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VEDIC INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHORS 

I. By Prof. MACDONELL. 

KATYAYANA'S SARVANUKRAMAiVl OF THE 
/?/GVEDA. With Extracts from Sha^fgurusishya's Com- 
mentary. (Anecdota Oxoniensia : Aryan Series.) Small 4to., 
pp. xxiv+ 224. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1886. 

A SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY : bein^ a 
Practical Handbook, with Transliteration, Accentuation, 
and Etymological Analysis throughout. 4to., pp. xii + 384. 
Longmans, Green & Co., London. 1892. 

VEDIC MYTHOLOGY. Royal 8vo., pp. 189. Karl 
J. Trubner, Strassburg. 1897. 

A HISTORY OF SANSKRIT LITERATURE. 
Large crown 8vo., pp. viii + 472. Heinemann, London, 
igoo. 

THE BRHAD-DEVATA. A Summary of the Deities 

and Myths of the Kigveda. Critically edited in the original 
Sanskrit and Translated into English. 2 vols., royal 8vo., 
pp. xxxvi4- 198 ; xvi + 334. Harvard University. 1904. 

VEDIC GRAMMAR. Royal Svo., pp. 456. Karl 
J. Trubner, Strassburg. 1910. 

A SANSKRIT GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. 

Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo., pp. 
xvi+264. Longmans, Green & Co., London. 1911. 



II. By Dr. KEITH. 

CATALOGUE OF SANSKRIT AND PRAKRIT 
MANUSCRIPTS IN THE INDIAN INSTITUTE 
LIBRARY. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1903. 

CATALOGUE OF SANSKRIT MANUSCRIPTS IN 
THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY. Vol. II. (begun by Prof. 
Winternitz). Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1905. 

CATALOGUE OF SANSKRIT MANUSCRIPTS IN 
THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY. Appendix to Vol. I. (Th. 
Aufrecht's Catalogue). Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1909. 

CATALOGUE OF PRAKRIT MANUSCRIPTS IN 
THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY. Clarendon Press Oxford. 
1911. 

^ANKHAYANA ARANYAKA, with an Appendix on 
the Mah&vrata. Royal Asiatic Society (Oriental Translation 
Fund, Vol. XVIII.). London. 1908. 

AITAREYA ARANYAKA. Edited with Introduction, 
Translation, Notes, Indexes, and Appendix containing the 
I)ortion hitherto unpublished of the SankhSyana Aranyaka. 
Clarendon Press. 1909. 






i 



INDIAN TEXTS SERIES 



VEDIC INDEX 

OF 

NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



BY 

ARTHUR ANTHONY MACDONELL, M.A., Ph.D. 

BODEN PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD ; 
FELLOW OF BALLIOL COLLEGE ; FELLOW OP THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

AND 

ARTHUR BERRIEDALE KEITH, M.A., D.C.L. 

FORMERLY SCHOLAR OF BALLIOL COLLEGE AND BODEN SANSKRIT SCHOLAR J 
SOMETIME ACTING DEPUTY PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 



VOL. II 




LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

PUBLISHED FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
I912 



VEDIG INDEX OF NAMES AND 
SUBJECTS. 



Purua, or Purua, is the generic term for ' man ' in the 
Rigveda^ and later.^ Man is composed of five parts accord- 
ing to the Atharvaveda,^ or of six according to the Aitareya 
Brahmana,^ or of sixteen,^ or of twenty, or of twenty-one/ 
or of twenty-four,^ or of twenty-five,^ all more or less fanciful 
enumerations. Man is the first of animals, ^ but also essentially 
an animal (see PaiSu). The height of a man is given in the 
Katyayana Srauta Sutra^^ as four Aratnis (' cubits '), each of two 
Padas (* feet'), each of twelve Arigulis (* finger's breadths') ; and 
the term Purusa itself is found earlier ^^ as a measure of length. 

Purusa is also applied to denote the length of a man's life, 
a ' generation ' ;^^ the * pupil ' in the eye ;^* and in the gram- 
matical literature the * person ' of the verb.^ 



1 vii. 104, 15 ; X. 97, 4. 5- 8 '65, 3. 

* Av. iii. 21, I ; v. 21, 4 ; 2, 25 
7. 2 ; xii. 3, 51 ; 4i 25 ; xiii. 4, 42, etc. 
Taittiriya Samhita, ii. i, i, 5 ; 2, 2, 8 
V. 2, 5, I, etc. 

3 xii. 3, 10; Pancavimsa Br3.hmana, 
xiv. 5, 26 ; Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 14 ; 
vi. 29. 

* ii. 39- 

^ankhayanaSrautaSQtra,xvi.4,i6. 

* PaiicavimSa Brahmana, xxiii. 14, 5. 
'Taittiriya Samhita. v. i, 8, i; 

^tapatha Brahmana, xiii. 5, i, 6; 
Aitareya Brahmana, i. 18 ; Aitareya 
Aranyaka, i. 2, 4, etc. 

B Satapatha Brahmana, vi. 2, i, 23. 

> ^afikhayana Srauta Sutra, xvi. 12, 

VOL. II. 



10 ; Sankhayana Aranyaka, i. i ; 
Aitareya Aranyaka, i. 2, 4. 

^o Satapatha Brahmana, vi. 2, r, 18 ; 
vii. 5, 2, 17. He is the master of 
animals, Kathaka Samhita, xx. 10. 

" xvi. 8, 21. 25. 

*' Satapatha Brahmana, i. 2, 5, 14: 
xiii. 8, I, 19 ; Taittiriya Samhita, v. 2, 

5. I- 

13 Taittiriya Samhita, ii. i, 5, 5 ; 
V. 4, 10, 4 : Satapatha Brahmana, i. 8, 
3, 6 ; dvi-puru^a (' two generations '), 
Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 7, etc. 

" Satapatha Brahmana, x. 5, 2, 7. 8 ; 
xii. 9, 1, 12 ; Bjrhadaranyaka Upani^ad, 
. 3. 9- 

1* Nirukta, vii. i. 2. 



APEPURUSANTI AND DHVASRA [ Purua Myga 



Purua Mpga, the 'man wild beast,' occurs in the list of 
victims at the A^vamedha ('horse sacrifice') in the Yajurveda.* 
Zimmer's* view that the ape is meant seems probable. 
According to him also, the word Puru?a alone, in two passages 
of the Atharvaveda,' refers to the ape and its cry {mdyu) ; but 
this sense is not necessary, and it is not adopted by Bloomfield,* 
though Whitney* does not think the rendering 'cry of a man* 
satisfactory, the term mdyu not being properly applicable to 
the noise made by human beings. 



* Taittirlya Samhita, v. 5, 15, i ; 
Maitr&yanI SamhitS, iii. 14, 16; V&ja- 
saneyi SaiphitS, xxiv. 35. 

* Altindisches Leben, 85. 



' vi. 38, 4 ; xix. 39. 4. 
* Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 117. 
B Translation of the Atharvaveda, 
309. 



Purua Hastin (' the man with a hand ') is found in the list 
of victims at the Asvamedha ('horse sacrifice') in the Yajur- 
veda.^ It must be the ' ape.' 

1 V&jasaneyi SaiphitA, xxiv. 29 ; Maitr3.yani Samhitl, iii. 14, 8. 



Puru^anti is a name that occurs twice in the Rigveda,^ in 
the first passage denoting a prot^g^ of the A^vins, in the second 
a patron who gave presents to one of the Vedic singers. In 
both cases the name is joined with that of Dhvasanti or 
Dhvasra. The presumption from the manner in which these 
three names are mentioned is that they designate men, but the 
grammatical form of the words might equally well be feminine. 
Females must be meant, if the evidence of the Paflcavim^a 
Brahmana^ is to be taken as decisive, for the form of the first 
of the two names there occurring, Dhvasre Purusantl, ' Dhvasra 
and Purusanti,' is exclusively feminine, though here as well as 
elsewhere Sayana^ interprets the names as masculines. See 
also Taranta and Purumilha. 



i. 112, 23; ix. 58, 3. 

xiii. 7, 12. Roth thinks the feminine 
form Dhvasre here is a corruption, based 
on the dual form occurring in the 
Rigveda, Dhvasrayoh, which might be 
feminine as well as masculine. 

* Also on the ^ty<lyanaka, cited 



on Rv. ix. 58, 3, and on Rv. i. 112, 

23. 

Cf. "Weber, Episches im vedischen Ritual, 
27, n. I ; Sieg, Die Sagenstoffe des Rgveda, 
62, 63 ; Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft , 
42, 232, n. I. 



Puruvasu ] 



A SEER A HERO A POET 



Pupu-hanman is the name of a Rsi in a hymn of the Rigveda,* 
an Angfirasa, according to the Rigvedic Anukramani (Index), 
but according to the Pancavim^a BrShmana- a Vaikhanasa. 

1 viii. 70, 2. 

> xiv. 9, 29. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 107. 



Puru-pavas is the name of a hero in a hymn of the Rigveda^ 
containing a curious dialogue between him and a nymph, 
Urvasi, an Apsaras. He is also mentioned in the ^atapatha 
Brahmana,^ where several verses of the Rigvedic dialogue find 
a setting in a continuous story. In the later literature he is 
recognized as a king.^ His name is perhaps intended in one 
other passage of the Rigveda.'* It is impossible to say whether 
he is a mythical figure pure and simple, or really an ancient 
king. His epithet, Aila,^ * descendant of Ida ' (a sacrificial 
goddess), is certainly in favour of the former alternative. 



* X. 95. 

' xi. 5, 1, 1. Cf. iii. 4, 1, 22 ; Kathaka 
Samhita,, viii. 10; Nirukta, x. 46. 

^ See Geldner, Vedische Studien, i, 
283 et seq. 

* i. 31. 4- 

' Satapatba Br^mana, xi. 5, i, i. 



Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 1, 196; 
Max Muller, Chips, 4', 109 et seq. ; 
Kuhn, Die Herabkunft des Feuers, 85 
et seq. ; Roth, Nirukta, Erlduterungen, 
153 ; Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, 124, 
135 ; Oldenberg, Sacred Boohs of the 
East, 46, 28, 323. 



PuFUPU is the name of a poet, an Atpeya, in the Rigveda,* 
according to Ludwig.^ But the only form of the word found, 
purHrund, seems merely an adverb meaning * far and wide.' 



^ V. 70, I. 

2 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 126. 
Cf. Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 



Morgerddndischen Gesellschaft, 42, 215, 
n. I ; Rgveda-Noten, i, 360. 



Pupu-vasu (' abounding in wealth ') is the name of a poet, an 
Atpeya, according to Ludwig,^ in one passage of the Rigveda.* 
But this is very doubtful. 



^ Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 126. 
' V. 36, 3. Cf. Oldenberg, Zeitschrift 



dtr Deutschen Morgenidndischen Gesell- 
schaft, 42, 215, n. I ; Rgveda-Noten, i, 333. 

I 2 



SACRIFICIAL CAKE DOMESTIC PRIEST [ Pnrodai 



Puro-^A^ is the name of the sacrificial cake in the Rigveda ^ 
and later.* 



* UL a8, a : 41. 3 : 5a, 2 ; iv. 24, 3 ; 
vi 23, 7 : viii. 31, 2, etc. 

Av. ix. 6, 12 ; X. 9, 25 ; xii. 4, 35 ; 
xviii. 4, 2 ; Taittirlya Saiphitfl, ii. 3, 



2, 8; vii. I. 9. 1 : V&jasaneyi SamhitA, 
xix. 85 ; xxviii. 23, etc. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindischcs Ltben, 270. 



Puro-dha denotes the office of Purohita, * domestic priest.' 
Its mention as early as the Atharvaveda,^ and often later,* 
shows that the post was a fully recognized and usual one. 



1 V. 24, I. 

Taittirlya Saiphita, ii. i, 2,9; 
viL 4, I, I ; Taittirlya BrSLhrnana, ii. 7, 
I, 2 ; Paiicaviip^ Br&hraana, xiii. 3, 



12 ; 9, 27 ; XV. 4, 7 ; Aitareya BrAh- 
mana, vii. 31 ; viii. 24. 27; Satapatha 
Br&bmana, iv. x, 4, 5. 



Puro-'nuvakya ('introductory verse to be recited') is the 
technical term for the address to a god inviting him to partake 
of the offering; it was followed by the Yajya, which accom- 
panied the actual oblation.^ Such addresses are not unknown, 
but are rare, according to Oldenberg,^ in the Kigveda ; subse- 
quently they are regular, the word itself occurring in the later 
Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas.* 



1 Oldenberg, Religion des Veda, 387, 
388. 

" Zeitschri/t der Deutscken Morgen- 
Idmlischen Geullschaft, 42, 243 et seq., 
against Bergaigne, Recherches surl'histoire 
dc la liturgie vedique, i^et seq. 



' Taittirlya SaiphitA, i. 6, 10, 4 ; ii. 
2, 9, 2 ; VAjasaneyi Saqihiti, xx. 12, 
etc. 

* Aitareya Br3.hmana, i. 4, 17 ; ii. 13, 
26 ; Taittirlya Br&hmana, i. 3, 1,3: 
Satapatha BrAbmana, ii. 5, 2, 21, etc. 



PuPO-ruc is the technical description of certain Nivid verses 
which were recited at the morning libation in the Ajya and 
Pratiga ceremonies before the hymn {sukta) of the litany or its 
parts. It occurs in the later Samhitas and the Brahmanas.^ 



Taittirlya Saqihiti, vi. 5, 10, 13 ; 
vii. 2, 7, 4 ; Aitareya Br&bmana, ii. 39 ; 
iii. 9 ; iv. 5 ; Kausltaki Bra.hmaj^a, 



xiv. 1 . 4. 5 : Satapatba BrAhmana, iv. i , 
3, 13 ; 2. 1, 8 ; V. 4, 4, 20, etc. 
Cf. Hillebrandt, Rituallitteratur , 102. 



Purohita 



EAST WIND DOMESTIC PRIEST 



5 



Puro-vata, the ' east wind,' is mentioned in the later Sam- 
hitas and the Brahmanas.^ Geldner^ thinks it merely means 
the wind preceding the rains. 



1 Taittiriya Samhitci, i. 6, ii, 3 ; ii. 4, 
7, I ; iv. 3, 3, I ; 4, 6, I ; Maitrayani 
Samhita, iii. i, 5 ; ^atapatha Brah- 



mana,i. 5,2, 18; Chandogya Upanisad, 
ii. 3, I, etc. 
' Vedische Studien, 3, 120, n. 2. 



Puro-hita (* placed in front,' * appointed ') is the name of a 
priest in the Rigveda^ and later.^ The office of Purohita is 
called Purohiti^ and Purodha. It is clear that the primary 
function of the Purohita was that of * domestic priest ' of a 
king, or perhaps a great noble ; his quite exceptional position 
is shown by the fact that only one Purohita seems ever to be 
mentioned in Vedic literature.* Examples of Purohitas in the 
Rigveda are Vi^vamitra^ or Vasitha in the service of the 
Bhapata king, Sudas. of the Trtsu family; the Purohita of 
Kupu^pavana ;' and Devapi, the Purohita of Santanu.^ The 
Purohita was in all religious matters the alter ego of the king. 
In the ritual^ it is laid down that a king must have a Purohita, 
else the gods will not accept his offerings. He ensures the 
king's safety and victory in battle by his prayers ;^ he procures 



* 1. I, I ; 44, 10. 12 ; 11. 24, 9 ; 111. 2, 8 ; 
3, 2 ; V. II, 2 ; vi. 70, 4, etc. 

2 Av. viii. 5,5; Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
ix. 23 ; xi. 81 ; xxxi. 20 ; Aitareya 
Brahmana, viii. 24, etc. ; Nirukta, 
ii. 12 ; vii. 15. 

^ Rv. vii. 60, 12; 83, 4. 

* Geldner, Vedische Studien, 2, 144, 
thinks that several Purohitas were 
possible, quoting Sayana, on Rv. x. 57, i, 
who gives the tale of the Ganpayanas 
and King Asamati from the Satyaya- 
naka, and comparing the case of 
Vasistha and Vi^vamitra as Purohitas, 
probably contemporaneously, of Sudas. 
But that the two were contemporaneous 
is most unlikely, especially if we adopt 
the very probable view of Hopkins 
(Journal 0/ the American Oriental Society, 
15, 260 et seq.) that ViSvamitra was 
with the ten kings (Rv. vii. 18) when 
they unsuccessfully attacked Sudas. 



The other narrative has, as Oldenberg, 
Religion des Veda, 375, n. 3, observes, 
a markedly fictitious character ; while 
every other passage that mentions a 
Purohita speaks of him in the singular, 
and as there was only one Brahman 
priest at the sacrifice, so the Purohita 
acted as Brahman. 

' "' 33- 53' Cf. vii. 18. 

Rv. vii. 18. 83. 

^ Rv. x. 33. See Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, 2, 150, 184. 

8 Rv. X. 98. 

" Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 24. 

^" See Av. iii. 19 ; Rv. vii. 18, 13, 
from which Geldner, op. cit., 2, 135, 
n. 3, concludes that the priest prayed 
in the SabhS, ' house of assembly,' while 
the king fought on the field of battle. 
See ASvalayana Grhya SOtra, iii. la. 
19. 20. Cf. Pom, n. 2. 



STATUS OF THE PU ROM IT A 



[ Purohita 



the fall of rain for the crops ;" he is the flaming fire that 
guards the kingdom. ^^ Divodasa in trouble is rescued by 
Bharadvaja;^^ and King Tryaruna Traidhatva Aikvaka 
reproaches his Purohita, VfiSa Jana, when his car runs over 
a Brahmin boy and kills him.^* The close relation of king and 
Purohita is illustrated by the case of Kutsa Aurava, who slew 
his Purohita, UpagfU Sau^ravasa, for disloyalty in serving 
Indra, to whom Kutsa was hostile.^^ Other disputes between 
kings and priests who officiated for them are those of Janam- 
ejaya and the Ka^yapas, and of Vi^vantara and the ^ya- 
parnas ;^ and between Asamati and the Gaupayanas.^' In 
some cases one Purohita served more than one king ; for 
example, Devabhagfa Spautapa was the Purohita of the 
Kurus and the Sphjayas at the same time,^^ and Jala Jatu- 
karnya was the Purohita of the kings of Kai, Videha, and 
Kosala.^^ 

There is no certain proof that the office of Purohita was 
hereditary in a family, though it probably was so.^ At any 
rate, it seems clear from the relations of the Purohita with 
King Kupu^pavana, and with his son Upamai^pavas.^i that a 
king would keep on the Purohita of his father. 

Zimmer^"^ thinks that the king might act as his own Purohita, 
as shown by the case of King Visvantara, who sacrificed with- 
out the help of the Syaparnas,^^ and that a Purohita need not 
be a priest, as shown by the case of Devapi and Santanu.^ 
But neither opinion seems to be justified. It is not said that 



11 Rv. X. 98. 

12 Aitaxeya Brahmana, viii. 24. 25. 

13 Pancavim^a Brahmana, xv. 3, 7. 
1* Ibid., xiii. 3, 12. See Sieg, Die 

Sagenstoffe des Rgveda, 64 et seq. 

16 /W(i..xiv*6, 8. 

W Aitaxeya Brahmana, vii. 27. 35. 

1' See ^atySyanaka, cited by Siyana, 
on Rv. x. 57, I ; and cf. Jaiminiya 
Brahmana, iii. 167 (Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, 18, 41). 

18 Satapatha Brahmana, ii. 4, 4, 5. 
According to Sayana, on Rv. i. 81, 3, 
it was B&hdgana Ootama who was 
Purohita ; but this is hardly more than 



a mere blunder. See Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, 3, 152; Weber, Indische Studien, 
2, 9, n. 

" Sahkhayana SrautaSutrai, xvi. 29, 5. 

^ See Oldenberg, Religion des Veda, 
375. who compares the permanent 
character of the relation of the king 
and the Purohita with that of husband 
and wife, as shown in the ritual laid 
down in the Aitareya Brahmai^a, viii. 27. 

^' See Rv. x. 33, and n. 7. 

2^ Altindisches Lebeii, 195, 196. 

" Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 27 ; Muir, 
Sanskrit Texts, 5, 436-440. 

" Rv. X. 98. 



Purohita ] THE PUROHITA AS BRAHMAN PRIEST 7 

Vi^vantara sacrificed without priests, while Devapi is not 
regarded as a king until the Nirukta,^ and there is no 
reason to suppose that Yaska's view expressed in that work 
is correct. 

According to Geldner,^ the Purohita from the beginning 
acted as the Brahman priest in the sacrificial ritual, being 
there the general superintendent of the sacrifice. In favour of 
this view, he cites the fact that Vasistha is mentioned both as 
Purohita^^ and as Brahman :2^ at the sacrifice of SunahiSepa he 
served as Brahman,^^ but he was the Purohita of Sudas;^ 
Brhaspati is called the Purohita ^^ and the Brahman ^^ of the 
gods ; and the Vasisthas who are Purohitas are also the Brah- 
mans at the sacrifice.^^ It is thus clear that the Brahman was 
often the Purohita ; and it was natural that this should be the 
case when once the Brahman's place became, as it did in the 
later ritual, the most important position at the sacrifice.^* But 
the Brahman can hardly be said to have held this place in the 
earlier ritual ; Oldenberg^ seems to be right in holding that 
the Purohita was originally the Hotr priest, the singer par 
excellence, when he took any part at all in the ritual of the great 
sacrifices with the Rtvijs. So Devapi seems clearly to have 



26 Op. cit., 2, 144 ; 3, 155. Cf. Pischel, 
Gottingische Gelehrte inzeigen, 1894, 4^ ; 
Hillebrandt, Ritualltteratur, 13. Rv. 
i. 94, 6, does not pro\e that the Purohita 
was a Rtvij ; it meiely shows that he 
could be one when be wished. 

27 Rv. X. 150, 5. 

28 Rv. vii. 33, n. But this need 
mean no more than Brahmin. 

29 Aitareya Brahnana, vii. 16, i ; 
Sankhayana Srauta Sutra, xv. 21, 4. 

** Sankhayana Sraata Sutra, xvi, 11 
14. 

3^ Rv. ii. 24, 9 ; Aifeireya Brahmana, 
iii. 17, 2 ; Taittiriya BrShmana, ii. 7, 
I, 2 ; ^atapatha Erahmana, v. 3, 
I, 2; ^inkhayana Srauta Sutra, xiv. 
23, I. 

*2 Rv. X. 141, 3 ; KauItaki Brah- 
mana, vi. 13 ; Sata)atha Brahmana, 



i. 7, 4, 21 ; Sankhayana Srauta Sutra, 
iv. 6, 9, 

^ Taittiriya Saiphita, iii. 5, 2, i. 
This point is not in the parallel versions, 
Kathaka Samhita, xxxvii. 17 (but cf. 
xxvii. 4: brahma - purohitam ksatram, 
unless this means ' the Ksatra is inferior 
to the Brahma ') ; Pancavim^a Brah- 
mana, XV. 5, 24, and cf. Gopatha Brah- 
mana, ii. 2, 13. The Atharvan literature 
(Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 
Ix, Ixi) requires a follower of that Veda 
to act as Brahman, and the spells of 
the Atharvan are, in fact, closely allied 
to the spells of the Purohita as repre- 
sented in the Aitareya Brahmana, 
viii. 24-28. Cf. Macdonell, Sanskrit 
Literature, 193, 195. 

** See Bloomfield, op. cit., Iviii, Ixii, 
Ixv, Ixviii et seq. 

*> Religion des Veda, 380, 381. 



8 IMPORTANCE OF THE PUROHJTAOUTCA ST TRIBE [ Pulasti 



been a Hotr;* Agni is at once Purohita'^ and Hotr;^ and the 
'two divine Hotrs' referred to in the Apri htanies are also 
called the *two Purohitas.'* Later, no doubt, when the 
priestly activity ceased to centre in the song, the Purohita, with 
his skill in magic, became the Brahman, who also required 
magic to undo the errors of the sacrifice.* 

There is little doubt that in the original growth of the priest- 
hood the Purohita played a considerable part. In historical 
times he represented the real power of the kingship, and may 
safely be deemed to have exercised great influence in all public 
affairs, such as the administration of justice and the king's 
conduct of business. But it is not at all probable that the 
Purohita represents, as Roth*^ and Zimmer*^ thought, the 
source which gave rise to caste. The priestly ckss is already 
in existence in the Rigveda (see Varija). 



* Rv. X. 98 ; and cf. Paiicavim^ 
Br&hmarta. xiv. 6, 8 ; Avalyana Gyhya 
SOtra, i. 12, 7. 

"^ Rv. i. I, i; iii. 3, 2; 11, i; v. 11, 2. 
In viii. 27, I ; x. 1, 6, he is called 
Purohita, and credited with the charac- 
teristic activities of the Hot}- priest, 

** Rv. i. I, I ; iii. 3, 2 ; 11, i ; v. 11, 
2. etc. 

" Rv. X. 66, 13 ; 70, 7. 

*" Cf. Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 26. 



** Zur Litteratur und Gesthichte des 
Weda, 117 et seq. 

*^ Altindisches Lebet, 195. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altitdisches Leben, 168, 
169; 195 et seq.; Max Miiller, Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, ^5 ; Weber, Indische 
Studien, 10, 31-35 ; 38 ; Haug, Brahma 
und die Brahmanen, 9 et seq. ; Geldner, 
Vedische Studien, ;, 144 ; Oldenberg, 
Religion des Veda, 374-383 ; Bloomfield, 
Hymns of the Athawaveda, Ixx et seq. 



Pulasti 1 or Pulastin^ in the Yajurveda Sirnhitas denotes 
' wearing the hair plain,' as opposed to kapardin, ' wearing the 
hair in braids.' j 



* Taittiriya Samhit^, iv. 5, 9, i ; 
Vajasaneyi Sainbita,, xvi. 43. 



- Kathaka Saphlta, xvii. 15. Cf. 
Zimmer, Alttndishes Leben, 265. 



Pulinda is the name of an outcast tribe mtntioned with the 
Andhras in the Aitareya Brahmana,^ but not in the Sarikha- 
yana ^rauta Sutra,* in connexion with the stcry of l^unah^epa. 
The Pulindas again appear associated with tile Andhras in the 
time of A^oka.* 



vii. 18. 
* Vincent 



* XV. 26. 
Smith, Zeitschrift 



der 



Deutschen Morgeitdndischen Gescllschaft, 
56, 652- 



Pu^karasada ] A BIRD A TEACHER BLUE LOTUS 9 

Pulikaya. See Purikaya. 

Pullka seems to designate some kind of bird in the Maitra- 
yanl Samhit5 (iii. 14, 5). The name appears in the form of 
Kullka in the Vajasaneyi Samhita (xxiv. 24). 

Pulua Pracina-yogrya (' descendant of Pracinayoga ') is the 
name of a teacher, a pupil of Dpti Aindroti l^aunaka, in a 
Varnsa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana 
(iii. 40, 2). He taught Paului Satyayajfta. 



Pu^kara is the name in the Rigveda^ and later ^ of the blue 
lotus flower. The Atharvaveda' mentions its sweet perfume. 
The lotus grew in lakes, which were thence called puskarinl, 
'lotus-bearing.'^ That the flower was early used for personal 
adornment is shown by an epithet of the Asvins, * lotus- 
crowned' {ptiskara-sraj).^ 

Presumably because of its likeness in shape to the flower 
of the lotus, the bowl of the ladle is called Puskara, perhaps 
already in the Rigveda, and certainly in the Aitareya Brah- 
mana.^ Moreover, according to the Nirukta, Puskara means 
* water,' a sense actually found in the Satapatha Brahmana.^ 



1 vi. 16, 13 ; vii. 33, 11, may be so 
taken, though Roth, St, Petersburg 
Dictionary, s.v. 3. and Geldner, Rigveda, 
Glossar, 112, prefer to see in these 
passages a reference to the bowl of the 
sacrificial ladle. 

2 Av. xi. 3, 8 ; xii. i, 24 ; Taittiriya 
Samhita, v. i, 4, i ; 2, 6, 5 ; 6, 4, 2; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, xi. 29 ; Taittiriya 
Brahmana, i. 2, i, 4 ; Satapatha 
Brahmana, iv. 5, i, 16; MaitrSyani 
Samhita, iii. i, 5. 

3 Av. xii. I, 24. 



* Rv. V. 78, 7 ; X. 107, 10 ; Av. 
iv. 34, 5 ; V. 16, 17 ; Bphadaranyaka 
Upanisad, iv. 3, ii, etc. 

5 Rv. X. 184, 2 ; Av. iii. 22, 4 ; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, iv. i, 5, 16, etc. 

* Rv. viii 72, II, where the sense is 
doubtful, and the bowl of the ladle is 
not particularly appropriate. See also 
note I. 

f vii. 5. 
^ V. 14. 

* vi. 4, 2, 2. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Lebeu, 71. 



Pui^kara-sada, ' sitting on the lotus,' is the name of an 
animal in the list of victims at the A^vamedha (* horse sacrifice *) 



lo A SEER FLOWERAN ASTERISM NAMES [ Tu^Xign 

in the Yajurveda Sarphitas.^ It can hardly be a 'snake,'* but 
rather either, as Roth* thinks, a 'bird,' or perhaps, according 
to the commentator on the Taittiriya Sarphita,^ a * bee.' 



^ Taittiriya Saipbit&, v. 5, 14, i : 
Maitr&yanI SaiphitA, iii. 14, 12 ; Vftja- 
saneyi Saiphita, xxiv. 31. 



3 Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 95, so 
takes it. 
3 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Pu^\i'gu is the name of a R?i mentioned in a Valakhilya 
hymn of the Rigveda.^ 

I viii. 51, I. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 140, 141. 

Pu^pa in the Atharvaveda^ and later'^ denotes a 'flower' 
generally. 

1 viii. 7, 12. C/. X. 8, 34. 1 XV. 3, 23; Taittiriya SambitS, v. 4, 

* Vajasaneyi Samhiti, xxii. 28; I 4. 2 ; Chandogya Upanisad, iii. i, 2; 

Pa&caviip^ Brahmana, viii. 4, i ; | Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. 4, i, etc. 



Puya is the name in the Atharvaveda (xix. 7, 2) for the 
Nakatra called Tiya elsewhere. 

Cf. Weber, Naxatra, 2, 371. On Tisya, see aiso Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1911, 514-518 ; 794-800. 



Puta-krata is the name of a woman in a Valakhilya hymn 
of the Rigveda,^ perhaps the wife of Putakratu, but this is 
doubtful, since the more regular form would be Putakratayi,* 
which Scheftelowitz^ reads in the hymn. 

1 v'ui.p^, ^. I ^ Die Apokryphen des Rgveda, 41, 

3 Panini, iv. i, 36. | 42. 

Puta-kratu (* of clear insight ') is the name of a patron in 
the Rigveda,^ apparently the son of A^vamedha. 



1 viii. 68, 17. Cf. Lndwig, Transla- 
tion of the Rigveda, 3, 163. Scheftelo- 
witz, Die Apokryphen des Rgveda, 41, 



reads Patakrata for PautaJcrata in Rv. ' vedischen Ritual, 39, n. 4 



viii. 56, 2, but this is improbable. See 
Oldenberg, Gdttingische Gelehrte A nzeigen, 
1907, 237, 238 ; Weber, Episches im 



Puru ] 



PLANTS A TREE A PEOPLE 



II 



Puti-pajju is the name of a certain plant of unknown kind 
in the Atharvaveda^ according to Roth.^ The Kau^ika Sutra' 
treats it as a ' putrid rope,' but Ludwig* suggests that a snake 
is meant. 



1 viii. 8, 2. 

2 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

3 xvi. lo. 

* Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 527. 



C/. Whitney's Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 503 ; Bloomfield, Hymns of the 
Atharvaveda, 583. 



Putlka is the name of a plant often mentioned^ as a sub- 
stitute for the Soma plant. It is also given in the Taittiriya 
Samhita- as a means of making milk curdle, being an alternative 
to the bark of the Butea frondosa {parna-valka) . It is usually 
identified with the Guilandina Bondw, but Hillebrandt^ makes 
it out to be the Basella Cordifolia. 



^ Kathaka Samhita, xxxiv. 3 (putika, 
as quoted in the St. Petersburg Dic- 
tionary, s.v.) ; Satapatha Brahmana, 
xiv. 1, 2, 12. Cf. iv. 5, 10, 4 ; Panca- 
vima Brahmana, viii. 4, i ; ix. 5, 3, 
etc. 



^ " 5. 3. 5- 

* Vedische Mythologie, i, 24, n. 3. 
Cf. Roth, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 35, 689 ; 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 63, 276. 



Putu-dru is another name for the Deodar (deva-ddru) in the 
Atharvaveda^ and the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ The longer form, 
Putu-daru, is found in the Kausika Sutra.^ 

1 viii. 2, 28. 3 viii. 15 ; Iviii. 15. 

2 Taittiriya Samhita, vi. 2, 8, 4 (in Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 59. 
6 the fruit is meant) ; Maitrayani Sam- 
hita, iii. 8, 5. 



Puru is the name of a people and their king in the Rigveda. 
They are mentioned with the Anus, Druhyus, Turvai^as, 
and Yadus in one passage.^ They also occur as enemies of 
the Tptsus in the hymn of Sudas' victory.^ In another 



1 i. 108, 8. 

3 vii. 18, 13. Cf. Turva^a. Ap- 
parently, as Hopkins, Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, 15, 263, n., 
and Geldner, Vedische Studien, 2, 135, 
think, in this verse the words jcfma 
Purum vidathe mrdhravdcam refer to the 
PQru king and to the priest Vi^vimitra, 



who prayed for the defeat of Sud^s, 
though in vain. Hopkins seems to take 
the words vidathe mrdhravdcam generally 
as ' the false speaker in the assembly '; 
but, according to Geldner, the meaning 
intended is that, while the king fought, 
the Purohita prayed in the Sabh&, or 
meeting house of the people. 



13 



THE PDRU people 



[ Porn 



hymn' Agni of the Bharatas is celebrated as victorious over the 
Pflrus, probably a reference to the same decisive overthrow. 
On the other hand, victories of the Purus over the aborigines 
seem to be referred to in several passages.* 

The great kings of the Purus were Purukutsa and his son 
Trasadasyu, whose name bears testimony to his prowess 
against aboriginal foes, while a later prince was Tpk^i Trasa- 
dasyava. 

In the Rigveda the Purus are expressly^ mentioned as on 
the Sarasvati. Zimmer thinks that the Sindhu (Indus) is 
meant in this passage. But Ludwig^ and Hillebrandt^ with 
much greater probability think that the eastern Sarasvati in 
Kuruksetra is meant. This view accords well with the sudden 
disappearance of the name of the Purus from Vedic tradition, 
a disappearance accounted for by Oldenberg's conjecture that 
the Purus became part of the great Kuru people, just as 
Turvasa and Krivi disappear from the tradition on their being 
merged in the Pancala nation. Trasadasyava, the patronymic 
of Kuru^pava^ia in the Rigveda,^ shows that the royal 
families of the Kurus and the Purus were allied by inter- 
marriage. 

Hillebrandt,^^ admitting that the Purus in later times lived 
in the eastern country round the Sarasvati, thinks that in 
earlier days they were to be found to the west of the Indus 
with Divodasa. This theory must fall with the theory that 
Divodasa was in the far west. It might, however, be held to 
be supported by the fact that Alexander found a Ucopo^ that 
is, a Paurava prince on the Hydaspes,^^ a sort of half-way 
locality between the Sarasvati and the West. But it is quite 
simple to suppose either that the Hydaspes was the earlier 
home of the Purus, where some remained after the others had 



3 Rv. vii. 8. 4. 

i. 59, 6 ; 131, 4 ; 174, 2 ; iv. 21, 10 ; 
38, i; vi. 20, 10; vii. 5, 3; 19, 3. 
Cf. note 13. 

vii, 96, 2. Perhaps they are also 
meant as living on the ^afyan&yant in 
Rv. viii. 64, 10. II. 

Altindisches Leben, 124. 

' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 175. 



8 Vedische Mythologie, i, 50, 115; 

3. 374- 

Buddha, 404. Cf. Ludwig, 3, 205. 

*" X. 33. 4. 

11 Op. cit., I, 114 et seq. 

13 Arrian, Indica, viii. 4 ; ix. i ; xix, 
3, etc. See Hillebrandt, Vedische 
Mythologie, i, 132, 133. 



Purpati ] MENIAL FULL MOON SACRIFICIAL FEE 



13 



wandered east, or that the later Paurava represents a success- 
ful onslaught upon the west from the east. 

In several other passages of the Rigveda^^ the Purus as a 
people seem to be meant. The Nirukta" recognizes the general 
sense of * man,' but in no passage is this really necessary or 
even probable. So utterly, however, is the tradition lost that 
the Satapatha Brahmana^^ explains Puru in the Rigveda^ as 
an Asura Raksas ; it is only in the Epic that Puru revives as 
the name of a son of Yayati and ^armisthS.^' 



^^ In Rv. i. 36, I, Puriindm might be 
read for puruMm, with improvement 
in the sense. In i. 63, 7, there is a 
reference to the Puru king, Purukutsa, 
and Sudas, but in what relation is 
uncertain (see Porokutsa). In i. 130, 7, 
the Puru king and Divodasa Atithigva 
are both mentioned, apparently as 
victorious over aboriginal foes. See 



also i. 129, 5 ; iv. 39, 2 ; v. 17, i ; 
vi. 46, 8 ; X. 4. I ; 48, 5. 

1* vii. 23 ; Naighantuka, ii. 3. 

15 vi. 8, I, 14. 

i vii. 8. 4. 

1^ Pargiter, Journal of the Royal A static 
Society, 1910, 26, etc. Cf. Hillebrandt, 
op. cit.f I, no et seq. ; Max Miiller, 
Sacred Boohs of the East, 32, 398. 



Purusa has in several passages^ the sense of 'menial' or 
* dependent,' like the English * man.' 

^ Rv. vi. 39, 5 {cf., however, Pischel, mana, vi, 3, i, 22, etc. Cf. Bloomfield, 
Vedische Studien, i, 43); x. 97, 4; Av. Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 383. 
iv. 9, 7 ; X. I, 17 ; Satapatha Brah- 



Pupi;ia-masa denotes the full moon and the festival of that 
day, occurring frequently in the later Samhitas.^ Cf. Masa. 

1 Taittiriya Samhita, i. 6, 7, 2 ; ii. 2, 7, 13 ; Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 2, 4, 8, 
10, 2 ; 5, 4, I ; iii. 4, 4, i ; vii. 4, 8, i ; etc. 
Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 2, i, 14 ; iii. 5, 



Purta,^ or Purti,^ occurs in the Rigveda and later denoting 
the reward to the priest for his services. Cf. Dakiria. 



1 Rv. vi. 16, 18 ; viii. 46, 21 ; Av. 
vi. 123, 5 ; ix. 5, 13 ; 6, 31 ; Vijasaneyi 
Samhita, xviii. 64 ; Aitareya Brahmana, 
vii. 21. 24, etc. 



' Rv. vi. 13, 6 ; X. 107, 3 ; Taittiriya 
Samhita, i. 2, 3, 2 ; ii. 4, 7, i, etc. 



Pup-pati, ' lord of the fort,' occurring only once in the 
Rigveda,^ is of somewhat doubtful interpretation. The term 



1. 173. xo. 



U FORTNIGHT YOUTH HORSE FORENOON [ Purvapak^a 

may denote a regular office,* similar to that of the Gramaiji : 
the Pur would then be a permanently occupied settlement. 
The expression may, however, merely mean the chief over a 
fort when it was actually occupied against hostile attack. The 
rarity of the word seems to favour the latter sense. 



' Cf. S&yana's note on Rv. i. 173, 
10 ; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 456. 



C/. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 204. 



Purva-paka denotes the first half of the month. See Masa. 



Purva-vayasa, the ' first period of life,' is a term used in the 
Brahmanas^ to denote ' youth.' 

1 Pancavim^ Brahmana, xix. 4, 3; 'the third (stage),' are used to cover 

^tapatha BrShmana, xii. 2, 3, 4; ' youth ' and ' old age," as opposed to 

9, I, 8; purva-vayasin, Taittiriya BrSh- manhood, when the knowledge of the 

mana, iii. 8, 13, 3. C/. Aitareya Aran- doctrines of the Aranyaka is to be 

yaka, v. 3, 3, where vatsa and tffiya, imparted. 



PuFva-vah is a term applied to the horse (Ai^va) in the 
Taittiriya Brahmana^ and elsewhere.^ It may either refer to a 
horse fastened in front as a * leader,' or merely mean ' drawing 
(a chariot) for the first time,' as understood by the commentator 
on the Taittiriya Brahmana. 

1 i. I, 5, 6 2 Satapatha Brahmana, ii. i, 4, 17 ; KSthaka Samhita, xiii. 3. 
Cf. St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Pupvahna, * the earlier (part of the) day,' * forenoon,' is a 
common designation of time from the Rigveda^ onwards.* 
Cf. Ahan. 



^ X. 34. II. 

Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 20 ; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, i. 6, 3, 12 ; iii. 4, 



4, 2; Chandogya Upanisad, v. 11, 7; 
Nirukta, viii. 9, etc. 



Pulya, or Pulpa, in the Atharvaveda^ seems to mean 
' shrivelled grain ' (cf. Laja). 

1 xiv. 2, 63. Cf. Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 765. 



Prthavana] NAMES CONTEST PALM OF THE HAND 



IS 



Prka (literally, perhaps * swift ') is the proper name of a 
man in an obscure verse of the Rigveda.^ 

1 ii. 13, 8. Cf. Pischel, Vediscke Studien, i, 97. 



Pfka-yama occurs once in the plural in the Kigveda.^ 
Roth^ suggests the sense of 'faring with swift steeds,' and 
thinks a proper name is meant. PischeF holds that the word 
is an epithet of the Pajras, and that it means * performing 
splendid sacrifices.' 

1 i. 122, 7. * St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

* Vediuhe Studien, i, 97, 98. 

Prda. See Mpda. 



Ppt^ and Prtana^ denote, in the Rigveda and later, * contest,' 
whether in arms or in the chariot race. Prtana has also the 
concrete sense of ' army ' in some passages ;^ in the Epic 
system* it denotes a definite body of men, elephants, chariots, 
and horses. Prtanajya^ has only the sense of ' combat.' 



1 Only in the locative, Rv. ii. 27, 15 ; 
26, I ; iii. 49, 3 ; vi. 20, i, etc. ;prtsusu, 
i. 129, 4 (with double case-ending). 

2 Rv. i. 85, 8; 91, 21; 119, 10; 
152, 7 ; il 40, 5 ; iii. 24, i ; vi. 41, 5 ; 
X. 29, 8 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, xi. 76 ; 
Kausitaki Brahmana, xv. 3 ; Taittiriya 
Brahmana, iii. i, i, 6 ; 2, 6, etc 



' Rv. vii. 20, 3 ; viii. 36, i ; 37, 2 ; 
Av. vi. 97, I ; viii. 5, 8 ; Nirukta, 
ix. 24 ; perhaps also as neuter in Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, ii. 4, 7, 5. 

* Mahabharata, i. 291. 

" Rv. iii. 8, 10; 37, 7; vii. 99, 4; 
viii. 12, 25 ; ix. 102, 9 ; Taittiriya 
Saiphita, iii. 4, 4, i. 



Pptha, the * palm ' of the hand in the sense of its breath, is 
used as a measure of length in the Taittiriya Brahmana.^ 

^ i. 6, 4, 2. 3 ; cf. KatySyana Srauta Sutra, vi. i, 28 ; Apastamba Srauta 
Sutra, ii. 2, 7 ; viii. 5, 10. 



Prthavana is in the Rigveda^ the name of a man, perhaps 
also called Duh^ima, but this is uncertain. Cf. Ppthi. 



* X. 93, 14. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 433. 



i6 



A CULTURE HERO EARTH 



[Pfthi 



Prthi,^ Ppthi,* or Prthu^ is the name of a semi-mythical 
personage who is mentioned in the Rigveda and later as a R^i, 
and more specially as the inventor of agriculture* and the lord 
of both worlds, of men and of animals/ He bears in several 
passages the epithet Vainya, 'descendant of Vena,' and must 
probably be regarded as a culture hero rather than as a real 
man. According to other accounts,' he was the first of con- 
secrated kings. Cf. Parthiva. 



1 Rv. i. 112, 15. as a seer ; as Vainya, 
Taittirlya Brahmana, i. 7, 7, 4, and 
perhaps ii. 7, 5, i (Prthaye). 

' As Vainya, Rv. viii. 9, 10 ; Av. viii. 
10, 24 ; PancavimSa Brahmana, xiii. 5, 
19 ; as Pfthi or Prthi, Taittirlya Brah- 
mana, ii. 7, 5, I ; as Vainya, Satapatha 
Brahmana, v. 3, 5, 4 ; Kathaka Sarp- 
hita, xxxvii. 4 {Indische Studien, 3, 463). 
Venya mentioned with Prthi in Rv. 
X. 148, 5, may be meant for his patro- 
nymic ( = Vainya) : cf. Tugrya, n. i. 

' Jaiminiya Brahmana, i. 186 {Journal 
of the American Oriental Society, 19, 125) ; 
Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana, i. 10, 9 ; 
34.6; 45. I. 

* A v., loc. cit. 



^ PaiicaviniSa Brahmaria, loc. cit. 
Cf. Taittirlya Brahmana, ii. 7, 5, i. 

* See notes 1-3. 

' Satapatha Brahmana, loc. cit. ; 
Kathaka Saqihita, loc. cit. ; Taittirlya 
Brahmana, i. 7, 7, 4. 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 166; Weber, Indische Studiin, 
I, 221, 222; Hopkins, Transactions of 
the Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, 15, 50, n. 2 ; Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, 134. "E^gelmg, Sacred Boohs 
of the East, 26, 81, gives the name as 
Prthin Vainya ; but the oblique cases, 
when found, are all in favour of Pfthi 
or Prthi as the stem. 



Pfthivi denotes the * earth ' as the * broad ' one in the Rigveda^ 
and later,* being often personified as a deity ^ both alone and 
with Div, * heaven,' as Dyava-PrthivT."* Mention is often made 
of three earths,^ of which the world on which we live is the 
highest. The earth is girdled by the ocean, according to the 
Aitareya Brahmana.' The Nirukta^ places one of the three 
earths in each of the worlds into which the universe is divided 



1 Rv. vii. 7. 2- 5; 99. 3; V. 85, I. 5; 
viii. 89, 5, etc. 

> Av. xii. I, I et seq.\ Vajasaneyi 
Samhita, xi. 53. etc. 

Rv. iv. 3, 5: .51, II ; V. 49, 3; 
84, I et seq. ; vi. 50, 13. 14 ; vii. 34. 23, 
etc. ; vajasaneyi Sanihita, xii. 103, etc. 

* Rv. iv. 56, I ; vii. 53, i, etc. See 
Macdonell. Vedic Mythology, pp. 20, 21, 
123, 126. 

Rv. i. 34. 8 ; iv. 53. 3 vii. 104, 11 ; 



Av. iv. 20, 2 ; vajasaneyi Saqihita, 
V. 9, etc. 

' Av. vi. 21, i; xix. 27, 3; 32, 4; 
53> 5 ; Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 5, i , 
31 ; v. I, 5, 21. 

7 viii. 20. This idea is not found 
in the Saiphitas, Macdonell, op. cit., 

p. 9. 

B ix. 31 ; xi. 36 ; xii. 30 ; Naighantuka, 
V. 3. 5. 6. Cf. Bruce, Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, ig, 321 et seq. 



Prdaku ] A PATRON A PRIEST SNAKE 17 

(see Div). In the ^atapatha Brahmana the earth is called 
the ' firstborn of being,' and its riches (vitta) are referred to ;'** 
hence in a late passage of the ^aiikhayana Aranyaka" the 
earth is styled vasu-mati, ' full of wealth.' The word also occurs 
in the Rigveda,^^ though rarely, in the form of Prthvl.^^ 



XIV. I, 2, lO. 

^0 ^atapatha Br&bmana, xi. 5, 

6,3- 

11 xiii. I. 



1* vi. 12, 5 ; X. 187, 2. Cf. Macdonell, 
op. cit., 34. 

13 The regular adjectival feminine 
loxmolprthu, 'broad.' 



Pfthu. See Prthi. Ludwig^ also finds a mention of the 
Prthus as a tribe, allied with the Paribus, in one passage of 
the Rigveda^ as opponents of the Tftsu Bharatas. But this 
interpretation is certainly incorrect.^ See Pariu. 



1 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 196 
et seq. 

2 vii. 83. I. 

' Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 134 



et seq. ; 433, 434 ; Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, 2, 184, n. 3 ; Bergaigne, Religion 
Vedique, 2, 362, n. 



1. Ppthu-i^ravas (' far-famed ') is mentioned in connexion 
with Va^a in two hymns ^ of the Rigveda. In the second 
passage the generosity of Prthusravas Kanlta to Vasa Asvya is 
celebrated, and the Sahkhayana Srauta Sutra ^ refers to the 
episode. 

1 i. n6, 21 ; viii. 46, 21. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 162. 
' xvi. II, 13. 

2. Pfthu-^pavas Daupe-iSravasa ('descendant of Dure^ravas ') 
is the name of the Udgatr priest at the snake festival mentioned 
in the Pancavimsa Brahmana.^ 

1 xxv. 15, 3. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 35. 

Pfdaku, the name of a ' snake ' in the Atharvaveda,^ is 
mentioned in the list of victims at the Asvamedha (' horse 
sacrifice'), in the Yajurveda Sarahitas,^ and occasionally else- 



1 i. 27, I ; iiL 27, 3 ; vi. 38, i ; 
vii. 56, I ; X. 4, II et seq. ; xii. 3, 
57- 



' Taittiriya Satpbit3,, v. 5, 10, i ; 
Maitr&yani SaiphitS, iii. 14, 14 ; VSja- 
saneyi Saiphitl, xxiv. 33. 



VOL. II. 2 



i8 



NAMES A PLANT 



[ Prdakusana 



where.' Its skin was specially valuable, according to the 
Atharvaveda.* 



' V&jasaneyi Saiphita, vi. i2 ; S&nkh- 
iyana Aranyaka, xii. 27. 



* i. 27, I. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Lcben, 94. 



Ppdaku-sanu, 'having the surface of a snake,' is taken by 
Ludwig^ and Griffith'^ as the name of the institutor of a 
sacrifice in one hymn of the Rigveda.^ 



1 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 
161. 



' Hymns of the Rigveda, 2, 141. 
viii. 17, 15. 



Pr^ana in one passage of the Rigveda* is considered by 
Ludvvig^ to denote a place where a battle was fought. 



97. 54- 



' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 164. 



I. Pp^ni-gfu is the name of a man who is mentioned with 
Purukutsa and iSucanti as a prot^g^ of the A^vins in one 
hymn of the Rigveda (i. 112, 7). Possibly the word is only an 
epithet of Purukutsa. 

Cf. Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, 114. 



2. PpiSni-g'U, pi., is taken in one passage of the Rigveda* by 
Geldner^ as denoting the name of a people. But this is not 
probable. 

1 vii. 18, 10. * Rigveda, Glossar, 114. 



Pf^ni-par^i (' having a speckled leaf ') is the name of a plant 
mentioned in a hymn of the Atharvaveda* as a protection 
against evil beings procuring abortion, called Kanvas (pre- 
sumably a sign of hostility to the Kapva family).^ It also 
appears in the ^atapatha Brahmana,^ being identified with 
Hermionitis cordifolia by the St. Petersburg Dictionary, but 



1 ii. 25, I ;/ seq. 

> Cf. Lanman in Whitney's Transla- 
tion of the Atharvaveda, 65 ; Bergaigne, 



Religio* Vcdique, 2, 465 ; Hillebrandt, 
Vedische Mythologie, i , 207. 
xiii. 8, I, 16. 



Prgati ] 



AN ANIMAL DAPPLED ANTELOPE 



19 



Roth* in a subsequent contribution suggests that it is the 
same as a plant later called laksmand, and regarded as curing 
barrenness. The scholiast on the Katyayana Srauta Sutra* 
thinks that the Glycine dehilis is meant. 



* Cited by Whitney, loc. cit. 

' XXV. 7, 17. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 13, 187 ; 



Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 69 ; Bloom- 
field, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 302. 



Pp^ata is the name of an animal mentioned in the list of 
victims at the Asvamedha ('horse sacrifice*) in the Yajurveda 
Sarnhitas.^ The dappled antelope or gazelle seems to be 
meant.^ 



1 Taittiriya Saiphili, v. 5, 17, i ; 
Maitr&yani Saiphita, iii. 14, 9. 21 ; 
Yajasaneyi Sambita, xxiv. 27. 40. 



2 Nirukta, ii. 2. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 83. 



Prati in some passages^ clearly means a 'speckled' cow. 
The term is, however, generally ^ applied to the team of the 
Maruts, when its sense is doubtful. The commentators usually 
explain it as ' speckled antelope.' But Mahidhara,^ followed by 
Roth,* prefers to see in it a ' dappled mare ' : it is true that the 
Maruts are often called*^ prsad-asva, which is more naturally 
interpreted as ' having dappled steeds,' than as ' having Prsatis 
as steeds.'^ In the later literature, which Grassmann'^ prefers 
to follow, the word means the female of the dappled gazelle. 



* Rv. viii. 64, 10. II, where 'deer' 
is nonsense, and ' mares ' is improb- 
able. The regular donation is ' cows ' ; 
Kathaka Samhiti, xii. 2 ; Satapatha 
Brahmana, v. 5, 2, 9 (see Eggeling, 
Sacred Books of the East, 41, 125) ; 
Viijasaneyi SamhitS, xxiv. 2 (though 
this is not certain) ; ^3Lnkh3.yana Srauta 
Sutra, XV. 14, 23, etc. 

a Rv. i. 37.2; 39, 6; 64, 8; 85,4. 5; 
" 34. 3 ; 36. 2 ; iii. 26, 4; v. 55, 6; 
58, 6; 60, 2; i. 162, 21. 

3 On Vajasaneyi Saiphiti, ii. 16. 

* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. He 
had earlier {ibid., i, 1091) been inclined 
10 follow the usual interpretation given 



by SSyana on Rv. i. 37, 2, etc., which 
Benfey, Orient und Occident, 2, 250, 
accepted, 

Rv.i.87,4; 89.7; 186,8; ii.34,4; 
iii. 26, 6; v. 42, 15; vii. 40, 3. 

' So Sayana on Rv. i. 87, 4. This 
view is far-fetched, but is supported, 
in so far as the interpretation of Pfsatl 
and A^va is concerned, by such passages 
as V. 55, 6, where the Maruts are said 
to yoke the Pfsatls as aivdn to their 
chariots ; but the sense may be ' horses 
(and) dappled (mares),' See, however, 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, i, 226. 

'' Wbrterbuch, s.v. 

22 



30 



A MIXTURE OF BUTTER A PATRON [ P^adajya 



Aufrecht concurs in the view of Roth, but Max Muller* is 
inclined to accept the traditional interpretation, while Muir* 
leaves the matter open. 



* See Muir. Sanskrit Texts, 3, 132. 
' Sacred Books 0/ the East, 32, 70; 
184. 



' Op. cit., 3. 151. 152. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Ltben, 83. 



Prad-ajya denotes * sprinkled butter' that is, butter (Ajya) 
mixed with sour milk, in the Rigveda^ and later.* 



1 X. 90. 8. 

> Taittirlya Samhiti, iii. 2. 6, 2 ; 
vi. 3, 9, 6; II, 4: ^atapatha Brclh- 



mana, ii. 3, 2,41; 4, 2 ; iii. 8, 4, 8, etc 
Cf, Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 
12, 404, n. I. 



P|>$adhra occurs in a Valakhilya hymn of the Rigveda^ as 
the name of a man. He is also mentioned in the Sankhayana 
^rauta Sutra ^ as a patron of Praska^va, and called Prsadhra 
Medhya Matari^van (or Matari^va) ; but for once there is a 
discrepancy between the statement of the Sutra and the text 
of the Rigveda, for the hymns* there attributed to Praskanva 
as in praise of Prsadhra have nothing in them connected with 
Prsadhra, while the Anukramani (Index) ascribes to Prsadhra 
himself the authorship of one of them.* On the other hand, 
Medhya and Matari^van appear as separate persons in the 
Rigveda^ along with Prsadhra. 



1 viii. 52, 2. 
> xvL II, 25-27. 
* viii. 55. 56. 



* viii. 56. 

Cf. Weber, Episches im vedischen Ritual, 



39. 



Prataka is the name of a mixture like Pradajya, and 
consisting, according to the late Grhyasamgraha,^ of curds 
(Dadhi), honey (Madhu), and Ajya. It is mentioned in a late 
passage of the Atharvaveda* and in the SQtras.^ 



* ii- 59- 

' XX. 134, 2. 

3 Minava Gyhya SQtra, ii. 3, etc. 



Cf. Bloom&eld, ZeitschriftderDeutschrn 
Morgenldndischen Geullschaft, 33, 380. 



Prtya^ denotes in the Atharvaveda (vi. 102, 2) the sicie 
horse (mare). 



1 So Bohtlingk, Dictionary, s.v. 
Prithyi IS read in the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary. See, however. Grill, Hun- 



dert Lieder} 169 ; Bloomfield, Hymns of 
the Atharvaveda, 313. 



Petva ] 



PAIN IN THE RIBS RAM 



21 



Prty-aniaya denotes in the Atharvaveda* a pain in the sides 
or ribs.^ It appears to be mentioned there merely as an 
accompaniment of fever (Takman). 



^ xix. 34, 10. Cf. Zimmer, AlttHm 
tUsches Leben, 65, 391. 

3 The derivative adjective prtfy- 



amayin, ' suffering from a pain in the 
side,' occurs in Rv. i. 105, 18. 



Petva is found twice in the Atharvaveda.^ In the first 
passage reference is made to its vaja, which Zimmer^ argues 
can only mean ' strength,' * swiftness,' though naturally the 
sense of * male power ' would seem more appropriate in a spell 
intended to remove lack of virility. In the second passage the 
Petva is mentioned as overcoming the horse (see Ubhayadant) , 
a miracle which has a parallel in the Rigveda,^ where the 
Petva overcomes the female"* lion. The animal also occurs in 
the list of victims at the Asvamedha (' horse sacrifice ') in the 
Yajurveda Samhitas,^ and occasionally elsewhere. It appears 
to be the 'ram' or the 'wether,' the latter' being the sense 
given to it by the commentator on the Taittiriya SamhitS. 
But there is no conclusive evidence in favour of this meaning, 
while on the whole the passage of the Atharvaveda, in which 
vaja is found, accords best with the sense of 'ram.* Hopkins,* 
however, renders the word as ' goat,' though for what reason is 
not clear. Whether it is connected in any way with Pitva or 
Pidva is quite uncertain. 



1 iv. 4, 8 ; V. 19, 2. 

^ Altindisches Leben, 229, 230. 

3 vii. 18, 17. 

* Siitihyam in the text. Hopkins, 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, 

15, 264, takes it as masculine, and as 
a play on sitfiyum, the name of one of 
the kings or peoples defeated in the 
b ittle of the ten kings. But, admitting 
the play, sinih'i as fem. seems to be still 
more pointed than simha, contrasting 
with the masculine />/va. 

* Taittiriya Saiphit&, v. 5, 22, i. 
Though not in the parallel passage of 
the V&jasaneyi Samhita., it appears to 
be found in the Kathaka, according 



to Weber's note in bis edition of the 
Taittiriya Samhit&. 

* Taittiriya Satnhitci, vi. 2, 8, 4 ; 
V^jasaneyi SaiphitcL, xxix. 58. 59 ; 
Taittiriya BrShmana, i. 2, 5, 3. etc. 

7 Galita-retasko mtfak. 

8 Loc. cit. ; India, Old and New, 58. 
He thinks the horn of the goat pierced 
the lion. Curiously enough, Whitney, 
Translation of the Atharvaveda, 253, 
renders the word as ' goat ' in Av. 
v. 19, 2, but (p. 151) as ' ram ' in iv. 4, 8 ; 
and Bloomfield, Hymns 0/ the A tharva- 
veda, 434, speaks both of a ' ram ' and a 
' goat ' in connexion with v. 19, 2. 



33 



NAMES EMBROIDERED GARMENT 



[ Pedu 



Pedu is the name in the Rigveda' of a prot^g^ of the A^vins, 
who gave him, in order, as it seems, to replace a bad steed, a 
mythical horse, hence called Paidva,* which probably repre- 
sents the horse of the sun.' 



* Rv. i. 117, 9; 118, 9; 119, 10; 
vii. 71. 3: X. 39, 10. 

' Rv. ix. 88, 4 ; Av. x. 4. 5 et uq. 



* Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, pp. 52, 
149. 



Peruka occurs in an obscure verse of the Rigveda^ as the 
name of a patron of the poet. 

^ vi. 63, 9. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 158. 



PeSas denotes in the Rigveda^ and later* an embroidered 
garment such as a female dancer would wear.^ The fondness 
of the Indians for such raiment is noted by Megasthenes* and 
by Arrian,* who refer to their i<Tdtj<; KardcrriKTOf:. So in one 
passage a garment {vastra) is called />^srta, with which Roth'^ 
happily compares the Roman vestis colorihus intexta. The 
making of such garments was a regular occupation of women, 
as is indicated by the Pe^as-karl, the ' female embroiderer,' 
figuring in the list of victims at the Purusamedha (* human 
sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda, though the commentator on the 
Taittirlya Brahmana interprets the word as * wife of a maker 
of gold.' Pischel,^ however, thinks that Pe^as never means 
anything but colour or form. 



ii.3,6; iv. 36,7; vii. 34. II ; 42, i. 
' Vajasaneyi Samhita, xix. 82. 89; 

XX. 40 ; Aitareya BrS.hmana, iii. 10, etc. 
' Rv. i. 92, 4. 5. 

See Strabo, p. 509, where he refers 
to a <ri8(!>i> ttavO-^. 

Indica, 5, 9. 

Rv. X. I, 6. 

' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

V&jasaneyi Samhit, xxx. 9 ; Tait- 
tirlya Br&hmana, iii. 4, 5, i. 



Cf. perhaps suvantam hiranyam 
ptidam in the Taittiriya Brihrnana, 
iii. 3, 4, 5, where peiala probably refers 
to cunningly-worked gold. But this 
does not suit the compound peiaskSrt, 
which must denote a ' maker of peias,' 
and peias has not the sense of wrought 
gold in any passage. Cf. also Bphad- 
&ranyaka Upanisad, iv. 4, 5 ; Zimmer, 
Altindiiches Leben, 261. 

10 Vedische Studien, 2, 113-125. 



Pe^ltr is the name of one of the victims at the Purusamedha 
('human sacrifice') in the Yajurveda.^ The sense is quite 

1 vajasaneyi SatphitA, xxx. 12 ; Taittiriya Br&hmana, iii. 4, 8, i. 



Paingya ] A BIRD NAMES OF TEACHERS 23 

uncertain. The word is rendered by the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary and by Weber* as 'one who cuts in pieces,' a 
'carver,' but Sayana^ thinks that it means one who causes an 
enmity which has been lulled to rest to break out again. 

* Indische Strrifen, i, 75, n. 3. ' On Taittirtya Brahmana, loc. cit. 

Paihg^a-raja is the name of one of the victims at the A^va- 
medha (' horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ That a 
bird is meant is certain, but what particular kind is quite 
unknown. 

* Taittirlya Samhita., v. 5, 13. i ; I saneyi Saqihita, xxiv. 34. Cf. Zimmer, 
Maitrayani Samhita, iii. 14, 16; Vaja- | Altindiuhes Leben, 99. 

Paiiigl-putra (* son of a female descendant of Pinga ') is the 
name of a teacher, pupil of !aunakiputra, in the last Varn^a 
(list of teachers) of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (vi. 4, 30 
Madhyamdina). 

Paingya, * descendant of Pihga,' is the name of a teacher 
who is repeatedly mentioned as an authority in the Kausitaki 
Brahmana,^ where ^ also his doctrine is called the Paingya. 
This teacher is further referred to in the Satapatha Brahmana,^ 
which also speaks of Madhuka Paingya.* It is, of course, 
impossible to say whether there was only one Paingya or several 
Pairigyas. The followers of Paingya are called Paiiigins in the 
Nidana^ and Anupada Sutras. His text-book is called Paihga 
in the Anupada Sutra,'' while the Apastamba Srauta Sutra^ 
mentions a Paingayani Brahmana. It is clear that Pairig3'a 
was a teacher of a Rigveda school allied to the Kausitakis. 
Paingi is a patronymic of Yaska in the Anukramani of the 
Atreyl Sakha. 



1 viii. 9 ; xvi. 9 ; xxvi. 3. 4. 14 ; 
xxviii, 7. 9 ; Kausitaki Upanisad, ii. 2. 

' iii. i; xix. 9; xxiv. 4. Cf. Paihgl 
satjuPad, XXV. 7. Paingya is found also 
in the Saiikhayana Srauta SOtra, iv. 2, 
II ; xi. II, 5 ; 14, 9 ; XV. 3, i ; xvii. 7, 
I. 3; 10, 3; Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 11. 

' xii. 2, 2, 4 ; 4, 8. (Brhadaranyaka 
Upanisad, vi. 3, 17.) 

* xi. 7,' 2, 8 ; 16. 

i> 



IV. 7. 

L 8 ; ii. 2, 4. 10 ; vi. 7 ; xi. 8. 
' ii. 4 ; iii. 12 ; iv. 5. 

V. 15. 8 ; 29, 4. 

Weber, Indische Studien, i, 71, n. ; 

3. 396- 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 44, 45, 
404 et seq. ; 2, 293 ; Indian Literature, 
4ii 46, 47, 56. 81, 90, 130, etc. 



24 



PATRONYMICS A PRIEST 



[ Paijavana 



Pa^avana, 'descendant of Pyavana,' is the patronymic of 
Sudas.^ It seems most probable that Pijavana intervened in 
the line of succession between Divodasa and SudSs, because 
the two kings have, according to tradition, quite different 
Purohitas, the former being served by the Bharadvajas as his 
priests, the latter by Vasitha and Vi^vamitra ;^ this is more 
natural if they were divided by a period of time than if they had 
been, as is usually supposed, father and son. Geldner,^ how- 
ever, identifies Divodasa and Pijavana. 



* Rv. vii. i8, 22. 25 ; Nirukta, ii. 24. 
25 ; Aitareya BrShmana, vii. 34 ; 
S&nkhS,yana ^rauta SQtra, xvi. 11, 14. 



' See Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 
1, 104 et seq. 
* Rigvtda, Glossar, 115. 



Paidva. See Pedu. 



Potp is the name of one of the priests (Rtvij) of the sacri- 
ficial ritual. Already known to the Rigveda,^ he is frequently 
mentioned later in the Brahmanas.^ But as Oldenberg' 
observes, the Potr is not in the later literature a priest of any 
importance, but is practically a mere name. Judging by the 
derivation of the name from the root pn, ' purify,' it would 
seem that he was properly engaged in the purification of the 
Soma pavamana, ' Soma purifying itself,' and was perhaps 
employed to sing hymns to this Soma. Potra^ denotes both 
the office and the Soma vessel of the Potr,^ 



1 i. 94, 6 ; ii. 5, 2 ; iv. 9, 3 ; vii. 16, 5 ; 
ix. 67, 22. 

' Aitareya Br3.hmana, vi. 10 et seq. ; 
Satapatha Brahmana, iv. 3, 4, 22 ; 
V. 4, 5, 22 ; xii. I, I, 8, etc. 

Religion des Veda, 383, 391, 395. 



* Rv. ii. 1,2, and probably i. 76, 4, 
though the St. Petersburg Dictionary, 
S.V., gives this as an example of the 
second use, 

' Rv. i. 15, 2 ; ii. 36, 2 ; 37, 2. 4, 



Paum^caleya in the Taittiriya Brahmana (iii. 8, 4, 2) denotes 
the son of a courtesan (Pum^call). 



Paumsayana is the patronymic of Dutaritu in the Sata- 
patha Brahmana (xii. 9, 3, i). 



Pautima^yayana ] FISHERMAN PATRONYMICS 



25 



Paupji-tha is the form in the Atharvaveda,^ the Vajasaneyi 
Samhita,^ and the Taittiriya Brahmana,^ of the word Punji^^ha, 
denoting * fisherman.' It is probably a caste name, * son of a 
Punjistha,' as the designation of a functional caste. 

^ X. 4, 9. 9 XXX. 8. I with the word kaivarta, also probably 

3 iii. 4, 5, I, where S&yana glosses it | the name of a functional caste. 

Pauridarika is the patronymic of Kemadhptvan in the 
Paucavim^a Brahmana (xxii. 18, 7). 



Pauta-krata, * descendant of Putakrata,' is the metronymic 
of a man, apparently Dasyave Vrka, in the Rigveda.^ Schefte- 
lowitz 2 proposes to read Putakratu with the Kashmir MS. of 
the Rigveda, arguing that in the same hymn Putakratayl, the 
wife of Putakratu, is referred to, and that therefore Putakratu 
is appropriate, PutakratayP being the feminine, like Manayi,* 
for Manavl. But the ordinary reading in the sense of descendant 
is perfectly legitimate, as Oldenberg^ has pointed out. 



1 viii. 56, 2. 

2 Die Apokryphen des Rgveda, 41, 42. 

3 See Panini, iv. i, 36. 

* Maitrayani Samhita, i. 8,6; Panini, 



iv. I, 38. Perhaps also VasSvi, Rv. 

X. 73. 4- 

' Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1907, 

237- 



Pautimai-putpa, * son of a female descendant of Putimasa,' 
is the metronymic of a teacher in the last Vamsa (list of 
teachers) of the Kanva recension of the Brhadaranyaka 
Upanisad (vi. 5, i). 

Pauti-maya, * descendant of PutimSsa,' is the patronymic of 
a teacher, a pupil of Gaupavana, in the first two Vam^as 
(lists of teachers) of the Kanva recension of the Brhadaranyaka 
Upanisad (ii. 6, i ; iv. 6, i). 



Pautimayayana, ' descendant of Pautimaya,' is the patro- 
nymic of a teacher, who, with KauQdinyayana, taught Raibhya, 
in the first two Vamsas (lists of teachers) of the Madhyarndina 
recension of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (ii. 5, 20 ; iv. 5, 26). 



26 GRANDSON PATRONYMICS FULL MOON NIGHT [ Pautra 



Pautpa (' descended from a son ') is the regular term for a 
* grandson ' from the Atharvaveda^ onwards.* When it is used 
beside Naptp,' the latter word must denote * great-grandson.' 



* ix. 5. 30 ; xi. 7. 16 ; xviii. 43, 9. 

' Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 10; Tait- 
tirlya Br&hmana, ii. i, 8, 3, etc. 

L&ty&yana ^rauta SOtra, i. 3, 18 ; 



Apastamba ^rauta SQtra, x. 11, 5; 
Aitareya Br&hmana, vii. 10, 3. 

Cf. Delbriick, Die indogermanischen 
Verwandtscka/tsnamen, 478. 



Paura, * descendant of Puru,' is the name of a man, presum- 
ably a Puru prince helped by Indra, in a hymn of the Rigveda.^ 
The Greek H(opo<;, the name of Alexander's rival, is probably 
the representative of this word. Oldenberg^ sees the same 
name in another passage also.^ 

1 viii. 3, 12. ^'i' * 

' Rgveda-Noten, i, 362 ; as also Grassmann. Wdrterbuch, s.v. 

' V. 74. 4. 

PauTU-kutsa,^ Pauru-kutsi,^ Pauru-kutsya,^ are variant 
forms of the patronymic of Trasadasyu, the descendant of 
Purukutsa. 

^ Kathaka Samhitt, xxii. 3 ; PancaviipSa Br&hmana, xxv. 16, 3. 

' Rv. vii. 19, 3. 

Rv. V. 33, 8 ; viii. 19, 36 ; Taittirlya Samhit&, v. 6, 5, 3. 

Paupu-iiti> * descendant of Puru^ista,' is the patronymic of 
Taponitya in the Taittirlya Upanisad (i. 9, i = Taittirlya 
Aranyaka, vii. 8, i). 

Paurpa-masi, denoting the * night of the full moon,' is 
celebrated in the Atharvaveda^ as sacred, while it is repeatedly 
mentioned later.^ Gobhila^ defines it as the greatest separation 
(vikar^a) of the sun and the moon. Cf. Masa. 



* vii. 80. 

' Taittirlya Sai)ihit&, i. 6, 9, i ; ii. 2, 
2, I ; iii. 4, 9, 6; Aitareya BrShmana, 
vii. II : ^tapatba Br&hmana, i. 2, 2, 4, 
etc. 

i. 5, 7. Three sorts of full moon 
are distinguished by Gobhila that 
which occurs when the full moon 
rises at the meeting of day and night 



(sandhya), when it rises shortly after 
sunset, or when it stands high in the 
sky. The two former alternatives are 
apparently those described in the 
passage (Aitareya Br&hmana, vii. 11 = 
Kausltaki Br&hmana, iii. i) as purvS, 
and uttard. See Weber, Jyotisa, 51 ; 
Oldenberg, Sacred Books 0/ the East, 
30, 26, n. 



Pyukgna ] A LOW CASTE NAMES BOW-CASE 27 

Paulu^i, ' descendant of Pulusa,' is the patronymic of Sat- 
yayajiia in the Satapatha Brahmana (x. 6, i, i) and the ChSn- 
dogya Upanisad (v. 11, i). In the Jaiminlya Upanisad Brah- 
mana (i. 39, i) the form is Paulusita, which is perhaps merely 
an error. 

Paulkasa is the name of one of the victims at the Purusa- 
medha (' human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.^ The name also 
occurs in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad^ as that of a despised 
race of men, together with the Ca^dala. The Maitrayanl 
Samhita^ has the variant Puklaka or Pulkaka, clearly the same 
as Pulkasa, of which Paulkasa is a derivative form, showing 
that a caste is meant (c/. Kaulala, Paunjitha). In the accepted 
theory* the Pulkasa is the son of a Nisada or ^udra by a 
Ksatriya woman, but this is merely speculative ; the Paulkasa 
may either have been a functional caste, or, as Fick^ believes, 
an aboriginal clan living by catching wild beasts, and only 
occasionally reduced to menial tasks. 



* Vajasaneyi SamhitS, xxx. 17 ; Tait- 
tirlya Brahmana, iii. 4, 14, i. 



3 



IV. 3, 22. 



' i. 6, II. 

* Cf. St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v., 



Pukkaia. Zimmer, Altitidisches Lehen, 
217, takes Paulkasa as a mixed caste. 

' Die sociale Gliederunn, 206. Cf. 
Eggeling, Sacred Books 0/ the East, 44, 
416, n. 6. 



Paukara-sadi (* descendant of Puskarasadi ') is the name of 
a teacher mentioned in the ^ankhayana Aranyaka,^ as well as 
the Taittirlya Pratisakhya.^ A Puskarasadi is mentioned in the 
Dharma Sutra ^ of Apastamba and elsewhere. 



* vii. 17, Cf. Keith, Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1908, 371. 

* i. 5 ; ii. 1.2.5; PSnini, viii. 4, 48 ; 



Varttika, 3 ; Kielhorn, Indian Antiquary , 
16, 103 ; Pischel, ibid., 34, 26. 
* i. 6, 19, 7; 10, 28, I. 



Pau^pi^dya is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Jaimini, in 

the Varnsa (list of teachers) at the end of the Samavidhana 

Brahmana.^ 

1 Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 4, 377. 

Pyuk^ia is found in the Satapatha Brahmana (v. 3, i, 11) 
denoting the ' covering' for a bow (Dhanus), presumably made 
of skin. 



28 CART-POLE THONG STRIDE FIG-TREE [ Praiiga 

Praugra is apparently equivalent to pra-yuga, denoting the 
fore part of the pole of the cart, the part in front of the yoke. 
It is mentioned in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas^ and the Satapatha 
BrShmana,^ where it is said to be the part of the pole behind 
the Kastambhi, or prop on which the pole rests. 

* Taittiriya Sanihit&, v. 4, 11, i. 2 
K&thaka Sarphita, xxi. 4. 

' Satapatha Brahmana, L i , 2, 9 ; 
iii. 5, 3, 4, etc. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Lehen, 248; 
Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 12, 
14, n. I. 



Pra-kahkata is the name of some noxious insect in the 
Rigveda.^ 

^ i. 191, 7. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Ltben, 98. 

Pra-karitp is the name of one of the victims at the Purusa- 
medha (' human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.^ The exact sense 
is uncertain ; the commentator Sayana on the Taittiriya Brah- 
mana explains it to mean the * divider of dear ones by producing 
enmity,' but the sense of * sprinkler ' that is, * seasoner ' is 
more likely. 



1 Vajasaneyi SamhitS, XXX. 12; Tait- 
tiriya Br&hmana, iii. 4, 8, i. Cf. 
Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 44, 



315, n. I ; Weber, Indische Streifen, i, 
79, n. 6. 



Pra-ka^a in the Atharvaveda (ix. i, 21) seems to mean either 
the * thong ' or the * lash ' of a whip. 

Pra-krama, * stride,' is mentioned as a measure of distance 
in the Satapatha BrShmana (x. 2, 3, i et seq.), but its exact 
length in unknown. 

Praka is the form in the Taittiriya Samhita* of the usual 
name, Plaka, of a tree, being merely a phonetic alteration for 
the sake of the etymology. According to Aufrecht,^ the same 
word is found in two passages of the Samaveda,^ the same 
reading occurring in the Aitareya Aranyaka.* Oldenberg,* 
however, questions the correctness of the reading Praka, 
both in the latter passage and in the Samaveda. 



1 vi. 3, 10, 2. 

3 Rigveda, 2, xlvi, n. 

' i. 444 ; . 465- 



* V. 2, 2, with Keith's notes. 

Rgveda-Noten, i, 344. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 59. 



Pratardana ] POETS GREAT-GRANDSON A KING 



39 



Pragratha is the name given in the Aitareya Aranyaka (ii. 2, 
2) to the poets of the eighth Mandala of the Rigveda, so called 
because they composed Pragatha strophes (that is, verses con- 
sisting of a Brhati or Kakubh followed by a Satobrhati). 



Pra-ghata is found in the Yajurveda Samhitas^ and the 
Satapatha Brahmana^ in the sense of the closely woven ends of 
a cloth from which depend the loose threads of the Nivi, or 
unwoven fringe. 



1 Taittiriya SaiphitS, vi. i, I, 3 ; 
K&tbaka Samhita, xxiii. i. The word 
does not occur in MaitrSyani Samhita, 
iii. 6, 2. 3. 



iii. I, 2, 18. 

Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Boohs of the East, 
26, 10, n. I. 



Pra-calaka in the Taittiriya Samhita (vii. 5, 11, i) and the 
Kathaka Samhita (A^vamedha, v. 2) seems to mean a * cloud- 
burst.' 

Prajavant Prajapatya, 'descendant of Prajapati.' is, according 
to the Aitareya Brahmana (i. 21), the author of a hymn of the 
Rigveda (x. 183). 

Pra-napat in the Rigveda (viii. 17, 13) denotes 'great- 
grandson.' 

Pra-ijiejana is the word used in the Satapatha Brahmana 
(i. 2, 2, 18) to denote the * water used for washing.' 

Pra-tatamaha, 'great-grandfather,' is found in the Athar- 
vaveda (xviii. 4, 75). 



Pra-tardana is the name in the Kathaka Samhita^ of a king 
who had a Bharadvaja for his Purohita. In the Kausltaki 
Brahmana^ he appears as arriving at the sacrifice of the Esis in 
the Naimisa forest, and asking them how errors in the sacrifice, 
could be remedied ; and as finding Alikayu Vacaspata, the 
Brahman priest at the sacrifice, unable to say what was to be 



t xxi. ID. 



XXVI. 5. 



30 A TEACHER OPPONENT AT PLAY MILK [ Pratithi 

done. In the Kausitaki Upanisad^ it is said that Pratardana 
DaivodSsi went to Indra's world through his death in battle. 
The patronymic connects him with Divodasa, the ancestor or 
father of Sudas, and the mention of Bharadvaja (probably * a 
BharadvSja ' is meant) as his priest supports the patronymic, 
for Divodasa is a special favourite of the singers of the Bharad- 
vaja family. The name, moreover, is reminiscent of the 
Trtsus (the root tard appears in both) and of the Pratrdah (see 
Pratrd). But he is not in Vedic literature a king of Ka^i.* 
Geldner* regards him as Divodasa's son, but this is not likely. 
Cf. Pratardani. 

3 iii. I. 

* As in the Epic ; Pargiter, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1910, 38. 

Vedische Studien, 2, 138. 

Pra-tithi Deva-taratha is the name of a teacher, pupil of 
Devataras ^avasayana in the Vam^a Brahmana.* 

I Indische Studien, 4, 373, 385; Max Miiller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 444. 

Prati-divan denotes in the Rigveda (x. 38, 6) and the Athar- 
vaveda (vii. 109, 4) * opponent in the game of dice.' 

Prati-duh has the specific sense of * fresh milk,' warm from 
the cow, in the later Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas.^ 



1 Av. ix, 4, 4 ; Taittiriya Samhiti, 
" 5. 3. 3 ; Kathaka Samhita, xxxvii. 6, 
etc. 

2 PaiicavimSa BrShmana, ix. 5, 5 ; 



xviii. 4, 2 ; Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 3, 
3, 2 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 7, 6, 2, 
etc. 



Prati-dha apparently means ' draught ' or * pull ' in one 
passage of the Rigveda,^ where Indra is said to have drunk 
ihiuy ^streams (sardinsi) with one Pratidha. 

* viii. 77, 4 ; Nirukta, v. 11. 

Prati-dhi is mentioned in the Surya hymn of the Rigveda^ 
as part of the chariot on which the bride is taken home. It is 

1 X. 85, 8. 



Pratimit ] BARTER ARBITRATOR A PRIEST PROP 31 

impossible to determine with certainty exactly what is meant ; 
Roth* understands it to mean a cross-piece of wood fastened to 
the pole. 

" St Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

Prati-pajpa is found in the Atharvaveda (iii. 15, 4) denoting 
* barter ' or * exchange.' Cf. Paija. 

Prati-pra^na occurs in the Satapatha Brahmana* applied to 
Prajapati as the decider of doubts ; it may have been a technical 
term for an ' arbitrator ' {cf. Madhyama^i and Dhapma). 

1 i. 4. 5. 11; iv. I, 3 14: Eggeling. 
Sacred Books of the East, 12. 131, and 
26, 267, renders pratiprainam by ' (went 



to Prajapati) for his deci-jion,' which 
leaves it ambiguous how he took the 
passages. 



Prati-pra-sthatr is the name of a priest (Rtvij), one of the 
assistants of the Adhvaryu, in the later Samhitas and the 
Brahmanas.^ He is not mentioned in the Rigveda,* but 
mention is once made in that Samhita^ of the two Adhvaryus. 
These may have meant, as later, the Adhvaryu and the Prati- 
prasthatr. Oldenberg,^ however, thinks that the Adhvaryu and 
the Agnidh are intended, a conjecture for which there is some 
authority.^ 

' ii. 16, 5. 

* op. cit., 390, n, 2. 
" Cf. Rv. X. 41, 3 ; Mantra in 
Safikhayana Srauta Sfltra, i. 6, 3. 
Cf. Hillebrandt, Rituallitteratur, 97. 



1 Taittiriya Samhita, vi. 5, 3, 4 ; 
Aitareya Brahmana, i. 29 ; vii. i ; 
Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 5, 2, 2 ; 3, 13, 
22, etc. 

3 Oldenberg, Religion des Veda, 384, 



Prati-pra^. See Pra^. 

Pratibodhi-putpa is a wrong reading for Pratibodhi-putra.* 

* Indische Studien, i, 391 ; Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 244, 310. 

Ppati-mlt is found in the description of a house in the 
Atharvaveda.^ The sense must be * support ' of some sort, 
probably beams leaning up at an angle against the Upamits. 

1 ix. 3, I. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 153; Bloomfield, Hymns of the 
Atharvaveda, 596. 



32 



NEIGHBOUR ECHO ABODE AMULET [ Prativeia 



Prati-ve^a, ' neighbour,' occurs, often metaphorically, from 
the Rigveda* onwards.* 



X. 66. 13. 

Taittirlya Saiphita, ii. 6, 97 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Saiphita, xi. 75 ; Kathaka Saip- 



hita, xxxvi. 9; Satapatha Brahmana, 
iv. I, 5, 2 ; Taittirlya Upanisad, 
4. 3- 



Prati-ve^ya is mentioned in the Vam^a (list of teachers) at the 
end of the ^Snkhayana Aranyaka (xv. i) as the pupil of Bphad- 
diva. Cf. Prative^ya. 

Prati-^rutka, ' echo,' shows that this phenomenon had 
already received a name as early as the Yajurveda Samhitas^ 
and the Kausitaki Upanisad (iv. 13). 

1 Taittirlya Saiphita, v. 5, 14, i ; Maitrayani Saiphita, iii. 14, 13 ; Kathaka 
Saiphita, ASvamedha, vii. 4 ; Vajasaneyi Saiphita, xxiv. 32 ; xxx. 19. 



Prati-^tha is found in one passage of the Atharvaveda,* 
where Zimmer^ thinks the word is used as a technical term of 
law ; possibly a ' sanctuary ' may be meant, but it is more than 
doubtful whether the sense of ' home ' or * abode,' as given by 
Roth,^ is not quite adequate. Cf. Jnatp. 



* vi. 32, 3 = viii. 8, 21 = Sankhayana 
Aranyaka, xii. 14, 

> Altindisches Leben, 181. 

St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v., 3. 



So a pratis(hd-kdma, ' one desirous of a 
fixed abode,' Taittirlya Samhita, ii. i, 
3, 4 ; Paiicavim^a Brahmana, xxiii. 18, 
I, etc. 



Prati-sara is used in several passages of the Atharvaveda^ 
and later ^ to denote an amulet, according to Roth,^ because it 
was a band, and so returned on itself {prati-sr, * go back '). The 
sense is doubtful ; perhaps ' attacking ' may really be the root 
idea."* Cf. Pimaljsara. 



1 ii, n, 2 ; iv. 40, I ; viii, 5, 1.4. 

3 Satapatha Brahmana, v. 2, 4, 20 ; 
^nkhayana Aranyaka, xii. 30, etc. 

> St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v., 
followed by Eggeling, Sacred Books of 
the East, 41, 53, n, 2. 



* Cf. Bloomfield, Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, 13, cxxxiii ; 
Hymns 0) the Atharvaveda, 576. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 263 ; 
Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 
3i 345 ; Weber, Indische Studien, 13, 164. 



Pratipa ] A PRIEST A SACRIFICERA NAME 



33 



Ppati-harti* is the name of the assistant of the Udgatr in the 
list of the sixteen priests (Rtvij). It is found in the later 
Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas,^ but not in the Rigveda.* 



1 Taittirlya Saiphita, iii. 3, 2, i. 

* Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 8, 2, 3 ; 
Aitareya Brahmana, vii. i ; Satapatha 
Br&hmana, iv. 3, 4, 22; xii. i, i, 8; 



Pancavitp^a Br&hraana, xxv. 15, 3 ; 
Chindogya Upanisad, i. 10, 11 ; 11, 8. 
3 C/. Ludwig, Translation of the 
Rigveda, 3, 227. 



Prati-dar^a iSvaikna is mentioned in the Satapatha Brah- 
mana^ as sacrificing with the Daksayana offering, and as 
teaching Suplan Sariijaya, who thence became Sahadeva 
Sarnjaya. In a second passage ^ he is called Pratldarsa 
Aibhavata, and again brought into connexion with Suplan 
Sarnjaya. According to Eggeling,^ he is to be deemed a king 
of the Sviknas ; apparently, too, he was a descendant of 
Ibhavant. A Pratidar^a is also mentioned in the Jaiminiya 
Upanisad Brahmana.* 



* 4. 4. 3- 
a xii. 8. 2, 3. 



^ Sacred Books of the East, 44, 239, n. 2. 

* iv. 8, 7. 



Pratipa Pratisatvana,^ or Ppatisutvana,^ is the name of a 
man mentioned in a hymn of the Atharvaveda.^ Zimmer,^ with 
great ingenuity, compares the fact that Parikit is mentioned 
as a Kuril king in the Atharvaveda,* and that, according to the 
Epic genealogies, his grandson was Pratisravas, with which 
name Pratisutvana, as very possibly a Prakritized version of 
Pratisrutvana may be compared, and his great-grandson was 
Pratipa. The identification cannot, however, be regarded as at 
all certain, and while the Epic may have derived its genealogy 
from the Atharvaveda, it may have preserved an independent 
tradition. Bohtlingk^ renders prdtisatvanam as * in the direction 
opposed to the Satvans', and this may be right. 



1 So Khila. v. 15, i ; Aitareya Brah- 
mana, vi. 33, 2. 

2 So Av. XX. 129, 2. Cf. Scheftelo- 
witz. Die Apokryphen des Rgveda, 161 ; 
^inkh&yana Srauta Sfltra, xii. 18, i. 

VOL. II. 



' Altindisches Leben, 131. 

* XX. 127. 

* Dictionary, s.v. 



J4 A PEOPLE GOAD AUTOPSY POLICE [ Pratibodha 

Prati-bodha is mentioned with Bodha in two passages of the 
Atharvaveda,^ apparently as the name of a very mythic H?i, 
' Intelligence.' 

1 V. 30, xo ; viii. i, 13. C/. Minava Gphya SQtra, ii. 15, i. 

Pratrd occurs once in the plural in a hymn of the Rgveda,* 
where it is clearly a variant of the word Tftsu. Moreover, the 
name of King Pratardana, a descendant of the Trtsu king, 
Oivodasa, confirms the identification of Trtsu and Pratrd.'^ 

vii. 33, 14. I Rigveda, 3, 159 ; Geldner, Vediuhe 

* See Ludwig, Translation of the | Studien, 2, 138. 

Pra-toda denotes in the Atharvaveda^ and the Pancavirn4a 
Brahmapa^ the 'goad' of the Vratya, the non-Brahminical 
Aryan or aborigine. Later the word is regularly used for 
* goad ' in general. 



* XV. 2, I. 

' xvii. I, 14. See ^3nkhayana Aran- 
yaka, xii. 8; K&tyS.yana Srauta SQtra, 
xxii. 4, 10; LatySyana ^rauta Stitra, 



viii. 6, 7; SSnkhayana Srauta SQtra, 
xiv. 72, 3. The rendering ' lance ' 
seems to have no authority. But see 
Weber, Indian Literature, 67. 



Pratyaka-dar^ana, n., means * seeing with one's own eyes,' 
as opposed to seeing in a vision {svapna). A section on such 
visions appears in the Rigveda Aranyakas.^ 

1 Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. 2, 4 ; ankh3.yana Aranyaka, viii. 7. 

Praty-enas is found with Ugrra and Suta-gramani in the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad,^ clearly denoting an officer of police. 
The sense must be that of the humbler ' servants' of the king'^ 
rather than ' magistrates,' as Max Miiller, in his translation, 
takes it. In the Kathaka Sarnhita^ and the Sankhayana 
Srauta SQtra* the word means, according to the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, the next heir, who is responsible for the debts of a 
dead man. 

1 iv. 3, 43. 44 (M&dhyaiiidina=iv. 3, ' ' viii. 4 (Indische Studien, 3, 463). 
37. 38 KSnva). * iv. 16, 16. 17. 

' Bohtlingk's Translation, p. 66, 
where be takes ugra as an adjective. 



Pradhi ] CLEFT THIRD HEAVEN QUARTER FELLY 



35 



Pra-dara in the later Samhitas and the Brahmanas* denotes 
a * cleft ' in the ground. 



* Taittiriya Samhita, iii. 4, 8, 5 ; 

V. 2, 4, 3 ; Vajasaneyi Sambit&, xxv. 7. 

' Aitareya Bra.hmana, vi. 35, i ; Tait- 



tiriya Br&bmana, i. 5, 10, 7 ; Sata- 
patha Br&hmana, xi. 2, 3, 8 ; xiii. 8, 
3, 10, etc. 



Pra-div in the Atharvaveda (xviii. 2, 48) is the third and 
highest heaven, in which the Fathers dwell. In the Kausitaki 
Brahmana (xx. i) it is the fifth of a series of seven heavens. 



Ppa-di^, like Di6, normally designates only a ' quarter ' of the 
sky, or 'point' of the compass. Four,^ five,^ six,^ and seven** 
such points are enumerated, or more generally * all ' are 
mentioned.^ In some passages,^ on the other hand, the word 
has the definite sense of an 'intermediate quarter,' which is 
more precisely denoted by avdntara-dis. 



1 Rv. 1. 164, 42 ; vii. 35, 8 ; x. 19, 8 ; 
Av. i. II, 2 ; ii. 10, 3. 

' Rv. ix. 86, 29 ; Av. i. 30, 4 ; iii. 4, 2 ; 
20, 9. 

3 Av. iv. II, I ; 20, 2 ; x, 7, 35. 



Vajasaneyi Samhita, xviii. 32. 
^ Rv. vi. 75, 2; X. 121, 4. 
* Av. V. 28, 2 ; ix. 2, 21 ; xix. 20, 2, 
etc. 



Pra-dhana denotes ' contest,' whether the real conflict of war 
or the competition of the chariot race, in the Rigveda.^ 

1 i. 116, 2 ; 154, 3 ; 169, 2 ; x. 102, 5, etc. 



Pra-dhi is the name of some part of the wheel of a chariot, 
probably the ' felly.' In one passage of the Rigveda,^ and in 
one of the Atharvaveda,^ the ' nave ' (Nabhya) and the ' felly ' 
(pradhi) are mentioned along with the Upadhl, which must then 
be either a collective name for the spokes or an inner rim within 
the felly and binding the spokes. In the riddle hymn of the 
Rigveda^ twelve Pradhis are mentioned with three naves, one 
wheel, and three hundred and sixty spokes ; what exactly is 
here meant by this particular term it would be useless to con- 
jecture, though it is clear that the passage as a whole symbolizes 

ii. 39. 4- " vi. 70. 3. i. 164, 48. 

32 



36 BARTER LONG JOURNEY A PATRON [ Pradhvamsana 



the year with three seasons, twelve months, and three hundred 
and sixty days. Elsewhere* the nave and the Pradhi alone are 
mentioned, or the Pradhi occurs by itself.^ 



* Taittinya Saipbitcl. vii. 4, 11, 2; 
Aitareya BrcLhmana, iv. 15 ; Brhad- 
ftranyaica Upanisad, i. 5, 23. 

Rv. iv. 30, 15 ; X. 102, 7, etc. In 
Av. xviii. 2, 14, pradhdv adhi is merely 
an incorrect variant of the pradhdvati 



of Rv. X. 154, I. The same corrup- 
tion is seen by Lanman (in Whitney's 
Translation of the Atharvaveda, xcii) 
in Av. vi. 70, 3 (n. 2). 

Cf. Whitney, op. cit., 334; Zimmer, 
Altindisckes Leben, 248. 



Pradhvamsana. See Pradhvamsana. 



Pra-pa^a in the Atharvaveda (xii. 15^ 
or ' exchange,' balanced by Pratipana. 



4. 5) denotes ' barter ' 



Pra-patha in the Rigveda^ and the Aitareya Brahmana* 
denotes a 'long journey.' Wilson^ has seen in one passage* 
the sense of * resting-place,' where travellers can obtain food 
{khadi). Zimmer^ shows that this is impossible, and the 
reading {prapathesu) in the passage in question is not improb- 
ably an error for prapadesu. In the Kathaka Samhita^ the 
word means a * broad road.' 



1 X. 17, 4. 6 ; 63. 16. 

' vii. 15. 

3 Translation of the Rigveda, 2, 151. 

* Rv. i. 166, 9. 

* Altindisckes Leben, 231. 

* Roth, St. Petersburg Dictionary, 



s.v. ; Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen- 
Idndischen Gesellschaft, 48, 108 ; Olden- 
berg, Rgveda-Noten, 1, 166. Bohtlingk, 
Dictionary, s.v., does not follow Roth. 
7 xxxvii. 14 (Indische Studien, 3, 466). 



Pra-pathin^ is the name of a patron, perhaps a Yadava, in 
one hymn of the Rigveda.^ 



I Prapathi might be the stem, the 
word occurring as a proper name in 
the nominative singular only {cf. Mac- 
donell, Vedic Grammar, 377. 3) ; but 
this is not probable, the stem prapathin 
being otherwise found as an adjective. 



^ viii. I, 30. Cf. Ludwig, Transla- 
tion of the Rigveda, 3. 159 ; Hopkins, 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
17, 90. 



Prabudh ] SPRING GREAT-GRANDFATHER 37 

P*pa-pa seems to denote a * spring ' in the desert in the only 
Rigveda passage where it occurs.^ In the Atharvaveda* it has 
merely the sense of ' drinking,' or a ' drink.' 

* X. 4, I. ' iii. 30, 6. Cf. Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 10, i, 2. 

Pra-pitamaha, * great-grandfather,' is found in the later 
Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas.2 

* Taittiriya SamhitS., i. 8, 5, i ; Vija- I ' Satapatha BrS,hmana, ii. 4, 2, 16 ; 
saneyi Sambit, xix, 36; Av. xviii. 4, 35. | xii. 8, 1,7. 

Pra-pitva is found in several passages of the Rigveda as a 
designation of time. In one passage^ the sense is made clear 
by the context : * at the rising of the sun ' {sura udite), * at mid- 
day ' {madhyamdine divafi), and * at the Prapitva, bordering on 
the night ' (apisarvare). In another passage^ the sense of * late 
in the day' also seems adequate, while the phrase^ abhipitve 
ahnah, * at the close of day,' also denotes the evening. According 
to Geldner,* the sense of the word is the * decisive moment ' in 
a race or a battle, and so the * end of the day.'^ C/. Ahan. 

Bohtlingk, Dictionary, s.v., on the other 
hand, gives the meaning as ' decline of 
day,' ' evening.' See also Bloomfield, 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
16, 24 et seq. ; Oldenberg, Sacred Books 
0/ the East, 46, 183 et seq. 



' viu. I, 29. 

vii, 41, 4. 

' iv. 16, 12. 

* Vedische Studien, 2, 174 et seq. 

' Roth, St Petersburg Dictionary, 
S.V., took it to mean 'daybreak'; so 
also Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 362. 



Pra-ppotha is the name in the Pancavirn^a Brahmana (viii. 
4, i) of a plant used as a substitute for Soma. 

Pra-pharvi denotes a ' wanton woman ' in the Rigveda 

(x. 85, 22), the Atharvaveda (v. 22, 7), and the Yajurveda 

Samhitas.^ 

1 Taittiriya Saiphiti, iv. 2, 5, 6 ; I Saqihita, xvi. 12; V&jasaneyi Saiphiti, 
Maitriyani Samhita.ii. 7, 12 ; Kithaka 1 xii. 71. 

Pra-budh, occurring in one passage of the Rigveda (viii. 27, 
19), is used in the locative parallel with nintruci, ' at the setting 
(of the sun),' and clearly means * at the rising (of the sun).' 



38 A KING A PLANT A DISEASE [ Pramaganda 

Pra-maganda is the name of a prince in the Rigveda,^ where 
he is mentioned as the king of the Kika^as, and where he 
seems to be designated by the epithet naicdsdkha, ' belonging 
to a low branch or race.' On the other hand, Yaska^ takes 
Pramaganda to mean the * son of a usurer,' an explanation that 
is hardly probable. Hillebrandt^ thinks that naicd,<dkha refers 
not to Pramaganda, but to the Soma plant, the plant being 
called nlcdidkha, ' having shoots turned downwards,' and that 
the passage refers to a raid against the Kikatas, who were not 
observers of the milk cult or the Soma cult, with the intention 
of winning their lands where the Soma grew and where there 
were cows. Bohtlingk,* however, questions this view, which is 
not very probable. A place name is possibly meant by Naica- 
akha.^ The name Pramaganda seems un-Aryan. 

ScLyana, in his introduction to bis 
commentary on the Rigveda, p. 4. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 31 ; 
Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 
3i 153 ; Geldner, Rigveda, Kommentar, 
58. 



' " 53. 14. 

^ Nirukta, vi. 32. 

' Vedische Mythologie, i, 14-16 ; 2, 
241-245. 

* Proceedings of the Saxon Academy, 
December 12, 1891. 



Pra-mandanI is the name of an Apsaras in the Atharvaveda.^ 
Probably the word primarily denoted a certain sweet-scented 
plant, which seems to be the sense of pra-manda in the Kausika 
Sutra.* 



* iv. 37, 3. 

' viii. 17 ; XXV. 11 ; xxxii. 29; nispra- 
manda, xxxvi. 15. Cf. Zimmer, Altin- 



disches Leben, 69 ; Caland, Altindisches 
Zauberritual, 15, n. 11. 



Pra-mara in one passage of the Rigveda^ is taken by Ludwig* 
to be a proper name. 

1 X. 27, 20. 2 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 165. 

Pra-mota is the name of some sort of disease in the Athar- 
vaveda,^ according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary. Zimmer,^ 
however, thinks that the word must be an adjective meaning 
* dumb.' This view is accepted, though with doubt, by 
"Whitney* and by Bloomfield.* 

' iz. 8, 4. I ' Translation of the Atbarvaveda, 

* Altindisches Leben, 378, n. \ 550. 

* Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 601. 



Pravara ] DRAUGHT ANIMAL PRATTLE HEIGHT 39 

Pra-yogfa is the name of a seer in the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ 

' Taittiriya Samhita, v. i, 10, i ; KSthaka Samhita, xix. 10 {Indische Studien, 
3.478). 

Pra-yogrya denotes in the Chandogya Upanisad (viii. 12, 3) 
an animal yoked to a carriage, * draught animal.' 



Pra-lapa, 'prattle,' is found with other words of similar 
import in the Atharvaveda,^ and in the Brahmanas^ of the 
Rigveda. The phrase Aita^a-pralapa, * Discourse of Aitasa,* 
occurs as a designation of certain passages of the Atharvaveda.^ 
The name has no justification in the text itself. 



* xi. 8. 25. 

* Aitareya Brahmana, vi. 33 ; Kausl- 
taki Brahmana, xxx. 5 ; ^ankhayana 
^rauta Sutra, xii. 17, 6, etc. 



' See BXoom^&ld^, Atharvaveda, pp. 98, 
loi, n. 12; Scheix.Qlo'wiiz^Die Apokryphen 
des Rgveda, 159 et seq.; Macdonell, 
Brhaddevatd, 2, 323. 



Pra-vacana means * oral instruction,' * teaching,' in the Sata- 
patha Brahmana ^ and later.^ 



xi. 5. 7. I. 

Taittiriya Upanisad, i. i, 3, 9 



Kathaka Upanisad, ii. 23 ; Mundaka 
Upanisad, iii. 2, 3, etc. 



Pra-vat, ' height,' is contrasted with Nivat, * valley,' in the 
Rigveda,^ where it occurs several times.^ The word is also 
found later. 



1 vii. 50, 4. 

* Rv. ii. 13, 2 ; iv. 17, 7 ; 22, 4 ; vi. 17. 
12 ; vii. 32, 27 ; x. 14, i ; 57, 12 ; 75, 4. 



3 Av. i. 13, 2; 26, 3 ; vi. 28, 3; 
X. 10, 2 ; xii. 1,2; xviii. 4. 7. 



I. Pra-vara denotes properly the * summons ' addressed to 
Agni at the beginning of the sacrifice to perform his functions. 
But as Agni was then invoked by the names of the ancestors of 
the Purohita,^ the term Pravara denotes the series of ancestors 
invoked.* 

1 Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 23. See 1 Satapatha Brahmana, i. 5, i, i. 20; 
Weber, Indische Studien, lo, 78. j iii. 7. 4. 9 ; Aitareya Brahmana, viL 31, 

Taittiriya Saiphita. ii. 5, 1, 9 ; I etc. 



40 ^CLOTH EARRING-RIDDLE [ Pravara 

2. Pra-vara,^ or Pra-vara,^ denotes a ' covering ' or ' woollen 
cloth * in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad. 

' Brhad&ranyaka Upanisad, vi. i, lo, 
in the M&dhyaiiidina recension. 
* S&yana on Brhadaranyaka Upani- 



sad, loc. cit. ; and Kinva recension, 
vi. 2, 7. 



Pra-varta, occurring in the description of the Vratya in the 
Atharvaveda (xv. 2,i,et seq.), is explained by the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary as a * round ornament.' According to the com- 
mentator on the Taittiriya Samhita (2,453 Bibl. Ind,), it means 
an ' ear-ring.' 



Pra-valhika, a ' riddle,' is the name given in the Brahmanas 
of the Rigveda^ to certain verses of the Atharvaveda.^ 

* Aitareya Br&hmana, vi. 33 ; KausI- I ' xx. 133 ; Sankniyana Srauta Sutra, 
taki Br^bmana, xxx. 7. I xii. 22 ; Khila, v. 16. 

Cf. Bloomfield, Atharvaveda, 98-100. 



Pra-vata, ' a windy spot,' is mentioned in the Rigveda' as 
the place where the Vibhitaka nuts, used as dice (Aka) grow. 
In the Taittiriya Samhita^ reference is made to the exposure of 
decaying matter in such a place. 

^ x. 34, I ; Nirukta, ix. 8. Geldner, i ence here is to nuts being blown down 
Rigveda, Glossar, 119, thinks the refer- | in a storm of wind. 

2 vi. 4, 7, 2. 

Pra-vara. See 2. Pravara. 



Pra-vasa, * dwelling abroad,' is mentioned in the Rigveda.^ 
Ceremonies applicable to one who has returned from foreign 
residence are given in the Sutras.^ 

* viii, 29, 8. I ^5nkh5yana Gyhya SOtra, ii. 17, 

3 A^val&yana Gj-hya Sotra, i. 15 ; I etc. 

Pra-vahapa Jaivali or Jaivala (' descendant of Jivala ') is 
the name of a prince, contemporary with Uddalaka, who 



PnuSna] AXE A PRIEST DISPUTED QUESTION 41 

appears in the Upanisads^ as engaged in philosophical dis- 
cussions. He is probably identical with the Jaivali of the 
Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana.* 

* Brhad&ranyaka Upanisad, vi. i, 1 Chindogya Upanisad, i. 8, i ; v. 
1. 7(Madhyamdina = vi. 2, 1. 4 Kinva); | 3,1. 

'' i. 38. 4. 



Pra-^as in a Mantra in the Aitareya Brahmana^ denotes, 
according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, an ' axe,' or some 
similar instrument for cutting.^ 

* ii. 6, 5. Cf. Durga on Nirukta, v. n. ^ From ias, ' to cut.' 



Pra-^astp is the name of one of the priests (Rtvy) at the 
Vedic sacrifice. In the lesser sacrifices he plays no part at all, 
but he appears in the animal (paSu) and Soma sacrifices, in the 
former as the only, in the latter as the main, assistant of the 
Hotp priest in the singing of the litanies. He is mentioned by 
name in the Rigveda,^ and often later.^ He is also in the 
Rigveda^ called Upavaktf, this name, like Prasastr, being 
derived from the fact that one of his chief functions was to 
issue directions (praisa) to the other priests. Another name 
for him was Maitravaruna, because his litanies were mainly 
addressed to Mitra and Varuna, a connexion already visible in 
the Rigveda.* The * two divine Hotrs ' of the Apr! litanies 
denote, according to Oldenberg,* the heavenly counterparts of 
the Hotr and the Prasastr. 

* i. 94, 6 ; ii. 5, 4 ; pran&stra, ' the [ the Rigveda, 3, 226, the Upavaktr is 

Soma bowl of the PraiSstr,' 36, 6; the earliest equivalent of the AchSv&ka. 

praiastra, 'the office of the Praiastr," * ii. 36, 6. 

ii. I, 2 = x. 91, 10. j ^Religion des Veda, 391. Ludwig, 

^ VajasaneyiSamhita,x. 21; Aitareya ^ op. cit., 3, 227, identifies the Pra5str 

Brahmana, v. 34 ; Satapatha Brih- with the Prastotr, but this is most 

mana, iv. 6, 6, 6 ; xi. 5, 5, 9, etc. | improbable. 

iv. 9, 5; vi. 71, 5; ix. 95. 5. j C/. Oldenberg, o/>. ci/., 383, 390,391: 

According to Ludwig, Translation of Weber, Jndische Studien, 10, 141 et seq. 

Pra^na denotes generally 'enquiry' or 'disputed question,' 
the phrase /)ra^aw eti having the sense 'he asks a person for 



42 PLAINTIFF DEFENDANT JUDGE SIDE HORSE [ Pra^ti 

the decision of a disputed point' in the Taittirlya Samhita^ 
and elsewhere.* Thus Pra^na comes to have the definite 
meaning of ' decision ' in the Aitareya Brahmana.' In the list 
of victims at the Purusamedha (' human sacrifice ') in the 
Yajurveda* are included the Pra^nin, the Abhi-pra^nin, and the 
Prasna-viv5i<a ; it is quite likely that here the three parties to a 
civil case are meant the plaintiff, the defendant, and the 
arbitrator or judge (Madhyama^i). 

* ii. 3. 8, 5; II. 9. 
' Taittirlya Br^hmana, ii. i, 6, 2 
Aitareya Br&hmana, iii. 28. 



3 



V. 14. 



* Vajasaneyi Saqihiti, xxx. 10 ; Tait- 
tirlya Br3.hmana, iii. 4, 6, i. 



Prati, like Pfty3^ denotes a * side horse,' which, however, 
possibly^ did not necessarily mean a horse running beside the 
yoke-horses, but may also have meant a third horse yoked in 
front as a leader. This seems to be indicated by the reference 
in the Rigveda* to the Prasti here applied to the Maruts' 
team leading {vahati) the team (rohitah). In an obscure 
passage of the Atharvaveda^ there is a reference to the Prastis 
in connexion with a panca-vaht, ' drawn by five,' but it is 
impossible to gain any clear idea of what is meant. The 
Prasti is not rarely referred to elsewhere.^ In one passage^ the 
dhuryau and the prastyau are mentioned together ; this probably 
means the two horses yoked to the pole, with two others 
fastened in some way one on each side. The adjectives prasti- 
mant, ^ pr asti-vdhana,"^ prastt-vdhin,^ 3ire all used of Ratha, * chariot,' 
meaning * drawn by a side horse (or horses) ' in addition to the 
yoke- horses. Cf. Ratha. 



* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

* i. 39, 6; viii. 27, 8. In i. 100, 17, 
proffibhi/i seems to refer to the assistants 
or comrades of Rjr&iva {cf. LStySyana 
^rauta SQtra, iii. 12, 14) ; but Ludwig 
thinks that the word refers to the steeds 
by which a victory was won. 

* X. 8. 8. Cf. Whitney. Translation 
of the Atharvaveda, 597. 

* Aitareya Br&hmana, viii. 22 ; Tait- 
drlya Brahmana, iii. 8, 21, 3; ^ata- 
patha Brahmana, xiii. 3. 3. 9. etc. 



Rv. vi. 27, 24. 

' Satapatha Brahmana, v. 2, 4, 9. 

8 Taittirlya Brahmana, i. 3, 6, 4 ; 
7i I. 5 ; 9. I ; Pancavim^a Brahmana, 
xvi. 13, 12 (where praffhi vdltin and 
pra(i-vahin are confused). 

Geldner's conjecture, Rigveda, Glossar, 
119, that Prasti denotes a horse yoked 
in the middle, is withdrawn by himself, 
Kommentar, 97. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 250; 
Max Muller. Sacred Boohs of the East, 



* Taittirlya Brahmana, i. 5, 12, 5. I 32. 102. 



Prastoka ] YOUNG SHOOTS HANDFUL A SEER GRASS 43 

Pra-siti in the Vajasaneyi Samhita (ii. ig) and the Taittiriya 
Brahmana (iii. 7. 13, 4) denotes a divine * missile,' but does not 
seem to be used of human combatants. 



Pra-su in the Rigveda* and later ^ denotes the young shoots 
of grass or herbs used at the sacrifice. 

' ' 95. 10 ; iii. 5, 8 ; vii. 9, 3 ; 35, 7 ; tiriya Brihrnana, i. 6, 3, 2 ; ^atapatba 
viii. 6, 20. Brahmana, ii. 5, i, 18. 

2 Kathaka Saqihita, xxxvi. 2 ; Tait- 



Pra-spta is found in the Satapatha Brahmana^ as a measure 
of capacity, meaning a * handful.'^ 

* iv. 5, 10, 7 ; xiii. 4, i, 5 ; ankh- hollowed hand 'stretched out ' to receive 
ayana ^rauta SOtra, xvi. i, 7. what is offered. 

^ Primarily, the word designates the 



Pra-skanva is the name of a Rsi who is credited by the 
AnukramanI (Index) with the authorship of certain hymns of 
the Rigveda,^ where ^ he is mentioned several times. The 
statement in the Sankhayana Srauta Sutra^ that he obtained 
bounty from Pj'adhpa Medhya MatariiSvan is apparently a 
blunder.* 



1 1. 44-50; viii. 49; IX. 95. 
a i. 44. 6; 45, 3; viii. 3, 9; 51, 2; 
54, 8. Cf. Nirukta, iii. 17. 
' xvi, II, 26. 



* Weber, Episches im vedischen Ritual, 

39- 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 104 et seq. 



Pra-stara in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes the grass strewn 
as a sacrificial seat. 

* X. 14, 4. I xviii. 63 ; Aitareya Brahmana, i. 26 ; 

' Av. xvi. 2, 6; Taittiriya Saiphita, j ii. 3 ; Satapatha Brahmana, i. 3, 3, 5, 
i. 7, 7, 4 ; vajasaneyi Samhita, ii. 18 ; 1 etc. 



Pra-Stoka is the name of a generous donor in the Rigveda,* 
where Ludwig^ identifies him with Divodasa Atithigfva and 

1 vi. 47, 22. ' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 158. 



44 A PRIEST WINNING THROW MOUND [ Prastotr 

Ai^vattha or A^vatha. According to the SadkhSyana Srauta 
Sutra,* Bharadvaja obtained gifts from Prastoka Sarnjaya, 
* descendant of Srnjaya.' 

' xvi. II, II. I 30, 31 ; Macdonell, BfhaddevatA, 2, 198 

Cf.'Weber,EpischesimvediuheH Ritual, \ et seq. 

Pra-stotr is the name of an assistant of the Udgatr priest 
who sings the Prast5va,^ or prelude of the Saman chant. His 
not being mentioned by name in the Rigveda is merely an 
accident, for he is clearly referred to in one passage,^ and in the 
later literature^ he is a frequent figure. Ludwig^ erroneously 
thinks that PraiSastr is the earlier name of the Prastotr. 

1 Paftcavim^ Brahmana. xii. 10, 7 ; 1 vi. 6, 3, i ; Taittiriya Brahmana, I 8, 
Aitareya Brahmana, iii. 23 ; ^atapatba | 2, 3; Aitareya Brahmana, v. 34; vii. i ; 
Brahmana, viii. 7, 4, 6 ; Chandogya ] Satapatha Brahmana, iv. 2, 5, 3 ; v. 4, 



Upanisad, i. 10, 9; ii. 2, i, etc. 

^ viii. 81, 5 (pra stosat). See Olden- 
berg, Religion des Veda, 393, n. 3. 

" Taittiriya Samhita, iii. 3, 2, 1 ; 

Prasravaria. See Plaka. 



5, 22 ; xii. I, I, 6, etc. ; ChSJidogya 
Upcinisad, i. 10, 8, etc. 

* Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 
227. 



Pra-ha in the Rigveda/ the Atharvaveda,^ and the Panca- 
vimsa Brahmana,^ denotes a * winning throw ' at dice, or, 
generally, any * gain ' or ' advantage.'^ 

and prahUvant, Rv. iv. 20, 8, meaning 
' acquiring gain,' according to the St. 
Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



1 



42, 9- 



iv. 38. 3. 

3 xvi. 14, 2 ; XX. II, 4. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 241, 



Pra-kara in the ^ahkhayana Srauta Sutra (xvi. 18, 14) 
denotes a walled mound supporting a raised platform {prdsada) 
for spectators. 

Ppa-kaia is found several times in the Brahmanas^ denoting 
an ornament of metal or a metal mirror. According to 
Geldner,^ Pravepa has the same sense in the Maitrayani 
Saiphita.* 

^ Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 8, 2, 3 ; 1 ' Rigveda, Glossary 120. 

Pancavim^ Brahmana, xviii. 9, 10 ; ' iv. 4, 8. 

Satapatha Brahmana, v. 4, 5, 22, etc I 



Pracina^ala ] TEACHERS WARP CENTRAL BEAM 45 

Pra-gahi is the name of a teacher in the Kausitaki Brahmana 
(xxvi. 4) according to Lindner's edition. Cf. Pravahi. 



Pracina-tana denotes the * warp ' of a piece of cloth in the 
Taittiriya Samhita (vi. i, i, 4). Cf. Pracinatana. 

Ppacina-yogfi-putra, * son of a female descendant of Pracina- 
yoga,' is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Samjiviputra in the 
last Vamsa (list of teachers) in the Madhyamdina recension 
of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (vi. 4, 32). 

Pracina-yogrya, 'descendant of Pracinayoga,' is the name 
of a teacher, a pupil of Para^arya, in the first Vam^a (list of 
teachers) in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.-^ A Pracinayogya 
is mentioned also in the Chandogya^ and the Taittiriya* 
Upanisads, and the same patronymic is found in the Satapatha 
Brahmana* and in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana (see 
Pulua, Satyayajiia,^ Soma^uma). 

Mi. 6, 2 (KSnva). j BrShmana, i. 3, 11). C/. Weber, /niiscA; 

'^ V. 13, I. j Studien, i, 61 ; 2, 213 ; 3, 274. 

' i. 6, 2. 1 ' Called Pracinayoga in i. 39, i, but 

* (Of SatyayajSa Paulnsi) x. 6, i, 5 ; this is probably merely a blunder of 

(of Sauoeya) xi. 5, 3, i. 8 {cf. Gopatha the manuscript. 



Pracina-vam^a as an adjective denotes 'having the support- 
ing beam of the roof facing the east ' in the Satapatha 
Brahmana^ and the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ The reference is 
to the central beam running from the middle of the western 
end of a hall to the middle of the eastern end. This beam was 
possibly higher than those at the side. 



1 iii. I, I, 6. 7 ; 6, i, 23 ; iv. 6, 8, 

3. 

Kathaka Samhita, xxii. 13 ; Tait- 



tiriya Samhita, vi. i, i, 3. Cf. Eggel- 
ing. Sacred Books of the East. 26, 3, 
n. 2. 



Pracina-^la Aupamanyava (' descendant of Upamanyu ') is 
the name of a householder and theologian in the Chandogya 



46 



WARP SACRED THREAD EASTERNS [ Pracinatana 



Upanisad.* A Pracinasali appears as an UdgStr priest in the 
Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana,^ and the Praclna^alas are 
mentioned in the same Upanisad.* 



1 V. II. I. See Mah&^a. 



111. 7, 2 ; 10, 2. 



' ill. lo, I. 



Pracinatana, denoting the 'warp' of a piece of cloth, is 
found in the Brahmanas.^ Cf. Pracinatana. 

^ Aitareya 6rS.hmana, viii. 12, 3 ; | {cf. Keith, Sahkh&yana Aranyaka, 20, 
17, 2 ; Kausltaki Upanisad, i. 5 | n. 2). 



Pracinavita ^ denotes the wearing of the sacred thread of the 
Aryan over the right shoulder and under the left arm, Praclna- 
vitin ^ being the name for the man so wearing the thread. 
Tilak,^ however, thinks that these terms do not imply the 
wearing of a thread, but of a garment. 



1 Taittinya Sambita, ii. 5, 11, i. 

* Taittinya Brahmana, i. 4, 6, 6 ; 
^atapatba Brahmana, ii. 4, 2, 2. 
9 ; 6, I, 8 ; xii. 5, i, 6; praclnopavtta 



has the same sense in Av. ix. i, 

24- 

^ Orion, 146, citing Taittiriya Aran- 
yaka, ii. I. 



Pracya denotes in the plural * dwellers in the east.' They 
are mentioned in the list of peoples in the Aitareya Brahmana.^ 
It is very probable that the KaiSis, Kosalas, Videhas, and 
perhaps Magradhas, are meant, as Oldenberg^ supposes. In 
the Satapatha Brahmana^ the Easterns are said to call Agni 
by the name of ^arva, and their mode of making tombs is 
there* referred to with disapproval. The Latyayana Srauta 
Sutra^ explains the Vipatha, * rough car,' of the Pancavimsa 
Brahmana as a car of the Easterns (prdcya-raiha). In the 
Sarnhitopanisad Brahmana' reference is made to the Pracya- 
Paficalas. 



* viu. 14. 

3 Buddha, 393, n. 

' >. 7. 3, 8. 

* xiii. 8, I, 5 ; 2, i. Cf. also ix. 5, 
1 . 64 . These passages render improb- 
able the earlier view of Weber {Indian 
Literature, 132, 133) that this Br&hmana 
is a product of the Eastern peoples, and 



support his later view that the Sata- 
patha Br&hmana, like the other great 
Br^hmanas, belongs to the Madhyade^ 
(see Etira, n. i). 

' viii. 6, 9. 

xvii. I. 

' 2 ; Weber, Indian Literature, 34, 
n. 25. 



Prana A PATRONYMIC VITAL AIRS 47 

Ppajapatya, ' descendant of Prajapati,' is only a patronymic 
of mythical persons like Aruni Suparneya (* descendant of 
Suparna ') in the Taittiriya Aranyaka (x. 79), or of Prajavant 
in the Aitareya Brahmana (i. 21). 



Prapa, properly denoting 'breath,' is a term of wide and 
vague significance in Vedic literature. It is frequently men- 
tioned from the Rigveda ^ onwards ; in the Aranyakas and 
Upanisads it is one of the commonest symbols of the unity of 
the universe.^ In the narrow sense Prana denotes one of the 
vital airs, of which five are usually^ enumerated Prana, 
Apana, Vyana, Udana, and Samana; but often only two, 
Prana and Apana,^ or Prana and Vyana,^ or Prana and Udana; 
or three, Prana, Apana, and Vyana,*^ or Prana, Udana, and 
Vyana, or Prana, Udana, and Samana ;^ or four, Prana, 
Apana, Vyana, and Samana,^ or Prana, Apana, Udana, 
Vyana.^^ The exact sense of each of these breaths when all 
are mentioned cannot be determined.^^ 

Prana is also used in a wider sense to denote the organs of 
sense,^^ or as Sayana^^ puts it, the 'orifices of the head,' etc. 
These are given as six in one passage of the ^atapatha 
Brahmana,^^ presumably the eyes, ears, and nostrils. More 
frequently there are stated to be seven in the head, the mouth 
being then included.^ Sometimes again they are mentioned 



i. 66, I ; X. 59, 6 ; 90, 13, etc. 

2 Deussen, Philosophy of the Upani- 
shads, 89 et seq. 

3 See Ud&na, n. i . 

* Av. ii. 28, 3 ; V. 4, 7 (Paipp.) ; 
vii. 53. 4 (in vii. 53, 3, ApSna, 
Prina) ; Taittiriya Saipbita, iii. 4, i, 
4, etc. 

6 Av. V, 4, 7; vi. 41, 2, etc. 

See Ud&na, n. 3. 

' Av. xiii, 2, 46; Maitriyani Sam- 
hita, iv. 5, 6, 9 ; Vajasaneyi Samhiti, 
xxii. 23 ; Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 29 ; 
KauKitaki BrcLbmana, vi. 10 ; ^iikh- 
ayana Aranyaka, viii. 8 ; Taittiriya 
Upanisad, ii. 2. etc. 



8 See TJdftna, n. 2. 

Ibid. 

1* Av. X. 2, 13. 

11 Bfhadaranyaka Upanisad, iii. 4, i. 

13 Cf. Deussen, Philosophy of the 
Upanishads, 273 et uq. 

13 Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays, 
I. 339, 355 ; St. Petersburg Dictionary, 
s.v. I. 

" On Aitareya Aranyaka. i. 3, 7. 

" xiv, I. 3, 32 ; 4, I. 

Av. ii. 12. 7 ; Aitareya Brabmana, 
L 17 ; iii. 3 ; Satapatha Brabmana, 
iii. I, 3, 21; vi. 4 2, 5 ; xiii. i, 7. 2 ; 
Jaiminiya Upanisad Brabmana, ii. 5, 9, 
10 ; 6. 8, etc 



48 



VITAL AIRS 



[ Tr&xfA 



as nine/'' or as seven in the head and two below.^ Ten are 
counted in the ^atapatha Brahmana^ and the Jaiminiya 
Brahmana,2 while even eleven are mentioned in the Kathaka 
Upanisad,^ and twelve in the Kathaka Samhita,^ where the 
two breasts are added. Exactly what organs are taken to 
make up the numbers beyond seven is not certain.^ The tenth 
is the navel (nabhi) in the MaitrayanI Samhita ;^ when eleven 
are named the Brahma- randhra^ (suture in the crown) may be 
included; in the Atharvaveda,^ as interpreted by the Brhad- 
aranyaka Upanisad,^'' the seventh and eighth are the organs 
of taste and speech respectively. But usually these make one 
only, and the eighth and ninth are either in the breast^ or 
below (the organs of evacuation).'^ 

The word Pra^a has sometimes merely the general sense of 
breath, even when opposed to Apana.^ But its proper sense 
is beyond question * breathing forth,' * expiration,' and not as 
the St. Petersburg Dictionary explains it, * the breath inspired,' 
a version due to the desire to interpret Apana as 'expiration,' 
a meaning suggested by the preposition apa, *away.' This 
being clearly shown both by the native scholiasts^^ and by 
other evidence,^^ Bohtlingk^^ later accepted the new view. 



" Taittiriya Samhiti, iii. 5, 10, 2 ; 
Tsiittiriya Brahmana, iii. i, 7, 4; ^ata- 
patha Brahmana, i. 5, 2, 5 : Panca- 
vima Brahmana, xxii. 12, 5; Aitareya 
Aranyaka, i. 4. i ; ^inkhayana Aran- 
jraka, ii. 2 ; Av. v. 28, i ; x. 8, 43 
{navadv&ram), etc. 

18 Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana, 
ii. 5, 9, 10; 6, 8. 

i xi. 6, 3, 17, where the eleventh is 
given as the Atman. 

*o ii. 77 (Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 15, 240). 

" V. I. 

M xxxiii. 3. 

23 Cf. Deussen, op. cit., 269; Keith, 
Aitareya Aranyaka, 185, 187. 
>* iv. 6, I ; Kathaka Samhita, ix. 16. 
** Aitareya Upaniijad, i. 3. 
M X. 8.9. 

" i> 2, 3. 4- 

^ Kathaka Saqihita, xxxiii. 3. 



29 Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana, 
ii. 5, 9, 10 ; 6, 8. 

^ Av. V. 4, 7 (Paippalada). See 
Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 
552. 

31 Rudraflatta on Apastamba rauta 
Sutra, xii. 8, 8 ; xiv. 11, i ; Sayana on 
^atapatha Brahmana, i. i, 3, 2; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, ii. 5, 6, 4 ; Sankara 
on Chandogya Upanisad, i. 3, 2 ; 
Anartiya on Sankhayana ^rauta SQtra, 
vi. 8, I. 2, etc. 

32 ^atapatha Brahmana, ii. 2, 2, 15, 
as compared with Katyayana ^rauta 
Satra, iv. 8, 29 ; Bfhadaranyaka Upani- 
sad, iii. 2, 2 ; Jaiminiya Upani.sad 
Brahmana, i. 60, 5; ii. i, 16. 19; 
Aitareya Aranyaka, v. i, 4. See Caland, 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen M orgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft. 55, 261-265; 56. 556-558; 
and Apana. 

Zeitschrift. 55, 518. 



Pratibodhiputra ] LIVING BEING MORNING LIBATION 49 



Ppana-bhrt denotes a * living being ' or ' man ' in the Brhad- 
aranyaka Upanisad^ and the ^atapatha Brahmana.^ Pranin 
has the same sense.' 



' 1. 5, 22 ; 111. I. 12. 
2 xi. 2, 6, 2. 

' Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 13 ; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, vii. 4, 2. 2 ; x. 4, 



2, 2 ; Chindogya Upani^ad, ii. 11, 2 ; 
Aitareya Upanisad, iii. 3, 3 ; Nirukta, 
vi. 36. 



Pratar as a denotation of time signifies the ' early morning ' 
in the Rigveda^ and later.^ Cf. Ahan. 

* i. 125, 1 ; ii. 18, I : iii. 41, 2 ; 52, i ; Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 31 ; iii. 22. 44 ; 

iv. 35, 7: V. 76, 3, etc. iv. 20; ^atapatha Brahmana, xi. 5, i, 

' Av. iv. II, 12; vi. 128. 2; vii. loi, I ; 12; Chandogya Upanisad, v. 11, 7, 

xi. 2, 16 ; K&thaka SamhitS, xxxii. 7 ; I etc. 



Pratar-anuvaka occurs in the Brahmanas^as the name of 
the litany which begins the morning Soma libation. 



1 Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 5, 9, 7 ; 
ii. 2, 3, 6; Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 15. 
17. 18 ; iv. 19 ; v. 33 ; Satapatha 



Brahmaina, iii. 9, 3. 7 ; iv. 3, 4, 21 ; 
xi. 5. 5. 9 ; Chandogya Upanisad, 
ii. 24, 3 ; iv. 16, 2, etc. 



Pratap-ahna Kauhala is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
Ketu Vajya, in the Vam^a Brahmana.* Cf. Kauhada. 

1 Indische Studitn, 4, 372 ; Max Miiller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 443. 

Pra-tardani, * descendant of Pratardana,' is the name of a 
prince in one passage of the Rigveda.i 

1 vi. 2^, 8. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 157, 159. 

u 

Prati-plya is the patronymic of Balhika in the Satapatha 
Brahmana (xii. 9, 3, 3). 

Prati-ve^ya is mentioned in the Varn^a (list of teachers) in 
the Sahkhayana Aranyaka (xv. i) as a pupil of Pratlve^ya. 

Ppati-sutvana. See Pratipa. 



Pratl-bodhi-putra, 'son of a female descendant of Prati- 

VOL. II. 4 



50 



PATRONYMICS SPAN EXPIATION [ Pratrda 



bodha,' is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya (iii. i, 5) and 
the ^ahkhayana (vii. 13) Aranyakas. 

Cf. Keith, Aitareya Aratiyaka, 244, 310, 

PpS-tpda, 'descendant of Pratpd,' is the patronymic of a 
teacher called Bhalla in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana 
(iii. 31, 4), and of another teacher in the Brhadaranyaka 
Upaniad (v. ijC, q^. 

Pra-de^a^ frequently occurs in the Brahmanas^ as a measure 
of length, a ' span.'^ 



1 Formed with the pradeia ' (prob- 
ably 'indicator,' as a name of the 
forefinger ; cf. pradeiin'i, ' forefinger, ' 
A^valayana Srauta SOtra, i. 7 ; Sankh- 
9.yana Srauta Satra, i. 10, i ; ii. 9, 14). 



' Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 5 ; ^ata- 
patha Brahmana, iii. 5, 4, 5 ; Chan- 
dogya Upanisad, v. 18, i, etc. 

3 That is, between thumb and fore- 
finger. 



Pra-dhvamsana, 'descendant of Pradhvamsana,' is the 
patronymic, in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad,' of the mythical 
Mftyu, who is there said to be the pupil of Pradhvarnsana, 

1 ii. 5, 22 ; iv. 5, 28, Madhyamdina. 

PrayaiS-citta^ or Praya^-citti^ denotes a 'penance' or 
'expiation,' both words occurring frequently in the later 
Samhitas and the Brahmanas. The penances are prescribed 
for every conceivable sort of ritual, social or moral ; a complete 
list of them is included in the Samavidhana Brahmana.^ 



1 Satapatha Brahmana, xii. 4, i, 6 ; 
KauRitaki Brahmana, v. 9 ; vi. 12, etc. 

2 Taittiriya Samhita, ii. i, 4, i ; iii. i, 
3, 2; V. I, 9, 3; 3, 12, I ; Av. xiv. I, 
30 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxxix. 12 ; 



Aitareya Brahmana, iii. 11. 46 ; v. 27 ; 
vii. 2 ; Satapatha Brahmana, i. i, 4, 9 ; 
iv. 5, 7, I ; xi. 5, 3, 8, etc. 

' See Konow's Translation, p. 43 
et seq. 



Pra-vareya, * descendant of Pravara,* is the patronymic of 
the Garg-as in the Kathaka Samhita.^ 

* xiii. 12 {Indische Studien, 3, 474). 



Pra-vahi is the name of a teacher in the KausTtaki Brah- 
mana (xxvi. 4), where, however, Lindner's edition has Prag'ahi. 



Prasada ] NAMES RAINS DEBATER CLOUD-BURST 



SI 



Pra-vaha^i, ' descendant of Pravahana,' is the patronymic 
of a man called Babara in the Taittiriya Samhita (vii. i, lo, 2). 



Ppa-Vf is the name of the * rainy season ' in the Rigveda* 
and later.2 



vu. 103, 3. 9. 

' Av. xii. I, 46; K&thaka Samhita, 
xxxvi. 2; Taittiriya Br3.hmana, i. 8, 



4, 2 ; ^atapatba Br3.hmana, v. 5, 2, 3 ; 
vii. 2, 4, 26, etc. 



Pra-vepa. See PrakaSa. 



PraiS in the Atharvaveda^ denotes a * debater ' or a * debate,' 
while Pratipra^^ denotes an * opponent in debate.' 

* ii. 27, 1 . 7. veda, 305, 306, who completely disproves 

' ii. 27, I. Cf. Bloomfield, American the theory that Pra^ meant ' means of 

Journal of Philology, 7, 479 et seq. ; life,' 'victuals' (<;/. Bohtlingk.s.w. /mrt- 

A tharvaveda, 73 ; Hymns of the A tharva- prai) . 



Ppa^ni-putra ('son of Pra^ni') Asupi-vasin is mentioned 
in the last Varn^a (list of teachers) of the Brhadaranyaka 
Upanisad^ as a pupil of Asurayana. 

* vi. 4, 33 (MS.dhyaindina = vi. 5, 3 K&nva). 

Pra-iravai?a. See Prasrava^a. 

Pra-saca, m., in the Taittiriya Samhita^ denotes a 'cloud- 
burst,' while in the Taittiriya Brahmana^ the adjective prdsacyaii 
(Japah) means * (waters) produced by torrential rain.' 

1 vii. 5, II, I ; according to the I ' iii. 12, 7, 4 ; according to the 
commentator, 'congealing.' I commentator, ' congealed ' (water). 



Pra-sada in the sense of ' palace ' does not occur until the 
late Adbhuta Brahmana.^ Cf. Prakara. 

1 Indiuhe Studien, i, 40. 

42 



52 NAMES PANIC SEED SWING [ Prasravana 

Pra-sravai?a occurs as part of the local name Plaka 
Prasravapa. It also appears as a patronymic * descendant of 
Prasravana,' applied to Avatsara in the Kausitaki Brahmana.^ 

^ xiii. 3. There is also a various reading, Pr3.Sravana. 

PriyahgTi denotes 'panic seed' (Panicum italicum) in the 
Yajurveda Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas.^ 

* Taittirijra Sarphit&, ii. 2, 11, 4; I Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 16; Brhad- 



Kclthaka Saiphita, x. 11 ; MaitrSyani 
Saunhita ii. 1,8; Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
xviii. 12. 
2 Taittinya BrShmana, iii. 8, 14, 6 



aranyaka Upanisad.vi, 3, 22(Madhyani- 
dina = vi. 3, 13 Kanva), with ^ahkara's 
note. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 241. 



Priya-medha is the name of a seer in the Rigveda,i where 
his family, the Priyamedhas, are also repeatedly alluded to.* 
It is not probable that any hymns are really Priyamedha's 
own composition.^ See also I*raiyamedha. 

* i. 139,9; viii. 5, 25; Priyamedhavat, I ' 1. 45, 4: viii. 2, 37; 3, 16; 4, 20; 
i. 45, 3 ; Priyamedha-stuta, viii. 6, 45. I 8, 18 ; 69, 8 ; 87, 3 ; x. 73, 11. 

3 Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Dcutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 42, 217. 

Priya-ratha is the name of a patron of the Pajras in the 
Rigveda.^ 

^ i. 122, 7. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 150. 

Priya-vrata Somapi^ or Saumapi is the name of a teacher 
in the Aitareya Brahmana^ and the Sankhayana Aranyaka,'^ in 
which he is said to be the son of Somapa. The name Priya- 
vrata is also found in the ^atapatha Brahmana,* where a 
Rauhi^ayana of that name is mentioned as a teacher. 

* vii. 34. I 3 X. 3, 5. 14. 

XV. 1. I Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 8, 136, n. 

Prenkha, * swing,' is mentioned in the description of the 
Mahavrata rite, given in the Kathaka Samhita,^ the Aitareya 

^ xxxiv. 5. 



Praiga ] DEAD MAN SERVANT LITURGICAL DIRECTION 53 

Arariyaka,^ the Paficavim^a Brahmana,' and elsewhere.* As 
far as can be judged from the notices available,^ the swing was 
made just like a modern swing. See also Plehkha. 

* i- 2, 3. 4 ; V. I, 3, etc. I '^ ^Srikhayana Srauta SQtra, xvii. i, 

* V. 5, 7. I II ; 7, 2, etc, 

* S&hkh&yana Aranyaka, ii. 17, etc. ( 



Preta, * departed/ is used to denote a * dead man ' in the 
Satapatha Brahmana/ but not in the sense of * ghost,' which 
only appears later, in post-Vedic literature. 

* X, 5, 2, 13; BrhadcLranyaka Upanisad, v. 11, i, etc 

Predi. See Proti. 



Preya (' to be sent ' on an errand) denotes a menial servant 
or slave, being applied in the Aitareya Brahmana^ to the i^udra. 
In the Atharvaveda^ the adjective praisya, ' menial,' occurs. 



vii. 29. See also Kausitaki Br3.bmaiia, xvii. i. 



V. 22, 14. 



Praiya-medha, * descendant of Priyamedha,' is a patronymic 
of the priests who sacrificed for the Atreya Udamaya in the 
Aitareya Brahmana.^ They appear in the Yajurveda Samhitas* 
as priests who ' knew all ' (sacrificial lore). Three Praiya- 
medhas are referred to in the Taittirlya Brahmana.^ In the 
Gopatha Brahmana^ they are called Bharadvajas. 



1 VUl. 22. 

2 K^thaka Samhita, vi. i {Indische 
Studien, 3, 474); Maitrayani Sanihiti, 
i. 8, 7; L6vi, La doctrine du sacrifice, 
150. 



' ii. I, 9, I et seq. 

* i. 3, 15, The name is also written 
Prayyamedha and, incorrectly, Praiy- 
yamedba. 



Praia is a liturgical term meaning * direction ' or ' invitation, 
repeatedly found in the later Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas.* 



^ Av. V. 26, 4 ; xi. 7, 18; xvi. 7, 2 ; 
Taittiriya Samhiti, vii. 3, 11, 2 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Samhita, xix. 19, etc. 

^ Aitareya Brahmana, iL 13 ; iii. 9 ; 



V. 9, etc. : Satapatha Brahmana, iv. i, 
3, 15 ; xiii. 5, 2, 23 ; Kausitaki Brah- 
mana, xxviii. I, etc. 



54 



NAMES BENCH ASTERISM FIG-TREE [ Proti 



Proti Kau^mbeya Kausupu-bindi (' descendant of Kusuru- 
binda *) is mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana^ as a pupil 
and contemporary of Uddalaka. In the Taittiriya Samhita,* on 
the other hand, Kusurubinda is called Auddalaki, * descendant 
of Uddalaka,' a fact which seems to indicate that little value 
is to be attached to these patronymics and allegations of 
contemporaneousness. 



^ xii. 2, 2, 13. In the parallel 
passage, Gopatha Br&hmana, i. 2, 24, 
Predi Kau^mbeya Kausuravinda is the 
form of the name. 



vii. 2, 2, I. 

Cf. Bloomfield, Atharvaveda, p. 115. 



Ppotha, denoting perhaps a ' bench,' is found in the Rigveda* 
in the adjective prosthasaya, ' lying on a bench,' used of women, 
and uncompounded in the Taittiriya Brahmana.^ In the first 
passage it is distinguished from Talpa and Vahya, but what 
the exact difference was there is not sufficient evidence to 
show. 



* vii. 55, 8. 



11. 7, 17, 1. 



Cf. Zimmer, AUindisches Leben, 154. 



Protha-pada, m., -pada, f. ('foot of a bench'), is the name 
of a double Nakatpa. 

Protha-pada Varakya is mentioned in a Vamsa (list of 
teachers) of the Jaiminiya Upaniad Brahmana (iii. 41, i) as 
a pupil of Karnsa Varaki. 



I. Plak^a is the name of the waved leaf fig-tree {Ficus 
infectoria), a large and beautiful tree with small white fruit. 
It is mentioned in the Atharvaveda^ and the Taittiriya Samhita* 
along with the Nyagrodha and the Par^ia. Its name is altered 
in the latter Samhita^ to Praka for the sake of an etymology. 
It is also mentioned in the Brahmanas.* 



* V. 5, 5. 

vii. 4. 12, I. Cf. iii. 4, 
MaitfcLyanl 3anihit&, iii. 10, 2. 

vi. 3, 10, 2. 



8. 4 



* Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 32 ; viii. 16; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 8, 19, 2 ; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, iii. 8, 3, 10. 12, etc. 

Cf. Zimmer, AUindisches Leben, 58. 



Hakfli ] NAMES A LOCALITY BOAT AQUATIC BIRD 55 

2. Plak$a Dayyampati (' descendant of Dyampati ' or 
DySrnpata) was a contemporary of Atyamhas Aruiji in the 
Taittirlya Brahmana (iii. 10, 9, 3. 5). 

3. Plak^a Pra-sravapa is the name of a locality, forty-four 
days' journey from the spot where the Sarasvati disappears. 
It is mentioned in the Pancavirnsa Brahmana^ and the 
Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana.^ In the latter text it is said 
that the middle of the earth is only a span (PradeiSa) to the 
north of it. In the Rigveda Sutras^ the locality is called 
Plaki^a Prasravana, and is apparently meant to designate the 
source of the Sarasvati rather than the place of its reappearance. 



* XXV. 10, 16. 22 ; KatySyana Srauta 
Satra, xxiv. 6, 7 ; Laty&yana Srauta 
Satra, X. 17, 12. 14. 

' iv. 26, 12. 

' ASvalcLyana ^ranta Satra, xii. 6, 



I ; Sankhayana Srauta SQtra. xiii. 29, 
24. 

Cf. Hopkins, Transactions of the Con- 
necticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 15, 
31, n. 2. 



Plati is the name of a man, the father of the seer of two 
hymns of the Rigveda.^ 

1 X. 63, 17 ; 64, 17. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 133. 

1. Plava ('float') denotes a 'boat' in the Rigveda* and 
later.2 

1 i. 182, 5. I V. 3, 10, 2 ; viL 3. 5, 2 ; Pancavim^ 

* Av. xii, 2, 48 ; Taittiri3ra Saiphita, | Brahmana, xi. 10, 17, etc. 

2. Plava is the name of an aquatic bird mentioned in the 
list of victims at the A^vamedha (' horse sacrifice ') in the 
Yajurveda Samhitas.* Perhaps the ' pelican ' is meant. 

I TaittirTya SamhitS, v. 5, 20, i ; Maitrayanl Saqihita. iii. 14, 15 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Saiphita, xxiv. 34. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 93. 

Plaki, * descendant of Plaka,' is the name of a man 
mentioned in the Taittirlya Aranyaka* and the Taittiriya 

^ i- 7, 2. 



56 PATRONYMICS RICE EAR-MARK INSECT [ Plita 

Prati^akhya.* In the same Prati^akhya^ a Plakayana, or 
* descendant of Plaksa,' is mentioned. 

i. 5. 9 ; ii. 2. 6. * i. 9 ; ii. 2. 6. 

C/. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 33. 

Plata, 'descendant of Plati,' is the patronymic of Gaya in 
the Aitareya BrShmana (v. 2). 



Pla-yogi, 'descendant of Playoga,' is the patronymic of 
Asahg'a in the Rigveda.* According to the ^ahkhayana Srauta 
Sutra,* Asariga was a woman, but became a man. This version, 
repeated by SSyana in his commentary on the Rigveda,^ is a 
mere blunder based on the fact that an additional verse, tacked 
on to the hymn,* contains the expression saivatl ndrl, which 
has been taken to mean 'his wife ^a^vati,'* instead of merely 
* every woman.' 

* So even Griffith, Hymns 0/ the 
Rigveda, 2, 107. But see Oldenberg, 
Rgveda-Noten, i, 354. 



vm. I, 33. 
3 



XVI. II, 17. 
' viii. I, 34. Cf. Hopkins, Religions 
of India, 150, 



Plaiuka is found in the ^atapatha Brahmana (v. 3, 3, 2) 
as an epithet of Vrihi, 'rice,' in the sense of 'shooting up 
rapidly.* 

Pliha-karna as an epithet of cattle in the Yajurveda 
Samhitas^ probably denotes 'having a spleen-shaped mark 
branded on the ear,' not as Mahidhara in his commentary on 
the Vajasaneyi Sarnhita* takes it, 'having a disease called 
Piihan in the ear.' 

> Maitr&yanI Saipbit^, iii. 13, 5 {cf. iv. 2, 9) ; V3,jasaneyi Saiphit&, xxiv. 24. 
Loc. cit. 



Plu^i is the name of some noxious insect in the Rigveda.* 
It is also included in the list of victims at the A^vamedha 

* i. 191, I. 



Phalaka ] SWING FIELD FRUIT PLANK 57 

(' horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda Samhitas,^ and is mentioned 
in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ Possibly a species of ant 
may be meant. 

2 Maitrayanl Saiphita, iii. 14, 8 ; I * i. 3, 24. 
Vajasaneyi Samhita,, xxiv. 29. | Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 98. 

Plenkha is a variant form of Prehkha, * swing,' found in the 
Taittiriya Samhita (vii. 5, 8, 5) and the Taittirlya Brahmana 
(i. 2, 6, 6). 

PH. 

Phai^a occurs in some manuscripts of the Kausitaki Upanisad,^ 
and is explained as meaning an * ornament.' But it is merely 
a misreading of the correct word phala in the compound phala- 
hastdh, ' bearing fruits in their hands.' 

1 i. 4. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 398; Keith, Sahkhayana Aranyakat 
19. n. I. 

Phapvara, a word occurring only once in the Rigveda,^ 
cannot be interpreted with certainty. It may mean a ' field in 
bloom.'^ Sayana* explains it as 'filler,' and Grassmann as 
perhaps a * sower.'"* 



* X. 106, 2, 

" Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 17, 260. 

3 In his commentary on Rv. x. 106, 2. 

He explains the intensive form par- 



pharat, occurring in the same hymn 
(x. 106, 7), as from a verb meaning 
to 'fill.' 
* Wdrterbuch, s.v. 



Phala, denoting * fruit ' generally, especially the fruit of a 
tree, occurs in the Rigveda^ and later.^ 

1 iii. 45, 4 ; X. 146, 5. 

2 Av. vi, 124, 2 ; Taittirlya Saiphita, 
vii. 3, 14, I ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, x. 13 ; 



Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. 4, 4, 8 ; 
Bf-hadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. 4, i, etc., 
and see Phana. 



Phalaka denotes * plank,' as applied in the construction of 
a cart or chariot, or as used for pressing Soma {adhi-avane 
phalake),^ or for any other purpose.* 

' Pancavim^ Brahmana, xvii. i, 14 ^ Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 3, 4, 9 ; 

(cf. Indische Studien, i, 33, 44). xiii. 4, 3, i ; Aitareya Aranyaka, i. a, 3 

' Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 30. (of the swing), etc. 



