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Schlesinger Library 
Radcliffe College 

Culinary Collection 

From the Collection of 
Sophie Coe 

!«4fe i 










Author cf "Fruits and Farinacea," 






This Tolmue meets a want long felt. Vegetables, fruits, etc., 
constttnte the half of our daily food : the present work is npon 
the best possible preparation of this half. Cookeiy-books exist 
in abundance ; but they relate almost exclusiyely to the prepara- 
tion of dishes from animal food. Herein will be found full 
instructions for the proper cooking of yegetables, preserving and 
pickling, the preparation of sauces, soups, beyerages, etc., etc., the 
work forming a complete treatise upon the subject. To thousands 
of the wealthy it wiU be a great boon, as showing them how to 
secure the choicest dishes ; to other classes it will be of equal 
Talne, as affording the most economical dishes. 


In pnrsiiance of the command, " Be froitfcd, and multiply, and 
replenish the earth, and subdue it," mankind are rapidly extend- 
ing their dominion over the whole habitable portion of the globe ; 
they are denizens of every climate ; and both land and ocean 
supply them -with a dwelling-place. Their food must, conse- 
quently, be of a yery yaried character, and much of it would be 
unpalatable and indigestible without some artificial preparation. 
Hence has arisen the art of cookery, which has been carried to 
such excess by complicated processes, high seasoning, and hetero- 
geneous compounds, as often to render the food injurious rather 
than wholesome. Instead of adhering to the simple diet of nature 
as closely as climate, the engagements of civic and social life, and 
other circumstances would permit, man seems to have been con-> 
triving how he could depart the farthest from it. We should, 
howeyer, rather regard his present habits as the gradual and 
cumulatiye results of circnmstances, before science and rational 
inquiry had any influence in directing them. 

The more highly flavoured and the more stimulating man 
renders his food, for the purpose of pampering a vitiated palate, 
the greater variety and the more frequent changes will he require 


to avoid disgust ; whereas the simpler and more natural his diet, 
the more enjoyment and the somider health will he possess. 

All substances requiring the cnlinary art to develop or modify 
their nntritive properties, should be prepared with as strict a 
regard to organization and the physiological laws as possible. 
Each organ employed in the process of digestion has its peculiar 
fanction, and its integrity is best maintained, not by immunity 
from labour, but by regular exercise, with alternate periods of 
rest. If we attempt by artificial means to render the legitimate 
exercise of any organ unnecessary, we shall certainly impair or 
weaken its function ; and this observation is as applicable to the 
internal organs as to the extenud limbs. No alimentary sub- 
stance, therefore, should be cooked to such excess as to leave the 
organs little or nothing to do. Any article softened or diluted to 
such a degree as to render mastication unnecessary is injurious 
to the teeth ; and the admixture of the saliva with the food, so 
essential to the digestion of aU farinaceous substances, will, in a 
great measure, be prevented. Aliments thus prepared should, at 
any rate, be used sparingly, or along with other substances of 
greater consistency. 

All food in a hot state, whether solid or liquid, should be care- 
fully avoided, as it acts injuriously on the teeth, debilitates the 
stomach, and, through it, every other organ and portion of the 
animal system. Heat stimulates the nerves of taste, but, like 
most other stimulants, it weakens their power of appreciating the 
delicate flavours of the best and most wholesome articles of food, 
and renders our gustatory ex]goyment much less complete. 

In culinary preparations we should not aim to concentrate too 
highly the nutritive qualities of food, for this would certainly 


proye mjnrionB. In all food nature has combined nntritioiis with 
innutritioafl matter, and we frequently err by ntdng art to sepa- 
rate the one from the other, as their nnion is generally necessary 
to good digestion and perfect nutrition. 

Improper combinations of different kinds of food, and too great 
a variety at one time, should be ayoided ; for it is impossible that 
the human organs should digest, equally well, substances of an 
entirely different nature, when taken together. An almost endless 
variety of food adapted to the organization of man has been pro- 
vided for him, but not for the purpose of intimate mixture, or of 
being used at the same time ; simplicity of food at each meal 
being essential to man's highest well-being. Great simplicity, 
however, is consistent with endless variety, if a periodical routine 
of two or three well-selected dishes for each day be adopted. 

It is intended in this work to show how great a variety, and 
what numerous changes of palatable and nutritious preparations, 
may be made from the products of the vegetable kingdom with the 
addition of eggs and milk. 

High seasonings should be either altogether rejected, or be 
used with caution ; it is better that they should keep their place 
as medicines, and be used only when states of the system denoting 
a deviation from health render their use necessary. 

Food well and plainly cooked, and thoroughly masticated, will, 
when the stomach and other alimentary organs are in order, be 
easily digested ; and excessive alimentation, the fruitfal source of 
many painful and fatal diseases, will thus be avoided. 

All operations In cookery should be conducted with the greatest 
possible attention to cleanliness, neatness, elegance, and economy. 
The food of man as provided by nature is agreeable to the senses 


of sight, smell, and taste, and all artificial preparations should be 
calculated to produce similar results. An elegant taste, howeyer, 
mil be ^ore rationally employed in rendering a plain, wholesome, 
and nutritions dish inciting, than in embellishing trifles, custards, 
and other rich productions, which are more adapted to create 
indigestion than to satisfy a natural appetite. 



Objects of Cookery, etc 1 

Cooking processes 18 

Application of cooking processes to the preparation of ) 25 

fruit, grain, etc J 

To preserve fruit for fature use 82 

Fruits preserved with sugar 89 

To preserve vegetables with salt 55 

Grain reduced to meal or flour ...... 68 

Bread 69 

Rich cakes, fancy biscuits, etc 84 

Pastry for pies, puddings, etc 100 

To boil roots, tubers, etc 113 

To boil cabbages, savoys, cauliflowers, headed broccoli, etc. 121 

Mushrooms 129 

Salads 130 

AtiittulI products • « 131 

Miscellaneous combinations 188 

Puddings 143 

Custards, blanc-manges, fruit creams, etc. . . . 174 

Colouring for jellies and creams 179 

Pies, tarts, pasties, etc 179 

Omelets, fritters, pancakes, etc 187 



Soups, sauces, picUes, etc 196 

Beverages 229 

Oleaginous mixtures 233 

Breakfast 233 

Dinner 234 

Weights and Measures . 235 


1. The objects of this Cookery are : 1st. By means of moistnre 
and heat, yarionsly applied, to render any nutritive substance 
more agreeable to the palate ; to expel from it any principle which 
would be injurious to the animal economy ; to reduce any strong 
fibrous structure ; and to bring it to a proper consistency for the 
teeth and digestive organs. 2nd. To point out the best known 
means of mingling, combming, and otherwise preparing various 
articles of diet, so as to render the compound pleasing to the eye, 
agreeable to the taste, suitable to the stomach, and nutritive to 
the system. 8rd. To describe the most successful methods of 
preserving and storing perishable nutritive substances. 

(1.) Roots, Tubers, and Subterraneous Stems. 

2. The principal roots, etc., used as human food in this 
country, are turnips, carrots, parsneps, beet, potatoes, Jerusalem 
artichokes, scorzonera, rampions, radishes, and skirret. 

Turnips. — These are of various sorts, all containing albumen 
and sugar. The French navet is a variety, and has more the 
shape of a carrot. It has a very fine flavour, and two or three of 
them are said to give as much flavour to soups as a dozen com- 
mon turnips. The peculiar flavour resides in the rind, which 
should not be cut off, but only scraped. 

Carrots. — They contain crystallizable and uncrystallizable 
sugar, a little starch, extractive, gluten, albumen, etc. They 
contain about 14 per cent, of nutritive matter. The outer or red 

« B 


part is the most pulpy and the sweetest, the yellow or central part 
more stringy. The greater the proportion of the external part, 
the more yaloable the carrot. 

Parsneps, — Similar in quality to carrots. 

Red Beet. — This root contains a large portion of crystal- 
lizable sugar, albumen, fibrine, extractive, fixed oil, etc. When 
thoroughly boiled, or baked in an oven, it is sweet, agreeable, 
tolerably digestible, and contains about 15 per cent, of nutritiye 
matter. It is used as a garnish, a pickle, and a salad. 

Potatoes. — ^Next to the cerelia, these are the most important 
and valuable of the esculent -vegetables, and were introduced from 
America by Sir Walter Baleioh in the year 1584, but their cul- 
tivation in England did not become general till about 1760. 

When in good condition, and cooked by boiling, potatoes form 
a nutritious and easily digestible article of diet, though they con- 
tain little nitrogen, their principal ingredient being starch. As 
ordinarily cooked, or sliced raw into vinegar, potatoes are an ad- 
mirable preservative against scurvy ; this is probably due to the 
presence of citric acid. 

BrighVs Universal Sanative Breakfast Beverage appears to 
be a mixture of potato-starch and chocolate. 

Jerusalem Artichokes. — Natives of Brazil, brought to England 
in 1617. They contain about 15 per cent, of sugar, 77 per cent, 
of water, and small portions of inuline, gum, albumen, fixed oil, 
etc. They are much relished by some persons, either boiled, 
roasted, or used in soups, and are considered wholesome and nu- 

Dioscorea Batatas, or Chinese Yam, is being introduced into 
France and England, and is said to be likely to supersede the 

Salsify, or Goafs Beard (Tragopogon porrifolim), — Boots 
long, white, and fleshy, tapering like the parsnep ; flavour mild 
and sweetish. The roots may be boiled and dressed like aspara-' 
gus ; and the flower-stalks, if cut in spring on the second year 
before they become hard, make a good dish, dressed as aspara- 
gus. When the roots are fried, they are said to resemble smelts 
in flavour. See 186. 


Seorzonera, or Viper's Grass {Seorzonera Hispanica). — A. 
hardy perennial, with a stem from two to three feet long. The 
roots are blaok externally, white and fleshy within, and sweet in 
taste, especially when cooked. Previously to being cooked they 
should be scraped and steeped in water, to remove their bitter 

Bampions (Campanula rapunculus), — ^Roots long, white, and 
spindle-shaped. They are indigenous, and are eaten raw like a 
radish, having a pleasant nutty flavour. 

Hamburg Parsley {Apium petrosilinum^ var. Tuberoswrn). — 
Boots cooked as parsneps. • 

Radishes (Raphanus sativus), — These do not contain much 
nutriment. When boiled, they are more digestible than when 
eaten raw; in the latter state, some persons eat them with sugar 
in preference to salt. 

Skirret {Sium sisarum). — ^Woblidge, in 1682, calls this the 
sweetest, whitest, and most pleasant of roots. It is perennial, 
and a native of China. It has bunches of fusiform, fleshy roots, 
of a russet colour externally, white within. Flavour mild, sugary, 
and slightly like celery. It may be boiled, fried, or used in 

3. Some roots, etc., as turnips, carrots, radishes, are palat- 
able and wholesome, in small quantities, uncooked ; others, as 
potatoes, require the aid of heat to render them either pleasant to 
the taste or digestible. The starch with which they abound is 
converted by heat into dextrine, in which state it is more soluble ; 
but even raw potatoes, washed, pared, and sliced into vinegar, 
are very beneflcial when used as a salad in scorbutic complaints. 

When roots, tubers, etc., are stored for future use, they should 
not be cleansed from the loose earth, lest the fibres be injured, 
and the evaporation from them increased. 

Previously to being cooked, they should be washed very clean, 
a brush being employed when necessary ; they should not be 
pared. Beet-root should not even be scraped, nor should the 
fibres or smaller divisions of the root be removed, as it would 
destroy the colour. 

Tubers and roots should not be divided or cut into smaller 

B 2 


portions, except when they are too large for the heat of the water 
to penetrate them sufficiently to render them tender, or when in- 
tended for soup. Large turnips may be peeled and cut into quar- 
ters ; old potatoes in spring should be peeled or scored round 
with a knife, and cleaned from specks ; large carrots should be 
cut in two, and split a few inches at the top. 

Some potatoes, when taken from the winter store, are improved 
by being peeled and steeped in cold water for ten or twelve hours, 
before they are boiled. The water absorbed during the steeping 
is afterwards driven out by the heat, and with it any bad flavour 
the potatoes may have acquired. 

Turnips and parsneps may likewise be soaked in cold water; 
turnips being previously peeled. 

(2.) Bulbous Roots, or Buds and Young Shoots, 

4. Onions f Leeks., Garlic, ShaUoU, Chives, and Rocamboles. 
— All these owe their peculiar odour and flavour, as well as their 
pungent and stimulatiug qualities, to an acrid volatile oil, which 
contains sulphur. This oil becomes absorbed, quickens the cir- 
culation, and occasions thirst. If the. volatile oil be dissipated 
by boiling, these bulbs, or rather buds, no longer possess any 
acrid or stimulating qualities. They then form mild mucilagi- 
nous, saccharine, digestible aliments, whereas in the raw state, 
that is, with the oil, they are pungent, acrid, stimulating, and 
difficult to digest. When eaten in this state they should be 
minutely divided and thoroughly masticated, otherwise the saliva 
and other secretions cannot act upon them readily, and much 
inconvenience is frequently experienced. 

Professor Johnston says, the onion is remarkably nutritious, 
containing from 25 to 80 per cent, of gluten. Socbateb, in 
Xenophon, attributes to the onion the virtue of augmenting the 
force and courage of warriors. 

Garlic is composed of several oblong subordinate bulbs, which 
have been named cloves. 

Leeks are less acrimonious than onions or garlic. 


ShalloUf Chives, and Rocamboles possess similar properties 
to those aboTe mentioned. 

Asparagus, — This, as a green yegetable, is generally much 
relished, and is considered nutritive and digestible. 

(3.) Leaves, Leaf-stalks, and Bracts. 

5. The principal esculents to be enumerated under this head 
are : Ist, brassicaceous plants (cabbages) in great variety, in- 
cluding cfum de Milan, couve Tronchuda, Brussels sprouts, bore- 
cole, or kale, broccoli, cauliflower, Savoy, etc. ; sea-kale, lettuce, 
endive, celery, stalks of the silver beet, artichokes, spinach, 
and numerous pot herbs, as mustard, garden-cress, water-cress, 
parsley, mint, thyme, marjoram, sage, rue, savory, tarragon, 
tansy, basil, borage, chervil, clary, fennel, horse-radish, alisander, 
sorrel, etc., also rhubarb, and artichokes. 

*'The cabbage is an especially nutritious vegetable,'' says 
Professor Johnston. *' The dried leaf contains, according to my 
analysis, from 30 to 35 per cent, of gluten, (about 2*5 in the 
natural state), and is, in this respect, therefore, more nutritious 
than any other vegetable food which is consumed to a large extent 
by men and animals. I know, indeed, of only two exceptions, 
the mushroom, which in its dry matter contains sometimes as much 
as 56 per cent, of gluten, and the dried cauliflower, in which 
the gluten occasionally rises as high as 64 per cent. Like peas, 
beans, and other articles abounding in nitrogen, they require the 
addition of oily or fatty matter." 

M. Chevbeul has ascertained that sulphuretted hydrogen is 
disengaged during the boiling of cabbages, turnips, onions, etc., 
which, in aU probability, is the source of the disagreeable odour 
The same author recommends water charged with common salt, 
for boiling such herbs, as it renders them agreeable and saccharine 
in taste. Not more than an ounce of salt to a quart of water, if 
the object is to soften and reduce the strong fibres ; a stronger 
solution will preserve the tissues from being too much acted upon 
by the water, and from being rendered too pulpy. Care should be 
taken to continue the cooking till the vegetables are quite tender. 


The Couve Tronchuda is grown chiefly for the mid-ribs of the 
outward large leaves, which, when divested of their green parts 
and well boiled, resemble sea-kale. The heart or middle part of 
the plant, however, is the best for use ; it is peculiarly delicate, 
tender, and agreeably flavoured, without any of the coarseness 
which often belongs to the cabbage tribe. The dwarf variety, 
murcianay is much more tender. 

Celery. — The whole plant is used either in a green or blanched 
state, as well as its seeds. . In the former, apd also in the latter 
form, it is used to flavour soups. 

CeleriaCf or Turnip-rooted Celery. — The root is cut into slices 
and used in German salads, both roots and leaves are cooked as 

Lettuce is one of our best salad herbs. It is eaten raw in 
French salads, with cream, oil, vinegar, salt, hard-boiled eggs, 
etc. It is excellent when stewed, and is frequently used in vege- 
table soups. 

Galen employed boiled lettuce, when fatigued or exhausted by 
labour, in order to procure tranquil sleep. ** Lettuce abounds in 
a cooling, bland, pellucid juice ; but the more advanced plant 
contains a bitter, milky juice, which has a slight tendency to 
promote sleep. Hence lettuce leaves are eaten at supper by those 
troubled with watchfcdness." 

Endive. — The leaves are the only parts used, and these only 
when blanched to diminish the natural bitterness of taste. It is 
one of our best autumn, winter, and spring salads, and is also 
stewed like lettuce. 

Succory. — The leaves are blauched, and used as a winter salad. 
In Belgium the roots are scraped, boiled, and eaten along with 
potatoes, or with a sauce of butter and vinegar. 

Dandelion^ tarragon, mustard, cresses, purslane, chervil, rape, 
corn-salad, the radish, etc. 

Silver Beet. — The mid-ribs may be stewed as celery, and the 
soft part of the leaf used as spinach. 

Respecting the aromatic herbs, see 18. 

6. All vegetables should be gathered on a dry day, but 
not when the heat of the sun is very strong upon them. In 


general they shoxild be used as fresh as possible, but artichokes 
are said to be improyed by being kept two or three days before 
they are used. Green vegetables should not be put in water for 
the purpose of keeping them fresh, as it would dissolye and 
destroy some of their juices ; they should be laid on a brick or 
stone floor, in a cool place, and not divested of their outer leaves 
till they are wanted. The best way of refreshing them is to cut 
off a portion of the stem %nd set the cut part in water, of which 
the vegetable will then absorb a portion to supply the leaves and 
make up for what has been lost by evaporation. When about to 
use them, remove all dead, tough, coarse, and useless leaves ; if 
perfectly clean and free from insects they need not be washed, but 
cabbages, cauliflowers, and headed broccoli should lie an hour 
or more in spring water, with a little salt. Before boiling them 
shake them well in a colander, so as to remove all the cold water 
from them, and take great care that no caterpillars or snails are 
concealed in them. 

Cut off the stems of artichokes quite close, trim away the 
lower leaves, clip the points of all the others, and let the artichokes 
soak half an hour or more. 

When peas and beans are not used immediately after being 
shelled, cover them with the pods. 

The stalk ends of asparagus, cucumbers, and vegetable-marrow 
may be put in cold water to keep them fresh. 

(4.) Flowbeless Plants. 

7. The flowerless plants yielding human food, are ferns, 
lichens, sea-weeds, fungi, mushrooms. 

The rhizomes of ferns and lichens are seldom resorted to for 
food, except in times of scarcity ; Iceland moss is used principally 
as a medicine. Several kinds of sea-weed, known by the names 
laver dulse 1 sweet tangle ^ etc., are much relished, and yield a 
strong jelly of starch or pectine. Among these may be men- 
tioned FticTis scorattLSj ciliatuSypinnatifiduSj palmatm, digitatus, 
esculentus^ natans^ and crispus (pearl or carrageen moss) ; also 
Agar-agar^ and Qracelaria lichenoides^ or Ceylon moss. 


The principal fungi used in this country are Agaricus campes- 
triSt or field mushroom, the morel, and the truffle. Various 
other species of mushrooms and other fungi are considered 
wholesome, as Boletus edulis^ lycoperdon, or puff ball. Great 
care, however, should be taken in the selection, as many Mnds 
are poisonous ; and even the common mushroom should be 
thoroughly stewed and well masticated, otherwise it may prove 
very indigestible and injurious. 

(5.) Animal Products. 

8. These are — 1, Milk, from which we have also cream, butter, 
whey, caseine or curds, and cheese ; 2, Eggs. 

(a.) Milk, 

There can be no doubt as to the wholesomeness of this fluid, 
it being nature's special provision for the support of the young 
of all the mammalia, whether camivora, herbivora, fragivora, or 
omnivora, if any such there be. Milk consists of myraids of ex- 
ceedingly minute globular particles floating in a serous or watery 
fluid. The globules constitute butter, and may be separated by 
filtration, the filtered liquor being transparent. When milk is 
allowed to stand, the globules along with some caseine, rise to the 
top in the form of cream; and when this has been removed, the 
remaining fluid is called skim-milk. The milk now deprived of its 
cream, if exposed for a day or two to a temperature of fi*om 60° 
to 70*^, becomes a thick coagulum, and the milk has become sour; 
lactic acid has been formed, which has occasioned the milk to 
'separate into two portions, curd or caseous matter^ and whey. 
Caseine thus spontaneously produced will not form cheese, but is 
wholesome and excellent when eaten with a little sugar. 

A little carbonate of soda, or potash, or calcined magnesia, 
added to milk, will retard its progress to a state of acidity. 

Milk boils at 199°, water at 212°. 

By boiling milk the curd is partly coagulated by the action of 
the oxygen of the atmosphere, and the caseine rises to the surface 
in the form of a pellicle or thin skin ; if this be removed it is 


sncceeded by another, and the process might be continued till the 
remaining fluid would have a watery appearance, and be incapable 
of famishing any more such pellicle. 

When milk is very slowly eyaporated without boiling, it forms a 
kind of thick extract of milk, which is caHed frangipane ; and this 
being mixed with sugar, almonds, and orange flowers, constitutes 
a sweetmeat or custard. 

The composition of milk is as follows : 

cow's MILK. 








Curd orcaselne 

. 4i 


Butter, or fat . 



Sugar (of milk) 

. a 


Ash (nearly) . 



Ewe's milk, and goat's milk contain the largest amount of 
caseine and butter. 

The milk first formed after the cow has calyed possesses peculiar 
properties. It is named coloBtrum^ first-milk^ and biestings. 

9. Cream. — Cream consists of a peculiar oily matter mixed 
with curd and whey, and the substances held in solution in the 
whey. Its consistency increases gradually by exposure to the 
atmosphere. In three or four days it becomes so thick that the 
vessel containing it may be inverted without any loss ; in eight or 
ten days more it has no longer the flavour of cream, but of very 
fat cheese called cream cheese, 


Butter . . . .4-5 

Curd .... 3-5 

Whey .... 92-0 

" The preparations known as Corstorphin cream, Devonshire 
cream, or clotted cream, consist of cream and the coagulated 
curd. They are nutritive and delicious substances, but apt to 


disagree with dyspeptics on account of the batter which they 
contain. ' * — Pebeiba. 

To preserve cream for a short time, boil it in a bottle, which 
must be afterwards well corked. 

10. Butter. — When cream has been agitated for some time it 
separates into two portions, namely, butter and hutter-milkj the 
latter containing the greater part of the cnrd and whey. 

In its usual state butter contains about one-sixth of its weight 
of substances contained in butter-milk. 

Butter is composed of three kinds of fatty matter, namely, 
stearin^ elaiUy and a fatty substance called hutyrin^ from which 
three volatile oily acids are formed. Stearin, elain, and butyrin 
are combinations of certain oily acids and glycerine. In cold 
climates, good butter in moderate quantity is wholesome and 
easily digested by a healthy stomach, but if exposed to a great 
heat, as in hot toast, rich pastry, or toasted cheese, it is ficequently 
indigestible. Bread weU toasted (27) and buttered when cold 
should always be preferred. 

When butter is used for light pastry, it should be sweet, and 
free, or nearly so, from salt ; to remove the latter, wash the but- 
ter in cold water and make it up with the hands into large lamps, 
squeezing the water well out; or work the butter well on a 
marble slab, or on the pasteboard, then press it lightly with a 
clean soft cloth to absorb the moisture, it will then be ready for 
use. If good fresh butter is used, it will require very little if 
any working. 

Butter is subject to become rancid, because it contains a small 
quantity of curd, water, and air, which may be removed as 

11. To Clarify Butter, — Heat the butter gradually over the 
fire in a double saucepan, to a little below the temperature of 
boiling water, by which means the air will be disengaged. Part of 
the impurities will rise to the surface, and must be skimmed off, 
and the water and butter-milk will be deposited. Decant the clear 
part, or pass it through a fine sieve or muslin, then put it in a 
bottle, which must be well corked. 

If still greater parity be required, pour the clear fluid into 


another yessel eontaining water, heated to 140^, with which it 
must be well agitated and then left to cool, when the pure butter 
will rise to the top, and become solid ; it may then be kept sweet 
for any length of time. It will be equal to the best Florence oil, 
and may be used for salads, sauces, raised pastry, or for frying. 
When wanted for use, it should be gently heated and poured out 
of the bottle, or cut out with a knife or other instrument. 

Butter is not changed by a heat just sufficient to dissolve it 
(96°), but if raised to the temperature of boiling water (212<>), it 
becomes oily as above. 

12. Butter-milk, — ^As this contains the caseine, the sugar, 
and the salts of milk, it must possess nutritive qualities. It 
forms a very agreeable cooling beverage in febrile and inflamma- 
tory diseases, and is more easily digested than entire milk. The 
acid of butter-nulk does not increase the acescency of the sto- 
mach, or occasion flatulency ; it may, therefore, be safely used by 
dyspeptic persons. Butter-milk is sometimes prepared by agitat- 
ing new milk in a bottle, and separating the butter when it has 
been formed. The taste of turnips in butter may be obviated by 
adding butter-milk to the cream previously to churning, or by 
adding a little saltpetre. 

18. Whey and Curd may be formed from either new or 
skimmed milk, by various means. The whey contains sugar of 
milk, lactic acid, some salts, and frequently a little butter and 
curd. Boil a pint of milk, and at the commencement of ebulli- 
tion, add either white wine or one drachm of cream of tartar 
(bitartrate of potash), or of powdered alum, or a little citric acid 
in solution, or of lemon juice, or one ounce of tamarind pulp, or 
half an ounce of bruised mustard seed, etc. When the curd is 
formed, strain the whey from it. Whey may be regarded as 
alterative, nutritive, and laxative, and it is considered useful in 
febrile, inflanmiatory, and pulmonary affections. 

14. Caseine or Curd. — This nutritive product is combined 
more or less with oleaginous principles, according as it is made 
from new or skimmed milk. It exists in two conditions, partly 
in solution, and in part forming a transparent membrane, which 
surrounds the globules of fat, and keeps them from coalescing, as 


occurs when they consolidate into butter. If a few drops of 
acetic acid be added to a little milk, the globules become distorted, 
and drops of fat can by the aid of a good microscope be seen 
emerging from them, the inyesting capsule of caseine having 
been broken. It may be eaten with sugar, cream, etc., or it may 
be formed into cheese-cakes, or cheese. 

When the curd is required for cheese-cakes, etc., it may be 
formed thus : — Beat an egg up with a dessert-spoonful of flour, 
then add it, with half a tea-spoonful of powdered alum, to a pint 
of milk, nearly at the boiling point ; the curd will then rise to the 
top ; but if the addition he nLade after the milk has boiled, the 
curd will fall to the bottom. 

16. Cheese. — This nutritious production is made from curd by 
pressing out the whey. It varies in quality and richness accord- 
ing to the materials of which it is made. It may be formed — 1, 
of milk and cream, as StUton cheese ; 2, of entire milk, as 
Cheshire and Cheddar cheese ; 3, of new milk mixed with 
skimmed milk, as in Gloucestershire ; 4, of skimmed milk only, 
as in Suffolk, Holland, and Italy. Some of the most agreeably- 
tasted cheese is made of skimmed milk, as the Parmesan, and 
some of the Dutch cheese. The former is made of skimmed 
cow's milk, not of goat's milk, as formerly supposed. 


Fat . 











100 100 

** Cheese is very nutritive, but somewhat difficult of digestion, 
particularly when tough, hard, or rendered tenacious by heat." 
When grated it is easier of digestion, because it then mixes more 
readily with other alimentary matters, and is thus more quickly 
dissolved by the gastric juice. It is liable to produce constipa- 
tion, especially when new, and made from creamed milk. 


(&.) Eggs, 

16. Eggs consist of what is denominated the white and the 
yolk, both nntritioos. 

The former consists of nearly pare albumen, which coagulates 
into a firm white solid when heated to 169° (13) ; the yolk con- 
sists, in part, of a variety of albumen, and therefore, like the 
white, coagulates by heat though less readily. Two-thirds of the 
yolk, in a perfectly dry state, is a bright yellow oil ; it also con- 
tains from 3 to 4 grains of phosphoric acid. If an egg weighs 
1000 grains, about 100 will consist of shell and membrane, 600 
of the white, and 300 of the yolk. The white and yolk contain 
as follows: — 


Water ... 80 W3 

Albumen . . . 16*5 17'5 

Mucus ... 4*5 — 

Yellow OU . . . — 28-7 

100-0 100*0 

The shell is very porous, consequently eggs lose weight by 
evaporation, especially in hot weather, air taking the place of the 
fluid evaporated, and causing decay ; hence, eggs become lighter 
the longer they have been laid, newly laid eggs being heavier 
than water with about 10 per cent, of its weight of salt, whilst old 
or bad eggs float in it. An egg, while boiling, loses 2 or 3 per 
cent, of its weight by the escape of albumen and salts, through the 
shell into the water, certain portion of the water occupying their 
place ; hence, eggs should never be boiled in impure or tainted 
water. For the same reason, eggs -should not be placed near any- 
thing of a musty or disagreeable odour. 

Butter, or a mixture of oil and wax, rubbed over the shell, or a 
solution of gum arable,* will preserve the egg from decay, by 
stopping up the pores, and, consequently, keeping out the air. If 
plunged for five minutes in water, heated to 140°, or boiled one 

* Macllage of gnm arable made with equal parts of gum and water. 
Apply two coatfl with a small brush, the second after the first 1b dry. 


minnte and then oiled, it will be a still greater protection, as the 
albumen next the shell is thas coagulated. 

The freshness of eggs may be ascertained as follows : — 

1st. Becentlj laid eggs sink in water containing about 10 per 
cent, of salt ; bad eggs float in it. 

2nd. If they sound hollow when shaken, they have not been 
recently laid. 

3rd. If, when held between the eye and a strong light, as the 
light of a candle, dark spots are observed on the shell, the proba- 
bility is that the egg is bad, and this is certainly the case if there 
is no transparency in the shell. 

4th. When an egg is quite fresh, the shell will be of a brilliant 
light yellow, and without spots. 

5th. When the small end of a fresh egg is applied to the tip of 
the tongue, a cool sensation is produced ; the same end of a stale 
or bad egg is felt warm, because the white of the former, being in 
contact with the shell, abstracts the heat from the tongue more 
rapidly than the air bubble in the latter. 

It is always advisable to break each egg separately into a cup, 
lest one bad egg spoil the whole. The yolk as well as the white 
is soluble in cold water, and is coagulated in boiling water. When 
the yolk is beaten in water, it forms a true animal emulsion ; and 
if warm water be employed and sugar added, there is formed 
what is called un lait de pouLe, which is a pleasant mixture, and 
very useful in colds and affections of the chest ; it is usually taken 
at bed time. 

Eggs lightly boiled are nutritive, and easy of digestion, when 
taken in moderation ; but when taken in excess, they cause indi- 
gestion and constipation ; if long boiled, or otherwise exposed to 
much heat, they are digested with much more difficulty. 

For light cakes, souffles, and other light puddings, eggs should 
be quite fresh, but they should not have been laid less than eight 
or ten hours. When great lightness is required, as for sponge 
cake, etc., some persons recommend that only half as many whites 
be employed as yolks, believing that the whites render cakes and 
puddings heavy ; but this will not be the case if the yolks and 
whites are well beaten separately : where, however, it is feared 


that a cake wQl beoome too diy, some of the whites may be 

When eggs are employed for the sole purpose of emiching the 
mixture with albumen, the yolks and whites need not be separated ; 
in all other cases they should be beaten apart from each other, 
and the speck should be removed from each jBgg as soon as it has 
been broken. 

17. To Whisk w Beat E^^».— Whisk the yolks till they appear 
light, and the whites gently at first, till they form a strong froth, 
capable of sustaining a half-crown or an egg. So long as any 
liquid remains at the bottom of the vessel, the whites must be 
longer beaten. When a portion taken up with the whisk- and 
dropped from it remains standing in points, it is in a proper state 
for souffles, etc., and should be mixed with the other ingredients 
immediately. Some confectioners beat the white of eggs before 
the fire, to render it lighter ; others whisk the eggs and sugar over 
a slow fire till rather warmer than new milk, and then remove the 
pan from the fire, and whisk them till cold. These methods may 
hasten the process a little, but the lightness is likely to be more 
durable by beating the white of egg over cold water, or even over 
ice. Hot mixtures do not keep so well as those made cold ; they 
become dry and stale sooner. 

Some recommend the following method: — Eggs should be 
beaten in a flat-bottomed earthen pan, with wooden rods ; keep 
the elbow close to the side ; let the entire motion be from the 
wrists, the stroke quick, short, and horizontal, and let the egg- 
beater always reach the bottom of the pan. Do not cease beating 
as soon as the eggs are in a foam, but persevere till all the bubbles 
have disappeared, the surface smooth, and the beaten egg as thick 
as a rich boiled custard. These observations apply to the beating 
of the whites and yolks together, which may always be done if 
they have to be afterwards mixed. 

(6.) Flavouring or Seasoning. 

18. All strong flavours are objectionable to a healthy sto- 
mach, unless habit has reconciled it to their use ; and we find 


that those articles of diet which possess the least decided flavour 
can be relished the longest, and require less frequently to be 
changed — as bread, potatoes, rice, etc. ; those, on the contrarjt 
which stimulate the palate most, soon satiate, and cannot be per- 
severed with so long without some change being desired, such as 
game, beef, mutton, all rich cakes, rich puddings, and highly 
seasoned dishes. When flavouring or seasoning is used in pre- 
parations otherwise insipid, it should be done with great care, as 
strong provocatives of the appetite are injurious. A slight or 
subdued flavour, however, such as we find in the various fruits, 
may be imparted with advantage to most culinary preparations. 
The- savours met with in the vegetable kingdom are innumerable, 
and defy any attempt at classification. Those most worthy of 
notice in cookery are the sweet, sour or acid, nutty, aromatic, 
vinous, bitter, acrid or pungent, acerb, saline, and their com- 

Sweet. — ^As sugar, treacle, and honey. 

Sour. — Acetic acid or vinegar, lemon, verjuice, etc. 

Nutty. — Sweet almonds, cocoa-nut, abnond flavour. 

Aromatic. — The various spices, as pepper, pimento or allspice, 
cayenne, nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, mace, ginger, capsicums,* 
ketchup, celery. 

Orange and lemon peel, bay and lam'el leaves, orange flowers, 
and chocolate. 

Parsley, common thyme, lemon thyme, orange thyme, knotted 
marjorum, sage, mint, winter-savory, sweet basH, tarragon, tansy, 
chervil, bumet, fennel, mushroom. 

Acrid or Pungent. — Mustard, horse-radish, cayenne, onions, 
shallots, garlic, leeks. 

Saline ; Salt. — ^About a tea-spoonful of salt to a pound of sugar 
is said to improve the latter. Much salt, especially to persons of 
a gouty habit, is injurious, and assists to form lithate of soda or 
chalk stones in the joints. 

• The principal varieties of the capsicum are the long red, the Chili, and 
the bird's eye. They are all used as ingredients in soups, sauces, salads, 
and pickles ; or, when ripe and dried, they are ground to a coarse powder 
to make cayenne. 


The volatile oil contadned in many of the ahove-mentioned 
substances stimulates the system, but does not become incor- 
porated with the organism, and is soon ejected, retaining its 
characteristic odour. Chervil seems to combine the flavours 
of, both parsley and fennel, but is more aromatic and agreeable 
than either. 

To Flavour Milk with Cocoa Nut^ etc, 

19. Pare off the rind and grate the nut on a fine and very clean 
grater; add three ounces to a quart of milk; raise the temperature 
gradually, and let the milk simmer very gently for about forty-five 
minutes ; then strain it through a very fine sieve or cloth, pressing 
the milk well fi-om the nut. Milk thus flavoured may be used for 
blanc-mange, custards, puddings, light cakes, or bread. The milk 
contained in the cocoa nut, when sweet, may be added ; to obtain 
which, pierce the end of the nut with a gimlet, draw off the milk, 
and then break the shell with a hammer. 

The rinds of lemons and oranges are best prepared by rasping 
them on lumps of refined sugar, and then scraping off those parts 
which' have imbibed the flavouring ; or the lumps of sugar may 
be crushed, and added to the other ingredients. If the rind be 
cut very thin, it may be boiled in the milk or other fluid, as may 
also vanilla pods, cinnamon, mace, and similar substances, from 
which the fluid should afterwards be strained. 

To Blanch and Pound Almonds. 

20. Put them into a saucepan with plenty of cold water, raise 
the temperature slowly, but just before boiling, pour off the water, 
and put the almonds in a basin ; peel them and throw them into 
cold water ; dry them with a soft cloth before they are used. If 
the water be too hot, it will turn them yellow. Before they are 
pounded they should be spread out and dried for a day or two ; 
they should also be sprinkled during the pounding with a few drops 
of cold water, or white of egg, or lemon juice, to prevent them 
oiling. Ileduce them in a mortar to a smooth paste. 



(1.) Soaking, Steeping, or Macerating. 

21. This is the simplest, and, if we except crushing or grind- 
ing, was probably the first operation to which gi'ain and other 
hard food was subjected at an early stage of society, for the pnr- 
pose of preparing it for mastication and digestion. It is effected 
by adding cold water, milk, or other fluid, to the substances re- 
quired to be softened, previously to their being boiled or sub- 
jected to other culinary operations. Thus, bread, rice, etc., are 
soaked for puddings; peas, beans, etc., for soups; and linseed 
for the purpose of obtaining the mucilage. 

Bread soaked by pouring boiling fluid over it, to prepare it for 
puddings or fritters, is liable to render the preparation sad ; a 
good soaking in cold fluid is therefore to be preferred. If the 
bread is not macerated, the ingredients should be well stirred till 
partially cooked, or they will not mix well; when mixed with eggs, 
the mixture should either be stirred till the albumen sets, or the 
bread should be soaked to prevent separation. If rice or other 
light-coloured grain be steeped six or seven hours in cold water 
previously to being cooked, the colour wiU be much improved. 
Both grain and meal mix more smoothly, and boil sooner, after 
having been steeped. 

As cold water extracts some of the active principles of vegetable 
substances, care should be taken not to soak them too long, or 
the substances macerated will lose a great portion of their nutri- 
tive qualities. In some cases, however, this is desirable; as when 
oatmeal disagrees with a weak stomach, it may then be ma- 
cerated in cold water, and after standing some time, the water 
must be rejected. 

(2.) Simmering. 

32. This tak68 place at a temperature which immediately 
precedes boiling, and is known by small bubbles forming at the 
edge of the liquor, next the vessel. Many preparations require 


this gentle boiling, as a state of active ebullition would spoil them 
by disEdpating the volatile principles of the vegetables subjected 
to the operation. Hence the advantage of simmering sonps for 
a long time, in order to render the contained substances tender, 
without destroying the aroma and flavour. 

The easiest and safest method of simmering sauces, porridge, 
etc., is by means of a double saucepan {bain marie) ; the inner 
part, containing the fluid to be simmered, being fixed within the 
lower or outward part, which contains boiling watw; thus 
situated, the contents of the inner part cannot be made to boil 
nor be burnt, because as soon as the water in the external vessel 
reaches 212°, it passes off in steam. If, however, the density of 
■the water in the larger vessel be increased by adding salt, etc., 
then the water in the inner vessel may be made to boil. The 
inner vessel should be thin to admit the rapid transmission of 
heat from the boiling water, and the outer vessel must not be al- 
lowed to become dry. 

(3.) Boiling. 

28. To boil or seethe is to prepare anything by keeping the 
fluid in which it is immersed in a state of ebullition. 

The temperature at which water boils in this latitude is 212° 
Fahrenheit, and no additional heat can raise it beyond this point, 
unless sugar, salt, etc., be added to increase its density. Milk 
boils at lOQ"" ; water, with one-fifth of its weight of salt, boils at 
219°; saturated, at 224°; syrup at 221°; linseed oil at 640°; 
olive oil at 500°. A metal spoon left in a vessel retards the pro- 
cess of boiling, because, being a good conductor, it carries off the 
heat from the water. 

Thick liquids, which do not readily permit the escape of steam, 
or a rapid motion between the particles of the fluid, may be 
readily heated at the part most exposed to the fire to a much 
higher degree, whilst those portions not immediately in contact 
with the heat are much colder ; from this cause they are very apt 
to be charred and spoiled. To prevent this effect, use the bain 



The effect of boiling upon starch is to break or split the grains, 
and thereby render it more digestible. It also dissolves the gummy 
and saccharine parts, and expels, wholly, or in part, the volatile 
oils contained in onions, leeks, garlic, etc., and renders them 
milder in flavour. Boiling also checks fermentation. At the 
heat of 212°, the essential oils and aromatic principles of vege- 
tables are driven off or decomposed ; while, by infusion in hot 
water, in covered vessels, they remain in a great measure unin- 
jured. All vegetables, if fresh gathered, may be boiled without 
the least change in colour, if put into boiling water, with a few 
ounces of salt^ and allowed to boil ia plenty of water ^ leaving the 
vessel uncovered. 

When any impurity in the form of scum arises during the 
process of boiling, as in making soup, it should be carefully re- 

The following articles should be put into boiling water: — ^As- 
paragus, peas, beans, kidney beans, and all greens ; potatoes, 
turnips, carrots, etc. ; puddings, dumplings, etc. 

Apple dumplings are lighter when boiled in a net than in a 
cloth. All vegetables intended for soup should be put into 
cold water, which should be gradually raised to the boiling 


Plum puddings ; puddings enclosing much unstewed f rait etc. 2 
Haricots, carrots, beet-root, onions, etc., when large ; apple- 
dumplings, currant, gooseberry, and some other fruit pud- 
dings 1 

Artichokes, middling-sized roots, tubers, and bulbs, full-grown 

cabbages and savoys 46 to 60 

Broccoli, cauliflowers, turnips, middle-sized potatoes 80 „ 45 

Broad beans, small carrots, vegetable-marrow, small garden 

turnips, radishes, leeks 20 „ 30 

Peas, asparagus, young cabbages, sprouts, French beans, Jeru- 
salem artichokes, young potatoes 10 „ 20 

Spinach, turnip greens 5 ^^ 10 

Parsley, eggs ^ 8 „ ^ 


Sometimes articles are boiled in oil, which exposes them to 
a much greater heat than when boiled in water. (See Frying). 
Other precautions necessary to be observed in boiling will be 
found under the instructions for cooking each kind of food. 

(4.) Stewing. 

24. To stew is to seethe anything with a slow, moist heat ; 
a little butter, water, or other fluid being added when re- 

It is frequently employed in cooking the following articles : — 
Apples, pears, plums, vegetable-marrows, cucumbers, and other 
fruit ; also onions, celery, spinach, cabbage, mushrooms, carrots, 
potatoes, cheese, etc. Dr. GBEaoBY says, '' The system, so com- 
mon in England, of boHing food of any kind, in a large quantity 
of water, which is thrown away, is very bad. Vegetables ought 
to be stewed, with very little water, and the juice eaten with 

To poach is to boil slightly, and is a term chiefly applied to 
cooking eggs without the shell. 

(5.) Steaming. 

25. This is generally effected by placing the articles to be 
cooked in a vessel over boiling water, the bottom being pierced 
with holes to admit the steam, and a cover placed upon it. This 
mode is generally preferred to boiling, for potatoes, puddings, and 
some other preparations. Nothing should be boiled in the water 
over which the steamer is placed. A pudding in a mould may be 
steamed in a common stew-pan, by pouring into the pan a few 
inches of water, according to the depth of the mould. When the 
water boils, put in the pudding, and press the cover of the stew- 
pan closely on ; then simmer it gently without ceasing, tUl the 
pudding is sufficiently done. The mouth of the mould should be 
first covered with a well-buttered paper, then tie a thin cloth 
or muslin over it : care being taken that no part of the paper 


or cloth touehoB the water. This is the safer method of boiling 
all puddings made with polenta, maize, etc. 

(6.) Baking. 

26. This is a process of heating, drying, and hardening, 
usually done in an oven, sometimes before the fire, or surrounded 
by hot ashes. 

The term is more generally applicable to pastry and its com- 
pounds; as bread in its various forms, cakes, pies, puddings, 
cheese-cakes, etc. It is sometimes used in cooking apples, -poie^ 
toes, beet-root, etc., but these articles are more generally said 
to be roasted ; and cheese is said to be toasted, whether alone in 
an OTcn or before the fire. When articles are intended to be 
brown externally, as queen cakes, etc., draw them towards the 
mouth of the oven when sufficiently coloured. A hot or brisk 
oven is used for puff and light pastry, light cakes, and raised pies. 
A moderate oven for apples, pears, large rich cakes, souffles, 
biscuits, sponge cakes, Savoy cakes, and Httle white pastries, 
which should be only slightly coloured. A slow or gentle oven 
for gingerbread (unless of the light thick kind), also for merin- 
gues, etc. 

(7.) Roasting. 

27. To roast is to cook anything by exposing it to heat before 
a fire ; it is applied occasionally to articles cooked in an oven, as 
apples, potatoes, onions, or in any other dose vessel subjected to 
a dry heat, as coffee. 

(8.) Toasting or Torrefying. 

28. To toast is also to expose to a dry heat before the fire, as 
slices of bread, cheese, etc. ; but the term " toasting " applies 
more especially to the effect of a dry heat on the surface of a 
substance ; " roasting " to the general effect of a dry heat on 
articles having some bulk and thickness. 

Bread, whether intended for dry toast, buttered toast, or for 


toast-water, sboald be cut abont a quarter of an inch thick, and 
slowly but well heated through, frequently turned and very 
slightly browned on each side, but in no part of it charred. If 
toasted too quickly, the outside will be carbonized or burnt, after 
which, the heat cannot penetrate it ; the moisture of the bread, 
which renders it indigestible to weak stomachs will be retained, 
and cannot afterwards be evaporated ; consequently, if butter be 
applied, it will be confined to the surface and become oily ; if 
immersed in water, the starch will be dissolved and the water 
will be less agreeable to the palate, the pleasant and aromatic 
flavour of toast- water being developed by the action of heat on 
the starch contained in the bread. 

When unfermented brown bread is thus treated, it is a good 
substitute for biscuits. 

To prepare toast-water, pour boiling water on the toast, then 
cover it up and let it stand to cool. 

If bread has become too old and diy, dip it in warm water, 
toast it as above, and when buttered it will be preferred to other 

Muffins should be opened half an inch deep round the edges 
with a knife, toasted gradually, and when enough, they should be 
pulled open and buttered. 

To torrefy or parch is also to heat before the fire or on hot 
plates, etc. Sometimes farina and grains are torrefied. Wheat 
flour is slightly torrefied, to make bouillie. It alters the immedi- 
ate principles of the farina, gives it a higher flavour, renders it 
tonic and more easy to digest. 

(9.) Frying. 

29. To fry is to cook anything in hot fat, butter, or oil, by 
which means the surface of Uie substance is carbonized, and the 
albumen solidified. Fried articles generally Are not so digestible 
as those cooked by other methods. The butter or oil used for 
frying should be fresh and free from salt ; if rancid or ill-tasted, 
it will spoil the flavour of the article fried, and salt will prevent 
it being properly browned. Care also should be ta^n not to ig- 


nite the fat. Fine olive oil is the most delicate for frying, but 
being more expensiye than batter, it is not so frequently used. It 
also requires great care in using it, as it is apt to bum. 

If butter is not clarified (11) it is liable to bum, and give out an 
empyreumatic flavour, owing to the milk it contains. 

To fry anything a good colour and crisp, the fire should be 
very clear, and the butter or oil quite hot, which will be the case 
when it has ceased hissing, or when it will fry a piece of bread 
crisp without burning it. Unless the article be sufficiently car- 
bonized immediately after immersion, it will become greasy and 
lose its flavour. As soon as the surface has become brown, the 
heat should be reduced; or the pan removed a little off the fire, 
especially if the article to be cooked be large or thick, otherwise 
the interior will not be sufficiently done. The butter or oil 
should be thoroughly drained from articles which have been fried, 
particularly such as have been dressed with bread crumbs, etc. ; 
this is best done by having a frame of open wire work to "fit the 
pan ; otherwise they should be laid upon blotting paper or a 
cloth. Some articles require to be quite covered with the liquid, 
that the heat may act on all parts at the same time. 

For this purpose an iron vessel, about six or eight inches deep, 
with a wire-work frame, should be half filled with oil or fat, 
and what remains after each operation should be passed through 
a clean sieve ; it may then be kept, in a proper vessel, for 

Pancakes, fritters, omelets, etc., may be done in a smaU quan- 
tity of butter or oil ; this is called sauteing by Soyeb. 


(1.) Fruits. 

Many fraits are eaten without undergoing any culinary prepara- 
tion whatever, but others are improved in flavour, and rendered 
m:>re digestible, by being baked, stewed, etc. 


To Bake or Boast Apples, Pears, and otJier Fruits. 

80. (a.) Put apples or pears in a dish, with or without water 
round them, the stalk end upward ; bake them half an hour or 
more, in a moderate oven ; or let them remain all night in a slow 
oven. Many kinds of pears thus baked are much improyed in 

(&.) Diyide and core apples, lay them on a dish with the flat 
side downward, with or without sugar under and over them. 

(c.) Core them without dividing them, fill up the cavities with 
butter and sugar, and bake them till they are sufficiently tender. 

(d.) Tomatoes. Cut them in slices, and place them in layers 
in a flat dish, with plenty of pepper and salt, and a little butter ; 
cover them well with bread crumbs, and bake them in the oven 
till quite brown. 

The apple called in Yorkshire the Green Balsam is excellent 
when rdbsted in a slow oven, and requires no sugar. 

To Scald, Codle, or Stew Fruit, 

31. When fruits are stewed with a little sugar, for immediate 
or not very distant use, they are usually called ** compotes ;" when 
intended for future use, more sugar and longer cooking are re- 
quisite ; they are then called ** preserves," etc. 

Compotes may be formed after several methods, which are here 
distinguished by the letters, a, &, c, etc. 

(a.) Put the fruit in a stone jar, with as much sugar as may be 
thought requisite, and cold water sufficient to cover the fruit. 
Cover the jar, and place it on a hot hearth, or in a moderately 
heated oven, or in a saucepan of water over the fire till the fruit 
is quite tender ; or the fruit, sugar, and water may be simmered 
gently in a stew-pan. 

A quarter of a pint of water, and five or six ounces of sugar, 
will generally be sufficient for a pound or pint of fruit ; the com* 
pote, however, wiU be richer in proportion as less water is used. 
The sugar should be scattered amongst the fruit, but the princi- 
pal part of it should be placed near the top. Bruised lump sugar 


fihonld be ased for a clear, pale syrap, or when the fruit is intended 
for desBert ; brown sugar when for common nse, or when a dark 
Bjrup is desired. 

After the aboye method may be stewed any of the hardy frnits, 
as plums, apples, pears, gooseberries, rhubarb, etc., for general 

Plums, yegetable-marrow, gooseberries, currants, and rhubarb, 
require only a very little water to prevent the fruit adhering to the 
bottom of the yessel. Yegetable-marrow should be peeled, the 
seeds and fibres removed, and then cut in pieces ; gooseberries 
and currants should be picked clean ; rhubarb peeled, and cut into 
short lengths, but if it be tender and of good quality, it is better 
not peeled. Currants and raspberries may be used together as 
follows : — Currants, one pint ; raspberries or strawberries, half a 
pint ; sugar, four ounces. 

Apples and pears should be previously pared,* cored, and put 
into the jar, either whole, divided, or sliced; the peels and cores 
may be boiled, and the water strained from them, and then used 
for stewing the fruit. 

*' Norfolk biffins," and other dried apples, should be soaked 
in cold water for five or six hours before they are put into the jar. 
A dozen apples will require about a pint of water, and eight 
ounces of sugar. They should simmer gently for three or four 
hours, or until they are soft. Season with a few cloves, or cin- 
namon, or lemon peel. The addition of a little red beet will 
improve the colour, and some consider the flavour improved by a 
little port wine. 

Pears, stuck with a few cloves, may be put into the jar, either 
with plain water, or with water in which the peels and cores of 
either apples or pears have been boiled and strained; add the juice 
of a lemon, the peel cut in shreds, and a little red beet, and then 
stew till the fruit is tender. Drain the liquid from the pears, and . 
to each half pint add from four to eight ounces of sugar, and when 
a syrup has been formed by simmering, pour it over the pears, 

• Apples and pears should be pared and cut with a silver knife, or 
immediately after being cut they should be thrown Into cold water, to 
prevent them changing colour. 


and let them stew an hour or two, or till enfficdently soft. When 
intended to be kept long, more sngar must be used. 

Baking or stewing-pears, or other hard pears, are fitted for this 
purpose. Some prefer treacle and sugar in equal quantities, and 
add a little port wine. 

(b,) Add five or six ounces of sugar to a quarter or half a pint 
of water, according to the quantity of juice contained in the fruit ; 
let the sugar and water simmer about ten minutes, skim the syrup, 
and add to it a pint or pound of fruit, previously prepared ; let 
the whole simmer till the fruit is tender. 

Sipe currants will require five or six minutes; green goose« 
berries, rhubarb, apples in halves, etc., eight or ten minutes ; 
plums, apricots, peaches, and nectarines when divided, two to five 
minutes ; when whole, ten to twenty minutes. If the syrup be too 
thin, drain it from the fruit, reduce it by simmering, and when 
cold, pour it over the fruit. 

The fruit may be served in the syrup, with bread or with rice, 
sago, etc., which may be stewed along with the fruit, the rice 
having been previoud.y boiled, and the sago simpiered five or ten 

Lemon peel is sometimes grated over the fruit ; or the peel in 
thin shreds is first scalded, and then added. 

(c.) Take half a pint of syrup, consisting of sixteen ounces of 
sugar, and half a pint of water ; when it is near the boiling point, 
put in six greengages, or other plums cut in two ; let them remain 
in the syrup while it simmers two minutes ; remove them, and 
drain them on a sieve ; add six more plums to the syrup for two 
minutes, remove them, and drain them as before ; remove the 
skins, and put the fruit in a basin ; then reduce the syrup till 
rather thick, and when cold, pour it over the fruit, which will then 
be ready to be served. 

Other fruit may be treated in the same way. Peaches and 
apricots, when green, should be previously put into boiling water, 
and boiled ten minutes ; then drained, and stewed in the syrup till 

Cherries need not be divided: cut the stalks short, and stew 
for two or three minutes. 


