. 

Kothankatliaya. 

Kothanargal. 

Kothukollan. 

Kothu Setti. 

Kotla. 

Kottali Maravan. 

Kottalam. 

Kottamanukotta Maravan. 

Kottaru Palli. 

Kottiya Sakkili. 

Kottaly Vellalan. 

Kottanuthu Agamudiyan. 

Kotta. 

Kotti. 

Kottumbadr Vadugan. 

Kottu. 

Kottur. 

Kovil. 

Kovul Oddan. 

Kovanna Vellalan. 

Kovannan. 

Kovaladi Vadugan. 

Koviliar. 

Koviar. 

Kovur. 

Koya. 

Koyilon. 

Koyilia Kavandan. 

Koyilu Vadugar. 

Koyi Pakku Vellalan. 

Kohamana Eajaputhran. 

Kohatriyan. 

Kohatria. 

Kohanaragan. 

Kuchalavan. 

Kuchavam. 

Kuohi Dasi. 

Kuchu Pallai. 

Kuda Dasari. 

Kudai. 

Kudakuduppar. 

Kudakmaravan . 

Kudar. 

Kudarakkaran. 

Kudara Toddian. 

Kudi. 

Kudian. 

Kudikal. 

Kudikallan. 

Kudikara Tamil Vannan. 

Kudikatti Vellalar. 

Kudikattu Parayar. 

Kudikodi Satani. 

Kudikuni Vanian. 

Kudilanattu Kalian. 

Kudimagan. 

Kudimi Parayan. 

Kudivar. 

Kudiva Kolar. 

A 4 



Kudivara Setti. 

Kudiyan. 

Kudiyanavan. 

Kudukurumbar. 

Kudumbi. 

Kudum Palli. 

Kuduvai Kurumban. 

Kugu Velldlan. 

Kujalathi Naikka. 

Kujili. 

Kukkanur. 

Kula Dasari. 

Kulaga Vannian. 

Kulajdthi Toddian. 

Kulkudi Idayan. 

Kulal Balija. 

Kulala. 

Kulayan. 

Kulam Kusanan. 

KulamangalaNattaKallar. 

Kulasekharan. 

Kulasekara Udayar. 

Kulashi. 

Kulasekhara Kshatniyan. 

Kulathur Maravan. 

Kulathur Parayan. 

Kulikara Kathan. 

Kulitha Reddi. 

Kulithivanam. 

KuUa Narikaran. 

KuUavan. 

Kulliniji. 

Kulnathan Kalian. 

Kulan Kottan. 

Kuluvan. 

Kul ViUiyar. 

Kuliri Kolar Vadugar. 

Kumagai. 

Kumaravar. 

Kummara. 

Kumatti Zadavan. 

Kumbalar. 

Karakatti Vellalar. 

Kamlula Nathan. 

Kumin Dasari. 

Kumi. 

Kam Pallar. 

Kunchiliyan. 

Kundara Maravan. 

Kundiar. 

Kandra Manika. 

Kungumakaran. 

Kuni Idayan. 

Kunnia Okkili. 

Kunivar Idayar. 

Kunjala. " 

Kunjarathu Pallar. 

Kunnigar. 

Kunjakuthu Kurumbar. 

Kunnavar. 

Kunni Tadugan. 

Kunthal Katti Idayan. 

Kunravan KottaiMaravan. 



Digitized by 



Google 



8 



Kunru Vellalar. 

Kunthama Mudali. 

Kunthyadu Setti. 

Kunupa Sudra. 

Kunti Vadugar. 

Kuppa: 

Kusara Dasi. 

Kulani Vannia. 

Kiirumbatlian. 

Kumludi Toddiyan. 

Kura. 

Kuratlialiar Gurukkal. 

Kurasa Sakkili. 

Kuravida Therumalaku 
Kuravan. 

Ku-Reddi. 

Kurika Padathau. . 

Kurikkunthai. 

Kurinja Pandaram. 

Kurini. 

Kurumi. 

Kurriyar Kambalan. 

Kurrivar Toddian. 

Kuma Kuravan. 

Kuruvandi. 

Kurubar. 

Kurudan. 

Kurakushtam. 

Kurakali Vellalar. 

Kurukkal Vettuvan. 

Kurup. 

Kurupara Setti. 

Kurusakthi. 

Kuru. 

KurigoUa. 

Kurumban. 

Kurumalathan. 

Kurumba. 

Kurumam. 

Kurumbar. 

Kurunuthi. 

Kurunga. 

Kurutti. 

Kurumban. 

Kurumbarathan. 

Kusavar. 

Kusa. 

Kushu Bairagi Pandaram. 

Kusini. 

Kutbadi. 

Kutha. 

Kuthanara. 

Kuthi. 

Kuruvi. 

Kuruvikara Marabi. 

Kuruvikara Kurumban. 

Kuruvik Karan. 

Kuruvi Koravan. 

Kusa. 

Kusala Kammavar. 

Kusalathu Andi. 

Kusam. 

Kusanga Brahma. 



KuBavan. 
Kusavar. 
Kuthiar Tencari Oddan 

Setti. 
Kuthir Vadugar. 
Kuthukal Vadugan. 
Kuthumbi Kavandan. 
Kutrathiyar Vellalar. 
Kuttayar. 
Kuthathi Koravan. 
Kutti. 

Kuttiya Maravan. 
Kuttu Kanakkar. 
Kuttuna. 
Kuvadai Okkili. 
Kuvali Vanian. 
Kuvandi Sedan. 
Kuvayan Kambalam. 
Kuvithurai Vellalar. 
Kuyavan. 
Kuyava. 
Kuyar Oddan. 
Kuzhanadu Mudali. 
Kuzhayan Para Vannan. 
Ku. 



Lada. 

Ladakkilladei Savangan. 

Ladan. 

Ladaya. 

Lala. 

Lalbagi. 

Lama. 

Lamakuva Nasuvan. 

Lambadi. 

Landar. 

Lasa. 

Lattiviri. 

La Vannan. 

Lavitti Kuravan. 

Levadu Oddan. 

Linga. 

Lingadhari. 

Lingamkatti. 

Loga. 

Lothu Vinthirar. 

Lutchu. 



Ma. 

Macha Sembadavan. 

Machilia. 

Madadakapi. 

Madanampettai Sotti. 

Mada Salian. 



Madathachi. 

Madathipathi. 

Madattandi. 

Madavaram. 

Madava. 

Madhva. 

Madiga. 

Madu. 

Magaliar. 

Magamaya Karalar. 

Magam Paliyan. 

Maganthan. 

Magaratha Gurukkal. 

Magaraya Setti. 

Magathi Koravan. 

Mahama Saliar. 

Mahambal Vellalan. 

Mahamayi. 

Maharastra. 

Mahareddi Kudiyan. 

Mahesuaral. 

Maithola. 

Maithu Va Thi. 

Maiyal Badagar. 

Makadi uthvam. 

Maku Madi Parayan. 

Mala. 

Malabar. 

Malai. 

Malaikan Bngira Polavan. 

Malajar Seruppthakkira- 
van. 

Malaman Oddan. 

Malasar. 

Malattu Parivaram. 

Malathur Kaikalan. 

Malayan. 

Malayanarchi. 

Malayandi. 

Malerava. 

Maliakar Setti. 

Maligai Setti Vaisiar. 

Mali. 

Malikkar Engira Urali. 

Malingura Setti. 

Malithar. 

MaUa. 

Mallaga Jetti. ■ 

Maluvar. 

Mamavar. 

Mamangan Sakkili. 

Mamial Oddan. 

Mamiruvan. 

Mamisam Thinum Vella- 
lan. 

Manalkattu Vellalan. 

Manam Beddi. 

Mananikkar. 

Manappakam. 

Mana Siga. 

Manavarayan. 

Manathi. 

Ma-Ndvidan. 



Digitized by 



Google 



9 



Mandala Mudali. 

Mandalain Setti. 

Mandi Kuravan. 

Mandir. 

Mangakattu Setti. 

Mangala. 

Mangalapputhin Setti. 

Manganattu Palli. 

Maniakkdran. 

Maniakkdra. 

Man. 

Manigar. 

M^ikka Yelldlan. 

Mdnikka Setti. 

Maniyal. 

Maniyandi. 

Mangakar. 

Manjakara. 

Manjakolia. 

Manjakuppum. 

Manjamatlii Andi. 

Manjapurathi. 

Manjiapuri. 

Manjaputhur. 

Manja. 

Manjarkatti Idayan. 

Manjathur Setti. 

Manjavada Idayan. 

Manjavapurathu Setti. 

Manjayithr Setti. 

Mankondan Kalian. 

Mankondi. 

Manmandu. 

Mannadu Setti. 

Mannai Puravan. 

Mannakar Pai'ayan. 

Mannakuravan. 

Manneduppavan. 

Mannudaydn. 

Mannur Vannan. 

Mannudiyan. 

Manpkndam. 

Manthai. 

Mantha Yulamban. 

Manthira. 

Manthadi. 

Manu. 

Manumuth Palli. 

Ma-Parayan. 

Maplai. 

Maratti. 

Maraga Pillai. 

Maraithar. 

Marakallan. 

Marakkyan. 

Marakelasath a va. 

Marakkalakottu Pamba- 

kdran. 
Marakkala Yella Zham. 
Marakkudiyan. 
Marakkuravan. 
Maramkattu Vellalan. 
Maramkotta Shandn. 

T 5747. 



Maranthama Iravan. 

Mara. 

Marasa Kkpu. 

Marasu. 

Marathasaria. 

Marathayi Audu Kurum- 
lia. 

Marktta. 

Maratti. 

Maravelai Kanmalan. 

Maravan. 

Mdrvadi. 

Maravan. 

Maravarathi. 

Maravaraya. 

Maravardya Kavundan. 

Marava Valayan. 

Maravethi Parayan. 

Marayakara Setti. 

Marga. 

Mariamman Pusari. 

Mdriammakkaran. 

Maria Setti. 

Maridayan. 

Marikkkl Kammalan. 

Marithu Vannan. 

Markandam. 

Marmalathu. 

Maruba. 

Marumayenum Kavarai. 

Marumanathi Vadugan. 

Maruntha Kaikalu Mu- 
dali. 

Marutha. 

Maruthuvachi. 

Maruthuva Vannan. 

Maruvara Setti. 

Marvaki Setti. 

Marasakapu. 

Masai. 

Masaliyan. 

Masangundthi Kalian. 

Masarai Kottai Kalian. 

Masika Malayulun. 

Mathalu Yknian. 

Mathaman. 

Mdthar VelMla Setti. 

Matha Sathan. 

Mathathi Kavarai. 

Mathi. 

Mathiran. 

Mathurai. 

Mathu Setti. 

Matraja. 

Mattamar. 

Mattaverkal. 

Mattu. 

Mkttukkdru Idayan. 

Mavali. 

Mavandadan. 

Mava Velldlah. 

Mavilian. 

Mavandadi Maravan. 

B 



MavandMan Setti. 

Mayakomati Ksdlan. 

Mayandi. 

Maya. 

Mayirvinaignan. 

Mazhavardya Kalian. 

M^dakar. 

Meda. 

Medara. 

Medaranan. 

Medaga Ndyakan 

Meikkiva Karan. 

Meivania Setti. 

M^ladavagi Tli6van. 

Melavaraydn. 

Melakkdra. 

Melakkdttu. 

Melam. 

Melathi Kalian. 

Melth^lai Ambattan. 

Meikaral VeMlan. 

Mellaku Brahacharanani. 

M^lur Vannian. 

Mendttu. 

M^rkuttam. 

Meruku Idayan. 

Mesangadu Lallan 

Mesar. 

Mesarava. 

Mestha. 

Mettuvan. 

Mevan Toti. 

Mida Kuravan. 

Mikka Kanakkan. 

Minkaran. 

Minkara Yadugar. 

Minka Parayan. 

Mm. 

Mirthathi Kavarai. 

Mithia Valayan. 

Mochi. 

Mochiyar. 

Modavdn di Velldlan. 

Modavaniachi. 

Mddikdr. 

Mogal. 

Mdganam Pattu. 

Moganathiri Beddi. 

Mogasparayan. 

Mokka Sakkili 

Mokuvan. 

Mdlakkaran. 

Molakkara Sakkili. 

Molathar Mosa Velldlan. 

Molathathu Velldlan. 

MoUa. 

Monda. 

Mondi. 

Moradan. 

Moraganathi Setti. 

Morappanathi Kalian. 

Morasa. 

Morasakkili. 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 



Morasali. 

Morasan. 

Morasukkdran. 

M6risu Vellalan. 

Mdrkari. 

Morula Shanan. 

Mosai Sakkili. 

Mosakudi. 

Mosthar. 

Mothanthalai jangama 

Vellalan. 
Motha Vannan. 
Mathi Reddi. 
Motta. 

Mozhi Devan. 
Mozhi Devan Ndkkan. 
Mrugandagathra Sozhian. 
Muchiyar. 
Mudali. 

Mudali Vellanjetti. 
Mudavan. 
Mudavandi, 
Mudukar. 
Mugalur. 
Muga Velama. 
Mu-Kunakku. 
Mukkana. 
Mukkaniar. 
Mukkar Nambinar. 
Mukkattu, 
Mukkattuvan. 
Mukka. 
Mukkiyan. 
Mukku Reddi. 
Muku. 

Mulai Parakan. 
Mulaki. 

Mulakumari Setti. 
Mulatholi Kuravan. 
Mula Vannan. 
MuUakottai Kalian. 
MuUi Kurumban. 
Munaina Vellalan. 
Munathi GoUa Idayan. 
Mundi. 
Munga Golla. 
Mungai Vadugar. 
Mungal Kuravan. 
Munganattu Parayan. 
Mungani. 
Mungarijan. 
Mungil Vettai Karakura- 

van. 
Muni. 
Munnuru V^ttu Kamma- 

lan. 
Munreddi Setti. 
Munthi Kuravan. 
Mun. 
Muppa. 
Muppan. 
Murakkal Reddi. 
Mura Sakkili. 



Murasa. 

Murayi. 

Muruchi Ndttan- 

Muriki. 

Murthi Vanian. 

Murukum Brahmin. 

Murumban. 

Muruvan. 

Musa Kammala Kamrai. 

Musaga Paniga. 

Musakumana. 

Musuku Balija. 

Muthal. 

Muthali Agamudayan. 

Muthari Maravathi. 

Muthathi Selaram. 

Muthi. 

Muthirian. 

Muthiria. 

Muthu. 

Muthuria. 

Muthukara. 

Muthukaya Vishnu. 

Muthukuri Vellan. 

Mnthuma Manjan Idayan. 

Muthumadi Balija. 

Muthumanai Vellalan. 

Mathuma Reddi. 

Muthundu Kavarai. 

Muthuraju Naidu. 

Muthuraja Vannian. 

Muttaikkaran. 

Muvana Sakkili. 

Muzhuvar Trular. 



Nada Kalian. 

Nadakathu. 

Nadar. 

Nadan. 

Nadarku Setti. 

Nadar Muppan. 

Nadavi. 

Nader Okkili. 

Nadi Kalian. 

Nadodi Pulayan. 

Nadu. 

Nadumalam Setti. 

Naduman Setti. 

Nadumandala. 

Nadumandalam. 

Nadumandala Setti. 

Nadupanan Setti. 

Naduvan. 

Naga Andi. 

Nagapasa. 

Nagalu Setti Tamil. 

Nagaraja. 

Nagara. 



Nagaralu. 

Nagaram. 

Nagarathu. 

Nagasan. 

Nagasarakkaran. 

Nagase Setti. 

Nagasivar. 

Nagatha Lingadhdri. 

Nagattan. 

Nagu Thattan. 

Naidu. 

Naikan. 

Naikkar. 

Naikkan. 

Naikan. 

Naik Milk. 

Naikutti Setti. 

Naja Nalla Jathi. 

Nakaraman. 

Nakarattan. 

Nakkola. 

Nakodu Palli. 

Nakuthi Vellalan. 

Nalayamar. 

Nalu Kottar Kallar. 

Nalungarayar. 

Namadeva. 

Namadhari. 

Namathi Maratti. 

Nambiadi andi. 

Namburi. 

Nammavar. 

Nammayam Palli. 

Nanadi Vellalan. 

Nanaya Kshatria. 

Nandamandala Raja. 

Nandar Kannan. 

Nandimandalam. 

Nandi Pandarum. 

Nangadu Setti. 

Nangamathu Setti. 

Nangaralu. 

Naniar Setti, 

Nanja Setti. 

Nangudia Vellalan. 

Nankotta Kalian. 

Nanmari Okkili. 

Nanniyar. 

Nara GroUa. 

Narayanapuram Setti. 

Nardiar. 

Narigar. 

Narikara Kariman. 

Narikkali Kailam. 

Narrikkuravan. 

Narmayakka Parayan. 

Narrathuthandi Setti. 

Nasakkiliar. 

Nasappu. 

Nasappu Agamudajan. 

Nasathu Setti. 

Na-Setti. 

Nasuadar. 



Digitized by 



Google 



11 



Nasiri. 

Nasuva Kammalan. 

Nasuvan, 

Nasuva. 

Nataka Setti. 

Nathamar. 

Nathaindthi. 

Natha. 

Nattai Mudati. 

Nattamai Oddan. 

Kattaman. 

Nattamanathi Yellalar. 

Nattamandi. 

Nattaman. 

Natta. 

Nattambadi. 

Nattam. 

Nattan. 

Nattar. 

Nattdkal. 

Nattiyar. 

Nattudai Setti. 

Ndttu. 

Nattukkitra Kaikalan. 

Nattupuram. 

Nattuva Kuttadi. 

Nattuvan. 

Natuvanga Melakkaraji. 

Nattuvan: 

Navagapuram Uppiliyan. 

Navalkara Vellalar. 

Navapandam Seigiravan. 

Na-VeUalar. 

Navida. 

Navidan. 

Navimani. 

Nayadi. 

Nayagathu Shanan. 

Naya. 

Ndyandn. 

Nayar. 

Nayarar. 

Nedugar. 

Neikar. 

Nelai. 

NeUai. 

Nepala Setti. 

Neri Domban. 

Nesavukkaran. 

Nesavukkara Parayer. 

Nesavu. 

Nettakkaran. 

Nettiraivar Thoddiyan. 

Nevada Setti. 

Neygiravan. 

Nichan. 

Nichapallan. 

Nichavannan. 

Nila. 

Nilathore: 

Nilathu XJdaujan. 

Nil oddar. 

Nilum. 



Nimitlnikari. 

Nippidakkaran. 

Nir. 

Nirmuga. 

Nirpusi. 

Nirmulugiravan . 

Nirmuzhugira Vellalar. 

Niyogi. 

Nochippa. 

Nodaipada Vellalar. 

Noduvan. 

Ndkka. 

Ndkkan. 

Nolayandi. 

NoUa. 

Nondravar. 

Ndttakkara Vellalar. 

Nular Jathi Kapu. 

Nulkara Setti. 

Nul Yedukkiru Setti. 

Nunthi Vellalar. 

Nurinjar. 

Nurkiravan. 



Oclia. 

Ochan. 

Oci-Kammdlan. 

Odai-Shanan. 

Odakkaran. 

Oda Nasuvan. 

Odavar. 

Odda. 

Odakara Vadugan. 

Oddan. 

Oduva. 

Offima. 

Ogachdndi. 

Ogalavan Thattan. 

Oga PaUi. 

Oghman. 

Okan. 

OkaPallan. 

Okkili. 

6lai. ^ 

Olaiyan. 

Olakkapidarum Setti. 

Oli. 

OUam Palli. 

Olniga Janappan. 

Omatha. 

Omburavan. 

Ondakadi Vanniyan. 

Ondarithan. 

Onda Vaniyan. 

Onderuthu Vaniyan. 

Ondi. 

Ondipiru Vaniyan. 

Ondipuli. 

Ondirakka Kambalathdn. 

Ondirikkdr. 

B 2 



Ongalan. 

Onikurumban. 

Onru. 

Oppalu Setti. 

Oppanaikkara Vadugan. 

Oppanikkaran. • 

Oppanikkaran Kavadu- 

vama. 
Orakuda Reddi. 
Oramuld, Vadugan. 
Oruthan. 
Orya. 
Osathi. 
Osetti. 
Otajati. 
Otharava. 

Othasanga Pulavan. 
Othava Vellalar. 
Othiriyar. 
Othiyan. 
Othuvan. 
Ottai. 
Ozhaka Vellathai. 



Pachd. 

Pachaikar. 

Pachai. 

Pachakkara. 

Pachanattu Kalian. 

Pacharisi Vellalan. 

Pachavan Parayan. 

Pachavenai. 

Padai. 

Padalai Beri' Setti. 

Padamaker. 

Padanzu. 

Padatalai Vellalan. 

Pada-sudra Udayan. 

Padathi. 

Padayachi. 

Padayathar. 

Padikkavaya-Kalla. 

Padiyan. 

Padma. 

Padmasalai. 

Paduka Kusavan. 

Paduma Sakkili. 

Padapuan Marattian. 

Pazadi. 

Pazanama Beddi« 

Pakanattu Kannadian. 

Paza. 

Pa. 

Paikar. 

Painiyan. 

Paipatti Thottiyan. 

Paithar. 

Pa-kaikalan. 

Pakandtti. 

Pakarakattu Vellalan. 



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12 



Pakkala Toddyan. 
Fakkaran. 
Pakkatha Maravan. 
Pakkiambara Kammala 

Asari. 
Pakkiri. 

Pakkundttu Beddi. 
Fakudimazan. 
Paku Palli. 
Pdla. 

Palaindttu Kammdlan. 
Palajati Andi. 
Palajari. 
Palajdthi. 

Palainattu Semman. 
Palakar. 

Palamar Pari Oddan. 
Pdlandti Reddi. 
Palani. 

Palanza V6ttuvan. 
Palanodi. 
Palapasupati. 
Palasivan. 
Palathirathu. 
Palavar. 
Palava Vanndn. 
Palayakkdr. 
Palayam Setti. 
Palaya Ndyakkan. 
Palayanikudi Setti. 
Pdliappattdr. 
PdUyappattu. 
Palia Muthriars. 
Pali. 

Palisar Setti. 
Palinchan. 
Pdlkdra Idayan. 
Palkudikkira Pulayan. 
Palla. 

Palladam Setti. 
Palladi. 

Pallaikurumbar. 
Pallakkndi. 
Pallamakkal. 
Pallanchikal. 
Pallan Panchaman. 
Pallathu Sakkili. . 
Pallavardyan. 

Palli. 

Pallikipiranthavan. 

Pallikkuravaii. 

Palliina.. 

Pallinur Koravan. 

Pallura Kotti Velldlan. 

Palluvan. 

Pal Thottiyan. 

Palvitu Beddi. 

Pamattu Sakkili. 

Pamattakkr Setti. 

Pambaikdran. 

Pambaikavarai. 

Pambukiran. 

Pambala. 



Pamba. 

Pamban Kalian. 

Pambatti. 

Pambu. 

Pan. 

Panachan Setti. 

Panai Brahmin. 

Panakkal Tachan. 

Panamaistri. 

Panamarathu Shknkn. 

Panambara Kalian. 

Panaikatti Vellalan. 

Panai Eri Shanan. 

Panai Erukiravan. 

Panan. 

Pananjknkn. 

Pana Beddi. 

Panasali. 

Pana Vellalan. 

Panayagar Vadugar. 

Pancha Gonda. 

Pknchkla. 

Panchaman. 

Panchknga Setti Idayan. 

Panchigan. 

Panchi Parayar. 

Pandakakudiyanavan 
Beddi. 

Pandakurumbar. 

Pandamuthu. 

Pandkra Kudimagan. 

Pandkrum. 

Pkndi. 

Pdndiar. 

Panditha. 

Pandithan. 

Pangulakkudi Velldla. 

Pangalar. 

Pangam. 

Pangandttan. 

Pangandttu Pallar. 

Panganattu Palli. 

Pangu Kurumbar. 

Paniadu. 

Pania Kannadian. 

Paniakavarai. 

Paxiian Valluvan. 

Paniar. 

Panigandi. 

Pani. 

Pannikkan. 

Panikka. 

Panikkaravan. 

Panirenddm. 

Panisavan. 

Panja Goundan. 

Panjakkara Setti. 

Panjakavarai. 

Panja Lingam Idayan. 

Panja Lingamkatti Ida- 
yan. 

Panjambutha Setti. 

Panjamel Setti. 



Panjamkatti. 

Pan jam Pallar. 

Panjamugathur Setti. 

Panjankani Valayan. 

Panjapathi Setti. 

Panjara Idayan. 

Panjaramkatu Idayar. 

Panjaram. 

Panjar Setti. 

Panjathayal. 

Panja Vellklar. 

Panji. 

Panju Katti. 

Panju Katti Vadugan. 

Pannai. 

Pannaikkkran. 

Pannknda Setti. 

Panna Beddi. 

Pannattu Sakkili. 

Pannava Andi. 

Pannayal. 

Pannia. 

Panni. 

Pannirendam Setti. 

Pannu Andi Ahittan. 

Panta. 

Pantai Setti. 

Pantha. 

Panthamkatti. 

Panthumutti Padayachi. 

Panuvirian. 

Paoddar. 

Pappan Vaishnavan. 

Pkpkri. 

Pa-pariydri. 

Para. 

Parachi. 

Parakka Koravan. 

Paramakkar. 

Paramalai Parayan. 

Paramalayalam . 

Paraman. 

Paramandala Setti. 

Paramkndi. 

Paramar. 

Paramarachi. 

Paramarathi Kavundan. 

Paramattiam. 

Paramudaya Nasuvan. 

Para-Ndikan. 

Para-Nd Suvan. 

Para-Ndvidan. 

Para-Ndvidan Valluvan. 

Parankusa Thdthan. 

Parappi Ekali. 

Parappu. 

Parappunattu Kalian. 

Parasa Idngadhari. 

Parasara Mudali. 

Parasar Idayan. 

Para Setti Idayan. 

Parasthai Vannan. 

Parasukkaran Sudra. 



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13 



Parasu Yannan. 

Paratachan. 

Parathar Yannan. 

Parayan. 

Parathi. 

Paratti Yellalan. 

Paravar. 

Paraya. 

Parayakkaran. 

Parayandi. 

Parika Dksi. 

Parikali Ambattan. 

Parikal Yellalan. 

Farikanakkan. 

Parikkalikkaran. 

Parikkani. 

Parikollan. 

Parikulu. 

Parikuthuravan. 

Parilan. 

Parinaikiravan. 

Parisi Idayan. 

Parithiniil Thattdn. 

Parithirupa Yannan. 

Parivara. 

Parivakdran. 

Parivdram Naikan. 

Parivarathan Naikan. 

Parivarathar. 

Parivari Setti. 

Parividn. 

Pariyal Yaguppu. 

Pariyari. 

Pariyathu Kadu. 

Parizhathavan. 

Parkottai Kalian. 

Pdrpdr. 

Parthi. 

Parugan. 

Parujata Kotti Idayan. 

Paruthikottai Setti. 

Paru-Yalluva Pandaram. 

Paru-Yetti Yellklan. 

Pasadaval Parayan. 

Pasa Golla. 

Pa. 

Pasakattu Kanakkan. 

Pdsalai. 

Pasapara Setti. 

Pasangundttu Kalian. 

Pasapar. 

Pasha Korava Yadugar. 

PdsMndi. 

Pashaya Setti. 

Pdsi. 

Pdsikatti YalayaH. 

P£ Sukatti Maravan. 

Pasunka Beddi. 

Pasupa Setti. 

Pasupathi. 

Pathaniar. 

Pathan Setti. 

Pathar Agasdla. 



Patha OkkUi. 

Pathathiyan. 

Pathuma. 

Pathia Maravar. 

Pathianul Kamma Asiari. 

Pathi. 

Patnulkar. 

Pathirakali Shandn. 

Pathisar. 

Pathma. 

Pathumanar Yellalan. 

Patran. 

Patta. 

Pafctamar. 

Pattanavan. 

Pattanavan Yadugar. 

Pattani. 

Pattanmar Smarthan. 

Pattariyar. 

Pattakkotti. 

Pattamangalam Kalian. 

Patta Sdlian. 

Pattarakattu. 

Pattar. 

Pattathar. 

Pattavegan. 

Pattayar Pariyari. 

Pattigal. 

Pattimakka Koravan. 

Pattinur Shanan. 

Pattippara. 

Patippari Shandn. 

Pattiraiyar. 

Patti Sari. 

Pattukottai. 

Pattanathu. 

Pattunulizhier. 

Pattunulkar. 

Pattu Salian. 

Pattu Senian. 

Pattuva. 

Paukanattu. 

Pauli. 

Pauparusar. 

Paunvetti. 

Pan Santhi Marathi. 

Pavagikkaran. 

Pavala Andi. 

Pavach Andi. 

Pavalankatti Yelldlar. 

Pa-Yalayar. 

Pavanda. 

Pdvandi. 

Pavanlankatti Yellalar. 

Pavania. 

Pavani Idayan. 

Pavanikkaran. 

Pavardndi. 

Pavar Idayan. 

Pavathan. 

Pava Udaydn. 

Pavazhakkdra Kavarai. 

Pavazhamkatti Andi. 

B 8 



Pavunji Shdndn. 

Payakkdr. 

Paydndi. 

Payarikar. 

Pdya Sakkili. 

Pdya Setti. 

Payathan. 

Payavai Kammavdr. 

Payirkottum Yellalan. 

Payi. 

Payir Kottam Yellalan. 

Pdzh Andi. 

Pazham Senian. 

Pazhaya Kusavan. 

Pazhar Maravan. 

Pazhian Katti Idayan. 

Pazhuchi. 

Pedaganti. 

Pedda. 

Pei. 

Pekaika Oddan. 

Pekira Golla. 

Pekkuli Toddiyan. 

Pella Gollar. 

Pelukkathu Idayan. 

Penakkurumbar. 

Penamatha. 

Pendakan. 

Penda Setti. 

Pendi Kudiydnavan. 

Pendukalukku Kupath 

Idathi. 
Pendu Pari Setti. 
Penikan Naik Idayan. 
Penkondab Reddi. 
Pennar Idayan. 
Penrian. 
Penuki. 

Perakudi Yanndn. 
Peratha Yanndn. 
Peravochari Kalian. 
Peria. 
Perianan. 
Peri Andi. 
Perimia. 
Perukanakkan. 
Perumalai Kalian. 
Peruma Koil Stanika. 
Perumalaindttu Kalian. 
Perumdmddu. 
Perumardttiar. 
Perunatti Kudikar. 
Perumathi Kalian. 
Perundttukdran. 
Perundttu Beddi. 
Perunddu Sithar. 
Pemntlialai. 
Peru Siga Palli. 
Perusiga Parayan. 
Peruvali Thattdn. 
Peruwanikkatt^ Yellalan. 
Pethadian. 
Pethia Yelldlan. 



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14 



Patta. 


Pogavannan. 


Ponkasse Pandarum. 


Pettai. 


Po GoUa. 


Ponvelai Asari Kam- 


Pettathu Badagar, 


Pogu. 


malan. 


Pettu. 


Pogupp Audi. 
Poikam. 


Pon-Vellalar. 


Picha Andi. 


Ponvelai Seyyappattavan. 


Pichaikalai Maravan, 


Poikara Parayar. 


Poonamallee Mudali. 


Pichaikula Madova. 


Poja Nattar. 


Poothavari. 


Pichai Vettuvan. 


Pokala Reddi. 


Popu Jathi. 


Pichakdra Maravar. 


Pokali Golla. 


Porada Vaudi. 


Pichakaran. 


Pokanar Reddi. 


Poreithuvathan. 


Picha Kondan. 


Pokanati Reddi. 


Poreivasi Reddi. 


Pichandi Kaikalar. 


Poka Reddi. 


Poraga Parayan. 


Pichata Natu. 


Pokanazhar Oddan. 


Pora. 


Pichath Domban. 


Pokattara Jathi Sakkili. 


Porakudi. 


Pichi-GoUa. 


Pokka Puttana Setti. 


Poranasa Kavarai. 


Pichi-guntla. 
Pichi-Easu Marandu. 


Pokkili Thottia Naika,n. 


Porasiassa. 


Pokki Parayan Goolar. 


Porasa Vellalan. 


Pichi-Kuttiykr. 


Pokku. 


Porya Kuranar. 


Pichu Kandan. 


Pokkudi Golla Naikkan. . 


Porkarkira Vannan. 


Pidakkar. 


Pokusaun Kan. 


Porkalandi. 


Pidaran. 


Poku Vellalan. 


Posanibari Kuravan. 


Pidirian. 


Pola. 


Postles. 


Pilamangathi. 


PoUakodi Maravan. 


Poshathakaran. 


Pilikanda Setti. 


Pollakuthukira Boyi. 


Posambothu KuRavan. 


PiUai. 


PoUanathi Reddi. 


Posa VeUdlan. 


Pillaimar, 


PoUapothu Karavan. 


Poshala Kusavan. 


Pillaperan Sudra. 


Polanu Setti. 


Potha-Yddavan. 


PiUikkaran. 


Polayan Vellalan. 


Pothikara Kuravan. ^ 


PilU Kuthddi. 


Poleru Mudali. 


Pothikavarai. 


Pinailangathi Vania Setti. 
Pinikans^u. 


Polia. 


Pothika Nattu Vellalan. 


Polikanda Golla. 


Pothira Vannan. 


Pinnaradi Vannan. 


Polikan. 


Pothikaran. 


Pinnar Agamudayan. 


Pollitta. 


Pothuval. 


Pinnar Puna Setti. 


Poluraithu Reddi. 


Pottakattu Agamudiyan. 


Pira Idayan. 


Pdlur Karavan. 


Potta. 


Piralinga Setti. 


Po-Malayalam. 


Pottavar Thottiyan. 


Pira,kkudi Palli. 


Poma Senan. 


Pottaithalai VeUalan. 


Piramaga Kaikalar. 


Ponathatti. 


Potti. 


Piramakallan. 


Ponu Sakkili. 


Pottinessu Vellalan. 


Piramalai. 


Ponal VeUalan. 


Pottinundia Jathi. 


Pirama Naidu Kalian. 


Ponappa Kurumlea Jathi. 


Pottukatti Naikan. 


Pira.Tnattia Kalian. 


Ponda Vellalar. 


Pottu Telunga Setti. 
Po-Vadukachi. 


Piramba Kalian. 


Pondi. 


Piramithu Kalian. 


Pondiannattu Vellalan. 


Prathamasakai Brahmana 


Piramara Kalian. 


Ponganattu. 


Pegathee. 


Pirambukkdra. 


Pongani. 


Prayanakkaran Kattu 


Piran. 


Pongasa Thattdn. 


Tottiyar. 


Piranai Jathi. 


Ponga Reddi. 


Pu-Andi. 


Pirani. 


Pongavanadi Reddi. 


Puchakunthar. 


Pira Sadivar. 


P6nar. 


Pudanai Jathi. 


Piratha Vannan. 


Pon-KoUan. 


Puducheri Setti. 


Pirattukkdra Parayan. 


Pon-Kammdla. 


Pudukulam. 


PirikoUi Vannan. 


Pon-Kammala Jadhar. 


Pugunakos Vadugan. 


Pirusi Kaidar. 


Ponkiri. 


Pu-Idayan. 


Pittintru Kannan. 


Palkurumban. 


Pukara. 


Pirokosa. 


Ponnagiyan. 


Pukitha Shanan. 


Pirokottai Vellalan. 


Ponnferi. 


Pukkara Nayakan. 


Podanadi. 


Ponneriar VeMlan. 


Pukkudi GoUan. . 


Podikadu Karuataka 


Ponnuriki Mudali. 


Pukula Kollan. 


Brahmin. 


Pon-Velaikaran. 


Pukku Nattu Pariah. 


Podikkal Kuttu Karavan. 


Pon-Asari. 


Pukuttam Velldlan. 


Poganaika Reddi. 
Pokanattu Reddi. 


Ponnuvandi Setti. 


Pulaikkan. 


Ponkanattu Reddi. 


Pulakdra Agamudiyan. 






Digitized by V^nOOQ 



15 



Pulava-Andi. 

Pulavan. 

Pulavar Kaikalar. 

Pulayan. 

Pulaydndi. 

Pulaya Shanan. 

Puliangudi Setti. 

Puliyan. 

PuUa. 

Pallaru Kalian. 

Pullayanan. 

Pulpidungukiravah. 

Puluvan. 

Pumalai. 

Pumalaikatti Siva Pan- 

daram. 
Punam Vettuvan. 
Pungaminar Idayar. 
Puni. 

Punikathu. 
Puniakara. 
Punigalla Idayan. 
Puni. 

Puntha Kaikala Mudali. 
Pimtha Kudi Setti. 
Pimthamalli. 
Puntha Mudali. 
Punul. 
Pupunar. 
Puragu Idayar. 
Purai Mttan. 
Purakanda. 
Purokula. 
Puramari Kalian. 
Puratha. * 
Purattarakudi. 
Pura Vannan. 
Purgoli Kshatria. 
PurQian. 

Puruthunda Para Vannan. 
Puruthu Sette Padayachi. 
Pusaikara Vellalan. 
Pusali Siva Audi. 
Pusali Vellalan. 
Pusari. 
Pushathikora. 
Pushpala. 
Putari Vannan. 
Puthamur Andi. 
Puthai Sanku Puluva 

Vellalan. 
Puthanda Kannadian. 
Puthara Para Vannan. 
Puthara Vannan. 
Puthara Vannan Tindan. 
Puthavan. 
Putha Vannan. 
Puthian Salavadi. 
Puthirar Vannan. 
Puthirian. 
Puthu. 
Puthura. 
Puthur Kammalan. 



Putta. 
Punalai Idayan. 

Punathu Kudi Setti. 
Puviruntha Vallian. 
Puyanthatha Idayan* 
Puyamatha Idayar. 



Ragas Agamudayan. 

Ragudu Kapu. 

Raja. 

Rajakal Kshatria. 

Rajakan. 

Rajaputhiran. 

Rajathi Shanan. 

Rajathurava Vellalan. 

Rajavalai Agamudayan. 

Rajavar Kalian. 

Rajavasal Agamudayan. 

Rajavatti. 

Rajavithiar. 

Rajayisa Agamudayan. 

Raju. 

Rakkan. 

Rakkore Agamudayan. 

Ra-Kshatrian. 

Rama. 

Ramanuja. 

Ramdpuram Setti. 

Ramathasan. 

Ramba Kurumbar. 

Ranavar Agamudayan. 

Rangari. 

Rangasari Golla Vadugar. 

Ranikkan Nisaru. 

Ranka jogi. 

Rarur. 

RasuUathu Kshatria. 

Rasam Mahratti. 

Rasappa Agamudayan. 

Rasendra. 

Rasili. 

Rasivar. 

Rathamgiri Vellalan. 

Ra-Thevangam. 

Rattam. 

Ravatha Kavarai. 

Ravuthan. 

Ravutha. 

Ravuthu. 

Raya. 

Rayalar Kurumban. 

Rayaman. 

Rayanathu Ambattan. 

Rayanathi Kaithidayan. 

Rayanthila Idayan. 

Rayantheragathi Idayan. 

Rayar. 

Rayarthu Kattu Idayan. 

Rayathathu Idayan. 

B 4 



Reddan; 

Reddi. 

Regu Parayan. 

Rekkal. 

Relaba Toti. 

Relingatha. 

Renderuthu Vaniyan. 

Renga Kavarai. 

Resava Pallan. 

Retha Vannan. 

Retta Sekkan. 

Rigandu Naidu. 

Rohilla Raja. 

RoUa. 

Rdw. 

Rdwjd Brdhmanu Smdr- 

tha. 
Ruchauku Thoddiyan. 
Ruchas. 
Rudra. 
Runga Pillai. 
Rungathu Setti. 



Saba Reddi. 

Sacharathi Setti. 

Sadai Pandaram. 

Sadaiyar. 

Sadalippu Vellalan. 

Sadamnui Padayachi. 

Sadapatti. 

Sadayavar. 

Sadi Vadugan. 

Sadu. 

Sagalan. 

Saga Maravan. 

Sagu Andi. 

Saguri. 

Sagu Vettuvan. 

Saisai Vettuva Vellalan. 

Saiyar Idayan. 

Sakala. 

Sakalar Kaikalar. 

Sakambalathan. 

Sakandi. 

Saka Thoddich. 

Sakipapathu Setti. 

Sakkampattu Idayar. 

Sakkarai Kaika. 

Sakkarthalvar Sattani. 

Sakkaravarthi Maravan. 

Sakkili. 

Sakku Shanan. 

Sakthi Pujei Seigiravan. 

Sakula Dasi. 

Sakuna Vellalan. 

Sakupuram Setti. 

Saladangi Kottar Kallar. 

Salai. 

Salakin Komatti. 

Salamaravar. 



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16 



Salamdrkat. 

Salamarthu. 

Salamban. 

Salangar. 

Salar. 

Salavaikdr. 

Salavai Seigiravan. 

Salavagha Pillai. 

Salem. 

Salian. 

Sdlivdliana. 

Saliya. 

Sal Oddan. 

Saluhari. 

Saluppan. 

Salu. 

Samakdr. 

Sama. 

Sdmala. 

Sdmandidr. 

Samara. 

Samayapuram Setti. 

Samayatham Setti. 

Sambada Pusari. 

Sdmbal Andi. 

Sambala. 

Sdmbdn. 

Sambandttar. 

Sambandttu. 

Sambardya. 

Sambatti. 

Sdmiar. 

Sdmindda Fadaydchi. 

Samin Vellala. 

Sami Pandaram. 

Samma Andi. 

Sammate' Parayan. 

Sammangarai Vadugan. 

Sammuga. 

Samudra Kara Maravar. 

Samuga Kavalkaran. 

Samuthi Kanakkan. 

San. 

Skn. 

Sanakoda Setti. 

Sanathi Vaishuavam. 

Sanava Pandaram. 

Sanavi Pillai. 

Sanavar Setti. 

Sandana. 

Sanda Nasuyan. 

Sandu. 

Sangala Setti. 

Sanga. 

Sangar. 

Sangathar. 

Sangiraltan. 

Sangu. 

Sangndu Parachi. 

Sangnmuga Setti. 

Sangunthum. 

Sanialan. 

Sani. 



Sania Setti. 

Sanira Setti. 

Saniyer. 

Saniaya Setti. 

Sankadu Vellalan. 

Sankara. 

Sdngudimagan. 

Sannar Joular. 

Sannu. 

Sannyasi. 

Sdnrone. 

Santhalai Vellalan. 

Santhanattu Velldlan. 

Santhu. 

Sdnthugal. 

Sanudu Shdndn. 

Sanukaran. 

Sapakola. 

Sapasi Kil GoUa Vadugar. 

Sappalu Idayan. 

Sappar Idayan. 

Sappathu Setti. 

Sappiliyan. 

Sappolayan. 

Sappa Koravan. 

Saraiydn. 

Saraji. 

Saraju. 

Sarakara. 

Sarakari. 

Sarakkar. 

Saramani. 

Saru Palli Kalian. 

Saruppa Setti. 

Saruflwata. 

Sarattu Kanakkan. 

Saraviya. 

Sdrayakkaru. 

Saray Navidan. 

Sare Kanunan. 

Sari. 

Saria Seniyan. 

Sari. 

Sarkar Parayan. 

Sarukuppa. 

Sarumadi Reddi. 

Sanivala Valayan. 

Sasaramittu. 

Sasthiri. 

Satddavan. 

Satdni. 

Sathdndi. 

Sathani. 

Sathar. 

Sathathavan Karuna 

Nambi. 
Sathavar Mara Setti. 
Sathi. 
Sathiyan. 
Sathur. 
Sathu. 
Satra. 
Sattar. 



Sdvadi Sudra Kalian. 

Savalai Shanan. 

Savalakdran. 

Savalkara Setti. 

Savalam. 

Savalar. 

Savala. 

Savamanna Yadavan. 

Savan Andi. 

Savarai Pandaram. 

Savaraka Ndvidan. 

Savera. 

Savai^l. 

Savarkam Setti. 

Savar Kdran. 

Savira Kalian. 

Sayirian. 

Savithavara Setti. 

Savuri KoUa Toti. 

Savvia Velldlar. 

Sdyakdra. 

Sayakkaran. 

Sayakonan. 

Sayala. 

Sayan. 

Sayani. 

Saya. 

Seda. 

Seda jattu Manicka Tha- 

sar. 
S^da. 
S^dali. 
Sedan. 
Segadilu. 
Seethani Idayan. 
Seethari Setti. 
Segara Udayan. 
Segidivaru Kavarai. 
Sekappudayan. 
Sekara. 
Sekari. 

Sekkadugiravan. 
Sekkadum Setti. 
Sekkadu Vanian. 
Sekkan. 
Sekkandi. 
Sekkaran. 
Sekkattumavanr 
Sekkudayan. 
Sekku. 
Selaikara. 
Selaik. 
Selai. 
Selam. 
Seli. 

Sellavar. 
Sellichayam. 
Selliyam. 
SeUur. 
Sembada. 
Sembadavan. 
Sembadavar. 
Sembanari Kalian. 



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17 



Sembankttu Maravan. 

Sembari Maravan. 

Sembi Karayan. 

Sembu Kattara VeMlar. 

Sembu Udaydn. 

Semmali-pattu Maravan. 

Semman. 

Semmdn Parayan. 

Semmanattu. 

Senai Idachi. 

Senaikaran. 

Senaikkara Setti. 

Senaikkudayan. 

Benaikkudu. 

Sendi 

Senaipakam Setti. 

Senaithalavan. 

Senaivaram. 

Senda Conda. 

Sendalai Yelldlan. 

Senduga Setti. 

Sengal. 

Sengal Oddan. 

Sengala YelMlan. 

Sengali Nattu Kalian. 

Sengan. 

Sengandiyar. 

Senga Pallan. 

Sengarali Kaikala Mu- 

daU. 
Sengattai Maravan. 
Sengattu Kallar. 
Sengu. 

Sengudasa Grovindan. 
Sengudi Magan. 
Sengudiyan. 
Sengu Kaikalan. 
Sengunatham Kalian. 
Sengnntha Mudali. 
Senguthi Parayan. 
Sengnntham. 
Senian. 
Senna Setti. 
Senattu Maravar. 
Sennavar. 
Senran Pallan. 
Sentalai. 
Senthadi. 
Sentha Jangamar. 
Senthalai. 
Senu Saliar. 
Seppochi. 

Seppodia Grovinadan. 
Seppo Karaydn. 
Serai Kupputam. 
Seriar Sekkan. 
Sen Parayan. 
Serkulam. 
Serkula. 

Serkul Setti Vanian, 
Sermun. 
Semattu Shd.nan. 

Y 6747. 



Seruppu Sakkili. 

Seruvadu. 

SerWaikaran. 

S^rvai. 

Seshakari. 

Seshapuram. 

Setharan. 

Sethu. 

Settai Kiddi. 

Setti. 

Settimar. 

Settu Setti. 

Sevadi Setti. 

Sevagar Piltaimar. 

Sevala. 

Sevalai Pillai. 

Sevali. 

Sevari Setti. 

Seviyar. 

Shan. 

Shdnan. 

Shdnara Kudi. 

SMndr. 

Shandada Panddram Vel- 

lala. 
Shanan. 
Shananattan. 
Shanganadumu Vellalan. 
Shar Oddan. 
ShiaKkaran. 
Sholagan. 
Shola Setti. 

Shonagan Mahmmdiyar. 
Shonakan Setti. 
Shonalar. 
Sozhian. 

Sidigari Parayar. 
Sidu Chitrakara. 
Sidu Kshatriyar. 
Sigathava Setti. 
Sikambalathar. 
Sikara Idayan. 
Sikatti Setti. 
Sikka. 
Sikkalkari. 
Sikkudayan. 
Silasi Kammalan. 
Silla Idayar. 
SiUar. 

Sillari Rambalam Naikar. 
Sillavar. 
Silman. 
Silma. 

Siluppakatti Vellalan. 
Silvar. 
Sing. 
Singalar. 

Singaluva M^lakdran. 
Singapuli. 

Singara Lingadhari. 
Singathan. 
Singa Valayan. 

C 



•Singiri Kallar. 
Singodi Setti. 
Sing-R&japutran. 
Singu. 
Sinna. 
Sinnalai. 
Sinthu. 
Sirahir. 
Sirayar. 
Siri. 
Sir. 
Sirka. 
Siroshi. 
Sirpi. 
Sirugudi. 
Siruthali. 
Siruvadi. 
Siruvanniar. 
Sisupandaram. 
Sishagir. 

Siswar Toddiyan. 
Sisakaran. 
Sithadi Vellalan. 
Sitha. 

Sithaka Vellalan. 
Sithamai palli. 
Sithambala Pandaran. 
Sithana. 
Sithankovil. 
Sithan. i 
Sithappa Asari. 
Sithar. 

Sitharka Vaduran Vel- 
lalan. 
Sithesamani Pandaram. 
Sittdndi. 
Sittrapadu Setti. 
Sittra Raja. 
Siva. 

Sivachara. 
Sivacharam. 
Sivaduijan. 
Sivakashanan. 
Sivakathu. 

Sivakkari Lingadhari. 
Sikalluvan. 
Sivanar. 

Sivanattu Kottai. 
Sivanbu Setti. 
Sivandiyan. 
Sivanthu. 
Sivan Vanisan. 
Sivappi Kammalan. 
Sivarthare Maratti. 
Sivarthi Koravan. 
Sivathiryan. 
Sivayar Ranakkan. 
Sivayar Ranakkan. 
Sivian. 
Siviam. 

Siviar Minpidikiravan. 
Sivir Achari Lingam. 



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18 



Siyar Idayan. 

Snartha. 

Smarthar. 

Smartharathi. 

Sodi Idayan. 

Sogan. 

Sokkandayar Vellalan. 

Sokka Pandaram. 

Sokkar Vellalan. 

Sokki Idayan. 

S6la Chetti. 

Solagan. 

Solakan Vellalar. 

Solakkava Konga Reddi. 

Solakudi Setti. 

Solamondalam Vellalan. 

Solan. 

Solandan. 

Solanga Thevar. 

Solanozhia Setti. 

Solapuram. 

Solavakkum Setti. 

Sola. 

Solavarathan. 

Solavarthakam. 

Solavarthakum Setti. 

Solia. 

Soliar Kanti Pandaram. 

Solikar Setti. 

Soli Muthirian. 

Solinadu Mapan. 

Solingaran. 

SoUakka Reddi. 

SoUari Idayan. 

SoUu Medali. 

Solyan. 

Soman. 

Somberi. 

Somekuppan. 

Sonadamani Kavnndan. 

Sonakanattu Vellalar. 

Sonan. 

Sonazakaru Vellalar. 

Songal Andi. 

Songa Vittukuttu. 

Soniza Andi Pandaram. 

Sonthavar Setti. 

Sontha Verapara. 

So Pallar. 

Soppakudu. 

Sorgan. 

Soruvan. 

Sor. 

Sosai. 

Sothan Andi. 

Sothilia Vellalan. 

Sothiami Maravar. 

Sottia Reddi. 

Sottin Kurumbar. 

Sourashtrian. 

Souravas Pattuiiul. 

Soza Vanuan. 



Sozhiam. 

Sozhamandala Vellala. 

Sozhia. 

Sozia. 

Srimar Smarthan. 

Sri. 

Srutiman. 

Stapathi. 

Sthuthakar. 

Stompa Setti. 

Strokanakan. 

Suli Veneariar. 

Su Tevadial. 

Sutherman. 

Sudra. 

Sudu Parayan. 

Sudusudu Tolhyan. 

Sugali. 

Sugakar. 

Sukka Pandaram. 

Sukkaman Pandaram. 

Sukkamandi Pallan. 

Sukla Brahmin. 

SuUakar. 

SiiUamar Vadugan. 

Sulla Setti. 

Sulasu. 

Sulu Setti. 

Sululthathan. 

Summa. 

Sunapathi. 

Sundara Setti. 

Sungara. 

Sunganatha Pallar. 

Suni Kalakatai Maravan. 

Sunkan. 

Sunnadi Setti. 

Sunmamlukaran. 

Sunnamulukallar. 

Sunnamlu. 

Su. 

Surugali Kudimagan. 

Surasoan. 

Surakkady Agamudian. 

Surapukottai Salliar. 

Sura Thatchan. 

Suravakudi Setti. 

Suravan. 

Suritiman. 

Suriakula Raja. 

Suriza Mandula Pallan. 

Suriza Vellalan. 

Surizer. 

Surukudizan. 

Surunga Shanan. 

Suro Idazan Telunga Vel- 

Iklan. 
Suruthu Kanakan. 
Sutarman. 
Sutarman Mappan. 
Sutliizar. 
Suvalam. Puchi. 



Suvalazan ambalakarkn. 
Suzammaru. 



Tacha. 

Tachakarai Vellalan. 

Tachan. 

Tachikar. 

Tadaipanathu Pallan. 

Tagara Setti. 

Thakar* 

Taiyalkaran. 

Taiyalkara Panan. 

Taiyal Maistri. 

Taiyar Arava Kusavan. 

Takkan. 

Talagudi Idayan. 

Talaikaran. 

Talai Saraikiravan. 

Tala Pallan. 

Taliari. 

Taluvapar. 

Tamata Saliyan. 

Tamava Koravan. 

Tambakkaran. 

Tamballa. 

Tambar-Vannan. 

Tambiran. 

Tamma Idayan. 

Tanagan. 

Tanaka Setti. 

Tana Vaisian. 

Tandu Sivian. 

Tangalan. 

Tanga Mala. 

Tangaman Kola Parayan. 

Tangamban. 

Tangam Parayan. 

Tanginibatta Parayan. 

Tangudi Vellalan. 

Tanjaku Setti. 

Tanjavur Marattian. 

Tanni. 

Tannikatti Pallan. 

Tappa. 

Tappayaval. 

Tappilia Naikan. 

Taragan. 

Taraga Setti. 

Tarakkaran. 

Tarakkar Palli. . 

Tarapinji. 

Tara Vannan. 

Tarani Setti. 

Taravarkan. 

Tarikkaran Sedan. 

Tarkar. 



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19 



Tasangunattu Kalian. 

Tasappi. 

Tathal Setti. 

Tatukattu Parayan. 

Tavari. 

Tavukarai. 

Tayar Kalla Jathi Ta- 

gappan Shanan. 
Tayir Kannadian. 
Te Idayan. 
Telaganiyalu. 
Telagulu. 
Telani Setti. 
Telagani. 
Telugiri. 
Telunga. 
Teluva Vadugan. 
Tena Pulayan. 
Tendari Vellalan. 
Tendesa Vellalan. ^ 

Tendisai. 
Tengalai. 
Tengalaiyar. 
Tengalar. 
Tengalar Parayen. 
Tengondar. 
Tengu Tevar. 
Teniti Kadu Vellalan. 
Tenkari. 

Teokasi Vellalan. 
Tennadi. 

Tennadu Vadugan. 
Tennakuman Setti. 
Tennamaram Erugira 

Shanan. 
Tennamarthu. 
Tennar. 

Tennarkadu Vellalan. 
Tennattu Kalian. 
Tenpandiya Kusavan. 
Ten. 

Tenur Vellalan. 
Teravan. 
Terkatti. 
Terkuttian. 
Temchinakkaran. 
Temgutta Pandaram. 
Terumalai Setti. 
Teruvalur Setti. 
Tesanga Muthurajakulam. 
tevadial. 
Tevan. 
Tevangu. 
Tevangulu. 
Teva Pulayan. 
Tevaram Setti. 
Tevasi Parayan. 
Teyambodi. 
Thai Pallan. 
Thakammalan. 
Tha. 
Thakur Vellalan. 



Thalanar. 

Thalayan. 

Thalia Vaisian. 

Thamadi. 

Thamba Koranan. 

Thammakkara Koranan. 

Thanalai Thinnuni Para- 

yai. 
Thandu Sakkili. 
Thanga Desadi. 
Thangalala Parayan# 
Thangam Par Velai. 
Tham Bhatraja. 
Thanjaka Setti. 
Thapai. 
Thappakottugira Tha- 

than. 
Thappari. 
Thapathi Idayan. 
Tharagan. 
Tharai. 

Tharamagib Parayan. 
Tharamur Setti. 
Tharikkara Maravan. 
Tharikkaran. 
Tharikutti Vellalan. 
Thari Panikkar, 
Tharmai^jkkivib Pusari. 
Thar Vellalan. 
Thasa. 

Thasanakkan. 
Thask Nambi. 
Thasiri. 

Thasthinattu Vellalar. 
Thatchathi. 
Thatha Andi. 
Thatha. 
Thathaki. 
Thathan. 
Thatha. 
Thattub. 

Thattanathi Kaikolan. 
Thaualakara Setti. 
Thauasigan. 
Thayakkara Vellalan. 
Thayambattu Parayan. 
Thayana Karanan. 
The. 

Thedambu Vellalan. 
Thema. 

Thek Budagan. 
Thelathi Vellalan. 
Thenakkutto Kothi. 
Thenanga. 
Thenappallar. 
Thenarkadu. 
Thendisai Vab. 
Thenkai Vellala. 
Thenkasi. 
Thenthi. 

Then Vithu Pandaram. 
Themoran. 

C 2 



Theri Setti. 
Therkatti. 

Therkunkthi Kalian. 
Therku Simai Kalian, 
Therukalaktha Kathi. 
Theruthu Koravan. 
Thirugnana Sammandha 

Valluvan. 
Theskudia Mudali, 
Theuachi Andi. 
Theuaduga Kammalar. 
Theuakara. 
Theuakkab Setti, 
Theuam Setti. 
Thevandia Palla Jathi. 
Thevanga Jangaman. 
Thevanga Sedan. 
Thevangam. 
Thevar. 

Thevanga Valigathi. 
Thevarari Upparavan. 
Thevar. 
Thevia Idayan. 
Theyahan. 
Theyamalan. 
Thiara Andi. 
Thigaru. 
Thindau. 
Thiraniar. 

Thirukanala Kanakku. 
Thirnmalai Maikan. 
Thirumanja Jathi. 
Thirumpatti. 
Thirunathi Vellalar. 
Thirupa Kulathavar. 
Thiruppatur Sozluyan. 
Thiru Sochi Pallar. 
Thiruvambadiyan. 
Thiruvappadi. 
Thiruvappur Setti. 
Thiruvathuvai Andi. 
Thirurelagundu Kavaria. 
Thiruvi Pangathur Va- 

niar. 
Thisai Vannathi. • 
Thivakirthian. 
Thiyan Parayan. 
Thidarchi Muthirian. 
Thodiya Naikan. 
Thodu Kambalam. 
Thodukka Kammaban. 
Thokilavar Kambalam. 
Thokki Vellalan. 
Thokkili Kambalam. 
Thokuvar Kambalattan. 
Tholaji. 

Tholaka Vannan. 
Tholaman Naikan. 
Tholar Setti. 
Thola. 
Tholigiri. 
Tholuvan. 



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20 



Thob Parayan. 


Tirugiana Sammantha 


Tandi Mutavandi. 


Th61kar Sunuambukaran. 


Vellalan. 


Tongalan. 


Tholukai Vellalan. 


Tirukanakkar. 


Tonga Vellalan. 


Thomba Naikan. 


Tirukolan. 


Toniar. 


Thondaman. 


Tirumbodiyan. 


Tonna Naiken. 


Thondamandalam . 


Tirumudi. 


Topakolam Parayan. 


Thonguthali Katti Vella- 


Tiruppukolla Thariar. 


Toppa Kuthadi. 


lan. 


Tiruppusi Vellalan. 


Toppai Karavan. 


Thondamandala Vellala. 


Tiruva. 


Toppiliyan. 


Thondaman. 


Tirnvalaya Setti. 


Toppupa. 


Thovandi Parayan. 


Tinfralan. 


Toppu Vellalan. 


Tho-Vellalan. 


Tiru-Valluvan. 


Torangan. 


Thondu. 


Tim Valluva. 


Toravan Toddiar. 


Thondamanda Vellalan. 


Tiruvellan Setti. 


Toravar. 


Thongala. 


Tiruvila Kanthanali Ku- 


Totagahi. 


Thongu Katti Setti. 


ravan. 


Tdtakapu. 


Tkoppar. 


Tiruvilakanthan. 


Tdti. 


Thutharayan. 


Tiruvillai Vetti. 


Tdttakara Agamudian. 


Thorakalia Toti. 


. Tivayar Kurdayan. 


Tdttakara. 


Thorani Maravan. 


Tiyan. 


Tottakar. 


Thorappila Naikan. 


Todai tatti Vellala. 


Totta. 


Thoravanab. 


Todar. 


Toti. 


Thora Vellalan. 


Todanan. 


Trichi Vellalan. 


Thoravalar. 


Toddiagolla. 


Trilaghiri. 


Thoraya Kavi. 


Toddiakal Vellalan. 


Trivamika. 


Thor Parachi. 


Toddia. 


Tudachi Vannian. 


Thorval Naikan. 


Toddian. 


Tular Vellalan. 


Thosabbar Kavarai. 


Toddi. 


Tuluna. 


Thosa Koravan. 


Toddiar. 


Turai Badagar. 


Thoainavar Kambala 


Togata. 


T uravarukkadb i . 


Naiken. 


Tokappa Reddi. 


Turanatan. " 


Thoska. 


Tokkutan Kambalam. 


Turavar. 


Thoslam. 


Tokka Setti. 


Turayan. 


Thothagathi. 


Tokkanar Kammanar. 


Turayar. 


Thottai Pillai. 


Tokkilanar. 


Turkan. 


Thottulier Dppilian. 


Tokki Vellalan. 


Turusuman. 


Thovan. 


Tokku Vanian. 


Tutuni Idaiar. 


Thozhib Vellalan. 


Tokula Vadugan. 




Thulapatti Idayan. 
Thulukan. 


Toliar Setti. 




Toli Vadugar. 


( 


Thuluva. 


Tollai Kathu Setti. 




Thumili Karavan. 


ToUaikathar. 




Thunimatti. 


ToUan Naikan. 




Thunidayar Kanda Mara- 


ToUa. 


Uchuman. 


van. 


ToUi. 


Udappili Udaydn. 


Thuni Vellalan. 


Tollunar. 


Uda VeUalan. 


Thupasa Kurumban. 


Toluna. 


Udayan. 


Thuppalar. 


Toluvanja. 


Udugu Idayan. 


Thuppuraan Kalian. 


Toluva. 


Uggira GroUa. 


Thurai. 


Toma Denangam. 


Ukaniasari. 


Thu-Eaja. 


Tomba Kuravan. 


Ukan Setti. 


Thuraya Reddi. 


Tommappa Setti. 


Ukkiran Kouil. 


Thurayan Vellalan. 


Tommatti Idayan. 


Ulagama Purathan. 


Thurnsuman. 


Tona Vellalan. 


Ulagamattan Setti. 


Thusarali Doghi. 


Tondagathi. 


Ulagatliu Andi. 


Thu Velldlan. 


Tondaman. 


Ulakum Kdthan Sudra. 


Tigazlu Parayan. 


Tondamandalam. 


Ulakandi. 


Tilghi VeUalan. 


Tondamandala. 


Ulappa Oddan. 


Tillai Muvayirathan. 


Tondamandi Mudaliar. 


Ulavan. 


Tillamar. 


Tondan. 


TJlava. 


Tina Vaniakar. 


Tondanathu. 


Uliakkaran. 


Tinda. 


Tonda. 


Ulia. 



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21 



Ulla Andi. 


TJthu. 


Vadiykn. 


Ullakaran. 


Utta. 


Vaduga. 


Ullu Parayan. 


Uttandttu Vellalan. 


Vadugan. 


TJllur Kavundan. 


Uttankattn Vellalan. 


Vadugari. 


Ultama. 


Uttradi. 


Vaduka Viliakar. 


Ulupari. 


Uttathuvan. 


Vaduppanatha Mendali 


TJmacha Audi. 


TJvandan. 


Asari. 


Uma Setti. 


TJyar. 


Vaduvadai Nayakan. 


Uminandi. 


Uzhanan. 


Vaduva Setti. 


TJnjaria Kalian. 


Uzhava Pallan, 


Vagalikkaran. 


TJnna Kurumban. 


Uzhavan Setti. 


Vagani Thoddiyan Nai- 


Unthimattu Vellalan. 


TJzhiakkallan. 


kan. 


TJpacha Andi. 


TJzhiakkaran. 


Vagara Maliga Setti. 


Upalizhan. 


Uzhi Reddi. 


Vagheri Kanakkan. 


TJpiran KoUan. 


Uzhiyan Vagupa Agamu- 


Vagudu Toddiyan. 


Uppachi. 


diyan. 


Vaibhaga Saugan. 


TJppadai Vadugan. 




Vaichian. 


TJppandi. 




Vaiduvan. 


TJpparan. 




Vaigunam. 


TJppara Oddan. 




Vaikadithan. 


TJpparava. 




Vaikara. 


Upparavan. 




Vaikara Pallan. 


Uppa. 


Va Andi. 


Vainadan. 


Uppavar Kurumba. 


Vadagalai. 


Va.inasuyam. 


TJppilia. 


Vadagathi. 


Vaini. 


TJppilian. 


Vada. 


Vaipathi. 


Uppira Setti. 


Vadakarai Vellalan, 


Vaipli Paraya. 


Uppu. 


Vadakathian. 


Vairaliar Oddan. 


Uppnkkara Mura Palli. 


Vadakathi. 


Vairam Pandaram. 


TJppukkavarai. 


Vadakathian. 


Vairavan. 


TJppuravan. 


Vadakkathathadukal Va- 


Vairavi Peikardadi. 


m 


layan. 


Vaisanur Thulavan. 


TJrddi Setti. 


Vadalu Setti. 


Vaishuana. 


Urali. 


Vadama. 


Vaisia. 


TJrankodi Solli Vannan. 


Vadamal. 


Vaithu. 


TJrar Kuttam. 


Vadamalai. 


Vaivani. 


Urdhvapundram. 


Vadamalika. 


Vaiya. 


TJri. 


Vadamalar. 


Vajial. 
Vakalai Palli- 


TJrima Kambalam. 


Vadaman. 


TJrinudayan. 


Vadmanjeri. 


Vakukavattuva. 


Urkiidayan Kavundan. 


Vadaman ji. 


Vikravandi Setti. 


XJrkuyayan. 


Vadamarkya. 
Vadamkrtha. 


Valabaka Setti. 


Urmal Andi. 


Valabirathuku. 


Urmalikkara Pandaram. 


• Vadamban. 


Valachi Valayan. 


Urmalikkara Toti. 


Vadamba. 


Valagadai. 


Urimi. 


Vadambaru. 


Valagi Setti. 


Urugolla. 


Vadambu. 


Vala. 


Urukatlii. 


Vadamugathkn. 


Valai Vadugan. 


Urukkaran. 


Vadamozhi Azuruthu 


Valaikkdran. 


Uruli Soligan. 


Kshtrian. 


Valakan. 


Urmalikara Andi. 


Vadamuga Setti. 


Valakarathi Parayan. 


Urumayandis. 


Vadan. 


Valakathu Setti. 


Ururai. 


Vadaruppu Malaykli. 


Valala. 


Urumikara Alagar. 


Vadath^ri Vellklan. 


Valamban. 


Urumi. 


Vadathi Shknkn. 


Valamkara Vadugan. 


Urumikkara Parayan. 


Vadathisai Vellklan. 


Valara Pandkram, 


Uruyaditham Parayan. 


Vadathisa Bairagi. 


Valamudali. 


Usal Oddan. 


Vadavar Setti. 


Valampetha Vannian. 


Uthama Setti. 


Vadayan Andi. 


Valanappu. 


Utha Palla Vannan. 


Vadayazhuthinu Koh- 


Valanganttu Parayan. 


Uthavanian. 


trian. 


Valandttu. 


Uthikari. 


Vadiya Tbti. 


Valandi Gurukkal. 



C 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



22 



Valangai. 

Valangathkn. 

Valan. 

Valappanattu Sedan. 

Valasa. 

Valathuva. 

Valavadi Servaikkaran. 

Valavalai Kambalam. 

Valavanian. 

Valavarayan. 

Valava. 

Valavi. 

Valayal. 

Valayalkara Kavarai. 

Valayalkar. 

Valaya. 

Valayalkara. 

Valayal. 

Valayaman. 

Valuyamuppan. 

Valayan. 

Valaykr. 

Valayada GoUa. 

ValegheA Kuravan. 

Valia Kannadian. 

Valilan. 

Valimani Setti. 

Valinadu Pandaram. 

Vklkara Kammklan. 

Valla Idayan. 

Vallakkara Panikkan. 

Vallanattu. 

Vallavai Kalian. 

Vallavarayan. 

Vallidayan. 

Vallikdra Palli. 

Vallinattan. 

Valluva. 

Valluvachi. 

Valluvan. 

Valuga Setti. 

Valuka Parian. 

Valumban. 

Valuppuvalai Valluvan. 

Valuvadi. 

Valuvar. 

Valuvikar. 

Valuvira Kavarai. 

Valyan. 

Vaman. 

Vamanattu Kalian. 

Vamattunattu Kalian. 

Vamavndam. 

Vammathu. 

Vanalar. 

Vanalasithumalian . 

Vanaraga Bali j a. 

Va-Nasuvan. 

Vanamdri. 

Vanangamndi Pandaram. 

Vana Padaykchi. 

Vanathur. 



Vanavan. 

Vandada Setti. 

Vandavar. 

Vandakodan Setti. 

Vandar. 

Vandarar. 

Vandial Kottai Maravan. 

Vandi. 

Vandiel. 

Vangaputi Nattan. 

Vania. 

Vaniakkar Vadugan. 

Vanian. 

Vanianattan. 

Vanidu Kurumban. 

Vanigan Setti. 

Vani. 

Vanika Vanian. 

Vanika Vellalan. 

Vanna Mamtbuvan. 

Vannkn. 

Vannanattu Kannada Ma- 

tbavan. 
Vannara. 

Vannattii Maravan. 
Vannia. 
Vanniar. 
Vannian. 

Vannikattu Maravan. 
Vannikurathi Pallan. 
Vannikuthi Maravan. 
Vannila. 

Vannirurathu Maravan. 
Vannum. 

Vannunanadi Pandaram. 
Vanu Parayan. 
Vanur Vellalan. 
Vanuvan. 
Vanuva Setti. 
Va-Pusdri. 
Varakkal. 
Vara. 

Varathamkdtta Setti. 
Varathur. 
Varayar. 
Va-Reddi. 
Varia Malayali. 
Varichola Kuravan. 
Varis Idayan. 
Vari Vannan. 
Vartakan. 
Varthakam. 
Varuman. 
Varupachi Oddan. 
Vasamban. 
Vastadu. 
Vastadu Malaga. 
Vasal Kammalan. 
Vastiram Sayakkaran. 
Vasuvadi. 
Vasuvar Setti. 
Vasuvadi Sudra. 



Vasysthalikthara KoUan. 

Vathakari. 

Vathaseram. 

Vathathakara Vaisiar. 

Vathi Pallan. 

Vathichi. 

Vkthiman. 

Vathiri Okkili. 

Vathu. 

Vathukkara Setti. 

Vathul. 

Vathumba Setti. 

Vathura. 

Vatta. 

Vattaga. 

Vattakam. 

Vattakara Irulan. 

Vattalac Turayan. 

Vatbamalayaman. 

Vattam Setti. 

Vattathan. 

Vattia Paina Kusathi. 

Vkttiakaran. 

Vavani. 

Vavasayal Vellalan. 

Va- Vellalan. 

Vayal Batiga. 

Vayal Oddan, 

Vayakacha Idayan. 

Vayakkar Vadugan. 

Vayandi Pandaram. 

Vayan Setti. 

Vayathu. 

Vayenatha. 

Vayili Idayan. 

Vayistu Nayakan. 

Vayithiyan. 

Vayiyun. 

Vazhakkaran. 

Vazhamarayappa Setti. 

Vazhavikara Kavarai. 

Vazhaya Setti. 

Vazhavithi Mithian 

Marati. 
Vazhi Kanakan- 
Veda Kammalan. 
Veda. 
Vedamula. 
Vedan. 

Vedanta Setti. 
Vedapachak. 
Vannian. 
Vedeyar. 
Veduvar. 
Veekathi Setti. 
Veek Mallar. 
Vetuni annar. 
Veerakudayan. 
Vekkili. 
Veku. 

Velai Thoddyan. 
Velakan. 



Digitized by 



Google 



23 



Velaksha Karayan. 

Velama. 

Velamangayan. 

Velan. 

Velan Setti. 

Velanate Thuluvan. 

Velanati BrahmiD. 

Velanattu. 

Velar. 

Vela. 

Veleka. 

Vellai Pandaram. 

Vella. 

Vellala. 

Vellalan. 

Vellan. 

Vellanathu Setti. 

Vellan Setti Reddi. 

Vellangetti. 

Vellappan. 

Vellappu. 

Vellar. 

Vellari Muthi Maraven. 

Vellasi Setti. 

Vellatar. 

Vellatti. 

Vellaya Vattan. 

Vellayan Setti. 

Veneka Vellalan. 

Vellia Naikkan. 

Velliradi Gunivan. 

Vellikai Vellalan. 

Velli. 

Vellu Setti. 

Velnate. 

Velukkappattavan. 

Velukkiravan. 

Velnkkira Vannan. 

Velu pandaram. 

Velura Dasi. 

Velura Setti. 

Vemba. 

Vembalur Vellalan. 

Vembanattu. 

Vembattan Vellalan. 

Vengadam. 

Vengalaya Thoddian. 

Venganattu. 

Venga. 

Venkeda Thottian. 

Vennikavakam. 

Vennikavakam Vellalan. 

Ven Setti. 

Vepilai Kuravan. 

Veppati. 

Veppatti Brahman. 

Veppeli Kambalathan. 

Veppupani Pandaram. 

Veragi Setti. 

Verakbdi Setti. 

Verral. ' 

Veni Kammalan. 



Verumi Vannan. 

Veshakkaran. 

Vesi. 
, Vesithava Luigur. 

Vethaka Setti. 

Vethakkar. 

Vethalikar. 

Vethan. 

Vethakkaran. 

Vethapuram. 

Vethathi. 

Vethava. 

Vethilai. 

Vethu. 

Vetbuval. 

Vethuvan. 

Vethuva. 

Vetburathu Vanian. 

Vetta Idayan. 

Vettaikkara. 

Vettaikkaran. 

Vetakkara Pillai. 

Vettaikkara. 

Vettakkaran. 

Vettalu. 

Vetta Nasuvan. 
* Vettappalan. 

Vettappan. 

Vettarajakulam. 

Vetta Taliari. 

Vettuva Parayan. 

Vetti. 

Vettian. 

Vettilai Vellalan. 

Vettilakara Thurayan. 

Vettuny. 

Vettu Kavarai. 

Vettuni Paryan. 

Vettuvan. 

Vettuva. 

Vettuvakara Vellalan. 

Veya Sakkiliyar Thotty. 

Vezbaden. 

Viapari. 

Vibhuthi. 

Vichi Velama. 

Vidambi Setti. 

Videmavar. 

Vigula Mana Setti. 

Vijaya Kamalan. 

Vi-Kammalan. 

Vilanza Parayan. 

Villa Kammalan Smar- 
tban. 

ViUi. 

Villuvan. 

Vilvum Pillai. 

Vil V^dan. 

Vima Vattuvan. 

Vinchali Vellalan. 

Vindrikara Kavarai. 

Vinodi Kuttadi. 

C 4 



Vipravinodulu. 

Vipu. 

Virabadra. 

Viraboja Agamudiyan. 

Viradan. 

Viradian. 

Vira. 

Virakudian. 

Viragu Virgiravan. 

Virajangam Lingadari. 

Viral. 

Viram. 

Viramenudi. 

Viram Idayan. 

Viramudian. 

Viramushti Pandaram. 

Virian. 

Virana Dasi. 

Viranattu Pallan. 

Virandi. 

Virasiva. 

Varisivam. 

Varitanayi. 

Virather. 

Viratti. 

Visanganattu. 

Visba Kamakam Setti. 

Vishnavam. 

Vishnu. 

Vishva. 

Visva. 

Viti. 

Vitha. 

Vithai. 

Vittimban. 

Vittu Kudithanam. 

Viva Kalian. 

Vodi. 

Vorugunta Reddi. 

Vdvachandi. 

Vuduma Parayan. 

Vugamula. 

Vugarasi. 

Vuga Palayan. 

VuUathar Vellalan. 

Vundujktu. 

Vunnikuthi Maravan. 

Vuppara Kusavan. 

Vurama Vukkar. 

Vurikaran. 

Vurumbi. 

Vushnath. 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 



Yabuva. 


Yalankilttar. 


Yasola Setti. 


Yadakomba ambalakdran. 


Yaliva. 


Yatharan. 


Yddava. 


Ydlpana Setti. 


Yayan Telugu Idayan. 


Yadichi. 


Yalp^attan. 


Yoga Vannan. 


Yaduvadi Kanakkan. 


Yalpana Vellalan. 


Yogi. 


YagoUa Toddian. . 


Yanatti Reddi. 


Ydka. 


Yakaiki Setti. 


Yandan. 


Yokula Toddiyan. 


Yakakathan IJdayan. 


Yapalli Koravan. 


Yokusa Vadugan. 


Yakaratti. 


Yarumalai Andi. 


Yola Karandi. 


Yakaya Andi. 


Yashalu Setti. 


Yunar. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Alphabetical List of the Telugu Caste Names as e^teredl In the 
Census Schedules of the Madras Presidency. 



Achari. 

Achariy a S trivaisli na- 

vulu. 
Achilu Bapula. 
Achirazulu. 
Achuvalu. 
Ada. 

Adabala Kapu. 
Adada Brahmana. 
Adagunti Kapu. 
Adaka KoUi. 
Adana. 
Adapapa. 
Adareru Sudra. 
Adari Kulam. 
Adasuthiya. 
Adavi. 
Addabottu. 
Adda Jatbi. 
Adi. 

Adiranilu Kapulu. 
Adyaitamu. 
Adya Mala. 
Agamudi. 
Agamudiyan. 
Agaputtu Balija. 
Agaralu. 
Agamvallu. 
Agasa. 



Agni Aradhyulu. 

Agra. 

Agudu. 

Agurla. 

Aiyamadiya. 

Aiyarakalu. 

AkaK Golla Kaki. 

Akari. 

Akka Kapu. 

Akkala Sudra. 

Akkali. 

Akkiliyan. 

Akasamu Modali. 

Akshi Yaru. 

Aku. 

Akula. 

Akulu Ammadam. 

Akurn Sudra. 

Ala. 

Alagari. 

AlagoUa. 

Alakachakulam. 

Alavantba Kulam. 

Ale Kuraba. 

Alilu Kulam. 

Aligiri. 

All Korava. 

Allalu. 

Allapara K^pu. 

y 5747. 



Allikara Kapu Vellala. 

Allrakulam. 

Amakata Kapu. 

Anialiinthiva. 

Amaluthi. 

Amana Gouda. 

Araanatbiya. 

Amani Golla. 

Amarakalu. 

Amara Palli. 

Amathiya Gouda. 

Amayitha. 

Ambalakar. 

Ambasbtakulu Mangala 

Kulam. 
Ambattau. 
Ambiga. 
Ambi Kapu. 
Amma Sale. 
Ammuiiitha. 
Ammu Yadu. 
Amna Goura. 
Amnathulu Mala. 
Amolu Thela. 
Amsiramulu. 
Amuka. 
Amula. 
Anadi. 
Anagadu. 
Anakala. 
Anamikulu. 
Allan da Kuraba. 
Ancheen. 
Anchi. 

Anchu Mupa. 
Anda. 
Andhra. 

Andbrulu Beri Vandlu. 
Andi. 

Andinya Dombo. 
Andirayutbu Thathi. 
Andiya Gouda. 
An Dombo. 
Angabathu. 
Angarakudu. 
Angi Racha. 
Angosalu Jatlii. 
Anjaya Dombo. 
An] una Dombo. 
Ankarau. 
Annya Mala. 
Anthadi Kulam. 
Anthami Dombu. 
Anthari. 
Antbi Rama. 
Antbo Kurava Golla. 
Anthyajudu. 
Apa Dasari. 
Apayitha Kulam. 
Appata Gouda, 
D 



Appula PaJi. 

Appur Bay a. 

Appuru Vandlu. 

Aradhyuhi. 

Arajakulam. 

Arakanla Modalari. 

Arama Nartha. 

Aramudi. 

Arani Kulam. 

Arapukaran. 

Arasl Dandasi Mala. 

Arava. 

Aravagiri. 

Aravi Gadi. 

Archa Kapu. 

Archakulu. 

Are. 

Arirulu Kulam. 

Arill Madiga. 

Arili. 

Ariyala Kapu. 

Ariyam Gouda. 

Arkarangaram Mala 

Arkatalu. 

Arlakulam. 

Arnasakadi Mala. 

Arthakulu. 

Arula Mubi. 

Aruparedi Reddi. 

Aruvela. . 

Aryulu. 

Asadi. 

Asakulu. 

Asale. 

Asari. 

Asasakidi Mala. 

Ashalaku. 

Ashtalohlkulu. 

Ashtalohi Vandlu. 

Asira Karnam. 

Asiya Mala. 

Asya Sudra. 

Ata. 

Atagari. 

Atajathi. 

Atakar. 

Atakari. 

Atathari Kapu 

Ataya. 

Atchuyandlu. 

Atti Suthya. 

Atukula. 

Ayagadu. 

Ayalithiyana. 

Ayam. 

Ayarelu. 

Ayira Palle. 

Ayisaramulu. 

Ayolu Gouda 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 



Svula. 

Avura Vandlu. 

Ayadi Thelukula. 

Ayagallu Jangalu. 

Aya. 

Ayaraka. 

Ayarakalu Thelukula. 

Ayarakapu. 

Ayarakulam Sudra. 

Ayaralu. 

Ayavallu Gouda. 

Ayavarlu. 

Ayer. 

Ayil Madiga. . 

Ayoddu Dombo. 

Ayodhya Thellilu. 

Ayyanavaru Jangam. 



Babala Kulam. 

Ba Boya. 

Babula Thelukula. 

Bachata Vallu. 

Bachiti Madiga. 

Bada Boya. 

Badada Gouda. 

Badagala. 

Badagar. 

Badakali Eedlu. 

Bada Kodu. 

Badali. 

Badamgi. 

Badara Kapu. 

Badasi Odhra. 

Badatu Paidi. 

Badarandlu. 

Badavula Boya Sudra. 

Badayathu Odiya. 

Badayi. 

Baddarlu Jangam. 

Badde Mangala. 

Bade Balija. 

Badi. 

Baditi Kapu. 

Badiya. 

Badiyadi Gokadu Gartha. 

Baddiyadiyapu. 

Bado. 

Badra. 

Badraka Oddelu. 

Badtha Nayalu 

Badu. 

Baduta. 

Baduvuri. 

Bagadagogna. 

Bagadulu. 

Bagalam. 

Bagamalli. 

Baganandra Mala. 

Bagara Tako. 

Bagathalu. 

Bagatim Odde. 



Bagavakukulam. 

Bagavera. 

Baggili Vandlu. 

Baggita Kulam. 

Bagirasa GoUa. 

Bagi Reddi. 

Bagiri. 

Bagundi Chengavadu. 

Bahalari. 

Bahurla. 

Bai. 

Baiduru Jangam. 

Bailu. 

Bainada Sudro. 

Bainagiri. 

Bainder. 

Bainedi. 

Baineni. 

Baini Banijaga. 

Baipa. 

Bairagi. 

Baita Tirige Kamma. 

Baiti. 

Bajari. 

Bajathi. 

Bajuni. 

Bajjipu Vandlu. 

Baka Kulam Mala. 

Bakali. 

Bakavandlu Vaisyulu. 

Bakiri Mala. 

Bakka Kuraba. 

Bakkala. 

Bala. 

Balaba. 

Balabhadra Golla. 

Balagai Jathi. 

Balaga Kamam. 

Bala. 

Balaji. 

Balamaggavaru. 

Balanthe Odiya. 

Balapuo. 

Balapu Razulu. 

Balapuri. 

Balari. 

Balartha. 

Balasanthoshulu. 

Balasi. 

Balasinga Razu. 

Balathan. 

Balathi Kauilarthi. 

Balavara Oddelu. 

Balavathopu. 

Bali. 

Balidar. 

Baligalu. 

Balija or Banija. 

Balijathi Odde. 

Balika. 

Balimtho Paiko. 

Balira Mula Kulam. 

Baliswa Gosayi. 



Balithaya. 

Balka Salia. 

Balla. 

Ballari Kapu. 

BaUi. 

Balothna. 

Balpari Gouda. 

Balubempashkulu. 

Balunda Baka. 

Balupokulam. 

Baluva Goudiya. 

Bamalu Kulam. 

Bamapu. 

Bamari. 

Bamarlika. 

Bamasara Hindu. 

Bamayi Kulam. 

Banagi. 

Banagodamu. 

Banalu. 

Bana Aari. 

Banaru Chandala. 

Banathi Odhrulu. 

Banathi Odiya. 

Banathiya. 

Banda. 

Bandagi. 

Bandagma. 

Bandani. 

Bandaparaja. 

Bandaram Brahmana. 

Bandari. 

Bandaru Odde. 

Bander. 

Bandi. 

Bandiya Kummara. 

Bandla Kulam. 

Bando. ' 

Bandra Kulam. 

Bandura. 

Bandu Valo. 

Bangaru. 

Bangi. 

Bani. 

Banigila Kulam. 

Banija Gada. 

Banijaga. 

Banisthavatharu. 

Banithya Gadiya Buntha 

Odiya. 
Banithyani Sudra. 
Baniyagni Guzarati. 
Baniyan. 
Banjar. 
Banka. 
Banthur. 
Bantrothir. 
Banu Boya. 
Bapana. 
Bapari Kulam. 
Baparulu Bestha. 
Bapashta. 
Bapayi. 



Digitized by 



Google 



27 



Bappa Kulam. 


Batulu. 


Berikamsala. 


Bappinoin. 


Bavajilu. 


Beriki. 


Barahura. 


Bavaraji Kondavandlu. 


Berili Oddilu. 


Baraman. 


Bava Ranilu. 


Beriya Cbaudala. 


Barapa, 


Bavasi Ranga Raju. 


Besa Jandra. 


Bara Savara. 


Bavela Vuban. 


Besari. 


Bal-ati. 


Bavudia Paramardha. 


Bestha. 


Bareddi. 


Bavuri. 


Bestbaria Gbasi. 


Baricha. 


Baya Kapu. 


Betha Vandlu. 


Barika. 


Bayani Kamma. 


Bettivadu. 


Barika Kablior. 


Baye Puro. 


Bettumanti Vallu. 


Barikapu. 


Bayibo. 


Bevarasi. 


Barikonda. 


Bayidi. 


Bewagi Kulam. 


Baripata. 


Bayikuri. 


Bbagatapu Razulu. 


Bariya Dombo. 


Bayi. 


Bbagathulu. 


Bariyala. 


Bayipo. 


Bbagava Rajulu. 


Bariyapu Kalinga. 


Bayisbna Kandra. 


Bhagavathulu. 


Barkar Kubiyar. 


Bebulu. 


Bhairi. 


Barla. 


Bebu Mangala. 


Bbajantbri. 


Barmaga Majalu. 


Beda Kulam. 


Bbaktulu. 


Barmyaki. 


Bedar. 


Bhandari. 


Barodi GoUa. 


Bedarzi Tbodi Dhoralu. 


Bbatasari. 


Barthara. 


Bedu Katika. 


Bbathi. 


Barugu Valli Madiga. 


Beduro Pano. 


Bhatrazu. 


Baru Kokkadu. 


Beduru Boya. 


Bhatrazulu. 


Barumya. 


Begadi. 


Bhatta. 


Baruri. 


Begamala. 


Bbattar. 


Baruvaduka. 


Begari. 


Bbatti Badra Baugartbi. 


Basa. 


Begaru. 


Bbatteri Balija. 


Basadi. 


Begaru Madiga. 


Bbattu. 


Basayiki. 


Behara. 


Bbattuka Razu. 


Basina. 


Bekari. 


Bbatulu. 


Basindiya. 


Bela Savara Kulam. 


Bbimari Taku. 


Basivi. 


Belavatbi. 


Bbumancbi. 


Basiya. 


Beldar. 


Bhiitba. 


Bassi. 


Beldaru Gazula. 


Bbutbapu Dboralu. 


Basthavi Gouda. 


Beliya. 


Bbu. 


Basthiriya. 


Bellala Kapu. 


Bbutbi Karnam. 


Basuvu. 


Bellana Kosa Kulam. 


Bbuvanagaru. 


Bata. 


Bellapu. 


Biagandra Mala. 


Batasarlu Uppara. 


Belli Kuraba. 


Biani Kammara. 


Batavallu. 


Belnagala. 


Biari. 


Bathalu. 


Belugu. 


Bibatbu. 


Batha. 


Belu Kummara. 


Bidalulalo Odde. 


Batharadi Kulam. 


Belunti Niyogi. 


Bidari. 


Bathari. 


Bemhruna. 


Bidasi Dombo. 


Batharu. 


Bena. 


Biddaka Vaudlu. 


Bathina Vandlu. 


Benathi Odde. 


Bigari Sudra. 


Bathiri. 


Benatbiya. 


Bikari. 


Bathru. 


Benayitho. 


Bikua Nadi. 


Bathudu. 


Benda. 


Biksha. 


Bathuna. 


Bendar. 


Biksharava Kaudra. 


Batbura Rakula. 


Bendu. 


Biksbilakulu. 


Bathya. 


Bendura. 


Bilimagga. 


Batobothra. 


Benduyakulam. 


BiUa. 


Batokodu. 


Bengaru. 


Bilvara. 


Batra. 


Benitbi Odiyakulam. 


Bilya Dasari. 


Batrana. 


Beniya. 


Bima Reddi Kapu. 


Battalu. 


Bennalu Kapu. 


Bimbasanam Kamma. 


Battepu Kapu. 


Benta Gouda. 


Bimodya. 


Batter Savaralu. 


Bepari. 


Binami Gouda. 


Battu. 


Beralu Odhra. 


Bindayitbo. 


Batu Gouda. 


Beri. 


Bingigam Kapu. 



D 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



28 



Binthani. 


Bonja. 


Bula Gouda. 


Birla. 


Bonka. 


Bulamya. 


Biru Kulam. 


Bonkuladi. 


Bulka or Sudra. 


Biruthu. 


Bonna. 


Bumbudi. 


Bisala Matham. 


Bontha. 


Binni Salilu. 


Bisalnathoy. 


Bonthala Vallu. 


Bummalu. 


Bithasi. 


Bonthra. 


Bunalu Golla. 


Bobaraba. 


Bopa Gouda. 


Bunchari. 


Bocha. 


Boppara Kapu. 


Bundali. . 


Boda. 


Bopulia Kulam. 


Bunda Odde. 


Bodam. 


Bopuri Sudra. 


Bundi Nayakudu. 


Bodda. 


Bora. 


Bundla Odde. 


Bodi. 


Boralo. 


Bungadi Sudra. 


Bodisalu. 


Borama Golla. 


Bunga. 


Bodiya. 


Bori. 


Bungi Kulam. 


Badlu Jangam. 


Bosambya. 


Buni Bathudi Gudem 


Bodo Bothara. 


Bosanala. 


Dalarlu. 


Bodoma. 


Bosantha. 


Buniya. 


Bodura. 


Bosanthiya. 


Bunna Kulam. 


Bogada. 


Bosallu. 


Bunuza. 


Bogadiya Savara. 


Bosanthiya Payiko. 


Bunyakulam. 


Bogam. 


Bosinta. 


Burada. 


Bogama. 


Bothali. 


Buragapu Kalinga. 


Bogapu. 


Bothanagara Gandla. 


Bura Jathi. 


Bogaram. 


Bothanba. 


Burama. 


Boga Redlu. 


Bothara. 


Burangu Kalinga. 


Bogavadi Jangam. 


Bothiva Kulam. 


Burapa Dhoralu. 


Boggili. 


Bothulvaya Kulu. 


Bura Savara. 


Bogi. 


Bothungi. 


Burigondu. 


Bogiya. 


Bothuva Razulu. 


Buri. 


Bogla Kulam. 


Bottha Paraja Kulam. 


Burkavadu. 


Bo Gouda. 


Botthara. 


Burma Vadu. 


Bogu Odde. 


Bottuga. 


Burrak Kulam. 


Boja Golla. 
Boka. 


Bouethu Adiya. 


Burralu. 


Boya. 


Butha Chakali. 


Bolathinya Kulam. 


Boyalu Anaga Mala Jathi. 


Buthadu. 


Bolathya Kulam. 


Boyipori. 


Butha Komati. 


Bolaya "Golla. 


Boyipu. 


Buthami Paraja. 


Bohthi Sondi. 


Boyishtra Jathi. 


Butha Perikela. 


Boliya Kodulu. 


Budabudukala. 


Butha. 


BoUaho. 


Budaga Jangain. 


Buthe. 


Bolla Kulam. 


Buda. 


Buthiyalu. 


Bolodiya. 


Budathiya. 


Buthura Jathi. 


Boloni. 


Budda. 


Butta Vandlu. 


Bolothiya. 


Buddiyitha. 


Buttu Navaru. 


Bolu. 


Buddi Jangam. 


Buvanagaru. 


Bombadi Kapu. 


Budiga Jangam. 


Buvana Sathani. 


Bombaku. 


Budi. 


Buya. 


Bombasi Kulam. 


Budiya Sondi. 


Buyama Kondavaru. 


Bom Boya. 


Budiyato Ragauata. 


Buyya Kulam. 


Bomma. 


Buga Thelaga. 


Byadaru Anaga Boya. 


Bommalata. 


Bugganda Odhra. 


Byara Kulam. 


Bonaputa. 


Bugiya. 




Bonathio. 


Bugondo. 




Bondaba. 


Buniyakulam. 


Chadalu. 


Bonda. 


Bujaga. 


Chaduru. 


Bondi. 


Buja Jangam. 


Chairi Mala. 


Bondili. 


Buiari. 
Bukkahasa. 


Chakadu. 


Bondiyalu. 


Chakala. 


Bondusondi. 


Bukkalu Jalakulu. 


Chakiri. 


Boni. 


Bukka. 


Chala Balija. 


Bonigam. 


Bukkuu Varaka Are Kapu. 


Chalaganta Reddi. 


Boniya. 


Bukla Kapu. 


Chalamatho. 



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29 



Clialara. 

Chalathani. 

Chalavallu. 

Chalavadi. 

Chaledi. 

Chalevadu. 

Chalika Kulam. 

Cliali Bajaputra. 

Chalivaru. 

Challa Enadulu. 

Chaluva Jangalu. 

Chamadi. 

Chamal Kammara. 

Chamana Boyala Bestha. 

Chambadi. 

Chambar. 

Chambi Pavara. 

Chamcliadi. 

Ghana Boya. 

Chanapulu. 

Chanaramu. . 

Chanathalli. 

Ghanda. 

Chandala. 

Chandayalalu. 

Chandi Chakala. 

Chandra: 

Chanja GoUa. 

Chankala Kulam. 

Chanthayi. 

Chapa. 

Chapalu Amme Vaudlu. 

Ohapuri. 

Chariga. 

Charinko. 

Charukulu. 

Charumthulu. 

Chasi Vallu.^ 

Chata. 

Chatalu. 

Chatanu. 

Chatchadi. 

Chatcha Velamalu. 

Chatha Kulam. 

Chathari. 

Chathra Mahiati. 

Chathria Bavuri. 

Chathri Bedaru. 

Ohatniya. 

Chava Dasi. 

Chavadi. 

Chavichedu Reddi. 

Chavuta Balija. 

Chaya. 

Chedava Gouda. 

Chedipoyina. 

Ohegaru Mala. 

Chegayaru Odhra Poyako. 

Cheggari. 

Chegi TJppara. 

Chekikuthanam or Ga- 

mandla Vallu. 
Ghekkadapu Fani. 



Chekkadapu Pani Vaola 
Kamsala. 

Chekkula Madiga. 

Chelagadugu. 

Chellakkili Vandlu. 

Chella Kuth Kapu. 

Chellam Yalavida. 

Chellapu Kuraba. 

Chelli Odde. 

Chelu. 

Chemari. 

Chenathi Odde. 

Chena TJriya. 

Chenavadi Vadiyapayako 
Nayako. 

Chenchu. 

Chenchula Gadabalu. 

Chenda Paraja. 

Chendi. 

Chendura Kamma. 

Chengulu. 

Chennangi Paraja. 

Chennayya Dharmam 

Vallu. 

Chenthungikandu. 

Chepa Odde. 

Cheprikulam. 

Cheppula Kulam. 

Cheralyalu Thedia. 

Cheruku, 

Cheru Nayakulu. 

Chervandlu. 

C he sathu vakulam . 

Cheshamma. 

Chesidi Vadra. 

Cheta Theli Gandla. 

Chethri Bhattu. 

Chetiubulthey Poligathi. 

Chettugiri Kapa Kulam. 

Chevathi Odiya. 

Cheviti. 

Chichaddinni. 

Chidde. 

Chidhapa Kapu. 

Chigayathu. • 

Chika Muchlu. 

Chikiri. 

Chikka. 

Chikku Dolabe Vandlu. 

Chikra Kulam. 

Chilakala Kalinga. 

Chilapa Chayagaru Lin- 
gay athu. 

Chilla. 

Chillara. 

Chimma Chali. 

Chimpiga. 

Chimpigaru Jangam. 

Chimpiri. 

Chinabothara. 

China. 

Chinarasharagid. 

Chinathi Dasari. 
D 3 



Chinathopara. 

Chinatheagi. 

Chinayaka. 

Chindralu Sudra. 

Chindu. 

Chinna. 

Chinnagaru. 

Chinnaragi Dasari. 

Chinnune Mala. 

Chintha Kulam. 

Chinthara Kapu. 

Chippa. 

Chippiga. 

Chiripigaru. 

Chiru Mangala. 

Chitagaru. 

Chitapu Reddi. 

Chithala Boya. 

Chitharu Vallu. 

Chithi Tharaku. 

Chithra. 

Chithravallu Thamballa. 

Chithue Bodya Parja. 

Chiti. 

Chittadelu. 

Chitta. 

Chittala. 

Chitti. 

Chithi. 

Chittu Odiya. 

Chiva Bogara. 

Chivanu Sale. 

Chivara Jathe Vellala. 

Chivunara Kapu. 

Chivuru Kapu Vellala. 

Chaganti Kapu. 

Cholakulam. 

Cholama Kapu. 

Chona Kothara. 

Chondilu. 

Chonnala Kapu. 

Chonsue Kapu. 

Chopala Mala. 

Chori Kulam. 

Chosa. 

Chothi Kulam. 

Chotti. 

Choul Modi. 

Christhulu. 

Chudathya. 

Chudayitho. 

Chuddoki. 

Chudinthujakulam. 

Chukili Vandlu. 

Chukiri Kani Vellala. 

Chuku Mane Vellala. 

Chukura Madiga. 

Chulada. 

Chulavaru. 

Chumali. 

Chumpa Dhoralu. 

Chunchu. 

Chundali. 



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30 



Chundalutha. 

Chunikivallu. 

Chunkadi. 

Chupatari. 

Chuthra. 

Chuthunudipapi Jagalthu. 

Chutibidiya. 

Chutta. . 

Chuttari Yebariya. 



Dabbala. 

Dabhi Beri Kulam. 

Dabhriari Velama. 

Dachi Enikala. 

Dada. 

Dadenma Dasarlu. 

Dahada. 

Daja Goudya. 

Dajiralu Setti Balija. 

Dakatha. 

Dakka Modlu. 

Dakkula Jangam. 

Dakshana Kamalu. 

Dala Mahanthi. 

Dalangi. 

Dalavaru. 

Dalilu. 

Dalo Goudya. 

Dalvanaga Sudrulu. 

Dalvulu Gakkulu. 

Dama. 

Damaka Vishnu Bairagi. 

Damalu Sathani. 

Dambare. 

Dammari Siidra. 

Dammula. 

Danaka. 

Danakapu. 

Danava. 

Danavadu. 

Dandadhari. 

Dandana Kuraba. 

Dandali. 

Dandathina Kulam. 

Dandu. 

Dangadi Kapu. 

Danibatta Kapu. 

Daniya. 

Danna Vandlu. 

Danthu Idiga. 

Dapakini. 

Dapa Koracha. 

Darakava. 

Darala Devangulu. 

Dara Matbam. 

Darandi Vallu. 

Darikulu. 

Darilla Mala. 

Darinama Reddi Kulam. 

Darinji Rangara. 

Dari. 



Darji. 

Daria anaga Devangulu. 

Daryili Savarthi. 

Dasa. 

Dasaharandu. 

Dasaja Paramartham. 

Dasangam. 

Dasari. 

Dasavadu. 

Dasi. 

Dasia Kalinga Komati. 

Dasidi Kapu. 

Dasingu. 

Dasulu. 

Davar Sudra. 

Davathalu Kulam. 

Davathi. 

Davaya. 

Dayadi Mala. 

Dedama Kapu. 

Degesi Komati. 

Deha Sale. 

Dekari Kodulu. 

Dekarlu. 

Dela Kamma. 

Delukari. 

Deri Yari Kummara. 

Desa. 

Desayi. 

Desiiri. 

Desiim. 

Deva. 

Devalam Piijari. 

Devanga. 

Devangulu. 

Devanthu. 

Devara. 

Devarmanishi. 

Devatha. 

Devendrakulam Theli. 

Deyidi Mala. 

Dhakkada. 

Dhakkula Madiga. 

Dhakkulu. 

Dharma. 

Dhobi. 

Dholva Sudra. 

Dhora. 

Dhrukunaya GavuUa. 

Dhunni Vandlu. 

Didaya Paraja. 

Dindiya. 

Dirji Lingadhari. 

Diviti. 

Diyari Kulam. 

Dobali. 

Dodda Boya. 

Doddagam Kapu. 

Dodda. 

Doddi. 

Dodgiri Karnam. 

Dodi GoUa. 

Dodurali. 



Dpgama Kapu. 

Dokada. 

Dokiri Gouda Kulam. 

Dolarthi. 

Dolathari. 

Doli Balija. 

Dolitha. 

Doliya. 

Dolu. 

Doluva. 

Dombu. 

Dommala. 

Dommara. 

Dondai Gouda. 

Dondaya. 

Dongiri. 

Dongu Mala. 

Dontha Golla. 

Donthi Ekalla Balija. 

Donto. 

Dora. 

Doriya Kulam. 

Dorlu Sudra. 

Doro. 

Do Sa Boya. 

Doulu Golla. 

Doyigiri. 

Dravida. 

Dubi Kulam. 

Dubungam. 

Dudekula. 

Diidi Balijalu. 

Dudiya. 

Diidu Idiga Kulam. 

Duja Parulu Madhva. 

Dukkada. 

Dulamati Koravaru. 

Dula Pati. 

Dulumi Kapu. 

Dulu Nalinki. 

Dulutha. 

Duluva Kulam. 

Duluva Sudra. 

Dumbam Jangam. 

Dumbam Madiga. 

Dumdra. 

Dumma Idiga. 

Dunalla Razulu. 

Dunda idiga. 

Dundasi. 

Dundi. 

Dunnivadu. 

Duppa Brukala. 

Durali Bavada. 

Durapa Kundiya Gouda. 

Duru Balija. 

Durva Balija. 

Durva Jaraka. 

Dushta. 

Duthu Kuraba. 



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31 



Ebhamalo. 

Edusu Balija. 

Egali. 

Ekala. 

Ekali Kapu. 

Ekara Dorabiddalu. 

Ekari. 

Ekidi Nayadu. 

Elara. 

Ela Eazu. 

Ella. 

Enadi. 

Ena Kapu. 

Enda Chenchulu. 

Engallu. 

Enti. 

Enuti. 

Erapu Palli Kapu. 

Erava Thelagalu. 

Erra. 

Errancliu. 

Erukala. 

Eruliga. 

Ethadi Kamma. 

Ette Mala. 

Evuta. 



Gaborai Kamalu. 

Gabukulasthulu. 

Guchakulam. 

Gachelupadu. 

Gadaba. 

Gadabalu. 

Gada Kamma. 

Gadala Vellala. 

Gadali Kapu. 

Gada Mangala. 

Gadam. 

Gadavathra Kamam. 

Gadhi Varna Balija. 

Gadi Erukala. 

Gadithavandlu. 

Gadiya Kapu. 

Gadusya. 

Gadya. 

Gagam Boya. 

Gagu Kulam. 

Gaidi Varu. 

Gajalakapu Chakalaku- 

lam. 
Gajapajathi. 
Gajarya. 
Gala Kulam. 
Galanchi Kiipu. 
Galapundi Jangam. 
Galara Vandlu. 
Gali. 

GaUana Ganigaru. 
Galita. 

Galitha Vandlu. 
Gallu. 
Gamalla. 



Gamarlu. 

Gamatsa. 

Gampa. 

Gampava Pakanati Kapu. 

Ganaimpalu. 

Ganamatham Jangalu. 

Gana Vamam. 

Ganayathulu. 

Ganayati. 

Gandaba Balija. 

Gandari Jathi. 

Gandati Kulam. 

Gandavarapu Kapu. 

Gandhamosi Kulam. 

Gandhavadi. 

Gandikota Kamma. 

Gandla. 

Gandula. 

Gangadi. 

Gangadikaram. 

Gangadikara Vellalar. 

Gangadi Mala. 

Gangaju Sudra. 

Gangam. 

Gangeddula. 

Ganji. 

Gangula Kurni Varu. 

Gani. 

Ganiga. 

Ganikakulam. 

Ganikulam. 

Ganta Jangam. 

Gantalu. 

Ganthadi Vallu. 

Gantu Paraja. 

Ganu Balija. 

Ganugula. 

Ganugunta Balija. 

Ganutu. 

Gapata. 

Garadi. 

Gara Erukala. 

Garala Sondi. 

Garati Reddi. 

Gari. 

Garidi Kapu. 

Garigunta Balija. 

Gasepu. 

Gasullu Vallu. 

Gatalantha Kulam. 

Gatha. 

Gathaku Boya. 

Gathari. 

Gathava. 

Gatliora. 

Gatola. 

Gatti Kapulu. 

Gavala Kamma. 

Gavana Kamam. 

Gavanda Sudra. 

Gavandla Komati. 

Gavara. 

Gavaralu. 

D 4 



Gavudali. 

Gavula Odhra. 

GavuUa Pandarlu. 

Gavundla. 

Gavuri Komati. 

Gavusogala Vallu. 

Gayakapu Mangali. 

Gayalu Kapu. 

Gaya Mala Jathi. 

Gayathi Vallu. 

Gayila. 

Gayintha. 

Gazulu Ammevadu. 

Gazulu. 

Gedthangi Kulam. 

Gehela. 

Gethra. 

Ghali Kulam. 

Ghalivara. 

Ghanteru. 

Ghasara Kulam. 

Ghasi Vandlu. 

Ghatini Kulam. 

Ghatravadu. 

Ghagolu. 

Ghondo. 

Ghontha Kulam. 

Ghosavaru. 

Ginimakavandlu. 

Goberia. 

Godacharla Kamma. 

Goda Dasari. 

Godagala Jathi. 

Godali Kulam. 

Godari. 

Goddakula Chilla Jathi. 

Godintha Dasari Kulam. 

Godepu Kamma. 

Godithi Kapu. 

Godiya Vandlu. 

Godlala Mala. 

Godligalu Jangam. 

Godrali Balija. 

Godrayi Balija. 

Godugu Balija. 

Godugula. 

Goduguthana. 

Godu Haddi Vallu, 

Gogala Odde. 

Gogia Madiga. 

Gokudi Balija. 

Gokula. 

Gokunlla Balija. 

Golaka. 

Golakonda. 

Golanuru. 

Gole Kapu. 

Golinta srusti Kamam. 

Golla. 

GoUam Vadu. 

Gomarthu Balija. 

Gonakota Balija. 

Gonamuta Thelagalie. 



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32 



Gonda Balija. 


Gudi. 


Haivollu. 


Gondetti Reddi. 


Gudimatyalu. 


Haja Guthulu. 


Gondra Kulam. 


Gudipi. 


Hajalu. 


Gone. 


Gudiya. 


Hajam. 


Goneru Mala. 


Gudizallu. 


Hajri Thelaga. 


Gongadi. 


Gudlavadu. 


Hala. 


Gongalugiri Kapu. 


Gudu. 


Halal Khor. 


Gonta Gabara. 


Gudya. 
Gugu Dasari. 


Halidi Balija. 
Haliga Kaikala. 


Gonthali Morasa Kapu. 


Gonthusurakulam . 


D 

Guierala. 


Halimattu Kuraba. 


Gonu. 


Jo 

Giikana Chakala. 


Halimvaru Kuraba. 


Gonuguntha Balija. 


Gulada. 


Halithiya Thelukula. 


Gonukotta Balija. 


Gulakulam. 


Hallumain. 


Gopa Gouda. 


Gulars. 


Halubaru GoUa. 


Gopala. 


Gulavandlu. 


Halu Kuraba. 


Gopathi. 


Guliya Savaralu. • 


Halvi Kulam. 


Gopula Kapu. 


GuUa. 


Halya. 


Gora Linga Dharlu. 


Gulokulu. 


Halyanouru Jangam. 


Goralu Vadu. 


Gulu. 


Hamsali. 


Gorana Kulam. 


, Giina. 


Hanchi Kapu. 


Goranta Reddi. 


Gunda Kulam. 


. Handi. 


Goranvarithi. 


Gundikir. 


Hanga Balija. 


Gorara. 


Gundla. 


Hanka. 


Goratha Kapu. 


Gundodi Kulum. 


Hannarilu. 


Gorendla Kapu. 


Gune Velama. 


Hanthi. 


Gorentha Kapu. 


Gungattu Vamsano. 


Hanumantha Kulam. 


Gori Balija. 


Gunga Valmikivadu. 


Haradwijudu. 


Gorla. 


Gungetendla Vandlu. 


Hara Gouda. 


Goru Kapu Kalinga. 


Gunga Barika. 


Harava Kulam. 


Gorva Kulam. 


Gungireni Kudi. 


Haribaliya Savara. 


Gosali Goudu. 


Guni Chakala. 


Haribhakthudu. 


Gosangi. 


Giine Dasari. 


Hari. 


Gosayi. 


Gunkuri Kapu. 


Harida. 


Gosayithi Jangam. 


Gunnadikiiru Kapu. 


Haridwijudu. 


Gota Kapu. 


Guniiamali Parabulu. 


Harika. 


Gothara Kapu. 


Gunmah. 


Harikapu. 


Gothi. 


Gunra Odde. 


Harini Kapu. 


Gouda. 


Gunta. 


Harkara. 


Goudali. 


Guntha Komati. 


Hasuvaru. 


Goudu. 


Gunupudi Jangam. 


Hathadi Kulam. 


Goudurukam. 


Guradi Odde. 


Hathari Kulam. 


Goudya. 


Gumati. 


Hayari. 


Gouli. 


Gurati Kapu. 


Helamidie. ^ 


Goulilu Godugula. 


Gurikala Vandlu. 


Helava. 


Goura. 


Guro. 


Hellina. 


Gouri. 


Gurrapathi Kulam. 


Henuva Pano. 


Gouthala Lingadhari. 


Gurrapu. 


Hogari. 


Govangitho. 


Giiru Kamma. 


Holuka Paraja. 


Goyakakulam. 


Gunila GoUa. 


Holya. 


Grama. 


Giirya Mala. 


Holuva. 


Gliba Velama. 


Guthia Kamma. 


Hudi Kuraba. 


Gubbalu. 


Guthna Chamulu. 


Huliv-aru. 


Guchela Balija. 


Guvilla Velama. 


Hurara. 


Guchi Kummara. 


Guwamu Kulam. 




Gudama Balija. 


Guzini Kapu. 




Gudam. 




Ichi. 


Gudarapu Balija. 




Idaiyan. 


Gudasi Kapu. 




Idiga. 


Guda. 
Guddeti. 


Hachama Sale. 
Haddi. 


Iga Balija. 

niu. 


Gudeka Dasari. 


Hadkarakulani. 


lUuvellani. 


Guden Razu. 


Hadosaskiya Payika. 


Imuthu. 


Gudeti Kapu. 


Hadura Odiya. 


Inama. 



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33 



Indra. 

Ingithapu Vadu. 

Intic. 

Inumupani Chese Vandlil. 

Irami Pujari. 

Iravara Kapu. 

Irisa. 

Irula. 

Ishtamatham. 

Isodoralu. 

Isuvandlu. 

Iswara Kapu. 

Ita Erukala. 

Itati. 

Ithara. 

Ithni. 

Ithugabala. 

Ite. 



Jablilu Bagam. 

Jada. 

Jadali. 

Jadi. 

Jadiga GoUa. 

Jadigiri Jangalu. 

Jadonathulu. 

Jaga Kshatriga. 

Jagannatham Pandaram. 

Jagari. 

Jagatha Gouda. 

Jaggala. 

Jaggali. 

Jaila Bali j a. 

Jailama Balija. 

Jaini. 

Jakka. 

Jakkula. 

Jalabu. 

Jaladala Reddi. 

Jalagadugu. 

Jalagam. 

Jalagatha Lingadhari. 

Jalaji Kapu. 

Jalajilu. 

Jalajuen. 

Jalakulam. 

Jalanadha Balija. 

Jalania Karnam. 

Jalani Balija. 

Jalari. 

Jalariya Sondi. 

Jalasi. 

Jalavari. 

Jali. 

Jalipita. Oddo. 

Jalla Gouda. 

Jalya. 

Jamadalu. 

Jaman Kapu. 

Jambam Savara. 

Jamma, 

Y 5747. 



Jammula. 

Jammulya. 

Jammu Racha Kulam. 

Jampigaru. 

Janachelu. 

Janagaru. 

Jana GoUa. 

Janaka. 

Janakaliuga. 

Janapa. 

Janathi Odde. 

Jandi Gamallu. 

Jandra. 

Jandralu Thelagalu. 

Janga. 

Jangalu. 

Jangama Kalinga. 

Jangam. 

Jangi Redde. 

Jangodi. 

Janjulu. 

Janni. 

Jannothilai. 

Jannuvulu. 

Jarabara. 

Jarado. 

Jaraga Ithi Dombo. 

Jaragu Kalinga. 

Jarapu Komati. 

Jara. 

Jarathreva. 

Jaraya Konda Vandlu. 

Jari. 

Jaripulu. 

Jarisama. 

Jama Nisa. 

Jami. 

Jaru Dhobi. 

Jaruthya Kithu. 

Jaryulu. 

Jatha Buka. 

Jathamulu. 

Jathapuraja. 

Jathapu< 

Jathi. 

Jathuru. 

Javado. 

Javari. 

Javouru. 

Jayagara Mala. 

Jayya Kinnmara. 

Jeema Kulam. 

Jekunati Boya. 

Jelagala Jangam. 

Jella Kapu. 

Jenagandra. 

Jenaru Chaithaniam. 

Jendra. 

Jeni Balija. 

Jenthu Odde. 

Jentu. 

Jera Kshatriya. 

Jetti. 

Jettivaru Balija. 

E 



Jhalavaru. 

Jhodiya Paraja. 

Jhondasi bouthavalu. 

Jhothira. 

Jhudi Gouda. 

Jhudiya. 

Jhuryatba. 

Jibandra. 

Jida. 

Jidavar. 

Jidra. 

Jigam. 

Jigaru. 

Jigidolu. 

Jigum Dasari. 

Jikku Kuraba Balija. 

Jikura Kulam. 

Jilathi. 

Jindra. 

Jinigara. 

Jini. 

Jira. 

Jirali Lingadhari. 

Jirayathi. 

Jirayi Dombu. 

Jiri Kosalur. 

Jirola Motbukulam. 

Jiru. 

Jirvatha Nagara Kulam. 

Jivasi Kulam. 

Jivathi. 

Jivira Vandlu. 

Jiyaro. 

Jodi. 

Jodivartakulam. 

Jodu cbarali. 

Joga Balija. 

Jogi. 

Johla Kodulu. 

Jokarlu. 

Jokkili Doralu. 

Joldyavarn. 

Jolli. 

Jothara. 

Jothi Nagara Gandla. 

Judu Okkiliga. 

Julakari Kulam. 

Julagi. 

Juliga Bandari. 

Junna Vandlu. 

Jura Vandlu. 

Juriya. 



Kabadi. 
Kabaki. 

Kabalaga Vandlu 
Kabaliga. 
Kabali 'Sale. 
Kabaratha Smotha. 
Kabba Mala. 



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34 



Kabbapu Vandlu. 


Kali. 


Kanchagala Anaga Ma- 


Kabbera. 


Kaligantu Redlu. 


diga. 


Kabbi Kulam. 


Kaligi. 


Kancha Madiga. 


Kaberil Bestha. 


Kaliguptha. 


Kanchana Kapu. 


Kabhi. 


Kalimi Komate. 


Kanchara. 


Kabila. 


Kalimi Vesyalu. 


Kanchari. 


Kaburia Dombo. 


Kalinga. 


Kanchati Kapu. 


Kaehara GoUa. 


Kalingulu. 


Kanchela. 


Kaehika. 


Kalitha. 


KancTii. 


Kaehugathi Jangam. 


Kalitha Chakala. 


Kanchiga Kapu. 


Kaehulka Boga. 


Kalian. 


Kanchu Balija. 


Kada. 


Kalla. 


Kandakuru Kapu. 


Kadaligadina. 


Kallari Mola. 


Kandala Kapu. 


Kadalu Golla. 


Kalla Sondi. 


Kandavallu. 


Kadathi Kapu. 


Kalli. 


Kandi Kapu. 


Kadda. 


Kallu. 


Kandra. 


Kadigi Bathulu. 


Kalpasa Kumbara. 


Kandu Paraja. 


Kadili Dhoralu. 


Kalthi Kuraba. 


Kangadi Vadu. 


Kadi Marapa Razu. 


Kalu. 


Kangalibu. 


Kadi Okkili. 


Kalugela. 


Kangari Kapu. 


Kadira. 


Kalugu. 


Kangu Kulam. 


Kadoliyalu. 


Kalugunta. 


Kani. 


Kadoriga Siva Boya. 


Kaluva. 


Kanijalu. 


Kadru Kulam. 


Kaluya Gonda. 


Kanijari Mangala. 


Kahadu. 


Kalyalu. 


Kanikado. 


Kaha Komati. 


Kamadu. 


Kanikan. 


Kaibothanani. 


Kama Gala. 


Kani. 


Kaibroya. 


Kamala Gola Hindu. 


Kaninuru. 


Kaichatram. 


Kamalla. 


Kaniyasa. 


Kaikala. 


Kamanchi Kulam. 


Kanja Mala. 


Kai Komati. 


Kamandya Kulam. 


Kanjana Vellala. 


Kaisaka Kandra. 


Kamarlu. 


Kanjina Nese, 


Kaibarthakulu. 


Kamata Uppara. 


Kankirama. 


Kajam. 


Kamati Golla. 


Kan Muggalu. 


Kajja Gunti Kapu. 


Kama Vandlu. 


Kannada. 


Kajula Kapu. 
Kakara Vara. 


Kambaja. 


Kannadi. 


Kambala. 


Kannadiyan. 


Ka,ku Mondi Vandlu. 


Kambalathan. 


Kannari Namna. 


Kakura Balija. 


Kambuga Rangari. 


Kanna Vellala. 


Kakustha. 


Kamma. 


Kannya. 


Kala Ganiga. 


Kammala. 


Kannayah Bogam. 


Kalagi Nithivandlu. 


Kammara. 


Kanne. 


Kalagu Vadla. 


Kampain Kulam. 


Kanoja. 


Kala Jathi. 


Kamparam Kapu. 


Kanoria Gonda. 


Kala Korava Kapu. 


Kamponga Kapu. 


Kantha Nerade. 


Kala Kotta Kapu. 


Kamsala. 


Kanthradu Vallu. 


Kalali. 


Kamsali Saukaram. 


Kanthuka Dasari. 


Kalalotbuva. 


Kamsalya Gonda. 


Kanu. 


Kalalu. 


Kamsarlu. 


Kanugu Balija. 


Kalama Mala. 


Kamushta Golla. 


Kapadi Kulam. 


Kalamatbi. 


Kamvarda Vandlu. 


Kapadu Mogatha Gonda. 


Kala. 


Kanadi. 


Kapa Hari Mandiram. 


Kalam Komate. 


Kanaka Golla. 


Kapalapu Vadu. 


Kalanadu Redlu. 


Kanaka Pillai. 


Kaparipathuri. 


Kalanemi. 


Kanakkan. 


Kapa. 


Kalaniki Voluvalu. 


Kanakoli Brahmin. 


Kappala Enadi. 


Kalasinthapuram. 


Kanaku. 


Kapu. 


Kalasi Sondi. 


Kanala Boya. 


Kapukara Seva. 


Kalathanam. 


Kanalisu. 


Kapula. 


Kalavanthulu. 


Kana Mala. 


Kapulu Kula Bhrash- 


Kalavaru. 


Kanari Golla. 


tulu. 


Kalayi. 


Kanathi Vadu. 


Kara. 


Kal Guehe Segadivadu, 


Kanavadi Kapu. 


Karaba. 



Digitized by 



Google 



35 



Karadi GoUa. 

Karaga Madiga. 

Karakattu. 

Karala. 

Karali Gonda. 

Karalikkalu. 

Karali Kimati. 

Karamala. 

Karamatti. 

Karana. 

Karanchakulain. 

Karanja. 

Karapa. 

Karari Besthulu Kallam. 

Karashi. 

Karatha Vadlu. 

Karathi Kulam. 

Karati Reddi. 

Karavala Emkala. 

Karavaru Kulam. 

Kardiya. 

Kar Kulam. 

Kari. 

Karigina GoUa. 

Karigi Sendilu. 

Kariman. 

Karim Kanati. 

Karivanigar. 

Karivemula. 

Kariyapaku Erukala. 

Karjuria Dombo. 

Karjuru Balija. 

Kama. 

Kamadi Sale. 

Kamakulu. 

Kamalu. 

Kamam. 

Kama Nise. 

Kaq:Tiaugulu. 

Kamapu Vandlu. 

Kamata. 

Kami. 

Kamika Jathi. 

Karnikam. 

Kartubu Salelu. 

Kara. 

Karulikkulu. 

Karuma Kanate. 

Karuse Sale. 

Karva Mala. 

Karya. 

Kasabulu, 

Kasabu Redde. 

Kasadi GoUa. 

Kasalu. 

Kasangulu. 

Kasari. 

Kasati Reddi. 

Kasayi. 

Kasha Sudra Palli. 

Kasi. 

Kasidi Reddi. 

Kasila GoUa. 



Kasthuri. 

Kasula. 

Katagaru. 

Katakulam. 

Katam. 

Kata. 

Katata Vachi. 

Kathablu. 

Kathaika. 

Kathakal. 

Kathanam. 

Kathi. 

Kathiri Jathi. 

Kathra. 

Kathu Kari. 

Katika. 

Kati. 

Katra. 

Kattara. 

Katti Oddelu. 

Kattu Kamsali. 

Kavadi Kodili. 

Kavadia Kuraba. 

Kavali. 

Kavara. 

Kava Vadu. 

Kavayza. 

Kavare. 

Kavidi. 

Kavi Kuri. 

Kavina Jandra. 

Kaviriya Dombo. 

Kaviti. 

Kaviya Razalu. 

Kavoku Paraja. 

Kavuri. 

Kavusala. 

Kavuta Dombo. 

Kavuti Kulam. 

Kayadigi. 

Kayakulu. 

Kayalo Kalingulu. 

Kayathivaru. 

Kayidigu. 

Kayuna. 

Kayyakulam. 

Kedalia Jathi. 

Kedu Pano. 

Kekkara. 

Kelalu Maba. 

Kelasaru. 

KeUa. 

Kelu. 

Kempa Velama. 

Kenchala Kuraba. 

Kenchata Kurumba. 

Kendarlu. 

Kengula Vellalar. 

Kenthu. 

Kentralu. 

Kerugudu. 

Kethu. 

Ketna Ganiga. 

B 2 



Kevuta. 

Khaddia. 

Khadura. 

Khaido. 

Khairalu. 

Khajalapa Vandlu. 

Khajapa Vandlu. 

Khalasi. 

Khamao. 

Khambaur Dasari. 

Khanda. 

Khandllu. 

Khandram. 

Kharadra. 

Kharultha. 

Khasa. 

Khathri. 

Khayido. 

Khemandi. 

Khimidi, 

Khodalo. 

Khodra. 

Khoyila. 

Khuthba. 

Kidasa Kamam. 

Kijina Kapu. 

KUiki Jathani. 

Kilikyatharu. 

KiUa. 

Killiyaho. 

Kingari. 

Kinmula. 

Kinthali. 

Kintharo Kulam. 

Kira. 

Kirtha Kulam. 

Kiri Satu. 

Kithali. 

Kivathra Miavu. 

Ko Bhatrazu. 

Kobhura. 

Kobira. 

Kobiriya. 

Kochi Kistu. 

Kodaditi. 

Kodani Redde. 

Kodari Kapu. 

Kodathandi Jangam. 

Kodde Sese Kapu. 

Kodekario Sale. 

Kodeto Balija. 

Kodi. 

Kodichi OkkiU. 

Kodide. 

Kodigi Kapu. 

Kodivallu Lambade. 

Kodivam Kapu. 

Kodkuda. 

Kodu. 

Kodiiri Boya. 

Kodyanthu. 

Kogaliya. 

Kogaya. 



Digitized by 



Google 



36 



Kogi. 

Kogila Mala. 

Kogithi Kapu. 

Kohara. 

Kojulu. 

Kokanate Kapu. 

Kokeni Balija. 

Kolagaru. • 

Kolala Kapu. 

Kolari. 

Kolatala Kapu. 

Kolathu Komate. 

Kolayali Kapu. 

Koli. 

Kolitha. 

Kolur Satani. 

KoUa Kapura. 

KoUala Savara. 

Kolli. 

Koilithu. 

KoUiya. 

KoUuro Reddi Kulam. 

Kolna Kupos. 

Kolosi. 

Kolu Malavadio. 

Komalam Kuraba. 

Komallu. 

Komati. 

Komboso. 

Komma. 

Kommaru. 

Kommula. 

Komselu. 

Komsyam. 

Konab. 

Kona. 

Konati. 

Koncham Balija. 

Konda. 

Kondakaru Kapu. 

Kondakatti. 

Kondapa Kulam. 

Kondapalli. 

Kondara. 

Kondathu Gora. 

Kondeti. 

Kondeti. 

Kondi. 

Kondia Goudu. 

Kojiditi Balija. 

Kondra. 

Kondu. 

Konga. 

Konigala. 

Konithala Kulam. 

Koniyakano Sondi. 

Konnama. 

Konthala. 

Konthali Reddi. 

Konuru Pattavadu. 

Kopavadu. 

Koppula. 

Kopyadbi. 



Koracha. 

Koradi. 

Korakati Vellala. 

Kora Kammari. 

Koramodi. 

Korano. 

Kora Sondi. 

Koratha Reddi. 

Korati. 

Korava. 

Koraya Vadu. 

Korazulu. 

Koribu Pathidigalu. 

Koricha. 

Koridu. 

Korja Velama. 

Koma Disruguta. 

Korra. 

Korsi Kapu. 

Korthi. 

Korulu Reddi. 

Korupu Rani. 

Koru Viavasayam. 

Korija Kulam. 

Kosa Kudu. 