58 A PLANT BUTTER PLOUGHSHARE TRUMPET [ThalAV&tl 

Phalavati, ' fruitful,* is the name of a plant in the Sadvim^a 
Brahmana/ identified by the scholiast with the Priyangoi. 

1 V. 2. C/. Weber, Omina und Portenta, 315. 

Phalgru. See Nak^atra. 

Phalguni. See Nakatra. 

Pha^ita in the ^atapatha Brahmana^ is said to denote the 
first particles of butter produced by churning, * creamy butter.' 

1 Hi. I, 3, 8. C/. Eggeling, Sacred Books 0/ the East, 26, 14, n. i. 



Phala, 'ploughshare,' occurs in the Rigveda^ and later.* 
Cf. Lang-ala. 



* iv. 57, 8; X. 117, 7. 

' Kathaka SamhitS, xix. i, Cf. su- 
ph&la, Av. iii. 17, 5 ; Maitr^yanl Sam- 
hits,, ii. 7, 12 ; phila-ftfffa, 'growing on 



ploughed land,' as opposed to dratiya, 
wild,' Kathaka Samhita, xii. 7; Kausl- 
taki Brahma^a, xxv. 15. 



Baka Dalbhya ('descendant of Dalbha') is the name of a 
person mentioned in the Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana as 
constraining Indra for the AjakeiSins (i. 9, 2), and as a Kuru- 



Pahcala (iv. 7, 2). p 



|0t VlVl 



n 



I *- - /i * /Ai-\ 



Bakura is mentioned in one passage of the Rigveda,^ where 
it is said that the A^vins made light for the Aryan by blowing 
their Bakura against the Dasyus. According to the Nirukta,* 
the thunderbolt^ is meant ; but much more probable is Roth's' 
view, that the object blown was a musical instrument. See 
also Bakura. 



* i. 117, 21. 

* vi. 25. Cf. Naigbantuka, iv. 3. 
' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Cf. Zimmer, A Itindisches Ltben, 290; 
Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 466. 



Babara ] A PLANT JUJUBE CAUSEWAY ROPEKIN 



59 



Baja is the name in the Atharvaveda^ of a plant used against 
a demon of disease. Some sort of mustard plant may be 
meant.^ 

* viii. 6, 3. 6. 7. 24. ' Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 494. 



Badara denoting, like Karkandhu and Kuvala, a kind of 
jujube, is mentioned in the Yajurveda Samhitas* and the 
Brahmanas.* 



* Kathaka Samhiti, xii. 10 ; MaitrS- 
yani Samhiti, iii. 11, 2 ; Vajasaneyi 
Samhita, xix. 22. 90 ; xxi. 30. 

' Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 8, 5, i ; 



Satapatha Brahmana, v. 5, 4, 10; 
xii. 7, I, 3 ; 2, 9; 9, I, 8, etc.; Jaimin- 
lya Brahmana, ii. 156, 5. 



Badvan seems in one passage of the Pancavim^a Brahmana* 
to denote a 'causeway.' It is said to be firmer than an 
ordinary road. 

1 i. I, 4. C/. Latyayana Srauta Sutra, i. i. 23. 



Bandhana denotes a ' rope ' or other fastening in the 
Atharvaveda* and later.* 



* Av. iii. 6. 7 (of a boat, Nau); 
vi. 14, 2. 
' Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. i, 6, 2 



(of a horse) ; Taittiriya Brahmana, 
iii. 8, 9, 4 ; Chandogya Upanisad, 
vi. 8, 2 ; Nirukta, xii. 38, etc. 



Bandhu, denoting * relationship 'i in the abstract and 'rela- 
tion '2 in the concrete, occurs in the Rigveda and later. 

1 Rv. V. 73, 4 ; vii. 72, 2 ; viii. 73, I 23 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 7, 5, 5, 

12, etc. ; Av. v. 11, lo. 11 ; Vajasaneyi | etc. ; bandhumant, ' having relations,' 

Samhita, iv. 22 ; x. 6, etc. Rv. viii. 21. 4 ; Taittiriya Saiphita, i. 5, 

' Rv. i. 164, 33 ; vii. 67,9 ; Av. x. 10, | i, 4, etc. 



Babara Pra-vahani (' descendant of Pravahana ') is the name 
of a man who, according to the Taittiriya Samhita,* wished to 
become an orator, and obtained rhetorical power by the use 
of the Pancaratra sacrifice. 

* vii. I, 10, 2. Cf. Geldner, Vediuhe Stttdien, 2, 148. 



6o 



SEERS TEA CHERS GARMENT 



[ Babhrn 



I. Babhru is the name, in the Rigveda,* of a Rsi who received 
gifts from King Rpaipcaya. The same Babhru may be meant 
in another passage,^ where he is mentioned as a prot6g6 of the 
A^vins ; but it is doubtful whether the word is a proper name 
at all in the Atharvaveda.' 



V. 30, II. 14. 

' viii. 22, 10. 

* iv. 29, 2. It is here taken as a 
proper name by the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, s.v. ; Ludwig, Translation 



of the Rigveda, 3, 126. But Whitney, 
Translation of the Atharvaveda, 199, 
denies that a proper name is meant. 

Cf. Oldenberg, Zeitschrift derDeutschtn 
Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 42, 214. 



2. Babhru Kaumbhya ('descendant of Kumbha') is the 
name of the seer of a Saman or Chant in the Pancavim^a 
Brahmana (xv. 3, 13). 

3. Babhru Daiva-vrdha is mentioned in the Aitareya Brah- 
mana (vii. 34) as a pupil of Parvata and Narada. 

Bamba Aja-dvli^a (* descendant of Aja-dvis ') is mentioned 
as a teacher in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana (ii. 7, 2). 
Bimba is a various reading. 



Bamba-Vi^vavayasau are the names, in the form of a 
compound, of two Rsis who, according to the Yajurveda 
Samhitas,^ invented a certain rite. 



1 Taittiriya SarnhitH. vi. 6, 8, 4 ; 
K&thaka Samhita xxix. 7, where the 
reading adopted in the text is Bambha., 
though the reading of the Berlin manu- 
script is Bambhar. The name is taken 



to be Bamba by the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary; but Bamba is possible, the 
Dvandva compound accounting for the 
form with a. The Maitrayani SaiphitA, 
iv. 7, 3, has Bamba-. 



BarasI is found in the Kathaka Sarjihita^ and the Panca- 
vim^a Brahmana* denoting a garment of some kind. 
* XV. 4. I mentator explains it as made of bark); 



xviii. 9, 16 (where the com- | xxi. 3, 4. 



Baru is the name of the author of a hymn of the Rigveda* 
according to the Brahmanas* of that Veda. 

* X 96. ' Aitareya Brahmana, vi. 25 ; Kausitaki Brahmana, xxv. 8. 



Balasa ] LITTER OF GRASS CRANE CONSUMPTION 



6i 



Barku Varspa ( descendant of Vran') is the name of a 
teacher in the Satapatha Brahmana.^ 

' i. I, I, lo; Brhad&ranyaka Upanifad, iv. i, 8 (M&dhyaipdina = iv. i, 4 
Kanva). 

Barhis is found repeatedly in the Rigveda^ and later* 
denoting the litter of grass strewn on the sacrificial ground 
on which the gods are summoned to seat themselves. 

^ i- ^3* 7 ; loS) 4 : iu- 4> 4. etc. 1 Vajasaneyi Sarpbitfi, ii. i ; xviii. i, 

' Taittirlya Sarnhita, vi. 2, 4, 5 ; | etc. 

Balaka, * crane,' is mentioned in the list of victims at the 
A^vamedha (' horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas.^ 

1 Taittirlya Samhita, v. 5, 16, i ; I Vijasaneyi SamhitS, xxiv, 22. 23. C/. 
Maitrayani SamhitS, iii. 14, 3. 14 ; | Zimmer, Altindiuhes Leben, g2. 

Balaya is the name of an unknown animal mentioned in the 
list of victims at the A^vamedha (' horse sacrifice ') in the 
Yajurveda Sarnhitas.^ 

' Vajasaneyi Sarnhita, xxiv. 38 ; Maitrayani Sarnhita, iii. 14, ig. 



Balasa is the name of a disease mentioned several times in 
the Atharvaveda^ and occasionally later.* Mahidhara^ and 
Sayana* interpret the term as 'consumption.' Zimmer^ supports 
this view on the ground that it is mentioned as a kind of 
Yakima, makes the bones and joints fall apart {asthi-sramsa, 
paruh-srarnsa),'^ and is caused by love, aversion, and the heart, 
characteristics which agree with the statements of the later 
Hindu medicine. It is in keeping with a demon of the 
character of consumption that Balasa should appear as an 
accompaniment of Takman.^ Grohmann," however, thought 



* iv. 9, 8 ; V. 22, II ; vi. 14, i ; 127, i ; 
ix. 8, 8; xix. 34, 10. 

* Vajasaneyi Saqihita, xii. 97. 

On vajasaneyi Sarnhita, loc, cit. 

* On Av. xix. 34, 10. 

Altindisches Leben, 385-387. 

Av. ix. 8, 10. 



' Av. vi. 14, I. 
8 ix. 8. 8. 

Wise, Hindu System of Medicim, 321, 
322. 

" Av. iv. 9, 8 ; xix. 34, 10, 
^' Indische Studien, 9, 396 et seq. 



63 



TRIBUTE SCUM 



[ BaU 



that a * sore ' or * swelling ' (in the case of fever caused by 
dropsy) was meant. Bloomfield^^ considers that the question 
is still open. Ludwig" renders the word by ' dropsy.' 

As remedies against the disease the salve (Aiijasa) from 
Trikakud" and the Jangfida^ plant are mentioned. 



" Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 450, 
1* Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 510. 



" Av. iv. 9, 8. 
** Av. xix. 34, 10. 



Bali occurs several times in the Rigveda^ and often later* 
in the sense of tribute to a king or offering to a god. Zimmer* 
thinks that the offerings were in both cases voluntary. He 
compares the notices of the Germans in Tacitus,* where the 
kings of the tribes are said to receive gifts in kind as presents, 
but not a regular tribute. There seems to be no ground what- 
ever for this view. No doubt in origin the prerogatives of 
monarchy were due to voluntary action on the part of the 
tribesmen,^ but that the Vedic peoples, who were essentially 
a body of conquering invaders, were in this state is most 
improbable, and the attitude of the Vedic Indian to his gods 
was at least as compatible with tribute as with voluntary gifts. 
Zimmer admits that in the case of hostile tribes tribute must 
be meant even in the Rigveda. See also Raj an. 



1 To a god, Rv. i. 70, 9; v. i, 10; 
viii. 100, 9 ; to a king, in the compound 
bali-hrt, 'paying tribute,' vii. 6, 5; 
X. 173, 6. 

' Metaphorically: Av. vi. 117, i; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 2, 3, 2 ; KSthaka 
Sar)ihita, xxix. 7 ; Taittiriya Upanisad, 
i- 5. 3. etc. ; bali-hrt, Av. xi. 4, 19 ; 
K&thaka SamhitS., loc. cit. ; bali-h&ra, 
Av. xi. I, 20; literally: Av. iii. 4, 3; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 7, 18, 3 ; iii. 12, 
2, 7, Sntapatha Br&hmana, i. 3, 2, 15; 



5, 3, 18 ; 6. 3, 17 ; xi 2, 6, 14 ; Panca- 
viipSa Brahmana, xv. 7, 4 ; Aitareya 
Brahmama, vii. 29 (c/. vii. 34) ; bali-hrt, 
Kathaka Samhita, xxix. 9 ; Taittiriya 
Samhita, i. 6, 2, i. 

* Altindisches Leben, 166, 167. 

* Germania, 15. 

* Later, too, benevolences {pranayd- 
kriya) were known. See Fleet, Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1909, 760- 
762. 

See Rv. vii. 6, 5 ; 18, 19. 



Balkasa denotes impure matter given off in the process of 
fermentation in the ^atapatha Brahmana.^ The exact sense 



^ xii. 8, I, 16 ; 9, I, 2. 



Balhika ] A GRASS A PEOPLE A KURU KING 



63 



may be either * scum,' * sediment,' ^ or perhaps more probably 
vegetable matter in the form of * husks.' ^ 

2 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.t., I * Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East^ 
Flochen (' flakes '). I 44, 236, n. 1. 

Balbaja is the name of the grass called Eleusine indica. It 
is mentioned in the Atharvaveda,^ and is said in the Yajurveda 
Sarnhitas^ to be produced from the excrements of cattle. In 
the Kathaka Sarnhita^ it is stated to be used for the sacrificial 
litter (Barhis) and for fuel. Baskets or other products made 
from this grass are referred to in a Danastuti (* Praise of Gifts ') 
in the Rigveda.' 



* xiv. 2, 22. 23. 

a Taittiriya SamhitS, 
K^tbaka SambitS,, x. 10 
Sainbita, ii. 2, 5. 



. 2, 8, 2; 

MaitrSyani 



viii. 55. 3. 

Cf. St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. ; 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 69, 70. 



I. Balhika is the name of a people in the Atharvaveda^ where 
the fever (Takman) is called upon to go to the Mujavants, the 
Mahavp^as, and the Balhikas. The Mujavants are quite 
certainly a northern tribe, and though, as Bloomfield^ suggests, 
the passage may contain a pun on Balhika as suggesting 
'outsider' (from bahis, 'without'), still no doubt the name was 
chosen from a northern tribe. But the view of Roth^ and 
Weber,* which Zimmer^ once accepted, that an Iranian tribe 
is referred to (cf. Balkh), is not at all probable. Zimmer 
shows that there is no need whatever to assume Iranian 
influence. See also Pariu. 



1 V. 22, 5. 7. 9. 

^ Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 446. 

3 Zur Litteratur und Geschichte des 
Weda, 41. 

* Indische Studien, i, 205 ; Proceedings 
of the Berlin Academy, 1892, 985-995. 



Altindisches Leben, 130. 

Op. cit., 431-433- 

Cf. Wbitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 260 ; Hopkins, Great Epic 
of India, 373. 



2. Balhika Pratipiya is the name of a Kuru king in the 
^atapatha Brahmana,^ where he appears as having been opposed 
to the restoration of Dutapitu Paumsayana to his hereditary 
sovereignty over the Sffijayas, but as having failed to prevent 



xu. 9. 3. 3. 



64 



A KURU KING A PATRON GOAT [ Balbutha 



the restoration being carried out by Revottaras Pa^ava Cakra 
Sthapati. The epithet Pratipiya is curious : if it connects him 
with Pratlpa (whose son he is in the Epic), the form is 
remarkable, Zimmer- indeed tacitly altering it to Pratipiya. 
In the Epic and the Puranas^ he is in the form of Vahlika 
made a brother of Devapi and iSantanu, and a son of Pratlpa. 
To base chronological conclusions on this^ would be utterly 
misleading, for the facts are that Devapi was son of ^Is^isena 
and a priest, while ^antanu was a Kuru prince of unknown 
parentage, but not probably a son of Pratlpa, who seems to be 
a late figure in the Vedic age, later than Parikit, being his 
great-grandson in the Epic. Very possibly Balhika was a 
descendant of Pratipa. Why he bore the name Balhika 
must remain uncertain, for there is no evidence of any sort 
regarding it. 

* Paxgiter, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1910, 52, 



' Altindisches Lebtii, 432. 

3 See Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i^, 273 
et seq. ; Sieg, Die Sagenstoffe des Rgveda, 
131-136. 



Balbutha is mentioned in one hymn of the Rigveda,^ along 
with Taruka and PpthuiSpavas, as a giver of gifts to the singer. 
He is called a Dasa, but Roth^ was inclined to amend the text 
so as to say that the singer received a hundred Dasas from 
Balbutha. Zimmer's^ suggestion that he may have been the 
son of an aboriginal mother, or perhaps an aboriginal himself, 
seems probable.'* If this was the case, it would be a clear 
piece of evidence for the establishment of friendly relations 
between the Aryans and the Dasas. 

* Weber, Episches im vedischen Ritual, 
30 ; Griffith, Hymns of the Rigveda, 2, 
196. 



1 viii. 46, 32. 

3 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. dasa. 

3 Altindisches Leben, 117. 



I. Basta denotes the *goat' in the Rigveda* and the later 
literature.* 



t i. 161, 13. The passage is unin- 
telligible ; for a guess, see Tilak, Orion, 
166 et uq., and cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische 
Mythologie, 3. 145, n. 2. 

Taittinya Saiphiti, ii. 3, 7, 4; v. 3, 
1, 3; 7, 10, 1 ; K&thaka Saiphit&, xvii. 2; 



V&jasaneyi SaiphitS,, xiv. 9 ; Taittiriya 
Brahmana, i. 3, 7, 7 ; BrhadcLranyaka 
Upanisad, i. 4, 9 (MSdhyaqidina = i. 4, 
4 Kinva), etc., and cf. Av, viii. 6, 12 ; 
xi. g, 22. 



Banavant ] NAMES PLURAL FOLLOWERS OF RIGVEDA 65 

2. Basta Ramakayana is the name of a teacher in the 
Maitrayanl Sarnhita (iv. 2, 10). The patronymic is variously 
read Samakayana. 



Bahu-vacana denotes in grammatical terminology the * plural ' 
in the Satapatha Brahmana^ and the Nirukta.^ So dvivat, 
bahuvat, in the Nirukta^ means * in the dual and the plural.' 

* xiii. 5, 1, 18. 

' V. 23 ; xi. 16 ; xii. 7 (which recognises the plural majestatis). 

* ii. 24. 27; xi. 16. 



Bahv-pca denotes an adherent of the Rigveda. The term 
is found in the Brahmanas^ of the Rigveda, in the Satapatha^ 
and the Pancavirnsa Brahmanas,^ and in the Aranyakas of the 



Rigveda.* 

1 Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 36 ; v. 2 ; 
vi. 18; Kaugltaki Brahmana, vi. 11; 
xvi. 9. 

* X. 5, 2, 20; xi. 5, I, 10. 



' V. 6. 6. 

* Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. 2, 
SankhSyana Aranyaka, viii. 4. 



Bakura in one passage of the Rigveda (ix. i, 8) is used as 
an epithet of Dpti, the combined words denoting a wind 
instrument of some kind. Cf. Bakura. 

BadeyT-putpa (* son of Badeyl ') is mentioned in the last 
Vamsa (list of teachers) of the Madhyamdina recension of the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (vi. 4, 30) as a pupil of Mau^ikl- 
putra. 

BaQa denotes * arrow * in the Rigveda (vi. 75, 17) and later 
(Av. iii. 23, 2 ; vi. 105, 2, etc.). 



Banavant in the Brhadaranyaka Upaniad (iii. 8, 2) denotes 
an 'arrow' like Bar^a. Its more normal sense is 'quiver' (lit., 
'containing arrows'), which is its sense in the Vajasaneyi 
Sarnhita (xvi. 10) and the Satapatha Brahmana (v. 3, i, 11). 

VOL. II. 5 



66 PATRONYMICS [ Badarayana 

Badarayai^a (' descendant of Badara ') is the name of a 
teacher in the Vam^a (list of teachers) at the end of the 
Samavidhana Brahmana.^ 

* Cf. Weber, Indiuht Studien, 4, 377. I Srauta SQtra, iv. 3, 18 ; Weber, Indische 
Badari is found in the Ka.tyyana | Studien, i, 34, n. 



Badhyogfa (* descendant of Badhyoga ') is the patronymic of 
Jihvavant, a pupil of Asita Vapag:ana, in the last Varn^a 
(list of teachers) in the Madhyamdina recension of the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (vi. 4, 33). 



Badhva is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya Aranyaka 
(iii. 2, 3). The reading in the Sarikhayana Aranyaka (viii. 3) 
is Vatsya.^ 

1 See Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 249, n. i. 

Babhrava, ' descendant of Babhru,' is the patronymic of 
Vatsanapat in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ In the legend 
of l^unahi^epa^ the Kapileyas and the Babhravas are enumerated 
as the descendants of Sunahsepa under his adoptive name of 
Devarata Vai^vamitra. A Saman, or Chant, of Babhru is 
mentioned in the Pancavim^a Brahma^a.^ 

1 ii. 5, 22 ; iv. 5, 28 (Madhyamdina I ^ Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 17. The 
=ii. 6, 3 ; iv. 6, 3 Kanva). | ^ankhayana version omits the words. 

' XV. 3, 12. 



Babhravya, ' descendant of Babhru,' is the patronymic of 
Girya in the Aitareya Brahmana (vii. i), and of iSankha in the 
Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 41, i ; iv. 17, i). 



Barhat-sama is an anomalously formed word meaning 
* daughter of Brhatsaman ' in the Atharvaveda/ where her 
name occurs in a hymn for easy conception. 

1 V. 25. 9. Cf Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 267. 



Bahika ] PATRONYMICS BOY WESTERNS 67 

Barhas-patya, ' descendant of Brhaspati,' is the patronymic 
of the mythical Samyu.^ 

1 Taittirlya Satphita, ii. 6, 10, i ; v. 2, 6, 4 ; ^atapatha Brahmana, i. 9, 
I, 24; Nirukta, iv. 21, etc. 

Bala denotes * boy,' 'young child,' in the Upanisads.^ The 
later definition^ makes childhood extend to the sixteenth year. 

1 Chandogya Upanisad, v. i, 11 ; 24, 5 ; Kathaka Upanisad, ii. 6. 
^ St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

Balandana is a variant of Bhalandana, the patronymic of 
Vatsapri. 

1 See Weber, Jndische Studien, 3, 459, 478. 

Balaki, Balakya. See Drpta-balaki and KaiSyapI-balakya- 
mathari-putra. 

Baleya is a patronymic (' descendant of Bali ') of Gandhar- 
vaya9a in the Baudhayana Srauta Sutra (xx. 25). 

Bakala. See Varkali. 



Baskiha, * descendant of Baskiha,' is the patronymic of 
Sunaskarna in the Pancavim^a Brahmana.^ In the Baudhayana 
Srauta Sutra ^ he is a descendant of l^ibi. 

1 xvii. 12, 6. 

3 xxi. 17. See Caland, Uber das rituelle Sutra des Baudhayana, 28. 

Bahika is applied in the ^atapatha Brahmana^ to the people 
of the west, of the Panjab,^ as opposed to the Pracyas or 
easterns. They are said to have called Agni by the name 
of Bhava. 



1 i- 7. 3. 8. 

3 Cf. Mahabharata, viii. 2030;/ seq., 
where the Bahlkas are defined as the 
people of the Panjab and the Indus. 
This coincides exactly with what seems 
to be meant by the ^atapatha Brah- 



mana, which regards as the middle the 
land to the east of the SarasvatL 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 189; 
2, 37; Eggeling, Sacred Books of th 
East, 12, 201, n 2. 

52 



68 



ARM BASKET MAKER BILVA-TREE LOTUS [ Bahu 



Bahu, 'arm,' as a measure of length, is found in the 
Taittirlya Sarnhita (vi. 2, 11, i) and often in the Sutras. 

Bahu-vrkta is the name of a man, apparently a Rsi, who 
overcame foes in battle, according to the Rigveda.^ 

1 V. 44, 12. C/. Ludwig, Translation 1 kramani (Index) attributes to him two 
of the Rigveda, 3, 138, 139. The Anu- | hymns of the Rigveda, v. 71 and 72. 

Bidala-kari, * female splitter of bamboos,' is the name of one 
of the victims at the Purusamedha (' human sacrifice ') in the 
Yajurveda.^ Eggeling^ renders the word as * basket-maker.' 

1 Vajasaneyi Sarnhita, XXX. 8; bidala- i ^Sacred Books 0/ the East, 44, 
kara, Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 4, 5, i. I 414. 

Bimba appears in one passage of the Jaiminlya Upanisad 
Brahmana (iii. 5, 6) to denote the plant Momordica monadelpha. 



Bilva is the name of the wood-apple tree {Aigle marmelos). 
It is mentioned in the Brahmanas^ and in the Atharvaveda,* 
where a reference to its valuable fruit may be intended. 
According to the Taittiriya Sarnhita,^ the sacrificial post was 
made of Bilva wood in some cases. The Sankhayana Aran- 
yaka^ contains a hymn in praise of the virtues of an amulet of 
Bilva (ird-mani bailva).^ 



1 Aitareya Brahmana, ii. i ; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, xiii. 4, 4, 8, 
etc. Cf. Maitrayani Sarnhita, iii. 

9>3- 
" XX. 136, 13. 
ii. I, 8, I. 2. Cf. ^atapatha Brah- 



mana, i. 3, 3, 20 {paridhayah) ; Aitareya 
Brahmana, loc. cit, 

* xii. 20 et seq. 

' At the present day the tree is called 
Bel, and its leaves are used in the ritual 
of Siva worship. 



Bisa denotes the radical fibres of the lotus, which seem to 
have been eaten as a delicacy as early as the times of the 
Atharvaveda.* It is mentioned also in the Aitareya Brahmana^ 
and the Aitareya Aranyaka.^ 



* iv- 34. 5- 

* V. 30. 



* iii. 2, 4; sankhayana Aranyaka, xi.4. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 70. 



Brbu] SEED TEACHERS ARROW A PATRON 69 

By a denotes ' seed,' the operation of sowing seed {vap) being 
several times referred to in the Rigveda^ and later.* In a 
metaphorical sense the term is used in the Upanisads of the 
classes of beings according to origin, of which the Chandogya 
Upanisad^ enumerates three, the Aitareya* four. The former 
list includes anda-ja, * egg-born,' jiva-ja, 'born alive,' and 
udbhij-ja, 'produced from sprouts,' 'germinating,' while the 
latter adds sveda-ja, * sweat-born ' that is, ' generated by hot 
moisture,' an expression which is glossed to comprise flies, 
worms, etc. Cf. Kri. 



1 X. 94, 13 ; loi, 3. Cf. metaphoric- 
ally, X. 85, 37. In V. 53, 13, dhdnya 
b'lja means the ' seed which produces 
com.' 



' Av. X. 6, 33 ; ^atapatha Brihmana, 
vii. 2, 2, 4, etc. ' vi. 3, i. 

* iii. 3. See Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 
235. 



Budila A^vatara^vi or Aivatara AiSvi is mentioned several 
times in the Brahmana literature as a teacher. According to 
the Chandogya^ and the Brhadaranyaka'^ Upanisads, he was 
a contemporary of Janaka of Videha, and, according to the 
Satapatha Brahmana,^ of A^vapati, the Kekaya king. He is 
also mentioned in the Aitareya Brahmana."* 

1 V. II, I ; 16, I. 

^ V. 15, II (Madhyamdina = v. 14, 
8 Kanva). 



X. 6, I, I. C/. iv. 6, I, 9. 

vi. 30. 



Budha Saumayana, * descendant of Soma,' is the name of a 
teacher mentioned in a verse in the Pancavim^a Brahmana.^ 

* xxiv. 18, 6, Cf. Hopkins, Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, 15, 55, n. 2. 

Bunda means ' arrow * in a few passages of the Rigveda.* 

* viii. 45, 4 ; 77, 6. 11. Cf. Nirukta, vi. 32. 

Brbu is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda,^ where he is 
described as a most generous giver {sahasra-datama), and as at 
the head of the Pariis. According to the ^ankhayana ^rauta 
Sutra,2 Bharadvaja received gifts from Brbu Tak^an and 

1 vi. 45, 31. 33. a xvi. 11, 11. 



70 CHIEFS OF THE PANIS [ Brsaya 

Prastoka Sarfyaya, a fact alluded to in the Manava Dharma 
Sastra,^ where taksan is treated as a descriptive attribute, 
* a carpenter.' Apparently Brbu was a Pani, though the words 
of the Rigveda^ might be taken to mean that he was one who 
had overthrown them entirely. If so, Paiii must here certainly 
mean a merchant in a good sense, Brbu being then a merchant 
prince.* According to Weber,^ the name suggests connexion 
with Babylon, but this conjecture must be regarded as 
quite improbable. Hillebrandt sensibly expresses no opinion 
as to Brbu, while Brunnhofer's'' attempt to recognize a 
people named Tda-Kot, and to connect them with the 
Vedic word taksan, is valueless, especially considering the 
fact that Taksan is not found as an epithet of Brbu in the 
Rigveda. 

' X. 107. ; for any early period. C/. Buhler, /;!rf/sfA 
* Cf. Griffith, Hymns of the Rigveda, Palaographie , 17-19; Indische Studien, 3, 
I, 606, n. ! 79 et seq. ; Weber, Indian Literature 3 ; 
5 Episches im vedischen Ritual, 28 et seq. ; Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 201 et seq. 
Proceedings of the Berlin Academy, 1898, | " Vedische Mythologie, i, 93, 104, 107. 
563, n. I ; Indische Studien, 17, 198. i 7 [yan und Turan, 127. 
The Baveru Jataka, on which stress is Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
laid in connexion with the Indian know- | veda, 3, 275 ; Brhaddevati, v. 108, 109, 
ledge of Babylon, being of quite un- ' with Macdonell's notes ; Max Muller, 
known date, has no cogency as evidence , Sacred Books of the East, 32, 316. 



Bpsaya is mentioned twice in the Rigveda, being in the first 
passage^ connected with the Panis, and in the second^ with the 
Paravatas and the Panis. According to the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, the word is the name of a demon,^ but is in the 
second passage^ used as an appellative, perhaps meaning 
'sorcerer.'^ Hillebrandt^ thinks that a people is meant 
locating them in Arachosia or Drangiana with the Paravatas 
and the Panis, and comparing Bap(raivTr]<;, satrap of Arachosia 
and Drangiana in the time of Darius. But this theory is not 
probable. 

' i. 93, 4. ' vi. 61, 3. 1 5 Vedische Mythologie, i, 97-104. 

' C/. Siyana on Rv., /oc. 7. ' Arrian, Indica, viii. 4; xxi. i; 

* Bohtlingk, Dictionary, s.v,, follow. xxv. 8. 

ing Grassmann, I 



Brhadgiri] CUSHION-ROOF NAMES 71 

Bpsi, denoting a * cushion ' of grass, is mentioned in the 
Aitareya Aranyaica^ and the Sutras.^ The incorrect forms 
Vr^ and Vrsi also occur occasionally. 

1 i. 2, 4; V. I, 3, with Keith's note; I * ^ankhSyanaSrautaSotra, xvii.4,7 ; 
3,2. I 6, 6 ; KatycLyana Srauta SQtra, xiii. 3, i. 



Bfhac-chandas is found in one passage of the Atharvaveda^ 
as an epithet of l^ala, 'house.' It is apparently^ an error for 
brhad-chadis, ' broad-roofed,' which in any case is the sense.' 



1 iii. 12, 3. 

' Cf. Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 105. 



^ Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharva. 
veda, 345. 



Bfhat saman is mentioned in the Atharvaveda (v. 19, 2) as 
an Afigfirasa who was oppressed by Ksatriyas. The latter are 
said to have been ruined in consequence. Cf. Srnjaya and 
Barhatsama. 



Bfhad-uktha is mentioned in an obscure hymn of the 
Rigveda^ as a priest; in two hymns of the tenth Mandala^ he 
is definitely a Rsi. He is also mentioned in the Aitareya 
Brahmana' as having consecrated Dupmukha Pancala, and 
is called Vamadeva's son in the Satapatha Brahmana.* In the 
Pancavirnsa Brahmana^ he appears as Vamneya, 'descendant 
of Vamnl.' Hopkins' suggestion that he may have been there 
thought of as Vamadevya also is quite probable.'^ 



1 V. 19, 3, where Roth, St. Peters- 
burg Dictionary, s.v., treats it as ad- 
jectival. Cf. Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 
42, 214 ; Ludwig, Translation of the 
Rigveda, 3, 126. 

' X. 54, 6 ; 56. 7. 

* 



' viii. 23. 

* xiii. 2, 2, 14. 
xiv. 9, 37. 38. 

* Transactions of the Connecticut Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, 15, 55, n. 2. 

^ Pancavirnsa Br^hmana, xiii. 9, 27, 
is parallel with xiv. g, 38. 



Brhad-giri is said in the Pancavirnsa Brahmana (viii. i, 4) 
to have been one of the three Yatis who survived the slaughter 
of them by Indra. A Saman, or Chant, of his is mentioned in 
the same Brahmana (xiii. 4, 15-17). 



73 NAMES PLANET JUPITER A SACRIFICE [ Byhaddiva 

Bfhad-diva appears in a hymn of the Rigveda^ as its author, 
calhng himself an Atharvan. He is mentioned in the Aitareya 
Brahmana,* and is named in the Vam^a (list of teachers) of the 
^ankhayana Aranyaka' as a pupil of Sumnayu. 

X. 120, 8. g. C/. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 

* iv. 14. veda, 3, 133 ; Macdoaell, Vedic Myth- 

XV. I. ology, p. 141. 



Brhad-ratha is mentioned twice in the Rigveda,^ in both 
cases beside Navavastva. The name may thus be an epithet 
of Navavastva. 

* i. 36, 18 ; X. 49, 6. C/. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 147, 148. 

Bphad-vasu is the name of a teacher in the Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

* Indische Studien, 4, 374. 

Bfhaspati, * lord of prayer,' is the name of a god in the 
Vedic texts. The view of Thibaut/ that the name designates 
the planet Jupiter, is certainly not supported by good evidence. 
Oldenberg^ seems clearly right in rejecting it. 



1 Astronomic, Astrologie und Mathe- 
matik, 6. 

' Nachrichten der kdnigUchen Gesellschaft 
dtr Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, 1909, 568, 
n. 3 ; Whitney, Journal of the American 



Oriental Society, 16, xciv, correcting 
Tilak, Orion, loi. See also Fleet, 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 191 1, 
514-518 ; Keith, ibid., 794-800. 



Brhaspati-gfupta i^ayasthi is mentioned in the Vam^a 
Brahmana^ as a pupil of Bhavatrata l^ayasthi. 



1 Indische Studien, 4, 372. 



Bphaspati-sava is the name of a sacrifice by which, according 
to the Taittiriya Brahmana,^ the priest who desired to become 
a Purohita obtained that office. According to the A^valayana 
Srauta Sutra,^ it was the sacrifice to be performed by a priest 
after the Vajapeya, while the king performed the Rajasuya. In 

ii. 7, I, 2. Cf. Kathaka Samhita, xxxvii. 7; Pancavirn^ Brahmana, xvii. 

II, 4; XXV. I, I. 7. 

ix. 9. 5. 



Baijavapayana ] USURER MUSICAL INSTRUMENT 



73 



the Satapatha Brahmana,^ on the other hand, the Brhaspati- 
sava is identified with the Vajapeya; but such identity is 
clearly not primitive.* 
3 V. 2, I, 19. I 41, xxiv, XXV ; Weber, Indische Studien, 



* Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, \ 10, 107, io8. 



Bekana^a occurs only once in the Rigveda,^ when Indra is 
said to overcome all the Bekanatas and the Panis. The natural 
sense, therefore, seems to be * usurer,' the explanation given by 
Yaska.- The word has a foreign appearance, but its provenance 
can hardly be determined : it might just as well be aboriginal 
as Babylonian.^ Hillebrandt* thinks Brunnhofer is right in 
identifying Bekanata with Bikanir. 

* Vedische Mythologie, 3, 268, n. i. 
Cf. Zimmer, Althidisches Leben, 259, 



1 viii. 16, 10. 
' Nirukta, vi. 26. 
3 Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 17, 44. 



Bekura occurs in the Pancavim^a Brahmana,^ where it may 
mean * voice ' or * sound,' the sense assigned to the word in the 
Naighantuka.^ It is, however, possibly, like Bakura, the name 
of a musical instrument. In the Taittirlya^ and the Kathaka* 
Samhitas the words Bekuri and Vekuri occur as epithets of 
Apsarases, or celestial nymphs, meaning, perhaps, * melodious '; 
in the Vajasaneyi Samhita^ and the Satapatha Brahmana the 
variations Bhakuri and Bhakuri are found. 



1 i. 3, I ; vi. 7, 6; Jaiminiya Brah- 
tnana, i. 82. 



3 iii. 4. 7, I. 
* xviii. 14. 
" xviii. 42. 



' ix. 4, 1,9. 



Baija-vapa, 'descendant of Bijavapa,' is the name of a 
teacher in the first two Vamsas (lists of teachers) in the 
Madhyarndina recension of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (ii. 5, 
20 ; iv. 5, 26). 



Baija-vapayana, 'descendant of Baijavapa,' is the name of 
a teacher in the first two Varp^as (lists of teachers) in the 
Madhyarndina recension of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (ii. 5, 
20 ; iv. 5, 26). The name is also spelt Vaijavapayana. 



74 



TEACHERS FISHERMAN A SEER [ Baijavapi 



Baya-vapi, * descendant of BIjavapa, or Bijavapin,' is the 
name of a teacher in the Maitrayani Samhita (i. 4, 7). 

Bainda is the name of one of the victims at the Purusamedha 
(' human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.^ According to the 
commentator Mahidhara, the word denotes a Nisada, but 
according to Sayana a catcher of fish. See Mrgrayu. 

1 Vajasaneyi Sarphita, xxx. 16 ; Taittiriya BrSJiinana, iii. 4, 12, i. 



Bodha is the name of a Esi in the Mantra Patha.^ He is 
mentioned with Pratibodha in the Atharvaveda,^ but Whitney* 
thinks that in the second passage, at least, the word is an 
ordinary noun meaning * the wakeful one.' 



* ii. 16, 14. Cf. Winternitz, Mantra- 
P&fha, xlv. 



' V. 30, 10 ; viii. i, 13. 

' Translation of the Atharvaveda, 474. 



Baudhayana, * descendant of Budha or Bodha,' is the name 
of a teacher who is mentioned in the Baudhayana Srauta 
Sutra,^ and under whose name are current a Srauta Sutra 
described^ and in part edited by Caland,^ and a Dharma Sutra 
which has been edited'* and translated,^ while the Grhya Sutra 
is still unedited. 



^ iv. II, etc. 

^ Ober das rituelle SUtra des BaudhHyana, 
1903. 
3 Bibliotheca Indica, 1904, etc. 
* By Hultzsch, Leipzig, 1884. 



8 Biihler, Sacred Books of the East, 14. 
See his Introduction, xxix et seq., where, 
however, he tends to overestimate con- 
siderably the age of Baudhayana, 



Baudhi-putra, * son of a female descendant of Bodha,' is the 
name of a pupil of !alankayanlputra in the last Vamsa (list of 
teachers) of the Madhyamdina recension of the Brhadaranyaka 
Upaniad (vi. 4, 31). 



Brahma-carya denotes the condition of life of the Brahma- 
carln^ or religious student. The technical sense is first found in 

1 Rv. X. 109, 5 ; Av. vi. 108, 2 ; 133, 3 ; xi. 5, i et seq. ; ^atapatha 
Br&bmana, xi. 3, 3, i, etc. 



Brahmacarya ] RELIGIOUS STUDENTSHIP 



75 



the last Mapdala of the Rigveda.^ The practice of studentship 
doubtless developed, and was more strictly regulated by custom 
as time went on, but it is regularly assumed and discussed in 
the later Vedic literature, being obviously a necessary part of 
Vedic society. 

The Atharvaveda^ has in honour of the Brahmacarin a hymn 
which already gives all the characteristic features of religious 
studentship. The youth is initiated {iipa-nl) by the teacher* 
into a new life ; he wears an antelope skin, and lets his hair 
grow long ;* he collects fuel,* and begs,'' learns, and practises 
penance. All these characteristics appear in the later literature. 
The student lives in the house of his teacher (deary a-kula-vdsin ; 
ante-vasinf ; he begs,^ looks after the sacrificial fires," and 
tends the house.-^ His term of studentship might be lonf^ 
extended : it was normally fixed at twelve years,^ but much 
longer periods, such as thirty-two years, are mentioned.^* The 



2 Rv., loc. cit. 

3 xi. 5. Cf. Gopatha Brahmana, 1. 2, 
1-8, which contains an independent 
account of the Brahmacarin (Bloom- 
field, Atharvaveda, no) ; Satapatha 
Brahmana, xi. 3, 3, i et seq. ; Taittiriya 
Samhita, vi. 3, 10, 5. 

* Av. xi. 5, 3. It is used in the ritual 
of the Upanayana, according to the 
Kau^ika Sfltra, Iv. 18. 

* Av. xi. 5, 6. 

Av. xi. 5, 4. 6. 
f Av. xi, 5, 9. 

8 Chandogya Upanisad, ii. 23, 2. 
So regularly brahma-caryem vas, Av. 
vii. 109, 7 ; Aitareya Brahmana, v. 14, 
etc. ; or car, Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 3, 
3, 7 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 7, 6, 3, 
etc. 

Ibid., iii. II, 5; iv. 10, i; Bj-had- 
aranyaka Upani.sad, vi. 3, 15 (Madhyarn- 
dina = vi. 3, 7 Kanva) ; Taittiriya 
Upanisad, i. 3, 3 ; 11, i. 

10 Chandogya Upanisad, iv. 3, 5. 
Cf. Av. vi. 133, 3 ; Satapatha Brah- 
mana, xi. 3, 3, 5. 

1^ Chandogya Upani^, iv. 10, 2 



et seq. ; Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 3, 

1' Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 6, 2, 15. 
A Mantra in the A^valayana Grhya 
Sutra, i. 22, i. 2, and elsewhere, sums 
up the duties of the Brahmacarin as 
' thou art a Brahmacarin : eat water ; 
perform thy duty; sleep not in the 
daytime ; obedient to thy teacher study 
the Veda (brahmacdry asy ; apo 'tana; 
karma huru ; diva md svapslr ; dcdry- 
dyadhlno vedam adhlsva).' One duty 
specially referred to in the Aitareya 
Aranyaka, iii, i, 6; Sankhayana Aran- 
yaka, vii. 19, and the Chandogya 
Upanisad, iv. 5, 5, was the guarding 
of the teacher's cattle when they were 
grazing on their pasture grounds. From 
these grounds, too, the pupil would, 
no doubt, bring dried dung for fuel, as 
well as any available sticks. As regards 
obedience to the teacher, cf. Satapatha 
Brahmana, xi. 3, 3, 6. 

13 Chandogya Upanisad, iv. 10 ; 
vi. I, 2. 

" Ibid., viii. 7, 3 (thirty-two years); 
15 (for life), etc. 



76 



RELIGIOUS STUDENTSHIP [ Brahmacarya 



age at which studentship began varied:^* iSvetaketu com- 
menced at twelve and studied for twelve years.^ 

It is assumed in the Grhya Sutras that the three Aryan castes 
were all required to pass through a period of studentship. But 
that this is much more than priestly schematism is uncertain. 
No doubt individuals of the Katriya or VaiiSya caste might go 
through part of the period of studentship, just as Burmese boys 
of all classes now pass some time in a monastery as students. 
This is borne out by the reference in the Atharvaveda" to the 
king guarding his country by Brahmacarya though that is 
susceptible of a different interpretation and more clearly by 
the reference in the Ka^haka Sarnhita^ to a rite intended to 
benefit one who, although not a Brahmin, had studied {vidydm 
anucya), but had not gained renown, and by references in the 
Upanisads to kings who like Janaka studied the Vedas and the 
Upanisads.^ Normally, however, the Ksatriya studied the art 
of war.^ 

One of the duties of the Brahmacarin was chastity. But 
reference is in several places ^^ made to the possibility of mis- 
conduct between a student and the wife of his preceptor, nor is 
any very severe penance imposed in early times later it is 
different for such a sin. In certain cases the ritual required 
a breach of chastity, no doubt as a magic spell to secure 
fertility .22 

Even an old man might on occasion become a pupil, as the 
story of Aruni shows.^^ 



*5 See Weber, Indische Studien, lo, 21. 
The SQtras allowed for a BrShmana the 
ages 8-i6 ; for a Ksatriya, 11-22 ; for a 
VaiSya, 12-24. The difference between 
the BrS.hmana and the Ksatriya, com- 
pared with that between the Ksatriya 
and the Vai^ya, shows that the two 
latter castes were in a different position 
from the Br&hmana. 

** Chindogya Upanisad, vi. i, 2. 

1' XV. 5, 17. C/. Lanman in Whit- 
ney's Translation of the Atharvaveda, 

639. 
*8 i:c. 16 (reading abrihmajta). 

^ Brhadiranyaka Upanisad, iv. 2, i. 



20 Cf. Hopkins, Journal of the AmericMi 
Oriental Society, 13, 106-113. 

21 Taittiriya Aranyaka, x. 65 ; ChS.n> 
dogya Upanisad, v, 10, 9. 

Kathaka Samhita, xxxiv. 5 ; Tait- 
tiriya Samhita, vii. 5, g, 4 ; Weber, 
Indische Studien, 10, 125, n. i ; Keith, 
Sdiikhilyana Aranyaka. 79. 

3'' Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. i, 6 
(Madhyanidina = vi. 2, 4 Kanva). 

Cf. von Schroeder, Indiens Literatvr 
und Cultur, 202, 203 ; Jolly, Recht und 
Sitte, 151 ; Weber, op. cit., 10, 121 
etseq.; Deussen, Philosophy of the Upani- 
shads, 370, 371, and see BrUmui^a. 



Brahman ] OPPRESSOR OF BRAHMINS A TEACHER 



77 



Brahma-jya,^ ' oppressor of a Brahmin,' and Brahma-jyeya,* 
* oppression of a Brahmin/ are terms mentioned several times 
in the Atharvaveda as expressing a heinous crime which 
involves its perpetrator in ruin. See Brahma^a. 



> V. 19, 7. 12 ; xii. 5, 15 et uq. 
* Av. xii. 4, II. 



xiii. 3, I. Cf. Taittirlya Bribmana, iiL 7, 9, 2. 



Brahma-datta Caikitaneya (' descendant of Cekitana ') is the 
name of a teacher in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (i. 3, 26). 
He is mentioned also in the Jaiminlya Upanisad (i. 38, i ; 
59, i) as patronized by Abhipratarin, the Kuru king. 



I. Brahman (neut.) denotes the priestly class as opposed to 
the warrior class and the people (Katra and Vii). The terra 
is found in the Atharvaveda,^ and repeatedly later on.^ For the 
position, etc., of this class, see Brahmana. 



n. 15, 4 ; IX. 7, 9 ; xii. 5, 8 ; xv. 10, 



3. 4- 



* Taittiriya SamhitS,, iii. 3, i, i, etc. ; 



Vajasaneyi Samhita, vi. 3 ; vii. 21, etc. 
See also Varna and Esatra. 



2. Brahman is found in many passages of the Rigveda and 
later in the sense of ' priest.' In many passages of the Rigveda^ 
he is referred to as praising the gods ; in others^ the sense of 
* priest ' is adequate. In not a few cases^ the priesthood as a 
profession is clearly alluded to, nor is there any reason to doubt* 
that in all cases the word has the technical sense of a member 
of the priesthood. There is, however, considerable doubt as to 
the number of cases in the Rigveda, where it has the technical 



1 i. 80, I ; 164, 34 ; ii. 2, 6 ; vi. 45, 7 ; 
vii. 33. II viii. 16, 7 ; x. 71, 11 ; 77, i ; 
85. 3- 16. 34; 107, 6; 117, 7; 125, 5; 
Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i", 244-246. 

* i- 10. i; 33. 9; loi, 5; 108, 7; 
158, 6; ii. 39, I ; iv. 50. 8. 9 ; 58, 2; 
V- 29. 3 ; 31. 4 ; 32. 12 ; 40, 8 ; vii. 7, 5 ; 
42, I ; viu. 7, 20 ; 17, 2 ; 31, i ; 32, 16 ; 
33 19; 45. 39; 64, 7; 77, 5; 92, 30; 



96, 5 ; ix. 96, 6 ; 112, I ; 113, 6 ; x. 28 
11; 71, 11; 85, 29; 141, 3; Muir, 
op. cit., I*, 246-251. 

* i. 108, 7 ; iv. 50, 8. 9 ; viii. 7, 20; 
45. 39 ; 64, 7 ; 92, 30 ; ix. "2, 1 ; x. 85, 
29 ; Muir, i^, 258. 

* Loc. cit. Cf. Zimmer, Altindischts 
Leben, 190 et seq. 



78 BRAHMAN AS SUPERINTENDING PRIEST [ Brahmaputra 

sense of the priest who guides the sacrifice generally. It is 
undoubtedly found in that sense, both Muir^ and Roth 
recognizing instances of its being used thus. Geldner,'' how- 
ever, is anxious to find that sense in a large number of passages, 
and insists that the Purohita was normally a Brahman in the 
narrower sense. Oldenberg,^ on the other hand, holds with 
greater probability that in most of the passages adduced 
Brahman means simply * priest,' and that the Purohita, who 
was essentially not a member of the ordinary body of sacri- 
ficing priests (Rtvij), was, when he officiated at the sacrifice, 
more usually the Hotr priest, and only later became the 
Brahman. This change he regards as having taken place when 
the importance of the hymns declined, and most weight was 
laid on the functions of the priest who superintended the sacrifice 
as a whole, and by his magic repaired the flaws in the sacrifice. 
In the later literature both senses of the word are quite 
common.^^ 



8 op. cit., 1^, 251, citing ii. i, 2 
( = ix. gi, 10) ; iv. 9, 4 ; x. 52, 2. 

8 St, Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 2, 
citing ii. i, 2 ; ix. 96, 6 ; x. 71, 11 ; 
107, 6. In none of the last three 
passages is the specific sense cogently 
required. 

7 Vedische Studien, 2, 145 ei seq. ; 3, 155. 
He thinks that the sense of ' super- 
intending priest ' is the older, and sees 
it in i. 158, 6 ; iv. 9, 4 ; 50, 7. 8 ; 
vJi. 7, 5; 33. "; X. 141, 3, etc. 

8 Religion des Veda, 396, 397, who 
thinks that the Brahman priest known 
to the Rigveda was the Br&hman&c- 
chanisin, and who in most passages 
(e.g., iv. 50, 7. 8) sees only the sense of 
'priest.' Cf, Weber, Indische Studien, 
;o. 376.377- 



8 Cf. Pischel, Gottingische Gelehrte 
Anzeigen, 1894, 420; Hillebrandt, Ritual- 
litteratur, 13 ; Bloomfield, Hytnns 0/ the 
Atharvaveda, Ixviii ; Atharvaveda, 32; 
and see Purohita. 

10 As ' priest,' Av. ii. 7, 2 ; iv. 35, 
I. 2; V. 8, 5; 17, 8; i8, 7; 19, 8; 
vi. 122, 5 ; viii. 9, 3 ; x. i, 3 ; 4, 30. 33 ; 
7, 24 ; xi. I, 25 ; xii. i, 38 ; xix. 32, 8 ; 
Taittiriya Samhita, iv. i, 7, i ; Vaja- 
saneyi Samhita, xxvi. 2 ; Aitareya Brah- 
mana, v. 3, etc. As ' superintending 
priest,' Av. xviii. 4, 15 ; xx. 2, 3 ; Tait- 
tiriya Samhita, i. 8, 9, i ; ii. 3, 11, 4 ; 
iii. 5, 2, I, etc. ; Kathaka Samhita, 
xxxvii. 17 ; and see Weber, Indische 
Studien, 10, 34, 35; 114 ; 135-138 ; 327 ; 
330-337. 



Brahma-putra in a few passages is used in the sense of a 
* priest's son.' 

1 Rv. ii. 43, 2 ; ^atapatha Brahmana, 1 Studien, 10, 43, 69 j Muir, Sanskrit 
xi. 4, I, 2. 9. Cf. Weber, Indische | Texts, i', 252. 



Brahmavrddhi ] UNWORTHY PRIEST THEOLOGIAN 79 

Bpahma-puPOhita is found in the Kathaka Samhita^ and the 
^atapatha Brahmana^ where the St. Petersburg Dictionary 
gives the sense as * having the priesthood as its Purohita.' 
This seems rather doubtful ; more probably the sense should be 
* having a Brahman priest as Purohita,' unless the word merely 
means * having the priesthood superior to it,' as an epithet of 
Ki^atra, the 'warrior caste,' which seems to be Weber's view.* 

1 xix. 10 ; xxvii. 4. 2 xii. 8, 3, 29. * Indische Studien, 10, 30. 

Bpahma-bandhu (* priest fellow ') denotes, in a deprecatory 
sense, an ' unworthy priest,' * priest in name only,' in the 
Aitareya Brahmana^ and the Chandogya Upanisad.^ Cf. 
Bajanyabandhu. 

1 vii. 27. I SQtra, xxii. 4, 22 ; ^^nkh^yana rauta 

' vi. 1, I. Cf. Latyayana Srauta Sutra, xvi. 29, 9 ; Weber, Indische 
Sutra, viii. 6, 28 ; Katyayana ^rauta ' Studien, 10, 99, 100, 

Brahmapsi-dei^a. See Madhyadei^a. 

Brahma-vadya. See Brahmodya. 

Brahma- vadin ('expounder of the Veda') in the later 
Sarnhitas^ and the Brahmanas^ denotes a ' theologian.' 
Brahma-vid (* knowing what is sacred ') has the same sense. 



1 Av. xi. 3, 26; XV. I, 8; Taittiriya 
Satphita, i. 7, i, 4; ii, 6, 2, 3 ; 3, i ; 
V. 2. 7, I ; 5, 3, 2 ; vi. i, 4, 5. 

* Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 3, lo, 6 ; 
Pancavim^a Brahmana, iv. 3, 13 ; vi. 4, 
15; Taittiriya Aranyaka, i. 22, 9; 



V. 2, 2 ; 4, 6 ; Chandogya Upanisad, 
ii. 24, 1, etc. 

' Av. X. 7, 24. 27 ; 8, 43 ; xix, 43, i ; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 4, 8, 6; Tait- 
tiriya Upanisad, ii. i ; Brhadaranyaka 
Upanisad, iii. 7, 4; iv, 4, 11. 12, etc. 



Brahma-vidya, * knowledge of the Absolute,' is the name of 
one of the sciences enumerated in the Chandogya Upanisad.^ 
It is also mentioned elsewhere.^ 

1 vii. I, 2. 4 ; 2, I ; 7, I. ' BfhadcLranyaka Upanisad, i. 4, 20, etc. 

Brahma-vrddhi is mentioned in the Vam^a BrShmana* as a 
pupil of Mitravarcas. 

1 Indische SUidien, 4, 372, 382. 



8o BRAHMIN MURDER RIDDLE BOILED RICE [ Brahmahatyi 

Brahma-hatya, the ' murder of a Brahmin,' is mentioned in 
the Yajurveda Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas^ as a heinous 
crime. The murderer is called Brahma-han.* 



1 Taittirlya Saiphita, ii. 5, i, 2 ; v. 3, 
12, I ; V&jasaneyi Saiphiti, xxxix. 13, 
etc. 

* Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. 3, i, i ; 
5. 3 ; 5. 4. I ; Taittirlya Aranyaka, 
X. 38 ; Nirukta, vi. 27, etc. 



Taittirlya Saiphitd, ii. 5, i, 2 ; 
vi. 5, 10, 3 ; Kathaka Satphita, xxxi. 7 ; 
Kapisthala Saqihita, xlvii. 7 ; Tait- 
tirlya Brahmana, iii. 2, 8, 12; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, xiii. 3, 5, 4, etc. 
C/. Dharma. 



Brahmavarta. See MadhyadeiSa. 

Brahmodya in the Brahmanas ^ denotes a * theological 
riddle,' such as formed an essential part of various ceremonies 
in the Vedic ritual, as at the A^vamedha or the Da^aratra. 
Brahma-vadya is the form found in the Kausltaki Brahmana,* 
and Brahma-vadya in the Taittiriya Samhita^ probably has 
the same sense. 



1 Satapatha Brahmana, iv. 6, 9, 20 ; 
xi. 4. I, 2 ; 5. 3i I ; 6, 2, 5 ; xiii. 2, 6, 9 ; 
5, 2, II ; Bfhadaranyaka Upanisad, 
iii. 8, I ; Aitareya Brahmana, v. 25. 

xxvii. 4] ^ ii. 5. 8, 3. 

Cf. Bloom&eld, Journal of the American 



Oriental Society, 15, 172 ; Religion of the 
Veda, 216 et seq. ; Weber, Indische 
Studien, 10, 118, 119; Ludwig, Trans- 
lation of the Rigveda, 3, 390 et seq. ; 
Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 26, 
452. 453. 



Brahinopaniad, a * secret doctrine regarding the Absolute,' 
is the name of a discussion in the Chandogya Upanisad 
(iii. II, 3). 

Brahmaudana denotes in the later Sarnhitas^ and the Brah- 
manas^ the 'rice boiled (Odana) for the priests' officiating at 
the sacrifice. 



1 Av. iv. 35, 7: I. I- 3- 20. 23 
et seq. ; Taittiriya Samhita, iii. 4, 8, 7 ; 
V. 7. 3. 4; vi. 5, 6, I, etc. 



^ Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. i, i, 
14; 3, 6, 6; 4, I, 5. etc. 



I. Brahmana, ' descendant of a Brahman ' {i.e., of a priest), is 
found only a few times in the Rigveda,^ and mostly in its latest 



1 i. 164, 45; vi. 73, 10: vii. 103, I. 
7.8; X. 16, 6 ; 71. 8. 9 : 88, 19 : 9, 12 ; 
97, 22 ; 109, 4. See Muir, Sanskrit 
Texts, i", 251 . 257 ; Roth, Nirukta, 



Erlduterungen, 126 ; St. Petersburg Dic- 
tionary, S.V., where Rv. viii. 58, i, is 
added ; Ludwig, Translation of the 
Rigveda, 3, 220-226. 



Brahmana ] 



THE BRAHMIN CASTE 



8i 



parts. In the Atharvaveda^ and later' it is a very common 
word denoting ' priest,' and it appears in the quadruple division 
of the castes in the Purusa-sukta (* hymn of man ') of the 
Rigveda.* 

It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brahmana, or 
Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior 
and agricultural castes.^ The texts regularly claim for them a 
superiority to the Katriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by 
his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and 
the warriors'' or the different sections of the warriors. If it 
is necessary to recognize, as is sometimes done, that the 
Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rajasuya, 
nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so 
as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it 
is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and 
the Brahmana is essential for complete prosperity.^*^ It is 
admitted ^^ that the king or the nobles might at times oppress 
the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain 
swiftly to follow. 



2 ii. 6, 3; iv. 6, i; v. 17. 9; 18, 
I et seq.\ 19, 2 et seq. ; xi. i, 28; 
5^- 34. 6; 35, 2, etc. 

3 Taittiriya Samhita, i. 6, 7, 2 ; ii. i, 
2, 8, etc. ; Vajasaneyi Sambit&, vii. 46, 
etc. 

* X. 90. 

Cf. Oldenberg. Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 
42, 235 ; Geldner, Vtdische Studien, 2, 
146, n. I ; and see Varna. 

* See Maitrayani Samhita, iv. 3, 8 ; 
K&thaka Sambiti, xxix. 10 ; Vajasaneyi 
Samhita, xxi. 21 ; ^atapatha Brclhmana, 
V. 4, 4, 15; xiii. I. 9. I : 3. 7. 8; 
Aitareya BrcLhmana, vii. 15; viii. 9 
Paucavimsa Brahmana, ii. 8, 2; xi. ii,' 
9 : XV. 6, 3 ; and cf. Brahmapnro- 
hita ; Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 27 
*/ seq. 

^ See MaitrcLyanI SaqihitS., iu i, 7 ; 
iii. 3, 10; Taittiriya Sambitcl, ii. 2, 11, 
2, etc. 

VOL. II. 



8 Maitriyani Samhita, iii. 3, 10. 

9 B{-hadaranyaka Upanisad, i. 4, 23 
(Madhyamdina=i. 4, 11 Kanva). Cf. 
Kathaka Samhita, xxviii. 5 ; ^atapatha 
Brahmana, i. 2, 3, 2 ; v. 4, 2, 7. Con- 
trast the claim that Soma alone is King 
of the Brahmins, Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
X. 18 ; Satapatha Brahmana, v. 4, 
2, 3. 

10 See Taittiriya Samhita, v. i, 10, 3 ; 
Kathaka Samhita, xi.\. 10 ; xxvii. 4 ; 
xxix. 10 ; Maitrayani Satnbita, ii. 2, 3 ; 
7, 7; iii. I, 9; 2, 3; iv. 3, 9; vaja- 
saneyi Samhita, xx. 25 ; Pancavim^ 
Brahmana, xix. 17, 4 ; Satapatha Brah- 
mana, iv. I, 4, 6; V. 4, 4, 15 ; Aitareya 
Brahmana, viii. 10. 17. 24. 25, etc. 
Cf Puroiiita. 

" Maitrayani Sauphita, i. 8, 7 ; PaAca- 
vim^ Brahmana, xviii, 10, 8 ; Av, v. 17- 
19; Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 7, 2, 6; 
^tapatha Brahmana, xiii. i, 5, 4. 



8a 



THE PREROGATIVES OF THE BRAHMINS [ Brahma^a 



The Brahmins are gods on earth," like the gods in heaven, 
but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda.^ 

In the Aitareya Brahmana" the Brahmin is said to be the 

* recipient of gifts ' {dddyt) and the ' drinker of the offering ' 
{Spdyt). The other two epithets applied, dvasdyi and yathd' 
kama-praydpya, are more obscure ; the former denotes either 

* dwelling everywhere '^ or ' seeking food ';^ the latter is usually 
taken as ' moving at pleasure,' but it must rather allude to the 
power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. 

In the ^atapatha Brahmana^' the prerogatives of the Brah- 
min are summed up as (i) Area, 'honour'; (2) Dana, 'gifts'; 
(3) Ajyeyata, * freedom from oppression '; and (4) Avadhyata, 
' freedom from being killed.' On the other hand, his duties 
are summed up as (5) Brahmanya, * purity of descent' ; 

(6) Pratirupa-carya, ' devotion of the duties of his caste '; and 

(7) Loka-pakti, ' the perfecting of people ' (by teaching). 

1. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full^ of references 
to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled 
bhagavanty^^ and is provided with good food^ and entertain- 
ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him 
from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood 
according to the Pancavim^a Brahmana.^ 

2. Gifts to Brahmins. The Danastuti (' Praise of gifts ') is a 
recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets 
for Dak^i^as, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts ^ 
themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nara- 



" Av. V. 3, 2 ; vi. 13, I ; 44, 2 ; 
xix. 62, I (compared with xix. 32, 8), 
and probably v. 11, 11 ; Taittiriya 
Samhit^, i. 7, 3, i ; ii. 5, 9, 6 ; Kithaka 
Sambiti, viii. 13 ; Maitr&yani SamhitS,, 
i. 4, 6; ^atapatha Br&hmana, ii. 2, 
2, 6 ; 4, 3, 14 ; iii. 1, i, 11 ; iv. 3, 4, 4. 
See Weber, op. cit., 10, 35, 36; von 
Schroeder, Indiens Literatur und Cultur, 

146. M7- 

1* Neither in i. 139, 7, nor ix. 99, 6 
(see Roth, St. Petersburg Dictionary, 
s.v. deva), is this sense at all probable. 
Zimmer. Altindiuhes Leben, 206, quotes 
L 128, 8, bat that also is uncertain. 



" vii. 29, 2. Cf. Yax^A, n. 71. 

16 Weber, Indische Studien, 9, 326. 

" Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 439. 

1^ xi. 5, 7, I et seq. See Weber, 
op. cit., lo, 41 et seq. 

18 E.g., Kathaka SamhitS, xxv. 3; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, i. i, 10, 6; Sata- 
patha BrShmana, ii. 4, i, 10; 3, 4, 6, 
etc. 

1^ ^atapatha BrShmana, xiv. 6, i, 2. 

2"* KSthaka Samhita, xix. 12. 

21 vi. 5, 8 ; Kathaka Samhita, xxvii. 2. 

" Kathaka Samhita. xiv. 5 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, i. 3, 2, 6. 7. 



Brahmana ] THE IMMUNITIES OF THE BRAHMINS 



83 



6amsi) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, 
a rule^ that Brahmins should not accept what had been 
refused by others ; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of 
cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to 
receive gifts that the Pancavim^a Brahmana^ has to explain 
how Taranta and Purumilha became able to accept gifts by 
composing a Rigvedic hymn.^ The exaggerations in the 
celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious 
result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (DaiSan). 
In some passages^' certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are 
forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. 

3. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be 
exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When 
a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift 
does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the 
Satapatha Brahmana,^"^ The king censures all, but not the 
Brahmin,^ nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than 
an ignorant priest.^ An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide 
(or speak) for a Brahmin against a non- Brahmin in a legal 
dispute.*^ 

The Brahmin's proper food is the Soma,^^ not Sura'^ qj- 
Parisput,^ and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh.** 
On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of 
the sacrifice,^^ for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume 
food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot 
be a physician,^ he helps the physician by being beside him 



23 Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 5, i, 
25. Cf. also Byhadaranyaka Upanisad, 
iii. 15, 8 ; Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. 4, 
3, 14, etc. 

2* xiii. 7, 12. 

ix. 58. 3. 

2 Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 3, 12, i. 2 ; 
Kithaka Samhita, xii. 6, etc. 

^ xiii. 5, 4, 29; 6, 2, 18; 7, 

^ 13- 

28 Ibid., V. 4, 2, 3. 

*" Ibid., xiii. 4, 2, 17. 

30 Taittiriya Samhita. ii. 5, 11,9. 

3^ Satapatha Brahmana, xii. 7, 2, 2 ; 
Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 29. C/. Katbaka 



Samhita, xi. 5 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
ix. 40 ; X. 18, etc. 

" Satapatha Brahmana, xii. 8, i, 5. 

^ Ibid., xii. 9, I, I. 

^ Ibid., I, 2, 3, 9; vii. 5, 2, 37; 
Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 8. 

3* Satapatha Brahmana, ii. 3, i, 39; 
5, 3, 16, etc. On the food of the 
Brahmins, cf. also PancaviqiSa Brah- 
mana, X. 4, 5; xvii. 1, 9; Aitareya 
Brahmana, iv. 11. 

s" Cf. Satapatha Brahmana, iv. i, 5. 
8-14. where the A^vins, who are famous 
as physicians (viii. 2, i, 3 ; xii. 7, i, 11), 
are treated as impure. 

62 



84 THE LEGAL POSITION OF THE BRAHMINS [ Brahma^a 

while he exercises his art." His wife^ and his cow^ are both 
sacred. 

4. Legal Position of Brahmins. The Taittirlya Sarnhita^ 
lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) 
for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but 
if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only 
real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the 
Satapatha Brahmana.^^ The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks 
above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing 
an embryo {hhrHna) in the Yajurveda ;^^ the crime of slaying an 
embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying 
a Brahmin.'*^ The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only 
by the horse sacrifice,** or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirlya 
Aranyaka.'*^ The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the 
later ceremonial,* and hinted at in the curious legend of 
lunahiepa ;'*'' and a Purohita might be punished with death for 
treachery to his master .^^ 

5. Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seen 
in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Esi {drseya).'*'^ But, 
on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, 
which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true 
criterion of Rsihood.^ In agreement with this is the fact 
that Satyakama Jabala was received as a pupil, though his 
parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had 
been connected with several men,^^ and that in the Satapatha 



37 Taittirlya Samhita, vi. 4, 9, 3. 
Contrast Rv. x. 97, 22, where no dis- 
credit attaches to the profession, 

38 Av. V. 17. 

39 lUd., V. 18. 
*o ii. 6, 10, 2. 
i xiii. 3, 5, 3. 

" Kathaka Samhita, xxxi. 7 ; Kapis- 
thala Sanihita, xlvii. 7 ; Taittirlya 
Brahmana, iii. 2, 8, 12. 

*3 Taittirlya Samhita, vi. 5, 10, 2 ; 
Kathaka Samhita, xxvii. 9 ; Weber, 
Indiuhe Studien, 9, 481 ; 10, 66. 

** Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. 3, i, i ; 

5. 4. I ' '? 
X. 38. 



** Sankhayana Srauta SQtra, xvi. 10, 
lo; 12, 16-20; Weber, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellscha/t, 
18, 268, 269. 

^ Aitareya Brihrnana, vii. 15 ; 
Sankhiyana Srauta Sutra, xv, 20. 

*8 Pancaviqi^a Brahmana, xiv. 6, 8. 

*" See Taittirlya Samhita, vi. 6, 1,4; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, vii. 46 ; Taittirlya 
Brahmana, i. 4, 4, 2 ; Satapatha Brah- 
mana, iv. 3, 4, 19 ; xii. 4, 4, 6. 

80 Taittirlya Samhita, vi. 6, i, 4; 
Kathaka Samhita, xxx. i ; Maitrayani 
Samhita, iv. 8, i. 

I'l Chandogya Upanisad, vi. 4, 4. 



Brahmana ] PURITY OF BIRTH MORAL CONDUCT 



85 



Brahmana^^ the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required 
merely the name of the pupil. So Kavaa is taunted in the 
Rigveda Brahmanas^^ as being the son of a female slave (Dasi), 
and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire 
ordeal.^ Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove 
doubts as to origin.^ In these circumstances it is doubtful 
whether much value attaches to the Pravapa lists in which the 
ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the 
sacrifice by the Hotr and the Adhvaryu priests.^ Still, in 
many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera- 
tions was needed,^'^ and in one ceremony^ ten ancestors who 
have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of 
the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual 
variations in schools, like those of the Vasithas and the 
Vii^vamitras. 

6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required 
to maintain a fair standard of excellence.^ He was to be kind 
to all^ and gentle,^ offering sacrifice and receiving gifts.^^ 
Especial stress was laid on purity of speech f^ thus Vi^van- 
tara's excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was 
their impure {aputd) speech.* Theirs was the craving for 
knowledge^ and the life of begging. False Brahmins are 
those who do not fulfil their duties^ {cf. Brahmabandhu). 



62 xi. 5, 4, I ; and cf. a citation in 
the scholiast on Katyayana Srauta 
Sutra, i. 6, 14: 'Whoever studies the 
StomabhSgas (a peculiarity of the 
Vasisthas) is a Vasistha ' ; Weber, 
Indische Studien, 10, 73. 

53 Aitareya Brahmana, ii, 19 ; Kausi- 
taki Brahmana, xii. 3 ; Weber, op. cit., 
2. 311. 

6* Paflcavim^a Brahmana, xiv. 6, 6. 

58 Taittiriya Samhita, vi. 2, 6, 4 ; 
Kathaka Samhita, xxv. 3 ; Pancavim^a 
Brahmana, xxiii. 4, 2. 

5* See Weber, op. cit., 9, 321 ; 10, 
78-81 ; Max Miiller, Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, 380 et seq. 

" Cf., e.g., Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 1, 
5, 5 ; Kathaka Samhita, xiii. 5. 



"8 ^atapatha Brahmana, v. 4, 5, 4 ; 
Weber, op. cit., 10, 85-88. 

69 Weber, 10, 88-96 ; Max Miiller, 
A ncient Sanskrit Literature, 407 et seq. 

^ Satapatha Brahmana, ii. 3, 2, 
12. 

*i Ibid., ii. 3, 4, 6. 

2 Ibid., xiii. i, 5, 6. 

63 Ibid., iii. 2, i, 24. Cf. iv. i, 3. 17 ; 
Nirukta, xiii. 9 ; Kathaka Samhita, 
xiv. 5 ; xxxvii. 2 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
xxiii. 62. 

<** Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 27; Muir, 
Sanskrit Texts, i^, 438. 

'6 Bj-hadaranyaka Upanisad, iii. 8, 8 ; 
v. I, 1. 

Ibid., iii. 4, i ; iv. 4, 26. 

^ Ibid., vi. 4, 4. 



86 BRAHMINICAL STUDIES [ Brahmana 

But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sutras, of a 
very light and unimportant character.^ 

7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain 
pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahnta-varcasam), as is 
stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature.^ Such 
distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin : the king 
has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate 
to the Ksatriya7 Many ritual acts are specified as leading to 
Brahmavarcasa,''^ but more stress is laid on the study of the 
sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly 
insisted uponJ^ 

The technical name for study is Svadhyaya : the Satapatha 
Brahmana is eloquent upon its advantages,''^ and it is asserted 
that the joy of the learned Srotriya, or * student,' is equal to 
the highest joy possible.''^ Naka Maudg-alya held that study 
and the teaching of others were the true penance {tapas)P^ The 
object was the * threefold knowledge ' {trayl vidyd), that of the 
Re, Yajus, and Saman,'' a student of all three Vedas being 
called tri-sukriya "^"^ or tri-sukraP^ * thrice pure.' Other objects 
of study are enumerated in the Satapatha Brahmana," in the 
Taittirlya Aranyaka,^ the Chandogya Upanisad,^^ etc. (See 
Itihasa, Purana ; Gatha, Narai^amsi ; Brahmodya ; Anui^as- 
ana, Anuvyakhyana, Anvakhyana, Kalpa, 2. Brahmana ; 
Vidya, Ksatravidya, Devajanavidya, Nakatravidya, Bhuta- 
vidya, Sarpavidya; Atharvangrirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, 
Ra6i ; Sutra, etc.) 



8 Taittiriya Aranyaka, ii. i8, etc. 

Taittinya Samhita, iv. i, 7, i ; 
vii. 5, 18, I ; Kithaka Samhita, A^va- 
medha, v. 14 ; VSjasaneyi Samhit&, 
xxii. 22; xxvii, 2; Taittiriya Brahmana, 
iii. 8, 13, i; Aitareya Brahmana, iv. 11, 
6-9; Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. 2, 6, 10; 
X. 3, 5, 16; xi. 4, 4, i; PancavimSa 
Brahmana, vi. 3, 5. 

"f^ ^tapatha Brahmana, ii. i, 3, 6; 
xiii. I. 5 3- 5 ; 2, 6. 9- 

'1 Kathaka SatphitcL, xxxvii. 7 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, ii. 7, i, i ; Pafica- 
vim^ Brahmana, xxiii. 7, 3, etc. ; 
Satapatha Brahmana, ii. 3, i, 31, 
etc. 



" Satapatha Brahmana, i. 7, 2, 3 ; 
xi. 3. 3. 3-6; 5. 7, 10. 

7' Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 5, 6, 3. 9 ; 
7, I ; Taittiriya Aranyaka, ii. 13. 

7* Bfhadaranyaka Upanisad, iv. 3, 
35-39 ; Taittiriya Aranyaka, ix. 8. 

75 Ibid., vii. 8, 10. 

"f^ Satapatha Brahmana, i. i, 4, 2. 3 ; 
ii. 6, 4, 2-7 ; iv. 6, 7, i. 2 ; v. 5, 5, 9 : 
vi. 3, I, 10. II. 20 ; X. 5, 2, I. 2 ; xi. 5, 
4, 18 ; xii. 3, 3, 2, etc. 

77 Kathaka Samhita, xxxvii. 7. 

'* Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 7, i, 2. 

^ xi. 5, 7, 5-8. 80 ii. 9. 10. 

81 vii. I, 2. 4 ; 2, I ; 7, i. 



Brahmana ] WANDERING SCHOLARS RIDDLES 



87 



Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given 
in the Taittiriya Aranyaka^^ and in the Sutras. If study is 
carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasd) ; if 
outside, aloud (vdcd). 

Learning is expected even from persons not normally com- 
petent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in 
the Satapatha Brahmana^ as possible sources of information. 
Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning 
from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the 
priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in 
their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these 
notices any real and independent study on the part of the 
Ksatriyas.^ Yajnavalkya learnt from Janaka,^^ Uddalaka 
Aru^i and two other Brahmins from Pravahana Jaivali,^ 
Drptabalaki Gapg-ya from Ajata^atru.s'^ and five Brahmins 
under the lead of Aruna from A:vapati Kaikeya,^^ A few 
notices show the real educators of thought : wandering scholars 
went through the country^^ and engaged in disputes and 
discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants.*' 
Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned 
of the Brahmins f^ Ajatasatru was jealous of his renown, and 
imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several 
times mentioned in the Brahmanas.^ 

A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which 
there was a regular place at the Asvamedha (* horse sacrifice ')^ 
and at the Dasaratra (' ten-day festival ').* The reward of 
learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ' sage.'^ 



83 ii. 

83 iv 



II. 12-15. 
2.4. I. 

8* Cf. (i) Kfatriya and (2) Var^a. 

86 Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 6, 2, 5. 

8* Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. i, 
II ; Chandogya Upanisad, v. 3, i, and 
i. 8, I. Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 
436. 514-516. 

^ Bjrhadaranyaka Upanisad, ii. i, i ; 
Kausitaki Upanisad, iv. i. 

88 Satapatha Brahmana, x. 6, i, 2. 

89 Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, iii. 3, i. 
Cf. iii. 7, I. 

^ Satapatha Br&hmana, xi. 4, i, i. 



81 Ibid., xi. 6, 3, I ; Brhadaranyaka 
Upanisad, vi. i, 1-9, 20. 29. 

* Aitareya Brahmana, v. 29 ; Kausi- 
taki Brlhmana, ii. 9 ; B|-hadclranyaka 
Upanisad, iii. 3. i ; 7, 1. Cf. A^valayana 
Grhya Sutra, iii. 4, 4 ; Sa.nkhayana 
Grhya SQtra, iv. 10. 

*3 Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. 5, 2, 11. 

** Ibid., iv. 6, 9, 20. 

95 Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 5, 9, i ; 
Taittiriya Br&hraana, iii. 5, 3, i ; Sata- 
patha Brihrnana, i. 4, 2, 7 ; iii. 5, 3, 13. 
Cf. also BrhadLranyaka Upanisad, vi. 4, 
29. 



88 FUNCTIONS OF THE BRAHMIN AS TEACHER [ Brahmana 

8. The Fmictions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required 
not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give 
others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a 
sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. 

As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of 
instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual, 
The texts give examples of this, such as Aruni and l^vetaketu,*^ 
or mythically Varuna and Bhrgu.^ This fact also appears 
from some of the names in the Varn^a Brahmana of the 
Samaveda and the Varnsa (list of teachers) of the Sarikhayana 
Aranyaka.-^*^ On the other hand, these Varnsas and the 
Varn^as of the Satapatha Brahmana show that a father often 
preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The 
relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. 
A teacher might take several pupils,^^ and he was bound to 
teach them with all his heart and soul.^^ He was bound to 
reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was 
staying with him for a year (samvatsara-vasin),^^^ an expression 
which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily 
change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning 
kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumer- 
ated.^^ The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately 
laid down in the Sutras,^^ but not in the earlier texts. 

As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices ; 
the simple domestic igrhya) rites could normally be performed 
without his help, but not the more important rites {6rauta). 



** Satapatha Brahmana, i. 6, 2, 4. 
^ BrhadaranyakaUpanisad, vi. i, i 
(Madhyamdina = vi. 2, i Kanva). 
88 Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 6, i, i. 
** Indische Sttuiien, 4, .^76. 

100 XV. 1. 

101 Taittiriya Aranyaka, vii. 3. 

102 See Taittiriya Aranyaka, vii. 4 
{Indische Studien, 2, 211). 

103 Satapatha Brahmana, xiv. 1, i, 
26. 27. Cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, v. 3, 3. 

^>* So the Vasisthas and the Stoma- 
bhagas, Paficavim^a Brahmana, xv. 5, 



vahana Jaivali and his knowledge of 
Brahman, Bj-hadaranyaka Upanisad, 
vi. I, II ; Chandogya Upanisad, v. 3, 
where the claim is made that the praids- 
ana belongs to the Ksatriyas. Sahkara, 
in his commentary, takes the word to 
mean the 'giving of instruction,' but 
this must be regarded as improbable, 
rule ' being more probably the sense. 
Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 128; 
Bohtlingk, Translation of the Byhad- 
Sranyaka Upanisad, iii. 8, 9. 

108 Rigveda PrSti^khya, xv. i et seq. ; 



24 ; Taittiriya Brihmana, iii. 5, 2. i ; Aitareya Aranyaka, v. 3, 3 ; and see 
Kithaka Samhita, xxxvii. 17 ; Pra- I Weber, op. cit., 10, 129-135. 



Brahmana ] THE BRAHMIN AS SACRIFICIAL PRIEST 



89 



The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests 
to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other 
rites could be accomplished with four,^^ five,^' six,^ seven,^ 
or ten" priests. Again, the Kausitakins^^^ had a seventeenth 
priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because 
he watched the performance from the Sadas, * seat.' In one 
rite, the Sattra (' sacrificial session ') of the serpents, the 
Pancavimsa Brahmana,^^^ adds three more to the sixteen, a 
second Unnetr, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual 
places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is 
probably not the early view (see Brahman). 

The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the 
advantages of the sacrificer (yajamdna),^^^ but the priest shared 
in the profit, besides securing the Daksinas. Disputes between 
sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of 
Vi^vantara and the iSyaparnas,^^^ or Janamejaya and the 
Asitamrgras ;"^ and the Aiavlras are referred to as undesirable 
priests.^^^ Moreover, Vii^vamitra once held the post of Puro- 
hita to Sudas, but gave place to Vasitlia. 



lo* Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 3, 6, 1-4 ; 
Pancavimsa Brahmana, xxv. 4, 2. The 
four are the Hotr, Adhvaryu, Agnidh, 
and Upavaktr: Weber, 10, 139, n. 4. 

o' Kathaka Samhita, ix. 13 ; Panca- 
vimsa Brahmana, xxv. 4, 2, with a 
second Adhvaryu, as well as the four 
enumerated in the previous note. 

108 Kathaka Samhita, ix. 13; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, ii. 2, 2, 3 ; Tait- 
tiriya Aranyaka, iii. 4, 6; Satapatha 
Brahmana, xi. 7, 2, 6, where the list 
has Adhvaryu, Hotr, Brahman, with 
the Pratiprasthatr, MaitrSvaru^a, 
Agnldhra. 

109 Kathaka Samhita, ix. 13 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, ii. 2, 2, 5 ; Taittiriya 
Aranyaka, iii. 5; PaficavimSa Brah- 
mana, xxv. 4, 2. The number seems 
to be made up of the five of note 107 
and the Abhigarau i.e., probably the 
Abhigara and the Apagara. 

110 Kathaka Saiphita, ix. 8. 13-16; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 2, 4, i ; 3, 6, 4 ; 



Taittiriya Aranyaka, iii. i ; Aitareya 
Brahmana, v. 25 ; PancavitpSa Brah- 
mana, xxv. 4, 2. What ten are meant 
is uncertain ; the four of note io6 are 
enumerated. 

m C/. Satapatha Brahmana, x. 4, 2, 
19 ; Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 37. 

112 xxv. 14, 3. 

113 Satapatha Brahmana, i. 6, i, 20; 

9, I, 12 ; ii. 2, 2, 7 ; iii. 4, 2, 15; iv. 2, 
5, 9. 10 ; viii. 5, 3, 8 ; ix. 5, 2, 16 ; 
xii. 8, I, 17, etc. 

11* Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 27 et $eq. ; 
Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 436 et seq. 

116 Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 27. 

11" Cf. Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 2, 
7, 32, where Weber, Indische Studien, 

10, 153, n. I, interprets Aisavira, not 
as a proper name, but as meaning ' con- 
temptible ' ; but Sayana thinks a proper 
name is meant, a view accepted by 
Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 44, 
45. n, 2, 



90 OCCUPATIONS OF THE BRAHMINS [ Brahmana 

The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of 
the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate 
at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices 
of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, 
obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular 
importance ; and the power of the priesthood in political as 
opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on 
the Purohita. 

There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later 
prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- 
cSrin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an 
ascetic ^^'^ (later divided into the two stages of Vanaprastha, 
* forest-dweller,' and Samnyasin, * mystic '). Yajnavalkya's 
case^^ shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all 
its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and 
family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen^* 
applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are 
here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities.^^^ 
The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, 
in the Epic tradition,^^^ of retiring to the forest when active life 
is over. 

From the Greek authorities^^ it also appears what is 
certainly the case in the Buddhist literature ^-^ that Brahmins 
practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say 
how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the 
Druids ^^ in some respects very close suggests that the 
Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional 
tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy ^^ 

11'' See Deussen, Philosophy of the ' "3 Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 57. 

Upanishads, 372 et seq. j l** Caesar, Bellum Gallicum, vi, 14, 

118 Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, ii. 4, i; j The Druids did not fight, did not pay 
iv. 5, I. See iii. 5, i, for his teaching, ' tribute, studied for many years, ob- 
of which his action is a logical con- served secrecy as to matters of ritual 
sequence. and learning, did not use writing, and 

119 Fick, Die sociale Gliederung, 40 had a certain belief in transmigration. 
et seq. ; Oldenberg, Buddha,' 72 et seq. ; Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 5, 19. 

1'" Arrian, Indica, xii. 8, 9 ; Strabo, i 1** Hence the Brahman is the 28th 

XV. I, 49.60. I Naksatra: Taittiriya Brihmana, i. 5, 

^^^ Hopkins, Journal 0/ the American ! 3. 3; Weber, Naxatra, 2, 306, 311; 

Oriental Society, 13, 179 et seq. \ Indische Studien, 10, 40. 

22 See Fick. loc. cit. 



Brahmana ] INTELLECTUAL A CTI VITY OF THE BRA HMINS 91 

and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; 
for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda^^ says he is a 
poet, his father a physician (Bhiaj), and his mother a grinder 
of corn (Upala-prak^tpi). This would seem to show that a 
Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the 
ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take 
the field to assist the king by prayer, as Visvamitra,^^ and 
later on Vasistha^^ do, but this does not show that priests 
normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been 
agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept 
cattle : a Brahmacarin's duty was to watch his master's 
cattle.^^ It is therefore needless to suppose that they could 
not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan- 
tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be 
remembered that in all probability there was more purity of 
blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the 
Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic 
sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. 

It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, repre- 
sented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Ksatriyas, 
if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary 
degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that 
the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the 
epic ; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this 
character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been 
preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A 
legend in the Satapatha Brahmana ^"^ shows clearly that the 
Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only : 



!* ix. 112. 

1 Rv. iii. 33. 53. 

w Rv. vii. 18. 

^* Ch&ndogya Upanisad, iv. 4, 5 ; 
Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. 1,6. 

^^ i. 4, I. 14-17. C/. Weber, Indische 
Studien, 9, 257, 277, 278, and Aitareya 
BfcLhrnana, iii. 44. 

Almost all that can be said of 
the Brahmins is collected in Weber's 
Indische Studien, 10, 40-158. Cf. also 
Ludwig. Translation of the Rigveda, 



3, 220-226 : Fick, Die sociale Gliederung I facts* 



(for Buddhist times; the evidence is, 
however, of uncertain, and much of it 
probably of late, date) ; Hopkins,7or<i/ 
of the American Oriental Society, 13, 82, 
182, etc. (for notices of the Brahmins 
in the Epic) ; The Mutual Relations of 
the Four Castes according to the Mdna- 
vadharma<^dstram (for the Dharma view). 
Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i'^, 248 et seq., 
discusses the priesthood in the Rigveda, 
and Zimmer, Altindiuhes Leben, 197- 
212, gives an excellent summary of the 



9 LITERARY TEXTS SOMA CUP A PRIEST [ BrahmaiMi 

Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only 
rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious 
Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical 
tribes (see Vratya) had attained intellectual as well as material 
civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization 
was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of 
Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but 
by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond 
the pale. 

2. Brahma^ia, * religious explanation,'^ is the title of a class 
of books which as such are only mentioned in the Nirukta^ and 
the Taittiriya Aranyaka,^ and then in the Sutras, where the 
names of the Brahmanas occur, showing that literary works 
were in existence. 



^ Aitareya Br3.bmana, i. 25, 15; iii. 
45, 8 ; vi. 25, 1, etc. ; Taittiriya Saitihita, 
iii. 1, 9, 5 ; 5, 2, 1 ; ^atapatha Br^hmana, 
iii. 2, 4, I, etc. In the Kausitaki 



Brahmana and the ^Snkhayana Aran- 
yaka, i. and ii,, the use is constant. 

' ii. 16 ; xiii. 7. 

' ii. 10. 



3. Brahmaija is taken by Roth in the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary^ to mean the * Soma cup of the Brahman ' in two 
passages of the Rigveda^ and one of the Atharvaveda.^ 

1 Cf, Muir. Sanskrit Texts, i^, 253, l ' i i5i 5 ; " 36, 5. 

n. 26. I XX. 2, 3. 

Brahmanac-chamsin ('reciting after the Brahmana t.e., 
Brahman ') is the name of a priest in the BrShmanas.^ In the 
technical division of the sacrificial priests (Rtvij) he is classed 
with the Brahman,^ but it is clear that he was really a Hotraka 
or assistant of the Hotr.^ According to Oldenberg,'* he was 
known to the Rigveda as Brahman. This is denied by 
Geldner,^ who sees in Brahman merely the 'superintending 
priest ' or the ' priest/ 



' Aitareya Br&hmana, vi. 4,2; 6, 3. 
4; 10, I ; 18, 5; vii. I, 2; Kausitaki 
Brahmana, xxviii. 3 ; Taittiriya Brah- 
mana, i. 7, 6, I ; Satapatha Brahmana, 
iv. 2, 3, 13, etc. 

s Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 144. 



' E.g., A^valajrana Srauta SOtra, v. 10, 
10; Weber, op. cit., 9, 374-376. 

* Religion des Veda, 396. 

Vedische Studten, 2, 145 et seq. Cf. 
Purohita. 



Bhanga^vina ] ROPE HEMP NAMES 93 

Ble^ka in the Kathaka Samhita^ denotes a rope or noose for 
strangling. It is spelt Vleska in the Maitrayanl Samhita.* 

* xxiii. 6 ; xxxvii. 13. 14. 

^ iii. 6, 10. In Apastamba ^rauta SQtra, x. 19, i, mefka is read. 



Bhag'a denotes a part of the chariot in one passage of the 
Rigveda^ according to Hillebrandt.^ 

^ ii. 34, 8. 2 Vtdische Mythologie, 3, 95. 

Bhagrini, * sister,' literally the * fortunate one ' in so far as 
she has a brother, occurs in the Nirukta (iii. 6). 

Bhagl-patha Aikivaka (* descendant of Ikvaku ') is the 
name of a king in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana (iv. 6, 
I. 2). It is important to note that he is regarded as being on 
friendly terms with the Kuru-Pancalas, which points to the 
Iksvakus being allied to that people, and not belonging (as is 
the case in the Buddhist books) to the east of India. 

Bhang'a, * hemp,' is mentioned in the Atharvaveda.^ In the 
Rigveda- it is an epithet of Soma, presumably^ in the sense of 
* intoxicating,' which then came to designate hemp.'* 

^ xi. 6, 15 ; conceivably in ahkh- dried leaves and small stalks of hemp, 

3.yana Aranyaka, xii. 14, but not prob- taken either by smoking or by eating 

ably. when mixed up into a sweetmeat. 

2 ix. 61, 13. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 68; 

^ SchT2AeT, Prehistoric Antiquities, 2gg. Grierson, Indian Antiquary, 23, 260; 

* Hence the modern 'Bang' or Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, s.v. 
' Bhang,' an intoxicant made from the Bang. 

Bhahgra^vina is the name of the father of Rtuparna in the 
Baudhayana Srauta Sutra.^ In the Mahabharata^ he is called 
Bhahgasuri. In the Apastamba Srauta Sutra^ mention is 
made of Rtuparna- KayovadhI as the Bhahgyasvinau. 

* XX, 12. "^ iii. 2745. I Deutschen Morgenldndiuken Gtsellschaft, 
xxi. 20 ; Caland, Zeitschrift der \ 57, 745. 



94 NAMES THE BHARATA TRIBE [ Bhangya^ravas 

Bhahgrya-^ravas is the name of a man in the Taittiriya 

Aranyaka.^ 

i Weber, Indixhe Studien, i, 78. 

Bhaje-ratha is mentioned in one passage of the Rigveda,^ 
where Ludwig^ thinks a place-name is meant. Griffith^ is 
doubtful whether the word is the name of a place or a man. 
Roth^ was inclined to see a corruption of the text.^ C/. 
Bhagfiratha. 

* X. 60, 2. i ' Grassmann, Worterbuch, s.v., thinks 
' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 138, j that the compound should be read as 

165. two words : bJiaje rathasya [satpatim), 

3 Hymns of the Rigveda, 2, 463. 1 ' to win (the lord) of the car.' 

* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. I 

Bhadpa-pada. See Nakatra. 

Bhadra-sena Ajata^atrava (' descendant of Ajata^atpu ') is 

the name of a man, presumably a prince, whom Uddalaka is 
said in the Satapatha Brahmana (v. 5, 5, 14) to have bewitched. 

Bhaya-da Asamatya (' descendant of Asamati ') is the name 
of a king in the Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana.^ Oertel,^ 
however, seems to take the name as Abhayada, but this is not 
probable, for Bhayada is a name in the Puranas. 

* iv. 8, 7. 2 Journal of the American Oriental Society, 16, 247. 



Bhayamana is, according to Sayana, the name of a man in 
one hymn of the Rigveda,^ which is ascribed by the Anukra- 
manl (Index) to his authorship. The interpretation is, how- 
ever, uncertain. 

* i. 100, 17. C/. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i', 266. 

Bharata is the name of a people of great importance in the 
Rigveda and the later literature. In the Rigveda they appear 
prominently in the third and seventh Mandalas in connexion 



Bharata ] THE COUNTRY OF THE BHARATAS 



95 



with Sudas and the T^tsus,^ while in the sixth Mandala they 
are associated with Divodasa.^ In one passage* the Bharatas 
are, like the Titsus, enemies of the Purus : there can be little 
doubt that Ludwig's view of the identity of the Bharatas and 
and Trtsus is practically correct. More precisely Oldenberg*^ 
considers that the Trtsus are the Vasi^^has, the family singers 
of the Bharatas ; while Geldner recognizes, with perhaps more 
probability, in the Trtsus the royal family of the Bharatas. 
That the Titsus and Bharatas were enemies, as Zimmer'' 
holds, is most improbable even on geographical grounds, for the 
Trtsus in Zimmer's view^ occupied the country to the east of 
the Parusni (Ravi), and the Bharatas must therefore be 
regarded as coming against the Titsus from the west, whereas 
the Rigveda recognizes two Bharata chiefs on the Sarasvati, 
Apaya, and Dpadvati that is, in the holy land of India, the 
Madhyadei^a. Hillebrandt^ sees in the connexion of the 
Trtsus and the Bharatas a fusion of two tribes ; but this is not 
supported by any evidence beyond the fact that in his opinion 
some such theory is needed to explain Divodasa's appearing in 
connexion with the Bharadvaja family, while Sudas, his son, 



1 iii. 53, g. 12, 24; 33, 11. 12 (Vi^va 
mitra, who is accordingly hailed as 
Bharata-ftabha, ' bull of the Bharatas, ' 
in the Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 17, 7) ; 
vii. 8, 4 ; 33, 6, in which passage a 
defeat of the Bharatas, and their rescue 
by the aid of Vasistha, is clearly referred 
to; not, as was formerly thought {e.g., 
Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i*, 354 ; Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, 127), a defeat of the 
Bharatas by the Trtsus. 

^ vi. 16, 4. 5. C/. verse 19. 

* vii. 8, 4. 

* Translation of the Kigveda, 3, 172 
et seq. 

* Ztitschrift der Deutschen M or gen- 
landischen Gesellschaft, 42, 207. In 
Buddha, 405 et uq., he accepted the 
identification of Ludwig. 

* Vedische Studien, 2, 136 et seq. 

' Altindisches Leben, 127. This is also 
Bloomfield's view (see Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, 16, 41, 42). 



8 Op. cit., 124. 

" iii. 23, 4 : in verse 2 Devasrayas 
and Devav&ta are mentioned as 
Bharatas. Oldenberg, Buddha, 410, n., 
mentions that in the Mahabharata, 
iii. 6065, a tributary of the Sarasvati 
is called Kau^iki, and the KuSikas are, 
of course, the family of Vi^vamitra, 
whose connexion with the Bharatas is 
beyond question. 

10 Vedische Mythologie, i, iii. His 
view is that Sudas and the Bharatas 
were later comers than the Tftsus, who 
joined them as one people, the Vasisthas 
becoming the priests of the Bharatas. 
He suggests that the Vasisthas were 
not originally adherents of the Indra- 
Soma cult, but were specially devoted 
to the Varuna cult ; but there is 
no decisive evidence for either sug- 
gestion. Cf. Bloomfield, as cited in 
n. 7. 



96 



THE BHARATAS IN THE LATER TEXTS [ Bharata 



or perhaps grandson {cf. Pljavana), is connected with the 
Vasis^has and the Vi^vamitras. 

In the later literature the Bharatas appear as especially 
famous. The ^atapatha Brahmana^^ mentions Bharata Dauh- 
santi as a king, sacrificer of the Asvamedha (' horse sacrifice ') 
and ^atanika Satrajita, as another Bharata who offered that 
sacrifice. The Aitareya Brahmana^^ mentions Bharata Dauh- 
santi as receiving the kingly coronation from Dirgrhatamas 
Mamateya, and Satanlka as being consecrated by Soma^ui^man 
Vajaratnayana, a priest whose name is of quite late origin. 
The geographical position of the Bharata people is clearly 
shown by the fact that the Bharata kings win victories over the 
Kaiis, and make offerings on the Yamuna (Jumna) and Gartga 
(Ganges).^^ Moreover, in the formula of the king's proclama- 
tion for the people, the variants recorded" include Kuraval}, 
Pancdldfi, Kuru-Pancdldlji, and Bharatdh ; and the Mahabharata 
consistently recognizes the royal family of the Kurus as a 
Bharata family.^^ It is therefore extremely probable that 
Oldenberg^ is right in holding that the Bharatas in the times 
of the Brahmanas were merging in the Kuru-Pancala people. 

The ritual practices of the Bharatas are repeatedly mentioned 
in the Pancavimsa Brahmana,^'' the Aitareya Brahmana,^^ the 



11 xiii. 5. 4. " viii. 23 and 21. 

13 ^atapatha Brahmana, xiii. 5, 4, 
II. 21. 

1* In the Taittiriya Samhita, i. 8, 
10, 2, and the Taittiriya Brahmana, 
i. 7. 4, 2, the phrase is esa vo, Bharata, 
raja: the Vajasaneyi Samhita, in the 
Kanva recension, xi. 3,3:6, 3, has Kura- 
vah^Pancalah (evidently asajoint people); 
Apastamba, xviii. 12, 7, gives Bharatdh, 
Kuravah, Pahcalah, Kuru-Pahc&ldh, and 
janatak, as alternatives, according to 
the people to whom the king belongs ; 
the K&thaka Samhita, xv. 7, and the 
Maitr&yani Samhita, ii. 6, 7, read esa te 
janate rdja. See Weber, Indian Litera- 
ture, 114, n. ; von Schroeder, Indiens 
Liter atur und Cultur, 465. 

1' Oldenberg. Buddha, 409. 

* op. cit., 408. He points out 
(409, n.) that in the Satapatha Brah- 



mana, xiii. 5, 4, only the Kuru king, 
Janamejaya, and the Bharata kings 
are mentioned without specification of 
the peoples over whom they ruled, 

" xiv. 3, 13 ; XV, 5, 24, and perhaps 
xviii. 10, 8, on which see Weber, 
Indische Studien, 10, 28, n. 2 ; below, p. 98. 

18 ii. 25 ; iii. 18. The sense ' mer- 
cenary soldier,* here seen by the St. 
Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 2 (no longer 
mentioned in the Dictionary of Boht- 
lingk), cannot be accepted. See Weber, 
Indische Studien, g, 254 ; Oldenberg, 
Buddha, 407, n. On the other hand, 
there is no mention of the Bharatas in 
the geographical lists of the Aitareya 
Brahmana (viii. 14), in the Manava 
Dharma ^astra, or in the Buddhist 
texts. This means that the Bharatas 
were no longer a people, but a family 
or sub-tribe in a larger people. 



Bharadvaja J THE BHARATASA PRIESTLY CLAN 



97 



^atapatha BrShmana,^ and the Taittiriya Aranyaka.^ Already 
in the Rigveda^ there is mention made of Agni Bharata (* of 
the Bharatas'). In the Apr! hymns^ occurs a goddess 
Bharati, the personified divine protective power of the 
Bharatas : her association in the hymns with Sarasvati reflects 
the connexion of the Bharatas with the Sarasvati in the 
Rigveda. Again, in the ^atapatha Brahmana^ Agni is 
referred to as brdhmana Bharata, ' priest of the Bharatas,' and 
is invited to dispose of the offering Manusvat Bharatavat, * like 
Manu,' ' like Bharata.'^^ 

In one or two passages'^ Sudas or Divodasa and, on the 
other hand, Purukutsa or Trasadasyu appear in a friendly 
relation. Possibly this points, as Oldenberg^*' suggests, to the 
union of Bharatas and Purus with the Kurus. 

A Bharata is referred to in the fifth Mandala of the Rig- 
veda :^ who he was is uncertain. 



i V. 4, 4, I. 

20 i. 27, 2. 

21 ii. 7. I. 5 ; iv. 25, 4 ; vi. 16, ig ; 
Taittiriya Saiphita, ii. 5, 9, I ; Sata- 
pathaBrahmana, i.4. 2, 2. Roth thinks 
this epithet of Agni perhaps means 
* warlike,' but this is unlikely. 

' Rv. i. 22, 10 ; 142, 9 ; 188, 8 ; 
ii. I, II ; 3, 8 ; iil. 4, 8, etc. 
*3 i. 4, 2, 2. 



2* 1. 5. I. 7. 

2 1. 112, 14 ; vii. 19, 8. 

2 op. cit., 410. 

" V. 54. 14. 

For a later legend of Bharata, 
cf. Leumann, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgmldndischen Gesellschaft, 48, 80 
et seq. ; von Bradke, ibid., 498-503 ; 
and see Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i^, 338, 
340, etc. 



Bharad-vaja is the name of the reputed^ author of the sixth 
Mandala of the Rigveda. The attribution is so far correct that 
Bharadvaja^ and the Bharadvajas^ are repeatedly mentioned as 
singers in that Mandala. Judging by the tone of the references 
to Bharadvaja, he can hardly be deemed to have been a con- 
temporary of any of the hymns.^ According to the Pancavirnsa 



* Cf. A^valayana Grhya SQtra, iii. 4, 
2 ; Sankhayana Grhya SQtra, iv. 10 ; 
Efhaddevata, v. 102 et seq., where he 
is said to be a son of Bphaspati, and a 
grandson of Angiras {cf. Rv. vi. 2, 10 ; 
II, 3, etc.) ; Arnold, Vedic Metre, 61, 62. 

Rv. vi. 15, 3 ; 16. 5, 33 ; 17, 4 ; 
31, 4; 48, 7. 13; 63, 10; 65, 6. See 

VOL. II. 



also Rv. i. 112, 13 ; n6, 18 ; x. 150, 5 ; 
i8i, 2. 

' Rv. vi. 10, 6 ; 16, 33 ; 17, 14 ; 
23, 10 ; 25, 9 ; 35, 4 ; 47, 25 ; 50. 15. 
See also Rv. i. 59, 7. 

* Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 42, 210. 
212. 



98 A PRIESTLY CLAN A NOXIOUS ANIMAL [ Bharant 

Brahmana,'' he was the Purohita of Divodasa. This interpreta- 
tion is to be preferred to that of Roth, who suggests that he 
and Divodasa were identical. His connexion with the house of 
Divodasa also appears from the statement of the Kathaka 
Sarnhita'' that Bharadvaja gave Pratardana the kingdom. It 
is unnecessary to suppose that the same Bharadvaja was meant 
in both cases, and that Pratardana was a son of Divodasa : the 
later Samhitas refer to Bharadvaja, like the other great sages, 
irrespective of chronology. 

The Bharadvajas in their poems mention Epbu, Bpsaya, and 
the Paravatas. Hillebrandt has pointed out that they are also 
connected with the Spfijayas. In particular, the Sarikhayana 
Srauta Sutra ^ mentions that Bharadvaja gained largesse from 
Prastoka Sarftjaya and Brbu. But it is very doubtful if it is 
correct to place all these people and Divodasa in Arachosia 
and Drangiana. 

Bharadvaja as an author and a seer is frequently referred to 
in the later Samhitas" and the Brahmanas.^^ 



' XV. 3, 7. 

St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. See 
Rv. i. 116, l8 ; vi. 16, 5 ; 31, 4. 

' xxi. 10 {Indische Studien, 3, 478). 

* vi. 61, 1-3. 

' Vedische Mythologie, i, 104. 

" xvi. II, II. 

" Av. ii. 12, 2 ; iv. 29, 5 ; xviii. 3, 16 ; 
xix. 48, 6 ; Kathaka Saiphita, xvi. 19 ; 
XX. 9 ; Maitrayani Samhitci, ii. 7, 19 ; 



iv. 8, 4 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, xiii. 55, 
etc. 

^"^ Aitareya BrShmana, vi. 18; viii. 3; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 10, 11, 13 ; 
Aitareya Aranyaka, i. 2, 2 ; 4, 2; ii. 2, 
2. 4, etc. ; Kausitaki Brahmana, xv. i ; 
xxix. 3 ; xxx. g. 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 128 ; Weber, Episches im 
vedischen Ritual, 31. 



Bharant, ' bearing,' in the plural denotes in one passage of 
the Pancavirn^a Brahmana,^ according to Bohtlingk,^ following 
Sayana, 'the warrior caste,' but the sense is not certain. 
Weber' was inclined to see a reference to the Bharatas, though 
the form of the word is that of the present participle.* 

1 xviii. ID, 8. I 3 Indische Studien, 10, 28, n. 2. Cf. 

' Dictionary, s.v. \ Bharata, n, 17. 

* Bharatdm, interpreted by Siyana as bharanarp. kurvatarji kfairiydtidm. 

Bharuji in one passage of the Atharvaveda* may denote, 
according to Roth,^ a noxious animal. 

1 ii. 24, 8. ' St. Petersburg Dictionary, 5.t;. 



Bhakuri ] MASTER NAMES LEATHER POUCH 



99 



Bhartr, besides having the literal sense of ' bearer,' means 

* supporter' or 'master' in the older literature*; but it is doubt- 
ful whether the sense of * husband ' is ever found there. In 
one passage of the Rigveda* * husband ' is certainly the most 
natural sense, but, as Delbriick^ correctly remarks, even there 

* father' may be meant, since 'mother' is here and there* called 
Bhartrl. 



* Av. xi. 7, 15 ; xviii. 2, 30 ; Sata- 
patha BrcLhmana, ii. 3, 4, 7 (where 
'husband ' is possible) ; iv. 6, 7, 21, 
etc 

" V. 58, 7. 



Die iftdogermanischm Verwandtschafts- 
namen, 415, n. i. 

* Av. V. 5, 2 ; Taittiriya Biilhinana, 
iii. I, I, 4. 



Bhalanas, plural, is the name in the Rigveda* of one of the five 
tribes, Pakthas, Bhalanases, Alinas, Via^ins, and l^ivas, who 
are mentioned as ranged on the side^ of the enemies of Sudas 
in the battle of the ten kings (Daiarajfta), not opposed to 
them, as Roth,^ and at one time Zimmer,* thought. Zimmer^ 
suggests as their original home East Kabulistan, comparing the 
name of the Bolan pass. This seems a reasonably probable 
view. 



1 vii. 18, 7. 

2 Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 15, 260, 261, who takes 
the form of the name to be Bhalana 
(but the text of the Rv. has bhaldndsah), 
and who overlooks Zimmer's later view. 



' Zur Litteratur und Geschichte its 
Weda, 95. 

* Zimmer, Altindischts Leben, 126. 

'^ op. cit., 431. Cf. Ludwig, Transla- 
tion of the Rigveda, 3, 173, 207. 



Bhava-trata iSayasthi is the name of a teacher in the Vam^a 
Brahmana.* 

1 Indiscke Studien, 4, 372 ; Max M&ller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 443. 



Bhastra in the Satapatha Brahmana (i. i, 2, 7; 6, 3, 16) 
denotes a leathern bottle or pouch. 



Bhakuri. See Bekura. 



7 2 



lOO 



TAX-COLLECTOR TEACHERS [ Bhagadugha 



Bhag'a-dug'ha, ' dealer out of portions,' * distributor,' is the 
name of one of the king's 'jewels* (Ratnin) in the Yajurveda 
Sarnhitas^ and Brahmanas.- What his functions exactly were 
is uncertain. Sayana in some places' renders the word by 
'tax-collector,' but in others^ as 'carver,' thus making this 
functionary either a revenue officer or a mere court official. 



1 Taittiriya SamhitS, i. 8, 9 2 ; 
Kathaka Saiphita, xv. 4 ; MaitrSyani 
Samhita, ii. 6, 5 ; iv. 3, 8 ; Vajasaneyi 
Samhita, xxx, 13. 

^ Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 7, 3, 5 ; 
iiu 4, 8, I ; Satapatha Brahmana, i. i, 
2. 17: V. 3. I. 9- 



On Taittiriya Samhita and Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, loc. cit., and on Sata- 
patha Brahmana, v. 3, 1,9. 

* On Satapatha Brahmana, i. i, 2, 

17- 

Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 
41, 63, n. 



Bhagfa-vitti (* descendant of Bhagavitta ') is the patronymic 
of a teacher called Cu(Ja^ or Cula^ in the Brhadaranyaka 
Upanisad. 

1 Bfhadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. 3, 17. 18 Madhyamdina. 
' Ihid., vi. 3, 9 Kanva. 

Bhaditayana, ' descendant of Bha^ita,' is the patronymic of 
l^akadasa in the Vamsa Brahmana.^ 

^ Indische Studien, 4, 373. 

Bhanumant Aupamanyava (' descendant of Upamanyu ') is 
the name of a teacher, a pupil of Anandaja, in the Varn^a 
Brahmana.^ 

i Indische Studien, 4, 372. 

Bhaya-jatya, ' descendant of Bhayajata,' is the patronymic 
of Nikothaka in the Varn^a Brahmana.^ 

' Indische Studien, 4, 373 ; Max MQlIer, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 444. 

Bharata. See Bharata. 



Bharad-vaja, ' descendant of Bharadvaja,' is the patronymic 
of many teachers. In the Vamsas (lists of teachers) of the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, Bharadvajas are mentioned as 



Bhannya^va ] 



VARIOUS TEACHERS 



lOI 



pupils of Bharadvaja,^ Para^arya,^ Balakakau^ika,' Aitareya,* 
Asurayaija,^ and Baijavapayana.^ A Bharadvaja occurs in 
the Rigveda,*^ and lua Vahneya is mentioned as a Bharadvaja 
in the Vamsa Brahmana. 

' iu 5, 21 ; iv. 5, 27 (Ma,dbyamdina 
ii. 6, 2 Kinva). 

* ii. 6, 2 Kanva. 
' iv. 5, 27 MSdhyaipdina. 

* ii. 5, 21 ; iv. 5, 27 (Madhyamdina 
=ii. 6, 3 ; iv. 6, 3 KSnva). 



5 ii. 5, 21 ; iv. 5, 27 Madhyamdina. 
ii. 5, 21 ; iv. 5, 27 Madhyam- 
dina. 

7 V. 61, 2. 

8 Indische Studien, 4, 373. 



Bhapadvajayana, * descendant of Bharadvaja,' is the patro- 
nymic of a teacher in the Pancavimsa Brahmana.^ 



1 X. 12, I ; Nidana Sutra, ix. 9. Cf. 
Hopkins, Transactions of the Connecticut 



Academy of Arts and Sciences, 15, 61, 
n. 2. 



Bharadvajl-putra, ' son of a female descendant of Bharad- 
vaja,' is the metronymic of several teachers in the Brhadaran- 
yaka Upanisad, pupils of Papa^ariputra,^ Paingriputraj^ and 
Vatsimandaviputra^ respectively. 

* vi. 4, 31 (Madhyamdina = vi. 5, 1 ^ vi. 4, 30 Madhyamdina. 

2 Kanva). I ' Ibid. 



Bhargfava, * descendant of Bhfgfu,' is the patronymic of 
several teachers, including Cyavana^ and Gptsamada.^ Other 
Bhargavas are also mentioned without indication of their 
personal names.^ 

* ^atapatha Brahmana, iv. i, 5, i ; 
Aitareya Br&hmana, viii. 21. 

3 Kausitaki Br3.hmana, xxii. 4 (with 
a varia lectio, Babhrava). 

3 Taittiriya Samhita, i. 8, 18, i ; 
Sahkhiyana Axanyaka, vii. 15 ; Aitareya 



BrS.hmana, viii. 2, i. 5 ; Pra^na Upani- 
sad, i. I (Vaidarbhi), etc. ; Pancaviip^ 
Br3.bmana, xii. 2, 23 ; g, 19. 39, etc. 

Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns of the Athar- 
vavcda, XXXV. 



Bha^gaya^a, * descendant of Bharga,' is the patronymic of 
Sutvan in the Aitareya Brahmana (viii. 28). 



Bharmy-a^va, 'descendant of Bhrmya^va,' is the patro- 
nymic of Mudgfala in the Nirukta (ix. 23) and the Brhaddevata 
(vi. 46 ; viii. 12). 



102 



LIFE VARIOUS TEACHERS 



[ Bharyi 



Bharya, later a common expression for * wife,' does not occur 
in that sense at all in the Samhitas. It first appears, according 
to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, in the Aitareya Brahmana,^ 
where, however, Delbriick^ suggests that merely a member of 
the household (' who is to be maintained') may be meant. In 
the Satapatha Brahmaiia,^ however, the two wives of Yajna- 
valkya are so designated. 



1 vii. 9, 8. 

' Die indogermanischm Verwandtscha/ts- 
namen, 415. Cf. Aitareya Br&hmana, 
i. 29, 20. 



' B):hadranyaka Upani^d, iii. 4, i 
iv. 5, I. 



Bhalandana, * descendant of Bhalandana,' is the patronymic 
of VatsaprI in the Taittirlya Sainhita,' the Kathaka Samhita,* 
and the Pancavimsa Brahmana.^ 



* V. 2, I, 6. 

' xix. II. 

' xii. II, 25 ; Hopkins, Transactions 



of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, 15, 59. 



Bhalukl-putra, * son of Bhalukl," is the name of a teacher, a 
pupil of Krauflcikiputra^ or of Ppacinayogiputra,^ in the last 
Vamsa (list of teachers) in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad. 



1 vi. 5, 2 Kanva. 



^ vi. 4, 32 Madhyamdina. 



Bhalla is the name or patronymic of a teacher who bears the 
patronymic Pratrda in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana 
(iii. 31, 4). 

Bhallavi is the name of a school mentioned as authorities in 
the Pancavirn^a Brahmana (ii. 2, 4). 



Bhallavin, * pupil of Bhallavin,' is the name of a school of 
teachers mentioned in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana.^ 



1 ii. 4, 7 (spelt Bhallabin). Cf. 
Weber, Indtsche Studien, i, 44 ; 2, 100 ; 
390 ; Nidclna SQtra, v. i ; Anupada 



Satra, ii. i ; vii. 12 
V. 23. 159. 



Brhaddevata 



Bliasa ] 



TEACHERS SPEECH BIRD OF PREY 



103 



Bhallaveya, ' descendant of Bhallavi,'^ is the patronymic of 
Indradyumna in the ^atapatha Brahmana^ and the Chandogya 
Upanisad.^ Probably the same person is meant by the Bhalla- 
veya, who is cited frequently as an authority in the same 
Brahmana.^ 



1 X. 6. I, I. 

* V. II, 



I. 



I 5. 3. 4- 



Bhavayavya. See Bhavya. 



Bhavya is the name of a patron, as it seems, in the Rigveda.^ 
In the Sankhayana ^rauta Sutra ^ the form given is Bhava- 
yavya, being a patronymic of Svanaya, who is the patron of 
Kak^ivant. This combination is borne out by the Rigveda, 
where Kaksivant and Svanaya are mentioned in the same 
verse,^ while Svanaya must be meant in the verse of the same 
hymn,* where Bhavya is mentioned as * living on the Sindhu ' 
(Indus). Roth's^ view that Bhavya here is perhaps a gerundive 
meaning to be 'reverenced' is not probable. Ludwig thinks 
Svanaya was connected with the Nahuas. 



1 i. 126, I ; Nirukta, ix. 10. 

xvi. II, 5. Cf, Bj-haddevata, iii. 140. 
' i. 126, 3. 

* i. 126, I. 

' St Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 
if. 



Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 

151- 
Cf. Weber, Epiiches im Vedischen 

Ritual, 22 ; Oldenberg, Rgveda-Noten, 

I, 128. 



Bhaa in the Nirukta ^ and Panini^ denotes the ordinary 

speech of the day as opposed to Vedic language. Cf. Vac. 

* i. 4, 5. Cf. ii. 2. Icinguage regulated by Panini's rules. 

* iii. 2, 108; vi. I, 181. Cf. Franke, But seeVJaLcktiadigel, A Uindische Gram- 
Bezzenberger's Beitrdge, 17, 54 et seq., matik, i.xViv ; Keith, Ailareya Aranyuka, 
who distinguishes the Bh&^ft as the 179, 180. 

speech of conversational use from the 



Bhasa is the name of a bird of prey in the Adbhuta Brah- 
mana,^ and often in the Epic. 

1 vi, 8, See Weber, Indische Studien, i, 40. 



I04 



BEGGING REED MAT PHYSICIAN 



[ Bhik9& 



Bhik^a, * begging,' is one of the duties of the Brahmacarin 
according to the Satapatha BrShmana.* The word has also 
the sense of * alms,' as that which is obtained by begging, in 
the Atharvaveda.^ According to the St. Petersburg Dictionary,* 
it has this sense in the Chandogya Upaniad* also, but the 
correct reading there is probably Amik^a. 

* xi- 3. 3, 7. Cf. a Mantra in 1 * s.v. 2. 

ASval&yana Grhya SOtra, i. 9, etc. ; j * viii. 8, 5, where the scholiast ex- 
and bkikfdcarya, B|-had3.ranyaka Upani- plains the word by ' perfumes, garlands, 
fad, iii. 4, i ; iv. 4, 26.- food,' etc. {gandhamalydnnadt). 

xi. 5. 9. I 

Bhikl^ 'beggar,' is a term not found in Vedic literature. 
The begging of the Brahmacarin is quite a different thing from 
the duties of the Bhiksu in the later system of the A^ramas 
(religious stages of life), when the Brahmin in the last stage of 
his life, after leaving his home and family, lives on alms alone. 
See I. Brahmana. 

Bhitti in the Satapatha Brahmana^ denotes a mat made of 
split reeds. 

* iii. 5, 3, 9. Cf. SafikhSyana Srauta Sotra, viii. 3, 24. 



Bhiaj, * physician,' is a word of common occurrence in the 
Rigveda^ and later.^ There is no trace whatever in the former 
text of the profession being held in disrepute : the A^vins,* 
Varuna,^ and Rudra^ are all called physicians. On the other 
hand, in the Dharma literature this profession is utterly 



1 ii. 33. 4 ; vi. 50, 7 ; ix. 112, i ; 
bhtfoja, adjective, ii. 33. 7; x. 137,6; 
substantive, i. 23, 19. 20; ii. 33, 2. 4; 
vi. 74, 3; vii. 46, 3, etc. 

' Av. v, 29, I ; vi. 24, 2 ; Taittirlya 
Saiphitcl, vi. 4, 9, 2 ; V&jasaneyi Sarp- 
hita, xvi. 5; xix. 12. 88; xxx. 10, etc. ; 
bhtfoja, adjective, Av. vi. 109, 3 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Sanihita, xvi. 45, etc. ; sub- 
stantive, Av, V. 29, I ; vi. 21, 2; xi. i, 
9, etc. 



* Rv. i. 116, 16; 157, 6; viii. 18, 8; 
86, i; X. 39, 3. 5; Av. vii. 53. i; 
Aitareya BrShmana, i. 18. 

* See Rv. i. 24, 9. 
8 Rv. ii. 33, 4. 7. 

* See Apastamba Dharma SOtra, i. 6, 
18, 20 ; 19, 15 ; Gautama Dharma 
SQtra, xvii. 17 ; Vasi.stha Dharma SOtra, 
xiv. 2, 19; Vifnu, Ii. 10; Ixxxii. 9; 
Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharva- 
veda, 1. 



Bhi^ ] 



THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE 



105 



despised. This dislike is found as early as the Yajurveda 
Samhitas/ where the A^vins are condemned because of their 
having to do with the practice of medicine (bhesaja), on the 
ground that it brings them too much among men, an allusion 
to the caste dislike of promiscuous contact. 

The Rigveda contains a hymn in which a physician cele- 
brates his plants and their healing powers. Moreover, wonder- 
ful cures are referred to as performed by the A^vins : the 
healing of the lame and of the blind ;^ the rejuvenation of the 
aged Cyavana" and of Puramdhi's husband ;^2 the giving of an 
iron leg (jahgha dyasi) to Vi^pala," a deed only more wonderful 
if we assume that Vispala was a mare, as has been suggested by 
Pischel.^"* It would in all probability be a mistake to assume ^^ 
that the Vedic Indians had any surgical skill : they no doubt 
applied simples to wounds,^ but both their medicine and their 
surgery must have been most primitive. All that the Atharva- 
veda shows in regard to medicine is the use of herbs combined 
with spells,^' and of water (c/. Jalaa), remedies Indo-European 
in character, but not of much scientific value. On the other 
hand, the knowledge of anatomy shown (see iSarlpa), though 
betraying grave inaccuracies, is not altogether insignificant ; 
but that was due no doubt mainly to the practice of dissecting 
animals at the sacrifice. 

There is some evidence in the Rigveda ^^ that the practice of 
medicine was already a profession ; this is supported by the 
inclusion of a physician in the list of victims at the Purusa- 
medha (* human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.-' According to 



' Taittiriya Satnhita., vi. 4, 9, 3. Cf. 
Maitr&yani SambitS., iv. 6, 2 ; Sata- 
patha Br&hmana, iv, i, 5, 14 ; Bloom- 
field, op. cit., xxxix, xl. 

8 X. 97. 

Rv. i. 112, 8 ; X. 39, 3, etc. 

" Cf. the case of Pjrftiva. Rv. 
i. 116, 17. 

" Rv. X. 39, 4. 

" i. 116, 13. 

" Rv. i. 116, 15, etc. 

" Vedische Studien, i, 171 et scq.; 305. 

" As Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 398, 
is inclined to do. 



^' Cf. Rv. ix. 112, I. 

" So it is said in the PancaviipSa 
Brahmana, xii. 9, 10 : bhesajarji vd 
Atharvandni, ' the Atharvan hymns are 
medicine'; xvi. 10, 10; and cf. ibid,, 
xxiii. 16, 7 ; K3.thaka Samhit^, xi. 5 
and 2. BhiBaj. 

1* ix. 112, where a profession must 
be meant. Ibid., 3, refers to the fees 
of the physician. Cf, also x. 97, 
4.8. 

" Vajasaneyi SaiphitJ, xxx. 10; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmai^a, iii. 4, 4, i. 



io6 HOME REMEDIES NAMES [ BMaj 

Bloomfield,- a hymn of the Atharvaveda^^ contains a physician's 
deprecation of the use of home-made remedies instead of 
reliance on his professional training. 



** Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 456. 

^ V. 30, 5. But this sense is doubtful, 
C/. Whitney, Translation of the Athar- 
vaveda, 277. 

Cf. Zimmer, op. cit., 397-399 ; Bloom- 
field, op. cit., passim (see references 



on p. 697); Atharvaveda, 59 et seq. i 
Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 420 
et seq. ; Jolly, Medicin, 16, 17 ; Winter- 
nitz, Nature, 1898, 233-235 ; Caland, 
Altindisches Zauberritual, passim. 



2. Bhiaj Athapvana is the name of a mythic physician 
mentioned in the Kathaka Samhita.^ 

1 xvi. 3 {Indische Studien, 3, 459). Cf. I xxi ; Journal of the American Oriental 
Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, \ Society, 17, 181. 

Bhima Vaidarbha (* prince of Vidarbha ') is mentioned in the 
Aitareya Brahmana (vii. 34) as having received instruction 
regarding the substitute for the Soma juice, through a succession 
of teachers, from Parvata and Narada. 

Bhima-sena is the name of one of the brothers of Janam- 
ejaya, the Parikitlyas, in the Satapatha Brahmana.^ 

^ xiii. 5, 4, 3. Cf. ^ankhayana Srauta Sutra, xvi. g, 3. 

I. Bhujyu denotes, according to the St. Petersburg Dic- 
tionary, an * adder ' in two passages of the Rigveda,^ and one of 
the Vajasaneyi Sarnhita.^ But the sense is uncertain in all 
these passages. 

who takes hhujyu in Rv. x. 95, 8, as 
meaning 'ardent,' 'rutting.' 



IV. 27. 4 ; X. 95, 8. 

^ xviii. 42. 

Cf. Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, 126, 



2. Bhujyu is the name of a man, son of Tugra, who is 
repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda^ as saved from the deep 
by the A^vins. According to Buhler,^ the passages refer to 



^ i. 112, 6. 20; 116, 3; 117, 14; 
119, 4; vi. 62, 6; vii. 68, 7 ; 69, 7; 
X. 40, 7; 65, 12; 143, 5. 

' Indische Palaographie, 17. 

Cf. Baunack, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 35, 



485 ; Oldenberg, Religion des Veda, 214 ; 
Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 3, 16, 
n. 5 ; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 244, 245 ; 
Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 52. 



Bhutavira ] NAMES SCISSORS DEMONOLOGY 



107 



Bhujyu being saved from shipwreck during a voyage in the 
Indian Ocean, but the evidence is inadequate to support this 
conclusion. Cf. Samudra. 



Bhiyyu Lahyayani (* descendant of Lahyayana ') is the name 
of a teacher, a contemporary of Yajftavalkya, in the Brhad- 
aranyaka Upanisad (iii. 3, i). 



Bhupy (used in the dual only) is a w^ord of somewhat 
doubtful sense. Roth^ regarded it as meaning in some 
passages^ 'scissors,' and in others^ an apparatus consisting of 
tvi^o arms used by the chariot-maker for fixing the w^ood at 
which he worked, being of the nature of a carpenter's vice. See 
also Kupa. 



1 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. Cf. 
Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 466. 

' Rv. viii. 4, 16 ; Av. xx. 127, 4. 

3 Rv. iv. 2, 14 ; ix. 26, 4 ; 71, 5, 
where Pischel, Vedische Studien, i, 239- 
243, considers that the shafts of the 
chariot are meant {cf. Gobhila Gfhya 
Sutra, iii. 4, 31, whence it appears that 



the chariot-pole, spoken of as having 
two arms, was forked). The same view 
regarding the passages cited in n. 2 
gives the sense of a stropping apparatus, 
consisting of two pieces of wood, be- 
tween which a grindstone moves. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 252, 
255- 



Bhuta-vidya is one of the sciences enumerated in the Chan- 
dogya Upanisad.^ It seems to mean the * science of creatures * 
that trouble men, and of the means of warding them off, 
* demonology.' 

^ vii. I, 2. 4 ; 2. I ; 7, i. Cf. Little, GrammatiaU Index, 115. 



Bhuta-vipa is the name of a family of priests who, according 
to the Aitareya Brahmana,^ were employed by Janamejaya to 
the exclusion of the Ka^yapas. A family of the latter, the 
Asltamfg'as, however, won back the favour of Janamejaya, and 
ousted the Bhutaviras. 



1 vii. 27. Cf. Roth, Zur Litteratur I Sacred Books of the East, 43, 344, n. 3 ; 
UTid Geschichte des Weda, 118 ; Eggeling, | Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i', 437 et uq. 



io8 NAMES EARTH DRUM [ Bhutam^a 

Bhutaip^a is in the Rigveda^ the name of a poet, a descen- 
dant of Kasyapa. 

1 X. 106, II. See Nirukta^ xii, 41; Brhaddevat. viii. 18. 19; Ludwig, 
Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 133. 

Bhuti is the term used in the Rigveda^ and later ^ for 
' prosperity.' 



1 viii. 59, 7, Cf. i. 161, I (both late 
passages). 

Av. ix. 6, 45 ; X. 3, 17 ; 6, 9 ; xi. 7, 
i22 ; 8, 21 ; Taittiriya SamhitS, ii. i, 



1.1:3. 5> etc. ; bhuti-k&ma, ' desiring 
prosperity,' Taittiriya Samhiti, ii. i, 
I. I ; 2, 3, 3; V. I, 9, I, etc. 



Bhumi or Bhumi is a common word for * earth ' in the 
Rigveda^ and later,^ being practically a synonym of Pfthivl. 
It is also used of the land given by the god to the Aryan,^ and 
of grants of land.'* 

earths and seas are mentioned ; ii. 9, 4 ; 
vi. 8, 2, etc, 

" Rv. iv. 26, 2. C/. vi. 47, 20. 

* Satapatha Br&hmana, xiii. 5, 4, 24 ; 
6, 2, 18. 



1 i. 64, 5 ; 161, 14 ; ii. 14, 7, etc. 
So in X. 18, ID, 'mother earth ' receives 
the remains of the dead. 

3 Av. vi. 2, I, where it is said that 
the Bhumi is the highest of the three 
earths (Pfthivi) ; xi. 7, 14, where nine 



Bhumi-dundubhi, ' earth drum,' denotes a pit covered with a 
hide used at the Mahavrata rite, and mentioned in the Sarp- 
hitas^ and the Brahmanas.^ 

1 Taittiriya Samhita, vii. 5, 9, 3 ; I ' PancavirnSa Brahmana, v. 5, 19 ; 
Ka.thaka Samhita, xxxiv. 5, | Aitareya Aranyaka, v, 1,5. 

Cf. Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 277, n. 14. 

Bhumi-pai^a, ' earth net,' is the name of a plant in the Sata- 
patha Brahmana, probably some sort of creeper. 

* xiii, 8, I, 16. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 44, 427, n, i. 

Bhrgfavaija is found in one passage of the Rigveda* 
apparently^ as a name of a man who is called Sobha. Ludwig,^ 
however, thinks that his name was Ghoa. Elsewhere the 
word appears as an epithet of Agni, doubtless in allusion to his 
cult by the BhrgfUS. 

1 i. 120, 5. * Pischel, Vedische Studien,i,^\ 2,92. 

' ijber Methode bet Interpretation, 4. 



Bhrgu ] 



A FAMILY OF FIRE PRIESTS 



109 



Bhfgfu is a sage of almost entirely mythical character in the 
Rigveda and later. He counts as a son of Varuna,^ bearing 
the patronymic Varuni.^ In the plural the Bhrgus are 
repeatedly^ alluded to as devoted to the fire cult. They are 
clearly "* no more than a group of ancient priests and ancestors 
with an eponymous Bhrgu ^ in the Rigveda, except in three 
passages, where they are evidently regarded as an historic 
family. It is not clear, however, whether they were priests or 
warriors : in the battle of the ten kings the Bhrgus appear with 
the Dpuhyus, perhaps as their priests, but this is not certain.'^ 

In the later literature the Bhrgus are a real family, with sub- 
divisions like the Aita^ayana, according to the Kausitaki 
Brahmana. The Bhrgus are mentioned as priests in connexion 
with various rites, such as the Agnisthapana and the Dasa- 
peyakratu.^ In many passages they are conjoined with the 
Angfirases :" the close association of the two families is shown 



1 ^atapatha Br&hmana, xi. 6, i, i ; 
Taittiriya Aranyaka, ix. i. Cf. Panca- 
vim^ Brahmana, xviii. 9. 2 ; Nirukta, 
iii. 17. 

3 Aitareya BrShmana, iii. 34, and 
n. 14. For a different form of the legend, 
cf. Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 8, 2, 5. 

3 Rv. i. 58. 6 ; 127, 7 ; 143. 4 ; ii. 4, 2 ; 
iii. 2, 4; iv. 7, I, etc. See Macdonell, 
Vedic Mythology, 51. The legend of 
their chariot-making (Rv. iv. 16, 20 ; 
X. 39, 14) may be due, as Roth, St. 
Petersburg Dictionary, s.v., suggests, 
to a confusion with the Rbhus. It 
may, however, be an allusion to the 
historic Bhfgus, whom we find in the 
battle of the ten kings. 

* As shown by the legend of fire 
having been brought to them by 
Matari^van, Rv. iii. 5, 10. 

* i. 60, I, where, however, Roth, 
loc. cit., takes the singular in a collective 
sense, an interpretation which may be 
correct, but is not necessary. 

Rv. vii. i8, 6 ; viii. 3. 9 ; 6, 18, to 
which list, given by Macdonell, loc. cit.. 
Roth adds viii. 102, 4, AurvJ-Bhrgu-vat, 
like Aurva and Bhrgu.' Cf. the fact 
that the Anrvas. in the Aitareya Br&h- 



mana, vi. 33, take the place of the Bh]^us 
of the Kau.:itaki Br^hmana, xxx. 5. 

f In viii. 3, 9 ; 6, 18 ; 102, 4, the 
reference to a priestly family is the 
more natural ; in vii. 18, 6, warriors 
may be meant. Cf. Hopkins, Journal 
of the American Oriental Society, 15, 
262, n. , where he cites ix. loi, 13, as 
perhaps denoting the same thing. 

8 xxx. 5. See n. 6. 

Taittiriya Samhita, iv. 6, 5, 2; 
V. 6, 8. 6; Av. iv. 14, 5; Maitr3.yanl 
SamhitS., i. 4, i (p. 48). 

" Taittiriya Samhita, i. 8, 18 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, i. 8,2, 5 ; Pancavim^ 
Brahmana, xviii. 9, 2. 

11 Taittiriya Saiphita, i. i, 7, 2; 
Maitrayani Samhita, i. i, 8 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Samhita, i. 18 ; Taittiriya Brah- 
mana, i. I. 4, 8; iii. 2, 7, 6 ; ^atapatha 
Brahmana, i, 2, i, 13, etc. Cf. Rv. 
viii- 35, 3 ; 43. 13 ; x, 14, 6, in the 
first and last of which passages the 
Atharvans also occur. See Bloomfield, 
Hymns of the Atharvaveda, xxvii. n. 2. 
Hence, in the Atharvanic ritual texts, 
the term Bhfgvaitgirasah is applied to 
the Atharvaveda (Bloomfield, Atharva- 
veda, 9, 10, 107 tt stq.). 



no THE BEE A KING OF THE EAST [ Bhrnga 

by the fact that Cyavana is called either a Bhargava or an 
Angirasa in the ^atapatha Brahmana.^^ In the Atharvaveda^^ 
the name of Bhrgu is selected to exemplify the dangers incurred 
by the oppressors of Brahmans: the Sffijaya Vaitahavyas 
perish in consequence of an attack on Bhrgu. In the Aitareya 
Brahmana ^* also Bhrgu has this representative character. Cf. 
Bhpgavaija and Bharg-ava. 

*' iv. I, 5, I, 13 V. 19, I. I ' C/. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 

" ii. 20. In the Jaiminiya Brah- j 2, 169-173 ; Ludwig, Translation of the 

mana, i. 42-44 {Journal of the American i Rigveda, 3, 140 ; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 

Oriental Society, 15, 204), Bhrgu Varuni | i*, 443 et seq. 

appears as a student. Cf, Taittiriya j 

Upani^ad, Hi. i. I 

Bhpfig'a is the name of a species of bee, later specified as 
large and black, in the Atharvaveda^ and the Yajurveda Sam- 
hitas,^ which include it in the list of victims at the A^vamedha 
(' horse sacrifice '). 

1 ix. 2, 22. I Vajasaneyi SatphitS, xxiv. 29. Cf. 

' Maitr.yani Samhita, iii. 14, 8 ; | Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 96. 



Bhpmy-a^va is the name of the father of Mudgala in the 

Nirukta (ix. 24). 

Bhekupi. See Bekura. 

I. Bheda, one of the enemies of Sudas and the Tptsu- 
Bharatas, was defeated by the former in the Yamuna (Jumna),^ 
apparently in a second conflict fought after the battle of the ten 
kings, in which Sudas successfully defended his western frontier 
against the confederate foes. The Ajas, l^ig-rus, and Yakus, 
who are mentioned as also defeated, may have been united 
un.lr^r his leadership if he was a king ; or the Bhedas may have 
been a separate people, as Roth^ thinks. Hopkins'^ opinion 
that the defeat was on the Paru^I, Yamuna being another 

1 Rv. vii. 18, 18. 19 ; 33, 3 ; 83, 4. I (the word is always used in the 
3 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 12 | singular). 
' India, Old and New, 52. 



Bhe^aja ] 



A NON-ARYAN KING MEDICINE 



III 



name of that stream, is most improbable ; nor is the view that 
Bheda was one of the ten kings essential.'* Cf. Turvai^a. 

* Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 15, 260 et seq. 

Cf. Griffith, Hymns of the Rigveda, 2, 



20, n. ; Zimmer, A Itindisches Leben, 126; 
Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i', 319, 327. 



2. Bheda is mentioned in the Atharvaveda^ as having come 
to a bad end because he refused a cow (vasd) to Indra when 
asked for it. That he is different from the preceding Bheda, as 
Roth^ assumes, is not certain. Indeed, it may very well be 
that his defeat led to his being chosen as the representative of 
the evil end of the wicked man. Moreover, the irreligious 
character of Bheda may be ascribed to his being a leader of 
non-Aryan folk, if the AJ*S and SigTUS, with whom in the 
Rigveda he is connected or associated were, as is possible, 
though by no means certain, un- Aryan tribes of totemists.^ 

^ xii. 4, 49. 50. totemistic tribes, but the names furnish 

' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 13. the sole support of this conjecture. On 

Cf. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, this supposition they were probably 

p. 153, who inclines to see in them non-Aryan. Cf. Aja. 



I. Bhesaja, denoting a * remedial agent,' * medicine,' is often 
mentioned in the Rigveda^ and later,^ being also used in a 
figurative sense.^ Plants,* waters,^ and spells are repeatedly 
enumerated as medicines. Most of the medical practices of the 
Atharvaveda are merely examples of sympathetic magic. For 
example, in one hymn'' the yellow of jaundice is entreated to 
pass into yellow birds. In another fever is to be banished by 
means of a frog ; for the frog, being a potent means of cooling 
fire (because of its association with water), is regarded as 
analogously effective in banishing the fire of fever. See Bhi;aj. 



1 L 89, 4 ; ii. 33, 2, etc. 

* Av. V. 29, I ; vi. 21, 2, etc. 

3 ^tapatha Br3.hmana, xiii. 3, i, i ; 
5, 4 ; Aitareya Brd.hmana, iii. 41. 

* Rv. X. 97, and passim in the Athar- 
vaveda. 

* i. 23, 19. 20 ; 34, 6, etc. ; Taittirlya 
Saiphita, vi. 4, 9, 2 ; Kausltaki Br&h- 
mana, xvi. 7, etc. Possibly there is 
some truth in Zimmer's view, Altin- 



disches Leben, 399, that the reference is 
to the beneficial effects of bathing. 

* Exemplified in the medical spells 
of the Atharvaveda and the KauSika 
SQtra. 

' i. 22 ; Bloomfield, Hymns of the 
A tharvaveda, 264 et seq. 

8 vii. 116; Bloomfield, op. cil., 565 
et seq. 

Cf. Rv. X. 16, 14 ; Av. xviii. 3, 60. 



112 REMEDIES NAMES TITLE-ANIMALS [ Bhewa 

2. Bhe^aja in the plural is found in the Atharvaveda^ and in 
the Sutras' denoting the hymns of the Atharvaveda in so far as 
they are regarded as having ' heaHng ' powers. 

1 xi. 6, 14. I Sankhiyana Srauta SOtra, xvi. 2, 10 ; 

A^val&yana Srauta Sutra, x. 7, 3 ; | Pancaviip^ Br&hmana, xii. 9, 10. 
C/. Bloomfield, Hymns 0/ the Atharvaveda, xxxi, 628. 

Bhaima-sena, 'descendant of Bhimasena,' is the name of 
a man in the Maitrayani Samhita (iv. 6, 6). 

Bhaima-seni, * descendant of Bhimasena,' is the patronymic 
of Divodasa in the Kathaka Samhita.^ 

1 vii. 8 {Indische Studien, 3, 460, 472). 

Bhai^ajya in the ^atapatha Brahmana (xii, 7. i, 12) and the 
Nirukta (x. 7. 25) denotes 'healing remedy' or 'medicine,' like 
Bhe^aja. 

Bhogfa in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes the * coil ' of a 
serpent. 



1 V. 29, 6 ; vi. 75, 14 (where the 
Hastaglma, or 'hand-guard,' of the 
archer is compared to a snake) . 



" Av. xi. 9. 5 ; Taittiriya Samhiti, 
ii. I, 4, 5. 6; V. 4, 5, 4; KSthaka 
Samhita,, xiii. 4 ; xxi. 8, etc. 



Bhoja in several passages of the Aitareya Brahmana (viii. 12. 
14. 17) seems to be used as a king's title. 

Bhai\jya in the Aitareya Brahmana^ denotes the rank of a 
prince bearing the title of Bhoja. 

1 vii. 32 ; viii. 6. 12. 14. 16. 

Bhaumaka is the name of some animal in the late Adbhuta 

Brahmana.^ 

* Indische Studien, i, 40. 

BhaumI is the name of an animal in the list of victims at the 
A^vamedha (' horse sacrifice *) in the Taittiriya SamhitSl.^ 

\^ V. 5, 18, I. C/. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 99. 



Bhratr ] 



NAMES BROTHER AND SISTER 



"3 



Bhauvana, ' descendant of Bhuvana,' is the patronymic of 
the mythical Vi^vakarman in the Satapatha (xiii. 7, i, 15) and 
the Aitareya (viii. 21, 8. 10) Brahmanas, and the Nirukta (x. 26). 



Bhauvayana, 'descendant of Bhuva,' is the patronymic of 
Kapivana in the Pancavimsa Brahmana.^ It is also found in 
the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ 



1 XX. 13, 4. 

2 Kathaka Samhita, xxxii. 2 {Indische 
Studien, 3, 473) ; Maitrayani Samhit&, 
i. 4, 3 ; and Vajasaneyi Samhitcl, xiii. 54, 
where Kapivana is not mentioned. 



Cf. Hopkins, Transactions of the Con- 
necticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 15, 
35, 69- 



Bhratp is the common designation of ' brother ' from the 
Rigveda^ onwards. The word is also applied to a relation or 
close friend generally,^ but here the persons concerned are, it 
should be noted, in the Rigveda^ deities, who are brothers of 
one another or of the worshipper. Thus in the early literature 
the word has not really lost its precise sense. The derivation 
from the root bhr, * support,' is probably correct, designating 
the brother as the support of his sister. This harmonizes with 
the fact that in Vedic literature the brother plays the part of 
protector of his sister when bereft of her father, and that 
maidens deprived of their brothers (abhrdtr) meet an evil fate.* 
The gradation of the relations in the home is shown by the 
order in the Chandogya Upanisad,^ where father, mother, 
brother, and sister are successively mentioned. Strife between 
brothers is occasionally referred to. 



1 i. 164, I ; iv. 3, 13 ; v. 34, 4, etc. ; 
Av. i. 14, 2 ; ii. 13, 5 ; Taittiriya Sam- 
hita, vi. 2, 8, 4, etc. ; bhrdtrtva, Rv. 
viii. 20. 22 ; 83, 8 ; x. 108, 10. 

3 Bohtlingk and Roth, St. Peters- 
burg Dictionary, s.v. ; Delbriick, Die 
indogermanischen VerxMndtschaftsnamcn, 
462. 

' i. 161, I ; 170, 2 ; iii. 53, 5 ; iv. i, 2 ; 
vi. 51, 5 ; viii. 43, i6. Cf. Av. iv. 4, 5 ; 
V. 22, 12. 

VOL. II. 



Rv. i. 124, 7 ; iv. 5, 5 ; Av. i. 17, i ; 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 328. Cf. 
Ayogtl. 

vii. 15, 2. 

Cf. .\v. iii. 30, 2 ; Satapatha Brih- 
mana, iv. i, 5, 3, where it is a sign of 
serious confusion ; Journal of the Americcn 
Oriental Society, 11, cxlv ; Bloomfield 
Atharvaveda, 72. 



114 



COUSIN AND ENEMY EMBRYO-SLAYING [ Bhratrvya 



Bhratrvya is found in one passage of the Atharvaveda,^ 
where, being named with brother and sister, it must be an 
expression of relationship. The sense appears to be ' (father's) 
brother's son,' 'cousin,'^ this meaning alone accounting for the 
sense of * rival,' * enemy,' found elsewhere in the Atharvaveda,' 
and repeatedly in the other Samhitas and the Brahmanas."* In 
an undivided family the relations of cousins would easily 
develop into rivalry and enmity. The original meaning may, 
however, have been 'nephew,'^ as the simple etymological 
sense would be ' brother's son '; but this seems not to account 
for the later meaning so well. The Kathaka Sarnhita* pre- 
scribes the telling of a falsehood to a Bhratrvya, who, further, 
is often given the epithets ' hating ' (dvisan) and * evil ' (apriyUf 
pdpman) in the later Samhitas and the Brahmanas.'' The Athar- 
vaveda also contains various spells, which aim at destroying or 
expelling one's ' rivals.' 



1 V. 22, 12, and perhaps x. 3, 9. 

2 The word is rendered ' cousin ' by 
Whitney in his Translation of the 
Atharvaveda (x. 6, i ; xv. i, 8). 

3 ii. 18, I ; viii. 10, 18. 33 ; x. 9, i. 

* Taittiriya Samhita, iii. 5, 9, 2, 
etc. ; Kathaka Samhita, x. 7 ; xxvii. 8 ; 
Vajasaneyi SainhitS, i. 17 ; Aitareya 
Br&hmana, iii. 7, etc. ; Satapatha Brah- 
mana, i. i, i, 21, etc. ; Pancaviin^ 
BrcLhmana, xii. 13, 2. Cf. Rv. viii. 21, 

13- 

6 Whitney, in his Translation of the 
Atharvaveda (ii. 18,1), while rendering 
the word by 'adversary,' explains it in 



a note as meaning literally 'nephew,' 
or brother's son.' 

" xxvii. 8. 

^ See several of the passages given 
in n. 4. 

* ii. 18, i; X. 9, I, etc. Cj. Tait 
tirlya Saiphit, i. 3. 2. i, etc. 

Cf. Delbriick, Die indogermanischen 
Verwandtuha/tsnamen, 501, 506, 507, 
who thinks it means a kind of brother, 
and through early family conditions 
was restricted to cousins ; Bohtlingk 
and Roth, St. Petersburg Dictionary, 
S.V. ; Weber, Indische Siudien, 17, 307. 



Bhruna-han, * slaying an embryo '; Bhpu^a-hatya, ' the 
slaying of an embryo,' are terms expressing a crime which is 
repeatedly and severely censured in the later Saiphitas,^ where 
it is said to be the greatest of all crimes, and one of which the 



1 Maitr^yani Samhit&, iv. i, 9 ; 
Kathaka Saiphiti, xxxi. 7 ; Kapi^thala 
Samhita, xlvii. 7 (cited in Delbruck, 
Die indogermanischen Verwandtsthafts- 
namen, 579, 580) ; Av. vi. 112, 3 ; 113, 2. 



The Taittiriya Samhita, vi. 5, 10, 3, 
and Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 2, 8, 11, 
have brahma-han instead ; but see ibid., 
12. 



Makga ] INFANTICIDE CROCODILE FLY BEE 



"5 



guilt cannot be removed. In many later passages ^ the same 
crime is referred to, always with reprobation : this fact alone 
shows the erroneousness of the theory^ that daughters could be 
allowed, once born, to die if their fathers so desired. 

3 Taittirtya Brahmana, iii. 9, 15, 3; 
Taittiriya Aranyaka, ii. 8,2; x. i, 15 ; 
Bfbad&ranyaka Upanisad, iv. 3, 22. 
The substantive is found in Taittiriya 
Brahmana, iii. 8, 20, i ; Taittiriya 
Aranyaka, ii. 7, 3 ; 8, 3 ; Kausitaki 
Upanisad, iii. i ; ^S.nkh&yana Srauta 



Sutra, xvi. 18, 19; Nirukta, vi. 27. 
Bhruna itself occurs in Rv. x. 155, 2. 