(d.) Cut apples in small cubical pieces, strew twelve onnces of 
sugar over sixteen ounces of fruit, also several long strips of 
lemon peel, and cover them up close in a bowl. Next day put 
the apples piece by piece into a small stew-pan with three or 
four table-spoonfula of cider or perry, and simmer gently till 
the fruit becomes clear ; then remove it, and, when cold, bmld 
a wall roxmd a small dish -with the square pieces, place the 
strips of lemon peel on the top, and pour the syrup into the 
middle. Bhnbarb or carrots may be used in the same way. 

(e.) Apples may be stewed with butter thus : Pare six or eight 
fine apples, core them without piercing them through, or dividing 
them ; fill the cavities with fresh butter, and put four ounces 
more, cut small, into a stew-pan just large enough to contain the 
apples in a single layer ; place them closely together, and stew 
them very gradually, turning them occasionally; when nearly 
tender. Strew upon them as much sifted sugar as will be sufi&- 
cient, and a tea-spoonful of powdered cinnamon, and stew for a 
few minutes longer. Put in or upon each apple a little apricot 
jam; pour the syrup from the pan around, but not upon the 
fruit. Apples thus prepared are called by the French Pommes au 

(/.) After stewing fruit in water, remove it before it becomes 
quite soft or pulpy ; then add to the liquid one-third of the sugar 
intended to be used, let it simmer ten minutes, skimming it well 
during the time ; then pour it over the fruit, hot if you wish the 
fruit to be soft, but cold if the fruit is to be crisp (41 c). On the 
following day, strain off the syrup, and add to it another third of 
the sugar ; simmer and sMm as before, then pour the syrup again 
over the fruit hot or cold as before. Bepeat the process on the 
following day, adding the remaining sugar. If it is intended to 
keep the fruit during many months, more sugar must be employed 
than for compotes, because a weak syrup has a tendency to fer- 
ment, and quickly becomes acid if kept at a moderate temperature, 
but a concentrated solution of sugar prevents the spontaneous 
decomposition of organic matters boiled in it. 

When fruit has been lightly stewed in syrup, it may be taken 
out and allowed to stand a few days ; boil the syrup again, pour it 


over the £riiit» and allow it to stand a day or two longer ; then 
drain ofif the syrap, and lay the fruit on dishes or tins to dry in a 
cool place. The symp may be used for pies or puddings. 

(2.) Syrup. 

32. As syrup is much used for preserving plums, melons, 
cucumbers, etc., a few remarks here respecting it will not be out 
of place. 

Sugar. — Ooarse sugar may be used when intended for common 
'use, or when a dark syrup is required; but lump sugar or fine 
crystals when intended for dessert, or when a clear pale syrup is 

Syrup prepared with the best refined sugar is also less liable to 
spontaneous decomposition. The transparency of the syrup will 
be promoted by using the sugar in a single lump, taken from the 
bottom or broad end of the loaf ; if it be powdered or bruised, the 
syrup will be cloudy. 

Two pounds of sugar and a ^t of water form a syrup which 
neither ferments nor crystallizes ; but twelve ounces of sugar, a 
pint of water, and a pound of fruit will answer very well, and keep 
for a month or two. When the fruit contains much juice, less 
water should be used. 

Water. — ^When a very clear syrup is wanted, use distilled water 
or filtered soft water, as the lime contained in hard water would 
be deposited by boiling, and destroy the transparency. A syrup 
with a very slight excess of water keeps better than one fully 

Heat. — ^In forming the syrup, employ as little heat as possible ; 
for a solution of sugar, even when kept at the temperature of 
boiling water, undergoes slow decomposition. Pour the water 
cold on the sugar, and let them stand a few hours, occasionally 
stirring the solution ; then apply a gentle heat, that of steam or a 
water bath is preferable. A syrup should not hoil, but simmer^ and 
the simmering should be checked after the lapse of one or two 
.minutes. If it be requisite to thicken a syrup by boiling, a few 


fragments of glass should be introduced, as boiling takes place at 
a lower temperature when these are present. 

A syrup has simmered sufficiently if when taken up in a spoon 
it pours out like oil ; and when a thin skin appears on blowing 
upon the syrup, it is considered completely saturated. When 
nearly cold, the syrup may be strained through flannel ; and when 
not sufficiently transparent it may be clarified when cool by 
stirring in the whites of eggs ; renew the heat, skim the syrup 
well, and strain it when cold. 

(3.) To Cook Vegetable Marrow, Cucumbers, 
AND Pumpkins. 

33. The gourd tribe may be cooked in various ways, but vege- 
table-marrow and cucumbers are the only sorts much used in this 
country in a cooked state. 

(a.) Peel vegetable-marrow, cut it into small portions, and stew 
it after any of the preceding methods ; but it is usually boiled 
and served like sea-kale. Choose the marrow when about six 
inches long, and before it becomes too old and seedy. Put it in 
boiling water with a little salt in it, boil it till tender, then pare 
it, cut it in halves lengthwise, and serve it on toast with butter 
sauce or whit^ sauce. It should not be pricked while boiling, 
and when the skin can be rubbed off, the marrow is ready. 

(&.) After boiling and peeling it, slice it lengthwise about 
three-quarters of an inch thick ; remove the seeds, drain or dry 
it well, season it with pepper and salt, and leave it till cold ; then 
dip each piece in batter, or in egg and fine crumbs of bread, and 
fry it. Serve it with crisped parsley and brown sauce, or with 
fried onion. Thus prepared, it may be used oold between slices 
of bread as a sandwich. 

(c.) After vegetable-marrow has been boiled, pared, and drained, 
it may be cut into dice and re-heated in good white sauce, or 
stewed tender in butter. Or, pour a cupful of white sauce^ver 
it, after it has been laid upon some sliced cheese in a well- 
buttered dish ; add another layer of sliced cheese, and strew bread 
crumbs over it, then put it in a moderate oven for about ten or 

vegetable: cookert, &c, 31 

fifteen minnteB. Boiled marrow may also be mashed as turnips, 
or made into pnddings, pies, etc., like other fruit. Moderate 
sized marrows will require boiling from twenty to thirty minutes ; 
large ones from forty-five to sixty minutes. 

(d.) A cucumber or marrow may also be baked thus : pare and cut 
it in halves as above ; remove the seeds and fibres ; rub it inside 
and out with a little salt, and let it drain for an hour. Fill up the 
halves with onions previously boiled and chopped with some sage ; 
add a little butter, pepper, and salt$ then tie the two halves 
together, and bake in a buttered dish, in a moderately heated 
oven. If not well browned, dredge a little flour over, brown it 
before the fire, and serve with brown sauce. Force meat may be 
substituted for the onions and sage, and, when sufficiently baked, 
throw over it peas, stewed with an onion and a sprig of mint, and 
thicken with a little butter and flour. The onion and mint should 
be removed after stewing. 

. (6.) Peel a pumpkin, cucumber, or vegetable-marrow; cut it 
into thin slices, removing the seeds ; set it, with some dried cur- 
rants and sugar, in a saucepan over the fire ; little or no water 
is required. Stew it about three hours or till quite tender, and 
put it in a crust as for mince pies ; or cover a shallow dish with 
a thin crust and spread the mashed fruit and currants upon it ; 
cover it with a crust and bake. Candied lemon or orange peel 
may be added. 

(/.) Stew the pumpkin, cucumber, or marrow, with a little sugar 
and a few cut apples ; add a little lemon juice and rind with two 
or three cloves, and bake as above. 

Introductory Observations. 

84. All fruits and vegetables intended for preservation should 
be free from bruise and blemish, as injured fi*uits soon decay and 
spoil the sound fruit in contact with them; they should be 


gathered on a fine dry day, free from morning or evening dew, ani 
before they are quite ripe. Such as have a bloom upon them 
should not be wiped, unless necessary to remove dust or other 
impurities, and the process of preserving should be commenced 
on the day the fruit is taken. 

The fruit room should be dry, of a low and equal temperature, 
and excluded as much as possible from the light. 

1. Organic substances, when perfectly dry, are incapable of de- 
composition at the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere; 
hence fruit may be preserved by desiccation or abstraction of the 
moisture ; as figs, dates, grapes, and plums : the two latter being 
converted, by drying, into raisins and prunes. 

2. The presence of atmospheric air or oxygen facilitates putre- 
faction, hence the advantage of bottling fruit, first rarefying or 
driving off the air by heat, and then corking the bottles tightly, 
etc. (37). 

Though putrefaction cannot take place if air be thoroughly 
excluded, yet the smallest quantity of oxygen present is sufficient 
to produce a commencement of putrefaction, and after the process 
has commenced, it proceeds whether air be present or not. 

3. A certain temperature is always requisite for the decompo- 
sition of organic bodies ; consequently, they may be preserved by 
keeping them constantly below the freezing point. 

4. Fermentation and chemical changes may also be prevented 
by certain antiseptic substances, as sugar, vinegar, salt, charcoal, 
chlorine gas, etc. ; thus are formed preserves, jams, fruit-moulds, 
jellies, pickles, etc. 

(1.) To Dry Fruit without Sugar. 

35. The pulpy fruits, such as gooseberries nearly ripe, cherries, 
etc., should be spread, without contact with each other, on sieves, 
tins, or dishes, and dried in the sun or before the fire ; they may 
be placed occasionally in a cool oven. Change the dishes daily, 
and place cherries with the stalks upward. Kentish cherries are 
considered best for this purpose, but morellas answer very well. 

Damsons should be dried gradually, by placing them in a coo} 


OTen, on tins or dishes, coyered with thin coarse cloths. When 
sufficiently dried, damsons, cherries, etc., shonld be pat in 
boxes, with white paper between the layers of froit, and protected 
as much as possible from the air. 

Apples and pears should be placed in an oven at a low temper- 
ature, six or seven times, and allowed to remain in the oven 
several hours each time. The oven should be very cool at the 

Flatten the apples by pressure, gently and gradually applied, 
so as not to break the skins. When required for use, they should 
be stewed for an hour or more with a little water and sugar. 
The " Norfolk biffins," ** Minchall crabs,*' or any tart apples or 
hard pears, are the best for drying. 

Apples pared and cut in small pieces as soon as gathered, and 
then thoroughly dried in the sun, may be kept for several years. 

The art of preserving all kinds of vegetables, by drying them in 
chambers, through which currents of heated air pass, has been 
brought to great perfection in France. When thus preserved they 
appear dry and shrivelled up, like strips of thick parchment or 
leather, but when cooked they swell out to their usual size. 

Peas, beans, kidney beans, cabbages, cauliflowers, beet, carrots, 
etc., may be preserved by first boiling them till tender, and then 
drying them in a warm airy place, when they may be kept for a 
considerable time in bags or boxes. Beet, cfLrTots, and other 
roots should be cut in slices. 

(2.) To Stobe OB Pbesebve JFbuit by Excluding 


86. Some kinds of fruit require more protection from air and 
light than others. Apples and winter-pears should be kept in 
boxes, casks, or a cool, dry room, with dry coarse cloths, fern, 
chaff, oat-husks, or dry sand between the layers ; or each apple 
may be folded in paper, and packed rather close. Cover the 
whole well over with any of these articles, so as to exclude air and 
light as much as possible. When the atmospheric air cannot be 
completely excluded from fruits, they should not be put in draw- 


en or other dose places, as the want of free, TentOatioB wH 
iacilitate their decay. 

To Bottle Fruit, 

^ 87. Gather the fruit when very dry, if poseihle while the sun is 
upon it, and hottle it on the same day. Be careful not to hroise 
it while picking or dressing it, and reject all that is not sound. 
Currants should he stripped from their stallcs with a fork; 
rhuharh pared and cut into short lengths. 

Kidney heans in the green state should he cleared from the 
strings or strong fihres, and when large, they should he cut 
lengthwise into two or three pieces. Previously to using the 
hottled heans, scald them in water with a little salt, and let them 
simmer till tender. 

The hottles should he sound, very clean, dry, and with wide 
necks. They should also he well fitted with good coiks. 

FiU the hottles with the fruit, and whilst filling, shake, them 
gently, and cork them very lightly. Put them in a pajsi of cold 
water, with a little hay at the hottom ; set the pan on the fire, 
and raise the temperature of the water very gradually to 160^ 
and keep it at this point, or helow 170**, for t^^^ or thirty 
minutes. As the fruit will shrink, fill up each hottle, as far as 
the hottom of the neck, with fruit from one of the other hottles, 
taking care, while doing so, not to hruise the fruit. When as 
many hottles have heen thus filled as there is sufficient fruit for, 
remove the pan from the fire, and take out each hottle separately, 
fill it to within an inch of where the cork will reach, with hoiling 
water ; cork it well immediately^ shaking it as little as possible ; 
tie down the cork and cover it well with melted resin or wax, and 
return each bottle as it is finished to the pan of water, where it 
must remain till the water has become gradually cold. Place the 
bottles on their sides in a cool, dry place ; turn them partially 
round once or twice a week during the first month or two, and 
once or twice a month for some time afterwards. Green peajs 
may be bottled in the same way. 


(a.) Matet, a French dbtemiflt, aays thfr temperfttiiii» of fraitB 
or their joioes in hotiUs, etc., should be raised to 184**, which 
he found by his researches sufficient to destroy their fetment. 
Some raise the temperature of the wator in whicdi the bottles are 
placed to 170*^, and keep it at this point for an hour ; others 
allow the water to simmer, and then immediatelj remove the 
bottles if the fruit is ripe, bat leave them in ten minutes longer 
if it is green. 

(b.) Mr. LovEjoT, who produced beautifiil specimens of pre- 
served fruit before the Horticultural Societj, proceeds as fol- 
lows : — Pick the fruit from the stalks ; put it' into the bottles. 
Put one drachm of alum into four gallons of boiling water ; let it 
stand till it is cold. Then fill the bottles ; bung them tight ; 
then put them into a copper of cold water, and heat it to 176°. 
Then tie them over with a bladder, and seal them. The rasp- 
berries and mulberries preswved in this maimer were as plump 
and transparent as when first gathered. The other fruit was 
equally fine. The quantity of alum must not be increased, or the 
fruit will be hard. 

(c.) Some cork the bottles weU immediately after putting in the 
fruit, without any water ; they then put them in a pan of cold 
water, heat the latter till it simmers, and let the bottles remain 
in it till the fruit shrinks when it is unripe, or till the juice of the 
fruit has boiled up. They also recommend that fruit or vegeta- 
bles, or their juices, should boil three or four hours if they will 
bear it ; then remove the pan from the fire, and aUow the bottles 
to cool as above. The small amount of oxygen contained in the 
bottles becomes absorbed, and fermentation is prevented. Some 
again, advise that two to six ounces of sugar should be added to 
each quart bottle, when ripe fruit is used, and sufficient sugar 
to sweeten it when the fruit is green. In the latter case they fill 
up the bottles with water, but not when the fruit is ripe ; thus pre- 
served, they require no additional sugar when used for pies, etc. 
Jars of fruit may be treated in the same way, using six ounces of 
sugar for plums, etc. Much sugar, however, tends to destroy the 
natural flavour of the fruit. Ripe currants and raspberries may 
be bottled together. 

D 2 


While corking the bottles, set them on doable flannel dipped in 
hot water ; if placed on at cold snrface, or exposed to a current of 
cold air, the sudden change of temperature may break them. If 
the corks are fastened down with wire or twine, it will prevent 
them flying ; then dip the top of each bottle in melted resin, and, 
as only a thin coating will be taken while the bottle is hot, dip it 
a second time when it is cold. 

When the bottles are laid on their sides, the water should coyer 
the fruit. 

Use long corks, not bungs, as the latter are cut the wrong way 
of the cork, and will admit air ; choose them of a good colour 
and texture. Scald them, and let the water become almost cold; 
drain off the water, and scald them again with clean water ; let 
them stand for an hour ; remove them from the water, and put 
them in a sieve for two days to dry. Some pour melted fat upon 
the fruit in the bottles, to the thickness of a penny-piece, just 
before they are corked. When the bottles are opened, the fat is 
removed with a spoon. When you put in the cork, squeeze it as 
small as possible, drive it down one inch into the bottle, and cut 
the cork even with the mouth of the bottle. 

Instead of corking the bottles, some prefer pouring a little 
olive oil on the water to secure the fruit from the access of air, 
in which case the bottles must be stored in an upright position. 

When about to use the fruit, pour off the greater part of the 
water, if no sugar has been used, and add sugar as for fresh fruit. 
The liquor poured from the fruit will form a good syrup when 
boiled with sugar. 

Cranberries need only be put into clean bottles or jars, which 
should be filled up with cold water, previously boiled ; cork or 
cover them closely. When about to use the berries, stew them 
lightly in a little of the water in which they have been kept, 
adding a little sugar. AH fruits, however, when bottled with cold 
water, eat rather hard, even after they have been well stewed ; 
it is advisable in this case to bruise them well whilst being 


(3.) To Preserve Fruit by Keeping it at a 
Very Low Temperature. 

/ 38. If yegetable substances be exposed to a degree of cold 
below the freezing point of water, the juices will be congealed 
and converted into ice, and during this state they cannot undergo 
any change whatever ; hence freezing becomes a very simple and 
effectual mode of preserving food in many cases. Several plans 
have been suggested for this purpose, but few families would find 
it convenient to adopt them. 

(4.) To Preserve Fruits and other Vegetable Sub- 
stances WITH Sugar, Salt, and Vinegar. 

General Observations. 

39. Enamelled stew-pans are best adapted for preserving an4 
pickling, as they are not acted on by acids, and the colour of the 
fruit is not affected by them. 

Wooden or silver spoons and skimmers should be employed, as 
pewter, iron, or tin endangers the colour of the fruit. All sieves, 
strainers, and other vessels should be very clean, as the least 
inattention in this respect might destroy the flavour. 

Preserves and pickles should be kept in a very dry and cool 

Do not allow the preserving-pan to be in immediate contact 
with the fire ; suspend it over the fire, or let it rest on a trivet or 
other protector. 

All preserves should be well skimmed, and constantly stirred, 
gently at first, and more quickly afterwards ; a slight neglect in 
these respects may spoil the whole. 

Unripe fruits, and such as contisLin little juice, should be sim- 
mered gently, till tender, in water or a thin syrup (69), and the 
syrup to be poured upon them should at each boiling be 
strengthened by the addition of more sugar. Bipe fruits, or such 
as contain much juice, require no water ; they should be sim- 


xnered with one-third of the sngar yon intend to employ, and the 
syrup thus obtadned should be emiichedivillL the remaining sugar, 
as above. 

It is usual to add a pint of water and a pound of sugar to each 
pound of fhiit, one-third of the sugar being added at each boil- 
ing ; but it is desirable to use no more water than the fruit re- 
quires. The sugar may yary from eight ounces to two pounds, 
but the natural flavour of the fruit is obscured by an excess of 

Unless the syrup be thin at first, and the fruit soft, the latter 
will not absorb the sugar, nor become clear and plump. 

Preserves and jams, when sufficiently boiled, should be put 
into clean, dry jars, covered with tissue paper rubbed over slightly 
with pure olive oil, or dipped in brandy or white of egg, and then 
protected by one or two pieces of bladder, paper, or iheei gutta 
percha, so as to exclude the air as much as possible. They 
should be kept in a very dry and cool place. The bladder should 
be soaked in water for two days, and its intemaZ or tmooth sur- 
face should be placed upwards. The tissue paper should be cut 
larger than the opening of the jar, well smeared witii white of 
egg, and pressed well down at the sides. 

They will ferment and become mity if not sufficiently boiled, 
or if kept in too warm a place ; and they are apt to become 
candied if boiled too quickly or too long. If they are not kept 
in a dry place, or have not been sufficiently boUed, they will pro- 
bably become mouldy. 

They should be occasionally examined, and when slight fermen- 
tation appears, the syrup should be re-boiled for a few minutes 
and well skimmed ; the fruit also should be well scalded in it ; 
the whole should th^ be secured in clean jars, as above. 

For common preserves, coarse sugar may be used, but well- 
refined loaf pugar, or fine crystallized sugar, should be generally 
preferred, as there is less scum and waste from the finer sugars. 
All the coarse sugars contain acari and other impurities, and on 
this account the well-refined sugars are most economical. 



40. The tenu Preserves is sometiiues applied to mits boiled 
with sugar in any condition, but it will be convenient to arrajige 
them under the fonr following heads : — 1. Preserves ; 2. Jams 
and Marmalades ; 3. Moulded Pulp or Emit Moulds ; 4. Jellies. 

(1.) Pbeseryes. 

41. Preserves proper are fruits or other vegetables protected by 
engar or tiyrup, either entire, or, if divided, not mashed or re- 
dtieed to pulp. 

They Stnay be boiled or potted in the syrup, or they may be re- 
moved from the syrup, and dried on sieves or dishes in the sun, 
or in a very moderate oven, with a little powdered sugar sprinkled 
over them every time they are turned. 

(a.) Having prepared the fruit, put it carefully in wide-mouthed 
bottles ; sprinkle the sugar in with the fruit, reserving a rather 
larger portion for the top (31) ; put the bottles ill a pan of cold 
water ; gradually raise the temperature ; simmer half an hour ; 
fill up the bottles from each other, and complete the process as 
for bottied fruit (87). 

Bipe currants, strawberries, and raspberries, may be thus pre> 
served, eight ounces of sugar being added to a pound of fruit. 

(6.) Form a syrup (82) with from twelve ounces to two pounds of 
sugar and a pint of water ; a lemon cut in slices, and the peel of 
such fruit as pines may be simmered about five minutes in it. 
Strain, and when the syrup is cold, add the firdt, if large, in thin 
slices ; simmer tiU the fiiiit is tender, or till a wooden skewer 
easily penetrates it. Put the fruit axld syrup in jars, as direqted 
(39). It is better to add only one-third of the sugar at firsts and 
the reitiaining portion as directed in method c. 

(c.) Sprinkle one-third of the sugar over the fruit, and let it 
stimd from one to three days, or until sufficient juice has been ex- 
tracted ; if the fruit yields little juice, add a littlb water. Put 
the syrup and fruit carefidly into a preserving-panj heat them 


gradually oyer the fire, and simmer them gently ten minntes ; re- 
move the pan from the fire, and, with a wooden spoon, take out 
the fruit, and put it into a bowl ; add another third of the sugar 
to the syrup, and simmer it five or ten minutes ; skim it well, 
and pour it over the fruit,* and let it stand tOl next day. Again 
remove the fruit, add the remaining third of the sugar to the 
syrup, let it simmer for five or ten minutes, then pour it over the 
fruit, and put it with the syrup in jars, as directed (39), or drain 
and dry the fruit, as at 41. 

(d.) Put the fruit in stone jars, sprinHe over it one-third of the 
sugar ; put the jars in a boiler of cold water ; let the water sim- 
mer gently till a syrup has been obtained, and allow the fruit to 
stand in it till next day ; then drain off the syrup, and add to it 
another third of the sugar ; simmer it ten minutes, and skim it 
well ; then pour it over the fruit; continue the process with the 
remaining third of the sugar, tiU the fruit is clear ; then put it in 
small jars, and cover them (39). 

(e.) Take half as much more fruit as finely-powdered sugar ; 
put one-third of the fruit (the ripest and most bruised) in a jar ; 
sprinkle over it one-sixth of the sugar, and place it in a mo- 
derately heated oven, or. over the fire, until the juice has been 
extracted, which drain from the fruit, and the remaining pulp 
may be used for pies, puddings, or jams, by adding to it a few 
red currants or rhubarb, and more sugar. When red currant juice 
can be obtained, it may be used instead of that of the fruit to be 
preserved. Heat the remaining sugar on a dish in the oven, add 
one-half of it to the juice when near the boiling point ; simmer 
the whole for a few minutes, or until it has become clear by 
skimming. Then take it from the fire, and carefolly add the re- 
served fruit ; sprinkle over it the remaining sugar ; simmer the 
wl^ole for twenty minutes, but very gently, lest you break the fruit. 
Take out the fruit carefolly with a slice, and put the most entire 
in a jar ; sinmier the syrup from three to five minutes longer ; 
pour it over the fruit, and let it stand till cold, then cover it (39). 

* When you wiah the fruit to be green and firm, let the syrup stand 
,tlll It is ccHa before you pour it over the fruit ; In all other cases pour It 
over while hot (81 /). 


If the preserve does not set well, drain off the juice, boil it, and 
then ponr it oyer the fruit. 

Thus are prepared strawberries, raspberries, and other juicy 
and delicate fruits. 

(/.) Boil two quarts of amber gooseberries in two quarts of 
water till the juice has been well extracted ; strain, and add two 
pounds of fine sugar to two pints of the liquor ; let it boil five 
minutes, and skim it till clear. Remove it from the fire, and add 
carefully two pounds of raspberries ; let them just boil up ; then 
sprinkle over them a pound and a half of sugar previously heated 
in the oven ; boil them very fast for eight minutes, skimming 
them well. Remove them from the fire, let them stand till 
nearly cold, then put them in pots. 

Strawberries may be preserved in the same way. 

(g,) For each pound of fruit, take half a pound of sugar, and 
put the latter in a pan with a little water ; when the sugar is hot, 
take up the fruit in a skimmer, dip it in the sugar, and hold it 
there about half a minute ; then remove it, and spread it on tins, 
continuing the process till all the fruit is finished. Boil down the 
sugar to a thick syrup, and pour it over the fruit. Set the tins 
before the sun, or in a warm oven, tUl the fruit has been dried 
into gelatinous cakes. When thoroughly dry, put the cakes in a 
bag, and hang it in a dry place. The cakes wUl keep a long time, 
and may be used at any time by adding a little hot water for a 
few minutes ; more sugar may be added if necessary. The 
flavour of the fruit is preserved by this method, which answers 
well for strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, etc. 

(h.) Boil to a thick syrup one pound of refined sugar and a 
quarter of a pint of water for each pound of fruit. When cold, 
put in the strawberries, and let them stand a night. Drain them, 
and boil the syrup up again three times, which will thicken it. 
Put the strawberries into the syrup each time when it is cold. 
When finished, put them in glasses, over which tie paper, and 
set them in a cold place. 

To Preserve Ripe Currants. 
43. Remove them carefully from the stalks, and proceed ac- 


cording to method a, tiBlcg eight otmces of sngar to a pound of 

Ripe Gooseberries, 

48. These may be preserved either with or withotit the jseeds. 
Boil theiii, till clear and tender, in a syrup formed in the propor- 
tion of a pound of sugar to a pint of water ; or in a syrup in 
which cherries or other fruits have been boiled for drying ; put 
them into the syrup when it is cold, heat them gradually, and 
proceed as directed for cherries (46). For very clear syrup, use 
soft water (32). 

Green Gooseberries. 

44. Take them when fully grown, cut off the tops, but not the 
stalks, split the gooseberries half way down, and remove the 
seeds. Simmer a pound and a half of sugar in a pint of water ; 
skim, and add one pound of gooseberries ; simmer them from five 
to seven minutes, or till clear and tender ; lift them out of the 
syrup, and add more gooseberries to it. Drain them when suffi- 
ciently done ; dry them gradually (41), or keep them in the syrup, 
and dry them when they are wanted. 


45. Stone them, and| add eight ounces of Bugar to fliiteen 
ounces of cherries ; let them stand two days in the syrup ; simmer 
them ten minutes, then let them stand two or three days longer ; 
drain off the syrup and dry the cherries separately on sieves or 
dishes (41) . When more sugar is used, put the cherries in the syrup, 
and dry them at any time ; but the flavour will be better 
preserved by drying them within a fortnight after they have been 


Siberian Crabs, 

46. Bub them with a dry flannel, taking care not to break the 
skin. Prick them well with a needle, to prevent their bursting. 
Simmer a pound of sugar in a pint of wat«r, then put in the 


fruit, and, simmer it till the sldii begins to crack slightly ; take 
out the crabs, and drain them separately on a dish. Simmer the 
syrup again, and if not strong enough add more sugar ; when 
e<dd, pour it 0T€r the fruit, and put in jars (39). 

Damsons^ Wine-sourSf and other Ripe Phmu. 

47. Prick them with a needle, and slit the skin of the hardier 
kinds at the seam. Proceed according to method d, using three- 
quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Greengages 
are sometimes boiled in clear goosebeny juice — two pounds of 
the juice to one pound of fruit. 

ApricotSt Teaches, Nectarines, 

48. Let the fruit be fine and sound, but not too ripe. Pare, 
stone, and cut them in halves, and weigh them. Lay them on a 
dish, the hollow part upwards; take their weight of fine loaf 
sugar pounded, strew one-third of it over the fruit, and proceed 
by method c. Apples pared, cored, and cut in quarters or 
less portions, may be preserved in the same way. A little 
essence of ginger may be added before the apples are put in the 


Pine-apples, Vegetable-marrows, etc. 

49. Take off the top and bottom of the pine, and remove the 
rind. Form a syrup, with a pint of water, two pounds of sugar, 
one lemon cut in slices, and the peel of the pine ; proceed accord- 
ing to method b, 


Raspberries, Strawberries. 

50. Proceedaccording to methods or/. 

Fruit nine pounds, sugar six pounds. Heat three pounds of 
fruit and one pound of sugar together ; add two and a half pounds 
of sugar to the juice, then six pounds of fruit, and the remaining 
two and a half pounds of sugar. 



51. (a.) Take it whilst young and tender; peel, and cut it into 
lengths of one or two inches. For every ponnd of rhubarb take 
a pint of water and three-quarters of a pound of sugar ; add one- 
third of the sugar to the water, put in the rhubarb, and simmer 
it twenty minutes or till tender but not pulpy ; remove the rhu- 
barb into a bowl, and complete the process as directed in method 
c, always allowing the syrup to stand till cold before it is poured 
over the rhubarb. 

(&.) Cut the rhubarb as for tarts, and to every quart sprinkle 
one pound of sugar ; let the whole stand twenty-four hours, or 
until the juice has been extracted. The sugar will sink without 
being dissolved. Boil the juice and sugar together for twenty 
minutes after simmering has commenced ; then add the rhubarb, 
and boil the whole twenty minutes longer. The preserve need 
not be stirred if boiled slowly. The rhubarb and sugar do not 
require a warm place to draw out the juice. 

Green Apricots, 

52. Select them just before they are ripe, arrange them in a 
pan in layers, with plenty of vine or spinach leaves under, over, 
and between them, fill the pan with spring water, and cover it up 
close. Heat the water very gradually, and keep it at a moderate 
heat for several hours, or until the fruit becomes tender but not 
cracked; then remove the fruit very carefully. Make a thin 
syrup with some of the water, using one pound of sugar to a pint 
and a half of water ; when coldj pour it on the fruit, and com- 
plete the operation by 41 c. 

If the fruit be not green enough, a small piece of alum may be 
boiled in the syrup. 

Peeserves with Sugar and Ginger. 
CticurriberSj Melons^ Vegetable-marrowSy and LettuLce Stalks. 

53. Ohoose cucumbers of a middle size, green, and as free as 
possible from seeds. Put them in a jar with a strong solution 


of salt in water, coyer them with a cabbage-leaf to keep them 
down, and tie paper over the top. Set the jar in a warm oyen 
till the cncmubers become yellow ; wash them, and set them over 
the fire in fresh water with a little salt in it, and place a fresh 
cabbage-leaf oyer them ; coyer the pan yery close, but take care 
the water does not boil. If the encumbers are not sufficiently 
green, change the water, coyer and heat as before ; or add a little 
alum, yine leayes, parsley, or spinach, or the juice of the latter. 
When of a good colour, let them stand till cold ; put them in 
cold spring water for two days, changing the -^ater twice a day to 
remoye the salt ; they will then be ready for the syrup. They 
may also be cut in two, and the seeds and pulp remoyed. 

When lettuces are running to seed, take the stalks while 
tender, and when about sixteen or eighteen inches high, peel 
them and cut them into lengths of from one to three inches ; put 
them in spring water, changing it daily for six days or until the 
stalks are yery clear. Bemoye all remaining strings or fibres, 
and boil the stalks for a few minutes in spring water, but not till 
they are soft. 

For eyery pound of fruit take a pint of water, a pound of 
sugar, and an ounce of good white ginger preyiously soaked and 
scraped ; boil, and skim the syrup till dear. (It is better to add 
only one-third of the sugar at first, and the remainder by degrees 
at each boiling.) While the syrup is boiling, add the rind of one 
lemon pared yery thin and cut in shreds. When the syrup is 
clear, remoye it from the fire, and when cold pour it oyer the 
cucumbers, lettuce stalks, etc., haying first dried them with a 
cloth. Let the whole stand a day or two, then draw off the 
syrup, bring it to the boiling point, haying added another third 
of the sugar, skim it well, and when cold pour it oyer the 
fruit again. There should be sufficient syrup to coyer the 
fruit. Repeat the operation on alternate days for a fortnight 
or more, occasionally adding a little more sugar, and if not 
sufficiently strong of ginger, add a little essence of ginger before 
pouring the syrup on the fruit for the last time. The juice of a 
lemon may be added to the syrup preyiously to completing the 
last boiling. 


(2.) Jams and Marmalades.. 

54. These differ little from Preserres properly so called. Jam* 
are generally made of the more juicy herries reduced to a pulp ; 
Marmalades^ of the more solid fruits, or the rinds of oranges, etc. 
The fruit should be free from dirt, skins, stalks, and stones. 
Bipe and juicy fruits should be rather bruised, put into the pre- 
serving pan, and boiled rapidly till well reduced, before the sugar 
is added. When the sugar has been added, boil the whole 
quickly, but do not allow it to become too thick, or the sugar will 
remain undissolyed, and the impurities will not rise to the top. 
Bich juice should be carefully watched as it falls from the skim- 
mer, lest it become too thick. When fruit contains little juice, 
as unripe currants, bruise a portion of it, then add a little sugar ; 
place the pan over a gentle fire, and when sufficient juice has been 
obtained to prevent the fruit burning, add the remainder. All 
jams should be well stirred and sMnmied. 

The sugar should be made as hot as possible without being 
browned, before it is added to the fruit. For common jams and 
jellies coarse sugar may be used, but well refined loaf sugar oi 
crystallized sugar should be preferred generally, as there is much 
less impurity and waste from the finer sugars (32). 

To stone-fruit the blanched kernels of the whole or of part may 
be added two or three minutes before the pan is removed from 
the fire. 

Currant juice, red or white, in the proportion of one-fourth of 
the weight of the jam, is an improvement to strawberries ; it may 
also be added to raspberries. The pulp and juice of ripe goose- 
berries, after being strained, may be mixed with raspbeny juice ; 
or the raspberries and gooseberries may be boiled together. 

The following are approved mixtures : — 

Raspberries and Gooseberries, 

{a.) Take equal quantities of each, and boil the gooseberries 
well before the raspberries are added. 


RaspherrieB and Rhubarb. 

(b.) Boil three ponnds of rhubarb twenty mixmtes, then add 
one ponnd of mapl^enries and three powids of sugar ; or, rhubarb 
two poundB, raspberries hgili « pound, sugar one. pound and 
three quarters. 

Raspberries and Apples, or Vegetable-marrow, 

(e.) Apples or yogetable-miirrow three, pounds, raspberries one 

Raspberries, Black Currants, and Rhubarb. 

{d.} Baq>berrie» one pound, blaok eurra&ts one pound, 
rhubarb two poundlf. This mixture makes an excellent pre- 

Blackberries or Brambleberries, and Apples. 

(e.) Juice of blackberries two quarts, cut apples six pounds, 
crushed lump sugar one pound. Stew in the usual way till the 
apples are softened down and the mass becomes of the usual 

(/.) Or boil the brambleberries and apples separately ; stir the 
apples into the clarified sugar while hot, then add the bramble- 
berries ; add also the juice and grated rind of a lemon, and boil 
the whole from five to ten minutes. Brambleberries three 
pounds, apples one pound, clarified sugar two and a half pounds. 


(^.) Peel it, and take out the seeds and fibres, and cut the fruit 
in pieces. To each pound of marrow add one pound of loaf sugar 
and the juice of a lemon ; let it boil halC an hour, then pour it 
into pots. 

Red or White Currants, 

(h.) Fruit four pounds, sugar three pounds, when* ai the 
boiling point ; let the presarve continue to boil for eight minutes 


quickly. The pan should be only two-thirds Ml, or the fruit will 
boil oyer. When more sugar is added, the fruit should only boU 
seven minutes. 

Fruit will keep better if boiled longer than recommended in 
this receipt, but both the colour and flavour will be injured. 

Oreen Gooseberries. 

(t.) Weigh, and bruise them slightly, boil them six or seven 
minutes ; to every three pounds of fruit add two and a half 
pounds of sugar in powder, then boil quickly three-quarters of an 

55. When a fine jam is required, the pulp of the various fruits 
should be passed through a sieve previous to adding the sugar ; 
and when more sugar is added than stated in the following table, 
boil a shorter time, both before and after it has been added. Pot 
and cover as directed for preserves. 


Raspberries 6 lbs. 

Strawberries 6 

Cherries 6 

Peaches, etc 6 

Greengages, Orleans, ■% ^ 

Damsons, etc ) 

Currants, red, white, ) ^ 

and black * ) 

Ripe Gooseberries ... 6 
Unripe Gooseberries i ^ 

and Corrants ! 

Rhubarb 6 

boil 25 min.— sugar 8 lbs., boil 10 minutes. 
, 85 „ 

60 „ 
. 46 „ 

46 „ 

15 , 

46 , 

6-7 , 

60-75 , 

























Before using any of the preceding receipts, read the general 
directions at 54. 

Orange Marmalade. 

56. Take eighteen Seville oranges, or about three pounds in 
weight, and put them in salt and water for twelve hours, and 
afterwards rub them well with a doth. Boil them in two quarts 
• Black currants may be added to red currant Juice. 


of water, or safficient to coyer them, for twenty minutes, or mitil 
so tender that the head of a pin will easily penetrate the skin ; 
the water will then be reduced to three pints. Cut the oranges 
in halyes or in quarters, remove the pulp into a basin, and separate 
from it all fibres, pips, etc., till nothing is left but the clear pulp 
and juice. Bemove all the white part from the rind, and cut the 
latter into large narrow slips, which add to the pulp ; the whole 
will then weigh about a pound and a half. Add three pints 
of the water in which the oranges were boiled; let the whole 
simmer about twenty minutes, then add four pounds of loaf sugar 
broken into small pieces, and let it simmer again gently thirty 
or forty minutes, or until it is very clear; then put it into 
small jars. 

(3.) Moulded Pulp, or Fruit Moulds. 

67. These have been variously designated as gooseberry paste, 
apple solid, bullace cheese, gateau de pommes, etc. They are 
merely jams the boiling of which has been continued till nearly 
all the moisture has been evaporated. 

Prepare the fruit as for jam, and boil it half an hour or till 
tender. If the fruit is very abundant in juice, as ripe currants, 
reserve a portion of the juice for other purposes, and pass the 
remainder with the pulp through a sieve, so as to remove all 
' skins, seeds, etc. When reduced a little by boiling, stir in the 
sugar, in the proportion of ten ounces of sugar to a pint of the 
pulp and juice ; boil the whole half an hour or till it is quite stiff, 
stirring it well all the time, then press it into moulds, and let it 
stand till cold. 

The pulp which remains after making jellies, if not pressed or 
strained too much, may also be employed in making fruit moulds* 
Elegant moulds are also made by boiling sago, rice, barley, etc., 
in the juice of fruit (175). 

When the preserve leaves the pan well, forming a ball round 
the spoon, or when it will not adhere to the finger when touched, 
it is ready for the mould. 


Gooseberry Moulds, 

68. Two quarts or four pounds of ripe gooseberries yield about 
a pound and a half or a pint and a half of pulp and juice after 
straining, to which about a pound of sugar may be added. 

To half a peck of picked red, ripe gooseberries, add a tea-cupful 
of water ; boil half an hour, then strain the juice from the berries, 
and pass one half of them through a sieve, reserving the remaining 
half for any other purpose ; add the strained pulp to the juice, 
return the mixture to the pan, and add a pound and a half of 
bruised lump sugar for each quart of the pulp and juice. Simmer 
the whole till sufficiently firm, then put it in moulds. 

This is a very useful preserve, and will keep well. 

Green Gooseberry Moulds, 

59. Green gooseberries six pounds ; bruise them, and boil 
them an hoar and a quarter ; then add two pounds of powdered 
sugar, and boil the whole half an hour longer, or till of a sufficient 

Red Currant Moulds, 

60. Boil the currants from five to seven minutes ; pour off 
three parts of the juice ; press the remainder with the pulp 
through a sieve ; boil briskly to a dry paste, and for each pound • 
add seven ounces of powdered sugar, and boil twenty-five to thirty 
minutes longer. 

Apple Moulds^ etc, 

61. Apples, after having been pared, quartered, and cored, may 
be boiled in four-fifths or two-thirds their weight of plum or cur- 
rant juice, till nearly dry (a few raspberries may be mixed if at 
hand) ; add the sugar, and boil ten minutes longer, or until quite 
dry enough to be formed into a mould. 

Several kinds of fruit may be mixed together, as apple8,*pear8, 
plums, etc., in equal quantities. 


Oarrots may be scraped or pared, then boiled till tender, 
mashed, fine, and passed throngh a hair-sieve ; boil the pnlp half 
an honr, and add sugar equal to the original weight of the 
carrots ; add also the juice of lemons, or other flavouring. 

(4.) Fruit Jellies. 

62. Jellies consist of the juice or pectine of fruit boiled with 
sugar. • 

Remove the stalks of plums, currants, etc. ; pare, quarter, and 
core apples, quinces, etc., and put them, as they are cut, into clean 
water, to prevent them changing colour. Bed apples are some- 
times not pared, in order that a little colour may be imparted to 
the jelly. Make an incision with a knife in bullaces, damsons 
and other hardy kinds of fruit. 

Put any of the fruits thus prepared into a clean stone jar, or 
enamelled stew-pan, adding to apples, quinces, unripe goose- 
berries, etc., from half a pint to a pint of spring water for every 
pound of fruit. Cover the jar with bladder or one or two folds of 
thick paper ; place it in a rather cool oven during the night, or 
in a deep pan of water, to be gradually heated; or place the stew- 
pan containing the fruit very high over a clear fire ; stir the fruit, 
with a wooden or silver spoon whilst it simmers, from a few 
minutes to three hours, according to the nature of the fruit, or 
until the fruit is quite soft, and has yielded all its juice. Care 
should be taken to remove it from the fire before it becomes thick 
or pulpy. Turn the whole into a clean, dry sieve, jelly-bag, or 
double muslin strainer, that the juice may be drained from the 
pulp, but do not use pressure. If the juice be thick, pass it 
through the strainer a second time. Weigh or measure the juice, 
and then boil it rapidly in a clean preserving pan ; if obtained 
from raspberries, five minutes ; currants or gooseberries, eight to 
fifteen minutes ; plums, apples, quinces, and strawberries, twenty 
to twenty-five minutes ; stir and skim the juice during the whole 
time it is boiling. 

Remove the pan from the fire, and for every pint of juice, as 
measured before boiling, have ready from twelve to sixteen ounces 

£ 2 


of refined sugar, or half a pound of sugar to a pound of juice ; 
bruise the sugar fine, and heat it by placing it on a dish in the 
oven ; then stir it into the juice till entirely dissolved. Boil the 
juice again quickly from two to twenty minutes, or until it jellies 
strongly on the spoon or skimmer, clearing it also well from the 
scum. If boiled too long, the juice will lose its power of gela- 

Clarified syrup is said to be preferable to sugar, as it produces 
no additional scum. 

A little lemon juice may be added to apple jelly two minutes 
previously to removing it finally from the fire. 

Pour the jelly into glasses or moulds. 

Jellies may also be made by taking a pound of syrup for every 
pound of juice ; boil the syrup to caramel, that is, till it falls in 
thick white masses from the skimmer ; then pour in the juice 
immediately, and boil the whole from five to twenty minutes, 
clearing ofi the scum as it rises. Jams may be formed in the 
same way. 

Jellies are usually formed from the following fruits : — Straw- 
berries, raspberries, blackberries, grapes, plums, barberries, 
gooseberries (green or ripe), currants (red, white, and black), 
apples, quinces, Siberian crabs. 

Siberian Crab Jelly. 

63. Siberian crabs one pound and a half, water one pint. 
Boil the firuit till broken ; strain and weigh the juice, then boil 
it quickly ten minutes ; add ten ounces of sugar to each pound 
of juice, and boil again from twelve to fifteen minutes. 

The following are considered good mixtures : — 

Ripe gooseberry juice three pounds, white or red currant juice 
one pound. 

Raspberry juice one pint, white currant juice one quarter or 
one-third of a pint. 

Raspberry, red currant, and white currant juice, in equal quan- 

Red currant juice three pounds, white currant juice one pound* 


Damson juice three pounds, bullace or other pale plum juice 
one pound. 

The juices should be extracted separately, and mixed just be- 
fore the sugar is added. 

When one part of currant juice is added to three parts of straw- 
berry juice, the jelly will be firmer, and will require less boiling, 
but the flavour will not be so rich. 

The pulp which remains after straining off the juice may be 
made, by the addition of fresh fruit, into pies, jams, or fruit 
moulds, as directed for such preparations. The residuum of 
currants and other seedy fruit will require mixing with fresh rasp- 
berries, or other rich juicy fruit. Apple pulp may be mixed with 
plums, etc. 

When a stiffer jelly is required than can be obtained from the 
juice of fruit alone, dissolve half an ounce of isinglass in half a 
pint of water, then add a half-pint jar of any kind of fruit jelly ; 
when quite dissolved, strain the whole through a jelly bag ; then 
stir it till ;iearly cold, and pour it into a mould. 

Orange. Jelly, 

64. Dissolve one ounce of isinglass in just sufficient water to 
cover it. Bub off the yellow rind of four good oranges on sugar, 
and scrape the sugar into the isinglass, adding a small piece of 
cinnamon. Simmer the whole over a slow fire, stirring it fre- 
quently. Squeeze and strain the juice of oranges till you have 
a pint and a third, also the juice of a small lemon. Mix these 
together, with clarified sugar sufficient to sweeten the juice, add 
it to the isinglass, and when the whole boils it is ready. Strain 
it through a fine sieve, and put it in moulds ; any portion that 
remains may be put in glasses when it is cold. 

Lemon jelly may be made in the same way, but omit the cin- 
namon, and add more sugar. Other fruits may be employed in 
the same manner. 

In general, isinglass one ounce, sugar in syrup twelve ounces, 
fruit one pound. The fruit should be infused in the syrup. 


Fine Currant Syrupy or Strop de Qroseilles. 

65. Express the juice from ripe red cnrrants, gathered dry ; 
strain and put it in a clean pitcher ; let it stand in a cellar or 
cool place for twenty-four hours, or longer should it not then ap- 
pear perfectly curdled. Pour it gently into a fine hair-sieve, and 
drain the juice without pressure ; pass it through a jelly-bag, add 
finely broken sugar equal to the weight of the juice, and, when 
the sugar is dissolved, turn the whole into a preserving-pan, and 
boil it gently four or five minutes ; remove the scum as it rises. 
In the course of twelve hours afterwards, put the syrup in small 
dry bottles, cork them, and keep them in a cool dry place. The 
flavoi^r of the fruit will be preserved ; and when this syrup is mixed 
with water, it affords an excellent beverage. It also forms a 
good pudding sauce. Raspberry or cherry juice may be mixed 
with it. 

Fruit Lozenges and Wafers for Dessert, 

66. To every pint of fruit juice, extracted as for jelly, add a 
pound of finely sifted sugar and the white of a small egg. Beat 
the mixture together until it becomes quite thick ; then put it 
upon buttered paper in a slow oven ; let it remain until it will 
quit the paper, then turn it and leave it in the oven till quite dry ; 
cut it into shapes, and keep them near the fire in a box, between 
sheets of paper. 

Bipe gooseberries may be used by passing the pulp, obtained 
as above, through a sieve, and to every pound of fruit add twelve 
ounces of sugar and the white of an egg beaten to a stiff froth. 
Mix the whole together, and spread it thinly upon china dishes. 
When sufficiently dried, by being placed in a cool oven, cut it into 
shapes, remove the wafers thus made into clean dishes, and set 
them before the fire or in a cool oven. 


Kidney Beans, 

67. String and cut them ; then place them in an earthen vessel, 
-with alternate layers of salt, till the vessel is full. 

The beans should be taken out the day before they are boiled, 
well washed, and put in water, which should be changed two or 
three times to remove the salt. 


68. The cereal grains enter, either whole or ground, into almost 
every department of cookery. They may be either plainly cooked 
or combined with other substances so as to produce an endless 
variety of nutritious dishes. 

To Cree, Boil, or Stew Grain. 

69. Simple decoction in water or milk is one of the best pre- 
parations which feculent grains can undergo ; but all farinaceous 
substances must be boiled for some time before they are thoroughly 
cooked. This will be the case when they become much swollen 
by combining with the fluid ; they also become transparent when 
water is employed. If the cooking be continued, the grains will 
unite, the fluid in which they are boiled will become thickened, 
and finally form what is called bouillie. 

Oats and barley should be prepared by removing the hull or 
skin. Wheat may be used either with the skin on (having been 
first well washed), or hulled, which if not done at the mill may be 
effected thus : Moisten it well and put it in a coarse bag ; beat it 
with a thick stick or roller till the husk can be rubbed off ; then 
wash it well in five or six waters, and rub it with the hands till it 
is quite free from the bran. 

(a.) When grain requires no skin removing, pick, wash, and 
steep it (21) ; then put it in a stew-pot with water or milk, and 
set it in an oven, or boil it over the fire till the fluid has been 


absorbed or till the grain is sufficiently tender. Add more fluid 
when necessary, and evaporate it when in excess. It should be 
frequently stirred with a wooden or silver spoon or fork, to 
prevent burning; pewter spoils the colour of light -coloured 

(6.) Or into a very clean bright pan, rinsed with a little cold 
water, put a quart of milk, then eight ounces of rice, previously 
washed and picked, and a little sugar ; set the pan on a trivet 
over a brisk fire, and stew the rice till tender, but not till dry or 
stiff. Serve the rice cold with preserves, etc. Rice thus cooked 
should not be stirred, and the quicker it is stewed the better 
colour it will be ; if intended for moulds, stew it a little longer, 
or till more of the fluid has evaporated. 

(c.) When it is desirable to preserve the grains separate, as in 
the case of rice to be eaten as a vegetable, put the prepared grain 
in boiling water, or tie it loosely in a cloth ; keep the water con- 
stantly boiling without a cover for thirty minutes, or till the grain 
is rather tender, then put it in a colander, turn it gently upon a 
dish, which place before the Are, or in a moderately heated oven 
to be dried. 

((2.) Wash the rice in several waters, put it into a large 
quantity of cold water ; raise the temperature gradually till it 
boils, and boU the rice gently for fifteen minutes uncovered. 
Throw it into a large colander, and let it drain for ten minutes 
near the fire, and if not quite dry, set it for a short time in a 
gentle oven. 

Preparations with Creed Grain. 
Wheatj Barley f Ricsy etc.^ Plainly Creed, 

70. (a.) When the grain has been stewed till tender in water or 
milk, as may be preferred, pour it into soup plates, and eat it 
with sugar, treacle, preserved fruit, milk, butter, mock cream, etc., 
or these may be added before the grain is removed fi-om the fire 
or oven. 

(5.) Greed grain may be converted into puddings (282), moulds 
(173), frumenty (75), riz au lait (76), etc. Grain creed in milk 


is generaJly preferred for any of these purposes ; about four 
ounces of grain to a pint or a pint and a half of milk. 

(c.) Greed grain may also be eaten with white sauce or onion 
sauce, or fried bread crumbs, or butter and grated cheese, etc. 
Lemon juice, cinnamon, or other seasoning may be added, accord- 
ing to taste, a short time before the creeing is completed. Two- 
thirds of rice and one-third of Scotch barley form a good mixture, 
bat they should be creed separately, as the barley requires a longer 
time than the rice. 

(d.) Stew eight ounces of rice half an hour gently in milk, add 
eight ounces of sugar, let it stew till dry and rather tender ; then 
stir into it two ounces of blanched and pounded almonds, and 
turn the whole into shallow dishes or soup-plates, shaking it 
till the surface is smooth ; sift over it freshly powdered cinna- 
mon or allspice, and serva it cold. One or two bitter almonds 
pounded with the sweet ones may be added, and a few spoon- 
fuls of cream instead of as much milk, when the rice is three 
parts done. 

(e.) Rice Balls. — Cree the rice in milk, beat a little butter to a 
cream, then add eggs and grated lemon-peel ; stir in the rice till 
it is just stiff enough to be made into balls, which boil in milk, 
and serve with raspberry sauce ; or roll them in beaten egg, then 
in bread crumbs; fry, and drain them, and serve them covered with 

(/.) Rice and Oatmeal. — Boil eight ounces of rice in a pint of 
water, and as the water becomes absorbed, add gradually two 
quarts more ; add also half a table-spoonful of sugar and a whole 
one of salt; then stir in eight ounces of oatmeal, and let the 
whole boil twenty minutes ; this will make more than four 
pounds of good wholesom^ood. If preferred sweet, add two 
ounces of sugar or treacle ; if savoury, add salt and pepper, 
chopped onion, etc. 

Bevalenta, or the meal from peas, barley, maize, etc., may be 
used instead of the oatmeal. 

(g.) Rice and Onions. — Take eight ounces of rice, two middle- 
sized onions chopped fine, and a little salt ; boU them briskly in 
a pint and half of water, in a covered pan, about fifteen minutes, 


or till the rice is tender and the water absorbed. Let the pan 
remain near the fire till the whole is dry, and season with pepper 
und salt. 

(/i.) Rice and Apples. — Stew eight ounces of rice in water, add 
half an ounce of butter and half an ounce of sugar. Peel, slice, 
and core three apples, put them in a stew-pan, with three slices of 
red beet and a pint of water ; stew the apples and beet till tender, 
and mash them up with a little butter and sugar. Put the rice 
on a dish, make a hole in the centre, into which put the apple. 
Pour over the rice a small quantity of sauce made with a little 
cream, butter, and sugar. 


71. Wash it twice in cold water, drop it into boiling water 
containing a Kttle salt and half an ounce of butter ; let the 
water boil slowly tUl the macaroni is rather tender, but still a 
little firm to the touch ; this may require three quarters of an 
hour or more ; then drain the water from it by means of a colan- 
der. It will now be ready for soup, puddings, or to be dressed 
with cheese, etc. 

(a.) Macaroni eight ounces, water one quart, salt one tea-spoon- 
ful, butter half an ounce. It may be put back into the pan with 
four ounces of scraped cheese or more, a little butter, salt, and 
pepper. Toss it well together, and serve. 

