(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The vegetable garden; illustrations, descriptions, and culture of the garden vegetables of cold and temperate climates"

7 ( 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 



THE VEGETABLE 
GARDEN 



THE VEGETABLE 
GARDEN 

ILLUSTRATIONS, DESCRIPTIONS, AND 

CULTURE OF THE GARDEN VEGETABLES 

OF COLD AND TEMPERATE CLIMATES 

BY MM. VILMORIN-ANDRIEUX, OF PARIS 

ENGLISH EDITION, PUBLISHED UNDER 

THE DIRECTION OF W. ROBINSON 

AUTHOR OF "THE ENGLISH FLOWER GARDEN" 
"THE PARKS OF PARIS," ETC. 



WITH AN ADDENDUM 
BY W. P. THOMSON 

THIRD EDITION 



NEW YORK 
E. P. BUTTON AND COMPANY 

1920 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION 

DURING the years of the War, vegetable growing received a decided 
stimulus, and in preparing a new edition of "THE VEGETABLE 
GARDEN " it has been thought advisable to include the new 
material in the form of an Addendum, to which references will be 
found in the form of footnotes in the body of the work. 

A list of the newer varieties of our well-known vegetables 
Peas, Potatoes, Cabbage, etc., is given with notes on their 
cultivation. 

, Descriptions of some really distinct new vegetables, as the 
White Sunroot (Jerusalem Artichoke), Daw's Champion Rhubarb, 
etc., have been added. In the case of Onions, no mention was 
made in the earlier edition of the handsome bulbs that are now to 
be seen at vegetable exhibitions during the autumn. How to raise 
and grow these form the subject of one of the added paragraphs ; 
while the various diseases that attack vegetables and their remedy 
have also been dealt with. These include the terrible scourge, 
the wart-disease of Potatoes. As it has been proved that some 
varieties of Potatoes are immune from wart disease when grown 
on infected soil, fhe names of the sorts that, after extended trial, 
can be depended on to remain immune have been given. The 
growing of winter Tomatoes has also received attention. 

W. P. T. 



M3G6418 



PREFACE 

MANY books on the cultivation of vegetables have been written, 
but " THE VEGETABLE GARDEN " is the first book in any language 
which classifies, describes, and illustrates these most important of 
all plants to the human race. No excuse is needed for " making 
English " such a book for the benefit, not only of our own horti- 
culture, but also that of America, and of Australia and our other 
colonies, in which the plants herein described may be grown. 
It will enable us to realise the wonderful variety of light, pleasant, 
and excellent food now within our reach, and make many good 
vegetables more widely known. 

The relation of these plants to the movement towards food 
reform calls for a word at the present time. Leaving out of view 

any exclusive tendency of this kind, all agree that the 

Food Reform. J , r A , , '. <. i, - r j u 

greater use of the best vegetables in our food would 

be a gain. The reason why the more delicate vegetable foods are 
neglected is because the cooks of Europe have served an appren- 
ticeship of a thousand years on the carcases of ox, pig, sheep, and 
we are meat-eaters because our fathers had little else to eat. The 
plains and hills of the cold north were dotted with wild grazing 
animals, as an English park is with deer, or a Western prairie 
with antelope, and men killed and cooked the only food they had. 
A few generations only have passed since our now commonest 
vegetables came from the Continent. We are adding to their 
number every day, and by the aid of cultivation we are winning 
back our way to a simpler, healthier food. 

In London the chaotic struggle in Covent Garden tends to 
deprive us of the good qualities of the garden produce so well 
grown in the suburban fields. One simple way to 
im P rovement would be the adoption of district 
markets for local supplies. It is not necessary that 
permanent structures should be built : a wide road, or square, or 

vii 



viii PREFACE 

river embankment, would suffice. As wholesale dealings of this 
kind are usually done in the morning hours, it would be easy to 
make good use of open spaces for this purpose. Some of the 
useful little district markets of Paris are held in public squares 
and on the boulevards, and an hour after they are over, tents, 
stands, refuse, and all other signs of the market are swept away. 
Those who have their own gardens do not suffer from the ill- 
managed markets of our cities, but thousands have no remedy save 
through the improvements of our markets, the Paris markets being 
a model of what is best in that way. 

The " muddle " method of planting the food garden with fruit 

trees and bushes, and so cutting up the surface with walks, edgings, 

etc., that the object of the garden is frustrated, should 

Better Culture. be changed We cannot grow vegetables well under 

trees, and in attempting to do so we destroy the roots of the trees, 
and is one cause of our poor garden-fruit culture. One-half of the 
space wholly given to vegetables, divested of walks, large hedges, old 
frame grounds, old walls, rubbish, and other impedimenta, would 
give a far better supply. It is not merely the ugliness and the loss 
of the over-mixed garden which we have to deplore, but the wasted 
labours of the men who have to look after such gardens. How are 
they to succeed, with the many things so hopelessly mixed up 
and perhaps rank groves of elms or other trees, their roots robbing 
half the space ? Put the fruit trees in one part the higher ground, 
if any and devote the remaining part to vegetables, cultivating the 
ground in the best way as a fertile garden. The vegetables, too, 
would be more wholesome for good light and air ; for shade from 
ragged and profitless trees and bushes and hedges is one of the 
evils of this hopeless kind of garden. The broken crops, too 
(for the most part sickly patches), are not such as one can be 
proud of. The many excellent vegetables grown for the Paris 
market are grown in the full sun, and these gardens are a lesson 
in good culture, and the quantity grown in them in proportion to 
their size. 

It is the rule in most British gardens to give far too much 
space to the coarser vegetables like Cabbage and Potatoes, and far 

too little to the more delicate and nutritious kinds, 
forthe S Best some f wmcn are usually not grown at all, or so ill 

grown as to be useless. The Greens and other vege- 
tables that go with our joints are the coarsest, least nutritious, and 



PREFACE ix 

most indigestible of all, and there can be no full gain in a garden 
which does not include the vegetables which are served abroad as 
dishes by themselves, and indeed are quite worthy to stand alone. 
Leaving aside those not to be grown in our climate, we have 
among others Scorzonera, Salsafy, Lettuces, and Endives ; with 
us there is great waste in not using Lettuces and Endive, and 
particularly the Batavian Endive, as vegetables ; for good cookery 
they are far more important than Greens. Celeriac, an excellent 
vegetable, is rarely well grown with us. Cardoons are first-rate 
vegetables for our country, for which our soil and climate are 
well suited. Indian Corn, too, thrives in all the southern parts of 
the country, and, well grown, forms an excellent vegetable. Then 
there are Artichokes of the best varieties, edible-podded Runner 
Beans, edible-podded Dwarf Beans, early small Carrots, such as 
the French Early Horn, Witloof, Corn Salad, Potiron jaune, and 
Winter Gourds. The variety of delicious Gourds available during 
summer, and the keeping kinds through a great part of the winter, 
is a revelation to those who know nothing beyond the Vegetable 
Marrow. 

For owners of gardens, big or little, there is waste through not 

gathering vegetables in the tender state. In almost every garden, in 

summer and autumn, one sees Kidney Beans and Peas 

^ ta C * n an uneata ^ e state, useless themselves, and robbing 



the plant of the power to give a succession of eatable 
pods. All such crops should be gathered at the right time, whether 
wanted or not. Those who want vegetables in their best condition 
only would find it profitable to gather and give away rather than 
pursue the usual way of growing only to waste. It is a practice of 
market g rdeners to allow things to get old and hard before gathering, 
so as to fill their baskets. They must be the best judges of their own 
affairs, but this practice is the cause of market vegetables being 
often almost uneatable. In Paris the cook has the upper hand, and 
no grower dare send him the woody fibre which is so largely sent 
as vegetables to the London market. It is an error to suppose that 
those who grow their own fruits and vegetables must pay more for 
them than they would in the market. The gain in having them 
fresh would be worth paying for. The advantage which all who 
live in their gardens enjoy *might be much increased by growing 
only things good in flavour, and gathering them in their best state 
for the table. But it needs very strong pressure on the part of 



x PREFACE 

owners to have things sent in their tenderest and best condition 
for the table. 

All who have gardens should fight against the deterioration 

of some of our best vegetables through the mania for size. 

Although the flavour of vegetables may not be so 

Quality before obvious as o f f ru j tj j t j s o f ten their essential quality. 

A change in size, by adding to the watery tissue 
of the plant, may destroy the flavour, and doubling or trebling 
the size of the article itself, as has been done in the case of the 
Brussels Sprout, which is no longer the same little rosette of green, 
but a coarse Cabbage sprout. Bad, too, is the raising of new 
varieties lacking in flavour, and abolishing old kinds, from sup- 
posed deficiency in size. There has been, for example, for the 
last few years a French Bean in our markets, very large, but 
without any of the good flavour of the smaller kinds, but its 
huge mawkish pod has become popular with the market-gardener. 
Here is a delicate vegetable, the value of which depends entirely 
upon its flavour, and whether we get six beans or one bean 
matters little if the object of growing the vegetable is lost sight 
of. Sometimes a flavour may be too rich : many good cooks 
in London prefer the little long Turnip of the Paris market, 
which has a truer Turnip flavour, to some of the sweet kinds. 
We may lose much of what makes a garden worth having by 
not controlling the harmful efforts for size unaccompanied by 
other and more desirable qualities. Often Potatoes and Tomatoes 
and other things are raised and praised much, which in flavour 
are wholly inferior to the older kinds. 

Loss and confusion arise from the practice now common 
among seedsmen of naming almost every good vegetable after 
themselves. England has almost a monopoly of 
t N^m* ^ ^ e P rac ^ ce wmc h is not carried out in France. 
Honourable houses may do it for self-protection 
with us, but it is nevertheless a loss to the public, and scarcely 
less so to the trade. To be able to secure pure stocks of long- 
tried standard vegetables is not easy for the public while the 
seedsman affixes a new name and the name of his house to 
almost everything he sells. One cause of failure is too many 
kinds too many experimental plantings, instead of the garden 
being devoted to the things we know and like. This is a common 
error owing to the chaotic state of the names of vegetables. 



PREFACE xi 

Seedsmen and growers, at home, in our colonies, and in foreign 
countries, are compelled again and again to buy old things under 
new names, and to test them before embarking in their sale. If 
the practice were confined to the really new kinds raised, it would 
be fair. A common way of giving these new names is to secure a 
well-selected stock of seed of some old, good kind, and re-name 
it. Of late years we have seen in London, Orchid, Pear, and 
other conferences, which have had really little more serious 
raison cFetre than the vanity or amusement of their promoters. 
The nomenclature of our most valuable garden crops might 
well occupy the attention of a body composed of representative 
seedsmen and growers. It wonld not be very difficult to seek 
out and give their true names to all the older and finer types 
of our vegetables, and prevent confusion in the future without 
interfering with the right to name a real novelty in a fitting 
way. 

Even if we have all we desire in the way of good culture and 

varieties, there remains the question of cookery, which is sadly 

Improved * n neec ^ ^ cnan g e with us - ^ n places of public resort 

Cookery of where the best meat, game, and fish are to be had, 

Vegetables and the cooking of even the commonest vegetables is 

Cereals. disgraceful. Ill gathered, overgrown, they are so 
cooked as to be uneatable. There is a movement now in the 
way of cooking the best vegetables in their own juices, by braising 
and stewing ; and not throwing their nutritious juices away in 
quantities of water. However much our own cookery may im- 
prove in this way, much more is to be expected from the study 
of the ways of nations who live almost wholly on vegetable food. 
The best Italian cooks treat rice and the products of wheat so 
well that they form a complete and delicious food ; the Indian 
vegetable curries are famous, and the Arabs have very agreeable 
dishes of vegetable food delicately flavoured. Among these 
people we see that good cookery even of a few simple things 
will give complete nourishment to man. How much more, 
therefore, might be expected from the vast range and variety of 
foods within our reach in all fertile countries, and how well 
worth our while it is to improve our ways of dealing with them ! 
This concerns not only green vegetables, but cereals, pulse, roots, 
and fruits. 

Books do not help us much in this way, because they are 



xii PREFACE 

usually based on the older ways as to flesh food ; but there is one 
just come out which is helpful, and that is Colonel Kenny 
Herbert's book on " Vegetarian and Simple Diet " (Swan Sonnen- 
schein). The fact that it leaves out such a rich source of food as 
the Apple shows the vastness of the subject. Of all sources of 
garden food nothing is more precious and varied than the finest 
apples of America and Britain. Good in the raw state, they add 
a variety of delicate dishes which nothing else equals. 

W. R. 



AUTHORS' PREFACE 

(Abstract) 

WE have had some difficulty in fixing the limits within which we 
should confine ourselves in this work. It is not always easy to 
define exactly what a " vegetable" is, and to decide upon the plants 
to which the term is applicable and those to which it is not. In 
this respect, however, we thought it better to be a little over- 
indulgent rather than too strict, and, accordingly, we have admitted 
into the present work not only the plants which are generally 
grown for use in the green state, but also those which are merely 
employed for flavouring others, and even some which at the present 
day have, for the most part, disappeared from the kitchen garden, 
but which we find mentioned as table vegetables in old works on 
horticulture. We have, however, restricted our list to the plants 
of temperate and cold climates, omitting the vegetables which are 
exclusively tropical, with which we are not sufficiently familiar, 
and which, moreover, would interest only a limited class of readers. 
We made it a point to determine the botanical identity of 
every plant mentioned in this volume by giving the scientific 
name of the species to which it belongs. Before commencing the 
description of any form of cultivated vegetable, we are careful to 
state, with strict exactness, the place in botanical classification 
occupied by the wild type from which that form is considered to 
have sprung. Accordingly, we commence every article devoted 
to one or more cultivated varieties, by giving a botanical name to 
all the subjects included in the article a name which indicates 
the genus and species to which all these forms, more or less 
modified by cultivation, should be referred. For instance, all the 
varieties of garden Peas, numerous as they are, are referred to 
Pisum sativum, L. ; those of the Beet-roots to Beta vulgaris, L. ; 
and similarly in the case of other plants. 

xiii 



xiv AUTHORS' PREFACE 

While on this subject, we may be permitted to remark that the 
constancy of a species is very remarkable and well deserves our 
admiration, if we merely take into view the period of time over 
which our investigations can extend with some degree of certainty. 
We see, in fact, species brought into cultivation before history 
began, exposed to all the modifying influences which attend seed- 
sowing incessantly repeated, removal from one country to another, 
the most important changes in the nature of the countries and 
climates through which they pass, and yet these species preserve 
their existence quite distinct. Although continually producing 
new varieties, they never pass the boundaries which separate them 
from the species which come next to them. 

Among the Gourds, for example, which are annual plants that 
have been in cultivation from times so remote that assuredly many 
thousand generations of them have succeeded one another under 
the conditions which are best calculated to bring about important 
modifications of character, we find, if we give ever so little attention 
to the subject, the three species from which all the varieties of 
cultivated edible Gourds have originated ; and neither the influences 
of cultivation and climate, nor the crossings which may occur from 
time to time, have brought forth any permanent type or even a 
variety which does not speedily revert to one of the three primitive 
species. In each of these species the number of varieties is almost 
indefinite, but the limit of these varieties appears to be fixed. Does 
any plant exhibit more numerous or more diversified varieties of 
form than the cultivated Cabbage? Is any difference more marked 
than that which exists between a Round-headed and a Turnip- 
rooted Cabbage, between a Cauliflower and Brussels Sprouts, 
between a Kohl-Rabi and a Tree Cabbage ? And yet these vast 
dissimilarities in certain parts of the plants have not affected the 
character of the essential parts of the plants, the organs of fructifi- 
cation, so as to conceal or even to obscure the evident specific 
identity of all these forms. While young, these Cabbages might 
be taken for plants of different species, but when in flower and in 
seed, they all show themselves to be forms of Brassica oleracea, L. 

It seems to us that the long-continued cultivation of a very 
considerable number of kitchen- garden plants, while it demonstrates 
the exceedingly great variability of vegetable forms, confirms the 
belief in the permanence of those species that are contemporary 
with Man, and leads us to consider each species as a kind of system 



AUTHORS' PREFACE xv 

having a distinct centre (although this may not always be repre- 
sented by a typical form), around which is a field of variation 
almost unlimited in extent, and yet having certain, though still 
undetermined, boundaries. 

The idea of the species, in short, rests upon the fact that all the 
individuals of which it is composed are, to an indefinite extent, 
capable of being fertilised by one another, and only by one another. 
Now, as long as it has not been proved that a variety artificially 
produced by man has ceased to be capable of being fertilised 
when crossed with other individuals of the same species, while 
it continues fertile to an indefinite extent when impregnated 
by individuals of its own special form, so long it cannot be said 
that a new species has been brought into existence ; and, up to 
the present, no one, so far as we are aware, has ever asserted that 
such a case has occurred. Far from it, indeed, as this capability 
of being fertilised by its own members, and only by them, consti- 
tutes, so to say, the very essence of the species. It is this which 
alike ensures its permanence, its pliability, and its power of adapting 
itself to the various conditions under which it/nay be compelled to 
exist. 

Reverting, however, to the plan of our work, we have taken care 
not to give any names that are not really in common use and well 
known, and have avoided mere translations. In publishing syno- 
nyms, we have been very cautious, taking especial care not to admit 
any that are not thoroughly well established, and, in most cases, . 
verifying them by a comparative cultivation of those plants which 
we considered identical. Having accurately identified each plant 
under consideration by giving its botanical and various common 
names, we mention its native country, adding a brief history of the 
plant, when we possess any reliable data on this subject. After 
mentioning the native country and giving the history of the plant, 
we describe its mode of growth, whether annual, biennial, or 
perennial. Here it should be remarked that many plants are grown 
in the kitchen garden as annuals which are biennial or perennial 
as regards their fructification. For kitchen-garden purposes, it is 
enough that these plants attain in their first year a size sufficiently 
large for table use, and this is especially the case with most plants 
which are grown for their roots, such as Carrots, Beet-roots, Turnips, 
Radishes, etc. 

The descriptions, properly so named, of the different kinds of 



xvi AUTHORS' PREFACE 

kitchen-garden plants have been to us a subject of long-continued 
labour and much care. Some persons, perhaps, may consider them 
to be somewhat vague and elastic in their expression, and such a 
remark may apply to many of them ; but, on the other hand, if they 
had been more hard and fast, and had been drawn up in more 
peremptory terms, they would not be so true. Account must be 
taken of the variable appearance of cultivated plants under the 
different conditions in which they are grown. A season more or 
less favourable, or sowing earlier or later the same season, is sufficient 
to produce a material alteration in the appearance of a plant, and 
a precise description of it as it then presents itself would obviously 
exclude other forms of it which should be included. Nothing is 
easier than to describe a single individual in the most exact terms, 
just as it is the easiest thing in the world to draw precise conclusions 
from a single experiment ; but when a description is to be applicable 
to a great number of individuals of the same variety and the same 
race, the task is more difficult, in the same degree as it is when one 
endeavours to form a conclusion at the close of a series of experi- 
ments which give different and sometimes contrary results. Nearly 
all our descriptions, which in the first instance were drawn up with 
the growing plants before our eyes, have been, from time to time 
and season after season, read over again with new crops of the 
same plants before us. It is the variations which we have noted 
in the size and appearance of the same plants when grown under 
.different conditions that have induced us to pen our descriptions 
with a broadness which enables them to include the different aspects 
which the same kind of plant assumes according to the different 
circumstances under which it is grown. 

Whenever we have been able to seize upon any prominent and 
really permanent feature in the characteristics of a variety, whether 
that feature may be found in some important peculiarity or in a fixed 
uniformity in the size or shape of variable organs, we have been 
careful to bring it conspicuously into view, as the surest means of 
recognising the variety in question. Most frequently, in fact, the 
experienced cultivator of kitchen-garden plants recognises different 
varieties from one another by the general appearance of each, the 
peculiar aspect which the plant presents, and which more frequently 
depends on certain proportions in the position and relative size of 
the various organs than on any strictly structural characteristics. 
Such distinctive marks, although they never escape a practised eye, 



AUTHORS' PREFACE xvii 

frequently baffle description and definition. Observation and 
practice alone can teach any one how to see and recognise them 
with certainty ; therefore we are fortunate, whenever a variety is 
distinguished by a constant perceptible feature, to be able to express 
its distinctness by a single word or a short phrase. Characteristic 
features of this kind are found in the presence of spines on the 
leaves of the Prickly Solid Cardoon (Cardon de Tours\ in the 
reversed curve of the pods of the Sabre Pea, in the greenish colour 
of the flowers of the Dwarf Blue Imperial Pea (Pots Nain Vert 
Imperial], and similarly in many other cases. 

A part of each description on which we have bestowed mucn 
attention is that which refers to the seed. In addition to noting 
the character of its external appearance, we have been careful to 
state, as precisely as we could, its actual size and relative weight ; 
and lastly, we mention the length of time during which the 
germinating power of the seed of each species continues active. 
It will be easily understood that this could only be expressed in 
figures representing an average. The duration of the germinating 
power really depends very much on whether the circumstances 
under which the seed has been harvested and kept have been more 
or less favourable. The figures given in this work represent the 
average taken from an exceedingly great number of trials most 
carefully carried out. The number of years tabulated is that 
during which the seeds under trial continued to germinate in a 
perfectly satisfactory manner. For our present purpose, we have 
considered seeds deficient in germinating power when they yield 
only half the percentage of plants which they did in the first year 
of trial which was made with seeds of the same year's growth. 
For example, if, in the first year, a certain variety of seeds germi- 
nated to the extent of 90 per cent., we considered the same seeds 
to be deficient in germinating power as soon as they began to yield 
only less than 45 per cent, of plants. Any seeds, of which the 
germinating power continues active for four or five years on an 
average, do not entirely lose it after the lapse of ten years or 
more. It is proper to add that our trials were all made with 
well-saved seeds. Nothing has a greater tendency to destroy 
the germinating power of seeds than the influence of dampness 
and heat. This is what makes carriage through tropical countries 
so often fatal to their good quality. Up to the present, no 
better method of keeping seeds has been discovered than that 

b 



xviii AUTHORS' PREFACE 

of putting them in linen bags and storing them in a dry, cool, 
well-ventilated place. 

As often as we could, we have supplemented our descriptions 
with figures of the plants described. The size of the page did not 
generally allow of these figures being given in large dimensions, 
but we have endeavoured to exhibit at least their comparative 
sizes by figuring the different varieties of the same vegetable on 
a scale of uniform reduction, so far as this could be done. The 
reduction has been, necessarily, greater in the case of very large 
kinds of vegetables, such as Beet-roots, Cabbages, and Pumpkins, 
than that which applies to the small kinds ; however, we hope that, 
thanks to the talent of the draughtsman, M. E. Godard, even the 
most reduced figures will still give a sufficiently correct idea of 
the plants which they represent. The Strawberries, the Peas in 
pod, and the Potatoes are almost the only subjects which it was 
possible to figure in their natural size. Under the figures we also 
give the scale of reduction in fractions of the actual diameter of 
the plant. For example, when a subject is described as reduced 
to J, that means that the plant, in its natural size, is six times 
taller and six times broader than the figure which the reader has 
before him. We have been careful not to select any subjects for 
our figures except plants that were thoroughly well marked and 
of average size. It may be that, in this respect, and also in our 
estimation of distinctive features, we have sometimes made mis- 
takes. If so, we shall gladly acknowledge our errors and rectify 
them as soon as possible. Our only ambition, in preparing this 
work for the press, is to do so in good faith and without prejudice. 

Our cultural directions are to be regarded as nothing more 
than a help to memory, and we do not in any way put them 
forward as intended to supply the place of the full cultural 
instructions which are given in standard horticultural works or 
in various excellent special treatises which have been published 
in our own and other countries. 

Finally, we conclude the article devoted to each plant with a 
few remarks on the uses to which it is applied, and on the parts 
of the plant which are so used. In many cases, such remarks may 
be looked upon as idle words, and yet it would sometimes have 
been useful to have had them when new plants were cultivated 
by us for the first time. For instance, the Giant Edible Burdock 
of Japan (L,appa edulis) was for a long time served up on our 



AUTHORS' PREFACE xix 

tables only as a wretchedly poor Spinach, because people would 
cook the leaves, whereas, in its native country, it is only cultivated 
for its tender fleshy roots. 

There is one mistake against which professional cultivators, 
and also amateurs, especially those who have not had much 
experience, should be on their guard. This is the delusion of 
imagining that they have succeeded in raising a new variety when 
a form that seems to possess some merit makes its appearance 
amongst a number of seedlings. The plants raised from seed 
obtained by crossing should at first be regarded merely as units, 
which may have a certain value in the case of trees or plants that 
are long-lived and are propagated by division, but which, after all, 
are only units. Taken all together, they can only claim to be 
considered a variety when they have continued to reproduce ' 
themselves, for several generations, with a certain amount of fixity 
of character ; and, almost always, the really difficult and meri- 
torious part of the work is the establishment of the variety a 
tedious and delicate operation, by which, when successful, the new 
variety is endowed with the constancy and uniformity of character 
without which it is not worth offering to the public. 

Many varieties obtained in this way remain confined to their 
own localities, because they are not more widely known ; some 
cannot reproduce themselves faithfully when sown under conditions 
different from those of their native place, from which fresh seed 
must be obtained, from time to time, if it is desired to keep the 
variety very pure ; hence those local reputations which are one of 
the mainsprings of horticultural commerce. Generally most of the 
cultivated varieties, although they continue sufficiently distinct 
and true when they are grown with care, are all the better for 
being raised from an importation of new seed from the place in 
which experience has shown that it is grown best and truest to 
name. 

PARIS, 4 QUAI DE LA MEGISSERIE, 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



ANGELICA 

Angelica Archangelica, L. ; Archangelica cfficinalis, Hoffm. 

Umbelliferce. 

French, Angelique officinale, A. de Boheme, Archangelique. German, Angelica, 
Engelwurz. Flemish, Engdkruid. Dutch, EngelworteL Italian, Spanish, and 
Portuguese, Angelica. 

A NATIVE of the Alps. Perennial. This plant has a very thick, 
hollow, herbaceous stem, upwards of 4 ft. high ; leaves very large, 
from I to 3 ft. long, red- 
violet at the base, long- 
stalked, and terminating 
in three principal toothed 
divisions, which are sub- 
divided into three similar 
smaller divisions. Flowers 
small, numerous, pale yel- 
low, in umbels which unite 
to form a roundish head. 
Seed yellow, oblong, flat 
on one side, convex on the 
other } with three prominent 
ribs, and membranous 
edges. The germinating 
power of the seed continues 
for a year, or at most two. 
CULTURE. Angelica 
requires a good, rich, 
slightly humid, and deep 
soil. The seed is sown in 
springer summer in nursery 
beds, and the plants are 
planted out permanently in 
autumn, and will commence Angelica. 

to yield in the following 
year (provided they are well grown), when the leaves may be 




2 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

cut In the third year, at the farthest, the plants run to seed ; 
in this year, both stems and leaves are cut, and the plantation is 
destroyed. 

USES. The stems and leaf-stalks are eaten preserved with 
sugar. The leaves are also used as a vegetable in some parts 
of Europe. The root, which is spindle-shaped, is employed in 
medicine : it is sometimes called " The Root of the Holy Ghost." 
The seeds enter into the composition of various liqueurs. 



ANISE 

Piwpinella Anisum, L. Umbeliiferce. 

French, Anis. German, Anis. Flemish and Dutch, Anijs. Italian, Aniso, Anacio. 
Spanish, Anis, Matalahuga or Matalahuva. Portuguese, Anis. 

Native of Asia Minor, Greece, and Egypt. Annual. A plant 
from 14 to 16 in. high, with leaves somewhat like those of 

Celery, and finely divided 
stem-leaves, the divisions 
being almost thread-like, 
like those of Fennel 
leaves. The seed, which 
is small, oblong, and gray, 
is known for its deli- 
cate flavour and perfume. 
Its germinating power 
lasts for three years. 
Anise is sown, where it is 
to remain, in April. It 
prefers warm and well- 
drained soil. It grows 
very rapidly, and requires 
no care. The seed ripens 
Anisc< in August. The plant is 

seldom seen in England, 
but we have grown it easily in the London district. 

USES. The seeds are frequently used as a condiment, or in the 
manufacture of liqueurs and comfits. In Italy, they are sometimes 
put into bread. It is of very ancient use in England, and was 
known to the ancients, being indeed among the oldest of medicines 
and spices. It is one of the spices which the Grocers' Compciny of 
London had the weighing. and oversight of from 1453. According 
to the wardrobe accounts of Edward IV., it appears the royal linen 
was perfumed by means of " lytill bagges of fustian stuffed with 
Ireos and anneys" 




ARTICHOKE (FRENCH) 3 

ARTICHOKE (FRENCH) 

Cynara Scolymus, L. Composites. 

French, Artichaut. German, Artischoke. Flemish and Dutch, Artisjok. Danish, 
Artiskok. Italian, Articiocca, Carciofo. Spanish, Alcachofa. Portuguese, Alcachofra. 

A native of Barbary and South Europe. Perennial (but culti- 
vated plants will not yield profitably after two or three years). 
Stem from 3 to 4 ft. high, straight, channelled ; leaves large, about 
3 ft. long, whitish green above, and cottony underneath, decurrent 
on the stem, pinnatifid, with narrow lobes ; terminal flowers very 
large, composed of an assemblage of blue florets, covered with 
membranous overlapping scales, which, in cultivated plants, are 
fleshy at the base. Seed oblong, slightly flattened, somewhat 
angular, gray, streaked or marbled with deep brown. Its 
germinating power continues for six years. 

CULTURE. The Artichoke may be propagated from seed, or 
by dividing the stools, or from suckers. The last method is that 
which is most usually employed, as it is the only one by which the 
different varieties can be reproduced true to their proper character. 
Old stools of Artichokes produce underground, around the neck, a 
certain number of suckers or shoots which are intended to replace 
the stems which flowered the year before. These shoots are gene- 
rally too numerous on each stem to allow all to grow equally well, 
and it is the practice, in spring, to uncover, down to below the part 
from which the shoots issue, the old stools, which during the winter 
had been protected with a covering of soil or leaves. The shoots 
are then all detached from the stool, except two or three of the 
finest, which are allowed to remain to contribute to the crop. The 
operation of detaching the shoots is one which requires care and 
a practised hand, for it is important that along with each shoot a 
portion of the mother-plant (which is called the " heel ") should 
also be removed, without too severely wounding the old stool, as 
this might cause it to rot away. The shoots, as soon as they are 
detached, should be trimmed and dressed with a pruning-knife, 
so as to remove from the " heel " any parts that are bruised or torn, 
and to shorten the leaves a little ; the shoots may then be planted 
permanently. The best soil for a plantation of Artichokes is that 
which has been well dug, and is rich, deep, almost humid, and at 
the same time well drained. Low-lying level ground and valley- 
bottoms in which the soil is black and almost turfy are especially 
suitable for the cultivation of the Artichoke. 

The shoots are planted in rows, at a distance from each other 
of from about 2 J ft. to nearly 4 ft. (according to the richness of the 
soil and the variety grown), and with the same distance between 
the rows. They are placed firmly in the ground, but not too deep, 
and then well watered, after which it is only necessary to keep the 
ground clean by frequent use of the hoe, and to water plentifully 



4 -THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

When watering is necessary. If the plants are sufficiently manured 
and watered, almost all of them will yield in the autumn of the 
Same year. Sometimes, instead of planting out the shoots per- 
manently immediately after they are detached, they are first 
planted in nursery-beds, from which they are afterwards removed 
and placed out permanently at the end of June or July. The 
success of the plantation is, in this way, more certain, and the 
yield in autumn is, at least, quite as abundant as that produced 
by following the other mode of planting. 

When Artichokes are raised from seed, it should be sown in 
February or March, in a spent hot-bed, and the plants should be 
planted out permanently in May. Plants raised in this way may 
yield in the autumn of the first year. A sowing on the spot where 
the plants are to remain may also be made at the end of April or in 
May, but the plants thus obtained will not yield until the next year. 

At the commencement of winter, Artichoke plants should be 
protected against frost, which sometimes destroys them in our 
climate. In order to do so, all the stems which have flowered 
should be removed from the stools by cutting them off as close to 
the root as possible. The longest leaves also should be shortened, 
after which soil should be heaped around the stools to the 
height of 8 or I o in. above the neck of the root, care being taken 
not to let any of it get into the heart of the plant. Should 
the frost be very severe, it is advisable to give the stools an 
additional covering of dry leaves or straw ; but it is important 
that this covering should be removed whenever the weather is 
mild, in order to prevent the danger of its rotting the plants. At 
the end of March, or in the beginning of April, when hard frost is 
no longer to be feared, the soil is stirred and manured if necessary, 
the protecting heaps are removed from about the stools, and the 
work of detaching the suckers or shoots is proceeded with as 
described above. It is advisable to partially renew plantations 
of Artichokes every year, and also not to allow any plantation 
to last more than four years. 

Artichokes are grown in every creased by seed and offsets. Varie- 

British garden, but rarely so well ties of it, however, do not always 

as they deserve to be. come true from seed, and they re- 

The culture of the Artichoke quire, besides, more time than 

varies somewhat according to situa- offsets before they produce heads ; 

tion and climate. In the north and offsets, therefore, are most generally 

midlands, it is necessary to cover it adopted. With good culture heads 

in winter with litter or leaves, to may be had for six months in 

protect it from frost; in the south succession. Commencing with es- 

it is sufficient to earth it up, but tablished plants that have been 

even this precaution is not taken protected through the winter, these 

everywhere. The plants are in- will afford the first supply in May 



ARTICHOKE (FRENCH) 



and June ; and, for the next two 
months, good heads may be had 
from a planting of strong suckers 
made in March; for the end of 
summer and autumn, from a suc- 
cessional planting made in May. 
Another very good plan is to cut 
back, close to the earth's surface, a 
few old plants early in spring, and 
occasionally afterwards. These will 
produce a thicket of shoots, which 
should be early thinned by pulling 
and cutting the weakest, and allow- 
ing only a portion of the strongest 
suckers to remain. These will pro- 
duce, in succession, nice young 
heads. If the heads be allowed to 
attain their full growth, or nearly so, 
they are not so fine in flavour, and 
have lost most of their tenderness, 
so that only a part of the base of 
each scale and the base of the head 
are fit to eat. The Artichoke will 
grow luxuriantly in rich moist land 
in summer, but it will not stand our 
winter in wet quarters. It will grow 
on any kind of soil, if well manured, 
trenched, and pulverised; but no 
soil suits it better than a good open, 
sandy, rich loam, trenched and well 
manured. The plant is in its per- 
fection at the second and third year 
after planting. 

Years ago it was the custom in 
most gardens at the approach of 
winter to cover the plants entirely, 
or nearly, with litter, and then to 
bank them up with earth, in which 
condition they remained through 
the winter. The Artichoke is, how- 
ever, much hardier than was at that 
time supposed ; and plants not pro- 
tected seldom suffer injury. All 
the protection they require in the 
severest weather is a few dry leaves 
or a handful of Bracken placed over 
the crowns of each plant, to be re- 
moved when the weather changes. 
Plants are often allowed to remain 
too long in one spot, and where this 



occurs the heads all come into use 
at one time. The best remedy for 
this is to make a small plantation 
every year, which will come in after 
the old roots head. 

Artichokes may be often seen 
starved under trees, where neither 
light nor sun can reach them. A 
clear, open piece of good soil, well 
manured and deeply trenched up 
into rough ridges, to get well pulver- 
ised and sweetened by atmospheric 
influences, free from trees and 
hedges, is the proper place to 
plant them planting the first batch 
in March, and for succession 
another in May, afterwards keeping 
them thoroughly clean and main- 
taining an open free surface by 
often hoeing the ground about 
them. By such means a dozen 
stools will produce as many fine 
rich heads as double the quantity 
will do by the old-fashioned crowd- 
ing, neglectful system. Make choice 
in early spring of good strong 
suckers, take off the stools care- 
fully with a sharp, strong paddle- 
trowel or Asparagus knife, with 
some root or heel of the old stool 
to them, to hold them in the 
ground ; plant them singly 2 ft. 
apart, in rows at least 4 ft. apart, 
or in groups of three in triangles, 
at 4 ft. apart, at least, in the row. 
Protect them as soon as planted, 
against the sun and cutting winds, 
with Seakale pots which are out of 
use, or with evergreen boughs, or 
some other convenient protecting 
material. Those thus early planted 
will produce fine crisp heads the 
same summer and autumn. If in 
cutting heads the stems also be cut 
close to the ground, new suckers 
will soon appear, and if duly thinned 
will produce a late crop ; thus, in 
various ways, by a little trouble 
and attention a regular supply of 
good Artichokes may be had from 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



May to October, which will be 
much more satisfactory than having 
a glut at midsummer and none 
afterwards. 

Copious supplies of manure water 
may be advantageously given to 
Artichokes during dry weather, 
especially in the case of old stools 
that have been in the same soil 
for a length of time. Previous to 
watering, the soil between the rows 
should be slightly pricked over with 
a fork, to allow of the water soak- 
ing in more readily. Whenever 



watering is attempted, let it be 
done thoroughly, and if a good 
mulching of half-rotten manure can 
be afterwards applied between the 
rows, it will keep the roots in a 
moist state for a long time, and the 
effects of the watering will soon be 
seen. When grown on poor or dry 
soils, the effect of covering the soil 
with light manure, lawn mowings, 
or any such material that can be 
spared is excellent. In rich, moist 
soils it is not wanted, except in very 
dry seasons. 



USES. The base of the scales of the flower, and also the 
receptacle or bottom of the Artichoke, are eaten either cooked 
or raw. The stems and leaves may also be used, when blanched, 
like those of the Cardoon, to which they are in no way inferior in 
quality. The culture of this good vegetable deserves more atten- 
tion with us ; it should be more used as a vegetable, and the good 
French varieties should be grown more extensively. It is a vege- 
table of the highest value and delicacy when gathered fresh and 
properly cooked, as it may be in various ways. The London 
market often has heaps of Artichokes which have become shrivelled 
and "heated" on their long journey from the south of France, while 
our own valley soils are excellent for the plant. 



VARIETIES 




Paris Artichoke. 



Large Paris Arti- 
choke. A vigorous, com- 
paratively hardy plant, of 
medium height ; leaves 
silvery gray, the ribs red- 
dish, especially at the base, 
and without spines; stems 
stiff, erect, usually with 
two or three branchings. 
Heads large, broader than 
long, particularly remark- 
able for the breadth of 
the receptacle or bottom 
of the Artichoke. Scales 
very fleshy at the base, at 
first very closely pressed 
together, then broken, and 
in the two upper rows 
slightly bent backwards. 



'ARTICHOKE (FRENCH) 



They are pale green throughout, except at the base, where they are 
slightly tinged with violet ; they have few or no spines. The 
height of the stems does not exceed from 2\ to 3 ft, and a plant 
two years old will have three or four stems. This variety is the one 
which is most extensively cultivated in the neighbourhood of Paris. 
It is not a very early variety, but it is the best for yielding heads 
every year of its cultivation. No other variety has such a broad, 
thick, and fleshy receptacle or bottom ; it also reproduces itself 
fairly well from seed. 

Green Provence Artichoke. A plant of medium height, with 
rather deep green leaves ; heads green, somewhat more elongated 
than those of the preceding variety, but not so thick ; scales of a 
uniform green, long, rather narrow and spiny, moderately fleshy at 
the base. This variety, which is extensively grown in the south of 
France, is usually eaten raw with pepper sauce. The seeds of this 
variety, when sown, always produce a large proportion of spiny 
plants. 

Flat-headed Brittany Artichoke. A tall and vigorous plant, 
3^ to 4^ ft. high ; leaves 
luxuriant ; heads large, 
broad, and short, nearly 
globular in shape, flat- 
tened on the top ; 
scales green, brown, or 
slightly tinged with 
violet on the edges, 
short and broad, rather 
fleshy at the base. 
This variety is very 
extensively cultivated 
in Anjou and Brittany, 
from which provinces 
large quantities are 
sent in May to the 
Central Market in 
Paris. 

As the number of 
varieties of the Arti- 
choke is very great, 
we shall limit ourselves 
to mentioning only 
those which we con- 
sider the most worthy 
of notice next to the 
ones which we have 
cultivated. 




Flat-headed Brittany Artichoke. 

just described as being most generally 



8 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Copper-coloured Artichoke of Brittany. A rather low- 
growing plant ; heads round, large, violet at first, but red-copper 
colour as they advance in growth ; scales pointed. 

Perpetual Artichoke. A medium-sized plant not exceeding 

27 or 28 in. in height, 
with silvery gray leaves 
and red stems, deepening 
in colour at the base. 
The young heads are 
tinged with purple, which 
turns into purple-gray as 
their size increases. The 
scales are indented, spine- 
less, and very fleshy. It 
is much grown on the 
French Riviera for the 
sake of the numerous 
small heads it produces 
as early as January, which 
are usually eaten raw 
with oil and vinegar, as 
a delicate hors-d'tzuvre 
for which there is always 
a great demand. For 
this reason the plants are 
abundantly watered from 
the middle of August 
onward. When fully 
grown the heads may be 
cooked and eaten in the 
usual way. 

Early Purple Globe 
Artichoke. A rather 
dwarf plant, not more 
than 28 in. in height ; 
leaves grayish green, large 
but much laciniated ; the heads are round, green when young, 
tinged with dark purple when full grown ; scales long, pointed, 
lightly spiny. Although this variety came first from the south of 
France, it does well all over France, owing to its earliness. Like 
the preceding, it is best for use when young. It has superseded 
the Purple Provence Artichoke, and, like it, is apt to take cold, 
and should not be uncovered tpo early in the spring. 

Gray Artichoke. A variety with elongated, rather thin and 
loose heads, widening out at the top. It is "specially cultivated in 
the neighbourhood of Perpignan, is a very early kind, and flowers 




Perpetual Artichoke. 



ARTICHOKE (FRENCH) 9 

almost continuously. It is sent in large quantities to the Central 
Market in Paris during the winter and in the beginning of 
spring. 

Black English Artichoke. A very distinct kind, with nume- 
rous heads of medium size, nearly round and quite flat-topped, of a 
handsome dark violet colour. 

Roscoff Artichoke. A very tall plant ; heads egg-shaped, of 
a rather pale green colour ; scales spiny. 

Oblong St. Laud Artichoke. Heads large, elongated ; scales 
loosely overlapping each other at the base, and much more 
closely set at the top, scarcely emarginate, with a small spine at 
the point. 

Sweet Artichoke of Genoa. A rather tender plant ; heads 
pale green, elongated, spiny. The flesh of the receptacle is yellow, 
sweet, and very delicate in flavour. 

Purple Provence Artichoke. A rather low-growing plant, 
with swollen short and blunt heads, of rather deep violet 
when young and becoming green as they mature. A very 
productive variety, but only in spring, and somewhat impatient 
of cold. 

Violet Quarantain Artichoke of Camargue. Plant of medium 
height ; heads rather small ; scales round, erect, of a violet-tinged 
green colour. An early variety. 

Violet St. Laud Artichoke. Heads of medium size ; scales 
green on the exposed parts, but violet on the parts covered by 
other scales, and also on 
the tips. 

Florence Artichoke. 
Heads very numerous, 
elongated, pointed, of an 
intense violet colour. This 
variety is very much grown 
in the neighbourhood of 
Florence. The heads, 
gathered when young and 
tender, are generally boiled 
and eaten entire. 

Purple Venice Arti- 
choke. Heads of medium 
size, long, conical, dark 
purple, especially when Pur P Ie Venice Artichoke, 

young ; scales fleshy and 

delicate in flavour ; tinged with salmon-yellow on the part not 
exposed to the light. Hardy, but not very productive. 




10 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE* 

Helianthus tuber osus, L. Composite. 

French, Topinambour. German, Erdapfel. Flemish, Aardpeer. Danish, Jordskokkeii. 
- Italian, Girasole del Canada, Tartufoli. Spanish, Namara. Portuguese, Topinambor. 

Native of North America. Perennial A tall plant, with annual 

stems, but producing, year 
after year, underground 
shoots which are swollen 
into genuine tubers. It 
was introduced into Europe 
some centuries ago, and is 
very generally cultivated on 
a large scale. The stem is 
erect and very stout, some- 
times over 6J ft. high, often 
branching in the lower part, 
and bearing oval-acuminate 
leaves, which are long 
stalked and very rough to 
the touch ; flower - heads 
comparatively small, seldom 
opening in the north of 
France before October ; 
florets yellow; tubers violet- 
red, slender at the bottom, 

and swollen in the upper part, where they are about 2 in. in diameter, 

marked with hollows and scale-like 

enlargements. They form very late, 

and should not be dug until the stems 

have nearly ceased growing. The 

flesh is sweet and rather watery. 
CULTURE. The tubers are planted 

in the open ground, in March or April, 

in rows 2 J to 3 ft. or more apart, and 

with a distance of 12 to 14 in. between 

the tubers. The plants require no 

attention beyond the occasional use 

of the hoe, and the tubers are dug as 

theyare wanted. They are not affected 

by frost as long as they are left in the 

ground, but are very liable to be in- 
jured if exposed to it after they are 

taken up. In warm countries the 

plant produces seed, from which it can 

be propagated. Experiments made Iinproved Yellow Jerusalem 
raising improved Artichoke. 

* See also p. 758. 




Jerusalem Artichoke ( natural size). 




with the view of 



JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE 



ii 



varieties from seed have not hitherto been attended with very 
satisfactory results. From one of these experiments we obtained 
a variety with yellow tubers which have a finer and more agreeable 
flavour than the common kind, but the plant is far less productive. 
This variety may answer as a kitchen- 
garden plant, but is not suitable for 
extensive or field culture. 

As this vegetable may be grown in almost 
any Dlace, it is generally planted on gravelly 
pieces of ground that would be too dry for 
other crops. Knolls or mounds are usually 
cropped with it, and it is also grown along 
the sides of hedges and in shady places. A 
few growers, however, grow it on good soil 
in open and somewhat exposed positions, and 
the result is an abundant crop of fine tubers. 
After preparing the ground by manuring and 
digging or trenching it, the tubers are planted 
in February, in rows like Potatoes, and are 
allowed to grow unchecked, and without being 
earthed up, till November. It has not become 
very popular perhaps owing to its resemblance 
to the Potato, to which it is, no doubt, inferior, 
if looked at only from the Potato standard. 
But it never should be so regarded, being 
very distinct from any Potato, and having 
distinct uses in cookery. It is excellent as 
baked by French and Italian cooks, the 
flavour being richer and better this way. 

Jerusalem Potato Artichoke. A 
remarkable variety, the result of a series 
of sowings made at Verrieres with 
seeds gathered in Corsica by Dr. Joseph 
Michaud. It is distinguishable from the common variety by the 
greater size of its tubers, which are also rounder, less angular and 
knobby ; they are yellow in colour. In quality it is equal to the 
old sort and somewhat superior to it in yield. 




Jerusalem Potato Artichoke. 



ASPARAGUS 

Asparagus officinalis, L. Liliacece. 

French. Asperge. German, Spargel. Flemish and Dutch, Aspersie. Danish, Asparges. 
Italian, Sparagio. Spanish, Esparrago. Portuguese^ Espargo. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. A plant with numerous simple 
swollen roots, disposed in the form of a claw, from which spring 
several stems over 4 ft. in length, straight, branching, very smooth, 
slightly glaucous, with very minute cylindrical fascicled leaves. 



12 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Flowers pendent, small, greenish yellow, succeeded by spherical 
berries about the size of a pea, which in autumn assume a very 
vivid vermL.on colour. Seeds black, triangular, large, preserving 
their germinating power for five years at least. 

CULTURE. Asparagus, which is one of our earliest spring 
vegetables, is also one of the most widely appreciated and exten- 
sively cultivated. In many districts, and notably in the neighbour- 
hood of Paris, the cultivation of Asparagus for market is a branch 
of industry of the highest importance ; and although there are, 
undoubtedly, some soils and localities in which its cultivation is 
attended with special success, there is hardly any place in which 
a plantation of this vegetable may not be made, if only some pains 
are taken in establishing it and keeping it in order. A light and 
well-drained soil is the best for this purpose, but a plantation may 
be successfully made in any soil which is not either absolutely wet 
or impermeably stiff; stagnant moisture being, above all other 
things, fatal to this plant. 