Kosayi Kamma. 

Kose Kamma. 

Koshtitham. 

Koshtu. 

Kosika Boya. 

Kosila. 

Kospa. 

Kota. 

Kotadu TJriya. 

Kotatu. 

Kotar. 

Kotaya. 

Kotegara. 

Kotha Kodil Kapu. 

Kothi Kulamu. 

Kothula Uppara. 

Kothya Kulam. 

Koti. 

Kotralu. 

Kotta. 

Kotthara. 

Kottiyalu. 

Kotiiru Paidi. 

Kottu Vallu. 

Kotya. 

Kovada Mahanthi. 

Kova Dasari. 

Kovarthi Kali j a. 

Kovila. 

Koviriya. 

Koya. 

Koyalaruadigithine Jathi. 

Kovashti. 

Koyavamsapu Razulu. 

Koyikuru. 

Koyilam Kapu. 

Koyilari. 

Koyira. 



Koyya. 

Krishna. 

Kshatriya. 

Kshavaram Ch^se Vadu. 

Kubaru. 

Kubayi Kamma. 

Kubba Kulam. 

Kuchala Bathulu. 

Kuchalu Redlu. 

Kucham Kapu. 

Kuchili Vellala. 

Kuchi Mala. 

Kudai Katti Koravar. 

Kudi. 

Kudnui. 

Kiidina Kamsala Kapu. 

Kudiya. 

Kudiyanavan. 

Kudrabar. 

Kudu. 

Kudumbo. 

Kudumo. 

Kudya Paudala. 

Kugala Mala. 

Kuhara Kulam. 

Kukkalu GoUa. 

Kula. 

Kulacha Kapu. 

Kulagedu Balija. 

Kulalu Lingadhari. 

Kulam. 

Kulamdilu. 

Kulanadu Reddi. 

Kulara. 

Kula. 

Kulasthulu. 

Kulba Mangala. 

Kuli. 

Kiili Karu Katlu. 

Kulikya Korasa. 

KuUa Kuyavar. 

KuUi Raman. 

Kulu Padi Mahrati. 

Kuman Dasu. 

Kumara. 

Kumatu GoUa. 

Kumba Dasari. 

Kumbaka Kulam. 

Kumbakam Siidra. 

Kumba Kapu. 

Kumbakonda Vellala. 

Kumbika Saivano Mada- 

liar. 
Kumbla. 
Kumbya. 
Kumma Gouda. 
Kummalu Velama. 
Kummara. 

Kummari Manchi Vidla. 
Kumma Sondi. 
Kummaya Gouda. 
Kummitu. 
Kunama Varlu. 



Digitized by 



Google 



37 



Kuna Pudi Kulam. 


Kurmar. 


Lavuka Smartha. 


Kunati Kapu. 


Kumi. 


Layula. 


Kunavari Kulam. 


Kursa Kapu. 


Lekkadhari. 


Kunaya. 


Kurthi. 


Leladigakulam. 


Kuncha Balija. 


Kuru. 


Lilli Kapu. 


Kunchadugu Kapu. 


Kurala. 


Linga. 


Kunchaka. 


Kttrulo Kulam. 


Lingadhari. 


Kuncha. 


Kurumnasi Kapu. 


Lingadigaru. • 


Kunchana Kapu Vellala. 


Kuruma Vandlu. 


Lingaji. 


Kunchavallu. 


Kurumba Idaiyan. 


Lingangi. 


Kuncheti. 


Kurumbar. 


Lingavan. 


Kunchiga. 


Kurumia Vannan. 


Lingayathu. 


Kunchi Madhva. 


Kurumi Jathi. 


Liyari. 


Kunchula Kapu. 


Kuruna GoUa. 


Loda Gouda. 


Kunda Dombo. 


Kurundo. 


Lodaru Savara. 


Kundalu. 


Kurunnidi. 


Lodiya. 


Kundarana Vandlu. 


Kurunokulam. 


Lohara. 


Kundari Vandlu. 


Kuruva. 


Loju. 


Kundi Kulosi Oddelu. 


Kusaliya. 


Lomathakulam. 


Kundili. 


Kusarlu. 


Lone Kulam. 


Kundo. 


Kusavan. 


Lorta Paraja. 


Kundralu, 


Kushumchaja. 


Losi Dhoralu. 


Kundrili Dombo. 


Kusidi Buhvara. 


Luchyadi. 


Kundu Kodulu. 


Kusi Kapu. 


Lukkoko Kodu. 


Kunepudi. 


Kusilya. 


Lumbopo. 


Kungadi. 


Kusuma Mali. 


Luya Balija. 


Kungajam Gouda. 


Kusuni Vallu. 




Kungiri. 


KuBunya Gonda. 




Kuni Kupru Dasari. 


Kuta Mala Vadu. 


Mabalijala Vamam 


Kunithya Kandlu. 


Kuthara Jathi. 


Machasam. 


Kunjako Kapu. 


Kutha Sandla. 


Machiga Kamsala. 


Kunkapu Sale Kulam. 


Kuthiki Vallu. 


Machi Kulam. 


Kunkuma. 


Kutbu Gadaba. 


Machila Balija. 


Kunla Kapu. 


Kuti. 


Machilllu. 


Kunti. 


Kutla Bedhalu Jangam. 


Machula Ghasi. 


Kuntya. _ 


Kutta Jangalu. 


Machura 


Kunuputha Odlira. 


Kuvararu. 


Machu Kelli. 


Kuraba. 


Kuvasu Paraja. 


Madadivaru. 


Kurabano Jandra. 


Kyar Maraya. 


Madaka Dunnovadu. 


Kura. 


Kyatarukala. 


Mada Kalinga. 


Kurachi Setti. 




Madapa Dhoralu. 


Kuraga Balija. 




Madara. 


Kuragulia Jandra. 




Madavarapu Are Kapu. 


Kura. 


Lablu. 


Maddi. 


Kurakula. 


Tiadda Bitzulu. 


Madhu Komate. 


Kuralu. 


Ladi Kasayi. 


Madhva. 


Kurama Grandla. 


Ladra Vandlu. 


Madiga. 


Kuram. 


Ladu Kulam. 


Madi. 


Kuraniga Vellala. 


TiSrhudiyah. 


. Madini, 


Kurantadu. 


Lakanti Golla. 


Madi Vannan. 


Kurasa Kapu. 


Lala. 


Madiyalu. 


Kurasi Kapu Vellala. 


Lali. 


Madunriva. 


Kurata GoUa. 


Lalikakulam. 


Maga Balija. 


Kurathi Vandlu. 


Lama. 


Magada Gonda. 


Kurava Bedar. 


Lambadi. 


Maga Dhora. 


Kurava Jandra. 


Lambha Jathi. 


Magara Gonda. 


Kurava Nese Kulam. 


Lambitha. 


Magaru. 


Kuravaiu. 


Lamboli Pathu Savara. 


Magavatha. 


Kuravi. 


Lamgudu Kamsali. 


Maggala Kapulu. 


Kuri. 


Tiandiya. 


Magithi. 


Kurma Komati. 


Lanja Jathi. 


Magtha Gonda. 


Kurmapu. 


Tiarsa Gouda. 


Magu Porla. 



E 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



38 



Mahanthi. 

Maharashtra. 

Maha Razulu. 

Mahama Jathi. 

Mahathilu. 

Mahesvara Jangam. 

Mahesvarulu. 

Mahrate. 

Mailara. 

Mailari Jangalu. 

Mailatin. 

Maja GoUa. 

Majjalu. 

Majjana Sahara. 

Majji. 

Majjulu. 

Majorla. 

Maju. 

Majuda Gronda. 

Majulu Odde. 

Maka. 

Makkuva Dasari. 

Makku Vallu. 

Makora Bazu. 

Makula Gouda. 

Maku Sakya Brahmana. 

Mala. 

Malaga Kapu. 

Malaji. 

Malaragulu. 

Malayali. 

Malayaman. 

Mali. 

Malika Vallu. 

Malikulu. 

Maliya. 

Malla. 

Mallakari. 

Mallikarjuna. 

Mallu. 

Malluva. 

Maleadi Kulara. 

Maluva Savara. 

Mambu. 

Mamu Godra. 

Mana. 

Manati. 

Manchanni Dosari. 

Manchi. 

Manchil Kammara. 

Mandala Vallu. 

Mandavani Jangam. 

Mandi Razulu. 

Mandu. 

Mandula. 

Mandya. 

Manga. 

Mangala. 

Mangallani Adnonkam 

Athapu Vandlu. 
Mangan. 
Mani. 



Manila Kapu. 

Maniya Kulam. 

Mlanjula. 

Manku. 

Manne. 

Manniem Vallu. 

Manniri. 

Mannu. 

Mantha Neae. 

Manthara. 

Manthya Vallu. 

Manti. 

Manudu GoUa. 

Manuku Kapu. 

Manu Madiga. 

Manumutti Chousu. 

Maniiri. 

Mara. 

Marabu Mala. 

Maracha. 

Maragava Dombo. 

Mara. 

Maragu Kapu. 

Maraka Jangalu. 

Marakallu. 

Marali Jogi. 

Maramachakala. 

Maram Jangam. 

Marapa Kapulu. 

Marasu. 

Marava. 

Marchu TJppara. 

Marga Dombo. 

Maridvana Brahmana. 

Mari. 

Marivedya Vanthulu. 

Maria Jathi. 

Marma Mala. 

Marri GoUa. 

Marsin. 

Marthudu. 

Marthul Jangalu. 

Marti Kuraba. 

Maru. 

Marusati Kapulu. 

Maru Vandlu. 

Mai'vadi. 

Marva Mala. 

Masa Savaralu. 

Masevadu. 

Mashtikulam. 

Mashtim. 

Mashti Odde. 

Masiya Savara. 

Matam. 

Matapathi Jangam. 

Matapu. 

Mataru Reddi. . 

Matashthulu. 

Matavari. 

Matcha Kapu Vellala. 

Matha. 



Mathalavadu. 

Mathamdilu. 

Mathana Vellala. 

Mathangi. 

Matha Reddilu. 

Mathi. 

Mathra. 

Mathula. 

Mathya Dhoralu. 

Matiya. 

Matiyapula. 

Matiyava. 

Matsakulam. 

Mattigam. 

Matti Thelaga. 

Mattiya. 

Mattiyarana. 

Mattiyathula Gandla. 

Mattu Jangalu. 

Matu GoUa. 

Medara Bondu Kulam. 

Medari. 

Medarsa Mala. 

Meddara Anaga Nese- 

vadu. 
Medi GoUa. 
Megiri. 
Mekala. 
Melalu Mala. 
Mela. 

Mele Kulam. 
Meluva Jangam. 
Mena Bedar. 
Menate. 

Mendulu Suddha Jangam. 
Mera. 

Meranara Kapu. 
Merikalu. 
Merivadei. 
Merpatipu Kapu. 
Metti Jangalu. 
Meyidi Kapu. 
Minchala Kapu. 
Mirali Odde. 
Mitayi Vandlu. 
Mleteha. 

Mletehula Kulam Komati. 
Mletehulalo. 
Mletehulu. 
Mochi. 

Modala Balija. 
Modalari Kapu. 
Modali. 

Modaliaru Velama Kulam. 
Modali Pandaram. 
Modaliyari Velama Kapu 

Sunduna GoUa. 
Modi. 

Modidi Kapu. 
Moga Boya. 
Mogada Kulam. 
Mogani Kapu. 



Digitized by 



Google 



39 



Mogatha. 


Muladari. 


Nadipi Bothera. 


Moguludi. 


Mula. 


Nadu Kapu. 


Mogu Para j a. 


Miili Kammara. 


Naga. 


Mohara Vadla. 


Mulikllu. 


Nagada. 


Molaka Jangam. 


Mulilu. 


NagalTka. 


Molakanate. 


Muli. 


Nagamatha Karnam. 


Mola Savara. 


MuUi Kulam. 


Naganalu Sale. 


Molika Payi. 


Mullupa. 


Nagaparaja. 


Moliko. 


MutoUu. 


Nagaralu. 


Molu. 


Mulsadi. 


Nagaralu Sudra. 


Monari. 


Mulunati Kopu. 


Nagarata Golla. 


Monaru Kapu. 


Munaga. 


Nagarazulu. 


Monbli Kontha. 


Munaganti GoUa. 


Nagartha. 


Mondi. 


Munaka Kapu. 


Nagaru TJppara. 


Monigar. 


Munara. 


Nagasale. 


Moni Kulam. 


Mundi. 


Nagasapu Vandlu. 


MoTiTiangi Kapu. 


Muni. 


Nagatcha. 


Mopa. 


Munna. 


Nagava Kuraba. 


Mopate Reddi. 


Munni Kulam. 


Nagavartha. 


Mopu Kuraba. 


Munnuru. 


Nagavasulu. 


Mopuru Jogi. 


Munthi Gopara. 


Nagavungara. 


Morada Kapu. 


Munulu. 


Nagivegi. 


Moraga Mala. 


Muppar. 


Naham. 


Mora Kapu. 


Miipi Golla. 


Naini Reddi. 


Morama Kapu. 


Muppi Odde. 


Naja. 


Morasa Hajam. 


Muralu Vallu. 


Naiava Kapu. 
Naki Gudi. 


Moraei Vellala. 


Mui-ate Kapu. 


Morasudu. 


Murayi. 


Nakiranguchese Kumi. 


Morasu. 


Murikinate. 


Nakka. 


Moruri. 


Murea. 


Nakkala. 


Morya Kapulu. 


Murya. 


Nakkash. 


Mosa Boya. 


Musaka Paraja. 


NakuUami. 


Mosakulu Kopu. 


Musali Golla. 


Nala. 


Mosiparaja. 


Musapari. 


Nalagalu. 


Mota Reddi. 


Musarlu. 


Nalita. 


Motati. 


Mushimka Vallu. 


Nalla. 


Mothalanga Kapu. 


Mushti. 


,Nalugunta Vadla Bat- 


Mothan Mala. 


Muski Soja. 


tudu. 


Motha Savara. 


Musuku. 


Naiuka. 


Mothni Kayu. 


Miita. 


Nalu Vadla. 


Moti. 


Mutchlio. 


Nama. 


Mottandala Velama. 


Muthiasa. 


Namala Reddi. 


Motti Kapu. 


Muthi. 


Namaru Lingayathu. 


Motu. 


Muthingulu. 


Nambari. 


Mou Velku. 


Muthracha. 


Nambi. 


Mouvuri Kapu. 


Miithracha. 


Namburi. 


Muchela. 


Muthralla Golla. 


Namdagari Jathi. 


Mucheli Razulu. 


Muthu. 


Namicha Razulu. 


Muchi Balija. 


Muvaru. 


Namuthuja Gouda. 


Muchiga Kapu. 


Myararu. 


Nanaksha. 


Muchila Komati. 


Myasi Boya. 


Nanda. 


MuchuUu Kulam. 




Nandala. 


Mudakaru Bestha. 




Nanda Kapu. 


Muda Varapu Kapu. 




Nandanapu. 


Mudda. 


Nabi. 


Nandapuri Gandla. 


Mudikula ReUi. 


Nabthar. 


Nandi. 


Mudumu Kapu. 


Nachika Savata. 


Nani Gouda Kapu. 


Muga. 


Nadagala. 


Namie Razuluane Kapu. 


Mugalu Kulan Kapu. 


Nadala Kapu. 


Nanugala Badi Kapu. 


Mugatha Parayar. 


Nadar. 


Nanyaka. 


Muka. 


Nadari Vadla. 


Napapu Kulam. 


Mukka Bogam. 


Nadi. 


Napu Golla. 



E 4 



Digitized by 



Google 



40 



Naradi Vandlu. 


Neyala. 


Odhra. 


Nara Komati. 


Nibagaba Kapu. 


Odhram Or. Odhrulu. 


Narala Kapu. 


Nibunari Kapu. 


Odhya. 
Odiya. 
Odi Sundi. 
Oduru Vadu. 
Ogudi Thelukali. 
Ogula. 


Narama. 


Nichana Gandla. 


Narasimha Uasulu. 


Nichulu. 


Naratha Vandlu. 

Narava. 

Narayanam. 


Nili. 

Nilumbothi. 

Niluthikam. 


Narulu. 


Nirakini. 


Narwadi. 


Nirasamu. 


Oja Vandlu. 


Nasa. 


Nirathi Nayalu. 


Ojulu. 


Nasulu. 


Nirku Karnam. 


Oju Thelukula. 
Okat. 


Naswanti Thogata. 


Nisthadi. 


Natakaluma. 


Nithindu. 


Okkile. 


Natakulu. 


Nithu Gouda. 


Olamalu. 


Nata Rangari. 


Nithya Vaishnava. 


Olanalutho. 


Natharu Kothavaiidlu. 


Niyoga Boya. 


Oliga Jangam. 


Natharulu Ksliatriya. 


Niyogi. 


Oliya. 


Nathwar. 


Nizam Kapu. 


Olva. 


Natnuno Kulam. 


Nohiga Jathi. 


Omakulam. 


Natto. 


Nola Jathi. 


Omanadi. 


Nattuva. 


Noliyakulam. 


Omanayitho. 


Natu. 


Nolo Choyitha. 


Omanru. 


Navaja. 
Navakarlu. 


Nolu Nulku. 


Omatheulu. 


Nonabu Okkili. 


Omavarthu. 


Navayath. 
Navidan. 


Nonaka. 


Omayitho. 


Nondari. 


Omna. 


Navora Kapu. 


Nondi Kapu. 


Omogo. 


Naviida Kapu. 


Nonka. 


Onchimiya. 


Navuni. 


Nopa Kapu. 


Ondari. 


Navuru. 


Norolu. 


Ondi. 


Nayadu. 


Nubbalu. 


Ondla. 


Nayagadu. 


Nudi Raja. 


Ondula Mala. 


Nayaju Dhoralu. 


Nuja Garadi. 


Onga Odde Mala. 


Naya Kalinga. 


Nukuli Kulam. 


Ongan Paraja. 


Nayakapu Vallu. 


Nulaka. 


Onjula Marakallu. 


Nayaka Thelaga. 


Nulavadu. 


Onta. 


Nayakulu. 


Nulivi Jangalu. 


Onteddu. 


Nayallu. 


Nulla. 


Orabu. 


Nayar. 


Numba. 


Oradhi. 


Nazulu Kapu. 


Nundanaha Thamma. 


Ora Kulam. 


Nedala. 


Nune. 


Oraiji. 
Oremahru. 


Nedari Kapu. 


Nunpala Relli. 


Neduta Kapu. 


Nuntha Gouda. 


Oresa. 


Negu Ganiga. 


Nunthulusese Balija. 


Oretha Neyala. 
Oridla Mala. 


Nela Kapu. 


Nurgimala. 


Nelapu Vadu. 


Nurthi Redlu. 


Oriya. 

Oroga Kapu. 

Oru. 

Oruganti. 

Orulu. 

Orunati Reddi Sudra. 

Osa Kamam. 

Osama. 

Osira. 


Nelliim Vishnu. 


Nuru Jangam. 


Nomalla. 


Nuvasu GoUa. 


Norapati. 

Nerati. 

Neravati. 

Neravayani Kapu. 

Nera Vidya. 

Norayathasu Thelagalu. 

Nese. 


dcha Kulam. 
Ochitha Odhrulu. 

Oda. 

Odakan Neyala. 


Netha. 


Odakarlu. 


Othugirit. 


Nethi. 


Odakulam. 


Oyakva. 


Nettu Mala. 


Odala Kaikala. 




Nevari Jamasale. 


Oddar Jangam. 




Nevava Gouda. 


Odde. 




Novorn. 


Oddisi Reddiki Vadu. 





Digitized by 



Google 



41 



Pado Gonda. 


Palliya. 


Pano. 


Paduma. 


Pallu Oheee Vadla. 


Panta. 


Padu Sale. 


Palnate. 


Pantasi Kulam. 


Pagadala Varthakam. 


Palsi Mala. 


Panthamu Thelaga. 


Pagada Rale. 


Palthi. . 


Panthika Golla. 


Paga Kamsala. 
P^ajangu. 


Palukokulam. 


Panula Kapu. 


Palusamuri Velamalu. 


Panu Raiaputra. 
Parada Kamsala- 


Paidi. 


Palyaru. 


Paidilu. 


Pamala Vandlu. 


Paradesasthulu. 


Paikalu. 


Pamaraka Paraja. 


Paradya. 


Paipalalu. 


Pambakar. 


Para. 


Pairu Jathi. 


Pambala. 


Paraja. 


Paisuru Palli Varu. 


Pambarlu. 


Parajathi Bestha. 


Paju. 


Pampa Reddi. 


Paraka. 


PiJk:adali Kapu. 


Pamula. 


Paralla. 


Pakala. 


Pamuru Bogam. 


Parama Gadabalu. 


Pakam. 


Panabokala. 


Paramar Dham. 


Pakanati. 


Pana Chandala. 


Paramardham Gonda. 


Pakapu. 


Panada Reddi. 


Parangi. 


Pakasala. 


Pana Komati. 


Parari. 


Paki Pani Vandlu. 


Panalalo Kulam. 


Paraei. 


Paki Vandlu. 


Panara. 


Parava. 


Pakshukapalli. 


Panaramama. 


Paraya. 


Paktu Kukasu Kuraba. 


Panasa. 


Paringi Gadaba. 


Pala. 


Panathala. 


Pari Vaishnava. 


Palaga Dhamaa Raja 


Panavya Kapu. 
Pancna. 


Parivela. 


Kapu. 


Parla Boya. 


Palagu. 


Panchakar. 


Pama. 


Palakka. 


Panchala. 


Parshi. 


Palalu Ihravara Vyava 


Pancha Lingayathu. 


Paruva Kamsala. 


sayam. 


Panchama. 


Paruvalla Kuraba. 


Palam Kapu. 


Panchamudu Kammara. 


Pasalu Paka Paidilu. 


Palanaku. 


Panchamulu or Madiga. 


Pasara Kulam. 


Palnati. 


Panchana. 


Pasari Gonda. 


Palapa Reddi. 


Panchanam. 


Pasi. 


Palari. 


Panchangam. 


Pasula. 


Palayakar. 


Panchanti Kapu. 


Pasupula. 


Palayakulam. 


Pancha Polaya Savara. 


Pasupuliti Kapu. 


Palaya Kurumbar. 


Pancharatlira. 


Pasupu. 


Palayama Kapu. 


Pancharathram. 


Pasushali. 


Pateru. 


Panchidi Vandlu. 


Pata Barika. 


Pale Soman. 


Panda. 


Patala. 


Paliga. 


Pandali Gouda, 


Patana Chokala. 


Pali. 


Pandalu Bairagi. 


Pata Palli. 


Pallanani Vadla. 


Pandaram. 


Patekali Kamma. 


Palla. 


Pandarlu. 


Patha. 


Palle. 


Pandia Brahmana Smartha. 


Pathara Tharmula. 


Pa.lli. 


Pandidi Kulam. 


Patho. 


Pa'chi. 


Pandi Kulam. 


Pathri. 


Pa'chilya. 


Pandithudu. 


Pathro. 


Pa'dagala. 


Pandula. 


Pathulu. 


Pada^pulu. 


Paneru Gonda. 


Paticho. 


Padamali Bhuktha. 


Panga Paraja. 


Patikapu. 


Padare. 


Pani. 


Patkakulam. 


Padasala. 


Panipanidi Vandlu. 


Patta. 


Pada Sale. 


Paniti Reddi. 


Patnagiri Vandlu. 


Padava Vallu. 


Panivadu. 


PatnaS^a Gondiya. 
Patnani Jalari. 


Padayachi. 


Panja. 


Padda Kodu. 
Padiga. 


Panjari Ganiga- 
Pankani Sale. 


Patnati Kapu. 
Patnulkar. 


Padisivadi Vaudlu. 


Panni. 


Pato. 


Padma. 


Panniru Kulam. 


Patra. 


Padmayama Kapu. 


Panniya Kapu. 


Patralu Kari. 


T 5747. 


F 


Digitized by V^nOC 



42 



Pattana. 


Pettaithi. 


Porori. 


Pattapu. 


Picha Kapu. 


Poroja Kulam. 


Patto Idiga. 
Pattugar. 


Pichakari. 


Posara Mala. 


Pichara Thamballa. 


Posara Mali. 


Pattu. 


Pichi. 


Posire Kapu. 
Potayak Kulam. 


Patturu Gondiya. 


Pichika Mala. 


Patuka Odiya. 


PiUa. 


Pothanathoso. 


Pavachandlu. 


PiUai. 


Pothamadi Vandlu. 


Pavaku Sale. 


Pillari Stidra. 


Poyigo Kulam. 


Pavalli. 


Pinakathi Thuraka. 


Poyi. 


Pavujuvartu. 
Payakodulu. 


Pindi Kapu. 


Poyinatu Velama. 


Pingalu. 


Pradar Boya. 


Payakulam. 


Pinjari. 


Prakruthamu. 


Pay^lakulu Sudra. 


Piujilla Kulam. 


Prapaku Paraja. 


Payala Odde. 


Pira Sondi. 


Prapasku. 


Payipa Kulam. 


Piriti Kulam. 


Prasakara Paraja. 


Peda Gala Odde. 


Piru Kapu. 


Prasi Erukala. 


Pedagatti Kapu. 


Pishtha Ako. 


Pucha Komati. 


Pedakanti. 


Pitchi. 


Puda Kulam. 


Peda. 


Pithadi. 


Pudili Golla. 


Pedamali GoUa. 


Pitta Kodu Gudiya. 


Pugati GoUa. 


Pedanthu Boya. 


Pitharanu. 


Puja. 


Pedapati Golla. 


Poda Pothula VaUu. 


Pujali. 


Pedavatu Golla. 


Podam Odhrulu. 


Piijari. 


Pedda. 


Poddu Kulam. 


Pujayam. 


Peddari Golla. 


Podithi Kapu. 


Piila. 


Peddeti. 


Podra Survadi Savara 


Pulaku Paraja. 


Pedikilu. 


Matham. 


Pulambaka Paraja. 


Pediya. 


Podu Savara. 


Piilata. 


Pekiri Jathi. 


Pogulavandlu. 


PuUa. 


Pekundi Golla. 


Pogutham Odde Kulam. 


Pullam Kura Reddi. 


Pelia Balija. 


Pojoti. 


PuUiyalaro. 


Pelludi Redlu. 


Pokalu. 


Pulli Parayar. 


Pellu Komi VaUu. 


Poka Reddi. 


Pulmalla. 


Pethundi Reddi. 


Pola. 


Pulu GoUa. 


Pelthu Pathira. 


Poland! Bada. 


Puna. 


Pencha.Tn Mara.te Rayaru- 


Poliga. 


Piinati Golla. 


kulam. 


Polikapu. 


Pundamallu. 


Pendiya. 


Poliza. 


Pundha Malli. 


Penga. 


PoUam Kapu Veltala. 


Puni. 


Pengu. 


Polugati Velamu. 


Piinijakulu. 


Pentajali. 


Poluka Kapu. 


Punjari. 


Penuganti Reddi. 


Polukidu Thelagalu. 


Punnaru. 


Penukanati Kapu Jathi. 


Polunati VelamaSatanulu. 


Punugu Golla. 


Pepati Kapu. 


Pondari Gouda. 


Pununachi Kapu. 


Peprasi. 


Pondra. 


Punusiki Paraja. 


Perapeka. 


Pondra Dhoralu. 


Puri. 


Perata Reddi. 


Pondu. 


Puritu Kapu. 


Pereddi. 


Pondulu Siidriilu. 


Purvika Brahmana Smar- 


Perichala. 


Pongarlu. 


tha. 


Perikala. 


Pouniiru Modaliiri. 


Purusha Sale. 


Perikalu. 


Ponkaru Kamam. 


Piisa Golla. 


Perike. 


Ponthala Raju. 


Pusala. 


Peripaka. 


Ponthari. 


Pusiva. 


Peri Setti. 


Ponthiliyar. 


Putalu. 


Periyainatliamanaga Ra- 


Ponthili. 


Puta payiko. 


mamjam. 


Ponti Jathi. 


Putaya. 


Perugudi. 


Popalura. 


Puthanti Aku. 


Perukutti Kapu. 


Poragampa Kamma, 


Putlakali. 


Pesthu Basthu. 


Poralo. 


Putlipayako. 

Putta Basapu Razulu. 


Peta Gunja Kapu. 


Poralsa. 


Pethalinti Kulam. 


Pora Sondi. 


Puyayakarlu. 



Digitized by 



Google 



43 



Racha. 

Rachakari Kamalu. 

Bachala Balija. 

Radasa. 

Ragadi Vandlu. 

Raga Poyiko. 

Raghu Raju. 

Ragi. 

Raithu Racha. 

Raja. 

Rajakudu. 

Rajakuta. 

Rajamaheudra. 

Rajam Vadu Thelaga 

Balija. 
Rajaputra. 
Raju. 

Rajulu Jinigar. 
Rakala Rarnam. 
Rakanati Kapu. 
Rakmale. 
Rakuli Kapu. 
Ralagunta Thelaga. 
Ralamalu. 
Rala PaUi. 
Ralla. 

Raluko Odde. 
Rama Bhakthudu. 
Rama Matham. 
Ramanuja. 
Ramayalu. 
Rambani Panchala. 
Rammaya. 
Rammadi Modali. 
Rampa Jathe. 
Rampakula Odde. 
Rampala Mala. 
Ramula. 
Rana. 

Ranala Kamsala. 
Ranava Kulam. 
Ranga. 

Rangari or Runguni. 
Ranilu. 

Ranivasam Kamma. 
Ran Kunim. 
Rapo Srushti Kamam. 
Rapuru Kamam. 
Rasu Jangalu. 
Rasuka. 
Rasula Kapu. 
Rasulu. 
Rathi. 

Rathna GoUa. 
Rathrulu. 
Ravadi Jandra. 
Ravala. 
Ravana. 
Ravila. 



Ravudi. 

Ravulo. 

Ravuthu. 

Rayadurgapu Balija. 

Rayala. 

Rayalama. 

Rayalu. 

Rayasamatham. 

Rayavaram Balija. 

Raya Velama Reddi. 

Razulu. 

Reddi. 

Reddiki. 

Rekkili. 

Relli. 

Rellilu Ragira Kapu. 

Remmu Dommarlu. 

Renati. 

Rendeddula Gandla. 

Rendilu. 

Rendu. 

Rengu. 

Reni Golla. 

Repsalu. 

Retu Kamma. 

Ritha. 

Rodro Kulam. 

Rojula Kolli. 

Rommu Chenchu Kulam. 

Rona. 

Ruddagiri Kapu. 

Ruppayalu Mala. 

Ruva Mala. 



Sabaru. 

Sabbu. 

Sabhosu GoUa. 

Sabu Kulam. 

Sabura Kapu. 

Sacha Balija. 

Sachandi. 

Sadachara 

Sadakauti Kapu. 

Sadaru. 

Saddamulu GoUa. 

Sadhu. 

Sagon. 

Sagu. 

Sahaja Komati. 

Sahari. Reddi. 

Sahebulu. 

Sailiiru. 

Saiva. 

Saja Vallu. 

Sajjana. 

Saka. 

Sakivadu Koracha. 

Sakkili. 

Saklani Kapu. 

Sakra Vanathi. 

F 2 



Sakthi. 
Sakuna. 

Sakundra Kulam. 
Sakunia. 
Salala Vadu. 
Salapu. 
Salapulu. 

Salata Kuttan Korava. 
Salavanthulu. 
Sale. 
Salelu. 
Sali Thoya. 
Salu Bondili. 
Saluka. 

Salya Panchala. 
Samanthi. 
Samanthiya Poiko. 
Samara. 
• Samaru Golla. 
Sama. 
Samasi. 
Samatra. 
Samaya. 
Sambada. 
Samba. 

Samboga Kulam. 
Samboju. 
Sambu Dasari. 
Samedam Kulam. 
Sami Archakudu. 
Samiga. 
Samjiga. 
Samjogi. 
Samorayakulam. 
Sampauna Odde. 
Samsari Bairagi. 
Samsha Kulam. 
Samtiri Bairagi. 
Samyami. 
Sanagara Kottu. 
Sanagari. 
Sana Kammara. 
Sanchigali. 
Sandi. 

Sanga Jathi. 
Sangalu. 

Sangam GuUavandlu. 
Sangana Dasari. 
Sani. 

Sankala Kulam Komati. 
Sankama Sale. 
Sankara. 
Sanku. 
Sanna Boya. 
Sannavodi Golla. 
Sano. 

Santha Jangalu. 
Santhosa. 
Santhu. 
Sanu. 
Sanulla. 
Sanupathi Jaugalu. 



Digitized by 



Google 



4A 



Sanyasi. 

Sanyasiki. 

Sapuru Kulam. 

Sarabhimantapu Razu. 

Sarabu. 

Sarada. 

Saragar-Kamsala. 

SaraJkaparaja. 

Sarasuathi. 

Sarava. 

Saravadi Kapulu. 

Saravayya. 

Sarayi. 

Sariga. 

Sariladu Sudra. 

Saritu Reddi. 

Sarla. 

Sasa. 

Saeukva. 

Sataghiri Kapu. 

Satagu. 

Satani. 

Sathabar. 

Sathabardo Lingadhari. 

Satham. 

Sathari. 

Satharu Lingayet. 

Sathathrayalco. 

Satho Kulam. 

Sathro. 

Sathu. 

Sathura Boya. 

Sati. 

Savagapu Vadu. 

Savara. 

Savaralu Podu. 

Savarashtrulu. 

Savaru Komati. 

Saviti Sitrakar. 

Savunu. 

Savurayaru. 

Sayal. 

Saya Rokkavandho. 

Sayaruvaru Thelaga. 

Saya Vandlu. 

Sayi Kapu. 

Segadi. 

Segunda. 

Selagu. 

Sela Kulam. 

Selivantha Kulam. 

Sembadi. 

Semon Grolla. 

Senapathi. 

Seni Vadla. 

Seniya. 

Senku. 

Seravelu Kapu. 

Seri. 

Seru Jahgam. 

Serundi. 

Sesha. 



Setti. 

Shalu. 

Shanan. 

Shathulu. 

Shunthi Boya Kulam. 

Siddula Vamam. 

Siddaru. 

Sidha. 

Sidvi Kani. 

Sika Dasarlu. 

Sikhaudi. 

Silagagi. 

Silamatham. 

Silamathudu Salelu. 

Silamathu Kapu. 

SiUi. 

Silpi Karulu. 

Simvan. 

Sinatu Reddi. 

Singa Kamam. 

Singam. 

Singi Kulam. 

Singu. 

Sippa Sale. 

Siradanum Jangam. 

Sirangi Kapu. 

Siravara Jangam. 

Siri. 

Sir Kanak Kan and Kar- 

nalu. 
Sitha. 

Sithara Haddflu. 
Sithathulu. 
Sithro. 
Sittu Razu. 
Siva. 

Sivachava. 
Sivacharam. 
Sivala. 

Sivalavaru Archakudu. 
Sivalo. 

Sivanattu Kapu. 
Sivani GuUa Vaudlu. 
Sivangi. 
Sivarchaka. 
Sivarchakudu Piijari. 
Sivaya. 
Siviriya. 

Siyali Paramartham. 
Smartha. 
Sua Rangaram. 
Sobbara. 
Sodalo Kulam. 
Sodo. 

Sogiria Gouda. 
Sogiri Dombo. 
Solabuddiya Gouda. 
Solakiru. 
Solavan. 
Soliga Jathi. 
Soliya. 
SoUi Gouda. 



Solpa Kapu. 

Solupulu. 

Solvam. 

Somali Kulam. 

Soma Sale. 

Somatiyakulam . 

Sonagar Jathi. 

Sonda Sura. 

Sondi. 

Sonkari. 

Sonthokulam. 

Sora. 

Soraku. 

Soro Jathi. 

Sotha. 

Sothathi Velama. 

Soya Thasa. 

Sreeyaner Kapu. 

SrichoBtu Savata. 

Srikupura Jathi. 

Sri Kuraba. 

Sri Pancharatrulu. 

Sri Pandaram. 

Sri Punga Balija. 

Sri Racha Kulam. 

Sri Rama. 

Sri Vada. 

Sri Vaishnava. 

Srushti. 

Sthala Balija. 

Sthalapathi. 

Stharagu Kamalu. 

Sthavara Jangalu. 

Sthuli Kulam. 

Suala Boya. 

Subranam Vadrangi. 

Sudagadu Pandaram. 

Suda Mala. 

Suddha. 

Suddo. 

Sudi. 

Sudra. 

Sugadi Sale. 

Sugala Mahrati. 

Sugali. 

Sugamanchi. 

Sugandha Sale. 

Sujanakulam. 

Suia Reddi. 

Suka. 

Sukanyathoru Romu. 

Sukara Jathi. 

Sukathalu. 

Sukurasale Pattugar. 

Sula Kuraba. 

Sula Modo Kapu. 

Sularan. 

Sumbora Bairagi. 

Sum Qandla. 

Suna. 

Sunari. 

Sundarapu Gandla. 



Digitized by 



Google 



46 



Sundi. 

Sundllu Chillara Var- 

nam. 
Sundiiru Bali j a. 
Suniri. 
Sun Jagi. 
Sunka. 
Sunkala. 
Siinku Dasari. 
Sunkulamma. 
Sunku Sale. 
Sunaa. 
Simnapu. 

Sunna Vania Savara. 
Sunyani Appulu. 
Surabhi. 

Surajalaya Smartha. 
Sura Jathapu. 
Suram. 

Surangam Jangam. 
Surasi Jangam. 
Suria Kapu. 
Suriala. 
Suri Kalinga. 
Surta Kamam. 
Suru. 

Siu*yadu Thelaga. 
Surya. 

Suryavamsam Kshatriya. 
Suryavamsapu Razulu. 
Suthiga Lingadhari. 
Sutti iti Segadi. 
Su Valmika. 
Swasta Kamam. 



Takala Sayaralu. 

Taka MaUa. 

Takara. 

Takaria Paraja. 

Takiva Patnam Gortha 

Kodegartha. 
Talavan VeUalar. 
Talladan. 
Tanki Payiko. 
Tantakara Yamam. 
Tekkala. 
Tengudu. 
Tenkiriya Taji Garthu 

Kurtitha. 
Teruvani Vadla. 
Thachan. 
Thadi. 
Thadingi. 
Thadiya. 
Thadu Eatalam. 
Thagapu Yarga. 
Thagaru. 

Thaguva Bhattudu. 
Thakali Yallu. 
Thakuthapu Yaishnaya. 



Thala. 

Thalanga Gonda. 

Thala Pano. 

Thalapuka Koya. 

Thalari. 

Thalathu Villala. 

Thalayi. 

Thalia Sitha Sudra. 

Thamalapakula Kulam. 

Thamba Kulam. 

ThambaUa. 

Thamdu Yandlu. 

Thamgim Ohitrakar. 

Thammala. 

Thamuthi Yandlu. 

Thanda. 

Thandri Kulamlo San- 

kara. 
Thanga Mala Pujari. 
Thani Yelama Kulam. 
Thanthi Kulam. 
Thanthra Palu. 
Thapala Malanu. 
Thapodarulu. 
Tharagu YeUala. 
Thara Kulam. 
Tharandi Yandlu. 
Thargu Jangam. 
Thariguru Balija. 
Thariya. 
Thama Kapu. 
Tharthali. 
Thatamatu Reddi. 
Thatha. 

Thathadi Yelama. 
Thatra. 

Thatti Kallu Yallu. 
Ttavuro Bariki. 
Thavuta Yandlu. 
Thavuthiu*alu. 
Thayika. 
Thayikati. 
Thegadavandlu. 
Thegidulu. 
Thegina Komati. 
Theguru Thelaga. 
Thelaga. 
Thelagalu. 
Thelagiri. 

Thela Puia Smartha. 
TheU. 

Theliyadu Guzerati. 
Thella. 
Them. 
Thelugu. 
Thelukula. 
Thengala. 
Thenitha. 
Thenjamalu. 
Thenum Kapu. 
Thenuru Kulam. 
Thera Odde. 
Therasirlu. 

F 3 



Theratha Kuraba. 

There Jandra. 

Thelagajula Kapu. 

Thevadiya. 

Thevangala. 

Therora Kulam. 

Thevula Yandlu. 

Thiathodulu. 

Thidago. 

Thigala. 

Thikku Mala. 

Thilaghathakulu. 

Thilakanati Kapu. 

Thimanaeulu. 

Thinavaru. 

Thiniya Mala. 

Thiragu. 

Thiripemu. 

Thirukulagu Spaithi. 

Thirumadla GoUa. 

Thirupathi. 

Thirusani Thota Kapu. 

Thiru. 

Thishine. 

Thivara. 

Thiyaro. 

Thogaludi. 

Thogaru. 

Thogata. 

Thohala Gonda. 

Thoharia. 

Thohubo. 

Thokala GoUa. 

Thokavari Yelama. 

Tholaba. 

Tholagaru. 

Tholagiri Sudra. 

Tholaya. 

ThoUakadu. 

Tholu. 

Tholuva YeUala. 

Thonabana. 

Thonali Kulam. 

Thonda. 

Thondi Kulam. 

Thongadu Kapu. 

Thongari Yelamalu. 

Thonthi. 

Thorajathi Yellala. 

Thorisami Mala. 

Thoriya. 

Thosira Mali. 

Thota. 

Thoti. 

Thraivamikulu. 

Thudda. 

Thudu Brukala. 

Thudumu Kapu. 

Thugiali. 

Thukudi GoUa. 

Thukuri. 

Thuku Royi GoUa. 

Thulur YeUalar. 



Digitized by 



Google 



46 



Thuluva Vellalar. 

Thuma GoUa. 

Thumari Golla. 

Thumba Kapu. 

Thumburan. 

Thumburu Vandlu. 

Thumma. 

Thummali. 

Thundi Golla. 

Thundilo Paraja. 

Thundu Kapu.^ 

Thunga Paraja. 

Thuniga. 

Thupata Kasi Palli Kapu. 

Thuppala Enadi. 

Thuraka. 

Thurakalu. 

Thurakulam. 

Thura Paidi Kulam. 

Thuraru. 

Thurpu. 

Thurtha Kondiya Gonda. 

Thurushkulu. 

Thuruvallu. 

Thusnilu. 

Tidiva. 

Tiku Modi. 

Tokarapobodi. 

Tokaratha Goda. 

Tolai. 

Tukiriya. 

Tukuriya. 



Udasi. 

tJdiga. 

Udupulu Thathi. 

Ulama. 

TJnupula. 

Uppara. 

Uriya. 

Usha Raja Kulam. 

Uta Velama. 



Vachapallflu. 

Vachayada Balija. 

Vadada Jangam. 

Vadagalu Kulam. 

Vadagu Parayar. 

Vada. 

Vada. 

Vadamallu. 

Vadamauji Patayam. 

Vadama Rapi Golla. 

Vadamu Jami Palayam. 

Vadarlu. 

Vadathi. 

Vaddara Ballu. 

Vaddigam. 

Vademati Kapu. 

Vadiga Racha Kulam. 

Vadithai . 



Vadiya. 

Vadla. 

Vadora Vaniyan. 

Vadrangi. 

Vadue:ar. 

Vadugu Pauchanam. 

Vadula. 

Vadu. 

Vaganalu. 

Vagara Gouda. 

Vagi Balija. 

Vaidamedu. 

Vai. 

Vaidi Komati. 

Vaidikulu Madhua. 

Vaidya. 

Vaighanasa. 

Vaimanalu. 

Yaimanayatho. 

Vairajam Jangam. 

Vaira Kapu. 

Vairuju Kapu. 

Vaishnava. 

Vaishyulu Kanigi Ko- 
mati. 

Vaisya. 

Vaisyulalo Kari Komati 
Kulam. 

Vaitala Kathu. 

Vakala Kapu. 

Vakam Kulam. 

Vakavi Kondalu. 

Vakiko. 

Vakkala Balija. 

Vakyagaro Chakala. 

Valachi Kapu. 

Valaga Kapu. 

Valagarudi Kapu. 

Valaku. 

Valamalu. 

Valana Golla. 

Valaraja. 

Valaraya Kamam. 

Valarumalam. 

Valava. 

Valayal. 

Valiga Mala. 

Vali. 

Vallaga. 

VaUa. 

Vallalu Gondya. 

Vallam Jathi. 

Vallar. 

Vallara Konda. 

Vallidaru Kaikala. 

Vallora Bothara. 

Valluvan. 

Valmika. 

Valuta Kapu. 

Valu Van(Uu, 

Vama Gandla. 

Vamanabi Reddi. 

Vamanu Kulam. 



Vaiiiapi Reddi. 
Vamara Kulam. 
Vamayitho. 
Vammala. 
Vamma Telugu. 
Vampavadu. 
Vamsari Kamma. 
Vamula Amma Kam 

Sudra. 
Vamu. 
Vana. 

Vanaku Pattari. 
Vanato. 
Vancha. 

Vanchamiiri Sudra. 
Vandagala Kapu. 
. Vande' Kuraba. 
Vandira Sudra. 
Vandevadu. 
Vandra Vandlu. 
Vandya. 
Vanemathru. 
Vani. 

Vaniya Gandla. 
Vaniyan. 
Vanjiri. 
Vanko. 

Vanma Savara. 
Vannan. 
Vanne. 
Vannela. 
Vanniya. 
Vanta. 
Vantarlu. 
Vanugu. 
Vanu. 

Vanva Dhoralu. 
Vara Boya. 
Varaga. 

Varagiri Kulam. 
Varagu Kapu. 
Varam. 

Varamathu Vadu. 
Varambu Reddi. 
Varanati Reddi. 
Varathasa Kapu. 
Varati Reddi. 
Varavoka Vellala. 
Vardu Kulam. 
Varigi Golla. 
Varika Perikalu. 
Varisa Vadialu. 
Varka Pothe. 
Vama. 

Vamam THelukulu. 
Varsa Kapu. 
Varthakulu. 
Varthakulu Komati. 
Vartha Kuraba. 
Varu Sale. 
Varya Kapu. 
Vasa. 
Vasanagadtha. 



Digitized by 



Google 



47 



Vasanthya Kulam. 


Venju Thatharu. 


Volashiya Thelukula Ku- 


Vasaru Kulam. 


Venku Godari Kulam. 


lam. 


Vasi GoUa. 


Venna. 


VoUagha. 


Vassalu. 


Ventagoli Setti. 


Vollaya. 


Vasthadu. 


Ventha Kulam. 


Voline Vandlu. 


Vataku Pola. 


Ventugathi Setti. 


Vomalu. 


Vatha. 


Vepali Kapu. 


Vomamelu. 


Vathallu. 


Veparam. 


Vomaruthu. 


Vathara Gadaba. 


Vepari. 


Vomayitho. 


Vatharava Dhoralu. 


Veparulu Madhvalu. 


Vonda Paraja. 


Vatharavallu. 


Vera Jathi. 


Vondi Daru. 


Vathu Rami. 


Verta. 


Vongu Polui. 


Vatiknjara Nese. 


Vesadari. 


Vonta Balija. 


Vattai Chakala. 


Vesaka GoUalu. 


Vora Golla. 


Vattaku Kulam. 


Vesari. 


Vorithvana Ramanujam. 


Vatti Golla. 


Veshta Reddi. 


Voruputhaja Kulam. 


Vattika Lingadhari. 


Vesia. 


Vorya. 


Vatu Paraja. 


Vesuru Mala. 


Vosu Karnam. 


Vavadu. 


Vetagari Palli. 


Vota Redlu. 


Vaya Kulam. 


Vetagiri. 


Votha Golla. 


Vayamri. 


Veta. 


Vothaku. 


Vayari. 


Vettaikar. 


Vothala Vandlu. 


Veda. 


Vetti. 


Vothulu. 


Vedan. 


Vettiyan. 


Voyi. 


Vegina Komati. 


Veyuru. 


Vratha Vadu. 


Veginati. 


Viabla Chari. 


Vruthi Dedu. 


Vekau. 


Viakali. 


Viida. 


Vekari. 


Viana Boya. 


Viidala Golla. 


Vekkaderi. 


Viari. 


Vudapu Vandlu. 


Veladi Golla. 


Viavasayam. 


Vudarupala. 


Veladini Reddi. 


Vidia Paraja. 


Vudiga. 


Velagala Kapu. 


Vidiga. 


Vudla Vadu. 


Velaga Mamialu. 


Vigalo. 


Vudo. 


Velagiri. 


V ignaniya Matham. 


Vudupu Manne. 


Velama. 


Vilva Kondu Phelagalu. 


Vujjula Kulam. 


Velaneyarku. 


Vinata Kshatriya. 


Vulasavan. 


Velanga Mala. 


Vinna Karnam. 


Vulnaluku. 


Velapi Reddi. 


Vippala Sila Razulu. 


Vulunaru. 


Velaroya Kamam. 


Vipra Vinodulu. 


Vumanayaru. 


Velaru. 


Vira Bashi. 


Vumannkia. 


Velavadu Gouda. 


Viradu Kulam. 


Vungarala Vagera, 


Velesa Kapu. 


Viragali Karnam. 


Vuniji Reddi. 


Vella. 


Viragalu. 


Vunja Jandra. 


Vellada Sagauer Vadu. 


Vira. 


Vunsapu Devangulu. 


Vellala. 


Viral Kunda Kapu. 


Vuntamatiri Kannada. 


Vellalar. 


Virana Eklis Kapu. 


Vuraluma. 


Vellani. 


Virangi. 


Vurachia Kapu. 


Vellau Setti. 


Virli Vandlu. 


Vursa Kapu. 


Vellapu. 


Virum Raja Kulam. 


Vuniku. 


Vellari. 


Visharlu. 


Vusyalaka Reddi. 


Vellayam Kapu. 


Vishnu Bhakthulu. 


Vuta Shula. 


Vellaya Pandaram. 


Visistadvaitam. 


Vyabhichari. 


VeUan Kapu. 


Visva. 


Vyavasayakadu. 


VeUitharu. 


Vitanli. 


Vyavasayam Kamma. 


Velnadu. 


Vitha Vatha. 




Velnati. 


Viti Erukala. 




Velnaya Kapu. 


Viyara Kulam. 


Yabala. 


Velula Kapu. 


Vobudra Dali. 


Yachaka Mondi. 


Vemadhari Balija. 


Vodadi Sondivadu. 


Yachakulu. 


Vemmala Vadu. 


Vodra Kamam. 


Yadamala Vamam. 


Vendatika. 


Vogulu. 


Yadarlu. 


Vende Vadu. 


Vokuni Reddi. 


Yadava. 


Vendu Batha. 


Volaka Kulam. 


Yadi. 



F 4 



Digitized by 



Google 



48 



Yadu Kapu, 

Yaga Boya. 

Yagalu Komati* 

Yagata. 

Yagavadi Pani Kodu. 

Yagna Mose Kammaku- 

1am. 
Yagniya. 
Yahara. 
Yajurveda. 
Yakala GoUa. 
Yaki Vilama Kapu. 
Yalaga Vallu. 
Yalagiri Kulam. 
Yalakula Arekulam. 
Yalankapuri. 
Yalati Dhoralu. 
Yalavar. 
Yallaba Kapu. 
Yalla. 
Yallam. 
Yallati. 

Yalavala Kapulu. 
Yamara Palli. 
Yammasa GoUa. 
Yammiti Dhoralu. 
Yana Kapu. 
Yanaku Sudra. 
Yanati. 

Yandra Oddelu. ^ 
Yangallu. 
Yani Vallu. 



Yapathi. 

Yapavadu. 

Yarala. 

Yaralam Kulam. 

Yarenchi. 

Yarla Kapu. 

Yarmala Kapu. 

Yarokulam. 

Yarutu Kulam. 

Yaeangi Vandlu. 

Yasivandlu. 

Yasulapani Kodu. 

Yata. 

Yatati Kapu. 

Yatha. 

Yathava Thelugu. 

Yathi. 

Yatla. 

Yatlakulam Panchama. 

Yatla Vallu Kamma. 

Yavo. 

Yeba Jumna. 

Yechela Vallu. 

Yedakula. 

Yedama Madiga. 

Yegadi Gani. 

Yegama Po. 

Yegedu. 

Yegunati Kapu. 

Yeharathama. 

Yekkallu. 

Yelagiri. 



Yelamanchi Kapu. 

Yelamatti, 

Yeliva Kamam. 

Yeliyadu Kulam. 

YeUama Reddi. 

Yellari. 

Yellu. 

Yelluluva Kapu. 

YeUu Vadu. 

Yemala Golla. 

Yema. 

Yenatam Jathi. 

Yendu. 

Yenni Koda Vellala. 

Yennu Golla. 

Yeracla. 

Yerali. 

Yerora. 

Yestrulu. 

Yethi Sruka. 

Yethuva. 

Yetla Vennali Kamma. 

Yevella Kamma Modi. 

Yeventhu Kulam. 

Yidinga Gouda. 

Yikyathi Kalaka Sudra. 

Yimacliivakudu. 

Yirala Pujari. 

Yogi. 

Yola Behara. 

Yota. 

Yuti Thogala. 



Digitized by 



Google 



49 



The Canarese Caste Names. 





Bard^Bhkdr. ' 






Basava. 




Acliari. 


Batanavani. 




Adi. 


Battada. 




Adiyan. 


B6da/ 


Dakke. 


Adiyddi. 


Belayi Jati. 


bangdri. 


Adkada. 


Belera. 


Ddsa. 


Aga8a. 


Bern. 


Daehi. 


Agasara. 


BeUi. 


Ddsi. 


Ahamadayan. 


Berlera. 


Davaja. 


Ajala. 
Akasale. 


Bespar. 


Des£i Marathi. 


Besta. 


Deshasth Hdvika. 


Akasdlerava Panchala. 


Bhaira. 


Devadiga. 


Ambalavasi. 


Bhanddri. 


Devadra Shudra. 


Ambattan. 


Bhankotkdr. 


D6vaga. 


Ambiga. 


Bharya. 


D^vajekdr. 


Ambikar. 


Bhdtiya. 


Devaiera. 


Ambina. 


Bhdvi. 


DevaUga. 


Ande Koraga. 


Bid[i or Bidu Sule. 


D^vdnga. 


Andhra Murikindti. 


Bill Maggaddr. 


Dhdbi. 


Arabi. 


Billa Jati Ketta. 


Divar. 


Arddhya. 


Billava. 


Dombar. 


Arasa Pajli. 


Billavara Kdvuthiyan. 


Dravida. 


Arasu. 


BIlu Billava. 




Arava. 


Bogdri Jdti. 




Ar6. 


Bomman Val^kdr. 




Arsu Makkalu. 


Budake. 




Arya. 


Budinava. 




Aryara Bandi. 


Budunaya. 


Edagai. 


Attukdran. 


• 


Edayan. 
Eura. 
Eluva,. 
Embrandiri. 




Chakkiliyan. 


Enndl. 


Bdchanige Neyyuvadu. 


Chaliya or Chdliyan. 


Eruman. 


Badaga. 


Chalya. 


Eruvan. 


Bada Arasu. 


Chamar. 




Badayi. 


Chaptekar. 




Badige. 


Chapudigar. 




Bairagi. 


Charddi. 




Bakuda. 


Chatdfa. 




Balagai. 


Chedan. 


Gabifc. 


Balajidar. 


Chegadi. 


Galada Konkana. 


Balaya. 


Chembuduga. 


Gajadava. 


Bale Banajiga. 


Chennalan. 


Gamanasale. 


Balegar. 


Cheran. 


Ganadava. 


Bailal. 


Cheravan. 


Gangadikar. 


Balolikdr. 


Cherippukutti. 


Ganiga. 


Banagdr. 


Cheriyakaran. 


Ganji Gowda. 


Banajiga. 


Cheruman. 


Ganterava. 


B^di. 


Ohetti. 


Garadigar. 


Banita Lingdyat, 


Chinnada Kelasa. 


Garsar. 


Baniya. 


Chippiga Ndmadeva. 


Gatti. 


Bannagdr. 


Chitragar. 


Gavadi. 


Banta. 


Chdvan. 


Gavadi. 


Bappada Shetti. 


Ohdyi. 


Gavagara. 



Y 5747. 



G 



Digitized by 



Google 



:0 



Ghattada Gowda. 


Jetti. 


KoMri. 


Goddar. 


Jinagar. 


Kolava. 


Golkunde. 


Jdgi. 


K61ayan. 


Goila. 


J6ti Banna. 


Koleyir Kavuthiyan. 


Gopalan. 


Jdtishagar. 


KoUa. 


G6sayi. 


Julai. 


Kollan. 


Gowda. 




K6mati. 


Gowdi. 




Kombdti Agaea. 


Gowdikar. 




Konga. 


Gowli. 




Konkaniga andare RAjd- 


Goyaru. 


Kabbina Kelasadava. 


puri Bdlolikar. 


Gudigar. 


Kadani Vaishya. 


Kopdjan. 


Guiiar. 


Kddu. 


Koracha. 




Kaipuda. 


Koraga. 




Kair6di Naimar. 


Koraji. 




Kdjig^r Shetti. 


Korama. 




Kalaigar. 


Kordr. 




Kalavant. 


Korava. 


Hajam. 
Hakki Korama. 


Kalikat Shiddha Jati. 


K6tadava. 


Kaliya. 


K6te. 


Halepaik. 


Kallar. 


Kdtegar. 


miu. 


Kalli (yr Badayi. 


Kdteshwar. 


Halvakki. 


Kallu. 


K6tiga. 


Hamakara. 


Kammala. 


Kottdri. 


Ha.Tnal Bh6vi. 


Kammar. 


Kotta Vannattdn. 


Hambatra. 


Kammavaru. 


Kshatri. 


Hanche Vakkalu. 


Kammavara Vadaga Jdti. 


Kshourika. 


Haad^. 


Kana. 


Kudimdvilan. 


Hanuba. 


Kanaka. 


Kudiv^ttuvan. 


Hanupa. 


Kdnakubji. 


Kudiya. 


Harakava. 


Kanchugar. 


Kudla deshakdr. 


Har^ra. 


Xanikan. 


Kudlagar. 


Hari. 


Kanisban. 


Kudubi. 


Hasaga. 


Kaniya. 


Kudyamale. 


Hasalar. 


Kaniyan. 


Kukkadi Sdliga. 


Havadiga. 


Kannada. 


Kukke Korama. 


Havika. 


Kanniyara. 


Kulagettavalu. 


Heggade. 


Kapalya. 


Kuli Iju. 


Helavara. 


Kappada Koraga. 


Kumbhar. 


Holadava. 


Kappera Koraga. 


Kumbla Sthanika. 


Holeya. 


Karadi. 


Kumri. 


H6ri Jati. 


Kdrakdttu Vellal. 


Kunchalar. 




Karanika. 


Kunchetti. 




Karikudubi. 


Kunchiga. 




Karingal Panikkar. 


Kunchi. 




Karum^. 


Kunde Kojaga. 




Kavar6. 


Kunubi. 


tdiga. 


Kavarika. 


Kurmada. 


Irala. 


Kav6ri Konkanasth. 


Kuruba. 


trava Shudra. 


Kavuthiyan. 


Kurubana Kusa. 


Itara Koraga. 


Keik61a. 


Kurup. 


Itaralu. 


Kelaei. 


Kusa. 




Khandekar. 


Kushavan. 




Kharvi. 






Kichakara J^ti. 






Kiddran. 






Kiravan. 




Jdda. 


Kiru Ganiga. 


Lambddi or Lambd^. 


Jalagara. 


Kodaga. 


Lavar. 


Janapa. 


Kodakan. 


Lingadhari. 


Janf'alii'a. 


Kodiyal Kudnbi. 


Lddi. 


Janajain. 


Kolal. 


Luvan Baniya. 


Jati. 


K61an. 





Digitized by 



Google 



51 



Madakar. 

Maddel (Kshowrika). 

Mddera. 

Madiga. 

Madivala. 

Maila. 

Mala. 

Maldhar. 

Maldr Gowda. 

Malatar. 

Malava. 

Malayan. 

Malaya. 

Malayan. 

Male. 

Malemavaru. 

Malera Kusa. 

Maleya. 

MaUar. 

Malligar. 

Mallya. 

Mane Kelasa. 

Maniyani. 

Mannan. 

Mannattan or Vannattan. 

Mannu. 

Marak&l. 

Maran or Marayan. 

Marar Yane Padarti. 

Maravelei Kammalan. 

Mari. 

Marte Pililaya. 

Matigar. 

Mavilan. 

Mayikan. 

Mayyar. 

Mighivata. 

Maladava. 

Mele Jati Kettavalu. 

Melsakre. 

Menon. 

Mera. 

Mesta. 

Mocha. 

Mdchi. 

Modali Keikola. 

Moger. 

Mogeya. 

Moili. 

Monda GoUa. 

Morarava. 

Morotti. 

Moyan. 

Moyili 

Mudaliar. 

Mudamane. 

Mukhari. 

Mukkalya. 

Mukkava. 

Mullu Kuruman. 

Y .5747. 



Mulyara Jati j&ne Kum- 

bhar. 
Mupp^ri. 
Murad. 
Murte. 
Mushari. 



Nada. 

Nidava or Nadavar. 

Naidu. 

Mik. 

Nair. 

Nairi. 

Nalke. 

Ndmadeva. 

Namadhari. 

Nambishan. 

Namburi. 

N6mya. . 

Nari Korama. 

Naru Karuba. 

Nattuvan. 

Naviyan. 

Navuthiyan. 

Ndyinda. 

Neikar. 

Neiukdr. 

Netkkr. 

Nirkottan. 

Ninivattan. 

Niveshkar. 

Ndvaga Jati. 



Ojigala. 

Ojigalinda Jati Ketta. 

Okligar. 



Paddrti. 

Padayachchi. 

Padela Madivala. 

Padmasale. 

Pakanad. 

Pallemar. 

Palli. 

Panan. 

Pdnar. 

Panchala. 

Panohama. 

Panchamasale. 

Panchama Shivachar. 

Pandaram. 

Pandi 

Pangadkar. 

Panikkar. 

Paniyan. 

H 



Panji. 

Paradishi. 

Parama Jada. 

Parava. 

Parayan. 

Parisha^ 

Parivdr. 

Pariyat Agasa. 

Pdtali. 

Pathiyan Satanikan. 

Patladava. 

Patre Meladava. 

Pattar. 

Pattekar. 

Pattnulkar. 

Penne. 

Pennekar. 

Perumkollan. 

Pillai. 

Pisharddi. 

Polayan. 

Polta. 

Pommada. 

Ponchetti. 

Ponv61ei Kammalan. 

PothuvaL 

Pujira. 

Pulluvan. 

Pursa. 

Putte Korama. 



Rajaka. 

Raja Kshatri. 

Rajdpuri. 

Rajaputra. 

Rajevar. 

Raji. 

Ramanuja Satani. 

Rangari. 

Ranyada Bhaira. 

Ranyadava. 

Rapa. 

Reddi. 



Sadu Lingayet. 

Sale. 

Saliga. 

Salti. 

Samagar. 

Samanta. 

Sanyasi. 

Sapale. 

Sappaliga. 

Sappu Koraga. 

Satani. 

Satara. 

S^ndivala. 

Digitized by 



Google _ 



52 



Seniyan. 


Tattdn. 


Vaishya. 


Shanan. 


Tavaradavalu. 


Vakkaliga. 


Shankara Jati. 


Teli. 


Vakkalu. 


Shekkan. 


Tengina Halepaik. 


Valagadava. 


Shembadavan. 


Tepugar. 


Valati. 


Sheran. 


Tigala. 


Vaiekar. 


Sheregai'. 


Tirukula. 


Valekaru. 


Shetti. 


Tiruvelavdr. 


Valinchiyan. 


Shiddha. 


Tiyan. 


Vallabha Jati. 


Shiddhani Telugu. 


Togata. 


Valluvan. 


Shiddhesi. 


Tore Jati. 


Vani. 


Shilpi. 


Toreya. 


Vaniyan. 


Shhnpigar. 


T6ti. 


Vannan. 


Shiva. 


Tdtiga. 


Vannattdn. 


Shivachir. 


Trindmi. 


Vanniyar. 


Shivalinga Banajiga. 


Tulu. 


Variyar. 


Shivalli. 


Tumbiyar. 


Vasta Jati Ketta. 


Shrivaishnava Jati. 




Vedan. 


Shudra. 




Velama. 


Shwi Dwiji. 




Velan. 


Singa. 


Udiya (Uriya). 


VeM. 


Smartan. 


Uppaliga. 


Veluttedan. 


Sodea Vellal. 


Uppali PalU. 


Vesha. 


S(51iga. 


Uppar. 


Vettu Jati. 


Sonagar. 


Uppina Korava. 


Vettuvan. 


Sowraga. 


Uppu. 


Vil^kar. 


Sthanika. 


^UraliNair. 


Vird. 


S^^U}l 




Vishva. 


Sule. 




Vdchi. 


Swalaga. 


Vadama. 
Vadda. 


Vodari. 
VuiudAn. 




Vaduga. 


Yavari. 


Tammadi 


Vaduvan. 


Yegudaru. 


Tangalan. 


Vairagi. 


Yettina Vadda. 


Tapale. 


Vaishnava. 


Yogi. 



Digitized by 



Google 



53 



The Malayalam Caste Names. 



Achchan. 

Agamudikr. 

Ahamutti Chetti. 

Aikn Swami. 

Ajkthi. 

Ajjkm. 

Akampatiyan. 

Akattara Nayar. 

Akkiliyan. 

Akkuvkri Chetti. 

Alakamalaykman. 

Alakkukkren. 

Alchenunan. 

Alkurba. 

Allan. 

Ambalakkkren. 

Ambalavkssi. 

Ambattan. 

Ampilla. 

Aii(U. 

Ankanakkren. 

Ankipuri. 

Anniykgar. 

Annuttkn. 

Anthiyan Kusavah. 

Anthuritn. 

Arakanakkbdi. 

Amyklan. 

Aruran Kurup. 

Aryan. 

Askri. 

Asaykn. 

Aspilla. 

Athi. 

Atikal. 

Atiykn. 

Atiybti. 

Atta Chetti. 

Atuthavan. 

Attukaren. 



Bkkisa GoUah. 

Bkl Chetti. 

Bklija. 

Ballaga. 

Bknia. 

Bartilinar. 

Batta Kunimar. 

Bkttiya. 

Bedar. 

Bestru. 

Bhkttiya. 

Bhrestankya Nampudri. 

Bbndili. 



Bbyi. 




Brahma Pattar. 




Budha Siva. 


Dksari. 


Bulgi. 


Dksi. 


Bundkri. 


Dbva Dksan. 




D6va Dksi. 




Devkdiga. 




Devknga. 


Chakkkn. 


D6vi. 


Chkkkikr. 


Dhbbi. 


Chakkili. 


Dombarava. 


Chakkilian. 


Doshapetta Mankmma. 


Chakkingal Nkyar. 




Chakiti. 




Chklien. 




Chkna KoUan. 


Eluthassan. 


Chknar. 


Embritkal. 


Chkndi Pillai. 


Embrandiri. 


Chankan Nkyar. 


Era Chemnian. 


Chkmna. 


Erkdi. 


Chavala Chetti. 


Erakkala. 


Chavalakkkren. 


Erakanakka Cheruman 


Chkyakkkren. 


Erakanakkan. 


Chkya Kurup. 


Brala. 


Chfeda Chetti. 


Eralan. 


Ch^dan. 


Eramullan. 


Chedaya Chetti. 


Erayan. 


Ch^la Kurup. 


Eruma Chetti. 


Chembadavan. 


Erumakkkren. 


Chembotti. 


Erumkn. 


Cheniyan. 


Etagiri. 


Chenkbth Mudali. 


Etankt;a,Ti Chetti. 


Chenta Poduvkl. 


Etayan. 


Cherippu Kutti. 


Etayarkbn. 


Cheruma Chkthan. 


Etta Kurup. 


Cheruman. 


Ettu Parayan. 


Chetti. 




Chetti Tattan. 




Chettiya Kkvuthiyan. 




Chettiykn. 


Gramaghu. 


Chfey Jabar. 


Gangadhkri. 


Chey K6n. ' 


Ganga. 


Chiliya Setti. 


Gangks. 


Chilpkskri. 


Gokinkndi. 


Chimalay^man. 


GoUah. 


Chinchalksan. 


Gbpklan. 


Chingbttan. 


Gdsai. 


Chiraram. 


Gouda. 


Chittan. 


Guru Gbdar. 


Chiva Kkppu. 




Chbvan. 




Chbyi Parad^si. 




Chbzhiya VeUklan. 


Hollayah. 


Chuliyan. 


Honditakkren. 


Chunnkmba Chetti. 




Chunnkmbakkren. 





H 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



54 



Ilakkian. 

Ilayad. 

Illivalluva Cheruman. 

Iluva Panikkar. 

iluvan. 

Indrakula Chetti. 

Indumatchala. 

Irumba Cheruman. 

Iswara. 
Itliithirisala. 



Janappa. 

Jkndra. 

Janga Chkyinka Panda- 

ram. 
Jkniar. 
Jathi. 
Jbgi. 



Kachchakkkur Murthi- 

ykn. 
Kachchkri Nkyar. 
Kkchi Chetti. 
Kachikkr. 
Kadachi. 
Kadakan. 
Kkdan. 
Kkdavan. 
Kadupottan. 
Kaduvakal. 
Kaikbla. 
Kaikblar. 
Kakka Koravan. 
Kkkkbdi. 
Kalkotti. 
Kalpani. 
Kalpanikkaren . 
Kal Tachchan. 
Kalam Kotti. 
Kalathran. 
Kalla. 
Kallkdi. 
Kallalen. 
Kalian. 
Kallkndi. 
Kallari Knrup. 
Kallkskri. 
Kallkt. 

Kallnli Chetti. 
Kamariyip. 
Kammala. 
Kammalambatta Kshnra- 

kan. 
Kammalan. 
Kammalarkaduthavar. 

Kamshan. 
Kanakka. 
Kanakkan. 



Kanamukalatha Mkchi. 

Kanika Kshatriyan. 

Kanisan. 

Kaniykn. 

Kaniyaran. 

Kankada Gonda. 

Kankadakan. 

Kankitan. 

Kanna Moinan. 

Kannada Chetti. 

Kannadi. 

Kannadiyan. 

Kannklar. 

Kannkn Chetti. 

Kannkr. 

Kannavan. 

Karakkktta Chetti. 

Karambkran. 

Karavali. 

Karayee. 

Kkri. 

Karimbklan. 

Karimban. 

Karinkal Chetti. 

Karinkallakdde Nkyakan. 

Karinkal. 

Kariyankaravan. 

Karkataka. 

Kamkfcakam. 

Karb. 

Karthkvu. 

Karumkn. 

Karumbklan. 

Karuppan. 

Karuva Chetti* 

Karuvala Chetti. 

Karuvkn. 

Karvan. 

Kaskyee. 

Kasi Chetti Talavkr. 

Katayee. 

Katholi Nkyar. 

Katta. 

Kkttu Nkyakan. 

Kavachan Ambattan. 

Kava Chetti. 

Kavara. 

Kavarki. 

Kkvil. 

Kkvu Kutithanan. 

Kavuntan. 

Kkvuthiyan. 

Kayani. 

Kidkren. 

Kirktan. 

Kiriyan Nkyar. 

Kiyambar. 

Kdlan. 

Kolangara Nkyar. 

Kolaykn. 

Kolchcha Kunip. 

Kbli. 

KoUan. 



KoUiriva. 

Kolpad. 

Kbmankndi. 

Kombalath Nkyakan. 

Kbmutti. 

Kbnan. 

Kongam. 

Kongha. 

Konghklan. 

Konghan Askri. 

Konghim^ 

Konnan Askri. 

Korava Tattkn. 

Kbri. 

Kotakan. 

Kottan. 

Kottanna Chetti. 

Kshatriyalu. 

Kshurakan. 

Kubikara. 

Kiida Ch^dan. 

Kudakar. 

Kiida Skda. 

Kudi Chetti. 

Kudithanakkren. 

Kudiykn. 

Kuduma Chetti. 

Kudumbi Chetti. 

Kuduvi. 

Kujan. 

Kula, Cheruman. 

Kumbala Chetti. 

Kumbkran. 

Kumbi HoUayan. 

Kundu. 

Kunduvan Kannadiyan. 

Kunnathiir Adiykn. 

Kuravan. 

Kurichiyan. 

Kurba GroUah. 

Kurikkal Chetti. 

Kuriyar. 

Kurukkal. 

Kurumar. 

Kurumban. 

Kurup. 

Kuruvan Kurichiyan. 

Kusavan. 

Kuta Cheruman. 

Kiitan. 

Kuzhambi. 

Kynaden Kalli. 



Lkla. 

Lambkdi. 

Lkvana. 

Linga Chetti. 

Lingadhkri. 

Lingam Chetti Pandk- 

ram, 
Lingam Katti Kavuntan. 



Digitized by 



Google 



55 



Mkchi. 

Mkdiga. 

Madirassi Parayan. 

Mahaji Palassi. 

Mahai^jen. 

Maliir. 

Mala Idayen. 

Malakkkren. 

Mala. 

Malan Cheruman. 

Malappada Chetti. 

Malatha Idayan. 

Malathkthan. 

Malayan Kusavan. 

Malaykli. 

Malaykman. 

Malayan Chetti. 

Malayaral. 

Malin Kadan. 

Maliyan Kalavan. 

Mandila. 

Mangala. 

Maniykndi. 

Maniykni. 

Maniykran. 

Mannkdiykr. 

Mannkn. 

Manna Ottan. 

Markmi. 

Maravar. 

Mkraykn. 

Mkri. 

Matavan. 

Matavkndi. 

Mathavar. 

Mathin. 

Mathiya. 

Matichu. 

Mkvilan. 

Mkvuntkdan Chetti. 

Medara. 

M6n6ki. 

M^nbn. 

Metchan KoUan. 

Mohather. 

Mola Cheruman. 

Moramkuthi Parayan. 

Moriyan. 

Mudali. 

Mudukar. 

Mukatha Kdvuthi. 

Mukkuvan. 

Mulavan. 

Miillu. 

Munnuttan. 

Muppan Tiru. 

Mupaykra Chetti. 

Murappan. 

Musad. 

Muskri. 

Mussu. 



Muthan. 

Mutratsa. 

Muttican, 



Nkga Chkran. 

Nagara Muppan. 

Nagarath Chetti. 

Kkidu. 

Nalrkthri. 

Nkmadhkri. 

Nambathi. 

Nambi. 

Nambikr. 

Nambidi Brkhmin. 

Nambisan. 

Nambrath Nkyar. 

Nambu Vettuvan. 

Nanayar. 

Nangiykr. 

Nanna G6pklan. 

Nannkn. 

Narasimah Miirthi S6ma 

Pillamar. 
Nasian. 
JSTattkn. 
Nattappu. 
Nattu. 

Nktu Vkli Nkyar. 
Navakrani. 
Nava Kurumbar. 
Nkvidan. 
Nkvukutithanan. 
Nkvuthiykn. 
Nkykdi. 
Nkyakan. 
Nkyar. 
Nedungadi. 
Neithu. 
Nelkurumar. 
Neliyalaku Vatujan. 
Nbtakan. 
Niil Chettiykn. 
Nusrkni Hindu. 
Nuttu. 



Odavan. 
Okkalamakkal 

AUavar. 
Okkili Kavuntan. 
Okkiligar. 
Olayan. 
Omma. 

Orayan Nayar. 
Otath Nkyar. 
Otathavan. 
Ottakkran. 
Otto Nkyakan. 
Ott6r. 

H 3 



Swkmi 



Tadanna. 

Padaykchchi. 

Pkkkankndi. 

Pklakanakkan. 

Pklathu Nkyar. 

Palisa. 

PaUai. 

Pallayi Tiru. 

Pallichchkn. 

Pallikal. 

PallirittasujAn. 

Pknan. 

Pandkra. 

Pandkram. 

Pkndi. 

Pandithan. 

Pkndiyan. 

Pkni. 

Pknien. 

Panikkar. 

Panisavan. 

Pani Tiru. 

Pknnia Chetti. 

Pappada Chetti. 

Pappadakaren. 

Pappkndi Vellalen. 

Parachchen Nkyar. 

Parakkvuthi. 

Paramban. 

Pkrkmbi. 

Paramburi. 

Parapison. 

Parappur Nkyar. 

Parasinan. 

Parava. 

Paravathiri. 

Parayan. 

Paraykndi Pandkram. 

Paraya Thkman. 

Parumad. 

Pathiykr. 

Patta Chetti. 

Pattar. 

Pattu Kudi. Chetti. 

Pattuniilkkren. 

Pkyanaithu Kuravan. 

Perim. 

Perimptir Nkyar. 

Perumannan. 

Pidkrar. 

Pilla Chetti. 

Pillai. 

Pishkrddi. 

Podunda. 

Poirava. 

Pokara. 

Pola. 

Polayan. 

Pon Tattkn. 

Pondan. 



Digitized by 



Google 



56 



Ponpani Tattkn. 


Subba. 


TJllini Kurumar. 


Ponpisha. 


Sudra. 


Unithiri. 


Poduvkl. 


Surayan. 


Uppa. 


Pravrather. 


Swkmikr. 


Uppalakaren, 


Pukndi. 




Uppara Chetti. 


Pulakanaka Chenimaii. 




XJppiliyan. 


Pulavalluva Cheruman. 




TJi^lli. 


Pulavan Kavuntan. 




Uratavan. 
Urumkn Pandkram. 


Piilikskri. 
Piili Kurup. 


Tachcha Kkvuthiyan. 
Tachchan. 


Pulian Nayar. 


Tachchanal Muppan. 


Usika. 


PuUuvan. 


Tachchani Chetti. 




Piimkla Kattunnavan. 


Tkmi. 




Punambi. 


Tandkn. 




Punta. 


Tangklan. 




Pil Pandkram. 


Tarakan. 


Vkchikan. 


Purur Chetti. 


Tatta Chetti. 


Vadayakkkren Chetti. 


Piiskri. 


Tattkn. 


Vkl Nambi. 


Pushpayan. 


Telunga. 


Vala. 


Puthukkl Idayan. 


Telungan. 


Valaya Chetti. 




Thkdan. 


Valayakkkra. 




Thakkammar. 


Valayalkkkren. 




Thane. 


Valayan. 




Thkppumi Chetti. 


Valinchiyan. 




Tharakan Vellalam Kuru. 


Valiskr. 


B^ja. 

Rkju. 

Rkvary. 

Rkya Chetti Valaykk. 


Thattiyan. 


Vallan. 


Thkyan Chetti. 


Valursi. 


Thekkath Pillai. 


Valluva. 


Theki Thavi. 


Valluvan. 


Reddi. 


Theli Kan. 


Vambu Virayi. 


Rejuputhran. 


Therur Chetti. 


Vanakankli. 


Bogavarathiran. 


TheruvAn. 


Vanaram. 


Rbla Cherumaii. 


Th^vitissi. 


Vankkli. 


Rblan. 


Theyykdi Nambiar. 


Vannkn. 


Rbu. 


Theyya,nibkdi. 


Vannathkn. 




Thi KoUan. 


Vkni Charan. 




Thillara^Tn. 


Vanira. 




Thinavatintha. 


Vkniya Chetti. 




Thindakar. 


Vkniyan. 




Thinda. 


Vkniyar. 


Sakkkn. 


ThiperumkoUan. 


Vanni Chetti. 


Skmanthan. 


Thirukkal Dasi. 


Vanniyan. 


Sampattan. 


Thoramar Chetti. 


Vara Kurup. 


Sampila Nambikr. 


Thottiykn. 


Vara Parayan. 


Sankatakukaren. 


Thovam. 


Varara. 


Sanki Koran. 


Thukkiyer Jkthi. 


Vkriyar. 


Satkni. 


Thulu. 


Vkrpu Panikkran. 


Skthi. 


Thunnakkkren. 


Vasodar. 


S^niyan. 


Thuniir Chetti. 


Vastra Pattar. 


S6tti. 


Thuppan. 


Vattakkven. 


S^ttu Setti. 


Tiru. 


Vati Vkri. 


Shabara. 


Tirumalpud. 


Vatti Kurup. 


Shknan. 


Tbl. 


Vatuka. 


Shobar Malayalan. 
Sigodswad. 
Silpkskri. 
Sinkath. 


Tblan. 
Torayar Chetti. 


Vatukan. 

Vayanktan Chetti. 
V6dar. 
Velakkathalavan. 


Sitikan. 




Vfelan. 


Siva Hari. 




Vellala. 


Sivknkal Briihmin. 




VeUklan. 


Sivaykni. 
Sbnar. 


TTllar Kusavan. 


VeUknkur Tharakan. 


TJUkttil Nkyar. 


VeUodi. 



Digitized by 



Google 



57 



Veluthktan. 


Vinusha. 


Yadavkl. 


Velluva. 


Virava Chetti. 


Yalamar. 


Vethuri Cheruman. 


Vudayan. 


Yasunoki Mani. 


Vettila Chetti. 


Vupparava. 


Ykvkri. 


Vettu. 


Vur Kurumar. 


Yinadi. 


Vfettuvan. 


Vypara Chetti. 


Yerikalar. 


Vettuvan Kavuntan. 


Vyrkji. 


Ybji. 


Vilkiirup. 


Vyshambar. 


Yoonraku Vallar. 


Vila Chetti. 


Vysian. 




Villi. 


Vysyajini Chetti. 




Villur. 


Vythiyar. 




Vinnavar. 







Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



69 



Alphabetical List of Caste Names as entered in the Census 
Schedules of the various Provinces. 



The abbreriationB indicate tba names of the Tarions FroTiiices in which the Castes are fbund, dnu:— 

Ben. indicates Bengal. 
Ber. ,» Berar. 
M. .. Madras. 



Abdhlit 


CJ. 


Abhir 


N.W.P. 


AbMr 


. N.W.P. 


Aehitur 


Bom. 


Adfli 


• OP. 


Adhikari 


- Ben. 


Advichinchi - 


Bom. 


■ Bom. 


Adw4l 


CJ?. 


AgMntMdiyaa 


CJ. 


A^ani 


■ C.P., Ber. 


Agarwti 


• Bar. 


Agarwala • 


" Ber. • 


Ager - . -" . 


■ Bom. 




■ Ben., C J»., N.W.P. 


Aghori 


• C.P. 


^ . 


• C.P. 


A«uri 

Aherii - • 


• Ben. 
. N.WJ. 


Aj£t - - - ' • 


• Bom. 


Akaramfa^ • 


•Ber. / 


Akarmiuj^ . 


Bom. 


Alitkar 


• Bom. 


JOkari 


. Bom., CJ. 


AUenaTur 


■ B<Mn. 


Am&di 


. CJ. 




- Ben. 


AmM 


•' Bom. 


Amgoth 


- ap. 


Amniik 


. CJ. 


Andknri 


■ CJ. 


Arakh 


. N.WJ. 


Are-Eatikald- 


■ C J. 


Aroward or At6 


• C.P. 


Arwalli 


• Bom. 


Aaidi 


Bom. M« 


Assamese 


- Ben. 


Asnr - - - . 


- Ben. 


At&ri 


• Ber., Bom. 


Athnikar 


- Bom. 


Atith- 


- Ben. 


Audhalii 


- C.P. 


AadhiA 


. C.P. 


Aughar 
Avdasa 


- Ben.,C.P. 

- Bom. 


Ayawam 


• Berar. 



B. 



Badiik 


-. C.P. 


Bidari 


• Bom, 


B4d&ro9h • 


. N.WJ. 


Badhai 


- Bom< 


Badhak 


- C.P.,N.W.P. 


Bidi. 


. N.WJ. 


BMiphfU • 


. N.W.P. 


B^adi 


• Bom. 


Bagarwal 


. Ber. 


Baghwa 


. C.P. 


Bi^wia 
BaheM 


. Bom. 

- C.P., N.WJ. 


Baheliya 


- Ben., Ber. 


Bahrdpii 


- N.W.P. 


BahnmiH 


• Ber., Bom. 


Baidya 


• Ben. 


Bairigi 


• Ber., Bom., C.P. M. 


T 5747. 





Bairii 


- „ N.WJ. 


Baiti 


. Ben. 'M. 


Buj - 


- Bar. 


B^toia 


. Bar., fiom. 


B^jgi 


..N.W.?. 


B&kad 


• Bom. 


BaliM 


.;;cj.,$[.wj. 


Balgerballu . 


• Bom. 


Balingh • 


-.CJ. : 


Bilsantosh - 


. Bom. 


B&lwarasava • 


- Bom. 


B^wisaru . 


. Bom. 


Banbati 


- N.WJ. 


B4ndekar • . 


. Bom. 


B4ndh4ra . 


- Bom.,Bar. 


B&idi . .; 


-1 Bom,>J.W.I.. M. 


B&ngadi 


-„ Bom. 


Bangar 


• Bom. 


Bangi- 


. Ber. M. 


Baaj&ti 


- Ber., C.P, N W J., 




Punj. 1 


Banki 


• C.P. M. 


Banminas 


- N.W.P. 


Banpar 


. Ben. 


Bansfode 


- Ber. 


Bansphor 


- N.WJ. 


Bant - 


- Ben. 


Baochi 


- Bar, 


B^n& 


- N.W.1*. 


Barai- 


- CJ,il.W.P. 


Baredi 


- N.w.:t. 


Barethi 


- N.W.t. 


B&rew4r 


- CJ. 


Barg&h or Barg&hi • 


- C.P.,1J.W.P. 


Bargahat 


- C.P. 


Bargha 


- Ben. 


Bargi 


- N.W.P. 


B^hii 


:. N.WJ. 


Bdri . 


- Ben,,' Bom,, Ber.» 




C.P,,N.W.P, 


Birii' 


. N,W,t. 


Bixkir 


• Bom. 


Bamosankar • 


• Ben. 


B&rot 


• Bom. 


Barwi 


- N.WJ. 


Barw&: 


- N.WJ. 


Biai • 


- C.P. M. . 


BasaTeshwar - 


. Bom. 


Ba8de>Wl • • 


- C.P. 


Basod 


- Ber. 


Baser 


- C.P„N,WJ. 


Bisphor 


. C,P. 


Batar- 


- Ben. 


Bathua 


- Ben. 


Bathudi 


- Ben. 


B4tki- 


• Bom. 


Batt&i 


- Bom. 


Battlabasavi - 


- Bom. 


B4ucha 


- Bom. 


B&wane 


- Ber. 


Bdwilbudangiri 


- Bom. 


B&vraria 


- N.W,P. 


Bay&r 


- N.W.P. 


Be&- - - 


- CJ. 


Bedar 


- Ber,C.P. M, 


Bedi - 


- C.P. 


Bediya 


• Ben. 


BfihnA 


. N.W.P. 


Beldir 


• Punj., Bom,,ftBer., 




Ben.,CJ,,N.W.P. 




Digitized by VjOOQI 



60 



Belhi 

Bellir 

Benaudiya 

Bendnrft 

BenO) Benorei or Bednor 

Bengali 

Benhar 

Benito 

Beob&ri 

BeriA 

Bestar 

Bethrf 

Bh^bhm^ja - 

Bhadbbut 

Bbaddri 

Bbadri 

BhAdwa 

Bbagat 

Bbagtia 

Bhala 

Bb&ni 

Bbamte 

BbAmti 

Bbdmtia (Ucblg) 

BbiLnd 

Bbangid 

Bbdngiti 

Bbdnmati 

Bbansali 

Bb4ntd 

Bbinnkoti 

BbadsAr 

Bbar&di 

BbArati 

Bbardva 

Bharbbunja or BbunjwA 

Bbareria 

Bbarewa 

Bbaria • 

Bbartbari 

Bb^tbi 

Bbarti • 

Bbartia 

Bbarw&d » • 

Bbaskar 

Bbatangi 

Bbdtiil 

BbatsaU 

BbattJa ^ 

Bbavaya 

Bb4ygar 

Bhdvin 

Bhavnar 

Bbdvsdr 

Bbawaiya 

Bhelia 

Bbill .' 

Bbisti (Pakb&li) 

Bboer 

Bbondekar 

Bbop4 

Bborpi 

Bborwfi 

Bbotifi 

Bbrasbt 

Bhuimali - • 

Bbnjwa 

Bbulid 

Bbumik 

Bhunj 

Bbunjari 

Bbnnjua 

Bburjkantak - 

Bbtirtia 

Bbusri 

Bbutfi 

Bbntia 

Bidur 

Big6r - 

Bilwar or Belwari 



- CJ?. 
* Bom* 

- Ben. 

- C.P. M. 

- Ber. 

- Ben. 
. C.P. 

- C.P. 

. N.W.P. 
. N.W.P. 
" Bom. 

- C.P. 

- Ber., Bar., Bom. 

- Bom. 

- N.W.P. 

- C.P. 

- Bom. 

- N.W.P, 

- N.W.P. 

- Ben. 

- C.P. 

- Ber. 

- CP. 

- Bom. 

- Bom., Bar., Punj. 

- Bar. 

- Bom. 
. CJP. 

- Bom. 

- N.W.P. 

- Bom. 

- CP^Bar. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. ' 

. C.R, N.W.P., Punj. 

- N.W.P. 

- C.P. 

- N.W.P. 

- Bar., Bom. 

- N.W.P. 
. N.W.P. 

- Ben., N.W.P. 

- Bar., Bom. 

- Ben. 

• Bom. 

- Ben., Bom^ C.P., 

Bar., Punj. 

- Bom. 

• Ber. 

- Bom. 
Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 
Bar., Bom. 
Bar. 

• Bom. 
. Bar. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

Ber. 

C.P., Bom. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

N.WJ. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

CJP. 

Ben. 

N.W.P. 

N.W.P. 

N.W.P. 

N.WJP. 

N.WJ*. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

C.P. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 



Birgoria 

Birbor 

Biritii 

Birjbasi 

Birkat 

Bifibnoi 

Bog^ 

B(^i 

Bogsbi 

Bob^ri 

Bokkisb 

Bondila 

Bonii 

Boorwood 

Bor . 

Boral 

Bordbak 

Bona 

Hot - 

Boyar 

Brabmacbiri 

Brabmaksbatri 

Brabmanjani 

Brijia 

Budbudki 

BuUbar 

Buna - 

Bundkar 

Bunkar 

Burgand^ 

Burud 

Byadb 



c. 



Ch« - 

Cbain 

Cbakma 

Cbalkiir 

CbaUuk 

Cbalwidi 

Cbamar-julabi 

Cbamkatia 

Cbamtba 

Cbdmtkar 

Cbanak 

Cbandak 

Cbandani 

Cbanddr 

Cbanderiya 

Cbannainavar 

Cbapmal 

Cbapter 

Cbaptik^ 

Cbaraj 

Cb4ran 

Cbargewakkal 

Cbdrra 

Cb^rw^ 

Chisi 

Cbasadbopa 

Cbasati 

Cbiti- 

Cbatter 

Cbaturtb 

Cbaturtba 

Cbaudbari 

Cbaudiker 

Cbaudri 

Cbaubdn 

Cberenga 

Cberu 

Cbetijya 

Cbettekar 

Chettri 

Cbhaparband 

Cbbaru 

Cbbatrapori 



Ben. 

Ben. 

C.P. 

N.WJP. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

N.WJP. 

Bom. 

CJP. 

C.P. 

C.P. 

Bar. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

N.W.P. 

N.W.P. 

N.W.P. 

Beng. 

C.P., Bar. 

Bom. 

Ber. 



Bom. 

N.WJ. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

C.P. 

Ber., Bonu 

Ben. 



N.W.P. 

Ben. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. M. 

N.W.P. 

Bom., Bar. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Ber. 

C.P. 

Ber. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

Bar., Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

Ben. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ber.,C.P.,N.W.P. 

C.P. 

Ben.,,N.W.P. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom., N.W.P. 

N.W.P. 

Ber. 



Digitized by 



Google 



61 



Chhatri 


. Ber. 


Chhattri 


. N.W.P. 


Ghheri 


. N.W.P. 


Chhipd 


- C.P. 


Chhipi 


- C.P., N.WJP^ Ban 


Chik - 


- N.W.P^Beng. 


Chikabalki - 


- Bom. 


Chikurvmavar 


. Bom. 


Ghikw& 


- N.W.P. 


Chilg& 


. Bom. 


Chilwant or Selewant 


. Ber. 


Chipa- 


- Bom. 


Chipi- 


- Ber. 


Chipigar 


. Ben., Mad. 


Chipkar 


. Bom. 


Cbirdti 


. Bom. 


Chirim4r 


- N.W.P. 


Chitiri 


- Bom., C.P. 


Chitrakar 


- Ben. 


Chitrakithi . 


- Ber., Bom., C.P. 


Chitraknli • 


- Bom. 


Chodhri 


. Bar. 


Chodra 


- Bom. 


Chokhar 


- Bom. 


ChoonIM . 


. Bar. 


Chudagar 


. Bonu 


Chakar 


- Ben. 


Cbimade 


- Ber. 


ChimiLixauii • 


- Ber. 


ChuD&ri 


- Ben., Bom. 


Chnrhela 


. N.W.P. 


Chnriy&r ■ 


- C.P. 



Dabgar 

D£dilw&r 

Dadrii - 

Dafali 

D&gnchia 

Dah&it 

Dai - 

Daimanghi 

Dakhane 

Dakot 

Daler& 

Ddlia 

Dalai 

Dalwi 

Dalividi 

Damami 

Dandgid^ 

Dindi 

Dandii 

Dandig&n 

Dandfleni 

Dandwati 

D^at 

D&ngi 

D&ngre 

Dimgri 

D^mgar» 

D&nmar 

Daijee 

Darji- 

Darmin 

Dand 

BfMlw&r 
Daa4otfr 

D&BBT 

Dash^yant 

Dashdwat&ri 

Dasondi 

Dasri- 

Dass - 

Dasyamanbaggi 



Ber., Bom.« Bar., 

N.WJ., Punj. 
CJ?. 
CJP. 
Ben. 
Bom. 

Ben. 

Ben. 

Ber. 

N.WJ>. 

N.WJP. 

C.P. 

Ben. 

CJP. 

Bom., Bar. 

C.P. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

N.WJP. 

Ber., C.P. 

C.P. 

Bom. 

Ber., Bom. 

CP., N.W J. 

Ber. 

C.P. 

CJP. 

N.W.P. 

Bar. 

Bom. M. 

Ben., C.P., N.W.P., 

Pun. 
C.P. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
C.P. 

Bom., Ber. 
Ben. 
Bom. 



Dauri 

Davadnja 

Dayaniger 

Dayara 

Debgonia 

Dee86w&l • 

Deogarbia 

Deogu 

Deri - 

Deshadesbavali 

Deshbh^d&s - 

Deswil 

Deswili 

Dev£ng 

Devann 

Deyardy&mainavar 

Devdi 

Devidis 

DevU - 

Dewalwaru - 

Dewingulu • 

Dewdr 

Deyara 

Dbidbi 

Dbidi 

Dhai- 

Dbakalar 

Dhdkar 

Dhamalg^r 

Dhandbor 

Db&okd 

Dbank4r • 

Dbanoje 

Dbanpore 

Dbinukb 

Dbarbi 

bbiriwal 

Dbarkii* 

Db&wad 

Dbenur 

Dber- 

Dbimal 

Dbingar 

Dbirkdr 

Dbobi 

Dbodia 

DboU 

Dboondbii 

Dbor 

Dbowak 

Dboldboya - 

Dbuliya 

Dbulpivad - 

Dbuni 

Dbunia - 

Dbmiiya 

Dbori 

Dbnrii 

Dbnsar 

Digad 

Digambar 

Digrabti 

Diksbabalki - 

Diksbwant 

Dindalor 

Divar 

Divti- 

Dogg&l 



Donor 

Doliwini 

Domb&ri 

Dombidib 

Dongre 

Doria 

Dubla 

Duliya 

Dumil 

Dumir 

DuB&db 

Dusondbi 



Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
CP. 
Bar. 
CJ?. 
C.P. 
C.P. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
N.W.P. 
Ben., C.P. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
' Bom. - 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Ber. 
C.P. 
CJ*. 
Ben. 
Bar. 
Bom. 
Ben. 
Bom. 
Ber., C.P. 
Bom. 
N.W.P. 
Bom., Bar. 
N.WJ>. 
Ber. 
Ben. 
C.P. 
Ben. 

N.W.P., Pmi. 
C.P. 
Bom. 
Ber. 
C.P. 
Ben. 
N.W.P. 
N.W.P. 
C.P. 
Bom. 

Bom., C.P. 
Bar. 
Bom. 
N.W.P. 
Bom. 
Ben. 
Bom. 
N.W.P. 
N.W.P. 
Ben. 
C.P. 
N.W.P. 
Ber. 
Ber. 

C.P., Bar. 
C.P. 
Bom. 
Ber. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Ben. 
Ber. 
CJP. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Ber. 
Bom. 
Bar. 
Ben. 
C.P. 

C.P., N.W.P. 
C.P. 
N.WP. 



I 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



62 



Eimawara 
Etta or EtAW&ra 



Fakir ^ 



Oabit 

Gadadia 

Gadaj 

Gadariya 

Gaddi 

Gadelwa 

Gadherd 

Gadhri 

G&dri 

G&in - 

Gainthi 

Gajalw&r 

Gali&ra 

Gamela 

Gamit 

GMunnaik 

G&mta 

Gdmwakkal 

GanacMrja 

Gandelwaru 

Gandharba 

Gandh&ri 

GaDdharp 

Gaodhary 

G«ndhi 

Gandhila 

Oandhrap 

Gandkarwakkal 

Gindli 

Oanesh 

Gang&basi 

Oangapntr 

GaDgarwal 

Gangaunta 

Gantichor 

GaoU- 

Gaondi 

Gari - 

•Garoda 

G&rook 

•GArori 

Odrpagari 

Garrow 

Garude 

G&rudi 

Graudar 

Gdud6 and Mitbg&ud^ 

Gaul&n 

Gatdi- 

Gaundi 

Gaurid 

Gaurimakkal 

Garli- 

Gawdr 

Ghacha 

Gbidi 

Ghadsbi 

GbadTi 

Ghalia 

Gbanfode 

Ghantrd 

Gbarrdni 

Gharti, 

Ghariik 

Gha^ds 



Q. 



Ber. 
C.P. 



Ben., N.W J. 



Bom. M. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

N.W.P., Punj. 

CP. 

N.W.P. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

CP. 

CP. 

CP. 

Bom., Bar. 

N.W.P. 

Bar. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Ben. 

Ben., Bom. 

N.W.P. 

Bar. 

Ber., N.W.P., Pun. 

N.W.P., Puiy. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

CP. 

Ben. 

N.W.P. 

N.W J. 

Ber. 

Ben. - 

Bom. 

Bar. 

Ber. 

CP. M. 

Bom., Bar. 

CP. 

CJP. 

CP. 

Ben. 

Ber. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

CP. 

Bom. 

Bom., CP. 

CP. 

Bom. 

Bar. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Ber. 

CP. 

. N.W.P. 
. Ben. 

N.W.P. 

Bom. 



Ghasi 


- - Ben., Ber. 


Ghasia 


..CP. . 


GUlti 


- w Bom. 


Ghatole 


. Ber. 


Gbisfidi 


- Ber., Bom. 


Gbis&ri 


. CP. 


Ghogh 


. N.W.P. 


Ghogid 


. C J. 


Ghosi 


. CP.,N.W.,Panj. 


Gbumria 


- CJP. 


Ghusuria 


• Ben. 


Gidbidi 


• . Bom. 


Gidrd 


. CP. 


Gingra 


- CP. 


Girgiria 


. Ben. 


Giri - 


. . Ben. 


Girole 


. .. Ber. 


Goaiyad 


. . CP. 


GoftU 


- . N.W.P. 


Gojja 


- , Ben. 


Gojar 


- o Bom. 


GokAin 


N.W.P. 


Gokha 


. Beng.. 


Gola. 


• Bom. 


GolA- 


- Bar. 


Golak 


. Ber., CP. 


Golal- 


. . Ber. 


Golar 


. CP. 


Golawam 


. .^ Ber. 


Golkar 


. CP. " 


GoU . 


• c. Bom. » 


Gollah 


-oBen. M. 


Gondbali 


- Ber., Bom., C.P., 




Bar. 


Gongadik&r - 


- Bom. 


Gronrhi 


. Ben. 


Goon 


. ^ - Bar. 


Gooriar 
Gopa 


. Bar. 


. Ber., Bom., CP. 


Gop&lk&l^ . 


Bom. 


Gorakbndtb • . 


. - Bom. 


Gorcbfi - . 


- " N.W J. 


Gordha 


. Ben. 


Gorgew&r 
Gorkhit 


. CP. 


-. N.W.P., Punjab. 


GOTJ&P 


. CP. 


Gosai(Atit) - 


. Bar. 


Gosdvi 


- • Bom. 


G^sawi 


. Ber. 


GoBsain 


."Ben. 


Grotepbod 


- Ber. 


Gotepbor 


. . CJ?. 


Gowerwir 


. CJ. 


Gowndi 


- Bar. 


Gudegir 


• - Bom. 


Gudra 


.'CP. - 


Gujaratbi 


, Ber. ' 


Giyjar 


- ' Bom. " M. 


GujoriA 


."CP. « 


Gujrathi 
Gulgulia 


. Ber. 


. Ben. 


GuH - 


- Ben. 


Gulkari 


-Ber. 


Gunagi 


- • Bom. . 


Gunwale 


. Bom. 


Gurdo 


- Ber., CP. 


Gurarath 


. ' Bom. 


Gurav 


- Bom. 


Guria 


- CP.,N.WJ^. 


Gurkba 


. Ben. 


Gurung 


. Ben. 


Gurustbal 


- Bom. 



H. 



Habdra 

Hadibatri 

Hagtbadi 



- N.W.P. 

- . Ben. 
. Bom. 



Digitized by 



Google 



63 



Hajjam 
Hakar 

Hakikoraw • 
Halab 

• H&lakkigaad - 
HaUlkdor - 
Hilb&va 
Halbi - 
Halde 
Haldii 
Halepuk 

Halw&i 

Hamber 

Hanbar 

Handekar 

Handekorwat - 

Handenawar - 

Hander&wat * 

Handesuwat - 

Handewajir - 

Handlor 

Hangol 

Hannjardos&vir 

Hansi 

Hardfa 

Haridfa 

Harikantra 

Harsori 

Hasbibaggi - 

Haslor 

Hatg&r 

Hatkar 

Hattiyavar 

U^ydi 

Havnag6r 

Haw&li 

Hela • 

Helvi 

Helwar 

Hendre 

Heri - 

Hijda- 

HijrA. 

Hindustani • 

Hiremani 

HoUr t - 

Holi4- 

Holid&s 

HoMr 

Honnikula 

Hug&r 

HnlsTV&r 

Hurkii 



Idaiya 
Idar . 
Idiga- 
Ilg6r - 
Injhwar 
Irika - 



- N.W.P. 

- Ben. 

- -Bom. 

- Bom. 

• Bom. 

. N.W.P. M. 

- Bom. 

- Ber. 

- Ber. 

. N.WJ. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Ber., Bom., C.P., 

N.W.P. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Ben. 

- C.P. 

• Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bar. 

- Bonu 

• Bom. 

- Ber., Bom. 
' Bom., C.P« 

- Bom. 

- C.P. 

- Bom. • 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- N.W.P. 

• Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Ber. 

- N.W.P. 

- Ber., Bar., Bom. 

- C.P. 

• Ben., Ber. 

- -Bom. 

- 'Bom. 

- C.P. 

- Bom. 

- Baroda. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

• Bom. 

- N.W.P. 



C.P. 

Bom. 

CP. M. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

Ben. 



J. 



J&cbak 


- N.W.P. 


JUua 


- Bom. M. 


Jado - 


- Ber. 


Jag£ . 


- N.W.P. 


Jagiriagiuri • 


- Bar. 


Jaglaj 


- C.P. 


Jagwi 


- N.WJP. 


Jaiswal 


- Ber. 


Jaisw&r 


. Ber.,N.W.P. 


Jajak - 


- N.W.P. 



Jalgar 

Jalvekari 

Jambigir 

JiUnbn 

Jasondhi 

Jasw&l 

Jaulijawar 

Jawahari 

Jay&t - 

Jemadar 

Jethimai 

Jeti - 

Jetnr - 

Jhalo - 

Jhamr&l 

Jhara 

Jharbella 

Jhirekari 

Jhirl- 

Jhojha 

Jhutbai*ai 

Jingar 

Jir - 

Jiravat 

Jogi . 

Joh^ri 

Jorii - 

Joshi (Sariwd^) 

Josiah 

Juang 



K&ba . 

K^badnu 

Kabaliger 

Eaber 

Eabirpanthi - 

Kabutaria 

Kacher - . 

Kacharue 

Eiacheri 

£achh4r 

KiUMia 

Eachhwd 

Eachliiiji . 

EiLdar 

Kadbitdagi - 

Kadhar 

Kadia 

Eabal 

Ktak&di ^ . 

Kaik&A 

Eaikl&va 

Kiitar 

Eajarhati 

Kalal- 

K&lan 

Kalangd 

Ealanji 

Kalavant 

Eal&waot 

KaUwat 

Kflddsia 

Kaleri 

Kalg& 

Ealger 

Kalhaig&r 

EaUj&r 

Ealsutri 

Kal-waddar - 

Kamalbaggi • 

Kam41ia 

Kamalia, Kamti 



' Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
N.W.P. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Ber. 
Bom. 
Ben. 
Bar. 
Bom. 
Ben. 
Ben. 
C.P. 
C.P. 
C.P. 

Ber., Bom., C.P. 
Ber. 
N.W.P. 
C.P. 

Bom., Ber., Bar. 
Bom. 
Ber. 
Bom., CJP., Bar., 

Punj. M. 
Bom. 
N.W.P. 

Bom., e J., N.WJP 
C.P. 
Ben. 
Pun., Ben., C.P., 

N.W J. 



Bom. ' 
C.P. 
"Bom. • 
Bom. • 
Bom. 
Bom. 
N.W.P. 
Ben. 
CJP. 
N.WJ». 
'Bar., Bom. 
N.W.P. 
KW.P. 
Ben., Bom. 
Bom. 
N.W.P. 
Bar., Bom. 
Ben. 
Bom. 
Ber., C.P. 
CJP. 
Bom. 
Ben. 

N.W.P. M, 
Bom. 
C.P. 
CJ>. 
Ben. 

Ber., Bom. 
C.P. 
Bom. 
N.W.P. 
C.P. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 

Bom., Bar. 
Bom. 



M. 



M. 



I 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



64, 



Eamangftr * 

E^unar 

Eamarii 

K&n&thi 

Elamboh 

Elami 

Eamkar 

Eammara 

Kan - 

K&nada 

Eanadi 

Eananje 

Eanbi 

Kanchgfir 

Eanchan 

Kanchari 

Kandh 

E4ndivar 

Eandoi 

Eandoyee 

Kaner 

K&nga 

Kaogar 

Kdnhalepaik - 

Eanjar 

Kanj^ 

Kanjhar 

EankdU 

Eanphati 

KanpUt^ - 

Eanrerd 

KAnri 

Eans&ra 

Eansari 

K&ntbaggi 

Edpadi 

EAparii 

£apew&r or Eipti 

Kapole 

K&pri 

Eapuwara - . 

Earajg&r 

Earali 

Earanjkar 

Ear&r 

E&rek&r 

Karediir 

Earewakkal - 

Ekrfl 

tr^rimAn 

EATijari 

EarkjBnnnndi • 

EArmali 

Eamitak 

Karni 

Karol 

Earwal 

K&s&r or Easer& 

Easashi 
Easaondlian - 
Easban 
E^gar 

Eashik&padi - 
Eashmiri 
E^d 
Easondhan - 



Easta 

Easih 

Eatai 

Eatambn 

Ektiri 

Eater& 

Eatbak 

Eathgaria 

Edthi 

Eatbick 

Eatbilkar 

E&thodi 



N.WJP^ Pun. 
C.P. 


Eathy&ri 
Eati^ 


- 


N.WJ. 


Eatkari 


. 


Bom., CP., Bar. 


Eattiar 


• 


N.W,P., Pun. 


Eatwi 


. 


Ben. 




• 


Ben., N.W.P. 


Eaurai 


- 


C.P. M. 


Kawatg^r 
Eajasih (ui 


- 


C.P. M. 


Lspecified) 


Ben. 


EAjasthWamik - 


Bom. 


E^jat 


- 


Ber. M. 


EAyath 


- 


Ber. 


Eayeih 
Eela - 


• 


Bar., Bom. 


. 


Bom. 


Eeora 


. 


N.WJP., Punj. 


EhadiU 


. 


Ber. M. 


Ebadtyat^ 


- 


Ben. 


Ehadole 


- 


Bom. 


Ehadra or Ehodara - 


Bom. 


Ehigi 


- 


Bar. 


Ebaira 


. 


Bom. 


Ehairni 


- 


Bom. M. 


Kbairw^ 


• 


Ber., Punjab. 


Khairii 


. 


Bom. 


Eb&kbi 


• 


CP., N.W.P., Punj. 


Eh^ob 


- 


Bom. 


Ebalam 


. 


Ber. 


Ehaldshi 


. 


Bom. 


Eb%ft 


. 


N.W.P. 


KblLlpo 


. 


Bom. 




. 


N.W.P. 


Ehamaru 


. 


C.P. 


Ebambu 


. 


Bar., Bom. 


Ehandekar 


. 


Ben. 


Ehandelwal 


- 


Bom. 


Ebandwal 


- 


Bar., Ber. 


Ebangfir 


• 


C.P., N.W J. 






C.P. 


Ebanjhar 


. 


Bar. 


Ebanta 


• 


C.P. 


Ebaparia 


• 


Ber. 


EhadMli 


. 


Bom., Ber. 


Eharak 


. 


Ben. 


Ebarkatd 


. 


Bom. 


Eharot 


. 


N.W.P. 




- 


Bom. 


Eharuli 


m 


Bom. 


Ebarura 


. 


Bom. 


Eharvi 


. 


N.W.P. 


Ehirwi 


• 


C.P. M. 


Ehas- 


. 


Bom. 


Ebassia 


. 


Bom. 


Eh&t 


• 


Ben. 


Ebatbe 


. 


N.WJ. 


Eb&ti 


. 


Ben. M. 


Ebattia 


. 


N.WJP. 


Ehattri 


• 


N.WJ». 


Ebay^s 


. 


Ber., B9m., CJ., 


Ehaw& 


- 


N.W.P., Bar. 


Ebajar6 


- 


Bom. 


Ehed^wal 


• 


Ber. 


Ebelta 


• 


Bar. 


Ebetauri 


• 


Bom., N.W J. 


EhiUuri 


. 


Bom. 


Khbbtpaz 
Ehodai 


- 


Ben., Punjab. 


- 


Ber., Bom. 


Ehoje 


- 


N.W.P. 


Khokil 


- 


Ber. 


Khoria 


. 


Ben. 


Khnmkhumii 


Ber. 


Ebyen 


- 


Bom. 


Eiliket 


• 


Bom. 


Eillmalainawar 


Bom. 


Eir . 


• 


N.W.P. 


KirAd 


• 


C.P., N.W.P. 


Eiradi 


• 


C.P. 


EidLr 


• 


Bar., Bom. M. 


Eis&n 


. 


Ben. 


Kisban 


. 


Ber. 


Eishanpancbi 


Bar., Bom. 


Eodag 


- 



N.WJP. 
C.P. 
Bom. 
Ber. 
N.WJP.. 
Ben. 
C.P. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 

Ber., Bom. 
C.P., N.W J., Punj. 
N.W.P. 
Ben. 
Ben. 
C.P. 

Bar. / 

Ber. 
-C.P. 
N.W.P. 
Ben. 
N.W.P. 
N.WJ>. 
C.P. 
Bar. 
N.W.P. 
C.P. 
Bom. 
Bar. 
Bom. 
Bar., Bom. 



M. 



Ben. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Ben. 

Ber., C.P., N.W.P., 

Bom. 
Ben. 
Ben. 
Bom. 

Bom., Bar., N.W.P. 
Bom. 
N.WJP. 
N.WJ. 
Ben. 
Ben. 
Ben. 

Bom. M^ 
Bar. 
Ben. 
Ben. 
Bar. 
Ben. 

C.P., N.W.P. 
Ben. 
N.WJP. 
Bom. 

Bar., N.W.P. 
Ber. 
Bar. 
Beng. 
Ben. 
Bom. 
N.W.P. 
Ben. 
Bom. 
N.W.P. 
Ben. 
N.W.P. 
Ben. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
C.P. 
Bom. 
Ber. 
CP. 
N.W.P. 
Ben. 
Ben. 
Bom. 



Digitized by 



Google 



65 



Kodmal 

KohU or Eohri 

Eokani 

Kdlilpiiri 

Kolgi 

Kolghi 

Eolh&ti 

Eolk&r 

KolU 

Komirpaik • 

Komti 

Eondar 

KoD^gand 

Kongi 

Konkani (unsp.) 

Eora- 

Korag 

Eoral 

Eoranga 

Eorchar 

Koraar 

Koryi 

Xorwa 

Ko6k&ti 

Eotal 

EoOmali 

Kot&n 

Eoteg£r 

Kotewakkal - 

Kotwilia 

Kotw&r 

Kshatri 

Eshatria 

Eabsakatri - 

Knchia 

Knchni 

Endwakkal - 

Kuk^a 

Kuki- 

Kuli (unsp.) - 

Knlmar 

Eulsatri 

Eulw&di 

Emntowfimi - 

Eumbi 

Enmbhk&r - 

EoindLiyat 

Enmti 

Ennai 

EunchbandhiiL 

Eiinchg6r 

Eunchi-korvi - 

Eonchgiwakkal 

Eundera 

Enner 

Eonjra ^ - 

Eunkumdrayid 

Ennknmg&r • 

EaralS 

Euramw&r 

Eurar 

Enravar 

Enrbar 

Eurchi 

Eorchuria 

Eurjakar 

Eurmetia 

EuTsdle 

Eurak 

Eurvinshetti - 

Eurwfil 

Eusfl 

Enshti 

Edta - 

KtLZAgit 



Labina 
Labhana 



* Ben. 
. CJP. 

- Bar. 

- N.W.P. 

- Bom. 

- Bar. 

- Ber., Bom. 

- Bom. 

- C.P. 

- Bom. 

- Bom., C.P., Bar. 

- CP. 

- Bom. 

* Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Ben. M. 

* Bom* 

* Ben. 

- Ben. 
« Bom. 

- Bom. 
•> Bom. 
^ Ben. 

- CP. 

* Ben. 

- N.W.P. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. M. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- N.W.P. 

- Bar. M. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- CP. 

- CP. 

* Bom. 

- CP. 

- Ben. 

- Bom. M. 

- Bom. 

- Ber. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

. N.WJ. 

- N.W.P. 
. CP. 

- Ben. 

- Ben. 

- N.W.P. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

. N.W.P.,CP. 

. N.WJP. 

- Ben., N.WJP., Punj. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- CJ*. 

- Ben. 

- CP. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 
. CP. 

- Ber. 

- Ben. 

- Bom. 

- CJP. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- N.W.P. 

- N.W.P. 

- N.W.P. 



Bom., Punj. 
Ben. 



L&d • 


• 


«• 


• 


Bom., Bar. 


Lahariya 


• 


-• 


• 


Ber. 


Laheri 


• 


- 


. 


Ben. 


Lahgeri 


- 


. 


• 


CP. 


Lakeri and Ijikhin 


. 


• 


Bom. 


Lakhari 


m 


. 


• 


Ber. 


Lakher& 


m 


• 


• 


CP., N.WP. 


TjAhviii 


. 


• 


. 


Bar. 


L^aadar 


- 


. 


- 


Bom. 


Lamto 


. 


• 


• 


Bom. 


Lamechli 


. 


. 


• 


CP. 


Ltaii 


- 


^ 


• 


CP. 


L&iy'il 


- 


• 


- 


CP. 


Lankek&r 


- 


. 


• 


Bonw 


Lar . 


m 


• 


• 


Ber. 


Ldthia 


. 


• 


• 


Bom. 


Ithw&Di 


. 


• 


. 


Bar. 


Lawait 


. 


• 


* 


Ben. 


Lepcha 


- 


• 


• 


Ben. 


Let - 


m 


• 


, 


Ben. 


Limbu 


M 


m 


• 


Ben. 


Ung^t 


- 


. 


- 


CP. 


Lodhil 


- 


• 


• 


Punj.9 Bom., Ben.. 
CP., N.W.P. 


Lokb^i 


- 


«• 


. 


Bom. 


Lokwali 


. 


- 


- 


Bom. 


Loniri 


- 


- 


-• 


Ber., Bom. 


Londluiri 


> 


m 


■• 


CP., Bom, Ber. 


Loue - 


. 


• 


• 


Ber. 


Lorhi 


. 


m 


. 


CP. 


Luhedi 


- 


•* 


• 


N.W.P. 


Lnnia or Nunia 


m 


• 


CP. 


Lusbai 


- 


- 


- 


Ben. 



Macbherfi 

M&chhi 

MachnUQc •• 

Machna 

Madder 

M^r 

Mddgi 

Madhige 

Madbw^ 

Madibannadavar 

MiLdkar 

Madras! 

Madwadagi - 

Mahi-Brahman 

Mab&devia 

Mahajan 

Mab^i 

Mabanti 

Mabdrdni 

Mabird&s or Holidas 

MabiH 

Mabor 

Mahr& 

Mabratta 

Mairdl 

Maisri 

Maiti - 

Majhia 

Makbanii 

M&Ia- 

Mdladkar 

Malawam 

Malbagi 

Maler 

Malgar 

Mali&l 

Maliya 

Malpabaria - 

Milsbi 

Malgar 

Malvi 

Maly&r 

Mana 



N.W.P. 

Bom., Bar., Pniij. 

CP. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

CP. 

Ber. 

CP. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ben., Bom., Ber. 

Bom. 

N.WP. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

CP. 

Ben., CP. 

CP. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

N.W.P. 

N.W.P. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Ben. 

CP. 

N.WP. 

CP. M. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. M. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

CP. 

CP. M« 



I 4 



Digitized by 



Google 



66 



Manbhao 

Miahh&a 

Minbh&v 

Manchalor 

Manchi 

Mandai 

Maogar 
M&Dgela 
Manggarodi 
M&igG&rudi. 
Mang Jalvekari 
Mani&i or Maoeri 
Manibagi -^ 
Manibar 
Manipuri 
Minjhi 
Mankar 

Mannepd, or Mannepaw&r 
Mardl 
Maritb& 
Maratbi 
. Mardania - • 

Mirer 
Markande 
Mamaik 
M&ru 

Mampati - -«> 

Mfiryfidi 
Marwadi 
Marwari 

M&igar 

Mathil 

Mathpati 

Matia 

Matibansi 

Matiyi 

Matiyal 

Mech 

Medar - % 

Medari 

Megbwil 

Meghwfir 

Megw&r 

Mebt&r 

Melp&vad 

Melsakri 

Men& 

Mep • 

Mer - - - 

Merew&r^ 

Mes - 

Mediri - 7, 

Me^gfii 

Metri 

Mew&da 

Mewi-feuKMsh - 

Mew^ti 

Mb&- 

Mibtar 

Mim4r 

Minameo 

Mingal 

Mir - 

Mirdhd - r 

Mitkari 

Mochi 

Mocbi 

Modb 

Modia 

Modkio* 

Mog£r 

Mobanta ■: 

Mokbia 

Mond 

Mooddiar 

MoriLya 

Morgib or Madargdn - 

Morung - - 



• Ber. 

• C.P. 

•^ Bom.|Bar. 

- Bom. 

• Bom. 
•^ Beng. 

- Ben. 
•^ Ben. 
•^ Bonu 

- Ber. 

• Bom.- 

- Bom. 

• Bom.y Ber. 
► Bom. 

• N.W.P. 

- Ben. 

• Ben.^N.W.P. 

• Ber. • • 

- C.P. 

- Bom.,C.P. 

«^ Bom.9 C.P., Bar. 

• Ber. 

• Bom« 

- Bom. 

• Ben. 

• Bom. 

- C.P. M. 

• C.P. 

• Bom« M. 

- Ber. 

- Ber. 

• Bom. 

- Bomr 

. C.P. M. 

- Bom. 

• Ben. 

- Ben. 

- C.P. M. 

• Ben. 

• Beng, 
•-, Bom^ 

. CJP. M. 

• Bom. 

- Bar. 

- C.P. 

- Ben., C.P. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bom., Bar. 

- N.W.P., Punj. 

- Bom. 
. C.P. 

- Bom. 

- Bom«| Bar. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- Bar. 

. N.W.P. 

. N.W.P. 

- Bar. 

- N.W.P. 

- N.WJP. 
. N.W.P. 

- Bom. 

• Bom., Bar. 

- C.P. 

- Ber. 

. Punj.,C.P.,N.W.P., 
Bar. M. 

- Punj., Ber., Bom. M. 

- Bar. 

- Ben. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. M. 

- Ben. 

- Ben. 
Bom. 

- Bar. 

- Bom. 
. C.P. 

- Ben. 



MowAr 


M 


.^ 


CJP. 


Mtbgdvde 


^. 


•. 


Bom. 


Mudelliyar - 


i- 


• 


Ber. 


Mndliir 


• 


« 


Bom. 


Mudliyifr 
Mudv&d 


« 


•- 


C.P. 


• 


•. 


Bom. 


Mugli 


... 


• 


C.P. 


Mukhari 


• 


^ 


Ben. M. 


Mukri 


%, 


• 


Bom.- 


Mullick 


^ 


^ 


Ben.. 


Monarwar 


• 


« 


Ber. 


Munda 


.*» 


.»^ 


Ben. - 


Mannnrknla - 


. 


. 


Bom. 


Munurwam - 


« 


« 


Ber. 


Mnpan or Mupnir 


.. 


- 


C.P. 


Mnr&i 


.. 


^ 


N.WJ. 


Murai or Mnr&ya 


^ 


.. 


Ber., Bom., C.P. 


Murali 


« 


• 


Ben. 


Mario 


n. 


• 


N.W.P. 1 


Murg 


^ 


^ 


Ben. 1 


Murbd 


^ 


«, 


C.P. 


Mariyari 


« 


» 


Ben. 


Mormi 


• 


• 


Ben. 


Mosabri 


• 


. 


N.WrP. 


Mtisari 


«. 


• 


C.P. M. 


Mnsela 


• 


«. 


N.W.P. 


Mnski 


• 


• 


Bom. 


Mustig^r 


«. 


^ 


Bom. 


Mutar^'alti . 


« 


^ 


C.P. 


MutriUA . 


• 


» 


C.P. M. 


Mntratstt 


• 


. 


Ber. 


Muttinkiqjii . 


* 


• 


Bom# 



N. 



Nadd&f 

N&di- 

N&dia 

Nidor 

N&dwakkal 

Naga- 

Nigar 

Nagar 

Nagaram 

N^lik 

Ndgori 

N%^ 

Nagwat 

Ntidn 

N4ik (Telugu) 

Naikwadi 

Naikwara 

Naiya 

Ndiyar 

Najjar 

N&Iband 

N&naksb&bi 

Nanaksbfii 

Nandora 

Naor& 

Napit 

Nargbarii 

Narsinbpudb 

Ndrvekio: 

Nat - 

N&tak 

NW - 

Naugre 

N&yak or N£ik, or Niikada 

N&yakdi 

NAyar 

Neemi 

Negp&tar 

Nepali 

Netkani 

Newar 

Niari& 

Nij&ma 



r N.WJP. 

9. Bom« M. 
Bonu 
Bom« 
Bom*. 
Ben. M« 
N.WJ. 
Ben., J3ar. 
C.P. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Bom. 
Ber. 

Bom.,C.P. M. 
Ben., C.P. 
Ber. 
Ber. 
Ben. 
C.P. 
N.W.P. 
N.WJP. 
Bom« 
Bar. 
Bar. 
C.P. 
N.WJ. 
C.P. 
Bar. 
Bom. 
Punj,, N.W.P., Ben., 

Bom., Bar., C.P. 
N.W.P. 
N.WJP. 
Ber. 

Bom., N.W.P. 
Bar. 

Bom. M. 
Bar. 
N.W.P. 
Ben. 
C.P. 
Ben. 
N.W.P. 
Bom. 



Digitized by 



Google 



67 



Nikhaii 

Niliri (Nilgiff) 

NQkaot 

Nimari 

Nirali 

Niduijan 

Nirmohi 

Nohadanda - 

Nolid 

Nombar 

Noni& 

Nnnerfi 

NiiniTar 
Norasivir 



Ben. 

Bom., 0-P. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Ber. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

Ben. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

N.WJ?. 

N.W.P. 

Ben. 

Bom. 



Odh . 




• 


• 


. 


Bar. 


Odiaor 


Od 




. 


- 


Bom.,Pai^ 


Qjhi- 






- 


. 


Ber. 


Oomad 






- 


- 


Bar. 


Qraon 






. 


- 


Ben. 


Ore&- 






- 


■ 


N.W.P. 


Orh . 






- 




N.W.P. 


Orha. 






- 




Ben. 


Ostam 






- 




Bom. 


OSWBI 






. 




Ber. 


Oswil 






• 




Bar. 


Otiri- 






- 




Ber., Bom. 



PAb . 

Pabia- 

Padalor 

Padam8&li 

Padiy&r 

Pads^ 

Padti- 

Pad^rflbaggi - 

Padwalki 

Pi 

Pa 

PahAr 

Pahari 

Paheri 

Pahri or Parahia 

Ptfk - 

Pailw&n 

Pairagb 

Puane 

PakhiH 

PAkhandi 

PflewAr 

Pallar 

PalUwAl 

Palott 

PadW 

Pin&i 

PanbbaiA SinghAria - 

P&acba 

Pancbikshari- 

PancWa 

Pancbam ^ - 

Pancbapntri - 

PAncbkalsi and ChArkaki 

Pancboli • 

Pandari 

Pandit 

Pandr& 

Pandram 

Pangol 

T&agal 

Panjnigar 

Y 6747. 



C.P. 

C.P. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

Ben., Ber. 

C.P., N.WJP. 

N.W.P. 

Ben., C.P. 

Bom. 

Beng. 

Ber. 

Bar. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

C.P. 

Bar. 

N.W.R 

C.P. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

Bar. M. 

Bom. 

Ber., Bom., C.P. 

Ber. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom., Bar. 

Beng. 

Ben. 

C.P. 

C.P. 

Ber. 

C.P., Bom. 

Bom. 

C.P. 



Pannikan 

Panwarii 

PAradhi 

ParaiyAchi or ParAcbi 

Parambans - 

Parambansa - 

Parbhti 

Parbhu-KAjastb 

Parbbu-PAtAn^ 

Pardesbi 

Pardesi 

PArdbi 

Paria- 

Pariab 

Parimalbaggi - 

Parith 

Pariwar 

Paijapat 

Parki 

ParokbA 

ParorA 

Parsai 

ParwAri 

PAsbi 

PasiA- 

PatabrA 

PataH 

PatArA 

PAtar- 

Patarija 

Patel - 

Patella 

PAtbarvat 

PAtbarwat - 

Patbrot 

Patburi 

Patial 

Pator 

PatrA 

PateAli 

PattiAr 

Patuni 

Patoria 

PatvegAr 

PatwA 

Patwar 

Patwi 

PawAya 

PeUe - 

PendbAri 

Perani 

Perki 

Pbanadi 

PbAnae-PArdbi 

Pbarjan 

PbnUri or Hngar 

PincbAti 

PingW 

PjigArA 

PinjAri 

Pillai- 

PiUe . 