(b.) Or, make a thick white sauce with flour, milk, and cream, 
to which add the cheese and boiled macaroni ; shake the whole 
whilst it is heated over the fire, but do not use a spoon^ as it will 
mash the macaroni. 

(c.) Macaroni four ounces, milk and water, in equal quantities, 
one quart, cheese two ounces. Wash the macaroni well in two 
waters, then put it into the warm milk and water, and stew it for 
about two hours ; add a little butter, cream, salt and cayenne, and 
the cheese, grated or sliced ; mix all well together, and stir the 
mixture over the fire till the cheese is dissolved ; then pour it on 
a dish, cover it with thinly sliced cheese, and brown it with a 
salamander. Macaroni thus prepared is excellent. 


Sweet Macaroni. 

72. Drop fonr ounces of washed and soaked macaroni into a 
pint and half of boiling milk ; add a few grains of salt and a few 
thin strips of orange or lemon-peel, or cinnamon. Boil very 
gently till the macaroni is rather tender ; add two or three ounces 
of sugar broken small, and boil till the pipes are soft and well 
swollen. Drain the macaroni, and arrange it on a hot dish ; stir 
the milk quickly to the well-beaten yolks of three large eggs; 
shake the whole briskly oyer the fire till it thickens ; then pour it 
over the macaroni, and serve. Instead of eggs, cream heated and 
sweetened may be poured over the drained macaroni, then dust 
finely powdered cinnamon over. 


73. Wash, steep, and drop it into boiling milk or soup. Boil 
it about half the time required for macaroni. If the fluid does not 
boil, the vermicelli will stick together. 

Feas^ Haricots^ and Lentils, 

74. (a.) Wash, and then soak them during three or four hours, 
or from twelve to twenty-four hours if requisite, changing the 
water once or twice during the time. To one pint of these seeds 
add three pints of cold soft water, an ounce of butter, a little salt, 
and, if the water be hard, a few grains of soda. Simmer or boil 
gently during three hours, or imtil the seeds are tender. 

(6.) Another mode of boiling peas, etc., is first to pick and clean 
them by rubbing them in a dry cloth ; then sprinkle them from 
the hand into fast-boiling water, very gradually, so as not to check 
the boiling. The water should be sufficient to cover them, and 
when it has nearly evaporated, add cold water, boil them a few 
minutes longer, and the skins will break. 

Drain off the water, stew the seeds gently* for about ten minutes 
with a little salt, sugar, pepper, chopped parsley, and one or two 
ounces of butter well mixed together, and stiired till ready to be 


served. Some add juice of lemon, chopped shallots, or fried 
onions, etc. They may also be stewed with white sauce, a little 
butter, and a shallot finely minced. 

The water in which they have been boiled may be converted into 
a palatable soup by putting it into a stew-pan with fried onions, a 
little flour, toasted bread, etc. 

Lentils Fricasseed, 

(c.) Stew some sliced onions in melted butter ; boil and drain 
the lentils, and add them to the onions, with a little broth, pepper, 
salt, and a sprig of savory, which remove before serving ; reduce 
the same by simmering to a proper consistency, and add a very 
small quantity of vinegar when ready. 

As the leguminous seeds contain much nitrogen, while rice, 
potatoes, carrots, etc., contain little, it appears judicious to 
combine one of the former with one of the latter, in order to 
produce a cheap and nutritious compound ; mashed potatoes or 
creed rice, stewed with peas, haricots, etc., makes an excellent 
dish. As these seeds also are deficient in fat or oil, butter or oil 
should be added. Hence the general custom of boiling beans, 
etc., with fat bacon. 

Green dried peas, split peas, rice, Scotch barley, one handful 
of each : steep twelve to eighteen hours, changing the water. To 
one pint add three pints of cold soft water, one ounce of butter, 
salt, etc. Simmer or boil them gently three hours, or till tender. 
Drain and stew gently for ten minutes with a little salt, sugar, 
pepper, chopped parsley, etc., and one or two ounces of butter. 
Chopped shallots, fried onions, etc., may be added. Or stew the 
peas, etc., with white sauce, a little butter, and a shallot finely 
minced. Boiled carrots, turnips, onions, celery, and herbs may 
be stewed with the leguminous seeds. 

Frumenty, Rice Milk, Gruel, etc. 


75. To each pint of creed grain add two pints of water or milk, 
or any other proportion which may be preferred. Place the pan 


containing them on the fire, and stir the mixture constantly with 
a wooden spoon or slice, breaking the lumps to prevent the grain 
being burnt. When near boiling, a little flour, previously mixed 
smooth with a little cold milk or water, may be stirred in, and as 
soon as it boils it is ready to be served. 

Some add pimento, sugar, or salt, according to taste. 

To the creed grain may also be added currants well washed and 
picked, or raisins well cleaned, or apples pared, cored, and cut 
small. Some thicken frumenty with the yolks of eggs beaten with 
a little milk, and instead of pimento, add cinnamon or grated 
nutmeg, or flavour it by boiling a laurel leaf, etc., in it. 

Riz au Laity or Rice Milk, 

76. Proceed as for frumenty ; or wash a table-spoonful of good 
rice, drain the water well from it, then put it into a stew-pan with 
a pint of milk. Place the pan on the fire, and as soon as the 
milk boils, let it stand to simmer till the rice is tender. Sweeten 
with sugar, or add an ounce of butter, two tea-spoonfuls of 
sugar, and a little salt ; stir the whole well together, and add a 
few drops of orange-flower water, if liked. The yolk of an egg 
may also be added. Vermicelli, semolina, tapioca, etc., may in 
this way be added to boiling milk, and served plain or seasoned. 
Prepared barley, groats, hominy, etc., may be used in the same 

Potations of Barley Water^ etc. 

77. (a.) Boil either the creed or uncreed grain in water, or 
pour boiling water upon the grain, and let it stand twelve hours. 
Strain and add lemon juice and sugar according to taste. A 
quart of water will be sufficient for one ounce of grain. 

(6.) Or, pearl barley two ounces, water four pints. Wash the 
barley well, then boil it in one half-pint of the water for a short 
time, pour off the water, and add the remaining three and a half 
pints of boiling water ; boil the whole down to one quart, and 


(c.) Compound Barley Water is prepared by boiling together 
two pints of barley water, a pint of water, two ounces and a half 
of sliced figs, half an ounce of liquorice-root sliced and bruised, 
and two ounces of raisins. Boil the whole down to two pints, 
and strain. This decoction is emollient, demulcent, and slightly 

Eice Water, 

(d.) Bice two ounces, water one quart. Boil to one pint, and 



78. When grain has been reduced to coarse meal or fine flour, 
it becomes more. generally applicable to the yarious purposes of 
cookery, and the dishes which can be prepared with it in this 
state, particularly if combined with fruit, eggs, milk, etc., are 
innumerable ; nor is it an easy matter so to arrange this depart- 
ment as to give a clear and comprehensive view of the whole. 

Meal or flour, mixed with a moderate portion of water, milk, 
butter, or eggs, forms paste or dough ; a further addition of fluid 
forms batter or porridge ; and by a still farther dilution, gruel is 
formed. The two former are variously employed in making 
bread, pies, puddings, etc.; but before commencing with these 
divisions, it will be better to introduce a few general directions 
for mixing the ingredients commonly used, as a reference to these 
modes of combining the articles will prevent much repetition 

Methods usually employed in Mixing sundry Solids 
AND Fluids. 

Flour and Water or other Fluid* 

79. (a.) Mix the flour and fluid intimately together, and beat 
the whole well. When salt and sugar are added, they may be 



'■ mixed ^ith the floor, or diflsolyed in the fluid. "When butter is 
employed, it also may be dissolved in the fluid by means of a 
. little heat. 

)(&.) When soda and acid or sour milk, or butter-milk, are 
used, mix the soda thoroughly with the flour ; stir the acid to the 
cold fluid ; then incorporate it well with the flour by means of a 
wooden spoon. When baking powder is employed, mix it inti- 
mately with the flour, stir in nearly half the fluid and the salt, and 
beat the whole quite smooth, then add the remaining fluid and 
I eggs* ^^^ hake immediately. 

I Surplus milk may be kept in a clean vessel till it becomes acid, 

i used as wanted, and fresh milk added from time to time ; this 
I will be found very useful for cakes and other pastry when bi-car- 

bonate of soda is employed. A pint of milk, two pounds of flour, 
a smaU tea-spoonful of soda, and four ounces of butter will be 
pretty nearly the proportions required. The vessel in which the 
milk is kept should be occasionally changed. 

(c.) Make a hole in the middle of the flour, break in the leaven, 
add the water, and stir :n about half the meal ; cover it with the 
remainder of the meal ; let it stand all night in a moderately 
warm place. In the morning add the salt and as much warm 
water as will make the whole into a stiff paste ; knead it well, 
and let it stand near the. fire for two hours ; then form it into 
loaves, and bake. 

(d.) Put the meal or flour into an earthenware or wooden bowl ; 
make a hole in the centre of the flour with a wooded spoon to 
within an inch of the bottom. Stir the yeast into a portion of 
the warm fluid (90°), and let it stand for a few minutes to settle. 
Pour the clear part of the yeast and fluid, rejecting the sediment, 
unless the yeast has been previously purified (89), into the hole 
which has been made in the flour, and stir in gradually so much 
of the latter from the circumference or side as will form a thick 
smooth batter. Scatter a thick layer of the flour over the top, 
cover the whole with a thick clean cloth, and place it where it will 
be warm (between 60^ and 70°), elevated a little above the floor 
of the room, and free from any current of air. Let it remain 
there an hour or two, or until the yeast has risen and cracked the 


flour, or until bubbles appear ; a large quantity may stand &ii 
night. BemoYe the bowl to a table, and pour into the sponge or 
raised batter, as required, the remainder of the fluid while warm, 
and with the salt dissolyed in it, but avoid rendering the dough 
too moist ; stir in as much of the meal or flour as you can with 
a spoon, cover the leaven' with plenty of the meal, and knead the 
dough slowly and steadily with the back of the closed hands, to 
which it should be prevented from adhering by a free use of 
the meal. When nearly the whole of the meal has been worked 
in, draw the edges of the dough frequently towards the centre, 
that the whole may be weU and evenly mixed. Continue the 
kneading till all the meal, crumbs, and lumps have disappeared, 
and till it ceases to stick to the hands ; then cover it again 
with the cloth, and leave it to rise a second time. When it has 
risen very much, and begins to crack, which may be the case in 
about an hour, put it on the paste-board or table, make it into 
loaves, and bake them in tins or earthen pots. The loaves should 
be cut slightly on the tops, and just below the edges of the dishes, 
mth the point of a sharp knife, by which means the dough will 
rise better. 

(e.) Stir the flour gradually into the boiling fluid. 

(/.) Mix the flour vdth a little of the cold fluid till quite 
•smooth ; pour it to the boiling fluid, and stir it till sufficiently 
cooked ; when nearly cold, beaten eggs may be stirred in if re- 
quired. Porridge, polenta, batter for puddings, etc., are made 
by either of the last two methods. 

When intended for a baked pudding, the batter must be stirred 
over the fire for a few minutes, then poured into a basin, and while 
it is hot, stir in the butter, sugar, grated lemon-rind, and fruit 
(when used) ; as soon as it is nearly cold, add the beaten eggs. 

(g.) Beat the eggs and salt till the yolks and whites are well 
mixed ; stir the fluid to them by degrees with a wooden spoon ; 
strain about one quarter of the whole to the flour, and mix till 
quite smooth ; then strain to it the remainder of the eggs and 
fluid very gradually ; beat the batter well during the mixing, and 
continue the beating for a quarter of an hour after the whole has 
been well mixed. 


(h.) Poor the boiling flnid on the flour ; cover it over, and let 
it stand twelve hours ; then add the beaten eggs. This method 
is commonly used for arrowroot and other substances con- 
sisting principally of starch. 

(t.) Set the flour as for bread, with the yeast, beaten eggs, and 
sugar well mixed and poured into the middle (79 d). Let them 
stand before the fire till the yeast has worked its way amongst 
the flour ; add the butter beaten to a cream, currants, etc., and 
mix the whole well. 

Butter and Flour ^ etc, 

80. (a.) Hub the butter into the flour or bread crumbs, till the 
whole is in crumbs ; add the salt and sugar, and mix them into a 
stiffish paste with as little fluid as possible, adding it by degrees, 
When the yolks of eggs are used, beat them and add them to the 
cream or other fluid. 

(&.) Make the flour into a stiff paste with a portion of the 
butter and fluid; roll out the paste into a square ; form the butter 
into a ball ; place it in the centre of the paste ; then close the 
latter around it ; roll it out lightly two or three times, turning the 
ends always to the centre, or folding it in three. Or, after rolling 
out the paste, distribute the butter evenly over the surface ; fold 
and roll it carefully. 

This method is employed in making light pastry for pies, etc. 

(c.) Beat part of the butter to a cream, or slowly dissolve it and 
mix it with the flour ; then add the water, and roll in the remain- 
ing butter. Or, dissolve the butter in the water, break the eggs 
into the flour, skim the butter from the top of the water, and mix 
it with the flour, adding as much of the water as is necessary. 
This method is recommended for standing pies. See 154. 

(d.) Cut the butter into small pieces, dissolve it gently in one 
half the milk in a saucepan, applying no more heat than is just 
sufficient, and shake it well during its solution. Add the 
remaining milk or other fluid along with the salt and sugar ; pour 
the whole by degrees, at a temperature of 98°, or blood-heat, to 
the flour, and stir the whole till quite smooth. If too thick, add 



a little more fluid, and, lastly, stir in the beaten whites. When 
yeast is used, pour the dissolved butter, etc., into the centre of the 
flour, with a portion of which form a batter, and then add the 
yeast and eggs ; when well mixed, cover the whole with a cloth, 
and set it in a warm place to rise. When baking-powders or an 
alkali and an acid are used, the milk and all other fluids should 
be added cold. Butter is sometimes recommended to be beaten 
to a cream, and then added to the flour, etc., but cakes are quite 
as light when the butter is dissolved as above. 

{e.) Dissolve the butter as in (2, and stir in gradually the 
whisked eggs, beat in the flour, then the sugar, and beat the 
whole well. 

(/.) Add the salt and sugar to the flour, make a hole in the 
centre, put in the yeast, and pour over it the warm milk in which 
the butter has been dissolved ; beat the whole into a stiff batter 
or light dough, and let it stand to rise four or five hours ; then 
add the whites and yolks of eggs well beaten, then the fruit, etc. 
Butter the tins or moulds, fill them rather more than half or 
nearly three-quarters full, then let the dough rise from one to 
three or four hours, and bake. 

EggSf Floury etc. 

81. (a.) Mix the flour gradually with the eggs, well whisked and 
strained ; beat the whole well but lightly with a wooden spoon, 
then add the milk. 

(b.) Mix the yolks smoothly with the flour, salt, etc. ; thin the 
batter with the milk, and stir in the whisked whites. 

(e.) Beat the butter to a cream, shake in the sugar whilst the 
beating is continued, whisk the whites and yolks separately, and 
add a spoonful of each alternately to the butter and sugar ; after 
which add the citron in strips, currants, etc., and then the flour 
gently through a sieve. The beating must be continued till the 
whole has been well mixed. 

((2.) Add the sugar gradually to the beaten egg, whisk the 
mixture four or five minutes, then strew in gradually the flour 
mixed with the salt, sugar, or flavourings ; when well mixed, add 


the bntter, previously liquified, or beaten to a cream (80 d), or the 
milk in which the seasonings have been boiled ; these should be 
added by small quantities at once, and the beating continued till 
each portion has been thoroughly incorporated before the next 
portion is added. 

If the whites of eggs are to be added separately, stir ihem in 
lightly just before cooking. 

(e.) Boil the sugar with a little water, then pour the boiling 
sugar on the eggs, previously whisked a little, and whisk them 
with the sugar fifteen or twenty minutes : then stir in the flour. 
It should not be stirred after the flour has been added. 

(/.) Break the eggs into a pan, and add the sugar ; whisk the 
mixture over a slow fire until it is rather warmer than new milk ; 
remove it from the fire, but continue the whisking tiU it is cold, 
when it ought to be rather thick. Mix in by degrees the flour 
and seasoning. The flour should be dry, but cold. 

(g.) Stir gradually into the milk, semolina or other granular 
preparations ; let it boil over a gentle fire for ten minutes ; add 
the sugar, butter, and salt ; boil and stir the whole continually 
for two or three iuinutes longer, remove it from the fire, let it 
cool a little, then stir in briskly but gradually the yolks and whites 
of eggs well beaten together and strained, and, when approved, 
bitter almonds pounded with a little sugar. When the mixture is 
nearly cold, pour it gently into a buttered dish or mould, pre- 
pared as for gdteau de riz (117), and bake it in a very gentle oven 
for about an hour. 

(h.) To flavour milk with cocoa-nut, cinnamon, lemon-rind, 
etc., see 19. 

Eggs and Cream or Milk, 

82. Simmer one half of the milk or cream with the sugar and 
seasoning for ten minutes, or heat them in a pitcher or jar 
placed in a vessel of boiling water ; remove it from the fire, and 
when the fluid is rather cool, add the yolks well beaten with the 
remaining cream; place the whole on the fire, and stir it till thick- 
ened, but do not permit it to boH ; remove it from the fire, and stir 



it occasionally till cold. When you have no cream, add more 
yolks of eggs ; and when hoth cream and eggs are scarce, add a 
tea-spoonftil of arrowroot, etc., previously mixed smooth with a 
little cold milk, then with the heaten yolks, etc. 

Add the milk, when near boiling, to the eggs and sugar, and 

Bread Crumbs or Hominy^ Milkt etc. 

83. (a.) Boil one half the milk, and pour it oyer the bread 
crumbs, etc. (21). . 

(b.) Boil the seasonings in the milk, and pour it over the 
crumbs, etc., and coyer the whole closely for half an hour ; beat 
the eggs and sugar, and add to them gradually the other ingredi- 
ents. Mix the whole well together, fill a mould with it, and boil 
or steam it half an hour, or put it into a dish and bake it. 


84. Coarsely ground and undressed wheat-meal is undoubtedly 
the most wholesome, and should always be preferred to fine flour, 
from which the bran cr skin of the grain has been removed. The 
bran is a natural condiment, rich in gluten and fatty matter, and 
even the ligneous portions of it, though indigestible, cannot be 
well dispensed with, particularly by those who lead a sedentary or 
inactive life. To some who have not been used to it, or whose 
digestive powers are weak, the bran may at first act too much as 
an irritant — ^in such cases bread made of coarse meal should be 
adopted by degrees. 

When corn is ground by mill-stones, small particles of stone 
are frequently mixed with the undressed meal ; the bran also is 
given off in large flakes ; when ground by iron mills, no gritty 
matter is introduced, and the bran is more minutely divided. 

To obtain the meal in its greatest perfection, the wheat 
should be of good quality, fully grown, ripe, and free from disease. 
It should be thoroughly cleansed, either by mechanical means or 


by washing it in several waters and drying it well before it is 
ground. The meal should either be used quite fresh, or kept in 
a clean vessel in a well-aired and dry room. The excellence of 
loaves, cakes, etc., depends materially upon the baking, and no 
combination of ingredients will be successful, unless great atten- 
tion be paid to the oven and its temperature (26). 

Unfermented or Unleavened Bread. 

86. (a.) Mix eight pounds of coarse wheat-meal with two or 
three pints of soft water ; make it into a stiff paste by kneading 
and beating ; let the dough stand in a warm place with a cloth 
over it for about half an hour, then make it into small loaves or 
cakes, about two inches thick, and bake them in a hot oven. A 
little salt may be added when mixing the dough, and in cold 
weather the water should be rather warm. 

Though this bread is sad, and difficult of digestion by weak 
stomachs, it is wholesome and agreeable to such as are accus- 
tomed to it. "As its sadness is chiefly owing to the quantity of 
gluten contained in wheat-meal, it may be improved by adding 
oatmeal, maize-meaJ, boiled potatoes well bruised, potato- starch, 
boiled or ground rice, etc., or a mixture of these; two-thirds 
of the whole being wheat-meal. Some add as much water to the 
coarse wheat-meal as it will absorb, and let it stand four or five 
hours, then knead in the maize-meal, etc., and bake. When 
barley-meal is thus made into stiff cakes about three-quarters of 
an inch thick, they are called barley bannocks ; very thin barley 
cakes are called scones. 

(&.) When oatmeal is made into thick cakes, they also are 
called bannocks ; the terms cakes and clap bread are applied to 
the thin sorts. Make fine oatmeal into a stiff paste with warm 
water ; when cold water is used, the paste becomes shorter and 
more crumbly in the working ; roll the paste out thin, and rub 
the surface of each cake over with dry meal, with the palm of the 
hand. Bake in a very hot oven or frying-pan. Place each on 
edge before the fire to harden. It will keep in a dry place three or 
four months. 


(c.) Oat-cakes, made with a batter composed of oatmeal and 
water, raised with a little yeast, and baked on a bakestone, are 
excellent as prepared in Cumberland and the West Biding of 
Yorkshire. They are extremely thin, and if not toasted and 
bnttered when recently baked, are dried and eaten in a crisp 

Cakes baked on a flag or stone set for that purpose, or in a 
fi7ing-pan, are frequently called bakestone cakes. Of these there 
are several kinds. 

1. Water-cakes. — ^Flour made into a paste with water, a little 
salt being added. 

2. Cream-cakes, — Cream or cream with milk is used for these, 
instead of water. 

3. Short-cakes. — Mix flour, butter, etc., as for pastry (150). 
The paste of each kind must be rolled out very thin, and then 

baked on a bakestone or in a frying-pan. A few currants are 
sometimes added. 


86. This term is derived from 5w, twice, and cuit, baked, and 
is generally employed to designate thin hard cakes, made of flour 
and water ; it is also applied to richer compounds of flour, butter, 
sugar, cream, eggs, etc. 

(a.) Take coarse wheat-meal, Indian meal, fine flour, rice flour,* 
oatmeal, or a mixture of two of these, and make it into a stiff 
paste with water, skimmed milk, new milk, or cream. 

The dough for hard biscuits should be kept in a loose and 
crumbly state until the whole is of an equal consistence ; then 
rub, work, or press it together with the hands, till the whole 
is formed into a mass. The dough should be beaten out as thin 
as possible with a paste roller or biscuit lever; fold it in 
two or three, and cover it with a damp cloth till you beat it out 

Giving the dough too many folds before it is rolled or beaten 
out very thin, causes it to be tough, in which state it will shrink 
or draw up ; unless the paste be allowed to rest a short time after 



it has had a turn or two, the surface will crack, and little progress 
will he made. Boll and cut it finally into cakes, ahout a quarter 
or half an inch thick ; prick them with a fork, and hake them six 
minutes or more, according to their thickness, in a quick oven, 
or over the fire. The addition of a very small portion of yeast 
or haking powder, not so much as is used for light hread, may he 
employed to advantage. 

(6.) Or, flour four ounces, hutter four ounces, hread dough, 
-well risen, eight ounces. Work the hutter and flour well to- 
gether, then add them to as much dough as will form a stiff 
paste. Boll it out rather thin, cut it into hiscuits, prick them, 
and hake them ahout twenty minutes in a moderate oven. The 
paste will not require heating, and forms excellent hiscuits, crisp, 
but not too hard. 

(c.) When the meal or flour of wheat is used, a little potato- 
starch or arrowroot (about half an ounce or more to a pound of 
flour), is considered an improvement. 

Oatmeal, potatoes boiled and bruised, and butter, make excel- 
lent biscuits ; instead of potatoes, rice flour may be used, and 
then a little oil is said to be preferable to butter. Oatmeal and 
pease-meal, in equal portions, may also be employed. Bis- 
cuits may be varied by the addition of butter, eggs, sugar, salt, 
caraway seeds, etc. ; and the pulp or juice of fruits may be used 
instead of water. 










i to i pint. 

Plain biscuits. Add 
1 oz. of butter to 
form Captain's 


1 to 2 oz. 


2 0Z. 


Victoria biscuits. 


1 oz. 


1 OZ. 

i pint new milk. 

Coffee biscuits. 


1 to 2 oz. 

1 to2 




1 to 2 OZ. 




3 oz. 




Edinburgh biscuits, 
made into 12. 

* F or Abemethy biscuits leave out the egg ; half a drachm of caraway 
seeds may also be added. 


Mix as at 80 a. Beat the dough as ahove directed, roll it to 
the required thickness, pierce the cakes to let out the steam, and 
bake them by a moderately quick heat till they are of a fine brown 
colour. When they are three parts done, remove them to a slow 
oven, and allow the steam which may arise to escape, otherwise 
the biscuits will become soft instead of crisp. 

When thick biscuits are pierced only half-way through, they 
are easUy separated for the purpose of being buttered. 

The heat of the oven is not required to be so high for those 
biscuits which contain sugar, as they acquire more colour in a 
short time ; neither should they be dried so much as others. 

Plain SiscuitSf formed of undressed wheat-meal and water, 
well made, and carefully baked, are probably the most wholesome 
kind of bread, and may be kept in tin canisters for a considerable 
time without injury. Those who find the biscuits too hard and 
tenacious, may add a little arrowroot, ground rice, etc., to the 
meal, as above directed. Dyspeptics are frequently able to digest 
this kind of bread with ease, when fermented bread disagrees 
with them, owing, probably, to the renewal of the fermentative 
process in the stomach. Next to plain biscuits, thin slices of 
loaf bread well toasted (28) will generally be found the most 
digestible. The toast should be crisp, of a light brown colour, 
and never buttered while hot. Sweet butter, applied to biscuits 
or cold toast, will seldom cause inconvenience to the digestive 

Raised or Light Bread. 

87. As raised or light bread is generally preferred, and is more 
easily digested by weak stomachs, various modes have been em- 
ployed for producing it without causing fermentation. The fol- 
lowing are the principal articles used for this purpose : — 

1. Baking powders prepared by various chemists. 

Or, bi-carbonate of soda four ounces, tartaric acid three ounces, 
best flour two ounces. 

Or, bi-carbonate of potash five ounces, tartaric acid four ounces, 
powdered loaf sugar one ounce, finely ground Patna rice four 
ounces. East Indian arrowroot one ounce. 


The ingredients shonld be beaten, and mixed well together in a 
marble or Wedgwood mortar. Keep the powder closely covered, 
and in a dry place. 

2. Bi-carbonate of soda and milk, or batter-milk, the milk 
having been kept till rather acid (79 h). 

3. Bi-carbonate of soda and hydrochloric acid. 

4. Potash and treacle. 

5. Eggs, snow, etc. 

The baking powders are much the readiest for general purposes, 
but as most of those in use are a mixture of bi-carbonate of soda 
and tartaric or other acid, tartrate of soda, or some other purgative 
salt is formed, which might prove injurious by daily use. The 
powders, however, may be occasionally employed with impunity. 

A similar objection applies to the frequent use of soda and 
milk, or butter-milk, which produce lactate of soda. Bi-carbonate 
of soda and muriatic (hydrochloric) acid are preferable to the 
preceding means of raising dough, but they require care in 
weighing, measuring, mixing, etc., and few persons will take the 
trouble of acquiring the proper method of employing them. Be- 
sides, few chemical preparations are ordinarily pure enough for 
culinary purposes, and hydrochloric acid frequently contains 
arsenic. The soda and acid unite, and form carbonic acid and 
chloride of sodium or common salt ; the former is prevented es- 
caping too rapidly by the gluten contained in the flour, and thus 
the dough is raised and rendered light, the latter supplies the 
place of salt, usually added in making bread. 

Potash and treacle are generally employed in making ginger- 

Eggs are frequently employed, not only for making dough 
lighter, but also for enriching it with albumen, which, when 
coagulated by heat, renders arrowroot, rice, and other articles 
abounding in starch, more compact than baking powders could 
do. See 16. 

Fresh fallen snow may be substituted for eggs in batter for 
pancakes ; two large spoonfuls of snow being considered equiva- 
lent to one egg. The snow should be quickly stirred into the 
flour, and the batter should be fried immediately. 


Gam-water and other adhesive suhstances are occasionally 
added to produce a light and porous mass. Carrots also may be 
used instead of eggs in making plum-pudding, etc. 

A few other substances added to flour by bakers for yarions 
purposes must be here noticed. 

Alum is very generally used by them to improve the appear- 
ance of bread by rendering it whiter and firmer and less apt to 
crumble when cut. The smallest quantity of alum which can be 
employed to produce these effects is from three to four ounces to 
a sack of flour weighing 280 pounds. The use of this article 
should be discountenanced. 

Carbonate of Magnesia has been recommended by Mr. E. Davy 
as an excellent substance for neutralizing the acidity produced 
during the fermentation of bad flour, in the proportion of from 
twenty to forty grains of it to one pound of flour. A small quan- 
tity of magnesia cannot be considered an injurious addition to 
bread, but, in ordinary cases, it ought to be regarded as not 
essential when the quality of the flour is good. 

The best addition to flour which has suffered from moisture is 
lime-water, which neutralizes the. acid that has been formed, 
destroys the musty flavour, and restores the sweetness of the 
flour. It is also quite wholesome. Water saturated with lime 
is preferable to alum for rendering bread white, moist, and soft ; 
it is said to act by coagulating the gluten of the wheat. 

Sesqui-carboTiate of Ammonia^ or volatile salt, also improves 
flour which has been slightly damaged. It removes any acidity 
which may exist either from the inferior quality of the flour, or 
from the ferment, but it does not improve the colour like alum or 
lime-water. It is broken up by heat into carbonic acid, am- 
monia, and bi-carbonate of ammonia, all which are volatile in the 
oven. Though the odour of ammonia is evolved in the kneading, 
and the taste of the dough becomes saline, these characteristics 
are lost during the baking, the free alkali being disengaged, and 
the bread made lighter. 

The powder may be mixed with the flour, or dissolved in the 
water used to make the flour into dough. The curl of the oak- 
leaved cracknels is said to be produced by this salt. It is regularly 



White Bread . . 2 lbs. 


Brown, or Meal-Bread 1^ „ 



employed in the formation of a peculiar kind of email biscuit, 
and sometimes in the proportion of half an ounce to a pound of 

Kaised, but Unfermented Bread. 

88. . The flour or mesJ of wheat is best for making raised bread, 
because it contains much gluten. 


i oz. 1 pint. 

»» »> 

Instead of the acid and water, one pint of butter-milk may be 
used. Twenty-five minims, or drops, by measure, of hydrochloric 
acid, if of proper strength, should exactly saturate twenty-five 
grains of the bi-carbonate of soda. 

Mix the soda and the meal or flour as thoroughly as possible. 
Pour the acid into the water, and diffuse it perfectly, by stirring 
them well with a rod of glass or wood ; then, with a wooden 
spoon or spatula, stir the fluid into the flour, till the whole is well 
incorporated. Put the dough into a tin or earthen pot, or make 
it into thick cakes, and bake immediately in a quick oven. 

The water should be cold, the dough as thin as it can be con- 
veniently handled, and the oven hotter than for fermented bread. 
Skimmed milk may be used instead of the water, and butter-milk 
instead of the acid and water. 

The dough thus made may be used either for baking or boiling. 
It may also be made into tea-cakes, by using milk instead of water, 
and adding two ounces of sugar, two ounces of butter, and six 
ounces of currants, if preferred. Bub the butter into the soda 
and flour, dissolve the sugar in the milk, to which add the acid, 
and then mix the whole intimately, adding the required quantity 
of currants. Bake in shallow tins or earthen pans. 

Some persons consider this method superior to fermenting the 
dough with yeast, as well as more economical ; but Liebig is of a 
different opinion, and says, " Only a small part of the starch of 
the flour is consumed in the production of sugar, and the ferment- 


ative process is not only the simplest and best, but also the 
cheapest of all the methods which have been recommended for 
rendering bread porous." 

Dr. MuspRA-T also observes, ** From the circumstance that the 
various mixtures of alkalies and acids evolve the aerial body too 
rapidly, and from the want of that elasticity which kneadincj 
confers, the gas freely escapes, as well before introducing it into 
the oven as after, and the consequence is the formation of a heavy 

A method exists for raising dough by forcing carbonic acid 
ready formed into the mixture of flour, water, etc. Bread thus 
made is called Aerated, and has been highly commended. The 
process was patented by Dr. Dauolish. 

Fermented Bread. 

89. The articles employed for raising fermented bread are 
leaven and barm or yeast ; the former being sour dough, and the 
latter a product of vinous fermentation. Leaven added to dough 
excites in it a true alcoholic fermentation, but it also produces a 
portion of lactic acid and frequently vinegar also ; the latter is 
principally driven off by baking, but the former remains in the 
bread, and imparts to it a sour taste. 

The producing of new leaven is a tedious process, and it does 
not always answer so well as that which has been kept from a 
former baking, being apt to run into putrescence. It is made by 
working wheat-flour with water into dough ; this is kept in a 
temperature of from 70° to 80°. The time of its rising will vary 
considerably, from a few days to a fortnight. In this process the 
fermentation is at first of the vinous kind ; it passes, however, 
very soon into the acetous, and is generally distinguished by a 
slight acidity, which it gives to the bread. Leaven may be kept 
for a week or two buried in flour. 

German or Dutch yeast, imported in a solid state, is much 
esteemed for the purpose, when it can be obtained fresh. The 
crust of the bread is said to be softer than when prepared with 
ordinary yeast, and fermentation is produced much sooner. 


Brewer^ b yeast is frequently yery bitter, and should be parified 
by repeated washings in large quantities of cold water. Stir it 
well up in the water when first received, let it stand all night, 
drain oS the water, add fresh water, and let it stand several hours. 
The white of an egg beaten up with the first portion of water 
will render the effect more certain. Some recommend a few clean 
hot cinders from the fire to be put into the yeast if it is bitter or 
not very fresh ; when the cinders are cold, they will fall to the 
bottom, and the yeast must then be poured off and stramed. 
Becently burnt charcoal, which the cinders represent, absorbs 
gases, and removes colouring and odorous matters generally 
from substances to which it is added. 

By changing the water daily in winter, and twice a day in very 
hot weather, yeast may be preserved fit for use much longer than 
if this precaution were neglected. 

The richer the dough, the more yeast it requires ; fat hinders 
fe mentation ; sugar in moderate quantity accelerates it, but 
when added in excess retards it, unless more yeast be added. A 
small portion of brown sugar stirred into yeast before the bread 
is made, will restore the strength when it has ceased to ferment 

A tea-spoonful of sugar will be sufficient for tw(> table-spoon- 
fuls of solid yeast, and a little warm flour will further help the 

Bapid fermentation, caused by using too large a quantity of 
yeast, is a disadvantage, as the bread sooner becomes dry, and the 
flavour is not so good as by a slower process. A small quantity 
of yeast will be equally as efficacious as a large one, provided the 
dough be permitted to ferment longer. 

Soft water is the best for making bread, and the water, milk, or 
other fluid employed, should be added at a temperature of about 
blood heat, 80*' or 90° Fah., and the dough should be kept as 
warm as new milk, or between 60° and 70° ; if kept warmer, or 
permitted to remain too long in a warm place, the dough will 
become sour. Should acidity take place, a solution of sub-carbon- 
ate of soda should be worked in to neutralize it. 
Skinmied milk, new milk with an ounce of butter dissolved in 


it, a few spoonfuls of cream, or sweet butter-milk, may be substi- 
tuted for the whole or part of the water, and the bread will bo 
enriched by it ; but it will become dry sooner. When milk is 
used, the dough should be made lighter by the addition of more 

Leaven Bread. 

90. Flour or meal eight pounds, leaven three ounces, warm 
water one pint. Mix and bake as at 79 c. 

Bread fermented with Yeast. 

91. This kind of bread is decidedly most esteemed, and since 
it is so generally used, forming a part of nearly every meal« it is 
of great importance that it should be always well made. Uniform 
success may be attained by attending to the instructions given 
respecting the flour (84), yeast and fluid (89), mixing, kneading, 
and fermenting (79 d). Flour or meal eight pounds, good fresh 
yeast two large table-spoonfuls, or German yeast two ounces,* 
water or milk or a mixture of both three and a half or four 
pints, salt a dessert-spoonful or more if preferred (18). Mix, 
ferment, and knead, as at 79 d. The pans or tins in which the 
loaves are baked should be rubbed with a little butter before the 
dough is put in, that the loaves may leave the pans more readily 
after baking. Let the loaves stand fifteen or twenty minutes in 
the pans before they are put into the oven, which should be well 
heated. When sufficiently baked, remove the loaves from the 
pans, and turn them on their sides, or upside-down, till cold, 
otherwise the under part of the loaves will be wet and blistered in 
consequence of the steam not escaping. The whole meal absorbs 
more liquid and requires rather more yeast or a longer time to 
rise than fine flour. Dough formed of coarse meal should not be 
made so stiff as when formed of fine flour ; if it be too soft after 
it has risen, add a little more meal ; it also requires a hotter oven, 
and should remain in it longer. 

« A little experience and attention will make a leas quantity of yeast 


92. When brown bread is preferred rather moist, mix rye-meal 
with the wheat meal ; or pour a pint of boiling water upon one- 
third of the wheat meal ; stir it till it forms a thick paste, which 
divide into small portions to cool ; then knead it exceedingly well 
with the remaining two-thirds of the meal, adding the yeast and 
remaining fluid at the temperature of 80'' or 90*. The boiling 
water dissolves a portion of the starch, and this prevents the 
bread from becoming dry. See 95. 

Loaves which have been kept too long may be made to re- 
semble new bread by placing them in a gentle oven till they are 
hot through, but not till they are hard or dry. Large loaves 
may be dipped in cold water previously to being put in the oven. 
This observation applies also to cakes, biscuits, and other pastry. 

Dinner Rolls, Cakes, etc. 

03. Dinner rolls, and thin or thick cakes, may be formed of 
the dough made as for bread. They may be baked either in the 
oven, or, if thin, in a frying-pan over the fire ; but a loaf, con- 
taining fourteen or sixteen pounds of flour or meal, and baked in 
a brick oven during the night, is more economical, and should be 
preferred for general use. Biscuits, buns, tea-cakes, etc., may be 
made in the same way by adding butter, sugar, etc., to the dough. 
See 86 and 99. 

Crusts, Rusks, etc. 

94. Good crusts to be served with cheese, etc., may be formed 
thus: Take a half-baked loaf, tear it into small rough pieces 
with a couple of forks ; lay the pieces of dough on a tin, and bake 
them for ten minutes. A light loaf, made with new milk and a 
little butter, when thus pulled in pieces, makes excellent rusks. 
A sweet light cake treated in the same way is also very good. Or, 
spread thin shavings from a stale loaf of bread upon a dish, or 
upon the tin tray of an American oven, dry them very gradiLaUy 
till they are quite crisp, and let them remain till they are of a 
pale straw colour. Remove them from the fire, and as soon as 
they are cold, serve them immediately, piled upon a napkin. 


When w%ll managed, at a yery gentle heat, they will retain their 
erispness for several hours, and it may be renewed by heating them 

Varieties in Bread-making. 

95. In making bread, wheat-meal may be mixed with the floor 
or meal of other grains, as of barley, oats, rye, rice, with fruit, 
as apples, raisins, etc., or with farinaceous roots and tnbers, as 
potatoes, carrots, parsneps, beet, turnips, etc. The meal of other 
grains is generally added, in the proportion of one-third to two- 
thirds of wheat-meal, or one-sixth of boiled rice to five-sixths of 
wheat-meal or flour. Perhaps a better proportion is a pound of 
rice to a stone of meal. Boil the rice till soft, but not to a pulp ; 
mix it, when reduced to the proper temperature, with the meal, 
and make up the bread as usual. This method keeps the bread 
rather moist. Cakes, and pastry generally, may be rendered less 
tenacious, and a degree of shortness or brittleness maybe commu- 
nicated to 'them by adding starch or sugar, or the flour of such 
grains, roots, etc., as abound in starch. 

Starch, arrowroot, rice-flour, fieuina of potatoes, and other amy- 
laceous substances, when made into a jelly with hot water, and 
added to the flour and yeast instead of water, are partially con- 
verted into grape sugar by the action of the diastase of the yeast 
and by the heat of the oven, thus producing a sweet wholesome 
bread. Salep also is employed for the same purpose ; one ounce 
of salep dissolved in a quart of water being sufficient for two 
pounds of flour. 
' The following mixtures may be tried : — 

Two pounds of wheat-meal, one pound of rye-meal. 

One pound of wheat-meal, one pound of oatmeal, half a pound 
of potatoes. 

Two pounds of wheat-meal, one pound of maize-meal. 

One and a half pound of wheat-meal, half pound of rice. 

One pound of rye-meal, quarter pound of rice. 

One pound and a half wheat or rye-meal, half pound of pea or 


The maize-meal may be kneaded to the dough of the wheat 
after it has been raised by the yeast. It is better, howeyer, to 
boil the Indian meal for two or three hours, and then mix it with 
the wheat-meal. 

The pea or bean-meal is rendered much milder if steeped in 
water or boiled previously to mixing it with the wheat-meal. 

Potatoes assist fermentation, and render the dough lighter. 
Boil or steam the potatoes, then bruise them well and dry them ; 
pass them through a wire sieve, and use the flour in the propor- 
tion of one pound to two pounds of wheat-meal. Or, take the 
same quantity of potato-fibre from which the starch has been re- 
moved, wash it in two waters, place it for an hour on a sieve to 
drain ; add to it in its raw state the usual quantity of yeast, water, 
and salt ; let it stand an hour, then work it well with the flour. 
It will require very little water, but a longer time to rise. 
Or, mash smoothly three or four well-boiled potatoes; add as 
much hot water as will make a batter ; then add gradually a small 
platefal of warm flour and the yeast, beating the ^whole well. 
Place the mixture before the fire for two hours or less, and when 
well risen, proceed to make the bread with it in the usual way. 

Apples. — Take from two to four pounds of meal or flour of 
wheat, and one pound of apples ; pare, core, and bake or stew the 
apples with a little water, then beat them up warm with the 
yeast, etc. ; let the dough rise eight or ten hours, then make it up 
into long loaves or rolls, and bake in a slow oven. Little or no 
water will be necessary. Or, peel and core the apples, and boil 
them till tender; pulp them through a coarse sieve, and mix 
them with twice their weight of dough, made of Wheat^meal or 

CarrotSf ParsnepSy Beet, and Mangel-wurzel. — Take three 
pounds of any one of these roots to four pounds of wheat-meal or 
flour ; wash or scrape, and then grate the root to a pulp ; it is 
also advisable to rub it through a sieve ; add the yeast, etc., and 
about three-quarters of the flour. Let the dough stand two hours 
and a half, and, when it has risen, add the remaining flour, knead 
it well, and proceed as before directed. 

Take equal quantities of Indian meal, rice, and good baking 


apples. Soak the Indian meal for two hours, and remove every- 
thing that floats on the top of the water. Boil each of the three 
separately, the meal two hours or more, the rice and apples till 
tender. Mix the three together, and turn them on a dish or 
board tiU cold. Make the dough into pakes, with a little soda or 
baking powder, and bake in the oven or over the fire. 

Turnips. — The proportion recommended is two pounds to one 
pound of wheat-meal. Take one pound of mild raw turnips; 
pare, divide, and boil them till quite soft ; squeeze them in a 
cloth, so as to remove as much water from them as possible, by 
which means much of the unpleasant flavour will be removed ; 
mash them well, and mix them intimately with the yeast, meal, 
etc., as directed for apples. 

To Make Yeast. 

96. As good brewer's yeast cannot always be procured, an ex- 
cellent substitute may be formed as follows : — Stir one pound of 
wheat-flour, or half a poimd of flour and half a pound of boiled 
potatoes, into a gallon of cold water; boil the whole twenty 
minutes ; then, if flour only has been used, add four ounces of 
coarse sugar ; keep the mixture in a warm place two or three 
days, then pass it through a sieve, and pour it into a stone jug 
for future use. The jug should be well corked, and kept in a cool 
place. If a little yeast can be procured, it may be added when 
the mixture is nearly cool ; let it stand all night in a warm place, 
then stir it up well, and pour it into the jug. Or, boil one ounce 
of hops, during twenty or thirty minutes, in four or five pints of 
water, and strain it ; mix one pound of flour with a little cold 
water, and pour the hop water, while boiling, to it ; and, when 
new-milk warm, add half a pint of yeast, let the whole stand 
twenty-four hours, and put it into a stone jug, as above. Four- 
teen pounds of flour will require from half a pint to a pint of this 
yeast. The dough thus made should be kept warm, and it 
requires a longer time to rise than when formed with brewer's 

Another. Boil two omices of the best hops in four quarts of 


water for half an hour; strain the liqaor, and let it cool down to 
the temperature of new milk ; then put in a smaU handful of salt 
and half a poimd of brown sugar ; beat up one pound of the best 
flour with some of the liquor, and then. mix all well together. Let 
the whole stand two days, then add three pounds of potatoes 
boiled and mashed, let the mixture stand another day, then strain 
it, when it will be ready for use, and should be put into bottles. 
It should be stirred frequently during the making, and kept near 
the fire. Before using the yeast, shake the bottle well. It will 
keep two months in a cool place. 


97. Bread, buns, rolls, biscuits, and cakes in great variety are 
formed by adding cream, butter, eggs, sugar, currants, raisins, 
etc., and although such mixtures deviate considerably from a 
simple diet, and must be injurious to health when freeZy indulged 
in, yet our present social condition requires that directions should 
be given for forming some of these compounds. 

As general rules, when well understood and carefully observed, 
are likely to lead to more satisfactory results than an endless 
number of receipts for buns, cakes, biscuits, etc., the former will 
be adhered to wherever it is found practicable. 

Preliminary Observations. 

98. Flour. — For all light cakes and the finer kinds of pastry 
the flour should be well dried, mixed up warm, and previously 
sifted, if thought desirable. When butter is used, the flour should 
be allowed to become quite cool again before the butter is mixed 
with it. 

Yeast. — Brewer's yeast should be purified by repeatedly wash- 
ing it in cold water, as directed (89). Sixteen ounces of flour, 
when much butter, sugar, or fruit is used, require about one table- 
spoonful of good yeast, or a quarter of an ounce of German 
yeast (89). 

G 2 


Or, one quarter of an onnce, or a tea-spoonful of baking powder. 
Or, one quarter of an ounce of bi-carbonate of soda, and one 
quarter of an ounce of hydrochloric acid. 

Or, one quarter of an ounce of bi-carbonate of soda, and half a 
pint of butter-milk. 

Butter.— Bee 10. 

Eggs.—See 16. 

A little yeast beaten with sugar and the yolk of an egg will 
render a cake much lighter than the addition of any quantity of 
eggs or butter, but the latter articles will of course add much to 
its richness. When eggs are added to dough, it should be well 
stirred and beaten, but not kneaded ; it should then be put in 
tins, and set to rise. 

Eggs should not be added to any preparation the temperature 
of which is not below 159°, or they will coagulate, and when added 
with cream, they should be previously well beaten with it. When 
eggs, spinach juice, or any other albuminous articles are added 
to fluids, they should not be permitted to boil afterwards. Boil- 
ing milk or any other hot Uquid poured on eggs, should be added 
very grtulually, and the whole should be stirred briskly till tho- 
roughly mixed. 

If the whites of eggs are required without the yolks, the latter 
should be used for custards, puddings, etc., and if not wanted for 
several hours, beat them up with a little water, and put them in 
a cool place, or they will become hard and useless. 

Sugar should be reduced to a fine powder, and sifted through a 
fine hair or lawn sieve, and then mixed well with the flour, the 
refined sugar being always preferable, except for common pur- 
poses. When milk or other fluid is used, it should be warmed, 
and the sugar may be dissolved in it instead of being mixed vdth 
the flour. See also 81. 

A very little salt is said to improve all sweet cakes, puddings, 
etc., but it should be very slightly perceptible to the taste. About 
a tea-spoonful of salt to a pound of sugar (18). 

Lemon or orange-peel should be pared very thin, to avoid the 
bitter part, and beaten to a paste with a little sugar in a marble 
or Wedgwood mortar, and then mixed with a little cream or 


milk ; or, nib the peel with pieces of loaf sngar, which shonld be 
afterwards pounded with the remainder of the sngar. When the 
jnice only of lemons or oranges is wanted, chop the peel small, 
put it in small pots for fatnre use, and cover it well. Lemon 
jnice should not be added till the other ingredients have been well 
mixed ; stir it in briskly by degrees, otherwise the milk and eggs 
will be curdled by it. 

Caraway-seeds, ginger, and other similar flavouring ingredients 
should be used in the form of a fine powder, or under that of an 
essence, made by digesting them in spirits of wine ; caraway- 
seeds, however, are frequently used whole. 

Almonds, cocoa-nut, and spices should be finely pounded, or 
the flavour extracted by boiling them in the fluid employed for 
mixing the ingredients (19, 20, 243). 

Currants should be well washed, picked, and dried on a cloth, 
then set before the fire ; if damp, they will render cakes and pud- 
dings heavy. They are cleaned most readily by putting them in 
a colander and sprinkling a handful of flour over them. Bub 
and shake them well, then pour cold water over them ; drain and 
spread them on a soft cloth, with which press them gently, that 
it may absorb the moisture from them. Spread them on a dish 
or tin, and dry them, very gradually, in the sun,' or before the 
fire, or in a cool oven. When dry, spread them on a sheet of 
white paper, or other white surface, and carefully remove all re- 
maining stalks, stones, etc. Dust them with fine dry flour, shake 
off the loose flour, and add them while warm to the other ingre- 
dients, just before cooking. 

Wash raisins well in cold water, spread them out and rub them 
a little, then put them for a few minutes into boiling water over 
a very quick fire ; this causes them to swell, and develops the 
flavour ; stone them afterwards, and add them as directed for 

All ingredients and vessels used in making light cakes should 
be warm, so as not to check the fermentation of the dough. When 
all the ingredients have been added, the whole should be well and 
long beaten, as the lightness of the cake depends much upon the 
articles being well incorporated. 



A slab of marble, or a slate, is the best for making paste upon. 
For the finer kinds, ishich contain much batter, the coolest part 
of the hoase and of the day should be chosen for the process, and 
the hands should be preyiously washed in very hot water. 

The less pastry is touched and rolled the better ; wetting it 
much renders it tough. 

In the following table and receipts one pound of flour is in- 
Tariably employed, in order that the proportions of the other 
articles may be more readily observed and compared with the 
receipts given by other persons. When any other weight than a 
pound of flour is used, the quantities of the other ingredients 
must, of course, be altered accordingly. 











8 to 12 

4 to8 

8 to 12 
16 to 20 

Bread Biscuits 

Bolls, crumpet9,etc., and gingerbread 
by substituting 8 to 16 oz. of treacle 
for the fluid 

Tea cakes,muflBn8, pastry for pies,etc. 

Bans, short cakes.Shrewsbury cakes, 
etc.,pastry for pies, etc.,and ginger- 
bread by adding 8 to 1 6 oz.of treacle 

Yarmouth biscuit8,pufF paste, Irrioche 
paste, without the 8ugar,ezcept ^z. 

Queen cakes, plum cakes, castle pad- 
dings, etc. 

Sponge cakes 

For bread, buns, etc., in Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and for brioche paste 
in No. 5, add a table-spoonful of yeast, or a tea-spoonful of 
baking powder. Nos. 5 and 6 include most kinds of batter for 
puddings, etc., by adding about four pints of milk, or one pint 
of milk to four ounces of flour. 

Rolls, Tea-Cakes, Crumpets. 
99. Flour one pound, milk, cream, or a mixture of the two 


from a quarter to half a pint, yeast nearly a table-spoonful, or 
German yeast one quarter of an ounce, salt one quarter of an 
ounce. These may be regarded as the essentials ; the additions 
mU be given under each separate article. 


Form the dough (79 d.), and let it stand to rise. Divide it into 
six oblong portions ; if for dinner-rolls, into twelve round balls. 
Set them to rise, and bake them in a quick oven. 

Note. — An ounce of butter may be dissolved in the milk ; an 
egg well beaten may also be added to the sponge when risen, and 
then the whole made up. "When not intended for dinner-rolls, 
any of the following articles may be added : Sugar one ounce ; 
currants, raisins, caraway-seeds, whole or pounded; candied lemon ^ 
almonds, or cocoa-nut grated ; nutmeg, cinnamon, or other flavour- 
ing. Bice-flour, farina of potatoes, etc., may be substituted for 
a portion of the wheat-flour. See 95 and 93. 


100. Form the dough, and let it rise as for rolls, divide it into 
cakes, and bake them in tins ; or roll out the dough, and bake the 
cakes upon buttered tins, or in a pan over the fire. Any of the 
articles in the previous note may be used for cakes as for rolls. 
See also 93. 

Or, bread-dough two pounds, butter six ounces, raisins eight 
ounces, grated nutmeg a little, sugar one table-spoonful. 

Or, bread-dough two pounds, eggs three, sugar two table-spoon- 
fols, butter six ounces, caraway- seeds one tea-spoonful. 

The dough should be light, and made with water, rolled out, and 
the other ingredients well mixed in. Work the whole well 
together ; put the dough in tins, about three-quarters full ; let it 
rise an hour and a half, and then bake. 

A Sally Lunn Cake. 

The fluid used should be half mUk and half cream ; add also 
one egg, butter from one to four ounces, sugar one ounce. Pro- 
ceed as above. 


Scotch Tea-cakes. 

Flour, etc., as 99. Add one egg, bntter one ounce, sugar 
three ounces, currants three ounces, and a table- spoonful of 
cream, the remaining fluid being new milk. Mix and bake as 
above directed. 


101. The mixture as for rolls, to which add one egg, and use 
sufficient new milk to make a smooth thick batter. Set it to rise, 
and when ready, add the egg well beaten, and as much more milk 
as may be necessary to render the whole a rather thick batter ; 
beat out the lumps, but the less it is beaten the better ; cover it, 
and set it to rise. When well risen, nearly fill a common-sized 
tea-cup with the batter taken from the top (it must not be stirred 
up), and pour it upon a baka-stone or iron plate rubbed over with 
a little butter, and placed over a clear and moderate fire ; as soon 
as the batter appears to set, turn it over with a tin slice, the size 
of the crumpet ; when slightly browned, turn it again on a cooler 
part of the stone, then pour more batter, taken from the top, upon 
the hottest part of the stone, taking care it does not bum. As 
the crumpets are baked, lay them on a clean cloth, cover them 
lightly with another cloth, but do not lay them upon each other 
till nearly cold. Either toast them lightly, or lay them on a cake 
tin, and cover them with a clean wet cloth ; set them in the oven, 
and, when heated through, butter them. 