In order to establish a plantation, the cultivator may either 
raise his own plants or purchase them ready for use. In the first 
case, the seed should be sown in March or April, in good, rich, 
mellow soil (in drills preferably), and lightly covered with soil, 
leaf-mould, or compost (a covering from J to f in. deep will be 
quite sufficient). After the seed is well up and the plants have 
begun to gain some strength, they should be thinned out, if neces- 
sary, so as to leave a space of about 2 in. from plant to plant in 
the drills. It is very important for the ulterior favourable develop- 
ment of the plants, and for the satisfactory appearance of the crop, 
that they should never suffer from the want of nourishment caused 
either by an insufficiency of manure or by the plants being placed 
too closely together. During the rest of the summer and autumn, 
water should be given copiously whenever there appears to be need 
of it, and the ground must be kept very clean by the use of the hoe, 
which should be carefully handled, so as not to injure the roots of 
the plants. Plants treated in this way will be ready to be planted 
out permanently the following spring ; they will strike root sooner, 
and give better results than plants of two years' growth, while the 
crop which they yield will come in quite as soon. 

Those who do not wish to take the trouble of raising plants 
themselves in this way can easily procure them from seedsmen. 
Young Asparagus shoots may be kept for several days, and even 
weeks, out of the ground, without any detriment either to their 
striking root or to the appearance of the crop which they will yield. 
The raising of these plants for sale has become an important 
industry. 

It has been already stated that, in order to establish a plantation 
of Asparagus, a light and well-drained soil should, if possible, be 



ASPARAGUS 



selected ; but if the cultivator has no other soil except one that is 

very stiff and damp, he should, by a thorough drainage, render it 

wholesome to the depth of at least 12 or 1 6 in., and direct all 

his efforts to the improvement of the surface. The experience 

of the Asparagus growers at Argenteuil and other localities near 

Paris, who have brought the culture of this plant to a degree of 

perfection unknown before, seems to prove that the best results 

are obtained by liberally manuring the upper portion only of the 

soil in which the plants are growing, as the roots have naturally 

no tendency to descend deeper, if they find sufficient nourishment 

near the surface. It is obvious that, in establishing a plantation of 

A s naragus, account must 

be taken of the nature 

of the soil in which it is 

to be made, and which, 

consequently, must be 

dug more or less deeply; 

but it may be said 

generally that the chief 

point on which success 

mainly depends, is not 

to put the stools out of 

reach of the influence of 

heat, while, at the same 

time, placing them in a 

medium in which they 

will find an abundance 

of the nourishment 

which they require. 

The stools, then, should be planted at no great depth, and no 

great quantity of soil should be heaped over them, except at the 

time when the young shoots are growing, when it is absolutely 

necessary to do so, in order to obtain these of sufficient length. 

As to the disposition of the young plants, there is no fixed rule. 

They may be placed either in single rows, or in beds containing 

two or three rows each ; but it is advisable, in all cases, to have a 

distance of at least 2 or 2j ft from plant to plant in all directions. 

This will be found advantageous from a double point of view, as 

ensuring a crop of greater abundance and better quality. 

Planting in beds being the most usual way, we shall briefly 
describe how it is done, first observing that the methods of 
establishing and cultivating the plants are almost exactly the 
same as those pursued with plants grown in single rows. In 
March or April, or even later, the ground for the plantation is 
carefully laid out, having been previously well dug and plentifully 
manured before winter. The surface of the beds is then slightly 




Asparagus (after 7 years' planting). 



14 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

hollowed out to the depth of about 4 in., the soil being trans- 
ferred to the alleys. Well-rotted farmyard manure, or some other 
active fertiliser, is then spread over the surface of the bed. In the 
vicinity of Paris, well-rotted manure or street-sweepings are much 
used for this purpose. The positions for the stools are then marked 
out, in two or three rows according to the width of the beds, at the 
distances mentioned above. At each of these positions is deposited 
a small heap of well-manured soil or leaf-mould, about 2 in. high, 
on the top of which the young stool is placed, care being taken to 
spread out the roots all around and to press them gently into the 
soil. When all the stools are in position, they are covered with 
leaf-mould or soil mixed with rotten manure, and a sufficient 
quantity of soil is spread over all to restore the bed almost to 
its former level. In this way the crowns of the stools will not be 
buried deeper than about 2 in., and the ends of the roots not deeper 
than 4 in. A good deal of soil which was replaced by the manure 
will remain in the alleys and between the rows, and this will be 
found useful afterwards for earthing- up the plants. 

During the first year, the plantation requires no attention 
beyond the frequent use of the hoe and occasional waterings. 
At the commencement of winter, the stems are cut down to 
8 or 10 in. from the ground, the portions so left serving to indicate 
the position of each stool. (It is a good plan also, at the time of 
planting, to stick a small rod into the ground beside each stool to 
mark its position, as the manure can then be placed exactly over 
the roots, and there will be little danger of injuring them in the 
course of hoeing or in any other way.) A portion of the soil which 
covers the stool is then cautiously removed, leaving only enough 
to cover the stool to the depth of between i and 2 in., and then 
the manure is applied. This is of various kinds. Those which, 
from experience, are considered the best, are well-rotted farmyard 
manure, street-sweepings to which a little sea-salt is sometimes 
added, and calcareous composts plaster, marl, lime rubbish, 
quarry-dust, etc. if the soil is deficient in such ingredients. The 
manure is allowed to remain on the surface all through the winter, 
and at the end of March is dug into and well mixed with the soil. 
The surface is then neatly levelled down, and the plantation, during 
the remainder of the second year, is treated exactly in the same 
way as in the previous year. When the stools are uncovered in 
the autumn, care should be taken to cut away, close to the root, the 
withered remnants of the stems which were previously shortened 
in October. A fresh covering of manure is then applied, which, as 
before, is left to lie on the surface all through the winter and dug 
in at the commencement of spring. 

In the third year the plants are, for the first time, earthed up. 
This operation consists in heaping up over each stool some of the 



ASPARAGUS 15 

soil taken from the alleys, so as to form a little hillock about a foot 
higher than the bed. If the plantation has been carefully attended 
to up to this time, some shoots may now be gathered for use, but 
not more than two or three from each stool : however, if it is 
desirable that the plantation should last for a considerable time, 
it is better to abstain from gathering any now, and to wait till 
the fourth year for the first gathering. In any case, it is very 
important to gather the shoots by breaking them off close to 
the neck of the stool, and not to cut them in the soil, as is often 
wrongly done, to the detriment, among other things, of the as yet 
undeveloped shoots. The best plan is to uncover the shoot to be 
gathered, by removing the soil of the hillock, and then neatly break 
off the shoot with the fingers or a special implement, replacing 
the soil of the hillock at once in its former position. This is the 
invariable practice of careful cultivators in the neighbourhood of 
Paris. If, from any cause, portions of shoots are found attached 
to the stool in autumn, they should be altogether removed before 
winter sets in. In the open air, in the climate of Paris, Asparagus 
is gathered in the beginning of April, but it is well not to continue 
gathering after June I5th, if an abundant and early crop is ex- 
pected the following year. About London it is ten to fourteen 
days later, and lasts so much longer. 

In the fourth year, the treatment of a plantation of Asparagus 
is precisely the same as in the previous years, consisting simply 
of the necessary hoeing, watering, and manuring. It is not 
absolutely necessary to apply manure every year ; nevertheless, 
as the Asparagus is a very greedy plant in the matter of manure, 
the crop will always be in proportion to the quantity of nourish- 
ment it receives in this way. A plantation properly made and 
carefully attended to will continue productive for ten years or more. 

As by the common English way grow, if strong growth and strong 
of growing Asparagus it is impos- shoots are desired. Long expan- 
sible to get a good result, we give ence has taught cultivators that a 
here what are the smaller space than 4 ft. apart will 

not suffice to give the very best 
ESSENTIAL POINTS IN THE PRODUC- result> At first si ht ' le in 

TION OF GOOD ASPARAGUS. this country might suppose that 

Although the details of the system this means a waste of ground, but 

of growing good Asparagus require it really is not so. At first, when 

some little space to describe on the plantation is young, waste of 

paper, the essential differences be- ground is avoided by taking a light 

tween that and the system com- crop off between the lines say, 

monly employed in England are so one of Kidney Beans or of early 

very clear that they may be shortly Potatoes ; but after a good year's 

stated. Each plant is treated as growth, and when the Asparagus 

an individual as a vigorous subject gets strong, its roots really occupy 

requiring much space in which to the whole space, and the result is 



i6 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



so much more satisfactory than in 
the common way that the ground 
affords a better and more satisfac- 
tory return. There are two prin- 
cipal ways of growing this crop 
near Paris one, devoting a certain 
portion of ground to it, as usual 
with us ; the other, putting single 
plants between Vines or small fruits, 
or placing a plant wherever there 
is room for one. This last way is 
important, because it may be car- 
ried out in small gardens every- 
where, and by its means we should 
become more readily convinced of 
the value of giving plenty of room 
to the roots. Single plants here 
and there in the open spaces, or in 
" blanks " between bushes, fruits, 
or dwarf pyramidal Apple or Pear 
trees, or single lines, wherever room 
can be found for them, would, from 
the superior result, soon convince 
all of the value of the system. 

PLANTING. Healthy yearling 
plants are always chosen, and they 
are planted about the time, or a 
little before the time, when growth 
commences in spring. They are in- 
variably planted in a shallow trench 
somewhat like a Celery trench not 
quite so deep and not manured as 
that is, supposing that the ground 
is in fair condition. In a trench 
about 8 in. deep the plants are 
placed on little low hillocks, and 
they are carefully attended to for 
the first year. The plants, be it 
noted, are 4 ft. apart in the line, 
and 4 ft. apart in the trench. It 
will be noticed that the second 
essential difference between the 
common way that in use with us 
and the way it is now desired to 
make known is, that in garden soil 
of fair quality no manure is used 
at the time of planting. There are 
soils in which drainage and pre- 
paration might be required ; but 
assuming that the soil is as good 



as garden soil generally is, no pre- 
paration whatever is given beyond 
the opening of the trench and the 
planting of each root in a little fine 
surface soil ; the great preliminary 
expense which has been supposed 
to be necessary in the culture of 
this plant is avoided. It is when 
the plants begin to get strong and 
well established that a little manure 
is applied. There is thus a great 
economy in two things in plants 
and in manure, which under the 
usual system with us is used to the 
most wasteful extent ; so much so, 
indeed, as to seriously limit produc- 
tion by causing alarm as to expense. 

HOME CULTURE. Our markets 
are full of Asparagus in spring, 
grown in other countries, sometimes 
hundreds of miles from London. It 
is a vegetable which, perhaps more 
than any other, loses quality every 
day after it is cut. This is one 
reason why it should be grown in 
our own country. The soil and the 
climate of England, in almost every 
county, are admirably suited for the 
production of Asparagus. Never- 
theless, not only do we not supply 
our own markets, but many pos- 
sessing large gardens cannot get 
a really good sample. All this 
is wholly unnecessary, for every 
farmer's garden and every cottage 
garden might grow it well. In large 
places, where a few beds formed on 
a costly and wrong principle now 
furnish a very limited supply of 
very poor Asparagus, there ought to 
be an abundance of the best quality. 
Our markets ought to be supplied 
by our own people, the early sup- 
plies coming from the southern and 
the late ones from the northern 
counties. 

BLANCHING. The question of 
blanching it is more or less apart 
from the question of cultivation, 
and people may adopt the only true 



ASPARAGUS 



system of culture without blanch- 
ing, if such be their taste. But a 
closer acquaintance with the subject 
will probably teach many that there 
is something in this despised sys- 
tem of blanching, which so many 
persons, lamentably ignorant on the 
subject beyond experiences of their 
own overcrowded and ill-grown 
beds, declare to be an absurd prac- 
tice. All good judges and good 
growers know that it is necessary 
in the highest culture, and to secure 
the most delicate flavour, and also 
to prevent the rising shoots break- 
ing in warm weather into scales or 
leaves before they are fairly deve- 
loped. The best foreign Asparagus 
is blanched by piling little mounds of 
friable earth over the stools in spring. 

FORCING. Obtaining early sup- 
plies of Asparagus should be the 
aim of all who have gardens of 
any extent and with the usual 
appliances for forcing and heating. 
A peculiarity of this, the most deli- 
cate and most esteemed of all vege- 
tables, is that it never retains its true 
and delicate flavour when "canned" 
or preserved. We have tried many 
samples, both from France and 
America, and never found one that 
did not taste unpleasantly of the 
tin. The true way is to prolong the 
season of the fresh Asparagus as 
long as we conveniently can. 

Forcing may be commenced in 
November and continued till Aspa- 
ragus is fit to gather in the open 
air. One of the best ways is to 
make a slight hot-bed with stable 
manure, leaves, and tan (these last 
materials, if easily obtained, will do 
well to mix with the manure), in a 
Melon pit, or under a common Cu- 
cimbar frame about 2^ft. high ; and 
on th2 surface of the bed should 
be placed a few inches of light soil, 
leaf-mould, or sifted potting refuse, 
on which to place the plants, because 



such material does not act so effectu- 
ally in repressing the heat as ordi- 
nary garden soil. When the roots 
are taken up as completely and care- 
fully as possible, and placed thickly 
on this, they should be covered with 
a few more inches of the same mate- 
rial. If the Asparagus be required 
of its natural colour, give the frame 
full light and air when fine. Water 
occasionally with tepid water. After 
one good watering in the early stage, 
a little will afterwards suffice, for 
the winter crops at all events, as the 
slow evaporation of the period and 
the moisture of the bed will pre- 
serve the soil in a sufficiently moist 
state. The heat of the bed must be 
preserved when it gets low by a 
lining, in the usual old-fashioned 
way, and by covering closely with 
mats or litter at night in cold 
weather that is, if it be a common 
frame, but if in a brick pit this will 
not be necessary. The chief point 
is to be patient at first, to let it get 
a slow start, and not to be over- 
excited at any time, or it will start 
away and produce nothing but very 
weak, spindly shoots : whereas, by 
bringing it on gradually and regularly, 
a good cutting may be obtained. 

An important way is by bringing 
the heat to the roots, and certainly 
by this plan a more permanent and 
stable kind of " grass " is obtained, 
because plant or root is not in the 
least disturbed. It is an expensive 
way, though simple. The beds are, 
in the first place, very well made of 
rich, deep soil, and the alleys of 
these beds are dug out to a depth 
of 3 ft. or so, and then bricked ; or. 
in other words, the Asparagus beds 
are made between low brick walls, 
perforated with " pigeon-holes," to 
admit of the heat entering freely ; 
and whenever forcing commences, 
the bricked trench on each side of a 
bed is filled with fermenting manure^ 



18 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



covered over by a rough shutter, 
and the beds themselves with small 
wooden frames made to fit; these 
are, of course, only placed on during 
forcing, the beds being exposed in 
the summer season. The beds should 
not be more than 4 or 5 ft. wide, to 
admit of the ready percolation of 
heat. This method is, however, 
only suited for places where a good 
deal of expense is devoted to the 
garden. The modification or im- 
provement of it, which consists in 
having hot-water pipes passing be- 
tween each bed and the chamber 
covered with a slab of stone, is even 
a more expensive one. No matter 
what system is employed, a steady 
heat of from 60 to 65 will be found 
most suitable. 

In the royal gardens at Frogmore 
the beds are about 75 ft. long and 
7 ft. wide, their sides being built 
with brick, " pigeon-hole " style. 
The spaces between the beds are 
4 ft. deep, the lower 2 ft. being 
filled with rich soil ; and in * the 
upper 2 ft. are flow and return hot- 
water pipes connected with a boiler 
that heats six such ranges. On the 
tops of the beds are frames. In 



special severe weather the sashes 
must be covered with mats or litter. 
The French mode of forcing As- 
paragus usually consists in digging 
deep trenches between beds planted 
for the purpose, covering the beds 
with the soil and with frames, filling 
in the trenches between the beds 
with stable manure, and protecting 
the frames with straw mats and litter 
to keep in the heat. A speciality 
is made of forcing the smaller-sized 
Asparagus in iron houses There 
are frames within these houses, just 
as in many propagating houses in 
England, and beneath them the 
Asparagus is forced for the markets, 
and in large quantities. The houses 
are heated by hot water, and the 
culture in other respects resembles 
that which is practised in forcing 
gardens in England that is, when 
the plants are taken up to be forced 
indoors or in pits. The disturbance 
weakens the roots a good deal, and 
the large table Asparagus is never 
forced by this method. It is pro- 
duced specially in a small state for 
soups, etc., but it is impossible to 
obtain the large table Asparagus in 
this way. 



USES. The young shoots, blanched by being earthed up, and 
gathered as soon as the points appear overground, are used boiled 
as a vegetable. In Italy and some other countries, they allow 
them to grow 4 or 6 in. overground, and to become quite green 
before they gather them. In France, blanched Asparagus with a 
reddish or purple coloured head is generally preferred. 

In Holland and Belgium, the shoots are completely blanched. 
Notwithstanding this, the Belgian and Dutch Asparagus has a 
delicate and excellent flavour. English people who only know 
foreign Asparagus as specimens a week or more old, gathered in 
Spain or France, make a great mistake in supposing that blanching 
destroys flavour. Fresh and properly cooked Asparagus is always 
delicate and good in flavour, whether blanched or not ; but growers, 
cooks, market men, and others who have much experience know 
that the blanched is the best, and laugh at the dictum of those who 
say that " only an inch of the blanched grass is fit to eat." Many 
who discuss the question do not even know how the large Asparagus 



ASPARAGUS 



is cooked, and have never tasted well-grown Asparagus freshly 
gathered and properly cooked. Another error is to suppose that 
only foreign produce is blanched, and our own green. The practice 
of the market gardeners of London has for many years been to 
blanch the shoots for most of their length. What they send to the 
London market is excellent in flavour, and has the advantage over 
the French of freshness. It may be useful to state here that French 
cooks boil the very fine Asparagus in bundles standing on end 
in the water, leaving an inch or so of the points above the water. 
This enables them to thoroughly cook the stem, without destroying 
the tops. These, if not enough cooked by the steam, are readily 
finished by laying the bundle on its side for a few minutes. R. 

VARIETIES OF ASPARAGUS 

are pretty numerous, or perhaps it would be better to say that 
every district in which its culture is successfully carried on has 
given its name to a kind more or less distinct. It is owing to 
this circumstance that we have such names as Asperge de Gand, 
A. de Marchiennes, A. de Vendome, A. de Besancon, etc. We 
shall describe only those kinds which appear to possess some really 
distinctive characteristics. 

Common Green Asparagus. 
This variety appears to come nearest 
to the wild Asparagus ; the shoots 
are more slender, more pointed, and 
turn green sooner than those of any 
other cultivated kind. 

Giant Dutch Purple Asparagus. 
The shoots of this variety are thicker 
and more rounded at the end than 
those of the preceding kind. They 
are only tinged at the points with rose- 
colour or violet-red as long as they 
are not exposed to the action of light. 

White German Asparagus. 
Closely resembling the preceding 
variety, this is generally considered 
to be a little earlier and is somewhat 
more deeply coloured, but the differ- 
ence is so trifling that the two 
varieties may be safely pronounced 
identical. 

Early Giant Argenteuil Asparagus. This very handsome 
variety, obtained by selection from seedlings of the Giant Dutch 
Purple Asparagus, forms the greater part of those fine bundles of 
Asparagus which are so much admired in the Paris markets in 




Giant Dutch Asparagus (J natural 
size). 



2O 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



spring. The shoots are very notably thicker than those of the 
parent plant, the head is slightly pointed, and the scales with 
which it is covered are very closely set, overlapping each other. 
It is a little earlier than the parent variety. 

Late Giant Argenteuil Asparagus. This variety is not 
inferior in appearance to the Early one, but it does not commence 
to yield quite so soon. It is called Late, not so much on account 
of this difference as because it continues to produce fine large 
shoots when those of the Early kind have become much thinner 
than they were at the beginning of the season, and shoots of the 
Late kind are used to set off the bundles. Experienced cultivators 
are able to distinguish this variety from the preceding one by the 
appearance of the point of the shoot, which in this kind has the 
scales parted from each other like those of the Artichoke, instead 
of being, as it were, glued down upon each other. 

The Germans have a great number of varieties of Asparagus, 
under the names of Great Giant, Large Erfurt, Early Darmstadt, 
Large Darmstadt, Large Early White, etc. All of these appear to 
us to come very close to the Giant Dutch Purple and the White 
German Asparagus, both of which, as we have seen, are much 
about the same thing. 

In England and America the variety named Conover's Colossal 
is very much extolled. From what we know of it, we do not think 
it superior to the Argenteuil varieties. [The difference in kinds is 
very often the result merely of difference in cultivation. There is a 
difference between the Early Argenteuil and the Late Argenteuil,and 

the Early variety should 
be encouraged by English 
growers, who should try to 
supply their own markets 
as early as possible. R.] 

BALM 

Melissa officinalis, L. 
Labiates. 

French, Melisse citronelle, Melisse 
officinale. German, Citronen- 
Melisse. J)utch, Citroen-Melisse. 
Danish, Hjertensfryd. Italian, 
Melissa. Spanish, Toronjil, 
Citronella. 

Native of South Europe. 
Perennial. A plant 
growing about ij ft. high, 
with numerous erect and 
spreading branches and 

leaves of pure green ; 




Balm (plant, 



natural size). 



BALM 21 

flowers few, in small clusters ; calyx covered with fine soft hairs ; 
seeds brown. Their germinating power lasts for four years. The 
leaves and all the green parts of the plant exhale a very agreeable 
and penetrating aromatic odour, especially when bruised. This 
plant is of very easy culture in England. It is increased by 
dividing the clumps in autumn, winter, or spring. Like most of 
the herbs that come from South Europe, it enjoys warm positions, 
but grows anywhere. 

USES. The leaves are much used for seasoning, and especially 
in the manufacture of liqueurs and scents. 

BASIL 

Ocymum Basilicum, L. Labiates. 

French, Basilic grand, Herbe royale. German, Basilikum. Flemish, Basilik. Danish, 
Basilikum. Italian, Basilico. Spanish, Albaca, Albahaca. Portuguese, Manjericao. 

A native of India. Annual. Stem about I ft. high, very 
branching; leaves green; flowers white, in whorled leafy clusters 
seeds small, black, covered with a mucila- 
ginous substance, which swells in water 
like Flax-seed. Their germinating power 
lasts for eight years. 

CULTURE. As this plant is a native 
of warm countries, the best way is to sow 
the seed in a hot-bed in March or April. 
The seedlings are planted out in May, in 
the open air, on a warm border. All kinds 
of Basil are easily grown in pots. In 
England, Sweet Basil seeds should be 
sown about the middle of April, in a 
genial temperature, and when the seed- 
lings are large enough to handle, they 
may be potted off singly, or they may be Basil ( natural size), 
pricked into boxes or seed-pans, or into 

a frame on a slight bottom heat, from which they should be trans- 
ferred to their positions in the open air about the beginning of 
June. Owing to the plant being very tender, this can seldom be 
done with safety at an earlier period. Sweet Basil succeeds best 
in a light, rich soil, in which the plants should grow at a distance 
of 6 or 8 in. apart, and should be well watered until they become 
established. As soon as they come into bloom they should be cut 
down to within a few inches of the ground, and the portion cut off 
should be tied up in small bunches and dried in the shade for winter 
use. As, however, green Basil is frequently required, the plants 
which have be'en cut down should have the soil surrounding them 
slightly stirred up, and the bed given a surface-dressing of fresh 




22 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



soil, when the plants will quickly form themselves into healthy little 
bushes, which will furnish a supply of green leaves until about the 
beginning of October. A portion of them should then be lifted and 
potted, or planted in boxes, and should be placed in a somewhat 
genial temperature, where they will continue to furnish a supply of 
green leaves when required throughout the winter. 

USES. The leaves are very aromatic and are used for seasoning. 
Formerly, and even still in some countries, Basil was considered to 
possess very active medicinal properties. Its agreeable perfume 
and flavour recommend it as a kitchen-garden plant. 

Large Green Sweet Basil. This appears to be the type of 
the species. A low-growing plant, forming compact dense tufts 
about 10 in. or I ft. high, and about as much across. Leaves 
shining green, I to I J in. long ; flowers white, in long clusters. 

Large Purple Sweet Basil. A plant of the same height and 
habit as the preceding, from which it differs in having the leaves 
and stems of a dark purplish-brown colour, and the flowers lilac. 

Lettuce-leaved Basil. A variety with broad, crimped, un- 
dulating leaves, from 2 to 4 in. long, and of a low-growing thick-set 

habit, somewhat less branch- 
ing than either of the two 
preceding kinds ; but the 
plant is apparently derived 
from the same type. The 
flowers, which are closely 
set in clusters, make their 
appearance rather later in 
this variety. The leaves of 
this Basil, which are much 
larger than those of any 
other kind, are also much 
fewer in number. 

Curled-leaved Basil. A 
variety with green jagged- 
, . x edged, crisped, or curled 

Lettuce-leaved Basil O- natural size). . & r j'_- 

leaves ; very distinct. 

Bush, or Dwarf, Basil (Ocymum minimum]. A much dvvarfer, 
more compact, and more branching plant than the Common Basil ; 
the leaves also are smaller. Flowers white ; seeds like those of the 
Common Basil. Culture and uses the same. 

Green Bush Basil. This plant, which is of a pleasing green 
colour, is particularly suitable for growing in pots, and is very 
commonly cultivated in this way. It may be often seen in the 
windows of the poorest houses, especially in warm countries, being 
highly esteemed for the fresh, bright verdure of its foliage and its 
fine strong aromatic odour. It forms very compact tufts, covered, 




BASIL 23 

in the flowering season, with multitudes of small clusters of rosy- 
white flowers, which agreeably contrast with the intense green of 
the foliage. 

Compact Green Bush Basil. The distinctive characteristic 
of this variety is the very great number of stems and leaves which 
it produces, causing each plant to present the appearance of a 
round mass or ball of verdure, close and compact. It is, conse- 
quently, far better suited for forming ornamental vases or pots of 




Green Bush Basil ( natural size). 



Compact Bush Basil. 



greenery than the Common Bush Basil. It develops rapidly, and 
is generally preferred to all other sorts by market gardeners in the 
south of France. 

Purple Bush Basil. A plant of a deep violet colour in all 
its parts, except the flowers, which are of a lilac-white. It forms a 
small, very compact, bushy, and leafy clump. 

Compact Purple Bush Basil. A dwarf form of the Purple 
Bush Basil ; very bushy and compact, and covered with small 
purplish bronzy leaves, borne on numerous threadlike stems. It is 
specially suitable for pot cultivation. 

East Indian, or Tree Basil (Ocymum gratissimum, L.). The 
plant which is commonly found cultivated under the "name of Tree 
Basil does not appear to be the true Ocymum gratissimum, L., but 
rather O. suave, Willd. It is an annual, with an upright stem, 
branching from the base, and forming a pyramidal bush from 
20 in. to 2 ft. high, and from I ft. to 16 in. in its greatest diameter. 
Leaves oblong, pointed, toothed ; flowers lilac, in irregular spikes 
at the ends of the branches. The plant has an agreeable perfume, 
but it is late-growing and more suited for a warm climate - 



24 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

THE COMMON OR BROAD BEAN 

Faba vulgaris, Mill. ; Vicia Faba, L. Leguminosce. 

French, Feve, Gourgane. German, Garten-Bohne, Puff-Bohne. Flemish, Platte Boon. 
Dutch, Tuin Boon. Danish, Valske bonner. Italian, Fava. Spanish, Haba. 
Portuguese, Fava. 

Native of the East. Annual. This plant has been cultivated, 
so far as we are able to learn, from the earliest ages, the large 
size and alimentary properties of its seeds having drawn attention 
to it and brought it into culture at some remote period of antiquity. 
Stem erect, hollow, quadrangular ; leaves alternate compound, 
pinnated, without any odd one, and with broad oval leaflets of a 
glaucous or ashy green colour. Flowers axillary in short bunches 
of two to eight, coloured white and black, sometimes tinged purple. 
Pods erect or curved back, broad, green, often flattened, lined with 
a kind of felt or down, and containing from three to eight seeds 
variable in shape and colour. The pods are black and brittle at 
maturity. As the size of the seeds varies very much in the 
different kinds, we shall always mention it in the description of 
each variety. In all the kinds the germinating power continues 
for six years at least. 

CULTURE. Beans are usually sown, where they are to remain, 
about the end of February or the beginning of March. They like 
a rich, slightly humid, and well-manured soil, but they can be 
grown in almost any kind of ground. Many gardeners are in the 
habit of nipping oft the tops of the plants when they are coming 
into flower ; but, as far as we can judge, this practice is more 
effectual in preventing the plants from being attacked by aphides 
than in inducing an earlier and more abundant crop. It is a good 
plan, whenever it can be done, to run the hoe a few times through 
the drills. There is seldom any occasion for watering, as the crop 
is generally gathered before this is required. 

Beans may also be sown in a frame in January, and planted 
out about a month afterwards. It is also not impossible, in the 
climate of Paris, to grow Beans after the winter mode of culture 
which is universally practised all through the south of Europe. 
According to this mode, a sowing is made at the end of October 
or the beginning of November in a position with a south aspect 
and well-drained soil, and the young plants are sheltered during 
the winter by placing frames over them. Instead of frames, we 
have sometimes seen hoops of casks stuck into the ground across 
the beds, so as to form an arched support for straw mats, which 
were spread over them in very frosty weather. This mode of 
culture is particularly well suited for dwarf or half-dwarf varieties. 
The plants which have been pushed on in this way are in full 
bearing three weeks or a month earlier than those which were not 
sown until spring. 



THE COMMON OR BROAD BEAN 



In English gardens, years ago, 
it was the practice to sow Broad 
Beans in October, November, and 
December for the earliest crops, but 
this is now seldom done ; the plants 
are generally raised in pots, boxes, 
or frames, and afterwards trans- 
planted to the open ground. This 
is undoubtedly the best plan, as the 
ground that would otherwise be 
occupied by the seed can be ridged 
or roughly dug, and exposed to the 
weather to get pulverised and freed 
from slugs, etc. By adopting the 
method of transplantation, fuller 
and more even rows can also be 
ensured. The first sowing should 
be made early in January in a frame 
or pit from which frost is excluded, 
or a sowing may be made in heat in 
February, and gradually hardened 
off after the plants are up. The 
plants should be grown stout and 
strong, and be in readiness for turn- 
ing out early in March, provided the 
weather is favourable. A south 
border, under a wall or hedge, 
should be chosen for them if possible, 
and after planting, if planks or thin 
boards can be placed edgeways on 
each side of the rows, to protect 
them from cold winds, all the better. 
The rows should be planted from 
2 to 2 1 ft. apart, and the plants in 
the rows should be 4 or 5 in. apart. 
This will be found to be room 
enough for early crops if dwarf 
varieties be grown. If the weather 
be favourable throughout the spring, 
the crop will be fit for use by the 
middle of June, which is as early as 
Broad Beans are generally expected 
to be fit for use. Successional sow- 
ings may be made in the open ground 
in January and February, and the 
principal sowings should be in March 
and April. If late crops be required, 
small sowings may be made as late 
as July ; this is, however, seldom 
done. In order to obtain late crops 



some growers, after gathering the 
produce from the main or summer 
crops, cut down the plants to within 
a few inches of the ground, then 
give them a good watering, and in 
a few days they throw out young 
shoots, which eventually furnish a 
fair crop of late beans, though, of 
course, not so fine as the previous 
crop. Others sacrifice part of the 
summer crops, and cut down the 
plants just as they are coming into 
bloom ; the produce from these is, 
of course, finer than that from plants 
that have previously borne a crop. 
Either of these ways is, however, 
preferable to sowing for late crops, 
inasmuch as the plants are hardier, 
and, being well rooted, stand the 
dry weather late in the summer and 
the cold in the autumn. By this 
method beans of fair quality may 
be had up till late in November, 
unless the weather be unusually 
severe. 

Sowings for successional and main 
crops may be made on open quarters, 
or between rows of Spinach or any 
other crop that will be cleared 
before the beans get very high ; 
the former, however, is best when 
ground can be spared. The seed 
should be sown in rows from 2k to 
3 ft. apart, the beans being placed 
about 4 or 5 in. apart, and they 
may either be put in with a blunt 
dibble, or drills may be drawn for 
them 2 or 3 in. deep. Previous to 
sowing main crops, the seed should 
be soaked in water for a few hours 
to accelerate vegetation. Earthing- 
up the young plants is advisable for 
early crops, for it affords a slight 
protection to the plants during cold, 
windy weather ; for other crops it is 
not needed. When the plants show 
sufficient bloom to produce a good 
crop, their tops may be picked out 
in order to enhance the setting of 
the blooms and development of the 



26 



THE: VEGETABLE GARDEN 



pods. Where tall varieties are 
grown, some support should be given 
them to prevent their being broken 
by the wind. The best support is 
thick twine tied to strong stakes 
driven in the ground on each side 
of the rows. Long, slender sticks, 
tied to the stakes, lengthways along 
the rows, will answer, but the plants 
are apt to get bruised against them 
when swayed to and fro by the wind. 
KINDS. Although there have re- 
cently been many new and valuable 
additions made to our lists of beans, 
there are some of the older kinds 
that still maintain their position. 
Dwarf kinds are sometimes pre- 
ferred for the smallness of the beans 
rendering them more delicate-look- 
ing than some of the larger varieties. 
Of dwarf kinds, Beck's Green Gem 
and the Dwarf Fan are two of 
the best ; the plants assume a 
neat, compact habit, are abundant 
croppers, and good in quality ; in 
this respect, however, Beck's Gem is 
preferable, on account of its green 
colour. The taller kinds of Mazagan 
are not worth growing in comparison 
with the Long-pods and Windsors ; 
but where small beans are preferred 
they answer the purpose. Though 
recommended in every book on the 
subject, the Mazagan is for us the 
worst and most useless of its race. 
The Long-pods are earlier than the 
Windsors, and are therefore prefer- 
able to them for first and second 
early crops. The Seville Long-pod 
is a variety of Broad Bean that has 
been for many years in cultivation 
on the Continent, especially in Spain, 
where it has done good service in 
supplying food during times of war. 
It well deserves the high commenda- 
tions bestowed upon it, and ought 
to be in every good garden. It is a 
very early variety, with immensely 
long pods, the points of which reach 
the ground and seem to prop , up 



the plant. It is rather tender. The 
variety named Aguadulce is said 
to be the true variety of this. It 
is a taller and somewhat stronger 
grower. The Windsor is most suit- 
able for main or late crops. 

SOIL, MULCHING, AND WATERING. 
A deep, well-drained, strong loam 
is most suitable for Broad Beans, 
with the exception of early crops, 
when the soil may be of a lighter 
character. Where the soil is too 
light, it may be improved by tread- 
ing it firmly whilst in a dry state, 
or planting without digging. If the 
ground in which Beans are to be 
grown has been manured for previ- 
ous crops, it will be found sufficiently 
rich for them, as a very rich soil 
will produce too luxuriant a growth, 
which is inimical to the production 
of pods. During dry weather it is 
a good plan to give a good mulching 
of half-rotted manure between the 
rows of main crops of beans to save 
watering ; but it should be done 
before the plants are in bloom, in 
order to keep the roots in a moist 
condition whilst the blooms are 
setting, this being highly necessary 
to the production of large, full pods. 
Watering is seldom necessary for 
Broad Beans if grown in a deep soil; 
where, however, the soil is shallow, 
it may sometimes be needed, in 
which case it should be thoroughly 
done, and afterwards the ground 
should be mulched. 

In London market gardens, when 
these beans are grown, dry and 
light soils in warm positions are 
chosen for early sowings, which con- 
sist of the Early Mazagan. Sowings 
of this kind are made in January 
and again in February, in rows 2\ ft. 
apart, running across or obliquely 
in. the borders or quarters. Large 
sowings of the Long-pod are made 
in the latter half of February and in 
March, in rows equally distant as 



THE COMMON OR BROAD BEAN 27 

for Mazagans, but with less particu- Some cultivators grow beans for 

larity as regards the way in which seeding purposes, and in this case 

they run, the position of the quarter, about one-half or two-thirds of the 

or the quality of the soil which they pods, consisting of the earliest 

occupy. The Broad Windsor, which formed, are picked off for marketing 

forms the principal crop, is generally in a green or usable condition, the 

sown in March. The Green Broad remainder being left to ripen. If all 

Windsor is preferred by consumers ; were left the seeds would not b 

therefore market gardeners generally so large, plump, or heavy as when 

grow this sort for the main crop. the pods are thus thinned out. * 

USES. The seeds, or beans, are eaten boiled, both in the green 
and dried state. In the south of France the young pods are some- 
times boiled and eaten. Broad 'Beans are not thought so much 
of in private gardens as Kidney Beans, but by the poorer classes 
they are much grown. Generally they are not considered a 
remunerative crop, inasmuch as they do not continue long in 
bearing. The green-seeded varieties are usually preferred to the 
white ones, because they retain their green appearance when 
cooked, whilst the white ones become dark brown. The Bean 
suffers from the usual and bad practice of allowing the pods to 
become old and hard before they are used. It is an excellent 
vegetable when gathered at the right time and properly cooked, 
and as it is wholly distinct in flavour from any form of Kidney or 
Runner Bean, it deserves more attention both from the gardener 
and the good cook. Beans are often gathered for table before they 
have attained half their size ; but this is not advisable, as they 
sometimes taste bitter when so small. The best-flavoured beans 
are those that are full-grown but young. If any be required for 
soup, a row may remain until they become black-eyed. When 
gathering for exhibition, choose young, long, straight, and shapely 
pods, as nearly alike as possible, and the more beans they contain 
the better. 

Large Common Field Bean. Stem quadrangular, erect, about 
2j ft. high, and almost always tinged with red ; leaves usually 
consisting of four or five oval gray-green leaflets. At the base of 
each leaf, the stem is encircled, for about two-thirds of its circum- 
ference, by two broad, toothed, sheathing stipules marked with a 
blackish spot. Flowers, five to eight in number, in clusters, the 
first of which commences at the fifth or sixth leaf from the base of 
the stem ; they are pretty large, white, marked on the standard 
with dark-brown streaks, and with a spot of velvety black on each 
of the wings. Pods often two or three together, sometimes curved 
when fully grown, or becoming pendent from their weight, at other 
times remaining quite erect They are over I in. broad, and from 
5 to 6 in. long, and contain from two to four very large seeds 
which are longer than broad. 

* The Bean Aphis Disease, see p. 776. 



28 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



There are numerous sub-varieties of this Bean : one of them is 
well known in the trade as the Large Sicily Field Bean. It is a 
little dwarfer, and more yellow in the foliage, and decidedly earlier 
than the variety from Northern France. 

Seville Long-pod Bean. Stem quadrangular, erect, 2 to 
2j ft. high, not very stout, sometimes quite green, and sometimes 
slightly tinged with red. The foliage is very clearly distinguished 

from that of other 
varieties by its lighter 
shade of green, and 
by the more elongated 
shape of the leaflets. 
The flowers in each 
cluster are not very 
numerous, usually 
from two to four, and 
sometimes there is 
even only one ; the 
standard is green- 
white, longer than 
broad, and remains 
folded in the centre, 
even when the flower 
is fully blown. This 
peculiarity gives the 
flowers the appear- 
ance of being longer 
and narrower in this 
variety than in any 
other, and they have 
hardly any tinge of 
red or violet. The 
first cluster of flowers 
usually appears in the 
axil of the seventh 
leaf from the base 
Seville Long-pod Bean (pods natural size). of the Stem. Pods 

something over \ in. 

broad, and from 8 in. to I ft. long, either solitary or in pairs, and 
soon becoming pendent with their weight. They contain from 
four to eight seeds each, resembling those of the Large Common 
Field Bean, but generally a little smaller. This is an early variety, 
but not so hardy as the preceding one ; its pods are, however, 
considerably longer. 

Aguadulce Long-podded Bean. This fine Bean, with its 
immense pods nearly 2 in. wide and 14 to 16 in. long, is not, 




THE COMMON OR BROAD BEAN 29 

properly speaking, a distinct variety, but is the real Seville Long- 
pod in the highest state of development. As usual, however, the 
number of the pods is, in these plants, in inverse ratio to their 
increased size, and while the Large Common Field Bean or the 




Extra Long-podded Aguadulce Bean (pods | natural size). 

Broad Windsor may have ten to fifteen pods on a stem, it is a 
rare occurrence to find a stem of the Aguadulce Bean bearing 
more than three or four well-grown pods. 

Perfection Bean. Vigorous, tall, with stout stem and 
intense green leaves ; pods long, resembling, without equalling, those 



3 o THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

of the Seville Bean. While the Seville variety is rather delicate, 
the Perfection Bean is hardy enough for the climate of Northern 
France. It may be sown like the Common Field Bean, either in 
spring or in the autumn, with some protection during the winter. 

Broad Windsor Bean. Stem very stout, quadrangular, erect, 
2 ft. 7 in. to 3 ft. 3 in. high, of a reddish or bronzy tinge, which 
extends to the leaf-stalks, and is deeper than the similar coloration 
of the stalks of the Large Common Field Bean. Leaves large, 
round-oval, rather glaucous green. Flowers of medium size, re- 
sembling those of the Large Common Field Bean, but not more 
than from four to six in a cluster, and having a reddish or violet- 




Broad Windsor Bean ( natural size). 

coloured calyx. In this variety the first cluster of flowers does not 
commence before the eighth or tenth leaf from the base of the 
stem. Pods solitary or in pairs, almost always curved, and usually 
very broad towards the end ; they seldom contain more than two 
or three well-grown seeds. The seeds are very broad, with an 
almost regularly rounded outline. 

Green Windsor Bean. This differs from the preceding kind 
only in the colour of its seeds, which, even when ripe, remain of a 
deep green colour. Windsor Beans are very strong-growing and 
productive varieties, but somewhat late, which is a serious drawback 
in dry climates, where Beans are exposed to the attacks of rust 
and aphides. 

Small July Bean. The general appearance of this plant very 
much resembles that of the Large Common Field Bean. Stems 
quadrangular, very erect, reddish, attaining a height of about 



THE COMMON OR BROAD BEAN 



2 ft. ; leaves gray, with round-oval leaflets ; flowers red on the 

calyx and at the base of the standard, and with well-marked black 

spots on the wings, four to six in a cluster, the first cluster 

appearing in the axil of 

the fifth or sixth leaf; pods 

erect, often three or four 

together, nearly cylindri- 

cal, and not much thicker 

than one's finger. They 

usually contain three or 

four seeds each, which are 

elongated, thickish, and 

not flattened at the sides, 

like those of the preceding 

kinds. The July Bean is 

a hardy kind, and less 

affected by hot, dry weather 

than either the Windsor 

Bean or the Large Common 

Field Bean, and, notwith- 

standing the comparatively 

small size of its seeds, it 

yields almost as heavy a 

crop as either of those 

kinds ; for, although its 

pods are shorter and nar- 

rower than those of the 

large-seeded varieties, they 

are produced in far greater 

numbers, and the seeds 

are, at the same time, very uniformly well grown and well filled. 

Dwarf Fan, or Cluster, Bean. A plant growing 14 to 16 in. 
high, with a quadrangular stem tinged with brownish-red or copper 
colour, and rather slender, but stiff and strong leaves, ashy-green, 
with rather small, oval-elongated, pointed leaflets. Flowers small, 
four to six in a cluster, with a slightly reddish calyx, and the 
standard more or less purple at the base. The first flowers come 
in the axil of about the sixth leaf from the base of the stem. The 
pods are erect, in twos or threes, each containing frpm two to four 
square-sided, bulging seeds, of the same colour as those of the Large 
Common Field Bean. 

Beck's Dwarf Green Gem Bean. A very compact-growing 
variety, much dwarfer than the preceding kind, being only I ft. or 
14 in. high. Stem stiff, green, or slightly tinged with red ; leaves 
very closely set and arranged like a fan on each side of the stem ; 
leaflets oval, rather pointed, glaucous green; flowers small, with a 




Small July 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



purple tinge at the base of the standard ; pods small but numerous, 
about the size of the little ringer, each containing three or four 
dark green, very full and rounded seeds, which are not much larger 

than a good-sized Horse 
Bean. Both the preceding 
kind and this one in par- 
ticular are especially well 
suited for forcing in a 
frame. Although dwarf, 
they are great bearers, 
and even in the open air 
will yield a good crop 
without the drawback of 
throwing too much shade 
on other plants growing 
near them, which the 
taller - growing kinds of 
Beans sometimes do. 

The Very Dwarf 
Scarlet Bean is a small 
and very early variety, 
but not very productive. 
It has erect, 
pods, about the 

Dwarf Fan, or Cluster, Bean (pods natural size). the H " le ^ 

generally containing two 
or three oblong seeds of a dark brown colour. 

Early Mazagan Bean. Under this name are cultivated several 
kinds, which are certainly distinct from one another, all of them 
small-seeded varieties, but varying in height and earliness. They 
usually produce numerous erect, very slightly flattened pods, each 
containing three or four seeds intermediate in size between that of 
the July Bean and a large Horse Bean. 

There are two other varieties : one with pure white and the 
other with red flowers. They are sometimes cultivated, but are of 
no great merit. There is also a Broad Bean with yellow pods, like 
those of the Butter Beans, but unfit for use, and the plant is a mere 
curiosity. 

KIDNEY BEAN, or FRENCH BEAN 

Phaseohis vulgaris, L. Legummoscz. 

French, Haricot, Phaseole. German, Bohne. Flemish and Dtitch, Boon. Danish, 
Havebonner. Italian, Fagiuolo. Spanish, Habichuela, Judia, Frijol. Portuguese, 
Feijao. 

Native of South America. Annual. A plant of rapid growth, 
flowering and seeding soon after it is sown. Stem slender, twining, 




slender 
of 



sze 



KIDNEY BEAN, OR FRENCH BEAN 33 

usually channelled or angular, rough to the touch, always twining 
in the direction of from right to left (but there are several dwarf 
varieties, with stiff stems, which do not require any support). 
Leaves large, composed of three triangular leaflets, which have the 
angles at the base rounded, are rough on the surface, and of various 
shapes and sizes. The flowers are produced in the axils of the 
leaves, in clusters containing from two to eight flowers each. They 
resemble other papilionaceous flowers, but are rather irregular in 
shape, the petals being often twisted in an unsymmetrical manner, 
and the keel especially being generally reduced to two small blades 
which are more or less convex and non-adherent to each other. 
Hence it results that the pistil is not so completely covered as it is 
in most other papilionaceous flowers, and consequently spontaneous 
crossing very frequently occurs amongst the varieties of this plant. 
The pods and seeds of the different kinds vary much in shape, 
colour, size, and substance. 

We shall describe each variety separately, merely observing 
here that the difference in the texture of the pods has led to the 
division of the plants into two classes, viz. the Tough-podded, the 
pods of which become hard and leathery when ripe, and the Edible- 
podded, the pods of which never become stringy, even when dried. 
The germinating power of the seeds continues for three years. 

The Kidney Bean does not appear to have been known to the 
ancients ; for, although Columella and Virgil mention a plant 
under the name of Phaseolus or Phaselus, this could not have been 
our Kidney Bean, which, even in Italy, does not accommodate 
itself to being sown in autumn, like the Phaseolus of these authors. 
It is certain that the Kidney Bean is a native of a warm climate, 
and in the absence of positive documentary proofs of its original 
habitat and the time of its introduction into cultivation, there 
are good grounds for assenting to the opinion of Monsieur Alph. 
de Candolle, that it was originally a native of South America, 
and was introduced into Europe in the sixteenth century. The 
old French writers on kitchen-garden subjects do not mention it 
before that period, and give it but scant notice in comparison with 
that which they bestow on Peas and Garden Beans. Since their 
time, however, and chiefly owing to the power which the plant 
possesses of producing numerous varieties, its culture has acquired 
a considerable amount of importance. In France, every year, 
many millions of kilogrammes of the seeds are harvested (the 
kilogramme is equal to 2\ Ib. avoirdupois) ; and, -besides this, 
considerable quantities are imported, and form a large part of 
the national food. They contain more azote or nitrogen than 
almost any other vegetable, and their chemical composition in 
some degree approaches that of the flesh of animals. 

CULTURE. The Kidney Bean is very sensitive of cold, and 



34 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

will not grow well or vigorously in a temperature which is not over 
50 Fahr. It is destroyed by one or two degrees of frost. It 
likes a rich, light, well-drained soil, with which manure has been 
thoroughly well mixed, and it may be observed that it does better 
in soil which has been well manured in the previous year than in 
newly manured ground. This remark applies to field cultivation, 
as well as to that of the kitchen-garden. 

We will now rapidly review the various modes of cultivation 
under which Kidney Beans are grown. As they delight in fresh 
air and light, they are seldom sown in hot-beds for a first crop 
before February (they are sometimes so sown in December or 
January, but it is not unusual to see plants which are raised at 
that time pine away or damp off). The seed is sown in a frame, 
placed on a bed of fresh manure, which is covered with good soil or 
leaf-mould to the depth of 5 or 6 in. Air should be regularly 
given whenever the weather permits, taking care at the same time 
not to bring down the temperature to a degree that would be 
injurious. As the plants increase in size, all sickly or discoloured 
leaves should be removed, as well as any of the healthy ones which 
give too much shade or hinder the free circulation of the air. 