Pombi 

Ponwar 

Porwar 

Pradban 

PudwAI 

PujAri 

Pui^abi 

Pnra - 

Purabbaia 

Poran 

Pnrbbaya 

Purbia 

Purwal 

Putwargi 



C.P. 

Ben., N.W,P. 

Bar. 

C.P. M. 

C.P. 

Ber. 

Ber., Bom., CP. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Ber., C.P., Bom. 

N.W.P. 

CP. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Ber. 

N.WJ. 

CP. 

N.W.P. 

N.W.P. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

N.W.P. 

Ben. M. 

N.W.P. 

N.W.P. 

Ber. 

CP. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

CP. 

Ber. 

Ben. 

Ben. 



M. 



CP 

Bom. 

N.W.P 



N.W.P. 

Bom. 

CP., N.W.P., Bar. 

Ben. 

Ber. 

Bom. 

CP. 

Bom., Ber. 

Bom. 

Ber., CP. 

Ber. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

CP., Bar. 

Bom. 

Bets M. 

Bom. 

Bom., Bar. 

Ber. 

Ber. 



Bom. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Ber. 

N.W.P. 

Bar. 

Bom. 



Digitized by 



Google 



68 



Bab&ri 

Rachhbaiidhi& 

Bdchwdr 

Badha 

R^ - 

Baidas 

Rij - 

Bajbhar 

R&jbhara 

Rajbhat 

IUjdh4ri 

Rajjbar or Lajhar 

Rajknmar 

Raju - 

Bamaiy^ 

Bamimandi - 

Bam4wat 

Ramjani 

R^oshi 

R&mosi 

Rdmpanthi 

R&msanehi 

Rdne-^ 

Rang4ri 

Rang&8w4ini - 

Rangrez 

Rangwa 

Ranmall 

Rasot- 

Rastogi 

Rathi- 

Raihor 

Ridt- 

Rautia 

Raw&- 

R&wal 

Raw4l 

Rawalilb 

Rdwat 

Rawat 



Reddi 

Rede - 

Redkd 

Rehti- 

Rem - 

Reshamgar 

Reve - 

Rew^ri 

Riwdri 

Roghangar 

Ronid 

Ror - 

Ror^ - 

Rorh- 

Rongrej 



- Bom., Bar. 

- Bom. 

- Bom. 

- N.W.P. 

- CP. 

- N.WP. 

- N.W.P. 

- N.WP. 

- CJP., N.W.P.,Pun. 

- C.P., N.W.P. 

- Bom. 

- N.WP. 

- Bom. 

- CP. 

- N.W.P. 

- Ben. M. 

- N.W.P. 

- C.P. 

- C.P. 

- N.W.P. 

- Bar. 

- Ber., Bom., C.P. 

- C.P. 

- C.P. 

- Ber. 

- Ber., Bom., C.P. M. 

- N.W.P. 

- N.W.P.,Pun. 

- Ben. 

- Bom. 

- Ber. 

- N.W.P. 

- Ber., Pun. M. 

- Ber. 

- Ber. 

- Ben. 

- N.W.P. 

- Bom., Punj. 

- Bom. 

- Bar., Bom. 

- Bom. 

- C.P., Pun. 

- Ben. 

- Ber.,C.P. M. 

- Ber. 

- C.P. 

- N.W.P. 

- C.P. M. 

- N.W.P. 

- Ber. 

- C.P. 

- N.W.P. 

- N.W.P. 

- N.W.P. 

- N.W.P., Pun. 
. N.W.P. 

- N.WJP. 

- Bar. 



S. 



S&balia 

S^wiar 

S&dhooB of Dheds 

S^uilhti 

Sagari& 

Sagirdpesba - 

Sabana 

Saibar 

Saikalgar 

Sain - 

Sais - 

Saivi- 



Bom. 

Bom. 

Bar. 

Bom., C.P., Bar. M. 

Bom., Bar. 

Ben. 

N.W.P. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

C.P. M. 



Sajind 

Sajjan 

Sal4t - 

Saltankar 

SAlwi 

Sdmaiii. 

Samanta 

Samer^ya 

Sampberija - 

Samsbil 

Samv^ 

San^dia 

San^- 

Sangar 

Sangb^ 

Saogtar&sb - 

Sani - 

Sankhari 

Sann&sbettar - 

Sansi^ 

Sdntdl 

Sany^ 

Saont 

Saper^ 

Sapliger 

S6pn4 

Sapola 

Sar^bu 

Sar4nia 

Sardogi 

Sarekari 

Sargard 

Sarode 

Sarup 

Sat^ - 

Satarkar 

Satbaw&rd 

Sathwdrd 

Saudar 

Savara 

Sawardi 

Sejna 

Sejw^ 

Sen - 

Sengarb 

Sengdiyir or Cbag-diyar 

Setwal 

Setwdr 

Shakta 

Shenwa 

Sberugar 

Shetti 

Shettigdr 

Sbikari 

Sbikalgar 

SbUbalki 

Sbilwant 

Sbimpi 

Sbinde 

Shisbdgar 

Sbivabhakta - 

Shiy4cbarya - 

Shivasamsbetti 

Sbivasw&ni - 

Sbivaw&nshi - 

Sbivd& 

Sbivjdti 

Shivjogi 

SbiYB^ 

Shivsammati - 

Sbodigar 

Sbrimal 

SbrimiUi 

Sbudir or Sbudrapaik 

ShukU 

Sbumaik 

Siddapobori - 

Siddi (Mar&tha) 

Sidbira 

Sikalgar 

SikligEtf 



Bom. 

C.P. 

Bom., Bar. 

Bom. 

Bar. 

Bom. 

Ben. M. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bar. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

N.W.P. 

N.W.P. M. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

C.P., N.WJP. 

Bom. 

C.P. M. 

Ben. 

N.W.P. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

N.W.P. 

C.P. M. 

Bom. 

Ber., C.P. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

Ber. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bar. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ben. M. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

N.W.P. 

C.P. 

Ber. 

C.P. 

Ber. 

N.W.P. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. M. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom., Bar. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

N.W J., Pun. 

Ber. 

Bar. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

CP. 

Ben., Bar., Ber. 

C.P. 



Digitized by 



Google 



69 



SO&wat 

Silingigaad 

Simpi 

Sindhu 

Sindhwa 

Singrahil 

Singrar 

Sinw^ 

Sipti - 

Siwane 

Soiri - 

Solaha 

Solanki 

Somosi 

Somali 

Somshetti 

Somwanshi 

Son - 

Sonbar 

Soni - 

Sonjhara 

Sorathiyd 

Sor&ti 

Sowar 

Sthanik 

Stid - 

Sudgadsidh 

Suji-aj 

Sukiar 

SuliiL- 

Sunawar 

Sundi 

Snnkar 

Sunkar 

Snnnyasi 

Supach 

Sorahiya 

Suratwala 

Surggibi^gi 

Susondhi 

SatArbaggi 

Sutrashahi 



Taala - 

Taddoder 

Tadsalvar 

Tadvi 

Tagara 

Ti^ankar 

Tak&ri or Taksali 

Takarkar 

Talavid 

Talw^ 

Tamaria 

Tambalu 

T^bat 

Tambatkar 

Tamber& 

TAmboli 

Tamher^ 

Tamil 

Tamti 

Tarikaah 

Tarkihfc 

T4ru - 

Tarwarii 

Tawaif 

Telangi 

Telinga 

Tengin-Diyar or H^lepaik 

Th4kar 

ThikuT 

Thakur 

Thioidpati 



C.P. 

Bonu 

Ber, 

Bom., Pun. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

Ber. 

Bar. 

C.P. 

Ber. 

N.W.P. 

C.P. 

Ber. 

C.P. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

Bom. 

Bar. 

C.P. 

Bar. 

Bom.* 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ben., C.P., Punj. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

Beng. 

C.P. 

Ben. 

C.P. M. 

C.P. 

N.W.P., Ber. 

Bar. 

N.W.P. 

Ben. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

N.W.P. 

Bom. 

Ben. 



Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Bom., C.P. 

Ber. 

Bar. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

C.P. 

Bom., Bar. 

Ber. 

C.P. 

Bom., N.W.P., Bai-., 

Punj. 
N.W.P. 
Ben. 
N.W.P. 
N.W.P. 
N.W.P. 
Bom., Punj. 
N.W.P. 
N.W.P. 
Bom. 
Ben. 
Bom. 

Bom., Punj. 
N.W.P. 
Ber. 
CJ?. 



ThiLpatkari 


. 


- 


- 


C.P. 


Thappa 


- 


. 


- 


Ben. 


Th&rii 


. 


. 


• 


N.W.P. 


Tharu 


• 


• 


. 


Ben. 


ThatherA 


• 


• 


. 


N.W.P., Pun. 


Thori 


- 


. 


- 


Bom., Bar., Punj 


Thoti 


• 


» 


. 


Ber. M. 


Thuria 


. 


. 


. 


C.P. 


Tigler 


. 


. 


. 


Bom. 


Tikayat 


. 


. 


. 


Ben. 


Tiliri 


. 


. 


. 


Bom. 


Tilgdr 


. 


. 


. 


Bom., N.W.P. 


Tilole 


. 


« 


. 


Ber. 


Tilvi . 


• 


. 


. 


Bom. 


Timalia 


- 


. 


_ 


Bom. 


Tior 


. 


. 


. 


C.P. 


Tipperah 


. 


. 


• 


Ben. 


Tirgar 


- 


- 


- 


Bom., N.W.P. 


Tirmalle 


. 


. 


. 


C.P. 


TirmalU 


- 


. 


• 


Bom. 


TirumaK 


. 


. 


- 


Ber. 


Tieghare 


. 


. 


. 


Ber. 


Tivti - 


. 


. 


. 


Bom. 


Tiyar 


- 


- 


<■ 


Bom. 


Togati 


- 


- 


- 


Bom. 


Tolgaud 


- 


- 


- 


Bom. 


Totgar 


- 


- 


- 


Bom. 


Toti - 


- 


. 


- 


C.P. M. 


Tragila 


- 


. 


- 


Bom. 


Trigal 


- 


- 


- 


Bom. 


Tsakala 


- 


. 


- 


C.P. 


Tulabhina 


- 


- 


. 


Ben. 


Tulwar 


- 


• 


. 


Bom. 


Tunkar 


. 


. 


. 


Ber. 


Turaha 


- 


- 


• 


Ben. 


Turhd 


- 


. 


- 


N.W.P. 


Tun (Torid) 


- 


- 


- 


N.W.P. 


Turi - 


. 


- 


• 


Bom., Ben. 


Turkar 


- 


- 


• 


Bom. 



D. 



Uchalia 

Udisi 

Umar 

Vn&yi 

Upniger 

Uppara 

Uriya 

Utiijer 



Bom. 

Bom., C.P. 
Ber. 
N.W.P. 
Bom. 
C.P. M. 
Ben. M. 
Bom. 



M. 



V. 



Vaidti 

Yaishnao 

Vaishya 

Vaisya 

Valvi 

Ydnsphbrft 

V^yak 

Velaiyan 

Vellila 

Veragi 

Vetakar 

Vibhuti 

Vidur 

Vir - 

Virakta 

Yirbbadra 

Virsbaiv 

Vitholia 



M. 



Bom., CP. 

C.P. 

Ber. 

Beng. 

Bar. 

Bar. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

C.P. 

Bar. 

C.P. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Bom. 

Bom. 



M. 



K 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



70 















WarU 








w. 






Wastrada 
Wasndeo 


Waddar 


. 


- 


- 


Ber., Bom., C.P. 


Wasuden 


Wadewir 


- 


- 


. 


C.P. 




Watdri 


W4dh61 


- 


- 


- 


Bar. 




Watkari 


W&di- 


- 


- 


- 


Bom., 


Bar. 


Watwdl 


Widkar 


- 


- 


- 


Bom. 




Wdyadi 


WWwal 


- 


. 


- 


Bom. 






Waenjas 


- 


. 


- 


Ber. 






WigW 


- 


- 


- 


Ber.,. 


Bom. 




Wagher 


- 


- 


- 


Bar. 






W^hree 


- 


- 


- 


Bar. 




Y/S.kHlnr 


W^hri 


- 


- 


- 


Bom. 




Ydkar 


Wdjantri 


- 


- 


- 


Bom. 




Yakka 


W41ekar 


- 


. 


- 


Bom. 




Yeligar 
Yelmar 


Walshil 


- 


- 


- 


Bom. 




Wdlum 


- 


- 


- 


Bar. 




Yemalor 


Wflvi 


- 


. 


. 


Bom. 






Wang4r 


- 


. 


- 


Bom. 






•Wani- 


- 


. 


- 


Ber. 






Wania Northern 


. 


- 


Bar. 






WaDsphoda 


- 


- 


- 


Bom. 






WanziW 


- 


. 


- 


Bar. 




Zargar 


W&rik 


- 


- 


. 


Bom. 




Zdrola 


Warlawiru 


- 


- 


- 


C.P. 




Zingar 



Bom. 

Bom. 

Ber. 

Bom. 

C.P. 

C.P. 

Bom. 

Bar. 



Bom. 

Bom. 

Ben. 

Bom. 

Bom. 

Bom. 



z. 



N.W.P., Pun. 

Bar. 

C.P. 



Digitized by 



Google 



71 



List of Occupations of Males. 





Ordbs I. 




Sub-Order I. 


Sub-Order n. 


Province. 


(1.) 

avu 

Service. 


(2.) 

Government 
Artificers, 
Workmen, 

Messengers. 


(8.) 
The Viceroy, 
Governors, 
Lieut.-Go- 
vemors. Chief 
Commis- 
sioners. 


(4.) 

Judges, 
Superior 

and 
Local. 


(5.) 

Magis- 
trates. 


1. 

Honorary 
Magistrates 
and Unpaid 
Magis- 
trates. 


2. 

OflBcers 
of Law 
Courts. 

• 


3. 
Police. 


4. 

Municipal. 

Local, 

Village 


Ajmere - - - 

Bengal - 

Berar 

Bombay - - - 

Bnrmah ... 

Central Provinces 

Coorg 

Madras - 

North-west Provinces 

Pnx^ab - - - 

Baroda - 

Central India - 

Mysore - 

Travancore 


345 

38,073 

1,088 

121,841 

5,508 

5,103 

828 

23,096 

16,725 

36,214 

7,281 

8 

65,015 


633 

4,066 

4,431 

42,545 

1,870 

9,687 

1,028 

41,591 

14,063 

25,988 

25,339 

163 


1 

1 

1 

1 

36N.S.,1B.L. 

1 


170 

5 

138 
104 
101 




227 

3 

54 
167 
325 


19 

1 

4 


122 

3,543 

153 

359 

50 

3,208 

1,731 

3,038 


1,480 
26,767 

1,937 
17,204 

7,285 

8,998 

51 

24,360 

31,841 

25,864 

2,286 


819 

162,132 

24,163 

11,140 

1,477 

54,791 

46 

113,429 

116,924 

51,248 

5,427 


Total - 


320,625 


171,404 


43 


518 


776 


24 


12,204 


148,073 


541,596 





Obobb L 


Order II. 




Sub-Order II. 


Sub-Order in. 


Sub-Order I. 


Province. 


5. 

Prison 
Officers. 


6. 
SherifiP. 


7. 

Execu- 
tioner. 


1. 
Consuls. 


2. 

Officers of 
Independent 
Governments 
and N. States. 


1. 

Army 
Officers. 


2. 

Army, 
Kalf-pay, 
Retired. 


8. 

Soldiers. 


Ajmere - - - - 
Bengal .... 

Berar 

Bombay .... 
Bnrmah .... 
Central Provinces 

Coorg 

Madras .... 
North-west Provinces - 
Punjab .... 
Baroda .... 
Central India 

Mysore - - • - 
Travancore .... 


35 

1,142 

149 

177 
312 
38 
645 
780 
1,452 


4 
1 


11 


3 


276 
11 

243 
7,013 
2,284 

929 
20,631 


58 

302 

19 

174 

159 
17 

629 
1,061 
5,017 

188 


1 
166 


4,361 
11,862 

1,349 
14,579 

6,079 

5,331 

410 

12,462 

25,601 

63,685 

2,809 
61,040 

7,806 


Total - 


4,680 


5 


11 


3 


81,387 


7,624 


167 


217,374 









Ordhr II. 






Order HI. 




Sub-Order I. 


Sub-Order H. 


Sub-Order I. 


Province. 


3a. 

Army 


5. 


6. 
Army Agent, 


7. 
Storekeeper, 


8. 




1. 


2. 




Clerk, 


Army 


Remount 


Commissariat, 


Army 


Navy. 


Qergy- 


Priests, 




Peon 


Pensioners. 


Agent, Cloth- 


Barrack 


Hospital. 




man. 


Hindoo. 




Servant 




ing Agent 


Master. 










Ajmere - - . - 


20 


_ 


_ 


104 


10 






858 


Bengal ... - 


— 


— 


1 


21 


30 


12 


40 


185,037 


Berar . - - - 


165 


55 


— 


— 


4 


— 


1 


306 


Bombay . . - - 
Bnrmah - . - . 


841 


8,203 


— 


— 


— 


282 


2,087 


768 


67 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


60 


Central Provinces - 


113 


872 


— 


365 


29 


1 


8 


9,382 


Coorg - - - . 


33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


58 


Madias ... - 


2,006 


7,818 


— 


45 


56 


1 


38 


25,694 


North-west Provinces 


4,510 


35 


— 


— 


176 


— 


6 


81,318 


Punjab . . - - 


1,736 


2,190 


— 


4,775 


247 


— 


42 


86,428 


Baroda - . . - 


3,038 


26 


— 


— 


— 


— . 


658 


— 


Central India - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_. 


1,981 


Mysore - - - - 


1,077 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3,879 


Travancore ... 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


38 


2,285 


Total 


13,606 


18,699 


1 


5,310 


552 


296 


2,913 


397,954 



K 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



72 





ordie m. 




Sub-Order I. 


Province. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 
Missionary, 


7. 


8. 
Temple 


9. 


10. 


11. 




Priests, 


Protes- 


Roman 


Scripture 


Church, 


Officer, 


Theological 
Student. 




Lay Officer, 




Maham-; 


tant 


Catholic 


Header, 


Chapel, 


Hindoo and 


Monks. 


Beligious 




medan. 


Minister. 


Priest. 


Itinerant 


Officer. 






Institution. 










Preacher. 




dan. 








Ajmere - - - 


129 


_ 


1 


8 




59 








Bengal 


8,982 


— 


1,582 


123 


1 


10,254 


4 


— 


9 


Berar - - - - 


103 


— 


— 


2 


5 


329 


— 


— 


— 


Bombay - - - 
Burmah ... 


2,036 


— 


— 


1,797 


— 


4,689 


— 


— 





246 


6 


18 


277 


12 


62 


— 


626 


575 


Central Provinces - 


122 


5 


4 


80 


10 


59 


— 





.i.. 


Coorg - - - - 


14 


— 


6 


— 


— 


11 


— 


— 


8 


Madras - - - 


4,045 


49 


248 


2,076 


175 


42,727 


398 


1 


1,940 


North-west Provinces - 


569 


106 


4 


89 


13 


3,947 





— 


— 


Punjab ... 


32,915 


— 


— 


7 


2 


1,674 


1,976 


258 


— 


Baroda 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2,968 


— 


— 


9 


Central India 


— 


724 


— 


38 


— 


— 


— 


— 





Mysore 


218 


— 


— 


90 


10 


5,641 


— 


— 





Travancore - - .. 


589 


7 


18 


289 


430 


2,043 


158 


— 


— 


Total - 


49,968 


897 


1,881 


4,776 


658 


74,418 


2,431 


885 


2,541 





Ordbb III. 




Sub-Order I. 


Sub-Order U. 


Sub- 
Order III. 




12. 


18. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


1, 


Province. 






















Burial 

Ground, 

Cemetery. 


Jain Priest, 

Syrian 
Christian 


Barrister, 

Advocate, 

Lawyer, 


Solicitor, 
Attorney, 


Law 


Law Clerk, 

Deed 
Writer, 

Stamp 
Vendor. 


Uw Sta- 


Law 


Physicians, 




Priest, Demon 

Worshippers 

Priest. 


Master of 

Law, Bachelor 

of Law. 


Pleader, 
Vakiel. 


Student. 


tioners. 


Agent. 


Surgeons. 


Ajmere - - - 


2 




_ 


26 


__ 


89 






6 


Bengal - 


323 


857 


63 


2,558 


3 


1,548 


— 


4,422 


9,092 


Berar 


— 


11 


2 


100 


— 


183 


— 


— 


4 


Bombav - - - 
Burmah - - - 


42 


171 


32 


1,200 


7 


554 


6 


105 


514 


67 


8,245 


101 


361 


— 


438 


— 





104 


Central Provincees - 


62 


73 


3 


47 


— 


1,106 


— 


23 


1 


Coorg - - - 


— 


267 


2 


17 


.... 


67 


— 


— 





Madras - 


163 


2,358 


98 


2,867 


3 


1,718 


— 


19 


581 


North-west Provinces 


2,896 


— 


14 


1,648 


— 


2,910 


— 


2,859 


508 


Punjab - 


119 


— 


46 


814 


— 


1,908 


.— 


— 


69 


Baroda - 


4 


— 


— 


240 


— 


7 


— 


1 


94 


Central India - 


— 


— 


— 


515 


— 


— 


— 


— 


647 


Mysore - 


— 


— 


— 


247 


— 


143 


— 


— 


982 


Tra^core 


— 


178 


— 


774 


— 


432 


— 


— 


18 


Total - 


3,678 


11,560 


361 


10,914 


13 


11,108 


6 


7,429 


12,620 





OsDBR ni. 




Sub-Order III. 


Sub-Order IV. 


Province. 


2. 

Medical 

Assistant, 

Student 


3. 

Dentist. 


4. 

Chemist, 
Druggist. 


5. 

Accou- 
cheurs. 


6. 

Unqualified 
Practi- 
tioner. 


7. 

Subordi- 
nate 
Medical 
Service. 


1. 

Author, 
Editor, 
Writer. 


2. 
Reporter. 


3. 

Inter- 
preter. 


Ajmere - - - - 
Bengal - - - - 
Berar - - - - 
Bombay - - - - 
Burmah - - - - 
Central Provinces - 
Coorg .... 
Madras . . - - 
Nortb-west Provinces 
Punjab - - - - 
Baroda . - - - 
Central India - 
Mysore - - - - 
Travancore 


24 
269 

43 
2,186 
7,269 

97 

696 

1,330 

151 

21 


9 
6 

2 
1 


1,697 

54 

562 

603 

516 

24 

1,680 

2,560 

10,074 

6 


41 
35 


120 

28,611 

387 

1,178 

10 

1,601 

15,904 

5,701 

5,651 

499 

1,071 


14 

1,923 

66 

82 

31 

145 

5 

521 

1,757 

1,063 

10 


84 

1,272 

3 

121 

9 

158 

18 

5 

102 

198 

15 


4 
13 

"7 
6 


21 

2 
45 

17 
20 


Total 


12,036 


18 


17,726 


76 


60,678 


5,597 


1,985 


29 


105 



Digitized by 



v^oogle 



73 





O&DBB m. 




Sub-Order IV. 


Sub-Order V. 


PiOTinoe. 


4. 
Literary 


6. 


7. 

literarv In- 
stitution, 


1. 


2.. 

t 


3. 


4. 




Private 
Secretary, 


Student. 


Service Clerk, 
Beading 


Painter 
Artist. 


Sculptor. 


Engraver 
Artist. 


Photo- 
grapher. 




Copyist. 




Room, Read- 
















ing Clerk. 










Ajmere - . . - 


14 






28 




1 




Bengal .... 


1,289 


90 


1 


5,460 


83 


618 


141 


Berar .... 





.._ 


6 


75 





_ 


a 


Bombay . . . . 


1,144 


83 


.3 


552 


7 


_ 


95 


Biinnah .... 


— 


244 


— 


1,078 


26 





11 


Central FroTinces - 


208 


85 


_^ 


263 


2 


__ 


3 


Coorg ..... 




.» 













3 


Madras .... 


16,178 


2,630 


2 


4 


15 


27 


90 


North-west Provinces 


197 








206 


18 




4 


Punjab .... 


736 


694 





190 




__ 




Baioda .... 


_ 








60 


17 


___ 


8 


Central India • 


— 


80 





55 







1 


Mysore - . - . 


— 








— 


302 


2 


12 


Travancore ... 


-— 


4,805 


— 


80 


12 




2 


Total 


19,766 


8,711 


12 


8,046 


482 


648 


367 





Ordbk III. 




Sub-Order VI. 


Sub-Order VII. 


Province. 


1. 

Musicians, 
Music 
Master. 


2. 

Ballad 

Singer, 

ginger, 

Songester, 

Vocalist. 


1. 
Actor. 


2. 

Exhibition, 

and Show 

Service. 


8. 

Theatre 
Service. 


4. 

Conjurer, 
Performer. 


.5. 

Billiard 
Marker. 


6. 

Pugilist, 
Fencer. 


7. 

Racket, 
Tennis 
Court 


Ajmere - - - 

Bengal - 

Berar 

Bombay - 

Burmah ... 

Central Produces - 

Coorg 

Madras - 

North-west Provinces 

Punjab - . - 

Baroda - 

Central India - 

Mysore - - - 

Tnvancore 


39 

54,932 

2,180 

9,745 

1,873 

10,637 

.43 

19,270 

18,608 

11,682 

1,263 

2,654 

1,898 

872 


267 

7,354 

66 

1,554 

75 

781 

12 

1,156 

9,170 

157 

342 

155 


41 

417 

84 

903 

1,181 

200 

61 

2,346 

1,196 

327 

515 

80 

24 

70 


951 
519 
264 
973 
542 

1,078 
527 
108 

137 


5,673 

307 

1,419 

299 

567 

12 

4,788 

5,488 

1,718 

559 

128 

750 


75 

2,229 
82 

1,325 
15 

1,282 
1 

2,981 

3,244 

4,273 
30 
39 
47 

1,016 


2 
32 
39 

4 

15 
40 

2 


21 

403 

225 
55 


4 
2 
7 


Total - 


135,996 


21,089 


7,445 


5,099 


21,708 


16,639 


134 


704 


13 





Oadee III. 




Sub-Order VIL 


Sub-Order VIII. 


Sub-Order DL 


Province. 


8. 
Wrestler. 

25 
148 

111 

253 
172 

104 
63 


9. 

Cricket 
Ground 
Service. 

4 
1 


10. 

Fortune 
teller. 


1. 

School 

Master, 

Mistress, or 

School 
Manager. 


2. 

Teacher, 

Professor, 

Lecturer. 


4. 

School 
Service. 


1. 

Civil 
Engineer. 


2. 

Scientific 
Persons. 


3. 

Museum 
Service. 


Ajmere - - - - 
Bengal - - - - 
Berar . . - - 
Bombay - - - - 
Burmah - - - - 
Central Provinces - 
Coorg - - . - 
Madras . - - - 
North-west Provinces 
Pnnjab - - - - 
Baroda - - - - 
Central India - - - 
Mysore - - - - 
Travaaoore 


21 

11 

587 


5,271 

1,447 

10,588 

574 

2,288 

19,980 

17,853 

3,740 

864 

8,646 

2,026 

570 


139 

31i490 

4 

471 

1,255 

34 

7,955 

279 

8,530 

40,807 

376 


8 

35 

590 
4 

18 


60 

149 

89 

8 

41 
13 

42 


43 

1,816 

829 

273 

1 

624 

60 

4,597 

509 

2 

83 

1,366 


3 

8 

1 


Total . - 


876 


5 


619 


68,347 


91,340 


650 


397 


10,203 


12 



K 4, 



Digitized by 



v^oogle 



u 



Proyince. 



Order V. 



Sub-Order I. 



Innkeeper, 

Hotel 

Keeper, 

Pablican. 



2. 

Beer Seller, 

Spirit 

Seller. 



8. 

Lodging, 

Boarding 

House 

Keeper. 



Coffee 
House, 

Eating 
House 
Keeper. 



Institution 
Service. 



Club 

House 

Service. 



Mess 

Contractor, 

Mess Man. 



8. 

Bath and 
Wash- 
house 
Service. 



Ajmere - - - 

Bengal - - - 

Berar - - - 

Bomba V . - - 

Burman - - - 

Central Provinces - 

Coorg - - - 

Madras . - - 
North-west Provinces 

Puxjab - - - 

Baroda . - - 
Central India - 

Mysore . - - 
Travancore - 



603 

398 

55 

41 

2 

288 

6,580 

48 



49 
89 



Total - 



7,887 



51 



75 
97 



7,205 



149 
10 

21 

11 
8 

1,277 



487 



82 

80 

246 

278 

85 

1,930 
2,126 
4,766 



89 



5 

2 

455 

2 

192 



2 
26 



2 
67 

1 



45 



5 

14 

4 
1 



7,428 



1,908 



9,582 



657 



188 



95 





Order V. 




Sub-Order U. 


Province 


1. 


2. 


3. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 




Domestic 
Servant, 
GeneraL 


House- 


Cook, 


Nurse. 


Laundry 


Coachman. 


Groom, Stable 


Gardener. 




keeper. 


Scullion. 


Man. 




his Master's 
House. 




Ajmere - . - - 


8,130 


_ 


618 


_ 


_ 


189 


749 


3 


Bengal - - - - 


896,495 


117 


18,800 


1 


— 


10,282 


— 


8,264 


Berar - . - - 


10,802 


— 


983 


109 


— 


6 


889 


108 


Bombay - - - - 


186,558 


— 


2,994 


— 





— 


— 




Burmah - — - — 


10,800 


818 


2,902 


— 


1,740 


885 


576 


508 


Central Provinces - 


87,429 


— 


4,178 


— 


— 


151 


— 





Coorg ... - 


366 


— 


621 


— 


— 


— 








Madras - - - - 


111,200 


37 


14,970 


2 


— 


1,602 





4,596 


North-west Provinces 


296,289 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Punjab - - - - 


86,994 


-~ 


12,660 


_ 





— 


— 


— 


Baroda - - - - 


8,741 


— 


970 


— 


— 


— 


1,425 


_ 


Central India - 


152,842 


— 


408 


— 





—. 


_— 


_ 


Mysore - - - - 


11,659 


__ 


1,187 


— 


— 


458 


1,251 


624 


Travancore ... 


8,878 


— 


4,917 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Total - . 


1,765,678 


972 


66,158 


112 


1,740 


12,978 


4,840 


9,098 



PiOTinoe. 



Ordbr V. 



Sub-Order n. 



18. 

Office Keeper 
(Porter, not 
Government). 



14. 

Park Gate 
and a Lodge 
Keeper (not 
Government). 



15. 



16. ' 

Bhisti 
(Domestic). 

Beestiee 
(Domestic). 



Ordsr VI. 



Sub-Order I. 



Merohant. 



Ajmere - - - - 
Bengal . . . - 

Berar 

Bombay - - - - 
Burmah • . • . 
Central Provinces - - - 
Coorg . - - - 

Madras - . . . 
North-west Provinces - 
Punjab . - - . 
Baroda .... 
Central India ... 
Mysore - - - . 
Travancore - - . - 

Tbtal 



2,050 



67 
9,486 

108 

5 



148 



510 



476 
1,677 

690 
1,406 
1,779 
8,524 
9 
6,888 



1,065 



2,050 



9,606 



658 



88,454 



218 

87,954 

1,908 

8,228 

2,687 

25 

824 

46,041 

4,855 

882 

6,967 

818 



100,891 



Digitized by 



Google 



75 













Order VI. 










Sub-Order I. 


Province. 


2. 
Banker. 


3. 

Bank 
Service. 


4. 

Insurance 
Service. 


5. 

Broker, 
Agent. 


6. 
Salesman. 


■ 7. 

Auctioneer, 

Valuer, 
House Agent 


8. 

Account- 
ant. 


9. 

Commer- 
cial Clerk. 


10. 

Traveller 
(Commer- 
cial). 


Ajmere 

Bengal - 

Berar ... 

Bombay - 

Burmd^ ... 

Central Provinces - 

Cooig 

Madras - - 

North-west Provinces 

Pnxgab - 

Baroda ... 

Central India • 

Mysore - - 

Tnnvanoore 


128 

830 

5,325 

154 

48 

24 
1,746 

351 
1,013 
5,384 


604 

4,977 

168 

52 

2 

298 
89 

474 


86 

80 
34 


407 

12,182 

846 

9,164 

8,186 

2,279 

3,711 
13,111 

8,627 
424 
688 
304 


5 

878 


4 
4,186 

97 

8 

55 

12 
8 

144 


4 

9,876 

262 

215 

2,654 

1,426 


34 

49,691 

619 

20,484 

14,252 

5,159 
27,305 

8,496 
5,663 


3 
3 


Total - 


15,002 


6,664 


100 


54,924 


883 


4,514 


14,437 


131,703 


6 



^ 


Order VI. 


Order VU. 




Sub Order I. 


Sub-Order II. 


Sub-Order I. 


Province. 


11. 

Capi- 
talist, 
Share- 
holder. 


12. 

Money 

Lender, 

Bill 

Discounter. 


13. 

Courie SeUer, 

Money 

Changer, 

Money 

Dealer. 


14. 

Lessee 

of 
Market. 


1. 

Pawn- 
broker. 


2. 

Shop- 
keeper, 
General 
Dealer. 


3. 

Huckster, 
Coster- 
monger. 


4. 

Pedlar 
(Hawk- 
er). 


1. 

Railway Engine 
Driver, Stoker, 
Engine Worker, 

Locomotive 
Fireman, 

Locomotive. 


Ajmere 

Bengal ... 

Berar - - - 

Bombay - 

Barmah - r - 

Central Provinces 

Cooig 

Madras 

Korth-west Provinces 

Pnigab - - . 

Baroda - 

Central India - 

Mysore ... 

Travancore 


85 


1,898 
76,561 

26,284 

847 

7,440 

16,595 

. 37,900 

48,910 

3,368 

1,227 


205 
8,879 

809 
3,793 

155 
1,073 

3,204 

7,547 

3,116 

518 


48 
5 

4 

6 
1,004 


410 

156 

2 

19 


5,896 
419,931 

1,643 

7,946 
21,098 
14,862 

3,011 

100,880 

16,641 

17,833 

3,588 
88,634 
31,556 


470 
5,823 


181 
14,415 
478 
6,168 
150 
877 

1,230 

24,418 

11,948 

I 

929 

2,836 


454 
494 
54 
1,272 
177 
187 

"747 
9,066 

113 


Total - 


85 


221,080 


28,799 


1,062 


587 


732,969 


6,293 


63,131 


12,564 





Order VII. 




SubOrder I. 


Sub-Order II. 


.Province. 


2. 

Railway 
Officer, 
Clerk, 
Station 
Master. 


3. 

RaUway 

Attendants, 

Servant. 


1. 

ToU Col- 
lector, Turn, 
pike Gate 
Keeper. 


2. 

Coach, 

Cab Owner, 

Livery 

Stable 

Keeper. 


3. 

Coachman, 

not 
Domestic, 
Cabman. 


4. 

Carman, 

Carrier, 

Carter, 

Drayman. 


6. 

Camel, Pack 
Bullock, 

Pack Pony 
Driver, 
Muleteer. 


7. 

PaUinquin 
Bearer, 

Cart 
Drawer, 
Pusher. 


Ajmere - - - - 
Bengal .... 
Berar .... 
Bombay .... 
Boimah - - - - 
Central Provinces - 
Coorg - - - - 
Madras .... 
North-west Pruvmces 
Punjab .... 
Baroda .... 
Central India ... 
Mysore - . - . 
Travancore - . - 


428 
289 
117 
3,450 
271 
515 

1,893 
60 


413 
909 
587 
12,888 
125 
2,782 

9,147 

10,466 
676 

342 


169 
6 

490 
724 


4 
8,202 

918 
180 

1 

8,960 

1,273 

185 

6 


91 

8,558 

13 

1,312 

987 

3,950 

5,855 

3,895 

8,204 

967 

469 

51 

615 


1,144 
40,165 

4,398 

80,648 

137 

20,532 

2,200 
49,713 
49,441 
20,062 

7,405 
1,344 


1,428 

45,529 

419 

3,413 

6,358 

3,594 

61,036 

63,195 

822 

135 


719 

91,298 

42 

582 

8,775 

1,482 

4,870 

42,882 

1,598 

174 

951 

41 

584 


Total - 


7,023 


38,335 


1,389 


9,679 


29,967 


227,189 


185,924 


153,448 



Y 5747. 



Digitized by 



v^oogle 



76 





Ordbb VJLl. 




Sub-Order m. 


Sub-Order IV. 


Province. 


1. 

Canal and 
Inland 

Navigation 
Service. 


2. 

Barge, 
Lighter. 


3. 

Boat and 
Barge 
Owner, 
Agent. 


1. 

Ship- 
owner. 


2. 

Steam 

Navigation 

Service. 


8. 

Ship 

Steward, 

Cook. 


4. 

Seamen, 

Sailor, 

Mariner 

Master, Ditto 

Ships* Clerk. 


5. 
Pilot. 


6. 

Boatman 
on Seas. 


Ajmere - - - 

Bengal - 

Bcrar 

Bombay - - - 

Burmah - 

Central Provinces 

Coorg 

Madras - 

North-west Provinces 

Punjab - 

Baroda - 

Central India - 

Mysore - - - 

Travancorc 


2 

1 

3 

570 


211,905 

4 

2,800 

35,801 

1,563 

10,824 

20,355 

10,509 

295 

2,293 


7,360 

6,482 
161 

702 

1,591 

94 

167 
125 


4 

850 
14 

43 

11 


307 
1,119 

79 


365 

1,825 
194 

1,289 


18,240 

35,857 
4,907 

9,969 

610 

1 
501 


256 

174 

118 

14 


4,912 

6,617 
8,710 

2,948 


Total - 


576 


296,349 


16,682 


922 


1,505 


3,673 


70,085 


562 


17,187 





Ordee VII. 


Obdbb vni. 




Sub-Order IV. 


Sub-Qrdcr V. 


Sub-Order VI. 


Sub-Order I. 


Province. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


1. 


2. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


1. 




Dock 






Ware- 




Messenger, 


Telegraph 


Cou- 






Service, 


Diver. 


Ship 


houseman, 


Meter 


Porter 


Service 


Land 




Harbour 


Agent 


Store- 


Weigher. 


(not Go- 


(not Go- 


ner, 
Guide 


Proprietor. 




Service. 






keeper. 




vernment). 


vernment). 






Ajmere - - - 


_ 


9 


_ 


_ 




_ 


_ 


63 


. 29,083 


Bengal - - - 


1,646 


121 


4 


9,446 


10,683 


55,217 


— 




397,027 


Berar 


— 


— 


— 


— 


143 


4,619 


— 




1,495 


Bombay . . - 


787 


-;- 


158 


323 


859 


5,059 


262 




1,744,722 


Burmah - - - 


945 





— 


6,689 


43 


2,130 


— 


— 


12,887 


Central Provinces 


— 





— 


26 


974 


10,064 


91 


— 


85,721 


Coorg - - - 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


138 


Madras - - - 


229 


4 


9 


4,250 


1,816 


51,875 . 


183 


— • 


777,198 


North-west Provinces 


— 


— 


— 


391 


14,348 


45,558 


— 




977,976 


Punjab - 


— 


— 


— 


53 


8,912 


3,696 


— 




2,331,782 


Baroda - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


91 


85 


16 


— 


5,324 


Central India - 


— 


— 


— 


9,277 


45 


35 


— 


— 


19,533 


Mysore - - - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


35,432 


Travancorc 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Total - 


3,607 


134 


171 


30,455 


32,914 


178,338 


552 


63 


6,418,318 











Obdbb VIII. 










Sub-Order I. 


Province. 


2. 


3. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 




Farmer, 
Grazier. 


Farmers', 
Graziers' 
Sons, &c. 


Farm 
Bailiflf. 


Tenant 

Cultivator, 

Puttadars, 

Ryots. 


Agricultural 

Labourers* 

(includes 

Field 

Watchman). 


Shepherd. 


Farm 

Servant 

(In-door). 


Land 

Surveyor, 

Land State 

Agent. 


Ajmere - - - - 








48,776 


14,744 


1,729 






Bengal - _ - - 


13,047 


— 


27,245 


11,427,142 


1,103,220 


22,465 


4 


70,273 


Berar - - - - 


246,695 


74,113 


— 


12,767 


351,782 


— 


— 


— 


Bombay ,- - - - 


— 


— 


— 


632,038 


575,032 


250,891 


174.012 


163 


Burmah !- » . . 


273 


— 


— 


416,399 


1<» 1,584 


— 


— 


— 


Central Provinces - 


3,756 


— 


1,268 


1,594,797 


832,834 


9,744 


— 


2,559 


Coorg - - - - 


7,169 


— 


— 


2,940 


44,837 


— 


— 


276 


Madras - - - - 


1 


— 


1 


3,687,641 


2,142,818 


162,286 


.— 


10,000 


North-west Provinces 


— 


— 


— 


7,648,042 


1,773^21 


— 


— 


68,e74 


Punjab - - - - 


12,321 


— 


— 


1,473,846 


357,366 


20,635 


— 


1,248 


Baroda - - . - 


24,991 


— 


— 


290,910 


117.736 


— 


— 


— 


Central India - - - 


43,681 


— 


— 


1,289,074 


21,554 


— 


— 


779 


Mysore - . - - 


07,468 


— 


— 


682,778 


101,616 


— 


105,696 


— 


Travancore - - - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_-. 


— 


— 


— 


Total 


419,412 


74,113 


2S,514 


29,207,150 


7,628,444 


467,750 


279,712 


153,970 














Diqitize( 


dbvV^C 


)OQl^ 



77 





Ordbb VIII. 


Order IX 









Sub-Order II. 


Sub-Order III. 


Sab-Order I 




Province. 


1. 
Woodman. 


1. 

Nursery- 
man, 
Seedsman, 
Florist. 


2. 

Gardener, 

not 
Domestic. 


1. 

Horse Pro- 
prietor, 
Breeder, 
Dealer. 


2. 

Horse 
Breaker. 


8. 

Horse- 
keeper, 
Groom, 
Jockey. 


4. 

Farrier, 

Veterinary 

Surgeon. 


5. 

Cattlo, 
Sheep, Pig 

Dealer, 
Salesman. 


Ajmere - - - - 
Bengal - - - - 
Berar . - - - 
Bombay - - - - 
Barmah - - - - 
Central Provinces - 
Coorg - - - . 
Madras . - - - 
North-west Provinces 
Punjab - - - - 
Baroda - - - - 
Central India - 
Mysore - - - - 
Travancore 


10,536 

2 

372 

7,973 
192 


3,968 
313 

628 

35 

320 
654 


'260 
17,486 
, 377 

2,991 
29,382 

8,034 

35,314 
38,663 

5,653 
' 125 

1,3501 


25 
321 

78 
262 
825 
832 

276 
764 
250 

: ^^ 


21 
25 

24 

15 

1 1 

137 

73 

697 

■ 163 

54 


22,723 

103 

6,580 

9,881 

286 

7,114 

24,045 

10,843 

28 

140 

77 


22 
2,130 

19 
624 

14 
144 

11 

769 

1,673 

478 

21 

89 
174 


230 

52,426 

8,307 

9,596 

9,154 

6,200 

11 

18,746 

39,987 

13,637 

665 

36 

15,397 

98 


Total - 


19,075 


6,918 


139,685 


3,194 


1,210 


80,270 


6,168 


169,490 



Province. 



Ordbb IX. 



Sub-Order I. 



Vermin 
Destroyer. 



9. 



Fisherman. 



11. 

Animal, 
Bird Dealer, 



12. 

Camel 
Dealer. 



13. 

Crocodile 
Catcher. 



14. 



Dog 
Broker. 



Ajmere 

Bengal - - - 
Berar - - - 
Bombay 
Bnrmah 

Central Provinces - 
Coorg - 
Madras- 
North-west Provinces 
Pui^ab - - - 
Baroda - 
Central India 
Mysore 
Travancore - 



195 
13 



18 

153,177 

884 

2,552 

20,355 

38,868 

120 

61,465 

7,657 

2,156 

348 

755 

141 

1,035 



Total 



208 



289,621 



101 
2,862 

107 
3,862 

253 

730 

8,600 

1,181 

846 



70 



107 

26 
250 

185 



62 
4,949 



13,062 



5,529 



24 

3 

1 
6 



84 





Order IX. 


. Order X. 




Sub-Order I. 


j 

i Sub-Order I. 


Province. 


15. 

Elephant 
Dealer. 


16. 
Huntsman. 


17. 

Leech 
Seller. 


18. 

Silkworm 
Keeper. 


19. 

Tiger 
Keeper. 


1. 

Book- 
seller, 
Publisher. 


2. 

Book- 
binder. 


8. 

Printer. 


4. 

Newspaper 
Agent, 
Vendor. 


Ajmere - - - 
Bengal 
Berar 

Bombay - - - 
Burmah « • - 
Central Provinces 
Coorg - 
Madras - 
North-west Provinces 
Puiyab - 
Baroda - 
Central India - 
Mysore - 
Travancore 


6 
1,624 

1 
616 
241 

678 

1,875 

28 
89 

19 


1,956 
276 
381 

1,021 

1,346 
2,967 

899 
68 

242 


1,268 
5 


2,861 

1,874 
83 


1 


20 
615 

10 
269 . 

42 

88 

368 
694 
409 
9 
14 
102 


10 
2,975 

12 
547 

72 
104 
1 
610 
424 
509 

10 

19 


29 
4,825 

28 

2,892 

260 

35 

1,891 

1,656 

194 

118 
32 


25 

1 

« 

1^ 


Total - - 


6,122 


9,096 


1,278 


4,818 


1 


2,680 


5,298 


10,961 


82 



L 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



78 



Province. 



ObdbbX. 



Sal»<Order I. 



6. 



Newspaper 
Proprietor, 
Publisher. 



Book 

Agent, 

Librarian. 



Sub-Order n. 



Musical 

Instrument 

Maker. 



Music 

Seller, 

Publisher. 



4. 



Musical 
String 
Maker. 



Sub'Order III. 



1. 

Litho- 
grapher, 

Litho- 
graphic 
Printer. 



2. 



Map 

Publisher, 

SeUer. 



Print and 

Map 
Colourer, 
Mounter. 



Ajmere - - - 

Bengal - - - 

Berar - - - 

Bombay - - - 
Burmah'- 

Central Proyinoea - 

Coorg . - - 

Madras - - - 
North-west Proyinces 

Puigab - - - 

Baroda - - - 
Central Lidia - 

Mysore - - - 
Trayancore 

Total 



5 
7 

68 



11 
71 



1 
7 

8 

2 

54 
8 
2 



165 



82 



1,221 

97 

13 

967 

165 

209 

56 



60 



2,734 



60 



11 

17 

104 

5 

12 



10 



155 



10 



28 





Ordbb X. 




Sub-Order IH. 


Sub-Order IV. 


Sub-Order V. 




4. 

Picture 
Cleaner, 
Dealer. 


5. 

Copper, 
Steel 
Plate 

Printer. 


6. 

Artist 
Colourman. 


1. 

Wood 
Carver. 


2. 

Artificial 
Flower 
Biaker. 


4. 

Jet and Coral 

Worker, Carver, 

Ornament 

Maker. 


5. 

Figure and 
Image 
Maker. 


1. 

Toy Maker, 
Dealer. 


Ajmere - - - 
Bengal, - 
Berar - . - 
Bombay - - - 
Burmah - - - 
Central Proyinces - 
Coorg 
Madras - 
North-weet Proyinces 
Punjab - - - 
Baroda - 
Central India - 
Mysore - 
Trayancore 


128 

5 

18 

17 

6 

10 

28 


1 1 1 i 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 


604 
8 


4,199 

51 
80 

85 

10 

86 
261 


1 

6 
5 

8 

274 

10 

1 


5,692 
24 

66 
60 


1,980 
14 

2,148 
36 

166 
105 


5 

1,171 

24 

109 

44 

4 

181 

290 

819 

15 

3 


Total - 


207 


10,582 


612 


4,722 


805 


5,842 


4,449 


2,165 



Province. 



Ajmere - - - 

Bengal - - - 

Berar - - - 

Bombay - - - 

Burmah - - - 

Central Provinces - 
Coorg - 

Madras - - - 
North-west Provinces 
Punjab - 

Baxoda - - - 
Central India - 

Mysore - - - 
Travanoore - 

Total 



Obdbb X. 



Sub-Order V. 



Fishing 
Tackle 
Maker. 



669 

10 
31 



710 



8. 



Cage 
Maker. 



81 

2 



26 

164 
21 



284 



4. 



Bat,BaU 
Maker. 



5. 

Archery 
Goods 
Maker. 



Sub-Order VI. 



Type 
Caster. 



Medal 
Maker. 



14 
2 



16 



1 
418 
357 



25 



797 



18 

10 



28 

1 



47 



70 



70 



Die 
Engraver. 



156 



169 



Seal 
Bograver. 



44 

1 
6 



189 

1 



248 



Digitized by 



v^oogle 



79 





Obdbr X. 




Snb-Order VIL 


Sub-Order VllL 


Sub-Order:iX. 


Province. 


1. 

Watch- 
maker, 
Clock, 
maker. 


8. 

Philoso- 
phical 
Instmment 
Maker. 


8. 

Weighing 

Machine, 

Measure, 

Scale 

Maker. 


1. 

Surgical 

Instmment 

Maker. 


1. 

Gunsmith, 
Gun 

Manufac- 
turer. 


2. 

nition 
Maker, 
Dealer. 


3. 

Percus- 
sion Cap 
Dealer. 


4. 

Bayonet 
Maker, 
Sword 
Maker. 


5. 

Scabbard 
Maker. 


Ajmere ... 
Bengal - 
Berar - - - 
Bombay - . . 
Bnnnah ... 
Central Provinces 
Coorg 
Madras - 
Norih-west Provinoes 
Pnigab ... 
Baroda - 
Central India - 
Mysore - . - 
Travanoore 


15 

1,337 

6 

252 

88 
87 

272 

806 

249 

29 

28 

29 


26 

•5 

6 

16 


55 

5 
1 

181 
62 
17 


1 


10 
165 

8 
2 
9 

84 
18 
21 


13 

169 

3 

84 

65 

65 

219 

488 


2 


45 
10 

94 

1 

1 

8 

179 


14 
25 
23 

4 
2 


Total - 


2,548 


58 


271 


1 


817 


1,001 


2 


888 


68 





Order X. 




Snb-Order IX. 


Sub-Order X. 


Province. 


6. 
Armourer. 


1. 

Engine, 
Machine 
Maker, 
Agent, 
Dealer. 


2. 

Spinning, 
Weaving 
Machine 
Maker. 


8. 

Agricul- 
tural Imple- 
ment 
Machine 
Maker. 


4. 

Tool- 
maker, 
Dealer. 


5. 

Saw- 
maker. 


6. 
Cutler. 


7. 

Needle- 


8. 

Bellows- 
maker. ' 


Ajmere - - - 

Bengal - - - 

Berar 

Bombay ... 

Burmah ... 

Central Provinoes 

Coorg - 

Madras 

North-west Provinces 

Punjab - 

Baroda - - 

Central India - 

Mysore ... 

Travancore 


86 

136 

35 

735 

494 
81 


230 

• 172 

2,056 

609 

86 

22 
6 

97 


2,266 

495 

276 

72 

826 

8 


21 
2,529 

69 
1,432 
9,460 

686 

26,439 

50 


47 

18 
28 

492 

186 

2 

9 

44 


15 

1 


817 
1 
610 
135 
204 

82 

1,200 

101 


205 

277 

76 
12 


89 


Total - 


1,517 


8,278 


8,488 


40,636 


826 


16 


2,660 


570 


39 





Ordbr X. 




Sub-Order X. 


Sub-Order XI. 


Sub-Order XII. 


Sub-Order Xin. 


Province. 


9. 

Sawmill- 
maker. 


1. 

Coachmaker, 
Palanquin- 
maker, 
Howda^ 
maker. 


2. 

Wheel- 
wright, 
Cartmaker. 


8. 

Railway 
Carriage 
Maker. 


1. 

Saddle, Harness, 
Whip Aiaker. 


1. 

Ship Builder, 

Shipwright, 

Boat, Barge 

Builder. 


2. 

SaU- 
maker. 


8. 

Ship- 
chandler. 


Ajmere - - - 
Bengal ,- - 
Berar 

Bombay ... 
Burmah - - - 
Central Provinces - 
Coorg ... 
Madras - - - 
North-west Provinces 
Punjab - 
Baroda - 
Central India • 

Travancore 


1 


4,226 

8 

61 

54 

87 

2,470 

29 

102 

9 

112 


2,022 

61 
826 

848 
467 

1 
2 


971 

20 

8 


88 
259 
888 
515 

28 
859 

168 

8,060 

911 

64 
140 

69 


18,095 

50 
2,804 

7 

852 
2 

41 


55 

179 
75 

5 


140 


Total . 


1 


7,108 


3,722 


994 


4,989 


16,851 


814 


148 



L 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



80 





Order X. 










Sub-Order XIV. 




• 




Province. 






















1. 


2. 


8. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 




House 
Proprietor. 


Architect. 


Surveyor. 


Builder. 


Carpenter. 


Bricklayer. 


Marble 
Mason. 


Mason 
Pavior. 


Slater, 
Tiler. 


Ajmere - . . 




1,283 




71 


192 






1,411 




Bengal - 


1,008 


26 


6 


2,066 


80,181 


8,869 


— 


29,077 


— 


Berar - - - 


80 


— 




— 


9,686 


1,266 


— 


— 


3 


Bombay - 


490 


10 


167 


928 


56,606 


19,810 


95 


3,969 


638 


Burmah - -. . 


97 


160 





84 


11,502 


5,382 








— 


Central Provinces 


108 








8,979 


16,941 


1^42 


— 





184 


Coorg - - . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


811 


109 


— 


— 


— 


Madras - - . 


1,262 


4 


26 


187 


72,917 


41,627 





13,646 


418 


North-west Provinces 


1,474 


4 


— 


89 


95,857 


28,664 


— 





— 


Punjab - 


5,749 


— 


— 


18 


127,596 


18,926 


1 





— 


Baroda ... 


16 


— 


— 


— 


7,685 


— 


— 


2,429 


332 


Central India - 


3 


— 


— 


— 


18,010 


192 


— 


3,636 


9 


Mysore 


— 


— 


— 


695 


5,729 


815 


— 


— 


— 


Travancore 


— 


— 


— 


87 


685 


— 


— 


190 


— 


Total - 


10,227 


1,487 


199 


8,044 


499,248 


127,602 


96 


54,368 


1^84 





Order X. 


f 


Sub-Order XIV. 


Sub-Order XV. 




10. 

Plasterer, 
White- 
washer. 


11. 

Plumber, 
Painter, 
Glazier. 


12. 

BUnd. 
maker 
Fitter. 


1. 

Cabinet- 
maker* 


2. 

Under- 
taker. 


3. 

Carver and 
Gilder. 


4. 

Furniture 
Broker, 
Dealer. 


5. 

Curiosity 
Dealer. 


Ajmere 

Bengal 

Berar 

Bombay - - - « - 
Bnrmah - - • - - 
Central Provinces - - - 
Coorg - - - - 

Madras 

North-west Provinces 

Punjab - * - - . 

Baroda 

Central India - - - - 
Mysore - - - - - 
Travancore - - - - 


1 

196 

2 

126 

135 


118 
992 

I 

2,107 
2,211 

36 


12 


1,860 
40 
37 
14 
U 

300 

1,674 

380 

120 


179 

18 
213 

6 
2 


770 

55 

97 
10 

104 
99 

154 


1,362 

240 
16 

38 

477 

501 

2 


21 


Total - 


460 


5,465 


12 


4,436 


418 


1,289 


2,636 


21 





Order X. 


Order XI. 




Sub-Order XVII. 


Sub-Order I. 


Province. 


1. 

Manu&c- 

turing 
Chemist. 


2. 

Die Colour 

Manu£aC'* 

turer. 


3. 

Dyer Ca- 
landerer. 


4. 

Match, 

Fusee 

Afaker, 

Seller. 


5. 

Sulphur 
Dealer. 


6. 

Firework 
Maker. 


7. 

Ink Manu- 
facturer. 


1. 

Wool, Staple, 
&e. Dealer, 
Warehouse- 
man. 


Ajmere . - . . 
Bengal 

Berar 

Bombay - - - . 
Burmah - - - - 
Central Provinces 

Coorg 

Madras - - - - 
North-west Provinces - 
Punjab - - - - 
Baroda - - - - 
Central India 

Mysore « - - - 
Travancore- - . - 


10 

14,815 

8 

99 

1,972 

11,289 

8,670 

109 


1,477 

2,096 

249 

837 

22 

887 

2,860 

2,817 

387 

88 

10 


2,537 

2,771 

8 

5,220 
361 

36 

116 


22 

149 

3 

51 
50 
15 
23 


3 

4 

1 

99 

1 


9 

676 

18 

1,881 

"275 

465 

1,687 

1,110 

28 

4 

18 


1 

279 

15 

475 

21 

48 

211 

59 

39 


342 

505 

1,011 
36 


Total - 


81,922 


10,180 


11,044 


818 


108 


6,671 


1,148 


1,794 



Digitized by 



Google 



81 



ProTince. 



ObdbbXL 



Sab-Order I. 



8. 

Felt 

Mana&c- 

turer. 



3. 

Woollen 
Cloth 

Mannfac- 
turer. 



Ajmere - - - 

Bengal - - - 

Berar - . - 

Bombay - - - 

Bnrmah - - - 

Central Provinces - 
Coorg - 

Madras - - - 
North-west Provinces 

Pimjab - - - 
Baroda - 
Central India - 

Mysore - - - 
Travancore 



Total 



8 
60 

1 



206 



260 



32 

251 
41 

885 
11 

382 

18 

99 

1,283 

8 

6,490 



4. 
Fuller. 



Wool 
P;rer, 
Prmter. 



7. 

Cloth 

Merchant, 

Dealer. 



9,450 



190 



67 
22,871 

1,878 

41 

4,433 



Flannel 

lianufftc- 

turer. 



195 



29,290 



10. 

Blanket 
Manufac- 
turer. 



3,673 
7,669 
1,640 
8,457 

6,849 

6,724 

18,670 

3,530 

83 



50,495 





Order XI. 




• Sub-Order I. 


Sub-Order 11. 


Sub- 
Order III. 


Province. 


11. 

Carpet 

Manidfac- 

turer. 


12. 

Shawl 
Weaver. 


1. 

Silk 

ManufjEKS- 

turer. 


2. 

Silk Dyer, 
Printer. 


3. 

Silk 

Merchant, 

Dealer. 


4. 

Silk Rib- 
bon Manu- 
focturer. 


5. 

Silk 

Braid 

3uauuiBC- 

turer. 


6. 

Silk 
Kincob 
Manufac- 
turer. 


1. 

Flax, Linen 
Manufac- 
turer. 


Ajmere - 

Bengal - 

Bcrar 

Bombay - 

Burmah - - - 

Central Provinces 

Coorg - 

Madras - 

North-west Provinces 

Punjab 

Baroda - 

Central India - 

Mysore 

Tntvancore 


743 

98 

2 

212 
68 


1 
561 

27 

10 

938 

13,076 

3 


6,668 
511 
9,970 
1,120 
1,830 

2,004 
. 1,428 

6,502 
875 
845 

1,242 


' 1 

9 

1,551 

86 

28 

5 

704 
6 


88 

6,842 

12 

676 

1,817 

283 

789 

123 

874 

89 


360 

1 

1 


18 
642 

185 
195 


177 
1,272 


468 
118 

680 


Total - 


1,123 


14,616 


80,985 


2,339 


10,732 


862 


990 


1,449 


1,211 





Ordbb XI. 




Sub-Orfer m. 




2. 


8. 


4. 


6. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


Province. 






















Lace Manu- 
facturer. 


Thread 
Manufac- 
turer, 
Dealer. 


Tape 
Manufac- 
turer. 


Cotton 
Manufac- 
turer. 


Cotton, 
Calico 
Ware- 
houseman, 
Dealer. 


Calico, 
Cotton 
Printer. 


Calico, 
Cotton 
Dyer. 


Carpet 

Maker, 

Merchant 

(Cotton). 


Fustian 

Manufiwj- 

tnrer. 


Ajmere - - - 




5 


_ 


626 


714 


_ 


137 






Bengal 


43 


9,068 


202 


406,169 


65,631 


1,247 


1,747 


211 


19 


Berar 


— 


145 


21 


17,736 


— 


7 


2,750 


176 


— 


Bombay - 


82 


8,900 


266 


141,526 


930 


3,115 


5,586 


124 


— 


Bnrmah - - - 


— 


— 


— 


316 


544 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Central Provinces 


— 


27 


— 


236,023 


— 


837 


4,865 


15 


— 


Coorg - - - 


— 


— 


— 


67 


590 


— 


— 


-~ 


— 


Madras - 


127 


911 


62 


384,767 


32,243 


198 


1,069 


87 


— 


North-west Provinces 


— 


— 


— 


436,017 


42,069 


12,116 


15,484 


4,778 


— 


Punjab - 


2 


— 


— 


392,845 


6,051 


10,668 


28,328 


647 


— 


Baroda - 


— 


10 


194 


24,728 


175 


1,956 


770 


— 


— 


Central India - 


— 


— 


2 


42,705 


7 


427 


5,462 


— 


— 


Mysore 


119 


— 


— 


24,636 


— 


— 


176 


— 


— 


Travancore 


— 


231 


— " 


7,086 


— " 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Total - 


323 


14,297 


737 


2,115,196 


147,944 


30,670 


66,364 


6,033 


19 



L 4 



Digitized by 



v^oogle 



8^ 











Ohdbr XI. 












Sub- 
Order HI. 


Sub-Order IV. 


^ Sub-Order V. 




11. 


1. 


2. 


3. ' 


4. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


ProYince^ 














Hat Manu- 








Tent 
Maker. 


Bleacher. 


Trimming, 
Braid 
Maker. 


Fancy 
Goods 
Dealer. 


Girth, 

Web 

Maker. 


Hair 
Dresser. 


facturer, 
Turban 
Maker, Cap 
Makers, 
Sellers. 


Farrier. 


Tailor. 


Ajmere - - - 


_ 


_ 


16 


1 


_^ 


1,546 


' 2 


__ 


1,130 


Bengal - - - 


19 


— 


3,418 


530 


9 


170,539 


514 


,». 


55,077 


Berar 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8,780 


439 


— 


3,785 


Bombay - - - 
Bannah - 


121 


70 


1,670 


41 


— 


46,632 


818 


— 


.26,848 





108 


930 


6,468 


— 


1,145 


3 


— 


5,583 


Central Proyinces 


— 


— 


1,124 


3 


— 


33,112 


13 


— 


12,814 


Coorg 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


250 


— 


— 


174 


Madras - 





— 


— 


— 


1,173 


67,122 


159 


— 


19,288 


North-west Provinoes 


239 


— 


12,958 


— 


— 


172,418 


1,425 


— 


84,832 


Punjab - 


20 


— 


7,157 


15,106 


1 


95,893 


641 


53 


32,616 


Baroda - 


— 


-. 


171 


— 


— 


8,852 


724 


— 


5,042 


Central India - 


— 


— 


2 


— 


— 


17,420 


76 


— 


9,100 


Mysore - - - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


7,081 


— 


— 


8,061 


TraTancore 


— 


— 


— 


~-' 


— 


3,881 


— 


— 


1,005 


Total - 


399 


178 


27,446 


22,149 


1,183 


634,671 


4,809 


53 


259,855 





Order XI. 




Sub-Order V. 


Province. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 


13. 




MiUiner. 


Shoemaker. 


Button- 
maker. 


Laundry 
Keeper. 


Embroi- 
derer. 


Hosier, 
Haber- 
dasher. 


Glover. 


Leather 

Gaiter 

Maker. 


Old 
Clothes 
Dealer. 


Ajmere - - 


466 


1,309 


_ 


571 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 




Bengal - 


17 


. 66,437 


2 


125,264 


22 


1,146 


2 


— 


— 


Berar 


— 


7,199 


— 


4.558 


9 


— 


— 


— . 


— 


Bombay - - - 
Burmah - - - 


75 


49,598 


41 


22,362 


61 


79 


84 


-^ 


6 


5 


1,714 


— 


— 


22 


3 


— 


— 


... 


Central Provinces 


— 


42,093 


— 


20,226 


20 


— 


4 


— 


_ 


Coorg 





— 





525 


— 





— . 








Bladraa - - - 


28 


67,879 


— 


187,800 


14 


— 


, — 


— 


_ 


North-west Provinces 


— 


48,842 


51 


103,612 


1,089 


79 


— 


— 


14 


Punjab - - - 


28 


168,610 


57 


' 38,897 


853 


241 


— 


55 


162 


Baroda - 


— 


3,322 


— 


1,226 


28 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Central India •• 


— 


4,033 


— 


8,065 


— 


— 


^ 


— 


_ 


Mysore - 


— 


2,497 


— 


12,530 


— 


— 


— 


— 





Travancore 


— 


— 


— 


2,413 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»— 


Total - 


609 


458,533 


151 


477,949 


2,068 


1,548 


40 


55 


182 





Order XI. 




Sub-Order V. 


Sub-Order VI. 


Province. 


14. 
Outfitter. 


15. 

Theatrical 
Property 
Maker. 


16. 

Umbrella, 

Parasol, 

Stick 

Maker. 


17. 

Shroud- 
maker. 


1. 

Mat 

Maker, 

Seller. 


2. 

Hemp 
Manufac- 
turer. 


3. 

Jute 
Manufac- 
turer. 


4. 

Bope cord 
Maker. 


Ajmere 

Bengal 

Berar - . . - 

Bombay 

Burmah 

Central Provinces - - - 

Coorg 

Madras 

North-west Provinces 

Punjab 

Baroda - - - . - 
Central India - - - - 
Mysore - - - - - 
Travancore - - - - 


1 
230 

3 


252 

2 

55 


982 

57 

757 

28 

436 

425 

29 

65 

167 


1 


18 

11,911 

429 

780 

10,023 

800 
3 

517 


131 
223 
120 

81 

118 

70 

402 


62 
14,0(>1 

767 

52 

2,652 

29 
439 


43 

5,608 

176 

10,391 

168 

2,635 

8,174 

7,474 

10,277 

44 

394 
1,456 


Total .. 


234 


309 


2,946 


1 


24,481 


1,095 


18,062 


41,840 



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Obdbb XI. 


Obj>bb XII. 




Sub- Order VI. 


Sub-CMer I. 


ProTince. 


5. 

Net- 
maker. 


6. 

Canvas, 
SaUcloth 
Mannfeo- 

turer. 


7. 

Sacking 

Sack, Bag 

Maker, 

Dealer. 


8. 

Cocoa- fibre 
Matting 
Maker. 


9. 

Coin Manu- 
facturer. 


1. 

Cowkeeper, 
Milkseller. 


2. 

Cheese- 
monger. 


8. 

Butcher, 

Meat 
Salesman. 


4. 

Provision 
Cnrer, 
Dealer. 


Ajmere - - - 

Bengal - - - 

Berar 

Bombay - - - 

Bormah - - - 

Central Provinces 

Coorg - 

Madras - - - 

North-west Provinces 

Punjab - 

Baroda 

Central India - 

Mysore - 

Travancore 


8,902 

79 

2,885 

9 

459 

28 

4 

8 


288 


99 

198 

59 

861 

177 

2,769 

284 

81 

41 


8 
56 


220 

97 
5 

1,627 


129 

114,984 

876 

21,667 

1,401 

5,427 

74 

10,058 

24,440 

12,786 

690 

1,257 

1,420 

148 


82 
6 

18 


* 585 

4,220 

2,895 

10,177 

657 

2,076 

60 

5,258 

28,859 

11,846 

500 

1,886 

868 

216 


162 

188 
436 

62 

1,672 
1809 


Total - 


11,819 


288 


4,464 


64 


1,949 


195,297 


106 


68,498 


8,829 





Obi>kb XII. 




Sub-Order I. 


Sub-Order n. 


Province. 


5. 


6. 


'• 


8. 


1. 


2. 


8. 


4. 


5. 




Poulterer, 

Game 

Dealer. 


Fish- 
monger. 


Honey 
Merchant. 


Egg Mer- 


Com,Flour, 
Seed Mer- 
chant, 
Dealer. 


Miller. 


Baker, 

Grain 

Parcher. 


Confec- 
tioner. 


Green- 
grocer. 


Ajmere - - - 


24 








324 


_ 


578 


117 


190 


Bengal - 


8,068 


205,185 


452 


233 


94,929 


21,619 


29,640 


18,366 


34,800 


Berar - - - 


— 


8,094 


8 


— 


4,889 


285 


578 


498 


709 


Bombay ... 


412 


40,947 


93 


67 


114,040 


2,853 


4,187 


5,480 


15,781 


Burmah - - » 


188 


9,794 


34 


15 


857 


8,769 


637 


7,215 


24,584 


Central Provinces - 


— 


788 


40 


8 


17,774 


1,819 


6,296 


1,916 


12,904 


Coorg - - - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


830 


— 


2 


6 


— 


Madras - - 


51 


82,567 


711 


144 


37,182 


16,174 


989 


11,722 


63,544 


North-west Provinces 


— 


— 


165 


— 


191,188 


7,398 


80,606 


84,708 


82,281 


Punjab - - - 


468 


582 


— 


140 


246,198 


16,049 


11,822 


21,245 


21,705 


Baroda . ^ . 


9 


884 


— 


— 


14,694 


1,209 


412 


504 


4,810 


Central India - 


— 


182 


189 


46 


16,070 


— 


1,787 


1,783 


7.275 


Mysore - - - 


90 


773 


86 


— 


M93 


— 


273 


286 


1,681 


Travancore 


— 


16,178 


17 


— 


872 


117 


902 


— 


— 


Total - 


4,260 


810,369 


1,740 


648 


740,685 


70,787 


188,159 


103,791 


220,214 





Obdbb XII. 




Sub-Order II. 


Sub-Order HI. 




6. 


7. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


ProviDce. 












Ginger Beer, 












Sugar 




Wine and 




Soda Water, 


Syrup 


Grocer, 


Tobacco 




Herbalist. 


ManuBso- 


Brewer. 


Spirit Mer. 


Distiller. 


Lemonade, 


Manufac- 


Tea Dealer, 


Manufac- 






taret. 




chant» 
Dealer. 




Sherbet 
Maker, 
Dealer. 


turer. 


Cofl^ 
Dealer. 


turer, 
Dealer. 


Ajmere - 

Bengal - - - 




88 




221 


_ 


1 


_ 


208 


199 


291 


22,986 


96 


89,612 


1,677 


118 


2 


2,915 


16,254 


Berar - - - 





477 


— 


493 


2,495 


— 


— 


6,326 


853 


Bombay - - - 


7 


766 


24 


957 


7,041 


849 


11 


1,850 


6,143 


Burmah - - * 





116 


— 


2,062 


13 


115 


1,234 


118 


10,768 


Central Provinces - 


— 


2,048 


— 


13,024 


71 


11 


— 


— 


5,672 


Coorg - - - 


._ 


— 


•— . 


472 


28 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Madras - 


505 


8,100 


2 


160,222 


482 


80 


19 


25 


18,167 


North-west Provinces 


— 


16,828 


10 


1,238 


8,790 


151 


— 


28,637 


46,897 


Pni^ab - - - 


.. 


2,147 


— 


848 


27 


141 


— 


67 


8,778 


Baroda - 





— 


827 


84 


606 


— 


— 


1,593 


686 


Central India - 


2 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5,753 


68 


Mysore - 


— 


832 


— 


5,755 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,058 


Travancore 


— 


553 


— 


51,617 


99 


— 


— 


~~ 


— 


Total - 


805 


54,342 


959 


276,605 


21,829 


911 


1,266 


42,492 


110,495 



T 5747. 



M 



Digitized by 



v^oogle 



■84 





Obdbb ZII. 


ObdebXUI. 




Sub-Order IH. 


Sub-Order I. 


Frovtnoe* 


8. 

Vinegar 
Maker. 


9. 

Pickle, 
Relish, 

Maker, 
Dealer. 


10. 

Perfomer. 


1!. 

Baugh, 

Narcotic 
Maker, 
Seller. 


19. 

Coffee 
Manufac- 
turer. 


18. 
dealer. 


1. 

Soap 
Boiler, 
Dealer. 


2. 

TaUow 
Chandler. 


3. 

Comb 
Maker. 


Ajmere - - - 
Bengal . - - 
Berar . - - 
Bombay - - - 
Burmah - - - 
Central Provinces - 
Coorg . - - 
Madras - 
North-west Provinces 
Punjab - - - 
Baroda - 
Central India - 
Mysore - - - 
Travancore 


4 
51 

8 
1 

14 
13 


20,311 

57 

2,424 

885 

8,608 

76 
208 
196 

4 
10 


51 

1,221 

467 

2,253 

310 

2,227 
1,659 
361 
126 
188 
859 


198 

58,568 

1,800 

4,284 

42 

4,443 

28,806 

22,771 

1,998 

293 

1,091 


3 
1 

208 


7 
748 
272 
328 
255 
612 

294 
522 

434 
97 
10 
20 


29 
544 

160 
11 

65 
130 
410 

20 


159 
3 

38 
118 

11 

12 
11 

10 


66 
856 

62 

82 

844 

4 
32 

64 


Total - 


91 


32,724 


9,172 


118,284 


212 


3,594 


1,369 


362 


1,510 



Province. 



Obdes xin. 



Sub-Order I. 



4. 



Gut 
Maker. 



Manure 

Dealer, 

Manu^- 

turer. 



Wax 
Refiner, 
Dealer. 



Bone 
Dealer. 



8. 



Ivory 
Dealer. 



9. 



Coral 
Dealer. 



11. 



Lac 
Dealer. 



12. 



Glue 
Maker. 



Ajmere - - - 

Bengal - - - 

Berar - - - 

Bombay - - - 

Burmah - - - 

Central ' Provinces - 

Coorg - - - 

Madras - - - 
North-west Provinces 
Punjab - 

Baroda - - - 
Central India - 
Mysore - 
Travancore 

Total 



171 
15 



58 
11 
85 



980 

107 

12 

8 

415 

1,106 

3,011 

402 

276 



294 



290 



6,606 



75 



3 

109 

30 

5 



222 



79 

62 

1 



52 



194 



56 
149 

48 



253 



17 



999 
96 



1,112 



557 

12,134 

148 

156 

5,899 



27,755 
4,747 

45 
1,760 

24 



53,215 



15 





Order XIII. 




Sub- 
Order I. 


Sub-Order II. 


Province. 


13. 

Horns, 

Ivory 

Workers in. 


1. 

Fell- 
monger. 


2. 

Tanner. 


8. 

Carrier. 


4. , 

Leather 
Article) 
Maker. 


6. 

Feather 
Dealer, 


6. 

Leather 
Dyer. 


7. 

Quill 
Dealer, 
Worker. 


8. 

Shagreen 
Dealer, 
Worker. 


Ajmere - 

Bengal - 

JJcrar 

Bombay . - - 

Burmah - - - 

Central Provinces 

Coov 

Mfdra* • - - 
North-we5 t Provinces 
Punjab . - - 
Baroda ' 
Central India - 
Mysore - 
Travancore 


18 
137 

10 
137 

54 

93 

146 

8 

22 

3 

23 
46 


196 
21,396 
529 
126 
106 
918 

10,811 
4,064 
2,788 


875 

918 

19 

6,828 

9 

872 

866 

25,462 

83,808 

3,474 

4,093 


6 
498 

1,675 

7 

46,490 


I 

1,876 

3,419 

227 

1,990 

2,966 

71 

2,555 

10,640 

156 

31,416 

822 


3 
258 ' 

2 
141 

1 


3 

307 

1,128 

37 

10,801 

23 

3,025 

1 


5 
7 


33 


Total . 


697 


40,924 


75,719 


48,671 


56,138 


405 


15,384 


12 


33 



Digitized by 



Google 



85 



Proyinee. 



Order XIII. 



Snb-Order IIL 



1. 

Hair 
Bristle 
Manufac- 
turer. 



Brush and 
Broom 
Maker. 



Ordsr XIV. 



Snb<)rder 1. 



OU Miller, 
Befiner. 



8. 

India 
Bobber 
Dealer, 
Worker. 



4. 

OU, 
Linseed 

Cake 
Maker. 



5. 

Pitch, Tar 
Dealer, 
Worker. 



6. 

Sealing 

Wax 

Dealer, 

Worker. 



7. 

Gum 

^aler and 

Worker. 



Ajmere - 
Bengal - 
Berar - 
Bombay - 



10 
22 



Central Provinoefl - 
Coorg - 

Madras . - - 
North-west Froyinces 
Punjab - - 
Baroda . • . 
Central India - 
Mysore - - - 
Ttavancore - 

Total - 



9 

215 

62 



27 

521 

2 

19 

6 



614 

156,608 

924 

25,406 

15,578 

22,141 

26 

42,681 

116,360 

88,624 

4,508 

19,764 

2,988 

6,277 



1,698 

4,428 

5 



122 



2 
471 



88 



104 

264 

61 



80 

10 
140 
278 

92 

182 



50 



861 



452,430 



18 



6,243 



561 



429 



727 





Order XIV. 


, 


Sub-Order I. Sub-Order II. 


Sub-Order III. 


Sub- 
Orderly. 


ProTinoe. 


8. 

Oilskin 

Dealer, 

Worker. 


1. 

Timber, 

Wood 

Merchant, 

Dealer. 


2. 

Sawyer. 


8. 

Wood 
Turner, 
Worker. 


4. 

Box, 
Packing 

Case 
Maker. 


5. 

Cooper, 

Hoop 

Maker, 

Worker. 


1. 

Corkcutter, 
Manufac- 
turer, Pith 
Worker. 


2. 

Bark 
Worker, 
Dealer. 


1. 

Basket 
Maker. 


Ajmere - - - 

Bengal - 

Berar 

Bombay - - - 

Burmab . . - 

Central Provinces 

Coorg 

Madras - 

North-west Provinces . 

Panjab - 

Baroda - 

Central India - 

Mysore - - - 

Travancore 


1 
21 


801 
88,851 

5,181 
19,954 

5,433 
16,238 

52,877 

15,400 

20,360 

1,469 

279 

235 

1,227 


8,822 

512 

730 

6,543 

1,097 

353 

8,288 

1,088 

247 

19 

143 

1,041 


28 

2,566 

62 

2,289 

815 

254 

48 

2,502 

8,298 

308 

228 

670 

7,151 


355 

15 

298 
27 

703 

91 


548 

82 

98 

6 

273 
1 


877 
73 


49 
3 
11 
57 
34 

1879 

1 

108 


117 

49,983 

948 

10,194 

5,594 

21,173 

584 

25,257 

7,984 

5,849 

1,394 

1,439 

2,399 

2,281 


Total - 


22 


178,805 


28,883 


19,704 1,489 


1,008 


950 


2,142 


184,646 





Orpbr XIV. 






„ 


SuH3rderIV. 1 . 






Sub-Order V. 


Province. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


1. 


2. 


8. 




Hay and 


• 


Cane 


Leaf, Fan, 

Umbrella 

Maker, 

Wotker. 


Broom Dealer 
(made of Reed), 


Check 


Rag 


Paper 






Straw 


Thatcher. 


Worker, 


Reed Manu- 


Maker, 


Gatherer, 


Manu- 


Stationer. 




Dealer. 




Dresser. 


facturer, Dealer, 
Rush Mat. 


Seller. 


Dealer. 


facturer. 




Ajmere - - - 


455 


171 


1 


21 


9 


43 


^^ 


8 


«.■• 


Bengal - - - 


8,112 


29,188 


2,878 


5,995 


2,886 


38 


69 


2,114 


488 


Berar 


' 8,509 


22 


1,164 


2,004 


-^ 


— 


-r 


29 


— 


Bombay - - - 
Burmab . - - 


9,614 


147 


46 


2,647 


6,328 


1 


120 


798 


468 


2,249 


4,468 


1,284 


1,018 


2,795 


— 


— 


8 


— .. 


Central Provinces 


201 


— 


95 


640 


1,120 


8 


— 


77 


— 


Coorg 


... 


... 


__ 


«_ 


__ 


... 


_ 


— 


— 


Madras - - - 


17,178 


655 


1,622 


11,080 


3,965 


— 


1 


460 


6 


North-west Provinces 


28,225 


1,702 


19,766 


10,405 


10,801 


— 


15 


1,026 


«— 


Punjab - 


26,687 


8,414 


5,721 


2,958 


2,625 


118 


— • 


1,127 


— 


Baroda - 


657 


5 


2 


3 


82 


— 


46 


14 


50 


Central India - 


— 


— 





198 


— 


— 


.— 


92 


— 


Mysore - - 


79 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Travaneore 


— 


— 


— 


2,816 


309 


— 


— — 


— 


-^ 


Total - - 


96,916 


89,767 


82,574 


89,280 


80^870 


208 

• 


251 


5,758 


1,012 



M 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



86 





OSDBK XIV. 


Ordbr XV. 




Sub-Order V. 


Sttb-Oder I. 


Province. 


4. 


5. 


1. 


2. 


8. 


4. 


5. 


7. 




Card- 


Papier 
Mach^ 


Coal 


Coal Mine 


Mine 


Iron Mine 


Bock Mine 


Diamond 

Mine 
Service. 




maker. 


Dealer, 
Maker. 


Miner. 


Service. 


Service. 


Service. 


Service. 


Ajmere - - - - • 








_ 


_ 






_ 


Bengal 


83 


— 


607 


1,109 


22 


885 


— 


— 


Bcrar 


— 


.— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Bombay 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Bormah 


— 


26 


— 


— 


878 


— 


— 


— 


Central Provinces . - - 


— 


— 


683 


— 


88 


— 


— 


I 


Coorg 

Madras 


— 


.^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»— 


— 


— 


6 


1 


88 


80 


26 


— 


North-west Provinces 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Pui^ab 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


Baroda 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Central India .... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


12 


Mysore 


— 


— 


59 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Travanoore . . - - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— " 


Total - . 


88 


26 


1,855 


1,110 


526 


865 


26 


18 





Obdbb XV. 




Sub-Order H. 


Sub-Order HI. 


Province. 


1. 


2. 


1. 


2. 

Stone Agent, 


8. 

lime 
Dealer, 
Worker. 


4. 

Cky 

Dealer, 
Labourer. 


5. 
Brick and 


6. 




Coal 


Coal 


Stone 


Merchant, 


TUe 


Railway 




Merchant. 


Labourer. 


Quarrier. 


Cutter, Polisher, 
Dresser. 


Maker, 
Dealer. 


Labourer. 


Ajmere .... 




_ 


_ 


712 


190 


19 


3 


1,847 


Bengal - - - - 


1,746 


248 


2 


1,674 


6,874 


14,692 


5,541 


74 


Berar .... 


— 


— 


1,155 


160 


219 


5,131 


1,436 


161 


Bombay .... 


59 


28 


6,843 


827 


186 


454 


542 


586 


H^ymftt^ .... 


501 


— 


84 


658 


685 


— 


4,638 


... 


Central Provinces - 


1 


— 


989 


1,976 


645 


50 


3,578 


5,027 


Coorg ... - 


— 


_ 


158 


_ 


2 


— 


128 





Madras .... 


18 





6,588 


8,110 


255 


147,714 


3,755 


19 


North-west Provinces 





— 


4,942 


683 


8,475 


96 


2,957 





Pniyab .... 


— 


— 


— 


1,071 


5,391 


184 


6,616 


.^ 


Baroda ... 


.^ 


— 


65 


482 


188 


59 


254 


— 


Central India - 


— 


«_ 


— 


640 


103 


1,204 


— 


... 


Mysore .... 


.— 


... 


— 


— 


— 


5,862 


... 


._ 


Travancore ... 


— 


— 


2,551 


— 


— 




— 


— 


Total 


2,825 


276 


28,822 


11,843 


17,708 


175,465 


28,388 


7,164 





Obdbb XV. 




Sub-Order IIL 


Sub-Order rv. 


Sub-Order 
V. 


Province. 


7. 

Boad 
la- 
bourer. 


8. 

Chalk 
Dealer, 
Worker. 


9. 
Scavenger. 


10. 

Gravel 

and Sand 

Dealer, 

Digger. 


11. 

Chnnam 
Worker, 
Dealer. 


12. 

Grindstone, 
Millstone 
Worker, 

Slate PencU 
Maker. 


1. 

Earthen- 
ware Manu- 
facturer. 


2. 

Earthen- 
ware 
Dealer, 
Importer. 


1. 

Glass 
Manu- 
facturer. 


Ajmere - 

Bengal - - - 

Berar 

Bombay - 

Burmah - - - 

Central Provinces -^ 

Coorg 

Madras * 

North-west Provinces 

Pux^ab - 

Baroda 

Central India • 

Travancore 


280 

1,766 

4,858 

10 

1 

11,018 

5,793 

12,840 

5,206 


209 

18 
9 


1,472 

7,780 

880 

8,547 

4,709 

1 

11,841 

106,811 

182,684 

2,784 

8,084 


2,186 
14 
80 

5 

75 


19 
1,450 

5,993 
787 


4 

78 

1,067 

1,742 

84 

824 
828 
888 

274 


1,481 

186,916 

5,184 

36,062 

1,994 

20,162 

377 

69,465 

100,789 

87,242 

10,168 

16,108 

7,072 

2,124 


5,900 

144 
2,188 

86 
40 


41 

1,542 

2,108 

7,866 

64 

1,664 

88 

924 

1,077 

507 

258 

4,013 

892 


Total - 


41,267 


281 

• 


329,498 


2,260 


8,249 


4,779 


494,184 


8,808 


20,479 



Digitized by 



v^oogle 



87 





Ordbr XV. 




Sab- 
Order V. 


Sub-Order VI. 


Sub-Order VII. 


Sub- 
Order VIII. 


Province. 


2. 

Bead 
Maker, 
Dealer, 
Stringer. 


1. 

SaltManu. 

fiicturer. 

Salt Pro- 

prietor. 


2. 

Salt Agent, 
Dealer, 
Broker. 


1. 

WeU 
Sinker. 


2. 

Pond 
Maker. 


3. 

Water 
Carrier, 
Dealer. 


4. 

lee Maker, 
Dealer. 


5. 
Jalagar. 


I. 

Goldsmith, 

Silversmith, 

Jeweller. 


Ajmere - 

Bengal ... 

Berar 

Bombay ... 

Kiiy-ikian ■• . « 

Central Provinces 
Cooig 

Madras - - - 
North-west Provinces 
Punjab . 
Baroda . 
Central India - 
Mysore - - - 
Travaneore 


27 

1,805 

78 

911 
14 

852 


6,412 

1,863 
1,277 

3,056 
736 


28 

11,583 

171 

738 

446 

8,528 

12,481 

8,952 

2,864 

28 

82 

2,014 


221 
36 
31 

7 
241 

2,744 
481 

1,147 

8 

852 

896 


226 

3,420 
1,282 


458 
6,929 

4,007 

8 

2,247 

81,494 
107,980 

4,902 


47 

112 
10 

15 

95 

126 

1 


4 
7 

102 


1,383 
88,835 

6,656 
47,350 

6,404 
18,804 
757 
77,698 
67,524 
54,897 

4,406 
10,839 
11,850 

4,184 


Total . - 


3,187 


12,844 


47,915 


5,664 


4,928 


208,020 


406 


118 


401,582 





Order XV. 




Sub-Order Vm. 


Sub-Order IX. 


Sub-Order X. 


Province. 


2. 


8. 


4. 


5. 


1. 


2. 


1. 


2. 


8. 




Plated 
Ware 
Manufac- 
turer. 


Electro- 
plater. 


Dealer in 
Precious 
Stones. 


Lapidary. 


Copper 
Manufac- 
turer. 


Copper- 
smith. 


Tin 
Manufac- 
turer. 


Tin-plate 
Worker, 
Tinman. 


• 
Tinker. 


Ajmere . - - 












_ 




49 




Bengal - 


126 


53 


6 


— 


1 


328 


1,476 


538 


64 


Berar 


— 


— 


70 


— 


8 


300 


27 


88 


_ 


Bombay - . - 


— 


136 


550 


185 


4,025 


3,406 


188 


1,733 


— 


Burmah - . - 





7 


303 


98 


— 


32 


— 


232 


-^ 


Central Provinces 








69 


__ 





382 


— 


244 





Coorg 


_ 


— 








— 


176 


— 


— 


7 


Madias - 


29 


3 


1,935 


515 


118 


1,035 


274 


224 


65 


North-west Provinces 


— 


139 


297 


789 


— 


— 


— 


2,238 


— 


Punjab 


— 


51 


129 


241 


.~^ 


127 


188 


1,065 


— 


Baroda - 


— 


4 


68 


72 


— 


42 


10 


89 


— 


Central India - 





— 





— 


— 


— 


163 


— 


— 


Mysore - 


— 


— 


65 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


345 


Travaneore 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


166 


363 


— 


— 


Total - 


155 


893 


3,492 


1,900 


4,147 


5,994 


2,636 


6,500 


481 





Order XV. 




Sub-Order X. 


Sub- 
Order XI. 


Sub-Order XII. 


Sub-Order XIII. 


Province. 


4. 

Quicksilver 
Dealer. 


5. 

Beflector 
Maker. 


1. 

Zinc 

Manu&c- 

turer. 


1. 

LeadManu- 
iaoturer. 


2. 

Antimony 
Refiner, 
Worker. 


8. 

Pewterer, 
Pewter 

Ornament 
Maker. 


1. 

Brass 

Manufac- 
turer, 
Worker, 
Brazier. 


2. 

Bell 
Maker. 


8. 

Burnisher. 


Ajmere - . - 

Bengal - 

Berar 

Bombay - - - 

Bormah . .^ - 

Central Provinces - 

Coorg 

Madias - - - 

North-west Provinces 

Punjab - - - 

Baroda - 

Central India - 

Mysore - 

Travaneore 


5 

2 
8 


82 
2 


96 

1 
11 

5 

1 


28 

8 
12 

639 


10 

4 

1 

170 
28 


44 

28 

8 


195 

32,050 

1,054 

4,428 

769 

6,625 

14 

5,070 

26,954 

14,317 

1,013 

351 

1,174 

1,433 


86 

3 

8 

439 

1,529 

11,571 

1,625 

8 

12 


52 

1,282 
2 

6 


Total - 


15 


84 


114 


682 


213 


75 


95,447 


15,226 


1,842 



M 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



88 





Obder XV. 




Sab.Order XIII. 


Sub-Order XTV. 


Provinos. 


5. 


6. 


7, 


1. 


2. 


8. 


4. 


5. 


■ ' ' 


Lamp, 
Vessel, 
Lantern 
Maker. 


Locksmith, 
Brass. 


Gas-fitter. 


Iron 
turer. 


Blacksmith, 


Ironmonger, 

Hardware 

Dealer, Iron- 

smith. 


Locksmith, 
unspecified. 


NaU 
Maker. 


AJmere - - - - 


11 


_ 






932 


80 


S" 




Bengal - - - - 


64 


— 


— 


691 


91,481 


15,907 


11 


34 


Betar - - - 


3 


— 


— 


... 


4,241 


— 


1 


1 


Bombay - - - - 


68 


249 


9 


1^4 


2! ,003 


564 


10 


38 


Burmah .... 


■ — 


— 


— 


... 


- ,414 


191 


— 


— 


Cenlrai ProYinces - 


— 


— 


, 


428 


2$,476 


528 





— 


Coorg ... - 


— 


— 


— 


... 


277 


._. 


— 


— 


Madras - - - - 


7' 


2 


— 


5,298 


45,576 


1,261 


79 


24 


North-irest ProTinceB 


— 


20 


— 





80,305 


2,141 


.. 


— 


Punjab - - - - 


13 


— 


— 


1,170 


74,695 


494 


— 


17 


Baroda - - - - 


2 


— 


— ' 


».. 


4,203 


82 


— 


— 


Central India - . - 


— 


— 


— 





17,076 


840 





— 


Mysore . . - - 


— 


— 


— 


... 


5,256 


— 


— 


.~ 


Tnytaxcoie 


— 


— 




— 


5,074 


— 


— 


— 


Total - - 


163 


271 

-T 


9 


8,986 


884,908 


22,038 


101 


114 





Order XV. 


Order XVI. i 




Sub-Order XIV- 


Sub- 
Order I. 


Sub-Order U. 


Province. 

• 


6. 

Steel 
Worker. 


7. 

Weight 
Marker. 


1. 

General 
Labourer. 


1. 

Artizan, 
Mechanic. 


2. 

Enffiue 
Dnver. 


3. 
Shopman. 


4. 

Manager, 
Superin- 
tendent. 


5. 
Contractor. 


6. 

Watchman, 

private, 
not Govern- 
ment. 


Ajmere - - - 
Bengal - 
Berar ... 
Bombay - - - 
Burmah ... 

Coorg 
Madras . 
North-west Proyinces 
Punjab ... 
Baroda - 
Central India . 
Mysore - - 
Tiayancore 


6 

/ 

2 


19 
11 

3 


8,490 

2,543,075 

30,588 

326,729 

92,056 

121.664 

5,667 

541,364 

1,010,803 

322,692 

40,556 

520,972 

53,856 

195,420 


9,601 

310 

147 

44 

394 

432 

684 

25 

121,978 

31 


5,613 
94 

15 
12 


6 

1,445 
213 
360 

14,642 
81 


16 

1,718 

34 

10 

2,493 

1,492 

1,266 

739 

14 


14 

27,655 

369 

1,441 

849 

1,957 

14,965 
5,225 

7,118 
155 

778 

72 


28 
2,230 


Total . 


8 


33 


5,813,932 


138,646 


5,734 


16,747 


7,782 


60,098 


2,258 



Province. 



Order XVII. 



Sub-Order I. 



Ajmere -" 
Bengal ... 

Berar .... 

Bombay - . - 

Burmah - " - 
Central Provinces 

Coorg - . . - 

Madras - - . - 

Korth-west Provinces - 

Punjab . - - 
Baroda 
Central India 

Mysore . - - 

Travancore - - - 

Total 



Gkintlemen, 
Annuitant. 



246 

31,688 

904 

1 

I 

1,904 

877 

1 

2,246 

138 
109 



88,115 



Beggar, 

Gipsy, 

Vagrant. 



5,959 

259,829 

30,072 

172,886 

966 

70,115 

642 

89,781 

234,397 

806,840 

22,596 

39,747 

22,155 

574 



Order XVIII. 



Sub-Order L 



1,256,559 



Religious 
Devotees. 



2,091 

2 

22,016 

846 

173 . 

1,481 
3,182 

15,657 



200 



45,598 



Others. 



76,876 

12,949,055 

404,235 

3,020,531 

5,641 

6,491 

30,186 

11,823 

4,646;,504 

206 

393 

4,283 

1^210 



21,157,438 



Unspecified. 



850.870 

2,074,247 

22,586 

4,938,679 

7,560,352 

409,979 

2,136,531 

716,617 

835,133 



19,544,494 



Total. 



248,844 

34,617,687 

1,380,492 

8,497,718 

1,991,005 

5,827,122 

100,439 

15,421,048 

22,912,556 

12,322,356 

1,139,512 

4,882,823 

2,085,842 

1,197,134 



112,624,478 



Digitized by 



Google 



89 



GLASS L 



ORDER I. 
Persons engaged in the General or Local Govermnent of the Country. 

Sub-Order I. 

Officers of National Government. 

Group Head 1. — Civil Service — 

Abkary ganger, Abkary inspector. Accountant (Government service). Admi- 
nistrator General. Advocate General. Amildar. Anient superintendent. 
Apprentice, press (Government). Assistant engineer. Assistant salt commis- 
sioner. Assistant superintendent of telegraphs. Astronomer (Government). 
Auditor (Government service). Branch postmaster. Burmese interpreter. 
Canal agent. Canal banker. Canal clerk. Canal engineer. Cashier (Govern- 
ment). Census officer. Chemical examiner. Classifier. Clerk of Government. 
Collector, deputy. Collector, general. Collector, treasury, deputy. Commis- 
sioner, assistant, salt revenue. Computer, survey. Conservator of forests. 
Curator (Government). Custom offiicer. Delta superintendent. Demand amins. 
Deputy collector. Deputy commissioner. Deputy commissioner of forests. 
Deputy conservator of forests. Deputy inspector of schools. Director of 
Public Instruction. Director of Revenue Settlement. Director of Revenue 
Settlement, deputy. Draftsman, P.W.D. Educational Department, clerk. 
Educational Department, writer. Engineer, assistant. Engineer, assistant, 
P.W.D. Engineer, executive. Engineer, Government. Engineer, sub. 
Engineer, superintending. Estimate maker. Estimator. Examiner of medical 
accounts. Examiner of P.W. accounts. Examiner of railway accounts (if 
Government service). Excise officer. Field survejyor (if Government service). 
Firkadar, forest. Forest conservator. Forester. Forest conservator, deputy 
assistant. Forest officer. Ganger, Abkary (Government). Ganger, Excise 
(Government). Gomashta (Government). Government agent. Government 
pleader. Government solicitor. Hospital apprentice (Government). Hospital 
assistant (Government). Inland Custom service. Inspector General of Regis- 
tration. Inspector General of Post Offices. Inspector General of Post Offices, 
deputy. Inspector General of Post Offices, sub. Inspector of schools. In- 
spector of schools, deputy. Inspector of telegraph. Inspector of tolls 
(Grovemment). Inspector of vaccination. Irrigation Amin; Jungle Amin 
(Government). Korumboo, Amin. Korumboo, Gomashta. Korumboo, 
Samprathy. Korumboo, superintendent. Land custom, Amin. Land 
custom, clerk. Lock Amin. Master attendant. Master attendant's clerk. 
Member of Council and Board of Revenue. Money counter. Money tester. 
Munshi (Government). Opium agent, deputy. Opium Department, clerk. 
Paid probationer, Medical and Postal Department. Pensioner, civil. Pleader 
(Government). Political agent. Posted Department, postmaster. Postal 
Department, postmaster, branch. Postal Department, postmaster, deputy. 
iPostal Department, postmaster, general. Postal Department, postmaster, 
sub. Postal Department, writer. Pressman (Government), reader. Pro- 
secutor, public. Railway service (Government). Railway superintendent 
(Government service). Record keeper (Govemmeut). Record keeper, 
assistant (Government). Registrar of assurances, district. Registrar of 
assurances, sub. Revenue accountant. Revenue inspector. Salt, assistant 
commissioner of. Salt, assistant superintendent of. Salt, clerk. Salt, 
commissioner of; Salt, deputy commissioner of. Salt, shroffi Salt, superin- 
tendent. Sanitary Commissioner. Sea Custom, clerk. Sea Custom, shroff. 
Sea Custom, superintendent. Sea Custom, weigher. Secretary to Government 
Revenue Board. Secretary (private) to Governor. Serishtadar, collector's. 
Serishtadar, taluq. Serishtadar, hazoor. Serishtadar, sub-collector's. Shroff, 
hazoor, or taluq. Signaller of flag staff. Solicitor (Government). Stamp 
vendor (Government). Storekeeper (Government). Sub-postmaster. Sub- 

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registrar of assurances. Superintendent of Anient. Superintendent of Delta. 
Superintendent of forest, deputy. Superintendent, Government Central Museum. 
Superintendent of Government farm. Superintendent of Government press. 
Superintendent of lighthouse. Superintendent of post offices. Superintendent 
of revenue survey. Superintendent of salt. Superintendent of salt, assistant. 
Superintendent of schools. Superintendent of school of arts. Superintendent 
of sea customs. Superintendent of sea customs, assistant. Superyitendent of 
stamps and stationery. Superintendent of survey, deputy. Superintendent of 
telegraph. Superintendent of vaccination. Superintendent of vaccination, 
deputy. Superintendent of works. Superintending engineer. Supervisor (Go- 
vernment service). Supervisor, P.W.D. Survey and settlement clerk. Survey 
and settlement gomashta. Survey and settlement writer. Surveyor (Govern- 
ment). Tahsildar. Tahsildar, deputy. Telegraph master. Telegraph sig- 
naller (clerk). Telegraph superintendent. Translator. Treasurer (Government). 
TJnoovenanted assistant. Writer (Government). 

Group Head 2. — Government artificers, workmen, messengers — 

Abkary peon. Attender (Government, an office attendant). Ballman (Govern- 
ment, Government Printing Press). Bill collector (Government). Canal amin. 
Canal labourer. Canal lascar. Canal overseer. Canal servant. Canal watch- 
man. Compositor (Government). Dalayet (Government). Darogha (Govern- 
ment). Dubash, Government House. Duffadar (Government, not military). 
Dufterbund. Dufteri (Government). Educational Department peon. Elephant 
mavathi (driver, Government). Elephant fouzedar. Foreman (Government 
Press). Forest guard. Forest overseer. Forest ranger. Gallak (a watch- 
man generally employed as a treasure guard). Government, messenger. 
Government servant (unsp.). Guard, forest. Head compositor, press (Govern- 
ment). Inker (Government press). Jungle gardener. Jungle maistry. 
Jungle watchman. Korumboo maistry. Lamplighter, taluq (Government). 
Land custom peon. Lascar (Government). Lighter (Government). Maistry, 
road. Masalchee (Government). Master attendant's peon. Messenger 
(Government). Opium department overseer. Overseer, P.W.D. Overseer, 
sub, P.W.D. Peon (Government offices). Postal Department, delivery peon. 
Postal Department, line overseer. Postal Department, postman, village. Postal 
Department, runner, coachman. Postal Department, servant. Process server, 
revenue. Pygust, forest. Road maistry (Government). Runner, postal. Salt 
peon. Sea custom watchman. Sub-observer, P.W.D. Surveyance settlement 
peon. Telegraph servants. Type caster, founder (Government service). 
Village postman. Watchman, canal. Water distributor. Workman (Govern- 
ment service). 

Group Head 3. — The Viceroy, Governors, Lieutenant-Governors, Chief Commissioner — 

Governor. 
Group Head 4. — Judges, superior and local — 

District munsifi^. District registrar. District sessions judge. Judge, district. 
Judge, sub. Judge of small cause court. Judge of high court. Munsiff, 
district. Munsiff, village. Village munsiff. 

Group Head 5. — ^MagistratiCS — 

Magistrate. MagistratiO, deputy. Magistrate, police. Serishtadar, magistrate's. 
Serishtadar, sub-division. Sub-magistrate. 



Sub-Obdbb II. 

Officers of Municipal, Local, and Village Government. 

Group Head 1. — ^Honorary magistrates and unpaid magistrates — 

Bench magistrate. Justice of peace. Magistrate, honorary. Magistrate, village. 
Naidu (village magistrate). 
Group Head 2. — Officers of law courts — 

Amin. Bailiff. Civil court decree writer. Civil court officer. Clerk under 
receiver appointed for the management of some estate. Court clerk. Court 



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copyist. Court gomashta. Court lamplighter (masalohee). Court peons. 
Court record keeper. Court sweeper. Court translator. Court writer. Depo- 
sition writer. Inspector under receiver appointed by civil court for the 
management of some estate. Nazir. Peon imder receiver appointed by civil 
court for the management of some estate. Process amin. Process peon. 
Process server. Puttamanagar, under receiver, appointed by civil court for the 
management of some estate. Receiver appointed by civil court for the 
management of some estate. Seristahdar, court. Seristahdar, sub-court. 
Seristahdar, district court. ShroflF, under receiver, appointed by civil court for 
the management of some estate. 

Grotm Head 3. — ^Police — 

Constable, police. European constable, police. Head constable, police. Inspector 
of police. Inspector of police, deputy. Inspector of police, sub. Inspector- 
general of police. Inspector-general of police, deputy. Police, assistant 
superintendent. Police, constable. Police, deputy inspector of. Police, 
divisional inspector of. Police, hqad constable. Police, head-quarter inspector. 
Police, inspector. Police, station writer. Police, storekeeper. Police, sub- 
inspector. Police, superintendent of. Police, salt detective. 

Group Head 4. — Municipal, local, village servants — 

Ambalgar (village servant). Artizan (village). Avenue maistry. Avenue 
pruner. Avenue watchman. Batta amin. Batta peon. Clerk in the esta- 
blishment under court of wards. Clerk, municipal. Collector of market fees. 
Commissioner, municipal. Cuman (village accountant). Estate (court of 
wards), manager. Gomashta in the estate under court of wards. Headman, 
village. Inspector of nuisance, municipal. Irrigation monegar. Karbar (for 
the management of some estate in Tanjore). Kanungo. Kavalgar (for the 
management of some estate in Tanjore). Korumboo monegars. Kumam (foi 
the management of some estate in Tanjore). Kumam, village. Lamplighter, 
municipal. Local fund accountant. Local fund auditor. Local fund clerk. 
Local fund draftsman. Local fund engineer. Local fund gomashta. Local 
fund inspecting schoolmaster. Local fund inspector. Local fund lascar 
Local fund managers. Local fund officer. Local fund overseer. Local fund 
peon. Local fund road maistry. Local fund schoolmaster. Local fund super- 
visor. Local fund vice-president. Local fund writer. Lock monegar. 
Manager, deputy, of estates under court of wards. Marriage registrar. 
Monegar, irrigation (village headman in charge of irrigation). Municipal 
accountant. Municipal amin. Municipal bill collector. Municipal cash keeper. 
Municipal clerk. Municipal commissioner. Municipal conservancy inspector. 
Municipal gardener. Municipal lamplighter. Municipal lighting superin- 
tendent. Municipal maistry. Municipal manager. Municipal masalchee. 
Municipal pensioner. Municipal peon. Municipal scavenging inspector. Muni- 
cipal secretary. Municipal shroff. Municipal sweeper. Municipal tax collector. 
Municipal totti. Municipal vice-president. Nattamagar. Nirgunti. Notagar. 
Overseer, municipal. Peon in estate under court of wards. Poor house 
superintendent, establishment. Pound keeper. Pound kumam. President of 
municipality. President- Vice of municipality. Protector of emigrants. 
Eeceiver of Camatic property. Redy, village. Registrar of births and deaths. 
Samasthanam, sirdar naick. Shroff in estates under court of wards. Superin- 
tendent of emigration. Taliaries. Taliaries, village. Town crier. Vettyan. 
Vettyan village. Vichareppuvargal (one that makes inquiries). Village 
accountant. Village headman. Village kowalgar (village watchman). Village 
kumam. Village servants. Village watcher. Watcher, village. Watchman. 
Watchman, superintendent. 

Group Head 5. — Prison officer — 

Inspector of jails. Jail clerk. Jail keeper. Jail service. Jail warder. Jail 
writer. Jailor. Jailor, deputy. Superintendent of district jail. Warder 
in jails. Warder (jails, hospitals). 

Group Head 6. — Sheriff — 

Sheriff. 
Group Head 7. — Executioner — 

Executioner. 
Group Head 8. — Coroner — 

Coroner. 

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Sub-Ordbe III. 
Group Head 1. — Consuls. 

Group Head 2. — Oflioers of Independent Governments and Native States. 
Details not given. 

OEDEE IL 
Sub-Order I. 

Group Head 1.— Army OflScers — 

Adjutant. Adjutant-General. Brigadier-General. Captain. Chaplain to Forces. 
Colonel. Controller of military accounts. Deputy assistant, adjutant-general. 
Deputy assistant quartermaster general. Ensign. Inspector of musketry. 
Inspector-general of ordnance. Jemadar, adjutant. Judge Advocate General. 
Lieutenant. Lieutenant-colonel. Major. Military oflBicer. Officer, army. 
Paymaster. Paymaster, army. Quartermaster. Quartermaster-general. Staff 
officer. Subadar. Subadar major. Sub-lieutenant. Veterinary surgeon, army. 

Group Head 2. — Army, half -pay, retired — 
Army clerk. 

Group Head 3. — Soldier — 

Armourer (Government service). Bandsman (regimental). Bandmaster. Body 
guard trooper. Bombardier. Boy, havildar. Boy, private. Bugle major. 
Bugler. Column maker, army. Corporal major. Corporal sergeant of the 
band. Cymbalman (regimental). Driver, army. Drum major. Drummer. 
Farrier, shoeing smith, army. Fifer. Gunner. Harness maker, army. 
Havildar. Havildar major. Kettle drummer. Lance naik. Leather worker, 
army. Naik, lance. Ordnance conductor. Ordnance store, sergeant. Pipe, 
major. Piper (regimental). Private. Recruit boy. Rough rider, army. 
Saddler, army. Sawar. Sepoy. Sergeant. Sergeant-major. Sergeant, mess. 
Staff sergeant. Trumpeter. Trumpet major. 

Group Head 3a. — Army clerk, peon, servant — 

Army peon. Anny coolie. Bheesty (regimental). Chowdary, regimental, army. 
Clerk, military department. Lascar. Mochi, ordnance. Orderly, army. 
Orderly, military. Painter, ordnance (Government service). Peon, regimental. 
Pukhalie, regimental, ordnance. Serang, army camp follower. Servant, regi- 
mental. Sweeper (military). Tent lascar, pitcher. Tindal, military. Totti, 
regimental. 

Group Head 4. — Militia volunteers — 

Volunteers. 
Group Head 5. — Army pensioners — 

Army pensioner. Pension boy. Pensioner, Chelsea. Sepoy, pensioner. Soldier, 
pensioner. Veteran. 

Group Head 6. — Army agent, remount agent, clothing agent — 
Remount agent. Superintendent and agent of army clothing. 

Group Head 7. — Storekeeper, commissariat, barrack master — 

Army commissariat service. Barrack sergeant or master. Commissariat service. 
Commissariat staff sergeant. Commissary-general. Executive commissariat 
officer. Military manager. Military storekeeper. Storekeeper (military). 

Group Head 8. — Army hospital — 

Apothecary, army. Army hospital service. Assistant surgeon (regimental). 
Deputy surgeon-general. Surgeon-general or major. Surgeon-general or 



major, deputy. 



Navy. Details not given. 



Sub-Order II. 



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ORDER III. 

Sub-Obdeb I. 

Group Head 1. — Clergyman — 

Chaplain, clergyman, rector, vicar, or curate. 

Group Head 2. — Priests, Hindoo — 

Achari (a priest). Archaean (an officiating priest). Birt (unspecified). Crema- 
tion priest. Family priest (pandit) > Guroo (family priest). Guryai (Hindoo 
religious teacher). Hindoo priest. Panda (pilgrim conductor). Peerohit, 
village. Pilgrim's guide. Prayer mutterer, reader, Hindoo. Preacher (pujary). 
Priest. Priestess. Priest, Brahmin. Priest officiating on the occasion of 
marriage and private ceremonies. Priests to Sudras, pujary. Puranum reader. 
Purohit. Reader of almanac. Reader of calendar. fReader of puranams, 
vedas. Reciter of muntras on the occasion of religious rites. Reciter of vedas 
(Hindoo poems). Sastri or Shastri. Village priests. 

Group Head 3. — Priests, Mahomedan — 

Cajee, cazi. Kajee (Kazi). Khatib (worshipper in a mosque). Koya (Maho- 
medan priest). Mahomedan priest. Moilar (Mahomedan priest or preacher). 
Muazzim (Mahomedan caller to prayer). MuUa. Naib (a priest). Pesh 
imam. Prayer leader, Mahomedan. Reader of Koran. Repeater at mosques. 

Group Head 4. — ^Protestant minister — 

American Baptist missionary. Baptist minister. Baptist dissenting minister. 
Minister of religion. Minister, Protestant. Protestant minister. Protestant 
pastor. Wesleyan minister. 

Group Head 5. — Roman Catholic priest — 

Deacon, Roman Catholic. Jesuit father, brother, secular priest. Seminarist. 
Monk. Priest, Roman Catholic. Reader, Roman Catholic. Rector, Roman 
Catholic. Roman Catholic bishop. Roman Catholic priest. 

Group Head 6. — Missionary Scripture reader, itinerant preacher — 

Bible woman. Catechist. Evangelist. Local preacher. Missionary (Church of 
England or others). Preacher, local. Preacher, street. Scripture reader. 

Group Head 7. — Church, chapel officer — 

Bell toller. Chapel keeper. Church clerk. Church servant. Church warden. 
Servant of churches not maintained by Government. Sexton. 

Group Head 8. — Temple officer, Hindoo and Mahomedan — 

Andi (a temple official). Attendant at sacred bathing places. Confectioner to 
Jagannath. Devastanam, accountant. Devastanam, clerk. Devastanam, 
member. Devastanam, peshkar. Devastanam, servant. Devastanam, trustee. 
Florist in temple. Ganges water seller. Idol guardian. Image bearer. 
Malaya (servant of a demi-god temple). Mosque servant. Pagoda servant. 
Sacrifices, officiator at. Servant of mosques. Servant of pagodas. Servant of 
temples. Shrine keeper. Superintendent of temples, Cooch, Behar. Temple 
service, not religious. Temple storehouse keeper. Temple worshipper. 
Worshipper. Worshipper in temples. Worshippers of domestic idols. 
Worshipper of household deities. 

Group Head 9. — ^Theological student — 

Student, religious. Theological student. 

Group Head 10. — Convent — 

Convent superior. Inmate (sister) of convent. Lady superintendent. Nun. 
Group Head 11. — Lay officer, religious institution — 

Lay brother. Lay trustee. 
Group Head 12. — Burial ground, cemetery — 

Burial ground servant or service. Burial ground watcher. Cemetery clerk. 
Cemetery gravedigger. Cemetery officer. Cemetery servant. Cemetery 

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superintendent. Corpse bearer. Corpse burner. Funeral, officiator at. Funeral 
eulogium repeater. Gravedigger. Keeper of burial ground. Tomb keeper. 

Group Head 13, — Jain priest, Syrian Christian priest — 
Jain priest. Kathnar (a Syrian Christian priest). 

Sub-Order II. 

Group Head 1. — Barrister — 

Advocate. Bachelor of law. Barrister. Barrister at law. Counsel. Lawyer. 
Master of law. 

Group Head 2. — Solicitor, attorney, pleader, vakeel — 

Attorney. Licensed revenue agent. Pleader. Solicitor. Vakeel district court. 
Vakeel high court. Vakeel local lower court. Vakeel munsiflTs court. 

Group Head 3. — Law student — 

Law student. Mahomedan law doctor. Mahomedan law, interpreter of. 

Group Head 4.— Law clerk, deed writer, stamp vendor — 

Deed writer. Law clerk. Lawyer's clerk. Stamp vendor (not official). 

Group Head 5. — Law stationer — 

Group Head 6. — Law agent — 

Agent, law. Gomashta to barristers and pleaders. Law agent, Muktiar (one 
that holds power of attorney). 

Sub-Order III. 

Group Head 1. — Physician, surgeon — 

Accoucheur. Apothecary (private). Assistant surgeon. Assistant to a surgeon. 
Aurist. Cancer doctor. Civil hospital surgeon,. Doctor. Honorary surgeon. 
Medical practitioner. Oculist. Physician. Private practitioner. Surgeon 
(not army). Surgeon, honorary. Surgeon, native. Surgeon, zilla. 

Group Head 2. — ^Medical assistant, student — 

Apprentice, hospital. Assistant, hospital. Clerk, hospital. Civil hospital assis- 
tant. Civil hospital dresser. Doctor, native. Dresser in hospital. Dresser in 
independent charge. Hospital apprentice. Hospital assistant. Medical assis- 
tant. Medical pupil. Native doctor. Probationary vaccinator. 

Group Head 3. — Dentist — 
Dentist. 

Group Head 4. — Chemist, druggist — 

Catechu, maker, seller. Chemist. Civil hospital compounder. Compounder. 
Dealers in drugs and sundries. Druggist. Druggist, botanical. Medicine 
maker. Medicine vendor. Native druggist. Seller of senna. 

Group Head 5. — ^Accoucheurs. 

Group Head 6. — Unqualified practitioner — 

Hakeem, vaid. Arab doctor. Hindu physician. Medicinal herbs, collector of. 
Native doctor (untrained). Native physician. Physician, native. Physician, 
skilled in surgery. Practitioner (unqualified). Quack doctor. Unqualified 
practitioner. 

Group Head 7. — Subordinate medical service — 

Blood letter. Cupper. Inoculator. Leech applier. 

Sub-Order IV. 
Group Head 1. — Author, editor, writer — 

Almanac writer, maker. Author. Calendar, Brahmin. Calendar maker. 
Dramatist. Editor. Genealogist. Journalist. Moulvie (a learned Mussulman). 
Newspaper editor, Newspaper manager. Poet. 



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Group Head 2. — Reporter — 

Newspaper reporter. Shorthand writer. Writer, shorthand. 
Group Head 3. — Interpreter — 

Interpreter. 

Group Head 4. — Literary, private secretary, copyist — 

Caligraphor. Copyist, section writer. Copyist of Hindu books. Letter writer. 
Private writer. Writer, private. 

Group Head 5. — Graduate of university — 

Bachelor of Arts. Graduate. Graduate of university. Graduate, under. Master 
of Arts. Undergraduates. 

Group Head 6. — Student — 

Collegian. Scholar. Student. 

Group Head 7. — Literary Institution service — 

Clerk in library. Curator (not Government). Secretary to reading rooms, 
clubs. 

Group Head 8. — Orator — 
Orator. 

Sub-Obbbb V. 
Group Head 1. — Painter artist — 

Artist. (General painter. Miniature painter. Painter, picture. Painter, portrait. 
Painter, scene. Picture painter or portrait painter. 

Group Head 2. — Sculptor — 

Sculptor. 
Group Head 3. — Engraver, artist — 

Engraver (artist). 

Group Head 4. — Photographer — 
rhotographer. 

Sub-Ordbr VI. 

Group Head 1. — ^Musician, music master — 

Band master (not army). Bandsman (not regimental). Cymbalman (not regi- 
mental). Fiddle player. Fiddler. Flageolet player. Flute player. Kettle 
drummer (unsp.). Lute player. Music composer. Musician. Musician for 
dancing girls. Music master. Music student. Native drummer. Native 
trumpeter. Organist. Pipers (not military). Player on clarionet. Player 
on drum. Player on fiddle. Player on flute. Player on guitar, valhiem. 
Player on instruments. Player on the horn. Player on the kimiarai. Player 
on the lute. Player on the mruthungam. Player on the venai. Player on 
the violin. Teacher of music. Teacher of singing. 

Group Head 2. — Ballad singer, singer, songster, vocalist — 

Ballad singer. Singer. Songster. Songstress. Vocalist. 

Sub-Obdeb VII. 

Group Head 1. — ^Actor — 

Actor. Buffoons. Clown. Jester. Mimic. 

Group Head 2. — Exhibition and show service — 

Bear exhibitor (showman). Bullock showman (if for exhibition). Circus keeper. 
Doll dancer. Doll player. Exhibitor of bull playing. Exhibitor of snakes. 
Monkey dancer or bear (monkey) showman. Puppet actor. Puppet showman. 
Show exhibitor, showman. Show exhibitor, show puppet. Show-exhibitor. 
Show player. Snake charmer. Swing and merry-go-round keeper. 

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Group Head 3. — Theatre service — 

Dancers. Dancing eunuchs. Masquerader. Performer, theatrical. Proprietor, 
theatrical. Strolling player. Theatrical agent. Theatrical clerk. Theatrical 
manager. Theatrical proprietor. Theatrical servants. Theatrical service. 

Group Head 4. — Conjuror, performer — 

Acrobat. Charmer. Conjurors. Devil driver. Exhibitor of dexterous feats. 
Exhibitor of petty tricks. Exhibitor of sleight of han,d. Exorciser. 
Exorcist. Gymnasts. Hail averter. Juggler. Magician. Demonologist. 
Necromancy. Performer. Performing mendicants. Pole dancer. Professor 
of magic. Rope dancer. Soothsayer. Storytellers. 

Group Head 5. — Billiard marker — 

Billiard marker. Billiard table servant. 
Group Head 6. — Pugilist, fencer — 

Boxer (pugilist). Fencer. Pugilist. 
Group Head 7. — ^Racket, tennis court — 

Racket service. 
Group Head 8. — ^Wrestler — 

Wrestlers. 
Group Head 9. — Cricket ground service — 

Cricket ground service. 
Group Head 10. — ^Fortune teller — 

Fortune teller. 

Group Head 11. — Race course service — 

Racecourse servant. Racecourse service. 



Sub-Order Vill. 

Group Head 1. — Schoolmaster, school manager — 

Assistant master. Head master. Manager of schools. Master, (private 
schools). Principal of college. Private teacher. Schoolmaster. School- 
master, private, to other than local, or Government, or municipal schools. 
Superintendent of industrial schools. Teacher at industrial schools. Teacher 
at school. Training teacher. Tutor. Usher. 

Group Head 2. — Teacher, professor, lecturer — 

Dancing master. Fencing and gymnastic teacher. Gymnastic professor. Gym- 
nastic teacher. Lecturer. Professor. Professor of grammar. Professor of logic. 
Professor of mimansa. Professor of Vedantic pfilosophy. Pundit (pandit). 
Pupil, monitor. Religious instructor. Sacred historian. Teacher of dancing. 
Teacher of Koran. Teacher of philosophy. Teacher of theology. Teacher of 
Vedas. Teacher, private. Teacher of sacred history. Teacher of Sanskrit. 

Group Head 3. — Head of college, ditto fellow. 
Group Head 4. — School service — 

Private school service. School munshi. School peon. School servant. School 
watchman. School writer. Servant of private schools. 

Sub-Order IX. 

Group Head 1. — Civil engineer — 

Bachelor of civil engineering. Engineer (not Government). 
Group Head 2. — Scientific persons — 

Antiquarian. Astrologer. Astronomer. Botanist. Chronologist. Geographer. 
Geologist. Geometer. Horoscope caster. Mathematician. Metallurgist. 
Meteorological observer. Philosopher. Theologist. 

Group Head 3. — Museum service — 

Clerks, museum. Superintendent, Central Museum (not Government). 



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ORDER V. 

Sub-Order I. 

Group Head 1. — Innkeeper, hotel keeper, publican — 

Hotel keeper. Hotel proprietor. Hotel servant. Innkeeper. Publican. 

Group Head 2. — Beer seller, spirit seller — 

Beer and wine retailer. Beer dealer. Beer retailer. Beer seller. Toddy-shop 
keeper. Wine retailer. 

Group Head 3. — Lodging, boarding house keeper — 

Choultry keeper. Choultry servant. Chuttrum accountant. Chuttruin clerk. 
Chuttrum establishment. Chuttrum manager. Chuttrum servant. Chuttrum 
servants and others. Chuttrum superintendent. Lodging-house keeper. 
Servant, choultry. 

Group Head 4. — Coffee house, eating-house keeper — 

Coffee house keeper. Cooked food seller. Eating-house keeper. Pood seller (if 
eating-house keeper). Refreshment room keeper. Refreshment room proprietor. 
Tea seller by the cup. Water pandalman. 

Group Head 5. — Institution service — 

Attendant, private hospital. Cook, hospital. Lunatic asylum service. Matam 
servant. Nurse (private hospital). 

Group Head 6. — Club house service — 

Club clerk. Club servant. Mess house service. Servant, club house. 

Group Head 7. — Mess contractor, messman. 
Group Head 8. — Bath and washhouse service — 
Bath keeper. 

Sub-Order H. 

Group Head 1. — ^Domestic servant general — 

Attendant. Barber (domestic). Butler. Chokra, dressing boy. Dressing boy. 
Flag bearer. Footman. General servant. Hall servant. House steward. 
Hukaburdar. Lamplighter (domestic service). Mace-bearer. Pipe-bearer. 
Punka puller. Servant (domestic). Servant (general). Servant (unspecified). 
Steward, house. Sweeper (if domestic). Tent Lascar, pitcher (not military). 
Torchman. Valet. 

Group Head 2. — Housekeeper — 
Housekeeper. 

Group Head 3. — Cook, scullion — 

Cook. Dish cleaner and plasterer of dining floor. Masalchi. Maty. Milkman 
(domestic). Scullion (maty). 

Group Head 5. — ^Nurse — 

Nurse. 
Group Head 6.— Laundryman — 

Dhobee (domestic). Laundry-keeper. 

Group Head 7. — Coachman — 

Coachman (domestic). 
Group Head 8. — Groom, stableman living in his master's house — 

Horsekeeper syce (if domestic). 

Group Head 9. — Gardenelr. 

Group Head 11. — ^Assembly, public rooms service — 
Servant of library. 

Group Head 13.— Office keeper, porter (not Government). 

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Group Head 14. — Park, gate and lodge keeper (not Government) — 
Gatekeeper. Porter, domestic. Doorkeeper. 

Group Head 15. — Bazaarman — 
Bazaarman. 

Group Head 16. — Bhisti (domestic), Beesties domestic — 

Bhisti (domestic) beesties (domestic). Cowadees (domestic). Pukkali E., un- 
specified. Water carrier (domestic). Water-drawer (domestic). Water-man 
(domestic). 

Group Head 17. — Eunuch serving in female apartments — 
Eunuch serving in female apartments. 

OBDER VI. 
Sub-Order I. 

Group Head 1. — Merchant — 

Bombay merchant. Bullion merchant. Cabul merchant. Cocoa nut merchant. 
Coffee merchant. Copper merchant. Com merchant. Cotton merchant. Flax 
merchant. Gold merchant. Gum merchant. Indigo merchant. Jewel mer- 
chant. Lead merchant. Leather merchant. Merchant. Metal merchant. 
Oil merchant. Oil seed merchant, dealer. Opium merchant. Silver merchant. 
Sugar merchant. Tin merchant. Wool merchant. 

Group Head 2. — Banker — 

Banker. Soucar. 

Group Head 3. — Bank Service — 

Bank accountant. Bank agent. Bank bill collector. Bank clerk. Bank mana- 
ger. Bank officer. Bank service. 

Group Head 4. — Insurance service. 

Group Head 5. — Broker, agent — 

Agent. Agent, commercial, Agent, commission. Agent, emigration. Agent, 
insurance. Bill broker. BiU (exchange-hundi) dealer. Broker in coin. 
Broker in cotton. Broker in dyewood. Broker in fish. Broker in general. 
Broker in grain. Broker in jewels. Broker in leather. Broker in oil. Broker 
in rice. Broker in silk. Broker in sugar. Broker in timber. Broker in 
tobacco. Commercial agent. Commission agent. Corn broker. Cotton 
broker. Emigration agent. Emigration manager. Fish broker. General 
broker. Grain broker. Indigo broker. Jewel broker. Leather broker. Oil 
broker. Rice broker. Silk broker. Tobacco broker. 

Group Head 6. — Salesman. 

Group Head 7. — Auctioneer, valuer, house agent — 
Appraiser. Auctioneer and auction valuer. 

Group Head 8. — Accountant — 

Accountant (not Government service). Auditor (not Government service). 
Group Head 9. — Commercial clerk — 

Cashier (not Government). Clerk, commercial (unspecified). Clerk, private, 
(ylerk, unspecified. Debt collector, dunner. Emigration clerk. Emigration 
recruiter. Karkoon. Treasurer (not Government). 

Group Head 10. — Commercial traveller. 

Group Head 11. — Capitalist, shareholder. 

Group Head 12. — Money lender, bill discounter — 

Money lender. Usurer. 

Group Head 13. — Cowrie seller, money changer, money dealer — 
Cowrie seller. Money changer. Money dealer. Shroff. 



Digitized by 



Google 



i)9 

Group Head 14. — Lessee of market — 
Lessee of market. Market lessee. 

Sub-Obdbe II. 

Group Head 1. — ^Pawnbroker — 
Pawnbroker. 