102. To the roll mixture add, butter one ounce, and one egg. 
Prepare the dough or sponge as at 79 d, ; when well risen, beat it 
twenty minutes with a wooden spoon, form the dough into balls 
on a board well dredged with flour ; cover a tray with a cloth, also 
well dredged, and lay the balls on the cloth, at such a distance 
from each other as to prevent them running together; cover 
them with another cloth, and place them before the fire for 
twenty minutes ; then lay them on a heated plate or stone, 
arrange the shape, and bake quickly. Turn each muffin as the 


bottom begins to change colonr. Bice floar, etc., may be used as 
for rolls. 

Bread Muffins, 

103. Take four slices of baker's bread, and cut off all the crust. 
Lay them in a pan, and pour boiling water over them, only just 
sufficient to soak them well. Cover the vessel with a cloth, and 
when it has stood an hour, drain off the water, and stir the soaked 
bread till the mass is quite smooth; then mix in two table- 
spoonfuls of sifted flour and half a pint of milk, and stir in gra- 
dually two well-beaten eggs. Butter some muffin rings, set them 
on a hot girdle, and pour into each a portion of the mixture. 
Bake them brown, and send them to table hot, having first 
pulled them with the fingers and buttered them. They will be 
found very light and good. 

A common Seed Loaf, 

104. Flour, etc., as 99. Add butter one to four ounces, eggs 
one or two, sugar six ounces, caraway-seeds half an ounce. Less 
fluid is required when butter and eggs are added. 

Form the dough as for rolls, and bake in a tin or deep earthen- 
ware dish. 

A Spice Loaf, 

105. To 99 add butter four ounces, sugar four ounces, eggs 
one or two, currants four ounces, raisins two to four ounces, a 
little dove-pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, candied lemon peel, or 
other approved seasoning. 

Cocoa-nut Bread or Biscuits. 

106. To 99 add butter four ounces, sugar four ounces, eggs 
one or two, grated cocoa-nut three ounces. 


107. To 99 add butter from four to eight ounces, eggs two to 


four, sugar four to six ounces, currants or Sultana raisins six 
ounces. Less milk will be required. 

Buns should be formed into a light dough or thick batter. Mix 
as for rolls. 

A Rich Cake, 

106. To 99 add butter eight ounces, eggs two to four, sugar 
eight ounces, almonds two ounces, raisins three ounces, currants 
from eight to sixteen ounces, nutmeg, cinnamon, etc. ; very little 
warm milk, or milk and water, will be required. Mix as for rolls, 
adding the fruit and seasoning to the light dough, or thick batter, 
just before baking. Bake from two to three hours. 

If this cake be thought too rich, leaye out a portion of the 
butter ; the quantity of fruit and seasoning may also be adapted to 

Another Cake, 

109. To 99 add butter four ounces, eggs two, sugar eight 
ounces, currants eight ounces, candied lemon three ounces, and 
baking-powder instead of yeast. Bake two hours. 


110. To 99 add butter two ounces, sugar two ounces. 

Form the dough, and let it rise as for rolls ; roll it into cakes 
about five or six inches in length, and one or two inches broad, 
and bake in a moderately hot oven. When baked and quite cold 
cut them in thin slices, and dry them in tins in a moderate oven, 
turning them over occasionally. If baked in a loaf, cut it when 
cold into slices, and dry them as above. 

Tops and Bottoms, 

111. Flour sixteen ounces, butter one ounce and a half, sugar 
one ounce, milk half a pint, yeast or baking powder as usual. 

When the dough is ready, break eight pieces out of twelve 
ounces of it ; mould them round, and place them in straight rows 
on buttered tins, nearly touching each other ; prove them well, 


and bake in a moderate oven. "When ihey are cold, or the day 
after they have been baked, first cut down each row with a sharp 
knife, then cut out each separately, and as evenly as possible ; 
finally lay them on their sides, and cut them in halves. Put them 
on clean tins, nearly touching each other, with the cut side 
upwards ; place them in a moderate oven, and let them become 
nicely browned. 

Dutch Friddings, 

113. Flour sixteen ounces, milk quarter of a pint, butter eight 
ounces, eggs four, yeast one table-spoonful, moist sugar two 
table-spoonfuls, currants eight ounces. 

Dissolve the butter in the milk, and let it stand till lukewarm ; 
then strain it into the flour ; add the eggs well beaten and the 
yeast ; beat all together, and let the paste stand an hour before 
the fire to rise. Beat in the sugar and currants, put the paste 
into a dish or tin well buttered, and bake it. This partakes of the 
character of brioche, and may be varied in many ways. 

Brioche (Bun). 

113. Flour sixteen ounces, butter eight to twelve ounces, eggs 
four to eight, sugar three-quarters of an ounce, yeast one table- 

Mix as above ; or, 

Put upon a plate four ounces of flour, half an ounce of fresh 
yeast, two and a half ounces of warm water ; form a soft paste, 
cover it with another plate, and let it stand in a warm place, with 
a doth over it, till it has risen to two or three times its original 
size. By making a cross at the top, the effect will be more ap- 
parent. If the yeast be too strong, or too much of it, the paste 
will be bitter. If it rises too long, the nature of the brioche will 
be changed. 

Place on the table the remaining twelve ounces of flour ; make 
a hole in the middle, and put in the butter, quarter of an ounce 
of salt, half a glass of milk or cream, and the eggs ; mix in the 
flour gradually, and form the whole into a paste ; knead it well 


with the pahn of the hand, incorporate the preTionsly formed 
leaven withoat working the paste too much. 

Dredge a clean cloth, with which cover a wooden bowl or ter- 
reen ; place in it the paste covered with the cloth, and let it stand 
twelve hours in a warm place. 

Brioche paste should be neither too soft nor too firm ; if too 
soft add more flour, if too firm add more eggs. It should be 
a little finer than paste for bread. Press it out, and fold it 
five or six times with the ends towards the centre ; let it stand 
again three or four hours, covered with a cloth. Press it oat 
twice, and turn the ends to the centre without adding more pres- 


114. Before putting the brioche paste into moulds, add from 
four to ten ounces of raisins, and one-third of a table-spoonfiil of 
saffron, with eggs, etc. ; currants and candied citron may also be 
added, if approved. 

G&Uaux de Seve, 

115. Use the same kind of paste as for brioche but instead 
of baking it in moulds, roU it about the thickness of a finger, and 
twice the length ; plat three of them together, cover them with egg, 
and bake in a moderately hot oven. 

Rice Cakes, 

116. Bice sixteen ounces, stewed in a pint of water ; add two 
pints of milk, four ounces of butter, grated lemon-peel, or nutmeg, 
or cinnamon ; boil till thick ; then add two well-beaten eggs, a 
little salt, and four ounces of sugar; put it in a buttered bread- 
tin or pan; bake one hour. Serve with sugar or jam over it. 

Gdteau de Riz. 

117. Bice eight ounces, milk, or milk and cream, two pints, 
butter three to four ounces, sugar six ounces, salt a little, rind of 


a lemon grated, or the milk flavonred with cocoa-nnt, or yaniUa, 
etc., yolks and whites of six eggs. Wash and drain the rice, then 
swell it in the milk till tolerably tender, add the bntter and sugar, 
salt, and lemon rind. Simmer the whole till the rice is swollen 
to the utmost, let it cool a little, and then stir in quickly, and by 
degrees, the yolks of eggs. Butter a stew-pan evenly, and strew 
bread crumbs all over it ; whisk the whites to a snow, stir them 
gently to the rice, and pour the mixture softly into th& pan, and 
bake immediately, at a moderate heat, for an hour ; then tmn it 
out of the pan or mould. It should be well browned, and quite 
firm. It may be covered at the instant it is served with straw- 
berry, apple, or other clear jelly. 

Shrewsbury and other Cakes, 

118. Shrewsbury Cakes, — Flour sixteen ounces, butter four to 
eight ounces, eggs one to four, sugar eight to twelve ounces. 
Mix (80 b) the whole into a stiff paste, and roll it thin and 
smooth. Cut out the cakes with a paste-cutter or wine-glass ; 
bake them on tins in a moderate oven. 

These may be varied by adding caraway-seeds, grated cinnamon, 
or nutmeg, etc., to taste ; also a little cream or milk when re- 

Tea-Cakes, Plum-Cakes, etc., may be made with the same in- 
gredients ; adding from eight to sixteen ounces of currants, or 
raisins, lemon rind, etc. 

119. Short Cakes,— ¥\om sixteen ounces, butter four to eight 
ounces, one egg, sugar four ounces. Beat the egg with a little 
water, tt^it and roll the paste into little balls, flatten them, and 
bake them dry and crisp. A little cream may supply the place 
of a portion of the butter ; currants, caraway-seeds, etc., may be 

120. Benton Tea Cakes. — ^Flour sixteen ounces, butter four to 
eight ounces ; add sufficient milk, and roll the cakes thin ; bake 
in a pan or on tins in an oven. 

131. Imperials, — ^Flour sixteen ounces, butter four to eight 
ounces, eggs one to four, sugar eight to twelve oxmces. Add cur- 


rants six ounces, candied peel, and the grated rind of a lemon. 
Flour a tin lightly, and with a couple of forks place the paste 
upon it in small rough pieces, two inches apart. Bake them in a 
very gentle oven, fifteen or twenty minutes, or until they are of a 
pale brown colour. They are called jumballs when the paste is 
rolled out, cut into narrow shreds, and formed into rings, or 
knots, etc. Bake them rather quickly. 

122. Snow Cakes, — Flour sixteen ounces, butter four to eight 
ounces, whites of eggs four, sugar four to eight ounces. Add a 
few drops of essence of lemon ; and use potato flour instead of 
wheat flour. Beat the butter to a cream, whisk the eggs well, and 
mix them gradually with the butter ; beat in the flour, then the 
sugar (80 e). Beat the whole well, and pour it into a very shallow 
buttered pan (earthenware is preferable to tin), and bake very 
slowly. It must not be browned either at top or bottom, and 
when baked it should be cut into pieces before it is taken out of 
the pan, to prevent its being broken. When properly baked, it is 
very attractive in its appearance. 

123. A rich Plain Cake. — Flour sixteen ounces, butter eight 
ounces, one egg, sugar eight ounces. Add currants twelve 
ounces, citron, orange-peel, nutmeg. 

124. Scotch Bread. — Flour sixteen ounces, butter eight 
ounces, sugar eight ounces, almonds four ounces, candied 
lemon two ounces. Form the whole into cakes about half an 
inch thick. 

125. Venetian Cakes. — Flour sixteen ounces, butter eight 
ounces, sugar eight ounces, yolks of eggs four, almonds seven 
ounces, bitter almonds one ounce. 

126. . Cracknuts. — Flour sixteen ounces, butter eight ouncesi 
eggs eight, sugar twelve ounces. 

127. CrackneVU. — Flour sixteen ounces, butter eight ounces, 
eggs eight, sugar sixteen ounces. Add four spoonfuls of cream 
and a few caraway-seeds. Boll the paste out as thin as paper ; rub 
it over with white of egg, dust fine sugar over, cut it into cakes, 
and bake them. 

128. Yarmouth Biscuits. — ^Flour sixteen ounces, butter 
eleven ounces, eggs four, sugar eleven ounoes. Add eight ounces 
of currants. 


129. Small Cakes. — Flour sixteen ounces, batter twelve 
otmces, yolks of eggs four, sugar eight ounces. Add currants, 
candied lemon, and almonds cut small. 

130. Naples Biscuits. — Flour sixteen ounces, eggs one to four, 
sugar eight to twelve ounces. Mix the flour with water instead of 
milk , add four spoonfuls of orange-flower water, make the whole 
into a rather stiff batter, and pour it into paper moulds; put 
them on tins to bake, sift fine sugar over them, and bake 

131. Galette. — ^Flour sixteen ounces, butter twelve ounces, 
eggs two, sugar two tea-spoonfols, salt quarter of a tea-spoonftd, 
cream one gill, and a little milk, if necessary. Work all well into 
a good stiff paste ; roll it into a cake three-quarters of an inch 
thick ; egg it over ; score it with a knife in diamonds or any other 
shape ; bake for about half an hour in a rather hot oven ; sprinkle 
sugar over, and serve. 

132. Diet Cakes. — Flour sixteen ounces, eggs six, sugar six- 
teen ounces, milk or water half a pint. 

133. Drop Biscuits. — Flour sixteen ounces, eggs eight, sugar 
twelve ounces, caraway-seeds one ounce. Drop the batter on 
white paper, about the size of half a crown. 

134. Marlborough Cakes. — Flour sixteen ounces, eggs eight, 
sugar sixteen ounces, caraway-seeds two ounces. Bake in soup 
plates, or in tin pans. 

135. Rice Cakes. — Ground rice sixteen ounces, or wheat 
flour eight ounces, and ground rice eight ounces ; eggs twelve, 
sugar sixteen ounces, the peel of one lemon grated, and half the 

136. Queen Cakes or Portugal Cakes. — ^Plour sixteen ounces, 
butter twelve to sixteen ounces, eggs eight to twelve, sugar twelve 
to sixteen ounces. Add currants eight ounces. Bake in small 
tin pans, buttered, in a brisk oven for about twenty minutes. 
Grated lemon rind may be added. 

137. Sutherland or Castle Puddings, — The same mixture as 
for Queen cakes, baked twenty to twenty-five minutes in buttered 
cups. (See 348.) 

188. G&teau de Madeline. — Instead of currants, add a little 


grated lemon peel to the above. A little grated chocolate added 
forms Gateau de chocolat. Bake in tins or patty-pans in a rather 
brisk oyen, and draw them towards the entrance of the oven when 
sufficiently coloured. 

189. (a.) Seed Cakes, — ^Flour sixteen omices, batter twelye 
ounces, eggs eight, sugar twelve ounces, caraway-seeds three- 
quarters of an ounce. Butter the pan, and sifb sugar over the 
cake. A few drops of lemon may be added. Mix as at 81 dy and 
immediately bake in a buttered mould in a moderate oven. 

(5.) Or, flour eight ounces, ground rice eight ounces, eggs 
ten, sugar ten ounces, caraway-seeds three-quarters of an ounce. 

140. Plum or Pound Cake. — Flour sixteen ounces, butter 
sixteen ounces, eggs eight, sugar sixteen ounces. Add currants 
sixteen ounces, raisins four ounces, almonds four ounces, orange 
peel and candied lemon four ounces each, shred fine. Some sup- 
ply the place of these with caraway-seeds one ounce, and one 
large tea-spoonftil of baking powder. Mix as at 81 d. Butter 
the tin or pot, line it with buttered paper, and fiU it about three- 
quarters full. A less quantity of butter and sugar also makes a 
good cake. 

Note. — Flour eight ounces and ground rice eight ounces may 
supply the place of flour sixteen ounces in any of the above. 

141. Sponge Cakes, — Flour sixteen ounces, eggs twelve to 
sixteen, sugar sixteen to twenty ounces. Mix as at 81 e or /. 
The flour should be well dried and sifted. Ten or twelve drops 
of essence of lemon may be added, or the rind of a lemon rasped 
on the lumps of sugar. 

142. Savoy Biscuits or Cakes. — ^Put the above batter in a 
biscuit funnel, and draw it along clean white paper until you have 
formed biscuits of the length and thickness required ; sift sugar 
over them, and bake in a quick oven, but watch them carefully, as 
they are very soon baked. 

143. Chesterfield Biscuits, — ^Proceed as above, adding an 
ounce of caraway- seeds. 

144. Cocoa-nut Biscuits, — Grate the inside of the cocoa-nut; 
add to it the whites of two eggs and four ounces of loaf sugar 
pounded; Mix the whole well, and divide it into stiall rocky 


pieces. Pnt them on a slightly buttered tui, and bake in a rather 
slow OYen. 

Gingerbread, Parkin, etc. 

145. These mixtores of flour, treacle, etc., are usually raised 
by means of alkalies and acids. When carbonate of potash, soda, 
or magnesia is added, the glucic and melassic acids of the treacle 
act upon it and set carbonic acid free (87). Mix the flour and 
alkaK thoroughly, then dissolve and add the acid ; let the butter, 
treacle, and spices be added in the usual manner, dissolve the 
butter, and pour it with the treacle among the flour and alkali. 
The whole must then be incorporated and formed into dough by 
kneading, then set it aside for a period varying from half an hour 
to an hour ; it will then be ready for the oven. Potash imparts a 
disagreeable alkaline flavour to the dough unless it be disguised 
by some aromatic ingredient. A very small portion of baking 
powder may be used instead of the alkali and acid. Or, mix the 
sugar and flour; rub in the butter, add the spices, make a hole in 
the middle to receive the treacle ; put the carbonate of soda, 
magnesia, or other alkali in the middle, moisten it with a little 
water to dissolve it, pour in the treacle, and after stirring in some 
of the flour, pour o^er it the acid diluted with water ; mix the 
whole well, and let it be rather a soft dough than a stiff paste. 
Or, mix the alkali and flour very intimately together, rub in the 
butter, add the sugar, and ginger also if approved, a quarter of an 
ounce of ground caraway-seeds, lemon rind, candied lemon, 
essence of lemon, etc. If eggs are used, let them be well whisked, 
then add them and the treacle gradually to the other ingredients, 
and beat the whole well. Four it in the state of a thick batter or 
thin paste into shallow tins, or loaf tins till half fall, then bake 
during an hour and a half or two hours. 

Ginger Snaps and Nuts, 

Mix the ingredients as above, roll the paste rather thin, and cut 
it into cakes, or drop it so as to form nuts. Or make the dough 
into small long rolls, cut them into portions as large as a 



nutmeg, dust them with flour, and roll them in a sieve to make 
them round ; lay them on buttered tins, two inches apart, flatten 
them a little, wash the tops with milk, and bake at a low tempe- 

Honeycomb Chingerbread, 

Mix the flour, butter, and sugar, add the grated rind and juice 
of a lemon, and as much treacle as will render the whole suffici- 
ently thin to spread on sheet tins previously buttered ; when baked, 
cut it into four or five inch squares, which, while hot, turn once 
round a wooden roller about an inch in diameter. 


146. MiK as above directed, using oatmeal iastead of wheat 
flour ; add two or three drops of the essence of lemon. The 
quantity of treacle may be varied so as to form either a stiff paste 
or a batter ; if the former, roll and cut into cakes half an inch 
thick ; if the latter, drop it upon tins in any form that may be 
preferred. Wash it over with milk and egg, and bake it in a slow 
oven. The eighth of an ounce of baking powder may be mixed 
with the meal. 

The following are the usual proportions of flour, etc., — 

Gingerbread, etc. 

No. 1. Flour sixteen ounces, butter one to four ounces, sugar 
one to four ounces, treacle eight to sixteen ounces, ginger half an 
ounce to two ounces. 

No. 2. Flour sixteen ounces, butter four to eight ounces, eggs 
one to four, sugar four to eight ounces, treacle eight to sixteen 
ounces, ginger half an ounce to two ounces. 

No. 3. Flour sixteen ounces, butter eight ounces, sugar sixteen 
ounces, treacle sufficient to make a thick batter. 

To any of the above may be added lemon rind, etc. 

For mixing, etc., see above. 

Fine oatmeal sixteen ounces, butter four ounces, sugar four 
ounces, treacle sixteen ounces, ginger half to two ounces. 



Four ounces of wheat flour may be substituted for four ounces 
of the oatmeal, and this will be preferred by many persons. 


147. The marble slab or board, paste rollers, tin cutters, 
stamps, and hands, should be perfectly clean. 

For observations on the flour, butter, etc., especially for fine 
pastry, see 10, 98, etc. 

Indian meal, rice flour, or potato flour, may be used advanta- 
geously with wheat flour. See 86, 96. A little salt, or sugar, or 
both, may be added. See 18, 98. Pastry should be formed rather 
too dry than too moist ; if made too moist at first, the crust will 
eat tough, and the flour added afterwards cannot be mixed well 
with the paste. When too moist it is also liable to be scorched 
in the oven. 

Cold water is to be preferred to either warm water or milk for 
mixing with the flour (except when yeast is used), but in very cold 
weather the chill may be taken off. 

Pastry should be made quickly, touched lightly, and baked as 
soon as possible after it has been made. 

The water should be added gradually, and the whole gently 
drawn together with the fingers of one hand ; when sufficient water 
has been added, the paste should be lightly kneaded till it is as 
smooth as possible. When the temperature of the atmosphere is 
below 50°, the butter should be squeezed and worked with the 
hand to soften it, and it should be brought to the same consistency 
as the paste before it is worked in. When the temperature is 
above 60°, fine pastry should be worked in the coolest place 
possible, and the butter should be rendered firm by placing it over 
ice, or by putting the vessel which contains it in another vessel, 
holding a solution of salt and saltpetre in water. The paste also, 
between the intervals of rolling, should be kept in a cool place, or 

H 2 


as recommended for the butter. All the ingredients should be 
well and evenly mixed. A small quantity of baking powder or 
carbonate of ammonia makes pie-crust light, and may in part 
supply the place of butter. See 87 and 98. When either of 
these is used, it should be mixed well with the flour in a dry 
state (79 6). 

In baking, the finer kinds of pastry should have a sufficient 
degree of heat to raise them quickly, but not so high as to colour 
them too much before they are done. The oven door should re- 
main closed after they have been put in, and not opened again 
till the paste has set. Large raised pies require a steady and 
well-sustained heat. 

The varieties of Pastry may be included in five divisions ; viz. 
Bread Crust, Cream Crust, Short Crust, Puff Paste, and Feaille- 

(1.) Bread Crust. 

148. Take a pound of white-bread dough after it has risen 
sufficiently ; roll it out very thin and square, and place a ball of 
butter, weighing from two to four ounces, in the centre ; fold the 
paste round it, then roll it out lightly two or three times, folding 
the ends always to the centre, as for puff paste. Pastry formed 
by yeast becomes dry by long keeping. 

Bemabes. — The dough may be raised either with yeast ox with 
baking powder ; the paste may have butter distributed over it in 
small pieces, and then folded and rolled out as above. Some 
prefer dough made with milk rather than water ; it is, however, 
liable to become dry sooner than when made with water; the 
dough used for tea-cakes (99) will answer very well. Some add a 
little salt, others sugar, especially when for sweet pies ; a well- 
beaten egg may be substituted for the butter, or two table-spoon- 
fuls of salad oil by those who prefer it to butter. The yolks of 
eggs are preferable to the yolks and whites mixed. 

(2.) Cream Crust. 

149. Mix a little salt with sixteen ounces of flour, and add 


gradaally sniBicient cream to form a smooth paste. It may be 
made richer by adding from four to six omices of bntter rolled in 
as above. Handle the pastry lightly, and put in the oven as soon 
as ready. 

(3.) Short Ceust. 

150. Flour sixteen ounces, butter six to eight ounces, yolks of 
eggs two to four, sugar one to two ounces, water a large wine- 
glassful if necessary. 

Bub the butter and flour well together on a slab ; make a hole 
in the centre, in which put the sugar, eggs, and water; mix 
them well, then draw in the flour; mix, and work the whole 

Some recommend the following method :. — Rub the butter and 
flour together till they break into crumbs ; add the salt and sugar, 
and mix them into a rather stiff paste, with as little water as pos- 
sible, adding it by degrees. This paste may be either used for 
pies or made into cakes, and baked in an oven or frying-pan. 
When less butter is used, milk or cream may be substituted for 
the whole or part of the water. When yolks of eggs and cream 
are used, beat the yolks well, mix them with the water, and strain ; 
then add them with the cream to the flour and sugar, etc., as 

For savoury pies and puddings, a little chopped parsley, onion, 

thyme, or mushrooms may be substituted for the sugar. 


A good Short and Wholesome Crust* 

151. Flour sixteen ounces, butter three to four ounces, 
baking powder one tea-spoonful, water rather less than half a 

Mix the baking powder intimately with the flour, well dried ; 
nib in the butter, then add the water, and mix the whole with a 
wooden spoon without kneading it ; take it from the bowl and 
roll it, fold it in three and roll it again, and if not sufficiently 
smooth roll it a third time. . The addition of a little cream would 
be an improvement. This crust, when well made, is very agree- 


able and wholesome i it is light without being rich, differs little 
from good bread, and, with attention, any one may succeed in 
making it. There would be fewer complaints against pastry if 
less butter and other fatty matters were employed in forming it, 
and were it not used in connection with animal food, as in meat 

AnotJier Good Crust. 

152. Put some light white bread into a basin, and add a pint 
of boiling milk ; let it remain closely covered till cold ; rub a 
little butter in, and as much flour as will render it of proper con- 
sistency ; add a little salt, mix the whole together, and roU it out 
as required. 

153. Or, flour sixteen ounces, butter three ounces, white and 
yolk of an egg well beaten, yeast one table-spoonful. 

"Warm the butter in half a pint of new milk, let it stand till 
lukewarm, mix well aU together, and let the dough stand to rise ; 
roll it out, and bake as quickly as possible. 

Pastry for Raised Pies, 

154. Use more water and less butter than in 150, say from 
two to four ounces of the butter. Dissolve the butter in the 
water, break the eggs, yolks and whites, into the flour; then 
skim the butter from the top of the water, and mix it with the 
flour, adding as much of the water as is requisite to make a stiff 
paste ; work the whole till quite Arm and smooth ; put it into an 
earthen pan or bowl covered close, and set it before the fire for 
ten or fifteen minutes ; if the paste appears too soft, dredge to it 
a little flour, and work it smooth. Take as much of the paste as 
is required, mould it into the shape of a sugar loaf, flatten and 
smooth the sides with the palms of the hands, then press the 
middle of the point down to half the height of the paste, form 
it into a proper shape by pressing it with the fingers, and make 
the cylindrical side of equal thickness throughout. Put in the 
ingredients, roll out the paste for the top, and join it well with 
white of egg. As a protection, the pie may be surrounded with 
writing paper before it is baked. 

vegetable cookery, &c. 103 

(4.) Puff Paste. 

166. Flour sixteen ounces, butter eight to twelve ounces, yolks 
of eggs four, water less than half a pint, or cream six to eight 
spoonfuls. Mix according to No. 3, for short crust. 

(5.) Feuilletage, or Fine French Puff Paste. 

166. Flour sixteen ounces, butter twelve to sixteen ounces, 
yolks of eggs two to four, flour dry and sifted, butter free from 
salt. See 11. 

See also preliminary observations (147). 

Put the flour on the slab, make a hole in the centre, in which 
put a tea-spoonful of salt, and sufficient water to dissolve it, then 
mix the whole lightly with cold water to a rather soft paste ; 
when eggs are used, mix them with the water before it is added 
to the flour ; some add four ounces of the butter at the same 
time. Dredge a little flour occasionally, to assist in clearing the 
whole from the slab, and let the paste remain on the slab in a 
cool place from two to twenty minutes. Then roll it out to about 
three-quarters of an inch thick ; lay the butter previously pre- 
pared and brought to the same consistency as the paste, in the 
centre ; flatten it a little with the hand, and cover it with the 
paste by turning the ends to the centre ; roll the paste till it is 
about half an inch thick, dredging a little flour first over the slab 
and paste roller ; fold it by turning over one-third at one end, and 
then folding the other end over it ; this is called one turn. Be- 
peat ^he rolling and turning six times in summer, and seven in 
winter ; allow a quarter of an hour between the turns ; keep the 
paste meanwhile in. a cool place, and dredge the paste and slab 
each time lightly with flour. 

When less butter is used, fewer turns wiU be required, but the 
paste wiU not be so light. It should be rolled lightly, and of 
equal thickness each time, and care should be taken that the 
butter does not break through the paste. Folding the paste in 
two, or doubling it, is called half a turn. 


Some break the batter in small pieces and distribute it equally 
oyer the paste, then dredge flour over it, and fold it, etc. Others 
add about three or four ounces in pieces each time the paste is 
rolled out. 

When butter is rolled into the paste at several intervals, the 
pastry, during the baking, becomes flaky, or divided into thin 
laminffi, by which it is distinguished from short crust. 

Rice Paste for Sweets, 

157. Boil four ounces of ground rice in a small quantity of 
water, strain off all the moisture, and dry it well ; beat it in a mor- 
tar with half an ounce of butter and one egg well beaten. This 
paste is very much preferred by some for tarts. 

Paste for Stringing Tartlets. 

168. Mix one ounce of fresh butter with your hands in four 
ounces of flour and a little cold water ; rub the paste well be- 
tween the board and the hand, till it begins to string ; cut it into 
small pieces, roU it out, and draw it into fine strings ; lay them 
across each other, or form them into figures, and bake imme- 

Potato PasU, 

169. Add an egg, or some butter, to boiled and finely bruised 
potatoes, whilst they are warm ; before the mixture becomes cold, 
roll it out on a well-floured board ; cover the dish with it imme- 
diately, and bake. 

Nouilles for Soup. 

160. Flour sixteen ounces, yolks of six eggs and whites of two, 
salt, finely minced parsley, grated nutmeg, pepper, and water 
sufficient to make a stiff paste. Spread it out very thin, and cut 
into strings. A little flour should be sprinkled over them to pre- 
vent them sticking together. Drop them by degrees into boiling 
soup, etc., and let the soup simmer half an hour. 



161. Batter is the meal or flour of grain, pulse, etc., in a more 
diluted state than dough or paste, and has heen already alluded 
to in some of the preparations for light cakes. It is of extensive 
use in cookery for puddings, pancakes, fritters, omelets, etc., 
and will be further noticed under these respective heads. For 
the present it will be sufficient to describe the mode of making it. 

Batter for Frying Vegetables ^ and for Fruit Fritters, 

162. Flour twelve ounces, butter two ounces, boiling water 
nearly a quarter of a pint, cold water three-quarters of a pint, 
salt half a tea-spoonful, whites of eggs two, beaten to a froth. 

Gut the butter in small pieces, pour upon it the hot water, and 
when it is dissolved, add the cold water, taking care tliat the 
whole be about the temperature of new milk ; mix it by degrees 
with the flour and salt, and just before it is used, stir in the 
beaten whites of eggs. 


163. Flour two ounces, eggs three or four. Moisten the flour 
with a little milk ; heat the two together in a saucepan ; add the 
eggs, and stir the whole till cool enough to be made up with the 

Or, steam some potatoes, beat them in a mortar, put them in a 
basin, and add some eggs and a little butter, salt, rasped citron, 
some bitter macaroons, and sugar or not, according to taste. 

Or, flour four tablierfpoonfuls, eggs four. 

Mix them well together, dilute with a quart of new milk, in 
which some white sugar has been dissolved ; add six macaroons 
finely powdered, and a gill of orange-flower water. Place the mix- 
ture over the fire, and, as it becomes thick, stir it well ; then pour 
it over pulped apples or other fruit in a dish, and bake in a gentle 
oven for half an hour. 


Boiled Meal, Flour, etc. 

164. Various names have been given to meal or flour boiled 
in water or milk, according to the substance employed, and its 
relative proportion to the fluid, as Pudding, Burgout, Porridge, 
and Gruel. 

Wheat coarsely ground, and boiled during three or four hours, 
with a succession of water and a little salt, is an excellent and 
pleasant remedy for constipation. " It effects quite a revolution 
in the economy of health, when taken in sufficient quantity 
(twelve ounces), either as a part or whole of the breakfast, or in- 
stead of pudding and vegetables at dinner. When the stomach 
will bear sweet substances, honey, molasses, etc., may be added 
with advantage. A moderate degree of fluidity, i.e.., less than 
that of boiled rice or hominy, increases the laxative power.*' 

Hasty Pudding and Burgout. 

165. Meal or flour eight ounces, water or milk one pint. Into 
the boiling milk stir the flour gradually, let it boil a few minutes, 
during which time it should be constantly stirred and beaten. A 
little salt, an egg, a little butter and sugar, or seasoning, accord- 
ing to taste, may be added. Two bay leaves may be flrst boiled 
in the milk, then removed, and the yolk of an egg, beaten up with 
a spoonful or two of milk. 

In this manner may be used Indian meal, oatmeal, etc. A 
pint of water gradually added to eight ounces of oatmeal, the 
whole made quite smooth, and then boiled a quarter of an hour, 
is called burgout. Butter, salt, pepper, etc., may be added as 

Porridge^ Stirabout^ Polenta, etc. 

166. Wheat-meal, oatmeal, Indian meal, semolina, ground 
rice, polenta, hominy, etc., three or four ounces ; water one pint. 
Boil the water, and add a little salt, about the one-sixteenth of an 


ounce ; sprinkle in the meal very gradually and carefully, till of a 
sufficient consistency ; stir it well all the time with a porridge- 
stick, which should be an inch or more broad at the bottom ; boil 
gently fifteen or twenty minutes. Add a little more boiling water, 
and boil it five minutes longer ; this renders it smoother. Pour 
it on plates or into moulds, and serve with treacle, milk, preserve, 

The usual way is to make a hole in the middle with the spoon, 
add a piece of butter as large as a nutmeg, and upon it a spoonful 
of brown sugar or treacle. Eat it from the circumference, and 
dip each spoonful in the butter and sugar. 

Or, spread a small quantity of butter over it, then sprinkle 
coarsely powdered cheese over it. 

Every particle of meal should be stirred into the boiling fluid 
with one hand, as fast as it reaches the surface from the other, or 
it will run into knots ; the boiling also should be well sustained 
all the time. Fine meal requires more water than coarse, and the 
latter requires more boiling. The more finely the meal is granu- 
lated the better, provided it runs freely from the fingers by the 
assistance of the thumb. 

Indian meal is better if boiled gently for half an hour or an 

167. A preferable mode of making porridge, especially when 
the meal or flour is fine, is to steep the meal in as much cold 
water as it will absorb, in which state it may remain several 
hours ; stir it into the boiling water, and continue the stirruig till 
the porridge boils fast and thickens, which may be in five or six 
minutes ; then remove it to where it will just keep boiling for 
twenty minutes without burning. A double saucepan, the lower 
part containing water, is the best for making; porridge in. 

While Indian meal is steeping, remove all the light floating par- 

The steeped meal may be added to milk if preferred, and 
heated in a slow oven for two hours, until all the milk has been 
absorbed. When hominy is used, it should be steeped during 
twelve hours, or more, and boiled or creed till sufficiently soft. 
Cold porridge may be cut into slices, and fried in butter ; fried 


onions, parsley, pepper, and salt may be added. It may also be 
sliced, and cheese toasted upon it; or cat in thin slices and 
toasted before the fire, or on a gridiron, and eaten instead of 
bread, either in milk or in any kind of soup or pottage ; or it may 
be eaten cold, without any preparation, with a warm sauce made 
of butter, molasses, or sugar, and a little yinegar. It may also 
be boiled in milk. 

The meals of two or three grains may be mixed, as one-third 
rioe-meal, and two-thirds oatmeal. See 95. 

Savoury Porridge, 

168. Oatmeal two or three table-spoonfals, onions two or 
three ounces, milk one pint, butter a quarter of an ounce, pepper 
and salt one tea-spoonfal. Boil the onions in two waters ; when 
tender, shred them fine, and add them to the boiling milk ; 
sprinkle in the oatmeal, add the butter, pepper, and salt ; boil 
ten to fifteen minutes, pour it into soup plates, and serve with 
sippets. Instead of onions, grated cheese may be stirred in with 
the oatmeal. Cheese, with Indian meal or semolina, forms also 
another variety of polenta, an Italian dish. For sweet porridge, 
add sugar, raisins, currants, etc., instead of the onions and 

Thin Porridge or Gruel, 

169. Oatmeal one or two table-spoonfals, water or milk one 

When the water or milk nearly boUs, stir in the meal, previously 
mixed smooth with a little cold water and a little salt ; or pour 
the boiling water or milk to the meal by degrees, and return the 
whole to the pan. Boil it a few minutes ; sHm and strain it, if 
thought necessary, then pour the gruel into basins, with or 
without toasted bread. It will become smoother and pleasanter 
by being boiled or simmered longer, or by the oatmeal having 
been steeped for several hours in cold water before the gruel 
is prepared. When made with milk it is excellent for breakfast 


during the winter season, and in Torkshire is called ** milk and 
oatmeal." It does not agree well with all persons on the first 
trial, and in snch case it should be taken in small quantities till 
the stomach can digest it well. It may be enriched with a little 
butter or cream when oleaginous preparations are desirable. 

When a thinner gruel is required, the coarser part of the oat- 
meal is allowed to settle, then the fluid part is poured off and 
boiled a few minutes longer. Add sugar, nutmeg, ginger, etc., 
according to taste. It may be flavoured with cinnamon, a spoon- 
ful of preserved black currants, sweet herbs, onions, etc., by boil- 
ing any of these in the water about half an hour, and straining 
it before the flour or meal is added. 

One or two yolks of eggs may be beaten, mixed with a little of 
the gruel, and then added ; the pan should be held over the fire, 
but the gruel should not boil after the eggs have been added (331, 

The eggs may be added to boiled milk instead of gruel ; a little 
salt and sugar being also added. Ground rice, maize powder, 
Indian meal, semolina, manna croup, sago, tapioca, arrowroot, 
salep, potato flour, patent barley flour, revalenta, lentil-meal, etc., 
may be used instead of oatmeal ; or two of them may be combined ; 
as, equal quantities of potato starch and oatmeal. 

About one ounce of any of the above will be sufficient for a pint 
of water and two ounces of sugar ; and if boiled till it appears 
like a clear jelly, and then strained through a sieve or thin cloth, 
a nourishing mucilage will be obtained, which may be flavoured 
with cinnamon, preserved black currants, etc. 

Sago and tapioca should be washed in two or three waters pre- 
viously to being used, and tapioca should be steeped for some 

Oatmeal and Honey. 

170. Beat up a table-spoonful of oatmeal and a table-spoonful 
of honey with the yolk of an egg ; pour upon it a pint of boiling 
water ; then boil the whole a few minutes. 


Apple Possetf and Bread or Biscuit Jelly. 

171. Boil some slices of white bread in a pint of Tm'IV ; when 
the bread is quite soft remove it from the fire, sweeten with sugar, 
and add a little powdered ginger ; pour it into a bowl, and gradu- 
ally stir in the pulp of three or four nicely baked apples. 

Bread Jelly, — Toast a slice of bread very dry and brown; pour 
as much water on as will cover it ; simmer it very gently, and as 
the water evaporates add more, and continue to simmer it for four 
hours; strain it, and when wanted for use add a httle lemon-peel, 
or sugar, and a little new milk. 

Biscuit Jelly, — ^White biscuit crashed four ounces, cold water 
two quarts. Let the biscuit soak for several hours, boil till 
reduced one-half, strain, evaporate to one pint, add white" sugar 
one pound, and cinnamon one ounce. 

Linseed Tea. 

172. Pour two pints of boiling water on one ounce and a half 
of clean linseed, and half an ounce of bruised liquorice root. Let 
it stand covered near the fire three or four hours. 

Farinacea in Moulds, BlaUc-Manqe, etc. 

173. Wheat, barley, rice, lentils, and other grains, either 
whole or in flour ; also sago, arrowroot, etc., may be prepared so 
as to be both useful and ornamental, by boiling them to a proper 
consistency, and then pouring them into moulds which have been 
previously scalded and afterwards dipped into cold water. Let 
the moulds, when filled, stand in a cool place till the mixtures are 
well set, then turn them out of the moulds upon porcelain or 
glass dishes. 

174. 1. Any of the above articles may be creed in milk, and 
sweetened or flavoured according to taste, by previously boiling 
the sugar, cinnamon, etc., in the milk (18). Four ounces of grain 
will require about a pint or more of milk. The quicker rice or 
other white grain is creed, the better will be the colour. 


Tovs-les-moU, arrowroot, ground rice, or three parts ground 
rice, one part arrowroot, etc., should be previously mixed with a 
little cold water, then poured to the boiling fluid, and boiled about 
five minutes. These will require more fluid than Ule whole grain. 
Thus prepared, they have been called blanc-mange ; frequently 
made with milk, isinglass, etc. See 859. 

175. 2. The same products may be combined with the juice 
of fruits, and turned into moulds. BemoYe all discoloured parts, 
and when necessary, steep the grains in water, and dry, them with 
a soft cloth ; then sinmier four ounces of the grains over a gentle 
fire, in a pint of prepared juice of apples, rhubarb, gooseberries, 
white currants and strawberries, red currants and raspberries, 
cranberries, or other fruit (62) ; stir the whole frequently before 
it begins to boil, to prev^t it forming into lumps. As soon as 
the grain is rather tender, add eight ounces of pounded sugar and 
a dessert-spoonful of lemon juice ; when ready, pour it into 
moulds as above. Arrowroot, etc., should be mixed with a little 
cold water as above, and then added to the boiling juice previously 
sweetened, etc. 

176. 8. Pour three pints of boiling water upon half a peck of 
raspberries and red currants mixed ; let them stand all night ; 
then strain off one quart, leaving the skin and seeds at the bottom. 
Simmer four ounces of sago or Scotch barley, lice, etc., in the 
juice, in an earthen glazed pan, till the whole thickens, but do not 
allow it to boil quickly. Add eight to ten ounces of sugar, etc., 
and proceed as above. Barley and other grains should be quite 
tender before they are put into the moulds. 

In winter, currant jelly may be dissolved and used instead of 
the raspberry and currant juice ; also raspberry vinegar, preserved 
plum-juice, etc. 

177. 4. Fill a basin or mould with alternate layers of creed 
grain or sago, etc., and baked fruit sweetened; then put it in a 
cool place. When required, it may be warmed either in an oven 
or over boiling water, or before the fire with a plate turned over it. 
Or line a basiu with a thick layer of boiled sago, rice, etc.; spread 
a thick layer also upon a large plate, and when cold and firm, 
turn the basin over the plate, and with a knife cut the sago round 


the edge of the basin; put the parings at the bottom of the basin, 
then fill it with baked fruit, and place the sago which is on the 
plate as a cover. When required, remove the mould. 

178. The milk used for creeing the grain may be flavoured 
with cocoa-nut, cinnamon, or almonds, etc. (19 and 20). Blanch 
and pound to a paste two ounces of Jordan almonds ; stir to them 
slowly a pint of boiling milk ; when the milk has received suffi- 
cient flavour from the almonds, squeeze it from them again through 
a thin cloth, and set it aside to cool. Pour the milk upon four 
ounces of washed, soaked, and drained rice, and bring the whole 
very slowly to the point of boiling ; simmer it gently till rather 
tender, stirring it occasionally. Add one ounce of butter and two 
ounces of powdered sugar. When quite tender and dry, press it 
whilst hot into a mould as above, about an inch thick, fill it with 
baked fruit, apricot jam, etc. 

Farinacea in moulds may be served either quite plain or with a 
rich syrup of apple juice well flavoured with lemon ; or stuck with 
almond spikes, and covered with custard or mock cream, etc. 


General Rule. 

179. Prepare them as directed at 8; then put them in 
boiling water, with a little salt in it; let them boil a few 
minutes, then add so much cold water as will reduce the tem- 
perature to 165° or 158°, and keep up the heat to this point till 
the roots are sufficiently tender, which may be ascertained by 
probing them with a fork ; but red beet should only be tried with 
the fingers at the thick part of the root. They should neither be 
pared, cut, nor put into cold water, because albumen and other 
nitrogenized matters are dissolved by cold water, and thus the 
most nutritious portions of the tubers, roots, etc., are either lost 


by paring, or are held in solution by the water. On the contrary, 
boiling water coagulates the albumen, and thus renders the Tege- 
tables containing it more nutritious than they would be if first 
put into cold water. The flavour and colour, however, of turnips, 
old potatoes, and other white roots, are improved by paring and 
soaking in cold water previously to cooking (3). The water 
should be skimmed for white roots, as parsneps, etc., if they have 
been previously pared. When sufficiently boiled, peel potatoes, 
pare beet-root and turnips, and rub off the skin of carrots, 
parsneps, and new potatoes, with a coarse cloth. 

To Boil Potatoes. 

180. Select them of nearly equal size, boil them by the general 
rule for< roots, etc., and when tender, draia the water from them, 
and let them stand over or by the side of the fire uncovered until 
all the moisture has evaporated, shaking them occasionally. If 
they are not wanted immediately, lay a cloth over them, but it is 
better to peel and serve them without delay. Some put each 
potato into a clean warm cloth, and twist it so as to press all the 
moisture out and render the potato quite round. This method is 
. advisable when it is intended to mash the potatoes, or to use them 
for puddings or cakes. 

New potatoes should be put into hot water with a little salt in 
it ; older potatoes may be put into either cold or boiling water, 
but if pared, boiling water is preferable. Young potatoes require 
to be boiled from ten to twenty minutes ; old potatoes from 
twenty to forty-five minutes. 

Jerusalem Artichokes. 

181. Boil or rather simmer them from fifteen to twenty-five 
minutes, or till tender ; a few sliced onions are sometimes boiled 
with them. Serve them with melted butter, cream, or white 
sauce. The sauce may be thickened with oatmeal. 



Turnips^ Carrots^ ParsnepSf Onions. 

182. For the time these require boiling, see 23. 


183. See 2. Simmer it two or three hours; when tender, 
rab off the skin with the hand, or peel it and serve it whole, or 
cut it in a slanting direction in thin slices. Or when the beet 
has been well washed, roll it in a very thin paste made of flour 
and water ; wrap it in a cloth as for a pudding, and then boil it. 
It will thus be rendered much sweeter, and not so earthy in flavour 
as when cooked in the ordinary way. It may be used cold with 
winter salads, or with cheese. It may also be eaten with boiled 
onion cut in thin slices when cold, and laid on the edge of each 
other alternately. Oil, vinegar, etc., as at 460 and 461. A 
little powdered ginger will prevent it lying heavy on the stomach. 
Gold beet-root may be chopped fine, heated in a saucepan with 
a little cream, a little vinegar and brown sugar added just before 

Baked or boiled beet-root may be cut in slices, across or 
lengthwise, seasoned with salt and pepper, then 'Med, and used 
as sandwiches between slices of bread and butter; or, folded up, 
put on a dish, and garnished with parsley. 


184. Boil turnip-radishes from twenty to thirty minutes ; 
drain, and serve them with melted [butter or white sauce. Com- 
mon radishes should be tied in bunches and boiled, then served 
on toast like asparagus. 

Leeks, • 

185. Wash, trim, and cut them in equal lengths ; split each 
nearly in two, then tie them in small bunches. Put them in 
plenty of boiling water with a little salt ; boil them twenty to 


thirty miimtes, or till tender, remoTing any scnm which may arise ; 
drain, and serve them on toast with melted batter. 

Salsify and Scorzonera. 

186. Scrape oflf the dark outside skin, and put them in cold 
water. Cut them in pieces about three or four inches long, and 
put them in boiling water. Boil them from forty to sixty minutes, 
or till tender ; then drain, and serve them with white sauce, rich 
brown gravy, or melted butter. Or, when boiled, dip them in stiff 
batter, or in bran tea boiled to a strong jelly, and fry them ; then 
serve with brown sauce, etc. "When boiled, mashed, formed into 
cakes, and fried in butter, they are said to have the flavour of 
oyster patties, or of smelts. 

To Stew Boots, Tubers, etc* 

187. See 24. Prepare them as for boiling. 

Boil them, but not till quite tender ; let them remain till cold, 
then remove the skin by peeling or scraping ; cut them in dice or 
in slices, and when cold put them in a stew-pan with a little milk 
or cream and a little salt ; simmer them till tender, then stir in 
a little butter and flour or oatmeal, etc. ; mix the whole well, and 
simmer it a little longer. If preferred sweet, add a little sugar 
and fruit; if savory, add white pepper or cayenne, minced 
parsley, chives, leeks, garlic, onions, etc., shred fine. 

188. Or, dissolve in a stew-pan from two to four ounces of 
butter, add a small dessert-spoonfed of flour, shake the pan two 
or three minutes, and add slowly a small cupfrd of boiling water,* 
a little pepper and salt, and a tea-spoonfrd of minced piu*sley ; put 
in the sKced tubers, previously boiled, and shake them gently 
over a clear fire until quite hot, and until the sauce adheres to 
them well. At the instant of serving, add a dessert-spoonful of 
strained lemon juice. A quarter of a {ant or more of thick white 

• Whenever water is added to soups, sbuces, etc., it shcilld be very hot 
or boiling. 



sauce may be used instead of the butter, etc., with or without the 
minced parsley. 

189. Or, cut the potatoes or other tubers as for a pie ; put 
them in a pan in layers with a little chopped onion, pepper, and 
salt upon each layer, and on the top lay an ounce or two of butter, 
add a little water, coyer the pan, and stew the contents gently for 
about half an hour, or bake them in an oven. 

100. Or, if intended for soup, dissolye the butter in a stew-pan, 
add a tea-spoonful of brown sugar, then the sliced Tegetables ; 
cover them closely, and stew them very slowly till soft and lightly 
browned, which may require from twenty-five to sixty minutes. 

Potato Hash. 

191. To five pounds of potatoes pared and sliced as for a pie 
add one quart of water, a table-spoonful of oatmeal, a little salt 
and pepper, also two ounces of butter, or three-quarters of a pint 
of milk; boil the whole, shaking the pan frequently; add chopped 
parsley and sweet leeks, and let the whole stew till tender, stirring 
it occasionally. Onions and sage chopped and stewed with 
potatoes make also a good hash, and peas-meal may be substi- 
tuted for the oatmeal. 

Turnip or Mixed Hash. 

192. Turnips twelve ounces, potatoes twelve ounces, flour, 
oatmeal, or peas-meal, etc., two table-spoonfuls, butter two 
ounces, one large onion, a table-spoonful of salt. Boil the turnips 
cut into small dice, and the onion cut small, in three pints of 
water, add the salt, aud boil one hour ; then put in the potatoes, 
also cut in pieces, and after boiling three-quarters of an hour 
longer, add the butter. Bub the flour in a quarter of a pint of 
cold water until quite smooth, pour it into the pan, and let the 
whole boil slowly fifteen minutes longer, or until all the ingre- 
dients are quite tender, and the liquid part of the hash of the 
consistency of thin butter sauce. It wiU be sufficiently boiled in 
two hours, and should be covered the whole time. 


Carrots, Jerasalem artichokoB, yegeiable-marrows, etc., may be 
used instead of the turnips. 

To Steam Roots, Tubers, etc. 

193. See 25. Prepare them as for boiling ; put them in a 
steamer oyer boiling water, to which a little salt has been added, 
and when they are tender, proceed as directed for boiled potatoes, 
etc. The water should boil well before the tnbers are pnt into the 
steamer, and it should be kept boiling tUl they are removed. If 
potatoes be folly grown and pared, they will be ready in twenty- 
fiye minutes. 

To Bake or Roast Roots, Tubers, etc. 

194. See 26 and 27. Prepare them as for boiling, and divide 
such as are very large ; place them in a moderately heated oven, 
or in a Dutch oven or cheese toaster ; turn them occasionally, 
and take care they are not charred or burnt before they are well 
heated through. A small piece of skin may be cut off potatoes, 
and the remaining skin rubbed over with butter to make them 

Large potatoes require about two hours ; large beet-root from 
four to six hours. When in haste, half boil the tubers and take 
off the thin skin before roasting them. Potatoes are improved 
by being roasted in wood-ashes. They may also be pared, put on 
a tin or dish, with two or three sliced onions, a little butter and 
water, and then a little flour dredged over them, baked in an oven, 
and served with brown sauce (481). 

To Fry Roots, Tubers, etc. 

195. See 29. Wash, pare, and cut them in slices less than 
a quarter of an inch thick; or into thin shavings or ribbons, by 
paring round them in a spiral direction ; put them into boiling 
butter or oil, fry them crisp, and when of a Ught colour, to a fine 
brown ; lift them with a skimmer, drain them on a soft warm 


cloth, spriiikle a little salt over them, and serve them hot. A 
little white pepper or cayemie may be added. 

196. Or, boil the tubers till nearly tender, drain the water from 
them, and let them stand till cool ; pare and slice them, sprinkle 
a little salt and pepper over them ; dip them in batter or in a 
strong jelly of bran tea, or in egg, and then sprinkle them with 
bread crumbs ; or dredge them with flour, or peas-meal, or add 
bread crumbs and parsley chopped fine, and fry them as above. 
They may be served with fried onions and brown sauce, or put 
between two pieces of bread as a sandwich. Cold potatoes, etc., 
may be sliced and fried as above. 

Oauliflowers a^e excellent when boiled till tender, then the 
sprigs are separated and allowed to cool ; dipped twice in batter 
made with a table-spoonfiil of flour, two table- spoonfuls of milk, 
and one egg well beaten, and fried. BroccoU, etc., in the same 
way (225). 

To Mash Roots, Tubers, etc. 

197. Boil, steam, or bake them till tender ; pour off the water, 
remove the sldn, specks, etc., when necessary; evaporate the 
moisture from potatoes, etc., and squeeze the water from those 
which contain any, as turnips and Jerusalem artichokes ; press 
them while hot through a colander or coarse sieve ; or bruise them 
quite smooth with a wooden spoon, or with two forks in one hand, 
the points of the prongs being turned outwards ; if not sufficiently 
dry, stir them for a few minutes in a saucepan over a gentle fire, 
then add one or two ounces of butter for every two pounds of 
mashed roots ; also a little salt, a few spoonfuls of milk or cream, 
or white sauce, and stir the whole during five or six minutes, or 
until it is hot, well mixed, and all superfluous moisture evapo- 
rated. A little sugar added with the salt to turnips, carrots, etc., 
is considered an improvement by some persons. An egg also may 
be beaten up with the milk. A little flour mixed with the butter 
renders turnips less watery when mashed. 

Boiled roots three pounds, butter two ounces, salt half a tea- 
spoonfiil, sugar a dessert-spoonful, milk or cream nearly half a 


To Serve Mashed Tubers, etc. 

198. Any of the following methods may be adopted : — 

1. Serve them hot from the pan, without farther preparation. 

2. Brown them before the fire. 

3. Put them indwell-buttered scallop shells or patty-pans, strew 
bread crumbs and small pieces of butter on the top, and brown 
both tops and bottoms by turning them. 

4. Press the mashed roots into buttered cups or moulds which 
have been strewed with fine bread crumbs, and all loose crumbs 
shaken ofT ; brown before the fire or in an oven. 

5. Mix the mashed potatoes with whites of eggs beaten to a 
froth ; form the whole into a paste, with which fill the skins of 
baked potatoes, from which one end has been cut off, and the con- 
tents removed ; then bake and serve. 

6. Let the mashed roots cool a little ; roll them in balls, sprinkle 
over them rice flour, or vermicelli crushed slightly with the hand, 
or roll them in egg or fine bread-crumbs ; fry the balls, or roast 
them slightly in a Dutch oven. 