The first crop may be gathered eight or ten weeks after sowing, 
and sometimes sooner when the weather is favourable. Sowings 
on hot-beds may be continued until March. The plants so raised 
in April are usually planted out in the open air ; and, in fact; 
plants raised in hot-beds may be always advantageously pricked 
out. Some gardeners keep their forced Flageolet Beans growing, 
and after taking from them a crop of green pods, leave some to 
ripen, from which they obtain another crop of fresh ripe Beans in 
May, when they command a high price. The varieties which are 
generally used for this purpose are the Dwarf Dutch Kidney 
Bean, which is much the same as the White Flageolet ; the Early 
Etampes Flageolet, and the Scalloped-leaved Flageolet. The Black 
Belgian Kidney Bean and the Yellow Chalandray are also well 
adapted for forcing. 

The time for making a sowing, in the open air, of Kidney 
Beans, the pods of which are intended to be gathered in the green 
state, commences as soon as all danger of frost is over, and the soil 
has become sufficiently warm. Successional sowings may be made 
from April to August. The seed may be sown either in holes 
made with the dibble, or in drills, according as the kinds sown 
vary in vigour and growth. This mode of culture requires hardly 
any attention except the use of the hoe and watering in hot 
weather. Some gardeners are in the habit of earthing-up the 
plants at the first hoeing, and this generally appears to be pro- 
ductive of good results ; the flowers come into bloom continuously, 
and the growth of the young pods is very rapid, so that gatherings 



KIDNEY BEAN, OR FRENCH BEAN 35 

may be made from the same drills every two or three days, and if 
the plants which were latest sown are protected from frost, green 
pods may be gathered in the open air up to the end of October. 
It is usually the tough-podded kinds which are grown for use in 
the green state, and the preference is given to those varieties in 
which the young pods are long, straight, very green, and rather 
cylindrical than flattish in shape. The kinds which are chiefly 
grown about Paris for this purpose are Swiss Kidney Beans, 
especially the Gray Swiss and the Black Flageolet. 

In gardens, hardly any kinds are grown for the seeds or beans 
except the White or Green Flageolets, and they are cultivated just 
in the same way as the kinds of which the pods are used in the 
green state. The pods are gathered when they begin to grow 
yellow, and are no longer brittle. Dry seeds are obtained by 
allowing them to ripen thoroughly, but some may be preserved 
tender for winter use by taking up the plants a short time before 
the pods are ripe, drying them in the shade, and then packing 
them closely together in a dry place, when the leaves will gradually 
fall off, while the pods continue attached, and the seeds will remain 
tender and possess nearly the same flavour as if they had been just 
newly gathered. 

Tall-growing Kidney Beans, whether grown for the sake of the 
green pods or the seeds, are treated in exactly the same way as 
those already described, except that they require to be supplied 
with poles or branches to support their climbing stems. These 
supports, which are of different materials in different districts, vary 
in height from 5 to nearly 10 ft, according to the height of the 
variety grown. Those used about Paris consist chiefly of Chestnut 
loppings, with few branches or none, and when staked they are 
usually inclined, so that two rows of stakes meet at the top. The 
object of this arrangement is to make the rows firmer, and better 
able to resist high winds. Sometimes, for greater security, every 
two opposite stakes are tied together near the top, thus forming 
a series of gables, which are fastened to poles laid lengthways in 
the forks, and, in this way, although it may seem a little trouble- 
some, a structure of great strength and stability is obtained. 

Though we by no means make DOORS. An early sowing is gene- 
such good use of the Kidney Bean rally made, in order to be able to 
in its many and valuable dried pick Kidney Beans before it is 
forms as the French do, its culture possible to have those of the Scarlet 
in Britain is of the highest import- Runner type in bearing ; but as 
ance, and we look to its being much soon as these come in, French 
more so in the future, when the Beans too often are almost lost 
value of the many kinds described sight of. For small gardens the 
in this book is generally known. French Bean is invaluable as a 

SOWING AND CULTURE OUT-OF- summer vegetable, being easily 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



grown, many kinds requiring no 
stakes, and being one of the most 
remunerative of vegetable crops. 
It may be had out-of-doors both 
earlier and later in the season than 
the taller-growing kinds, owing to 
its dwarf habit adapting itself to 
any situation as, for instance, 
under hedges or walls, or other 
sheltered positions ; it also comes 
into bearing much more quickly 
than Runners. 

Where French Beans are grown 
in the open air without protection, 
it is impossible to have them fit .to 
gather before the latter end of June 
or the beginning of July, unless it 
be indeed an exceptionally favour- 
able season. Where, however, they 
are sown in a warm, dry situation, 
and somewhat protected from cold 
winds and late frosts, they may be 
had fit for table during the second 
and third weeks in June. Where 
it is desirable to have Beans out-of- 
doors as early in the season as 
possible, it is a good plan to sow 
thickly under hand-lights in a warm 
corner, and then transplant when 
the plants have made the first pair 
of rough leaves. After preparing 
the ground in which they are to 
be planted, which should be the 
warmest, driest, and most sheltered 
available, they may be carefuHy 
lifted with as much soil adhering 
to the roots as possible, and planted 
in rows i^ or 2 ft. apart, or in 
patches, whichever is most practic- 
able ; in either case the plants 
should be about 6 in. apart. 
If the planting be done early in 
the day, they may receive a gentle 
watering to settle the soil round 
the roots ; if otherwise, it will be 
better to leave them unwatered 
until the next morning. - All pos- 
sible protection should then be 
given them ; if hand - lights be 
plentiful they are the best, in which 



case planting in patches should be 
practised, as the lights can be more 
easily placed over them ; but small 
twigs of Laurel or Fir fixed neatly 
round them answer the purpose 
in the absence of anything better. 
Rough hay-bands stretched length- 
ways over the rows, about 6 or 
8 in. from the ground, and firmly 
secured to stout stakes driven in 
the ground at each end of the rows, 
may be employed with advantage. 
A rough frame, made with sticks 
driven in the ground and others 
tied across them to admit of mats, 
straw hurdles, or any other pro- 
tecting material being laid upon 
them at night, is also useful ; but 
whatever is used to protect them, 
care must be taken so to place it 
as to avoid draughts as much as 
possible. Sowings for this purpose 
may be made in the beginning of 
April. If the weather be favour- 
able, the ground in which early 
Beans are to be grown should be 
deeply dug and left rather rough. 
The next day, when the sun is 
going down, the ground should be 
again turned over with a fork, in 
order to turn the warm soil under- 
neath and expose the cold to the 
next day's sun. If this can be done 
two or three days consecutively, a 
great advantage will be gained. 
The last time on which the soil is 
moved it should be made fine on 
the top, to prevent the under-soil 
again becoming cold. 

When the seed is sown where it 
is to remain, drills may be drawn 
with a hoe, 2 ft. apart and 2 in. 
deep, and sufficiently wide to admit 
of two rows of Beans being placed 
3 or 4 in. apart. The distance 
from bean to bean in the rows is 
usually 8 or 9 inches. Where seed 
is no object, they may be sown 
much thicker, and thinned out to 
the required distances apart, after 



KIDNEY BEAN, OR FRENCH BEAN 



37 



they are up, by removing the weakest 
plants. In any case, a few extra 
seeds should be thrown in at the 
ends of the rows to provide for 
filling up blanks, which often occur 
in early crops when the ground is 
cold and wet. The earliest sowing 
out-of-doors should be made the 
second or third week in April, if 
the weather be favourable, otherwise 
it is better to wait a little longer. 
It is not advisable to plant very 
largely for early crops, unless they 
are wanted in quantity ; it will be 
found better to make two or three 
small sowings at intervals of a week 
or ten days during April ; after that 
the principal or main sowings may 
be made until the middle of June, 
after which time make a few smaller 
sowings for autumn use. The last 
sowing should not be later than the 
end of July, unless protection can 
be afforded the plants in the autumn. 
For principal crops the plants should 
be thinned out to 9 in. or i ft. 
apart in the row, the rows being 
2 1 or 3 ft. asunder, according to the 
varieties grown. 

Earthing-up the row is a point 
that has been much disputed, some 
growers being of opinion that it 
is beneficial, while others think 
the reverse. For early crops we 
should, however, strongly recom- 
mend earthing-up, as it has a 
tendency to keep the soil around the 
roots in a drier, and consequently 
a warmer, state than it otherwise 
would .be; for the main crops, how- 
ever, we would recommend rather 
deeper planting, and heavy mulch- 
ings in dry weather in preference 
to earthing-up. Stopping the points 
of the shoots is practised by some 
growers ; it is, however, immaterial 
for general crops, but in the case 
of early Beans and those grown 
under glass it is advantageous. 

SOIL. French Beans like a light, 



rich, sweet soil; therefore if the 
ground does not already possess these 
qualities, good rotten manure or 
leaf-mould should be added. If 
worms abound, a good dressing of 
soot or lime should be given, and 
if this can be done in the winter, 
and the ground thrown into ridges 
or roughly dug, it will be all the 
better. For pots and beds under 
glass the soil should consist of 
three-quarters light turfy loam, and 
one -quarter decomposed manure or 
leaf-mould. Soil in which Cucum- 
bers have recently been growing 
will generally answer well for 
Beans ; in all cases a sprinkling of 
soot amongst it will be found bene- 
ficial. We have seen trimmings 
from the edgings of walks, chopped 
up and mixed with fresh horse- 
droppings, used for pot culture with 
the very best results. 

MULCHING AND WATERING. A 
good mulching of seaweed or half- 
rotted manure from old linings, or 
litter from Vine borders, applied 
between the rows of all kinds of 
Kidney Beans that are grown out- 
of-doors, will be found beneficial in 
keeping the soil about the roots 
in a moist condition, and in pro- 
moting a free and luxuriant growth, 
which is highly necessary to the 
production of long supplies of fine, 
tender, and juicy Beans. Copious 
waterings at the roots will be neces- 
sary for all kinds of Beans, wher- 
ever they are grown, when they are 
coming into flower, if the weather 
be dry otherwise, instead of the 
blooms setting, they will fall off. 
Manure-water may also be advan- 
tageously applied after they are set, 
but not before, as it promotes so 
much growth, which is inimical to 
bearing. Guano-water may be given 
to those grown in pots with advan- 
tage ; but it is no better than good 
manure-water from the stable-yard, 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



or that made from cow manure. 
Where, however, the latter is used, 
a little lime should be previously 
dissolved in it, otherwise it has a 
tendency to make the soil sour and 
breed worms. Water in all cases 
should be applied in a tepid state ; 
and avoid pouring it close to the 
bases of the stems, as they may be 
injured by so doing. 

CULTURE IN PITS AND FRAMES. 
The method to be adopted for 
growing Beans under glass must 
necessarily depend upon the nature 
of the structures in which they are 
to be grown. Where only cold-pits 
and frames are employed Beans can- 
not, of course, be obtained during 
the winter months, but by a little 
attention and skill they may be had 
very late in the autumn, and much 
earlier in the spring than they can 
be obtained in the open air. If 
heating material, such as stable 
litter and leaves, be plentiful, sow- 
ings may be made in pits or frames 
early in March. If pits be used, 
they should be filled up with 
heating material to within 2 ft. of 
the glass, firmly treading it down 
as the work proceeds. This done, 
a layer of rotten manure or leaf- 
mould may be spread over the litter 
to the thickness of 3 or 4 in. ; 
6 or 8 in. of soil may then be 
placed on the top, the lights put 
on and allowed to remain until the 
soil is found to have got warm, 
when the beans may be put in 
rather thickly, eventually thinning 
out so as to leave the plants 6 in. 
apart each way. If the soil be dry, 
watering will be necessary, but too 
much moisture must be avoided at 
this season of the year. If a lining 
of warm manure can be put round 
the pit it will be beneficial to the 
growth of the plants. A thick 
covering will be necessary at night 
to protect the plants from frost. 



Where wooden frames or boxes are 
used, a good bed of leaves and litter 
should be made, and the box should 
be placed upon it, building the 
lining up round the box to the level 
of the lights, as is done in the 
case of Cucumbers and Melons. If 
treated afterwards as recommended 
for pits, the plants will grow rapidly 
i.e. if the weather be at all genial. 
When they have made two joints 
beyond the seed-leaves, the plants 
may be pricked out, in order to 
keep them dwarf and sturdy, and 
cause them to throw out stronger 
side-shoots than they oth erwise would 
do. If a few small twigs be stuck 
in the soil between the plants, they 
will not be so liable to get broken. 
Abundance of air will be necessary 
when the plants are well established, 
but it must be given with care, as 
a rush of cold air suddenly admitted 
would cause the tender foliage to 
shrivel, and render the plants worth- 
less. If it be found that too much 
steam accumulates in the frame 
during the night, it will be necessary 
to leave a " crack " of air on. Beans 
may be obtained in this way by the 
end of May or beginning of June, 
and, if properly treated, will yield 
a fair supply until the early outdoor 
crops come into use. If, however, 
there be convenience, another sowing 
may be made in the same way a 
fortnight later, in order to ensure a 
supply in the event of any disaster 
befalling the first outdoor crop. 

Some growers prefer raising the 
plants in pots or boxes and trans- 
planting them into frames, and 
where time can be spared this plan 
is not without advantages ; others 
prefer growing them entirely in 
pots, and plunging them in the pits 
and frames. Thus managed, they 
come into bearing rather sooner, but 
they do not generally last so long, 
neither is the produce so fine as 



KIDNEY BEAN, OR FRENCH BEAN 



39 



from those planted out. Where there 
are pits heated by flues or hot-water 
pipes, good Beans may be produced 
throughout the winter by adopting 
the same mode of culture as that 
recommended in the case of cold- 
pits, with the exception that linings 
will be unnecessary, neither will 
bottom heat be needed j but where 
it is not used, growing in pots 
placed upon boards near the glass 
is preferable to planting out, as the 
roots are not then surrounded by 
such a bulk of cold soil. In order 
to prolong the season, a sowing 
may be made in August in cold-pits 
or frames ; those lately cleared of 
Melons or Cucumbers will answer 
perfectly. It is a good plan, before 
sowing, to choose a fine, sunny day, 
and give the soil a good soaking of 
water, and to wash well all the wood 
or brickwork with a syringe, after 
which close the lights and let the 
sun have full power on the glass ; 
this will quickly put an end to 
insects. After sowing, the lights 
may be left off night and day, until 
the coldness of the weather neces- 
sitates their being put on. A good 
warm covering should be afforded 
during cold nights. By this means 
a good supply of Beans may be had 
until late in November, unless the 
weather be very severe. For this 
crop stopping the shoots is unneces- 
sary, inasmuch as the plants will 
continue longer in bearing if left 
undisturbed. 

FORCING KIDNEY BEANS. 
Forcing Kidney Beans in Novem- 
ber, December, and January is not 
easy work, as unless the house in 
which they are growing is light, 
airy, and well warmed, the crop 
can never be a profitable one. In 
badly heated damp structures Kid- 
ney Beans may be induced to grow, 
and even bloom, but very few pods 
will be formed. Warm air alone 



suits them when in flower during 
the shortest days, and where this 
cannot be given freely forcing had 
better be deferred until February. 
When the days are lengthening and 
brightening, forcing is easy. I have 
grown them in beds, in pits, in 
wooden frames, in boxes, and in 
pots, and for convenience I prefer 
and recommend the latter. The 
seeds may be sown in 3 or 4 in. 
pots. These should have a few 
leaves put into the bottom of each ; 
then fill them half-way up with a 
mixture of sand, loam, and leaf-soil 
in the proportion of one part of the 
first and last to two of the loam. 
When all have been half filled and 
the soil made firm, six or eight 
seeds should be put into each ; then 
cover them over with more soil. 

As soon as sowing has been 
finished the whole should be placed 
in a house or pit, where the tem- 
perature ranges from 60 to 70. 
Do not give any water until the 
growths are seen pushing through 
the soil ; then never let them surfer 
from want of it. When the young 
plants have attained a height of 4 in., 
they should be put into their fruiting 
pots. These should be 8 or 9 in. 
ones, and to begin with they should 
be properly drained ; over the 
drainage place a layer of leaves or 
rough pieces of soil. The mixture 
of soil this time should be sub- 
stantial ; no sand or leaf-soil need 
form part of it ; loam and half- 
decayed manure should be the sole 
ingredients. Old Mushroom-bed 
manure answers well for this pur- 
pose, and we prefer it to any other. 

The roots should not be dis- 
turbed when taken out of the small 
pots, and three or four of the small 
potfuls may be put together in one 
of a larger size. One hundred pots 
of seedlings may thus be reduced 
to thirty. Firm potting induces 



40 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



robust and fruitful growth. When 
potted, they should be again placed 
in a genial atmosphere, in which 
they will grow on rapidly and be 
in bloom from five to six weeks 
after sowing. Then it will take the 
pods about a fortnight to swell up, 
and the crop will be ready for the 
table in about eight weeks after 
sowing. As the pots fill with roots, 
large quantities of water must be 
given them, and frequent syringing 
as well, as having the atmosphere 
in which they are growing humid 
will prevent the attacks of insects. 
Red spider and thrips are very fond 
of indoor Kidney Beans, but both 
may be checked by water. When 
potted in good soil, manure-water 
will not be required until the first 
pods have been formed ; then it 
may be given them in quantity so 
long as they continue to bear. 
Sowings made every three weeks 
until the middle of April will keep up 
a constant supply of fine fresh pods 
until those sown outside come in. 

Those who wish to keep up a 
constant supply of forced Beans 
should sow a quantity every fort- 
night, beginning in September. We 
have kept up a fair supply by sow- 
ing five dozen potfuls at a time, 
but this, of course, must be done 
according to the demand. At times 
we have placed only one of the 
small potfuls of young plants in 
the 8 in. one, but where space was 
limited we have put three small 
potfuls into this size. When this 
can be conveniently done, it is a 
profitable way of growing Beans, as 
a great many more are secured from 
the pots with the most plants than 
from the others, and the space re- 
quired for both is about the same. 

When in bloom the flowers 
should be kept as dry as possible, 
as the fruit forms with more cer- 
tainty than when the blooms are 



damp. We never allow any of the 
growths to fall over the sides of 
the pots, as this checks them ; but 
when any of them are so tall or 
weak as not to be able to stand 
without support, pieces of birch 
from old brooms are put in to hold 
them up. As soon as any of the 
pods become large enough to 
gather, they should be removed 
from the plants at once, as there 
is nothing so much against the 
production of a long succession of 
pods from the same plants as allow- 
ing some of the first-formed pods to 
become old. J. M. 

KIDNEY BEANS TO FORCE. It 
was generally supposed that the 
best forcing Beans were Newington 
Wonder, Sir Joseph Paxton, Early 
Prolific, and Osborn's New Early 
Forcing. Mr. R. Gilbert then took 
to forcing Canadian Wonder, and 
it is likely that a great many more 
kinds might easily be forced. 
Amongst the French varieties, the 
most generally grown for that pur- 
pose are Triumph of the Frames, 
Etampes, Black Prince, Chalandray. 

CULTURE IN MARKET GARDENS. 

When Peas and Broad Beans 
begin to get comparatively scarce, 
French Beans are always welcomed 
in the London markets. They 
always command a sale, provided 
they are good and fresh, and over- 
stocking the market with them is 
almost a thing unknown ; but when 
large quantities of them are intro- 
duced prices are of course affected. 
Under any conditions, however, 
and all through the summer, a good 
crop of Beans is a profitable one, 
and where soil and situation are at 
all suitable, market growers culti- 
vate French Beans in large quanti- 
ties. The principal kinds grown 
are the Newington Wonder and 



KIDNEY BEAN, OR FRENCH BEAN 



Long-podded Negro, which, although 
old varieties, are reckoned to be the 
best for the market. Their produc- 
tive qualities are great, for when 
well attended to as regards timely 
picking of the pods, they continue 
fresh, vigorous, and fruitful for a 
long time, and their pods, as a rule, 
are less apt to turn tough and 
unusable with age than is the case 
with some varieties. The Black 
Belgian has also found its way into 
the market-gardens ; it is a good, 
dwarf, early sort, much like the 
Negro, of which it is considered to 
be a variety. It is very useful for 
late sowings and for early frame 
work. Some growers prefer the 
Newington Wonder to all other 
sorts ; it is a very prolific dwarf- 
growing kind. Other growers prefer 
the Negro, which they grow in 
frames, for their earliest, main, and 
latest crops ; but most of them also 
grow the Newington Wonder. The 
Canadian Wonder or Red Flageolet 
is one which will doubtless be 
grown largely for market. It is a 
robust grower, a good cropper, and 
its pods are nearly as large as 
those of a Scarlet Runner and of 
good quality. 

Early crops in market gar- 
dens are grown in frames, such as 
have been cleared of Cauliflower 
and Lettuce plants; the mould in 
the frames is pointed over with a 
spade, and. the beans are sown in 
four rows under each light, and 
about 3 or 4 in. from seed to 
seed in the row, when the soil is 
dry. The middle of March is the 
common lime for sowing in frames, 
and then the sashes are kept close 
till the seeds have germinated, when 
they are tilted up a little at the 
back in favourable weather; but 
care is always taken to keep them 
close in the case of cold winds, and 
to cover them over with mats or 



litter in the event of frost. As the 
plants advance they are treated 
more hardily, but judiciously, ac- 
cording to the weather. After the 
middle of May, when all fear of 
frost has passed, the sashes are 
entirely drawn off throughout the 
day, if fine, and replaced at night. 
Whilst growing, plenty of water is 
given them at the roots, and pick- 
ing commences about the second 
or third week in June, or about 
three weeks sooner than the earliest 
border crops come into use. A 
few frames, too, are also frequently 
occupied by French Beans sown 
thickly, for the purpose of trans- 
planting thence to the open ground, 
and to fill any blanks that may exist 
in the frames in which the sowings 
for fruiting therein have been made. 
The first outdoor crop is 
usually transplanted from such 
frames, and the warmest possible 
position is selected for this pur- 
pose ; the time for so doing entirely 
depends on the state of the weather 
and nature of the ground. If the 
weather be fine, the soil moderately 
dry and light, and the position warm 
and sheltered, the plants are com- 
monly transplanted during the first 
fortnight of April, but if otherwise, 
they are delayed a little later. They 
are then lifted with as much earth 
adhering to their roots as possible, 
and are planted in little patches 
under hand-lights. The usual way 
is to draw lines 3 ft. apart across the 
border, others 2\ ft. asunder length- 
ways, and upon the middle of every 
little square thus marked place an 
ordinary hand-light, under which 
place six or eight plants. If there 
be not sufficient hand-lights for the 
whole space to be planted, half- 
bushel vegetable baskets are in- 
verted over the plants; and, as they 
are so open to the wind, they are 
sometimes covered for a time witlv 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



mats. As soon as the Beans have 
got a good hold of the soil and 
begun to grow, their protection is 
removed. Great care must be exer- 
cised with hand-light Beans, other- 
wise they are a deceptive crop, and 
sometimes die off altogether, espe- 
cially when nursed too tenderly and 
changed too suddenly, if the ground 
be cold and wet, and their top cover- 
ing insufficient. Those grown in 
frames, and which come into bear- 
ing early in June, last in good 
picking condition for six weeks ; 
and those in warm borders begin to 
fruit in the last week of June or 
first week in July, and continue to 
yield a fair crop for nearly two 
months in a moderately moist 
season, if kept closely picked. The 
first main crop immediately follows 
the border ones, and, as a rule, lasts 
the longest. Drought makes them 
short-lived sometimes, but in rich 
soils, and warm, moist seasons, the 
yield is so heavy that it is scarcely 
possible to pick them as quickly as 
they grow. Drought, too, induces 
red spider, with which large fields 
are sometimes completely overrun ; 
and although this pest is very pre- 
judicial to the health and longevity 
of the crop, there is no remedy 
for it. 

French Beans are gross feeders ; 
they require manurial substances of 
such a character as can be speedily 
turned to account ; therefore, land 
that was richly manured for the 
previous crop such as for Celery 
and which has afterwards again 
been liberally dressed with short 
manure, such as that from Mush- 
room-beds or old Cucumber-pits, 
suits them perfectly. The crop to 
succeed such as are grown under 
hand-lights is planted on a south 
border, in front of a wall or thick 
hedge if possible, which is dug 
over and lined off in cross-rows 



at 1 8 in. apart, drawing the lines 
in the form of seed-furrows with a 
hoe. Herein are planted Beans 
5 in. asunder in the row ; they are 
earthed-up in due time, and, if the 
weather be favourable, come into 
bearing three weeks after those 
grown in frames. Some growers 
erect barricades of mats in an up- 
right position to stakes driven in the 
earth, and placed to the windward 
side of the borders ; and they also 
surround frames containing them, 
but not covered with sashes, with 
the same protection to ward off cold 
and frosty winds. 

Out-of-door sowing begins 
during the first fortnight in April, 
just as the state of the weather and 
soil permits, and the warmest avail- 
able position is selected for the pur- 
pose. If the ground be free from 
all other crops at the time of sowing, 
there is more need for a sheltered 
place than if it were cropped. In 
sowing, the lines are drawn at 2, 
2 j, and sometimes 3 ft. apart, and 
the seeds planted about 4 or 5 in. 
asunder. The earliest crop is often 
sown in drills drawn between lines 
of Cauliflowers, Cabbages, or Let- 
tuces. These crops, instead of being 
injurious to the French Beans when 
they appear above ground, are very 
beneficial to them, inasmuch as they 
protect them from cold winds until 
they have gained some strength and 
the weather becomes mild and warm, 
by which time the bulk of the Cauli- 
flowers will have been removed for 
market. Even then, however, the 
Beans do not get all the space to 
themselves, for no sooner is the earth 
cleared of the other crop than it is 
loosened a little between every alter- 
nate line, and those spaces replanted 
with Lettuces or similar crops. Thus 
one space contains another catch 
crop while the other is empty; and 
by means of having this empty space 



KIDNEY BEAN, OR FRENCH BEAN 



43 



to walk in, the women can pick two 
lines of Beans, one on either side of 
the empty alley, and never disturb 
the other crops in the alternate alleys. 
Should the French Beans have come 
up well, and be nearly ready for 
picking before the first occupants 
of the soil are entirely removed, the 
alleys are not cropped again until 
they become exhausted. The drills 
for sowing are drawn in the morning 
of a fine day and left until the after- 
noon, when seeds are sown and some 
earth drawn over them. 

The first main sowing is made 
in the open fields about the second 
or third week in April, under the 
same circumstances as that already 
mentioned, or the field may have 
been previously planted out with 
Cos Lettuces in lines 12, 15, or 
1 8 in. apart; between every two 
lines of these would be sown one of 
Beans. Along both sides of Aspara- 
gus ridges Beans also often find a 
place. Some growers sow late crops 
in rows 4 ft. apart, and plant two 
rows of Coleworts in every interven- 
ing alley. Before the seeds appear 
the soil immediately over the seeds 
is gone over and slightly loosened 
with an iron-toothed rake, so as to 
permit of an easy egress of the seed- 
lings. When sown in bare fields, 
even though Lettuces be planted 
.amongst them, a little ridge of soil 
is frequently drawn to the north or 
windward side of them as an addi- 
tional protection from cold winds. 
Whilst the plants are growing they 
are carefully attended to as regards 
keeping them clean and hoeing 
the soil, and when they reach 4 in. 
in height they are earthed up a 
little. The catch crops, too, are 
cleared away as soon as they are 
ready, in order to give the French 
Beans every opportunity of a healthy 
development. Successive sowings 
-are made every fortnight or three 



weeks, until the end of June, by 
some, but most of the large growers 
sow about April 8th and 2oth, the 
first and last week in May, and 
the first week in July. The last 
sowing consists of the Negro, and 
just yields a good crop of young 
and fine pods before being destroyed 
by frost ; whereas, were they sown 
a fortnight later, they would be 
apt to be nipped when coming 
into bloom. 

Gathering is well attended to, 
for if full-grown pods be allowed to 
remain too long on the plants they 
soon cease to bear. The Beans are 
gathered by women into baskets, 
which, when full, they carry on 
their heads to the end of the rows, 
there to leave them to be carted 
home, where they are washed to 
remove the grit. They are then 
packed into round half-bushel vege- 
table baskets, which are covered 
with Rhubarb leaves fastened down 
with withies, and piled one above 
another on the waggons that convey 
them to market three times a week. 
Most market-gardeners save their 
own seed, and a piece of the main 
sowing is generally selected for this 
purpose. The plants in the rows to 
be saved for seed are first subjected 
to two or three pickings for market ; 
then they are left untouched until 
the beans are fully ripe, when the 
plants are pulled up by the roots, 
tied into little bunches, and slung 
in pairs across a fence or rail to dry. 
Sometimes, too, the haulm is spread 
over sashes to dry, and, in the event 
of wet weather, is strewed under 
some spare sashes, where it gets 
well dried without getting wet. 
They are then housed, and during 
wintry weather are threshed, cleaned, 
and stored in rough brown paper or 
canvas bags, or placed in drawers, 
or in the corner of a loft, until 
sowing time arrives. 




I. French Bean Black-speckled. 



Emperor of Russia. 
Pride of Lyons. 
Black Prince. 
Dwarf Parisian. 



10 



II. French Bean Dwarf Prolific. 
44 



6. French Bean Marvel of Paris. 

7. ,, Black Negro. 

8. ,, ,, Black Hermitage. 

9. The Shah. 

10. ,, Dwarf Lyonnais Long-pod, 



KIDNEY BEAN, OR FRENCH BEAN 



45 



USES. The young and tender pods of many kinds are eaten 
boiled. Every one knows the use which is made in cookery of the 
seeds or beans, either when dried or when gathered before they are 
quite ripe, but when the pods can just be opened without difficulty. 
And lastly, the Edible-podded or Mange-tout varieties are used 
from the time the seeds begin to swell until they are quite ripe. 
We heartily wish that English housekeepers and gardeners would 
look into the qualities of many of the fine varieties described in 
this book. Apart from the greater variety of valuable kinds of the 
types they know so well, two very valuable series deserve attention 
those of which the pods may be eaten when large and mature, 
and the Flageolet kinds, which are very little used with us. * 

TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 

French, Haricots a ecosser. 
Italian, Fagiuoli da sgusciare. 

I. TALL-GROWING 
VARIETIES 

Soissons Large 
Runner Bean. A. plant 
with a slender green 
stem, growing 6|- ft. high 
or something more. 
Leaves pretty large, at 
wide intervals from each 
other; leaflets moderately 
crimped, rounded at the 
base, dark green slightly 
yellow ; lower leaves 
larger than the upper 
ones ; flowers white, pass- 
ing into yellow ; pods 
green, but turning to 
yellow when ripe, broad, 
somewhat curved, and 
generally irregular in 
shape, owing to the un- 
equal growth of the seeds, 
which are seldom more 
than four in number, and 
are white, kidney-shaped, 
and more or less humpy 
or round - backed ; they 
are nearly I in. long, 

about \ in. broad, and Soissons Large Pole Bean. 

* Climbing French Beans, see pp. 758, 759. 




THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



nearly | in. thick. They are late in ripening. The dried seeds of 
this variety are highly esteemed for their delicate flavour and the 
thinness of the skin. The plant is found to succeed in the greatest 
perfection in its native district, where it most probably enjoys 
conditions of soil and climate which are specially favourable to it ; 
but, when grown under a warmer sky, it sometimes suffers from the 
heat the skin of the seed becomes thickened, and the seed loses 
its fine quality, and also degenerates in size and colour. 

Soissons Green-seeded Pole Bean. In growth this 
variety is very much the same as the preceding, and equally 

vigorous and very pro- 
ductive. Pods long, 
broad, slightly curved. 
Seeds thick, kidney- 
shaped, a little over f in. 
long and % in. broad, less 
than in. thick. This 
variety is remarkable for 
the green colour of its 
seeds, as much so as 
in some of the dwarf 
Beans, such as the Green 
Flageolet and the Green 
Bagnolet ; while the crop 
produced is considerably 
larger. 

White Dutch, or 
Scimitar, Bean (H. Sabre 
a rames). A very vigor- 
ous-growing kind, nearly 
10 ft. in height. Stem 
thick and green ; leaves 
very large, deep green, 
crimped ; flowers large, 
white, fading to nankeen 
yellow, and forming long 
clusters ; pods straight, 
sometimes undulating on 
the sides, 10 in. to I ft. 
long, containing eight or 
nine seeds each, numerous, 

~ ., produced in succession for 

White Dutch, Scimitar, or Case-knife Bean r . A . . 

( T V natural size), a long time, especially 

when the first have been 

gathered green ; seeds white, glistening, kidney-shaped, very like 
those of the Large White Runner, but more regular in shape and 




TALL TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 47 

one-third less in size, seldom f in. in length. They ripen rather late. 
The young pods may be used as green Haricots. The seed or bean, 
when used fresh from the pod, is one of the best ; it is also very 
good when dried. This is certainly one of the best varieties; the 
only objection to it is that it requires very long stakes when 
growing. The Germans cultivate a great number of sub-varieties 
of it, characterised chiefly by having broader and straighter pods ; 
but, notwithstanding numerous trials, we have never found any of 
them to surpass or even equal the variety here described ; it is the 
most tender for use and also the most productive. 

White Sallandre Improved Pole Bean. Height not exceed- 
ing 5 ft., but very vigorous growing. Stem stout and branch- 
ing ; leaves broad, crimped, light green more or less striped 
with darker green ; flowers yellowish white. Pods about 6 in. 
long, | in. broad, flat, light green, containing six white elongated 
seeds, like those of the White Swiss Bean in. to f in. long, a 
little over J in. broad and about J in. thick. This variety, raised 
in the vicinity of Laon, is one of our best Pole Beans, and very 
productive ; the pods are numerous, very long and well filled. 

Large White Liancourt Kidney Bean. Stem green, slender, 
tall, reaching a height of from 7 ft. to nearly 10 ft. ; leaves large, of 
a rather dark green, not quite so much crimped as those of the 
Soissons Bean, the upper ones much smaller than the lower ones ; 
flowers white, turning yellow after impregnation ; pods longer and 
narrower than those of the Soissons Bean, slightly curved, each 
containing about five or six flat, slightly kidney-shaped seeds, 
rather irregular in form, like those of the Large White Runner (but 
of a dull or dead white, while the seeds of the latter variety glisten 
like porcelain), about f in. long, a little over in. broad, and less 
than in. thick. This is a rather hardy, strong-growing, productive, 
and half-late variety, and is chiefly grown for the ripe dried seeds. 

Chartres Red Kidney Bean. This kind requires hardly any 
staking, as the plant is of compact growth and seldom more than 
3 or 4 ft. in height. Leaves slightly crimped ; flowers white or 
inclining to yellow, large ; pods 4 or 5 in. long, slightly curved, 
each containing about five or six flat, short seeds, which are often 
square at one or both ends, of a deep wine-lees-red colour, and 
having an almost black circle around the hilum ; their average 
length is about \ in., breadth a little over in., and thickness less 
than \ in. They ripen early. 

Long Scarlet Pole Flageolet Bean. Contrary to what 
happens usually, this Pole variety is of more recent introduction 
than its dwarf form, which has been cultivated and appreciated 
for a long time. It possesses the same qualities of pod and seed, 
its gain being to produce on a given surface of soil a much larger 
crop and for a longer period. 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Extra Early Pole Bean. A variety, not exceeding 5 ft. ; 
leaves large, light green, lightly crimped. Pods straight, full, green, 
often in bunches of five or six. Seed white, flat, very small. This 

Bean is remarkable for 
producing good-sized, ser- 
viceable pods at a time 
when most of the other 
pole Beans are hardly be- 
ginning to flower. It is 
at this early stage of their 
development that the pods 
ought to be used, for they 
harden quickly and are 
never altogether free from 
parchment. The seed, 
though small when quite 
dry, may be used in a fresh 
state, when the pods are 
turning yellow. 

Round White Rice 
Runner Kidney Bean. A 
variety of moderate height, 
seldom exceeding 5 ft., and 
sometimes not much over 
4 ft. Stem very slender, 
light green; leaves medium 
sized, long, pointed, not 
much crimped, and of a 
clear green colour; flowers 
white ; pods green, narrow, 
very numerous, especially 
at the lower parts of the 
stems, where they often 
grow in clusters of fours or fives, while hardly any are produced 
near the tops of the stems ; seeds five or six in each pod, nearly 
round, with a very smooth, thin, almost transparent skin, and not 
much over in. in diameter. This variety presents an appearance 
so peculiar and so different from that of most other kinds, that it 
might be readily supposed to be derived from a distinct botanical 
species, were it not that its flowers exactly resemble those of other 
Kidney Beans. It branches and spreads more than the majority 
of tall-growing varieties, forming a clump nearly 2 ft. wide, with 
weak, slender stems, which do not exhibit much of the climbing 
character. The seeds are so small and so peculiar in shape that 
it is difficult at first sight to imagine that they belong to a plant 
of the same species as the Soissons or Liancourt Beans. However, 




- 



Extra Early Pole Bean. 



TALL TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 49 

as the pods are produced in very great numbers, the plant is 
productive enough. The dried seeds are of an exceedingly good 
and delicate quality, with a very thin skin, which seems to dissolve 
in cooking, on which account they are highly esteemed. The only 
defect which can be ascribed to the plant is that the pods are very 
liable to rot in wet seasons, when they trail to the ground before 
they are quite ripe. 

There are many other tall-growing varieties of Kidney Beans 
in cultivation, of which we shall only mention the following, as 
being very distinct and of special interest in various respects : 

Harlequin Kidney Bean. A tall-growing, rather late-ripening 
kind, with long, crimped leaves. Pods numerous, short, and curved ; 
seeds very flat, oblong, scarcely kidney-shaped, coffee-coloured, 
and irregularly streaked and furrowed with black lines. It is a 
hardy and productive variety, and may be often seen in the Central 
Market at Paris. 

Dwarf White Long-pod Kidney Bean. A plant 4 to 5 ft. 
high ; flowers large, white ; pods exceedingly numerous, very 
straight and long, and nearly cylindrical, of a fine green colour ; 
seed oblong, nearly as thick as broad. This variety, which requires 
only very short stakes, can be highly recommended for the pro- 
duction of green Haricots. 

Tall Early Englefontaine Bean. A .rather tall variety, 
vigorous, and very early, with some resemblance to the Lian- 
court Kidney Bean, but ripening much earlier. It is the earliest 
of the tall Beans. 

Soissons Red Kidney Bean. A tall, rather slender-stemmed 
variety, not overburdened with leaves. Pods long, slightly curved, 
and rather narrow ; seeds nearly the same shape as those of the 
White Dutch or Case-knife Bean, and of a brilliant coral colour just 
before ripening, after which they assume a wine-lees red tint. This 
handsome kind is tolerably early, but only moderately productive. 

Partridge-Eye Kidney Bean. A plant of medium height, 
with lank, slender stems, and lilac flowers. Pods short and flat, 
each containing four or five seeds, which are flat, shortly oval, or 
almost square, and of a white colour finely streaked with greenish 
gray. This variety has been a long time in existence, but, being a 
poor bearer, it is very little grown. 

Old Homestead, Kentucky Wonder, Seek-no-Further 
Bean. One of the varieties most commonly cultivated in the 
United States. A very vigorous plant, growing as high as 6J ft.; 
arly, and very productive. Pods very abundant, long, curved. 
Seeds slightly -flattened, oval, and dark brown. 

Southern Prolific Bean. Much less tall than the last named, 
with shorter, almost straight pods, and smaller seeds. Also a 
little later. 



50 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Red Speckled Cut Short or Corn Hill Bean. A late variety, 
with short cylinder-shaped straight pods, the seed almost square, 
and streaked with red-brown. In the United States it is often 
sown along with maize, which serves as a support for it. 

Saint-Seurin Kidney Bean. A very vigorous and rapid kind, 
with large, broad, deep-green leaves, and lilac flowers. Pods very 
numerous, almost straight, marked when very young with violet 
streaks ; seeds flat, kidney-shaped, salmon marbled and spotted 
with black. It is hardy, very productive, and early, and is well 
adapted for rather warm climates. 



II. DWARF VARIETIES OF TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 

Dwarf White Flageolet, or White Canterbury Kidney 
Bean. The best known and most esteemed of the Tough-podded 
Kidney Beans. The name Flageolet Bean is given to varieties 
more or less similar to this, and the seeds themselves are known as 
Flageolet Beans for culinary purposes. It is a low-growing thick-set 
variety, with a stout stem, not more than I ft. or 14 in. high ; leaves 
smooth or slightly pitted, of medium size, and deep-green ; flowers 
white, with a faint tinge of nankeen yellow ; pods numerous, rather 
flat and somewhat curved, and frequently irregular in breadth 
through the abortion,of some of the seeds. These, usually four or 
five in a pod, are white, flat, and kidney-shaped, nearly f in. long, 
over in. broad, and less than in. thick. In cases where only 
one variety of Kidney Bean can be cultivated, a better selection 
cannot be made than this one, for the young pods may be gathered 

and used as well as the 
seeds. The seeds are 
sometimes dried but are 
best when fresh. 

Dwarf White Long- 
pod Kidney Bean. 
More vigorous, with larger 
leaves and greater length 
of pods than the preced- 
ing. The seed is white 
when ripe, and somewhat 
larger than that of the 
common Flageolet ; the 
young pods are long and 
thin and very tender. 

Extra -Early Dwarf 
Etampes Kidney Bean. 
This new variety, which was raised by M. Bonnemain, is a 
decided improvement on the White Flageolet, and is distinguished 




Extra Early Dwarf Etampes Kidney Bean 
( natural size). 



DWARF TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 51 




Nettle-leaved Canterbury Kidney Bean 
( natural size). 



from it in a marked degree by its leaves, which are large, somewhat 

crimped, and deep green. The flowers, pods, and seeds do not 

perceptibly differ from those of the White Flageolet, but the plant 

is earlier by five or six days, 

and is a truly valuable variety, 

most probably destined to 

gradually supersede the other 

in cultivation. The seeds are 

white, even when the pods are 

green. 

Nettle-leaved Canterbury 
Kidney Bean. This variety 
is very distinct from the Com- 
mon White Flageolet, and is a 
dwarf, hardy, early, and pro- 
ductive kind, easily recognised 
by its leaves, which are small, 
of a dark, almost black, green, 
and finely crimped on their entire surface. The small size of this 
plant renders it very suitable for frame culture, and its hardiness 
makes it equally good for field cultivation, as it is usually grown 
about Paris. It ripens nearly at the same time as the White 
Flageolet, and its chief merit consists in resisting disease and 
unfavourable weather, and in its being easily distinguished by its 
foliage from all other varieties. 

Matchless Dwarf Bean. In clumps about i ft. in height ; 
stem green, branching ; leaves medium-sized, light green, slightly 

veined and crimped ; flowers 
white. Pods 4 to 6 in. long, 
flat, produced in pairs, each 
containing six seeds, which 
resemble those of the Long 
White Canterbury Bean, but 
smaller and marked with 
two dots near the hilum ; 
they are a little over \ in. 
long, by about \ in. broad, 
and J in. thick. An early 
and prolific variety, to be 
recommended for the pro- 
duction of young green 
pods for the table. 

Inexhaustible Bean. 
Quite distinct from all the other dwarf Flageolet Beans, this variety 
is easily recognised at first sight by the growth of its flowers, which 
rise in stout bunches above the foliage. The pods are long, green, 




Inexhaustible Dwarf Bean. 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



narrow, and tender, and are produced in constant succession, 
becoming the more abundant the more they are picked. The seed 
is like that of the White Flageolet. 

Bonnemain Dwarf Kidney Bean. This variety was raised 
some years ago from seed by M. Bonnemain, secretary to the Etampes 

Horticultural Society, and 
we class it among the 
Flageolets because it re- 
sembles them in size, earli- 
ness, and in having white 
seeds ; but that it is totally 
distinct from all the other 
varieties can be seen at a 
glance. It forms very low- 
growing, thick-set clumps, 
with leaves of a pale gray- 
green and white flowers ; 
pods straight, almost cylin- 
drical, shorter and more 
slender than those of the 
Kidney Bean ; seeds white, 
egg - shaped, thicker, and 
with less of the kidney 
outline than those of the 
White Flageolet. They are 
green until they ripen. The 
great merit of this variety 
consists in its unequalled 
earliness, the seeds being 
rjpe for shelling five or six days sooner than those of the Early 
Etampes Flageolet, which was at one time considered the earliest 
of all. We have obtained very satisfactory results from growing 
the Bonnemain Kidney Bean in the open air, while its small size 
and great earliness make it most suitable for frame culture. It is 
certain to become one of the most esteemed varieties for producing 
an early crop. 

Long Green-seeded Flageolet Bean. The first green seeds 
of the Flageolet Beans may have originated by the mere accident 
of some one pulling a few pods before their complete maturity and 
allowing them to dry in the shade. However, it is indisputable 
that by careful observation and selection the Paris growers have 
succeeded in obtaining certain strains in which the green colora- 
tion of the seed not only exists, but has moreover a tendency 
to last, given appropriate treatment. We are going to give a 
description of the more interesting of these strains, all of which 
are derived more or less directly from the original green-seeded 




Bonnemain Dwarf Kidney Bean (plant, 
pods, ; and seed, full natural size). 



DWARF TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 53 



Flageolet Bean, the pods of which are of a darker colour outside, 

and the seed being permeated throughout with a larger amount of 

green colouring matter, which latter 

is of a more durable nature than 

is found in any other of the Tough- 
podded Kidney Beans. 

Chevrier Dwarf Flageolet 

Bean. A distinct variety, differing 

from the Green-seeded Flageolet 

almost as much as that differs 

from the White Flageolet, so intense 

is the green colour of the seed. 

Sent out only a few years ago, it 

has quickly become very popular 

among the growers in the vicinity 

of Paris. 

Wonder ol France Dwarf 

Bean. The Chevrier Bean, like 

the White Flageolet Bean, has the 

serious defect of being very much 

exposed to the attacks of rust. 

This evil is considerably lessened 

in some of the later strains, the 

first of which in date, the Marvel 

of Paris, is a fine variety with 

numerous, long, straight, beautiful 

deep green pods and well-coloured 

seeds. It differs but little from 

that of the Chevrier Bean in these 

characteristics. 

King of the Green Bean. Of remarkable vigour in growth, and 

somewhat taller than Wonder of France, though not quite as early. 

It is a hardy plant, suited for field culture, and wonderfully produc- 
tive. It is one of the best for 
the production of dry green 
Flageolets ; for not only is the 
skin of the seed very thin, but 
the bushes shed the whole of 
their foliage as soon as the 
pods are full and ripe, so that 
the plants, if. pulled up then, 
may be easily stacked at once. 
Dwarf Flageolet Triumph 
of the Frames. Very dwarf 




Wonder of France Flageolet Bean. 




Dwarf Triumph of the Frames Bean. 



and compact, suited for cultivation under glass, not exceeding 8 in. 
in height. Leaves of average size, pretty smooth ; pods very 



54 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

numerous, round, well filled, containing six to eight seeds each. The 
seeds are of the Flageolet shape, about in. long by about half as 
broad, and about in. thick. Owing to its small size and great 
earliness this variety can be recommended for growing in frames 
for an early crop. The seeds are bright green, and they keep their 
colour if the pods are pulled at the right moment and dried in the 
same way as the Chevrier Beans. 

Green-seeded Bagnolet Bean. A very branching dwarf 
variety, remarkable for its vigorous growth and productiveness. 
Foliage dark green, very abundant. The tufts are compact, erect, 
with numerous straight pods of vivid green. The seed is small and 
very green. Though not as early as Wonder of France, it is much 
more productive. It is especially suited for producing green pods 
or Haricots verts, of which it produces an enormous quantity. If 
allowed to ripen the green colour of the seed gives it an increased 
value in comparison with white and coloured Beans. 

Long Yellow, or Pale Dun, Flageolet Bean. A vigorous 
very dwarf variety, about 1 8 in. high, with large broad gray-green 
leaves, somewhat plaited but not much crimped. Flowers white ; 
pods large, long, straight, and broad, edible as Haricots verts, rather 
pale in colour ; seeds oblong, very slightly kidney-shaped, about 
f in. long, a little over J in. broad, and about the same in thickness, 
uniform chamois colour, excepting the hilum, which is white, 
surrounded by a circle of a rather dark-brown. The seeds are 
commonly eaten fresh, before they are fully grown, and they ripen 
rather earlier than those of the white-seeded kind. The plant is 
also much more productive. 