Group Head 2. — Shopkeeper, general dealer — 

General dealer in other things (other than gold, silver, and precious stones). 
General shop dealer. Petty shopkeeper. Retail dealer, miscellaneous. Retail 
shopkeeper. Seller of sundry articles. Shopkeeper. Tradesman. 

Group Head 3. — Huckster, costermonger — 
Costermonger. Huckster. 

Group Head 4. — Hawker, pedlar — 

Cloth dealer (pedlar). Flour seller. Hawker. Pedlar. Thread merchant (really 
pedlar). 

ORDER VII. 

Sub-Order I. 

Group Head 1. — Railway engine driver, stoker, engine worker, locomotive — 

Driver, locomotive. Engine driver, railway. Engine keeper. Engine worker. 

Fitter, locomotive. Foreman, locomotive. Greaser, locomotive. Lifter, loco- 

/ motive. Railway driver. Railway engine driver. Railway engine keeper. 

Railway engine worker. Railway engine fitter. Railway engine greaser. 

Railway stoker. 

Group Head 2. — Railway ofl&cer, clerk, stationmaster — 

Agent, railway. Checker, assistant, goods. Checker, railway. Checker, through 
goods. Checker, through road goods. Clerk, assistant, goods. Clerk, assistant, 
parcels. Clerk, auditor's oflBce. Clerk, booking. Clerk, booking, assistant. 
Clerk, chief, goods. Clerk, district, traffic. Clerk, locomotive. Clerk, parcels. 
Clerk, railway. Clerk, railway traffic. Clerk, waggon. Draftsman, railway, 
engineer's. Engineer, assistant, railway. Engineer, chief, railway. Engineer, 
deputy chief. Engineer, railway. Examiner, railway accounts (not Govern- 
ment service). Fireman, locomotive. Goods' clerk. Inspector, railway. In- 
spector, railway platform. Inspector, travelling, railway. Inspector, train. 
Inspector, way, railway engineer's. Inspector, sub-, railway engineer's. Lug- 
gage clerk. Manager, assistant, railway office. Manager, locomotive. Manager, 
raUway. Manager, railway, auditor's office. Manager, railway, engineer's, 
office. Manager, railway office. Officer, railway. Overseer, railway engineer's. 
Railway accountant. Railway agent. Railway auditor. Railway cashier. 
Railway cash keeper. Railway checker. Railway clerk. Railway draftsman. 
Railway engineer. Railway inspector. Railway officer. Railway overseer. 
Railway shroff. Railway stationmaster. Railway storekeeper. Railway su- 
perintendent. Railway ticket collector. Railway writer. Resident engineer. 
Rolling stock inspector. Shroff, railway, agent's office. Shroff, railway, auditor's 
office. Stationmaster, assistant. Stationmaster's clerk. Stationmaster, railway. 
Storekeeper, locomotive. Storekeeper, railway, auditor's office. Storekeeper, 
railway engineer's. Superintendent, district traffic. Superintendent, loco- 
motive. Ticket collector or clerk. Traffic manager. Waggon clerk. Writer, 
district traffic. Writer, engineer's. Writer, locomotive. Writer, railway, 
agent's office. Writer, railway, auditor's office. Writer, traffic. 

Group Head 3. — Railway attendant, servant — 

Attendant, railway office. Dresser, railway. Foreman, assistant, railway. 
Foreman, railway. Fuel storekeeper, locomotive. Gate checker. Guard, 
railway. Lampman, railway. Level crossing man. Lorry man. Peon, railway. 
Pointsman, railway. Porter, head, railway. Porter, railway. Probationer, 
railway. Railway attendant. Railway carriage examiner. Railway cleaner. 
Railway dresser. Railway foreman. Railway guard. Railway peon. Rail- 

T6747. O ^^^T^ 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 




100 

way pointsman. Railway porter. Railway probationer. Railway servant. 
Railway service (not Government). Railway shunter. Railway signaller. 
Railway watchman. Railway water carrier. Servant, railway. Shunter, 
assistant. Shunter, railway. Signaller, railway. Signalman (railway servant). 
Watchman, railway. Water carrier, railway. 

Sub-Oeder II. 
Group Head 1. — Toll collector, turnpike gatekeeper — 

Agent, toll. Boat-bridge maker. Collector of tolls. Gatekeeper, toll. Inspector 
of tolls (not Government). Toll collector. Toll contractor. Toll gatekeeper. 

Group Head 2.— Coach, cab owner, livery stable keeper — 

Bandy owners. Bullock owners. Bylee owner. Cab owner. Cab, coach, &c. 
proprietor. Carriage (ornamental) proprietor. Coach owner. Ekka owner. 
Jutka owner. Livery stable keeper. Palanquin owner. 

Group Head 3. — Coachman (not domestic), cabman — 

Bandy driver. Bullock handyman. Bylee drivier. Ooachman {not domestic). 
Driver. Drayman. Ekka driver. Jutka driver. Omnibus driver. Stage 
coach waggon service. Timekeeper, omnibus. Tramway stage carriage. 
Tramway driver. Tramway guard. 

Group Head 4. — Carman, carrier, carter, drayman — 
.Carrier. Carter. Cart hirer carrier. 

Group Head 5. — Wheel chair, proprietor, attendant. 

Group Head 6. — Camel, pack bullock, pack pony driver, muleteer — 

Camel, letter out of. Camel driver. Muleteer. Pack bullock owner. Pack 
bullock driver. 

Group Head 7. — ^Palanquin bearer — 

Baggage bearer. Bandy drawer. Bandy men. Bandy puller. Bearer. Bearer 
paid by rent-free land. Cart drawer (not agricultural labourer). Carter (not 
agricultural labourer). Coolie. Carrier on roads. Munchil (palanquin) bearer. 
Palanquin bearer. Porter carrier. Transit carrier. Transit man. 

Sub-Order III. 

Group Head 1. — Canal and inland. navigation service — 

River steamer service. Agent, river steamer. 

Group Head 2. — Barge, lighter, waterman — 

Basket boatman. Boatman. Ferry conductor. Ferryman. Rower, river naviga- 
tion. 

Group Head 3. — Boat and barge owner, agent — 

Basket boat agent. Basket boat contractor. Basket boat owner. Boat owner. 
Ferry agent. Ferry boat owner. Ferry contractor. Ferry owner. 

Sub-Order IV. 
Group Head 1. — Shipowner — 

Dhony owner. Shipowner. Ship proprietor. Smack owner. Vessel owner. 

Group Head 2. — Steam navigation service — 

Agent, steamer. Engineer, ship. Navigation Company, agent. Navigation Com- 
pany, clerk. Navigation Company, engineer. Navigation Company, fireman. 
Navigation Company, officer. Navigation Company, packet agent. Steamer 
agent. Steamer, Navigation Company. 

Group Head 3. — Ship steward, cook — 

Cook, ship. Ship cook. Ship steward. Steward, ship. 

Group Head 4. — Seaman, sailor, mariner, master mariner — 

Captain, ship. Clerk, ship. Dhony man. Mariner. Master mariner. Sailor. 
Sailor, native* Seaman. Serang (sailor). Ship captain. Skipper. Super- 
cargoes. 



Digitized by 



Google 



101 

Group Head 5.— PiloiH- 
Pilot. 

Group Head 6. — Boatman on seas — 

Boatman, catamaran. Boatman, maistry. Boatman, masula. Malimis. Bower 
at sea. 

Group Head 7. — Dock service, harbour service — 

Dock service. Harbour diver. Harbour engineer. Harbour service. Harbour 
superintendent. Lighthouse keeper. Lighthouse keeper and other servants in 
ships. 

Group Head 8. — Diver. 

Group Head 9. — Ship agent — 
Ship agent. 

Sub-Oedbr V. 

Group Head 1. — ^Warehouseman, storekeeper — 

Granary keeper. Granary labourer. Granary porter. Packer. Warehouse 
keeper. Warehouseman. Warehouse proprietor. Warehouse servant. 

Group Head 2. — Meter, weigher — 

Commeter (grain weigher). Grain measurer. Grain weigher. Weigher. Weigh- 



man. 



Sub-Order VI. 

Group Head 1. — Messenger, porter (not Government) — 

Coolee, porter and messenger. Emigration peon (messenger). Inquirer (em- 
ployed under zemindar as news collector). Jemadar (imspecified). Messenger 
(not Government), commissionaire. Peon. Tindal (not military). 

Group Head 2. — Telegraph service (not Government) — 

Signaller, telegraph (not Government). Telegraph signaller (not Government). 
Telegraph service (not Government). 

Group Head 3. — Courier, guide — 
Courier. 



ORDER Vni. 

Sub-Order I. 

Group Head 1. — ^Land proprietor — 

Freeholder- (inamdar). Inamdar. Indigo planter. Jaghirdar. Landholder. 
Landlord. Land proprietor. Malguzar. Mittadar. Oobaridar. Tenamdar 
(inamdars). Zemindars. 

Group Head 2. — Parmer, grazier — 

Farmer. Grazier, Land farmer. Permanent leaseholder. Sheep ^and goat 
grazier. Village farmer. 

Group Head 3. — Farmers', graziers* sons, &c. — 

Farmer's brother. Farmer's grandson. Farmers nephew. Farmer's son. 
Grazier's brother. Grazier's grandson. Grazier s nephew. Grazier's son. 

Group Head 5. — Farm bailiff. 

Group Head 6. — ^Tenant cultivator — 

Agriculturist (if not labourer or servant). Cultivator. Cultivator, paying half 
the crops as rent. Irrigator (not Government). Leaseholder, ruttadar. 
Renter of lands. Ryot. Sub-tenant. Tacksman (tenant). Tenant. Tenant, 

sub or under. Tillers. Under tenant. I 

I 



O 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



102 

Group Head 7. — ^.A.gricultiiral labourer (includes field watchman) — 

Agricultural labourer. Agricultural servant (by the month). Agricultural 
servant (bv the year). Bullock tender (if agricultural labourer). Carter. 
Cattle driver (if agricultural labourer). Coffee farm servant. Cow boy. 
Cowherd, agricultural labourer. Cowman, farm servant. Ditcher. Farmer's 
servant. Farm servant (if not indoor). Field watchman. Goatherd (if 
agricultural labourer). Hedger. Herdsman (if agricultural labourer). Labourer, 
agricultural. Labourer, cultivator. Oxman (if agricultural labourer). Plough- 
man. Sower. 

Group Head 8. — Shepherd — 
Shepherd. 

Group Head 9. — ^Farm servant, indoor. 

Group Head 10. — ^Land surveyor, land estate agent — 

Agricultural agent. Coflfee planter's agent. Collector of rents (zemindar's ser- 
vice). Deewan, under mokhassadars. Deewan, under proprietors. Deewan, 
under zemindars. Farmer s agent. Field surveyor (not Government service). 
Land estate agent. Land estate agent's accountant. Land estate agent's 
clerk. Land estate agent's other servants. Landholder's agent. Land 
steward. Land surveyor. Manager under mokhassadars, proprietor. Mitta 
agent. Mitta amin. Mitta gomashta (a petty jaghirdar). 

Group Head 11. — ^Agricultural student — 
Student, agricultural. 

Sub-Oedbr II. 

Group Head 1. — Woodman — 

Forest, conservator of (not Government). Forest lessee. Forest peon (not 
Government). Forest ranger (not Government). Jungle amin (not Govern- 
ment). Jungle gardener (not Government). Jungle maistry (not Government). 
Jungle watchman (not Government). Renter of jungles. Woodcutter. 
Woodman (if cutter). 

Sub-Ordbe III. 
Group Head 1. — Nurseryman, seedsman, florist — 

Florist. 
Group Head 2. — Gardener (not domestic) — 

Areca-nut Tope gardener. Betel gardener. Betel grower. Cocoa-nut gardener. 
Garden bullock driver. Gardener. Garden labourer. Gardener (not domestic). 
Gardener (independent). Gardener (military). Gardener under receiver ap- 
pointed for the management of same estate. Mowha crop farmer. Renter of 
gardens. Tobacco grower. Vegetable grower. Vine and grape grower. 



Water-nut cultivator. 



ORDER IX. 



Group Head 1. — Horse proprietor, breeder, dealer — 

Dealer in horses. Horse breeder. Horse dealer. Horse proprietor. 

Group Head 2.— Horse breaker- 
Colt breaker. Rough rider. 

Group Head 3.— Horsekeeper, groom, jockey- 
Grass cutter (if for horses or animals). Groom. Horsekeeper (syce). Horse 
trainer. Jockey. Stablekeeper. 

Group Head 4.— Farrier, veterinary surgeon- 
Cattle doctor. Cow leech. Farrier, shoeing smith. Horse doctor. Nalbund 
(farrier). Salootri. Veterinary surgeon or doctor. 



Digitized by 



Google 



108 

Group Head 5. — Cattle, ship, pig dealer, salesman — 

Beast salesman. Bullock dealer. Bullock shower. Cattle dealer. Cattle driver 
(not agricultural labourer). Cowman (not farm servant). Cowherd (not agri- 
cultural). Goat dealer. Pig dealer. Pig salesman. Sheep and goat dealer. 
Sheep and goat dresser. Sheep and goat grazer. Sheep and goat seller and 
salesman. Sheep and goat shaver, shearer. Sheep and goat owner. Swine- 
herd. 

Group Head 6. — ^Drover. 

_^ ■ 

Group Head 7. — Gamekeeper. 

Group Head 8. — Vermin destroyer — 

Ratcatcher. 
Group Head 9. — ^Fisherman — 

Fisherman. Fishery renter. Fishing boatman. Oyster dredger. 

Group Head 11. — Animal, bird dealer, keeper — 

Animal catcher. Animal dealer. Animal keeper. Animal trainer. Ass dealer. 
Ass keeper. Bird catcher or snarer. Bird dealer. Bird keeper. Bird seller. 
Dealer in animals. Dealer in birds. Donkey dealer. Duck keeper. Duck, 
goose, dealer. Falconer. Geese dealer. Goose keeper. Monkey catcher. 
Mule dealer. Pigeon and other bird dealer. Pigeon keeper. Poultry dealer. 
Poultry keeper. Poultry, live, keeper. Quail keeper. Turkey dealer. 

Group Head 12. — Camel dealer — 
Camel dealer. Camel keeper. 

Group Head 13. — Crocodile catcher — 
Crocodile catcher. 

Group Head 14. — Dog broker — 

Dog broker. Dog dealer. Dog feeder. Dog keeper. 

Group Head 15. — Elephant dealer — 

Elephant dealer. Elephant doctor. Elephant driver. Elephant keeper. Elephant 
merchant. Elephant man. Elephant mavathie, driver (not Government). 

Group Head 16. — Huntsman — 

Hunter. Hunting dog keeper. Huntsman. Shikari. 

Group Head 17. — Leech-seller — 
Leech-seller. 

Group Head 18. — Silk-worm keeper — 
Silk-worm keeper. 

Group Head 19. — Tiger keeper — 
Tiger-keeper. 



CLASS V. 



ORDEK X. 

Sub-Order T. 
Group Head 1. — Bookseller, publisher — 

Book publisher. Bookseller. Publisher. 

Group Head 2. — Bookbinder — 

Bookbinder. Dufteri (not Government). 

O 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



104 

Group Head 3. — ^Printer — 

Ballman (not Govemmenij. Compositor (not Government). Foreman, press 
(not Government). Inker, private press. Pressman (not Government reader). 
Printer (not Government). Printing press proprietor. Printing servant. Pro- 
prietor of printing office. Superintendent of press (not Government). 

Group Head 4. — ^Newspaper agent, vendor — 

Newspaper office clerk. 
Group Head 5.-^Newspaper proprietor, publisher — 

Newspaper proprietor. Newspaper publisher. Newspaper servant. Proprietor 
of newspaper. 

Group Head 6. — Book agent, librarian — 

Bible depdt keeper. Book agent. Clerk in reading room or reading club. 
Colporteur. 

Sub-Order H. 

Group Head 1. — Musical instrument maker — 

Bugle maker. Chikara (stringed instrument maker). Dealer in musical instru- 
ments. Drum maker. Flageolet maker. Flute maker. Guitar maker. Harp 
maker. Musical instrument seller, maker. Tambaur maker. 

Group Head 2. — Music engraver, printer. 

Group Head 3. — ^Music seller, publisher. 

Group Head 4. — ^Musical string maker — 
Musical instrument string maker. 

• Sub-Order III. 

Group Head 1. — Lithographer, lithographic printer — 
Lithographer. 

Group Head 2. — ^Map publisher, seller — 

Map seller. 
Group Head 3. — Print and map colourer, mounter — 

Illuminator of manuscripts. Map colourer. Map drawer. Map mounter. 
Group Head 4. — Picture cleaner, dealer — 

Picture cleaner, restorer. Picture dealer. 

Group Head 5. — Copper, steel plate printer — 
Plate printer, copper, steel. 

Group Head 6. — Artist's colourman — 
Paint maker. 

Sub-Order IV. 

Group Head 1. — Wood carver — 
Wood carver. 

Group Head 2. — ^Artificial flower maker- 
Artificial flower maker. Artificial vegetable maker. 

Group Head 3. — Animal bird preserver, stuffer — 
Bird or beast stuffer. Taxidermist. 

Group Head 4. — Jet and coral worker, carver, ornament makeir — 

Worker, carver, dealer in jet. Jet worker, carver. Coral worker, carver. 

Group Head 5. — Figure and image maker — 

Figure caster. Figure maker. Idol maker. Image maker. Plaster figure 
maker. 



Digitized by 



Google 



105 

Sub-Ordeb V. 
Group Head 1.— Toy maker — 

Doll maker. Kite maker. Top maker. Toy dealer. Toy maker. 
Group Head 2. — Fishing tackle maker — 

Fishing tackle maker. Fishing tackle seller. 
Group Head 3. — Cage maker — 

Bird cage maker. Cage maker, seller. 

Group Head 4. — Bat, ball maker — 
Ball maker. Leather ball maker. 

Group Head 5. — ^Archery goods maker — 
Bow maker, seller. 

Group Head 6. — Backet maker — 
Backet maker. > » * a; 

Sub-Order VI. 

Group Head 1. — ^Type caster — 

Type caster, founder (not Government service). 

Group Head 2. — ^Medal maker — 
Medal maker. 

Group Head 3. — Die engraver — 
Die engraver. 

Group Head 4. — Seal engraver — 

Engraver of seals. Seal engraver. Seal maker. Stone engraver (if for seals or 
dies). 

Sub-Order VH. 

Group Head 1. — Watch maker, clock maker. 

Clock maker, seller, repairer. Watch regulator. Watch repairer. 

Group Head 2. — ^Philosophical instrument maker — 

Optician. Scientific instrument maker. Spectacle glass grinder. 

Group Head 3. — Weighing machine, measure, scale maker — 

Measure maker. Measure stamper. Scale maker. Weighing machine maker. 

Sub-Order VIII. 
Group Head. — Surgical instrument maker. 

Sub-Obdbr IX. 

Group Head 1. — Gunsmith, gun manufacturer — 
Barrel maker (gun barrel). Gain maker. 

Group Head 2. — ^Ammunition maker, dealer — 

Ammunition dealer. Ammunition maker. Gunpowder (country) dealer. Gun- 
powder dealer. Gunpowder dealer and maker. Gunpowder maker. Gunpowder 
merchant. 

Group Head 3. — Percussion cap dealer — 
Percussion cap dealer. 

Group Head 4. — Bayonet maker, sword maker — 

Bayonet maker. Scimitar maker. Sword maker. 

Group Head 5. — Scabbard maker — 
Scabbard maker. 

4 



Digitized by 



Google 



106 

Group Head 6. — ^Armourer — 
Armourer (private), sikligar, 

Sub-Oedee X. 

Group Head 1. — Engine, machine maker, agent, dealer — 

Blow pipe maker. Boiler maker. Engine fitter. Engine machine maker. 

Group Head 2. — Spinning, weaving machine maker — 

Loom maker. Spinning machine maker. Weaving machine maker. 

Group Head 3. — ^Agricultural implement machine maker — 

Agricultural implement maker. Agricultural machine maker. Indigo vat maker- 
Oil press maker. Plough share maker. Sieve maker. Winnowing basket maker, 
seller. 

Group Head 4. — Tool maker, dealer — 

Axe maker. Tool dealer. Tool grinder. Tool maker. Tweezer maker. 

Ghroup Head 6. — Saw maker — 
Saw maker. 

Group Head 6. — Cutler — 

Cutler (sikligar). Knife grinder. Knife maker. 

Group Head 7. —Needle maker — 
Needle maker. 

Group Head 8. — Bellows maker — 
Bellows maker. 

Group Head 9. — Saw mill maker — 
Saw mill maker. 

Group Head 10. — Mill (water) maker — 
Mill (water) maker. 

Sub-Oedbe XI. 

Group Head 1. — Coachmaker, palanquin maker, howda maker — 

Bandy maistry. Bandy merchant. Bullock, coachmaker. Carriage builder. 
Coach builder. Coach merchant. Howda maker. Palanquin maker. 

Group Head 2. — Wheelwright, cart maker — 
Cart maker. Wheelwright. 

Group Head 3. — ^Railway carriage maker — 

Railway carriage maker. Waggon (railway) maker. 

Sub-Oedee XH. 

Saddler, harness, whip maker — 

Bit maker. Collar maker (not armv). Girth maker (not web). Harness maker 
(not army). Saddle maker. Saddle cloth maker. Saddler. Whip dealer, 
seller. Whip maker. 

Sub-Oedee XIH. 

Group Head 1. — Shipbuilder, shipwright, boat, barge builder — 

Barge builder. Boat builder. Boat maker. Boat and phatemar builder. Ship- 
builder. 

Group Head 2.— Sail maker — 
Sail maker. 

Group Head 3.— Ship's chandler- 
Ship chandler. 



Digitized by 



Google 



107 

Sub-Order XIV. 

Group Head 1. — House proprietor — 
House proprietor. House renting. 

Group Head 2. — ^Architect — 
Architect. 

Group Head 3. — Surveyor — 
Surveyor. 

Group Head 4. — Builder — 

Builder. Building material dealer. Contractor for buildings. Contractor of 
public works. Dealer in building materials. 

Group Head 5. — Carpenter — 

Carpenter. Maistry (unspecified). P^ndal erector, decorator, maker. 

Group Head 6. — ^Bricklayer — 

Brick cutter. Bricklayer. Bricklayer, labourer. 

Group Head 7. — Marble, mason — 

Engraver of marble. Marble mason. 

Group Head 8. — ^Mason, pavior — 

Mason. Mason, children employed by — Stone mason* 

Group Head 9. — Slater, tiler — 
Tiler. 

Group Head 10. — Plasterer, whitewasher — 
Plasterer. Whitewasher. 

Group Head 11. — Plumber, painter, glaader — 

Glazier. House painter. Decorator. Painter, house. Plumber. 

Group Head 12. — Blind maker, fitter — 
Blind fitter or maker. Blind maker. 

Group Head 13. — Drain service — 
Drain service. 

Sub-Ordee XV. 

Group Head 1. — Cabinet maker — 

Bed dealer and maker. Cabinet maker and joiner. Chairs, &c. Carver. Chairs» 
tables, and box maker. Cot maker. Seller. Worker on furniture. 

Group Head 2. — Undertaker — 

Furnishing undertaker. Undertaker. 

Group Head 3. — Carver and gilder — 

Dealer in looking glass. Gilder. Looking glass dealer (mirror). Looking glass 
maker (mirror). Picture frame maker. Picture frame seller. 

Group Head 4. — ^Furniture broker, dealer- 
Furniture broker. Furniture dealer. 

Group Head 5. — Curiosity dealer — 
Curiosity dealer. 

Sub-Obdee XVI. combined with Sub-Obdebs X. and XI. 

Sub-Obdeb xvn. 

Group Head 1.— Manufacturing chemist — 

Alum seller. Ammonia seller. Borax seller. Cinchona bark manufacturer. 
CoUyrium maker. Saltpetre maker. Saltpetre manufacturer. Soda, crude, 
maker, seller. Tooth powder maker, seller. 

Y5747. P r^ T 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



108 

Group Head 2, — Dye, colour manufacturer — 

Aldye maker. Aldye seller. Colour maker, dealer. Dye manufacturer. Dye 
seller. Henna preparer, seller. Indigo manufacturer. Madder (Indian) 
preparer. Madder (Indian) seller. Vermillion. 

Group Head 3. — ^Dyer, calenderer — 
Calenderer. 

Group Head 4. — ^Match, fusee maker, seller. 

Group Head 5. — Sulphur dealer — 
Sulphur dealer, seller. 

Group Head 6. — Firework maker- 
Firework maker. Firework manufacturer. Firework seller. 

Group Head 7. — Ink manufacturer — 

Bhilawa nut (ink nut) seller. Ink maker, seller. Ink manufacturer. 

ORDER XI. 

Sub-Order I. 
Group Head 1. — Wool staple, &c. dealer, warehouseman. 

Group Head 2. — Felt manufacturer — 
Felt maker. 

Group Head 3. — Woollen cloth manufacturer — 

Cloth stamper with lac. Wool cleaner. Wool spinner. Wool weaver, worker 
(Pushm--«7eaver). Woollen cloth or woollen manufacturer. Wool scutcher, 
cleaner. 

Group Head 4. — Fuller — 
Fuller. 

Group Head 5.— Wool dyer, printer — 
Wool dyer. 

Group Head 6. — Worsted manufacturer. 

Group Head 7. — Cloth merchant, dealer — 
Cloth seller. Warehouseman (cloth). 

Group Head 8. — Stuff manufacturer. 

Group Head 9. — Flannel manufacturer. 

Group Head 10. — ^Blanket manufacturer — 

Blanket maker or weaver. Cumbly manufacturer. Weaver of blankets. 
Group Head 11. — Carpet manufacturer — 

Carpet dealer, seller. Carpet maker (not cotton). Carpet merchant (not cotton). 
Group Head 12. — Shawl weaver — 

Shawl repairer. Shawl seller, maker. Shawl weaver. 

Sub-Order 2. 

Group Head 1. — Silk manufacturer — 

Bleacher (sUk). Silk gown weaver. Silk manufacturer. Silk sizer. Silk 
twister. Silk weaver. Silk winder. Silk worker, spinner. Weaver of silk 
cloth. 

Group Head 2.—- Silk dyer, printer — 

Dyer of silk cloth. Silk dyer. Silk printer. 

Group Head 3. — Silk merchant, dealer — 

Silk cloth dealer. Silk dealer. Silk merchant. Silk salesman. Tassar dealer. 



Digitized by 



Google 



109 

Group Head 4. — Silk ribbon manufacturer — 
Bibbon maker. 

Group Head 5. — Silk braid manufacturer — 

Maker of silk braid. Silk braid, silk and tassel maker. Silk braid seller. 
Group Head 6. — Silk kincob manufacturer — 

Kincob maker, seller. 

SxJB-ORbER III. 

Group Head 1. — Flax linen manufacturer — 

Bleacher (flax). Dyer of flax. Flax dealer. Flax manufacturer. Linen manu- 
facturer. Warehouseman, fliax (linen). 

Group Head 2.— Lace manufacturer — 
Lace dealer. Lace manufacturer. 

Group Head 3. — Thread manufacturer — 

Brahminical thread maker. Cord thread (coloured) seller. Thread maker. 
Thread manufacturer. Thread weaver. 

Group Head 4. — Tape manufacturer — 
Tape dealer. Tape manufacttrrer. 

Group Head 5. — Cotton manufacturer — 

Bleacher (cotton). Bobbin carrier. Bobbin preparer. Carder, cotton. Cloth 
maker (cotton). Cloth weaver (cotton). Cotton beater. Cotton carder. Cot- 
ton cleaner. Cotton cloth weaver. Cotton ginner. Cotton handloom weaver. 
Cotton manufacturer. Cotton newar-maker. Cotton packer, presser. Cotton 
scutcher. Cotton spinner. Cotton weaver. Cotton web maker. Engineer, mill. 
Fireman, mill engine. Handkerchief manufacturer. Handloom weaver Hindu 
male cloth manufa<5turer. Manager (mill). Overseer (miU). Packer (cotton 
factory). Sheeting, cloth manufacturer. Timekeeper (cotton factory). Weaver 
of mosquito curtains and fringes. Weaver (not otherwise specified). 

Group Head 6. — Cotton, calico warehouseman, dealer — 

Cotton dealer. Cotton newar seller. Cotton twist merchant. Cotton warehouse- 
man. Dealer in cotton. Dealer in yam. Twist merchant. 

Group Head 7. — Calico, cotton printer — 
Calico printer. 

Group Head 8. — Calico, cotton dyer — 

Cloth dyer. Cotton dyer. Dyer of cotton. 

Group Head 9. — Carpet maker, merchant (cotton) — 

Carpet maker (cotton). Carpet merchant (cotton). Cotton carpet manufacturer. 
Group Head 10. — Fustian manufacturer — 

Fustian manufacturer. 

Group Head 11. — Tent maker — 
Tent maker. 

Sub-Order IV. 

Group Head 1. — Bleacher — 

Bleacher (not otherwise described). 

Group Head 2. — Trimming, braid maker — 

Braid maker. Embroiderer. Embroidery seller. Ornament maker, stringer. 
Patuckar. Patwa. 

Group Head 3. — Fancy goods dealer — 

Fancy goods dealer. Fancy goods maker. Fancy goods spinner. Silver wire 
covering with silk. ' 

Group Head 4. — Girth, web maker — 
Girth, web maker. 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



110 

Sub-Ordbe V. 

Group Head 1. — Hair-dresser — 

Barber (whether village or not). False lock (hair) maker. Hair dresser. Human 
hair merchant. Village barber. 

Group Head 2. — Hat manufacturer — 

Cap seller. Hat merchant, maker. Turban tier. 

Group Head 3. — Furrier — 

Furrier. Leather skin coat maker. 

Group Head 4. — Tailor — 
Tailor. 

Group Head 5. — Milliner — 

Boddice-maker. Dressmaker. Milliner. 

Group Head 6. — Shoemaker — 

Boot and shoemaker. Cobbler. Mochi (shoemaker). Sandal-maker. Shoemaker. 
Shoe repairer. Shoe seller. Slipper maker. 

Group Head 7. — Button maker — 

Button maker. Dealer. Cotton button maker. 

Group Head 8. — Laundry keeper — 

Calenderer (laundry). Cloth pleater (with hot iron). Dhobee (not domestic). 
Ir oners. Ironman. Laundry keeper (not domestic). Laundry man (not 
domestic). Washerman. Washerman, village. 

Group Head 9. — Embroiderer — 
Darner. Embroiderer (dress). 

Group Head 10. — Hosier, haberdasher — 
Haberdasher. Stocking knitter, maker. 

Group Head 11. — Glover — 
Glove maker. 

Group Head 12. — Leather-gaiter maker — 
Leather-gaiter maker. 

Group Head 13. — Old clothes dealer — 
Old clothes dealer. 

Group Head 14. — Outfitter — 
Outfitter. 

Group Head 15. — Theatrical property maker — 
Theatrical property maker. Tinsel maker. 

Group Head 16. — Umbrella, parasol, stick maker — 

Stick dealer. Umbrella dealer. Umbrella maker or repairer. 

Group Head 17. — Shroud maker — 
Shroud maker. 

Group Head 18. — Shoeblacks — 
Shoeblacks. 

Sub-Ordbe VI. 
Group Head 1. — Matmaker, seller — 

Grass matmaker. Matmaker. Mat seller. Mat weaver. Palmyra matmaker. 
Group Head 2. — Hemp manufacturer — 

Hemp dresser. Hemp manufacturer. Hemp merchant. Hemp spinner. 
Group Head 3. — Jute manufacturer — 

Bobbin carrier (jute manufacture). Carder (jute manufacture). Gunny bag 
manufacturer. Gunny bag seller. Gunny cloth manufacturer. Gunny weaver. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ill 

Jute dealer. Jute factory service. Jute manufacturer. Mechanic (jute manu- 
facture). SliifterHute manufacture). Spinner (jute manufacture). Twister (jute 
manufacture). Warder (jute manufacture). Warper (jute manufacture). 

Group Head 4. — Rope, cord maker — 

Cable spinner, maker. Rope, dealer. Rope maker. Rope manufacturer. Rope 
seller. Ship rope maker. Twine dealer, maker, seller. 

Group Head 5. — Net maker — 

Fishing net maker. Net maker. 

Group Head 6. — Canvas, sail-cloth manufacturer — 
Canvas maker. Sail cloth maker. 

Group Head 7. — Sacking, sack, bag maker, dealer — 

Bag dealer. Bag maker. Nose-bag weaver, maker. Sack dealer. Sack maker. 
Sacking maker, dealer. Weaver of sackcloth. 

Group Head 8. — Cocoa fibre matting maker — 
Cocoa-nut matting maker. 

Group Head 9. — Coir manufacturer — 
Coir dealer. Coir manufacturer. 

ORDER Xn. 

Sub-Order I. 

Group Head 1. — Cowkeeper, milk seller — 

Butter, milk seller. Butter monger, seller. Cowkeeper (dairyman, not farm 
servant). Curd seller. Dairyman (not farm servant). Ghee dealer. Ghee 
manufacturer. Ghee merchant. Ghee seller. Milk drawer. Milkman (not 
domestic). Milk seller. 

Group Head 2. — Cheesemonger — 
Cheesemonger. 

Group Head 3. — Butcher, Meat salesman — 

Butcher. Meat salesman. Meat seller. 
Group Head 4. — Provision curer, dealer — 

Provision curer. Provision dealer. 
Group Head 5. — Poulterer, game dealer — 

Fowl monger. Game dealer. Poulterer. Poultry salesman. 
Group Head 6. — Fishmonger — 

Fish contractor. Fish curer. Fish dealer. Fish merchant. Fishmonger. . Fish 
salesman. Oyster dealer. 

Group Head 7. — Honey merchant — 

Dealer in honey. Honey collector. Honey dealer. Honey maker. Honey 
merchant. BLoney seller. 

Group Head 8. — Egg merchant — 
Egg merchant. Egg seller. 

Sub-Order II. 

Group Head 1. — Corti, flour, seed merchant, dealer — 

Arrowroot dealer, manufacturer. Beaten rice seller. Bengal grain seller. Black 
grain seller. Bran dealer. Chaff seller. Cholum seller. Coriander, &c. 
seller. Corn dealer. Cotton seed seller (for cattle). Cumboo seller (Madras 
only). Dealer in corn and seed. Dealer in paddy. Dealer in other grains. 
DhoU seller. Flour dealer. Flour merchant. Flour seller. Grain dealer 
fpetty). Grain grocer. Grain lender (really seed dealer). Grain merchant. 
■ Grain seller. Green grain seller. Paddy merchant. Pulse merchant. Raggy 
seller. Rice merchant, dealer. Rice seller. Seller of beaten rice. Seller of 
grains. Seller of peas. Wheat seller. 

P 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



112 

Group Head 2. — ^Miller — 

Com grinder. Com sifter. Grain husker. Grain miller. Paddy and rice 
beater or pounder. Rice cleaner or husker. Rice miller. Sesame (sesamum) 
washer, husker. Wheat miller. 

Group Head 3. — Baker, grain parcher — 

Baker. Biscuit dealer. Biscuit seller. Biscuit warehouseman. Bread maker. 
Bread seller. Dough maker, seller. Grain parcher. 

Group Head 4. — Confectioner — 

Cake seller. Confectioner. Flummery seller. Food seller (if confectionerV 
Seller of fried grain. Sweetmeat maker. Sweetmeat seller (sweet trayman). 
Trayman. 

Group Head 5. — Greengrocer — 

Betel nut merchant. Brinjal seller. Cabbage seller. Chillies, &c. dealer. 
Chilly merchant. Cocoanut seller. Fruit dealer. Fruit merchant. Fruit 
seller. Garlic seller. Greengrocer. Green seller. Ground nut seller. Nut 
seller. Onion dealer. Onion seller. Orange seller. Plantain merchant. 
Potato merchant. Potato seller. Saffron seller. Seller of vegetables. Tamar 
rind merchant. Vegetable dealer. Vegetable seller. 

Group Head 6. — Herbalist — 

Gatherer of wild fruits and herbs. Jungle root sellers. 

Group Head 7. — Sugar manufacture — 

Dealer in jaggery. Dealer in molasses. Jaggery manufacture. Sugar baker. 
Sugar manufacturer. 



Sxjb-Okdeb ni. 



Group Head 1. — Brewer — 
Beer manufacturer. 



Group Head 2. — Wine and spirit merchant, dealer — 

Abkari contractor. Abkari merchant. Arrack manufacturer. Arrack seller. 
Arrack shopkeeper. Arrack sub-contractor. Arrack sub-renter. Arrack 
toddy seller. Dealer in liquors. Distillery agent. European liquor merchant. 
Liquor, European, retailer. Liquor seller. Seller of European spirits. Spirit 
agent. Spirit merchant. Spirit retailer. Toddy contractor. Toddy drawer. 
Toddy seller. Toddy sub-renter. Wine agent. Wine merchant. 

Group Head 3. — Distiller-^ 

Arrack distiller. Distiller. Ganger (not Government). Spirit maker. Spirit 
refiner. 

Group Head 4. — Ginger beer, soda water, lemonade, sherbet maker, dealer — 

Ginger beer agent. Ginger beer dealer. Ginger beer manufacturer. Lemonade 
dealer. Sherbet maket, seller. Soda water agent. Soda water dealer. Soda 
water manufacturer. Soda water seller. 

Group Head 5. — Syrup manufacturer — 
Syrup manufacturer. 

Group Head 6. — Grocer, tea dealer, coflPee dealer — 

Grocer. Tea, coffee maker. Seller. Tea dealer. Tea manufacturer. 

Group Head 7. — Tobacco manufacturer, dealers- 
Cheroot merchant. Cigar manufacturer. Cigar seller. Fireball-maker (for 
lighting hukhas). Hooka-maker, seller. Hooka snake maker. Pipe maker. 
Snuff maker. Snuff manufacturer. Snuff seller. Tobacco and salt seller 
(itinerant). Tobacco manufacturer. Tobacco merchant. Tobacco seller. 

Group Head 8. — Vinegar maker — 
Vinegar dealer. 



Digitized by 



Google 



113 

Group Head 9. — Pickle, relish, condiments maker, dealer — 

Dealer in condiments. Pickle seller. Belish seller. Spice dealer, seller, and 
grinder. 

Group Head 10. — ^Perfumer. 

Attar manufacturer. Attar seller. Dealer in perfumery. Dealer in scents. 
Perfumer. Perfumery maker. Perfumery seller. Scent maker. Scent 
seller. 

Group Head 11. — Bangh, narcotic maker, seller — 

Bangh seller. Betel leaf seller. Chandu and madak seller. Dealer in gunja and 
other intoxicants. Dealer in drugs. Gudak seller. Gunja dealer. Gunja 
manu&cturer. Narcotic dealer. Pap seller. 

Group Head 12. — Coffee manufacturer — 
Coffee manufacturer. 

Group Head 13. — ^Opium dealer — 

Opium dealer. Opium renter. Opium seller. 



ORDER Xni. 

Sub-Obdeb I. 

Group Head 1. — Soap boiler dealer — 

Soap boiler. Soap dealer. 
Group Head 2. — Tallow chandler — 

Candle dealer, seller. Coach and cart grease maker, seller. Pat seller. 

Group Head 3. — Comb maker — 

Comb maker (horn). Comb maker, seller (not wooden). Horn comb maker. 
Horn comb repairer. 

Group Head 4. — Gut maker — 
Gut maker, seller. 

Group Head 5. — Manure dealer, manufacturer — 

Bratty maker. Bratty seller. Fuel vendor (cow dung). Manure dealer. 

Group Head 6. — ^Wax refiner, dealer — 

Wax bangle dealer. Wax bangle maker. Wax dealer. Wax merchant. 

Group Head 7.— Bone dealer — 

Bone dealer, worker. Bone gatherer. Bone merchant. 

Group Head 8. — ^Ivory dealer — 
Ivory dealer. Ivory merchant. 

Group Head 9. — Coral dealer — 
Coral merchant. Coral seller. 

Group Head 10. — Jet dealer — 
Jet dealer. Jet merchant. 

Group Head 11. — Lac dealer — 

Bangle maker, lac. Bangle seller, lac. Lac article maker. Lac bangle maker. 
Lac bracelet maker. Lac bracelet dealer. Lac propagator. 

Group Head 12. — Glue^maker — 
Glue maker, seller. 

Group Head 13. — Horns, ivory, workers in — 

Horn articles, dealer in and worker of. Horn seller, merchant. Horn workers. 
Ivory workers. 



Digitized by 



Google 



114 

Sub-Order II. 

Group Head 1. — FpUmonger — 

Dealer in hides, f ellmonger. Hide dealer. Hide salesman. Skin merchant. 

Group Head 2. — Tanner — 

Chamois leather worker. Dead cattle reversioner. Leather tanner. Tanner. 

Group Head 3. — Currier — 

Currier. Leather dealer. Leather dresser. Worker in skins. 

Group Head 4. — Leather article maker — 

Leather jar, bottle; bucket maker. Leather portmanteau maker. Leather rope 
maker. Leather, water, bag maker. Leather, worker. Sieve maker, leather 
or parchment. 

Group Head 5. — Feather dealer — 

Feather dealer. Feather ornament, maker. 

Group Head 6. — Leather dyer — 
Leather dyer. 

Group Head 7. — Quill dealer, worker — 
Quill dealer. 

Group Head 8. — Shagreen dealer, worker — 
Shagreen maker. 

Sub-Order HI. 

Group Head 1. — Hair bristle manufacturer — 

Hair seller. Chowrie maker. Chowrie seller. Necklace seller, maker (horse- 
hair). Sieve maker (horsehair). 

Group Head 2. — Brush and broom maker — 

Brush maker (bristle). Broom dealer (bristle). Broom maker (bristle). 

ORDER XIV. 

Sub-Order I. 

Group Head 1. — Oil miller, refiner — 

Gingelly oil dealer. Gingelly oil manufacturer. Lamp oil manufacturer. Lamp 
oil miller. Lamp oil seller. Oil dealer. Oil maker. Oil manufacturer. Oil 
miller. Oil monger. Oil refiner. Oil seed liusker. Oil vendor. Sweet oil 
miller. Sweet oil seller. 

Group Head 2. — Oil and colourman. 

Group Head 3. — India rubber dealer, worker. 

Group Head 4. — Oil, linseed cake maker — 

Linseed cake dealer. Linseed cake maker. Linseed cake seller. Oil cake dealer. 
Oil cake maker. Oil cake merchant. 

Group Head 5. — Pitch, tar, dealer, workers — 

Tar dealer. Tar maker. 
Group Head 6. — Sealing wax dealer, worker — 

Sealing wax maker. Sealing wax seller. 

Group Head 7. — Gam dealer — 

Bird lime maker. Gall gatherer, dealer. Forest produce vendor (gum). Gum 
seller. 

Group Head 8. — Oilskin dealer, worker — 
Oil bag dealer. Oil bag maker. 



Digitized by 



Google 



115 

Sub-Order II, 

Group Head 1. — Timber, wood mercliant, dealer — 

Bamboo dealer. Bamboo merchant. Bamboo seller. Brushwood seller. Char- 
coal burner. Charcoal dealer. Charcoal seller. Faggot seller. Firewood 
contractor. Firewood cutter. Firewood maker. Firewood seller. Firewood 
tier. Fuel merchant. Railway fuel contractor. Sandal wood seller. Timber 
contractor. Timber cutter. Timber dealer. Timber merchant. Wood 
dealer. 

Group Head 2. — Sawyer — 
Sawyer. 

Group Head 3. — Wood turner, worker — 

Club dealer and cudgel seller. Comb maker, seller (wooden). Inkstand caae 
maker (wooden). Necklace seller, maker (wooden). Tooth-stick brush maker, 
seller. Turner. Wood worker. 

Group Head 4. — Box, packing case maker — 

Box maker, dealer. Wooden box dealer, maker. Wooden bottle maker (for 
• Ganges water). Wooden bowl maker. 

Group Head 5. — Cooper, hoop maker, worker- 
Barrel maker, dealer. 

Sub-Order III. 

Group Head 1.— Cork cutter, manufacturer, pith worker — 

Cork dealer, manufacturer. Pith dealer. Velambutta dealer. 

Group Head 2. — Bark worker, dealer — 

Avaram bark dealer. Avaram bark seller. Bark dealer. Choppers of Thungadeo 
and Jumma bark. Dealer in Hanyadi bark. 

Sub-Order IV. 

Group Head 1. — Basket maker — 

Bamboo basket maker. Basket box maker. Basket box merchant. Basket 
chair dealer. Basket chair maker. Basket maker. Wicker work maker. 

Group Head 2. — Hay and straw dealer — 

Fodder seller. Grass cutter (unspecified). Grass seller. Hay and straw dealer. 
Khuss grass seller. Straw cutter. Straw dealer. Straw seller. 

Group Head 3. — Thatcher — 
Thatcher. 

Group Head 4. — Cane worker, dresser — 

Cane dealer. Cane seller. Cane weaver. Cane worker. Cane work dealer. 
Rattaner of chairs. Rattan worker. 

Group Head 5. — ^Leaf , fan, umbrella maker, worker — 

Aloe leaves umbrella seller. Fan dealer. Fan maker. Flower-bel leaf sellpr. 
Keeth dealer. Leaf fan maker, dealer. Leaf plate maker. Leaf seller. Leaf 
umbrella maker. Teak leaf seller. 

Group Head 6. — Broom^ dealer (made of reed), reed manufacturer, dealer, rush mat — 

Broom dealer (reed). Broom maker (reed). Reed cutter. Rush mat maker. 
Rush mat manufacturer. Screen seller (reeds or grass, sirki). Lathe maker. 
Tinder maker, seller. 

Group Head 7. — Chick maker, seller—^ 
Ghypk maker, seller. 

Y 5747. Q 



Digitized by 



Google 



116 

Sub-Order V. 

Grroup Head 1.— Rag gatherer, dealer — 
Eag dealer. Rag gatherer. 

Group Head 2. — Paper manufacturer — 

Paper maker. Paper manufacturer. Paper merchant. Paper, waste, dealer. 
Waste paper seller. 

Grroup Head 3. — Stationer — 
Stationery dealer. 

Group Head 4. — Card maker- 
Card maker. 

Group Head 5. — Papier-mache dealer, maker — 
Papier.mach6, maker, dealer. 

ORDER XV. 

Sub-Order I. 

Group Head 1. — Coal miner — 

Coal miner. Hewer (coal mine). 

Group Head 2. — Coal mine service — 

Coal mine service. Fireman (coal mine). Foreman (coal mine). 

Group Head 3. — Mine service — 
Engineer (mining). 

Group Head 4. — Iron mine service — 

Iron mine worker. Ironstone miner. 

Group Head 5. — Rock mine service — 

Rock miner. 
Group Head 6. — Salt mine service — 

Salt miner, cutter. 

Group Head 7.— Diamond mine service — ' 
Diamond miner. 

Sub-Order II. 

Group Head 1. — Coal merchant — 

Coal merchant. Seller. Coke dealer. 

Group Head 2. — Coal labourer — 

Banksman (coal mine). Coal carter. 

Group Head 3. — Gas worker — 
Gas worker. 

Sub-Order III. 

Group Head 1. — Stone quarrier — 

Kulchatti miner. Stone breaker. Stonecutter or dresser. Stone quarrier. 

Group Head 2. — Stone agent, merchant, cutter, polisher, dresser — 

Bangle (stone maker). Manufacturer of mortars. Manufacturer of pestles. 
Mortar, pestle seller, maker. Mosaic worker. Repairer of pestle. Stone dealer 
(not precious stones). Engraver (not precious stones). Stone polij^^her (not 
precious stones). 



Digitized by 



Google 



I 



117 

Group Head 3. — Lime dealer, worker — 

Eunkur seller. Lime agent. Lime burner. Lime dealer. Lime merchant. Lime 
quarrier. Limestone burner. Limestone dealer. Limestone quarrier. Lime- 
stone worker. Mortar grinder, pounder. Soorkee pounder. Stone burner. 
Group Head 4. — Clay dealer, labourer — 

Clay seller. Earth digger. Labourer (not agricultural). 
Group Head 5. — Brick and tile maker, dealer — 

Brick agent. Brick burner. Brick dealer. Brick maker. Brick seller. Tile 
agent, seller, worker. Tile dealer. Tile maker. Tile merchant. 

Group Head 6. — ^Railway labourer — 

Excavator. Labourer, railway. Platelayer. Bailway labourer. 

Group Head 7. — ^Road labourer — 

Bridge contractor. Earthwork contractor (road, railway, canal). Boad contractor. 
Boad labourer. 

Group Head 8. — Chalk dealer, workers — 

Chalk miner. Chalk vendor. Red chalk digger. Red chalk gatherer. 

Group Head 9. — Scavenger — 

Dust and rubbish sifter. Dust contractor. Rubbish carter. Rubbish contractor. 
Rubbish sweeper. Scavenger. Sweeper (not domestic). 

Group Head 10. — Gravel and sand dealer, digger — 

Gravel contractor. Gravel digger. Gravel labourer. Sand dealer. 
Group Head 11. — Chunam worker, dealer — 

Chunam burner. Chunam dealer. Chunam maker. Chunam seller. Chunam 
shell burner. Chunam shell digger. Chunam shell maker. Chunam shell 
seller. 
Group Head 12. — Grindstone, millstone worker, slate-pencil makers- 
Grindstone dealer. Grindstone maker. Hand miU dresser (miU stone). Hand- 
mill, letter out of (mill stone). Manufacturer of stone hand-mill. Millstone 
dealer. Millstone worker, rougher. Repairer of pestle stone hand-mill. Rubbing- 
stone dealer. Rubbing-stone maker. Slate pencil maker. 

Sub-Oedeb IV. 

Group Head 1. — Earthenware manufacturer — 

Balegar (bangle maker or seller). Bangle (earthenware) dealer. Bangle (earthen- 
ware) manufacturer. Dealer in earthenware bangles. Dealer in pots. Earthen- 
ware ornament maker. Inkstand maker (earthenwai'e). Jug seller. Painter 
on pottery. Pot maker. Pot seller. Potter. 

Group Head 2. — Earthenware dealer, importer — 

Earthenware dealer. 

Sub-Order V. 

Group Head 1. — Glass manufacturer — 

Bangle (glass) dealer. Bangle (glass) maker. Bangle (glass) seller. Glass bottle 
seller. Glass blower. Glass cutter. Glass dealer. Glass jewellery, bracelets, 
bangles, maker, seller. Glass maker. Glass window maker. Lantern maker. 
Mosaic worker (glass). Mould maker (glass). Spectacle glass grinder. 
Group Head 2. — Bead maker, dealer, stringer- 
Bead seller, maker. 

Sub-Order VI. 
Group Head 1. — Salt manufacturer — 

Salt earth manufacturer. Salt labourer, digger. Salt manufacturer. Salt 
weigher. 

Group Head 2. — Salt agent, dealer, broker — 

Salt agent. Salt broker. Salt dealer. Salt merchant. Salt proprietor. Salt, 
retail dealer. Salt ryot. Salt seller. 

Y 5747. B 



Digitized by 



Google 



118 

Sto-Obdbr VII. 

Group Head 1.— Well sinker— 
Well sinker. 

Group Head 2— Pond maker- 
Pond contractor. Pond maker. Reservoir sinker. Tank digger. Tank 
repairer. 

Group Head 3.— Water carrier, dealer— 

Bhishee (not domestic). Cowadee (not domestic). Water bearer (not domestic). 
Water carrier (not domestic). Water man (not domestic). Water seller. 

Group Head 4. — ^Ice maker, dealer — 
Ice cooler. Ice dealer. Ice maker. 

Group Head 5. — Jalagar— 

Jalagar (one that searches tanks and wells for lost money). 

Sub-Order VIII. 

Group Head 1. — Goldsmith, silversmith, jeweller- 
Bracelet maker (unspecified). Chain maker (if not chain cables, &c.). Dealer in 
gilt jewels. Dealer in jewels mounted with precious stones. Embroiderer in 
gold* thread. Enameller. False (imitation) pearl maker. General dealer in 
gold, silver, and precious | stones. Gilt trinket seller. Gold and silver smith. 
Gold braid maker. Gold leaf maker. Gold sifter. Gold and silver waste 
collector. Goldsmith. Jeweller. Lace (gold and silver) manufacturer. Metal 
bangle seller (gold and silver). Ornament maker, stringer (if jewellery). 
Pearl ornament maker. Silver ornament maker. Silversmith. Thread makers 
in gold and silver. Toe-ring maker. Worker in precious stones. 

Group Head 2. — Plated ware manufacturer. 

Group Head 3. — Electroplater — 
Blectroplater. 

Group Head 4. — ^Dealer in precious stones — 

Dealer in pearls. Dealer in precious stones. Pearl dealer. Pearl merchant. 
Precious stone dealer (emerald dealer). Stone dealer (if precious stones). 
Turquoise merchant. 

Group Head 5.— Lapidary- 
Diamond cutter. Gem cutter, seller. Lapidary. Pearl cutter. Pearl worker. 
Polisher of precious stones. Ruby worker. 

Sub-Ordbr IX. 

Group Head I. — Copper manufacturer — 

Dealer in copper. 
Group Head 2. — Coppersmith — 

Coppersmiths. Copper work dealer. Copper worker. 

Sub-Order X. 

Group Head 1. — Tin manufacturer — 

Tin worker. Tin pot maker. Tin seller. Tinware dealer. 
Group Head 2. — Tin plate worker, tinman — 

Kalaigar (a tinman in Madras). Koloyman (a tinman in Madras). Tin box 
maker. Tin bracelet maker. Tin liner. Tinman. Tinner of pots. Tinner. 
Tin plate maker. Tin plate worker. Tin ware manufacturer, worker. 

Group Head 3. — Tinker — 

Tinker. 
Group Head 4. — Quicksilver dealer — 

Quicksilver dealer. 
Group Head 5. — Reflector maker — 

Reflector maker. 



Digitized by 



Google 



119 

Sub-Ordbr XI. 
Group Head 1, — Zinc manufacturer — 

Metal bangle seller (zinc). Toe ring maker (if zinc). Zinc merchant. ' Zino 
plate worker. Zinc vessel maker, seller. Zinc worker. 

Sub-Order XIE. 

Group Head 1. — Lead manufacturer — 

Lead manufacturer. Lead moulder. Lead planter (Madras). Lead pot maker. 
Lead smelter. Lead yessel dealer. Lead vessel maker. Lead vessel worker. 
Metal bangle seller (lead). 

Group Head 2. — ^Antimony refiner, worker — 

Antimony grinder. Antimony seller. 
Group Head 3. — ^Pewterer, pewter ornament maker — 

Pewter ornament maker. 

Sub-Order XHI. 
Group Head 1. — Brass manufacturer, worker, brazier — 

Bell maker. Brass manufacturer. Brass merchant. Brass ornament maker. 
Brass ring maker. Brass vessel dealer or seller. Brass wire maker. Brass 
workman. Brazier. Dealer in brass. Dealer in brass and copper. Idol maker. 
Inkstand case maker (brass). Inkstand maker (brass). Manufacturer and 
dealer in brass vessels. Metal bangle seller. Metal inlayer. Metal vessel 
seller, maker. Toe ring maker (if brass or mixed metals). Wire drawer. 
Wire worker. 

Group Head 2. — Bell maker- 
Bell maker. Bell metal maker. Bell metal ornaments (ear) maker, seller. Bell 
metal worker. Dealer in bell metal utensils. Dealer in brass and bell metal. 

Group Head 3. — Burnisher — 
Bumisber. 

Group Head 4. — Lacquerer — - 
Lacquerware painter. 

Group Head 5. — Lamp, vessel, lantern maker — 
Lamp, vessel, &c. maker. 

Group Head 6. — Locksmith, brass — 
Locksmith. 

Group Head 7. — Gas fitter — 

Gas fitter. 

Sub-Order XIV. 

Group Head 1. — ^Iron manufacturer — 

Dealer in iron. Iron manufacturer. Iron smelter. Iron vessel maker. Mould- 
maker for castings (iron). 
Group Head 2. — Blacksmith, hammerman — 

Blacksmith. Blacksmith in town. Chainmaker (if chain cables, &c.). Hammerer, 
Hammerman. 
Group Head 3. — ^Ironmonger, hardware dealer — 

Hardware dealer. Iron merchant. Ironmonger. Ironsmith. Iron vessel dealer. 
Ironware dealer. Iron utensils maker (iron). 

Group Head 4. — Locksmith — 

Iron lock dealer. Iron lock maker. Key repairer. 
Group Head 5.-~Nail maker — 

Nail maker. 
Group Head 6.— Steel worker — 

Steel worker. 
Group Head 7.— Weight maker — 

Weight maker. 



Digitized by 



Google 




120 
CLASS VL 



ORDER XVI. 

Sub-Obber I. 

Group Head 1. — General labourer — 

Coolie, general labourer. Day labourer. General labourer. Labourer (day) above 
]5 years of age. Labourer (day) under 15 years of age. Lascar (unspecified). 
Workman. 

Sub-Order II. 

Group Head 1. — ^Artisan, mechanic — 

Artisan. Bellows blower. Emigration mistry, Mechanic (unspecified). 

Group Head 2. — Engine driver, stoker — 

Engine driver (branch undefined), llngine keeper (unspecified). Engine worker 
(unspecified). Stoker (unspecified). 

Group Head 3. — Shopman — 

Shopman (branch undefined). 
Group Head 4. — Manager, superintendent — 

Agent (authorised). Agent (labour). Chowdhry (unspecified). Darogha (un- 
specified). Manager. Market headman, chowdhry. Matam agent. Super- 
intendent (branch undefined). Timekeeper, manager (branch undefined). 

Group Head 5. — Contractor — 

Army contractor. Contractor. General contractor. 
Group Head 6. — Private watchman. 

ORDER XVII. 

Group Head 1. — Gentleman, annuitant — 

Annuitant. , Funded property holder. Fund holder. Gentleman. Independent 
gentleman. Independent person. Poligar (if not landed property). Proprietor 
(if not landed). Shrotriemdar. Wealthy person with no occupation. 

ORDER XVm. 

Sub-Order I. 

Group Head 1.— Beggar, gipsy, vagrant- 
Almsman. Beggar. Dasara (Hindoo religious mendicant). Gipsy. Gondaliga 
(Hindoo religious mendicant). Halo vakki (fortune telling beggar). Pro- 
fessional beggar. Religious mendicant. Singer, mendicant, Hindoo. Tramp 
(traveller) . Vagrant. 
Group Head 2. — Religious devotees — 

Anchoret. Ascetic. Bjrragie (hermit, Madras). Devotee. Disciple. Fakeer. 
Gossain. Hermit. Religious devotee. Sanyasi. 

Group Head 3. — Others — 

Amulet maker. Brothel keeper. Caste mark, wafer, maker. Courtier. Dead 
body washers. Debtor (in prison dependent on relatives). Ear cleaner. Ear, 
nose, piercer. Emigrant. Eunuch. Fee receiver, hereditary. Forehead wafer, 
caste mark, maker,' seller. Gambler. Garland maker. Giver of information 
about festivals. Head of caste. Herald (nakib). Idol offering maker. 
Informer. Inmate of charitable house. Inmate of chuttrum. Lunatic. 
Marriage maker. Oracle. Panegyrist. Pauper. Pensioner (not Government). 
Pensioner, political. Pensioner, private. Pickpocket. Pimp, Prisoner. 
Prisoner, civil. Prisoner, state. Prostitute. Receiver of dead man's clothes. 
Renter (who does not cultivate land himself). Servant paid by Chakran lands. 
Servant paid by rent free lands. Tattooer. Tazia maker. Tracker (private). 
Traveller. Under trial prisoner. Visitor. 



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APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX A. 

CONTAINING EXTRACTS FROM SOME OF THE PROVINCIAL CENSUS REPORTS 
ILLUSTRATING THE DENSITY OF THE POPULATION. 

Bengal. 

It will better enable the reader to arrive at a proper estimate of the vast size of Bengal^ and of the various 
units of which its great whole is composed, if they are measured by well understood and well known 
capacities elsewhere. The area of the Lieutenant Governorship of Bengal then, including the Feudatory 
States, and the tiger haunted swamps of the Sundarbuns, viz., 193,198 square miles, is very little less 
than that of the kingdom of Spain (195,775 square miles), and a good deal more than half as large 
again as that of Great Britain and Ireland (121,116 square miles). Bengal proper, which, including 
the Sundarbuns, covers 76,406 square miles of country, is half as large again as England and Wales 

g 0,498 square miles), and exceeds in area the aggregate of five European States, viz., Denmark, 
olland, Belgium, Switzerland, and Greece, whose total area is only 74,615 square miles. Behar is 
nearly as extensive as the new kingdom of Roumania or the ancient kingdom of Poland. Chota 
Nagpore is a little larger than Ceylon, and a little smaller than Bavaria. Orissa and the kingdom of 
Saxony are of almost equal extent, and the area of the Feudatory States is rather more than that of 
Portugal. Taking the administrative divisions one with another, their average area is somewhat larger 
than that of Switzerland, while of the two largest, viz., Patna and Bhaugulpore, it may be said that 
the former is exactly co-extensive with the kingdom of Belgium together with the kingdom of the 
Netherlands, while the Bhaugulpore Division is considerably larger than the kingdom of Greece. ITie 
Dacca Division is the size of Denmark, and the combined area of Rajshahye and Burdwan equals that 
of Scotland. The average Bengal district, with an area of 3,323 square miles, is considerably larger 
than any county in England and Ireland, except Yorkshire, and is most nearly approached by Argyle- 
shire in Scotland. The very large districts, it need hardly be said, exceed in extent any single county 
that the United Kingdom shows, and the largest of them, Lohardugga, is greater than the whole of 
Wales together with the county of York. Hazaribagh (7,021 square miles) is larger than the Irish 

Province of Connaught by 100,000 acres. The districts of the Sonthal Pergunnahs and the Chittagong 
lill Tracts are each about as extensive as the newly acquired German territory of Alsace-Lorraine. 
The smallest Bengal district, Howrah, is nearly tvrice the size of Middlesex, rather larger than Bed- 
fordshire, and not much smaller than the kingdom of Fife. This is, however, an exceptionally small 
district, not much more extensive than the average Bengal subdivision, and the next district to it in 
order of littleness, viz., Hooghly, is nearly four times its size. Hooghly, then, with 1,223 square miles, 
and Darjeeling, with 1,234 square miles, which may be taken as types of the smaller districts in 
Bengal, are each almost as large as the English county of Gloucester, or the Irish counties of Clare and 
Tyrone. ... 

If surprise has been caused by the great extent of Bengal, it will be increased when the population 
of the whole country, and of its various sections, is compared with that of coimtries which are usually 
acknowledged to be of the first class in the heirarchy of nations. The total of inhabitants in the 
Lieutenant Governorship of Bengal being 69,536,861, they exceed in number the population of any 
European nation except Russia ; they do not fall far short of the total population of France and the 
United Kingdom added together, and they exceed by 60 per cent, the population of the great German 
Empire, and by 88 per cent that of the United States of America. The population of Bengal proper 
falls short by half a million only of that of the whole of the United Kingdom. Behar supports a 
popidation larger than that of Spain and Portugal, aud not much less than that of England and Wales. 
The Ooriyas are exactly as numerous as the inhabitants of Scotland, and the mixed multitude which 
dwells in the districts of the Chota Nagpore Division are veiy nearly as many as the whole population 
of Canada and other British possessions in North America, ihe Commissioner of the Patna Division 
rules the fortunes of nearly thrice as many persons as the King of the Belgians or the Khedive of 
Egypt. The Chittagong Division, which is the smallest in Bengal in point of numbers, has a population 
nearly twice that of Norway, and the total of the Feudatory States is just that of the Continent of 
Australia. Every other Division contains a population which takes an intermediate place between that 
of European Turkey and of the kingdom of Belgium. The average Bengal district has a population 
equal to that of the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Irish province of Leinster, the English county of 
Surrey, or the State of Virginia. For the larger districts few parallels can be found in the United 
Kingdom, but Mymensingh (3,051,966) has its counterpart in the great States of Illinois (3,077,871) 
and Ohio (3,198,062), and the county of Lancaster"* (3,454,225) with its commercial cities and swarming 
manufacturing pooulation. Middlesex* (2,918,814), and Yorkshire* (2,886,309), have more inhabitants 
than any Bengal district, except Mymensingh, but while the number of districts in these provinces with 
more than one million inhabitants is 35, there are only four counties in England, viz., Lancashire, 
Yoiksfaire, Middlesex, and Surrey, which exceed that total 

Bebab. 

The population of Berar by the present census is 2,672,673, or about seven tenths of that of London 
(3,814,571). The Akola district stonds first as regards its urban and its total population. In it and in 

4> Note.— The revised figures for the populations of these ooonties are, Lancashire, 8,454,441 ; Middlesex, 2,920,485; 
Yorkshire, 2,886,564, as published in the Final Beporfc on the Census of England and Wales, which was not in the 
hands of Mr. Bourdillon. 

Y 6747. S 



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u 

the Amraoti district the density is over 2Q0 to the square mile; in Wun it is only 100*4. The changes 
since 1867 are shown in final Census Table No. ii. Towns and villages are scattered most thickly in the 
EUichpur taluk, where there are 46 to every square mile ; whereas in the Melghat there is only one 
village to every five square miles. There are now in Berar the same number of houses to the square 
mile as there were in England and Wales 80 years ago ; while the number of persons to an occupied 
house is at the present time about the same in both countries. 

Bombay. 

It covers the area of Hungary with the population of Spain. Sindh is equal in extent to Koumania, 
or (not to take as an instance a country more talked about than known), to the aggregate of Bavaria, 
Baden, and Alsace-Lorraine ; but its population is less than that of Switzerland, which has about a 
third of its area. 

Similarly, the Deccan has the population of Ireland in 1871 on a little more than the area of Portugal, 
or to go farther west, on that of the State of Kentucky, 

Take away the Collectorate of Ahmednagar, and the rest is about the size of Scotland. The Karn&tic 
extends over an area a little below that of Greece, and has a population a little above that of Switzer- 
land. Gujar&t is about the same size as the State of Vermont, but its population is larger, and stands 
about half way between that of Saxony and Wallachia. 

It is interesting to compare this division with the most fertile and thickly populated country in 
Europe. The area of Belgium exceeds that of Gujarat by some 1,200 square miles, but if the former 
be reduced to the size of the latter, the population would exceed that of its Indian rival by about 34 
per cent. Hainault, a province that is of very nearly the same size as Broach, supports a population of 
966,364 compared with the 326,930 of the latter. The well-known department in France of the Alpes 
Maritimes, with its two large towns, has a considerably smaller population than Broach, which it equals 
in area, or than Kolaba, which it resembles in its situation on tne coast backed by numerous ranges of 
hills. For the Konkan, as a whole, I cannot find any European equivalent. .... 

Compared to the English counties, the Bombay district, which has a mean size of about 4,200 miles, 
is equivalent to the combined area of Essex, Hertford, and Sufiblk. The combined population of these 
three, however, exceeds that of the Indian area by about 27 per cent. 

British Burmah. 

The territory administered by the Chief Commisaioner has an area of 87,220 square miles. 

The average area] of a district is 4,590 square miles, and while of the 19 districts 9 exceed the 
average area in extent, 10 are less than this. They vary from 15,189 square miles, the area of 
Amherst, which is almost as large as the whole of Arakan, to 14 square miles in the case of the 
Moulmein town district. The Tenasserim Division occupies more than half the area of British 
Burmah. Some idea of the extent of the province and of the difierent districts may be gathered from 
a comparison with other Provinces of India, or with countries in Europe. The Province with its 87,220 
square miles is nearly as large as England, Wales, and Scotland (89,005 square miles) put together, 
larger than the North- Western Provinces without Oudh (81,434), the Central Provinces (84,963), or 
Bombay, excluding Sindh (77,528). Comparing the districts with the counties of England we find that 
the smallest, Northern Arakan, with an area of 1,213 square miles, is nearly as large as Gloucestershire 
(1,258 square miles) and larger than the East Riding of Yorkshire (1,173 square miles). Amherst, as 
before mentioned, the most extensive district, is nearly twice the size of Monmouthshire and Wales, and 
five times the area of Cheshire and Lanchashire put together. Akyab and Thonegwa are each of them 
as large as all Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland put together. Mergui is 
more extensive than Wales. Shwaygyin, again, is equal in extent to all the north Midland counties, 
which include Leicestershire, Rutlandshire, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, and Derbyshire. But 
though the areas are so large, the population as a rule are small and sparse, and confined to the low- 
lying lands about the foot of the hills or near the rivers and streams British Burmah 

contains a population exceeding that of Scotland by 2,000, but while the numbers of inhabitants are 
nearly equal, the area of this country is more tnan 2^ times as large as that of Scotland, and the 
density of population, which is here 42*8, there reaches 121 persons to the square mile. 

Central Pkovinces. 

The total area of the Central Provinces is shown to be 118,279 square miles. This area is divided 
into 18 districts, grouped into four divisions. To five of these districts are attached Feudatory States, 
viz., to the Hoshangabad district the smallest State, Makrai, area only 215 square miles; and to 
Chanda the largest State, Bastar, area 13,062 square miles; and to the three districts of the Chhatish- 
garh Division the remaining IS Feudatory States, containing an aggregate area of 15,557 square 
miles. 

The average area of each district is 6,293 square miles, the smallest being Narsingpur, 1,916 square 
miles, and the four largest being — 

Square Afiles. 

Bilaspur -.-.-- 8,800 

Raipur ----- 14,543 

Sambalpur .---.. 16,418 

Chanda - . - - . 28,847 

Of these larger districts, the first three form the Chhatisgarh Division, which is the most extensive in 
the Provinces, containing an aggregate area of 39,761 square miles, as compared with the Nagpur 
Division, 87,102 square miles, the Jubbulpore Division, 18,688, and the Nerbudda Division, 17,728 
square miles. The Feudatory States, though attac|ied to districts, are under direct administration of 



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iii 



their own Clue&. Excluding Feudatory States^ the average area in each district is 4^691 square miles^ 
the largest districts then being — 

Square Miles. 



Sambalpur 

Mandla 

Bilaspur 

Chanda 

Raipur 



4,521 

4,719 

7,798 

10,785 

11,885 



Excluding Feudatory States, the areas of the four divisions contrast as follows : — 

Square Miles. 



Chhatisgarh 
Nagpur 
Jubbulpore 
Nerbudda 



24,204 
24,040 
18,688 
17,513 



The total population of the Central Provinces, as enumerated on 17th February 1881, amounts to 
11,548,511. Of districts, the average population, inclusive of attached Feudatory States, was 641,583, 
Nimar containing the least, 231,341, and Raipur the most, 1,832,237. Other throe districts contained 
loss than half the average, viz., Mandla, 301,760, Betul, 304,905, and Damoh, 312,947. Other seven 
districts contained more than half a million of inhabitants, viz : — 



Sanger 

Bhandara 

Jubbulpore 

Nagpur - 

Chanda 

Bilaspur 

Sambalpur 



564,950 
683.779 
687^233 
697,356 
845,394 
1,126,508 
1,653,960 



The three most populous districts of the Provinces are Bilaspur, Sambalpur, and Raipur, forming 
the Chhatisgarh Division, with an aggregate population of 4,612,705 inhabitants, as compared with 
the— 



Nagpur Division 
Jubbulpore Division 
Nerbudda Division 



2,954,804 
2,201,688 
1,779,869 



The importance of the Chhatisgarh State Railway line, now under construction, is illustrated by the 
consideration that the population of the Chhatisgarh Division, plus that of the Bhandara district, through 
which the line passes towards Chhatisgarh, aggregates 5,296,484 inhabitants, or nearly half (46 per 
cent.) of the total population of the Provinces. 

Of Feudatory States, the total population was 1,709,720, and the average 113,981 inhabitants. 
Makrai, in the Hoshangabad district, contained the least inhabitants, only 16,764, and the followdng 
States, both in the Sambalpur district, contained the largest population, viz., Kalahandi, 224,548, and 
Patna, 257,959. The total population of the 13 Feudatory States in the Chhatisgarh Division aggregated 
1,496,708. 

Exclusive of Feudatory States, the population of the Provinces was 9,838,791, the Chhatisgarh Division 
and the same eight districts still ranking as the most populous. 

The average number of persons per square mile results, as — 



Provinces . - - 

Feudatory States 

Provinces, excluding Feudatory States 



101-9 

59-8 

116-5 



The average density of population in the four divisions was as follows : — 



Nagpur 
Jubbulpore 
Nerbudda 
Chhatisgarh 



Division. 



Without 

Feudatory 

States. 



114-7 
117-8 
100-7 
128-7 



In 

Feudatory 

States. 



15-0 

77-9 
96-2 



Including 

Feudatory 

States. 



79-6 

100-4 
1160 



Thus the Chhaiisgarh Division takes the lead in average density, as well as in mere numbers of its 
population. Comparing Feudatory States with district areas exclusive of Feudatory States, the following 

S 2 



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IV 

is the order in which those stand, which result in an average density exceeding 150 persons per square 
mile, viz. :— ' 

1, Sakti Feudatory State - - - - - 198 

2. Sonpur „ - - - - J 97 

8. Narsinghpur district - - - - -191 

4. Chhuikhadan Feudatory State - - - 190 

5. Nagpur district - - - --184 

6. Nandgaon Feudatory State - - - - 1 82 • 

7. Khairagarh „ - - - - 177 
8 Jubbulpore district - - - - - 176 

9. Bhandara „ ----- 174 

10. Wardha „ - - - - - 161 

11. Sambalpur „ - - - - - 158 

TTius some of the Feudatory States equal and even surpass our best districts in average density of 
population. The localities in which the number of persons per square mile was less than 75 are : — 

1. Nimar district - - - - - - 69 

2. Mandla „ ... - .64 

8. Chanda „ - - - - - - 60 

4. Kalahandi Feudatory State - - - - 60 

5. Bamra „ - - - - 41 

6. Rairakhol „ - - - - 21 

7. Bastar „ - - - - 15 

COORG. 

The small Province of Coorg lies to the west of Mysore, between north latitude 11° 55' and 12® 50', 
and between east longitude 76° 15' and 76° 14'. Its area is computed at 1,588 square miles, and ita 
greatest length is about 60 miles, by 40 in breadth. 

The total area of the Province is shown to be 1,588 square miles, and the total population at the final 
Census amounted to 178,302, which gives 112-63 persons to the square mile. 

'fhe country derives its name, Kodagu {Anglice^ Coorg), from its mountainous aspect. It is con- 
figuratively a hilly country, culminating in mountainous ranges, the highest of which is about 5,375 feet 
above the level of the sea. Its smaller grass and forest covered hills are termed "banes," which are 
also the pasture lands for the cattle used iu the cultivation of the long level strips of wet land lying in 
the valleys between them, and it is on these bine lands that coffee has been so extensively grown of 
late years. Here also the Coorgs on their sheltering slopes have built their solitary homesteads in close 
proximity to their rice fields and coffee gardens. 

Madras. 

The total area is 141,001 square miles, and the total population 31,1 70,631. This gives on the whole 
area 221 persons to the square mile. In 1871 the density was given at 226*2 per square mile. . . . 
Madras, standing third of the Indian Provinces, has a greater density than any European country, 
except Belgium, England and Wales, Holland, and Italy. • 

Excluding Madras town and the hill tracts, or agencies of Ganj^m, Vizagapatam, and Rampa, in 
Godavcri, the average density is 246 per square mile. In the ordinary settled aistricts the proportion 
varies from 583 per square mile in 'Tanjore, and 515 in Vizagapatam, to 91 in Kurnool. In 1871 the 
variation was much slighter, being from 540 in Tanjore to 130 in Kurnool. The density in the Nilgiris 
has gone up from 66 to 95, owing, in part, to the accession of 240 square miles of south-east Wynad from 
Malabar. 

In the taluqs of Kumbak6nam, Mfiyavarm, Negapatam, Nannilam, and Shiydli, in Tanjore district, 
on an area of 1,323 square miles there is a population of 1,160,827, or 877 per square mile. This is in 
the heart of the Kav^ri irrigation delta, and is the richest (as well as the most populous) tract in the 
Presidency. 

In Vizagapatam, the taluqs of Palkonda, Parvatipiir, Situr, and Srungavarapukdta contain, on an 
area of 422 square miles, a population of 518,722, or 1,229 per square mile. 

TTie taluq of Ponftni, in Malabar, has an area of 390 square miles, a density of 1,007 persons to the 
square mile. 

PunjIb. 

It is not to be expected that the Punjdb should, in comparison with other countries, be densely 
populated. The great mountain tracts to the north, and the arid steppes of its western plains, include 
large areas which are not habitable by man, and, with a largely agricultural population, only 35 per 
cent, of its total area is cultivated, and only 70 per cent, even nominally culturable. Less than 40 
years ago the greater portion of the Province was subject to a military government of a very inferior 
type; war and violence were rife in the land, and in many parts the peasant tilled his field with a sword 
at his side, and the collector demanded the revenue at the head cf a regiment, while 20 years earlier 
much of our south-eastern border was practically a desert. Compared with the other large Indian 
Provinces, the population is less dense than that of Bengal, the North-Western Provinces, Madras, 
Bombay proper, but more dense than that of Berdr, Haidarfib&d, Bombay with Sindh, Central India, 
Assam, the Central Provinces, Rajputana, Sindh, or Burmah. Turning to European countries we find 
that the density for the Province, as a whole, is about the same as for Ireland and the Austrian Empire, 
is not much more than one third that of Belgium and England and Wales, one half that of the British 



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Isles, and two thirds that of Italy and the German Empire. It is a third as great again as that of 
Scotland or Portugal, nearly double that of Spain, nioro than double that of Greece or Turkey in 
Europe, more than four times that of European Russia, five times that of Sweden, and 12 times that 
of Norway. The density of population of our British territory is almost the same as in France, 
Bavaria, and Switzerland, and very little below that of the Indian Empire as a whole. But portions of 
the Punjab stand very high in the scale. The Amritsar Division, which is half the size of Belgium, is 
more thickly populated than that most populous of all European countries, while the Ambala Division 
has about the same density as have England and Wales and Saxony, and the Delhi Division is more 
thickly peopled than the Netherlands, and far more so than the British Isles. On the other hand, the 
population of Bahawalpur is more sparse than that of any other country in the list, except Russia, 
Sweden, and Norway, while the Derajat and Multdn Divisions and the Hill States stand only just above 
them in company with Spain, Servia, Greece, and Turkey in Europe. 



Central India. 

General Statement of Area and Population, 

This statement forms tiie groundwork of all the information that has been collected. Unfortunately, 
the separate areas of some important States, one indeed, the largest in Central India, cannot be ascer- 
tained, and it is impracticable, therefore, to frame any even approximate detailed statistics concerning 
the density of the population. We are dependent for our figures connected with areas on the Topo- 
graphical Survey Department ; and the classification adopted notably for Gwalior and the twelve States 
which head the list of Statement I., f.^., for a total area of 29,066 '08 square miles— a classification 
which is neither geographically nor politically correct— as well as that for many other States improperly 

Souped together, renders any calculation founded on the exact area of each, quite impracticable. For 
e total of Central India the population is given at 9,261,907 souls, which, distributed over an area of 
75,229*64 square miles, gives a density of 128-12 persons per square mile, which may be accepted as 
approximately correct. 

As has been already remarked, no previous Census of the population of Central India has been taken. It 
is useless, therefore, to attempt any speculation as to decrease, increase, or movements of the population. 
It may, however, safely be said that it has, in Malwa especially, a tendency to increase. Famine is here 
unknown, the soil is rich and productive, and even a temporary scarcity in Rajputana at once produces a 
long train of emigrants from less favoured States in that agency, all pressing forward to the opportunities 
which offer themselves for an agricultural existence in Malwa. For the States of Gwalior, and thoso 
under the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand agencies, it is not perhaps safe to hazard any conjectures, 
but there is no reason to believe that there has been any decrease in the population. In a census 
taken under the conditions already noted, many inequalities and apparent inaccuracies may, without 
difficulty, be detected in a close exarnination of individual entries. For instance, it is not easy to 
understand how in the Pindara Jaghir, which consists of 44 villages and no towns, the density per 
square mile can possibly amount to 887 '78, or how the average number of persons in each house comes 
to 24* 66 ; but it is fruitless to attempt to do more than to notice the outcome of these statements in 
the bulk, and either the conclusion they justify or the features, normal or abnormal, which they 
represent. 

Baroda. 

The total extent of the territory of His Highness the Gaekwar is 8,570 square miles. 

The area of 8,000 and odd square miles is distributed over, and interspersed with, portions of G uzerath 
and Kathiawar. It does not form a compact and unbroken block of territory ; it is not a continuous or 
uninterrupted extent from one end to the other. Roughly speaking, from the northern extremity of the 
Thana district to the south to Palhanpur to the north, and nrom the western limits of the Nassik district to 
the south-east to the extreme north-west of Kathiawar, there lie interspersed with British or other 
territory tracts of land or provinces wherein His Highness the Gaekwar's sway is acknowledged. 

The population of the territories of His Highness the Gaekwar, according to the Census of 1881, 
amounts to 2,180,511 souls— 1,136,633 males and 1,043,678 females. The population of the Baroda 
camp, consisting of 2,879 males and 1,815 females, in all 4,694 souls, added to the above figures, gives 
a grand total of 2,185,005 souls, or 1,189,512 males and 1,045,493 females. 

The average density of population is 254-44 per square mile for the whole territory, exclusive of 
the cantonment, and 254 '^5 inclusive of the cantonment. The average density in British Gruzerath 
is 2813. 

The density of this territory is, however, affected by the thinness of the population in the Anurali 
Division, and in the forest tracts in the Nowsari and the Mewasi tracts in the Baroda Division. 

The following table shows the density of the population in each division of this territory : — 



Name of Division. 



Amreli Division 

Kadi ditto 

Nowsari ditto - - - 

Baroda ditto, inclusive of the city 

Total - 



Population. 



147,468 

988,487 
287,549 
756,807 



2,180,311 



Area 

in Square 

Miles. 



1,560 
3,158 
1,940 
1,911 



8,569 



Density of 
Population per 
^rquare Mile. 



94-53 
313-01 
148-22 
396-03 



254-44 



S 3 



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VI 



APPENDIX B. 



EXTRACTS FROM MR. IBBETSON'S REPORT ON THE PUNJAB CENSUS, NOTING 
PECULIARITIES OF THE HINDOO AND MAHAMMEDAN RELIGIONS, AS PRAC- 
TISED IN THAT PROVINCE. 

The Hindoos of the PunjIb. 

Tlie Elasticity of Hindooism. — ^What is Hindooism — not the Hindooism of the Vedas, which was a 
clearly defined cult followed bv a select society of a superior race living among despised barbarians of 
the lowest type — but the Hindooism of to-day, the religion of the women of India, which has to struggle 
for existence against the inroads of other and perhaps higher forms of beUef? The difficulty of 
answering this question springs chiefly from the marvellous catholicity and elasticity of the Hindoo 
religion. It is in the first place essentially a cosmogony rather than a code of ethics. The esoteric 
teaching of the higher forms of Hindooism does doubtless include ethical doctrines, but they have been 
added to rather than sprung from the religion itself, and indeed it seems to me that a polytheistic 
creed must^ from the very nature of things, be devoid of all ethical significance. The aspects of nature 
and the manifestation of physical force are manifold, and can reasonably be allotted to a multiplicity 
of gods, each supreme in his separate province ; but only one rule of conduct, one standard of right and 
wrong, is possible, and it cannot conveniently be either formulated or enforced by a divine committee. 
In many respects this separation of religion from either is doubtless an advantage, for it permits of a 
healthy development of the rules of conduct as the ethical perceptions of the race advance. When the 
god has once spoken, his worshippers can only advance by modifying their interpretation of his com- 
mands, and no greater misfortune could befall a people than that their religion should lend all the 
sanctions of its hopes and terrors to a precise code of right and wrong formulated while the conscience 
of the nation was yet young and its knowledge imperfect. 

But if the non-ethical nature of the Hindoo religion is in some respects an advantage to its followers, 
it has also greatly increased the difficulty of preserving that religion in its original purity. The old 
Aryans who worshipped the gods of the Vedas were surrounded by races whose deities diflfered from their 
own in little but name, for both were but personifications of the faces of nature. What more natural, 
then, that as the two peoples intermingled, their gods should gradually become associated in a joint 
Pantheon. If the gods of the Vedas were mightier, the gods of the community might still be mighty. 
If malevolent it was well to propitiate them ; if benevolent some benefits might perhaps be had from 
them. In either case it was but adding the worship of a few new gods to that of many old ones, for 
since neither these nor those laid down any inimitable rules of conduct or belief, no change of life, no 
supersession of the one by the other was necessary. The evils the Hindoos learned from their deities 
were physical ; the help thev hoped for material and not spiritual. Their gods were oflfended, not by 
disbelief and sin, but by neglect; they were to be propitiated, not by repentance and a new life, but by 
sacrifice and ceremonial observance, and so long as their dues were discharged they would not grudge 
oflferings made to others as an additional insurance against evil.* llie members of the Hindoo Pan- 
theon had many ranks and degrees, and, among the superior gods at any rate, each worshipper selected 
for himself that one which he would chiefly venerate. Thus it was easy to add on at the bottom of the 
lists without derogating from the dignity of those at the top ; while the relative honour in which each 
was held presently became a matter for the individual to decide for himself. And so we find that the 
gates of the Hindoo Ayurpur have even stood open to the strange gods of the neighbourhood, and that 
wherever Hindoos have come into contact with worship other than their own they have combined the 
two, and even have not unseldom given the former precedence over the latter. The Hindoo of the 
plains worships the saints of his Mussulman neighbours, and calls his own original gods by Mahamme- 
dan names unknown to an Indian tongue ; the Hindoo of the hills worships the devils and deities of the 
aborigines, and selects for special honour that one of his own proper divinities whose nature is most 
akin to theirs ; both mollify by ofiering innumerable agencies, animal, human, demoniacal, or semi- 
divine, who are not perhaps ranked with the greater gods of the temples, but who may do harm, and to 
propitiate whom is tnerefore a wise precaution. 

Brahminism the distinguishing Feature of Hindooism. — But through all these divinities there does run 
a common element, the clue to which is to be found in the extraordinary predominance which the 
priestly class have obtained in India, as the explanation of the divinity itself is largely to be found in 
the greed of that class. In polytheistic Europe the separation of etWcs from religion was no less com- 
plete than in India ; but while in the latter the study of the two was combined, in Europe, Greece 
developed religion into philosophy, while Rome formulated practical ethics in the shape of law, and each ' 
was content to receive at the hands of the other the branch which that other had made his own. When 
Christianity swept away the relics of the old gods, the separation had become too complete td be ever 
wholly obliterated ; and though the priests of the new monotheism struggled fiercely, and with no small 
measure of success, to re-combine the two, and to substitute the canon for the civil law, yet there ever 
existed by the side of art distinct from the clergy, a lay body of educated lawyers who shared with 
them the learning of the day and the power which that learning conferred. If, then, under such cir- 

* I suspect that in many cases the strictly territorial nature of the aboriginal gods facilitated their inclusion 
in the Hindoo worship. It would be lees difficult to recognise a deiiy who md not even claim authority beyond 
ceri^ain set bound, or pretend to rival the Vedio gods in their limitless power ; and it would seem especially 
reasonable on entering a territory to propitiate the local princes who might be offended by the intrusion, l^egods 
of the hiUs were, and many of them are still, imdoubtedly tenitorial. It would be interesting to discover whether 
the aboriginal gods of the plains presented the same characteristic. With them the limits of the tribe would 
probably define the territory, in the absence of any unpassable physical boimdaries such as are afforded by mountain 
ranges. 



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cntnstanccs the political power of the Church in Europe was for centuries inimiire for good'o^ evil, as 
we know it to, have been, it may be. conceived how whpUy all authority was concentrated in the hands 
of the Br&hmans, and with wmit tyranny they exercised that power in India, where all learning of 
every sort and kind was absolutely confined to the priestly class.* The result was that Hindooism 
early degenerated from a religion into a sacerdotalism, and would, in its present form, be far better 
described as Br^hmanism than by any other single word ; and it is this abject subjection to and venera- 
tion for the Brdhman which forms the connecting link that runs through and binds together the divine 
forms of worship and belief which I have spoken. 

It is in this preriominance of the priesthood, moreover, that we may find an explanation at once of the 
catholicity and of the exclusiveness which characterise the Hindoo religion. If to give to a Brahman 
is to worship God, the larger the circle of worshippers the better for wie Brdhman ; and if new wor- 
shippers will not leave their gods behind them, it would be foolish to exclude them on that account, as 
there is ample room for all. On the other hand, as the Levitical body so increased in numbers that a 
portion of them was necessarily illiterate, the Brahmans were compelled to fall back upon hereditary 
virtue as the only possible foundation for the power of their class. Here they found in the tribal divi- 
sions of the people, and in the theory of the hereditary nature of occupations which had sprung from 
them, an institution suited to their purpose and ready to their hands ; and this they developed into 
that complex web of caste restrictions and disabilities which envelopes a high-chaste Hindoo from his 
mother's womb, and so the special power and sanctity of the Brdhman came to depend for its very 
existence upon the stringency with which caste distinctions were maintained, the act of worship was 
subordinated to the idea of ceremonial purity, and for a definite creed was substituted the domination 
of a priestly class, itself divided into a thousand sects, and holding a thousand varieties of doctrine. 
To the aborigine who, with his gods on his back, sought admission within the pole of Hindooism, these 
restrictions presented no obstacle. They were not developments of the system which obtains in all 
primitive forms of society ; and so far as they differed from the rules which he already observed, they 
tended to raise him in the social scale by hedging him round with an exclusiveness which was flattering 
if inconvenient. But to the outcast whose hereditary habits or occupations rendered him impure from 
the birth admission was impossible, at least to the full privileges of Hindooism.t 

The sacerdotal despotism has now altogether overshadowed the religious element ; and the caste-system 
has thrust its roots so deep into the whole social fabric that its sanction is social rather than religious 
A man may disbelieve in the Hindoo Trinity, he may invent new gods of his own, however foul and 
impure, he may worship them with the most revolting orgies, he may even abandon all belief in supernal 
powers, and yet remain a Hindoo. But he must reverence and feed the Br&hman, he must abide by 
caste rules and restrictions, he must preserve himself from ceremonial pollution and from contact and 
communion with the unclean on pain of becoming Curathema Maranatha. With individuals, indeed, 
even these restrictions are relaxed on the condition that they affect a personal sanctity which, by encou- 
raging superstition and exciting terror, shall tend to the glorification of the priesthood : and the filthy 
Aghori, smeared with human ordure and feeding on carrion and even on human carrion,J is still a 
Hindoo. But the masses must observe the rules ; and any who should, like Buddha or Bab^ N^nak, 
propose to admit the body of the laity to share in a license which is permitted in the naked ascetic, 
would at once be disavowed. The Christian and Buddhist recognise no distinction of caste, nor doos 
the Musulm^in save whore influenced by the example of those whom he has so bitterly persecuted ; 
while all three profess to disregard the Brdhman ; and for this rea<5on, and not because they worship a 
difteront god, the Hindoo holds their truth to be polluted. The Sikh has fallen away from his original 
faith ; in nis reverence for the Brahman and his observance of caste-rules ho differs only in degree from 
his Hindoo neighbours; and i shall presently show how difficult it is to draw the line between the two 
religions, llie Jain I take to be little more than a Hindoo sect. 

Afodeni Hindooism defined, — Thus, while Hindooism in its purity may be defined as the religion of 
the original Aryan immigrants into India, as set forth in the Vedas, Hindooism as it now exists may 
perhaps be best described as a hereditary sacerdotalism, with Br&hman for its Eevites, the vitality of 
which is preserved by the social institution of caste, and which may include shades and diversities of 
religion native to India, as distinct from the foreign importations of Christianity and Islam, and from 
the later outgrowths of Buddhism, more doubtfully of Sikhism, and still more doubtfully of Jainism. 
If this description be correct, it will bo seen that the assumption upon which we acted in compiling our 
figures for Hindoos is not far removed from truth. The only definition that I have had offered me is 
that of Mr. Benton of Karn&l, who would define a Hindoo as one who receives religious service at the 
hands of Brdhmans. For practical puq)oses I do not know that this definition helps us much. It 
substitutes for the question " Who is a Hindoo " the question ** Who receives religious service at the 
hands of Briihman." Though probably too narrow in some respects and toD wide in others, I believe it 
to involve the cardinal idea of Hindooism. But the text proposed is almost impossible of application. 
Nearly all Sikh villagers reverence and make use of the Brahman almost as freely as do their Hindoo 
neighbours. The Jain priests are invariably Brdhman. Many tribes of converted Musulm^ns retain 
and fee Br&hmans as a matter of course : while some actually employ tl^em to conduct their marriages 
after the Hindoo ceremonial, only adding 'the Mahammedan ritual as a legal precaution. There is a 
class of Musulmdn Brahman who minister solely to Mahammedans ; white almost every impure caste 
or outcast tribe, however low ita position, has its own priests of undoubted Br&hman origin, though they 
hate, by associating with their clients, cut" themselves off from the society of their unpolluted fellows. 

* The position of the Brahams with respect to religion in India seems to have been closely analogous to that 
which the lawyers formally held with respect to law in England. The language in which religions rites were con- 
ducted was oompulsorily kept from the knowledge of the people, while the procedure was extremely teohnical, and 
any error in form, however minute, destroyed the efficacy of the ceremony. 

t I had, after repeated warnings, to fine severely one of my Hindoo compilers, a man in good position, and of 
education and intelligence, but who positively refused to include scavengers who returned themselves as Hindoos in 
the figures for that religion. 

X An A^hori was caught by the police in the Bohtak district, not many mpnths ago, in the act oi devouring a 
newly buned child which he had dug up for the purpose. 

S 4 



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vm 

The burniiig of the adult dead has been proposed as a test, and in many respects it is not a bad one. 
But certain classes of Hindoo ascetics are always buried ; the Bishnors never burn the corpse ; some of 
the lower castes burn and bury indifferently, even in the same household^ and cremation is a common 
Buddhist practice. In short, I do not believe that there is any exact test by which a Hindoo can be 
discriminated; the term is in one sense as much national as religious, and I am compelled to fall ba<;k 
upon my original proposition, and to say that all natives of India who are not either Musulmdns, 
Christians, Sikhs, Jains, or Buddhists, must for all practical purposes be deemed as Hindoos. What 
their religion is, as practised in the villages, I shall now endeavour to describe. 

The Pantheon of the Hindoo Peasant^ — Of all the districts of the Punjab those bordering on the 
Jamna to the east of the Province, and those lying in the hills of Kangra, are the ones whose people 
have turned to foreign creeds in the smallest numbers, and therefore the ones in which we may hope 
to find Hindooism least corrupted. I shall first describe Hindooism as it exists in the villages of tne 
Delhi territoiy, chiefly from my own personal knowledge ; to that I shall add a brief notice of the most 
salient points which distinguish the Hindooism of the hills ; and I shall complete this section of my 
subject by a glance at the position of the Hindoo on our western frontier. I shall thus have described 
Hindooism as it exists on the extreme confines of the Province. Between them the change of practice 
and belief takes place so gradually that it is impossible to draw any very definite lines; and it is suffi- 
cient to say that the religion of the submontane tracts is midway between that of the hills and of the 
plains ; while eastern Hindooism obtains almost unchanged to the borders of Rdjputilna and as far 
west as Lahore, and then, as we enter the purely Musulm&n portion of the Province, rapidly changes 
to the type prevailing on the frontier. 

ITie student who, intimately acquainted with the gods of the Hindoo Pantheon, as displayed in the 
sacred texts, should study the religion of the peasantry of the Delhi territory, would find himself in 
strangely unfamiliar company. Brihma is there never mentioned save by a Brahman, while many of 
the villagers would hardly recognise his name. It is true, indeed, that all men know of Siva and of 
Vishnu ; that a peasant, when he has nothing else to do to that degree that he yawns perforce, takes 
the name of Nar&in, that the familiar salutation is Rdm B^m, and that Bhagwdn is made responsible 
for many things not always to his credit. But these are the lords of creation and too high company 
for the villager. He recognises their supremacy indeed, but his daily concern in this work-a-day world 
is with the host of deities whose special business it is to regulate the matters by which he is most nearly 
affected.! The temples to these great gods are generally built, those to Vishnu by Brdhmans or 
Bair&gi monks, and tnose to Siva by Banyas ; and the villagers will perhaps not enter them oftener 
than twice a year, while, as they should be entered feasting, the young men of the family who cannot 
spare the time from their ploughs will never set foot inside them. But if the peasant takes but small 
heed of the great Trinity of his faith, he has acquired from his Musulm&n brethren who live in the 
same village with him a strong monotheistic bias; and his innate belief in the divinities whom he 
worships is, I suspect, often of the weakest. He will generallv end any information he may be giving 
you about his gods by remarking, with a smile and a shake of the finger, **but it is a Kaccha religion," 
or " after all there is but one great One ;" and in one village they told me laughingly that if Govern- 
ment was going to assess them they would pull all their shrines down at once. Of course the existence 
of such a feeling is exceedingly compatible with the most scrupulous care on his part not to neglect any 
of the usual observances; and whatever might be his private conviction, or absence of conviction, a man 
would feel that it would be pre-eminently unsafe to omit the customary offerings, and would be thought 
ill of if he did so. 

The GodUngs of the ViUages. — The godlings with whom the peasant chiefly concerns himself may be 
broadly divided into two classes, the pure and the impure. To the former such offerings are made as 
are pure food to a Hindoo, cakes or sweets fired in ghi^ and the like ; they are very generally made 
on a Sunday, and they are taken by Br&hmans. To the second class the offerings are impure, such as 
leavings from the meal, fowls, pigs, and so on ; they are never made on a Sunday, and they are taken 
not by Brdhmans, but by impure and perhaps aboriginal castes. Of course the line cannot always be 
drawn with precision, and Brdhmans will often consent to be fed in the name of a deity, while they will 
not take offerings made at his shrine, or will allow their girb^ but not their boys, to accept the offerings, 
as if the girls die in consequence it does not much matter. The former class of deity is usually bene- 
volent ; the latter are generally malevolent, and as malevolent deities seem to be all over the world of 
the female sex, and their worship is often confined to women and to children at their mothers' apron, 
the men not sharing in it I cannot help suspecting that the latter are often the modern representative 
of the non-aryan deities which were worshipped by the aborigines of India. The aryan invaders must 
have intermarried, probably largely with the aboriginal women ; these latter would have preserved the 
cults of their fathers ; and it would be natural that the newcomers, while not perhaps caring to invoke 
the aid of the beneficient genii loci^ might think it well worth while to propitiate, or at least to allow 
their womenfolk to propitiate, the local powers of evil on whose territory they had trespassed. 

First among the pure and benevolent gods comes Swtaj Devata^ or the Sun godling. The sun was 
of course one of the great Vedic deities ; but his worship has apparently in a great measure dropped 
out of the higher Hindooism ; and the peasant calls him, not Deva, but Devata^ a godling, not a sod. 
No shrine is ever built to him, but on Sunday the people abstain from salt, and they do not set weir 
milk as usual to make butter from, but make rice milk of it and give a portion to the Br&hmans. After 
each houreb and occasionally between whiles, Br&hmans are fed in his honour; and he is each morning 
saluted with an invocation as the good man steps out of his house. He is par excellence the great god 
of the villagers, who will always name hini first of all his deities. After him comes, at least in the 
east of the Province, Jamna Ji or Lady Jamna. She is bathed in periodically, Brdhmans are fed in 
her honour ; and the waters of the canal, which is fed from her stream, are held in such respect by the 

* Much of the following paragraphs is taken almost word for word from my Statement Report of Kam&l. When 
I had nothing to alter or add, I did not think it worthwhile to re- write the text. 

t A peasant expressed the matter to me thns : '' We know, sir, that the Lieutenant-Gbvemor is above all at 
'* Lahore, but we only adore him once in every few years when he visits those parts. Yon, as yet, are subordinate 
" to him, but we worship you daily and hourly." 



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villagers that they describe the terrible evils which they work in the land on springinjz '' from Lady 
** Jamna's friendsnip." Wkarti Mdta or Mother Earth holds the next place of honour. The pious man 
does obeisance to and invokes her as he rises from his bed in the morning, and even the mdifferent 
follows his example when he begins to plough or to sow. When a cow or buffalo is first bought, or 
when she first ^ves milk after calving* the first five streams of milk drawn from her are allowed to fall 
on the ground m honour of the deity ; and at every time of milking the first stream is so treated. So» 
when medicine is taken, a little is sprinkled in her honour. 

Kwaja Khizr or the god of water is an extraordinary instance of a Musulm&n name being ffiven to a 
Hindoo deity. Kwaja Ehizr is properly that one of the great Mahammedan saints to whom the care of 
travellers is confided. But throughout the Eastern Punj&b, at any rate, he is the Hindoo god of water, 
and is worshipped by burning lamps and feeding Br&hmans at the well, and by setting afloat on the 
vill^^ pond a little raft of sacred grass with a lifted lamp upon it 

Tne four deities above mentioned are the only^ ones to whom no temples are built. To the rest a 
small brick shrine from one to two feet cube, with a bulban head, ana perhaps an iron spike as a 
finical, is erected, and in the interior lamps are burnt and offerings placed. They never contain idols, 
which are found only in the temples of the greater goda The Hindoo shrine must always face the east, 
while t^e Musulm&n shrine is in the fonn of a grave and faces the south. This sometimes gives rise to 
delicate questions. In one village a section of the community had become Mahammedans. The shrine 
of the common ancestor needed rebuilding, and there was much dispute as to its shape and aspect. 
They solved the difficulty by building a Musulm&n grave facing south, and over it a Hindoo shrine 
facing east. In another village an imperial trooper was once burnt alive by the shed in which he was 
sleeping catching fire, and it was thought well to propitiate him by a shrine, or his ghost might become 
troublesome. He was by religion a Musulm&n ; but he had been burnt and not buried, which seemed 
to make him a Hindoo. After much discussion the latter opinions prevailed, and a Hindoo shrine, 
with an eastern aspect, now stands to his memory. The most honoured of the village deities proper is 
Bhumioy or ihe god of the homestead, often called Khera (a village). The erection of his shrine is the 
first formal act by which the proposed site of a new village is consecrated ; and when two villages have 
combined their homesteads for greater security against the marauders of former days the people of the 
one which moved still worship at the Bhumia of the deserted site. Bhiimia is worshipped after the 
harvests, at marriages, and on the birth of a male child, and Br&hmans are commonly fed in his name. 
Women often take their children to the shrine on Sundays ; and the first milk of a cow or buffalo is 
always offered there.* 

The Singhs or Snake gods occupy an intermediate place between the two classes into which I have 
divided the minor deities. They are females, and though they cause fever are not very malevolent, 
often taking away pains. They have great power over milch cattle, the milk of the eleven days after 
calving is sacred to them, and libations of milk are always acceptable. They are generally distinguished 
by some colours, the most commonly worshipped being E&li, Hari, and Bari oingh, or black, green, 
and grey. But the diviner will often declare a fever to be caused by some Singh whom no one has 
even heard of before, but to whom a shrine must be built ; and so they multiply in the most perplexing 
manner. Dead men also have a way of becoming snakes, a fact which is revealed in a dream, when 
again a shrine must be built. If a peasant sees a snake he will salute it ; and if it bite him he or his 
heirs, as the case may be, will build a shrine on the spot to prevent a repetition of the occurrence. 
They are the servants of R&ja B&sak N&g, Ein^ of Pat&l or Tartarus ; and their worship is most 
certainly connected in the minds of the people wim that of the nik or ancestors ; though it is difficult 
to say exactly in what the connexion lies. Sunday is their day, and Br&hmans do not object to be fed 
at their shrines, though they will not take the offerings, which are generally of an impure nature. The 
snake is the common ornament on almost all the minor Hindoo shrines. 

The Bitala or smaU-pox goddesa^ also known as M&ta, is the eldest of a band of seven sisters, by whom 
the pustular group of diseases is supposed to be caused, and who are l^e most dreaded of all the minor 
powers. The other six are Mas&ni, Basanti, M&hd, M&i, Polamde, Lamkari&, Agw&ni, whose small 
shrines generally cluster round the central one to Sitala. Each is supposed to cause a specific disease,. 
and Sitala's speciality is small-pox. These deities are never worshipped by men, but only by women, 
and children, enormous numbers of whom attend the shrines of renown as ^' Sitala's 7th." Every village- 
has its local shrine also, at which the offerings are all impure. Sitala rides upon a donkey, and grain 
is given to the donkey, and to his master the potter at the shrine, afler having been waved over the 
head of the child. Fowls, pigs, goats, and cocoanuts are offered, and white cocks are waved and let 
loose. An adult who has recovered from small-pox should let a pig loose to Sitala, or he will again be 
attacked. During an attack no offerings are made ; and if the epidemic has once seized upon a village,, 
all worship is discontinued till the disease has disappeared. But so long as she keeps her hands off 
nothing is too good for the goddess, for she is the one great dread of Indian mothers. She is, however, 
easily mghtened and deceived ; and if the mother has lost one son by small-pox, she will call the next 
Kurria, he of the dunghill, or B&haru, the outcast, or Mfiru, the worthless one, or Molar, bought, or 
Mangtu, borrowed.! or Bhagwani, given bv the Great God ; or will send him round the village in a 
dust-pan to show that she sets no store by him. So, too, many mothers dress their children in old rags 
befiyzed of their neighbours till they have passed the dangerous age. 

The Worship of the Sainted Dead. — The worship of the dead is universal; and they again maybe 
divided into the sainted and the malevolent dead. First among the sainted dead are the Pitrs or 
ancestors. Tiny shrines to those will be found all over the fields ; while there will oflen be a larger one 
to the common ancestors of the class. Villagers who have migrated will periodically make long 

* Bhtimia should, by his name, be the god of the land and not of the homestead. Bnt he is most certainly the 
latter, and is almost as often called Ehera as Bhtimia. There is also a village god called Ehetopal or the field 
nourisher, and also known as Bhairon ; bnt he is not often fonnd. In some places, however, the Khera Bevata or 
godling of the village site is also called Oharrwandand alleged to be the wife of Bhtimia (Cannings Owrgdon Report, 
p. 84) ; see also Alwar Oazetteer^ page 70. It is a curious fact that among the Gonds and Bheds the word Bhiunia 
means priest or medicine man, while among the Karkos, another Kolian tzibe, Bhtimia stands for high priest. 

t CL Two penny, Hintdeniers, &c. 

Y5747. T 



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pilgrimages to worship at the original shrine of their ancestor ; or, if the distance is too great, will 
bring away a link firom the original shrine, and use it as the foundation of a new local shrine which will 
answer all purposes. In the Punjab proper these larger shrines are called jaihera, or ancestor ; but in 
the Delhi terntorj the Satti takes their place in every respect^ and is supposed to mark the spot where 
a widow was burnt with her husband's corpse*. The 15th of the month is sacred to the pitrBf and on 
that day the cattle do no work and Br^hmans are fed. But besides this veneration of ancestors^ saints 
of widespread renown occupy a very important place in the worship of the peasantry. No one of them 
is, I believe, malevolent, and in a way tueir good nature is rewarded by a certain loss of respect. Cruza 
beta na deya taw buchh na chhin kga — ^' If Guga doesn't give me a son, at least he will take nothing 
" away from me." They are generally Mahammedan, but are worshipped by Hindoos and Musal- 
m&nsf alike with the most absolute impartiality^. There are three saints who are pre-eminently great 
in the Punjab, and thousands of worshippers of both religions flock yearly to their shrines. 

Greatest of all is Sakhi Sarwar SuUafij or the generous Prince Sarwar, also called Ldkhdata, or the 
Giver of Lakhs, and Rohidnwdla or He of the Hills. His real name was Saiyad Ahmad, and he 
flourished about the middle of the 12th century. His principal shrine is at Nig&ha in the Derah Ghazi 
Kh&n district, and contains, besides the trunk of the saint and his wife, a shrine to Bdb& Ndnak and a 
temple to Vifiimu, thus exemplifying the extraordinary manner in which reliffions are intermingled in 
the runj&b. Sakhi Sarwar is said, indeed, to have been a disciple of Bdbd Ndnak; but if so it must 
have been by anticipation, as he died nearly SOO years before the first Sikh Guru. The shrine is cele- 
brated throughout the Province and thousands of pilgrims from all parts, Hindoo, Sikh, and Musalmin, 
attend the annual fair which is held there, many of them in hopes of or in gratitude for a son, a boon 
supposed to be specially in the gift of the saints. A very consiaerable proportion of the Hindoo village 
population, and specially of the women of the AmritsAr, J^landhar, and Amb&la divisions (excepting 
Simla and Kangra), and of Northern Patiala are followers of Sakhi Sarwar Sult&n, and known in 
consequence as SultdnisJ. They are specially lax in the observances of their religion, and, unlike other 
Hindoos who will eat meat at all, they scrupulously abstain from the flesh of animals killed after the 
Sikh fashion by thojatia or single stroke oi the sword, and will indeed only eat if after the haldl or 
Mahammedan ceremony of cutting the throat of the living animal. The guardians of the local shrines, 
which exist in almost every village, are Musulman, and are called Bharai (^. v. in chapter on Castes) 
and conduct the companies of Hindoo pilgrims on their way to the shrine at Nig&ha. In the Delhi 
territory he is not held in quite such high esteem ; but he is generally worshipped, shrines in his honour 
are common, vows and pilgrimages to him are frequent, and Br^hmans tie threads on the wrists of their 
clients on a fixed date in the name of Sakhi Sarwar. 

Next to Sakhi Sarwar comes Bdwa Fdrid, surnamed Shakarganjy or the Fountain of Sweets. His 
shrine at Pak Pattan in the Montgomery district is, perhaps, the only one of the Punjab shrines whose 
renown extends beyond the confines of India. It is celebrated throughout Mahammedan Asia, and there 
are few of the invaders of India who have not turned aside from massacring his worshippers to pay their 
respects to the saint. There is the Gate of Paradise — 

" A narrow opening in a wall, about five feet by two and a half, throngh which the pilgrims force thoir passage 
'' during the afternoon and night of the 5th of the Muharram. Every devotee who contrives to get through the 
*' gate at the prescribed time is assured of a free entrance into Paradise hereafter. The crowd is therefore im- 
** mense, and the pressure is so great that two or three layers of men, packed closely over each other, generally 
** attempt the passage at the same time, and serious accidents, notwithstanding every precaution taken by the 
** police, are not uncommon." 

The estimated attendance at the annual fair is 50,000, composed of both Hindoos and Musulmdna 
B&wa Fdrid flourished about the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century. He was a thrifty 
saint, and for the last SO years of his life nourished himsolf by holding to his stomach wooden cakes and 
fruits when he felt hungry. . This miraculous but inexpensive provender is still preserved. 

Scarcely less celebrated is Bv>ga Pir^ also called Zflur Pir, the saint apparent, or B&garwala, he of 
the B&gar, from the fact that his grave is near Dadrowa in Bikaner, and tnat he is said to have ruled 
over the northern part of the B&fi^ar or great prairies of Northern R&jput^na. He flourished about the 
middle of the 12th century. He is really a Hindoo, and his proper name is Guga Bir, or Guga the 
Hero (cf. mr Latin). But Musulm&ns also flock to his shrine, and his name has been altered to Guga 
Pir, or saint Giiga, while he himself has become a Mahammedan in the opinion of the people. His 
conversion is thus accounted for. He killed his two nephews, and was condemned by their mother to 
follow them below. He attempted to do so ; but the earth objected to that; he being a Hindoo, she was 
quite unable to receive him till he should be properly burnt. As he was anxious to revisit his wife 
nightly, this did not suit him ; and so he became a Musulm&n, and his scruples being thus removed, 
the earth opened and swallowed him and his horse alive. Ho is to the Hindoos of the Eastern Punjab 
the greatest of the snake kings, having been found in the cradle sucking a live cobra's head ; and his 
chhari or fly-flap, consisting of a long bamboo surmounted by peacock feathers, a cocoanut, some fans, 
and a blue flag, may be seen at certain times of the year as tne Jogis or sweepers who had local charge 
of it take it round and ask for alms. His worship extends throughout the Province, except perhaps on 
the frontier itself. It is probably weakest in the western, but all over the eastern districts nis shrines, 
of a peculiar shape and name, may be seen in almost every large village, and he is universally worshipped 
throughout the submontane tract and the Kangra hills. There is a famous equestrian statue of him on 
the rock of Mandva, the ancient capital of Jodnpur. 

* Jathera would seem to be from the same root as Seth^ or husband's elder brother ; and the people commonly 
speak of their dadera jathera^ which would seem to mean their ancestors on the fathers' and mothers* sides. If so, 
it is extremely curious that both the jathera and the aatti involve relationship by marriage. The many and im- 
portant functions assigned to cognates in marriage and other ceremonies by the natives of the Panjab are most 
interesting, and call for study and ezplauatioiL BaUi was not abolished in British India until 1829 A.D. 

t The Hindoo Jats of a part of Gurgdon described their worship as confined to '* Shekh Ahmad Chisti Br&hman, 
and the Fipal tree." 

X Some of the Sikhs also are Sult&nis. It is often supposed, indeed, that the Sultanis are Sikhs and Sikhs only. 
But this is an error due to their commonly describing themselves as '' Sikh Sultanis " using the word Sikh in its 
original sense of *' disciple," and meaning nothing more than that they are followers of Sultan. 



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XI 

Another saint of great celebrity, and a contemporary of Barr Farid is Baali Qalandar, He used 
to ride about on a wall, but eventually settled at Panipat. The Jamna then flowed under the town, 
and he prayed so continuously that he found it convenient to stand in the river and wash his hands 
without moving. After seven years of this he got stifi^ and the fishes ate his legs ; so he asked the 
river to step back seven paces and let him dry. In her hurry to oblige the saint she retreated seven 
miles ; and there she is now. He gave the people of Panipat a charm which drove away all flies from 
the city. But they grumbled, and said they rather liked flies, so he brought them back a thousandfold. 
The people have since repented. There was a good deal of trouble about his funeral He died near 
Kamal, and there they buried him. But the Panipat people claimed his body and came and opened 
his grave, on which he sat up and looked at them till they felt ashamed. They then took some bricks 
from his grave with which to found a shrine ; but when they got to Panipat and opened the box they 
found his body in it, so now he lies buried both at Panipat and at Karnal. His history is given in the 
" Ayin Akbari." He died in 724 Hij (1824 A.D.). 

The Panch Pir or Five Saints are worshipped all over the Province by both Hindoos and Musulmdns. 
It is a matter of dispute whether they are the five Panda brothers of the Mahabharat, or the five great 
saints of Islam. It must be understood that though the graves of these saints are the centres of their 
worship pilgrimages, to them the most effective method of propitiation, yet shrines to some of them 
will be found scattered all over the country, sometimes in almost every village ; while all are worshipped 
and invoked locally at certain times and on certain occasions. Besides those saints of renown, whose 
worshippers are drawn from all parts of the Province, the countryside swarms with minor saints of more 
limited feme generally, but in the east not always Musalmdn, and worshipped alike by Hindoo and 
Mahammedan. If their shrines are large enough to go into, you must be careful to clap your hands 
before entering ; as these gentry occasionally sit on their tombs in their bones to take the air and have 
been discovered in that condition, an intrusion which they resent most violently. All these saints are 
benevolent^ and pilgrimages and offerings are made to them either in hope of male offspring or of relief 
from disease, or m fulfilment of a vow made with a similar object 

Tke Warship of the Malevolent Dead. — Far different from them are the malevolent dead. From them 
nothing is to oe noped, but everything is to be feared. Foremost among them are the aj/als or sonless 
dead. When a man has died without male issue he becomes spiteful, especially seeking the lives of the 
youn^ sons of others. In almost every village small platforms may be seen with rows of small hemi- 
sphencid depressions into which milk and Ganges water are poured, and by which lamps are lit and 
^r&hmans fed to assuage the Gyals,* while the careful mother will always dedicate a rupee to them, 
and hang it round her child's neck till he grows up.' Another thing that is certain to lead to trouble 
is the decease of anybody by violence or sudden death. In such cases it is necessary to propitiate the 
departed by a shrine, as in the case of the trooper previously mentioned. The most curious result 
of this behef is the existence all over the Eastern Punj&b of small shrines to what are popularly known 
as Saiyads, the real word is shahid or martyr, which being unknown to the peasantry has been corrupted 
into tne more familiar Saivad. One story, showing how these Saiyads met their death, will be found 
in section 876 of my Karndl Report. But the diviners will often invent a Saiyad hitherto unheard of 
as the author of a disease, and a shrine will be built to him accordingly. The shrines are Mahammedan 
in form, and the offerings are made on Thursday, and taken by Musulmdn faqirs. Very oflen the 
name even of the Saiyad is unknown. The Saiyads are exceedingly malevolent, and often cause illness 
and death. Boils are especially due to them, and they make cattle miscarry. One Saiyad, Bhrda of 
Bari in Kaithal, shares with Mansa Devi of Mani M&jra in Amb&la, the honour of being the great 
patron of thieves in the Eastern Punj&b. 

Many of those who have died violent deaths have acquired verjr widespread fame ; indeed Giiga Pir 
might be numbered amongst them, though he most certainly is not malevolent, witness the proverb 
quoted on page x. A very famous hero of this sort is Teja, a Jat of Meywfir, who was taking 
milk to his aged mother, when a snake caught him by the nose. He begeed to be allowed first to tako 
the mUk to t£e old lady, and then come back to be properly bitten and killed. And on a certain evening 
in the early autumn the boys of the Delhi territory come round with a sort of box with the dde out, 
inside which is an ima^e of Teja brUliautly illuminated, and ask vou to ^' remember tiie grotto." 
Another case is Harda L&la, brother of the Raja of Urchar in Bandelkand. He was poisoned by his 
own brother and is worshipped often under the name of Bandela all over Northern India, especially in 
epidemics. He and Teja are generally represented on horseback. So again Harshu Br&hman, who 
died while sitting rfAarwa,t is worshipped even east of Lahore. 

But even though a man have not died sonless or by violence you are not quite safe from hun. His 
disembodied spirit travels about for twelve months as a paret, and even in that state is apt to be 
troublesome. But if at the end of that time he does not settle down to a respectable second life, he 
becomes a bhut or, if a female, a churel, and as such is a terror to the whole country, his principal objects 
then being to give as much trouble as may be to bis old friends, possessing them, and producing fever 
and other malignant diseases. Low-caste men, such as scavengers, are singularly liable to give trouble 
in this way, and are therefore always buried or burnt face downwards to prevent the spirit escaping ; 
and riots have taken place, and the magistrates have been appealed to to prevent a Chura being buried 
face upwards. These ghosts are most to be feared by women and children, and especially immediately 
after taking sweets ; so that if you treat a school to sweetmeats the sweet-seller will also bring 8alt> of 
which he wiU give a pinch to each boy to take the sweet taste out of his mouth. They also have a 
way of going down your throat when you vawn, so that you should always put your hand to your 
mouth, and nad also better say " Narain ! ' afterwards. Ghosts cannot set foot on the ground, and 
you will sometimes see two bricks or bags stuck up in front of the shrine for the spirit to rest on. 
Hence when going on a pilgrimage or with ashes to the Ganges, you must sleep on the ground all die 

* I believe them to be identioal in purpose, as they oertainly are in shape, with the cup-marks "which have lately 
exercised the antiquaries. They are called bhorka in the Delhi territoiy. 

t If a Br&hman asks aught of you and you refuse it, he will sit at your door, and abstain from food till he gain 
bis request. If he die meanwhile, Ins blood is on your head. This is called sitting dhama, 

T 2 



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way there so as to avoid them ; while the ashes must not rest on the ground^ but must be hung up in 
a tree so that their late owner may be able to visit them. So a woman, when about to be delivered, is 
placed on the groundi as is every one when about to die. Closely allied to the ghosts are the Nwris or 
fairies. They attack women onlys especially on moonlight nights, catching them by the throat, half 
choking them, and knocking them down. (? Hysteria.) Children, on the other hand, they protect 
They are Musulm&n, and propitiated accordingly, and are apparentlv identical with the Parind or Peri 
with whom Moore hafi maae us familiar. They are abo known as Shabpuri, but resent being so called ; 
and no woman would dare to mention the word. 

Divination^ Possessiani Exorcismj and Charms. — Such being the varied choice iu the matter of malevo- 
lent spirits offered to the Punj&b peasant by the belief of the countryside it may he supposed that 
divination and exorcism are practised widely, and possession and the virtue of charms firmly believed in. 
Witchcrafts proper are heard but little of, and^ it is, I believe, chiefly confined to the lowest castes, 
though some wizards are commonlv credited with the power of causing a woman to die if they can 
obtain a lock of her hair, and then bringing her to life again for their carnal enjoyment* Illness is 
generallv attributed to the malignant influence of a deity, or to possession by a spirit, and recourse is 
had to the soothsayer to decide who is to be appeased, and in wnat manner. The diviners are called 
" devotees " {bhagat)^ or " wise men " {ayana)^ and they generally work under the inspiration of a snake- 
ffod, though sometimes under that of a Saiyad {see above). The power of divination is generally con- 
fined to the lower and menial (? aboriginal) castes, is often hereditary, and is rarely possessed by 
women. Inspiration is shown by the man's head beginning to wag ; and he then builds a shrine to his 
familiars, before which he dances, or, as it is called by the people, ^' sports " (khelan). He is consulted 
at nighty the inquirer providing tobacco and music. The former is waved over the bod^ of the invalid, 
and given to the wise man to smoke. A butter-lamp is lighted, the music plays, the diviner sometimes 
lashes himself with a whip, and he is at last seized by the afflaters, and in a paroxysm of dancing and 
head-wa^;ing declares the name of the malignant influence, the manner in which it is to be propitiated, 
and the time when the disease may be expected to abate, for the diviner waives wheat over the patient's 
body, by preference on Saturday or Sunday ; he then counts out the grains one by one into heaps, one 
heap for eadi god who is likely to he at the bottom of the mischief, and the deity on whose heap the 
last grain falls is the one to be propitiated. The malignant spirit is appeased by building him a new 
shrine, or by making offerings at the old one. Very often the offering is first placed by the patient's 
head for a night or waved over his body, or he is made to eat a part of it ; and it is sometimes exposed 
on a moonlignt night while the moon is still on the wax, together with a lighted lamp, at a place where 
four cross-roads meet Sometimes it is enough to tie a rag taken from the patient's body on to the 
sacred tree — generally a, jam (prosopis specigera) — beneath wmch the shrine stands, and such trees may 
often be seen covered with the remnants of those offerings, blue being the predominating colour if the 
shrine be Musulmin, and red if it be Hindoo. 

The evil eye is firmly believed in ; and iron is the sovereign safeguard against it While a house is being 
built, an iron pot (or an earthern vessel painted black is near enough to deceive the evil eye, and is less 
expensive) is always kept on the works ; and when it is finished the young daughter of the owner ties to 
the lintel a charm, usea on other occasions also, the principal virtue of which lies in a small iron ring. 
Mr. Cleavering thus describes the theory of the evil eye : — 

'* When a ohild is bom an invisible spirit is sometimes bom with it; and unless the mother keeps one breast 
** tied up for forty days while she feeds the child from the other, in which case the spirit dies of hmiger, the child 
*' grows up with the endowment of the evil eye, and whenever a person so endowed looks at anything constantly, 
** something evil will happen to it. Amulets worn for protection against the evil eye seem to be of two classes ; the 
*^ first, objects which apparently resist the influence by a superior innate strength such as tigers' claws ; the second, 
" of a worthless character, snoh as cowries, which may catch the eye of their beholder, and Urns prevent the 
'< covetous look. A father was once asked, * Why don't you wash that pretty child's face P ' and replied, ' A little 
^' black is good to keep off the evil eye.' " 

If so, most native children should be safe enough. It is bad manners to admire a child, or comment 
upon its healthy appearance. The theory of the scapegoat obtains ; and in times of great sickness goats 
will be marked aflier certain ceremonies, and let loose in the jungle, or killed and buried in tibe centre 
of the village. These commonly wear round their necks armlets, consisting of small silver lockets con- 
taining sentences, or something which looks like a sentence, written by ?i,faqir. The leaves of the siras 
(ubbizzia libbek) and of the mango {mangifera indica) are also powerful for good ; and a garland of them 
hung across the village gate, with a mystic inscription on an earthern platter in the middle, and a plough 
beam buried in the gateway with the handle sticking out show that cattle-plague has visited a man 
dreaded in the village, and that the cattle have been driven under the charm on some Sunday on which 
no fire was lighted on any hearth. An inscription made by a faqtr on an earthen platter, and then 
washed off into water which is drunk by the patient, is a useful remedy in illness ; and in protracted 
labour the washings of a brick from the chakalu {chakra bhya) foot of Amin, where the '^arrayed army " 
of the P&ndas assembled before their final defeat, are potent ; or if anybody knows how to draw 
aground plan of the fort, the water into which the picture is washed off will be equally cffective.t 
TVnen a beast gets lame, an oval mark with a cross in it or Solomon's seal or Sliva's trident on the old 
mark of the Aryan weed-fire, § in general shape like the Mauxarias, is branded on the limb affected; 
or a piece of the coloured thread used by the Brihman in religious ceremonies is tied round it. 

Minor superstitions. — Grood and bad omens are innumerable. Black is unlucky, and if a man go to 
build a house, and turn up charcoal at the first stroke of the spade, he will abandon the site. A mantis 
is the horse of R&m, is very auspicious, and always saluted when seen. Owls portend desolate homes ; 

* In the hills, however, magic is said to be common, and in the plains certain men clean charm the livers out of 
children, and so cause them to pine away and die. Englishmen are often credited with this power. 

t The term Bhagat, I believe properly applies only to the devotees of the goddess Devi But it is locally used by 
the villagers for any wiseman or diviner. 

t The virtue of the fort is due to its standing on the edge of a pond in which the sun was bom, and where women 
who wish for sons go and bathe as on Sunday. 

§ This sign is often drawn at the door of a house or shop to keep off £he evil eye. 



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and the koil {jOudynamys orientalis) is also espNecially unlucky. Chief among good omens is the dozar, or 
two water-potSy one on top of the other. This should be left to the right, as should the crow, the black 
buck; and the mantis; but the snake to the left. ^ To sneeze is auspicious, as you cannot die for some 
little time afi;er. So when a man sneezes his friends grow enthusiastic and congratulate him, saying 
"live a hundred years!" Odd numbers are IncW. ^^NtmeroDens impare paudet" But 3 and 
13 are unlucky, because they are the bad days after death; and teran tin is equivalent to "all 
anyhow." So if a man, not content with two wives, wish to marry again, he will first marry a tree, 
so that the new wife may be the fourth, and not the third. The number five and its aliquot parts run 
through the religious and ceremonial customs. ^ The shrine toBhumia is made of fire-brick ; five colours 
of the sacred crass are oflfered to her after child-birth; five sticks of sugar-cane are oflfered, with the 
first fruits of uie juice, to the god of the sugar-press, and so on without end ; while offerings to Brdhmana 
are always li, 2^, 5, 7^, whether rupees, or seers of grain. The dimensions of wells, and well-gear on 
the other hand, are alwajB fixed in so many and three quarter cubits ; and no carpenter would make or 
labourer die you any portion of a well in round numbers of cubits. 