3 See Pati, p. 487, with n. 131. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 9, 481 ; 
10, 66 ; Bloomfield, American Journal of 
Philology, 17, 430; Hymns of the Athar- 
vaveda, 521, 522. 



Makaka, a word occurring once in the Atharvaveda (viii. 6, 
12), may be the name of some unknown animal; but it is 
possibly an adjective having some such sense as ' bleating.' 



Makara is the name of an animal, probably the 'crocodile,'^ 
which is included in the list of victims at the Asvamedha 
(' horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ 



' The Makara, as a Hindu sculptural 
ornament, originally represented a 
crocodile. Cf. Cousen's article in the 
A nnual Report of the A rchaological Survey 
of India for 1903-4, pp. 227-231 (where 
the Makara appears as the vehicle of 



Varuna and of GangS.). Cf. also op. cit., 
1904-5. PP- 80, 83, 84. 

2 Taittiriya SamhitS., v. 5, 13, i ; 
MaitrSyani Samhita, iii. 14, i6; VcLja 
saneyi Samhiti, xxiv. 35. Cf. Zimmer. 
Altindisches Leben, 97. 



Maka, 'fly,' is found in the Rigveda^ and the Atharvaveda,^ 
where its fondness for sweet things is alluded to. Cf. Admasad. 



1 iv. 45, 4 ; vii. 32, 2. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 97. 



IX, I, 17. 



Maka, Makika, denote both * fly ' ^ and ' bee ' ^ in the Rig- 
veda and later. 



1 Maksiki, Rv. i. 162, 9 ; Av. xi. i, 
2 ; 9, 10 ; Brhadiranyaka Upanisad, 
iii. 3. 2. 

2 Maks&, Rv. X. 40, 6 ; Mak^iki, 
i 119, 9 ; Pra^na Upanisad, ii, 4, where 



a ' king bee ' (madhukara-r&jan) is re- 
ferred to. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 97 ; 
Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, i, 240, 
n. I. 

82 



ii6 A DEMON A PEOPLE OF THE EAST [ Makha 

Makha appears to designate a person in two passages of the 
Rigveda,^ but in neither passage does the context explain who 
he was. Probably a demon of some kind is meant. In the 
later SarnhitSs- mention is also made of the * head of Makha/ 
an expression which has become unintelligible to the Brah- 
manas.' 



^ ix. loi, 13, where the Bhrg^ns are 
mentioned as opposed to Makha {cf. 
Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 51) ; 
X, 171, 2. 

'' VajasaneyiSanihita,xi.57; xxxvii.7; 



Taittirlya Samhita, i. i, 8, i ; iii. 2, 
4, I. 

' Satapatha Brahmana, xiv. i, 2, 17. 
Cf. St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Magfadha is the name of a people who appear throughout 
Vedic literature as of little repute. Though the name is not 
actually found in the Rigveda,^ it occurs in the Atharvaveda,^ 
where fever is wished away to the Gandharis and Miyavants, 
northern peoples, and to the Ang^as and Magadhas, peoples of 
the east. Again, in the list of victims at the Purusamedha 
(' human sacrifice') in the Yajurveda,^ the Magadha, or man of 
Magadha, is included as dedicated to ati-krusta, * loud noise ' (?), 
while in the Vratya hymn of the Atharvaveda* the Magadha is 
said to be connected with the Vratya as his Mitra, his Mantra, 
his laughter, and his thunder in the four quarters. In the 
Srauta Sutras^ the equipment characteristic of the Vratya is 
said to be given, when the latter is admitted into the Aryan 
Brahminical community, to a bad Brahmin living in Magadha 
(brahma-bandhu Mdgadha-deslya), but this point does not occur 
in the Pancavimsa Brahmana. On the other hand, respectable 
Brahmins sometimes lived there, for the Kausltaki Aranyaka' 
mentions Madhyama, Pratlbodhi-putra, as Magadha-vdsin, 
' living in Magadha.' Oldenberg,^ however, seems clearly right 
in regarding this as unusual. 



1 See Kika^. 

' V. 22, 14, where the Paippalida 
recension has mayebhih, which is a mere 
blunder, but substitutes the K&^ for 
the Ahgas. 

3 Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxx. 5. 22 ; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 4, i, i. 

* XV. 2, 1-4. 

* Lat)rayana Srauta SQtra, viii. 6, 



28 ; Katyayana Srauta Sutra, xxii. 4, 
22, Cf. Sayana on Pailcavitn^ Brah- 
mana, xvii. I, 16. 17. 

xvii. I, 16. 

' vii. 13 ; this is not mentioned in 
the earlier Aitareya Aranyaka. 

8 Buddha, 400, n. ; Weber, Indian 
Literature, 112, n. 



Magadha ] 



ABORIGINAL INFLUENCES 



"7 



The Magadhas are evidently a people in the Baudhayana and 
other Sutras, possibly also in the Aitareya Aranyaka.^ It is 
therefore most improbable that Zimmer^^ can be right in 
thinking that in the Yajurveda' and the Atharvaveda"* the 
Magadha is not a man of Magadha, but a member of the mixed 
caste produced by a Vai^ya marrying a Katriya woman. ^^ 
But the theory of mixed castes, in any case open to some 
doubt, cannot be accepted when used to explain such obviously 
tribal names as Magadha. The fact that the Magadha is 
often in later times a minstrel is easily accounted for by the 
assumption that the country was the home of minstrelsy, and 
that wandering bards from Magadha were apt to visit the more 
western lands. This class the later texts recognize as a caste, 
inventing an origin by intermarriage of the old-established 
castes. 

The dislike of the Magadhas, which may be Rigvedic, since 
the Kikatas were perhaps the prototype of the Magadhas, was 
in all probability due, as Oldenberg^^ thinks, to the fact that 
the Magadhas were not really Brahminized. This is entirely in 
accord with the evidence of the Satapatha Brahmana^* that 
neither Kosala nor Videha were fully Brahminized at an early 
date, much less Magadha. Weber^ suggests two other grounds 
that may have influenced the position the persistence of 
aboriginal blood and the growth of Buddhism. The latter 
consideration is hardly applicable to the Yajurveda or the 
Atharvaveda ; but the imperfect Brahminization of the land, if 
substituted for it in accordance with Oldenberg's suggestion, 



Baudhayana Dharma SQtra, i. 2, 
13 ; Baudhayana Srauta Sutra, xx. 13 ; 
Apastamba Srauta Sutra, xxii. 6, 18 ; 
Hiranyake^i Srauta SQtra, xvii. 6. See 
Caland, Ztitschrift der Deutschen Morgen- 
Idndischen Gesellschaft, 56, 553. 

1 ii. I, I. See Keith, Aitareya Araii- 
yaka, 200 ; Sakkhayana Aranyaka, 46, n. 4. 

** A Itindisches Leben, 35, C/. St. Peters- 
burg Dictionary, s.v., 2C. 

^3 Manu, X. 11 ; Gautama Dharma 
SQtra. iv. 17. So SSyana, on the 
Taittiriya Br&hmana, loc. cit., explains 
M&gadha, and Mabidhara, on the 



VcLjasaneyi SaiphitS, offers this as one 
version. 

13 Buddha, 400, n. 

" i. 4, I, 10 et seq. ; Weber, Indische 
StuditH, I. 170 et seq. ; Oldenberg, 
op. cit., 398. Kosala here appears as 
more Brahminical than Videha ; it is 
interesting to note that, while Vaideha, 
like M&gadha, is used in the later theory 
as a name of a mixed caste, Kausalya 
is not so degraded (Oldenberg, 399, n.). 

1' See Indische Studien, 1, 52. 53; 
185 ; 10, 99 ; Indian Literature, 79, n. i ; 
III. 112. 



ii8 NON-ARYANS A PEST BOUNTY [ Magundi 

would have some force. The former motive, despite Olden- 
berg's doubt, seems fully justified. Pargiter^' has gone so 
far as to suggest that in Magadha the Aryans met and mingled 
with a body of invaders from the east by sea. Though there 
is no evidence for this view in the Vedic texts, it is reason- 
able to suppose that the farther east the Aryans penetrated, 
the less did they impress themselves upon the aborigines. 
Modern ethnology confirms this a priori supposition in so far as 
it shows Aryan types growing less and less marked as the 
eastern part of India is reached, although such evidence is not 
decisive in view of the great intermixture of peoples in India. 

* Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, I Cf. Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 6, 
1908, pp. 851-853. I 24, 260, 267. 

Magfundl is the name of some pest occurring in a verse of an 
Atharvaveda hymn^ employed to exorcise evil influences. By 
that verse the * daughters of the Magundi ' are to be expelled 
from the cowstall, the wagon, and the house. It is uncertain 
whether an animal, insect, or demoness is meant.^ 

' ii. 14, 2. * Cf. Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 58. 

Magfha in the Rigveda'^ denotes 'bounty,' and Maghavan^ is 
the regular Vedic name for the * generous giver ' of bounties to 
priests. It is doubtful whether the Maghavans were more than 
this, or had any special rank as a class in Vedic society. See 
Sabha. 



1 i. II, 3; 104. 5; iu. 13. 3; 19, I ; 
iv. 17, 8 ; V. 30, 12 ; 32, 12, etc. ; 
Nirukta, v. 16. Very rarely later, e.g.. 



epithet par excellence of Indra in the 
Rv. (iii. 30, 3 ; iv, 16, i ; 31. 7 ; 42, 5. 
etc.), and survives in post- Vedic litera- 



Vajasaneyi Saiphitt, xx. 67. | ture as a name of Indra ; otherwise, 

* Rv. i. 31, 12 ; ii. 6, 4 ; 27, 17 ; even in the later Satnhit<ls, it is very 



V. 39, 4 ; 42, 8 ; vi. 27, 8, etc. So 
Magha-tti, 'giving of gifts,' Rv. iv. 37, 
8 : V. 79, 5 ; viii. 24, 10, etc. ; Magha- 
deya, 'giving of gifts,' vii, 67, 9; 
X. 156. 2; Maghavat-tva, 'liberality,' 
vi. 27, 3. The word Maghavan is the 



rare, occurring practically as a divine 
epithet only (of Indra, Taittirtya Sam- 
hita, iv. 4, 8, I ; Brhadaranyaka Upani- 
sad, i. 3, 13 ; Kausitaki Upanisad, 
ii. II). 



Magrha. See Nakatra and Ag-ha. 

Mahg'ala is the name of a teacher in the BaudhSyana Srauta 
Sutra (xxvi. 2). 



Mani ] 



MADDER HAILSTONES AMULET 



119 



Mahgrira is found in an obscure verse in the Vaitana^ and 
other 2 Sutras with reference to cows. It is quite uncertain 
whether a river or a man^ is meant. The Ganga (Ganges) and 
the Yamuna (Jumna) are mentioned in the same verse. The 
correct form of the word is doubtful.* 



* XXXI V. 9, 

' MSLnava Srauta SQtra, vii. 2, 7; 
Mandlrasya, Katyayana Srauta SQtra, 
xiii. 3, 21 ; Mahk'trasya, Apastamba 
Srauta SQtra, xxi. 20, 3. 



So apparently Garbe, Translation 
of the Vaitana SQtra. 97 ; Caland, 
Das Vaitdnasutra, 102 ; Bohtlingk, Dic- 
tionary, s.v, 

* See the variants in n . 2. 



Manji^^ha, ' madder,' is mentioned in the Aitareya (iii. 2, 4) 
and Sahkhayana (viii. 7) Aranyakas. 



Mataci occurs in a passage of the Chandogya Upanisad,^ 
where reference is made to the KuPUS being overwhelmed by 
Matacis.2 Sahkara interprets the word by * thunderbolts ' 
(asanayah), while Anandatirtha in his commentary gives, as an 
alternative rendering, pdsdna-vrstayah i.e., ' hailstones,' which 
may be the sense. The Sabdakalpadruma,^ agreeing with 
Anandatirtha,* says that Mataci means *a kind of small red 
bird' (rakta-varna-ksudra-paksi-visesa, reading -paksl-), and 
Jacob ^ suggests that the 'locust ' is meant. 



* i. 10, I. 

* Matacl-hata. 

' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



* On BrahmasQtra, iii. 4, 28. 
5 Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
1911, p. 510. 



Mani is the name in the Rigveda^ and later ^ of a 'jewel ' used 
as an amulet against all kinds of evil. That either 'pearl '^ or 
diamond'* is denoted is not clear.^ It is evident that the 



1 i. 33. 8. 

Av. i. 29, i; ii. 4, i. 2; viii. 3, 
1 et seq.; x. 6, 24 ; xii. i, 44 ; Taittiriya 
SatnhitS., vii. 3, 4, i ; K3.tbaka Saiphiti, 
XXXV. 15; Aitareya Bra.hmana, iv. 6; 
Nirukta, vii. 23, where Durga, in his 
commentary, takes Mani as idityamani, 
or 'sun-stone,' while the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, s.v., suggests that a crystal 
used as a burning glass may be meant. 



3 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

* Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Lihen, 

53- 

* The expression hiranya mani in Rv. 
i. 33, 8, might possibly mean 'gold as 
an ornament,' but ' gold (and) jewels ' 
is more probable. Cf. Av. xii. i, 44, 
where maiiiip. hiranyam must mean ' a 
jewel (and) gold.' 



I20 



WA TER BOTTLE R UDDER FROG 



Manika 



Mani conld be strung on a thread (sntra), which is referred to 
in the Paiicavirnsa Brahmana and elsewhere f the Mani was 
certainly also worn round the neck, for in the Rigveda occurs 
the epithet mani-grlva, * having a jewel on the neck.' An 
amulet of Bilva is celebrated in the Sahkhayana Aranyaka, 
and many varieties of amulet are there enumerated.^ The 
'jeweller' {mani-kdra) is mentioned in the list of victims at the 
Purusamedha (* human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda." 



* XX. i6, 6. 

' Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana, 
i. i8, 8. Cf. iii. 4, 13 ; Jaiminiya 
Br&bmana, ii. 248 ; ^atapatha Brah- 
mana, xii. 3, 4, 2. 
^ i. 122, 14. 

xii. 18 et seq. 10 xii. 8. 

*i Vajasaneyi SamhitS, xxx. 7 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brclhmana, iii. 4, 3, i. 



Cf. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 
337 ; Zimmer, op. cit. , 253 ; Weber, 
Omina und Portenta, 317, 374 ; Indische 
Studien, 2, 2, n. 4; 5, 386; 18, 37; 
Proceedings of the Berlin Academy, 1891, 
796. Weber is inclined to detect a 
Babylonian origin of Mani {cf. Maa&), 
but the evidence is not convincing. 



Manika in the late Adbhuta Brahmana^ and the Sutras ^ 
denotes a large * water bottle.' 

1 Weber, Omina und Portenta, 316. iii. 9, 6. 7. etc. ; Sankhayana Grhya 

2 A^valayana Gfhya Sutra, ii. 9, 3 ; Sutra, ii. 14. 
iv. 6, 4 ; Gobhila Grhya Sutra, i, i, 26; 



Manda, n., 

denoting the 
Brahmana.^ 



is found in the compound 
two 'rudders' of a ship in 



nau-manda (du.), 
the Satapatha 



1 11. 3, 3, 15. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred 
Books of the East, 12, 345, n. 3, who, 
following the commentary, accepts 



'sides' as the meaning; Caland, Vber 
das rituelle Sutra des Baudhayana, 60. 



Mandtika is the name of 'frog ' in the Rigveda* and later,^ 
the feminine MandukI also occurring.^ The famous frog hymn 
of the Rigveda* compares with Brahmins the frogs croaking 



1 vil. 103, I ; X. 166, 5. 

' Av. vil. 112, 2 ; Taittiriya Saiphita, 
V. 4, 4, 3 ; 7, II, I ; Kathaka Samhita, 
xiii. 1 ; xxi. 7 ; Maitrayani Samhita, 
iii. I4, 2 ; vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 36 ; 
Pancavim^a Brahmana, xii. 4, :6 ; 
Satapatha Brahmana, ix. i, 2, 20 
it seq. ; Nirukta, ix. 5. 

Rv. X. 16, 14; Av. xviii. 3, 60; 



Vajasaneyi Sarnhita, xvii. 6 ; Taittiriya 
Samhita, iv. 6, i, 2 ; Kathaka Samhita, 
xvii. 17 ; Maitrayani Samhita, ii. 10, i ; 
Taittiriya Aranyaka, vi. 4, i. 

* vii. 103. Cf. Av. iv. 15, 12, as 
explained by Pischel, Vedische Studien, 
2, 223, where reference is made to frogs 
in the clefts of the earth (Irina). 



Matsya ] 



RAIN-CHARMFISHA TRIBE 



121 



as they awake to activity at the beginning of the rains. It has 
been explained by Max Miiller* as a satire on the Brahmins. 
Geldner, agreeing with this view, thinks that it is directed by 
its Vasi^tha composer against rival Brahmins, probably the 
Vi^vamitras.' The view, however, which interprets the hymn 
as a rain charm ^ seems on the whole more likely. The frog, 
from its connexion with water, was considered to have cooling 
properties. Thus after the burning of the dead body the frog 
is invited to come to the spot where the cremation has taken 
place in order to cool it down. Similarly the frog is invoked 
in the Atharvaveda against the fire of fever.^ 



' Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 494. 495. 

Rigveda, Kommentar, 117. 

' Geldner, loc. cit., very plausibly 



Mythology, p. 151 ; Sanskrit Literature, 
121, 122. 
8 Rv. X. 16, 14. See Bloomfield, 



points out that the last Pada of this | American Journal of Philology, 11, 342- 



Vasistha hymn is borrowed from the 
most important Vigvimitra hymn (Rv. 

"i 53. 7)- 

8 Yaska, Nirukta, ix. 5 ; Bloomfield, 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
^7. 173 I79. Cf. Macdonell, Vedic 



350 ; Lanman in Whitney's Translation 
of the Atharvaveda, 850. 

^ Av. vii. 116. See Bloomfield, 
Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 565. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 95. 



I. Matsya, 'fish,' is mentioned only once in the Rigveda,^ 
but frequently later.^ 



' Av. xi. 2, 25 ; 
i. 9, 5 ; 14, 2 ; 



X. 68, 8. 

Maitrftyani Samhita, 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
xxiv. 21, 34 ; Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 6, 
6, I ; Satapatha Brahmana, i. 8, i, i 
(the famous fish of the deluge legend) ; 
Chandogya Upanisad, i. 4, 3 ; Kausitaki 



Upanisad, i. 2; mahH-matsya, 'great 
fish,' Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, iv. 3, 
18. In the Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. 4, 
3, 12 {cf. A^valayana ^rauta Sutra, 
X. 7, 8 ; SSiikhayana ^rauta Sutra, 
xvi. 2, 23), a Matsya Sammada is 
personified as the king of the fishes. 



2. Matsya appears to be the name of a people in one passage 
of the Rigveda,^ where they are ranged with the other enemies 
of Sudas, although it is possible to see merely the sense of 
* fish ' in that passage. In the list of A^vamedhins, ' offerers of 
the horse sacrifice,' in the Satapatha Brahmana,^ Dhvasan 
Dvaitavana is mentioned as a Matsya king (Matsya). The 
Matsyas as a people occur also in the Kausitaki Upanisad* in 

1 vii. 18, 6. > xiii. 3, 4, 9. 3 iy. i. 



122 



HONEY-PLANT DIVER-BIRD 



[ Madavati 



connexion with the VaSas,"* and in the Gopatha BrShmana'* in 
connexion with l^alvas. In Manu the Kuruketra, the 
Matsyas, the Pancalas, and the iSurasenakas comprise the 
land of the Brahmin Rsis (brahmarsi-desa). There is no 
reason to doubt that the Matsyas occupied much the same 
territory as in Epic times, say Alwar, Jaipur, Bharatpur.'' 

* This is the most probable reading, 
which results from a comparison with 
Gopatha Br&hmana, i. 2, 9, where 
Sdlva-Matsyefu is followed by savaia- 
Uitnarept (misprinted iavaia-). See 
Keiih, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
1908, 367. The older view was Satvan- 
Maisyesu, Max Miiller, Sacred Books of 
the East, 1, Ixxvii, following Cowell ; 
St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. Satvant. 



i. 2, 9. 

ii. 19; vii. 193. 

' See Vincent Smith, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 
56, 675. 

Cf. von Schroeder, Indiens Literatur 
und Cultur, 166 ; Weber, Indische Studien, 
I, 211 ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 
127. 



Mada-vati, * intoxicating/ is the name of a plant in the 
Atharvaveda.^ 



1 vi. 16, 2 ; cf. iv. 7, 4. Cf. Whitney, 
Translation of the Atharvaveda, 292 ; 



Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 
465 ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 72. 



Madugfha, ' honey-plant,'^ is the name of a sweet herb in the 
Atharvaveda.^ The spelling is somewhat uncertain, '='"<-' 
many manuscripts read Madhugha.^ 



smce 



1 The literal meaning is probably 
yielding honey,' the word being, ac- 
cording to the commentator, derived 
irom madhu - dugha, a word actually 
occurring in the Rigveda (vi. 70, i. 5). 

3 i. 34, 4 ; vi. 102, 3. Cf. Weber, 
Indische Studien, 5, 386, n, ; 404 ; 
Whitney, Translation of the Atharva- 



veda, 34, 35, 355 ; Bloomfield, Hymns 
of the Atharvaveda, 275 ; Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, 69. 

3 These two forms probably stand 
by haplology for maldhuydugha and 
madhu -[dulgha. Cf. Macdonell, Vedic 
Grammar, 64, la. 



Madgfu, * diver ' (from the root majj,^ ' dive '), is the name of 
some aquatic bird which is included in the list of victims at the 
A^vamedha ('horse sacrifice') in the Yajurveda SamhitSs,* and 
is occasionally mentioned elsewhere.' 

Maitrayan! Saiphiti, iii. 14, 3 ; V&ja- 
saneyi Samhit&, xxiv. 22. 34. 
' Chandogya Upanisad, iv. 8. i. 2. 



i See Macdonell, Vedic Grammar, 38c ; 
' Taittiriya Sanihit&, v. 5, 20, i ; 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 93. 



Madhu] 



LIQUOR A PEOPLE MEAD 



123 



Madya, 'intoxicating liquor,' is not mentioned until the 
ChSndogya Upanisad,^ where it occurs in the compound 
madya-pd, drinking intoxicating liquor.' 

^ V. 11,5. The word is found in the Epic and often in the Dharma^stras, as 
well as in medical texts. 



Madra denotes a people who are mentioned in the Brhad- 
aranyaka Upanisad ;^ Kapya Patancala was then living among 
them. Their name appears elsewhere in Vedic literature, only 
in that of a branch, the Uttara Madras, the ' northern Madras,' 
who are referred to in the Aitareya Brahmana^ as living 
beyond the Himalaya (parena Himavantam) in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Uttara Kurus, probably, as Zimmer^ con- 
jectures, in the land of Ka^mir. The Madras mentioned in 
the Upanisad were, like the Kurus, probably settled some- 
where in Kuruketra in the Madhyade^a or 'Middle Land.' 
Cf. Madrag-ara. 



m. 3, I ; 7, I. 



via. 14, 3. 



3 Altindisches Leben, 102. 



Madra-grara l^auhg^ayani ('descendant of Sunga') is the 
name of a teacher, whose pupil was Kamboja Aupamanyava in 
the Varnsa Brahmana.^ Zimmer^ concludes, with probability, 
that these names point to a connexion of the Kambojas and the 
Madras. 



1 Indische Studien, 4, 372. 



3 Altindisches Leben, 102. 



Madhu denotes anything sweet used as food, and especially 
drink, ' mead,' ^ a sense often found in the Rigveda.^ More 
precisely it denotes either 'Soma'^ or 'milk,'* or less often 



1 The word is etymologically identical 
with Greek fU$v, 'intoxicating drink,' 
and Anglo-Saxon medu, ' mead.' 

* Used as an adjective, 'sweet,' in 
Rv. i, 90, 6, 8 ; 187, 2 ; iii. i, 8 ; 
iv. 34, 2 ; 42, 3 ; Vajasaneyi SaqfihitA, 
xxxviii. 10, etc. ; as a substantive, Rv. 
>. 154, 4 ; > 37. 5 ; i- 39, 6 ; iv. 38, 



10, etc. ; Av. vi. 69, 1 ; ix. i, 22 ; 
Taittiriya Brclhmana, iii. i, 2, 4. 13, 
etc. 

Rv. i. 19, 9 ; ii. 19, 2 ; 34, 5 ; 36, 4 ; 
I"- 43. 3; iV' 18, 13, etc. 

* Rv. L 117, 6; 169. 4; 177, 3; 
iii. 8, I ; vii. 24, 2 ; Vajasaneyi Saip- 
hita, vi. 2, etc. 



124 HONEY-TEACHERS MILK-WHIP BEE [ Madhuka 

'honey,''* which, however, is the most definite sense in the 
later literature. Taboos against the use of honey are recorded.* 

Rv. viii. 4, 8 (where the sense is mana, i. 6, 2, i. 2 ; xi. 5, 4, 18 ; 
made certain by the adjective sHragha, BrhadSranyaka, ii. 5, i ; ChSndogya 



' derived from the bee ') ; perhaps also 
'^- 45. 4 ; vii. 32, 2 ; viii. 24, 20, and, 
according to Hillebrandt, Vedische Myth- 
ologie, I, 239 et uq., in many other 
passages : Av. ix. i, 17. 19 ; Taittirlya 
Saiphita, vii. 5, 10, 1 ; Maitryanl 
Samhita, iv. 9, 7 ; Aitareya Br&hmana, 
vii. 15 ; viii. 5. 20 ; ^atapatha Brah- 



Upanisad, vi. 9, i, etc. 

In the case of women, Jaiminlya 
Upanisad BrShmana, i. 55. 2 ; of 
students, ^atapatha Brahmana, xi. 5, 
4. 18. 

Cf. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 
321 ; St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Madhuka Paingya (' descendant of Pihga ') is the name of a 
teacher mentioned in the Satapatha^ and the Kausitaki* 
Brahmanas. 

* xi. 7, 2, 8 ; Bfhadtranyaka Upanisad, vi. 3, 17. 18 (MadhyaTndina=vi. 3, 
8 Kanva). a xvi. 9. 



Madhu-ka^^ or Madhoh Ka^a,^ is the name in the Rigveda 
of the A^vins' * honey-whip,' by which they impart sweetness to 
the sacrifice. Roth^ ingeniously conjectures that the idea was 
derived from an instrument provided with thongs for whipping 
milk, a ' milk-whip.' 

* Rv. i. 22, 3 ; 157, 4 ; Av. X. 7, 19 ; I * Av. ix. i, 5. 
PancavimSa BrcLhmana, xxi. 10, 12. | 3 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Madhu-krt, * honey-maker,' denotes * bee ' in the later Sam- 
hitas^ and the Brahmanas.* 



^ Taittiriya Saipbita, i, 5, 6, 5 ; iv. 2, 
9, 6, etc. 
' Taittirlya BrShmana, iii. 10, 10, i ; 



^atapatha Brabmana, i. 6, 2, i. 2 ; 
Ch&ndogya Upanisad, iii. 1,2; vi. 9, i, 
etc. 



Madhu-chandas, the reputed author of the first ten hymns of 
the first Mandala of the Rigveda, is mentioned as a Rsi in the 
Kauaitaki Brahmana^ and the Aitareya Aranyaka.* In the 

1 xxviii. a. i. I, 3. 



Madhyade^ ] MYSTIC DOCTRINE MIDDLE COUNTRY 125 

Aitareya Brahmana' he counts as the fifty-first son of Vi^va- 
mitra, and his Praiiga (hymn at the morning service) is 
mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana.* 

' vii. 17. 7 ; 18, I ; cf. ^nkbcLyana rauta SQtra, xv. 26, i et seq. Cf. Keith, 
Aitareya Aranyaka, 167. * xiii. 5, I, 8. 



Madhu-brahma^a, 'the Brahmana of the Honey,* is the 
designation of a certain mystical doctrine in the Satapatha 
Brahmana.^ 

1 iv. I, 5, 18 ; xiv. 1,4, 13 ; Brhadaranyaka Upanisaul, ii. 5, 16. Cf. Weber, 
Indische Studien, i, 290. 



Madhya-de^a, the * Middle Country,' is, according to the 
Manava Dharma Sastra,^ the land between the Himalaya in 
the north, the Vindhya in the south, Vinai^ana in the west, 
and Prayaga (now Allahabad) in the east that is, between the 
place where the Sarasvati disappears in the desert, and the 
point of the confluence of the Yamuna (Jumna) and the Ganga 
(Ganges). The same authority ^ defines Brahmarsi-de^a as 
denoting the land of KuFuketra, the Matsyas, Pancalas, and 
li^urasenakas, and Brahmavarta^ as meaning the particularly 
holy land between the Sarasvati and the Dradvati. The 
Baudhayana Dharma Sutra"* defines Aryavarta as the land east 
of Vinasana ; west of the Kalaka-vana, * Black Forest,' or rather 
Kanakhala, near Hardvar; south of the Himalaya; and north 
of the Pariyatra or the Paripatra Mountains ; adding that, in 
the opinion of others,^ it was confined to the country between 
the Yamuna and the Ganga, while the Bhallavins took it as 
the country between the boundary-river (or perhaps the Saras- 



1 ii. 21. 

* ii. 19. 

* ii. 17. 19- 

* i. 2, 9 ; Vasistha Dharma SQira, 
i. 8. 

* Baudhayana, i. 2. 10 ; Vasistha, 
i, 12. See on Kanakhala, Hultzsch, 
Indian Antiquary, 34, 179. 

* Baudhayana, i. 2, 11. 12 ; Vasistha, 



i. 14. 15, quoting in each case a verse 
of the Nidana (what work is referred 
to is not certain ; there is similau: doubt 
as to the quotation in the Nidana of 
the Bhallavi Brahmana, according to 
the Brhaddevata, v. 23, where see 
Macdonell's note, and cf. Biihler, Sacred 
Books of the East, 14, 3, 0.). 



126 



LOCATION OF THE MIDDLE COUNTRY [ Madhyade^a 



vati)'^ and the region where the sun rises. The MSnava 
Dharma Sastra, in accord with the Vasistha Dharma Sutra, 
defines ArySvarta as the region between the Vindhya and the 
Himalaya, the two ranges which seem to be the boundaries of 
the Aryan world in the Kausitaki Upanisad also.^ 

The term Madhyadesa is not Vedic, but it is represented in 
the Aitareya Brahmana^^ by the expression madhyama pratisthd 
dis, ' the middle fixed region,' the inhabitants of which are 
stated to be the Kurus, the Pancalas, the Vaias, and the 
U^inaras. The latter two peoples practically disappear later 
on, the Madhyadesa being the country of the Kuru- Pancalas, 
the land where the Brahmanas and the later Sarnhitas were 
produced, bounded on the east by the Kosala-Videhas, and on 
the west by the desert. The western tribes are mentioned with 
disapproval both in the Satapatha Brahmana^ and the Aitareya 
Brahmana,^^ while the tradition of the Brahminization of the 
Kosalas and the Videhas from the Kuru-Pancala country is 
preserved in the former Brahmana.^** 



7 The reaxlings are doubtful, varying 
between sindhur vidharanl or vidharanl 
and sindhur vicarani or visararu. The 
latter expression must refer to the 
Sarasvati; the former may, but not 
necessarily. Conceivably the Sindhu 
(Indus) is meant ; for it was a great 
boundary, with Aryan tribes to the east 
of it. 

^ ii. 22. 

^^ ii. 13. Cf. Keith, Sshkhayana 
Aranyaka, 28, n. i. 

1^ viii. 14, 3. The U^inaras may be 
recognized as in the north, for the 
Buddhist texts give Usiragiri as the 
northern boundary of the middle 
country. See (iultzsch, Indian Anti- 

gu'^'y, 34. 179- 

12 ix. 3, 1,8. 

13 iii. 44, 3 ; Ludwig, Translation of 
the Kigveda, 3, 245. 

" i. 4. I. 

Cf. Biihler, Sacred Books 0/ the East, 
Ml 2i 3 i M^' '47> w^o points out that 
the Pa.ripatra Mountains are a part of 



the Vindhya range in M3.1vJl, and who 
suggests that the western boundary was 
originally the Adar^a Mountains ; for 
the reading of the manuscripts, and 
of the scholiast Kpsnapandita, in the 
Vasistha Dharma Sntra, i. 8, is prdg 
adarianat, not adariandt (corresponding 
with the Vinaiana of Baudh3.yana 
Dharma Sutra, i. 2, g), and the Maha- 
bhasya on Panini, ii. 4, 10, has prdg 
ddaridt. See also for the Buddhist 
' Middle Country ' an article by Rhys 
Davids, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1904, 83 et seq., with Fleet's 
corrections, ibid., 1907, 657; and cf. 
Keith, ibid., 1908, 1143; Max Muller, 
Sacred Books of the East, 32, 58, 59 ; 
Indian Empire, i, 303, 304, where the 
extraordinary theory is adopted that 
the Madhyadesa was peopled by a new 
race of immigrant Aryans, who, travel- 
ling via Chitral and Gilgit, and bringing 
no women with them, married Dravidian 
women, and produced the so-called 
Aryo-Dravidians. It is quite impossible 
to find any support for this theory in 



Madhyama^i ] MID-DAY CHARIOT ARBITRATOR 



127 



Vedic literature. To say, as is there 
said, that the ' Vedic hymns contain 
no reference to the route by which the 
Aryans entered India or to their earlier 
settlements on the Indus,' and that this 
is explained by the theory of the entry 
of the Vedic Indians vi& Chitral, is to 



assert absurdities. The theory is based 
on the later dialects and their affinities 
(see Grierson, Indian Empire, i, 357 
et seq.); it can probably not be regarded 
as at all valid for any period at any 
rate, it is not cogent for the eighth 
century, b.c. 



Madhyaip-dina, ' mid-day,' is a frequent designation of time 
in the Rigveda,^ the later Samhitas,^ and the Brahmanas.^ 
Cf. Ahan. 

Upanisad, ii, 9, 6 ; 14, I, etc. The 
word is sometimes used as an abbrevia- 
tion for the ' midday libation ' (like 
mittag in German for ' midday meal ') 
in Aitareya Brahmana, iii. 10, 2. 5 ; 
Kausltaki Brahmana, xxix. 8. 



I. 29; 13, 13; 27, 



1 iv. 28, 3 ; viii. 
19 ; X. 151, 5, etc. 

' Av. ix. 6, 46; Taittiriya SamhitS, 
vi. 2, 5, 4, etc. 

' Pancavim^a BrSLhmana, xv. g, 16; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 5, 3> 2 ; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, ii. 2, 3, 9 ; Chindogya 



Madhyama-vah occurs in one passage of the Rigveda^ as an 
epithet of the chariot. The exact interpretation is doubtful. 
Roth ^ assigns to it the expression the sense of ' driving with a 
single horse between the shafts.' According to Sayana's 
explanation, it means ' driving with middling speed.' It might 
mean * driving in the middle ' that is, * only half-way.'* 

1 ii. 29, 4. The context seems to require the sense 

2 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. of ' keeping away ' from the sacrifice. 
Cf. Oldenberg, Rgveda-Notett, i, 210. Cf. Purvavah. 



Madhyama-^1 is found in one passage of the Rigveda,* where 
Roth 2 assigns to the word the meaning of intercessor, which 
Zimmer^ accepts, in the sense of 'mediator' or 'arbiter,' as a 
legal term, but which Roth may, as Lanman* suggests, have 
intended to express ' adversary ' or * preventer ' of the disease 
referred to in the hymn. Whitney^ thinks that it means * mid- 



^ X. 97, i2 = Av. iv. 9, 4 = Vajasaneyi 
Samhit&, xii. 86. 
^ St Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 
' A Uindisches Leben, 180. C/. Dharma. 
* In Whitney's Translation of the 



Atharvaveda. 159. But see Roth, Sie- 
bcnzig Lieder, 174, which Lanman may 
have overlooked, since he does not 
refer to it. 
" Loc. cit. 



128 



CHIEF THE RAINS ORNAMENT [ Madhyamastha 



most man' or 'chief as the one round whom his followers 
encamp. Geldner/ however, thinks that a third king, who is 
* neutral ' between two enemies, is intended. 



* Madhyamailvan, in the Jaiminlya 
Br&hmana, ii. 408, is obscure. 
' Rigvtda, Glossar, 131 ; Kommmtar, 



196 (where he seems to decide in favour 
of derivation from il, not ir) . 



Madhyama-stha,^ Madhyame-tha,2 in the later Samhitas 
denotes the chief in his relation to his followers (sajdta). Cf. 
MadhyamaiSi. 

1 Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxvii. 5. I stheya, 'position of chief,' Taittiriya 

' Av. iii. 8, 2, and cf. Madhyama- \ Samhita, iv. 4, 5, i. 

Cf. Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 96. 



Madhya-vara, the * middle of the rains,' is specially 
mentioned as a time of the year in the Kausitaki Brahmana^ 
and in the Sutras.^ 



1.3- 



'^ ^ahkhayana ^rauta Sutra, iii. 5, 5. 7, etc. 



Manasa, occurring in one passage of the Rigveda,^ seems 
clearly to be the name of a Rsi, in accordance with Sayana's 
interpretation. 

1 v. 44, 10. Cf. Ludwig. Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 139. 



Mana is found in one passage of the Rigveda^ in an enumera- 
tion of gifts, where it is described as ' golden ' (sacd mand 
hiranyayd). It therefore seems to designate some ornament, or 
possibly a weight, and has accordingly been compared'^ with 
the Greek fiva (Herodotus has fivea), the Latin utina. All three 
words have been considered Semitic in origin, as borrowed from 
the Phoenicians^ in the case of Greece, from Carthage by way 



^ viii. 78, 2. 

* As, e.g., by Zimmer, Altindisches 
Leben, 50, 51 ; Weber, Indische Studien, 
5, 386 ; 17, 202, 203 ; Wackernagel, 
Altindische Grammatik, i, xxii; Hopkins, 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
16, 278. 



^ Or perhaps from Babylon vi4 
Asia Minor. The part played by the 
Phoenicians in Greek life is now reduced 
within narrow limits ; in the case of 
the mina, probably their commercial 
activities may be considered as likely to 
have caused the adoption of the term. 



Manu ] BABYLONIAN INFLUENCE THE FIRST MAN 129 



of Etruria or Sicily in the case of Rome, and from Babylon in 
the case of India. The identification as regards Mana is very 
conjectural, depending merely on the probabilities of Babylonian 
borrowing^ seen e.g., in the legend of the flood, and in the 
system of the Nak^atras. On the other hand, Mana may very 
well be identical with the word mana which occurs several 
times in the Rigveda* in the sense of ' desire ' (from the root 
man, 'think'), and which may have in this one passage the 
concrete sense of ' desirable object.' It is to be noted that in 
Bohtlingk's Dictionary a single word Mana appears, to which 
the only senses assigned are 'wish,' 'desire,' 'jealousy.' 



* See, .^., for borrowing, Oldenberg, 
Religion des Veda, 276 ; Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen MorgerUdndischen Gesellschaft, 
50, 43 et seq. ; Biihler, Indian Studies, 3, 
16 et seq. ; Indische Palaographie, 17 ; 
Vincent Smith, Indian Antiquary, 34, 
230. On the other side, cf. Max Miiller, 
India, 133-138 ; Hopkins, Religions of 
India, 160; Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, 
p. 139 (as regards the flood legend); 



Bloomfield, Religions 0/ India, 133 et seq. 
(as regards the Adityas). 

* i. 173. 2 ; iv. 33, 2 ; X. 6. 3 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Samhitt, iv. 19; 'jealousy.' 
Rv. ii. 33, 5; Kau^ika Sutra, cvii. 2. 
There are also the derivatives mana-ya, 
' think of,' ' be zealous': Rv. i. 133, 4; 
ii. 26, 2; mand-yu, 'desirous': Rv. 
i. 92, 9 ; iv. 24, 7 ; 7nana-vasu, 'rich in 
devotion': Rv. v. 74, i. 



Manavi, ' wife of Manu,' is mentioned in the Kathaka Sarn- 
hita^ and the Satapatha Brahmana.^ See Manu. 



^ XXX. I {Indische Studien, 3, 462). 



i. I, 4, 16. 



Manu in the Rigveda^ and later* has no claim to historical 
reality. He is simply the first man, father of the race, and its 
guide in all matters, sacrificial and other. Hence the views of 
the texts on inheritance are foisted on Manu and his youngest 
son, Nabhaneditha.^ He also plays the part of the hero in the 
Vedic legend of the flood.'' 



1 i. 80, 16; ii. 33, 13; viii. 63, i; 
X. 100, 5, etc. See Macdonell, Vedic 
Mythology, 50. 

3 Av. xiv. 2, 41 ; Taittiriya Satphitcl, 
i. 5. I. 3 ; vii. 5, 15, 3 : ii. 5. 9. i : 
6, 7, I ; iii. 3. 2i i ; v. 4, 10, 5 ; vi. 6, 
6, I ; Kathaka Sambita, viii. 15 ; Sata- 

VOL. II. 



patha BreLhmana, i. i, 4, 14, etc. ; 
Jaiminiya Upanisad Brihmana, iii. 15, 
2, etc. 

' Taittiriya Samhitl, iii. i, 9, 4 ; 
Aitareya Br3,hmana, v. 14, i. 2. 

* Satapatha Brihmaria, i. 8, i, i / seq.; 
Kithaka Saiphita. xi. 2. 

9 



130 DELUGE MOUNTAIN HUMAN RACE [ Manor Avasarpana 



Manu is called Vivasvan^ or Vaivasvata, ' son of Vivasvant ' 
(the god) ; SSvarni,* ' descendant of Savarna ' (the substitute of 
Saranyu in the legend of her wedding) ; and Samvarani/ 
' descendant of Samvarana.' The first name is, of course, 
mythical. The other two have been regarded as historical, 
Savarni being taken by Ludwig^ as a king of the Turva^as, but 
this is very doubtful. 



" Rv. viii. 52, I. 

' Av. viii. 10, 24 ; ^atapatha Brah- 
mana, xiii. 4, 3, 3 ; A^valayana ^rauta 
Sutra, X. 7 ; Nirukta, xii. 10. 

' Rv. viii. 51, I ; Bloom&eld, Journal 
of the A merican Oriental Society, 1 5, 1 80, n., 
conjectures Savarni instead. Cf. Schef- 
telowitz, Die Apokryphen des Rf^veda, 38. 

8 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 166. 



Cf. Weber, Indische Stiidien, i, 195 ; 
Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, 11, 240; L^vi, La Doctrine du 
Sacrifice, 114 */ seq. ; St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, s.v. ; Muir, Sanskrit texts, 
I-, 161 et seq. ; Biihler, Sacred Books of 
the East, 25, Ivii et seq. ; Lanman, 
Sanskrit Reader, 340 et seq. 



Manop Avasarpana is the name, in the Satapatha Brah- 
mana,^ of the mountain on which the vessel of Manu rested. 
In the Epic the name is Naubandhana, but the view^ that it is 
alluded to as Navaprabhram^ana in the AtharVaveda^ is now 
abandoned.'* 



i. 8. I, 8. 

2 See Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, 
p. 139; Whitney, Indische Studien, i, 
16a; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 30; 
Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 
676, 



xix. 39, 8. 

* Whitney, Translation of the Athar- 
vaveda, 961 ; Macdonell, /owrna/ of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1907, 1107. 



Manuya-raja^ and Manuya-rajan2 denote in the later 
Sarnhitas and the Brahmanas a * king of men.' Cf. Raj an. 



^ Vajasaneyi Sanihita, xxiv. 30 ; 
.\itareya Brahmana, i. 15, 6; Kathaka 
SaiphitSL, xxiv. 7. 



* Paficavini^a Brahmana, xviii. 10, 5 ; 
Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 26, 4. 



Manuya-vi6,^ Manuya-visa,2 and Manuya-vi6a3 denote 
'mankind,' 'the human race,' in the later Sarnhitas and the 
Brahmanas. 



' Aitareya BrSbmana, i. 9. i. ' Taittiriya Sanihita, v. 4, 7, 7; vi. i, 5, 3. 

* Kathaka Samhita, xi. 6 ; xxiii. 8. 



Mantha ] HYMN A BEVERAGE CHURN 131 

Mantra (from the root man, * think ') denotes in the Rigveda ^ 
and later ^ the 'hymn' as the product of the singer's creative 
thought. In the Brahmanas^ the word is regularly used of the 
poetic and prose utterances of the Rsis, including not merely 
the verse parts of the Sarnhitas, but also the prose formulae 
that betray by their style their special and archaic character."* 

^ i. 31, 13; 40, 5; 67, 4; 74, i; I 1,6; Nirukta, vii. I, etc. ; ChS.ndogya 

152, 2; ii. 35, 2, etc. Upanisad, vii. i, 3. 

* Av. XV. 2, I ; xix. 54, 3 ; Taittiriya I * Bloomfield, Vedic Concordance, viii ; 

Saiphita, i. 5, 4, I ; 5, I, etc Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 298. Mac- 

' Aitsureya Brahmana, v. 14, 23 ; | donell's Vedic Grammar covers the 

vi. I ; Kausitaki Brthmana, xxvi. 3. 5 ; Mantra material of the Vedic Sarnhitas, 

Satapatba BrS.hmana, i. 4, 4, 6; xi. 2, i prose as well as poetry. 



Mantra-kft in the Rigveda^ and the Brahmanas^ denotes a 
poet as a ' maker of Mantras.' 

' ix. 114, 2. I vima Brahmana, xiii. 3, 24 ; TjiittirTya 

' AitareyaBr&hmana,vi. I, I ; Paiica- I Aranyaka, iv. i, i. 

Mantha in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes a drink in which 
solid ingredients are mixed with a fluid by stirring, usually 
parched barley-meal (Saktu) with milk.^ All sorts of mixed 
beverages of this type are mentioned in the Sarikhayana 
Aranyaka.* 

1 X. 86, 15. I Su^ruta, i, 233, 12, in St. Petersburg 

' Av. ii. 29, 6 ; v. 29, 7 ; X. 6, 2 ; : Dictionary, s.v. ib ad fin. 

xviii. 4, 42 ; xx. 127, 9 ; Taittiriya * xii. 8. 

Samhita, i. 8, 5, i, etc. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 268, 

Satapatha Brahmana, iv. 2, 1, 2; 269; Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, 108. 



Mantha in one passage of the Rig\eda^ seems to mean a 
' churn.' So the root math denotes to ' churn ' in the Taittiriya 
Saiphita.'^ In one passage of the Atharvaveda^ the word is 
used to denote a drink like Mantha. 

1 i. 28, 4. I ' XX. 127, 9. Scheftelowitz in Khila, 

' ii. 2, 10, 2 ; Satapatha Brahmana, v. 10, 3, reads manthamS with Pluti, 

v. 3,2,6; Chandogya Upanisad, vi. 6, 1. ; following the Ka^rair MS., but mis- 

Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologi*. 1, 

161. 



quoting the Atharvan text. 



132 FLYING FOX SOMA MIXTURE NAMES [ Manthavala 



Manthavala is the name of an animal in the Aitareya Brah- 
mana,^ a sort of snake according to the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary. Sayana- understands it to be a kind of animal 
which hangs head downwards from the branches of trees, 
meaning, presumably, the flying fox.^ Cf. Manthala, Man- 
thnava. 



1 iii, 26, 3. 

* P. 291 (ed. Aufrecht). Cf. Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, 86. 



* This is the probable meaning of 
the word according to Bohtlingk, 
Dictionary, s.v. 



Manthin in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes Soma juice 
mixed with meal (Saktu) by stirring. 



^ iii. 32, 2 ; ix. 46, 4. Tilak's con- 
jecture that the planets are referred 
to here is absurd. See Orion, 162 ; 
Whitney , 7o>'Mfl/ of the A tnerican Oriental 
Society, 16, xciv. 



'^ Taittiri)ra Samhita, iii. i, 6, 3 ; 
vi. 4, 10, I ; vii. 2, 7, 3 ; Vijasaneyi 
Samhita, vii. 18; viii. 57; xiii. 57; 
xviii. 19 ; Aitareya Brahmana, iii. i, 
6, etc. 



Mandira is perhaps the name of a man whose cattle, according 
to a Mantra in the Katyayana Srauta Sutra (xiii. 3, 21), did 
not drink the water of the Garigfa (Ganges). See Mangfipa. 



1. MandhatP occurs in several passages of the Rigveda,^ in 
all of which Roth^ takes the word as merely an adjective used 
substantively, 'the pious man.' In one passage^ the word, 
being applied to Agni, is thus used, but in another^ Mandhdtrvat 
being parallel with Angirasvat, 'like Ahgiras,' is naturally to be 
understood as a proper name, which is probably also the sense 
of the word in the preceding hymn.^ A different Mandhatr 
may be meant in the first Mandala, where he is mentioned as 
a prot^g^ of the A^vins, and evidently as a king. To equate 
these persons, and make a Rajarsi out of Mandhatr, as Ludwig'^ 
and Griffith do, is unnecessary and improbable. 



^ i. 112, 13; viii. 39, 8; 40, 12 
X. 2, 2. 
2 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 
' Rv. X. 2, 2. 
* Rv. viii. 40, 12. 
' Rv. viii. 39, 8. 



8 Rv. i. 112, 13. 

^ Translation of the Rigveda. 3. 107, 
where he attributes Kv. viii. 39-42 to 
him as a Nabhaka, ' descendant of 
Nabhftka.' 

' Hymns of the Rigveda, i, 147. 



Mayn ] 



NA MES NECK HORSE A PE 



133 



2. Mandhatf Yauvanaiva ('descendant of Yuvanasva') is 
in the Gopatha Brahmana^ the name of an emperor who was 
instructed by Vicarin, son of Kabandha Atharva^a. 

1 i. 2, 10 et seq. Cf. Bloomfield, Atharvaveda, iii. 



Manya (plur.), * nape of the neck,' occurs in a passage of the 
Atharvaveda^ directed against a disease which Bloomfield ^ 
regards as scrofulous swelHngs on the neck. He compares the 
disease Manskunder, ' tumours of the neck ' (which looks like 
a combination of the words manya and skandhyd, * pains of the 
neck and shoulders,' both occurring in verses I and 3 of the 
Atharvan hymn), mentioned by Wise.^ 



vi. 25, I. 

2 Proceedings 0/ the American Oriental 
Society, October, 1887, xix ; American 
Journal of Philology, 11, 327 et seq. ; 
Hymns 0/ the Atharvaveda, 472. 



3 System of Hindu Medicine, 316. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 17, 202 ; 
Whitney, Translation of the Atharva- 
veda, 298, 299. 



Mamata is, according to Sayana, in one passage of the 
Rigveda,^ the wife of Ucathya and the mother of Dirghatamas. 
But the word may be merely an abstract noun meaning ' self- 
interest,' a sense which it often has in the later language. 
Oldenberg^ finds a mention of Mamata (masc.) in a verse of 
the Rigveda^ as the name of a Bharadvaja. 

1 vi. 10, 2. Cf. Mahabharata, i. 4179 ' vi. 50, 15, where the reading of the 

et seq. received text is mama tasya. 

' Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen- 
landischen Geulluhaft, 42, 212. 



Maya is found once in the Vajasaneyi Samhita (xxii. 19) in 
the sense of ' horse.' 



Mayu occurs in the list of victims at the A^vamedha (* horse 
sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ The commentator on 
the Taittiriya Sarnhita^ explains the word as meaning either 
an ' ape ' (kimpurnsa) or a ' forest peacock ' {dranya-mayi'tra), 

1 Taittiriya Samhita, v. 5, 12, 1 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 31. 



134 



PEG PEA COCK-MOTE 



[ Mayuldia 



The former sense is supported by another passage of the 
Vajasaneyi Sarnhita,^ where the Mayu, being a substitute for 
the man, must be an ape. This sense also suits the word in 
the other passage^ where it occurs. 



* viii. 47 ; mayu dranya in Taittirtya 
Saiphita, iv. 2, lo, I. 

* Satapatha Br&hmai^a, vii. 5, 2, 22. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 85; 
Weber, Indische Studien, g, 246. 



Mayukha denotes, from the Rigveda onwards,^ a * peg,' 
especially as used for keeping a web stretched.* Cf. Otu. 

* Rv. vii. 99, 3 ; Taittirlya SamhitS, , ' Rv. x. 130, 2 (in a metaphor) ; 
ii- 3. I. 5; Kathaka Samhita, xi. 6; | Av. x. 7, 42; KathakaSainhitS,, xxvi. 6; 
Aitareya Brahmana. v. 15, 9, etc. | Taittiriya Brhmana, ii. 5. 5. 3. etc. 



Mayura, * peacock,' occurs in the Rigveda in the compounds 
describing Indra's horses, mayura-roman,^ * with hair like pea- 
cocks' feathers,' and maydra-sepya,^ ' with tails like those of 
peacocks.' The peacock also appears in the list of victims at 
the Asvamedha (' horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas.' 
The pea-hen, MayurT, is mentioned in the Rigveda^ and the 
Atharvaveda,^ in both cases with reference to the bird's 
efficacy against poison, a curious superstition to be compared 
with the modern dislike of peacocks' feathers. 



1 Rv. iii. 45, I. 
3Rv. viii. I, 25. 

3 Maitrayani Samhita, iii. 14, 4 ; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 23. 27. 



* i. 191, 14 (a late hymn). 

^ vii. 56, 7. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 90. 



Marici in the plural denotes, according to Weber,^ the 
* particles of light ' or * shining motes ' that fill the air, as 
opposed to rays of light (rasmi). This meaning adequately 
suits the passages in the early Vedic literature ^ where the 



^ Indische Studien, 9, 9, accepted by 
the St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

3 Rv. X. 57, 12; 177, I ; Av. iv. 38, 5 
(where raimi and marici are opposed) ; 
V. 21, 10; vi. 113, 2; Taittiriya Sam- 
hita, vi. 4, 5, 5 {marlci'Pa, 'drinking 



atoms of light,' said of the gods); 
Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 2, 9, 2 (where 
Siyana's version, sarvatra - prasrta - 
prabhd-dravya, refers to the light as 
everywhere diffused), etc. 



ManidvTdha ] DESERT A PATRONYMIC A RIVER 



135 



word occurs ; but the sense of * ray ' is quite clearly found in 
the Upanisads,' as well as the older sense.* 

^ Praina Upanisad, iv. 2. Cf. Taittirlya Upanifad, i. i, 2 ; 2, i ; Maitr&yani 
Upanisad. vi. 31. 

* Aitareya Upanisad, i. 2. 

Mapu, in the plural, is mentioned in the Taittiriya Aranyaka,* 
as the utkara (* mound of earth thrown up ' from the excavation 
of the altar 2) of Kuruk^etra. This seems to mean that the 
Maru deserts (the later Maru-sthala^) were so called because 
they stood to the ' altar,' Kuruksetra, in the same relation as 
the waste earth of the utkara to the altar at the sacrifice. 

* V. I, I. I ' C/. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 48, 
' Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, and Dhanvaii. 

xii. 25, 54. I Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i. 78. 



Marutta Avl-ksita ('descendant of Aviksit ') Kama-ppi 
(* descendant of Kamapra ') is the name of a king who was 
anointed by Samvapta according to the Aitareya Brahmana.^ 
In the Satapatha Brahmana- account of the same king he is 
called Ayograva. 



Vlll. 21, 12. 



* xiii. 5, 4, 6. Cf. also Sahkh5.yana 



Srauta Sutra, xvi. 9, 14. 16; Maitriyani 
Upanisad, i. 4. 



Mapud-vpdha^ is the name of a stream mentioned in the 
Nadistuti ('Praise of Rivers') in the Rigveda^ along with the 
Asiknl (Akesines) and the Vitasta (Hydaspes). Roth^ con- 
siders that the Marudvrdha denotes the stream formed by the 
combined waters of these two rivers down to its junction with 
the PaPUni (Ravi), a view accepted by Zimmer.'* On the 
other hand, Ludwig** thinks that the Marudvrdha designates 



' Literally, ' rejoicing in the Maruts ' 
i.e., 'swollen by the rainy winds.' 
The misspelling of the name as Marud- 
vfddha in Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, 
pp. 80, 88, is corrected in the Index 
and the Addenda of that work. On 
the accentuation of the name, see 
Varttika 2 on Pinini, vi. 2, 106. 



2 X. 75, 5. 

8 Zur Litteratur und Geschichte des 
Weda, 138 et seq. 
* Altindisches Leben, 11, 12. 
" Translation of the Rigveda^ 3, 



136 



ECLIPSE A PUROHITAAPE 



[ Marka 



the stream formed by the junction of the Parusnl with the 
combined waters of the Asikni and Vitasta, a view which 
seems less likely. 

I. Marka is found in one passage of the Rigveda,^ where 
Roth 2 sees in the expression sfiro markah the 'eclipse of the 
sun.' Sayana^ thinks the meaning is 'purifying.'* 

essay on eclipses in the Rigveda (Pro- 
ceedings of the Bohemian Academy, 



* X. 27, 20. 

* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. He 
thinks, however, that if the word means 
' eclipse,' it cannot be derived from the 
root mrc, 'injure.' 

* As from the root tnrj, derivation 
from which is not phonetically justified. 

* Ludwig cites this passage, in his 



1885), as a proof that the Vedic Rsis 
knew of the moon as eclipsing the sun ; 
but see Whitney's reply, yowyna/ 0/ the 
American Oriental Society, 13. Ixi et seq., 
and Stlrya. 



2. Marka is mentioned in the Taittiriya Samhita^ and else- 
where^ as the Purohita, along with l^anda, of the Asuras, 
while Brhaspati is, of course, the Purohita of the gods. Marka 
is mentioned elsewhere also.^ The name may quite possibly 
have Iranian affinities, as believed by Hillebrandt^ and by 
Hopkins.^ Hillebrandt^ also sees in a Grdhra mentioned in 
the Rigveda"^ and elsewhere^ a prototype of Marka. 

* Op. cit., I, 223 et seq. 
"> V. 77, I. 

* Taittiriya Aranyaka, iv. 29 ; MaitrcL- 
yam Samhita, iv. 9, 19. 

C/. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 
26, 279 ei seq. 



' VI. 4, 10, I. 

^ Maitrayani Samhita, iv. 6, 3 ; 
Taittiriya Bra.hmana, i. i, i, 5; ^ata- 
patha BrShmana, iv. 2, i, 4. 

3 Vajasaneyi Satphita, vii, 16. 17. 

* Vedische Mythologie, 3, 442 et seq. 

* C/. Transactions of the Connecticut 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, 15, 49, n. i. 



Marka^a, ' ape,' is enumerated in the list of victims at the 
A^vamedha ('horse sacrifice') in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas.^ It 
is classified in the same Samhitas^ with man and the elephant 
as ' taking hold by the hand ' (hastdddna) instead of ' taking 
hold by the mouth' (niukhdddna) . The animal is mentioned 
several times elsewhere also.^ Cf. Pupua Hastin, Mayu. 



1 Taittiriya SaiphitS., v. 5, 11, i; 
Maitrayani Sai|ihita, iii. 14, 11; Vaja- 
saneyi Samhita, xxiv. 30. 

2 Taittiriya Samhita, vi. 4, 5, 7 ; 
Maitrayani Samhita, iv. 5, 7. 



' Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. 2, 4 ; 
Jaiminiya Brahmana, i. 184; Taittiriya 
Aranyaka, iii. 11, 32, etc. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 85. 



Mala ] MAN STALLION BULL BOUNDARY GARMENT 137 

I. Marya in the Rigveda^ denotes a * man ' especially re- 
garded as young and a lover, being constantly mentioned as in 
company with maidens (yuvatt). 

* iii. 31, 7; 33. 10; iv. 20, 5; ix. 96, 20, etc. ; marya-iri, 'adorned as a lover,' 
ii 10, 5. Cf. Nirukta, iil 15 ; iv. 2. 



2. Marya ^ in several passages of the Rigveda^ denotes a 
'stallion.' 2 It is once^ described as pastydvani, *a stalled 
horse ' that is, one carefully tended, and not allowed out to 
graze. 



^ vii. 56, 16; viii. 43, 25. 

* Thisis, of course, only a specialized 
sense of i. Marya as meaning a ' male ' 
{cf. Lat. mas, maritus). The specialized 
meaning is somewhat analogous to the 
use of ' sire ' in English. 



3 Rv. ix. 97, 18. Roth, St. Peters- 
burg Dictionary, s.v. 2, thinks Rv. i. 91, 
13, may have the same sense. 



Mapyaka, occurring only once in the Rigveda,^ seems to 
denote the bull which is described as separated from the cows. 

* v. 2, 5. Cf. Oldenberg, Rgveda-Noten, i, 313. 



Mapyada, ' boundary,' is found in the Satapatha Brahmana^ 
referring to the boundary between the Kosalas and the Videhas. 
Usually the word is metaphorically employed.^ 



' i. 4, I, 17. Cf. xiii. 8, 4, 12. 

' Rv. iv. 5, 13 ; X. 5, 6 ; Av. vi. 81, 2 
(of an amulet). In the Atharvaveda 
passage Whitney, Translation of the 



Atharvaveda, 392, suggests, owing to 
the very curious use of the word, the 
emendation marya-da, 'giver of a son.' 



Mala in one passage of the Rigveda^ is used of the garments 
of the Munis. The St. Petersburg Dictionary takes it to mean 
a 'leathern garment,' ^ but Ludwig and Zimmer^ think it 
means only 'soiled ' raiment, which, of course, suits the ordinary 
sense of the word (' dirt ') in the Atharvaveda,* and the character 
of the long-haired {kesin) hermit (Muni). Cf. Malaga. 



' X. 136, 2. 

'If this were correct, the word might 
be derived from mid in the sense of 
to tan.' Cf. Carman, especially notes 
6 and 7. 



' Altindisches Leben, 262. 
* vi. 115, 3; vii. 89, 3; X. 5, 24, etc. 
Cf. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 
333. n. 



I3 WASHERMAN ROBBER A MONTH MOSQUITO [ Malaga 



Mala-g'a in one passage of the Atharvaveda^ denotes a cleanser 
of clothes, a ' washerman,' but the origin of the word is some- 
what uncertain.^ 



' XU. 3, 21. 

It may, perhaps, have primarily 
meant ' concerned with dirt.' Seethe 



St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. ga i, on 
the use of ga as forming compounds ; 
and cf. Mala. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Ltbcn, 262; Bloomfield. Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 188. 



Malimlu in the Yajurveda Sarnhita^ denotes a 'robber,' 
specifically, according to the commentator Mahidhara, a burglar 
or housebreaker. Cf. Tayu, Taskara, Stena, and Deva- 
malimluc. 

1 Taittiriya SaqihitS., vi. 3, 2, 6; Vajasaneyi SaiphitS, xi. 78. 79; Av. 
xix. 49, 10. 



Malimluca is the name of an intercalary month in the 
Kathaka Sarnhita.-^ See Masa. 

' XXXV. 10; xxxviii. 14. Cf. V^ eher, Jyotisa, 100, 102; Naxatra, 2, 350. 



I. Ma^aka denotes a * biting fly ' or * mosquito,' being de- 
scribed in the Atharvaveda^ as * quickly (?) biting' {trpra- 
damsin), and as having a poisonous sting. The elephant is 
mentioned^ as particularly subject to its stings. The insect 
is often referred to elsewhere.^ Cf. Dami^a. 



1 vii. 56, 3. 

* Av. iv. 36, 9. 

Av. xi. 3, 5 ; at the ASvamedha 
(' horse sacrifice '), Maitrayani Samhita, 
iii. 14, 8 ; V&jasaneyi Sai|ihit&, xxiv. 29 ; 



XXV. 3 ; Brhad&ranyaka Upanisad, i. 3, 

24 (Madhyamdina = i. 3, 22 Kinva) ; 

Chandogya Upani.sad, vi. 9, 3 ; 10, 2. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Liben, 97. 



2. Maiaka Gargrya ('descendant of Gargra') is the name of 
a teacher, a pupil of Sthiraka Gargfya, in the Varn^a Brahmana.^ 
He is also mentioned in the Sutras^ of the Samaveda, and is 
the reputed author of an extant Kalpa Sutra. 



1 Indische Studien, 4, 373, 382. 
- Latyiyana brauta SQtra, vii. 9, 14 ; 
Anupada SQtra, ix. 9. 



Cf. Weber, Indian Literature, 75, 76 ; 
83, 84. 



Mahargi] NAMES LENTIL GRAIN CURDS PRIESTS 139 

Ma^ar^ra is the name of a king, according to Ludwig,^ of 
the Nahuas, in the Rigveda.^ 

^ Translation of the Rigveda, 3. 206. ' i. 122, 15. 

Masnara is the name of a locality, the scene of the victory 
of a Kuru king, in the Aitareya Brahmana.^ 

* viii. 23, 3. Cf. Bb&gavata Parana, I der Deutschen MorgeHldndischen Gesell- 
V. 13, 26 et seq. ; Leumann, Zeitschrift \ schaft, 48, 80, n. 2. 

Masura is the name of a kind of lentil {Ervum hirsutum) in 
the Vajasaneyi Samhita^ and the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ 

* xviii. 12. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 355; 

* vi. 3, 22 (Madhyarpdina = vi. 3, Zimmer, Altindisches Leben^2j^i. 
13 Kinva). 

Masusya, occurring in the Taittiriya Brahmana (iii. 8, 14, 6), 
is, according to the commentator, the name of a grain of the 
north country. 

Hastu in the Yajurveda Samhitas* and the Brahmanas* 
denotes ' sour curds.' 

1 Taittiriya Samhita, vi. i, i, 4 ; I 2 Satapatha Br3,hmana, i. 8, i, 7; 
Kathaka Sanihita, xxxvi. i. | iii. 3, 3, 2, etc. 

Maha-Ptvij, 'great priest,' is the collective name of the four 
chief priests Adhvaryu, Brahman, Hotr, and Udgatr in the 
Brahmanas.^ 

1 Taittiriya Brihmana, iii. 8, 2, 4 ; I ^nkh&yana ^rauta SQtra, xvi. i, 7, 
Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. i, i, 4 ; I etc. 

Maha-r^abha, a 'great bull,' is mentioned in the Atharva- 
veda (iv. 15, i). 

Maha-ri, a 'great Rsi,' is mentioned in the Taittiriya 
Aranyaka (i. 9, 6). Cf. Mahabrahmana. 



I40 



CUP GOAT FIGHT COURTESAN OX [ Mahakula 



Maha-kula, * sprung from a great family,' is the designation 
of a bowl or cup (Camasa) in the Rigveda (i. i6i, i). The 
metaphorical use of this word shows that the high position of 
certain families was already recognized in the times of the 
Rigveda. 

Maha-kauitaka, the * Great Kausltaka (Brahmana),' is the 
name of a Vedic text in the Rigveda Grhya Sutras.-^ 

^ A^val&yana Grhya SQtra, iii. 4,4; Cf. Oldenberg, Sacred Books 0/ the East, 
Mahakausitaki, the teacher, in ^ankh- ' 29, 3, 4. 
&yana Gphya Sutra, iv. 10; vi. i, etc. | 

Mahaja, a 'great goat' (Aja) is mentioned in the Satapatha 
Brahmana (iii. 4, i, 2). 



Maha-dhana in the Rigveda denotes either a * great fight ' * 
or a ' great prize '^ as the result of a fight. In many cases the 
fight may mean merely the contest of the chariot race. 



1 Rv. i. 7, 5 ; 40, 8 ; 112, 17 ; vi. 59, 7, etc. 



2 ix. 86, 12. 



Maha-nagfni in the Atharvaveda^ denotes a * courtesan.' The 
masculine, Maha-nagna,^ * paramour,' is probably secondarily 
derived from the feminine Mahanagni.^ 



^ xiv. I, 36 ; XX. 136, 5 et seq. ; 
Aitareya Brahmana, i. 27, i. 

2 Av, XX. 136, 1 1 ; Sahkhayana rauta 
SQtra, xii. 24, 14. Cf, Whitney, Trans- 



lation of the Atharvaveda, 747; Geldner, 
Vedische Studien, i, 280, n. i. 

3 As sa-patna, ' rival,' is unmistakably 
formed from sa-patni, ' co-wife.' 



Maha-naga, a ' great snake,' is mentioned in the Satapatha 
Brahmana (xi. 2, 7, 12), where it is plainly mythical. 



Maha-nirat^, a * great castrated ' ox, is mentioned as the 
Dakina, or 'sacrificial fee,' in the house of the Suta at the 
Rajasuya ('royal consecration') in the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ 
Cf. Anadvah and Go. 

' Taittiriya Samhita, i. 8, 9, i ; Kathaka San.hita, xv. 4. 9; MaitrayanT 
Sambita, ii. 6, 5. 



Mahameru] ROAD FORT BRAHMIN CONSECRATION 141 

Maha-patha in the Brahmanas' denotes the 'high road' 
between two villages. 

* Aitareya BrShmana, iv. 17, 8 ; Ch3.ndogya Upanisad, viii. 6, 2. Cf. Weber, 
Indische Studien, i, 271, n. 

Maha-pura in the Yajurveda SamhitSs^ and the Brahmanas* 
denotes a great fortress.^ Probably the only difference between 
the Pur and the Mahapura was size. 

* Taittirlya Sainhita, vi, 2, 3, i ; ^ Aitareya Brahmana, i. 23, 2 ; 
Kcltbaka Sarnhita, xxiv. 10 ; MaitrS.- Gopatha Brahmana, ii. 2, 7. 

yanl Sambit3., iii. 8, i. | 

Maha -brahmana, a * great Brahmin,' is found in the Brhad- 
aranyaka Upanisad (ii. i, 19. 22) denoting a Brahmin of great 
consequence. Cf. Maharsi. 

Mahabhiseka, * great consecration,' is mentioned in the 
Aitareya Brahmana,^ and described as a ceremony performed 
for great kings, a list of whom is given. It is equivalent to 
the Rajasuya. 

^ viii. 14, 4 ; 19, 2. Cf, Weber, Episches 1 Rsis ; Visvakamiaii Bhauvana and Ka5- 
imvedischen Ritual, 8. The list is Janam- yapa ; Sud&s Paijavana and Vasistha ; 



ejaya PSjikaita, whose friend was 
Tnra Ea,va$eya; ^S,rya,ta M3iiava and 
Cyavana Bh&rgava ; SatS.nika Sa,tr&jita 
and Somalasma BhSLrgava ; Ambarisa 
and Paxrata and NSxada ; Yudbajoi- 



Marutta Aviksita and Samvarta ; Anga 
Vairocana and Udamaya Atreya ; 
Bharata Dau^santi and Dlrghatamas 
M&mateya ; Durmukha P&nc3.1a and 
Brhaduktha ; Atyar&ti JSnamtapi and 



irauiti Augrasainya and the same two ' V9,sistha S9,tyahavya. 

Maha-bhuta in the Nirukta (xiv. 5, 10) and the Aitareya 
Upanisad (iii. 2, 3) denotes the * gross elements ' (earth, water, 
fire, air, ether). 

Maha-matsya, a * great fish,' is mentioned in the Brhad- 
aranyaka Upanisad (iv. 3, 18). 

Maha-meru, * great Meru,' is the name of a mountain in the 
Taittiriya Aranyaka.^ 

1 i. 7, I. 3. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 78; 3, 123. 



142 CAR-FIGHTER KING NIGHT OCEAN POT [ Maharatha 

Maha-ratha, 'having a great car' i.e., *a great chariot 
fighter,' is an epithet of the hero who is prayed for in the ritual 
of the A^vamedha (' horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ 

* Taittiriya Saiphit&, vii. 5, 18, i ; Vajasaneyi Saipbita, xxii. 22. 

Maha-raja, a * great king,' is frequently referred to in the 
BrShmanas.^ It seems to mean no more than a king, or rather 
perhaps a reigning and powerful king, as opposed to a mere 
prince, who would also be called Rajan. 

1 Aitareya Br3.bmana, vii. 34, 9; 
Kausitaki Brabmana, v. 5 ; ^atapatha 
Br&bmana, i. 6, 4, 21 ; ii. 5, 4, g ; 



Brbadaranyaka Upanisad, ii. i, 19 
et seq. ; Maitr&yani Upanisad, ii. i, 
etc. 



Maha-ratra, * advanced night,' is a phrase found in the 
Kausitaki BrShmana^ and the Sutras* to denote the latter part 
of the night, after midnight and before dawn. 

1 ii. 9; xi. 8. ' ^nkbiyana ^rauta Sutra, vi 2, i ; xvil 7, i, etc. 

Maharpava, a 'great ocean,' is a phrase not found before 
the late Maitrayani Upanisad (i. 4), where the drying up of 
' great oceans ' is one of the marvels enumerated. Cf. Samudpa. 

Maha-vira (* great hero ') is the name in the later Sarnhitas 
and the Brahmanas^ of a large earthenware pot which could 
be placed on the fire, and which was especially employed at 
the introductory Soma ceremony called Pravargya. 

1 V&jasaneyi Sarpbita, xix. 14 ; Sata- I Br&hmana, ix. 10, i ; Kausitaki Br&h- 
patba Br&bmana, xiv. i, 2, 9. 17 ; 3, i, mana, viii. 3. 7, etc. 
13; 4, 16; 2, 2, 13. 40; Paiicavim^ I 

Maha-vrki^a, a 'great tree,' is mentioned sometimes in the 
Pancavirn^a Brahmana (vii. 6, 15 ; xiv. i, 12) and in the 
Sutras. 

. Maha-vra is the name of a tribe mentioned along v/ith the I 
Mujavants in the Atharvaveda^ as a locality to which fever is 
to be relegated. It is reasonable to suppose that they were 

1 V. 22, 4. 5. 8. 



Mahasuhaya] A TRIBE HOUSEHOLDER A TEACHER 143 

northerners, though Bloomfield^ suggests that the name may 
be chosen more for its sound and sense (as ' of mighty strength ' 
to resist the disease) than for its geographical position. In the 
Chandogya Upanisad^ the place Raikvapar^a is said to be in 
the Mahavrsa country. The king of the Mahavrsas in the 
Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana^ is said to be Hptsvaj^aya. 
The Mahavrsas are also known from a Mantra in the 
Baudhayana Srauta Sutra.* 

Cf. Weber, Indian Literature, 70, 
147 ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 129 ; 
Whitney, Translation of the Atbarva- 
veda, 259, 260. 



2 Hymns of tht Atharvaveda, 446. 
iv. 2, 5. 

* iii. 40, 2. 

ii. 3. 



1. Haha-^a (lit., 'having a great house'), a 'great house- 
holder,' is an expression applied in the Chandogya Upanisad 
(v. II, i) to the Brahmins who were instructed by A^vapati, 
no doubt to emphasize their importance. Cf. Mahabrahmaria. 

2. Maha-i^a Jabala is the name of a teacher twice men- 
tioned in the Satapatha Brahmana, once as instructing Dhira "[^ t^ux f 
Satapar^ieya,^ and once as one of the Brahmins who received * / 
instruction from A^vapati.^ In the parallel passage of the 
Chandogya Upanisad^ the name is Pracinasala Aupaman- 

yava.* The word must be considered a proper name rather 
than an adjective (i. Mahaiala), as it is taken in the 
St. Petersburg Dictionary.^ 



' X. 3i 3. I- 
X. 6, I. I. 



V. II, I, 

* Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books 0/ the 
East, 43, 393, n. I. 



^ In Mundaka Upanisad, i. 1,3, the 
word is used of ^aonaka, perhaps 
merely as an epithet. Cf. Weber, 
Indian Literature, 161. 



Maha-suparria in the Satapatha Brahmana (xii. 2, 3, 7) 
denotes a ' great bird ' or * great eagle.' 

Maha-suhaya, a ' great {i.e., high-spirited) horse,' is the 
description in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad^ of the steed from 



^ vi. 2, 13. Cf. SinkhcLyana Aran- 
yaka, ix. 7 ; Chandogya Upanisad, 
V. I, 12 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, 1, 



234, 235 ; Keith, Sdnkhdyana Aratiyaka, 
57. n. 3. Cf P*4bM. 



144 SEERS AFTERNOON A SAGE BUFFALO [ Mahasukta 

the Indus {saindhava) which tears away the peg of its hobble 
{padbUa-sankhu) . 



Maha-sukta, m. plur., the * composers of the long hymns ' of 
the tenth Mandala of the Rigveda^ are mentioned in the 
Aitareya Aranyaka^ and the Sutras.=^ Cf. Kudra-sukta. 



X. 1-128. 
' ii. 2, 2. 

' A^valiyana Gphya SQtra, iii. 4, 2 ; 
ahkhayana Gphya SQtra, iv. lo. 



Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 1, 115: 
390 ; Roth, Zur Litteraiur und GeschichU 
des IVeda, 27. 



Mahahna in the Kausltaki Brahmana (ii. 9) denotes the 
* advanced (time of the) day ' that is, ' afternoon.' Cf. Maha- 
patra. 

Mahi-dasa Aitareya (* descendant of Itara or Itara ') is the 
name of the sage from whom the Aitareya Brahmana and 
Aranyaka take their names. He is several times referred to in 
the Aitareya Aranyaka/ but not as its author. He is credited 
with a life of 116 years in the Chandogya Upanisad^ and the 
Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana.^ 

^ ii. I, 8 ; 3, 7. I ^ '^- 2, II [cf. Journal 0/ the AmericcM 

2 iii. i6, 7. I Oriental Society, 15, 246). 

Cf. Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 16, 17. 



Mahia, the 'strong,' with^ or without ^ Mpg-a, 'wild beast,' 
denotes the ' buffalo ' in the Rigveda and the later texts. The 
feminine, Mahisi, is found in the later Sarnhitas.^ 



^ Rv. viii. 58, 15 ; ix. 92, 6 ; 96, 6 ; 
X. 123, 4. 

2 Rv. V. 29, 7 ; vi, 67, II ; viii. 12, 8 ; 
66, 10 ; ix. 87, 7 ; x. 28, 10 ; i8g, 2 ; 
Vajasaneyi Satnhit3,, xxiv. 28, etc. 



^ Klthaka Satnhitcl, xxv. 6 ; Maitra- 
yani Sai^ahita, iii. 8, 5 ; Sadvim^ 
Brahmana, v. 7, 11. 



I. MahiI. See Mahia. 



2. Mahii, * the powerful one,' the name of the first of the 
four wives (see Pati) of the king, is mentioned frequently in 



Mamsa ] 



A VEDIC TEXT BULL FLESH 



145 



the later literature.^ Perhaps even in the Rigveda^ the technical 
sense of ' first wife ' is present. 



' Taittirlya Sanibit&, i. 8, 9, i ; 
Kithaka Samhit&, xv. 4 ; Maitr&yani 
Sambita, ii. 6, 5; PaAcavitp^ Br&h- 



mana, xix. 1,4; ^atapatha Br&hmai^, 
vi. 5 3i I ; vii. 5, I, 6, etc. 
V. 2, 2 ; 37, 3. 



Mahaitareya is the title of a Vedic text according to the 
Grhya Sfltras of the Rgveda.^ 

' ASval&yana Gphya SQtra, iii. 4, 4; | Aranyaka, 39 ; Oldenberg, Sacred Books 
of a teacher, in ^nkh^yana Grhya ' of the East, 2g, 3, ^. 
Sutra, iv. 10 ; vL i. Cf. Keith, Aitareya 

Mahok^a, a ' great bull,' is mentioned in the Satapatha 
Brahmana (iii. 4, i, 2). 



Mamsa, ' flesh.' The eating of flesh appears as something 
quite regular in the Vedic texts, which show no trace of the 
doctrine of Ahirnsa, or abstaining from injury to animals. For 
example, the ritual offerings of flesh contemplate that the gods 
will eat it, and again the Brahmins ate the offerings.^ Again, 
the slaying of a ' great ox ' {mahoksa) or a * great goat ' (mahaja) 
for a guest was regularly prescribed f and the name Atithig'va 
probably means 'slaying cows for guests.'^ The great sage 
Yajiiavalkya was wont to eat the meat of milch cows and 
bullocks (dhenv-anaduha) if only it was amsala (* firm ' or 
'tender').* The slaughter of a hundred bulls (uksan) was 
credited to one sacrificer, Agfastya.^ The marriage ceremony 
was accompanied by the slaying of oxen, clearly for food. 



^ So Agni is called ' eater of ox and 
cow' in Rv. viii. 43, 11 -Av. iii. 21, 6 
= Taittiriya Samhiti, i. 3, 14, 7 ; 
Weber, Indische Studien, 17, 280, 281 ; 
Oldenberg, Religion des Veda, 355. 

^ Satapatha BrSiimana, iii. 4, i, 2. 
Cf. ^ankh&yana Cfhya Sfltra, ii. 15, 2. 

' Bloomheld, American Journal of 
Philology, 17, 426 ; Journal 0} the American 
Oriental Society, 16, cxxiv. Cf. attthinir 
gah, 'cows fit for guests,' Rv, x. 68, 3. 
VOL. II. 



* Satapatha Brahmana, iii. i, 2, 21. 
The sense of amsala is given as sthula, 
* firm,' in the scholiast. Cf. Ka.ty&yana 
^rauta SQtra, vii. 2, 23-25. Eggeling, 
Sacred Books of the East, 26, 11, has 
' tender. ' ' Off the shoulder ' (arnsa) is 
also a possible version. 

' Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 7, u, i ; 
Pancavitn^ Brahmana, xxi. 14, 5. 

Rv. X. 85, 13. Cf. Wintemitz. 
Das altindischt Hochzeitsrituell, 33. 

10 



146 EATING OF FLESH SANCTITY OF THE COW [ M&mn 

That there was any general objection to the eating of flesh 
is most improbable. Sometimes it is forbidden, as when a 
man is performing a vow,'' or its use is disapproved, as in 
a passage of the Atharvaveda,* where meat is classed with 
Sura, or intoxicating liquor, as a bad thing. Again, in the 
Rigveda the slaying of the cows is said to take place in the 
Agfhas, a deliberate variation for Mag'has ; but this may be 
the outcome merely of a natural association of death with 
gloom, even when cows alone are the victims in question. 
The Brahmanas also contain the doctrine of the eater in this 
world being eaten in the next,^ but this is not to be regarded 
as a moral or religious disapproval of eating flesh, though it 
no doubt contains the germ of such a view, which is also in 
harmony with the persuasion of the unity of existence, which 
becomes marked in the Brahmanas. But Ahimsa as a deve- 
loped and articulate doctrine would seem to have arisen from 
the acceptance of the doctrine of transmigration, which in its 
fundamentals is later than the Brahmana period.^ 

On the other hand, it is to be noted that the cow was on the 
road to acquire special sanctity in the Rigveda,^* as is shown 
by the name aghnyd,^ ' not to be slain,' applied to it in several 
passages. But this fact cannot be regarded as showing that 



' Katyayana ^rauta Siitra, ii. i, 8. 
So a BrahmacSxin is not to eat flesh. 
See Oldenberg, op. cit., 468, n. 3. The 
blood of an animal is always a some- 
what mysterious and dangerous sub- 
stance ; hence taboos on meat-eating, 
which in another form arise from fear 
of the spirits of the dead (cf. Oldenberg, 
op. cit., 414, n. i). See also ^atapatha 
Br&hmana, xiv. i, i, 29 ; KeHh, Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1909, 588, n. 4. 

* vi. 70, 1. Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns 
of the Atharvaveda, 493. 

* X. 85, 13. In the Atharvaveda, 
xiv. I, 13, the ordinary word Maghas 
is found, and is, no doubt, really to be 
preferred. See Weber, Proceedings of 
the Berlin Academy, 1894, 807. 

* Cf. the story of Bhrgu VJxuni in 
the ^tapatha Br&hmana, xi. 6, i, i 



et seq. ; Jaiminiya Br&hmana, i. 42-44 ; 
Aitareya Aranyaka, ii. 1,2, with Keith's 
notes (pp. 202, 203). 

" Cf. Deussen, Philosophy of tht 
Upanishads, 317 et seq. ; Keith, yora/ of 
the Royal Asiatic Society, 1909, 565. 

" viii. loi, 15, 16; Vajasaneyi Sam- 
hita, iv. 19, 20; Av. X. 10; xii. 4, 5; 
Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 151. 

" Found sixteen times in the Rig- 
veda, as opposed to three instances 
of Aghnya (masculine) ; Macdonell, 
loc. cit. The sense of ' hard to over- 
come,' preferred by the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, to that of ' not to be killed,' 
is, however, quite possible. Weber, 
op. cit., 17, 281, tries to derive the 
word from ahanya, ' bright - coloured 
like day,' a derivation that must be 
regarded as illegitimate. 



Mak9avya] NORMAL FLESH DIET A PATRONYMIC 147 

meat eating generally was condemned. Apart from mythical 
considerations, such as the identification of the cow with earth 
or Aditi (which are, of course, much more than an effort of 
priestly ingenuity), the value of the cow for other purposes 
than eating was so great as to account adequately for its 
sanctity, the beginnings of which can in fact be traced back to 
Indo-Iranian times.^* Moreover, the ritual of the cremation 
of the dead required the slaughter of a cow as an essential 
part, the flesh being used to envelope the dead body.^^ 

The usual food of the Vedic Indian, as far as flesh was 
concerned, can be gathered from the list of sacrificial victims : 
what man ate he presented to the gods that is, the sheep, the 
goat, and the ox. The horse sacrifice was an infrequent 
exception : it is probably not to be regarded as a trace of the 
use of horseflesh as food, though the possibility of such being 
the case cannot be overlooked in view of the widespread use 
of horseflesh as food in different countries and times. It is, 
however, more likely that the aim of this sacrifice was to 
impart magic strength, the speed and vigour of the horse, to 
the god and his worshippers, as Oldenberg^ argues. 

'* Cf. Macdonell, Sanskrit Literature, 1 Die Reden des Gotamo Buddho, i, xix). 

68. As to meat -eating in the Epic, see 

" Rv. X. 16, 7. See Oldenberg, ; Hop\i.ins,Journalo/tke American Oriental 



op. cit., 376. 

* Religion des Veda, 356, n. 4. As to 
meat-eating in Buddhist times, cf. the 
death of the Buddha from a meal of 



Society, 13, 119, 120; Great Epic 0/ India, 
377-379 ; auid see for modern instances 
Jolly, Deutsche Rundschau, July, 1884. 
118 ; Bubler, Report, 23. 



poTi, Fleet, Journal of the Royal Asiatic I Cf. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 
Society, 1906, 881, 882; Oldenberg, 316; Hopkins, Religions of India, 156, 
Buddha,^ 231, n. 2 (contra Neumann, ' 189. 

Mamsaudana denotes in the Satapatha Brahmana^ a dish 
consisting of * meat cooked with rice.' 

^ ''i. 5, 7. 51 Brhad&ranyaka Upanisad, vi. 4, 18 ; ^hkhS,yana Aranyaka, 
xii. 8. 

Makavya, ' descendant of Maksu,' is the patronymic of a 
teacher in the Aitareya Aranyaka.* 

^ iii. I, I, which is discussed in the 1 Cf. Weber, Indische Studicn, i, 391 
preface to the Rigveda Pr&tiS&khya. I 2, 212. 

10 2 



148 MAG A DMA BRAHMIN DOG NAMES [ Magadha 

Magfadha. See Magradha. 

Magadha-de^Iya, ' belonging to the district of Magadha,' is 
the description in the Sutras' of a Brahmin of Magadha. 

^ K&ty&yana ^rauta Sutra, xxii. 4, 22 ; L&ty&yaoa rauta SQtra, viiL 6, 28. 

M&cala, mentioned in the Jaiminiya Brahmana,' apparently 
denotes some sort of dog found in Vidarbha. 

' ii. 440. Cf. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 19, 103, n. 3. 

Matharl, * female descendant of Mathara,' occurs in the 
curious name, Ka^yapi-balakya-mathari-putpa, of a teacher 
in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (vi. 4, 31 Madhyamdina). 

Man^i is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Gautama, in the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.' 

> ii. 5, 22 ; iv. 5, 28 (Mdhyaipdina=ii. 6, 3 ; iv. 6, 3 Kinva). 

MaQdavi, * female descendant of Mandu,' occurs in the 
name of a teacher, Vatsi-maodavl-putra, in the Brhadaranyaka 
.Upanisad (vi. 4, 30 Madhyarndina). 



Ma^davya, * descendant of Mandu,' is mentioned as a teacher 
in the ^atapatha Brahmana,^ in the Sahkhayana Aranyaka,^ 
and in the Sutras.^ He is also mentioned as a pupil of Kautsa 
in the last Vaipsa (list of teachers) of the Brhadaranyaka 
Upanisad.* 



^ X- 6. 5, 9. 

vii. 2. 

3 A^vaUyana Gf-hya Sutra, iii. 4, 4 ; 
S&hkhayana G{-hya SQtra, iv. 10 ; vL i . 



Cf. Weber, Indische Studien i, 482 (in 
the Epic a friend of Janaka is so 
named). 
* vi. 5, 4 Kinva. 



Mapdukayani, 'descendant of Manduka," is mentioned as 
a teacher in the Satapatha Brahmana.' 

^ X. 6, 3, 9; Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. 5, 4 K&nva. 



Matari^van] NAMES AN ANCIENT SACRIFICE R 



149 



Ma^dukayani-putra, ' son of a female descendant of Man- 
duka,' is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Maijdukiputra 
in the last Vam^a (list of teachers) of the Bihadaranyaka 
Upanisad.^ 

' vi. 4, 32 (Madhyaipdina = vi. 5, 2 Kanva). 



Ma^duki-putra, ' son of a female descendant of Manduka,' 
is mentioned as a teacher, a pupil of iSandiliputra, in the last 
Vamsa (list of teachers) in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ 

1 vi. 4, 32 (M&dbyaqidina = vi. 5, 2 Kanva). 



Mandukeya, ' descendant of Manduka,' is the patronymic of 
several teachers in the Rigveda Aranyakas viz., SupaviPa,^ 
Hpasva,2 Dlrgrha,^ Madhyama Pratlbodhiputra.'* The Man- 
dukeyas also occur as a school m the Aranyakas^: a special 
form of the text of the Rigveda evidently appertained to 
them. 



* Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. i, i ; 
Sankbayana Aranyaka, vii. 2. 8. 9. 10. 

2 S&nkb&yana Aranyaka, vii. 12 ; 
viii. II. 
' Ibid., vii. 2. 
* Ibid., vii. 13. 

* Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. i, i ; 
Sankhayana Aranyaka, vii. 2. 



Cf. tbe Mtindukeyiya adhyaya of the 
Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. 2, 6; ^&nkh- 
ayana Aranyaka, viii. 11 ; Scbeftelo- 
witz. Die Apokryphen des Rigveda, 12 ; 
Keitb, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
1907, 227; Aitareya Aranyaka, 239; 
Weber, Indiuhe Studieu, i, 391. 



MatariiSvan is mentioned in a Valakhilya hymn of the 
Rigveda^ as a sacrificer along with Medhya and Ppadhra. 
He seems to be mentioned also in one other passage, possibly 
in two.2 In the Saiikhayana Srauta Sutra^ a patron, Pf^adhra 
Medhya Matari^van or Matari^va is created by a misunder- 
standing of the Rigvedic text. 



* Rv. viii. 52, 2. 

* Rv. X. 48, 2 ; 105, 6. The former 
reference is much raore probable than 
tbe latter. 

' xvi. II, 26; Weber, Episcku im 



vediuhen Ritual, 39, 40. The mana- 
scripts vary between Matari^van and 
MltariSva. 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 163. 



15 



MATERNAL UNCLE BROTHER [ Matnrbhratra 



Matur-bhratra is a curiously formed compound, occurring 
once in the MaitrayanI Sarnhita^ as a designation of the 
* maternal uncle,' who in the Sutra period bears the name of 
Matula. Thus little is heard of the maternal uncle in the 
Vedic period: it is not till the Epic^ that traces appear of his 
prominence as compared with the paternal uncle (pitrvya). 
This fact is significant for the * patriarchal ' character of the 
early Indian family organization.' 



^ i. 6, 12. 

' Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 13, 141. 

Delbriick, Die indogermanischen Ver- 



wandtschaftsnamen, 484, 586-588. Cf. 
also Rivers, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1907, 629 et seq. 



Matula/ 'maternal uncle,' is found only in the Sutras' and 
later. 



1 This peculiairly formed word was 
presumably a dialectic form which 
made its way into the written speech. 



' A^valiyana Grhya Sutra, i. 24, 4, 



etc. 



Matf is the regular word for * mother ' from the Rigveda 
onwards,^ being a formation probably developed under the 
influence of an onomatopoetic word md,^ used like Amba' 
and Nana.^ 

The relations of wife and husband, as well as of mother and 
children, are treated under Pati. It remains only to add that 
details are given in the Sutras^ of the respectful attention paid 
to a mother, and of the ceremonies in which she is concerned. 
The mother also appears interested in the fate of her children 
as in the story of the sale of l^unahi^epa for adoption by 
Vi^vamitra in the Aitareya Brahmana. 



M. 24, I ; vii. loi, 3. etc. ; V&ja- 
saneyi Satnhit3., xiii. 21, etc. ; Aitareya 
Brahmana, ii. 6, etc. 

Bohtlingk and Roth, St. Peters- 
burg Dictionary, s.v., note. 

* Cf. ambe ambike ambalike, Vajasaneyi 
Samhitft, xxiii. 18, with variations in 
Taittiriya Samhita., vii. 4, 19, i ; 
Maitr&yani Samhiti, iii. 12, 20 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, iii. 9, 6, 3 ; also 



ambd amb&yavt, ambayi, in the Kau.sitaki 
Upanisad, i. 3. 

* Rv. ix. 112, 3 (UpalapraJEfini). See 
von Schroeder, Mysterium und Mimus, 
412. 

* Cf. Delbriick, Die indogermoHischen 
Verwandtichaftsnamen, 460, 476, 477. 

* vii. 18 uq. Cf. also Leist, Altarisches 
Jus Gentium, 104 ; Jolly, Die Adoption in 
Indien, 16, 17. 



Mathava ] MATRICIDE MORA NAMES 151 

In the household the mother ranked after the father (see 
Pitp). Occasionally matara is used for * parents,' as are also 
pitard and mdtard pitara"^ and mdtd-pitarah,.^ 

' Rv. iii. 33, 3 ; vii. 2. 5, etc. For 8 Taittiriya Saqihiti, i. 3, 10, I ; 

matara pitard. see Rv. iv, 6, 7; Vija- vi. 3, 11, 3. 
saneyi Sambit&, ix. 19. 



Matf-vadha, ' matricide,' is mentioned as a very grave crime 
in the Kausltaki Upanisad (iii. i), but as one that can be 
expiated by the knowledge of the truth. 

Matf-han, * mother-killer,' * matricide,' occurs in a Vedic 
quotation mentioned by the commentator on Panini.^ 

^ Kcl^ikS, V)*tti on P&nini, iii. 2, 88 : mdtrhd saptatnam narakaip, praviiet. 



Matra in the Upanisads^ denotes a mora, the length of a 
s^ort vowel. 

^ Taittiriya Upanisad. i. 2, i ; Aitareya Aranyaka. iii. i. 5 ; ^nkhiyana 
Aranyaka, vii. 15. 



1. Matsya, * prince of the Matsya people.' See Matsya. 

2. Matsya occurs in the Taittiriya Brahmana* as the name 
of a Esi skilled in sacrifice. Possibly,^ but not probably, he 
may also be meant in the Atharvaveda.' 



1 i. 5, 2, I, where he serves YajiiefU 
and datadyomna. 

^ Bloomfield, Hymns 0/ tht Atharva- 
veda, 681. 



3 xix. 39, 9. 

Cf. Weber, Naxaira, 2, 306. 



Mathava, * descendant of Mathu,' is the patronymic of 
Videgha, perhaps 'king of Videha,' in the ^atapatha Brah- 
mana.^ 

1 i, 4, I, 10. 17. Cf. Eggeling, Sacrtd Books of (h$ East, 12, xli, 104. n. i; 
26, zxix.; Weber, Indisch* Studien, i, 170. 



iSa 



NAMES MEASURE OF WEIGHT- A SEER [ M&dhuld 



Madhuki, * descendant of Madhuka, is the patronymic of a 
teacher mentioned with disapproval in the Satapatha Brah- 
maija.* 

1 ii I, 4, 27. Cf. Weber, Indiuhe Studicn, 1, 434. 

Madhyamdinayana, ' descendant of Madhyarndina,' is the 
patronymic of a teacher mentioned in the Kanva recension of 
the Brhadiranyaka Upanisad (iv. 6, 2). 



Madhyama (' relating to the middle ') is a term applied in 
the Kausltaki Brahmana^ and the Aitareya Aranyaka^ to denote 
the * authors of the middle books ' (ii.-vii.) of the Rigveda. 



' xii. 3. 

' ii. 2, 2. 

CJ. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 115, 



389 ; ASvalS,yana Cfhya SQtra, iii. 4, 2 ; 
^nkh&yana Gfhya SQtra, iv. 10, 
etc. 



I. Mana as a measure of weight is said to be the equivalent 
of the Kpi^^ala or Raktika that is, the berry of the GuSja 
{Ahrus precatorius). It occurs in compounds in the later 
Samhitas and the Brahmanas.^ 



* Taittirlya Samhita, iii. 2, 6, 3 ; 
vi. 4, 10, 2 ; Taittirlya Br&hmana, i. 3, 



7> 7 : 7t 6, 2 ; Satapatha Brahmana, 
V. 4. 3, 24 ; 5. 5. 16. etc. 



2. Mana is the name of a man occurring in several passages 
of the Rigveda. In one place ^ express mention is made of his 
son (sunu), by whom, despite Bergaigne's view to the contrary,^ 
Agtistya must be meant. In another passage,^ apparently the 
same meaning applies to Mana that is, Agastya as 'a Mana.' 
In a third passage* the expression siinave Mdnena has been 
held by Sieg* to be an inversion of Mdnasya sunuiia, ' by the 
son of Mna' 1.., Agastya; but it seems more likely* that 
either silnor Mana is the fuller form of Agastya's name (* pride 



* Rv. i. 189, 8. 

* Religion V/dique, 2, 394. Cf. Pischel, 
Vediuht Studien, 1, 173; Oldenberg, 
Zeitichrift dtr Deutschen Morgenldndischen 
GeuUuhaft, 42, 221, n. 5 ; Rgveda-Noten, 
I, no; Sieg, Die Sagenstoffe des Rg' 



veda, 107 ; Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, 

135- 
' vii. 33, 13. Cf. verse 10. 
* i. 117, II. 
" Loc. cit. 
^ Oldenberg, Rgveda-Noten, loe. cit. 



Manthalava ] PATRONYMICS AN ANIMAL 153 

of the son,' with reference to his high ancestry), or that the 
son' of Mana ( = Agastya) is alluded to as interested in 
Vi^pala. 

The Manas that is, the descendants of Mana, are in several 
passages alluded to as singers.^ Cf. Manya, Mandarya. 



^ Bergaigne, loc. cit. ; Pischel, loc. cit. 
Cf. Roth, St. Petersburg Dictionary, 
S.V., where sunoh is taken as dependent 
on vijam. 

Rv. i. 169, 8 ; 171, 5 ; 182, 8 ; 184, 5. 



Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig* 
veda, 3, 116, 117, who thinks the M&nas 
were settled on the Sindha (Indus). 
See Rv. i. 186, 5. 



Manava, * descendant of Manu,'^ is the patronymic of Nabha- 
neditha and of iSaryata.^ 

1 Aitareya Brahmana, v. 14, 2. 

' Ibid., iv. 32, 7, Cf. ^atapatha BrShmana, iv. i, 5, 2 (Bary&ta). 

Manavi, ' descendant of Manu,' is the patronymic of the 
mythical Ida (' oblation ') in the ^atapatha Brahmana,^ and of 
a woman named PanSu in the Rigveda.^ 

i. 8, I, 26; Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 6, 7, 3. * ,_ 86, 23. 

Manu-tantavya, * descendant of Manutantu,' is the patro- 
nymic of AikadaSakia in the Aitareya Brahmana (v. 30, 15). 
The Saumapau Manutantavyau, ' two Saumapas, descendants of 
Manutantu,' are mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana (xiii. 
5. 3 2). 

Manthala is the form in the Taittiriya Brahmana (ii. 5, 8, 4) 
of the next name. 

Manthalava,^ Manthilava- are the names in the Yajurveda 
Samhitas of a victim at the A^vamedha (' horse sacrifice '). 
What it was is unknown : the commentator Mahidhara^ thinks 
it was a kind of mouse ; Sayana explains it as a ' water-cock ' 

^ Maitr&yan! Samhita., iii. 14, ig. 1 ' Taittiriya Saiphita, v. 5, 18, i. 
where there is a variant MitSlava ; ! * On Vfijasaneyi Samhita, loc. cit. 
Vajasaneyi Saiphita, xxiv. 38. 



154 



PA TRONYMICS METRONYMIC [ M&ndftrya Minya 



(jala-kukki(fa). Possiby, if Sayana's* version of the parallel 
word Manthavala is to be trusted, the ' flying fox ' may be 
meant.* 



* On Taittiriya Sanihita, loc.cit. Cf. 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 86. 



Bohtlingk, Dictionary, s.w., and 
also s.v. mUndh&la, 



Mandarya Manya, 'descendant of Mana,' is the name of a 
Rsi in the Rigveda.^ It seems most probable that Agfastya 
himself is meant. ^ 



1 i. 165, 15 = 1. 166, 13 = i. 167, 11 = 
i. 168. 10. 

' Cf. Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, 135 ; 
Bergaigne, Religion V^diqtu, 2, 394 ; 
Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 



Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 42, 221 ; 
Sieg, Die Sagenstoffe des Rgveda, 107 ; 
Max Miiller, Sacred Books of the East, 
32, 183 et seq., 206. 



Manya, 'descendant of Mana,' is the patronymic of Mandarya 
in several passages of the Rigveda,^ being also found alone in 
others.^ It probably denotes Agastya. 

1 See M&ndarya, n. i. \ Cf. Sieg, Die Sagenstoffe des Rgveda. 

i. 165, 14 ; 177. 5 ; 184. 4. I 107. 



Manyamana occurs with the word Devaka in the Rigveda.^ 
The word seems to be a patronymic from Manyamana, meaning 
'son of the proud one.'^ Roth^ renders the two words 'the 
godling, the proudling (hast thou smitten).' 



1 viii. 18, 20. 

3 SS.yana takes Manyamclna as a 
proper name. 



' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. Cf. 
Hopkins, Joitrnal of the American Oriental 
Society, 15, 264. 



Mamateya, 'descendant of Mamata,' is the metronymic of 
Dirghatamas in the Rigveda^ and the Aitareya Brahmana.^ 



* i. 147, 3 ; 152, 6; 158, 6. 



yaka, ii. 17. For Mamata, cf. Brhad- 



viii. 23, I ; 



^inkhiyana Aran- | devat&, iii. 56 ; iv. 11. 



Mayava, ' descendant of Mayu or Mayu,' is the patronymic 
of a patron in the Rigveda,^ perhaps of Rama, as Ludwig* 
thinks. 

> X. 93, 13. ' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 166. 



Malya] MAGIC BLEAT GARLAND PATRONYMICS I55 

Maya in the Satapatha Brahmaua (xiii. 4, 3, ii) corresponds 
to Asuravidya, * magic' 

Mayu denotes the ' lowing ' of a cow and the ' bleating ' of 
a sheep or goat in the Rigveda,^ as well as the 'chattering' 
of a monkey in the Atharvaveda.^ 

^ i. 164, 28 (cow); vii. 103, 2 (cow); I cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 85, 86; 
^- 95i 3 (ewe) ; Nirukta, ii. 9. St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. M^u). 

vi. 38, 4 ; xix. 49, 4 (called purufa; \ 

Maruta, ' descendant of Marut,' is the patronymic of Dyutana 
and of Nitana. 



Marutaiva, * descendant of Marutisva,' is, according to 
Ludwig,^ the patronymic of a patron in the Rigveda.^ The 
word may, however, be merely an adjective 'having wind- 
swift horses.' 

1 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 155. It may be a patronymic of CyaTat&iuu 
' V. 33. 9. 

Margraveya is the patronymic or metronymic of Rama in 
the Aitareya Brahmana (vii. 27, 3. 4), where he is mentioned 
as a iSyapanja. 

Margrara is the name of one of the victims at the Parusa- 
medha (' human sacrifice"') in the Yajurveda.^ The sense of the 
word is apparently ' hunter,' or possibly * fisherman,' * as a 
patronymic from mrgdri, * enemy of wild beasts.' 

1 V5,jasaneyiSamhita, XXX. 16; Tait- I * C/. Siyana on Taittiriya Br&h- 
tiriya briLhmana, iii. 4, 12, i. | mana. loc. at. 

1. Malya, ' garland,' is found in the Upanisads.* 

t Ch&ndogya Upanifad, viii. 2, 6 ; Kau^Itaki Upani^, i. 4, etc. 

2. Malya, * descendant of Mala,' is the patronymic of Arya 
in the Paftcavim^a Brahmana (xiii. 4, ti). 



jtrwEtt rt:K. w&sof 







Hnfl 



IT ! 









I 

9, a: 



- ~ i Hniiii ..x ^ .^a^ TH J %, 

:^ wmitL. #r^ hmcS 19:: TI^OB : %a: : 










158 TWO METHODS OF RECKONING THE MONTH [ Masa 

full moon ; but it is perhaps possible to account adequately for 
the importance of the Ekastaka as being the first Astaka 
after the beginning of the new year. 

It is not certain exactly how the month was reckoned, whether 
from the day after new moon to new moon the system known 
as amdnta, or from the day after full moon to full moon the /ilr- 
nimdnta system, which later, at any rate, was followed in North 
India, while the other system prevailed in the south. Jacobi" 
argues that the year began in the full moon of Phalguna, and 
that only by the full moon's conjunction with the Naksatra could 
the month be known. Oldenberg ^^ points to the fact that the 
new moon is far more distinctively an epoch than the full 
moon ; that the Greek, Roman, and Jewish years began with 
the new moon ; and that the Vedic evidence is the division of 
the month into the former {purva) and latter (apara) halves, 
the first being the bright (sukla), the second the dark {krsna) 
period. Thibaut^^ considers that to assume the existence of 
the prirnimdnta system for the Veda is unnecessary, though 
possible. Weber ^ assumes that it occurs in the Kausitaki 
Brahmana as held by the scholiasts. But it would probably 
be a mistake to press that passage, or to assume that the 
amdnta system was rigidly accepted in the Veda : it seems at 
least as probable that the month was vaguely regarded as 
beginning with the new moon day, so that new moon preceded 
full moon, which was in the middle, not the end or the 
beginning of the month. 

That a month regularly had 30 days is established by the 
conclusive evidence of numerous passages in which the year is 
given 12 months and 360 days. This month is known from the 
earliest records, being both referred to directly and alluded to." 

" Zeituhri/t der Morgenldndischtn elusive one way or the other. It is 

Gesellsckaft, 49, 229, n. i ; 50, 81. ; perfectly possible that the usage of 

C/. Hopkins, Journal of the American , families or districts differed. Cf. 

Oriental Society, 24, 20. Thibaut, Astronomic, Astrologie und 

" Ibid., 48, 633, n. I ; 49. 476, Mathematik, 12. 

477. This is the Epic rule, Hopkins, 1* Rv. i. 164, 11. 14. 48; x. 189, 3; 

loc. cit. 190, 2 ; Av. iv, 35, 4 ; x. 7, 6 ; 8, 23 ; 

1* Indian Antiquary, 24, 87. None xiii. 3, 8, etc. 
of the evidence is absolutely con- 



Masa] LENGTH OF THE MONTH 159 

It is the regular month of the Brahmanas,^^ and must be 
regarded as the month which the Vedic Indian recognized. 
No other month is mentioned as such in the Brahmana 
Hterature ; it is only in the Sutras that months of different 
length occur. The Samaveda Sutras^ refer to (i) years with 
324 days i.e.y periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each ; 
(2) years with 351 days i.e.y periodic years with 12 months of 
27 days each, plus another month of 27 days ; (3) years with 
354 days i.e., 6 months of 30 days, and 6 with 29 days, in 
other words, lunar synodic years ; (4) years with 360 days, or 
ordinary civil {sdvana) years ; (5) years with 378 days, which, 
as Thibaut^'^ clearly shows, are third years, in which, after 
two years of 360 days each, 18 days were added to bring about 
correspondence between the civil year and the solar year of 
366 days. But even the Samasutras do not mention the year 
of 366 days, which is first known to the Jyotisa^ and to 
Garga.-^ 

That the Vedic period was acquainted with the year of 
354 days cannot be affirmed with certainty. Zimmer,^ indeed, 
thinks that it is proved by the fact that pregnancy is estimated 
at ten months, or sometimes a year.^ But Weber** may be 
right in holding that the month is the periodic month of 
27 days, for the period is otherwise too long if a year is taken. 
On the other hand, the period of ten months quite well suits 
the period of gestation, if birth takes place in the tenth month, 
so that in this sense the month of 30 days may well be meant. 

16 Maitrayani Samhiti, i. 10, 8 ; 1 2* Altindisches Leben, 365, 366. 

Aitareya Brahmana, iv. 12 ; K&tbaka ' ^^ Ten months is the period accord- 

Sarnhita, xxxvi. 2, 3 ; Kausitaki Br3.h- | ing to Rv. v. 78, 7-9 ; x. 184, 3 ; Av. 

mana,iii. 2 ; Aitareya Arsinyaka, iii. 2, i ; j i. 11, 6; iii. 23, 2 ; v. 25, 13 ; K&thaka 

Baudbayana ^rauta Sutra, xxvi. 10 ; ! Saiphita, xxviii. 6 ; Satapatha Brih- 

Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, i. 5, 22. See ' mana, iv. 5. 2, 4. 5 {ibid., ix. 5, i, 63, 

also Weber, Naxatra, 2, 288 ; Thibaut, | a six months' embryo is alone able to 

Astronomie, Astrologieund Mathematik,8. j live). A year is mentioned in Pafica- 



1* LAtyiyana Srauta Sutra, iv. 8, 
1 et ieq.; Nidina SOtra, v. ii. 12; 
Weber. Naxatra, 2, 281.288. 

" Op. cit., 8, 9. 

18 verse 28. 

1* Cited in the commentary on the 
Jyotisa, 10. 



viin^ Brahmana, x. i , 9 (ten months 
in vi. I, 3) ; K&thaka SamhitS., xxxiii. 
8; Satapatha Br&hmana, vi. i, 3, 8; 
xi. 5, 4, 6-1 1,; Aitareya Br&hmana, 
iv. 22. 

" Naxatra, 2, 313, n. i. 



l6o LENGTH OF THE YEAR INTERCALATION [ Maaa 

The year of 12 months of 30 days each being admittedly 
quite unscientific, Zimmer" is strongly of opinion that it was 
only used with a recognition of the fact that intercalation took 
place, and that the year formed part of a greater complex, 
normally the five year Yuga or cycle. This system is well 
known from the Jyoti^a : it consists of 62 months of 29^1 days 
each = 1,830 days (two of these months being intercalary, one 
in the middle and one at the end), or 61 months of 30 days, 
or 60 months of 30^ days, the unit being clearly a solar year 
of 366 days. It is not an ideal system, since the year is too 
long;^ but it is one which cannot be claimed even for the 
Brahmana period, during which no decision as to the true 
length of the year seems to have been arrived at. The 
references to it seen by Zimmer in the Rigveda^^ are not even 
reasonably plausible, while the pancaka yuga, cited by him from 
the Pancavirnsa Brahmana,^ occurs only in a quotation in 
a commentary, and has no authority for the text itself. 

On the other hand, there was undoubtedly some attempt to 
bring the year of 360 days a synodic lunar year roughly 
into connexion with reality. A Samasutra^'' treats it as a 
solar year, stating that the sun perambulates each Naxatra in 
13J days, while others again evidently interpolated 18 days 
every third year, in order to arrive at some equality. But 
Vedic literature, from the Rigveda^ downwards,^ teems with 
the assertion of the difficulty of ascertaining the month. 
The length is variously given as 30 days,^ 35 days,^^ or 

developed in the Jyotisa. But we cannot 
say that a year of 366 days is known 
until then. 

27 LatySyana rauta Sutra, iv. 8, 
has nothing of this, but Nid&oa Sutra, 
V. 12, 2. 5, is quite clear. 

28 i. 25, 8 ; perhaps 165, 15. 
2 ^atapatha Brahmana, iv. 3, i, 5 ; 

vi. 2, 2, 29; xii. 2, I, 8; Aitareya 
Brahmana, i. 12 ; Kathaka Saiphita, 
xxxiv. 13 ; Pancavim^ Brahmana, 
X. 3, 2 ; xxiii. 2,3; Taittiriya Aranyaka, 
V. 4, 29 ; Weber, Naxatra, 2, 336, n. i. 

*> Av. xiii. 3, 8. 

31 ^atapatha Brahmana, x. 5, 4, 5. 



23 Op. cit.. 369, 370. 

2* The Yuga is too long by nearly 
four days. The true year has 365 days, 
5 hours, 48 minutes, 46 seconds. Cf. 
Thibaut, op. cit., 24, 25. 

2 i, 164, 14 ; iii. 55, 18. These 
passages are, of course, obscure, but 
to interpret them as referring to the 
ten half years of the Yuga is particularly 
gratuitous. 

* xvii, 13, 17. See also Thibaut, op. 
cit., 7, 8 ; Weber, Indische Strei/cn, l, 91, 
and references. The most that can be 
said is that a tendency to accept five years 
as a convenient period for intercalation 
was arising, which ultimately appears 



Masa ] 



NAMES OF THE MONTHS 



i6i 



36 days.^2 The last number possibly indicates an intercalation 
after six years (6x6 = 36, or for ritual purposes 35), but for 
this we have no special evidence. There are many references^ 
to the year having 12 or 13 months. 

The names of the months are, curiously enough, not at all 
ancient. The sacrificial texts of the Yajurveda give them in 
their clearest form where the Agnicayana, ' building of the 
fire-altar,' is described.^ These names are the following : 
(i) Madhu, (2) Madhava (spring months, vasantikdv rtu) ; 
(3) Sukra, (4) Suci (summer months, graismdv rtu) ; (5) Nabha 
(or Nabhas), ^ (6) Nabhasya (rainy months, vdrsikdv rtu) ; 
(7) Isa, (8) Urja (autumn months, sdraddv rtu) ; (9) Saha (or 
Sahas),^ (10) Sahasya (winter months, haimantikav rtu)', 
(ii) Tapa (or Tapas),^ (12) Tapasya (cool months, saisirdv 
rtu). 

There are similar lists in the descriptions of the Soma 
sacrifice^ and of the horse sacrifice,^'^ all of them agreeing in 
essentials. There are other lists of still more fanciful names,^ 
but these have no claim at all to represent actual divisions in 
popular use. It is doubtful if the list given above is more than 
a matter of priestly invention. Weber points cut that Madhu 
and Madhava later appear as names of spring, and that these 
two are mentioned in the Taittiriya Aranyaka^ as if actually 



32 Ibid., ix. I, 1, 43 ; 3. 3, 18. Cf. 
Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 43, 
167, n. I. Shamasastry, Gavam Ayana, 
122, interprets these passages in quite 
an impossible manner. There is no 
trace of a month of 35-36 days in the 
Epic : Hopkins, Journal of the A merican 
Orwital Society, 24, 42. 

Taittiriya Saijihita. v. 6. 7, i ; 
Kathaka Samhita, xxi. 5 ; xxxiv. 9 ; 
Maitrayani Samhita. i. 10, 8 ; Kausi- 
taki Brahmana, v. 8 ; Kausttaki Upani- 
sad, i. 6; Satapatha Brahmana, ii. 2, 
3, 27 ; iii. 6, 4. 24 ; v. 4, 5, 23 ; vii. 2, 
3, 9, etc. ; Jaiminiya Upanifad Brah- 
mana, t. 10, 6. 

** Tjuttiriya Samhita, iv. 4, ii, i; 
Kaihaka Saiphitu, xvii. 10; xxxv. 9; 

VOL. II. 



Maitrayani Saqihita, ii. 8, 12 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Samhita, xiii. 25 ; xiv. 6. 15. 16 
27; XV. 57. 

^' In Maitrayani, Kathaka, and Vaja- 
saneyi Samhitas. See notes 34, 36. 

* Taittiriya Samhita, i. 4, 14, i ; 
Maitrayani Samhita, i. 3, 16 ; iv. 6, 7 ; 
Kathaka Samhita, iv. 7 ; Vajasaneyi 
Samhita, vii. 30 (where Is and Urj 
appear as the names of the months). 

'^ Maitrayani Samhita, iii, 12, 13; 
vajasaneyi Saiphita, xxii. 31. 

* See, e.g., Tauttiriya Samhita, i. 7, 
9, I ; iv. 7, 11, 2 ; vajasaneyi Saiphita. 
ix. 20 ; xviii. 28 ; xxii. 32 ; Kathaka 
Samhita, xxxv. 10. Weber, 2, 349, 
350. 

" iv. 7, 2 ; V. 6, 16. 

II 



i62 INTERCALARY MONTH NAMES FROM\ASTERISMS [ M&sa 

employed; but the evidence is very inadequate to show that 
the other names of the months given in the list were in ordinary 
use.'* 

In some of these lists the intercalary month is mentioned. 
The name given to it in the Vajasaneyi Sarnhita*^ is Arnhasas- 
pati, while that given in the Taittiriya*^ and Maitrayani 
Samhitas*^ is Samsarpa. The Kathaka Sarnhita^ gives it the 
name of Malimluca, which also occurs elsewhere, along with 
Samsarpa, in one of the lists of fanciful names.** The 
Atharvaveda* describes it as sanisrasa, ' slipping,' owing no 
doubt to its unstable condition. 

The other method of naming the months is from the 
Nak^atras. It is only beginning to be used in the Brahmanas, 
but is found regularly in the Epic and later. The Jyotisa*' 
mentions that MSgha and Tapa were identical : this is the fair 
interpretation of the passage, which also involves the identifica- 
tion of Madhu with Caitra, a result corresponding with the 
view frequently found in the Brahmanas, that the full moon in 
Citra, and not that in Phalguni, is the beginning of the year.** 

In the Satapatha BrShmana* are found two curious ex- 
pressions, yava and ayava, for the light and dark halves of the 
month, which is clearly considered to begin with the light half. 
Possibly the words are derived, as Eggling*^ thinks, from yu, 
* ward off,' with reference to evil spirits. The word Parvan 



* Cases like that of nubhas, used by 
Mallin&tba on Meghadiita, i. 4, are 
merely scholastic. 

*' vii. 30; xxii. 31. 

*' i. 4. 14. 1. 

** iii. 12, 13. 

** xxxviii. 4. 

* Ibid., XXXV. 10; VSjasaneyi Saip- 
it&, xxii. 30. 

^ V. 6, 4. 

*' Verse 6 Yajus recension = verse 5 
Re recension : Weber, 2, 354 et seq, 

Weber's theory (339) that Caitra 
was as the first spring month secondary 
to Ph&lguna is, of course, an error; 
for, owing to the precession of the 
equinoxes, Pb&Iguna became the first 
month of spring de facto, while Caitra 



became virtually the last month of the 
preceding season. The truth is that 
the six seasons are an arbitrary division 
of the year, and that either PhJUguna 
or Caitra could be regarded as the 
beginning of spring without much im- 
propriety. See Weber, Indischc Studien, 
9, 457; 10, 231, 232; Whitney, /ourna/ 
of the American Oriental Society, 8, 71, 

397. 398. 

* viii. 4, 2, 12 ; 3, 18. See Vaja- 
saneyi Sainhita, xiv. 26. 31. The Tait- 
tirlya Samhiti, iv. 3, 10, 3, has the 
words in the form of y&va and ayAva, 
which are explained in v. 3, 4, 5. 

" Sacrtd Boohs of the East, 43, 
69. n. 



Mahar^ana] HALF-MONTHS PATRONYMICS 



163 



('joint ' = division of time) probably ^^ denotes a half of the 
month, perhaps already in the Rigveda.^^ More precisely the 
first half, the time of the waxing light, is called purva-paksa,^^ 
the second, that of the waning light, apara-paksa.^ Either of 
these might be called a half-month (ardha-mdsa).^ 



" The months and the half months 
are the parvani of the sacrificial horse 
in the Bfhad&ranyaka Upanisad, i. i, i. 
Cf. Satapatha BrS.hmana, i. 6, 3, 35 ; 
vi. 2, 2, 24 ; Vajasaneyi Samhit&, xiii. 43 ; 
St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 4, where 
the sense is left vague. 

** i. 94, 4. Cf. Ludwig, Translation 
of the Rigveda, 3, 189. 

^ Taittiriya Sai]ihitS., iii, 4, 9, 6 ; 
AitareyaBr&hmana, iv. 25, 3 ; Satapatha 
Hrihmana, vi. 7, 4i 7 ; viii. 4, 2, 11; 
Nirukta, v. 11, ; xi. 5. 6. 

** Satapatha Brahmana, vi. 7, 4, 7 ; 



viii. 4, 2, II ; xi. i, 5, 3 ; B{-hadaranyaka 
Upanisad, iii. i, 5; Nirukta, v. 11; 
xi. 6, etc. 

** Satapatha Brahmana. v. 4, 5, 21 ; 
B|-hadaranyaka Upanisad, i. i, i ; iii. 8, 
9, etc. ; Taittiriya Samhita, vii. i, 
15, i; Taittiriya Saiphita, iii. 12, 7; 
Vajasaneyi Saijihita, xxii. 28. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 364 
et seq. ; Thibaut, Astronomie, Astrologie 
und Mathematik, 7-9 ; Weber, Proceed- 
ings of the Berlin Academy, 1894, 37 
et seq. ; Naxatra, 2, passim. 



Masara is mentioned as a beverage in the Yajurveda Sam- 
hitas.-^ Its composition is described fully in the Katyayana 
Srauta Stitra.^ It seems to have been a mixture of rice and 
Syamaka with grass, parched barley, etc, 



1 Maitrayani Samhita, iii. 11, 2. 9; 
vajasaneyi Samhita, xix. 14. 82; xx. 
68; Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 6, 11,4, 
etc. 



* xix. I, 20. 21 ; Mahidhara on Vaja- 
saneyi Samhita, xix. i. 14. 

Cf. Griffith, Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
172, n. 



Mahaki, ' descendant of Mahaka,' is the patronymic of a 
teacher in the Vamsa Brahmana.^ 

1 Ittdische Studien, 4, 382. 



Maha-camasya, * descendant of Mahacamasa,' is the patro- 
nymic of a teacher to whom the Taittiriya Aranyaka^ ascribes 
the addition of Mahas to the triad Bhur Bhuvas Svar.^ 



I. 5. 1- 



2 Cf. Keith, Aitareya AranyaJka, 180. 



Maha-rajana, 'dyed with saffron' {mahd-rajana), is apphed to 
a garment (Vasas) in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (ii. 3, 10). 

II 2 



i64 GREAT KING TEACHERS FRIEND [ Blahanyya 

Maha-rajya, * the dignity of a great king ' (mahd-rdja), is 
mentioned in the Aitareya Brahmana (viii. 6, 5; 12, 4; 15, 3). 



Mahitthi, * descendant of Mahittha,' is the patronymic of a 
teacher mentioned several times in the Satapatha Brahmana.* 
He is said to be a pupil of Vamakakayai?a in the Brhad- 
aranyaka Upanisad.^ 

1 vi. 2, 2, 10 ; viii. 6, i, iG et seq. ; ix. 5, i, 57 ; x. 6, 5, 9. 
* vi. 5, 4 Kllnva. 

Mahina occurs in one passage of the Rigveda,* which 
celebrates Asamati as a king. The word, used in the plural, 
may be a patronymic referring to the priests who praised 
Asamati, or it may be an adjective of uncertain meaning. 

' X. 60, I. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 138. 



Mitra denotes ' friend ' in the Rigveda* and later.^ According 
to the Taittiriya Sarnhita^ a wife is a man's friend, and in the 
Satapatha Brahmana^ the value of a friend is insisted upon. 
Treachery to a friend is reprobated.^ 

1 Masculine : i. 58, i ; 67, i ; 75, 4 ; | mana, i. 7, 8, 7 ; Aitareya Brahmana, 
156, I ; 170, 5; ii. 4, I. 3, etc. The vi. 20, 17 ; viii. 27, 2 ; Satapatha Br&h- 
neuter does not with certainty occur in | mana, iv. i, 4, 8 ; v. 3, 5, 13 ; xi. 4, 3, 



the sense of ' friend ' in the Rv. 

' Masculine : Av. v. 19, 15 ; xi, 9, 2 ; 
K&thaka Samhita, xxvii. 4 ; Taittiriya 
Aranyaka, x. 80. Neuter: Taittiriya 
Sanihita, vi. 4, 8, i ; Taittiriya Brah- 



20, etc. 

* vi. 2, 9, 2. 

* i-5. 3. 17- 

' Cf. Taittiriya BrShmana. i. 7, 

I. 7. 



Mitra-bhu Ka^yapa (' descendant of Ka^yapa ') is the name 
of a teacher, a pupil of Vibhandaka Ka^yapa, in the Vam^a 
Brahmana.* 

1 Indische Studien, 4, 374. 

Mitra-bhuti Lauhitya ('descendant of Lohita') is mentioned 
in the Varn^a (list of teachers) in the Jaiminlya Upani?ad 
Brahmana (iii. 42, i) as a pupil of Krnadatta Lauhitya. 



MuSja ] 



TEACHERS A KING NET A GRASS 



165 



Mitpa-varcas Sthairakayana (* descendant of Sthiraka ') is 

the name of a teacher, a pupil of Supratita Auluijdya, in the 

Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

1 Indische Studien, 4, 372. 

Mitpa-vinda Ka^yap a (' descendant of Kasyapa ') is the name 
of a teacher, a pupil of Sunitha, in the Vamsa Brahmana.^ 

1 Indische Studien, 4, 372. 

Mitpatithi is mentioned in one hymn of the Rigveda^ as the 
father of Kupu^pavana and the grandfather of Upama^pavas, 
all being evidently kings. 

^ " 33. 7- C/. Ludwig, Translation 1 922, 923 ; Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, 

of the Rigveda, 3, 165; Geldner, [ 384; BrhaddevatS, vii. 35. 36, with 

Vedische Studien, 2, 150, 184; Keith, Macdonell's notes. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1910, | 

Muk$](ja is found in one passage of the Rigveda,^ where 
the sense seems clearly to be * net ' for catching animals. 
Cf. Padi. 

1 i. 125, 2 ; Nirukta, v. ig. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 244. 



I. Muiija denotes a grass, the Saccharum Muflja, which is 
of luxuriant growth, attaining to a height of ten feet. It is 
mentioned in the Rigveda^ along with other kinds of grasses 
as the lurking-place of venomous creatures. In the same text^ 
the Munja grass is spoken of as purifying, apparently being 
used as the material of a filter for Soma. The grass is often 
mentioned in the later Sarnhitas^ and the Brahmanas.* It is 
in the Satapatha Brahmana^ said to be 'hollow' (stisira) and 
to be used for the plaited part of the throne (Asandi). 



* i. igr. 3- 

' i. 161, 8 {muTija-nejana, which S&yana 
explains as apagata-triia, ' with the grass 
removed '). 

^ Av. i. 2, 4 ; Taittiriya Sarphit&, 
V. I, 9. 5 ; 10, 5, etc. 

* Kausitaki Brahmana, xviii. 7 ; Sata- 



patha Br&hmana, iv. 3, 3. 16 ; vi. 6, i, 
23 ; 2, 15. 16, etc. Cf. St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, s.v. maunja. 

* vi. 3, I, 26. 

* Satapatha Br&hmana, xii. 8, 3, 6. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 72. 



i66 



NAMES STORY OF MUDGALA [ Munja Sama^ravasa 



2. Muiya Sama-^ravasa ('descendant of Sama^ravas') is 
the name of a man, possibly a king, mentioned in the Jaiminiya 
Upani?ad Brahmana^ and the Sadvim^a Brahmana.^ 



1 iii. 5, 2. 



' iv. I {Indische Studien, i, 39). 



Muijdibha Audanya^ or Audanyava^ is the name of a man 
in the Satapatha Brahmana^ and the Taittiriya Brahmana.* 



* Satapatha Br&hmana, xiii. 3, 5, 4. 
Apparently the word is a patronymic, 
son of Udanya ' (so Eggeling, Sacred 
Books of the East, 44, 341, n. i), or 



son of Odana ' (so St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, s.v.). 

2 Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 9, 15, 3 
(' descendant of Udanyu '). 



Mudgfa, denoting a kind of bean {Phaseolus Mungo), occurs 
in a hst of vegetables in the Vajasaneyi Samhita.-^ A ' soup of 
rice with beans ' (mudgaudana) is mentioned in the Sankhayana 
Aranyaka^ and the Sutras. Cf. perhaps Mudgfala. 



1 xviii. 12. 



2 xii. 8. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 240. 



Mudgrala and Mudgralani, * Mudgala's wife,' both figure in 
a hopelessly obscure hymn of the Rigveda,^ variously inter- 
preted by PischeP and Geldner^ and von Bradke"* as telling 
of a real chariot race in which, despite difficulties, Mudgala 
won by his wife's aid. The Indian tradition is as variant as 
the interpretations of modern authorities. Sadgurusisya^ 
explains that Mudgala's oxen were stolen, that he pursued the 
thieves with the one old ox he had left, and that hurling his 
hammer {dru-ghana) he caught the marauders. Yaska, on the 
other hand, says that Mudgala won a race with a drughana 
and an ox instead of with two oxen. It is pretty clear that, 
as Roth'' observed, the tradition is merely a guess, and a bad 
one, at the meaning of an obscure hymn, and this view is 



* X. 102. 

Vediscke Studien, i, 124. 

Ibid., I, 138; 2, 1-22. 

* Zeitschrift der Deutsclttn Morgen- 
Idndischen Geseliuka/t, 46. 445 it seq. 



^ Macdonell's edition of the Sarv&aa- 
kramani, p. 158. 
Nirukta, ix. 23. 24. 
' Nirukta, Erlduterungtn, 129. 



Muni] 



ASCETIC WITH MAGICAL POWERS 



167 



accepted by Oldenberg. Bloomfield has interpreted the 
legend as one of heavenly, not of human, events. Mudgala, 
probably a variant form of Mudgara,^ which in the later 
language means a hammer or a similar weapon, may be meant 
as a personification of the thunderbolt of Indra, rather than 
a real man.^^ Later ^^ Mudgala is a mythical sage. 



* Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgcn- 
Idndischen Gesellschaft, 39, 78. 

Ibid.. 48. 547. 

'" According to Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, 2, i, IndrasenS, in x. 102, 2, is 
the name of Mudgal&ni ; but its sense, 
' Indra's bolt,' rather indicates the 
mythical character of the passage. 

" If the name means a real man, it 



may be connected with Mndga, ' bean. ' 
See Zimmer, Altindixhes Leben, 240. 

^' Av. iv. 29, 6 ; A^vaUiyana Srauta 
SQtra, xii. 12 ; Brhaddevat^., vi. 46 ; 
viii. 12, 90. 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 166, 167; Oldenberg, Religion 
des Veda, 280; Keith, Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society 191 1, 1005, n, i. 



Muni occurs in one hymn of the Rigveda^ where it seems to 
denote an ascetic of magic powers with divine afflatus (devesita), 
the precursor of the strange ascetics of later India. This 
agrees with the fact that Aita^a, the Muni, is in the Aitareya 
Brahmana^ regarded by his son as deranged, a view not 
unjustified if the nonsense which passes as the Aitasapralapa,^ 
* Chatter of Aita^a,' was really his. The Rigveda"* calls Indra 
the * friend of Munis,' and the Atharvaveda^ refers to a ' divine 
Muni ' (deva muni), by whom a similar ascetic may be meant. 

In the Upanisads the Muni is of a more restrained type : 
he is one who learns the nature of the Brahman, the Absolute, 
by study, or sacrifice, or penance, or fasting, or faith {sraddha). 
It must not of course be thought that there is any absolute 
distinction between the older Muni and the later: in both 
cases the man is in a peculiar ecstatic condition, but the ideal 
of the Upanisads is less material than the earlier picture of the 
Muni, who is more of a * medicine man ' than a sage. Nor 
would it be wise to conclude from the comparative rareness 



* X. 136, 2. 4. 5. In verse i he is 
described as ' long-haired.' 

' vi. 33. 3. 

^ See Bloomfield, Atharvaveda, 98 
et$eq. 

* viii. 17, 14. Cf. vii. 56, 8 ; Max 
Mtlller, Sacred Books of the East, 32, 376. 



* vii. 74, 1. Cf. Whitney, Translation 
of the Atharvaveda, 440 ; Satapatha 
BrSLbmana, ix. 5, 2, 15, and Mani- 
mara^a. 

* Brhadiranyaka Upanisad, iiu 4, i ; 
iv. 4, 25 ; Taittiriya Aranyaka, ii, 20. 



i68 A LOCALITY LOTUS ROBBER WARRIOR [ Munimarai^ 



of the mention of the Muni in the Vedic texts that he was 
an infrequent figure in Vedic times: he was probably not 
approved by the priests who followed the ritual, and whose 
views were essentially different from the ideals of a Muni, 
which were superior to earthly considerations, such as the 
desire for children and Dakinas.' 



' Cf. Brhadranyaka Upanisad, 
iii. 4, I. 
Cf. Oldenberg, Religion des Veda, 406 ; 



Zeitxhrift der Deutuhtn Morgenldndischen 
Geullschaft, 49, 480 ; Buddha,^ 36. 



Muni-marai;ia, ' Saints' Death,' is the name of the place 
where, according to the Pancavimsa Brahmana (xiv. 4, 7), the 
Vaikhanasas were slain. 



Mulalin (masc.) or Mulali (fern.) is the name of some part 
of an edible lotus (perhaps the Nymphaea esculenta) in the 
Atharvaveda.-^ 

^ iv. 34, 5. Cf. KauSika SOtra, 1 Whitney, Translation of the Athan-a- 



Ixvi. 10; Weber, Indische Stitdien, 18, 
138; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 70; 



veda, 207. 



Muj^ivan denotes ' robber ' in one passage of the Rigveda 
(i- 42, 3). 



Mu^kara occurs in one passage of the Atharvaveda,^ possibly 
in the sense of a small animal or insect, as suggested by Roth,^ 
who, however, thought the passage corrupt. Bloomfield^ 
suggests that the reading of the Paippalada text puskaram, 
{' blue lotus ') is the correct form. 



VI. 14, 2. 



* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 
' Hymns 0/ the Atharvaveda, 463, 464. 



Cf. Whitney, Translation of the Athar- 
vaveda. 297. 



Muti-han,^ Mu?ti-hatya,2 in the Rigveda and the Atharva- 
veda denote, respectively, the ' hand to hand fighter ' that is, 
the ordinary warrior as opposed to the charioteer, and the 



* Rv. V. 58, 4 ; vi. 26, 2 ; viii. 20, 20 ; Av. v. 22, 4. 



a Rv. i. 8, 2. 



Mujavant ] 



PESTLE HOUR TRIBES 



169 



'fight' itself. So also in the Atharvaveda' the charioteer 
(rathin) is opposed to the foot-soldier (patti), and in the 
Rigveda* the chariots are opposed to the troops {grama) of the 
infantry. The parallel of the Greek and other Aryan races 
shows that the Ksatriyas were the fighters from chariots, while 
the ordinary host fought on foot. 



' vii. 62, I. 



1. 100, 10. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 297. 

Musala denotes a 'pestle' in the later Sarnhitas^ and in the 
Brahmanas.^ 



^ Av. X. 9, 26 ; xi. 3, 3 ; xii. 3, 13 ; 
Tajttiriya SaqihitS., i. 6, 8, 3, etc. 

^ ^Siikh&yana Aranyaka, xii. 8 ; Sata- 
patha Brihrnana, xii. 5, 2, 7 ; in the 



Jaiminiya Br&hmana, i. 42. 44 {Journal 
of the American Oriental Society, 15, 235, 
237), musalin means a ' man armed with 
a club.' 



Muhurta denotes a division of time, one-thirtieth of a day, 
or an hour of forty-eight minutes, in the Brahmanas.^ In the 
Rigveda^ the sense of * moment ' only is found. Cf. Ahan. 



1 Taittiriya Bra.hmana, iii. 10, i, 1 
(for the names) ; 9, 7 ; 12, 9, 6 ; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, x. 4, 2, 18. 25. 27; 
3, 20 ; xii. 3, 2, 5 ; x. 4, 4, 4, etc. 

^ '" 33) 5 ; 53. 8. The sense of 



moment ' is also common in the 
Brahmanas. 

Cf. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen- 
Idndischen Gesellschaft, 9, 139 et seq. ; 
Indische Strei/en, 1, gz et seq. 



Mucipa or Muvipa is the variant in the .Sankhayana Srauta 
Sutra (xv. 26, 6) of the Mutiba of the Aitareya Brahmana as 
the name of a barbarian tribe. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 67, n. i. 



Mujavant is the name of a people who, along with the 
Mahavras, the Gandharis, and the Balhikas, are mentioned 
in the Atharvaveda^ as dwelling far away, and to whom 
fever is to be banished. Similarly in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas- 
the Mujavants are chosen as a type of distant folk, beyond 

Cf. Baudha.yana 



* V. 22, 5. 7. 8. 14. 
Srauta Satra, ii. 5. 

' Taittiriya Samhit&, i. 8, 6, 2 ; 
Kitbaka Sambiti, ix. 7 ; xxxvi. 14 ; 



Maitr&yani Samhiti, i. 4, 10. 20 ; V&ja- 
saneyi SaipbitA, iii. 61 ; Satapatha 
Br&bmana, ii. 6, 2, 17. 



I70 BASKETA BARBAROUS TRIBE MOUSE [ MuU 

which Rudra with his bow is entreated to depart. In the 
Rigveda* Soma is described as Maujavata, ' coming from the 
Mujavants,' or, as Yaska* takes it, ' from Mount Mujavant.' 
The Indian commentators'* agree with Yaska in taking Muja- 
vant as the name of a mountain, and though Hillebrandt" is 
justified in saying that the identification of Mujavant by 
Zimmer'^ with one of the lower hills on the south-west of 
Ka^mlr lacks evidence, it is not reasonable to deny that 
Mujavant was a hill from which the people took their name. 
Yaska suggests that Mujavant is equivalent to Munjavant, 
which actually occurs later, in the Epic, as the name of a 
mountain in the Himalaya. 

7 Altindisches Leben, 29. 

8 Loc. cit. Cf. Siddhanta KaumudI 
on Panini, iv. 4, 1 10, where instead of 
Maujavata in Rv. x. 34, i, Maunjavata 
is read. 

Mahabharata. x. 785 ; xiv. 180. 
Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 198. 



' X. 34. I. 

* Nirukta, ix. 8. 

Mahidhara on Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
loc. cit. ; SSyana on Rv. i. 161, 8 ; 
Baudhayana Srauta SQtraand Prayoga, 
cited by Hillebrandt, Vedische Myth- 
ologie, I, 63. 

Op. cit., I, 65. 



Muta in the later Samhitas and the Brahmanas^ denotes a 
* woven basket.' Mutaka means a * small basket.' ^ 

1 Kathaka Samhita, xxxvi. 14 ; Taittirlya Brahmana, i. 6, 10, 5 ; Latyayana 
Srauta Sutra, viii. 3, 8. 

A 

2 Satapatha Brahmaiia, ii. 6, 2, 17. 

Mutiba appears in the Aitareya Brahmana^ as the name of 
one of the barbarous peoples enumerated as nominally Vi^va- 
mitpa's outcast offspring. The Sarikhayana Srauta Sutra'* 
gives the name as Muclpa or Muvipa. 

1 vii. 18, 2. I Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 1^, 358. 

2 XV. 26, 6. I 483. 

Mula, Mulabarhana. See Nak^atra. 

Mus,^ Mu^ika,^ are the names of 'mouse' occurring in the 
Rigveda^ and the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ 

1 Rv. i. 105. 8 = x. 33, 3; Nirukta, I ' Maitrayani Saiphita, iii. 14, 17; 
iv4 5. I Vajasaneyi Saiphita, xxiv. 36. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, S5; Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 248. 



MrgaHastin] WILD BEAST AN ASTERISM ELEPHANT 171 

I. Mpgra has the generic sense of 'wild beast' in the Rigveda^ 
and later.'- Sometimes it is qualified by the epithet ' terrible ' 
(bhlma),^ which indicates that a savage wild beast is meant. 
Elsewhere the buffalo is shown to be denoted by the epithet 
mahisa,* ' powerful,' which later becomes the name of the 
buffalo. More particularly the word has the sense of an animal 
of the gazelle type. In some passages Roth'' sees the sense 
of ' bird.' See also Mpga Hastin, Pupua Hastin. 

1 i. 173. 2 ; 191, 4 ; viii. i. 20 ; 5. 36 ; | 8 Ry. i. 38, 5 ; 105, 7 ; vi. 75, 11 ; 

X. 146, 6, etc. ix. 32, 4 ; Av. v. 21, 4 (not a certain 

' Av. iv. 3, 6 ; X. i, 26; xii. i, 48 instance) ; Taittiriya Saiphiti, vi. i, 

(suhara, ' boar ') ; xix. 38, 2 ; Panca- 1 3, 7 ; Taittiriya Brihrnana, iii. 2, 5 

vitn^ Brclhmana, vi. 7, 10 ; xxiv. 11, 2 ; \ 6 ; ^atapatha Brahmana, xi. 8, 4, 3, etc. 

Aitareya Brahmana, iii. 31, 2; viii. 23, I " Rv. i. 182, 7; x. 136, 6, and per- 

3. etc. I haps i. 145, 5 ; vii. 87, 6. 

* Rv. i. 154, 2; 190, 3; ii. 33, 11; ' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v., le. 
34, I ; X. 180, 2, etc. Cf. Pischel, Vtdischc Studien, i. 99 ; 

* Rv. viii. 6g, 15 ; ix. 92, 6 ; x. 123, 4. i 2, 122. 



2. Mrgfa in the Aitareya Brahmana^ denotes, according to 
Sayana's commentary, the constellation Mrgfai^iras. But it 
seems more probable^ that Miga there really covers the whole 
of Orion, not merely the inconspicuous group of stars in the 
head of Orion that make up the Naksatra Mrgasiras, but also 
the star a in his shoulder, which is reckoned as Ardra, and y 
in his left shoulder. Tilak,^ however, makes Mrga or Mrgasiras 
into a different group, consisting of the belt of Orion, with two 
stars in the knees and one in the left shoulder, which he 
deems to resemble a deer's head with an arrow through it, 
an implausible and unlikely theory. Cf. Mrgfavyadha. 

* i"- 33> 5- ' See "Whitney, Journal of the American OrienttU Society, 16, xcii. 

Orion, 99 et seq. 



3. Mrga Hastin, the * animal with a hand,' is mentioned in 
two passages of the Rigveda,^ in which Roth^ recognizes that 
the elephant is meant, but concludes that the compound name 

i i. 64, 7; iv. 16, 14. 

' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. ; Nirukta, ErlSuterungent 79. 



172 



A FOE OF INDRA HUNTER 



[ Mrgaya 



is a proof of the newness of the elephant to the Vedic Indians.^ 
Later the adjective Hastin alone became the regular name of 
the animal (like Mahia of the 'buffalo'). The elephant is 
also denoted in the Rigveda by the descriptive term Mrga 
Varana,* the ' wild or dangerous animal,' the adjective vdrana 
similarly becoming one of the names for * elephant ' in the later 
language. Pischel's view^ that the catching of elephants by 
the use of tame female elephants is already alluded to in the 
Rigveda seems very doubtful. In the Aitareya Brahmana'' 
elephants are described as ' black, white-toothed, adorned with 
gold.' 



" Pischel, Vedische Studien, i, 99, 100, 
combats the view that the elephant was 
new to the Vedic Indian, because of 
the similar use of virga mahij, and 
mrga sukara (Av. xii. i, 48) to denote 
the ' buffalo ' and the ' boar ' respec- 
tively. But Mahisa seems rather to 
bear out Roth's conclusion ; while 
SUkara appears alone in the Rigveda, 
and mrga sukara, 'wild hog,' seems to 
be used in one passage of the Av. 



(xii. 1, 48) to distinguish it from Vai^ha, 
' boar,' in the same verse. 

* Rv. viii. 33, 8 ; x. 40, 8. 

* Vedische Studien, 2, 121-123 ; 317- 
319. Cf. Strabo, pp. 704, 705 ; Arrian, 
Indica, 13. 14 (from Megasthenes). 

" viii. 2, 6 ; x. 40, 8. 

' viii. 23, 3 (Jiiraiiyena parivrtan hrsiuih 
chiikladato nirgan). See Pischel, op. cit., 
2, 122. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 80. 



Mrgfaya occurs in several passages of the Rigveda* as 
defeated by Indra. That he was a human foe, as Ludwig^ 
thinks, seems unlikely : more probably he was a demon, as 
Mrga unquestionably is.^ 

* iv. 16, 13 ; viii. 3, 19 ; x. 49, 5. 3 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 166. 

3 Rv. i. 80, 7 ; V. 29, 4, etc. 



Mrg'Jiyu, ' hunter,' occurs in the later Samhitas* and the 
Brahmanas,^ but not very often. The Vajasaneyi Sarnhita^ 
and the Taittirlya Brahmana,^ however, in the list of victims 
at the Purusamedha (' human sacrifice ') include a number of 
names which seem to be those of persons who make a liveli- 
hood by fishing or by hunting, such as the Margara, ' hunter,' 



* Av. X. I, 26; Vajasaneyi SamhitS, 
xvi. 27 ; XXX. 7, etc. Cf. mfganyu, Rv. 
X.40, 4. 

" Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 5. 1, i ; 



iii. 4, 3, I ; Pancaviip^ Brahmana, 
xiv. 9, 12. etc. 

3 XXX. 

* iii. 4. 



Mrgayu ] METHODS OF HUNTING 173 

the Kaivarta or Kevarta, Paunjitha, Da^a, Mainala, * fisher- 
man,' and perhaps the Bainda and the Anda,** who seem to 
have been some sort of fishermen. 

It is not probable that even in the earliest Vedic period 
hunting formed the main source of livelihood for any of the 
Vedic tribes : pastoral pursuits and agriculture (Kri) were, no 
doubt, the mainstay of their existence. But it would be 
unreasonable to suppose that not much hunting was done, 
both for recreation and for purposes of food, as well as for 
protection of flocks from wild beasts. The Rigveda is naturally 
our chief source of information in regard to hunting. The 
arrow was sometimes employed, but, as is usual with primitive 
man, the normal instruments of capture were nets and pitfalls. 
Birds were regularly caught in nets (Paia,"^ Nidha,^ Jala^), the 
bird-catcher being called nidhd-pati,^^ * master of snares.' The 
net was fastened on pegs" (as is done with modern nets for 
catching birds). Another name of net is apparently Mukija. 

Pits were used for catching antelopes (R^ya), and so were 
called r^'a-da}^ * antelope-catching.' Elephants were captured 
as in Greek times, perhaps through the instrumentality of tame 
females (see Mpgra Hastin). Apparently the boar was captured 
in the chase, dogs being used,^ but the passage from which 
this view is deduced is of uncertain mythological content. 
There is also an obscure reference ^^ to the capture of the 
buffalo (Gaura), but it is not clear whether the reference is to 
shooting with an arrow or capturing by means of ropes, 
perhaps a lasso, or a net. The lion was captured in pitfalls,^ 
or was surrounded by the hunters and slain -^ one very obscure 
passage refers to the lion being caught by ambuscade, which 
perhaps merely alludes to the use of the hidden pit.^'' 

The modes of catching fish are little known, for the only 
evidence available are the explanations of the various names 



8 Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxx. 16; Tait- 


" Rv. X. 39, 8. 


tiriya Samhiti, iii. 4, 12, i. 


" Rv. X. 86, 4. 