Dwarf Long Scarlet Flageolet Kidney Bean. (American 
Red, or Scarlet, Flageolet}. A vigorous kind, about the same 
height as the preceding one, but a much darker green, with long, 
narrow, pointed leaves and rosy-white flowers. Pods long and 
straight, yielding very good green Haricots ; seeds f in. or more 
long, over J in. broad, and about in. thick, straight, or slightly 
kidney-shaped, nearly cylindrical, and a wine-lees red colour. This 
variety is one of the hardiest and most productive. It is chiefly 
grown for its seeds, which are of fine quality when dried. It also 
produces long straight pods, which are excellent eaten as such. 

The Crimson Wonder and the Canadian Wonder Bean are sub- 
varieties of this kind, differing from it but slightly by the shape 
of the seed. 

Fame of Vitry Flageolet Bean. Earlier and smaller 
in size than the preceding kind, from which it has sprung ; 
stem light green, between 15 and 16 in. in length; leaves 
broad, and pointed ; flowers pale lilac. Pods about 6 in. long, 
generally solitary, and containing usually six seeds, resembling 
those of the Long Scarlet Flageolet Bean, but smaller. An early 



DWARF TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 55 




and prolific variety, to be recommended for the fine green pods 
{Haricots verts} it produces, and which are much appreciated on 
the market. 

Bouscat Early Long-pod Forcing Bean. In general appear- 
ance this variety resembles 
the Black Negro Bean, but 
is more vigorous, more 
productive, and also has 
longer pods, and the colour 
of the seed is also different. 
Plant dwarf, between 1 1 
and 12 in. high ; stems 
vivid green, leaves large, 
pointed, of a lustrous dark 
green colour ; flowers 
white. Pods light green, 
long, cylindrical, produced 

in pairs Or in clusters of Bouscat Early Long-pod Forcing Bean. 

three ; seed light brown, 

less than j in. long, about J in. broad, and about as thick. This 
variety is well suited for forcing under glass, but it succeeds also 
in the open ground in sheltered places where Beans are sown for 
an early crop. 

Scarlet Flageolet Wax Bean. A vigorous yet persistently 
dwarf variety, 1 6 to 18 in. high. Leaves very large, uncrimped, 
and light or yellow green ; flowers lilac ; pods long, broad, straight 

or slightly curved, quite 
yellow (like those of the 
Algerian Kidney Beans), 
but rather flattened and 
pointed (like those of the 
Tough - podded Kidney 
Beans) ; seeds almost 
exactly like those of the 
Canadian Wonder in 
shape and colour. This 
is a very fine and distinct 
kind, but, unfortunately, 
its pods are not free from 
membrane, at least when 
ripening ; but gathered 

Scarlet Flageolet Wax Bean. , "> ~f ' j & . 

much grown, they are very tender and fleshy. 

Black-blue Seeded Dwarf Bean. A dwarf, rather late variety ; 
plant erect and vigorous, of good habit, not exceeding 20 in. in 
height. Stem stout, light green ; leaves dark green, smooth, 




THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Black-blue Seeded Dwarf Bean. 



slightly veined ; flowers lilac, in bunches raised above the foliage. 

Pods very long, flat, light green, about 5 to 7 in. long, a little over 

J in. broad, and less than J in. thick, generally produced in pairs, 

and containing from six 
to eight long bluish black 
seeds. A disease-resisting, 
productive variety, well 
suited for growing for the 
market. Owing to the 
colour of the seed, it is 
used exclusively as a 
Haricot Bean. 

Negro Long-pod, or 
Black Canterbury, Kid- 
ney Bean. This is a 
very distinct variety, and 
one of the best edible- 
podded varieties. Leaves 
large, not much crimped, 
deep green, usually hori- 
zontal and not pendent ; 
flowers lilac ; pods slender, 

very straight, and nearly cylindrical. The plant is remarkable for 

the length of the young pods. The seeds are of moderate size, being 

between J and } in. long, and nearly in. broad and thick ; they 

are entirely black, on which account they are not used in cookery, 

and the plant is only grown for the sake of the green pods. 

Dwarf Extra Early Black Prince Bean. A truly dwarf 

and early variety, compat in growth, with numerous short stems, 

broad leaves, and a great 

number of flowers ; dis- 
tinguished by the intense 

green colour of the whole 

plant, and especially of 

the pods, which keep 

their dark green colour 

up to complete maturity. 

The pods are produced 

in abundance, of medium 

size ; the seed is black, 

very small, flat, thin, and 

oblong, it is about \ in. 

long, i in. broad, and a Black Prince Bean. 

little less in thickness. The Black Prince Bean is unexcelled for 
producing green pods for the table. Its dark green colour proclaims 
its descent from one of the forms derived from the Green Flageolet 





DWARF TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 57 

or the Chevrier Bean. The seed is of less importance in varieties 
specially grown for their pods, but this origin has had a most 
favourable influence in imparting to the pods that healthy and 
agreeable dark green appearance so much valued in the market. 
Dwarf Belgian Black Negro Kidney Bean. A very dwarf 
early kind, chiefly used for forcing in frames. When grown true 
to name, it seldom exceeds 10 in. or 
I ft. in height, and forms a small, close, 
compact tuft or clump. The leaves 
are medium size, rather pointed, not 
much crimped, and a pale wan green. 
Pods straight, very green while 
young, afterwards slightly streaked 
with violet ; seeds rather small, 
slightly kidney-shaped, not very flat, 

and Seldom over about i in. lone, of Dwarf Belgian Kidney Bean 

CL t-i i i **!_ !-*. (i natural size). 

a nne black colour, with a white 

hilum. Like the preceding variety, owing to the colour of its 

seeds it is only grown for the green pods. 

Dwarf Black Hermitage Bean. A sub-variety of the pre- 
ceding, having all its characteristics, but slightly taller ; the pod 
is also longer, about 5 in. in length, and the seeds are somewhat 
larger, but they are the same shape and colour. A variety much 
appreciated by the growers of Provence. 

Chocolate Dwarf Kidney Bean. Another verydwarf and early 
kind, with small long leaves, not much crimped, and light green. 
Flowers lilac ; pods rather short, and curved, often to a semicircle ; 
seeds flat, somewhat kidney-shaped, J in. or more long, varying 
from a chamois to deep slaty gray, and often both colours together. 
This variety is chiefly remarkable for its earliness, and is well 
adapted for growing under a frame for an early crop of ripe seeds. 

The Comte de Vougy Kidney Bean, Mohawk, and the Dwarf 
Free-bearer, which are now seldom grown, are closely allied to the 
Chocolate Kidney Bean. They are, however, not so early, and on 
that account not so valuable. 

Dwarf Yellow Hundredfold Kidney Bean. A dwarf and 
very hardy variety, of compact growth, with medium-sized slightly 
puckered leaves, deep green tinged with gray. Flowers white, 
changing to yellow ; pods rather short, numerous, each containing 
four or five straight, almost cylindrical seeds, which are sometimes 
square at the ends, and dark yellow verging on brown. This is 
a very productive kind, and is mostly cultivated in the east of 
France, where it is often grown in the vineyards. 

Early Dwarf Chalandray Kidney Bean. An exceedingly 
dwarf and early variety, forming a compact clump seldom over 
10 in. high. Leaves small, long, and bright green ; flowers rose or 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



pale lilac ; pods slender, long, and slightly curved ; seeds small, 
almost cylindrical, with very little of the kidney shape, about i in. 
long, and a light^ mahogany-brown in colour. This kind is almost 
as early as the Etampes Flageolet, and is especially well adapted 
for forcing. Both green pods and fresh seeds may be obtained 
from it. 

Dwarf Yellow Extra Early Kidney Bean. A dwarf plant, 
10 or 12 in. high ; stem light green ; leaves not very numerous, 
, g ra y - green, becoming soon 

yellow. Pods 5 in. long, flat, 
light green, produced in 
bunches of four or six at 
the end of the stems. Seed 
yellow, about in. long and 
in. broad and thick, usually 
five per pod. This variety is 
the earliest of all the Beans 
with coloured seed, and is 
well suited for growing under 
frames. Its pods are of excel- 
lent quality as Haricots verts. 
Dwarf Barbes Bean. 
This variety comes very near 
the Yellow Hundredfold Bean, 
but is taller and more vigorous. 
The seed is also larger, longer, 
and a clearer yellow, nearly that of the Yellow Canadian Bean. 
It is straight in shape, cylindrical, and often squared at both ends. 
The pods, like those of the Yellow Hundredfold Bean, are well 
filled, very fleshy, and may be eaten almost up to the time of 
their full development. In the south of France and Algeria it 
is much grown for producing green Haricots. 

Royal Dwarf White Kidney Bean. Under the name of 
" Swiss Kidney Beans " are grouped a certain number of varieties 
which are almost identical in habit of growth, and present hardly 
any difference except in the colour of the seed. In Italy these 
varieties are named Fagiuoli cannellini, and at Bordeaux they are 
known under the general name of Haricot Capucine. Almost all 
have the bad habit of sending out, above the leaves and flowers, a 
slender barren stem, of greater or less length, which never twines. 
This variety sometimes has this drawback, but possesses some very 
good qualities also, especially great productiveness and hardiness ; 
very suitable for field culture. It has large and very rough, dark 
green coloured, and sometimes finely crimped leaves ; flowers large 
and white ; pods long and numerous, each containing five or six 
seeds, which are white, straight, almost cylindrical, often flattened 




Dwarf Yellow Extra Early Kidney Bean. 



DWARF TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 59 



at one end (whence its French name of Haricot Lingo f}. They 
are usually about f in. long, and something over in. in breadth 
and thickness. They can be eaten dried, but the skin is rather 
thick. 

Early Dwarf White Bean. A very pretty sub-variety of 
the preceding one, but free from the long sterile stems referred 
to above. It is also a few days earlier. The plant is of a 
dwarfer habit, more even in growth, and also more regular in 
earliness. The pods and the seeds do not show any marked 
difference. 

Black Speckled Kidney Bean (Haricot de Bagnolef). A 
kind much grown about Paris for its green pods. As a general 
rule, it does not exhibit 
the objectionable habit of 
growth alluded to in the 
description of the Royal 
Dwarf White Kidney Bean, 
and, in this respect, it is 
better than most of the 
Swiss Kidney Beans. It 
grows 14 to 1 6 in. high and 
has large deep green leaves, 
not much crimped, and lilac 
flowers ; pods straight, long, 
very green, and, when young, 
almost cylindrical ; seeds 
straight, long, rounded at 
both ends, nearly as thick 
as broad, black -violet varie- 
gated with nankeen yellow 




Black Speckled Kidney Bean. 



streaks on about one-third of their surface, these markings being 
sometimes reduced to a few light-coloured spots on a nearly black 
ground. There is also a white-seeded variety, which is identical in 
all other respects. 

Nettle-leaved Bagnolet Bean. A sub-variety of the pre- 
ceding kind, about 16 in. in height. Stem light green, very branch- 
ing. It differs from the Black Speckled Bean by being a little 
earlier, and by the leaves, which are smaller, much crimped, veined, 
and of a lighter green ; flowers white instead of lilac ; the pods are 
longer, about 4^ in., and flat. The seed resembles exactly that 
of the Bagnolet Bean ; each pod contains six. 

Dwarf Parisian Bean. A dwarf plant of vigorous early 
growth and rapid development, with dark green leaves and lilac 
flowers ; pods straight, very long, marked with black streaks, 
which disappear in the cooking. The seed is flat, kidney-shaped, 
spotted dark purple on chamois. It is a good variety for the 



6o 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Dwarf Parisian Bean. 



kitchen-garden and also for field culture, where it yields abun- 
dantly about ten days earlier than the Black Speckled Bagnolet 

Bean and like sorts a 
great advantage from the 
grower's point of view. 

Glory of Lyons Bean. 
Though resembling 
somewhat the Bagnolet 
Bean, it differs from that 
in some respects. The 
leaves are larger, and 
gray-green ; the pods are 
broader and flatter ; the 
seed is slightly smaller, 
thin, almost straight, and 
speckled yellow on brown. 
The chief difference, how- 
ever, is in being eight to 
ten days earlier than the Bagnolet Bean, for which reason, though 
less productive, it is preferred by market gardeners. 

Dwarf Marvel of Paris Bean. A field variety, rather early, 
very vigorous, hardy, productive, above all remarkable for the 
length and slenderness of its pods, which are intensely green 
and almost cylindrical. The seed is thick, dark purple streaked 
with yellow; it is generally about ij in. long, and half that 
breadth, and less than in. thick. This variety is most probably 
derived from the old Bagnolet Bean. The seed has about 
the same appearance ; it 
is, however, somewhat 
smaller and shorter, re- 
sembling in size that of 
the Solitary Bean. 

Sion House Dwarf 
Kidney Bean. This is 
a variety for field culture 
and is hardy, early, 
and productive. Leaves 
numerous, of medium size, 
slightly puckered, and a 
rather deep green ; flowers 
rose - coloured or lilac ; 
pods long and straight. 
The shape of the seed 
resembles that of the 




Glory of Lyons Bean. 



Swiss Kidney Beans, but the colour, like that of the Cranberry 
Bean, is flesh colour finely dotted with light red or lilac. Although 



DWARF TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 61 



true enough to its dwarf character, this kind forms less compact 
clumps than the Swiss Kidney Beans, and the stems are usually 
long and semi-trailing. It is not very particular about quality of 
soil, and requires very little attention, on which account it is one 
of the kinds which are most frequently sown in vineyards or 
amongst other crops. 

Dwarf Emperor of Russia Bean. A dwarf, half-early variety, 
rather compact in growth, very productive, with large slightly 
crimped leaves ; pods numer- 
ous, slender and fleshy; seeds 
long and narrow, and light 
chocolate-brown with deeper- 
coloured stripes ; less than 
in. long, about in. broad, 
and about J in. thick. An 
excellent variety for the pro- 
duction of green pods for 
the table, especially in warm 
climates. The seed may be 
gathered when fully ripe 
without being liable to be- 
come stained, -as is the case 
with most other varieties. 

Dwarf Red Speckled 
Kidney Bean (Haricot suisse 
rouge], A vigorous, branch- 
ing variety, which does not 
usually produce the sterile 
stem before mentioned. 
Leaves stiff, not very large 
or numerous, smooth, and 
slightly gray - green ; flowers 
lilac or rosy ; seeds long, 

nearly Straight, marbled with Dwarf Emperor of Russia Bean. 

spots of a wine -lees red, 

which sometimes form longitudinal streaks on a pale red ground. 
This is a very productive kind, and the dried seeds are much 
esteemed. A variety cultivated in America, under the name of 
Improved Goddard or Boston Favourite, presents many points of 
similarity to this. 

Besides the varieties of Swiss Kidney Beans which we have 
just described, the following also are in cultivation : 

Dwarf Blood Speckled Kidney Bean. This variety bears a 
striking resemblance to the preceding one, both in habit and 
foliage. The flowers are a pale rose ; seeds similar in shape to 
those of the Black Speckled Kidney Bean, but a deep red, dotted 




62 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

with white or salmon colour. For some years past this variety has 
often been called " The Indian Kidney Bean." 

Dwarf Light Dun-coloured Kidney Bean. A vigorous 
variety, forming strong clumps, not producing the barren stem 
of the Swiss Kidney Beans, but sometimes bearing clusters of 
pods above the foliage. The leaves are large, slightly crimped, 
and gray-green ; pods long, straight, nearly cylindrical, each con- 
taining five or six seeds of a light chamois colour, darkening with 
age, and brown around the hilum. 

Other varieties of Swiss Kidney Bean are the Large Gray 
Swiss, the seed of which is yellow-white, streaked with black ; the 
Bourvalais Swiss, with white seed marbled with light violet ; the 
Red ingot, the seed of which is paler than that of the Long 
Spotted French Bean and not marbled. Among the Swiss Kidney 
Beans may also be included the variety named the Giant Dwarf, 
which is remarkable for the width of its leaves and the length of 
its pods ; but in cultivation it is now superseded by the improved 
variety of the Royal Dwarf White Kidney Bean. 

Russian Dwarf Kidney Bean. A very good dwarf variety, 
equal to any other for producing green pods. It is a very vigorous 
plant, with exceedingly broad leaves, finely crimped, dark and 
rather dull green in colour. Flowers lilac ; pods very straight, 
and remarkably long and handsome. The seed, which in shape 
and colour has some resemblance to that of the Dwarf Light Dun- 
coloured Kidney Bean, is easily distinguished from all other kinds 
by the dull appearance of the skin. There is a sub-variety of this 
plant which has small black seeds, and produces pods that are 
perhaps longer and more cylindrical than those of the ordinary 
kind. There are often six, or even seven, seeds in a pod, and as 
each seed is nearly f in. long, and lies in" the pod at some distance 
from the seed which is next to it, the length of the pods is easily 
accounted for. 

Spread-Eagle, or Dove, Kidney Bean. Another dwarf tough- 
podded variety, which appears to belong to the section of the Swiss 
Kidney Beans, and grows to the height of 16 in. or more. Leaves 
light green, broad, long, and finely crimped ; flowers white, and 
rather large ; pods straight and long ; seed very full, rather kidney- 
shaped, and quite white, except near the hilum, where it is marked 
with a black or brown blotch, the outline of which has some like- 
ness to a bird with extended wings. Hence its most common 
names of " Spread-Eagle " and " Dove " Kidney Beans. 

The Shah Bean. A very vigorous plant, truly dwarf, 
because it does not send up any twining shoots. It grows into 
large erect bushes, not exceeding 15^ to 19^ in. in height; the 
leaves are very large and broad, dark green, smooth, not crimped ; 
the lilac-coloured flowers are succeeded by fine green, long, straight 



DWARF TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 63 



pods, much superior to those of the Black Flageolet Kidney Bean, or 
even of the Russian Kidney Bean. The pods are not only very long, 
but also very thin and perfectly round. The seed is black, narrow, 
straight, or slightly curved into kidney shape, somewhat flattened, 
about ^ in. long, about 
J in. broad, and less in 
thickness ; hilum white. 
Judged by its vegeta- 
tion this variety belongs 
clearly to the series of 
the Swiss Kidney Beans, 
but it may be said to 
excel them all by the 
length and beauty of its 
pods. Of all the sorts 
grown it is the best for 
producing choice Haricot 
Beans. It is too tall to 
be grown under glass, 
and is much better suited 
for outdoor culture. 

Dwarf Red Orleans 
Kidney Bean. A vari- 
ety which is usually true 
to its dwarf character, 
but occasionally runs at 
the top. Stems thick 

and short, forming a The Shah Dwarf Bean. 

rather broad, compact 

clump ; leaves stiff, medium-sized, crimped, a glistening green ; 
flowers violet ; pods rather numerous, short and slightly curved, 
each containing four or five rather small egg-shaped seeds, which 
are less than J in. long, of a deep, brown-red colour, with a black 
circle around the hilum. This variety is cultivated in the vine- 
yards of Orleanais, just as the Yellow Hundredfold and the 
Turkish Kidney Bean are in the vineyards of Burgundy. It is 
sometimes erroneously confused with the Chartres Red Kidney 
Bean, which is a tall-growing kind, with seeds of a flatter shape 
and more squared at the ends. 

Dwarf Soissons Kidney Bean. A variety which is true to 
its dwarf character, and also early, but only a moderate bearer. 
Plant low-growing and thick-set. Leaves rather broad, smooth, 
and dark glistening green. It does not produce the sterile stem 
of the Swiss Kidney Beans, but clusters of pods are sometimes 
borne above the foliage. Pods usually curved and of irregular 
width, owing to the unequal size of the seeds, which are much 




6 4 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




smaller than those of the Large White Runner, and are more like 
those of the Liancourt Kidney Bean, being white, rather flat, 

and moderately kidney- 
shaped. 

Dwarf Green- 
seeded Soissons Bean. 
Resembles the pre- 
ceding but is a little 
earlier, and its leaves 
are a darker green. 
Pods curved, about J in. 
long, a little less in 
breadth, usually pro- 
duced in pairs, and con- 
taining six large green 
seeds, a little over J in. 
in length, rather more 

Dwarf Green Soissons Bean. than J in. broad, and 

J in. thick. The method 

practised for drying the seed so that it may keep its green colour 
is the same as for the other green-seeded kinds. 

Early Dwarf Scimitar Kidney Bean. This very distinct 
and valuable variety differs completely from the old Dwarf Case- 
knife, which is now no longer cultivated. It is a low-growing 
and very thick-set plant, with broad leaves, slightly crimped, and 
dark lustrous green. Flowers white ; pods long, broad, straight, 
and well filled. The plant comes into flower almost about the 
same time as the White 
Flageolet, and its earliness, 
and also the fineness of its 
seeds, render it a valuable 
kind for forcing under a 
frame. The seeds are 
broad and well filled, nearly 
| in. long, over % in. broad, 
and J in. thick, pure white, 
and, like the skin, some- 
times slightly wrinkled. 

Common White Flat 
Bean. An ancient vari- 
ety, still used in certain 
countries for field culture. 




Early Dwarf Scimitar Kidney Bean 
(f natural size). 



May be classed also with 

the Runner Beans, because 

the branches, though they do not climb well, run to a considerable 

length, and trail on the ground. The foliage is abundant, rather 



DWARF TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 65 

folded, leaves inclined to be small, and a dark green ; flowers white ; 
pods short, with four or five medium-sized seeds, similar in shape 
almost to those of the Liancourt Bean, glossy and a pure white. 

Common Round White Bean. Like the last-named, very 
irregular in habit, and almost entitled to be called a Runner Bean. 
A slender light-green stem, about 3 ft. 3 in. high ; leaves a decided 
green and smooth ; flowers white ; pods light green, not long, and 
containing generally six white rounded seeds. In spite of its faulty 
habit, this variety is commonly used in field culture for the sake of 
its seed. A variety cultivated in Canada, under the name of Pea 
Bean, and in the United States, under the name of Navy White 
or Boston Small Bean, differs very little from the Common Round 
White Bean. 

Dwarf White Rice Kidney Bean. A dwarf but remarkably 
branching kind, forming clumps over 2\ ft. wide. Leaves very 
numerous, rather pointed, medium-sized or small, and light green ; 
pods short, very numerous, containing five or six seeds ; seeds 
white, egg-shaped, nearly f in. long, -J in. broad, and about the 
same thickness, with an exceedingly thin skin ; of remarkably 
good quality, and consequently much used in the dried state. 
Although its seeds are small, it is very productive, but is rather 
late, in consequence of which the seeds are sometimes spotted 
and blemished if the autumn is cold and damp. There is a very 
small-seeded variety of this plant, which produces vast numbers of 
pods, and is known as the Dwarf Hungarian Bean, or the Hungarian 
Rice Kidney Bean. (Syn. Haricot Comtesse de Chambord^] 

Dwarf White Bagnolet. A handsome, vigorous, hardy kind, 
which in habit of growth is rather like the Black Speckled Kidney 
Bean, but differs from it entirely in the seed, which is white, rather 
flat, and kidney-shaped, and is good for use either dried or in the 
green state. 

Imperatrice Dwarf Bean. In appearance and foliage this kind 
resembles the Swiss Kidney Beans, but it has broader and slightly 
curved pods. Seed large, full, kidney-shaped, and remarkable for 
a large deep red blotch encircling the hilum, and extending over 
about one-third of the surface of the seed, the remainder being 
pure white thickly dotted with small red specks, which appear in 
bold relief on the white ground. 

Mexican Dwarf Kidney Bean. One of the earliest of all 
the Tough-podded Kidney Beans, of low and scantily branching 
growth, with medium-sized leaves, deep green tinged with gray. 
Flowers very pale lilac ; pods short and rather broad, each con- 
taining four or five egg-shaped, slightly flattened seeds, salmon- 
rose, with a brown circle round the Jiilum. 

Neapolitan Kidney Bean. Under this name are grouped 
several varieties with white, egg-shaped seeds, like those which are 



66 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

imported in large quantities from the south of Italy and from Sicily ; 
but it is more a commercial name than that of any special variety. 

Round Yellow, or Six- Weeks, Dwarf Kidney Bean. A 
low-growing, thick-set kind, with slightly grayish and elongated 
leaves. Flowers pale lilac or rose ; pods rather broad and short, 
each containing four or five egg-shaped seeds, about \ in. long, and 
of a uniform deep yellow colour, except about the hilwn, where 
they are of a darker shade, closely approaching brown. A remark- 
ably early and very productive variety. 

Solitary Prolific Kidney Bean, or Bush Haricot. A very 
branching plant, which forms a strong clump, does not produce a 
barren stem like the Swiss Kidney Beans, and attains a height of 
1 6 to 20 in. Leaves rather small, very numerous, long, pointed, 
and deep green ; flowers pale lilac. The seed somewhat resembles 
that of the Black Speckled Kidney Bean, but is seldom more 
than \ in. long, and is of a pronounced violet colour. The chief 
merit of this variety is that it forms a strong clump and branches 
very much, in consequence of which some cultivators sow each seed 
separately, instead of putting several into the same hole or pocket. 

Dwarf Green Vaudreuil Bean. Resembles the Chevrier Bean 
by its seeds being of a bright green colour, which colour they keep 
when dry, if the plants are pulled before complete maturity. It is 
hardier than the Flageolet Beans, and differs from them in the 
pods being rounded and straight, and also in the seed being short, 
thick, and almost square. 

Plein de la Fleche. A good variety, of vigorous, thick-set 
growth, and resembling both the Black Speckled (H. Bagnolet) and 
the Solitary Bush Kidney Bean ; the former in its habit of growth, 
and the latter in its seed. 

The following varieties are of English or American origin : 

Early Light Dun and Early Dark Dun. These two kinds 
bear some resemblance to the Yellow Flageolet, but their seed is 
uniform in colour, without any circle around the hilum. The seeds 
of the two kinds are distinguished by those of the first being a 
lighter brown than those of the second. 

Early Rachel. A dwarf and productive kind, with dark- 
brown, elongated seeds, slightly spotted with pale brown or yellow. 
It has some resemblance to the Chocolate Kidney Bean. 

MacMillan's American Prolific. Somewhat resembles the Sion 
House Kidney Bean in its general appearance and in the colour of 
the seed, but is more compact in growth, forming denser clumps. 

The Monster. A dwarf and exceedingly vigorous-growing 
variety, with enormous leaves, resembling in their amplitude those 
of the most highly developed Swiss Kidney Beans. Pods of medium 
size, straight ; seeds black, longer, and more curved than those of 
the Belgian Negro Bean. A tolerably productive, half-early kind. 



DWARF TOUGH-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 67 

New Mammoth Negro. The pods and seeds of this kind are 
rather like those of the Negro Long-pod, but in its mode of growth 
and the colour of its leaves it bears a greater resemblance to the 
Belgian Negro. It is not so good a kind for green Haricots as the 
Negro Long-pod. 

Newington Wonder. This dwarf variety can hardly be 
recommended for any other purpose than frame culture for the 
production of seeds, as its pods are too short for green Haricots. 
The seed is of a light yellow colour and remarkably small. 

Early Mohawk Bean. Very hardy ; pods long, flat, straight. 
One of the Beans most commonly cultivated in the United States, 
and as often grown under glass as in the open air. The seed is 
pale green, marbled with dark violet or brown. 

Best of All Bean. A vigorous, ramified, fairly productive half- 
early kind ; the pods long, fleshy, intense green, becoming lighter 
at maturity, and marked with bright red shades ; seed pale yellow 
stippled with red. 

Currie's Rust-proof Wax Bean. Resembles the Dwarf 
Flageolet Wax Bean, except that it has black seeds. 

Davis Kidney Wax. A species of Dwarf Flageolet Wax 
Bean, hardy and productive, with long yellow straight pods, not 
free from parchment, and requiring to be pulled when young. Seed 
long white kidney-shaped. 

Emperor William. Resembles in foliage and growth the 
Dwarf Scimitar White Bean, with rather flatter pods. The seed 
is white, flat, and rather kidney-shaped. 

Ne Plus Ultra Bean. Dwarf; leaves light green, flowers 
white tinged with pink. Seeds resemble those of the Yellow 
Hundred to One, but the pods are longer. 

New Bountiful Kidney Bean. Seed like that of the Long 
Yellow Flageolet, but the growth of the plant is freer, and the 
foliage lighter, and the pods more whitened. 

Stringless Green-pod Bean. Half-early, vigorous, and pro- 
ductive, much esteemed in the United States. Pods long, fleshy, 
slightly curving, pale green. Seed a deep madder-colour. 

Button's Prolific Negro Dwarf Bean. A good variety of the 
Negro Black or Dwarf Belgian, but with longer pods. 

Osborn's Early Forcing. A good dwarf kind, of dense 
branching growth, producing large numbers of medium-sized pods, 
each containing four or five short bulging seeds, deep-brown, with 
some spots of light yellow. 

Refugee, or Thousand to One. A rather compact-growing 
variety, with remarkably long, straight, smooth, dark-coloured 
leaves, and violet flowers. Pods straight and rounded ; seed 
hardly kidney-shaped, almost cylindrical, light yellow, variegated 
with wine-lees-red markings. 



68 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Extra Early Refugee is bushier and earlier than the type, 
and the foliage is paler green. 

Sir Joseph Paxton. A small-sized, very early, dwarf kind, 
with rather short pods. The seed is almost exactly like that of the 
Yellow Hundredfold, but is of a deeper, and nearly brown, colour. 

Williams's New Early. A very early and rather productive kind, 
the seeds and pods of which are marbled with violet. This colouring 
of the pods, added to their flat shape, lessens their value for table use. 

Yellow Canterbury. A dwarf variety, with small yellow bulg- 
ing, straight seeds, very much resembling the Yellow Hundredfold. 



EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 




White Tall King of the Skinless Beans. 



French, Haricots sans parchemin. 
German, Zucker-, oder Brech-, 
Bohnen. Danish, Snitte- 
bonnen. Italian, Fagiuoli 
mangia tutto. 

I. TALL-GROWING 
VARIETIES 

Tall White Algerian 
Wax or Butter Bean. 
A rather vigorous kind, 
about 6J ft. high, very 
remarkable for the light 
or yellow tint of its 
leaves, which renders it 
conspicuous at a distance. 
Stems wax - yellow or 
white, as are also the 
leaf-stalks; flowers white; 
pods long and slender, 
more or less curved, 
each containing, with 
some distance between 
them, five or six white 
egg - shaped, somewhat 
elongated seeds over Jin. 
long. An Edible-podded 
variety, it has, besides, 
this advantage that its 
dried seeds can be sent 
to table. 

White Tall King 
of the Skinless Beans 
(Haricot Roi des Mange- 
tout}. A very vigorous- 



TALL EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 69 



growing and productive variety, with strong and long stems and 
abundant foliage ; pods numerous, yellow, sickle-shaped, extremely 
fleshy, entirely free from parchment, and containing from five to 
seven seeds each. The latter are large and white, squared at one 
end, J in. long and J in. broad. 

Cambrai Tall Wax or Butter Bean. Not exceeding 5 ft. 
in height ; stem slender, 
pale green ; leaves small, 
light green, striped gray- 
green ; flowers white, 
turning to nankeen- 
yellow. Pods about 5 in. 
long, \ in. broad, straight, 
of a pleasing butter- 
yellow colour, containing 
five or six fairly large 
white egg-shaped seeds, 
about J in. long, slighter 
in breadth, and about in. 
thick. A very productive 
variety, producing pods 
of excellent quality. Its 
very vigorous growth 
enables it to resist the 
disease to which the tall 
Beans are liable. 

Mont d'Or Wax or 
Butter Bean. This 
handsome and good 
variety was raised near 
Lyons, whence it has 
been widely distributed 
throughout France. It 
is a very distinct kind, 
scarcely as tall as the 
Algerian Wax Bean, with 
pale green stems tinged 
with red, and smooth, 
uncrimped light green 
leaves and blue flowers. Pods very numerous, straight, pale yellow, 
like those of all the Butter Beans, nearly 6 in. long, very free from 
membrane, each containing five or six egg-shaped violet seeds, 
spotted and marbled with brown, and perceptibly smaller than 
those of the Black and White Algerian Wax Beans. This variety, 
which is only grown for the pods, is remarkable for its earliness 
and productiveness. 




Mont d'Or Wax or Butter Bean. 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Algerian Tall Black Wax or Butter Bean. A very distinct 
and well-known kind, probably the oldest of the varieties which 
are called Wax or Butter Beans from the colour of their pods. It 
is a plant of medium height, seldom exceeding about 6J ft, with 
rather thick pale or yellow-green stems sometimes tinged with 
violet ; leaves of average size, not much crimped, gradually 

decreasing in size from the 
base to the top of the stem, 
and slightly ashy gray. 
The pods, which are green 
at first, assume, when they 
are about 2 in. long, a pale 
yellow semi - transparent 
tinge, very much resem- 
bling that of butter or 
fine wax ; they are usually 
somewhat curved, each 
containing from four to 
six seeds, which are blue 
at first, then violet, and 
when ripe quite black, and 
of a slightly flattened egg- 
shape, and a trifle longer 
than those of the Prague 
Kidney Beans. This is a 
productive and moderately 
early kind, and one of the 
best of the Edible-podded 
varieties. The pods are 
entirely free from mem- 
brane, and have hardly 
any fibre, so that they are 
quite tender and fleshy 
when fully grown, and 
may be sent to table 
almost until they are per- 
fectly ripe. The dried 
seeds are seldom eaten 




Black Algerian Butter Bean dV natural size). 



on account of their very dark and unattractive colour. 

Edible-podded Giant White Kidney Bean. This very fine 
variety appears to be the offspring of the Purple-podded Kidney 
Bean, of which it exhibits all the vigorous and productive qualities ; 
it has, moreover, the advantage of producing green pods and white 
seeds, thus being free from the only two blemishes that can be 
attributed to the Purple-podded Kidney Bean, viz. the objectionable 
colour of its pods and seeds. It is a half-late but productive kind, 



TALL EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 71 



with stout stems 6 to nearly 10 ft. high. Leaves very large, but not 

numerous ; leaflets rounded and crimped. The flowers are white ; 

pods very broad, and 

very numerous, 4 to 6 in. 

long, entirely free from 

membrane, thick and 

fleshy, each containing 

four to six flat white 

seeds, resembling those 

of the White Dutch or 

Case-knife Kidney Bean. 

When grown under 

favourable circumstances, 

this variety produces such 

an abundance of pods as 

to weigh down the stakes 

which support it 

Broad -pod Skinless 
Kidney Bean. This 
variety, which was raised 
by M. Perrier de la Bathie, 
is one of the most singular 
and distinct varieties that 
has appeared for some 
years past. It is a vigor- 
ous, rather late productive 
kind, and remarkable 
amongst the Edible- 
podded varieties. Stem 
4 to 6 ft. high, bearing 
pods abundantly near the 
base ; leaves large, very 
green, slightly crimped ; 
pods so thick and fleshy 
that the diameter from 
side to side is one-third 
greater than the distance 
between the front seam 
and the back. There is, 
however, no empty space 
inside the pod, which is 

SO thick and fleshy that Edible-podded Giant White Bean. 

the seeds have hardly 

room to grow, and appear deformed by the pressure to which they 
are subjected. They are white, elongated egg-shaped, sometimes 
faintly kidney-shaped, about J in. long, and J in. broad and thick ; 




THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



they are almost unique in being irregular in shape, being almost 
always flattened cross-wise, and the hilum, instead of occupying 
its usual position, is situated on one side of the line which would 
divide the seed into two equal parts. The seeds vary very much 
in size, however, according to the season. 

The Fat Horse Pole Bean or Mobile Bean resembles the 
preceding variety, but is a little earlier. 




Broad-pod Skinless Bean. 



Four to Four Bean. 



Geneva, or Plainpalais, White Butter Bean, or Wax Bean. 
This variety is highly esteemed by the Geneva market gardeners. 
It is a tall-growing kind, coming very near the preceding one, but 
differing from it in a few points. It is more decidedly a pole bean, 
being a better climber than the other. The pods, which very much 
resemble those of the Broad-pod Kidney Bean, are not so fleshy, 
but they are produced in greater abundance, especially at the 
middle and towards the top of the stems ; they also ripen more 



TALL EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 



73 



readily. The seeds, or beans, are 
nearly cylindrical shape. It is, 
variety of Butter Bean. 

Four to Four Bean. Stems 
bearing pods at a short 
distance above the ground. 
The pods, which are long, 
straight, thick and in- 
tensely green, are often 
produced in bunches of 
four, or even more hence 
its name. The seed is 
short, square at the ends, 
fairly full and white. 
Though not free from 
fibre, the pods may be 
eaten green until they are 
three-fourths of their full 
size. The white colour of 
the seed allows of its being 
used in a dried state. The 
Four to Four Bean is 
productive and fairly 
early. 

Skinless Saint-Fiacre 
Bean. One of the most 
productive varieties of 
Skinless Pole Beans. 
Stems green, tall, with 
large, smooth leaves ; 
pods very numerous, quite 
straight, about 10 inches 
in length, entirely without 
membrane or fibre, and 
tender and fleshy even 
when fully grown. The 
seed is oblong and thin, 
dun-coloured, about f in. 
long, about J in. broad, 
and about half as thick. 
A fairly early variety, 
bearing during the whole 
summer. 

Skinless White-seeded Saint 
the preceding, with all its good 
enabling the surplus of the crop to 



white, and of an elongated and 
in fine, a good mid-season tall 

green, about 6J ft. in height, and 




Skinless Saint-Fiacre Bean. 



-Fiacre Bean. An offspring of 
qualities added to white seeds, 
be made good use of when dry. 



74 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



The pods equally fine and excellent. The seed is the same shape 

and size, but of white colour. 

From the Valley Skinless Bean. Stem stout and branching, 

10 ft. or more in height; 
leaves light green, 
pointed and smooth ; 
flowers white. Pods 
rosy white, 7 to 9 in. 
long, twisted, with a 
well-marked groove and 
bulging seeds eight or 
ten in a pod. The seeds, 
like those of the Saint- 
Fiacre Bean, are light 
brown, but more flat ; 
they are about f in. long 
and about half as broad. 
A very early and pro- 
ductive variety, the pods 
very fleshy, and tender 
almost up to their com- 
plete maturity. 

Golden-yellow Tall 
Skinless Bean. A 
vigorous variety, about 
6| ft. in height, quick- 
growing, but slackening 
early. It is one of the 
earliest Tall Skinless 
Beans. It sheds its 
leaves as early as the 
Princess and the Prd- 
dome Beans. The pods 
are in bunches of four, 
five, or six, long and 
slightly curved, green 
and fleshy. The seed 
is rather small, straight, 
squared at both ends, 
light yellow streaked 
with deep golden-yellow; 

it seldom exceeds \ in. in length by half as broad, and is of about 

the same thickness. 

Purple-podded Runner Kidney Bean. A very vigorous and 

tall kind, sometimes attainihg a height of 9^ ft. and upwards. The 

.-stems, which are stout and rather thick, are purple, as are also the 




From the Valley Skinless Bean. 



TALL EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 75 



leaf-stalks and the calyxes of the flowers ; the leaves are rather 
distant from each other, very much crimped, and dull green ; 
flowers lilac ; pods very numerous, straight, slender, at first of a 
very deep purple, but, as they advance in growth, becoming paler, 
and more or less bulged and undulated, but always very solid and 
fleshy. They are sometimes 10 in. long, and relatively slender, and 
contain six to eight seeds each. The seeds are long and flat, some- 
thing larger than those of the Flageolet Kidney Beans, and almost 
the same shape ; and are rosy colour marbled with lilac-gray. A 
rather early and exceed- 
ingly productive kind, and 
one of the best edible- 
podded sorts, being quite 
free from membrane, and, 
when cooked, as green as 
those of any other kind. 

Edible-podded Black 
Scimitar Runner Bean. 
A distinct kind, with flat 
kidney-shaped seeds, and 
pods entirely free from 
membrane. It is a tall- 
growing plant, being over 
8 ft. high, with thick pale 
green stems. Leaves large 
and broad, rather distant 
from each other, pale green, 
and crimped; flowers lilac; 
pods long and broad, not 
-curved, but frequently 
bulged or undulating on 
the edges, 6 to 8 in. long, 
violet at first, but losing 
this colour as they increase 
in growth, each containing 
six to eight seeds of the 
same size as those of the 
White Dutch Kidney Bean, 
but somewhat more humpy 
and irregular in shape, and 
with a very shining, brilliant 
black skin. This variety is 

remarkable for the great New Zealand, or Prague, French Bean. 

size and beauty of its pods. 

It is very productive, but rather impatient of damp, and half-late 

in ripening. 




76 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

New Zealand Runner Kidney Bean (Haricot de Prague 
Marbre\ A variety of moderate height, seldom exceeding about 
4 ft., with thick green stems. Lower leaves large, slightly crimped, 
the rest of medium size, narrow, and rather dark green ; flowers 
pale lilac or rosy white ; pods broad, about 5 in. long, green at first, 
afterwards becoming tinged with violet-red on a white ground > 
and sometimes entirely red when ripe, each containing five or six 
egg-shaped seeds, of a salmon-rose colour, spotted, dotted, and 
striped with deep red, and having a brownish yellow circle around 
the hilum. This kind, which was introduced about the middle of 
the eighteenth century, is well known and extensively cultivated 
under the name of " Coco Rose." It is more generally grown for 
the dried seeds than for the pods. 

White Prague Kidney Bean. Although this variety 
resembles the White Coco Bean in the colour and shape of the 
seed, it is distinguished from it by several marked characteristics. 
It is later and longer-lasting ; the leaves are more abundant and 
do not fall so soon ; they are large, not much crimped, and rather 
a dark green, and those at the top of the stem are nearly the same 
size as the lower ones ; the flowers are white, and the pods, which 
are abundantly produced up to the tops of the stems, are longer 
and narrower than those of the White Coco ; the seed also is 
larger, something flatter, and not so regularly egg-shaped. A 
very productive variety, with the single drawback of being some- 
what late, and therefore less valuable in localities where the autumn 
is cold and damp. 

White Coco, or Lazy Wife, Kidney Bean. Stem green, 
about 6J ft. high ; leaves of medium size, stiff, rather long and 
pointed, of a dark, rather dull, green, and slightly crimped ; flowers 
white ; pods of medium length, rather broad, green, each containing 
five or six white egg-shaped seeds, about J in. long, nearly J in. 
broad, and over in. thick. This variety, although ranking 
amongst the Edible-podded kinds (especially when the pods are 
young), is more esteemed for its seeds, which are used in the dried 
state. 

The Sophie Kidney Bean is considered to be only a sub- 
variety of the White Coco, from which it differs in having rather 
larger pods (which are sometimes tinged with red, like those of the 
Prague Kidney Beans) and somewhat larger leaves. 

Red Prague Kidney Bean. This variety differs from the 
preceding in the seeds being a uniform dark brown-red. 

There is also a sub-variety, known as the Two-coloured Prague 
Kidney Bean, the seeds of which are half red and white. 

Among the Prague Kidney Beans should be included the 
variety named Imperial Austrian White Coco, or Bossin. This is 
a large, productive, and rather late kind, the seed of which is white 



TALL EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 



77 



and nearly round, with a black bird-shaped blotch around the 
hilum, something like the seed of the Spread Eagle, or Dove, 
Kidney Bean. 

The Two-coloured Italian Kidney Bean should also be 
classed with the Prague Kidney Beans. It is a very productive, 
tall kind, producing seeds of excellent quality for the table. 
There is a sub- variety of it, the pods of which, immediately before 
ripening, assume an exceeding lively uniform red colour, giving 
the plant quite an ornamental appearance. The seeds of both 
kinds are round, slightly egg-shaped, half white and half very pale 
chamois-colour. 

The Mammoth Podded Horticultural Pole Bean, or Worcester 
Mammoth, Hampden, Mugwump, Carmine Podded Pole Bean, 
cultivated in America, is only a sub-variety of the New Zealand 
Runner Bean, with longer and stouter pods and larger seeds. 

Two-coloured Coco Prolific Bean. Seed a long oval in 
shape, J to f in. in length, about 5 in. broad and of the same 
thickness. The part opposite the kilum is entirely white : the 
hilum itself is marked with 
a narrow dark yellow ring, 
girdled by streaks like those 
of the Marbled New Zealand 
Runner and extending over 
one-third of the whole surface. 

Tall White Predome 
Kidney Bean. Stem about 
4 ft. high, green, thick, and 
twisted ; leaves of medium 
size, rounded at the base, 
crimped, and a rather deep 
green colour ; flowers white, 
changing to yellow ; pods 
very numerous, straight, 
fleshy, deeply indented on 
the sides by the bulging of 
the seeds, 3 or 4 in. long, 
each containing six or seven 
very white nearly round 
seeds, which are often flat- 
tened at the ends, and are 
about \ in. long, J in. broad, 
and less than in. thick. 




membrane, in this respect surpassing all other varieties of Tall- 
growing Kidney Beans. The seeds, also, are of very good quality, 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



so that the plant supplies an excellent vegetable, not only while 
the plants are green and the seeds half-formed, but also when the 
seeds are fully grown and ripening. The pods, also, are free from 
fibre, and can be cooked just as they are gathered, without any 
trimming. This is one of the best kinds of Edible-podded Kidney 
Beans, and is very extensively grown in France, particularly in 
Normandy, where there are two or three forms of it which differ 
slightly from each other in the size of the pods and seeds. It is 
a half-late variety. 

The Haricot Friolet and the H. Petit Carre de Caen are local 
forms of the Pr6dome Kidney Bean rather than distinct well- 
marked sub-varieties. The Friolet is usually considered to produce 
smaller seed, but this does not appear to be a universally constant 
characteristic. 

Princess Runner Kidney Bean. Stem green, thick, twisted, 
6J ft. high or more ; leaves round, of medium size, crimped, and 

deep green ; flowers white ; 
pods very numerous 
(especially at the base of 
the stems, where they 
form regular bundles), 
straight, green, bulging 
greatly over the seeds, 
and turning yellow when 
quite ripe ; they are from 
4 to 6 in. long, and seldom 
contain more than eight 
seeds each. The seeds 
are white, slightly egg- 
shaped, and very like 
those of the preceding 
variety, except that they 
are never flattened at 
the ends. A very good, 
hardy, exceedingly pro- 
ductive, and fairly early 
variety. It is extensively 
grown in French Flanders, 
Belgium, and Holland. 
While it much resembles 
the Predome Kidney 
Bean, it is sufficiently 
distinguished from it by 
the greater distance between the seeds in the pod, and also by 
growing fully one-third higher. When grown true to name, the 
seeds of the Princess Kidney Bean (which never touch each other 




Princess Edible-podded Runner French Bean. 



TALL EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 79 



in the pod) preserve their natural slightly elongated egg-shaped 
form, while those of the Predome are pressed against each other, 
and, consequently, become flattened at the ends. 

There is a sub-variety with longer pods and greater distances 

between the seeds, known 
as the Long-pod Princess, 
which is quite as early and 
productive as the ordinary 
variety. 

From amongst the almost 
innumerable other varieties of 
Tall-growing Edible-podded 





Cherry Japanese French Bean. 



Ivory Butter Bean. 



Beans, we may also mention the following as possessing the 
greatest degree of merit : 

Cherry Japanese Bean. A very distinct variety, with 
numerous, very short pods, slightly over 2 inches long, contain- 
ing 4 or 6 oval seeds of wine-lees-red colour and white hilum. 

Tall Ivory Wax or Butter Bean. A tall-growing kind, 6J to 
over 8 ft. high. Stems whitish, slightly tinged with red on the side 
next the sun ; leaves numerous, of medium size, and of a light 
green ; flowers lilac ; pods numerous, fleshy, straight or slightly 
curved, entirely free from membrane, and especially remarkable for 
the white tint which they assume when they are two or three days 
old, and which becomes more pronounced as they advance to 
maturity. Each of them contains from five to eight egg-shaped 



8o THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

seeds of red-violet colour, and of the same size as the seeds of the 
Red Prague Kidney Bean, from which they differ in colour only. 
This is a good Edible-podded variety, somewhat late, but an 
abundant and remarkably continuous bearer. 

Saint-Joseph Butter Bean. This variety forms the connect- 
ing link between the Prague Kidney Beans and the Butter Beans 
properly so called. Its pods are straight or slightly curved, and are 
streaked with red on a butter-coloured ground. The seeds are 
marbled either with violet on a rose-coloured ground or with rose- 
colour on a violet ground. The plant is not a tall-growing one, as 
it seldom exceeds 4 ft. in height. It was raised about the year 
1 860 at the agricultural colony of Citeaux, near Dijon. 

Bulgarian Bean. Rather late, vigorous, and prolonged in 
vegetation ; stems tall and twining ; leaves dark green, large and 
abundant ; flowers lilac ; pods long, straight, very fleshy and 
brittle, dark green in colour striped with violet, and free from 
parchment. The seed is long, flat, gray streaked with purple, 
about | in. long, J in. broad, and about half as thick. In the 
climate of Paris it is one of the best and most prolific Beans for 
producing green pods, but for maturing its seed it requires 
the warmth of Southern France. 