The soum is a quarter to be especially avoided, as the spirits of the dead live there. Therefore your 
cooking hearth must not face the south, nor must you sleep or lie with your feet in that direction except 
in your last moments. The demon of the four quartet Dis^sul, lives in the east on Monday and 
Saturday, in the north on Tuesday and Wednesday, in the west on Friday and Sunday, and in the 
south on Thursday ; and a prudent man wilL not make a journey or even plough in those directiony on 
those days. So when Shukn or Venus is in declension brides do not go to their Others' houses nor return 
iiience to visit their fathers' houses. On the Biloch frontier each man is held to have a star, and he must 
not journey in certain directions when his star is in given positions. But when his duty compels him to 
do so he will bury his star, t.^.^ a piece of paper cut out in that shape, so that it may not see what he 
is doing.* It is well not to have your name made too free use of, especially for cmldren. They are 
often not named at all for some little time; and if named are generally addressed as "Baby." If a 
man be rich enough to have his son's horoscope drawn, a few days after his birth, the name then fixed 
will be carefully concealed till the boy is eight or ten years old and out of danger ; and even then 
it will not be commonly used, the everyday name of a Hindoo, at least among the better classes, 
being quite distinct from his real name, wmch is only used at formal ceremonies, such as marriage. 
Superiors are always addressed in the third person ; and a clerk, when reading a paper in which 
your name occurs, will omit it and explain that it is your name that he omits. A Hindoo peasant 
will not eat, and often will not grow onions or turnips, as they taste strong like meat, which is for- 
bidden to him. Nor will he grow indigo, for simple blue is the Musulm&n colour, and an abomina- 
tion to him. He will also remse to eat oil or black sesame if formally offered him by another, for 
if he do he will serve the other in the next life. A common retort when asked to do something 
unreasonable is kyay mainm tere kala tel chahe hair? "What, have I eaten your black sesame?" The 
shopkeeper must nave cash for his first transaction in the morning ; and will not book anything till he 
has taken money. 

Some of the superstitious ceremonies attending birthf are very curious. If a boy be born a net is 
hung over the doorway, a charm stuck on to the wall, and a fire lighted on the threshold, which is kept 
up night and day to prevent evil spirits from passing. The swaddling clothes should be burned from 
another person's house. On the night of the sixth day the whole household sits up and watches over 
the child, for on that day (chhatu) his destiny is determmed, especially as to immunity from small-pox- 
If he go hungry on that day he will be stingy all his life ; and so a miser is called chhate hd bhukliOy or 
" hungry ou his sixth," and a prosperous one chhate ka raja^ or "a king from his sixth." None of these 
precautions are taken on the birth of a girl. 

Tree and Animal Worship. — Traces of the worship are still common. Most members of the Vig 
tribe, and especially the Pipul and Bar {Fecus reiigma and Bmgalensis) are sacred ; and only in the 
direct extremities of famine will their leaves be cut for the cattle. Sacred groves are found in most 
villages, from which no one may cut wood or pick fruit. The Jand (Proeopia spiciyera) is reverenced 
very generally, more especially in the parts where it forms a chief feature in the larger flora of the 

Sreat arid grazing grounds ; it is commonly selected to mark the abode or to shelter the shrine of a 
eit^ ; it is to it, as a rule, that rays are affixed as offerings, and it is employed in the marriage cere- 
monies of many tribes. In some parts of Eangra, if a betromed, but as yet unmarried, girl can succeed 
in performing the marriage ceremony with the object of her choice round a fire made in the juns^les 
witn certain wild plants her betrothal is annulled, and the marriage holds good. Marriage with trees 
is not uncommon, whether as the third wife already alluded to, or by prostitutes in order to enjoy the 
privileges of a married woman without the inconvenience of a human nusband. The Deodar worship 
of KuTu is described elsewhere. Several of the Jat tribes revere certain plants. Some will not 
burn the wood of the cotton plant, the women of others veil their faces before the Nira {Melia indica) 
as if in the presence of a husband's elder relative, while others pray to the ti^er grass (Saccharum span- 
tanecus) for offspring under the belief that the spirit of the ancestor inhabits it. These customs are 
probably in many cases ptolemic rather than strictly religious. Tiraths or holy ponds are greatly believed 
m, the merit of batiUng in each being expressed in terms of cows, as equal to that of feeding so many. 
Some of those ponds are famous places of pilgrimage. The Hindoo peasant venerates the cow, and 
proves it by leaving her to starve in a ditch when useless, rather than kill her comfortably. Yet if he 
DO so unfortunate as to kill a cow by mishap, he has to co to the Ganges, there to be purified at con- 
siderable expense, and on the road he bears aloft the cow s tail tied to a stick that all may know that 
he is impure and must not enter a village, and may avoid his touch and send out food to him. His 
regard for animal life in general forbids him to kill any animal, though he will sometimes make an 

* Bat it would appear that there is a tmanimitj in the motion of these stars which reduces the role to one of dates. 
Then, on the Ist, 2nd, 10th, and 12th, jonmeys must not be made towards one quarter ; on the 8rd, 4th, Idth, and 
14th towards another ; on the 5th, 6th, 15th, and 16th towards a third, and on the 7th, 8th, 17th, and 18th towards 
the fourth. On the 9th, 10th, 19th, 20th, 29th, and 30th the traveller is free to face as he pleases. 

f The marriage castoms are even more cnrious. They are based throughout on the idea of marriage by capture, 
and will be noticed in the section on Oastes and Tribes. 

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XIV 

exception in favour of owls and e^en of snakes, and he seldom has any objection to anybody else destroying 
the wild animals which injure his crops. In the east he will not eat meat ; but i believe that in the 
Punj&b proper the prombition extends to women only. The monkey and peacock are spedaily 
sacred* 

Affricviturai Superstitions.-^The superstitions connected with cattle and agriculture are endless. No 
horned cattle or anything appertaining to them, such as butter or leather, must be bought or sold on 
Saturday or Sunday; if one die on either of those days he is buried instead of being given to the 
menials. So tixe first beast that dies of cattlo-plague is buried. Cattle-plague can be cast out across 
the border of one village into the one which adjoins it in the east All field-work, cutting of grass, 
grinding of com, and cooking of food is stopped on Saturday morning ; and on Sunday night a solemn 

§ recession conducts a buffalo skull, a lamb, Siva's stick, buttermilk, &:e, and sacred grass to the boun- 
ary, over which they are thrown, while a gun is fired three times to frighten away me disease. Last 
year a man was killed in an affray resulting from an attempt to transfer the plague in this manner. A 
villager in Gurg&on once captured the cattle-plague in its material shape, and wouldn't let it go till it 
promised never to remain where he or his descendants were present; and his progeny are still sent for, 
when murrain has fastened on a village, to walk round it and call on the plamie to fulfil its contract 
lie sugar-press must be started, and a well begim on a Sunday. On Saturday night little bowls of 
^ater are set out round the proposed site, and the one which dries up least marks the exact spot for 
the well. The circumference is then marked, and they begin to dig, leaving the central lump of earth 
intact They cut out this clod, call it Khw&ja li, and worship it and feed Br£hmans. If it breaks 
it is a bad omen, and a new site will be chosen a week later. The year's ploughing or sowins: 
is best begun on a Wednesday ; it must not be begun on a Monday or on a Saturday, or on 
the 1st or 11th of any month ; and on the 15th of each month the cattle must rest fix>m work. So 
weeding should be done once, twice, thrice, or five times; it is unlucky to weed four times. Reaping 
must be begun on a Tuesday and finished on a Wednesday, the last bit of crop being left standing 
till then. When the grain is ready to be divided the most extraordinary precautions are observed to 
prevent the evil eye from reducing the yield. Times and seasons are observed, perfect silence is en- 
joined, and above all, all audible counting of the measures of grain is avoided.* When sugar-cane is 
planted a woman puts on a necklace and walks round the field, winding thread on to a spindle, and 
when it is cut the first fruits are offered on an altar called makdl, built close to the press, to the sugar- 
cane god, whose name is unknown, unless it too be makdl, and then ^ven to Br&hmans. When the 
women begin to pick the cotton they go round the field eating rice-milk, the first mouthful of which 
they spit on to the field toward the west; and the first cotton picked exchanged at the village shop for 
its weight in salt, which is prayed over and kept in the house till the picking. 

Fasts and Festivals. — Religious festivals play a great part in the life of the peasant ; indeed they 
form liis chief holidays, and on these occasions men, and still more women and children, don their best 
and collect in grc&t numbers, and after the offering has been made enjoy the excitement of looking at 
one another. The great Hindoo festivals have ^en described in numberless books, and I need not 
notice, them here. But besides these every shrine, Hindoo and Musulm&n, small and great, has its 
fairs held at fixed dates, which attract worshippers more or less numerous according to its renown. 
Some of these fairs, such as those at Thanesar on the occasion of an eclipse, those of B&wa F&rid at 
Pakpattan, and of Sakhi Sarwar at Nig&ka are attended by very many thousands of people, and elabo- 
rate police arrangements are made for their regulation. There are two festivals peculiar to the villages, 
not observed in me town, and therefore not described in the bool^ whidh I will briefly notice. The 
ordinary Diwdli or feast of lamps of the Hindoos is called by the villagers the little Diwili, On this 
night ihepitr or ancestors visit the house, which is fresh plastered throughout for the occasion, and the 
family lights lamps and sits up all night to receive them« Next morning the housewife takes all the 
sweepings and old clothes in a dustpan and turns them out on to the dunghill, saying, ^^ May thriftless- 
'^ness and poverty be far from us !" Meanwhile they prepare for the celebration of the great or 
Gobardhan Diw&li, in which Krishna is worshipped in his capacity of cowherd, and which all owners 
of cattle should observe. The women make a Gobardhan of cow-dung, which consists of Krishna 
lying on his back surrounded by little cottage loaves of dtmg to represent mountains, in which are 
stuck stems of grass with tufbs of cotton or rag on the top for trees, and by little dung-balls for cattle, 
watched by dung-men dressed in bits of rag. Another opinion is that the cottage loaves are cattle and 
the dung-balls calves. On this are put the chum stuff and five whole sugarcanes, and some parched 
rice and a lighted lamp in the middle. The cowherds are then called in, and they salute the whole 
and are fed with rice and sweets. The Brdhman then' takes the sugarcane and eats a bit ; and till 
then no one must cut, press, or eat cane. Rice-milk is then given to the Br&hmans, and the bullocks 
have their horns dyed and get extra well fed. Four days before the Diw&li is the Devtdhni, on which 
the gods awake from their four months' sleep, during which four months it is forbidden to marry, to 
cut sugarcane, or to put new string on a bedstead, on pain of a snake biting the sleeper. Fasts are 
not much observed bv the villagers, except the great annual fasts ; and not even those by the young 
man who works in tne fields and cannot afford to go hungry. But sugar, butter, milk, fruits, and 
wild seeds, and anything that is not technically ** grain," may be eaten, so that the abstinence is not 
very severe. 

Hindoo Priests and Leviies.'-^The Hindoo priests and Levites may be roughly divided into three 
classes. First come the regular order of ascetics or devotees, the Bairagis, Gosains, Jogis, and the Uke. 
Some of these orders are celebate, others marry ; some live in monasteries, others have no organisation ; 
none of them are of necessity Br&hmans, while Br&hmans will not enter some of the sects. The 
second class is the padAa or officiating Brahman. He must be acquainted with the Hindoo ritual in 
ordinary use at weddings, funerals, and the like, and be able to repeat the sacred texts used on those 
occasions. He generally combines a little astrology with this knowledge, can cast horoscopes, write 
charms, and so on. The third and most numerous class is purely Levitical, being potential priests, but 

* A full description will be found in sections 435-6 of my Eamal Report, in Mr. Purser's Montgomery Beport, 
and at pages 194 and 236 of Vol. I. of Elliott's Races of tJie North-Western Frovinces, 



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exercising no sacerdotal functions beyond the receipt of offerings. They are all, of course, BrAhmane, 
and a considerable number of them Qxepurohits or hereditary family priests, who receive as of right the 
alms and offerings of their clients, and attend upon them when the presence of Br&hmans is necessary. 
But besides the purohUs themselves there is a large body of Br&hmans who, so far as their priesdy 
office is concerned, may be said to exist only to be fed They consist of the younger members of the 
purohit families, and of Br&bmans who have settled on cultivation or otherwise in villages where they 
nave no hereditary clients. These men are always ready to tender their services as recipients of a 
dinner, thus enabUng the peasant to feed the desired number of Br&hmans on occasions of rejoicing, as 
a proprietory offering, in token of thanksgiving, for the repose of his deceased father's spirit, and so on. 
The veneration for Br&hmans runs through the whole social as well as religious lite of a Hindoo 
peasant, and takes the practical form of either offerings or food. No child is born, named, betrothed, 
or married ; nobody dies or is burnt ; no journey is undertaken or auspicious day elected, no home is 
built, no agricultural operation of importance begins, or harvest gathered in, without the Br&hmans 
being feted or fed ; a portion of all the produce of the field is set apart for their use, they are consulted 
in sickness and in health, they are feasted in sorrow and in joy ; and though I believe them to possess 
but little real influence with the people of the Punj&b,* a considerable proportion of the wealth of the 
Province is diverted into their useless pockets. But with the spiritual life of the people, so far as such 
a thing exists, they have no concern. Their business as Br&hmans is to eat and not to teach — I am 
speaking of the class as a whole, and not of individuals — and such small measure of spiritual guidance 
as reaches the people is received almost exclusively at the hands of the regular orders which constitute 
the first of my priestly classes. In theory every Hindoo has a ffuru or spiritual preceptor, in fact, the 
great mass of the peasantry do not even pretend to possess one ; while those even who, as they grow 
old and respectable, think it necessary to entertain one are very commonly content to pay him his 
stipend without troubUng themselves about his teaching; but the ffuru is almost always a Sadh or 
professed devotee. 

Hindooism in the hills. — ^The Hindooism of the hillsf differs considerably from that of the plains. It 
would seem that in all mountainous countries, the grandeur of their natural features and the magnitude 
of the physical forces (Usplayed lead the inhabitants to deify the natural objects by which t£ey are 
surrounded, or rather to assign to each its presiding genius, and to attribute to these demons a more or 
less malevolent character. j: The greater gods, indeed, are not unrepresented in the Punj&b Himalayaa 
There are the usual Th&kurdwaras sacr^ to Vishnu in some one of his forms, and Shivfilas dedicated 
to Shiv : but though Naths, with their ears bored in honour of the latter god, are to be found in unuenial 
numbers, those deities are little regarded by the peoi>le, or at any rate by those of the villages. The 
malignant and terrible Kali Devi, on the other hand, is worshippea throughout the Eangra mountains ; 
and to her, as well as to the dicis presently to be mentioned, human sacrifices were offered up to the 
period of our rule. An old cedar tree was cut down only a few years ago to which a girl used formerly 
to be offered annually, the families of the village taking it in turn to supply the victim, and when the 
Viceroy opened the Sarhind Canal in November 1882, the people of the lower hills believed that 200 
of the prisoners who had been employed on the works were released on condition of their furnishing a 
similar number of girls to be sacrificed at the inaugural ceremon^r? and lit fires and beat drums and sat 
up for several nights in order to keep off any who mieht be prowling about in search of female children 
for this purpose. But the every-day worship of me villager is confined to the ahtis or genii of the 
trees, rocks, and cases of Lahaul, and the local spirits or demons of Kulu, variously known as Devatas 
or godlings, Devis who are apparently the corresponding female divinitiei^ Rakhis and Munir or local 
saints, Siddhs or genii of the tull-tops or high places, Jogins or wood fairies. Nags or snake-gods, and 
by many other names, though for practical purposes little distinction is apparently drawn between the 
various classes. § A favourite situation for a snrine is a forest, a mountain peak, a lake, a cave, or a 
waterfall ; but almost every village has its own temple, and the priests are generally drawn from among 
the people themselves, Br&hmans and other similar priestly classes seldom officiating. Idols are almost 
unknown, or where found, consist of a rude unhewn stone ; but almost every deity has a metal mask 
which is at stated periods tied on to the top of a pole dressed up to represent the human form, placed 
in a sedan chair, and taken round to make visits to the neighbouring divinities or to be feasted at a 
private house in fulfilment of a vow. Each temple has its own feasts also, at which neighbouring deities 
will attend ; and on all such occasions sheep or ^oats are sacrificed and eaten, much hill-beer is dnmk, 
and the people amuse themselves with dances m which the man-borne deity is often pleased to i(Hn. 
There are also other domestic powers, such as Edla Bir, Nan Singh, the Paris or fairies, and the like, 
who have no shrines or visible signs, but are feared and propitiated in various ways. Thus for the 
ceremonial worship of K&la Bir and Nan Singh, a black and white goat respectively are kept in the 
house. Sacrifice of animals is a universal religious rite, and is made at weddings, funerals, festivals, 
harvest time, on beginning ploughing, and on all sorts of occasions for purposes of purification, propitia- 
tion, or thanksgiving. The water-courses, the sprouting seeds, the ripening ears are all in charge of 
separate genii who must be duly propitiated. 

* The local proverbs supply many instances of the evil odour in which the rapacity of the Brahmans have caused 
them to be held. " As famme from the desert so comes evil from a Brahman." 

t The following description is taken almost bodily, though not verbally, from Mr. Lyall*8 Kangra Beport. 

X I shall not attempt to distinguish the various grades of belief which obtain in the different Himalayan ranges ; 
but it may be said generally that the deeper you penetrate into the mountains the more elementary is the worSiip^ 
and the more malevolent are the deities. 

§ There is one curious difference between the gods of the hills and those of the plains ; and that is, that many of 
the former are purely territorial, each little state or group of villages having its own deity, and the boundaries 
between their jurisdictions being very clearly defined. The god Sipur, in whose honour the well-known Sipi fair is 
held near Simhi, lost his nose in an attempt to steal a deod&r tree from the territory of a neighbouring riviJ, for the 
latter woke up and started in pursuit, on which Sipur not only fell down in his alarm and broke his nose, but he 
droj^ped the tree, which is, I am told, still growing upside down to attest the truth of the story. The only 
territorial god of the plains that I can remember is Bhumia, the god of the village. Perhaps the difference may be 
due to the striking manner in which Nature has marked off the Himalayan territory into small valleys separated by 
grand and difficult mountain ranges. 

T 4 



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'* Till the festiyal of the ripening grain has been celebrated no one is allowed to cat grassor any green thing with 
" a sickle made of iron, as in such case the field-god wotdd become angry, and send frost to destroy or injnre the 
** harvest. If therefore a Lahanli wants grass b^ore the harvest sacrifice, he mnst cat it with a sicUe made of the 
" horn of an oz or sheep, or tear it off with the hand. The iron sicUe is used as soon as the harvest has been 
" declared to be commenced by the performance, of the sacrifice. Infractions of this role were formerly severely 
"ponished; at present a fine of one or two rupees sorfices." 

All misfortune or sickness is attribated to the malice of some local deity or saint, and the priest is 
consulted as is the Bhagat in the plains. Indeed the hill priests serve as a sort of oracle, and are 
asked for advice on every conceivable subject ; when by whisking round, by flogging themselves with 
chains, and so on, they get into the properly exhausted and inspired state, and gasp out brief oracular 
answera Ma^c and witchcraft and the existence of witches and sorcerers are firmly believed in. In 
the bill states if epidemic attack or other misfortune befall a village, the soothsayer, there called chela^ 
or '^ disciple/' is consulted, and he fixes under inspiration upon some woman as the witch in fault If 
the woman confess she is purified by the chda^ the sacrifice of a he-goat forming the principal feature 
in the ceremony. But if she deny the accusation, she will be tried by one of several kinds of ordeal 
very similar to those once practised in Europe, those by water and by hot iron being among them. 
Tree worship still flourishes. Mr. Anderson writes :— 

*' In matters of every-day importance, sach as cattle, disease, health, good crops, &o., in short in worldly affiurs 
** generally, the people of &dla go to the old deodar trees in the middle of the forest where there is often no temple 
'* at all, and present a piece of iron to propitiate the diet^. Such trees are common in Kiila, and the nnmber of 
" iron nails £iven into them show that this form of worship is not dying out."* 

Both men and women of all classes eat meat, with the exception of widows ; spirits and fermented 
liquids are commonly drunk, and Br&hmans will eat when seated alongside of the lower castes, though 
not, of course, at their hands. The local saints and divinities are, unlike their rivals in the plains, 
all Hindoo, with the doubtful exceptions of Guga Pir already described, and of Jamlu, a demon of 
Mal&na in Killu, who possessed great virtue before our rule, his village being a city of refuge for 
criminals, and whose hereditary attendants form an exceedingly peculiar body of men who are looked 
upon collectively as the incarnation of the divinity, are apparently of a race distinct firom that of the 
hiU-men, intermarry only among themselves, speak a dialect which is imintelligible to the people of 
the country, and use their reputation for uncanniness and the dread of their god as the means of 
wholesale extortion from their superstitious nei^hourst* Jamlu is said to be a Musalm&n because 
animals offered to him have tJieir throats cut Sut neither he nor his worship bears any other trace of 
Isl&m, and his attendants are Hindoo. His incarnation, too, is known as R& Deo, while his sister is called 
Frini Devi. The other Devatas indeed refuse to visit him, and pretend to treat him as an outcast ; but 
he revenges himself by assuming a superiority to them all, which m old days sometimes took the practical 
form of a successful demand for a part of their property. In the lower hills the Mahammedan saints 
re-appear, as B&na Fattu, B&na Bhopat, and their friends, and the majority of their worshippers are, 
again, Hindoos. 

Hindomm (m the frontier. — On the firontier and in the western districts^ the Hindoos are exceeding 
lax in their observance of all ceremonies and caste restrictions, drinking water from skin bags, 
and even from the hands of a Musalm&n, carrying about and eating food cooked at a public oven, 
eating flesh in company with Musalm&ns, shaving uie chhotif or scalp-lock, selling vetetables and shoes, 
loading and riding on donkeys, and — 

" doing a multitude of things which an orthodox Hindoo would shink from. Except a few images kept in their 
'' temples, they have no idols at all. No one in fact ever sees anything of their worship. They bum their dead 
" and throw the ashes into the Indus, keeping a few of the bones to be taken or sent to the Ganges when Occasion 
'* offers. There are a good many temples in the Ois-Indos traOt, but very few across the river." — {Tucker's Derah 
Ismcnl Khan Report.) 

This laxity is the more peculiar, as the mass of the Hindoos on the frontier belong to the mercantile 
castes, who are in the east and centre of the Province proverbially strict in their observance of religious 
and caste rules, ranking second in tiiis respect only to the Br&hmans themselves But the fact is that, 
till we annexed the Punjdb the Hindoos only existed by sufierance in the frontier districts, and, being 
compelled to keep their faith in the background, naturally grew lax in its observance. Moreover, a 
very considerable proportion of the Hindoos on the frontier, and especially in the DeraJ&t, are N&naki 
Sikhs, or followers of Bdba Nanak, as distinguished from Sinffhi bikhs, or followers of Guru Govind, 
while even such as do not openlv profess those tenets are much influenced by them in their mode of 
life. The position of the Hinaoo in Bannu at the time of annexation is thus graphically described 
by Sir Herbert Edwardes :— 

" In Bannu the position of the Hindoos was peculiarly degraded, for they lacked the interested friendship of a 
** regular and needy Government, and became entirely dependent on the inoividaal maliks who harboured them in 
" their forts. They could not indeed venture outside the walls, or visit their brethren in other forts, without a 
" safeguard from their own chief, who conducted and brooght them back, and was paid for his protectioiL Once 
" when I was encamped in the Surani tappahs, two half -buried human bodies were discovered, whose wounds bore 
" evidence to the violence of their death. I was afraid they were some of my own men, and instant inquiry was 
'' made in camp ; when some Bannuchis came forward to explain that they were only two SUndooe who had gone out 
" without a ga^ to collect some debts I 

" No Hindoo in Bannu was permitted to wear a turban, that being too sacred a symbol of Mahammedanism, and 
** the small cotton skull-cap was all that they had to protect their brains from the keen Bannu sun. When they 
*< came into our camp they made a hoUd^ of it, brought a turban in their pockets, and put it on with childish 
<< delight when they got inside the lines. If any Hindoo wished to celebrate a marriage in his family, he went to 
'' his maliks for a license as regularly as an English gentleman to Doctors Commons, and had to hire the malika' 
" soldiers also to guard the procession and fire a feu dejoie. Notwithstanding all these outward dangers and dis- 



• The name Deodar (Devordaru) means " the divine tree." It is applied to the Himalayan cypress {Cwreesus 
Uxrulosa) in Kdlu, and in Lahul, to the Juniperae excelsa. The Himalayan ciders {Cedrue deodara) is cfdled by the 
people dedr or heh, not deoddr.—D. I. 

t There is a tradition that they were deported to their present homes by one of the Emperors as a punishment for 
some offence. 

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*' abilities, the Hindoo in his inmost sonl might hold ' high oarnival, ' for assomedlj he was the moral victor oyer his 
** Mahammedan masters. I do not remember a single chief in Banna who could either read or write, and, what is 
" much rarer among natives, very few indeed could make a mental calculation. Every chief, therefore, kept 
** Hindoos about his x>erson as general agents and secretaries. Bred up to love money from his cradle, the common 
" Hindoo cuts his first tooth on a rupee, wears a gold mohur round ms neck for an amulet, and has cowry shells 
** (the lowest denomination of his god) given him to play with on the floor. The multiplication table, up to one 
" hundred times one hundred, is his first lesson ; and out of school he has two pice given to him to take to the 
" bazaar and turn into an anna before he ^ets his dinner ; thus educated, Hmdoos of aU otiiers are the best adapted 
" for middle-men, and the Bannuchi Malik found in them a useful but double-edged tool. They calculated the 
*' tithes due to him from the tappah, and told him a false total much under the real one ; they then offered to buy 
** them from him, and cheated him dreadfully ; and lastly they collected the tithes from the people, who were 
*^ equally ignorant, and took one hundred for fifty, backed by the soldiers of the very Malik to whom they had 
" given fifty for one hundred. If the landowner was distressed, the Hindoo competed with the Mahammedan 
** priest for the honour of relieving him with a loan upon his land ; and if the debt was affcerwards repudiated he 
** easily obtained justice by bribing his friend the Malik. Throughout the whole of Bannu all trade was in the 
** hands of the Hindoos, with the exception (characteristic of the two races) of gunpowder, firearms, and swords, 
*' whidi were exclusively manufactured and sold by Mahammedans. Hence they had shops in every petty fort, 
** and every Mahammedan in the valley was their customer. 

" Living then though they did in fear and trembling, unable to display the very wares they wish to sell, burying 
" profit that they made in holes in the fields and under the hearthstones of their houses, marrying wives only by 
« sufferance, keeping them only if thej were ugly, and worshipping their gods hj stealth, the Hindoos of Bannu 
" can still not be said to have been objects of pity, for their avarice made them insensible to the degradation of 
'* their position, and thejjr derived from the gradual accumulation of wealth a mean equivalent for native country, 
*• civil liberty, and religious freedom." 

This description is exaggerated, at any rate as applied to matters as they now stand ; but till quite 
lately ^' unmentionable indignities were inflicted upon the Hindoos of the Deraj&t while even now, in 
*^ spite of the efforts of the Sikhs to do away with these signs of social degradation, a Hindoo, unless 
** he be in Government employ, seldom wears anything but a skull-cap, or rides anything but a donkey." 
Local sayings are not wanting to express contempt for the Hindoo, and especially for the Kirdr, the 
popular name for the Arora or Hindoo trader of the west, and a word which has itself become almost a 
synonym for a coward.* Thus the Pathdns say : " The Hindoos' cooking hearth is purified with dung." 
" Fire and water are common, but not so with a Hindoo." '* The Pathdn eats his enemy, the Hindoo 
" his friend." "When a Hindoo becomes bankrupt he looks up his old account books (to support false 
♦* claims)." The Marwar traders, however, have their honesty attested in the saying, " Wnat is in 
** deposit with a Hindoo is as in a safe." On the Biloch frontier the Hindoo is even more hardly 
treated by the local wits, " The thieves were four, and we (the Kirdrs) 84 ; the thieves came on and we 
" ran oflF: damn the thieves, well done us !" And again, " Don't trust a crow, a dog, or a Kir&r, even 
** when asleep." 

The Aroras or Kir^s of the lower Indus worship the Krishna incarnation of Vishnu, this being 
probably the only part cf the Puoj£b west of Delhi where Krishna is generally venerated. They say 
that about 1550 A.D. two spiritual guides, Sh&mji and L&lji, were sent from Brinddban, the great 
centre of the Krishna cult, to reclaim them from the Musalmdn practices and errors into which they 
had fallen. The Hindoos of the Indus also very generally worship the river itself under the name of 
Khwdja Khizr or Zindah Fir, the living saint ; ' the worship taking much the same form as that 
of Khw&ja Khizr already described. They also revere, under the name of Vadera Ldl, Dulan 
Lai, Darya Sahib, or Ulail Parak, a hero who is said to have risen from the Indus and to have 
rescued them from Mahammedan oppression. This hero would appear to be a sort of incarnation of 
the Indus, beina^ sometimes called Khw&ja Khizr ; and his story is related in the Umrgit. The priests 
of the local sects, the Gosains of the Krishna worship, the S^uwal Sh&hi Gurus of the Ndnaki Sikhs, 
and the Thakur Gurus of the river worshippers, have, as in the east, quite thrown the Br&hmans into 
the background as spiritual guides of the people, though of course their Levitical character and 
hereditary right to alms remain unimpaired. But the western Br&hmans are utterly ignorant of their 
faith, and seldom have knowledge sufficient even to enable them to perform their personal observances 
aright. 

Hindoo Sects. — The sects of the Hindoos are so innumerable that I cannot pretend to do more than 
glance at one or two of the most important and interesting. The three great orthodox sects of Vaish- 
nava, Saiva, Sakta are unknown even by name to the peasantry, who know nothing fiirther than that 
they are Hindoos. If the pre-eminent worship of the sun means anything, the people of the plains 
should be Sauras, at any rate in the eastern districts ; for their is hardly a peasant who, if asked to 
name the deity whom he most reveres, will not at once name the Suraj Devata and explain that he 
made everything. But the Sauras, or worshippers of the sun, seem to be almost extinct in India as a 
separate sect, and it is probable that the Hindoo peasantry of the plains are Vaishnavas if anything. 
They are certainly not Saktas, and they neglect Vishnu and Siva with great impartiality, though they 
have the name of the former constantly in their mouths. N&naknanthi Sikhs are said to be Vaish- 
navas, while Professor Wilson is of opinion that the Grovindi or true Sikhs incline to Saivism as more 
consonant with the warlike nature of their faith. Govind Singh himself was a devotee of Durga. The 
Banyas of the plains, or at least the Hindoo Agarwals who include such a large portion of them, are 
said to be Vaisnnavas, though the village temples of Siva are very commonly built by Banyas ; and the 
Jains, who are very generally Banyas, worship an incarnation of Vishnu. The Brdhmans are certainly 
Vaishnavas as a rule, when they have any sect at all. The people of the hills are apparently Saktas 
so far as they follow the orthodox Hindooism ; but they adopt the right-handed worship. Ihe left- 
handed sect is, so far as I can discover, almost unknown in the Punjab ; but this may be only due to 
the secrecy in which the sect always envelops its licentious and revolting orgies. Of the innumerable 
minor sects to which Hindooism has given birth, and which still spring up almost yearly, often to die 
down again at once, the older ones have long ceased to have any practical influence over the body of 
ike people, and are now represented only among the ascetic or professed religious orders. It is true 

* The Path&n proverbs which follow are taken from Thorbum's J?annti, and the proverbs of the lower frontier 
form O'Brien's Multdm Oloescmf. 

Y 5747. Cr 



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that, as the spiritual guides of the people are drawn from these orders, the sects to which they belong 
should be represented among their disciples; but I have already explained how little real influence 
these men possess over the masses at whose expense they live, and the great body of the peasantry 
may be said to have no sect at aH The case is somewhat di£ferent with regard to the modern sects 
which have sprung up in more recent times. They have not yet had time to sail back into the general 
sea of Hindooism, no longer to be recognised as distinct save in the dress and habits of the priests who 
follow them ; they still preserve the vitality of their teaching, and they have in some cases obtained 
followers in considerable numbers from among the peasantry. The most considerable among these 
are the Sult&nis, or followers of Sakhi Sarwar. 

After these come the BishnoiSy found only in the Hiss&r and Sirsa districts. This sect was founded 
by a Rdjput of Bik&ner, who was born in 1451 A.D., and was therefore a contemporary of B&ba 
N&nak, the ori^nator of Sikhism^ and is buried in Samruthul in Bik&ner. His spintual name was 
J&mbhaji. He left his followers a scripture in the N&gri character called Subdhanu The adherents 
of this sect are the descendants of inmiigrants from Bik&ner, and are almost exclusively Jats and 
carpenters by caste, though they often abandon the caste name and describe themselves simply as 
Bishnois. They marry only among themselves, are good cultivators, and keep camels in large numbers. 
They have a ceremony of initiation, somewhat similar to and known by the same name as that of the 
Sikhs. Their priests are apparently drawn from among themselves, and are, as with the Hindoos, 
divided into the regular or celibate class and the secular clergy ; and the priesthood is not hereditary. 
They worship J&mbhaji, whom they regard as an incarnation of Vishnu ; they abstain entirely from 
animal food, and have a peculiarly strong regard for animal life, refrising as a rule to accompany a 
sporting party; they look upon tobacco as unclean in all its forms; they bury their dead at full len^b, 
usually at the threshold of tne house itself or in the adjoining cattle shed, or in a sitting posturelike 
the Hindoo Sany&sis ; they shave off the chhati, or scalp lock ; and they usually cloth themselves in 
wool as being at all times pure. They are more particular about ceremonial purity than even the 
strictest Hindoo ; and there is a saying that if a Bishnoi's food is on the first of a string of 20 camels 
and a man of another caste touch the last camel, the former will throw away his meal. In their marriage 
ceremonies they mingle Mahammedau with Hindoo forms, verses of the Qor&n being read as well as 
passages of the Sh&stras, and tiie plieroy or circumambulation of the sacred fire, being apparently omitted. 
This intermixture is said to be due to the injunctions of one of the kings of Delhi to the founder of the 
sect* 

Somewhat similar to the Sult&nis are the Shanms of the Punj&b.f They are followers of the sainted 
Shams Tabriz, and also reverence Sakhi Sarwar ; but though with a strong leaning towards the tenets 
of Mahomet, they conform with most of the observances of Hindooism, and are accepted as Hindoos 
by their Hindoo neighbours. They are chiefly drawn from the artizan an menial castes, though a 
good many Ehatris are said to belong to the sect. They bury their dead instead of burning them. 
Some time ago, when Agha Kh&n, the spiritual head of the Bombay Khojahs, visited the Punj&b, some 
of this persuasion openly owned themselves his disciples, and declared that they and their ancestors 
had secretly been Musalm&ns by conviction for generations, though concealing their faith for fear of 
persecution. These men were of course promptly excommunicated by the Hindoo community. 

A sect called the Kunda Panth, which has arisen in Pati&la within the last few years and which only 
numbers some 4,000 followers, is worthy of brief notice as showing what extraordinary combinations 
spring from the conflict of faiths in the Funjdb, and to what length men may go without ceasing to be 
Hindoos, Its founder was one, H&kim Singh, a wretched creature who lived in great poverty and filth, 
and possessed a few tracts and a new testament which the missionaries had given him. I must explain 
that the Hindoos are expecting an incarnation of Vishnu under the title of Nish Ealank,:^ or the 
Purifier, which is to happen about this period of the world's history ; while according to the Mahamme- 
dans, this present year snould see the advent of Mahdi, their last Im&m, who is to bring the whole earth 
in subjection to the crescent H^kim Singh, then, preaches that while Christ was Nish Kalank, he, 
H^kim Singh, is a re-incarnation of Christ, and is also the Imam Maiidi. He accepts Christ as the true 
Guru, but claims to be himself Christ in person, and offered to baptise the missionaries who would 
argue with him. He prefers to live in retirement for a while, but proposes presently to destroy the 
British Government and to convert and conquer the universe. He has nearly 4,000 believers in the 
immediate neighbourhood of his home. 

The Shamsis and Sultdnis already described are sects of Hindoos following Musalm&n leaders ; the 
Ldl Ddsis would appear to be a sect of Musalm&ns who approach to Hindooism* It was founded by 
L41 D&s, a Meo of Alwar, who though like all Meos a Musalm&n by faith, followed, again, like all 
Meos, £Undoo observances. He was bom about 1540 A.D., and a full account of his life and teachings 
will be found in PowUtt^s Gazetteer of Altoar^ page 53 et seq. The devotees of the sect are called SILdhs. 
The worship consists largely of repeating the name of Rdm, and Sunday is their high-day. Yet Lai 
D&s was a Musalm&n, is considered to be a Pir, and the greater number of his followers in Mew4t 
proper at least are Musalmdn Meos, though on the Punjab border, where the spread of education has 
made the Meos better Mahammedans, the LIL Disis are usually Hindoo Banyas and carpenters. 

Concluding Bemarks.—Sxif^ is the religion of the Hindoo peasant of the Punj&b. Of course not a 
thousandth part of his superstitions and beliefs have been enumerated in the above brief outline, for 
they are not only innumerable, but vary more or less from one place to another. But I have attempted 

* The Bishnois of Bijnaor, in the North-Westem Provinoes, are almost exolnsively traders, and are geiieraUv 
regarded as a subdivision of the Banya caste. They respect the Qor4n and incline generally towards Ial4m, thon^ 
now less so than formerly. 

t More precise information is greatly needed respecting this sect, though it is probably very difficult to obtain, 
as they apparently oonoeal their real opinions. . . 

t The actual name of the incarnation will be Eal^ and his story is told in tihe EaUd Pur^u* He is not to oome 
till the end of the current era ot jug, which has, I believe, some few million years still to ran ; for the HiodoQS^ 
like the geologists when Sir William Thompson is not looking, think in round numbers. 



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XIX 

to sel^jct some of those which are most t3rpical and most generally current ; and in doing so I have had 
two ol^^eqis in view. In the first nlace^ I wished to show how £ar the real practical religious belief and 
life of ninety-nine hundredths of tne Hindoos of the Punjdb is removed from the ideal Hindooism as 
we read of it in books. But beyond that, I am anxious to show what a vast field of inquiry of the most 
interesting sort is open to us in the customs of the people amongst whom we dwell. It is a matter of 
amazement, and should, I think be a cause of shame, to find such men as Tylor, Lubbock, MacLennan, 
and other writers of European renown, compelled to collect with great labour from forgotten descrip- 
tions of little known tribes, instances to ^ow the currency in India of customs and ideas of which the 
every-day routine of every Punj&b village would afford them infinitely better examples. It would, I 
believe, be possible to take the two volumns of Tyler's Primitive CuUurey and to furnish from the 
ordinary behefs of the peasants of the Delhi Territory instances of almost every type of superstition 
there recorded as current among primitive races. Too many of us go about among the people with our 
eyes and ears shut ; or if we do acquire any information, think it too trivial and too much a matter of 
course to be worth recording ; and every vear sees Indian officials with their heads stored with facts of 
the most invaluable nature die and take their knowledge with them. There is no lack of material ; all 
that is wanted is people to collect and record the fSEtcts ; and anybody who would consistently do so 
throughout his Indian service would, I believe, produce results which would be valued and appreciated 
beyond measure by European savants. 

Ths- Musalmams of the Punjab. 

Earfy advance of Islam in the Punjab. — It is difficult to fix with any approach to certainty the time 
at which Mahammedanism first made material progress among the population of the several portions of 
the Province. Much might be done by a careful examination of the. old historians and of the records 
of the various Mahamn^edan invasions of the Punj&b ; for the writers seldom fail to state the religion 
of the enemy, or to return thanks to the Almighty for the despatch of so many thousands of infidels 
to the bottomless pit ; but as yet nothing of mis sort appears to have been attempted. The people 
of the eastern districts very generally refer their change of faith to the reign of Aurangzeb ; and it 
is probable that the tradition very nearly expresses the truth. Under the Afghan dynasties, while the 
great provincial governors were always Mahammedan, the local administration would appear to have 
been in a great measure left in the hands of Hindoo chiefs who paid tribute and owed allegiance to 
the Sult&n of Delhi. ]t is tolerably certain that little attempt was made at proselyting under the 
free-thinking Akbar. It. would appear, however, that during nis reign and those of his immediate 
successors, me character of the administration changed considerably, a more direct and centralised 
control being substituted for an almost purely feudid system.* The change gave the people Musalman 

S>vernors in the place of Hindoos ; and must have greatly facilitated the ^rstematic persecution of 
e infidel which was instituted by Aurangzeb, by far the most fanatical and bigoted, and probably 
the first who was a bigot among the emperors of Delhi. The local traditions tell us that in many 
cases the ancestor of the present Musalm&n branch of a village community adopted Isl&m '^in order 
^ to save the land of the village ;" and it appears probable that some sort of legal disability was attached 
or attachable to a Hindoo. There is still a Hindoo family of Banyas in Gurglon who are known by the 
title. of Shekh, because in former days one of the brothers, whose line is now extinct, became a convert 
in order to save the family property from confiscation. In other cases the ancestor is said to have been 
taken as a prisoner or hostage to Delhi,' and there circumcised and converted against his wilLf Since the 
rise of the Mahratta power there has, of coiurse, been no forcible proselytism ; and conversion has been 
almost unknown within the last few generations, the first Musalm&n genersdly dating, in the Karn^l 
district at least, from between eight and ten generations back. 

On the frontier the spread of Isl^ was almost certainly of earlier date. Farishtah puts the con- 
version o£ the Afghan mountaineers of our frontier and of the Gakkhars of the R&walpindi Division 
at the beginning of the 13th century, and it is certain that the latter were still Hindoos when they 
assassinated Mahomed Ghori in 1206 A.D. On the lower frontier it is probable that the Mahammedan 
faith was already dominant when, early in the fifteenth century, the people of MuMn voluntarily 
elected a Qoreshi and director of a Mahammedan shrine as their chief, only to be superseded at once 
by the Lang&h dynasty of Afgh&ns; and when a century later the Biloches spread into the Punjdb, 
they probably found, the Indian pqpulation already converted to their faith. The people of the 
iKe4^i^ plains very generally attribute their conversion to] Bah&-ul-Haqq of Multin andJBdbaFarid of 
P^Uq>attan, whoflounahed aboat the end of the ISth and beginning of the 14th centuries; and whether 
the tradition be true ot no, the renown vfhith to this day attaches to these holy men is of itself 
a proof that they must.bave a^acted to themselves very numerous followers. Indeed the same may 
fae.8dd.of Sakhi Sarwar, who probably lived at least a century earlier. 

Mahammedanism in the Eastern Districts. — In the eastern portion of the Punj&b the faith of Isl&n, in 
anything hke its original purity, was till quite lately to be found only among the Saiyads, Path&ns, 
Arabs, and other Musahn&ns of foreign origin, who were for the most part settied in towns. The so-called 
Musalin&ns of the villages were Musalm&ns in little but name. They practised circumcision, repeated 
the qulmah or Mahammedan profession of faith, and worshiped the village deities. But after the mutiny 
a great revival took place. Mahammedan priests travelled far and wide through the countrv preaching 
the true faith, and calling upon believers to abandon their idolatrous practices. And now almost every 
village in which Musalm&as own any considerable portion has its mosque, often of a dome only, while 
all the grosser and more open idolatries have been discontinued. But the villager of the east is still a 
very bad Musalman. A peasant saying his prayers in the field is a sight almost unknown, the fasts are 
almost, universally disregarded, and there is stiU a very large admixture of Hindoo practice. As Mr. 

* I cannot pretend to speak with any authority on this sabjeot, as I am in no way learned in Indian history ; but 
I state the impressioD wmch the stndv of Ellibti^s Mahammedan HUtoricms has left npon mv mind. 
A ^f* In Ihe Etotem Ptmj£b the desoendaHtcTof these men, or at least of such of them as are Jats, are still distingmshed 
as vMa^ ot unfortunate, though they have in many instanoes been re-admitted to Hindooism. 

U 2 



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Channiag puts it, the Musalm&n of the villages '^ observes the feasts of both religious and the fasts of 
" neither." And indeed it is hardly possible that it should be otherwise. As I have already remarked, 
the conversion was seldom due to conviction, but was either forcible, or made under pressure of the fear 
of confiscation. Thus the change of faith was usually confined to one or two members of the brother- 
hood; and while it is common to find one branch of a joint village communicy Musalni&ns and the other 
Hindoos, it is perhaps seldom the case except among the Meos of Gurgaon that any considerable group 
of villages has embraced Isldm as a whole. Living then side by side with their Hindoo brethren m the 
same or the next village, sharing property in the same land, and forming a part of the same family with 
them it is impossible that the Musalman converts should not have largely retained their old customs and 
ideas! The local saints and deities still have their shrines even in villages held wholly by Musalm&ns, 
and are still regularly worshipped by the majority, though the practice is gradually declining. The 
women especially are offenders in this way ; and a Musalm&n mother who had not sacrificed to the 
small-pox goddess would feel that she had wantonly endangered the life of her child. The Hindoo 
family priests are still kept up and consulted as of old, and br&hmans are still fed on the usual occa- 
sions, and in many cases still ofiiciate at weddings and the like side by side with the Mahammedan priests, 
As for supersitions, as distinct from actual worship, they are wholly untouched by the change of faith, 
and are common to Hindoo and Musalm&n. A brother officer tells me that he once entered the rest- 
house of a Mahammedan village in Hissdr, and found the headmen refreshing an idol with a new coat of 
oil while a Br&hman read holy texts alongside. They seemed somewhat asluuned of being caught in the 
act ; but on being pressed, explained that their Mullahad lately visited them, had been extremely angry 
on seeing the idol, and had made them biury it in the sand. But now that the Mulla had gone they were 
afraid of the possible consequences, and were endeavouring to console the god for his rough treatment 
The story is at any rate typical of the state of the Mahammedan religion in the villages of the DehU 
Territory. The Meos of Gurgdon and Alwar who are Musalmin to a man, and who probably hold the 
only considerable tract in the eastern Punjab which is in the hands of Musalmdns only^ call themselves 
by Hindoo names and often use Singh as an affix, worship Hindoo godlings, and very commonly belong 
to the Hindoo-Musalm&n sect of Lil Ddsi, which I have described in the section under Hindooism, chiefly 
because I could not find a convenient place for it among Musalman sects. But within the Punjab the 
spread of education has had its effect on these people — " Recently religious teachers have become more 
** numerous among them ; and some Meos now keep the Ramz&n fast, build village mosques, say their 
" prayers, and their wives wear trowsers instead of the Hindoo petticoat — all signs of a religious revival." 
(Channinff's Gurgaon Beport,) 

Mahammedanitm an ike Frontier. — On the frontier Isl&m is of course pre-emmently the religion of 
the people, the few Hindoos being generally despised as shop-keepers and cowards. But even here the 
religion is of the most impure description. TheJPathdns of the northern frontier are fanatics of the 
most bigoted description; the Biloches of the Deraj&t and the mixed agricultural population of the 
Indus Valley and the Cis-Indus wastes are singularly lax and unobservant of the ordinances of their 
religion ; while the Mahammedans on the left bank of the lower Indus still retain a very large admix- 
ture of Hindoo practice, reverencing and employing Br&hmans and largely following the Hindoo ritual 
at weddings and other similar ceremonies, while even the Saiyads and Path&ns of those parts are not by 
any means free from their Hindooising influence. All alike are sunk in the most degrading superstition, 
and in the most abject submission to their spiritual pastors. Indeed, there is little to choose in this 
respect between the Musalm&n of the west and the Hindoo of the east ; the only practical difference 
being that the former worships saints only and the latter godlings as well, and that while the latter 
holds in but small reverence the Br&hman on whom he squanders his substance, the former trembles 
before the priest whom he sustains in idleness. Mr. O'Brien writes of Muzaffargarh : — 

« The name of Allah and Mahammed are always on their lips, and some know their prayers and fast strictly. But 
'* their feelings of worship are entirely diverted from the Divine Being to their Pirs or spiritual guides, for whom 
'< they have an exoessive reverence. Everv person has a Pir. It is not necessary that a Pir should be of known 
" piety— many, indeed, are notorious for their immorality. To obtain disciples all that is necessary is that a Pir 
'* should have the reputation of being able to procure the objects of his disciple's tows. A common way of choosing 
** a Pir is to write the names of the neighbouring Pirs upon scraps of paper and throw the scraps into water. The 
<* saint whose scrap sinks first is selected." 

And things are little better in the upper frontier. The whole western border is infested by a 
pestilential horde of so-csdled Saiyads, '* seekers after knowledge," Rrs, Mullas, and other men who 
call themselves holy, and who not only prey upon the substance of the people but hold them in the 
most degrading bondage,* though the great majority of them cannot write their own names or repeat 
correctly half a dozen verses of the Qor&n. When claiming to be exempt from assessment, aiid 
reproached with their ignorance by the Bannu Settlement Officer, thejr offered to prove their sanctity 
by handling deadly snakes in his presence ; I quote the graphic description by Sir Herbert Edwardes 
of the relation between these creatures and the people of Bannu as he found it existing at annexa* 
tion : — 

" A well-ednoated man will, in all probability, be religious, but an ignorant one is certain to be superstitions. A 
*< more utterly ignorant and superstitious people than the Bannuchis I never saw. The vilest jargon was to them 
** pure Arabic from the blessed Koran, the clumsiest imposture a mirade, and the fattest fakir a saint. Ear and 
'< near from the barren and ungratdhil hills around, the Mullah and Eazi, the Pir and the Saiyad, descended to the 
<( ffTviiiing vale, armed in a panoply of spectacles, and owl-like looks, miraculous rosaries, infallible amulets, and 
<* tables of descent from Mahammed. Each new comer, like St. Peter, held the keys of heaven ; and the whole like 
<* Irish beggars were equally prepared to bless or curse to all eternity him who gave or him who withheld. These 
*< were ' air-diawn daggers,' against which the Bazmuchi peasant had no defence. For him the whistle of the far- 
<< thrown bullet, or the nearer sheen of his enemy's sword, had no terrors : blood was simply a red fluid ; and to 
« remove a neighbour's head at the shoulder as easy as cutting cucumbers. But to be cursed in Arabic, or anything 
<* that sounded like it, to be told that the blessed Prophet had put a black mark against his soul for not giving his 
** best field to one of the prophet's own posterity ; to have the saliva of a disappointed saint left in anger onhisdoor- 

« This is probably less true of the Biloch of the Sulem4n border than of the other classes on the frontier. He is 
superstitious to a degree ; but he is not sufficient of a Mnsalm&n to abandon the independence which is natural 
^ >Tnij even in favour of a spiritual master. 



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** post, or behold a Haji, who had gone three times to Meooa, deliberately sit down and enohant his camels with 
** the itoh, and his sheep with the rot ; idiese were things which made the dagger drop out of the hand of the awe- 
* * stricken savage, his knees to knock together, his liver to torn to water, and his parched tongue to be scarce able 
** to articulate a full and complete concession of the blasphemous demand, m learning scarcely anv, if at all, 
'* elevated above their flocks ; m garb and manners as savage ; in no virtue superior ; humanizing them by no 
'* ffentle influence ; shedding on their wild homes no one generous or heart-kindling ray of religion, these impudent 
" impostors thrive alike on the abundance and the want of the superstitious BannuchiB, and contributed nothing to 
** the common stock but inflammatory council and a fanatical yeUin the rear of the battle." 

The local proverbs are full of bitter sarcasm on the greed of the Mahammedan priests. Here are 
some from the lower frontier : — 

"In the mom the Mulla pra^^— ' Oh Lord Qod, kill a rich man to-day 1* " 

"MuUal will you eat something P ' In the name of €K)d I will.' 'Mulla! will yon give something?' 'Godpre- 
*• serve me I will not. ' " 

*' May Qod not set Saivads and ' Mullas over us.* " 

" These four were not bom on giving day, the Mulla, Bhat, Br4hman, and Mirasi." 

"On Thursday there is joy in the Mmla's house; his heart is niggardly, but his arms are open (to receive 
" offerings.)" 

"The Mulla was drowned rather than give his hand." 

" To divide the corn-heaps is as bad as the Besurreotion (because of the swarms of greedy priests who claim their 
share)." 

" A Mulla who has dined will eat more than a hungry bufihlo." 

The Path&u is no less bitter. 

" The full stomach speaks Persian." " Akhiind ! Akhdnd I here is a snake I" "It is the business of young men 
to kill it. " *' Akhiind Akhund I here is a dish of meat I" ' * There are myself, my son, and Mulla Akbar ready to eat 
it." 

" Akhund Sahib 1 Here is ghi /" ' ' Don't make a noise ; there are people listening. But what else is that in your 
hand P" " It is a loaf of bread." ' < How nice it smells I" 

These sainted men are rotten with iniquity, and the corrupters of the village youth. When offered 
what they think insufficient, they either take more by force, or pour out volleys of curses and of the 
most filthy abuse. Hence the saying " Give the dole, or 1 will burn your house down." Yet even the 
Pfr is sometimes useful. The Afrfdi Path&ns of Tirdh had shame in the sight of their brethren, in 
that their territory was blessed with no holy shrine at which they might worship, and that they had to 
be beholden to the saints of their neighbours when they wished for divine aid. Smarting under a sense 
of incompleteness, they induced by generous offers a saint of the most notorious piety to take up his 
abode amonsrst them. They then made quite sure of his staying with them by cutting histfairoat; 
they buried him honourably, they built over his bones a splendid shriue at which they might worship 
him and implore his aid and intercession in their behalf, and thus they purged themselves of their 
reproach. Besides these professional holy men, there are among many of tne f ath&n and Biloch tribes 
certain clans, apparently not differing from the other clans of me tribe, who have a hereditary right to 
perform all sacerdotal ftmctions in cases of tribal ceremonial. The subject is a most interesting one 
and needs further examination. 

Superstitions are even more numerous and deep-rooted among the Mahammedans of the west than 
among the Hindoos of the east. '^ He who is bitten by a snake may escape ; but not he on whom the 
" evil eye has fallen." Charms are in even greater request, and omens even more regarded. But the 
superstitions differ little in their general character from those current in the eastern districts : they 
naturally vary somewhat with the locality, but are in no way affected by the difference of religion. 
Sacrifices to the river in order to induce it to spare the village lands and site as it shifts from side to 
side in its bed seem to be common on all the Punjab rivers except the Jamna. The flight of birds is 
much observed as an omen by the Biloches, whose superstition regarding their star has already been 
described. 

"The Pathans especialljr have the strongest possible beUef in saints and shrines, and in the efficacy of pU- 
" grimages to groves and high places. There is hardly an old mound in the country on which the flag of some 
" faqir is not nying. All classes of the i>eople put great trust in spells and charms, and if any confidence may be 
" placed in common report, the age of miracles has by no means yet gone by."— (TttcA^er'd Derak lemdil Reoort. ) 



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APPENDIX C. 



EXTRACT FROM MR. BAINES' REPORT ON THE BOMBAY CENSUS. 

ON SEX AND AGE. 



CHAPTER 





No. of 
FemaleB 


Average 

ofMSe 


tnss 


Goontry. 


Births 
to 1,000 
Females. 


Deaths to 

1,000 
Females. 


.Bcntanl* 
AuSm - . • - 


1,068 
1.061 


1,068 


970* 
1,063 


ITnited Kingdom 


1,067 


1,048 


1,026 


Sweden - - . . 


1.065 


1,047 


1,032 




1,048 
1,046 


1,056 

1,045 


1,048 


Spain - - - - 
HoUand - - - 


1,044 
1,040 


1,066 
1,058 


1,068 
1.016 


^OTway • - - 


1^ 
1,028 


1,061 
1,058 
1,050 


1,061 
],028 
]«074 


Saxony * * ** 


1,021 


1,051 


1,076 


V^ranoe « - - « 


1,000 


1,051 


1,011 


itoSy '™. . ' - ' ' 


905 


1,054 


969 


989 


l/rn 


— 


Bomtey (without SiE^) - 


975 


1.096 


ia58t 


Greece - - - - 


988 




1,102* 


moSi * . - . 


883 


■"^ 


"~* 



From the marginal table it will be seen that, in the countries selected, the number of males bom is 

invariably higher than that of females ; whilst, in the majority of the 
at bS^^^ proportionBof the sexes eountries, the preponderance of the latter sex amongst the population 

of all ages is very marked. In some of the cases the variation pre- 
sents curious features. In Austria and Switzerland, for instance, the balance of sex seems to completely 

turn over during the course of life. In the Presi- 
dency of Bombay, firom which I have excluded Sind 
on account of the probable greater defect in registra- 
tion there, it appears that more males than females 
are bom by some 95 {>er mille; that is, to put it 
otherwise^ out of 100 births registered, the chances 
are that there will be 52 * S males to 47 ' 7 females. I^ 
however, the population be taken en masse, the female 
element will be seen to have risen from 918 to every 
thousand males to 975 ; so that in this case, as well 
as the rest, the general uniformity is observed of the 
preponderance at birth of the one sex, compensated 
by a greater mortality of the same in after years. It 
is, however, with regard to the resolution of this ten- 
dency into its ultimate elements that uncertainty and 
differences of opinion arise. The physiological law 
involved has yet to be explored, and in every stan- 
dard work on the subject that I have consulted I find 
conclusions mutually inconsistent I will mention, 
One author lays great stress on the period of conception ; another on the 
Phvaioloffical influences quality and abundance of the food supplied to the mother durins 

y^ ^^ ' gestation ; but the results of an abunaant supply, as observed and 

registered by him, are diametricaUy opposed to those deduced from correspondmg observations made 
in anoUier country by a separate iAquirer. It is evident, therefore, that this influence' has not^ up to 
.the present, been traced over a field wide enough to entitle it to much consideration. It has also in 
the same manner been laid down that in mountainous countries there is a tendency towards a pre- 
ponderance of the male sex. This view, however, is not borne out by the statistics of such countries 
as Switzerland, Norway, and Sweden. Nor, again, is the influence of climate traceable with any 
uniformity. Distinguished authorities have lent their support to the theory, originated as long ago as 
the time of Aristotle, that the sex is inherent in the germ itself; but whether there has been any 
verification of this view by experts or not, is uncertain, as none is cited by the statisticians who advance 
the hypothesis in the works I have consulted. The last of the theories on this subject that I need 
mention here is one that is based on satisfactory evidence as far as it goes ; but, like all the rest, 
cannot command implicit acquiescence, owing to the comparatively narrow field in which the data 
were collected. According to this hypothesis, the relative age of the parents is paramount in deter- 
mining the sex of their ofispring. Where the husband is the elder the child is male, and vice versd. 
As the number of cases in which the above theory would practically exclude altogether the birth of 
female children is overwhelming, it is clear that some supplementary influence is required. The 
observations made by the chief German supporter of this view are given in the following form ;* and I 
have added to them, for comparison, the results of those made by Sadler, and published in his well- 
known work on population. These results have not, I should mention, been accepted as more than 
partially indicative of the uniformity which their propounders would have to be a law : — 



* ^e aiterisk denotes that the data are for a single year only. 
• t Or 1,185, excluding the fiimine years. 

however, a few of these. 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 



Father younger than mother 
Father and mother of equal age 
Father older by 1 to 6 years 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



by 6 to 9 do. 
by 6 to 11 do. 
bv 9 to 18 do. 
by 11 to 16 do. 
by 16 and over 
by 18 do. 



Hofacker. 


Sadler. 




90-6 


86-51 




90 


94-8 




108-4 


103-7 




124-7 


— 


Average number 


— 


126-7).. ofmale births to 


148-7 


— 


lOOfemalebirths. 


— 


147-7 




— 


168-2 




200-0 


— 





From these figures and firom others relating to marriage, I am inclined to surmise, though with extreme 
diffidence as to the value of the supposition, that the influence of age as a factor in the determination 
of the sex of the child amounts to a tendency only, varying in intensity with the difference between 
the ages of the parents. Taking, for example, the marriage and birth returns of this Presidency and 
England, it appears that the ratio of excess of male births in Bombay is almost double that found in 
the latter country. On calculating roughly the mean ages of the married persons, it seems that 



* From Garpenter's Hnman Physiology, Ninth Edition (1881). 



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whereas in England that of husbands of all ages is 43 '5 years, and of wives 41*8, in this Presidency 
the corresponding ages are 85*5 and 28*1. This difference, spread over four millions of wives and' 
more than three and a half millions of husbands, is exceedinglv large, and can be better appreciated^ 
when the whole series of ages is under the reader's eye. Without entering further into the matter at 
present, I will point out that in Bombay the wives under 20 years old constitute over 29 per cent of 
the total of married women, but in England they bear a proportion of ' 88 only. The husbands 
of that age in this Presidency, too, are only 12 per cent, on the entire number of married men ; and 
as the ratio of wives to husbands of the same age decreases rapidly in the succeeding vicennial periods, 
it is clear that the dispro{)ortion between the couples in later life must be very marked. Another 
point I will bring to notice in connexion with this question of the ages of parents is, that in the birth 
returns of the countries in Europe that I have selected for the table given in the beginning of this 
chapter, the disproportion between the numbers of the sexes at birth is considerably less, as a rule, 
in the case of illegitimate children than in that of others. Regarding this peculiarity, it is ol^erved, 
on the one hand, that such births, being in themselves a social aberration, are not to be expected to 
follow the normal rule of the others. On the other hand, it may be thought that in the majority of 
illegitimate births the inequality between the a^es of the parents is loss than that which exists in the 
case of the average married couple, and thus, if the tendency mentioned above is admitted to be 
operative, the chance of female births is of a higher degree of probability than it may be said to bQ 
amongst the married. I will here leave this question with the remark that, until experience has heed 
gained by means of accurate and continuous observations extending over a considerable time and a wide 
range of climate, race, and social characteristics, the divergence of opinion that I have quoted above will 
always exist witfi regard to this important subject* 

The proportion of males to females in this Presidency must, therefore, be regarded with refereticie 
_ , ^. _x- • 1 ^ those who have already come into existence, and the question of 

Bekfave pr^rfaonfl m popular j^^^ ^^ey came into the world in the proportions they have done, dis- 
tioix as a wnoie. 'jx^^i^ ^ i_-t- ■* "^^-i '. 

missed tor the presen)} as one on which science has not by any meaQS 

said its last word. The two distinct portions of the Presidency differ as to the ratio of femalias 
to males in a remarkable degree. In this respect, too, the capital city stands apart, and will not 
be taken into consideration until later. In the rest of the Presidency the proportion of females 
is about 975 to 1,000 males, or, put differently, 49 * 5 per cent of the total popiilation. lu ,Sifid 
g. , the ratio is no higher than 883 per mille, or about 45 '4. It is Wk 

of the question to attribute any considerable portion of this difference 
to artificial causes, such as the well-known reticence in Mahammedan households as to the female 
members of the family, because the disproportion runs through every religion returned from this Pro- 
vince, and is not so marked amongst the Mahammedan community as amongst the Hindoos^ The same 
feature is noticeable in the Punjab, and to a minor extent in the rest of Hindusthfi,n or Northern India, 
where none of the special causes that have been mentioned are sufficient to account for the great differ- 
ence. There are, it is true, local causes that may tend to add to any inherent disproportion between 
the sexes, such as the immigration of large tribes^ of graziers and camel-dealers who have not their 
families with them. Similarly, the indigenous roving tribes may be more numerous in proportion to 
the total population than in the rest of me country ; and, lastly, there may have been, as the return of 
birth-place seems to indicate, an influx of settlers on frontier lands, who have not yet permanently 
estabbshed themselves with their womenkind in their new locality. These migrations do not, howevei, 
account for more than a small portion of the excess of males ; and, whatever the true cause, we have in 
Sind a very dry climate with extremes of temperature, an omnivorous population of all classes and 
grades, and a considerable area of cultivable land, producing more than is required for the support of 
the existing population, the resultant being a large proportional deficiency of females from a very early 
period in life. 

In the Presidency Division, though the ratio of females to males is everywhere higher than in Sind, 
p^. , j^ . , there are striking differences between the returns from the different 

ifieBi enoy vision. divisions and districts. I have already touched generally upon this 

subject when commenting upon the changes in the population that have taken place since the preceding 
Census, because one of the most prominent variations has been that in the numerical ratio between the 
two sexes. In three districts, Ratnfigiri, Surat, and Kalddgi, the females are more numerous than the 
males. In the first it is the emigration of males that apparently causes most of this difference. In 
Kalddgi, where in 1872 there was a balance in favour of males, the famine, either by loss of life or by 
forcing the males to emigrate, is the probable cause of the change. In Surat, as in Ratndgiri, mixeo. 
influences are at work. As far as the bulk of the people in this collectoratc are concerned — ^that is 
amongst the Hindoos — the males are slightly in excess. Amongst the forest tribes the balance is fairly 
well preserved, as seems to be the case throughout with this community. The deficiency in males must, 
therefore, be sought in the Pdrsis and Mahammedans. I have already mentioned the gradual transfer 
of the former community to the capital, where it appears that a larger number of males than of the 
other sex resort both for trade and education. The most wealthy class of Mahammedans in Surat, too, 
are the trading or Daudi Borahs, who are to be found in every town in the country, and mostly come 
from Surat and the Panch Mahdls. It is in the former, however, that the rich Borah aims at having his 
ultimate home, in the vicinity of the Mullah Sahib and other leaders of his sect, for the Borahs are reputed 
to be most scrupulous in regard to their religious observances. There is also a considerable colony of 
mercantile Borans of the Sunni sect in this district, trading with the Mauritius and Burmah. In both 
these cases the family would probably, like that of the P&rsis, be loft at home, whilst the breadwinner 
was'on his travels abroad. After the three districts in which there is an actual excess of females, come four 
coUectorates in which the number of the sexes is almost equal. These are Dharwar, Belgaum, SStfirA, 

* There is very little doubt in my own mind that no single influence of those I have cited above will suffice to 
explain the phenomena, but that it will ultimately be discovered that several combined in diflferent proportions tend 
towards a certain alteration in the ratio between uie sexes. For instance, nnless emigration takes place in Madras 
and Bengal to a much greater extent than I believe to be the case, the theory regarding differences of age broached 
in the text must be counteracted by more powerful influences, such as that of food or climate. 

U 4 



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XXIV 

and Kol&ba. As in Kalfidgi, though less prominently, the famine may be set down as the primary 
cause of the change in the two first named. In S&t^ra the eastern portion was affected by this calamity 
to a considerable extent, but not nearly so badly as the neighbouring districts on three sides. The 
large proportion of women is probably attributable, therefore, quite as much to emigration as to loss in 
the famine. The Bombay city return of birth-places shows that the immigrants from this district form 
no inconsiderable item in the total alien {)opulation ; and when I was inspecting the preliminary 
arrangements for the enumeration of the railways, 1 found that a large colony ol the lower classes, 
mostly from Satara, had collected on the line of rail for the execution of some extensive earthwork 
within easy distance of their homes. In Koldba the difference between the proportions at the two 
enumerations is less marked, and is attributable, I think, to the same cause as that in Ratn&giri, 
though the emigration is less extensive. The proximity of Bombay and the improvement of the ferry 
communication have contributed to take some of the male population to the labour market of the 
capital. I do not think that more need be said about the rest of the districts than has been brought 
to notice elsewhere. The comparatively high ratio of females in Ahmednagar and Shol&pur is 
apparently the result of the famine, as in Dhirwdr and its two neighbours in the Karn&tia The 
exceptional case of Kdnara, in which the ratio has decreased since the last Census, is the result, appa- 
rentljr, of the immigration of males for the harvest and for the winter grazing on the Ghats. Tnere 
remains the instance, in Gujarit, of Kaira, which shows the lowest ratio of any of the districts in the 
Presidency Division. Here the females number no more than 46 '97 of the population and the dis- 
proportion is little less marked amongst the Mahanunedans than amongst the Hmdoos that form the 
bulk of the population. Whether there are special causes for this difference, and whether such causes 
are operating in both the above-mentioned communities, are questions into which investigation, of a 
more minute nature than that which can fitly find a place in tnis work, has to he made. Generalisa- 
tion on a subject in which so much remains to be solved as that of sex is dangerous ; but, judging from 
the returns before us, it certainly appears as if in this part of the country, at least, setting aside all 
influences of a temporary and special nature, such as famine, emigration or deliberate neglect of 
offspring, the ratio of females diminishes as the north is approached, and as if, on the same conditions, 
it were lower in a j>rospering than in a poverty-stricken region. 

The next point in connexion with tne relative strength of the sexes is the differences that appear 
„ , ^. _^. . j..» i" the communities affecting different forms of religion. Thus, the 

Retotive proportion m different Hindoos show a ratio of females to a thousand males amounting to 

961, which is reduced to 956 if those in Sind be included. Amongst 
Mabammedans, the predominant class in the latter Province, there are 874 females to the above 
number of males, but in the Presidency Division the ratio increases to 9S9. Of all the other religions 
the Aboriginal has the highest ratio of females, 968, though the P&rsis approach it within seven. It will 
be noted with regard to these two communities that in Gujar&t the males are in the minority. As to 
Pdrsis, this disproportion follows necessarily from what was said previously about the change 
that is being gradually eflbcted in the domicile of this race. But with regard to the Aboriginals, the 
only distinctive facts that I can see which are likely to bring about the preponderance of females are, 
first, the lowness of their habitual diet in comparison with that of the rest of the community, and, 
secondly the later age of marriage amongst females and the apparent prevalence of second marriages, 
tending, according to the age theory of sex, to a greater equality in this respect between the two 
parents. If we turn to Sind, on the other hand, we find the Aboriginal there is no exception to the 
general ratio that prevails amongst other races in that Province. There is one other race in which a 
preponderance of females is found, and that is the Jews. It is probably the result of the large number 
of this race employed beyond the limits of the Presidency, as in the outlying cantonments. The 
Sikhs, though the class in which, of all those in Sind, the proportion of women is the largest, show no 
more than 8S0 of that sex to 1,000 of the other. The Jain of all the native communities is that in 
which the average of females is the lowest This arises from the large proportion of this sect that 
belongs to other parts of India, and is resident here only for a season. Though the general average 
is only 827 per mille, in the districts where this community is settled permanently, as in Ahmedabad 
and Belgaum, the proportion is much higher ; and in the former collectorate, indeed, from which a 
large number of traders are distributed over the rest of the country, the ratio, as in the case of the 
Pdrsis in Surat, is above the average, and the females form 50 "46 of the entire community. In 
Belgaum the males preponderate in about the same proportion, which is slightly above that of the 
other religions in the district In the Konkan, Kh&ndesh and Poena, it is clear from the proportions 
of the sexes to each other, that the Jains are mere passers through the district, probably traders in 

f reduce, having left their families elsewhere. The Christians are the last race that require notice, 
t is necessary to distinguish these according to the three classes adopted in the pi-eceding chapter, as 
the differences in the relative proportions of the sexes are very large. Amongst the Eurasians the 
females outnumber the males in the ratio of 1,024 per mille. At the other extreme arc the Europeans, 
with an average of 399 only. The Native Christians come between, showing a ratio of 778. Amongst 
the Europeans the highest proportion is to be found in the city of Bombay, where there are very 
nearly half as many females as males. The lowest is in the Karn&tic, where the garrison at Belgaum 
comprises the bulk of the Europeans, and has, of course, comparatively few but males in its number. 
The average for this division is but 203 ; and in the Deccan, owing to the preponderance of the 
militarjr element in Poena, Ahmednagar, and N^slk, the ratio is only 374 per mille. The relative 
proportion of the sexes amongst the native community of this creed vary according to the nature of the 
settlement. In the Konkan and Karn^tic, where this class is indigenous, the proportion of females is 
high, reaching 988 and 883, respectively, as compared to 541 in Bombay, which contains a large 
niunber of Goanese immigrants, and 710 and 739 in the Deccan and Gujarat respectively. Amongst 
native converts of the present day the proportions of the sexes to each other is more in accordance 
with that found in the older Christian settlements. The temporary character of the European and 
Native Christian residence may be learned from the proportion of wives to husbands, which is 716 per 
mille in the former and 770 in the other. If the same test be applied to the Eurasians, the wives will be 
found to outnumber the husbands by 132 per mille : so that, apparently, the male Eurasian is absent 



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XXV 

to that extent in other Provinces, whilst in every thousand married European men there are 284 
without their wives in this Presidency. The Native Christians are similarly situated, though to a less 
degree. 

In a previous chapter I said that, even with respect to so wide a distinction as that of religion, the term 
Hindoo cannot be taken as implying a homogeneous community, and when we come to enter into such 
questions as that before us, it is impossible to entirely disregard the social divisions of the population 
Siat is known under that single designation— divisions which are mentioned by Duncker as **the 
** sharpest known in history."* It is not my intention to attack, in this work, the intricate and open 
questions involved in a consideration of the caste system, as they have been the. subject of much 
separate investigation, and even in the subsequent chapter dealing with social divisions a general 
mention will be enough for my purpose. Nevertheless, it is worth while here to note that where there 
are such wide differences as to marriage customs and the concomitant relations between the sexes as 
are to be found amongst the various Hindoo orders, it is unfair, unless the determination of sex is 
admitted to be a matter of chance, or the Lucretian theory be adopted, niot to attribute to these 
customs some influence in the matter. I will limit my remarks to what I think bears on the suggestion 
regarding the relative ages of the parents, which was just now thrown out tentatively, with the object 
rather of letting it have a fair chance of investigation than to offer it as a valid explanation. The 
relative proportions of the sexes amongst the living have been so much disturbed by the famine that 
the Southern Deccan and the Karnfitic offer no field for inquiry except as regards the effect of such 
a calamity on the respective sexes. Similarly, the Konkan has its balance in this respect affected by 
the temporary migration to Bombay from, at least, two of the coUectorates comprised in it. Where a, 
so to speak, normal state of things is to be found, there is, it seems to me, a tendency of the ratio of 
females to vary inversely with 5ie social position in the general scale of precedence. This is not, 
however, a universal rule, as 'too many collateral circumstances have to be eliminated before the 
true bearings of the statistics can be perceived. All I can at present note is that, amongst the 
lowest classes, the ratio of females to the other sex is a trifle higher than in the case of the middle and 
upper grades of Hindoo society, and I think that this is to be attributed to two facts : first, the 
comparatively early age at which the actual marriage takes place in the higher class, and, secondly, to 
the prevalence, amongst the lower, of re-marriage and second marriage under forms that are considered 
by the rest of society to be of a less reputable and altogether inferior order. Both these circumstances, 
the postponement of marriage and the re-marriage of widows, tend to bring the ages of the couples 
nearer to each other, and may thus be to some extent operative in raising the number of femiale 
births. 

Before commenting upon the relative proportions of the sexes at different periods of life, — ^a matter 

„ , ^. ^- . X J tl^t first introduces the tedious and in some ways unsatisfactory 

? IL^^velv'' "" question of the correctness of the ages returned at the enumeration,— 

conn ry r p y. j ^. j^ jjjg|j|.jQjj ^jjg^j. ^j^^ distinction between town and country as to the 

proportion of females to males is, if the capital city be excluded from consideration, less marked than 
IS usual in other parts of the world of equal civilisation. It is to be expected, as a rule, that the demand 
in towns for labour, both manual and intellectual, attracts thither a larger relative number of males 
than of the other sex.t In order to see how far this is true iij the case of this Presidency, I have taken 
the returns of five of the chief towns of the Home Division, the population of which aggregates about 
434,000. Compared with the ages for this number is given the return for the rural portion of the 
districts in which the towns are respectively situated. These figures will be found in tne table lower 
down. It will be seen that the difierence between the two ratios is only five per mille in favour of the 
country. The explanation of such uniformity is to be found, I think, in the extent to which women 
are employed in the classes of unskilled labour that are usually most prevalent in towns here, such as 
porterage, grain husking, and the like. Women ar^ also engaged in the middle and upper class houses 
as domestic servants, and these classes are most numerous in towns. It is probable, too, that in certain 
industries they share the work of their male relatives to a very large extent. As far as the lower orders, 
therefore, are concerned, the field of employment in the town is little less restricted for females tlian 
for males, and the fbrmer sex appears to occupy in many respects the position in the labour, market 
that it does in many parti of Italy, where the share of manual work done by the female tnembers of a 
family is generally as much as and usually more than that taken upon themselves by the other sei^. 

The comparison of the relative proportions of the sexes in different districts at the two enumerations 

Relflf rti t diff r t ^^ ^ *^^ ^®^ ^^ ^®®" partly made in a previous chapter, and 

age^ proporuon a e en ^^^^^ remains to be noticed with regard to it is more conveniently 

* taken in connexion with the variation in the above-mentioned ratios 

at the respective age periods into which the population was grouped on the former occasion. The 
comparative table at the beginning of this chapter shows the relative proportions of the sexes at certain 
age periods, with the variation in the proportions of the two sexes at all ages that seem to have taken 
place since the last Census. It has been thought clearer to give these particulars by districts for the 
Presidency Division, and to show separately the veiry different returns, for Sind and the capital city. 
In the following table, however, by means of which a comparison can be instituted between the circum- 
stances of this country and some of those in Europe, the city has been included in the figures for the 
Presidency Division, because its population is very largely recruited from the mainland in the neigh- 
bourhood. It will be noted, too, that the age periods above 60 are not distinguished, since the Imperial 
returns do not include them. In Sind, too, they were not abstracted, and in the initial table of this 
chapter have been interpolated for that Province from the data given by the method of differences : — 



* History of Ancient India— Translated by E. Abbot 

t London is an ezoeption, ad it contained (in 1871) 113 '6 females to 100 males, 

Y 5747. X 

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XXVI 





Ayerage Number of Females per 1,000 Males of same Age.* 


Age. 


Presi- 
dency 
Oiyision. 


Bombay 
City. 


Bombay. 


Sind. 


Total 
Presi- 
dency. 


England 
and 

Wales. 


France. 


Italy. 






Five 
Cities. 


Five 

Rural 

Circles. 


Greece. 


1 


2 


8 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


Under 1 year- 

1 year _ - - - 

2 - - - - 

8 

4 - - - - 
5—9 - - . - 
10—14 

15—19 - - . - 

20—24 

25—29 ... - 

80-^4 

85—89 - - - . 

40—49 

50—59 - - - . 

60 and over - - - 

Of all ages 


1,006 
1,048 
1,067 
1,096 
1,005 
942 

806 

914 
1,069 
942 
943 
854 
988 
1,048 

955 


1,033 
1,017 
1,056 
989 
956 
871 
676 
746 
570 
511 
437 

532 
598 
767 
968 

699 


988 

1,015 

1,026 

1,044 

949 

932 

827 

922 

1,038 

978 

958 

911 

971 

1,058 

965 


1,001 
1,048 
1,086 
1,090 
1,022 
966 

809 

894 
1,075 
964 
980 
922 
972 
1,067 

970 


936 
978 
1,040 
946 
871 
782 
654 
765 
928 
858 
865 
717 
845 
898 

888 


994 

1,038 

1,068 

1,064 

977 

914 

787 

894 
1,039 
931 
929 
835 
922 
1,011 

986 


987 

993 

999 

1,006 

1,013 

1,004 

986 

1,010 
1,106 
1,111 
1,090 
1,093 
1,079 
1,074 
i,i63 

1,054 


974 
978 
982 
979 
981 
979 

970 

990 

^>074 

1,005 

993 

984 

998 

1,032 

1,070 

1,009 


1 

1" 971. 

967 

964 

i,055 

1,006 

1,018 

1,010 

993 

1,001 

966 

958 

989 


915 
942 
939 
918 
949 
927 
863 
985 

1,069 
963 

1,092 
927 
789 
985 
988 

988 



In order to show the general course, through life, of the proportions in question the comparative table 
prefixed to the chapter has been thrown into the form of a diagram, from which the differences in this 
respect between the rural districts generally, the district most affected by the famine and the Province 
of Sind may be seen at a glance. Leaving for the present the city of Bombay out of the question, it 
appears that, during the first year, the females gain almost 9 per cent on the males, assuming that the 
birth returns are accepted as indicating the true proportions at the time the children come into the 
world. The ratio rises to the fourth year in the Presidency Division, but in Sind begins to decline 
during the third. From three years old the females are in a decided minority until between 20 
and 24, when there is a sudden and important rise in their proportional as in their actual numbers. 
There is then a fall again, until about the fortieth vear ; but the returns arranged in smaller periods 
seem to indicate that the actual decrease between then and 50 takes place chiefly in the last part of 
the decade. From 50 to the end of life r.he proportion of females is continuously above that of males 
in the total of persons of the advanced ages. It is to be noted that the period when female life is 
at its lowest point as compared with that of the other sex, is between 10 and 14 years old, and that 
out of the 10 series of ratios given in the table in the text above the same feature is discernible in no 
less than eight The exceptions are Greece and Bombay City. The divergence in the latter case 
from the general rule is easily seen to be due to the extent to which its population is supplemented by 
immigration. The explanation as to the return for Greece is not so manifest, more especially as I 
have nothing but the mere figures to guide me, unassisted by any external evidence from independent 
sources or other statistics. The great decrement there in the ratio at the tenth year and the subsequent 
rise from the fifteenth to the twentieth seem, however, to indicate that the same causes are at work in 
that country as in the rest, and that the abnormally small proportion of females'at the later period of 
from 40 to 50 is either an accident, or explicable by extraordinary deficiency of this sex in the earlier 
years of this period as well as in the later. Another point to be noted in the same table is that the 
tendency of the ratio of females to increase as life advances after the fiftieth year is found in six of the 
series ; and in one other, that relating to France, it is possible that the fact that the ratio is higher in 
early life than at the latest period may be owing to the same cause in 1876 (when this Census was taken) 
as in 1872, when the great deficiency of males between the ages of 19 and 24 was attributed to the 
demands made on adults of these ages by the war of 1870. There is no such influence operative in the 
case of Italy and Greece, the latter of which is again singularly different from the rest There are 
three other points brought to light in this table that may worthily engage attention. One of these is 
the universal excess of females between the ages of 20 and 24, the age, amongst males, of the passions, 
as it is called by Quetelet, or the age of migration, as it may be called with reference to the present 
day. The second is the almost universal denciency of females between 10 and 15, probably between 
12 and 15, an impi)rtant period in female life. The third is the preponderance of females in England 
from the fifteenth year upwards. This may be attributable in part only to emigration, as the wearing 
out of life is a process that progresses in the mother country far more rapidly in the case of males after 
thev have once started in their professions than in the case of the other sex whose task is lighter. In 
India the balance of the two sexes, apart from any other considerations which may result from compubory 
widowhood or neglect, is modified by the larger share of hard work done by the women. 

There is thus recorded in this Presidency a large majority of male births — part of which may be 
attributed, perhaps, to the greater accuracjr of the registration of this sex, as the birth of a male is 
the occasion for so much more congratulation and rejoicing than that of the female infant This is 
followed by a considerable excess mortality amongst the males up to the fifth year in the Presidency 
Division. The balance is in favour of the males from then to the period between 10 and 14 years, 
when, as shown above, the proportion of females w the lowest. There is, of course, the usual chance 
of understatement of age about this period which is notoriously more frequent out here than in Europe ; 

* In this table the entries in italioB indicate the period at whioh the ratio of females to males is highest and those 
in bold type the periods at which it is least. 



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xxvu 

but a good deal of this error is eliminated by taking the decades from the odd term^ as from 5 to 14, 15 
to 24, and so on, which also corrects the tendency to return the ages at the nearest round number. 
In graduating the age return by the method of differences it is odvisablo to adopt this sort of re- 
adjustment ; but as I propose at present to take the return as it stands, without correction, it is 
enough to localise the deficiency of females within a smaller limit, which is to be effected by sub- 
dividing the total period from 5 to 20 as much as possible. For example, we have in the Presidency 
Division the sixth year, the period from 5 to 9, from 10 to 14, from 15 to 19, as well as from 6 to 
11, and 12 to 19. By comparing all these it appears that the maximum difference between the sexes 
will be found to exist in the years 12 to 14 — probably slightly nearer the former than the latter year. 
It also seems that in the famine districts there is a larger difference between this period and the 
two that adjoin it than in other parts of the country, though the mortality at this time of life is so 
much higher than in the neighbouring periods in both the sexes that the effects of the famine are 
less apparent in the comparative table of the relative proportions. Passing over the period between 
15 and 19, it appears that in all the districts, except those in North Gujardt, the female element is in 
excess at the first portion of the decade between 20 and 30. The causes that are likely to affect the 
balance in this way seem to be, first, the higher rate of mortality amongst males at this period ; secondly, 
the tendency to migration, which is stronger in that sex; thirdly, the probability of more accurate 
return of the age by males, the predisposition towards selecting the round number being, at least 
amongst the middle and higher classes, less marked. In order to see how far these are respectively 
operative in the case of the return now before us, it will be necessary to take some of the districts 
separately. As regards the first point, that of greater mortality, the circumstances of the Presidency 
need not to be assumed to differ materially from those of the other countries for which tables have long 
been in existence ; and in four of the five collectorates of Gujardt, as well as in Kh&ndesh, the excess 
of females may mostly be set down to the effect of this tendency in a more or less ordinary degree. Jn 
the last-named district, however, it is probable that the mis-statement of age is a disturbing element, 
as, the proportion of uneducated forest tribes is high. The comparatively low vitality amongst males at 
the ages in question may be expected to be tested severely by the famine, and in the districts of Dharwfir 
and Kalddgi, accordingly, we find a large disproportion between the sexes. In Shol&pur, too, where 
the mortality was high, the emigration was also believed to be extensive, and in Poena both these 
causes may be in operation. The course of immigration from the territory of H. H. the Nizdm into 
some of the adjoinmg British districts deserves, too, some notice. In the case of Dh&rwd,r the propor- 
tion of female immigrants to male is 1,310 per thousand ; in Kalddgi it is 1,291 ; in Shol&pur it rises 
to 1,427, and in Ahmednagar it reaches 1,659. It is impossible to trace the immigrants by their 
respective ages, so it may be that the disproportion of the sexes is due either to the importation of wives 
to a larger extent than those from Britisn territory are taken to the Native State, or to the spontaneous 
exodus from the foreign territory of women during the famine. It is noteworthy that in Kh&ndesh, 
where the land is still in need of cultivators, the proportion of immigrants from the Nizam's dominions 
is in the ratio of 927 females only to 1,000 of the otner sex. There is no special reason, however, that 
I can see, for the excess of females at this age in the Nfaik district 

There remain the cases in which the predominant influence on the relative proportions is most pro- 
bably migration. The instances that seem to be most prominent in this respect are those'.of Ratnagiri, 
S^t^ra and Kanara. In the two first there is a movement out of the district ; in the last into it. The 
ratio of females to males in the two cases of emigration are respectively 1,370 and 1,180 per mille. In 
both Thana and Kol&ba the ratio seems to indicate a similar influence ; but the returns of birth-place 
do not support the notion that emigration is prevalent to an extent sufficient to account for more than 
a comparatively small portion of the excess of females, and the rest maybe attributed, 1 think, to either 
errors of return in the age period, or to the absence in the case of coast t^uk&s of many of the males at 
sea. The only other district in which rue population at this age seems to be affected by emigration is 
Surat, where the mercantile Hindoos and Mahammedans, as well as the lower classes who are so well 
known as domestic servants in Bombav and other parts of the Presidency, and the PArsis, all leave 
their native place for many years at a time in the prime of life. The exceptional ratios noticeable in 
the other Gujarat districts seem due, at least in three of the cases, to a greater vitality amongst the 
males than to any abnormal deficiency of females. Kaira is the only district in which there seems 
reason, from the statistics, to suspect that there are causes at work which are absent from the rest. A 
glance at the line of ages in the comparative table will suffice to show this. Apart from the extraordinary 
fact that the ratio of females at the age of 15 to 20 is no higher in Kaira than in the city of Bombay, 
where the proportional number of students of the other sex is presumably very large, it will be seen 
that the proportional number of females who completed their first year, as well as those who had not 
completed it at the date of the enumeration is far below that in other districts. As far as the twenty - 
fifth year the return for this district seems to me to be abnormal, and the disproportion can be localised to 
some extent. The ratio for the district, taking all ages and all classes, is 886 per mille. 90 per cent, 
of the population is Hindoo, with a ratio of 881, and 9 per cent, is Mahammedan, amongst whom there 
are 921 females to 1,000 males. Reducing the field of inquiry still further, the Hindoo population is 
found to comprise two main castes, which aggregate nearly 67 per cent of the total. Amongst one of 

* As this chapter was passing throngh the press I received from the Resident, Hyderab&d, a statement showing 
the number of persons enumerated in the Nizam's dominions, who returned as their place of birth some one of the 
districts of this Presidency. According to this statement the ratio of femtdes to males amongst these immigrants is 
1,114 per mille, as compared with 1,212, which is that found amongst the natives of Hyderabad who were ennme- 
rated in ihe British territory of Bombay. The ratios vary like those mentioned in the text, but indicate a tendency 
towards a relative preponderance of females as the sonth is approached. For instance, in the Lingsagar and 
^orapnr Subahs the ratio is 1,116, and in Aurangabad, adjoimng Khandesh, Nasik, and Ahmednagar, only 985. 
It is mghest in Naldrug, where it reaches 1,323. It appears from these figures that the excess of women who have 
immigrated into British territoin^ in the south is in a higher ratio than that of those who have emigrated from the 
same region into the Hyderabad State. This fact is still more marked in tiie Snbah that adjoins the north-eastern 
Deccan districts. The gross total of immigrants from British territory into Hyderabad is 138,483, and that of 
natives of Hyderabad enumerated in British territory 161,267. 

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these the proportion of females is 907^ against an average for the same caste of 928 elsewhere : and in 
the other case the ratio is only 758, against 889 of the same class in other parts of Gujarfit Under 
these circumstances it is unnecessaiy to go further into the matter here, as the inquiry will have, as I 
said before, to enter into particulars more minute than are advisable for a general work of this description. 
With this digression I revert to the comparative table. Here it will be seen that in the period between 
25 and 29 years the females are in excess in five districts. KaUdgi apparently shows the continuation 
of the mortality prevalent during the preceding period. In Sdtdra, Ratndriri, Kolaba and Surat. the 
efiects of emigration are still perceptible. In the next period, Poena and Belgaum are added to the 
number of those in which females are predominant Between 35 and 39 there is a considerable 
downward tendency in the ratio of females in nearly every district except those in north Gujarat, and 
the lowest proportion at any age is reached in Kdnara and Thana. In Ratnigiri alone is there an 
excess of this sex. I am incUned to put down a good deal of this change as more apparent than real, 
and attribute it to the inclusion, in the preceding period, of many females who returned their ages 
below the actual figure. From this age I nave taken the ratios on decennial periods only, as the errors 
in the statement of age seem not to correct themselves within the limit of five years. Between 40 
and 50 there is an excess of females in Ahmedabad, Surat, and Ratn^^ri. In the next period there 
seems a general and marked rise in the proportion, except in the five districts of Ahmednagar, Khfin- 
desh, and N^sik, in the north Deccan, and Kaira and Broach in Gujarit In all these five, except the 
one last named in which the ratio is practicallv stationary, there is a rise of a sUght extent Between 
60 and 70 the excess of females is most marked, except in the three north Deccan districts, where 
it is less than in the rest As regards the septuagenarians, the women are in excess except in 
Khandesh and Ahmednagar. There is no apparent reason why the old men should be in excess there 
in particular, and not in the intermediate district of Nasik ; or why, again, the enumerators should 
have failed to record the ages at this advanced period and that following it as correctly there as 
elsewhere. The fact is quite contrary to the experience of the rest of the Presidency and most of 
the other countries of those quoted except Greece. In Italy, too, the hard work of the women in 
the prime of life, especially in the agricultural districts, may have its result in diminishing the number 
of those who reach old age. 

The marginal table may be found interesting as showing the diJQTerence between this Presidency^ 

taken as a whole, and England 
and Wales, including in the 
latter the army, navy, and mer- 
chant seamen abroad. The 
understatement of age in this 
country is very marked from 
the fortieth year upwards in 
both sexes, as it is highly im- 
probable tihat between the two 
communities there should be 
an actual difference of this ex- 
tent 





Batio at each Age to 100,000 of all Ages. 


Batio of Females to 


Age Period. 


Males. 


Females. 


1,000 Males at each Age. 




Bombay. 


England. 


Bombay. 


Bngland. 


Bombay. | Bngland. 


Under 10 years • 


27,306 


26,108 


28,142 


24304 


966 


1,001 


10-19 „ • - 


80,866 


20,848 


18,026 


19,730 


829 


997 


(Under ao) „ • 


47,672 


46,956 


46.168' 


44.634 


907 


999 


20-29 „ ' ' 


17,726 


16,238 


18,570 


17,078 


981 


1,108 


30-^ M - 


16,812 


12,548 


14.558 


12.994 


880 


1,091 


(20-40) „ 


88»088 


28,776 


^JiS 


?!!'®S 


939 


1,101 


4(M9 ; - 


9,44B 


9,920 


9,806 


10,176 


928 


1,061 


60-69 » 


6,862 


7,240 


6,819 


7389 


1,011 


1,074 


(40HI0) „ - 


16,297 


17.169 


^^S^ 


^!'5JS 


056 


1.078 


60*68 „ 


2,908 


4^22 


8,666 


4,839 


1,180 


1.128 


70-79 „ - 


887 


2,097 


1,078 


2.361 


1306 


1.181 


(60-80)' „ • -- 


8,746 


6,619 


Mi* 


7,190 


i»i!* 


U46 


80 and over 


248 


480 


826 


639 


1,226 


1,408 



The last point in connexion with the subject of the distribution of the population by sex that I 
ri • •*!, iQTo °®®^ bring forward is the difference in the return for 1881 as 

Oompanflon with 1872. compared with that of the preceding enumeration in 1872. This 

is shown for the whole of the two chief divisions and for certain selected districts in the following 

table : 





Ratio of Females to Males (per Mille) in different Farts of the Presideney. 


Age Period. 


Ahmedabad. 


Kaira. 


Fanch 
MabAls. 


Batn&giri. 




Db&rwir. 




KalAdgi. 


Total. 
Presidency 
Division.* 


Sind. 




1872. 


188L 


1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


,1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


Under 1 year - 


968 


981 


957 


924 


1,016 


970 


1022 


1.009 


1.086 


977 


944 


1.026 


978 


995 


954 


1,007 


1.001 


1,006 


899 


987 


1-6 years - 


929 


988 


888 


907 


998 


1.030 


1.006 


1.064 


966 


1.008 


968 


1.016 


980 


1.064 


964 


994 


976 


1.024 


858 


920 


6-U « 


766 


888 


704 


806 


801 


899 


849 


896 


860 


974 


872 


1,015 


838 


968 


827 


1,029 


829 


913 


676 


741 


12-19 „ 


787 


819 


782 


788 


859 


849 


U62 


945 


948 


802 


1,012 


843 


1,079 


819 


992 


815 


976 


846 


788 


716 


20-29 „ 


914 


942 


929 


910 


958 


966 


1.810 


1.841 


1,081 


1.049 


1.022 


1,068 


1,0S1 


1,061 


1.074 


1,092 


975 


906 


872 


893 


80-89 „ 


987 


988 


1,020 


902 


814 


919 


1.122 


1,249 


925 


963 


899 


951 


896 


946 


929 


964 


868 


906 


750 


80S 


40-49 ,. 


987 


1.088 


899 


968 


842 


976 


1.019 


136 


875 


963 


876 


955 


860 


918 


816 


988 


867 


938 


726 


846 


60-69 n 


1.068 


U16 


1.065 


966 


1442 


1.048 


uu 


U48 


1,004 


1,118 


921 


U04 


819 


M18 


907 


1,262 


943 


1.048 


841 


608 


60 years and over 


1.276 


i;w8 


1,190 


1.275 


1.269 


1,419 


1,230 


1,301 


1,202 


1,448 


1,054 


1,314 


867 


1,150 


1,335 


1,500 


1.097 


1.223 


997 


1,040 


Total, all ages 


889 


910 


867 


886 


906 


948 


1,075 


1,108 


956 


988 


062 


997 


943 


976 


954 


1,010 


980 


965 


800 


683 



• Including Bombay City. 



The age periods selected for the last Census are not the same as the more regularly distributed ones 
prescribed on the present occasion, but arrangements were made for the abstraction of the extra periods 
that enable the required comparison to be instituted. In the case of Sind the period between 6 and 
11 does not appear to have been noted by the abstractors, so the omission has had to be suppUed by 
interpolation according to the method of differences. It is probable, therefore, that the figures are a 



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XXIZ 

little more regular in their sequence than they would have been had the ones actually returned been 
abstracted^ since the calculation is based on the differences between the ratios of the terms of the series 
already recorded, and whilst reproducing their irregularities, does not allow any consideration to the 
additional ones that were likely to have occurred in the actual return of the period which it is sought 
to ascertain. It appears, however, that the ratio now found is in harmony with that of other districts, 
and may, therefore, be accepted as fairly approximate to the truth. 

In the Presidency Division, including Bombay city, the proportion of females to males has risen at 
every £^e-period save that between 12 and 19 where it has greatly fallen off. The decrease at this 
period is remarkable, not only for its extent but for its wide distribution. It is found in every district 
except in Ahmedabad, where it is not improbable that its absence is accidental, and owing to errors in 
the tabulation of the returns of the last Census. Of the selected district, Shol&pur is that in which the 
decrease at this age is most marked ; though in the other three collectorates which have been included 
in the table as representing the general effect of the famine on the relative proportions of the sexes, the 
ratio of decrease is also very high and in excess of that in other districts. This and the general rise in 
the proportion of females in advanced years, which is also more marked in the famine area than else- 
where, constitute the principal features of the variations between the two enumerations. It is, moreover, 
impossible to enter into a detailed examination of the figures without a clearer knowledge of the system 
of abstraction adopted in 1872, when the work was not centralised, but carried on piecemeal at the 
head-quarters of each district. It appears not unlikely that the abstractors maintained under such 
circumstances no uniform system of ticking off the ages ; and that as the printed samples of the age 
headings allow of a mistake between each period, by the repetition of the last figure of one as the 
first of the next, the uncertainty of a notorious ignorance and laxity about age in the population at 
large is enhanced by additional chance of error in abstraction. This has not in every case been avoided 
in the present abstraction, though its occurrence has been localised to within comparatively small limits. 
I will not, therefore, add anything on the subject of sex to the remarks I have made above on the main 
features of the returns of the two enumerations. The city of Bombay remains to be noticed ; but as 
that is a comparatively small subject, and, when taken in combination with age, susceptible of brief 
explanation, it is convenient in every way to take it up at the end of the present chapter, and to note 
the special features of that community both as to age and sex in a single survey. 



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APPENDIX D. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE BENGAL AND PUNJAB CENSUS REPORTS ON THE AGE 

STATISTICS OF THOSE PROVINCES. 

Bengal. — The key to the "whole mystery is the fact that these two age periods enclose the five years 
from 8' to 18 during which almost all native girls are given in marriage. Amon^ the Hindoos custom 
prescribes that every girl shc«ild go through the marriage ceremony before she reaches the age of puberty, 
and if for any cause her bet'Hhalis delayed beyond that period, every effort is made to dispose of her 
hand before she becomes t f full age. An unmarried girl in the house after she has attained the age of 
matrimony is a shame and a reproach to the householder, and a constant scandal and anxiety to him. 
'Ilie Mahammedan community, especially that very large section of it which differs but Uttle except 
in creed, and in manners hardly at all, from the Hindoos besides them follow the same practice and 
share the same feeling. It is true that among the aboriginal and less civilised tribes, and in the 
other sections of the population infant marriage is less common ; but the Hindoos and Mahammedans 
together compose 67,157,530, or 96*57 per cent of the whole of the inhabitants of Bengal, so that child 
marriage and the prejudices which surround it may be said to l)e universal in these Provincea 

It is obvious that a deficiency of girls in this period may be brought about in one or more of three 
ways, for while their numbers may have been correctly returned their ages may have been (1) over- 
stated or (2) understated or (3) they may have been altogether omitted from enumeration. Mr. Plow- 
ien s conclusion was that in the North-Western Provinces there had been systematic omission to record 
at all a considerable proportion of the girls of this age ; and I am inclined to think that the improbably 
small figures in this age period in Bengal are due partly to that cause and partly to understatement 
of ages. The suggestion of overstatement may be dismissed at once, for the feeling which makes it 
shameful to acknomedge the presence in the household of an unmarried girl of marriageable age would 
make it quite impossible that her age should be exaggerated, unless indeed a double deception were 
practised, and she were returned as married also. If understatement of age has been common, we 
should expect to find an unusually large proportion of girls in the ages immediately before that of 
marriage, and, owing to the misstatement, a rise again in the proportionate number of girls in the 
immediately succeeding period. Both these conditions exist, as the following figures will show: — 



Age. 



oto4 

5to9 

10 to 14 

15 to 19 



Number of 
Females. 



5,254,711 
5,028,895 
3,137,523 
2,662,376 



Fer-centago 

on 100 Females 

of all Ages. 



Proportion to 100 

Males 

of each Age. 



15-09 

14-44 

901 

7-64 



106-49 
93-75 
79-88 

101' 97 



It will be seen that the fall in numbers from the first to the second age period is very large, and that 
it is out of all proportion to the corresponding decrease in the numbering of the other sex ; for while 
to every 100 male infants there were 106*49 female children under 5 years of age, in the next period 
the position is entirely reversed, and the number of girls is only 93*75 to every 100 boya Were figures 
available for each year of life in the second quinquenniad as for the first, there can be no doubt that 
they would bhow that the numbers for its first three years, viz., the sixth, seventh, and eighth are much 
in excess of those in the remaining years of the period ; but in the absence of the materials necessary to 
demonstrate the fact, it can only be stated as probable. 

If, on the other hand, it were the case that there had been a simple omission to record the ages of 
these girls, it would be reasonable to expect that the same phenomena which mark the preceding age 
period 0-4 would reappear in that which follows the decade under examination, inasmuch as but for 
this omission the characteristics of all four age periods would have been continuous. Accordingly the 
table in the preceding paragraph and the figures elsewhere show that while the females exceed the males 
among the infants of tender years, and again from the 15th year almost without a break to the end 
of life, this law is violently broken during the 10 years from 5 to 14. It has been shown in the pre- 
ceding paragraph that part of the disturbance is due to the probable transfer of a considerable number 
of lives from the third to the second quinquennial period, but this is not sufficient to remedy the loss 
which has been caused by absolute omission. Judging from European experience, the progress of the 
per-contages on the whole female population should be somewhat as follows — assuming that the initial 
per-centage, that for 0-4 is correct, viz. : — 



Oto 4 

5 to 9 

10 to 14 



14 per cent. 

12 

10 



99 



that is to say, while the reasonable ratio which these two age periods together should bear to the whole 
female population is 22 per cent, the ratio actually borne by the numbers returned is 16*66, or a deficit 
of nearly 6i per cent. Making allowances for revisions in the per-centages which would have to be 



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XXXI 

made if all the ages could be correctedi it seems fair to say that there has been an omission of females 
during this age period of about S per cent 

Were any further evidence necessary in support of these arguments, it could be found in an examina- 
tion of the figures for each religion. It has been frequently stated that female seclusion to the extent 
that it is now practised was unknown in India before the Mahammedan invasion, and that while the 
Mahammedans themselves strictly adhered to this exotic habit, their conquerecj subjects found them- 
selves constrained to adopt the custom quite as much from necessity as from motives of policy. It is 
therefore not surprising to find that the largest proportion of males to females for the ages 5 to 9 and 
10 to 14 is returned by the Mahammedans ; that the Hindoos and their imitators, the Aboriginals, 
closely follow them ; and that by parity of reasoning the Christians are at the bottom of the list, being 
neighboured by the Buddhists, whose delicacy on this point is admittedly less. The number of males 
to 100 females in each religion for these two age periods is shown below : — 







5to9 


10 to 14 


Mean of the Two 
Periods. 




MfthiMntuf^^f^nf ... 


107-42 


128-27 


117-84 






Hindoos .... 


106-31 


123 -87 


115-09 






Aboriginali ... 


106-18 


125-52 


115-85 






Baddhiits- 


102-52 


116-05 


109-28 






Chriftians • - - . 


101-53 


112-68 


107-10 





For the excess of males at the age periods 20 to 24, 35 to 39, and 45 to 49, it is less easy to account, 
unless it be that uncertainty as to age is more accentuated among women than among men, thus 
throwing larger numbers of the female population of each decade into its earliest half, and thus by 
contrast augmenting the proportional number of males in its latter half The same reason will pro- 
*bably explain the larfi^e proportion of females among those whose age was not stated, viz., 100 women 
or every 83 men. That the old women of 60 and upwards should out-number the old m^n of the same 
age is only in accordance with universal experience all over the world* 



The Ages of the Population in Decennial and Bicennial Periods. 

In dealing with large numbers of which the accuracy in details is open to any question, a much truer, 
if more general, view of the real facts is obtained by collecting the figures into larger masses. Errors 
correct each other, and a bird's eye view over a wide tract of country conveys a much truer impression 
of its salient points than a microscopical examination of the rocks of which it is composed. It has been 
shown that the Bengal age figures, arranged in groups of five years are, for intelligible reasons, not 
absolutely in accord with the probable facts. Bat when the population is arranged in groups of 10 
years each, as in the following form, much of the anomaly vanishes, for the spurious prominence given 
to each alternate quinquennial period, by the inclusion within it of the round number, is now counter- 
acted in each group of 10 vears b^ the unreally small figures of the second quinquennial period, so that 
the proportion of the population living at each age approaches more nearly to what is believed by statis- 
ticians to be the true ratio to the mean of similar age periods in all India and to the statistics of life in 
European countries. 



No. 28.— Statement showing the population of either sex and of both sexes arranged in decennial 
periods, with the numbers in each and the ratio they bear to the whole population. 





Penons. 


Fer-centages. 


Ages. 


Males. 


Females. 


Both Sexes. 


Males. 


Females. 


Both Sexes. 


AUageg - 


84,500,574 


34,802,906 


69,303,480 


100 


100 


100 


0-9 . 
10-19 

SO-29 - - - - 
S0-S9 
40-49 

50-59 - - - . 
60 and over 


10,298,367 
6,541,613 
5,498,864 
5,138,627 
3,400,024 
1,973,575 
1,649,504 


10,283,106 
5,799,899 
6,185,587 
4,897,095 
3,303,340 
2,110,523 
2,223,356 


20,581,473 

12,341,512 

11,684,451 

10,035,722 

6,703,364 

4,084,098 

3,872,860 


29-84 

18-96 

15-93 

14-89 

9-85 

5-72 

4-78 


29-54 

16-66 

17*77 

14-07 

9-49 

6-06 

6-38 


29-69 

17-80 

16-85 

14-48 

9-67 

6-89 

5-58 



The proportion borne to the whole population by the persons in the first 10 years of life is now, as 
it should be, nearly twice that of the second period, while the third a.nd fourth periods, which embrace 
the years when human life is most vigorous, show but slightly diminished ratios to the whole. The 
proportions of the sexes at each quinquennial age period have already been examined in the foregoing 
paragraphs, and it is unnecessary to refer again to the arguments there brought forward to account for 
the variation noticed. 

To carry this argument a little further before quitting it, the following table is given, which shows 
for Bengal the population arranged in {periods of 20 years each. It confirms the arguments made use of 
above, and has probably the ment of being almost exactly correct 



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No. 29. —Statement showing the population of either sex and of both sexes, arranged in vicennial 
periods, with the numbers in each and the ratio they bear to the whole popiuation. 



Ages. 


Persons. 


Per-centages. 


Males. 


Females. 


Botli Sexes. 


Males. 


Females. 


Both Sexes. 


All ages - - - 


84,500,574 


84,802,906 


69,303,480 


100 


100 


100 


0-19 . - - - 
20-30 

40-69 - - - - 
00 and upwards 


16,839,980 

10,637,491 

6,873,599 

1,649,504 


16,083,005 

11,082,682 

5,413,863 

2,223,356 


32,922,985 

21,720,178 

10,787,462 

8^72,860 


48-80 

30-80 

15-57 

4-78 


40-21 

31-84 

15-55 

6-38 


47-50 

81-84 

15*56 

6-53 



The Proportions op the Sexes, 

Sex Statistics in the Punjab. — Figures showing the sex statistics for each religion and all religions 
in each district and State, separately for urban, rural, and total population will be found in Table IV. 
of Appendices A. and B.* The proportion of the sexes has always been a burning question in India, 
partly because the great excess of males has puzzled statisticians ; but still more because of the 
greater or less previuence of the custom of female infanticide against which Government had set its 
face. The general result is that in the Punj&b taken as a whole, there are 5,425 males and 4,575 
females among every 10,000 of the population, figures which became 5,421 and 4,579 if immigrantn 
be excluded. It is this large excess of males, in face of the fact that in Europe the females are 
slightly in excess, that has to be accounted for. So far as the excess is real, and not due to defective 
enumeration, it may be due to any or all of three causes, excess of male births, female infanticide, or 
greater female mortality. These points will be discussed presently. But I wish in the first place to 
draw attention to two minor causes which operate, though not perhaps very largely, to make the 
comparison between the Punjab and European countries more Unfavourable than it otherwise would 
be. The first of these causes is the effect of migration upon the proportion of the sexes. From all 
the great European countries an incessant stream of emigration is pouring into America and 
Australasia, and carrying with it the surplus male population. In New South Wales there are 548 
males among every 1,000 persons ; in Queensland, 584 ; while in all parts of North America the pro- 
portion never falls below 506. Adding all the English-speaking countries of the world together, we 
find that the males exceed the females in the proportion of about 503 to 497. In the Punjdb, on the 
other hand, the effect of migration is precisely the reverse, the incoming males being more numerous 
than tlie females. In the second place, as enumeration becomes more and more correct the proportion 
of females to males tends to increase. Now I have already given it as my opinion that no such 
omission or concealment of females took place at the present Census as would materially affect 
the total numbers : my examination at the age figures tended to confirm this impression, and I still 
believe my opinion to be correct But there cannot be the least doubt that some omissions have taken 
place and that the omissions have been more numerous in the case of females than in that of males. 
Even at this Census we did not attain perfection, and I have not the slightest doubt that in 1891 the 
proportion of females to males enumerated will be higher than in 1881, as it was in 1881 than 1868, 
and in 1868 than in 1855. Thus a part of the disproportion of the sexes is apparent rather than 
real These two reasons, however, will account for but a very small fraction of the disproportion 
observable in the figures, and I shall proceed to discuss the more effective causes already indicated. 

Proportion of the Sexes at different Ages. — ^Abstract No. 119 below gives the number of females 
for every 1,000 males in each period of age for divisions and religions : — 

Abstract No. 119. 
Showing the Proportion of the Sexes at each Age for Divisions and Religions* 



Dlvisioiw. 




Females per 1,000 Males. 


0— 


1— 


2- 


8- 


4- 


0—6 


6- 


10- 


15- 


20— 


26- 


30- 


35- 


40- 


45— 


50— 


66- 


GO— 


Total. 


Delhi - 

Hissir - - - 

Amb&Ia 


939 
952 
926 


935 
985 

897 


927 

948 
951 


985 

1.003 

942 


903 
913 
879 


937 
958 
918 


862 
889 
809 


765 
770 
712 


815 

782 
748 


909 
876 
821 


881 
831 
809 


911 
908 
881 


842 
79* 
818 


998 
970 

885 


797 

(m 

778 


98ft 

83S 
805 


738 
619 
731 


97S 
821 


872 
854 
810 


J&landlufcr 

Amrits&r 

Lahore - - • 


944 
959 
938 


979 
936 
896 


964 
925 
931 


972 

948 
938 


918 
895 
921 


960 
936 
926 


871 

828 
837 


763 
731 
740 


868 
813 
798 


9G3 
986 
887 


980 
917 
888 


899 
880 
840 


814 
90S 
809 


919 

881 
850 


778 
805 
802 


857 
801 
780 


739 
746 
717 


890 
825 
742 


872 
848 
824 


BAwalpindi - 
Mult&n . • - 
Dertjat - - - 


976 
900 
909 


930 

974 

1,018 


991 

976 

1.031 


902 
966 
868 


927 
927 
901 


984 
967 
987 


886 
848 

784 


778 
731 
892 


884 
799 
809 


918 
921 
958 


901 

891 

883 


883 
841 
876 


888 
776 
797 


920 
853 
910 


881 
706 
787 


812 
897 
779 


794 
825 
722 


799 
730 
881 


872 

629 
846 


Pesh&war 


927 


987 


1,061 


996 


962 


981 


886 


879 


814 


888 


782 


824 


889 


888 


888 


801 


893 


768 


819 


British Territory - 
Native States - 
Province - - - 


950 
935 
918 


954 
935 
961 


968 
963 
964 


963 
962 
961 


914 
884 
912 


948 
980 
946 


842 
839 
842 


789 
729 
788 


817 
767 
806 


911 
868 
908 


873 

861 
870 


883 
873 
889 


818 

782 
807 


906 
910 
908 


779 

715 
788 


808 
806 
806 


728 
851 
709 


826 
830 
828 


848 
828 
848 


Hindoo - 

Sikh 

Jain - - - 


941 

• 864 
870 


961 

847 

1,014 


968 

803 

1.080 


974 

834 
880 


899 
831 
980 


941 
839 
988 


868 
752 
892 


782 
879 
788 


782 
890 
878 


867 
819 
889 


847 
838 
886 


869 
820 
898 


785 
74S 
891 


896 
868 
933 


743 
712 

780 


821 
781 
873 


885 
680 
729 


882 

728 

1,112 


884 
786 

878 


Buddhist , - 

Mnaalmdn 

Christian 


1,093 
907 
S41 


1,391 

987 

l»OSO 


1,148 
998 
966 


L&29 

988 

1,062 


1.180 
924 
928 


1.266 
982 
968 


1.048 

848 

1.081 


992 

761 

1,081 


881 
849 
808 


1,048 
982 
185 


1,280 
905 
169 


779 
887 
268 


1.223 
840 
888 


1.071 
923 
884 


802 
418 


1,069 
804 
474 


1.317 
740 
808 


807 
869 


867 
884 



• Of the Ponj&b Report. 



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yxTiii 



The mis-statement of female age which has been abeady discussed is brought out very markedly by 
these figures. There is no inducement to return wrong ages in the case of males as there is in that 
of females, and the sudden decrease of the proportion of females to males after the age of five, repeated 
in r,till greater intensity after the age of 10, and still continuing in a modified degree between the 
ajres of 1 5 and 20, marke the extent to which female age has been wrongly returned. The com- 
paratively hiojh proportion in the earlier ages is doubtless caused by under-statement of age, while the 
large proportion between 20 and 25 is probably partly due to over-statement It is noticeable that 
the same feature characterises the figures throughout the religions and divisions of the Province, but 
that the decrease begins earlier and continues longer nmong Sikhs, and is later and smaller among 
Buddhists than in the case of any other religion, while it is markedly smaller among Musalmdns than 
among Hindoos. Turning to the later years of life we note how much more generally inaccurate the 
return of female seems to have been than of male age, at any rate in respect of giving round decades 
instead of the intermediate lustrums ; for to no other causes can be attributed the proportion of 
females to males being invariably sn^nller at the five-yearly than at the ten-yearly periods. AVe sec, 
moreover, how much more feeble* female life is than male life, the proportion in the later years of 
life in which there is practically no inducement to mis-statement being invariably small, far smaller 
than in the earliest years ; and we notice also that this is most largely the case with Hindoo?, lets 
with Sikhs and Musalm&ns, and least of all with Buddhists and Jains ; jjcrhaps because amon^ the 
first early marriage is general and purely common, while Sikhs and Jains are usually well off and 
Musalmfins and Buddhists marry later in life. The female mortality during the ages of child-bearing, 
which the doctors tells us is enormous, is to a great extent obscured by the mis-statement of female 
age ; but not wholly feo. During the first 10 years of life there can be no inducement to return 
wrong ages, after 20 there is little, and after 25 less or more. Thus the normal proportion of females 
in early infancy rnay be taken at about 950, while between 20 and 25 years of age it drops to 911, 

between 25 and 30 to 873, and between 30 and 
35 to 868. This sudden decrease is especially 
noticeable among the early-marrying Hindoos, 
and takes place later among Musalmdns, while 
among Sikhs it is very slight, as the figures in 
the margin show. But the figures for female age, 
at any rate after tiie first four years of life, are so 
vitiated by intentional and unintentional misstate- 
ment, and the figures for Buddhist and Jains are so 
smnll, that no detailed conclusions or comparisons can be based upon them and all that they' can be 
taken to establish is general tendencies indicated by uniform increase or decrease in one and the same 
direction. So far they have supported the conclusion already arrived at in part of the chapter devoted 
to age ; but the only light they have thrown on the general question of the proportion of the sexes is 
that they have emphasized and brought out more strikingly than before the much smaller longevity 
of females than of males, and the excessive mortality among women during the period of child-baring. 
This fact, however, has a bearing on the question, the importance of which can hardly be overrated. 

Proportion of the Sexes at Birth and in Infancy, — I now turn to the consideration of the proportion 
of tlic sexes at birth, and I repeat in Abstract No. 120, for convenience of reference, the figures 
already given for the first five years of life, adding the next lustrum also for the sake of 



Fenuaes per 1,000 Males. 


Religion. 


0-20 


20-26 


2^-80 


80-36 


Sikh 

Hindoo • " " : 
MnwJmtn - - - - 

Jain 

Buddhist - - . - 


865 
946 

990 
1,260 


819 
867 
982 
889 
1.048 


838 
847 
906 
886 

14«9 


820 
859 
887 
876 
779 



comparison. 



Abstract No. 120. 



Showing the Proportion of the Sexes in 


the first Five Years of Life for Divisions and Religions, 




Females per 1,000 Males. 


Diyisious, &c. 


0— 


1— 


2— 


3— 


4— 


0—5 


5-10 




1879. 


1878. 


1877. 


1876. 


1875. 


1876-9. 


1870-4. 


ill 


939 
952 
926 


935 
985 
897 


927 
948 
951 


985 

1,008 

942 


903 
913 
879 


937 862 
958 869 
918 809 


Jdlandhar - - - - 
Amrits&r - - - - - 


944 
959 
936 


979 
936 
896 


954 
925 
931 


972 
948 
938 


913 
895 
921 


950 
935 
926 


871 
828 
837 


RiLwalpindi 

MullAn 

Derajat 


975 
960 
969 


980 

974 

1,013 


991 

975 

1,031 


962 
955 
958 


927 
927 
901 


964 
957 
967 


865 
843 
784 


Peshawar - _ - - 


927 


987 


1,051 


998 


952 


981 


826 


iiritisU Territory - - - - 
Native States - - - - 
Province . - - - - 


950 
935 
948 


954 
935 
951 


966 
953 
964 


963 
952 
961 


914 
884 
912 


948 
9S0 
945 


842 
839 
842 


Hindoo - - - - - 

Siith 

Jain - . - - - 


941 
864 
870 


951 

847 

1,014 


952 

803 

1,030 


974 
834 
880 


899 
831 
960 


941 
839 
936 


852 
752 
892 


Buddhist 

Masalman _ - - » 
Christian 


1,093 
967 
841 


1,391 

967 

1,030 


1,143 
993 
955 


1,529 

968 

1,0.52 


1,160 
924 
928 


1,255 
962 
953 


1,043 

846 

1,031 



* This word has been 
Y 5747. 



by me, the copy of the Puoj&b Report sent to me containing a blank here. 

Y 

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XXXIV 



These five years are for our present purpose by far the most important. In the first place, the figures 
are certainly far more accurate than those for the later ages, partly because the age of an infant is 
more exactly known than that of an adult, but still more because there is comparatively little induce- 
ment to mis-statement, though perhaps the figures for the third and fourth years may be slightly 
raised by under-statement of female age. The error due to the interval bet\veen preliminary and 
final enumeration affects both sexes equally, and does not appear at all in those figures. But there is 
another respect in which the figures are of special importance. I have already pointed out that the 
excess of males in the Punjdb must be due to any or all of three causes, a smaller proportion of female 
births, female infanticide, and excessive female morUlity. Now the Inspector-General of Police in 
the North-West Provinces, whose special attention has been paid to the subject of infanticide, writes 
to me : " It is o-enerally held that infanticide is not practised after the age of one year, that is that 
" death is not^actively accomplished ; but female children are allowed to perish of inanition and 
" inattention up to the age of three years." Thus, if this opinion be well founded, and it is based 
upon very extensive inquiry and experience, it follows that any decrease in the proportion of females 
after the first three years of life is due to natural causes. 

There is a preliminary point which I must notice before I proceed to the discussion of the figures. 
Our statistics even for the first year of age do not represent the proportion of female births to male 
births, but only the proportion of females to males under the age of one year, including not only 
newborn infants but babies of 11 months or more. Now in European countries at least the mortality 
in the earlier years of infancy is far greater for males than for females, being in England for the first 
five years of age 66 * 5 for males and 56 * 5 for females ; and the mortality during the first years of life 
being nearly 10 per cent, greater for males than for females. We should, therefore, expect to find the 
proportion of females steadily rise during the first few years of life, if the same rule obtains in the 
Punjdb; and as a fact taking the Province as a whole, we find that it is so, the proportion for the 
first three years being 950, 954, and 966, though I shall presently show that other causes may affect 
the fioiires. Thus if only natural causes have been at work our proportion of females derived from 
the figures for infants of under one year of age is probably larger than the proportion of female births 
or the mortality within the year has reduced the number of males more largely than the number of 
females. The difference can scarcely be great, and will perhaps hardly affect the comparison of our 
Punjdb figures with European birth-rates, which are the only foreign figures I can obtain, though so 
fiir as it goes the comparison will be slightly more favourable to us than it should be. 

I now turn to the figures for divisions. I have added in 'Abstract No. 120 at the head of each 
column the year in which the children to which the figures in that colunui refer were begotten or 
conceived. Now a very striking peculiarity is to be observed in the figures. As I have just observed, 
the proportion of females should increase, and does increase, slightly on the whole from year to year. 
Yet the figures in the east of the Province are smallest under the year 1877, the drop from 1876 to 

1877 beino" exceedingly large and sudden; and they are larger under 1878 than 1877, and in the 
Delhi, Ambdla, and Amrits&r divisions under 1879 than under 1878. In the Lahore Division the 
sudden decrease is under 1878. In the R&walpindi and Multin Divisions there is no sudden decrease 
durino" the first three years, while in the extreme west of the Province the sudden decrease is under 

1878 and continues to 1879. Now although the variations are not uniform here, yet their tendency 
is exactly the same as was noticed in the numbers of the several ages, the proportion of females 
being smallest when and where the number of children was smallest, that is, when and where 
the distress which reduced the birth-rates was most severe. That distress was at its height in 
1877 in the east, in 1878 in the centre, and in 1878 and 1879 in the west. Is it, then, the 
case that poverty and want not only reduce the total number of births but also reduce the proportion 
of female to male births ? The figures look as if it were so. I find that Darwin, after discussing 
the proportion of the sexes among uncivilised races« says '* there may be some unknown law leading 
" to an excess of male births in decreasing races which have already become somewhat infertile ; " 
and if this be the case, temporary conditions which reduce fertility may also tend to increase the 




of child-bearing age is far smaller in the Punj&b than in England. Indeed the difference of 
conditions which temporarily check fecundity in the Punjab if we compaie a year of distress with a 
vear of plenty is a constant difference if we compare the Punjdb with Europe. The standard of living 
is lower, the margin above the bare means of subsistence is smaller, the average life is shorter, the 
fluctuations of physical conditions and the change from sufficient food to absolute want are more 
frequent and more violent ; while all the aids which civilisation affords in the struggle for existence 
are wanting. If then the condition which impairs fecundity also reduce the proportion of female 
births, we should expect to find that proportion far lower in the Punjdb than in England. 

It must, however, be borne in mind that there is another possible explanation for the small propor- 
tion of female infants in years of distress. Whether or no female infanticide prevails in the PunjSb 
to any considerable extent, and I believe it does not, there can be no doubt whatever that the female 
is less welcome and less cared for than the male infant. Now this, perhaps, almost unconscious 
depreciation of female child life would tell most severely against the female children in years when 
even the male children must suffer ; and it is probable that this depreciation has not been without its 
effect on the figures. How far the small proportion of female infants in years of want is due to this 
cause, and how far to an actual decrease of female as compared with male births, I am wholly without 
the means of judging. 

The fio"ures for religion do not call for detailed examination. Two points, however, stand out most 
prominently, and are exceedingly difficult of explanation. I mean the small proportion of females 
among Sikhs and the large proportion among Buddhists. In discussing the figures for Sikh females 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



XXXV 



Sikh Females to 1,000 Males. 


District. 


0-2 


1- 


2— 


Sina .... 


842 


810 


743 


Amb4la . . . - 


887 


847 


817 


Liidhitoa 


019 


834 


746 


Jal&ndhar - • - 


814 


896 


780 


Mushy&rpur - 


929 


976 


848 


Amrits&r - . . • 


772 


814 


757 




842 


926 


802 


8i&lkot .... 


804 


774 


776 


Lahore . - - - 


789 


744 


805 


Gi&jranw&la 


809 


881 


764 




850 


811 


740 



I have always written with some hesitation^ as I have never felt quite certain that their wives where 
taken from Hindoo families were not returned as Hmdoos. But this explanation will not help us in 
the matter of infants. It will hardly be suggested that a male baby in arms will be returned as Sikh 
while a female infant will be returned as Hindoo. Nor do I see any other explanation, unless it be 
that Sikhs either practise or have in former generations been wont to practise infanticide to an extent 
which has never even been dreamed of. To reduce their proportion of females from 948, the average 
of all religions, to 864, they must kill 9 per cent, of their female children, a supposition which it 
hardly seems possible should be true. It does not appear that there is any great inaccuracy in 

the figures, for a reference to Abstract No. 120, 
will show that the proportion remains fairly con- 
stant throughout all the age periods. The effect of 
poverty that we have just discussed should tend to 
make the proportion of males among Sikhs larger 
than any other clans, as they are certainly better off 
than most sections of the community. I give in the 
margin the figures for the principal Sikh districts. 
I shall return to this subject when I come to discuss 
the question of infanticide. The second striking 
fact is the extraordinarily large proportion of females 
among Buddhists. Here again the absence of the 
males on journeys or in the valleys will not help us, for they would hardly take with them the male 
infimts and leave the female infants behind. And here again Abstract No. 120 shows that the pecu- 
liarity runs through all periods of age. In his Census Eeport of 1872 for the North- West Provinces, 
Mr. Flowden suggested that the proportion of females decreased as the heat of the climate increased 
and gave figures in support of his proposition, and this may perhaps explain the excess of females 
among the inhabitants of these high Himalayan valleys. The population concerned is very small ; 
but the figures are so regular that the difference under discussion can hardly be accidental. The 
Christian population is so small that the figures possess but little value, the total number of children 
under five years old being only about 3,000. At the same time it is worthy of note that among a 
European population living under an Indian climate, and with no possibility of intentional and very 
little even of accidental error, the proportion of females to males in the first and third years of life is 
actually smaller than among the native population. 