Rv. ii. 42, 2. 


" Rv, X. 51. 6. 


^ Piiin, ' hunter,' Rv, iii. 45, i. 


18 Rv. X. 28. 10. 


Rv. ix. 83. 4; X. 73, II. j 


t Rv, V. 15, 3. 


Av. X. I, 30. 1 


" Rv. V. 74, 4. Cf. GriflSth, Hymm 


10 Rv. ix. 83, 4. 


of the Rigveda, i, 542, n. 


" Av. viii. 8, 5. 





174 SIRIUS LAIR GOLD WEIGHT-CLAY [ Mrgavylidha 

mentioned in the Yajurveda. Sayana^ says that Dhaivara is 
one who takes fish by netting a tank on either side ; Da^a and 
^aukala do so by means of a fish-hook (badisa) ; Bainda, 
Kaivarta, and MainSla by means of a net (jdla) ; Margara 
catches fish in the water with his hands; Anda by putting in 
pegs at a ford (apparently by building a sort of dam) ; Parijaka 
by putting a poisoned leaf on the water. But none of these 
explanations can claim much authority. 



1" On Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 4, 
12, 1. Cf. Weber, Zeitschri/t der Deutschtn 
Morgenldndischen Gesellscha/t, 18, 281. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 243- 
245. 



Mpgra-vyadha, 'the hunter,' is the name of Sirius in the 
legend of Prajapati's daughter in the Aitareya Brahmana.* 
Prajapati (Orion) pursues his daughter (Rohini), and is shot 
by the archer Sirius. The transference of the legend of 
Prajapati to the sky is no doubt secondary, caused by the 
obvious similarity of the constellation in question to the idea 
of an archer. 

* iii- 33. 5- Gf. Hillebrandt, Vedische I Orion, 98 et seq. ; SQrya Siddhanta, 
Idyihologie, 2, 205, n. i, 208, n. 3; Tilak, | viii.^io ; ix. 12, preserves the name. 

Mrg:a-iiras, Mrgra-6ira. See Nakatra, i. and 2. Mrgra. 

Mrgr^khara in the Taittiriya Samhita (vii. 5, 21, 1) and 
Brahmana (iii. 9, 17, 3) denotes the * lair of wild beasts.' 

Mpda is found only in compounds in the Yajurveda Samhitas,* 
where it seems to denote a small weight of gold. It is uncer- 
tain whether the reading should not be Prda, as in the 
grammatical tradition.* 

3 See Panini, iii. i, 123, with the 
Varttika ; von Schroeder, Zeitschri/t der 
Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellscha/t, 
49, 164. 



1 U pacaya-mfdam hiranyam, Kathaka 
Samhita, xi. i ; af^-mrdatp, hiranyatn, 
ibid., xiii. 10; Of^a prud - dhiraiiyam, 
Taittiriya Samhita, iii. 4, i, 4, etc. 



Mrttika, * clay,' is mentioned in the later Sarphitas and the 
BrShmanas.* Cf. Mpd. 

Vajasaneyi Samhita, xviii. 13; I dogya Upanisad, vi. i, 4; Taittiriya 
Aitareya Brahmana. iii. 34, 2 ; Chan- | Aranyaka, x. i, 8. 9. 



Mrtyu] DEATH BURIAL AND CREMATION 175 

Mptyu, 'death,' is repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda^ 
and later ^ as a thing of terror. There are a hundred and one 
forms of death, the natural one by old age^ (Jara), and a 
hundred others, all to be avoided.** To die before old age 
{purd jarasahy is to die before the allotted span {piird ayusal^),^ 
the normal length of life being throughout Vedic literature 
spoken of as a hundred years.' On the other hand, the evils 
of old age in the loss of physical strength were clearly realized : 
one of the feats of the Asvins was to restore old Cyavana to 
his former youth and powers, and another was the rejuvenation 
of Kali. The Atharvaveda-^ is full of charms of all sorts to 
avert death and secure length of years (dyusya). 

The modes of disposing of the dead were burial and cremation 
(see AgfludagfcQia). Both existed in the early Vedic period,^^ 
as in Greece ; ^- but the former method was on the whole less 
favoured, and tended to be regarded with disapproval. The 
bones of the dead, whether burned or not, were marked by the 
erection of a tumulus (l^ma^ana) : the ^atapatha Brahmana^ 
preserves traces of strong differences of opinion as to the mode 
in which these tumuli should be constructed. There is little 
or no trace ^* of the custom common in northern lands of 
sending the dead man to sea in a burning ship : the reference 

1 vii. 59, 13; X. 13, 4; 18, I. 2; I ' Rv. i. 64, 14; 89,9; ii. ^3. 2, etc. 
48, 5 ; 60, 5. So mrtyu-bandhu, 1 Cf. Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, 384 ; 



akin to death,' Rv. viii. 18, 22 

95, 18. 

2 Taittiriya Samhit&, i. 5, 9, 4, where 
the world is said to be ' yoked with 
death' {mrtyu- samyuta); Taittiriya BrSh- 
mana, i. 5, 9, 6; Aitareya BrShmana, 
iii. 8, 2; 14, I. 2. 3; Satapatha Brah- 
mana, x. 6, 5, i, etc. So often the 
'bonds of death' (mrtyu - paia), Av. 



Weber, Indische Studien, 17, 193 ; Fest- 
gruss an Rotk, 137. 

8 Rv. 1. 71, 10; 179, 1. 

X. 39, 8. Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 
5, 243. 

o See Bl cornfield, Atharvaveda. 62 
et seq. 

" See Ho^Vms, Journal of the A merican 
Oriental Society, 16, clii ; Wintemitz, 



viii. 2, 2 ; 8, 10. 16; xvii. 1, 30; Tait- I GeschichtederindischenLiteratur, 1,8^,85. 

tiriya BrSJimana, iii. 10, 8, 2 ; Kathaka I " See Lang, Homer and his Age, 

Upanisad, i. 18, etc. ] 82 et seq. cf. Burrows, Discoveries in 

3 Av. ii. 13, 2 ; 28, 2. ! Crete, 209-213. 

* Av. i. 30, 3 ; ii. 28, i ; iii. 11, ; I ^^ xiii. 8, 2, i. 

viii. 2. 27 ; xi. 6, 16, etc. I " Cf. Zimmer, Altindischts Leben, 

Rv. viii. 67, 20; Av. v, 30, 17; ; 410; Weinhold, Altnordisches Leben, 

X. 2, 30 ; xiii. 3, 56. i 483 et seq. 

" Satapatha BrcLhmana, ii. i, 4, i. 



176 



LIFE AFTER DEATH- CLAY 



[Mrd 



to a ship^" seems to point to mythical perils after death, not to 
the mode of burial. 

The life after death was to the Vedic Indian a repetition of 
the life in this world. He passed into the next world sarva- 
tanuh sdAgah, ' with whole body and all his members,'^ enjoying 
there the same pleasures as he had enjoyed on earth. Even 
in the Rigveda^'^ there are hints of evil awaiting evil-doers, but 
it is not until the Atharvaveda^ and the Brahmanas^ that 
a hell of punishment is set out, and it is in the Brahmanas^ 
that good and evil deeds are said to produce happiness or hell 
hereafter. But there is no hint of extinction^ in the Rigveda 
as the fate of the wicked, as Roth^^ inclined to think. The 
Vedic poet not being deeply moral, his verses do not convey, 
as would those of a man convinced of sin, warnings of future 
judgment. 

15 Rv. X. 63, 10 ; 135, 4 ; Av. vii, 6, 3, 
and cf. Weber, Proceedings of the 
Berlin Academy, 1895, 856. 

18 Av. V. 6, II ; xviii. 4, 64; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, v. 6, i, i ; xi. i, 8, 6 ; 
xii. 8, 3, 31, and cf. Taittiriya Samhita, 
V- 3, 5, 2 ; 6, 3 ; 6, 6, 3 ; Taittiriya 
Brahmana, iii. 8, 20, 5 ; 10, 11, i. 

" Rv. ii. 29, 6 ; iii. 26, 8 ; iv. 5, 5 ; 
25, 6 ; vii. 104, 3. II. 17 ; x. 152, 4. 

18 ii. 14, 3 ; V. 19, 3 ; 30, II ; viii. 2, 
24; xii. 4, 36; xviii. 3, 3. Cf. also 
V, 19; Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxx. 5. 

19 Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 6, i, 



I et seq. ; "Weber, Zeitschrift der Dnitschen 
Morgenldndischen Geselhchaft, g, 240 
et seq.; Jaiminiya Brahmana, i. 42-44 
(Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
15, 226 et seq.). 

20 Satapatha Brahmana, vi, 2, 2, 27 ; 
X. 6, 3, I ; Kausltaki Brahmana, xii. 3, 
etc. 

'1 Cf. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, 
p. 169. 

22 Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, 3, 329-347 ; Weber, op. cit., 238 
et seq. 



Mpd denotes *clay' in the later Sarnhitas^ and the Brah- 
manas'^ {cf. Mrttika). A 'lump of clay' also occurs in the 
Brahmanas,^ and a Mrt-paca, * potter,' in the Maitrayani 
Upani.sad.'* A * clay vessel,' Mrtpatra,^ and vessels (pdtra) 
made of clay {mrn-maya),^ are mentioned, and the grave is 
called the ' house of clay.'*^ 



1 Taittiriya Samhita, v. 7, 9, 2 ; 
vajasaneyi Samhita, xi. 55. 

2 Satapatha Brahmana, vi. i, i, 13 ; 

2, 34; 3. 3; 3. 1. 22- 32; 3. 1; 
Maitrayan! Upanisad vi. 27, etc. 
* Satapatha Br&hmana, vi. 4, 2, i ; 



5, 2, I ; xiv. 2, 1,8; Chandogya 
Upanisad, vi. i, 4. 

ii. 6; iii. 3. 

' Kathaka Samhita, xxxi. 2. 

Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 4, x, 3, 4, etc 

' Rv. vii. 89, I {mpimaya gfha). 



Methi ] ENEMY LADLE GIRDLE CLOUD POST 
Mfdh in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes 'enemy.' 



177 



1 i. 131, 6 ; 138, 2 ; 182, 4 ; ii. 22, 3 ; 
23, 13 ; 28, 7 ; iii. 47, 2 ; v. 30, 7, etc. 
3 Av. V. 20, 12 ; vi. 2, 2 ; viii. 3, 8 ; 



xiii. I, 5. 27; xviii. 2, 59; Taittirlya 
Sanihiti, ii. 2, 7, 4 ; 5, 3, I ; Vijasaneyi 
Saiphiti, V. 37 ; xi. 18. 72, etc. 



Mpdhpa-vac. See Dasyu and Dasa. 

Mek^a^a is the name in the Brahmanas^ of a wooden ladle 
used for stirring up the oblation (Caru). 

' Taittiriya Brclhmana, i. 3, 10, 4 ; iii. 7, 4, 9 : atapatha Br<lhmana, ii. 4, 
2, 13, etc. 



Mekhala denotes * girdle ' in the later Samhitas ^ and the 
Brahmanas.'^ The Brahmacarin wore a girdle.* 



^ Av. vi. 133, I ; Taittiriya Samhita, 
> 3. 3. 5 ; vi. 2, 2, 7 ; K&thaka Saiphita, 
xxiii. 4 ; xxiv. 9 ; Maitrayani Satphita, 
iii. 6, 7, etc. 

' Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 2, i, 10; 
iv. 4, 5, 2 ; vi. 2, 2, 39, etc. 



3 In the Grhya Sutras the girdle of the 
Brahmin is of Mun ja, that of the Ksatriya 
of a bowstring, and that of the Vai^ya of 
wool or hemp. See A^valayana Gphya 
Sutra, i. 19, 12, etc. 



Megrha denotes ' cloud ' in the Rigveda^ and later.^ 



1 i. 181. 8. 

' Av. iv. 15, 7 ; Satapatha Brahmana, 
iii. 2, 2, 5; xii. 3, 2, 6; mahdmegha, 
Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. 2, 4 ; Sinkh- 
Syana Aranyaka, vii. 3 ; viii. 7. . The 
verb meghay, ' to make cloudy weather,' 



is found in the Taittiriya Samhita, iv. 4, 
5, I, and meghay ant'i is the name of one 
of the seven Erttik&s, Taittiriya Brah- 
mana, iii. I, 4, I ; Weber, Naxaira, 2, 
301, 368. 



Methi is found in the Atharvaveda^ denoting * post.' The 
word is also found in the marriage ritual,^ when the sense is, 
according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, a post to support 
the pole of a chariot. In one passage of the Rigveda it is 
perhaps used of posts forming a palisade.^ In the Pancavirn^a 



1 via. 5, 20. 

* Av. xiv. I, 40. C/. Taittiriya Sam- 
hita, vi. 2, 9, 4 ; Kathaka Samhita, 
xxv. 8 ; Aitareya Brahmana, i. 29, 22 ; 
Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 5, 3, 21. 

VOL. II. 



'* viii. 53, 5 {mita-metlnbhih for -medh- 
abhih, conjectured by Roth, Zeitschri/t 
der Deutschen Morgenldndixhen Gestll 
schaft, 48, 109). 

12 



178 A SEER [Medha 

Brahmana^ it appears in the form of MethI to denote the post 
to which the sacrificial cow is tied. The word is very variously 
spelt, Medhi and Me^hi also being found. 

* xiii. 9, 17. C/. Jaiminlya Brfthmana, i. ig, i { Journal 0/ the American 
Oriental Society, 23, 329). 



Medha is a word of uncertain sense occurring in a Valakhilya 
hymn of the Rigveda.^ According to the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, the proper name of a sacrificer may be meant, 

1 viii. 50, 10 (cf. viii. 49, 10), where, as a rule, the sense of ' sacrifice ' is 
accepted as adequate. 

Medhatithi,! Medhyatithi^ (' having a guest at the sacrifice ') 
appear to be the names of one and the same man, a descendant 
of Ka9Va and a famous Vedic Rsi, to whom the authorship of 
various hymns^ is attributed in the Anukramani (Index). To 
him Indra is said in the Rigveda^ to have come in the form 
of a ram : this myth is perpetuated in the Subrahmanya 
formula^ recited by the priest while the Soma is being carried 
within the sacrificial enclosure, when Indra is hailed as * ram 
of Medhatithi.' He appears also as a rival of Vatsa, whom he 
accused of low birth, but who convinced him of his error by 
undergoing a fire ordeal {cf. Divya). In the Atharvaveda' he 
is mentioned with many other sages, and occurs elsewhere 
also as a sage. 



* This is the form of the later texts 
and of Rv. viii. 8, 20, where he occurs 
with Kanva. 

* This is the usual form in the Rv. : 
i. 36, 10. n. 17; viii. I, 30; 2, 40; 

33.4: 49,9; 51. i; x-43, 3. 

' i. 12-23; vi"' ^*3;^2, 23; ix. 41- 
43. In the ascriptions Medh&tithi and 
Medhy&tithi are confused. 

* viii. 2, 40. Cf. i. 51, I, where, 
however, there is no mention of Medhi- 

ithi. 

' Jaiminiya Br&hmaiia, ii. 79; Sad- 
vim^ Br&bmana, i. i ; ^atapatha 
Br&hmana, iii. 3, 4, 18; Taittiriya 



legend is alluded to in the ^atySyanaka. 
See Sayana on Rv. i. 51, 1 ; viii. 2, 40, 
and Oertel, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 16, ccxl. On the ex- 
planation of the legend, cf. Weber, 
Indiuhe Studicn, 9, 38 et seq. 

Pancavim^ Br&hmana, xiv. 6, 6. 

' iv. 29, 6. 

8 As a Gj-hapati at the sacrifice of the 
Vibhindttkiyaa, Jaiminiya BrShmana, 
iii. 233 {Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, 18, 38) ; PancavimSa Br&hmana, 
XV. 10, 1 ; Kausltaki Br&hmana, xxviii2. 

Cf, Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 102, 105 ; Macdonell, Vedic 



Aranyaka, i. 12, 3. Moreover, the I Mythology, p. 146. 



Mega] A SACRIFICER WOMAN LEGEND OF MENA 179 

Medhya is the name of a man, an ancient sacrificer, in a 
hymn of the Rigveda.^ In the Saiikhayana Srauta Sutra' he 
is erroneously transmuted into Pradhpa Medhya Matari^van, 
the patron of Praskaijva Kanva. 



1 viii. 52, 2. 

^ xvi. II, 26, 

Cf. Weber, Episches im vedischen Ritual, 



39 ; Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 163. 



Medhyatithi. See Medhatithi. 



Menaka. See 2. Mena. 



I. Mena in a few passages of the Rigveda denotes ' woman.' ^ 
The word is also used in the sense of the * female ' of an 
animal, either mare^ or cow.^ 



1 Rv. i. 62, 7 ; 95, 6 ; ii. 39, 2. 
* Rv. i. 121, 2. 

' X. Ill, 3. 



Cf. Pischel, Indische Studien, 2, 316, 
317- 



2. Mena^ or Menaka ^ is mentioned in the Rigveda^ and in 
the Brahmanas^ as the daughter, or perhaps wife, of Vj^ajpa^va. 
The meaning of the legend connected with her is quite 
unknown. Cf. Mainaka or Mainaga. 



1 This is the ordinary form of the 
name. 

"^ So Sadvim^ BrShmana, i. i, where 
the masculine form Mena is the epithet 
of Vrsana^va. 

' Rv. i. 51, 13, where Siyana tells 
the legend from the ^atySyanaka. Cf. 
Uertel, Journal of the A merican Oriental 
Society, 16, ccxl. 



* Sadvim^ Brahmana, i. i ; Sata- 
patha BrShmana. iii. 3, 4, 18; Tait- 
tiriya Aranyaka, i. 12, 3 ; LStySyana 
Srauta Sutra, i. 3, 17. 

Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East. 
26, 81, n. 



Mea denotes ' ram ' in the Rigveda^ and later,* while Mesi 
means ' sheep.' ^ Both words are also used to denote the 

mana, i. i ; ^atapatha Br&hmana, iii. 3, 
4, 18, etc. 

3 Rv. i. 43, 6 : Vajasaneyi Saiphita, 
iii. 59 ; xxiv. i ; Taittiriya Brahmana. 
i. 6, 4, 4, etc. 



* i. 43, 6 ; 116, 16 ; viii. 2, 40 ; x. 27, 
17, etc. 

* Av. vi. 49, 2 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
iii. 59; xix. 90; xxiv. 30; Taittiriya 
Suiphita, vii. 4, 12, I ; Sadvim!>a Brah- 



12 2 



i8o A RIVER A TEXT PATRONYMIC MOUNTAIN [ Mehatnu 

'wool'"* of the sheep, especially as employed for the Soma 
filter. A wild {aranya) ram is mentioned in the Vajasaneyi 
Samhita.* 



* Me fa, Rv. viii. 86, 1 1 ; Meft. ix. 8, 5 ; 
86, 47 ; 107, II. 

xxiv. 30. 



Cf. Hopkins. yora/ of the Amtrican 
Oriental Society, 17, 66, 67. 



Mehatnu is the name of a stream in the Nadlstuti (' Praise 
of Rivers ') in the Rigveda.^ It must apparently have been 
a tributary of the Sindhu (Indus), entering that river before 
the Krumu (Kurum) and GomatI (Gomal). It may conceivably 
have been a tributary of the Krumu. 

* X. 75, 6. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 14 ; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 344. 

MaitKlyaniya Brahmana is the name of a text mentioned in 
the Sulba Sutra of Baudhayana.^ 

^ Baudb^yana ^rauta SQtra, xxxii. 8. 1 Baudhdyana, 41, who cannot trace the 
Cf. Caland, Uber das rituelle SUtra des \ citation in the Maitriyani Samhitd.. 



Maitreya is the patronymic or metronymic ^ of Kauarava in 
the Aitareya Brahmana.^ It is also applied to Glava in the 
Chandogya Upanisad.^ 



1 Patronymic from Mitrayu, accord- 
ing to Pinini, vi. 4, 174 ; vii. 3, 2 ; 
metronymic from Mitri, according to 
the commentator on ChS.ndogya U pani- 
sad, i. 12, I. 



* viii. 28, 18. 

^ i. 12, I ; Gopatha Brahmana, i. i, 
31 et uq. ; Bloomfield. Atharvaveda, 
no. 



Maitreyi is the name of one of the wives of Yajhavalkya 
according to the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (ii. 4, i et seq. ; 
iv. 5, 2 et seq.). 

Mainaka, * descendant of Menaka,' is the name of a mountain 
among the Himalayas in the Taittirlya Aranyaka.* There is 
a various reading Mainaga. 

1 i. 31, 2. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 78 ; Indian Literature, 93. 



Mleccha ] FISHERMAN PATRONYMICS BARBARIAN 



i8i 



Mainala occurs in the list of victims at the Purusamedha 
(' human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.^ It seems clearly to 
mean 'fisherman' from Mina, * fish,' as Sayana* and Mahi- 
dhara^ explain it. 



* Vajasaneyi SambiUl, xxx. 16 ; Tait- 
tirlya Br&hmana, iii. 4, 12, i. 



* On Taittiriya Brahmana, loc. cit. 
' On vajasaneyi Saiphita, loc. cit. 



Maujavata. See Mujavant. 



Maudgalya, 'descendant of Mudgala,' is the patronymic of 
several persons, Naka,^ ^atabalaka,2 and Lahgfalayana.^ A 
Brahmacarin of the name is mentioned in the Gopatha 
Brahmana^ as disputing with Glava Maitreya. 



^ Satapatha Brahmana, xii. 5, 2, i ; 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. 4, 4 ; 
Taittiriya Upanisad, i. 9, i. 

* Nirukta, xi. 6. 



' Aitareya Brahmana, v. 3, 8. 

* i. I, 31 ; Bloomfield, Atharvaveda, 
no. Cf. also Caland, Uber das rituelle 
Sutra des Baudhayana, 35. 



Mauna, ' descendant of Muni,' is the patronymic of Anicin 
in the Kausltaki Brahmana (xxiii. 5). 

Mauiki-putra, ' son of a female descendant of Musika,' is 
the name of a teacher, a pupil of Harikarniputra in the last 
Vamsa (list of teachers) in the Madhyarndina recension of the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (vi. 4, 30). 



Mleccha occurs in the Satapatha Brahmana^ in the sense of 
a barbarian in speech. The Brahmin is there forbidden to 
use barbarian speech. The example'^ given of such speech is 
he 'lavo, explained by S5yana as he 'rayah^ ' ho, foes.' If this 
is correct the Kanva recension has a different reading^ the 
barbarians referred to were Aryan speakers, though not speakers 
of Sanskrit, but of a PrSkrta form of speech.* Cf. Vac. 

1 iii. 2, I, 24. I 3 See Eggeling, Sacred Boohs 0/ the 

- iii. 2, I, 23. I East, 26, 31, n. 3. 

* Weber, Indian Literature, 180; c/. Keith, Aitareya Aratiyaka, 179, 180, 196. 



I82 



A FEAST A TRIBE DISEASE 



[ Yak^a 



Y. 

Yak^a is found several times in the Rigveda^ and the Athar- 
vaveda* in passages in which Ludwig^ sees the meaning of a 
feast or holy practice in accordance with the native com- 
mentators. It is, however, very doubtful whether this sense 
ever occurs.* 



* i. 190, 4 ; iv. 3, 13 ; v. 70, 4 ; 
vii. 56. 16; 61, 5; X. 88, 13. 

* viii. 9, 25 ; X. 2. 32 ; 7, 38 ; 8, 43 ; 
xi. 2, 24, etc. 



Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 262. 

* C/. St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v., 
and Geldner's full discussion, Vedische 
Studien, 3, 126-143. 



Yaku is mentioned, once in the singular and once in the 
plural, in the hymn of the Rigveda^ which celebrates Sudas' 
battle with the ten kings. Who they were and what part they 
played in that conflict is quite uncertain. They seem, from the 
wording of the text, to have taken part in two conflicts, as 
Zimmer^ says one on the Parunl (Ravi), and one on the 
Yamuna (Jumna) with the aid of the Ajas and iSigrus, under 
the leadership of Bheda. It is, however, at least possible that 
in the former passage Yadu should be read for Yak.su, or, at 
any rate, Yaksu be deemed a contemptuous substitute of the 
name of a possibly un-Aryan or unimportant tribe (as their 
allies, the Ajas and Sigrus, clearly were) for the name of the 
certainly famous Yadus, as is suggested by Hopkins.^ C/. 
Turva^a. 



* vii. 18, 6. 19. 

* Altindisches Leben, 126, 127. 

* Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, 15, 259 et seq. It is not clear, 



however, whether Hopkins thinks that 
the Yadus are alluded to, but it seems 
probable. 



Yaki^ma in the Rigveda^ and the Atharvaveda* frequently 
denotes ' illness,' in general, perhaps as rendering the body 
emaciated. A hundred kinds of Yaksma are referred to in the 
Vajasaneyi Sarnhita,' and a-yaksma in the Kathaka Sarnhita,* 

1 i. lai, 9; X. 85, 31 ; 97, II. 12 ; j 30, 6 ; viii. 7, 2 ; ix. 8, 3. 7. ro; xii. 2, 
137, 4; 163, 1-6. I I. 2 ; 4, 8 ; xix. 36, i ; 38, i. 

' ii. 10, 5. 6; iii. 31, X ; v. 4, 9 ; I ' xii. 97. * xvii. 11. 



Yajus ] SACRIFICIAL VEDA SACRIFICIAL UTTERANCE 183 

denotes 'free from disease.' In the Yajurveda SarnhitSs* an 
account is given of the origin of Yaksma, which is distinguished 
as of three kinds Raja-yakma, ' royal Yaksma,' Papa-yaksma, 
*evil Yaksma,' and Jayenya, most probably 'syphilis.' The 
second of the series is elsewhere unknown, and can hardly be 
defined, for it merely means 'serious or deadly disease.' Cf. 
also Ajnatayak^ma. 

6 Taittiriya Samhit&, ii. 3, 5, 2; 1 Cf. Zimmer, Altindiuhes Leben, 375 

5, 6, 5 ; K&thaka SamhitS, xi. 3 ; | et uq. ; Grohmann, Indische Studien, 9, 

Maitrayani Samhita, ii. 2, 7 ; ^atapatha j 400; Bloomfield, ^/Aarvawia, 60; Jolly, 

Brahniana, iv. i, 3, g. ! Medicin, 8g. 

Yajata occurs in a hymn of the Rigveda,^ where he is 
apparently a Rsi or a sacrificer. 

1 V. 44, 10. n. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 138. 



Yajur-veda, the ' Veda of the sacrificial utterance ' (Yajus), 
is mentioned frequently in the Brahmanas^ and Upanisads.'^ 



1 Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 12, 9, i ; 
Aitareya Brahmana, v, 32, i ; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, xi. 5, 8, 3 ; xii. 3, 4, 9. 

2 Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. 2, 3. 5 ; 
Safikhayana Aranyaka, viii. 3. 8 ; 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, i. 5, 5 ; ii- 4> 



10; iv. I, 2; 5, II ; Chandogya Upani- 
sad, i. 3, 7; iii. 2, I. 2; 15, 7; vii. i, 
2. 4 ; 2, I ; 7, I ; A^valayana Srauta 
Sutra, X. 7. 2; SankhSyana Srauta 
Sutra, xvi. 2, 6, etc. 



Yajus is repeatedly distinguished from the Re and the Saman 
in Vedic literature.^ The Yajus is the utterance accompanying 
the sacrifice, and may have the form of verse or prose, the term 
covering both. 



1 Rv. X. 90, 9 ; Av. V. 26, I ; ix. 6, 2 ; 
Taittiriya Samhita, v. 5, 3, i ; 9, 4 ; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, i. 30 ; iv. i ; 
xix. 28 ; Aitareya Brahmana, i. 29, 21 ; 
viii. 13, 2 ; Satapatha Brahmana, i. 2, 
I, 7; vi. 5, I, 2; 3, 4, etc. In the 
Bphadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. 4, 33, 
there is a reference to the iukldni 
Yajuffifi, 'white or pure Yajus,' as 
promulgated by Vljasaneya Yftjna- 
alkya, whence the Vajasaneyi Sam- 
hita is popularly known as the 'White 



Yajurveda.' The theory that this is 
due to the fact that in the Vajasaneyi 
the Mantra parts of the text are not 
accompanied by Brahmana passages 
is, though accepted by Weber, Indian 
Literature, 103, 104 ; Eggeling, Sacred 
Books of the East, 12, xxvii, and others, 
now to be abandoned. In the Taittiriya 
Aranyaka, v. 10, the expression iukra- 
yajumfi seems to refer to books iv. and 
V. of that text. Cf. also Wintemitr, 
Geschichte der indischen Literatur, i, 149, n. 



l84 IVERSE^NAhfES^SACRIFICIAL CORD [ YajnagathA 

Yajna-gratha denotes a verse (Gatha) containing a maxim as 
to the sacrifice of any kind or sort,* or, as it is expressed in the 
Mahabharata,^ a 'verse, sung regarding the sacrifice' {gatha 
yq/fia-gJtd). 

1 Aitareya BrcLhmana. iii. 43, 5:1 ^nkh&yana ^rauta SQtra, xvi. 8, 26 ; 
A^val&y'ana ^rauta SQtra, ii. 12, 6 ; | 9, 6, etc. 

* xii. 791. 2316. 



Yajna-vacas Rajastambayana, ' descendant of Rajastamba,' 
is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Tura Kava^eya, according 
to the Satapatha Brahmana,* He is also mentioned in the 
Maitrayani Sarnhita.* 

^ X. 4, 2, I ; 6, 5, 9 ; BfhadcLranyaka Upanisad, vi. 5, 4 K&nva. 
* iii. 10, 3 ; iv. 8, 2. 



Yajna-sena is the name of a teacher with the patronymic 
Caitra or Caitpiyayana mentioned in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas.* 

1 Taittiriya Samhitcl. v. 3, 8, i (Caitriyeiyana) ; KIthaka SaiphitA, xxi. 4 
(Caitra) . 



Yajneu is the name of a man in the Taittiriya Brahmana.* 
He was made to prosper by his priest Matsya, who knew the 
exact moment of sacrificing. 

1 i. 5, 2, I. C/. Weber, Naxatra, 2, 306. 



Yajnopavita denotes the * wearing of the Brahminical thread 
over the left shoulder at the sacrifice,' and is mentioned as early 
as the Taittiriya Brahmana.^ Tilak,^ however, urges that it 
was not originally a thread that was worn, but a garment of 
cloth (Vasas) or of deerskin (Ajina). This seems quite probable. 



* iii. 10, 9, 12. Cf. Taittiriya Sam- 
hitil, ii. 5, II, I ; Satapatha Br&hmana, 
ii. 4, 2, I ; 6, I, 12 ; and Pr&dn&vita. 

' Orion, 145 et uq., quoting Tait- 
tiriya Aranyaka, ii. i, and the view of 



vistara, iii. 4, i. This view is not 
prejudiced by the quite implausible 
conjectures as to Orion's belt with 
which it is combined. Cf. Eggeling, 
Sacred Books the East, 12, 361, 



the Mim&msists, JaiminTyanyiyamSli- 434 



Yantr] AN ANCIENT CLAN^-A TRIBE DRIVER 



185 



Yati is the name of an ancient clan which is connected with 
the Bhpgfus in two passages of the Rigveda,^ where the Yatis 
certainly seem to be real persons. In another hymn,* however, 
they already appear as almost mythical. In the Yajurveda 
Sarnhitas,^ and elsewhere,"* the Yatis are a race whom Indra, in 
an evil moment, gave over to the hyaenas (Salavrka) : exactly 
what is referred to is uncertain. Yati is mentioned with Bhrgu 
in a verse of the Samaveda.* 



viii. 3, 9 ; 6, 18 ; Weber, Indische 
Studien, 3, 465, n. 

2 X. 72, 7. 

' Taittiriya SarnhitS, ii. 4, 9, 2 ; 
vi. 2, 7, 5 ; Kathaka SaiphitS, viii. 5 ; 
xi. 10; XXV. 6; xxxvL 7; PancavimSa 
Br3.hmana, viii. 1, 4; xiii. 4, 16; 
Aitareya BrShmana, vii. 28. i ; Kaufi- 
taki Upanisad, i. 3, etc. ; Muir, Sanskrit 
Texts. i'\ 437 et seq. 



* ii. 304. In the parallel passage, 
Av. ii. 5, 3, the reading Yafir is found, 
possibly an error for Yafm, or merely 
a blunder. Cf. Muir, op. cit., 5, 49, 
n. 92 ; Whitney, Translation of the 
Atbarvaveda. 44 ; A^val&yana Srauta 
SQtra, vi. 3, i. 

Cf. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 146. 



Yadu is the name of a tribe and of the king of the tribe. 
They are mentioned repeatedly in the Rigveda,^ normally in 
conjunction with Turva^a. They seem to have taken part in 
the great battle against Sudas :- the Yadu and the Turva^a 
kings seem to have escaped with their lives, while the Anu and 
the Druhyu kings perished. This is at least the most natural 
explanation of several passages, though these passages possibly 
refer to a successful raid across the Sarayu, and a defeat of two 
princes, Arna and Citraratha."* That Turva^a was the Yadu 
king, as Hopkins^ holds, is most improbable. 



> i. 36, 18 ; 54, 6 ; 174, 9 ; iv. 30, 17 
V. 31, 8; vi 45, I ; viii. 4, 7; 7, 18 
9, 14 ; 10. 5 ; 45, 27 ; ix. 61, 2 ; x. 49. 8 
plural, i. 108, 8. See Torva^a, and 
Hopkins, yoKrwa/ of the American Oriental 
Society, 15, 258 et seq. 

* Whether Yadu should be read in 
Rv. vii. 18, 6, or not, the Yadus seem 
to be meant. Cf. Yakfo. 



Rv. i. 174, 9 ; iv. 30, 17 ; v. 31, 8 j 
vi. 20, 12. 

* Rv. iv. 30, 18. 

* Loc. cit. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 122, 
124 ; Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 205 ; 5, 142 ; Weber, Episches 
im vedischen Ritual, 37. 



Yantp in the Rigveda* and in the Sutras* denotes a 'driver' 
of horses or * charioteer.' 



* i. 162, 19 ; X. 22, 5. 



> KAtyiyana Srauta Sotra. xv. 6, 29, etc. 



i86 



TWINS A FAMOUS RIVER 



[ Yama 



Yama denotes * twins,' the birth of which is frequently 
alluded to in Vedic literature.^ Twins of different sex seem to 
be indicated by the expression yainau mithunau.^ There are 
traces of the belief widely spread among negro and other 
races that twins are uncanny and of evil omen,^ but there are 
also vestiges of the opposite opinion, that twins are lucky.* 

XXV. 4, 35 ; ankhayana rauta Sutra, 
iii. 4, 14, etc. Cf. YamastI ; YuktftBva. 

* Taittiriya Samhita, vii. i, i, 3; 
Pancavim^a Brahmana, xxiv. 12, 3; 
^atapatha Brahmana, v. 3, i, 8, and 
cf. Rv. iii. 39, 3. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 17, 298- 
300 ; Naxatra, 2, 314, n. 



* Rv. i. 66. 4 ; 164, 15 ; ii. 39, 2 ; 
iii- 39. 3; V. 57. 4; vi. 59, 2; x, 13. 2; 
117, 9; Paiicavimsa BrcLbmana, xvi. 4, 
10, etc. 

2 Kathaka Sarphita, xiii. 4 ; Nirukta, 
xii. 10. 

' Av. iii. 28 ; Aitareya Brahmana, 
vii. 9, 8 ; Katyiyana ^rauta SQtra, 



Yama-naksatra. See Nakatra. 

Yama-su, a * bearer of twins,' is one of the victims at the 
Purusamedha ('human sacrifice') in the Yajurveda.^ 

^ Vajasaneyi Saiphita, xxx. 15 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 4, 11, i. 



Yamuna, * twin,' the name of a river, so called as running 
parallel with the Ganges, is mentioned thrice in the Rigveda,^ 
and not rarely later. According to the Rigveda,^ the Tptsus and 
Sudas won a great victory against their foes on the Yamuna ; 
there is no reason^ whatever to accept Hopkins'"* view that the 
Yamuna here was another name of the Paruni (Ravi). In the 
Atharvaveda^ the salve (Anjana) of the Yamuna {YcLmuna) is 
mentioned along with that of Trikakud (Traikakuda) as of value. 
In the Aitareya and the ^atapatha' Brahmanas the Bharatas 
are famed as victorious on the Yamuna. Other Brahmanas 



1 v. 52, 17; vii. 18, 19; X. 75, 5. 

2 vii. 18, 19. See Bharata and Euru. 

3 The Tj-tsus' territory lay between 
the Yamuna and the Sarasvati on the 
east and the west respectively. 

* India, Old and New, 52. 
' iv. g, 10. 

viii. 23. 



^ xni. 5, 4, II. 

8 Pancavini^a Brahmana, ix. 4, 11 
(cf. Paravata) ; xxv. 10, 24 ; 13. 4 ; 
Sahkhayana Srauta Sutra, xiii. 29, 25. 
33 ; Katyayana Srauta SOtra, xxiv. 6, 
10. 39 ; Latyayana Srauta Sutra, x. 19, 
9. 10; Aval3yana Srauta SOtra, xii. 6, 
28, etc. 



Tavasa ] AN ANCIENT SACRIFICER GRAIN GRASS 



187 



also mention this river. In the Mantrapatha the Salvas are 
spoken of as dwelling on its banks. 

' ii. II, 12. I Max Miiller, Sacred Books of the East, 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Ltben, 5; I 32,323. 

Yayati is mentioned twice in the Rigveda/ once as an ancient 
sacrificer, and once as Nahusya, ' descendant of Nahua,' 
apparently a king. There is no trace whatever of his connexion 
with Pupu, as in the Epic,^ the tradition of which must be 
deemed to be inaccurate. 



1 i. 31, 17; X. 63, I. 

2 Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the 



Rigveda, 3, 147 ; Muir, Sanskrit Texts 
i", 232. 



I. Yava in the Rigveda^ appears to be a generic term for 
any sort of * grain,' and not merely * barley.' The latter sense 
is probably found in the Atharvaveda,^ and is regular later. 
The barley harvest came after spring,^ in the summer.^ That 
barley was cultivated in the period of the Rigveda^ is not 
certain, but on the whole very probable. 



1 i. 23, 15; 66, 3; 117, 21 ; 135, 8; 
176, 2; ii. 5, 6; 14, it; v. 85, 3; 
vii. 3, 4; viii. 2, 3 ; 22, 6 ; 63, 9; 78, 
10, etc. 

2 ii. 8, 3 ; vi. 30, i ; 50, i, 2 ; 91, 1 ; 
141, 2 ; 142, I. 2 ; viii. 7, 20 ; ix. i, 22 ; 
6, 14 ; xii. I, 42 ; Taittiriya Samhita, 
vi. 2, 10, 3 ; 4, 10, 5 ; vii. 2, 10, 2 ; 
K&thaka Samhita, xxv. 10 ; xxvi. 5 ; 
MaitrSyani Sainhita, iv. 3, 2 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Sanihita, v. 26 ; xviii. 12 ; 
xxiii. :^o ; Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 8, 
4, I ; atapatha BrSiimana, i. i, 4, 20 : 
ii. 5, 2, I ; iii. 6, i, 9. 10 ; iv, 2, i, 11 ; 
xii. 7, 2, 9 ; Chandogya Upanlsad, 

2. Yava. See Masa. 



iii. 14, 3, etc. ; Kausltaki Brahmana, 
iv. 12. 
' KausitaJti Brahmana, iv. 13. 

* Taittiriya Sanihita, vii. 2, 10, 2. 

* Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 17, 86, n. 

" Sowing {vap) grain is referred to 
in Rv. i. 117, 21 ; ripening of grain in 
135. 8; ploughing {krf) in i. 176, 2. 
Grain rejoicing in rain is alluded to in 
ii. 5, 6. See Krai. 

Cf. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 
282 ; Kuhn, Indische Studien, i, 355, 
356 ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 238, 
239. 



Yavasa in the Rigveda* and later ^ denotes the 'grass' on 
which animals feed, and which is burned by the forest fire.^ 

* i- 38, 5; 91, 13 ; iii. 45. 3 ; iv. 41, ' Cf. kgm, yavasHd, in Rv. i. 94, 11. 

10; 42, 5; vii. i8, 10; 87, 2 ; 93, 2 ; Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 47; 

102, I, etc. Max Mullet, Sacred Books of the East, 

3 Vajasaneyi Saiyihita, xxi. 43, etc. 32, 87. 



i88 GRUELSOMA-MONTHA RIVER- STAFF [ Yavagu 

Yavagru means * barley-gruel/^ but is also used of weak 
decoctions of other kinds of grain.^ 

1 Taittirlya Sanihita, vi. a, 5, 2 ; a of Jartila and Gavidhuka. Tait. 

Kathaka Sanihita, xi. 2 ; Taittiriya tiriya Saqihita, v. 4, 3, 2. 
Aranyaka. ii. 8, 8; Kaufitaki Brah- 
mana, iv. 13, etc. 



Yava^ir is used in the Rigveda^ as an epithet of Soma, 
meaning * mvxed with grain.' 

M. 187, 9; ii. 22, 1; iii. 42, 7; I My thologie, J, 22y ; Zimmer, A Itindisches 
viii. 94. 4. C/. Hillebrandt, Vediuhe \ Leben, 279. 



Yavaa. See Yevaa. 

Yavya in the Satapatha Brahmana (i. 7, 2, 46) denotes 
month ' (lit., * containing a first half,' see 2. Yava). 



Yavyavati is the name of a river in the Rigveda^ and in the 
Pancavirnsa Brahmana.^ Hillebrandt^ thinks that the river is 
one in Iran, the Djob (Zhobe), near the Iryab (Haliab), but 
there is no reason to accept this identification. 

1 vi. 27, 6. 19 ; Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 

* XXV. 7, 2. veda, 3, 204 ; Kaegi, Rigveda, n. 338 ; 

3 Vedische Myihologie, 3, 268, n. i. Oldenberg, Rgveda-Noten, 1, 168, n. i. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 18, 



Ya^asvin Jayanta Lauhitya (' descendant of Lohita *) is the 
name of a teacher, a pupil of Krnarata Triveda Lauhitya in 
the Vam^a (list of teachers) in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brah- 
mana (iii. 42, i). 



Yati, ' staff," is mentioned in the latest parts of the Brah- 
manas.^ 

> J^atapatha Brahmana, ii. 6, 2, 17 I Upanisad, vi. 4, 7; Kausltaki Upanisap 
of venu, ' bamboo ') ; Bfhadaranyaka j iv. 19, etc 



Yajflavalkya ] NAMES A FAMOUS TEACHER 



189 



Yaska is the name of a man. The Yaskas, descendants of 
Giriksit (Gairiksital^) are mentioned in the Kathaka Samhita.^ 
C/. Yaska. 

1 xiii. 12. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 3, 475 et seq. ; 8, 245 et seq. ; Indian 
Literature, 41, n. 30. 



Yajna-tura, * descendant of Yajnatura,' is the patronymic of 
2. Rabha in the Satapatha Brahmana.^ 

1 xii. 8, 3, 7 : xiii. 5, 4, 15 ; ^cthkhiysina ^rauta SQtra, xvi. 9, 8. 10. 



Yajna-valkya, 'descendant of Yajnavalkya,' is repeatedly 
mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana^ as an authority on 
questions of ritual. He is, however, also given as an authority 
on questions of philosophy in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad,^ 
but Oldenberg^ is, no doubt, right in thinking that no possible 
importance can be attached to the mention of Yajnavalkya in 
the latter capacity. He is said to have been a pupil of 
Uddalaka Arurii,'* whom he opposed successfully in a dispute.* 
His two wives, Maitreyi and Katyayani, are mentioned in the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, which concludes'^ with a passage 
ascribing to Yajnavalkya Vajasaneya the 'white Yajus' {sukldni 
yajumsi). It is remarkable that Yajnavalkya is never mentioned 
in any other Vedic text outside the Satapatha Brahmana y 
except the Sankhayana Aranyaka, where, however, both/\ 
references are merely transcripts from the Satapatha. It has 



M. I, I. 9; 3, I, 21. 26; 9, 3. 16; 
ii. 3, I, 21 ; 4, 3, 2 ; 5, i, 2 (where he 
is said to be in contradiction with the 
Rigveda) ; iii. i, i, 4 ; 2, 21; 3, 10; 
8, 2, 24 (cursed by a Caraka teacher) ; 
iv. 2, I, 7 ; 6, I, xo ; 8, 7, etc. There 
are no references to Yajnavalkya in 
books v-ix, which, on the contrary, 
owe their doctrine to Tura E&vaj^eya 
and ^a,odilya; but the fame of Yajna- 
valkya revives in books x-xiv e.g., 
xi. 3, 1,2; 4, 2, 17 ; 3, 20 ; 6, 2, i ; 
3, I ; xii. 4, I, 10, etc. 



^ iii. I, 2 et seq. ; 2, 10 et seq. ; 3, i ; 
4. I ; 5. I ; 6, I ; 7, I, etc. 

' Buddha,^ 34, n. i. 

* vi. 4, 33 (Madhyamdina = vi. 5. 
4 Ka.nva). 

iii. 7, I. 

8 ii. 4, I ; iv. 5, I et seq. 

' vi. 4, 33 (Madhyaipdina = vi. 5, 
4 Kanva). 

8 ix. 7 ; xiii. i. 

9 Weber, Indian Literature, 132, n. ; 
Keith, Journal of the Royal A sialic Society , 
1908, 374. 



190 SACRIFICIAL FORMULA SORCERER A TRIBE [ Yajya 



been supposed by 01clenberg^ and others that Yajnavalkya 
belonged to Videha, but despite the legend of Janaka's patronage 
of him, his association with Uddalaka, the Kuru-Pancala, 
renders this doubtful. 



Buddha,'^ 34. n. i. 
C/. Weber, Indian Literature, 120 
et uq. ; Indiuhe Studien, i, 173 ; 13, 265- 



269 ; Eggeling, Sacred Books 0/ the East, 
12, XXX et seq. ; von Schroeder, Indiens 
Literatur und Cultur, 188. 



Yajya (scil. re, 'verse') denotes the words uttered at the 
moment of offering the sacrifice, ' consecrating sacrificial 
formula,' in the later Sarnhitas^ and the Brahmanas.^ 



1 Taittinya Samhiti, i. 5, 2, i ; 
6, 10, 5 ; Vajasaneyi SaiphitcL, xix. 20 ; 
XX. 12, etc. 

2 Aitareya Br3.hmana, i. 4, 8 ; 11, 10 ; 



ii. 13, 2 ; 26, 3. 5. 6 ; 40, 8 ; iii. 32, I ; 
^atapatha BrShmana, i. 4, 2, 19 ; iii. 4, 
4, 2 ; vii. 2, 7, II, etc. 



Yatu-dhana in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes a 'sorcerer,' 
'wizard,' or 'magician.' The sense of the Rigveda is clearly 
unfavourable to sorcery. The feminine, YatudhanT, is also 
found in the Rigveda and later.* 



* i. 35, 10; X. 87, 2. 3. 7. 10; 120, 4. 

Av. i. 7, 1 ; iv. 3. 4 ; vi. 13, 3 ; 
32, 2 ; vii. 70, 2 ; xix. 46, 2 ; KSLthaka 
SamhitSL, xxxvii. 14; VSjasaneyi Sam- 
hita, xiii. 7 ; ^atapatha Brahmana, 
vii. 4, 1, 29, etc. 



' vii. 104, 15. 

* Rv. i. 191. 8 ; X. 118, 8 ; Av. i. 28, 
24 ; ii. 14, 3 ; iv. 9, 9 ; 18, 17 ; xix. 37, 
8, etc. 

C/. Bloomfield, Atharvaveda, 26, 65 
et seq. 



Yatu-vid, denoting in the plural ' those who know sorcery,' 
designates the Atharvaveda in the Satapatha Brahmana.^ 

* X. 5, 2, 20. Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, xxii. ; Atharvaveda, 
I. 8. 9, 23. 



Yadva, ' descendant of Yadu,' is used of the Yadu prince in 
one passage of the Rigveda,^ while the largesse of the YSdvas^ 
is alluded to elsewhere. In another passage a beast (pasti) of 
the Yadus or Yadvas is mentioned.^ Cf. Yadu. 



1 vii, 19, 8. 

* Rv. viii. 6, 46. Cf. Ludwig, Trans- 
lation of the Rigveda. 5, 142. 



' Rv. viii. I. 31. 

Cf. Weber. Indian Literature, 3 
Epischts im vedischen Ritual, 37. 



Yu] VEHICLE NIGHT WATCH MARCH A TEACHER 191 
Yana denotes 'vehicle' in the Rigveda^ and later.* 

1 iv. 43, 6. I Sadviip&i Br&hmana, vi. 3, 10; Ch&n- 

3 Satapatha Brclhmana, v. 5, 3, 7 ; | dogya Upanisad, vili. 12, 3, etc. 



Yama, used in the plural, denotes in one passage of the 
Atharvaveda,^ according to Roth,^ the planets among which the 
sun {bhaga) wanders. But both Bloomfield^ and Whitney "* 
accept the sense the regular one in the later language of 
* night watches.' 



VI. 21, 2. 



' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. id. 
' Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 30. 



* Translation of the Atharvaveda, 
396- 



Yaman denotes in the Rigveda^ a 'march' or 'expedition' 
in war. 

' iv. 24, 2 ; vii. 66, 5 ; 85, i ; ix. 64, 10 ; x. 78, 6 ; 80, 5. 

Yayavara^ denotes a person of no fixed abode in the Yajur- 
veda Samhitas.* 

^ Literally, 'wandering about,' from I 2 Xaittiriya Samhita, v. 2, i, 7; 
the intensive of, va, * to go.' I Kathaka Samhita, xix. 12. 

Yava. See Masa. 



Yaska (' descendant of Yaska ') is mentioned in the first two 
Varn^as (lists of teachers) of the Bihadaranyaka Upanisad^ as 
a contemporary of Asupaya^ia and a teacher of Bharadvaja. 
Whether Yaska, author of the Nirukta,* was the same person, 
it is, of course, impossible to say. 



1 ii. 5, 21 ; iv. 5, 27 (Madhyamdina 
= ii. 6, 3; iv. 6, 3 Kanva). C/. 'Weber, 
Indian Literature, 128. 

* Rgveda PratiSakhya, xvii. 25 ; 



Weber, op. cit., 25, 26, etc. ; Indische 
Studien, i, 17, 103 ; 3, 396; 8, 243, etc.; 
Indian Literature, 41, n. 30. 



Yu, appearing in the dual in the Satapatha Brahmana (iii. 7, 
4, 10), seems to mean * yoke animals.' 



192 



A SEER YOKEGENERATION 



[Ynkta 



Yukta in the Satapatha Brahmana (vi. 7, 4, 8 ; xii. 4, i, 2) 
denotes a 'yoke' of oxen. Cf. i. Yugfa. 



Yukta^va is the name of a man who is mentioned in the 
Pancavimsa Brahmana^ as the seer of a Saman, or chant. He 
is said to have exposed a pair of twins,^ but Hopkins ^ thinks 
that the reference is only to an exchange of children. 



xi. 8. 8. 

^ Cf. Weber, Naxatra, 2. 314, n., 
whose view is that of Sclyana on the 
passage. Cf. Tama. 



3 Transactions of the Connecticut Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, 15, 61, 62. 

Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 
2, 160. 



I, Yugra in the Rigveda^ and later^ denotes 'yoke.' Cf. 
Rath a. 



i. 115, 2 ; 184. 3 ; ii. 39, 4 ; "i- 53. 
17; viii. 80, 7 ; X. 60, 8 ; loi, 3, etc. 
' Av. iv. I, 40 ; Satapatha Brih- 



mana, iii. 5, i, 24. 34 ; Taittiriya 
Braiimana, i. 5, i, 3, etc. 



2. Yugfa in the Rigveda^ frequently denotes a 'generation'; 
but the expression dasame ytige applied to Dlrgrhatamas in one 
passage'^ must mean * tenth decade ' of life. 

There is no reference in the older Vedic texts to the five-year 
cycle (see Samvatsara). The quotation from the Pancavirnsa 
Brahmana^ given in the St. Petersburg Dictionary, and by 
Zimmer"* and others, is merely a citation from a modern text 
in the commentary on that work. 

Nor do the older Vedic texts know of any series of Yugas or 
ages such as are usual later. In the Atharvaveda^ there are 
mentioned in order a hundred years, an ayuta (10,000?), and 
then two, three, or four Yugas : the inference from this seems 
to be that a Yuga means more than an ayuta, but is not very 

1 Yuge-yuge, ' in every age,' i. 139, 8 
iii. 26, 3 ; vi. 8, 5 ; 15, 8 ; 36, 5 ; ix. 94 
12 ; uttarHyugani, ' future ages,' iii. 33, 8 
X. 10, 10; purvani yug&ni, vii. 70, 4 
uttare yuge, x. 72. i, etc. In i. 92, 11 
103, 4; 115. 2; X24, 2; 144, 4, etc., the 
phrase ' generations of men ' {manusyS, 
mJHusd, manusah, jandnam) axe referred 
to. See Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i'. 45, 46. 



^ i. 158, 6. Wilson, Translation, 2, 
104, n. , suggests that yuga here means 
a lustrum of five years ; but the tenth 
decade is far more likely, as Dirgha- 
tamas is said to be ' aged ' (jujurvdn). 

'' xvii. 13, 17. 

* Altindisches Leben, 368. 

viii. 2. 21. 



Ynga] 



THE FOUR AGES 



193 



certain. Zimmer' adduces a passage from the Rigveda,^ 
but the reference there, whatever it may be,* is certainly 
not to the four ages (cf. also Trlyugfa).^ The Taittirlya 
Brahmana^ recognizes long periods of time e.g., one of 
100,000 years. 

To the four ages. Kali, Dvapara, Treta, and Krta, there is no 
certain reference in Vedic literature, though the names occur as 
the designations of throws at dice (see Ak^). In the Aitareya 
Brahmana^ the names occur, but it is not clear that the ages 
are really meant. Haug^ thought that the dice were meant: 
this view is at least as probable as the alternative explanation, 
which is accepted by Weber,^^ Roth,^"* Wilson,"* Max Miiller,*' 
and Muir," Roth, indeed, believes that the verse is an inter- 
polation ; but in any case it must be remembered that the 
passage is from a late book of the Aitareya Brahmana. Four 
ages Pusya, Dvapara, Kharva, and Krta are mentioned in 
the late Sadvimsa Brahmana,^ and the Dvapara in the Gopatha 
Brahmana.^^ 



Op. cit., 371. 

' viii. loi, 4=Av. x. 8, 3. 

' Cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, ii. i, i, with 
Keith's note ; Griffith, Hymns of the 
Rigveda, 2, 253. 

* In Rv. X. 72, 2, devandip, purvye 
yuge, ' in the earlier age of the gods,' 
occurs. 

^^ iii, 12, 9, 2. Cf. Muir, i^, 42, 
n. 66. 

" vii. 15, 4 (in the description of the 
merits of exertion) : ' A man while lying 
is the Kali ; moving himself, he is the 
Dvapara ; rising, he is the Treta ; 
walking, he becomes the Krta ' {Kalih 
iayano bhavati samjihdnas tu Dvaparah | 
vttisfhams Treta bhavati, Krtarji sampad- 
yate car an ||). 

^ Aitareya Brihmana, 2, 464, criti- 
cized by Weber, Indtsche Studien, 9, 319. 

13 Indtsche Studien, i, 286 ; 9, 315 
et seq. 

^* Indische Studten, t, 460. 

18 Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
1851, 99. 

VOL. IT, 



! Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 412. 
" Sanskrit Texts, i", 48, n. 86. 
18 V. 6. 

1* i. I, 28 ; Weber, Indian Literature, 
151, n. 166; Windisch, Buddha und 
Mdra, 151. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 367- 
371 ; Weber, Indische Streifen, i, 91. 
A quite different theory of the Yugas 
is given by Shamasastry, Gavatn Ay ana, 
141 et seq., but his whole theory is quite 
impossible. Weber once {Indian Litera- 
ture, 113, n. 127) found the mention of 
the quinquennial Yuga in Rv. iii. 55, 
18, but that passage refers to the five 
or six seasons (see Griffith, Hymns oj 
the Rigveda, i, 382, n.), while i. 25, 8, 
merely alludes to the intercalary month. 
Weber also {op. cit., 70, 247) considers 
that the Yugas are derived from the 
phases of the moon, but this idea was 
long since disposed of by Roth, Die 
Lehre vou den vier Weltaltem (Tiibingen, 
i860). 

13 



194 BATTLE KINGS MAIDEN HERD POST [ Yuddha 

Yuddha in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes 'battle.' The 
more usual word earlier^ is Yudh. 



X. 54. 2. 

Taittirlya BrShmana, i. 5, 9, i ; 
Aitareya Br&hmana, iii. 39, i. 2 ; 
vi. 36, 2 ; ^atapatba Br&bmana, xiii. i, 
5, 6; Kaufltaki Upanisad, iii. i, etc. 



' Rv. i. 53. 7 ; 59. I ; V. 25, 6 ; vi. 46, 
II, etc. ; Av. i. 24, 1 ; iv. 24, 7 ; 
vi. 66, I ; 103, 3, etc. ; Satapatha 
Br&hmana, v. 2, 4, 16, etc. 



Yudham-$rauti Augra-sainya (* descendant of Ugrasena ') 
is the name, in the Aitareya Brahmana,^ of a king who was 
anointed by Parvata and Narada. 

1 viii. 21, 7. Cf. Weber, Episches im vedischen Ritual, 8. The Pauranic form is 
Yuddba-musti. 

Yudhyamadhi is apparently the name of a king who was 
defeated by Sudas. The mention of him occurring only in the 
verses added at the end of the hymn celebrating the victory of 
Sudas over the ten kings ^ can claim little authenticity as a 
notice of Sudas. 

1 Rv. vii. 18, 24. C/. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 173. 

Yuvati is the ordinary expression for a * young woman ' or 
* maiden ' in the Rigveda^ and later.^ 

1 i. 118, 5 ; ii. 35, 4 ; iii. 54, 14 ; I ' Av. xiv. 2, 61 ; Taittirlya BrSh- 
iv. 18, 8; V. 2, I. 2; ix. 86, 16; | mana, iii. i, i, 9; 2, 4; Satapatha 
X. 30, 5. i Brahmana, xiii. i, 9, 6 ; 4, 3, 8, etc. 

Yutha is the word for *herd' of cows in the Rigveda^ and 
later.* 

1 i. 10, 2; 81, 7; iii. 55, 17; iv. 2, I Cf. yuthya, 'of the herd,' viii. 56, 4; 
18; 38, 5 ; v. 41, 19 ; ix. 71, 9, etc. | ix. 15, 4 ; x. 23, 4. 

' Av. v. 20, 3 ; Taittirlya Samhiti, v. 7, 2, i, etc. 

Yupa in the Rigveda^ and later * means a 'post,' usually that 
to which the sacrificial victim was tied. It also designates the 
post to which the door of the house was attached (Dupya).^ 



1 V. 2, 7 (of Sonahiepa). 
' Av. ix. 6, 22 ; xii. i, 38 ; xiii. i, 47 ; 
Taittirlya Samhit&, vi. 3, 4, i ; vii. 2, 



ii 3 > VSjasaneyi Saiphitft, xix. 17 ; ' disches Leben, 153. 



Pancavitp^ Br&bmana, ix. 10, 2, 
etc. 
Rv. i. 51, 14. Cf. Zimmer, Altin- 



Yojana ] BROTH INSECT THONGS YOKE STAGE 



195 



Yu$an, occurring in the description of the horse-sacrifice in 
the Rigveda^ and the Yajurveda Samhitas,^ denotes the 'broth ' 
which was made from the flesh of the sacrificial animal, and 
was no doubt used as food. Vessels employed for holding it, 
Patra and Asecana, are mentioned. Another form of the word, 
found in the Taittirlya Samhita,^ is Yus, which corresponds to 
the Latin 7M5. 



* i. 162, 13. 

' Taittiriya Saiphiti, vi. 3, 11, i. 4 ; 
V&jasaneyi Samhita, xxv. g 



3 VI. 3, II, I. 4. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 271 ; 
Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 316. 



Yevaa is the name of a destructive insect in the Atharvaveda.^ 
The form Yavasa is found in the Kathaka Samhita.^ Cf. Vj^a, 



V. 23, 7. 8. 

2 XXX. I {Indiuhe Studien, 3, 462). 
The same form occurs in the Ganas, 
kumudadi and preksadi (Panini, iv. 2, 
80). Cf. Maitrayani Samhita, iv. 8, i, 



where Yavasa should be read ; Kapi- 
sthala Satnhita, xlvi. 4. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 98 ; 
St Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Yoktra in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes the * thongs ' used 
for yoking the chariot or cart. 

1 iii. 33, 13 ; V. 33, 2. I mana, iii. 3, 3, 3 ; ^atapatha Brahmana, 

' Av. iii. 30, 6 ; vii. 78, i ; Taittiriya i. 3, i, 13 ; vi. 4, 3, 7, etc. 
Samhita, i. 6, 4, 3 , Taittiriya Brah- ! 

Yogfa denotes the yoke of oxen or horses drawing a car in the 
Atharvaveda -^ and the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ 

^ vi. 91, I (yokes of six or eight); I 2 jy. 3^ n (ratha yogdh, 'chariot 
Kathaka Samhita, xv. 2, etc. Cf. Sira. | teams '). 



Yojana occurs frequently in the Rigveda^ and later ^ as a 
measure of distance, but there is no reference defining its real 

1 i. 123, 8; ii. 16, 3; x. 78, 7; 86, 20, : yojana as a division of time equivalent 
etc. j to the Muhflrta. But this is most 

2 Av. iv. 26, 1 ; Maitrayani Sanihita, 1 improbable. 

ii. 9, 9 ; iii. 8, 4 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, 1 ^ That is, the distance driven in 
ii. 4, 2, 7, etc. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches j one 'harnessing' (without unyoking), 
Leben, 363, who finds in Rv. i. 123, 8, I a ' stage.' 

132 



196 FIGHTER MAIDEN KING YOUTH GUARDIAN [ Yodh* 

length. Later it is reckoned at four Kro^as, or about nine 

miles.* 

* Sometimes calculated at 8 kroias, or i8 miles. The estimate of 2^ miles 
is also found. 

Yodha in the Rigveda^ means 'fighter,' 'warrior,' 'soldier.' 

1 i. 143, 5 ; iii. 39, 4 ; vi. 25. 5 ; x. 78. 3. 

Yoan, Yoa9a, Yoa, Yoit, all denote 'young woman,' 
* maiden,' as an object of affection, and as meet for wedlock.^ 
So these terms are often opposed in the Brahmanas to Vfan, 
' male,' in the general sense of ' female,'^ but they also occur in 
the sense of ' wife,'^ or ' daughter,'* or merely ' girl.'^ See Stri. 

** yo/fl, Rv.iv. 5,5; yojan4, iii. 52, 3; 1 ' ^atapatha Brahmana, i. 2, 5. 15 

56, 3 ; 62, 8 ; vii. 95, 3. etc. ; Yofii, (yofd), and often in the Brahmanas. 

i. 48, 5 ; 92, II ; iii. 33, 10 ; 38, 8, etc. ; ' Av. xii. 3, 29 (yosa). 

Av. xii. 3, 29; xiv. I, 56, etc.; Yosit, * So yofa in Rv. i. 117, 20. C/. 



Rv. ix. 28, 4; Av. vi. loi, i, etc. C/. 
Delbriick.D/e indogermanischen Verwandt- 
schaftsnamen. 418. 



Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 310. 
^ ^atapatha Br3.hmana, i. 8, i, 7. 



Yaugfam-dhapi, ' descendant of Yugamdhara,' is the name of 
a king of the Salvas in the Mantrapatha (ii. 11, 12). 

Yauvana, * youth,' is found in the Atharvaveda (xviii. 4, 50), 
where it is opposed to ' old age.' 



Rakitr, 'protector,' 'guardian,' occurs in the Rigveda^ and 
later,2 usually in a metaphorical sense. 

1 i. 89, 1. 5; ii. 39, 6; guardian of 1 Av. iii, 27, i ; xii. 3, 55; xix, 15, 3 ; 
Soma, vi. 7. 7 ; of the dogs of Yama, I Satapatha Brihrnana, xiii. 4. 2, 5. etc. 
X. 14, II, etc. I 

Ragrhat occurs once in the plural in the Atharvaveda,^ where 
the Paippalada recension reads vagha/ah. Roth 2 once con- 

1 viii. 7, 24. a St. Petersburg Dictionarj'. s.v., la. 



Bajani ] 



SILVER A TEACHER A PLANT 



197 



jectured raghavah., ' swift,' as the correct reading. Bloomfield,^ 
who in his translation explains the word as * falcons,' in his 
notes inclines to think Roth's conjecture likely. Ludwig* 
suggests 'bees' as the meaning. Possibly some kind of bird 
may be intended.* 



' Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 580. 

* Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 504. 

* Bohtlingk, Dictionary, 5.1;. Cf. 



Whitney, Translation of the Atharva- 
veda, 501. 



Rajata as an adjective with Hiranya^ designates * silver,' and 
ornaments (Rukma),^ dishes (Patra),^ and coins (Nika) * * made 
of silver' are mentioned. The word is also used alone as a 
substantive to denote * silver.'^ 



* Taittiilya Samhita, i. 5, i, 2 ; 
K&thaka Saqihita, x. 4 ; Satapatha 
Brahmana, xii. 4, 4, 7; xiii. 4, 2, 10; 
xiv. I, 3, 4, etc. 

' Satapatha Brclhmana, xii. 8, 3, 11. 
^ Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 2, 9, 7 ; 
iii. 9. 6, 5. 

* Pancavim^ Br&hmana, xvii. i, 14. 

* Av. v. 28, I ; xiii. 4, 51 ; Aitareya 



Br&hmana, vii. 12, 2 ; ChSndogya 
Upanisad, iv, 17, 7; Jaiminiya Upani- 
sad Br&hmana, iii. 17, 3 ; .SadvimSa 
Br&hmana, vi. 6. 

Cf. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 
180; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 56; 
Macdonell, Sanskrit Literature, 151, 152 ; 
Vincent Smith, Indian Antiquary, 34, 
230. 



Raj ana Koneya, or Kauijeya, is the name of a teacher 
mentioned in the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ It is said in the 
Kathaka Sarnhita^ that Kratujit Janaki successfully sacrificed 
for him when he desired to obtain eyesight. He is also 
mentioned in the Pancavirnsa Brahmana,^ where the name of 
his son, Ugradeva Rajani, also occurs.* 



Taittiriya Samhiti, ii. 3. 8, i ; 
K&thaka Sarnhiti, xxvii. 2 {Indische 
Studien, 3, 474). 

* xi. 1 (Indische Studien, 3, 474). 

' xiii. 4, II. Cf. Hopkins, Transac- 



tions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, 15, 58, n. 2. 

^ He was a leper, and the Bajani is 
used against leprosy, Bloom field, HymHs 
of the A tharvaveda, 266. 



Rajani is found in one passage of the Atharvaveda,^ where it 
denotes some sort of plant, probably so called because of its 



* i. 23, I. Cf. Roth in Whitney's 
Translation of the Atharvaveda, 24 ; 



Bloomfield, Hymns cf the Atharvavida, 
267. 



198 



DYER ATMOSPHERE SILVER FISH [ Rjyayitri 



power of 'colouring' (from raftj, *to colour"). The species 
cannot be identified owing to the untrustworthiness of the later 
authorities who attempt its identification. 

Rajayitri, a * female dyer,' is included in the list of victims at 
the Puru^amedha ('human sacrifice') in the Yajurveda.^ 

* Vftjasaneyi Saiphita, xzx. 12; Taittiriya Brabmana, iii. 4, 7, i. 



I. Rajas denotes the region of the atmosphere between 
heaven and earth in the Rigveda^ and later.^ The atmosphere, 
like the sky (Div), is divided into three regions,^ but more 
normally into two, the ' earthly ' {parthivaY and the * heavenly ' 
{divya or divah).^ In some passages the word refers in the 
plural to the dusty fields on earth. 

* i. 56. 5 ; 62, 5 ; 84, 1 ; 124, 5 ; 168, 6 ; 
187, 4 ; ii. 40, 3 ; vi. 62. 9, etc. 

' Av. iv. 25, 2 ; vii. 25, i ; 41, i ; 
X. 3, 9 ; xiii. 2, 8. 43 ; Taittiriya Sani- 
hit&, iii. 5, 4, 2 ; V&jasaneyi SamhitcL, 
xiii. 44, etc. 

3 Rv. iv. 53, 5 ; V. 69. I ; ix. 74, 6 ; 
X. 45. 3; 123, 8; Av. xiii. i, 11, etc. 



In Rv, i. 164, 6, iix 'regions' are 
mentioned. 

* Kv.i.81,5; 90.7; 154, I 
viii. 88, 5 ; ix. 72, 8, etc. 

' Rv. iv. 53, 3 ; i. no, 6. 
donell, Vedic Mythology, p 
Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

Rv. i. 166, 3 ; iii. 62, 16 ; x. 75, 7 



VI- 49. 3; 

Cf. Mac- 
10 ; St, 



2. Rajas in one passage of the Yajurveda Sarnhitas^ clearly 
means ' silver,' like Rajata. It is also taken in this sense in 
one passage of the Rigveda^ by Zimmer,' but this interpretation 
is doubtful. 

1 Rajah-iaya, Vajasaneyi Samhiti, l i, 23, 2) ; Maitrayani SamhitS, i. 2,7; 
V. 8 ; raj&iaya, Taittiriya Satphiti,, i. 2, I Kithaka Sambita, ii. 8. 
II, 2 (Sayana on Aitareya Bribmana, ! ' x. 105, 7. 
3 Altindixhes Leben, 55, 56. 



Rajasa occurs once in the Atharvaveda,^ apparently as the 
name of a kind of ' fish.' Roth,^ however, understood it as an 
adjective meaning * impure.' 



1 X. 2, 25. 

' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. Cf. 
Bloomfield. Hvmns of the Atharvaveda, 



621 ; Whitney, Translation of the Athar- 
vaveda, 624. 



Ratnin] ROPE A TREE ROPE-MAKER BATTLE JEWEL 199 

Raji occurs in the Rigveda* seemingly as the name of a king, 
or perhaps demon, slain by Indra for Plthinas, 

* vi. 26, 6. C/. Ludwig, Translation I Dictionary, s.v., where Roth compares 
of the Rigveda, 3, 156; St. Petersburg | a conjecture in Av. xx. 128, 13. 

Rajjavya in the ^atapatha BrShmana (vi. 7, i, 28) denotes a 
* cord ' or * rope.' 

Rajju in the Rigveda* and later ^ denotes * rope.' In the 
Atharvaveda' the serpent is called the 'toothed rope' (rajju 
datvati). 

* i. 162, 8 {ilrsanyd raiana rajjuh, 
referring to the horse presumably means 
the head harness). 

' Av. iii. II, 8; vi. 121, 2 ; Taittiriya 
Samhiti, ii. 5, i, 7 ; ^atapatha 6rS,h- 



mana, 1. 3, i, 14 ; x. 2, 3, 8 ; xi. 3, 
I, I, etc. 

iv. 3, 2 ; xix. 47, 7. 8 ; Bloomfield, 
Hymns of the A tharvaveda, 368. 



Rajju-dala is the name of a tree {Cordia myxa or latifolia) in 
the Satapatha Brahmana.^ 

1 xiii. 4, 4, 6. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 44, 373, n. 2. 

Rajju-sarja, * rope-maker,' is one of the victims at the 
Purusamedha (' human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.^ 

^ V3Ljasaneyi Samhit&, xxx. 7; Taittiriya Br&hmana, iii. 4, 3, x. 

Rai^a denotes properly the 'joy' of battle, then 'battle,' 
* combat ' itself in the Rigveda^ and later.* 

^ i. 61, I. 9 ; 74, 3 ; 119, 3 ; vi. 16, 15, etc. Av. v. 2, 4, etc. 

Ratna in the Rigveda^ and later* denotes a precious object, 
not specifically a 'jewel,' as in post-Vedic literature. 

* i. 20, 7; 35, 8; 41, 6; 125, i; I ^ Av. v. 1,7; vii. 14, 4; ^tapatha 
140, II ; 141, 10 ; ii. 38, I, etc. | Brihmana, v. 3, i, i. 

Ratni, ' ell,' occurring in the advirpsa Brahmana (iv. 4) is a 
corruption of Aratni. 

Ratniru ' receiving gifts,' is the term applied to those people 
of the royal entourage in whose houses the Ratna-havis, a 



300 



KING'S HOUSEHOLD 



[ Ratnin 



Sf)ecial rite, was performed in the course of the Rajasuya or 
' royal consecration.' The list given in the Taittiriya Samhita* 
and the Taittiriya Brahmana* consists of the Brahman {i.e., 
the Purohita), the Rajanya, the Mahi^i (the first wife of the 
king), the Vavata (the favourite wife of the king), the Parivrkti 
(the discarded wife), the SenanT, * commander of the army '; the 
Suta, ' charioteer '; the Gramani, * village headman '; the 
Kattr, * chamberlain ' ; the Samgrahitr, * charioteer ' or 
treasurer'; the Bhagadugha, 'collector of taxes' or 'divider 
of food *; and the Aksavapa, ' superintender of dicing ' or 
' thrower of dice.' In the Satapatha Brahmana^ the order is 
SenanT; Purohita; Mahi?i; Suta; Gramani; Ksattr; Saip- 
grahitr ; Bhagadugha ; AksavSpa ; Go-nikartana, ' slayer of 
cows' or 'huntsman'; and Palagala, 'courier'; the 'discarded 
wife' being mentioned as forbidden to stay at home* on the 
day of the ceremony of offering a pap for Nirrti in her house. 
In the Maitrayanl Samhita^ the list is Brahman (i.e., Puro- 
hita) ; Rajan ; Mahisi ; Parivrkti ; Senani ; Samgrahitr ; Ksattr ; 
Suta; Vai^yagramanl : Bhagadugha; Taksa-Rathakarau, 'car- 
penter and chariot-maker '; Aksavapa ; and Go-vikarta. The 
Kathaka Samhita substitutes Go-vyacha for Govikarta, and 
omits Taksa-Rathakarau. 

It will be seen that the list is essentially that of the royal 
household, and of the king's servants in the administration of 
the country, though the exact sense of SamgrahitF, Bhaga- 
dugrha, Suta, Gramani, Kattr, is open to reasonable doubt, 
mainly as to whether public officers or private servants'^ are 
meant, for the names are of uncertain significance. A briefer 
list of eight Vipas, ' heroes,' as among the friends of the king, 



1 i. 8, 9, I et seq. 

* i. 7, 3, I tt seq. 
' V. 3, I, I r/ seq. 

* According to K9.tyayana ^rauta 
SQtra, XV. 3, 35, she goes to a Brahmin's 
house, where she shares his inviolability 
and exemption from jurisdiction. 

6 ii. 6, 5; iv. 3, 8. 

* XV. 4. 

7 Similarly Aks2v&pa is either the 



man who dices for the king i.e., a 
professional dicer who playt with the 
king or watches his play or a public 
officer who superintends the gambhng 
halls of the state and collects the 
revenue, as was regularly done later on. 
Early English history shows similar 
evolution of household ofikers into 
ministers of state. 



Eatha j THE CHARIOT AND ITS PARTS 201 

is given in the Paficavim^a BrShmana :* brother, son, Purohita, 
MahisI, Suta, Gramani, Ksattr, and Samgrahitr. 



" XIX. I, 4. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 17, 200 ; 
Ubn den RSjasuya, 4 ; Hopkins, Journal 
0/ thi American Oriental Society, 13, 128 ; 



Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 41, 
58 65 ; Hopkins, Transactions of the 
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
15, 30, n. 2. 



Ratha in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes 'chariot' as 
opposed to Anas, ' cart,' though the distinction is not absolute. 
Of differences in the structure of the two we have no informa- 
tion, except that the Kha, or nave hole, in the wheel of the 
chariot was greater than in that of the cart.* 

The chariot has, as a rule, two wheels (Cakra), to which 
reference is frequently made.* The wheel consisted of a rim 
(Pavi), a felly (Ppadhi), spokes (Ara),^ and a nave (Nabhya). 
The rim and the felly together constitute the Nemi. The hole 
in the nave is called Kha : into it the end of the axle was 
inserted ; but there is some uncertainty whether A^i denotes 
the extremity of the axle that was inserted in the nave, or the 
lynch-pin used to keep that extremity in the wheel. Sometimes 
a solid wheel was used. 

The axle (Aka) was, in some cases, made of Apa^u wood ;' 
round its ends the wheels revolved. To the axle was attached 
the body of the chariot (KoiSa). This part is also denoted by 
the word Vandhupa, which more precisely means the ' seat ' 
of the chariot. The epithet tri-vandhura is used of the chariot 
of the Asvins, seemingly to correspond with another of its 
epithets, tri-cakra : perhaps, as Weber* thinks, a chariot with 
three seats and three wheels was a real form of vehicle ; but 
Zimmer considers that the vehicle was purely mythical. Garta 
also denotes the seat of the warrior. 

1 i. 20, 3 ; iii. 15, 5 ; iv. 4, 10 ; 16, i 58, 5 ; viii. 20, 14 ; 77, 3 ; x. 78, 4 ; 



20 ; 36. 2 ; 43, 25, etc. 

' Av. V. 14, 5 ; X. I, 8 : Aitareya 
Br&hmana, vii. 12, 3, etc. 

' viii. 91, 7, with Soiyana's note; 
Vedische Studien, 2, 333. 

* Cf. Chndogya Upanisad, iv. 16, 5 ; 
Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana, iii. 16, 7 ; 
Kausitaki Upanisad, i. 4. 

* Cf. Rv. i. 32, 15 ; 141, 9 ; V. 13, 6 ; 



KStbaka SaqihitJL, x. 4, etc. 

Cf. Pradhl. 

' Rv. viii. 46, 27 ; Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, 247, n. 

8 Proceedings of the Berlin Academy, 
1898, 564 ; Virchow, Zeitschrift fur 
Ethnologic, 5, 200. Cf. note 21. 

op. cit., viii. 



202 CHARIOT HORSES AND HARNESS [ Hatha 

At right angles to the axle was the pole of the chariot (Ia, 
Praugfa). Normally there was, it seems, one pole, on either 
side of which the horses were harnessed, a yoke (Yugfa) being 
laid across their necks ; the pole was passed through the hole 
in the yoke (called Kha^ or Tardman^^), the yoke and the pole 
then being tied together." 

The horses were tied by the neck (grlvd), where the yoke was 
placed, and also at the shoulder, presumably by traces fastened 
to a bar of wood at right angles to the pole, or fastened to the 
ends of the pole, if that is to be regarded, as it probably 
should, as of triangular shape, wide at the foot and coming to 
a point at the tip.^^ The traces seem to be denoted by Ra^mi 
and Ra^ana. These words also denote the * reins,' which were 
fastened to the bit (perhaps sipra) in the horse's mouth. The 
driver controlled the horses by reins, and urged them on with 
a whip (Kasa).^* The girths of the horse were called Kaksya.^ 

The normal number of horses seems to have been two, but 
three or four^' were often used. It is uncertain whether, in 
these cases, the extra horse was attached in front or at the 
side ; possibly both modes were in use. Even five steeds could 
be employed.^^ Horses were normally used for chariots, but 
the ass (gardabha)^^ or mule {ahatan)'^^ are also mentioned. 
The ox was employed for drawing carts, and in fact derived its 

^^ This seems to be the sense of out the girths* {i.e., ' well fed'), is an 

Rv. viii. 91, 7 ; but it has also been epithet of Indra's horses, i. 10, 3. 

taken as the opening in the yoke | i' Three horses are mentioned in 

through which the ox's head passed Rv. x. 33, 5, and Praati in Rv. i. 39, 6 ; 

(the Homeric i^etjy\ij). See Cowell's viii. 7, 28, etc., may have the sense of 

note on Wilson's translation ; Griffith, ' third horse.' See also SatapathaBrah- 

Hymns of the Rigveda, 2, 237, n. | mana, v. i, 4, 11 ; 2, 4, 9, etc. ; Pafica- 

1^ Av. xiv. r, 40. i vini^a Brihmana, xvi. 13, 12. For four 

*' Rv. iii. 6, 6 ; V. 56, 4 ; x. 60, 8. horses, cf. Rv. ii. 18, i ; ^atapatha 

1' Zimmer, op. cit., 249, thinks that BrShmana, v. 4, 3, 17; i, 4. 11 ; 

vdn'i in Rv. i. 119, 5, denotes the two Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 41, 

bars of wood to which the traces were 21, n. i. 

fastened. This is also the view of Roth, j " Rathah pancaviihi, Ka.thaka Sam- 
St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v., Boht- hits, xv. 2; MaitrSyani Saijihita, ii. 6, 3. 
lingk's Lexicon, and Grassmann. The In the parallel passage the Taittirlya 
word may mean 'two voices' (Griffith, Samhiti, i. 8, 7, 2, has pros tiviihl. 

Hymns of the Rigveda, 1,162). } 18 Aitareya Brahmana, iv, g, 4. 

1* Rv. V. 83, 3 ; vi. 75, 6. I i' Chandogya Upanisad, iv. 2, i ; 
1* Rv. x. 10, 13 ; kaksya-prd, 'filling v. 13, 2 ; Aitareya Br&hmana, iv. 9, i. 



Rathakara] CHARIOTEER AND CAR-FIGHTER 



203 



name, Anadvah, from this use. Sometimes a poor man had to 
be content with a single steed, which then ran between two 
shafts.3o 

In the chariot the driver stood on the right, while the 
warrior was on the left, as indicated by his name, Savyetha or 
Savyatha.^ He could also sit when he wanted, for the 
chariot had seats, and an archer would naturally prefer to sit 
while shooting his arrows. 

The dimensions of the chariot are given in the Sulba Sutra^ 
of Apastamba at 188 Angulis (finger-breadths) for the pole, 
104 for the axle, and 86 for the yoke. The material used in 
its construction was wood, except for the rim of the wheel.^ 

Many other parts of the chariot are mentioned, their names 
being often obscure in meaning : see Anka, Nyahka, Uddhi, 
Paksas, Patalya, Bhurij, Rathopastha, Rathavahana. 



*> Rv. X. loi, II ; 131, 3, and vi. 15, 
19 ; Paiicaviniisa Br3,hmana, xvi. 13, 12 ; 
xxi. 13, 8, etc. 

21 This is the case in Av. viii. 8, 23, 
with Savyastha, and in the Taittiriya 
Samhita, i. 7, 9, l, savyestha sarathi 
occurs as a compound where the sense 
is certainly ' the wairrior and the 
charioteer. ' See also Satapatha Br&h- 
maoa, v, 3, i, 8, and Eggeling, Sacred 
Books of the East, 41, 62, n. i. The 
Greek notices speak of two warriors 
and a charioteer. Cf. the A^vins' car 
with its three seats. See von Schroeder, 
Indiens Literatur und Cultur, 435. 



2 vi. 5 (Burk, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 56, 344, 

345). 

" Satapatha Br&bmana, v. 4, 3, 16. 
The chariot used at the bridal pro- 
cession was made of almali wood, 
Rv. X. 85, 20. 

For the chariot in the Epic, see 
Hopkins, /owrna/ of the American Oriental 
Society, 13, 235-262 ; and cf. Schrader, 
Prehistoric Antiquities, 338,339; Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, 245-252 ; Hopkins, 
Transactions of the Connecticut Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, 15, 38, n. 1. 



Ratha-kara, ' chariot-maker,' is mentioned in the Atharva- 
veda^ as one of those who are to be subject to the king, seeming 
to stand generally as an example of the industrial population. 
He is also referred to in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas^ and in the 
Brahmanas :^ in all these passages, as well as probably in the 
Atharvaveda also, the Rathakara already forms a caste. The 



1 iii. 5, 6. 

* KAthaka SaqihitS., xvii. 13; Maitr&- 
yani Saqihiti, ii. 9, 5 ; Vijasaneyi 
Saiphitcl, xvi. 17 ; xxx. 6. 



* Taittiriya Br&hmana, i. i, 4, 8 ; 
iii. 4, 2. 1 ; Satapatha Br&hmana, xiii. 4, 
2. 17. 



204 SKILLED CHARIOTEER CHARIOT WHEEL [ Kathagrtsa 



later system* regards the RathakSra as the offspring of a 
Mahigya (the son of a Katriya husband and a Vai^ya wife) and 
a Karani (the daughter of a Vai^ya husband and a J^udra wife), 
but it is unreasonable to suppose that such an origin is 
historically accurate. The Rathakaras must rather be deemed 
to have been a functional caste. Hillebrandt^ suggests that 
.he Anu tribe formed the basis of the Rathakara caste, referring 
to their worship of the Rbhus, who are, of course, the chariot- 
makers />ay excellence. But there is little ground for this view. 



" Yajfiavalkya, i. 95. On the special 
position, in the later ritual, of the 
Rathakara as a caste below the Vai^ya, 
but superior to the SQdra, c/. Weber, 
Indischi Studien, 10, 12, 13, and cf. 



Varna ; see also Fick, Die sociale die- 
derung, 209, 210. 

6 Vtdiicht Mytkologic, 3, 152, 153. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 17, 196 
et seq. 



Ratha-gftsa in the Vajasaneyi Samhita (xv. 15) and the 
Aitareya Brahmana (iii. 48, 9) denotes a * skilled charioteer.'^ 

^ Cf. Taittiriya SamhitS., iv. 4, 3, i; "krtsna, MaitrayanI Samhita, ii. 8, 10; 
"kftsa, Kathaka Samhita, xvii. 9. 



Ratha-cakra, ' chariot wheel,' is often mentioned in the 
Brahmanas.^ See Ratha and Cakra. 

* Aitareya Brahmana, iii. 43, 4; 1 patha BrShmana, ii. 3, 3, 12 ; v. 1,5, 2; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, i. i, 6, 8 ; ata- | xi. 8, i, 11, etc. 



Ratha-car^a^a occurs once in the Rigveda,^ where the sense 
is doubtful. Roth 2 thought that some part of the chariot was 
meant, but the sense is perhaps only the ' pathway of the 
chariot.'* 



vin. 5, 19. 

* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

' Cf. also the citation and explana- 



tion in Durga's commentary on the 
Nirukta, v. 12. 



Ratha-juti in the Atharvaveda (xix. 44, 3) is either an adjec- 
tive meaning ' driving swiftly in a chariot,'^ or a proper name, 
as Roth in the St. Petersburg Dictionary suggests. 



* 'Of chariot - swiftness ' according I vaveda, 967. 
to Whitney, Translation of the Athar I passage. 



Cf. his note on the 



Rathavahana ] NAVE KING A SNAKE CHARIOT-STAND 205 

Ratha-nabhi, the ' nave of the chariot- wheel,' is mentioned 
in the Vajasaneyi Samhita^ and in the Upanisads.^ 



1 xxxiv. 5. 

BrhadcLranyaka Upanisad, ii. 5 5 ; 
Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. 2, 4 ; Kausitaki 



Upanisad, iii. 8 ; Ch&ndogya Upanisad, 
vii. 15, I, etc. 



Ratha-prota Darbhya (* descendant of Darbha ') is mentioned 
in the Maitrayanl Samhita (ii. i, 3) perhaps as a king, but 
possibly as a priest. 

Ratha-pro^t^a occurs as the name of a princely family in 
the Rigveda (x. 60, 5). See Subandhu. 

Ratha-mukha in the later Samhitas^ denotes the fore-part of 
a chariot. Cf. Ratha^ipa. 

* Av. viii. 8, 23 ; Taittiriya SamhitS, iii. 4, 8, 2 ; v. 4, 9, 3, etc. 



Rathapvi is the name of a snake in the Atharvaveda (x. 4, 5). 



Ratha-vahana is the name in the Rigveda* and later ^ for a 
movable stand to hold the chariot. According to Roth,^ it 
corresponds to the Greek ficofiof, on which the chariot rested 
when out of use. The word Rathavahana-vaha is employed in 
the sense of the two horses that draw the stand.'* Weber* thinks 
it was used to convey the war chariot to the scene of action. 



1 vi. 75, 8. 

' Av. iii. 17, 3 = Taittiriya Samhita, 
iv. 2, 5, 5 = Kathaka Samhita, xvi. 11 
= Maitrayani Samhita, ii. 7, 12 = 
Vasistha Dharma Sutra, ii. 34. 35. 
See also Kathaka Samhita, xxi. 10 ; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 7, 9, 6; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, v. 4, 3, 23 ei seq. 

* Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 95 et seq. ; 
Whitney, Translation of the Atharva- 
veda, n6. 

* Taittiriya Saiphita, i. 8, 20, i ; 



Taittiriya Brahmsma, i. 8, 4, 3 ; Kathaka 
Samhita, xv. g ; Maitrayani Samhita, 
ii. 2, I. 

6 Ubfr den Viijapeya, 27, n. 2, followed 
by Geldner, Vedische Studien, 2, 275. 
Weber, however, admits that the Ratha- 
vahana may at times have served as a 
mere stand, like the Homeric ^un6s, 
while Geldner expresses the opinion 
that it never has that sense. The use 
of the term Rathavahanavaha shows 
that the stand was movable. 



206 



A PATRON CAR-FIGHT AXLE [ Rathaviti Darbhya 



Rathaviti Dilrbhya (' descendant of Darbha ') is mentioned 
once in the Rigveda^ as residing in places abounding in kine 
{gomatlr anu) far away among the hills, possibly the Himalayas, 
and as the patron of the singer of the hymn. Later the tradition ^ 
makes him the king, whose daughter l^yasva^va won for his 
wife by his father's and the Maruts' aid. 



* V. 61, 17. 19. 

' See Sieg, Die Sagenstoffe des Rgveda, 
50 et stq., 62, n. 2, and the criticism 



in Oldenberg, Rgveda-Nottn, i, 353, 354 ; 
Max Miiller, Sacred Books of the East, 
32, 359. 362. 



Ratha-^ir^a, the ' head of the chariot ' that is, its fore-part 
is mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana (ix. 4. i, 13). 



Ratha-sahga in the Rigveda (ix. 53, 2) denotes the hostile 
encounter of chariots. 



Rathak^a in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas^ denotes the 'axle of 
the chariot.' Its length is given by the scholiast on the Katya- 
yana Srauta Sutra^ as 104 Arigulas ('finger-breadths'), which 
agrees with the statement in the Apastamba Sulba Sutra.^ See 
Ratha. 



^ Taittiriya Samhita, vi. 
Kathaka Saiphit3., xxix. 8. 
2 viii. 8, 6. 



6, 4, I ; i ' vi. 5 (Burk, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 56, 344, 
1 345). 



Rathahnya in the Satapatha Brahmana (xii. 2, 3, 12) denotes 
a ' day's journey by chariot.' 



Rathin and Rathi in the Rigveda^ and later* denote * one who 
goes in a chariot,' an expression which includes both the driver 
and the warrior who accompanied him. 



Rathin, i. 122, 8 ; v. 83, 3 ; vi. 47, 
31 ; viii. 4, 9 ; X. 40, 5 ; 51, 6 ; Rathi, 
25. 3 ; " 39. 2 ; i. 3, 6 ; V. 87, 8 ; 
vii. 39, 1, etc. 

2 Rathin, Av. iv. 34, 4 ; vii. 62, i ; 



73, I ; xi. 10, 24 ; Taittiriya Samhiti, 
v. 2, 2, 3 ; Vajasaneyi Sai]ihita, xvi. 26 ; 
Satapatha Br&hmana, viii. 7, 3, 7, etc. ; 
Rathi, Taittiriya Samhita., iv. 7. 15, 3. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindischcs Leben, 296. 



Rambhini] CAR-FIGHTER SHAFT STAFF SPEAR 207 

Rathitara (' good charioteer ') is the name of a teacher 
mentioned in the Baudhayana Srauta Sutra ^ and the Brhad- 
devata.* 

1 xxii, II. 2 i, 26 ; iii. 40 ; vii. 145 (ed. Macdonell). 

Rathe-tha, 'standing on the chariot,' denotes in the Rig- 
veda^ the warrior who fights from the chariot, ' car-fighter.' 

1 i. 173, 4. 5; ii. 17, 3; vi. 21, I ; I ix. 97,49; Vajasaneyi Sarphita, xxii. 3a 
22, 5 ; 29, I ; viii. 4, 13 ; 33, 14 ; | Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Lebtn, 296. 

Rathopastha, 'lap of the chariot,' in the Atharvaveda^ and 
the Brahmanas* seems to denote the * bottom ' or lower part on 
which the driver and the fighter stand. 

* viii. 8, 23. 1 Cf, Hopkins, Journal oj the Anurican 

* Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 10, 2; Oriental Society , 13, 238,11. 
Satapatha Brahmana, ii. 3, 3, 12, etc. ; 

Randhra seems, in the phrase Uksno Randhra occurring in 
one passage of the Rigveda (viii. 7, 26), to be the name of a 
place, but the sense is very doubtful. In the Pancavim^a 
Brahmana (xiii. 9, 13) Uksno randhra is the name of a man. 

Rabhi, occurring once in the Rigveda (viii. 5, 29), designates 
some part of the chariot. The term perhaps means 'supporting 
shaft.' 

Rambha seems to mean a * staff' or * support ' in one passage 
of the Rigveda (viii. 45, 20). In another place (ii. 15, 9) a man 
is described as Rambhin, apparently as carrying a staff to 
support himself in old age ; Saya^a explains this word as 
* door-keeper ' (like one of the senses of dandin, ' staff-bearer,' 
in later Sanskrit). 

Rambhini occurs in one passage of the Rigveda^ as being on 
the shoulders of the Maruts. A 'spear' seems to be meant, 
perhaps conceived as clinging {rambh = rabh, 'clasp') to the 
shoulders of a man. 

' i. 168, 3. Cf. i. 167, 3, and see Max Muller, Sacred Books 0/ the East, 32, 283. 



2o8 



WE A LTH CORD REINS RA Y 



[ Bay! 



Rayi is the common word for 'wealth ' in the Rigveda^ and 
later.* Special mention is often made of wealth in * heroes ' 
(vira) i.e., in ' good sons,'* in horses,* in cattle,** etc. 



* >. 73. ; 159. 4; 21. 6; iii. I. 
19; iv. 2, 7; 34, 10; 36, 9; vi. 6, 7; 
31. I, etc. 

' Av. iii. 14, I ; vi. 33, 3 ; vii. 80, 2 ; 
Taittirlya Saqihita, vii. i, 72 ; Vaja- 



saneyi San^hiti, ix. 22 ; xtv. 22 ; xxvii. 6, 
etc. 

3 Rv. ii. II, 13 ; 30, II ; iv. 51, 10, etc. 

* Rv. V. 41, 5 ; viii. 6, 9, etc. 

Rv. v. 4, II, etc. 



Raiana means generally ' cord ' or ' rope.' In the Rigveda 
the word ofter refers to various fastenings of a horse. In one 
passage^ the expression sJrsanyd rasaitd, 'head rope,' perhaps 
means not so much 'reins' as 'headstall.' In others^ the 
sense of * traces ' seems certain, though sometimes ^ ' reins ' or 
* traces ' may equally well be intended. Elsewhere the more 
general sense of ' rope ' for stening is meant.* 



1 i. 162, 8. c/. Eajju. 

Rv. i. 163, 2. 5 ; X. 79, 7. 

3 Rv. iv. I, 9; ix. 87, I ; x. 18, 14. 
Cf. Taittiriya SamhitS, i. 6, 4, 3. 

* Rv. ii. 28, 5 ; Av. viii. 78, i ; x. 9, 2 ; 
Vajasaneyi Saqihita, xxi. 46; xxii. 2; 



xxviii. 33 ; Taittiriya SamhitA, vi. 6, 
4, 3 ; ^atapatha Brahmana, iii. 6, 3, 
10, etc. C/. the use of Ra^ani as 
equivalent to 'finger ' in Rv. x. 4, 6. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 249. 



I. Ra^mi is not rarely found in the sense of ' rope ' * 
generally ; but more usually it denotes either the * reins ' or 
the ' traces ' ^ of a chariot, either sense being equally good in 
most passages. 



28, 4 ; iv. 22, 8 ; viii. 25, 18, 
reya Brahr 
Rv. viii. 7, 8 ; 



Rv. 1. 20, 4 ; IV. 22, o ; viu. 25, 10 

etc. ; Aitareya Brahmaiia, iv. 19, 3, etc 

3 Rv. viii. 7. 8 : x. no. 7. etc. 



- 1A.V. viii. 7, 8 ; x. 130, 7, etc, 
Taittiriya Samhiti, i. 6, 4, 3 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Samhita, xxiii. 14 ; Taittiriya 



Brahmana, i. 2, 4, 2, etc. In Aitareya 
Brahmana, ii. 37, i, the two inner 
{antarau) reins or traces of the chariot 
are mentioned. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 249. 



2. Ra^mi in the Rigveda' and later ^ regularly denotes a 
* ray ' of the sun. 



i. 35. 7 ; 'V. 52. 7 ; vii. 36, i ; 77, 3, 



etc. 



Av. ii. 32, I ; xii. i, 15 ; Taittiriya 



Brahmana, iii. i, i, i ; datapaths 
Brahmana, ix. 2, 3, 14, etc. 



Eahugana ] A RIVER SOMA ILLEGITIMACY NAMES 209 

Rasa is found in three passages of the Rigveda,^ clearly as the 
name of a real stream in the extreme north-west of the Vedic 
territory. Elsewhere^ it is the name of a mythic stream at 
the ends of the earth, which as well as the atmosphere it 
encompasses. It is reasonable to assume that, as in the case of 
the SarasvatI, the literal is the older sense, and to see in the 
river a genuine stream, perhaps originally the Araxes or 
Jaxartes, because the Vendidad mentions the Raiiha, the 
Avestan form of Rasa. But the word seems originally to allude 
merely to the * sap ' or * flavour ' of the waters,* and so could be 
applied to every river, like SarasvatI. 

' Rv. V. 41, 15; ix. 41, 6; x. 108, 
1. 2 (c/. Jaiminlya Brahmana, ii. 348; 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
19, 100 et seq.) ; 121, 4. 

' Rv. iv. 43, 6; viii. 72, 13. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 15, 
16 ; Max Muller, Sacred Books of tht 
East, 32, 323 ; Brunnhofer, Iran und 
Turan, 86 ; Weber, Proceedings of the 
Berlin Academy, 1898, 567-569. 



1 i. 112, 12; V. 53, g; X. 75, 6. In 
V. 53, g, the phrase rasdnitabhd is found. 
Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 
202, is inclined to regard anitabha as an 
epithet of Ras3., perhaps for amitablia, 
* of unmeasured splendour, ' but this is 
hardly probable. It seems better to 
take Anitabha, as the name of an other- 
wise unknown river. Cf. Max Muller, 
India, 166, 173, n. 



Rasaiir as an epithet of Soma in the Rigveda^ means * mixed 
with juice ' i.e., with milk. 

1 iii. 48, I, where Siyana explains rasa as *milk.' Cf. Hi'.lebrandt, Vedische 
Mythologie, i, 211, n. 5. 

Raha-su, ' bearing in secret,' is a term applied in one passage 
of the Rigveda (ii. 29, i) to an unmarried mother. Cf. Patl 
and Dharma. 

Rahasyu Deva-malimluc is the name, in the Pancavirn^a 
Brahma^ia (xiv. 4, 7), of a mythical person who at Munlmararia 
slew the saintly Vaikhanases. 



Rahu-gfana is the name of a family mentioned in the plural 
in one passage of the Rigveda.^ According to Ludwig,^ they 
were connected with the Gotamas, as is shown by the name 
Gotama Rahugaija. 

1 i. 78, 5. I Cf. Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 

2 Translation of the Rig^eda, 3, no. | MorgenldndischenGesellsckaft, ^2, 236,0.1. 

VOL. II. 14 



3IO FULL MOON DAY KING-MAKER KING [ B&k& 

Raka in the Rigveda* and later* denotes the full moon day 
as a personification. Cf. Candramas. 



li. 3a, 4 ; V. 42, la. 
Taittirlya Samhitft, i. 8, 8, 1 ; iii. 4. 
9, I. 6 ; K&tbaka Sarpbit&, xii. 8 ; 



Aitareya Br&hmana, iii. 37, 2. 6 ; 47, 4. 
etc. ; Paiicaviipto Br&hmana, xvi. 13, i, 
etc. 



Rjya-kartp/ or Raja-krt,* * king-maker,' is the term applied 
in the Atharvaveda and the Brahmapas to those who, * not 
themselves kings,' ^ aid in the consecration of the king. In the 
^atapatha^ the persons meant and specified are the Suta, 
'charioteer,' and the Gramani, 'village chief,' probably a repre- 
sentative chief from the village nearest to the place of consecra- 
tion, as Eggeling* suggests. In the Aitareya Brahmana,^ 
according to the commentator's explanation, the father, 
brother, etc., are meant ; in the Atharvaveda,^ also, the 
meaning of the expression is not stated in the text. 



^ Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 17, 5. 
^ Av. iii. 5, 7 ; Satapatha Brahmana, 
iii. 4, I. 7 ; xiii. 2, 2, 18. 
Loc. cit. 



* Sacred Books of the East, 41, 60, n. 
Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 17, 199 
et seq. 



Rajakula, a 'kingly family,' is mentioned in the Jaiminiya 
Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 28, 4), where, it is to be noted, such a 
family is ranked after, not before, a Brahmana Kula, a * Brah- 
min family.' 

I. Raj an, * king,' is a term repeatedly occurring in the Rig- 
veda^ and the later literature.^ It is quite clear that the 
normal, though not universal form of government, in early 
India was that by kings, as might be expected in view of the 
fact that the Aryan Indians were invaders in a hostile territory : 
a situation which, as in the case of the Aryan invaders of 
Greece and of the German invaders of England, resulted almost 
necessarily in strengthening the monarchic element of the 
constitution.* The mere patriarchal organization of society 
is not sufficient, as Zimmer^ assumes, to explain the Vedic 
kingship. 

1 iii. 43, 5 ; V. 54, 7, etc. 1 ' Cf. Stubbs, Constitutional History of 

* Av. iv. 22, 3. 5 ; viii. 7, 16, etc. | England, 59 et seq. 
* Altindisches Leben, 162. 



Eajan] TENURE OF MONARCHY KING IN WAR 2ir 

Tenure of Monarchy. Zimmer* is of opinion that while the 
Vedic monarchy was sometimes hereditary, as is indeed shown 
by several cases where the descent can be traced, yet in others 
the monarchy was elective, though it is not clear whether the 
selection by the people was between the members of the royal 
family only or extended to members of all the noble clans. It 
must, however, be admitted that the evidence for the elective 
monarchy is not strong. As Geldner'' argues, all the passages 
cited can be regarded not as choice by the cantons (Vi6), but 
as acceptance by the subjects (vi^) : this seems the more prob- 
able sense. Of course this is no proof that the monarchy was 
not sometimes elective : the practice of selecting one member 
of the family to the exclusion of another less well qualified is 
exemplified by the legend in Yaska of the Kuru brothers, 
Devapi and iSantanu, the value of which, as evidence of 
contemporary views, is not seriously affected by the legend 
itself being of dubious character and validity. 

Royal power was clearly insecure : there are several references 
to kings being expelled from their realms, and their efforts to 
recover their sovereignty,^^ and the Atharvaveda contains spells 
in the interest of royalty.^^ 

The King in War. Naturally the Vedic texts, after the Rig- 
veda, contain few notices of the warlike adventures that no 
doubt formed a very considerable proportion of the royal 
functions. But the Taittiriya Brahmana^^ contains the state- 
ment that the Kuru-Pancala kings, who, like the Brahmins of 



6 op. cit.. 162 et seq. So Weber, 
Jndische Studitn, 17, 188 ; Bloomfield, 
Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 336. 

" E.e;., Vadhryaiva, Divod&sa, Pija- 



Nirukta, ii. 10. 

" The technical term is apa-ruddha. 
Cf. Av. iii. 3, 4 ; KSthaka SanihitS, 
xxviii. I ; Taittiriya Sambitil, ii. 3, i ; 



-vana, Suda.B; orPurakutsaiTrasadasyu, Maitr&yani Saiphit&, ii. 2, i; Panca- 
Mitr&tithi, EuraSrava^a, Upamairaras, \ viip^ Br&hmana, xii. 12, 6 ; ^atapatha 
etc. ; Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, 386. So 1 Brahmana, xii. g, 3, 7, etc. ; Kau^ika 



a ' kingdom of ten generations ' (Daia- 
j)arafaq3r&jya) is mentioned in the 
Satapatha Brahmana, xii. 9, 3, 3 : and 
cf. V. 4, 2, 8 ; Aitareya BrJLhmana, 
viii. 12. 17. 

' Vedische Studien, 2, 303. 

8 Rv. X. 124, 8 ; 173 ; Av. i. 9 ; 
iii. 4 ; iv. 22. 



Sutra, xvi. 30; Caland, Altindischts 
Zauberritual, 37 et seq. 

" Especially iii. 3. Cf. Bloomfield, 
Hymns of the Atharvaveda, iii et seq. 

" i. 8. 4, I. 



142 



212 



THE KING IN WAR AND PEACE 



[ Rdjan 



those tribes, stand as representatives of good form, used to 
make their raids in the dewy season. The word Udaja, too, 
with its variant Niraja, records that kings took a share of the 
booty of war. The Rigveda^ has many references to Vedic 
wars : it is clear that the Katriyas were at least as intent on 
fulfilling their duty of war as the Brahmins on sacrificing and 
their other functions. Moreover, beside offensive war, defence 
was a chief duty of the king : he is emphatically the ' protector 
of the tribe' {gopd janasya), or, as is said in the Rajasuya 
('royal consecration'), 'protector of the Brahmin.' ^^ His 
Purohita was expected to use his spells and charms to secure 
the success of his king's arms. The king no doubt fought in 
person : so Pratardana met death in war according to the 
Kausltaki Upanisad;^ and in the Rajasuya the king is invoked 
as ' sacker of cities ' {pur dm bhettd). 

The King in Peace. In return for his warlike services the 
king received the obedience^ sometimes forced^'' of the 
people, and in particular their contributions for the mainten- 
ance of royalty. The king is regularly ^^ regarded as * devouring 



13 E^., the Dftiarajna, Rv. vii. i8. 
33. 83, and cf. Rv, iii. 33. 53. 

>* Rv. iii. 43, 5. References to 
attacks on aborigines are common in 
the Rigveda ^^.. ii. 12. 11 ; iv. 26, 3 ; 
vi. 26, 5 ; 33, 4, etc. For later refer- 
ences to war, cf. Kathaka Saijihita, 
ix. 17 ; X. 3 ; xxviii. 2 ; Taittiriya Sam- 
hita, vi. 4, 8, 3 ; Kausltaki Brahmana, 
V. i ; ^atapatha Brahmana, ii. 6. 4, 
2 et seq. ; and Hopkins, Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, 13, 187, 215. 
In the Rajasuya the protection of the 
Brahmin is compensated v^ith the ' eat- 
ing of the Vi^, the latter interesting 
the king more than the older duty of 
protection. See Aitareya Brahmana, 
viii. la. 17. 

" iii. I. 

1' See, e.g., Janaka's ofifer of the 
Videhas as slaves to Tajnavalkya, 
Bfhadaranyaka Upanisad, iv. 4, 30, 
and see ibid., ii. i, 20 ; Maitrayani Sam- 
hita, i. 6, 10, etc. ; Rv. i. 67, i ; iv. 50, 8. 

" Rv. ix. 7, 5. Cf. vii. 6, 5, etc. ; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 7, 18, 2. 



18 See Ball, and cf. Rv. i. 65, 4 ; 
Av. iv. 22, 7 ; Aitareya Brahmana^ 
vii. 29; viii. 12. 17; Kausltaki Brah- 
mana, iv. 12 ; Satapatha Brahmana, 
i. 8, 2, 17 ; iv. 2, I, 3. 17 ; v. 3, 3, 12 ; 
4, 2, 3 ; x. 6, 2, I ; xiii. 2, 9, 6. 8, etc. ; 
Weber, Indische Studien, 18, 93, n. ; 
Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 
3, 246 ; Pischel and Geldner, Vtdische 
Studien, i, xvi ; Winternitz, Geschichte 
der indischen Litteratur, i, 173, 174 ; 
Keith, Aitareya Arauyaka, 161. It is 
to this form of taxation that the share 
of village (grdme), horses {aivefu), and 
kine {gofu) of Av. iv. 22, 2, is to be 
referred. " It is significant that the 
village and cattle are put on the same 
footing, as tending to refute the argu- 
ment that the king was supreme land- 
owner. See n. 31 below. For the rate 
of taxation, which later was one-sixth, 
cf. Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 13, 85, 86 ; India. Old 
and New, 238 ct seq. ; 333 ; Mrs. Rhys 
Davids, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1901, 860. 



Rajan ] JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE KING 



ai3 



the people,' but this phrase must not be explained as meaning that 
he necessarily oppressed them. It obviously has its origin in a 
custom by which the king and his retinue were fed by the 
people's contributions, a plan with many parallels. It is also 
probable that the king could assign the royal right of mainten- 
ance to a Ksatriya, thus developing a nobility supported by the 
people. Taxation would not normally fall on Ksatriya or 
Brahmin ; the texts contain emphatic assertions of the exemp- 
tion of the goods of the latter from the royal bounty.^ In 
the people, however, lay the strength of the king.^ See also 
Bali. 

In return the king performed the duties of judge. Himself 
immune from punishment (a-datidya), he wields the rod of 
punishment (Dajpda).^ It is probable that criminal justice 
remained largely in his actual administration, for the Sutras^ 
preserve clear traces of the personal exercise of royal criminal 
jurisdiction. Possibly the jurisdiction could be exercised by a 
royal officer, or even by a delegate, for a Rajanya is mentioned 
as an overseer (adhyaksa) of the punishment of a Sudra in the 
Kathaka Samhita.^ In civil justice it may be that the king 
played a much less prominent part, save as a court of final 
appeal, but evidence is lacking on this head. The Madhyama^i 
of the Rigveda was probably not a royal, but a private 
judge or arbitrator. A wide criminal jurisdiction is, how- 
ever, to some extent supported^ by the frequent mention of 
Varuna's spies, for Varuna is the divine counterpart of the 
human king.^ Possibly such spies could be used in' war 
also.^ 

There is no reference in early Vedic literature to the exercise 
of legislative activity by the king, though later it is an essential 



1* ^atapatha Brahmana, xiii. 6, 2, 
18 ; 7, 1, 13. See also Br&hmana (above, 
2, 83) for the claim of the Brahmins to 
serve only king Soma, not the temporal 
king. 

> C/., e.g., Maitriyanl Samhita, 
il. I, 8 ; iii. 11, 8 ; iv. 4, 3 ; Satapatha 
Brahmana, v. 4, 4, 11 ; Taittirlya Brah- 
mana, ii. 6, 5. 

'^ Satapatha Brahmana, v. 4, 4, 7. 



" E.g., Gautama Dharma Satra, 
xii. 43 et seq. 

23 xxvii. 4. C/. Efatriya, n. 18. 

3* Cf. Rv. i. 25, 13 ; iv. 4. 3 ; vi. 67, 5 ; 
vii, 61, 3; 87, 3 ; X. 10, 8 {= Av. 
xviii. 1,9); Av, iv. 16, 4. 
. M See Foy, Die huHigliche Gewalt, 80 
et seq. 

2 Cf. Rv, viii, 47. II ; Foy, op. cit.^ 
84, The reference is not certain. 



214 ROYAL ATTENDANTS KING AS LANDOWNER [ Rajan 

part of his duties.^'' Nor can we say exactly what executive 
functions devolved on the king. 

In all his acts the king was regularly advised by his Puro- 
hita; he also had the advantage of the advice of the royal 
ministers and attendants (see Ratnin). The local administra- 
tion was entrusted to the Grama^i, or village chief, who may 
have been selected or appointed by the'king. The outward signs 
of the king's rank were his palace^ and his brilliant dress.^ 

The King as Landowner. The position of the king with 
regard to the land is somewhat obscure. The Greek notices,** 
in which, unhappily, it would be dangerous to put much trust, 
since they were collected by observers who were probably little 
used to accurate investigations of such matters, and whose 
statements were based on inadequate information, vary in their 
statements. In part they speak of rent being paid, and declare 
that only the king and no private person could own land, while 
in part they refer to the taxation of land. Hopkins^^ is strongly 
of opinion that the payments made were paid for protection 
i.e., in modern terminology as a tax, but that the king was 
recognised as the owner of all the land, while yet the individual 
or the joint family also owned the land. As against Baden- 
Powell,^^ who asserted that the idea of the king as a landowner 
was later, he urges for the Vedic period that the king, as we 
have seen, is described as devouring the people, and that, 
according to the Aitareya Brahmana,^ the VaiiSya can be 
devoured at will and maltreated (but, unlike the l^udra, not 
killed) ; and for the period of the legal Sutras and Sastras he 
cites Brhaspati and Narada as clearly recognizing the king's 
overlordship, besides a passage of the Manava Dharma Sastra** 
which describes the king as ' lord of all,' a phrase which 

" See Foy, op. cit., chap. iii. 

** Cf. Varuna's palace, Rv. ii. 41, 5 ; 
vii. 88, 5. The throne, Asandi, is used 
to form the name of Janamejaya's royal 
city, Asandlvant. Cf. also atapatha 



Brahmana, vii. 31, he is likened to the 
Nyagrodha tree. 

30 See Diodorus, ii. 40 ; Arrian, 
Indica, 11 ; Strabo, p. 703, and Hop- 
kins, Journal of the American Oriental 



Brahmana, v. 4, 4, i ei seq. ; Aitareya Society, 13, 87 et seq. 



Br&hmana, viii. 12, 3-5. 

See, e.g., Rv. i. 85. 8 ; viii. 5, 38 ; 
X. 78, I, etc. So the king is the great 
lord of riches {dhana-patir dhanSudtn), 
Av. iv. 22, 3, and in the Aitareya 



31 India, Old and New, 221 et seq. 
3' Village Communities in India, 145 ; 
Indian Village Community, 207 et seq. 
33 vii. 29, 3. 
* viii. 39. 



Kajan ] 



KING AS LANDOWNER NOBLES 



215 



Biihler^ was inclined to interpret as a proof of landowning. 
The evidence is, however, inadequate to prove what is sought. 
It is not denied that gradually the king came to be vaguely con- 
ceived as the English king still is ^as lord of all the land in a 
proprietorial sense, but it is far more probable that such an idea 
was only a gradual development than that it was primitive. 
The power of devouring the people is a political power, not a 
right of ownership ; precisely the same feature can be traced in 
South Africa,^ where the chief can deprive a man arbitrarily of 
his land, though the land is really owned by the native. The 
matter is ultimately to some extent one of terminology, but the 
parallel cases are in favour of distinguishing between the 
political rights of the crown, which can be transferred by way 
of a grant, and the rights of ownership. Hopkins^' thinks 
that the gifts of land to priests, which seems to be the first 
sign of land transactions in the Brahmanas, was an actual gift 
of land ; it may have been so in many cases, but it may easily 
also have been the grant of a superiority : the Epic grants are 
hardly decisive one way or the other. 

For the relations of the king with the assembly, see Sabha ; 
for his consecration, see Rajasuya. A-raja-ta, * lack of a king,* 
means 'anarchy.'^ 

^ In his note on Manu, loc. cit.. Sacred 
Books of the East, 25, 259. 

^ See Keith, Journal of the African 
Society, 6, 202 */ seq. The evidence, so 
far as it goes, of other Aryan peoples 
does not support the theory of original 
kingly ownership. Such ownership did 
not exist, as far as can be seen, in 
Anglo-Saxon times {English Historical 
Review, viii. 1-7), nor in Homeric 
Greece (Lang, Homer and His Age, 236 
et seq.), nor at Rome. 

2. Raj an in several passages^ means no more than a ' noble of 
the ruling house,' or perhaps even merely a * noble,' there being 



" Loc. cit. 

38 Taittiriya Br^hmana, i. 5, 9. i ; 
Aitareya Br&hmana, i. 14, 6; Levi, 
La Doctrine du Sacrifice, 74. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 162 
et seq. ; Hopkins, yor;/a/ of the American 
Oriental Society, 13, 84 et seq. ; Foy, Die 
honigliche Gewalt nach den Dharmasutren 
(Leipzig, 1895) ; Rhys Davids, Buddhist 
India, 46 et seq. ; Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, 1901, 860, 861. 



1 Cf. Rv. i. 40, 8 ; 108, 7 ; x. 42, 10 ; 
97, 6 ; Taittiriya Satphit^, iv. 6, 8, 3 ; 
V. 7, 6, 4 ; Kathaka Sambita, xl. 13 ; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, xviii. 48 ; xxvi. 2 ; 
Av. xix. 62, 1, and possibly ii. 6, 4, etc. ; 
Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3 , 



236, 237. Possibly rdjnah in Jaiminiya 
Upanisad Brahmana, i. 4, 5, may be 
taken in this sense. The king there is 
said to be a non-Aryan, but the reading 
is corrupt, and Oertel's conjecture is 
not probable. Cf. Bijya, n. 2. 



2i6 MEN OF ROYAL DESCENT [ Rajani 

no decisive passage. Zimmer'^ sees traces in one passage of 
the Rigveda^ that in times of peace there was no king in some 
states, the members of the royal family holding equal rights. 
He compares this with the state of affairs in early Germany.'* 
But the passage merely shows that the nobles could be called 
Raj an, and is not decisive for the sense ascribed to it by 
Zimmer. Of course this state of affairs is perfectly possible, 
and is exemplified later in Buddhist times.** 

^ Altindisches Leben, 176, lyj, | Arminius' attempt to make himself 

' X. 97, 6. He also compares Av, ! king, which his relatives, the royal 

i. g; iii. 4; iv. 22, where the king is I family, foiled (see Tacitus, Annals, ii. 

referred to as superior to the other I 88). 

royal personages. | * cf. Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 

* The case of the Cherusci and | 19. 



Rajani, 'descendant of Rajana,' is the patronymic of Ugra- 
deva in the Pancavim^a Brahmana (xiv. 3, 17; xxiii. 16, 11) 
and the Taittirlya Aranyaka (v. 4, 12). 

Rajanya is the regular term in Vedic literature ^ for a man of 
the royal family, probably including also those who were not 
actually members of that family, but were nobles, though it 
may have been originally restricted to members of the royal 
family. This, however, does not appear clearly from any 
passage ; the term may originally have applied to all the nobles 
irrespective of kingly power. In the Satapatha Brahmana^ 
the Rajanya is different from the Rajaputra, who is literally a 
son of the king. The functions and place of the Rajanya are 
described under Katriya, which expression later normally 
takes the place of Rajanya as a designation for the ruling class. 
His high place is shown by the fact that in the Taittirlya 
Samhita^ he is ranked with the learned Brahmin and the 



1 Only once in the Rv. in the late 
Purusa-sQkta, x. 90, 12 ; but often in 
the Av. : v. 17, 9; 18, 2; vi. 38, 4; 
X. 10, 18 ; xii. 4, 32 et seq. ; xv. 8, i ; 
xix. 32, 8 ; Taittirlya Samhita, ii. 4, 
13, I ; 5. 4. 4 ; 10, I ; V. I, 10, 3, etc. 
Even in the Satapatha Br&hmana, 



where, on the whole, the later use of 
Ksatriya prevails, the Rajanya is often 
mentioned. See Eggeling's index, Sacred 
Books of the East, 44, 561. 

"^ Cf. xiii. 4, 2, 17, with xiii. i, 6, 2. 

3 ii. 5. 4, 4- 



Rajapati ] PRINCELING ROYAL SAGE SOMA 217 

Gramani (who was a Vai^ya) as having reached the height of 
prosperity {gata-sri). 



Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 1^, 258 
et seq. ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 
191. It is quite likely that the noble 
families not related to the royal family 



were families of minor princes whose 
rule was merged in that of the king 
on the formation of a powerful tribe, 
as was the case in Germany. 



Rajanya-bandhu denotes a Rajanya, but usually with a 
depreciating sense. Thus in the Satapatha Brahmana^ Janaka 
is called by the Brahmins, whom he defeated in disputation, * a 
fellow of a Rajanya'; the same description is applied to Pravah- 
ana Jaivali in the Bihadaranyaka Upanisad* for a similar 
reason. On the other hand, in one passage^ where reference is 
made to men eating apart from women, princes are said to do 
so most of all : the term Rajanyabandhu cannot here be 
deemed to be contemptuous, unless, indeed, it is the expression 
of Brahmin contempt for princes, such as clearly appears in 
the treatment of Nagnajit in another passage.* Again, in a 
passage^ in which the four castes are mentioned, the VaiiSya 
precedes the Rajanyabandhu, a curious inversion of the order 
of the second and third castes. 



1 xi. 6, 2, 5. 

2 vi. I, 5. 

3 Satapatha Brthmana, x. 5, 2. 10, 
where cf. Eggeling's note, Sacred 
Books of the East, 43, 370, n. i. A 
similar case is apparently i. 2, 4, 2, 



where any special contempt cannot be 
meant 

* viii. I, 4, 10. Cf. Muir, Sanskrit 
Texts, i2, 515. 

8 i. I, 4, 12. 

Eggeling, op. cit., 12, 28. 



Rajanya-ri, * royal sage,' is a term applied to Sindhukit 
in the Pancavirnsa Brahmana.^ The story about him is, 
however, purely mythical. 

1 xii. 12, 6. Cf. Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Detitschen Morgenldndischen Gesell- 
schaft, 42, 235, n. 3, and see Varna (p. 261). 



Raja-pati, * lord of kings,* is found in the Satapatha 
Brahmana (xi. 4, 3, 9) as an epithet of Soma. It is not used 
elsewhere as a title of imperial temporal supremacy : see 
Rajya. 



2i8 ROYAL FATHER PRINCE ROYAL SERVANT [ Rajapitr 

Raja-pitr is one of the titles given to the king in the rite of 
the Rajasuya (' royal consecration ') according to the Aitareya 
Brahmana (viii. 12, 5 ; 17, 5). It probably designates the king 
as * father of a king,' and indicates the hereditary character of 
the monarchy. Possibly the later plan^ of associating the 
king's son in the monarchy prevailed in earlier times also. 

* Hopkins. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 139, The sense of ' having 
a king as father ' is also possible. 



Raja-putra, 'king's son,' 'prince,' seems to be capable of 
being interpreted literally in every passage of the older litera- 
ture ^ in which it is found, though it may also be capable of a 
wider interpretation.^ Later the Rajaputra degenerates into a 
mere 'landowner.'^ 



' Rv. X. 40, 3 ; Aitareya BrShmana, 
vii. 17, 6 (of ViiTa,nutra, but probably 
in a mythical sense) ; Pancavim^a BrSLh- 
mana, xix. i, 4; Kathaka Samhita, 
xiv. 8 ; Taittiriya Br5hmana, iii. 8, 5, i ; 
^atapatha Br&hmana, xiii. 4, 2, 5; 
5. 2. 5. etc. 

3 K&thaka Samhita, xxviii. i, may 



be cited as identifying the B&janya and 
the Rajaputra. 

^ Jolly, Zeitschri/tderDeutschen Morgen- 
liindischen Gesellschaft, 50, 514, who points 
out that in the Rajatarangini, vii. 360, 
traces of the older position of the Raja- 
putra are seen. 



Raja-purua denotes a 'royal servant' in the Nirukta (ii. 3). 
Cf. Purua. 



Raja-bhratr, the 'brother of the king,' is mentioned as 
one of the eight Viras, or supporters of the monarchy, in the 
Paficavim^a Brahmana.^ He is also alluded to elsewhere.^ 

* xix. I, 4. Cf. Hopkins, Transactions oj the Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, 15, 30, n. 2. 
2 Aitareya Brclhmana, i, 13, 18, etc. 



Raja-matra is found in the Kausitaki Brahmana (xxvii. 6) 
and the Sankhayana ^rauta Sutra (xvii. 5, 3. 4; 15, 3). where 
it seems to include ' the whole class of persons (who could be 
called) Rajan' i.e., the Rajaputras and the Rajanyas. 



Rajasuya ] KING'S SICKNESS ROYAL CONSECRATION 219 



Raja-yakma, 'royal sickness,' is mentioned in the Rigveda* 
and several times later on.^ Zimmer^ identifies it with con- 
sumption : this identification seems certain, being supported by 
the later view of the disease.** Bloomfield^ suggests * king's 
evil,' or syphilis, as the sense, but this is not probable. 

321 et seq. ; Jolly, Medicin, 88, 89, n. 2, 
who takes RcLjayaksma as denoting the 
worst of diseases, not the disease cured 
by the king. Cf. R&jS^va. 

"* Hymns oj the Atharvaveda, 697. But 
contrast ibid., 415. 



* i. 161, I. 
3 Av. xi. 3, 39; xii. 5; Taittirlya 

Saqihit^, ii. 3, 5, 2 ; K3.thaka SamhitJL, 
xi. 3 ; xxvii, 3 ; Maitr3.yan! SamhitcL, 
ii. 2, 7. 

* AUindisches Leben, 375 et seq. 

* Cf. Wise, System oj Hindu Medicine, 



Raja-suya is the name in the Atharvaveda^ and the later 
literature^ of the ceremony of the 'royal consecration.' The 
rite is described at great length in the Sutras,^ but its main 
features are clearly outlined in the Brahmanas,* while the 
verses used in the ceremony are preserved in the Samhitas of 
the Yajurveda. Besides much mere priestly elaboration, the 
ritual contains traces of popular ceremonial. For example, the 
king is clothed in the ceremonial garments of his rank, and 
provided with bow and arrow as emblems of sovereignty. He 
is formally anointed ; he performs a mimic cow raid against a 
relative of his;' or engages in a sham fight with a Rajanya.^ 
A game of dice is played in which he is made to be the victim ; 
he symbolically ascends the quarters of the sky as an indication 
of his universal rule ; and steps on a tiger skin, thus gaining 
the strength and the pre-eminence of the tiger. 



1 iv. 8, I ; xi. 7. 7. 

a Taittirlya Samhita, v. 6, 2, i ; 
Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 15, 8 ; Sata- 
patha Brahmana. v, i, 1, 12, etc. 

' See Weber, tfber die Kdnigsweihe, den 
Rajasuya ; Hillebrandt, Rituallitteratur, 
X44-147 ; Oldenberg, Religion des Veda, 
472, 491. The relation of the Sonal^- 
^pa episode formed part of the ritual. 
That this points to human sacrifice 
having once formed part of the ritual 
of the R&jasaya as supposed by Hille- 
brandt, loc, cit. ; Weber, 47 ; and Olden- 
berg, 366, n. I, seems very doubtful. 



Cf. Keith, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1907, 844, 845. 

* Especially atapatha BrSLbmana. 
V. 2, 3, I */ seq. See also Maitrayani 
Samhita, iv. 3, i et seq. ; Taittirlya 
Sai)ihit&, i. 8, i, i et seq. 

* See Taittirlya Samhita, i. 8 ; 
Kathaka Samhita, xv ; Maitrayani 
Saiphita, ii. 6; Vajasaneyi Samhita, x. 

* ^atapatha Brahmana, v. 4, 3, i et seq. 
' Cf. Taittirlya Samhita, i. 8, 15 

with commentary ; Eggeling. Sacred 
Books 0/ the East, 41, too, n. i. 
8 See 2. Akfa (p. 3). 



220 NAME PARAMOUNT KING HORSE [ R^astambayana 



A list of the consecrated kings is given in the Aitareya Brah- 
mana, where the royal inauguration is called the ' great 
unction* (mahdbhiseka) connected with Indra. It corresponds 
generally with a list of Asvamedhins, ' performers of the horse 
sacrifice,' given in the ^atapatha Brahmana^ and the SSdkha- 
yana Jsrauta Sutra.** 



" viii. 21-23. ^/' Weber, Episches im 
vedischen Ritual, 8. 
xiii. 5, 4. 



" XVI. g. 

Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 
41, xxiv, XXV. 



Raja-stambayana, ' descendant of Rajastamba,' is the patro- 
nymic of Yajiiavacas in the Satapatha Brahmana.* 

* X. 4, 2, I (oxytone), 6, 5, 9 (pro- I on the accents of the Satapatha Br,h- 
paroxytone). No stress need be laid | mana. 

Rajadhiraja, 'king of kings,' later a title of paramount 
sovereignty, is only found in Vedic literature in the late 
Taittiriya Aranyaka (i. 31, 6) as a divine epithet. 



Raja^va (' king's horse ') in the Atharvaveda (vi. 102, 2) 
seems merely to denote a powerful horse. 

Rajiil, 'queen,' is found in the Yajurveda Samhitas* and in 
the Brahmanas.^ 



1 Taittiriya Samhiti, iv. 3, 6, 2 ; 4, 
2, 1 ; MaitrSyani Samhita, ii. 8, 3. 9 ; 
Kathaka Sarnhiti, xvii. 3, 8 ; Vajasa- 
neyi Samhita, xiv. 13 ; xv. 10. 



2 Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 2, 6, 2 ; 
iii. II, 3, I ; Aitareya Brahmana, v. 23, 
2, etc. 



Rajya in the Atharvaveda* and later* regularly denotes 
'sovereign power,' from which, as the Satapatha Brahmana' 
notes, the Brahmin is excluded. 

In addition to Rajya, the texts give other expressions of 
sovereign power. Thus the Satapatha Brahmana* contends 



1 iii. 4, 2 ; iv. 8, i ; xi. 6, 15 ; xii. 3, 
31; xviii. 4, 31. 

' Taittiriya Samhita, ii. i, 3, 4 ; 
6t 6, 5 ; vii. 5, 8, 3, etc. ; Aitareya 
Brahmana, vii. 23, etc. ; Jaiminiya 



Upani.sad Brahmana, i. 4, 5, as emended 
by Roth, Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, 16, ccxliii. 

' V. I, 1, 12. 

* V. I, I, 3. 



Eathitariputra ] SOVEREIGN POWER NIGHT-NAMES 221 

that the Rajasuya sacrifice is that of a king, the Vajapeya that 
of a Samraj or emperor, the status of the latter (Samrajya) 
being superior to that of the former (Rajya). The sitting on a 
throne (Asandi) is given in the same text^ as one of the 
characteristics of the Samraj. Elsewhere Svarajya, ' uncon- 
trolled dominion,' is opposed to Rajya. In the ritual of the 
Rajasuya the Aitareya Brahmana^ gives a whole series of 
terms : Rajya, Samrajya, Bhaujya, Svarajya, Vairajya, Para- 
mesthya, and Maharajya, while Adhipatya, * supreme power,' is 
found elsewhere. But there is no reason to believe that these 
terms refer to essentially different forms of authority. A king 
might be called a Maharaja or a Samraj, without really being 
an overlord of kings ; he would be so termed if he were an 
important sovereign, r by his own entourage out of compli- 
ment," as was Janaka of Videha. That a really great monarchy 
of the A^oka or Gupta type ever existed in the Vedic period 
seems highly improbable.^** 



' Satapatha Br3.hmana, xi. 3, i, 2. 6; 
2, 2, 3, etc. 

1 Cy. Hopkins, Transactions of the 
Connecticut A cademy 0/ A rts and Sciences, 
15. 30- 



xii. 8, 3. 4. 

Kathaka Samhita, xiv. 5 ; Maitra- 
yani Samhita, i. 11, 5. Cf. Taittiriya 
Brahmana, i. 3, 2, 2. 

' viii. 12, 4, 5. Cf. ^ankhayana 
Srauta Sutra, xvii. 16, 3. 

8 Pancavim^a Brahmana, xv. 3, 35; 
Chandogya Upanisad, v. 2, 6. 

RatPi is the most usual word in the Rigveda'- and later ^ for 
* night.' Cf. Masa, 

* i- 35i I ; 94. 7 ; 113. I' etc. ^ Av. i. 16, I ; v. 5, i, etc. 

Rathitara, * descendant of Rathitara,' is the patronymic of 
Satyavacas in the Taittiriya Upanisad (i. 9, i), and occurs 
several times as the name of a teacher in the Baudhayana 
8rauta Sutra (vii. 4, etc.). 

Rathltari-putra, * son of a female descendant of Rathitara,' 
is the name of a teacher in the last Vamsa (list of teachers) of 
the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, the pupil of Bhaluki-putra, 
according to the Kanva recension (vi. 5, i), of the Krauflciki- 
putras according to the Madhyarndina (vi. 4, 32). 



223 NAMES HETAERA [ Radha Oautama 

Radha Gautama {* descendant of Gotama ') is the name of 
two teachers in the Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

1 Indiuhe Studien, 4, 373, 384. 

Radheya, * descendant of Radha/ is the metronymic of a 
teacher in the ^ahkhayana Aranyaka (vii. 6). 

C/. Keith, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1908, 372. 

1. Rama is the name of a man in the Rigveda.^ Ludwig* 
thinks that he bore the patronymic Mayava,^ but this is 
doubtful. 

1 X. 93, 14. 2 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 166. ^ Rv. x. 93, 15. 

2. Rama Aupa-tasvini (' descendant of Upatasvina ') is the 
name of a teacher in the Satapatha Brahmana (iv. 6, i, 7). 

3. Rama Kratu-jateya (' descendant of Kratu-jata ') Vaiya- 
g"hpa-padya (' descendant of Vyaghrapad ') is the name of a 
teacher, a pupil of l^angfa l^a^yayani Atreya, who is mentioned 
in two Vamsas (lists of teachers) in the Jaiminlya Upaniad 
Brahmana (iii. 40, i ; iv. 16, i). 

4. Rama Marga-veya is the name of a man of the priestly 
family of the l^yaparnas in the Aitareya Brahmana.^ 

1 vii. 27, 3. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 43, 345, n. ; Muir 
Sanskrit Texts, i*, 438. 

Ramakayana. See Basta. 

Rama in a few passages^ seems to have the sense of a 
* hetaera.' 

1 Taittiriya Sarphitt, v. 6, 8, 3 ; I Samhita, xxii. 7. Cf. Weber, Indische 
Taittirlya Aranyaka, v. 8, 13 ; KJLthaka | Studien, 10, 74, 84. 

Rayo-V^a is the name of a seer of Samans or chants in the 
Pancavirp^a Brahmana (viii. i, 4 ; xiii. 4, 17 ; cf. xxiv. i, 7). 



Eahugana ] KINGDOM ASS GIRDLE ECLIPSE NAME 223 



Ra^ti'S' in the Rigveda^ and later^ denotes 'kingdom' or 
* royal territory.' 



* iv. 42, i; vii. 34, 11; 84, 2; 
X. log, 3 ; 124, 4, etc. 

' Av. X. 3, 12; xii. I, 8; xiii. 1,35; 
V3.jasaneyi Saqihit^, ix. 23; xx. 8; 



Taittirlya Samhita, i. 6, 10, 3 ; iii, 5, 
7i 3 ; V. 7, 4, 4 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, 
i. 2, I, 13, etc. ; MaitrcLyani SamhitS., 
iii. 3. 7: 7.4; 8,6; iv. 6, 3. 



Ra^ti'^.-g'opa, ' protector of the realm,' is the epithet applied, 
in the Aitareya Brahmana (viii. 25), to the Purohita, whose 
special charge it was to preserve the king and realm from harm 
by his spells and rites. 



Rasabha in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes an 'ass.' 

* i- 34. 9 ; 1^6, 2 ; 162, 21 ; iii. 53, 5 ; I Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 233 ; 
viii. 85, 7. Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, 149, who 

' Taittirlya Brahmana, v. i, 5. 7; | suggests ' mule ' as a possible sense in 



Kausitaki BrS,hmana, xviii. i ; ^ata- 
patba Br&hmana, vi. i, I 11 ; 3, I. 23 ; 
2. 3 ; 4. 4. 3. etc. 



Rv. iii. 53, 5. 



Rasna in the Yajurveda Samhitas^ and the Satapatha Brah- 
mana denotes * girdle ' or ' band,' like Raiana and Rai^mi. 

Cf. 



* Vajasaneyi Samhita, i. 30 ; xi, 59 ; 
xxxviii. I ; Taittiriya Samhita, i. 1,2, 
2 ; iv. I, 5, 4 ; Kathaka Saiphita, i. 2 ; 
xvi. 5 ; xix. 6, etc. 



3 vi. 2, 2, 25 ; 5, 2, II. 13. 
rSsnUva, 'girdled,' iv. i, 5, 19. 



Rahu, the demon that eclipses the sun, seems to be referred 
to in one passage of the Atharvaveda.^ The reading here is 
somewhat uncertain, but Rahu is probably meant. 

1 xix. 9, 10. Cf. Kau^ika SQtra, 100 ; Indiiche Studien, i, 87 ; Whitney, Trans- 
lation of the Atharvaveda, 914. 

Rahu-ga^a, * descendant of Rahu-gana,' is the patronymic of 
Gotama in the Satapatha Brahmana.* 

1 i. 4, I, 10. 18 ; xi. 4, 3, 20. Cf. I Vedische Studien, 3, 151, 152 j Weber, 
also Sayana on Rv. i. 81, 3; Geldner, | Indische Studien, 2, 8. 



524 



INHERITANCE FOE GOLD DISK NAMES [ Riktlia 



Riktha is found in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denoting * inherit- 
'1 



ance. 

* iii. 31, 2, on which </. Nirukta, 
iii. 5 ; Geldner, Rigveda, Kommtntar, 
49. 50; Oldenberg, Rgvcda-Noten, i, 
239 tt uq. 

' Aitareya Br&hmana, vii. 18, g (of 
Eianahsepa's double inheritance, which, 



according to that text, is the learning 
of the Q&thins and the sovereignty of 
the Jahnus ; but see Weber, Episches 
im vedischen Ritual, 16, who thinks the 
real succession was to the two houses, 
the Ang^asa and the Eusika). 



Ripu is a common word for * foe,' * enemy,' in the Rigveda.^ 
It occurs in the Atharvaveda^ also. 



1 i. 36, 16; 147, 3; 148, 5; ii. 23, 16; 27, 16; 34, 9, etc. 



XIX. 49, 9. 



Rukma in the Rigveda^ denotes an ornament, probably of 
gold, usually worn on the breast. Being in several passages 
used of the sun, it probably had the form of a disk. In the 
Brahmanas^ it designates a gold plate. See also Rajata. 



1 i. 166, 10 ; iv. 10, 5 ; v. 53, 4 ; 
56, I, etc. So rukma-vahsas, 'wearing 
golden ornaments on the breast,' ii. 34, 
a. 8 ; V. 55, I ; 57. 5. etc. ; rukmin, 
L 66, 6; ix. 15, 5. Cf. Taittiriya Sam- 
hita, ii. 3. 2, 3 ; v. i, 10, 3 ; Vajasaneyi 
Samhita, xiii, 40, etc. 

* Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 5, i, 20; 
V. 2, I, 21 ; 4, I, 13 ; Taittiriya Brah- 



mana, i. 8, 2, 3; 9, I, etc. So rukmin 
in Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. 5, 4, 2 ; 
Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 21, 3. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisch$s Lebea, 260, 
263 ; Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, 160, 
who suggests as a possible sense ' gold 
coin ' ; Max Miiller, Sacred Books of the 
East, 32, 112, 299. 



Rukma-paiSa^ denotes the ' cord' on which ' the gold plate * 
is hung. 

1 Satapatha Brahmana, vi. 7, i, 7. 27 ; 3, 8 ; vii. 2, i, 15, etc. 

Rudra-bhuti Drahyayana is the name of a teacher, a pupil 
of Trata in the Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

1 Indische Studitn, 4, 372. 



Ruma is mentioned in one hymn of the Rigveda (viii. 4, 2) 
with Ru^ama, iSyavaka, and Kfpa as a favourite of Indra. 



Beknas ] 



DEER N A MES PROPERTY 



225 



Rupu is one of the victims at the A^vamedha (* horse 
sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.^ A kind of deer is meant. The 
Rigveda^ mentions * deer-headed ' (ruru-slr^an) arrows, meaning 
such as have points made of deer's horn. 



1 Taittiriya SarnhitS, v. 5, ig, i ; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 27. 39 ; 
Maitrayani SamhiU, ili. 14, 9. 



" VI. 75, 15. 

C/. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 83. 



RuiSama is mentioned three times in the Rigveda^ as a 
prot6g6 of Indra. The Rusamas occur in another passage of 
the Rigveda^ with their generous king Rnamcaya; they are 
also referred to, with their king Kauraraa, in a passage of the 
Atharvaveda.^ 



viu. 3. 13 ; 4. 2 ; 51, 9. 

* V. 30, 12-15. 

* XX. 127, I. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 129; 
Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 



3. 154 ; Oldenberg, Buddha, 409 ; Zeit- 
schri/t der Deutschen Morgenldndischen 
Gesellschaft, 42, 214 ; Bloomfield, Hymns 
of the A tharvaveda, 690. 



BuiSama is mentioned in the Pancavirnsa Brahmana (xxv. 13, 
3), where she is said to have run round Kuruketpa, and so to 
have defeated Indra, who understood her challenge to refer to 
the earth proper. The story indicates the connexion of the 
Rusamas with the Kupus. 



Ru^ati in one passage of the Rigveda^ denotes, according to 
Ludwig,^ a maiden who was married to l^yava. On the other 
hand, Roth^ treats the word as rusaii, 'white,' and rusatlm 
seems clearly to be the reading of the text. It is doubtful what 
the meaning is, and whether Syava is a proper name at all.'* 



1 i. 117. 8. 

* Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 150. 
' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 
ruiant. 



* Cf. Oldenberg, Rgveda - Noten, i, 
no, who suggests that K^na may be 
a man's name. 



Reknas in the Rigveda^ denotes ' inherited property,' and 
then * property ' in general. 

1 i. 31, 14 ; 121. 5 ; 158, I ; 162, 2 ; vi. 20, 7 ; vii. 4i 7 ; 40. 2. etc. 
VOL. II. 15 



226 NAMES SINGER A RIVER WHIRLWIND [ Renu 

Rei:iu is the name of a son of Vi^vamitra in the Aitareya 
Brahmana (vii. 17, 7) and the baiikhayana Srauta Sutra 
<xv. 26, i). 

1. Rebha in the Rigveda* denotes a * singer ' of praise, a 
* panegyrist.' 

1 i. 127, 10; vi. 3, 6; II, 3: vii. 63, 3; viii. 97, 11 ; ix. 7, 6, etc. Cf. Av. 
M. 127. 4- 

2. Rebha occurs in the Rigveda* as the name of a prot6g6 of 
the A^vins, who saved him from the waters and from imprison- 
ment.' 

J i. 1X2, 5; 116, 24; 117, 4; 118, 6; 119,6; X. 39, 9. 

Reva, a name of the Narmada (Nerbudda) river, otherwise 
occurring only in post-Vedic literature, is seen by Weber ^ in 
the word Revottaras, which is found in the Satapatha Brah- 
mana,^ and is certainly a man's name. 

1 Indian Literature, 123 ('a native of the country south of the Rev5'). Cf. 
Indian Antiquary, 30, 273, n. 17. 
* xii. 8, I, 17 ; 9, 3, I. 

Revati. See Nakatpa. 

Revottaras is the name of Patava Cakra Sthapati,^ who was 
expelled, with Dutarltu Paumsayana, by the Sffljayas, and 
who was in part instrumental in the restoration of his master 
to power, despite the opposition of Balhika Pratiplya, the 
KUPU king. 

1 Satapatha Br&hmana, xii. 9, 3, i et seq. Cf. xii. 8, i, 17. 

Redman in the Atharvaveda (vi. 102, 2 ; xv. 2, i), the 
MaitrayanI Sarnhita (iii. 15, 2), and the Vajasaneyi Sarnhita 
(XXV. 2) denotes a 'whirlwind.' 

Raikva is the name of a man who is mentioned several times 
in the Chandogya Upaniad (iv. i, 3. 5. 8; 2, 2. 4). 



Ropanaka] A LOCALITY VERSES DISEASE A BIRD 227 

Raikva-pari;ia, masc. plur., is the name of a locality in the 
Mahav{'a country according to the Chandogya Upanisad.^ 

1 iv. 2, 3. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 130. 



Raibhl, fern, plur., occurs in the Rigveda^ and the Taittirlya 
Sarnhita,^ together with Gatha and Naraiamsl, as a form of 
literature. Later on^ the Raibhi verses are identified with 
certain verses of the Atharvaveda,** but that this identification 
holds* in the Rigveda and the Taittirlya Sarnhita seems very 
doubtful. 



X. 85. 6. 

^ vii 5, II, 2 ; KAtbaka, ASvamedha, 
V. 2. 

' Aitareya Brahmana, vi. 32, i ; 
Kausltaki Brahmana, xxx. 5, etc. 



* XX. 127, 4-6 = Khila, V. 9. 

Bloomfield, Hymns 0/ the Atharva- 
veda, 689. 

' Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen GeuUscha/t, 42, 238. 



Raibhya, ' descendant of Rebha,' is the name of a teacher in 
the first two Varnsas (lists of teachers) in the Madhyamdina 
recension of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (ii. 5, 20 ; iv. 5, 26), 
where he is said to be a pupil of Pautimayayana and Kau^din- 
yayana. 

Roga in the Atharvaveda^ and later ^ denotes * disease * 
generally. 

* i. 2, 4 ; ii. 3, 3 ; iii. 28, 5 ; vi. 44, 1 ; 120, 3 ; of the head {rir/anya), ix. 8, 
I. 21 et seq, 
2 Chandogya Upanisad, vii. 26, 2. 



Ropai;iaka is the name of a bird mentioned in the Rigveda* 
and the Atharvaveda.^ The ' thrush ' seems to be meant ;' but 
Ke^ava, the commentator on the Kau^ika Sutra,* is inclined to 
understand the word to mean a sort of wood. 



* 1. 50, 12. 

' i. 22, 4. C/. Taittirlya Brahmana, 
iil 7, 6, 22. 

2 S&rika, Sayana on Rv., loc. cit. On 
Av. i. 22, 4, he explains it as kiftha- 
Juka, perhaps a kind of parrot. 



* XXVI. 20. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 92 ; 
Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 
266; Caland, Altindisches Zauberritual, 
76, n. 13 ; Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 23. 

15 :2 



228 COW MARE HORSE A TREE A LOCALITY [ Romaia 

Romaia is mentioned in the Brhaddevata^ as the wife of king 
Bhavayavya, and is credited with the authorship of a Rigvedic 
verse.^ But in reality the word rotna^d in that verse, which is 
the source of the legend, is merely an adjective meaning ' hairy.' 

1 iii. 156 et stq., with Macdonell's I * i. 126, 7. 
notes. I Cf. Oldenberg, Rgveda-Noten, 1, 128. 

1. Rohi^i in the Rigveda^ and later^ denotes a * red cow.' 

1 viii. 93, 13; loi, 13 (reading 
rohiyyah with Roth, St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, s.v.). 

2. Rohini. See Nakatpa. 



' Av. xiii. I, 22 ; Taittiriya Sambiti, 
vi. I, 6, 2 ; Satapatha Brahmana, ii. i, 
2, 6 ; iv. 5, 8, 2, etc. 



Rohit in some passages of the Rigveda^ denotes, according to 
the St. Petersburg Dictionary, a 'red mare,' while later^ it 
denotes a * red doe.' 



1 i. 14, 12 ; 100, 16 ; V. 56, 5 ; 
vii. 42, 2. 

8 Taittiriya Samhita, vi. i, 6, 5; 
Maitrayani Samhita, iii. 14, 11. 18 ; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 30. 37 ; Av. 



iv. 4, 7 ; Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 33, i 
{cf. Bloom&eld, Journal 0/ the American 
Oriental Society, 15, 178, n.). 
C/. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 82. 



I. Rohita denotes a ' red horse ' in the Rigveda^ and later.^ 



1 i. 94, 10 ; 134, 9 ; ii. 10, 2 ; iii. 6, 6, 
etc. 