Imperial Kidney Bean. This is distinguished from the Tall 
White Butter Bean only by the colour of its stems and pods, both 
of which are green instead of butter-yellow. 

Climbing Yellow, or Dunes Yellow, Kidney Bean. Of 
medium height, productive, and fairly early. Seeds yellow, nearly 
cylindrical, resembling those of the Yellow Hundredfold. Pods 
straight, very fleshy and tender, and from 4 to 6 in. in length. 

Lafayette Kidney Bean. A tall variety, rather late, and with 
pods not altogether free from membrane. Flowers white ; pods 
pale green, becoming yellow when ripe, each containing six to 
eight chamois-coloured seeds marbled with light brown and shaded 
with reddish brown around the hilum. 

Nankeen-yellow Geneva Bean. A tall early plant, bearing 
an abundance of pods in bunches of four, five, and even eight on 
the same stalk. Seed kidney-shaped, flat, pale nankeen-yellow. 

Asparagus, or Yard Long, Kidney Bean. A very tall kind, 
nearly 10 ft. high. Leaves very large and distantly placed ; flowers 
copper-coloured or lilac ; pods almost cylindrical, exceedingly long 
and slender, sometimes more than a foot in length ; seed very long, 
nearly cylindrical, but narrowed at both ends, of a more or less 
coppery chamois-colour. A late kind, requiring a warm climate. 

Rose-coloured Predome Butter Bean. A plant of medium 
height, seldom exceeding 4 ft., but branching and clumpy. 
Flowers rose-coloured ; pods exceedingly numerous, growing in 
profusion from the base to the top of the stem, but seldom 



TALL EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 



81 



exceeding 2 or 3 in. in length, and each containing four to 
six small nearly round seeds of a 
salmon-rose colour. 

Val d'Isere Kidney Bean. 
This is a very vigorous, leafy, late 
kind,laden,in the end of autumn, with 
green, fleshy, well-filled very much 
curved pods. Seed black, egg-shaped. 

Villetaneuse Kidney Bean. 
This variety, which was formerly 
very much grown about Paris, is 
now almost entirely superseded by 
the Tall-growing Butter Beans. It 
is a productive, somewhat late kind, 
bearing rather long, tender, and 
thick pods, each containing five or 
six flattened, almost square, coffee- 
coloured seeds marbled and streaked 
with brown. 

Gray Zebra Runner Kidney 
Bean. A late and very vigorous 
kind, nearly 10 ft. high, with large, 
spreading leaves and lilac flowers. 
Pods thick, fleshy, curved, streaked 
with violet on a green ground ; 





La Val d'Isere French Bean. 



Gray Zebra French Bean, 



seeds egg-shaped, of a dark gray colour, dotted with lighter gray, 
and striped with black. Raised by M. Perrier de la Bathie. 



82 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



The American variety, Giant Red Wax Pole Bean, is a Tall- 
growing Edible-podded Kidney Bean, 6J ft. high, with large flat 
white or yellow pods, resembling those of the Edible-podded Black 
Scimitar Kidney Bean, and red seeds. It is a rather late kind. 

II. DWARF EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 

Dwarf White Wax 
or Butter Bean. A 
very good but somewhat 
tender variety, forming 
low, broad clumps, which 
sometimes sprawl on the 
ground. The leaves be- 
come smaller and paler 
towards the tops of the 
stems. Flowers white ; 
pods almost transparent, 
waxy white, and about 
4 in. long, each contain- 
ing five or six short, 
egg-shaped, creamy white 
seeds, sometimes slightly 
wrinkled. The dried 
seeds are excellent for 
the table. 

King of the Wax 
Bean. A dwarf, com- 
pact plant, with short 
but stout rigid stems. 
Pods numerous, very 

thick (compared with their length), tender and fleshy. Seed 

white, full, oblong, thin-skinned. Among the numerous varieties 

of Wax Beans, this takes an 

important place, its produc- 
tion being more abundant 

and longer than that of any 

other. The dry seed is 

very tender and of excellent 

quality. 

Very Early Dwarf Wax 

or Butter Bean. Regular 

arid dwarf in habit and very 

early ; stem short ; leaves 

broad and pointed, veined, 

gray-green. Pods long and numerous, yellow, free from membrane; 

seed small, short, buff-coloured, about \ in. long and about half 




King of the Wax Bean. 




Very Early Dwarf Butter Bean. 



DWARF EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 83 



as broad and a little less in thickness. A very interesting 
variety owing to its small size and great earliness. Admirably 
adapted for forcing, but also 
well suited for open ground 
culture. 

Dwarf Golden Wax 
Bean. Very dwarf, com- 
pact, early and productive ; 
pods tender and fleshy even 
when fully grown. The 
seeds five or six in a pod, 
small, oval, bright yellow, 
and about J in. long, about 
i in. broad, and a little 
less in thickness. Its earli- 
ness and the little space it 
occupies suit it well for 
glass as well as for open 
ground culture. 

Digoin Wax Dwarf r " 
Bean. A vigorous, half- 
early and very productive 
variety for field as well 
as kitchen-garden culture. 

Dwarf, bushy, Compact, Dwarf Golden Wax Bean. 

branching, with large dark 

green leaves ; numerous fleshy, thick pods of a beautiful golden 
yellow, and free from parchment. The seeds are oval and of 

chamois-colour. 

Mont d'Or Dwarf 
Wax or Butter Bean. 
A very productive and 
very early variety of Dwarf 
Butter Bean. Stems I ft. 
to 1 6 in. high, branching; 
leaves large, rough, but 
not crimped, deep green, 
remarkable for the very 
variable shape of the 
terminal leaflet, which is 
sometimes long and 
pointed, and sometimes 
nearly round and quite 
blunt at end ; pods very 
numerous, 4 or 5 in. long, well filled, and pale yellow; seeds 
small and round, dark red, deepening into black. 





Mont d'Or Dwarf Butter Bean. 



8 4 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Dwarf Algerian Black-seeded Butter Bean. An established 
dwarf variety of the Agerian Wax or Butter Bean, with rather 

large yellow-stalked 
leaves, the colour of 
which varies, on the 




Digoin Dwarf Wax Bean. 



same plant, from dark 
to light green. Flowers 
lilac ; pods very fleshy 
and butter-colour; seeds 
black, egg - shaped, a 
little smaller than those 
of the Tall-growing 
variety. This is an early 
kind, very productive, 
and of excellent quality, 
and is one of the most 
extensively grown varie- 
ties of Kidney Beans. 
It has the precious 
peculiarity that the pods 

on maturity become curved or bent, thus escaping contact with 

the soil. 

The Black Wax or Butter Bean is an early dwarf, with 

pale gray-green foliage and black seed. It may be considered 

as identical with the Dwarf Algerian Black-seeded Bean. 

The Prolific German Wax or Butter Bean, cultivated in the 

United States, differs 

only from the Dwarf 

Algerian in having the 

pods slightly longer, 

more curving and 

more swollen. 

Long- podded 

Dwarf Algerian 

Butter Bean. This 

is to be a sub-variety 

of the Dwarf Algerian 

Butter Bean, differing 

in its longer pods, 

and also the shape of 

its seeds, which, in- 
stead of being egg- 
shaped, are almost 

cylindrical, nearly 

} in. long and over J in. broad and thick. The pods are 

very free from membrane, and are more slender and less 




Dwarf Algerian Black-seeded Butter Bean 
(^ natural size). 



DWARF EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 85 




fleshy than those of the preceding kind. This variety has come 
into very general cultivation about Paris, where it is grown in 
the fields for the city 
markets. 

Early Dwarf White 
Edible - podded Kidney 
Bean. Stem tall and 
branching, attaining a 
height of 20 in., leaves 
medium sized, numerous, 
rather crimped ; flowers 
white ; pods 6 in. long, 
flat, very thick and fleshy, 
almost always curved or 
twisted, each containing 
five or six white flattened, 

... . Long-podded Dwari Algerian Butter Bean 

moderately kidney-shaped ( i nat ural size). 

seeds, sometimes slightly 

squared at the ends, varying from J to nearly f in. in length, 

about in. broad, and about in. thick. This variety is fairly 

good for field culture, a good bearer and pretty early, but the 

seeds are easily spoiled by cold or damp autumn weather. 

Unique Dwarf White Kidney Bean. Stem tall, vigorous, and 
branching ; leaves rather deep green, large, rounded, and crimped ; 
flowers large, white ; pods numerous, straight, 5 or 6 in. long, each 

containing five or 
six white, long, very 
bulging, straight or 
curved seeds, almost 
as thick as they are 
broad. This is one 
of the best Dwarf 
Edible- podded 
Kidney Beans. Its 
dried seeds also are 
of excellent quality, 
and perfectly white 
a great recommen- 
dation, as Kidney 
Beans of this colour 
are generally pre- 
ferred for table use. 
Quarantain 
Dwarf White Kid- 
ney Bean. A plant of medium height, with branching stems, 
forming a rather compact clump. Leaves of average size, stiff 




8 

Unique Dwarf White Kidney Bean ( natural size). 



86 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



almost triangular, long, pointed, and dark lustrous green ; flowers 
white ; pods flat and broad, and from 4 to 6 in. long. A hardy, 
early, and fairly productive variety, but not always maintaining 
a strictly dwarf habit of growth. 

Dwarf Extra Early Wax or Butter Bean. A very 
dwarf plant, extremely early, forming and maturing its pods 
before any other variety of Edible-podded Beans. In growth 
it resembles the Dwarf Algerian Black-seeded Butter Bean ; 
its pods, however, are not quite so fleshy or so yellow. The 
seed is white, oblong, measuring about J in. in length, a 
little less than in. in width and in thickness ; very hand- 
some and regular in shape, and ivory-white in colour. Its 
chief merit is its great earliness, the pods being ready for 
the market fully eight days earlier than those of any other 
variety. 

White-seeded Dwarf Lyonnais Bean. A white-seeded sport 
of the following, the characteristics and qualities being the same. 
The pods, 6 in. in length, contain six or seven straight, thin seeds, 
slightly flattened. 

Long-podded Dwarf Lyonnais Bean. Dwarf, not over 
12 to 15 j in. in height ; stems strong and branching ; leaves 

long, broad, and lightly 
crimped ; flowers lilac. 
Pods very long, very 
fleshy, almost as solid as 
those of the Intestin Bean, 
but much longer, more 
pointed, and frequently 
curved. Seed long, 
straight, thin, slightly 
flattened, dark chamois 
or light brown in colour. 
A very productive variety, 
yielding pods of excep- 
tional quality and beauty. 
First grown about Lyons 
only a few years ago, 
and likely to gain favour 
everywhere. 

Haricot du Bon Jar- 
dinier. Dwarf, bushy, 
with short, branching 
stems ; dark green, rather 
small, and finely crimped leaves ; flowers rosy lilac. Pods of 
medium size, not very long, of the thickness of the little finger, 
dark green, and free from parchment ; seed yellow, cylindrical, 




Long-podded Dwarf Lyons Bean. 



DWARF EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 87 




Haricot du Bon Jardinier. 



square, or rounded at both ends, resembling closely that of 

the ^Hundredfold Bean. 

Emile Dwarf Kidney Bean. An exceedingly dwarf and 

remarkably early variety, 
seldom more than 8 or 
10 in. high. Leaves 
medium sized, of a rather 
dark green, and slightly 
crimped ; flowers white 
or very pale lilac ; pods 
somewhat curved, 4 or 
5 in. long, very fleshy, 
green before ripening and 
never turning white or 
yellow, each containing 
from five to seven oblong 
violet-coloured seeds 
marbled with light gray, 

about J in. long and J in. broad and thick. This variety, which 

was recently raised by M. Perrier de la Bathie, seems to us to 

be both the dwarfest and the earliest of all the Edible-podded 

Kidney Beans, and is specially suitable for forcing. 

Dwarf Purple-podded Bean. A dwarf Bean remarkable for 

the dark blackish colour which extends to all its parts ; the stems 

dark purple, the leaves tinged violet, especially towards autumn, 

and the pods so much so as to appear almost black. Like those of 

the Purple Runner Bean, 

the pods become green 

in the cooking. The 

plant is bushy, vigorous, 

half-early, and produces 

very fleshy, tender pods, 

distinct from those of 

any other sort. 

Predome Dwarf 

Kidney Bean. The 

pods and seeds of this 

variety are exactly like 

those of the Tall-growing 

Predome Kidney Bean, 

but less abundantly pro- 

duced, and this deficiency Dwarf pur P le -P ddcd Skinle5s French Bean - 

is not redeemed by any other particular merit. The ordinary 

Predome Kidney Bean does not require very tall stakes, so that 

it is not one of those kinds in which the raising of a dwarf variety 

is any advantage. 




88 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Dwarf Prolific Bean. Dwarf, very bushy and branching ; 
leaves rather small, narrow, but numerous, and vivid green in 
colour ; flowers white or rosy, pods abundant, rather short, almost 
cylindrical and bright green, containing each from four to six small 
white oblong seeds, resembling those of the Rice Bean, but a little 
longer. A very good half-early, hardy, vigorous and very productive 
variety. 

Pink-marbled Dwarf Prague Kidney Bean. A very dwarf, 
compact, moderately productive kind, with rather abundant gray- 
green leaves and lilac flowers. Pods green, straight, or very 
slightly curved, plentifully striped with red, each containing four 
or five seeds resembling those of the common Cranberry Bean, but 
somewhat smaller. 

Yellow Canadian Dwarf Kidney Bean. A very good variety, 
hardy and productive, but somewhat late, well adapted for market- 
garden or field cul- 
ture. Stems rather 
vigorous, branching, 
16 to 20 in. high, 
thickly covered with 
medium-sized leaves 
light green. Flowers 
lilac ; pods very nu- 
merous, green at first, 
changing to yellow, 
each usually contain- 
ing five egg-shaped 
seeds a little smaller 
than those of the 
Prague Kidney Beans, 
and deep yellow, 
merging into brown 
about the hilum. The 
dried seeds of this 
variety are much esteemed. The pods, to be tender, should be 
gathered before they are fully grown. Although closely resembling 
the Yellow China Kidney Bean, this variety is distinguished from 
it by the deeper colour of its seeds, and by its leaves being larger, 
less crowded together, moderately crimped, and a darker green. 

Oval Yellow China, or Robin's Egg, Kidney Bean. A 
rather branching kind, with stems about 16 in. high, forming an 
airy-looking clump. Leaves medium-sized, and of bright green, 
those at the top of the stem being small and long-stalked ; flowers 
white ; pods green, turning yellow when ripe, each containing five or 
six egg-shaped sulphur-yellow seeds, with a more or less marked 
bluish circle around the hilum. This variety is one of the most 




Yellow Canadian Dwarf Kidney Bean. 



DWARF EDIBLE-PODDED KIDNEY BEANS 89 




Oval Yellow China, or Robin's Egg, Kidney Bean 
(^ natural size). 



widely cultivated in different parts of the world, and is to be met 
\vith almost everywhere in the colonies and America, under the 

same name and exhibiting 
the same characteristics. 

Besides those already 
described, there are many 
other varieties of Dwarf 
Edible - podded Kidney 
Beans in cultivation, of 
which we shall only 
mention the following: 
Variegated White- 
podded Butter Bean. 
Seed variegated, straight, 
and almost cylindrical in 
shape, creamy white with 
spots and marblings of a 
wine-lees red or red-violet 
colour. This variety is 
dwarf and rather tender. The American variety Early Valentine 
may be considered identical with it. 

Two-coloured China Dwarf Bean. This variety does not 
seem to be very much grown, and yet it is known almost everywhere. 
It is rather tall and very branching, with white flowers. The pods 
are of medium size, pretty free from membrane, turning white when 
ripe, and each containing five or six straight, cylindrical seeds, often 
square at the ends, and deeply striped with red around the hilum to 
the extent of half the surface of the seed, while the other half is 
entirely white. A rather productive and very early kind. 

Dwarf White Malmaison Kidney Bean. A productive and 
moderately early variety, with fine fleshy, bulging pods, which are 
usually straight. Seed rather long, oval, and white. 

Dwarf Aix Kidney Bean. A variety with small round rosy 
white seeds. Pods yellow, and rather short, but free from 
membrane. 

Predome Flesh-coloured Wax Bean. A dwarf, much- 
branching variety ; pods numerous, short, straight, green ; seed 
rosy, egg-shaped. 

Princess Dwarf Kidney Bean. This is not a very vigorous 
kind, and its crimped and rounded leaves are very liable to disease, 
arising either from the attacks of insects or from minute fungus 
growths It is also rather late. The pods are short and curved, 
free from membrane, and deep green. The remark made upon the 
Dwarf Predome is also applicable to this variety ; however, as 
the ordinary variety of the Princess attains a tolerable height, it 
may sometimes be advantageous to have a dwarf form of it. 



90 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

The following are of American origin : 

Crystal Wax White Bean. Dwarf, but usually running at 
the top. Fbds short and white, almost transparent ; seeds white 
and oblong. 

Detroit Wax or Butter Bean is closely related to the following 
one, the only difference being that its seed, likewise white, is 
streaked with gray about the hilum. 

Golden-eyed Wax or Butter Bean. A very early Bean, the 
pods yellow, large, and abundant. Seed white, short, and strongly 
marked with orange about the umbilicus. 

Golden Wax Bean. A pretty and productive variety, early, 
with pods free from parchment, and pale yellow. Seed white, 
partly streaked with red, almost the same as the Early China Bean. 

Improved Early Red Valentine Bean. A good summer 
Bean, especially if gathered when green. Pods fleshy. Seed 
resembles that of Blood Speckled Bean. 

Iron-pod Wax Bean. Not a reliably dwarf kind, nor very 
productive. Pods free from membrane, white, tinged or slightly 
striped with violet ; seeds white. 

New Golden Wax Bean. A fine, productive, and early kind. 
Pods free from membrane, and pale yellow ; seeds white, partly 
marbled with deep red, almost like those of the Two-coloured 
China Kidney Bean. This is a good variety. 

Rachel Dwarf Bean. Dwarf, productive, with thick bulging 
pods ; seed oblong, chamois-coloured, blotched white at one end. 

Valentine Wax Bean. A sub-variety of the foregoing with 
yellow pods. 

Wardwell's Kidney Wax Bean. Dwarf, free from parchment, 
fairly early, with pods long, yellow, slightly curved, rather flat, and 
larger than in the Flageolet Wax Canterbury. Seed long, white, 
with a large violet stain on the umbilicus. 

White Wax Bean. Allied to the Dwarf White-seeded Wax 
Bean, but more leafy, later, and with flatter pods. 

Ward's Centenary Bean. A productive light green variety, 
with yellow, short, broad pods. Seed the same as that of the 
Two-coloured Italian Bean that is to say, like the Prague Bean. 

SCARLET RUNNER BEANS 

Phaseolus multiflorus, Willd. 

French, Haricot d'Espagne. German, Arabische Bohne. Dutch, Turksche boon. 
Italian, Fagiuolo di Spagna. 

Native of South America. Naturally a perennial, but cultivated 
as an annual. These plants, while extremely valuable as vegetables, 
are esteemed as ornamental climbers, on account of their rapid 
growth and the abundance of their flowers. 



SCARLET RUNNER BEANS 



The Scarlet Runner is the most 
valuable, and frequently the most 
beautiful, plant in English cottage 
gardens. It is grown in thousands 
of gardens, even in London and 
our large cities and towns, hiding 
with its quick-running and vigorous 
shoots many ugly surfaces in summer, 
and affording a quantity of whole- 
some food. The pods are often, 
like many other vegetables, allowed 
to get too old and hard before being 
gathered. 

Scarlet Runners are generally 
raised from seed, but the roots may, 
if desired, be taken up in autumn 
and preserved through the winter in 
dry sand or in soil in any shed or 
cellar from which frost is excluded. 
If roots thus- wintered be brought 
out and planted about the latter end 
of May, they come into bearing a 
fortnight or three weeks earlier than 
those raised from seed sown at the 
same time. They are also sometimes 
left in the ground all the winter, and 
protected from frost by a good thick 
layer of coal ashes placed over the 
rows. Thus treated, they start early 
in May, if the weather be favour- 
able ; and when they have attained 
the height of 3 or 4 ft., if stopped, 
will produce beans much earlier than 
by any other method ; but if a pro- 
fitable crop be desired, this plan is 
not to be recommended, as the plants 
do not continue in bearing so long 
as those that are raised from seed. 
Among positions chosen for Scarlet 
Runners may be named small patches 
of ground at the corners of walks, 
planting five or six seeds in a patch, 
5 or 6 in. apart. Three stout poles 
or sticks, as used for Peas, are then 
placed round them in the form of a 
triangle, bent so as to meet at the top, 
where they are tied. In small gardens 
they are often trained over wire or 
woodwork, so as to form summer- 
houses or coverings for walks. 



CULTURE. In large gardens the 
general practice is to sow in open 
quarters, and where beans are re- 
quired as long in the season as they 
can be obtained, and in large quan- 
tities, this is undoubtedly the best 
plan. They should be allowed a 
distance of at least 6 ft. between the 
rows, and if more can be afforded 
them, all the better. For early 
crops, a few rows may be made close 
under a south wall or fence, keeping 
the points regularly pinched out, in 
order to keep them dwarf and en- 
courage the earlier development of 
the pods. In this case they will, 
of course, need no support, but be 
allowed to lie in a thick row along 
the ground. Beans may be produced 
in this way several weeks earlier 
than in open quarters, but they do 
not continue so long in bearing, nor 
do they produce such abundant crops. 
Where, however, earliness is an ob- 
ject, this plan may be followed with 
advantage. Seeds for this purpose 
may either be sown in heat and 
transplanted, or sown in the open 
ground where the plants are to re- 
main. The former way is the more 
troublesome, but it is the best where 
covering is at hand to protect them 
from cold winds and frosts after they 
have been planted. If sown in heat, 
the seeds should be put in about the 
second week in May, either in boxes 
or pots, boxes being the best ; they 
should be shallow say, not more 
than 4 or 5 in. deep their size in 
other respects being of no great im- 
portance ; they should have holes at 
the bottom for drainage, and should 
be half filled with half-rotted leaf- 
mould pressed down rather firmly 
with the hand; slightly cover with 
fine soil, and upon this sow in rows 
2 in. apart, and cover with about 
|- in. of finely sifted leaf-mould, 
giving the whole a good watering. 
If placed in a Cucumber or Melon 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



frame at "work," they will soon be 
up, and should be kept as near the 
glass as possible, in order to pre- 
vent them from becoming drawn. 
After they have made two single 
leaves, they should be taken to a 
cold frame or pit, gradually inuring 
them to the open air, so as to make 
them as hardy as possible previous . 
to planting out, which may be done 
the first week in June. Before 
planting them out, they should have 
a good watering, and be taken out 
of the boxes with as much earth 
adhering to them as possible. Plant 
either in double or single rows, 
4 or 5 in. apart, as close to the wall 
or fence as may be convenient. If 
they be then well watered and shaded 
from the sun for a day or two, and 
protected from cold at night, they 
will soon make a good start. 

SOWING IN OPEN GROUND. The 
first sowing in the open ground for 
a general crop should be made not 
earlier than the first week in May, 
for if they are up before the end of 
that month they are liable to be cut 
off with frost, unless protection can 
be afforded them a rather trouble- 
some matter where large quantities 
are grown. Some draw drills in 
which to sow the seeds, but the 
best way is to plant them in with 
a dibble about i in. deep, and then 
draw the rake over the ground to fill 
in the holes. Double rows are to be 
preferred to single ones, as they pro- 
duce more beans. Each seed should 
be at least 6 in. apart. Managed in 
this way they grow strongly, and if 
stopped when they have attained 
the height of 5 or 6 ft., they will 
produce fine large trusses of bloom 
from top to bottom. Where succes- 
sions are desired, several sowings 
must be made. The general rule is 
to sow one good crop and let that 
serve all purposes; but if a sowing 
be made the first week in May, a 



second a few weeks afterwards, and 
another not later than July ist, a 
continuous supply of young and 
tender beans will be the result ; the 
last sowing, however, should be only 
a small one. Sowing in trenches 
has lately been much practised, and 
in some cases no doubt with advan- 
tage ; but when sown in deeply dug 
ground, trenches are unnecessary. 
They are generally made with the 
view of affording an effectual means 
of watering the plants ; but they 
necessitate the water being applied 
close to their bases, which is hurtful 
rather than beneficial to Runner 
Beans. Where, however, the earliest 
crop of Scarlet Runners has to be 
sown in open quarters, the best way 
is to take out a trench, say, 3 or 4 in. 
deep, laying the soil on each side 
of it in ridges. Pea-wires or bent 
Hazel sticks may then be placed 
on the rows after the seed has been 
sown and covered ; these will afford 
good supports for mat or canvas 
protections until the plants will do 
without covering; after which time 
the soil may be put back in the 
trench, and no further earthing-up 
will be necessary. 

STICKING SCARLET RUNNERS. 
Where procurable, common Pea- 
sticks are best adapted for Runner 
Beans, but they require to be rather 
larger and stronger than for Peas ; 
for unless firmly sticked, they are 
apt to suffer during rough, windy 
weather. Where, however, such 
sticks are not obtainable, stout 
poles, 7 or 8 ft. long, may be used, 
placing them firmly in the ground 
at intervals of 6 or 10 ft. apart along 
each side of the row. Slender sticks 
cut the same length as the distance 
the poles are apart may then be 
tied lengthways along the poles, 
i or i^ ft. apart; the plants will 
twine firmly round these, and thus 
support themselves. 



SCARLET RUNNER BEANS 



93 



With respect to soil, a light rich 
loam is best for the Scarlet Runner, 
and it should be deep, to allow of 
the roots descending in time of 
drought. Previously to planting, the 
ground should be deeply trenched 
and enriched by means of a liberal 
supply of good rotten manure. 
Where, however, time cannot be 
spared for this, trenches may be 
taken out, 2 ft. wide and from 
2 to 3 ft. deep, according to the 
depth of the soil. The soil thus 
taken out should then have plenty 
of good manure mixed with it, and 
be replaced in the trench. If this 
be done in autumn, it will be all the 
better. 

MARKET GARDEN CULTURE. 
Scarlet Runners, on account of their 
taking up more room, are not so 
much grown in London market gar- 
dens as the dwarf French Beans. 
Their yield is not so great in propor- 
tion to the ground occupied, and 
they are also, unless supported by 
stakes, more difficult to gather. 
Around Wandsworth, and in some 
parts of Kent, within twenty miles 
of London, however, large fields are 
devoted to their culture. In some 
places stakes are used, but, as a 
rule, the points of the shoots are 
kept stopped, and the haulm is 
-allowed to rest on the ground. In 
some respects this latter practice is 
best, for the rows can be placed close 
together, and, moreover, the haulm 
shades the ground and keeps the 
soil moist, a condition essential to 
the growth of Scarlet Runners. A 



rich, light soil and an open situa- 
tion is that usually chosen for them. 
Some plant a few rows in warm, 
sheltered places for early use, the 
seeds of which are sown in a tem- 
porary frame in April, and are trans- 
planted from thence to the open 
ground as soon as the weather is 
warm enough to admit of it, but, as 
a rule, the seed is sown in drills in 
an open field about the first week 
in May. Ground previously occu- 
pied by Celery suits these Beans 
perfectly, the soil being deep, well 
worked, and rich. The seeds are 
sown in broad drills from 4 to 8 ft. 
apart, according to whether the plants 
are to be staked or not. Two rows 
occupy each drill, and the plants 
when up are left from 4 to 6 in. 
apart each way, the thinnings being 
used to fill up gaps, should such 
occur. When the plants are fairly 
up, a ridge of earth is drawn to 
each side of them, to protect them 
in some measure from cutting winds 
and late frosts. When in full flower, 
the points of the shoots are pinched 
off, which causes the stem to branch 
and keep dwarf. Early in July 
Scarlet Runners appear in Covent 
Garden, and when that happens 
French Beans are not in so much 
demand as hitherto, the majority 
of vegetable consumers preferring 
Runners to French Beans. Some 
market gardeners sow successional 
crops for autumn use, but the bulk 
of the produce is brought to market 
in the end of July and throughout 
August. 



There are several varieties, differing in the colour of their 
flowers and seeds ; the principal are : 

1. The Scarlet Runner. The seeds of this variety are light 
wine-colour, blotched with black. 

2. The Black-seeded Runner. The flowers of both this and 
the preceding variety are a uniform scarlet. 

3. Painted Lady, Bicolor, or York and Lancaster Runner. 



94 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



The seed of this variety hardly differs from that of the Scarlet 
Runner, but the flowers are half red and half white, the keel and 
wings being white, and the standard scarlet-red. 

4. Hybrid Scarlet Runner. The seeds of this kind are very 
distinct, being a gray-yellow blotched with brown ; the flowers are 
variegated like those of the Painted Lady. 

5. The White Runner. This is the only kind that is sometimes 
grown in France as a vegetable. Stems very vigorous, climbing, 

attaining a height of 
nearly 10 ft. in a few 
weeks ; flowers white, in 
numerous long - stalked 
clusters ; pods broad, very 
flat, seldom containing 
more than three or four 
seeds each ; seeds white, 
full, very large, kidney- 
shaped, sometimes I in. 
l n g> I in. broad, and 
| in. thick. The seeds 
of Scarlet Runner Beans 
do not usually ripen well 
in the climate of Paris. 
In the south of France, 
however, this species, 
which is very hardy and 
very productive, is grown, 
to a moderate extent, as 
a vegetable, and in some 
other countries it is very 
highly esteemed. In the 
north of France, the seeds 
are too thick-skinned, and 
are deficient in delicacy 
of flavour. They contain 
a great deal of flour, but 
are inferior, especially in 
the dried state, to any of 
the good French varieties 
of Kidney Beans. In 
England the pods are most generally used in the young green 
state, many preferring the flavour of these when quite young to 
that of the Kidney Beans in a similar stage. They are best pulled 
when they have attained about two-thirds of their development,, 
just when the seeds begin to form, and if cut lengthwise in narrow 
strips they cook much more readily. 




White Runner Bean ( T V natural size). 



LARGE LIMA BEAN 



95 



LARGE LIMA BEAN 

Phaseolus lunatus, L. 

French, Haricot de Lima. German, Breitschotige Lima Bohne. Italian^ Fagiuolo di 
Lima. Spanish, Judia de Lima. 

Native of South America. Annual. Stem climbing to the 
height of nearly 10 ft. ; leaves composed of three triangular leaflets > 
longer and narrower than 
those of ordinary Kidney 
Beans ; flowers small, 
greenish white, in numer- 
ous stiff long clusters ; 
pods short, very flat and 
very broad, rough on the 
outside, like those of the 
Scarlet Runner Beans ; 
seeds flat and short, 
slightly kidney-shaped, 
with one half nearly al- 
ways larger than the other, 
and usually marked with 
wrinkles or flutings from 
the hilum outwards. The 
varieties of the Lima Bean 
are grown in the same 
manner as the ordinary 
Tall-growing Kidney 
Beans, but they are later, 
and seldom ripen seed in 
the climate of Paris. The 
seeds are sent to table 
either fresh or dried. 
They are farinaceous, and 
are highly esteemed in 
the United States and in 
some warm countries. 

Common Lima Bean. 
Rather late - growing, 
never ripening more than 
a portion of its pods in 
the climate of Paris, and never ripening there at all in cold damp 
seasons. Stems thick, and pale green ; leaves medium-sized, 
smooth, and gray-green ; seed broad and flat, white, slightly tinged 
with yellow, over f in. long, about f in. broad, and about J in. 
thick. There is a green-seeded variety, and another which has 




Large Lima Bean (^ natural size). 



96 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

white seed, like that of the type, but marked with a small brown 
or blackish blotch close to the hilum. 

Dwarf Lima Bean. An American variety, distinct, and much 
appreciated in the United States, where Lima Beans are amongst 
the vegetables most generally used in the autumn. Its leaves, 
flowers, and pods resemble much those of the Sieva Bean, but it 
is a truly dwarf variety, forming low, compact bushes, which do not 
require any support. Added to this, its earliness ensures its success 
in many localities where the tall Lima Bean fails to reach maturity. 

Mottled Lima, or Marbled Cape, Bean. This differs from 
the Common Lima Bean only by the peculiar variegation of the 
seed, in which a large patch of red, more or less deep, surrounds 
the hilum, from which it extends to one end of the seed, which it 
entirely covers for about one-third of its length ; the remainder of 
the surface being finely dotted with the same red on a white 
ground. This variety is almost as late as the Common Lima Bean. 

Small Lima, or Sieva, Bean. Stems slender and green ; 
leaves smaller and darker in colour than those of the Common 
Lima Bean. This variety of Phaseolus lunatus differs from the 
preceding ones in having much smaller seeds, which in other 
respects resemble those of the Common Lima Bean, but are seldom 
over | in. in length, about ^ in. broad, and in. thick. The Small 
Lima Bean is also earlier than the other varieties of Phaseolus 
lunatus, and its first pods ripen regularly in the climate of Paris ; 
but it is very far from being as productive there as it is in warm 
climates, where it often continues bearing for three months. In 
the United States a variety is grown which has the seed streaked 
with red. 

In the United States, where the Lima Bean is one of the most 
valued of autumn vegetables, there are some half-a-dozen varieties 
in cultivation, both runner and dwarf. Among those in the first 
-category are the following: 

Burpee's Willow-leaf Lima Bean. Resembles the Sieva 
Bean, but distinct from it in its linear-lanceolate leaf, from whence 
its name of Willow-leaf. 

Challenger, Dreer's Improved, Potato Lima Bean. A very 
vigorous and fairly productive medium-early variety. The pods 
are thicker than in the other varieties, and contain three to five 
large rounded, swollen seeds. A very good kind. 

Extra Early Jersey Lima Bean. Eight or ten days earlier 
than the Lima Runner Bean, but with smaller seeds. 

King of the Garden Lima Bean. A vigorous variety, pro- 
ducing pods of a length rarely obtained by the other varieties, and 
-containing five or six very large seeds of excellent quality. 

? Siebert's Early Lima Bean. Fairly early, abundant, and 
^constant producing ; the pods, of medium size, seldom contain more 



LARGE LIMA BEAN 97 

than three or four seeds, which are, however, very large and 
tender. 

Among the American varieties of the Dwarf Lima Bean, we 
may mention : 

Burpee's Willow-leaf Bush Dwarf Lima Bean. A dwarf 
form of the Burpee's Willow-leaf mentioned above. 

Dwarf Large White Lima Bean, Burpee's Bush Lima 
Bean. Only differs from the foregoing in being earlier. 

Burpee's Quarter- Century Dwarf Lima Bean. The same 
remark applies to this. 

Kumerle Dwarf Lima Bean, Dreer's Bush Lima Bean. 
A dwarf form of the Challenger Lima Bean described above. 

Dwarf Sieva Lima Bean, Henderson's Bush Lima Bean, 
Wood's New Prolific Lima Bean. A frankly dwarf form of the 
Small Lima or Sieva Bean, forming low thick tufts. Earlier than 
its runner variety, it ripens its seed in the Paris climate. In the 
United States it is one of the most valued and most cultivated kinds. 

DOLICHOS 

Several species of the genus Dolichos also are cultivated as 
kitchen-garden plants, especially in warm countries, but of these we 
shall only mention kinds that can be grown in the climate of Paris. 

Black-eyed Dolichos (Dolichos unguiculatus, L. Leguminosa}. 
An annual plant, usually growing from 20 in. to 2 ft. high, with 
leaves composed of three triangular, elongated leaflets, which are 
rounded at the base, very smooth, and dark green. Flowers large, 
changing from white to rose-colour and lilac, with a deeper-coloured 
blotch at the base of the petals, and growing in twos or threes on a 
thick stout flower-stalk ; pods pale green, straight, or curved as 
they become heavy, varying in length from 6 to 10 in., nearly 
cylindrical, and slightly bulged over the seeds, which usually lie at 
some distance from each other ; seeds rather variable in size and 
colour, usually white, short kidney-shape, blunt or square at both 
ends, slightly wrinkled, and marked with a very pronounced black 
blotch around the hilum. In those countries where, as in Italy, the 
Black-eyed Dolichos is extensively cultivated, a great number of 
varieties are grown, which differ from one another principally in the 
size of the seeds. The climate of Britain is too cold for these plants, 
but many parts of the Colonies are suited for their culture. They 
bear a degree of heat which would injure the Beans that thrive with 
us. CULTURE is the same as that of the Dwarf Varieties of Kidney 
Beans. This plant, however, is not very particular as to the soil in 
which it is grown. The young pods are cooked in the same way 
as green Haricots. 

Years ago, M. Durieu de Maisonneuve, director of the Botanic 
Garden at Bordeaux, introduced a very singular variety of this 



9 8 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



plant, the pods of which, instead of being straight, are curved round 
and round, from which peculiarity it received the name of Ram's- 
horn Bean. Its culture and uses are the same as those of the 
ordinary variety. 

ASPARAGUS BEAN 

Dolichos sesquipedalis, L. 
Leguminosce. 

French, Dolique Asperge, Haricot 
Asperge. German, Amerikan- 




ische Riesen - Spargel - Bohne, 

tige Spargel - 
Dutch, Indiaansche Boon. 



Langschotige Spargel - Fasel. 



Very Early Long-pod Asparagus Bean. 



Italian, Fagiuolo Sparagio. 

Native of South 
America. Annual. 
Stems climbing, 6 to over 
9 ft. long ; leaves deep 
green, rather large, long, 
pointed ; flowers large, 
greenish yellow, with the 
standard bent backwards, 
remarkable for two small 
parallel auricles which 
compress the wings and 
the keel : they are borne 
either solitary or two 
together on the top of 
the flower-stalk. Pods 
pendent, cylindrical, light 
green, very slender, and 
long ; not unusually ex- 
ceeding \\ ft. in length. 
The seeds are few for the 
size of the pod, being 
generally from seven to 
ten in number ; they are 
kidney-shaped, and red 
or pale wine-lees colour 
with a black circle round 
the white kilum ; they 
are seldom more than 
about J in. long. The 
plant is cultivated in the 
south of France, especially 
in Provence. The culture 



ASPARAGUS BEAN 



99 



is similar to that which is employed in the case of late varieties 
of Tall Kidney Beans. A good warm position is desirable, the 
best being one against a wall. The green pods are used in the 
same way as Kidney Beans. 

Long Tonkin Asparagus Bean. A remarkably eany variety, 
producing in the open 
ground, in the vicinity 
of Paris, as early as 
July or August, long, 
thin, very tender, and 
fleshy pods. The seed 
is rather small for use 
as a vegetable by itself: 
it is yellow-white, with 
a black ring around the 
hilum ; it measures less 
than J in. in length, 
and a little less still in 
breadth and thickness. 

Very Early Long- 
pod Asparagus Bean. 
A sub-variety of the 
Cuban Asparagus Bean; 
like the latter, very 
vigorous in growth and 
productive, but distin- 
guished from it by its 
very great earliness, 
which allows it to mature 
its seed in temperate 
climates. The seed is 
small, chocolate-brown, 
with a white eye sur- 
rounded by a black 
ring, and measures a 
little over i in. in length 
and about ^ in. in 
breadth. Ripens in the 
climate of Paris. 

Giant Extra Early Giant Extra Early Asparagus Bean. 

Asparagus Bean. Distinguished from the preceding ones by 
the extreme length of its pods, sometimes as much as 3 ft. 3 in. 
They are very numerous, and broader than those of the Cuban 
Asparagus Bean, and they contain a large number of red seeds, 
marked black around the white hilum. Ripens in the climate 
of Paris. 




IOO 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Cuban Asparagus Bean. A vigorous climbing plant, attaining 
a height of from 10 to 13 ft; leaves very large; leaflets long, 

spear-shaped ; flowers of 
medium size, green, mostly 
solitary, succeeded by pods 
of remarkable length, being 
often over 2j ft. long when 
fully grown. They are 
then inflated by the swell- 
ing of the seed, and are 
about J'in. broad. The 
seed, in form and colour, 
exactly resembles that of 
the Asparagus Bean, of 
which this appears to be 
a variety, but a very 
distinct one, as it grows 
much taller and is a 
thorough climber. It is 
cultivated, however, in the 
same way, and the pods 
are similarly eaten when 
green, before they are fully 

Cuban Asparagus Bean ( T \ natural size). grown. 




LABLAB, or EGYPTIAN KIDNEY BEAN 

Lablab vulgaris, Savi. Leguminosce. 

French, Dolique Lablab. Italian, Fagiuolo d'Egitto. Spanish, Indianella. Portuguese, 

Feyas da India. 

Native of India. Annual. A climbing plant, with stout 
branching stems, which are sometimes from 13 to over 16 ft. long. 
Leaves compound, with three large broad leaflets of a dark green 
colour, and slightly puckered or crimped ; flowers sweet-scented, 
large, in long dense clusters ; pods rather short, wrinkled, and very 
flat, growing sometimes seven or eight together on the same stalk ; 
seed short, oval, flat, three or four in each pod ; hilum white, much 
marked, occupying nearly one-third of the circumference of the 
seed. There are two principal varieties, one with white flowers 
and white seed, and the other with violet flowers and black seed. 
They are grown in the same way as Tall Kidney Beans. In 
France they are only grown as ornamental plants, but the seeds 
are eaten in those countries where they are grown for table use. 



LABLAB, OR EGYPTIAN KIDNEY BEAN 101 

Stringless Lablab Asparagus Bean. The tendency in the 
ordinary Bean of the stringy fibres to disappear under careful 
cultivation is also seen in the Lablabs. The variety under considera- 
tion is exceedingly vigorous in growth, and yields an enormous 
quantity of pods. Stem light green, very branching ; leaves large, 
very pointed, and smooth; flowers white, in large trusses; pods 




Lablab or Egyptian Kidney Bean. 

very numerous, in bunches, yellowish white, slightly downy, short, 
broad, and rounded at the end. Seed brown, provided with a 
curious white aril or keel along one of the edges ; it is about \ in 
in length and a little more than \ in. broad and thick. 



102 ; THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

BEET-ROOT. 

Beta vulgaris, L. Chenopodiacea. 

French, Betterave, Bette, Racine d'abondance. German, Salat-Riibe. Dutch and 
Flemish, Betwortel. Danish, Rodbede. Italian, Barbabietola. Spanish, Remo- 
lacha. Portuguese, Beterraba. 

Native of Europe. Biennial. A plant which, in the first year 
of its growth, forms a more or less long, thick, and fleshy root, and 
runs to seed in the second year. The fruiting stem is about 4 ft. 
high, and as the calyx of the flower continues to grow after the 
flower has faded, and completely covers the seed, it becomes corky 
in substance and appearance, and forms what is commonly called 
Beet-seed, but which is really a fruit, nearly as large as a pea, and 
almost always containing several seeds. The true seeds are very 
small, kidney-shaped, brown, and with an exceedingly thin skin. 
They retain their germinating power for six years or more. 

It is not exactly known when the Beet-root was first introduced 
into cultivation. The ancients were acquainted with the plant, 
but we have no account from which we can be certain that they 
cultivated it. Olivier de Serres mentions it as having been intro- 
duced into France from Italy not long before the time at which he 
wrote. 

CULTURE. Beet is sown, where the crop is to grow, in the 
open air, as soon as the spring frosts are over, and best in drills, for 
greater convenience in hoeing ; and the young plants are thinned 
out, with a greater or less space between them according to the 
size of the variety grown. They prefer a deep, rich, well-manured, 
and well-tilled soil. It is a good plan to dig in the manure in the 
autumn, as fresh strawy manure is apt to cause the roots to become 
forked. A few waterings in dry weather will be the only additional 
attention required by the growing plants, the roots of which come 
to maturity from July to the end of autumn, according to the time 
at which sowings were made. 

A deep sandy loam, trenched to dressing of coal ashes worked into 

a depth of at least 30 in., suits it them would prove advantageous, 

better than any other kind of soil, and materially assist in producing 

and if poor, it should have been well " clean " roots. Stable manure 

manured for the previous vegetable should not be added to the soil 

crop. "In such soil, the evenest and unless it is trenched deeply, when it 

cleanest roots are produced ; but Beet may be placed quite at the bottom 

will also succeed on calcareous soils, of the trench ; if otherwise, as soon 

if of sufficient depth. Heavy or stiff as the roots reach it they become 

loams intended for its growth should forked, instead of making straight 

be thrown up into ridges before and well-shaped roots; therefore, if 

winter sets in, so as to get well pul- the soil be so poor as to require 

verised, and, if very heavy, a light manure, a sprinkling of guano or 



BEET-ROOT 



103 



superphosphate, applied to it between 
the rows as soon as the plants are 
fairly established, will be found the 
best stimulant. 

SOWING, ETC. Beet must have an 
open situation; it never grows or 
looks satisfactorily when grown 
under the shade of fruit trees a 
position to which it is often rele- 
gated ; but this should not be, for 
most varieties of Beet are ornamental 
as well as useful, and one would, 
therefore, suppose that a conspicuous 
place would be selected for them. 
The time for sowing varies from the 
beginning of April to the middle 
of May. In the majority of soils, 
about April 2oth will be found to 
be the best time ; if sown too early, 
especially if the soil be rich, it is 
liable to run to seed, or the roots to 
grow too large medium-sized roots 
being always most highly valued, 
more particularly for salads. The 
seed should be sown in drills 15 
in. asunder, and i| in. deep; and 
it should be covered in by hand 
a rake should not be employed for 
this purpose, as by its use half the 
seed is often drawn out of the drills, 
and the plants come up irregularly. 
Thin out the seedlings, as soon as 
they are large enough to handle, to 
9 in. apart in the row, and if 
dark, bronzy leaved kinds be grown, 
see that the greenest-looking plants 
are drawn out. After thinning has 
been completed, by means of the hoe 
frequently loosen the soil between 
the rows an operation which will 
aid the growth of the Beet, and at 
the same time keep down the weeds. 
If blanks, through failures, occur 
in the rows, they should be filled 
up with young plants in showery 
weather, though roots obtained in 
this way rarely prove satisfactory, 
being small and irregular in growth ; 
still, it is worth doing, if only for 
the sake of appearance. 



VARIETIES. As a rule, the colour 
of the roots is the first consideration ; 
but flavour should in our opinion 
have precedence, rather than colour. 
Where both are combined, however, 
as is the case in Dell's Crimson, 
which has many synonyms, such a 
variety must be the best to grow ; 
moreover, this variety has the addi- 
tional attraction of deep crimson- 
coloured foliage, and is of no small 
importance as an ornamental plant. 
Other good varieties are Hender- 
son's Pine-apple, Dimmick's Non- 
pareil, Nutting's Dwarf Red, and 
Egyptian Turnip-rooted, the last 
being more especially valuable for 
early summer supply, as it comes 
into use nearly a fortnight earlier 
than any of the long-rooted sorts. 
It is also suited for growing on 
shallow soils, and, although pale in 
colour, is of excellent quality. 

STORING BEET-ROOT. Frost is 
most injurious to Beet-roots, which 
should, therefore, be dug up by the 
end of October, or provision should 
be made for protecting them in the 
ground, in the event of severe weather 
setting in. Stable litter, hay-bands, 
or Bracken (Pteris aquilina) will 
effectually protect Beet ; but, where 
neatness is studied rather than utility, 
this manner of protection should not 
be thought of. In that case, the roots 
should be dug up at the time men- 
tioned above, and " clamped " in the 
same way as Potatoes ; or they may 
be layered in dry soil or sand, in a 
cool shed, but it must be really 
cool, or they will start into growth, 
and the flavour will go. 

For market-garden culture, a 
good crop of Beet-root is very remu- 
nerative, and when there is a ready 
sale for it in the market it pays 
better than any other root crop. 
The main sowing is made to succeed 
Wallflowers, Radishes, Spinach, or 
Cabbages, and it is also often grown 



104 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



on Asparagus ridges,, between rows 
of fruit bushes, and between lines of 
Vegetable Marrows ; and even when 
growing in the open field, it is often 
intercropped. An early sowing is 
usually made, in lines about 15 in. 
apart, in the first week of May, be- 
tween rows of Cabbages or Lettuces, 
recently planted ; after the seeds 
germinate and the plants are well 
above ground, they are thinned out 
into patches with short hoes, and 
when they have formed a few rough 
leaves they are thinned out to single 
plants by hand. Some make a sow- 
ing even as early as in March, in a 
sheltered piece of ground, for yield- 
ing an early supply. In harvesting 
a crop of Beet-root which has to be 
kept through the winter, the roots 
are carefully dug up, preserving 
them their whole length intact, and 
keeping 2 in. of the stalks attached 
after the leaves have been twisted 
off by hand. They are then built 
in pyramidal-shaped clumps, and 
covered with straw, over which a 



coating of soil is put to exclude 
frost. Leaving the roots in the 
ground is the best plan, as their 
proper flavour is thereby preserved 
better than when lifted and stored : 
but they are liable to be injured by 
frosts in January, or to be locked in 
the soil when it might be convenient 
to send them to market. Some of 
the darkest and finest-shaped roots 
are kept for seed-bearing plants, and 
are planted in some out-of-the-way 
nook by themselves. Transplanting 
Beet is only resorted to to fill up 
vacancies in the rows, as in the 
operation the main roots are often 
broken, or otherwise so damaged 
as to render it almost impossible for 
them to produce good roots. Dark 
crimson-coloured Beets are those 
which are most esteemed by market 
gardeners, most of whom grow their 
seeds saved from selected plants. 
Carter's St. Osyth is a favourite 
kind with many growers, but none 
are liked so well as the selected 
Dark Crimson. 