7. To a pound of the mashed roots add the yolks and whites of 
four eggs well whisked ; mould them into small lumps, drop them 
into a small pan of boiling oil or butter, fry them five minutes 
over a moderate fire, and drain them well. 

8. To the mashed roots add minced parsley, a small quantity 
of green onions or shallots, or boiled onions passed through a 
sieve ; add also a little cayenne or white pepper, and sufficient 
yolks of eggs to bind the mixture ; roll it into balls, or into three 
or four-inch lengths, and fry in butter or oil over a moderate fire ; 
or dress it as potatoes scalloped. Potatoes thus dressed and fried 
are called rissoles (437). 

Potato Balls, 

190. Boil some potatoes in their skins ; when cold, peel and 
grate them. Beat two ounces of butter to a cream, and add the 
yolks of two eggs well beaten, a little salt, and as much of the 
grated potato as will make a stiff paste ; add also a little well* 


beaten white of egg. Bub the paJm of the hand with a little flour, 
and roll the paste into small balls, and boil them. These areyeiy 
good in white sonp, or they may be eaten with white sance. 

200. Or, potatoes half boiled, pared, and grated; wheat flour, 
or peas-meal about one-sixteenth the weight of the potatoes, salt, 
pepper, and sweet herbs. Mix the whole to a proper consistency 
with boiling water ; form the mass into dumplings of the size of 
a large apple ; roll them in flour to prevent the water penetrating 
them; put them in boiling water, and boil them till they rise to 
the surface, when they will be sufl&ciently done. They may also 
be boiled in pudding cloths. 

201. Or, mash very smooth some well-boiled potatoes with a 
little cream or butter and milk, and a little salt ; then form them 
into balls or in the shape of apples, pears, or other fruit ; warm 
them through, and brown them slightly on one side in a Dutch 

A substitute for Potatoes. 

202. Steam or boil thoroughly one pound of turnips; mash 
them well oyer the fire, and at the same time sprinkle in about 
two ounces of oatmeal or peas-meal very slowly ; when of a 
proper consistency, put the mixture into a buttered dish, and 
brown it before the fire or in an oven. A littl6 pepper and salt, 
or sugar, should be added according to taste. 

Potato Fibre, 

203. Potato fibre used as rice makes good puddings, and when 
dried, it may be ground into meal. Wheat-meal or oatmeal, etc., 
may be mixed with the meal from potato fibre, in equal quantities, 
and used for bread, or made into porridge. 


204. Dress the cabbage (6), and cut it into four parts from 
the top, but not so as to separate them from the stalk, which 


should be cut off close to the leaves. Let it lie an hour in cold 
water, to which a little salt has been added. Put it into boiling 
hard water (23) in which some salt has been dissolved, and let 
it boil an hour or an hour and a half, according to its size, with- 
out any cover to the pan, adding more boiling water as required, 
and skim it occasionally. 

Bemove it from the water, and put it in a colander to drain ; 
then pour cold water over it till it is quite cold ; put it in fresh 
boiling water and let it boil two hours, or till the thickest part of 
the stalk is quite tender; drain it again in the colander, pressing 
out all the water; lay it in a deep dish, and divide it entirely into 
quarters. Lay some pieces of butter among the leaves, add a 
little pepper, cover the dish, and serve the cabbage hot. 

Large savoys may be similarly treated. 

Cauliflowers and white cauliflower broccoli should be boiled in 
nulk and water, and the scum removed as it rises. A httle cold 
water occasionally added will assist in bringing the scum to the 

Brussels Sprouts^ Turnip Greens^ etc. 

205. Dress, wash, and drain them well; peel the stalks of 
long sprouts, and tie them in bunches ; boil from five to fifteen 
minutes. Turnip greens should be well washed, and boiled in 
plenty of water, to remove their bitterness. Serve the long 
sprouts as asparagus. Greens should be well pressed after boil- 
ing, to remove the water from them. 


206. Scrape the lower part of the stems, tie them in bunches 
of equal size, and cut the stalks in each bunch of equal length ; 
boil them from fifteen to twenty-five minutes. Serve them on 
toast dipped in the water inVhich they have been boiled, and 
with melted butter. 


Sea Kale, 

207. Tie it in bunches, put it in boiling water, or milk and 
water, and when it is tender, which will be in about twenty 
minutes, drain it and serve it with melted butter or white sauce, 
or upon toast, as asparagus. 


208. Dress (5) and soak them. Young ones should be boiled 
from thirty to forty-five minutes, fall-grown ones an hour and a 
half or two hours. When the leaves can be drawn out easily, the 
artichokes are ready. The water should have a httle soda in it, 
and should be skimmed during the boiling. Serve with melte d 

Peas {les petis Pots). 

209. When of different sizes, put the smallest into the water 
a few minutes after the others ; add a little sugar to the water, 
and boil the peas from fifteen to twenty-five minutes. Drain, 
and serve them with melted butter, or with a little butter 
amongst them. A few sprigs of mint are frequently boiled with 

Beans {les Fives non mures) ^ and unripe Haricots ^ or les 
Haricots Jlageolets. 

210. Boil them from twenty to thirty minutes. When the 
skin wrinkles they are generally done enough, but it is better to 
feel or taste them, to ascertain whether they are sufficiently ten- 
der. Serve them with plain melted butter, or parsley and 
butter. When the beans are old, the external skin may be re- 
moved after they have been boiled, and the green part well mashed 
over a gentle fire, adding butter and a little flour, chopped parsley, 
pepper, and salt ; then put the whole in a hot mould, if thought 


French Beans (les Haricots verts), 

211. Bemoye the stalks and strings, and cut the beans di- 
agonally ; put them in spring water, wash and drain them, then 
boil them from ten to twenty minutes. 


212. Pick each leaf separately, removing all strong fibres ; 
wash the spinach in seyeral waters, and drain it ; then boil it 
from eight to ten minutes. See 220. 


213. Wash them in water without salt. Boil from twenty to 
thirty minutes. 

To Stew Cabbages, Savoys, etc. 

214. Bemoye the outward leaves, take out all the stalks, and 
cut the cabbages into very thin strips ; wash, drain, and put them 
into boiling water, which has been salted and skimmed. Boil 
them from ten to fifteen minutes, or till tender ; strain and press 
the water from them thoroughly, an^ chop them slightly. Put 
into a clean saucepan two ounces of butter, to which, when dis- 
solved, add the cabbage, and pepper and salt sufficient to season it. 
Stir the whole over a clear fire till tolerably dry ; shake in lightly 
a table-spoonful of flour, turn the whole well, and add by degrees 
a cup of cream or white sauce. An onion cut small may be 
stewed with the cabbage, or shred the cabbage very thin, wash it, 
and put it into a saucepan with a little pepper and salt, two or 
three ounces of butter, and no more water than adheres to the 
cabbage after washing. Stew it till tender, and, when nearly 
ready, add two or three table-spoonfuls of vinegar.* A few slices 
of red beet will improve the colour of red cabbage. 

* Some prefer adding a little more water, about half a pint for each cab- 
bage ; they then oover the pan closely, and stew the cabbage for three 
hours. Should it become too dry, and be in danger of burning, add a 
little more boiling water. When done, press and drain it through a 


Or, shred and wash a red cabbage ; peel its weight of apples, 
slice and core them ; put these and the cabbage in a stew-pan, 
with a little butter and a yeiy Uttle water ; stew the whole by the 
side of the fire till tender ; season with pepper and salt. Some 
add a few slices of onion. 

Or, boil a cabbage, then drain and squeeze all the water from it ; 
add a little butter, pepper, and salt, and press the whole into a 
mould ; bake it an hour, turn it out, and serve. Potatoes cooked 
and bruised may be mixed with the cabbage before it is put into 
the mould. 

To Stew ?eas, Windsor Beans, or French Beans. 

215. Boil a quart of peas, or French beans, etc., tiQ tender, 
then drain the water from them. Dissolve one or two ounces of 
butter in a stew-pan, and when it boils, stir in a dessert-spoonful 
of flour ; shake it over the fire for three or four minutes, but do 
not permit it to become coloured; then add gradually a cup of 
cream and a little sugar. When the sauce boils, put in the peas 
or beans, shake them in it tiU they are very hot, and serve them 
quickly. As they are taken from the fire, the beaten yolks of two 
eggs and a little lemon juice may be stirred in, or a table-spoon- 
fdl of minced parsley and sweet herbs. Instead of these, an 
onion cut in four, and a little mint, may be stewed with the peas, 
and afterwards removed. 

Another metkod. 

216. Put a quart of peas in plenty of cold water, with rather 
more than an ounce of butter ; handle the peas with the butter 
till the whole of it adheres to them ; remove them from the water, 
and drain them in a colander ; then stew them with a little parsley 
and green onions. When they have recovered their green colour, 
sprinkle a little -flour over them, stirring them and moistening 
with boiling water tiU they are covered with the flour, and evapo- 
rate the water from them over a brisk fire. When no Hquid 
remains, add a little sugar and salt ; the sugar should be pre- 


Tionslj dipped in water ; mix one ounce of butter with a dessert- 
spoonful of floor, and thicken the peas with this while they are 

Windsor Beans. 

217. Half cook them in water with a little salt ; put them in a 
stew-pan with a little butter, a bunch of parsley, scallion onions, 
and a little savory ; set them on the fire, add a little flour and 
sugar, and dilute them with vegetable broth, or a little clear soup ; 
when sufficiently done, add yolks of eggs moistened with mUk, 
and serve. 

French Beans {Haricots verts). 

218. Bemove the fibres, and wash the beans ; put them in boil- 
ing water with a little salt ; when cooked, put them in cold water 
to preserve their colour. Put a little butter in a stew-pan, also a 
little salt, a little nutmeg, a glass of milk or of the water in which 
the beans have been cooked, and having removed them from the 
cold water, and drained them, stew them ten minutes, then serve 
them with yolks of eggs, to which parsley and a scalUon, minced 
fine, have been added. If no mUk is at hand, a little vinegar 
may be used instead. 

The better to preserve their colour, put a double linen cloth on 
a sieve, and on this cloth a good spoonfed of wood ashes. Pass 
the water in which the beans are to be cooked over the ashes and 
through the sieve. This method may also be adopted in cooking 

French Beans as a Salad, 

219. Oook them in water, as above, drain them, and let them 
cool. . Season them, some hours before using thfem, with pepper, 
salt, and vinegar ; then cover them well. At the time of serving, 
drain off the water which they will have yielded, and add salad 


To Stew Spinach^ Water-cresses, etc. 

220. Wash the spinach in several waters, and pick it well ; 
boil it a few minutes, and then drain and squeeze the water well 
from it, through a cloth or colander ; chop it fine, put it in a 
stew-pan, and stir it over a moderate fire till dry ; add two ounces 
of butter for a moderate dish of it; stir it ten minutes, or until it 
appears dry again, and, whilst stirring it, dredge in a dessert- 
spoonful of flour. Two or three spoonfiils of cream may be 
added, or an egg beaten up with milk, and a little salt or sugar ; 
stir the whole again till the moisture has been evaporated, and 
serve it hot with sippets, or press it into a hot mould. 

If a slightly acid flavour be preferred, add a tea-spoonftil of 
lemon juice after it has been removed from the fire. It is said 
that when spinach is stewed in butter it is subjected to a heat 
which renders it crisp and destroys its colour. Some prefer 
spinach stewed with crumbs of bread, a little butter, salt, and 
pepper, fried bread sippets to garnish it, or poached eggs on the 
top. Some add parsley, shallots, etc. 

Or, after washing and picking the spinach, put it into a stew- 
pan with no water except that which adheres to it from washing ; 
add a little salt, and stir it fifteen minutes, or till tender ; dnun 
off, or evaporate the moisture ; chop the spinach on a hot trencher, 
and serve with poached eggs. 

To Stew LettuceSj Nettles^ etc. 

221. Wash them well, drain them, and put them in boiling 
water with a little salt ; boil them from twenty to thirty minutes, 
press the water from them, and then chop them a little ; heat 
them in a saucepan with a little butter, pepper, and salt, dredg- 
ing in also a little flour as you stir it; add a little cream, and stew 
quickly till it is tolerably dry. Stir in a little vinegar or lemon 
juice, and serve hot with sippets. 



To Stew Celery. 

222. Boil three heads of celeiy in milk-and-water till tender 
but not soft, divide them lengthwise ; cut them into pieces about 
two inches long ; put them in a pan with half a pint of milk or 
cream ; thicken with a little flour, and add a small piece of butter, 
or the yolks of four eggs ; some add an onion chopped fine. Stir 
the whole well together, but do not let it boil ; when it begins to 
thicken it is ready to be served. 

To Stew Onions, 

223. Bemoye the exterior skin, and trim the ends; if the 
onions are large and strong, boil them ten or fifteen minutes, and 
change the water before stewing them. Put them in a stew-pan, 
or on a dish in an oven, with a little butter. When the onions 
have become brown, pour melted butter over them, with a little 
pepper and salt, and stew them fif^en miautes longer. 

224. Or, sUce, dredge, and fry the onions a fine brown ; then 
put them into a stew-pan, with very little water, pepper, and salt ; 
cover them up, and stew them two hours. A little flour and butter 
may be added if requisite. 

Onions are also very good roasted ; butter, pepper, salt, etc., 
being added. 

To Fry Cauliflowers^ Celery, etc, , 

225. Boil them till tender, iu water with a little salt in it ; 
separate the sprigs of cauliflowers, and cut the celery in three or 
four-inch lengths ; drain them, and let them lie on a dish to cool. 
Make a batter with one well beaten egg stirred into the third of a 
pint of milk, add a few table-spoonfuls of bread crumbs or flour ; 
beat the batter well after it has been mixed ; dip the pieces of 
cauliflower or celery twice into the batter, then fry them a light 
brown. When done, lay them to drain on an inverted sieve, with 
a pan beneath it, and serve. 


To Dress Laver* 

226. Put it in a saucepan, and make it quite hot ; then add a 
little butter, half a lemon, and a little pepper and salt. Stir the 
whole until the butter is dissoWed, and serve it quite hot. 


227. Cut off the stems, and if the mushrooms are young and 
tender, clean them -with a bit of new flannel and some fine salt, 
and dry them with a soft cloth ; or rinse them in fresh water and 
drain them quickly; spread them on a clean cloth, fold it over 
them, and leave them ten minutes or more to dry. If the mush- 
rooms are old, or the skins firm, they should be peeled. 

(a.) For every pint, of mushrooms thus prepared, put an ounce 
and a half of butter into a thick iron saucepan ; shake it over the 
fire till the butter just begins to brown, put in the mushrooms, 
and continue to shake the saucepan over a clear fire, whilst they 
simmer three or four minutes ; strew in a little salt, cayenne, and 
powdered mace ; then stew the mushrooms till quite tender, and 
serve them with their own sauce only. They are very good when 
drained from the butfter and served cold, and may be kept for 
several days in a cool larder. The butter in which they have 
been stewed is excellent for flavouring gravies. 

After stewing them as above, with a little more spice, drain 
them &om the butter, and when cold pack them closely in a pot. 
Pour lukewarm clarified butter thickly over them, and store them 
in a cool place. Mushrooms should be very tender, or carefully 
masticated, (Otherwise they will pass the stomach imdigested, and 
may cause much inconvenience (7). 

(&.) Prepare them as above, then put them with the hollow 
side upwards in a tin ; place a small piece of butter on each, 
season with pepper and salt, and place them in an oven where 


they should remain till rather brown ; remove the muflhrooms and 
poor a little water, in which the stalks and peel have been boiled, 
into the tin, and when boiling add it to the mushrooms. 

{c.) Toast some bread half an inch thick ; take some Devon- 
shire cream, or butter ; or milk reduced to the thickness of cream 
by boiUng with a little pepper, salt, and one clove ; whilst warm 
put in an ounce of butter mixed with a little flour, stir the whole 
round ; then put the mushrooms and this sauce upon the toast, 
cover the whole with a basin, and bake half an hour in a baking- 
pan or on a dish ; let the mushrooms remain covered by the basin 
for a few minutes after they have been removed from the oven. 

(d.) " Flaps," or large mushrooms, may be cooked thus : Wipe 
them dry, cut out the stalk, and steep them for an hour in a mix- 
ture of oil, salt, pepper, and a little chopped garlic. Put them on 
a gridiron, the stalk side downwards ; then tjirn them, and wet 
the giUs with white sauce (487 &), or similar sauce. When 
cooked, remove them very gently, so as not to let the juice run 
out, and serve them with a little of the mixture in which they 
were steeped, and a little lemon juice. 


228. Salads are chiefly composed of lettuce, endive, mustard, 
cress, sorrel, parsley, green onions, potatoes, cucumbers, lentils, 
haricots, French beans, cauliflower, tops of young spinach, mint, 
celery, radishes, boiled beet, water cresses, etc. All vegetables 
intended for salad should be fresh gathered, well trimmed, re- 
peatedly washed in cold water, with a little salt in it, and tho- 
roughly drained. 

The small herbs should be put in a clean cloth and lightly 
shaken, but not pressed. The lettuces and celery should be 
divided and neatly arranged, with the smaller salads in the salad 
bowl. When salad sauce or dressing is used, it should be put in 
the bowl first, the salad should be laid lightly over it, and the top 


garnished with boiled white of eggs cut in rings, and slices of 
cooked beet-root. The sauce, however, is usually served in a' 
separate vessel. 

Winter Salad, 

229. Potatoes, onions, and red beet, should be boiled till 
tender, and when cold, cut in slices, and eaten with vinegar and 
oil, or any other salad sauce (470, 471). A Uttle pepper, salt, or 
other seasoning may be added. 

Oold haricot beans, French beans, etc., may also be thus pre- 

Other, Salads. 

Celery, young onions, and radishes. 
Cucumber and onion cut in slices. 

Green French beans boiled, and, when cold, put into a bowl, 
with some tarragon, chervil, and chopped chives. 


230. To the observations respecting milk, cream, curd, butter, 
and whey, at 8, etc., it may here be added, that the latter has 
recently been much recommended in the treatment of certain dis- 
eases. The large amount of water entering into the constitution of 
whey, renders it a diluent which promotes the secretions, and as 
the secretions cannot be increased without augmenting the quantity 
of solids removed from the system, it may be regarded as an 
agent which accelerates the metamorphosis of the tissues ; it also 
contains a considerable portion of sugar. Whenever it is desi- 
rable to diminish the amount of nitrogen in the diet, and con- 
sequently the nitrogenous constituents of the blood, without 
altering the quality and quantity of the inorganic compounds 


necessary for the healthy nutritiye processes, whey will be found 
an efficient agent. 

It is, therefore, reconunended in those forms of scrofula and ' 
incipient pulmonary consumption, which are characterized by a 
deficient supply of the phosphates of iron. It is also considered 
useful when there is swelling of the glands in infancy, and in 
various cutaneous eruptions, in emaciation, and defective develop- 
ment of the bones ; likewise in acid dyspepsia, rheumatic affec- 
tions, the gouty diathesis, and dropsy. 

From twenty-four to thirty-six ounces of whey may be taken 
daily by a patient ; a tea-cupful being taken occasionally.* 

Pounded Cheese. 

231. Cheese eight ounces, butter one to two ounces, or a 
table-spoonful of salad oil. Pound and rub the cheese and butter 
in a mortar, till quite smooth; it may then be spread on bread, or 
between two pieces of bread as sandwiches ; some add mustard 
and cayenne. When not used immediately, it may be pressed 
well down in a jar, and covered with clarified butter. 

Stewed Cheese. 

232. 1. Dissolve slices of cheese with a little butter, pepper, 
etc., over steam or otherwise. Serve on soft toast. 

2. Cut the cheese into slices of a moderate thickness, and put 
them into a tinned saucepan, with a little butter and cream. 
Simmer the whole very gently till the cheese is well dissolved ; 
remove it from the fire, and allow it to cool ; then for every four 
ounces of cheese add two or more yolks of eggs well beaten ; trim 
the whole into any required form, and brown it before the fire, or 
with a salamander. 

* See The Domestic Management of the SUik Boom, by Dr. A. Thompson; 
The Rationale of Whey-cures, by Dr. Brnekb; British and Foreign 
Ifedico-^JhirurgiodlBemeiOf July, 1853. 



Cheese thus prepared may be rendered either sweet or saTomy, 
and eaten either hot or cold. 

3. Grated cheese four ounces, new mUk a quarter of a pint, 
butter half an ounce, or more, as the cheese may require ; stew the 
whole till quite smooth ; when cold mix it with a well beaten egg, 
put it on a dish, and brown it as above. 

4. Stew four middle sized onions in a pint of water till quite 
soft ; then add four ounces of sliced or grated cheese, and two or 
three ounces of butter ; stir the whole over the fire for one minute, 
after the cheese has been added. 

Toasted Cheese. 

333. 1. Toast a slice of bread on both sides, and butt<>.r it ; 
toast a slice of cheese on one side, and lay that side next the bread, 
then toast the other side with a salamander. 

2. Gut some onions in two, and boil about four ounces of them, 
changing the water once ; chop them, and put them in the oven 
with a little pepper, salt, and butter, and stew them till tender. 
Spread them upon a dish, and cover them with eight ounces of 
cheese, in thin slices ; toast the whole rather quickly, and serve it 
hot. Add a little butter, cream, etc., when the cheese requires it. 

3. Half cook the onions, then chop them, and mix them with 
thin slices of cheese in alternate layers, and toast the whole before 
the fire. A little butter, milk, etc., may be added as above. 

4. Boll out some good light paste about one-eighth of an inch 
thick ; cut it in pieces two or three inches broad, and four or five 
long ; between two of these lay slices of good toasting cheese ; 
close the paste at the sides and ends, and bake in a quick oven. 
They may be served either hot or cold. These have been called 
" cheese- turnovers." 

5. Boil two ounces of macaroni, or rice, in a pint of milk tiU 
tender ; drain the milk from it, and put the macaroni or rice in a 
well buttered dish, over three ounces of grated cheese ; lay some 
pieces of butter upon it ; cover it with grated cheese, and toast 
the whole. A layer of bread crumbs may be put over the macaroni 
before the cheese. A little cream may also be added. See 71. 


6. Macaroni four onnces, milk one pint, ground rice a large 
table-spoonful, cheese grated or in thin slices four ounces, butter 
half an ounce, cayenne, grated nutmeg, and salt, a little of each. 

Boil the macaroni in the milk till tender, then add the rice, pre- 
viously mixed with a little cold milk or water; stir it well, then 
add the cheese, butter, pepper, etc. When the whole has been 
well mixed, and the milk has been absorbed, put it in a buttered 
dish ; strew bread crumbs and a few small pieces of butter over it, 
and brown it with a salamander or in an oven. It should be con- 
stantly stirred during the boiling. 

Cheese, Grated Bread, etc, 

234. (a.) Cheese grated four ounces, crumb of bread two to 
four ounces, butter one to four ounces, yolks of eggs one to four, 
cream or milk one cupful. Pour the boiling milk upon the bread 
crumbs, and, when nearly cold, add the cheese and butter, beat 
the whole well, and boil it gently till smooth ; let it stand till 
rather cool, then stir in the eggs previously beaten. 

(b.) Grated cheese four ounces, butter four ounces, yolks of 
eggs four, inside of a small French roll boiled in cream tUl soft. 
Beat all these to a paste in a mortar ; mix the paste with the 
whites of four eggs previously beaten. 

(c.) Cheese eight ounces, butter two ounces. Put them in a 
stew-pan, and stir them over a stove or gentle fire till quite 
melted. Bemove the mixture from the fire, and stir in till 
thoroughly mixed six yolks of eggs, and a little cream. 

1. Put the mixture in a dish, or in small oblong paper cases, or 
upon toasted bread, and brown it before the fire. Eat it while 

2. Bake the mixture for about ten or fifteen minutes, in a 
moderate oven in a dish, or in tart pans, previously buttered, 
either with or without a lining of paste. When the beaten whites 
of eggs are added, the mixture should be put into the oven inome- 
diately after the addition, and as soon as cooked, serve quickly. 

8. Make the mixture into small oval balls, dip them in stiff 
batter, and fry them. 


To the above ingredients, may be added mnstard, pepper, salt, 
chopped parsley, young onions, etc. 

Bice, potatoes, apples, lettuce, celery, and other vegetables, 
along with butter, cream, or milk, seem a more appropriate addi- 
tion to cheese than bread and eggs. Cheese consists chiefly of 
caseine or curd, and requires such carbonaceous matters as butter, 
rice, potatoes, etc., to render it a proper article of diet. Baked 
or toasted cheese and potatoes are highly nutritious and whole- 
some ; butter, cream, etc., may be supplied when thought 

4. Flour four ounces, grated cheese four ounces, butter four 
ounces, cayenne half a tea-spoonfiil, dissolved in a tea-cupful of 
hot milk. Mix all well together with the hand, roll the mixture 
out, and cut it to the size and shape of finger biscuits ; bake them 
in a quick oven, taking care not to scorch them. 

Cheese pudding (337). 

To Boil Eggs. 

235. Put them gently in boiling water, and boil them two and 
a half or three minutes. Or, when the water boils, remove the 
pan from the fire, put in the eggs, and let them remain in the 
water six minutes ; the yolks and whites will thus be more inti- 
mately mixed. 

Or, put them in cold water, set the pan on the fire, and when 
the water has boiled one minute or rather more, the eggs will be 

If preferred rather hard, boil them a little longer ; if very hard, 
ten minutes. 

When boiled hard, remove the shells, and chop the eggs with 
boiled parsley, mix with them a little good melted butter, and a 
little salt. Serve them with sippets. Fresh eggs plunged sud- 
denly into a large quantity of boiling water are liable to have 
their shells broken by the expansion of the internal fluid ; this 
will not be the case when they are put into a small portion of 


boiling water, because the temperature of the water will then be 
reduced by contact with the eggs, and will be raised again slowly 
enough to permit the escape of a small portion of the fluid. 
Eggs which have been laid some time contain a little air, and are 
not so easily broken by the hot water, because the air admits of 
expansion (16). 

To Poach Eggs, 

236. Break the shells in the middle, and turn each egg into 
a cup, from which slide it gently into a pan of boiling water, 
which has been removed from the fire ; when the whites begin to 
set, boil the water gently, and immediately the yokes set, re- 
move the eggs with a slice. 

To prevent the yolks being covered with white, the pan should 
contain no more water than is just sufficient to float the eggs. 
By trimming the whites, and attending to these directions, an 
elegant preparation is obtained, the yellow yolk being surrounded 
by a circle of pure white. 

To Bake Eggs, 

237. (a.) Lightly butter a dish, upon which break several 
eggs without breaking the yolks ; add a little pepper, salt, and a 
few small pieces of butter here and there ; set the dish in the oven 
or before the fire, till the whites are set, but not hard ; serve them 
while hot. 

Bread crumbs previously browned may be sifted over them, and 
parsley used as a garnish. 

(&.) Or, beat the eggs, and for each egg add two table-spoon- 
fols of new milk ; add also a little chopped parsley, pepper, and 

Dissolve the butter in the dish, pour in the eggs, and bake imme- 
diately in a quick oven. If baked in a fiat dish, a few minutes 
will be sufficient ; if in a deep dish, the ^ggs will require a little 
longer time. 


To Fry Eggs, 

238. 1. Break each egg separately into a cup, from which pass 
it into a pan of melted butter, and fry them over a rather brisk 
fire. When they begin to set, throw the hot butter repeatedly 
oyer the yolks with ^e slice till they are cooked enough. If 
preferred crisp and rather hard, they may be turned over. 

2. Beat the eggs, season them with a little pepper, etc., and 
fry them. When cold, put them between slices of bread and 

3. Boil the eggs hard, slice them, and fry them in olive oil or 
butter ; brown a little butter in the pan with a little flour sprinkled 
into it, add a Httle water and salt, and when the whole boils, ponr 
it over the eggs. Ghimish with fried parsley, or serve with parsley 

4. Boil the eggs three minutes ; put them in cold water, remove 
the shells, and surround the eggs with puff paste ; brush them over 
with beaten eggs, sprinkle a very few bread crumbs over them ; 
then fry them a light brown in clarified butter, and serve them 
with a little brown sauce. 

For observations respecting fried articles, see 29. 

Mulled Eggs. 

239. Beat the yolk of a recently laid egg ; stir to it a little 
milk or cream ; then pour to it more hot milk or hot coffee, tea, 
water, ale, or wine, stirring it well all the time. If the hot liquid 
be added too hastily, or without being well stirred, the egg will 
coagulate or curdle instead of uniting with the fluid. Sugar and 
flavouring may be added according to taste (169). 



240. The instructions hitherto given apply chiefly to the 
cooking of single articles of diet, or simple preparations ; but as 
fruits, grain, roots, and other vegetable and animal productions 
vary much in their chemical composition, rfhtritive qualities, and 
suitableness to the palate, an immense variety in these respects 
may be obtained by judiciously combining two or more articles 
which differ in character and composition. A few only of the 
combinations which may be made are here given, by way of 
example, with directions for further experiments, whereby prepa- 
rations which can be rendered elegant in appearance, agreeable in 
flavour, and highly nutritious, may be multiplied almost without 
limit. Repeated trials must determine those which are most grati- 
fying to individual palates, but, in general, it wiU be advisable to 
combine those which contain an excess of nitrogenous principles 
with such as are of a more farinaceous and oleaginous character. 
The senses of smell and taste will genera^iy be a sufiicient guide ; 
thus, the leguminous seeds, as peas, beans, and lentils, which 
contain much nitrogen, and are strong in flavour, should be united 
with products aboimding in starch, and possessing little flavour, 
as rice, potatoes, etc. ; butter also should be added to supply the 
natural deficiency of these articles in oleaginous matter. 

241. The following table is sufficiently near the truth for 
culinary purposes, and a little attention to it will enable any 
one to make successful experiments in new preparations, which 
should be adaplied, as nearly as can be ascertained, to the con- 
stitutions and employments of those for whom they are intended. 
Muscular labour may require a liberal supply of nitrogenous 
articles ; for sedentary employments, farinaceous products and 
fruits should be preferred ; whilst consumptive patients will re- 
quire a combination of these with saccharine, acidulous, and 
oleaginous productions. For further observations on these 
points, see 12 to 16. 



342. Chemical Constituents of Vegetable Products, &c. 







Cheese (skimmed) . 







„ (Cheddar) . « 







Lentils ... 7 







Beans . , 














Peas .... 







White of Egg 







Tolk of Egg . 














Wheat Flour . 







Barley Meal . 







Rye Meal . 







Indian Meal . 







Wheat Bread . 







Rice .... 







Rye Bread 







Cow's Milk . 







Skimmed Milk . 







Butter Milk . 







Potatoes . 







Carrots and Jerusalem 

• 2 

Artichokes . 






Parsneps, Beet, and 

Cabbage . 







Turnips .... 














Almonds, Nuts . 







Sago, Arrowroot, etc. 














Apricots, (Gooseberries 







Beef and Mutton . 







243. The preceding table is extracted chiefly from one drawn 
up by Dr. Lbtheby, in the Journal of the Society of Arts^ 20th 
March, 1857. The articles are arranged, for the convenience of 
reference, according to the proportion of nitrogenous principles 
contained in them. Separate columns for starch, sugar, and fat, 
were considered unnecessary; the third column shows the per 
centage of the carboniferous principles (starch, sugar, and fat 
included), calculated as starch; ten of fat being equal to twenty- 
four of starch. The proportion of fat in each article is given in 
the last column. 


As nitrogenous principles contain about 15*75 per cent, of nitro- 
gen, the amount of this chemical element may be found by diyid- 
ing the numbers in the first column by 6 i, or more correctly by 6.35. 
Thus, oatmeal contains twelve parts of nitrogenous matter, and 
12 divided by 6 J, is equal to two per cent, nearly of nitrogen. 

To obtain the amount of starch, sugar, etc., distinct from the 
oleaginous matters, multiply the number representing the oil in 
the last column by 2§, and subtract the product from the corre- 
sponding number in the second column, the remainder will be the 
per centage of the starch, etc. 

Thus, in the case of oatmeal, 6t per cent, of oH, multiplied by 2|, 
is equal to a little more than 14, which, subtracted from 76, in 
the second column, leaves 62, the per centage of starch, sugar, etc. 

Milk probably contains the relative proportions of the nitro- 
genous and carbonaceous principles best adapted to the human 
constitution generally ; namely, one of the former to five of the 
latter; it will be well, therefore, to keep this proportion in view 
when preparing culinary compounds. Good cheese, for instance, 
contains only two and a half of the carboniferous principles to 
one of the nitrogenous ; this indicates the propriety of adding to 
it rice, potatoes, butter, etc. Peas and beans likewise contain 
only three of the former to one of the latter, and therefore require 
to be mixed with rice, sago, potatoes, butter, etc. 

For the same reason almonds and nuts should be eaten with 
raisins or other fruit, or in combination with rice-flour, potatoes, 
Jerusalem artichokes, etc., as in puddings and soups. 

Almonds and nuts should be either well masticated or cooked 
with fruit, farina, etc. The dark skin is injurious, and should be 
removed ; almonds should be blanched. For some purposes it is 
advisable to pound them, or reduce them to an emulsion (19, 20, 
98). To a neglect of these precautions may perhaps be attributed 
the indigestibility of these vegetable productions in certain cases, 
rather than to their chemical composition. However, the large 
quantity of albuminous and oleaginous principles which they 
contain indicates the propriety of using them together with articles 
of a different character. Almonds and nuts may by these means 
be rendered not only harmless, but exceedingly useful. 

140 vegetable cookery, &c. 

(1.) Fruits and Farinaceous Articles. 

344. Many yery wholesome and nntritioiis combinatioiis will 
be found under farinacea in moulds, (173) puddings, pies, and 


(2.) Fruits, Cream, Eggs, etc. 
See custards (345), creams, etc. (363). 

(3.) Farinacea, Roots, etc. 

Peas, beans, or lentils, with rice, etc., 74, 289. 

Peas, beans, or lentils, with potatoes, etc., 200, 202. 

Wheat, barley, oatmeal, or hominy, with rice, 69. 

Wheat, barley, oatmeal, or hominy, with potatoes, etc., 200. 

Wheat meal, flour, etc., bread, 84, etc. 
',\ Bread crumbs, flour, etc. 

Bice and onions, 69. 

Ground rice creed and mashed potatoes, mixed in equal quan- 
tities and browned before the fire. 

Parsneps and bread, etc., 330. 

Potatoes, carrots, etc., 326, etc. 

Potatoes and parsneps beaten up with a little butter. 

Beet-root, leeks, and parsley, equal quantities of each, stewed 
with butter, may be eaten with potatoes, bread, or boiled rice. 

PotatoeSj Onionsj etc. 

Boil and mash the potatoes ; boil the onions, and pass them 
through a sieve ; mix the whole well in a stew-pan, adding a little 
butter, and serve while hot. 

Potatoes^ Cabbage, etc, 

345. Cabbage, greens, spinach, etc., boiled and chopped fine, 
may be mixed with twice their weight of mashed potatoes ; then 


add a little butter, pepper, and salt, and press the whole into a 
well-buttered basin or mould ; set it in a hot OTen five or six 
minutes, then remove the mould, and serve. 

A boiled onion may be added, and, instead of potatoes, half the 
quantity of boiled carrots, turnips, beet- root, or Jerusalem arti- 
chokes may be used. Cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and other 
greens should have the water well pressed from them before they 
are added. 

CarroUt Turnips, Cauliflowers, etc, 

346. Carrots, turnips, cauliflowers, sea-kale, kidney-beans, 
etc., after being boiled, may be cut in lengths of two or three 
inches, and arranged edgewise round a plain mould, either in 
layers or after any tasteful manner, the middle and other vacan- 
cies being flUed up with prepared spinach; mashed potatoes,, 
asparagus, mushrooms, etc. Cover the mould, and put it in the 
oven till the contents are quite hot ; turn the mould down to drain 
off the water ; then remove the mould, and serve the vegetables on 
a dish with a good sauce. Hard boiled eggs, chopped and mixed 
with a little cream and butter, may supply the place of some of 
the vegetables. Add such seasoning as may be preferred. 

Caviifiower and Cheese. 

347. Boil a cauliflower till tender ; drain the water well from 
it, and divide it ; lay it in a dish, and pour a quarter of a pint of 
good white sauce over it ; then grate or slice some cheese over it, 
and brown it before the fire or with a salamander. Instead of 
cheese, a few small mushrooms, or very small onions, previously 
boiled, may be put into a saucepan with the, cauliflower and white 
sauce. Serve with toasted sippets. 

(4.) Fabinaceous and Animal Pboducts. 

Bice, cream, milk, etc., 69, 75. 
Bice and cheese, 238. 
Macaroni and cheese, 70, 288. 


Bread crambs, cheese, etc., 234. 
Macaroni, milk, and eggs, 71. 
Flour, butter, eggs, etc., 97, etc. 
Cauliflower and cheese, 247. 
Cheese-cakes, 899. 
Omelets, 408. 
Cheese Mtters, 434. 
Bissoles, 437. 
Pancakes, 438. 
Cheese pudding, 337. 
Potted meat, 296. 
Cheese tumoTers, 233. 

(5.) Animal PBODUcrrs. 

Custards, etc., 355. 

Cheese pudding, 337, ^38. 

Eggs, milk, butter, etc., 237. 

Mulled eggs, ^38. 

Yolk of egg, olive oil, etc., 618. 



248. Puddings are preparations of a soft consistency, and are 
made in great variety by combining froit, grain, flour, roots, eggs, 
milk, and other vegetable and animal products. They are cooked 
by boiling, steaming,* or baking, and may be arranged under the 
following divisions, according to the articles prevalent in their 
composition : — 

1, Fruit Puddings ; 2, Seed or Grain Puddings ; 3, Bread, 
Cake, Muffin, and Biscuit Puddings ; 4, Flour or Batter Pud- 
dings ; 5, Custards, Custard Puddings, and Creams ; 6, Puddings 
made of Tubers and other vegetables ; 7, Puddings, consisting 
of Cheese and other animal products. 

* Steaming Is generally to be preferred to boiling. 


(1.) Fruit Puddings. 

249. The fruits usually put in puddings and pies are rhubarb, 
gooseberries, currants, raspberries, cherries, apples, pears, apri- 
cots, plums, prunes, raisins, cranberries, figs, etc. Two or more 
kinds may be mixed, as apples and cranberries, raspberries and 
currants, rhubarb and gooseberries, etc. 

To prepare Fruit for Puddings and Pies. 

250. Rhubarb^ sometimes called spring fruity if clean and 
tender, need not be peeled, but only cut into pieces about one inch 
long ; if coarse and stringy, remove the peel. 

Apples should be pared,* cored, .and used either whole, cut in 
halves, quarters, or smaller portions ; or chopped fine, grated, or 
reduced to a compote, as may be preferred. When used whole or 
in halves, fill up the space left by coring, with butter, sugar, mar- 
malade, raspberry jam, etc. ; join the halves, enclose the whole 
in creed grain or in paste, put the pudding in a cloth, or, if sur- 
rounded with paste, in a knitted or netted cloth, and boil it from 
forty-five to sixty minutes. 

When apples begin to lose their flavour, add a little lemon 
peel, marmalade, etc. 

Pears should be peeled and cut in slices, and used either alone 
or mixed with apples. Hard pears are best for puddings and 
pies. ' 

Prunes should be scalded and stoned, and the kernels sim- 
mered with the fruit in syrup or cranberry juice over a slow fire 
for about ten minutes ; a little raspberry vinegar or currant juice 
may be added to them. 

Cranberries are sometimes stewed for about twenty minutes 
with a little sugar or fine treacle and a few spoonfuls of water, 
about three ounces of sugar to a pint of fruit. Let them cool pre- 

* An easy way of removing ihe rind from applee or pears is to put them 
into boiling water for a few minutes ; the rind may then easily be separated 
by a knife. 


yiously to using them. Rhubarb, apples, and gooseberries may 
be prepared in the same way. Cranberries may be used with 
apples or with any very sweet jam. 

Black Currants may be used for either puddings or pies ; if 
not quite ripe, stew them with a little water and sugar dming a 
qcarter of an hour. 

Figs should be sliced, covered with milk, and stewed with a 
little butter and sugar. Apples which are rather acid may be 
mixed with them. 

261. Fruit puddings are formed by combining fruit with fari- 
naceous substances after the following methods. 

(a.) Fruit covered or surrounded with creed grain, paste, 
bread, batter, etc. 

(6.) Alternate layers of fruit, creed grain, paste, bread, or 
batter, etc. 

(c.) Fruit, creed grain, bread crumbs, etc., intimately mixed. 

As a general rule, all fruit puddings which are intended for 
substantial support, or as a diet rather than an accompaniment to 
other food, should consist of about equal weights of fruit and 
farinacea, whether they are made of fruit and grain, fruit and 
paste, or fruit and bread. The weight of sugar should be propor- 
tionate to the quantity and condition of the fruit, or the taste of 
those for whom the puddings are provided. The quantity of eggs, 
cream, butter, and flavouring should depend upon such circum- 
stances as health, occupation, the digestive powers, and indivi- 
dual partialities, but it is desirable to guard against compounds 
which are either too rich, too concentrated, or which contain too 
great a variety of articles ; for plain food, when relished, is the 
most wholesome ; and a natural appetite will require few condi- 
ments to excite it. 

Tastes are so different, that some of the puddings made after 
the following receipts may be relished by one person and perhaps 
disliked by another ; it is desirable, therefore, to vary the number 
and quantity of the ingredients till the most approved compound 
has been ascertained, regard being had to the general instructions 
here given. It is usual, in works on cookery, to give a distinct 
appeUation to each pudding, as Prince Albert's pudding, Mont- 


xnorency pndding, etc. ; they are here generally distinguished by 
nnmbers and letters only. , 

Fruit and Grain Puddings. 

252. Put some fruit and a sufficient quantity of sugar in a 
tart-pan or pie-dish, cover it with creed rice (69), to which a little 
sugar and butter have been added, also cinnamon or other con- 
diments or flavouring, when preferred (19). Bake the pudding 
ten minutes or longer, according to its size. Apples, rhubarb, 
gooseberries, and other firm fruit should be previously stewed. 

253. Line a basin or mould with creed rice, put in the fruit, 
then cover it with more rice, and bake as above. 

254. Having stewed some rice till rather soft, add to it butter 
and sugar, in the proportion of one ounce of each to four ounces 
of rice, previously to being cooked ; simmer the whole till dry and 
tender, and before removing it from the fire, mix in a little sugar 
upon which fresh lemon rind has been rubbed, or any other ap- 
proved flavouring. Press the rice while it is hot into a well-but- 
tered mould, make the surface smooth, and let it stand till cold. 
Turn out the rice upon a tin or dish, and upon the top of it mark 
out a circle an inch or more in diameter ; brush clarified butter 
over the whole, and place it in a well-heated oven. When it has 
received a light brown colour, carefully raise the cover previously 
marked ; remove the principal part of the rice from the interior, 
or until it is about one inch thick in all directions ; then fill with 
preserved fruit warmed in its own syrup, or with compotes of 
plums or other fruit, or with stewed apples, etc., to which the 
requisite quantity of sugar and flavouring has been added. 

Instead of rice, any other creed grain may be employed, or a 
combination of two or more of them. Unless the rice be cooked 
slowly, and till very dry, it will not answer the above purpose. 

255. Apples or other fruit eight ounces, Scotch barley stewed 
two hours eight ounces, sago two ounces half cooked, sugar 
six ounces. Bake. 

256. Apples six ounces, pearl barley four ounces, whites of 
eggs three, sugar two to three ounces, salt half a tea-spoonful. 
BaJie one hour, in a pie-dish, in a hot oven. 


267. Pare and core some apples, and fill the caYities with 
raspberry or strawberry jam or marmalade ; border a dish with 
paste, put in the apples, leaving a little space between them, and 
fill it np with creed lice ; sift sugar over, and bake one hour at a 
tolerable heat. 

358. Wash four ounces of rice, tie it rather loosely in a cloth 
with eight ounces of stoned raisins ; boil two hours, and serre 
with sweet sauce. It may also be boiled in a mould. 

Fruit and Paste Puddings, 

259. Pare and core some good baking apples, without dividing 
them ; fill up the space made by coring with sugar and lemon- 
peel ; cover each apple with a thin paste (150, 151), and boil it 
in a cloth or cup, or bake it thirty or forty minutes. Serve with 
butter and sugar, or pour custard over each. 

260. Butter a basin, or dredge it with flour ; line it evenly 
with a good paste, about a quarter of an inch thick ; .then put in 
the fruit with sugar and a little water ; cut off the paste close to 
the edge of the basin, cover the top with paste extending a little 
over the mouth of the basin, and press it well round and oyer the 
rim, to keep in the syrup. Have ready a well-scalded cloth, lay 
it over the top of the basin, and tie it closely round the bottom ; 
then put the pudding in boiling water, or in a steamer, for an hour 
or an hour and a half. 

261. Boll out the paste a quarter of an inch thick ; lay the 
fruit, sugar, etc., upon it ; draw the extremities of the paste over 
the fruit'to a centre, closing it well togetha*. Boil the pudding 
in a knitted or closely netted cloth. If a pudding-cloth be used, 
dip it in hot water, wring it and shake it well, butter it, or dredge 
it with flour, tie it closely round the pudding, and boil or steam 
the pudding, as above. 

Bipe cherries, currants, raspberries, plums, etc., will not re- 
quire so long boiling, nor so much sugar as apples, rhubarb, etc. 

Some apples may require to be previously stewed with a very 
little water, till about half done, and evenly softened by occa- 
sional turning ; drain the water from them, put them in a basin 
to cool, and stir in a little sugar ; then proceed as above. 


' When the pndding has been sufficiently cooked, turn it gently 
out of the cloth upon a dish. It may be eaten irith melted batter 
and sugar or other sweet sauce. 

Some recommend that after the pudding has been put upon the 
dish, an opening should be made at the top of the paste to pre- 
vent it becoming sad, and then stir in a little butter, sugar, and 
condiments, or flayouring, when desired ; but Soteb says that 
making an opening to put in the sugar spoils the flavour, and 
makes the pudding heavy. 

This kind of pudding is frequently termed ** dumpling,'' and 
when it is well prepared with light pastry (150» 151), it is a judi- 
cious combination of fruit and farinacea, and is wholesome, nu- 
tritious, and economical. Dr. Johnson said he knew a clergyman 
of small income, who brought up a family very reputably, which 
he chiefly fed on apple-dumplings. Pudding-cloths should be laid 
in hot water as soon as removed, well washed, and quickly dried 
in the open air, then folded, and kept clean. 

262. Stewed fruit, jams, marmalade, currants, chopped raisii^, 
or treacle, etc., may be spread upon a light paste, then rolled up 
and boiled in a cloth. Boll out the paste thin, and cut it eight or 
ten inches broad, and as long as convenient. Spread upon it a 
thick layer of fruit, leaving an inch at each end free from fruit ; 
roll it up and twist the ends ; wrap it in a floured cloth, or put 
it in a net, and boil it an hour or an hour and a half according 
to size. 

These are sometimes called *'roly poly puddings." 

268. Line a buttered basin with paste, put in a layer of fruit 
and sugar, then one of paste ; repeat the alternate layers of fruit 
and paste till the basin is full; cover the top with paste, then boil 
or steam the pudding, and when ready, turn it out of the basin 
upon a dish. 

Fruit and Bread Puddings, 

264. Gut twelve ounces of bread into slices a quarter of an 
inch thick ; toast them, and then soak them in boiling water or 
milk ten minutes ; place some of the slices at the bottom of a dish ; 

L 2 


fill the dish with rhubarb, apples, or other fruit, properly prepared, 
and add the requisite quantity of sugar ; place the other slices of 
bread at the top, then bake at a moderate heat. 

365. Butter a mould or dish, and strew it thickly with bruised 
sugar ; lay round the inside of the mould long slices of bread, 
the slices overlapping each other ; put in apples pared, cored, and 
sliced very thin ; add also sugar, grated lemon-peel, and orange 
marmalade ; cover the fruit with slices of bread, and bake at a 
tolerably good heat. 

266. line a basin with bread and butter, then add a layer of 
fruit and sugar, another layer of bread and butter, fruit, etc., till 
the basin is full ; pour a little water or milk over the whole, cover 
with a cloth, and boil an hour. Bread crumbs maybe used instead 
of bread and butter. 

267. Butter a dish ; put in ten ounces of cut apples or other 
fruit, with an ounce and a half of sugar, and two table-spoonfuls 
of water if required, and cover the fruit with six ounces of bread 
crumbs ; upon these put another layer of fruit, sugar, and water, 
and cover smoothly with six ounces more of bread crumbs ; sift 
sugar over, and bake about forty-five minutes at a moderate heat. 
It is advisable to cover the pudding with a plate or dish till about 
half cooked, to prevent the top from becoming too hard and dry. 

Oreed grain, or biscuit, or tea-cake in crumbs, or mashed 
potatoes, macaroni, sago, etc., may be used instead of the bread 

268. Crumb of a light stale loaf grated small six ounces, 
pounded sugar seven ounces, salt a quarter of a tea-spoonfdl, 
good baking apples pared, quartered, and cored, twenty ounces ; 
juice and grated rind of a lemon. 

Mix the bread crumbs, salt, and three ounces of the sugar well 
together ; arrange the apples in close layers in a deep pie-dish 
which will hold about a pint and a half; strew amongst them the 
remaining four ounces of sugar, lemon rind and juice ; sprinkle 
the bread crumbs Ughtly and evenly over the fruit, pressing them 
gently down upon it ; sift powdered sugar over, wipe the edge of 
the dish, and bake the pudding in a rather quick oven about forty- 
five minutes or longer. 


Onimbs of bread may also be strewed between the layers of fruit. 

269. Good sized apples six or about a pound and a half, 
butter three ounces, sugar four ounces, eggs two, bread crumbs or 
biscuit grated six ounces. 

Boil the apples as for sauce, stir in the butter and sugar, and 
when rather cool add the eggs well beaten. Butter a pudding- 
dish cold J strew a layer of bread crumbs to the thickness of an 
inch at the bottom of the dish, and as many as will adhere to the 
sides ; pour in the mixture, strew crumbs over, and bake. When 
baked, turn the pudding out, and sift sugar over it. 

If the juice and grated rind of a lemon be added, a little more 
sugar will be required. The yolks of two more eggs may likewise 
be added. 

Other fruits may be substituted for the apples. Instead of 
strewing the six ounces of bread crumbs in the dish, stir two 
ounces only to the fruit, sugar, etc. ; butter a dish, and line it with 
paste, leaving a sqaall hole in the centre that the juice may escape 
through it and thus add a rich flavour to the paste. The pudding 
may be turned out of the dish, and served either hot or cold, with 
or without custard or sugar over it. 

This pudding may also be boiled in a cloth. 

370. Stew a pound and a half of ripe red gooseberries in a 
jar put in the oven, or in a saucepan of water, until they will 
pulp ; take a pint of the juice after being passed through a coarse 
sieve ; add three eggs well beaten, an ounce and a half of butter, 
some sugar and crumbs of bread or Naples biscuits ; mix the 
whole well, and bake as above. 

271. Apples grated or green gooseberries stewed and pulped 
through a coarse sieve four ounces, bread crumbs three ounces, 
sugar two ounces, one egg, butter two ounces, milk two table- 
spoonfuls, a little juice and grated peel of lemon. Mix the ingre* 
dients well together, pour the mixture into a buttered mould or 
basin, and boil the pudding in a steamer for nearly an hour, or 
bake it in an oven. When ready, pour over it a little arrowroot 
sauce with or without sherry wine. This pudding is palatable 
and nutritious, and may be varied according to taste by altering 
the proportions of bread crumbs, eggs, etc. 


272. Apples chopped small eight ounces, bread crumbs eight 
onnces, currants eight ounces, sugar six ounces, eggs fire weQ 

Or, apples eight ounces, bread crumbs four to eight ounces, 
currants and raisins two ounces each, sugar four to six ounces, 
eggs four or fire, rind of a lemon grated or pared quite thin and 
chopped small. 

' Peel, core, and chop the apples small ; add the bread crumbs, 
currants, raisins, sugar, and lemon peel; then the eggs well 
beaten. Boil the pudding three hours in a buttered mould or 
basin or cloth, and serve with sweet sauce, or bake it at a moderate 
heat. This has been called Eve^s pudding. Other froit may be 
substituted for the apples, and from four to six ounces of bntt^ 
may be added. 

273. Spread stewed fruit, jams, or chopped raisins, etc., be- 
tween slices of bread in a mould, then pour over the whole warm 
milk mixed with well-beaten eggs ; cover the mould with a cloth, 
and boil the pudding twenty minutes. 

274. Large apples four, sago five ounces, sugar and lemon 
flavour according to taste. Prepare the apples as for apple sauce; 
boil the sago in a small quantity of water; add the apples, sugar, 
and flavour, and bake in a pie-dish. 

5S75. Bed currants and raspberries mixed two pounds, sugar 
one pound. Mix the fruit and sugar, then fill a pudding-dish with 
alternate layers of fruit and slices of bread without crust, leaving 
a thick layer of fruit at the top. Bake the pudding nearly an 

276. Minced apples eight ounces, mashed potatoes four ounces, 
sugar four ounces, eggs four beaten and strained, a little lemon 
peel or nutmeg. Be^e thirty minutes. 

277. Figs eight ounces, sugar four ounces, grated bread eight 
ounces, butter four ounces, eggs two, candied lemon one ounce, 
seasoning to taste. Beat the eggs, cut the figs into small pieces 
and steep as at 250 ; mix all the ingredients together, and steam 
or boil the pudding one hour in a basin or mould. 

278. Wheat-meal and Indian meal two handfhls each, crumb 
of bread two ounces, apples four chopped small, currants washed 


and picked four ounces, raisins stoned four oxmces, sugar two 
ounces, candied lemon one ounce, the peel of a lemon and a little 
nutmeg grated. Mix all well together with a very small quantity 
of water ; put the mixture in a basin, moxdd, or cloth tied close, 
and boil the pudding two or three hours. 

Fruit and Batter Puddings. 

279. Pare and core six good baking apples; fill the cavity 
of each with sugar; place the apples in a buttered pie-dish, 
and pour over them a nice light batter, and bake at a moderate 

280. Cut four or five apples in halves, remove the cores but 
not the skin. Beat two eggs and add them to a cupful of flour, 
mixed smooth with a pint of milk ; pour the batter into a well 
buttered dish or tin ; lay the apples in it rind uppermost, scatter 
a few pieces of butter over them and a little nutmeg or other 
seasoning when preferred. Bake one hour in a moderately heated 
oven, and serve with pounded sugar sprinkled over. 