2 Taittiriya Samhita, i, 6, 4, 3 ; 



Paiicavini^a Brahmana, xiv. 3, 12, etc. 
So Rohita in Av. xiii, i, i et seq., 
represents the sun as a red horse.' 



2. Rohita is a son of Harii^candra in the famous tale of 
l^unah^epa in the Aitareya Brahmana (vii. 14) and the ^ankha- 
yana Srauta Sutra (xv. 18, 8). 

Rohitaka occurs in the Maitrayani Samhita (iii. 9, 3) with a 
variant Rohitaka,^ as the name of the tree Andersonia Rohitaka. 

^ So Apastamba Srauta SQtra, i. 5, 8. 

Rohitaka-kula is in the Pancavim^a Brahmana* the name of 
a locality after which a Saman or chant was called. 

1 xiv. 3, 12. Cf. XV. II, 6: Latyayana Srauta Satra, vi. 11, 4. 



Lak9ana ] NAMES PRIZE BRAND 

Rohitaka. See Rohitaka. 



229 



I. Rauhii^a is mentioned in the Rigveda* and the Athar- 
vaveda* as a demon foe of Indra's. Hillebrandt^ is inclined to 
see in the word the name of a planet (c/. Rohi^i), but without 
any clear reason. 



1. 103, 2 ; 11. 12, 12. 



* XX. 128, 13. 



3 Vedische Mythologie, 3, 207, 



2. Rauhi^a ('born under the Naksatra Rohinl') Vasitha 
(' descendant of Vasitha '), is the name of a man in the 
Taittiriya Aranyaka (i. 12, 5). 



Rauhinayana ('descendant of Rauhina') is the patronymic 
of Priyavrata in the Satapatha Brahmana (x. 3, 5, 14). It is 
also in the first two Vam^as (lists of teachers) in the Madhyam- 
dina recension of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (ii. 5, 20 ; iv. 5, 
26) the name of a teacher, a pupil of i^aunaka and others. 



L. 

Lak^a in the Rigveda^ denotes the 'prize * at dicing. 

1 ii. 12, 4. Cf. Luders, Das Wurfelspiel im alten Indien, 4, n. i ; Zimmer, 
Altindischts Leben, 287. 



Lakai?ai or Lakman2 denotes the 'mark' made on cattle 
by branding to distinguish ownership. According to the MaitrS- 
yani Samhita,^ it was to be made under the Naksatra Revati, 
clearly because of the property indicated in the name (' wealthy ') 
of that Naksatra. See Atakariji. 



' Gobhila Grhya Sutra, iii. 6, 5. 
Cf. 3.nkhyana Grhya SQtra, iii. 10; 
Weber, Indische Studien, 5, 35 ; 13, 
466. 



' Av. vi. 141, 2 ; MaitrSyani Saip- 
hit&. iv. 2, g. 
3 Loc. cit. 



230 



Q UA ILDR UMSA LT 



[ Lak^manya 



Lak^ma^ya in one verse of the Rigveda^ seems to be a patro- 
nymic of Dhvanya, ' son of Laksmana.' 

* V. 33, 10. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 155. 



Lak^man. See Lak^ana. 



Laba, ' quail ' {Perdix chinensis) is one of the victims at the 
A^vamedha (* horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.* 



1 Maltr^yanl Samhita, iii. 14, 5 ; 
Vftjasaneyi SamhitcL, xxiv. 24. C/. 
Nirukta, vii. 2, where Rv. x. 119 is 
called the Labasukta ; the Anukramani 



(Index), too, gives Aindra Laba as the 
author of that hymn. Cf. Brhaddevata.. 
viii. 40, with Macdonell's note. Cf. 
Zimmer, Altindisckes Leben, 90. 



Lambana is the reading in the KSnva recension (v. 10, i) of 
the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad for Adambara, * drum,' in the 
Madhyamdina recension (v. 12, i). 



Lavana, * salt,* is never mentioned in the Rigveda, only once 
in the Atharvaveda,^ and not after that until the latest part of 
the Brahmanas,- where it is regarded as of extremely high 
value.^ This silence in the early period is somewhat surprising 
if the regions then occupied by the Indians were the Panjab 
and the Indus valley, where salt abounds ; it would at first 
sight seem less curious if the home of the early Vedic Indian is 
taken to be Kuruketra.* It is, however, quite conceivable 
that a necessary commodity might happen to be passed over 
without literary mention in a region where it is very common, 
but to be referred to in a locality where it is not found, and 
consequently becomes highly prized. 



1 vii. 76, 1. 

' Ch&ndogya Upanisad, iv. 17, 7 = 
Jaiminlya Upanisad, iii. 17, 3. Cf. also 
Ch3.ndogya Upani^, vi. 13, i ; Brhad- 
aranyaka Upanisad, ii. 4, 12 ; ^ata- 
patba Br&hmana, v. 2, i, 16 ; and see 
Strabo, xv. i, 30. 

3 It seems to be placed above gold in 
value in Cha.ndogya Upanisad, iv. 17, 7. 



* Cf. Map 19 in the Atlas of the 
Imperial Gazetteer oflndia,vo\. 26, and see 
Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, 19, 21 et seq. ; India, Old and 
New, 30 et seq. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisckes Leben, 54, 
55 ; Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 
318; Geiger, Ostiranische Kultur, 419; 
Macdonell, Sanskrit Literature, 150. 



LUl] 



MOWING PLOUGH PARCHED GRAIN 



231 



Lavana in the Nirukta (ii. 2) denotes the * mowing ' or 
* reaping ' of corn. 

Laki^a occurs once in the Atharvaveda' as the name of a 
plant. 

* V. 5, 7. Cf. Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 229 ; Bloomfield, 
Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 387, 421. 



Langfala is the regular word for 'plough' in the Rigveda^ 
and later.^ It is described in a series of passages^ as 'lance- 
pointed' {pavlravat OT paviravam) , 'well-lying' (swslmam),'* and 
' having a well- smoothed handle ' (see Tsaru). See also Slra. 



* iv. 57. 4- 

Av. li. 8, 4 ; Taittiriya Samhita, 
vi. 6, 7, 4 ; Nirukta, vi. 26. etc. ; Idnga- 
Ufd, Apastamba ^rauta SQtra, xxii. 4, 7. 

' Av. iii. 17, 3 = Taittiriya SamhitS., 
iv. 2, 5, 6 = Katbaka Samhitcl, xvi. 11 
= Maitr&yanI Sai^ihita, ii. 7, 12 = 



Vajasaneyi Samhita, xii. 71 = Vasistha 
Dharma Sutra, ii. 34. 35. 

* The texts have suievam ; Roth con- 
jectures susimam. See Whitney, Trans- 
lation of the Atharvaveda, 116. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 236. 



Langalayana, ' descendant of Langala,' is the patronymic of 
Brahman Maudgalya ('descendant of Mudg-ala') in the Aitareya 
Brahmana (v. 3, 8). 



Laja, masc. plur., in the later Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas^ 
denotes ' fried or parched grain.' 



1 Maitrayani Samhita, iii. 11,2, etc. ; 
vajasaneyi Samhita, xix. 13. 81 ; xxi. 42, 
etc. 

s atapatha Brahmana, xii. 8, 2, 7. 



10 : 9, I. 2 ; xiiL. 2, 1.5; Taittiriya 
Brahmana, ii. 6, 4. 
Cf. Zimmer. Altindisches Leben, 269. 



Laji in the Vajasaneyi Samhita (xxiii. 8) and the Taittiriya 
Brahmana (iii. 9, 4, 8) is a word of uncertain meaning : 
according to Sclyana, it is a vocative of Lajin, * having parched 
grain'; according to Mahldhara, it denotes a 'quantity of 
parched grain.' 



232 



PATRONYMICS CREEPER NAMES [ Latavya 



Latavya, * descendant of Latu,' is the patronymic of KuiSamba 
Svayava in the Pancavim^a Brahmana.^ 

1 viiL 6, 8. Cf. Sadviip^ Br&hmana, iv. 7 ; Gopatha Br&bmana, i. i. 25 
(a Gotra is there mentioned). 

Lamakayana, * descendant of Lamaka,' is often mentioned 
as an authority in the Latyayana ^rauta Sutra,^ the Nidana 
Sutra,* and the Drahyayana ^rauta Sutra ;^ also with the name 
Saravargajit in the Vam^a Brahmana.* 



3 Weber, op. cit., 4, 384. 
* Indische Studien, 4, 373. 



* iv. 9, 22; vi. 9, 18, etc. ; Weber, 
Indische Studien, i , 49. 

* iii. 12. 13; vii. 4, 8, etc.; Weber, 
op. cit., I, 45. 

Lahyayana, 'descendant of Lahya,' is the patronymic of 
Bhujyu in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (iv. 5, i. 2). 

Libuja in the Rigveda* and later * denotes a creeping plant 
that climbs trees. 

X. 10, 13. 

' vi. 8, I ; Pancavim^ Brhmana,xii. 13, 11 ; Nirukta, vi. 28; xi. 34. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 70. 



LuSa is represented in a series of passages in the Brahmanas* 
as a rival of Kutsa for the favour of Indra. To Lu^a Dhanaka 
the authorship of certain hymns* is ascribed by the Anukra- 
mani (Index) of the Rigveda. 



* Pahcavirpia Brahmana, ix. 2, 22 ; 
Jaiminiya Brahmana, i. ^28 ; ^atyS- 
yanaka in Oertel, Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, 18, 31 et 
uq. 



2 X. 35. 36. Cf. Brhaddevata, ii. 129 ; 
iii. 55, with Macdonell's notes. 

Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedixhe Mythologie, 
3, 291, n. 3 ; Levi, La Doctrine du 
Sacrifice, 37, 38. 



Lu^kapi Khargali (' descendant of Khrgala ') is mentioned 
in the Pancavirn^a Brahmana^ as having cursed Kuitaka and 
the Kauitakins. He was a contemporary of Ke^in Dalbhya 
according to the Kathaka Samhita.* 



' xvii. 4. 3. Cf. Weber, Indiuhe Studien, 10, 145, n. 3. 

XXX. 2 {Indische Studien, 3, 471) ; Kapisthala Saiphita, xlvi. 5. 



Lopa ] 



WORLD AN ANIMAL A BIRD 



233 



Loka denotes * world* in the Rigveda* and later.* Mention 
is often made of the three worlds,* and ayain lokahy * this 
world,'* is constantly opposed to asau loka^,^ 'yonder world' 
i.e., 'heaven.' Loka itself sometimes means 'heaven,'* 
while in other passages several different sorts of world are 
mentioned.^ 



' Roth, St. Petersburg Dictionary, 
s.v. 2, qaotes no example of this mean> 
ing for the Rlgveda, where he sees the 
word used only in the sense of ' place,' 
room,' free or open space.' But Rv. 
X. 14, g, is a fairly certain example of 
the wider sense. 

2 Av. viii. 9, I. 15 ; iv. 38, 5 ; xi. 5, 7 ; 
8, 10, etc. ; in ix. 5, 14, the worlds of 
heaven {divyu) and of earth (parthiva) 
are distinguished ; VSjasaneyi Samhita, 
xxxii. II et seq., etc. 

* Av. X. 6. 31 ; xii. 3, 20; Aitareya 
Brahmana, i. 5, 8 ; Satapatha Brah- 
mana, xiii. i, 7, 3, etc. 



* Av. V. 30, 17 ; viii. 8, 8 ; xii. 5, 38 ; 
xix. 54, 5 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, xix. 46, 
etc. 

* Av. xiL 5, 38. 57 ; Taittiriya Sam- 
hita, i. 5, 9, 4 ; Aitareya Brahmana, 
V. 28, 2 ; viii. 2, 3, etc. 

* Satapatha Brahmana, ii. 6, 1,7; 
X. 5, 4, 16 ; xi. 2, 7, 19 ; and so probably 
Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 13, 12. 

' Kathaka Samhita, xxvi. 4 ; Kauji- 
taki Brahmana, xx. i ; Bj-hadaranyaka 
Upanisad, iii. 6, i ; iv. 3, 36 et seq. ; 
vi. I, 18, etc. 



Lodha occurs in a very obscure verse of the Rigveda,^ where 
Roth^ conjectures that some sort of * red ' animal is meant, and 
Oldenberg* shows some reason for thinking that a ' red goat * is 
intended. 



* 111. 53. 23. 

' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.. 

' Rgveda-Noten, i, 255. 

C/. the obscure adhl-lodha-kama in 
the Taittiriya Samhita, v. 6, 16, i, 
perhaps meaning ' having quite red 
ears.' Yaska, Nirukta, iv. 12, equates 



the word with lubdha, 'confused,' but 
this does not suit the context. So also 
Zimmer, A Itindisches Leben, 84 ; Geldner, 
Vedische Studien, 2, 160; Rgveda, Glossary 
151, who sees in the word the designa- 
tion of a noble steed. 



Lopa is mentioned in the list of victims at the A^vamedha 
('horse sacrifice') in the Taittiriya Samhita,* where Sayana 
explains it as a kind of bird, perhaps the carrion crow {imasdna- 
iakuni). 

> V. 5, 18, I. Cf. Zimmer, Altindiuhes Ltben, 93. 



334 



J A CKA L COPPER-AMULET 



[ Lopamudr& 



Lopa-mudra appears in one hymn of the Rigveda/ where 
she is seemingly the wife of Agastya, whose embraces she 
solicits.* 



* 179. 4- 

The story is differently told in the 
Bphaddevatd, iv. 57 et uq., with Mac- 
donell's notes. See also Oldenberg, 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Geselluha/t, 39, 68 ; Gottingische GeUhrte 



Anztigen, 1909, 76 tt seq. ; Steg, Die 
SagcHstoffe des Rgvtda, 120 tt uq. ; Winter- 
nitz, Vienna Oriental Journal, 20, 2 et seq. ; 
von Schroeder, Mysterium und Mimus, 
156 et seq. ; Keith, Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, 1909, 204 ; 1911, 997, n. 3. 



Lopaia is the name of an animal, probably the 'jackal' or 
'fox,* which is mentioned in the Rigveda^ and is included in 
the list of victims at the A^vamedha (* horse sacrifice ') in the 
Yajurveda Samhitas.* 

* X. 28, 4. I Maitriyanl Saqihita., iii. 14, 17 ; Vaja- 

* Taittiriya SamhiteL, v. 5, 21, i ; | saneyi Samhita, xxiv. 36. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 84. 

Loha, primarily an adjective meaning 'red,' is used as a 
neuter substantive to designate a metal, probably * copper,' but 
possibly ' bronze.' It is mentioned in the Vajasaneyi Samhita^ 
and the Taittiriya Sarnhita^ as distinguished from l^yama. It 
also occurs several times in the Brahmanas.* See Ayas. 



1 xviii. 13. 

> iv. 7, 5. I. 

3 ^atapatha Br&hmana, xiii. 2,2, 18 ; 
Chandogya Upanisad, iv. 17, 7; vi. i, 5; 
Jaiminiya Upanisad Brihmana, iv. i, 4, 
where Oertel takes ' copf)er ' to be 
meant in contrast with Ayas. which he 



renders 'brass.' The sense of 'iron' 
is nowhere needed. 

Cf. Vincent Smith, Indian Antiquary, 
34, 230 ; and on the early history of 
metals ; Mosso, Mediterranean Civiliza- 
tion, 57-C2. 



Loha-ma^i in the Chandogya Upanisad (vi. 2, 5) denotes a 
'copper amulet,' as Bohtlingk^ renders it, rather than a 'lump 
of gold,' as translated by Max Muller following the scholiast. 

^ Cf. Little, Grammatical Index, 134. 

Lohayasa, ' red metal,' is mentioned in the Satapatha Brah- 
mana,^ where it is distinguished from Ayas and gold. In the 
Jaiminiya Upani?ad Brahmana* the contrast is with KarsnS- 



1 v. 4. r, I. 3, 



> iii. 17, 3. 



Lauhitya ] COPPER RED SNAKE PATRONYMIC 235 

yasa, ' iron,' and in the Taittiriya Brahmana* with KrsnSyasa, 
* iron.' * Copper ' seems to be meant. 

* iii. 62, 6, 3. I East, 41, 90, n.; Schrader, Prehistoric 

Cf. Eggeling, Sacrtd Boohs of the \ Antiquities, 189. 



Lohita, often occurring as an adjective meaning * red,' is 
used as a neuter substantive in the Atharvaveda (xi. 3, 7) to 
denote a metal, presumably * copper.' As a proper name it is 
found in Apastamba ^rauta Siitra, xxiv. g, 7. 

Lohitayasa, * red metal,' * copper,' is the variant of Loha in 
the Maitrayani (ii. 11, 5 ; iv. 4, 4) and Kathaka (xviii. 10) 
SaiphitSs. 

Lohitahi, 'red snake,' is the name of a variety of serpent 
mentioned in the list of victims at the A^vamedha (* horse 
sacrifice') in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas.* 

* Taittiriya SamhitS, v. 5, 14, i ; I saneyi Samhita., xxiv. 31. Cf. Zimmer, 
Maitr&yani Sambit&, iii. 14, 12; V&ja- I Allindisches Leben, 95. 



Lauhitya, ' descendant of Lohita,' is the patronymic of a 
large number of teachers in the Jaiminiya Upani.sad Brahmana, 
which clearly must have been the special object of study of the 
Lauhitya family. See Kri?adatta, Krnapata, Jayaka, Tri- 
veda Kri?arata, Daki^a Jayanta, Palligupta, Mitrabhuti, 
Ya^asvin Jayanta, Vipa^cit Drdhajayanta, Vaipa^cita 
Dardhajayanti, Vaipa^cita Dardhajayanti Dj?dhajayanta, iSya- 
majayanta, iSyamasujayanta, Satya^ravas. A Lauhitya or 
Lauhikya is also mentioned as a teacher in the ^ankhayana 
Aranyaka.^ The form of name (Jayanta) affected by the family, 
and the silence of the older texts, proves that they were 
modern. 

vii. 22 ; Keith, SaAkhdyana Aranyaka, 50, n. i. 



836 RAFTER GENEALOGY DULL BAST [ Vam6a 



I. Vam^a, denoting the ' rafters ' or ' beams ' of the house as 
made of bamboo cane, is found in this sense from the Rigveda* 
onwards.^ C/. Tira^cinavam^a, Praclnavam^a, and see Gpha. 

yaka, iii. 2, i ; ^a.nkha.yana Aranyaka, 
viii. I, where perhaps the main beam 
of the house is meant. C/. Zimmer, 



i. 10. 1. 

* Av. iii. 12, 6 ; ix. 3, 4 ; MaitrayanI 
Saipbita, iv. 8, 10 ; Taittiriya BrSh- 
mana, i. 2, 3, i ; ^atapatha Brahmana, 
ix. I, 2, 25 ; iHd-varfi4a, Aitareya Aran- 



Altindisches Leben, yi, 153 ; Bloomfield, 
Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 346. 



2. Vam^a (lit. ' bamboo ') in the sense of ' spiritual gene- 
alogy,'* * list of teachers,' is found in the Satapatha Brahmana,^ 
the Vam^a Brahmana,^ and the Sankhayana Aranyaka.* 



^ From the analogy of the successive 
joints of the bamboo. Cf. 'family- 
tree.' 



^ X. 6,5,9 ; B]*hadaranyaka Upanisad, 
vi. 3. 14. 
3 Indische Studien, 4, 374. * xv. i. 



VamiSa-nartin is mentioned as one of the victims at the 
Purusamedha (' human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.* A * pole- 
dancer ' or ' acrobat ' seems to be meant. 

1 Vajasaneyi Saiphita, xxx. 21 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, iiL 4, 17, 1. Cf. 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 290. 

Vamsaga is in the Rigveda* a common name of the 'bull ' 
that leads the herds. 

* . 7. 8; 55, I ; 58, 4 ; V. 36, I, etc. ; Av. xviii. 3, 36. 

Vaka Dalbhya (* descendant of Dalbha ') is the name of a 
teacher in the Chandogya Upanisad.* According to the 
Kathaka Sarnhita,^ he was engaged in a ritual dispute with 
Dhrtara^trsu ^ - 

< i. 2, 13 ; 12, I. ' XXX. 2 (Indische Studien, 3, 471). 

Vakala denotes in the Brahmanas* the 'inner bark' of a 
tree, * bast.' 

* Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 7. 4, 2 ; Kausltaki Brahmana, x. 2. 



Vany ] BENGAL HAMMER MARE MERCHANT 



337 



Vak^a^a, fern, plur., denotes in one passage of the Rigveda* 
the bed of a stream. 

* ili. 33, 12. Cf. Pischel. Vedische Studien, i, 175-181. 

Vagfha is the name of a noxious animal in the Atharvaveda.* 

1 vi. 50, 3 ; ix. 2, 22. Cf. Zimmer, Altindiuhes Ltben, 98. 



Vanga, the designation of Bengal proper, is not found in the 
earlier Vedic literature unless it is to be recognized in the 
curious word Vangdvagadhdh, which occurs in the Aitareya 
Aranyaka,^ and which suggests amendment to Vanga-Magadhdh, 
* the Vahgas and the Magadhas,' two neighbouring peoples. 
The name is certainly found in the Baudhayana Dharma Sutra.^ 



1 ii. I, I. Cf. Keith, Aitareya Aran- 
yaka, 200 ; Magadha - Vanga - Matsyah 
occurs in the Atharvaveda Pari^istas 
(L 7, 7), but that is very late. 



' i. I, 14. Cf. Oldenberg, Buddha, 
394, n. ; Caland, Zeitschrift der Deutuhen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellscka/t, 56, 553. 



Vangrda is the name of a demon or a human foe in the 
Rigveda.^ 

* i. 53, 8. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 149. 

Vajra in the Aitareya Brahmana^ denotes, according to 
Geldner,^ the * handle,' while Ku^a means the * head ' of the 
hammer. 

1 vi. 24, I. Vedische Studien, i, 138. 



Vadava is a common name for a * mare ' in the later Sam- 
hitas and the Brahmanas.^ 



1 Taittiriya Samhita, vii. i, i, 2; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 8, 6, 3 ; iii. 8, 
22, 3 ; Satapatha Brihmana, vi. 5, 2, 



ig, etc. A derivative of this word is 
the masculine Va<lava, Taittiriya Sam- 
hita, ii. I, 8, 3. 



Va^ij denotes 'merchant' in the Rigveda^ and later.* See 
Pa^i and Kraya ; cf. also Va^iija. 

1 i. 112. II ; V. 45, 6. ' Av. iii, 15, i, etc. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindiuhes Leben, 257. 



238 



TEA DECA LFNA MES 



[ Vanijya 



Vanijya in the Brahmanas^ denotes the business of a 
merchant (Vaijij) * trade.' 

^ Satapatha BrS.hmana, i. 6, 4, 21 ; Pancaviip^ BrcLhma^a, xvii. i, 2. 



I. Vatsa is often found in the Rigveda^ and later ^ in the 
sense of ' calf.' Reference is made to the use of a calf to induce 
the cow to give milk,^ and to the separation of the cows from 
the calves at certain times.* 



^ "' 33i 3 ; iv. 18, 10, etc. 

2 Av. iv. 18, 2 ; xii. 4, 7 (wolves kill 
them) ; Taittirlya Samhita, vi. 4, 11, 4 
(the cow caresses the calf on birth), etc. 



Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 3, 6, 2 ; 
Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana, ii. 13, 2. 

* Rv. V. 30, 10 ; viii. 88, i. See 
Geldner, Vedische Studien, 3, 114. 



2. Vatsa occurs several times in the Rigveda^ as the name 
of a singer, a son or descendant of Kanva. In the Pancavirn^a 
Brahmana 2 he is said to have passed successfully through a fire 
ordeal to which he resorted for the purpose of proving to his 
rival, Medhatithi, the purity of his descent. He is also mentioned 
in the Sankhayana Srauta Sutra^ as the recipient of bounty 
from Tirindara Para^avya. 



1 viii. 6, I ; 8, 8 ; 9, I ; 11, 7. 

2 xiv. 6, 6. 

3 xvi. II, 2o. He also occurs in 
Apastamba rauta Sutra, xxiv. 5, 11. 



Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 105 ; Weber, Episches im vedischen 
Ritual, 36-38. 



Vatsatara, Vatsatapi, denotes a 'young calf in the later 
Samhitas ajid the Brahmanas.^ 



1 Taittiriya Samhita, i. 8, 17, i ; 
18, I ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 5 ; 



Kathaka Samhita, xxiv. 2 ; Aitareya 
Brahmana, i. 27, 2, etc. 



Vatsa-napat Babhrava (* descendant of Babhru ') is the 
name of a teacher, a pupil of Pathin Saubhara, in the first two 
Varn^as (lists of teachers) of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.* 

1 ii. 5, 22 ; iv. 5, 28 (Madhyamdina = ii. 6, 3 ; iv. 6, 3 K5nva). 



Vatsa-prI Bhalandana (* descendant of Bhalandana ') is the 
name of a sage who ' saw ' the Vatsapra Saman (chant). He 



REED WE A PON IVOMA N 



239 



Vadhu ] 

is mentioned in the later Samhitas^ and the Pancavim^a 
Brahmana.^ 



1 Taittiriya Samhitcl, v. 2, i, 6; 
K&thaka Samhitd., xix. 12 (Indische 
btucUen, 3, 470) ; Maitr&yanI SamhitA, 
iii. 2, 2. 



xii. II, 25. Cf. ^atapatha Brih- 
ma^a, vi. 7, 4, x. 



Vadhaka is the name of some sort of ' reed ' in the Atharva- 
veda^ and the Satapatha Brahmana.^ 



1 viii. 8, 3. 
' V. 4. 5, 14. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindischts Leben, 72; 
St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Vadhap means a ' weapon ' generally ; it is used not merely 
of a divine,^ but also of a human ^ weapon in the Rigveda. 



1 i. 32, g, etc 

2 Rv. iv. 22, 9 ; viii. 22, 8 ; 24, 27. 



Cf, Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 
221. 



I. Vadhu is a frequent word for ' woman ' in the Rigveda* 
and later.2 It denotes, according to Delbruck,^ the woman as 
either married or as seeking a husband, or as a bride in the 
wedding ceremony. The word appears to be derived from a 
form of the root vah, * to carry,' as is vahatu, ' the bridal pro- 
cession,' thus meaning * she who is to be or has been conducted 
home.' Zimmer,* however, objects to this explanation, 
regarding vadhu as a derivative from a different root meaning 
* to marry.' 



^ V. 37, 3 ; 47, 6 ; vii. 69, 3 ; viii. 26, 
13; X. 27, 12; 85, 30; 107, 9. 

' Av. i. 14, 2 ; iv. 20, 3 ; x. i, i ; 
xiv. 2, 9. 41, etc. 



* Die indogermanischen Verwandtuhafis- 
namen, 414, 439, 



Altindixhes Leben, 108. 



2. Vadhu is in one passage of the Rigveda^ taken by Roth* 
to denote a ' female animal,' while Zimmer urges that it 
means a * female slave.' As far as the use of Vadhu goes, 
either meaning is abnormal, for if Vadhu never elsewhere 



1 viii. 19, 36. Cf. also v. 47, 6, as 
taken by Pischel, Vedische Siudun, 2, 
319- 



' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 3. 
3 Altindisckes Leben, 108, X09. 



240 



FEMALE NAMES 



[ Vadhrimati 



means a female animal (from vah, to * draw * a cart), neither does 
it denote a slave : as the passage refers to a gift of fifty Vadhus 
by Trasadasyu Paurukutsya to the singer, the latter must 
have been a polygamist of an advanced type to require fifty 
wives. The same doubt arises in the case of vadhumant, which 
is used in the Rigveda and Atharvaveda as an epithet of the 
chariot (Ratha),* of horses (A^va),*^ and of buffaloes (Utra) 
Zimmer sees in all cases a reference to slaves in the chariots or 
with the horses : this interpretation has the support of the 
Brhaddevata.'' Roth's version of the references to horses or 
buffaloes as * suitable for draught ' is not very happy ; if vadhd 
is really a female animal vadhumant means rather * together with 
mares,' or * together with female buffaloes,' which makes reason- 
able sense. 



* i, 126, 3 ; vii. 18, 22. 
" viii. 68, 17. Cf. vi. 27, 8. 
' Av. XX. 127, 2. 

7 iii. 147 et seq., with Macdonell's 
notes. 



8 Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns 0/ the Athar- 
vaveda, 197 ; Pischel, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen M orgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 
35, 712 et seq. ; Bohtlingk, Dictionary, 



S.V. 



Vadhrimati, * having an impotent man as a husband,' seems 
in the Rigveda^ to be the name of a woman who owed the 
restoration of her husband's virility to the Asvins, and obtained 
a son, Hiranyahasta. The word is, however, possibly only 
descriptive. 

i. 116, 13 ; 117, 24 ; vi. 62, 7 ; x. 39, 7 ; 65, 12. 



I. Vadhry-aiva, * having castrated horses,' is the name in 
the Rigveda^ of a prince, the father of Divodasa, and an 
energetic supporter of the fire cult, as was his son after him. 
He is mentioned in a long list of names in the Atharvaveda.^ 



1^ vi. 61, I : X. 69, I ^ seq. Sumitra. 
in the latter hymn, can hardly be a 
name of his. 



3 iv. 29, 4. Cf. Apastamba Srauta 
SQtra, xxiv. 6, 6. 

Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 
1.97- 



2. Vadhry-a^va Anupa (* descendant of Anupa ') is the name 
of the seer of a Saman, or chant, in the Pancavim^a Brahmana 
(xiii. 3, 17). 



Vandana] FOREST ROBBER TREE A DISEASE 



241 



Vana in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes the 'forest,' not 
necessarily of trees only, but, like Arariya, the wild uninhabited 
land.^ It also means ' wooden cup ' used in the Soma ritual,* 
and in one passage perhaps a part of the chariot.* 



I i. 54, I ; 65, 8 ; iii. 51, 5 ; v. 41, 11, 



etc. 



^ Kau^ika SQtra, Ixxvi. 3, etc, 
* Rv. vii. I, 19 (opposed to dama, 
'home ). 



Rv. i. 55, 4 ; ii. 14, 9, etc. See 
Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, i, 163, 
166. 193. 

* viii. 34, 18. 



Vana-pa, * forest-guardian,' is included in the list of victims 
at the Purusamedha (* human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.^ Cf. 
Davapa. 

> Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxx. 19; Taittirlya Br^hmana, iii. 4, 11, i. 



Vanar-gu, * forest-goer,' is used in the Rigveda^ and the 
Atharvaveda- to designate robbers who haunt the forests. In 
the Samaveda^ the term is more generally opposed to civilized 
men {kavayah, 'sages'; vanargavah,, 'savages'). 



X. 4. 6. 
* iv. 36, 7. 



' Aranya Samhita, iv. 9. 

Cf. St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Vanas-pati, * lord of the forest,' primarily denotes * tree,' ^ and 
then ' post ' or ' pole.' ^ In some passages it is applied either 
to a part of the chariot or to the chariot as a whole.^ It also 
means a 'wooden drum'* and a 'wooden amulet,'^ while in 
some passages it denotes the plant par excellence y Soma. 



1 Rv. i. 166, 5; iii. 34, 10; V. 7, 
4; 41, 8, etc.; Av. xi. 6, i (distin- 
guished from Viradh and Ofadhi) ; 
9, 24, etc. 

Taittiriya Samhita, vi. 2, 8, 4 ; 
Av. ix. 3, II, etc. 

3 Rv. ii. 37, 3; iii. 53, 20; vi. 47, 



26: Nirukta, ix. 11. See Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, 251. 

* vajasaneyi Saiphita, ix. 12. Cf. 
Av. xii. 3, 15. 

Av. vi. 85, I ; X. 3, 8. 11. 

" Rv. i. 91, 6; vajasaneyi Samhita, 
X. 23, etc. 



I. Vandana is mentioned in the Rigveda^ as the name of a 
disease, apparently some sort of eruption spreading over the body. 



1 viL 50, 2. C/. 21, 5; Av. vii. 115,2; 
trffa-vattdana^ ' having a rough erup- 
tion,' vii. 113, i; Zimmer, Altindisches 

VOL. II. 



Leben, 391 ; Bloomfield, Hymns of the 
Atharvaveda, 56^, $6$; Whitney, Trans- 
lation of the Atharvaveda, 469. 

16 



343 



' CAR-SEAT SOWER ANT-HILL BARBER [ Vandana 



2. Vandana is the name of a proteg6 of the A^vins in the 
Rigveda.^ 



i. 112, 5; 116, II ; 117, 5: Ti8,/; 
X. 39, 8. Cf. Baunack, Zeitschrift der 
DetUuhtH Morgenldndischen Geullschaft, 



50, 263 et seq. ; Oldenberg, ^gvtda- 
NoUn, I, 109. 



Vandhura denotes in the Rigveda^ and later ^ the 'seat' of 
the chariot. See Ratha. 



1 i. 139, 4 ; iii. 14, 3 ; vi. 47, 9, etc. 

' Av. X. 4, 2. The A^vins' car is tri- 
vandhura, 'having three seats,' because 
the ASvins are a pair, and the charioteer 
makes a third. Cf. Rv. i. 47, 2 ; 118, 
I. 2 ; I57i 3 ; 183, I ; vii. 69. 2 ; 71, 4 ; 



viii. 22, 5 ; and cf. ix. 62, 17. See 
Zimmer, Altindischts Leben, viii, 247 ; 
Weber, Proceedings of the Berlin 
Academy, 1898, 564; Muir, Sanskrit 
Texts, 5, 241, n. 371. 



Vapa, 'sower,' is mentioned in the list of victims at the 
Purusamedha (* human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.^ 

1 Vajasaneyi Saiphit^, xxx. 7 ; Taittiriya Bribmana, iii. 4, 3, i. 



Vapana in the Brahmanas^ denotes the process of 'shaving.' 
Cf. Kura and Kea. 

1 Taittiriya SamhitS, ii. 7, 17, i ; ^atapatha Brihrnana, iii. i, 2, i. 

Vapa in the later Sarnbitas and the Brthmanas^ denotes an 
ant-hill. 

1 Taittiriya Samhita, v. i, 2, 5 ; Taittiriya Bra.hmana, i. 1, 3, 4; Satapatha 
Br&hmana, vi. 3, 3, 5. 



Vaptp in the Rigveda^ and later^ denotes a ' shaver/ 
* barber.' 



1 X. 142, 4. 

' Av. viii. 2, 17; Taittiriya Brih- 
raana, i. 5, 6, 3. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindischts Leben, 266; 
Max Miiller, Sacred Books of the East, 
32, 235, n. 4. 



Vapra, 'rampart,' is a conjectural reading in the Atharva- 
veda.* 



* vii. 71, I. See Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 435, 436. 



Vayitri ] A NTBIRD A GEBRA NCH WE A VER 



^3 



I. Vamra,^ Vamri,^ are the names of the male and female 
* ant ' in the Rigveda and later. Cf. Vapa. 



1 Rv. i. 51, 9 ; viii. 102, 21. 

Rv. IV. ig, 9 (where the son of an 
unmarried maiden is exposed to be 
eaten by ants); V&jasaneyi Saiphitil, 



xxxvii. 4; Taittirlya Br&hmana, i. 2, 
I, 3; ^atapatha Br&hmana, xiv. i, i, 
8. 14, etc. Cf. Zimmer, Altindiuhes 
Leben, 97. 



2. Vamra is the name of a Ei in the Rigveda.^ Cf. Vamraka. 

1 i. 51,9; 112, 15; X. 99, 5. 

Vamraka is mentioned in one passage of the Rigveda,^ where 
Roth^ thinks that an * ant ' is meant. But Pischel,' with more 
probability, thinks that it is a proper name, perhaps equivalent 
to Vamra, and denoting the child of a maiden who was saved 
from being devoured by ants.* 

^ X. 99, 12. j ' Vedische Studien, i, 238, 239. 

2 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. i * Rv. iv. 19, 9; 30, 16. 



I. Vayas is a common name for *bird' in the Atharvaveda^ 
and later.* 

1 iii. 21, 2 ; vi. 59, i ; vii. 96, i ; I ^ Taittirlya Saiphita, iii. i, i, 1 ; 
viii. 7, 24, etc. I v. 2, 5, 1 ; 5, 3, 2, etc. 



2. Vayas denotes in the Atharvaveda* and later* the *age* 
of animals or men. 



xn. 3, I. 



3 K&thaka SamhitA, xi. 2 ; Taittirlya I Bra,bmana, iii. i, 2, 21 ; 3, 3, 3, etc. 



Br&hmana, iii. 12, 5, 9; ^atapatha 



Vaya in the Rigveda^ denotes the * branch ' of a tree. 

ii. 5, 4 ; V. I, I ; vi. 7, 6; 13, i ; viii. 13, 6. 17, etc 



Vayitri in the Pancavirp^a Brahmapa (i. 8, 9) denotes a 
"' female weaver.' 

16-2 



344 



WOOER A TREE A RIVER-THONG [ Vayya 



Vayya occurs in several passages of the Rigveda^ in con- 
nexion with Turviti, of whom the word is, according to Sayana,* 
a patronymic in one passage. Roth^ is inclined to think that 
the sense of * companion ' would suit all passages. 



1 i. 54, ; 112, 6 (where Turviti does 
not occur) ; ii. 13, 12 ; iv. 19, 6. 
On Rv. i. 54, 6. 



' SL Petersburg Dictionary, s.v,, 
quoting ix. 68. 8, as a clear case. 



Vara in the Rigveda^ and later ^ regularly denotes a 'wooer.' 



I i. 83, 2; V. 60, 4; ix. loi, 14; 
X. 85, 8. 9. 



"^ Av. ii, 36, 1. 5. 6 ; xi. 8, i ; Aitareya 
Br&bmana, iv. 7, i, etc. 



Vara^a is the name of a tree (Crataeva Roxburghit) in the 
Atharvaveda^ and the Brahmanas.^ 



1 vi. 85, I ; X. 3, I, etc. ; xix. 32, g. 
' PancavimSa Bra.hmana, v. 3, 9. 10 ; 
Satapatha Br^bmana, xiii. 8, 4, i. 



C/. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 60, 
61 ; Bloomfield, Hymns 0/ the Atharva- 
veda, 505. 



Vara^avati is found in one passage of the Atharvaveda.^ It 
seems to be, as Roth^ thought, the name of a stream, and is 
regarded by Ludwig^ as the Ganges. Bloomfield,'* while con- 
sidering that a plant may, as Sayana thinks, be meant, yet 
regards a reference to a river as probable. C/. KaiSi. 



1 iv. 7, I. 

" St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 
' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 201. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 20. 



* Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 376. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 18, 26. 
27 ; Whitney, Translation of the Athar- 
vaveda, 154. 



Varatra in the Rigveda^ and later^ denotes a 'thong' or 
* strap.' It was used to fasten the oxen to the yoke,^ or perhaps 
to fasten the yoke to the pole.'* Or, again, it denotes** the 
strap which was used in drawing up water from the well 
(Avata). 



* iv. 57, 4 (of the plough), etc. 
' Av. xi. 3. 10 ; XX. 135. 13. 
3 Rv. X. 60, 8; 102, 8; Geldner, 
Vedische Studien, 2, 13. 



* This suits X. 60, 8, rather more 
naturally, and is so taken by Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, 248, 249. 

Rv. X. 106, 5 ; Zimmer, op. cit., 156. 



Varunagrhita ] A TRIBE BOAR DROPSY 



245. 



VaraiSikha is the name of a leader whose tribe is mentioned 
in the Rigveda^ as being defeated by Abhyavartin Cayamana. 



1 vi. 27, 4. 5. Cf. Ludwig, Transla- 
tion of the Rigveda, 3, 156; Hillebrandt, 
Vedische Mythologie, i, 105; Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, 133, who thinks that 
VaraSikha was the leader of the Tur- 
a^a-VrciTants, but this is conjectural. 



and not very probable. Cf. P&rthava. 
In the BrhaddevatS., v. 124 et seq., the 
form of the name is Varaiikha ('de- 
scendant of Varaiikha'), occurring in 
the plural only. 



Varaha, 'boar,' is found in the Rigveda^ and later.^ The 
god Rudra is described as the 'boar of heaven.'^ The use of 
dogs to hunt the boar is once alluded to.** The variant form 
of the word, Varahu, is not used except metaphorically of 
divinities.^ 



* i. 61, 7; viii. 77, 10; ix. 97, 7; 
X. 28, 4 (cf. Krop^), etc. 

^ Av. viii. 7, 23 ; xii. i, 48 ; KS,thaka 
Satphita, viii. 2 ; xxv. 2, etc. ; MaitrS- 
yani SamhitSL, iii. 14. 19, etc. 

3 Rv. i. 114, 5. Cf. Taittiriya Satn- 
hita, vi. 2, 4, 2 ; vii. i, 5, i, etc. 

* Rv. X. 86, 4, an obscure passage. 

5 Rv. i. 88, 5; 121, 11; Taittiriya 
Aranyaka, i. 9, 4. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 81, 
82 ; Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 17, 67, who points out 
that, even in the Rigveda, its use is 
predominantly metaphorical, x. 28, 4, 
and X. 86, 4, being the only clear 
instances of the real sense, and of these 
X. 86, 4, is doubtful. See also Geldner, 
Vedische Studien, 3, 66 et seq. 



Varu is held by SSyana to be a proper name in several 
passages of the Rigveda,^ where it is accented as a vocative 
followed by susdmne. Roth ^ considers that the name must be 
Varosusaman, despite its doubtful formation. 



1 viii. 23, 28 ; 24, 28 ; 26, 2. 

2 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Cf. Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen Geullschaft, 39, 84, 85. 



Varuna-grhita, ' seized by Varuna,' is found in several 
passages^ as a description of a man afflicted with dropsy, which 
is the disease sent by Varuna as a punishment for sin.* 



1 Taittiriya Samhitft, ii. i, 2, i ; 
vi. 4, 2, 3 ; Kathaka Samhita, xii. 4 ; 
^atapatha Brahmana, iv. 4, 5, 11 ; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 6, 4, I, etc. 



* Rv. vi. 74, 4 ; vii. 88, 7 ; Av. ii. 10, i ; 
iv. 16, 6. 7 ; xiv. i, 57 ; 2, 49, etc. 

Cf. Oldenberg, Religion dcs Veda, 203 ; 
Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 29, n. 16. 



34<S 



A DASACOLOVRS 



[ Varcin 



Varcin is the name of a foe of Indra in the Rigveda.^ Being 
called a Dasa,* and coupled with ^ambara, he is probably to be 
regarded as a terrestrial foe, though he is also spoken of as an 
Asura.' He may possibly have been connected with the 
Vrclvants. 



1 ii. 14, 6 ; iv, 
vii. 99, 5. 



30, 14. 15 ; VI. 47, 21 : 



* Rv. iv. 30, 15 ; vi. 47, 21. 
' Rv. vii. 99, 3. 



C/. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 152 ; Hillebrandt, Vedische 
Mythologie, i, 103, n. 3 ; 3, 273 ; Mac- 
donell, Vedic Mythology, p. 162 (F). 



I. Varna, 'colour,' is a common word in the Rigveda^ and 
later.* A large number of colours are enumerated in Vedic 
literature, but it is not possible to deduce any clear information 
as to the accuracy with which the Vedic Indian distinguished 
colours, or as to the principle on which his distinctions werebased. 
The Rigveda seems to show that red or yellow colours were 
the most noticed, but this may be accidental.* * Black ' or 
* dark ' is denoted by krsna, * white ' or * light-coloured ' by sukla 
or sveta. ' Black ' seems to be meant in one passage of the 
Rigveda* by sy^MZ also. 'Dark-grey' or 'dusky' is expressed 
by sydma.'^ The sense of mla^ is doubtful, perhaps ' dark-blue,' 
' bluish-black.' The series of words hari, harina, harit, harita, 
seems, on the whole, to denote * yellow,' but * green ' is also a 
possible rendering, since the epithet is used of the frog.'' 
' Brown ' is certainly the meaning of babhru, which is used of 
the Vibhitaka nut (see Aka). * Reddish-brown ' seems to be 
the tinge implied by kapila^ (* monkey-coloured '), while pingala 
appears to denote a shade of brown in which yellow pre- 



* i- 73. 7; 96. 5; "3. 2; iv. 5, 13; 
ix. 97, 15 ; 104, 4 ; 105, I ; X. 3, 3. etc. 

Av. i. 22, I. 2; 23, 2; xi. 8, 16; 
Vajasaneyi Saiphiti, iv. 2, 26, etc. 

' Cf. HopkiDS, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 11, cxxi et seq. 

* i. 140, 9. C/. Maitriyani Samhit^, 
iv. 3, 8 ; Geldner, Vedische Studien, 2, 
250, 251. 

8 ^atapatha Brahmana, v. i, 3, 7. 

* The ntla of the Chindogya Upani- 
fad, viii. 6, i, is replaced by krfV^ ui 



the Kausitaki Upanisad, iv. 19. Cf. 
Rv. viii. 19, 31. In the post- Vedic 
language nila describes the colour of 
dark blue objects, such as indigo, 
sapphire, etc. That the word already 
bad some such sense in the Rigveda Ls 
suggested by its use in allusions to the 
smoke of Agni. 

' Rv. vii. 103, 6, and cf. iii. 44, 3 ; 
GriflSth, Hymns of the Rigveda, i, 365, n. 

* Rv. X. 27, 16 ; Brhadiranyaka 
Upanisad, vi. 4, 14. 



Varna ] 



COLOUR AND CASTE 



247 



dominates, 'tawny.' 'Yellow ' is expressed by pita as well as 
pdndii}^ A garment of saffron (mdhdrajana) is mentioned in the 
Bfhadaranyaka Upanisad.^^ Rudhira and lohita are red, while 
aruna is 'ruddy.' Kalmdsa means * spotted,' ^^ and silpa 
* dappled,' ^^ while mingled shades like aruna-pisanga, 'reddish 
brown,' also occur." 



" Av. xi. 5, 26 ; Kathaka SaiphitS, 
XV. I ; Taittiriya Sanihita, vii. i, 6, 2; 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. 4, 14. 

*<* Bj-hadaranyaka Upanisad, ii. 3, 6. 

11 Loc. cit. 

n Vajasaneyi Saiphita, xxix. 58. 



*3 Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 5 ; xxix. 
58; Taittiriya Samhita, v. 5, 22, i ; 6, 
13, 1 : 20, I. 

** Taittiriya Samhita vi. 6, 11,6. 

Cf. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 
119 et seq. 



2. Vap^a (lit. 'colour') in the Rigveda^ is applied to denote 
classes of men, the Dasa and the Aryan Varna being contrasted, 
as other passages^ show, on account of colour. But this use is 
confined to distinguishing two colours : in this respect the 
Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitas and 
Brahmanas,^ where the four castes {varnal}) are already fully 
recognized. 

(a) Caste in the Rigveda. The use of the term Varna is not, 
of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed 
in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have 
existed : the Purusa-sukta, * hymn of man,' in the tenth 



^ Dasa, Rv. ii. 12, 4 ; arya varna as 
against dasyu, iii. 34, 9 ; varna itself 
opposed to ddsa, i. 104, 2. Cf. ii. 3, 5. 
Cf. a verse in ^ahkbayana Srauta SQtra, 
viii. 25, 2 ; Paiicaviip^a Brahmana, 
V. 5, 14. Roth, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 48, 113, 
reads varnaiesas in Rv. v. 65, 5. 

' See Dasyu, D&sa; Zimraer, Altin- 
disches Leben, 113, 114. There is no 
trace in Vedic literature of any real 
distinction of colour save this main 
one. In the Gopatha Brahmana, i. i, 
23, the Brahman's colour is white 
{iukla) : the Kathaka Samhita, xi. 6, 
calls the Vai^ya 'white' {sukla), the 
Rajanya ' swarthy ' {dhiimra) ; and the 
later view makes the four castes black, 
yellow (pita), red (rakta), and white re- 



spectively. See Weber, Indische Studien, 
10, 10, II ; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i', 
153, etc., 176. Cf. also Av. iii. 4, 6, 
where Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 90, with hesitation sug- 
gests the reading varnaih, ' castes. ' 

' Catv&ro variiali, ' four castes,' Sata- 
patha Brahmana, v. 5, 4, 9 ; vi. 4, 4, 
13; iaudra varna, ' Qdra caste,* ibid., 
vi. 4, 4, 9 ; B|-hadaranyaka Upanisad, 
i. 2, 25; Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 4. 
Cf. also arya variia opposed to ^Qdra, 
Kathaka Sanihita, xxxiv. 5 ; Panca- 
viip^ Brahmana, v. 5, 17, and see 
Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 2, 6, 7. Vainut 
appears in this sense sometimes in Pali. 
See Pick, Die sociale Gliederung, 22, n. 4 ; 
Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 53. 



348 DEVELOPMENT OF CASTE [ Van^ 

Mandala* clearly contemplates the division of mankind into 
four classes the Brahmana, RSjanya, Vai^ya, and Sudra. But 
the hymn being admittedly late,^ its evidence is not cogent for 
the bulk of the Rigveda. Zimmer has with great force com- 
batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society 
that knew the caste system. He points out that the BrSLh- 
manas' show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- 
minized, and not under the caste system ; he argues that the 
Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region 
and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had 
wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the 
caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived 
from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz. : that (a) the 
four castes appear only in the late Purusasukta ; (6) the term 
Varna, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later 
times, and is only contrasted with Dasa ; (c) that Brahmana is 
rare in the Rigveda, Ksatriya occurs seldom, Rajanya only in 
the Purusasukta, where too, alone, Vai^ya and Sudra are 
found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first 'poet,' 'sage,' and 
then * officiating priest,' or still later a special class of priest ; 
(e) that in some only of the passages ^ where it occurs does 
Brahman denote a * priest by profession,' while in others it 
denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a 
person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to 
receive divine inspiration.^^ Brahmana, on the other hand, as 
Muir admits,^^ already denotes a hereditary professional priest- 
hood. 

Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the 
Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the 



* Rv. X. 90, i2 = Av. xix. 6, 6 = Vaja- 
saneyi Samhit, xxxi. 1 1 = Taittiriya 
Aranyaka, iii. 12, 5. Cf. Muir, i^, 7.15, 
and references. 

* Max Muller, Sanskrit Literature, 570 
et uq. ; Muir, loc. cit. ; Weber, indische 
Studien, 9, 3 et seq. ; Colebrooke, Essays, 
I. 309; Arnold, Vedic Metre, p. 167. 

* Altindisches Leben, 185-203. 

'' Pancavirp^ Brahmana, xvii. i. 
C/. Av. XV., and see Vr&tya. 



8 Sanskrit Texts, i', 239 et seq., espe- 
cially 258. 

8 Rv. viii. 104, 13 ; x. 109, 3, and 
c/. Ksatriya. 

10 Rv. i. 108, 7; iv. 50, 8 et seq. ; 
viii. 7, 20; 45, 39; 53. 7; 81, 30; 
ix. 112, I ; x. 85, 29. 

11 Rv. X. 107, 6 ; 125, 5. 

12 Op. cit., 2, 259. 



Var^a] THE NOBLES AND THE PRIESTHOOD 249 

advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger- 
manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into 
monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a 
conquering people evoke the monarch ; the lesser princes sink 
to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines 
or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the 
subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the 
shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility 
of the lesser princes arises that of the king's chief retainers, 
as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon 
nionarchies.^^ At the same time the people ceased to take 
part in military matters, and under climatic influences 
left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, 
devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and 
trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the 
people was shared by them with the priesthood, the 
origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth 
first saw.^^ 

Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the 
people, but the Rigveda^ itself shows cases, like those of 
Vi^vamitra and Vasitha illustrating forcibly the power of the 
Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act 
as Purohita is seen in the case of Devapi Artisena.^ The 
Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of 
gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of 
the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many 
struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition.^'' 
The Atharvaveda ^ also preserves relics of these conflicts in its 
narration of the ruin of the Spnjayas because of oppressing 
Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda (viii- 
xii), the ^atarudriya litany of the Yajurveda^ reflects the 
period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was 

*' Maitlasid, Domesday Book, \ 6^ etuq. I i^, 705 et seq. ; Muir, op. cit., 2', 296- 

1* Zur Litteratur und Geschichte des 1 479. 

Weda, 117 et seq. \ is v. 17-19; Muir, 2, 280-289. 

" Rv. iii. 33, 8 ; vii. i8 ; 83. j " Vajasaneyi Saiphita, xvi = Tait- 

" Ya.ska, Nirukta, ii. 10, explaining ; tirlya SamhitS, iv. 5, i-ii = K^thaka 

Rv. X. 98. j Saiphita, xvii. ii-i6 = MaitrRyanI Sarp- 

" Lassen, Indiuhe Alterthumskunde, ' hita, ii. 9. x-io. 



350 



BEGINNINGS OF CASTE IN THE RIG VEDA [ Varna 



still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as 
the patron god of all sorts of evil doers.^ 

This version of the development of caste has received a good 
deal of acceptance in its main outlines, and it may almost be 
regarded as the recognized version.^ It has, however, always 
been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug,^ Kern,** 
Ludwig,^ and more recently by Oldenberg^ and by Geldner.^ 
The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing 
at once that the caste system is one that has progressively 
developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda 
the full caste system even of the Yajurveda ; but at the same 
time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on 
its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- 
brahminical character of the Vratyas of the Indus and Panjab 
loses its force when it is remembered that there is much 
evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the 
Rigveda, especially the books ^"^ in which Sudas appears with 
Vasistha and Vi^vamitra, in the east, the later Madhyade:>a, a 
view supported by Pischel,^ Geldner,^ Hopkins,^ and Mac- 
donell.^^ Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the 
Rigveda merely means a ' poet * or * sage.' It is admitted by 
Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary pro- 
fession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs 
where the sense of * priest ' is not allowable, since the priest 
was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the 
Rigveda of the threefold^^ or fourfold^^ division of the people 



20 Weber, Indische Stitdien, 2, 22 
et seq. ; Indian Literature, no, in. 

'^ See, e.g., von Schroeder, Indiens 
Literatur und Cultur, 152 et seq. ; Mac- 
donell, Sanskrit Literature, 159 et seq. ; 
Weber, Indische Studien, 10, i el uq. ; 
Kaegi, Rigveda, n. 58. 

22 Brahma und die Brahnianen, 1871. 

83 Indische Theorien over de Standen- 
verdccling, 1871 . Cf. for this, and the pre- 
ceding work, Muir,o/>. cit., 2', 454 et seq. 

2* Die Nachrichten des Rig und Athar- 
vaveda uberGeographte, Geschichteund Ver- 
fassung des alten Indien, 36 et seq. ; Trans- 
latioo of the Rigveda, 3, 237-243, etc. 



2' Religion des Veda, 373 et seq., and 
cf. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen- 
Idndischen Gesellschaft , 51, 267 et seq. 

28 Vedische Studien, 2, 146, n. 

27 iii. and vii. 

28 Vedische Studien, 2, 218. 

29 Ibid., 3, 152. 

30 Journal of the American OrientaX 
Society, ig, 18. 

3^ Sanskrit Literature, 145. 

32 Rv. viii. 35, 16-18. 

33 Rv. i. 113, 6. More doubtful are 
the references seen by Ludwig to the 
three castes in ii. 27, 8 ; vi. 51, 2 ; 
vii. 66, 10 



Van^a ] HEREDITARY NOBLES AND PRIESTS 251 

into brahma, ksairam, and vl^fi, or into the three classes and 
the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, 
any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards 
the Vaisyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently^ 
knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, 
but the late Atharvaveda^ equally classes the folk with the 
bah, * power,' representing the Vi^ as associated with the Sabha, 
Samiti, and Sena, the assemblies of the people and the armed 
host. Zimmer^ explains these references as due to tradition 
only ; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it 
does, on the false assumption that only a Ksatriya can fight. 
But it is (see Katriya) very doubtful whether Ksatriya means 
anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in 
the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased 
in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though 
later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, 
an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated 
as an absolute one. The Katriyas were no doubt a hereditary 
body ; monarchy was already hereditary (see Raj an), and it is 
admitted that the Sudras were a separate body : thus all the 
elements of the caste system were already in existence. The 
Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is 
clear, as Oldenberg^*^ urges, that he was not the creator of the 
power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence 
he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice 
required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary 
priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred know- 
ledge. 

Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste 
system be derived from cases like that of Devapi. For, in the 
first place, the Upanisads show kings in the exercise of the 
priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upanisads 
are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. 
In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for 
DevSpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the 

3* See Ludwig, op. cit., 3, 231 et seq., I ** Hi. 19, 1 : ix. 7, 9; xv. 9, 2. 3. 

HopVmSjJoumalo/ the American Oriental * 0/. o7., 194. 

Society, 13, 94, 95, and see Vll, Valiya. I ^ Religion des Veda, 382, 383. 



252 



THE NAMES OF THE CASTES 



[ Varna 



Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yaska^ calls him a 
Kauravya ; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be 
vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, 
the Brahmanas do not scruple to recognize Rajanyarsis, or 
* royal sages'; and the famous Vi^vamitra shows in the Rigveda 
no sign of the royal character which the Brahmanas insist 
on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of 
Jahnu.* 

(6) Caste in the later Sarjihiids and Brahmanas. The relation 
between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history 
of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the 
hardening of a system already formed by the time of the 
Rigveda. 

I. The Names of the Castes. The most regular names are 
Brahmana, Rajanya, Vai^ya, and Sudra,'"' or later Brahmana, 
Ksatriya, Vai^ya, and Sudra.*^ There are many other variants : 
Brahman, K?atra, Sudraryau;*^ Brahman, Rajanya, Sudra, 
Arya ; *^ Brahman, Rajanya, Vai^ya, Sudra ; ** Brahmana, Rajan, 
Vi^ya, ^udra;'** Deva, Rajan, Sudra, Arya;* and Brahman, 
Ksatra, Vi^, and ^udra.*' In other cases the fourth class is repre- 
sented by a special member : Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya, and 
Candala.* Often only the three upper classes are mentioned, 
as Brahmana, Rajanya, Vaisya;"* Brahman, Ksatram, Vi^,^ 



38 ii, lo. 

3 See VUvftmitra and Jahnu. 

*" Rv. X. 90; Taittiriya SamhitS., 
vii. I, I, 4. 5; Aitareya BrS.hmana, 
vii. 19, I ; ^atapatha Br3.hmana, i. i, 
4, 12 ; iii. I, I, 10; V. 5. 4, 9; Panca- 
vimia Brahmana, vi. i, 6-1 1. 

** Bfhadaranyaka Upanisad, i. 2, 27 
(Madhyamdina=i. 4. 15 Kanva); ^ata- 
patba Brahmana, vi. 4, 4, 13 ; xiii. 6, 
2, 10 ; Vajasaneyi Sarnhita, xxx. 5. 

* Taittiriya Sarnhita, iv. 3, 10, 1-3 ; 
Kathaka Sarnhita, xvii. 5 ; Vajasaneyi 
Saqihita, xiv. 28-30. 

Av. xix. 32, 8. Cf. 62, 1. Cf. 
Whitney, Translation of the Atharva- 
veda, 949, 1003. 

** Kathaka Sarnhita, xxxvii. i. 

* Taittiriya Sarnhita, v, 7, 6, 4 ; 



Kathaka Sarnhita, xl. 13 ; MaitrayanI 
Sarnhita, iii. 4, 8 ; Vajasaneyi Sarnhita, 
xviii. 48 ; Satapatha Brahmana, v. 6, 
4, 9, etc. 

* Av. xix. 62, I ; vajasaneyi Sarn- 
hita, xxvi. 2. Cf. Arya, Arya. 

* Brhadaranyaka Upani.sad, i. 2, 13 
(Madhyarirdina = i. 4, 15 Kanva). 

*8 Chandogya Upanisad, v. 10, 7. 

*" Av. v. 17, 9 ; Maitrayani Saiphita, 
iii. I, 5 ; 2, 2 ; iv, 4, 9 (with VaiSya 
before Rajanya) ; Taittiriya Brahmana, 
iii. 12, 9, 2 ; Taittiriya Sarnhita, vi. 
2, 5, 2. 3 ; Taittiriya Aranyaka, ii. 
8, 8. 

*> vajasaneyi Sarnhita, x. 10 - 12 ; 
xxxviii. 14 ; Satapatha Brahmana, ii. i, 
4, II ; xi. 2, 7, 15 et seq. ; xiv. 2, 2, 30; 
Taittiriya Aranyaka, iv. 10, 10-12. 



Varna ] 



CASTE DISTINCTIONS 



253 



etc.^^ Three castes Brahmana, Rajan, Sudra are mentioned 
in the Atharvaveda,^^ and two castes are repeatedly men- 
tioned together, either Brahman and Ksatra, or Ksatra and 

2. The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of 
minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, 
the Satapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for 
the four castes.^ Different modes of address are laid down for 
the four castes,^ as ehi, * approach '; dgaccha, ' come '; ddrava, 

* run up '; ddhdva, * hasten up,' which differ in degrees of 
politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated 
at the Purusamedha (' human sacrifice ') to different deities.^ 
The Sutras have many similar rules." 

But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly 
from the fourth, the Sudras. The latter are in the Satapatha 
Brahmana^ declared not fit to be addressed by a Diksita, 

* consecrated person,' and no Sudra is to milk the cow whose 
milk is to be used for the Agnihotra^ (* fire-oblation '). On the 
other hand, in certain passages, the ^udra is given a place in 
the Soma sacrifice,^ and in the Taittirlya Brahmana" there 
are given formulae for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only 
for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakara, 



" Of. Av. V. 18, 15, where the two 
lower castes are addressed (Ksatriya 
and VaiSya) respectively as nr-pati and 
paiu-pati, Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 252 ; K^Lthaka SamhitH, 
xii, I ; xxix. 10 ; Vajasaneyi Samhit&, 
xxxviii. ig. 

** X. I, 13. 

" See Kjatriya, Vai4ya, Yii, 

" xiii. 8, 3, II. 

^ Satapatha Br&hmana, i. i, 4, 12. 

** Vajasaneyi Samhit&, xxx. 5 ; Tait- 
tirlya Brahmana, iii. 4, i, i ; Satapatha 
Br&hmama, xiii. 6, 2, 10. For other 
similar differences in the Br&hmanas, 
see Taittirlya Samhitcl, ii. 5, 10, i. 2; 
vii. I, 1,4.5 ; K&thaka Samhita., xvii.4; 
\xxvii. I ; xxxix. 7 ; Vajasaneyi Saip- 
hit&, X. xo ; xiv. 24 ; Aitareya Brah- 
mana, vii. 23. 24 ; viii. 4, etc. 

" A^valayana Gphya SQtra, i. 24, 



II. 12, and see Weber, Indische Studien, 
10, 20 et seq. 

" iii. I, I, 10. Cf. Apastamba, cited 
in scholia on Katyclyana ^rauta SQtra, 
vii. 5. 7 ; A^valayana ^rauta Sutra, 
xii. 8, 7 ; Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 12 
et seq. Generally ^Qdras are impure, and 
cannot be allowed at the place of sacri- 
fice {deva-yajana), Satapatha Br^hmiana, 
iii. I, I, 9. Cf. V. 3, 3, 2; Taittiiiya 
Saiphita, vii. i, i, 6 ; Kathaka Sam- 
hita, xi. 10 (Maitrayani Samhita, ii. 4, S, 
does not contain this notice). 

KathakaSaiiihita,xxxi.2: Maitra- 
yani Samhita, iv. i, 3. 

*"* Satapatha Brahmana, v. 5, 4, g. 
Cf. also ibid., i. i, 4, 12. The scholiast 
on Katyayana ^rauta SQtra. i. i, 6, 
refers these notices to the Rathakara 
alone, but this is obviously secondary. 

" i. I. 4, 8. 



254 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CASTES 



[ Varna 



* chariot-maker.' Again, in the Aitareya Brahmana,"* the Br5h- 
mana is opposed as * eater of the oblation ' to the members of 
the other three castes. 

The characteristics of the several castes are given under 
Brahmaoa, Katriya and Rajan, Vai^ya, ^udra : they may be 
briefly summed up as follows : The Vis forms the basis of the 
state on which the Brahman and Ksatra rest;*^ the Brahman 
and Ksatra are superior to the Vi^ ;** while all three classes are 
superior to the ^lidras. The real power of the state rested with 
the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be 
deemed the Ksatriya element. Engaged in the business of the 
protection of the country, its administration, the decision of 
legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the 
revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to 
them villages (see Grama) for their maintenance, while some of 
them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by 
slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small :** there 
are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the 
mention of Maharajas. The people, engaged in agriculture, 
pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vany), paid tribute to the king 
and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- 
Powell suggests,** they were not themselves agriculturists is 
probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large 
scale, and draw their revenues from Sudra tenants, or even 
Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this 



* vii. 19, I ; Maitriyani SamhitS., 
i. 4, 6 ; Gopatha Br3.hmana, ii. i, 6 ; 
L6vi, La Doctrine du Sacrifice, 81. 

" ^atapatha BrShmana, xi. 2, 7, 16 ; 
I^ufitaki Br3.hmana, xvi. 4. 

* Pancavim^a Brahmana. ii. 8, 2 ; 
xi. 11,9; XV. 6, 3 ; Aitareya BrJLhmana, 
ii. 33, i; Kathaka SaiphitS,, xxix. 10; 
Taittiriya SaiphitS, ii. 5, 10, i ; ^ata- 
patha Brclbmana, vi. 4, 4, 13, etc. 

" Cf. Hopkins, Transactions 0/ the 
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
15, 32, for the Pancavim^a BrShmana. 
The ^atapatha Breihmana and the later 
parts of the Aitareya Br&hmana, with 
their traditions of A^vamedbas, ' horse 



sacrifices,' and their recollections of 
the glories of the Bharatas, represent 
a more advanced stage of social rela- 
tions and of city life, but even they 
hardly know really great kingdoms. 

* Indian Village Community and Village 
Communities in India, where much stress 
is laid on the idea of a settlement of 
Aryans on lands already occupied by 
Dravidian clans, much as Anglo-Saxon 
invaders on one theory occupied lands 
already held by Britons who became 
serfs, while the invaders were a land- 
holding aristocracy, a theory supported 
by the fact that the normal holding of 
a hide is estimated at 120 acres. 



Varna ] 



RELATIONS OF THE CASTES 



255 



position is extremely unlikely.*'' In war the people shared 
the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute 
separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests 
may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, 
who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a 
position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident 
they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, 
xcept when they were engaged on some great festival of a king 
or a wealthy noble. 

The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up 
in a passage of the Aitareya Brahmana,^ which treats of them 
as opposed to the Ksatriya. The Brahmana is a receiver of 
gifts {d-ddyi), a drinker of Soma (d-pdyl)y a seeker of food 
{dvasdyi),'^ and liable to removal at will {yathdkdma-praydpyah).'^ 
The Vaisya is tributary to another {anyasya balikrt), to be lived 
on by another (anyasyddyal^), and to be oppressed at will {yathd- 
kama-jyeyal)).''^ The Sudra is the servant of another {anyasya 
j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kdmotthdpyah), and to be slain 



" Cf. Hopkins, India, Old and New, 
222. The point is much the same as that 
at issue between the different schools of 
opinion as to early English history. 
Did the Aryans in India occupy the 
land as a people, driving out or ex- 
terminating or enslaving the Dasas, 
and themselves carrying on the occupa- 
tions of a people, or did they merely 
form a small aristocracy of superior 
military force, and were the Ksatriyas 
the true Aryans ? The evidence of the 
Rigveda is really fatal to the latter 
alternative hypothesis. 

* For the superiority of the Br&h- 
mana to the Ksatriya or R&janya, see 
Pancavim^ BrShmana, xi. 11,3; Vaja- 
saneyi Samhitl, xxi. 21 ; ^atapatha 
Brahmana, v. i, i, 12 ; 4, 4, 15 ; xiii. i, 
9. I ; 3i 7. 8 ; Aitareya Brahmana, 
vii. 15, 8 ; viii. 9, 6 ; ^nkhSyana 
^rauta SQtra, xv. 20, 12. The BrSii- 
mana is, in his turn, dependent on the 
king (^atapatha Br3.hmana, i. 2, 3, 3 ; 
V. 4, 2, 7), and at the RJjasQya sits 
beside him, but is none the less superior 



(Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, i. 2, 23). 
The Kathaka Samhita, xxviii. 5, says 
the Ksatra is over the Brahman, but 
this is not a usual view. C/. xxvii. 4. 
A Brahmana can get along without a 
Ksatriya, but not vice versa (datapath a 
Brahmana, iv. i, 4, 6), and a Rajanya 
with a Brahmana surpasses all other 
Rajanyas (Taittirlya Satnhita, v. i, 
10, 3 ; Kathaka Samhita, xix. 10 ; 
xxvii. 4, etc.). 

* vii. 29. See Muir, of. cit., i-, 436 
et seq. ; Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 14. 

70 Weber, op. cit., 9, 326; 10, 14, 
prefers ' moving ' or ' dwelling ' every- 
where. 

71 Muir, Haug, and Weber take the 
word as active in sense, ' moving at 
will." But both the parallelism of the 
passage and the formation of the word 
require a passive causative sense. The 
reference is perhaps to the general 
political control of the king over the 
priest, whom he can * move on ' from 
place to place. 

w Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 29, 3. 



256 EXALTATION OF THE PRIESTHOOD [ Varna 

at pleasure {yathakdma-vadhyaJ)).''^ The descriptions seem 
calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the 
Rajanya. Even the Brahmana he can control, whilst the 
Vai^ya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove 
without cause from his land,*^* but who is still free, and whom 
he cannot maim or slay without due process. The Sudra has 
no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the 
king. 

The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Ksatriya 
is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in 
the course of time the Vaisya fell more and more in position 
with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber'^^ shows 
reason for believing that the Vajapeya sacrifice, a festival of 
which a chariot race forms an integral part,' was, as the 
Sahkhayana Srauta Sutra" says, once a sacrifice for a Vaisya, 
as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer 
diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest : the 
Taittiriya texts'^ show that the Vajapeya was originally a lesser 
sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the 
Rajasuya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, 
and in that of the Brahmin by the Brhaspatisava, a festival 
celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the 
Satapatha Brahmana^'' exalts the Vajapeya, in which a priest 
could be the sacrificer, over the Rajasuya, from which he was 
excluded, and identifies it with the Brhaspatisava, a clear piece 
of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we 
must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the 
exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the Satapatha 



73 Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 29, 4. 

'* This seems to be the most prob- 
able reference olyathakamajyeyah. The 
expulsion of the Vaiya is here not in 
allusion to quasi-ownership of land by 
the King or Ksatriya ; it is an act of 
royal authority, not an incident of 
tenure. See Keith, Journal of the 
African Society, 6, 202 et seq., and cf. 
Hopkins, India, Old and New, 222, 223. 

16 Ueber den V&japeya, 10 et seq. 

' Ibid. Cf Hillebrandt, Vedische 
Myihologie, i, 247; Festgruss an Bdht- 



lingk, 40 et seq. ; Rituallitieratur, 
141. 

77 xvi. 17, 4. Cf XV. I, I. 

78 Taittiriya Samhit^, v. 6, 2, i ; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 7, 6, i. Cf 
Ulty.yana Srauta SQtra, vili. 11, I ; 
A^valSyana Srauta SQtra, ix. 9, 19 ; 
Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 41. 
xxiv, XXV. 

7 V. I, I, I et seq. ; 2, i, 19 ; K5ty- 
Syana Srauta SQtra, xv. i, 1-2. Weber, 
op. cit., 8, 9, interprets the situation 
differently from Eggeling. 



Varna ] PROHIBITION OF EATING TOGETHER 



257 



and Aitareya Brahmanas as evidence of a real growth in the 
priestly power : these books represent the views of the priests 
of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in 
the Madhyadesa. Another side of the picture is presented in 
the Pali literature,^ which, belonging to a later period than the 
Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; 
while the Epic,^ more nearly contemporaneous with the later 
Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal 
superiority of the nobility in clear light. 

Although clear distinctions were made between the different 
castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the 
leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity com- 
municated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes,^ 
which is seen both directly in the purification rendered 
necessary in case of contact with a Sudra, and indirectly in the 
prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste.^ It 
is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does 
appear,^ but not in connexion with caste : its purpose is to 
preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain 
rite or believe in a certain doctrine ; for persons who eat of the 
same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire 
the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental com- 
munion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to 
take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying 



80 Fick, Die sociale Gliederung, 107 
et seq. ; Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 
53 et seq. ; 158. 

81 Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 13, 984 et seq. 

82 See, e.g., Manu, iii. 239; v. 85; 
Fick, op. cit., 26 et uq. 

83 Vasistha Dharma Sutra, xiv. i 
et seq. ; Gautama Dharma Sutra, xvii. 17; 
Apastamba Dharma Sutra, i. 6, 18, 16 
et seq. ; ii. 4, 9, 7, with Buhler's note ; 
Manu, iv. 210 et seq. ; Visnu, 41,7 et seq. ; 
Fick, op. cit,, 30-33, who points out 
that the jatakas contain little evidence 
on the practice. Senart, Les Castes dans 
rinde, 48 et seq., 212 et seq,, attributes 
great importance to the question of 
eating together, atrd compares the sacri- 

VOL. II. 



ficial meals of the gens at Rome, where 
strangers were excluded (Fustel de 
Coulanges, La Citi Antique, 117). But 
this is not conclusive ; a caste is not 
a gens, and the gens excluded strangers 
only at a solemn festival, when the 
whole gens renewed its blood kinship. 
If we have no evidence exactly estab- 
lishing this for the Gotra in early Vedic 
literature, we need not hesitate to 
believe that in the earliest Vedic period 
the Gotra had solemn festivals of union, 
and of communication with the dead, 
but that again does not explain or 
aunount to the caste prohibition of 
taking food from an inferior. 

8* E.g., Aitareya Aranyaka, v. 3, 3. 
with Keith's note. 

17 



258 



RESTRICTION ON INTERMARRIAGE 



[ Varna 



purity.* Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the 
constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals 
which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not 
found even in the Epic or in the Pali literature.^ The Vedic 
characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common 
occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 

3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica,^"^ 
probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi- 
tion of marriage between yevrj, no doubt * castes,' a characteristic 
of Indian life. The evidence of Pali literature is in favour of 
this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he 
wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. 
But it equally shows that there were others who held that not 
the father's but the mother's rank determined the social 
standing of the son. Though Manu^ recognizes the possibility 
of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate 
children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with 
a woman of lower caste. The Paraskara Grhya Sutra " allows 
the marriage of a Ksatriya with a wife of his own caste or of 
the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or 
of the two lower classes, and of a Vai^ya with a Vai^ya wife 
only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can 
marry a Sudra wife, while other authorities condemn the 
marriage with a Sudra wife in certain circumstances, which 
implies that in other cases it might be justified.^ The earlier 

88 For a case of objection to eating 
food after another, see Chandogya 
Upanisad, i. 10, i. Possibly the idea 
there is that eating the food of a chief 
is dangerous, since the eater thus enters 
into possession of part of his sub- 
stance, and consequently at once be- 
comes an object of anger to the chief, 
as well as of danger to himself; for the 
chief may be so full of divine force that 
it would be unsafe for an ordinary man 
to be assimilated to him a common 
idea in primitive societies. See also 
Taittiriya Aranyaka, v. 8, 13. 

*" Fick, op. cit., 24. Senart, op. cit., 
219. 220, compares the family councils 
of Greece, Rome, and Germany (Leist, | 



Altarisches Jus Civile, I'ji et seq. ; Kova^ 
levsky, Famille et Propriiti Primitives, 
119; Fustel de Coulanges, op. cit., 118, 
119). But here again the system may 
have applied to the Gotra without its 
really explaining the later appearance 
of the practice in the caste, and the 
absence of the mention of a council in 
the early and late literature alike is 
conclusive against its existence. 

87 xii. 8. 9. 

88 Fick, op. cit., 34-40. 
w X. 5 ; iii. 15. 

x> i, 4. Cf. Weber, Indische Studiat, 
10, 21, 74. 
81 Gobhila Gphya Satra, iii. 2, 42. 



Varna ] 



MIXED DESCENT 



259 



literature bears out this impression : much stress is laid on 
descent from a Rsi, and on purity of descent ;^ but there is 
other evidence for the view that even a Brahmana need not be 
of pure lineage. Kavaa Ailusa is taunted with being the son 
of a DasI, 'slave woman,' ^ and Vatsa was accused of being a 
Sudra's son, but established his purity by walking unhurt 
through the flames of a fire ordeal.^ He who is learned 
{siisruvdn) is said to be a Brahmana, descended from a Rsi 
(drseya), in the Taittirlya Sarnhita;^ and Satyakama, son of 
Jabala, was accepted as a pupil by Haridpumata Gautama, 
though he could not name his father. The Kathaka Sam- 
hita^ says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But 
all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity 
in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based 
on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitas recognize the illicit 
union of Arya and Sudra, and vice versa : it is not unlikely that 
if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. 
The Pancavirn^a Brahmana,^ indeed, recognizes such a case in 
that of Dlpgrhatamas, son of the slave girl U^ij, if we may 
adopt the description of Usij given in the Brhaddevata.^ 
In a hymn of the Atharvaveda^^ extreme claims are put 



92 See Taittiriya Samhita, vi. 6, i, 4 ; 
Vajasaneyi Sarphita, vii. 46 ; Taittiriya 
Brahmana, i. 4, 4, 2 ; Satapatha Brah- 
mana, iv. 3, 4, 19 ; xii. 4, 4, 6 ; Katyayana 
^rauta Sutra, xxv. 3, 17 ; LatySyana 
Srauta Sutra, i. i, 7 ; KauSika SQtra, 
67, etc. So one of the characteristics 
of a Brahmana given in the Satapatha 
Brahmana, xi. 5, 7, i, is bmhma7jya,v/hich 
Weber, op. cit., 10, 6g, takes as referring 
to descent. Brahma-putra is a title of 
honour, Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 4, i, 
2. 9; A^valayana Srauta SQtra, ii. 18, 
12; ^ankhSyana Srauta Sutra, xii. 21, 
1. 2 ; and to be born the son of a 
wise Brahmana is the highest fortune, 
Bjrhadaranyaka Upanisad, vL 4, 29. 

3 Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 19, i ; 
Kausitaki Brahmana, xii. 3. Cf. Weber, 
4>p. cit., 2, 311 ; 9, 42, 44, 46. 

** Pancaviip^ Brahmana, xiv. 6. 6. 

M vi. 6, I, 4. 



9 Chandogya Upanisad, vi. 4, 4 ; 
Weber, op. cit., 1, 263. Cf. Satapatha 
Brahmana, xi. 5, 4, i. 

^ xxx. I. Cf. Weber, op. cit., 3, 462. 

98 Taittiriya Samhita, vii. 4, 19, 3. 4 ; 
Kathaka Samhita, ASvamedha, iv. 7 ; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 30. 31. The 
word Arya here must refer in all proba- 
bility to any Aryan, not merely to a 
Vai^ya, Weber, op. cit., 10, 6. 

99 xiv. II, 17 ; Hopkins, Transactions 
of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Scitnces, 15, 56, n. But there is no 
mention here of Uij being a slave. 

100 iv. 24. 25. 

101 V. 17, 8. 9. See Muir, i, 282, 
n. 76 ; Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 249. The exact sense is 
not clear, but the passage is intended 
to show in the strongest light the high 
position of the Brahmana. 

17 2 



26o OCCUPATION AND CASTE [ Varna 

forward for the Brahmana, who alone is a true husband and 
the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rajanya 
or a Vai^ya : a ^udra husband is not mentioned, probably on 
purpose.^^ The marriage of Brahmanas with Rajanya women 
is illustrated by the cases of Sukanya, daughter of king 
iSaryata, who married Cyavana,^^^ and of Rathaviti's daughter, 
who married iSyava^va.^^ 

4. Occupation and Caste. The Greek authorities ^^ and the 
evidence of the Jatakas^ concur in showing it to have been 
the general rule that each caste was confined to its own 
occupations, but that the Brahmanas did engage in many 
professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave 
members to the Sramanas, or homeless ascetics. The Jatakas^^ 
recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, 
as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are 
somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brahmanas 
and Ksatriyas appear as practically confined to their own pro- 
fessions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. 
Ludwig^*^ sees in DirghaiSravas in the Rigveda^^ a Brahmin 
reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even 
later by the Sutra literature ; but this is not certain, though it 
is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far 
the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests ; the evidence here 
is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of 
ViiSvamitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest 
who is attached to the court of Sudas, king of the Tptsus ; but 
in the Pancavim^a Brahmana^^^ he is called a king, a descendant 
of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brahmana^" refers to l^imal^i^epa's 



wa The sense of v. 17, 18, is obscure ; 
it can be interpreted to mean that the 
BrShmana should be provided with a 
temporary wife on each occasion when 
he pays a visit {cf. Whitney, 250). But 
this is hardly likely. Muir takes it as 
referring to his own wife. 

103 atapatha Brahmana, iv. i, 5, 7. 
Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 244, 245 ; Weber, op. cit., 10, 
73 et uq. ; Hopkins, Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, 13, 352, 353. 

*<>* Cf. Bfhaddevata, v. 50 </ seq. 



1*5 Arrian, Indica, xii. 8. 9; Strabo, 
XV. 4, 49. 
10* Fick, op. cit., 40 et seq. 

107 Rhys Davids, op. cit., 54 et seq. 

108 op. cit., 3, 237 et seq. 

109 i. 112, n. 

11" xxi. 12, 2. See Hopkins, Transac- 
tions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, 15, 54. 

"1 vii. 18, 9. Cf. ^ahkhSlyana ^rauta 
Sfltra, XV. ti, where the reading is 
different, but worse. But see Weber, 
Episches im vedischen Ritual, 16. 



Varna ] 



ROYAL SEERS 



261 



succeeding, through his adoption by Vi^vamitra, to the divine 
lore {daiva veda) of the Gathins and the lordship of the Jahnus. 
That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, 
but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal 
origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pancavim^a 
Brahmana,^^^ which knows the technical terms Rajanyari and 
Devarajan corresponding to the later Rajarsi, ' royal sage.' The 
Jaiminiya Brahmana^^^ says of one who knows a certain 
doctrine, 'being a king he becomes a seer"* (rdjd sann rsir 
bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana"* applies the 
term Rajanya to a Brahmana. Again, it is argued that Devapi 
Arti?6?^ who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda,^^* 
for Santanu, was a prince, as Yaska^^ says or implies he 
was.^^^ But this assumption seems to be only an error of 
Yaska's. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relation- 
ship, it is impossible to accept Sieg's view^^ that the Rigveda 
recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince 
acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. 
The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in 
the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir^^^ has argued 
that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sayana,^^^ regards many 
hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he 
admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong ; it may be 
added that in the case of Prthi Vainya, where the hymn^^ 
ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn 
itself that he is other than a seer; the Satapatha Brahmana ^^ 
calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than 
the later tradition as to Vi^vamitra. The case of Vi^vantara 



"3 xii. 12, 6; xviii. 10, 5. Cf. Olden- 
berg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen- 
Idndischen Gesellschaft, 42, 235, n. 3. 

^13 p. 562 of the manuscript, cited 
by Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 13, 154, n. 

^1* i. 4, 2. Cf. Aitareya Br&hmana, 
vii. 17, 6, where Vi^vimitra is addressed 
as R&japutra. 

^^* X. 98. See Zimmer, Altindisches 
Leben, 196 ; Senart, Les Castes dans I'Inde, 
165 ; Muir, i', 269 et seq. 



H8 Nirukta, ii. 10. 

1" It may be added that a family of 
Arstisenas appear as ritual authorities 
in a scholium on K&ty&yana ^rauta 
SQtra, i. 9, 3 ; Weber, op. cit., 10, 95. 

1^8 Die Sagenstoffe des Rgveda, 142. 

" op. cit.. I*. 265 et seq. 

^*> On Rv. i. 100 ; iv. 42. 43. 44 ; 
V. 27 ; vi. 15 ; X. 9. 75. 133. 134. 148. 
179, etc 

"1 X. 148, 3. 



133 



V. 3, 5. 4- 



263 ROYAL PERSONS AS TEACHERS [ Varna 

and the iSyapap^as mentioned in the Aitareya Brahmana^^ has 
been cited ^^ as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, 
but the interpretation is quite uncertain, while the parallel of 
the Ka^yapas, Asitamrgras, and Bhutaviras mentioned in the 
course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king 
had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. 

Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the 
Upanisads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal 
persons. Thus Janaka is said in the Satapatha Brahmana^^ 
to have become a Brahman ; AjataiSatru taught Gargfya 
Balaki ; ^^o Pravahana Jaivali instructed !vetaketu Aruneya,^^? 
as well as I^ilaka l^alavatya^^s ^jj^ Caikitayana Dalbhya;^28 
and A^vapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins.^^o n j^^s t^gg^ 
deduced ^^ from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a 
product of the Ksatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely 
doubtful,^^ for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by 
the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere ^*^ 
the opinion of a Rajanya is treated with contempt. 

It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not 
much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though 
it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But 
that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste 
took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. 
That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have 
taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick^^ 
points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the 
later period at least, become a ^ramana, as is recorded in effect 

1^ vii. 27 et seq. | Philosophy of Ancient India, 73 et seq. 

12* Zimmer, op. cit., 196. 

^^ xi. 6, 2, 10 ; Muir, i^, 426-430. 

1** Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, ii. i, i ; 
Kausitaki Upanisad, iv. i. 

iw Brhadaraiiyaka Upanisad, vi. i, i 
(M3,dhyamdina = vi. 2, i K^nva) ; 
Ch3.ndogya Upanisad, v. 3, i. 

128 Chandogya Upanisad, i. 8, i. 

'^ Satapatha Brabmana, x. 6, i, 2. 

130 Deussen, AUgemeine Geschicliie der 
Philosophic, i, 2, 354; Philosophy of the 
Upanishads, 17 et seq.; Garbe, Beitrdge 
xur indischcn Kulturgeschithte, 1 et seq. ; 



Grierson, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1908, 602 et seq. ; Winternitz, 
Geschichte der indischcn Litteratur, i, 256 
et seq. 

131 Bloomfield, Religion of the Veda, 
^^Z et seq. ; Keith, Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, 1908, 838, 868, 1142; 
Aitareya Araityaka, 50, 51, 257 ; Olden- 
berg, Buddha,^ 73, n. i. 

132 Satapatha Br&hmana, viii. i, 4^ 
10. 

133 Op. cit., 44, n. I. 



"Varna ] 



CHANGE OF CASTE 



i63 



of many kings in the Epic.^^ Whether the practice is Vedic is 
not clear: Yaska^" records it of Devapi, but this is not evidence 
for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. 

On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, 
accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the 
mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, ^'^ as Vasistha 
and Visvamitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in 
the Epic from time to time.^^ But a priest cannot be said to 
change caste by acting in this way. 

More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of 
caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brahmana,^^ where 
Syaparna Sayakayana is represented as speaking of his off- 
spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and 
commons of the Salvas ; and in the Aitareya Brahmana,^* 
where Visvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made 
his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Esi 
of the Rigveda^^ talks as if he could be converted into a king. 
On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Atnara, are 
spoken of as performers of Sattras, ' sacrificial sessions.' "^ As 
evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little ; later a 
Brahmin might become a king, while the Rsi in the Rigveda is 
represented as speaking in a state of intoxication ; the great 
kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were 
consecrated (diksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.^*** 
The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would 
be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is 
not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of 
Satyakama Jabala do not go far ; for ex hypothesi that teacher 



*3* Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 13, 179 et $eq., who treats 
this as a change of caste. 

i3 Nirukta, ii, 10. He went to the 
forest and practised asceticism, which 
is not necessarily a change of caste. 

13 See Rv. iii. 53, 12. 13 ; i. 129, 4 ; 
15a. 7 ; 157. a ; vii. 83, 4 ; x. 38 ; 103, 
etc ; Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 220 - 226 ; Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, 2, 135, n. 3. 

I" Hopkins, op. cit., 13, 184. 

*M X. 4, I, 10. 



139 vij^ 29. 

"0 iii. 43, 5. 

**i Paiicavii]i^ Br&hmana, xxv. 16, 3. 
Cf. for their share in the piling of the 
sacrificial altar. Taittiriya SamhitcL. 
V. 6, 5, 3 ; K^thaka Saiphiti, xxii. 3 
{I ndische Studien, 3, 473); Weber, o/.n7., 
10. 25. 

^^3 Satapatha BrcLhmana, xiii. 4, i, 
13 ; Weber, op. cit., 10, 17, and cf. the 
case of Janaka, ^tapatha Br&hmana, 
xi. 6, 2, I et seq. 



a64 HEREDITARY CLASSES [ Var^a 

did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite 
well have been a Brahmin. 

It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles 
practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a 
closed body into which a man must be born. These two 
Varnas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vai^yas 
offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of 
occupations (see Vai^ya). Fick"^ concludes that there is no 
exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the 
Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, 
which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapaiis, or 
smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members 
of the various guilds, while there are clear traces ^"^^ in the legal 
textbooks of a view that Brahmana and Ksatriya stand opposed 
to all the other members of the community. But we need 
hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vai^ya, the 
ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all 
probability, which was severed by its free status from the 
Sudras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble 
blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably 
legitimate to hold that any Vai^ya could marry any member of 
the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of 
Vaisyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original 
process by which priest and noble had grown into separate 
entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall 
under the caste system : each class tries to elevate itself in the 
social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on 
equal terms hypergamy is often allowed and so those Vaisyas 
who acquired wealth in trade (lrethin) or agriculture (the 
Pali Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the 
ordinary Vaisyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaisya as 
a theoretic caste ; rather it is an old caste which is in process 
of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of 
occupation, religion, or geographical situation. 

Fick^^ denies also that the Sudras ever formed a single 

**3 op. cit., 19 et seq. ; 162 et seq. I the Four Castes according to the Minava- 

*** Hopkins, The Mutual Relations of \ dharmaiastram, 78, 82 et seq. 
^*5 op. cit., 202 et seq. 



Vaxna ] THE SERVILE CLASS 265 

caste : he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior 
races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally 
as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose 
that Sudra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the 
nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside 
the three castes nobles, priests, and people just as in the 
Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, 
the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, 
there was a distinct class of slaves proper ; the use of a generic 
expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see 
i^adra). In the Aryan view a marriage of Sudras could hardly 
be regulated by rules ; any Sudra could wed another, if such a 
marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in 
early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But 
what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less 
and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and 
princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful 
means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and 
when the term Sudra would cover many sorts of people who 
were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character 
occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of 
the village, like the Candalas, or tribes living under Aryan 
control, or independent, such as the Niadas. 

But it is also probable that the Sudras came to include men 
of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation 
of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to 
have been the case with the Rathakaras. In the Taittiriya 
Brahmana^^ the Rathakara is placed as a special class along 
with the Brahmanas, Rajanyas, and Vaisyas : this can hardly 
be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakaras were not 
included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that 
only a subdivision of the Vaisyas is meant. There is other 
evidence"' that the Rathakaras were regarded as Sudras. But 
in the Atharvaveda ^^ the Rathakaras and the Karmaras 
appear in a position of importance in connexion with the 



" i. I. 4. 8. 

^" Cf. Katyiyana ^rauta Sotra, 
i. I, 9, with the scholiast; iv. 7, 7; 
9, 5 ; Weber, op. cit., 10, 12, 13. 



"8 Av. iv. 5, 6. That the words 
karm&ra and rathak&ra are here appel- 
latives, as Weber, op. cit., 17, 198, 
suggests, is quite impossible. 



266 



SUBDIVISIONS OF THE MAIN CLASSES [ Varna 



selection of the king ; these two classes are also referred to in 
an honourable way in the Vajasaneyi Samhita;" in the ^ata- 
patha Brahmaua,^* too, the Rathakara is mentioned as a 
a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view- 
suggested by Fick"^ that these classes were originally non- 
Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakaras, in early Vedic 
times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of 
the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. 
The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan 
conception ; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has 
a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. 
Similarly, the Karmara, the Takan,^^2 ^^g Carmamna, or 
' tanner,' the weaver and others, quite dignified occupa- 
tions in the Rigveda, are reckoned as Sudras in the Pali 
texts.^^3 

The later theory, which appears fully developed in the 
Dharma Sutras,^^ deduces the several castes other than the 
original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This 
theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In 
some cases it is obviously wrong ; for example, the Suta is said 
to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if 
the Sutas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to 
occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sutas, 
Gramanis, and other members of occupations were real castes 
in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic 
period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress 
by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an 
important determining feature, just as in modern times there 
are castes bearing names like Gopala ('cowherd ') Kaivarta or 
Dhlvara (' fisherman '). and Vanij (' merchant ').^^ 



"^ XXX. 6. 7. Cf. xiv. 27 ; Taittiriya 
Brahmana, iii. 4, 2, i (Rathakira) ; 3, 
I (Karmclra). 

^^^ xiii. 4, 2, 17. 

*" op. cit., 209, 210. 

*53 The name is applied to Brbu 
(Rv. vi. 45, 31) in the SankhSyana 
Srauta Satra, xvi. 11, 11. Accord- 
ing to Brunnhofer, Iran und Turan, 
127, the name is a people's name, 



but this is very unlikely. See Hille* 
brandt, Vedische Mytlwlogie, i, 107. 

183 Fick, op. cit., 160, 210. 

>" Gautama Dharma SQtra, iv ; 
Vasistha Dharma SQtra. xviii ; Baudh- 
ayana Dharma SQtra, i. 16. 17. 

i Cf. Jolly, Zeitschrift der Dtutschen 
Morgenldndischen Gtullschaft, 50, 507 
et seq. ; Buhler, Sacred Books 0/ the East, 
14, xxxviii, xxxix. 



Varna ] ORIGIN OF THE CASTES 167 

Fick^^ finds in the Jatakas mention of a number of occupa- 
tions whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such 
as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who 
went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in 
the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times 
these people presumably fell under the conception of Sudra, 
and may have included the Par^iaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who 
are mentioned with many others in the Vajasaneyi Samhita 
and the Taittiriya Brahmana in the list of victims at the 
Purusamedha (* human sacrifice '). The slaves also, whom 
Fick^'*'^ includes in the same category, were certainly included 
in the term ^udra. 

5. Origin of the Castes. The question of the origin of the 
castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the 
extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with 
the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be 
sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning 
between the Aryan and the Sudra. The contrast which the 
Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the 
conquered population, and which probably rested originally on 
the difference of colour between the upper and the lower 
classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, 
occupation, and locality which normally existed among the 
Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never 
developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine 
of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste 
system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan 
could marry the J^udra, but not the Sudra the Arya. This 
distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions : its 
force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to 
mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of 
America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between 
the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population 
which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons 
of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but 
varying degrees of condemnation attach to (i) the marriage of 
a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; 

" Op. cit., 184 et stq. W ibid,^ 197 et uq. 



268 SEN ARTS THEORY OF THE ORIGIN OF CASTE [ Var^a 

(2) an informal connexion between these two ; (3) a marriage 
between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark 
race ; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each 
category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation 
than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is 
what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, 
then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best repre- 
sented by Risley,^^ which explains caste in the main as a 
matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, 
the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. 

The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart,^^ 
which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of 
the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in 
affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. 
A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the 
same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart 
and Kovalevsky ;^ and an Athenian must marry an Athenian 
woman, but not one of the same yevo^. In India these rules 
are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within 
the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though 
attractively developed, is not convincing ; the Latin and Greek 
parallels are not even probably accurate ;^^ and in India the 
rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows 
in strictness as the evidence grows later in date.^^ 

On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the 
development of caste may have been helped by the family 
traditions of some gentes, or yevr], or Gotras. The Patricians 
of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the 
plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their 
yivT} pure from contamination by union with lower blood ; and 
there may well have been noble families among the Vedic 
Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The 



**8 Best stated and summed up in 
The Peoples of India. See also the 
summary in The Indian Empire, 1, 
chap. 6. 

** Les Castei dam I'Inde. 

i> Familie et Propritft/ Primitives, 19, 
et uq. Cf. L. de la Vallte Poussin, 



Le Vcdisme, 15 et seq., with Lt Brahman- 
isme, 7. 

^i Keith, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, igog, 472. 

183 Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 74 
et seq. 



Varna ] 



NESFIELD'S THEORY 



a69 



Germans known to Tacitus ^^ were divided into twbiles and 
ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble 
and non-noble freemen.^* The origin of nobility need not be 
sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have 
existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom 
we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king 
often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, 
the deity ; ^^ and that hereditary kingship would tend to 
increase the tradition of especially sacred blood : thus the 
royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain 
the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the 
king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in 
the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar 
exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences 
that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep 
opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. 
Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. 
Nesfield^* was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of 
caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view 
considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly 
certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The 
carpenters (Takan), the chariot-makers (Rathakara), the fisher- 
men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and 
the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to 
say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its 
first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have 
produced the system of caste without the interposition of the 
fundamental difference between Aryan and Dasa or ^udra 
blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly impor- 
tant what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be 
declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble 

of Kings. The traces of this conception 
in Aryan peoples are clear e.g., the 
rex sacrificulus in Rome, the sacred 
functions of the Archon Basileus in 
Athens ; cf. Ridgway, Origin of Tragedy, 
p. 29. 

i Brief View of the Caste System of 
the North-Westem Provinces and Oudh, 
Allahabad. 1885 



1*3 Germania, 7. 13, etc. 

l* Medley, English Constitutional His- 
tory.^ 21 et seq., and authorities there 
cited. In the formation of a kingdom 
minor chiefs, once petty kings, would 
become nobles. 

* E.g., Frazer, Early History of the 
Kingship and The Golden Bough (ed. 3), 
Part I., The Magic Art and the Evolution 



270 IRANIAN AND INDIAN CLASSES COMPARED [ Vanja 

freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which 
seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the 
separation of its various branches. 

It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division 
of classes comparable in some respects^' with the Indian 
polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are 
unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to 
correspond closely to the Pali Gahapatis, and perhaps to the 
Sudras.^ But they are certainly not castes in the Indian 
sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of 
Senart^* or of Risley^'^" that the names of the old classes were 
later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were 
different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes 
existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed 
by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early 
Brahmana evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the 
transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes 
and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no 
Varna, caste might never have arisen ; both colour and class 
occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.^'^ 



187 Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 243, 244. 

188 Senart, op. cit., 141. 
i< Ibid. 140. 

"0 Indian Empire, i, 336-348. 

"1 The Indian theories of the origin 
of caste are merely religious or philo- 
sophical, and have no value. See for 
them, Rv. x. 90 (which is repeated in 
other Samhitas) ; Taittirlya Samhita, 
vii. I, I, 4 < seq. ; ibid.^ iv. 3, 10, 1-3 = 
K&thaka Samhita, xvii. 5 Vajasaneyi 
Samhita., xiv. 28-30 ; ^atapatha Brih- 
mana, viii. 4, 3, i et seq. For the origin 
of the Brahmins, see Av. iv. 6, i ; 
XV. 9, I ; of the Rajanya, Av. xv. 8, i ; 
Taittirlya Samhita, ii. 4, 13, i et seq. ; 
Muir, I*, 8 et seq. ; Zimmer, op. cit., 
217-220. 

The most important collection of texts 
on caste are those of Muir, Sanskrit 
Texts. I*, and of Weber, Indische Studien, 
10, where practically all the data of the 



Brahmanas are extracted; there have 
to be added only the data of the Maitra- 
yani Samhita, which are merely con- 
firmatory of those of the Taittirlya and 
Kathaka Samhitas. The Epic materials 
concerning caste are given by Hopkins, 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
13, who has also analyzed the caste 
relations of the Manavadharma^stra 
in The Mutual Relation of the Four Castes 
according to the Manavadharmaidstram. 
Cf. also Ludwig, Translation of the 
Rigveda, 3, 212 et seq.] Zinlmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, 185 et seq. ; Senart, Les 
Castes dans I'Inde; Barth, Revue de I'His- 
toire des Religions, 1894, 75 et seq. ; Jolly, 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen 
Gesellschaft, 50, 507 et seq. ; Oldenberg, 
ibid., 51, 267-290, a valuable criticism 
of Senart's views ; von Schroeder, 
Indiens Literatur und Cultur, 152 et seq. ; 
425 et uq. ; Schlagintweit, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenldndischtn Gesellschaft^ 



Yarman ] FELLY QUAILDAM CORSELET 



271 



certainly cannot be ref^arded as really 
contemporary with Buddha (fifth cen- 
tury B.C.). The Dharma SQtras also 
give full details, but their date likewise 
is uncertain. 



33. 549 ; Shridhar V. Katkar, History of 
Caste in India. The Ja,taka evidence is all 
collected by Fick, Die sociale Gliederung 
im nordostlichen Indien zu Buddha's Zeit 
(1897) ; its value is considerable, but 
its date is extremely doubtful, and it 

Varta. See Vartra. 



Vartani as a part of a chariot seems to denote the ' felly ' in 
the Rigveda^ and later.* 



^ i. 53. 8 ; vii. 69, 3 ; viii. 63, 8. 
* Aitareya Br&hmana, v. 33, 2 ; as 
part of the sacrificial Soma vehicle. 



Taittirlya Samhita, vi. 4, 9, 5 ; .Sa(l- 
vim^ Brclhmana, i. 5, etc. 



Vartika, a 'quail,' is mentioned in the Rigveda^ as having 
been saved by the Asvins from a wolfs jaws. It is also included 
in the list of victims at the A^vamedha (' horse sacrifice ') in 
the Yajurvedas.^ 



li. 112, i8; 116,4; ii7ii6; "8,8; 
3t. 39. 13- 

2 Taittiriya Samhita, v. 5, ir, i ; 
Vajasaneyi SaiphitS., xxiv. 20. 30 ; 
Maitriyani Samhita, iii. 14, i. 

As to the form of the word, cf. 



Varttika on Panini, vii. 3, 45 where it 
is said to be ' northern,' as opposed to 
the eastern Vartaka. Cf. also Weber, 
Indische Studien, 5, 45, n. ; Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, 90. 



VaPtra in the Atharvaveda^ and the Taittirlya Brahmana- 
denote the * dam ' of a tank. In the former passage the 
commentator and some manuscripts have Varta.^ 



* i. 3, 7. 
a i. 6, 8, 1. 



3 Whitney, Translation of the .\thar- 
vaveda, 4. 



Vardhra denotes a ' thong ' or ' strap ' with which a woven 
couch is fastened. It is mentioned in the Atharvaveda^ and 
the Satapatha Brahmana.* 

1 xiv. I, 60, where the Paippalada recension has varadhrd, * v. 4. 4, i. 

Varman denotes * body armour,' ' coat of mail,' ' corselet,' in 
the Rigveda^ and later.'^ Of what material it was made is 



1 I 31. 15 ; 140, 10 ; vi. 75, I. 8. 
18. 19 ; viii. 47, 8 ; x. 107, 7, etc 



' Atharvaveda, viii. 5, 7 ei seq. ; ix. 5, 
26 ; xvii. I, 27, etc. 



272 RAINS SPELL BARK ANT-HILL TWIG [ Var^a 

uncertain; there are references to sewing (syilta)^ which may 
be reckoned in favour of the use of linen corselets such as those 
recorded by Herodotus,* but there is a later reference* to 
corselets of Ayas, Loha or Rajata on which it is doubtful 
whether much stress can be laid. They may, however, have 
been either of metal or of leather covered with metal. 



Rv. i. 31, 15; X. loi, 8. 

* C/. Hehn, Kulturpflanzen,^ 167 et seq. ; 
Lang, Homer and his Age, 150 et seq. 

' Jaiminiya Upanisad BrcLhmana, 
iv. I, 3. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 298 ; 
Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 222 ; 
von Schroeder, Indiens Liter atur und 
Cultur, 34. 



Vapa denotes primarily *rain,'^ then 'rainy season'* and 
*year.'* 

* Neuter : Rv. v. 58, 7 ; 83, 10 ; v. 6, 10, i ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, x. 12, 



Av. iii. 27, 6 ; iv. 15, 2, etc. 

* Feminine plural : Av. vi. 55, 2 ; 
Taittiriya Saijiliita, i. 6, 2, 3 ; ii. 6, i, i ; 



etc. 

3 Aitareya Brahmana, iv. 17, 5 ; 
^atapatha Brahmana, i. 9, 3, ig, etc. 



Valaga in the Atharvaveda^ and later' seems to denote a 
* secret spell.' 

Katbaka Samhita. ii. 11 ; xxv. 9 ; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, v. 23 ; ^tapatba 
Brahmana, iii. 5, 4, 2. 



1 V. 31, 4 ; X. I, 18 ; xix. 9, 9. 

2 Taittiriya Saiphita, i. 3, 2, i (where 
see Sayana's note); vi. 2, 11, i. 2; 



Valka in the later Samhitas and the Brahmanas^ denotes 
* bark ' of a tree. 

* Taittiriya Samhita, iL 5, 3, 5 ; iii. 7. 4, 2 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 4, 7. 6. 

Valmika denotes an ' ant-hill ' in the later Sarphitas* and the 
Brahmanas.* 

2 ^atapatha Brahmana, ii. 6, 2, 17; 
Bfhadaranyaka Upanisad, iv. 4, 10; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, i. i, 3, 4. 



1 Taittiriya Samhita, i. i, 3, 4 ; 
Kathaka Samhita, xix. 2 ; xxxi. 12 ; 
xxxv. 19 : vajasaneyi Samhita, xxv. 8. 



ValiSa denotes *twig,*^ usually in the compounds sata-valsa^ 
* having a hundred twigs,' ^ or sahasra-valsa, ' having a thousand 
twigs,' which is applied metaphorically of 'offspring.'* 

' Taittiriya Saiphita, vii. 3, 9, i. j Taittiriya Samhita, i. 3, 5, i ; 

> Rv. iii. 8, II ; Av. vi. 30, 2, etc. Kathaka SambitS, iii. 2, etc 

> Rv. iii. 8, II ; vii. 33, 9, etc. I 



Vate ] 



A SEER A TRIBE A COW 



73 



I. Va^a Asvya is the name in the Rigveda* of a prot6g6 of 
the A^vins. He is also mentioned in the ^ankhSyana ^rauta 
Sutra 2 as having received bounty from Prthu^ravas Kanita. 
He is the reputed author of a Rigvedic hymn,' which is 
repeatedly referred to by his name Va^a.* Cf. also Vya;va. 



* i. 1X2, lo; ii6, 21 ; viii. 8, 20; 

24, 14; 46, 21. 4t; 50. 9; X. 40. 7. 

s 



A 



XVI. II, 13. 
' viii. 46. 
* ^taf>atha BrcLhmana, viii. 6, 2, 3 ; 



ix. 3. 3, 19; Aitareya Aranyaka, i. 5, 
I. 2 ; ^nkh&yana Aranyaka, ii. 10. 
II. 

Cf. Weber, Epischa im vedixhen Ritual, 
38. 39 



2. Va^a, plur., is the name of a tribe mentioned in the 
Aitareya Brahmana^ as being in Madhyade^a along with the 
Kurus, the Paflcalas, and the U^inaras. They are also 
connected with the Matsyas according to the Kau9itaki 
Upanisad.* The Va^as and U^inaras are spoken of as united 
in the Gopatha Brahmana : the names* seem to indicate that 
the Va^s and U^aras were connected. 



* vui. 14, 3. 

' iv. I (reading sa-Vaia-MatsytfU for 
the savasan-Matsyesu of the manuscripts, 
which is otherwise emended to Satvan- 
Matsycfu, Keith, S&hkhHyana Aranyaka, 
36, n. 2 ; Journal of the Royal Astatic 
Society, 1908, 367). 

3 i. 2, g, where the text has Sava- 



sa-Uilnarepi, which is nonsense. CJ- 
Sa-Vaia-Uilnarindm in Aitareya Brilh- 
mana, viii. 14, 3, and n. 2. 

* As both derived from the root vas, 
desire.' 

Cf. Oldenberg, Buddha, 393, n. ; 
407. n. 



Vai^ denotes *cow' in the Rigveda^ and later.* According 
to the commentators, the word means a ' barren cow,' but this 
is not a necessary sense except in a few passages.* 



1 ii. 7, 5; vi. 63, 9; X. 91, 14, etc. 

Av. iv. 24, 4; X. 10, 2 ; xii. 4, i, 
etc. ; Taittiriya SamhitS., ii. i, 4, 4. 5 ; 
iii. 4, 2, 2 ; K&thaka Saiphitl, xiii. 4, 
etc. 

3 Av. vii, 113, 2, where the Parivrkti, 
' rejected wife,' is compared with a 
Va^. In xii. 4 (where vaid alternates 
with go) there is no indication that Va^ 
means a barren cow, except perhaps 
VOL. II. 



in verse 16, on which cf. Bloomfield. 
Hymns of the A tharvaveda, 656, 658. The 
Brahmins there claim as their own a 
barren cow. A suta-vaid 1.*., a cow 
barren after once calving is mentioned 
in the Taittiriya Satphita, ii. i, 5, 4, 
etc. In the Taittiriya Saiphiti, ii. i. 
2. 2, and the Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 2. 
5, 2, used with AtI, Sata denotes a 
' mother sheep,' ' ewe.' 

18 



274 HOUSE DRESS SPRING-TREASURE HOUSE [ Vasatl 
VasatI denotes in the Rigveda* and later ^ 'abode,' 'house.' 

' i. 31, 13 ; V. a, 6. I tirlya Br&hmana, ii. 3, 5, 4 ; iii. 7, 3, 3, 

' Vajasaneyi SaiphitA, xviii. 13; Tait- I etc. 



Vasana in the Rigveda* and later ^ denotes 'dress.* 



93, 7. 



* Ch&nd(^ya Upanifad, viii. 8, 3 ; | viii. 9. etc. 



Kausltaki Upanisad, ii. 13; Nirnkta. 



Vasanta, * spring,' is mentioned in the Rigveda^ and later.* 
It is regularly identified with the first of the months. See Rtu. 

> X. go, 6; 161, 4. ' Av. vi. ^s* ^ viii. 2, 22; xii. i, 36, etc. 



Vasavi in one passage of the Rigveda* denotes, according to 
Roth,' a ' treasure house.* 



X- 73. 4. 



St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Vasi$tha is the name of one of the most prominent priestly 
figures of Vedic tradition. The seventh Mandala of the 
Rigveda is ascribed to him ; this ascription is borne out by the 
fact that the Vasi?thas^ and Vasistha* are frequently mentioned 
in that Mandala, besides being sometimes referred to elsewhere. 
That by the name Vasis^ha a definite individual is always 
meant is most improbable, as Oldenberg^ shows; Vasitha 
must normally mean simply 'a Vasi^tha,' But it is not 
necessary to deny that a real Vasis^ha existed, for one hymn^ 
seems to show clear traces of his authorship, and of his assist- 
ance to Sudas against the ten kings. 

The most important feature of Vasis^ha's life was apparently 



1 Rv. vii. 7, 7; 12. 3; 23, 6; 33. 
I et uq. ; 37. 4 ; 39, 7 ; 40, 7 ; 76, 6. 7 ; 
77. 6 ; 80, I ; 90, 7 ; 91, 7 ; X. 15, 8 ; 
66, 14; 122, 8. 

' Rv. vii. 9, 6; 13, 4. 21 ; 22, 3 ; 
23, x; 26, 3; 33, II et uq.; 42, 6; 
59. 3 ; 70. 6 ; 73, 3 ; 86, 5 ; 88, 1 ; 95, 6 ; 
96, I ; X. 63. 15; 150,5; i. 112. 9. 

' Zeituhrift der Deutschen Morgen- 



landischtn Geulluha/t, 42, 204 et seq. 
Cf. vii. 23, I (singular) with verse 6 
(plural) . 

* Rv. vii. 18. As to vii. 33. Olden- 
berg and Geldner differ. See Vedischt 
Studien, 2, 130. But it is rather doubtful 
whether it can possibly be said to be 
as early as vii. 18, or to have any claim 
to be really an utterance of Vasistha. 



Vasi^tlui ] 



A FAMOUS SEER 



275 



his hostility to Vi^vamitPa. The latter was certainly* at one 
time the Purohita (' domestic priest ') of Sudas, but he seems 
to have been deposed from that post, to have joined Sudas' 
enemies, and to have taken part in the onslaught of the kings 
against him, for the hymn of Sudas' triumph* has clear 
references to the ruin Vi^vamitra brought on his allies.* 
Oldenberg,' however, holds that the strife of Vi^vamitra and 
Vasistha is not to be found in the Rigveda. On the other 
hand, Geldner* is hardly right in finding in the Rigveda a 
compressed account indicating the rivalry of Sakti, Vasis^ha's 
son, with Visvamitra, the acquisition by Visvamitra of special 
skill in speech, and the revenge of Visvamitra, who secured the 
death of Sakti by Sudas' servants, an account which is more 
fully related by Sadguru^i?ya,^ which appeared in the SatySya- 
naka," and to which reference seems to be made in the brief 
notices of the Taittiriya Sarnhita^'^ and the Pancavimsa Brah- 
mana" regarding Vasistha's sons having been slain, and his 
overcoming the Saudasas. But it is important to note that no 
mention is made in these authorities of Sudas himself being 
actually opposed to Vasistha, while in the Aitareya Brahmana^* 
Vasistha appears as the Purohita and consecrator of Sudas 
Faijavana. Yaska^ recognizes Visvamitra as the Purohita of 
Sudas; this accords with what seems to have been the fact 

" See the note in the Anukramani 
on vii. 32, where both the Tandaka 
and the ^3.tyS.yanaka are quoted (Muir, 
op. cit., i, 328). 

" vii. 4, 7, I, In ilL 1, 7, 3 ; v. 4, 
II. 3. also VasLstha is a foe of Visva- 
mitra. 

" >v. 7, 3 ; viii. 2, 3 ; xix. 3, 8 ; 
xxi. II, 2. The story is alluded to in 
the Kausltaki Brahmana, iv. 8, and in 
the Jaiminiya Brahmana, i. 150 ; iii. 26. 
83. 149. 204. In ii. 390 it is definitely 
stated, as in the ^aty&yanaka (n. 10). 
that ^akti was cast into the fire by the 
Saudasas. 

" vii. 34, 9 ; viii. 21, 11. C/. ^liMx- 
ayana Srauta SQtra. xvi. 11, 14. 

" Nirukta. ii. 24 ; ^khftyana 
Srauta SQtra, xxvi. 12, 13. 



' See Rv. iii. 33. 53 ; Muir. Sanskrit 
Texts, I*. 328 tt seq. 

Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 15, 260 et seq. 

' op. cit., 204, n. 3. 

8 op. cit., 2, i^ et seq. 

' iii. 53, 15. 16. 21-24, the last four 
verses being the famous Vasiffha- 
dvesinyah, which Durga, the commen- 
tator on the Nirukta, declines to 
explain, because he was a Kapisthala 
Vasistha (see Muir, op. cit., 1^, 344; 
Bfhaddevata. iv. 117 et seq., with Mac- 
donell's notes). What the verses really 
mean is not at all certain. See Olden- 
berg, Rgveda-Noten, i, 254 et seq. 

10 Cf. Sayana on Rv. vii. 32, and 
Macdonell's edition of the Sarvanu- 
kramanl. 107 ; Weber, Indiuhe Studien, 
I, 119. 



182 



276 THE VASISTHAS AS BRAHMAN PRIESTS [ VasUt^a 

that Vi^vclmitra originally held the post. Probably, however, 
with the disappearance of Sudas, Visvamitra recovered his 
position, whereupon Vasistha in revenge for the murder of 
his sons secured in some way unspecified the defeat of the 
Saudasas.^ 

At any rate it is hardly necessary to suppose that the enmity 
of the Saudasas and Vasisthas was permanent. There is 
evidence^'' that the Bharatas had the Vasisthas as Purohitas, 
while other versions^ regard them as Purohitas for people 
(prajah) generally. It seems that the Vasisthas were pioneers 
in adopting the rule that Purohitas should act as Brahman 
priest ^^ at the sacrifice: the Satapatha Brahmana^ states that 
the Vasisthas were once the only priests to act as Brahmans, 
but that later any priest could serve as such.^ A rivalry 
with Jamadgni and Visvamitra is reported in the Taittirlya 
Samhita.^ Paraiara and Satayatu are associated with Vasistha 
in the Rigveda,^ being apparently, as Geldner^* thinks, the 
grandson and a son of Vasistha. According to Pischel,*^ in 
another hymn, 2 Vasistha appears as attempting to steal the 
goods of his father Varuna; Geldner^^ also shows that the 
Rigveda^ contains a clear reference to Vasistha's being a son 
of Varuna and the nymph Urvasi. Perhaps this explains the 
fact that the Vasisthas are called the Tjtsus in one passage 

fice of donah^epa, Aitareya BrS.hmana, 
vii. 16; Sinkh&yana Srauta Sutra. 



1* Roth, Zur Litteratur und Geschichte 
des Wcda, 121 et seq., considered that 
the Vasisthas were finally successful in 
the effort to remove the ViSvamitras 



XV. 21, 4. 
* xii. 6, I, 41. Cf. iv. 6, 6, 5. 



from favour. Weber, Indische Studicn, 21 sadvirnSa Brahmana, i. 5 ; Weber, 

I, 120 ; Episches im vedischen Ritual, 34, I Indische Studien, 10, 35. 

doubted this, and "Muir, op. cit., i^, j ^ iii. I, 7, 3. Cf. n. 11. 

371-375, held the problem to be in- ! " vii. 18, 21. 
soluble. Roth and Muir, however, both '** Vedische Studien, 2, 132. 

complicated the question by regarding j '" Vedische Studien, 2, 55 et seq. 

the Bharatas as enemies of the Trtsus, I " vii. 55. Aufrecht, Indische Studien, 
which (see Trtsu) is not at all probable. 4, 337, took the hymn to refer to a 

though it is still the view of Bloomfield, I lover's visit to a maiden. C/. Lanman, 

Journal 0/ the American Oriental Society, | Sanskrit Reader, 370; Brhaddevata, 

16, 41, 42. I vi. II, with Macdonell's notes. 

" Pancavim^ Brihrnana, xv. 4, 24 ; ! ^ Vedische Studien, 2, 138. So also 

Weber. Indische Studien, 10, 34. ; Nirukta, v. 13 ; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 



" Taittiriya Samhiti, iii. 5, 2, i ; 
KAthaka Samhita, xxxvii. 17. 
'* VasLstha was Brahman at the sacri- 



I-, 231, n. 97; Brhaddevata, v. 150. 
131. 
* vii. 33, n. 



Vastu ] WEALTH A SEER A PATRON DAWN 



277 



of the Rigveda;^ for being of miraculous parentage, Vasistha 
would need adoption into a Gotra, that of the princes whom 
he served, and to whom Agastya seems to have introduced 
him. 

There are numerous other references to Vasistha as a ^Isi 
in Vedic literature,^ in the Sutras,^^ and in the Epic, where 
he and Vi^vamitra fight out their rivalry .'^ 



vii. 83. 8. 

* Rv. i. 112, 9; vii. 88, 4; 96, 3; 
^' 95i 17 > iSii I : KS.thaka SamhitA, 
xvi, 19 ; XX. 9 ; xxxlL 2 {Indiiche Studien, 
3, 478) ; MaitrS.yanI SamhiUl, i. 4, 12 ; 
" 7 9 ; iv. 2, 9 ; Taittiriya SamhiUL, 
V. 2, 10, 5 ; Av. iv. 29, 4 ; Aitareya 
BtiLhmana. vi. 18, 3 ; Kausltaki Br3.h- 
mana, xxvi. 14 ; xxix. 2. 3 ; xxx. 3 ; 
Jairainiya Upanisad Br&hmana, iii. 3, 
13 ; 15, 2 ; 18, 6 ; Aitareya Aranyaka, i 



iL 2, 2 ; Brhad&ranyalia Up>aiU8ad, 
ii. 2, 4, etc. 

** See Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 
89-92 ; Episches im vedischen Ritual, 35. 

** Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i^, 375-414. 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 131 et uq. ; Weber, Episches im 
vedischen Ritual, 31-34 ; Indian Literature, 
31. 37. 53. 79, 123, 162 ; Oldenberg, 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen 
Gesellschaft, 42, 204-207. 



Vasu in the Rigveda^ and later^ denotes ' wealth,' * property.' 



* IV. 17, II. 13 ; 20, 
viii. 13, 22, etc. 



vi. 55. 3 ; I ' Av. vii. 115, 2 ; ix. 4, 3 ; x. 8, 20 ; 
I xiv. 2, 8, etc. 



Vasukra and his wife are the reputed composers of certain 
hymns of the Rigveda.^ The ascription goes back to the 
Rigveda Aranyakas.^ 

1 X. 27-29. 2 Aitareya Araiiyaka, i. 2, 2 ; SShkhSyana Aranyaka, i. 3. 



Vasu-pocis is a name occurring only once in the Rigveda^ in 
a form which may be interpreted as either plural or singular. 
In the former alternative it denotes a family of singers ;^ in the 
latter a patron.^ 



1 viii. 34, 16. 

* Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 162. 



3 Griffith, Hymns of the Rigveda, 2, 
175. n- 



Vastu as a designation of time is the ' early morning ' in the 
Rigveda.^ 

* i. 79, 6; 104, i; 179, i, etc. So Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxviii. 12. Cf. 
Zimmer, AUindisches Leben, 361. 



278 DRESS WARE BRIDAL HORSE BED [ Vastra 

Vastra in the Rigveda^ and later* denotes ' dress/ ' clothing.' 
See Vasas. 

* i. 26, I ; 134, 4; iii. 39, 3; v. 29. I ' Av. v. i, 3 ; ix. 3, 25 ; xii. 3, 21, 
15. etc I etc. 

Vasna in the Rigveda^ and later- denotes the 'price' paid 
for anything or its ' value,' or the thing itself as an object of 
purchase, * ware.' 

^ iv. 24, 9, where the phrase bhuyasa 
vasnam acarat kan'tyah must mean ' with 
a greater price he obtained a lesser 
value.* For the exact sense, cf. Olden- 
berg, Rgveda-Noten, i, 419, 420. 

Av. xii. 2, 36 (' price ') = Vajasaneyi 
Saiphita, iil 49 = Taittiriya Samhita, | Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 382 
L 8, 4, I ; Kathaka Samhita, ix. 5 ; i 



Maitrayani Samhita, i. 10, 2, where the 
sense seems to be * let us barter food 
and drink like wares.' Cf. also vasnika, 
' worth a price," in Pancaviip^ Brih- 
mana, xiv. 3, 13. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 247 ; 



Vahatu is the regular name in the Rigveda* and later* for 
the ceremonial conducting of the bride from the house of her 
parents to that of her husband. 



* i. 184, 3 ; iv. 58, 9; X. 17, I ( = Av. 
> 31. 5) ; 32. 3 ; 85, 13 et seq. 
' Av. X. I, I ; xiv. 2, 9. 12. 66. 73 ; 



Aitareya Brahmana, iv. 7, i ; Taittiriya 
Brahmana, i. 5, i, 2. 



Vahni, * carrier,' denotes any draught animal e.g,, a ' horse,' ^ 
a * goat,' 2 or an *ox.'' 

* Rv. ii. 24, 13; 37, 3; iii. 6, 2, etc. I ' Taittiriya Brahmana,-!. 8, 2, 5, 
' Rv. vi. 37, 3. I etc. 

Vahya denotes in the Rigveda^ and the Atharvaveda* a 
* couch ' or ' bed ' of a comfortable kind used by women. 

1 vU. 55, 8. iv. 5, 3 ; 20, 3 ; xiv. 2, 30. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 154. 

Vako-vakya, ' dialogue,' is the name given in the BrShmanas ^ 
to certain portions of the Vedic texts. In one place* the 
Brahmodya is said to be a dialogue ; very probably in all the 
passages the Brahmodya is meant by this term. Geldner's 

* ^atapatha Brahmana, iv. 6, 9, 20; xi. 5. 6, 8; 7, 3; Chandogya Upanisad, 
vii. 1, a, 4 ; 2, I ; 7, i. 

''' ^tapatha Bralimana, iv. 6. 9, 20. 



Vac ] 



DIA LOG UE SPEECH 



379 



view' is different : he sees in the Vakovakya an essential part 
of the Itihasa-Pura^a, the dialogue or dramatic element as 
opposed to the narrative portion. 

3 Vediuht Studien, i, 291. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 1, 267 ; 
Eggeling. Sacred Books of the East, 44, 
98, n. 3. It is certain that 'logic' is 



not meant, though Max Miiller so 
renders it in his translation of the 
Ch&ndogya Upanisad. 



Vac, 'speech,' plays a great part in Vedic speculation, but 
only a few points are of other than mythological significance. 
Speech is in the Satapatha Brahmana^ divided into four kinds 
that of men, of animals, of birds {vayat^isi), and of small 
creeping things {ftudram sartsrpam). The discrimination or 
making articulate of speech is ascribed to Indra by the 
Sarphitas.^ The * speech ' of the following musical instruments 
Tupava, Vi^a, Dundubhi' is mentioned, and in one 
Samhitfi* also that of the axle of a chariot. The speech of the 
Kuru-Paficalas was especially renowned,* as well as that of the 
northern country, according to the Kausitaki Brahmana* so 
that men went there to study the language. On the other hand, 
barbarisms in speech were known, and were to be avoided. "^ 



1 iv. I, 3, 16. There are quite dif- 
ferent accounts in the Kithaka Samhita, 
xiv. 5; Maitr&yani Samhita, i. 11, 5. 
Oldenberg finds traces of the origin 
of the legend in Rv. viii. 100 ; but see 
V. Schroeder, Mysterium und Mimus, 339 
et seq. ; Keith, Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, 191 1, 993 et seq. 

' Taittirlya Samhita, vi. 4, 7, 3 ; 
Maitr&yan! Samhita, iv. 5, 8 

^ Pancavim^ Br&hmana, vi. 5, 10- 
13 ; Taittirlya SaqihitcL, vi. i, 4, i ; 
MaitriyanI Samhitl, iii. 6, 8 ; Kithaka 
Samhit&, xxiiL 4. 

* Pancavimia Bribmana, loc, cit. 

* Satapatha Br&hmana, iii. 2, 3, 15. 
The difficult phrase has caused some 
doubt as to the sense, for uttardhi vig 
vadati Kurupanc&latrd seems to mean 
' speech in the north among the Kuru- 
Paiic&las,' this version being slightly 
supported by the K&nva recension of 
the passage quoted by Eggeling, Sacred 
Books of the East, 12, xlii, n. i. That 



recension, however, is not merely ob- 
scure, but it seems to couple the Kurus 
with the northern Mahavnuw (so we 
must emend Mahavisefu), and it cannot 
be relied on. Eggeling 's attempt to 
remove the difficulty by taking uttarihi 
as ' higher ' in tone is not satisfactory. 
The most probable solution is that of 
Weber, Indische Studien, i, 191, who 
takes Kurupancalatrd to be 'as among 
the Kuru-Paiic2las,' which gives a good 
sense, especially when it is remembered 
that the northerners were probably the 
Uttara-Konu in Kaimir, which seems 
to have been a home of Sanskrit 
{cf Franke, Pali und Sanskrit, 89). 

vii. 6. 

'' Satapatha Bribmana, iii. 2, i, 23. 
24, where the Asuras are described as 
saying he Uavah, perhaps for he 'rt^ah- 
But the K&nva version is difiierent. 
See Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 
26. 31. n. 3. 



28o KINDS OF SPEECH A PATRONYMIC RACE [ V&caknavi 

One division of speech referred to* is that of the divine 
(daivl) and the human (mamisi), of which some specimens are 
given, such as otn, the divine counterpart of tathd, and so forth. 
The Brahmin is said to know both ; it seems best to regard 
the distinction not as between Sanskrit and Apabhrarn^a, as 
S5yana* suggests, but as between the Sanskrit of the ritual 
and the hymns and that of ordinary life. 

Reference is also made to Aryan " and to Brahmin ^^ speech, 
by which Sanskrit, as opposed to non-Aryan tongues, seems to 
be meant. The Vratyas are described as speaking the language 
of the initiated (dlksita-vac) , though not themselves initiated 
(a-dtksita), but as calling that which is easy to utter {a-durukta)t 
difficult to utter.^ This may mean that the non-Brahminical 
Indians were advancing more rapidly than the Brahminical 
tribes to Prakrit speech, especially if it is legitimate to connect 
the Vratyas with the barbarians in speech alluded to in the 
Satapatha Brahmana.' 

8 See Kathaka Samhiti, xiv. 5 ; j w See Eggeling, Sacred Boohs of the 

Maitr3.yani SambitS., i. 11, 5 (where I East, 41, 200, n. 

the words yai ca veda vai ca na replace I ^^ Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. 2, 5 ; 
the ordinary distinction of daiv'i and SS.nkhS.yana Aranyaka, viii. 9. 

mdnus'i: perhaps vedo should be read) ; | " Aitareya Aranyaka, i. 5, 2. 



^tapatha Br&hmana, vi. 2, i, 34 ; 
Aitareya BrShmana, vii. 18, 13; Aitareya 
Aranyaka, i. 3, i ; a BrShmana in 
Nimkta, xiii. 9, etc. 

KSthaka SamhitS, loc. cit. ; MaitrS- 
yani SamhitS, loc. cit., etc. 



13 PaiicavimSa BrShmana, xvii. i, 9. 

Cf. Levi, La Doctrine du Sacrifice, 34, 
35 ; Weber, Indian Literature, 175-180 ; 
Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 179, 180; 
196. 



VacaknavT, 'descendant of Vacaknu,' is the patronymic of 
a woman with the further patronymic of Gargfi, who appears 
as a student of Brahman in the BrhadSranyaka Upanisad.* 

* iii. 6, I ; 8, i. Cf. A^valSyana Gphya SOtra, iii. 4, 4 ; ^SiikhSyana 
Grhya SQtra, iv. 10; Atharvaveda Parisita, xliii. 4, 23. 

Vaja from the meaning of 'strength,' 'speed,' in its appli- 
cation to horses derives the sense of 'race'* and ' prize,' '^ or 

* Rv. ii. 23, 13; iii. 11, 9; 37, 6; I - Rv. i. 64, 13; ii. 26, 3; 31, 7; 
42, 6; V. 33, I ; 86, 2, etc I iii. 2, 3 ; viii. 103. 5, etc] 



Vajabandhu ] AN INAUGURAL CEREMONY 281 

merely 'prosperity.'' That it ever means 'horse' is most 
improbable, that sense being given by Vajin.^ 



Rv. i. 27, 5: 92, 7; vi. 45, 21. 23, 
etc. ; Av. xiii. i, 22 ; Pancavim^ Br&h- 
mana, xviii. 7, i. 12. 

* See Pischel, Vedische Studien, 1, 10 



et ieq., where he explains otherwise all 
the passages cited for the sense by the 
St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 8. 



Vajapeya is the name of a ceremony which, according to 
the Satapatha Brahmana^ and later authorities,* is only per- 
formed by a Brahmin or a Katriya. The same Brahmana^ 
insists that this sacrifice is superior to the Rajasuya, but the 
consensus of other authorities* assigns to it merely the place 
of a preliminary to the Bphaspatisava in the case of a priest, 
and to the Rajasuya in the case of a king, while the Satapatha* 
is compelled to identify the Brhaspatisava with the Vajapeya. 
The essential ceremony is a chariot race in which the sacrificer 
is victorious. There is evidence in the Sahkhayana Srauta 
Sutra showing that once the festival was one which any 
Aryan could perform. Hillebrandt,"^ indeed, goes so far as to 
compare it with the Olympic games ; but there is hardly much 
real ground for this: the rite seems to have been developed 
round a primitive habit of chariot racing, transformed into 
a ceremony which by sympathetic magic secures the success 
of the sacrificer. In fact Eggeling seems correct in holding 
that the Vajapeya was a preliminary rite performed by a 
Brahmin prior to his formal installation as a Purohita, or by 
a king prior to his consecration. The Kuni Vajapeya was 
specially well known. 

' V. I, 5, 2. 3. I * V. 2, I, 2. Cf. K3,ty&yana Srauta 

2 See Weber, Ober den Rajasuya; 
Hillebrandt, Rituallitteratur, 147 et uq. 

3 V. I, I, 13; KatySyana Srauta 
SQtra, XV. i, 1. 2. 

Taittiriya Samhiti, v. 6, 2, i ; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, i. 7, 6, i ; ASvaliyana 
Srauta SQtra, ix. 9, 19 ; L&ty&yana 



Sutra, xiv. i, 2. 
XV. 1. See Weber, op. cit., 41 et seq. 
1 Vedische Mythologie, i, 247. 
8 Sacred Books of the East. 41, xxiT, 

XXV. 

Saiikhayana Srauta SQtra, xv. 3, 
14 et seq. ; Apastamba Srauta SQtra, 



Srauta SQtra, viii. 11, i, etc. i xviii. 3, 7. 

Vaja-bandhu in one verse of the Rigveda (viii. 68, 19) may 
be a proper name. It may, however, merely be an adjective 
meaning ' ally in conflict.' 



282 PATRONYMIC STEED MIXED MILK [ Vijaratnftyaiu 

V%ja-ratnayana, 'descendant of VJjaratna,' is the patro- 
nymic of Soma^u^man in the Aitareya BrShmana (viii. 21, 5). 

Viya-^ravas is mentioned in the last Vaipsa (list of teachers) 
of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad* as a pupil of Jihvavant 
Badhyoga. 

' vi. 4, 33 (Madhyamdina = vi. 5, 3 KAnva). 

Vaja-^ravasa, 'descendant of VajaiSravas,' is the patro- 
nymic of KuiSri in the Satapatha Brahmana.* It is also the 
patronymic of the father of Naciketas in the Taittiriya 
Brahmana,* where the name is apparently Usant, though it is 
understood by Sayana as a participle in the sense of ' desiring.' 
The Vajasravases are in the Taittiriya Brahmana said to have 
been sages.^ They were Gotamas.'* 

^ X- 5. 5. 1- I 3 i. 3. 10. 3. 

' iii. II, 8, 1. C/. Kathaka Upanisad, * Cf. Taittiriya Brahmana, iiL 11, 8. 

i. I, with different names, on which 1 
see Weber, Indian Literature, 157, n. | 

Vajasaneya is the patronymic of Yajfiavalkya in the 
Brhadaranyaka Upani?ad* and the Jaiminiya Brahmana.'^ 
His school, the Vajasaneyins, are mentioned in the Sutras.' 



* vi. 3, 15 ; 4, 33 (Madhyaipdina = 
vi. 3, 7 : 5. 3 Kanva). 

' ii. 76 (Journal of the A merican Oriental 
Society, 15, 238). 



3 Anupada SQtra, vii. 12 ; viii. i. 
Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 44, 53, 
83. 283 ; 2, 9; 4. 140, 257. 309 ; 10, 37, 
76. 393. etc. 



Vajin in several passages of the Rigveda^ denotes * steed ' 
with reference to its swiftness and strength. In one passage ^ 
it is perhaps, as Ludwig' thinks, a proper name, that of a son 
of Bfhaduktha, but this view seems forced. 

1 il 5. I ; 10. I ; 34, 7 ; i"- 53i 23 ; I ^ . 56, 2. 
vi. 75, 6; X. 103, 10, etc. | ' Translation of the Rlgveda. 3, 133. 

Vajina in the later Sarnhitas^ and the Brahmanas * denotes 
a mixture of hot fresh milk with sour milk. 



* Taittiriya Satphita, i. 6, 3, 10 ; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, xix. 31. 23. 

' Satapatha Brahmana, ii. 4, 4, 21 ; 
*J' 3. 3. 2 ; ix. 5, I, 57, etc. 



Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the 
East, 12. 381, n. 2 ; Garbe. Apastamba 
^rauta SQtra, 3, 443, calls it ' whey. ' 



Va^ici ] 



INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC MERCHANT 



383 



Vajya, 'descendant of Vaja,' is the patronymic of Ketu in 
the Vaipsa Brahraana.^ 

1 Indiscke Studien, 4, 372, 383. 



Vadeyi-putra. See BSdeyiputra. 



Va^a in the Rigveda* and the Atharvaveda* denotes 'instru- 
mental music' according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary; 
but in the later Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas* a 'harp' or 
'lyre' with a hundred strings (sata-tantu) , used at the Maha- 
vrata ceremony. The Rigveda clearly refers to the seven 
'notes' {dhdtu) of the instrument, which are called elsewhere 
the seven Vanis, unless the latter expression be taken as 
referring to the metres.'' 



* i. 85, 10 ; viU. 20, 8 ; ix. 97, 8 ; 
X. 32, 4. Cf. Hopkins, Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, 17, 67. 

X. 2, 17. 

' Taittiriya SamhitS, vii. 5, g, 2 ; 
K&thaka SaqihitS, xxxiv. 3. 

* Pancavim^ BrShmana, v. 6, 12 ; 
xiv. 7, 8 ; Aitareya Aranyaka, v. i, 4, etc. 

* X, 32. 4. 

* i. 164, 24 ; iii. 1, 6 ; 7, i ; ix. 103, 3, 
etc. 



' Macdonell, Vedic Grammar, 64. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 289, 
who thinks the meaning is ' flute ' in 
Rv. i. 85, 10, but not necessarily. Max 
Muller, Sacred Books of the East, 32, 
138, render it ' voice ' in i, 85, 10 ; 
ix. 97, 8, and ' arrow ' in viii. 20, 8 ; 
ix. 50, I, and this sense is accepted in 
Bohtlingk's Dictionary, s.v. i vdria for 
ix. 50, I. 



Vanija denotes a ' merchant ' as a hereditary profession 
(' son of a Vanij ') in the list of victims at the Puru?amedha 
(' human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.^ 

1 Vijasaneyi Samhita, xxx. 17 ; Taittirfya Brahmana. iii. 4, 14, i. 



Vai?i. See Vana. 



Va^^ci occurs in a verse of the Rigveda (v. 75, 4), where the 
St. Petersburg Dictionary ascribes to it the sense of ' musical 
instrument.' 



284 



WIND WIND GUARD NAKED ASCETICS [ Vata 



Vata is the regular word for 'wind' in the Rigveda^ and 
later.2 Five winds are mentioned.' In one passage'* Zimmer^ 
sees a reference to the north-east monsoon. Cf. Salilavata. 



1 i. 28. 6 ; ii. I, 6 ; 38, 3 ; iii. 14. 3. 
etc 

Av. iv. 5, 2 ; V. 5, 7 ; xii. i, 51, etc. 

3 Taittiriya Satnhit&, i. 6, i, 2 ; 
Kfithaka Sai^ihita, xxxii. 6. 



* Rv. V. 53, 8. 

6 Altindisclies Leben, 45, who compares 
also Rv. X. 137, 2. which refers to two 
winds. 



Vata-pana ('wind guard') apparently means some sort of 
garment as protecting against wind in the Taittiriya Samhita 
(vi. I, I, 3). 



Vata-ra^ana, 'wind-girt,' is applied to the Munis in the 
Rigveda^ and to the Rsis in the Taittiriya Aranyaka.^ Naked 
ascetics, such as are known throughout later Indian religious 
history, are evidently meant. 



1 X. 136, 2. 

* i. 23, 2 ; 24, 4; ii. 7, I. Weber, 
Indische Studitn, i, 78, was inclined, 



though without sufficient reason, to 
take the word as a proper name. 



Vatavant is the name of a R.si in the Pancavimsa Brahmana 
(XXV. 3, 6). He and Dpti performed a certain Sattra or sacri- 
ficial session, but by stopping at a particular time he came to 
grief, and his descendants, the Vatavatas, were less prosperous 
than the Darteyas. 



Vatavata, 'descendant of Vatavant,' is the patronymic of 
Vra^uma in the Aitareya Brahmana.^ The KausTtaki Brah- 
mana^ has the same form with a variant Vadhavata. 



1 V. 29. Cf. Indische Studien, 4, 373. 



- n. 9. 



Vatsi, * descendant of Vatsa,' is the patronymic of Sarpi in 
the Aitareya Brahmana (vi. 24, 16). 



Vatsi-putra, ' son of a female descendant of Vatsa,' as the 
name of a teacher mentioned in the last Vam^a (list of teachers) 



Vadhavata ] TEACHERS PLECTRUM MUSIC 



285 



of the Brhadaranyaka Upani^ad as a pupil of Papa^ariputra 
according to the Kanva recension (vi, 5, 2), as a pupil of 
Bharadvajiputra according to the Madhyarndina (vi. 4, 31). 

Vatsi-MaijdavI-putra is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
Para^ariputra, according to the last Vamda (list of teachers) 
in the Madhyarndina recension of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad 
(vi. 4, 30). 



Vatsya, * descendant of Vatsa,' is the name of one or more 
teachers. One is mentioned in the SahkhSyana Aranyaka,^ 
where the Aitareya Aranyaka^ in the parallel passage has 
Badhva* Others occur in the Vam^as (lists of teachers) of the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad as pupils of Ku^ri,^ iSandilya,'* or 
another Vatsya,^ while a Vatsya is mentioned in the Satapatha 
Brahmana. 



* vui. 3. 

iii. 2, 3. 

3 vi. 5, 4 Kinva. 

* ii. 5, 22 ; iv. 5, 28 (M^hyaindina 



= ii. 6, 3; iv. 6, 3 K&nva); Satapatha 
Br&bmana, x. 6, 5, 9. 

5 ii. 5, 20; iv. 5, 26 Kanva. 

ix. 5, I, 62. 



Vatsyayana, ' descendant of Vatsya,' is the name of a teacher 
in the Taittirlya Aranyaka (i. 7, 2). 



Vadana denotes the plectrum of a harp in the Aranyakas 
of the Rigveda.^ 

^ Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. 2, 3; ^nkhSyana Aranyaka, viii. g; ^inkhiyana 
Srauta Satra. xvii. 3, 14, etc. 

Vadita is found denoting * music ' in the compound glta- 
vddita, * song and music,* in the Chandogya Upanisad (viii. 2, 8), 
and uncompounded in the Kausltaki Brahmana (xxix. 5) along 
with Nptya, * dance,' and Glta, * song.' See l^llpa. 

Vadhavata is a various reading in the Kau?itaki Brahmana^ 
for Vatavata. 

1 ii. 9. cy. Weber, Indiuhe StudUn, i, 215, n. ; 2, 293, n. 



286 BRIDAL GARMENT SMALL TREE- A SEER [ Vadhuya 

Vadhuya denotes the garment of the bride worn at the 
marriage ceremony and afterwards given to a Brahmin.^ 

* Rv. X. 85, 34; Av. xiv. 2, 41. Cf. KauSika SQtra, Ixxix. 21 ; A^val&yana 
Grbya SQtra, i. 8, 12, etc. 



Vadhpya^va, * connected with Vadhrya^va,' is apparently 
the epithet of Agni in a hymn of the Rigveda (x. 69, 5). 

Vanaspatya (as a masculine) in one or two passages of the 
Atharvaveda^ seems to denote a 'small tree.' Elsewhere* (as 
a neuter) it has the sense of the * fruit of a tree ' (Vanaspati). 

* viii. 8, 14 ; xi. 9, 24. Cf. xii. i, I ' Satapatha Brahmana, xi. i, 7, 2 ; 
27. I 3i If 3 ; Aitareya Br<Lhmana, viii. 16, i. 



Vama-kaki^ayana is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
Vatsya^ or ^andilya* in the Satapatha Brahmana. 

1 x. 6, 5,9. Cf. vii. ^, /, II. I 4 Kanva. Cf. Satapatha BrShmana, 

3 BrhadS.ranyaJca Upanisad, vi. 5. | x. 4, i, 11. 



Vama-deva is credited^ by tradition with the authorship of 
the fourth Mandala of the Rigveda, and he is once mentioned 
in that Mandala.* He is, moreover, credited with the 
authorship of the fourth hymn of the Mandala by the Yajur- 
veda Samhitas.^ He there appears as a son of Gotama, while 
in one hymn of the fourth Mandala of the Rigveda"* Gotama 
is mentioned as the father of the singer, and in another^ the 
Gotamas occur as praising Indra. In the Brhaddevata two 
absurd legends are narrated of Vamadeva. One describes 
Indra as revealing himself in the form of an eagle to the seer 
as he cooked the entrails of a dog ; the other tells of his 
successful conflict with Indra, whom he sold among the 
seers. Sieg^ has endeavoured to trace these tales in the 

1 Aitareya Aranyaka, ii. 2, i, etc. j * iv. 32, 9. 12. 

2 iv. 16, 18. iv. 126 131 /wj., with Macdoneir 

* Kathaka Samhiti, x. 5 ; MaitrSyani ' notes. 

Samhita, ii. i, 11 ; iii. 2, 6. | ' Die Sagenstoffe des Rgveda, 76 et seq. 

* iv. 4, II. i 



Varaki ] 



LA RGE BIRD-BIRD-CA TCHER - WA TER 



287 



Rigveda, but without any success. Moreover, though VSmadeva 
is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and often in the BrSh- 
manas/ he never figures there as a hero of these legends. 



' Rv iv. 27 and iv. 24 respectively. 
On the former hymn, see Oldenberg, 
Rigveda-Noten, 1, 291 et uq. ; on the 
latter, ibid., 419 tt uq. 

8 See Av. xviii. 3, 15. 16. 

* Aitareya Brihrnana, iv. 30, 2 ; 
vi. 18, I. 2 ; Aitareya Aranyaka, ii. 5, i 
( = Aitareya Upanisad, ii. 5, where 



before birth) ; B{-badS.ranyaka Upani- 
sad, i. 4, 22 (M&dhyamdina = i. 4, 
10 K&nva) : Pancavitp^ Br&hmana, 
xiii. 9, 27. 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 123, 124; Weber, Proceedings 
of the Berlin Academy, 1894, 789 et stq. ; 
Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutuhen 



V&madeva is credited with knowledge 1 Morgenldndischtn Geulluhaft, 42, 215. 



Vayata, 'descendant of Vayant,' is the patronymic of 
Pa^adyumna in the Rigveda (vii. 33, 2). Cf. Vyant. 



Vayasa in the Rigveda^ and later- denotes a 'large bird.' 
The sense of 'crow'' occurs in the Sadvimsa Brahmana only.* 



i. 164, 32. 

' In a Vedic citation in Nirukta, 
iv. 17 ; and in verse i of Khila after 
Rv. V. 51. 



The only sense of the word in the 
post-Vedic language. 
* vi. 8. 



Vayo-vldyika, 'bird-catcher,' is found in the Satapatha 
Brahmana.^ 

1 xiii. 4, 3. 13. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 44, 369, n. 5. 



Vayya, ' descendant of Vayya,' is the patronymic of Satya- 
^ravas in the Rigveda (v. 79, i. 2). 



Var is found in the Rigveda^ and later* denoting 'water.' 
In some passages^ ' stagnant water,' ' pond,' is meant. 

1 i. 116, 22; ii. 4, 6; X. 12, 3; 99, 4; I ' Av. ill 13, 8; Satapatha BrAh- 
105, I, etc. I mana, vi. i, i, 9, etc. 

* Rv. iv. 19, 4 ; viii. 98, 8 ; ix. 112, 4. 



Varaki, ' descendant of Varaka,' is the patronymic of Kaipsa 
in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 41, l). 



388 



PATRONYMICS-ELEPHANT AN ANIMAL [ V4rakya 



VSrakya, ' descendant of Varaka,' is the patronymic, in the 
Jaiminlya Upani?ad Brahmana, of Kamsa Kubera, Janasruta, 
Jayanta, and Prothapad. 



Varaka in two passages of the Rigveda^ is taken by Roth^ 
as an adjective with Mrgfa, meaning * wild beast.' But the 
sense intended must have been ' elephant,' the usual sense of 
Varana in the classical literature. Probably the feminine 
Varani in the Atharvaveda ' likewise denotes a ' female 
elephant.' 



* viii. 33, 8 ; x. 40, 4. 

> St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v., ic. 

' V. 14, II. 