USES. A great number of varieties are grown for table use, 
the roots being either plainly boiled or baked, or pickled or used 
for salads. Other varieties are used for feeding cattle, or for the 
manufacture of sugar, for which reason we do not mention them. 
When lifted, the tops should not be cut, but screwed off, and the 
roots should not be injured more than can be helped, as injury to 
them induces decay. Before cooking, the roots should be well 
washed, but not peeled or scraped, or the skin bruised ; for, if 
such be the case, much of the saccharine matter escapes during the 
boiling. Boiling doubtless renders Beet most agreeable to the 
generality of consumers ; though some prefer to bake it, by which 
a deeper colour and a firmer texture of flesh are ensured. 



GARDEN BEET 

I. RED-FLESHED VARIETIES 

Large Blood-red Beet This is the kind which is most exten- 
sively grown in France, being intermediate between the garden 
and the field varieties. It is very productive, very hardy, and of 
good quality for table use. It is also the kind which is most 



RED-FLESHED GARDEN BEET 



105 



frequently brought ready boiled to the market-places. Root almost 
cylindrical, as thick as a man's arm, and I ft. to 14 in. long, 
growing with over one-third of its length over- 
ground, sometimes becoming tap-rooted and 
forked at the extremity. The colour of the 
skin of the part covered by the soil is of a 
uniform deep red, while the part overground 
is more or less reddish and wrinkled. Flesh 
deep red; leaves large and stout, green marbled 
and veined with red ; leaf-stalks very red. The 
large size of the roots of this variety and the 
heavy crop which it yields recommend it as 
the best of the kitchen-garden varieties for field 
culture. For some time past, very red-fleshed 
and red-juiced kinds of Beet have been much 
sought after for various economic or manufac- 
turing purposes, and the variety now described 
is eminently adapted for such uses. 

Gardanne Beet, which is in high repute 
in the south of France, comes very near this 
variety, differing from it only by being a little 
thicker under the neck, and growing with less 
of the root overground. 

Long Smooth Blood-red, or Long Smooth 
Rochester, Beet. Root very long, almost 
cylindrical, attaining a length of 14 in., with a 
diameter of hardly 2 in., and almost entirely 
underground ; skin smooth and uniform, of a 
dark red colour; flesh blackish red. A hand- 
some variety, of good quality, and keeping well. 
To grow well, it requires a deep, well-dug, and well-manured soil. 

Rough-skinned Red Beet-root (B. Rouge Crapaudine). One 
of the oldest varieties, and distinguished from all the others by 
the peculiar appearance of the skin, which is black and broken by 
small cracks or crevices, like the bark of a young tree, or perhaps 
still more resembling the skin of a Black Winter Radish. Root 
rather long, almost entirely buried in the soil, and frequently some- 
what irregular in shape ; flesh very red, sugary, and firm ; leaves 
numerous, slightly twisted, spreading rather than erect, almost 
entirely green, with red stalks. This variety affords a striking 
instance of the absence of any invariable correspondence between 
the colour of the flesh of a Beet-root and the colour of its leaves. 
No other kind has deeper-coloured flesh than this, and yet many 
have the leaves much more deeply tinged with red. 

The Beets known as the Little Negress of Rennes and the Red 
Beet-root of Diorieres do not appear to differ from this variety. 




Large Blood-red Beet 
( natural size). 



io6 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Deep Blood-red Castlenaudary Beet. Root small, nearly 
buried in the soil, rather slender, straight, sometimes with a tap- 
root of some length ; skin black-red ; flesh very dark red, compact, 
solid, and very sugary ; leaves dark red, with long stalks. This 
variety does not yield a heavy crop, but its quality is excellent. 
The English varieties Long Deep Red and Very Dark Red are 





Rough-skinned Red Beet. 



Deep Blood-red Castelnaudary Beet. 



very similar to this. The same may be said of Debbie's New 
Purple and Goldie's Superb Black, their roots being only a little 
thicker. 

Whyte's Black Beet. Synonyms : Osborn's Improved Blood- 
red, Barratt's Crimson, Oldacre's Blood-red, Perkins's Black. A 
handsome medium-sized kind. Root long, thick under the neck, 
sometimes a little angular instead of being regularly round ; skin 
smooth, of a very deep slate colour ; flesh black-red, firm, and of 
good quality ; leaves rather stout, slightly crimped and undulated, 
of a brown-red colour, more or less tinged and mixed with green ; 
leaf-stalks red. This is one of the best varieties ; the flesh is very 
deeply coloured, and the root can be easily distinguished from all 
others by the gray or leaden hue of the skin. It is fairly pro- 
ductive, and keeps well. 



RED-FLESHED GARDEN BEET 



107 



Dwarf Red, or Nutting's, Beet A very handsome variety. 
Root very symmetrical in shape, small, slender, long, deeply sunk 
in the soil ; leaves deep red, half-erect, uncrimped, slightly undulated, 
and much longer than broad. 

Dell's Dark Crimson Dwarf Beet. There is no great 
difference worth mentioning between this variety and Nutting's 
Beet, except that the foliage is larger, well crimped, and turned 
backwards ; it has the same root and is used sometimes for border- 
ing. This variety, like the preceding one, produces small roots, 





Whyte's Black Beet' 



Nutting's Dwarf Red Beet 



but to make some amends for this, they can be grown very close 
together. Both varieties are moderately early. 

Many other English varieties resemble the Dwarf Red and 
Dell's Crimson, without being exactly like either of these kinds. 
Of these we will only mention Bailey's Fine Red, Sang's Dwarf 
Crimson, and the Saint Osyth Beet. The two following varieties 
are to be commended : Omega Dwarf-topped t a medium-sized, 
handsomely shaped Beet, with delicately sweet, rich crimson flesh ; 
and Nonpareil Dwarf Green-top, a very dwarf kind, with small, 
well-formed, scarlet-fleshed roots. 

Dracaena-leaved Beet. A very pretty and peculiar variety, 
with a slender lengthy root, almost the same shape as Nutting's 
Beet, but smaller ; it differs from that by its narrower, longer, 



io8 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



more numerous leaves, which are generally curved in the shape 
of a sickle, the top forming a very elegant rounded nosegay, 
which at first might be mistaken for the foliage of a Dracama 
or a Croton. While thus ornamental, it is not without merit as 
a vegetable. 

Covent Garden Red Beet. A very handsome variety, 
thicker and smoother than the preceding sorts. The root is 
long ovoid rather than spindle-shaped, smooth and entirely 
underground ; the flesh a deep blood-red, the foliage rather 
light, tinged purple turning to very dark brown in the 
autumn. 

The varieties of the Covent Garden Beet are Dewar's Dwarf 





Dell's Dark Crimson Dwarf Beet. 



Dracaena-leaved Beet. 



Red, DrummoncCs Nonsuch, and Ferry s Half -long and Half -long 
Blood Beet, though perhaps a shade shorter ; but the difference is 
so trifling as to be negligible. 

Black Queen Beet. In some respects this new variety re- 
sembles the Pear-shaped Strasbourg Beet, with smaller, compacter 
leaves, more proportionate to the size of the root. The root is 
conical in shape, both above and below ground, but more tapering 
at the base than the Strasbourg. The flesh is almost black ; the 
leaves are also deep coloured. They are of fair size, slightly 
crimped, short and almost round, and at no time absolutely green, 
which is seldom the case with black-rooted Beets, even such varieties 
as have the darkest leaves in the autumn. The Black Queen Beet 



RED-FLESHED GARDEN BEET 



109 



may be used, like the Dell's Beet or the Dracaena-leaved Beet, for 
bordering or for dark-coloured beds. 

Strasbourg Pear-shaped, Non Plus Ultra, or Intermediate 
Dark Beet. An intermediate variety, very deeply sunk in the soil. 
Skin and flesh of an extremely deep red, the leaves and leaf-stalks 
almost black. This is one of the deepest coloured of the kitchen- 
garden varieties. It is not a very productive kind, and the leaves 
and leaf-stalks are rather large in proportion to the size of the root, 




Covent Garden Red Beet. 



Black Queen Beet 



which, unlike that of the Dwarf Red variety, when pulled, belies 
the promise given by the foliage. 

Trevise Early Salad Beet, or Turin Red Spring Beet A 
very pretty Salad Beet, intermediate between the half-long and the 
round or flattened varieties. Its top-shaped form proclaims its 
relationship with the long-rooted sorts. It is remarkable for its 
light foliage and slender leaf-stalks. No other Salad Beet, not 
even Nutting's Beet, produces so few leaves. 

Dewing's Early Blood-red Beet. A handsome variety of 
American origin, it comes between the Early Blood-red Turnip 
Beet and the Eclipse Beet, mentioned below. The root is thick, 
smooth, rounded above the ground, but slightly conical and 



no 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



top-shaped below. The flesh is good in colour, but not very 
dark. The leaves are of no great size, rather light, green 
tinged with red during summer, but a more uniform brown-red 
colour towards autumn, and are much like those of the Egyptian 
Beet.* 

The Arlington Favourite is a good American variety of the 
Dewing. It is high coloured and scant in leaf, and differs very 
little from the original. 

Eclipse Turnip Beet. May be described as a spherical 
Egyptian Beet. Like the latter, it is very early, smooth, and has a 
very scant foliage, but it is distinguished from it by its globular root, 
which, when of the same diameter, is about twice as productive, 
and has, moreover, the advantage of attaining a good size without 




Strasbourg Pear-shaped 
Beet (I natural size). 



Trevise Red Flat Beet. 



Dewing's Blood-red 
Turnip Beet. 



spoiling its shape. Originated in America, it is undoubtedly the 
best Salad Beet yet received from that country. 

Allied to this variety is the Model Beet, an English Beet with 
leaves much reduced in size and highly coloured flesh. 

The Crimson Globe Beet, also an English variety and of 
recent introduction, possesses characteristics very similar to those 
of the Eclipse Beet. The root is clean, very smooth, rather long 
than broad, with pinched extremities and well-coloured flesh that 
is to say, deep violet slightly zoned, tender and saccharine; the 
foliage scant, and in colour brown-red. 

Early Blood Red Turnip-rooted Beet. An early variety, with 
a round and half-flattened root, scarcely half buried in the soil ; 
skin dark violet-red ; flesh a fine red ; leaves rather large, green, 
broadly marbled and veined with brown-red. To this variety may 
be referred, as almost identical with it, the kinds named Flat 
* A Non-bleeding Beet, see p. 759. 



RED-FLESHED GARDEN BEET III 

Blackish Red, Black-leaved Round Red, and the English variety 
Early Blood-red. 

The American varieties, Edmand's Early Turnip, Bastian's 
Blood Turnip, and Early Blood Turnip Beet, come very near to 
this, even as regards earliness and colour. 

Detroit Dark Red Turnip Beet. One of the Beets the most 
cultivated in the United States, it appears to be a selection of the 
Early Blood-red Turnip Beet. It has a round, somewhat ovoid 
root, very smooth, and a fine deep blood-red colour. The flesh 
is bright red, tender and good in quality ; the foliage very erect, 
scant, and in colour green with deep red veinings. 

Egyptian Dark Red Turnip-rooted Beet An exceedingly 
early variety, and certainly the best of the early kitchen-garden 





Eclipse Turnip Beet. Early Blood-red Turnip-rooted Beet. 

kinds. Roots rounded and flattened, especially underneath, almost 
entirely underground, and resting on the surface (to which it is held 
down by a rather slender tap-root), very symmetrical in shape until 
it has grown larger than the fist, when it frequently becomes 
irregular or sinuated in form as it increases in size. Skin very 
smooth, violet or slaty red ; flesh dark blood colour ; leaves slight, 
brown-red, more or less mixed with green; leaf-stalks long and 
slender, and bright red. When sown in the open air under favour- 
able conditions, the roots of this variety may be pulled for table use 
in June, when they are about as big as a small orange, their quality 
being then at its best. If sown on a hot-bed, they may be pulled 
still earlier. Like the Dwarf Red variety, the roots of this kind 
also may be grown very close together. 

Early Flat Bassano Beet. A stout-growing, broad, flat variety, 
with numerous but rather slender green leaves ; leaf-stalks tinged 



112 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

with red ; skin of the root grayish red, especially the part above- 
ground ; flesh in bands or zones of white and rose, firm, sugary, 
delicate, and highly esteemed in some countries. This is a mode- 
rately early and very productive kind. 

The following varieties deserve to be mentioned as very 
distinct : 

The Cheltenham Green-top Beet. An English variety, with 
very long, clean, regularly tapering root. A very deep-rooting 
variety; it offers even in a more marked degree than the Rough- 
skinned Beet a contrast between the colour of the foliage, which is 
pale green, and that of the root, which is a very intense red. 

Crosby's Egyptian Beet. A variety much esteemed in the 
United States ; the only similarity it bears to the Extra Early 
Egyptian Beet is in its great earliness. It has a thicker and 





Egyptian Dark Red Turnip-rooted Beet Early Flat Bassano Beet. 

(^ natural size). 

altogether larger, but less highly coloured, root than its Extra 
Early namesake, being a distinct vermilion. It is scant in leaf, 
and is one of the earliest varieties. 

Lentz Beet. Also of American origin, and very early. The 
root is top-shaped, and the flesh red with lighter coloured zones. 
The foliage is very short and green, tinged with brown. 

Short's Pine-apple Beet, Pine-apple Dwarf Red, or Hender- 
son's Pine-apple Beet. A compact-growing kind, with a rather 
short root, which is tap-rooted, and about 2 or 3 in. in diameter ; 
flesh very dark in colour ; leaves stiff and spreading, red with 
orange-coloured stalks. 

Victoria Beet. A variety of German origin, with an inter- 
mediate root of a deep red colour, less remarkable for its value as 
a vegetable than for the singular metallic appearance of its leaves, 
and quite as much grown for ornamental as it is for kitchen-garden 
purposes. 



YELLOW-FLESHED GARDEN BEET 



II. YELLOW-FLESHED VARIETIES 

Long Yellow, or Orange, Beet. This variety is almost as 
much grown in the fields as in the kitchen- 
garden, and is the kind which is principally 
cultivated by the cowkeepers of Pris and 
its vicinity, on account of its highly 
reputed nutritious and milk -producing 
qualities. Root long, almost cylindrical, 
about half of it above-ground ; leaves erect, 
stout, green, with yellow stalks ; skin of 
root orange-yellow ; flesh golden-yellow, 
marked with zones more or less pale, and 
sometimes nearly white. It is the most 
productive and one of the best Yellow- 
fleshed kinds. 

Yellow, or Orange, Turnip Beet. Root 
slightly top-shaped, with a stout tap-root ; 
skin orange-yellow ; flesh bright yellow, zoned 
with pale yellow or white; leaves rather short 
and broad, crimped, 
undulated, with 
yellow ribs and 
stalks. A very 
sugary and fine- 
flavoured variety, 
the root, when well 
boiled, becoming 
tinged with orange. 
It is one of the best 
additions which of 
late years has been 
made to the list 
Long Yellow, or f kitchen -garden YelloWf or Ora x ngC) Tumip 

Orange, Beet. plants. Beet 





BORAGE 
Borago officinalis, L. BoraginaccG. 

French, Bourrache officinale. German, Borretsch. Flemish^ Bernagie. Italian, 
Boragine. Spanish, Borraja. Portuguese, Borragem. 

Native of Europe and North Africa. Annual. Stems 12 to 
1 8 in. high, hollow, bristly, with pointed hairs ; leaves oval, rough, 
and haired like the stems ; flowers in a scorpioid cyme, about I in. 
broad, of a fine blue colour in the common variety, sometimes 
violet-red or white ; seeds rather large, gray-brown, oblong, slightly 

8 



114 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




curved, streaked, and marked with a projecting midrib or ridge. 

Their germinating power continues for eight years. 

CULTURE AND USE. 
This plant can be grown 
without trouble, by sowing 
the seed in any corner of 
the garden at any time 
from spring to the end of 
autumn. It will come into 
flower in a few months. In 
the London market-gardens 
it is grown in temporary 
frames out of doors for 
supply during late autumn 
and winter ; for spring use, 
seedlings are raised in heat 
and transplanted into glass- 
covered frames, which can 
be easily removed when the 

weather is sufficiently mild 
Borage (t natural , to admjt Q{ ^ ^^ ^.^ 

exposed without injury. Throughout the summer and autumn it is 
as easily grown out of doors as any common annual or weed, yet in 
remote country districts we have seen people much puzzled to find 
a sample when they required it ! It is so vigorous and hardy that 
there need be no difficulty in country places in naturalising it on 
any half-waste place, chalk bank, steep slope, or copse ; a handful 
might be found in such a place in case its culture had been forgotten 
in the garden. It is one of the pretty true blue flowers, and almost 
worth growing in certain places for its beauty. It is naturalised in 
various counties in England, but is not a true native plant, belong- 
ing naturally to the shores of the Mediterranean, where so many 
of our old garden plants are native. It is sold chiefly to hotel- 
keepers for making claret-cup. The flowers are used for garnishing 
salads, but the plant is grown for the manufacture of cordials. 

BROCCOLI. See after Cauliflower 
BRUSSELS SPROUTS. See after Cabbage 

BUCK'S-HORN or HARTS-HORN PLANTAIN, or STAR 
OF THE EARTH 

Plantago Coronopus, L. Plantaginece. 

French^ Corne-de-cerf, Pied-de-corbeau. German, Hirschhorn-Salat. Flemish, 
Veversblad, Hertshoorn. Italian, Corno di cervo, Coronopo, Erba Stella. Spanish^ 
Estrellamar, Cuerno de ciervo. 

Native of Europe. Annual. Leaves numerous, long, narrow',, 
deeply lobed, bearing a few long hairs and forming a very regular 



BUCK'S-HORN OR HARTS-HORN PLANTAIN 115 




rosette close to the ground ; stems each surmounted by a spike of 
minute yellow flowers, which are succeeded by small membranous 
capsules rilled with very small, egg-shaped light brown seeds. 

Their germinating power con- 
tinues for four years. 

CULTURE. The seed is 
sown, where the crop is to 
grow, either in spring or 
autumn ; in either case, the 
ground is cleared off at the 
end of summer. The plants 
require no attention, except 
whatever weeding is needed 
to keep the ground clean, in 
addition to plentiful water- 
ings, without which the 
leaves soon become hard 
and leathery. As the plant 
yields abun darkly, the sow- 
ings are usually made on a 

Buck's-horn or Hart's-horn Plantain, or Star limited scale 

of the Earth (J natural size; separate USES The VOUn<* leaves 

leaves, k natural size). UMA 

are used for mixing in salads. 

Very rarely cultivated in England. It is a widely distributed and 
common native plant in sandy and stony places, especially near 
the sea. 

EDIBLE BURDOCK, or GOBO 

Lappa edulis, Hort. Compost fee. 

French, Bardane geante. Japatiese, Gobo. 

Native of Japan. Biennial Radical leaves very large, heart- 
shaped, somewhat resembling those of the Patience Dock, but not 
so much elongated ; stem red, very branching ; flowers violet-red, 
in heads bearing hooked scales like those of the Common Burdock ; 
roots of the kind known as tap-roots, cylindrical, rather fleshy and 
tender when they are young ; seeds oblong, grayish, with a hard 
covering, resembling that of the Artichoke. Their germinating 
power lasts for five years. 

It is doubtful whether this plant is specifically distinct from the 
Common Burdock (Arctium Lappa), a very common weed in all parts 
of Europe. It is certainly larger in all its parts, but this might be 
the result of cultivation, as it has long been grown in Japan in 
exactly the same manner as Salsafy and Scorzonera arc with us. 

USES. The roots, which grow from i ft. to 16 in. long, are 
boiled and served up in various ways. The plant was introduced 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



into Europe from Japan by the traveller Von Siebold, who says 
that it succeeded well in his garden at Leyden. In order to have 
the root tender and agreeable to the taste, it should be used when 
it is two and a half or three months grown. If it is left until it is 
fully grown, it branches and becomes hard and almost woody, so 
that it is not surprising that when sent to table in that state, it has 
often been pronounced detestably bad, whereas if eaten when 
young, as it is by the Japanese, although it cannot be termed 

delicious, it is certainly not a bad 
vegetable. 

Almost all hardy biennial plants 
with fleshy roots should be experi- 
mented on with the view of con- 
verting them into kitchen-garden 
vegetables, and many, perhaps, 
might be available for this purpose 
under the condition of their roots 
being not too fibrous, nor possess- 
ing any disagreeable flavour which 
cooking would not remove. The 
Wild Carrot and the Wild Beet 
are not superior in quality to the 
Burdock, and the second of these 
plants certainly has a more dis- 
agreeable flavour, and yet continued 
cultivation and persevering selection 
have converted these two plants into 
Edible Burdock, or Go'bo (f natural size). excellentvegetables,producing roots 

which are large, tender, and well 

tasted, at least when they are cooked, and quite different from what 
they are in the wild state. There is no reason, then, why the Burdock 
should not be a good table vegetable, if the plant appears to be 
worth the trouble. It is hardy, vigorous, and of rapid growth ; its 
roots are long and naturally fleshy, and consequently can be 
increased in size and made tender by judicious cultivation. At the 
present moment, in the condition in which we now have the plant, a 
bed of it will yield as heavy a crop as a bed of Salsafy, and in half 
or one-third of the time. As a vegetable it is deserving of serious 
consideration. 

SALAD BURNET 

Poterium Sanguisorba, L. Rosace 'ce. 

French, Pimprenelle petite. German, Garten-Pimpinelle. Flemish and Dutch, Pimpernel. 
Italian, Pimpinella. Spanish, Pimpinela. Portuguese, Pimpinella. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. Radical leaves, pinnate, with an 
odd leaflet; leaflets oval-rounded, very much toothed; stems usually 




SALAD BURNET 



very erect, 16 in. to 2 ft. high, angular, branching, and ending in 
spikes of female flowers, the flower at the base being male or 
hermaphrodite ; seeds oval, four-angled, with more or less pro- 
minent ridges on the angles, 
and reticulated on the sides 
Their germinating power 
lasts for three years. The 
Salad Burnet is an exceed- 
ingly hardy and long-lived 
plant, and grows wild 
through the greater part of 
France. 

CULTURE. The seed is 
sown in spring or at the 
end of summer, usually in 
drills 10 to 12 in. apart. It 
is often grown as an edging 
to beds of other vegetables, 
and may also be sown in 
beds by itself. The plants 
do not require any attention. 
The leaves are cut for use with a knife or sickle, and successional 
cuttings are made so as to have a constant supply of fresh young 
leaves. Leaves are produced in greater abundance and for a longer 
time if the plants are not allowed to flower. 

USES. The young, tender leaves are used as salad ; they have 
a peculiar flavour, resembling that of the Green Cucumber. 




Garden Burnet. 



CABBAGE 

Brassica oleracea, L. Cruciferce* 

French, Chou cultive. German, Kohl, Kraut. Flemish and Dut<-k, Kool. Danish, Kaal. 
Italian, Cavolo. Spanish, Col. Portuguese, Couve. 

Cabbage, a plant which is indigenous to Europe and Western 
Asia, is one of the vegetables which have been cultivated from the 
earliest times. The ancients were well acquainted with it, and 
certainly possessed several varieties of the head-forming kinds. 
The great antiquity of its culture may be inferred from the 
immense numbers of varieties which are now in existence, and 
from the very important modifications which have been produced 
in the characteristics of the original or parent plant 

The Wild Cabbage, such as it still exists on the coasts of 
England and France, is a perennial plant with broad, lobed, 
undulated, thick, smooth leaves, covered with a glaucous bloom. 



n8 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

The stem attains a height of from nearly 2j to over 3 ft., and 
bears at the top a spike of yellow, or sometimes white, flowers. 
All the cultivated varieties present the same characters in their 
inflorescence, but, up to the time of flowering, they exhibit most 
marked differences from each other and from the original wild 
plant. In most of the Cabbages, it is chiefly the leaves that are 
developed by cultivation ; these, for the most part, become 
imbricated or overlap one another closely, so as to form a more 
or less compact head, the heart or interior of which is composed 
of the central undeveloped shoot and the younger leaves next 
it. The shape of the head is spherical, sometimes flattened, 
sometimes conical. All the varieties which form heads in this 
way are known by the general name of Cabbages (Choux pommes), 
while other kinds with large branching leaves, which never form 
heads, are distinguished by the name of Borecole or Kale 
(Choux verts). 

In some kinds, the flower-stems have been so modified by 
culture as to become transformed into a thick, fleshy, tender mass, 
the growth and enlargement of which are produced at the expense 
of the flowers, which are absorbed and rendered abortive. Such are 
the Broccolis and Cauliflowers. In other kinds, the leaves retain 
their ordinary dimensions, while the stem, or the principal root, has 
been brought by cultivation to assume the shape of a large ball or 
Turnip, as in the case of the plants known as Kohl-Rabi (Choux- 
raves} and Turnip-rooted Cabbage or Swedish Turnip (Choux- 
navets). And, lastly, there are varieties in which cultivation and 
selection have produced modifications in the ribs of the leaves (as 
in the Couve Tronchuda), or in the axillary shoots (as in Brussels 
Sprouts), or in several organs together (as in the Marrow Kales 
and the Neapolitan Curled Kale). We make no mention here of 
the Colza, another variety, grown exclusively for the sake of its 
seeds, from which an oil is obtained, and which, therefore, is 
to be classed amongst the plants which are grown for economic 
or manufacturing purposes. 

CULTURE. The different kinds of Cabbages vary so much in 
constitution and treatment that it is impossible to lay down precise 
rules for the cultivation even of each entire class or section. We 
shall, therefore, when describing each variety, give instructions as 
to the proper times for sowing and planting it, merely mentioning 
here a few particulars which are applicable to the cultivation of 
almost all kinds of Cabbages. Further information as to cultivation 
will be found under the head of Early Cabbages, and also under the 
Drumhead varieties. 

A cool moist climate seems to be the most suitable of all for the 
culture of Cabbages, which generally grow to greater perfection in 
districts near the sea-coast than they do in either low-lying or 



CABBAGE 



119 



elevated inland parts of the country. Heat and drought are 
injurious to them, while they grow well in moist, foggy weather, 
even when somewhat cold. They like a clayey, rather stiff soil, 
rich in manure and decayed organic matter ; they do not seem to 
mind a little sourness in the soil, and grow well in ground that has 
been newly broken up. In the kitchen-garden, Cabbages should 
occupy the coolest and moistest positions, except the early spring 
kinds, which require a warm and sheltered aspect ; the ground 
should be deeply dug and plentifully manured, and always kept 
clean and free from weeds. The plants must be watered from 
time to time during the summer, and care be taken to prevent 
them from being overrun by the caterpillars of the white 
Cabbage butterfly, which, if not attended to, will damage them 
severely. 



SOWING AND PLANTING.* The 
most important sowings of Cabbage 
are those which are required to form 
a supply through the spring and 
early summer months. These sow- 
ings should consist of several 
varieties that succeed each other 
in coming into use. However, very 
early kinds should not be sown too 
early in the summer, as there is a 
possibility of their running to seed 
in dry weather. From the middle 
of July to the middle of August 
is the time usually chosen for sow- 
ing; but much will depend upon 
the season, soil, and locality. The 
beginning of August will in most 
places be found to be the best. 
Plants from seeds sown at that time 
are generally ready to plant out by 
the end of September or beginning 
of October, and they have then 
ample time to get established before 
the winter sets in. For autumn 
supply a sowing should be made 
from the middle of March to the 
beginning of April, and planted out 
in June and July they then come 
into use in August and September ; 
and if a second and rather larger 
sowing be made in the last week 
in April, and planted out in July 
and August, they will come into 
use from October to December ; and 



a small sowing of a dwarf kind 
that hearts quickly, sown in May, 
will form nice little heads for use 
in January, which, with the Greens 
produced from the stumps of those 
that have been cut, will last until 
the spring Cabbage comes in. Cab- 
bage plants intended to stand the 
winter are best planted with a 
crowbar in firm undug ground, such 
as has recently carried a crop of 
Onions, or other surface -rooting 
plants that have not impoverished 
the ground too much. The ground 
must, of course, have been well 
manured for the crop previous to 
Cabbage, or good results cannot be 
expected. A firm, stiff, rich soil is 
best for Cabbages ; for if grown in 
loose, light soil, they do not " heart " 
so well, neither is the quality so 
good. Cabbage seed should at all 
times be sown on light rich land, 
and the plants should not be allowed 
to overcrowd each other before they 
are put out, but as soon as large 
enough to handle be pricked out 
6 or 8 in. apart, or be thinned out, 
and the remainder transferred to 
their final positions as soon as they 
are sufficiently large. The distance 
fro plant them apart depends upon 
the variety grown; but 2 ft. between 
the rows, and from 15 to 18 in. from 



* See also p. 759. 



I2O 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



plant to plant in the rows, will 
generally be found sufficient space 
if the ground be in good heart. 

CUTTING.* A little more atten- 
tion might be paid to this than 
is generally the case ; for although 
Cauliflowers and Brussels Sprouts 
cannot always be had just when 
wanted, tender Cabbage may be 
had with very little management. 
Supposing we plant Cabbages in 
autumn, they will come into use 
tender towards the beginning of 
summer ; but if the household be 
generally not able to use them as 
fast as they grow, the heads are 
allowed to swell until they burst, 
or go to seed or rot, and eventually 
become quite useless for cooking 
purposes. In gardens from which 
large houses have to be supplied, 
Cabbages are generally wanted as 
soon as they are ready, and a number 
of heads are cut daily ; but the 
experienced gardener does not cut 
the head off at the surface of the 
soil, but just at the neck, leaving 
a few of the bottom leaves. Con- 
sequently, before the quarter has 
been cut over the first-cut plants 
have made another break, and be- 
come furnished with a whole cluster 
of young succulent heads, which 
heart immediately, and are fit to 
cut before the first heads are quite 
finished. The plants will even 
break and heart a third time, and 
in this way a plot of Cabbage may 
be made to afford a supply nearly 
all the year round The vigour, 
free growth, and tenderness of the 
heads will be greatly promoted by 
frequent stirrings of the soil between 
the rows, and mulching with any 
loose material, such as short Grass 
or leaves, at command. Cut your 
Cabbages, therefore, even if you 
have to give them away to your 
neighbours, before the heads get 
over-ripe and useless, and you will 

* See 



have a continuance of young and 
tender heads, which are greatly to 
be preferred to those which are 
large, white, and hard. 

The Cabbage is one of the most 
important of green vegetables for 
market-garden culture, and although 
not considered by many so profitable 
on account of its gross-feeding char- 
acter, it comes into use when there 
is little else to send to market, and 
often realises high prices. In spring 
large areas of Cabbages may be seen 
about Wandsworth, Fulham, Gun- 
nersbury, and, in fact, all round the 
suburbs of London. The Cabbages 
sent to market in April, May, and 
June are the produce of seed sown 
in July, and the plants are put out 
in September or early in October. 
Succession crops are sown in spring 
as soon as the weather is favourable. 
If sown too soon, as is sometimes 
done, the young leaves get injured 
by frosts, especially if these occur 
immediately after a period of mild 
weather. 

The Enfield Market Cabbage is 
that which is principally used in the 
market gardens about London. It 
is one of the oldest in cultivation, 
and one of the best, and for this 
reason the growers generally save 
their own seed, and take great care 
that their plants of it are not crossed 
with other sorts. The newer 
variety, Early Paris Market Cab- 
bage, could easily take the place of 
the Enfield Market Cabbage, and 
with advantage for all purposes. 
The sowing for the principle crop 
of these Cabbages is generally made 
about the end of July and up to the 
middle of August, on poor ground 
if possible, as in that case the plants 
come up stocky and hardy, and 
stand the winter well ; whereas, if 
made on rich ground, a soft rank 
growth is produced, which is much 
more easily injured. This sowing 
also p. 760. 



CABBAGE 



121 



is, as a rule, made in 4 ft. wide beds 
a width found to be convenient 
for weeding and hoeing amongst 
the plants. When sufficiently strong 
to be transplanted, they are planted 
on ground cleared of Onions or 
Potatoes, and a second batch is 
planted on land cleared of Celery, 
French Beans, or Vegetable Mar- 
rows. Every empty space, under 
fruit trees or elsewhere, is planted 
with Cabbages. In planting, the 
ground is lined off into rows, 30 in. 
apart, and in these the plants are 
put 15 in. asunder. Between every 
two rows first planted another is 
then put in with less care, thus 
making the plants stand 15 in. apart 
each way. Early in spring the alter- 
nate lines of plants, and also every 
other plant in the lines or rows left, 
are lifted and sold as Coleworts. 
This allows the permanent crop 
plenty of room to come to maturity. 
With a view to subsequent planta- 
tions, which are made all through 
the winter wherever ground is 
vacant, the young plants in seed- 
beds are removed and pricked out 
into others a little farther apart, 
in order to keep them in good 
condition for planting out as long as 
possible. In this way, indeed, many 
of the plants are kept till spring, 
when they are transplanted to suc- 
ceed those placed out in autumn. 
They will thus come in before the 
produce of the spring sowings, made 
late in February or early in March, 
to furnish Cabbages from June to 
August. The plants from this sow- 



ing are put out in rows 2 or 2j ft. 
apart, and in the intervening spaces 
are put lines of Lettuces, a plant of 
which is also set between every 
Cabbage in the row In May men 
may be often noticed busily engaged 
in tying up early Cabbages in the 
market gardens at Fulham and else- 
where. The operation is simple- 
just, in fact, that adopted in the 
case of Cos Lettuces. The succulent 
outer leaves are folded carefully 
around the heart or centre of the 
plant, and the whole is bound firmly 
with a withy or a piece of bast. 
There are several good reasons for 
this practice. The centre being 
protected from the weather, the 
Cabbages heart sooner than they 
otherwise would do, and they are 
more easily handled in gathering 
and packing for market. Early 
Cabbages, the leaves of which are 
so brittle, would lose half their value 
if some precaution of this kind were 
not taken to keep them from being 
broken by loading and unloading 
them. 

Red Cabbages are sown in March, 
but the produce of the July sowing 
is generally considered better than 
that of spring. The plants are put 
out in rows from 3^ to 4 ft. apart, 
and the plants stand about 3 ft. 
asunder in the rows. As this crop 
stands until the heads are large and 
solid, a piece of rich land is de- 
voted to it, and intercropped with 
Potatoes, ordinary Cabbages, Let- 
tuces, French Beans, or other vege- 
tables of that kind. 



The different sections of Cabbages differ perceptibly from one 
another in the size of the seed, the Borecoles and Kohl-Rabi pro- 
ducing the largest seed ; next to these, the ordinary Round-headed 
varieties and the Turnip-rooted Cabbage or Swedish Turnip ; and, 
lastly, the Cauliflowers and Broccolis, which have the smallest seed 
of all. 

USES. The leaves of the common headed varieties and of the 



122 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Borecoles are cooked in various ways, or used in salads, as in 
America, or fermented so as to form what is termed Sauer-kraut. 
The heads of the Cauliflowers and Broccolis, the stems of the Kohl- 
Rabi, the roots of the Turnip-rooted and the Swedish Turnip, and 
the small heads which grow along the stems of the Brussels Sprouts 
are most usually eaten boiled, although they are also well treated 
in other ways by foreign cooks. The very commonness and cheap- 
ness of Cabbages leads to the ignoring of their existence on the 
part of many superior persons. It is a great mistake, as they are 
by far the most precious vegetables we have, eaten young, in the 
right season, and well cooked. Though forms of the same wild 
plant, the variety of flavours is remarkable. It is mot more remark- 
able, however, than the way the common cook usually spoils this 
vegetable. In the hotels and restaurants it is usually an un- 
appetising mess, heavily charged with soda. The best cookery of 
Cabbages may frequently be observed among cottagers and ser- 
vants brought up in country cottages. One result of the neglect of 
Cabbage on the part of the affluent is that they miss some of the 
most delicate and wholesome vegetables we have, in various little- 
known forms of this family, which will be described farther on in 
this book. This vegetable in its wondrous variety is better fitted 
for our country than for any other, and comes to greatest per- 
fection in it. To despise it and neglect it is a mistake and a loss. 
Those possessing good gardens would do well to grow and use 
the more delicately flavoured forms and those best suited to 
their localities, and thus lead the poor to a fuller knowledge of 
things so easy for all to grow, and which yield so abundantly. 
Under the best conditions, not a few of them are as good as any 
vegetable that is grown, and, if rare, they would be sought as 
delicacies. 

This question of cooking is undoubtedly of paramount importance, and 
must necessarily have an immense influence upon the use of many other- 
wise excellent vegetables, of which Cabbage is a typical example. It may, 
therefore, not be out of place here to give a few indications as to the way 
Cabbage is usually cooked and used in France, ist. As a soup (soupeaux 
choux). r T}\Q head of a Cabbage or of a Savoy is freed of its outer leaves, 
cut in two or four, washed and placed in cold salted water on the fire, 
adding a few Carrots, Turnips, Potatoes, and a fair-sized piece of bacon or 
ham. Let boil slowly at least three hours. 2nd. As a vegetable. The 
head is cut into small pieces, washed, put in boiling salted water on the 
fire, and cooked for half an hour, then placed in a strainer. Cook 
sausages or lean bacon cut in small pieces, and when done add to the 
Cabbage, and let all slowly simmer together until the time for serving. 
3rd. As a garnishing. Take only the white heart of some Cabbages, cook 
for half an hour as above, strain, mince and place in a stewpan with butter 
and a little broth, and let simmer slowly until time for serving. * 

* Cabbages Clubbing, see p. 776. 



THE COMMON CABBAGE 123 

THE COMMON CABBAGE 

Brassica oleracea capitata, D.C. 

French, Chou cabus, C. pomme. German, Kopfkohl, Kraut. Flemish, Kabuiscool. 
Dutch, Slutkool. Danish, Hoved kaal. Italian, Cavolo cappuccio. Spanish, 
Col repollo. Portuguese, Couve repolho. 

This section is usually divided into two classes viz. the 
Smooth-leaved and the Curled-leaved or Milan (Savoy) kinds. In 
describing the varieties of both classes, we shall do so, as far as 
possible, in the order of their respective degrees of earliness, at the 
same time duly noting the affinities of the different kinds. 

Early York Cabbage. We commence our descriptions of 
Cabbages with this variety, because, although it is not the earliest 
of all, it is one of the best known and most generally cultivated of 
early kinds, and it will be easier to characterise the analogous 
varieties by comparing them with it. The head is an oval or 




Eirly Dwarf York Cabbage. Large York Cabbage (^ natural size). 

reversed-cone shape, oblong, nearly twice as long as broad, small, 
and fairly compact. Leaves dark green, with a slight bluish, 
glaucous, or gray tinge on the under-side, the outer ones of those 
which form the head covering the others like a hood ; those on the 
very outside, which do not help to form the head, are few in number, 
and bent back in the contrary direction, often having the edges 
turned towards the midrib on the back, and very smooth ; veins 
rather broad, of a greenish white ; stem slender, and about the 
same length as the head. 

The Superfine Early is a sub-variety of the Early York, from 
which it hardly differs in appearance, with the exception of being 
dwarfer and about a week earlier. 

Large York Cabbage. Larger in all its parts than the pre- 
ceding kind, this variety has the head thicker and stouter in 
proportion to its length, the transverse diameter being about two- 
thirds of the length. The outer leaves are stiffer, firmer, and 



124 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

broader, and usually not so bluish in tint ; the stem also is shorter 
in proportion. This is an excellent early kind, very productive, and 
of good quality. The only fault, perhaps, which it has is that it 
takes up rather too much ground for the size of the head, in con- 
sequence of the large outside leaves spreading so much in the 
horizontal direction. 

Sugar-loaf Cabbage. Head very long like a reversed sugar- 
loaf in shape, regularly oblong, and at least twice as long as broad, 
very like a Cos Lettuce in form, whence its French name of Chou 
Chicon ; leaves pale or light green on the upper surface and whitish 
green underneath, long spoon-shape, and covering each other in a 
remarkable manner with their hood-shaped tops to form the head ; 
outer leaves erect, like those of a Cos Lettuce ; stem comparatively 
short, being not more than a third or half the length of the head. 
This variety is very distinct and productive, and is almost as early 





Sugar-loaf Cabbsge Early Ox-heart Cabbage 

(T^ natural size). ( T ^ natural size). 

as the preceding kind. Like the two foregoing kinds, it answers as 
well for sowing in autumn as in spring, and, growing tall and 
slender, it does not occupy much ground relatively to the size of 
its head. It is also slow in running to seed a good quality for 
which it deserves to be specially mentioned. It is somewhat 
singular that, although a very old variety and well known in 
every country in Europe, it does not appear to be extensively 
grown anywhere. 

Early Ox-heart Cabbage. The shape of the head of this 
variety is well expressed by its name, and is that of a short, thick- 
set, blunt-pointed cone, the length of which does not exceed the 
breadth by more than one-fourth or one-fifth. The outer leaves 
are broad and nearly round, and less glaucous than those of the 
York Cabbages ; those which form the head are rather wrapped 
round each other than hood-shaped. The stem is rather short, 
being shorter than the head, which begins to form very early, and 



THE COMMON CABBAGE 



125 



is fit to cut about the same time as the Early York. The Ox-heart 
Cabbage may be considered the type of a rather numerous class, to 
which the following varieties belong : 

Express Cabbage. An early, short-stemmed variety, which 
begins to head with the fifth or sixth leaf. An tampes Cabbage 





Express Extra Early Cabbage. 



Early Etampes Cabbage. 



on a reduced scale, it has the chief characteristics of that variety 
with greater earliness. Like the Early Ox-heart and the Early 
York Cabbage, it may be planted very close.* 

Early Etampes Cabbage. From several comparative trials 
which we have made, this variety seems to be, after the preceding 
one, the earliest of all 
the headed Cabbages. In 
most points it resembles 
the Early Ox-heart, but 
it has a longer and more 
conical head, and is also 
a somewhat bulkier plant. 
It was raised by M. 
Bonnemain, Secretary of 
the Etampes Horticul- 
tural Society, and is 
well adapted for spring 
culture. 

Jersey Wakefieid 
Cabbage. This variety 
is well distinguished from 
the other forms of Ox- 
heart Cabbages by the 
yellow tint and very stiff 
texture of its leaves, and 

.,. , 111 Jersey Wakefieid Cabbage. 

it has a longer stalk than 

any of the Ox-heart Cabbages properly so called. The outer leaves 
* Enfield Market, see p. 761. New Varieties, see p. 762. 




126 THE VEGETABLE .GARDEN 

are pale glaucous green, rounded in shape, very faintly undulated at 
the edges, and remarkably firm and stiff ; those which immediately 
surround the head are often hollowed like a spoon. The head 
itself, a very pale green, is short, blunt, and conical, and often 
tinged with red on the side exposed to the sun. This is an early 
and productive variety, and the head keeps firm for a considerable 
length of time an important advantage when it is grown as a 
field crop. 

Early Paris Market Cabbage (C/iou Cceur-de-bceuf May en). 
An early variety ; raised by the Paris f market gardeners. The 
head is not quite so high as that of the Etampes Cabbage, but is 
rounder and broader at the base. The head develops very rapidly 
as soon as it has begun to form, yielding the heaviest crop in the 
shortest time. An excellent substitute for the Enfield Market 
Cabbage, to which it is altogether superior. 





Early Paris Market Cabbage. Prince's Nonpareil Cabbage. 

The Chou Prefin de Boulogne is a sub-variety of the Ox-heart, 
remarkable for its earliness, and easily distinguished by its light 
colour and the broadness of the ribs, which spread like a fan 
over the whole width of the leaf. The Early Louviers Cabbage, 
another sub-variety of the Ox-heart, very much resembles the 
Etampes Cabbage, but it is not so early, and has a somewhat 
shorter head. The Chou Prompt de Saint-Malo, which is a little 
larger, and has broader leaves and a rather shorter and broader 
head than the foregoing kinds, has, like them, been advantageously 
superseded by the Very Early Etampes variety. 

Prince's Nonpareil or Barnes' Early Dwarf Cabbage. Inter- 
mediate between the Ox-heart and the Tourlaville varieties comes 
one which is very extensively grown in England under the name of 
" Nonpareil." This is an early kind, with a rather long but blunt 
conical head, and leaves dark green on the upper surface, and very 
coarsely crimped. It differs from the Tourlaville variety in not 
having the leaf-stalk bare at the base, nor the leaves so much 



THE COMMON CABBAGE 



127 



twisted in shape. It is a good early variety, requiring about the 
same time to come to perfection as the Large York. 

The variety named Enfield Market, of which the Nonpareil 
appears to be a good sub-variety, is not quite so early, and may be 
ranked among the Ox-heart varieties. 

Tourlaville Early Cabbage. The head of this variety is rather 
long and pointed, and is formed by the leaves being wrapped upon 
each other in such a manner that some of them contribute only 
their lower part to its formation, while they stand clear of it in the 
upper part. Leaves large and broad, very dark green, and with 
ribs very thick and round near the stem, curving abruptly so as to 
press the leaves close to the head. This is a very distinct, early, 




Tourlaville Early Cabbage 
(j^ natural size). 



Large Ox-heart Cabbage. 



and vigorous variety, and is sent to Paris in large quantities at the 
close of the winter from the neighbourhood of Cherbourg, where it 
is extensively grown. When cultivated outside of its native district, 
it does not appear to possess any marked superiority over the 
ordinary Ox-heart kinds, and, besides, it is rather variable in its 
leaves, which are sometimes smooth and sometimes crimped. 

Large Ox-heart Cabbage. A vigorous and productive kind, 
heading very soon, coming in a fortnight or three weeks later 
than the Early Ox-heart, but growing three or four times the size 
of that variety. Outer leaves large, rounded, rather thick, and 
darker in colour above than underneath ; head large, very obtusely 
conical, and somewhat gray-green ; stem rather short, seldom more 
than two-thirds of the length of the head. This is a good variety 
for market-garden culture on a large scale approaching field 
culture. It is hardy enough to require but little attention when 
growing, and when the heads are formed they maintain their 
compactness longer than the early varieties without bursting or 
losing shape too speedily. 



128 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Lingreville Cabbage. Stem rather short ; leaves large, pale, 
almost light green, moderately undulated and crimped, soon 
forming a head of an oblong and almost pointed shape, by 
twisting themselves over one another rather than taking the 
ordinary hood or cap form. In appearance and size, this variety 
is almost intermediate between the Tourlaville and the Early 
Bacalan varieties, and, as in those two kinds, the formation of the 
head is commenced by leaves which are at some distance from 
each other on the stem. In the axils of these lower leaves, shoots 
sometimes grow which form small heads themselves about as large 
as an apple or an orange. The variety which produces these 
secondary heads is known in Normandy by the name of Chou 
Grappe or Chou Grappu. 

Early Bacalan Cabbage. Head oblong, conical, thick, and 
rather compact, resembling that of the Ox-heart variety, but 




Lingreville Cabbage. Early Bacalan Cabbage ( T V natural size). 

perceptibly longer ; leaves large, very slightly crimped, and 
undulated on the edges ; stem longish. Although larger than the 
Ox-heart variety, this is equally early, and especially adapted for 
the mild seaside climate of the west of France. It appears to have 
been raised at Saint-Brieuc, whence it was brought to Bordeaux, 
and .is very largely grown and highly esteemed in both these 
localities, especially for autumn sowing. 

Large Bacalan Cabbage. When this variety comes true to 
name, it is distinguished from the preceding one by its somewhat 
larger size and by its more compact and rather more pointed head. 
There are all kinds of intermediate forms between these two 
varieties, which were themselves identical in origin. The Large 
Bacalan heads almost as soon as the preceding kind and keeps 
its shape better. 

Here ends the series of varieties which may be considered as 
forming one group with the Ox-heart kinds. We shall add to the 



THE COMMON CABBAGE 



129 



list of Early Cabbages three round or flat-headed varieties, which 
by their earliness and smallness of size are clearly distinguished 

from the kinds commonly 
known as Large Smooth- 
leaved Cabbages, the series 
of which commences with 
the description of the Saint- 
Denis Cabbage. 