281. Nearly fill a well-buttered pie-dish, basin, or mould with 
fruit ; cover it with a light batter, and bake. Or, put in first a 
layer of batter, and place it in the oven till the batter is sufficiently 
set; then add a layer of fruit, etc., finishing with a layer of 
batter. The sugar necessary should be added after baking; if 
added sooner it will render the pudding heavy. 

282. Damsons, currants, gooseberries, rhubarb, or cut apples, 
etc., eight ounces ; flour eight ounces, milk one pint, yolks of eggs 
four, whites two, baking powder half a tea-spoonfal, salt one tea- 
spoonful. Bub the baking powder till smooth, and mix it well 
with the flour ; add the salt, and as much milk as will make a 
stiff batter ; beat it till quite smooth, then add the eggs well 
beaten and the remainder of the milk. Put the fruit in a but-, 
tered dish, pour the batter over it, or stir the fruit into the batter, 
and bake at a moderate heat ; or boil it in a cloth an hour and a 
half, or in a mould fifteen minutes longer. Serve the pudding 
with sugar, melted butter, and lemon juice. 

283. fW a mould or basin that will hold a pint and a half 


^th frnit ; then pour in a batter made with four table- spoonfuls 
of flour, two or three eggs, and half a pint of milk. Tie a but- 
tered or floured cloth over, and boil the pudding an hour and a 

Apples pared, cored, halved, and mixed with a good batter, 
make an excellent pudding for baking ; also red currants, cherries, 
and plums of various sorts. 

284. Lay in a rather deep pie-dish some thin slices of French 
roll or light bread, spread with butter and covered with a thick 
layer of mince-meat (382 to 384) ; place a second layer lightly 
upon these, covered also with mince-meat ; then pour in gently a 
custard made with three well-beaten eggs, three-quarters of a pint 
of new milk or thin cream, a very small portion of salt, and two 
ounces of sugar. Let the pudding stand to soak for an hour, then 
bake it gently for nearly an hour, or until it is quite Arm in the 

285. Apples grated eight ounces, sugar eight ounces, butter 
six ounces, eggs six, rind and juice of a lemon. Eub the lemon 
rind on the sugar, mix the whole well, and bake the pudding 
quickly. Eat it while warm, as pudding ; or when cold, as cheese- 

286. Peel and cut some apples, as for a tart ; All a dish three 
parts full, shake powdered sugar over the apples, cover them with 
apricot jam, then with butter. Mix three table-spoonfuls of 
arrowroot with a pint of new milk, a little cream, sugar, and 
butter ; stir it over the fire till it boils ; if too thick, add a little 
more milk ; it should be just thick enough to run smoothly ; pour 
it over the apples, and let the whole stand till quite cold ; then 
bake at a moderate heat for an hour and a half, or half this time 
for a small pudding. 

287. Vegetable-marrows one or two, pared, and sliced very 
thin ; add a little cream, and put them into the oven till softened ; 
remove them, and when cold add from two to four well-beaten 
eggs ; add also some new milk, sugar, nutmeg, and a little butter. 
BaJ^e twenty minutes. Two table- spoQufuls of fine bread crumbs 
may be added. 

888. Yegetable-marrow or cucumber one middle-sized one, 


eggs three, bread cmmbs one table-spoonfal, parsley and leeks 
mixed a quarter of an ounce. Half boil the marrow, peel and 
cut it in pieces, removing the seeds and pulp, put it in a flat 
dish with a little butter melted, season with pepper and salt, and 
bake about twenty minutes at a tolerable heat. Beat the eggs 
well, add the bread crumbs, parsley, and leeks ; pour them over 
the marrow, let it remain in the oven till well browned, and serve 
with brown sauce. 

289. Yegetable-marrow one middle-sized one, meal or flour 
three ounces, cold boiled rice three ounces, sugar four ounces, 
grated peel of half a lemon, a few currants, and sufficient water to 
make the whole into a batter. Cook the marrow as above, then 
mix, and bake one hour and a quarter slowly. 

200. Bice half an ounce, milk half a pint, a little butter, sugar, 
cinnamon, and salt ; one middle-sized apple, peeled, cored, and 
sliced; one egg. Boil the rice in the milk till soft; stew the 
apple with a little sugar and butter, and a spoonful of water, till 
tender. Put the apple in a small tart-dish, mix the egg with the 
rice, pour it over the apple, and bake ten minutes. 

Grain or Seed Puddings. 

291. The seeds of the gramineae and leguminosas, when 
boiled or creed in water or milk (69), may be made into puddings, 
by adding a little more water or milk, sugar, and a few grains of 
salt. The whole may be put into a well-buttered dish, and baked 
at a moderate heat, or into a basin or mould, and boiled with a 
cloth tied firmly over it. The ingredients may also be mixed to- 
gether, and placed in an oven without previously creeing the grain, 
but to cree it first is preferable. 

When milk and eggs are scarce, wash and pick the grain well, 
put it in a saucepan with as much water as it will absorb ; add a 
little salt, and boil gently till the grain is tender and the water 
absorbed ; then add currants or raisins, well washed and picked ; 
put the whole in a buttered basin, cover it with a cloth, and let it 
boil an hour. Sliced apples, etc., may be used instead of currants 
or raisins. 


392. Sago, tapioca, and aU kindB of seeds should be washed 
and soaked in water an hour or more before they are made into 
puddings, in order to remove earthy and other unpleasant flayoum. 

Half a pound of rioe may require two quarts of milk ; barley 
will require more. 

These puddings may be enriched and flavoured by adding 
butter, cream, eggs, cinnamon, nutmeg, lemon-peel, etc. 

The eggs should be well beaten, and added to the other ingre- 
dients, when the latter are rather cool ; but eggs are seldom re- 
quired for rice or other seed puddings. 

These puddings may also be varied by adding currants, raisins, 
apples pared, cored, and quartered, or chopped small ; or, for a 
savoury pudding, onions chopped small, sage, marjoram, etc. 

Two or more of the creed grains may be mixed together with 
advantage, as two parts rioe, and one part Scotch barley ; two 
parts rice, and one part split lentils, etc. 

Barley should be creed longer than the rice ; any of the creed 
grains. may be mixed with soaked bread, bread-crumbs, etc. 

Puddings require nearly twice as long b<»ling as baking. 

Rice Pudding. 

293. Proceed according to the general directions (291). 

294. Or, simmer two large table-spoonfuls of rice in half a 
pint of milk till thick ; add an ounce or two of butter, and nearly 
half a pint of cream ; give it one boil, and when cold add four 
yolks and two whites of eggs well beaten ; also sugar, nutmeg, 
grated lemon-peel, cinnamon, or other flavouring, if desired. 

Butter some small cups, fill them three-parts fall, placing at 
the bottom citron, orange marmalade, etc. Bake three-quarters 
of an hour, at a gentle heat. Serve with sweet sauce, 

296. Bice four ounces, new milk a pint and a half, butter two 
ounces, sugar three ounces, eggs four, rind of half a lemon. 

Wash the rice, then stew it slowly in the milk till quite tender; 
before taking it from the fire, stir in the butter and sugar, and 
when nearly cold add the whisked eggs and the lemon-peeL 
Bake in a gentle oven thirty or forty minutes. 


The rice may be partially stewed in water, then in a pint of 
milk and a little cream. The eggs and lemon-rind may be omitted 
for a good plain padding. 

PotUd Meat, 

296. Bice four omices, butter three onnces, yolks of eggs 
three, bread crumbs three ounces, potatoes, boiled, dried, and 
mashed, two ounces. Mix the rice and other ingredients well to- 
gether, adding also a little pepper, salt, and mace. Put the mix- 
ture down in a pot, and pour clarified butter over it. 

Rice and Tapioca, 

297. Bice two table-spoonfuls creed in water, add a little 
salt, and set it by the fire till the rice is quite soft and dry. Put 
it in a bowl, add two ounces of butter, four table-spoonfols of 
tapioca previously washed, milk a pint and a half, a little grated 
nutmeg,^ sugar to taste, and two eggs well beaten. Stir all to- 
gether ; then put the mixture in a buttered dish, and bake one 

Rice and Onions. 

298. Bice four ounces, one middle-sized onion. Oree the rice 
in water, add a little butter, pepper, etc. Boil the onion till tender, 
chop it fine, and mix it well with the rice ; put the whole in a dish, 
and bake. See 70 g. 

Rice and Split Lentils^ or Peas, etc, 

299. Take of each two table-spoonfols, milk three-quarters of 
a pint, sugar one ounce, almond flavour two or three drops. Cree 
the rice and lentils in milk or water twenty minutes, add the 
sugar, milk, etc., and bake twenty minutes. Some will prefer 
one-third split lentils with two-thirds rice. 


Pearl Barley. 

300. Pearl barley four ounces, sugar two to three onnces, 
salt half a tea-spoonful, milk two pints. Soak the barley for a 
few hours in cold water ; pour off the water, add the sagar and 
milk, and let the whole simmer gently for two or three hours ; 
then bake at a gentle heat. If a richer pudding be required, 
remove it from the oven when nearly cooked enough; •stir in 
butter one to two ounces, eggs two or three ; return it to the oven 
till sufficiently baked. 

For a savoury pudding, use water instead of milk, and onion 
one or two ounces, powdered sage half a tea-spoonfcil, marjoram 
one quarter of a tea-spoonful, butter one ounce, and leave out the 

Sago Pudding, 

301. Sago four ounces, eggs two to our, sugar two or three 
ounces, butter two ounces, milk a pint and a half. 

Simmer the sago in the milk till it thickens, with a little 
broken cinnamon and lemon peel in a muslin bag. Put a border 
of thin puff paste round a pudding dish ; remove the spice bag 
from the sago, stir in the sugar and butter, and when nearly cold 
stir in the eggs, previously beaten and strained ; mix the whole 
well, and bake at a gentle heat tiU the pudding is set. If too 
much heat be used the whey will be separated (341). Nutmeg or 
other seasoning may be sprinkled over the pudding before it is 
baked. Instead of being baked it may be boiled in a battered 
basin or mould an hour and a half. 

Peas Pudding. 

302. Boil the peas, whole or split, in a cloth loosely tied, two 
or three hours, or till they are soft; then pulp them through a 
sieve ; add salt, pepper, butter, and some well-boiled potatoes, 
also passed through a sieve ; mix them all well together, tie them 
up firmly in a cloth, and boil them half an hour ; then serve the 
pudding with melted butter. 


Instead of potatoes, creed rice, whole or ground, may be used ; 
some also add eggs well beaten. See 74 c. 

Haricot Bean Pudding. 

303. Haricot beans half a pint, bread cmmbs two table- 
spoonfuls, eggs four, parsley half an ounce, milk half a tea-cupful, 
oliye oil one table-spoonfal, or butter two ounces ; a little cream 
would be an improvement. Steep the beans in cold water several 
hours, put them in cold water and boil them till quite soft ; mash 
them with milk, and rub them through a fine colander ; add the 
bread crumbs, parsley chopped fine, eggs well beaten, olive oil or 
butter, salt and pepper. Bake the whole in a buttered dish, and 
•serve with brown sauce. 

Hominy Pudding. 

304. Hominy four ounces, milk a pint and a quarter, eggs 
three, sugar two to four ounces ; steep the hominy twelve hours 
in half the milk; add the remaining milk and the eggs well 
beaten, a little cinnamon, and three drops of almond flavour. 
Bake in a moderate oven. 

Or, having washed and steeped the hominy, boil it till quite 
soft ; add the sugar and seasonings when used, and when nearly 
cold add the beaten eggs ; then bake. 

Mannacroup may be used in the same way. 

Puddings Made op Ground Grain, etc. 

305. Puddings of this kind may consist of paste, bread, cake, 
muffin, biscuit, etc., either in slices or crumbs ; also of wheat- 
meal or flour, oatmeal, barley-meal, hominy, ground rice, 
vermicelli, macaroni, roots, or tubers, sago, tapioca, arrow- 
root, etc. 

These puddings may be arranged in two divisions. 
1st. Those which are of a rather firm consistency, as paste pud- 
dings or dumplings, bread puddings, plum puddings, etc. 


2nd. Those which are cooked in a fluid or Bemi-flnid state, 
generally called floor or batter paddings, custard pnddings, etc. 

Paste Puddings or Dumplings, 

306. Flour one pound, baking powder a quarter of an ounce, 
batter one ounce, salt a tea-spoonful. Mix with cold water to a 
stiff paste. 

Or, take one pound of bread dough (better when made with 
milk), divide it into six equal portions, mould it into domplings, 
and drop them into fast boiling water ; boil them from twelye to 
fifteen minutes. Serve immediately, with melted batter, sugar, 
and vinegar or verjuice, or with boiled treacle. They shoold not 
be cut with a knife, but torn asunder, and it is advisable to do 
this before they are served, or they may be rendered sad by their 
own steam. Push a fork into the dumpling, and if, when with- 
drawn, it is free from paste, the dumpling has been sufficiently 

A little butter, one and a half ounces to the pound of flour, may 
be added to the dough, also a few currants if preferred. 

Bread Puddings. 

S07. These may be prepared in various ways. 

1. Bolls or thick portions of bread and cake may be saturated 
with a pudding mixture. 

2. Slips or slices of bread, cake, or muffin, plain or buttered, 
may be laid in a plain mould, and covered with a pudding mixture. 

3. Bread crumbs and other ingredients may be mixed well 
together, and boiled in a cloth ; or baked or steamed in a dish, 
mould, or in cups. 

Bread puddings are very good without eggs, but in that case 
no more milk should be used than is just sufficient to mix the 
other ingredients, and the pudding should be boiled long and 
quickly — ^from three to five hours, or more. 

To mix the ingredients, see 83, and respecting the pouring of 
hot fluids over bread, see 21. 


A few spoonfols of fresh small beer, or one of yeast, or a very 
little baking powder, may be used to render a pudding light, 
instead of eggs. A little ground rice, or a mealy potato, grated 
whUe hot, and beaten well with a spoonful of milk, will also make 
it lighter. 

Bread paddings are also lighter and moister when closely tied 
in stout cloths well floured than when boiled in moulds ; a plate 
or dish placed under them will prevent them adhering to the 

808. Upon a baker's roll, cake, or portion of bread of conve- 
nient form, weighing about eight ounces, repeatedly pour a mix- 
ture consisting of a pint of milk, or milk and cream, and from one 
to four eggs ; or, one egg, flour two tea-spoonfuls, brown sugar 
three tea- spoonfuls, milk one pint, salt a little. Bepeat the 
pouring till the whole fluid has been absorbed by the bread ; then 
steam it on a plate till quite hot through. Serve with sweet 
sauce. A little powdered cinnamon may be sprinkled on the top ; 
or it may be covered with marmalade or finely chopped almonds. 
Or blanched almonds may be stuck in, and a rich custard poured 
over it. 

809. Thickly butter a plain mould or basin ; arrange raisins, 
currants, or dried cherries, after any pattern, at the bottom and 
sides of the mould ; lay slips or narrow slices of cakes, muffins, 
sponge cakes, ratafia, macaroons, or other sweet cakes, or a 
mixture^ them, in the mould, till about three-quarters fuQ ; pour 
over them milk, or milk and cream mixed, or a custard mixture 
(345). A few more raisins or currants may also be put between 
the layers. Lay buttered writing paper, and a floured cloth over ; 
then boil the pudding half an hour, or steam it forty-five minutes. 

The mixture should be poured on gradually, allowing the bread 
to absorb one portion before another is added. If baked, the 
bread should soak two hours before the pudding is put in the oven, 
which should be at a moderate heat. 

810. line a plain buttered mould or basin with slices of 
cold plum-pudding, join and press them well, then nearly fill 
the mould with a custard mixture as above ; cover the top with 
slices of pudding, or with a buttered paper and floured doth. 


Bake from thirty to sixty minutes, or tie it secnrely, and boil or 
steam it. 

311. Cover the bottom of a deep pie-dish with thin slices 
of bread baked the previous day ; put upon them small portions 
of preserres at short distances ; cover these with thin slices of 
bread, and repeat the alternate layers of fruit and bread till the 
dish is three-parts full ; then pour a custard over, and let it remain 
till next day. It requires no heat, and should be eaten cold. The 
custard may be made thus : boil a pint of new milk, to which two 
ounces of sugar, two bay leaves, and a little cinnamon have been 
added ; beat up the yolks of two eggs, and add them to the milk 
by degrees ; then put it on the fire, and stir it till thick, but do not 
permit it to boil ; while it is hot, pour it over the pudding ; cover 
it immediately, and let it remain till next day ; then turn it oat on 
a dish, and beat up the whites of the two eggs to a froth, and put 
it lightly on the pudding. 

312. Bread, toast, or bread and butter sixteen ounces, sugar 
four ounces, currants two to eight ounces, butter two ounces, eggs 
three. Soak the bread in cold milk or cold water for an hour or 
two (21), putting a plate uppn it to keep it under the fluid, o^ 
which there should be little more than sufficient to cover the 
bread ; if water be used, press the bread, after soaking in a 
colander, to remove all the water from it ; return it to the pan, add 
a dessert-spoonful of flour, and the other ingredients. Mix the 
whole well with a wooden spoon, and bake in a buttered dish an 
hour and a half or two hours. Half the peel of a fresh lemon 
may be grated and added, a little ginger or other seasoning; 
treacle may be substituted for sugar. 

313. (a.) Bread crumbs four ounces, sugar two to four ounces, 
butter two to four ounces, eggs two to four, milk one pint. Boil 
the milk and with it the bread crumbs, or pour the boiling milk 
over the crumbs, and when well soaked add the other ingredients; 
line a dish with paste, cover the bottom with preserve or manna- 
lade, pour in the mixture, and bake one hour. The milk may be 
flavoured with bay leaves or lemon rind, etc. 

(b.) Bread crumbs four ounces, sugar two to four ounces, butter 
two to four ounces, eggs two to four, cream or milk one-eighth to 


half a pint, currants and raisins four onnces each, picked, stoned, 
and cleaned. Soak the bread crumbs, beat and strain the eggs, 
to which add the milk gradually, then mix and beat all well toge- 
ther, and bake or steam the pudding in a dish, or in cups three 
parts ftill ; or steam or boil it in a cloth, or in a mould with a cloth 
over it, from two to four hours, according to the size. The mould 
may be buttered and stuck round with raisins. The mixture may 
also be fried. Two ounces of flour or of ground rice or sago may 
be substituted for two ounces of the bread crumbs ; savoy biscuit 
or other Hght cake may supply the place of bread. The currants 
and raisins may be omitted, and the rind and juice of a quarter of 
a lemon added, but for a plum pudding they should be retained ; 
some add cinnamon, mace, nutmeg, or other seasoning. A table- 
spoonfol of treacle will give' the pudding a rich brown colour. 
Serve with custard, cream sauce, or sweet sauce. 

314. Bread crumbs four ounces, sago two ounces, milk one 
pint, sugar two ounces, eggs two, lemon rind finely minced, and a 
little of the juice. Boil half the milk, and pour it over the bread 
crumbs, wash the sago in two waters, mix it with the remainder 
of the milk cold, beat the eggs, then mix the whole, and beat it ; 
butter a mould, and bake twenty minutes, or steam it one hour. 
Pour tapioca or arrowroot sauce over it, and serve. 

Semolina Pudding, 

816. Semolina four ounces, milk one pint and a half, sugar 
three ounces, butter two ounces, salt a Uttle, yolks of eggs four, 
whites three, well beaten. Some add the thin rind of half a lemon 
infused in the milk, and two or three bitter almonds. Mix (81 g). 
When the mixture is nearly cold, pour it gently into a buttered 
dish or mould prepared as for gdteau de Hz (117), and bake from 
three quarters of an hour to an hour or more in a very gentle 
oven. Mannacroup and hominy may be prepared in the same 
way. Hominy should be previously steeped. 


Vermicelli Pudding, 

816. Vennicelli four ounces, milk one pint, half a pint of 
cream may also be added, sugar three ounces, yolks of eggs four, 
butter one ounce. Boil the vermicelli in the milk with a little 
cinnamon ; when rather thick, pour it into a basin, and stir in the 
butter, sugar, and cream ; when cool, add the yolks of eggs pre- 
Tiously well beaten ; bake the pudding in a buttered dish, with or 
without an edging of paste, or steam it one hour in a basin or 
mould. Apples pared, cored, and quartered, or other fruit, may 
be added before the pudding is put in the oven. 

Macaroni Pudding, 

317. Macaroni four ounces, milk one pint, cream a quarter of 
a pint, eggs four, sugar four ounces. 

318.- Or, macaroni four ounces, cream a quarter of a pint, 
eggs three yolks, one white, a little pepper and salt, grated cheese 
three spoonfuls. Boil the macaroni till nearly tender, then steam 
the whole in a pudding mould one hour. 

• Tapioca Pudding, 

319. Tapioca two ounces, eggs three and two yolks, butter one 
ounce, sugar to taste, and a little nutmeg, nulk one pint. Pound 
the tapioca in a mortat, and simmer it gently in the milk ; whiak 
the eggs to a froth ; add to them the butter, sugar, and nutmeg ; 
mix them with the tapioca while hot, and bake in a dish. 

320. Or, tapioca one table-spoonful, bread crumbs-eight ounces, 
onions one ounce, sage half a table-spoonful. Boil the tapioca in 
rather less than half a pint of water till dissolred; stir in 
the other ingredients with a Uttle pepper and salt, and bake the 
whole in a buttered dish. The onions should be previously 

Forcemeat Pudding, 

321. Bread crumbs four ounces, one eggt butter one onnce^ 
parsley a dessert-spoonful, a little cream, pepper salt, nutmeg, 


'and of sweet marjoram, winter sayory* and lemon thyme mixed, a 
quarter of an ounce, or the same quantity of lemon rind. 
. 322. Bread crumbs eight ounces, flour a dessert-spoonful, beet 
one ounce, minced leeks, onions, or> shallots, a quarter to half 
an ounce, eggs four to'^sizj' butter two to three ounces, and the 
•otlier:: ingredients- asf' above; thict- cream will well siippfy the 
place of both butter and eggs ; an ounce of tapioca may also be 
added as sauce. Mix all the ingredients well together by any ap- 
proved method, or rub the butter and flour into the bread crumbs ; 
add the chopped herbs, etc.; mix all together with two beaten 
eggs, or with the cream; dissolve some butter in a tin; put in the 
forcemeat, and bake before the fire, or in a Dutch oven, occasion- 
ally 'adding a little butter. When brown on one side, turn it over, 
and when sufficiently done, serve with brown sauce. Or roll the 
mixture into rather small balltf, and lay them in a pie-dish; steep 
the tapioca ten minutes in half a pint of water; pour it over the 
balls, add three eggs, boiled hard and cut into small pieces ; cover 
with paste, and bake. It may be eaten either hot or cold: • The 
mixture may also be fried as fritters, or made into small balls, 
rolled in egg and bread crumbs, and fried or baked in the oven 
till crisp and brown. Serve with brown sauce, and eat them with 
potatoes and currant jelly or gooseberry solid. 

See Bissoles, 437. - ' 

828. Bread crumbs one breakfast-cupful, eggs two, one middle- 
sized onion boiled and shred fine, - parsley shred fine one tea- 
< spoonful, a > little butter, and sufficient (iream to make alight 
mixture, pepper and salt ' a little of each. ' Beat the eggs, then 
■ mix all .weUvtoget&er;' butter some cups, into which pour the 
mixture till they are nearly three quarters filled ; bake the pud- 
dings slowly for about twenty minutes. Serve with brown sauce. 
This pudding is usually very much relished. 

Puddings Made with Roots, Tubers, etc. 

824. Potatoes boiled and mashed eight ounces, eggs one to 
four, sugar one to three ounces, butter one- or two ounces, lemon 
rind a quarter to half an ounce, salt a few grains. Mix all the 

M 2 


ingredients well together, and bake them in a dish. A qnaiier of 
a pint of milk may he added if requisite, and one ounce of grated 
cheese, with a little pepper or other seasoning, instead of 
the sugar and lemon rind. This pudding may be eaten as cake 
when cold ; the mixture may also be fried as fritters, 

826. Potatoes boiled and mashed two ounces, batter two 
ounces, eggs two, cream a quarter of a pint, salt very little, and 
sugar to taste. Beat all to a froth, and bake with or withoat a 
crust. Some add to the ingredients a table- spoonful of white wine. 

326. Potatoes four ounces, carrots four ounces, bread crambB 
or flour, etc., four ounces, sugar one to four ounces, butter two to 
four ounces, currants or raisins four to eight ounces, lemon zind 
two ounces, nutmeg and cinnamon together half an ounce. Wash 
the potatoes and carrots, grate them, and mix their pulp and the 
other ingredients well together ; put the mixture into a mould or 
basin, and boil or steam the pudding three hours or more. A large 
spoonful of treacle may be added to the mixture. 

827. Carrots four ounces, bread crumbs four ounces, eggs one 
to tliree, sugar one to four ounces, butter one to four ounces ; milk 
one quarter to three quarters of a pint. Mix well and bake. 

328. Potatoes four ounces, carrots two ounces, bread crumbs 
four ounces, sugar two ounces, butter two ounces, currants or 
raisins six ounces. 

329. Mashed potatoes four ounces, boHed carrots two ounces, 
flour four ounces, currants and raisins four ounces of each, sugar 
three ounces, butter two oupces, a little nutmeg, and a very little 
salt. Bruise and beat the carrots to a paste, mix the whole weQ, 
and boil it in a cloth from two to four hours. One egg would 
improve it. 

330. Parsneps boiled, and the water squeezed from them, four 
ounces, yolks of eggs two, bread crumbs four ounces, a Uttle cream. 
Mash the parsneps well, and add the other ingredients. Make the 
mixture sweet or savoury, as may be desired ; beat the whole well 
together ; line a dish with paste, and bake in a moderate oven. 
Creed rice or rice flour may also be added. 

Parsneps and potatoes, or parsneps, beans, and rice, may be . 
Tued in the same way. 


831. Onions two to six ounces, bread crumbs eight otmces, 
bntter one or two ounces, sage one tea-spoonfol, thyme half a tea* 
Bpoonfal, pepper and salt a little of each. 

Peel and boil the onions, chop them small, mix them with the 
other ingredients, and boil the pudding in a basin ; or, bake it in 
a dish lined with paste. Two eggs, and three quarters of a pint 
of milk may be added to the mixture. 

Four ounces of boiled rice or boiled potatoes maybe substituted 
for four ounces of the bread crumbs. 

Green Bean Pudding. 

382. Fully grown, mealy green beans, one quart ; cream, two 
table-spoonfuls ; yolks of eggs, two. 

Boil the beans till quite tender ; peel and mash them with a 
little pepper and salt, till quite smooth ; add the cream and yolks 
of eggs previously well beaten ; boil the pudding in a basin during 
one hour, and serve it with parsley sauce. 

The colour may be improved by adding two table-spoonfids of 
spinach, boiled, and cut small. 

333. Bread crumbs sixteen ounces, onions eight ounces, maca- 
roni four ounces, parsley three ounces, tapioca one table-spoonfol, 
olive oil two table-spoonfuls, baking powder one tea-spoonful. 

Boil the macaroni till tender, but not soft ; drain it, and when 
cool, cut it in pieces ; boil the tapioca in a quarter of a pint of 
water, six minutes ; boil the onions, and chop them ; then mix all 
well together, except the tapioca and oil, adding a little pepi)erand 
salt. Put the oil in a dish, and add a layer of the mixture and 
macaroni alternately. Three layers of the mixture, two of the 
macaroni. Bake the pudding in a moderate oven, and when ready, 
turn it out upon a dish. 

Herb Pudding, 

834. Parsley leaves two handfals, spinach one handfal, hearts 
of lettuces two, mustard and cress one large handfal, a few leaves 
of white beet, and a small handful of chives. 

Wash and boil all the herbs together for three minutes ; drain 


the water from them, then' mash *■- and- mix them well, addibg 
pepper and salt. Stir in a hatter consisting of floor one omioe, 
thin cream one pint, eggs two. • Put the whole in a dish, and 
coyer with a good cmst. . . . . 

r r .. . 

Mushroom Pudding, - » • 

335. Chopped mushrooms one handful, to which add parslej 
and green onions, pepper and salt.' Boil the whole in water or 
yegetahle hroth till thick; heat six eggs or more. Mix aU to- 
gether, adding a few hread crumhs. Bake the pndding quickly in 
small huttered cups. 

336. Mushrooms one pint, hread-crumhs eight ounces, butter 
two ounces. Rub the butter in the bread-crumbs, add pepper and 
salt, and as much water as will just moisten the bread ; then add 
the mushrooms cut in pieces. 

Line a basin with paste, put in the mixture, cover the whole 
with paste, tie a cloth over, and boil the pudding one hour and a 
half, or bake it. 

Cheese Pudding. 

337. Grated cheese four ounces, eggs four, yolks and whites 
beaten separately; flour three tea-spoonfals, milk about three- 
quarters of a pint, butter one ounce, and a little salt. Mix the 
flour with a little cold milk, dissolve the butter in the remaining 
milk, and when it boils pour it over the mixed flour ; then add 
the cheese and yolks of eggs ; add the whites immediately before 
patting the pudding in the oven. 

338. Grated cheese four ounces, eggs two, milk or cream two 
or three spoonfuls, butter one ounce, cayenne and nutmeg a very 
little of each. 

Butter a dish, and bake the pudding about fifteen minutes. See 
234. '\ • ' "^ ' K 

. Batter Puddings. 

339. The batter for puddings should be neither too stiff nor 
too liquid; if too stiff, it cannot expand sufficiently, and conse- 


quently the pudding will be hard and toagh ; if too liquid, the 
flour and other solid particles will descend, and the pudding will 
be denser at the bottom than at the top. When fruit is added, 
the batter must be made thicker, or the fruit will sink. It is ad- 
visable to strain the batter well ; the eggs first, then the whole. 

Flour puddings will be improved by mixing the ingredients, 
except the eggs, some hours, or even a day, before they are cooked. 
When milk is used, the batter should not be mixed more than an 
hour or two before it is cooked, especially in hot weather ; it should 
also be set in a cool place. Batter puddings expand more, and 
consequently are lighter when boiled than baked, and they should 
be rather over-boiled than not boiled long enough. 

As flour is improved by long boiling, and milk injured by it, 
water is preferable to milk in making batter for boiled puddings ; 
on the contrary, milk is better for baked puddings, which are im- 
proved by being baked quickly. 

Boiled Batter Puddings. 

340. See 23. Batter will be lighter when boiled in a cloth 
than in a mould ; it should be well beaten immediately before it 
is poured in, and put into boiling water as soon as it has been 
secured with a string or inclosed in the mould. 

The cloth should be tied loosely for ' a bread pudding, but 
tightly for a batter pudding ; unless the cloth or the mould be 
well filled with the batter, the water wiQ enter and break the pud- 
ding. The pudding should be kept in motion for a few minutes 
after it has been put in the water, to prevent the batter from 
settling, and the cloth from adhering to the bottom of the pan ; 
a plate put in the pan will serve the latter purpose. The water 
must be kept boiling till the pudding is cooked enough, or it will 
be sad and heavy, or, if a bread pudding, it will be broken and 

Keep the pudding covered with water all the time it is being 
cooked, and, if necessary, add fresh boiling water to supply the 
loss by evaporation. * , , 

Dip the pudding in cold water when removed from the pan ; the 
pudding will then more easily leave the cloth. 


To serve the pudding, place it with the cloth in a basin ; open 
the cloth and lay the face of the dish upon the padding, turn the 
whole oyer, take off the basin, remove the cloth, and serve imme- 
diately, or it will become sad. 

Baked Batter Puddings, 

341. See 26. The batter for a baked pudding should not 
fill the mould within an inch or two ; if the mould is too foil, 
the batter will boil over in the oven, before the flour expands and 

All puddings of the custard kind, whether made of eggs and 
milk only, or of these with sago, arrowroot, rice (ground or in 
grain), vermicelli, etc., require a very gentle oven, and would be 
spoiled by too great a heat, the whey separating from the caseine 
and albumen. 

Tapioca should be well bruised, or the yolk of eggs used with 
it will separate. 

Simple batter puddings should be baked in a rather brisk oven ; 
and the butter, previously put in the dish, should be boiling hot 
before the batter is poured in, if it is intended that the pudding 
should be crisp. 

When raisins are used, the oven should be well heated, but not 
too hot. 

When whisked whites of eggs are used, as for souffUs, they 
should be stirred gently into the mixture just before it is tied up 
for boiling, or before it is put into the oven, the pudding will then 
be very light, but it will fall soon after it is removed from the 

When a pudding is sufficiently brown on the surface before it 
has been well baked through, lay a sheet of writing paper over it, 
but not before it is set ; when quite firm in the centre, it will be 
sufficiently baked. 

Batter puddings may be made either thin, as where much milk 
or other fluid is employed ; or the batter may be made stiff with 
eggs and butter only. « • 

Batter for pancakes requires about half a pint of liquid to four 


onnces of dour ; for a Yorkshire padding the batter should be 
made rather stiffer. 

Batter Pudding, 

342. Flour four ounces ; milk or cream, or a mixture of the 
two, half a pint to a pint ; eggs one to four. Sugar and butter 
may be added in the proportion of from two to four ounces of 
each, and currants, raisins, or seasoning, when preferred ; some 
also add a little salt, others substitute water for milk, and boil a 
little seasoning in it. 

Mix according to 79 g. 

Fill a floured pudding-doth with the batter, and tie it tight ; or 
buttered tea-cups, or small pudding basins, with a cloth tied over 
each ; plunge each pudding into boiling water, and let it boil fast 
during half an hour, or an hour and a quarter, according to size ; 
or cook it by steam. The pudding should be just firm enough to 
stand, when removed from the cloth or mould. 

Or, bake in buttered tea-cups, saucers, basin, or pie-dish, three 
parts full of batter, during fifteen minutes or more, according to 
size ; or in a shallow dish, as a Yorkshire pudding. 

The pudding may be served with butter-sauce and currant 
jelly, or with sweet-sauce ; or with butter abd salt, or sugar, etc. 

Remarks. — Oatmeal, maize-meal, etc., may be used instead of 
wheat flour. Half a pint of fluid may be sufficient for a boiled 
pudding ; a baked one should be made much thinner. Baking is 
said to render eggs less easy of digestion than boiling or steaming ; 
hence puddings for invalids should be boiled or steamed. 

If .milk be used for a baked pudding, one egg will l>e sufficient. 
From a quarter to half a tea-spoonful of baking powder will add 
much to the lightness of the pudding. 

To render the pudding savoury, introduce a little chopped 
parsley and other herbs, or onions, etc., instead of sugar. 

Batter made with Biestitigs, 
843. See 8. Flour four ounces, biestings one cupful, milk 


nearly a pint. Mix the flour with a little of the milk, and when 
quite smooth stir in the remainder of the milk and biestings. 

Boil, steam, or bake as above. No eggs are Required when 
biestings are used. > ' 

Ground Rice Pudding. 

344. Ground rice • four ounces, milk one pint, eggs one to 
four, butter two to four ounces. To these, niaj be added eur- 
rants one ounce, raisins four ounces, and grated lemon rind when 

346. Or, ground rice four ounces, milk a pint and a half, 
eggs two, sugar two .ounces, butter one ounce. 

Mix according to 79/. Butter a mould, and shake into it as 
much Tery finely grated bread as will adhere ; then pour in as 
much of the mixture as will nearly fill the mould, and bake half 
an hour. 

Or, boil for ten minutes with lemon-peel, and line a dish with 
paste, pour in the rice, and bake half an hour. 

Patent barley, tapioca, tous-Us-moUy arrowroot, etc., may be 
used in the same way as ground rice. About two ounces of each 
will be sufficient for a pint of milk. See 319. 

Eqnal quantities of *peas-meal and ground rice, revalenta and 
prepared barley, may also be used. 

Indian Meal Pudding, 

346. Indian meal or maize flour eight ounces, boiling water 
nearly one pint, molasses two ounces, salt one-sixth of an ounce. 
Mix all well together; pour the mixture into a pudding-cloth 
previously dipped in boiling water, leaving a space equal to about 
one-sixth of the contents ; boil the pudding six hours without 

Molasses make the pudding lighter, and in some measure supply 
the place of eggs. 

Dried cuttings of sweet apples (^5), may be added in the pro- 
portion of three ounces of the apples to eight ounces of meal. 
' This pudding is generally eaten with butter. 


Oatmeal Pudding, 

347. Oatm^ one pint, boiling milk two pints, eggs two, salt 
a little. Pour the boiling milk over the oatmeal, and let it^oak 
all night. Add the eggs well beaten ; bntter a basin that will just 
hold it, coyer it tightly with a floored cloth, and boil it an hour 
and a half. Eat it with cold butter and salt. When cold, slice 
and toast it, and eat it as oat-cake buttered. 

Sutherland or Castle Puddings, 

348. (a). See 137. Flour four ounces, eggs two to four, 
butter two to four ounces, sugar four ounces. Mix according to 
81 d. Bake the puddings in well buttered cups, or steam them 
from twenty to twenty-five minutes. The cups should be little 
more than half full. 

Bice may be used instead of flour ; or half rice, half flour ; or 
half rice, half pease-meal, etc. Baisins or other prepared fruit 
may be added. 

(b.) Flour eight ounces, eggs four, butter eight ounces, sugar 
eight ounces, raisins a handfcd, and the rind of a lemon. 

Mix as at 81 d, and boil in a mould for six hours. 


349. SouJUs are a light kind of pudding, and the mode of 
making them is the same, whether the principal ingredient be 
whole rice or other grain boiled till very tender in milk, and 
pressed through a sieve, bread crumbs soaked and passed through 
a sieve, or ground rice, arrowroot, potato flour, etc. The pudding 
is raised by stirring gently to the other ingredients the whites of 
eggs whisked to a very firm froth ; this should be done immedi- 
ately before the pudding is put in the oven. The pan should 
not be quite half full ; bake in a moderate oven for thirty or forty 
minutes, and keep the door closed fifteen minutes at least after 
the pudding is put in. Serve it immediately after it is removed 
from the oven. 


350. Gronnd rice four ounces, milk or cream a pint and a half^ 
bntter two ounces, sugar two ounces, eggs six. 

361. Potato flour two ounces, milk a quarter of a pint, cream 
one pint, butter two ounces, sugar two ounces, eggs six. Flavour- 
ing when required. Mix as at 79 h, 

852. Potato flour, arrowroot, tous-les-mois two ounces, milk 
one pint ; or milk a quarter of a pint, cream three-quarters of a 
pint, butter two ounces, salt a tea-spoonful, and a little less of 
cayenne, lightly grated cheese three ounces, eggs four. 

Custard Pudding, 

353. Flour or ground rice two ounces, milk or cream one 
pint, eggs four to six, sugar two ounces, cinnamon or other 
flaTOuring. Beat the eggs with the sugar and flour ; stir in the 
milk gradually. Simmer or steam the pudding in a buttered 
dish or in cups, or in a floured cloth about forty-five minutes ; or 
bake it in a dish twenty minutes. A buttered basin may be stuck 
round with about twenty large table raisins stoned, and the pud- 
ding turned out when boiled. 

Or, boil the seasoning in the milk, let it stand till cold, then 
add the eggs and sugar as before. Two ounces of butter and six 
ahnonds may also be added. 

Custard puddings should not be boiled, but simmered without 
ceasing ; if too great a heat be applied, the surface will be honey- 
combed, and the whey will be separated (301, 841). 

354. Milk one pint, cream half a pint, sugar three ounces, 
yolks of eggs eight. Infuse in the milk half a pod of vanilla, in 
short lengths, and bruised ; simmer twenty minutes ; strain it 
through muslin to the cream, add the sugar, set them on the fire, 
and pour them when they boil to the beaten yolks of eggs. Stir 
the mixture till nearly cold, boil it gently for an hour in a buttered 
mould or basin that will just hold it ; let it stand for five minutes 
before it is turned out. Serve it with a syrup of fresh fruit, or 
clear fruit jelly dissolved. The flavouring may be varied with 
bitter almonds, lemon rind, etc. 
A thickly buttered sheet of writing paper should be laid between 


the castard mixture and the cloth before it is tied over, or the lid 
of the mould closed upon it. The mould should be well buttered 
and quite filled ; when it has been removed from the water, the 
pudding should be left in the mould five or six minutes before it is 
turned out, to prevent it breaking or spreading about.; 


855. Custards are formed' chiefly of eggs, cream, or milk, and 

Milk or cream one pint, eggs one to five, sugar two to four 

It is better to use milk and cream in equal proportions. If the 
mixture is intended for cold custard to be used in glasses, the 
whites of eggs should be omitted. When few eggs and Uttle cream 
are used, the mixture may be thickened with a tea-spoonful of 
arrowroot, tous-les-moiSf ground rice, or potato starch previously 
mixed quite smooth in a little cold milk. It may also be 
flavoured with cinnamon, mace, lemon-peel, laurel-leaves, vanilla, 

Add the sugar and flavouring to one half of the fluid, and let it 
simmer ten minutes ; or heat the same in a pitcher or jar placed 
in a vessel of boiling water ; remove it from the fire, and when 
the yolks of eggs have been well beaten with the remaining fluid, 
add them to the hot fluid ; place the whole over the fire again, 
and stir it till it becomes sufiiciently thickened, but do not let it 
boil. Remove the custard from the fire, and stir it occa- 
sionally till cold ; then pour it into custard glasses, having first 
removed any undissolved seasoning. Or, put the custard into a 
mould, which place in a steamer containing very Uttle water, 
and not too tightly covered. As soon as the custard will bear the 
weight of your finger, remove it from the steamer, let it stand till 
cold, turn it out of the mould, and garnish with whipped cream. 
When cream can be had, no thickening, and fewer yolks of eggs, 
will be required. 


356. When eggs and cream are scarce, a cheap costard may be 
made as follows : — 

Milk one pint, one yolk of egg, sugar one ounce, arrowroot one 
dessert-spoonful ; flayour and mix as above. 

Baked Custard, 

357. Milk or milk and cream one pint, eggs beaten three or 
four, sugar two ounces, nutmeg or other flavour when desired. 

358. Or, milk half a pint, strong coffee or cocoa half a pint, 
eggs two to four, sugar two ounces. 

Line a dish with good paste, pour in the custard, and bake it 
half an hour ; or pour it into cups, and. bake or steam it ten 
minutes or more. 

Some boU half a pod of vanilla, or a little cinnamon, etc., in the 
milk about twenty minutes, and when cold, strain it to the cream, 
, add the sugar, and when again heated, pour the whole on the 
beaten eggs, and stir till cold. Bake or boil it gently in a well- 
buttered mould or basin one hour. Let the custard stand five 
minutes before it is turned out. Serve with fruit syrup, etc., or 
fruit. ' The mixture may be made entirely of whites of eggs, if 
more convenient. 


359. Milk half a pint, cream half a pint, rind of half a lemon, 
or a little cinnamon, or one or two laurel leaves, or two or three 
bitter almonds, blanched and bruised ; one or two ounces of sugar, 
and from half an ounce to an ounce of isinglass. 

Boil the seasoning a few minutes in the milk, then remove 
it ; but it is preferable to • rub the lemon rind with pieces of 
lump sugar, and then add them to the milk ; stir in the cream, 
isinglass, etc., and stir the whole over the fire till the isinglass is 
dissolved. Strain the blanc-mange into a bowl, stir it till nearly 
cold, then turn it into a mould, and let it cool. 

Where isinglass and gelatine are considered objectionable, their 


place may be supplied by ground rice, arrowroot, carrageen moss, 
etc., bat they are somewhat deficient in firmness, and the blanc- 
mange made with them is subject to become watery after standing 
some time. t 

Ground Rice Blanc-Mange, 

860. Milk one pint, gromid rice two omices, sugar two ounces, 
lemon peel, cinnamon, or other seasoning. 

Boil the milk, seasoning, etc., as above ; mix the rice with a 
little cold milk, and ml; it tiU quite smooth ; add it to the boiling 
milk, and stir it while over the fire till quite thick ; pour it into a 
mould, and when cold, turn it out. Serve it with a little cream 
and sugar, or decorate it with sweat-meats. 

Arrowroot and tapioca may be prepared in the same way. Or, 
two-thirds ground rice, and one-third arrowroot. 

861. When carrageen moss is used, wash and steep from half 
to three-quarters of an ounce in water for thr6e minutes ; take it 
out, and shake the water from each piece ; then boil the moss in a 
quart of milk, or milk and. cream, until it attains the consistency 
of warm jelly, or until sufficiently thick to retain the shape of the 
mould.* Strain it through a muslin bag, and season as above. 
For jelly, boil the moss in water, strain without pressure, add the 
usual seasoning, but no eggs (7). 

Bread and biscuit jelly, see 171. 

362. Line a mould with any kind of preserves, or a mixture of 
them ; soak sponge cake in hot custard, and put it over the pre- 
serve ; then pour over it a thin blanc-mange to bind the whole 
together ; when cold, turn it out of the mould. 

Fruit CreamSj etc. 

368. Gk>oseberries, apples, or rhubarb, peeled and cut, two 
pints. Stew the fruit with a very little water (81), and pulp it 
through a sieve or, colander ; add about half a pound of sugar. 
Beat the yolks of two eggs with a quart of milk, heat it gently 

• Some recommend it to be boiled from two to four hours. 


oyer a slow fire till it begins to simmer, then stir it by degree to 
the fruit, and serve it when cold. Cream, or milk and cream, may 
be nsed without eggs, and a little cinnamon, nutmeg, lemon-peel, 
or other seasoning, may be simmered with the* milk when pre- 
ferred. Some use a little perry or cider in stewing the fmit. 

This preparation has received the appellation of goosebeny- 
fool, etc. 

364. Mash strawberries, raspberries, or other pulpy fruit 
gently, strew a little sugar over it, and let it drain through a sieve, 
without pressure. Add sugar, cream, and a little milk if required. 
Beat the whole lightly in a bowl, and, as the froth is formed, lay 
it on the back of a sieve, pour the cream into glasses, and lay the 
froth on the top. Jam or jelly may be used instead of fresh 
fruit ; six ounces to a pint of cream, adding also the juice of a 
lemon. Instead of fruit, use two ounces of sweet almonds, 
blanched and beaten to a paste (20), a pint of cream, three ounces 
of sugar, and the juice of two lemons. Beat the whole, and pro- 
ceed as above. 

365. Preserved fruit or jam, passed through a sieve, two 
ounces; currant jelly two ounces, powdered loaf sugar two 
ounces, the whites of two or three eggs. Beat the whole up 
together for an hour, or untU it will stand firmly. It may be 
eaten with moulded rice, etc. 

366. Raspberries or other fruit one pound, or twelve ounces of 
their juice ; sugar four to eight ounces, cream one pint. Boil 
the cream, and dissolve the sugar in the juice of the fruit, mix 
them with the boiling cream, stir till the whole is rather thick, 
then pour it into glasses. 

367. Apples six, whites of eggs six, sugar four ounces. 

Stew the fruit, and pass it through a sieve ; beat the whites to a 
froth, with the sugar ; beat the fruit to a froth, and add it to the 
whites ; then whisk the whole till it becomes pretty firm, heap it 
high on a dish, or lay it over stewed apples or trifle. 

368. Raspberry jelly one eighth of a pint, sugar one ounce and 
a half, cream half a pint nearly, isinglass three-eighths of an 
ounce. See 359. 

Boil the isinglass in the cream, strain it into a basin, and let it 


remain till cool, but not set ; mix the cream and jnice together, 
and whisk the whole till it begins to stiffen ; put it in moulds, and 
let it stand till the following day. 

For moulds of a similar kind see Farinacea in Moulds, 173. 

369. The juice of six oranges and a little of the rind, sugar 
four ounces, water half a pint, isinglass one ounce. Dissolve the 
isinglass in the water, adding also the juice, rind, and sugar ; beat 
the whole till nearly firm and cool, put it into a mould, and turn 
it out next day. If lemons be substituted for the oranges, add 
more sugar. 

870. The thin rind of two lemons and the juice of three, 
isinglass one ounce, cold water one pint, loaf sugar twelve ounces, 
whites of eggs two. 

Put the isinglass in the water; let it stand five minutes, 
then dissolve it over the fire, adding the sugar and the juice and 
rinds of the lemons, thinly pared ; boil the whole two or three 
minutes, strain, and let it stand till nearly cold ; add the whites 
of eggs, well beaten, and whisk for about half an hour. Put it 
lightly into a glass dish, giving it a rough or rocky appearance. 

871. Cream one pint, sugar to taste, lemon one. 

Squeeze the juice of the lemon into a large basin ; add the 
grated peel and the pounded sugar ; mix them well, and pour the 
cream to them by degrees ; whisk the mixture till it becomes a 
thick froth ; moisten a cloth, and spread it in a sieve, the size 
you wish the cream or cake to be ; pour in the mixture, and let 
it stand twenty-four hours to drain ; place it in a glass dish, and 
garnish with preserve. Some add a glass of sheny to the lemon 
juice, etc. 

872. Cream one pint, sugar to taste, isinglass one ounce and a 
half, white wine one glass, lemon rind one. 

Dissolve the isinglass in the wine ; rub the lemon rind upon 
the loaf sugar; set it over the fire, and when dissolved, remove it, 
and add the cold cream by degrees, stirring it well all the time. 
When it becomes rather stiff, pour it into a mould* 



373. Red. — Boil fifteen grains of cochineal in the finest powder, 
with a drachm and a half of cream of tartar, in half a pint of 
water, very slowly for half an hour ; add, whilst boiling, a bit of 
almn, the size of a pea. Or, red beet sliced, and some liquor 
poured over. 

White. — Almonds, finely pounded, with a little water or cream. 

Yellow. — Yolks of eggs, or a little saffron steeped in the liquor, 
and squeezed. 

Green. — Spinach or beet leaves pounded; express the juice, 
and simmer it in a tea-cup placed in a saucepan of water, till it 
sets ; drain it gently on the back of a fine sieve. For jellies and 
creams mix it in a mortar with finely powdered sugar ; for soups, 
dilute it with a little of the boiling stock, and stir it to the re- 
mainder. If pounded with plenty of sugar, and then properly 
boiled over a clear fire, and poured out into cakes, it may be stored 
in a tin box for future use. 


374. Pies consist of fruit, roots, or other vegetables, partly 
or entirely surrounded with paste or bread crumbs, and baked. 
When entirely surrounded with paste, they are called Raised 
Pies (164). 

For Fruit Pies, a very thin strip of paste should be placed round 
the edge of the dish ; fill it well with fruit, and moisten the edge 
of the paste, that the cover which is to be placed over the whole 
may adhere. In winter the dish should be warm, and the pie 
should be baked in a quick oven. 

For Savoury Pies, the sides, as well as the edges of the dish, 
should be lined with paste. The upper crust may vary from half 
an inch to an inch in thickness. If the paste be Hght, the thick- 
ness will be double when baked. For the mode of preparing paste 
for pies, see 150, etc. 


A hole should be made in the centre of the top of the crust, or 
just within the border of pies and turnovers, that some of the 
steam may escape ; this will prevent the juice or gravy from boil- 
ing over. A shp of writing paper rolled up, but not close, may be 
inserted to keep the hole open. Some persons insert a small cup 
in the pie to prevent the escape of the syrup, but it has no such 
effect, for the cup remains empty until the pie cools, after which 
there is no danger of the syrup escaping. As the pie cools, the 
syrup is forced into the cup, and is thus prevented from mixing 
with the contents of the pie, if this be thought desirable ; the cup 
also will assist to support the cover. 

A little water should be added to the contents of a savoury pie, 
but sugar or treacle only should be added to fruit, as water would 
destroy its flavour. 

375. Pasties or Turnovers are formed by rolling out paste 
about one-third of an inch thick and six inches square. The 
fruit, is then laid on one half the paste, the other half turned over 
it, and the edges wetted a little, and then united by being well 
pressed together. Bake them on tins or flat dishes. 

Apples stewed as for sauce, rhubarb, scalded gooseberries, pre- 
serves, etc., may be used in filling them. 

376. Puffs are a smaller kind of Turnover, and may be made 
triangular, semi-circular, etc. 

377. Fruit cakes are made thus : — Procure some pieces of tin, 
about a foot long, and six, nine, or more inches wide. Boll out 
puff paste about one-eighth of an inch thick, and large enough to 
cover the tin ; put upon it a layer of sweet mince meat (382, etc.) 
about half an inch thick; cover it with paste about twice the 
thickness of the bottom crust ; trim the paste from the sides, and 
divide the top into small squares. Bake in a moderate oven, then 
sift loaf sugar over. Banbury and Eccles Cakes are thus made. 

378. Tarts are formed by lining small tins with paste, filling 
them up with fruit, and then covering them with paste. 

Raspberries and a few red currants, preserves, young goose- 
berries, etc., are generally used for tarts. 

Tarts may also be made thus : — Boll out a good paste about a 
quarter of an inch thick ; cut it into round cakes with a tin cutter, 

N 2 


abont three inches in diameter ; then cat a piece ont of half the 
number of cakes with a cutter, about two inches in diameter, 
leaving a rim or border about half an inch broad ; wet the edges 
of the cakes with as little water as possible, and lay the rims of 
paste on each cake ; bake them in a moderately hot oyen ; lay 
them on a dish, and when quite cold, put preserved fruit in each 

379. Tartlets, or " Tourtes,'* are made by rolling out puff or 
other paste a quarter of an inch thick, and lining smaJl patty-pans 
or plates with it. Trim the edges, and then put in any kind of 
jam, marmalade, or preserved fruit. Ornament the border, if 
there be one ; string the fruit with paste (158) in various figures, 
and bake from six to ten minutes in a quick oven. They should 
be very lightly browned. 

380. Meringues are tarts covered with beaten white of egg and 
sugar, instead of paste, and baked in a moderate oven. 

Mix eight ounces of finely sifted loaf sugar as lightly as pos- 
sible with eight whites of eggs whisked to a strong froth, and 
flavour it with any essence you please. Line patty-pans with puff 
paste, put in preserve, and cover it with the whites of eggs and 
sugar. Bake in a moderate oven. Or, half fill a pie-dish with 
apples, rhubarb, or other fruit, which has been stewed with a 
little butter and sugar; cover the fruit while warm with the 
beaten whites and sugar, and sprinkle a little sugar over ; place 
the dish in a slow oven, until a pale brown and stiff crust has 
been formed. If the oven be too hot, the meringue will be 

381. To prepare fruit for pies, see 250. 

A quarter of a pound of sugar will generally be sufficient for a 
quart of fruit. 

When pies are made of green gooseberries, apples, or rhubarb, 
it is advisable to clarify the sugar, that is, to boil it in a little 
water, but water should not be poured into the pie for this pur- 

The parings and cores of apples and pears may be steWed in a 
little water, and the strained liquor poured through a small funnel 
into the pie when it has been baked. 