Birth-rates of the Sexes compared for the Punjdb and Europe. — Do our birth-rates, however, really 
compare so unfavourably with European rates as is usually supposed ? I give some figures in the 

margin. It must be remembered that the European 
figures are true birth-rates, while our figures repre- 
sent the proportion between the sexes for the first 
year of life. I have added the two divisions in 
which that proportion is respectively lowest and 
highest. It will be seen that our figures do not 
compare so unfavourably with those of Europe as 
mi<;ht have been expected from all that has been 
said and written on the subject. The Sikh proportion alone is lower than any of the European 
figures, while the proportion in Bdwalpindi is the highest in the list. But I doubt much whether jiiiy 
really satisfactory comparison is possible with the figures of one Census only to deal with. I have 
already pointed out how violently Indian vital statistics fluctuate, and how abnormal are the figures 
of the present Census. At the same time if my suggestion that distress reduces the proportion of 
females be well founded, our figures are rather abnormally unfavourable to us than the reverse. But 
even in the civilised countries of Europe there is no other single branch of vital statistics in which 
fluctuations are so large, and apparently so unaccountable as they are in the proportion of female to 
male births. The point is discussed, and some very striking statistics given at pages 242 Jf of Darwin's 
Descent of Man* The passage is too long to quote, but I will select one instance of the extraordinary 
variation : '* It is a singidar fact that with Jews the proportion of female births is decidedly smaller 
" than with Christians. Thus in Prussia the proportion is as 885, in Breslau as 877, and in Livaria 
*• as 833 to 1,000, the Christian births in these countries being the same as usual, for instance in 
" Livaria, 962 to 1,000." Here we get, among the Livarian Jews, a proportion even lower than 
among our Sikhs. Now there are possible and probable reasons why we should expect that the 
proportion of female births would be markedly smaller in the Punjab than in European countries. I 
have shown that the generally lower standard of living possibly has an effect in reducing this propor- 
tion. Mr. Plowden has shown that in hot climates the proportion apparently tends to become small, 
and our figures for Buddhists have supported the observation. Again, in Europe the proportion of 
male to female births is much larger than would appear from the figures quoted above, if still-born 
children be included. Now this disproportion is generally attributed to the larger cranium of 
the male and the consequently greater danger of injury in delivery. But in this as in every hot 
country the muscles and ligaments are notoriously more lax than in the colder climates of Europe, 
and consequently that portion of the excess of males actually begotten which disappears in the birth 
in European countries may be supposed to contribute to the living population of the Punjab. 



FcDuUo Births per 1000 Male Births. 




EnKland (10 years) 


- J«7 


Greece 


- 909 


Kncrland 1857) 


■ 951 


Philadelphia - 


- 905 


£un>po (estimate) • 
N.Wales (10 years) 


- !>43 


Punj4b 


- JM8 


• !)42 


Amb&Ia Division 


- 926 


Austria 


. im 


Rnwalpiudi Division 


- 975 


Prance (44 years) - 


■ 042 


Hindoos 


. 941 


Italy - 


. 988 


Sikhs - 


- 864 


Russia 


- 918 


MiLsalmiins - 


- 967 



* The one-volume edition of 1874. The whole dlBOUBsion is muoh enlarged in this edition, and the passage which 
I shall presently quote regarding infanticide is not to be fonnd in the earlier editions. In the quotation in the next 
section I substitute the corresponding proportions of female for those of male births given by Darwin, in order to 
admit of more ready comparison with my figures. 



Y 2 



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XXXYl 



Farther, whether female infanticide is now practised or not, we know certainly that it was a common 
custom among certain castes, and had been so for generations, and I shall show pre&entlj that this 
would result in a hereditary tendency to produce more male than female children. Finally, our figures 
compare by no means un&vourably with those of Europe. Thus, so far as our statistics go — and I 
have actuiuly explained why I do not think they form a satisfactory basis for comparison — the 
proportion of female to male infants does not appear to be smaller than might reasonably be expected 
when we compare at once the statistics of the sexes and the condition of life in the Punj&b with those 
of European countries. 

TTie Proportion of the iiexes in Towns and Villages and in different Districts, — There remain three 
aspects in which the sex figures may be examined, in towns and villages, in different; districts, and 
among the several castes. The first two I shall dispose of very briefly. I have already made some 
remarks upon the distribution of the sexes over urban and rural population. When I wrote 
that paragraph I had not examined the figures for migration ; and I now see that the great 
concentration of emigrants in the towns of the western Punj&b, and more especially in those of 
the Kdwalpindi and Pesh&war divisions, goes far to explain the disproportion I then discussed* 
There are other considerations also which affect the proportion of the sexes among urban 
population; and it may perhaps be well to sunoimarise the whole briefly. The fact that men 
often go from villages to towns in search of work, leaving their families behind them, but more 
seldom from towns to villages, tends to reduce the per-centage of females in town, and the 
more recent the inmiigration the more marked will be the tendency. On the other hand, certain 
towns are notorious for the large proportion of their inhabitants who take service in the army or in 
ofiioes, leaving their women at home, and in such towns the per-centage of females will be high. 
The generally prosperous condition of the urban population as a whole tends to raise the proportion 
of females by removing the prudential considerations which, as we have already seen, keep a con- 
siderable proportion of males single, and by encouraging or rendering possible polygamy. It is 
notorious that women are more generally married from villages into towns than from towns into 
villages. On the other hand, the close seclusion to which the mercantile and higher classes, who are 
more numerous in the towns, subject their women is most unfavourable to female life, more especially 
at the child-bearing age, while the open air life led by most women in the country probably more than 
compensates for the severer labour which they are called upon to perform. It is unnecessary to 
consider the figures for towns in detail. The above considerations will, as a rule, completely explain 
the variations. The number of females among every 10,000 of both sexes is shown in the margin. 

The reverse difference that exists between urban 
and rural population in Native States, as compared 
with British territory, is due to the fact that the 
towns of the former are smaller than those of 
the latter, and comprise no large cities, so that 
the urban population is less distinctively urban 
in Native States than in British territory. 
I have had prepared tables showing the proportion of the sexes in each district for urban and rural 
and total population. But the variations depend upon so many and such various considerations, such 
as the proportion of immigrant population, the comparative accuracy of enumeration, the greater or 
less severity of distance, which as already shown, with more males than females, locality, relimon, 
and the like, that as their considerations have already been indicated and their effects discussed, I do 
not think it worth while to print the tables or to examine the figures. 

The Proportion of the Sexes among the various Castes. — I give in next page, in Abstract No. 121, the 
number of males in every 1,000 persons for each caste in the Province, exceeding, however, (1) all 
castes numbering fewer than 5,000 souls, as they are generally emigrants, and in any case the numbers 
are too small to be relied upon ; (2) all religious orders and J&qirs such as Gosains, Udfisi, and 
Mad&ri ; (3) all emigrant castes, such as Veni (the only example I think), even though they exceed 
6,000 in number. 

The general distribution of the castes is very marked. At the top come most of the higher castes, 
in the middle the artizan, at the bottom the outcasts and vagrants. And if castes of under 5,000 souls 
had not been cut out, this last point would have been even very much more marked ; that is to say, 
the castes who prostitute their women, and therefore find them especially valuable, are at the bottom, 

and those who used at least to hire their girls, if 
they do not still do so, at the top. The prostitute 
caste is habitually last of alL I give in the margin 
the figures for the higher castes, including all ^o 
can possibly be suspected of any tendency or 
temptation to infanticide. 

AU the foreign Musalmdns, such as Saiyads, 
Shekhs, Biloches, Mughala and the like, with the 
single exception of Path&ns are well below the 
average, and the exception is accounted for by 
large number of Path&ns, coolies, and labourers temporarily within the Punj&b at the time of the 
Census. The lUiwals, R&thi, Dhtind, and K&hdt all of K&jpfit standing or thereabouts, are almost at 
the bottom of the list. Even the Meos and Tagas so commonly accused of infanticide and the 
Gakkhars who 750 years ago were far beyond for the practice, are low down. The Karrdl is, except- 
ing the Path&ns, the only frontier tribe who is high up, and possibly many of them are graziers who 
have temporarily come down from the Chibh&l hills into Haz&ra. But the Th&kar, the Khatri, the 



Females to 10.000 Males. 





Villages. 


Towns. 


Total. 


British Territory 
Native States - 
Province 


• 


8,B39 
8.262 
8,491 


7,068 
8,467 
8,038 


8.464 
8.282 
8.483 



Karril. 
TtaAkar • 


678 
761 


SiE2i^ : 


838 
838 


Kamboh - 
Naimar 


869 
878 


Khatri- 


770 


Arora • 


838 


Bhat . - 


876 


lUyath * - 


776 


Allcastes 


842 


Mughal 


883 


Saml 


786 


GUjar - 


842 


TanAoU - • 


887 


Ahir 


7»2 


Eor 


842 


Saiyad- 


894 


Six - 


790 


Khokhar 


848 


Meo - - 


901 


SSd - - 


rai 


SSKh . " - 


848 


Bathi . 


906 




828 


862 


Aw&n . - 


916 


SH^TinifO! • 


892 


Datidpotri - 


866 


Qakkhar 


981 


ssa*. 


882 


Shekh - 


866 


DhtLnd - 


084 


882 


Banya • 


869 


KAhat - 


984 



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Females per 1,000 Males in selected Cases. 



Jiitf.— Total - 

Musalm&n 
. Hindoo 
Sikh - 
Axnrits&r, total 
Sikh 



Ji<^Ntt«.-Total . 
Musalm&n - 
Hindoo - 
K&ngur Hindoo 
Husny&rpur Musalmin 

„ Hindoo 

Gurd&spur Musalmin 

Hindoo 
BAwalpindi Musalm&n 



799 
838 
796 
747 
741 
780 



JroAmaa.— Total 

K4ngur - 
Hushy4rpur 



888 
866 
776 
906 
880 
860 
878 
738 
913 



Xhairis,— Total - 
Hindoo - 
Sikh . 
Hushy&rpur 
Amrits4r 
GurdAspur 



8SS 
926 
886 



K&jBth, all tribes who ^ find difBcuIty in managing their daughters, are very high; while the 
Brfihman and the Kdjpdt are above the average^ and iF small sections of them are taken much 

higher figures will be obtained. I 

ffive some details in the margin. 
The hill Brdhmnns seem to be ab- 
solved of all suspicion of infanticide, 
as do the Rdjpiits of E&ngra as a 
clan. The figures for Hindoo R4j- 
ptits are suspiciously low, especially 
in Gurd&spur. The Sikh Jdts have 
a lower figure than any single circle 
taken ns a whole^ while those of 
Amrits&r are especially low, though 
this last fact is perhaps partly ac- 
counted for by the number of celi- 
bate devotees congregated at the 
centre of Sikhism, some of whom may have returned their caste and not their religious order. The 
proportion of females among the Khatris is terribly small^ while among those of Gurddspur, the head- 
quarters of the Bedi Khatri caste^ who are said in the old days to have never allowed a female infant 
to survive^ there are nearly half as many males again as females. 



770 
774 
746 
774 
772 
667 



Abstract No. 121. 
Showing the Proportion of the Sexes in each Caste. 









FEMALES TO EVERY 1,000 MALES. 








Caste 

No. 
(Table 

vnia.) 


Name of Caste. 


.Females 

per 1,000 

Males. 


Caste 

No. 

(Table 

Villa.) 


Name of Ca^. 


Females 

per 1,000 

Males. 


Caste 

No. 

(Table 

Vina.) 


Name of Caste. 


Females 

per 1,000 

Males. 


101 
60 
16 


Karri! 
Thikar 
Khatri 


678 
761 
770 


21 
28 
33 


N4i - 

Michhi 

Kamboh 


859 
859 
859 


24 

92 

109 


Saiyad 

Bhaty£ra 

Agari 


894 
898 
898 


90 
77 
27 


Kiyath 
Kbarral 
Ahir - 


776 
786 
792 


30 
49 
59 


Sdnir - 
BarwAla - 
Charhoa 


862 
862 
862 


20 
25 
84 


Kanet 
Mird8{ 
Meo - 


901 
901 
901 


1 

107 

75 


J£t - 
Jhabel- 
Sdd - 


799 
802 
821 


76 
4 
5 


Ndngar 

Chuhra- 

Chamir 


862 
866 
866 


39 

61 

106 


RAthi 
Darai - 
Bishnoi 


905 
905 
908 


72 

88 
S 


S&nsi - 
Bhibra 
Brihman 


825 
828 
882 


9 
18 
22 


JuUha 

Kamhir 

Lohir 


866 
866 
866 


113 

87 
12 


Chamrang - 
Khatik 
Awin - 


908 
912 
916 


46 

69 

2 


Dogar 

BMtia- 

lUjput 


832 
832 
838 


45 

48 
51 


Mdli 

Bhar&i 

Mahtam 


866 
866 
866 


66 
41 

78 


Koli 

IMmna 

Batwal 


916 
919 
919 


6 

10 

108 


Pathin 

Arora - - - 

BharbhoDJa - 


888 
888 
838 


56 
83 
19 


KaUl . 

Peiya 

Mochi 


866 
866 
869 


104 
71 
89 


Par&cha 
B^warid - 
Bazigar 


923 
927 
927 


112 

8 


Mah&jan (Pahari) - 
AU castes - 
Giijar 


838 
842 
842 


23 

82 

110 


Tell - 
Dhobi - 
Bangres 


869 
869 
869 


114 
29 
67 


Knnjara 
Ghirat- 
Meg 


927 
931 
931 


55 

58 
91 


Ror - - - 
Khokhar - 
Aheri - 


842 

842 
842 


47 
81 
82 


Maniar 

Gaddi 

Bitwat 


873 
873 
873 


68 
97 
74 


Gakkhar 

Sareia 

Dhiind 


931 
931 
934 


86 
86 
11 


Chhimba - 

Taga - - - 

Tarkhto - 


845 
848 
852 


94 
48 

44 


BaDJ&ra - 
Khojah 


873 
876 
876 


98 

103 

64 


Nat - 

Kahiit 

Ohangar 


934 
934 
942 


18 
26 
17 


Biloch 

Kashmiri - 
Shekh - 


852 
852 
855 


62 

7 

100 


Bhit - 

Araim 

Thori - - - 


876 
880 
880 


38 
50 
98 


Qassale 


946 

949 

1,024 


81 
52 
79 


Saini 
Lab&na 
Dafidpotri - 


855 
855 
855 


87 
65 
67 


Mughal 

Baghb&n 

liUri 


888 
883 
888 


80 
96 


R&wal 
Kancban 


1,066 
1,481 


85 
14 
15 


Od - - - 

Banra 

Jhinwar 


855 
859 
859 


42 
54 
73 


Mallah 
Tanioli 
Gadaiya 


887 
887 
890 









Is Infanticide practised in the Punjab f — We come then to the question whether, and if at all to what 
degree female infanticide is practised in the Punjdb. Now I have shown that in the North- West 

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xxxviii 



PrOYinces infanticide proper is believed not to be practised except immedlAtely after birth, while death 
by intentional inattention is not caused after the third year of age. Thus the effects of infanticide 
should appear in the first three years of age, and especially in the first But we find that the pro- 
portion of females to males during those years compares on the whole not unfavourably with European 
figures, and that that proportion actually increases from year to year during the first three years of 
life. I have shown, moreover^ that there are reasons for believing that the figures of the present Census 
are unusually unfavourable, and still stronger reasons for believing that the normal proportion of 
female births would naturally be smaller in the Punjab than in Europe. Whence then the wholly dis- 
proportionate excess of males observable in the former country ? It can hardly be due to infanticide, 
or it would appear in the earlier years. I have indicated several minor causes which all help to pro- 
duce and explain it, such as incomplete enumeration of females, effect of migration, and so forth. But 
I think there can be no shadow of doubt that the result is due in the main to, the excessive mortality 
among the females of the Province, espedally at the child-bearing age. In England a considerable 
proportion of the women never marry, while those who do, marry in mature age. In the Punj&b all 
the women marry, and the vast majority at an age when their vital vigour is perhaps at its lowest. 
The self-restraint necessary to abstain from sexual excess and tbe strength to sustain its effects without 
injury and to bear children without peril are alike absent. I have already contrasted the conditions 
of female life in India and in England, and I need not here repeat my remarks. What we 
have to explain is a fairly normal proportion of the sexes in infancy, and a great excess of 
males in the later years of life ; and the explanation must be, not infanticide, which is practised only 
in infancy, but excessive female mortality during middle and mature age. Not only is such excessive 
female mortality probable a priori^ but it notoriously exists, and is shown to leave its mark even in 
our imperfect figures. I believe that female infanticide is, taking the population of the Punjdb as a 
whole^ practically unknown. 

But perhaps this is hardly disputed. The real question is, are there not classes or small sections of 
the community who practise it habitually ? Here our figures can give us no definite reply, and all 
they can do is to furnish us with a clue ; for they deal with large masses of the people and not with 
small sections. But the figures for Sikhs i^enerally, for Sikh, Jdts and Khatris generally, and for the 
Hindoo R^jptits of the low hills, are suspiciously low, while those for the Sikh Jits of Amritsdr, still 
more for the Sikh Khatris of Grurdfcpur, are more than suspiciously low. At the same time Mr. 
Hobart, Inspector-General of Police in the North- West Provinces, tells me that infanticide is. not even 
suspected in a tract unless the proportion of females to every 1,000 males under 12 years of age falls 
as low as 666, and that a village is not proclaimed under the Act if the proportion is above 613. Now 
no single one of the classes I nave examined falls as low as this \ though if the proportion for the 
Khatris of Gurddspur generally arc ns low as 667, it is certain that it will be much lower for soire 
sections of that class. Is there then uny cause beside a present and existing custom of female infanti- 
cide which can account for this small ])roportion of females ? I will quote in reply a passage from 
Darwin's Descent of Man to which jir. Benton has directed my attention. Dr. Darwin writc:^ as 
follows : — 

" Colonel Marshall has recently foimd on careful examination that the Todas, a hill tribe of India, consist of 112 
" males and 84 femalos of all ages — ^that is in a ratio of 100 males to 75 02 females. The Todas, who are polyan- 
** drous in their marriages, during former times invariably practised female infanticide ; but this practice has now 
" been discontinued for a considerable period. Of the children bom within late years the males are more numerous 
" than the females in the proportion of 100 to 80 '65. Colonel Marshall accounts for this fact in the following 
" ingenious manner : * Let us for the purpose of illustration take three families b» representing an average of the 
" ' entire tribe ; say that one mother gives birth to six daugliters and no sons ; a second mother has six sons only ; 
" * whilst the third mother has three sons and three daughters. The first mother, following the tribal custom, 
" * destroys four daughters and preserves two. The second retains her six sons, the third kills two daughters and 
•* 'keeps one, has also three sons; wo have thus from the three families nine sons and three daughters with 
" * which to continue the breed. But whilst the males belong to families in which the tendency to produce sons is 
*' ' great, the females are of those of a converse inclination. Thus the bias strengthens inth each generation, until, 
" * as we find, families grow to have habitually more sons than daughters.' 

'* That this result would follow from the above form of infanticide seems almost certain ; that is if we assnmo 
'* that a sex-producing tendency is inherited. But as the above numbers are so extremely scanty, I have searched 
'^ for additional evidence, but cannot decide whether what I have found is trustworthy ; nevertheless, the facts are, 
*' perhaps, worth giving." 

He has before this given many facts and arguments in favour of the assumption that a sex-pro- 
ducing tendency is inherited. He then discusses the subject further, chiefly with reference to savage 
races which are fast dying out, and finally sums ii]) in f bo following language : — 

** From the several foregoing cases we have some reason to believe that infanticide practised in the manner above 
" explained tends to make a male-producing race ; but I am far from supposing that this practice in the case of 
" man, or some analogous 2)roc^css with other species, has been the all-determining cause of an excess of males. 
" There may be some unknown law leading to this result in decreasihg races which have already become somewhat 
"infertile.** 

From a man of Dr. Darwin's excessive caution such a statement as that quoted above means a 
great deal. It is possible, indeed it seems probable, that a habitual practice of infanticide continued 
for generations would gradually weed out the families who had a hereditary tendency to produce 
girls and leave those in unimpaired strength whose hereditary tendency it was to produce boys ; and 
thus result in a nominal excess of male births in the race or clan, and such a result would be greatly 
facilitated by the strict rules which bind precisely those classes among which infanticide was most 
common to maiTy into classes with the same customs as themselves. We know for a fact that the 
classes among whom the proportion of females is smallest did practise infanticide as a habit for many 



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ZSXIX 

generations , and it may be that the hereditary terxdcncy thus produced is suflScient of itself to 
explain the present deficiency of females which we find among them without supposing that the habit 
still survives, a similar consideration might also help to explain variations in the proportion of the 
sexes even where infanticide had never been practised ; for any castes or races like the vagrant classes 
who prostitute their women or the people of the high hills where the cultivation depends upon female 
labour, those families would prosper most and perpetuate their kind most largely who had a heredi- 
tary tendency to produce most girls ; while where daughters are a useless and burdensome expense 
the reverse would be the case. 

Opinians of Officers on the Prevalence of Infanticide, — I shall conclude my treatment of the subject 
by quoting the opinions of district oflScers on the subject. All the 32 Deputy Commissioners have 
noticed the subject. Of these 24 give it as their deliberate opinions that infanticide is unknown. 
Many point out that a girl is a " marketable commodity," a ** valuable piece of property which can be 
•* disposed of for a price," and that many classes depend upon their daughters to procure wives for 
their sons by exchange of betrothal It is pointed out that the practice of sale and exchange prevails 
tlirtiughout the Province except in the Jamna districts, and perhaps among the highest classes, and 
that it is rapidly spreading among! these last. As Mr, Wilson remarks, if infanticide were practised 
by the Hindoos (and it is only they who are as a rule suspected of it) the Hindoos who bear them no 
love would certiunly mention the fact ; yet no word of any such accusation is ever heard. Major 
Nisbet points out that children of either sex are welcomed eagerly, though boys are preferred, and Mr. 
Frizelle puts the point very clearly and fully. He says, writing from Shahpur : — 

" The disparity in the proportion of the sezee as arising in later years points only to the greater nnhealthinees of 
** the life snrroandings and ooonpations of women than of men. It does not point to any studied bad treatment 
*' of female children. No donbt female ohildren are little prized and more neglected than male, but hardly more so 
'* than married women or female adults, who are very valuable ; and there is nothing in the social condition or tra- 
" ditions of the people to cause them by wilful neglect to try to get rid of their female ofBspring. There is nothing 
« in the bringing up or settling of daughters rendering them more ezpensive or troublesome to provide for than 
" sons. Just the contrary is the case. The daughter is made to work as hard as the son and is easily married, and 
" her marriage costs nothing, while that of the son only is expensive. Her father spends nothing on her marriage 
" except a little food. Her ornaments and even her clothes are provided by her husband and his family, at least 
" such is the custom among all the agricultural and common classes of the district. Only among people of position 
'* is the marriage of a daughter attended with any considerable expense, and even then that of a son would involve 
" a larger outlay. Hindoos, perhaps at least the better classes, spend a little more on their daughters* marriages, 
" and do not as a rule get rid of them on such easy and greedy terms as Mahammedans, and yot the per-centago of 
" females is greater among them. The same state of things prevails, however, generally among Hindoos. It is to 
" be remarked, however, that it is only by the very poor or the very disreputable of any class that a pecuniary con- 
" sideration is ever taken for giving a daughter in marriage. But a sort of barter or exchange is very common, and 
<* the giving or promising of a girl is often used as the means of obtaining a wife for some male relation or connexion 
'* of the bridegroom. The possession of a daughter is not only not a burden but a use and convenience, and stUl 
*• female children are looked upon with disfavour and treated with neglect, probably a relic of the times not so very 
•« old when sons were valued for their fighting qualities." 

I now turn to the eight district oflScers who are less positive as to the non-existence of infanticide. 
Captain Bartholomew of Jhang writes : " Girls are not actually ill-treated ; but their birth is often 
" considered a misfortune, and it is easy to understand how neglect without actual ill-usage increases 
" the death-rate." In Gurd&spur infanticide is said to be practised **if at all, only among the Bedi 
" Khatris." Colonel Gordon of JSlandhar thinks that there is " only neglect, not murder ; and even 
" that only among high-class Rdipiits or J^ts." The Deputy Commissioner of Hiss&r explains that 
although men are often unable to marry because girls are so expensive, yet girls arc not taken so 
much care of as boys, especially among Kdjputs who give large dowers and think it shameful to sell 
their dauo'hters. Mr. Smyth is of opinion that there is now no infanticide in the Delhi district, but 
that Hindoos treat their girls carelessly, while Musalmdjis do not ; yet the Hindoos and Hindoo 
converts pray for their brides, while the foreign Mahammedans do not. Mr. Benton of Karn^l writes, 
apparently more from the result of an examination of the figures than from personal kno'vledgc : — 

" There is no doubt that infanticide, if not general, still exists among the agricultural population to a much larger 
" extent than could have been imagined. There are strong motives for getting rid of a superabundant family of 
" daughters. Although in most castes a price can be got for a bride, still where the price is highest the up-bringing 
*< of daughters must be a considerable loss looking at the matter as one of pure profit and loss, and to men of 
*' respectability who wish to marry their daughters in accordance with the prevailing customs a large family of 
*• daughters is universally declared to be a ruinous misfortune. 

" It is admitted on all hands that there is a dijSereuco between the treatment of male and femalo cliildren, but it 
<* is not admitted that this difference is of a character to cause the destruction of the latter. The total effect, how- 
" ever, of a prevailing feeling more favourable to males than females may not be inconsiderable even if it does not 
'< go the length of criminality." 

Colonel Jenkins writes from Kangra : — 

** There is a widely prevalent custom, particularly among the Br&hmins and Bajpilts, according to which a man 
** must always take a wife from a lower and give his daughter to a higher caste. There is the greater difference 
" between givmg a girl and taking a girl. If a Rdjpiit is asked with what class ho may intermarry he will usually 
*' mention some* below his own, but if asked whether he would give liis daughters to the same tribe in exchange, 
" would be horrified at the idea. The same rule prevails among the local Brahmins, though to a less extent. The 
" result of this is that it becomes most difficult to obtain a suitable match for high-bom girls, and there can be no 
" doubt, I think, that the custom of infanticide is by no means extinct. It is, however, practised in a much more 
'* scientific method than in former days. It was not long ago that a case of this kind was brought before me in 
" which there was evidence to show that the woman had deliberately prepared to put an end to the child's life if it 
** should turn out to be a girl as it actually did. She described how a female relative of hers had advised her to 
** starve the child, roll over it, fling it about, and if these methods had not the desired result give it some opium. 
*' In this case she happened to be discovered, but it is most probable that there are many such which elnde detec- 
" tion. The system adopted for prevention of the crime can only operate as a partial check, as the families in which 
<< it is more usually committed are more or less influential." 

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xl 

The ifoUowing extract from Mr. Lyall's E&ngra Keport shows the limit and extent of the custom to 
which Colonel Jenkins alludes : — 

*' Except among first-class, or Jaikari Bajpilts and Nagarkothia Brahmins, ** batta-satta," or exchange betrothals, 
" are very common, and something is nearly always given as a consideration for the bride. On the other hand, 
•* B4jputB of high family are heavily bribed" to marry owing to the feeling of pride which forbids a Bajput to many 
*' a daughter to any but a man of equal or rather superior family than his own. The prevention of infanticide, 
** both in our territories and Jammu (where they used to marry many of their daughters), now-a-days drives these 
** Rajputs to great straits. Not long ago a Mauahas Rajput, who had three daughters, not finding any son-in-law 
'' of sufficient rank according to his notions, kept them all at home till they were quite old maids. He at last found 
*' an old bridegroom of 90, who married two of the three at once for a consideration, but died on the return journey 
** home, so that the two brides came back upon their father's hands. Shortly after the third daughter ran away 
*' with a postman or letter carrier." 

Finally, Mr, Coldstream, Deputy Commissioner of Hushy^rpur, who has examined the whole 
subject at great length and with great ability and completeness, writes as follows : — 

" This difficulty of marrying daughters suitably has operated in past generations probably for many hundreds of 
*' years to foster the barbarous custom of infanticide. Forty years ago probably many hundreds of female chUtlren 
** were annually buried in this district immediately after birth. When several female children were bom in succes- 
** sion the destruction of the last bom was carried out with the following observance — a piece of gur was placed in 
*' the mouth of the child, a skein of cotton was laid on her breast, and the following incantation recited two or ttcee 
" times : — 

Eat gur, spin your thread. 

We don't want you, but a brother instead. 

** The infants were usually put into ghurras or water-pots and buried in the ground. Sometimes a Br&hmin or 
'' Mahajan would be on the outlook and rescue the child and bring it up as an adopted daughter. To such an act 
** much religious merit was supposed to attach. Several living memorials, women who had in infancy been so 
" rescued are alive, or were till lately, in this district. In the police division of Hajipur in 1867 the following 
" statistics were collected : In 36 villages consisting of 1,013 houses of Rajputs of all denominations, there were 
" found to have died 10 i)er cent, within the year. Among other tribes about 5 per cent, only had died. The report 
" which was then drawn up by the Inspector of Police, Mir Fuzl Husein, states ' the parents have hundreds of 
" ' ways at their command to put a female child to death, and can defy all the efforts of the police to detect them.' 
** The plan which the parents now adopt is to report swhness, and then death, which is sure to follow. Their 
*' Hakims refuse to give medicines because they know it will never be given and that the application to them was 
" nothing more nor less than a blind to be used if occasion should arise. They are heartlessly earless of their 
" daughters' health : they expose them to all the inclemencies of the weather, and sometimes buy strong medicines 
'* to tiy to bring on sickness : the mother even sometimes causing her infant daughter to refuse her natural 
'* nourishment by rubbing the nipple even with bitter aloes and other specifics. 

" At the time of preparation of this report Mr. Perkins, Deputy Commissioner, prepared a statement which 
*' showed in numerous lollages an abnormal and significant disproportion in the number of girls in Bdjpiit families. 
" The boys alive were in number 1,748, the girls alive were only 944. 

'* As I have not received back the village schedules from the Census office, I am not in a position to make an 
" exact comparison, but I mav say that I am satisfied from inquiries frequently made that matters are now much 
*' better, and that female children are neither now ruthlessly destroyed in any appreciable numbers, nor are they 
" so carelessly treated. At the same time, while I believe that the crime of female infanticide has to a large extent 
'* been banished from the land, I am not at all sure that the small proportion of women is not in part due to a 
" certain popular depreciation of female life common in the country ; the moral inheritance of past years, the trace 
'* of a barbarous sentiment which had for centuries been cherished throughout North India. I can imagine that 
*' this estimate of female life works almost unconsciously in the minds of the people, and that while most parents 
'* would hardly own it to themselves, it is very probable that among certain sections of the population daughters 
" are less carefully nourished and protected through the helplessness of early infancy and the dangers of later 
" childhood. 

" The Naib Tahsildar of the subdivision of Amb, where Bdjptits most abound, who has been there six years, and 
'* knows the people, will sav that there is no female infanticide among the B4jputs. And in the Unah tahsil, where 
** there are most Bajpilts (the class which was in older times most given to the barbarous practice), it is satiidfactory 
" to observe that the /eiTMiZa population is above the average, viz., 47 "per cent. This result may be held to justify 
" the action lately taken by Government in withdrawing the very strict and harassing surveillance exercised by the 
" police over the families of B&jputs consisting in close inquiry into the death of every female infant, and also into 
** more private matters. 

** Illustrating the subject of the small proportional number of females, I will quote some remarks by a highly 
** educated Native officer, a Hindoo. He writes as follows : — 

** 'Infanticide has not quite disappeared— I am quite sure that in certain old families, those who by custom must* 
** * spend much money on the marriage of daughters, and are. poor, it is still practised. They either suffocate them 
*' ' or give the juice of the ok plant (calatropis gigcmtea) in the gwrthi the first nourishment given to a new-bom 
" « child. 

*' 'Another cause of the disparity in the number of women is their not being brought up properly in dhild- 
** * hood * * * 

" ' A third cause is misery in woman's life. Woman's life in India is miserable from beginning to end ; they are 
" ' either secluded from, shut up in their homes and suffer from want of exercise, pure air, &c., or they are over^ 
'* ' worked among the lower classes. The continuous sorrow and misery of their life brings a premature end to it. 
'' ' Women die at a very early age in India. There are some other causes also tending to shorten the life of women, 
** * such as early marriage and child-bearing.* 

'' It should be mentioned here, however, that the serious depreciation of daughters is, on the whole, confined to 
'* the upper classes of society, and to certain sections, of those classes where either strict rules of hypergamy or 
*' isogamy prevail, or where large sums have according to custom to be spent on the marriage of daughters. I 
** should be sorry indeed to bring a sweeping charge of such a grave nature against the whole body of upper class 
'' Hindoos, nor would it be right or fair to do so. Among the lower orders large sums are frequently demanded and 
*' paid on a girl being given in marriage, and the daughters are thus considered as valuable property and well taken 
" care of. 

** Beceiving a consideration for daughters is common among the lower classes both of Hindoos and Musalm'4ns ; 
'* instead of cash a betrothal in exchange is often accepted. The low caste Musalm&n of laswan Dun very oom- 
'* monly make money by the marriage of their daughters. The tahsildar of Dosnyah notes that the lower grades of 
** Bajputs even have begun to sell their daughters in marriage. 

'* I am ^lad here to be able to insert opinions of a number of intelligent men who have acted as supervising 
'* officers in the Census, and whose opinions, the results of intimate experience, I have taken as to the diminution 
" of infanticide and the care taken of female children. 

*' Several say that female children are treated well by all classes, that they are looked after as a source of income ; 
*' others that female infanticide is a matter gone from even the memory of the people ; that female children are 
** Jooked after better even than sons. 



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xli 

" There are, however, some snggeflttive qualifying remarks. One officer says : ' Indireot infanticide is not over 
** * yet ' ; another, an intelligent EQndoo, B. A. : ' Infanticide has vanished, but female children are not so much 
" ' loved as boys, because boys are the props of a family, girls are its weakness, causing expense and returning no 
"'income/ 

" As I have remarked above, there is, I think, some indication given in the statistics of the existence of a certain 
" popular depreciation of female child life." 

Conclusion as to the Prevalence of liifanticide, — This last sentence appears to me exactly to express 
the existing state of affairs. That infanticide is practised at all generally I do not believe ; that it is 
habitual with any class I doubt; and if with any, it is I think only with some exceedingly limited 
sections of the community, such as Gurdaspore, and even there takes the form of intentional neglect 
rather than actual murder. But there is not the slightest doubt that the life of a girl is less \'Sklued 
and worse cared for than that of a boy, chiefly indeed among the anoterogamous clans who cannot find 
husbands for them, and the higher castes of the eastern I^unj&b who will not sell their daughters, 
and among the Hindoos who spend much money on their marriage and account it is shameful to leave 
them unmarried ; but also in a less degree and as a relic of the old fighting days, and perhaps from the 
contagion of Hindoo ideas, nnaong all other classes of the Punj&b people without distinction of race, 
religion, or locality. 



Y 5747. 2 

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xlii 



APPENDIX- E. 



EXTRACTS FROM MR. BAINES' REPORT ON THE "CENSUS OP BOMBAr*' 

STATISTICS OF CIVIL CONDITION. 

In considering the differences between the classes of the population with reference to marriage it 

is advisable to take first the religions that are exceptionally situated. 
Oompansons of religions. rp,^^ Mohammedan Rccordinglj is the first community that claims.- 

our notice, eince it partakes of the characteristics which we have seen are special to Sind, where more ' 
than 60 per cent of the Mahammedan population resides. Amongst this class, then, there are in 
every 10,000 males 6,473 single, 4,004 married, and 523 widowers. In 10,000 of the females of the 
same class there are 3,765 spinsters, 4,716 wives, and 1,6 J8 widows. Thus ^this community is far 
above the Presidency average in the proportion of its bachelors and spinsters, far below it as to the 
married, and more or less in accordance with it in its ratio of widowed, especially as regards the males 
in that condition. The Sikhs, too, are a community exclusively belonging to Sind, as far as the 
present Census is concerned, and will be taken next. Amongst them there are in 10,000 males 5,809 
bachelors, 3,719 husbands, and 472 widowers; similar ratios for the females of this religion show 3,860 
unmarried, 4,415 married, and 1,715 widows. Thus here again the widows are in close corre- 
spondence with the general average. The proportions of the unmarried is, as is expected, very low 
amongst the Hindoos and their co-religionists, the JaiiiSy and remarkably high amongst the 
Aboriginals and the Jews, The same ratio in the case of the Christians is but little below that of 
the Aboriginals, but it is necessary again to separate this religion into the two main classes of which 
it is composed. If we do this, there will be found amongst the Europeans 7,546 unmarried males, 
2,293 husbands, and 161 widowers in every collection of 10,000 of that sex. The ratios amongst 
European females are 5,289 spinsters, 4,076 wives, and 635 widows. The comparatively high pro- 
portion of the last-named seems to me to indicate the inclusion of a considerable Eurasian, or mixed 
element. In the other branch of the religion, the native, we find in every 10,000 males 4,984 
bachelors, 4,575 husbands, and 441 widower?. Similar calculations from the figures for the females 
give average of 3,964 spinsters, 4,478 wives, and 1,558 widows. AU the above ratios are taken on 
the returns for the Presidency Division only, as the races of Christians are not shown separately by 
conjugal conditiQU in the Sind compilation. The comparatively low proportion of widowed in the 
case of the Jews, F^is, and Aboriginals should be noticed, as well as the fact that amongst the 
Jains the same ratio is very high. Remarriage is common amongst the Aboriginals, and is not 
against the religious enactments of the Pdrsis, so that this fact may perhaps account for the small 
proportion of widows to wives amongst the latter, as it undoubtedly does in the case of the former. 
The ratio of widows is highest amongst the trading class of the Jain community in Gujar&t, where it 
reaches 2,573 in 10,000. It is also high in the Karndtic— 2,355. The widowers, too, are relatively 
in larger proportions in Gujarat, though they share with the rest of the cultivating classes in the 

Kamdtic tlie sad effects of the famine in ' this di- 
rection. The marginal table will give perhaps a 
better idea than mere description can do of the 
relative proportion of the sexes in the different con- 
jugal conditions, and in order that the general de- 
ficiency of females in the total body of the classes 
may not be lost sight of, the figures quoted in 
Chapter IV. are reproduced in the last column for 
reference. The figures now given require little 
comment Np explanation, for instance, is needed 
regarding the most striking feature in the return, 
namely, the ratio of European spinsters to the 
bachelors of that race. Another point, however, 
seems very doubtful It is the very large dispro- 
portion between the two sexes of the widowed amongst the Pirsis. It appears that the excess of 
widows over widowers in this community even is greater than amongst the Hindoos, and on localising 
this peculiarity, it will be found to be chiefly in Surat and Broach, former settlements of the race. 
It is, therefore, a question whether the disproportion here is not due to the fact that these cities are 
regarded as a sort of refuge for widows after the death of their husbands in other parts of the 
country. A few words are necessary, too, regarding the Jains. The ratio of unmarried females to 
males in the same condition is reduced to that given in the table by the figures for the £onkan and 
the city of Bombay. In the parts of the country where this conununity is indigenous, there are 
higher proportions. In Gujaiit, for instance, there are 577 spinsters, and in the Kam£tic, 503. 
In the Deccan, where the Jains from the north are now settling themselves with their families, the 
ratio is 493. It is the same with the married. In Grgar&t there are 968 wives to 1,000 husbands, 
and in the Karndtic, 1,027. 

I now come to the distribution of the population at different ages according to their civil or con- 
Distribution at each aire J^g^ condition. In the comparative table, as mentioned earlier in 
^^* the chapter, this subject is presented in two lights, first, the age is 
put forward the more prominently, and the proportions shown in each condition at the several penod8« 





Average Number of 


Religion. 


Spinsters 
to 1.000 


Wives 


Widows 


Females 




to 1,000 


to 1,000 


to 1.000 




Bachelors. 


Husbands. 


Widowers. 


Males. 


1 


2 


8 


1 


6 


Mahammedan 


601 


1,007 


2.708 


874 


Sikh - 


686 


1,0M 


8.195 


880 


Hindoo - 


619 


1,008 


3.858 


966 


Jain • 


479 


880 


2,950 


827 


Christian {gj-^-f 


282 
626 


716 
770 


2,784 


403 

787 


P&rei - 


719 


994 


3,545 


S61 


Jew 


799 


1,064 


— 


1.047 


Aboriginal - 


808 


1,045 


2,985 


968 



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xlv 



Secondly, the distribution ot the condition itself is tbe main feature, and is shown according to the 
difEerent ages. The former shows, for instance, how many of any particular age i)eriod are married, 
sincrle or widowed ; the other, what proportion the married, single or widowed at that age, bear to 
the'^total number under each condition respectively. It is out of the question to enter into all the 
details of the informatit)n that can be obtained from the:?e tables, so I will take up their more general 
features only. The bearing of the first series will be seen more clearly from reference to the diagram 
opposite in which, too, the data for England and Wales, according to the enumeration of 1871, are 
placed alongside for comparison. In a former chapter I called attention to the difference between 
the ages of the married people in this country and in Europe, and this point will be brought more 
prominently forward in these tables without need of trusting to the significance of mean ages, which 
are useful only withm very broad limits, from the figures already given in this chapter, it may be 
gathered that about one half of the total female population and about 47 per cent, of the male are 
married. The proportion of the wives to the total of females at each age goes on rising from the tenth 
year (or really a year or two earlier) to the twenty-third, or thereabouts. The curve of the husbands 
18 much more gradual, and reaches its highest point about 10 years or more after that of the other 
sex. The maximum strength of the tendency to marry, or the probability of marriage at the age 
when that tendency is in its fullest vigour, is, according to this table, about nine and a half to one in 
the case of females, and only six to one in that of males. In other words, the chances that a woman 
of between 20 and 25 will be married are nine and a half to one in favour of the event, whilst in the 
case of a man of the same apje they are only four to one, and increase to six to one as the man's age 
rises towards 35. Similarly," after the age of 50, it is five to one that a woman will be a widow, but 
2*3 to one against the same event as far ns the male of that age is concerned. The probabilities are, 
in fact, nearly two to one that he will be married. 



Relative proportion of the sexes. 



Age. 


Ratio of Wires to 1,000 
Husbands. 


England. 


Bombay. 


Under 10 years - 

10 to 14 - - - - 

16 to 19 - 

80to24 - - . - - 

26to29 -< . - - 

»to89 . . - - 

4Oto40 ... - 

80toB9 - . - - 

60 and upwards - 


6^10 

1.648 

• 1,168 

1.047 

968 

88S 

786 


3,987 

2.888 

137S 

1,489 

1.019 

796 

604 

467 

280 



The next point to notice is the relative proportions of the sexes in each condition at each period of 

life. Here, as in England, and probably most other 
countries, the ratio of wives to husbands decreases 
steadily from the earliest to the latest age recorded, 
but in this Presidency the disproportion at tlie end 
of life is much more marked than in the mother 
country. The marginal table will make this clearer. 
In England, wliere there is practically no marriage 
before 15, jthe proportions are taken beginning with 
that age. The age at which the two sexes are most 
evenly balanced in Bombay is between 25 and 30, 
but in England the same result is not obtained till 
about 40, or between 35 and 45. Another differ- 
ence between the two countries is the sudden and 
marked decrease in the relative proportions that 
takes place in England as soon as the men are out of their teens. The nearest approach to such a 
break in this Presidency is between the tenth and fifteenth year. When once the point nearest 
equality has been passed, however, the inequality becomes more marked here than in England. The 
comparative table shows that amongst women the unmarried are in the majority only up to the tenth 
year, and that from that time until the fiftieth the, wives predominate. After 50, as I have just 
shovm, the balance is turned by the excess of widows. In the case of males it is not till the age of 
20 that the married are in the majority, and from that age till 40 the bachelors predominate over the 
widowers, though towards 35 and upwards the tendency is approaching the latter condition. At no 
age do the widowers number relatively as much as one half the husbands. Taking the average ages 
from the tables as they stand, it appears that the mean for married men is 36 '8, as compared to 43-1 
in England The same calculation for women gives 31*3, against 40*6. The unmarried average 
24*7 and 25*9 respectively, against 25*3 and 26*5 in England; but it must be recollected that in 
order to allow of comparison with the latter country, the mean ages have been calculated from the 
age of 15 upwards only, and that from the second part of the comparative table it will be seen that 
the proportion of immarried above the age in question is very small, and represents, in fact, as far as 
the Hindoos and Jains are concerned, if not the Mahammedans also, more or less of an accident, such 
as immorality or disease rather than or,dinary fluciuation. The proportion of the unmarried of all 
classes under 15 on the total oK persons in that condition is nearly 78 per cent, in the case of males, 
and no less than 95 per cent, in that of females. The mean age given above, therefore, is of little use 
as an indication of the actual distribution of the unmarried. It is nearly the same with the widows, 
amongst whom the proportion of the young reduces the average considerably. Taking all those of 
15 and upwards, the mean is about 49 years, which is only a trifle less than that of males in the same 
condition. In England the ages are 60 and 58*9 respectively. Dividing the number of widows at 
the mean age period it will be found that 54 per cent, are younger and 46 older than the average, 
owing to the rapid increase in the relative proportion after the age of 30. Ketuming to the com- 
parative table, we may notice that of females of the age of 25 to 30 nearly 11 per cent. ai*e widows, 
whilst of the males of that age only 4 per cent, are in thjft condition. . At the next period the dis- 
proportion is greater and continues to grow till the fiftieth year, after which it recedes. From the 
fortieth year upwards there is not one woman in a 100 who is not either married or widowed, and 
after 60, 84 per cent, of this sex are in the latter condition. The lowest proportion of single men 
is about five times that of the unmarried women at the same age, and that of husbands to wives, 
counting from the period at which the former begin to preponderate over the latter, a little over four 



times. 



Z 3 



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xlvi 

If the results of the enumeration with respect to marriage be arranged according to Divisions, 
-toriftld'ff ^® ^^ *^® ^^ below, the chief characteristic noted earlier in 

em 1 erences. ^j^.^ chapter with regard to the state of affairs in the Kamatic is seen 

to prevail at all ages. The preponderance of the widowed and married at the earliest age period 
recorded and the consequent paucity of the unmarried is due, we may presume, to the famine and its 
after effect?. Similarly, too, in the prime of life, there is a very high proportion of the widowed of 
both sexes, at the expense, apparently, of the married rather than of the single. Curious differences 
will be seen, too, in the ratios for Gujardt, as compared to those of other parts of the Home Division. 
At the first period, for instance, the proportion of married and widowed is here, if the Kamdtic be 
left out of conisideration, very high, but in the second period, whilst the widowers as well as the 
bachelors are still in excess of the other Divisions, the widows and wives are in lower proportions. 
A good deal of this may be attributed to the prevalence of very early marriages in the year preceding 
the Census, which was the auspicious one for weddings amongst a certain large and influential class of 
the cultivating population of Gujardt, who are in the habit of solemnising this ceremony once in 10 
or 12 years only.* The returns show that when the fortunate time arrives, children of both sexes, 
especially females, are married off, irrespeptive of the usual j^e for such ceremonies, in order to pre- 
vent their remaining unwed till the next sanctioned year, by which time the daughters might be, 
According to the current Hindoo notion on the subject, ineligible. It is worthy of note, too, that 
whereas the proportion of widows in after life is lower in Gujar&t than in the other Divisions, that of 
widowers is considerably higher. In the Konkan return one of the most remarkable features is the 
small proportion of the widowed males between the ages of 15 and 30, the widows at the same period 
being in excess relatively to the proportions found elsewhere, except in the Kam&tic. This disturbing 
cause is apparently the large proportion of the unmarried at this age. After the fortieth year the 
married males in this Division are rather higher relatively to those in the other two conditions than is 
the case elsewhere. Both emigration and the prevalence of forest tribes, who marry later, can be 
held to have some influence in bringing about these variations. The Deccan figures call for little 
comment beyond the fact being noted that the proportion of wives is higher there between the ages 
of 10 and 19, and from 40 upwards than in the other Divisions. From 20 to 40, or even later, the 
husbands, too, of this tract are in a higher ratio to the bachelors and widowed than in any other part 
of the country. As regards Sind, we have to note the remarkable proportion of the unmarried of 
both sexes up to the age of 26 and of the males throughout life. It is evident, moreover, that were 
it not for the abnormal state of things in the Kamatic, the ratio of spinsters in Sind would be higher 
than anywhere else. As it is, the wives predominate to a larger proportion here than elsewhere after 
the thirtieth year, whilst the widows are through life in a smaller ratio to the wives and spinsters. 
The difference between the two parts of the Presidency can be made clearer by taking figures of the 
married in each according to the system adopted in the second part of the comparative table. By 
this means we find that against 28 ' 6 per cent., which is in Sind the ratio of the husbands under 30 
to the total of married men, there is in the Presidency Division a proportion of 40 per cent. Similarly 
the same ratio in the case of wives wiU be 52 in the Frontier Province against 61 per cent, in the 
other. The distinction is still more strongly marked if the age period be limited to 20 years. Under 
this age are in Sind 6 per cent, of the husbands and 16' 5 of the wives, whereas, as we have seen in a 
former chapter, in the other Division, the ratios are respectively 12 and 29 per cent. In connexion 
with this fact it should be recollected that the population in Sind comprises an unusually high propor- 
tion of children under 10 years old, the difference between the Divisions being most marked in the 
period from five to nine, whilst the number returned between 10 and 20 in Sind is proportionately 
smaller, especially in the case of females : — 





i and Condition. 


Under 10. 


10 to 14. 


15 to 19. 


20 to 24. 


25 to 29. 


SO to 39. 


40 to 40. 


50 to 60. 


60 and 
upwards. 


DivwiOB 


1 


1 


1 


i 

I 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 
3 


1 


1 


£ 


« 


i 


1 


1 




rOujarAt - 


9,492 


8,904 


7,465 


4329 


4,947 


1,068 


2,631 


199 


1,416 


70 


817 


35 


641 


20 


638 


20 


670 


20 




Konkan 


9377 


9,247 


8,829 


3,804 


6,159 


706 


8,181 


186 


1,330 


110 


505 


81 


242 


57 


203 


50 


138 


47 


Single -^ 


Deccan - 


9,834 


9,104 


8351 


3398 


5,154 


426 


2.496 


161 


1,041 


102 


470 


83 


262 


65 


235 


57 


187 


48 




Karn&tic • 


9,753 


8,664 


8,874 


3363 


5387 


788 


3.389 


458 


1398 


879 


G50 


313 


313 


281 


271 


237 


247 


182 




Lsind 


9,962 


9.856 


9,436 


7331 


7,889 


2305 


5356 


466 


3,651 


195 


1,911 


129 


085 


107 


714 


107 


701 


121 




'Gujaril - 


486 


1.061 


2,444 


4,990 


4,794 


8,616 


7,040 


9.299 


8,113 


9,079 


8,451 


8,011 


8,092 


5.686 


7384 


3,624 6,001 


1,579 




Konkan 


119 


737 


1,124 


5,880 


3,706 


8,663 


6,643 


9,103 


8,402 . 8,746 


8383 


7,585 


8367 


5,325 


8,334 


3,376 ,7.488 


1373 


Married - 


Deccan - 


157 


875 


1386 


6.376 


4,553 


9,172 


7364 


9,231 


8.596 


8324 


8398 


7.884 


8.830 


5.778 


8,168 


3390 6375 


1,692 




Karn&tic - 


223 


1,265 


1,485 


5,641 


3.634 


8,429 


6,105 


8,416 


7,756 


7386 


8.430 


5351 


8348 


4354 


7,466 


2,519 1 6,106 


911 




.Sind 


47 


141 


555 


2,429 


2,102 


7,480 


4,267 


9370 


6,007 


9339 


7.436 


8.287 


7352 


6,106 


7320 


4,086 6316 


2.018 




"Gnjarit - 


22 


35 


91 


181 


250 


316 


320 


602 


471 


851 


732 


1354 


1.267 


4.294 


2,078 


6,356 3329 


8,401 




Konkan • 


4 


16 


47 


226 


75 


431 


170 


711 


268 


1,144 


512 


2334 


891 


4,618 


1,463 


6374 1 2,424 


8,5eo 


Widowed h 


Deccan - 


9 


21 


63 


226 


293 


402 


240 


608 


86S 


974 


582 


2,033 


908 


4,157 


1,697 


6,058 


2.888 


8360 




Karniitic • 


24 


71 


101 


406 


379 


783 


506 


1.096 


646 


1385 


920 


8,736 


1,444 


6,465 


2,263 


7,244 


3,647 


8,907 




Lsind 


1 


3 


9 


40 


59 


215 


187 


464 


34fi 


766 


653 


1.634 


1.163 


3,787 


1,766 


5,807 


2.988 


7361 



* The Eadwa Eanbis. 



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xlvii 



An examination of the statistics of the persons below 10 years old in the Presidency Division 
J f . returned as married shows that by far the greater proportion of both 

^^^^ ■ sexes in this category have arrived at the age of eight or even nine. 

These small periods were not abstracted in Sind, but there is no reason to think that the rule is not 
the same in that Province as in the rest, so the coiiclusion to be drawn from the Comparative tables is 
that the age at which marriage takes place in Sind is considerably more advanced than it is in the 
southern part of the Presidency. I may remark, by the way, in connexion with this matter of infant 
matriages, that as far as I have scrutinised the returns, the proportion of boys married under five 
years old to the total who are husbands before ten is as a rule higher, except in North Gujarat, than 
that of girls under the same circumstances. The special case of Gujarat is to be traced to the 
periodical marriage season which I mentioned above. This peculiarity regarding the proportion of 
infant husbands is not confined to any particular division of the indigenous religions, but is to be found 
amongst the Jains and Aboriginals alike, and is as striking amongst the Mahammedans and P^sis as 
amongst the Hindoos. It seems susceptible of explanation if the large proportion of the girl-wives of 
eight, nine, and ten who are married to husbands many years their seniors is taken into consideration, 
and the number of boys married at the age in question taken as the measure of the prevalence of 
marriages between infants. Lastly, with reference to unions of this class, I will point out that the 
proportion of infant marriages tp the total number is highest in the case of males in Gujartlt, notably 
in Ahmedabid, the home of the class that have an opportunity of marrying legally according to caste 
custom only once in many years. It is in the Kamatic, however, especially in Belgaum and Kalddgi, 
that the ratio of such marriages amongst finales is highest. It is also high in Khdndesh, and 
comparatively low in Poon^^ Sholdpur ai>d K^nara. 

The comparative tables present some interesting features with reference to the different reH<nons in 
„ , ^. , . . respect to marriages ; but it is inmossible to enter into all of them here, 

in^eSEwV """^^ and I Will merely indicate a few ofthe^chief points bearing on what 

has been already brought forward in other parts of this work. The 
Hindoo and the Jain religions arc those in which early unions seem by far the most frequent. Com- 
paring the two together, it will be seen that the former has the larger proportion of wives up to the age 
of 15, but that between that age and 20 the Jains show relatively a greater number. From this age, 
too, there is a curious change in the proportions of the widows ; for whereas the Hindoos have 
relatively more wives again than the Jains until the last age returned, the latter have a larger pro- 
portion of widows. In the case of the males of this religion, the preponderance of widowers over the 
ratio found amongst the Hindoos, does not begin to manifest itself until the thirtieth year. The ratio 
of husbands is throughout life higher amongst the Hindoos. Taking the age between 20 and 25 as 
that at which the physical tendency to marriage is the strongest, the figures ^ven in the margin will 

serve to show roughly the state of affairs amongst 

the different classes of the community, due considera- 
tion being required, necessarily, for the various cir- 
cumstapces hitherto explained with regard to the 
distribution of each. The numbers represent for 
each sex the ratio of the unmarried of the ao-e in 
question to the total of all conditions. 'Thus 
amongst the Hindoos there is one bachelor of 
between 20 and 25 to 37 of Hindoo men of that 
age, whilst there is only one spinster to 47 women. 
The small proportion of spinsters amongst the Jains 
is brought prominently forward when exhibited in 
this light* It will be seen from the comparative table that the Christians, Aboriginals, and Pilrsis are 
the only classes amongst whom more than three fourths of the women, sometimes more than nine 
tenths, are not married before they are 20. At five years after this age more than half the males 
are married, except Mahammedans and Christians, who defer that state for five years longer. The 
Aboriginals are the only community who do not show more widows^ than wives after 50 years of 
age, though the Parsis have very nearly an equality of the two conditions at that age. These two 
races, too, are those which retain at the succeeding period a higher ratio of wives, but as regards the 
ratio of husbands, the Jews are better off Aan the Parsis, though the Aboriginal still maintains his 
position. The second part of the comparative table shows much the same facts in a different light, 
but owing to the distribution over the whole of the age periods, it is likely to be more affected by 
the inequalities arising from immigration or other causes, and is thus of more use in the case of com- 
munities like the Aboriginals or Parsis, than in that of the Jains or Christians. Not to go over a 
second time the ground already surveyed in the preceding remarks, I will only call attention to the 
way the widowed are diffused amongst the Hindoos and Jains over the whole adult life, as compared 
to the concentration of this class at the end of life among the Parsis, Jews, Mahammedans and, to a 
minor extent, the Aboriginals and Sikhs. Conversely, at the beginning of life, more than half the 
bachelors are under 10, except amongst the Christians, and it is only amongst this race, too, and the 
P&reis, that three fourths of the unmarried girls are not also comprised within this period. 

For general statistical purposes the returns for sp small a population as is contained in a single 

Marriage in selected areas. district cannot be held to be of much use. Nevertheless, in order to 

^^ ^ show the variations in different Divisions, the following table is 

inserted, giving the proportions of the three conjugal conditions according to age, reduced to a radix 

of 1,000:— 



Religion. 



Number of Persons to One 

Unmarried 

at 20—24 years Old. 



Males. 



Females. 



Hindoo 

Jain 

P4rsi 

Aboriginal 

Mahummcdan 

Bikh - 

Christian - 



S-7 
2-5 
2-8 
2-6 
2-0 
2-1 
1-4 



47 
116 
11 
16 
28 
63 
10 



Z 4 



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xlviii 
A. — Males. 



1 


Single. 




• 


Married. 






Widowed. 


. Age. 


1 


1 
1 


i 

1 


1 


k 


i2 


1 


1 


1 


i 




1 




1 


i 


P 


1 


1 


Under 10 years 


984 


92i3 


982 


980 


086 


964 


16 


70 


18 


19 


,i« 


31 


- 


4 


— 


1 


8 


6 


10 to 14 „ . - - 


776 


748 


880 


866 


876 


804 


222 


241 


105 


121 


111 


161 


3 


11 


6 


13 


14 


36 


15tol0 „ 


SOS 


606 


6S0 


687 


617 


626 


697 


474 


461 


333 


363 


405 


8 


18 


10 


30 


80 


70 


tOtoM „ - - - 


183 


276 


260 


869 


286 


260 


801 


692 


718 


696 


654 


644 


16 


33 


18 


43 


50 


87 


86to29 „ 


86 


142 


104 


171 


107 


118 


888 


811 


868 


770 


828 


792 


26 


47 


28 


60 


70 


96 


80to89 n . . - 


44 


77 


48 


76 


48 


45 


912 


861 


901 


884 


876 


842 


44 


72 


61 


90 


81 


lis 


40to40 n 


26 


62 


28 


88 


26 


24 


888 


822 


887 


818 


862 


817 


83 


126 


90 


148 


112 


160 


50 to Be „ • - - 


28 


60 


22 


31 


26 


28 


820 


784 


828 


741 


786 


782 


148 


2li 


150 


228 


188 


846 


00 Mid upwards 


18 


62 


17 


26 


28 


16 


714 


618 


728 


600 


666 


606 


868 


880 


856 


875 


881 


878 



B. — Females. 



ige. 



Singly 



j 


1 


i 


'& 


n 


i 


883 


898 


908 


262 


480 


874 


41 


105 


37 


11 


68 


16 


8 


65 


10 


6 


60 


10 


4 


88 


7 


4 


88 


6 


8 


28 


6 



Married. 



I 



Widowed. 



I 



Under 10 years 
10 to 14 „ 
16tol9 „ 
80to84 ^ 
25 to 29 ., 
30 to 89 „ 
40to49 „ 
50to69 „ 
60 and up wards 



90S 

805 

57 

19 

11 

9 

7 

6 

6 



864 

614 

91 

14 

-7 

8 

2 

2 

2 



829 


96 


864 


681 


70 


919 


43 


040 


87. 


924 


32 


837 


29 


648 


22 


460 


19 


211 



131 
466 

873 
026 
880 
788 
645 
837 
158 



116 
712 
920 
927 
884 
760 
615 
284 
U8 



102 
482 
826 
884 

785 
648 
424 
261 
91 



900 
860 

862 
720 

298 

107 



167 
576 
880 
887 
784 
630 
304 
226 
76 



1 

14 
24 
41 
66 
154 
850 
644 
788 



5 

80 
86 
60 
104 
284 
458 
661 
846 



2 
26 
39 
62 
108 
286 
481 
712 
879 



69 
108 
160 
807 
587 
706 



4 
88 

63 
86 
188 
270 
516 
701 



14 
70 
91 
120 
179 
338 
577 
76S 
906 



The districts selected are those which have been characterised, other things being equal, by pros- 
perity or distress during the last nine years. The returns for them exhibit, though with greater 
variations, the main characteristics that have been mentioned in connexion with larger collections of 
figures, so it is superfluous to spend time in commenting on what can be seen plunly enou(i;h by any 
one who reads the table in the light of the explanations that have been given in the preceding pages. 



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zlix 



APPENDIX F, 



COMPARISON OF THE AGE TABLES OF THE PRESENT AND PREVIOUS 
CENSUS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES. 

There was no distribution by ages of the population of Oudh at the previous Census, beyond a rude 

§ 48.— GompariBon of age tables one showing minors and adults. The following is a comparative 

of two Gensoses of Northwestern statement of the age distribution of the population of the North- 

Provinces. Western Provinces, according to the present Census and that of 

1872. The figures for 1881 are those of the ages actually returned without any correction : — 

Comparison of the Number of Persons returned in each Decade Group at Census of 1872 and 1881 

(North- Western Provinces only). 

Males. 



Age. 


Abtolate Numbers. 


Per-centage of each 
Group on Total. 


Average annual rate of 
lo08 per mille in pro- 
gress to next decade. 


Per-centage 
of Increase 

on liast 
Census of 

Present 




1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 




10 - - . - 

20 

80 - - - - 
40 

50 and over - - - 


4,816,898 
8,496,807 
8,182,748 
2,828,938 
1,455,822 
1.177,180 


4,852,829 
8,525,250 
8,106,550 
2,502,508 
1,720,925 
1,852,844 


29-8 
21-8 
191 
14*2 
8-9 
7-2 


25*5 

20-6 
18-d 
14-7 
10-1 
10-9 


82-5 

11-0 
80-0 
48-1 


21-3 

12-7 
21-8 
88-1 


0-8 

7-5 
18*3 
57-4 


Total . 


16,406,888 


17,060,901 


1000 


1000 


- 


— 


— 



Females. 





10 - 
20 

80 - 
40 
50 and over 



Total - 



4,185,097 
2,780,042 
2,981,108 
2,092,779 
1,804,032 
1,169,165 



14,862,223 



4,094,628 
2,719,769 
2,960,166 
2,285,789 
1,614,759 
1,984,126 



15,659,227 



28-8 
190 
20*4 
14*6 
9*1 
8*1 



100*0 



26-1 
17*4 
18*9 
14*6 
10*8 
12*7 



1000 



42*8 

84-2 

48-4 



41*7 

26-2 
85-3 



1-0 

9*2 

23*8 

69-7 



The variations in the numbers included in each of the age groups are very similar for each sex. 

§49.— The diflferenoes considered The following are the differences in the per-centages of increase and 
genendly. decrease, the plus and minus signs indicating respectively an excess 

or defect in the present Census : — 





0. 


10. 


20. 


30. 


40. 


50 and up- 
wards. 


Males 

Females 


-8*8 
-2*7 


-0-7 
-1*6 


-0*9 
-1*5 


+ 0*5 


+ 1*2 
+ 1-2 


+ 8*7 
+ 4*6 



Thus the main causes of the variation in the number included in each age group must be causes 
affecting the number of each sex in a similar way. 

If now we divide the population into those above and those below 30 at each Census, we have the 
following result : — 

Y 5747. A a 



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Census. 


Under 30. 


Over 30. 






Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


1872 
1881 


- ' - 


11,446.448 
10,984,629 


9,796,247 
9,774,563 


4,961,385 
6,076,272 


4,665,976 
5,884,674 


Variation 


-460,819 


-21,694 


+ 1,114,887 


+ 1,318,698 



The feet of the decrease of the females under 30 being less than the decrease of males is no doubt 
mainly due to the greater accuracy of the present enumeration of females. Taking the males only, 
we find at the previous Census 6,629,050 between the ages of 10 and 30, and at the present Census 
6,631,800, only 2,750 more. Thus the population between these ages is the same, and the entire loss 
is to be found in the first decade. 
§ 50.— The age groups below 10. The following is a comparison between the numbers of each sex 
The group 0—4. returned in the subordinate age groups of the first decade at each 

Census : — 

Comparison of the Numbers returned in the Subordinate Age Groups of the First Decade at 

Previous and Present Census. 

Males. 



CenBufi. 


0. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


0—4. 


5—9. 


1873 

1881 - - - 


734,787 
445,242 


895,938 
869,277 


500,927 
323,199 


467,066 
448,521 


549,115 
482,874 


2,647,833 
2,069,118 


2,168,565 
2,283,716 


Variation - - - 


-289,545 


-26,661 


-177,728 


- 18,545 


-66,241 


-578,720 


+ 115,161 



Females. 



1872 

1881 . - - - 


679,338 
438,629 


395,692 
869,681 


489,045 
841,055 


420,322 
468,686 


451,581 
459,704 


2,435,978 
2,077,655 


1,699,119 
3,016,973 


Variation - - - 


-240,709 


-26,011 


-147,990 


+ 48,264 


+ 8,123 


-358,323 


+ 317,854 



Per-centages on Total of each Sex. 
Males, 



1872 

1881 . - - - 


4-5 • 
2-6 


2-4 
2-3 


3-0 
1-9 


2-9 
2-7 


3-8 
2-8 


16-1 
121 


13-2 
13-4 


Variation - - - 


-1-9 


-0-1 


-1-1 


-0-3 


-0-5 


-4-0 


+ 0-2 



Females. 



1872 

1881 - - - - 


4-7 
2-8 


2-7 
2-5 


3-5 
2-2 


3-9 

3-0 


3-2 
2*9 


17*0 
13-2 


11-8 
12*8 


Variation - 


-1-9 


-0-2 


-1-3 


+ 0-1 


-0-3 


-3-8 


+ 1-0 



The irregularity of the series formed by the numbers returned in the first five years is as marked 
at the last as at the present Census. 

How far this irregularity may be explained by the peculiarities of the five years, 1867 to 1871, 
which preceded the Census, I cannot here inquire in detail The famine which occurred in 1869 and 
the beginning of 1870 may perhaps explain why so few children are found between one and two years 
old. A prosperous year, such as 1871, following a period of scarcity, may explain the large number 
of children under one year. 

The main defect in the numbers returned at the present Census occurs in the first three years of 
life. The cause of this is no doubt to be found in the scarcity of 1878 and the terrible mortality 



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li 

with the checked birth-rate of 1880. Had onr present Census been taken a year later than it was, 
we shoidd probably have found that the births in 1881 were numeroua enough to raise the number of 
children, one year old found in 1872. 

The decrease in the number of boys returned as under five years old exceeds half a million, and is 
common to each of the year groups. The loss of girls under five amounts to 358^323, but is confined 
to the first three years ; in the third and fourth year there is an increase. This is, however, evidently 
due to a great understatement of the girls in those years at the previous Census. The following 
table shows the number of girls returned in every 100 children of the same age group :— 





Per-centage of Girls to Children in same Age Group. 








0. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


*• 


0—4. 


5—9. 


1872 

1881 .... 


48 '0 

49-8 


49*9 
50-1 


49*4 
51*3 


47-4 
51-1 


451 

48-8 


47-9 
60-13 


43*9 
46-9 



The sudden fall in the fourth year is common to both Censuses, and in each is apparent in the previous 
year also. The excess of girls in the present enumeration arises firom the defect in the returns for 
girls of this age being less at the present than at the previous Census. 

Taking next the group five to nine, we find an increase three times greater in the case of females 
Th K— *^^^ ^^ males. This greater proportional increase of girls is a con- 

* ^l.—THe group 5—9. tinuation of the increase in the two previous years. While in 1872 

there were returned only 44 per cent, of girls in this age group, we have now 47 per cent Some 
portion of this improvement may be due to the greater care bestowed on female offspring since the 
attention of the Government has been directed to the suppression of female infanticide. I think, 
however, the increased proportion is mainly due to more accurate counting of girls. Some portion 
may be also due to a difference in the distribution of girls between this group and the second decade. 
The tendency to under estimate the age of girls about 12 years old under certain circumstances 
has already been noticed ; if, therefore, the enumeration of girls at this critical age were more 
successful this tendency would be more marked, and consequently a larger proportion of girls be 
thrown into the second quinqaenniad. The comparative defect of females in the second dec^e is in 
harmony with this interpretation. 

The increase of boys in this group amounts to 115,151, or a little over 5 per cent. This may be 
fairly accounted for in part at least by greater accuracy in the enumeration. The rate of increase is 
rather higher than that of the male population in general, because the omissions of children at the 
previous Census would certainly have been proportionally greater than the omissions of men in the 
prime of life. But part of the increase may be real, for this group contains the children bom in the 
years 1872 to 1876. We know from the Census of 1872 how numerous the births in 1871 were, 
and probably those of 1872 to 1876, which were fairly prosperous years in the Province generally, 
were also years of high birth-rate. On the other hand, the cnildren in the same group of the previous 
Census were bom in the period firom 1862 to 1867, and exposed immediately to the &mine of 1868- 
1869 and the beginning of 1870. It is therefore not improbable the difierence in the numbers included 
in this group really corresponds to facts. 

The proportions of the males returned at each Census in the three decades between 10 and 40 are 

§ 62.— The age giotips between closely similar. The loss of 26,193 in the third decade may be 
10 and 40. perhaps explained by an increase of emigration to other parts of 

India, sbice the means of communication have been so much improved, but is probably a real decrease 
of population, due to the events of 1878-79. 

The number of females included in the second decade falls from 2,730,042 to 2,719,759, a loss of 
10,283, the per-cenlage of the females included in the group falling from 19 to 17. Except the first 
decade, this is the only group of females in which the number returned is not in excess of that returned 
at the previous Census ; and even in the fir^jt decade the decrease is confined to the first three years 
of life ; from three to nine there is an increase. The defect in this second decade is equivalent to a 
decrease of 0*4 per cent. This was the term of the series for females, where at last Census there 
was the greatest deficiency, and we find the deficiency greater at the present Census instead of less, 
as we should have expected from the much greater number of females we have enumerated in all 
other age groups. I am inclined to think thi:< deficiency is to be explained by the inclusion at the 
present Census of many girls of this age in the ^roup 5 — 9. The increase in that group is 317,854, 
equal to an increment of nearly 19 per cent. If we take the sum of the girls between 6 and 19 at 
each Census we have in — 



1872 
1881 



- 4,429,161 

- 4,736,732 



+ 307,571 



The increase therefore is over 6 per cent It would seem that there Has been a greater relative 
understatement of ages of girls about the age of puberty at the present than at the previous Census ; 
and hence the increase which should have occurred in the second decade has been thrown into the 
second quinquennial group. 

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§ 58.— The population of 80 and The following shows the rate of increase per cent on the previous 
upwards. Census of the numbers included in each age group above 30 : — 



Group. 



80- 

40 

50 and oyer 



Male. 



7-5 
18*8 
67'4 



Female. 



9-8 
28*8 
69-7 



Now, if both these distributions of the population by age were correct, it would appear that before 
1872 the mean annual loss in the 10 years separating the third from the fourth decade was 30 * per 
mille, but has since been reduced to 21 * 8. Similarly the loss between the fourth and fifth decades 
has been reduced from 48 ' 1 to 38 * 1 per mille. Such a change in the value of life is credible. The 
number contained in the third decade is almost the same at both enumerations ; the niunber below 20 
years of age is very much less ; yet this decrease has been accompanied by such an extraordinary 
increase of vitality among the old people that the men living aged 50 and upwards have increased 
by 67 per cent I 

Taking the male series only, we find the excess in the numbers retui*ned over 30 years of age must 
be due to (1) a diflFerence in the ages returned, or (2) an actual omission at the former Census. As 
to the first hypothesis, this difference in classification must consist in the return at the present Census 
of men belonging to lower age groups in higher ; or vice versd to the classification at the former 
Census of men belonging to higher age groups in lower. If the first occurred, then we should find 
a defect in the lower age groups corresponding to the excess in the higher, and this defect must be 
in the groups from 10 to 30. But we find the number returned between the ages of 10 and 30 
almost precisely the same at both Censuses. Similarly, were the great excess in the number returned 
as 50 and upwards due to the return of men between 30 and 50 in that group, we must have had a 
defect in this vicennial period, where on the contrary we find an excess. Parity of reasoning shows 
that the defect of the former Census cannot be explained by a difference in the ages returned : if the 
older men had been returned as between 10 and 30, there must have been a comparative excess, 
where we find equality ; and if the old men over 50 had returned themselves as aged from 30 to 50, 
we must have found an excess in that vicennial instead of a defect. Evidently, therefore, no 
hypothesis of wrong distribution will account for the excess of men returned as 30 and upwards at 
the present Census. I may also remark that, careless as are natives about their ages, and inefficient 
as was the detailed supervision at the present Census, £ do not see by what possibility such enormous 
differences in the ages returned could have occurred. 

We are reduced, therefore, to the alternative hypothesis, that the excess of the numbers of males 
returned in the higher decades is due to their complete omission from the record at the previous 
Census. 

The increase in the rate of increment with age is in conformity with this, and the increase in the 
number included in the fourth decade amounts to only 7 per cent, and may be naturally accounted 
for by the general increase of accuracy. In the next decade the increase is 18 per cent., and 57 per 
cent among old men. Among the lower classes 6ld men are often regarded as incumbrances, and 
hang about the houses, receiving but little attention. They would certainly be much more likely to 
escape notice in a cardess enumeration than the active, well-known members of the family. It was 
therefore probable there would be, at a careful enumeration, a large proportional increase among the 
old men. But it certainly seems imlikely that this omission should have extended to nearly one in 
three of the old men. 

The fact of the variations in numbers of the women in these age groups running almost parallel to 
those in the numbers of the men indicates they are due to the same cause. Now, that old women are 
more likely to be omitted from a careless enumeration than any other persons, every one acquainted 
with native society knows. The fact was specially brought to my notice in Agra city, where every 
instance of renewed testing and inquiry brought to light more forgotten old creatures living in the 
comers of houses. 

In each of these last age eroups the females have increased at a greater rate than the men, the 
excess of the rate being higher m each group. This is exactly what we might expect if the increase 
were due simply to omiseion ; the rate of omissions for old women would be greater as they got older. 
Unlikely, therefore, as it may seem that the rate of omission of old people at the last Census should 
have been so hiffh, the figures point strongly to its being a iact, and I am unable to find any other 
explanation of me enormous difference in the age distribution of the two Censuses. We have, how- 
every seen that the ages of women above 30 at the present Census have been exaggerated^ too 
many of those enumerated being included in the class 50 and upwards. At the previous Census this 
exag^ration of age was not marked, owing to the great inaccuracy with which old people were 
enumerated. 

A comparison of our age tables with those of other countries 
points to a great omission m the latter age groups of the previous 
Census, and to the comparative accuracy of the number returned at 
the present Census. 



§ 54— OompKBvative statement of 
the a^ distribution of several 
conntnea 



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Per-centa^es of Population ia each Age Group. 





Age Groaps. 


Ck>imti7. 


0—4. 


6—9. 


0—9. 


10—19. 


20—29. 


30—39. 


40—49. 


50 and 
upwards. 


BnffUuid 

Ir^uid - - - - 

Prussia 

Italy - - - - 

North-Western Provinces, 1881 

North-Western Provinces, 1872 


13-8 
12-6 
13-7 
12-8 
12-1 
16-1 


12-1 
121 
11-6 
10*8 
18-4 
18-2 


25*9 
24-7 
25-3 
22-6 
25.6 
29-8 


20-7 
22-0 
20-7 
19-0 
20*6 
21-3 


16-8 
14-7 
15-8 
16*6 
18-2 
19-1 


12-7 
11-0 
131 
13'9 
14-7 
14-2 


9*8 

8-7 

10-1 

11-2 

10-1 

8-9 


14-1 
18-9 
15-0 
16-7 
10-9 
7'2 



For Italy the figuree are for persons.* In all other cases for males only. In England and Ireland 
the extensive emigration affects the distribution. The population of Italy more closely resembles ours 
than that of any other country. Looking at the series of the two distributions, the 1 1 per cent, of old 
men at the present Census is more probable than the 7 per cent of the last. 

The result, then, of this comparison of the distribution of the people of the North-Western Pro- 
_»n f • vinces by ages by the present and previous Census is to show (1) that 

of the'a^rS^ IST^^S ^}^ ^^^P* «/ «*V^^'^" ""'^f o^^o^'^Z^x fu "^* ^^^ presft Census is 

due to the disastrous years 1878-79 ; (2) the mcrease of children m 

the second quinquennial group is due to more accurat,e counting, but may be partly due to the fact 
of our present group containing the births of 1872 to 1876, while the group at the previous Census; 
contained the births of 1862 to 1867 ; the increase among the old people is the result of a more accu- 
rate Census. If we divide the population into those above and those below 30, we find a decrease in 
the number below and an increase in the number above that age. The decrease is due entirely to the 
fallmg off* in the number of children below five years old^ and the increase to the more complete 
counting of old people. 

Taking the series for females separately, we find an increase from the third year to the ninth year, 
due partly, perhaps^ to increased care for female offspring, but mainly to greater accuracy in coimting 
^rls, and to an under-statement of the ages of girls who should have been included in the second 
decade. The slight comparative deficiency of girls in the second decade is apparently due to this 
transfer. From the 20th year upwards we have an increase of females in each decade greater than 
the increase of the males, and most marked among the old women. This is due simply to the greater 
inaccurate counting of women than men at the previous Census. 

The differences, then, between the two age distributions are due to the peculiarities of the years 
which preceded each Census, and to the greater accuracy with which women and old people have been 
enumerated in the present Census. 

We come now to the important result of this comparison, viz., that it proves the population of these 

^ __ . Provinces has decreased. The age group for both sexes in which 

thepOTralatiwi to^vTdSreasei^ ^^^ enumeration should be most complete is the third decade ; there 

would be less omission of men and women between the ages of 20 
and 30 than in any other group. A comparison between the numbers of those returned at each 
Census will give more accurately the progress of the population than of any other group. We find 
that the males in this group are fewer at the present than at the previous Census, and that the females 
have increased only 1 per cent Since some fraction of increase must be due to greater accuracy of 
enumeration, larger in the case of females than males, we are led to the inference that there has been 
a decrease of the population between 20 and 30 since last Census. Any increase in the population 
above 30 must obviously be due to a decrease in the death-rate. But the death-rate as represented 
by the number of persons living in the third decade has been higher and not lower. The presump- 
tion, therefore, is strong that it has been higher in each of the decades above 30, and that conse- 
quently the population must be less than in 1872. Bdow 30 years of age there has been a great 
decrease in the numbers, and above that age there must have been a decrease also. Any increase 
would imply a decreased death-rate, and we find the death-rate, on the contrary, must have been 
higher. 

Our examination of the age tables therefore confirms that which we were to expect, an actual 
decrease in the population since the previous Census. 

EXTRACT FROM THE PUNJAB CENSUS REPORT. 
The Ages of the People. 
Introductory. — The subject of age, sex, and civil condition for the three are so intimately connected 
that they really form but one subject, is one which I have left almost to the last, and which I shall have 
to discuss very briefly. But this is of the less importance partly because the statistics are possessed of the 
very slightest administrative importance, partly because the matter is one which has been dealt with in 
great detail elsewhere, and still more because I think the figures afford an exceedingly unsatisfactory 
basis from which to draw any general conclusions. And this, I think, not so much because age statistics 
in India are notoriously inexact, as because I believe that the age statistics of this present Census in 
particular are wholly abnormal. Mr. Wilson writes : " The age given is of course only a very rough 
•' approximation. An old man would give his age as * 60 or 70,' and when told that he had been 
'* entered at 50, would say * 50 it is, let it stand ! ' Very few knew their age within 5 or 10 ynars." 

* I take the figures for Italy from the age table of Census, 1871, ooneoted by Professor Rameri, Lee Movimento 
deUo State Oevile. Roma, 1879. 

Aa 3 



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Uv 

This being the case — ^and I think the experience of all Punj&b officers would affirm the general truth 
of the remark — ^it might be argued that the age tables are simple waste paper. But I do not think 
so. It is extraordinary how largely errors due to mere chance have tended to neutralise one another 
if the numbers concerned are sufficiently large : and here we are dealing with many millions. 
Quetelet showed that the heights of soldiers in the French army, and many other as apparently 
irregular statistics, followed a regular law if a large number were taken ; and where no special causes 
are at work to induce mis-statement, I believe that our age tables, on the whole, affi)rd us a very 
fairly accurate representation of the general distribution by age of the Punjdb population at the time 
of the Census, though the more we descend to details and the smaller the number we deal with the 
less reliance can be placed on the figures. Probably such causes were at work in certain cases, and 
I shall attempt to indicate their nature and efiect. The general agreement of the figures given for 
the 32 separate districts in Supplementary Table of Appendix 0. is far greater than could possibly be 
the cafle were the statistics wholly or even to a great extent worthless. But even if the age of every 
soul living in the Punj&b at the time of the Census had been exactly ascertained and the figures 
tabulated with absolute accuracy, I believe that the results would have been very far from repre- 
senting the normal distribution by age of the population of the Province ; and I shall give my 
reasons for so thinking in the few paragraphs presently following. But there is one point to which I 
must refer before proceeding to the discussion of the figures. So far as I know tnere are no con- 
siderations of such weight that they can be supposed to have materially affected the figures, that 
should induce the wilful mis-statement of the age of a male. Such considerations do, however, exist 
in the case of females ; and I shall therefore take the male ages as my standard, and discussing them 
first compare the female ages with them afterwards, or as occasion may arise. I shall not attempt 
to institute any comparison between the present figures and that of the last Census. In 1868 they 
did not record ages in detail, but only distinguished children, youths, and adults ; and the %ures were 
admittedly imperfect and untrustworthy. 

Causes of Error in the Figures. — Before taking the actual numbers intiO consideration, I will 
point out some general causes of error which will partly explain the peculiarities of the figures, and 
to which I shall have to refer more or less frequently during their discussion. The Government of 
India, for 'reasons which were not explained, decided that everybody's age has to be counted from 
his last birthday, and that a child of one and a half years old has to be recorded as one year old. 
This is wholly opposed to the customs of the country, which is to count such a child as two years 
old ; and I have little doubt that the instructions were as a rule neglected, and that such children 
were very generally entered as of two years of age. If this had been consistently done throughout 
it will not have very materially affected the higher ages. But the rule forced us to record the age 
of children of under one year in months, and accordingly the enumerators were told to enter such 
ages in words, not figures, with the word *^ months " after the entry ; and their attention being thus 
specially directed to the point, they very generally followed the instructions. Thus while children 
of between one and two years were probably often shown as two years old, children of under one 
year old were generally shown correctly, and this unduly reduced the number shown as one year 
old. Again, errors probably occurred in abstracting the figures owing to the confusion between 
months and years ; but this would only reduce the numbers under one year and increase in nearly 
equal proportions all entries from one to 11 years of age. Thus so far I have only shown that 
some children who should have been entered as one year old were probably entered as two years old. 
Another cause of error, which only Mr, Wilson would appear to have detected, was the period 
that elapsed between the preliminary record and the final Census. That period may be taken at 
an average as 6\ weeks, or a tenth of a year. Now during that interval one tenth of the annual 
births must be supposed to have occurred, or, if anything, more, as the cold weather is the season 
for births ; similarly one tenth of the deaths occurred, or somewhat less, as the cold weather is 
healthy ; and finally, about one tenth of the numbers recorded in the preliminary record as being 
under any year of age attained that year and passed into the next Now where the preliminary 
record was corrected on the night of the Census those who had died in the interval were struck 
out ; those who had been born in the interval were added to the numbers under one year old ; but 
it may safely be asserted that not a single entry of age was altered, because the living had grown 
older since the preliminary record was made. Thus what we did was this. We struck out of the 
number recorded for each annual period of age all that had died during a tenth of a year ; but 
we did not add to those numbers the people who had passed into nor deduct the people who 
had passed out of that period during the same interval. Now, the population being practiciilly 
stationary, the excess of the numbers passing out of over those passing into any annual period of 
age during any year must be exactly equal to the number of deaths which annually take place in 
that period of age. In a word, we cut out the deaths for a tenth of a year, but did not allow for the 
progress of age which would have tilled up the vacancies caused by those deaths. Thus the result 
is that our numbers for each intermediate annual period of age are too small by one tenth of the 
annual mortality proper to that period. This error is generally small, though largest in the earlier 
years of infancy, when mortality is largest. But in the first year of life the error is very con- 
siderable. Here we did add all those who passed into the period by birth, and we cut out all the 
deaths ; but we did not deduct those who passed out of it by progress of age during a tenth of a 
year. Now, the population being taken as stationary, the number of children who annually pass 
out of the first into the second yenx of life is the same as the number of children of between one 
and two years of age at any time. Thus our figures for imder one year are too large by one tenth 
of the whole number of children between one and two years of age, that is to say, our figures for 
the first year are too large by 6 per cent, even if we take our recorded figures for the second year 
of life, which have just been shown to be far too small, and the excess is really probably something 



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Iv 



like 8 or 9 per cent. Similar oonsiderations will show that, since all persons passing out of the 
last period of life by progress of age, that is to say, dying, were duly struck out, our figures for 
that period are too large by one tenth of the number of persons between 60 and 61 years of age, 
and this correction again wiU be comparatively large.'** 

Another couse of error is the tendency of people who are uncertain about their exact age to 
state it in round numbers. A man who is somewhere about 50 years of age will say he is 50 years 
old and not 49 or 51. If he does not think he is quite so much he will say 45, but seldom 44 or 
46 ; but there is a far greater tendency to say 30, 40, 50 than 36, 45, or 65. Now the periods 
into which our ages are divided run thus— 40, 41, 42, 43, 44— 46, 46, 47, 48, 49—50, 51, 52, 53, 
54, and so on ; and the numbers shown for from 40 to 45 will, owing to the tendency just noted, 
be unduly raised at the expense of the number for from 45 to 50, and so on throughout. The 
same tendency has been noticed in England, where the following figures were obtained for ages at 
burial : — 





Age. 


Numbers. 


Age. 


Numbers. 


Age. 


Numbers. 






49 


8,940 


59 


9,899 


69 


12,913 






50 


12,443 


60 


16,186 


70 


20,974 






51 


7,607 


61 


9,860 


71 


12,538 





irenoa. 


Total, 
Males. 


PttSi. 


Total, 
Males. 


10-15 
16-80 

2&-ao 

80-86 


1.484,679 
1.098,197 
1,062AI9 
1.047,147 
1.042.678 


86-40 
40-46 
46-60 
60—65 
66-60 


026380 

801,047 
424,976 
607,607 
208,664 



The figures in the margin illustrate the effects of this tendency. The numbers for iBach succes- 
sive period should not only be smaller than those for the preceding one, but should also be smaller 

like a constant proportion, in the earlier periods where the 
age is better known, this is to some extent the case, the 
exception being the period of 25 — 30, which is apparently 
too large instead of too small, a fact which, I think, may be 
accounted for 25 years being a common age for a young man 
to give. But directly we reach higher ages where there is 
greater uncertainty, the numbers for the periods in even tens 
are enormously increased at the expense of those in even 
fives. The error can be almost eliminated by taking decades instead of centimes ; and since the 
greatest error is to return to an old example, at the even tens, the most accurate results will be 
obtained by taking our periods at 35 to 45, 45 to 55, and so on. But this breaks the continuity 
at the beginning and end of the series, and moreover Table VI. has been arranged by groups 
running firom 30 to 40, 40 to 50, and so forth. I shall therefore, when using ten-yearly periods, 
follow this arrangement 

I have consulted many judicial ofiicers of experience as to whether there is in their opinion any 
tendency to exaggerate or to understate their age among the natives, or whether they think that the 
mind is impartial in its inaccuracy. The weight of opinion seems to be that the aged have a very 
marked tendency to exaggerate their age, that middle aged females have some slight tendency, though 
not nearly so marked as among Europeans, to understate their age, and that there is no other 
tendency observable. 

Thus we arrive at the following probable or certain errors : — 

(1.) The numbers for between one and two years of age are probably too small owing to many 
children over one year of age being recorded as two years old, whereas children of under 
one year of age were not nearly so often recorded as one year old. 

* An argument of this sort which is perfectly clear to the writer so far often appears confused and dubious to the 
reader, that it is perhaps worth while to put the above reasoning into symbols. 
Let A n = the number of persons of n years of age at any time. 

X n = the annual dea&-rate for that period of age. 
Then, sinoe the persons of any year of age are the survivors of the preceding year, 
An = An — 1(1 — Xn — l)orAn — 1 — Xn = An — IXn— 1 

and A n (1 — X n) the number of persons who pass from n to n x 1 year of age during any year by progress of age. 
Now for the period of n year of age, the gain owing to the absence of adjustment of the ages of the preliminary 
record at the final Census, one tenth of a year later, is equal to the number of people who had passed from n to n x 1 
years during that period, and who should have been cut out, the loss is equal to the number of people who had 
passed from n — 1 to n years during that period, and who should have been brought in 

[asgain = Tii,[Ana-Xn)] 

loss = ^^ [An - 1 (1 - Xn - 1)] 

net lo8s = An — 1 (1 — Xn — 1) — An (1 — Xn). 

••• 10 

(An — 1 — An — An — IXnxlAnXn). 
- 10 

AnXn. 



- 10 
or one tenth of the annual mortality of that period. 

For the first period A o there is no loss ; and the gain is ^-j^ = ^r^ 

or a tenth of the children of between one and two years of age. 

A 60 
For the last period' there is no gain ; and the loss is A 59 (1 — X 59) = -^^- 

or one tenth of the people between 60 and 61 years of age. 

A a 4 



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(2.) The numbers for under one year of age are too large by some 6 to 8 per cent, owing to the 

interval between the preliminary record and the final Census. 
(Z.) The numbers for 60 and upwards are a good deal too small, owing to the same cause. 
(4.') The numbers for all intermediate periods are slightly too small, owing to the same cause. 
(5.) The numbers for such periods as 40 to 45 are much too large and those for such periods as 

45 50 mucji too small owing to the preference for round numbers, and this especially in 

the higher periods of age. The period of 25 to 30 is probably an exception. The error is 
nearly eliminated by taking ten-yearly periods. 
(6.) In the more advanced ages the age is probably greatly exaggerated, while in the medium 
periods for women the numbers are probably too small, and in the next earlier period 
correspondingly too large. 
The first Five Years of Life. — The total numbers of males returned for each of the first five years 
of life are shown in the margin, and the figures for the second lustnim are added 
for comparison with their total. The figures are very extraordinary. The 
children of each year of life can only be the survivors from among those of the 
next lower year : even supposing there to have been no deaths they can only 
equal and never exceed them ; and since children die every year at all ages, the 
number of children of any year of age must, supposing the birth and death-rates 
to remain constant, always be less than the number in the next earlier year. 
But our figures, after the first year, steadily increase instead of decreasing, and 
the number shown as between 5 and 10 years of age is actually greater than that 
under 5 years old. One would expect the statistics for the first few years of 
life to be far more accurate than those for the later periods, for there can hardly be any mistake 
about the age of a very young child. The small number shown as between one and two years of 
age is doubtless partly due to cause (1) stated previously, while the excess of the numbers for the 
second lustrum over those for the first may be due in part to five being taken as a good round 
number of years to give a child of about that age. But these considerations account for but a very 
small part of the difficulty. Are then the figures wholly inaccurate t The facts render such a 
conclusion impossible. We have in the Punjab 31 districts and 15 States, each of which contains 
more than 50,000 souls ; and in every single one of them 46 unit^, and even in many of the minor 
States, where the smallness of the figures render them less trustworthy, exactly the same phoenomenon 
is to be observed, though not always to the same extent The figures for each religion share it ; the 
fi<yures of Bengal and the North- West Provinces and I believe for Bombay exhibit the same pecu- 
liarity, and it is unquestionable that the figures, extraordinary as they seem, do represent the facts, at 
least in broad outline. It is obvious that a wave of infecundity has during the last few years swept 
over at least Northern India, and that the five years between 1876 and 1881 have seen a far smaller 
number of births than took place between 1871 and 1875. I have already given the facts regarding 
the health of the Province and the state of the crops for each year between 1868 and 1881, and I 
have drawn attention to the violent fluctuations which characterise the vital statistics of an Indian 
poi>ulation. The intimate connexion between a high death-rate and a low birth-rate, and the 

Absteact No. 108. 
Showing Age Figures and Death-rates firom 1875 to 1881 in Districts. 



Penod. 


Total 
Num tiers. 


0—1 
1—2 

4—6 


386,384 
2U.222 
267,217 
811,793 
3»7»814 


0—5 
6-10 


1,618,880 
l.«91,707 





each of the following Ages. 


Death-rates of the Provinoe in Per-oentages of the 
Average since 1868 for the following Tears. 




0- 


1- 


2— 


8- 


4- 


0-6. 


6—10. 


1880. 


1879. 


1878. 


1877. 


1876. 


1S75. 


Aver, 
age. 


Delhi - 

Gurff&on - - - 

KaniAl 


286 
808 
307 


146 
131 
142 


138 
101 
146 


191 
170 
214 


227 
226 
266 


989 

986 

1.064 


1316 
1360 
1306 


97 

79 
141 


203 
279 
219 


187 
284 
168 


74 
66 
78 


69 
69 

78 


86 
93 
78 


100 
100 
100 


HissAr - - - - 

BohtAk 

Sirsa . - - - 


328 
312 
888 


205 
165 
231 


181 
160 
226 


247 
226 
289 


273 

268 
290 


1.284 
1,121 
1,483 


1347 
1368 
1,282 


105 
118 
100 


221 
279 
182 


132 
154 
123 


68 

75 
78 


63 
71 
82 


86 
88 
105 


100 
100 
100 


Amb&la 

LiidhiAna - - - 

Simla - 


300 
838 
160 


137 

176 

01 


166 
189 
113 


216 
228 
127 


268 
266 
140 


1.081 

1,187 

680 


1,288 

1.880 

716 


126 
96 
141 


176 
126 
176 


121 
167 
124 


67 
81 
88 


118 
104 
106 


98 
86 
188 


100 
100 
100 


Jalandhar - - - 

HushyArpur - 

KAngra- - - • 


885 
20B 
226 


182 
136 
186 


168 
194 
209 


189 
286 
242 


102 
238 
251 


1,016 
1,097 
1,118 


1,865 
1.360 
1,338 


76 
90 
142 


108 
128 
183 


218 

128 

92 


73 
71 
83 


176 
161 
104 


87 
186 
108 


100 
100 
100 


AmritsAr 

Gurd&spur - • - 

SiAlkot 


884 
324 
871 


180 
164 
101 


197 

198 

^206 


241 
226 
245 


222 
235 
256 


1,197 
1,182 
1,268 


1,261 
1347 
1387 


91 

100 

86 


184 

126 

86 


141 

104 

86 


81 
76 
68 


128 
125 
148 


116 
160 
104 


100 
100 
100 


liahore - - - - 
Gujrtnw&Ia - 
Firozpur 


361 
348 
896 


208 
187 
238 


231 
222 
219 


251 
258 
241 


243 
262 
260 


1,292 
1,262 
1388 


1.256 
1388 
1361 


100 
117 
109 


182 
148 
124 


148 
148 
806 


87 

104 

76 


113 
187 
114 


100 

100 

86 


100 
100 
100 


Raw&lpindi • 
Jahlam- 
GiijrAt 
Shalipur 


260 
303 
368 
336 


ISO 
180 
204 
203 


829 

276 

242 

. 272 


294 
819 
276 
323 


846 
844 
827 
340 


1,267 
1.421 
1,406 
1,474 


1,486 
1328 
1355 
1,498 


128 
108 
160 
119 


258 
166 
156 
118 


142 
118 
146 
115 


81 
77 
90 
86 


73 
78 
110 

88 


77 
86 
80 
92 


100 
100 
100 
100 


Multto 

Jhang . - - . 

Montgomery 


814 
860 
340 


199 
216 
231 


268 

807 
806 


804 
336 
828 


806 
366 
817 


1386 
1374 
1380 


1,469 
1,600 
1,400 


109 
127 

87 


87 
87 
91 


122 
80 
130 


109 
87 
91 


180 
107 
100 


122 
180 
186 


100 
100 
IQO 


Muaaffargarh - - ■ 
Dchra IsmAil Khan 
Dt!hra Gbazi Khan - 
Bannu 


369 
27a 
843 

288 


163 
221 
18.1 
208 


262 
268 
263 
262 


299 
331 
828 
374 


829 
846 
86S 
370 


1,412 
1,488 
1.481 
1.487 


1.594 
1356 
1,608 
1,738 


182 
124 
128 
160 


109 
105 
100 
128 


141 
129 
129 
117 


109 

96 

100 

100 


109 

90 

121 

106 


88 
76 
88 
67 


100 
100 
100 
100 


PeghAwar • - ■ 

Hazara 

KobAt - 


222 
283 
236 


171 
168 
172 


238 
244 
269 


278 
297 
360 


314 
876 
866 


1,228 
1.367 
1.402 


1,445 
1,693 
1,600 


120 
94 
160 


160 
141 
167 


178 
147 
98 


78 
76 
67 


08 

100 
83 


87 
94 
76 


100 
100 
100 


British Territory - 


317 


175 


212 


257 


277 


1338 


1394 


108 


152 


144 


80 


112 


100 


100 




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extraordinary effect which disease, and still more distress, has in checking the natural fecundity 
of the population, have been dwelt upon year after year by the Sanitary Commissioner, who gave 
detailed statistics on the subject in his report for 1879; and the marvellous recuperative power 
exhibited by the people of India, and the manner in which as improving seasons restore plenty to 
the villages the l>irth-rate rises, the population increases and the gaps caused by years of death are 
more than filJed u]), have been subjects of frequent observation. There can be no doubt whatever 
that the late Census was taken at the end, as that of 1868 was taken at the beginning, of one of the 
periods of depression when the procreative energy of the people was at its lowest ; and that it is to 
this cause that we must refer the phenomenon under examination. The figures of Abstract No. 108 
in the previous paj^e show the proportion per 10,000 males recorded in each district for each of the 
first five years of life, their total, and the corresponding figures for the next lustrum ; and side by side 
with these figures they give the recorded death-rates per 1,000 for each year from 1876 to 1881 
expressed as per-centages on the average rate from 1868. 

The figures speak for themselves. The death-rates we know to be inaccurate^ especially in the 
west of the Punjdb. But we know that they are never in excess of the truth, and that though a 
slight annual increase is probably due to improved registration, yet that increase has been for many 
years very small, and that the relative figures comparing one year with another in the same district 
are probably very fairly accurate. If we were to take the male death-rates the result would be still 
more striking. The* death-rates, however, are not the only test ; distress from want is even more 
potent in checking births than actual disease. The trouble began in 1875 with a singularly unhealthy 
season, and in that year were begotten the children who were returned in February 1881 as between 
four and five years of age. The next year was still more unhealthy, especially in the hills and in the 
sub-montane and central and Jamna districts, and in that year the children between four and five 
were born and those between three and four begotten. In 1877 and 1878 there was something like 
famine in the east of the Punjdb combined with terrible fever and disease, while in 1879 and 1880 
the crops in the west were bad, while the health, in 1879 at least, was even more than in 1878, and 
the epidemic spread to the Salt-^nge districts. It was these years of famine when the children 

returned at the Census as between two and four were 
bom and those between one and three were begotten 
that did the evil work ; and an examination of the 
figures given above will show how far more they 
told upon the popiilation of the eastern districts 
where distress was most severe than upon that of 
the western portion of the Province, 
for Gurg&on, Karn^, Rohtak, and 
simply terrible. The table in the 
veniently Hummarises the results. The figures in 
the body of this small table show the number of 
males recorded for each of the first five years of 
life taking those under one year as 100 in each 
division. But the most significant figures are the 
years given at the top of the table, above the age 
Those years arc the years in which the children shown below were begotten. In the Delhi 



Dimion. 


1879. 


1878. 


1877. 


1876. 


1876. 














0—1. 


1—2. 


2-8. 


8-4. 


4-6. 


Delhi • 


100 


46 


42 


64 


78 


Hl884r . 


100 


68 


68 


74 


82 


Amb«a 


100 


48 


56 


71 


83 


J&landhar 


100 


42 


66 


77 


78 


AmritsAr 


100 


61 


69 


69 


69 


Lahore - - - 


1(K) 


67 


61 


67 


67 


Rawalpindi - 


100 


68 


82 


98 


111 


Mult&n - 


100 


58 


82 


92 


95 


Beraj&t 
Peshiwar 


100 


68 


88 


114 


110 


100 


69 


101 


122 


131) 


British Territory 


100 


66 


67 


81 


»8 


Native States- 


100 


69 


67 


81 


91 


ProTinoe - - - 


100 


57 


67 


81 


88 



The figures 
Amb&la 
margin 



are 
con- 



periods. 

and Hissdr divisions 



the efiect of 1877 was greatest^ and it was there that the famine was worst and 



its results would bo most immediately felt. In the central divisions the figures below 1878 are 
smallest, and thus it took two years of distress to produce the greatest effects. In the western divi- 
sion the figures below 1875 and 1876 are high, and those of 1877 as high as they would naturally 
be after deducting the infant deaths for three full years, and those for 1878 and 1879 are low ; and 
there the distress began in 1878 and was followed by disease in 1879. It must be remembered ihat 
while the Delhi figures show that for every 78 male children of between four and five years of age 
there are only 42 between two and three, it does not mean that children were born in those propor- 
tions in 1876 and 1878 respectively, but that the children born in 1876 was so numerous compared 
with those born in 1878 that where two years reduced the tables to 42, four years of life and death 
only reduced the former to 78 ; and so throughout. It will now be imderstood why I say that if 
we had absolutely accurate age statistics for the population of the Punjab as it stood on the Census 
night, they would be very far from presenting us with a fair representation of the normal distribution 
by age of the people. In fact, I do not believe that any single Census can give us such a represen- 
tation. A Census taken in 1871 would have presented the same features as the present one. The 
Census taken in 1868 would, had it given ages in detail, have erred in exactly the opposite direction, 
and shown an abnormally large proportion of very young children. In fact, it did show so large a 
proportion of children that the figiures were suspected of being wholly incorrect. The mortality in 
times of distress is so great and the decrease of fecundity so marked, that it is only by the most 
extraordinary fecundity where more favourable conditions recur that the population of the Punjab 
can increase at all ; and then the children come in waves, and not in a steady flow. By adding 
together the figures of successive enumerations, made under varying conditions and at difierent phases 
of the wave, we may neutralise the inequalities and obtain a standard set of age figures about which 
the population is ever oscillating. But no one set can be anything but exceptional ; and the set we 
have obtained at the present Census is perhaps unusually so. Thus we must dismiss the figures for 
the first five years of life as wholly abnormal, and remember that their total is very far smaller than 
it would be under ordinary circumstances, and more especially in the eastern districts. 

Punjdb Ages compared with European Standards, — Abstract No. 109 on the next page shows the 
male age figures for France, Italy, (j-reece, England, and the Punj&b side by side : — 
Y 5747. B b 



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Iviii 



Abstract Nq, 109. 
Showing Ages in Europe and the Punj&b, 





Age 
Period. 








Proportions 


per 10,000 of All Ages. 








Group. 




At Ages 


shown in 


Column 2 




Age 
Period. 


At and above Ages shown in Column 8. 




























France. 


Italy. 


Greece. 


England. 


Punjab. 




France. 


Italy. 


Greece. 


£ngland. 


Puiyab. 




0— 


991 


1,166 


1,226 


1,372 


1,228 


0— 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 




6— 


880 


1,101 


1,266 


1,207 


1,374 


5— 


9,009 


8,834 


8,774 


8,628 


8,772 




10— 


886 


1,016 


1,226 


1,091 


1,206 


10— 


8,129 


7,733 


7,508 


7,421 


7,398 




15— 


866 


873 


972 


977 


893 


15— 


7,243 


6,717 


6,282 


6,330 


6,192 




20— 


847 


868 


672 


892 


855 


20— 


6,377 


5,844 


5,310 


5,353 


5,299 




25— 


710 


763 


744 


788 


850 


25— 


5,530 


4,976 


4,638 


4,461 


4,444 


I.. 


BO- 


713 


711 


957 


684 


847 


30— 


4,820 


4,213 


3,894 


3,673 


3,594 




SS— 


691 


619 


754 


595 


508 


35— 


4,107 


3,502 


2,937 


2,989 


2,747 




40— 


649 


614 


626 


523 


650 


40— 


3,416 


2,883 


2,183 


2,894 


2,239 




45— 


602 


519 


487 


466 


345 


45— 


2,767 


2,269 


1,557 


1,871 


1,589 




50— 


543 


520 


260 


397 


493 


50— 


2,165 


1,750 


1,070 


1,405 


1,244 




55— 


474 


333 


288 


320 


169 


55— 


1,622 


1,230 


810 


1,008 


751 




60— 


1,198 


897 


622 


688 


582 


60— 


1,148 


897 


522 


688 


582 




0— 


991 


1,166 


1,226 


1,372 


1,228 




M and below Ages 


shown in 


Column 8 






5— 

Id- 


1,766 
1,713 


2,117 
1,741 


2,492 
1,644 


2,298 
1,869 


2,580 
1,748 


























II. 


as— 


1,423 


1,474 


2,701 


1,472 


1,697 


0— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




35— 


1,340 


1,233 


1,388 


1,118 


1,158 


5— 


991 


1,166 


1,226 


1,872 


1,228 




46— 


1,145 


1,039 


747 


863 


838 


10— 


1,871 


2,267 


2,492 


2,579 


2,602 




55— 


1,622 


1,230 


810 


1,008 


751 


15— 


2,757 


3,283 


3,718 


3,670 


3,808 
















20— 


3,623 


4,156 


4,690 


4,647 


4,701 
















25 — 


4,470 


5,024 


5,362 


5,539 


5,556 


« 


0— 


1,871 


2,267 


2,492 


2,579 


2,602 


30— 


6,180 


5,787 


6,106 


6,327 


6,406 




10— 


1,762 


1,889 


2,198 


2,068 


2,099 


35— 


5,893 


6,498 


7,063 


7,011 


7,253 




20— 


1,557 


1,631 


1,416 


1,680 


1,705 


40— 


6,584 


7,117 


7,817 


7,606 


7,761 


in- 


30— 


1,404 


1,330 


1,711 


1,279 


1,355 


45— 


7,233 


7,731 


8,448 


8,129 


8,411 




40— 


1,251 


1,133 


1,113 


989 


995 


SO— 


7,835 


8,250 


8,930 


8,595 


8,766 




50— 


1,017 


853 


548 


717 


662 


55— 


8,378 


8,770 


9,190 


8,992 


9,249 


>■ 


60— 


1,148 


897 


522 


688 


582 


60— 


8,852 


9,103 


9,478 


9,312 


9,418 


r 


0— 


2,757 


8,288 


3,718 


3,670 


8,808 










« 


J 


15— 


8,186 


8,215 


8,845 


3,341 


3,445 












85— 


2,485 


2,272 


2,127 


1,981 


1,996 












L 


55— 


1,622 


1,230 


810 


1,008 


751 












r 


0— 


991 


1,166 


1,226 


1,372 


1,228 






5— 


3,479 


8,858 


4,136 


4,167 


4,328 












V. 


25— 


2,763 


2,707 


3,081 


2,690 


2,865 














45— 


1,619 


1,372 


1,035 


1,183 


1,007 












- 


60— 


1,148 


897 


522 


688 


582 












r 


0— 


1,871 


2,267 


2,492 


2,579 


2,602 




v.| 


10— 


8,309 


8,520 


3,614 


3,748 


3,804 












SO- 


2,655 


2,468 


2,824 


2,268 


2,350 












I 


SO— 


2,165 


1,750 


1,070 


1,405 


1,244 












" 


0— 


8,623 


4,156 


4,690 


4,647 


4,701 




vu^ 


20— 


2,961 


2,961 


3,127 


2,959 


3,860 












40- 


2,268 


1,986 


1,661 


1,706 


1,657 














60— 


1,148 


897 


522 


688 


382 













The first group, arranged by five-yearly periods, is, as already explained, untrustworthy, the 
figures for England, and probably for the other countries also, except perhaps Greece, haying been 
corrected so as to remove errors due to carelessness and ignorance, while we have no trustworthy 
dates of births and deaths by which to correct the Punjab return in a similar manner. The first 
thing that strikes us on examining the figures is that the nature of the last five years has brought 
down the proportion of children under five years old far below the English figures, though it is still 
higher than in any of the other countries, Greece, however, almost rivalling it Notwithstanding 
this the greater longevity of the English than of the Punjab population and the larger proportion of 
children and smaller proportion of elderly people that distinguish the latter are very strongly marked. 
Since all the figures are proportional, those for the higher ages are unduly raised in the Punjdb by 
the abnormally small number of births during the last five years, while the same figures are much 
lower than they would be in England if no emigration took place. Notwithstanding this, and the 
tendency to exaggerate old age which has been corrected in the English but not in the Pimjfib 
figures, England shows one third as many again of people over 55 years as does the Punj&b, while 
her numbers between 5 and 15 years of age are more than 12 per cent, smaller than ours. The age 
of 10 divides the two populations in almost identical proportions, these being as nearly as possible 
26 per cent below and 74 per cent, above that age in each country. The turning point appears to 
be about the age of 35, up to which point we have lai^er, and after it smaller numbers than England. 



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Ux 



But the numbers between 15 and 25 are curiously smaller than they should be in the Punj&b. This 
is partly owing probably to the tendency of young men to return 26 as their age which has already 
been noticed, but it is probably also due in part to the effects of the famine of 1858-60. With 
France any comparison is impossible, the extraordinary longevity and infecundity of the French 
people placing them at the very opposite pole to those of the Punj&b ; and the population of Italy 
would appear to occupy a curiously intermediate position between those of France and England in 
the matter of distribution by age. The Greek people approach far more nearly than any other to 
those of the Punj&b^ the figures following each other even in many of ihe abnormal variations. But 
even here we seem to have a slightly larger proportion of young and smaller of old people. Thus 
the characteristics of the Punj&b population as judged by European standards would appear to be a 
large proportion of births and high mortality. The further discussion of these points I shall reserve 
till I have examined the figures by locality and religion. 

Abstract No. 110, 
Showing Distribution by Age of every 10,000 Males for Divisions. 

PROPOBTION PEE 10,000 MALES OF ALL AGES. 



Group. 


Ages. 


Pro- 
vince. 


Native 
States. 


British 
Terri- 
tory. 


Delhi. 


Hissar. 


Ambala. 


Jalan- 
dhar. 


Amrit- 
sdr. 


Lahore. 


Ilawil- 
pindi. 


Moltin. 


Deraj&t. 


Peshi- 
war. 


I- 


0— 

1— 

2— 
8— 

4— 


813 
179 
209 
253 
274 


291 
199 
194 
236 
268 


317 
172 
212 
257 
277 


300 
140 
128 
192 
236 


333 

193 
177 
246 
274 


809 
149 
173 
217 
257 


289 
149 
190 
222 
225 


345 

176 
206 
239 
238 


368 
209 
225 
248 
248 


305 
177 
250 
299 
839 


344 
204 
281 
316 
325 


800 
204 
265 
842 
359 


245 
170 
246 
299 
341 


II. 


0- 
5— 
10— 
15- 
20— 
25— 
BO- 
40— 
46— 
50— 
55— 
60— 


1,228 
1,874 
1,206 
893 
855 
850 
847 
508 
650 
345 
493 
169 
582 


1,183 
1,278 
1,145 
910 
889 
862 
851 
521 
678 
368 
530 
190 
595 


1,238 
1,396 
1,818 
888 
848 
848' 
846 
505 
644 
340 
485 
165 
579 


996 
1,293 
1,310 
995 
989 
962 
854 
499 
653 
337 
501 
156 
455 


1,223 
. 1,261 

1,185 
956 

1,008 
860 
808 
492 
620 
367 
515 
193 
506 


1,105 
1,286 
1,220 
980 
959 
912 
821 
490 
669 
356 
495 
173 
534 


1,075 
1,350 
1,304 
953 
833 
885 
823 
597 
622 
379 
464 
174 
541 


1,204 
1,330 
1,325 
908 
777 
836 
831 
527 
670 
351 
487 
172 
582 


1,298 
1,324 
1,238 
929 
845 
816 
782 
496 
603 
862 
474 
204 
629 


1,370 
1,516 
1,159 
801 
772 
791 
844 
502 
593 
334 
471 
169 
678 


1,470 
1,525 
1,096 
738 
731 
774 
848 
472 
685 
324 
526 
133 
678 


1,470 
1,526 
1,046 
705 
741 
775 
939 
470 
706 
299 
502 
139 
582 


1,800 
1,55S 

1,130 
827 
899 
858 

1,019 
430 
676 
228 
437 
95 
549 


Ill- 


0— 
5— 
15— 
25— 
35— 
45— 
55— 


1^28 
2,580 
1,748. 
1,697 
1,158 
838 
751 


1,183 
2,423 
1,799 
1,713 
1,199 
898 
785 


1,238 
2,614 
1,736 
1,694 
1,149 
825 
744 


996 
2,603 
1,984 
1,816 
1,152 
838 
611 


1,223 
2,446 
1,964 
1,674 
1,112 
882 
699 


1,105 
2,506 
1,939 
1,733 
1,159 
851 
707 


1,075 
2,654 
1,786 
1,708 
1,219 
843 
715 


1,204 
2,655 
1,685 
1,667 
1,197 
838 
754 


1,298 
2,562 
1,774 
1,598 
1,099 
836 
833 


1,370 
2,675 
1,573 
1,635 
1,095 
805 
847 


1,470 
2,621 
1,469 
1,622 
1,157 
850 
811 


1,470 
2,672 
1,446 
1,714 
1,176 
801 
721 


1,800 
2,682 
1,726 
1,877 
1,106 
665 
644 


IV. 


0— 
10— 
20— 
30— 
40— 
50— 
60— 


2,602 

2,099 

1,705 

1,355 

995 

662 

582 


2,461 
2,055 
1,751 
1,372 
1,046 
720 
595 


2,634 

2,106 

1,696 

1,351 

984 

650 

579 


2,289 

2,305 

1,951 

1,353 

990 

657 

455 


2,484 

2,141 

1,874 

1,300 

987 

708 

506 


2,391 
2,200 
1,871 
1,311 
1,025 
668 
534 


2,425 
2,257 
1,718 
1,420 
1,001 
638 
541 


2,534 
2,233 
1,613 
1,358 
1,021 
659 
582 


2,622 

2,167 

1,661 

1,278 

965 

678 

629 


2,886 

1,960 

1,568 

1,346 

927 

640 

678 


2,995 
1,834 
1,505 
1,320 
1,009 
659 
678 


3,096 
1,761 
1,516 
1,409 
1,005 
641 
582 


2,852 

1,957 

1,767 

1,449 

904 

632 

649 


V- 


0— 
15— 
35— 
55— 


3,808 

8,445 

1,996 

751 


3,606 

3,512 

2,097 

785 


3,852 
3,430 
1,974 

744 


8,599 

8,800 

1,990 

611 


3,669 

3,638 

1,994 

699 


3,611 

3,672 

2,010 

707 


3,729 

3,494 

2,062 

715 


3,859 

3,352 

2,035 

754 


3,860 

3,372 

1,935 

8S3 


4,045 

3,208 

1,900 

847 


4,091 

3,091 

2,007 

811 


4,142 

8,160 

1,977 

721 


8,982 

8,603 

1,771 

644 


VI. 


0— 
5— 

25— 
45— 
60— 


1,228 
4,828 
2,855 
1,008 
582 


1,183 
4,222 
2,912 
1,088 
595 


1,238 

4,350 

2,843 

990 

579 


996 

4,587 

2,968 

994 

455 


1,223 
4,410 
2,786 
1,075 
506 


1,105 
4,445 
2,892 
1,024 
534 


1,075 
4,440 
2,927 
1,017 
541 


1,204 
4,340 
2,864 
1,010 
582 


1,298 
4,886 
2,697 
1,040 
629 


1,370 

4,248 

2,720 

974 

678 


1,470 

4,090 

2,779 

983 

678 


1,470 

4,118 

2,890 

940 

582 


1,300 

4,408 

2,983 

760 

649 


vnJ 


0— 
10— 

so- 
so— 


2,602 
3,804 
2,350 
1,244 


2,461 
3,806 
2,418 
1,315 


2,634 
3,802 
2,335 
1,229 


2,289 
4,256 
2,343 
1,112 


2,484 
4,015 
2,287 
1,214 


2,391 
4,071 
2,336 
1,202 


2,425 
3,975 
2,421 
1,179 


2,534 
3,846 
2,379 
1,241 


2,622 2,886 
3,828 3,523 
2,243 2,273 
1,307 1,318 


2,995 
3,339 
2,329 
1,337 


3,096» 
8,267 
2,414 
1,223 


2,852 
3,714 
2,358 
1,081 


vmJ 


0— 
20— 
40— 
60— 


4,701 

3,060 

1,657 

582 


4,516 

3,123 

1,766 

599 


4,740 

3,047 

1,634 

579 


4,594 

3,304 

1,647 

455 


4,625 

3,174 

1,695 

506 


4,591 

3,182 

1,693 

534 


4,682 

3,138 

1,639 

541 


4,767 

2,971 

1,680 

582 


4,789 

2,939 

1,643 

629 


4,846 

2,909 

1,567 

678 


4,829 

2,825 

1,668 

678 


4,847 

2,925 

1,646 

582 


4,809 

3,206 

1,436 

649 



* Written in original 9,096, bat most be an error for 3,096. 

Bb 2 



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Ix 

Age Statistics for different parts of the Promnce. — Abstract No. 110, p. lix, gives the male age 
figures for each division in the Province. 

Passing over the first five years which have already been discussed, we notice that those between 6 
and 10 are more numerous in the central than in the eastern and in the western than in the central 
divisions, the highest proportion being in the Derajit. Adding to these children under five, the dis- 
proportion becomes so enormous that it is difficult to compare the fif];ures. When 31 per cent, are 
nnder 10 years of ago in the Derajat and only 23 per cent, in the Delhi Division, all the other per- 
centages of the former division should have 12 per cent, added on to them before they can properly 
be compared with those of the latter. Notwithstanding this, the per-centage of old people follows 
exactly the same order, being greatest in the western and smallest in the eastern division, and 
between the two in the central division. Both the oldest and the youngest following the same rale, 
it is not to be wondered at that in the intermediate fiirures the order is rever.^ed by ihere force of the 
properties of numi)ers. Yet a distinction is to be observed. From 15 to 25 or 30 the eastern 
divisions show the. largest and the western the smallest numbers, but after 25, and still more markedly 
after 30, the western divisions come first, notwithstanding the way they have to make up owing to 
their excessive number of children. The central divisions occupy an intermediate position almost 
throughout the table. I am sorry that I did not distribute the popidation of eacli age proportionally 
over the districts of the Province and then divided the figures by the total population of each 
district. This would have given us a far more just idea of the age distribution of the population, 
as the figures for each age would then have been independent. Unfortunately the difficulty of 
comparison which the disproportion in the numbers of young children creates did not occur to me till 
I came to examine the figures ; and it was then too late to prepare a new set. 

Turning to districts and taking the figures for ten-yearly periods, we notice the very large numbers 
both of children under 10 and of old men over 60 in HissAr and Sirsa, and Liidhi&na among the 
eastern, and in Sidlkot and Gujranwala among the central districts, and the large number of children 
in Firozpur; while among the western districts the children and old men are in defect in Montgo- 
mery, still more in Muzaffargarh, and most of all in Multdu. The manner in which the number of 
young children and old men vary together throughout both districts and divisions is most marked, and 
seems to show that the two are affected by similar climatic influences. The figures for Peshawar, 
Bdwalpindi, Jahlam, and Dera Ism^ are distorted by the large number of immigrants of middle age ; 
while no doubt a similar cause affects the figures for all the districts which contain large cantonments. 
Turning to the Native States we find the same broad features, though here the population are often 
too small for the figures to be worth much. The number of children is greatest in Faridkot and 
Bahdwalpur, and extraordinarily small in the hill StJites excepting the high mountain tracts of 
Chamba and Bashahr ; while the proportion of old people is less high in the central States of the 
Eastern Plains and extraordinarily high in the hills. 

Summing up, we may say that in the great Western Plains the people are both more fecund and 
lon^^er lived than in the eastern districts, and therefore must increase with far greater rapidity ; while 
the central districts occupy an intermediate position. OK the western districts those which have the 
most plentiful canal irrigation are most unfavourable both in fecundity and long life ; while in the 
centre and east of the Punjab the districts and States which consist of open unirrigated plains are 
most favourable to longevity, though they share with their neighbours that liability to periodical 
famine which is such an effective check upon increase of population. In the hills the birth-rates seem 
exceedingly low excej)t in the highest part ; but on the other hand the population is exceedingly long 
lived. These conclusions must be taken for what they are worth. The figures upon which they arc 
based arc known to be utterly inaccurate in detail. But the numbers dealt with are large, the results 
coincide with the known facts regarding* increase of population: and above all the figures show a 
most extraordinary regularity when carefully examined. As they stand in the tahles they seem a 
mass of irregularity. But if ten-yearly periods be taken instead of five-yearly, and the figures 
examined item by item as I have examined them, not only will it be found that the apparent 
discrepancies can almost always be accounted for, but thac the figures present the same characteristics 
in districts in which the conditions of life are similar, and this to a degree which has surprised me. I 
sat down to the examination of the age statistics feeling that my time would be wasted. I rose from 
it with the highest respect for them. Of course they are inaccurate. So are the Census figmres of 
all countries. In England they do not even publish in any detail the age figures as recorded, but 
doctor them, sometimes to the extent of 5 per cent, before using or printing them.* And our figures 
are infinitely more inaccurate than theirs. But, taken in large numbers, I believe that they are a very 
fair and useful approximation to the actual fact''. 

A^je Statistics for different Religions, — The age statistics for the different religions for each division 
in the Province may be summarised thus : — 



* See Census Beport of England and Wales, 1871, Vol. IV., p. 46, and XL 



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Abstract No. 111. 
Showing Age Statistics for the Males of each Religion. 





Religion. 


0— 


10— 


20— 


30— 


40— 


50— 


60— 


Average. 


Province '{ 


Hindoo - - - - 

8ikh 

Jain - - - - 
Buddhist - - - - 


2,409 

2,398 
2,267 
1,889 
2,799 


2,157 
2,098 
2.134 
1,567 
2,056 


1,819 
1,724 
1,952 
1,515 
1,594 


1,885 
1,816 
1,331 
1,955 
1,333 


1,025 
1,081 
1,143 
1,165 
966 


6,726 
772 
734 
919 
640 


533 
661 
439 
990 
612 


10,000 
10,000 
10,(00 
10,000 
10,000 


Delhi r 
Division. \ 


Hindoo - - - - 
Musalman ... 


2,262 

2,387 


2,303 
2,350 


1,976 
1,867 


1,354 
1,808 


1,003 
947 


655 
662 


447 
479 


10,000 
10,000 


Hissir r 
Division. \ 


Hindoo - - - . 
Masalm&n ... 


2,415 
2.687 


2,152 
2,099 


1,903 
1,781 


1,319 
1,244 


1,011 
916 


717 
683 


483 
590 


10,000 
10,000 


Amritsir 
Division. ] 


Hindoo - - * - 

Sikh 

Musalman 


2,523 
2,332 
2,592 


2,200 
2,039 
2,805 


1,672 
1,581 
1,573 


1,401 
1,373 
1,326 


1,032 

1,106 

995 


636 
825 
634 


536 
744 
575 


10,000 
10,000 
10,000 


Molt&n r 
Division. \ 


Hindoo - - ., . 
Musalman- . . - 


2,785 
3,065 


1,887 
1,824 


1,702 
1,448 


1,878 
1,804 


1,046 
1,000 


676 
656 


576 
708 


10,000 
10,000 



The first group of figures are the figures for the Province. But they alone would tell tis little, for 
vital statistics are so largely influenced by climatic conditions, and the religions of the Province are so 
locally distributed, that it would be impossible from those totals only to say how far the discrepancies 
observable are due to physical and how far to social causes. Our only hope of thus discriminating 
between the two classes of agents at work lies in taking parts of the Province where the members of 
the several religions exist under as divine conditions aa possible, and inquiring how far the dis- 
crepancies are persistent I have chosen Delhi where most of the Musahndns live in towns, His^ar 
the most Hindoo of our divisions, but where the Musalm&ns are largely villagers, Amrits&r where the 
three religions arc more evenly balanced than in any other division, and Mult&n almost exclusively 
Musalmin, with its Hindoo population wholly confined to the towns. The proportion of children is 
smallest among Buddhiets ; but this is apparently due to the extraordinary longevity of the hill 
population which has already been remarked the proportion of persons of over 50 years of a^e beiuix 
more than half as large again among Buddhists as amon^ either Hindoos or Musalmdns. 'Kie Jain^ 
have the next smallest proportion of children and a smaller proportion of old men than any other 
religion. But this is chiefly due to their being found almost entirely in the east and chiefly in the 
Delhi Division ; for their numbers do not compare so unfavourably with the Hindoos of Delhi and 
Hissdr. The small difference there is perhaps due to the unhealthy life led by the mercantile 
classes to which almost all the Jains belong. They arc found only in cities and large vilWes, and sit 
in their shops from dawn till sunset. Oa the other hand, thoy seldom suff^er from want. Perhaps the 
fact that the Jain Bhdbras are not allowed by tribal custom to take a second wife, even though the 
first should prove barren, may have some small eftect upon the figurei?. After the Jains come the 
Sikhs, with a slightly lower per-centage of children than the Hindoos and a much lower one than the 
Musalmdns, but with a very much larger proportion of old men than either. P»ut to compare them 
fiiirly we must take the figures for the Amritsdr division, for climate conditions will affect the totals 
for the Sikhs, Hindoos, and Musalmdns, who are chiefly found in the centre, east, and west of the 
Province respectively. Here, however, the diflTerence between Hindoos and Sikhs is still more 
marked, though that between Sikhs and Musalmins is less than in the totals. But the smaller 
proportion of children among Sikhs is chiefly due to the larger proportion of aged. Of the population 
of the Amrits&r Division under 50 years of age 27*7 is les9 than 10 years old among Sikhs, 28-6 
among Hindoos, and 29*5 among Musalmaiis; and the fissures become respectively 31*9, 32-3, and 
33*3, if only the population below 40 years old be taken. Thus the birth-rate of Sikhs appears to be 
slightly lower but the longevity markedly greater than among either of the two great religions. This 
ishardly to be wondered at. The Hindoo population includes almost all the mercantile classes whose 
unhealthy life has just been described, and most of the outcasts, many of whom live a hand-to-mouth 
existence of the most unhealthy nature, while the Musalmins include a considerable proj)ortion of 
artizans who lead a purely sedentary life, and in the city (»f Amritsir itself comprises the Kas«hmiri 
shawl weavers, perhaps the poorest community in the Punjdb. The Sikhs on the other hand are the 
picked peasantry of the Province, almost wholly agriculturists, and as a class exceedingly well-to-do. 
Their physique is notoriously fine, and their longevity is, I think, to be ascribed to these iacts, rather 
than to any social or religious diflTerences. 