Large Bacalan Cabbage 
(^j- natural size). 



St. John's Day Dwarf Drumhead 
Cabbage (^ natural size). 



St. John's Day Dwarf Drumhead Cabbage. A very distinct 
variety, with an extremely short stem. Head very hard and 
compact, rather broad than long, and somewhat bulging in the 
upper part ; outer leaves not very numerous, deep green, and very 
smooth ; those forming the head of a paler green. This variety is 
very extensively grown in Anjou and Lower Brittany. In the 
neighbourhood of Paris it does not easily withstand a very cold 
and damp winter. In its native district it is chiefly sown in 
autumn for a spring crop ; grown in this way, the heads are not so 
flat as they turn out when the sowing is made in spring, 

Flat Parisian or Early Spring Cabbage. A very short- 
stemmed variety with a broad, flat, slightly rounded head. It has but 

few outer leaves, and its 
colour is a light vivid green. 
B A ver y earlv cabbage, 







s?**: 
^^ ^^ 

Flat Parisian Cabbage. 




Small Early Erfurt Cabbage 
(^j- natural size). 



admirably suited for market-gardens, and usually grown around 
Paris along with the second-early varieties of the Ox-heart type. 

9 



130 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Small Early Erfurt Cabbage. A very handsome little variety, 
an almost exact miniature of the Hundredweight Drumhead 
Cabbage. Stem short ; head flattened ; outer leaves marked 
with a great number of white veins. It does best when sown 
in spring, as autumn-sown plants are apt to run to seed without 
heading. 

Henderson's Early Summer Cabbage. This variety, which 
is of American origin and rather esteemed in the United 
States, cannot be more properly placed than next after the 
preceding kind, which it much resembles in size and appearance. 
It has, however, a longer stalk, a thicker head, and leaves of 
a grayer tint. In earliness, it comes immediately after the 
Jersey Wakefield Cabbage, and before all the other large-headed 
Cabbages. 

CULTURE. The Early Cabbages, among which may be classed 
all the varieties which have just been enumerated (except, perhaps, 
the Large Bacalan Cabbage), are usually sown about Paris during 
the last ten days of August, or the first ten days of September. 
In October, the seedlings are either planted out permanently, or 
else pricked out into a bed, where they are allowed to remain until 
they are planted out permanently in spring. In well-drained, 
warm, light soils, they may be generally planted out permanently at 
the end of autumn ; but in damp soils, or in localities which are 
exposed to severe frosts and snow or excessive rains, it is better not 
to plant out permanently until after winter is over. The earliest 
York Cabbages should be planted in warm and sheltered positions 
in a bed with a south aspect. In February, it is a good plan to 
make a sowing of early kinds on a hot-bed, pricking out the 
seedlings on a hot-bed also, and using the plants thus obtained to 
fill up vacancies caused by any of the autumn-sown plants having 
either perished from the severity of the winter or run to seed 
prematurely under the influence of unusually mild weather. Early 
Cabbages may also be sown in spring, from March to May, and 
planted out as soon as the seedlings are big enough, if there 
is ground ready to receive them. This is the simplest and 
easiest way of growing them, but it is not so much practised 
as sowing in autumn, as these early varieties are mostly grown 
for spring crops. 



SMOOTH-LEAVED DRUMHEAD CABBAGES 

Saint-Denis Drumhead Cabbage. This variety, which is one 
of the most extensively grown about Paris, and also one of the 
oldest, may very aptly be placed first on the list in the enumeration 
of the different varieties of Smooth-leaved Drumhead Cabbages, as 



SMOOTH-LEAVED DRUMHEAD CABBAGES 131 

its well-known characteristics will serve as points of comparison to 
which we shall refer other varieties of foreign origin or more recent 
introduction. It has a longish stem, quite as long, at least, as the 
head, which is round, depressed, and almost flat when fully grown, 
and of a wine-lees-red colour on the top. Outer leaves large, 
rather stiff, the lower part closely pressed against the head, and the 
upper part turned backwards, rather deep and glaucous green, and 
rounded in outline, entire, not toothed nor undulated ; veins rather 
large, and pale green. In the neighbourhood of Paris it is usually 
sown from March to May, and the heads are cut in the autumn up 
to the commencement of winter. 

A sub-variety of the Saint-Denis, which is a little earlier, was 
for a long time grown under the name of Chou de Bonneuil, but it 
has now either gone out of cultivation or become mixed up with 
the ordinary variety. And yet, if we refer to the descriptions of 





Saint-Denis Drumhead Cabbage Late St. John's Day Cabbage 

( T V natural size). (^ natural size). 

the two kinds which were published over a century ago, it would 
appear as if it was really the old Saint-Denis variety which has 
gradually disappeared and been superseded by the Chou de Bonneuil. 
The characteristics of the latter, as described in the eighteenth 
century, were, in fact, the same as those which we recognise at the 
present day in the Saint-Denis Cabbage, while the variety which 
was then named Saint-Denis had a fuller and less flattened head 
and a longer stem, and resembled the Late Flat Dutch Cabbage 
up to a certain point. 

Late St. John's Day Cabbage (Chou Joanet tardtf). Stem 
shorter than that of the preceding kind ; head rounder and not so 
broad; outer leaves smaller, rounder, and a deeper green. The 
plant does not take up so much ground as the Saint-Denis, and 
comes in some days earlier, but it does not appear to bear frost 
so well. The stem is so short that the head seems almost to rest 
on the ground. 



132 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Early Dutch Drumhead, or Early Dwarf Flat Dutch 
Cabbage. A short-stemmed variety very like the Large St. 
John's Day Cabbage. It is not quite so early as that, and is 
also sometimes brown on top. Both varieties are well suited for 
market-garden culture, their heads being close and firm. 

Short-stemmed Brunswick Cabbage. An excellent kind, very 
distinct, and highly deserving of recommendation. Leaves and head 





Early Dutch Drumhead Cabbage 
(^5- natural size). 



Short-stemmed Brunswick Cabbage 
(^5- natural size). 



a fine clear green, far less glaucous than those of the Saint-Denis, 
and with less of the gray tinge than those of the Hundredweight 
Drumhead ; head thick and broad, very much depressed, and quite 
flattened on the top ; outer leaves growing closely against the 
under-part and sides of the head, which, from the shortness of the 
stem, appears to be almost resting on the ground. The plant is 
almost as early as the Saint-Denis Cabbage. 

The Large Late Flat Brunswick Cabbage, which has a longer 
stem and a less flattened head, has not been much grown since 

the present kind, -which is 
superior to it in every re- 
spect, became more generally 
known. 

Schweinfurt Quintal 
Drumhead Cabbage. 
This is the largest, if not the 
most productive, of all the 
Cabbages, and is, at the same 
time, a very early kind. 
When sown in April, it 
may be cut at the end of 
August or in September. 

Schwemfurt Quintal Drumhead Cabbage. ^ ^ .,, ^^fty 

broad, frequently attaining a diameter of 20 in. and more ; it is, 
like the outer leaves, a pale green, crossed with white veins, and 
often tinged with brown or violet-red, rather soft and deficient 




SMOOTH-LEAVED DRUMHEAD CABBAGES 133 




in compactness and weight ; nevertheless, a good kind for the 

kitchen-gardens of farms or large establishments, on account of 

its productiveness and earliness. 

Fumel Cabbage. This kind, and also the two following 

varieties, might be considered as intermediate between the Smooth- 

leaved Cabbages and the 

Savoy Cabbages, as the 

leaves are coarsely 

crimped and almost 

curled. We shall, how- 

ever, follow the usual 

custom in classing them 

with the Smooth-leaved 

kinds, and they cannot 

be more properly placed 

than next to the Schwein- Fumel cabbage. 

furt Cabbage, which they : . 

resemble in their earliness and in the softness of the head. The 

Fumel Cabbage appears to have originated in the south of France ; 

at least, it is very much grown there, and also .in Algeria. It 

has a very short stem, and not many outside leaves, which spread 

horizontally close to the' ground, are of a dark green colour, and 

broadly crimped. The head, on the other hand, is very light in 

colour, loose, broad, and very much flattened ; it is almost as large 

as that of the Saint-Denis Cabbage, but not nearly so heavy, and 

goes out of shape very soon. This is one of the earliest of all 

the Cabbages, but it does not appear to answer the climate of 

northern districts, where it rots too easily. 

Early Habas Cabbage. A variety grown in all the south- 

western districts of France, where it is sometimes confounded with 

the following kind. It is 
a pretty early Cabbage, 
with a short stem, and 
numerous crimped leaves, 
rather light in colour, 
the lower ones almost 
spreading on the ground , 
the inner leaves form a 
rather loose head of a 
yellowish green colour. 

* X DfUmhead 

Cabbage. Stem pretty 
long; leaves very numerous, coarsely crimped, of a darker and more 
glaucous green than those of the preceding kind, and resembling 
those of the Large Drumhead Savoy to some extent ; head round. 
seldom well formed, at least in the climate of Paris, and always rather 




Early Habas Cabbage ( A natural size). 



134 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




small in comparison with the luxuriance of the leaves. A half-late 

variety, which appears to 
be of little account outside 
of its native locality. 

Late Flat Dutch 
Drumhead Cabbage. 
Head rather large, round, 
somewhat depressed in 
shape, very full and firm ; 
outer leaves pretty nume- 
rous, large, and clinging, 
broadly crimped to some 
extent. This variety has a 

Dax Drumhead Cabbage ( A natural size). i Qnger stem and ig mQre 

glaucous and later than the Saint-Denis Cabbage. Its principal 
merit is that of being exceedingly hardy and capable of enduring 
the most 'severe frost. 
The Ecury Cabbage, 
which is well known 
and highly esteemed in 
Champagne, resembles 
it very much. 

Hundredweight, 
Quintal, or Mason's 
Drumhead Cabbage. 
One of the oldest and 
best Late Cabbages. 
Head broad, very large, 
very much flattened, 




size). 

ashy green, with very numerous white veins, and the edges often 
cut or toothed ; outer leaves rather numerous, but not growing 

to a very great size, turned 
back at the tops and 
showing the head well. A 
late, very hardy, and very 
productive kind,' and is 
one of the sorts which 
are most used for making 
Sauer-Kraut. Probably no 
other variety of Cabbage 
is so extensively employed 

Hundredweight, or Quintal, Cabbage. for field culture. The 

Melsbach Cabbage appears 
to be a somewhat earlier sub-variety of this. 




SMOOTH-LEAVED DRUMHEAD CABBAGES 135 

Auvergne Quintal Cabbage. A variety derived from the 
preceding one, but much larger and slower to develop. The stalk 
is very short ; the outer leaves are erect and gray-green glazed, 
with broad ribs. The leaves are only slightly crimped, but much 
undulated at the edges. The head, which is rather flat and very 
hard, is often over i J ft. in diameter. A hardy and very productive 
variety, fit for autumn and winter use on farms and in large 
gardens. Although of rather recent introduction, it has already 
spread all over the country. 

Early Winnigstadt Cabbage. In its pointed shape, this 
variety somewhat resembles the Ox-heart Cabbages, but differs 
from them very strikingly in the close and compact manner in 
which the leaves forming the head are wrapped round each other, 
and the consequent greater hardness and firmness of the head. 
Stem short ; outer leaves large, glaucous green, and moderately 




Early Winnigstadt Cabbage. 



Filder, or Pomeranian, Cabbage 
( r V natural size). 



undulated at the edges ; the inner ones are folded almost in the 
shape of a twisted or conical paper bag, and form an exceedingly solid 
and firm head, almost spherical in shape, but pointed at the top, and 
weighing heavy for its size. Although only a middling early kind, 
it is an exceedingly productive one, and cannot be too highly 
spoken of. It is also one of the best for field culture. It succeeds 
much better in summer than in the autumn, and is unsuited for 
late sowings and spring use. 

Filder, or Pomeranian, Cabbage. Stem long, usually swollen 
under the head ; outer leaves numerous and large, light green ; 
head a very long cone-shape, solid and compact, and very white at 
the heart, ending in a point formed by a leaf rolled in the shape of 
an inverted paper bag. This is a rather late variety, succeeding 
better when sown in spring than when sown in autumn, and keeping 
well for some time in winter. It is very generally grown in the 



136 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



north of Germany, where there are a great number of local varieties, 
differing more or less from one another in the length of the stem 
and head, and the colour of the leaves. This variety appears to us 

to be the most deserving 
of notice, as it is produc- 
tive without being very 
late. 

Green Glazed 
American Cabbage. 
An exceedingly distinct 
variety. Stern of medium 
length ; leaves rounded, 
very firm and stiff, dark 
green, and glazed all over. 
This kind does not head 
very well, but in some 
degree resembles the 
Borecoles, differing from 

Green Glazed American Cabbage^ natural sue). in>fulness * f j eaf 




and shortness of stem. It is most suitable for spring culture, and 
is often sent to table shredded in vinegar like Red Cabbage. 

Curled-leaved Winter Cabbage (Chou gaufrt dhiver}.^ 
compact variety, the outer leaves curiously curled at the edges and 
closely set against the head, which is round, hard, and plump, and 
impervious to the hardest winters. It is not unlike the Vaugirard 
Winter Cabbage, but is untinged with violet either on the head or 
on the leaves. It is almost 
as much grown as the 
Vaugirard for supplying 
the markets at the end of 
the winter. 

Vaugirard Cabbage. 
Stem rather short ; outer 
leaves numerous, stiff, of 
rather dark gray - green, 
often hollowed or spoon- 
shaped, and always un- 
dulated and cut at the 
edges ; veins numerous and 
distinctly marked ; head 
round, depressed, rather 




Curled-leaved Winter Cabbage. 



flat, firm and hard, tinged 

with violet-red on the upper 

part, and also at the edges of the outer leaves. This is one of 

the hardiest kinds, and is very much grown in the neighbourhood 

of Paris for winter use; it bears frost, however, better when the 



SMOOTH-LEAVED DRUMHEAD CABBAGES 137 



head is not fully formed. The Parisian cultivators are careful 
not to sow it too early, seldom doing so before June, if it is 
intended to pass the winter in the open ground. 

Extra Late Amager Cabbage. Stem tall, leaves of a peculiar 
silvery gray colour, smooth, rounded, slightly convoluted at the 
edges. Head round, only slightly flattened, weighing from 4 to 
6 Ib. It is late to form, but very hard. Introduced from Denmark, 
where it stands the severest winters without any protection, it is 
the hardiest of all headed Cabbages. 

Early Dark Red Erfurt Cabbage. A very handsome, small, 
dwarf kind, with a spherical head not much larger than a big 





Vaugirard Cabbage (^ natural size). 



Early Dark Red Erfurt 
Cabbage (^y natural size). 



orange. Leaves round, not very numerous, dark red, almost black. 
The heart of the head, however, is not so dark. A very handsome 
little Cabbage for the kitchen-garden, taking up little space, and 
coming in early. The stem is short but well defined, as the outer 
leaves stand up well around the head, as in the Late St. John's Day 
Cabbage. This variety does not do well, unless when sown in 
spring at least, in the neighbourhood of Paris. 

Utrecht Red Cabbage. Stem rather long ; head round, com- 
pact, and dark red ; outer leaves rather numerous, of medium size, 
round, and rather stiff; the 
heart of the head is not 
very deeply coloured. 

Large Red Dutch Pick- 
ling Cabbage, or Large 
Red Drumhead Cabbage. 
Stem rather long ; outer leaves 
very large, broadly undulated 




^>^> 



at the edges, violet -red, 

sometimes slightly mixed 

with green, and covered 

abundantly with bloom, which 

gives them a blue tinge ; head rather large, rounded in shape, 

slightly depressed, not so deeply coloured on the outside as that 



Utrecht Red Cabbage. 



138 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



of the two preceding varieties, but much more deeply coloured 
at the heart. This variety is more productive than the Utrecht, 

and is only a few days 
later. It is the best kind 
for field culture. 

The American Mam- 
moth Rock Red Cabbage 
and Acme Red Drumhead 
Cabbage resemble much 
the Large Red Dutch 
Pickling Cabbage, but 
with them the heart is a 
little more solid. 

Red Polish Short- 
stem Cabbage. A very 
distinct variety. The head 
is flat, clark red, hard and 
compact. The outer leaves 

Large Red Dutch Pickling Cabbage. are covered with a waxy 

coating which gives them 

a bluish look. They are undulated at the margin, and stiff like 
those of Quintal Cabbage. The stem is very short. It is a 
variety for autumn and winter use, and being extremely hardy, 
may be left very late on the ground. 

Dark Red Early Pointed-headed Cabbage. A vigorous 
grower, with a fairly long stem, large and numerous leaves, 





Red Polish Cabbage. 



m 

Dark Red Early Pointed-headed Cabbage. 



dark red in colour, and a firm and fairly large head, oval in shape 
and pointed at the top. 

All the kinds of Red Cabbage are used in the same ways 
as the other kinds, but they can also be eaten raw, as salad ; 



SMOOTH-LEAVED DRUMHEAD CABBAGES 139 




when shredded fine and pickled with vinegar, they turn a brilliant 
red colour. 

Marbled Burgundy Drumhead Cabbage. Stem longish ; 
leaves numerous, stiff, rounded, narrowly undulated at the edges, 
pale gray-green, with red 
ribs and veins ; head 
rather small, very com- 
pact, flat on the top, 
formed of short leaves, 
which often do not quite 
cover one another, and 
leave a pit-like depression 
in the centre of the top. 
In addition to the prin- 
cipal head, other small 
heads, about the size of 
hen's eggs, and very hard 

and compact are often Marbled Drumhead ^ 

produced in the axils of 

the lower outside leaves. It is chiefly from the marbled appearance 
of the heart of the head when cut that this variety derives its 
name. It is considered a very hardy kind, and is very extensively 
grown in the eastern districts of France and in Switzerland. 

Variegated - heading Cabbage. A short-stemmed variety, 
with outer leaves half-erect, undulated, strongly tinged, and mottled 
with white, rose, red, and lilac on a dark green ground, which makes 
it of some value as an ornamental plant. The head, however, is 

large enough to make it 
worth growing for the 
table. 

CULTURE. The 
Smooth-leaved Drumhead 
Cabbages, the series of 
which terminates here, are 
most usually sown in 
spring, from March to 
June, according to the 
varieties grown, and the 
time it is desired the crop 
should come in. The sowings are made in the open ground, 
and the seedlings are pricked out as soon as possible into a 
bed, from which, as soon as the stems have grown as thick as 
a goose-quill, they are planted out permanently in well-tilled 
and richly manured ground. Plentiful waterings should be given, 
at first to ensure the rooting of the young plants, and afterwards 
to compensate for the great evaporation which takes place in 




Variegated-heading Cabbage. 



140 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

the long hot days of summer. Over a great part of Britain this 
is not needed. The kinds which are cut in autumn do not require 
any special treatment. Those which are for winter use should not 
be allowed to remain where they were planted, except in localities 
where the winter climate is mild ; everywhere else, they should be 
taken up and trimmed of all decaying and superfluous leaves, and 
then replanted closely in rows, in an inclined position, with the top 
of the head, if possible, turned towards the north. In some 
countries a curious, but very effectual, method is adopted : a sort of 
a wall is constructed of soil, in which the stems and roots of the 
Cabbages are placed horizontally, the heads remaining outside. In 
this way, they will keep very far into the winter. Very few of the 
common large Cabbages are suited for being sown in August for 
use in the spring or early summer, as most of them run to seed 
without forming a head when grown under those conditions. It is 
advisable, therefore, to treat such Cabbages as biennials only in 
places where this has been tried with success. 

Besides the varieties already described, we may mention the 
following kinds, which were formerly more or less esteemed, and 
the names of which are still to be met with in horticultural works, 
although the plants themselves are not now so often in cultivation ; 
also a few local varieties, which at present are hardly distributed 
beyond their native districts : 

Alsace Autumn Cabbage. Stem long ; head large, compact, 
flat, and sometimes brown on .the uppr part ; outer leaves short, 
stiff, and round. This variety resembles the Saint-Denis Cabbage, 
but it has a longer stem, and comes in somewhat earlier. 

Large La Trappe, or Mortagne, Cabbage. This handsome 
kind is hardly grown beyond the neighbourhood of Mortagne, in 
the department of 1'Orne. It is somewhat like the Saint-Denis 
Cabbage, but is later, much larger, and of a deeper green colour. 

Death's-head Cabbage. A very thick-set, dwarf variety. 
Head of average size, very compact, regular, light in colour, and 
almost spherical ; outer leaves rounded and not large. A very 
distinct variety, but now almost universally superseded by the Late 
St. John's Day Cabbage. 

In enumerating the principal local varieties grown in England, 
other parts of Europe, and the United States, we may observe 
that it is rather remarkable that, while a great number of the 
varieties of other vegetables are almost exactly the same in France 
and England, most of the varieties of Garden Cabbages are quite 
different in the two countries. This is probably owing to the 
difference of climate, as the Cabbage is highly susceptible t6 the 
effects of a dry or a moist climate. We shall only mention those 
English varieties which are most generally grown, noting, where 
possible, the French varieties they most closely resemble. 



SMOOTH-LEAVED DRUMHEAD CABBAGES 141 

Atkin's Matchless Cabbage. This variety is very like the 
Very Early Etampes Cabbage, but it is not so early, and its 
leaves are more undulated. 

Battersea, Enfield Market, Vanack, or Fulham Cabbage, 
One of the most extensively grown for the London markets. It 
resembles the French Large Ox-heart Cabbage, with a tendency in 
the direction of the Tourlaville or the Bacalan variety. The Early 
Paris Market Cabbage is a very good substitute for this variety. 

Little Pixie, or Tom Thumb, is a good variety with very 
smooth, round, entire leaves, and oval obtuse heads. 

Cornish Paignton, or Early Cornish, Cabbage. Resembles 
the Bacalan Cabbage, but the head is less compact, and is 
extremely light in colour, like that of the Fumel Cabbage. It 
is not very hardy. 

To the foregoing may be added Ellairis Dwarf Cabbage, a 
very early variety, with small compact heads, of delicate flavour, a 
continuous supply of which may be had throughout the year by 
making successional sowings. Cartels Heartwell Cabbage, a valu- 
able medium-sized Cabbage, and one of the earliest, remarkable 
also for its compact uniform growth. This and the preceding 
are two of the best kinds in cultivation. Cocoa-nut (Wheeler), 
a very distinct, compact, valuable small Cabbage. Imperial 
(Wheeler), a very fine selection, the variety being one of the 
best for general use. 

Of the varieties grown in the north of Europe, the following 
are the most noteworthy : 

Kaper-kohl Cabbage. Another very hardy kind, with a round, 
slightly flattened head, deeply tinged with violet or brown on the 
upper part, as are also the rather undulated edge's of the numerous 
outer leaves. It is something like the Vaugirard Cabbage. 

Liibeck Cabbage. A variety of medium size, with a compact, 
flattened head. The leaves are rather glaucous, resembling those 
of the Saint-Denis Cabbage in hue. A late and very hardy kind. 

Giant Flat Gratscheff Cabbage. A very leafy and large-sized 
variety, the chief merit of which, perhaps, is its capacity for enduring 
severe frosty weather without injury. 

The varieties which have originated in the south of Europe are 
not very many. We shall only mention the following : 

Pisa Round Cabbage. This Cabbage is extensively grown 
and much esteemed in Italy and Algeria. In size and appearance it 
is rather like the Late St. John's Day Cabbage ; the head is almost 
round, but terminates at the top in a blunt cone; stem rather long; 
outer leaves not many, round, and almost spoon-shaped. There 
are several sub-varieties, differing from one another in size and 
earliness ; the earliest of them heads almost as quickly as the 
York Cabbages. 



142 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Murcian Cabbage. An exceedingly distinct variety with 
leaves almost round, thick, dark green on the upper surface and 
nearly gray underneath, overlapping one another like the leaves of 
a Cabbage Lettuce. It is a very early variety, but the head is 
loose in texture and almost quite hollow, keeping its shape only 
for a few days. In the climate of Paris it is of no account 

In the United States the varieties of Cabbage grown there are 
divided generally into three groups : 

(1) Early Cabbages,: comprising the Early Jersey Wakefield, 
Express, Very Early Etampes, St. John's Day Early, Early York, 
Flat Parisian or Early Spring (described earlier in this book), and 
the Charleston Wakefield Cabbage, which is a rather later, larger- 
headed, rounder, and broader-leaved variety than the Early Jersey 
Wakefield Cabbage. 

(2) Summer or Second Season's Cabbages : comprising, in 
addition to the Early Dwarf Flat Dutch, the Winnigstadt Early, 
the Pointed-headed Pomeranian, the Large Brunswick Short-stem 
Cabbages, already described, the following principal American 
varieties : 

Henderson's Early Summer Cabbage. A middle-sized, half- 
long-stemmed variety ; the heart flattened or slightly depressed at 
the top, and pale green ; the outer leaves large and displayed, 
rather thin and slightly undulating at the edges. Early, quick- 
heading, and much esteemed in the United States. 

All-head, Faultless Early, Solid South, or Eclipse Cabbage. 
Rather earlier than the last-described, and a stouter plant, with 
smoother, thicker leaves. The stem is rather short, the head- 
rounded, big, hard, and regular in shape. 

Succession Cabbage. Resembles the Henderson's Early Sum- 
mer Cabbage, excepting that the leaves are smaller, thicker, and the 
head much bigger and flatter, maturing also eight or ten days later. 

All Seasons, or Vandergaw, Cabbage. Rather later than 
the Succession Cabbage, and more spread out ; the head round 
and compact. It is something like the Brunswick Short-stemmed 
Cabbage, but leafier and more solid in the head. 

Deep-head Cabbage. Leafy,, but a fine deep head, like the 
Brunswick Cabbage. 

(3) The third group comprises the Late, or Winter, varieties, 
mostly derived from the Late Flat Dutch Cabbage. Among the 
varieties the most cultivated in the United States, besides that of 
the Extra Late Amager Cabbage (syns. the Danish Ball-head, the 
Dutch Winter, the German Export, Danish Emperor, and Solid 
Emperor) already described, are the following : 

Excelsior Late Flat Dutch Cabbage. Differs from the 
Brunswick Short-stemmed Cabbage in having a bigger and some- 
times red-coloured head. The leaves are glaucous. 



SMOOTH-LEAVED DRUMHEAD CABBAGES 143 

Premium Late Flat Dutch Cabbage. A tall-stemmed 
variety, rather quicker to head than the Late Flat Dutch 
Cabbage, the leaves large and glaucous ; head big, flattened, full 
and solid, something like that of the Saint-Denis Large Cabbage. 

Houseman Late Flat Dutch Cabbage. A hardy, big variety, 
with large rounded entire leaves curling backwards, the head big, 
round, compact, and the stem rather long. 

Acme Late Flat Dutch Cabbage. Differs from Houseman's 
Late Flat Cabbage only in having the outer leaves of more ample 
size and thinner texture. 

Select Late Flat Dutch Cabbage. Mid- way, as regards 
characteristics, between the Houseman Late Flat Dutch Cabbage 
and the Acme Late Flat Dutch Cabbage. 

Stonemason, or Warren's Stonemason, Cabbage. A distinct 
short-stemmed variety, with comparatively few leaves, and these 
rounded, entire, ample, stout, not much undulating and very 
glaucous ; the head big, almost round and compact. 

Sure-head Cabbage. A late variety of the Late Flat Dutch 
Cabbage type; rather long in stem, the head of average size, compact 
and regular ; outer leaves not numerous, glaucous and waving. 

Louisville Drumhead Cabbage. A vigorous late variety, the 
leaves long and entire, smooth, spreading, and thin in texture ; the 
head at times more deep than broad. It is much grown in the 
southern States, where it seems less susceptible to drought than 
most other varieties. 

Premium Late Drumhead, or Large Late Drumhead, 
Cabbage. A big-sized, very late variety, shorter in the stem than 
the Premium Late Flat Dutch Cabbage, with many leaves ample 
in size, spread out, dark green, mostly undulated and waving at the 
edges ; the head very big, compact, rounded, and keeping well. 

Autumn King, or World Beater, Cabbage. A distinct very 
late variety, the leaves not many, thick, rounded, waving, very 
glaucous, and violet-coloured ; stem short ; head thick, very large,, 
round and compact. 

Bridgeport Drumhead Cabbage. A sub-variety of the Late 
Drumhead Cabbage, very late, glaucous, with stout white ribs, and 
firm, round, compact head. 

Marble-head Mammoth Cabbage. One of the largest varieties- 
grown, and of considerable weight. It is very late, rather long- 
stemmed, the head rather open, resembling that of the Hundred- 
weight Drumhead Cabbage. The leaves numerous, glaucous, and 
curling outwards, the ribbing very marked. 

Luxembourg, or Hard-heading, Cabbage. A very late v 
hardy, short-stemmed variety, with leaves glaucous and rounded,, 
and head of middle size, firm, and coloured beneath with violet- 
red like the Vaugirard Winter Cabbage. Keeps long. 



144 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

SAVOY CABBAGES 

Brassica oleracea bullata, D.C. 

French, Chou de Milan. German, Wirsing, Savoyerkohl, Borskohl. Flemish and Dutch, 
Savooikool. Danish, Savoy-kaal. Italian, Cavolo di Milano. Spanish, Col de Milan, 
C. risada. Portuguese, Saboia. 

Under this name are grouped all the varieties of Cabbage which, 
instead of having the leaves smooth, have them crimped, or, as they 
are sometimes incorrectly termed, " curled," all over. This appear- 
ance, according to De Candolle, is owing to the circumstance that, 
in these varieties, the parenchyma, or spongy substance, of the leaf 
is developed more rapidly than the nerves or veins, and con- 
sequently becomes raised above their level, not finding room 
enough to grow flat in the space between them. The area of the 
surface of the leaves is increased by these numerous crimped 
divisions, and the head, being formed of all the leaves while they 
are still young, is more tender than in any of the Smooth-leaved 
kinds generally. The flavour is also considered milder and less 
musky. The mode of growing them does not differ from that 
already described for the ordinary kinds. 

St. John's Savoy Cabbage. This handsome variety might 
almost be described as an Ox-heart Savoy, as it forms a head 





St. John's Savoy Cabbage Ulm, or Early Green Curled, Savoy 

dV natural size). Cabbage (^ natural size). 

much in the same manner as the Ox-heart Cabbage, and almost as 
promptly. The stem is extremely short, and the leaves are a pale, 
wan green, and much but not finely crimped. The head forms very 
quickly, more so than in any other variety of Savoy. It does not 
keep its shape long, but bursts and grows out of form, if not cut in 
time a remark which also applies to nearly all the very early 
Cabbages. 

Ulm, or Early Green Curled, Savoy Cabbage. Stem long; 
head small and round ; leaves not numerous, deep green, rather 
coarsely and deeply crimped. This is the smallest and one of the 
earliest of all the Savoy Cabbages. The New Dwarf Ulm (Little 
Pixie} Savoy, a fine dwarf variety, the Vienna Early Dwarf (Tom 
Thumb, or King Coffee} Savoy, the dwarfest of all varieties, and 



SAVOY CABBAGES 



145 



the Dwarf Green Curled Savoy, a fine medium-sized variety, are 
three kinds highly deserving recommendation. The first two kinds 
should be planted I ft. apart. 

The Vienna Savoy is a sub-variety of the Ulm Savoy, with 
leaves not so much crimped, and a rather oblong head. A very 
small and very early kind. 

Very Early Paris Savoy Cabbage. This variety is closely 
allied to the preceding one, but also very distinct from it. Head 
round and firm, light green, and surrounded by a few spreading 
not very large leaves, rather dark green in colour, and more broadly 
crimped than those of the foregoing variety. The Very Early 
Paris Savoy is remarkable for its symmetrical and regular shape 




Very Early Paris Savoy Cabbage 
(^y natural size). 



Dwarf Early Green Curled Savoy. 



and dwarf stature. It heads almost as quickly as the York 
Cabbages or the earliest Ox-heart varieties. 

Dwarf Early Green Curled Savoy Cabbage. An excellent 
variety, very distinct, and of first-rate quality. Stem very short ; 
leaves large and broad, rather deep green, very finely crimped, and 
spreading on the ground in a broad rosette before the head is 
formed ; head firm, moderately flattened. This variety is exten- 
sively grown about Paris for the winter markets. It is sown all 
-through the summer, planted out permanently just as winter 
commences, and supplies the markets all through the winter. 
Generally the head is only beginning to form when the plants 
are cut, but the numerous outer leaves, which closely surround the 
head, form an excellent vegetable after they have been softened 
and made tender by frosty weather. 

Dwarf Roblet Savoy Cabbage. A small and excellent variety, 
very dwarf and half-early. The outer leaves are glaucous green, 
short, and finely crimped, spreading on the ground. The head is 
flat and rather broad, and close to the ground. Its small size and 
the shortness of the outer leaves allow of its being grown very 
close ; therefore a good cabbage for small gardens as well as a 
field variety. 



146 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Early Flat Green Curled Savoy Cabbage. Stem rather 
long ; leaves a somewhat glaucous green, largish and pliant, and 

not so finely crimped 
as those of the preced- 
ing kind. It somewhat 
resembles the Large 
Drumhead Savoy, but 

*OTgw*w?VKu^ has a much smaller head. 

It is one of the most 

extensively cultivated 
kinds, and is chiefly 
worthy of note as being 
hardy, and not particular 
as to the soil in which it 
is grown. 

The American vari- 
eties are : Perfection 
Drumhead Savoy, Globe Curled Savoy, and the Improved American 
Savoy. There is very little difference between these and the Early 
Flat Green Curled Savoy Cabbage ; and the same may be said of 
the Marvin's Savoy, another American variety, except that is a little 
larger and rather later. 

Tours Savoy Cabbage. Stem short ; leaves very large and 
numerous, very dark green, and coarsely and broadly crimped, the 
outer ones almost entirely spreading on the ground ; head round, 
rather small in proportion to the size of the plant, not very compact, 




Dwarf Roblet Savoy Cabbage. 




Early Flat Green Curled Savoy Cabbage. Tours Savoy Cabbage ( T V natural size). 



and often imperfectly formed. As in the case of the Dwarf Green 
Curled Savoy, the outer leaves form as important a part of the crop 
as the head. 

This variety resembles .the Early Joulin Savoy Cabbage, but the 
latter is an earlier and smaller kind. 

Aire Savoy Cabbage. A very distinct short-stemmed variety ; 
thetyuter leaves are not much developed, allowing of close planta- 
tion. Head almost round, medium-sized, firm, and very full, 
weighing 4 Ib. and over when well grown. The leaves are pale 



SAVOY CABBAGES 



147 



green or ash-gray, undulated in the centre, and finely crimped at 
the edges. An excellent Cabbage for autumn cultivation. 

Victoria Savoy Cabbage. Stem of average length ; leaves 
rather numerous, light green, and very finely crimped, in which 




Extra Fine Curled Aire Savoy. 



Victoria Savoy Cabbage ( T V natural size). 



respect they are distinguished from those of all other Savoys 
except the following kind ; head round, compact, fairly large, 
and light green. An excellent variety, of very good quality, 
and keeping its head well for winter use. Its leaves are remark- 
ably tender and delicate in flavour, and yet they withstand frost 
and damp equally well. No other variety has the fleshy substance 
of the leaves so abundantly developed in proportion to the size of 
the veins or nerves. 

Cape, or Large Late Green, Savoy Cabbage. Stem longish ; 
leaves finely crimped, fairly 
large, and glaucous green ; 
head medium-sized, round, 
and very compact. This 
variety would bear no bad 
resemblance to the Victoria 
Savoy, only for the much 
deeperblue tint of its leaves. 

Yellow Curled, or 
Golden, Savoy Cabbage. 
Stem short; outer leaves 
broad, rather deep wan 
green, broadly crimped, and 
almost turned backwards ; 
head of a long egg shape, 
medium - sized, not very 

compact, in winter turning Yellew Curled, t>r Golden Savoy 

very light colour, 




to 



natural size). 



almost yellow. This Cabbage is very tender to eat, especially 
after frosty weather. There are several forms or sub-varieties of 



148 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




it which exhibit various degrees of difference in size and earliness, 
while retaining all the main characteristics of the variety just 
described. One of the most highly esteemed of these is the 

Blumenthaler, a rather large and 
late kind. 

Long-headed Savoy Cab- 
bage. Stem of medium length, 
about one-half or two-thirds the 
length of the head, which is 
oblong in shape, almost like 
that of the Sugar-loaf Cabbage, 
light green in colour, and not 
very compact ; outer leaves 
rather narrow, elongated, erect, 
rather broadly crimped, and 
somewhat glaucous green. A 

Long-headed Savoy Cabbage moderately early variety, of 
(A natural size). good quality, and yielding a 

fair crop, notwithstanding the 

smallish size of the plants. It heads well in the latter end of 
autumn, so that it can be sown to advantage rather late in the 
season. 

Large Aubervilliers Savoy Cabbage. A variety derived from 
the Vertus Savoy, but now distinct owing to a long selection. 
Years ago the Vertus Savoy came into the market scarcely before 
the end of October, until some market-gardeners, with a view to its 
profitable sale at an earlier date, were careful to mark for seed- 
ing purposes those plants which headed quickest, and hence the 
decidedly earlier strain which has been obtained. The new variety 
is not quite so hardy, 
nor does it keep so long 
as the Vertus Savoy, 
but it has a shorter 
stem, a more flattened 
head, and less glaucous 
light green leaves. 

Large Vertus 
Drumhead Savoy Cab- 
bage. Stem 6 to 8 in. 
high, stout, bearing a 
broad, thick, compact 
head, which is flat on 
the top, sometimes 
tinged with a wine-lees-red, and almost perfectly smooth, being 
only partially crimped at the edges of the leaves ; outer leaves 
rather numerous, large, broad, stiff, well spread out, rather dark 




Large Auberviliiers Savoy Cabbage. 



SAVOY CABBAGES 



149 



and glaucous green, and not so finely or abundantly crimped as 
those of most other Savoy Cabbages. This variety is grown 
on a large scale around 
Paris, and especially in 
the Plain of Auber- 
villiers, where they com- 
mence to cut it for 
market at the end of 
autumn and in the early 
part of winter. When 
it is grown true to 
name, the heads are 
only completely formed 
at that time, and they 
bear the early frosts 




pretty well. Immense 



Large Drumhead Savoy Cabbage. 




Large Hardy Winter Drumhead Savoy Cabbage 
(jV natural size). 



quantities of this Cabbage are sent to the Central Market at 

Paris during a considerable part of the winter. 

Large H ardy 
Winter Drumhead 
Savoy Cabbage. Stem 
fairly long ; leaves 
numerous, large, stiff, 
coarsely crimped, rather 
'deep and glaucous 
green ; head round, 
forming rather late, very 
full, compact and hard. 
This is a good winter 
variety, coming in after 
the preceding one. 

Some people consider it to be the original form of the Large 

Vertus Savoy, and that the latter is an accidental improvement 

of the market - gardeners 

on the primitive variety, 

which is not so early, and 

does not produce so fine 

a head. 

Limay Savoy Cabbage. 

Stem long ; outer leaves 

large, spreading horizon- 
tally, and coarsely and 

densely crimped; head Limay Savoy Cabbage (& natural size). 

small, round, and not very 

compact. This variety is extremely hardy, and resists the severest 

frosts. Like the Dwarf Green Curled Savoy, it forms a large 




ISO 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



rosette of leaves rather than a head, properly so called, and it 
is considered not inferior to that variety in the markets. 

Small Belleville Savoy Cabbage. Stem short, head firm and 

rounded, outer leaves dark 
and much crimped and 
spreading on the ground. 
It stands the frost well, 
a thin coating of snow 
sufficing for its protec- 
tion. In this, and also 
in being quicker to head, 




., :'". . " nrpncF *..- "'-^ * 



it is much superior to 
the Limay Savoy, which 
it resembles. Like the 

^ Small Belleville Savoy Cabbage. Limay ^^ ^ may be 

sown in June for use after the Vertus Savoy, from late in the 
autumn to the end of winter. It is largely grown for the Paris 
markets. 

Norwegian Savoy Cabbage. This kind has the leaves so little 
crimped that it might almost be taken for an ordinary Smooth- 
leaved Cabbage. The stem is fairly long, and the leaves numerous, 
stiff, and standing well up about the head, which is round, small, 
and very late to form. All the leaves, in winter, become red or 
violet. This Cabbage is dis- 
tinguishable in appearance 
from the Vaugirard Cabbage 
only by its longer stem and 
somewhat more numerous 
leaves. It is the latest of 
the Savoys, and will bear 
the hardest frosts. 

In Belgium there is a 
coarsely crimped variety of 
Savoy grown under the name 
of Chou de Mai or Chou a 
trois tetes (Drie-Kropper\ the 
head of which is formed by the leaves being twisted, instead of 
folded or wrapped over one another in the ordinary way. It is 
sown in August, and planted out either before, during, or after 
winter, coming in the following May. After the head is cut, the 
plant produces two or three small secondary heads in the axils of 
the lower leaves. 

In the London market-gardens seed is sown in March, and the 

Savoys are not so much esteemed plants are put out under fruit-trees, 

as Cabbage, but they are largely or in similar positions in the same 

cultivated by some growers. The way as Cabbages. The varieties 




Norwegian Savoy Cabbage (fa natural size). 



SAVOY CABBAGES 



mostly grown are the Dwarf Green 
Curled, Early Ulm, and Vertus. 
Sometimes they are used as Cole- 
worts when half-grown, in which 
case they are planted thickly among 
other crops in any vacant places in 
the same way as Cabbage Coleworts. 
During winter, when greens are 



scarce, Savoys are most in demand. 
They are very hardy, and are all the 
better for being subjected to frost, 
and for this reason they are a good 
winter crop. The refuse of the 
seed-beds is sometimes planted out 
in August to supply Coleworts in 
winter and spring. 



Braganza, Portugal, or Sea-Kale Cabbage (Chou a grosses 
cotes ordinaire}. Stem shortish ; leaves closely set, with thick, 
white, fleshy ribs, undulated and slightly cut on the edges, and 
usually hollowed or spoon-shaped, all forming at the latter end of 
autumn a small loose kind of head. For a long time a distinction 
was made of two varieties of this plant, one with green and the 
other with light-coloured leaves, but the difference is so unimportant 




Braganza, Portugal, or Sea-Kale Cabbage 
(^5- natural size). 



Curled Couve Tronchuda Cabbage 
(^y natural size). 



that at the present day the two kinds are considered identical. 
The outer leaves and the head of the Couve Tronchuda are very 
tender to eat. It stands frost very well, and even requires it to 
bring out its full quality. Under the name of Dwarf Portugal 
Cabbage, a more compact and better-headed variety is sometimes 
grown in England. 

Curled Couve Tronchuda Cabbage. The ribs of this variety 
are not so much developed as those of the ordinary kind, but the 
blade of the leaf is much more curled and undulated. It forms an 
imperfect head, but bears frost very well, and can be cut all through 
the winter, when autumn Cabbages have become scarce. 

Curled Winter Borecole Cabbage. Towards the end of 
winter, one may see in the Central Market, at Paris, a variety of 
'Cabbage which does not form a head, and which the market- 
gardeners call Bricoli Cabbage. This seems to be an intermediate 
kind between the Green Curled Kale and the Curled Couve 



152 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Tronchuda. As far as we have seen, it possesses no special merit 
beyond its great degree of hardiness. 

The Thick-leaved Coutances Cabbage resembles closely the 




Curled Winter Borecole Cabbage ( T V natural size). 

Couve Tronchuda. The midrib of its leaf is not so large, but, on 
the other hand, it forms a much better head, which in the course 
of the autumn becomes very compact, white, and exceedingly firm 
at the heart. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS 

French, Chou de Bruxelles. German, Brlisseler Sprossen-Kohl. Flemish and Dutch, 
Spruitkool. Danish, Rosenkaal. Italian, Cavolo a germoglio. Spanish^ Bretones 
de Bruselas. Portuguese^ Couve de Bruxellas. 

This variety of Cabbage bears some analogy to the Savoys in 
its dark green and somewhat crimped leaves ; but, on the other 
hand, it has a longer stem than any of the other head-forming 
Cabbages, and its leaves, although very numerous, do not form a 
true head. It is grown for the sake of the sprouts, which are 
produced in the axils of the leaves all along the stem, and of which 
the small spoon-shaped leaves are very closely and compactly 
wrapped round one another so as to form small heads, which are 
round in shape and produced in great abundance. They make 
their appearance first at the bottom of the stem, and, as these are 
cut away, fresh " sprouts " appear in succession almost up to the 
top of the stem. This long-continued production of sprouts, which 
is maintained in the severest frosty weather, and also the very fine 
quality of the vegetable, have caused the Brussels Sprouts to be 
one of the most highly esteemed and most generally grown 
kitchen-garden plants. There is something singular, from ZL 



BRUSSELS SPROUTS 



153 



physiological point of view, in the circumstance that the principal 
rosette of leaves of this plant does not form a head, while the 
secondary shoots or sprouts regularly form very perfect heads. 
The very reverse of this is mostly found to occur in other Cabbages 
and in Lettuces, in which the principal leaves of the head enwrap 
one another closely, while the leaves of the sprouts which they 
produce stand apart at greater or less distances from one another 
on the shoots which bear them. Be that as it may, we are indebted 
to this anomaly for an excellent vegetable. 

CULTURE. The Brussels Sprout is a plant of rather slow 
growth, and in order to have a crop from the end of October to 
March, sowings should be commenced in March or April, and 
continued in succession until June, if a successional crop is desired. 
When the seedlings are strong enough, they are planted out 
permanently, leaving a space of 20 in. in all directions from plant 
to plant of the ordinary variety, and of 16 in. for plants of the 
dwarf kind. The sprouts will be fit to cut in October, and the 
plants will continue to bear them all through the winter. They 
like good, rich, well-drained soil, which, however, should not be 
too highly manured, otherwise the growth would become too rank, 
to the detriment of the sprouts, which, under such circumstances, 
do not head well. 



As a rule, in England, Brussels 
Sprouts are only cultivated in large 
and market gardens, although they 
are well deserving of a place in 
every garden, however small. With 
a little skill and forethought, they 
may in warm districts be got to 
supply the table from September 
till April. The common rule is to 
sow one good batch in March or 
April, and let that serve all purposes. 
Where, however, a long supply is 
desired, this is decidedly a mistake, 
inasmuch as Brussels Sprouts ought 
to be made use of as soon as they 
are ready, otherwise they burst or 
rot, and are useless. Successional 
sowings should be made to keep up 
a constant supply. 

For early crops the best plan is 
to sow a pinch of seed in a shallow 
box, well drained, early in January, 
and place it in a pit or frame where 
the temperature is from 40 to 45. 
The plants will soon be up, and 



should be kept close up to the 
glass until they are large enough to 
handle, when they should be pricked 
off into other boxes, or out into a 
bed in a frame. Plenty of air must 
be admitted to them after they have 
again commenced to grow, and if 
the weather be favourable in the 
middle of March, they may be 
planted out-of-doors on the warmest 
border that can be spared for them. 
If the plants be taken out with a 
good ball of earth and planted 
during showery weather, they will 
grow away without a check, and a 
crop of fine large sprouts in Sep- 
tember will be the result. 

The first sowing out-of-doors 
should be made in February or 
March, the main sowing early in 
April ; and if later supplies be 
required, a small sowing may be 
made in May or June. When 
the plants are large enough to be 
conveniently handled, they should. 



154 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



be pricked out in rows into 
narrow beds or borders, 5 or 6 in. 
apart, or more if practicable. The 
distance apart of the plants for 
the final planting must in some 
measure be governed by the space 
at disposal, but in any case there 
is nothing gained by overcrowding. 
Plants for the main crop should be 
allowed at least 2 ft. apart each way, 
but if 3 ft. can be allowed between 
the rows, it will be all the better. 
If extra fine sprouts are desired, 
3 ft. from plant to plant each way 
must be allowed. For early and 
late plantations it is not necessary 
to allow quite so much space as for 
the main crop. 

SOIL. Brussels Sprouts will suc- 
ceed in almost any kind of soil, 
provided it is well and deeply culti- 
vated and fairly manured. Poor 
sandy soil will require a heavy 
dressing of good manure, whilst 
lime and burnt clay may be bene- 
ficially applied to cold clayey land 
in preference to rank manure just 
previous to planting, which would 
have a tendency to produce gross 
open sprouts instead of the close 
medium-sized buttons so much liked 
in the kitchen. Frequent stirrings 
of the soil, clean culture, and re- 
moving decaying leaves add to their 
growth and cleanly appearance, and 
ought to be insisted on. As regards 
earthing-up the stems, there has 
been much dispute as to its merits 
and demerits, but we have seen 
them grown both with and without 
that assistance, with much about 
the same result. In windy places 
earthing-up is certainly to be recom- 
mended, in order to enable them to 
resist the power of the wind; but 
as Brussels Sprouts, unlike Cabbage 
or Broccoli, bear all up the stems, 
it is not desirable to bury them to 
any great depth, beyond giving them 
necessary support. The Cabbage- 



like heart from the centre of the 
plant should not be cut off until the 
crop is fit for gathering. The 
Brussels Sprout in its proper state 
is a small, compact one; and very 
rich culture, while giving large 
rosettes, does not improve the 
quality. 