All pies made with summer fruit, cranberries, or winter pre- 
serres, will be improved by the addition of apples pared and 
sUced. When apples are mixed with jam, they should be sliced 
thin ; and if syrup be wanted, a few slices should be boiled with a 
Uttle of the jam in sugar and water. 

Fruits preserved with sugar should be added after the crust 
has been baked ; a cover may be baked for them. 

A little sago or tapioca is a pleasant addition to rhubarb ; it 
should be scattered between the fruit. Those who prefer much 
flavour in their fruit pies may add lemon-peel, cinnamon, nut- 
meg, marmalade, etc. 

The above directions for fruit pies will be sufficient without a 
special recipe for each kind of fruit. 

Sweet Mince-meat for Cakes and Pies, 

382. Flour four ounces, butter two or three ounces, sugar 
six ounces, candied orange or lemon-peel one ounce and a half, 
currants ten ounces, cinnamon a quarter of an ounce, allspice a 
quarter of an ounce. 

383. The crumbs of stale savoy or pound cake, and of sweet 
biscuits; add chopped apples, currants, candied peels, mixed 
spices, a little butter and sugar, juice and yellow lind of lemon, . 
the latter rubbed upon sugar, or a little essence of lemon ; moisten 
the whole with a Uttle raspberry jam or treacle. 

884. Apples, peeled, cored, and chopped fine, sixteen ounces, 
butter twelve ounces, lemon, orange, and citron peels, mixed, 
twelve ounces, sugar six ounces, a small nutmeg and other 
spices. Currants sixteen ounces, and raisins, chopped fine, four 
ounces, may be added. 

The butter in the above receipts should be beaten to a cream, 
or dissolved at a gentle heat. Mix all the ingredients well toge- 
ther, and press the mixture into a jar for future use. The apples, 
however, should not be added till the cakes are made. 

Root, Herb, and other Savoury Pies. 

385. Potatoes two pounds, onions two ounces, butter one 
ounce, water half a pint. Pare and cut the potatoes ; put A layer 


of onions, cut smaJl, between the layers of potatoes ; season mth 
pepper and salt ; lay the butter at the top in small pieces ; pour 
in the water ; cover the whole with paste, and bake. 

The onions may be replaced by mushrooms, cut small. Hard 
boiled eggs, cut in slices or small pieces, may be distributed be- 
tween the layers. Half an ounce of tapioca or sago is an improve- 
ment ; these should be well washed and steeped in cold water 
before they are added, or they may be reduced to a jelly, and 
added to the pie when baked. When mushrooms are not used, 
the flavour may be improved by the addition of a little ketchup, 
which may either be added when the pie is made, or poured in 
with a little melted butter, etc., after the pie has been baked. 
Some add a Uttle celery or powdered sage, sliced turnips, carrots, 
asparagus, or other vegetables. 

These observations are equally applicable to any of the follow- 
ing pies : — 

386. Potatoes twenty-four ounces, turnips six ounces, onions 
wo ounces^ celery one ounce, tapioca one ounce, butter one 

ou eggs three, pepper and salt. 

387. Potatoes, carrots, turnips, onions, celery, equal quanti- 
ties of each. Cut the carrots and turnips into dice, and the 
onions and celery into small pieces ; fry them in butter, with a 
little flour, pepper, and salt, till tender, but not burnt ; put them 
in a pie-dish with the sliced potatoes, a little butter and flour, 
and a cupful of water ; stew the whole in the oven till tender, then 
cover with a crust, and bake. 

388. Potatoes, carrots, turnips, mushrooms, peas, onions, 
lettuces, parsley, etc., may be stewed with a httle butter, pepper, 
and salt ; bake a crust over a dish, with a cup in to support it, 
then add the stewed vegetables. 

389. Turnips twenty-four ounces, onions four ounces, butter 
one ounce, water half a pint. 

390. Carrots two pounds, butter two ounces, water quarter 
of a pint. The carrots should be well washed and brushed, then 
sliced, grated, or scraped whilst raw, or they may be half boiled 
and sliced. 

391. Mushrooms six ounces, butter one ounce, water half a 


pint, peas or potatoes, pared and sliced, sixteen ounces, tapioca 
half an ounce, a little pepper and salt. The parings and stalks 
of the mushrooms may be stewed half an hour in water : strain 
and add the tapioca previously steeped, and when the pie has 
been baked, pour in the gravy. 

392. Vegetable-marrow and celery in equal quantities, and 
one onion boiled ; cut them small, season with pepper and salt, 
add a dessert- spoonful of tapioca steeped in a quarter of a pint 
of cold water, and one ounce of butter. 

393. Scald some spinach ; drain and squeeze it dry ; chop and 
stew it in butter and cream, adding a little salt, sugar, and citron. 
Bake in puff paste. 

Lettuce, spinach, beet, parsley, leeks, in equal quantities ; a 
small onion chopped, a leaf or two of sage, butter, pepper and 
salt, eggs, groats, a little flour and water, milk or cream, bread 
crumbs, etc. A mixture of any of these may be made into a pie 
as above, more fluid being added when the mixture is not suffi- 
ciently moist. 

Savoury Pies. 

394. 1. Plain cold omelet cut in small pieces ; tapioca washed 
and steeped in water ten or fifteen minutes. Butter a pie dish, 
spread a layer of tapioca on the bottom, then a layer of the 
omelet, and continue the layers of tapioca and omelet till the dish 
is nearly full ; add also seasoning and a few small pieces of butter ; 
cover the whole with a good crust, and bake. A few sliced pota- 
toes or mushrooms may be added. The above may also be baked 
in small dishes or in patty-pans lined with puff paste^ or in a 
raised crust. 

395. 2. Common hasty pudding, mixed with onion, sage, and 
other herbs, a little butter, pepper, and salt. Line patty-pans 
with a short paste ; fill them with the mixture. Bake them care- 
fully, and before serving the patties, grate some cheese over them, 
and brown them before the fire. Instead of the hasty pudding, 
grated carrots and turnips or other vegetables may be used, 
adding a little butter, strong bran tea, and seasoning. 

396. Eggs two, boiled hard and cut small, creed rice two 


table-spoonfnlB, potatoes two, sliced, butter one ounce, arrow- 
root two spoonftils made into jelly with half a pint of water, 
cream a spoonful or two ; season with cayenne or pepper and 
salt. Lay the sliced potatoes at the bottom of the dish, then the 
rice, eggs, etc., in layers. 

307. Bread crumbs six ounces, chopped onions half an 
ounce, eggs four. Moisten the bread crumbs with four table- 
spoonfuls of cold water ; add the eggs well beaten ; pepper and 
salt. Mix the ingredients well, tie them in a cloth, and boil forty- 
five minutes. When cold, cut the pudding in small pieces, add 
two or three hard boiled eggs cut in pieces, one ounce of tapioca, 
and two ounces of butter in small pieces ; coyer the whole with a 
paste, and bake. A few small mushrooms may be added. 

898. Onion and sage fritters cut small, mushrooms, hard 
boiled eggs three, tapioca two ounces, butter one ounce. 

See also the mixtures for Forcemeat Pudding, 821 to 823. 


399. This term is used to designate shells of pastry filled 
with curd, or with rice, potatoes, and other mixtures, and baked ; 
but it is strictly applicable only when curd is used. For caseine 
or curd, see 13. Roll out some paste to the thickness of from 
a quarter to half an inch ; line the pans or cases with it, leaving 
the middle a little thinner than the rest ; trim the paste from the 
edges, and notch them round ; put in the curd, and bake. The 
curd should be rubbed through a sieve with a little butter, and, 
when quite smooth, a few currants and sugar added. One or 
more yolks of eggs may be added, also cream, almonds, mace, 
nutmeg, etc., or lemon or orange juice, the rind rubbed on loaf 
sugar, or candied lemon-peel. 

400. Ground rice four ounces, new milk one pint and a half, 
butter four ounces, sugar four ounces, eggs four to six, well 
beaten, and a grain or two of salt. Boil the rice in the milk 
fifteen minutes, and when removed from the fire and nearly cold, 
add the butter just melted, sugar, egga, and salt. Line some large 
patty-pans or saucers with thin paste, fiU them three parts full, 
strew currants over the top, or mix them in, and bake fifteen or 


twenty minutes in a gentle oven. Some boil a little cinnamon 
in the milk ; others flavour with nutmeg, lemon-rind, or almond 
flavour, etc. 

401. Potatoes, boiled or roasted and passed through a sieve, 
eight oimces, butter four ounces, sugar four ounces, eggs three, 
the rind of one lemon and half the juice. Dissolve the butter, 
or beat it to a cream ; beat the eggs, and mix aU the ingredients 
well together. A few currants may be added, or a piece of stale 
savoy or pound cake crumbled in. Bake in pans lined with paste 
as above. 

402. Sweet almonds six ounces, bitter almonds half an ounce, 
Naples biscuits grated six ounces, butter melted four ounces, 
yolks of eggs six, whites three, juice and rind of a lemon, sugar to 
taste. Pound the almonds (20), beat the eggs, and mix w^U. 

403. Naples biscuits grated two ounces, butter melted four 
ounces, eggs four, lemon juice and rind, and sugar to taste. 

404. Apples grated eight ounces, butter melted four ounces, 
sugar four ounces, yolks of eggs four and whites two, juice and 
rind of a lemon. Bread crumbs two table-spoonfuls, or Naples 
biscuits, grated and beaten up with the other ingredients, make 
the cheese-cakes lighter (267). 

405. Boiling cream one pint, poured on a sliced roll. Let this 
stand two hours. Add flve or six well-beaten eggs, butter melted 
fpur ounces, currants eight ounces, and a little mace. 

406. Cocoa-nut, washed, pared, and grated, six ounces ; sugar 
four to six ounces, milk of the nut or water two or three table- 
spoonfuls, eggs five, half a lemon rind. Stew the cocoa-nut 
tOl tender, along with the sugar and milk, stirring it fre> 
quently; when rather cooled, add the eggs well beaten and 
strained, and the lemon rind grated. Bake as above, thirteen to 
fifteen minutes. 

407. Boil one large carrot till tender, rub it through a sieve, 
and mix well with two small table-spoonfuls of flour, one egg well 
beaten, a tea-spoonful of milk ; sugar, currants, and seasoning, 
according to taste. Line patty-pans with pastry, fill them with 
the mixture, and bake. 



408. There is little difference in these preparations, except as 
regards consistency, size, and the proportion of eggs employed. 

Omelets consist principally of eggs, and may be either fried or 
baked. Fritters are composed of various ingredients, usually in 
the state of a stiff batter, and are made smaller and thicker than 
omelets. Pancakes are made of a thinner batter, and consequently 
they spread wider in the pan than fritters. All fried articles 
should be well drained from the fat by placing them on a drainer, 
or on blotting paper, and be served as soon as ready. 

Eggs should be well and lightly beaten, and a little salt added. 
"When leeks, onions, shallots, or other vegetables are used, they 
should be chopped small, and beaten with the eggs. When sweet 
herbs are used, parsley should form a part ; tarragon, or any 
other vegetable which imparts a high flavour, should be used 
sparingly, and with this precaution any sort of pot herbs may be 

The butter or oil used for frying should be good and quite hot. 

The batter should be as smooth as cream, and shoilld be briskly 
beaten immediately before it is put in the pan. It is better when 
made some hours before it is used. 

For mixing the ingredients, read the directions (81, etc.). 
Omelets may be used cold, as sandwiches, between two pieces of 
buttered bread, a little mustard being added. 

Baked omelets when cold are excellent, if sliced and fried brown, 
and sauce poured over them ; or they may be eaten cold with mint 
saiice and mashed potatoes. 


409. An omelet may be either plain, savoury, or sweet; it 
should be neither greasy, burnt, nor too much done. The fire 
should not be too hot, as the object is to heat the omelet well 
through, but not to brown it much. It should not be made too 
thin, and too much white of egg will render it hard. 


When the batter has been well mixed, pour it into a pan con- 
taining boiling butter, stir it with a spoon till it begins to set, turn 
it up round the edges, and when it is of a light brown, it is suffi- 
ciently cooked. The omelet should not be turned, or it will be . 
flattened and tough ; fold one half over the other, and lay it on a 
hot dish, the browned side outwatrd. A salamander may be used 
for the upper side if it should be preferred brown. The pan in 
which an omelet is fried should be small, to prevent the batter 
spreading too much : when the pan is not small enough, hold it 
on one side. 

No sauce should be poured over the omelet. 

To bake an omelet, melt a little butter in a dishj pour in the 
mixture, and bake it in a quick oven. 

The following mixtures are intended for tolerably large omelets ; 
when required smaller, diminish the number of eggs, etc. 

Plain Omelets. 

410. Eggs four, butter one to wo ounces. To these may be 
added bread crumbs two to four ounces, or bread crumbs one 
ounce, and mashed potatoes two ounces, or flour one ounce, or 
boiled rice four ounces. 

To any of these forms add a little salt and pepper, or cayenne» 
or nutmeg and mace, and milk or cream sufficient to give the 
whole a proper consistency. Grated cheese and French beans 
boiled and cut small, of each two ounces, parsley a quarter of an 
ounce may be added to the beaten eggs and butter. The butter 
may be omitted in these and the following receipts if the omelet 
be thought too rich with it. 

Savoury Omelets. 

411. Eggs four, butter a quarter to half an oun<ie, flour one 
table-spoonful, cream or milk a tea-cupful, parsley shred fine a 
dessert-spoonful, two middle-sized onions, boiled and shred, 
cayenne and salt a little of each. The whole should be ef a light 
consistency, and may then be either fried or baked in cups. 


Instead of the onion, add chives, beets, or spinach, chopped 
small, one dessert-spoonful ; sweet leeks, a small tea-spoonfol; 
lemon thyme, one tea-spoonfnl.- A very little tarragon may also 
be added. 

412. Eggs four, batter one to two ounces, bread crumbs 
four table-spoonfuls, parsley and chives, out very fine, one table- 
spoonful of each, cream or milk as may be required, a little salt, 
pepper, cayenne, or nutmeg. Instead of chives, leeks or onions 
may be used. 

413. Eggs four, butter one to two ounces, bread crumbs 
two ounces, flour and oatmeal half an ounce of each, potatoes 
one or two mashed, onions one to two ounces, sage half a tea- 
spoonful, lemon thyme and sweet marjoram mixed, half a tea- 

414. Eggs four, butter one ounce, or olive oil one table- 
spoonful, bread crumbs two table-spoonfuls, haricot beans boUed 
one pint, parsley half an ounce, milk half a tea-cupful, salt and 
pepper. Steep, boH, and then n^ash the beans with the milk ; 
rub them through a sieve or fine colander, and add the other in- 
gredients ; pour the omelet into s^ buttered dish, and bake it in a 
moderately hot oven one l^our. Serve with brown sauce. 

416. Eggs four, butter two oitnces, macaroni one ounce, 
bread crumbs four ounces, cream or new milk a quarter of a 
pint, chopped parsley a quarter of an ounce, sweet leeks one tea- 
spoonful; lemon thyme, marjoram, winter savory, and sweet 
basil mixed, one tea-spoonfnl. Boil the macaroni till tender, and 
cut it in small pieces; boil the cream, pour it on the bread 
crumbs, and cover them with a plate. When cold, add the herbs, 
butter melted, eggs beaten, and the macaroni ; mix them well, 
and season with mace, cayenne, and white pepper, salt, and spice 
powder. Pour the whole into a buttered dish or mould ; steam it 
with paper over the top three-quarters of an hour, or bake it in 
the oven. Serve with mushroom sauce, or with brown sauee and 
eurrant jelly. 

416. One egg, bread crumbs two or three ounces soaked in 
cream, a little parsley and a few chives chopped, pepper and 


Pat the mixture into a well-buttered shallow dish, and bake 
twenty minutes. 

Sweet Omelets. 

417. Eggs four, butter one to two ounces, sugar half to one 

Fry the omelet carefully, and just before turning it upon the 
dish put two spoonfuls of preserve (raspberry or currant jelly, 
etc.) in the centre. 

418. Eggs four, sifted sugar one ounce, flour a small table- 
spoonful, a little lemon peel shred fine, thin cream one pint. 
Pour the mixture into a buttered pan, and bake at a very moderate 
heat twenty minutes. Garnish with preserves. 

419. Eggs four, flour one ounce, milk one pint. Thicken the 
milk over the fire ; add the whisked eggs. Pour one half of the 
mixture into the frying pan, and when just set, put four table- 
spoonfuls of currant jelly in the centre of the batter ; cover the 
jelly with the remaining half, and serve as soon as the upper 
portion is fixed. .Instead of the currant jelly, a few heads of 
asparagus boiled and cut small, may be put between the two 
layers of batter. 

Fruit Fritters. 

420. Apples or rhubarb may be made into fritters, thus: 
Dress the fruit as for puddings (250), cut it into slices or conve- 
nient lengths, and put it into a basin with powdered sugar strewed 
over it, and let it remain thus several hours. Boll the portionf^ 
of fruit in flour, or dip them in batter, described at 162. Fry 
them till of a light brown colour in boiling butter or oil ; they 
should be quite dry and crisp. 

421 . Flour four ounces, warm cream half a pint, yolks of eggs 
two, sugar one table-spoonful, yeast one dessert-spoonful. 

/. Form a batter with these, and let it stand to rise one hour. 


Cut the fruit in slices or short lengths, put them separately into 
hoiling hutter ; strew sugar and nutmeg, if liked, over them, then 
cover them with the hatter, and fry them till of a proper colour. 
If baking powder he substituted for the yeast, hake immediately. 
(79 6.) 

422. Chop the fruit small, add a few currants, and mix them 
with the batter of the last receipt; drop into boiling butter a 
sufficient quantity to form a fritter, and when sufficiently done on 
one side, turn it, that both sides may be equally browned. Drain 
the butter from the fritters, and sift sugar over them. These are 
frequently served with hot ale and sugar, but they are very good 

423. Eggs four yolks and two whites, flour four ounces, one 
large apple finely chopped, raisins stoned and shred three ounces, 
sugar one table-spoonful, a little yeast, and half a cup of milk. 

The batter for fritters should be rather thicker than for pan- 

424. Eggs three or four, rice three ounces, flour one table- 
spoonful, butter one ounce, sugar two ounces, milk one pint, 
apples four ounces, currants three ounces, half a lemon rind. 
Simmer the rice in the milk till nearly tender, and till the mixture 
is thick and dry ; add the sugar and butter, and when only just 
warm, mix the currants, apples chopped fine, flour, and eggs. 
Fry in small fritters from five to seven minutes, then sift white 
sugar over them. 

Fritters made of Rice and other Grains, 

425. The various grains may be made into fritters thus: 
#Cree the grain in water or milk, and when nearly cold add eggs, 
well beaten, in the proportion of five eggs to six ounces of grain, 
weighed before being creed ; season with pepper and salt, and fry 
in cakes about four inches in diameter and three quarters of an 
inch thick. Before being fried they may, if preferred, be dipped 
in beaten egg. 

Serve with brown sauoe, or crisped parsley and melted butter. 


Instead of pepper and salt, currants may be added, or sngar 
may be sifted over them when removed from the pan. Cinnamon, 
lemon rind, etc., may be boiled with the rice. Neither melted 
butter nor sauce of any kind should be poured over fritters, as 
it would render them too soft. 

Cooked hominy eight ounces, flour one table-spoonful; mix, 
season with pepper and salt, and fry. 

Fritters made of RootSj etc, 

426. Potatoes, carrots, etc., may be half boiled, sliced, dipped 
in batter, and fried ; or boil and mash them, add a little flour, or 
oatmeal, or bread crumbs ; three or four eggs for every half-pound 
of roots, and two or three ounces of sugar ; or pepper and salt if 
intended to be savoury. Beat the mixture well, and fry as pre- 
viously directed. 

The mixture for potato pudding at 324 may also be made into 

Various other kinds of Fritters, 

427. Toast lightly some slices- of bread without crust, about 
half an inch thick ; dip them in cream or new milk, and lay them 
on a dish. To three well beaten eggs add a little mace, grated 
lemon-peel, sugar, and a quarter of apint of cream, and pour a 
little upon each toast ; then fry them, putting the wet side down- 
wards ; pour on the tops the remainder of the mixture, fry them 
till of a light brown, sift sugar over them, and serve them with 
sweet sauce. 

Slices of plum cake, plum pudding, etc., may be fried as 
fritters. ^ 

428. Bread crumbs four ounces, boiling water or milk half a 
pint, eggs two to four, butter half an ounce. 

Pour the boiling fluid upon the bread crumbs, and let them 
soak one boor ; beat the mixture with a fork, removing all hard 
pieces ; add the beaten eggs and butter, and if intended to be 
Bweet, add from two to four ounces of sugar, and a little lemon 


rind and joice ; also, if preferred, three ounces of currants, or 
four of chopped apples or other fruit, and fry. 

If intended to be savoury, substitute for the sugar, etc., onions 
previously boiled in two or three waters and chopped small, two 
to four ounces, oatmeal one ounce, sage one tea-spoonful, lemon 
thyme and sweet maijoram half a tea-spoonful of each, a little 
pepper and salt. Mix the whole well, adding more fluid when 
necessary ; fry and serve up with brown sauce. 

This mixture may also be baked whole as an omelet, in a but- 
tered dish. 

429. Bread crumbs six ounces, eggs four, parsley half an 

490. Bread crumbs twelve ounces, chopped onions twelve 
ounces, chopped sage (previously boiled a little) two tea-spoon- 
fiils ; chopped parsley one tea-spoonful, eggs three, cream two 
table-spoonfuls. Fry the onions with the sage till rather brown, 
mix the whole, and divide into fritters. 

431. Bread crumbs eight ounces, butter two or three ounces, 
eggs four to six, cream three or four table-spoonfuls, parsley half 
an ounce, leeks half an ounce, sweet marjoram, winter savory 
and lemon thyme mixed a guarter of an ounce ; a little pepper 
and salt. Bub the butter into the bread crumbs, mix the whole 
well, and fry. 

432. Mashed potatoes sixteen ounces, bread crumbs two 
ounces, eggs five, season with pepper and salt. 

433. Bice coarsely ground four ounces, eggs four, parsley one 
tea-spoonful, onions finely chopped one tea-spoonful, pepper and 
salt. Boil the rice in about half a pint of water; let it cool, then 
add the other ingredients, and mix well. Fry and serve with 
brown sauce. 

# 434. Flour one table-spoonfal, one egg, a little milk, pepper, 
salt, and cayenne. Mix them so as to form a thick batter ; stir 
in four ounces of grated cheese just before it is dropped into the 
pan to be fried. Immediately before removing each fritter from 
the pan, lay a thin slice of cheese over it, and serve quite hot. 

485. Bread sauce fried and garnished with fried parsley forms 
an excellent dish. 


436. Flour eight ounces, butter two onnces, or olive oil three 
table-spoonfuls. Mix and work well together the flour and but- 
ter or oil ; make it into a batter with warm water, and add two 
or three eggs, reserving the yolk for browning. Beat the 
batter well, and drop it by spoonfuls, formed into balls, into 
boiling butter, and fry. Or, make the whole into a thin paste by 
adding more flour. Form it into balls, and spread it out with the 
remaining yolk of eggs, and frj. Pounded sugar may be sprinkled 
over them before frpng. 


437. One middle-sized potato, one egg, one small onion, a 
little scalded parsley, fine bread crumbs two table-spoonfuls, 
pepper and salt mixed a quarter of a tea-spoonful, sweet mar- 
joram and winter savory mixed, one tea- spoonful, butter a 
quarter of an ounce. Boil and finely bruise the potato, boil the 
egg till hard, and the onion till soft. All the articles must be 
finely shred and well mixed, the butter being rubbed in with the 
rest. Form the mixture into eight small balls, roll them in egg 
and bread crumbs, and cook' them with a little butter, either over 
the fire or in the oven, till they are of a light brown. Serve them 
with brovm sauce, to which a very little ketchup has been added. 


438. The batter for pancakes should be of the consistency of 
cream, and should be beaten up well at the time it is used ; but 
it is better to make it an hour or two before it is Med. 

439. 1. Flour four ounces, eggs one to four, milk or cream a 
quarter to half a pint. 

2. Ground rice four ounces, eggs one to four, milk or cream 
one pint, water a quarter of a pint. 

3. Bice four ounces, cream half a pint, eggs four, butter lour 

A little salt and two tea-spoonfiils of sugar may be added. 
When the least number of eggs is used, add more flour and TniHr, 



To No. 1 may also be added from one to foor ounces of butter ; it 
may also be yaried by leaving out two ounces of the flour, azid 
adding four ounces of creed rice. Cinnamon, nutmeg, lemon rind, 
ratafias, and macaroons are sometimes added. No. 1 may also be 
rendered savoury by adding a little pepper and salt, four ounces 
of boiled onion, a tea-spoonful of sage and one of parsley, and a 
little nutmeg. The quantity will be sufficient for two pancakes 
or one omelet. SmaU beer or snow may partly or wholly supply' 
the place of eggs (87). Mix one half of the milk or cream with 
the flour, and beat the other half with the eggs, etc., then mix 
and beat the whole. 

Or, mix according to 81 &. 

In No. 2, mix the rice with the cold water, and stir the mixture 
into the milk when it nearly boils ; keep it on the fire till it thick- 
ens, but do not let it boil ; put it into a basin to cool, stir in the 
butter, and when cold, add the eggs, etc. 

In No. 3, boil the rice to a jeUy in a small quantity of water ; 
when cold, mix it with the cream and eggs ; add a little salt and 
nutmeg, then stir in the butter previously warmed, and as much 
flour as will render the butter of a proper consistency. 

440. Melt a little butter in a fiTing-pan ; put in as much of 
the batter as will cover the bottom of the pan, and make the pan- 
cake about the thickness of a penny-piece or the eighth of an 
inch ; when the batter is nearly set, shake the pan round a little, 
and if the pancake will move freely, turn it over, adding a little 
more butter ; when lightly browned, turn it again, and almost 
immediately slip it out of the pan upon a hot dish, placed over a 
pan or deep dish of hot water. Boll up each pancake as it is Med, 
and serve while hot with sugar and lemon juice. Some prefer 
butter and treacle, or boiled treacle. 


French Pancakes, 

441. Flour two ounces, eggs four, milk three quarters of a 
pint, the grated rind of a lemon, and one ounce of white sugar. 
Mix the flour, sugar,- lemon-peel, and a pinch of salt with a little 
of the milk ; stir till quite smooth ; add the yolks of the eggs weU 


beaten, the remainder of the milk, and then the whites of the eggs 
beaten to a stiff froth ; pat a little clarified batter into six saaoers, 
then the mixtare, which bake in a moderately qoick oven ; when 
done, lay two together with preserred fruit between ; sift sugar 
over, and serve immediately. 



442. The principal intention in the formation of soups is to 
extract, suspend, and combine in a liquid medium, the nutritive 
principles and flavours of the various articles employed ; and thus 
produce in a fluid or semi-fluid state, a stimulating, nutritious, 
and palatable compound. Soup, however, is insufficient to main- 
tain health and strength without bread or other solid aliment, and 
being less digestible than the latter, it should always be taken in 

443. Utensils. — The cover of the soup-pan or pot-au-feu 
should fit closely ; stew-pans and saucepans should be filled with 
water after the soup, sauce, etc., have been removed, and these as 
well as all other vessels employed should be kept very clean and 
dry. As soups will ferment without the greatest attention, they 
should be warmed up every day, or every other day in cool 
weather, put into fresh scalded tureens, and kept in a cool place. 

444. Ingredients. — The first requisite is pure, soft, or dis- 
tilled water ; hard water, however, is said to be preferable for 
green-pea soup, as the colour of the peas is better preserved in it. 

Nearly all sorts of grain, roots, and vegetables may be used in 
making soups; some for the purpose of supplying nutritive 
matter, others for imparting flavour, etc. ; and the art of com- 
posing a good, rich, palatable soup consists in judiciously pro- 
portioning the several ingredients, taking care that the flavour of 
no one article overpowers that of the rest. 

The principal articles employed are — 



1. Grain^ etc. — Scotch barley, pearl barley, groats, rice, peas, 
beans, lentils, whole or ground ; also arrowroot, t€U8'U8-moiMt 
potato floor, sago, macaroni, yermicelli, semolina, Cagliari paste. 

2. RooU^ etc. — Potatoes, carrots, parsneps, turnips, beet, 
Jerusalem artichokes, horse-radish, and one or two fraits, as cu- 
cumbers, yegetable-marrows, tomatoes, etc. (2). 

3. Buds and Young Shoots. — Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks, 
asparagus, etc. (4). 

4. LeaveSf Leaf-stalks^ and Bracts. — Cabbages, cauliflowers, 
lettuces, celery and its seed, bay leaves (5). 

6. Herbs. — Parsley, common thyme, lemon thyme, orange 
thyme, knotted marjoram, sage, mint, winter savory, sweet basH, 
tarragon, chervil, bumet, etc. The latter has the flavour of 

6. Flowerless Plants. — ^Mushrooms, morels, etc. 

7. Seasonings, etc. — Salt, sugar, pepper, mustard, cayenne, 
pimento (allspice), cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, cloves, mace, 
lemon-peel and juice, ketchup, etc. 

8. Animal Products. — Milk, cream, butter, eggs, and cheese, * 

To Prej^are the Ingredients. 

445. Everything intended for soup should be fresh and good, 
and should be prepared with the greatest nicety, and with the 
utmost attention to cleanliness. Barley, f rice, sago, tapioca, 
macaroni, and vermicelli should be well washed and soaked in 
cold water, and then boiled in the soup. Sago and tapioca should 
be boiled about half an hour, and strained previously to being 
added to the soup. About one ounce to each pint of water. 

* It is customary In Italy to serve grated cheese along with soup, that 
each person who chooses may mix a little with his soup. 

t " Barley," says Count Bumford, *' i-equlres a great deal of boiling; 
but when it is properly managed, it thickens a vast quantity of water, 
and, as I suppose, prepares it for decomposition ; it also gives the soap 
into which it enters as an ingredient a degree of richness which nothing 
else can give. Barley-meal may he used instead of pearl barley, and re- 
quires less hoUing." 


These form a good stock to be added to eachqnart of soup. Qrain 
previously boiled or creed should not be added till fift^n or 
twentj minutes before the soup is ready. 

PeaS) lentils, and haricot beans should be soaked for tweWe 
hours or more in cold water before they are used, and as the 
former differ much in quality, such only shduld be employed as 
will become soft by boiling. 

OouMT BuMvoBi), says that peas should tieyer be suffered 
to remain in the water oyer-night, as he found by repeated trials 
that they neyer boil soft if the water in which they are boiled is 
not boiling hot when they are put into it. 

Potatoes, turnips, and Jerusalem artichokes sh(Md be washed, 
pared, and cut into small portioxis ; parsneps, darrots, dtd.,- washed, 
scraped, and cut ; white roots should be put iifto cold water as 
they ar0 cut, to prcTcnt them being discoloured by the air ; onions, 
shallots, and garlic should be cut small, and used with great 

Sliced onions, fried in butter with a little flour, sugar, salt, and 
pepper, till they are browned, and. then rubbed through a sieye, 
are useful to heighten the colour and flayour of brown soups and 
sauces. Onions freed from theii* outer skin, dried gradually to a 
deep brown in a yery moderately heated oyen, and flattened like 
Norfolk biffins, will keep for almost any length Of time, and are 
yery usefol for the same purpose. 

Onions, shallots, or eyen a little garlic may be introduced in 
the most delicate dishes, if Only so well blended with other flayours 
as not to be objectionable. A small piece of garlic crushed with 
a knife and stirred in is sufficient. It is useless to put several 
ingredients of the same character into either soups or sauces, as 
cloyes and allspice, mace and nutmeg, marjoram, thyme, and 
sayory, etc. ; soups are also more wholesome when not compU- 
eated by too great a yariety of grain, roots, etc. 

Nouilles (160) and forcemeat balls of yarions sorts, are also 
used in soups ; some of them are called Passoyer Balls (492). 

446. As butter loses its sweetness by boiling, it should be 
added after the soup has been sufficiently cooked, except when the 
yegetables are stewed in the butter. 


Neither eggs nor cream should be added to soaps or sances tin 
all the other ingredients ha^e been well boiled, and the whole of 
a proper thickness ; and, after they have been added, the sonp 
should be removed from the fire, carefully shaJ^en or stirred in one 
direction till ready, but not allowed to boil again. 

447. Thickening. — Fine fresh rice flour, which has been 
passed through a lawn sieve, is best for thickening soups gene- 
rally, but arrowroot is preferable for white soups. Tous-Us-moitt 
potato flour, or roux, may also be employed for the same purpose ; 
from one to two ounces for a quart of soup. The flour, etc., used 
for thickening, should be thoroughly blended with the sugar, salt, 
pounded spices, ketchup, etc. Add to it very gradually sufficient 
cold liquid to render it of the consistence of batter ; when quite 
smooth, stir it into the boiling soup, which should be simmered 
and stirred for ten minutes i^terwards. Good bran tea boiled 
with the vegetables is useful for thickening. 

448. Seasoning. — Sauces, being intended to give a relish to 
things otherwise insipid, admit of being more highly seasoned 
than soups, which should alt^ays be mild, and not too strongly 

About an ounce or an ounce and a half of sugar to each gallon 
of soup is an improvement ; the same proportion of salt may be 
used when few vegetables are employed, and two ounces when a 
large quantity of them is used. It is .always safer to use too 
little than too much salt, pepper, and other seasonings, as a 
deficiency can be easily remedied, but an excess cannot be 
removed ; yet, as heat develops the flavour of pepper and most 
spices, it is advisable to put in the proper quantity at first ; fre- 
quently tasting is, however, the only sure guide. Half a drachm 
of celery or cress seed finely powdered, or double the quantity if 
used whole, will impart ahnost as much flavour to two quarts of 
soup as two or three heads of the fresh vegetable. 

Herb powder, or vegetable relish, browning, ketchup, flavoured 
vinegars, sweet herbs, and savoury spice, are very convenient 
auxiliaries with which to finish soups. Spices and flavouring 
should not be added to soup till ten or flfteen minutes before it is 
removed from the fire, as heat dissipates the aroma. 


Tomatoes are a great improvement to many kinds of soups. 

A hunch of herhs^ when spoken of for soups, consists of parsley, 
thyme, and green onions ; when called seasoning ^ it is these with 
about three bay leaves, six cloves, a blade or two of mace, common 
pepper and salt. 

Thickened soups require nearly twice as much seasoning as 
olear soups, the piquancy of spice being blunted by the flour and 

449. Colouring. — A piece of bread well toasted, but not burnt, 
put into the soup a short time before it is ready, will generally be 
sufficient. An ounce or two of moist sugar, the coarser the better, 
may be put into a small saucepan with a piece of butter the size 
of a walnut, and dissolved together ; add a glass of ketchup, and 
stir it well. Fried or baked onions may be used for the same 
purpose, without either butter or ketchup. Also either brown or 
white roux, according to the colour of the soup. 

General Directions for Making Broths for Clear Soups^ or 
Foundations for Thickened Soups, 

450. These should be prepared the evening before they are 

Method 1. — Put the prepared vegetables and the cold soft water 
(23) into a stewing jar or pot-au-feu ; cover it closely, and place it 
in a very moderately heated oven ; or, put the whole in a stew-pan, 
and raise the temperature gradually to the boiling point (say in 
thirty minutes) ; ♦ skim the soup well, especially when it first 
begins to boil, or it cannot be rendered clear afterwards ; a little 
salt thrown in will assist to bring the scum to the surface. As 
soon as the scum has been removed, put on the cover; keep 
the soup simmering gently but unceasingly, till all the ingre- 
dients which are soluble are quite tender or pulpy, which 
may require from one to six hours. When the vegetables are 

* By this means the albumen, flbrine, caseine, etc., of the vegetables will 
be obtained in solution ; but if the temperature be raised too rapidly, the 
fibres of the vegetables will be hardened, and the albumen coagulated. 
Bapid boiling carries off the volatile parts by evaporation. 


tough or fibrous, add a little soda to the water, especially if it be 

If intended as a foundation for thickened sonp, pass the whole 
of the pulp, while hot, first through a colander, then through a 
fine sieve, add the thickening, seasoning, etc., and let the whole 
simmer ten minutes ; but if intended to be used as a broth for 
clear soup, let it stand ten minutes after it has been remoyed from 
the fire ; then, without disturbing the sediment, pour the clear 
fluid into a basin, and after it has stood two hours, or when it is 
as transparent as it is likely to become, pour the clear fluid into 
a stew-pan. Unless skimmed and carefully managed, it may 
require the addition of two or three whites of eggs beaten up and 
boiled in the soup, to make it clear. If two kinds of soup are 
required, a portion may be poured off for clear soup, and the 
remainder boiled a little longer for thickened soup. 

451. Method 2. — ^Dissolve the butter in a stew-pan, add a tea- 
spoonful of brown sugar, then the sliced yegetables ; coyer them 
closely, and stew them very slowly till soft and slightly browned, 
which may require from twenty-five to sixty minutes. Add the 
boiling water, bread, boiled peas, etc. ; let the whole simmer, and 
skim it well ; then add the seasoning, cover the pan closely, and 
continue the simmering gently for an hour and a half. Strain or 
decant, as in No. 1. 

When dried peas, lentils, barley, rice, or other grain are to be 
added, they should be previously well washed, soaked, and boiled, 
and put to the stewed yegetables with the boiling water. Barley 
requires long boiling. Sago and tapioca should be washed and 
soaked for two or three hours ; dissolve them in a little water, 
and add them with the water to the Med yegetables ; stir the 
whole well till ready* 

452. Method 3.-^Fry the sliced yegetables in the butter fifteen 
minutes, or till lightly browned on all sides. Put them into a 
soup-pan with the boiling water and seasoning, and allow them 
to simmer till tender, taking care to skim well. Strain or decant, 
as in No. 1. 


Ingredients for Broths. 

463. To be prepared by any one of the above methods. 

(a.) Turnips, carrots, onions, and other vegetables and season- 
ing herbs. 

(6.) Carrots four, turnips two, celerry two heads, onions four, 
toasted bread one slice, water four quarts. Stew and strain, or 
fry as above directed. 

(c.) Turnip one, carrot one, celery one head, onion four ounces, 
butter three ounces, peas one pint, a crust of bread, twenty-four 
berries of allspice, the same of black pepper, and two blades of 
mace. Herbs tied in a bag may be boiled in the broth when 

((2.) Carrot one, celery one head, onions four, butter eight 

(e.) Potatoes six, onions six, carrots six, turnips four, celery 
three heads, butter four ounces, water four quarts, a brown toast, 
pepper and salt. 

(/.) Barley Broth, — Scotch barley four ounces, sliced onions 
four ounces, salt two ounces, water five quarts. Wash and steep 
the barley, boil the whole an hour and a quarter. 

(g.) Scotch Broth. — Scotch or pearl barley four ounces, groats 
two ounces, turnips two, carrots two, butter two ounces, bread 
crust eight ounces, water four quarts. Wash and steep the barley, 
boil it two hours, add the turnips and carrots, cut small, and when 
these are tender, add pot-herbs, seasoning, ete^ 


454. Stock is a term employed to denote that part of soup 
which becomes gelatinous when cold. For Vegetable Soups it is 
prepared from sago, tapioca, arrowroot, salep, and Irish moss. 

These substances should be well washed, and soaked two or 
three hours separately, and then dissolved by boiling them in 
water. One ounce of any one of these, or of a combination of 
them, may be dissolved in a pint of water, except in the case pt 


salep, one omice of which will require nearly four pints of 

Soups may be divided into — 1. Clear Soups. 2. Opaque or 
Thickened Soups. 

(1.) Clear Soups. 

466. Make a good clear broth by any one of the methods 
450, 451, 452, then add a clear stock, or cut yegetables, maca- 
roni, etc., which have been partially cooked. 

A little fried parsley is frequently put into clear soups before 
serving them. 

1. Cut the vegetables into shreds or into smaU dice. Then put 
them in cold water, boil them five minutes, and drain them on a 
sieve. Add them to two quarts of clear soup (463 h) ; simmer 
the whole gently till the vegetables are tender, which may be the 
case in thirty or forty minutes. Season with salt and cayenne ; 
four table-spoonfuls of mushroom ketchup may likewise be 

2. Having cut the vegetables, wash them in cold water, then 
drain them on a sieve ; when dry, put them in a stew-pan, with 
two ounces of butter and a tea-spoonfol of powdered sugar ; set 
the pan on a very sharp fire for ten minutes, shaking the contents 
over occasionally till they are covered with a thin bright glaze, 
but take care that they are neither browned nor surrounded with 
a whitish liquid. Pour two quarts of clear broth over them, raise 
the soup to a boiling heat, and let it simmer till the vegetables 
are quite tender, especially the onions, which may require half an 
hour. Skii^ the soup well, and try whether it has been properly 
seasoned. There should be about half a pound of vegetables to 
two quarts of broth. 

466. Additions to broths in order to form Clear Soups : — 

(a.) One large turnip, the red part of a large carrot, onions 
three ounces, celery one stick. 

(5.) Carrots, turnips, or turnip radishes ; onions three, celery 
one head. 

(c.) Carrots and turnips, six ounces ; onions, leeks, and celery, 


three ounces. Proceed according to 455, 2, using butter two 
ounces, sugar one tea- spoonful, broth three pints. 

A few green peas, small pieces of broccoli, cauliflower, or Brus- 
sels sprouts, previously boiled, may be added. 

A little tarragon and chervil, or the vinegars flavoured with 
these herbs, are a pleasant addition to this and other soups. 

(d.) One carrot, one turnip, eighteen button onions. 

(e.) Turnips or carrots or Jerusalem artichokes eight ounces. 
Artichokes will require only half as much boiling as either of the 
other vegetables. 

(/.) Macaroni washed, steeped, cut in thin pieces, and partially 
cooked, or broken into the broth, four ounces to three pints. 
Boil till tender. 

Vermicelli requires only half the time of boiling which is neces- 
sary for macaroni. 

(g.) Sago half an ounce, tapioca one ounce, boiled half an hour 
in two pints of water. Add this stock to broth (453 h) simmer 
and skim well ; strain the soup two or three times through book 
muslin, or a fine sieve ; after the second straining, add two ounces 
of butter, two table-spoonfuls of ketchup, and one of lemon 
pickle or lemon juice, or pickled mushrooms, a little cayenne and 
salt, and one table-spoonful of browning ; skim and simmer till 
clear. The addition of forcemeat balls, or egg balls, etc., will 
render it an excellent substitute for mock-turtle soup. 

Herbs tied in a muslin bag may be boiled in the soup when 

(h.) Green peas boiled till rather tender, and added to clear 

(i.) Mash well two ounces of rice, and boil it in three pints of 
broth till tender. 

(j.) Drop very lightly and by degrees six ounces of semolina or 
vermicelli into three quarts of boiling soup, which should be 
stirred all the time. Skim, and simmer ten or fifteen minutes. 

The same quantity of vermicelli should be simmered for half 
an hour, or put four ounces of it in cold water, wash, steep, 
drain it quite dry, then stew it in the soup from ten to fifteen 


(k.) To five pints of clear stock (454 dt 456 g) add, wh€n it 
boils, a pound and a half of good baking apples, and stew them 
to a smooth piilp ; press the whole through a strainer, add a small 
tea-spoonful of powdered ginger and a little pepper, and let the 
soup simmer two or three minutes ; sMm^ and serve it hot with a 
dish of boiled rice, the grains separate and dry (69 c). 

(2.) Thickened Soups, 

457. These may be either puree or smooth soups, or entire 
unstrained soups ; and as to colour they may be either brown, 
green, or white, according to the ingredients used. 

(a.) Brown Soups, 

Proceed to make them by the general directions, 450, etc. 

{a.) Potatoes four to six, onions four to six, carrots four to six, 
turnips four to six, celery three heads, butter eight ounces, a 
brown toast, boiling water four quarts. 

Fry the vegetables as in 452 ; then the toast and a head of 
celery cut small ; add salt and pepper, stew the whole four hours, 
and strain. 

(6.) Dried peas one pint and a half, turnips one pound, carrots 
one pound, celery eight ounces, onions six ounces, butter four 
ounces, salt quarter of an ounce, toasted bread eight ounces, 
pepper half a tea-spoonful, and two table-spoonfals of ketchup. 

Stew as in 451; add boiling water to make three quarts altoge- 
ther, strain, and then simmer for a few minutes. 

(c.) Split peas a pint and a half, pearl barley half a pint, car- 
rots two, one onion, turnips two, celery one head, toasted bread 
eight ounces, water four quarts. 

Wash and steep the peas and barley, boil them with a little 
salt and soda, add the vegetables and bread, and when quite soft 
pul]2. the whole through a colander. Add gradually a quart of 
boiling water, return the soup to the pan, season with salt and 
pepper, and boil ten minutes. 

(d.) Large green peas one quart, butter two or three ounces, 


one middle-sized onion, a little mint, salt two tea-spoonfiils, 
sugar one tea-spoonfnl, pepper half a tea-spoonful, water half a 

Put the whole in a pan, and set it on a slow fire, stir it occa- 
sionally until no more moisture remains at the bottom of the 
pan ; add three table-spoonfuls of flour ; stir the mixture rapidly, 
and break the peas against the side of the pan with a wooden 
spoon; moisten with a quart of milk and a quart of water; 
simmer twenty minutes, or longer if the peas are old, then 

Fried bread in small dice is a good accompaniment. The bread 
should not be boiled, but the soup poured upon it. 

Vegetable broth may be used instead of the milk and water. 
The peas may be passed through a hair-sieve by breaking and 
pressing them with the back of a spoon, by which means a purie 
soup is produced. Heat it, and serve. 

(e.) Cabbage lettuces four, cos lettuce one, sorrel one handfal, 
tarragon and chervil a little of each, cucumbers two or three 
small ones. Wash, dry, and cut the lettuces, pare and slice the 
cucumbers ; butter four ounces. Stir the whole over a slow fire 
till no liquid remains ; add two table-spoonfcQs of flour, mix well, 
and then add gradually two quarts of broth (453 a), or water 
only, and boil ; when boiling add a pint of green peas, two tea- 
spoonfuls of sugar, and a little salt and pepper ; when the peas 
are tender, serve. 

(/.) Turnips three, cut in quarters ; carrots three, cut small ; 
Jerusalem artichokes four, celery one head, onions three, sago one 
tea-cupful, barley half a tea-cupfiil, rice half a tea-cupful, peas 
two tea-cupfuls, arrowroot or potato starch one tea-cupfiil, water 
five quarts. Boil the vegetables, peas, and barley to a pulp ; 
stram, then add the rice, sago, potato flour, a bunch of herbs, 
pepper, and salt ; boil half an hour, take out the herbs, then 
thicken with three table-spoonfuls of flour, and four ounces of 
butter worked well together. Add two table-spoonfuls of ketchup, 
two table-spoonfuls of lemon pickle, then boil the whole ten 
{g.) Crecy Soup, — Bed part of twelve carrots, one half of them 


rasped, the other half out small ; ttimips two, celery two heads, 
onions two, one leek, hatter fooi* ounces, sugar one table- spoonful. 

Stew the cut vegetables with the butter and sugar, as in 451. 
To these add two quarts of boiling water or of broth (453 a), and 
before the soup is removed from the fire, add two table-spoonfuls 
of lemon pickle, or the juice of a lemon. 

(h,) Carrots or parsneps two pounds, celery two heads, batter 
three ounces, red part of carrots six ounces, water foar pints and 
a half, or substitute three ounces of rice or barley for one-half of 
the carrots. Proceed as in 451. 

(i.) Jerusalem artichokes or vegetable-marrow two pounds, tur- 
nips one pound, onions two or three, celery one head, water two 
quarts, flour two table-spoonfuls, butter one ounce, pepper and 
salt. Boil or stew the vegetables till tender ; add the flonr and 
seasoning ; let the soup simmer half an hour, and stir it fre- 

(j.) Carrots in very thin slices two pounds, onions sliced two, 
cloves two, a little thyme, sugar and salt two tea- spoonfuls of 
each, and a quarter of a tea-spoonful of pepper, water half a pint. 
Let the whole simmer gently for forty minutes ; add three table- 
spoonfuls of flour, previously mixed with a little butter ; then add 
two quarts of broth (453 a) ; pass the whole through a sieve, and 
when the soup has been again heated, serve it. 

(A;.) Cucumbers five or six of a moderate size, cos lettuces six, 
bread crumbs six ounces, onions four ounces, parsley one ounce, 
butter four ounces. Pare and slice the cucumbers and onions ; 
dress and cut the lettuces ; add the parsley with a little season- 
ing ; put the vegetables in a pan with the butter, and stew them 
gently for three-quarters of an hour ; then pour in two quarts of 
boiling water, add the bread crumbs, and let the soup simmer 
gently for two hourg. If too thin, mix a tea-spoonful of flour 
with an ounce of butter, stir it weU in, boil ten minutes longer, 
and add a table-spoonful of tarragon vinegar. 

(I.) Cabbage lettuces two, spinach a handful, carrots six, tur- 
nips six, onions three or four, parsley one ounce, water two quarts. 
Wash and chop the vegetables small ; cut the carrots, turnips, 
and onions in small pieces ; stew them in four ounces of butter ; 


add the boUing water, and boil the soap gently, with a little 
seasoning, for two hours. A pint of young peas may be added, 
or grey peas which have been soaked and boiled ; then stew another 

(to.) Count Rumfobd's proportions are, pearl barley four 
ounces, peas four ounces, potatoes twelve ounces, bread four 
onnces, salt one ounce, -vinegar three ounces, water two quarts. 

Boil the pearl barley, then add the peas, and continue the boil- 
ing for two hours ; add the potatoes peeled, or first boiled to re- 
move the peel, boil one hour, and stir well. Add the vinegar and 
salt, and just before serving, pour the soup over the bread. The 
bread should be cut as fine or thin as possible, and if dry and 
hard, so much the better. 

The soup may be improved by using various kinds of roots, 
vegetables, and fine herbs. 

(n.) Carrots, turnips, and onions two of each, one leek and one 
head of celery. Cut them thin and slanting ; fry the onions till 
rather brown in four ounces of butter, add the other vegetables, 
and fry them ten minutes longer ; then add seven quarts of water, 
boil up, and add split peas one pound and a half; simmer two or 
three hours, or until the whole has been reduced to a pulp ; add 
two table-spoonfuls of salt, two of sugar, and one of dried mint ; 
mix eight ounces of flour quite smooth with a pint of water, stir it 
well, pour in the soup, and boU half an hour. 

(o.) One turnip, one carrot, three or four Jerusalem artichokes, 
six middle-sized onions, two heads of celery, one leek. All the 
vegetables together should weigh about two pounds ; butter four 
ounces, water one quart. 

Fry about one-half of the vegetables with a portion of the butter ; 
cut the remaining half of the vegetables into small portions, and 
put them along with the fried vegetables to the water ; raise the 
temperature to the boiling point, then let the whole simmer two 
hours, adding fresh boiling water as evaporation proceeds, so as 
to have about a quart of soup when the process is finished. Strain 
the soup, using a little pressure ; if not thick enough, add a little 
flour and a little cream, if at hand ; also a little pepper and 
salt, a tea- spoonful of sweet marjoram, three table-spoonfuls of 


ketchup, and the remaining butter; let the whole Eommer a iew 

This soup is generally much esteemed. 
' The introductory remarks on thickening, flavouring, and color- 
ing, should he well attended to, in order to succeed satisfactorilj 
in making the foregoing soups, and in order to vary them as may 
be thought desirable. Water should be at a boiling heat whea 
added to soup. 

(6.) Green Soups. 

468. (a.) Boil three pints of fully grown but sonnd green 
peas with half a tea-spoonful of soda for thirty minutes or more. 
When they are tender, drain them, and add them to two quarts of 
boiling stock (454), pale but good; stew them in it for half an 
hour, then pass the whole through a fine sieye ; put the soup into 
a clean pan, and bring it to the boiling point, adding salt, if ne- 
cessary, and a small tea-spoonful of powdered sugar. Clear off 
the scum, and serve. 

(6.) To the broth and stock (466 g) without the browning, add 
a pint of green peas previously boiled with a little soda and a 
sprig of mint, and pulped through a sieve. Beserve a few to be 
put in whole, and if the soup be not of a sufficient consistency, 
thicken it with a little flour, butter, and cream. Spinach greening 
(373) is sometimes added. 

(c.) Green peas one quart, lettuces two, onions three, bread 
eight ounces, pea-shells without the stalks two quarts, turnips 
three, spinach or parsley one handful, salt one table-spoonful, 
water five quarts. 

Proceed as at 450, pass the stewed vegetables through a colan- 
der or sieve, return the soup to the pan with a quart of boiling 
water ; season with pepper and salt, and boil the soup about ten 

{d.) Oucumbers three or four pared and sliced, the hearts of 
three or four lettuces shred small, two onions cut thin, a few 
sprigs of parsley, and, if not objectionable, twelve or more leaves 
of mint roughly chopped. Stew these for nearly an hour over a 


gentle fire, with three or four ounces of hatter ; add half a tea* 
spoonfal of salt, and a little white pepper or cayenne. When par- 
tially cooked, drain them from the hatter, pat them to a stock 
made of a qaart of fully grown green peas hoiled, drained, poanded, 
and then stewed in five pints of the liqaor in which they were 
boiled. Simmer the soup till aU the hatter has been cleared off, 
then add half or three-quarters of a pint of young peas hoiled as 
for eating. 

(«.) Green beans one quart, spinach one handful, parsley one 
ounce, butter two ounces, yegetable broth two quarts, a little floor, 
pepper and salt. Boil the beans, skin and braise them ; add the 
water or broth, batter, flour, and seasoning, and the yegetables 
previously boiled till soft. Stur the soup till it boils, and pass it 
through a sieve. 

(/.) Green beans one quart, one leaf of garden sorrel. Boil 
them in plenty of water, and pulp them through a sieve ; put them 
in a stew-pan with sufficient of the water in which they have been 
boiled, add one ounce of butter, half a spoonful of salt, a quarter 
of a spoonful of sugar, a quarter of a tea-spoonful of pepper, a 
little tarragon, and a quarter of the flower of a French marigold. 
Boil the soup twenty minutes, and serve. 

(c.) White and other Soups, 

450. (a.) Pompkins or vegetable-marrow two pounds, cut in 
large dice, butter three or four ounces, salt and sugar two tea- 
spoonfids of each, pepper a quarter of a tea-spoonfiil, water half a 
pint. Stew gently for twenty minutes ; when in pulp, add two 
table-spoonfuls of flour and three pints of milk gradually, stirring 
the whole well during the mixing. 