Cf. Pischel and Geldner, Vediuhe 



Studien, i. xv, 100-102; Whitney, 
Translation of the Atharvaveda, 296 ; 
Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 467 ; Zimmer, 
Altindisches Ltben, 80. 



Varu^ii, * descendant of Varuna,' is the patronymic of 

Bhrgru.^ 

^ Aitareya Br&hmaria. iii. 34, i ; Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 6, i, i ; Taittirlya 
Upanifad, iii. i, etc. 



Varkali, 'descendant of Vrkala,' is the metronymic of a 
teacher in the Satapatha Brahmai^ia.^ The name in the form 
of Varkalin has been seen in the Aitareya Aranyaka,^ but 
wrongly. 



1 xii. 3, 2, 6. 

' iii. 2, 2, and Keith's note; ^nkb- 
&yana Aranyaka, viii. 2, Cf. Weber, 



Indian Literature, 33, 123, who thinks 
varkali is equivalent to V&skali. 



VarkarunT-putra is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
Artabhag-iputpa, in the last Vam^a (list of teachers) of the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ 

' vi. 4, 31 (M&dhyamdina = vi. 3, I is duplicated, one being the pupil of 
2 K&nva, where also VarkSrunlputra I the other). 

Vapdhra-^asa,^ Vardhri-nasa^ is the name of an animal in 
the list of victims at the A^vamedha (' horse sacrifice ') in the 



* Taittiriya Saiphita, v. 5. 20, i 
MaitrSyanl Saiphita, iii. 14, 20. 



- VajasaneyiSaiphita, xxiv. 39(Prati- 
^akhya, iii. 89; vi. 28). 



Varneya ] PATRONYMICS 289 

Yajurveda Samhitas. The meaning seems to be, as taken by 
Sayana,* 'rhinoceros.' Bohtlingk* quotes as other inter- 
pretations * an old white he-goat ' or ' a kind of crane.' 

' On Taittiriya Samhiti, loc. cit. * Dictionary, 5.1;. 

Cf. Zimmer. Altindisches Leben, 80. 

Var^a-gfa^ia, * descendant of Vrsagana,' is the patronymic 
of Asita in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ 

1 vi. 4, 33 (M&dbyatndina = vi. 5, 3 K3.nva). 

Var^agranl-putra, ' son of a female descendant of Vrsagana,' 
is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Gautami-putra in the 
last Varn^a (list of teachers) in the Madhyamdina recension 
of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (vi. 4, 31). 

Var^a-graiiiya, 'descendant of Vrsagana,' is the name of a 
teacher in the Vamsa Brahmana.^ 

^ Indische Studien, 4, 372 ; NidSLna Sutra, ii. 9 ; vi. 7, etc. Cf. Garbe, 
Sdijikkya Philosophie, 36. 



Vapa-gipa, 'descendant of Vrsagir,' is the patronymic of 
Ambaria, j^ra^va, Bhayamana, Sahadeva, and Suradhas, in 

the Rigveda (i. 100, 17). 

Cf. Ladwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 113. 

Varna, ' descendant of Vrsan or Vrsni or Vrsna,' is the 
patronymic of Gobala^ and Barku,^ and of Aikvaka.3 

where the K&nva recension (iv, i, 4) 
has a varia lectio V&rniui. 

^ JaiminTya Upanisad Brfthmana, 
' 5. 4- 



1 Taittiriya BrUhmana, iii. n. g> 3 ; 
Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana, i. 6, i. 

^ ^atapatha Brahmana, i. i, i, 10; 
BrhadcLranyaka Upanisad, iv. i, 8, 



Vafni-vrddha, * descendant of Vrsnivrddha,' is the patro- 
nymic of Ula in the Kausitaki Brahmana (vii. 4). 

Varrieya, * descendant of Vr?ni,' is the patronymic of tu^ 
in the Taittiriya Brahmana (iii. 10, 9, 15). 
VOL. II. 19 



290 



SIEVE STRAP KING'S WIFE 



[ Vftr^nya 



Varnya, ' descendant of Vrsni,' is the patronymic of a man 
in the ^atapatha Brahmana.^ 

* iii. I, 1, 4. The Kanva recension omits the name. See Eggeling Sacred 
Books oj the East, 26, 2, n. 2. 



Varma. See Vapna. 



Vala denotes a ' hair sieve ' in the later Sarnhitas and he 
Brahmanas.^ 

1 Vajasaneyi Samhita, xix. 88; Satapatha Brahmana, xii. 7, 3, 11; 8, i, 
14, etc. 



Vala-khilya is the term applied in the Brahmanas^ to the 
supplementary hymns inserted after Rigveda viii. 48. The 
Rsis of these hymns are so named in the Taittiriya Aranyaka.^ 
Cf. 2. Khila. 



1 Aitareya Brahmana, v, 15, i. 3. 4 ; 
vi, 24, I. 4. 5. 10, II ; Kausitaki Brah- 
mana, XXX. 4. 8 ; Pancavim^a Brah- 
mana, xiii. II, 3; xiv. 5, 4; Aitareya 
Aranyaka, v. 2, 4, etc. ; Gopatha 
Brahmana, ii. 6, 9. 

' i. 23. 



Cf, Max Miiller, Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, 220 ; Sacred Boohs oj the 
East, 32, xlvi et seq. ; BrhaddevatS, 
vi. 84 et seq., with Macdonell's notes; 
Scheftelowitz, Die Apokryphen des 
Rgveda, 35 et seq. 



Vala-daman denotes a * horse-hair strap ' in the Satapatha 
Brahmana (v. 3, i, 10). 

ValiiSikhayani is the name of a teacher in the Sankhayana 
Aranyaka.^ 

1 vii. 21. Cf. Keith, S&nhhSyana Aranyaka, 49, n. 5. 



Vavata is in the Brahmanas^ the name of the king's 
* favourite ' wife, inferior to the Mahii only. 

1 Aitareya Br&hmana, iii. 22, i. 7; I patha BrShmana, xiii. 2, *] 5 4, i 8; 
Taittiriya Br&hmana, i. 7, 3, 3 ; ^ata- | 5, 2, 6, etc. 



Vasas ] COW KNIFE WASHERMAN CLOTHING 



291 



Vaiita in the Atharvaveda^ and later ^ denotes a cow desiring 
the bull. 

1 V. 20, 2. I tiriya BrShmana, i. i, g, g; Aitareya 

' Kclthaka Saiphiti, xiii. 4; Tait- | BrS,hmana, vi. 18, 10; 21, 14, etc. 



Vail is mentioned in the Rigveda both as a weapon of the 
Maruts* and as held by the god Tvastr,^ as well as in other 
mythical surroundings.^ It is used, however, in the Atharva- 
veda"* of the carpenter's knife ; here it may mean * awl,' in 
accordance with Sayana's view. 



i. 37, 2 ; 88. 3 ; v. 53. 4. 

viii. 2g, 3. 

* viii. 12, 12; X. 53, 10; loi, 10 (of 
the stones with which the Soma plant 
is manipulated), all doubtful passages. 



* X. 6, 3 (where the manuscripts all 
have vasyd : perhaps this is really a 
different word). 

^ Zimmer, Altindisckes Leben, 301. 



Vasah-palpuli, ' washer of clothes,' is the name of one of 
the victims at the Purusamedha ('human sacrifice') in the 
Yajurveda.^ 

1 Vajasaneyi Samhit&, xxx. 12 ; Taittirtya BrShmana, iii. 4, 7, i. 



Vasas is the most usual word in the Rigveda^ and later ^ for 
' clothing.' Clothes were often woven of sheep's wool (cf, 
Onnia) ; the god Pusan is called a ' weaver of garments ' (vdso- 
vaya)' because of his connexion with the fashioning of forms. 
The garments worn were often embroidered (cf. PeiSas), and 
the Maruts are described as wearing mantles adorned with 
gold."* When the ' giver of garments ' {vdso-dd) '^ is mentioned 
along with the giver of horses and gold, ornamental garments are 
probably meant. There are several references in the Rigveda 
to the Indians' love of ornament, which is attested by Megas- 



1 i. 34, I ; 115, 4; 162, 16; viii. 3, 
24 ; X. 26, 6 ; 102, 2, etc. 

2 Taittiriya Saqihiti, vi. i, g, 7 ; 
II, 2; vajasaneyi SamhitS, ii. 32; 
xi. 40 ; Aitareya Brihmana, i. 3, etc. 
A garment of Ku^ grass is mentioned 
in Satapatha Br3.hmana, v. 2, i, 8, as 
worn by the wife of the sacrificer at 
the consecration, but it is doubtful 



whether such dresses were normally 
worn. Cf. also kausumbha-paridhdna, 
'a silken garment,' Saiikhayana Aran- 
yaka, xi. 4. 
Rv. x. 26, 6. 

* Rv. v. 55, 6 (hiranyay&H atkOn). 

* Rv. X. 107, 2. Cf. vastra-dd, v. 24, 8. 
Kv. i. 85, I ; g2, 4 ; ix. g6, i ; 

X. I, 6. 

19 2 



292 THREE KINDS OF GARMENT TEACHERS [ Va8i9tlia 

thenes for his dayJ The Rigveda also presents epithets like 
su-vasana^ and sM-ra6/ii, implying that garments were becoming 
or well-fitting. 

The Vedic Indian seems often to have worn three garments 
an undergarment (c/. Nivi),^ a garment," and an over- 
garment (cf. Adhivasa),^- which was presumably a mantle, and 
for which the names Atka and Drapi also seem to be used. 
This accords with the description of the sacrificial garments 
given in the Satapatha Brahmana,^^ which comprise a Tarpya, 
perhaps a * silken undergarment '; secondly, a garment of 
undyed wool, and then a mantle, while the ends of the turban, 
after being tied behind the neck, are brought forward and 
tucked away in front. The last point would hardly accord 
with the usual practice in ordinary life, but seems to be a 
special sacrificial ritual act. A similar sort of garments in the 
case of women appears to be alluded to in the Atharvaveda" 
and the Satapatha Brahmana.^ There is nothing to show 
exactly what differences there were between male and female 
costume, nor what was exactly the nature of the clothes in 
either case. 

It is important to note that the Vedic Indian evidently 
assumed that all civilized persons other than inspired Munis 
would wear clothing of some sort.^ 

See also Vasana, Vastra, Otu, Tantu. For the use of skin 
garments, see Mala. 

' See Strabo, p. 709 ; Arrian, Indica, \ " V&sas in the narrower sense, Av. 



V. 9. 
Rv, ix. 97, 50. 



viii. 2, i6. 
" Rv. i. 140, 9; 162, 16; X. 5, 4. 



With atka, vi. 29, 3 ; x. 123, 7. " v. 3, 5, 20 et seq. See Eggeling, 

this word may possibly indicate that Sacred Books of the East, ^i,S$et seq. 

early Vedic dress was fitted like the " viii. 2, 16 ; xiv. 2, 50. 

Minoan style of dress, and unlike the " v. 2, i, 8. 

later Achaean style as seen in Homer ; " Cf. Satapatha Br^hmana, xi. 5, 

{cf. Lang, The World of Homer, 60 et i, i ; and iii. i, 2, 13-17, where the 

seq.). ' fact that man alone wears clothes is 

" Av. viii. 2, 16 ; xiv. 2, 50. Cf. accounted for by a silly legend. 

Taittiriya Samhita, vi. i, i, 3; Vaja- Cf. Zimmer, AUindisches Ltben, 261, 

saneyi Saiphita, iv. 10, etc. r 262. 

Vasii^tlia, 'descendant of Vasitha,' is the patronymic of 
Satyahavya, a teacher mentioned several times in the later 



Vahasa ] DRA UGHT OX^BOA CONSTRICTOR 293 

Samhitas,^ of Rauhina in the Taittiriya Aranyaka,* and of 
Caikitaneya.' Moreover, reference is made to the claim of the 
Vasisthas to be Brahman priest at the sacrifice.* A Vasistha 
is mentioned as a teacher in the Vam^a Brahmana^ and the 
Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana. 

* Taittiriya SamhitS., vi. 6, 2, 2 ; | * Taittiriya SamhitS,, iii. 5, 2, i ; 
KSthaka SamhitS., xxxiv. 17 {Indische l K3.thaka SamhitS, xxxvii. 17 ; ^ata- 
Studicn, 3, 474) ; Maitr&yani SaiphitS,, ! patha BrS.hmana, xii. 6, i, 41. See 



iii. 3, 9 ; iv. 8, 7. For his enmity to 
Atyar&ti, see Aitareya Br&hmana, 
viii. 23, 9. 10. 

' i. 12, 7. 

3 Jaiminiya Upanisad Br&bmana, 
i. 42, I ; Sadvimga BrS.hmana, iv. i ; j * iii. 15, 2 
Indische Studien, 4, 384. Cf. Gopatha 
Br&hmana, ii. 2, 10. | 



Weber, Indische Studien, lo, 34 ; Eggel- 
ing, Sacred Books of the East, 44, 212, n. 
(correcting the rendering of Delbriick, 
A Uindische Syntax, 570). 
5 Indische Studien, 4, 373. 



Vastu-pa^ya, according to Bohtlingk^ a name of a Brah- 
mana, is a mere error for Vdstupasya^ in the Jaiminiya 
BrShmana.^ 

1 Dictionary, s.r., supplement 6. 

2 Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 26, 61. 
"* iii. 120. 



Vaha is found in the Rigveda (iv. 57, 4. 8) and the Atharva- 
veda (vi. 102, i) apparently denoting an ox for 'drawing' the 
plough. See also Rathavahana. 



Vahana (neut.) in the Brahmanas^ denotes a 'beast of 
burden,' or occasionally 2 a * cart.' Cf. Rathavahana. 

1 Aitareya Brthmana, iv. 9, 4; Satapatba Brahmana, i. 8, 2, 9 ; ii. i, 4, 4 ; 
iv. 4, 4, 10. 

2 Satapatba Br3.hmana, ix. 4, 2, 11. 



Vahasa, ' boa constrictor,' is included in the list of victims at 
the Asvamedha (* horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ 

1 Taittiriya Sanihiti, v. 5, 13, i ; I Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 34. Cf. 
14, I ; Maitrayani Saiphit&, iii. 14, 15 : | Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 94. 



294 A BIRD A TREE CATARRH CLUB TEACHERS [ Vi 
Vi in the Rigveda,^ and sometimes later,* denotes * bird.' 

* ii. ag, 3 ; 38, 7 ; vi. 64, 6, etc. ' Paficavim^ BrShmana, v. 6, 15, etc. 

C/. Zimmer, Altindisches Ltbtn, 87. 

Vi-kakara is the name of some bird, a victim at the A^va- 
medha (* horse sacrifice ') according to the Vajasaneyi Samhita.^ 

* xxiv. 20. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches \ xx. 14, 5, vikira (with variants vikikira, 
Ltben, 94 ; in Apastamba ^rauta SQtra, I vikakara) is read. 



Vi-kankata is the name of a tree {Flacourtia sapida), often 
mentioned in the later Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas.^ 

1 Taittiriya Saiphita, iii. 5, 7, 3 ; | ' ^atapatha Brahmana, ii. 2, 4, 10 ; 
vi. 4, 10, 5; K&thaka SamhitS., xix. 10; 
Maitr&yani Samhit^, iii. i, 9. Cf. Av. 
xi. 10, 3. 



v. 2, 4, 18, etc. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 59. 



Vi-kraya is found in the Atharvaveda (iii. 15, 4) and the 
Nirukta (iii. 4) denoting * sale.' See Kraya. 

Vi-klindu is the name of a disease in the Atharvaveda.^ 
Bloomfield^ suggests * catarrh.' 

1 xii. 4, 5. 2 Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 658. 

Vi-ghana in the Taittiriya Samhita^ seems to denote 'club.' 

^ iii. 2, 4, I. The Av., vii. 28, i, has drughaiia. 



Vi-cakana Tandya is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
Gardabhimukha in the Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

^ Indische Studien, 4. 373. 

Vi-carin Kabandhi (* descendant of Kabandha ') is the name 
of a mythical teacher in the Gopatha Brahmana.^ 

1 i. 2, 9. 18. Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 2, 176, n. 4 ; Bloomfield, 
Atharvaveda, iit, 112. 



Vitta ] 



AN ASTERISMA RIVER WEALTH 



295 



Vi-cpt in the dual is found in three passages of the Atharva- 
veda,* where Roth* sees in the term the name of two stars, 
while in the Taittirlya Samhita^ he thinks they mean the 
Naki^atra called Mula. There can, however, be no doubt that 
the asterism is intended in all the passages.* 



1 ii. 8, I ; vi. no, 2 ; 121, 3. See 
also iii. 7, 4. 
' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.w. 

iv. 4, 10, 2. 

* Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 356; 



Whitney, Translation of the Atharva- 
veda, 361, points out that Vicrtau are 
X and t; Scorpionis, while MQla includes 
the tail as a whole. 



Vy. See 2. Ak^a. 



Vi-jamatr. See Jamatp. 



Vitasta, the most westerly of the five rivers of the Panjab, is 
only mentioned in the Rigveda^ in the Nadistuti (' Praise of 
Rivers ')* It is the Hydaspes of Alexander's historians, more 
correctly reproduced by Ptolemy as Bidaspes. The name 
appears in the Mohammedan historians corrupted to Bihat or 
Wihat, and survives in the modern Kashmiri form of Veth. 



* X, 75, 5; Nirukta, ix. 26; cf. K^ik 
Vrtti on Panini, i. 4, 31. Cf. Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, 12 ; Imperial Gazetteer 
of India, 14, 160. 



2 The rareness of the name in the 
Rigveda points to the Panjab not 
having been the seat of the activity of 
the greater part of the Vedic Indians. 



Vitta in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes 'wealth,' 'posses- 
sions.' The earth is referred to in the Taittiriya Upanisad' as 
full of riches (vittasya parnd). The doctrine that a man's 
greatness depends on his wealth is found as early as the 
Taittiriya Brahmana.* The striving after wealth (vittaisand) is 
mentioned in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad* as one of the 
things abandoned by the sage. 

1 V. 42, 9 ; X. 34, 13. I ' ii. 8. Cf. the name vasumafl found 
3 Av. xii. 3, 52 ; Taittiriya Saiphitft, in the ^&nkh&yana Aranyaka, xiii. i. 

. 5i 9. 2 ; vi. 2, 4, 3 ; Vijasaneyi Sam- j * i. 4, 7, 7. 

hits., xviii. 11. 14, etc. I > iii. 4, i ; iv. 4 26. 



296 ATEACHER SACRIFICIAL ASSEMBLY [ Vidagdha ^akalya 

Vidagfdha l^akalya is the name of a teacher, a contemporary 
and rival of Yajfiavalkya at the court of Janaka of Videha 
in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad,^ the Jaiminlya Upanisad 
Brahmana,* and the ^atapatha Brahmana.^ 

* iii. 9, i; iv. i, 17 (M&dhyarndina I ' ii.'jb {Journal of the American Oriental 
= 7 K&nva). I Society, 15, 239). 

xi. 6, 3, 3. 



Vidatha is a word of obscure sense, confined mainly to the 
Rigveda. According to Roth,^ the sense is primarily * order,' 
then the concrete body which gives orders, then * assembly ' for 
secular* or religious ends,^ or for war.* Oldenberg^ once 
thought that the main idea is * ordinance ' (from vi-dha, 
'dispose,' 'ordain'), and thence 'sacrifice.' Ludwig thinks 
that the root idea is an ' assembly,' especially of the Maghavans 
and the Brahmins. Geldner"^ considers that the word pri- 
marily means * knowledge,' * wisdom,' ' priestly lore,' then 
' sacrifice ' and * spiritual authority.' Bloomfield, on the other 
hand, insists that Vidatha refers to the 'house' in the first 
place (from vid, * acquire '), and then to the ' sacrifice,' as 
connected with the house ; this interpretation, at any rate, 
appears to suit all the passages. The term vidathya, once^ 
applied to the king {samrdt), might seem to be against this 
view, but it may refer to his being ' rich in homesteads '; and 
the connexion of the woman with the Vidatha, as opposed to 



1 Rv. i. 31, 6; 117, 25; iii. i, 18; 
27. 7 ; iv. 38, 4 ; vi. 8, i ; x. 85, 26 ; 
92, 2 ; Av. iv. 25, I ; v. 20, 12 ; xviii, 3, 
70, etc. 

* ii. 1, 4; 27, 12. 17; iii. 38, 5. 6; 
V. 63, 2 ; vii. 66, 10 ; viii. 39, i ; x. 12, 7 ; 
Av. xvii. I, 15. So Whitney renders 
the word in Av. i. 13, 4, as 'council,' 
Translation of the Atharvavedai, 15. 

* Rv. i. 60, I ; ii. 4, 8 ; 39, 1 ; iii. i, i ; 
56, 8, etc. 

* Rv. L 166, 2; 167, 6; v. 59, 2, 
etc. 

* Sacred Books of the East, 46, 26 
et seq. But in Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
MorgenldndischeH Gesellscha/t, 54, 609-61 1 , 



he falls back on the derivation from 
vidk, ' worship.' Cf. Macdonell, Vedic 
Grammar, p. 23, n. 10. 

' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 259 
et uq. 

f Vtdische Studien, 1, 147; Zeitschrift 
der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesell- 
schaft, 52, 757 ; Rigveda, Glossar, 161. 

8 Journal of the A merican Oriental 
Society, 19, 12 et seq. 

* See Rigveda, x. 85, 26. 27 (of the 
wife in the marriage ritual); i. 117, 
25 ; ii. I, 6 ; Av. xviii. 3, 70. 

1" iv. 27, 2. In i. 91, 20 ; 167, 3 ; 
Av. XX. 128, I, vidathya, ' having an 
establishment,' seems adequate. 



Vidigaya ] A SEER A LOCALITY A TEACHER A BIRD 297 

the Sabha, tells in favour " of Bloomfield's explanation. That 
the word ever denotes an asylum, like the house of the 
.'^rahmin/2 as Ludwig^^ suggests, is doubtful." 

" C/. Av. vii. 38, 4 ; MaitrayanI Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Ltben, 177, 

Samhitcl, iv. 7, 4. , who suggests that Vidatha sometimes 

1' ^atapatha Brahmana, v. 3, i, 13, ' means (e.g., in vidathepi praiaitah, Rv. 

with K3.ty&yana Srauta Satra, xv. 3, j ii. 27, 12) a smaller assembly than the 

35. I Samiti. But we have no ground to be 

^3 Op. cit.f 3, 261. I certain that such smaller assemblies 

1* Rv. i. 31, 6; V. 62, 6; Aitareya ever existed at an early date either 

Brthmana, i. 30, 27. 28, certainly does in India or elsewhere among Aryan 

not show this clearly. peoples. 

Vidanvant Bharg-ava (' descendant of BhrgTi ') is mentioned 
as the seer of a Saman or chant in the Pancavirnsa Brahmana^ 
and in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana.^ 

1 xiii. II, 10. * 

- iii. 159 et seq. (Journal of the American Oriental Society, 26, 64). 

Vidarbha occurs in the earlier Vedic literature as the name 
of a place only in the Jaiminiya Upanisad BrShmana,^ where 
its Hacalas (perhaps a species of dog) are said to kill tigers. 

* ii. 440 (Journal of the American Oriental Society, 19, 103, n. 3). 

Vidarbhl-Kauindinffya is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
Vatsanapat in the first two Vamsas (lists of teachers) of the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ 

1 ii. 5, 22 ; iv. 5, 28 (Madhyaipdina = ii. 6, 3 ; iv. 6, 3 K&nva). 

Vi-di^ denotes^ an * intermediate quarter.' See Dii. 

. 1 Vajasaneyi Samhita, vi. 19 ; .Sadvitn^ BrShmana, iv. 4. 

Vidigaya is the name of an animal in the Taittiriya Sam- 
hita^ and the Taittiriya Brahmana.^ The commentary on the 
former takes it as a kind of cock (kukkiita-viiesa) ^ that on the 
latter as a white heron (sveta-baka). 

^ V. 6, 22, I. * iii. 9, 9. 3 ; Apastamba Srauta Satra, xx. 22, 13. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 94. 



298 A KING A PEOPLE [ Videgha 

Videgha is the name of a man, Mathava, in the ^atapatha 
BrJhmana.^ It is legitimate to assume* that it is a name given 
to him as king of the Videghas who are the later Videhas. 



1 i. 4, I, lo et seq. 

" Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the 
East, 12, xli, n. 4 ; 104, n. ; Weber, 



Indische Studien, i, 170 ; IndischeStreiftn, 
I, 13; Indian Literature, 134. 



Videha is the name of a people who are not mentioned 
before the Brahmana period. In the ^atapatha BrShmana^ 
the legend of Videgha Mathava preserves clearly a tradition 
that in Videha culture came from the Brahmins of the West, 
and that Kosala was brahminized before Videha. The Videhas, 
however, derived some fame later from the culture of their king 
Janaka,who figures in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad^ as one of 
the leading patrons of the Brahman doctrine. In the Kausitaki 
Upanisad^ the Videhas are joined with the KaiSis ; in the list of 
peoples in the Aitareya Brahmana^ the Videhas are passed 
over, probably because, with Kosala and Ka^i, they are included 
in the term Pracyas, ' easterners.' Again, in the Sahkhayana 
Srauta Sutra^ it is recorded that the Kasi, Kosala, and Videha 
kingdoms had each the one Purohita, Jala Jatukarnya ; and 
in another passage of the same text the connexion between 
the Videha king. Para Atnara, and the Kosala king, Hiraijya- 
nabha, is explained, while the Satapatha Brahmana'' speaks of 
Para Atnara as the Kosala king, descendant of Hiranyanabha. 

Another king of Videha was Nam! Sapya, mentioned in the 
Pancavim^a Brahmana. In the Sarnhitas of the Yajurveda* 
'cows of Videha' seem to be alluded to, though the com- 
mentator on the Taittiriya Samhita merely takes the adjective 
vaidehl as * having a splendid body ' (visista-deha-sambandhini), 
and the point of a place name in the expression is not very 
obvious. The Videhas also occur in the BaudhSyana Srauta 
Sutra * in Brahmana-like passages. 

The boundary of Kosala and Videha was the Sadanira, 



^ i. 4, I, 10 et stq. 

* iii. 8, 2, Cf. iv. 2, 6 ; 9, 30 ; Sata- 
patha Br&hmana, xi. 3, i, 2 ; 6, 2, i ; 
3, I ; Taittiriya Br&hmana, iii. 10, 9, 9. 

* iv. I. viii. 14. 



' xvi. 29, 5. " xvi. 9, n. 13. 

7 xiii. 5, 4. 4. XXV. 10, 17. 

Taittiriya Samhita, ii. i, 4, 5 ; 
Kthaka Saiphitd,, xiv. 5. 
1" ii. 5 ; xxi. 13. 



Vidhava ] SACRED KNOWLEDGE ABSCESSES WIDOW 299 



probably the modern Gandak" (the Kondochates of the Greek 
geographers), which, rising in Nepal, flows into the Ganges 
opposite Patna. Videha itself corresponds roughly to the 
modern Tirhut. 



** Cf. Imperial Gazetteer of India, 
12, 125. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Stvdien, i, 170; 
Indian Literature, 10, 33, 53, 127, 129, 
etc. ; Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 



12, xli ; Oldenberg, Buddha, 398, 399 ; 
Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 26, 37 ; 
Pargiter, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1910, 19 et seq. 



Vidya in the Atharvaveda^ and later* denotes 'knowledge,* 
especially that of the three Vedas, which are called the trayl 
vtdyd, 'the threefold knowledge,' as early as the Taittirlya 
Brahmana.' In a more special sense Vidya occurs in lists of 
objects of study in the Satapatha Brahmana.* What exactly 
the expression here means is uncertain : Sayana^ suggests the 
philosophic systems ; Geldner the first Brahmanas ; and 
Eggeling,'^ more probably, special sciences like the Sarpavidya 
or the Viavidya. 



1 vi. 116, I ; xi. 7, 10 ; 8, 3. 

Taittirlya Samhita, ii. i, 2, 8 ; 
V. I, 7, 2 ; Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 23, 
8. 9, etc. 

3 iii. 10, II, 5. Cf. Satapatha Brah- 
mana, V. 5, 5, 6, etc. 



* xi. 5, 6, 8 ; B]rhadaranyaka Upani- 
sad, ii. 4, 10 ; iv. 5, 11. 

* On Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 5, 6, 8. 
' Vedischt Studien, i, 290, n. 4. 

' Sacred Books of the East, 44, 98, 
n. 2. 



Vidradha denotes a disease, * abscesses,' in the Atharvaveda.^ 
According to Zimmer,^ it was a symptom accompanying 
Yakima. Later it is called Vidradhi. Ludwig^ compares the 
obscure Vidradha of the Rigveda,* where, however, the sense of 
the word is very uncertain.^ 



* vL 127, I ; ix. 8, 20. 

2 Altindisches Leben, 386. 

3 Translation of the Rigveda, 5, 93. 
Cf. Roth, Nirukta, Erlduterungen, 42, 43. 

* iv. 32, 23. 

* Oldenberg, Rgveda-Noten, i, 295. 



Cf, Wise, System of Hindu Medicine, 
210 ; Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharva- 
veda, 531, 602 ; Atharvaveda, 60 ; Groh- 
mann, Indische Studien, 9, 397 ; Whitney, 
Translation of the Atharvaveda, 376. 



Vidhava denotes 'widow' as the 'desolate one,' from the 
root vidh, ' be bereft.' The masculine vidhava is conjectured 



300 MOON DISAPPEARING RIVER FILTER RODS [ Vidhu 

by Roth^ in a difficult passage of the Rigveda,* where the 
received text presents the apparent false concord vidhantarrc 
vidhavdm, in which he sees a metrical lengthening for vidhavam, 
' the sacrificing widower.' Ludwig in his version takes vidh- 
antam as equivalent to a feminine, while Delbrilck^ prefers 

the worshipper and the widow.' Possibly ' the widower and 
the widow ' may be meant ; but we know nothing of the 
mythological allusion in question, the feat being one of those 
attributed to the A^vins, and the natural reference to Gho^a as 

* husbandless ' being rendered unlikely because their feat in 
regard to her has already been mentioned a few verses before in 
the same hymn.* The word Vidhava is not of common 
occurrence.* 

* St. Petersburg Dictionary, i.v. ; so * x. 40. 5. 

also Grassmann. : ^ Rv. iv. 18, 12 ; x. 40, 2 ; Sadviipa 

* X. 40, 8. Brahmana, iii. 7 ; Nirukta, iii. 15. 
3 Die indogermanischtnVerwandtschafts- 

namen, 443. I 

Vidhu seems clearly to mean (as it does in the post-Vedic 
language) the * moon * in a passage of the Rigveda,^ where it is 
alluded to as * wandering solitary in the midst of many ' 
{vidhum dadranam samane bahundm). 



^ ^- 55 5 ; Nirukta, xiv. 18. Cf. 
Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 1, 465. 
That the ' many ' are the Nakfatras is 



neither certain nor even probable. The 
stars are an adequate explanation. 



Vi-na^ana, 'disappearance,' is the name of the place where 
the Sarasvati is lost in the sands of the desert. It is 
mentioned in the Pancavim^a Brahmana^ and the Jaiminiya 
Upanisad Brahmana.2 The locality is the Patiala district of 
the Panjab.3 Cf. PIaka Praspavana. 

* XXV. 10, 6; Katyiyana ^rauta Sotra, 
xxiv. 5, 30 ; LatySyana ^rauta Sutra, 
X. 15, I ; Baudhayana Dharma SQtra, 
i. 1, 2, 12. Cf. Biihler, Sacred Books of 
the East, 14, 2, 147. 



2 iv. 26. 

3 Cf. Imperial Gazetteer of India, 22, 
97- 



Vip in several passages of the Rigveda^ refers, according to 
Roth,* to the rods which form the bottom of the Soma filter, 
* ix. 3, 2; 65, 12 ; 99, I. 2 St Petersburg Dictionary, 5. v. 



Vipa^ ] ROUGH VEHICLE TEACHERS A PAN JAB RIVER 301 



and on which the straining cloth is stretched. But this 
explanation is very doubtful.^ 



3 Hillebrandt, Vediiche Mythologie, i, 
203 ; Bergaigne, Religion Vidique, i, v ; 
Oldenberg. Zeitschrift dtr Deutschm 



Morgenldndischen Geulluha/t, 54, 171 ; 
Geldner, Vedische Studien, 3, 97-110. 



Vi-patha, in the description of the Vratya,^ denotes a 
vehicle suited for rough roads. Cf. Anas. 



1 Av. XV. 2, I ; Pancavim^ Brah- 
mana, xvii. i, 14 ; LAtyayana ^rauta 
Sutra, viii. 6, 9 ; Anupada Sutra, v. 4 ; 
Katyelyana ^rauta SQtra, xxii. 4, 11 ; 



Apastamba Srauta SQtra, xxil. 5, 5 ; 
cf. vii. 3, 8. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 
1.44- 



1. Vipa^cit Dpdha-jayanta Lauhitya (* descendant of 
Lohita ') is mentioned in the Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana 
(iii. 42, i) as the pupil of Daka Jayanta Lauhitya. 

2. Vipa^Scit ^akuni-mitra Para^arya (' descendant of Para- 
iara') is the name of a teacher, pupil of Aadha Uttara Para- 
6arya, in a Vamsa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminlya Upanisad 
Brahmana (iii. 41, i). 



Vi-pa^ (' fetterless ') is the name of a river mentioned twice in 
the Rigveda.-^ It is the modern Beas in the Panjab, the Hyphasis, 
Hypanis or Bipasis of the Greeks. Its small importance for the 
Vedic Indians is indicated by the fact that it is never mentioned 
in the earlier Vedic literature except in two hymns of the Rigveda. 
The Nirukta^ preserves the notice that its earlier name was 
Urunjipa, while the Gopatha Brahmana* places in the middle 
of it the Vasistha-sildfi. Panini^ mentions the name, which 
otherwise in post- Vedic literature appears as Vipa^a. This 
river has changed its course considerably since ancient times.^ 



* iii. 33, I. 3; iv. 30. II. Y&ska, 
Nirukta, xi. 48, sees in the latter 
passage an adjective vi-paiin, but this 
is verj' improbable. See Oldenberg, 
RgvedaSoten, i, 294. 

^ ix. 26. , The VipL:> is also mentioned 



in connexion with the iSntadri in ii. 24 ; 
ix. 36. 



u 2, 7. 



IV. 2, 74. 



8 See Imperial Gazetteer of India, 7. 
138 (Beas). 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindischu L$ben, 11. 



303 TEACHERS ROUGH CART A STREAM [ Vipujana Sauraki 

Vi-pi\jana iSaurSki* or SaurSki^ is the name of a teacher in 
the Yajurveda Samhitas. 

1 Maitr&yanl Sarpbita, iii. I, 3. ^ K&tbaka SatphiUl, xxvii. 5. 

Viprthu in the Sarikhayana Srauta Sutra (xiv. 72, 3) is 
apparently equivalent to the Vipatha, * rough cart,' of other 
texts. It is probably a mere blunder. 

Vipra seems to mean * inspired singer * (from vip, ' quiver ') in 
the Rigveda^ and later.^ More especially in the later texts ^ it 
denotes a 'learned Brahmin.' In the epic style it comes to 
mean no more than * Brahmin.' 

1 i. 129, 2. II ; 162, 7 ; iv. 26, i, etc. Vijasaneyi Saiphita, ix. 4 ; Satapatha 
Seven are spoken of in iii. 7, 7 ; 31, 5 ; j Brahmana, i. 4, 2, 7, etc. 

iv. 2, 15, etc ! 3 Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 5, 3, 12, 

2 Taittiriya Sanihita, ii. 5, 9, i ; I etc. 

Vipra-citti^ or Vipra-jitti2 is the name of a teacher in 
the first two Vamsas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadaranyaka 
Upanisad. 

* ii, 6, 3 ; iv. 6, 3 Kanva. 2 jj^ ^^ 22 ; iv. 5, 28 Madhyamdina. 

Vipra-jana Sauraki is the form of the name of Vipujana 
given by the St. Petersburg Dictionaries for the Kathaka 
Sarnhita.^ 

* xxvii. 5 ; Weber, Indische Studien, 3, 477, gives this form, which is due to 
a misreading of the ligature for u. 

Viball is found once in the Rigveda/ apparently as the name 
of an unknown stream. 

1 iv. 30, 12. Cf. Zimraer, Altindisches Leben, 12, 18. 

Vibhaijdaka Ka^yapa (' descendant of Ka^yapa ') is the name 
of a teacher, a pupil of R^yai^rriffa. in the Varn^a Brahmana.^ 

* Indische Studien, 4, 374. Cf. St I which is the more correct spelling 
Petersburg Dictionary, 5. r. VibhUncfaka, \ (Bohtlingk, Dictionary, s.v.). 



Vimada ] 



NAMES DICING NUT 



303 



Vi-bhindu is the name of a sacrificer in the Rigveda 
(viii. 2, ^i). 
f-l 

C/. Hopkins, Journal 0/ the AmerUan Oriental Society, 17, 59. 



Vibhinduka occurs in the Pancavimsa Brahmana^ as the 
name of a man or a demon ^ from whom Medhatithi drove 
away the cows. Hopkins' is inclined to read Vaibhinduka 
as a patronymic of Medhatithi. Cf. Vibhindukiya. 



* XV. 10, II. 

2 Cf. Sayana, a.l. 



3 Transactions of the Connecticut 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, 15, 60, n. i. 



Vibhindukiya is the name of a group of priests whose Sattra 
is mentioned in the Jaiminiya TI|iriiiiurl Brahmana.^ 

' iii. 233 {Journal of the American Oriental Society, 18, 38). 



Vibhitaka^ and Vibhidaka,^ the latter being the old form, 
denote a large tree, the Terminalia bellerica, the nut of which 
was used in dicing.^ The wood was also used for making the 
sacrificial fire burn.* 



1 This form is the regular one after 
the Rigveda, 

2 Rv. vii. 86, 6 ; x, 34, i. 

3 Rv., loc. cit. See 2. Akfa. 

* Taittiriya SamhitS, ii. i, 5, 8 ; 7, 3. 



Cf. Satapatha Br3,hmana, xiii. 8, i, 16. 
etc. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 62 ; 
Roth, Gurupajdkaumudl, 1-4 ; LQders, 
Das Wurfelspiel im alten Indien, 17-19. 



I. Vi-mada is credited by the Anukramani (Index) with the 
authorship of a number of hymns of the Rigveda.^ This 
attribution is supported by the occurrence in this group of the 
name of the seer,^ and once of his family, the Vimadas,^ besides 
the repeated refrain* vi vo made, * in your carouses.' Vimada 
is occasionally alluded to later.* 



Rv. X. 20-26. 

' Rv. X. 20, 10 ; 23, 7. 

3 Rv. X. 23, 6. 



* Rv. X. 21, 1-8 ; 24, 1-3. 
Av. iv. 29, 4 ; Aitareya BrShmana, 
V. 5. I- 



304 NAMES UNYOKER SOVEREIGN REMEDY [ Vimada 

2. Vimada is mentioned in several passages of the Rigveda^ 
as a prot^g^ of the Asvins, who gave him a wife, Kamadyu. 
His identity with the preceding is improbable. 

* i. 5t, 3 ; 112, 19 ; 116, i ; 117, 20; 3, 105, has inferred that Vimada and 
* 39. 7 ; 65i ^2. From viii. 9, 15, | Vatsa were identical. 
Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, | 



Vi-mukta (lit., 'secreted'), 'pearl,' is found in the late 
Sadvim^a Brahmana (v. 6). 



Vi-moktj* in the list of victims at the Purusamedha^ 
( human sacrifice ') denotes one who unharnesses horses from 
the chariot, as opposed to Yoktr, * one who yokes.' The 
corresponding verbal noun Vimocana, * unyoking,' is often 
found.^ 



1 Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxx. 14 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brihrnana, iii. 4, 10, i (c/. vimoktrl, 
used metaphorically, ibid., ilL 7, 14, i). 



2 Rv. iii, 53, 5, 20 ; iv. 46, 7, etc. 
Taittiriya SaiphitS.. vii. 5, 1,5, etc. 



Vi-raj as a title of royalty is mentioned several times in the 
Rigveda,^ but only in a metaphorical sense. As an actual title, 
it is asserted in the Aitareya Brahmana^ to be used by the 
Uttara Kurus and the Uttara Madras. 

* i, 188, 5 ; ix. 96, 18 ; x. 166, i, etc. ; Av. xii. 3, 11 ; xiv. 2, 15, etc, 
viii. 14, 3. 



Vi-rupa is the name of an Angfirasa who is twice mentioned 
in the Rigveda,^ and to whom certain hymns are attributed by 
the AnukramanI (Index). 



2 viii. 43 et seq. ; 64. "^ 



^ 45. 3 ; viii. 75, 6. 

Viligi denotes a kind of snake in the Atharvaveda (v. 13, 7). 



Vllita-bheaja in the Atharvaveda (Paippalada, xx. 5, 2) 
denotes a remedy for a dislocation or a sprain. 



Vii ] ANEMIA YOKE PLAITED WORK MARRIAGE 305 



Vi-lohita is the name of a disease mentioned in the Athar- 
vaveda.^ Bloomfield^ thinks that ' flow of blood from the nose * 
is meant; Henry ^ renders it 'decomposition of the blood'; 
and Whitney* has 'anaemia.' 



^ ix. 8, I ; xii. 4, 4 
' Hymns 0/ the Atharvaveda, 657. 
3 Les livres viii. et ix. de I' Atharvaveda, 
105, 142. 



< Translation of the Atharvaveda, 
549. 



Vi-vadha or Vl-vadha seems to denote a yoke borne on the 
shoulders to enable one to carry a weight. But it is found in 
the Brahmanas used only metaphorically in such phrases as 
vi-vivadha,^ 'with the weight unequally distributed,' and sa- 
vivadhatd,^ ' equality of burden.' 



* Taittiriya Samhita, vii. 2, 5, 2 ; 
7, 3 ; mvUvadha, PancavimSa Brahmana, 
iv. 5, ig; ubhayato - vlvadha, Kathaka 
Samhita, xxvii. 10. 



2 Aitareya Brahmana, viii. i, 4 ; 
PancavimSa Brahmana, xiv. i, 10; 
sa-vtvadha-tva, v. i, 11 ; xxii. 5, 7, etc. 



Vi-vayana denotes in the Brahmanas * plaited work,' such as 
that used in a couch (Asandi). 

1 Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 5, 3:1 the SQtras vivana has the same sense: 
^atapatba Brahmana, xii. 8, 3, 6. In | Latyayana Sraata SQtra, iii. 12, i, etc. 



Vi-vaha, marriage,' is mentioned in the Atharvaveda^ and 
later.' See Pati. 



1 xii. I, 24; xiv. 2, 65. The Rig- 
vedic term is Vahatu. 
' Taittiilya Saiiihita, vii. 2, 8, 7 ; 



Kathaka Saiphita, xxv. 3 ; Paiicaviip^ 
Brahmana, vii. 10, 4 ; Aitareya Brah- 
mana, iv. 27, 5, and often in the Sutras. 



Wii is an expression of somewhat doubtful significance. In 
many passages of the Rigveda^ the sense of 'settlement' or 
' dwelling ' is adequate and probable, since the root vis means 
to ' enter ' or ' settle.' In other passages, where the Visah 

^ iv. 4. 3 ; 37. I ; V. 3, 5 ; vi. 21, 4 ; 48, 8 ; vU. 56, Z2 ; 61, 3 ; 70, 3 ; 104, 18 ; 
x. 91, 2, etc. 

VOL. H. 20 



3o6 



THE PEOPLE 



[ VU 



stand in relation to a prince, the term must mean 'subject';* 
so, for example, when the people of Tr^askanda' or of the 
Tjrtsus are mentioned.^ Again, in some passages^ the general 
sense of ' people ' is adequate ; as when the Rigveda speaks of 
the 'Aryan people,'* or the 'divine people,''' or the * Dasa 
people,' and so on. 

Sometimes, however, the Vi^ appear in a more special sense 
as a subdivision of the Jana or whole people. This is, how- 
ever, not common, for in most passages one or other of the 
senses given above is quite possible. Moreover, it is very 
difficult to decide whether the Vi^ as a subdivision of the Jana 
is to be considered as being a local subdivision (canton) or a 
blood kinship equivalent to a clan in the large sense of the 
word, while the relation of the Vi^ to the Grama or to the 
Gotra is quite uncertain. In one passage of the Atharvaveda^ 
the Vi^ah are mentioned along with the sabandhavah or relatives, 
but no definite conclusion can be drawn from that fact. Nor 
does the analogy of the Roman curia or the Greek ^prjrpr) throw 
much light, as these institutions are themselves of obscure 
character, and the parallelism need not be cogent. It is, at 
any rate, possible that the Vi^ may in some cases have been no 
more than a Gotra or clan, or different clans may sometimes 



2 Rv. iv. 50, 8 ; vi. 8, 4 ; x. 124, 8 ; 
173, 6 ; Av, iii. 4, i ; iv. 8, 4 ; 22, i, 3 ; 
Taittiriya Saqihita, iii. 2, 8, 6; Vaja- 
saneyi SaqihiUl, viii. 46 ; Satapatha 
Br^hmana, i. 8, 2, 17 ; iv. 2, i, 3 ; 
V. 3, 3. 12 ; 4, 2. 3 ; x. 6, 2, i ; xiii. 6, 
2, 8; Kausitaki Upanisad, iv. 12, etc. 
Many of the passages cited under 
note 1 1 may also belong here, while in 
Av, iii. 4, 1, etc., reference to the cantons 
as electing a king has been seen; but 
see B&jan and cf. Pischel, Vedische 
Studien, i, 179; Geldner, Vedische Studien, 
2, 303 ; Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 13, 113. 

Rv. i. 172, 3. 

Rv, vii. 33, 6 ; Geldner, op. cit., 136, 

E.g., Rv, vi, I, 8; 26, i; viii, 71, 11; 
manufo viiah, vi, 14, 2 ; viii. 23, 13 ; 
manuf'th, X. 80, 6, etc. 

Rv. X. II, 4. 



' Rv. iii, 34, 2 ; Av, vi, 98, 2 ; Vija- 
saneyi SaiphitSL, xvii, 86. 

8 Rv. iv. 28, 4 ; vi. 25, 2 ; adevth, 
viii. 96, 15 ; asihnih, vii. 5, 3, etc, 

" Rv. ii, 26, 3, where it is opposed 
to jana, janman, and putrah; x. 84, 4, 
where in battle viiam-viiam apparently 
refers to divisions of the host {cf. also 
iv. 24, 4, viio yudhmdh) ; x. 91, 2, where 
it is opposed to grha and jana; Av. 
xiv, 2, 27, where grhebhyah is followed 
by asyai sarvasyai viie, which must mean 
a division less than a whole people. 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 159, reckons 
here Rv. i. 172, 3 ; vii. 33, 6 ; ix. 7, 5 ; 
X. 124, 8 ; 173, I ; but these cases and 
many others are rather instances of 
' subjects ' than of a division of the 
tribe such as ' canton.' 

'" XV. 8, 2. 3, Cf. xiv. 2, 27, and 
Rv. X. 91, 2, in n. 9. 



Vi^axa ] 



THE THIRD CLASS A DISEASE 



307 



have made up a Vi^, while GrSma is more definitely, perhaps, a 
local designation. But the Vedic evidence is quite inconclusive." 
Cf. Vi^pati. 

In the later period the sense of Vi^ is definitely restricted in 
some cases ^2 to denote the third of the classes of the Vedic 
polity, the people or clansmen as opposed to the nobles (K^atra, 
Katriya) and the priests (Brahman, Brahmaija). For the 
j)osition of this class, see VaiiSya. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 15 
et seq. ; Schrader, Prehistoric A ntiquities, 
800 et seq. ; Macdonell, Sanskrit Litera- 
ture, 158; wonSchroed&TflndiensLiteratur 
und Cultur, 32, 33 ; St. Petersburg Dic- 
tionary, s.v. For the Roman curia, 
which was apparently a collection of 
genies, perhaps local, cf. Mommsen, 
History of Rome, i, 72 et uq. ; Romische 
Forschungen, i, 140-150; Romisches Stoats- 
recht. 3, 9 ; Taylor, History of Rome, 11, 
12 ; Smith, Dictionary of Antiquities, i, 
576 ; Cuq, Les institutions juridiques des 
Remains, 30-36. For the Greek Phratria, 
which was probably similar in char- 
acter, consisting of a union of yivri, see 
Dictionary of Antiquities, 2, 876 et seq. ; 
Greenidge, Greek Constitutional History, 
128 et seq. ; Bury, History of Greece, 69, 
70 ; Gilbert, Greek Constitutional Antiqui- 
ties, I, 104 et seq., 210. For the English 
hundreds, and the supposed analogy of 
the pagi of Tacitus, see the references 
in Medley, English Constitutional History* 
318 et seq. 



^^ The Vi may have been originally 
a clan settled in one place : there is 
no passage where ' Gotra ' would not 
probably make sense; Rv. ii, 26, 3, 
cannot be pressed unduly to distinguish 
ianman and Wii. Compare the phrase 
ased of the Maruts iardharji iardham, 
vratarn vratam, gajiarp, ganam, in Rv. 
V. 53, II, where no precise sense can 
fairly be attributed to the words, though 
Zimmer sees in them a threefold division 
of the host corresponding to Jana, ViS, 
and Grama. The rendering ' Gau ' has 
therefore little foundation. 

'2 Perhaps to this sense belong the 
numerous passages in the Brthmanas 
and later Samhit^s referring to strife 
between the Vi^ and the Ksatra, the 
clansmen and the chiefs, or the 
peasantry and the nobles e.g., Tait- 
tirlya Samhitcl, ii. 2, 11, 2; Maitriyani 
SamhitSi, ii. i, 9; iii. 3, 10; K3.thaka 
Saiphita, xix. 9 and often. See also 
PancavimSa Brahmana, xviii. 10, 9 ; 
^atapatha Brahmana, ii. 1,3,5; viii. 7, 
2, 3 ; xiii. 2, 2, 17. 19; 9, 6; xiv. i, 3, 
27, etc. ; Chandogya Upanisad, viii. 14. 



Vi-ara is found as the name of a disease, perhaps ' tearing 
pains,' in the Atharvaveda.^ Zimmer ^ thinks that the pains in 
the limbs attendant on fever (Takman) are alluded to. Roth^ 
sees in the word the name of a demon. The view of Zimmer is 
supported by the use of visarlka, 'rending,' beside Balasa in 
another passage.'* 

* xix. 34, ID. 

Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atkar^ 



1 ii. 4, 2. 

' Altindisches Leben, 391. 

3 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



vaveda, 284. 



20- 



3o8 LORD OF THE DWELLING-VI^PALA [ Vi6akhe 

Vi-^akhe. See Nakatra. 



Vi^-pati is a word of somewhat uncertain signification, 
reflecting in this respect the nature of VIS. Zimmer holds that 
in its strict sense it denotes the head of a canton, but he admits 
that there is no passage requiring this sense, the only one 
quoted by him* being certainly indecisive. In the great 
majority of passages the word simply means the * lord of the 
dweUing,' whether used of a man or of the god Agni as the 
householder par excellence, or possibly as the fire of the Sabha or 
assembly house of the people. This sense suits even the 
passage of the Rigveda** in which the Vi^pati, as well as the 
father and the mother of a maiden,^ are to be lulled to sleep in 
order to allow her lover to approach her, for the household may 
well be deemed to have been a joint family, in which the 
Vi^pati could easily be different from the father pf the 
girl e.g.t a grandfather or uncle. In other passages the 
Vi^pati is the king as 'lord of the subject-people' (visdm), 
though here Zimmer "^ thinks reference is made to the election 
of a king.^ Or again,*^ the Vi^pati is the chief of the Vi^, 
probably in the sense of * subjects.* 



1 AUindisches Leben, 171. 

> Rv. i. 37. 8. 

3 Rv. i. 12, 2 ; 26, 7 ; 164, i ; ii. i, 8 ; 
iii. 2, 10 ; 40, 3 ; vii. 39, 2 ; ix. 108, 
10; X. 4, 4; 135, I, etc. So ViSpatni 
of the lady of the bouse, Taittiriya 
Samhita., iii. i, 11, 4. 

* vii. 55, 5 = Av, iv. 5, 6. 

' So Aufrecht, Indische Studien, 4, 
337 et seq. ; Zimmer, op. dt., 308. Cf. 
Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, 370. Geldner, 
Vedische Studien, 2, 55 et seq., accepts 
the view of the Bj-haddevata, vi. 11 
et seq. (where see Macdonell's note), 
that the hymn refers to Vasistha's 
approaching a house as a thief I The 



interpretation does not affect the sense 
of Vigpati, which here is clearly not 
the title of a cantonal chief. Wii is 
sometimes equivalent to Saj&ta ; cf. 
Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 1,3, 2. 3. 

8 Av. iii. 4, 1 ; iv. 22, 3. Perhaps Rv. 
iii. i3i 5. is so to be taken ; cf. vii. 39, 2. 
Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 18, 22. 

' Op. cit., 164, 165. 

8 But see B&jan. 

fi.g-. , Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 3, i, 3, 
where ViS must clearly be the people 
or subject class, and the ViSpati their 
chief representative ; we cannot from 
such a passage infer a formal office of 
Vi^pati even as head of the Wii. 



Vii^pala is, according to the tradition in the Rigveda,^ the 
name of a woman to whom the A^vins gave an iron {ayasl) 



1 i. 112, lo : 116 15; 117, n : 118. 8 : x. 39, 8. 



Vi^vamanas ] NAMES OF PRINCES AND SEERS 309 

limb to replace one lost by her in a contest. Pischel^ considers 
that a racing horse miraculously cured of a broken limb by the 
A^vins is meant, but this is no more than an improbable 
conjecture. 

* Vedische Studien, i, 171-173. I Religion of the Veda, 113; Oldenberg, 

Cf. Macdonell. Vedic Mythology, 52; ' Rgveda-Nottn, i. no, in. 
MniT. Sanskrit Texts, ^,2^^; Bloomfield, 

Vii^vaka, in the Rigveda^ called Krsniya (possibly 'son of 
Kf^ria ') is a prot^g^ of the A^vins, who restored to him his lost 
son, Vii?apu. See 2. Krna. 

1 i. 116, 23 ; 117, 7 ; viii 86, i ; x. 65, 12. Cf. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, 52. 

Vi^va-karman Bhauvana (' descendant of Bhuvana ') is the 
name of a quite mythical king. He is said in the Aitareya 
Brahmana to have been consecrated by KaiSyapa, to whom he 
offered the earth {i.e., presumably a piece of land) as a sacrificial 
fee; in the Satapatha Brahmana^ he performed the Sarvamedha 
(* universal sacrifice '), and made a similar offer ; in both cases 
the earth refused to be given. The story seems to contain a 
reference to the early dislike of gifts of land,^ but it cannot be 
stated with certainty that this is the meaning. 



* viii. 21, 8, 



2 



xiii. 7, I, 15. 



3 Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 47. 



Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 
44, 421, n. I ; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i", 
456, 457- 



VilSvan-tara Sau-^admana (' descendant of Susadman ') is the 
name in the Aitareya Brahmana^ of a prince who set aside the 
iSyapap^ias, his priests, and performed a sacrifice without their 
help, presumably with the aid of others. Rama Margfaveya, 
one of the Syaparnas, however, succeeded in inducing the king 
to reinstate the Syaparnas, and to give him a thousand cows. 

* vii. 27, 3. 4 ; 34, 7. 8. Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i*, 431-440 ; Eggeling, 
Sacred Boohs of the East, 43, 344, n. 

ViiSva-manas is the name of a Rsi mentioned in two passages 
of the Rigveda,^ and as a friend of Indra in the Pancavim^a 

^ viii. 23, 2 ; 24, 7. 



3IO NAMES [ Vi^vamanu^a 

Brahmana.* According to the Anukramani (Index), he was a 
descendant of Vyaiva, and the author of certain hymns.* 

XV. 5, 20, I C/. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 

' Rv. viii. 23-26. I veda, 3, 106. 

Viiva-manu$a in one passage of the Rigveda^ may be a 
proper name, but more probably merely means ' all mankind.' 

1 viii. 45. 22. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 187. 

Vi^va-vara occurs in one passage of the Rigveda^ apparently 
as the name of a sacrificer. 

^ V. 44, II. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 138. 

Vii^va-saman is the name of a Ksi, an Atreya, in the 
Rigveda.^ 

* V. 22, I. Cf. Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschm Morgenldndischen GcseU- 
sckaft, 42, 215. 

Vi^va-sjj is the name of certain mythical beings to whom, 
however, a Sattra, or sacrificial session, is ascribed in the 
Pancavirn^a Brahmana (xxv. 18, i et seq.). 

ViiSva-mitra (* friend of all ') is the name of a Rsi who is 
mentioned in the Rigveda,^ and to whom the third Mandala is 
attributed by tradition. In one hymn^ which appears to be his 
own composition, he praises the rivers VipaiS (Beas) and 
iSutudri (Sutlej). There he calls himself the son of Ku6ika, 
and seems unquestionably to be the helper of the Bharatas, 
whom he mentions. The tribe, engaged in a raid, apparently 
came to the rivers from the east.^ Anxious to cross them, they 

1 As son of KuSika in Rv. iii. 33, 5; Litteratur und Geschichie des Weda, 90, 

as Vi^v&mitra in iii. 53, 7. 12. he assumes that the Bharatas were 

* iii. 33. Ludwig, Translation of the different from the Titsos, and that they 
Rigveda, 3, 121, thinks the hymn too came under ViSvimitra from the West, 
poetical to be a real composition of the but were defeated (see Rv. vii. 33, 6). 
reputed author. But see Weber, Episches im vedischen 

* Rv. iii. 33, 5, Ritual, 34, n. i ; Pischel, Vediuhe 

* SoGeldner, Vedische Studten, 3, 152. Studitn, 2, 136. Bloomfield, Journal of 
Zimmer, Altindiuhes Leben, 127, 128, the American Oriental Society, 16,41,42, 
takes a different view : with Roth, Zur still defends Roth's view. 



Vi^vamitra ] 



A FAMOUS SEER 



3" 



found them in high flood, but Vi^vamitra by prayer induced 
the waters to subside. The same feat appears to be referred 
to in another passage of the same book of the Rigveda.^ 
Curiously enough, Sayana quite misunderstands the situation : 
according to him, Visvamitra having obtained wealth by the 
exercise of his office, went off with it to the rivers, pur- 
sued by others. Yaska's^ version of the tale merely seems 
to mean that the king paid Visvamitra to act as his Puro- 
hita, or domestic priest. For the relations of Visvamitra 
to Vasistha connected with their service of Sudas, see 
Vasitha. 

The Visvamitras are mentioned in several other passages of 
the Rigveda, and are also designated as a family by the term 
Ku^ikas.^ 

In the later literature Visvamitra becomes, like Vasistha, a 
mythical sage, usually ^*^ mentioned in connection with Jamad- 
agni ; he was Hotr priest at the sacrifice of iSunahi^epa, whom 
he adopted, and to whom he gave the name of Devarata.^ He 
was a protege of Indra, with whom he had an interview 
according to the Rigveda Aranyakas.^^ He is also often 
mentioned as a Rsi." 

In the Epic^^ Visvamitra is represented as a king, who 
becomes a Brahmin. There is no trace of his kingship in the 
Rigveda, but the Nirukta^ calls his father, KuSika, a king ; the 



* iii. 53, 9-1 1. This hymn is prob- 
ably later. 

^ Sayjina on Rv. iii. 33. 

' Nirukta, ii. 24. 

8 iii. I, 21; 18, 4; 53, 13; X. 89, 
17; Av. xviii. 3, 6; 4, 54; Jaiminiya 
Upanisad Brahmana, iii. 15, i. 

Rv. iii. 26, I. 3 ; 29, 15 ; 30, 20 ; 
42.9; 53. 9. 10. 

10 Cf. Rv. iii. 53, 15. 16; Sadguru- 
Sisya in Macdonell's edition of the Sar- 
vSJiukramanl, p. 107; Weber, Indische 
Studien, i, 117; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 
i"i 343 ; Geldner, Vedische Studien, 3, 
158 et seq. 

11 Aitareya Br3.hmana, vii. 16 et seq. ; 
SankhSyana ^rauta SQtra, xv. it et uq. 



1* AitareyaAranyaka. ii. 2, 3 ; ^nkh> 
Syana Aranyaka, i. 5. 

" Aitareya Aranyaka, ii. 2, i ; Ait- 
areya Brahmana, vi. 18, i ; 20, 3 ; Tait- 
tiriya Samhitg, ii. 2, i, 2 ; iii. i, 7, 3; 
V. 2, 3, 4, etc. ; Kithaka Samhiti, xvL 
19 ; XX. 9 ; Maitriyani Samhita,ii. 7, 19 ; 
Kausitaki Bra.bmana, xv. i ; xxvi. 14 ; 
xxviiL 1. 2 ; xxix. 3 ; Paiicaviip^ Br&b- 
mana, xiv. 3, 12; BfhadS.ranyaka Upani- 
sad, ii. 2. 4 ; Jaiminiya Upanisad 
BrcLbmana, iii. 3, 13 ; 15, i, etc. 
Jamadagni is often associated with 
him, Av. iv. 29, 5, etc. 

" Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i, 388 et seq. 

"* ii. 24. 



313 



POISON HORN A PLANT 



[ Visa 



Aitareya BrShmana^ refers to ^unah^epa as succeeding to 
the lordship of the Jahnus, as well as the ' divine lore ' {daiva 
veda) of the Gathins ; . and the Pancavim^a BrShmana" 
mentions Vi^vSmitra as a king. But there is no real trace of 
this kingship of Vi^vSmitra : it may probably be dismissed as a 
mere legend, with no more foundation at most than that Viiva- 
mitra was of a family which once had been royal. But even 
this is doubtful. 



1* vii. i8, 9. But the SS.nkhyana 
Srauta SQtra, xv. 27, has a completely 
different version, which Weber, Episches 
im vedischen Ritual, 16, n. 3, prefers, 
and which omits all allusion to the 
lordship ' of the Jahnus. This shows 
how little stress can be laid on this 
late!.tradition. 



" XXI. 12, 2. 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 121 ; Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 
42, 209, 210; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i^, 
337 et seq. ; Weber, op. cit., 16 et seq. ; 
Indian Literature, 31, 37, 38, 53, etc. 



Via in the Rigveda^ and later ^ regularly denotes * poison ' 
as an antidote, for which the Atharvaveda supplies spells.^ 

* i. 117, 16 ; 191, II ; vi. 61, 3 ; X. 87, I * Av. iv. 6, 2 ; v. 19, 10 ; vi. 90, 2, 
18, etc. I etc. 

3 Bloomfield, Atharvaveda, 61. 

Via-vldya, the * science of poison,' is enumerated with other 
sciences in the A^valayana Srauta Siitra (x. 75). Cf. Vidya. 



Vi^ai^a in the Atharvaveda^ and later ^ denotes an animal's 
* horn.' 



1 iii. 7, I. 2; vi. 121, i; Aitareya 
Br3.hmana, ii. 11, 10 ; ^atapatha BrSLh- 
mana, vii. 3, 2, 1 7. Primarily a deciduous 



horn is meant. See Whitney, Transla- 
tion of the Atharvaveda, 94. 



Vi^a^aka is the name of a plant in the Atharvaveda.^ Bloom- 
field,^ however, thinks that the word may merely mean ' horn.' 
It is used as a remedy against the disease VStikara.* That 



* vi. 44, 3. Cf. Vis&nikS. in Wise, 
Hindu System 0/ Medicine, 146, perhaps the 
A ulepias geminata ; Bloomfield, A merican 
Journal of Philology, 12, 426 ; Zimmer, 
Altindisches Lebtn, 68. But cf. Whit- 



ney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 

2 Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 482. 

3 Av. ix. 8, 20 ; Vftti-krta, vi. 44, 3 ; 
109,3. 



Vi^uvant] A TRIBE A RITUAL DAY RIDGE OF ROOF 31 

disease is of doubtful character : Zimmer* thinks that it is one 
* caused by wounds,' comparing the adjective a-vdta, * uninjured,' 
in the Rigveda,^ but Bloomfield shows that 'wind' in the 
body is meant as causing the disease. 

* op. at., 389, 390. vi. 16, 20; ix. 96, 8. 

' op. at., 481 et seq., 516. 



Vi^anin occurs once in the Rigveda^ as the name of a tribe in 
the list of the enemies of the Tptsus, not as Roth ^ thought, of 
their allies. The word seems to mean * having horns,' but in what 
sense is unknown ; perhaps their helmets were horn-shaped or 
ornamented with horns. They may, like their allies, the Alinas, 
Bhalanas, ^ivas, and Pakthas, be reckoned as belonging to the 
tribes of the north-west. 



* vii. 18, 7. 

* Zur Litteratur und GeschichU des 
Weda, 95 ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 
126. But Zimmer, op. cit., 430, 431, 
altered his view, and Hopkins' criticism, 



overlooking this retractation, in the 
Journal of the A merican Oriental Society, 
15, 260, 261, is so far unjustified. 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 3, 173. 



I. Viuvant denotes in the Atharvaveda^ and later ^ the 
middle day in the Sattra or sacrificial session of a year's 
duration. Tilak^ argues that the Visuvant literally means the 
day when night and daylight are equal .., the equinoctial 
day and that this is the true sense of the word. But the 
theory is without probability. 



1 xi. 7, 15. 

' PaiicavimSa BrShmana, iv. 5, 2 ; 
7, I ; V. 9, 10 ; Aitareya Brihmana, 
iii. 41, 4 ; iv. 18, i ; 22, i. 2 ; vi. 18, 8 ; 
Kausitaki Br3.hmana, xxv. i ; xxvi. i ; 
Taittiriya Br3.hmana, i. 2, 3, 2 ; Sata- 



patha Bra.hmana, x. i, 2. 2 ; 3, 14. 23 ; 
4, 2 ; 2, I, 8, etc. 

' Orion, 21, 22. 

* Cf. Whitney, Journal of the A merican 
Oriental Society, 16, Ixxxili. et seq. 



2. Viuvant occurs in the description of the house in the 
Atharvaveda.^ The meaning seems to be the * ridge of the 
roof.' 2 



1 ix. 3. 8. 

' Cf. Zimmer. Altindisches Leben, 131 
(who thinks it is a metaphor from the 



parting of the hair) ; Bloom^eld, Hymns 
of the Atharvaveda, 598 ; Whitney, 
Translation of the Atharvaveda, 526. 



34 



DYSENTERY RHEUMATISM PORRIDGE [ Vi^ucika 



Vi^ucika is the name of a disease mentioned in the Vajasaneyi 
Samhita^ as a result of over-indulgence in Soma drinking. It 
seems clearly to be * dysentery,* or, as Wise calls it, ' sporadic 
cholera.' The term apparently means * causing evacuations in 
both directions.' 



* xix. lo = MaitrS.yanI Samhiti, iii. ii, 
7 = Kathaka SamhitS. xxxvii. i8-Tait- 
tirlya Br^mana, ii. 6, i, 5 = ^atapatba 
BrSbmana, xii. 7, 3, 2. 



' Hindu System of Medicine, 330. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 275, 
392- 



Vi-$kandha occurs several times in the Atharvaveda^ as the 
name of a disease. As remedies against it a lead amulet,^ or 
hemp,^ or a salve,* or the Jangfida plant are recommended for 
use.** Weber suggests that the disease meant is ' rheumatism,' 
because it draws the shoulders apart (vi-skandha), bat Bloom- 
field^ thinks that it is rather the name of a demon, like the 
Rigvedic Vyam^a and Vigrlva,^ both of which are similarly 
formed and are names of demons. Possibly Kar^apha and 
Visapha mentioned in one hymn^ are plants used to cure the 
disease. 



1 i. 16, 3 ; ii. 4, I et seq. ; iii. 9, 
2. 6 ; iv. 9, 5 ; xix. 34, 5. It is also 
found in the Taittiriya Samhita, vii. 3, 
II. I. 

^ Av. i, 16, 3. Cf. ii. 4 ; iii. 9, 6. 

3 Av. ii. 4, 5. 

* Av. iv. 9, 5. 

5 Av. ii. 4. I. 5 ; xix. 34, 5 ; 35, i. 

Indische Sttidien, 4, 410 ; 13, 141 ; 



17, 215. See Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 
390, 391 ; Grill, Hundert Lieder^ 75. 

' Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 282, 283. 

8 Rv. i. 32, 5, etc. 

* Rv. viii. 4, 24. 

10 Av. iii. 9, I. Cf. Bloomfield, op. cit., 
340. Roth, St. Petersburg Dictionary, 
S.V., thinks demons are meant : this 
seems the more probable view. 



Vi-tarin in the Atharvaveda^ denotes a special sort of Odana 
or porridge. 



1 iv. 34, I et seq. According to 
Whitney, Translation of the Atharva- 
veda, 206, the designation ' outspread ' 
is due to the fact that the rice mess 



was kneaded into furrows and juices 
{rasa) were poured into them. See 
KauSika SQtra, Ixvi. 6. 



Vi^ha-VTajln is a word of doubtful significance in the Sata- 
patha Brahmana.^ According to Sayana, it means * remaining 
in one and the same place '; if this is right, the rendering of the 



V. I, 12. 



Visras ] NAMES SPARK NEURALGIA SENILITY 315 

St. Petersburg Dictionary and of Bohtlingk's Dictionary, ' one 
whose herd is stationary,' seems legitimate. But, as Eggeling^ 
points out, the Kanva recension of the Satapatha Brahmana in 
another passage' seems to treat the word as denoting a disease : 
thus VisthSvrajin may mean * one afflicted by dysentery.' 

' Sacred Books of the East, 41, 123, n. i. 3 ibid., 50, n. i. 

Vii?apu is the son of Vi^vaka in the Rigveda.^ When lost 
he was restored to his father by the A^vins. 

1 i. 116, 23; 117, 7; viii. 86, 3 ; x. 65, 12. 

Vi^phulingfa denotes a * spark ' of fire in the Upanisads.^ 



1 Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, ii. i, 23 ; 
vi. I, 12; Kausitaki Upanisad, iii. 3; 
iv. 20, etc. Cf. vispulingaka, ' scatter- 



ing sparks of fire,' in Rv. i. 191, 12 
(Sayana, ' a tongue of fire,' or 
' sparrow '). 



Vivak-sena is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Narada, 
mentioned in the Vam^a (list of teachers) at the end of the 
Samavidhana Brahmana. 

Visalya^ and Visalyaka^ are names of a disease in the 
Atharvaveda. Since Shankar Pandit's reciters^ pronounced 
the word as Visalpaka in all the passages, that should probably 
be adopted as the right reading.* Some sort of pain is meant, 
perhaps ' neuralgia,' in connexion with fever. 

1 ix. 8, 20. I the Atharvaveda, 376. Cf. Zimmer, 

' vi. 127, I et seq. ; ix. 8, 2. 5; Altindisches Leben, ^-jS, 38^. 

xix. 44, 2. * The commentator ScLyanaon vi. 127 

3 See Bloom&e\d, Hymns of the A that- reads visalpakah, and on xix. 44, 2, 

vaveda, 601 ; Whitney, Translation of I visarpakah. 

Vi-SPas denotes the 'decay' of old age, 'decrepitude,* 
* senility.'^ 



1 Av. xix. 34, 3, where Bohtlingk, 
Dictionary, s.w., suggests for visrasas the 
emendation visruhas {cf. Rv. vi. 7, 6) ; 
Taittiriya BrcLhmana, iii. 8, 20, 5 ; 



Aitareya Aranyaka, ii. 3, 7 ; Aitareya 
BrcLhmana, viii. 20, 7 ; K&thaka Upani- 
sad, vi. 4. 



3l6 LUTE LUTE PLAYER A PRINCE [ Vihalha 

Vihalha is found in the Athaxvaveda^ apparently as the name 
of a plant. The forms Vihamla and Vihahla occur as variants. 

1 vi. i6, 2. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 72. 



Vipa in the later Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas^ denotes a 
'lute.' A Vina-vada, 'lute-player,' is included in the list of 
victims at the Purusamedha ('human sacrifice') in the Yajur- 
veda,' and is also mentioned elsewhere* The Aitareya Aran- 
yaka,^ which states that the instrument was once covered with 
a hairy skin, enumerates its parts as ^iras, ' head ' (i.e., neck) ; 
Udara, 'cavity'; Ambhaaa, 'sounding board'; Tantra, 'string'; 
and Vadana, * plectrum.' In the ^atapatha Brahmana the 
Uttaramandra is either a tune or a kind of lute. Cf. Vana. 



* Taittiriya Samhita, vi. i, 4, 1 ; 
K&thaka Sambit^, xxxiv. 5; Maitr2,yani 
Samhita, iii. 6, 8. 

^ ^atapatha Brahmana, iii. 2, 4, 6; 
xiii. 1,5, I ; iata - tantri, ' hundred- 
stringed ' (like the V&na), at the Maha- 
vrata rite, ^ankhayana ^rauta SQtra, 
xvii. 3, I, etc.; Jaiminiya Brahmana, 
i. 42 {Journal of the American Oriental 
Society. 15, 235). 

' Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxx, 20 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, iii. 4, 15, i. 



* B]>hadaranyaka Upanisad, ii. 4, 8 ; 
iv. 5. 9. 

^ iii. 2, 5 ; cf. Sankhayana Aranyaka, 
viii. 9. 

xiii. 4, 2, 8. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred 
Books of the East, 44, 356, n. 3. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 289; 
Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, 13, 328 ; von Schroeder, Indiens 
Literatur und Cultur, 755. 



Viija-gfathin denotes ' lute-player ' in the Brahmanas.^ In 
the Satapatha Brahmana Vinaganagin denotes the ' leader of a 
band.' 



1 Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 9, 14, i ; 
Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. i, 5, i ; 4,2, 
8. II. 14; 3,5. 



> xiii. 4, 3, 3 ; 4, 2 ; ^nkhayana 
Srauta Sutra, xvi. i, 29. 



Viija-vada. See Vl^a. 



Vita-havya is the name of a prince who is mentioned in the 
Rigveda^ along with Bharadvaja, and as a contemporary of 
Sudas,^ though in both passages it is possible to understand the 

1 vi. 15, 2. 3. ^ vii. 19, 3. 



"Vlrahatya ] 



MAN MURDER 



317 



word as a mere adjective. In the Atharvaveda^ Vitahavya 
appears as connected with Jamadagrni and Asita, but it is clear 
that the legend there has no value. It is possible, though not 
certain, that he was a king of the Sfiijayas.^ In the Yajurveda 
Samhitas^ a Vitahavya iSrayasa appears as a king : he may be 
identical with the Vitahavya of the Rigveda, or belong to the 
same line. Cf. Vaitahavya. 



3 vi. 137, I. 

* Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, i, 
105. 

Taittiriya Samhiti, v. 6, 5, 3 ; 
KSthaka Saiphiti, xxii. 3 ; Pancavim^ 
BrcLbmana, xxv. 16, 3. Ibid., ix. 1,9, 
he is represented as being niruddha, 



apparently in ' banishment ' ; but the 
scholiast explains him as not a king, 
but a Rsi, which is quite possible. 

Cf. Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellscha/t, 42, 212 ; 
Buddha, 405. 



Vlra in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes * man ' as the strong 
and heroic. Collectively in the singular^ the word denotes 
'male offspring,' an object of great desire (cf. PutPa) to the 
Vedic Indian. The Pancavim^a Brahmana'* gives a list of 
eight Viras of the king, constituting his supporters and 
entourage. 

I i. 18, 4 ; 114, 8 ; iv. 29, 2 ; V. 20, 4 ; | * xix. i, 4. Viz., the king's brother, 

61, 5, etc. I his son, Purohita, Mahisi, Sata, Gr&- 

' Av. ii. 26, 4 ; iii. 5, 8, etc. ma^i, E^attr, and Saqagrahitf. See 

* Rv. ii. 32, 4 ; iii. 4, 9 ; 36, 10 ; > Eatnin. 

vii. 34, 20, etc. ; Taittiriya Samhita, ] 

vii. I, 8, I, etc. I 



Virana is the form in the late Sadvirn^ Brahmana (v. 2) of 
the name of the plant Viriija. 



Vira-hatya, * murder of a man,' is one of the crimes referred 
to in the Taittiriya Aranyaka.^ The Vira-han, * man-slayer,' 
is often mentioned in the older texts.^ Cf. Vaira. 



^ X. 40. 

2 Taittiriya SamhitS, i. 5, 2, i ; ii. 2, 
5, 5 ; K&thaka Saqihit&, xxxi. 7 ; Kapi- 
sthala SaiphitS., xxxvii. 7 ; Maitr&yanI 



Saiphit&, iv. 1, 9; Taittiriya Br&hmana, 
iii. 2, 8, 12 ; V&jasaneyi Samhit&, xxx. 5 ; 
Paiicaviip^ Br&hmana, xii. 6, 8; xvi. i, 
12, etc. 



3i8 GRASS PLANT WOLF PLOUGH [ Virina 

Virina in the Satapatha Brahmana^ denotes a kind of grass 
{Andropogon muricatus). See Vairina. 

* xiiL 8, I, 15. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 70. 

Virudh means 'plant' in the Rigveda^ and later.^ As con- 
trasted with Oi^adhi, it denotes the inferior order of plants, but 
it often has practically the same sense as Osadhi. 

1 i. 67. 9 ; 141, 4 ; ii. i, 14 ; 35, 8, I a.v. i. 32, 3 ; 34, i ; ii. 7, i ; v. 4, i ; 
etc. I xix. 35, 4, etc. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 57. 

I. Vpka, * wolf,' is mentioned frequently in the Rigveda,^ 
and also later. ^ It was an enemy of sheep ^ and of calves,* 
being dangerous even to men.^ Its colour is stated to be 
reddish {arnna).^ The * she-wolf,' Vrki, is also mentioned several 
times in the Rigveda.'^ 



1 i. 42, 2 ; 105, 7 ; 116, 14 ; ii. 29, 6 ; 
vi. 51, 14 ; vii. 38, 7, etc. 

2 Av. vii. 95, 2 ; xii. i, 49 ; Kathaka 
Samhita, xii. 10; Maitrayani Samhita, 
iii. 14, 4 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, iv. 34 ; 
xix. 10. 92, etc. 

3 Rv. viii. 34, 3 ; ar9,-mathi, ' worry- 
ing sheep,' X. 66, 8. 

* Av. xii. 4, 7. 

Rv. i. 105, II. 18; ii. 29, 6. In 



Nirukta, v. 21, Roth, St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, s.v, 16, sees the sense of 
' dog,' which seems needless. Cf.Niruhta, 
Erlduterungen, 67. 

8 Rv. i. 105, 18. 

' i. 116, 16; 117, 17; 183, 4; vi. 51, 6; 
X. 127, 6. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 81 ; 
Weber, Indische Studien, 18, 14. 



2. V^ka in two passages of the Rigveda^ denotes * plough.' 

1 i. 117, 21 ; viii. 22, 6; Nirukta, v. 26. 



Vpka-dvapas is found in one passage of the Rigveda,^ which 
Ludwig^ interprets as referring to a battle against Vrkadvaras, 
king of the l^andikas. But this is quite uncertain. Roth^ and 
Oldenberg* incline to read vrkadhvaras. Hillebrandt^ suggests 
Iranian connections, but without any clear reason. 



1 ii. 30, 4. 

2 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 153 ; 
GrifiBth, Hymns oj the Rigveda, i, 297, n. 

3 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. ; 



Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen 
Gesellschaft , 48, no. 

* Rgveda-Noten, i, 211. 

5 Vedische Mythologie, 3, 442. 



Vrcivant ] TREE REPTILE FRUIT A TRIBE 



319 



Vrka is the ordinary term for ' tree ' in the Rigveda* and 
later.* In the Atharvaveda^ it denotes the cofifin made from a 
tree, no doubt by hollowing it out. The Sadvim^a Brahmana* 
refers to the portent of a tree secreting blood. 



1 i. 164, 20. 22; ii. 14, 2; 39, i; 
iv. 20, 5 ; V. 78, 6, etc, 

" Av. i. 14, I ; ii. 12, 3 J vi. 45, I ; 
xii. I, 27. 51, etc. 



3 Av. xviii. 2, 25. Cf. BrhaddevatA, 
V. 83, with Macdonell's note (d). 

* Indische Studien, i, 40, and c/. Journal 
of the American Oriental Society, 15, 214. 



Vpka-sappi, * tree-creeper,' is the name of a species of worm 
or female serpent in the Atharvaveda.^ 

^ ix. 2, 22. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 98. 



Vrkya in the ^atapatha Brahmana (i. i, i, lo) denotes the 
' fruit of a tree.' 



Vpcaya is referred to once in the Rigveda^ as the spouse 
given by the Asvins to Kakivant. 



1 i. 51,13. Cf. Pischel, Vedische 
Studien, i, 3, 203, who distinguishes 
two Kaksivants, but without sufficient 



.7 ; 

reason, since i. 116, 17, must clearly 
refer to Vycaya. ' \ 



Vpclvant is the name of a tribe referred to once in the 
Rigveda,^ where it is clearly stated that the Spiijaya king, 
Daivavata, conquered the TurvaiSa king and the Vrclvants. 
Zimmer^ thinks that the Vrclvants and the Turva^a people 
should be identified, but this is both unnecessary and improb- 
able ; it is adequate to assume that they were allied against^ 
the Srnjayas. The Vrclvants appear again only in the strange 
legend in the Pancavim^a Brahmana,"* according to which the 
Jahnus and the Vrclvants contended for sovereignty, ViiSva- 
mitra, the Jahnu king, winning it by his knowledge of a 
certain rite. See also Hariyupiya. 



1 vi. 27, 5 et seq. 

> Altindisches Leben, 124. 

3 Oldenberg, Buddha, 404 ; Ludwig. 



Translation of the Rig^eda, 3, 153 ; 
Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, i, 105. 



XXI. 12, 2. 



320 SETTLEMENTSTONE PILLAR A PRINCE [ Vrjana 

Vrjana, according to Roth/ denotes in several passages of 
the Rigveda^ the * settlement ' or * village,' the German ' Mark ' 
and its inhabitants. Zimmer,' accepting this view, sees in 
Vrjana the ' secure abode ' {ksiti dhruvd) where the clan lives,^ 
the clan itself as a village community (like Grama), and the 
clan in war.* Geldner, on the other hand, takes the literal 
sense of Vrjana to be ' net,' developing all the other senses 
from that idea, but the traditional view seems more natural. 



* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 2. 
' i. 51. 15; 73. 2; 91. 21; 105, 19; 
128, 7; 165, 15; 166, 14, etc. 
Altindisches Leben, 142, 159, 161. 



* Rv. i, 51. 15 ; 73, 2 (c/. i. 73, 4). 
" Rv. vii. 32, 27 ; x. 42, 10. 
' Vedische Studien, i, 139 et uq. 



Vftra-g*hna occurs in a passage of the Aitareya Brahmana,^ 
where in a Gatha reciting the prowess of Bharata it is said that 
he bound horses on the Yamuna (Jumna) and Gang's. (Ganges) 
Vrtraghne, which Sayana renders ' at Vrtraghna,' as the name 
of a place. Roth,^ however, seems right in interpreting the 
form as a dative, ' for the slayer of Vrtra ' i.e., Indra. 

1 viii. 23, 5. 

^ St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. Cf. Aufrecht, Aitareya Brahmana, 425. 

Vrtra-iSahku, literally * Vrtra-peg,' found in one passage of 
the Satapatha Brahmana,^ is said by the scholiast on the 
Katyayana Srauta Sutra ^ to denote a stone pillar. This 
improbable interpretation is based on another passage in the 
same Brahmana.^ 

' xiii. 8, 4, I. I 3 iy 2, 5, 15. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred 

" xxi. 3, 31. I Books of the East, 44, 437, n. i. 

Vrddha-dyumna Abhipratarina ('descendant of Abhipra- 
tarin ') is the name of a prince {rdjanya) in the Aitareya Brah- 
mana (iii. 48, g), where his priest, ^ucivpka Gaupalayana, is 
praised. In the Sahkhayana Srauta Sutra (xv, 16, 10-I3), on 
the contrary, he is said to have erred in the sacrifice, when a 
Brahmin prophesied that the result would be the expulsion of 
the Kurus from Kupuketra, an event which actually came 
to pass. 



ViTfa ] 



JACKAL A PUROHITA SCORPION 



331 



Vrddha-vaiini in the Nirukta (v. 21) denotes the 'female 
jackal.' 

I. Vf^a. See Vra. 



2. V|^a Jana (* descendant of Jana ') is the name of a famous 
Purohita, who was unfortunate enough, while with his royal 
master, Tryaru^a, to see a boy killed by the chariot which the 
king drove too fast. He thereupon recalled the boy to life. 
The story is told briefly in the Paflcavirnsa Brahmana,^ the 
Satyayanaka,' the Tandaka,^ was also narrated in the Bhallavi 
Brahmana,* and is preserved in the Brhaddevata. Sieg' has 
endeavoured to trace the story in part in the Rigveda,*^ but 
there is a consensus of opinion against the correctness of 
such a view. 



* Xlll. 3, 12. 

^ See Sayana on Rv. v. 2, and the 
Jaiminiya version in the Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, 18, 20. 

3 See S&yana, loc. cit. 

* Referred to in the Brhaddevati, 
V. 23, apparently as cited in the NidSna. 
The passage is not in the extant text 
of the Nidana Sutra. See Sieg, Die 
Sagenstoffe des Rgveda 65, n. 5. 

* V. 14 et seq., where see Macdonell's 
notes. 



op. cit., 64-76. 

"f V. 2. 

8 Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, 4, 324 ; Hillebrandt, Zeitschri/l 
der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesell- 
schaft, 33, 248 et seq.; Olden berg, Sacred 
Books of the East, 46, 366 et seq.; 
Rgveda-Noten, 1, 312. On the other 
hand, Geldner, Festgruss an Roth, 192, 
supports the tradition, Cf. Weber, 
Indische Studien, 10, 32. 



VriScika in the Rigveda^ and the Atharvaveda^ denote ' 
* scorpion.' Its poison was feared^ like that of serpents. It 
is described as lying torpid in the earth during winter."* 

^ L 191, 16. 

' X. 4, 9. 15 ; xii. I, 46; ^ankhSyana 
Aranyaka, xii. 27. 



' Rv., loc. cit. ; Av. x. 4, 9. 15. 

* Av. xii. I, 46. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 98. 



Vj^a is the name of a plant of some kind in the Kathaka 
Samhita.^ Later the Gendarussa vulgaris is so styled. Maitra- 
yani Sarnhita^ has Vr^a, which Bohtlingk^ takes to mean a 
small animal, a quite possible sense. Cf. Yevaja. 

1 XXX. I. I ' Dictionary, General Index to 



iv. 8, I; 



Sapplements, 376. 



VOL. II. 



21 



322 



RING^NA MESCA T 



[ Vrgakhadi 



Vra-khadl is used as an epithet of the Maruts in the 
Rigveda.^ The sense is doubtful: Bollensen^ thought the 
expression referred to the wearing of rings in the ears ; Max 
Miiller^ renders it ' strong rings,' comparing the later Cakra or 
discus. 



* i. 64, 10. 

* Orient vnd Occident, 2, 461, n. 



Sacred Boohs of the East, 32, 107, 120. 
C/. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 263. 



Vfa-g'a^ia is the name of a family of singers mentioned in 
one passage of the Rigveda.^ 

1 ix. 97, 8. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 132. 



Vfan-a6va is the name of a man referred to in the Rigveda,^ 
where Indra is called Mena, perhaps his 'wife* or 'daughter.' 
The same legend is alluded to in the Jaiminiya Brahma^ia,^ 
the Satapatha Brahmana,^ the Sadvim^a Brahmana,^ and the 
Taittiriya Aranyaka,*^ but it is clear that all of these texts had 
no real tradition of what was referred to. 



* J. 51. 13. 

* ii. 79 {Journal of the American Oriented 
Society, 18, 37). 

3 iii. 3, 4, 18. 



< i. I, 16. 
6 i. 12, 3. 

Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 
26, 81, n. 2. 



Vpa-damia, ' strong-toothed,' is the name of the cat in the 
Yajurveda Sarnhitas,^ where it figures as a victim at the A^va- 
medha (* horse sacrifice '). It also appears in the Pancavim^a 
Brahmana ;^ the fact that the sneeze of the cat is here referred 
to renders it likely that the animal was already tamed. Geldner^ 
sees a house cat in the animal alluded to in a hymn of the 
Atharvaveda* by a set of curious epithets, including vrsadati, 
' strong-toothed,' but Whitney^ decisively rejects the idea that 
the hymn refers to the domestic cat. 



1 Taittiriya Samhita, v. 5, 21, 1 ; 
MaitrSyani Samhita, iii. 14, 12 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Samhita, xxiv. 31. 

' viiL 2, 2. 

' Vedische Studien, i, 313-315. 

i. 18. 



8 Translation of the Atharvaveda, 19, 
20 ; Bloomfield, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 15, 153, n. ; Hymns of 
the Atharvaveda, 261. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 86. 



vmi] 



NAMES BULL OUTCAST RAIN 



323 



Vfan in two passages of the Rigveda^ seems to denote a 
man, with the patronymic Pathya in one of them. 

1 i. 36, 10 ; vi. 16, 14. 15. Cf. Max I 152, 153 ; Ludwig, Translation of the 
Muller, Sacred Books 0/ the East, 32, | Rigveda, 3, 104. 



Vr^abha regularly denotes a 'bull' in the Rigveda/ but 
usually in a metaphorical sense. 



* i. 94, 10; 160, 3; vi. 46, 4; of 
Parjanya, vii. loi, i. 6, etc. Roth 
renders vriobkdHHa, ii. 16, 5, ' eating 



strong food ' ; but the literal sense, 
' whose food is bulls,' will answer. 
Cf. M&qasa. 



Vrala in the dicing hymn of the Rigveda^ denotes an * out- 
cast '; the same sense appears in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad,^ 
where the touch of either a Vrsala or a Vrsall is to be avoided. 



1 X. 34, II. Cf. Nirukta, iii. 16. 



> vi. 4, 12 M&dhyamdina. 



Vra-uma Vatavata (* descendant of Vatavant ') Jatu- 
kar^ya is the name of a priest in the Brahmanas of the 
Rigveda.^ Vrsa^usma in the Vam^a Brahmana^ is probably 
intended for the same name. 

Aitareya Brahmana, v. 29, i ; I lectio VadhSvata: Indiscke Studien. i, 
Kausitaki Brahmana, ii. 9 (with a varia \ 215, n. i). 
* Indiscke Studien, 4, 373. 



Vra-rava, * roaring like a bull,' is the name of some animal 
in the Rigveda.^ In the Satapatha Brahmana* the word 
occurs in the dual, meaning perhaps * mallet ' or * drumstick.' 



1 X. 146, 2 = Taittiriya Brahmana, 

ii. 5. 5. 6. 
a xii. 5, 2, 7. 



Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns of the A that- 
vaveda, 426 ; Zimmer, Altindischts Leben, 
90. 



Vfti is the regular word for 'rain' in the Rigveda* and 
later.* 

* i. 116, 12 ; ii. 5, 6, etc. ' Av. iii. 31, 11 ; vi. 22, 3, etc. 

21 2 



324 



NAMES REEDS 



[ Vrgtiliavya 



Vrti-havya is in the Rigveda^ the name of a Ri, whose sons 
were the Upastutas. 

* X. 115, 9. Cf. Max Miiller, Sacred I Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 108, 
Bookso/ the East, 32, IS2, 153: Ludwig, | 109. 



Ve^u in the Atharvaveda^ and later ^ denotes a 'reed' of 
bamboo. It is described in the Taittiriya Sarnhita^ as 
* hollow ' (su-sira). In the Rigveda* it occurs only in a 
Valakhilya hymn in a Danastuti (' praise of gifts '), where Roth^ 
thinks that * flutes of reed ' are meant, a sense which Venu has 
in the later texts. The Kausltaki Brahmana couples Venu 
with Sasya, stating that they ripen in Vasanta, * spring.' 
Apparently bamboo reeds are meant.*^ 



^ i- 27, 3- 

3 Taittiriya SaqihitS, v. 2, 5, 2; 
Ai. 4, 19, 2 ; Kathaka Samhiti, xiii. 12 ; 
Satapatha Brahmana, i. i, 4, 19; ii. 6, 
2, 17, etc. 

3 V. I, I, 4. 

* viii, 55, 3. 



8 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 2. 

8 iv. 12. 

7 Cf. Katyayana Srauta Sutra, iv. 6, 
17, with the scholiast ; Weber, Indische 
Studien, 10, 343. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 71. 



Vetasa is the name of the water plant Calamus Rotang, or a 
similar reed, in the Rigveda^ and later.^ It is called 'golden ' 
{hiranyaya) and ' water-born ' (apsuja).^ 



1 iv. 58, 5. 

2 Av. X. 7. 41 ; xviii. 3, 5 ; 
Sai^ihita, v. 3, 12, 2; 4, 4, 
saneyi Saijihita, xvii. 6 ; 
Br&hmana, iii. 8, 4, 3, etc. 



Taittiriya 
2 ; Vaja- 
Taittirlya 



3 Rv., loc. cit. ; Av. x. 7, 41. 

* Taittiriya Samhita, v. 3, 12, 2, 



etc. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Lebefi, 71. 



Vetasu is a name occurring in the singular in two passages 
of the Rigveda^ and once in the plural. ^ It seems that he was 
defeated by Indra, but there is no reason to assume that he 
was a demon. Zimmer^ thinks that the Vetasus were probably 
the tribe of which Dai^adyu was a member, and that they 
defeated the Tugras. The passages are too obscure to render 
any version probable. 

1 vi. 20, 8; 26, 4. * X. 49, 4. Cf. Oldenherg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 

' Altindisches Leben, 128. Cf. Kaegi, Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 55, 328. 
Der Rigveda, n. 337. 



Vena] A LOCALITYSACRED LORE SUBSIDIARY TEXTS 325 



Vetasvant, ' abounding in reeds,' is the name of a place in 
the Pancavim^a Brahmana,^ not, as Weber ^ once took it, a 
part of the name of Ekayavan Gamdama. 



XXI. 14, 20. 



Transactions of the Connecticut Academy 



^ IndischeStudien, 1,22. C/. Hopkins, | 0/ Arts and Sciences, 15, 6g. 



Veda in the Atharvaveda^ and later ^ denotes 'sacred lore.* 
In the plural^ it more definitely refers to the Vedas of the Re, 
Yajus, and Saman. C/. Vidya. 



1 Av. vii. 54, 2 ; x. 8, 17 ; xv. 3, 7. 

Traya, ' threefold,' ^atapatha Brih- 
mana, v. 5, 5, 10 ; xiii. 4, 3, 3 ; Nirukta, 
i. 2. 18. 20, etc. 

3 Av. iv. 35, 6; xix. 2, 12 ; Taittirlya 
SamhitS,, vii. 5, 11, 2; Aitareya BrSh- 
mana, v. 32, 1 ; vi. 15, 11 ; Taittirlya 



Br&hmana, iii. 10, 11, 4; Satapatha 
Brihmana, xi, 3, 3, 7 ; xii. 3, 4, 11, etc. 
In the Brahmanas the word, no doubt, 
has normally the sense of the extant 
collections, which appear under their 
accepted titles, Rgveda, Yajurveda, 
S&maveda, in the Aranyakas. 



Vedahg*a, as the name of a text subsidiary to the study of 
the Rigveda, is first found in the Nirukta^ and the Rigveda 
Pratisakhya.^ 



1. 20. 

xii. 40. 



Of. Roth, Nirukta, x*. et seq. ; Weber, 
Indische Studien, 9, 42. 



I. Vena occurs in one passage of the Rigveda^ as a generous 
patron. Pfthavana, found in the same passage, may or may 
not be another name of his, and Parthya in the following 
stanza of the hymn is perhaps his patronymic. 

^ x. 93, 14. Of. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 166. 



2. Vena in the Rigveda^ is thought by Tilak^ to be the 
planet Venus. But this is certainly impossible. 



* X. 123. 

2 Orion, 163 et seq. 



Cf. Whitney, Journal of tkt American 
Oriental Society, 16, xciv. 



36 



TEN A NT^PONDNEEDLE^HO USE 



[ Veto 



I. VeSa is a term of somewhat doubtful sense, apparently 
denoting ' vassal/ ' tenant,' in a few passages/ and, according 
to Roth,* ' dependent neighbour.' 



Rv. iv. 3, 13; V. 85. 7; possibly 
X. 49, 5 : bat cf. 2. Ve^ ; K&thaka 
SaipbiUl, xii. 5 (vefatva) ; xxxi. 12; 
xxxii. 4 ; V3,jasaneyi Samhit&, K&nva, 
ii. 5, 7 ; MaitrSyani Samhiti, i. 4, 8 ; 
ii. 3, 7; iv. I, 13. Cf. Weber, Indische 
Studien, 13, 204, who takes veias in Av. 
ii. 32, 5, where pari -veias also occurs in 
the same sense, and compares vaiiya 
in Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 3, 7, i, as 
meaning 'servitude.' 



' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. i, 
veia, and veiatva. Cf. Whitney, Trans- 
lation of the Atharvaveda, 75, who 
seems inclined to read vefos in Av. 
ii. 32, 5 ; but Weber's explanation of 
the origin of the sense of ' servant ' is 
adequate. Geldner, Vedische Studien, 3, 
135, n. 4, sees in Veia. either a neigh- 
bour or a member of the same village 
community. Cf. Saj&ta. 



2. VeiSL may be a proper name in two passages of the 
Rigveda;^ if so, it is quite uncertain whether a demon is 
meant or not. 

1 ii. 13, 8 ; X. 49, 5. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 152, 164. 



Ve^anta,^ VeiSanti,^ Ve^ants-,^ all denote a ' pond ' or * tank.' 
Cf. Vai^anta. 



1 Av. xi. 6, 10 ; XX. 128. 8. 9 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brihmana, iii. 4, 12, i. 



Av. i. 3, 7, 

3 Brhadaranyaka Upani^ad, iv. 3, 11. 



VeiSas. See i. Ve^a. 



Ve^anta. See Ve^anta. 



Ve^i in one passage of the Rigveda^ seems to denote a 
needle.' 

1 vii. i8, 17. Cf. Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 15, 264, n. 



Ve^man, 'house,' occurs in the Rigveda^ and later.* It 
denotes the house as the place where a man is ' settled ' (vis). 

* x. 107, 10 ; 146, 3. house 'jha-veiman) of the king is con- 

Av. v. 17, 13 ; ix. 6, 30 ; Aitareya trasted with the numerous dwellings 
Br&bmana, viii. 24, 6, etc. In ^ata- of the people. 

patha Br&hmana, i. 3, 2, 14, the single 



Vaikhanasa ] NOOSE^COWA PEOPLE^SEERS 



327 



Ve^ya in two passages of the Rigveda (iv. 26, 3 ; vi. 61, 14) 
seems to denote the relation of 'dependence' rather than 
'neighbourhood.' Cf. i. Vte^a. 



Veka in the Satapatha Brahmana (iii. 8, i, 15) denotes the 
* noose ' for strangling the sacrificial animal. See Blei^ka. 



Vehat seems to mean a * cow that miscarries.' 
mentioned in the Atharvaveda^ and later.^ 



It is 



* xii. 4, 37 et stq. In iii. 23, i, a 
woman is called vehat. 

> Vajasaneyi Samhita, xviii. 27 ; 
xxiv, I, etc. ; Taittiriya Samhita,, ii. i, 
5, 3, etc. In Satapatha Brihrnana, 



xii. 4, 4, 6, Eggeling, Sacred Boohs of 
the East, 44, 195, adopts the sense ' a 
cow desiring the bull' But cf. Whitney, 
Translation of the Atharvaveda, 127. 



Vaikar^a occurs but once in the Rigveda* in the description 
of the DaiSarajrla, where Sudas is stated to have overthrown the 
twenty-one tribes (janan) of the kings or folk of the two 
Vaikarnas. Zimmer^ conjectures that they were a joint 
people, the Kupu-Krivis: this is quite possible, and even 
probable. Vikarna as the name of a people is found in the 
Mahabharata,^ and a lexicographer* places the Vikarnas in 
Ka^mir, a reminiscence probably of a real settlement of the 
Kurus in that country. Cf. Uttara Kuru. 

1 vii. 18, II. Cf. Hopkins, Journal of the American 

* Altindisches Leben, 103. Oriental Society, 15, 261 et seq., who sees 

* vi. 2105. in Vaikarnau the two Vaikarna kings. 

* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Vaikhanasa is the name of a mythical group of Esis who are 
said in the Pancavim^a Brahmana* to have been slain at Muni- 
maraija by Rahasyu Devamalimluc, and who are mentioned 
in the Taittiriya Aranyaka also.^ An individual Vaikhanasa is 
Puruhanman.8 



XIV. 4, 7. 



i- 23. 3 {Indische Studitn, i, 78). 



XIV. 9, 29. 



328 PATRONYMICS BERYL LEGENDARY FAMILY [ Vajjana 

VaJjana, 'descendant of Vijana,' is Sayana's version of the 
patronymic of Yfisi in the Pancavimsa Brahmana.^ The real 
reading is vai Jdnah, as pointed out by Weber.^ 

1 xiii. 3, 12. 2 indische Studien, lo, 32. 

Vaittabhati-putra is the name in the Kanva recension of the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (vi. 5, 2) of a teacher, a pupil of 
Kar^akeyiputra, Cf. Vaidabhrtiputra. 

Vaidava, * descendant of VIdu,' is the patronymic of a Vasistha 
in the Pancavimsa Brahmana (xi. 8, 14), where he is said to 
have been the seer of a Saman or Chant. 



Vaidupya, ' beryl/ is first found in the late Adbhuta Brah- 
mana.^ 

* Weber, Indische Studien, i, 40 ; Omina und Portenta, 325 et seq. 



Vaitarana occurs once in the Rigveda.^ Roth- thinks the 
word is a patronymic, but it seems rather^ to be an adjective in 
the sense of ' belonging to Vitarana ' used of Agni, like Agni of 
Bharata or of Vadhrya^va. 



1 X. 61, 17. 

^ St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 2. 

Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 



veda, 3, 165 ; Griffith, Hymns of the 
Rigveda, 2, 457, n. 



Vaitahavya, 'descendant of Vitahavya,' is the name of a 
family who are said in the Atharvaveda^ to have come to ruin 
because they devoured a Brahmin's cow. They are said to be 
Spry ay as, but as the exact form of the legend here referred to 
does not occur elsewhere, its authenticity is open to some 
doubt.^ According to Zimmer,^ Vaitahavya is a mere epithet 
of the Srnjayas, but this is not probable'* in view of the 
existence of a Vitahavya. 

* V. 18, 10. II ; 19, I. ' Altindisches Leben, 132. 

* Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharva- * Cf. Oldenberg, Buddha, 405 ; Weber 
veda, 434. Indische Studien, 18, 233. 



Vaidhasa] PATRONYMICS PRINCES 329 

Vaida, * descendant of Vida,' is the patronymic of Hiranya- 
dant in the Aitareya Brahmana^ and the Aitareya Aranyaka.^ 
The word is also written Baida. 

1 iii. 6, 4 ; A^valiyana ^rauta SQtra, xii. 10, 9. ' ii. i. 5. 

Vaidathina, * descendant of Vidathin,' is the patronymic of 
^i^van in the Rigveda (iv. 16, 11 ; v. 29, 13). 

Vaidad-a^vi, * descendant of Vidadasva,' is the patronymic of 
Taranta in the Rigveda.^ In the Pancavimsa Brahmana^ and 
the Jaiminlya BrShmana^ the Vaidada^vis are Taranta and 
Purumilha. The latter is not a Vaidada^vi in the Rigveda, a 
clear sign of the worthlessness of the legends relative to these 
two men in the Brahmanas. 

1 V, 61, 10. I Cf. Max Muller, Sacred Books of the 

' xiii. 7, 12. Cf. S&tySyanaka in I East, 32, 360 ; Oldenberg, Zeitschrift 

Sclyana on Rv. ix. 58, 3. j der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesell 

3 i. 151 ; iii. 139, where Vaitada^vi j schaft, 42, 232, n. ; Rgveda-Noten, i, 

is the form. Cf. Arseya Brihmana, 354 ; Sieg, Die Sagenstoffe des Rgveda, 

p. 54 (ed. Burnell). 1 62 et seq. 

Vaidabhrti-putra, * son of a female descendant of Vedabhrt,' 
is the name of a teacher in the last Vam^a (list of teachers) of 
the Madhyarndina recension of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad 
(vi. 4, 32). Cf. VaiUabhatlputra. 

Vaidarbha, * prince of Vidarbha,' is applied to Bhima in the 
Aitareya Brahmana (vii. 34, 9). 

Vaidarbhi, * descendant of Vidarbha,' is the patronymic of 
a Bhargava in the Prasna Upanisad (i. i ; ii. i). *.* y ^ , . / 

Vaideha, prince of Videha,' is the title of Janaka and of 
Nami Sapya. 

Vaidhasa, 'descendant of Vedhas,' is the patronymic of 
Harii^candra in the Aitareya Brahmana (vii. 13, i) and the 
Sahkhayana Srauta Sutra (xv. 17, i). 



330 PATRONYMICS TEACHERS [ Vainy* 

Vainya, 'descendant of Vena,' is the patronymic of the 
mythic Prthl, PrthI, or Ppthu.^ 

^ Rv. viii. 9, lo; Pa&caviip^ Br&hma^a, xiii. 5, 20; ^atapatha BrSLhrnana. 
V. 3. 5. 4. etc. 



Vaipa^cita (' descendant of Vipa^cit ') Dardha-jayanti 
(* descendant of Dpdhajayanta ') Gupta Lauhitya (* descendant 
of Lohita ') is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Vaipa^cita 
Dardhajayanti Drdhajayanta Lauhitya, in a Vamsa (list of 
teachers) of the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 42, i). 

Vaipai^cita (* descendant of Vipa^cit ') Dardhajayanti 
(* descendant of Dfdhajayanta ') Drdhajayanta Lauhitya 
C descendant of Lohita ') is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
Vipa^cit Dpdha^ayanta Lauhitya, in a Vam^a (list of teachers) 
of the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 42, i). 

VaiyaiSva, 'descendant of Vyai^va,' is the patronymic of 
Viivamanas in the Rigveda (viii. 23, 24; 24, 23 ; 26, 11). 

Vaiyaghrapadi-putra, * son of a female descendant of Vy5- 
ghrapad,' is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Kaijvi-putra, in 
the Kanva recension of the last Vamsa (list of teachers) in 
the Brhadaraijyaka Upanisad (vi. 5, i). 



Vaiyag"hra-padya, ' descendant of Vyaghrapad,' is the patro- 
nymic of Indradyumna Bhallaveya in the Satapatha Brah- 
maija^ and the Chandogya Upanisad,^ of Budila A^vatara^vi 
in the Chandogya Upanisad,^ and of Goi^ruti in that Upanisad* 
and in the ^ahkhayana Aranyaka.^ In the Jaiminiya Upanisad 
Brahmana the patronymic is applied to Rama Kratiyateya. 



1 X. 6, I, 8. 
' V. 14, I. 
' V. 16, I. 
* V. 2, 3. 



5 ix. 7 (Go^ruta-vaiyaghrapadya as 
a compound). 
iii. 40, i; iv. 16, I. 



Vaira ] WERGELD 331 

Vaiyaska is read in one passage of the Rigveda Pratisakhya,^ 
as the name of an authority on the metres of the Rigveda. 
Roth^ is clearly right in thinking that Yaska is meant.^ 

from ViySska, but standing for vai 
Yaskah. Cf. Vaij&na. 



^ xvii. 25. 

2 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

3 The name not being a patronymic 



Vaira ^ and Vaira-deya^ seem to have in the later Sarnhitas 
and the Brahmanas the definite and technical sense of * wergeld,' 
the money to be paid for killing a man as a compensation to 
his relatives. This view is borne out by the Sutras of Apa- 
stamba^ and Baudhayana.'* Both prescribe the scale of 
1,000 cows for a Katriya,^ 100 for a Vai^ya, 10 for a i^udra, 
and a bull over and above in each case. Apastamba leaves the 
destination of the payment vague, but Baudhayana assigns it 
to the king. It is reasonable to suppose that the cows were 
intended for the relations, and the bull was a present to the 
king for his intervention to induce the injured relatives to 
abandon the demand for the life of the offender. The Apa- 
stamba Sutra ^ allows the same scale of wergeld for women, but 
the Gautama Sutra' puts them on a level with men of the 
Sudra caste only, except in one special case. The payment is 
made for the purpose oivaira-yatana or vaira-nirydtana, 'requital 
of enmity,' * expiation.' 

The Rigveda^ preserves, also, the important notice that a 
man's wergeld was a hundred (cows), for it contains the epithet 
sata-ddya, ' one whose wergeld is a hundred.' No doubt the 
values varied, but in the case of lunahiepa the amount is a 
hundred (cows) in the Aitareya Brahmana. In the Yajurveda 
Sarnhitas ^ sata-ddya again appears. 

^ Pancavim^a Brahmana, xvi. i, 12. 1 ^ i. 9, 24, 1-4. 
Cf. Taittirlya Samhita, i. 5, 2, i ; * i. 10, ig, i. 2. 

Kithaka Samhita, ix. 2 ; Kapistbala ! ** The crime of slaying a Brahmin is 
Saqibita, viii. 5 ; Maitrayani Samhiti, 
i. 7, 5, all of which have v'lram for 
vairam, perhaps wrongly. 

2 Rv. V. 61, 8 (on the exact sense of 
which, cf. Max Miiller, Sacred Books of 
the East, 32, 361 ; Hillebrandt, Vedische 
Mythologie, i, 92 ; Oldenberg, Rgveda- 
Noten, I, 354) ; Kathaka Samhita, 
xxiii. 8 ; xxviii 2. 3. 6. 



too heinous for a wergeld. See Apa- 
stamba, i. 9, 24, yet seq. ; Baudhayana, 
i. 10, 18, 18. 

i. 9. 24, 5. 

' i. 10, 19, 3. 

8 ii. 32, 4. 

vii. 15, 7. 

10 See n. I. The word is not found 
in the Taittiriya, 



332 



MANSLA UGHTERPA TRONYMICS [ Vairahatya 



The fixing of the price shows that already public opinion, and 
perhaps the royal authority, was in Rigvedic times diminishing 
the sphere of private revenge ; on the other hand, the existence 
of the system shows how weak was the criminal authority of 
the king (c/. Dharma). 



C/. Roth, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellscha/t, 41, 672- 
676 ; Buhler and von Schroeder, Fest- 
gruss an Roth, 44-52 ; Buhler, Sacred 



Books of the East, 2, 78, 79 ; 14, 201 
Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 402 
Jolly, Recht und Sitte, 131, 132 ; Delbriick 
in Leist, Altarisches Jus Gentium, 297. 



Vaira-hatya, ' manslaughter,' is mentioned in the Vajasaneyi 
Sambita (xxx. 13) and the Taittiriya Brahma^ia (i. 5, 9, 5). Cf. 
VIrahan. 

Vai-rajya. See Rajya. 

Vairupa, * descendant of Virupa,' is the patronymic of At^- 
daipti*a in the Pancavimsa Brahmana (viii. 9, 21). 



Vai^anta is the name in the Rigveda^ of a prince whose 
offering Indra is said to have deserted for that of Sudas through 
the aid of the Vasithas. Ludwig^ thinks that the name is 
Ve^anta, and that he was a priest of the Prthu-PariSus ; 
Griffith^ says that probably a river is meant, but neither of 
these views is plausible. 



* vii. 33, 2. 

' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 173. 



3 Hymns of the Rigveda, 2, 24, n. 
Cf. Geldner, Vedische Studien, 2, 130. 



Vai^ampayana, * descendant of Visampa,' is the name of a 
teacher, famous later, but in the earlier Vedic literature known 
only to the Taittiriya Aranyaka (i. 7, 5) and the Grhya Sutras. 

Vai-^leya, ' descendant of Vi^ala,' is the patronymic of the 
mythic Takaka in the Atharvaveda (viii. 10, 29). 



VaiiSi-putra, ' the son of a Vai^ya wife,' is mentioned in the 
Brahmanas.* 

' Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 9, 7, 3 ; Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. 2 



Vai^ya ] 



THE THIRD CLASS 



333 



VaiiSya denotes a man, not so much of the people, as of the 
subject class, distinct from the ruling noble (Katriya) and the 
Brahmana, the higher strata of the Aryan community on the 
one side, and from the aboriginal l^udra on the other. The 
name is first found in the Purusa-sukta (' hymn of man ') in 
the Rigveda,^ and then frequently from the Atharvaveda^ 
onwards,^ sometimes in the form of Visya."* 

The Vaisya plays singularly little part in Vedic literature, 
which has much to say of Ksatriya and Brahmin. His 
characteristics are admirably summed up in the Aitareya Brah- 
mana^ in the adjectives anyasya bali-krt, 'tributary to another'; 
anyasyddya, *to be lived upon by another'; a.nd yathdkdma- 
jyeyah, 'to be oppressed at will.' He was unquestionably taxed 
by the king (Raj an), who no doubt assigned to his retinue the 
right of support by the people, so that the Ksatriyas grew more 
and more to depend on the services rendered to them by the 
Vaisyas. But the Vaisya was not a slave : he could not be 
killed by the king or anyone else without the slayer incurring 
risk and the payment of a wergeld (Vaira), which even in the 
Brahmin books extends to lOO cows for a Vaisya. Moreover, 
though the Vaisya could be expelled by the king at pleasure, he 
cannot be said to have been without property in his land. 
Hopkins thinks it is absurd to suppose that he could really be 
a landowner when he was subject to removal at will, but this 
is to ignore the fact that normally the king could not remove 
the landowner, and that kings were ultimately dependent on 
the people, as the tales of exiled kings show. 

On the other hand, Hopkins'' is clearly right in holding that 
the Vaisya was really an agriculturist, and that Vedic society 
was not merely a landholding aristocracy, superimposed upon 
an agricultural aboriginal stock, as Baden Powell^ urged. 
Without ignoring the possibility that the Dravidians were 
agriculturists, there is no reason to deny that the Aryans were 



1 X. 90, 12. 

2 V. 17, g. 

3 Vajasaneyi Satnhit&. xxx. 5, etc. 
See Varna. 

* Av. vi. 13, I ; VSjasaneyi Samhita,, 
xviii. 48, etc. 



vii. 29. Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 
I". 439. 

' India, Old and New, 222 et seq. 

f op. cit., 210 et seq. 

Indian Village Community, 190 et 
uq. 



334 



OCCUPATIONS OF THE THIRD CLASS 



[ Vaiiya 



so likewise, and the goad of the plougher was the mark of a 
Vai^ya in life and in death.^ It would be absurd to suppose 
that the Aryan Vaisyas did not engage in industry and com- 
merce (c/. Paiji, Vanij), but pastoral pursuits and agriculture 
must have been their normal occupations. 

In war the Vaisyas must have formed the bulk of the force 
under the Ksatriya leaders (see Katriya). But like the 
Homeric commoners, the Vaisyas may well have done little of 
the serious fighting, being probably ill-provided with either 
body armour or offensive weapons. 

That the Vaisyas were engaged in the intellectual life of the 
day is unlikely ; nor is there any tradition, corresponding to 
that regarding the Ksatriyas, of their having taken part in the 
evolution of the doctrine of Brahman, the great philosophic 
achievement of the age. The aim of the Vai^ya's ambition 
was, according to the Taittirlya Sarnhita," to become a 
GramanI, or village headman, a post probably conferred by the 
king on wealthy Vaisyas, of whom no doubt there were many. 
It is impossible to say if in Vedic times a Vai^ya could attain to 
nobility or become a Brahmin. No instance can safely be 
quoted in support of such a view,^^ though such changes of 
status may have taken place (see Katpiya and Varna). 

It is denied by Fick^' that the Vaisyas were ever a caste, and 
the denial is certainly based on good grounds if it is held that 
a caste means a body within which marriage is essential, and 
which follows a hereditary occupation (cf. Varna). But it 
would be wrong ^^ to suppose that the term Vai^ya was merely 
applied by theorists to the people who were not nobles or 
priests. It must have been an early appellation of a definite 
class which was separate from the other classes, and properly 
to be compared with them. Moreover, though there were 
differences among Vaisyas, there were equally differences 
among Ksatriyas and BrShmanas, and it is impossible to deny 



" K3.tbaka Samhita, xxxvii. i. 

1 KauSika SOtra, Ixxx. 

" ii. 5. 4. 4- 

12 Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 55 
et seq., argues to the contrary from 
Buddhist evidence ; but this has no 



cogency for the Vedic period, and much, 
if not all, of it is hardly in point as 
concerns this issue. 

" Die sociaie Gliedcrung, 163 et seq. 

" Cf. Indian Empire, i , 347. 



Vyadvari ] PATRONYMICS KNACKER AN ANIMAL 335 

the Vai^yas' claim to be reckoned a class or caste if the other 
two are such, though at the present day things are different. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 213 
It uq. ; Weber, Indiscke Studien, 10, 
ittuq.; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i', 7 et uq. ; 
Lodwig. Translation of the Rigveda, 



3, 24a, 243 ; Hopkins, Journal 0/ the 
American Oriental Society, 13, 76 et seq. 
(for the Epic VaiSya). 



Vai^va-mitra, 'descendant of Vi^vamitra,' is the term by 
which that famous priest's line is referred to in the Aitareya 
Brahmana (vii. 17 et seq.). 



Vaitha-pureya, * descendant of Vis^hapura,' is the name of 
a teacher in the first two Vam^as (lists of teachers) of the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad in the Madhyamdina recension (ii. 5, 
20; iv. 5, 25). He was a pupil of iSandilya and Rauhipayana. 



Vyacha in go-vyacha, the name of one of the victims at the 
Purusamedha (* human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda,^ is of 
uncertain signification. According to Sayana,^ the compound 
denotes a ' driver out of cows.' Perhaps it means a ' tormentor 
of cows,' as the St. Petersburg Dictionary takes it. Weber ^ 
renders it as 'knacker of cows,' Eggeling as 'one who 
approaches cows.' 



1 Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxx. 18 ; Tait- 
tirlya Brahmana, iii. 4, 16, i. Cf. 
Kathaka Samhita, xv. 4. 

2 On Taittiriya Brahmana, loc. cii. 

* Indiscke Streifen, i, 82, n. 11. This 



interpretation is supported by the use 
of the word in the Kathaka, where it 
replaces the OoTikartana of other texts. 
See Batnin (p. 200). 
* Sacred Books 0/ the East, 44, 416. 



Vy-advara,^ Vy-advarl,^ are the names of a ' gnawing ' (a^, 
* eat ') animal in the Atharvaveda and the Satapatha Brahmana. 
Cf. also Vyadhvara, which the St. Petersburg Dictionary 
would read throughout. 



1 Satapatha Brahmana, vii. 4, i, 27. 
Cf. Av. vi. 50, 2. 



' Av. iii. 28, 2, wherr a worm is 
certainly not meant. 



336 



WORM A PLANT- A SEER A TEACHER [ Vyadhvara 



Vyadhvara, ' perforating,' designates a worm in one passage 
of the Atharvaveda,^ where there seems to be no good reason 
to alter the reading to Vyadvara, though Whitney* thinks that 
it may rather be connected with vi-adhvan^ than with the root 
vyadh, 'pierce.'* The term occurs with Ma^aka, *fly,' in the 
Hiranyake^i Grhya Sutra,* and perhaps also in another passage 
of the Atharvaveda, where, however, both Whitney^ and 
Shankar Pandit read Vyadvara. 



' Translation of the Atharvaveda, 74. 

' This would mean * diverging from 
the road,' 'devious.' 

* The Padapitha analyzes the word 
as m-adhvara. 



" ii. 16, 3. 

' vi. 50. 3. 

7 Op. cit., 318. Cf. 135. 

C/. also Bloomfield, Hymns of the 
Atharvaveda, 316, 361, 487 ; Lanman in 
Whitney, op. cit., 318. 



Vyalka^a is the name of a plant in the Rigveda.^ 

1 X. 16, 13. Cf. Zimmer Altindisches Leben, 70. 



Vy-ava is the name of a Rsi, a prot^g6 of the A^vins,^ 
mentioned in several hymns of the eighth Mandala,* which 
may have been the composition of a descendant of his, ViSva- 
manas. In two other passages^ he is referred to only as a Esi 
of the past, and Oldenberg"* points out that none of his own 
work appears in the Sarnhita. The Rigveda also mentions* 
the Vyasvas, with whom Ludwig is inclined to connect Vai^a 
AiSvya. An Ahg'irasa Vya^va occurs as a seer of Samans or 
Chants in the Pancavimsa Brahmana.'^ 



1 Rv. i. 112, 15. 

* viii. 23, 16. 23 ; 24, 22 ; 26, 9. 
Rv. viii. 9, 10; ix. 65, 7. 

* Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen- 
landiichen Gesellscha/t 42, 217. 



Rv. viiL 24, 28 

' Translation of the Rigveda, 3. 
106. 
' xiv. 10, 9. 



Vy-ati is the name of a mythical teacher in the first two 
Vam^as (lists of teachers) in the Brhadara^iyaka Upanisad.^ 



i iv, 3, 22 ; iv. 5, 28 M&dhyamdina. 



Vyaghrapadya ] 



COMMENTARY TIGER 



337 



Vya-khyana in one passage of the Satapatha Brahmana^ 
clearly denotes a ' narrative ' merely viz., that of the dispute 
of Kadru and Suparni. In other passages- the word means 
simply 'commentary.' In the Bihadaranyaka Upanisad,^ used 
in the plural, it signifies a species of writing, apparently * com- 
mentaries,' though its exact relation to Anuvyakhyana must 
remain obscure. Sieg* thinks that the Vyakhyanas were forms 
of narrative like Anvakhyana and Anuvyakhyana. 

* iii. 6, 2, 7. I ^ " 4' ^' '^" ^' ^ (Madhyamdina = 

' vi. I, 27. 33 ; vii. 2. 4, 28. | 2 KSnva) ; 5, 11. 

* Die Sagenstofie des Rgveda, 21, 34. 



Vyag"hra, 'tiger,' is never found in the Rigveda, but 
frequently occurs in the Atharvaveda,^ as well as the lion. 
This fact is legitimately regarded as an indication that the 
Atharvaveda belongs to a period when the Vedic Indian had 
approached and entered the territory of Bengal. Later,^ also, 
mention of the tiger is quite common. The Taittirlya Sarnhita^ 
preserves a reference to the danger of waking a sleeping tiger. 
The destructive character of the animal is often alluded to,"* 
the man-eater {purusad) ^ being also mentioned. Like the lion, 
the tiger passes as a symbol of strength. This idea is illus- 
trated by the fact that the king at the Rajasuya (' royal 
consecration') steps'' on a tiger's skin to win himself the 
strength of the animal. Cf. also l^ardula, Petva. 



1 iv. 3, I ; 36, 6 ; vi. 38, I ; 103, 3 ; 
140, I ; xii. I, 49 ; 2, 43 ; xix. 46, 5 ; 

49. 4- 

* Taittiriya Samhita, vi. 2, 5, 5 ; 
KSthaka SamhiUl, xvii. 2 ; Maitr^yanl 
Satphita. ii. i, 9; Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
xiv. 9 ; xix, 10 ; Aitareya Brahmana, 
vii. 5, 3 Satapatha Brahmana, xii. 7, 
I, 8 ; Chandogya Upanisad, vi. 9, 3 ; 
10, 2, etc. 

V. 4. 10, 5. 



* Cf. Av. iv. 36, 6; viii. 5, 11, and 
see daiayu. 

" Av. xii. I, 49. 

Av. iv. 8, 4. 7. Cf. Yaska, Ninikta, 
iii. 18. 

' Av. iv. 8, 4. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred 
Books of the East, 41. 92. He does not 
wear the skin, as Zimmer, Altindisches 
Leben, 79, says. 

Cf. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities 
249, 250. 



Vyagrhra-padya is a false reading in the Chindogya 
Upanisad (v. i6, i) for Vaiyaghrapadya. 
VOL. II. 22 



338 



DISEASES AND BODILY DEFECTS 



[Vyadhi 



Vyadhi, ' disease,' occurs several times in Vedic literature.^ 
The specific diseases are dealt with under the separate names, 
but the Vedic texts also mention innumerable bodily defects. 
The list of victims* at the Purusamedha ('human sacrifice') 
includes a 'dwarf {vdmana, ktibja), a 'bald ' person {khalati),^ a 
'blind' man (andha),* a 'deaf man (badhira),^ a 'dumb' man 
{mUka),^ a 'fat' man {plvan), a 'leper' {sidhmala, kildsa)P a 
'yellow-eyed' man (hary-aksa), a 'tawny-eyed' man {ping- 
dksa), a 'cripple' {pltha-sarpin) , a 'lame' man {sydma)^ a 
' sleepless ' man {jdgarana), a ' sleepy ' man {svapana), one^ ' too 
tsXV {ati-dirgha), one 'too short' (ati-hrasva), one 'too stout' 
{ati-sthrda or aiy-amsala), one 'too thin' (ati-krsa), one 'too 
white ' (ati-sukld), one ' too dark ' {ati-krsna), one * too bald ' 
{ati-kulva), and one ' too hairy ' (ati-lomasa). 

In the MaitrayanI Samhita the man with bad nails and the 
man with brown teeth are mentioned along with sinners like 
the Didhiupati. The ^atapatha Brahmana^ mentions a 
'white-spotted (siikla), bald-headed man, with projecting teeth 
(viklidha) and reddish-brown eyes.' Interesting is Zimmer's^^ 
suggestion that kirmira found in the Vajasaneyi Samhita" 
means * spotty ' as an intermixture of races, but it is only a 
conjecture, apparently based on a supposed connexion of the 
word with kf, 'mix.' In the Vajasaneyi Samhita^ and the 



* Ch3.ndogya Upanisad, iv. lo, 3 ; 
Sadvim^ Brahmana, v. 4 ; SinkhSyana 
Srauta SQtra, iii. 4, 8. 

^ vajasaneyi Samhitel, xxx. 10. 17. 
21 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 4, 6, i ; 

14, I ; 17,. I- 
^ Cf. Satapatha Brahmana, xiii. 3, 

6,5. 

* Cf. Bjrhadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. 2, 
9 ; Chandogya Upanisad, v. i, g ; 
13, 2 ; viii. 4, 2 ; 9, I ; 10, i ; Kausitaki 
Upanisad, iii. 3. 

Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. 2, 10; 
Chandogya Upanisad, v. i, 10 ; Kausi- 
taki Upanisad, loc. cit. 

Kausitaki Upanisad, loc. cit. 

' Kilasa also in Paiicavim^a Brah- 
mana, xiv. 3, 17 ; xxiii. 16, 11, 
etc. 



8 Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxx. 22 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, iii. 4, ig, i, where 
are added the man who winks too 
much {ati-mirmira), has too prominent 
teeth (ati-dantura) or too small teeth 
(atikirita), and who stares excessively 
(ati-memifa) . Cf. Weber, Indische Streifen, 
I, 84, n. 4, 

^ iv. I, 9 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 2, 
8, 9. Cf. Av. vii. 65, 3. 

10 xiii. 3, 6, 5. See Eggeling, Sacred 
Books 0/ the East, 44, 323, n. 

1^ Altindisches Leben, 428. 

12 xxx. 21. 

13 XXX. 15, especially avijata and 
vijarjara, beside avatoka and paryayint ; 
atitvarl and atiskadvarl are also possibly 
so to be understood. Cf. Weber, Indtscht 
Streifen, \, 80. 



Vra] FATHOM A SAGE TROOP 339 

Taittirlya Brahmana^* various epithets are applied to women, 
some of which seem to denote disease, and in the Atharvaveda^*^ 
the feminine adjectives, * antelope-footed ' (riya-padl) and ' bull- 
toothed ' (vrsa-datl) , probably refer to bodily defects. 

^* iii. 4, II, I, where apaskadvarl and 
parySriiu are read. 

' i. 18, 4. Geldner, Vedische Studien, 



ring to the domestic cat, but this lacks 
plausibility. The sense of the other 
epithets there occurring is quite ob- 



I, 314, understands the hymn as refer- - scure. 

Vy-ana is the name of one of tbe vital airs. See Prana. 

Vyama in the Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas^ denotes the 
' span ' of the outstretched arms as a measure of length. It 
may be estimated at six feet or equivalent to a fathom,^ 

1 Av. vi. 137, 2 ; Taittiriya SamhitS, as equal to 5 Aratnis). According to 
V. I, I, 4; 2, 5, I, etc. the Sulva Sutra of BaudhS.yana, the 



2 Satapatha Brahmana, x. 2, 3, i. 2 ; 
i. 2, 5, 14 ; vii. I, I, 37, where the 
scholiast equates it to 4 Aratnis or 
cubits (while the scholiast on ASvala- 
yana Grhya Sutra, ix. i, 9, regards it 



Aratni equals 24 ahgula ( = | inch). See 
Fleet, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1912, 231, 233. 234. 

3 See Eggeling, Sacred Books 0/ the 
East, 41, 309, n. 5. 



Vyasa Para^arya (' descendant of Paraiara ') is the name of 
a mythical sage who in the Vedic period is found only as a pupil 
of Vivaksena in the Vam^a (list of teachers) at the end of the 
Samavidhana Brahmana and in the late Taittirlya Aranyaka.^ 

1 i. 9, 2. Cf. Weber, Indiuhe Studien, i, 156 ; 4, 377 ; Indian Literature, 184, 
n. 199. 

Vra, according to Roth,^ means 'troop' in the Rigveda^ and 
the Atharvaveda.^ Zimmer* sees in the word (in the feminine 
form of vra) a designation in one passage of the village host 
which formed part of the Vii$, and was composed of relations 
(su-bandhu). On the other hand, Pischel^ thinks that in all the 
passages Vra means ' female,' used either of animals or of 

1 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. Cf. \ ' ii. i, i, a confused pa.<:sage, on 
Bechtel.NachrichienderkHniglichenGeseU- \ which see Whitney, Iranslation of the 
schaft der IVissenscha/ten zu Gottingen, 1 Atharvaveda, 37, 38. 

1894,393. I ^ A Itindisches Leben, 162. 

2 i. 124, 8 ; 126, 5 ; iv. 1, 16 ; viii. 2, 6 ; 1 ^ Vedische Studien, 2, 121, 313 et seq. 
X. 123, 2. He omits i. 121, 2, where ^ Rv. i. 121, 2 ; viii. 2, 6 (female 
Bohtlingk, Dictionary, 5. v., treats the \ elephants). 

word as a feminine (vrS). \ 

22 2 



i 



340 



PA STURA GEHERDSTA LL 



[ Vraja 



women who go to the feast (Samana)/ or courtezans {viiya, * of 
the people'), or, metaphorically,^ the hymns compared with 
courtezans : these senses are perhaps adequate. 



' Rv. i. 124, 8. 
8 Rv. i. 126, 5. 



Rv. 

loc. cit. 



iv. I, 16 ; 



123, 2 ; Av. 



Vraja denotes in the first instance, in the Rigveda,^ the place 
to which the cattle resort (from vraj, * go '), the * feeding ground ' 
to which the milk-giving animals go out^ in the morning from 
the village (Grama), while the others stay in it all day and 
night.^ Secondarily it denotes the 'herd'* itself. This is 
Geldner's view,^ which seems clearly better than that of Roth 
who regards Vraja as primarily the * enclosure ' (from vrj), and 
only thence the ' herd '; for the Vraja does not normally mean 
an * enclosure ' at all : the Vedic cattle were not stall-fed as a 
general rule. In some passages, however, 'pen,'' in others 
' stall, '^ is certainly meant. The word is often used in the 
myth of the robbing of the kine. It occasionally denotes a 
'cistern.' 10 



1 Rv. ii. 38, 8 ; x. 26, 3, and perhaps 
97, 10; loi, 8. C/. Medhatithi on 
Manu, iv. 45, and Mahabharata. i. 41, 
15, where go-vraja is equal to gavam 
Pracdrah, ' the pastures of the kine, ' in 
i. 40, 17. 

Rv. ii. 38. 8, 

' Cf. SSLyana on Aitareya Brahmana, 
ii. 18, 14. 

* Rv. V. 35, 4 ; vii. 27, i ; 32, 10 ; 
viii. 46, 9 ; 51. 5. 

' Vedische Studien, 2, 282 et seq. ; Rig- 
veda, Glossar, 174. Cf. Hopkins, /owrna/ 
of the American Oriental Society, 13, 77. 

St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. But 
cf. Bohtlingk, Dictionary, s.v. 

^ Av. iii. II, 5 ; iv. 38, 7 ; SUnkhiyana 
Aranyaka, ii. 16. Metaphorically, in 
the BrhadJUranyaka Upanisad, vi. 4, 22, 
Madhyamdina. it is a pen with a bolt 
{fdrgala) and with a palisade (sa-pari. 



iraya). The sense of ' pen ' is also 
possible in Rv. x. 97, 10; loi, 8, and 
is not radically opposed to it, for Vraja 
denotes the place where the cattle are 
fed, and can therefore be applied to 
the stall where they are during the 
night. Cf. Ctostha. 

8 Rv. X. 4, 2, where the ' warm 
Vraja ' to which the cows resort is 
alluded to, and iv. 51, 2, where the 
Dawns open wide the doors of the 
Vraja of darkness; Taittiriya Brah- 
mana, iii. 8, 12, 2, where the Vraja is 
said to be made of A^vattha wood. 
The sense of stall ' is probable in 
Vajasaneyi SamhitS, i. 25. 

^ See Geldner, op. cit., 2, 283 ct 
seq. 

10 Vajasaneyi Samhiti, x. 4 = Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, i. 8, 11, i = Maitr&yanI 
Sarnhita, ii. 6, 7. 



Vrata] MILK CREEPER CHIEFTAIN TROOP 341 

Vrata ('vow') in the later Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas* 
has the peculiar sense of the ' milk ' used by one who is living 
on that beverage alone as a vow or penance. 



1 Av. vi. 133, 2 ; Taittiriya Samhita. 
vi. 2, 5, 3. 4 ; Vajasaneyi Saijihita, iv. 1 1 , 
etc. 

3 Satapatba Brahmana, iii. 2, 2, 10. 
14. 17 ; 4, 2, 15 ; ix. 2, 1, 18. Cf. ghrta- 



vrata, Pancavim^ Brahmana, xviii. 2, 
5. 6, and vrata-dughd, the ' cow that 
gives the Vrata milk,' Satapatha Brah- 
mana, iii. 2, 2, 14 ; xiv. 3, I, 34, 
etc. 



Vratati in the Rigveda^ and later '^ denotes a 'creeping 
plant.' 

1 viii. 40, 6 ; Nirukta, i. 14 ; vi. 28. 2 Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 5, i, 3, etc. 

Vraja-pati is found in one passage of the Rigveda/ where it 
is said that comrades attend Indra, as the Kulapas the Vraja- 
pati, when he goes about. Zimmer^ thinks that this refers to 
the heads of families being subordinate in war to the village 
headman (Gramani), but Whitney^ seems to be right in seeing 
merely the chieftain surrounded by the leading men, the family 
heads, not necessarily merely a village headman. Vraja alone 
occurs in one passage of the Atharvaveda,'* adverbially in the 
sense of * in troops.' 

1 X. 179, 2 = Av. vii. 72, 2. I 3 Translation of the Atharvaveda, 436. 

2 Altindisches Leben, 171. | * i. 16, i. Cf. Whitney, 0/. cit., 17. 

Vraja-bahu is used in the Kausitaki Brahmana (ii. 9) of the 
' encompassing arms ' of death, Vraja here apparently meaning 
a ' pen,' like Vraja. Cf. Vitha-vrajin. 

Vrata is found in several passages of the Rigveda^ and 
later 2 in the sense of ' troop.' In one passage of the Rigveda^ 
the troops of the Maruts are referred to by three different 
terms sardha, vrata, and gatia. From this fact Zimmer* has 

1 i. 163, 8; iii. 26, 2; v. 53, 11; ' Taittiriya Saqihita, i. 8, 10, 2; Vaja- 

ix. 14, 2 (perhaps an allusion to the } saneyi Samhita, xvi. 25 ; Paiicavim^ 

five tribes) ; x. 34, 8. 12 (of dice). In j Brahmana, vi. 9, 24 ; xvii. i, 5. 12. etc. 

X. 57. 5. the host of the living (J'tva \ 3 v. 53, 11. Cf. iii. 26, 2, where 

vrata) is referred to. ! tardha is not mentioned. 

^ Av. ii. 9, 2 ('host of the living '); i * Altindisches Leben, 162. 



34* 



CHIEF OF A BAND OUTCAST 



[ Vratapati' 



deduced that a Vedic host fought according to clan (Vi6), 
village (Grama), and family, but this conclusion is hardly 
warranted, there being nothing to show that there is any 
intention to present a distinct series of divisions. It is not 
probable that the word ever has the technical sense of ' guild,' as 
Roth* thinks. C/. Vratapati. 



In the St. Petersburg Dictionary, 
where this is taken to be the sense; 
Pancavim^ Brahmana, vi. 9, 25 ; xvii. i , 



5. 12 ; V&jasaneyi Sambita, xvi. 25 
Taittiriya Saiphita. i. 8. 10, 2. 



Vrata-patl, 'lord of troops,' is an epithet included in the 
names of Rudra in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas,^ along with the 
epithet Gana-pati, * lord of groups.' The exact sense is quite 
uncertain, but the term may allude to the chief of a band of 
robbers, as Zimmer^ thinks. 

* Taittiriya Samhita, iv, 5, 4, i ; I SamhitS, ii. 9, 4 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
Kithaka Saiphita, xvii. 13 ; Maitrayani | xvi. 25. 

2 AUindisches Leben, 179. 



Vratya is included in the list of victims at the Purusamedha 
(* human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda,^ where, however, no 
further explanation of the name is given. Fuller information 
is furnished by the Atharvaveda,^ the Pancavimsa Brahmana,* 
and the Sutras,** which describe at length a certain rite intended 
for the use of Vratyas, According to the Pancavimsa Brah- 
mana, there are four different kinds of * outcasts ' viz., the 
htna, who are merely described as * depressed '; those who have 
become outcasts for some sin {nindita) ; those who become out- 
casts at an early age, apparently by living among outcasts ; and 
those old men who, being impotent (sama-nlcamedhra), have 
gone to live with outcasts. The last three categories are by no 
means of the same importance as the first. The motive of 
the fourth is hard to understand : according to Rajaram Ram- 



^ vajasaneyi Saiphita, xxx. 8 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, iii. 4, 5, i. 
' XV. I, I et stq. 
' xvii. 1.4. 



* Katyayana Srauta SOtra, xii. i ; 
x\ii. 4 ; Latyayana Srauta SQtra, viii. 6 ; 
Apastamba Srauta SQtra, xxii. 5, 4-14. 
See Hillebrandt, RituallUeratur, 139, 140. 



Vrttya ] 



CHARACTERISTICS OF OUTCASTS 



343 



krishna Bhagavat,* they were men who had enfeebled their 
constitutions by undue intercourse with women in the lands of 
the outcasts, and returned home in a debilitated state. But 
this is not stated in the text. 

It seems probable that the really important Vratyas were 
those referred to as hlna, and that the other classes were only 
subsidiary. According to Rajaram, there were two categories 
of the first class : (a) The depressed (hlna), who were non- 
Aryan ; and (b) degraded Aryans (gara-gir). This, however, is 
a mere guess, and devoid of probability. There seems to have 
been but one class of Vratyas. That they were non-Aryan is 
not probable, for it is expressly said^ that, though unconse- 
crated, they spoke the tongue of the consecrated : they were 
thus apparently Aryans, This view is confirmed by the state- 
ment that * they call what is easy of utterance, difficult to 
utter': probable they had already a somewhat Prakritic form of 
speech {cf. Vac). The Sutras mention their Arhants (* saints ') 
and Yaudhas ('warriors'), conesponding to the Brahminical 
BrShmana and Ksatriya. 

Other particulars accord with the view that they were 
Aryans outside the sphere of Brahmin culture. Thus they 
are said not to practise agriculture or commerce (an 
allusion to a nomadic life), nor to observe the rules of 
Brahmacarya i.e., the princip'.e regulating the Brahminic 
order of life. They were also illowed to become members 
of the Brahminical community Dy performance of the ritual 
prescribed, which would hardly be so natural in the case 
of non-Aryans. 

Some details are given of the life and dress of the Vratyas. 
Their principles were opposed to tiose of the Brahmins : they 
beat those unworthy of correction.' Their leader (Grhapati) or 
householder wore a turban (UijJ), carried a whip (Pratoda), 
a kind of bow (Jyahroda), was :lothed in a black {krsnasa) 
garment and two skins (Ajina), black and white {ktsna-valahsa), 
and owned a rough wagon (Vijatha) covered with planks 



Journal of the Bombay Branch of the 
Royal A static Society, 19, 360. 
Ibid., 359. 



' Pancavim^ Brclhmana, xvii. i , 9. 
' Ibid., xvii. I, 2. 
Ibid., xvii. 1, 14. 



344 



DRESS AND HABITAT OF OUTCASTS [ Vratya 



iphalakastirna). The others,^ subordinate to the leader, had 
garments with fringes of red {valukdntdni ddmatmdni\ two 
fringes on each, skins folded double {dvtsamhitdny ajindni), and 
sandals (Upanah). The leader wore also an ornament (Nika) 
of silver, which Rajaram" converts into a silver coinage. The 
Vratyas, on becoming consecrated, were expected to hand over 
their goods to the priest. Many other details are given in the 
SQtras (eg., that the shoes or sandals were of variegated black 
hue and pointed), but these are not authenticated by the 
Pancavirnsa Brahmana. 

The locality in which the Vratyas lived cannot be stated with 
certainty, but their nomad life" suggests the western tribes 
beyond the SarasvatT. But they may equally well have been in 
the east : this possibility is so far supported by the fact that the 
Siitras make the Brahmin receiving the gift of the Vratya's 
outfit an inhabitant of Mag"adha. The Atharvaveda ^^ does not 
help, for it treats the Vratya in so mystical a way that he is 
represented as being in all the quarters. Indeed, Roth" 
believed that it was here not a case of the Vratya of the Panca- 
virnsa Brahmana at all, but of a glorification of the Vratya as 
the type of the pious vagrant or wandering religious mendicant 
(Parivrajaka). This view is clearly wrong, as the occurrence 
of the words tisnisa, vipatha, and pratoda shows. It is probable 
that the 15th Book of the Atharvaveda, which deals with the 
Vratya, and is of a mystical character, exalts the converted 
Vratya as a type of the perfe:t Brahmacarin, and, in so far, of 
the divinity.^^ 



*" Ibid., xvii. I, 15. The exact seise 
of the passages is obscure, and was, as 
L&tyS.yana shows, already obscure in 
his time and earlier ; the translatitns 
given are all vague. Cf. Weber, Indithe 
Studien, i, 32 et seq. ; Indian Liter attre, 
67, 68 ; Hopkins, Transactions of the 
Connecticut A cademy 0/ A rts and Scieices, 
15, 31. 32 ; RajarSm, loc. cit. 1 

" Op. cit., 361. ' 

^ Which is indicated by their nane, 
belonging to a roving band ' (vrUa), 
' vagrant.' 



13 See Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 770 et seq. , with Lanman's 
additions. 

" St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

" Bloomfield, Atharvaveda, 94. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i. 33, 52, 
445, n. ; Indian Literature, 67, 78, no- 
112, 141, 146; Auhecht, Indische Studien, 
I, 130 et seq. ; Ludwig, Translation of 
the Rigveda, 3, xxvi et seq. ; Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, 216. 



^ata ] 



RICE A TEACHER CART 



345 



Vrlhi, 'rice,' is never mentioned in the Rigveda,^ but is 
frequently alluded to in the Atharvaveda* and later.^ Rice 
seems to be indigenous in the south-east of India :^ this fact 
accounts well for the absence of any mention of it in the 
Rigveda. Black and white rice is contrasted in the Taittiriya 
Samhita,^ where also the distinctions of dark, swift-growing 
(d^i), and large rice (niahd-vrlhi) are found. Probably the 
swift-growing variety is that later known as sastika, * ripening 
in sixty days.' Vrihi and Yava, ' barley,' are normally con- 
joined in the textsJ Cf. Plaiuka. 



^ To take dhanya b'lja in Rv. v. 53, 13, 
as ' rice seeds ' is unnecessary and very 
improbable, nor is there better reason 
to see in dhanya rasa in Av. ii. 26, 5, a 
rice drink.' 

' vi. 140, 2 ; viii. 7, 20 ; ix. 6, 14, 
etc. 

3 Taittiriya Samhita, vii. 2, 10, 3, 
where it is said to ripen in autumn ; 
Kathaka Samhita, x. 6 ; xi. 5 ; MaitrS- 
yani Samhita, iii. 10, 2 ; iv. 3, 2 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Saiphita, xviii. 12 ; Aitareya. 
Brahmana, ii. 8, 7; 11, 12; viii. 16, 



3. 4 ; ^atapatha Brahmana, v. 5, 5, 9 ; 
Brhadaranyaka UpanLsad, vi. 3, 22 
(Madhyaipdina = vi. 3, 13 KSnva) ; 
Chandogya Upanisad, iii. 14, 3. 

* ii. 3, 1, 3. Cf. Taittiriya Brahmana, 
I. 7, 3, 4 ; Kathaka Samhita, xii. 4. 5. 6, 
etc. 

i. 8, 10, I. 

' Av. xi. 4, 13 ; Jaiminiya Brahmana, 
i. 43; Chandogya Upanisad, v. 10, 6, 
etc. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 239. 



Vleka. See Bleka. 



s. 

Samyu is the name of a mythical son of Brhaspati. 
quoted as a teacher in the texts of the Yajurveda.^ 



He is 



1 Taittiriya Satnhita, ii. 6, 10, i ; I 8, 11 ; Satapatha Brahmana, i. 9, i, 
V. 2, 6, 4 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 3, | 24 ; Taittiriya Aranyaka, i. 5, 2. 
Cf. Levi, La Doctrine du Sacrifice, 113. 



Sakata,^ iSaka^i,^ are rare words in the older literature for a 
* cart.' The creaking of a cart is referred to in the Rigveda* as 
like the sound heard by night in the forest. 



* Nirukta, vi. 22 ; xi. 47 ; Chandogya 
Upanisad, iv. i, 8, 



3 Rv. X. 146, 3 ; Satlviqi^a Brahmana, 
'7' 



346 



MILKY WA Y^A PRINCE A TRIBE [ 6akadhuma 



Saka-dhuma is found in one hymn of the Atharvaveda/ 
where it is celebrated as the king of the asterisms. The word 
seems to mean the * smoke of (burning) cow-dung,' or else the 
* smoke (rising) from (fresh) cow-dung ': it may well be, as 
Weber- thinks, that this was deemed to be significant of the 
weather. Bloomfield,^ however, considers that the word is to 
be rendered as * weather prophet,' that is, one who foretells the 
weather by means of the smoke of a fire. Whitney'* objects to 
this view with reason. Il is not at all improbable that, as 
Roth^ believed, an asterism of some sort is meant, probably 
the * milky way.' 



1 vi. 128, 1. 3. 4, and in the Naksatra 
Kalpa. 

* Omina uni Portenta, 363 ; Indische 
Studien, 5, 257 ; 10, 65 ; Naxatra, 2, 
272, n. ; 293. 

' American Journal of Philology, 7, 484 
et seq. : Journal of the A merican Oriental 



Society, 13, cxxxiii ; Hymns of the Athar- 
vaveda, 532, 533. 
* Translation of the Atharvaveda, 

377. 378. 

" St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 353; 
Caland, .^ Itindisches Zauberritual, 1 75 , n. 3. 



Iakan. See iSakrt. 