There remains to be compared the Hindoos and Musalmans. In the figures for the Province 
the Hindoos are far behind their rivals both in respect of fecundity and also, though not nearly so 
markedly, in that of longevity. But this, as already explained, proves nothing. In the Delhi antl 
Hifls&r Divisions the same differences occur, but far less markedly ; in the Amrits&r Division the figures 
for the two religions correspond almost exactly, though the slight difiference is still in favour of the 
Musalm&iB ; while in the Mult&n Division the figures for Musalmdns are very markedly more 
favourable in regard of both fecundity and longevity than those for Hindoos. Now I have already 
remarked that Uie Hindoo population includes almost all the mercantile classes who, though freie 

B b 3 



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Ixii 

from want^ lead a wholly sedentary life. There are verj^few of those classes among the Musahn&ns. 
Again^ the great majority of those vagrant and gipsy tribes who live almost like the jackals they feed 
on, wandering about from place to place with no shelter against the sun or rain beyond such rnde 
grass huts as they can make in an hour or two, living almost by chance, and of);en exposed to dire 
distress, are classed as Hindoos. So, too, are all the outcast menials, who eat carrion and the flesh of 
diseased animals, and are generally, excepting perhaps the Cham4r, extremely poor. The number of 
such persons included among Musalm&ns is comparatively quite insignificant. In Anmts&r, the only 
division where the two religions meet on an equality, there is practically no difference between the two 
sets of figures ; and, on the whole, I am inclined to think that the considerations I have just 
enumerated have far more to do with the difference which the figures disclose than any distinctive 
customs, whether social or religious. The Musalm&ns of the Delhi Division consist very largely of the 
well-to-do classes ; in Hissdr, too, this is very much the case, though perhaps not so markedly as in 
Delhi. The Mult^ figures are the most difficult to explain ; and I should be inclined to attribute 
the difference to the fact that Hindoos marry, on the whole, at an earlier age than Musalm&ns. This 
is true also of the last and centre of the Province ; but there the marriage in both cases takes place 
so early that cohabitation does not immediately follow upon it, and is probably not deferred to a later 
age among Musalmdns than among Hindoos ; while in Mult^ a Hindoo girl will marry at 15 and a 
Musalm&n at 20, and both will go to live with their husbands at once. But this is a mere 
suggestion. 

Thus we may conclude from our figures that on the whole there is but little evidence of differences 
of religion having any great effect upon the vital statistics ; that the Sikhs, the picked men of the 
Province, combine great longevity with normal fecundity ; that the Buddhists owe their long lives to 
the mountain life they lead, ana the Jains their short life to their sedentary habits : while the 
inferiority of the Hindoo to the Musalm&n is largely due to the unfavourable condition of life in the 
mercantile and outcast sections and the lower strata of the Hindoo population, though perhaps the 
earlier age at which they marry has some effect upon the figures. 

I believe that the age figures for females are far less accurate than those for males ; for here 
deliberate nus-statement comes into play, and as its tendency is wholly in one direction no largeness 
of numbers will neutralise the error. Several officers note the difficulty experienced in inducing the 
people to state the exact ages of their females, especially of the younger women ; and this difficulty 
was apparently experienced in all parts of the Province. But it was not confined to the younger 
women only; there was a strong objection in many places to giving any information at all about any 
woman whatever. Abstract No. 112 below shows the distribution of males and females of all ages by 
decades side by side for the whole Province, each religion, and the divisions already selected as 
typical, with the addition of Peshdwar."*^ 

Abstract No. 112. 
Showing Male and Female Age Figures compared. 



— 


— 


0— 


10— 


20— 


80— 


40— 


50— 


60— 


Total. 


f 


Proyince. -f 


Males - 

Females - - - 


2,604 
2,746 


2,099 
1,907 


1,704 
1,790 


1,354 
1,358 


995 ' 
1,013 


662 
614 


582 
572 


10,000 
10,000 


\ 


Hindoos, -f 

L 


Males 

Females - - . 


2,409 
2,576 


2,157 
1,947 


1,819 
1,868 


1,385 
1,379 


1,025 
1,034 


672 
633 


533 
563 


10,000 
10,000 


Sikhs. { 


Males 

Females - . - 


2,398 
2,490 


2,098 
1,874 


1,728 
1,864 


1,315 
1,359 


1,081 
1,079 


772 

708 


661 
626 


10,000 
10,000 


1 

.2 


Musalmans. \ 


Males 

Females - - - 


2,799 
2,916 


2,056 
1,880 


1,594 
1,720 


1,338 
1,842 


966 
986 


640 
585 


612 
571 


10,000 
10,000 


o 

X 


Delhi r 
Diyision. \ 


Mfdes 

Females - - - 


2,290 
2,349 


2,304 
2,064 


1,951 
1,981 


1,353 
1,873 


990 
1,054 


657 
669 


455 
510 


10,000 
10,000 


Hisfiir r 
Diyision. ' ^ 


Males 

Females ... 


2,485 
2,655 


2,140 
1,943 


1,874 
1,878 


1,300 
1,316 


987 
1,004 


708 
645 


506 
559 


10,000 
10,000 


1 


Amritsfo- f 
Division. \ 


Males 

Females - - - 


2,534 
2,623 


2,233 
2,011 


1,613 
1,787 


1,358 
1,374 


1,021 
1,029 


659 
610 


582 
566 


10.000 
10,000 




MnltAn ' 
Division. 


Males 

Females - - - - 


2,996 
8,247 


1,833 . 
1,676 


1,505 
1,644 


1,320 
1,304 


1,009 
980 


659 
544 


678 
605 


10,000 
10,000 




Peshawar f 
Division. \ 


Males .... 
Females - 


2,853 
3,125 


1,966 

1,758 


1,757 
1,789 


1,449 
1,387 


904 
925 


532 
509 


549 
507 


10,000 
10,000 



* It is perhaps worth while saying that wherever districts and divisionB have been selected as typical, the seleo- 
tion has been nuide before the figures had been examined, so that it has been inflnenoed by no bias, either oonscious 



or imconsciouB. 



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Ixiii 



The first point worthy of note is the smaller majority of women in comparison with men. For 
the Province the number of women of over 60 years old per 10,000 of all ages is only 1,186, while 
the corresponding figures for males is 1,244. This disproportion is observable in every religion and 
in all the selected divisions except Delhi ; but it is very slight in the Hiss&r Division and among 
Hindoos generally. The general result is hardly to be wondered at. Women in this country lead a 
life either of unceasing toil or of unwholesome seclusion ; and added to this, they marry without 
exception, and receive no skilled care in the perils of childbirth. On the other hand, the men, 
though they, too, commonly lead a laborious life, are exposed to none of those special perils which 
render male so much worse than female life in English statistics. The dangers oi mines and 
machineries, of crowded streets, of ships and railways, and of a thousand other incidents of civilisation 
which imperil men rather than women in the west, are unknown to the males of the Punjdb, and in 
almost all points of difference between the sexes in this country, the woman has the worst of it 
Why the difference should be so much smaller among Hindoos than among the other religions, and in 
the east than in the west, it is very difficult to say. If it were due to any social custom, such as that 
of early marriage, which indeed one expects to produce precisely the opposite result, the Sikh figures 
would probably show the same features. I can only suggest that the difference may be due to the 
effects of the late distress, which was really severe only in the eastern or Hindoo portions of the 
Province, and most severe in the Delhi Division. We should expect the aged to die first in seasons 
of scarcity ; and we known that the effect of privation is far more fatal with males than with females. 
In the distress of 1877-78 the number of deaths per mille among adults admitted to the poor houses 
of the North- West Provinces was 82 '0 among males and only 43*1 among females; and Surgeon- 
General Townsend tells me that the disproportion was even far more marked in those months during 
which distress was most severe. 

Turning to the other end of the scale, we find that the proportion of females under 10 years of age 
is atoay^ larger, the proportion between 10 and 20 years old always smaller, and that between 20 
and 30 always larger than that of males ; the proportion between 10 and 20 years old is always 
smaller for females than for males, and the proportion between 20 and 30 always larger, Taking 
larger periods, we find that the proportion of women under 20 years old is always smaller than that 
of men, except in the Mult^n and Peshdwar Divisions, where it is large ; and that under 30 years old 
the figures for females are almost identical with those for males, being very slightly in excess of 
those for males in all cases except in the Delhi and Hissdr Divisions, where they are smaller. This 
last difference is not larger than would be due to the greater longevity of females in Delhi and Hissdr 
and their smaller longevity in the other divisions ; and we may take it that the proportion of females 
and males under 30 is practically identical. But within that period their distribution varies im- 
mensely. The fiures of Abstract No. 113 below show this distribution more clearly. Here the 
total number under 30 years of age is taken as 1,000 in each case. 

Abstract No. 113, 
Showing Distribution by Age of Males and Females under 30 years old. 





Province. 


Hindoo. 


Sikh. 


Miisalman. 


Molt&ni Mfi^linl^.n, 


Age Period. 












































Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


0—5 - 


192 


213 


176 
201 


198 
205 


189 


208 


206 


227 


237 


261 


5—10 


215 
189 


213 
164 


196 
186 


192 
165 


228 

188 


221 
161 


247 
173 


239 


10—15 . 


190 


166 


147 


15—20 


189 


182 


148 


138 


151 


186 


181 


127 


114 


107 


20—25 - 


188 


142 


144 


150 


142 


151 


128 


135 


111 


121 


25—30 


132 


136 


141 


143 


136 


148 


125 


129 


118 


125 


Total 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


0—5 


192 


213 


176 


198 


189 


208 


205 


227 


237 


261 


0— 10 


407 


426 


377 

567 


403 
569 


885 


400 


433 


448 


484 


500 


0^15 - 


596 
735 


590 
722 


571 
722 


565 
701 


621 
752 


609 
736 


657 
771 


647 


0—20 


715 


707 


754 


0—25 - 


868 


864 


859 


857 


864 


852 


875 


871 


882 


875 


0— SO 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1.000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 



The thick lines show the point at which the figures for males cease to exceed those for females. It will 
be observed that in the groups from 10 to 15 and from 15 to 20 years of age the Hindoo females are 
fewer than the males, while in all other religions they are also fewer in the group between 5 and 10 
years old. Now this is the nubile age for women in the Punj&b, that is to say, the age at which 
parents and husbands object to give the age of their girls ; and there can be no doubt whatever that tlie 

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figures for these agee are under the truth. The important question is. Have the women been omitted 
altogether i'rom enumeration, or have their siges merely been wrongly returned ? Now the fact that the 
proportion of females under 30 years of age is slightly in excess of that of males is in itself a strong 
argument that they have not been omitteil. In tlie Province on a whole the proportion per 10,000 of 
all ages is 6,443 for females and 6,401 for males. And when in addition to this we find that the pro- 
portions in the earlier ages are far larger for females than for malet?, although we know that male births 
exceed female, It seems to me almost ])roved that the girls have been enumerated, and that the only 
error is in the returns of their age. Why the Hindoos alone should show more girls than boys pro- 
portionately between 5 and 10 years of age I do not know, hut the difference in all cases is exceed- 
ingly slight, the prejudice only beginning to operate at about 8 or 9 years of age. It is noticeable 
that the age must have been overstated in some cases ; but this again is natural, as it is only during 
the earlier years of womanhood that there is an objection to discuss the age of females. Thus we 
may draw the following conclusion from our female age statistics ; that women are distinctly shorter 
lived than men, and that the age of females between 10 and 20 years of age is understated in very 
many, and overstated in some few instances. 

T/ie effects of early Marriage, — It has been suggested that the custom of early marriage so pre- 
vulent in India accounts for the large proportion of children ; and at the Census of 1868 Mr. Elmslie 
brought forward arguments and figured illustrations to show that the earlier the customary period of 
marriage, the larger must be the proportion of children, other things being equal. These arguments, 
together with a remark of a similar tendency by Mr. J. W. Smyth, were endorsed and published in 
the Report Now if the conclusion thus arrived at were true, we should expect to find a much 
larger proportion of children among Hindoos than among Musalm&ns, and in the eastern than in the 
western districts, marriages being notoriously earlier in the former than in the latter cases. But it 
has already been shown that the actual facts arc precisely the reverse, children being fewest among 
Musalm&ns and in the western districts : and though I have given ray reasons for thinking that 
difference in social customs has not very much to do with the disproportion, yet I have also been 
driven to suggest that the early marriages among Hindoos decrease rather than increase the proportion 
of children. This suggestion, however, is based upon injury to the mother and consequent increase 
of female mortality, and is apart from Mr. Elmslie's argument, vvhich I now proceed to discuss. 

It seems to me that, ffiven that the average number of children born by each woman and the rates 
of mortality are identical, the stage in the life of the mother at which those children are born, whether 
early or late, will not affect the proportion of children to adults. I speak with great diffidence 
These actuarial matters cannot be discussed with any certainty without training of a very special 
nature ; for in no other class of questions is the path of error so broad and easy, or what seems 
obviously true so certain to be false, unless it be perhaps in questions of political economy. It appears 
to me, however, that Mr. Elmslie's illustration was incomplete. What lie did was to put two sets of 
women, with the necessary complement of husbands, on two desert islands, and then take their 
Census before the first generation eveq had had time to die, and compare the results. If he had 
waited till his populations had, as an engineer would call it, '^ got into train," his conclusions would I 
think, have been different. 

A stream of population in train may be considered as composed of a series of successive generations^ 
each enjoying the same average length of life, supposing mortality to be constant, and the number 
of people in each bearing a constant ratio to the number in that which immediately preceded it, 
supposing fecundity to be constant. If the children are born at an early stage in the life of the 
parental generation, the generations will succeed each other at shorter intervals, and the number of 
generations alive at the same moment will be greater ; if at a later stage, the interval between two 
successive generations will be greater, and the number of contemporary generations smaller. But 
8up[)0sing birth and death rates to be constant, the proportion of children to adults will not vary. I 
will illustrate the argument by the following diagram : — 




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Ixv 

Here A M N B, A' M N B' are two streams of population in full train ; all horizontal lines repre- 
sent generations and all vertical lines represent moments of time, so that a vertical line cuts all the 
generations alive and on any given day at the respective stages of their lives at which they have 
arrived on that day. In A M N B the children are bom late in the lives of their mothers and the 
generations succeed each other less quickly than in A' M N B', where the children are born early ; 
consequently the former stream of population is inclined at a greater angle to the vertical than in the 
latter. Now let M N, the average life of a generation, be divided in d, so that M d is the aver.ige 
life of a child, and d N that of those who survive childhood, and take I he Census of each of the 
populations at any times represented by the vertical lines O^ Y and O' Y' then ab, be will represent 
the number of generations of children and adults respectively which are enumerated in the one 
population, and a' b\ V c' will do so in the other. But the proportion between these two lines in 
each case is the same as that of M d t-o d N, and quite independent of the inclination of the stream of 
population to the vertical. Now if both the populations are increasing or decreasing at the same 
rate, or are stationary, the numbers in each j^eneration will bear a constant ratio to those in the one 
preceding ; that is to say, the numbers at successive points on a c and a' c' respectively will increase 
or decrease in the same ratio. Thus the number of children enumerated, represented by a 4 and a' V 
will bear the same proportion in both cases to the total number enumerated, represented by a c and 
a! c'. If, however, one population is increasing faster than another, the proportion of children to 
adults will be larger in the former than in the latter, because the numbers in each of the generations 
included in « 6 will be more in excess of the numbers of each of the generations included in b c. So 
if the average life of the adult be shortened, in the one case, while that of the child remains the same, 
the proportion of children will be increased, for the ratio of a i to ft c will become larger, while if the 
average life of the child be reduced, the opposite result will follow, 

Causes of the High Proportion of Children to Adults, — Thus the ratio of children to adults 
depends upon the rate of increase of population, and upon the average life of the generation, infant 
mortality being constant. And the rate of increase depends upon the proportion of annual births to 
total population, death-rates being constant Thus the ratio of children to adults depends upon — 
(1), the number of children annually bom in a given population ; 

(2) the rate of infant mortality ; 

(3) the average life of one generation. 

In other words, you can increase the proportion of children to total population in three ways, by pro- 
ducing children in greater numbers, by reducing infant mortality, or by killing off your adults at an 
earlier age. Now to which of these three conditions is the high proportion of children in the Punjab 
due I There can be little doubt that the Punjib population is less long lived than that of England. 
It would indeed be strange if it were not so. The peasant of our villages leads a life of increasing 
labour, even if that labour be not so severe as that of the English workman. He inhabits a mud 
hovel in the middle of a crowded village surrounded by festering dunghills and stagnant pools, the 
water of which latter is not seldom his only drink. His food is poor, and he has to make up by 
quantity what it lacks in quality. His life is monotonous almost beyond conception. He is bom, 
sickens, and dies almost like a beast of the field, with only such rude care as his neighbour's ignorance 
can afford. Below him is the outcast, the conditions of whose existence have already been 
described. Above him is the sedentary merchant, or the too often profligate gentleman. The 
healthy life of the English middle classes is almost unrepresented in the Punjib.* Whether mortality 
among children bears a higher or a lower proportion to that among adults in the Punjab than in 
England I cannot say ; nor are there any statistics on the subject which can be accepted as trust- 
worthy. The climate appears more favourable to infant life if properly cared for than that of England ; 
but native children grow up in the kernel, and take their chance of life and death. I doubt whether 
the rates of infant mortality are not even higher in proportion to those of adidt mortality in the 
Punjdb than in England. But as to one cause of the excessive proportion of children there can be 
no doubt whatever, and that^is the large number of births. That this is not due to marriage taking 

flace at an early period of life, supposing the number of children borne by each mother to be constant, 
think I have already shown. Thus the only causes to which the excess of births can be due arc 
either greater average fecundity on the part of the individual wife, or a greater proportion of married 
women. Now the children shown as under one year of age in our returns are 750,457 : and though 
the birth-rate of 1880 was probably below the average, yet the numbers returned are in excess of the 
births by 8ome 6 to 8 per cent, because of the interval between the preliminary record and the final 
Census, so that the numbers may be taken as a fair average. Now there are 2,903,003 married 
women between the ages of 20 and 40 ; so that we have 25' 8 children born for every 100 married 
women between the two ages where the corresponding figures for England are 35 '87 ; and if we take 
lower ages,*the comparison will be still more unfavourable for the Punjab. There can be little doubt 
that early marriage, by forcing the girl into premature puberty, or at least into child-bearing before 
she is fuily developed, not only reduces the number of wives who survive to become mothers, but 
lessens their reproductive powers. For the Mult&n Division, where early marriage is unknown, the 
number of children per 100 lives between 20 and 40 years old is 31 ' 5 ; and though the difference is 
perhaps partly due to a more healthy climate, yet it is also I believe largely a result of marriage at a 
more reasonable age. We must look then to the proportion of married women to explain the large 
excess of children ; and here we arrive at what is, to my mind, the great cause of the peculiarity 

* Oolonel Minchin, as Oommissioner of Hissdr, quotes an instance of '' an old man in Sirsa, who died in 1881, and 
" who had been kept prisoner for two years by George Thomas as a hostage in 1804. He was said to be 110 years 
*' old, and declared he was of mature age in the terrible famine of 1783. He showed me with great pride his third 
'* set of natural teeth, which were like those of a full-grown man of 25." 

Y 6747. C C 



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Ixvi 

u&der discosfiioD^ and that is the ouBtom, not of early but of universal marriage. In England in 1871 
there were 3,604,351 women between the ages of 20 and 40, of whom. 1,423,360 or 41 per cent, were 
unmarried, while 48 per cent of the women over 16 years old were unmarried. In the Punjdb the 
corresponding proportions are 11 and 26 per cent., widows being of course included as unmarried in 
all cases. As it is, even with this universal marriage, the fecundity is so small and the mortality so 
high that the population of the Punjab scarcely increases faster than that of England and were the 
same proportion of the women to remain unmarried here as there, it is probable that population would 
actually decrease. 

Average Life^ Rates of Mortality^ Expectation^ and Probable Age. — The average length of life, 
the rates of mortality at different periods of life, and the expectation of life at each age are all 
capable of being deduced from the figures of Table VII. But they are merely the arithmetical 
results of those figures, and put the facts which I have discussed in a new shape only, without adding 
uught to them. I have examined the rates of mortality and find that they suggest nothing new, 
merely confirming the remarks made in the preceding paragraph. The average length and expectation 
of life I have not had calculated as the process is laborious. The fact is that these statistics, though 
exceedingly valuable for actuarial purposes, are of little other use. Even in England these statistics 
are based upon the registration of births and deaths and not upon the Census statistics, indeed the 
Census figures for age as recorded are corrected by those statistics before they are published. The 
probable distribution of the population by age, however, would certainly have been useful, and would 
not have bcien difficult to arrive at, and if I could have met with a man able to plot curves accurately 
nnd neatly I should have undertaken the examination of the figures. But the time allowed is too 
short for me either to teach a man or to make the plots myself, and I leave the subject untouched. 



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Ixix 



INSTRUCTION. 

The information that is to be obtained at a census regarding the spread of education amongst the 
people is necessarily of the most vague description, and can only be applicable to a comparatively 
small portion of this wide and important subject. The inquiry of which the results are to be com- 
mented upon in the present chapter extends no further than to the simple fact of whether the person 
returned knows or is learning how to read and write. Before entering upon the statistics, therefore, 
it is advisable to explain the system on which the information on these heads was obtained. It will 
be seen that the tables comprise three main classes, those who are under instruction, those who though 
not learning can read and write, and lastly the illiterate. In the comparative table that precedes 
this chapter, the titles have been rendered briefly, the pupils, the literate, and the illiterate. In the 
first category the enumerators were instructed to enter all who were at the time of the Census under 
tuition, either at school or at home. The second class is intended, according to the rules, to comprise 
those who, not being under tuition, are able to both read and write. It does not include thobC who 
can read but not write, nor those who can do no more than sign their name, but only such persons as 
can both write as well as read. The third category contains the large number who are either wholly 
illiterate or only instructed up to the extent I have just mentioned. I now pass on to the ways in 
which I think from my examination of a certain number of the schedules during the abstraction of 
their contents that it is possible for errors to have occurred in recording the information required under 
the above heads. None of these are very prevalent, but ip one case they may have afEected in some 
degree the tabulated results. In the first place, the less intelligent enumerators, especially if employed 
in a town where there is any considerable foreign element, seem to have considered on several 
occasions tha); came under my notice that the term instruction was confined to the languages habitually 
spoken in the district, and accordingly, after entering the person as illiterate, added a remark that he 
or she was able to write, say, Tamil, Urdu, MdrwMi and so on. This error was not often found, 
still it was frequent enough to be mentioned, as it may have sometimes been left uncorrected in the 
process of rapid abstraction. The other mistake that I found to have occurred in some cases, chiefly 
of bad handwriting, is the confiision more especially in the entries against females between the words 
literate and learning in Gujardti, where the two are very similar in the current handwriting of that 
division. This is likely, of course, to have caused the transposition of some of the entries from one to 
the other column of the working sheets. 

Under the system of classification that has been adopted for exhibiting the results of the inquiry, 

Comparison with other countries. *^®^® ^^ ^^ distinction of grade in the instruction returned, nnd the 

^ advanced student of the high or technical classes is undistinguishablc 

from the beginner in the primary school. This is inevitable at a general inquiry of this sort, and in 

this Presidency, luckily, the deficient information can be almost completely supplied by the depart- 

mentid records of the Director of Public Instruc- 
tion. The important point to ascertain is the pro- 
portion of the population that is under primary iii- 
struction. Through this stage all that learn at all 
must pass, but it rests with the individual to advance 
further in search of knowledge. The difference 
between the number of pupils returned at the Census 
and that on the books of the Government and 
aided schools on the 31st of March 1881, or about 
six weeks after the enumeration, is comparatively 
small, and if the assumption be allowed, as is reason- 
able, that the excess are under instruction chiefly at 
indigenous or other elementary institutions,* the 
proportion of those who are under primary instruc- 
tion to the total population can be approximately 
ascertained, and a comparison with other countries 
rendered possible, as am be seen in the margin.t 
It is my proposal to defer further consideration of 
the question of classification and the distribution of 
the pupils between the different grades of institutions till later. 

The marginal table shows that even in Europe there is considerable variation in the proportion of 
children under elementary instruction. The countries in which instruction up to a certain standard 
is rendered compulsory by law, and is consequently gratuitous, stand a good deal above the rest. 
Sweden is about a middle station between the Teutonic Federation and South Germany, where the 
Roman Catholic element is stronger. Great Britain comes about half way down the list, and the 
next great gap is between the wealthy Belgium and the more heterogeneous population of German 
Austria. Lastly, there is a marked falling off between Greece and Portugal, the country next to it 
on the list. 

This Presidency comes far below the most backward of the European western nations with respect 
to its degree of popular instruction, and has apparently no more than 19 persons in 1,000 attending 
primary schools, compared with 120 in Great Britain and 66 even in Greece. Had this chapter 

♦ The deficiency, where it is found, is probably due to the entry in the Oenstis of those under instmotion in some 

Bes (such as in colleges and high schoolB) as able to read and write. 

t 'rheae figoiee are borrowed from a statement prepared in 1873 for the Report on the Vienna Exhibition. 

Co 3 





Per- 




Per- 




centage of 




centage of 


Country. 


Elementary 
Scholars 


Country. 


Elementary 
Scholars 




on Popula- 




on Popula> 




tion. 




tion. 


1. United States - 


•18'0 


17. Spain - 


0-0 


8. Saxony 


17*6 


18. Ireland - - 


8-0 


8. Baden - 


16-0 


19. Hungary 


7-5 


4. Wurtembnrg - 


16-8 


20. Italy - - 


6*6 


6. Switzerland 


16-6 


21. Greece - 


6-5 


6. Denmark 


160 


22. Portugal - - 


2-5 


7. German Empire 


15-0 


23. Servia, Ac. 


20 


8. Prussia - - 


160 


24. Mexico - 


2-0 


9. Sweden - 


13-7 


25. Russia • 


20 


10. Bavaria - - 


180 


28. Bombay PreH- 


1-9 


11. Holland - 


180 


dency. 




IS. Prance - 


18-0 


27. Brazil - - 


1-2 


IS. Norway - 

14. Great Britain - 


12-6 


28. Turkish Em- 


1-0 


12-0 


pire. 




15. Belgium • 


11-9 


29. Egypt - - 


0-8 


18. Austria (CVf. 


9-0 






leith). 









* This, however, includes many middle-class schools. 



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Division. 


Distribution 
per cent. 

oftho 
Educated. 


Distribution 
per cent, 
of total 

Population. 


Difference. 


Gujarat . - - - 
Konkaa - 

Beocan . - - - 
KarnAtic - 
B^WCity ... 


22-6 
9-9 
2S-9 
14-7 
18-0 
ll'O 


17-37 
18-90 
32'80 
17-06 
4-70 
14' e? 


+5-1 
-4-0 
-8-4 
-8-S 
+18-3 
-8-4 




100-0 


100-00 



Ixx 

been taken up in it3 due logical order* it would have been seen from the analysis of the industry of 

the country that a much higher sfcandnrd of education is not, under the existing circumstances, to be 

expected, whilst to quote, in anticipation of more particular comment, the return comparing the state 

of things now and in 1872, the increase in the number of pupils, amounting, as it does, to 19 per cent. 

shows that the progress of education is considerably in advance of the increase of the population, and 

that the disorganisation resulting fix)m the famine in the village teaching has had but a transitory 

effect. 

Abandoning, then, for the present the distinction of class and degree of instruction, we find that in 

^ 1 1 ^ ^* ^^««o«^« ^^^^y sixteen persons in this Presidency there is one who is not 

General prevalence of education. ^^^j^^j^ j„j^^^^^^ ^j^j^ ^^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

Census. Put in another way, there are, in every thousand persons, 939 who are unable to read and 
write. The extent of education varies, necessarily, in different parts of the country. For instance, 
the number of persons in Sind, containing one, whom we may call a scholar (if the title be accepte«l 
in the sense it bears in an English village, as including both those who know and those who learn), is 
22, but in the Home Division it is 16. In the capital city, again, it is only 4, and in the Konkan and 
Deccan 23 and 22 respectively. Gujardtand the Karndtic restore the average, the one with 12, the 

other with 19 as its denominator. On the whole, 
therefore, the Konkan is the division in which 
instruction has made least progress, and omitting 
the capital city, Gujardt shows the greatest relative 
number of scholars. The distribution of the edu- 
cated population is shown in the margin,t and for 
comparison with it the distribution of the entire 
population according to the table at the beginning 
of the first chapter of this volume, is added. The 
higher numbers in Gujar&t and Bombay have, it 
appears, to counterbalance the deficiency in the four 
other divisions, of which the Deccan is that where 
the difference between population and instruction is most markedly to the disadvantage of the latter. 

Education by Sex. — (a.) — Females, 

The difference, however, between the two sexes in regard to education is so great in this counti'y 
that it is desirable to treat of this branch of the subject at once, without entering further into the dis- 
tribution of the educated public in the aggregate of both sexes. Taking the whole Presidency 
together, there are in every thousand males 889 persons who cannot read and write. In the same 
number of females the proportion of the illiterate will be found to rise to 994. Put otherwise, there 
is one male scholar in nine of his sex, and one female in 156 of hers. In the case of the former sex 
though, with the exception of the Konkan and Deccan, the proportions are by no means uniform, there 
is less variation in the different divisions. The proportions themselves are given in the comparative 
tables prefixed to this chapter, and range from one in three persons in Bombay to one in 12 in Sind. 
But with regard to the propoition of educated females the return exhibits much more extraordinary 
divergences from the average. In the capital city there are only ten illiterate to t)ne literate, whilst in 
the Gujardt Division, where female education has made the next most promising start, there are no less 
than 197. In the Konkan scarcely one woman or girl in 600 can either read or write, or is learning 
to do so, and in the Deccan and Kamdtic the state of things is little better. The ratios in Sind nre 
peculiar, especially as to the high proportion of girl-pupils, contrasted with the lowness of the corre- 
sponding ratio in the case of boys. It seems almost incredible that the ratio of the male pupils should 
be the lowest in the Presidency, whilst that of fem'ales under tuition should, if the capital city be not 
considered, exceed all the rest The figures for female pupils in this Province, too, are considerably 
more in excess of those given in the departmental returns than they arc elsewhere, or than those for 
males in this part of the country either. 

In connexion with the distribution of the educated females territorially, it is not to be passed over 
that 55 • 5 per cent, of this class are contained in the city of Bombay, and that this concentration has 
the effect of materially raising the ratio of the Home Division as a whole. Of the remainder, 13*7 
per cent, are in Gujardt, 11*3 in the Deccan, 9 ' 9 in Sind, 5 • 8 in the Karudtic, and 3 • 8 in the 
Konkan. Throughout the whole Presidency it is only in Surat, beyond the capital that 99 per cent, 
of the females are not illiterate. Before resuming the subject of the distribution of the male pupils, it is 
worth while to briefly consider separately from each other the two classes of the other sex who are not 
quite illiterate. In the Presidency, as a whole, there are in 1,000 females of all ages and religions, 2*3 



* According to the original plan, the occupation of the people was to have been treated of before their instaractioii, 
but as some statistics about education were wanted by the Gommifision then sitting, iJie whole of the present 
chapter was drafted simultaneously with the preparation of the information that was required, so as to save blocking 
the type at the press. 

t In the Presidency Division, including the capital city, there is on an average, an area of 20' 5 square miles to 
each school connected with or recognised by the State. The schools are, accordingly, about 4'2 miles apart, and 
taking the area of which the school to the centre as a oirde, the average radius will be 2*5 miles in length. 
Boughly speaking, and assuming equal distribution of children over the whole area, every child of school-going age 
has, a school at about 1^ miles distance, and there are about 973 children of the above age within each school circle. 
As regards these calculations, however, it must be recollected that large areas of uninhabited land intervene between 
village and village, and that the children are concentrated in the villages and towns themselves, so that it is 
necessary to calculate also the distribution of schools amongst the inhabited units of population. The result is to 
show an average for this division of one school for every 5*6 towns and villages, but the oonoentration in towns 
reduces the average to one for seven. 



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Ixxi 



Diviflioii. 



Gttjar&t 

Konkan - 
Deccan 
Kam&tic - 
Bombay City 
Siud 



Total, Presidency 



Fer-centaffe of Females on 
Males. 



(a.) Pupils. (d.) Literate. 



4-61 
3-15 
8-18 
3-31 
24*91 
8-08 



6*80 



2-81 
1-47 
2-16 
1*42 
16-87 
3-70 



4-86 



under instruction^ and 4 • 1 who can read and wiite. In Sind there are 2 * in the one category, and 
only 2 • 6 in the other, but elsewhere, it is only in the Karnatic that the latter ratio is less than that of 
the pupils. In the capital the respective proportions come to 28 ' 7 and 63 * 3, and this is the only 
place where one in a hundred of this sex is learning or able to read or write. After this city, Surat 
and Karachi districts come close to each other, with Poona next, though far behind. It may be that 
the ratio of pupils in Karachi, like that in the district last-named, is raised by the more than ordinarily 
large settlement of Europeans and Eurasians there, and that the comparatively low ratio of the edu- 
cjited is due to the recent introduction of schools, a reason that may be operative, too, in other parts 
of Sind. The districts that show the lowest ratios of both educated and learning are Sdt^ra, Khdndesh, 
Katndgiri, Kal&dgi and the Thar and P£rkar tract in Siud. In none of these except the last two can 
one female in a thousand be termed either pupil or scholar. Lastly, on comparing the numbers of 
scholars of the two sexes together, we find that to one female pupil there are on an average 14 male 
according to the Census, but IT according to the departmental statement. Amongst those returned as 
educated the ratio of males is higher, and reaches 17 to 1.* Taking the ratio of the females to the 

males of each class, the results appear as 6 * 80 pupils 
and 4 • 85 iwho can read and write to every 100 
males in the same position as reg&rds education. 
The differences in the divisional ratios are shown in 
the margin. It will be noticed that the two pro- 
portions are the widest apart in Sind, and closest 
together in the Deccan. Bombay is left out of 
the question, as the special feature of that city, its 
excess of men, many of them in commerce or liberal 
professions, make it a matter of course that there 
should be few educated women in the population at 
*■""■ leiYge relatively to the number of the other sex. 

(b.) — Males, 

I will now ask attention to the first three columns of the comparative table in which the proportion 
of educated males is shown for different parts of the country. The capital city shows an average 
about twice as high as that in any other part of the country, and three times that of the country at 
large. Gujarat approaches it nearest and Sind is at the opposite extremity. The proportion of the 
illiterate in the Deccan is the same as that in the Konkan, but that of the pupils is a trifle higher. 
The Karndtic seems from its' ratio of learning and educated to be a good deal in advance of the rest 
of the table-land, and the coast district of this division has a remarkably high average of persons not 
wholly illiterate. This may be owing, perhaps, to the comparatively large number of Brfihmans 
settled as cultivators in the interior and in the villages along the sea-line. The districts in which the 
proportion of the illiterate to the total population is least are Broach and Surat, both of which show 
much the same ratio, and after them, but at a considerable distance, Ahaieddbdd, K&nara, Poona, — 
where there is the strong European and Eurasian element to be taken into consideration, — Dh&rwar 
and Kaira. Only in these does the ratio in question fall below 90 per cent. 

The ratio to the male population of the boys returned as actually under tuition is highest in Broach 
and Surat, where, like that of the illiterate, the proportions are nearly identical Dhirwdr and 
Poona come next, followed by K&nara and Ahmeddbdd. The only other districts in which a pro- 
portion of three per cent, or more of the male population is under instruction are Kaira, Belgaum, 
Ratnigiri, and Shol&pur. The lowest proportion is to be found in the Panch Mahdls, Thina, Ndsik, 
Khandesh, and some of the Sind districts. Lastly, there remains for consideration the proportion of 
those who without being under instruction know ho^ to read and write. In this respect, also. Broach 
and Surat are at the head of the list, but the subsequent order is changed, and Ahmedab^, with its 
large resident commercial population is a good deal more forward than K&nara, which comes next to 
it. Kaira and Poona are the only other districts with a ratio of more than 8 per cent, of this class. 
Dhdrwir the next to these in order, has only 7 • 2, and Sholipur 6 • 4. The average in Gujarat is, on 
the whole, much more in advance of that of the rest of the Presidency in this respect than it is with 
1 to actual instruction. The causes may be, firstly, the superior wealth of the division, which 



attracts and retains a greater number of men engaged in the clerical and mercantile professions, or, 
again, the cultivators themselves may have evinced an earlier appreciation of the advantages of a 
certain degree of instruction, for the detailed returns show, as will hereafter appear, that the higher 
average in this part of the country prevails throughout the community, even to the lowest grades. 
The agricultural and thinly populated district of the Panch Mahals, though one of the most backward 
in the Presidency in the matter of education, shows a higher ratio of those who have learned to read 
and write than Khdndesh, N^ik or S&t^Lra, and is up to the figure returned against Th^na, where 
there is a certain influx of educated men from the capital. If we omit from consideration the outlying 
portions of Sind, the most backward districts are those just mentioned ; the Panch Mah&ls is then the 
first in the scale of ignorance and S^t^a a little better than the others. Taking the Presidency as a 
whole, there are about 7 • 9 per cent who can read and write, and 3 • 2 who are still under tuition. 
If, however, Sind be excluded, the average is thereby raised slightly on account of the increased weight 
given to the figures of Bombay and Gujar&t The average ratio of learners in Sind is considerably 
below that of the other divisions, and that of the literate there is the same as in the Deccan and but 
an insignificant fraction below the proportion found in the Konkan. 



* The ratio of pupils to literate is ^^'^ per 100*0 in the case of females, and only 40 '3 amongst males. 

Cc 4 



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Izzii 

Education in Belation to Age. 

The calculations on which I have been commenting hitherto have been made on the entire population of 
each sex, and include, therefore, those who have not yet reached the age of systematic instruction as 
well as such as may be considered, as a general rule, to have passed that age. I propose now to 
attempt to estimate the impression made by the present extension of education on the community 
most likely to be influericed by it. It is out of the question to attempt here to classify the whole 
body of students in such age periods as will serve to indicate, even approximately, the 'grade of 
education to which they have attained, and tlie high ratio borne by the pupils on the registers of 
elementary schools to the total under instruction is a sufficient reason for selecting as the basis of 
calculation a period which will most conveniently harmonise with the conditions of that branch of 
education. The pupils in question have therefore been classed under three heads. The first includes 
all children who have not attained their sixth birthday ; the second the period from that day to the 
completion of the fourteenth year, and the last, the remainder of life. The experience gaineii during 
the abstraction from exanunation of a certain quantity of the schedules, leads me to think that if it 
were not for the greater complexity of the working tables, it would have been worth while to have 
added one more. division, so as to have distinguished the pupils of the higher grades of institutions, 
who, as ft rule, are probably more than 1 5 and less than 22 years old. Similarly, the lowest 
period might with advantage have been fixed to begin at the fifth birthday, a modification that 
would, I think, have eliminated nearly all the entries of pupils and literates now shown as less than 
uix years old. In order to bring these latter into the general calculation, however, 1 have taken for 
comparison with the return of education the total population of the age just mentioned, namely, 
from 5 to 14, and on the assumption that most if not all the children under six returned as pupils 
or literate are not less than five years old, the two early classes of those under instruction and 
instructed have been combined. In the comparative table, accordingly, the proportion given is, in the 
first place, that of the whole of the pupils and literate below 15 to the total number of children 
between the ages of 5 and 14. After this series come the proportion of the pupils and literates 
of maturer years to the entu-e adult population. It is, perhaps, scarcely necessary to observe 
that in the last category are included all the college and many of the high school students to which 
class most of the number returned as under instruction may be ascribed (though there is a considerable 
number of pupils who cannot all be under this class of education), but the bulk of the population in- 
cluded here consists of the persons actually able to read and write, who are out in the world and no 
longer in a state of pupillage. The figures given in table XIII. of Appendix A. show that about 

84 • 3 of the total number of pupils are under fifteen 
years of age. The marginal table gives for four 
divisions of the Presidency the general ratios that 
are shown in the table on the next page for the 
separate districts in each. In the Sind abstraction 
the degrees of instruction were not classified by age, 
so what follows in this portion of the chapter refers 
to the Home Division only. Here we find, that the 
boys who iixe for the present purpose considered to 
be of a school-going a<^e, 12 per cent, are either 
learning or able to read and write. The relative posi- 
tion of the divisions is not difFereni from what has 
been already mentioned in the preceding paragrapli. 
As regards the girls, the proportion of the pupils 
and literate is just ten times as small as it is amongst 
the boys. The x)eculiar feature in this return, namely, that the ratio of educated adidt women is only 
one half that prevailing amongst girls, whilst in the case of the other sex the diflerence between the two 
periods is very much less striking, is due, of course, to the early marriage system, which necessarily acts 
afi an impediment to the continuance of regular instruction at school beyond a very elementary stage. 
Tlie gradual si)reatl of education is traceable in the figures for Gujarat, where girls' schools have been 
lunger established and better maintained than elsewhere in the extra metropolitan clistricts. The 
capital afFi>rds?, as may be expected, exceptional facilities for the education of this sex, and the com- 
paratively slight trace of the results to be seen in the figures for later life is to be ascribed, probably 
to the influx of adult labourers and their wives from the country, who belong to a class which public 
instruction has only recently begun to reach.* The comparatively small difference in the two ratios 
for the Decciin, where there has not as yet been a very marked success in female education, is due, 
as will be seen from a reference to the table opposite, to the number of Christians in Poena and some 
other districts, which materially mises the proportion. Returning to the figures for the males, it is 
noticeable that in one case only, that of the Karnatic, is the nitio of the literate higher amongbt tlie 
boys than amongst the adidts, and even here, to a very slight extent. This is probaWy attributable to 
the loss of boys in the fauiine who would at the time of Census have entered upon their sixth year. 
In the case of Bombay city the falling off of the proportion amongst the adults is explicable, of course, 
in the same way as the similar characteristic amongst tlie females of this chiss, and may be set down 
to the counteraction of the results of comparatively wide-spread instruction of the young by the 
abnormal proportion of illiterate labourers of riper years. The table giving the distribution of this 
class by districts shows that a somewhat similar cause is in openition in Khandesh, but whether the 
case is the wime in DliArwir, or whether in that district there has been a recent, and more or less 
Kudden, advance in the extension of schools, 1 am unable to state. 

* The state of instruction is probably not much better amongst the lower commercial classes in the capital 





Por-oenta«o of thote knowing and learning 
how to read and write. 


Division. 


Males. 


Females. 




Boys 
(5-14). 


Men 

(16 and 

upwards). 


Girls 
(6-14). 


Women 

(15 and 

upwards). 


Guj&r&t - 
Koiikan - 
l>eccan 
Karn4tic 
lJomb*yCity - 


14-11 
901 
9-00 
11-80 
41-64 


17-90 
10-55 
10-26 
11-17 
W16 


0-89 
0-86 
0-88 
0-50 
18-80 


0*46 
0-14 
0-21 
0-18 
9-01 


Total - - 


12-04 


18-90 


1'20 


0-60 



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Ixxiii 



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Ixxv 

The total number of boys of n teachable or school-going age is 1,948,648, or about 27*1 per cent, of 
the entire male population. Of these it appears that 10*6 per cent, are under instruction and 1*5 more 
know how to read and write, leaving about 88 per cent, illiterate. The girls of a similar age number 
1,710,881, or about 25 per cent, of the female population. The proportion of those that are under 
instruction is about 88 in 10,000, whilst in addition to these there are about 32 in the same number 
who can read and write, but are not being taught. Thus the proportion of the illiterate amongst them 
is 98*80 per cent. Omitting Bombay, the order in which the districts stand with respect to the 
instruction of girls is, first, Surat, then Poena, Broach, K&nara, Ahmedab&d and Dhfirwar. There is a 
. considerable gap between the last-named and Ahmednagar, which comes next. Thftna follows closely 
the latter and Kol&ba, Kaira, and Belgaum are behind it Kh^ndesh, Sal^ra and Ratn%iri are the 
least advanced in this matter. Surat is far away the first of all the districts, and, were it not for the 
Christian element in Poena, would show a ratio more than double that of any other. In the proportion 
of males under instruction or educated it yields to Broach at the younger period, though it is still the 
first in regard to this ratio at the later age. Both of these districts are very much in advance of the 
two that follow them, Dhdrw^r and K&nara. In the proportion of educated adults Ahmedab^d comes 
after Broach, and both Poena and Kaira are before the two districts in the south which stand so well 
with respect to the instruction of bojrs. The lowest proportion of educated boys is in the Panch 
Mahals, where the Aboriginal population is large, slow to educate, and possessed, as we have seen in 
a previous chapter, of an unusual quantity of young children, a fact which necessarily tends to lower 
the ratio. A similar cause is probably operative in N^sik, Khdndesh and Thana, all of which are far 
below the rest. The places in which the education of adults seems to be at the lowest ebb are Khiindesh 
and the Panch Mahftls, two flourishing agricultural districts, and between them comes the famine tract 
of Kaladgi. The adult women seem to have the least inclination towards education in Sdtara, 
Kal^dgi, Khdndesh, and Ratnfigiri, and to be relatively most numerous in Surat, Poena, Broach and 
Ahmedabad 

Lastly, before taking up the question of the spread of education in the various religions considered 
se[)arately, I may remark that if the occupation return is to be trusted, there are on an average about 
25 pupils to each teacher, whether man or woman. The departmental return, while it includes colleges 
and other large institutions, is incomplete with regard to aided schools, and the ratio of pupils per 
teacher deducible from it being thus unduly high, has not been here brought forward for comparison. 

Educatiok by Religion. 

From what was said in the last chapter regarding the constitution of the heterogeneous population 
that goes by the general title of Hindoo, it is abundantly evident that to treat such a mass as a single 
community is an attempt that leads to no practical result. Similarly with the Aboriginals and 
Christians, the former of which are better considered with reference to their tribes, the latter to their 
races. In so far, however, as the retention of the general titles is essential for the interpretatic»n of the 
Tables given in Appendix A, I have adopted them in the proportional statements here used. From 
these it will be seen that there is a very marked difference between the education of the two principal 
religions according to whether they are respectively in the numerical preponderance or not. In the 
Presidency Division where the Hindoos predominate, the proportion of the educated amongst them is 
lower than that of their rivals. In Sind, on the other hand, where the masses are of the other per- 
suasion, the Hindoo minority is comparatively highly educated, and the Mahammedans illiterate. 
Confining my remarks to males only, it appears that the community that shows the highest proportion 
p, . , J . of educated is the Pdrsi, and next to this the Jain. In Gujar&t, in 

arsis an ams. ^^^ which is the native place of the one and of the wealthier section 

of the other, the Jains are more generally educated than tne Pftrsis, and even in the capital city, which 
attracts the best of both classes, there is but an insignificant difference in the general result, though it 
is brought about by the high proportion of the literate in the case of the immi^ant Jains and by that 
of the pupils amongst the others. Taking the two communities separately, the P&rsis are less well 
educated in Thdna than elsewhere, and best in the Deccan, where the settlements are in the chief 
towns, and the ratio of adults in business is a good deal higher than in Gujarat. In the capital city 
there is a considerable element of foreign Pdrsis from Persia, many of whom were driven from their 
homes by famine some eight or ten years ago, and have since remained in Bombay as cooks, bakers, or 
incnial servants. Most of these are probably illiterate, and their presence tends to lower the ratio of 
the community as a whole. The distinction in the matter of instruction between the two main 
divisions of Jains is very strongly marked. In Gujardt, which we may consider the home of the 
indigenous trading branch, the standard is high, whilst in the Karndtic and South Deccan the pro- 
portion of those who can read and write is but little above that which prevails there amongst the 
Hindoos. The returns of education amongst the Jains in the North Deccan are in some respects 
peculiar. There is greater difference between the young and the adults than in other divisions, due, 
perhaps, to the continual interchange of population with lldjputana and Central India. The tendency 
noted above amongst the Hindoos and Mahammedans is again to be traced, but less marked, of course, 
in the case of immigrants who come more for miscellaneous than commercial pursuits. The com- 
munity, that is to say, is worse off for education in the place where it is indigenous than where it is only 
sojourning. Amongst the Pdrsis this is noticeable in Surat and Thdna, and slightly in Broach also. 
The Jains show it strongly in the south, and slightly in Guiariit In the middle portion of the 
Presidency the latter community is a mixed one, comprising both traders settled in. villages, and 
travelling dealers without much, if any, education. One of the most striking features to which 
attention is drawn as regards these two religions is the prevalence of instruction amongst the young. 
Of the Parsi children of school-going age nearly 84 per cent, are learning or already know how to read 
and write. The Jains show a lower proportion in the community as a whole, but where the trading 
element is predominant, as in Bombay and Gujarat, the standard of instruction is relatively little below 
that of the others. In the Kamatic, however, there is not much advance in this respect, and the 
district which here returns the highest proportion is that in which there is probably a mixture of trading 
and indigenous Jains. 

Dd 2 



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Ixxvi 

The subject of female education and its relative spread amongst the different sections of the com- 
munity is more conveniently treated in a single survey, after the varying degree of instruction amongst 
the males, which, as has been seen from the general remarks made above, is almost incomparably the 
most important question from a purely statistical point of view, has been reviewed. Leaving, too, the 
Christian community to be treated of according to its component races, and the Hindoos whose castes 
will be taken as exemplifying the state of education amongst the people bearing this name, and the 
Aboriginal tribes, amongst whom, however, the prevalence of instruction is not a matter requiring much 
„ , ^. .. nr t. comment, the next class that presents itself is the Mahammedan popu- 

Education amongst Mahamme- ^^^^^ ^^^^ Presidency. In Sind this community shows a proportion . 
^* of illiterate, amounting to 97*5 per cent., but in the other part of the 

country the corresponding ratio is only 86, or below the average of the population as a whole. Outside 
the capital, which contains a large number of the commercial class, the average standard of instruction 
is highest amongst the Mahammedans of Gujarat, where there is both trading and cultivating material. 
Khandesh and Eal&dgi show the lowest proportion of educated Mahammedans, and the whole of the 
south of the table-land seems below the average in this respect. Owing to the prominent causes that 
tend to keep this coifimunity in the background the actual standard of education amongst them is 
scarcely appreciated by the rest of the public. Some of the classes of Mahammedans, such as the 
Shiah Bohorahs of Surat, the traders of Bombay, and a few others, are highly trained in both the 
vernacular language of the division and in .Arabic or Urdu. Others, and herein lies apparently the 
cause of the high ratios of the instructed in Gujar&t, use no tongue but the vernacular, and have no 
repugnance, accordingly, to attend the ordinary village schools. The difficulty begins with the non- 
agricultural and non-conmiercial population of the country above the Gh^t-s which is spread over most 
of the districts of the Deccan and part of the Konkan also. We have seen above that the ratio of the 
educated is very low in the former of these tracts. On the coast it is higher, it is true, owing to the 
commercial element being more nearly on numerical equality with the rest, which is occupied chiefly in 
fishing and boating. The use of the dialect I have called Hindusth&ni or Mussalm&ni in the chapter on 
Languages originated perhaps in the desire on the part of the apostles of Islim in the first instance, and 
then amongst their converts also, to intensify the distinction between the new flock and those still in 
the Hindoo fold which the latter had deserted. The tongue evexywhere bears traces of vernacular 
influence, and in the Konkan has but little resemblance to any dialect of the north from whence it 
came. It is perhaps, too, the identity of the written character with that of the light literature of their 
teachers and its affinity to that of the Kur^n, with the recollection of its former pre-eminence as the 
language of the court and administration that leads the lower classes of this faith to cling to it in 
correspondence and literature generally, and thus shut themselves out in great measure &om the 
advantages of the wider curriculum taught in the vemaculac elementary institutions under the 
administration or inspection of Government. It really seems to me that a good deal of the popular 
belief in the general absence of book-learning amongst the Mahammedans of this Presidency is due to 
the prominence given to two facts. First, the comparative deficiency of men of this faith in the middle 
and upper branches of Govempient employment. Secondly, the small numbers on the rolls of the 
national schools. As regards the first point, it seems that even amongst the Hindoos, who have none 
of the hindrance of language in their way, few but of one or two classes aspire to Government service 
if they can get their living in any other manner. The Hindoo traders of Gujar&t are comparatively 
rare in an official post, and so are the cultivators Still more is this noticeable in the Deccan and 
Konkan. it is the same with the corresponding class amongst the Mahammedans. The mass of the 
latter community originated somehow with the armies of the north, and were affiliated in some way to 
those bodies, with whose disappearance their fortunes fell. The Rajput and Mar^thi soldier had his 
land to fall back upon, but the Mahammedan of the class I speak of is not an agriculturist. He had 
then to take refuge in various kinds of unskilled tasks, such as porterage, cart-driving, and whenever 
it was available, service as a constable, watchman, or messenger, m none of which employments is the 
possession of any high degree of education necessary. It seems a question whether in this part of 
India any extensive use at the best of times was made of the Mahammedan middle classes in adminis- 
tration. The clerical work was picked up by Hindoos before the military instinct of the others could 
be changed to undertake it, and the higher posts .rf the service were mostly dependent upon court 
favour, not on merit, nor in any case of more than a precarious tenure.* The small number of 
Mahammedans in the pubhc service, therefore, is not apparently a new phenomenon, and it remains to 
see if there is any fact that will tend to throw light on the comparative absence of this class from the 
muster rolls of the schools under Government cognisance. On this point I will ask a reference to the 
comparative table at the beginning of Chapter 111., and to that which is printed as No. IV. in 
Appendix A., which will show that the ratio of Mahammedans to the entire population ranges between 
3 per cent, in Satiira and 78 per cent in Sind. The avcraee on the total population is 18 per cent, 
or only 8 per cent, if Sind be left out Now the departraeutsu return of students according to religions 
shows the proportion of Mahammedans under instruction to be over 10 per cent., and in primary schools 
over 12 per cent This return includes Sind, but I have shown above that it is in this Province that 
according to the Census returns the ratio of Mahammedan scholars is lowest, not only in comparison to 
their ratio in other parts of the country, but also compared to the ratio of other relictions, such as the 
Sikh and Hindoo, in Sind itself. Then, again, comparison shows that in Sind mere is the widest 
discrepancy between the Census and the departmental return, the number of pupils entered in the latter 
being much less than that shown by the Census. Of course this difference may be in the numbers of 
the Hindoos or Sikhs, and as the latter are not oven mentioned separately in the educational table, the 
point cannot ho settled. But the figures seem to indicate, at any rate, that there is no such large 
addition from Sind as to materially alter the proportion of Mahammedan leaniers to the total body, 

* There seems an apparent exception in the case of anbordinate jndioial posts, but it is a qnestion whether 
these were not temporary oreations of a new power desiroos of obtaining the administrative assistance of repie- 
sentatives of both tlie leading religions of the conquered country. The increased facilities for the study of special 
classes of law have no doubt tended to open such posts to open competition, an advantage of which the more 
flexible and book learned Brahman has availed himself to the exclusion of the more narrowly-trained Mahammedan 
of the upper dass. 



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Ixxvii 



and the inference is allowable that in respect to primary edncation at least, the ratio of scholars of this 
faith is not far below that of their entire community to the population at large. Leaving the depart- 
mental return for that of the Census, which comprises all sorts and grades of educational institutions, 
we find that in both Gujarat and the Deccan the proportion of Mahammedans under tuition to the total 
number of those learning is in excess of that of the Mahammedan population to the total. In the 
former division the latter ratio is 10 1 per cent., and that of Mahammedan to total pupils 12-7 per 
cent. In the Deccan the respective proportions are 5 ' 4 and 6 * 5 per cent. The case, however, is, it 
must be admitted, different in the Kamdtic, where they are 9*1 and 7-6 per cent., owing, it may be, to 
the lower class to which the masses of the Mahammedans of that part of the country belong. It is 
not perhaps fair to make a comparison between the Mahammedans and the Hindoos out of con- 
sideration of the immense range oi the latter title ; but I may mention that in the Deccan the ratio 
of Hindoos is 88*2 on the entire population, whilst the pupils of that community only average 84*4 per 
cent- of the number returned as under instruction. If m future returns from the Eduoational Depart- 
ment care were taken to record separately the Mahammedan pupils of Sind and those on the rolls in 
districts where this religion is not that of the masses, it would be possible to estimate more exactly the 
relative ignorance of the two leading communities. 

It may be said, however, that the returns of the Census as given in the proportional form appended 
to this chapter are of themselves enough to prove that the Mahammedan population is, on the whole, 
and except in Sind and the Kamdtic, better instructed than the Hindoo. This is true, as far as the 
mere numbers go, but my object in mentioning the returns of the Educational Department was to get, 
if possible, a statement in which the quality of the instruction is to some definite extent indicated. 
The standards of the primary schools under inspection are known and recognised, but in the case of 
the Census returns there is no distinction between an institution of this class and the hedge-school under 
an indigenous curriculum of its own, varying according to any fitful change of circumstances. In the 
case of the Mahammedans 'this distinction is of mure consequence than in that of any of the other 
communities, unless it be the Sikhs of Sind, because it is most probable that amongst those entered 
here as under instruction are the numerous classes of children whose daily course is no more than a 
repetition by rote of a certain portion of the Kurfi,n in a tongue they know not, and probably never will 
understand. There are, on the other hand, indigenous Mahammedan schools in which an experienced 
Mullah grounds his class well in the ordinary reading books written in the Persian character. What- 
ever the quality of the instruction given, we find in the Census returns about 5,000 more pupils of this 
race than are entered in ihe return published by the Director of Public Instruction as correct on the 
last day of March 1881. Most of this excess is no* doubt attributable to the existence of the Kurdn 
and other indigenous classes of a type specially sectarian, socially, if not in matter of doctrine, which 
are, I have been given to understand, making way amongst the cultivating classes of Gujar&t, under the 
influence of more zealous missionary enterprise from the local centres of the faitL 

To return to the details of the tables, we find that in Sind 975 Mahammedan males out of every 
1,000 are illiterate, but that in the other division the relative number is only 857. The division in 
which most education is returned is Gujardt, where the ratio exceeds that of the Hindoos in all but one 
of the districts. That in which the Mahammedans are worst off in this respect is the Kamdtic, where 
the Hindoo ratio is better than theirs everywhere but in Kdnara. Taking single districts, the lowest 
per-centage of the airgregate of pupils and literate is to be found in Kalddgi, though Kh^ndesh is not 
very much better. The ratio in Poena is the same as that for Gujardt as a whole, or better than the 
north of the latter division and below that prevailing in the south, where the traders of Surat and the 
well-to-do cultivators of Broach are in force. In the former district, indeed, there is but a slight 
difference between the state of education of this race and that returned from the capital. On con- 
sulting the table in which the relative degrees of instruction are shown by age periods, it will be seen 
that the difference between Bombay and the Surat district lies in the considerably larger ratio in the 
former of those under instruction or educated before the age of 15. In other respects the reason calls 
for little special remark, as it simply corroborates what has been said already in connexion with the 
community as a whole. Kalddgi, Kh&ndesh, Sholdpur, and Belgaum are the most backward districts, 
and Surat, Broach, Poena, and Th^na the most advanced. As regards the adults, however, the order 
of the districts is slightly different, since the influence of the mercantile element is more marked at this 

S3riod. Poena, for example, is beaten by the Panch Mahdls, where there is the large colony of Shiah 
ohorahs, and Ahmedab&d and K^nara stand high in the list Neither KaUdgi nor Khftndesh, however, 
show any improvement 

Before leaving the subject, I may as well draw attention to the difference in the spread of education 

■ in the town as compared with the country. The marginal table gives 

Town and comi ry. ^j^^ results of the tabulation of the statistics for nine of the largest 

towns in the Presidency Division with that of the rural subdivisions immediately surrounding them. 

'I hree of the towns are in Gujardt, three in the 
Deccan and three in the Karn&tic. As regards 
males, it appears that the Hindoos are far in advance 
of the Mahammedans in the town, but inferior, though 
not very markedly so, to the latter in the country. 
The discrepancy in the towns lies chiefly in the pro- 
portions of the literate, but in the country in that of 
the pupils. Corresponding differences appear in the 
figures for females in the towns, thougti far less in 
range, but as regards the country, the Hindoo is still 
in advance, to a small degree, of the Mahammedan. 
though the latter exceeds slightly in the proportion 
of pupils. There is, too, a wider separation between 
the town and the country with respect to the ratio of 
the educated and pupils amongst the Mohammedan 
than amongst the Hindoo females, whilst with the 
other sex the reverse is found to be the case. 



Beliffion and Locality. 


Per-centage of Instruction. 


Males. 


Females. 


HIXDOOS. 

(-Pupils . 
A.— Towns --< Litorato - 
Cllliterate - 

(•pupils - 
B.— Country -J Literate - 
ClHitcpnte - 

MAHAMMEDANS. 

(-Pupils - 
A.— Towns --^7*itorate- 
(niitemto - 

r Pupils - 
B.— Country I Literate - 

( llliU'mte . - - 


,?:|]80-5 
69-5 

91-3 

85-8 

7.i;10 4 
89-6 


1)9-00 
90-88 

99-23 
99-81 



Dd 3 



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Ixxviii 



I will ond my commonts upon the state of instruction amongst this doss with a few lines on the diffo- 
ronccs between various subdivisions of the Mahammedan community in regard to education. I have 
remarked elsewhere that it was found to be superfluous to tabulate separately the details for the main 
tribes of this religion, such as Shaiks and Pathdns, because they are adequately represented in the 
return as a whole. Comparing the three tribes that have a Rajput origin, the Molesal^m, Malek^ and 
Chohdn, with the educational return for the Hindoo caste to which they bear the nearest affinity, it 
seems that the Mahammedan is, as a rule, slightly less educated in youth, and considerably so as years 
advance. The Sunni Bohorahs, on the other hand, take a very high place in the order of instruction, 
and are above the rest of the cultivating classes in the ratio of their educated adults, and equal to all 
but the best as to their children also. The Shiah Bohorahs are emphatically an educated section of the 
Maliammedan community. In the Deccan, where they are probably all engaged in business requiring 
correspondence and accounts, for they are noted for the extensive relations they keep up with distant 
establishments of their brotherhood, the ratio of the instructed equals that of the Hindoo trader, except 
amongst the wealthier castes of Wanias in Gujarat, with whom, as with the Brahman, book-learning 
has become traditional. It is also worth noting that the girls of this sect are the most given of any of 
their religion to instruction, and bear a ratio as high as any but that which is found amongst their sex 
in the writing and literate castes of the Hindoos. It is probable, though, that the capacity to read 
texts from the Kur^n is the limit to the instruction of many of them. The artizan representative, the 
Bhausar, as well as the oilman and carrier, the Gh^ncni, are far below their Hindoo counterparts in 
reading and writing. It is probable that on taking out the details for others of the corresponding 
classes amongst the Mahammedans the same result would be obtained, but the smallness of the numbc^r 
iu each led me to believe that in a general review, such as this, the extra information would hardly be 
worth the trouble of tabulation. 

The next class to be brought under review is the Christian, which is returned in the tables as a 
^ , ^. i. A^T. . .. homogeneous community. The following statement, however, shows 

Education amongst Christians. ^^^^ ^^^ differences between the three distinct races united by the 

common bond of this faith have made very diverse progress in the acquisition of knowledge : — 



Males. 



Of nil Ages. 



Pupils. 



Literate. 



Illiterate. 



Pupils and 

Literate of 



5 to 14. 



15 and 
upwards. 



Females. 



Of aU Ages. 



Pupils. 



Literate. 



Illiterate. 



Pupils and 
Literate of 



5 to 14. 



15 and 
upwards. 



A. — Europeans. 

1 . Total, Presidency Diyision - 

2. Bombay City 

3. Poona 



B. — Eurasians. 

1. Total, Presidency Division - 

2. Bombay City 

3. Poona 



C. — Native Converts. 

1 . Total, Presidency Division - 

2. Bombay City 
8. Thana 

4. Kanara 

5. Gujarat 

6. Ahmednagar 



15-63 
13-25 
31-08 



32-89 
41-39 
31-64 



7-30 
9-38 
4-88 
8-47 
13-56 
15-99 



74-20 
76-90 
60- 13 



46-26 
43-93 
45-48 



16-76 
2914 
6-41 
6-64 
32-97 
16-99 



10-17 
9-85 
8-79 



21-85 
14-68 
22-88 



75-94 
61-48 
88-71 
90-89 
53-48 
67-02 



59-88 
65*89 
55-98 



62-64 
73-35 
60-91 



19-52 
35-89 
10-36 
8-99 
36-79 
37-47 



96-19 
98 02 
97-39 



94-93 
97-39 
92-78 



26-05 
39-45 
11-90 
9-18 
51-41 
30 00 



20-78 
20-66 
23-13 



32 04 
37-00 
33-70 



4-07 
8-42 
1-07 
0-77 
15-40 
3-23 



68-36 
62-71 
56-64 



46-02 
44-40 
46-17 



4-44 
11-64 

0-67 

0-81 
14-80 

6-11 



20-36 
16-63 
20-23 



21-94 
18-60 
20-13 



91-49 
79-94 
98-26 
98-42 
09-80 
90-66 



55-09 


95-93 


60-26 


97-93 


55-68 


96-33 


64-44 


90-58 


72-85 


92 06 


64-09 


94-51 


1110 


6-90 


27-96 


16-16 


0-29 


1-39 


1-85 


1-39 


32-96 


27-90 


12-15 


7-19 



With reference to these figures it must be borne in mind that after the age of 15 there are no more 
than 40 women to 100 men amongst the Europeans, whilst the former sex predominate at that period 
amongst the Eurasians. The latter, too, show a very high ratio of children to the total of their com- 
munity. The corresponding ratio amongst the Europeans is considerably less than that in the native 
section, which on the whole corresponds fairly with the average rate found to prevail in the poj)ulation 
of the Presidency at large, excluding Sind. The statistics of education amongst the two iirst classes 
need little comment, though I regret that I have not for comparison the return prepared for a special 
inquiry on this subject made some months ago independently of the Census. As regards the native 
converts, as we may call them for convenience sake, it appears that the standard of education is con- 
siderably higher amongst the non- Roman CathoUcs of the newer .settlements than in the Thana and 
Kanara communities of the older faitk The districts I have selected are those which I believe to be 
for the most part peopled by one section or the other, but as little as possible by a mixture. Gujariit 
and Ahmednagar contain chiefly Protestants ; Th&na and Kanara Roman Catholics. In the capital are 
found both, and the latter body are probably the best educated of the Sdlsette and Mdhim community, 
but much mixed with the less educated colony of servants from Goa. 

The Sikh colony of Sind, like the Hindoos of that division, shows a remarkably high average of males 

who are learning or able to read and write. There are no loss than 
^^* 40 '7 per cent, of the entire community that have returned themselves 

under one or the other of these headings. The remarks I made with regard to the indigenous schools 
of the Mahammedans, however, are probably applicable to the Sikhs also, and the amount of prac- 
tically useful instruction actually prevalent is by no means what might be inferred from the bare 
figures. 



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Ixxix 

The amall Jewish population shows aii average of 50*^ per cent educated or being educated. The 
J ratio is highest in. the latter case amongst the Jews^ native and foreign^ 

®^®' in the city of Poona. The adults most generally possessed of some 

degree of instruction are those in Bombay city, and tho lowest ratios are to be found in Th^na and 
KoMba, where this race is engaged in pursuits like dairy keeping and carpentry, not requiring much 
reading and writing. Taking only the boys of a school-going age, the proportion of the learning and 
literate is between 68 and 70 per cent., except in the Konkan, and for the Presidency Division as a 
whole roaches 62 per cent., a rate exceeded by no other community except the P&rsis and upper classes 
of Christians. 

Tho Aboriginal tribes need not detain us long. They are the section of the population most difficult 
F t d Abo • • 1 trib ^ reach through education, for not only is their appreciation of it less, 

ngma es. ^^^ ^j^^ regions they inhabit are as a rule wild and unhealthy enough 
to deter any of the trained masters of a higher class from undertaking duty amongst them. The 
masters themselves, moreover, have doubtless in many cases no heart in their work, for to the bulk of 
educated Hindoos the instruction of people like the Forest tribes appears a work altogether of superero- 
gation in practice, even though its advantages be admitted in theory. Some progress has been made, 
however, amongst this class in Gujarat, especially in Surat, where special agency has been provided for 
the maintenance and inspection of schools established solely for the Kdli-Paraj or black races, as 
opposed to the light races of the plains. Thus we find in that division a ratio of 1 '29 per cent, of tho 
Forest and Aboriginal tribes either learning or, though more rarely, educated. In the North Deccan, 
however, there is only a proportion of 0*31. A reference to the Provincial Caste Statement at page 
xlviii of Appendix C. shows that whilst in the Konkan the Kithodis and Warlis are totally uneducated, 
or with scarcely one under instruction in a thousand of their tribe, the G^rathds and Chodras, who are 
chiefly found in the part of Surat where the special provision above mentioned has been for some years 
in existence, have in the same number about 17 and 11 children respectively who can read and \vrite 
or arc learning to do so. The Dhodias, too, a tribe which inhabits the tract to the south of that in 
which the two tribes just named are located, show a ratio of 13 per mille. The Dubl^, on the other 
hand, who, as I have said in the preceding chapter, are almost entirely ascribed to the families of 
Brahman landholders in the capacity of farm servants, exhibit an apathy or neglect in the matter of 
education which is not surpassed even amongst the Bhils, a true forest tribe. It may be noted, how- 
ever, that the Bhils are beginning their education in Gujardt only, and that their progress in Kh^ndesh 
and Ndsik is but slow. The state of education amongst the Thakurs cannot be exactly appreciated 
from the return under consideration, as though the figures for the Konkan appear to apply to the forest 
tribe only, those for the Deccan no doubt include some of tho writers also, and thus raise the per-centage 
of the educated. 

I have now to enter upon the subject of the Hindoos, the general averages for whom have been given 
, in the tables. Comprising, as this community does, the bulk of the 

^ ^^' ignorant masses as well as the best educated of the population the 

ratio for the whole is necessarily below that of most of the more homogeneous bodies treated of above. 
I will not, therefore, enter into detail regarding these figures, but pass a few remarks of general appli- 
cation. Tho highest ratio of the educated, including pupils, of this community is in Sind, where it 
exceeds that of tho capital city. Unless the Hindoos of Sind, therefore, are mostly traders, priests, and 
writers, it is difficult to see any reason for this phenomenon in a division where the masses are egregiously 
behindhand with regard to instruction. 

In tho remainder of the Presidency the state of education amongst this race as a whole necessarily 
corresponds more or less with that noted at the beginning of this chapter. Bombay, Surat, Broach, 
Kiinara, and Dharwar arc the districts where, in the above order, the ratio of the illiterate is lowest. 
Thana, the Panch Mahals, Nasik, and Ahmednagar those in which this class preponderates the most. 
In the Panch Mah^ils and Khdndesh, in Dharwar, and slightly in Kalddgi the ratio is less than that 
found to prevail in the population as a whole. It is possible that the presence of the Aboriginals in tho 
first two cases and a considerable decrease in the number of educated Mahammedans in the others con- 
tribute to this peculiarity. The division of the educated community into two age periods shows that 
there are 10*87 per cent, of Hindoo boys under instruction or educated, and 12*32 per cent, of the 
adults of this sex. It may be remarked that the ratio in the Deccan is higher than in the Konkan in 
tho case of the boys, whilst it is lower in that of adults. The explanation seems to bo that the adults 
who emigrate to the capital from the coast are mostly illiterate, so that their exodus raises the relative 
preponderance of the instructed who remain at home. 

Leaving the question of education in the diflFerent layers of Hindoo society till later I will make a 
^ , , A,- u V • few comimonts on the education of females in the different sections of 

Female education by rehgion. ^j^^ population which have been distinguished in this chapter. In tho 
Home Division wo have seen that the ratio of the educated amongst adults of this sex is not more than 
one half what it is amongst children, and that even in the latter class it rises no higher than 1 '20 per 
cent, on tho total of school-going age. The former proportion is above the average only in the case of 
the European and Eurasian Christians, and the Pdrsis. Amongst the Jains and Mahammedans it rises 
but slightly over that just mentioned, and amongst the Hindoo women it is, as is only to be expected, 
just below it The ratio for Europeans has been shown in tho table given above, ana averages nearly 
96 per cent, for tho whole Presidency. In the case of the Eurasians the proportion is about 91 per 
cent. Next to these figures come those for the P&rsis, the only pure indigenous or domiciled race 
amongst whom female education has made marked progress. The average of women who come under 
tho head of instructed here amounts to 38 per cent, and in two of the chief towns affected by this race. 
Poena and Bombay, to 64 * 7 and 45 * 1 respectively. It is curious to note the small ratio in Surat, 
Broach, and Thana, where the community nas been settled for years in country villages instead of con- 
fining themselves to the towns. The Jains and the Mahammedan women show nearly identical ratios 
on the whole, that of the Jains being higher in Gujarat, and that of the others rising above it in the 

Dd 4 



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Ixxx 



south of the Presidency and the capital. Surat and Admedab&d show the largest proportion of 
educated Jains, whilst the Mahammedan women appear to be best educated in Surat, K&nara, and 
Poena. 

But the more important statistics are these which relate to the progress of instruction amongst the 

younger generation, and the marginal table 



Religion. 



Fer-centage on 

total Girls 
&-14 Tears old. 



I 



Hindoo - 
Mahammedan 
Jain 
P&rsl . 
Jew 

Total of aU) 
Religions - j 



0*89 

1*48 

1*08 

45*29 

28*01 



0*88 



It 



0-16 
0*70 
0*68 
19*17 
7*12 



0*82 



0*56 
2*18 
1*86 
64'^ 
80*18 



1*20 



Relative Proportion, of Educated 
(c) in each Division. 



I 



0*62 
0*88 
8*24 

46*75 



0*89 



0*16 
1-25 



29*20 
8-12 



0*36 



0*17 
0-48 
0-89 
67*14 
40*18 



0*88 



1= 



0*89 
0*60 
0*24 



0*60 



1001 
16*06 
11*06 
78-61 
60*28 



18*89 



gives the the chief results of the Census for the 
principal religions. The P&rsis still show a 
proportion more than double that of any of the 
rest. The small Jewish community comes 
next, with the same feature as regards this 
sex as I noticed above in the case of males, 
namely, the low proportion of education in the 
native districts of the local sect. As to the 
Jains and Mahammedans, it appears that in 
Gujardt only is the ratio of the educated higher 
in the case of the former than in the latter. In 
the capital city the proportion amongst the 
Jains is but Utile above that of the Hindoos, 
and in the K&matic it is below it. The caste table shows that amongst the largest of the specially 
K&narese sect of Jains there is practically no education at all of this sex, and the ratio of the instructed 
and learners is less than 1 in 1,000. Amongst the girls of the Hindoo cultivating and industrial classes 
of this division there is some trace of learning to oe found in the return, though not so marked as in 
Gujar&t. 

In an early part of this chapter I made a comparison between the total j^opulation and the number 

either under instruction or 
literate. With the view of 
giving an idea of the difiu- 
sion of education over the 
territorial divisions of the 
Presidency I propose to show 
now the relative extent to 
which reli^on contributes 
to the total body of pupils, 
comparing the Census with 
the departmental returns for 
the two sexes. As Sind is 
included in the one I have 
taken it in both, though 
with regard to the Maham- 
medans, such a course has, 
as I have already said, a 
very material effect upon the proportions. Taking first the males, it appears that in the departmental 
tables there is no n^ention of Sikhs. There is a class called Amils, which I mentioned in the third 
chapter of this work as of extremely doubtful sect, but the aggregate number of these shown as under 
education does not nearly equal that of the Sikhs returned in Sie Censua tables. It is true that in the 
educational statement there is a column headed Others, but the explanation appended to it seems to 
indicate that it is reserved for the pastoral tribes onlv, and the Census returns show that this class 
is by no means addicted to sending their children to school, probably on account of their use as cattle 
watchers. It is therefore presumable that the Sikhs of Sind have been included in the total of Hindoos 
of some class or other, but which class is not ascertainable. The alternative suggested is that which I 
have hinted at above, namely that most of the instruction set down in the Census return is little more 
than the repetition of texts and the rudiments acquired at a hedge-school. Confining myself now to 
the Census returns only, it is necessary to point out, in the first place, that the difierence between the two 
series of ratios is widest in the case of the Mahammedan males and the Hindoo females, both of which 
show that the education of the voung amongst them is considerably below the standard indicated by 
their numerical importance in the community But from what has been said before it is evident that 
these two are exceptionally situated, so it is as well to lay little stress on the discrepancy. Passing to 
the next, then, the balance is found to have shifted, and in the case of Christian males and both P&rsi 
and Christian females, the ratio of pupils is far above that of the weight of the population of the religion 
on the total community. It is the same in a lesser degree with the males of the Sikhs and Jains, and 
with the females amongst the former, but the Jain females preserve much the same ratio in both cases. 
The Jews show a considerable difference between the advance of instruction in the two sexes, and the 
ratio of the females is a good deal higher in proportion to the total number of pupils of that sex than 
the corresponding figure for the males. 





Males. 


Females. 


Reliffion. 


Per- 

centage 

of Religion 

POpula- 


Per^ntage of Pupils 

of each Religion on 

Total Pupils. 


Per. 

of^Iigion 
on Popula- 
tion. 


Per^^ntage of Pupils 

of each Religion on 

Total Pupils. 


Aoooraing 
to Census 
Setom. 


Accoiding 
to Educa- 
tional 
Report. 


(a.) 

According 

to Census 

Return. 


(6.) 

According 

toEduca^ 

tional 

Report 


1. Hindoo - 

2. Ma'nammcdan 
8. Christian - 

4. Jain 

6. P4ni 

6. Sikh - - - - 

7. Jew - - - 

8. Aboriginali and others - 


74-1 
18-9 
0-9 
1-4 
0*4 
0-8 


78-6 
18-4 
2-8 
4 '8 
3-1 
2-2 
0-8 
0-8 


78-4 

11*6 

1-8 

5-0 

2-3 


76-6 
17-7 

0*7 

r« 

0-4 
0-7 

3-7 { 


84-8 
19-1 
21-2 
1-4 
21-4 
I'l 
1-4 
0-1 


60*8 
7-2 

10-2 
4-6 

10-8 

■ 1-0 



Education by Caste. 

The nine pa^es of the provincial table in Appendix C. contain the whole of the castes that bear an 
appreciable ratio to the entire Hindoo community, with all their local variations. It was prepared with 
the view of aiding the educational authorities and others interested in public instruction to form an 
opinion of the actual extent of their work and the fields in which their efforts have still much to do. I 
shall only, therefore, treat the return generally in the present place, first in connexion with what has 
been said above regarding the population in its larger divisions, and again with reference to the special 
classes into which the Hindoos nave been divided for the purpose of tabulation at the Census. 



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Ixxzi 

The following table shows all the castes that return a proportion of over one half of their male adults 
as educated or Teaming : — 





Locality. 


Fer-centafte of Edacated and 
Pupils. 


Serial Order acco 
Edacation 


tding to 


Caste. • 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Girls. 






















Men. 


Boys. 


Women. 


Girls. 


Men. 


Boys. 




KonkantLsOk Brdkman - 


Deccan 


98-1 


56-2 


1-0 


1-4 


1 


4 


23 


l^nhhxL Kdyasth . • - - 


Konkan • 


92*9 


55-8 


0-8 


20 


2 


5 


13 


Kiytisth (Wdlmik, (fc.) - 


Gnjar&t 


92-5 


64-7 


9-6 


10-1 


3 


I 


3 


Porwal Wdnia - - - . 


Do. 


91»1 


52-5 


0-8 


2-3 


4 


10 


10 


Konkanasth Brdkmau ... 


Konkan 


91-0 


51-6 


0-2 


0-6 


5 


14 


29 


JM Wdnia 


Giyarit - 


90*9 


55-8 


10 


1-5 


6 


6 


20 


Khediyata Wdnia 


Do. - 


90-6 


531 


0-3 


0-4 


7 


8 


32 


Shrim^li do. ' . - - 


Do. . 


89-2 


54*6 


0-7 


0*4 


. 8 


7 


33 


DeOasih Brdhman 


Deccan- 


890 


52- 1 


0-4 


0-7 


9 


11 


27 


Konkanasth do. - - - - 


Karnitic - 


88-4 


59*9 


3-3 


70 


10 


2 


5 


Deshasth do, - - - 


Do. - 


88-3 


56-8 


0-2 


1-1 


11 


3 


26 


Prabha JTayflw/A - - - - 


Deccan - 


87-2 


52-5 


2*8 


8-2 


12 


9 


4 


Modh Wdnia .... 


Gojar&t 


87-0 


51-9 


10 


2-7 


13 


13 


9 


Shenyi Brahman - - - - 


Karnitic - 


85-5 


46-1 


1-5 


4-7 


14 


19 


6 


S&raswat do. - 


Do. - 


84-9 


51*2 


2-9 


4-7 


15 


15 


7 


N<gar do. ' • - - 


GujarAt - 


88-9 


52-0 


18-3 


17-5 


16 


12 


1 


Shenvi do, • 


Konkan 


82-7 


460 


0-0 


0-4 


17 


20 


34 


Shenvi do, - - - - 


Deccan - 


81-4 


43*5 


1-1 


2-8 


18 


23 


8 


Gaad do. - 


Konkan 


750 


40-2 


0-5 


1-2 


19 


25 


25 


Deshasth do. - - - - 


Do. - 


74-8 


44-7 


0-6 


0-6 


20 


21 


30 


Brahmakshatria - - r - 


Gujar&t 


71-7 


46-4 


17-5 


16-3 


21 


18 


2 


Meshri Mdaw&di Wdnia - 


Deccan - 


71-4 


38-5 


0-4 


0-0 


22 


27 


36 


An&wala Brdhman 


Gnjarit 


70- 1 


48*2 


0-6 


2-1 


23 


17 


12 


Shrimdli do. - - - - 


Do. - - 


68-8 


48-7 


IS 


1-9 


24 


16 


15 


Modh do, ' 


Do. - 


68-5 


38*8 


0-8 


1-5 


25 


26 


21 


S^htekar do. - - - - 


KarnAtic - 


65-8 


37-4 


0-9 


0-7 


26 


30 


28 


Shrigand do. - 


Gujar&t 


651 


411 


rs 


1-6 


27 


24 


19 


Khediwal do. - - - - 


Do. - 


630 


43-6 


0-6 


1-3 


28 


22 


24 


Audich do. ' 


Do. . - 


62-8 


37-8 


1-0 


2-3 


29 


28 


11 


Mervada do. - • - - 


Do. - 


58-2 


33-6 


0-4 


1-8 


30 


32 


16 


Marw^ Wdnia - - - - 


Deccan - 


57-4 


27-3 


0-2 


0-6 


31 


35 


31 


Vaish do, • - . . 


Karndtic 


53-2 


34 6 


0-0 


1-7 


32 


31 


17 


Bardeshkar, &c., Brdltman 


Do. - - 


52-6 


38-0 


1-5 


2-0 


33 


29 


14 


K&nsin {Kdsar) . . . - 


Gi^'aiit 


51-7 


31*6 


0-6 


1-7 


34 


34 


18 


Soni (^Sondr) ... - 


Do. - - 


49-7 


25-5 


0-7 


1-5 


35 


36 


22 


Lid Wdnia 


Deccan - 


48-7 


32-5 


0-2 


01 


36 


33 


35 



It will be seen that there are 84 that come into this category, to which I have added two which 
approach the standard proportion within a very little, making 36 in all. This is but a sorry 
nuiiil)cr compared to the large array of castes tabulated, especially when the relatively small numerical 
weight of those thus set apart comes to be considered. 

y 5747. E e 



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Ixxxii 

Though based primarily on the proportion of the educated adults the table has been drawn up to 
include also the children under instruction, but the latter reach one half of their total number in but 
15 instances. It must be taken into consideration, however, that the ratio is affected by the very young, 
not yet of school-going age, and that if allowance be made for these on the proportion that this class 
bears to all under 15 in the total Hindoo population, it will be seen that we may assume as the ratio 
representing one half the school-goers, actual or possible, the per-centage of 35*0 in Gujar&t, 
32*5 in the Konkan, 34*0 in the Deccan, and about 37*0 in the Karn&tic, where the relative number 
of the children of tender years is so much below that of tho rest of the Presidency. Further- 
more we have seen in the preceding chapter that tho ratio of children on tho total population 
is somewhat less amongst the middle and lower, so that the ratio just mentioned is not wholly 
applicable to castes like the Brdhmans and writers which form so large a proportion of those 
named in the table, and we cannot assume for, say, the Wilmik Kdyasths of Gujarat, that there are 
only from seven to eight children between 5 and 14 that do not learn or know how to read. It is 
reasonable to assume though, that in the case of nearly all the selected castes here given, there is about 
the same standard of education prevailing amongst the boys of a school-going age that it is found 
amongst the elders of the caste. In the 36 castes there are 21 Brdhmanical subdivisions, of which 
several are local colonies of the same tribes. Nine are Wdnias or traders, four are writers, and, lastly, 
two are artizans. It is noteworthy that though out of the 36, 17 are indigenous or located in Gujarat 
alone in the first 12 none of the five from this division are Brdhmans, but either writers or traiders. 
On the other hand, both the Karndtic, two of the three Deccan, and one of the two Konkan representa- 
tives are of the priestly order. The highest on the list of the Gujardti Brdhmans is the Ndgar, 
which is only sixteenth in serial order, and has before it no less than five trading castes of its own 
nei^^hbourhood. Tho Brdhmans of Mah&r&shtra that rank so high in the list are the two large orders 
of the Konkanasth and the Deshasths in their varied distribution over the country in which their home 
ton«nio in prevalent Fom-tcenth in order is tho first of the Gaud section, hailing from the coast of the 
Kani^tic. Between the N%ars and the next Gujarati Brahman tribe come six castes, four of which 
are other subdivisions of the same order in different divisions and one is a writer of Gujar&t itsel£ 
Without going through tho whole table, I will mention that of the 21 priestly tribes eight tare from, or in, 
Gujarat, six are the two main Mardtha tribes in different localities, and seven are Gauds, mostly from 
tho Konkan and Karn^tic Of the nine Wdnia castes, five are Gujardti by origin or residence, one is 
indit^enous and two are settlers in the Deccan and one is Kanarese. Both the artizans are from 
Gujarat, and so are two of the three writer classes. It will be noted with regard to the education of 
children that the writers of Gujar&t are first, and I am inclined to think that the high ratio of tho 
caste of the Karn&tic Division that immediately follow is to a certain extent due to the lack of children 
there, rather than to any material difference in the care taken of their intellect. 

Tho 12 castes that come first witlx regard to tho education of their adults also contain, it may bo 
noticed, 11 of the castes amongst whom that of boys is most cared for and amongst the W^nias 
and writers, the place occupied in the. serial order is not very far in the one case from what it is in the 
other. 

In the matter of female education the return shows that even the castes most advanced in the 
instruction of their boys have not as yet made much progress amongst their relatives of the other sex. 
It is enough here to consider the figures for the girls only, as those for the women are comparatively 
less instructive. The three castes in which the ratio of the pupils of this sex is the most satisfactory 
are the N&gar Brdhmans, the Brahma Kshatrias and the Kdyasths, all of Gujarat. It is probable, 
too, that the Prabhus of the city of Bombay, had returns been available for them, would also have 
been well up on the list. But even the highest of these proportions does not rise above 17*5 per cent, 
of the total number of children and after the 10 per cent of the Gujar&t Kdyasths the ratio falls 
rapidly, till it appears that considerably over half the number of castes show a ratio of less than 2 per 
cent The Mar^tha Brdhmans exhibit, as a rule, a comparativelv lo^' proportion of educated girls, 
and so do, with a few exceptions, tho Gauds of the Karn^tic and Konkan. The Gujardt W^nias, too, 
do not come up to the promise indicated by their caro of the instruction of their sons. 

We have now seen that the standard of instruction fixed in the above table for the men and bovs has 

been attained by but two castes outside the pale of the Brdhman, 
Classes of Hindoos. writer, and commercial orders. 

After these^ amongst the crajismen there are the three Gujarat castes of the oilmen, who are, as we 
have seen previously, also traders, the caUco printers and masons or bricklayers, besides the tailors, 
who in the Mardtha districts are also engaged in trade, and the goldsmiths, who give proofs of a 
certain degree of instruction above the rest. In Gujarat, where the tailors are more occupied than 
elsewhere with their own profession, they are less educated by a considerable extent than elsewhere. 
The ratio amongst the adults reaches in some cases more than 44 per cent, and in all more than 20. 
The lowest proportion is, as is to be expected, amongst the workers in leather, though even here the 
ratio rises after the village castes have been passed, and the town artizans reached. Female education 
is at a very low ebb in this order, except amongst the goldsmiths and brass-smiths of Gujar&t, which 
have already appeared in the table, and the general average is very little higher than that which 
prevails amongst the agriculturists. 

In the case of the culHvatars, whom it is necessarily most important to reach, the Kadwas of Gujardt, 
the Jangams, who are also priests and merchants, and the Lewds, are the most advanced, and show a 
ratio of from 18 to 21 per cent, of instructed. The isolated case of the Marathds in Gujardt who show 
a Wgher ratio may be omitted from consideration, as this colony consists in great measm-e of Govern- 
ment officials who have remained in the division, and are found in the ranks of the police and office 
messengers, and private servants, in all of which capacities there is now-a-days an incitement to learn to 
read and write in the prospects of early promotion. The indigenous Kolis of Gujar&t and some of the 
castes of Kdnara show the least progress in education of any in this order. Whilst the average is 
highest in Gujarfit and the Karnfitic above Ghdts, it is lowest, on the whole, in the Deccan. The 



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Ixyxiii 

instructed element amongst the females is very small, except in Gujar&t and in the Ling&iat country of 
the Karn&tic. 

Amongst the pastoral tribes there is but little education except in the case of those who have begun 
to addict themselves to agriculture in preference to their ancestral wanderings. In Gujardt, where this 
class is still in a more purely pastoral state than in the rest of the coimtry, the ratio of the instructed is 
remarkably low, and contrasts strongly with the usually high standard maintained here compared to 
the other divisions. The most instructed of this class seem to be the Gaulis, or dairymen, who, except 
in the Konkan, where they are mostly agriculturists, have a tendency to concentrate in the neighbour- 
hood of the towns. The Wanjdras are a very heterogeneous caste, and it is only in Gujar&t and the 
Konkan that they are still largely engaged in transport and trade. It is surprising, therefore, to see 
the high proportion of the instructed amongst them when they are less settled in villages, as in these 
divisions, as compared to that in the Deccan where they are a colony of cultivators. In the last division, 
however, it will be seen that the proportion of the children under instruction is nearer that of the males 
who can read and write as is to be expected of a settled community. 

ThB fishermen show two castes possessed of a fair degree of education compared to the rest, and both 
of these are in Gujardt. In the Konkan the ratio is very low, except amongst the Gdbits, a caste of the 
southern coast There may be said to be scarcely any education of females at all amongst this class, 
and looking at the largo proportion of women that are returned from it as occupied in assisting their 
husbands or others in their employment the fact is not to bo wondered at. 

In the order of domestic and personal service there is in one caste considerably greater diffusion of 
education amongst both sexes.* The Hajdms are seen to be a fairly educated class in Gujar&t where 
they combine several occupations with that of shaving and their women act as midwives and nurses for 
the Hindoos. The washermen are better educated in GujarSt, where the ratio amongst the males 
is about the same as it is in the barber caste, but the instruction of females is much more advanced 
in the latter. In the rest of the Presidency the washermen are, on the whole, an illiterate caste. 

The only caste that it has been thought worth while to distinguish amongst those occupied in the 
minor professions is the Gurao, or temple servant. In the Deccan this caste occupies a considerably 
higher position as to education than in the two other divisions in which it is prevalent. In the Konkan, 
indeed, the caste is in a very low grade in respect to this attribute. 

Of the indefinite class of the devotees and religious mendicants there are three only that show a ratio 
of the educated in excess of the average of their respective divisions. One of these, and the most 
numerous, is the Gosavi in Gujarat. The others are the Bair&gi of the Deccan and unspecified body 
of the Sddhus in Gujarat. The latter includes, necessarily, many of the Sanydsis and other recluses of 
high caste who have retired from the cares of mundane affairs after a life of business, and the order 
as a whole must, therefore, be distinguished from the general horde of wandering mendicants who have 
had no other profession than that of begging from their youth upwards. The Gop&l, who is a sort of 
priest to the depressed castes of the Deccan, is one of the few totally uneducated classes to be found on 
the list. 

In the Mings, however, one of the twelfth or the depressed class, there is a compeer in ignorance, 
though it is only in the Kamdtic that this caste is almost entirely illiterate. The question of arranging 
for the admission of this order. into some of the primary schools has been several times discussed, but 
hitherto the matter has not advanced beyond a preliminary stage, and it is in the missionary schools 
chiefly that the Dheds, Mahdrs, and others of the same class find the little education they have acquired. 
In Gujar&t, however, a beginning seems to have been made, especially in the section of the Dheds that 
are so largely employed in domestic service. These have managed to make arrangements amongst 
their own caste-fellows for the instruction that is most essential to their success in their occupation. In 
the Deccan, too, there is an indication of some slight extension of education amongst this class, but in 
the Konkan they seem to take little interest in it. The exceptionally high ratio of the educated shown 
against the Bhangi class in the Deccan is due to accident. The number is so small that it was not 
worth while inserting the entry at all, and in the caste are a good many men employed under muni- 
cipalities and, probably, on the railways, who have learned to read and write to a small extent in 
connexion with their duties, but the total of such, though large in comparison to the number of the 
caste in the division, is too small for a table of this description. 

The miscellaneous class calls for little remark. The last entiy, that of the Pardeshis, shows a high 
proportion of educated owing to its including all sorts of people from Northern India, Kanojia Br&hmans, 
Kshatris, traders, and Ahirs. The inclusion of the Sherugirs is a specimen of the erroneous classification 
due to want of local knowledge, as the returns, when completed, showed that this caste included by the 
local supervisor amongst the labourers really belongs to the agriculturists of the coast. 

As I have already taken due notice of the Bhils and other forest tribes in connexion with the general 
title of Abori^nals, I will pass on to the Jains. It will be seen that with the exception of the Chaturth, 
or fourth division, which is the main one returned from the Karnitic, the rest are highly educated 
castes, and would find a place in the list of the Hindoos even on the preceding page. Gujardt, as usual, 
holds the first place with the Shrimdlis or largest Jain section, and the Porwdl, an importation from 
the north now naturalised in the division. The two Deccan. castes of Mfirwddis, though showing over 
60 per cent, of their adults to be educated, are below the rest both as to males and females. "With 
respect to the latter sex, one of the Gujarat castes, the Osw61, is nearly up to the fifth entry on the 
Hindoo serial list, and another would come about fourteenth on the same. The comparative small- 
ness of the numbers of girls in the Konkan and parts of the Deccan render it useless to return the 
figures regarding their state of education, but there is no doubt that it is lower than in Gujarat 

* The high ratios given in the Table in Appendix C. against the Nhavi, or Haj4m8, of the Konkan, is incorrect. 
The true ones are 54 and 38 for maleB and 5 and females. This statement was sent to press during my absence 
from duty, and on examining it when I returned I found several anoDuJoas entries of the above description which 
it was too late to rectify in print. 

Ee 2 



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Comparison with the Departmental Returns of Educatiox. 

It is by no means easy to institute a complete comparison between the returns of the Census and 

those sent up to the Director of Public Instruction 
by the Inspectors and their deputies. The statement 
3f which 1 have commented more than once in the 
course of this chapter is one that embraces all grades 
of institutions classed according to their connexion 
with Government, and of these I selected the State 
and the aided schools only. But in order to compare 
the two sets of statistics for the diflFerent parts of the 
Presidency, I have adopted the supplementary table 
sent in to the Government of India, which forms 
Appendix O. of the Report for the year 1880-81. 
Some alterations have been made in the arrangement 
of the figures, and the girls attending boys' schools 
have been transferred to the column to which they 
correctly belong. The districts have, for^convenienco 
of reference, been arranged in the marginal table 
according to the educational divisions, in preference 
to the disposition hitherto used throughout this work. 
The main points on which I think remark is necessary 
are these. In the first place it will be noted that in 
Gujarit and the North-Eastern Division pupils of 
both sexes, and in the rest of the Presidency Division 
the female pupils are much in excess in the depart- 
mental return. If from both tables the statistics for 
the capital city be omitted, in Gujarit only Ahme- 
d&b&d shows a greater number of males than are 
returned from the educational registers, in the North 
Deccan only Ahmednagar has the same feature* 
whilst all the districts in the Central Division and 
the Karnatic gave a much larger number of boys 
under instruction at the Census than at the closing 
of the school registers on the 31st March 1881. In 
Sind there is a large excess in the Census table in 
the case of both sexes. In Bombay City the number 
of private institutions unconnected with the State is 
probably enough to account for the difference, and it 
is likely that in Sind, too, the prevalence of hedge 
schools and of elementary instructions at home may tend to swell the Census return. Similarly, there 
is no doubt a good deal of private tuition in existence in a place like Poona, but it is not easy to 
account for the contrary result of the enumeration in the North Deccan and Gujar&t An examination 
of the muster roll as compared with the registered number of boys seems to inaicate that in the two 
divisions where the Census return differs most from that of the Department, which is based on the 

register alone, the average daily attendance is much 
less than the registered number of pupils, the diffe- 
rence between the two being greater there than in 
the rest of the divisions. But it is with reference to 
the girls that this is most notable, and the marginal 
table gives for that sex the ratios on the registered 
number of the average daily attendance. In the 
North-Eastern Division only 63 per cent, and in the 
Gujar&t Division only 54 per cent, of the girls 
nominally on the books attend school. It is 
within my own experience as a district officer, and 
I presume it is by no means a singular one, that 
whenever a visit to a village school is paid unexpec- 
tedly the attendance is found very mucn lower than 
that entered in the roll of the day before, whilst the 
entry for the current day is still blank. The in- 
ference is that the muster is unduly swelled, not 
invariably by totally false entries but by the adjustment of children who appear for a few moments only, 
or by the entry of infants who are hardly of an age to learn. The universality of such an experience 
except in the schools at the head-quarters of the subdivision or in other towns points to some result 
very similar to that shown in the Oensus returns. There is a further matter to notice, which is that 
the efficiency of the primary and other schools is tested annually by an examination conducted under 
general rules and fixed standards. The results of these examinations are given in the director's report, 
and show that for the^Presidency Division, excluding the capital, the number of girls in primary schools, 
and we need regard no others for the present purpose, who were presented for examination at the 
annual meeting was only 34 per cent on the number on the register of the schools examined. This 
seems to offer prima facie corroboration of what was inferred above, unless the permission to attend the 
examination is purposely withheld from a large proportion who are not considered prepared.* It will 





Boys. 


Girls. 


nUtrict and Division. 


Census 
Return. 


Depart, 
mental 

Be. 
turn.* 


Oensus 
Return. 


Depart, 
mental 

Re- 
turn.* 


AhmedibAd 

Kaira 

PanohMah&U - 

Bmach - . . - 

Surat .... 


14^6 
18.718 
2.168 
9.067 
16.260 


12,896 
16.212 
2.676 
12,225 
18,616 


660 

356 

66 

273 

1,113 


118 

409 

1,414 


Northern niTiaion - 


64^480 


61.686 


2,468 


4300 


Kh&ndesh .... 
NAmk .... 
Ahmednagar . . • 


1^277 

8,664 

10.008 


17.842 
10.896 
9.687 


167 
267 
469 


760 

432 

1387 


North-Bastom Division - 


33.943 


37306 


883 


2.669 


Poona .... 
8hol4pTir - - . - 
S4t&ni .... 
ThAna ... - 
KolAba .... 
RatnAjriri. . . . - 

Add ^ice Mid jaU sphoois 


17.863 
8.795 
13,719 
10.991 
5.317 
14,104 
36,496 


18,752 
6303 

12318 
8,691 
4,447 
9.017 

12,161 
410 


1,096 
204 
182 
671 
172 
215 

8,844 


977 
245 
278 
628 
78 
305 
2371 


Central Divirion - 


106,285 


67.799 


11383 


6377 


Belgaum . . • > 
DhirwAr . . - - 
KalidRl .... 
KAnara .... 


13.113 
19.623 
8.666 
8.046 


11327 
19316 
7348 
6.766 


401 
714 
168 
368 


1,720 
624 
668 


Southern Division - 


40348 


44341 


1,636 


8,787 


Karichi .... 
HyderabAd .... 
ShikArpur .... 
Thar and PArkar 
Upper Sind Frontier 


6.081 

8,404 

10.996 

1,128 

807 


4^044 

4360 

6340 

820 

296 


791 

699 

629 

41 

41 


537 
001 
489 

54 


Sind .... 


27.413 


16,669 


2,201 


1,691 


Grand Total - - - 


271.469 


228,139 


18,460 


17.864 



* Special Return, Appendix O. of Director's Report for 1880-81 
These figures do not tally witli those given on the next page. 





Per-oentage on Number of Girls on 

Register of 31st of March (Primary 

Schools only). 


Division. 


(a.| Those in 

DailyAtSend- 

ance for the 

Year. 


(6.) Those 

presented 

for 

Examination. 


turned as 

under 
Instruction 
at Census. 


1. Central, excluding 

Bombay City 

2. North-Bastem 

4. Southern • 


68 
63 
64 

04 


30 
28 
36 

27 


97-3 
34*4 
54-6 
48-0 


Total, without Sind 
and Bombay 


60 


34 


65-7 



'* The fact that the majority of the girls are studying the first standard in which there is no annual exami- 
nation has been brought forward in explanation of the discrepancy between the muster and the examination 
return. 



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Ixxxv 

be seen that in the North Deccan, where the Census return amounts to no more than 34 per cent, on 
the departmental register, the per-centage of girls examined was but 22 on the same record, and in the 
Karnitic Division the ratios were respectively 27 and 43 '9. TTie two rise concomitantly with each 
other in the other divisions, but taking the Presidency Division as a whole, and leaving out the capital, 
the Census shows only 55*7 per cent of the female pupils down on the school registers.* If the 
registers for the boys' schools be compared in a similar manner, it will be seen that the per-centage of 
attendance on the total enrolled is on an average 70, and that of the number examined 50. 

A more interesting return published by the educational authorities is that of the different classes 
attending the various grades of institutions. This is given below for the aggregate of the two 
classes of State and aided institutions, omitting those not in connexion witn the Educational 
Departmentt : — 





Males. 


Females. 


Class. 


Total 

on 
BoUs. 


Institution. 


Per-ceutage of each Class on 

Total attending each 

Institution. 


Total 

on 
Bolls. 


Per- 

of akcn 

ClaMS 

on Total 

Pupils. 


Peiw 
oentage 

of 
Female 
Pupils 

to 
Male. 




OoUege. 


High and 
iTiddle 
Schools. 


Primary 
Schools. 


Others. 


Colleges. 


Schools. 


Primaiy 
Schools.. 


Br^hnuuis . . • 
Kshatria .... 
Writers - - - . 
Traders . . - - 
Shopkeepers . . . 
Artizans • ... 
CttUivators • - 

Depressed Castes 

Other Hindoos - - • 

Jains . . . . 
PArsis .... 

Mahammedans ... 

European Christians 

Eurasian do. 

Native do. - - - 

Aboriginals 

Others . - . - 


58^1 
6,618 
4.778 

25,996 
7.629 

21.659 

66.283 
7.266 
2,286 

10,235 

18.436 
6,060 
31.317 

1.577 

288 

2,976 

2,020 
604 


0-7 
0*4 
1-2 
0-3 

6-3 

4-2 
1*8 


9-0 
4-8 
27-3 
6-6 
2*4 
8*0 
1*3 
1*8 
2*4 

43*6 
2-4 

06*4 
99*0 
65*7 


80*6 
94*4 
71*0 
93-0 
97*3 
96-G 
98*6 
06*2 
96*8 

96'6 
60*0 
97*1 

41-6 
99*0 


0*7 

0*4 

0*5 

0*2 

0*3 

0*4^ 

0-2 

0'6 

0*8 

1*3 

0-4 
0*8 


87-7 
2*4 
5*6 

8*2 

2*4 

0*8 

0-6 
29*4 
1*6 

61 
6-1 

0*1 


28*8 
1*7 
7*2 
9-2 
1*0 
3*6 
4*7 
rf-6 
0*3 
1-6 

3*1 
14*4 
4*1 

8*8 
1*9 
9*1 

0*6 


21*0 
8-6 
1*4 
9*7 
2-9 
8*4 

26*2 
2*8 
0*9 
3*9 

5*2 
1*2 

12*2 

0*6 

0*8 
0*4 


8,128 
467 
766 

1.794 
853 

1,654 

1.928 
218 
109 
663 

736 
1,766 
1.174 

760 

29 

931 

19 
68 


19*1 
2*8 
4*7 

10*0 
2*2 
9*6 

11*8 
1-8 
0*6 
3*4 

4*6 

10*8 

7*2 

4-6 
6*7 

1*8 


6*4 
7-0 
160 
6*1 
4*6 
7*1 
2*9 
3-0 
4-9 

5*4 
29*1 
8*7 

47-6 
10*1 
81*3 


Total pupils ... 


200.101 


0-4 


6*8 


92*4 


0*4 


100*0 


100*0 


100*0 


16,340 


100-0 


60-4 



I have here shown two series of ratios. First the distribution of each class amongst the different 
grades of institution, secondly, the number of each class that contribute to fill the different grades. 
The return needs little comment. The Br&hmans, it will be seen, contribute in the highest degree to 
the upper grade of institutions, but the Pirsis come near them as to attendance at colleges, and the 
cultivators are in excess, though very slightly in the primary schools. The other part of the table 
indicates that of all classes represented in the return barring the Europeans and Eurasians, the Pdrsis 
and writers are those which as a community devote themselves to the highest grade of instruction. 
The Br&hman, though ho is proportionately well represented in all these institutions, shows a larger 
proportion under elementary instruction, as must be expected from the way this order is scattered over 
the villages of the Presidency Division. I'he Mahammedans and all the other Hindoos except the 
two classes mentioned above, have more than 90 per cent., and most of them over 05 per cent, oi their 
school-going children in attendance at institutions of not higher grade than the primary school. 

Comparison with the Returns for 1872. 

A comparison of the educational statistics of the two enumerations brings to light an amount of 
difference in the circumstances of some of the districts which cannot be set down to me actual progress 

* Even the addition of the girls knowing how to read and write will not suffice in all cases to make np the 
deficiency. 

t It is worth while to discriminate between the Arts and the Professional colleges shown in the text under a 
single heading. Thus of the 643 Hindoos attending this clasa of institution, 352 are at the Arts, and 271 at the 
Professional colleges. Of the latter, 111 are studying law, 65 medicine, and 95 engineering or other applied 
science. There are 120 Farsis at the Arts Colleges against 198 attending the technical institutions, of the latter 
128 study medicine. The comparatively small number of Europeans and Eurasians, and, indeed, Christians of all 
three races attending the Arts Colleges is very remarkable, of 121 at college at all, only 9 are at this class of 
institution. There are 86 studying medicine and 25 at the Poena College of Science. One Native Christian is 
recorded at the law school. The Mahammedans on college rolls number only 17, of whom 5 are at the Science 
College, 3 study law, 3 medicine, and the remaining 6 are at the Arts institutions, j 

Ee 3 



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Ixxxvi 

of instruction, either State or private, but must have it origin in defective returns. The table below 
gives the figures for the Census of 1872, with the relative variations that have apparently taken place in 
both sexes since that time. According to this return, there has been an increase amounting to more 
than 82 per cent, in the number of educated females, and of over 16 per cent, in that of males similarly 
endowed. Taking the two degrees of instruction separately, the ratio of increase in the pupils has been 
16*4 per cent, in the case of males, and 76 per cent, in that of the other sex ; but amongst the literate, 
the increase has been nearly the same in the case of males as that just mentioned, but the literate 
females have increased by more than 85 per cent. The largest proportional increase, if the capital city 
be excepted, is in Sind, where it amounts to 22*6 and 84'4 in the two sexes respectively. The arrange- 
ment of the territorial divisions according to the Educational Departmental scheme entails the inclusion 
of Bombay in the Central Division, the ratios of which, therefore, are very much raised above those of 
the others, as it is in this city that the most remarkable increase has taken place in both sexes. If 
Sind be omitted, Kh&ndesh, Thdna, Kaira, and E&nara show the greatest increase in the number of 
educated males, and the Konkan generally has a very high ratio of increase in the case of women also. 
If the two exceptional districts of Ndsik and Ahmednagar, in which there is a decrease, be set on one 
side for the present, the average increase is least in the Kam&tic, though very low in Gujar&t also. In 
the latter division the females show the lowest ratio of increase, though in no district is an actual 
decrease apparent, as there is in the case of the other sex. The comparatively low rate prevailing in 
the famine tract will be noticed in the case of males but this peculiarity is entirely absent as* far as the 
females are concerned. Of the three districts in which the increase has been, apparently, remarkably 
small, I can only offer an explanation in the case of Belgaum, where the return according to religions 
shows that the comparatively small advance is due to the diminution of the garrison of European troops 
there, wherebv a considerable number of women able to read and write are removed. The Panch 
Mahals and Ahmedabdd return is probably erroneous, especially the latter, as will appear in connexion 
with the return of religions. 





Number Returned in 1872. 


Per-centage of 
Variation in Number 


District and Division. 


Males. 


Females. 


of Educated in 
1881. 




Pupils. 


Literate. 


Total 
Educated. 


Pupils. 


Literate. 


Total 
Educated. 


Males. 


Females. 


Ahmedibid . 

Kaira - - . - 

Panch Mah^ - 

Broach - - - - 

Surat - - - - 


14,686 

11,709 

2,081 

7,173 

14,058 


44,671 
28,160 
6,205 
25,458 
39,594 


59,307 
39,869 
8,236 
32,626 
58,652 


736 
120 
78 
316 
823 


930 
206 
107 
343 
1,255 


1,666 
326 
185 
659 

2,048 


+ 5-09 
+ 20-28 
+ 10-19 
+ 7-64 
+ 15-75 


+ 13-62 
+ 7116 
+ 5-40 
+ 22-00 
59-57 


Northern Division - 


49,607 


144,083 


193,690 


2,073 


2,811 


4,884 


+ 11-82 


+ 43-73 


Khindesh 

N&6ik .... 

Ahmodnagar . • - 


12,715 

8,465 

10,574 


25,429 
21,649 
22,784 


38,144 
30,114 
33,358 


182 
109 
236 


86 
286 
241 


268 
395 
477 


+ 21-32 

- 2-09 

- 4-48 


+ 61-19 
+ 83-79 
+ 89-10 


North-Eastem Division - 


31,754 


69,862 


101,616 


527 


613 


1,140 


+ 5-91 


+ 80-07 


Poona - - - - 

ShoUpu - - 

Satdra- 

Thana - - . - 

Koldba 

Batniigiri- - - - 

Bombay City - 


16,937 
8,760 

12,965 
9,067 
4,849 

14,754 

20,307 


37,583 
22,761 
24,070 
20,408 
10,313 
26,651 
70,262 


53,520 
31,521 
37,035 
29,475 
15,162 
41,405 
90,569 


558 
92 
60 

336 
80 

107 
4,562 


941 

60 

138 

229 

53 

75 

9,958 


1,499 
152 
198 
565 
133 
182 
14,517 


+ 3-18 

- 12-3 
+ 11-8 
+ 20-10 
+ 15-21 

- 6-25 
+ 66-96 


+ 92-99 
+ 234-2 
+ 97-4 
+ 106-72 
+ 149-62 
+ 141-21 
+ 95-40 


Central Division 


86,639 


212,148 


298,787 


5,795 


11,451 


17,246 


+ 24-61 


+ 97-19 


Belgaum - - - 

Dhirwdr - - - - 

EaliLdgi 

Kdnara - - - - 


13,284 

18,464 

8,732 

6,047 


22,054 
28,934 
16,520 
17,127 


35,338 
47,398 
25,252 
23,174 


392 
315 
114 
194 


296 

211 

61 

219 


688 
526 
175 
413 


+ 7-59 
+ 8-61 
+ 4-01 
+ 19-46 


+ 11-92 
+ 118-82 
+ 96-57 
+ 70-70 


Southern Division 


46,527 


84,635 


131,162 


1,015 


787 


1,802 


+ 9-38 


+ 64-82 


Kardchi . - - - 

Hyderabad - 

Shikirpnr 

Thar and Pdrkar 

Upper Sind Frontier 


4,876 

5,819 

7,341 

724 

332 


16,312 

19,147 

23,926 

4,359 

2,811 


21,183 

24,466 

31,267 

5,088 

3,143 


462 

400 

199 

8 

5 


776 

616 

255 

9 

9 


1,238 

1,016 

454 

17 

14 


+ 16-31 
+ 17-08 
+ 32-24 
+ 9-48 
+ 33-44 


+ 5912 
+ 7312 
+ 144-05 

» 

• 


Sind - - - 


18,592 


66,655 


85,147 


1,074 


1,665 


2,739 


+ 22-60 


+ 84-37 


Railways - 


— 


1,757 


1,757 


— 


263 


263 


-100-00 


-100-00 


Grand total - 


238,119 


579,040 


812,159 


10,484 


17,590 


28,074 


+ 16-28 


+ 82-04 



Under 100 persons. 



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Ixxxvii 





Per^sentage of Variation in 1881. 


Educational Division. 


Hindoos. 






Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Northern - 

Central - 

Southern - 

Bind - - - 


+ 9*64 
+ 1*09 
+16*80 
+ 7*76 


+186-60 
+126*52 
+126*97 
+ 97-45 


+28*88 
+16-66 
+77*99 
+80-64 
+20*98 


- 20*82 

- 25-21 
+240*68 
+100*52 
+ 66*66 


Total • - . 


— 


— 


+48-83 


+100*72 


Total (excluding Bind) - 


+10*41 


+124*87 


+48-61 


+188*12 



It will be recollected that when discussing the distribution of the population by religion in Chapter 

III.; I remarked that the discrepancy of numbers in 
the returns of the two enumerators must be due in 
some cases to erroneous tabulation. I will therefore 
only take up the two main religions in this place, and 
give the variations that have apparently occurred in 
them as regards the state of education amongst their 
population as brieflly as possible. As far as Hindoos 
are concerned, it is as well to omit Sind from con- 
sideration, as the discrepancy in numbers between 
the two tables is enormous. The marginal table 
gives the relative increase in the rest of the Presi- 
dency. Comparing the result with that in the former 
table for the aggregate of all religions, it appears that 
the rate of increase amongst Hindoo males is less by 
more than one half that of the male community as a whole, whilst that of the females of this religion is 
above the average in nearly the same proportion. The Mahammedan males, if Sind be omitted, show 
a ratio of increase .nearly thrice as high as that of the entire male community in the aggregate, and 
more than 43 per cent, including that division. The increase amongst the females of this faith is still 
higher than amongst the same sex of the Hindoos, but the increase has been less in the Mahammedan 
Province of Sind Sian elsewhere, except in Gujar&t and the North Deccan, where there is a decrease. 
In the case of Gujarat this is really due to wrong tabulation in Ahmed&bfi,d in 1872, as the rest of the 
districts of this division, all but the Panch Mah&ls, where there is an insignificant falling off, show an 
increase, and there are other peculiarities about the return for Mahammedans in Ahmeddb&d in that 
year that induce me to think that the work of compilation was too hurried then to be correct. As 
regards the North-East Division, a decrease is apparent in two districts, with a considerable increase in 
the third. I see no reason that the Mahammedan return should have been worse abstracted in 1881 
than the rest, but as I know that some of the work of compiling and tabulating the schedules for 
Khfindesh and Ahmedna^ar was entrusted to the newer gangs of clerks at the Central Office in Poena, 
I can quite believe that the decrease shown against these districts is due to mistakes on the present 
occasion and not, as in Ahmeddb&d, to those made in 1872. On the other hand, the Hindoo women of 
these districts show, in 1881', a considerable increase in the ranks of the educated. As the variation in 
the Central Division is so great in the case of the Mahammedans, it is as well to withdraw from that 
area the return for the city of Bombay, when the ratio of increase is reduced to 28 per cent, in the case 
of the men and 101 amongst the other sex. 

As it is not worth while to review in more detail the statistics for different religions, I proceed to give 
a short abstract of the main points that are worthy of interest in the returns of the present and last 
Census regarding the state of education in the capital city. 



Bombay City. 

The inclusion of the statistics for this city in the general tables for the Presidency with which I have 
been dealing in the preceding portion of tms chapter has enabled the reader to see the main features of 
the condition of the inhabitants jus regards education and the wide difference there is in this respect 
between it and the rest of the Presidency. It was not found convenient to abstract the details of 
instruction according to more minute divisions that those noted in several of the other chapters of this 
work, and as the Christians have been already distinguished by race in a former table and the PArsis 
Jains, and Mahammedans do not possess in their communities the wide distinctions of caste that the 
Hindoos do, it is enough for me to run over one or two of the main features of the return for some of 
the divisions of the last-named religion. 

The leading facts about the relative degrees of instruction in the three divisions of the Hindoos are 
given in the following table : — 





Per-centages. 


Instraction. 


Males. 


Females. 






Depressed 
Castes. 


Other 
Hindoos. 


Br&hmans. 


Depressed 
Castes. 


Other 
Hindoos. 


L— Of all Ages. 

(a.) Pupils - - - - 
(6.) Literate . - - - 
(c.) lUiterate - - - - 

II.—Betwbrn 5 AMD 16. 

(a.) Pupils and literate 

(6.) Illiterate . - - - 

in.— Over 15. 

(a.) Pupils and literate 

(6.) lUiterate - . . - 


14*69 
60-12 
25-19 

80-21 
19-79 

79-59 
20-41 


1-96 
15-60 
92-24 

11-80 
88-70 

7-95 
92-05 


5-76 
18-53 
75-71 

82*43 
67-57 

24-83 
75-17 


2-98 

6-60 

90-57 

19-73 
80-27 

8-06 
91-94 


0-21 

0-59 

99-10 

1*32 
98-68 

0-79 
99-21 


1-27 

2-72 

96-01 

9-42 
90-58 

2-92 
97-08 



From this it appears that whilst the average of all three classes is greatlv above that found in the 
corresponding castes in the rural districts of the Presidency, it is amongst tne lowest class that the 



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Ixxxviii 



gi*eatest advance is perceptible, and this in the case of both sexes, though less markedly amongst 
the women and girls than amongst males. The ratio is somewhat raised in the case of the general body 
of Hindoos by the inclusion of some classes of traders who are probably nearly as widely educated in 
this city as the Brihmans, but their weight is nevertheless greatly neutralized by the numerical supe- 
riority of the Mar&thfis and other castes from the Deccan and coast districts, amongst whom the 
majority are found to be illiterate. 

The next point to bring to notice is the. difference between the return for 1872 and that for the 

• I, ift7o present Census. Unfortunately, as regards the Hindoos, on the former 

Comparison with 1872. occasion the distinctions of caste or claas were not observed even to the 

extent that they have been at the present tabulation. It is therefore only possible for us to compare 

the details of religion. TTie following table shows the per-centages of education in the case of the main 

sections of the community : — 





Hales. 


Pemalofl. 


Religion. 


Pupils. 


Literate. 


Illiterate. 


Pupils. 


Literate. 


niiterate. 




1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


1878. 


1881. 


1872. 


1881. 


Total population - 


6-08 


7-6 


17-67 


24-9 


77-86 


67-6 


1-86 


2-87 


406 


6*88 


04*08 


00*80 


Hindoo ... - 


807 


6-1 


14-52 


20-6 


81*61 


73-8 


0-68 


1-26 


1-67 


2-78 


07*76 


06-08 




3-37 


7-0 


10-18 


21-1 


86-46 


71-9 


0*80 


8-06 


8*06 


8*06 


08*14 


88*00 


Gonstian • * • ■ 


7-01 


iro 


88-80 


41-9 


64' 10 


47-1 


6-3-1 


12-27 


21*10 


24-25 


72-56 


68*48 


Jain 


4-50 


9-4 


44 94 


62-9 


60-66 


27-7 


0-78 


1-80 


1*03 


8-80 


07*20 


0400 


P&rsi and others - 


20-60 


230 


40-42 


M-9 


38-89 


26-1 


11-24 


12-01 


10-77 


32-62 


68-00 


64-67 



Both amongst males and females there has been considerable progress in the spread of instruction, 
though probably tJtie influx of labourers of both sexes has had the effect of making the results appear 
lower amongst the Hindoos than would have been the case had the indigenous and permanent popula- 
tion alone been taken into consideration. There has been, it appears, an advance in both the pupil and 
the literate divisions, but it is in the latter that it is most marked, especially in the case of the Maham- 
medan and Jain males. The P&rsis, owing to the amalgamation of the different races of Christians 
into one heading, appear as the best educated community, but taking into consideration the literate 
only, iie large immigration of Jain merchants and brokers from R^jputfina during the last few years 
has given to the latter sect the greatest proportion of men who can read and write. The ratio of the 
totally illiterate has changed least in the Christians and Hindoos. The cause of this want of movement 
in the latter body has been just mentioned, whilst the results of the increased number of Europeans on 
the educational status of the Christian community has been neutralised, in all probability, by the pro- 
portionately greater immigration of native converts from Goa and the coast. As regards the female 
population, the very large increase in the ratio of the educated amongst the Parsis is to be specially 
noticed ; in other respects the course of the variation has been very much similar to that just noticed 
with regard to iJie males. 
The component elements of the two chief cities of India are, as will be more clearly shown in the 
r^ ' -i.!- i^ 1 xi. next chapter, so very different, that considerable variation in the 

Companaon with Calcutta. educational quality of the population is only to be expected. The 

marginal table gives the ratios for the total population and tlie three main religious bodies of Bombay 

and Calcutta. Taking first the Christians, the effect 
on the average in Bombay of the large body of native 
converts from the coast is perceptible in the low pro- 
portion of the educated of both sexes, as compared to 
that in Calcutta, where the European and mixed 
element is much more prominent. Then, again, it 
will be noticed, that the least educated class in the 
latter city are the Mahammedans, who are in Bombay 
above the Hindoos in this respect. Probably the 
reason is, that in Calcutta this class performs a large 

Proportion of the labour done in Bombay by the 
lindoos, who, accordingly, in the latter town bear a 
lower ratio in point of education. The superiority in the Bombay population, as a whole, is very slight 
in the case of the males, but very marked amongst the other sex, especially in the case of the Maham- 
medans. It is probable, too, that the presence of the P^rsis, who are, as we have seen above, keenly 
alive to the advantages of an educated female copnmunity, contribute in no small degree to swell the 
ratio of the educated of this sex. The returns of the preceding enumerations of Calcutta are given in 
two portions, one for the town itself, the other for the suburbs, the latter of which were not enumerated 
simultaneously with the former. Trustworthy comparison, therefore, is impracticable, but taking the 
whole return as it stands, the progress in education, even in the town, has been considerably slower than 
in Bombay, though, as in the latter city, it is amongst the female section of the community that the 
advance has been the more marked. Like Bombay, however, Calcutta itself furnishes but a compara- 
tively small proportion of the inhabitants enumerated there at a special time, such as the Census, and 
if the population changes with the season, as it does in the capital of this Presidency, comparisons 
between enumerations taken at such an interval as nine or ton years, must necessarily bring to light 
wide and extraordinary differences, not only in the numbers, but in the constitution, quality, and 
circumstances of the people. 





Per^^ntage of Pupil and Literate. 


Religion. 


Males. 


Females. 




Bombay. 


Calcutta. 


Bombay. 


Calcutta. 


Hindoos • 
Mahammedans 
Christians • 


«6-7 
28-1 
62-9 

S2'5 


36-0 
U-2 
79-0 


8-97 
6-01 
36-61 


6-8 
1-0 
67-1 


Total - 


311 


9-20 


6*6 



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Ixxxix 

Note.— It may be interesting to compare the state of education in this Presidency with that in other 
parts of India for which the returns were not made available by the time the greater portion of this 
work wafl prepared. The following statement shows the relative proportions of me pupils, literate and 
illiterate, in tne entire population of all ages returned for the British territory of the different Provinces 
selected: — 





Males. 


Females. 


PirOTlIlC6. 


Per-centage of 


Serial 
Order. 


Fer-oentage of 


Serial 




Pnpils. 


Literate. 


imterate. 


Pupils. 


Literate. 


Illiterate. 


Order. 


Madras* .... 
Bombay .... 

Bengal* .... 
Punjab .... 
Berilr . . - - 
North- West Provinoes 
Central Proyinces ... 
Assam - - - - 


8*49 
8*19 
2-99 
1-54 
1-98 
l«dO 
1-65 
1*88 


10-26 
7-92 
5-90 
4-72 
4-19 
4-51 
8-17 
818 


86*25 
88-89 
91-11 
94-19 
98-88 
94-19 
95-28 
95-49 


1 
2 
8 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 


0-26 
0*28 
0-11 
0-07 
0-08 
0-04 
0-06 
0-04 


0-62 
0-41 
0-18 
0-09 
0-06 
0-10 
0-09 
0-07 


99 12 
99-86 
99-71 
99-84 
99*91 
99-86 
99-85 
99-89 


1 
2 
8 
4 

8 
6 
5 

7 



* Batio to those returning their education only. Those not enumerated are excluded from the total. 

Thus Madras stands in the first place with respect to the education of both males and females, and 
is the only Province in which there were, on the whole, more than 8 in 1,000 of tho latter sex not 
wholly illiterata Bombay comes next, and though the distance between it and Bengal is less than 
between it and Madras, as regards the proportion of illiterate males, this is not the case with the other 
sex. The education of males has apparently made least progress in Assam and the Central Provinces, 
whilst Berar, Assam, and the North-West Provinces are the regions in which the proportion of females 
learning or educated is lowest The returns for a few of the minor administrations have not yet been 
received, and those for British Burmah, where the village monastery system lenjcls such aid to 
elementary instruction, show that the education of the masses in that Province, as fax as the branches 
of reading and writing are concerned, is very much in advance of what is found to be the case in the 
rest of India. 



Y 5747. 



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APPENDIX H. 



MR. BAINES ON OASTE ANI> OTHER SOCIAL DIVISIONS IN- T«& BOMBAY 

PRESIDENCY, 



Compaitetive Table of Caste, sho 



the relative Strength and Distribution of the main Sabdivisions 
Race in the Presidency Division.* 



Class, Group, and Subdivision. 


Per-centa^ of 

Subdivision 

on Total 

Population of 
eaoh Class. 


Territorial Distribution of 1,000 Persons of each 
Subdivision. 


Gujar&t. 


Eonkan. 


Deocan. 


Kam&tic. 


Bombay 

aty. 


A, HINDOOS (11,777,984) - - 


-«. 


191 


162 


895 


209 


48 


Class I.— B&Xhmans (5*53 psb obnt.) 


— 


221 


163 


348 


219 


48 


Mahdrdshira. 














Desbasth .-.•-• 
Konkanasth * - - *■ - * 

KarhW6 

Deornkha - - - - - - 

Undawminated - - . - - 


87-30 

12-17 

8-54 

1-07 

1-97 


4 
2 
7 
8 


48 , 

586 
675 
932 


686 

354 

238 

60 


267 
58 
85 


1/>00 


Gujardt. 

Aodich - • -' 

An4wala - - - :. - . . .- 

Mew4da 

Modh - . - - - ' - 
N&gar - . - . - - 
Undenammated - - - - - 


5-82 
8-79 
1-60 
1-80 
1*08 
2-86 


989 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 

942 


7 

8 
78 


r4 

42 

96 


i 

8 - 
2 


829 


Gaud. 