An onion sliced may be stewed with the marrow. 

(b,) Almonds two ounces, new milk one pint and a half, cream 
half a pint, flour one table-spoonful, one onion, one head of celery, 
butter one ounce. 

Blanch and chop the ahnonds small, boil them gently one 
hour, along with the onion and the white part of the celery, in one 
pint of the milk; remove the onion and celery, mix the flour 


210 TflOETABLK CX)0E]5BT, Ad, 

and batter together, add half a piat of milk, a little cayenne, 
mace, and salt ; etir the eoup oyer the fire till it has boiled a few 
minates, add the cream, and as soon as the soap boile again, re- 
move and serve it. 

(e.) Into any clear boiling soap (as 456 g), without browning, 
bread, or seasoning, drop vermicelU, macaroni, or rice previously 
steeped in cold water for two honrs. Milk or cream may be 
added, if required as a white soup. 

(d.) Or, after soaking and boiling the macaroni till tender, 
drain it, wash it in fresh water, lay it on a doth, and out it into 
short lengths, then add it to the strained soup ; add also thick- 
ening and seasoning as may be required, and boil the whole ten 
minutes, then add the cream. YermiceUi may be treated in the 
same way without cutting it into lengths. 

(e.) Wash and pare quickly some fresh artichokes, and to pre- 
serve their colour, throw each into spring water as soon as the 
skin is removed. Boil three pounds of them in water for ten 
minutes; remove them and slice them into three pints of boiling 
stock (454 or 456 g) ; stew them fifteen or twenty minutes, press 
them with the soup through a fine sieve, and put the whole into 
a clean saucepan with a pint and half more of stock ; add salt and 
cayenne ; skim the soup well, and after it has simmered two or 
three minutes, stir to it a pint of rich boiling cream or milk. 
Serve immediately. 

(/.) Jerusalem artichokes two pounds, mUk two quarts, butter 
one ounce, two yolks of e^s, cream five table spoonfuls. 

Prepare the artichokes as above, and boil them in water till 
soft, pass them through a sieve, put the pulp into a pan with the 
milk and butter, season with pepper and salt, stir the soup over 
the fire till it boils, then let it stew gently till it is of the consis- 
tency of peas soup. Put the beaten yolks of eggs and cream in a 
ureen, then pour in the boiling soup and stir it till well mixed. 
Serve immediately. 


460. Sauces are liquid, semi-liquid, or pulpy preparations, for 
the purpose of rendering food more palatable. 


Sauces may be arranged as follows : — 

1. Preserves, stewed fruits, or the juice of fruit. 

2. Vinegars and their combinations. 

8. Arrowroot, tapioca, etc., dissolTed in water or mUk. 
4. Batter, flour, water, etc. 

(1.) Pbeserves, Stewed Fruits, or the Juice of Fruits. 

Preserves and the juice of fruit are frequently served with 
boiled rice, flour puddings, etc. 

Apple Sauce, 

461. Pare, divide, and core some apples; stew them in a 
very little water, and when sufficiently done, pulp them through a 
sieve. A little sugar and lemon-peel may be added. 

Or, apples pared, divided, and cored, one quart, sugar one 
ounce, butter half an ounce. 

Add a table-spoonful of water to the apples ; bake them in a 
basin covered with a plate, in a moderate oven, for an hour, or till 
they are reduced to a pulp ; beat the pulp till smooth ; add the 
sugar and butter, or not, as may be preferred. A Uttie lemon- 
peel may be added to the apples, and removed from them when 
they are reduced to a pulp. 

This method is considered preferable to stewing the apples. 

Raspberry Sauce. 

462. Stew some raspberries with a little water tiU they are 
quite soft ; mix a tea-spooniol of potato flour with a very little 
water ; add it to the fruit, and when well miz«d, strain the whole 
through a sieve ; add a little sugar, cinnamon, and a glass of 
water, vinegar, or wine, and boil the mixture till it is clear. 

Currant jelly, fresh cherries, or other fruit may be treated in 
the same way. 

Red Currant Sauce. 

463. Bed currants half a pint, sugar three ounces in lumps. 

V 2 


If the cnrrants are dusty, wash them and drain them. Boil the 
sugar in one-third of a pint of water for five minates ; put in the 
currants, and stew them ten minutes ; strain off the juice through 
muslin or a fine sieve ; heat it again, and pour it while boiling to a 
small spoonfed of arrowroot or potato starch, previously mixed 
with a table-spoonful of cold water, and stir it well while mixing ; 
finally, let the sauce boil for one minute, that it may become 
transparent, then pour it over the pudding. 

A few raspberries may be added two or three minutes after the 
currants have been put in. Syrups drained from plums, cherries, 
etc., prepared for drying (46), make excellent sauces for sweet 

Boiled Treacle is a good accompaniment to yeast dumplings, 
porridge, etc. 

(2.) Vinegars and their Combinations. 

464. A mixture of sugar and verjuice or vinegar is frequently 
used as a sauce to light dumplings, and also to salad ; for the 
latter purpose some add a little oil, mustard, etc. 

Mint Sauce, 

466. Mix two table-spoonfuls of mint, chopped very fine, with 
one large spoonful of sugar and a quarter of a pint of vinegar, or 
with the juice of a lemon and a little water. 

Qreen mint may be chopped in any quantity during summer, 
and put into wide-mouthed bottles^ which should then be filled 
with good vinegar and be well corked. 

Sugar can be added at any time when the sauce is required. 

A sharp knife should be employed for chopping mint, and all 
other vegetables. 

Flavoured Vinegars for Sauces^ Soups, and Salad Mixtures. 

466. Various fruits and herbs are used for this purpose, as 
strawberries, raspberries, black currants, tarragon, bumet, sweet 
basil, mint, elder-flowers, shallots, garlic, horse-radish, cress-seed, 
celery-seed, etc. 


Fill a wide-mouthed bottle with the fresh green leaves of any 
of the above herbs, gathered on a dry day, before the time of 
flowering, and dried a little before the fire ; cover the leaves with 
good vinegar ; let them steep dnrmg fourteen days, then strain 
through a flannel jelly bag ; pour the- vinegar into small bottles, 
cork them well, and keep them in a dry place. 

If a strong essence is required, put the strained liquor upon 
some more leaves, and after standing fourteen days, strain as 

Shallots or garlic peeled and chopped two ounces, vinegar two 
pints. Proceed as above, frequently shaking the bottle. 

Horse-radish scraped three ounces, shallots minced one ounce, 
cayenne one drachm, vinegar two pints. Steep and strain as 

Cress seed or celery seed dried and pounded half an ounce, 
vinegar two pints. 

Burnet has nearly the flavour of cucumber ; basil vinegar or 
tarragon vinegar is an agreeable addition to salad mixtures, 
sauces, and soups ; but as the flavour of both these and garlic is 
very strong, each should be used very sparingly. 

Vinegar of Mixed Herbs. 

467. Lemon thyme, winter savory, sweet marjoram, sweet 
basil, half an ounce of each, lemon-peel grated two drachms, 
shallots two drachms, celery seed one drachm, vinegar one pint, 
shallots, sweet savory, chives, and tarragon, of each three- 
quarters of an ounce, dried mint leaves and balm, one dessert- 
spoonful of each. Pound all in It mortar, put them in a stone 
or glass jar, or bottle, and pour over them a quart of vinegar ; 
cover the whole closely for a fortnight ; expose to the sun or put 
in a warm place ; strain and filter. 

Fruit Vinegar, 

468. Strawberries or raspberries twelve pounds, vinegar six 
pints, sugar equal to the weight of fluid obtained. The fruit 


BOfit be ripe, fresh, treU picked, of good flavonr, and gathered 
when dry. Pat one-third of the fruit into larf^e glass jars or 
wide-neeked bottles, and to each ponnd of fruit add a pint and a 
half of good vinegar ; tie a thick paper over the jart, and let them 
stand three or four days ; then pour off the vinegar, and snspend 
the fniit in a jelly-bag or <$loth till all the liquid has passed 
through tDithou4pr€»nire; into the jars pni another third of fr^sh 
fruit, pour the vinegar over it, and again let it stuid three days ; 
then proceed in like manner with the remaining third of the frnit. 
Finally, drain off the liquor, and pass it through the bag; weigh 
it, and mix with it an equal weight of highly refined sugar 
roughly powdered, or a pound aud a quarter of sugar to a pint of 
the fluid ; when the sugar is nearly dissolved^ stir the syrup over - 
a very clear fire till it has boiled five minutes, and skim it wrell; 
pour it into a clean pitcher or jug, cover it with a folded eloth, 
and let it stand till the following day ; then put it into pint or 
half-pint botUes, cork them lightly with good corks, and in four 
or five days press the corks well down, and store the bottles in a 
dry cool place. 

When fruit is scarce, it may he gathered from day to day, and 
added to the vinegar as obtained ; it will not be injured by stand- 
ing a day or two longer than the time mentioned before it is 
drained from the frnit. 

Enamelled stew-pans are the best vessels for boiling it in ; or it 
may be simmered in stone jars set in a pan of boiling water ; the 
former method, however, is to be preferred. 

Another Method, 

409. Omsh the sugar, and put one-fourth of it over the whole 
of the fruit, and let it stand two or three days ; drain off the juice 
as above, without pressure ; heat the remaining sugar, put the 
juice in the pan, and when it begins to boil add the hot sugar. 
Boil, skim, and bottle, as above. Or, boil the sugar to candy 
height, add the juice obtained as above, simmer the whole about 
two minutes, and remove the scum as it rises ; the flavour of the 
fruit will thus he better preserved. 


B&spberries and strawberries may be mixed together; black 
currants may also be thus made into Tinegar. 

Fmit-Tinegars form a nice beverage by adding a spoonful or 
two to a glass of water ; they also form excellent sauces for sweet 
light puddings. 

Sctlad Sauce, 

AttO* Eggs tvO) water or cream one table-spoonfed, oil or dis- 
solyed batter two table-spoonfols, salt or powdered Inmp sugar 
one tea-spoonful, mustard one tea-spoonful, Tinegar three table- 
spoonfuls. To these may be added a tea-spoonful of tarragon 
•vinegar, or basil vinegar, etc. ; or a table-spoonful of the chopped 
leaves. Boil the eggs twelve minutes, then put them in cold water 
for a few minutes; then with a wooden spoon rub the yolks, 
which must be cold and hard, through a sieve, or pound them in 
a mortar ; mix them with the water or cream, add the oil, sugar, 
salt, and mustard, and, when these have been well mixed, add 
very gradually the vinegars, and rub the whole till well blended. 
Garnish the salad with the whites of eggs cut in peices. 

Mayonnaise Sauce, 

471. Tolks of eggs two, a sprinkling of cayenne, salad oil one- 
third of a pint, water one table-spoonful, vinegar three table- 
spoonfuls, sugar and salt a little of each. Mix well together the 
yolks of eggs, cayenne, and one tea-spoonful of the oil ; when 
quite smooth add another tea-spoonful of the oil, beat it well in, 
and thus continue to add the oil by tea-spoonfuls, beating after 
each addition, till the whole has been formed into a perfectly 
smooth mixture. In the meantime dissolve the sugar and salt in 
the vinegar, add this to the former mixture, and again beat the 
whole till smooth. A little tarragon vinegar will improve the 
flavour. Some persons prefer an extemporaneous mixture of oil, 
sugar, and vinegar. 


(3.) Areoweoot, Tapioca, etc. 

Arrowroot Sauce. 

473. Arrowroot one table-spoonfal, water or milk one pint, 
sugar four to six ounces, lemon juice or white wine. Mix the 
arrowroot with a little cold water, add it to the boiling fluid and 
sugar. If intended for dark sauce, substitute brown sugar and 
port wine ; if for Yegetable, season with pepper and salt. 

Mock Cream for Rice^ Fruit, etc. 

473. Pour half a pint of boiling milk on a tea-spoonfol of 
arrowroot, preyiously mixed with a small quantity of cold milk ; 
stir the mixture well, and, when moderately warm, add the white 
of an egg well beaten. Place the whole over the ^e, and stir it 
till it nearly boils, then strain it for use. 

Tapioca Sauce. 

474. Tapioca one ounce, water one pint, loaf sugar four 
ounces, a little lemon peel. Simmer the tapioca in the water 
one or two hours, or until it is dissolved and clear ; add the sugar 
and seasoning, and pour the sauce over a baked or boiled 

(4.) Butter, Flour, Water, etc. 

Butter Sauce, or Melted Butter. 

475. (a.) Put a large tea-spoonful of flour and a little salt in 
a basin, and mix with these very gradually till quite smooth a 
quarter of a pint of cold water ; put them in a small clean sauce- 
pan, and shake or stir them constantly over a clear fire tiU they 
have simmered two minutes, then add an ounce and a half of 
butter cut in small pieces ; stir the sauce till the butter is quite 
dissolved, let it simmer one minute, then serve it quickly. It 
should be of the consistency of good cream. 


(b.) Or, pnt two ounces of batter and a large tea-spoonful of 
flonr into a saucepan ; set it on the hob at a little distance from 
the fire, and leave it till it is of the consistency of thick cream ; 
then mix the flour and batter together with a spoon, and pour to 
it one-third of a pint of boiling water, stirring it well together ; ' 
set it oyer the fire, let it boil up, and immediately pour it into the 
sauce tureen. 

(c.) Or, butter two ounces, flour two oxmces, salt half a tea- 
spoonfol, pepper one quarter of a tea-spoonful, cold water one 
pint. Arrowroot, potato starch, etc., may be substituted for the 
flour. A spoonful or two of milk may supply the place of the 
same quantity of the water ; to enrich the sauce, add more butter. 
Two table-spoonfuls of ketchup added instead of the same quan- 
tity of milk will make a good mushroom sauce. Batter, either 
from its bad quality or from boiling, sometimes runs to oil ; when 
this is the case, put a spoonful of cold water to it, and stir it with 
a wooden spoon, or pour it several times from the stew-pan to the 
saucepan and back ; if this fails, add a little salt of tartar (kept 
in a wellr stopped bottle for the purpose), and stir or shake the 
whole well, 

Sweet Sauce for Puddings, 

476. To half a pint of butter sauce add two table-spoonfuls of 
vinegar and a little sugar, or four table- spoonfuls of raspberry 
vinegar, or two table- spoonfuls of treacle and one of vinegar. 
Some add grated nutmeg or other condiments. 

Cream Sauce. 

477. Yolks of eggs two, juice of one lemon, salt a quarter of a 
tea-spoonful, white pepper a little, butter four ounces. Stir the 
whole over the fire with a wooden spoon till the butter has gra- 
dually dissolved and become mixed with the eggs. Bemove it 
from the fire occasionally when becoming too hot, or the eggs will 
curdle. Add half a pint of melted butter, and stir the whole over 
the fire. 


Burnt Cream Sauce. 

478. Stir in a small saucepan over the fire about two oimeefl 
of sugar till it is quite brown, then pour to it slowly a gill of thin 
cream, stirring it all the time. To be served with batter padding 
or custard. 

Parsley and Butter. 

479. Wash some parsley very clean, and pick it carefdlly leaf 
by leaf ; put a tea-spoonful of salt in half a pint of boiling water, 
and boil the. parsley about ten minutes; drain it on a sieve, 
mince it quite fine, and then bruise it to a pulp ; put it into a 
sauce-boat, and mix with it, by degrees, about half a pint of good 
melted butter, made as above, only it will require less flour, as the 
ptursley will add to its thickness. 

Ohervil, basil, tarragon, bumet, cress, fennel, or fennel and 
parsley, may be added to butter sauce in the same way. 

480. Butter three ounces, vinegar two table-spoonfols, pepper 
and salt. Dissolve the butter in a pan, stir it over a gentle fire 
till it is of a dark brown colour, then pour to it the vinegar quite 
hot, and add the pepper and salt. This is used occasionaUy with 
poached eggs. 

Brovm Sauce. 

481. (a.) Butter two ounces, flour one ounce. Melt the butter 
in a frying-pan or saucepan, add the flour, and stir the niixture 
till it is of a brown colour ; add as much boiling water as will 
render it of the consistency of thin cream ; season with pepper and 
salt. Add a little browning and ketchup. 

(6.) Or, boil the flour and water with a little salt^ then add 
it to the hot butter in the frying-pan ; add also browning and 
ketchup, and let it simmer for five minutes, stirring it all the 

Boux or Browning. 

482. (a.) Put two ounces of powdered sugar into a stew-pan, 


which place orer a slow fire ; when it begins to dissolye, stir It 
with a wooden spoon till it is becoming black, then set it in a 
moderate oven upon a triyet for about twenty minntes ; ponr a pint 
of cold water over it, and, as soon as it is Well dissolyed, bottle it 
for use. It will keep a few weeks. 

(&.) Or, spread flour on a tin or dish, colour it without burning 
it in a gentle oven, or before the fire in a Dutch or American OTen ; 
turn it frequently, that the whole may be equally browned. This 
blended with butter is a convenient thickening for soups and sauces 
when a deep colour is required. 

(c.) Or, put either fresh or clarified butter into a saucepan 
oyer a slow fire ; when the butter is dissolved, stir in with a 
wooden spoon two ounces of brown flour ; stir the whole con- 
stantly till it is quite smooth and of a yellowish light brown. If 
done too quickly oyer a hot fire, it will become bitter. It may be 
kept a fortnight in summer, and longer in winter, in a covered 
earthen jar. A large table-spoonful will be sufficient for a quart 
of sauce. 

(d.) Dissolve very slowly eight ounces of butter ; sMm it, and 
allow the sediment to settle, then pour off the clear part into a 
stew-pan, and, while over a clear but gentle fire, dredge in very 
gradually nearly four ounces of well-dried flour, and shake the 
pan as often as the flour is added ; stir the thickening constantly 
till it is of a clear light brown colour. Unless it be prepared very 
slowly and equally, it will be spoiled. If intended for white soups 
or sauces, the thickening must not be allowed to become brown 
in the least degree. 

Onion Sauce, 

488. Peel some onions, put them in hot water, and boil them 
fifteen minutes ; remove them into fresh hot water, and boil them 
gently till they are quite tender ; remove the external layer, squeeze 
the onions well between two trenchers or plates, then press them 
through a colander, or chop them very fine ; heat them in melted 
butter, or add them to half a pint of milk or cream, two ounces of 
butter, a tea-cupful of crumbled bread and a little salt and nut- 


meg, and boil the whole for a minnte or two. Flour may be ased 
instead of the bread. 

Oni<m Purie Sauce, 

484. Peel and cut six onions in slices ; put them in a stew- 
pan with four ounces of butter, a tea-spoonful of salt, one of 
sugar, and half a tea- spoonful of pepper ; simmer them over a 
moderate fire till quite pulpy, stirring them occasionally ; add one 
table-spoonful of flour and a pint of milk, and boil the whole tiU 
it is a little thicker than melted butter, then pass it through a 
sieve ; warm it again, and serve it. Proceed in a similar way with 
Jerusalem artichokes, turnips, etc. 

Celery Sauce. 

485. Celery two roots, one small onion, flour one ounce, batter 
one ounce, cream quarter of a pint. Out the celery and onions 
small, and stew them in a pint of water till tender ; stir in the 
flour, butter, and cream, previously mixed together, till the 
butter is quite dissolved, and add a little pepper and salt ; simmer 
the whole gently fifteen minutes, rub it through a tin strainer 
with a wooden spoon, return the sauce to the pan, and stir it tiU 
it boils. 

Oarlio Sauce. 

486. Pound two cloves of garlic with a piece of fresh butter 
about the size of a nutmeg ; rub the mixture through a sieve, and 
stir it into half a pint of melted butter ; or make it with garlic 

White Sauce^ 

487. (a.) Butter two ounces, one carrot, two smsdl onions, 
cut small, button mushrooms a handful, flour two table-spoon- 
fuls, a little salt and cayenne, new milk one pint. 

Stew the vegetables in .the butter slowly for half an hour or 
until the butter is nearly dried up, then stir in the flour and pour 
in the milk very gradually, shaking the pan well till the sauce is 


smooth. Boil it gently or let it simmer for half an hoar, add the 
seasoning, strain, and reduce it, if not quite thick enough, or pour 
it while boiling to the yolks of two eggs. 

(6.) Mix a dessert-spoonful of flour with from two to four 
ounces of butter ; work them together with a knife until they form 
a smooth paste ; boil a handful of small mushrooms in half a pint 
of water, with a little salt, inace, and cayenne, till the liquid is 
reduced to one half, then strain it off, and add it to half a pint of 
cream ; put these and the mixture of flour and butter in a sauce- 
pan, sinuner the whole a few minutes, and just before serving add 
the juice of a small lemon. 

Two. or three tea-spoonfuls of parsley, boiled and finely shred, 
may be added to the sauce. 

Rice Sauce. 

488. Bice four ounces, milk one pint, one onion shred, white 
pepper-corns and mace, and a little horse-radish. 

Wash the rice, add it and the onion and seasoning to the milk, 
and boil the whole gently till the rice is quite tender ; remove the 
seasoning, and rub the sauce through a sieve into a clean stew- 
pan ; if too thick, add a little cream or milk. 

To Thicken Sauces, 

.489. When sauces are thickened with the yolks of eggs, the 
latter should first be well beaten, then mixed with a spoonful of 
cold fluid, and one or two spoonfuls of the boiling sauce stirred 
very quickly to them ; they should then be stirred briskly to 
the sauce while held over the fire, and well shaken for an 
instant afterwards, but not placed on the fire nor permitted to 

Bread Sauce, 

490. Bread crumbs four ounces or half a pint, water or 
milk half a pint, salt a small salt-spoonful, mace half as muohj 
cayenne a little, or twelve white pepper-corns, butter one ounce, 
one onion sliced. 


Boil the onion and seasoning in the water or milk till the onion 
is quite soft, strain the hot ftoid to the bread cmmbs, and eoia 
them till cool ; mash the whole, and pat it into a sancepan with 
the batter, then simmer it fonr or five minntea. A little cream 
may be added. 

Egg Sauce. 

401. Eggs three. BoU them till they are qaite hard ; cot 
them in smsJl pieces, and mix them in good batter saaoe ; make 
it Terj hot, and add a little lem<m joiee. 

Passover Balls for Soup. 

492. Chop an onion yery small, and stew it in half a poond of 
batter ; poor it while hot apon eight spoonfuls of biscoit floor ; 
mix all well together, add a little salt, grated nntmeg, lemon nnd 
and ginger, and six eggs. Put the balls into the soap when it 
boUs, and boil them a qaarter of an hoar. 

Mushroom Ketehup. 

498. Take two gallons of large flap mnshrooms, qoite soond, 
break them into a deep earthen pan, and strew amongst them 
three qaarters of a poand of salt, patting a little more at the top 
than between the layers. Let them stand one or two days, and 
stir them gently once each day ; drain off the liqnor without 
pressing the mashrooiitis ; strain and measore it ; pat it into a 
stew-pan, and boil it qoickly, with the seasoning, ontil reduced to 
aboat one-half. For every qaart allow hsJf an oanoe of whole 
black pepper and a drachm of mace, or instead of the pepper a 
qaarter of a tea-spoonfol of good cayenne ; poar the ketchup into 
a clean jag or jar, lay a folded cloth over it, and keep it in a cool 
place antil the next day ; poar it gently from the sediment, put it 
into small bottles, cork them well, oover the corks with cement, 
and keep the bottles in a cool, dry place. 

When the liquid has been strained from the mnshrooms as 
aboye, they may be well squeezed, and what is obtained may be 


added to the sediment of the ketchup ; add also sofficieiit cloves, 
pepper, allspioe, and gmger to flavour the liquid well ; boil the 
whole, it will then be useful to mix with common thickened sauces 
and soups. 

To Dry Herbs. 

404. Gather them just before they begin to flower, on a fine 
dry day ; cleanse them well, and divide the branches ; then dry 
them by the heat of a stove or in a Dutch oven before the fire, but 
be careful not to scorch them. To preserve all aromatic herbs, 
pick off the leaves as soon as they are dried, rub or pound them, 
pass them through a hair sieve, and keep them in bottles closely 

Parsley, fennel, and chervil are ready for drying in May, June, 
or July ; lemon and orange thyme in June and July ; tarragon and 
bumet in June, July, and August ; winter and summer savory in 
the latter part of July and August ; sweet marjoram the whole of 
July ; basil from the middle of August to the middle of Septem- 
ber ; sage in August and September. 

Mixed Herbs. 

405. Pound together in a Wedgwood mortar dried mint and 
sage half an ounce of each, celery seed one drachm, cayenne a 
quarter of a drachm. Rub them through a fine sieve. This 
gives a savoury relish to peas soup and to water gruel. A drachm 
q{ allspice or black pepper may be pounded with the herbs in- 
stead of cayenne. 

Or, dried parsley, sweet marjoram, winter savory, lemon thyme, 
of each two ounces ; lemon peel cut very thin and ^ied, and 
sweet basil, of each one ounce. Some add bay leaves and celery 
seed a drachm of each. These may be dried and pounded to- 
gether, then kept in closely stopped bottles. 

Mushroom Powder, 

406. Peel small, round, freshly gathered flap mushrooms, cut 


off the stems, and remove the for or gills ; dry them in a Batch 
oven before the fire till qnite orisp and dry, bnt not scorched ; 
pouid them in a mortar, and sift the powder through a fine meve. 
Keep the powder dry in well-corked bottles. 

To Crisp Parsley, 

497. Pick and wash yoxmg curled parsley, dry it in a cloth, 
spread it on a sheet of clean paper in a Dutch oven before the 
fire, and turn it frequently till it is quite crisp. 

It may also be nicely crisped by spreading it on a dish before 
the fire, putting small pieces of butter upon it, and turning it fre- 
quently with a fork. 

Curry Powder. 

498. When this condiment cannot be obtained ready prepared, 
the following mixture may be used as a substitute. 

. Coriander-seed four ounces, turmeric four ounces, cummin-seed 
two ounces, foenugreek-seed two ounces, cayenne half an ounce. I 

Dry the ingredients well in a cool oven, then pound them in a 
marble mortar, and pass the powder through a fine sieve. Keep 
the powder in well-corked bottles in a diy place. Some persons 
add to the above ingredients black pepper, mustard, ginger, and 
other spices. Stir a tea-spoonful of curry powder into either \ 
brown or butter sauce. 

To Curry Macaroni Parsneps^ VegetahU-marrows, Cauliflowers, 
OnionSt or other Vegetables, 

499. Boil the articles to be curried till nearly tender, and 
drain them well before they are put to the curry. Slice and chop 
an onion, and fry it in butter till of a light brown colour ; add a 
large tea-spoonfiol of curry powder and the same quantity of flour \ 
mixed well in water, and stir them to the fried onion ; then let ' 
the whole simmer ; the pan should be frequently shaken, but the 
mixture should not be stirred with a spoon. Mix in by degrees 
some melted butter, brown sauce, or arrowroot sauce, after which 


add the vegetable to be curried, and keep the pan well covered till 
the contents are ready to be served. 

A little lemon juice and cream may be added just before the 
curry is served. Some cooks fry a little garlic with the onion ; 
an apple in thin slices and cocoa-nut may also be stewed with the 
other articles. 


500. 1. Pickles are various vegetables preserved in vinegar. 
They are eaten as a zest rather than as food, and are generally 
considered difficult of digestion. Good vinegar is absolutely 
necessary to success in pickling. The method of proceeding de- 
pends upon the nature of the vegetables ; if of a hot nature, 
neither requiring spices, nor to be softened by heat, as capsicums, 
chili, nasturtiums, button-onions, radish-pods, horse-radish, 
garlic, and shallots, aU that is requisite is to half fill a jar with 
good vinegar, then add the vegetables, and tie down with bladder 
or sheet gutta-percha. 

2. Heat the vinegar and spice, and pour them hot over the ve- 
getables to be pickled, which should be previously prepared by 
sprinkling them with salt or immersing them in brine ; the 
vinegar must not be boiled, or it will lose strength by evaporation. 

This method is applicable to gherkins, French beans, cabbages, 
broccoli, cauliflowers, onions, etc. 

3. The third method is used when the vegetables require to be 
softened by heat, as walnuts, artichoke bottoms, beet-root, and 
sometimes onions and cauliflowers. 

In the last two methods, which include the common practice of 
pickling, it is necessary that the substance of the vegetables 
' r, should be penetrated by the vinegar. 
J Since all vegetables abound with their peculiar juices, which, 

, if mixed with the vinegar, would dilute it too much, it is neces- 
u sary in the first place to throw salt upon the vegetables, which to 
, a certain degree combines with and extracts their juices; or the 
vegetables may be boiled in a strong brine of common salt. This 
' -^ process may be facilitated, as in the case of walnuts, cucumbers, 




and others which are covered with a thick skin, by penetrating 
them with a rather strong needle, so that the action of the salt 
may be more immediate and penetrating. The loss of the natural 
juice will be supplied by the vinegar they will imbibe. The brine 
usually employed before pouring on the vinegar, consists of six 
ounces of salt to one quart of water ; or the solution may be made 
sufficiently strong to float an egg ; it should be boiled five minntes, 
and skimmed. 

The pickle may consist of one quart of vinegar, ground black 
pepper one ounce, ground ginger half an ounce, mace half a 
drachm, cloves one drachm, mustard seed one ounce, and a little 
salt. Boil the whole fifteen minutes, or let it stand by the fire 
two or three days, and pour the clear liquor, when cold, on the 
articles to be pickled. 

Stone jars, glass bottles, or unglazed earthenware are the best 
for making and keeping pickles in. Salt and vinegar dissolve the 
lead of glazed jars and of tinned saucepans ; they also corrode 
copper and brass vessels, and render the pickles poisonous. 

Pickles become soft by exposure to the air. 

Pickled WalnuU, 

501. These are ready for pickUng in July, and should be so 
tender as to be easily penetrated by a needle. Prick them, and 
let them soak in brine for a week ; when they turn black, put 
them on a sieve to drain for three or four hours, then dry them 
with a cloth. Put them in jars or bottles as above, pour the 
vinegar over them, taking care that they are well covered by - it, 
then protect them well from the atmosphere, and store them. 

GherkinSi Radish-podsj and Kidney Beans. 

602, Pour boiling brine over them, and let them stand twelve 
hours ; again boil the brine, pour it over them, and cover them up ; 
when cold, repeat the operation till they turn green ; then put them 
in a jar, pour over them the prepared vinegar, and cover them up. 


Shallots and Onions, 

508. Onions one qnart, vinegar one quart, salt a dess^rt- 
spoonfdl, whole white pepper one ounce. Boil the vinegar, salt, 
and pepper, and skim ; put in the onions, simmer three or four 
minutes (shallots two minutes) or till clear, put them in a jar, and 
cover them up when cold. 

Elder Pickle. 

504. Large but young elder shoots, taken about the middle 
of May (the middle stalks are the tenderest) ; remove the out- 
ward skin, then lay them in salt and water one night. Dry each 
piece in a cloth, pour the prepared, pickle over them in a stone 
jar, cover the jar closely, and keep it by the fire two hours or 
more, turning the jar frequently to keep the liquor hot. If not 
sufficiently green, strain off the liquor, and, when boUing hot, 
pour it over the shoots as before. Clusters of elder flowers before 
they open make a good pickle when prepared in the same manner. 


505. Cut the cauliflowers in small tufts ; put them in boiling 
salt and water for one minute ; drain them and put them in cold 
water ; drain and dry them well, and pour the prepared pickle 
over them whilst it is hot. 

Bed Cabbage^ 

506. Cut the cabbages into quarters, taking out the stalks ; 
shred them into a colander ; salt them well, and let them remain 
twenty-four hours. Drain them till dry, put them in a jar, and 
pour over them the following pickle, which should be ready pre- 
pared. Vinegar one quart, pounded ginger half an ounce, ground 
black pepper one ounce, a little salt, a little horse-radish cut in 
slices, and a few capsicums, or a little cayenne, according to tast^. 



Pat all these in a jar covered close, and let it stand on a triyet by 
the side of the fire for three days ; when cold, strain off the 
liquor through a cloth, and pour it on the cabbage in jars. Cover 
the jars till cold, then tie them up. Sprigs of cauliflowers or 
slices of red beet, previously salted, may be added. 

Red Beet, 

hOn* BoU the beet till nearly tender, previously well washed, 
but not cut or scraped (40) ; when cold, peel and cut it in slices 
half an inch thick ; then put it in jars, and pour over it hot vinegar, 
etc. Beet makes an excellent pickle, and it may at any time be 
prepared immediately by pouring a little vinegar over boiled or 
baked beet cut in thin slices. 


• 508. (a.) Put button-mushrooms in milk and water, dry them 
with a bit of new flannel, put them in spring water with a little 
salt, as you dry them ; boil them four minutes ; drain them and 
dry them between two cloths. Pour the boiled vinegar, etc., upon 
them when it is cold. 

(&.) Or, take freshly gathered large mushrooms ; peel them ; 
place a few of them in a pan with a little mace, pepper, salt, and 
mustard seeds ; place the pan over a clear brisk fire till the juice 
has been extracted &om the mushrooms ; then hang the pan at 
some distance above the fire that the watery particles of the juice 
may evaporate, and till the remaining juice has been reabsorbed ; 
then remove them, and put them in jars. Bepeat the operation 
with a few mushrooms eadh time till the required quantity has 
been obtained. The jars should be only half filled with the 
mushrooms. Boil some viaegar with a littie mace and a few pep- 
per-corns, and pour it over the mushrooms in. the jars till full. 
By this means the flavour of the mushrooms is preserved better 
than by pickling them in the ordinary way. 


Lemon Pickle, 

509. Six lemons, cut or scored into four parts, not quite 
through the rind ; fill the incisions and cover the lemons with salt 
for a week ; then take them out, clear them from the salt, put 
them into a jar with good vinegar, a ygij little sa&on, mace, and 
one clove ; cover them completely with the vinegar, put a plate 
or cover on the jar, and stew the lemons about three hours, or 
till tender, in a slow oven. Then remove them, add some fresh 
vinegar to the other vinegar, and boil some white pepper-corns 
and cayenne in it. Cut the lemons into eight pieces, pour the 
vinegar over them, and tie them up. A little of the liquid is good 
for white sauce, etc. 


510. Bruise well some ripe gooseberries, and to every quart 
of the pulp put three quarts of cold boiled water ; let it stand in 
an open vessel forty hours, then strain it through a coarse doth, 
and again through a flannel bag. To each gallon of liquor put a 
pound of coarse brown sugar; stir the whole well, and put it in a 
barrel; cover the bung-hole with strong paper pricked fall of 
holes ; let it stand nine months in the cask, then bottle it, and 
resin over the corks. 

The colour of the vinegar may be varied by using red or green 
gooseberries, or a mixture of the two. 


511. Tea, coffee, and cocoa are in such general use that 
scarcely any directions are necessary for preparing them. Sote9 
recommends the following method. 


{a.) Put two ounces of coffee in a saucepan or stew-pan ; hold 
it over the fire till quite hot, and stir it all the time with a spoon, 


then ponr a pint of boiling soft water npon it, and cover it np 
closely for five minntes. Strain it through a coffee bag, warm the 
fluid again, and serve it along with hot milk or cream. Sugar ac- 
cording to taste. 

Tea may be made in the same way; viz., put the tea into the 
tea-pot, and let it stand either in the oven or in some warm place 
till the tea has been heated, then pour boiling water upon it. 

Dr. Donovan recommends two and a half ounces of coffee to a 
quart of water. Pour one-half of the water cold upon the coffee, 
bring it just to the boiling point, let it stand to settle a little, then 
pour the' liquid off; add the remaining half of the water at a 
boiling heat to the grounds, boil for about three minutes, let it 
stand to settle a little, then pour off the clear part, and add it to 
the other liquor. The first operation extracts the aroma of the 
coffee, the second the bitter principle. 

Coffee and Egg, 

(6.) The coffee should be recently roAsted, not too brown, and 
ground immediately before being used. Mocha coffee should be 
preferred. Put four ounces of the coffee in a basin, and break to 
it an egg, adding yolk, white, and shell. Mix it up with a spoon 
to the consistency of a thick batter ; add to it a quart of warm, 
not boiling, water ; put it in a coffee-pan, and let it boil up and 
break three times ; let it stand a few minutes, and it will be as 
clear as amber. The egg will render the coffee rich and smooth. 

Cafi au Lait, 

(c.) Put four ounces of coffee into a biggin, and pour upon it 
three-quarters of a pint of boiling water. The coffee for tliis 
preparation must be strong to excess. To half a pint of boiling 
milk add one quarter of the coffee just made, or a less quantity if 
desired weaker, and sweeten it with lump sugar. In the choice of 
coffee, prefer Mocha, next to this Bourbon and Mauritius, and 
lastly. West India coffee. 

61d. Coffee and tea, and, in a less degree, oocoa and chocolate. 


increase the acti-nty of the yascnlar and neirons systems, and 
thereby promote cheerfulness, animation, and nervous energy, 
but they not unfrequently produce congestion, headache, trembling, 
palpitation of the heart, restlessness, and inability to sleep. They 
also retard the assimilative process, and the waste or metamor- 
phosis of the tissues ; they consequently diminish the amount of 
area and of the uric and phosphoric acids in the secretions, and 
a free use of them renders less solid food necessary. The latter 
resnlts, however, are no proof of the real value of these beverages 
in the maiutenaaoe of a healthy condition of the system, which 
is promoted rather by the gradual but constant metamorphosis 
and reproduction of all the tissues ; and the retarding of these 
processes retains semi-effete matters too long in the organism. 
These beverages, therefore, should be used cautiously by all who 
lead a sedentary life. They should be totally discarded, or used 
very sparingly by persons disposed to obesity or to diseases of^the 
heart, and by those in whom the nervous system is too sensidve, 
or the circulation too much excited, and in certain skin diseases 
which become obstinate from defect of destructive absorption. 
Water has an opposite effect to tea and coffee ; it increases rather 
than diminishes the interstitial metamorphosis of tissues. 

Cocoa and chocolate contain much oil, and in composition have 
a close resemblance to milk ; they unite in themselves the 
exhilarating properties of tea with the strengthening qaalities of 
milk, and are therefore capable of sustaining bodily strength and 
nervous energy.* 

Apple Beverage, 

513. Out four good apples, each into eight parts, without 
removing the skin ; put them into two quarts of boiling water, and 
boil them till quite soft ; pass the water through a sieve, pressing 
the apples gently against its side, but do not rub them through. 
Add sufficient honey to make it rather sweet, and drink it while 

« See Medicta Times, April 27th, 18j>0 ; Profeflsor Lehmank On the Use 
of Coffee as a Beverage^ etc.; Johnston's Chemistry of Common Life; 
T>T, T. E. CHAMBSRS—frit. A Foreign Med. CM, Rev,, No. 38, Oct., 18M. 


lukewarm. Two apples thrown into rice water or barley water, * 
and boiled, form an excellent drink. Bice water is made by 
boiling gently a handful of rice in a quart of water till the rice 
becomes a pulp ; pass it through a sieve, and press as much of 
the rice through as possible ; sweeten it with honey. 

Bbubarb, green gooseberries, red currants, raspberries, figs, 
French plums, raisins, and other fruits may be used as above, and 
sweetened with treacle, sugar, or honey. Some add a little 
ginger, others bread well toasted. When ripe currants and rasp- 
berries are used, the water may be added cold. One pound of 
bruised fruit, half a pound of sugar, and a gallon of water. A 
Httle cream of tartar or citric acid is sometimes added. 

Fig and Apple Beverage, 

614. Two quarts of boiling water, six figs, two apples. Open 
the figs, and cut the apples in six or eight pieces each ; boil them 
twenty minutes, pour them into a basin to cool, and then pass 
the liquid and pulp through a sieve. The figs when drained 
may be eaten. 

French Herb Broth, 

515. Boil a quart of water, and when boiling, put in about 
forty leaves of sorrel, a cabbage lettuce, and ten sprigs of chervil, 
having previously washed these vegetables ; add a tea-spoonful of 
salt and half an ounce of fresh butter ; cover the saucepan close, 
and let the whole simmer a few minutes ; then pass the liquor 
through a sieve or colander, and drink it when cold. This is a 
favourite beverage in France, especially in spring. 

Sweet Lait de Poule. 

516. Put two yolks of eggs into a cup with two tea-spoonfuls 
of pounded sugar, a few drops of orange-flower water, or the 
eighth part of the rind of a fresh lemon grated ; beat them well 
together for ten minutes, then pour boiling water over gradually, 


till the cup is nearly full ; stir the whole well as the water is added. 
This is coDsidered very good for a cold, when taken yery hot and 
in bed. 

Ginger Beer. 

617. "White sugar twenty pounds, lemon or lime juice eighteen 
fluid ounces, honey one pound, bruised ginger twenty-two 
ounces, water eighteen gallons. Boil the ginger in three gallons 
of water during half an hour ; add the sugar, juice, and honey, 
and the remainder of the water, and strain through a cloth. 
When cold, add the white of one egg, and half a fluid ounce of 
essence of lemon. When the liquid has stood four days, bottle it. 
This yields a superior beverage, and one whic|;i will keep several 


518, When oleaginous matter is considered desirable in larger 
proportions than the usual articles of food contain, the following 
form may be found useful. Olive oil half an ounce, mucilage ot 
gum arabic one ounce, water one quart. Mix them well together, 
and add 9k little sugar, and c^ few aromatic seeds if desirable. Or, 
beat the yolk of an egg with a little oil, mucilage, sugar, etc. 
Cream or butter may also be used with advantage. Or, the yolk 
of one egg, powdered gum arabic, olive oil, and sugar, one 
tea-spoonful of each. Beat the whole in water or cream, or a 
mixture of these. These may be regarded as substitutes for 
cod-liver oil. 


619. This repast ia, usually very much relished by healthy 
persons, especially if no supper or late meal has been taken on 
the previous evening. The stomach having had a long rest, and 
the whole system having been soothed and refreshed by sleep, 
morning seems the most appropriate time for refreshment, as well 


as for producing any desirable physiological eflfect by means of 
food, whether liquid or solid. Hence the importance of a jadi- 
cious choice of articles of diet for the breakfeist table, especially 
for invalids. 

A selection may be made from the following list suitable to any 
constitution or condition. 

Ooffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate ; milk, cold, boiled, or made into 
gruel ; water or other beverage. 

Bread, cake, dry toast, porridge, frumenty, rice, barley, cheese 
cakes, fruit pies, etc. 

Gruel made with oatmeal, sago, tapioca, Indian meal, manna- 
croup, arrowroot, patent barley, revalenta, lentil-meal, etc. 

Fruits, fresh, or preserved, or dried, as raisins, figs, dates, etc.; 
sugar, treacle, honey, fruit jellies or moulds, jams, marmalade, 
etc., butter, cream, eggs, cheese. 

The chief properties of the respective articles in this list have 
already been noticed. 

Oatmeal porridge and oatmeal gruel, made with milk or milk 
and water, are excellent preparations for breakfast in cold weather, 
and are very nutritious. 

Fruit of one kind or other is generally regarded as an agreeable 
and useful adjunct to tbo dietary of the morning meal, and is 
acceptable to most stomachs when eaten along with well-made 


590* Health will be best maintained by a moderate variety 
of vegetable preparations made according to the instructions and 
receipts supplied in this and other works. A constant and exclu- 
sive adhesion to one or two simple articles of diet is not desirable, 
however much they may be relished ; but too great a variety at 
any one time is equally objectionable. A little experience and 
careful observation will enable each person to determine what is 
best in his own case according to his constitution, condition of 
health, and employment. 


Sonpfi, well-cooked vegetables, paddings, pies, omelets, fritters, 
eggs, cheese, etc., should be supplied in such variety and rotation 
as circumstances may require. 

Inexperienced persons may at first make choice of a few dishes 
from the following list ; but as tastes, habits, and constitutional 
peculiarities are so various, other receipts and combinations 
should be occasionally tried, till a sufficient number of such pre- 
parations as are most acceptable to each person or family has 
been selected. . They should then be arranged with some reference 
to the seasons of the year, and in such a manner that each may 
recur after certain intervals of time, or as preference may be given 
to them. .... 

Plain well-cooked dishes yield ' much greater satisfaction as 
regards health and real enjoyment, than those which are rich and 

Soups, 456 c, ^, and h; 457 c, /, g, n, o; 458 a, b; 459 c, e, /. 

Yegetable-marrow, 33 a, &, etc. 

Potatoes, carrots, parsneps, turnips, Jerusalem artichokes, etc., 
plainly cooked or mashed, 179 to 197. 

Cauliflowers, cabbages, etc., 204 to 226. 

Mushrooms, salads, eggs, cheese, etc., 227 to 247. 

Puddings, 234 a, 2 ; 261, 266, 269, 271, 272, 283, 287, 295, 
800, 301, 302, 306, 308, 309, 319, 323, 324, 326, 332, 336, 337, 
342, 345, 348, 353, 355, 357. 

Fruit pies, 381. Savoury pies, 385 to 394. 

Cheese cakes, 399, 400. Omelets, 410, 411. 

Fritters, 422. Bissoles, 437. Pancakes, 439. 

Attention and good taste should be exercised in supplying and 
arranging the various dishes according to the number of guests. 


In culinary preparations, scales, weights, and correct measures 
shoold be employed whenever practicable, but in the absence of 



one or other of these, the following relations and approximations 
may be foond useful. 

80 dropB of a thin liquid will fill a mlddle-elzed tea-spoon. 

4 te&«poonfula are equal to one table-spoonful. 

4 table-spoonfulB are equal to two fluid ounces, the eighth 
of a pint, or a wine-glassful. 

4 wine^lassf ul8 are equal to half a pint, a tumbler glass, 

or large coffee cup. 
A table-spoonful of salt, brown sugar, etc., will weigh 1 oz. 
A middle-sized hen's egg . . . 2 „ 

A middle-sized apple . . . 3 „ 

A pint of bread crumbs . . . 8 „ 

A pint of flour, sugar, dried peas, etc. . 1 lb. 

A quartern or half gallon . . . about 3^ „ 

A gallon ..... 7 „ 

A peck or stone . • . . 14 „ 

A bushel or four pecks • . • 66 „ 


The Numbers In the Index refer to the Paragfraphs. 


„ to pound 

Animal products 

Apples, to bake 

„ dried 

Apple beverage 

Apricots, preserved ... 


„ to boil 
„ Jerusalem 




» powders 



Beans, to boil 

„ to stew 

Beans, French, to boll 

II II to stew 
Beet, red 

I, to boil, etc 


Biscuits . 

„ Chesterfield 
„ cocoa-nut 
,1 Naples ... 
„ Savoy ... 
„ Yarmouth 



Bottled fruit 




... 243 


... 619 

... 20 


... 84 


„ varieties 

... 95 

... 30 

„ Scotch 

... 124 

... 36 

„ crumbs, etc., to mix 

... 88 

... 613 


... 113 

... 48 

... 204 



... 482 

... 208 

Bulbous roots 




... 107 



... 165 


... 10 

... 114 

„ to clarify 

... 11 

... 26 

Butter-milk , ... 

... 12 

... 87 

Butter, flour, etc., to mix ... 

... 80 

... 77 

„ sauce 

... 475 

... 161 

... 210 

Cabbages ... 


... 216 

„ to boil 

... 204 

... 211 

„ to stew 

... 214 

... 218 

„ pickled 

... 606 



... 611 

... 188 

Cakes, Benton 

... 120 

... 607 

„ diet 

... 132 

... 611 

„ fruit 

..< 877 

... 86 

„ galette 

... 131 

... 143 

„ Imperials 

... 121 

... 144 

„ Marlborough 

... 134 

... 180 

„ Portugal 

... 186 

... 142 

„ plum or pound ... 

... 140 

... 128 

„ queen • 

... 136 


„ rich 

... 108 

... 23 

„ rich plain 

... 128 

... 87 

„ rice 

... 116 


,, rice 

... 185 



Cakes, Savoy 

„ Scotch 

„ seed 

„ short 

„ Shrewsbury 

„ small 

„ snow 

„ Sutherland 

M tea 

„ tea 

„ Venetian 



„ to boil 

Caseine • 

Cauliflowers, to boil 

„ to fry 

„ pickled 

Cauliflower and cheese ... . 

„ to stew 

„ to fry 


„ pounded 

„ pudding 

„ tostew 

„ toasted 


Cherries, preserved 




„ bread 


„ properties of 

Colouring for jellies 

Compotes ... 

Cookery, objects of 

Cooking processes 

Combinations, miscellaneous . 

Couve tronchuda 

Crabs, Siberian 



Cream ... 

„ mock 

„ sauce 

Creams, fruit 



Crust, cream 

„ good short 

„ short 

Cucumbers, to cook 

„ preserved ... . 





... 98 


„ preserved 

... 42 



... 499 


Curry powder 

... 498 



... 365 


» baked 

... 867 


Damsons, dried 

... 85 


„ preserved 

... 47 


Diet cakes 

... 182 



... 620 


„ rolls 

... 91 






Dutch pudding 

... 806 


... 112 






„ to bake 

... 237 


„ to boll 

.. 235 


;; to fry 

.. 288 


„ mulled 

.. 239 


,, to poach 

... 236 


„ to whisk 



„ flour, etc., to mix ... 

.. 81 


Elder pickle 

... 604 



Farinacea in moulds 

.. 178 






.. 166 



.. 260 


Fig and apple beverage ... 

.. 614 


Flavouring and seasoning 

.. 18 


Flour and fluid, to mix . . . 

.. 79 


Flowerless plants 



Forcemeat for puddings, etc. 

.. 821 



.. 163 



.. 420 


Fruit, to bottle 


21 ' 

„ cakes 

.. 877 


„ creams 

.. 868 


„ dried 

.. 86 


„ Jellies 



„ moulds 

.. 67 


„ to preserve 

.. 84 


„ stewed 

.. 81 


„ vinegar 

.. 468 



.. 75 



.. 29 







.. 181 


Garlic ' 



Gateau deRlz 

.. 117 


„ de Seve 

.. 116 


„ de Madeline 

.. 188 


Gherkins pickled 

.. 602 


Ginger, imitation of preserved 


Ginger beer 

Gooseberries, to bottle 

„ preserved 

Grain, to cree or stew 


Haricots, to boil 

Haricots verts, to stew 

Herbs, to dry 

„ mixed 

Herb broth (French) 



Jellies, fruit 

Jerusalem Artichokes 

toboU . 

Ketchup, mushroom ... 
Kidney beans, pickled 

Lalt de Poule 

Laver, to stew 

Leaven bread 

Leaves, Leafstalks, etc. 


„ to boll 


Lemon pickle 

Lentils, boiled 


„ to boll 

„ to stew 


Linseed tea 

Lozenges, fruit 

Macaroni, to boll 



Melted butter 



Mincemeat, sweet 



Moulded piilp 



„ to cook ... 

„ pickled ... 
Mushroom ketchup ... 

„ powder ... 


Naples biscuits 


Nettles, to stew 


NoulUes for soups 





Oleaginous mixtures .. 




„ to boll 


„ to stew 


Orange Jelly 





,. to boil 

Parsley and butter 



Parsley, to crisp 




Paste, puff 

„ rice 


„ for tartlets 



Passover balls 


Peas, green, to boil .. 


„ dry,toboU 


„ to stew 


Pears, stewed 




» beet 


„ cabbage 


„ cauliflower 


;; elder 


„ gherkins 


„ lemon 


„ mushrooms 


„ shaUots 


„ walnuts 



„ fruit 


;; herb 


„ savoury .. 


Plum or pound cakes . 


Plums, to preserve 






„ to boll ... . 


„ to mash ... . 


„ to serve 


„ substitute for 


Potato balls 


„ fibre 


„ hash 




Potted meat 















Raisins, to clean 


, batter 


Raspberries, preserved 



Rhubarb, preserved 



Rice milk 



„ water 














Roots, to boil 



„ to dress 

forcemeat ... 


„ tofry 



„ to mash 

fruit and batter 

... 279 

„ to steam 

fruit and bread 


„ to stew 


fruit and grain 




fruit and paste 


grain or seed 




green bean... 



ground rice 


„ toboil 

haricot bean 





Sauce, apple 



„ arrowroot 




11 bread 

Indian meal 


,. brown 

macaroni ... 


„ butter 




„ celery 


mushroom ... 


„ cream 



„ currant (red) < 




11 egg 


patent barley 


„ garlic... 




„ mayonnaise 

pearl barley 


„ mint 




„ mock cream 




„ onion 


rice and cheese 


„ onion pur6e 

rice and onion 


„ parsley and butter. . . 


rice and peas, el 

». ... 299 

„ raspberry 

rice and tapioca 

... 297 

„ rice ... 




„ salad ... 

semolina ... 


„ sweet ... 





;; ^SiT. 



„ to thicken 



Savoys, to boil 

vermicelli ... 


Scoteh cakes ... 



„ bread ... 

Puff paste 


Scorzonera ... 

Pumpkins, to cook . . . 


' „ to boll 

Seakale, to boil 

Queen cakes 







to boil '.'' '.'. 


Seed cakes ... 

Kadlsh-pods, pickled ... 


„ loaf 







ShaUots, pickled 603 

Simmeriiig 22 

Siberian crabs 46 

„ crab Jelly 63 

SMrret 2 

Soaking 21 

Soups 442 

Soup, brown 467 

„ clear 456 

„ green 468 

„ thickened 467 

„ white ." 469 

Spice loaf 106 

Spinach, to boil 212 

„ to stew 220 

Spongecake 141 

Steeping 21 

Steaming 26 

Stewing 24 

Stewed fruit 81 

Stirabout 166 

Strawberries preserved 60 

Sugar 98 

Syrup for preserving fruit ... 32 

Tapioca Sauce 474 

Tarts 878 

Tartlets 379 

Tea-cakes 93, 99, 118 

Tea 611 

„ properties of 612 

Toasting 28 

Tourtes 879 


Tubers 2 

„ to boll 179 

„ tOBtew 187 

„ to steam 198 

„ to fry... 195 

„ to mash 197 

„ to serve 198 

Turnips 2 

„ to boil 182 

Turnip hash 192 

Turnovers 876 

Varieties of bread 

Vegetable marrow, to cook . . . 

I, M preserved... 

Vegetables preserved with salt 

Venetian cakes 

Vermicelli, to boil 

Vinegars, flavoured 

„ fruit 

Vinegar of mixed herbs 

„ to make 





Walnuts, pickled 

Water-cresses, to stew 220 

Wheat, to cree 69 

Whey 18, 230 

White sauce 487 

Wine sours, preserved 47 

Yeast 89 

„ to make 96 


20, Patebnosteb Bow, 

London, E.G. 


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