I^aka-puta (' purified by cow-dung ') is the name, apparently, 
of a prince, in one hymn of the Rigveda (x. 132, 5). 



i^akam-bhara, ' bearer of dung,' is found in one passage of 
the Atharvaveda,^ where the sense is doubtful. Ludwig^ and 
Grill ^ see in it a tribal name, Bloomfield* the personification of 
excessive evacuation (diarrhoea), while Whitney^ considers 
that it may refer to the Mahavpas, despised as having to 
collect dung for fuel in the absence of wood in their country. 



^ V. 22, 4. 

2 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 510. 

3 Hundert Lieder,^ 154. 

* Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 445, 446. 



' Translation of the Atharvaveda, 

259. 
Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 18, 253. 



I^aka is the name of one of the victims at the A^vamedha 
(* horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ It is uncer- 

1 Taittiriya Sarphiti, v. 5, 12, i; 18,1; Maitr&yani SaiphitA, iii. 14, 13; 
V&jasaneyi Saiphiti, xxiv. 32. 



daknnta ] 



BIRD A NAME 



347 



tain whether a kind of bird' or fly,' or long-eared beast* is 
intended. 



Mahidhara on Vajasaneyi Samhiti, 
loc. cit. 

' Sayana on Taittiriya Satphiti, v. 5, 
12, I ; 18, I. 



* Sa3rana on Taittiriya Saiphita, v. 5, 

12, I. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Ltben, 99. 



Sakuna, * bird,' is mentioned frequently in the Rigveda^ and 
later.2 It usually denotes a large bird,^ or a bird which gives 
omens.* Zimmer^ compares kvkvo^, which also is a bird of 
omen. 



1 iv. 26, 6; ix. 85, 11; 86, 13; 
107, 20 ; 112, 2 ; X. 68, 7 ; 106, 3 ; 123, 6 ; 
165, 2. 

* Av. xii. I, 51 ; 3, 13 ; xx. 127. 4 ; 
Taittiriya Samhitcl, iii. 2, 6, 2 ; Vaja- 
saneyi SaiphitS, xviii. 53, etc. 



3 Cf. Av. xi. 2, 24, as compared writh 
Vayas ; Nirukta, iii. iS. 

* Cf. Kausitaki Brabmana, vii. 4 ; 
MaitrSyani Upanisad, vi. 34, etc. 

* Altindisches Leben, 430. 



I^akuni, 'bird,' is used practically like iSakima, but with a 
much clearer reference to divination. It was smaller than the 
l^yena or Suparna,^ gave signs,^ and foretold ill-luck.^ When 
it is mentioned* in the list of sacrificial victims at the Ava- 
medha ('horse sacrifice')* a special species must be meant: 
later the falcon is so called, but the ' raven ' may be intended ; 
the commentator on the Taittiriya Samhita thinks that it is 
the ' crow.' It is mentioned several times elsewhere.^ 



1 Rv. ii. 42, 2. 

a Rv. ii. 42, I ; 43, 3. 

3 Av. x. 3, 6. 

* Taittiriya Samhita, v. 5, 19, i ; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 40 ; Maitra- 
yani Samhita, iii. 14, 21. 

* Av. ii. 25, 2 ; vii. 64, I ; xi. 9, 9 ; 



Kathaka Samhita, xxv. 7 ; Aitareya 
Brahmana, ii. 15, 12 ; iv, 7, 3 ; Sata- 
patha Brahmana, xiv. i, i, 31 ; Chan- 
dogya Upanisad, vi. 8, 2, etc. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 88, 
430. 



iSakuni-mitra is one of the names of Vipa^cit Para^arya in 

the Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 41, i). 



I^akunta is a name for ' bird ' in the Atharvaveda (xi. 6, 8). 



348 BIRD A NYMPH A FISH DUNG [ 6akuntaka 

iSakuntaka,^ l^akuntika,^ are diminutives, meaning ' little 
bird ' in the Samhitas. 

* Khila after Rv. ii. 43 ; Vajasaneyi I 2 Rv. i. 191, 1 ; Vajasaneyi Saiphita, 
Saipbitft, xxiii. 23. I xxiii. 22. 



^akuntala is the name of an Apsaras who bore Bharata, 
according to the ^atapatha Brahmana,^ at Nadapit. Weber * 
doubtfully reads the latter word as NadapitI, an epithet of 
Sakuntala. 



xiu. 5, 4, 13. 



3 Episches im vedischen Ritual, 6. 



I^akunti is found in the Rigveda (ii. 42, 3 ; 43, i) denoting a 
* bird ' of omen. 

i^akula in the later Samhitas^ denotes an unknown species 
of fish. 

1 Av, XX. 136, I ; Vajasaneyi Sambita, xxiii. 28. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches 
Leben, 97. 



^akpt,! Iakan,2 denotes ' dung ' in the Rigveda and later. It 
is clear that the value of manure was early appreciated (see 
Kari^a). For the use of the smoke of dung or of a dung fire for 
prognosticating the weather, see iSakadhuma. 



1 Used only in nominative and accu- 
sative : Rv. i. 161, 10; Av. xii. 4, 9 ; 
Taittirlya Sarnhitcl, vii. i, ig, 3, etc. 

^ In the oblique cases ^akan is the 



base, Av. xii. 4, 4 ; Taittiriya Sambita, 
V. 7, 23, I ; vajasaneyi Saiphita, 
xxxvii. 9. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 236. 



I. I^akti is said in the Jaimimya Brahmana^ to have been 
the son of Vasitha, and to have been cast into the fire by the 
ViiSvamitras. According to Sadguru^isya,^ who appears to 
follow the Satyayanaka,^ the story of ^akti is as follows : 
Vi^vamitra, being defeated in a contest by Sakti, had recourse 

^ ii. 390 {Journal of the American 1 > Sarvanukramani, ed. Macdonell, 
Oriental Society, 18, 47). | p. 107, and on Rv. vii. 32. 

3 Geldner, Vedische Studien, 2, 159, n. 3. 



danku] SON OF VASI^JHA CHANTED VERSES PEG 349 

to Jamadag-ni, who taught him the Sasarpari; later he 
revenged himself on Sakti by having him burnt in the forest. 
The Brhaddevata* relates the first part of the tale only. 
Geldner^ sees in the Rigveda a description of the death 
struggle of Sakti, but this interpretation is more than doubtful.' 



* iv. 112 et seq., with Macdonell's 
notes. 

' op. cit., 2, 159 et seq. ; more doubt- 
fully, Rigveda, Kommentar, 89. 



iiu 53, 22. 

' Oldenberg, Rgveda-Noten, i, 254. 



2. ^akti Ang-irasa (' descendant of Ang-iras ') is the name ot 
a seer of a Saman or Chant in the Pancavimsa Brahmana.^ 

^ xii. 5, 16. Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mytkologie, 2, 160. 



Sakvari, fem. plur., denotes the Sakvari verses, known also 
as the Mahanamni verses, to which the Sakvara Saman (chant) 
is sung. This sense seems to occur in the Rigveda,^ and is 
certain later.^ 



1 vii. 33, 4 ; X. 71, 14 ; Nirukta, i. 8. 

^ Av. xiii. I, 5 ; Taittiriya Samhita, 
ii. 2, 8. 5 ; 6, 2, 3 ; iii. 4, 4, I ; v. 4, 
12, 2 ; Kathaka Samhita, xxvi. 4 ; 
Pancavim^ Brahmana, x. 6, 5 ; xii. 13, 



12 ; Taittiriya Brclhmana, ii. i, 5, 11 ; 
^atapatha Brihmana, iii. 3, i, i ; 9, 2, 
17, etc. 

Cf. Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 258 
et seq. 



Sanku in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes a * wooden peg.' 
Thus the term is used of the pegs by which a skin is stretched 
out in the ^atapatha Brahmana,* and of the pin of hobbles 
(Padbi^a).'* In the Chandogya Upanisad^ it may mean * stalk ' 
or * fibre of a leaf.' "^ 



1 1. 164, 48. 

'^ ^atapatha Brahmana, iii. 5, i, i; 
2, 2 ; 6, I, 3 ; xiii. 8, 4, i ; Aitareya 
Br&hmana, iii. 18, 6, etc. 

' ii. I, I, 10. 

* Brhadaranyaka.vi. 2, i3(M&dhyam- 
dina = vi. i, 13 Kanva), etc. 

ii. 23. 4. 



Max Miiller, Sacred Books of the 
East, I, 35. 

7 Little, Grammatical Index, 149. But 
cf. Oertel, Journal of the American Orient al 
Society, 16, 228, who compares iuci in 
Jaiminlya Brihrnana, ii. 10 ; Jaiminlya 
Upanifad Br&hmana, i. 10, 3. 



350 PEARL SHELL^CONCH-BLOIVERHEMP [ 6ankha 

I. I^ahkha in the Atharvaveda,^ with the epithet Kf6ana, 
denotes a pearl-shell used as an amulet. In the later litera- 
ture* it denotes a ' shell ' or ' conch ' used for blowing as a wind 
instrument. 



* iv. lo. I. See Lanman in Whitney, 
Translation of the Atharvaveda, i6i. 



^ Brhad&ranyaka Upani^, ii. 4, 9 ; 
iv. 5, 10. 



2. iSahkha Kaui^ya is mentioned as a teacher whom Jata 
l^akayanya criticized in the KSthaka Samhita (xxii. 7 ; cf. 6). 

3. iSankha Babhravya (' descendant of Babhru ') is the name 
of a teacher, a pupil of Rama, in the Jaiminlya Upaniad Brah- 
mana (iii. 41, i ; iv. 17, i). 



iSahkha-dhma, a * conch-blower,' is enumerated among the 
victims at the Purusamedha (' human sacrifice ') in the Yajur- 
veda,^ and is mentioned in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ 

1 Vajasaneyi SamhitSl, xxx. 19; Taittiriya Br&hmana, iii, 4, 13, i. 

2 ii. 4. 9; iv. 5, 10. 

^ahga Satyayani (' descendant of ^atyayana ') Atreya 
(* descendant of Atri ') is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
Nagarin, in the Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 40, i). 

i^acivant is apparently the name of a man in one passage of 
the Rigveda,^ where the vocative Saciva^ occurs. But Roth^ 
prefers to read ^acl ca instead. 



^ X- 74. 5. 

' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 
Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 



veda, 3, 108 ; GrifiSth, Hymns oj the 
Rigveda, 2, 489, n. 



^a^a denotes a kind of ' hemp ' {Cannabis sativa or Crotolaria 
juncea). It is mentioned in the Atharvaveda^ as growing in the 
forest, and as used like the Janglda as a remedy against 
Viijkandha. It also occurs in the Satapatha Brahmana.* 

' ii. 4, 5. ^ iii. 2, I, II i 6, i, 24 : 2, 15. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 68. 



^atamana ] NAMES A FUNCTIONARY 351 

i^a^da is joined with Marka as a Parohita of the Asuras in 
the Yajurveda Samhitas* and Brahmanas.^ 



^ Taittiriya Sanihit&, vi. 4, 10, i ; 
Maitriyami SamhitcL, iv. 6, 3 ; VSja- 
saneyi SambitS, vii. 12. 13 (Marka in 
16. 17J. 



^ ^atapatha Br&hmana, iv. 2, i , 4 ; 
Taittiriya Br&bmana, i. i, i, 5. 

C/. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologit, 
I. 223. 



Sandika is found in one passage of the Rigveda* in the 
plural. According to Ludwig,^ the hymn is a prayer for victory 
over the Sandikas and their king. 



iii, 30, 



3 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 153, 



Sata-dyumna (* possessing a hundred glories ') is the name 
of a man who, along with Yajnesu, was made prosperous by 
the priest Matsya through his knowledge of the exact moment 
for sacrifice, according to the Taittiriya Brahmana (i. 5, 2, i). 



I^ata-pati occurs in a verse of the Maitrayani Samhita^ and 
the Taittiriya Brahmana^ as an epithet of Indra, who is 
described as alone the ' lord of a hundred ' among men. To 
interpret the expression as * lord of a hundred gods,' as does 
the commentary on the Taittiriya Brahmana, is obviously 
impossible. It seems clear that there is a reference to an 
analogous human functionary viz., the lord of a hundred 
villages, known in the later law^ who was probably at once a 
judicial deputy of the sovereign and a revenue collector, an 
ancient magistrate and collector. 

1 iv. 14, 12. ii. 8, 4, 2. 

3 See Foy, Die honigliche Gewalt, 74. 

l^ata-balaksa Maudg-alya (* descendant of Mudgrala ') is the 
name of a grammarian in the Nirukta (xi. 6). 



I^ata-mana. See Mana and Kp^pala. 



352 NA MESH UNBRED NA MES OF R UDRA ENEMY [ 6atayatu 

l^ata-yatu (* having a hundred magic powers ') is the name of 
a B^i in the Rigveda.^ He is enumerated after Paraiara and 
before Vasitha. Geldner* thinks he may have been a son of 
Vasistha. 



1 vii. i8, 21. 

s Vedische SUdien, 2, 13a. 



C/. Ludwig, Translation of the Athar- 
vaveda, 3, 139. 



!ata-rudriya,i l^ata-rudriya^ (hymn * relating to the hundred 
Rudras'), is the name of a section of the Yajurveda,^ which 
celebrates the god Rudra in his hundred aspects, enumerating 
his many epithets. 



1 Kithaka SamhitSi, xxi. 6; Sata- 
patba BrSLhinana, ix. i, i, i ; 2, i ; 

X. I, 5.3- 15- 

2 Taittiriya Sanihita, v. 4, 3, i ; 
5. 9. 4 ; 7 3i 3 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, 
iii. II, 9, 9, etc. 

Taittiriya Samhita, iv. 5, i-ii; 



KS,thaka SanihitS., xvii. 11-16; Maitr- 
yani Samhita., ii. 9, i ;^ 5^. ; V&jasaneyi 
Satnhita., xvi. i et seq. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 202; 
Weber, Indian Literature, 108, iii, 159, 
169, 170 ; Eggeling, Sacred Books of the 
East, 43, 150 et seq. 



I^ata-^rada in the Rigveda^ and the Atharvaveda^ denotes 
a ' period of a hundred autumns ' or years. 



1 vii. loi, 6 ; x. 161, 2. 



1. 35, I ; viii. 2, 2 ; 5. 21. 



I^atanika Satrajita is mentioned in the Aitareya Brahmana^ 
and the Satapatha Brahmana ^ as a great king who defeated 
Dhptara^tra, the prince of Ka^i, and took away his sacrificial 
horse. He was clearly a Bharata. He is also alluded to in the 
Atharvaveda. 



viii. 21, 5. 

xiii. 5. 4, 9-13. 

' i- 35i I = Vajasaneyi SaiphitS., 



xxxiv. 52, in connexion with the DUc- 
y&yanas. 



iSatri Agni-veiSi (* descendant of Agnive^a ') is the name of 
a generous patron in the Rigveda.^ 

^ V, 34, 9. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 155. 



$atru denotes * enemy ' in the Rigveda ^ and later.^ 



* i 33. 13: 61. 13; ii. 23, II ; 30, 
3 et seq. ; iii. 16, 2 ; iv. 28, 4, etc. 



2 Av. iv. 3, I ; vi. 4, 2 ; x. 3, 1. 
etc. 



6apha ] A KING CURSE HOOF TONGS 353 

l^am-tanu is the hero of a tale told by Y5ska,* and often 
found Iater.2 He supersedes his elder brother Devapi as king 
of the Kurus. When his improper deed brings on a prolonged 
drought in his realm, he is compelled to ask his brother to 
assume the kingship; DevSpi, however, refuses, but instead 
performs a sacrifice which produces rain. Sieg^ endeavours to 
trace this story in the Rigveda,* but all that is there stated is 
that Devapi Anjti^e^a obtained (no doubt as priest) rain for 
Samtanu (no doubt a king). There is no hint of relationship 
at all. 

^ Nirukta, ii. 10. 

2 BrhaddevatS, vii. 155 et seq., with 
Macdonell's notes ; Sieg, Die Sagenstofe 
des Rgveda, ngtt seq. 



3 Loc. cit. 
* X. 98. 



Sapatha in the Rigveda* and later^ denotes a 'curse,' not an 
* oath,' as a judicial process. But that an oath of such a kind 
was possible as it was later,^ is shown by at least one passage 
of the Rigveda,^ where the speaker, possibly Vasitha, impre- 
cates death on himself if he is a wizard, and death on his foes if 
he is not. 



X. 87, 15 ; Nirukta, vii. 3. 



Av. iii. 9, 5 ; iv. 9. 5 ; 18, 7 ; 19, 7, 
etc. 



3 vii. 104, 15. 

Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i^, 326, 
327- 



1. I^apha, ' hoof,' comes to be used to denote the fraction 
' one-eighth,' because of the divided hoofs of the cow, just as 
Pada, the ' foot ' of a quadruped, also means a ' quarter.' This 
sense in found as early as the Rigveda,* and is not rare later.^ 

' viii. 47, 17. I Cf. Hopkins, Journal of the American 
* Av. vi. 46, 3 ; xix. 57, i ; Taittirlya Oriental Society, 16, 2'j8; 17,47; Zimmer, 

Saqihita, vi. i, 10, i ; Satapatha BrSh- Altindisches Liben, 259. 

mana, iii. 3, 3, 3, etc. I 

2. I^apha in the Brahmana^ is the name (used in the dual) of 
a wooden implement, acting like a pair of tongs, for lifting an 
iron pot from the fire. It is probably so called because it 
resembled a hoof in being divided. 

1 Aitareya Br&bmana, i. 22, 14 ; I Eggeling, Sacr$d Books 0/ the East, 44, 
Satapatha BrcLhmana, xiv. 2, i, 16. Cf. \ 458, n. 4 ; 476. 

VOL. II. 23 



354 A PLANT A KINGDOM A TRIBE A TREE [ ^phaka 

iSaphaka is the name of some plant in the Atharvaveda.^ It 
is also mentioned in the Apastamba ^rauta Sutra,^ where it 
seems to denote an edible water plant or fruit, p>erhaps a water 
nut. It may be so called from its leaves being shaped like 
hoofs (^apha). 



* iv. 34. 5. 

* ix. 14. M- 

C/. Weber, Indische Studien, 18, 138 ; 



Zimmer, Altindischts Leben, 70; Whit- 
ney, Translation of the Atharvaveda 
207. 



^aphala is the name of Rtuparna*S kingdom in the BaudhSL- 
yana Srauta Satra.^ 

' XX. 12. C/. Caland, Ober das rittullt Sutra des BavdkHyana, 21, 36. 



Sabara is the name of a wild tribe who in the Aitareya 
Brahmana^ are classed as Dasyus, with the Andhras, Pulindas, 
Mutibas, and Pu^idpas. 



* vii. I 

l^ 483. 



8, 2; ^ahkhayana Srauta SQtra, xv. 26, 6. C/. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 



Samitj' denotes the ' man who cuts up * the slaughtered 
animal in the Rigveda^ and later,* sometimes having merely 
the sense of * cook.' 



1 i. 162, 9 et seq. ; iu 3, 10 ; iii. 4, 10 ; 
V. 43, 4, etc. 

' Av. X. 9, 7 (' cook ' of the ^atau- 
dana., or ofifering of a cow and a 
hundred rice-dishes) ; Vajasaneyi Saip- 



hita, xvii 57 ; xxi. 21 ; xxiii. 39 ; Aitareya 
Brthmana, ii. 6, 2 ; 7, 10-12 ; vii. i, 2 ; 
Pancavim^ Br&hmana, xxv. 18, 4, 
etc. 



I^ami is the name of a tree in the Atharvaveda^ and later.* 
It is described in the Atharvaveda^ as destructive to the hair,* as 
producing intoxication, and as broad-leaved. These charac- 
teristics are totally wanting in the two trees, Prosopis spicigera 
or Mimosa suma, with which the Sami is usually identified.^ 



* Av. vi. II, I ; 30, 2. 3. 

' Taittirlya Samhitl, v. 1, 9, 6; 
4, 7, 4 (for the lower arajii) ; Klthaka 
SatphitA, xxxvi. 6 ; Taittirlya Brah- 
mai^a, i. i, 3, 11 et seq. ; 6, 4, 5 ; 
Satapatha Brahraana, ii. 5, 2, 12 ; 
X. 2, 3, 37. etc. 



' Av. vL 30, 2. 3. 

* In the Dhanvantariya Nighantu, 
p. 188 (ed. Poona), the ^ami and its 
fruit are said to destroy the hair. 

" See Roth in Whitney, Translation 
of the Atharvaveda, 302. 



6ambara] LOWER FIRE STICK A DASA 355 

From the soft wood of the ^ami was formed the lower of the 
two sticks (arant) used for kindling the sacred fire,' the upper 
one (the drill) being of A^vattha. The fruit of the tree is 
called ^amidhSnyaJ 



Av. vi. n, I ; Satapatha Br&hmana, 

xi- 5. I. 15 i ^/- 13 : "' 4> I. 22 ; 
Taittinya Satpbitft, v. i, 9, 6; 4, 7. 4. 



"f Satapatha BrS.bmana, i. i, i, 10. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altiiidisches Leben, 59, 60. 



I^ambara is the name of an enemy of Indra in the Rigveda.^ 
He is mentioned along with Su^na, Pipru, and Varcin, being 
in one passage called a Dasa, son of Kulitara.^ In another 
passage* he is said to have deemed himself a godling (devaka). 
His forts, ninety,^ ninety-nine/ or a hundred in number, are 
alluded to, the word itself in the neuter plural once' meaning 
the ' forts of Sambara.' His great foe was Divodasa Ati- 
thigva, who won victories over him by Indra's aid. 

It is impossible to say with certainty whether Sambara was 
a real person or not. Hillebrandt^ is strongly in favour of the 
theory that he was a real chief as enemy of Divodasa : he 
relies on the statistics ^ of the mention of the name to show 
that, whereas he was conceived as a real foe in the hymns of 
the time of Divodasa, later texts, like those of the seventh 
Mandala, make him into a demon, as a result of the change of 
scene from Arachosia to India. As a matter of fact, apart from 
this theory, Sambara was quite possibly an aboriginal enemy 
in India, living in the mountains.^ 



1 i. 51. 6; 54, 4; 59. 6; loi, 2; 
103, 8; 112, 14; 130, 7; ii. 12, 11; 
14, 6 ; 19, 6 ; iv. 26, 3 ; 30, 14 ; vi. 18, 8 ; 
26, 5 ; 31,4: 43. I ; 47. 2. 21 ; vii. 18. 
-:o ; 99, 5 

3 Rv. vi. 26, 5. 

' Rv. vii. 18, 20. 

Rv. i. 130, 7. 

Kv. ii. 19, 6. 

Rv. IL 14, 6. 
' Rv. ii. 24, 2. 

Rv. i. 51, 6; 130, 7; ii. 19, 6; 
iv. 26, 3, etc. 

Vedische Mythologie, i, 103, 108; 
3. 273- 



10 Seven times in Mandala i ; four 
in ii ; two in iv ; six in vi ; two in vii. 
These references show primd facie 
greater reality in Mandala vi than else- 
where. The references in ii are certainly 
all of the mythical kind, and those in 
vii are of much the same sort. 

" Rv. i. 130. 7 ; iv. 30. 14 ; vi. 26. 5. 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda. 3, 177; Macdonell, Vedic Myth- 
ology, p. i6i ; Oldenberg, Zeitschrtft in 
Dtutichen MorgeHlandischen Gesellschaft, 
42. 210; Geidner, Rigveda, Glossar, 
178. 

232 



356 A SEER PEG COUCH CHAMELEON [ Sambin 

^ambin, a word occurring only once, appears to mean 
* ferryman ' in the Atharvaveda (ix. 2, 6). The literal sense 
is probably ' pole-man ' (from samba, a word of doubtful 
signification found in the J^igveda, x. 42, 7). 

I^ammad Angrirasa (' descendant of AAgiras ') is the name of 

the seer of a Saman or Chant in the Pancavirnsa Brahmaua 

(xv. 5, 11). 

Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedischt Mythologie, 2, 160. 

iSamya denotes in the Rigveda^ and later^ a *peg,' more 
particularly one on the millstone ;^ and on the yoke,* where it 
seems to mean the pin of wood attached to either end so as to 
keep the yoke in place on the ox's neck.^ The Samya was also 
used as a measure of length. 



' X. 31, 10. 

' Av. vi. 138, 4; XX. 136, 9; Tait- 
tiriya Samhita, vi. 2, 7, i ; Pancavirnsa 
Brahmana, xxv. 10, 4 ; ^atapatha Brah- 
mana, xii. 5, 2, 7, etc. 

3 Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 6, i, i ; 
^atapatha Brahmana, i. i, i, 22 ; 2, i, 



C/. xi. I, 6; XV. 7, 6; Grierson, Bihar 
Peasant Life, 194, and illustration, p. 
33 ; Cuningham, The Stupa of Bharhut, 
Plate xxviii. ; Caland and Henry, 
L'Agnifioma, 49. 

Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 2, 6, 2. 
According to the commentary on Katy- 



16 et seq. ; v. 2, 3, 2, etc. | ayana Srauta SQtra, v. 3, 20, the 

* Rv. iii. 33, 13 ; ^atapatha Brah- | length was 32 Ahgulas, or finger- 
mana, iii. 3, 4, 25 ; Taittiriya Sarnhita, | breadths This would be equivalent to 
i. 6, 8, 3. 2 feet: cf. Fleet, Journal of the Royal 

Pancavim^ Brahmana, vi. 5, 20. \ Asiatic Society, 1912,232. 

^ayandaka. See ^ayandaka. 

I^ayana in the Atharvaveda^ and later^ denotes a 'couch.' 
Cf. Talpa, Vahya. 

1 iii. 25, I ; V. 29, 8. ' Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 5, i, 2 ; 7, 4. 

^ayaQdaka is the form in the Taittiriya Samhita ^ of the 
name of an animal which in the Maitrayani^ and Vajasaneyi 
Samhitas^ is written as Sayandaka. Some sort of bird is meant 
according to Roth,* but the commentator on the Taittiriya 
Samhita equates the word with Kpkalasa, 'chameleon.' 

* V. 5, 14, I. 2 iii. i^, i^. 1 4 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

* xxiv. 33. I Cf Zimmer, Altindischrs Leben, 95. 



iSarabha ] NAMES REED^A WILD ANIMAL 357 

^ayu is the name in the Rigveda^ of a prot^g^ of the A^vins, 
who made his cow to giyemilk. . ^/-^j-^aT 

1 i. 112, 16; 116, 22; 117, 20; 118, 8; 119, 6; vi. 62, 7; vii. 68, 8; x. 39, 13; 
40,8. 

I. I^ara in the Rigveda^ and later* denotes a kind of ' reed ' 
{Saccharum Sara). Its use for arrow shafts,^ and its brittle- 
ness,* are expressly referred to in the Atharvaveda. Cf. Sarya. 



^ J. 191. 3- 

* Av. iv. 7, 4 ; Taittiriya SamhitS., 
V. 2, 6, 2 ; vi. I, 3, 3 ; K3.thaka Saiphitel, 
xi. 5 ; xxiii. 4 ; ^atapatba BrJhmana, 
i. 2, 4, I ; iii. i, 3, 13 ; B|-hadclranyaka 



Upanisad, vi. 4, 11, etc. ; Nirukta, v. 4, 
etc. 

3 Av. i. 2, I ; 3, I. 

* Av. viii. 8, 4. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 71. 



2. I^ara Arcatka (' descendant of Kcatka ') is the name of a 
Rsi in the Rigveda.^ It is very doubtful, however, whether 
Arcatka is really a patronymic. 

^ i. 116, 22; cf. perhaps i. 112, 16; I Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 
Oldenberg, Rgveda-Noten, i, 103. Cf. I 3, 150. 

3. iSara !aura-devya (* descendant of ^uradeva ') is the name 
of a generous prince in the Rigveda,^ who gave one calf to 
three singers. That this Danastuti (* praise of gifts ') is ironical 
seems certain. ^ 

1 viii. 70, 13-15. I Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 

2 Pischel, Vediuhe Studien, 1, 5-7; j 3, 163; 5, 175. 

l^arad. See Rtu. 

I. Sarabha is the name of some wild animal in the Atharva- 
veda^ and later.* In the classical literature it is a fabulous, 
eight-legged beast, dwelling in the snowy mountains, a foe of 
lions and elephants : the commentator Mahldhara sees this 
sense, but without reason, in the Vajasaneyi Sarnhita. The 



ix. 5. 9. Cf. galabha. 
3 Taittiriya Samhit<l, iv. 2, 10, 4; 
Vajasaneyi Saiphitcl, xiii. 51 ; Aitareya 



Bribmana, ii. 8, 5 ; ^atapatha Br&h. 
mana, i. 2, 3, 9, etc 



358 ARROW-SHOrhfEA SURE OF CORN BODY [ darabha 

animal is spoken of as akin to the goat;' it was probably a 
kind of deer. 



* Av., loc. cit. ; Satapatha Br&hmana, 
loc. cit. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the 
East, 12, 52. n. I, accepts the traditional 
rendering. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindiuhes Leben, 89. 



2. ^arabha is the name of a Rsi in the Rigveda.^ 

* viii. 100, 6. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 163. 

I^aravya, * arrow-shot,' is an expression found in the Rigveda^ 
and later.2 

^ vi. 75, 16; X. 87, 13. I xii. 5, 25. 29; Taittirlya Satnhita, iv, 5, 

' Av. i. 19, I. 3; V. 18, 9; xi. 10, 6; | i, i, etc. 

i^arava is a measure of corn in the Brahmanas.* 

1 Saptadasa-iarava, Taittiriya BrShmana, i. 3, 4i 5 : 6, 8 ; Satapatha 
Br&hmana, v. i, 4, 12. 

Sarira, 'body,' is a word of frequent occurrence in Vedic 
literature.^ The interest of the Vedic Indians seems early to 
have been attracted to the consideration of questions connected 
with the anatomy of the body. Thus a hymn of the Atharva- 
veda^ enumerates many parts of the body with some approach 
to accuracy and orderly arrangement.* It mentions the heels 
(pdrsnl), the flesh (mdmsa), the ankle-bones {gulphau), the 
fingers (angulih), the apertures (kha), the two metatarsi 
(uchlakau), the tarsus (pratisthd), the two knee-caps {asthl- 
vantau), the two legs (Jahghe), the two knee-joints (Jdntmoft 
sandhi). Then comes above the two knees (Jdnii) the four- 
sided (catustaya), pliant {sithira) trunk (kabaudha). The two 
hips {sronl) and the two thighs (riru) are the props of the frame 

1 Rv. i. 32, 10; X. 16, I, etc. ; Av. ' ' x. 2. 

V. 9, 7 ; xviii. 3, 9, etc. ; V3.jasaneyi ' Cf. Hoernle, Journal of the Royal 
Saiphit^, xxxiv. 53 ; Taittiriya Samhit&, Asiatic Society, 1907, 10-12; Osteology, 
i. 7, 2, I ; Aitareya Br&hmana, ii. 6, 13 ; 109-111, 242. 
14, 2 ; Satapatha Br&hmana, x. i, 4, i ; 
Taittiriya Br&hmana, i. 2, i, 8. 



6arira ] BONES OF THE BODY 359 

{kusindha). Next come the breast-bone (uras), the cervical 
cartilages (grtvah), the two breast pieces {stanau), the two 
shoulder-blades (kaphodau), the neck-bones (skandhau), and the 
backbones (prstth), the collar-bones {a7Jisau), the arms {bahu), 
the seven apertures in the head {sapta khdni slrsani), the ears 
(karnau), the nostrils (ndsike), the eyes (caksanl), the mouth 
(mukha), the jaws {hanu), the tongue {jihvd), the brain (was- 
tiska), the forehead [laldta), the facial bone (kakatika), the 
cranium (kapdla), and the structure of the jaws (ctVya hanvoh). 

This system presents marked similarities with the later 
system of Caraka and Susruta,^ which render certain the names 
ascribed to the several terms by Hoernle. Kaphodau, which is 
variously read in the manuscripts,^ is rendered ' collar-bone * by 
Whitney, but ' elbow ' in the St. Petersburg Dictionary. 
Skandha in the plural regularly denotes * neck-bones,' or, more 
precisely, 'cervical vertebrae,' a part denoted also by usnihd in 
the plural.' Prsll^ denotes not * rib,' which is parsu,^ but a 
transverse process of a vertebra, and so the vertebra itself, 
there being in the truncal portion of the spinal column seventeen 
vertebrae and thirty-four transverse processes. The vertebrae 
are also denoted by klkasd in the plural,^^ which sometimes" is 
limited to the upper portion of the vertebral column, sometimes^' 
to the thoracic portion of the spine. Anuka also denotes the 
vertebral column,^^ or more specially the lumbar^^ or thoracic^* 
portion of the spine; it is said in the Satapatha Brahmana" 

* Osteology, 112. I ing, Sacred Books of the East, 44, 164, 

' Whitney, Translation of the Athar- { n. 2. 

vaveda, 568. I " Av. ix. 7, 6, etc. 

' Av. X. 7, 3 (where the Skandhas are *<* Av. ix. 7, 5 ; 8, 14. 

compared with the Krttik&s, probably ^^ Av. xi. 8, 15. 

because both were seven in number, i* Av, ii. 33, 2 ; atapatha Br3.h- 

but this is not certain); 9, 20 ; vi. 135, i ; mana, vii. 6, 2, 10. 

.xii. 5, 67; Hoernle, /oKma/, 1906,918; ' '' Av. iv. 14, 8. C/. ix. 8, 21 (the 

1907, I, 2. spine of the trunk). 

' Av. vi. 134, i; Rv. vi, 163, 2= ** Av. ii. 33, 2. 

.\v. ii. 33, 2; Av. ix. 8, 21 ; x. 10, 20. : i<> Satapatha Bra.hmana, xii. 2, 4, 

' Rv. x. 87, 10 = Av. viii. 3, 10; 12. 14. Cf. the phrase ife anukye, \v. 

Av. ix. 7, 5- 6 ; x. 9, 20 ; xii. i. 34 ; xi. 3, 9, where the two shafts of a cart 

xviii. 4, 10 ; Satapatha Brfthmana, are compared with the transverse pro- 

vii. 6, 2, 7. See Hoernle, /aMmo/, 1907. 1 cesses of a vertebra. 

2 et seq. ; Whitney, op. cit., 348 ; Eggel- ' 



36o VERTEBRA NUMBER OF BONES [ 6arira 

that there are twenty transverse processes in the lumbar spine 
{udara) and thirty-two in the thoracic, which gives twenty-six 
vertebrae, the true number (but the modern division is seven 
cervical, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, and two false the 
sacrum and the coccyx). The vertebral column is also denoted 
by karilkara,^^ which, however, is usually found in the plural " 
denoting the transverse processes of the vertebrae, a sense 
expressed also by kuntapa}^ 

Grlva, in the plural, denotes cervical vertebrae, the number 
seven being given by the Satapatha Brahmana,^ but usually^ 
the word simply means windpipe, or, more accurately, the 
cartilaginous rings under the skin. Jatru, also in the plural, 
denotes the cervical cartilages,^* or possibly the costal carti- 
lages, which are certainly so called in the Satapatha Brah- 
mana,^^ where their number is given as eight. 

Bhainsas, which occurs thrice in the Atharvaveda,^ seems to 
denote the pubic bone or arch rather than the * buttocks ' or 
' fundament,' as Whitney^ takes it. 

In the Satapatha Brahmana^ the number of bones in the 
the human body is given as 360. The number of the bones 
of the head and trunk are given in another passage^ as 
follows : The head is threefold, consisting of skin {tvac), bone 
(asthi), brain (matiska) ; the neck has 15 bones : 14 transverse 
processes {karukara) and the strength (vlrya) i.e., the bone of 
the centre regarded as one as the 15th ; the breast has 17 : 
16 cervical cartilages (Jatru), and the sternum [uras) as the 
17th; the abdominal portion of the spine has 21 : 20 trans- 

** Av. xi. 9, 8; Bloomfield, Hymns \ fuller version in the Paippalada recen- 

of the Atharvaveda, 124. j sion (Whitney, Translation of the Athar- 

1' Satapatha Br^hmana, xii. 2, 4, vaveda, 77, 551). In viii. 6, 5, it de- 

la 14. I notes vulva: Hoernle, 16-18. 

18 Ibid., xii. 2, 4, 12. I ^ Loc, cit. 

" Ibid., xii, 2, 4, 10. I ^ X. 5, 4, 12 ; xii. 3, 2, 3. 4 ; Hoernle, 



** Rv. vi. 163, 2 = Av. ii. 33, 2 ; 
Av. vi. 134, I ; ix. 7, 3 ; X. 9, 20 ; 
xi. 8, 15 : Hoernle, Journal, 1906, 916 
et $eq. 

'* Rv. vii. I, i2 = Av. xiv. 2, 12. 

*' xii. 2, 4, II. Cf. vii. 6, 2, 10; 
Hoernle, Journal, 1906, 92s et seq. 



" Av. ii. 33, 5; ix. 8, 21, with a 240, 



Osteology, 238, 239, and the criticism in 
106-109, which shows how far removed 
the Satapatha Br&hmana is from a 
scientific system. Cf. Keith, Zeitschrift 
der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesell- 
schaft, 62, 135 et seq. 
** xii. 2, 4, 9-14 ; Hoernle, Osteology, 



^arira] PARTS AND CONSTITUENTS OF THE BODY 361 

verse^processes (kuntdpa), and the abdominal portion (udara) as 
the 2ist ; the two sides have 27 : 26 ribs (parsu), and the two 
sides as the 27th; the thoracic portion of the spine {anuka) 
has 33 : 32 transverse processes, and the thoracic portion 
as 33rd. 

There are several enumerations of the parts of the body, not 
merely of the skeleton, in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas.^ They 
include the hair {lomdnt), skin {tvac), flesh {mdmsa), bone 
(asthi), marrow (majjan), liver (yakrt), lungs {kloman), kidneys 
(matasne), gall (pitta), entrails (dntrdni), bowels (gudah), spleen 
(pllhan), navel (ndbhi), belly (udara), rectum {vanisthu), womb 
iyoni), penis (pldsi and sepa), face (mukha), head (siras), 
tongue [jihvd), mouth {dsan), rump ipdyu), leech (vdla), eye 
(caksus), eyelashes {paksmdni), eyebrows (utdni), nose (nas), breath 
[vydna), nose-hairs (nasydni), ears (karnau), brows {bhrCi), body 
or trunk (dtman), waist (upastha), hair on the face (smasruni), 
and on the head (kesdh). Another enumeration^ gives siras, 
mukha, kesdhi,, smasruni, pr ana (breath), caksus, srotra {e^x), jihvd, 
vdc (speech), manas (mind), ahgul'iii, angdni (limbs), bdhii, hastau 
(hands), karnau, dtmd, uras (sternum), prstifi (vertebrae), udara, 
amsau, grivd^, sronl, urfi, aratnl (elbows), jdnuni, ndbhi, pdyu, 
bhasat (fundament), dndau (testicles), pasas (membrum virile), 
janghd, pad (foot), lomdni, tvac, mdmsa, asthi, majjan. Another 
set of names^ includes vanisthu, puritat {^exicdjdmm), lomdni, 
tvac, lohita (blood), medas (fat), mdrtisdni, sndvdni (sinews), 
asthmi, majjdnak, retas (semen), pdyu, kosya (flesh near the 
heaiTt) , pdrsvya (intercostal flesh), etc. 

The bones of the skeleton of the horse are enumerated in the 
Yajurveda Samhitas.*' 

In the Aitareya Aranyaka*^ the human body is regarded as 
made up of one hundred and one items ; there are four parts, 



^ Vajasaneyi SaiphitS., xix. 81-93 J 
Maitra.yan! Samhita., iii. 11,9; KSthaka 
Sambiti, xxxviii. 3; Taittiriya Brih- 
mana, ii. 6, 4. 

28 Vajasaneyi Samhit&, xx. 5 - 13 ; 
MaitrayanI Saiphit&, iii 11, 8 ; KS.thaka 
SamhiUl, xxxviii. 4 ; Taittiriya BrSh- 
mana, ii. 6, 5. 



^ V&jasaneyi Sambit&, xxxix. 8. 9. 
10. 

3* vajasaneyi Samhita, xxv. 1-9; 
Maitrilyani Saiphita, iii. 15. C/. Aitareya 
Br&hmana, vii. i. 

^1 i. 2, 2. 



362 



GROUPS OF BODILY CONSTITUENTS 



[ danra 



each of twenty-five members, with the trunk as one hundred 
and first. In the two upper parts there are five four-jointed^* 
fingers, two kak^asl (of uncertain meaning),^ the arm (dos), the 
collar-bone (aksa), and the shoulder-blade {arma-phalaka) . In 
the two lower portions there are five four-jointed toes, the 
thigh, the leg, and three articulations, according to Sayana's 
commentary. 

The ^ahkhayana Aranyaka^ enumerates three bones in the 
head,^ three joints {parvani) in the neck,^ the collar-bone 
(aksa),^'' three joints in the fingers,^ and twenty-one transverse 
processes in the spine {aniika),^''^ The Maitrayani Sarnhita* 
enumerates four constituents in the head (prdna, caksus, sroira, 
vdc), but there are many variations, the number going up to 
twelve on one calculation."*^ In the Taittiriya Upanisad'*^ an 
enumeration is given consisting of carma (skin), mdima, sndvan, 
asthi, and majjan ; the Aitareya Brahmana*^ has lomdni, mdnisa, 
tvac, asthi, majjan, and the Aitareya Aranyaka** couples majjdnah, 
sndvdni, and asthini. Other terms relating to the body are 
kahkusa,^ perhaps a part of the ear,** yoni (female organ), 
kaksa"" (armpit), Danta (tooth), nakha (naiil), prapada*^ (forepart 
of the foot), hallksna*^ (gall). 



32 This is contrary to fact : Hoernle, 
Osteology, 122, 123. 

33 Perhaps the armpit regarded as 
in some way double ; Keith, Aitareya 
Aranyaka, 175. 

3*'ii. 2. 

3 Cf. Hoernle, Osteology, 172 et seq. ; 
Satapatha BrSbmana, xii. 2, 4, g. 

38 ii. 3. See Keith, Sahkhayana 
Aranyaka, 9, n. 4. 

3^ ii. 4; lio&n)\&,0sttology,202etseq.; 
Keith, op. cit., 9, n. 5. 

38 ii. 5. Cf. n 32. The later Sinkh- 
Syana here improves on the Aitareya 
osteolc^y. 

3 ii. 6. See Keith, op. cit., 10, 
n. 4. 

iii. 2, 9. 

*' See references in Keith, Aitareya 
Aranyaka, 185, 192, 195. The numbers 



vary and are fanciful, being of no 
scientific importance. 

" i. 7. I. 

*3 vi. 29, 4. 

** iii. 2, 1. 2 ; ^afikhayana Aranyaka. 
viii. I. 2. 

<6 Av. ix. 8, 2, where the Paippalida 
recension has kahkukha. 

** Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 378. 

T Av. vi. 127, 2. Cf. kakfi, Maitra- 
yani Saiphita, iv. 5, 9. 

*8 Av. ii. 33, 5, with Lanman's note 
in Whitney's Translation, p 77; Keith. 
Aitareya Aranyaka, 204. In that Aran- 
yaka the passage ii. i, 4 makes the 
sense toe ' improbable. 

*" Av. ii. 33. 3 ; Whitney, op. cit., 76. 

Cf. Hoernle, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1906. 916 et seq. ; 1907, i et seq. ; 
Osteology, passim. 



darya ] ARROW GRAVEL VENOMOUS REPTILE 363 

Saru denotes in the Rigveda^ and Atharvaveda* a missile 
weapon, often certainly an ' arrow,' ^ but perhaps sometimes a 
'dart' or 'spear.'* 



^ i. 100, 18; 172, 2; 186, 9; ii. 12, 
10 ; iv. 3, 7 ; 28, 3, etc. 
' i. 2, 3 ; 19, 2 ; vi. 65, 2 ; xii. 2, 47. 
3 E.g., Rv. X. 125, 6 ; and x. 87, 6. 
* Perhaps Rv. iv. 3, 7, where bfhafi 



is applied to it, and where ' lance ' 
seems the b^t sense, the use being 
metaphorical. 

C/. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 
223; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 301. 



Sarkara, fern, plur., denotes in the later Sarphitas^ and the 
Brahmanas^ ' grit ' or * gravel.' 

1 Av. xi. 7, 21; Taittiriya Samhita, 1 2, i, 4 ; iii. 12, 6, 2; Satapatha Br&h- 
V. I, 6, 2 ; 2, 6, 2 ; 6, 4, 4, etc. | mana, ii. i, i, 8, etc. 

' Taittiriya Br3,hmana, i. i, 3, 7; 1 

l^arkarakhya. See ^arkarak^a. 



Sarkota is the name of an animal in the Atharvaveda,* 
either a * serpent,' as Roth^ and Zimmer held, or a * scorpion,' 
as Grill,'* Henry ,^ and Bloomfield think. 



1 vu. 56, 5. 

' St. Petersburg Dictionary, 
comparing the later Karkotaka. 
3 Altindisches Leben, 95. 



* Hundert Lieder,'^ 183. 

6 Le livre vii de I'Atharvaveda, 82. 

* Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 554, 555. 



!ardha. See Vrata. 

lapdhya in one passage of the Rigveda* is taken by Roth* 
as perhaps denoting a part of the chariot. The sense is, how- 
ever, quite uncertain. 

^ i. 119, 5. ' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

iSarya,* iSapya,^ seem in the Rigveda to denote an 'arrow.'* 
Perhaps, also, ^arya* and ^arya* (neut.) mean the * wicker- 



^ i. 119, 10, where the sense is not 
certain. 

> i. 148, 4 ; X. 178, 3. Cf. Nirukta 
V. 4; X. 29. 



3 As derived from i. iSara, and 
meaning literally ' made from a reed.' 
* Rv Jx. no, 3 ; X. 61, 3. 
5 Rv. ix. 14, 4 ; 68, 2. 



364 NAME OF A LAKE [ ^aryaijulvaiit 

work ' in the Soma sieve, but the exact sense of the passages is 
doubtful* 



Hillebrandt, Vedischt Mythologie, i, 
52, takes iary&ni in Rv. ix. 68, 2, as 
denoting the outer husk of the Soma 



plant. See also Geldner, Vediuhe Studien, 
2. 255. n. 1. 



iSaryapavant occurs in several passages of the Rigveda,^ in 
all of which Sayana sees a local name. According to his 
account, Saryanah (masc. plur.) is a district in KuruketPa, 
^aryanavant being a lake not far from it in the back part 
(Jaghandrdhe) of Kuruksetra. The unusual consistency of his 
statements on this point is in favour of the word being a place 
name ; it is also to be noted that Kuruksetra contained the 
lake Anyatahplaki^. Roth,^ however, thought that in two 
passages^ the word denoted merely a 'lake,' literally * (water) 
covered with a thicket of reeds ' (aryana), and in the others a 
Soma vessel. Zimmer"* inclines to this rendering. On the 
other hand, PischeF accepts Sayana's view. Hillebrandt also 
sees in the word a place name, but he is inclined to locate it 
among the * five tribes,'*^ which is not quite inconsistent with its 
being in Kuruksetra, for the connexion of the PuPUS with the 
later Kurus is known ; or perhaps, he suggests, ^aryanavant 
is an old name for the Wular sea of Kasmir, which was only a 
reminiscence in Vedic times. This is not probable ; still less 
so is Ludwig's hypothesis^ that the ^aryanavant is the later 
eastern Sarasvati. Bergaigne^ regards the name as that of 
a celestial preparer of Soma. 

1 i. 84, 14 ; viii. 6, 39 ; 7, 29 ; 64, 11 ; 
ix. 65, 22; 113, i; X. 35, 2. See 
Jaiminiya Br^hmana, iii. 64 (Journal 
of the Amtrtcan Oriental Society, 18, 
17) ; SatySyanaka in Sayana on Rv. i. 
84. 13. 

' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

3 i. 84, 14 ; X. 35, 2. 

* Altindiuhes Leben, 19, 20. 

' Vediuhe Studien, 2, 217. So Max 



Muller, Sacred Books of the East, 32, 

398. 399- 

Vedische Mythologie, i, 126 et seq. 

7 This is deduced, not with any 
certainty, from Rv. ix. 65, 22. 

8 Hillebrandt, op. cit., i, 142, n. 4; 
Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 
3, 205. 

op. cit.. 3,201. 

*<' Religion Vedtque, I, 206. 



Saryata is mentioned once in the Rigveda^ as a prot6g6 of 
the A^vins. Of him in the Satapatha Brahmana^ and the 

* i. 112, 17. a iv. I, 5, 2. 



^alali ] NAMES A MEASURE LOCUST QUILL 365 

Jaiminlya Brahmana' is told a story how Cyavana was annoyed 
by the iSaryatas, and appeased by the gift of Sukanya, 
Saryata's daughter, as a wife, and how Cyavana was then 
restored to youth by the A^vins. He is there called Manava 
(' descendant of Manu '). He appears also as Saryata Manava, 
a sacrificer, in the Jaiminlya Upaniad Brahmana.'* 



3 iii. 120-122 {Journal of the American 
Oriental Society , 11, cxlv). 
* iv. 7, I ; 8, 3. 5. 
Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 250 et seq. ; 



Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 26, 
272 et seq. ; Oertel, Journal of the A merican 
Oriental Society, 16, 236, 237. 



Iapva-datta ('given by the god ^arva') Gapg-ya ('descendant 
of Garg'a ') is the name of a teacher in the Varnsa Brahmana.^ 

i Indische Studien, 4, 372. 



lala is explained by the St. Petersburg Dictionary as a 
measure of length in the Atharvaveda,^ Kathaka Samhita,^ and 
Taittiriya Brahmana.^ Whitney* objects that the sense in all 
these passages is not suited by this meaning. 

1 viiL 7, 28. [ " He does not notice the Ka.thaka. 

' xii. 10 {Indische Studien, 3, 464). Against his criticism it must be noted 

3 i. 5, 10, I (where this is the inter- that in every one of the passages a 

pretation of the commentator), numeral is compounded with ala, as 

Translation of the Athar\'aveda, tri-Sala, etc. 

501. ! 



I^alabha, * locust,' appears in the Paippalada recension of the 
Atharvaveda^ for iSarabha, the reading of the received text, and 
is regarded by Whitney^ as making better sense. 

1 ix. 5, 9. i the passage strongly supports ^arabha. 

* Translation of the Atharvaveda, See Satapatha BrShmana, i. 2, 3, 9. 
534. But the mention of the goat in 

l^alali denotes the * quill ' of the porcupine, used for parting 
the hair and anointing the eyes.^ 

1 Kathaka Saiphita, xxiii. i; Taittiriya Br&hmana, i. 5, 6, 6; Satapatha 
Brahmana, ii. 6, 4, 5. 



66 WORM CHIP COTTON TREE-PORCUPINE [ ^ona 

^una is found in the Atharvaveda^ denoting a 'worm.' 
The Paippalada recension reads ^alula, and Sayana Saiga. 

'ii3i, 2. C/. Whitney, Translation I Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 31^; Zimmer, 
of the Atbarvaveda, 73 : Bloomfield, | Altindisches Leben, 98 (^unna). 

I^alka denotes in the later Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas^ 
* chip * or * shaving ' used for kindling a fire, etc. 



* Taittirlya Saqihit, v. 2, 9, 3 ; 
4, 2, 3 ; Kathaka Samhit&, xx. 8 ; 
xxvii. 7, etc. 



2 Aitareya BrShmana, ii. 14, 4 ; Tait- 
tirlya Br&hmana, i. i, 9, 9 ; 2, i, 13. 



Salmali is the name of the * silk cotton tree * {Salmalia Mala- 
barica). Its fruit is regarded as poisonous in the Rigveda,^ but 
the car of the bridal procession is made of its wood.^ It is 
described as the tallest of trees.^ 

* vii. 50, 3. I patba Btcibmana, xiii. 2, 7, 4 ; Panca- 
2 X. 85, 20. viip^ Br3.hmana, ix. 4, 11, etc. 

* Taittiriya Samhiti, vii. 4, 12, i; Cf. RggeMng, Sacred Boohs of tht East, 
Vfijasanejri Samhita, xxiii 13 ; ^ata- I 44, 317, n. 2. 

I^alya. See I^u. 

Salyaka denotes in the Vajasaneyi Samhita^ and later ^ the 
* porcupine.' 

* xxiv. 35. a Aitareya Brahmana, iii. 26, 3. 

Cf, Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 82. 

iSavarta is the name of a species of * worm ' in the Atbarva- 
veda^ and the Taittiriya Sarnhita.^ 



* ix. 4, 16, with the various reading 
Svavarta, Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 531. 

V. 7, 23, I. 



Cf. Zimmer, AUindiuhes Leben, 98. 
Possibly Roth is right in holding that 
the word iava-varta, a worm ' livmg 
on carrion.' 



I^vas is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Agnibhu Ka^yapa 
in the Varp^a Brahmana.^ 

* Indiuhe Studicn, 4, 373. 



fiaatr ] A PATRON YOUNG GRASS-SLAUGHTERER 367 

l^avasa occurs only in the false reading favosa - Usinaresu 
in the Gopatha Brahmana (i, 2, 9) for sa-Vaioiinarestt. See 
Va^a. 



I^avi^tha is, according to Ludwig,^ the name of a generous 
patron in the Rigveda.* 

* Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 163. ' viii. 74, 14. 15. 

Sai^a, ' hare,' is found once in the Rigveda,^ where it is said 
to have swallowed a razor. The animal is occasionally 
mentioned later also.* 

^ x 28, 2. Later, a goat supplants xxiv. 38 ; Maitrayani Samhitcl, iii. 14, 

the hare in this curious story ; see 15 ; the hare in the moon, ^atapatha 

Bothling, Proceedings of the Saxon Brahmana, xi. i, 5, 3. 

Academy, 1894, et uq. 1 Cf. Zimmer, Altindixhes Leben, 84. 

' Vajasaneyi Saiphita, xxiii. 56 ; I 

laiayu, ' pursuing the hare,' is the epithet of some animal 
(Mpgra) in the AtharvaveJa.^ Zimmer^ thinks the tiger is 
meant, but this is not likely. Roth^ considers that a bird of 
prey is intended, while Whitney,* following the commentator, 
renders the word by ' lurking.' 

- iv. 3, 6. * Loc. cit. 

* Altindisches Leben, 79, 84. Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atkar- 

3 In Whitney, Translation of the vavtda, 368. 
Atharvaveda, 149 

l^a^vati. See Asahga. 

I^a^pa in the later Samhitas and the Brahmaijas* denotes 
' young or sprouting grass.' 

1 V&jasaneyi Saqihita, xix. 13, 81 ; l 8, 4 ; atapatha Br&hma^a, xii. 7, 2, 8 ; 
xxi. 29 ; Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 3, 3 ; | 9, i, 2, etc. 

I^astr in the Rigveda (i. 162, 5) and the Atharvaveda (ix. 3, 3) 
denotes the slaughterer of an animal. 



368 SOMA RECITATION GRAMMARIANS TEACHERS [ ^astra 

iSastra is the technical term^ for the ' recitation ' of the Hotr 
priest, as opposed to the Stotra of the Udgatr. The recitations 
at the morning offering of Soma are called the Ajya and 
Prailga ; at the midday offering, the Marutvatlya and the 
Niskevalya ; at the evening offering, the Vai^vadeva and the 
Agnimaruta. 



Taittirlya Saiphiti, iii. 2, 7. 2, etc. ; 
Kalhaka SamhitS, xxix. 2, etc. ; Vaja- 
saneyi SamhitS, xix. 25. 28, etc. ; Sata- 



Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 353, 
and Caland and Henry, L'Agniffoiitj, 
passim, where the Sastras are set out at 



patba 13rahmana, iv. 2, 4. 20, etc. 1 length 



l^akatayana, ' descendant of Sakata,' is the patronymic of a 
grammarian referred to by Yaska^ and in the Pratisakhyas,^ 
as well as often later. 



1 Nirukta, i. 3. 12 et seq. 
* Rigveda Prati^akhya, i. 3 ; xiii. 16 ; 
Vajasaneyi Prati^akhya, iii. 8, etc. 



Cf. Weber, Indian Literature, 143, 
151, 152, 217. 



i^aka-dasa Bhaditayana (* descendant of Bhadita ') is men- 
tioned in the Vam^a Brahmana^ as the pupil of Vicakana 
Taijcjya. 

1 Indische Studien, 4, 373 

laka-puni, 'descendant of Sakapuna,' is the name of a 
grammarian often mentioned in the Nirukta.^ 

1 iii. II ; viii. 5. 6. 14 ; xii. 19 ; xiii. 10. 11. Cf. Weber, Indian Literature, 85. 

i^akala in the Aitareya Brahmana^ denotes the 'teaching of 
l^akalya' according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary. But 
Bohtlingk^ seems right in taking it as a kind of snake in that 
passage. 

iii. 43. 5 (Weber. Indische Studien, 9, 277). Cf. Weber, Indian Literature, 33, n. 

* Dictionary, s.v. 

I^akalya, 'descendant of Sakala,' is the patronymic of 
Vidagrdha in the Satapatha Brahmana,* and of Sthavira in the 
A-itareya^ and ^ahkhayana Aranyakas.' An undefined Sakalya 

* xi. 6, 3, 3 ; Brhadiranyaka Upani- I a ill. 2. 1.6. 

^ad, iii. 9, i ; iv. i, 7. etc. I > vii. 16; viii. i. 11. 



h 



6aklia ] NAMES BRANCH 369 

is mentioned in the same Aranyakas,"* in the Nirukta,** and often 
later, as a teacher dealing with the text of the Rigveda. 
Weber is inclined to identify Vidagdha with the Sakalya who 
is known as the maker of the Pada Patha of the Rigveda, but 
Oldenberg' thinks that the latter was later than the Brahmana 
period. Geldner^ identifies the two ; this view, however, is 
not very probable. 

* Aitareya, iii. i, 1 ; Sankhtyana, ' ' Prolegomena, 380, n. 

vii. I. ; 8 Vedische Studien, 3, 144-146. 

' vi. 28. i * Keith, Aitareya Aranyaha, 239, 240. 

* Indian Literature, 32, 33. I 



^akayanin, in the plural, denotes the followers of iSakayanya 
in the Satapatha Brahmana (x. 4, 5, i). 

Sakayanya, 'descendant of Saka,' is the patronymic of Jata 
in the Kathaka Sarnhita.^ 

^ xxii. 7 (Indische Studien, 3, 472). Cf. Maitra.yani Upanisad, i. 2 ; vi. 29. 

Sakin, plur., is believed by Ludwig^ to designate a group of 
generous donors in the Rigveda.^ 

1 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 155 ; Grifl&th, Hymns of the Rigveda, i, 521, n. 
* V. 52, 17. 

^aktya, 'descendant of iSakti,' is the patronymic of Gauriviti.* 

1 Aitareya Brahmana, iii. 19, 4 ; xii. 13, 10 ; xxv. 7, 2 ; Apastamba 
Satapatha Brahmana, xii. 8, 3, 7; Srauta Sutra, xxiii. 11, 14; xxiv. 10, 
Pancavim^ Brahmana, xi. 5, 14 ; 6. 8. 

iSakvara. See iSakvari. 

l^akha in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes the ' branch ' of a 
tree. Vaya is more often used in this sense in the Rigveda. 

1 i. 8, 8 ; vii. 43, i ; x. 94, 3. * Av. iii. 6. 8 ; x. 7, 21 ; xi. 2, 19, etc. 

VOL. II. 24 



370 TWO TEACHERS [ 6&nkhayana 

l^ahkhayana as the name of a teacher is not mentioned in 
the Kausltaki Brahmana, but it occurs in the Vam^a (list of 
teachers) at the end of the Sahkhayana Aranyaka,^ where 
Gunakhya is given as the authority for that work. In the 
brauta Sutras ^ the name of Sahkhayana never occurs, but the 
Grhya Sutras* seem to recognize as a teacher Suyajfta l^ahkha- 
yana. In later times* the school flourished in Northern 
Gujarat. Sahkhayana appears in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya^ 
along with Kandamayana. 



* XV. I. Oldenberg's suggestion 
{Sacred Books of the East, xxix. 4, 5) 
that Gun&kbya is intended as the 
author of the Sottas is quite unneces- 
sary ; Keith, Aitareya Aranyaha, 328. 

' Hillebrandt, ^elnkhSyana brauta 
SQtra, I, viii et seq. 

" Sankhayana Grhya Sutra, iv. 10 ; 
vi. 10 ; Sambavya Gfhya Sutra in 
Indische Studien, 15, 154 ; ASvalSyana 
Grhya SQtra, iii. 4, 4. CJ. K3,rika, in 



N3.rS.yana on 3nkha.yana Gfhya SQtra, 
i. I, 10 ; Anartiya on ^inkhiyana 
brauta SQtra, i. 2, 18. 

-* Biihler, Sacred Books of the East, 
2, xxxi. 

' XV. 7. 

C/. Weber, Indian Literature, 32, 44, 
50 et seq. ; 80, 313, 314 ; Macdonell, 
Sanskrit Literature, 45, 191, 205, 245, 
249. 



iSatyayana, * descendant of Satya,' is the patronymic of a 
teacher mentioned twice in the Satapatha Brahmana^ and 
often in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana.^ In a Varn^a 
(list of teachers) in the latter work* he is called a pupil of 
Jvalayana, while in the Varnsa at the end of the Samavidhana 
Brahmana he appears as a pupil of Badarayana. The Satya- 
yanins, his followers, are frequently mentioned in the Sutras,* 
the Satyayani Brahmana^ and the Satyayanaka being also 
referred to in them. It has been shown by Oertel'' that this 
Brahmana bore a close resemblance to, and probably belonged 
to the same period as, the Jaiminiya Brahmana. 

1 viii. I, 4, 9; X. 4, 5, 2. I ' Ibid., x. 12, 13. 14 ; Laty&yana 

' i. 6, 2 ; 30. I ; ii. 2, 8 ; 4, 3 ; 9, 10 ; j brauta SQtra, i, 2, 24 ; A^valayana 



iii. 13, 6; 28, 5. 

iv. 16, I. 

* LatySyana brauta SQtra, iv. 5, 18 ; 
Anupada SQtra, i. 8 ; ii. 9 : iii. 2. 11 ; 
iv. 8, etc. ; Weber, Indische Studien, 

1. 44. 
' Apastamba Srauta SQtra, v. 23, 3. 



brauta SQtra, i. 4, 13. 

' Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, 16, ccxli ; 18, 20 et seq. 

Cf. Macdonell, Sanskrit Literature, 
203 ; Aufrecht, Zeitschrift der Deutuhen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 42, 151, 
152. 



I^andilya ] NAMES 371 

l^aQda, * descendant of iSaijda,' is the name of a man in the 
Rigveda^ who is praised for his generosity. It is not likely 
that he is identical with Pupupantha mentioned in the next 
verse. 

1 vi. 63, 9. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 158. 

I^Odila, masc. plur.. is the term applied to the ' descendants 
of i^a^dilya ' in the Taittiriya Aranyaka (i. 22, 10). 

!a](^dili-putra, * pupil of a female descendant of ^andila,' is 
the name of a teacher, a pupil of Rathitariputpa, in the last 
Varnsa (list of teachers) of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ 

* vi. 4, 32 (Mcldbyamdina = vi. 5, 2 Kanva). 

iSandilya, * descendant of Sandila,' is the patronymic of 
several teachers (see Udapa and Suyajfla). The most important 
^andilya is the one cited several times as an authority in the 
Satapatha Brahmana,^ where his Agni, or 'sacrificial fire,' is 
called Sandila.^ From this it appears clearly that he was one 
of the great teachers of the fire ritual which occupies the fifth 
and following books of the Satapatha Brahmana. In the 
Varn^ (list of teachers) at the end of the tenth book^ he is 
given as a pupil of Ku^ri and a teacher of Vatsya ; another list 
at the end of the last book in the Kanva recension^ gives him 
as a pupil of Vatsya, and the latter as a pupil of Ku^ri. In the 
confused and worthless^ lists of teachers at the end of the 
second and fourth books of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad he is 
said to be the pupil of various persons Kai^orya Kapya, 
Vaitapureya,' Kau^ika,^ Gautama,*' Bayavapa,^** and Ana- 



1 ix. 4, 4. 17; 5, 2, 15; X. I. 4, 10; 
4, I, II ; 6, 3. 5 ; 5, 9. Cf. Chandogya 
Upanisad, iii. 11,4. 

ix. 1, 1,43; 3,3, 18; 5, 1,61. 68, etc. 

' X- 6. 5, 9- 

* vi. 5. 4. 

" Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 
12, xxxiv, n. 2. 



u, 5, 22; iv. 5, 28 (Madhyaipdina 
= ii. 6, 3 ; iv. 6, 3 Kinva). 

' ii. 5, 20 ; iv. 5, 26 Madhyaipdina. 

ii. 6, I ; iv. 6, i Kanva. 

ii. 5, 20 ; iv. 5, 26 (Madhyamdina 
= ii. 6, I ; iv. 6, i K&nva). 

" ii. 5, 20 ; iv. 5, 26 Madhyaipdina. 



24 2 



k 



37a PATRONYMICS GRASS^DRIFT [ 6andUyayana 

bhimlata." No doubt different Sandilyas may be meant, but 
the lists are too confused to claim serious consideration. 



" ii. 6, 2 K&nva. 

Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 
12, xxxi et seq. ; 43, xviii et seq. ; Weber, 



Indian Literature, 71, 76 */ seq. ; 120, 
131, 132 ; Macdonell, Sanskrit Literature, 

213- 



iSa^idilyayana, ' descendant of !$ai?dilya,' is the patronymic 
of a teacher in the Satapatha Brahmana.^ Apparently he is 
identical with Celaka, also mentioned in that text ; ^ it is thus 
reasonable to suppose that Cailaki Jivala^ was his son. It is 
much more doubtful whether he was"* the grandfather of 
Pravaha^ia Jaivala, who was a prince rather than a Brahmin. 



1 ix. 5, I, 64. 

' X. 4, 5, 3. The name ^andily- 
Syana, like that of SJLnclilya, is common 
in the SQtras. See Weber, Indische 
Studien, i, 45 ^/ seq. 



3 Satapatha Brahmana, ii. 3, i, 34. 

* Weber, op. cit,, i, 259. 

Cf. Weber, Indian Literature, 53, 76, 



Sata-parneya * descendant of Sataparna,' is the patronymic 
of Dhira in the Satapatha Brahmana (x. 3, 3, i). 

I^da denotes ' grass ' in the Rigveda^ and later.* 

1 ix. 15, 6. 2 Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxv. i, etc. 



I^apa in the Rigveda^ and later^ denotes the ' drift' brought 
down by streams, possibly conceived as the ' curse ' of the 
waters.^ 



^ vii. 18, 5 ; X. 28, 4. 
' Av. iii. 24, 3 ; ^inkhayana Aran- 
yaka, xii. 11. 



3 Cf. Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, 178 ; 
Vedische Studien, 3, 184, 185. 



I^amulya in the marriage hymn of the Rigveda^ denotes a 
* woollen garment ' worn at night. 

^ X. 85, 29. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 262. 



373 



fell ] WOOLLEN SHIRT TEACHERS A BIRD 

Samula in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana^ seems to have 
much the same sense as ^amulya, * a woollen shirt,' generally. 
Roth^ emends to sam'da, ' pieces of Sami wood.' 



1 i. 38. 4. Cf. Oertel, Journal of the 
AmtrUan Orienial Society, 16, 116, 233: 
L&ty3,yana ^rauta SQtra, ix. 4, 7 ; 
Kau^ika SQtra, Ixix. 3. 



' Journal 0/ the American Oriental 
Society, 16, ccxliii. 



iSamba. See l^apkaraka. 

i^ambara, properly an adjective in the sense of * relating to 
Sambara,' appears in one passage of the Rigveda (iii. 47, 4) to 
be used as a substantive denoting * the contest with Sambara.' 



Sambu occurs in the plural with the Angpirases in a passage 
of the Atharvaveda,^ no doubt as the name of a family of 
ancient teachers. There is extant in manuscript a Grhya Sutra 
of the Sambavyas.^ 



1 xix. 39, 5, where Whitney, Trans- 
lation of the Atharvaveda, 960, re- 
tracts the emendation Bhrgubhyah for 
Sambubhyah in the text. 



2 Oldenberg, Indische Studien, 15, 4, 

154- 

Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns of the Athar- 
vaveda, 678. 



I^ayasthi is the name of a teacher in the Varn^a Brahmana.^ 

* Indische Studien, 4, 372. 

I^arada. See Pur. 



I. lari occurs in the list of victims at the A^vamedha 
(' horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda Samhitas.^ It seems clear, 
since it is described as * of human speech ' {purusa-vac), that it 
was some kind of bird, possibly the later Sarika (' starling '), as 
Zimmer^ suggests. See also Sari^aka. 

^ Taittiriya Samhita, v. 5, 12, i ; Maitrftyanl Sarphita, iii. 14, 14 ; V&jasaneyi 
Samhit^, xxiv. 33. 

' Altindisches Leben, 90, 91. 



374 ARROW PATRONYMICS A BIRD [ ^Ari 

2. Sari, occurring in one passage of the Rigveda,^ is said by 
Sayana to mean ' arrow.' This is uncertain, but connexion 
with iSara or i. iSarl is quite possible.^ 

1 i. 1X2, 1 6. * Oldenberg, Rgveda-Noten, i, 103. 

Sari^aka is an utterly obscure expression found in one 
passage of the Atharvaveda.^ Weber ^ thinks it means 'dung 
(iakan) of the Sari bird'; GrilP sees in the word the sdrikd, 
'the hooded crow'; Roth** suggests the emendation {^drih 
{=sdlih) saka iva, 'like rice in manure'; and Bloomfield* 
emends idri-sukeva, ' like starlings and parrots.' 



1 Hi. 14. 5- 

2 Indische Studien, 17, 246. 

3 Hundert Lieder,^ 112. 

* In Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, no. 



'i Hymns 0/ the Atharvaveda, 351. But 
see Lanman's note in Whitney, loc. 
cit. 



I^arkarak^ is found in the Vani^a Brahmana^ as the patro- 
nymic of a teacher, iSamba, perhaps by a blunder for iSaP- 
karak^ya, ' descendant of Sarkaraksa.' In the Kathaka Sarn- 
hita^ a teacher, Sarkarakhya, occurs, again probably a blunder, 
in this case for Sarkaraksa himself. The patronymic Sarkar- 
aksi is found in the Asvalayana Srauta SQtra.^ 

1 Indische Studien, 4, 372. ^ ^xii. 8. ' xii. 10, 10. 

Iarkapakya, ' descendant of Sarkaraksa,' is the patronymic 
of Jana in the Satapatha Brahmana^ and the Chandogya 
Upanisad.^ In the plural they occur in the Aitareya Arapyaka^ 
and the Taittiriya Aranyaka."* It is not necessary to assume 
that the form is incorrect for Sarkaraksa. 



1 X. 6. I. I. 

V. II, I ; 15. I. 

3 ii. I, 4. 



* Indische Studien, 4, 382. 
C/. Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 204 ; 
Weber, Indische Studien, i, 388 ; 3, 259. 



I^argfa is the name of a bird in the list of victims at the 
A^vamedha (' horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda Samhitas.* 
Sayana on the Taittiriya Sarnhita calls it the ' wild Cataka.' 

1 Taittiriya Saiphita. v. 5, 19, i ; I saneyi Sanihita, xxiv. 33. Cf. Zimmer, 
Maitrayani Samhiti, iii. 14, 14 ; Vaja- | Altindisches Leben, 93. 



Salankayana ] FOUR BROTHERS TIGER PATRONYMICS 375 

Sarngfa. The Anukramani^ (Index) of the Rigveda ascribes 
a hymn of that text^ to the ^arngas, Jaritr, Drona, Sarisrkva, 
and Stambamitra. The MahSbharata^ contains a tale describing 
how the four Sarhgas, sons of the Rsi Mandapala, were saved 
from the great fire in the Khandava forest by means of 
prayers. Sieg* has attempted to use this tale for the elucida- 
tion of the hymn in question, but without substantial success. 
As Oldenberg^ says, the tale is based on the hymn rather than 
vice versa. 

* See also S3.yana on Rv, x. 142 ; ' i. 8334 et uq. 

Sadguru^isya on the Sarv^nukramani > * Die Sagenstoffe des Rgveda, 44-50. 
(ed. Macdonell), p. 163. I Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen- 



3 



X. 142. I Idndischm Geselischaft, 39, 79. 



I^ardula, * tiger,' is mentioned in the later SarnhitSs^ and the 
Brahmanas.2 Cf. Vyagfhra. 

1 Taittiriya Sanihita, v. 5, 11, i ; | iv. i, 9, n ; 5, 4, 10; xi. 8, 4, I ; Tait- 
K&thaka Samhita, xii. 10 ; MaitrayanI tiriya Brahmana, i. 7, 8, i ; 8, 5, 2 ; 
Samhita, iii. 14, 11 ; Vajasaneyi Sam- Kausitaki Upanisad, i. 2, etc. 

hits, xxiv. 30. ! Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 79. 

' Satapatha Biilhrnana, v. 3, 5, 3 ; i 

Saryata, perhaps ' descendant of iSaryata,' is the name of a 
singer in the Rigveda.^ A Saryata appears also in the Aitareya 
Brahmana* with the patronymic Manava as the seer of a 
Rigvedic hymn,^ and as having been anointed by Cyavana.* 
The same man is evidently meant by Saryata in the story of 
Cyavana in the Satapatha Brahmana^ and the Jaiminiya Brah- 
mana.* In both these passages the ^aryatas are mentioned as 
his descendants, and his daughter is called ^aryati. 

1 i. 51, 12; iii. 51, 7. j 8 iv. I, 5, I et uq. 

' iv. 32, 7. iii. 121 et uq. (Whitney, Journal of 

' X. 92. the American Oriental Society, ri, cxlv. ; 

* viii. 21, 4. Hopkins, ibid., 26, 58. 

l^lahkayana, ' descendant of Salahku,' is the patronymic of 
a teacher in the Varn^a Brahmana.* 

1 Indiuhe Studien, 4, 383 ; A^val&yana Indian Literature, 75 ; Indische Studien, 
Srauta SQtra, xii. 10, 10: Apastamba 1.49. 
^rauta SQtra, xxiv. 9, i. Cf. Weber, 



376 HOUSE LOTUS ROUTS SWORD [ 6alankayamputra 

Salahkayani-putra, ' son of a female descendant of Saladku,' 
is the name of a teacher, a, pupil of Var^agrajpiputra in the last 
Varp^a (list of teachers) of the Madhyamdina recension of the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (vi. 4, 31). 

iSala in the Atharvaveda* and later^ denotes a ' house' in the 
wide sense of the word, including such meanings as ' stall ' for 
cattle, ' shed ' for corn, etc.^ See Gpha. The householder is 
called Sala-pati, * lord of the house,' in the Atharvaveda.'* 

* V. 31, 5; vi. 106, 3; viii. 6, 10; 3 Av. iii. 12, i et seq., and cf. ix. 3, ( 
ix. 3, 1 et seq. ; xiv. i, 63. ! i et seq. 

* Taittiriya Br^hmana, i. 2, 3, i ; j * ix. 3, 12. 
Satapatha Br&hmana, iii. i, i, 6, etc. ' 

l^alavatya, ' descendant of Salavant,' is the patronymic of 
iSilaka in the Chandogya Upanisad (i. 8, i), and of Galunasa 
Arki^akaya^a in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana (i. 38, 4). 

iSali, a later word for ' rice,' is conjectured by Roth to be the / 

equivalent of Sari in the word iSari^aka in the Atharvaveda. 

i^aluka in the Atharvaveda^ denotes the edible roots of the 
lotus. 

* iv. 34, 5. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 70 ; Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 207. 

I^alva as the name of a people is found in the Gopatha Brah- 
mana^ coupled with that of the Matsyas. 

* i. 2, 9. Cf. Salva. 

Savasayana, ' descendant of Savas,' is the patronymic of 
Devataras in the Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

1 Indische Studien, 4, 373. 

&isa denotes in the Brahmanas^ a ' sword ' or ' knife.' 



* Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 17, 5 ; 
Sclrikh&yana ^rauta SQtra, xv. 25, i (of 
the knife to be used in slaying tfana^- 



topa) ; Satapatha Brahma^ia, iii. 8, i, 
4. 5 ; xiii. 2, 3, 16. 



6ikhanda ] A TREE CROCODILE SLING PRIESTS TUFT 377 

^imi^apa is the name of a tree (Dalbergia Sisu) in the Rigveda* 
and later.2 It is a stately and beautiful tree. 

1 iii. 53, 19 (with the E[hadira). 1 vi. 129, i ; Whitney, Translation of the 

' Av. XX. 129, 7. C/. iaijiiapa in | Atharvaveda, 378. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 61. 

!im^u-mara,^ or I^i^u-mara,^ is the name of an aquatic 
creature in the Rigveda and the later Samhitas. It is either 
the 'crocodile,' the 'alligator,'^ or the 'porpoise'* {Delphinus 

Gangeticus) . 

S&jrana on Rv. , loc. cit. ; Av., loc. cit. ; 
Taittiriya Samhita, loc. cit. 

* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 
siiumara; Bloomfield, Hymns of the 
Atharvaveda, 157; Whitney, Transla- 
tion of the Atharvaveda, 624. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 96 ; 
Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, 179. 



1 Rv. i. 116, 18; Taittiriya Samhita, 
V. 5, n ; Av. xi. 2, 25. In ^Snkha- 
yana Aranyaka, xii. 28, the reading is 
doubtful. 

* Maitrayani Samhita, iii. 14, 2 ; 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 30, and the 
Paippalada recension of the Av., 
loc. cit. ; Taittiriya Aranyaka, ii. 19. 

* Weber, Indische Studien, 5, 325, and 



Sikya in the Atharvaveda^ and later* seems to mean a 
carrying * sling ' of rope.^ 



* ix. 3, 6, where Whitney suggests 
that it may be an ornamental hanging 
appendage. See Lanman in Whitney, 
Translation of the Atharvaveda, 526. 
Whitney's alternative rendering 'slings' 
is better. See Bloomfield, Hymns of 
the Atharvaveda, 597. Cf. perhaps Av. 
ziii. 4, 8. 



2 Taittiriya Samhita, v. 2, 4, 2. 3 ; 
6, 9, I, etc. 

'' This is pretty clearly the meaning 
in Satapatha Brahmana, v. 5, 4, 28 ; 
vi. 7, I, 16. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books 
of the East, 41, 268, n. 3. 



I^ikha and Anu^ikha are the names of two priests who 
served as Netr and Potj* at the snake festival in the Paflca- 
vim^a Brahmana.^ 

1 xxv. 15, 3. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 35. 



I^ikhaiida denotes a ' tuft ' or * lock,' as a mode of wearing 
the hair, in the later Samhitas and the Brahmanas.* 



1 Taittiriya Samhita, vii. 3, 16, 2 (in 
the plural) ; catuh-iikhamla, Taittiriya 
Brahmana, i. 2, i, 27 ; iii. 7, 6, 4 
(corresponding to catuh-kaparda, Rv. 



X. 1 14, 3) . So sikhandin means ' wearing 
a tuft of hair,' and is found in Av. 
v. 37i 7 ; xi. 2, 12, etc. 



378 NAMES PEAK A TRIBE [ ^ikhandin Yajnasena 

l$ikhai?din Ylijnasena (* descendant of Yajnasena ') is 
mentioned in the Kausltaki Brahmana (vii. 4) as a priest of 
Keiin Dalbhya. Lsulvx^ 3'B). 

Sikhara as a ' peak ' of a mountain is found in the Kausltaki 
BrShmana (xxvi. i), and often in the Epic. 



Sikha denotes in the Satapatha Brahmana^ the 'knot of 
hair' worn on the top of the head. Wearing the top-knot 
unloosened was the sign of mourning in the case of women and 
men ahke.^ 



* 1- 3. 3. 5. 

2 A^valSyana Gfhya Sutra, iv. 2, 9. 
Cf. Bloomfield, American Journal of 



Philology, II, 340; Hymns of the Athav- 
vaveda, 634, on Av. ix. 9, 7. 



SigTU is the name of a tribe occurring in the passage of the 
Rigveda,^ in which they are mentioned with the Ajas and the 
YakUS as having been defeated by the Trtsus and King Sudas. 
It is impossible to say whether they were or were not under 
the leadership of Bheda, as Ludwig^ plausibly suggests. If 
Sigru is connected with the later sigru, ' horse-radish ' {Moringa 
pterygosperma), which is quite probable, it is possible that the 
tribe was totemistic and non-Aryan, but this is a mere matter 
of conjecture.^ The Matsyas (' Fishes ') were probably Aryan. 



1 vii. 18, 19. 

2 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 173. 

3 Cf. Oldenberg, Religion des Veda, 
85 ; Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, 153 ; 
Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental 



Society, 16, cliv ; Keith, Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1907, 929 et seq.; 
Aitareya Aranyaka, 200, n. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 127. 



!ii\jara is the name of a Rsi twice mentioned in the Rigveda^ 
along with Ka^va, Priyamedha, Upastuta, and Atri. Geldner'^ 
takes the word either as a name of Atri or an adjective. 

1 viii. 5. 25 ; X. 40, 7. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 3. 139. 
8 Rigveda, Glossar, 179. 



dipra] VULTURE NAMES CAT WORM CHEEK 379 

Siti-kaksi in the Taittiriya Samhita ^ is explained by Sayana 
as a * white-breasted ' (pdndarodara) vulture. The word may, 
however, well be only an adjective." 

* V. 5, 20, I. Cf. Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 4; Av. v. 23, 5. C/. Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, 93. 

iSiti-pf^tha (* white-backed ') is the name of the Maitravaruna 
priest at the snake festival in the Pancavimsa Brahmana.^ 

* XXV, 15, 3. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 35. 

i^iti-bahu Aii^akpta Naimii^i is mentioned as a sacrificer in 
the Jaiminiya Brahmana,^ where it is recorded that a monkey 
ran off with his sacrificial cake. 

^ i. 363 {Journal of the American Oriental Society, 26, 192), 

Sitpu^a in the Taittiriya Samhita^ denotes, according to the 
commentator, a kind of cat. 

* V. 5, 17, I. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 86. 

Sipada occurs only in the Rigveda^ in the negative form 
a-sipada, together with a-simida. Both Sipada and Simida are 
perhaps names of unknown diseases.^ 

* vii. 50, 4. 2 Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 394. 

I^ipavitnuka in the Atharvaveda^ seems to denote a species 
of worm. 

1 V. 20, 7. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 98 ; Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 262. 

iSipra is a word of somewhat uncertain sense: it. seems to 
mean 'cheeks' in several passages;^ in others^ it appears to 



* Rv. iii. 32, I ; v. 36, 2 ; viii. 76, 10 ; 
X. 96, 9 ; 105, 5, all according to Roth, 
St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. Geldner, 



iii. 32, I ; viii. 76, 10 ; x. 96, 9, the 
sense of ' moustache.' Y^ska, Nirukta, 
vi. 17, gives the alternative senses of 



Rigveda, Glossar, 179, who treats the ' ' jaw ' and ' nose. ' 



word as a neuter {Upra), takes it in 
i. loi, 10, as 'lip' (cf. Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, 249, n.). and sees in 



Rv. V. 54, n ; viii. 7, 25. Geldner, 
loc. cit., here accepts iiprd as ' helmet.' 



38o 



A RIVER A KING A FLOWER 



[ ^ipha 



designate the 'cheek-pieces' of a helmet, or of the ' bit '^ of a 
horse. In ayaht-^ipra, used of the A^vins,* and the other com- 
pounds, hiranya-sipm,^ hari-Upra,^ and hiri-sipra,'^ the word 
probably has the extended sense of 'helmet,' described as 'of 
iron,' 'of gold,' or 'yellow.' Similarly siprin^ would mean 
* wearing a helmet.' 



' Rv. i. loi, lo ; Zimmer, loc. cit. 

* Rv. iv. 37, 4. 

6 Rv. ii. 34, 3. 

^ Rv. X. 96, 4. 

' Rv. ii. 2, 3 ; vi. 25, 9. 



8 Rv. i. 29, 2 ; 81, 4 ; vi, 44, 14, 
etc. 

Cf. Max Miiller, Sacred Books of the 
East, 32, 301 ; Geldner, VedischeStudien, 
2, 39, n. 2. 



Sipha is found in one passage of the Rigveda,^ where Sayana 
explains the word as the name of a river, quite a possible 
interpretation. 

^ i. 104, 3. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 18; Perry, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 11, 201. 



Sibi, son of UiSinara, is mentioned in the Baudhayana Srauta 
Sutra ^ as a protdge of Indra, who sacrificed for him on the 
Varsis^hiya plain, and saved him from fear of foreign invasion. 

1 xxi. 18. Cf. Caland, Dber das rituelle Sutra des Baudhayana, 28. 



Simida, occurring in the Rigveda^ in the compound a-simida, 
perhaps denotes a disease. The feminine form, Simida, is 
found as the name of a demoness in the Atharvaveda^ and the 
^atapatha Brahmana.* Cf. I^ipada. 



* vii. 50, 4. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches 
Leben, 394. 



IV. 25, 4. 
vii. 4, I, 27. 



I^imbala in the Rigveda^ denotes, according to Sayana, the 
flower of the ^almali ( = !$almali), 'silk-cotton tree.' 



^ iii. 53, 22. Cf. Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, 179; Oldenberg, Rgveda-Noten, 
I. 254. 



diva] A KING NAMES ART A PEOPLE 381 

iSimyu occurs in the Rigveda^ as the name of one of the 
peoples or kings who were defeated by Sudas in the Daiapajna 
('battle of the ten kings'). Since in another passage^ the 
^imyus are coupled with the Dasyus, Zimmer^ plausibly 
concludes that they were non-Aryans. 

* vii. 18, 5. I ' Altindisches Leben, 118, 119. 

3 i. 100, 18, where Roth, St. Peters- 1 Cf. Hopkins, Journal of the American 

burg Dictionary, s.v., thinks that the 1 Oriental Society, 15, 261. 

word simply means ' enemy. ' I 

l^irimbitha occurs in one passage of the Rigveda,^ where the 
name of a man may possibly be meant, the AnukramanT 
(Index) ascribing the hymn in which the word occurs to his 
authorship. Yaska,^ however, renders the term by * cloud.' 

1 X. 155, I. 

* Nirukta, vi. 30. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3. 167. 

iSilaka Salavatya (* descendant of Salavant ') is the name of 
a teacher, a contemporary of Caikitayana Dalbhya and Pra- 
vahana Jaivala, in the Chandogya Upanisad (i. 8, 1). 

1. Silpa means 'art,' of which three kinds nrtya, 'dance*; 
glta, 'song'; and vddita, 'instrumental music,' are enumerated 
in the Kausltaki Brahmana (xxix. 5). 

2. I^ilpa Kai^yapa is named in the last Varn^a (list of teachers) 
in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad^ as a teacher, a pupil of 
Ka^yapa Naidhruvi. 

^ vi. 4, 33 (M&dhyatjidina = vi. 5, 3 K&nva). 

Siva as the name of a people occurs once in the Rigveda,* 
where they share with the Alinas, Pakthas, Bhalanases, and 
Vi^nins the honour of being defeated by Sudas, not of being, 
as Roth^ thought, his allies. There can hardly be any doubt 

^ vii. 18, 7. I Veda, 95 et stq. ; once accepted by 

^ Zur Litteratur und Geuhichle des \ Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 126. 



C/. Zimmer, op, cit., 431 ; Ludwig, 
Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 173 ; 
Hopkins, Journal 0/ the American Oriental 
Society, 15, 260 et seq. 



382 SEERS-FOAL PHALLUS-WORSHIPPERS [ ^ilira 

of their identity with the Xl^ai^ or ^i^oi* of the Greeks, who 
dwelt between the Indus ^nd the Akesines (Asikni) in Alexander's 
time. The village of ^iva-pura, mentioned by the scholiast on 
Pinini** as situated in the northern country, may also preserve 
the name. C/. iSibi. 

3 Arrian, Indica, v. 12. 

* Diodorus, xvii. 96. 

iv. 2, 109, Connected with Siva 
by Weber, Indische Siudien, 13, 376. 
Cf. St. Petersburg Dictionary, 5.1;. 

^iiSira. See Rtu. 



iSi^u Ahgrirasa (* descendant of Angiras ') is the name of the 
seer of a Saman or Chant in the Pancavim^a Brahmaria.* 

1 xiii. 3, 24. Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 2, 160. 

l^iiSuka in the Atharvaveda^ seems to be an adjective meaning 
* young,' but according to Bloomfield^ it has the sense of ' foal.' 
The commentator, Sayana, reads Susuka, which he explains as 
a * wild animal so called.' Cf. AiSuing'a. 

^ vi. 14, 3. Cf. "Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 291 . 
2 Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 464. 

1. I^i^umara. See iSimi^uniara. 

2. I^iiSumara is a term applied to l^arkara in the Pancavirn^a 
Brahmana (xiv. 5, 15), where he is called a Si^umararsi, 
explained by the commentator to mean a Rsi in the form of a 
Sisumara. 

I^i^na-deva, occurring twice in the Rigveda^ in the plural, 
means * those who have the phallus for a deity.' The term 
most probably refers to the phallus worship of the aborigines. 

* vii. 21, 5 ; X. 99, 3. Cf. Zimmer, donell, Vedic Mythology, 155 ; Keith, 

Altindisches Leben, 118; Hopkins, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, i^ii, 

Religions of India, 150 ; von Schroeder, 1002, n. 5. 
Vienna Oriental Journal, 9, 237 ; Mac- 



6i9ta ] WATER PLANT HEADACHE- A CLAN 383 

l^ipala is the name of a water plant (Blyxa Octandra) men- 
tioned in the Rigveda.^ Its later name is ^aivala. 

1 X. 68, 5. Cf. the derivative adjec- 1 plants,' Sadvim^ BrS.hmana, iii. i. 
tive iipalya, ' overgrown with ^ip3.1a | Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 71. 

iSlpala is found once in the Atharvaveda,^ where it may mean 
either a ' pool abounding in iSipala plants ' or the proper name 
of a river or lake. 

* vi. 12, 3. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches I Atharvaveda, 289, 290; Bloomfield, 
Leben, 71 ; Whitney, Translation of the | Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 462. 

iSipudru is merely an incorrect reading in the text of the 
Atharvaveda^ for Cipudru. 

* vi. 127, I. See Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 376. 



iSlrsakti is a common word for ' headache ' in the Atharva- 
veda.-'^ 



1 i. 12, 3; ix. 8, I ; xii. 2, 19; 5, 23. 
Cf. Bloomfield, Journal of the A merican 
Oriental Society, 16, xxxv ; Hymns of the 
A tharvaveda, 252 ; A merican Journal of 
Philology, 17, 416, who sees in it sJrfa- 
sakti (cf. Macdonell, Vedic Grammar, I ache.' 
64, 2), Bohtlingk, Proceedings of the | 



Saxon Academy, 1897, 50, thinks the 
word means 'a stiff neck, with head 
awry.' See Lanman in Whitney, Trans- 
lation of the Atharvaveda, 14. In Av. 
xix. 39, 10, (Irsa-ioka is used for ' head- 



l^iri^anya in the Brahmanas^ denotes the 'head* of a couch 
(Asand^. 

^ Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 5, 3 ; 12, 3 ; 17, 2 ; Kausitaki Upanisad, i. 5 
Sahktaliyana ^rauta SQtra, xvii. 2, 8. 

I$iramaya, ' disease of the head,' is mentioned in the Athar- 
vaveda (v. 4, 10 ; ix. 8, i). 



lIta occurs only in a Valakhilya hymn of the Rigveda,^ 
where the word seems to be the name of an unimportant clan. 

* viii. 53, 4. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 163. 



384 



PARROT A SEER A TEACHER ELEPHANT [ dnka 



Suka, * parrot,' is mentioned in the Rigveda,* where a desire 
is expressed to transfer to the Suka and the RopanakiEi the 
yellowness of jaundice. The bird is included in the list of 
sacrificial victims at the A^vamedha (* horse sacrifice ') in the 
Yajurveda Samhitas.^ It is described as yellow and as ' of 
human speech ' (purusa-vOc) .^ According to Bloomfield,* this 
word is the correct reading for the second half of the obscure 
^ri^aka of the Atharvaveda.^ 



* i. 50, 12. 

2 Taittiriya Samhita, v. 5, 12, i ; 
Maitrayani Samhita, iii. 14, 14 ; VSja- 
saneyi Samhita, xxiv. 33 ; and cf. iuka- 
babhru, 'reddish, like a parrot,' ibid., 
xxiv. 2. 



3 Taittiriya and Maitrayani Saip< 
hitas, loc. cit. 

* Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 352. 

* iii. 14, 5. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 90. 



iSukti Angrirasa (* descendant of Anglras ') is the name of 
the seer of a Saman or Chant in the Pancavimsa Brahmana 
(xii. 5, 16). 

1. Sukra, according to Tilak/ has in two passages of the 
Rigveda* the sense of a planet. This is most improbable. Cf. 
Manthin. 

* Orion, 162. ^ jji. ^2, 2 ; ix. 46, 4. 

2. iSukra Jabala (* descendant of Jabala ') is the name of 
a teacher in the Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 7, 7). 

iSukla. See Yajus. 

I^ukla-dant, * white-tusked,' is applied as an epithet to Mrga, 
* wild beast,' in the Aitareya Brahmana (viii. 23, 3). * Elephants ' 
must be meant. 



I^uca and iSuca occur in an obscure verse of the Rigveda 
(X. 26, 6), where a man and a woman may be meant. 



Suna4^epa] NAMES THE SUTLEJA HUMAN VICTIM 385 

Sucanti is the name of a protege of the A^vins in the 
Rigveda.^ 

* i. 112, 7. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 165. 

I$uci-vrka Gaupalayana ('descendant of Gopala') is the 
name of the priest of Vrddhadyumna Abhipratari^a in the 
Aitareya Brahmana.^ He is also mentioned in the MaitrayanT 
Samhita.- 

* iii. 48, 9 (Gaupal&yana in Aufrecht's edition). ^ iii. 10, 4. 

Sutudri, twice mentioned in the Rigveda,^ is the name of 
the most easterly river of the Panjab, the modern Sutlej, the 
Zaradros of Ptolemy and Arrian.^ In the post-Vedic period 
the name of this river appears transformed to Satadru (* flowing 
in a hundred channels '). The Sutlej has changed its course 
very considerably within historical times.^ 



iii. 33, I ; X, 75, 5 ; Nirukta, ix, 26. 

2 In Arrian's time the Sutlej flowed 
independently into the Rann of Cutch : 
Imperial Gazetteer of India, 23, 179. 



Ibid. 

Cf. Zimmer, AUindisches Leben, 10, 
II. 



Sunah-pucha, ' Dog's tail,' is the name of a brother of 
Sunal^i^epa ^ 

> Aitareya Brahmana, vii 15, 7 ; ^nkbayana Srauta SQtra, v. 20, i. 

Simah-Sepa, ' Dog's tail,' is the name of a man with the 
patronymic Ajigrarti. According to a tale told in the Aitareya 
Brahmana^ and the ^arikhayana Srauta Sutra,^ he was 
purchased as a victim by Rohita, King Hariicandra's son, 
who had been promised by his father to Varuna as a sacrifice. 
He was actually bound to the stake, but was released in time 
through his supplications, supposed to be preserved in certain 
hymns of the Rigveda.^ He was adopted by Vi^vamitra, to 
whose advice he owed the inspiration to ask the gods to release 
him, and became his son as Devarata, much to the annoyance 

1 vii. 13-18. XV. 20, I et stq. Cf. xvi. 11, 2. 

' t 24 / uq. Cf. V. 2, 7. 

VOL. II. 25 



36 



NAMESSHARE AND PLOUGH [ ^unaskar^a 



of some of Vi^vamitra's sons, who in consequence were cursed 
by their father. The Rigveda, however, contains merely the 
statement of ^unalj^epa's deliverance from peril of death by 
the divine help, and the Yajurvedas* simply say that he was 
seized by Varuna (perhaps with dropsy),^ but saved himself from 
Varuna's bonds. 



* TaJttiriya SamhitS, v. 2, i, 3 ; 
K&thaka Satphita, xix. 11. The story 
is not found in Maitr&yanT Samhitft, 
iii 2, I. 

Cf. Varuna grhita. 

Cf. Max Miiller, Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, 408 et uq. ; 573 et seq. ; Roth, 



Indische Studien, i, 457 ; ii. 112 et uq. , 
Weber, Indian Literature, 47, 48 ; Episches 
im vedischen Ritual, 10-16 ; Muir, Sanskrit 
Texts, i^, 355 et seq.; Macdonell, Sanskrit 
Literature, 207 ; Ludwig, Translation of 
the Rigveda, 3, 146 ; Keith, Journal 0/ 
the Royal Asiatic Society, 191 1. 988, 989. 



Sunas-karna, ' Dog-ear,' is the name of a king,^ son of iSibi or 
of Baskiha,^ who performed a certain rite, the SarvasvSra, and 
so died without disease. 

* Baudh&yana Srauta Sfltra, xxi. 17 ; Caland, Uber das rituelle SQtra des 
Baudhayana, 28. 
2 Pancavim^a Br3.hmana, xvii. 12, 6. 



Suna-hotra, in the plural, denotes a family of seers in the 
Rigveda (ii. i8, 6; 41, 14. 17). 



I^una-slra, in the dual, occurs in the Rigveda^ and later ^ as 
the names of two agricultural deities, the personifications, 
probably, of * the share and the plough,* as Roth^ thinks. 



> IV. 57, 5. 8. 

' Av. iii. 17. 5 ; Maitriyani Samhita, 
i. 7, 12 ; Vajasaneyi Satphita, xii. 69, 
etc. 

* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.r. For 



the native explanations, see Bphad- 
devata, V. 8 et seq., with Macdonell's 
notes. Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 116, 117, renders iunam 
adverbially as ' successfully.' 



^uno-langfula, 'Dog's tail,' is the name of a brother of 
lunalj-6epa.^ 

> Aitareya Bribmana, vii. 15, 7 ; Sftnkhayana Srauta SQtra, xv. 20, i. 



6u6mina] STRAW PRICE OWL NAMES 387 

iSumbala is found in the Satapatha Brahmana.* The 
meaning of the word is uncertain : Harisvami in his commen- 
tary takes it to be 'straw'; Eggeling^ suggests that dried 
cotton fibre or pods may be meant. In any case, some sub- 
stance that easily catches fire is intended.* 

* xii. 5, 2. 3. I ' Roth, St. Petersburg Dictionary, 
' Sacred Books of the East, 44, 20a, | s.v. 

n. 3 ; comparing K&ty&yana ^rauta I 
SQtra, XXV. 7, 12. . I 

l^ulka in the Rigveda^ clearly means * price.' In the Dharma 
Sutras^ it denotes a 'tax,' a sense which is found by Muir^ in 
a passage of the Atharvaveda,^ where sukla is read in the 
edition with great detriment to the sense. This correction is 
accepted by Bloomfield'* and by Whitney. In another passage 
the same change made by Weber "^ is not accepted by Whitney, 
and doubtfully by Bloomfield. 

* vii. 82, 6; viii. i, 5. Translation of the Atbarvaveda, 
' See Foy, Die konigliche Gewalt, 39 136. 

et uq. ^ Indische Studien, 17, 304. 



Sanskrit Texts, 5, 310. 

* iii. 29, 3. 

' Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 434. 



8 op. cit., 253. 

' Loc. cit. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 413. 



I^u^uka. See A^umga and l^i^uka. 

I^u^uluka is found in the Rigveda^ in the compound sustduka- 
ydtu, the name of a demon. According to Sayana, the word 
means a * small owl.' It appears in the feminine form, Su^u- 
luka, in the list of victims at the A^vamedha (' horse sacrifice ') 
in the Maitrayani Samhit.* 

' vii. 104, 22. * iii. 14, 17. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 93. 

I^u^ka-bhrngara is the name of a teacher in the Kau^Itaki 

Upaniad.^ 

1 ii. 6. Cf. ^nkb&yana Srauta SQtra, xvii. 7, 13. 

Sui^miQa is a name of Amitratapana, a king of the Sibis, in 
the Aitareya Brahmana (viii. 23, 10). 

252 



k 



388 THE FOURTH CASTE [ 6udra 

Sudra is the designation of the fourth caste in the Vedic 
state (see Var^jia). It is quite unknown in the Rigveda except 
in the Purusasukta ^ (' hymn of man ') in the tenth Mandala, 
where in the earliest version of the origin of the castes the 
Sudra for the first time appears. The Rigveda, on the other 
hand, knows Dasyu and Dasa, both as aborigines independent 
of Aiyan control and as subjugated slaves: it is reasonable to 
reckon the ^udra of the later texts as belonging to the 
aborigines who had been reduced to subjection by the Aryans. 
Strictly speaking, the defeated aborigines must have been 
regarded as slaves, but it is obvious that, except on occasions 
when most of the men were slain, which may have occurred 
quite often, there must have remained too many of them to be 
used as slaves of individual owners. The villages of the 
aborigines must have continued to subsist, but under Aryan 
lordship and control : there may be this amount of truth in 
Baden Powell's theory, which practically traced all the early 
cultivating villages in India to Dravidian origin. On the other 
hand, the term Sudra would also cover the wild hill tribes 
which lived by hunting and fishing, and many of which would 
acknowledge the superiority of their Aryan neighbours : it 
could, in fact, be applied to all beyond the pale of the Aryan 
state. 

This view of the ^udra suits adequately the Vedic references 
to his condition, which would not apply adequately to domestic 
slaves only. The ^udra is continually opposed to the Aryan,^ 
and the colour of the ^udra is compared with that of the 
Aryan,^ just as his ways are so contrasted.** The Aitareya 
Brahmana,^ in its account of the castes, declares that the 

' Kathaka SaiphitS, xxxiv. 5; Panca- 
vim^a Brahmana, v. 5, 17, Cf. 
^atapatba Brahmana, vi. 4, 4, 9 ; 
B|-hadcLranyaka Upani^ad, i. 4, 25 ; 
Aitareya BrShmana, viii. 4, 5 ; Taittirlya 
Brahmana, i. 2, 6, 7 ; Weber, Indische 
Studien, 10, 4; Muir, op. cit., i*, 140; 



X. 90, 12. See Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 
i2, 8 et seq. 

2 Av. iv. 20, 4 ; xix. 32, 8 ; 62, i ; 
Vajasaneyi Satphita, xiv. 30 ; xxiii. 30. 
51 ; Taittjriya Sambita, iv. 2, 10, 2 ; 
vii. 4, 19, 3 ; Kathaka Sanihita, A^va- 
raedha, iv. 7; xvii. 5; MaitrayanT 
Samhita, ii. 8, 6; iii. 13, i, etc. See Mahabharata, xii. 188, 5. 
also Arya and Arya. In Taittiriya * Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 17, 3. 4 ; 

Samhita, i. 8. 3, i ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, 1 ^ahkhayana ^rauta Sutra, xv. 24. 
XX. 17 ; Kathaka Samhita, xxxviii. 5, j vii. 29, 4 ; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i^, 
SQdra is opposed to Arya. 1 439. 



6udra ] DISTINCTION BETWEEN ARYAN AND SUDRA 389 



Sudra is anyasya presya, 'the servant of another'; kamotthdpya, 
* to be expelled at will ' ; and yathakdmavadhya, * to be slain at 
will.' All these terms well enough describe the position of the 
serf as the result of a conquest : the epithets might have been 
applied to the English serf after the Norman Conquest with 
but slight inaccuracy, especially if his master had received a 
grant of jurisdiction from the Crown. The Pancavimsa Brah- 
ma^ia explains that even if prosperous {bahu-pasu, ' having 
many cows ') a Sudra could not be other than a servant : his 
business was pdddvanejyat ' the washing of the feet ' of his 
superiors. The Mahabharata'' says out and out that a Sudra 
has no property {na hi svam asti siidrasya, * the Sudra has 
nothing he can call his own'). On the other hand, just as in 
England the royal justice would protect the serf in life and 
limb, so it appears that the slaying of a ^udra involved a 
wergeld of ten cows according to both Baudhayana^ and 
Apastamba.-^ It may, indeed, be held that this wergeld was 
only due in case of murder by another than the master, but 
such limitation is nowhere stated. 

In sacred matters the distinction between Aryan and ^udra 
was, of course, specially marked. The texts *^ do not hesitate 
to declare that the upper castes were * all,' ignoring the Sudras; 
the Sudra is prohibited ^^ from milking the cow for the milk 
required at the Agnihotra (* oblation to Agni ') ; and the Sata- 
patha Brahmana^ forbids a man who has been consecrated 
(dlksita) for a sacrifice to speak to a Sudra at all for the time, 
though the Satyayanaka^* seems to have relaxed this rule by 
confining it to cases in which the Sudra was guilty of some sin. 



VI. I, II. 

' xii. 30, 7 (Hopkins, Journal 0/ the 
American Oriental Society, 13, 73). The 
same text, xii. 294, 21 (ibid., 74, n.), 
insists on his duty of service. 

8 Pollock and Maitland, History of 
English Law, i, 350, 355. etc. 

" Dharma Sutra, i. 10, 19, i. 

*" Dharma SQtra, i. 9, 24, 3. 

" Satapatha Brclhmana, ii. i, 4, 2 ; 
iv. 2, 2, 14, etc. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred 
Books of the East, 12, xvi et seq. ; 26, 
292. Cf. Hopkins, op. cit., 13, 73, 75, n. 



13 K&thaka Saiphiti, xxxi. 2; Maitril. 
yani Samhitcl, iv. 1,3. So the sthuTt, 
' cooking vessel,' is to be prepared 
by an Aryan, Maitr&yan! Saqihit&, 
i. 8. 3. 

*3 iii. I, I, 10. Cf. V. 3, 2, 2. 

** Quoted by Apastamba, cited in 
the scholiast on K&tya.yana Srauta 
SQtra, vii. 5, 7. The sense is not quite 
certain, but that given in the text 
seems reasonable. Cf. Weber, op. cit., 
10, II. 



390 DISABILITIES OF THE $UDRA [ 6udra 

At the sacrifice itself the ^udra could not be present in the 
idld, 'hall'; he is definitely classed in the ^atapatha Brah- 
mana^* and the Pancavim^a Brahmana^ as unfit for ' sacrifice' 
(ayajfiiya) ; and declared in the Kathaka Sarnhita^' not to be 
admitted to drink Soma. At the Pravargya (introductory 
Soma) rite the performer is not allowed to come in contact 
with a Sudra,^ who here, as in the Kathaka Samhita,^' is 
reckoned as excluded from a share in the Soma-draught. On 
the other hand, the Sudra is one of the victims at the Purusa- 
medha (' human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda,^ and a fight 
between an Aryan and a Sudra, in which, of course, the former 
wins, forms a part of the Mahavrata rite, being perhaps a pre- 
cursor of the Indian drama.^ 

Other indications, however, exist, showing that it would be 
undesirable to ignore the real importance of the Sudra, which 
again reminds us of the condition of the serf, who, though 
legally restrained, still gradually won his way to the rank of a 
free man. Rich Sudras are mentioned in the early texts,^^ just 
as ^udra gahapatis, * householders,' occur in the Buddhist texts, 
and Sudra kings in the legal literature.^ Sin against Sudra and 
Aryan is mentioned;^ prayers for glory on behalf of Sudras, 
as well as of the other castes ^ occur ; and the desire to be dear 
to Sudra as well as to Aryan is expressed.^ 

1' iii. I, I, 10. See also MaitrayanI | ^ Foy, Die konigliche Gewalt, 8 ; Fick, 

Saiphita, vii. i, i, 6; Levi, La Doctrine j Die sociale Gliederung, 83, 84. See 

(ill Sacrifice, 82. | Manu, iv. 61 ; Visnu, Ixxi. 64 ; p>erhaps 

* vi. I, II. ! JaiminTya Upanisad Brahmana, i. 4, 5. 

" xi. 10, where he therefore does I But see Roth's emendation, Journal 

not receive Eariras. ' 0/ the American Oriental Society, 16, 

18 ^atapatha Brahmana, xiv. 1,1,31. | ccxliii. 

w Vajasaneyi SarnhitS,, xxx. 5 ; Tait- '^ K&thaka Satnhita, xxxviii. 5 ; Tait- 

tirlya Brahmana, iii. 4, I, I ; ^atapatha tirTya Saiphita, i, 8, 3, i; Vajasaneyi 

Brahmana, xiii. 6, 2, 10. He is also Satnhita, xx. 17. 

present at the B&jastlya, Kathaka ^ Taittiriya Samhita, v. 7, 6, 4 ; 

Samhita, xxxvii. i. Kathaka Samhita, xl. 13 ; Maitrayani 

^ Keith, Zeitschrift der Devtschen Samhita, iii. 4, 8 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, 

Morgenldndischen Gesellscha/t, 64, 534. j xviii. 48. On the other hand, the 

'* MaitrayanI Satphita, iv. 2, 7, 10 ; I ^Qdra uses magic just as an Arya does, 

Pancavitp^ Brahmana, vi. I, II. Some ' Av. x. i, 3. 

of the kings' ministers were Madras : ; ' Av. xix. 32, 8 ; 62, i ; Vajasaneyi 

Satapatha Brahmana, v. 3, 2, 2, with 1 Sarphita, xxvi. 2, etc. 

Sayana's note. I 



6udra ] INTERMARRIAGE OF ARYA AND SODRA 



391 



The Sutras also, while they emphasise as general rules 
points earlier not insisted on, such as their inferiority in 
sitting, etc.,2 their exclusion from the study of the Vedas,*'^ 
the danger of contact with them^ or their food,^ still recog- 
nize that Sudras can be merchants,* or even exercise any 
trade.8i 

Moreover, the Sutras^^ permit the marriage of a ^udra 
woman with members of all castes. Though it was a reproach 
to Vatsa^ and to Kavaa^ that they were the sons of a ^udra 
and a Dasi respectively, still the possibility of such a reproach 
shows that marriages of this kind did take place. Moreover, 
illicit unions of Arya and ^udra, or ^udra and Arya, are 
referred to in the Samhitas of the Yajurveda.^ 

The origin of the term ^udra is quite obscure, but Zimmer*' 
points out that Ptolemy*"^ mentions XvBpoL as a people, and he 
thinks that the Brahui may be meant. Without laying any 
stress on this identification,^ it is reasonable to accept the 



Gautama Dharma SQtra, xii. 7; 
Apastamba Dharma Sutra, ii. 10, 27, 
15. So he can be insulted with im- 
punity, Gautama, xii. 13, and is 
punished for insult by mutilation, ibid., 
xii. I ; Apsistamba, ii. 10, 27, 14. 

^ Gautama, xii. 4-6. 

*8 Apastamba, i. 5, 17, i ; ii. 2, 3, 4, 
etc. 

2 Apastamba, i. 5, 16, 2, etc. 

^ Gautama, x. 60. C/. x. 50-67 for 
an exhaustive account of the ^Qdra's 
duties in theory. His relations to his 
master are those of mutual support. 

'1 Visnu, ii. 14. 

32 Paraskara Grhya SQtra, i. 4, 11. 
Rales to the contrary {e.g., Gobhila 
Gfhya SQtra, iii. 2, 52) are for special 
occasions. See Weber, op. cit., 10, 74. 
On the other hand, criminal intercourse 
of a ^Qdra and an Aryan woman is 
severely punished in the SQtras. See 
Apastamba, i. 10, 26, 20 ; 27, g ; 
Gautama, xii. 2. 3. 

*3 Paiicavirn^ Br3.hmana, xiv. 6, 6. 

3* Aitareya BrJihmana, ii. 19, i. 

3 Arya and SQdr5 : Vajasaneyi Saip- 



hits, xxiii. 30 ; Taittiriya SamhitS, vii. 4, 
19, 3 ; MaitrSyani Samhita, iii. 13, i ; 
Kathaka Samhita, A^vamedha, iv. 8 ; 
SQdra and Arya : Vajasaneyi Samhita, 
xxiii. 31. This verse the ^atapathaBrah- 
mana no doubt deliberately ignores. 

30 AUindisches Leben, 216, 435. 

3'^ vi. 20. 

38 The Brahui are now held not to be 
Dravidian ethnologically, but Turco- 
Iranian (Indian Empire, 1, 292, 310). 
It is suggested (ibid., i, 382) that they 
represent the original Dravidian type, 
which in India has been merged in the 
Munda type ; but this suggestion is 
invalidated by the fact that the Rigveda 
speaks of the Dasyus as anils, 'nose- 
less' (c/. Dasyn, i, 347, n. 7), a term 
admirably applicable to Dravidians, 
but ludicrous as applied to the Turco- 
Iranian type. It is much more plausible 
to assume that the Brahuis are a mixed 
race, which in course of time has lost 
most of its Dravidian features. On 
the relation of Dravidians and speakers 
of Munda tongues, the Vedic texts 
throw no light. 



392 SODRA woman hero a TEACHER BASKET [ 6udri 



view* that the term was originally the name of a large tribe 
opposed to the Aryan invasion. See also Ni$ada. 



See Weber. Indische Studien, i8, 85, 
255 ; Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 
veda. 3, 212 ; Fick, Die sociale Gliederung, 
201, 202. 

C/. von Schroeder, Indiens Literatur 
und Cultur, 154, 155 ; Jolly, Zeitschrift 
der Deutschen Morgenldndischen GeuU- 
scha/t, 50, 5 15 ; Fick, Die sociale Gliederung, 



201 et uq. ; Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 
54; Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 13, 73 et uq. (for the 
^Qdra in the Epic); Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, 191 et seq. ; Weber, Indian 
Literature, 18, 77, in, 112, 276; Indische 
Studien, 10, 4 et seq.; Muir. Sanskrit 
Texts, 1*, 8 et seq. 



I^udra denoted a ^udra woman in the Atharvaveda^ and 
later.2 



* V. 22, 7 ( = Dasi, V. 22, 6). 

* Taittiriya Saiphita,, vii. 4, 19, 3 ; 
K&thaka Samhita, A^vamedha, iv. 8 ; 
Maitr&yani Saiphita, iii. 13, i ; V&ja- 



saneyi Samhita, xxiii. 30, etc. ; iOdri- 
putra, ' son of a ^Odra woman,' Panca- 
vitpSa Br&hmana, xiv. 6, 6. 



Sura is the regular word in the Rigveda,^ and occasionally 
later,* to denote a ' hero ' or ' brave warrior.' 



* i. 70, II ; loi, 6 ; 141, 8 ; 158, 3 ; 
ii. 17, 2 ; 30, 10, etc. 

* Av. viii. 8, I ; VSjasaneyi Saipbitd, 



xvi. 34 ; XX. 37, etc. (of gods, Indra and 
Agni) ; iura-vira, Av. viii. 5, i. 



Sura-vTra Mandukya ( descendant of Manduka ') is the 
name of a teacher in the Aranyakas of the Rigveda.^ 



1 Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. i, i. 3. 4; 
S&nkh^yana Aranyaka, vii. 2. 8. 9. 



10 (where the name is read Saura- 
vira). 



Surpa in the Atharvaveda^ and later ^ denotes a wickerv/ork 
basket for winnowing grain. It is called varsa-vrddha, ' swollen 
by rain,' in the Atharvaveda,* which shows, as Zimmer'' says, 
that it was sometimes made of reeds, not of dry wood. 



* ix. 6, 16 ; X. 9. 26 ; xi. 3, 4 ; xii. 3, 
19 et seq. ; xx. 136, 8. 

* Taittiriya Saiphita, i. 6, 8, 3 ; 
Taittinya Brihinana, i. 6, 5, 4 ; iii. 2, 
9. II, etc 



3 xu. 3, 19. 

* Altindisches Leben, 238. 

Cf. Lanman in Whitney's Translation 
of the Atharvaveda, 686 ; Bloomfield, 
Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 649., 



^evadhi J SPIT N A MESHORNTREA SURE 393 

iSula, denoting the ' spit,' used for roasting flesh on, is found 
in the Rigveda^ and the later Brahmanas.^ 

1 i. 162, II. I the late Sadviip^a Brihrnana, v. 11. 

" ^tapatha Br&hmana, xi. 4. 2, 4 ; In the post-Vedic language the tri-iula, 

7i 3f *: 4. 3; Chandogya Upanisad, or 'trident.' is the regular emblem of 

vii. 15, 3 (used at cremation and sug- j ^iva. 

restive of roasting). The Qla, as the : Cf, Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 271. 
weapon of Rudra, is not mentioned till | 

1. lua Vari?a ('descendant of Vrsni') is mentioned in the - o y^. 
Taittiriya Brahmana (iii. 10, 9, 15) as having been honoured by /\ i ^ ^ 
a consecration with Aditya. 

2. ^ua Vahneya (' descendant of Vahni ') Bharadvaja 
C descendant of Bharadvaja ') is the name of a teacher, a pupil 
of ApaQla Datreya iSaunaka, in the Vam^a Brahmana.^ Cf. 
irua. 

' Indische Studien, 4, 373. 

Spngu in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes the * horn ' of any 
sort of animal. Hence the ' barb ' of the arrow is called its 
horn in the Atharvaveda.^ 



* i. 140, 6 ; 163, II ; ii. 39, 3 ; iii. 8, 
10. etc. 

* Av. ii. 32, 6 ; viii. 6, 14 ; ix. 4, 17, etc. 



3 iv. 6, 5. Cf. Whitney, Translation 
of the Atharvaveda, 154. 



Si'ftg'a-Vf is the name of a man in one hymn of the Rigveda.-^ 
According to Ludwig,^ he is father of Prdakusanu. 

1 viu. 17, 13. I Cf. Griffith, Hymns of the Rigveda, 

' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 161. | 2, 142, n. 

I^erabha and l^erabhaka are names of snakes or demons in 
the Atharvaveda.^ 

1 ii. 24, I. Cf. Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 64. 

iSeva-dhi denotes 'treasure' in the Rigveda^ and later.^ 

ii. 13, 6 ; vii. 53, 3 ; ix. 3 15 I * Av. v. 22, 14 ; Vajasaneyi Saiphiti, 
(metaphorically). Cf. viii. 52, 9. | xviii. 59, etc 



394 DICING OFFSPRING NAMES [ devrdlia 

iSevpclha and iSevrdhaka are the names of snakes or demons 
in the Atharvaveda.^ 

* il. 24, I. C/. Whitney, Translation of the Athanraveda, 64. 



Se$apa in the Atharvaveda (vii. 109, 5), means the * leaving ' 
of the dice as opposed to Glahana {grahana), the ' taking up * of 
them for the throw. Cf. Glaha. 

i^eas denotes ' offspring ' in the Rigveda.^ 

1 i. 93, 4 ; V. 12, 6 ; 70, 4 ; vi. 27, 4. 5 ; vii. i, 12 ; 4, 7 ; x. 16, 5. 

I^aibya, 'belonging to the l^ibis,' is a designation of king 
Amitratapana l^ui^mina in the Aitareya Brahmana (viii. 23, 10). 
In the Pra^na Upanisad (i. i; v. i) ^aibya is the patronymic of 
a teacher, Satyakama. 

I^ailana, in the plural, is the name of a school of teachers in 
the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana (i. 2, 3 ; ii. 4, 6). 



Sailali, * descendant of Silalin,' is the name of a ritual teacher 
in the Satapatha Brahmana.^ A Sailali Brahmana is mentioned 
in the Apastamba Srauta Sutra,"^ and the school of the Sailalins 
often occurs in the Sutras.' 

1 xiii. 5, 3, 3. I Indian Literature, 197. who compares 

vi. 4, 7. ! the Nata SQtra attributed to Silalin by 

3 Anupada SQtra, iv. 5, etc. PSnini, iv. 2, no, in. 

Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 156; 



iSailina or l^ailini, ' descendant of ^ilina,' is the patronymic 
of Jitvan in the Satapatha Brahmana.^ Perhaps ^ailana 
should be compared. 

' Sailina in Brhadiranyaka Upani- I iv. i, 2 Kanva. Cf. Max Muller, Sacred 
ifaA, iv. I, 5 M&dbyaifidina ; ^ailini, I Boohs 0/ the East, 15, 152, n. 2. 



6auceya ACTOR^A KING PATRONYMICS 39S 

Sailu^a is included in the list of victims at the Puru9amedha 
(' human sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.^ An * actor ' or ' dancer ' 
may be meant. Sayana says it is a man who lives on the 
prostitution of his wife. 

^ V&jasaneyi Samhiti, xxx. 6 ; Tait- question of how old the drama is in 

tiriya BrShmana, iii. 4, 2, i. Cf. India. As to this, cf. Itihftsa; Keith, 

Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 290 ; Weber, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 191 1, 

Indian Literature, in, 196, 197. The gg^ et seq, 
exact sense of ^ailQsa depends on the 

iSona Satpasaha, king of Pahcala and father of Koka, is 
mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana^ as having offered the 
horse sacrifice, which was attended by the TurvaSas also. 

1 xiii. 5, 4, 16-18. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 44, 400. 

Saufigayani, * descendant of Saunga,' is the name of a teacher 
in the Varnsa Brahmana.^ 

^ Indische Studien, 4, 372, 383. The I A^valayana Srauta SQtra, xii. 13, 5, 
Sungas are known as teachers in the | etc. 

l^auAgi-putra, * son of a female descendant of Sunga,' is the 
name of a teacher, a pupil of Samkrti-putra in the last Varnsa 
(list of teachers) in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ 

1 vi. 4, 31 (M&dhyamdina = vi. 5, 2 KSnva). 

iSauca (* descendant of Suci ') is the patronymic of a man, 
called also Ahneya, who is mentioned as a teacher in the 
Taittiriya Aranyaka (ii. 12). 

I^aucad-ratha (' descendant of ^ucad-ratha ') is the patro- 
nymic of Sunltha in the Rigveda (v. 79, 2). 

^auceya (' descendant of Suci ') Pracinayog-ya (* descendant 
of Praclnayoga ') is the name of a teacher in the Satapatha 
Brahmana (xi. 5, 3, i. 8). ^auceya is also the patronymic of 
Sarvaseni in the Taittiriya Samhita (vii. i, 10, 2). 



396 PATRONYMICS [ ^aunaka 

Saunaka, ' descendant of Sunaka,' is a common patronymic. 
It is applied to Indrota^ and Svaidayana.^ A Saunaka appears 
as a teacher of Rauhinayana in the Brhadaranyaka Upani^ad.' 
A ^aunaka-yajfla, or Saunaka sacrifice, occurs in the Kausitaki 
BrShmana.* In the Chandogya Upanisad^ Atidhanvan 
Saunaka appears as a teacher. That Upanisad and the 
Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana'^ mention a Saunaka Kapeya 
who was a contemporary of Abhipratarin Kak^aseni, whose 
Purohita Saunaka was according to another passage of the 
latter Upaniad. In the Sutras, the Brhaddevata, etc., a 
Saunaka appears as a great authority on grammatical, ritual, 
and other matters. 



^ ^tapatha Br&hmana, xiii. 5, 3, 5 

' Ibid., xL 4, 1, 2. 

' ii. 5, 20 ; iv. 5, 26 Madhyamdina. 



' 111. I, 21. 

^ i. 59. 2. 

9 Cf. Weber, Indian Literature, 24, 
32-34. 49. 54. 56. 59, 62. 85, 143; 



* iv. 7. Macdonell, Bfhaddevatd, i , xxiii ; Keith, 

' i. 9, 3. Aitareya Aranyaka, 18, 19, 297. 







>v- 3, 5- 7- 



l^aunaki-putra, 'son of a female descendant of Sunaka,' is 
the name of a teacher, a pupil of Kai^yapibalakyama^hari- 
putra in the last Varn^a (list of teachers) in the Madhyamdina 
recension of the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (vi. 4, 30. 31). 

iSaurpa-payya, descendant of Surpanaya,' is the patronymic 
of a teacher, a pupil of Gautama, in the first two Vam^as (lists 
of teachers) in the Madhyarndina recension of the Brhadaran- 
yaka Upanisad (ii. 5, 20; iv. 5, 26). 

Saulbayana or iSauIvayana, 'descendant of ^ulba,' is the 
patronymic of a teacher, Udahka.^ According to the Sata- 
patha Brahmana,* a ^aulbayana was the Adhvaryu, or 
sacrificing priest, of those who had Ayasthuija as Grhapati 
(' householder,' the title of the sacrificer who has precedence at 
a sattra, or sacrificial session). 

* Taittinya Samhitil, vii. 4, 3, 4 ; 5, 4. 2; Brbadftranyaka Upanisad, iv. 1, 
2 Madhyaipdina. 

xi. 4, 2, 17 et seq. 



6ma4ni] ANGLER A SEER BURIAL MOUND BEARD 397 

Sau^kala is the name of one of the sacrificial victims at the 
Purusamedha (' horse sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda.* It means, 
according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, * living on dried fish 
or flesh,' ^ or, according to the native lexicographers, ' selling 
dried fish,' while Sayana's commentary on the Taittiriya Brah- 
mana explains the meaning to be one who catches fish with a 
hook, ' angler.' 



^ V3.jasaneyi Saqihitft, xxx. 16; Tait- 
tiriya Br&hmana, iii. 4, 12, i. C/. Weber, 
Indische Streifen, i, 81, n. 7 ; Eggeling, 
Sacred Books of the East, 44, 415. 



' The literal meaning is, ' relating to 
what is dried ' (iufkala). 



lruti AnglPasa (' descendant of AAgfiras ') is the name of 
the seer of a Saman or Chant in the Pancavimsa Brahmana.^ 

^ xiii. 11,21. C/. Hillebrandt, Vedische I of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Mythologie, 2, j6o, Hopkins, Transactions I Sciences, 15, 68. 



I^maiana is the name of the * burial mound ' in which the 
bones of the dead man were laid to rest (c/. Anagnidagfdha). 
It is mentioned in the Atharvaveda,* and often later.^ The 
^atapatha Brahmana^ prescribes a four-cornered mound facing 
the south-east, on ground inclined to the north, out of sight of 
the village, in a peaceful spot amid beautiful surroundings, or 
on barren ground. For an Agni-cit (' builder of a fire-altar ') 
a funeral mound like a fire-altar is prescribed. The Easterners 
{Prdcydh) made their mounds round. 



1 V. 31, 8; X. I. 18. 

Taittiriya Samhita, v. 2, 8, 5 ; 
4, II, 3; K&thaka Samhiti, xxi. 4; 
Maitr^yani Samhitcl, iii. 4, 7 ; Sata- 
patba Br&bmana, iv. 5, 2, 15, etc. 



' xiii. 8, I, I / s;^. Cf. Eggeling, 
Sacred Books of the East, 44, 424 et seq. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 407 ; 
Hopkins, /oma/ of the American Oriental 
Society, 16, cliii. 



iSma^ru in the Rigveda^ and later* means 'beard' and 
' moustache,"* being sometimes contrasted with Ke^a,^ ' hair of 
the head.' Shaving was known (see Vaptp and Kura). The 

1 ii. II, 17; viii. 33, 6; x. 23, i. 4; Applied to animals, ibid., xxv. i; ^ta- 

26, 7 ; 142, 4. patha Br&hmana, xii. 9, i, 6, etc. 

' Av. V. ig, 14 ; vi. 68, 2 ; V4ja- ' ^atapatha Bribmana, ii. 5, 2, 48, 

saneyi Samhita., xix. 92 ; xx. 5, etc. etc. 



398 



A PRIESTLY FAMILY IRON NAMES [ 6y&par?a 



wearing of a beard was a sign of manhood according to the 
Taittirlya Sarnhita,* with which agrees the notice of Mega- 
sthenes* that the Indians carefully tended their beards up to the 
day of their death. 

* V, 5, I, I. I C/. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 265- 

In Diodorus, iii. 63, I 267. 



^yaparpa Sayakayana is the name of a man, the last for 
whom five victims were slain at the building of the sacrificial 
altar according to the Satapatha Brahmana.* The same text^ 
again mentions him as a builder of the fire-altar. He must 
have been connected in some way with the Salvas.^ His 
family, the Syaparnas, appear in the Aitareya Brahmana* as a 
self-assertive family of priests whom king Vi^yantara excluded 
from his sacrifice, but whose leader, Rama Mapgfaveya, induced 
him to take them back. In some way ^yaparna was connected 
with the defeat of the Pancalas by the Kuntis.^ 



VI. 2. I, 39. 

ix. 5. 2, I. 

X. 4, I, 10. 

vii. 27. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books 



of the East, 43, 344, 345 ; Muir, Sanskrit 
Texts, i', 437 et seq. ; Weber, Indisch$ 
Studien, i, 215, 216. 
' Weber, Indische Studien, 3, 471. 



I^yama (' swarthy ') with Ayas (' metal ') in all probability 
denotes * iron ' in the Atharvaveda.^ Syama alone has the 
same sense in the Atharvaveda^ and later.^ 



' XI, 3. 7. 

* 5. 4. 

3 Taittiriya Saiphit&, iv. 7, 5, i ; 
K&thaka SaiphitS., xviii. 10; Maitrayani 



Samhiti, ii. 11,5; Vajasaneyi Samhita. 
xviii. 13, 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 52, 54 ; 
Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 189. 



!yama-jayanta Lauhitya ('descendant of Lohita') is the 
name of a teacher, a pupil of Jayanta ParaiSarya, in a Vam^a 
(list of teachers) in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 42, 
i). Another man of the same name occurs in the same place 
as a pupil of Mitrabhuti Lauhitya. 

Syama-par^a is, in the Kathaka* and Maitrayani- Samhitas, 
the name of a man who was instructed by Somadak^a Kaiu^reya. 

1' XX. 8 (Indischt Studien, 3, 472). iii. 2, 7. 



^yavasayana ] NAMES^MILLET 399 

iSyama-sigayanta Lauhitya ('descendant of Lohita ') is the 
name of a teacher, a pupil of Kpi?adhrti Satyaki, in a Varp^a 
(list of teachers) of the Jaiminlya Upani?ad Brahmana (iii. 42, l). 

I^yamaka is the name of a cultivated millet {Panicum /rumen- 
taceum) in the later Samhitas^ and the Brahmanas.^ The 
lightness of its seed is alluded to in the Atharvaveda,^ where it 
is spoken of as blown away by the wind. There it is also 
mentioned as the food of pigeons.* The Syamaka and its seed 
(Ta^dula) are referred to as very small in the Chandogya 
Upanisad,^ where Max Moller renders it as * canary seed.' 



* Taittiriya Samhiti, i. 8, i, 2 ; ii. 3, 
2, 6 ; iv. 7, 4, 2 ; Maitr&yani SairihitS., 
ii. II, 4 ; Vajasaneyi SamhitcL, xviii. 12 ; 
K3,thaka SaiphitS, x. 2. 

^ ^atapatha Brahmana, x. 6, 3, 2 ; 
xii. 7, I, g, etc. ; Kausitaki BrcLhmana, 
iv. 12. 



3 xix. 50, 4. 

* XX. 135, 12. 

5 iii. 14, 3. 

8 Sacred Books of the East, i, 48. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 241, 
275- 



1. I^yava is the name of a proteg^ of the A^vins in the 
Rigveda.^ He may be identical with Hiranyahasta. 

^ i. 117, 24; X. 65, /2. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig\'eda, 3, 130; 
Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 32. 

2. Syava is mentioned in the Rigveda^ as a generous donor 
on the Suvastu river. 

* viii. 19, 37. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, i6i. 

3. iSyava in one passage of the Rigveda (v. 61, 9) seems 
clearly, as Sayana thinks, to denote iSyavaiSva. 

iSyavaka is mentioned as a sacrificer and friend of Indra in 
the Rigveda (viii. 3, 12 ; 4, 2). He may be identical with 
2. iSyava. 



^yavasayana is the patronymic of Devataras in the Jaiminlya 
Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 40, 2). The form is perhaps an error 
for !avasayana. 



400 SyAvA^VA AND TARANTA'S DAUGHTER [ 6yavaiva 

Syava^va is the name of a man mentioned several times in 
the Rigveda.^ The Anukramani (Index) assigns to him a 
series of hymns in the fifth, eight, and ninth books.* In one 
of the hymns' Syavasva mentions, apparently as his patrons, 
Taranta (a son of Vidada^va) and Purumilha, as well as 
Rathaviti. On this hymn is based a legend found in the 
Brhaddevata,* that he was the son of Arcananas, who was 
sacrificing for Rathaviti Dalbhya. The father was anxious to 
obtain the king's daughter for his son in marriage ; but though 
the father was willing, his wife insisted on her son-in-law being 
a Rsi. The father and son, repulsed, were returning home, 
when they met on the way Taranta and Purumldha, former 
patrons of the father. These showed him respect, while 
Taranta's wife, ^a^iyasl, presented ^yava^va with much wealth. 
The son was then fortunate enough to meet the Maruts in the 
forest, and praised them, thus becoming a seer. As a result 
the king himself ultimately offered his daughter to Syavasva. 
Sieg* seeks to show that this legend is presupposed in the Rigveda; 
but it is difficult to accept this view, since the references in the 
Rigveda are very obscure, and Sa^iyasI is probably no more 
than an epithet. That there is some Itihasa at the back of the 
hymn is clear : what it is can hardly now be determined. 

Syava^va's obtaining gifts from Vaidada^vi is referred to also 
in the Sarikhayana Srauta Sutra.'' His name occurs in the 
Atharvaveda in two lists of persons, of which the former 
includes Purumidha, the latter also Arcananas and Atri. A 
Saman is ascribed to him in the Pancavim^a Brahmai?a, and 
he is perhaps referred to in the Taittiriya Aranyaka.^ In the 



1 V. 52, I ; 61, 5. 9 (Syava, a short 
form of the name, is here used) ; 81, 5 ; 

viii. 35. 19 ; 36, 7 ; 37. 7 ; 38. 8. 

' V. 52-61 ; 81 ; 82; viii. 35-38; ix. 32. 
' V. 61. 

V. 49 et seq. See also Sadguru^isya 
on Anukramani to Rv. v. 61 (ed. Mac- 
donell, p. 117 et stq.) ; SSyana on Rv. 
V. 61, 17-19; Nitimanjarl in Sieg, Die 
Sagenstoffe des Rgveda, 50 et uq. 

Op. cit. ; 50^. Cf. Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, 3, 148. 

V, 61, 6. The word is taken as 



an epithet by Roth, St. Petersburg 
Dictionary, s.v., and by Weber, Episches 
im vedischen Ritual, 27. 

' xvi. II, 7-9. 

8 iv. 29, 4 ; xviii. 3, 15. 

viii. 5, 9. Weber, Episches im 
vedischen Ritual, 27, n. 4, bases on this 
an improbable conjecture that he was 
a Ksatriya. 

io i II, 2. But cf. Sieg, op. cit., 61, 
n. 4, who takes the word adjectivally, 
as in Av. xi. 2, 18; ^afikhSyana Srauta 
SQtra, xiv. 33, 26, 



Sramana ] EAGLE COOK MENDICANT MONK 401 

^arikhSyana ^rauta Sutra and the Pancavim^a Brahmana" he 
is styled Arcananasa, ' son of Arcananas,* and later ^^ he is called 
Atreya, 'descendant of Atri.' 

^* viii. 5, 9. I veda, 3. 126, 127; OMenherg, Zeitschri/t 

*' The Anukraman! calls him and I dtr Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesell- 

his father Atreya. In the passages j scha/t, 42, 214 ; Rgveda-Noten. i, 354 ; 

from book viii. of the Rv,, cited in Max Miiller, Sacred Books of the East, 

n. r, Atri is mentioned with him. 32, 359 et seq. ; L^vi, La Doctrine du 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 1 Sacrifice, 122. 

^yena is the name in the Rigveda^ of a strong bird of prey, 
most probably the 'eagle'; later^ (as in post-Vedic Sanskrit) 
it seems to mean the * falcon ' or ' hawk.' It is the swiftest of 
birds,' and a source of terror to smaller birds.* It is the 
strongest of birds,^ and even attacks herds. It watches over 
men {nr-caksas) ,'' a reference, no doubt, to its lofty flight in air. 
It brings the Soma from heaven. 



1 i. 32, 14; 33, 2; 118, 11; 163, i; 
165, 2, etc. 

' Av. iii. 3, 4 ; vii. 41, 2 ; xi. 9, 9, etc. 

3 Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 4, 7, i ; v. 4, 
II, I ; Ssidvim^ Br&hmana, iii. 8. 

* Rv. ii. 42, 2 ; Av. v. 21, 6. 

' K3,thaka Samhita, xxxvii. 14. 

' Rv. iv. 38, 5. This corresponds 
well enough with the eagle's known 
habit of carrying off young lambs. 



^ Av. vii. 41, 2. 

8 See Bloomfield, Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, 16, 1-24, who 
cites all relevant passages. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 87, 
88, who points out that the epithet 
rjipya, 'flying upwards,' applied to the 
eagle, appears as an actual name of the 
eagle in Iranian. 



Srapayitr, ' cook,' is a term mentioned in the ^atapatha 
Brahmana (i. 2, 2, 14). 

Srama^a * mendicant monk,' is first found in the Upanisads.^ 
According to Fick,^ anyone could become a Sramana. For the 
time of Megasthenes this seems indicated by his evidence, 
which, however, refers only to the east of India, beyond the 
Madhyade^a proper.^ The Vedic evidence is merely the name 
and the fact that Tapasa, 'ascetic,' follows it in the Brhad- 
aranyaka Upanisad and the Taittiriya Aranyaka. 

^ Brbad&ranyaka Upanisad, iv. 3, 22 ; ' Strabo, xv. i, 49, 60; Arhan, 

Taittiriya Aranyaka, ii. 7, in Indische Indica, xii. 8. 9. 

Studien, i, 78. Cf. Weber, Indian Literature, 27, 28, 

' Die sociale GliedervMg, 39 et seq. 129, 138. 

VOL. II. 26 



403 NAMES PROSPERITY 

^ravava. See Nak^atra. 



[ drava^ 



lrava];ia-datta (* given by ^ravapa ') Kauhala (' descendanl 
of Kohala') is the name of a teacher, a pupil of SuSarada 
l^aAkayana in the Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

1 Indiuhe Studitn, 4, 372. 

Iravitha. See Nakatra. 



iSrayasa is the patronymic of Ka^va in the Taittirlya Sam- 
hita ^ and the Kathaka Samhita,* where he appears as a teacher, 
and of Vltahavya in the Taittiriya Samhita^ and the Panca- 
vim^a Brahmana.* 



^ V. 4. 7. 5. 
a xxi. 8. 



^ V. 6, 5, 3. 

* ix. I, 9 ; XXV. 16, 3. 



iSri is the regular word for * prosperity,' found once in the 
Rigveda^ and often later.* iSre^thin. 



1 viiL 2, 19, seems to have this sense. 

* Av. vi. 54, I ; 73, I ; ix. 5, 31 ; 
X. 6, 26 ; xi. I, 12. 21 ; xii. i, 63 ; 5, 7 ; 
Taittirlya Samhita, ii. 2, 8, 6 ; v. i, 
8, 6; vi. I, 10, 3; vii. 2, 7, 3, etc. 
Already in the ^atapatha Br&hmana 
(xi. 4, 3) she is regarded as a goddess. 



See Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 217 
et seq. She already appears in the 
earliest Buddhist sculptures seated on 
a lotus between two elephants that pour 
water over her. This type of the goddess 
has survived down to the present day 
in India. 



i^ruta kaki^a is mentioned once in the Rigveda^ as the Rsi of 
a hymn, the authorship of which the Anukramani (Index) 
ascribes to him. A Saman or chant of his is mentioned in the 
Pancavirn^a Brahmana.* 

* viii. 92, 25. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 108. 
ix. 2, 7 (irauta-hakfo). 

iSruta-ratha is the name of a young king in the Rigveda.* 
He is also the patron of the Pjgra family, including Kak^ivant." 



* 1. 122, 7. 

* R V. v. 36, 6. Cf. Ludwig, Trans- 



lation of the Rigveda, 3, 155 ; Pischel, 
Vedischt Studien, i, 97. 



6re9thin] NAMES ROW HEADMAN 403 

iSrutarya occurs once in the Rigveda (i. 112, 9) as the name 
of a prot6g6 of the A^vins. 

iSputarvan Arka ('descendant of Rksa ') is the name of a 
prince whose liberality is celebrated in one hymn of the Rig- 
veda (viii. 74, 4. 13), and whose victory over Mrgfaya is 
mentioned in another (x. 49, 5). 

lrutap-vid is the name of a man in the Rigveda.* 

* V. 44, 12. C/. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 138, 139 

lruta-sena is mentioned in the ^atapatha Brahmana (xiii. 5, 
4, 3) and the Sankhayana Srauta Sutra (xvi. 9, 4) as one of the 
brothers of Janamejaya. 

^pua Vahneya (* descendant of Vahni ') Ka^yapa (' descen- 
dant of Ka^yapa ') is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Deva- 
tapas, in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 40, i). It is 
much more likely that Srusa is a mere misreading for l^u^a. 

I^pu$(i-gfu (' possessing obedient oxen ') is the name of a man 
in a Valakhilya hymn of the Rigveda.^ 

* viii. 51, I. C/. Ludwig, Translation I Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
of the Rigveda, 3, 140, 141 ; Hopkins, | 17, 90. 

iSpeni means a ' row ' or * line ' of birds,* or horses,* or 
chariots,^ and so forth. 

* Rv. V. 59, 7. I 3 Rv.iv. 38,6; Chandogya Upanisad, 

* Rv. i. 126, 4. I V. 14, I. 

I$pe$thin occurs in several passages of the Brahmanas,* 
where the St. Petersburg Dictionary assigns to the word the 
sense of * a man of consequence.' It is, however, possible that 

1 Aitareya BrcLhmana, iii. 30, 3 ; t Sresthin of the gods, Taittiriya Brah. 
Kau^Itaki Br&hmana, xxviii. 6; Kau^I- ' mana, iii. i, 4, 10. 
taki Upanisad, iv. 20. Bhaga is the 

26 2 



404 



THEOLOGIAN PATRONYMICSCORD [ 6rotriya 



the word may already have the sense of the ' headman of a guild/ 
the modern Seth.'^ There is a similar doubt in the use of 
iraisthya,^ which is perhaps not merely ' the foremost place,' as 
usually assumed, but definitely ' the presidency of a guild.' 

Guilds are referred to in the Dharma Sutras,* and they play a 
considerable part in the Buddhist texts ^ and the Epic. But 
the Vedic evidence is inadequate to afford ground for positive 
assertion or denial of their existence or organization in Vedic 
times. 



' Cf. Hopkins, India, Old and New, 
i68 et seq. 

* Av. i. 9, 3 = Taittiriya SamhitA, 
iii. 5, 4, 2 = K2.thaka Saqihit&, v. 6 = 
MaitrSyan! SamhitS, i. 4, 3. See also 
for the word, Av. x. 6, 31 ; Aitareya 
Brahraana, iv. 25, 8 ; vii. 18, 8 ; Tait- 
tiriya Br&hmana, iii. 8, g, i ; ^atapatha 
Brahmana, xiii. 7, i, i ; Chandogya 
Upanisad, v. 2, 6 ; Kausitaki Upanisad, 



ii. 6 ; iv. 15. 20, etc. The use of 
iraifihya is, on the whole, not in favour 
of the theory that it is a technical term. 

* Gautama Dharma Sutra, xi. 20. 21, 
etc. ; Foy, Die ftonigliche Gewalt, 14, n. 2, 
etc. 

6 Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 88 
et seq. 

^ Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 13, 81 et seq. 



iSrotpiya in the Atharvaveda^ and later ^ denotes a 'Brahmin 
learned in holy lore/ ' theologian.' 

1 ix. 6, 37 ; X. 2, 20 et seq. | 14 ; Taittiriya Upanisad, ii. 8, etc. Cf. 

' KathakaSaiphita, xxiii. 4; xxviii. 4; j maha-irotriya, 'a great theologian,' in 
.\itareya Brahmana, i. 25, 15; ata- Chandogya Upanisad, v. 11, i. 

patha Brahmana, v. 4, 4, 5 ; xiii. 4, 3, ; 

lpauta-ri^ or lpautapi,2 'descendant of ^rutar^i or 
Srutarsi,' is the patronymic of Devabhaga. 

1 Aitareya Brahmana, vii. i, 6. 

3 ^atapatha Brahmana, ii. 4, 4, 5 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 10, g, 11. 

I^paumatya, 'descendant of ^rumant,' is the name of a 
teacher in the ^atapatha Brahmana (x. 4, 5, i). 



^le^man means generally that with which parts of a thing 
are joined together (from i/tj, 'join ') : with reference to a hide,^ 

^ Aitareya Brahmana, v. 32, 6 ; Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana, iii. 17, 3 ; 
Chandogya Upanisad, iv. 17, 4. 



I^van ] 



VERSES LA MENESSGA MESTERDOG 



40s 



' laces ' of some sort may be intended ; to a chariot,* * bonds ' 
or * cords ' are probably meant ; and to wood,^ ' glue ' is perhaps 
the sense. 



a Kathaka Samhita. xxxiv. 9. C/. 
Pancavim^ Brahmana, xvi. i, 13, 
where a chariot (Batha) is called fief- 
mavant, ' tied with ropes.' 

3 Kausitaki Brahmana, vi. 12. Cf. 



the Upanisads, cited in n. i, and 
Sankhayana Aranyaka, ii. i, which 
looks like a bad secondary version of 
the passage in the Jaiminiya. 



I^loka, in the plural, is found enumerated after the Upaniads, 
and before the Sutras, in the list of literary types given in the 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ In the Taittiriya Upanisad' the 
Sloka-krt appears : he is rather the * poet,' as Max Muller^ 
renders it, than merely one who 'calls aloud,' as the St. Peters- 
burg Dictionary explains the term.* Exactly what is meant 
cannot be said: 'verses' generally may be intended, several 
kinds being preserved in the Brahmanas and called ^lokas. 



' ii. 4, 10 ; iv. I, 6 (Madhyamdina = 
iv. 1, 2 Kanva); 5, 11. 

' iii. 10, 6. 

3 Sacred Books of the East, 15, 69 

* In Av. V. 20, 7, the word has the 
sense assigned to it by the Dictionary. 



'^ E.g., Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 3, i, 
5; 5, 4, 12 ; xiii. 7, I, 15; Aitareya 
Brahmana, viii. 22, 3 : Aitareya Aran- 
yaka, ii. 3, 8 ; Pancavim^a Brahmana, 
xxiv. 18, 4 ; Taittiriya Aranyaka, viii. i ; 
Kausitaki Upanisad, i. 6, etc. 



I^lonya in the Taittiriya Brahmana* denotes 'lameness,' not 
' skin disease' {tvag-dosa), as explained by the commentator. 



9, 17, 2. Cf. Horn, 'lame,' Av. xii. 4, 3; Taittiriya Samhita, vi. i, 



6, 7, etc. 



iSva-grhnin in the Rigveda* and the Atharvaveda^ clearly 
means a ' gamester ' or ' professional gambler.' It may origin- 
ally have denoted a ' hunter.'^ 



* L 92, 10 ; ii. 12, 4 ; iv. 20, 3 
viii. 45, 38. 



iv. 16, 5. 

3 Weber, Indische Studien, 18, 71. 



iSvan in the Rigveda* and later* is the word for 'dog,' the 
feminine being ^unl.' The dog was a tame animal,* and used 



^ i. 161, 13 (where the sense is quite 
obscure) ; 182, 4 ; ii. 39, 4, etc. 