- 




S^Lraswat ---.-- 

S&Bhtekor 

Shenvi - • - - - — 
Eanojia (Einkubja) .... 
Undenominated . . - - - 


2-04 
1-36 
1-82 
0-98 
3-44 


88 

8 

110 

24 


26 

154 

90 
641 


82 

92 

696 

95 


909 
1,000 
.708 . 

104 
28 


88 
217 


Karn&tio— Havik . - . - - 


6-10 


— 


— 


— 


1,000 


— 
















Gujartti ...--- 

Maritha 

HindustUmi - - - 

KamAtic (Chattri) 

Undenommated 


49-80 
11-38 
24-46 
12-79 
2*07 


1,000 


22 
5 


530 
958 

112 


448 

47 

1,000 


888 


Class IIL— Wbitebs (0*21 peb gent.). 














Biahmakshatria - *- • • - 

Parbhu, Kdyasth 

., P^t&nfi 

Kiyasth 


12-98 

55-50 

21-74 

5-27 


677 

19 

9 

815 


15 
745 
42 ' 
12 


128 

128 

61 

96 


5 


180 

108 

888 

72 


Class IV.— Tbadbrs (8*70 peb okht.). 














MardthL 














Bhittia 

Lob6na 

Wiaati, Mardtki 

„ Vaish 

„ Lmgaiat ... ^^^....^ 


8-08 

5-13 

10-34 

8-78 


189 
846 


85 

87 

450 

512 

^... 76 


98 

2 

854 

842 

908 


14 
146 


714 
615 
196 

21 


GujdrdtL 








. 






WAnia Sbrimffli 

„ LAd 

„ Modh 

„ Ehed^yata . - . - - 
„ Gujardti . - - - - 
„ M&w4di 

„ Undenominated . - . - 


2*28 
4*50 
2-96 
8-57 

14-81 
5-81 

16-42 


983 

208 

1,000 

989 

10 

899 

8 


80 

6 
65 

28 


17 
553 

5 

647 
559 
145 


170 

8 
14 

847 


89 
270 


Class V.— Abtizans (10-87 pbb cbmt.) 














(a.) TexHU Fabrics. 














Koshti 

Khatri - - - - - 

SAU 

Banff&ri (Bangrez) . - - - 
Daiji (Shimpi) - - - . - 
Bhausir ------ 


6-14 
2-42 
8-16 
1-00 
7-48 
0-92 


447 
8 

185 
898 


18 
12 
63 

64 


470 
173 
821 
687 
521 
1. 


508 

98 
298 
144 

16 


9 
368 
20 
15 
86 
90 



* In Sind castes were not tabulated in detail. 



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Fer-oentage of 
Sabdivinon 


Territorial Distribution of 1,000 Persons of each 
Snbdiyision. 




on Totel 












VU XVHIft- - 

Population of 














each Class. 


Gig^ 


Konkan. 


Deccan. 


Eam&tic. 


Bombay 
City. 


(6.) Metals, 














Sonir ...... 


10*19 


181 


. 188 


462 


145 


74 


Loli£r 


5-01 


372 


81 


898 


87 


62 


Kasiur and T&mbat 


2*48 


99 


186 


566 


20 


129 


(c.) BuUding and Earthenwire. 














Sutar --...- 


9*67 


281 


208 


438 


93 


30 


Gaan£ (Kadia) 


2-27 


120 


8 


55 


808 


. 14 


Eambhl^ 


9*71 


362 


159 


835 


114 


80 


(d) Leather. 














ChambhiLr (Ehilpa) - • • - - 


12'74 


217 


149 


509 


87 


88 


HocU 


1*69 


604 


17 


108 


6 


265 


Dhor (Dabgar) 


1*00 


89 


10 


653 


248 


— 


(e.) 














Tel CQWuichi) 


18*73 


804 


110 


878 


381 


27 


Class yi.—AosiCDLTUBin8 (55*25 pbb cbnt.)* 




• 










Knnbi (MariUha) - - - - 


52*89 


1 


255 


611 


81 


52 


Koli,MarAtha 


8-75 




... 


858 


102 


45 


Koli, Eonlcam 


1*84 


_ 


898 


_ 





107 


Kanbi^Xewa < 


8*82 


1,000 


^ 


_- 





— 


„ Kadwa 


1-54 


1,000 


— 


— 


— 


— i 


Koli,Talabda 


9-82 


1,000 


■ 


m^m 


.. 


^ 


„ Gojar&ti (iiDspe<nfled) 


1-80 


1,000 


— 


... 


.- 


— 


Mali .....-- 


8*87 


21 


78 


825 


89 


37 


Bhandari - 


1*48 


^ 


83 


102 


865 


— 


2** 62 





951 


-„■ 


.. 


49 


2-07 


26' 


648 


3 


120 


206 


Dnbla - - - - - I - 


1-68 


S98 


102 







... 


Panehamsili ..... 


4*44 






... 


1,000 


— 


Hflepaik ' - 


0-66 


.^ 


_ 


— 


1,000 


.— 


Tingftinf. Siidar - - • . - . 


0*68 


-^ 


— 


— 


1,000 


.— 


„ xmpwfLed - - - . - 


1-68 


— 


— 


— 


1,000 


— 


Kaddi 


0*90 


— 


— 


21 


979 


— 


Crjksii YII. — Shxphbbids, &c. (5 '85 fbb gemx.)* 














Dhangar (Korbar) -' - - - - 


68*58 


^ 


22 


458 


516 


4 


Wanfira 


15*38 


21 


88 


912 


4 


25 


Gauii - 


5*60 


3 


599 


220 


68 


115 


Bharwfid 


4*60 


i,ood 





.. 


— 


... 


Rabfci - 


8*81 


1,000- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Class VIJLL.— £*ishxbs and Sailobs (1*35 pbb 




1 ■ 










GENT.). 




' 










Bhoi ...... 


82-79 


88k 


144 


346 


87 


43 


M&chbi - 


20*82 


774 


192 


— 


-. 


84 


Gibit - - . . - - 


11*50 


-.^ . 


850 


- 1 


149 


• ^^ 


Ambi 


8*49 


_' - 


.. 


..' 


1,000 


^ 


Mog^r 


2*82 


_' 


— 


... 


1,000 


.- 


MangOa - - - - - - 


7*51 


51 


921 


1 


..- 


27 


Khirwa - - - . . - 


17*82 


249 


852 


— 


219 


180 


Class IX.— Fsssoital SKRVARts (1*76 per 














CUIVT.)* 














HnJ£m(NhW) 


66*16 


280 


116 


457 


150 


47 


Dhobi 


514 


448 


^ 


16 


— 


541 


Pant 


28*70 


— 


110 


540 


332 


18 


CI.A88 X.— MnfOB Pbopbssions (0*84 pbb 














GBMT.). 














Gnrao - - - - - - 


51*88 


..» 


879 


581 


68 


34 


Bh£t(Bhirot) - - . • - 


15*15 


821 


18 


168 


8 


— 


Chiran - - - . ^ 


6*58 


1,000 


... 


_ 


— 


.1^ 


Gondhali 


6*88 


_ 


124 


694 


182 


_ 


Dcoli 


8*91 


2 


147 


1 


850 


.- 


W^antri (Kabateria) .... 


8*72 


978 


— 


.— 


22 


— 


Bhawiya -.---- 
Kolhid (Domb^) 


2*24 


1,000. 


-— 


.— 


— 


.— 


8*77 


5 


129 


865 


1 


— 


Class XL— Deyotbks, &o. (0*58 feb gent.)* 














GorilTi - 


49*16 


178 


156 


569 


40 


57 


Josbi (Saraude) - . . - - 
Bairigi 


10*19 


— 


145 


835 


20 


.» 


7-67 


_ 


49 


930 


21 


^ 


SidhB (nnspeofied) 


14*68 


1,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Class XII.— Befsbsssd Castes (9*31 feb 














GENT.). 














Dfaed (BfaUir) . . ^ . . 


77*75 


159 


201 


498 


104 


88 


Ming ...... 


14*69 


1 


6 


546 


488 


14 


Bhangi 


8*98 


897 


8 


44 


5 


46 



Pf 2 



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Per-centage of 
Subdivision 


Territorial Distribution of 1,000 Persons of each 








Subdivision. 






Clan, Group, and Subcliviaion. 


on Total 
























Population of 




• 






Bombay 




each Class. 


Gi^ar&t 


Konkan. 


Deccan. 


Kam&tic 


Class Xin.— Laboubers and MisaELLANBOus 














(8 'OS PEB CENT.). 














Berad ' - 


83-18 


^ 


_ 


36 


964 


.^ 


Waddar - - 


15-82 


_ 


" 26 


276 


698 


_ 


Bimoahi 


12-07 


«^ 


2 


994 


4 


__ 


Sfl •. -. •. •- -. : 


8-99 


987 


.^ 


8 





10 


8-84 


-^ 














Kam6tlii - - ... 


8-13 


6 


82 


• 234 


120 


608 


Korvi 


8-96 





_ 


Jl. 


1,000 


_ 


T^if^fa ...... 


4-08 


181 


49 


57 


768 


— 


B.— ABOBIGINAL OR FOREST TRIBES 


_ 


822 


278 


403 


_ 


2 


(702,157). 














BhU 


49-45 


811 


1 


688 


... 


._ 


Thttur 


13-75 





670 


821 





9 


Wirii 


11-86 


9 


872 


126 





.1. 


Kithodi (Kithkari) . - . . 


7-77 


2 


940 


55 


3 





Dhodia - 


7-67 


895 


105 


.^ 


.... 





N«k(Naikada) 


3-74 


1,QOO 


_ 





_ 





Chhodra ...--. 


4-91 


1,000 


_ 


— 


' — 


— 


Gimtha - - - - ^ - 


1-20 


1,000 


— 


— ^ 


., — 


— 


a— JATNS (216,038) 


,__ 


804 


25 


812 


279 


80 


(a.) Commercial. 








- 






Oflwfl 


16-06 


166 


56 


776. 


2 . 


»„ 


Porwfl ---..- 


5-28 


898 


25 . 


.65 


12 _ 





Shrimfli 


18-60 


953 


.. 9 


34 


4 . 





Hombad 


1-56 


681 


. 5 


314 


— • 





Shr&wak (unspecified) .... 


24-29 


28 


.83 


6ia 


.. 4" 


817 


(6.) Agricultural. 














Chatorth -..--- 


10-47 


— 


- 


u;. 


1,000 


»„ 


Pancham .-..-- 


2-46 


— 


— 





r,ooo 


_ 


Shr&wak (unspecified) .... 


13-77 


"~~ 


— 


"■" 


1,000 


— 


D.— MAHAMMEDANS (1,133,927) 





260 


107 


- 256 


-228 


149 


(a.) Foreign Titles. 








•* 






Shaikh 


55-19 


108 


197 


848 


824 


29 


Salad 


6-28 


156 


80 


273 


488 


58 


Path&n 


7-96 


249 


88 


478 


195 


40 


Moghal 


0-66 


153 


17 


841 


277 


212 


(6.) Local Converts. 














Bohorah, Shiah - - . - - 


2-87 


548 


19 


74 


- i 


858 


„ Sunni . . - - - 


5-56 


1,000 


. -.- 


.— 


— . 


_ 


Khoja --...- 


1-28 


178 


112 


1 


— 


709 


Memon .-..-- 


1-41 


Ml 


. 10 


8 


.. — 


841 


Molesalim 


0-96 


1,000 


— 


— 


_ 




Malik 


2-20 


1,000 


■~" 


""• 


"— 


— 



CASTE AND SOCIAL DIVISIONS. 

I have treated of the different races of Christians and Jews in preceding chapters. The Parsis 
are, in theory at least, a homogeneous community, whilst the Sikhs are found in large numbers only 
in Sind, where details of subdivisions, such as form the subject of the present chapter, "were not 
recorded. The population now to be dealt with, therefore, comprUes the Hindoos, Mahi^mmedans, 
Jains, and Forest Tribes of the Presidency Division, amounting in the aggregate to 13,829,101 souls, 
or 98 per cent, of the entire body of the inhabitants of this tract. 

The term caste, whatever its derivation and original meaning, is colloquially applied to the sub- 
divisions of the Hindoo and Jain community alone out of the four I have just mentioned. It is not 
inappropriate, however, to extend its use with reference to a large portion of the Mahammedans,'the 
majority of whom, as I have stated in Chapter III., are the descendants of local converts to that 
faith from Hindooism. A similar complexity of structure exists in the case of the Aboriginals, 
some of whom belong to true Forest Tribes, whilst others bear more resemblance to the lower grades 
of Hindoos. Whether, however, the term used be caste or class, it may be taken as indicating a 
definite and more or less stereotyped social division, distinguished in the first and highest degree 
by the intermarriage of its members within its limits, and, less strictly, by companionship in eating 
and drinking. 



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XCIU 

A social position of this description is determined by either descent or occupation, according to 
the direction taken by the community after its first estabusbment. The earliest step, from a historical 
standpoint^ taken by a nation, is, as has been so well pointed out by Mr. Bagehot in his Essays on 
Physics and Politics, the formation of a legal fibre, a person or set of persons to whom to pay deference ; 
but it is the second step^ that of breaking through the ^ cake of custom " thus formed^ that presents 
the great difficulty, and one which comparatively irery few communities have succeeded in van- 
quishing. 

As soon as a nation (let us call it) has attained the first stage, the difierentiation of employments 
proceeds rapidly to the extent absolutely required according to the standard of the community. The 
natural tendency under such circumstances is for each occupation to be transmitted from father to 
son on account of, first, the absence of any teaching but by example and word of mouth ; and, 
secondly, to the greater isolation of the home, and consequent convenience of domestic instruction. 
The poHtical question then arises whether this tendency or inclination should remain facultative, or 
be systematized and incorporated into the social organisation by the decree of the ruling power. The 
solution depends probably less upon the community itself than upon the circumstances by which it is 
surrounded, though the particular stage to which its institutions have attained by the time the question 
becomes pressing is a fact not without influence in this respect. We may agree, for instance, with 
Comte^ that a sacerdotal regime is required in order to cement the hereditary transmissions of func- 
tions into the fabric of the State, but we should also throw the inquiry back to the time when the 
supremacy pf the priesthood itself was only in course of foundation. It is from this point that the 
two civilisations of the old world begin to flow in separate channels. Hardship and competition in 
the one have made life a contract between man and man. Peace, plenty, and contented isolation in 
the other had tended to assign, under Divine sanction, a place and condition for each man from his 
birth, and it is by the number and the definite quality and influence of such conditions that the present 
chapter is rendered necessary. 

It must be borne in mind that to whatever age the more archaic of the Vedic hymns may be 
attributed, the Bactrian clans who descended upon the Punjab had already advanced considerably from 
their primitive condition, and were forming settled colonies on their conquered territory directly 
they acquired possession. As soon as a dan nad thus given a hostage to fortune, they had to defend 
it against the probable attacks of the dispossessed owner. This being a more serious task than the 
protection of a few herds of cattle, and requiring, therefore, a special class of the community to be 
told off for the purpose, the nucleus of a military occupation was formed, apart from the rest of the 
settlers. The difierentiation of the bardp, or sacrificial priests, was also by this time an accomplished 
fact, and had probably taken place even earlier than that of the military order, owing to the 
reverence paid to the efficient and continual performance of the invocations at the sacrifice on which 
was supposed to depend the fortune of the next raid or cattle foray.* Beyond the three classes of 
the warrior king, his fistmily and followers, and the priests, there seems to have been no further 
division until the foreigners had made an advance eastwards, and from a few clans had multiplied into 
large states. 

The more the colonists were separated from their original settlements, the more precious became 
the ritual and invocations used by their ancestors, and as the rules for the due performance of the 
elaborate sacrifices could only be transmitted orally, the position of the priestly families became one 
of the utmost importance, an advantage which one may expect them to have maintained by the 
restriction of a knowledge of the sacred lore within as narrow a circle as possibla There is no 
doubt, therefore, that these feimilies became a class quite apart from the rest very soon after the 
establishment of stable and fixed communities. With regard to the rest of the people, it appears 
that their contest with the races thef found on the soil was no very hard one, and that the majority 
of those whom they dispossessed were maintained in a slate of servitude on the land they once owned. 
It is alsp probable that marriage was not kept strictly within the limits of the Aryan community, and 
that the whole male population of the invaders was not required for the army, so that a mixtiure of 
races was the result of the one innovation, and of occupations that of the other. It will be recollected 
that in treating of the Brfihmanic marriage system in Chapter V., it was mentioned that laxity with 
regard to caste was permitted to a Kshatria, or warrior. In fact it could not well have been other- 
wise, as apart from the discipline of battle, the military spirit is adverse to restriction, or special and 
esoteric rules of conduct, and in later days Brfihmanic scripture recorded many instances of mixed 
descent amongst undoubted warriors,t with whom the lineage of the father was held to have cured 
any defect in that of the mother. In early days, therefore, we find two classes distinctly marked off 
from the rest of the community, the warrior, including the king and his family, and the priest.- 

But all writers on early Hindoo civilization describe the community as divided into four orders. 
In addition to the Brahman^ or priest, and the Kshatria^ or warrior, they enumerate the Vaishya, 
generally rendered trader, and the Shudra, or servile class. Authors of the middle ages of Hindoo 
literature attributed to this division a divine origin, and claim for it antiquity coeval with the race. 
It is remarkable, however, that whereas to the present day the order of Br&hmans is well defined, 
and that of Kshatrias little less so, no certainty exists as to which of the existing castes can be 
ascribed to the Yaishya and which to the Shudra order. There is no need to enter here into the 
literary arena on this question, which has been admirably treated by Mr. F. C. Growse, C.I.E., in a 
paper reprinted in the Census Report of the North- West Provinces in 1872 ; but there is the fact 

* In Kashmir, the most archaio of Indo-Axyan communities, all the Hindoos are Brdhmans^ as the M4h4bhteita 
declares all men to have been when first created. Perhaps researches amongst the almost unvisited tribe of the 
Siah Posh k^fiis may bring forth still better evidence regarding primitive Aryanism. 

t As, for instance, a high-bom Bajput from a Br&hman woman and the Moon-god. 

Ff 3 



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that^ in the first place» strong evidence exists as to ihe interpolation of the well-known stanza in the 
Pnnisha Sukta, secondly, that elsewhere in ancient Sanskrit literature, the two first orders only are 
mentioned, and thirdly, that, though traders and artizans are mentioned in iiie epics by names almost 
identical with those the same castes now bear, there is no mention of the aggregate of such workers 
as a special or homogeneous order. The existence of the Vaishya as a separate order can be doubted, 
also, on politieal grounds. It may be borne in mind that, accor^g to the Pur&nic theory, this 
order was one of the twice-born, and invested, therefore, with marked social precedence over the 
Shudras and mixed races. From their occupations and position, moreover, they must have become 
a body of considerable importance even amon»t the regenerate, and an element in the State, there* 
fore, -^ich no ruling power could afford to disregard. Nay, further, had there been any cohenon 
amongst them, as amongst members of a single class, they could hardly have fuled to have acquired 
predominance in the State, as corresponding classes have been found to do in other countries. In all 
probability, therefore, there was at no time a definite order known as the Vaishya, and that the 
earliest separation after the colonies were formed may be taken to have been the warrior, the priest, 
and the servant, the last being the dispossessed owners of the land, retained in a state of collective 
servitude, as adscripti glebm. Such a community could not long exist in peace and security without 
the formation within it of a middle class, to whom the generic term Vaishya may have been applied. 
Authorities differ, however, as to the extent to which this term was used. Duncker, a historian 
whom I have already quoted, translates the word *^ tribesman " or *^ comrade," and considers tiiat it 
was applied to the whole Aryan community, to distinguish tiiem from tiie Shudras, or old inhabitants, 
and that it was borne alike by priest, warrior, and layman, but that in course of time, when the division 
between warrior and cultivator or shepherd became wider, the former took the exclusive titie of 
Kshatria, the priests that of Brdfaman, and left that of Vaidiya to the Aryan masses. On the other 
hand, it appears equally probable that the term may have originated at a far later date, when the 
cessation of war, the growing importance of the offspring of mixed marriages between the Aryans 
and older inhabitants, and, lastly, the gradual concentration of the population in towns, had tended 
to raise up a class, without pretensions to the blood of the two first orders, yet far enough above the 
masses ta desire to mark themselves off as of superior rank. This, however, they could do by no 
lecoffnised standard. The general assertion that the term Vaishya includes trades, whilst that of 
Shudra implies service, is inadequate to cover cases of an honourable service and an ignoble trade, 
and so it is as well ta abandon all attempts to classify modem Hindoo middle and lower society under 
one or the otiier of these two denominations. A few words remain to be said regarding the other 
two X)tder8. It is beyond dispute that in the present day and for many generations back the first 
rank has been occupied by the priest It is equally certain, as a fact, of social dynamics, that when 
the two ' orders are first differentiated, the order of tiieir social precedence b reversed and history 
seems to show that there is no impassable barrier between them. Viswamitra became a Br&hman, 
even as, to uee Mr. Qrowse's simile, a Ejiight of the Crusades retired after his expedition to the 
peaceful seclusion of a monastery. The first step towards tiie establishment of sacerdotal supremacy 
is, as I have said above, the recognition by the community of the exclusive possession on the part 
^of a certain dass, of thai power to act as mediators- between man and the supernatural. Such an 
acknowledgment' is all the more important, when, as in the case of the Aryan invaders, the helpful 
intervention of divine -power is believed to be continually available if asked for by the &ithful in due 
fi:>rm. • If, however, we comnranity is kept in a state of confiict with foreign enemies or internal 
rivals, the importance thereby attained by the military dasses wiU predominate over the less direct 
influence of tiie sacrificer, since the varied fortunes of continuous strugeles will implant a firmer 
confidence in large hattidicms' than in the god of batties, and such a feehng will inevitably spread 
from the actual combatants to those who live under their proftction. Of this we have an example 
in Bomci and a less striking one^in Greece. With the Indo- Aryans it was d^erent. Aa the colonists 
pushed tiieir domains further towards the east ihe task of keeping touch witii their ancestral home 
in the land of the Seven Bivers^ became more and more difficult, whSst tiie increasing closeness of 
tiieir relations with the. old inhabitants <£ their conquests rendered the necessity of some such race* 
preservation more prominent. Community of anoestial worship is obviously the most efficient resource 
under such cireumstaaoes,. and with the formation of kiger atates by the amalgamation of different 
tribes or dans, there arose a special dass composed of the initiated sacrifioers of all the combined 
families, to whom alone were known the secrets of the ritual esteemed so hkrhly. The life of war 
fell into the background; the fertility of the soil rendered life easy, and tiw Br&hman, itovx being a 
fbnctionary subordinate to the warlike interests of the tribe, entered upon the condition of a specu- 
lative class, endowed with both dignity and leisure. It was probably at tins period that arose the 
transcendental' conception of sacrifice, by means of which the aggregate of tribal priests, after com- 
parison of the attributes and virtues of tiieir respective divinities, managed to eliminate .firom their 
ritual the Vedic notions of the Kshatrias, and to substitute for these anthropomol^hic tutelaries an 
abstract deity inherent in tiie sacrifice which they alone had the power of offering. So tremendous 
a power, thus monopolised, and the comparative insignificance into which the state of peace had 
reduced Indra and the other gods who warred for the Aryan, seem to have been the steps by which 
the Br&hman mounted to tiie chief place in. Hindoo society. As far as the Kshatrias are concerned, 
if we disregard Br&hmanic tradition, according to which there is none of that order left on earth, the 
change wrought littie material detriment, though there must have been some opposition, pos^bly 
enduring for a considerable time. Under the new development, Br&hmanism, from^ denoting an 
occupation, had become an hereditary quality,* for pretension to esoteric knowledge is necessarily 



* A contrast to the state of society in the present day, when asceticism admits all castes, B r^hmaniRm none. 

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exclusive. But in the case of the Kshatrias, the Br&hmans were most careful to maintain that the 
soTereignty was hereditary in the Bdjanya class, and at the same time allowed a considerable latitude 
in practice, if' not in theory, to the extension of the title of £shatria by mixed marriages, for in 
India, as in many other cases, the distinction of order applied first to the male only. So far was 
this freedom carried, that when once a Hindoo has attained the position of sovereign it is only a 
matter of time for him or his descendants to be admitted as Kshatrias, whilst several classes other 
than Bajputs, in the modem acceptation of the term, are popularly known by names that denote a 
Kshatria origin. 

The principle of heredity, thus established in the leading classes of society, is easily imitated by 
the middle grades, and it is, in fact, to the interest of a sacredotal or literate class that this should 
be the case. In ancient India, moreover, the presence of a large lower stratum of the native in- 
habitants, of a very much lower type of civilisation than that of their conquerors and outnumbering 
the latter, is likely to have kept the fact of superiority of race prominently before the eyes of the 
crowds of foreigners who had to betake themselves to pursuits also conunon to those whom they 
otherwise despised. As civilisation advanced, the accession to wealth and the influence given by 
wealth, of a number of families of no doubt mixed race, — ^for even before the establishment of the 
Br&hmanical hierarchy the formation of such classes must have begun — ^gave an additional stimulus 
to the tendency to exdusiveness similar to that which in Europe was given by the gilds of trade and 
industry. In the one case, however, the ^Ids were self-constituted and recruited by apprentices 
admitted from outside, fading into disuse under the influence of free competition. In the other, tiie 
corporation was derived from some fancied conunon origin, and the members bound together by here- 
ditary ties, their places being taken in turn by their descendants. There are still a few industries, 
notably of ornament, such as enamelling and brocade, which are conducted solely by the members of 
a single family, who secure to themselves the profits of their invention by means of strict secrecy, 
whereas in Europe they would be reaped in the shape of a premium on its extended use. This is, 
however, it is unnecessary to say, quite exceptional, as the efEect of the hereditary tendency, ex- 
emplified by caste or industry, has been metophorically of an hour-glass form. The occupation was 
contracted into a gild, and the gild, under modem influences, is expanding into a variety of occupa- 
tions. In places where the occupations specially flourish it is not improbable that anew oa^te' with 
a local name will be the result, and a similar result follows tiie success of even a subdivision of an 
occupation under favourable circumstances. Caste^making, therefore, is still in progress, not only 
in the shape of new gilds, but, as mentioned in Chapter III., in that of new schi«ns also, as well as 
in the reception into the Br&hmanical fold of new tribes of Aboriginals or of others who have won 
worldly success in various directions. Even within the fold there are changes going on between the 
secular orders. The aim of a successful member of a middle rank caste is often to raise himself a 
grade in society, and owing to the immense field of Hindoo scripture and mythology, the required 
proof is not unfrequentiy forthcoming when sufficient funds are expended on research. Such changes 
are regarded with little or no disfavour by the priesthood. Their own ranks being closed they fear 
no intrusion, and other orders being in collective subordination to them, it matters little what ripples 
disturb the surface on which they look down. Exoteric Hindooism is practically composed of two 
sects of duties, those to the caste and those to the shrine, though the latter are dependent, I believe, 
to a great extent on the caste custom. To this institution, therefore, is due the current morality 
and general tone of society amongst the greater portion of the people of this country, and it is in 
consideration of its importance as a social factor that I have endeavoiured to trace in outline its origin 
and development. 

lliere are a few special circumstances in connexion with the caste system in this Presidency that 
may be just mentioned here^ as tending to throw some light on the nomenclature and distribution of 
the various subdivisions to which I propose to call attention below. The first is the relative strength of 
the original Aryan element in the population and the way it was introduced. Starting from the 
earliest Cis-Himalayan settiements of the Aryans in the great river valleys of the north, the coloni- 
sation of the country south and west of the Vindhiyas must have been a work of a long time. The 
obvious routes which immigrants were likely to follow are either those through B£jput&na to the 
north of Gojarfit, where they meet a similar desert track from the Indus, or those entering the north- 
east and east of Eh&ndesh. From what is ascertained about the course of Aryan occupation in the 
north of India, it miffht be presumed that the movement southwards in the direction last mentioned 
took place at a mucn later period than that through the desert, but I am not aware that this is 
corroborated by the existing composition of society in the respective divisions. This much, however, 
can be said, that the Rajput or Kshatri element is very strong in G^ujardt, whilst the traces of pastoral 
colonisation is equally apparent in the fertile tract of Eh&ndesh, and the Ahir class, which is found 
in the latter country, belongs, no doubt, to the second stage of Aryan settlement when the middle 
class of the foreigners had begun to join in the occupations of the older inhabitants. The latter 
element, which, were it not for the question-begging character of the epithet, it could be convenient 
to term Aboriginal, is found strongly marked throughout the Presidency Division, except, perhaps, 
amongst the Bi^hmans and Gujardt Kshatrias. This, however, is only what is to be expected when 
the expansion of a purer race takes place across wide stretches of desert or difficult mountain ranges 
instead of in a continuous and regular stream along the course of large and fertile valleys, such as 
those of the Granges and Junma. The development of caste in this part of the country has conse- 
quendy been very irregular, and in comparison with what I understand to be the case nearer the 
cradle-land of the system, its power and restrictions are unquestionably feeble and less directiy 
connected with the original practice. 

Ff 4 



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Beginning with the north-western gate of colonisation, we find everywhere traces of a strong Kshatria 
inroad. Bajputs are settled as landholders and owners of villages in a quasi-feudal state, each petty Chief 
surrounded by the subordinate members of his &mily. The principle of joint or collective ownership is 
strongly developed and has spread from the Rajputs to the class immediately below them in the social 
scale. This principle necessarily implies hereditary right, so that the village system is fairly preserved 
in the upper portions of Gujardt. Another feature is the position of the older inhabitants, the Talabda, 
or Taldvia. The land in this part of the country is particularly fertile, and the original possessors, 
assuming for the moment that they are original, have maintained their ownership, though without 
reaching the status of the Bajput or Lewa. In the districts immediately to the south this class have 
either retreated to the forest, or remained on their land chiefly as the predial serfs of the landholders 
of superior class. Here the Kshatria element is weaker, there is little collective ownership of village 
lands, and consequently less hereditary position in the village oligarchy. The land, too, being less 
fertile and remunerative, greater inequality is found between the agricultural and the other classes of 
society. 

In the Deccan, again, though the distinctions of caste are very marked, the strong hold which the 
principle of hereditary claim has upon the majority of the classes, and the inte^ty of the village 
system with which that principle is connected, seem to indicate an earlier or less disturbed settlement. 
This part of the country, from Khandesh downwards, has been the scene of uncounted struggles 
between different races, and has witnessed the passage of even more numerous military expeditions, 
from the Ramayana to Assaye. There has been, however, little colonisation, withal, except in Khandesh. 
The armies came, fought, and went away, leaving few but their dead behind them. The mushroom 
plantations from the north introduced little beyond industrial innovation, so that the villages have 
remained but slightly affected by political changes, and, including Brfihmans, over 73 per cent, of the 
population is comprised in seven castes, whilst most of the remainder belongs to the three or four 
classes of artizans that are to be found in all but the smallest hamlets. 

The Konkan has in the north a special Aboriginal element, and though a more advanced class of 
the older inhabitants of the coast form the greater part of the population, the fact that they have 
adopted the Hindoo system of religion and abandoned the forest for fishing and for more skilled and 
regular cultivation, prevents their immediate recognition. In the south there is apparently a strong 
connexion between the cultivating classes of the coast and those of the table-land above, though the 
comparative poverty of the former doubtless tends to weaken the link. A peculiar feature along this 
coast and extending to K&nara and the Malab&r district is the colony of Brahmans of the Gkind, or 
northern class, not found in such strength in any other part of the Presidency. 

In the Kamdtic table-land the distinction of religious sect has, as I mentioned in Chapter III., 
tended in great measure to obscure that of caste. The generic term Lingaiat is used of nearly all 
the ordinary subdivisions of Hindoo society, whilst that of Mardtha, covers similar subdivisions of 
the sect prevailing in the adjacent country to the north. It will be seen from the caste lists 
published in Appendix C* that a very large proportion of the 830 names or thereabouts are 
appropriated to castes from this part of the country, and I have no doubt that a person versed in 
the vital distinctions of caste and with greater experience of the Kamatic than myself, could have 
materially abridged this list by more correct classification of local varieties under a single heading, f 
The district of Kanara is quite exceptional as to its castes, many of which are not found even in die 
immediately adjacent territory. It has received, probably, a considerable influx of the upper classes 
from the south, — a fact scarcely to be traced in other parts of the Presidency with the exception of 
a few cultivators of respectable position who have entered the south-eastern districts. 

Lastly, I have to call attention to the apparent system of nomenclature prevailing amongst the castes. 
The two upper orders carry the meaning of their names on the surface. The third, if it ever existed in 
a concrete form, may mean either colonist or trader, whilst Shudrahas been conjectured to be an Abori- 
ginal term found in the Upper Gknges Valley, as it is not Sanskrit, and has no analogous meaning in 
that tongue. As regards the modern appellations with which we have to deal in the Census schedules, it 
seems a very general rule, though not universal, that subdivisions of Brahmans and Wani&, or traders, 
take their names chiefly from places, and those of artizans from their occupations. Local names are given, 
however, to other classes under special circumstances, such as when the class is confined to a restricted 
area, as the Chunw&lia Kolis, the Surati Dheds, and the Kunknas, or Konkani Kunbis of the Gh&ts 
and the Bang forests. It is also f oimd to some extent amongst the large class of Kunbis in Khandesh 
and the North Deccan. The subdivisional names of the Karnatic agriculturist's and artizans, as far 
as my not very extended acquaintance with them goes, appear to be connected with. religion, when 
not simply professional. In times considerably later than the formation of the caste we often find 
schisms of a subdivision that, instead of taking a separate local name, perhaps from the desire of 
maintaining a closer connexion with their original condition, designate themselves as the Tenth, or 
Twentieth of the caste, as the Dasa Shrimdli, the Visa Porwal, &c. Though this is found chiefly in 
Gujardt and amongst the trading classes, it is not unknovm in other parts of the country, as amongst 
the Jains of the Karndtic, which belong to two great subdivisions of the Fourth and the Fifth. In 



* Page i to xL 

t As regaids most of the rest of the Presidency Division the classification of castes was conducted, as far as 
possible, in accordance with the information on this head found in the published volumes of Mr. J. M. Campbell's 
Bombay Gazetteer, but unfortunately, this valuable aid was not available for the southern districts. 



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the case of Brahmans, too^ we find fanoif iil denominations, such as the ^' One hundred and twenty- 
five *' (Sawash^), the descendants of that number of devoted &iends who rallied round a Brahman 
whom they held to have been ezconununicated unjustly. There are also the twenty-four (Chovisa) 
of Gujarat, which comes into this category. 

I will now bring to notice the principal castes returned in the Presidency, taking them first in 
relation to their numerical strength only. 



Numerical Strength. 

The most generally distributed subdivisions and those that contain 100,000 persons and upwards 
have been shown by sex and district in Table YIII. in Appendix A. A more detailed list is given 
in Appendix C, as well as a statement showing the territorial distribution of the more important 
castes which are not strong enough numerically to find a place in the Imperial return. 

There is one main difference, however, between Table VIIL and the rest, namely, that as the 

former constitutes an integral portion of a series with other branches 
of which its entries are required to be compared, the strength of 
tribes that come under the head of Aboriginals is there shown only 
as that which was returned as non-Hindoo, whereas in the other 
statements, the religion returned has been held subordinate to the 
tribe, disregarding, that is, the probable idiosyncracies of enumera- 
tors, as I have already stated in Chapter III. By this change, 
therefore, the population dealt with in the following remarks is 
distributed as shown in the margin, instead of giving the number 
of Hindoos and Aboriginals as 12,003,503 and 476,638 respec- 
tively, as in Table III. of the Imperial Series. The transfer thus 
affects the number of 225,519 persons, chiefly in Khdndesh and Thana districts. The first class 
taken into consideration will be the Hindoos. The numerical distribution of the main subdivisions 
of this community can be seen from the following statement, in which they are grouped according 
to their strength into four classes : — 



Religion. 


Number. 


Hindoo 
Mahammedan 
Jain 
Aboriginal 


11,777,984 

1,133,927 

215,033 

702,157 


Total 


13,829,101 



(a) Castes contaming 100,000 persons a/nd over. 

Strength. 



1. Mar4tha Eunbi (YI) 

2. Mahir or Dhed (VII) 

3. Talabda Eoli (YI) 

4 Dhangar and Kurbar 
6. Panchams&li (YI) 

6. M4K (VI) - 

7. Mar4tha KoU (VI) 

8. Deshasth Brahman (I) 

9. Lewa Kanbi (VI) - 

10. TeU or Gh4nohi (V) 

11. Agria and Mithagria (VI) 

12. Ohambhiur or Khalpa (V) 

13. MaDg(Xn) 

14. Haj4m or Nhdvi (IX) 

15. Bhand4ri(VI) 

16. Son4r (V) - 

17. Kumbhdr (V) 

18. Sut4r(V) . 

19. Konkani KoK (VI)- 

20. Berad (Bedar) (XTTT) 

21. Dubla (Talavia) (VI) 

22. Wanjara (VIE) 

23. Gujarat Bajpnt (II) 

24. Kadwa Eanbi (VI) 



Total Number 
Per-centage on Total Hindoos 



8,403,059 
852,523 
639,141 
472,167 
288,875 
252,141 
244,146 
252,804 
215,928 
175,841 
170,302 
163,102 
161,970 
136,906 
134,656 
130,486 
124,405 
122,607 
120,006 
118,335 
106,332 
105,885 
105,595 
100,365 

8,587,577 

72-91 



(o) Castes cotUaming from 10»000 to 50,000. 



1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 



(b) Castes corUcdning from 50,000 to 100,000. 

Jangam(VI) .... 96,449 

Darji or Shimpi (V) - - - 95,747 

Konkanasth Br&hman (I) - - - 79,183 

Koflhti(V) 78,586 

Loh4r(V) 64,191 

Raddi(VI) .... 58,382 

Parit(IX) .... 58,107 

WaddarfXni) .... 54,631 

Hmdusth4ni Bajput (11) - - - 52,396 

Gurao 51,054 



Total Number 
Per-oentage on Total Hindoos 



688,726 
5-86 



1. Bhoi (Vm) 

2. Sadar (VI) 

3. Ohunw41ia Koli (VI) 

4. Bhangi (XII) 

5. H&lepaik (VI.) - 

6. Bdmoshi (XIH) . 

7. SfiJi (V) - 

8. Hayik Brahman (I) 

9. Panchal (VI) 
10. GauU (VH) 

U. Audich Brahman (I) 

12. Gosavi (XI) 

13. Wdghri (Xni) - 

14. Bharwad (VQ) . 

15. Khatri(V) 

16. M4ohhi (Vni) . 

17. Ganndi and Kadia (V) 

18. K6sar (V) - 

19. Chattri (II) 

20. Kharwa (VHI) . 

21. Anawala Brahman 

22. Maratha Bajput (H) 

23. R4walia (XHI) . 

24. Karh4d^ Br4hman (I) 

25. Babari(Vni) 

26. LohAna (IV) 

27. Kab^r (VI) 

28. Hal&kkigand (VI) - 

29. Saraawat Brahman (I) 

30. Mochi (V) - 

31. KabUg^r (VI) 



Total Number 
Per-centage on Total Hindoos 



Strength. 

48i398 
44,317 
43,895 
43,688 
43,061 
43,037 
40,484 
39,723 
39,148 
38,560 
37,871 
33,851 
32,051 
31,676 
30,968 
29,996 
29,100 
27,614 
27,415 
26,298 
24,700 
24,371 
23,608 
23,040 
22,810 
22,377 
22,310 
22,169 
22,156 
21,584 
20,347 

980,622 

8^3 



(d) Castes containing from 10,000 to 20,000. 

1. L4d W4niit (IV) - - - - 19,603 

2. K4ohi4(VI) . - - - 18,758 

3. Kudwakkal (VI) - - - - 17,446 

4. Adi-Banjigar (IV) - - - - 17,406 

5. G4bit (VBl) .... 16,982 

6. Vaish W4ni4 (IV) - - - - 16,480 

7. Hdtg4r (V) .... 16,246 

8. Khedayita W4ni4 (IV) - - - 15,533 



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strength. 



9. Bh4t (X) - 


15,067 


10. Fanbar (VI) 


14,998 


11. Lam4n (XTTT) 


14,566 


12. Korvi (XTTT) 


14,106 


18. K^yaeth Parbhn (III) 
14. Bhdtda (IV) 


13,666 


13,193 


15. Rangari (V) - - - 


12,912 


16. Modh W^.nia (IV) - 


12,897 


17. DJior and Dabgir (V) 


12,799 


18. Loniri (V) - 


12,779 


19. Shenvi Brdhman - 


12,481 


20. Gola (XTTT) 


11,905 


21. Bhansar (V) - - - 


11,760 


22. Modh Brahman (I) 


11,720 


23. Khed&wal (I) . . - 


11,575 


24. Shind^ (Yi) . . . 


- 11,508 


25. Gaud^ (Vi) 


11,503 


26. K4m&thi (XUl) - 


11,153 


27. Mang^ (VHI) - 


11,080 


28. Sherugfix (XTTT) - 


10,926 


29. Dhobi (TX) - - - 


- 10,640 


30. G4mwakkal (VI) - 

31. Mew4da Br^aiman (I) 


- 10,572 


10,418 


32. Burad (V) - 


10,199 


33. Patella (VI) 


10,042 


Total Number 


. 442,909 


Per-centage on Total Hindoos 


3-76 



(e) Persona retumi/ng general and indefirdte titles. 

Strength. 



1. liingiiat (VI) 

2. Lingiiat WaJii (IV) 

3. Wania (TV) 

4. Gnjar (VI) 

5. Gujar Wania (TV) - 
Mardtha W4nia (TV) 
Sadhu (XI) 
Gaud Brahman (I) - 
Gujar4ti Brahman - 
Mah4rastra Brahman (I) 
Gujar4ti Koli (VI) 
M&rwadi Wania \ rr^ 
Meshri Wania / ^^^^ 



6 
7, 
8. 
9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 



109,094 
56,256 
71,514 
31,817 
32,693 
45,018 
10,110 
22,408 
15,304 
12,797 
70,478 

15,565 



Total Number - 493,054 
Per-centage on Total Hindoo Population 4*19 



SUMMABT. 


Over 100,000 persons - 


72-91 


50,000—100,000 


5-85 


20,000—50,000 


8-33 


10,000—20,000 


3-76 


Under 10,000 


4-96 


Of unspecified title 


4-19 



10000 



Thus there are 24 castes, containing in the aggregate nearly 73 per cent, of the Hindoo popula- 
tion, which have respectively a strength of 100,000 persons and over. One of these, the Maratha 
Kunbi, comprises about four times as many persons as that which comes nearest to it in numbers. 
Of the rest, eight contain over 200,000 persons. The collective strength of the group containing 
from 50,000 to 100,000 persons is equivalent to 5*85 per cent, of the whole, and includes only 10 
castes. In it are two considerably larger than the rest and falling short of 100,000 by but a com- 
paratively small number. In the third group are 31 castes, containing about 8'33 per cent, of the 
population. The caste that heads this collection is the only one which is markedly different in 
numbers from the rest The last group has the largest number of castes, but this number is very 
slightly above that in the group above, whilst the relative strength of the population included is only 
3*76 on the total Hindoo community. In addition to the castes falling within these fout groups are 
several which are shown under heading (e), since though the subdivision to which they belong is not 
rietumed, a fairly approximate guess can be made in the case of most of them as to the class to which 
they may probably be assigned. The Wania (3), for instance, is no doubt a fraction of the Lingaiat 
Wania (2), and the number shown under the latter heading contains, too, some who are not merely 
Wanias, but husbandmen also. It is the same with Gujars (4) and Gujar Wania (6). The Gaud 
Brdhmans (8), too, are mostly Shenvi, and might be included in that caste (19) in group (d). The 
Gujarati Koli (11) are mostly offshoots of the Talabdas given as No. 3 in group (a), but the rest of 
the castes that come in category (e) arc not so distinctly traceable. The whole group contains, in the 
aggregate, some 4*9 of the population. 

Of the entire body of Hindoos returned in the detailed caste list under about 830 diflFerent headings, 
nearly 91 per cent., are as here shown, in 98 subdivisions, containing respectively 10,000 persons and 
upwards, whilst about 4*2 per cent, of the rest have returned themselves under 13 general or 
indefinite titles. The remaining 5 per cent, or thereabouts, have not, unless for some special reason, 
been shown in the detailed provincial returns. 

It will be observed by those familiar with the castes of this Presidency, that in the above statement 
a single heading covers a caste which from territorial distribution has been split into a variety of 
divisions probably distinct in a social sense from each other, as, for ex^imple, the Darjis and Shimpis 
or the Hajams and Nhavis. The reason for such combinations is that the eponymic occupation is the 
same in all cases and the separation in the detailed tables of the different local divisions renders it 
unnecessary to maintiiin the distinction when treating of the whole as an economic or social sub- 
division. There are instances even more latent, such as those of the Sutars or the Kumbhars, who do 
not inter-marry with the castes of the same title coming from another division and using a diflFerent 
home-language. Their position in the social scale, however, is almost, if not quite, indentical in each 
case, and the difiences between them which it is important to notice in this work are found from 
statistics which will be taken into consideration later on to be due chiefly to locality and local custom, 
not to intrinsic variation. 

Classification of Subdivisions. 

Before I enter upon the subject of territorial distribution of these castes, I propose to explain 
briefly the classification adopted, to which should be referred the Boman numerals that follow each 
name in the list. It was originally suggested that the only classification required was that of social 
grades according to standards generally accepted amongst the Hindoos themselves. This, however, 
apart from the arbitrary nature of the standard, admits of so few classes as to be practically useless, 
and if it were adopted, would show by far the greater portioa of the community under a single 



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doDomination. NotwithstaDding this objection, in colnnin 5 of the detailed list given at the beginning 
of Appendix C, this social rank has been indicated, as far as any trustworthy information is available. 
It must be borne in mind, though, that almost all native o£SciaIs of rank, and all that have given 
special attention and study to this subject belong to one class, so distinct from the rest in social 
position that it is hardly worth their while to consider any systematic classification of the masses as a 
labour of practical value or importance. There are, no doubt, rules of precedence, and as far as the 
Deccan is concerned, a sort of scale was compiled by Mr. Steele, in an old work on the castes of that 
region, but this is not comprehensive enough, even if trustworthy, for a general list, like that returned 
at a census. 

I have therefore regarded for the purpose of classification the eponymic occupation of all classes 
below those of Brdhman and Kajput as indicative of social position to a degree sufficient for general 
tables, such as those given at the end of this volume. There are, no doubt, instances of wrong 
arrangement to be discovered, but as regards the main subdivisions of the Hindoo population, com- 
prising all that contain above 10,000 persons, the grouping has been aided by the second part of the 
provincial caste table in Appendix C. in which these castes have been shown according to the 
occupations most prevalent amongst them.* The classification is headed witli the Brdhmans and 
Kshatrias, and with regard to these it may be mentioned that only such subdivisions have been 
included amongst them as are admittedly and by general consent, entitled to this rank. There are 
two or three castes, if not more, which have strong claims to Brahman or Kshatria descent, but 
which are not generally acknowledged to belong to those classes. I will mention, these special 
instances later on, when the separate castes are being considered. It is not irrelevant, however, to 
state here, that the whole of the third class, that of the Writers^ have a distinct strain of Kshatria 
blood, not only in this Presidency, but in Upper India, where they are stronger in number as well as 
in influence. After the writers come the Tradersy a class which, owing to the extensive intermixture 
of production and distribution in India, is not so definitely marked off as those which precede it. 
One large division coming under this head is that of the Wania, or traders proper, who are shown in 
a separate group at page xxviii of Appendix C, and the remainder consists either of partial culti- 
va^rs, or of those coming under a head which from want of sufficient accuracy in the schedule must 
necessarily include both traders and others, as, for instance, Lingdiat and Gujar. The fifth class is 
that of the Artizans, which is inferior in numbers to the next class, that of Agriculturists, alone. If 
we look not merely to the name, but to the occupation also, it will be found that the less skilled 
industries and agriculture mutually overlap to a great extent, a distribution that may be expected to 
be concomitant with the village system. 

The Cultivating class is the largest in the list, and contains more than half the entire community. 
It is probable, too, that some of the castes included in the miscellaneous and labouring order are 
mostly employed in connexion with the land. The seventh class, also that of the Shepherds and 
graziers^ which consists of two or three main castes, is largely engaged in cultivation, except in 
Gujarat, where there is less room for the development of this kind of occupation, and the land is 
taken up to the utmost extent by the more exclusively agricultural castes. The eighth group is that 
of the Fishers and seafaring classes generally. This section is but a small one as a large number of 
fishermen belong to the caste of Kolis of the Konkan, who are as much engaged in agriculture as in 
the more primitive occupation. A curious alternative pursuit is to be found in the chief caste entered 
in this group, namely, that of carrying litters and pdlkis, which is as much the profession of the Bhois 
in this Presidency as it apparently is in the more noi-thern and eastern part of the continent The 
ninth class, that of Personal servants^ is composed of the two main castes, the barbers and the washer- 
men. These are to be found in small numbers in all but the very poorest villages. Under the head 
of Minor professions— ^Vi term I have borrowed from the Qtizetteer, — come the genealogists and the 
temple servants, who are also the principal manufacturers of the leaf -plates used at caste-meetings and 
other festive gatherings. The rest of the castes in this order belong to the acting and dancing 
fraternity, a great number of whom included amongst those who returned no settled residence have 
probably a more lucrative but less reputable means of livelihood than that recorded at the Census. 
Included in this category, too, are the village mifsicians, and the wandering rope-dancers and 

tumblers. The eleventh class comprises the De- 
votees and religious mendicants (not Brahmans), and 
also the caste of half-beggars, half-astrologers or 
fortune-tellers. ITie twelfth group is that of the 
Depressed castes^ sometimes erroneously termed out- 
casts. The hereditary occupation of by far the 
largest number of these is village service of the lower 
description, but with the improvement of communi- 
cations they have spread over the country as general 
labourers and factory hands. One class amongst 
them has almost the monopoly of the preparation 
and manufacture of hemp fibre and of rope-twisting. 
Another, and the lowest, as well as the smallest 
recorded in detail is engaged in scavenging. From 
the marginal table it will be seen that this class 
comes third in numerical strength. Next below 
them are the Shepherds with the Brahmans but a 



Actual and Relative Strength of the different Hindoo 
Classes. 







Per-centage of 


Class. 


Number. 


Hindoo Popula- 
tion. 


I. Br&hmans - 


650380 


5-63 


II. Rajputs ... - 


214,186 


1-82 


III. Writere 


24,622 


0-21 


IV. Traders .... 


436.451 


3-70 


V. Artizatis 


1,280,648 


10-87 


VI. Cultivators 


6,507,691 


5-25 


VII. Graziers, &c. 


6as,472 


6-85 


VIII. Seafarers - . - - 


147,5.V8 


1-25 


IX. Personal scrvico - 


206.947 


1-70 


X. Minor professions 


99,468 


0-84 


XI. Devotees 


68,858 


0-58 


XII. Depressed and unclean - 


1,096,542 


9-31 


XIII. Labouring, miscellaneouji, 
and unclassed - 






856,6S1 


3-08 


Total 


11.777,984 


100-00 



* Disoiepanoies are, nevertheless, to be fonnd between the two, as in the case of Sherng&rs, for instance, owin^ 
to the completion and publication of the caste list before the whole of the occupation retnm&were before me. 

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abort way behind. The Traders and Labourers come next, and after the Rajputs and the Servants 
there are but the Fishers who number more than 1 per cent of the entire Hindoo population. 

W^ith this general description of the system of classification adopted in this work, I pass on to the 
consideration of the relative strength and territorial distribution of the different castes shown in the 
comparative table that precedes this chapter * It will be convenient to take up the list in the order 
of classification, which has, moreover, been observed in posting the castes in the table. I will begin, 
therefore, with the subdivisions of the important order of the Brdhmans. 

Bbahmans. 

The list gives the number of Br&hman subdivisions as about 147, but the 14 tribes shown in the 
comparative table comprise more than 80 per cent, of the whole order, and nearly 8 per cent more are 
returned simply under the race distinction as Mar&thi, Gujar or Gaud Br^hmans. By far the most 
numerous class is that of the Deshasth, or Deccani Brahman, which contain with their northern sub- 
divisions of probably Gujardti origin more than 37 per cent, of the whole sacerdotal class. It is not 
certain, 1 believe, how far the sections known as Maitrayani and Madhyandini in Khdndesh and Ndsik 
are of distinctly Maharashtra descent, but most of them seem to return themselves under the general 
term Deshasth.! As, too, the Pals^ Brsfhmans of the North Konkan. After these, who are, as a rule, 
dwellers of the table-land, and found chiefly in the Deccan and Kamatic above the Gh&ts, the most 
numberous section is the Konkanasth, otherwise known as the Chitpawan, a Marathi variety which 
rose to notoriety in the time of the Peshwas, who belonged to their community. Though more than 
half the total strength of this subdivision is still found in the Konkan which is the land of their origin, 
the establishment of the seat of government at Poona by the Peshwd attracted numbers of families to 
the capital, where they have ever since remained as one of the most enterprising and best educated 
classes of the whole Brahman order. They are to be found in all liberal professions wherever there 
is an opening, and besides the Peshwas, can count in their ranks some of the ablest Hindoos of the 
west of India. Between these two sections of Maharashtra Brahmans and the rest there is, numeri- 
cally speaking, a great gap. The Havik, a tribe of cultivators in Kanara, are the next in order, but 
reach only 6 per cent, of the whole. We then come to the most numerous clan of the Brahmans of 
Gujardt, a division where this order is split up into more than 80 subdivisions. The Audich 
number 5*82 of the whole order, and are found in nearly all parts of the province. Next to them 
come the Anawalas, originally entirely, and still largely, a colonising and cultivating community. 
They are mostly confined to the Surat district, where they were of yore granted large tracts of land to 
bring under tillage. In course of time they have extended their influence into the liberal professions, 
and many of the higher government servants of the district are of this section. Three more sections 
of the Gujardt family of Brahmans are shown in the table, though none of them reach a strength of 
over 2 per cent, of the whole. The mofet important of these three is the Nagar, with its subdivisions 
named after the place of their origin. This section holds, I believe, a very high place in the scale of 
purity, even amongst the Brahmanical authorities of Northern India, and is very powerful in the 
numerous Native courts of the Peninsula of Kathiawar, as well as largely supplying employ^ to the 
Government offices of the main land. The Karhade section, though it takes its name from a piace^in 
the Deccan, is found chiefly in the Konkan, and has a relative strength of a little over 3*50 per cent, 
of the Brahmans as a whole. We then come to the curiously isolated Gtiud colony located along the 
western coast. The Saraswats, with their subdivision of the Sashtekars, are found in the southern 
part of the Bombay coast, in Kanara, though there are representatives, probably of a different sub- 
division, in nearly every part of the Presidency Division. Extending from Kanara to the northwards 
are the Shcnvi (^aiids, who are also much subdivided. One section of them is engaged principally 
in trade and take their name from the place where they originally settled in this part of India. Others 
are cultivators and are found in the south of Batndgiri. A thurd division is a literate class, and are 
employed in numbers under Government and in commercial offices in Bombay. In the comparative 
table there is no distinct separation between this class and the unspecified Gauds of the Konkan and 
the capital city. There is a tendency amongst* the indigenous Brahmans, such as the Deshasth and 
Chitpawans, to regard the local Gauds as of a lower class than themselves, owing, I understand, to a 
more than usually hazy tradition regarding the advent of the others from the Bhdrat land of the 
northern settlements, and also to their more liberal notions on the scriptural regulations regarding 
diet. There are, on the other hand, the Kanojia or K&nkubja sections of northern Brdhmans, many 
of whom have come from the region of Oudh and Cawnpore within the memory of man, and who 
though as a rule poorer and employed in less honourable occupations than the Brahmans of Maha- 
rashtra, are regarded as of a higher rank l)y the rest ; and, theoretically, are not allowed to hold inter- 
course either by feast or marriage with the Brahman of the west This class is scattered all over the 
country, and Kanojias are to be found in the ranks of the army, the police, on the railways, as dunning 
agents in the service of money-lenders. As regards the territorial distribution of the order of Brdh- 
mans, it will be seen from the table that in the Konkan the ratio corresponds almost exactly with that 
of the distribution of the whole body of Hindoos. In the capital city the ratio of the literate class is, 
as is to be expected, a little above that of the rest of their co-religionists. The same disproportion is 
more noticeable in the Kamatic, where there is the large colony of Haviks and of Gaud traders. In 
Gujarat the Brahman clement is still more marked in comparison with the strength of the rest, whilst 
in the Deccan the ratio of the latter rises far above that of the Brdhmans. The explanation seems to 

* The detailed aocomit of the castes that f oxms part of each volmne of the Qaasetteer renders it snpeiflnoiifl to 
give in this work more than a very general description of the different sabdivisionB, snffioient to iUnstsate the 
tahlea lelating to the subject. 

t As, too, the Pals^ Brdhmans of the North Konkan. * 



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be that in Gujarat the comparative wealth of the upper classes allows of an increased number of 
temples and of larger endowments, apart from the greater sectarian fervour which, as was noticed in 
the third chapter of this work, is manifested amongst the laity of Gujarat. In the Deccan, on the 
other hand, the population is both more scattered and of a lower general average, materially if not 
intellectually and devotionally. It may be also the case that the wider political education of the 
Deccan and the freedom from the competition of other literate classes has led the BrlUunan of that 
region to prefer the occupations of the laymen to the segregation of his own fraternity in religious 
institutions. Taking the order in more detail it will be seen from the table that the Gujarati sections 
are, if the Bombay City contingent bo omitted, almost entirely localised to the province of their origin, 
whilst the Mardthi element is scarcely traceable in Gujarat. There are> however, the remnants of the 
former regime to be found in the ranks of Government servants who have been settled in the north 
from the time when their ancestors were brought from the Deccan by the various favourites of the 
court at Poena and who have never returned to their birth-country. The Gujarfiti Brahmans found 
in the Deccan and Konkan, on the contrary, are probably the results of the more recent settlement of 
traders from Gujardt who have made fortunes in foreign parts, and prefer to carry with them their 
ancestral worship to returning to their homes. There are, too, sections of Gujardti Brahmans who 
act as cooks to other classes of their own if not, as some do in Southern India, to other orders. The 
Ghkud element is but weakly represented, except, as has been just mentioned, on the coast. One class 
is found indigenous to Gujar&t, the rest enumerated there are probably immigrants from the south. 
Lastly, before passing to the next class, I may mention that the sections of the Brahman order that 
have been detailed in the table are divided, exclusive of the undenominated, into 54*08 Mdh&rashtra, 
14*09 Gujarati, 6*20 Gaud, and 6-10 Eam&tic. 

Rajputs. 

Of the Rajputs only four classes (and one undefined) have been tabulated, because it has been 
thought scarcely worth the labour to enter into all the clans, some 60 in number, which are 
distinguished by the Eshatria community itself. Such a distinction should no doubt be maintained 
in the case of certain sections and in certain localities, where, as in Cutch or Eathiawar, the infor- 
mation is required for special administrative purposes, but it is void of use or interest from a general 
statistical point of view. The largest class of this order that is found in the Presidency Division is 
that of the Gujar&ti Rajput, which may be generally described as an agricultural class, though not 
always a cultivating one. It includes the large estate holders of the north of the division as well as 
the probable offshoots of these families who have settled as ordinary cultivators in most of the 
districts. The Gujarati section forms almost one half of the entire Rajput community. Next in 
number come the Rajputs or Eshatrias from Hindusthdn. These are mostly in the army or engaged 
as private watchmen or messengers. They are scattered all over the Deccan and Kamatic, and it is 
very likely that their claim to Rajput blood would be less generally put forward in their own country 
than it is in that of their adoption. The Chattris of the Eamatic are cultivators, and do not appear 
beyond the limits of the Southern Division. The Gujarat Rajput, too, is not found out of that 
province, except perhaps in the capital city. The third class, that of the Maratha Rajput, is not a 
very large or a very distinct one. It comprises, no doubt, the old Marathi nobles, or Mankari 
faniilies, with their nelatives by blood and adoption, and also other Marathas, whose ancestors may 
have acquired the position during the troubled times of the Deccan wars. The undefined Rajput is 
to be found chiefly in Bombay City, and seems to be mostly of foreign origin of the class known 
elsewhere as Hindusth&ni or Pardeshi. The Eshatria element then is strong only in the north of 
Gujarat) where the Rajputs are in possession of the soil, and in the Deccan, where the traditions of 
the supremacy of their race are of comparatively recent date. In the latter case, however, it is not 
unlikely that the feeling of patriotism has ousted that of race. 

Writers. 

The small special class which follows almost exclusively the occupation of clerks and Government 
servants, comprises few subdivisions beyond the four that are shown in the comparative table. All 
of these claim, as has been mentioned above, descent from the Kshatria order, and in most instances 
the pretension appears to be well founded, having regard to the elastic nature of the relations between 
that order and the rest of the Hindoos before the caste system was run into its present mould. It is 
most probable that the number included in the first section, that of the Brfihroa-Eshatrias, is under- 
stated in the return, owing to the record of the Deccan branch of this caste as Thakurs, without 
qualification, a term which, originally applicable to Kajputs alone, has been adopted here, as in other 
parts of India, by a race very low down in the present day in the social scale, whatever their claim 
by birth may be. It seems that more than half the order is comprised in the caste of Eayasth- 
Prabhus^ and that the next in strength is the second di^sion of Prabhus known, probably from their 
original place of abode, as the Patane. The Brahma-Eshatria and true, or Walmik, Eayasth, form 
together but 18 per cent of the entire order. The local distribution of the castes as they are returned 
is very circumscribed. The monopoly of clerical service by Brahmans in the Deccan, and the 
similarity of the circumstances in the Earndtic to those of its neighbour to the north, has not allowed 
the special class under consideration to gain a strong foothold above the Ghats. Of the four sections 
shown, two are found principally in Gujarat, one in the Eonkan, and the other in the capital city. 
The last-named is the point apparently to which these classes tend, as in the free competition of a 
commercial city the hereditary qualification of the Brahman as the educated class is postponed in 
favour of personal merit In ad<fition to the profession of writing, the Brahma- Eshatrias of Gujardt 
appear to have occupied in Broach a position somewhat similar to that of the Anawalas in Suratji 

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thongh to a much smaller extent, and there are in the former district estate holders of this cla^s^ a 
fact which, in default of claim to Brahman ancestry, may be some support to that actually put forward 
to kinship with the Kshatrias, who were in possession of this tract 

Tradebs. 

A considerable portion of the trade of this Presidency is carried on, as has been stated more than 
once in the course of this work, by persons who profess the Jain religion ; but I am now about to 
consider the trading dasees of the Hindoos only. There are about 10 of these which reach the 
numerical standard adopted for the comparative table, and the aggregate of all 10 constitute about 
74 per cent, of the trading community. To these may be added the 16 per cent, of traders of un- 
defined caste, who, judging from the districts in which they were returned, are to be counted amongst 
the Lingaiats. This raises the total to about 90 per cent. There are 8*2 per cent, of these who 
belong to the northern Bombay sections of Bhattias and Lohanas. The latter are more numerous in 
Sind than elsewhere, and most of those enumerated in the Presidency Division are found in the 
capital city or in Gujarat, both of which are in easy communication with the country from which the 
Lohana generally comes. The home of the Bhattias is Cutch, and they are not found elsewhere in 
any considerable strength except in Bombay City and in Gujarat. In the latter division, however, 
they seem to be of a lower type than in the former, and to be occupied in cattle dealing and milk 
selling instead of in commerce. 

We then come to the large class which goes by the generic name of Wdnia. Except in Gujarat 
these people are very indistinctly returned in the schedules. For instance, in the Deccan the ordinary 
appellation of a Wania who hails from Gujardt is Gujar ; but in Khandesh, where there has been a 
considerable influx of cultivators from Gujarat, the latter, too, are known by the same title, and this 
may be the case elsewhere, if similar colonies are in existence. It will be seen that this generic name 
of Gujar is very common in the Deccan, where to the village accountant every person coming from 
Gujarat is a Gujar, and also in the capital city, where the returns, having been left in great measure 
to the householders themselves, gave little but the most general caste names. Taking the return as 
it stands, we can divide the trading classes, apart from those indigenous to Sind and Cutch, into 
three or four sections. The first is that of Gujaratis, the most extensive and widest spread of all 
who exercise commerce or wholesale dealing, apart from mere village shopkeeping. The next is the 
Marathi Wani, of whom there are two divisions ; one comes from the Konkan, but has made its way 
to the country above the Ghats, the other is the indigenous Deccan Wani, who has, in the north, a 
strong mixture of Gujarat blood. Thirdly, comes the Karnatic trader, or Lingaiat, to use the term 
he has himself preferred in his schedule. This is a very indefinite class, as the cultivator of most of 
the Karnatic table land is also returned under the same appellation. Lastly, there is the Marwadi, 
or immigrant from Central India and Bajputana. He is returned also under the more definite title 
of Oswal, Porwal, or even Meshri, though the last only serves to distinguish him from the Jain. 
There are a good many of this section in the Deccan, but they are comparatively rare in the Konkan 
and the Kurnatic, where the supply of indigenous commercial classes is enough for the wants of the 
place. In Gujarat, next door, as it were to his home, he is not unfrequent, as the more extensive 
transactions of the local dealers in produce tend to admit the stranger to the money-lending business, 
especially if he aspires to deal only in a small way. It seems probable that amongst those shown as 
M&rwadis in this category in Gujarat there are included some of the labouring class from the desert, 
who had come down for work during the harvest time, as the proportion of unskilled and illiterate 
workers is comparatively high. 

Artizans. 

The large body of artizans owes its strength, as has been mentioned earlier in this chapter, to the 
self-sufficing constitution of the Indian village, not to any special addiction to industrial enterprise, 
as in the west. The 16 castes shown in the comparative table comprise about 90 per cent, of this 
order, and it will be noticed that nearly all belong to the occupations most required for a rural 
population. The most numerous are the workers in Leather^ comprising the tanners and shoemakers 
belonging to the despised castes of Mochi and Chambhar, or Kh&lpa. These bear the proportion of 
more than 15 per cent, to the total class. Then come the Oilmen^ who not only press and sell 
vegetable oil, but deal, too, in seeds and grain. They are in the ratio of 13*7 per cent, to the total. The 
unsettled state of the country in old times and the importance attributed accordingly to jewellery 
as an easily concealable investment, give the position of the goldsmith and jeweller a peculiar value. 
Even in the poorest class the endowment of the bride with fresh ornaments forms a leading feature in 
the marriage rite, so it is not to be wondered at if the Sondr caste outnumber the blacksmiths or 
Lohdr by more than 100 per cent.* The extensive practice of weaving cotton fabrics at home on 
handlooms supports a large class of artizans, of which the three chief subdivisions of Khatri, Kos/Ui, and 
Sdli form in the aggregate nearly 8 per cent, of the order. The first-named includes several clans 
which have claims to the Bajput ancestry, which their title denotes. The carpenter, Sutdr, who is 
also house builder and wheelwright, bears about the same relative proportion to the total as the 
potter, Kumbhar^ who makes bricks as a subsidiary employment to that of the provision of earthen- 
ware vessels for the community, which is the one to which he owes his place in the village system. 
Least numerous amongst all, if the Lobars be excepted, are the Darzis or tailors, who in the Deccan 

* A certain section of this caste claims to be Dew&dnya Brahmans descended from Viswakarma, the Hephfiestos 
or the orthodox pantheon, but the daim is not made generally by the whole caste and has not yet been admitted by 
Hindoo society at l^ge. 



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are also vendors of cotton and calico stuffs. These number but 7' 5 per cent, of the whole class o^ 
artizans. There are, lastly, a few castes engaged in trades which are scarcely found in the ordinary 
village. The dyer or Rariffdri is one of these, and the calico printer, or Bhausdr, of Gujarat, is 
another. These are, however, but small numerically in comparison with the others I have named. 
A larger, and under the increasing prosperity of the people, a more important caste, is the Kdsar^ ot 
brass and copper worker. In the Deccan and Eonkan there is a special subdivision of this caste, 
which works only in the latter metal ; but for the purposes of comparison I have included the two 
under one title. According to the Hindoo-Brahmanic ceremonial, the metal vessel is far preferable 
to the original earthenware, and the gradual substitution of the one for the other is a marked sign 
of the advance of the people. Last, I may place the mason, known as Kadia in Gujurdt, and as 
Gaundi in the Marathi-speaking district. Except in Gujarat and the Earnatic, this caste has no 
great extension, and in the Deccan, certainly, perhaps in the Konkan also, the work elsewhere done by 
it is performed by the cultivating classes. The formation of this caste depends, as far as I can see, 
on the type of house most prevalent Some descriptions of structure require little skilled labour, 
whilst where the supply of material necessitates a different and more complex sort of building, none 
but a special class can be employed, so that in the latter district the tendency already noted early in 
this chapter comes into action, and the fraternity closes its ranks against outsiders. 

I pass now to the local distribution of the different sections of this order. Taking the largest of 
the single castes, the oilmen, or Telisy it appears that they flourish more in the Deccan and table-land 
than on the coast and in northern districts. I think that this may partly be attributable to the com- 
parative absence of oil seeds in the Konkan and to the competition of Mahammedans in Gujar&t, 
where, too, the area under oil-producing crops is comparatively smaU. 'Next in order come the 
workers in leather, the three classes of which may conveniently be considered separately. The largest 
is that known as Chamhhdr^ or tanners, but who amongst the ISfar&th&s are also shoemakers. These 
are especially numerous in comparison with the general population in the Deccan and Gujarat, and 
rare in the Eamdtic. Perhaps the third class, the Dhor, do some of this sort of work in the last- 
named division, whilst in Gujardt the Dhors' work, that of making leather buckets and water bags for 
irrigation, is undertaken by the tanners. The term Mochi, or shoemaker, is specially applied in this 
Presidency to those Ch&mbh&rs who come from Hindusthau, and this class is most numerous in the 
large towns. In Gujarat they seem to have permanently settled, but this is not the case in the 
Deccan. The Kumbhdrsy who work in clay and earthenware, are most numerously represented where 
the demand for bricks and tiles is great and the supply of material is plentiful. Thus we find a high 
proportion in Gujarat only, and a very low one in the Earnatic, where, I believe, tiled roofs and brick 
walls are less frequent. The Gaundiy or mason caste, has been described already, and needs no 
further remark. The distribution of the Sutdr^ or carpenter caste, is curious, as the proportion is 
high in all the divisions except the KarnStic and the capital city. Here, probably, the work is per- 
formed by other castes. In Gujarfit the want of stone, and in the Eonkan the large supply of timber, 
at least in the more northern district, seem respectively to maintain this caste above the average level 
in point of numbers. The Lohdvy or blacksmiths, are in a relatively high proportion in Gujarat and 
Bombay city, normal in the Deccan, and low in the Earnatic and Konkan, in both of which ^visions 
it appears that their work is done by carpenters and others. The Sondr, or goldsmith caste, appears 
to be especially high relatively to the rest of the population in the Deccan, Konkan, and capital only ; 
but not in Gujardt, though the people are better off, or in the Earnatic, though so nearly allied to the 
Deccan in many of the characteristics of its population. The workers in brass and copper, Kdsdr 
and Tdmbaf, are found as separate castes chiefly in the Deccan, Eonkan, and Bombay city. As in 
the case of the Sonars, Gujardt and the Earnatic are remarkable for the comparatively small number 
of this class. Of the six castes engaged in working textile fabrics, two are Gujarati by origin, the 
Bhausdr and the Khatri, The Salis are mostly in tlie Deccan, especially the northern districts, but 
in the south they give place to the Koshtisj a more skilled class, found widely spread over the 
cotton-growing districts of the Earnatic table-land. The Shimpiy or Darzi caste, is abnormally 
strong in the Deccan and Bombay, above the average in Gujarat, and extraordinarily weak in the 
Konkan. The Rangdriy or dyers, are confined to the Deccan and Kamatic, as their work in Gujarat 
is done by other castes or by Mahammedans, whilst in the Konkan textile industry is very little 
developed. 

Agbioultubisxs. 

Of this, the largest section of the Hindoo community, about 94 per cent., is included in the 17 
subdivisions shown in the comparative table. Above one half belongs to the great. caste of the 
Mardtha Kunbif which I have taken to include both the Deccan Kunbi and the distinct subsection 
known in the Konkan as Maratha.* There is, it is true, a difference made between these two in the 
country above the Ghats also, but the distinction is by no means well defined, and seems in many 
cases arbitrary. There is no other caste belonging to this order which nearly approaches the above 
in numerical strength. The next to it is the indigenous or Talabda Koli of Gujardt, which bears a 
ratio of 9 '82 per cent, to the total. The Panchamsdli is of the Earnatic, who are but offshoots of the 
great community returning itself as Lingaiat, form about 4'4 per cent., and the Mdli^ or gardeners, 
come to 3 '87. The Mardtha Koliy the Lewa Kanbi of Gujarat, the Agrias and Bhanddns of the 
Eonkan all bear a proportion of over 2 per cent, to the entire agricultural order, but the rest are 
comparatively weak in number. A very short description is required for a class comprising so large 
a section of the population as this. The Marathas include in their ranks the best families of the 
Deccan and the mass of the labourers in the Batnagiri district of the Eonkan. They form almost one 



* In Batnagiri the number of Maratibis returned was 271,000 against 205,784 Kunbis. 

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half of the total population of the former division. In the Karndtic they include, as I have stated 
before, many of the domestic and artizan classes who are distinguished by not belonging to the 
Lingaiat persuasion. In point of rank the Lewa of Gujardt come next, and are probably tlie first as 
to wealth and prosperity. The Kadwa^ though less numerous than the Lewa, hold a good position in 
their native province, to which they seem entirely to confine themselves, whilst the Lewa have esta- 
blished themselves in parts of the Ueccan as weavers of silk and cotton. The Mali have in the 
Deccan a position only a little inferior to the Kunbis, but the subdivisions into which they are sepa- 
rated do not all bear the same rank in the estimation of society. Amongst the Lingaiats the first 
place seems to belong to the Jangamy who are not only priests but traders and money lenders. The 
Panchamsdli and Sddar come next in order, and after them the Kanara caste of the Hdlepaik. The 
Raddis are probably immigrants from the northern districts of the Madras Presidency. Of the Kolis, 
the Talabda of Gxijarat are the most advanced, and are foimd in all parts of that division. Their 
neighbours of the Konkan are not entirely a cultivating class, as they carry on a good deal of the 
fislung along the coast, but there are few of their villages without a preponderance of landholders. 
The Koli of the Deccan appear to have been driven from the plains to the Ghats in some parts, but 
do not present the distinctive marks of Aboriginal origin to the same extent as the Konkani tribes of 
the Thakurs and Kathodis. Where they are found in the open country, the position and condition 
of the Koli is better, though he is still inferior in intelligence and industry to the Kunbi. The Agria 
of the Konkan ranks in about the same grade as the Koli of the coast, and the Bhanddriy which is a 
caste also originating in the Konkan, is held, I believe, a little above the others just mentioned. Last 
of all comes the Gujarat caste of the Dubla. Thb is confined chiefly to the Surat and Broach 
districts, and in the former is usually in the position of Halt, or hereditary serf to families of the 
colonising Brahmans of the Anawala section. There are small landholders amongst them, and a good 
many have left their native places for the neighbouring district, where the chance of living off the 
small estates they can afford to cultivate is more favourable. As a matter of fact, they are very little, 
if at all, removed from the rank of their companions, the Dhodia^ who are not, however, in the same 
state of predial servitude. Hence the Dubla, being perhaps better known to the enumerators, is 
returned as of the Hindoo religion, whilst the Dhodia retains, on record at least, his primitive worship. 
It must Ije admitted, on the other hand, that the continual presence of the former in and about the 
homestead of the Brahman is likely to have had the not unusual effect of exciting a certain kind of 
emulation or desire of imitating at a distance the rites of his master* 

Begarding the local distribution of this order I have little to add to that I have already stated 
above. Castes bound to the profession of agriculture are not wont to wander far from their ancestral 
abode, and with the exception of the M&li, who are distinguished more as an occupation than as a 
local subdivision, as is the case with the rest of the cultivators, the distribution of the majority of the 
castes is very restricted. If the large caste of the Kunbis be omitted, on account of its encyclopoedic 
meaning, it will be seen that 18 per cent, of the order is indigenous to Gujarat, 6*5 to the Konkan, 
and 9 '84 to the Kamatic 

SUEPHEBDS, G-BAZIEHS, &C. 

This order is divided into five sections only, and more than 68 per cent, of the population included 
in it is found in the single caste of the Dhangars^ which, too, is the fourth in point of numbers of all 
the castes in the Presidency Division. This caste includes the Kurbars of the Kamatic, who do not, 
however, appear to have been very numerously returned compared to the Dhangars. The main trade 
of the latter is in sheep and goats and their wool and other products. Some classes of them deal in 
cattle also. In many parts of the Deccan they are fixed in villages and do not move far from their 
homes, and in such circumstances they speedily become the occupants of a few fields and settle down 
into cultivators. Elsewhere they rove about from pasture to pasture. A good deal of rough wool 
spinning and even weaving of blankets is done amongst them, but their principal reliance is still on 
their flocks. The next caste in point of numbers to the Dhangars is the Wanjdra, or Brinjari. There 
are two distinct branches of this caste to be found in different parts of the Presidency. One is the 
weU-known carrier, who brings down grain, &c. to the coast and takes back salt. The other, which 
is most numerous in the Deccan, consists of agriculturists only who have settled all over the north of 
this division and have almost abandoned the carrying trade except to the extent of sending their carts 
and cattle away to earn their subsistence during the time they are not required for cultivation. The 
latter class are held in good estimation amongst their neighbours, the Kimbis, and present hardly any 
trace of a wandering origin. There are in them, as in so many other castes of obscure descent, traces 
of Bajput blood. The third caste is that of the Gaulis, which, though found scattered all over the 
Deccan, is congregated chiefly in the Konkan. Here they are largely engaged in cultivation, though 
elsewhere their ordinary and indeed their only occupation is that of cattle breeding and dairy keeping. 
The other two castes are Gujarat shepherds, the Bharwad and Rabari. The pressure of cultivation 
on available land in this division has driven the pastoral tribes to the outlying tracts where there is 
still plenty of waste for grazing, and the bulk of the agricultural cattle are probably better cared for 
than amongst the farmers of the Deccan, where pasture land is abundant, if not remunerative ; so in 
Gujarat stall-feeding and careful stabling tend to raise the value of the stock, and induce the owners 
to work it longer, instead of constantly changing^ as elsewhere. Thus the pastoral castes here are 
gradually taking first to field labour, then to agriculture on their own accqunt, and the breeding of 
cattle and sheep is left to others from distant parts of the country. 

Seafabebs. 

The seven castes of fishers and sailors shown in the comparative table contain nearly 96 per cent* 
of the population of this order. With the exception of the Bfioif which is composed to a large 



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extent, of inland fishermen, most of the castes are from Gujar&t or the Konkan. Two, however^ are 
indigenous and confined to Kdnara alone« The Khdrwas are widely spread along the whole coast, 
and number almost 18 per cent, of the order. , They are not so much fishermen as sailors and 
boatmen, and in Gujar&t have the monopoly of the tile-turning trade. The Mdchhis, on the other 
hand, are chiefly fishermen, though found as boatmen near the coast of their native Gujardt. Their 
strength is about 20 per cent, of the whole. Of the purely Konkan tribes the largest is the Gfdbit, 
containing 11*5 per cent, of the order. It is also found to a considerable extent in Kdnara. The 
smsili and semi- Aboriginal caste of the Mdngelas is found in the same division, though further to the 
north, and extends to Gujar&t and the capital city. The Bhoi is the largest caste of all, including 
32*79 per cent, of the whole fishing population. ' This caste is not entirely engaged in fishing or 
boating, but, as I have already remarked, is employed as porters and carriers of palkis all over the 
country. They are chiefly found in the North Deocan, with the fishing branch in Gujarat and the 
Konkan. The two K&nara local castes are the Mogir and the A'mbi, numbering respectively 2'32 
and 3'49 per cent, of the order. 

Personal Servants. 

About two thirds of this order consists of the Hajdm, or Nhdvi^ caste, and the rest of the Dkobi, 
or Parit There are a few isolated instances of other subdivisions devoted to personal or domestic 
service, but those I have mentioned are the principal ones, and the only castes that need be recorded 
here. The barbers are relatively in the highest proportion, as compared with the total Hindoo 
population, in the Deccan and Gujarfit They are below the average in the Konkan and Karnatic, 
and in normal proportion in the capital city. In addition to their ordinary occupation ojF barbers, 
they are in some cases the village musicians and in Gujarat, leeches, whilst their wives are there the 
midwives and nurses of the community at large. The washerman caste is subdivided into ,two 
sections. The first is that of the indigenous class, called Parit, and found in the Deccan and 
Mar&thi districts generally. The second is the Dliobiy originally coming from Bengal, or Hindusthdn, 
but for many genemtions settled permanently in this Presidency. They are common in Bombay 
City and in Gujar&t, and though found in the Deccan do not intermarry or have social intercourse 
with the Parits. 

Minor Professions. 

There are a number of small castes included under this heading, but the eight selected for the 
comparative table comprise 93 per cent, of the people belonging to the order. More than one half 
are Chirao, or temple servants of the Mar&tha districts, who are also makers of garlands and leaf 
plates for the use of Hindoos at festivals. They are not found in considerable numbers except in the 
Deccan and Konkan. The Bhdt, or genealogists of the Rajputs, are the next caste in order of 
numbers. Though they are mostly congregated in Gujardt, within reach of their patrons, their 
occupation of recording the domestic occurrences in the families of the other castes to whom they are 
accredited, takes them to the Deccan in some numbers. The Chdran^ a caste originally closely allied 
to that of the Bh£ts, has now almost abandoned a special occupation, and settled down in Gujardt as 
cultivators. The Gondhali, or village musicians of the Deccan, come next in numbers, with 6*33 per 
cent, of the entire class, or a tiifle less than the strength of the Chdran. The Wdjaniri and the 
Kabutaria of Gujarat seem to perform somewhat analogous functions in that division, though 
belonging to a different caste. Amongst dancers and actors are found the Devli of Kdnara, and the 
lower caste of the Bhdiodya of Gujar&t. Both these seem to be local castes. Lastly, there are the 
KoUidti or rope dancers, who chiefly firequent the Deccan and Konkan. Ail these are small sections, 
but are mentioned in the table on account of the very restricted number of those that pursue the 
eponymic occupation without belonging to castes with a more general title. 

Devotees and Religious Mendicants. 

This order is a smaller one even than that which precedes It, and contains but four castes of which 
the Gosdvis include nearly one half. Though most of this caste still follow nominally the profession of 
living by alms, and wander about the country from shrine to shrine, there is a not unimportant section 
which has settled down to regular occupations, chiefly in towns, where they are traders or money- 
lenders ; others are cattle breeders and bead sellers. There is another section, the descendants of the 
chiss that became so influential shortly before the advent of the British to power in this Presidency, 
who are employed as guards at temples or as retainers of great Hindoo houses. These are mostly in 
the Deccan, and in the rest of the country this class is not by any means numerous. The remaining 
divisions of this order have been abstracted for Gujar&t in the gross, imder the general title of Sddhu, 
or devotee. Two other castes are, however, returned for the Deccan and Konkan in sufficient 
nmnbers to make it worth while to show them in this table. These are the Joshis, or village 
fortune-tellers, who are also mendicants, and the Bairdgis, a caste represented in nearly every large 
village of the Deccan. * 

Depressed, or Unolean Castes. 

The origin of these castes is still an open question, so I will not venture to discuss it here. The 
fact that in most cases it is this class that is the guardian of the village boundary marks, and the 
referee in disputes as to the limits of particular fields at the outskirts of the village, seems to indicate 
clearly the aborigimil claims of the MahdrSy or Dheds. But, on the other hand, there are tribes of 
equal antiquity in the land who are, notwithstanding their low position with reference to the ordinary 
Hindoo, within the pale, as it were, and not unclean. It is very clear that as soon as the oolonists 
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had established themselves in a callage some one must have been appointed to remove the carcasses of 
the sacred cattle which it may be presumed^ were allowed to die of old age and weakness in those days 
as at present. It may have happened, therefore, that the class of Aboriginals that agreed to 
imdertake this duty were reinstated in their land whilst the rest of the cultivators of the old race 
were driven away to distant and less desirable places. Of castes of the description coming under 
this order there are only three which need be noted here. The first, however, is a very large one, 
coming next to the Kunbi in its numbers. This is the MaliAr^ or Dhed^ as it is still called in Gujar&t 
They constitute about 78 per cent, of the entire class. In the Deccan and Konkan they are 
especially numerous, but are comparatively low in the Karn&tic and Gujarat. In the latter division 
the village system is weak, and moreover, there may be emigration of this class. In the Karnatic 
another caste of this order, the Mdngs^ are more numerous than the Mahdrs, so they probably occupy 
the position taken by the latter in other parts of the Deccan. The relative strength of the Mings is 
14*69 per cent, of the order. The actual strength is considerably over 100,000. In the Deccan they 
are less employed in village service, and one of their principal means of livelihood is the preparation 
of hemp and the manufacture of ropes. In North Qnjardt, though not apparently for the same 
reasons, the Dheds were till recently largely occupied in hand-weaving, and used to supply a great 
part of the Coarse cotton wrappers worn by the middle and poorer classes there. The BhaiigiSy or 
scavengers, are the last of this order. They are indigenous only to Gujarit, and for the service of 
the rest of the Presidency, wherever they are wanted, they have to be imported.* There is not 
sufficient employment in Gujardt for them in their hereditary occupation, so many are returned aa 
general labourers or as mendicants. The rest are largely employed by municipalities, both in Gujarat 
and elsewhere. 

Laboubing and Miscellaneous. 

I now come to the last division of the Hindoo comtnunity, and as it is a very indefinite one there is 
little about the castes included in it that calls for a general description. About 85 per cent, of the 
^otal population classed under this head has been included in the eight castes shown in the com- 
parative table. The most important of these numerically is the Berad^ or Bedar, which comprises 
more than a third of the whole order. This caste is one that properly belongs to the Kom^tic, but it 
is also found in the Sholapur district of the Deccan. The Berads are mostly cultivators, either as 
occupants or field labourers. They are also employed as village watchmen over a considerable tract, 
and this gives reason to suppose that they are of aboriginal descent, like the Rdmoshis^ who adjoin 
their territory to the north and west. The latter have a strength of 12 per cent of the order. They 
are principally found in the Poona' and Satara coUectorates, and bear a bad name for theft and 
robbery. The Waddars^ a wandeiiig tribe of earth-workers and labourers, originating in the Telinga 
country to the south-east of the Presidency, are found in the Deccan and Karnatic wherever there is 
a large job, such as embanking or excavation, to be had» They are now coming stiU further from 
their native place, and were enumerated in both the Konkan and in Gujarat. In the latter division 
the PFdffhris, with about 9 per cent, and the Golds vnth 3*3, are the two chief castes that come into 
this category. The former are now labourers and fowlers, and are most common in the northern 
districts, but they are reportedf to have sent expeditions to far beyond the eastern limits of this 
Presidency in search of favourable grounds for thieving, cattle lifting, and the like expeditions. 
More numerous than these are the Ldmans of the Kamdtic. This curious caste appears to have 
originally come from Central India or North Gujar&t, but at the present day there are comparatively 
few in that direction. In the south they are labourers, cultivators, and wanderers, with a bad 
character, like most of this order, except the Golds and Kamdthis, The Korvis, with whom, perhaps, 
the Kaikddis might be combined, are mostly jn the Karnatic, where they wander from village to 
village, with various pretexts of gaining their living otherwise than dishonestly. The Kaikddis of 
the Deccan are apparently makers of the date-matting so common in that division, but like the 
Waddar, Korvi, and Lamdn, they belong to the lowest type of the community. The Kamdthis seem 
to be settled chiefly in the capital city, where they work as builders and carpenters. The Golds are 
also found there, exercising their ordinary occupation of grain pounding and rice husking as in 
Gujardt 

Aboriginal and Fobest Tbibbs. 

The comparative table shows that the Aboriginal tribes, according to the acceptation of the term 
which I have adopted throughout this work are altogether absent from the Karnatic and very nearly 
so from the city and island of Bombay. They are most numerous in the Deccan, or rather the 
northern districts of that division, as they are not found to the south of Ahmednagar. In Gujardt, 
too, there is a good sprinkling, especially in the Panch Mahdis and Surat. There are, in fact, two of 
the eight tribes distinguished, the Chodra and Gdmtha, that are only met with in the latter district. 
The Dhodia, also, are found in llidna only as immigrants from Surat, the district that immediately 
adjoins it on the no;i;h. The Naikada are found in two portions, the first in the south of Surat, 
where they are settled as cultivators, like the Dhodia, the second in the wilder district of the Panch 
Mahdis. The Wdrli and Kdthodi are entirely Konkan tribes, and scarcely found out of the Thn a 
district. The ThSkuTy too, were it noc for the sharing of their appellation with the Brahmakshatrias, 
as mentioned in a earlier pnrt of this chapter, would be found localised altogether in the Konkan and 
on the crest of the Ghdts, in the Ndsik, roona and Admednagar districts. 

* Mahammedan sweepers from the Central Provinoes seem to be much employed in towns in the Deooan. 

t Major Gnnthorpe, m his notes on criminal tribes of Bombay, Berdr. and the Central Provinoes, attributes 
a Gnjardti ori^ to the whole widely spread class known in diflfeient provinoes aa Wdghri, Badhak, Banri, Phanai, 
Plurdni, Takdn, &c. Shening seems to have entertained a similar notion. 



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The Bhih frequent diiBTerent parts of Gujarat as well as the wilds of the northern parts of Khdndesh 
and the Ddng forests. They form nearly half the entire population of their order, and are one of the 
most widespread and characteristic of all the forest tribes. The rest have all more or less settled 
dowix to cultivation, though the agriculture of the Kathodi and Warll is of the simplest description. 
All these tribes, as well as the Gamtha and Panch Mahal Naikada, are less addicted to settled habits 
than the rest Wherever they have not moved <lown into the more level tracts, they continually 
shift their dwellings from one site to another, and on some occasions the whole hamlet is thus trans- 
ferred to a considerable distance from its former site. Omens or mishaps are the moving causes of 
these flittings. It is difficult to apportion a distinctive rank amongst the Aboriginal tribes to any of 
those I have mentioned, but, roughly speaking, the Kathodia, Warli, Ohodra, Gamtha, and Ghat 
Thakur, are in a lower grade to the Dhodia and the Naikada. The Bhil is perhaps superior to the 
rest physically, though this tribe has tnany subdivisions and local variations, which prevent the appli- 
cation to it of any general characteristic. They are largely employed in the villages of the plains as 
watchmen, or more correctly speaking, are made responsible for the safety of the village against the 
depredations of their fellow-tribesmen from a distance. Out of the eight tribes recorded, this is 
the only one that has the name of being distinctly given to lawlessness and which is placed under 
surveillance as soon as a party of them take up their abode in the open country. 

Jains. 

There are about 80 subdivisions of this community shown in the detailed list, but the six given in 
the comparative table, together with the two indefinite ones also there recorded, include, in the 
aggreijate, more than 92 per cent, of the whole. No less than 38 per cent, of the Jains returned 
themselves under the vague heading of Shrdwak, or Jain layman, without any other indicjition of 
their social status. It is not difficult, however, to further distribute these into the two main classes 
of the commercial and the agricultural which have already been brought forward in this work as 
constituting the most important distinction in this Presidency, i he most numerous class is that of 
the commercial Shrawak, which is returned in the greatest relative numbers in the Deccan and 
Bombay City. There is no doubt that a large number of this class is properly denominated Osiodl or 
Humbady and to the former belon;; a great many of the well-known traders and money-lenders of the 
Deccan, generally termed Mdrwddi, The Shrimdlis of Gujarat, and the Porwdl and Hunibad of the 
north come next in numerical strength. These are all chiefly to be found in Gujarat. The two 
principal cultivating castes of this religion are confined to the Karnatic, and to one or the other are 
to be assigned the large number of the Shrawaks of this division. Of the whole Jain community 
about two thirds belong to the commercial and the rest to the southern, or agricultural section. 

Mahammedans. 

The subdivisions of this community shown on the list amount to over 230 in number, but it appears 
that most of these titles are returned by a very small population, chiefly in the north of Gujarat. The 
10 castes, or divisions given in the comparative table, comprise over 84 per cent, of the whole, and of 
the rest, a large proportion is classed simply as Mahammedans in the city of Bombay. I have 
divided the castes selected into two sections, not as representing any practical difference, but as 
indicating the race to which each class nominally belongs. The first is that which, from its title, 
claims a foreign origin. It includes ab(mt 73 per cent, of the castes shown in the table. The largest 
division is that of the Shaikhs^ a general title which is returned by more than 55 per cent, of the 
whole Mahammedan community. There are three other divisions, the Saiads, with 6'3 per cent, the 
Pathdns with 7*96 per cent., and the Moghalsy which have a strength of only 0*66 per cent. I havo 
already remarked in the third chapter that the prevalence of such titles in this part of the country 
seems to indicate that the persons converted from the Hindoo faith by the social or political influence 
of the great Mahammedan leaders assumed, in default of any alternative caste system, which they 
were unable to do without, the clan-title of their patron. In the returns I find every sort of trade 
and occupation recorded in the name of all these classes, so that there is no mark retained, as in the 
case of the converts of Gujardt, by which the class of their Hindoo ancestry can be traced. Amongst 
those which are more distinctly recognisable as converts from the local Hindoo castes, six divisions 
are of importance enough to be recorded in the comparative table. The best known of these. is the 
Shiahy or Daudi, Bohordh. These are found, as I stated elsewhere, in all parts of the country, 
though principally in Gujarat and the capital. They constitute, however, but 2'87 of the Maham- 
medan population. The Sunni Bohorahs of Gujardt are more numerous, and reach the relative 
strength of 5*56 per cent. There are two classes of these, one and the smaller, a trading community 
of Surat, the other, a widely spread and influential section of the agricultural population. The Shiahs 
of the Bohorah persuasion have the name of being well read in the tenets of their faith and among^st 
the most strict of the Mahammedans in this Presidency. There has recently been, too, I believe, a 
sort of revival amongst the Sunnis, both merchants and cultivators. The latter, however, retain 
much more of their Hindoo custom than the former, as, indeed, is only to be expected of an agricul- 
tural class. Two other classes of cultivating Mahammedans wholly confined to Gujarat, and evidently 
of local origin (probably converts of the Hindoo of good race) are the Maleks and Molesaldms of the 
northern districts. The aggregate strength of these two is no more than 3*16 per cent, of the whole, 
but they enjoy a considerable local influence. I now come to the two trading classes of the Khcjas 
and Memons. These are of an origin more northern than even the Maleks, and hail from Sind and 
Cutch. They are concentrated chiefly in the capital city, where they hold a high position for wealth 
and enterprise, and consequently for respectablility. The Khojas are Shiahs, and one section follows 
devotedly the Persian descendant of Hasau-i-Sabbah, the old man of the mountain, founder of the 

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Assassms, whom they regard as in some measure aR incarnation of the divinity * The devotion of the 
Shiah B^ihorahs to their Mullah, who is an elected leader, is also most remarkable, though of a very 
difEerent complexion to that of the other eect.f As regards the local distribution of this community, 
it may l)e seen that the cultivating Mahammedans, bound together by a distinguished name, are 
confined to Gujarat. The trading classes from the north are mostly in the capital, and the Bohoras 
in Surat and the Panch Mahals. The Saiads are found more in the Karnatic, towards Dharwar and 
Kaladgi, the seats of old Mahammedan governorships, and the Pathans are in the Deccan, the halting 
place of so many armies from the plains of the Jumna and Ganges. A large and heterogeneous mass 
like the Shaikhs is necessarily scattered all over the Presidency, though the term is returned more 
frequently from the Deccan and Elarndtic than elsewhere. From what has been said above, it is 
plain that little practical use is to be made of the classification of the population professing this 
religion under the race-headings implying foreign descent, whilst, on the other hand, the maintenance 
of the caste system in the case of the cultivators, and the exclusivencss of the trading sections give to 
their subdivisions a real vitality. 

COLLATERAL INFLUENCE OF THE CASTE SYSTEM. 

There remain one or two points in connexion with the caste system on which it is probable that the 
statistics now collected will tend to throw some light. The first of these is the effect of caste custom 
or regulations regarding marriage on the constitution of the community. Another is the relation now 
existing between caste and occupation. I am unable in the. comparatively short time at my disposed, 
to treat either of these subjects as fully as they deserve, but I trust that the indications I hope to give 
wiU be suflScient to place others on the track, with a view to complete investigation. 

Caste in relation to Marriage. 

Ill the first part of the provincial caste table at page xli of Appendix C. the general position of all 
the principal castes with reference to marrii^e is shown by means of a distribution of 1,000 persons 
of each sex at two periods of life, namely, above and below 15 years. This division was prescribed 
in order to facilitate checking the details by comparison with some of the general returns, but though 
the results show that as far as the main body of the Hindoo community is concerned, the distinction 
is drawn at a suitable period of life, it appears now that the whole of the figures are before me, that 
in the case of the Brahmans, Writers, and upper class of Wdni&, it might have been more useful to 
have lowered the dividing age to 12 years. This, however, could not have been done without a 
separate abstraction of the last-named castes, and would seriously have protracted the preliminary 
work of compilation. Taking the return as it is given, 1 propose to bring to notice the chief matters 
on which I think it affords information, and without discussing the whole of the data, to give an 
abstract of the statistics of castes most generally and widely distributed over the Home Division. I 
have omitted from consideration the capital city, because its unstable population and the fact that the 
majority of the Hindoo castes returned there are from one or other of the four divisions render the 
record of the circumstances now under consideration either superfluous, if the locality of origin is 
described, and misleading, if it be omitted. The return, therefore, deals with the four divisions, 
Gujardt, the Konkan, the Deccan, and the Karnatic. 

The matters to which attention requires to be most directed are, first, the age at marriage, with 
the numerical relation between the two sexes at that time. Secondly, the prevalence and extent of 
the custom of re-marriage in both sexes respectively. Before entering into the diiferenc^s between 
ihe selected castes with regard to these points, I must digress a little, in order to recall to the reader's 
mind a few facts noted, but in insufficient detail, in Chapter V. when the question of marriage in the 
different religions was being considered. Taking only the Hindoos (as recorded in Table VI. of 
Appendix A.),t I give below some general ratios for tlie four divisions, which will form a standard 
of comparison by which the details of each caste can be judged : — 





Ratio per 1,000 liiudoos. 




Under 15. 


16 and upwards. 


Wives 

to 

Hnsbands. 


AU Ages. 




Division. 


Huabaods 

to 

Total 

Males. 


Wives 

to 

Total 

Females. 


Hugbands 

to 

WivcB. 


Wives 
married 

to 

Husbands 

over 15. 


Husbands 

to 

Wives. 


Wives 

to 

Husbands. 




\^'idowed. 






Widowers 

to 
Husbands. 


Widows 

to 
Wives. 


Widowers 

to 
Widows. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


1 « ; ^ 


^ 


9 


10 


11 


Gujurat - 
Konkau 
lleccan - 
Karn&tic - 


130 
40 
66 
72 


253 
200 
255 
289 


677 
212 
275 
263 


423 
788 
725 
737 


! 

1,081 
1,061 
1,124 
1,177 


925 
943 
890 
850 


1,006 
1,082 
1,037 
1,021 


117 
85 
93 

156 


315 
386 
821 

477 


369 
203 
280 
320 



• As the direct descendant of Ali. On the conversion of a large body of Outch Hindoos to this sect about a.d. 
1480, the head of the Khojas, or nnrevealed Imdm, was discovered to be a 10th Awatar added to the 9 of Viahnu, 
this one being of Ali. 

t In the case of the Bohorahs there is no hereditary right to succession, as each Dai, or Mullah, names his suo- 
oessor. He generally, no doubt, chooses one of his own family, but there is no inherent socredness in the person, 
only in the oifioe of the apostle. 

X Including, that is, the quasi-Hindoo Forest tribes of the Konkan and Ehdndesh. 



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There are important differences between each division which it is desirable to note, though the 
detailed table seems to show that most of the general characteristics run through every section of society 
irrespecjtive of locality. In the case of the upper classes^ however, there is more uniformity than 
among3t the masses. The first point is the prevalence of youthful marriages, and regarding this the 
statistics show that there is far more uniformity throughout the country amongst girls than amongst 
boys. The wives under 15 are in higher proportion in the Kamfitic than anywhere else, but between 
the rate in that division and that in the Konkan, where there is comparatively very little infant 
marriage of this sex, the difference is only about 9 per mille, whereas, in the case of the boys, between 
Gujerd-t, where over 13 per cent, of the boys under 15 years old are married, and the Konkan, 
where only 4 per cent, are in that condition, there is a gap of 90 per mille. Taking each sex sepa- 
rately, it appears that in the Deccan and Karndtic the ratios of boy-husbands arc very much alike, 
whilst those of girl- wives are most similar in the Deccan and Gujarat. In estimating the significance 
of the figures for the ICarnatic the mistake is not to be made of accounting for the whole of the 
excess in the ratio of girl-wives over that in the other three divisions by attributing to this tract so 
great a difference in the matter of early marriages. The high ratio of this class is due in great 
degree, no doubt, to the famine, which tended to decrease the number of the girls who had not at 
the date of enumeration arrived at the time of life when the initial ceremony of marriage is usually 
performed. Comparing the general ratio of this division with that of castes found only in the 
K&nara district, which was practically unaffected by the famine, it appears not unlikely that 1 or 2 
per cent, out of the 29 recorded may be set down to the effect of the bad years between 1876 
and 1878. 

The next point for comparison is the relative proportion of boy-husbands to girls married under 
the age of 15. Here, again, Gujardt and the Kookan are at the two extremities of the scale. In the 
latter, no more than one fifth of the gbl- wives have husbands who have not passed out of the age-period 
to which they themselves belong. In Gujarat, on the other hand, there are about 58 husbands not 
more than 15 years old 1o every 100 wives in the same period. The proportions in the Deccan and 
Kamdtic are not far from each other. Thus the Hmdoo in Gujarat starts married life at a much 
earlier period than his compeer in the Deccan and Konkan, and avoids, accordingly, a very large gap 
between his age and that of his first spouse. 

In columns 6 and 7 of the table given above are shown the proportion between husband and wives 
of full age, or over 15. These necessarily follow the figures shown in the preceding portion of the 
table, and we find, therefore, that in the Konkan there are most, and in the Kamdtic fewest, wives of 
this age in comparison to the number of husbands. 

The last ratio referring to married life is that of the aggregate of wives to that of husbands", given in 
column 8. The figures for the Konkan require to be accepted with the qualification that the emigration 
from Ratnagiri must affect seriously the proportion, as many of the married ailuits are away, at sea or in 
Bombay. The Gujarat figure is considerably lower dian that of the other divisions, and it is difiBicult to 
find any satisfactory explanation of this difference, unless it may be the absence of many of the wives 
in their father's homes in the Native States that surround the British territory of the division, which 
appears inadequate. The practice of polygamy, it is to be regretted, cannot be traced through the 
returns collected .it the Census. 

The remainder of the return relates to the widowed, an important section in Indian society. There is 
a considerable difference between Gujarat and the Kamatic and the two other divisions. Taking each sex 
separately, the widowers predominate in the Karndtic, but the greatest disproportion between the sexes in 
this condition is found in the Konkan, which shows, too, a higher proportion of widows than the rest, if 
the exceptional case of the Karnatic be excluded. The ratio of widowers to widows is highest, not in 
the Karnatic, where there is the largest proportion of each, taken separately, but in Gujarat, where there 
are 37 widowers to 100 widows, against 32 in the south and 20 in the Konkan. It is very difficult 
to trace the effects of re-marriage in these figures. There are castes in which the rtiore wealthy 
members prohibit the re-marriage of widows, whilst their less prosperous brethren are not under 
this restriction. Emigration in the Konkan and the famine in the Kamatic, too, introduce a dis- 
turbing factor, so that, on the whole, it is with regard to the three or four upper orders only, which 
are known to be guided by fixed rules as to the fate of widows, that the returns are of real use and 
valua 

I now proceed to give examples of the chief castes which contribute to the divisional totals on which 
I have been commenting. The subdivisions selected in the table on page cxi are, as far as possible, those 
which are the most generally distributed overthe whole of the four divisions, but occasionally, to support 
any special or local feature, a caste has been entered which is not found beyond a limited area, and the 
double eptries in the firsf column indicate the combination of two cognate castes for different divisions. 
For instance, the Dhangar is entered for three divisions, but for Gujarat, where there are very few of this 
caste, the figures for the corresponding one of the Bharwad are given ; similarly with the Koli tribe ; 
whilst the Berad is placed with the Rawalia, which is an exclusively Qujarfiti caste, as the former is 
Kanarese. 

Taking first the married males below the age of 15, which, however, is a detail not shown in the table, 
it appears that in all four divisions there is comparatively little boy-marriage amongst the Brahman8,and 
that it is especially rare in the case of Gaud colony. The ratio is a little higher in Gujarat than else- 
where, but only rises above the average for that division amongst the cultivating classes of Brahmans, 
such as the Anfiwala and Sajodra. The Rajput, Writers, and Waoias, too; of this division show 



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comparatively low ratios, and the general average is largely determined by the later age at which marriage 
takes place against the Talabda Koli and other semi- Aboriginal tribes. The instance of the Ead wa Kanbi, 
which, as pointed out in Chapter V., is quite exceptional, owing to the hurry to get all the children of both 
sexes married off during the lucky season of 1880, may be omitted, and then it will be seen that the highest 
proportions are found amongst the artizans of this division, such as the weavers, oilmen, potters, rice- 
pounders, and cotton printers. It is worthy of remark that in the rest of the Presidency, also, 
the weavers are distinguished in this respect, though not so markedly as in Gujardt. Speaking 
generally, it appears that in all the divisions it is the custom, or at least the tendency, for sons to be 
married kte in the upper and lower castes, and for the middle classes, especially the artizans, to 
marry them off early. Except in Gujardt, however, there is more inequality amongst the latter, and 
the tendency is by no means so uniformly perceptible. In the Deccan the heavy preponderance of 
the Maratha element decides the average, and in the Eamatic it is clear that the losses during the 
famine have unduly raised the proportions returned iu the cultivating and industrial castes of the 
table-land. Amongst the agriculturists of the Kanara district, including the Havik Brdhmans, there 
is scarcely any boy-marriage, and even above the Ghdts the ratio in the case of the labourers and 
lower classes generally is less than in other parts. Looking at the whole range of castes in connexion 
with this subject, it seems that, except in Gujarat, there is no large caste in which more than 1 boy in 
10 is^married under the age of 15. 

As regards the marriage of girls under this age, it appears that, though the general average is highest 
in the Karnatic, it is in Gujarat that there are more individual instances of castes in which the ratio is 
remarkably high, so that, discounting the effects of the famine on the child-population in the former part 
of the country, we may assume that the normal tendency towards the early marriage of females is stronger 
in the north than in south of the Home Division. In order to make this more clear, I have shown in tiie 
table on page cxii the 12 castes amongst whom the extreme ratios in both directions, and for both the 
conditions connected with marriage, are to be found. 

Setting aside the case of the Kadwas, in which more than 80 per cent, of the girls are married, we 
find that the Kamdtic caste in which the highest ratio appears is only sixth in serial order, and that out 
of the twelve selected, not more than three are indigenous to that division. On comparing the proportions 
for males and females it will be seen that all the castes in Gujardt which stand very high in the former 
series are, with the exception of the Lewas, also distinguished in the latter, and that the order of the first 
five castes is the same in both. In the third series, that which gives the ratio of boy-husbands to girl- 
wives, all the castes are, as is to be expected, those of Gujarat, but only nine of them appear in the first 
series. The Lobar and the Soni are fresh ones, and the Rabari has yielded its place to the kindred caste 
of Bharwad. Of the first four entries three are in a similarly high place in the first series of 
proportions. 

The relative strength of widows is the next point that calls for comment. I have not been able to 
determine exactly the chief castes that profess and carry out the prohibition of the re-marriage of widows, 
but the information at my disposal leads me to think that such rules are universally and strictly observed 
only amongst Brahmans, most Rajputs, most Gujarati, and perhaps other, Wanias, and all writers. 
Amongst other castes it is well known that the re-marriage of widows does take place to a certain extent, 
and it seems that the tendency is for the prohibition to be introduced as any portion of the caste advances 
to a state of wealth or social influence which renders it in a i)Osition to wish to place a barrier between 
itself and the less fortunate section of the community. I have already had occasion to notice the way 
in which a person who has attained the position of ruler of a tribe or district is invested with the 
attributes of the Kshatria, and after a few decades of usage aided, probably, by occasional inter- 
marriage with families of more ancient lineage, has his claim firmly established with his compeera 
So, too, in parts of the country, the more powerful of the Aboriginal tribes have received a patent of 
nobility dating from times immemorial ; and in modern times I have heard of claims to Kshatria 
ancestry set up by the nouveaux riches of even the Christian converts in the south. This being the 
case, and the progress of the ambitious and successful community being thus restricted to one 
direction, as the road to the Brahmanical order is practically closed, it is not improbable that they 
should have seized on that characteristic of the military order which it was least difiicult for them to 
imitate, namely, the seclusion and jealous appropriation of the weaker sex. We thus find traces in 
the upper class even of cultivators, of the pardah system, as it is termed, which was borrowed by the 
Rajputs from the Mahammedans, and also of the enforcement of life-long widowhood. The special 
castes in the north and centre of this Presidency in which this tendency is known to exist are, in 
addition to the five orders I mentioned above, the Sondrsy one and the wealthiest section of whom 
have put forward claims to Brihman descent, the PdtiddrSy or leading members of the Lewd com- 
munity in Gujarat, the Sutdrs, in the same division, the Mardthds, or tjjose Kunbi families who 
occupied in former days a position something like that of the Pdtidars now, and the Khatris, or 
weavers. As to the last-named caste, however, the information gained from the Census returns is 
apparently adverse, at least as far as Gujarat is concerned, to that received from other sources. 
There is a tendency in this direction too, amongst the Konkani Wdnias, such as the Yaish and 
Maratha. I am not in possession of information with reference to the Karnatic castes, so that it is 
out of the question to attempt to discriminate the results on married life of famine from that of the 
artificial restriction of the Brahmanical system. Judging only by the returns, it appears that in the 
Kanara District there is less re-marriage of widows, both amongst the cultivators of the middle class, 
as the Halepaiks and Gamwakkals, and also the Havik Brahmans, who^ as their position has been for 
generations an isolated one, may be presumed to have kept up their traditions in purity, whilst their 
influence, like that of the Anawalas in Surat, may have leavened tiie mass of their neighbours and 



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farm servants. Of the twelve castes selected as having the highest proportion of widows to wivep, 
there are seven Brahman sections and five Kamdtic agricultural castes. Of the former, the first is 
the Shrimali of Qajarat, a section holding a high place for its descent and respectability. Three of 
the rest are Gujarati by origiu, the Audich, Nagar, and Khedawal, all of good position. The other 
three are Karnatic, and two of them belong to the coast district only. Of the cultivators also, there 
are two castes which are returned only from Kanara, and one of Rajput descent. We can now pass 
on to the castes in which the proportion of widows is lowest. The twelve selected are all in either 
Gujarat or the KonkaD. Ten are found in the former, two, both artizans, in the latter. After the 
semi- Aboriginal tribe of the Dublas, the next caste in this respect is, curiously enough, the weavers, 
and after them the oilmen, both of which, it will be borne in mind, have been seen to present a very 
high ratio of youthful husbands and wives, more especially the former. The rest are almost all in the 
lower ranks of life, bordering on the Forest tribes, from which, perhaps, they originate, I have lastly 
to note the ratios of the widowers. A good deal was said about the disproportion between the sexes 
in this condition when dealing with the population at large in the fifth chapter. From the selection 
here made, it will be seen that in the caste where widowers are relatively most numerous, the Mangs 
of the Karnatic, the ratio is only about 22 per cent., whilst the highest ratios of the widows have 
been seen to rise to 65 to 76 per cent. Amongst liie Mangs themselves the latter ratio is no less 
than 51 per cent. A similar disparity is perceptible in the case of nearly every caste, but less 
marked in Gujarat than elsewhere. Of the castes in this series, it appears that in eight instances the 
Karnatic is the native place, Gujarat claims three and the Deccan one. ' The first five are all Kanarese, 
but with the exception of the Haviks, belong to the table-land. The sixth is. from Gujarat, and 
represents the higher grade of Wania. The ninth is the indigenous caste of Deccan Brahman, and 
two high castes from Gujardt close the list. It may be pointed out that in this series there are four 
castes of Brahmans and two of Wanias, orders amongst whom there is least early marriage of boys, 
and a high ratio of widows. The latter peculiarity is remarkable also amongst the Berads and 
Chattris. With the exception of the weavers, the rest are cultivators and labourers of the table-land 
of the Kamdtic. In conclusion, there remain to be noticed the castes in which there are proportion- 
ately fewest widowers to husbands. . The twelve selected are, with the exception of two, in the 
Konkan. The first and third of the series are remarkable, too, for the low ratio they present of 
widows to wives. The proportion of widowers is lowest in castes holding no very high position in 
society, and one or two of the entries in this table appear to indicate the tendency for this ratio to riso 
with the position of the caste, and it is not unlikely that the emigration to the capital may have 
affected the ratios of caste like the Marathas and Malis, which would, under ordinary circumstances, 
show a higher proportion. 

General Chaeaoteeistios op System. 

It will not be out of place if, before closing this portion of the work, I endeavour to sum up what 
appear to me to be the general tendencies indicated by the results of the enumeration of the particulars 
about marriaga In many respects my iqferences will no doubt be corrected by those who have made 
the caste-system their special study. 

Firstly, then, a certain uniformity seems to run through the marriage relations of the community 
throughout the whole popidation, and the great variations between the different divisions that have 
been pointed out above seem to be in degree rather than in kin<l. The universal characteristics 
traceable under more or less local variations through the aggregate of each division are briefly these : — 
the marriage, in the first place, of young men is deferred amongst the upper and the lower classes to 
a considerably later date than amonc^st what we may call the middle section of society, or the castes 
about half way down the list in position and circumstances. The daughters of the upper classes arc 
married earlier, on the other hand, than those of the middle or lower, except in Gujarat, where all 
that can be said on this point is that there is a great gap between the practice of the middle class and 
that of the lower with regard to the age at which the girls are married. Everywhere else the, 
tendency for the age of marriage amongst fenales to advance ns the position of the caste is lower, 
unless counteracted by some special cause, is distinctly evident In connexion with the question of 
marriage of girls who have arrived at womanhood is that of the re-marriage of the widowed. In no 
caste dees there appear to be any prohibition of the re-marriage of the men, and, as a fact, they do 
largely marry again, especially in the middle and lower castes. But such a practice as regards 
women is strictly forbidden amongst the upper classes and is discouraged even amongst the higher 
castes of the middle section of the community. Elsewhere it is not only permitted but to a large 
extent practised. As a consequence of this custom, we find a comparatively small number of widows 
amongst the lower classes, where the ceremony of re-marriage is much less expensive than that of 
marriage in the first instance. In the upper ranks of life, on the other hand, there is an extra- 
ordinary preponderance of widows, amounting in some of the cases noted above, to 76 per cent, on 
the total number of wives. To this anomaly the inequality between the age of the couples in this 
class, no doubt, largely contributes. 

It would be interesting and useful to ascertain the exact manner in which and to what degree the 
marriage of girls immediately on their reaching puberty, the inequality of age between the husband 
and wife, and the subsequent re-marriage of widows respectively affect the relative proportions of the 
sexes. On the second point, indeed, 1 touched briefly in the fourth chapter, and expressed an opinion 
that the inequality might possibly tend to the birth of an excess of boys over girls. As to the first 
matter, it is reasonable to presume that the danger of parturition is probably much greater to women 
y 6747. I i 



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OXIV 

of that young age than to those who have reached their full development, and, though the data on 
both these points are rendered of less value by the disturbance of the normal state of things in the 
Karnatic, the figures for Gujarat seem to indicate that there is a somewhat greater mortality at the 
ages of 10 to 15 than elsewhere amongst Hindoo females, and greater, too, than amongst the Forest 
tribes of that division. The proportion of girls of this age to boys is 779 per mille amongst the 
Hindoos, and 876 amongst the Aboriginals. In the Konkan the ratios are respectively 805 and 866, 
and here, it may be noted, girl-marriages of Hindoos are less frequent. In the Deccan, strange to 
say, the proportion amongst the Hindoos is 1 per cent, higher than amongst the Forest tribes, but a 
good many of the latter have been included amongst Hindoos in the general age-return from which 
this calculation was made.* Another difference is that which appears between the relative proportions 
of the sexes during the first year in the two religions. In Gujarat there are at this age 958 Hindoo 
girls to 1,000 boys, whilst the Forest tribes show 1,052. In the Konkan, too, and also in the Deccan, 
the Hindoo ratio is higher than that in Gujarat. I have selected Gujarat for comparison, as it is the 
division that undoubtedly presents the greatest differences as to marriage customs of all those now 
being considered. There are import-ant peculiarities, as has been shown in the preceding portion of 
this chapter, to be found in the Konkan and Kamatic, but on examining the castes individually I 
find it so hard to discriminate between local custom and abnormal coincidence that it is not safe to 
make use of the retium for any general deductions. Assuming, as we reasonably may do, that the 
high ratio of married girls in the table land of the Kamatic is due in great measure to famine, Gujarat 
remains the tract in which the custom of marrying as early as possible is most prevalent, and it is 
here that the disproportion between the sexes is, on the whole, greatest. ' In order to test the returns 
in various ways I prepared a table (given below) showing the ratio to the total caste of the children 
of each sex below 6 years of age. There are certain features about it which may render it useful 
with reference to the question of the influence of age at marriage on sex, so I have thought it worth 
inserting : — 



A.— Caste ai 


Dd Locality. 


Per-centage of 
Children. 


Serial Order. 


B.— Caste and Locality. 


Per-centage of 
Children. 


Serial Order. 




Boys. 


Girls. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


iBoys. 


Girls. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Bfatt 


Deccan - 


10-62 


11-28 


1 


1 


Br^limaD, Konkanasth - Deccan 


7-84 


7-47 


13 


13 


KoU - 


- Konkan- 


9-82 


10-21 


2 


2 


Koshti - - „ - 


7-27 


7-00 


14 


15 


Gh&nchi • 


- Gujarat' 


9-10 


9-02 


3 


4 


Brdhman, Deshisth - „ - 


7-02 


7-24 


15 


14 


Bhil - 


» ~ 


8*99 


9-77 


4 


3 


Brahman Aniwala - Gujardt 


7*00 


6-16 


16 


20 


Eoli, Talabda 


" >» ■ 


8-61 


8-33 


5 


8 


Lewa Kanbi - - „ . 


6-81 


5-94 


17 


21 


Dhed - 


" » ■ 


8-58 


8-45 


6 


7 


Kadwa Kanbi - - „ - 


6-80 


6-61 


18 


17 


Khatri 


" >i ~ 


8-28 


7-64 


7 


12 


Brdhman, S&raswat - Kamdtic 


6-72 


6*51 


19 


18 


Mardtha - 


- Deccan - 


8-21 


8-51 


8 


6 


Soni - - - Gujardt 


6-70 


6-81 


20 


16 


Teli - 


" »> " 


7-98 


8-17 


9 


9 


Panchamsali - - Kamdtic 


6-23 


6-23 


21 


19 


Sonir 


■ » ■ 


7-88 


8-08 


10 


10 


Br&hman Audich - Gujardt 


6-08 


5-77 


22 


22 


Mah&r 


■ » " 


7-87 


8-55 


11 


5 


Koshti - - Kamdtic 


5-58 


6-68 


23 


23 


H&lcpaik . 


•. Kamatic 


7-80 


8-04 


12 


11 


^ 











It will be borne in mind, of course, that there is heavy mortality amongst the young during the 
first and two following years, and that in the Kam£tic the period here given includes that covered by 
the famine, which as shown in the second and fourth chapters of this work, has seriously diminished 
the number of children. I will here draw attention only to the high ratios amongst the lower castes 
such as Bhils and Kolis, and the excess of females amongst them compared with the deficiency per- 
ceptible amongst the Brdhmans, weavers and upper castes of cultivators in Gujarat. It is also worth 
notice that of the two castes confined to a single district, the Siraswats and the Hilepaiks, the latter 
with a high ratio of children, show an excess of females, whilst the Brihmans, who are low on the 
list, have the boys in excess. The results are not, however, uniform, and it requires many more 
tests before the great question can be settled. My own judgment on the subject is, I admit, at 
present suspended, since, though I am strongly disposed to regard prevalence of the marriage of 
girl-wives to men in the prime of life as the chief cause of the disproportion of the sexes, I am 
unable from the statistics before me to say whether the actual birth of more males or the great 
number of deaths of fem.iLj in child-birth is the more influential factor in producing the general 
result. 

Mahammedans. 

• As regards the Mahammedans, with their ill-defined classes, we can do little more than discuss 
their special marriage customs in reference to, and by comparison with those of the Hindoos. On 



• Tlie same may be said about the Konkan. In that tract, however, there is not the wide gap between the Forest 
tribes and the mass of the Hindoo cultivators that there is in the North Deocan« 



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Under 15 Tears. 


Of aU Ages. 


Division. 


Hus- 
bands 
to total 
Boys. 


Wives 
to 

total 
Girls. 


Hus- 
bands 

to 
Wives. 


Wives 

to 
Hus- 
bands. 


Widows 

to 
Wives. 


Widow- 
ers to 
Hus- 
bands. 


Widow- 

ersto 

Widows. 


Oujar&t - 
Konkan - 
Deccan - 
Karn&tio- 


7» 

SO 
34 


IflT 
157 
186 
180 


617 
281 
233 
263 


1,057 
W2 
1,080 
1,064 


802 
852 
362 
4W 


124 

9G 

110 

140 


826 
227 
294 
206 



this consideration I have giyrn in the Appendix 
only the clasees of this religion that are the 
nearest to Hindooism in their ordinary life^ but 
in the abstract at the foot of page xlix in Ap- 
pendix C* will be found the general proportions 
of the wives and widows in the four divisions, 
arranged in the same way as those I have just 
been discussing amongst the Hindoos. From 
this table, a portion of which I reproduce in the 
margin, it will be seen that both sexes are married 
later amongst the Mahammedans than amongst 
the Hindoos. There is, however, a slight difference in the other direction in the c^se of the males 
in the Konkan, the explanation of which peculiarity does not appear in the returns. The high ratio 
of wives of all ages to husbands in this division is no doubt due to the large proportion of Hailors and 
boatmen amongst the coast Mahammedans. It will be noticed that the special feature of Hindoo 
marriage in Gujarat is to a smaller extent reproduced amongst the Mahammedans of that division, 
and the proportion of boys married before they are 15 is very high. In the ICarnatic, the ratio 
of girls married under that age is considerably less as compared not only to the Hindoos there, but 
also to the Mahammedans of Gujarat and the Konkan. The proportion of widows to wives is in 
three of the four divisions higher amongst the Mahammedans than amongst the Hindoos, and though 
highest in the Karnatic in the case of both religions^ the second ratio amongst the Hindoos is found 
in the Konkan, but amongst the Mahammedans is m Gujardt and the Deccan, where the proportion 
is identical. The serial order of the ratios of widowers to husbands is the same in both, but amongst 
the Mahammedans this ratio is higher than amongst the Hindoos in all divisions but the most 
southerly. In Gujarat and the Karnatic, too, the ratio of widowers to widows amongst the Maham- 
medans is lower, but in the other two divisions higher than it is found to be in the case of Hindoos. 

As regards the different subdivisions shown in the table on page xlix, it seems that only one 
exhibits to any great extent the practice of the early marriage of boys, and this, the Sunni Bohorahs, 
is composed of the descendants of Hindoo cultivators of various castes. The early marriage of girls, 
too, is most prevalent in this case, the next to it being that of the oilmen, who in this respect follow 
the habits of their Hindoo rivals. The three classes of the Molesalam, the Maleks, and the Cbohans 
are all converts from either Kajputs or Hindoos of nearly as good a position as the Kshatria of the 
division. The chief points to notice with regard to the marriage relations found to exist amongst 
them are the comparatively small proportion of child marriages and the high ratio of the widowed. 
Amongst the Sunni Bohorahs the ratio of widows is high in the case of the girls but low in that of 
women of riper years, as is to be expected from the earlier date of the marriages in their community. 
The Moghals are scarcely to be counted amongst the indigenous tribes of this Presidency, though 
outside the capital city they are in most cases permanently settled in India as a trading community. 
As they travel about a good deal in the course of their business it is probable that the ratios given 
regarding their civil condition are not to be taken as representative of the normal relations of the 
class as a whole. The last section to be noticed is that of the Shiah, or Daudi Bohorahs, resident in 
Gujarat, but found in most of the towns of the Deccan, the return shows that although a good many 
of the latter class are settled residents of the place of their adoption there must be a considerable 
migration between Surat and the rest of the Presidency. There is amongst them comparatively 
little widowhood and not much early marriage. The ratio of the single men over 15 years old is not 
much below that of the better class of Hindoo traders of the division, and the latter as has been 
mentioned above, is higher than among less well-to-do castes. 



Jatns. 

The castes selected to represent the circumstances of the Jain community comprise the largest 
cultivating class of the Karnatic, the most important of the indigenous Jain traders of Gujarat, 
and the chief Marw&di sections. It will be seen in the table, page xlix, that the first-named class is 
the only one in which there is a high proportion of early marriages amongst either sex.f On the 
other hand, the proportion of widows to wives is here much lower than amongst the trading section. 
It is remarkable, too, that the proportion of the single men is so much higher amongst the latter 
class. The cultivating Jains bear, in fact, a very strong resemblance to their Lingdiat neighbours 
in respect to their marriage arrangements, whilst the traders of this religion form a class quite 
apart, even from the Hindoo Wanias of Gujarat, with whom they have much in common in other 
relations. 

Forest Tribes. 

Of the Aboriginal and Forest tribes I need say but little here, as the general features of their 
custom as to marriage have been already brought to notice when discussing the influence of the 
Hindoo system, with which the more primitive relations of this class were contrasted. Omitting the 
Waghris, who are a settled tribe of north Gujarat labourers, and the Thakurs of the Deccan, who 
are of mixed race, it will be seen that the rest of the tribes have at the mo8t*7 per cent, of their girls 
married before they are 15, and if the few, probably wandering, families of the Warlis and Kdthodis 
that have strayed beyond their division be left out of consideration, not more than 2 per cent, of the 
males contract alliances before puberty. The proportion of the widowed amongst the adult females. 



* Of the Bombay OensiiB Report. 



t But this is neoeesaiily doe in some measm:^ to famine. 
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CXVl 

too^ is remarkably low : but thoDgh the same feature is noticeable in the case of the men^ it is less 
marked, unless we select for comparison the upper Hindoo classes, or those found only in Gujarat 
It 13 worthy of note in illustration of the tendency to early marriage, that the smallest proportions 
of the married under 15 is found in the lowest Aboriginal classes, and the ratio rises as the caste 
occupies a better position. Take, for instance, the case of the Gamtha and Cliodra, compared 
with the Dubla, who are settled cultivators. The proportion in the latter is about three times that 
in the denizens of the forest. In the Konkan tribes, though this tendency is well marked with 
respect to the males, the proportion of married girls shows a considerable increase, irrespective