2 Av. vi. 37, 3 ; xi. 2, 2 ; Pancaviipte 
Brahmana, viii. 8, 22, etc. 



3 Av. iv. 20, 7 {catur-akft); Satapatha 
Brahmana, vi. 5, 2, 19. 
* Rv. ii. 39, 4. 



4o6 USES OF THE DOG BE A ST OF PREY SWELLING [ 6vapad 



to guard the house from thieves or other intruders.^ He was 
also employed in hunting the boar (vardha-yu),* but was no 
match for the lion J A hundred dogs are mentioned as a gift in 
a DSnastuti (* Praise of Gifts ') in a Valakhilya hymn. Else- 
where the dog is regarded as unfit for sacrifice, as being 
unclean, and is driven away from the sacrifice.'^ To eat dog's 
flesh was a last resort of despair and hunger.^^ The bones of 
the feast were given to the dog.^^ Sarama figures in legend 
as Indra's faithful dog^^ searching for the cows. Rudra is lord 
of dogs (sva-pati) in the Yajurveda;^^ the * dog- keeper ' 
(svattin) is mentioned in the list of sacrificial victims at the 
Purusamedha (* human sacrifice ') in the same Samhita.^^ The 
four-eyed (catur-aksa) dogs of certain texts ^ are, of course, 
mythological." Cf. Kurkura. 



5 Rv. vii. 53, 5. 

Rv. X. 86, 4. 

' Av. iv. 36, 6. 

8 Rv. viii. 55, 3. 

* Jaiminlya BrS.hmaiia, i. 51. 4 ; 
Satapatha Bra.hmana, xii. 4, 1,4. 

*o Rv. ix. loi, I. 

11 Rv. iv. 18, 3. Later, iva-paca 
( ' dog - cooking ') denotes a d^raded 
caste. 

" Av. vi. 37, 3. Cf. ix. 4, 16. 

^ i. 62, 3 ; 72, 8, etc. See Mac- 
donell, Vedic Mythology, p. 151. 

1* Vajasaneyi SamhitcL, xvi. 28 ; 
Kathaka SamhitS., xvii. 13 ; Maitr^lyani 
SaiphitS, ii. g, 5. 



1' vajasaneyi Samhita, xvi. 27 ; 
XXX. 7 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 4, 
3, I, etc. Cf. iva-nt ('dog-leader'), 
Maitrayani Saiphita, ii. 9, 5. 

^^ Cf. Rv. X. 14, 10. II ; Av. xviii. 2, 
II. 12 ; Taittiriya Aranyaka, vi. 3, i ; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 8, 4, i ; ^ta- 
patha Brahmana, xiii. i, 2, 9, etc. 

^' Bloomfield, Journal of the A merican 
Oriental Society, 15, 165 et seq. ; Hymns 
of the Atharvaveda, 500, thinks that 
Yama's two dogs are the sun and the 
moon (cf. Divya 6van). 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 233; 
Hopkins, A merican Journal of Philology, 
15, 154-163. 



I^va-pad denotes a * savage animal,' ' beast of prey,' in the 
Atharvaveda (viii. 5, 11 ; xix. 39, 4). 



iSvayatha in the Satapatha Brahmana ^ means 'swelling.' 
Possibly Slyathu, the disease prevalent in Videha according to the 
Baudhayana ^rauta Sutra,^ was a kind of ' swelling ' (? goitre). 



* iv. 2, 
myth). 



I. II (of the eye, in a 



' ii. 5 ; Caland, Ober das ritutlle Setra 
des Baudhayana, 35, 36. 



6vajani] IVORM FATHER-IN-LAW MOTHER IN-LAW 407 

Sva-varta, ' found in dogs,' is, according to some manu- 
scripts, the name of a species of worm in the Atharvaveda (ix. 4, 
16). See ^avarta. 



Ivaiura from the Rigveda onwards^ denotes the 'father-in- 
law ' of the wife ; not till the Sutra period does it include the 

* fiather-in-law ' of the husband.* The daughter-in-law (Snu$a), 
in the normal case when the father-in-law was the head of the 
family to which her husband belonged in fact as well as in age, 
was bound to pay him all respect.^ When the old man had 
ceased to exercise control, she became mistress (samrdjiit) 
over him and his wife.* In the plural^ the word denotes the 

* parents-in-law.' 



* X. a8, I ; 85, 46 ; 95, 4 ; Av, viii. 6, 
24 ; xiv. 2, 26, etc. 

' Paraskara Grhya Satra, iii. 10, 46. 

3 See Rv. x. 95, 4 ; Av. viii. 6, 24 ; 
Maitrayani Sambita, ii. 4, 2 ; Kathaka 
SamhitS,, xii. 12 (Indische Studien, 5, 
260) ; Aitareya Brabmana, iii. 22, 7. 
So in Av. xiv. 2, 26, the daugbter-in-law 
is to be ' helpful ' to the father-in-law. 



* Rv. X. 85, 46. See Pati. 

' Rv. X. 95, 12 ; Av. xiv. 2, 27 ; 

K&thaka Sambita, loc. cit. Or it may 
be a plural majestatis, bat not a sign 
of polyandry. 

Cf, Delbruck, Die indogermanischen 
Verwandtscha/tsnamen, 515, 516. 



I^vai^ru denotes ' mother-in-law ' of the husband ^ as well as 
of the wife.^ She, together with her husband, if he became 
unable to manage the family,^ fell under the daughter-in-law's 
sway, but otherwise was entitled to regard.'* The gambler in 
the Rigveda^ complains of his having lost the favour of his 
wife's mother as one of the misfortunes brought upon him by 
dicing. 



1 Rv. x. 85, 46; Av. xiv. 2, 26. 

2 Rv. x. 34, 3. 

3 Rv, X. 85, 46. 
* Av. xiv. 2, 26. 



Rv. X. 34. 3. 

Cf. Delbruck, Die indogermanischen 
Verwandtscha/tsnamen, 516. 



I^vajani is the name of a Vai^ya in the Jaiminiya Upani^ad 
Brahmana (iii. 5, 2). 



4o8 BEAST PORCUPINE A PEOPLESNAKE [ Svapada 

^vapada, like ^vapad, denotes a ' savage animal ' or ' beast 
of prey.' It is mentioned in the Rigveda,^ in the Atharvaveda,* 
and occasionally later.' ^ 



1 X. i6, 6. 
* xi. lo. 8. 

' ^tapatba Br&hmana, v. 5, 4, 10 
(where the tiger, ^ftrdtlla, is mentioned 



as the chief of them); xii. 2, 4, 16; 
Brhad&ranyaka Upanigad, i. 4, 29 ; 
Sdiikhiyana Aranyaka, xii. 16, etc. 



$va-vidh ('dog-piercing') is the name of the 'porcupine' in 
the Atharvaveda^ and later.^ It is called * long-eared ' {karna).^ 
See also l^alyaka. 



* V. 13. 9. 

* Taittiriya SaqihitS, v. 5, 20, i ; 
Maitrayani Samhiti, iii. 14, 14 ; Vaja- 
saneyi Saiphitft, xxiiL 56 ; xxiv. 33, etc. 



^ Av., loc. cit. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 82. 



iSvikna is the name of a people twice mentioned in the Sata- 
patha Brahmana^ in connexion with their king, R^abha Yajna- 
tura. Cf. iSvaikna. 

1 xii. 8, 3, 7; xiii. 5, 4, 15. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 209, 210. 



I. iSvitra (* white ') is the name of a species of serpent in the 
Atharvaveda^ and the later Samhitas.* 



^ iii. 27, 6 (where there is a variant 
citra); x. 4, 5. 13. 

' Taittiriya Sambita, v. 5, 10, 2 ; 
Maitrftyanl SaiphitS, ii. 13, 21, has in 
the parallel passage citra, probably by 
error. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 95 ; 
Whitney, Translation of the Atharva- 



veda, 134. Perhaps ^vitra, in the list 
of victims at the ASvamedha ('horse 
sacrifice') in the Vajasaneyi Saiphitfi, 
xxiv. 39, has this sense; but the St. 
Petersburg Dictionary explains it as 'a 
certain domestic animal,' or, generally. 
' a white animal.' 



2. iSvitra is found as an adjective in the Pancavim^a Brah- 
mana (xii. 11, 11) in the sense of 'afflicted with white leprosy.' 



Svltpya. See ^valtreya. 



^vetaketu Aruneya ] A BRAHMIN DISPUTANT 409 

^veta-ketu Aruijeya^ ( descendant of Aruija ') or Auddalaki^ 
(' son of Uddalaka ') is mentioned repeatedly in the Satapatha 
Brahmana and the Chandogya Upanisad. In the Kausltaki 
Upanisad^ he appears as Svetaketu, son of Aruiji, and as a 
Gautama. In the Kausitaki Brahmana* he is quoted as an 
authority on the vexed question of the duty of the Sadasya, or 
the seventeenth priest, at the ritual of the Kausltakins, to 
notify errors in the sacrifice; Aruni, his father, is also cited. 
He was a person of some originality, for he insisted on eating 
honey despite the general prohibition of the use of that 
delicacy by Brahmacarins or religious students.^ He was a 
contemporary of, and was instructed by the Paftcala king 
Pravahana Jaivala. He was also a contemporary of Janaka, 
of Videha, and figured among the Brahmin disputants at his 
courtJ A story is told of him in the Sahkhayana Srauta 
Sutra: Jala Jatukar^ya was lucky enough to become the '-ti'*- 
Purohita of three peoples or kings, of Kaii, Kosala, and 
Videha. Seeing this, Svetaketu felt annoyed and reproached 
his father with his excessive devotion to sacrifice, which merely 
enriched and glorified others, not himself. His father replied, 
forbidding him to speak thus : he had learned the true method 
of sacrificing, and his ambition in life had been to discuss it 
with every Brahmin. 

All the references to Svetaketu belong to the latest period of 
Vedic literature. It is, therefore, not surprising that the Apa- 
stamba Dharma Sutra should refer to him as an Avara, or 

^ Satapatha Br&hmana, xi. 2, 7, 12; I Janaka when travelling about with some 
5, 4, 18 ; 6, 2, I ; xii. 2, i, 9 ; Bfhad- i other Brahmins: he was never settled 



aranyaka Upanisad, iii. 7, i ; vi. i, i 
(McLdhyamdina=: vi. 2, i Kinva); Ch&n- 
dogya Upanisad, v. 3, i ; vi. i, i ; 8, i. 

^ Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 4, 3, 13 ; 
iv. 2, 5, 14. 

3 I I. 

* xxvi. 4. 

s ^tapatha Br3.hmana, xi. 5, 4, 18. 

^ BrhadcLranyaka Upanisad, vi. i, i 
(Midhyamdina = vi. 2, i Kclnva); Ch&n- 
dogya Upanisad, v. 3, i. 

"^ Satapatha Br&hmana, xi. 6, 2, i 
(it is to be noted that he came upon 



in the Videha country, but was clearly 
a Kara - Paac&la, like his father) ; 
Brhad^ranyaka Upanisad, iii. 7, i, 
where he shares the usual fate of 
defeat in argument by Y&jnavalkya. 

8 xvi. 27, 6 et seq. The exact sense 
of krt snake brahtnabcmdhau vyajijhisisi is 
not quite certain. But Aruni seems to 
assert the love of knowledge, not of 
material advantages accruing to the 
Purohita, to have been bis concern 
in life. 

I 2, 5. 4-G. 



4IO 



A RIVER A KING PATRONYMIC 



[ 6vetyi 



person of later days, who still became a IR^i by special merit. 
His date, however, must not be fixed too low, because the 
^atapatha Brahmana in which he plays so marked a part is 
certainly earlier than Panini, and was apparently even in that 
grammarian's time believed to be an ancient work ; hence 
500 B.C. is probably rather too late than too early a period for 
^vetaketu as a rough approximation to a date.^^ 



w See on this, Buhler, Sacred Books 
0/ the East, 2, xxxvii et seq. ; Eggeling, 
Sacred Books of the East, 12, xxxv et seq. ; 
Max Muller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 
360 et seq. ; Weber, Indische Studien, 5, 



65 : I3i 443 t Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 
22 et seq. 

Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i, 433 ; 
Max Muller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 
421 et seq. ; Oldenberg, Buddha, 397, n. 



iSvetya appears in the Nadi-stuti* ('praise of rivers') to be a 
stream, probably a tributary of the Indus.^ 

1 X. 75, 6. I 200, gives the form as Sveti ; Geldner, 

2 Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 14, 15 ; Rigveda, Glossar, 184, gives both forms, 
udwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, I 



iSvaikna, * king of the iSviknas,' is the title of Pratidap^a, 
who was, according to the Satapatha Brahmana,^ one of those 
who offered the Daksayana sacrifice. He also taught Suplan 
Sariijaya the sacrifice : hence Weber ^ has inferred a connexion 
of the Sviknas and the Spry ay as. 



11. 4. 4. 3. 



* Indische Studien, 1, 209, 210. 



iSvaitPeya occurs in two passages of the Rigveda,^ where 
Sayana sees in the word the name of a man, a * descendant of 
^vitra.' The first passage is almost identical with one in the 
sixth Mandala of the Rigveda,^ where, however, Daiadyu 
appears alone without Svaitreya. Ludwig^ identifies Dasadyu 
with Svaitreya (* son of Svitrl '), and considers him a son of 
Kutsa."* Bergaigne^ and Baunack think he is really Bhujyu. 
Geldner'' considers that he was a bull used for fighting, the son 



1 i. 33, 14; V. 19.3. 
' vi. 26, 4. 

' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 
147 



Cf. Rv. i. 51, 6 ; vi. 26, 3. 4. 
" Religion VHique, 3. 11. 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 35, 527. 
' Rigveda, Glossar, 7, 8. 



Saipvatsara ] A PRIEST YEAR 4" 

of a JjvitrS cow, but this is very doubtful, though the term 
haitreya is elsewhere applied to a bull. ^vitrya^ seems to 
have the same sense as ^vaitreya. 



Cf. ivaitari, Rv. iv. 33, i. 
Keith, Journal 0/ the Royal Asiatic 
Society. 1910, 935. 



10 Rv. i. 33, 15, where Roth. St. 
Petersburg Dictionary, s.v., takes ivi- 
tryam as the accusative of ivitn. 



s. 

Sai^da is the name of a priest at the snake festival described 
in the Paficavim^a Brahmana.^ Cf. Kuanda. 

1 XXV. 15, 3. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 35. 

Sai^dika is mentioned in the Maitrayani Samhita^ as a con- 
temporary of Ke^in. Probably Khai^dika should be read as 
usual elsewhere. 

1 i. 4, 12, where von Schroeder gives no variant. But / and kh are constantly 
interchanged in manuscripts. 



s. 

Sam-rudh and Sam-likhita occur in the Atharvaveda (vii. 
50, 5) as two technical terms, of unknown sense, used in dicing. 



Saip-vatsara, 'year,' is repeatedly mentioned from the 
Rigveda onwards.^ 

Its duration was, according to the concurrent evidence of 
the Samhitas and Brahmanas, 360 days, divided into 12 months, 
being, no doubt, roughly a lunar synodic year, which, however, 
it exceeded in length by 6 days.^ As a solar year it appears 
only in the Nidana Sutra^ of the Saniaveda, where the sun is 
stated to spend 13^ days in each of the 27 Naksatras. 



^ Rv. i. no, 4; 140, 2; i6i, 13; ; * See Mftsa. 
vii. 103, 1. 7, etc. ; Av. i. 35, 4 ; ii. 6, x ; | 
iii. 10, 2 ; iv. 35, 4 ; vi. 53, 3, etc. I a, 384. 



12, 2. 5. Cf. Weber, Naxatra, 



412 



INTERCALATION CYCLES 



[ Saqivatsara 



The year being obviously out of harmony with the solar year 
(whether sidereal or tropical), efforts were certainly made to 
effect an assimilation o the natural and the accepted year. As 
has been seen (see Masa), the evidence goes strongly to show 
that the intercalation was not an easy matter in the Br5h- 
mana period, though there are traces of what may be re- 
garded as a five-yearly or six-yearly intercalation. But there 
is no conclusive evidence that these periods were really 
observed. 

Zimmer,* indeed, considers that the evidence required is 
afforded by the lists of the years, which are sometimes 
enumerated as five : Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idavatsara, 
Idvatsara, and Vatsara ; ^ or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idavat- 
sara, Iduvatsara, Vatsara; or Sarnvatsara, Idavatsara, Iduvat- 
sara, Idvatsara, Vatsara;'' or Sarnvatsara, Parivatsara, Idavat- 
sara, Anuvatsara, Udvatsara ; or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, 
Idavatsara, Anuvatsara, Idvatsara. But it must be noted not 
merely that the names vary considerably, but that four only are 
mentioned in some places,^ in others*^ three, in others ^"^ two, 
and in yet others^ six. Moreover, in none of these enumera- 
tions is there any reference to the names being connected with 
a system of intercalation. It is most probable that here we 
have no more that a mere series of priestly variations of 
Vatsara, based on the older and more genuine Sarnvatsara and 
Parivatsara as variants of the simple Vatsara, * year.' The key 
to the invention of the series is probably to be found in 
passages like that of the Pancavirn^a Brahmana,^* where the 
several Caturmasya (' four-monthly ') sacrifices are equated 



* Altindisches Leben, 369, 370, and cf. 
St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. saiji- 
vatsara, 2. 

8 Vajasaneyi Samhit&, xxvii. 45. 

Taittirlya SarnhitcL, v. 5, 7, 3. 4. 

7 Taittiriya Brabmana, iii. 10, 4, i. 

^ K&thaka SaipbitS., xiii 15 ; xxxix. 6 ; 
xl. 6. 

Garga, quoted in tbe commentary 
on Jyoti^, 10. 

1' Saip-, Pari-, Ida-, Anu-vatsara, 
PoKcaviip^ Brabmai^a, xvii. 13, 17 ; 
Taittiriya Bribmana, i. 4, 10, i. 



11 Ida-, Pari-, Sam - vatsara, Av. 
vi- 55. 3 ; Idu-, Pari-, Satn-vatsara, 
Taittiriya Sambita, v. 7, 2, 4. 

^^ Sam-, Pari-vatsara, Av. viii. 8, 23 ; 
Taittiriya Aranyaka, x. 80. 

18 Sam-, Pari-, Ida-, Anu-, Vat, 
tara, Satn-vatsara, Vajasaneyi Sarpbita, 
XXX. 15 ; Sam-, Pari-, Ida-, Idu-, Id-, 
Vatsara, Taittiriya Aranyaka, iv. 19, i. 
Cf. Weber, Naxatra, 2, 298, n. i ; Max 
Muller, Rigveda, 4', xxv., n. i. 

'* xvii. 13, 17. 



Samvarana ] INTERCALARY DAYS A SEER 



413 



with the different yeaxs.^ Particularly unjustifiable is the 
attempt of Zimmer to see in the two-year series a series of two 
years of 354 days each, with an intercalary month in the 
second ; for the year of 354 days, as such, is not known to have 
existed before the Sutra period. 

Zimmer' also finds an attempt at intercalation in the 
famous 12 days in which the Rbhus are said to have slept in 
the house of Agohya." He thinks that they represent twelve 
days added at the winter solstice to equate the lunar year of 
354 days and the solar year of 366 days ; and from the rever- 
ence paid in German antiquity to the * 12 nights,' he infers 
that this mode of intercalation is Indo-Germanic.^ There can 
be little doubt that this view is wrong, and that the 12 days are 
merely the ' reflexion of the year ' {samvatsarasya pratima) ^ in 
the sense that they represent the twelve months, and have no 
relation to chronology at all. 

A reference to the use of Samvatsara alone as the fifth year 
of the cycle is seen by Shamasastry^ in the peculiar dating of 
certain notices in the Baudhayana Srauta Sutra,^^ but this view 
is improbable.^ 



i* Cf. Weber, Indische Streifen, i, 
91 ; Thibaut, Astronomie, Astrologie und 
Mathematik, 12; llop]i.ins, Journal 0/ the 
American Oriental Society, 24, 42. 

w Op. cit., 366, 367 ; Tilak, Orion, 16 
etseq. ; Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 

3. 145- 

" Rv. iv. 33, 7. Cf. i. no, 2 ; 161, 
13. See on this legend, Macdonell, 
Vedic Mythology, p. 133 ; Oldenberg, 
Religion des Veda, 236. 

18 See Weber, Indische Studim, 10, 
242 et uq. ; 17, 223, 224 ; 18, 45, 46 ; 
Proceedings of the Berlin Academy, 1894, 
809; Thibaut, op. cit., 10; Schrader. 



Prehistoric Antiquities, 308, 310 ; Whit- 
ney, Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, 16, xciv. 

i Kathaka Saqihita, vii. 15 ; Tait- 
tirlya Brahmana, i. i, 9, 10 ; Kausltaki 
BriLhmana, xxv. 15. See also Athar- 
vaveda, iv. 11, 11; Weber, Omina und 
Portenta, 388. 

** Gavam Ayana, 137, 138. 

'* ii. 12 ; iii. i ; xxvi. 18 ; xxx. 3. 
See also Kausltaki BrcLhmana, i. 3 ; 
atapatha Brahmana, xi. i, i, 7. 

^ Caland. Vber das rituelle SUtra des 
Baudh&yana, 36, 37, gives a much more 
reasonable explanation of the anomaJy. 



Samvarana is the name of a lisi mentioned in one passage of 
the Rigveda.^ 



'v. 33, 10. Cf. Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgtnldndischen Gesell- 
schaft, 42, 215. 



414 NAMESDOORKEEPER A DISEASE [ Samvargajit 

Samvarga-jit Lamakayana is the name of a teacher, a pupil 
of l^akadasa in the Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

* Indische Studien, 4, 373. 



1. Sam-varta occurs once in the Rigveda^ with Kf^a as an 
ancient sacrificer. He may be identical with the next. 

* viii. 54, 2. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 141, 164. 

2. Sam-varta Anglrasa ('descendant of Anglras ') is said in 
the Aitareya Brahmana^ to have consecrated Marutta. 

1 viii. 21, 12. Cf. Leumann, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesell- 
ichaft, 48, 67 et seq. 

Saip-^ravas Sauvarcanasa is the name of a teacher who, 
according to the Taittiriya Samhita (i. 7, 2, i), discussed a 
point of ritual with Tuminja. 

Sam-iravayitp in the Kausitaki Upani^ad (ii. i) denotes the 
attendant who announces visitors, the * doorkeeper.' 

Saip-^li^taka^ or Sam^vltika2 is the name of an animal 
mentioned in the Jaiminiya Brahmana and the Satyayanaka 
along with the Godha. 

1 Satyayanaka in S3.yana on Rv. I ' Jaiminiya Br&hmana, i. 221 {Journal 
viii. 91. I of the American Oriental Society, 18, 29). 



Saip-sarpa. See Masa. 

Sam-skandha (' having the shoulders together ') is the name 
of a disease mentioned with Vii^kandha in the Atharvaveda.* 
Whitney,^ however, thinks it is intended as an adjective 
implying the sense of * counteracting the disease Viskandha.' 



^ xix. 34, 5, with SSyana's note. 

2 Translation of the Atharvaveda, 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisckes Leben, 65, 
391 ; Bloomfield, Hymns of the Athar- 



952. I vaveda, 283. 



Saipgati ] SCHOOL GROA TS VULTURE A SSEMBLY 



415 



Saip-hotra occurs once in the Rigveda,^ where Geldner^ 
thinks the sense of ' school,' referring to a school of pupils of 
the ritual, is most appropriate. 



X. 86. 10. 



2 VeMscht Studien, 2, 38. 



Saktu in the later Samhitas and the Brahmanas^ denotes 
* coarsely ground meal,' 'groats,' especially 'barley meal.' In 
the Rigveda,^ where the word occurs only once, it seems rather 
to mean grain before it is winnowed by the Titaii. If the 
latter word, however, designates a ' sieve,' Saktu might still 
mean ' groats,' as opposed to fine meal. 



^ Taittiriya Saqihita, vi. 4, 10, 6 ; 
Vajasaneyi Samhiti, xix. 21 et seq. ; 
^atapatha BrSLhmana, i. 6, 3, 16; ix. i, 
I, 8 {cf. OavedhnkS,), etc. ; Kathaka 
SamhitH, xv. 2 {cf. Ap&maxga). Cf. 



Euvala, Karkandhu, Badara : ^ata- 
patha Br&hmana, v. 5, 4, 22, etc. 

> X. 71, 2. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 238. 



Sakhi, 'friend,' is common from the Rigveda^ onwards,* 
both literally and metaphorically. 

1 i. 164, 20 (of birds); iii. 43, 4 (of sakhiiva and sakhya, 'friendship,' are 

steeds) ; ii. i, 9; v. 12, 5 ; vi. 75, 3, also common e.g., Rv. i. 10, 6 ; iii. i, 

etc. 15; iv. 25, 2, etc., and Rv. i. 178, 2; 

* Av. V. 4, 7 ; II, 9 ; 13, 5, etc. So ii. 18, 8 ; vii. 22, 9, etc. 



Saghan is the name of a bird, perhaps * eagle ' or ' vulture,' 
in the Taittiriya SamhitS^ and the Taittiriya Brahma^a.* 

* iii. a, I, I. ' ii. 8, 6. i ; Bohtlingk, Dictionary, 5. u. ('vulture'). 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 88. 



Sanga Prayogfi seems to be mentioned as a teacher in the 
Maitrayani Samhita (iii. i, 9). 



Sani-grati in one passage of the Rigveda (x. 141, 4) seems to 
have the sense of Samiti, * assembly of the people.' 



4i6 FORENOON COWSHED CHARIOTEER WAR [ Samgava 



Saip-gfava denotes the time when the grazing cows are driven 
together for milking. In the division of the day the word 
denotes the period before midday, * forenoon.' It is found in 
the Rigveda^ and often later.^ Cf. Go and Ahan. 



* V. 76, 3. 

Av. ix. 6, 46 ; Maitriyani Samhit&, 
iv. 2, n ; Taittirlya Brahmana, L 4, 
9f 2 ; 5, 3, I ; ii. i, i, 3 ; ^atapatba 
Br&hniana, ii. 2, 3, 9 ; ChSndogya 



Upanifad, ii. 9, 4 ; Jaiminlya Upanisad 
Br&hmana, i. 12, 4. 

Cf. St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. ; 
Geldner, Vedische Studien, 3, 112 et uq. 



Saip-gfavini is found in the Aitareya BrShmana,^ where it is 
said that the animals of the Bharatas in the evening were at 
the Gotha, ' pasture,' but at midday came to the SarngavinI, 
apparently a shed or an enclosure in which during the heat of 
the day they were milked. 

* iii. 18, 14. Cf. Geldner, Vedische Stvdien, 3, 112, 113; Zimmer, Altindisches- 
Leben, 362. 

Saip-grahltr is found in the later Samhitas^ and the Brah- 
manas.^ He is an official who figures among the Ratnins of 
the king. The sense of * charioteer ' seems adequate for every 
passage, but Sayana^ in some passages inclines to think that 
the meaning is * treasurer ' of the king. 

1 Taittiriya Samhita, i. 8, 9, 2 ; 
Ka,tbaka SamhitS., xv. 4 ; MaitrcLyani 
Samhita, ii. 6, 5 ; iv. 3, 8 (as a Ratnin) ; 
in the ^atarudriya in the plural : Tait- 
tiriya Samhita, iv. 5, 4, 2 ; Katbaka 
Saipbita, xvii. 13 ; Maitrayani SamhitS, 
ii. 9, 4 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, xvi. 26. 

2 Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 7, 3, 5 ; 
9, 6 ; iii. 8, 5, 3 ; Aitareya Brahmana, 



ii. 25, 6 ; Satapatha Brahmana, v. 3, 
I. 8; 4, 3, 23. 

^ On Taittiriya Samhita, i. 8, 9, 2, 
auid optionally on i. 8, 16 ; but as 
' charioteer ' on i. 8, 15 ; Taittiriya 
Brahmana, i. 7, 10, 6. 

Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 
41, 63, n. I. 



Sam-grama denotes primarily, it seems, * assembly ' either in 
peace ^ or in war,^ when it means an ' armed band.' Its normal 
sense in the Atharvaveda and later ^ is 'war,' ' battle.' 



* Av. xii. I, 56, where it is joined 
with Samiti. We might see in this 
passage, and that cited in n. 2, the 
technical name of the village assembly 
as opposed to the larger assemblies of 
the people, but there is no good warrant 
for so doing. 



2 Av. iv. 24, 7, where samgram&n is 
read ; but the parallel passages (Tait- 
tiriya Saipbita, iv, 7, 15, 2 ; Maitrayani 
Saqihita, iii. 16, 5) have sarjigramam. 

' V. 21, 7 ; xi. 9, 26. 

* Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 1, 3. i ; 8, 4. 
etc. 



Saipgrama] WARFARE WEAPONS CHARIOTS 417 

Little is known of Vedic warfare, but it seems to have been 
simple. A body of foot soldiers with charioteers composed 
every army, the two going together,^ and the foot soldiers being 
often overthrown by the charioteers,*' who were doubtless 
the Ksatriyas and their foremost retainers. Probably the 
foot soldiers bore little armour, and used only the bow for 
offence, as is suggested by the account that Herodotus gives of 
the Indian contingent of the army with which Xerxes invaded 
Greece.^ The nobles, on the other hand, may have had cuirass 
(Varman), helmet (^ipra), and hand-guard (Hastagrhna) as a 
protection from the friction of the bowstring. On the car was 
the charioteer, and on his left the warrior (Sarathi, Savyatha). 
Riding is never mentioned in war, and would hardly have 
been suited to Vedic ideas, for the warrior mainly depended on 
his bow, which he could not have used effectively from horse- 
back. The offensive weapon (Ayudha) was practically the 
bow ; spear and sword and axe were very seldom used. 

Whether there was a strict tribal organization of the host, 
such as is once alluded to in the Homeric poems, and is also 
recognized in Germany by Tacitus,^^ is uncertain (c/. Vrata), 
but in the Epic relations (Jiiati) fight together," and this rule, 
no doubt, applied more or less in Vedic times also. 

Cities were besieged and invested (upa-sad, pra-bhid),^^ 
probably as a rule by blockade, since the ineffective means of 
assault of the time would have rendered storming difficult and 
expensive. Hillebrandt^^ thinks that the pur carisnu of the 
Rigveda^* was a kind of chariot ; it may like the Trojan 
horse have been an Indian anticipation of the Roman means 
of assaulting a town. 

Besides ordinary wars of defence and conquest, raids into 

* Rv. ii. 12, 8. I " Hopkins, Journal of the AmeruoH 

* Av. vil 62, I. Cf. Mof^ihan. Oriental Society, 13, 193. 

7 Herodotus, vii. 65. " Cf. Taittiriya SaiTihit&, vi. 2, 3, i ; 

" Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 296, Satapatha Br&bmana, iii. 4, 4, 3-5 ; 

where he admits riding to be men- | Aitareya Br&hmana, i. 23, 2, etc. ; 

tioned elsewhere ; Whitney, Journal i Gopatha Br&bmana, ii. 2, 7 ; Hille- 

oj the American Oriental Society, 3, brandt, Vedische Mythologit, i, 300, n. 

312. " op. cit. 3, 289, n. 

Iliad, ii. 362. " viii. i, 2-8. where it is attributed 

w Ger mania, 7. i to the demon Susna. 

VOL. II. 27 



418 



BANNERS ATTENDANT RELATIVE [ Saipgliata 



neighbouring territory seem to have been frequent and normal/^ 
no doubt because of the booty (Udaja, Niraja) which wai to be 
won, and which the king had to share with the people. 

Banners (Dhvaja) were borne in war, and musical instru- 
ments (Dundubhi, Bakura) ^ were used by the combatants. 



" C/. Rv. X. 142, 4, as interpreted 
by S&yana and by Hillebrandt, op. cit., 
a, 64, n. 5 ; Taittinya Br3.bmana, i. 8, 
4, I (of tbe model Kuru kings). 

' So, later, Arrian, Indica, vii. 9. 
The shouts of either side are shown 
in the word krandas (Rv. ii. 12, 8 ; cf. 
vi. 25, 6; X. 121, 6), which came to 
mean the 'shouting host.' Cf. also 
Tacitus, Germania, 2. 



Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 469- 
472 ; Weber, Proceedings of the Berlin 
Academy, 1898, 564 ; Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, 293-301. See also IfO, 
Dhanvan, Batha. Hopkins, Journal of 
the American Oriental Society, 13, 281 
et seq., gives a full account of the 
later Epic armour and warfare. See 
also his note, ibid., 15, 265, 266. For 
sacrifice in battle, cf. Pnrohita. 



Sam-ghata seems in a few passages^ to have the sense of 
* battle.' 

1 KS.thaka Samhit, xxix. i ; V3jasaneyi Samhitcl, i. 16; Satapatha Br&hmana, 
i. I, 4, 18. 



Saciva ' companion,'' * attendant ' (from sac, * follow '), later a 
common word for the comrade of a king, his minister, is found 
in Vedic literature in the Aitareya Brahmana (iii. 20, i), where 
it is used by Indra of the Maruts. It seems to correspond in 
sense to the German comes or the English gesith} 

1 Stubbs, Selut Charters, 57. 



Sa-jata (* born together ') is found once in the Rigveda,* and 
very often later.^ The word must clearly mean a ' relative,' and 
then more widely a man of the same position or rank, but the 
senses cannot be distinguished, so much do they merge into 
each other. The Sajatas of a king are"of course princes ;' of an 



1 i. 109, I. 

Av. i. 9, 3 ; 19, 3 ; ii. 6, 4 ; iii. 3, 6 ; 
vi. 5, 2 ; 73, I ; xi. i, 6. 7; Taittiriya 
SatphitA, ii. i. 3, 2 ; 2, i, 2 ; 6, 9, 7 ; 
MaitrSyani SaqibitS, ii. i, 8 ; Kathaka 



SaiphitcL, xi. 12. 13 ; xii. i ; V&jasaneyi 
SatphitA, v. 23 ; x. 29 ; xxvii. 5, and 
often in the BrShmanas. 

' Av. iii. 3, 4. 6 ; Weber, Indische 
Studien, 17, 188. 



Satinakaiikata ] PATH CONCORD WATERSNAKE 419 

ordinary man, Vai^yas;* of a military man, Ksatriyas. But 
there is no clear reference to caste as in the later Sajati** (' man 
of the same caste ') The disputes of Sajatas were notorious. 



* Satapatha BrS.hmana, v. 4, 4, 19 
(the Saj&tas of a Or&m&ni). 

Manu, ix. 87; x. 41, etc. The 
abstract sajatya (' kinship ') is found in 
Rv. ii. I, 5; iii. 54, 16; viii. 18, 19; 



20, 21 ; 27, lo ; X. 64, 13 ; but even it 
has no definite caste reference. 

' Cf. Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 7, 
12, 2. 



Sam-cara in the Taittiriya Samhita^ has the sense of the 
' path ' of animals. Normally it is the term designating the 
' passage ' or * space ' on the sacrificial ground used or occupied 
by the several persons taking part in the rite.^ 



* V- 4. 3. 5- 

' Satapatha Br&hmana, i. 9, 2, 4; 
iii. I, 3, 28 ; ULty^yana ^rauta Sfltra, 



iii. 7, II ; K&ty&yana Srauta Sutra, 
i. 3, 42, etc. 



Sam-jnana, * concord,' * harmony,' is mentioned from the 
Rigveda^ onwards^ as a matter of great consequence ; the 
Atharvaveda contains many spells to bring it about. The lack 
of peace in the Vedic village was almost inevitable in view of its 
small size and the economic interdependence of its inhabitants. 
Cf. Bhratpvya. 

1 X. 19, 6. 1 3, I, 14 ; Vajasaneyi Sanihiti, xxvi. i ; 

' Av. iii. 30. 4 ; vii. 52, i ; xi. i, 26, xxx. 9 ; Nirukta, iv. 21, etc. 
etc. ; Taittiriya Samhita, v. 2, 3, 2 ; | 



Sata is the name of a vessel of some kind mentioned in the 
ritual.^ 

I vajasaneyi Saiphitft, xix. 27. 88 ; Satapatha Br&hmana, xii. 7, 2, 13 ; 
8. 3. M- 



Satina-kahkata^ is, in the Rigveda,* the name of some 
animal, according to Siyana an 'aquatic snake.' * 



* The literal meaning seems to be 
' having a real comb.' 



i. 191, I. 

' Cf. Zimmer, Altiudisches Leben, 98. 

27 2 



420 TEACHERS^A SEER A PRIEST [ Satyakama 

Satya-kama (' lover of truth ') Jabala (' descendant of 
Jabala ') is the name of a teacher, the son of a slave girl by an 
unknown father. He was initiated as a Brahmacarin, or 
religious student, by Gautama Haridrumata according to the 
Chandogya Upanisad.^ He is often cited as an authority in 
that Upaniad* and in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad,^ where 
he learns a certain doctrine from Janaki Ayasthuija.* He is 
also mentioned in the Aitareya** and the Satapatha Brahmanas* 



* iv. 4, I et seq. 

iv. 5, I ; 6, 2 ; 7, 2 ; 8, 2 ; 9, 10 ; 
10, I ; V. 2, 3. 

' iv. I, 14 (M&dbyanidina = iv. i, 
6 Kftnva). 



* vi. 3, 19 ( = vi. 3, 12). 
viii. 7, 8. 
xiii. 5, 3, I. 



Satya-yajfia (* true sacrificer ') Paului (' descendant of 
Pulua ') Ppacinayogrya (' descendant of Pracinayoga ') is the 
name of a teacher in the Satapatha Brahmana,^ the Chandogya 
Upanisad,^ and the Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana.^ In the 
latter text he is said to have been the pupil of Pulua Pracina- 
yogya. 

* X. 6, I, I. I ' "' 4' ^ (''^ * VamSa, ' list of 

' V. II, I. I teachers'). 

Satya-vacas (* true-speaking ') Rathitara (' descendant of 
Rathitara ') is, in the Taittiriya Upanisad (i. g, i), the name of 
a teacher who insisted on the importance of truth. 

Satya-^ravas (* of true renown ') Vayya (* descendant of 
Vayya ') is the name of a Rsi in the Rigveda.^ Ludwig^ thinks 
that he was the son of Sunltha l^aucadratha. 

V. 79, I et seq. a Translation of the Rigveda. 3, 156. 

Satya-havis is the name of a mythical Adhvaryu, or sacri- 
ficial priest, m the Maitrayani Samhita (i. 9, i, 5). 

Satyadhivaka Caitrarathi (* descendant of Citraratha') is the 
name of a man in the Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana (i. 39, i). 



Sadanira ] WARRIOR A SOUTHERN PEOPLE A RIVER 421 

Satvan in the Rigveda,^ and occasionally later,^ has the sense 
of * warrior.' 

i. 133, 6; 173. 5 ; ii. 25, 4 ; 30, 10 ; I 'v. 20, 8 ; vi. 65, 3 ; Vijasaneyi 
iii. 49, 2, etc. I SarphiUl, xvi. 8. 20, etc. 

Satvant is the name of a people who are stated in the 
Aitareya Brahmana^ to belong to the south. In the Satapatha 
Brahmana^ the defeat by Bharata of the Satvants, and his 
taking away the horse which they had prepared for an A^va- 
medha (' horse sacrifice '), are referred to : this reference clearly 
shows that in another passage of the Aitareya Brahmana* the 
text must be altered from satvandtn to Satvatdnt, ' of the Sat- 
vants,' against whom it seems the Bharatas made regular raids. 
The name has also been found by the St. Petersburg Dictionary, 
Cowell, and Max Miiller in the Kausitaki Upanisad,* but it is 
certain^ that the reading there is not Satvan-Matsyesu, but 
sa- Vaia-Matsyesu. 



> vin. 14, 3. 

* xiii. 5, 4, 21. 
3 ii, 25, 6. 

* iv. I. 



reeling Max Miiller, Sacred Books of the 
East, I, Ixxvii. 

C/. Weber, Indische Studien, 1. 211. 
212, 419; 9, 254 ; Keith, _/ara/ of the 



5 Oldenberg, Buddha, 393, n., cor- | Royal Asiatic Society, 1908, 367. 

Sadana. See Grha, 

Sadaipdi. See Takman. 

Sadas. See Gpha. 

Sadasya. See Rtvij. 

Sada-nira, ' having water always ' (* perennial '), is the name 
of a stream which, according to the Satapatha Brahmana,* was 
the boundary between the Kosalas and the Videhas. The 
river is identified by the native lexicographers with the Kara- 
toyS,^ but this seems to be too far east. Weber's' identification 

* i. 4, I, 14 et seq. ' See Imperial Gazetteer of India, 15, 24. 

3 I ndiuhe Studien, 1, 172, 181. 



4a 



SEERSSACRIFICERS^A KING 



[ Sadapp^a 



of it with the Gancjaki* is probably correct ; for though the 
Mahabharata^ distinguishes the two rivers, there is nothing to 
show that this is due to any good tradition. 

* See s.v. Great Gandak, Imperial i ^ ii_ ^g^. 
Gazetteer of India, 12, 125. I Cf. Oldenberg, Buddha, 398, n. 

Sada-pf^a is the name of a Rsi in the Rigveda.* 

1 V. 44, 12. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 139. 

Sadyan in the Taittiriya Brahmana (ii. 8, 6, i) is a mis- 
reading of Sagfhan. 

Sadhri is the name of a Rsi in the Rigveda.^ 

1 V. 44, 10. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 138. 



Sanaka occurs as the name of one of the two Kapyas (the 
other being Navaka) who took part in the sacrifice of the 
Vibhindukiyas, which is mentioned in the Jaiminlya Brah- 
mana.^ Ludwig^ thinks that the Sanakas are referred to as 
non-sacrificers in one passage of the Rigveda,' but this is very 
doubtful* 

i iii. 233 {Journal of the American 3 i. 33, 4. 

Oriental Society, 18, 38). * Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, i8g. 

' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 147. 



Sanagra. See Sanatana. 

Sanat-kumara is the name of a mythical sage in the Chan- 
dogya Upanisad (vii. i, i ; 26, 2). 

Sana-^ruta (* famed of old ') Ariipdama (* tamer of foes ') is 
mentioned as a Maharaja in the Aitareya Brahmana (vii. 34, 9). 



Sanac-chava is perhaps the proper name of a teacher in the 
Kathaka Sarnhita.^ The Kapis^hala Sarnhita^ has ^ahanaschiva. 
Very probably the reading of both texts is bad. 

1 XX. I. > xxxi. 3 (von Schroeder, Kithaka Saiphitft, 2, 18, n. 5). 



Saipnahana ] BOND COMPACT TWILIGHT ROPE 4^3 

Sanatana is the name of a mythical Rsi in the Taittiriya 
Samhita. In the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad^ he appears in the 
first two Vam^as (lists of teachers) as the pupil of Sanaga and 
the teacher of Sanaru, both equally mythical persons. 

* iv. 3. 3 1. 

' ii. 5, 22 ; iv. 5, 28 (M&dbyamdina =u. 6, 3 ; iv. 6, 3 K&nva). 



Sanaru. See Sanatana. 
Sanisrasa. See Masa. 
Sam-dam^a. See Grha. 

Saip-dana in the Rigveda^ and later^ denotes a *bond,' 
' halter,' or ' fetter.' 

1 i. 162, 8. 16. I Taittiriya Samhita, ii. 4, 7, 2 ; Sata- 

* Av. vi. 103, I ; 104, I ; xi. 9, 3 ; I patha Brahmana, xiv. 3, i, 22, etc. 

Saip-dha denotes in the later Sarnhitas and the Brahmanas* 
an ' agreement ' or * compact.' 

' Av. xi. 10, 9, 15 ; Taittiriya Sam- 1 i. 7, i, 6 ; ii. 1, i, 3 ; Kausltaki Upani- 
hita., i. 7, 8, 4 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, I sad, iii, i. 

Saip-dhi denotes the 'juncture' of heaven and earth, the 
' horizon,' in the Satapatha Brahmana.^ It also has the sense 
of * twilight '^ as the juncture of light and dark. 



1 iii. 2, 1, 5; X. 5, 4, 2. 
* Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiv. 25 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, i. 4, 5, i ; ii. 2, 9, 8 ; 



dual : Satapatha Brahmana, i. 6, 3, 53 ; 
jx. 4, 4, 13, etc The later term is 
Samdhya. 



Saip-nahana in the later Saiphitas and the Brahmanas* 
denotes a * band ' or * rope.' 

^ Taittiriya Satnhita, i. i, 2, 2 : Satapatha Brahmana, i. 3. 3, 6 ; ii. 6, i, 
15, etc. 



424 RIVAL CO-WIFE A SEER SEVEN RIVERS [ Sapatna 



Sa-patna, * rival,' is a common word in the later Sarphitas,' 
being also found in the tenth Mandala of the Rigveda.^ It is a 
curious masculine formed hy analogy from Sa-patni, ' co-wife,' 
and so ' female rival.' 



' Av. i. 19, 4 ; X. 6, 30 ; xii. 2, 46 ; 
Taittiriya Saiphit&, i. 6, 2, 2 ; iii. 2, 
8. 5. etc. 



* X. 166, I, etc. ; also in the com- 
pound sapatna-han, ' slaying rivals,' x. 
159. 5. etc. ; Av. i. 29, 5, etc. 



Sa-patni occurs in the Rigveda in the sense of ' co-wife ';^ in 
the first and the last Mandalas it means co-wife as a ' rival.'* In 
post-Vedic Sanskrit the word becomes a synonym for ' rival.' 



* iii. I, 10; 6, 4. 

> i. 105, 8 ; X. 145, 1-5 (/. in verse 2, 



patim me kevalatn kuru, ' make my hus- 
band exclusively mine '). 



Sapta-gii is the reputed author of a Rigvedic hymn in a 
verse of which he is mentioned.^ 

* X. 47, 6. C/. Bloomfield. American Journal 0/ Philology, 17, 423. 



Sapta Sindhaval^, ' the seven rivers,' occur only once in the 
Rigveda as the designation of a definite country,^ while else- 
where* the seven rivers themselves are meant. Max Miiller^ 
thinks that the five streams of the Panjab, with the Indus and 
the SarasvatI, are intended ; others^ hold that the Kubha should 
be substituted for the SarasvatI, or that perhaps the Oxus^ 
must originally have been one of the seven. Zimmer is prob- 
ably right in laying no stress at all on any identifications; 
* seven ' being one of the favourite numbers in the Rigveda and 
later. 



* vin. 24, 27. 

* Rv. i. 32. 12; 34. 8; 35, 8; 71, 7; 
102, 2 ; iv. 28, I ; viii. 96, i, etc. ; 
V&jasaneyi Saiphit&i xxxviii. 26 ; Athar- 
vaveda, iv. 6, 2 ; Taittiriya Saiyihita, 
iv. 3, 6, I, etc. 

3 Chips, I, 63. Cf. Muir. Sanskrit 
Texts, i", 490, n. 

* Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 



veda, 3, 200 ; Lassen, Indische Alter- 
thumskunde, 1^, 3 ; Whitney, Journal 0/ 
the American Oriental Society, 3, 311. 

* Cf. Thomas, Journal 0/ the Royal 
Asiatic Society, 1883, 371 et seq. 

' Altindisches Leben, 21. 

Cf. Hopkins, yoKrwa/ of the American 
Oriental Society, 16, 278 ; India, Old and 
New, 33. 



Sapti ] SEVEN SUNS SEVEN TRIBES A SAGE STEED 425 

Sapta Supyah, the * seven suns ' referred to in the Samhitas,* 
are named in the Taittiriya Aranyaka* as Aroga, Bhraja, 
Patara, Patariga, Svarnara, Jyoti?Imant, and Vibhasa, but these 
occur very rarely even later.^ Weber at one time* thought 
that the seven planets (see Graha) were meant by the phrase, 
but later he abandoned the idea.* Probably the * seven rays ' 
of the Rigveda* are meant. 

* Av. xiii. 3, 10; K&thaka Sarphita, * Indische Studien, i, 170; 2, 238. 
xxxvii. 9. j 8 iind., 10, 271, n., where he com- 

* i. 7. Cf. the ' seven tongues ' of 1 pares the sapta diio nana-suryah, ' seven 
Agni which are mentioned in the Rig- | regions with various suns,' of Rv. 
veda, and each of which later receives ix. 114, 3. 

an individual name : Macdonell, Vedic Rv. i. 105, 9 ; viii. 72, 16 ; Hopkins, 

Mythology, p. 89. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 

' Keith, Aitareya Aranyaka, 266; ] 16, 277. 

Hopkins, Great Eptc of India, 475. ' 



Sapta-manui^a is found in one passage of the Rigveda ^ as an 
epithet of Agni, 'belonging to the seven tribes,' Hopkins* 
thinks that this is a reference to the seven * family ' books of 
the Rigveda (ii.-viii.), but this seems less likely than the view of 
Roth,^ that saptatndnusa is equivalent to vaisvdnara. 

1 viii. 39, 8. 2 Journal of the American Oriental Society, 16, 278. 

3 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Sapta-vadhri is the name of a proteg6 of the A^vins, who 
appear from several passages of the Rigveda^ to have rescued 
him from a tree in which he had got fastened. He is men- 
tioned in the Atharvaveda.^ According to Geldner,^ he is 
identical with Atri. ^ ,/ . ' ^ T , u 7 ^, - r .7 . -/ 4 

* V. 78. 5 ; viii. 73, 9 ; x. 39, 9. 



a 



IV. 29, 4. 



' Rigveda, Glossar, 190. 

Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 



veda, 3, 156; Baunack, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenldndischen Geullschaft, 
50, 268. 



Sapti in the Rigveda* and later* denotes a ' swift steed.* 

1 i. 85, I. 6 ; 162, I ; ii. 34, 7 ; iii. 22, i, etc. 
' V&jasaneyi Saqihit^, xxii. 19. 22. 



426 RACECOURSE KINSMANASSEMBLY HALL [ Saptyft 

Saptya in one passage of the Rigveda (viii. 41, 4) seems to 
denote a * racecourse.' 



Sa-bandhu ('of the same kin*) in the Rigveda^ and later^ 
denotes 'related.' 

* iii. I, 10; V. 47, 5; viii. 20, 21, I ^ Av. vi. 15, 2; viii. 2, 26; xv. 8, 
etc. I 2. 3, etc. 

Sabha is the name of an * assembly ' of the Vedic Indians as 
well as of the * hall ' where they met in assembly. It is often 
mentioned in the Rigveda^ and later,^ but its exact character is 
not certain. The hall was clearly used for dicing,^ presumably 
when the assembly was not transacting public business : a 
dicer is called sabha-sthanu, * pillar of the assembly hall,' doubt- 
less because of his constant presence there.^ The hall also 
served, like the Homeric XeaxT), as a meeting-place for social 
intercourse and general conversation about cows and so forth,* 
possibly for debates and verbal contests. 

According to Ludwig,*^ the Sabha was an assembly not of all 
the people, but of the Brahmins and Mag^havans (' rich 
patrons '). This view can be supported by the expressions 

(Mahldhara on Vajasaneyi SamhitS, 
iii. 45), or partiality in deciding dis- 
putes (Mahidhara, ibid., xx. 17). But 
it may refer to gambling or other non- 
political activity, as Eggeling, Sacred 
Books of the East, 12, 398, takes it, 
though he renders it differently, ibid., 
44. 265. 

Rv. vi. 28, 6. Cf. viii. 4, 9. So 
in Av. vii. 12, 2, the assembly is hailed 
as naris^a, ' merriment.' But the same 
hymn (vii. 12, 3) contains a clear refer- 
ence to serious speech in the Sabh&. 
For the blending of serious political 
work and amusement, cf. Tacitus, 
Germania, 22. 

* So Zimmer. op. cit., 174, takes 
sabheya in Rv. ii. 24, 13. 

' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 253- 
256. He quotes for this view Rv. 
viii. 4, 9 ; X. 71, 10 (passages which 
are quite vague). Cf. also Rv. vii. 1,4; 
Av. xix. 57, 2. 



1 vi. 28, 6 ; viii. 4, 9 ; x. 34, 6. Cf, 
sabhU-saha, 'eminent in the assembly,' 
X. 71, 10. 

2 Av. V. 31, 6; vii. 12, i. 2; viii. 10,5; 
xii. I, 56; xix. 55, 6; Taittiriya Sam- 
hita, i. 7, 6, 7 ; Maitrayani Samhita, 
iv. 7, 4 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, iii. 45 ; 
xvi. 24 ; XX. 17 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, 
i. I, 10, 6 ; ^atapatba Brahmana, ii. 3, 
2, 3 ; v. 3, 1, 10 ; Kausitaki BrcLhmana, 
vii. 9, etc. 

Rv. X. 34, 6 ; Av. v. 31, 6 ; xii. 3, 46 
(here dyata is used in place of Sabh&). 

* Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxx. 18 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brahmana, iii. 4, 16, i, with 
SSyana's note. Zimmer, Altindisches 
Leben, 172, inclines to see in the formula 
(Vajasaneyi Samhita, iii. 45 ; xx. 17 ; 
Taittiriya Samhita, i. 8, 3, i ; Kathaka 
Samhita, ix. 4 ; Maitrayani Samhita, 
i. 10, 2) 'what sin we have committed 
in the village, the jungle, the Sabha ' 
a reference to attacks on the great 



Sabliacara ] ASSEMBLY OF THE PEOPLE 4*7 

sabheya, * worthy of the assembly,' applied to a Brahmin, rayify 
sabhdvdn, 'wealth fitting for the assembly,' and so on. But 
Bloomfield^ plausibly sees in these passages a domestic use of 
Sabha, which is recognized by the St. Petersburg Dictionary 
in several passages" as relating to a house, not to the assembly 
at all. Zimmer^^ is satisfied that the Sabha was the meeting- 
place of the village council, presided over by the Gramaipii. 
But of this there is no trace whatever. Hillebrandt^^ seems 
right in maintaining that the Sabha and the Samiti cannot be 
distinguished, and that the reference to well-born (su-jdta)^* 
men being there in session is to the Aryan as opposed to the 
Dasa or Sudra, not to one class of Aryan as opposed to the 
other. Hillebrandt also sees in Agni ' of the hall ' (sabhya) a 
trace of the fire used in sacrifice on behalf of the assembly 
when it met.^ 

Women did not go to the Sabha,^ for they were, of course, 
excluded from political activity. For the Sabha as a court- 
house, cf. Gramyavadin. There is not a single notice of the 
work done by the Sabha. 

8 Rv. ii. 24, 13. C/. i. 91, 20; Av. as going to the assembly hall : 5a6Aa-^a) 

XX. 128, 1 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxii. 22, The exact sense given by the St. Peters- 

etc. Max Miiller, Sacred Boohs of the burg Dictionary is the ' society room ' 

East, 32, 276, sees in sabheya the im- in a dwelling-house, 
plication of 'courtly manners,' but this ^^ AUindisches Leben, 174. But he 

is rather doubtful ; manner is not con- ignores Satapatha Brahmana, ill. 3, 4, 

spicuous in Vedic society as in Homeric. 14; Chandogya Upanisad, v. 3, 6, 

8 Rv. iv. 2, 5 ; in i. 167, 3, sabhavafi which show that the king went to the 

is applied to 'speech,' or perhaps to Sabha just as much as to the Samiti, 
yosS,, 'woman.' j and he cannot adduce any passage to 

10 Journal of the A tnerican Oriental show that the Gramani presided. 
Society, 19, 13. I " Vedische Mythologie, 2, 123-125. 

*i Av. viii. 10, 5 (where the sense ** Rv. vii. i, 4. 

is, however, clearly ' assembly ' ; see ^'^ Agni is sabhya, Av. viii. 10, 5 ; 

viii. 10, 6) ; Taittiriya Samhita, iii. 4, xix. 55, 6. For the Rv., see iii. 23, 4 ; 

8, 6 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, i. i, 10, 3 ; v. 3, 11 ; vii. 7, 5. 
Chandogya Upanisad, viii. 14 (but here " Maitrayani Samhita, iv. 7, 4. 

the sense is certainly ' assembly hall ' ; Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Lebcn, 172- 

see V. 3, 6, where the king is described 174. 

Sabha-cara is one of the victims at the Purusamedha 
('human sacrifice') in the Yajurveda.^ The St. Petersburg 

* vajasaneyi Saiphita, xxx. 6; Tait- I Sayana's note. Cf. Weber, Indisch* 
tirlya Brahmana, iii. 4, 2, i, with I Streifen, i, 77, n. i. 



428 



HALL GUARDIAN ASSESSOR 



[ Sabhapati 



Dictionary thinks it is an adjective equivalent in sense to 
sabhd-ga,' 'going to the assembly.' As he is dedicated to 
Dharma, 'Justice,' it isjdifficult not to see in him a member of 
the Sabha as a law court, perhaps as one of those who sit 
to decide cases : there is nothing to show whether the whole 
assembly did so, or only a chosen body. The special use of 
Sabhacara suggests the latter alternative. See also Sabhasad. 

Sabha-pati, * lord of the assembly,' is an epithet in the 
Satarudriya.* 

* Vajasaneyi Sambiti, xvi. 24 ; Taittiriya SambitS.. iv, 5, 3,2; K3,thaka 
Sambita, xvii. 13, etc. 

Sabha-pala is found in the Taittiriya Brahmana (iii. 7, 4, 6), 
where the sense may be * guardian of an assembly hall.' 

Sabhavin in the Taittiriya Brahmana (iii. 4, 16, i) denotes, 
according to the commentator Sayana, the * keeper of a 
gambling hall.' 



Sabha-sad, * sitter in the assembly,' is probably a technical 
description of the assessors who decided legal cases in the 
assembly (cf. Sabhacara). The term, which is found in the 
Atharvaveda^ and later,^ cannot well merely denote any member 
of the assembly. It is also possible that the Sabhasads, perhaps 
the heads of families, were expected to be present at the Sabha 
oftener than the ordinary man : the meetings of the assembly 
for justice may have been more frequent than for general discus- 
sion and decision. 



I (of Yama) ; vii. 12, 2 ; 
3 Katbaka Saipbita. viii. 7 ; Maitr&- 



* iiL 29 
xix. 55, 6, 



yani Sambita, i. 6, 11 ; Taittiriya 
Br&bmana, i. 2, i, 26; Aitareya Brib- 
mana, viii. 21, 14. 



Sabha-sthanu. See Sabha. 



Sabheya. See Sabha. 



Sam& ] 



HOOKFESTI VITYBA TTLEYEA R 



429 



Sam-ahka is a word of obscure sense occurring in two 
passages of the Atharvaveda.* Bloomfield ^ renders it * hook ' 
in the first, and takes it to mean an insect destructive of grain 
in the other. 



* i. 12, 2 ; vi. 50, I. 

Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 7, 142. 



Cf. St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 



Samana is a word of somewhat doubtful sense in the Rig- 
veda. Roth^ renders it either * battle '^ or ' festival.'* Pischel* 
thinks that it was a general popular festivity to which women 
went to enjoy themselves,^ poets to win fame, bowmen to gain 
prizes at archery,'' horses to run races; and which lasted until 
morning or until a conflagration, caused by the fires kept 
burning all night, scattered the celebrators.^ Young women,^ 
elderly women,^^ sought there to find a husband, and 
courtezans to make profit of the occasion.^^ 



1 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

a Rv. vi. 75, 3. 5 ; ix. 96, 9 ; x. 143, 4 ; 
Av. vL 92, 2 ; Vajasaneyi SamhitH, 
ix. 9. 

' Rv. ii. 16, 7 ; vi. 60, 2 ; vii. 2, 5 ; 
viii. 12, 9 ; ix. 97, 47 ; x. 55, 5 ; 86, 10 ; 
Av. ii. 36, I. 

* Vedische Studien, 2, 314. 

6 Rv. i. 124, 8 {cf. Vril) ; iv. 58, 8 ; 
vi. 75, 4 ; vii. 2, 5 ; x. 86, 10 ; 168, 2. 

Rv. ii. 16, 7 ; ix. 97, 47. Cf. 
Geldner, Vedische Studien, 2, 38. 

' Rv. vi. 75, 3. 5. 

8 Rv. ix. 96, 9 ; Av. vi. 92, 2. 

Rv. i. 48, 6, wrbich Roth takes 



as referring to men going to busi- 
ness. 

10 Rv. X. 69, II. Cf. vii. 9, 4. 

1^ Av. ii. 36, I. 

^ Rv. vii. 2, 5. 

w Rv. iv. 58, 8, where, as in vi. 75, 4 ; 
X. 168, 2, Roth sees the sense of 'em- 
brace.* The parallel with the festivals 
of Greece, where only young girls were 
able freely to mix with strangers, and 
which afforded the basis of so many 
of the comedies of the later school, is 
striking {cf. Mahaffy. Greek Literature, 
I, 2, 259 f^ uq). 

Cf. Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, 190. 



Samara in the sense of * battle ' is found in the Kausltaki 
Brahmana,^ and, according to Geldner,^ in the Rigveda.^ 

^ vii. 9; Sd.nkh&yuia ^rauta SQtra, ^ vL 9, 2 (at the sacrifice ; cf.samarya. 



XV. 15, 12. 
' Rigveda, Glossar, igo. 



iv. 24, 8, etc.). 



Sama appears originally to have denoted * summer,' a sense 
which may be seen in a few passages of the Atharvaveda.^ 

* > 35. 4i "'6, I; iii. 10, 9. Cf. Whitney, Translation of the Atharva- 
veda, 36. 



430 



KINSMAN NEIGHBOUR ASSEMBLY [ Samana 



Hence it also denotes more generally 'season,' a rare use.* 
More commonly it is simply ' year';' but in one place the Sata- 
patha Brahmana'* interprets it in the Vajasaneyi Sarphita** as 
meaning ' month,' a doubtful sense. 



' Aitareya Brahmana, iv. 25, 7 
Nirukta, ix. 41. 

> Rv. iv. 57, 7 ; X. 85. 5 ; 124, 4 
Av. V. 8, 8 ; vi. 75, 2, etc. 

* vi. 2, I, 25. 



' xxvii. I, with Mabldhara's note. 
See Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 
41, 168, n. I. 

Cf. Ziramer, Altindisches Leben, 372 ; 
Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 301. 



Samana. See Prapa. 



Samana-gotpa^ and Samana-jana^ mean 'belonging to the 
same family ' and ' class ' respectively in the Brahmanas. 
Samana-bandhu, ' having the same kin,' is found in the 
Rigveda.^ 



^ Kausltaki BrS,hmana, xxv. 15. 
' Pancavim^a Brahmana, xvi. 6, 9; 
Latyayana Srauta Sutra, viii. 2, 10. 



i. 113, 2; Satapatha Brahmana, 



111. 5, I. 25. 



Samanta (* having the same boundary '), * neighbour,' and 
therefore * foe,' occurs in the Maitrayani Samhita (ii. i, 24). 



Sam-iti denotes an 'assembly' of the Vedic tribe. It is 
alreadv mentioned in the Rigveda,^ and often later,* sometimes 
in connexion with Sabha.^ Ludwig* considers that the Samiti 
included all the people, primarily the visal}, ' subjects,' but also 
the Mag^havans and Brahmins if they desired, though the 
Sabha was their special assembly. This view is not probable, 
nor is that of Zimmer,^ that the Sabha was the village assembly. 
Hillebrandt appears to be right in holding that Samiti and 
Sabha are much the same, the one being the assembly, the 
other primarily the place of assembly. 

1 i. 95, 8 ; ix. 92, 6 ; x. 97, 6 ; 166, 4 ; * Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 253 

191, 3. et seq. 

' Av. V. 19, 15 ; vi. 88, 3 ; vii. 12, i ; Altindisches Leben, 172 et seq. 

xii. I, 56, etc. Vedische Mythologie, 2, 124, n. 6. 

3 Av. vii. 12, I ; xii. i, 56 ; xv. 9, 
2. 3 ; viii. 10, 5. 6. 



Samudra ] FUNCTION OF THE ASSEMBLY OCEAN 



43' 



The king went to the assembly'' just as he went to the 
Sabha. That he was elected there, as Zimmer thinks, is as 
uncertain as whether he was elected at all (see Rajan). But 
there are clear signs that concord between king and assembly 
were essential for his prosperity. 

It is reasonable to assume that the business of the assembly 
was general deliberation on policy of all kinds, legislation so 
far as the Vedic Indian cared to legislate, and judicial work (c/. 
Sabhasad). But of all these occupations there is, perhaps as a 
result of the nature of the texts, little or no evidence directly 
available. 

The gods had a Samiti, hence called daivl, ' divine,' ^ just as 
they had a Sabha.^^ 

The assembly disappears as an effective part of government 
in the Buddhist texts,^^ the Epic,^^ and the law-books." 



' Rv. ix. 92, 6 ; X, 97, 6 (where the 
reference is hardly to an oligarchy, as 
Zimmer, 176, 177, holds, but merely to 
the princes of the blood going to the 
assembly with the rest). 

op. cit., 175, quoting Av, vi. 87. 88. 
with Rv. X. 173, and Av. v. 19, 15, with 
Av. iii. 4, 6. 

Av. vi. 88, 3. Roth, St. Peters- 
burg Dictionary, s.v. 2, takes Samiti 
here and in v. 19, 15 ; Rv. x. 166, 
4; 191 3. to mean 'union,' but this 
is neither necessary nor probable 

> Rv. X. II, 8. 

11 Jaiminiya Upanisad BrILhmana, 
ii, II. 13. 14. 

1* C/.Buhler, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 48, 55, on 
the Parisa. 



13 Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 13, 148-152, who traces 
the decay of the old assembly through 
the aristocratic war council and the 
secret priestly conclave. It is, of course, 
very probable that at no time was the 
Samiti a place where any or much 
attention was paid to the views of the 
common man. Princes and great men 
spoke ; the rest approved or disap- 
proved, as in Homeric times and in 
Germany (cf. Lang, Anthropology and 
the Classics, 51 et seq. ; Tacitus, Germania, 
II. 12, where their generad duty of dis- 
cussion and their criminal jurisdiction 
are mentioned). 

** Foy, Die konigliche Gewalt, 6, 7, 
10. 



Sam-idh in the Rigveda^ and later^ denotes the 'fuel' for 
kindling fire. Geldner* inclines to see in one passage* the 
name of a priest, the later Agnidh. 



' iv. 4, 15 ; vi. 15, 7 ; 16, 11 ; vii. 14, i ; 
X. 12, 2, etc. 

* V&jasanejd SarphitA, iii. 4 ; xx. 25, 
etc. 



3 Rigveda, Glossar, 191. 
* Rv. X. 52, 2. 



Sam-udra (literally 'gathering of waters'), 'ocean,' is a 
frequent word in the Rigveda and later. It is of importance in 



432 KNOWLEDGE OF THE OCEAN SEA TRADE [ Samudra 



so far as it indicates that the Vedic Indians knew the sea. 
This is, indeed, denied by Vivien de Saint Martin,^ but not 
only do Max Miiller^ and Lassen^ assert it, but even Zimmer,* 
who is inclined to restrict their knowledge of the sea as far as 
possible, admits it in one passage of the Rigveda,* and of 
course later. He points out that the ebb and flow of the sea 
are unknown, that the mouths of the Indus are never men- 
tioned, that fish is not a known diet in the Rigveda (cf. Matsya), 
and that in many places Samudra is metaphorically used, as of 
the two oceans,'^ the lower and the upper oceans, etc. In 
other passages he thinks that Samudra denotes the river Indus 
when it receives all its Panjab tributaries. It is probable that 
this is to circumscribe too narrowly the Vedic knowledge of the 
ocean, which was almost inevitable to people who knew the 
Indus. There are references to the treasures of the ocean,^ 
perhaps pearls or the gains of trade," and the story of Bhujyil 
seems to allude to marine navigation. 

That there was any sea trade with Babylon in Vedic times 
cannot be proved : the stress laid^^ on the occurrence in the 
Hebrew Book of Kings ^^ of qof and tukhilm, 'monkey' (kapt) 
and ' peacock,' is invalidated by the doubtful date of the Book 
of Kings. There is, besides, little reason to assume an early 
date for the trade that no doubt developed later, perhaps 
about 700 B.c.^* 



1 Etude sur la geographic du Vida, 62 
et seq. Cf. Wilson, Rigveda, i, xli. 

' Sacred Books of the East, 32, 61 
et seq., quoting Rv. i. 71, 7; 190, 7; 
V. 78, 8 ; vii. 49, 2 ; 95, 2 ; x. 58. 

3 Indische Alterthumskunde, i^, 883. 

* AUindisches Leben, 22 et seq. Cf. 
Macdonell, Sanskrit Literature, 143, 144. 

' vii. 95, 2. 

Av. iv. 10, 4 (pearl shell) ; vi. 105, 3 
(the outflow, vi-kfara, of the ocean) ; 
xix. 38, 2 ; Taittiriya Saiphit<l, vii. 4, 
13, I, etc. 

' Rv. X. 13C, 5. Cf. Av. xi. 5, 6. 

8 Rv. vii. 6, 7 ; x. 98, 5. 

See, e.g., Rv. i. 71, 7; iii. 36, 7; 
46. 4 ; V. 85. 6 ; vi. 36, 3 ; vu. 95. 2 ; 
viii. 16, 2 ; 44, 25 ; ix. 88, 6 ; 107, 9 ; 



108, 16 (where reference is made to 
streams) ; or Rv. i. 163, i ; iv. 21, 3 ; 
V. 55. 5 ; viii. 6, 29, where land and 
Samudra are contrasted. 

* Cf. Rv. i. 47, 6; vii. 6, 7; ix. 97, 44. 

" Cf. Rv. i. 48, 3 ; 56. 2 ; iv. 55. 6 ; 
and the general parallelism of the 
Dioscuri and the ASvins. 

" E.g., by Weber, Indian Litera- 
ture, 3. 

1' I Kings X. 22. 

** See Kennedy, Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, 1898, 241-288 ; Biihler, 
Indische Studien, 3, 79 et seq. ; Indische 
Palaographie, JJ-ig, who much exag- 
gerates the antiquity of the traffic ; 
Vincent Smith, Early History of India, 
25, n. 



Sarayu ] 



SOVEREIGN BEE A RIVER 



433 



In the later texts Samudra repeatedly means the sea 



16 



*^ Taittiriya Saiphiti, ii. 4, 8, 2 ; 
vii. 5, I, 2. It is described as unfailing 
in the Aitareya Bra,hmana, v. 16, 7 (cf. 
iii- 39. 7) ; it encircles the earth, ibid., 
viii. 25, I. The eastern and western 
oceans in ^atapatha Br^hmana, i. 6, 3, 
II {cf, X. 6, 4, i), though metaphorical, 



probably indicate an acquaintance with 
both seas, the Indian Ocean and the 
Arabian Sea. 

Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 
3, 14-19 ; Pischel and Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, i, xxiii. 



Samraj in the Rigveda^ and later^ means 'superior ruler,' 
' sovereign,' as expressing a greater degree of power than * king ' 
(Rajan). In the Satapatha Brahmana,^ in accordance with its 
curious theory of the Vajapeya and Rajasuya, the Samraj is 
asserted to be a higher authority than a king, and to have 
become one by the sacrifice of the Vajapeya. There is, how- 
ever, no trace of the use of the word as ' emperor ' in the sense 
of an ' overlord of kings,' probably because political conditions 
furnished no example of such a status, as for instance was 
attained in the third century B.C. by A^oka. At the same time 
Samraj denotes an important king like Janaka of Videha.* It 
is applied in the Aitareya Brahmana^ as the title of the eastern 
kings. Cf. Rajya. 



1 iil 55. 7; 56. 5 ; iv. 21, i ; vi. 27, 8 
viii. 19, 32. 

2 Vajasaneyi Samhita, v. 32 ; xiii. 35 
XX. 5, etc. 

3 V. I, I, 13. Cf. xii. 8, 3, 4 
xiv. I, 3, 8. 

* Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 3, 2, i. 6 
2, 2, 3 ; Bfhadaranyaka Upanisad, iv. i 
I ; 3, I . Cf. Weber, Uberden Vajapeya, 8. 



'^ viii. 14, 2. 3. The other names are 
given as follows : For the northerners 
it is Viraj ; for the southerners, SvarSj ; 
for the Satvants, Bhoja ; for the middle 
[>eople (Koru-Puic&la, Vasa, and Ufi- 
nara), Rajan simply. This is probably 
a sound tradition. 



Saragh,^ Saragha,^ both denote * bee ' in the Brahmanas. 
See also Sarah. 

^ Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 4. 3, I * Paticavim^ Brahmana, xxi. 4, 4 ; 
14. I Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 10, 10, i. 



Sarayu is mentioned thrice in the Rigveda as the name of a 
river. Citraratha and Arna are said to have been defeated 
apparently by the TuPvaSas and Yadus who crossed the 

VOL. II. 28 



434 IDENTITY OF THE SARAYUA FAMOUS RIVER [ Saras 

Sarayu.^ Sarayu appears in one passage with Sarasvati and 
Sindhu,2 and in another with Rasa, Anitabha, and Kubha.^ 
Later, in the post-Vedic period, Sarayu, rarely Sarayu, is the 
name of a river in Oudh, the modern Sarju.* Zimmer^ regards 
this as the river meant in all the Vedic passages, seeing in the 
last,^ which may be used as an argument for locating the 
Sarayu in the Panjab, a reference to the north-east monsoon as 
well as to the usual monsoon from the west. Hopkins thinks 
that the Sarayu is to be found in the west, and Ludwig' 
identifies it with the Kurum (Krumu). Vivien de St. Martin 
considered it to be probably identical with the united course of 
the iSutudrl (Sutlej) and Vipa6 (Beas). 

1 iv. 30, 18. This passage gives no below Bahramghat. A branch of the 

help, because the possibility is open | Lower Gogra, given off on the right, 

either to suppose that the Turva^a- i flowing in an old bed of the GogrS, 

Yadu are not mentioned as defeating | and falling into the Ganges after passing 

the Aryans Citraratha and Arna ; or, j Ballia, is called the ChhotI (Lesser) 

if they are, to suppose that they may j Sarju. Cf. Imperial Gazetteer of India, 

have come east against the two. 22, 109 ; 12, 302 (Gogra) ; 23, 418 

* X. 64, 9. (Eastern Tons) ; 26, Plate 31. 

^ V. 53, 9. I ^ Altindisches Leben, 17, 45. Cf. Muir, 

* This is a tributary joining the Sanskrit Texts, 2", xxv ; Max Miiller, 
Gogra, the great river of Oudh, on ' Sacred Books of the East, ^2, 323. 

the left of its upper course. The name ^ Religions of India, 34. 

Sarju is also applied to the Gogra itself "^ Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 280. 



Saras denotes Make' in the later Sarnhitas^ and the Brah- 
manas.^ 

1 Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiii. 47. 48; ^atapatha Brahmana, xiii. 5, 4, 9; 
XXX. 16. I Chandogya Upanisad, viii. 5, 3, 

* Aitareya Brahmana, iii. 33, 6; | 



Sarasvati ^ is the name of a river frequently mentioned in 
the Rigveda and later. In many passages ^ of the later texts it 
is certain the river meant is the modern Sarasvati, which loses 

> Literally, 'abounding in pools,' , Kausltaki Brahmana, xii. 2. 3; ^ata- 

perhaps with reference to its condition j patha Brahmana, i. 4, i, 14 ; Aitareya 

when the water was low. The name ] Brahmana, ii. 19, i. 2 ; probably Av. 

corresponds phonetically to the Iranian I vi. 30, i. This list is according to 

Haraqaiti (the modern Helmand). Roth's view, St. Petersburg Dictionary, 

' Taittiriya Samhita, vii. 2, i, 4; s.v, y. 

Paiicaviip^ Brahmana, xxv. 10, i ; | 



Sarasvati ] 



IDENTITY OF THE SARASVATI 



435 



itself in the sands of Patiala (see Vina^ana). Even Roth* 
admits that this river is intended in some passages of the 
Rigveda. With the Dradvati'* it formed the western boundary 
of Brahmavarta (see Madhyade^a). It is the holy stream of 
early Vedic India. The Sutras^ mention sacrifices held on its 
banks as of great importance and sanctity. 

In many other passages of the Rigveda, and even later/ 
Roth held that another river, the Sindhu (Indus), was really 
meant : only thus could it be explained why the Sarasvati is 
called the * foremost of rivers ' (nadttamd),^ is said to go to the 
ocean, and is referred to as a large river, on the banks of which 
many kings,^ and, indeed, the five tribes, were located.^ 
This view is accepted by Zimmer^^ and others.^ 

On the other hand, Lassen" and Max Miiller^^ maintain the 
identity of the Vedic Sarasvati with the later Sarasvati.^ The 
latter is of opinion that in Vedic times the Sarasvati was as 
large a stream as the Sutlej, and that it actually reached the 



3 Rv. iii. 23, 4 (where the Dradvatl 
appears) ; x. 64, 9 ; 75, 5 (where the 
Sindhu also is mentioned). 

* Probably the modern Chautauig, 
which flows to the east of Thanesar. 
Cf. Oldha.m, Journal 0/ the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 25, 58 ; Imperial Gazetteer 0/ 
India, 26, Plate 32. 

8 K&tySLyana Srauta SQtra, xii. 3, 20 ; 
xxiv. 6, 22 ; Latyayana Srauta Sutra, 
X. 15, I ; 18, 13 ; 19, 4 ; ASvalayana 
Srauta Sutra, xii. 6, 2. 3 ; ^ankh3.yana 
Srauta Sutra, xiii. 29. 

* i. 89, 3 ; 164, 19 ; ii. 41, 16 et seq. ; 
30, 8; 32, 8; iii. 54, 13; v. 42, 12; 
43. II ; 46, 2; vi. 49, 7; 50, 12; 52.6; 
vii 9,5:36,6; 39,5; 40,3; viii. 21. 17; 
54 4 ; X. 17, 7 ; 30. 12 ; 131. 5 ; 184, 2. 

' Av. iv. 4, 6; V. 23, i; vi. 3, 2; 
89, 3 ; vii. 68, i ; xiv. 2, 15. 20 ; xvi. 4, 4 ; 
xix. 32, 9 ; Taittirlya Samhita, i. 8, 
13. 3 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, xix. 93 ; 
xxxiv. II ; ^atapatba BrSLhrnana, i. 6, 
2, 4; xi. 4. 3. 3 ; "ii. 7. I. 12 ; 2, 5; 
Br iad3.ranyaka UpanLsad, vi. 3, 8. 
These passages should all be classed 
in n. 2. 



8 Rv. ii. 41, 16. 

8 Rv. vi. 61, 2. 8; vii. 96, 2. 

10 Rv. viii. 21, 18. 

*^ Rv. vi. 61, 12. 

12 Altindisches Leben, 5-10. 

^ " E.g., Griffith, Hymns of the Rigveda, 
I, 60 ; 2, 90, etc. ; Ludwig, Translation 
of the Rigveda, 3, 201, 202. 

1* Indische Alterthumskunde, i^, 118. 

1" Sacred Books of the East, 32, 60. 

1* In the enumeration of rivers (evi- 
dently from east to west) in Rv. x. 75, 5, 
Gahgi, Yamuna, Sarjisvati, Sutudri, 
the Sarasvati comes between the Jumna 
and the Sutlej, the position of the 
modern Sarsuti (SaraswatI). which, 
flowing to the west of Thanesar, is 
joined in Patiala territory by a more 
westerly stream, the Ghaggar, and, 
passing Sirsa, is lost in the desert at 
Bhatnair ; but a dry river bed (Hakra 
or Ghaggar) can be traced from that 
point to the Indus. See Imperial Gazettetr 
of India, 26, Plate 32. Cf. also Oldham, 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 25, 
49-76. 

282 



436 THE SACRED RIVER OF EARLY INDIA [ Sarasvati 

sea either after union with the Indus or not, being the ' iron 
citadel,' as the last boundary on the west, a frontier of the 
Panjab against the rest of India. There is no conclusive 
evidence of there having been any great change in the size or 
course of the Sarasvati, though it would be impossible to deny 
that the river may easily have diminished in size. But there 
are strong reasons to accept the identification of the later and 
the earlier Sarasvati throughout. The insistence on the divine 
character of the river is seen in the very hymn^'^ which refers 
to it as the support of the five tribes, and corresponds well with 
its later sacredness. Moreover, that hymn alludes to the 
Paravatas, a people shown by the later evidence of the Panca- 
virnsa Brahmana^ to have been in the east, a very long way 
from their original home, if Sarasvati means the Indus. Again, 
the Purus, who were settled on the Sarasvati,^ could with great 
difficulty be located in the far west. Moreover, the five tribes 
might easily be held to be on the Sarasvati, when they were, as 
they seem to have been, the western neighbours of the Bharatas 
in Kupuketra, and the Sarasvati could easily be regarded 
as the boundary of the Panjab in that sense. Again, the 
'seven rivers' in one passage 2 clearly designate a district: it 
is most probable that they are not the five rivers with the 
Indus and the Kubha (Cabul river), but the five rivers, the 
Indus and the Sarasvati. Nor is it difficult to see why the river 
is said to flow to the sea : either the Vedic poet had never 
followed the course of the river to its end, or the river did 
actually penetrate the desert either completely or for a long 
distance, and only in the Brahmana period was its disappear- 



" Rv. ii. 41, 16 (devitame). 

18 See P9xa,vata, and cf. Brsaya. 

19 Rv. vii. 95. 96. Ludwig, op. cit., 
3, 175, admits that the Indus cannot be 
meant here. See Hillebrandt, Vedische 
Mythologie, i. 115. 

*> Rv. viii. 24, 27. The connexion 
of Sarasvati and the seven rivers is 
rather vague. In Rv. viii. 54, 4, Saras- 
vati and the seven rivers are separately 
invoked, and in vi. 61, 10. 12, she is 
referred to as ' seven-sistered ' (sapia- 



svasd). In vii. 36, 6, she is called the 
'seventh,' which makes the Sarasvati 
one of the rivers. If the former passages 
are to be treated as precise, then sapta- 
svasa may be considered to show that 
the Sarasvati was outside the river 
system (which would then be Indus, 
Kubha, and the five rivers of the 
Panjab ; see Sapta Sindhavalj) ; but 
the expression may be loosely meant 
for one of seven sisters. 



Sarit ] HILLEBRANDTS THEORY BEE STREAM 437 

ance in the desert found out. It is said, indeed, in the 
Vajasaneyi Samhita^^ that the five rivers go to the SarasvatT, 
but this passage is not only late (as the use of the word DeiSa 
shows), but it does not say that the five rivers meant are those 
of the Panjab. Moreover, the passage has neither a parallel 
in the other Sarnhitas, nor can it possibly be regarded as an 
early production ; if it is late it must refer to the later 
Sarasvati. 

Hillebrandt,^^ on the whole, adopts this view of the Saras- 
vat!,^ but he also sees in it, besides the designation of a 
mythical stream, the later VaitaranT,^ as well as the name of the 
Arghandab in Arachosia.^ This opinion depends essentially 
on his theory that the sixth Mandala of the Rigveda places the 
scene of its action in Iranian lands, as opposed to the seventh 
Mandala : it is as untenable as that theory itself.^ Brunn- 
hofer^' at one time accepted the Iranian identification, but 
later^ decided for the Oxus, which is quite out of the question. 
See also PIaka Prasrava^a. 

*i xxxiv. II. I ^' ^ Divodftsa. 

22 Vedische Mythologie, i, 99 et seq. ; 1 ^ Bezzenberger's Beitrdge, 10, 261, 

n. 2. 

*8 Iran und Turan, 127. 
Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 337 et seq. ; 
Macdonell, Sanskrit Literature, 141, 
142 ; Vedic Mythology, pp. 86-88 ; von 
Schroeder, Indiens Literatur und Cultur, 
84, 164. 



3. 372-378. 

33 He sees this sense in the Rigveda 
everywhere, except in the passages 
indicated in notes 24 and 25. 

2* vii. 95, 6 ; X. 17, 7 ; Av. vii. 68, 2 ; 
xiv. 2, 20 ; Pancaviqi^ Brihrnana, 
XXXV. 10, II, 

26 Rv. vi. 49, 7 ; 61 ; possibly Vaja- 
saneyi Samhita, xxxiv. 11. 



Sarah in the Rigveda^ and later ^ denotes * bee.' Cf. Saragha. 

1 i. 112, 21. I sQtra. i, 133; but Saragh shows that 

3 Taittiriya Samhiti, v. 3 12, 12 ; | Sarah must be meant (cf. Macdonell, 

^tapatha Brahmana, xiii. 3, 1,4. The 1 Vedic Grammar, p. 238, n. 2). 

stem is given as Sarat in the Un&di- Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 97. 



Sarit denotes * stream ' in the Rigveda* and later.* 

' iv. 58, 6; vii. 70, 2; Av. xii. 2, 41; Vajasaneyi Sarphita, xxxiv. 11 ; Tait- 
tiriya Brabmana, i. 2, i, 11, etc 



438 REPTILI ^SERPENT MELTED BUTTER [ Sarigrpa 

Sarlsppa denotes in the Rigveda,^ and often later,* any 
' creeping animal ' or ' reptile.' 

* X. 162, 3. - ' Av. iii. 10, 6 ; xix. 7, i ; 48, 3, etc, 

Sarpa, ' serpent,' occurs once in the Rigveda,* where Ahi is 
the usual word, but often later.^ 

* X. 16. 6. I Saiphita, i. 5, 4, i; iii. i, i, i, 

* Av. X. 4, 23 ; xi. 3, 47 ; Taittirlya I etc. 

Sarpa-pajni, 'serpent-queen,' is the alleged authoress of a 
hymn of the Rigveda^ according to the Taittirlya Samhita,* 

* X. 189. I Brilimana, i, 4, 6, 6 ; ii. 2, 6, i ; 

* i- 5i 4f I ; vii. 3, I, 3 ; Taittirlya I Aitareya Brahmana, v. 23, i. 2. 

Sarpa-vidya, the ' science of snakes,' is enumerated in the 
^atapatha Brahmana among branches of learning. It must 
have been reduced to fixed rules, since a section (parvan) of it 
is referred to as studied. The Gopatha Brahmana^ has the 
form Sarpa-veda. 

1 xiii.4, 3,9, C/. SankliSyana Srauta j 2. 4 ; 2, i ; 4, i ; 7, i) has sarpo' 

SQtra, xvi. 2, 25. The A^valayana j devajana-vidyd. 

Srauta SQtra, x. 7, 5, has Visa-vidyft, j ^ i.i,\o. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books 

and the Chandogya Upanisad (vii. i. I of the East, 44, 367, n. 3. 

Sarpi Vatsi (* descendant of Vatsa ') is the name of a teacher 
in the Aitareya Brahmana.^ 

ivi. 24, 15. \\ilTec\it, Aitareya Brah- | The point is, of course, doubtful, since 
fjwna, 424, takes the name to be Sarpir. | the word occurs in the nominative only. 

Sarpis denotes * melted butter,' whether in a liquid or 
solidified condition, and not differing from Ghpta according to 
the St. Petersburg Dictionary. Roth there rejects the defini- 
tion cited by Sayana in his commentary on the Aitareya Brah- 
mana,^ which discriminates Sarpis as the liquid and Ghrta as 
the solid condition of the butter. The word is repeatedly 
mentioned in the Rigveda* and later .^ 

* i. 3, 5. I xil. 3, 45 ; Taittirlya Saipbitft, ii. 3, 
> i. 127, I ; V. 6, 9 ; x. 18, 7. 10, i, etc. 

' Av. i. 15, 4 ; ix. 6, 41 ; x. 9, 12 ; 



Salilavata ] A SACRIFICE MUSTARD SEA WIND 439 

Sarva-capu is found in a passage of the Aitareya Brahmana^ 
and of the Kausltaki Brahmana,^ where the gods are referred 
to as holding a sacrifice sarvacarau. The word is the name of 
a man according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary ; the name 
of a place seems possible, or even a mere adjective may be 
meant.* 

* vi. I, I. I * Aufrecht, Aitareya Brdhmaiia, 425, 

' xxix. I. n. I, who suggests that yaj'he is to be 



s S&yana on Aitareya Br3,hmana, 
loc. cit. 



supplied. 



Sarva-vedasa denotes in the later Sarnhitas and the Brah- 
manas either a sacrifice in which the sacrificer gives his all to 
the priests/ or the whole property of a man.* 

^ Taittirlya Brahmana, i. 4, 7, 7 ; i Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 2, 8, i; 

Kausltaki Brahmana, xxv. 14; Panca- 1 Pancavim^a Brahmana, vi. 7, 15 ; Sata- 

vim^ Brahmana, ix. 3, i. patha Br9,hmana, iv. 6, i, 15, etc. 

* Taittiriya Saiphitl, vii. i, i, 3; ; 



San^apa, denoting ' mustard ' or * mustard seed,' occurs only 
a few times in later Vedic texts.^ 

1 ChandogyaUpanisad, iii. 14, 3. Cf. I Srauta Sutra, iv. 15, 8, etc. It is 
SadvimSa Brahmana, v. 2 ; Sankh&yana I common in the later language. 



Sala-vpki. See Salavrka. 

Salila-vata occurs in the Yajurveda Sarnhitas^ as an adjec- 
tive meaning 'favoured with a wind from the water.' ^ It 
probably refers to the wind from the ocean, the south-west 
monsoon.' 



I Taittiriya Samhiti, iv. 4, 12, 3 ; j soon is little noted in the Vedic texts, 

Kathaka Samhita, xxiv. 4 ; Maitrayani except in so far as the Marut hymns 

Samhita, iii 16, 4. may be deemed to be a description of 

* Or, according to the commentator, ' the monsoon. See Rv, i. 19, 7 ; 37, 

salildkhyena vdta viiesena anugrhltah, 6 et seq. ; 38, 8 ; 64, 8 ; 88, 5 ; v. 83, 

' favoured by a kind of wind called 1 et uq. ; 85, 4 ; Zimmer, Altindisches 

Salila. ' ' LtbtH, 42-44. 

3 Indian Empire, i, no. The raon- ' 



440 



A PEOPLE C A R-FIGHTERGRA SS 



[ Salva 



Salva is the name of a people mentioned in a passage of the 
^atapatha BrShmana,^ which records a boast by Syapar^a 
Sayakayana that if a certain rite of his had been completed, 
his race would have been the nobles, Brahmins, and peasants 
of the Salvas, and even as it was his race would surpass 
the Salvas. This people appears also to be alluded to as 
SdlvU (prajdk) in the Mantra Patha,^ where they are said to 
have declared that their king was Yaugfandhari when they 
stayed their chariots^ on the banks of the Yamuna. There is 
later evidence* indicating that the Salvas or Salvas were 
closely connected with the Kuru-Pancalas, and that apparently 
some of them, at least, were victorious near the banks of 
the Yamuna. There is no good evidence to place them in the 
north-west in Vedic times.^ 



1 X. 4, I, 10. 
3 ii. II, 12. 

' Winternitz, Mantra-pSfha, xlv-xlvii, 
sees in the verse an allusion to the 
Salva women turning round the wheel 
(? spinning - wheel). But a reference 
to a warlike raid seems more plau- 
sible. 



* Mah3.bharata, iv. i, 12; viii. 44 
(45), 14. The Yugandharas are also 
referred to in a Kiriki quoted in the 
Ka^ika Vrtti on Panini, iv. i, 173. 

" Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 1, 215. 
Later, they may have been found 
in Rajasthan, Lassen, Indische Alter- 
thumshunde, i^, 760. 



Savya-tha,i Savya-thr.^ Savye-^tha,^ and Savya-stha* 

are all various forms of the word for * car-fighter,' as opposed 
to Sarathi, 'charioteer,' showing that, as was natural, the 
fighter stood on the left of the driver. The commentators^ are 
inclined to see in the Savyastha merely another 'charioteer,' 
but this is quite unjustifiable, and is perhaps due to later caste 
prejudice against a ^udra charioteer. 

8 On ^atapatha Brahmana, v. 3,1,8; 
Taittiriya Brahmana, loc. cit. 



9; 



1 Av. viii. 8, 23. 

* Satapatha Brahmana, v. 2, 4 
3, I. 8; 4, 3, 17. 18. 

' Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 7, 9, i. 

* Kanva recension of the Satapatha 
Brahmana, Eggeling, Sacred Books of 
the East, 41, 62, n. i ; MaitrayanI Saip- 
hita, iv. 3, 8. 



Eggeling, /oc. 7, ; Hopkins, /oKrua/ 
of the AmericoH Oriental Society, 13, 

235- 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 296. 



Sasa in the Rigveda^ denotes 'herb' or 'grass.'^ The word 
is also applied to the Soma plant* and the sacrificial straw.* 



> 51. 3 ; X. 79, 3- 



' iii. 5, 6; iv. 5, 7, etc. 



v. 21, 4. 



Sahadevi ] SPEECH CORN A KING A PLANT 441 

Sasarpari is a word occurring in two curious verses of the 
Rigveda.^ According to a later interpretation,^ it designates a 
particular kind of skill in speech which Vi^vamitpa obtained 
from Jamadagrni. What it was is quite uncertain. 

iii. 53. 15. 16. Brhaddevata, iii. 113, with Macdonell's notes. 

Cf. Geldner. Vedische Studien, 2, 159. 

Sasya in the Atharvaveda^ and later ^ regularly denotes 
* corn ' generally. It corresponds to the Avestan hahya. See 
Kri. 

^ vii. II, I ; viii. lo, 24. I v. I, 7, 3; vii. 5, 20, i; MaitrclyanI 

* Taittiriya Samhita, iii. 4, 3. 3 ; | SamhitS, iv. 2, 2, etc. 
Cf. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 284. 

Saha in the Atharvaveda^ is, according to Roth,^ the name of 
a plant, but Bloomfield* thinks the word is only an adjective 
meaning * mighty.' 

1 xi. 6, 15. Cf. Samavidhina Brah- 
ma ia, ii. 6, 10. 

2 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 26. 

3 Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 648. 

\ 

Sahadeva is the name of a prince in the Rigveda,^ where he^ * 

is victorious over the iSimyus and Dasyus. It is quite prob ' 

able that he is identical with King Sahadeva Sarnjaya, who is 
mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana^ as having once been 
called Suplan Sarnjaya, and as having changed his name 
because of his success in performing the Daksayana sacrifice. 
In the Aitareya Brahmana^ he is mentioned with Somaka 
Sahadevya, who also appears in the Rigveda.* 



Cf. Whitney, Translation of the 
Atharvaveda, 642 ; Zimmer, Altindisches 
Leben, 72. 



' 1. 100, 17. 

" ii. 4, 4, 3. 4. Cf. xii. 8, 2, 3. 

vii. 34, 9. 

* iv. 15, 7 et seq. 



Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 132; 
Hillebrandt, Vedische My thologie, 1, 103, 
106. 



Saha-devi is the name of a plant in the Atharvaveda* 
according to the reading of the commentary. 

' vi. 59, 2. Cf. Grill, Hundert Lieder,^ this reading. A plant called Sahadeva 

163; Whitney, Translation of the Athar- occurs in the S&mavidhana Br&hmai^ 

vaveda, 325 ; Bloomfield, Hymns of the ' ii. 6, 10. 

Atharvaveda, 490. who does not accept ; 



442 PATRONYMIC OF MANU TEACHERS [ Sahamana 

Sahamana is the name of a plant in the Atharvaveda (ii. 25, 
2; iv. 17, 2; viii. 2, 6; 7, 5). 

Saho jit. See Jaitrayana. 

Samvara^ii is found in the Rigveda^ in one passage, where it 
naturally seems to be a patronymic (* descendant of Sarn- 
varana ') of Manu. According to Bloomfield,^ it is a cormp- 
tion for Savarijl, a reference to Manu's birth from the savarna, 
' similar ' female who was substituted for Saranyu according to 
the legend (see Manu). This is possible, but not certain. 
Scheftelowitz thinks that the reading of the Ka^mir manu- 
script of the Rigveda, which has sdmvaranam, ' found on the 
sacrificial ground,' as an epithet of Soma, is to be preferred. 
But this seems quite improbable."* We must either recognize 
a real man called Manu Samvarani ; or take Manu as one name, 
Sarnvarani as another ; or admit that Manu Sarnvarani is 
simply Manu with a patronymic derived from an unknown 
legend. 

' viii. 51, I. I 8 Die Apokryphen des Rgveda, 38. 

2 Journal of the American Oriental \ * See Oldenberg, Gdttingische Gelehrte 
Society, 15, 180, n. Anzeigen, 1907, 237. 

Sakam-ai^va Devarata is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
Vii^vamitra, in the Varnsa (list of teachers) which concludes 
the Sahkhayana Aranyaka (xv. i). 

Samkf ti-putpa (' son of a female descendant of Sarnkrta ') is 
the name of a teacher, a pupil of Alambayaniputra ^ or Alambl- 
putra,2 in the last Vam^a (list of teachers) of the Brhadaran- 
yaka Upanisad. 

1 Brhad&ranyaka Upanisad, vi. 5, 2 Kinva. ^ n,fd.^ vi. 4, 32 Madhyaipdina. 

Samkftya, ' descendant of Sarnkrti,' is the name of a teacher 
whose pupil was Paraiarya in the first two Vamsas (lists of 
teachers) in the Madhyamdina recension of the Bihadaranyaka 
Upanisad.^ 

^ ii. 5, 20 ; iv. 5, 26. A Samkytya occurs also in the Taittiriya Prati^khya, 
viii. 21 ; X. 21 ; xvi. 16. 



Satyay^'ni ] TEACHERS PATRONYMICS 443 

Saci-grupa is mentioned, apparently as a place in the territory 
of the Bharatas, in a verse occurring in the Aitareya Brah- 
mana.^ Leumann,^ however, thinks an epithet of Indra, 
Sacigu, may be meant. 

1 viii. 23. 4. I landischen Gesellschaft, 48, 80, n. 5, This 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen MorgeH' \ conjecture seems improbable. 

San\jivi-putPa, 'son of SamjIvT,' is the name of a teacher 
who appears in the Vam^a (list of teachers) at the end of the 
tenth Kanda of the ^atapatha Brahmana,^ and at the end of 
the fourteenth Kanda in the Kanva recension,^ as a pupil of 
Mapdukayani. In the Vamsas at the end of the Brhadaran- 
yaka Upanisad in both recensions^ he is given as a pupil of 
PraiSniputpa Asurivasin. It seems clear that he united in 
himself two lines of teachers that of the tradition of the fire- 
cult from l^aijdilya, and that of the tradition of Yajiiavalkya. 

1 X. 6, 5. 9. I Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the 

' Bj-hadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. 5, East, 12, xxxiv et seq. ; Weber, Indian 

4 Kanva. i Literature, 131. 

3 Ibid., vi. 4, 32 (Madhyamdina= 

vi. 5, 2 Kanva). | 

Sati Au^ti'^^i C descendant of Ustraksa ') is the name of a 
teacher in the Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

1 Indische Studien, 4, 372. 

Satya-kami (' descendant of Satyakama ') is the patronymic 
of Ke^in in the Taittiriya Samhita (ii. 6, 2, 3). 

Satya-kirta is the name of a school of teachers mentioned in 
the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmaria (iii. 32, 1). 

Satya-yajfla (' descendant of Saryayajfia ') is the name of a 
teacher in the ^atapatha Brahmana (iii. i, i, 4). 

I. Satya-yajfii (* descendant of Satyayajna ') is the patro- 
nymic of Soma^uma in the ^atapatha Brahmana (xi. 6, 2, i. 
3; xiii. 4, 2, 4; 5, 3, 9). 



444 



PATRONYMICS^RIDER COURTEZAN [ Satyayajfii 



2. Satya-yajni is the name of a school of teachers mentioned 
in the Jaiminlya Upanisad BrShmana (ii. 4, 5) with the 
l^ailanas and the Karlradis. 



Satya-havya (' descendant of Satyahavya ') is the patronymic 
of a Vasit^ha who is mentioned as a contemporary of Atyarati 
Janamtapi in the Aitareya Brahmana (viii. 23, g), and of 
Devabhaga in the Taittiriya Samhita (vi. 6, 2, 2). 



Satrajita ('descendant of Satrajit') is the patronymic of 
iSatanlka.^ 

1 Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 21,5; ^atapatha Brahmana, xiii. 5, 4, 19. 21. 



Satra-saha (* descendant of Satrasaha ') is the patronymic of 

^ ^atapatha Br&hmana, xiii. 5, 4, 16. 18. 



Sadin in the Atharvaveda ^ denotes the ' rider ' of a horse as 
opposed to a-sada, ' pedestrian.' An asva-sddin, * horse-rider,' 
is known to the Vajasaneyi Sarnhita.^ The Taittiriya Brah- 
mana^ and the Rigveda^ itself contain clear references to 
horse-riding, while the Aitareya Aranyaka^ refers to mounting a 
horse sideways. A^valayana knows sadya as a * riding horse ' 
opposed to vahya, a * draught animal.' 



1 xi. 10, 24. 

2 XXX. 13. 

3 iii. 4. 7, I- 

* i. 162, 17 ; V. 61, 3. Cf. i. 163, g. 

i. 2, 4 ; ^atapatha Brahmana, vii. 3, 
2, 17. 



SQtra, ix. 9, 14. 

Cf. Zimmer, AUindisches Leben, 230, 
295. 296 ; Max Miiller, Sacred Books 
of the East, 32, 358; Keith, Aitareya 
Aranyaka, 177 ; Weber, Proceedings of 
the Berlin Academy, 1898, 564. 



Sadhara^I in one passage of the Rigveda^ seems to refer not 
so much to an uxor communis, like Draupadi in the Epic, as 
Max Miiller^ suggests, but to a courtezan. 



1 i. 167, 4. 

* Sacred Books of the East, 32, 277. 

Cf. Zimmer, AUindisches Leben, 332 ; 



Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 461 ; Pischel 
and Geldner, Vedische Studien, i, xxv. 



Sama^ravasa ] PATRONYMICS VEDA OF CHANTS 445 

Sapta in the Rigveda^ may be a proper name, but the sense 
is quite uncertain. 

1 viii. 55, 5. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 5, 552 ; Griffith, 
Hymns of the Rigveda, 2, 266. 

Saptaratha vahani ('descendant of Saptarathavahana ') is 
the patronymic of a teacher, a pupil of l^aijdilya, in the ^ata- 
patha Brahmana.^ 

1 X. I, 4, 10. II. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, i, 259, n. 

Sapya or Sayya is the patronymic of Nam! in the Rigveda 

(vi. 20, 6). 



Sama-veda, ' the Veda of the Saman chants,' is the name of 
a collection of verses for chanting, often mentioned in 
the Brahmanas.^ The Saman itself is repeatedly referred 
to in the Rigveda,^ and the triad Re, Yajus, and Saman 
is common from the Atharvaveda onwards.^ These texts 
know also the Sama-ga, the * Saman-chanter,' * who occurs 
later.^ 

i TaittirTya Bra.hmana, iii. 12, 9, i ; ] ^ i. 62, 2 ; 107, 2 ; 164, 24, etc. 

Aitareya Brahmana, v. 32, i ; Sata- j Cf. Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 

patha Brahmana, xi. 5, 8, 3 ; xii. 3, j Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 38, 439 

4, 9 ; Aitareya Aranyaka, iii. 2, 3 ; ^ seq. 

Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, i. 5, 13 ' ' x. 7, 14 ; xi. 7, 5 ; Vajasaneyi 

(Madhyamdina = i. 5, 5 Kanva) ; ii. 4, , Saiphita, xxxiv. 5, etc. 

10; iv. I, 6 ( = iv. I. 2); 5, II ; Chan- j * Rv. ii. 43, i ; x. 107,6; Av. ii. 12,4. 

dogya Upanisad, i. 3, 7 ; iii. 3, i. 2 ; j ^ Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 22, 3 ; 

15, 7 ; vii. I, 2. 4 ; 2, I ; 7, i, etc. i 37. 4 ; "i- 4. i- 



Sama-6ravas (' famed for chants') occurs in the Brhadaran- 
yaka Upanisad.^ According to Max Muller,* the word is an 
epithet of Yajiiavalkya, but Bohtlingk^ takes it as the name of 
a pupil of that teacher. 

' iii. I, 3. ' Sacred Books of the East, 15, 121. 3 Translation, 36. 

Sama-^ravasa (' descendant of Sama^ravas ') is the patro- 
nymic of Kuitaka in the Paftcavirnsa Brahmana (xvii. 4, 3). 



446 



NAMES EVENING CHARIOTEER [ Samudri 



Samudri (' descendant of Samudra *) is the name of a 
mythical sage, A^va, in the ^atapatha Brahmana (xiii. 2, 2, 14). 

Sammada (' descendant of Sarpmada ') is the patronymic of 
the mythical Matsya in the ^atapatha Brahmana (xiii. 4, 3, 12). 

Samrajya. See Samraj and Rajya. 



Saya^ denotes * evening ' in the Rigveda and later, usually 
appearing in the adverbial form Sayam,^ * in the evening.' Cf. 
Ahar. 



1 Taittirlya Brahmana, i. 5, 3, 3 ; 
Kausltaki Brahmana, ii. 8 ; ^atapatha 
Brahmana, vii. 3, 2, 18. 

* Rv. V, 77, 2 ; X. 146, 4 ; Av. iii. 12, 3 ; 



iv. II, 12 ; viii. 6, 10, etc. C/. Sayaip,- 
praiar, 'morning and evening,' Av. 
iii. 30, 7; xix. 39, 2, etc. 



1. Sayaka denotes 'arrow' in the Rigveda. (ii. 33, 10; iii. 53, 
23 ; X. 48, 4). 

2. Sayaka Jana-^ruteya ('descendant of Jana^ruta') Kaijd- 
viya is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Jana^ruta Kandviya, 
in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana (iii. 40, 2). 

Sayakayana (* descendant of Sayaka ') is the patronymic of 
iSyaparna in the ^atapatha Brahmana,^ and also of a teacher, a 
pupil of KauiSikayani in the second Varnsa (list of teachers) in 
the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.^ 

* X. 3, 6, 10; 5, 2, I. * iv. 5, 27 (Madhyamdina = iv. 6, 3 Knva). 

Sayya. See Sapya. 



Sarathi denotes the * charioteer ' as opposed to the * warrior ' 
(Savyatha) in the Rigveda^ and later.^ 



* >. 55, 7; 144.3; ' 19,6: vi. 20, 5; 
57, 6 ; X. 102, 6. 
' Av. XV. 2, 1 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, 



i. 7, 9, I ; MaitrSyani Sarphit&, iv. 3, 8, 
etc. 
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 296. 



Salavrka ] DOGSRNjfAYA KINGHY^NA 447 

Sarameya, ' descendant of Sarama,' Indra's mythical dog, is 

applied to a dog on earth in the Rigveda/ as also to the dogs of 

Yama.^ 

' vii. 55, 2 (unless that passage be deemed to refer to the souls of the departed). 
'^ X. 14, 10. 

Sarfijaya is found in the Rigveda^ in a Danastuti (' praise of 
gifts') where the word probably denotes the 'Sfiijaya king' 
rather than a 'descendant of Srnjaya.' According to the 
Sahkhayana ^rauta Sutra,^ he was Prastoka, mentioned in the 
same hymn, but this conclusion is not very cogent. He was 
clearly a patron of the Bharadvajas. The same epithet 
belongs to Sahadeva, alias Suplan. 

1 vi. 47, 25. 2 xvi. II, II. I C/. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 

3 Satapatha Brahmana, ii. 4, 4, 4; I, 104, 105. 
xii. 8, 2, 3. 1 

Sarpa-rajnl in the Pancavim^a (iv. 9, 4) and the Kausitaki 
(xxvii. 4) Brahmanas is identical with Sapparajfli. 

Sarva-seni ('descendant of Sarvasena') is the patronymic of 
lauceya in the Taittiriya Sarnhita (vii. i, 10, 3). 

Sala-vrka is found twice in the Rigveda^ apparently denoting 
the ' hyaena ' or * wild dog.' This sense also seems appropriate 
in the later narrative of the destruction of the Yatis by Indra,^ 
who is said to have handed them over to the Salavrkas. Sala- 
vikeya^ is a variant form of the same word, meaning literally 
* descendant of a Salavrka.' The feminine is Salavrki,* but in 
the Taittiriya Sarnhita^ it appears as Salavrki. Cf. Taraki^u. 

sion). In Av. ii. 27, 5, Indra is alluded 
to as an enemy of the Sal&v|-kas. 

* K&thaka Samhit&, xxviii, 4. 

5 vi, 2, 7, 5 ; also in MaitrayanI 
SamhitcL, iii. 8, 3 ; Apastamba Dharma 
Satra, i. 10. 17; II, 33. 

Cf. Zimmer, AUindisches Leben, 81 ; 
Weber, Indische Studien, 13, 192 ; Whit- 
ney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 
68 ; Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharva- 
veda, 306, who decides in favour of 



* X. 73. 2 ; 95, 15. 

2 Taittiriya Sairihita, vi. 2, 7, 5 ; 
Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 28, i ; Kausi- 
taki Upanisad, iii. i {varia lectio). 

3 Paiicavimsa Brahmana, viii. i, 4; 
xiii. 4, 16; xiv. II, 28; xviii. i, 9; 
xix. 4, 7 ; Jaiminiya Brahmana, i. 185 
{Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
19, 123) ; Kathaka Sarnhita, viii. 5 ; 
xi. 10; XXV, 6; xxxvi, 7 (Indische Studien, 
3, 465, 466) ; Kausitaki Upanisad, iii. i 
(according to ^ankarananda's recen- { 'jackal.' 



448 



PA TRONYMICSLION 



[ Savayasa 



Savayasa (' descendant of Savayasa *) is the patronymic of 
Aadha, or Aadha, in the Satapatha Brahmana (i. i, i, 7). 

Sa-variTii is found as a patronymic in the Rigveda^ together 
with Savarnya.^ It is clear that no man called Savarna ever 
existed, though Roth^ accepted that view, and that the refer- 
ence is to the mythical Manu Savarni, the descendant of the 
sa-varnd female, who, according to the legend,"* took the place 
of Saranyu. 

1 X. 62, II. s X, 62, 9. I * Bloomfield, /owrna/ of the American 

' St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.u, Cf. \ Oriental Society 15, lyg et seq. 
Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i'^, 17. 



Simha denotes the 'lion' in the Rigveda* and later.* The 
roaring (nad) of the lion is often alluded to,^ and is called 
thundering (stanatha).^ He wanders about (ku-cara) and lives 
in the hills (giri-stha),^ and is clearly the ' dread wild beast that 
slays' {mrgo bhima upahatnuh)^ to which Rudra is compared. 
When Agni, who has entered the waters, is compared to a 
lion,'' the reference may be to the lion's habit of springing on 
animals at drinking places. That a jackal should defeat the 
lion is spoken of as a marvel. The lion, being dangerous to 
men, was trapped,^ lain in wait for in ambush," or chased by 
hunting bands.^'^ But dogs were terrified of lions. ^^ The 
lioness (simht) was also famous for her courage : the aid given 
by Indra to Sudas against the vast host of his enemies is 
compared to the defeat of a lioness by a ram (Petva).^* The 
gaping jaws of the lioness when attacking men are alluded to in 



1 i. 64, 8 ; 95. 5; iii. 2. 11 ; 9, 4; 
26, 5 ; iv. 16, 14, etc. 

* Av, iv. 36, 6 ; V. 20. 1.2; 21, 6 ; 
viii. 7, 15 ; Taittiriya Satnhit3., v. 5, 
21, I ; K&thaka Sanihit3., xii. 10, etc. ; 
MaitrJlyanl Sar)ihit3, ii. i, 9 ; Kausitaki 
Upanisad, i. 2. 

See Rv. i. 64, 8; iii. 26, 5. The 
sound of the drum is compared with it, 
Av. V. 20, I. 

* Rv. V. 83, 3; Av. V. 21, 6; 
viii. 7, 15. 



" Rv. i. 154, 2 ; X. 160, 2. 
8 Rv. ii. 33, II. 

7 Rv. iii. 9, 4. 

8 Rv. X. 28. 4. 
8 Rv. i. 174, 3. 

10 Rv. X. 28, 10. 

" Rv. v. 74, 4. 

la Rv. v. 15, 3. Cf. Strabo. xv. 

I, 31- 
^3 Av. v. 36, 6. 
1* Rv. vii. 18, 17. 



SinivaU ] HEM MILITARY LINES NEW MOON 449 

the Aitareya Brahmana.^ The lioness is also mentioned in 
the Yajurveda Samhitas and the Brahmanas.^ See also 
Halik^pa. 

*' vi. 35, I. I Satapatha Brahmana, iii. 5, i, 21 ; 

1* Taittiriya Samhiti, i. 2, 12, 2 ; MaitrJlyani SamhitcL, iii. 8, 5. 
vi, 2, 7, I ; V&jasaneyi Samhit&, v. 10; Cf. Zimmer, Altindiiches Leben, 78, 79. 



1. Sic denotes the ' border ' of a garment. The Rigveda 
refers to a son clutching the hem of his father's robe to attract 
his attention,^ and to a mother's covering her son with the edge 
of her garment.^ The word also occurs later.* 

* iii. 53, 2, I 3 A.V. xiv. 2, 51 ; Satapatha BrSh- 

* X. 18, II. I mana, iii. 2, i, 18. 

2. Sic denotes, in the dual, the ' wings ' of an army,^ or, in 
the plural, the 'lines.' 

^ Rv. X. 75, 4. I Cf. Pischel, Vedische Studien, 2, 65 ; 

* Av. xi. 9, 18 ; 10, 20. I Geldner, ibid., 3, 31. 

3. Sic seems in one passage of the Rigveda (i. 95, 7), where it 
is used in the dual, to denote the ' horizon ' (meaning literally 
the ' two borders '; Le.j of heaven and of earth). 

Sidhmala, 'leprous,' is found in the Vajasaneyi Sarnhita 
(xxx. 17) and the Taittiriya Brahmana (iii. 4, 14, i) as a 
designation of one of the victims at the Purusamedha (' human 
sacrifice'). C/. Kilasa. 

Sinivali denotes the day of new moon and its presiding 
spirit, which, in accordance with widespread ideas concerning 
the connexion of the moon and vegetation, is one of fertility 
and growth. It occurs very frequently from the Rigveda^ 
onwards.^ 

ii. 32, 7. 8 ; X. 184, 2. I V. 5, 17. i ; 6, 18, i ; K&ihaka SanihitS, 

a Av. ii. 26, 2 ; vi. II, 3 ; ix. 4, 14 ; | xxxv. 2, etc. 

xiv. 2, 15 ; xix. 31, 10 ; Taittiriya ', Cf. Zimmer, Aitindischts Ltben, 352 ; 

Saiphita, ii. 4, 6, 2 ; iii. 4, 9, i. 6; Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, ^p. 125. 

VOL. II. 29 



450 INDUS A SEERWEAVER PLANTS [ Sindhu 

Sindhu in the Rigveda^ and the Atharvaveda^ often means 
'stream' merely (c/. Sapta Sindhavah), but it has also^ the 
more exact sense of * the stream ' par excellence, ' the Indus.' 
The name is, however, rarely mentioned after the period of the 
Samhitas,'* always then occurring in such a way as to suggest 
distance. The horses from the Indus {saindhava) were famous.* 
See Saindhava. Cf. also Sarasvati. 

1 i. 97, 8 ; 125, 5 ; ii. II, 9 ; 25, 3. 5 ; * The Sindhu-Sauviras occur in the 

iii. 53, 9, etc. i Baudhayana Dharma Sfltra, i. 2, 14. 

' iii. 13, i; iv. 24, 2; x. 4, 15; | Cf. 'BvhXer , Sacred Books of the East, 1^, 

xiii. 3, 50, etc. j 148 ; Oldenberg, Buddha, 394, n. 

^ Rv. i, 122, 6; 126, i; iv. 54, 6; ' Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, vi. 2, 15 

55 3; V. 53, 9; vii. 95, i; viii. 12, 3 ; (M5dhyamdina=vi. i, 13 Kinva). 

25, 14; 20, 25; 26, 18; X. 64, 9; Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Lehen, 16, 

Av. xii. I, 3 ; xiv. i, 43 ; perhaps also 17, 27. 
vi. 24, I ; vii. 45, i ; xix. 38, 2 ; V5ja- 

saneyi Sarnhit&, viii. 59. i 



Sindhu-ki^it is the name of a long-banished but finally 
restored Rajanyari in the Pancavimsa Brahmana,^ probably 
quite a mythical personage.* 

' xii. 12, 6. I Movgenldndischen GeuUschaft, 42, 235, 

' Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen | n. 3. 



SiPl in the Rigveda (x. 71, 9) seems to denote a * female 
weaver.' 



Silaci is, in the Atharvaveda,^ the name of a healing plant, 
also called Lak:^. 

1 V. 5, I. 8. Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns I Translation of the Atharvaveda, 
of the Atharvaveda, 419 ; Whitney, | 228. 



Silapjala, which the commentator reads as ^alanjala, is the 
name of a plant, perhaps a * grain creeper,' in the Atharvaveda.^ 
The Kau^ika Sutra* reads the word as Silanjala. Cf. Silaci. 

* vi.16, 4. I the Atharvaveda, 466; Whitney, Trans- 

* li. 16. Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns of | lation of the Atharvaveda, 292, 293. 



Sila ] 



A BIRD FURROW PARTING PLOUGH 



451 



Sicapu in the list of victims at the A^vamedha (* horse 
sacrifice ') in the Yajurveda^ seems to denote a kind of bird. 

1 Maitrayani Sanihita, iii. 19, 6 ; Vajasaneyi Samhitl, xxiv. 25. Cf. Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, 94. 



Sita, * furrow,' occurs in the Rigveda,^ and often later.* 



* iv. 57, 6. 7 (the most agricultural 
of Rigvedic hymns, and probably 
late). 

* Av. xi. 3, 12; Taittiilya SainbitS., 



V. 2, 5, 4. 5 ; 6. 2, 5 ; Kathaka SamhitS, 
XX. 3, etc. 

Cf. Hopkins, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 17, 86, n. 



Siman denotes the ' parting ' of the hair in the Atharvaveda ^ 
and later.* 



13. 



Aitareya Brahmana, v. 7, 4; Pafica- 
vim^ Brahmana, xiii. 4, i ; xv. 5, 20 ; 



Satapatha Brahmana, viL 4, i, 14. 
Cf. simanta in Av, vi. 134, 3 ; Taittiriya 
Brahmana, ii. 7, 17, 3. 



Sira, * plough,' is mentioned in the Rigveda,^ and often later.^ 
It was large and heavy, as is shown by the fact that six oxen,^ 
or eight,* or twelve,^ or even twenty-four, were used to drag it. 
The animals which drew the plough were oxen, which were, no 
doubt, yoked and harnessed with traces.'' The ox was guided 
by the Astra, or * goad,' of the ploughman {cf. VaiiSya).^ Little 
is known of the parts of the plough. See Lahgala and Phala. 



1 iv. 57. 8 ; X. lOl, 3. 4. 

2 Av. vi. 30, i; 91, I ; viii. 9, 16, 
etc. ; Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 7, i, 2 ; 
ii. 5, 8, 12 ; Vajasaneyi Samhita, x viii. 7; 
Maitrayani Samhita, li. 11, 4. 

3 Av. vi. 91, I ; viii. 9, 16 ; Taittiriya 
Samhita, v. 2, 5, 2 ; Kathaka Satnhita, 
XV. 2 ; XX. 3 ; Satapatha Brahmana, 
vii. 2,2,6; xiii. 8, 2, 6. 

* Av. vi. 91, I. 

Taittiriya Samhita. i. 8, 7, i ; 



v. 2, 5, 2 ; Kathaka Samhita, xv. 2 ; 
Maitrayani Samhita, ii. 6, 2, etc. 

8 Kathaka Saiphita, XV. 2. C/. Weber, 
Indische Studien, 13, 244, n. i. 

' VaratrS is found in Rv. iv. 57, 4, 
and (of the ox in the Modgala story) 
in X. 102, 8. It may denote the fastening 
of the ox to the yoke rather than to 
the plough by traces. 

8 Cf. Rv. iv. 57, 4 ; X. 102, 8. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 236, 237. 



Sila, * plough,' is found in the Kapisthala Samhita 
(xxviii. 8). 

29 2 



45a LEAD A MAIDEN A SEER A TEACHER [ Silamavati 

Sllamavati in the Rigveda^ is, according to Ludwig,* the 
name of a river ; but this is most improbable.' Sayana thinks 
the word means * rich injhemp.' 



X. 73. 8. 

3 Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 200. 

3 Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 429 ; 



Bohtlingk, Dictionary, 5. v. ; Geldner, 
Rigveda, Glossar, 195. 



Slsa, ' lead,' occurs first in the Atharvaveda,^ where it is 
mentioned as used for amulets.^ The word is then quite 
common.' The use of lead by the weaver as a weight is perhaps 
also referred to.** 

^ xii. 2, I. ig etseq., 53. 

a i. 16. 2. 4. 

3 Maitrayani SamhitS., ii. 4, 2 ; V^ja- 
saneyi Saiphit3,, xviii, 13 ; Taittiriya 
Br^hmana, iii. 12, 6, 5 ; ^atapatha 
BrS,hmana, v. i, 2, 14 ; 4, i, 9; xii. 7, 
I, 7 ; 2, 10 ; Chandogya Upanisad, 
iv. 17, 7, etc. 

* Vajasaneyi Samhita, xix. 80 ; 
Maitr&yani Saqihiti, iii. 11, 9; Tait- 



tiriya Brahmana, ii. 6, 4. This is the 
view of Roth, St. Petersburg Dic- 
tionary, S.V., and of Zimmer, A Itindisches 
Leben, 53. But Griffith, Translation of 
the ViLjasaneyi SamhitS., 183, n., thinks 
that in xix. 80 lead is referred to not 
as a weight, but as a charm against 
demons and sorcery. 

Cf. Bloombeld, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 15, 157, 158. 



Su-kanya is the name of l^aryata's daughter, who married 
Cyavana according to the Satapatha Brahmana.^ 

' iv. I, 5, 6; 10, 13; Jaiminiya BrShmana, iii. 121 et seq. 

Su-kaparda. See Kaparda. 

Su-karira in the Maitrayani Samhita (ii. 7, 5) is a misreading 
of su-kurlra. See Kurira. 



Su-kirti KakIvata (* descendant of Kakivant ') is the name 
of a R?i to whom the Brahmanas of the Rigveda^ ascribe the 
authorship of a Vedic hymn.^ 

I Aitareya Br&hmapa, v. 15, 4 ; vi. 29, i ; Kaufltaki Br&hmana, xxx. 5. 
^ X. 131. 

Su-kein Bharadvaja ('descendant of Bharadvaja') is the^ 
name of a teacher in the Pra^na Upanisad (i. i). 



Sudakina ] FRAGRANT GRASS TEACHERS A KING 453 

Su-kupipa. See Kurira. 

Su-kha. See Kha. 

Sugrandhi-tejana in the later Samhitas^ and the BrShmanas^ 
denotes a kind of fragrant grass. 

^ Taittiriya Samhiti, vi. 2, 8, 4 ; j Satapatha Br&hmana, iii. 5, 2, 17 ; 
K&thaka Samhit, xxv, 6. PancavimSa Brahmana, xxiv. 13, 5. 

3 Aitareya Brahmana, i. 28, 28 ; ! 

Su-citta l^ailana is the name of a teacher in the Jaiminiya 
Upanisad Brahmana (i. 14, 4). 

Su-jata, * well-born,' is an epithet found applied to men in a 
few passages of the Rigveda. It would probably be a mistake 
to press the sense so as to denote * nobles ' as compared with 
the people. See Sabha. 

* ii. 2, II ; V. 6, 2 ; vii. i, 4. 15 ; viii. 20, 8. 

Sutam-bhara is credited by the Anukramanl (Index) with 
the authorship of certain hymns of the Rigveda.^ The word 
does not occur in those hymns, but it appears as an adjective 
(' carrying away Soma ') elsewhere,* and may, in a second 
passage,^ by a conjecture* be taken as a man's name. 



1 V. 11-14. 
* V. 44. 13. 
' ix. 6, 6. 



* If sutarn-bharelya be read for iutdrn 
bhdraya, as Roth suggests in the St. 
Petersburg Dictionary, 5.1;. 



Sutvan KairiiSi Bhapgayana is, in the Aitareya Brahmana 
(viii. 28, 18), the name of a king who, being taught a spell by 
Maitpeya Kauapava, slew five kings and became great. 

Su-daki^iina K^aimi (* descendant of Kema ') is the name of a 
teacher in the Jaiminiya Upani9ad Brahmana (iii. 6, 3 ; 7, 
I et seq. ; 8, 6). 



4^4 A TEACHER A RIVER A FAMOUS KING [ Sudatta 

Su-datta Para^arya (' descendant of Para^ara ') is in the 
Jaiminiya Upani^ad Brahmana (iii. 41, i; iv. 17, i) the name 
of a teacher who was a papil of JanaiSruta Varakya. 

Su-daman is the name of a river in the Pancavim^a Brah- 
mapa (xxii. 18, i). 

Su-das is the name of the Tptsu king who won a famous 
victory over the ten kings, as described in a hymn of the 
Rigveda.^ At one time Vi^vamitra was his Purohita, and 
accompanied him in his victorious raids over the VipaiS 
(Beas) and iSutudPi (Sutlej).^ The Asvins gave him a queen, 
Sudevi,^ and also helped him on another occasion.* He 
appears with Trasadasyu in a late hymn without hint of 
rivalry,^ but elsewhere he seems to be referred to as defeated by 
Purukutsa, Trasadasyu's father. In the Aitareya Brahmana'' 
he is recognized as a great king, with Vasitha as his Puro- 
hita, and similarly in the Sahkhayana Srauta Sutra, where his 
generosity to his priest is related. 

His exact ancestry is a little uncertain, because he is called 
Paijavana, ' son of Pijavana,' as Yaska explains the patro- 
nymic. If this explanation is correct, Divodasa must have 
been his grandfather. If he was the son of Divodasa, Pijavana 
must be understood as a more remote ancestor. The former 
alternative seems the more probable. Cf. Turva^a, Da^arajfla. 
Payavana, Bharata, Saudasa. 

1 vii. 18. See also Rv. vii. 20, 2 ; : Sudase with Ludwig, Translation of 

23. 3 ; 32. 10 ; 33. 3 ; 64, 3 ; 83. i et seq. the Rigveda, 3, 174, Cf. Hillebrandt, 

Rv. iii. 33, 9. II. See also VisTft- Vedische Alythologie, i, 112, n. i; Geldner, 
mitra and Vasistha. Vedische Studien, i, 153; Oldenberg, 

3 Rv. i. 112. 19. Rgveda-Noten, i, 63. 

* Rv. i. 47, J*; where, however, Roth, ' vii. 34, 9. 
St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. i, takes j ^ xvi. 11, 14. 

su-das as an adjective (' worshipping 1 Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 
wel r ) . 1, 107 ;/ uq. ; Weber, Episches im vedischen 

" Rv. vii. 19, 3. I Ritual, 31 et seq. 

" Rv. i. 63, 7, reading Suddsam for 

I. Su-deva is, according to Ludwig,^ the proper name of a 
sacrificer in one hymn of the Rigveda.' 

^ Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 160. ' viii. 5, 6. 



Suparna ] NAMES OF TEACHERS VULTURE 455 

2. Su-deva Ka^yapa (' descendant of Ka^yapa ') is the name 
of a teacher in the Taittiriya Aranyaka^ who set forth the 
expiation for lack of chastity. 

1 ii. i8. C/. X. I, 8 ; Weber, Indische Studien, i, i88, n. ; lo, 103. 

Su-devala was the name of Rtupar^a as a woman according 
to the Baudhayana ^rauta Sutra (xx. 12). 

Su-devi. See Sudas. 

Su-dhanvan Angrirasa (' descendant of Angriras ') is the 
name of a teacher in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (iii. 3, i). 

1. Su-nitha l^aucad-ratha ('descendant of ^ucadratha') is 
the name of a man in the Rigveda (v. 79, 2). C/. Satya- 
^ravas. 

2. Su-nitha Kapatava is the name of a teacher in the Vam^a 

Brahmana.^ 

1 Indische studien, 4, 372. 

I. Su-par^ia, * well-winged,' designates a large bird of prey, 
the 'eagle' or the 'vulture,' in the Rigveda^ and later.' In 
the passages in which it appears as an eater of carrion^ it must 
be the vulture. The Jaiminlya Brahmana* mentions an eagle 
which separates milk from water like the Kruftc. In the 
Rigveda^ the Suparna is said to be the child of the l^yena, and 
is distinguished from the latter in another passage:" this led 
Zimmer' to think that the falcon is probably meant. The 
Atharvaveda alludes to its cry, and describes it as living in 
the hills.io 

^ i. 164, 20; ii. 42, 2 ; iv. 26, 4 ; '' x. 144,4. 

viii. 100, 8 ; ix. 48, 3, etc. ii. 42, 2. 

> Av. i. 24, 1 ; ii. 27, 2 ; 30, 3 ; iv.6, 3, , ' Altindischts Leben, 88. 
etc. ; Taittiriya Satphita, vii. 5, 8, 5, In the post-Vedic period Suparna 

etc. I became a mythical bird, identified with 



* Maitr^yani 3amhit&, iv. 9, 19 ; 
Taittiriya Aranyaka, iv. 29. 

* ii. 438 (Journal of the American 



Visnu's vehicle, Garuda, who, however, 
is also regarded as king of the Suparnas. 
ii. 30, 3. 







Oriental Society, 19, loi). v. 4, 2. 



456 THE GAUPAYANA BROTHERS A PRIEST [ Suparna 

2. Supar];ia is personified in the Yajurveda Samhitas^ as 
a R^i. 

' Taittirlya Saiphita, iv. 3, 3, 2 ; Kftthaka SarphiUl, xxxix. 7. 

Su-pitrya, a word occurring once in the Rigveda/ is prob- 
ably an adjective (* maintaining his paternal character well '). 
Ludwig,^ however, regards it, but without any great prob- 
ability, as a proper name. 

* X. 115, 6. ' Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 169. 

Su-pratita AuluQdya is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
Bphaspatigrupta, in the Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

1 Indische Studien, 4, 372. 

Suplan Sarfljaya is the name of a prince of the Srryayas 
who was taught the Daksayana sacrifice by Pratidar^, and 
took the name of Sahadeva as a token of his success.^ 

1 ^atapatha Brahmana, ii. 4, 4, 4 ; 1 Sacrifice, 139 ; Hillebrandt, Vedische 
xii. 8, 2, 3. Cf. Levi, La Doctrine du \ Mythologie, i, 105, 106. 

Su-bandhu in the hymns of the Rigveda^ is taken by Sayana 
to be a proper name; but this is not certain, Roth^ seeing in 
the passages only an ordinary noun meaning * a good friend.' 
The later tradition^ explains that Subandhu and his brothers, 
called Gaupayanas, were priests of Asamati, who cast them off 
and took two others, Kirata and Akuli. By these two in 
pigeon form Subandhu was caused to swoon, but was revived 
by his three brothers, who recited certain hymns."* 

1 X. 59, 8 ; 60, 7. 10. * Rv. X. 57-60. 

2 St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. i. Cf. Max MuUer, /ora/ of the Royal 

3 Brhaddevata, vii. 83 et seq., with ' Asiatic Society, 2, 420-455; Oldenbei^, 
Macdonell's notes. See also Asam&ti, 1 Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndiscken 
n. I. ! Gesellschaft, 39, 90. 

Su-brahmapya in the Brahmanas^ denotes a priest who 
officiates as one of the three assistants of the UdgStr (see Rtvy). 
His office is Subrahmanya.^ 

* Pancaviip^ Br&hmana, xxv. 4, 6 ; j 12 ; Kau^itaki Br3,hmana, xxvii. 6, etc. 

18, 4 ; ^atapatha Br&hmana, iii. 3, 4, 9. The priest himself is so styled, Aitareya 

C/. Weber, />i<iAS/iii>, 10, 362,374. Brihmana, vii. i, 2; Pancaviip^a 

^ Aitareya Br&hma^a, vi. 3, 1-7. 11. ! Brfthmaiia, xviii. 9, 19, etc. 



SumOha ] NAMES 4S7 

Su-bhagra, in the vocative stibhage, is a frequent form of 
courteous address to women from the Rigveda onwards.* 

^ Rv. X. lo, lo. 12 ; io8, 3 ; Av. v. 5, 6; vi. 30, 3, etc. 

Su-bhadrika occurs in the A^vamedha (' horse sacrifice ') 
section of the Yajurveda* as in some way connected with the 
rite. Weber 2 thinks that a proper name, that of the wife of the 
king of Kampfla, is intended, but Mahidhara^ explains the 
word merely as a lady with many lovers or a courtezan, a view 
followed by Roth.'* Since the Taittirlya** and Kathaka Sarn- 
hitas have no Subhadrika, but a vocative subhage (see Subhagu), 
the sense remains very doubtful. 

1 Vajasaneyi Samhita, xxiii. 18 {cf. j bhadraka, ib; Bohtlingk's Dictionary, 
Satapatba Brahmana, xiii. 2, 8, 3) ; | s.v. 2a. 
Maitrayani Samhita, iii. 12, 20. 

2 Indische Studien, i, 183, 184; Indian 
Literature, 114, 115. Cf. Grifi&th, Trans- 
lation of the vajasaneyi Samhita, 212, n. 

3 On vajasaneyi Samhita, loc. cit. 



6 vii. 4, 19, I ; Taittiriya Brahmana, 
iii. 9, 6. 

' Aivamedha, iv. 8. 

Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 36, 
37 ; Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 



* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. su- \ 44, 321, 322. 

Sumati-tsaru. See Tsaru. 



Su-mantra Babhrava (' descendant of Babhru ') Gautama 
(* descendant of Gotama ') is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
lua Vahneya Bharadvaja, in the Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

1 Indtsche Studien, 4, 373. 



Su-mitra Vadhrya^va (' descendant of Vadhrya^va ') is the 
name of a Rsi in the Rigveda,* where also^ the Sumitras, his 
family, are mentioned. 

* X. 69, 3. 5. 

' X. 69, I. 7. 8. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 133. 

Su-milha is the name of a patron in the Rigveda.* 

* vi. 63, 9. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 158. 



458 NAMES GOOD PASTURE LIQUOR [ Sumedha 

Su-medha occurs in an obscure hymn of the Rigveda^ either 
as an adjective ('of good understanding') or a proper name, 
perhaps identical with Nfmedha or his brother. 

1 X. 132, 7. Cf. Ladwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 133 ; Griffith. Hymns 
of the Rigvtda, 2, 579, n. 



Sumna-yu is mentioned in the Vaip^a (list of teachers) at the 
end of the ^ahkhayana Aranyaka (xv. i) as a pupil of Udda- 
laka. 

Su-yajfta l^a^idilya is the name of a pupil of Kamsa Varakya 
in the Jaiminlya Upanisad Brahmana (iv. 17, i). Another 
Suyajna is a iSarikhayana, author of the Grhya Sutra. 

Su-yavasa denotes a * good pasture ' in the Rigveda^ and 
later.2 

1 i. 42, 8 ; vi. 28, 7 ; vii. 18, 4, etc. ' Taittiriya Saiphit&, i. 7, 5, 2, etc. 

Sura is the name of an intoxicating ' spirituous liquor,' 
often mentioned in Vedic literature. In some passages^ it is 
referred to favourably, in others with decided disapproval.^ It 
is classed with the use of meat and with dicing as an evil in the 
Atharvaveda, and often with dicing.^ It was, as opposed to 
Soma, essentially a drink of ordinary life.^ It was the drink of 
men in the Sabha, and gave rise to broils.' 

Its exact nature is not certain. It may have been a strong 
spirit prepared from fermented grains and plants, as Eggeling 

1 Rv. i. 116, 7; X. 131, 4. 5. Cf. See n. 4. 

Av. iv. 34, 6; X. 6, 5 ; Taittiriya Sam- '' Rv. viii, 2, 12; 21, 14. Cf. Kathaka 



bits, i. 3. 3, 2 ; ^atapatba Br&hmana, 
xii. 7, 3, 8. 

' Rv, vii. 86, 6 ; viii. 2, 12 ; 21, 14 ; 
Maitrayani SatphitS,, i. 11,6; ii. 4, 2 ; 
iv. 2, I, etc. 

vi. 70, I. Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns 
of the Atharvaveda, 493. 

* Rv. vii. 86, 6; Av. xiv. i, 35. 36; 
XV. 9, I. 2. 

Taittiriya Br&hmana, i. 3, 3, 2. 



Saqihit^ xiv 6 ; ^atapatba Brahmana, 
i. 6, 3, 4 ; MaitrS.yani Samhit&, ii. 4, 2, 
etc. 

* Sabred Books of the East, 44. 223. 
n. 2 ; Caland, Altindischts Zauberritual, 
21, n. I ; Zimmer, Altindischts Lebtn, 
280,281. C/. Katyiyana ^rauta SQtra. 
xix. 1, 20-27 ; Mahidhara on Vajasaneyi 
Saiphita, xix. i. 



Suvasana ] DISTILLER SICKNESS GOLD GARMENT 



459 



holds, or, as Whitney thought, a kind of beer or ale. 
Geldner**^ renders it * brandy.' It is sometimes mentioned in 
connexion with Madhu.^^ It was kept in skins.^^ 

were rival priestly drinks at one time, 
belonging to different sections of the 
people. 

1' Pancavim&i BrcLhmana, xiv. ii, 26. 
Cf. Rv. i. 191. lo. 

Cf. Hop]s.ins, Journal 0/ the American 
Oriental Society, 13, lai. 



* Translation of the Atharvaveda, 
aoy. Cf. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiqui' 
ties, 326. 

^^ Rigveda, Glossar, 198. 

^^ Av. vi, 69, I ; ix. I, 18. 19 ; V4ja- 
saneyi SaqahitcL, xix. 95. See Hille- 
brandt, Vedische Mythologie, i, 251, who 
attempts to show that Sur& and Soma 



Sura-kara, * maker of Sura,' is included in the list of victims 
at the Purusamedha ('human sacrifice') in the Yajurveda.^ 



* Vajasaneyi Sambit, xxx. 11 ; Tait- 
tiriya Br&hmana, iii. 4, 7, i. Cf. 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 281, who 



compares Rv. i. 191, 10, which may 
refer to such a person. 



Su-radhas is the name of a man in the Rigveda (i. 100, 17), 
where he is mentioned with Ambapia and others. 



Surama in the Rigveda^ refers to the illness caused by 
drinking Sura to excess. Indra is described as suffering from 
it in the Namuci legend.^ Later Surama^ was treated as an 
epithet of Soma, meaning * delightful.' 



* X. 131. 5- 

* Bloomfield, Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, 15. 148 et seq. 

* Or Sur3.man. Cf. Vajasaneyi Sam- 



hitS, xxi. 42 ; Maitr&yani Samhitft, 
iii. II, 4 ; iv. 12, 5. Hillebrandt, Vedische 
Mythologie, i, 245 et seq., renders it 
' Sura mixed,' which is doubtful. 



Su-varna, ' beautiful coloured,* is an epithet of gold (Hirariya), 
and then comes to be used as a substantive denoting ' gold.' 

iii. 12. 6, 6; ^atapatha BrShmana, xi. 4, 
I, 8, etc. ; Chelndogya Upanifad, i. 6, 6; 
iii. 19, I ; iv. 17, 7, etc. 



4. 7. 4 



^ Taittiriya Br^hmana, 
8, 9, I, etc. 
' Av. XV. I, 2 ; Taittiriya Brclhmana, 



Su-vasana in the Rigveda denotes a 'splendid garment,'* 
and is also used adjectivally, 'clothing well.'* Su-vSsas, 'well- 
dressed,' is a common adjective.^ See Vasas. 

1 vi. 51, 4. I Rv. i. IZ4, 7; iii. 8, 4 ; X. 71, 4, etc. 

' ix. 97, 50. I Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 263. 



46o RIVERS NAMES [ Suv&atu 

Su-vastu (' having fair dwellings ') is the name of a river in the 
Rigveda.^ It is clearly the Soastos of Arrian* and the modern 
Swat, a tributary of the Kubha (Kabul river) which is itself an 
affluent of the Indus. 



* viii. 19, 37 , Nirukta, iv. 15. 

* IndUa, iv. 11. 

Cf. Roth, Nirukta, Erlduterungen, 43 ; 



Zimmer, Altindisches Lehen, 18; Ludwig, 
Translation of the Rigveda, 3. 200 ; 
Imperial Gazetteer of India, 23, 187. 



Su-i$arada iSalafikayana is the name of a teacher, a pupil of 
Uijayant Aupamanyava, in the Vamsa Brahmana.^ 

* Indischt Studien, 4, 372. 

1. Su-sravas is the name of a man in the Rigveda (i. 53, 9) 
according to Sayana. 

2. Su-6ravas is the name of the father of Upagfu Sau^ravasa 
in the Pancavirnsa Brahmana (xiv. 6, 8). 

3. Su-iravas Kauya is the name of a teacher, a con- 
temporary of Kui^pi VajaiSravasa, in the Satapatha Brahmana 
(x. 5, 5, I et seq.). 

4. Su-6ravas Vara-g'apya (' descendant of Vrsagana ') is the 
name of a teacher, a pupil of Pratarahna Kauhala, in the 
Vam^a Brahmana.^ 

1 Indische Studien, 4, 372. 

Su-$aman is the name of a man in one verse of the Rigveda,^ 
and probably forms part of the strange name, Varo Susaman, 
in other passages.^ Cf. Varu. 

1 viii 25, 22 ; possibly 60, 18. I Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rig- 

* viii. 23, 28; 24, 28 ; 26, 2. I veda, 3, 162. 

Su-$oma occurs certainly as the name of a river in the Nadi- 
stuti (* praise of rivers ') in the Rigveda.^ In two other passages 
it would seem to be a proper name, once masculine,- perhaps 

^ ^- 75> 5 ; Nirukta, ix. 26, where it is absurdly identified with the Sindlia 
(Indus). ' viii. 7, 29. 



Sukara ] A RIVER A SEER WILD BOAR 461 

the people, and once feminine,^ though Roth* sees in the word 
the designation of a Soma vessel. Its identification is quite 
uncertain, though it has been thought to be the Xoavo^ of 
Megasthenes,^ the modern Suwan. 

' viii. 64, II. I C/. Hillebrandt, Vedhche Mythologie, 

* St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 2. i, 126 et seq. ; Max lAvAXn, Sacred Boohs 



See Arrian, /diVa, iv. 12; Schwan- 
beck, Megasthenes, 31, where there is a 
various reading Zia/xor. 



of the East, 32, 398, 399 ; Zimmer, 
Altindisches Lehen, 12-14. 



Su-sartu is the name of a river in the Nadi-stuti (* praise of 
rivers ') in the Rigveda.^ That it was a tributary of the Indus 
is certain, but which one is unknown. 

* X. 75, 6. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 14; Ludwig, Translation of the 
Rigveda, 3, 200. 



Su-havis Ang-irasa (' descendant of Ahgiras ') is the name of 
the seer of a Saman or chant in the Pancavirn^a Brahmana 
(xiv. 3, 25). 

Su-kara * wild boar,' has the appearance of being an onomato- 
poetic word ('making the sound su'); it is more probably a 
very old word going back to the Indo-European period, and 
cognate with the Latin su-culus (' little pig ') being transformed 
in sense by popular etymology.^ It occurs in the Rigveda ^ 
and later.^ It appears once in the Atharvaveda accompanied 
by tnrga,'^ the combined words apparently meaning * wild hog,' 
as opposed to Varaha, * boar.' 



1 The sit- corresponding to Lat. su-s, 
Gk. 5-, Old High German, sit. Cf. 
Brugmann, Grundriss, 2^, 483. 

' vii. 55, 4. 

3 Av. ii. 27, 2 ; V. 14, I ; MaitrayanI 
Saiphita, iii. 14, 21 ; Vajasaneyi Saip- 
hita, xxiv. 40 ; ChSndogya Upanisad, 



Royal Asiatic Society, 1906, 881, n.), 
though the Rajcinighantu, vii. 85, gives 
Sahara as meaning the Batatas edulis. 

* xii. I, 48. The use of ntrga here 
does not indicate that sukara is a new 
name, because the latter word elsewhere 
always occurs alone both in the Rigveda 



V. 10, 2, etc. None of the passages and later (n. 3). Cf. Mrga above, 2, 

refer to the flesh as eaten : Buddha's 1 172, n. 3. 

death was due to a meal of sUkara- Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 82 ; 

ma<^va, which may well mean 'tender j Pischel, Vedische Studien, i, 100. 

parts of pork ' (see Fleet, Journal of the I 



463 HYMN NEEDLE INSECT COURT OFFICIAL [ SukU 

Sukta, * well uttered,' is the regular term for a ' hymn ' as 
part of the ^astra in the later Sarphitas^ and the Brahmanas.^ 
The sense of * hymn ' must also be recognized in several 
passages of the Rigveda.' 



* Taittirlya SaiphiUl, v. 4, 5, 3 ; 
vil I, 5, 4, etc 

' Aitareya BrcLhmana, ii. 33; iii. 11, 
9.12-15; iv. 21,5; vi. 8, 10; Kau^Itaki 
Br&bmana, xiv. i ; xv. 3 ; Satapatha 



Brahmana, xiii. 5, i, 18; Nirukta, 
iv. 6 ; xi, 16. 

i. 42, 20 ; 171, 1 ; ii. 6, 2 ; vii, 29, 3, 
etc. 



Suoi, * needle,' is found in the Rigveda^ and later.* 



* ii. 32. 4 

* Av. xi. 10, 3 ; Vajasaneyi Saqibitd,, 
xxiii. 33 ; Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 9, 
6, 4 ; Aitau'eya BrS,bmana, iii. 18, 6 ; 
Satapatha BrcLhmana, xiii. 2, 10, 2. 3 ; 



Jaiminiya Brfthmana, ii. 10 ; Jaiminlya 
Upanisad Brahmana, i. 10, 3 (Oertel, 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
16, 228). 



Sucika is the name of a stinging insect in the Rigveda.^ 

1 i. 191, 7. Cf. Zimmer, Altindiuhes Leben, 98. 



Suta is the name of a court official who is often mentioned 
with the Gramapl. He is one of the eight Viras in the Panca- 
virpsa Brahmana,^ and of the eleven Ratnins in other texts.* 
He also appears in the Atharvaveda' among the kingmakers 
(Rajakft) and in the ^atrarudriya* ('section dealing with the 
hundred Rudras ') of the Yajurveda, The commentators are 
agreed in seeing in him the ' charioteer ' (Sarathi) or * master of 
the horse,' of the king ; this sense is accepted by Roth,^ by 
Whitney, and by Bloomfield.'' But the fact that the Saiji- 



1 ix. I, 4, where he follows the 
chief queen (MahisI), and precedes the 
Gr&mani in the list. 

3 Kathaka Samhit&, xv. 4 ; Maitrayani 
Samhita, ii. 6, 5 ; iv. 3, 8 ; Taittiriya 
Br&hmana, i. 7, 3, i; Taittiriya Sam- 
hit&, i. 8, 9, I ; Satapatha Brahmana, 
V. 3. I, 5- 

' iii. 5. 7- 

* Taittiriya Br&hmana, iv. 5, 2, i ; 
K&thaka SaiphitA, xvii. 2; Maitr&yani 
SaiphitA, ii. 9, 3 ; V&jasaneyi Saqihit&, 



xvi. 18. So also in the list of victims at 
the Purusamedha ('human sacrifice'), 
Vajasaneyi Samhita. xxx.6; Taittiriya 
Brahmana, iii. 4, 2, 1. For other refer- 
ences to the SQta, see Taittiriya Brah- 
mana, ii. 7, 18, 4 ; Satapatha Brahmana, 
V. 4, 4, 7 ; xiii. 4, 2, 5 ; 7, i, 43 ; Katbaka 
Sarphita, xxviii. 3 ; Bfhadaranyaka 
Upanisad, iv. 3, 37. 38. 

" St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 

* Translation of the Atbarvaveda, 62. 

' Hymns 0/ the^Atharvaveda, 114. 



Suda ] DARREN COW THREAD SOMA ADMIXTURE 



463 



grahitf, who occurs in several passages beside the Suta, is the 
'charioteer,' renders this version improbable. Eggeling* thinks 
that he was, in the Brahmanas at least, a minstrel and court 
poet, while Weber considers that his name denotes him as 
* consecrated ' that is, one who has constant access to the 
king. In the Epic the Suta serves as a royal herald and 
bard : ^ it may be that the curious words ahantt,^ ahantya,^^ or 
ahantva^^ a