Manure water given to Brussels 
Sprouts during dry weather will help 
to keep them in a vigorous and 
healthy growing state ; but it is well 
to remember that overfeeding will 
spoil this vegetable, which in its 
best state is neat and compact. By 
making it coarse and large we make 
it useless to the good cook, who 
knows what it ought to be. 

GATHERING. In gathering, Brus- 
sels Sprouts are frequently broken 
from the stems of the plants, and 
sometimes with a portion of the 
stem adhering to them. This is 
wrong, inasmuch as it destroys the 
second crop of young sprouts. A 
sharp knife should always be used 
to cut off the sprouts, leaving as 
much spur as possible. The largest 
and hardest should always be 
gathered first. 

Brussels Sprouts are chiefly 
grown in the London market-gardens 
as catch crops, under orchard trees, 
or between other vegetables. The 
seed is sown in April, and the plants, 
when large enough, are put out 
wherever a vacant piece of ground 
occurs. Market gardeners prefer 
Brussels Sprouts with medium-sized 
stems to those of rank growth, as 
from the former they get harder and 
better sprouts, which realise the 
most money in the market. In 
gathering Brussels Sprouts most 
market gardeners pull up the plants 
and cart them to the packing shed, 
where women divest the stalks of 
the sprouts and pack them in half- 
bushel or bushel baskets, the largest 
and plumpest being always put on 



BRUSSELS SPROUTS 



155 



the top. The Cabbage-like tops are 
packed separately in large baskets. 
Some growers, however, pick the 
sprouts from the plants as they grow, 
and leave them to supply a second 
crop. Brussels Sprouts when in the 
seed-bed are often attacked by small 
white-winged flies, which congregate 
on the under-side of the leaves and 
greatly injure the plants. In order 
to get rid of these, an old sack is 
nailed to two poles, about 6 in. 



being allowed to hang over one of 
the poles to act as a flapper. The 
sack, but not the flapper, is then 
tarred all over, and two men, one 
each side the seed-bed, walk quickly 
along with the sack directly over the 
plants. The flapper drags over the 
plants and disturbs the flies, which 
fly upwards and get stuck to the 
tar. This several times repeated 
gets rid of the majority of the 
insects. 



USES. In Belgium, preference is given to small-sized sprouts, 
which grow very thickly and close together on the stems ; but in 
France the largest-sized sprouts, as big as a good-sized walnut, 
are most in favour another proof that the fine appearance of a 
vegetable or a fruit is not always an index of its quality, for the 
smallest and hardest Brussels Sprouts 
are certainly the most delicate in 
flavour. 

Tall Brussels Sprouts. Stem 
2\ to over 3 ft. high, slender, with 
numerous leaves set at some distance 
apart, leaving the stalk bare for 
a great part of its length, round, 
slightly hollow or spoonshaped, and 
very faintly crimped. Sprouts of 
medium size, very firm, rather pear- 
shaped, and never so close as to 
touch one another. This kind is 
extensively grown in the fields 
around Paris ; it is hardy, and con- 
tinues to bear for several months, 
producing the smallest, most delicate, 
and best " sprouts." 

Half-dwarf Paris Market 
Brussels Sprouts. Strong, straight 
stem, 20 to 28 in. long ; medium- 
sized leaves, rounded, very slightly 
crimped, spoon-shaped, borne on 
long bare stalks and slightly tinged 
with purple. The sprouts are nume- 
rous and closely set on the stem, 
very firm and rounded, and a light gray-green colour. They 
remain a long time without opening, and are scarcely larger 
than a large hazel-nut. The Half-dwarf Paris Market Brussels 




Tall Brussels Sprouts (^ natural 
size; sprout, natural size). 



1 5 6 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Sprout is a very productive variety, regular and hardy. It is the 
sort preferred by the Paris market-gardeners. 

Dwarf Brussels Sprouts. Stem stout and stiff, usually not 
exceeding 20 in. in height ; leaves more close together than those 
of the Tall kind, and more crimped. Sprouts generally larger and 





Half-Dwarf Brussels Sprouts, 



Dwarf Brussels Sprouts 
(l^ natural size). 



rounder, and usually crowded upon one another. This variety is 
generally somewhat earlier than the Tall one, but it does not 
continue to bear so long in winter. 

In England too much importance is attached to the size of the 
sprouts, varieties that yield sprouts as large as small oranges 
being preferred; such varieties as Aigburth, Dalkeith, and Scrymgers 
Giant, which produce sprouts of a size that in France or in Belgium 
would be thought much too large. 

Before describing the Borecoles, we must notice two very 
distinct kinds of Cabbages, which come between those varieties 
which form heads and those which do not. These are the Rosette 
Colewort and the Russian Kale. 

Green Rosette Colewort. Under the name of Rosette Colewort 
or Collard, a very distinct variety is cultivated in England, which, 
although capable of forming a head, is generally cut for use as a 
Borecole while the leaves are in the rosette form and still young 
and tender. It is very dwarf, the stem seldom exceeding 8 or 10 in. 
in height, and bearing numerous closely set, slightly crimped, 



BRUSSELS SPROUTS 157 

rounded, and deeply hollowed or spoon-shaped leaves. If sown early 
in spring, it comes in in August, and, if left in the ground longer, 
it forms a small, round, very compact head. But as Cabbages of 
all kinds are plentiful in autumn, there is no advantage in sowing 
this kind so early ; whereas, if sown in early summer, it comes in 
at a time when tender greens are scarcest and most in demand. 

Russian Kale. A singular plant, which, at first sight, one 
would be inclined to take for anything else but a Cabbage. Stem 
rather large and thickish, 16 to 20- in. high; leaves gray-green, the 
outer ones darker and half-spreading, the central ones paler and 
erect, all of them cut nearly down to the midrib into rather narrow 
divisions, which are entire, or sometimes lobed, and are coarsely 
crimped on the upper surface. At the latter end of autumn this 
Cabbage forms a sort of a head, which is small, pretty white, and 
very compact. Its chief merit is that it bears frosty weather very 
well. Apart from its singular appearance, it is not easy to say 
what this plant has to recommend it. It is certainly no advantage 
to have the veins merely fringed with a narrow border of parenchyma, 
or spongy substance, instead of being connected by an unbroken 
tissue, as they are in other Cabbages. Having been grown for 
some time chiefly in botanical collections, the Russian Kale ap- 
peared to have become almost forgotten, and it was later on 
re-introduced as a novelty into England. 

CULTURE. The culture of Cole- bability of its growing Whole 

worts is very extensive and impor- fields, too, are sometimes cropped 

tant in London market-gardens. with it, and are cleared in good 

These are Cabbages pulled for time for winter Radishes. The 

market when about half-grown, and Rosette is grown largely for market, 

for supplying such every spare a sowing of it being usually made 

corner in market-gardens is planted. in May in beds in an open piece of 

As soon as fruit-bushes have been ground; and, when up, the young 

cleared of their crops, rows of Cole- plants are thinned with small hoes, 

worts are planted between them; The strongest plants are first selected 

they are also planted under fruit- for transplanting, and are put in 

trees, no matter how large the trees chiefly as catch crops between other 

may be, and also between rows of vegetables. For spring Coleworts, 

Moss Roses. The space between only the thinnings of the Fulham 

Celery ridges is likewise generally Cabbage are used. The Rosette 

planted with Coleworts, as is also is, perhaps, the greatest favourite 

that between Asparagus ridges, the in the market, its beautiful white 

edges of which, too, are often heads, when bunched, having an 

cropped with Coleworts. Between attractive appearance. A kind called 

the rows of French and Runner Blue Colewort is largely grown for a 

Beans and Late Savoys the Cole- November crop, as earlier in the year 

wort is also planted ; and, in fact, it is apt to " bolt." Coleworts are 

like Lettuces, it is planted in every tied in bunches, packed in waggons, 

empty space where there is a pro- and sold in this way in market. * 

* London Rosette Colewort, see pp. 760, 763. Hardy Green Colewort. 
see p. 760. 



158 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

BORECOLE or KALE 

Brassica oleracea acephala, D.C. 

French, Choux verts. German, Blatterkohl. Flemish, Bladerkool. Dutch, Boerenkool. 
Italian, Cavolo verde. Spanish, Col sin cogollo, Breton, Berza. 

To this section belong a number of very hardy and excellent 
vegetables, as we think, often more delicate in flavour than the 
hearting Cabbages. The sprouts of the Scotch and Cottager's 
Kales, gathered in spring from the stems cut in winter, are excellent 
in flavour. 

Mosbach Winter Kale. One might suppose that this variety 
was a cross between the Tall Green Curled Kale and the Couve 
Tronchuda Cabbage, so much does it resemble the latter in its 
leaves, which are, to a great extent, entire in the blade, and have 
very stout stalks, midribs, and veins. Only the margin of the 
leaves is curled arid very finely puckered, almost in the same way 




Mosbach Winter Kale. 



Tall Green Curled, or Scotch, Kale. 



as the leaves of the Curled Kales. The stem is of medium height, 
rarely exceeding 2 or 2j ft, and the leaves are disposed along it in 
tiers, are bent upwards, instead of downwards, from the middle, 
and are distinguished by their pale green, almost yellow, colour. 
This plant is not only useful as a table vegetable, but also in some 
degree as an ornamental plant. It is not very hardy. 

Tall Green Curled, or Scotch, Kale; Tall German, or 
Winter, Greens. Stem stout and straight, 3 to 5 ft. high, bearing 
a plume of rather narrow, lobed, deeply cut leaves, very much 
curled at the edges, and often turned backwards at the end, light 
green in colour, and from 1 6 to 20 in. in length. This is a useful 



BORECOLE OR KALE 



159 




Intermediate Moss-curled Kale. 



variety for very cold localities, and its leaves are very tender and 

good after they have been exposed to the action of frosty weather ; 

besides, the plant is ornamental. In the open ground, even in the 

severest winters, it yields a supply 

of fresh vegetables of excellent 

quality. 

Intermediate Moss-curled 

Kale. This variety is intermediate 

in height between the Dwarf Curled 

Kale, the leaves of which spread 

upon the ground, and the Tall 

Green Curled Kale, which some- 

times grows 6 ft or more high. It 

is rarely above 32 in. in height, and 

its short, but very broad, leaves are 

curled to an extreme, the margins 

being also curiously puckered and 

twisted. It is perfectly hardy, and 

in this respect differs widely from 

the Mosbach Kale, which is rather 

sensitive to cold. 

Curled Green Dwarf Kale, German Greens, Dwarf Curlies, 

Canada or Labrador Kale. This is a dwarf variety of the Scotch 

Kale, which it resembles in its leaves ; but its stem does not grow 

more than from 16 to 20 in. high, so that the-ends of the leaves 

often rest upon the ground. Besides its value as a vegetable, it is 

also a very ornamental plant, either for small circular raised flower- 

beds in winter or for garnishing dishes on the table. 

The Siberian Kale of the Americans is a short-stemmed variety, 

not so delicately curled 
as the Curled Green 
Dwarf Kale, and more 
blue in colour. 

Jerusalem Green 
Curled Kale, or 
Asparagus Kale. A 
variety of dwarf but 
sturdy growth, the 
margin of the leaves 

^T J mUC J h C^ped O r 
Curled, and the partially 

undeveloped centre 
leaves tinged with purple on the tips, the veins of a subdued crimson 
colour. I n spring it throws out numerous long, stout, succulent shoots, 
which may be cooked either green or blanched. The Imperial 
Hearting Scotch Kale is also very productive of sprouts in spring. 




Dwarf Curled Kale, German Green Dwarf Curlies, 
Canada or Labrador Kale ( T V natural size). 



i6o 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Tall Purple Borecole, Tall Purple Kale, or Purple Winter 
Greens. This plant resembles the Tall Green Curled Kale in 
everything save the colour of its leaves, which are of a very deep 
violet-red hue. 

Dwarf Purple Curled Borecole. A sub- variety of the preceding 
kind, growing only from 1 6 to 20 in. high. When it is grown true 
to name, the leaves are almost black, and it contrasts very 
strikingly with that of the Green Curled Kale, which it equals 
in hardipess. 

Variegated Borecole, or Garnishing Kale. Stem from 20 in. 
to 2\ ft. high ; leaves divided, slashed, curled, and undulated, like 

those of the preceding 
varieties, but variegated, 
especially after frost, 
either with green, red, 
or lilac on a white 
ground, or with red on 
a green ground. Several 
of these forms can be 
raised individually from 
seed, especially the 
Red Variegated and the 
White Variegated Kale. 
All these kinds are very 
ornamental, and in 
winter very pretty beds 
can be made with them 
in the open ground, 
while the leaves may 
also be found useful for 
garnishing the dinner- 
table. They will bear 
very severe frosty 
weather, if they have 
not previously suffered 
from an excess of mois- 
ture. In growing them, 
when the plants are 
sufficiently large, transplant them into poor soil in an open situation. 
In autumn, select the most beautiful, and, breaking off the large 
under-leaves, plant sufficiently deep to bring the head close to the 
surface of the soil. 

Georgia Collards. The Cabbage, as we remarked at the 
beginning, is a plant which properly belongs to cold and temperate 
climates, and accordingly, amongst cultivated varieties, we find but 
very few which can endure the summer heat of warm latitudes. 




Variegated Borecole, or Garnishing Kale. 



BORECOLE OR KALE 161 

The present variety is one of these, and is very highly esteemed in 
the Southern United States. It does not form a head, but the 
leaves, which are large, undulated, and slightly curled at the edges, 
are folded at the heart or centre, so as to form a sort of bunch, 
being also variegated with white on the ribs, and presenting some- 
what of the appearance of the central leaves of the Cauliflower when 
the head is just about to form. These leaves are very tender and 
delicate when cooked, and, in fact, form an excellent table vegetable. 
The plant grows from 2 to 3 ft. high, according to the nature of 
the soil in which it is grown and the liberal amount of culture 
bestowed upon it. 

Curled Laciniated Borecole. A half-dwarf plant, not usually 
over 20 or 24 in. in height, with long curved leaves, divided into strips 
almost straight or slightly curved and curled, which give them a 
feathery appearance. The colour is generally a dull red, or purplish, 
green, but after the frosts the central part of the plant becomes 
a vivid red. 

Proliferous Borecole. This rather singular variety is remark- 
able for producing on the midrib, and sometimes on the smaller 
veins of the leaf, certain leaf-like appendages, which are curled and 
cut in the same manner as the leaf itself is at the margin. The 
plants are also usually, at the same time, variegated with white or 
red. They are chiefly noticeable as ornamental plants. 

Palm-tree Cabbage or Borecole. Stem straight, or slightly 
curved, attaining a height of 6| ft. or more, 
and bearing at the top a cluster of leaves, 
which are entire, from 2 to over 2\ ft. long 
and 3 or 4 in. broad, the edges turned and 
rolled underneath, dark, almost black, green 
in colour, and finely crimped, like those of 
the Savoy Cabbages. They grow straight 
and stiff at first, but afterwards become 
curved outwards at the ends, giving the plant 
a very elegant appearance. The Palm-tree 
Cabbage does not often flower before the 
third year of its growth, at which time it 
attains its greatest height. In France it is 
almost exclusively grown as an ornamental 
plant. In Italy a variety is grown for table 
use under the name of Cavolo Nero, which p aim-tree Cabbage, or 

, . , . . . . , . rSorecoie. 

seems to us to be identical with this. 

Several varieties of strong tall Cabbages are used for feeding 
cattle only, and need only a brief mention here. They are as 
follows : 

Tree Cabbage or Jersey Kale. The stem is straight, stiff, and 
strong, but comparatively slender, as it seldom attains a diameter 

II 




162 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



of if in. In the first year of its growth it does not usually exceed 
3 or 4 ft. in height. The plant produces a great number of leaves, 
which are green, large, cut at the base, but 
oval-rounded at the end, slightly crimped 
or puffed on the upper surface, and often 
over 2\ ft. long. 

Large-leaved Jersey Kale or Sarthe 
Cow Cabbage. This variety, which comes 
very near the preceding kind, but is usually 
not so tall, is especially remarkable for the 
enormous size of its leaves, which often 
grow more than 3 ft. long and from 12 to 
14 in. broad. It is a very productive cattle- 
feeding Cabbage, succeeding best in rich soil 
in a temperate climate, as it is not perfectly 
hardy. 

Flanders Purple Borecole, or Flanders 
Kale. A cattle-feeding plant of large size, 
but somewhat smaller than the Tree Cabbage, from which it is 
also distinguished by the violet-red colour of its leaves and stem. 
The plant is sometimes branched, in which respect it differs from 
the Tree Cabbage, the stem of which is most usually unbranched. 
The leaves of the Flanders Kale also are smaller and narrower 
in proportion to their length. 

English Thousand-headed Cabbage, or Branching Borecole. 
Another very large kind, differing from the Tree Cabbage in the 




Tree or Jersey Kale, 





Flanders Purple Borecole. English Branching Borecole. 

stem being usually divided into a number of branches, each bearing 
large leaves almost like those of the Tree Cabbage. Although 
not so tall as that, it is generally considered more productive ; 
but it is not so hardy, and often suffers from the winters of the 
middle and north of France. 

Improved, or French Thousand-headed, Cabbage. A very 
distinct variety, raised in La Vendee, and, unfortunately, rather 



BORECOLE OR KALE 



163 




sensitive to cold. It branches still more than the preceding kind, 

and forms a sort of large tuft or small bush, 3 to 4 ft. highland 

exceedingly dense and leafy. The leaves 

are entire, rather long, broader at the base 

than at the end, and of a very peculiar light 

or yellowish tint. It is rather tender for 

the winter climate of the greater part of 

England. 

Marrow Kale. A large variety of 
Cabbage, with a very stout and thick un- 
branched stem, which is swollen chiefly in 
the upper two-thirds of its length and filled 
with a sort of marrow or tender flesh, 
excellent for cattle. The leaves are very 
long and broad, and constitute a considerable 
part of the crop. The stem grows 5 ft. or 
more high, with a diameter of 3 to 4 in. in the thickest part. The 
Marrow Kale, like the Thousand-headed Cabbage, is sensitive to 
cold, and the crop must be gathered before severe frost sets in. At 
the end of summer, and all through the autumn, the leaves are cut 
and given to cattle. At the commencement of hard weather, when 
the leaves are all cut, the stems are taken up and stored in an 
outhouse or shed, where they will be safe from frost, and in this 
way they will keep all through the winter. 

This plant forms the connecting-link between the common 
Cattle-feeding Cabbages and the Kohl-Rabi, and, in a more general 
way, between the Cabbages which are grown for their leaves and 
those which are grown for their swollen steins. The Kohl-Rabi 
is only a Marrow Kale with the stem shortened into the form of 
a ball, the marrow or substance of the swollen 
part being of the same nature, consistence, 
and taste in both plants. 

The stem of the Marrow Kale, if cut while 
young, when the swollen part does not measure 
more than 20 in. or 2 ft. in length and 2 or 
3 in. in diameter, would, in our opinion, form 
a very palatable vegetable. 

Red Marrow Kale. This differs from the 
preceding kind only in the red or purplish 
colour of its stem. It has the same good 
qualities and the same deficiencies. 

In England, a great number of kinds of 
Borecole or Kale are grown, the leaves of 
which are either entire or divided, and smooth 
or faintly crimped, and some of them are as useful in the garden 
as the much-curled sorts. The principal sorts are : 




Red Marrow Kale. 



1 64 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Cottager's Kale. A rather variable kind, with green or violet 
and more or less curled leaves. Its chief merit is its extreme 
hardiness. 

Egyptian Kale. A very dwarf variety, which in spring 
produces great numbers of fleshy shoots, covered with small tender 
leaves. 

Jerusalem, or Delaware, Kale. The leaves of this are curled 
at the edges and of a violet tint. The plant produces shoots in 
spring, like the preceding kind. 

Milan Kale. This is a Borecole, and should not be confounded 
with the French Chou de Milan Savoy. Except that they both 
belong to the same genus, there is no resemblance whatever 
between them. The Milan Kale produces a stem from 18 in. to 
2 ft. high, clothed with plain, bluntly toothed leaves, and terminated 
by a close rosette of leaves forming a small head. In spring it 
throws out a quantity of succulent shoots, which, when cooked, 
is one of the m6st delicious of winter greens. 

Ragged Jack. A hardy and productive variety, with long, 
irregularly cut or slashed leaves, and short, often branching, stem. 

The Gallega Cabbage, of Portugal, is a variety with very large 
green leaves, which are very much crimped and puffed on the 
upper surface. It is a good cropper, but sensitive to cold. 

CULTURE. The culture of the Cattle-feeding varieties of 
Cabbage does not come within the scope of this work. We will 
only say, with respect to such of the Kales or Borecoles as are 
grown for ornament or table use, that they require the same treat- 
ment as late ordinary Cabbages and Brussels Sprouts. They are 
sown in spring in ,a nursery-bed, the seedlings are pricked out in 
May, and afterwards finally transplanted in the course of the 
summer. The crop comes in through the autumn and winter, and 
sometimes through the whole of the following year. The plants 
do not run to seed until the spring of the second year after that in 
which they were sown. 

KOHL-RABI 

Brassica Caulo-rapa, D.C. 

French, Chou-rave. German, Oberkohlrabi. Flemish, Raapkool. Dutch, Koolraapen 
boven den grond. Danish, Knudekaal. Italian, Cavolo rapa. Spanish, Col 
rabano. Portuguese, Couve rabano. 

The useful part of this plant is its swollen, fleshy, and pulpy stem. 
Some cattle-feeding varieties of Cabbages afford examples of 
enlargements of this kind, but in none of them is the stem so 
completely swollen or so much altered in appearance. In the 
Kohl-Rabi, the swelling of the stem^ which commences close to the 
surface of the ground, is almost a ball, the size of which in some 



KOHL-RABI 



165 



varieties does not exceed that of an average-sized orange, while 
in others it nearly equals that of a man's head. The Kohl-Rabi is 
not sufficiently known or valued in France or England, for it forms 
an excellent vegetable, especially when used before it is fully 
grown, in which state it is generally eaten in Germany, while in 
Italy the swollen stem is often eaten before it has grown as large 
as a hen's egg. 

CULTURE. The kitchen-garden varieties are sown in a nursery- 
bed from March to the end of June. When the seedlings are from 
a month to six weeks old, they are permanently planted out, and 
the plants may commence to be cut for use about two months 
after. In planting them out, a space of from 14 to 16 in. should be 
left from plant to plant, according to the variety grown. Some 
varieties also are grown for cattle-feeding, and for this purpose the 
largest and latest kinds are 
employed. They are sown in 
April, planted out in May and 
June, and cut for use only in 
autumn. 

USES. The swollen part 
of the stem is eaten before it 
is quite fully grown, when it 
is tender and has the com- 
bined flavours of a Cabbage 
and a Turnip. 

Common White Kohl- 
Rabi. Leaves rather stout, 
I ft. to 1 6 in. long, with white 
stalks as thick as the little 
finger ; ball very pale green, 
almost white, and 6 to 8 in. 
in diameter. In this variety 
the ball takes a long time to 
form i.e. nearly four months 
before it is large enough to 
be eaten, and six or seven 
months before it is fully grown. The ball is sometimes flattened, 
and at other times almost oblong in shape. The leaves, after 
falling, leave behind them broad whitish scars. 

Purple Kohl-Rabi. This differs from the Common White 
Kohl-Rabi only in the colour of the ball, the leaf-stalks, and the 
veins of the leaves. 

These Kohl-Rabis keep well during the winter, but being liable to 
become hollow and tough, it is well to make use of them before March. 

White Goliath Kohl-Rabi. A very late sort, producing larger 
balls than the preceding. The skin is pale green* almost white. 




Common White Kohl-Rabi. 



166 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

The flesh is fine-grained and of excellent quality, even in full- 
grown plants. The lateness of this variety makes it valuable for 
autumn and winter use. Pulled in October, before the balls have 
attained their full size, and stored under cover, they will keep good 
for several months. 

The Purple Goliath K. differs from the above only in the purple 
tinge of its ball. 

White Vienna Kohl-Rabi. A handsome, very delicately 
formed, and early variety, differing from the Common White kind 

in the fewness and smallness of its leaves, 
which are seldom more than 8 or 10 in. 
in length, with stalks no thicker than a 
goose-quill. The ball also forms more 
speedily in this variety, and is large enough 
to be eaten in two months and a half or 
three months from the time of sowing. 

Early Purple Vienna Kohl-Rabi. 
This variety, the ball of which is purple, 
is in most other respects the same as the 
preceding kind, but without its delicacy of 
form or earliness. They are the two best 
kinds for kitchen-garden culture, especially 
for forcing or late sowings. 
,.,.,. The Artichoke-leaved Kohl-Rabi is a 

Vienna Kohl-Rabi *.i_ "" V * j ^ i j 

( natural size). rather late and moderately productive 

variety, only remarkable for the peculiarity 

of its leaves, which are divided into segments, and at some distance 
look like the leaves of an Artichoke. 

The Neapolitan Kohl-Rabi with curled leaves is, in fact, of 
more account as Borecole than as a Kohl-Rabi, as the swelling of 
the stem is often of very small dimensions. 

TURNIP-ROOTED CABBAGE (SWEDISH TURNIP) 

French, Chou-navet. German, KohlrUbe, Wrucken. Flemish, Steekraap. Dutch, 
Koolraapen onder den grond. Danish, Roe. Italian, Cavolo navone. Spanish, 
Col nabo, Nabicol. Portuguese, Couve nabo. 

The varieties of Turnip-rooted Cabbages differ from the Kohl- 
Rabi in that, instead of having the stem swollen over-ground, they 
produce, partially buried in the soil, a thick root which is about as 
long as it is broad, resembling a huge Turnip, and of which the 
flesh is yellow in the Rutabagas or Swedish Turnips, and white in 
the other kinds. The characters of the leaves and flowers of these 
plants indicate plainly that they are true Cabbages, 

CULTURE. All the varieties like a stiff and moist soil, and grow 
best in climates that are a little moist. They suffer from very hot 




TURNIP-ROOTED CABBAGE (SWEDISH TURNIP) 167 



weather, but are not affected by frost, one of their chief merits 
being their extreme hardiness. They are best sown, where the 
crop is to be grown, in May and June, and the plants are 
thinned out so as to leave a space of 14 to 16 in. from 
plant to plant in every direction, after which no other attention 
is necessary, except the occasional use of the hoe, and watering 
when needed. 

USES. The roots are eaten boiled, and have almost the same 
flavour as the Kohl-Rabi. They are in the best condition for table 
use if lifted before they have reached their full growth. The 
Swedish or Turnip-rooted Cabbage is an excellent vegetable, 
deserving to be more used than it is. 

White Swedish Turnip, or White Swede. Root short and 
broad, somewhat top-shaped, and often irregular in form ; skin 
white, sometimes slightly 
tinged with green around the 
neck ; leaves 14 to 20 in. long, 
cut at the edges, and resem- 
bling those of the Kohl-Rabi. 
Flesh of the root white. 

Budlong's White Improved 
Turnip, or Swede, an American 
variety of this, only differs 
from it in being rather rounder, 
perhaps, in shape. 

The Bredstone Swede, 
another American variety, is 
a regularly shaped root, more 
tapering than the White 
Swede, and appears to come 
midway between that and the 
White Smooth Short - leaf 
-Swede, described farther on. 
The flesh is white, delicate 
in flavour, and of excellent 
quality. 

White Purple-top 
Swedish Turnip. A sub- 
variety Of the White Swede, White Swedish Turnip. 

frora which it differs only in the red or purple tinge of the neck 
of the root ; the leaf-stalks and the veins of the leaves also are 
often of the same colour. Flesh of the root white. 

White Smooth Short-leaf Swedish Turnip. A very distinct 
variety, with a flat root, broader than long, more clean-skinned and 
generally more regular in shape than the two preceding kinds. 
The leaves are shorter, more entire, and of a somewhat deeper 




i68 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




White Smooth Swedish Turnip 
(\ natural size). 



green. This is especially a kitchen-garden variety, and is con- 
siderably earlier than any of the preceding kinds, so that it can be 

sown up to July. The flesh of the 
root is white. 

White Early Strap-leaf Swedish 
Turnip. Root almost spherical and 
generally well-shaped ; the under- 
ground portion white, the upper 
part greenish or bronze-coloured : 
neck very fine, leaves rather small 
in comparison with the size of the 
root, broad, oval or rounded and 
entire. The flesh of this Swede 
is very white, tender, and agree- 
able to the taste, specially if used 
before the root has attained its full 
size. 

Green-top Swedish Turnip. 
Root round, with a yellow skin, 
deeply tinged with green on the 

part over-ground, and especially around the neck. Flesh yellow. 
A variety which is almost the same as the Green-top Swede is 

found in the United States 

under the name of American 

Green-top Yellow Rutabaga. 

It only differs from the other 

in having its leaves slightly 

twisted and almost curled. 

Under the name of Fin- 
land Water-radish a plant 

used to be cultivated which 

did not appreciably differ 

from this, or, at the most, was 

only a form of it in which the 

root was slightly flattened. 
Yellow Purple - top 

Swedish Turnip. This 

variety only differs from the 

preceding one in the root 

being a purplish red colour 

above - ground. In Great 

Britain, where Swedish 

Turnips are grown on a 

very large scale, and take 

almost the same place in 

field culture which the varieties of Mangold-Wurzel occupy 




White Early Strap-leaf Swedish Turnip. 




TURNIP-ROOTED CABBAGE (SWEDISH TURNIP) 169 

in France, the Purple-top 

Swede is most in favour. 

Of this there are a great 

many forms, the most note- 
worthy of which are the 

Skirving, the Champion, 

Bangholm, Imperial, Hall's 

Westbury, and West Nor- 
folk, all of which are to be 

recommended for the great 

size and very regular form 

of their almost perfectly 

spherical roots ; the newer 

variety Monarch (syns. 

Elephant, Mammoth, 

Tankard), with an oval 

root ; also Laing's variety, 

which has an equally large 

and well-shaped root, and ^ 

is especially distinguished Yellow p^^^ Swedish Turnip (i natura i size) . 

by having the leaves entire. 

It is altogether owing to the climate that Swedes are not so 

much grown in France as they are in England. Hot, dry 

summer weather is unfavour- 
able to this plant, which does 
best in a climate that is 
rather moist, and bears frost 
well. In Brittany, where the 
climate is nearly the same 
as that of England, Swedes 
are very extensively grown 
and do well. 

The Drummond, East 
Lothian, Bangholm, Im- 
perial, Hall's Westbury, West 
Norfolk, Shamrock Purple- 
top Swedes, the Fettercairn 
Green-top Swede, and the 
Shepherd's Golden Globe 
Bronze-top Swede differ but 
little from the preceding 
varieties. 

Hartley's Bronze-top 
Swede, oval in shape and 
short in the collar, is largely 
Oval Swedish Turnip. cultivated in Canada. 




170 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Oval Monarch, Tankard, or Elephant Swedish Turnip. 
A large, oval-shaped not deep-rooted variety ; the unburied portion 

red; strong leaf -stalks; 
leaves only slightly cut, 
with rounded edges and 
slightly crimped. A heavy 
cropper ; much grown in 
England for cattle-feeding. 

The variety called 
Kangaroo resembles the 
Oval Swede in shape and 
growth, but differs from it 
by the green-bronzy colour 
of the neck. 

Early Flat Yellow 
Swedish Turnip. This is 

Early Flat Yellow Swedish Turnip. more a kitchen-garden than 

a field variety, with a flat, 

smooth, and clean-skinned root, faintly tinged with green on the 
upper part ; leaves rather few, short, and closely set. The root 
of this variety swells more speedily than that of any other kind, 
and it is the best for kitchen-garden culture. 

Other and true Turnips will be found in their place farther on 
in this book. 

Chinese Cabbage (Brassica sinensis, L. ; Chinese, Pak-choi). 
Native of China. Annual. 
Although this plant is un- 
doubtedly a Cabbage, it is 
more like a Leaf-Beet or 
Chard. The leaves are ob- 
long or oval, dark shining 
green, and narrowed to a 
long, very white, swollen and 
fleshy stalk. It soon runs 
to seed, and the flower-stems 
resemble those of a Cabbage ; 
the seed-vessels, however, 
are shorter and thicker than 
those of the European 
Cabbages. The seed is 
round, small, and brown or 
blackish red. Their germi- 
nating power lasts for five 

years Chinese Cabbage. 

CULTURE. The Pak-choi grows rapidly, and may be sown 
almost all through the year. If sown in the spring, however, or in 




TURNIP-ROOTED CABBAGE (SWEDISH TURNIP) 171 



summer, the plants soon run to seed. Accordingly it is usually 
grown in the same way as Turnips ; that is, it is sown about the 
end of July, or in August, for an autumn or early winter crop. 
The seed is sown in drills, with a space of 16 to 20 in. between 
them, and the seedlings are thinned out two or three times. When 
they are fully grown, the leaves are often 20 in. long, including the 
stalk. The leaves are eaten boiled, like Borecole, and the ribs are 
sometimes sent to table like Asparagus, Broccoli, or Chard Beet. 

Heading Chinese Cabbage or Pe-Tsai {Brassica sinensis, 
L.,var.}. Native of China. Annual. The Pe-tsai,like the Pak-choi, 
differs entirely in appearance from the Cabbages of Europe, being 
rather like a Cos Lettuce in aspect Like it, it sometimes forms a 
long, rather full and compact 
head, and sometimes grows in a 
plain cluster of half-erect leaves, 
disposed in the form of a funnel. 
The ribs are not so white as 
those of the Pak-choi ; they are 
pretty thick and fleshy, and 
the blade of the leaf, although 
narrower at the base, is continued 
down the whole length of the 
stalk. The leaves are slightly 
crimped, undulated at the edges, 
and pale or light green. The 
seed very much resembles that 
of the Pak-choi. Its germi- 
nating power lasts for five years. 
The floral parts of the plant are 
similar to those of the Pak-choi, and both plants are cultivated 
and used in precisely the same manner. 

There has also been imported from China a form of Brassica 
sinensis with perfectly round dark green leaves, narrowed at the 
base into the stalk, forming extremely dense tufts or rosettes ; the 
flower-stems also are much shorter than those of the Pe-tsai or 
the Pak-choi. This plant does not appear to be of much account 
as a table vegetable. Botanicalfy, it exhibits in excess the charac- 
teristics which distinguish Brassica sinensis from Brassica oleracea. 

Improved Heading Chinese or Pe-tsai Cabbage. A fine 
strain of Chinese Cabbage, vigorous and rapid. It can be recom- 
mended as a winter vegetable for mild climates. The leaves are 
large, light green, and curved at the edge ; the rib is broad and 
white, only slightly bare at the base. The first leaves are spreading 
-and curved outwards, the later ones cover one another like those of 
a Cos Lettuce, and form a fine tall head, weighing easily 4 lb. and 
over. It should be sown during summer for use in the autumn 




Improved Heading Chinese Cabbage. 



172 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



and winter. Successive sowings may be made in order to lengthen 
the period of production. Of a milder flavour than the European 
sorts, it may be eaten either raw or as a salad, or cooked. Boiled, 
minced, and seasoned with butter, it is as delicate in flavour as 
boiled Endive. In our grounds on the Riviera it has done very 
well ; sown in August and September, the heads were fit for use 
from November to February. 



CAPER-BUSH 

Capparis spinosa> L. Capparidacece 

French, Caprier. German, Kapernstrauch. Flemish and Dutch, Kapper-boom. Italian \ 
Cappero. Spanish, Alcaparra. Porttiguese, Alcaparreira. 

A native of the south of Europe. Perennial. A shrub grow- 
ing 3 to 5 ft. high, with numerous branches, bearing a pair of 

hooked spines at the base 
of each leaf-stalk. Leaves- 
alternate, round, thick, and 
glistening ; flowers about 
2 in. in diameter, white, 
with numerous violet 
stamens, very pleasing in 
effect ; seed large, kidney- 
shaped, and gray-brown in 
colour. There is also a 
variety without spines, 
from which the crop is 
more easily gathered and 
without danger of wound- 
ing the hands. It is to 
be preferred to the spined 
one, and can be reproduced 
from seed. 

CULTURE. The 
Caper-bush can only be 
cultivated profitably in the 
climate of the Olive-tree, 
where it is almost always planted in dry stony places, on embank- 
ments, declivities, and other positions which are difficult to utilise 
in any other way. It differs from most of the plants described 
in this work in being really a wiry bush, but as the buds are so 
much used in cookery, it is included here. In some of our Colonies 
it could be easily grown ; in England, or cold countries, it only 
lives when protected, and then with difficulty. We have, however, 
grown and flowered it in brick rubbish in a large pot. The flower 




Caper-bush 



natural size ; detached branch, 
\ natural size). 



CAPER-BUSH 173 

is very beautiful and distinct, especially to those who do not know 
it, in countries where it grows freely. 

USES. Under the name of " Capers," the flower-buds, gathered 
when they are as large as Peas, are pickled in vinegar. They are 
valued in proportion to the smallness of their size. 



CAPSICUM, or RED PEPPER 

Capsicum annuum, L. 

French^ Piment. German, Schotenpfeffer. Flemish and Dutch, Spaansche peper. 
Italian, Peperone. Spanish, Pimiento. Portuguese, Pimento. 

Native of South America. Under cultivation this plant is 
an annual, although several species may be perennial in warm 
countries. All of them have erect, branching stems, which become 
almost woody. The leaves are spear-shaped or more or less 
widened, terminating in a point, and narrowed at the base into a 
more or less elongated stalk ; flowers white, star-shaped, solitary in 
the axils of the leaves, and succeeded by seed-vessels very diversi- 
fied in shape, with a somewhat fleshy skin, at first dark green 
turning to red, yellow, or dark violet when ripe, always hollow, 
and containing white, flat, kidney-shaped seeds, attached in great 
numbers to a sort of fleshy cord. These seeds, and also the 
interior tissue of the seed-vessel of most of the varieties, contain 
an acrid juice which is very hot or burning to the taste. Their 
germinating power lasts for four years. 

CULTURE. The Capsicum is grown in the same manner as the 
Egg-plant (see Egg-plant). In the climate of Paris, all the varieties 
require to be sown in a hot-bed, and even in the south of France 
this practice is followed, at least in the case of the large-fruited 
kinds. In Spain, where they are very extensively grown, they 
are almost always forwarded by sowing in February under a 
frame, the seedlings being planted out in the open air towards 
the end of April. 

Capsicums may in some warm they will germinate more quickly, 

parts of England be successfully and the plants will be much stronger 

grown in the open air, but where than when only placed on plain 

large supplies are needed it is shelves, etc. As soon as the plants 

advisable to have some under glass are large enough they should either 

also, in case of failure of the out- be potted off singly into 4 in. pots, 

door crop. The seeds should be or three plants placed triangularly 

sown early in April, on a gentle in 6 or 8 in. ones. In the latter 

hot-bed, or in pots or pans well case, it will be found best to only 

drained and filled with sandy loam fill the pots three-parts full at first, 

and leaf-mould in equal parts ; and with a view to earthing them up 

if plunged in a gentle bottom heat when the soil becomes full of roots. 



174 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



In order to have dwarf and healthy 
plants, it is necessary to place them 
as close to the glass as possible, in 
a temperature of 65 to 70, giving 
them plenty of water and admitting 
air freely. Plants that are potted 
into 4 in. pots should not be 
allowed to become pot-bound, but 
be shifted into 6 or 8 in. ones. 

Those plants that are to be turned 
out of doors should be gradually 
hardened off towards the latter end 
of May, and in June they may be 
planted out into a warm border 
under a south wall. They should 
be planted 10 or 12 in. apart, well 
watered when necessary, and in the 
event of cold weather setting in 
should have some slight protection 
afforded them ; and if the season 
be favourable, they will ripen their 
fruit from the end of August to the 
middle of September. It is only in 
the warm southern counties that we 
have seen a good result with Cap- 
sicums in the open air. 

Where there are pits or frames 
available for growing Capsicums, 
they are the best places in which 
to grow them. Frames recently 
cleared of Early Potatoes answer 
the purpose capitally. The plants 
should be put in i ft. apart, kept 
well watered at the roots, and be 
frequently syringed overhead on 
sunny afternoons, and shut up with 
plenty of sun-heat. When in flower, 
abundance of air must be given 
them, to assist them to set their 
fruit, after which time liberal sup- 
plies of manure-water may be given 
them with advantage. By adopting 
this method it is astonishing the 
quantities of fine large fruit that can 
be gathered from a three-light frame. 

A light, rich soil, composed of 
turfy loam, rotted leaf-mould, and 
cow-manure in equal parts, with a 
little silver sand added, is best 
suited to them; but when grown 



and fruited in pots, a more solid 
soil will be found best. 

Well-ripened pods of Capsicums 
will keep good for several years if 
placed on a dry shelf, and the seed 
will germinate at six or seven years 
old if kept in the pods until it is 
sown. 

INSECTS, ETC. The principal 
enemies of the Capsicum are green 
fly and red spider ; the fly may be 
easily kept in subjection by fumiga- 
tion, and the spider by a free use 
of the syringe on the foliage, and 
maintaining a warm, humid atmo- 
sphere. Those planted out-of-doors 
are generally most affected by red 
spider. The best way in this case 
is to give the plants frequent water- 
ings overhead and at the roots, and 
promote a free growth. Curl in the 
leaf and fruit may often occur in 
outdoor plants in the autumn ; this 
is, however, more or less occasioned 
by the cold nights, following days 
of extreme heat. The remedy is to 
shade slightly during the day, and 
afford a warm covering at night. In 
the many districts where the culture 
of Capsicums may not be possible 
in the open air, the pits, frames, 
and houses, often little used during 
the summer months, offer good 
places in which to grow them. 

In the London market-gardens 
Capsicums are grown in Cucumber- 
houses or similar places where a 
brisk heat and plenty of moisture 
are maintained. The seeds are 
sown in pots in April, and when 
large enough the young plants are 
potted six or eight together in an 
8 in. pot in good rich soil and put 
on stages in a well-lighted position. 
Plenty of water is given them 
whilst growing. Some plant them 
out in frames, and in this way 
obtain abundance of fruit, but the 
most profitable way is pot-culture 
or frame-culture. 



CAPSICUM, OR RED PEPPER 



175 



USES. The seed-pods, green or ripe, are much used as season- 
ing, especially in hot countries ; they are also pickled in vinegar. 
When dried and ground, they make cayenne or red pepper. The 
pods of some of the large kinds, which are very fleshy and not hot, 
are used as vegetables in about the same way as Egg-plants. A 
good instance of the slowness with which the use of vegetables 
is made known is afforded by the large green mild variety of 
Capsicum, which is so much eaten over a great part of Spain and 
some of the adjoining French departments. It was carried by the 
Spaniards into Naples during their dominion there in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, and has since remained in common use 
there, without spreading farther. It makes an excellent salad, 
having all the flavour of the Capsicum without pungency, and 
enters into various light and pleasant dishes of the Italian and 
Spanish cooks. 

Common Capsicum. A great many, if not all, of the culti- 
vated varieties of Capsicum appear to have been derived from 

this species, which is success- 
fully cultivated in the climate 
of Paris as an annual, with 
the assistance of a little 
artificial heat at the com- 
mencement of its growth. It 
grows pretty tall, has leaves 
longer than broad, white and 
rather small flowers, and 
usually long seed-pods. The 
acrid or burning principle in 
the seed-pods is in inverse 
proportion to their size. The 
large kinds are usually mild 
in flavour, the medium-sized 
sometimes mild and some- 
times the reverse, while the 
small kinds are invariably 
very pungently hot to the 
taste. 

Long Red Capsicum, 
or Guinea Pepper. This 
variety, which is the most 
extensively grown of all, 
has all the characteristics of 




Long Red Spanish Pepper. 



growth just described. The seed-vessels are pendent, slender, long, 
conical in shape, often curved and twisted, sometimes 4 to 5 in. 
in length, and about I in. in diameter at the base. When ripe, 
they afe a very fine brilliant red, and usually rather hot to the 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



taste, but in this respect great differences occur between one plant 
and another, without any external indication to mark which are 
very hot and which are mild in flavour. 

Long" Cayenne Pepper. Under the occasional name of Long 
Cayenne Pepper, a sub-variety of the preceding kind is grown, 
which has the seed-vessels narrower, slightly curved at the end, 
pendent, seldom more than f in. in diameter and about 3 in. in 




Long Cayenne Pepper. 



Cardinal Pepper. 



length, and always very hot to the taste. This plant, however, 
should not be confounded with the true Cayenne Pepper, which is 
a perennial and belongs to a different species, too tender for the 
climate of France. 

Cardinal Pepper. A distinct strain of Long Red Pepper, 
less than I ft. in height, of compact, bushy, vigorous growth, 
characterised not only by its small stature but also by its earliness 
and the great size of the seed-vessels. The latter are very red in 
colour, slightly curved and undulated, and should be mild to the 
taste. 

Long Yellow Capsicum. This variety only differs from the 
Spanish or Guinea Pepper in the colour of the seed-vessels, which 



CAPSICUM, OR RED PEPPER 



177 



are bright glistening yellow, and usually very hot 
in flavour, seldom more than 4 in. long, slender 
in shape, and often slightly curved. 

Long Black Mexican Pepper. Seed-vessel 
thin, straight or slightly undulated, 7 to 9 in. in 
length, shining black, as pungent as the Cayenne 
Pepper. Quite distinct from the other sorts of 
Capsicums. 




Long Yellow Pepper. 



Long Black Mexican Pepper 



Chili Pepper, or Chillies. The appearance of this variety is 
very distinct from that of the other kinds, as it has a very 
branching, rather low- 
growing stem, the spread- 
ing branches of which 
form a dwarf broad bush, 
seldom more than 16 to 
20 in. high. Leaves small, 
narrow, and numerous ; 
flowers small and white, 
succeeded by slender and 
long-pointed seed-vessels 
about 2 in. long and 
scarcely f in. in diameter, 
very often growing erect, 
very bright scarlet when 




Chili Pepper, or Chillies. 



12 



THE: VEGETABLE GARDEN 



ripe, and very hot to the taste ; tihey are produced in the greatest 

abundance, sometimes appearing to equal the leaves in number. 

This is one of the earliest 
and most productive kinds, 
and is the most suitable 
variety for gardens in the 
north of France. In ad- 
dition to its value as a 
kitchen-garden plant, it 
is also highly ornamental, 
from the fine effect pro- 
duced by the numerous 
brilliant - coloured seed- 
vessels relieved against 
the green of the foliage. 
The Coral Gem 
Bouquet Pepper is a very 
pretty American variety 
of the above, producing 
^ numerous short and regu- 
larly shaped bright red 
fruit, in bouquets resem- 
bling clusters of coral. 
Red Cluster Pepper. Red Cluster Pepper. 

A compact, much- 
branching plant, with numerous small leaves, and an abundance 

of flowers at the ends of the branches, succeeded by branches 

of slender, pointed pods, curved, and bright red ; not so long as. 

those of the Chili Pepper, but much 

thinner and pungent. 

Cherry Pepper. Some botanists 

make this a different species under the 

name of Capsicum cerasiforme. In its 

habit of growth, however, it comes 

very close to the varieties of Capsicum 

annuum, and is distinguished from the 

Spanish or Guinea Pepper by the shape 

of its seed-vessels, which are almost 

spherical, with a diameter of nearly I in. 

in all directions. They are extremely 

hot to the taste, and somewhat late in 

ripening. In support of the opinion 

that this Pepper is simply a variety 

of Capsicum annuum, it is often found 

bearing seed-vessels more or less long in shape, and apparently^ 

reverting to the common Spanish or Guinea variety. 





Cherry Pepper (branch, 
fruit, ^ natural size). 



CAPSICUM, OR RED PEPPER 



179 




Large Bell Pepper or Capsicum 
(| natural size). 



There is a sub-variety of it with yellow seed-vessels, veiy 

seldom met with in cultivation, 

and which, except in the colour 

of its seed-vessels, exactly re- 
sembles the ordinary Cherry 

Pepper. 

Cranberry Pepper. A Chili 

Pepper with round, erect, very 

numerous fruits, smaller than in 

the Cherry Pepper, and hardly 

larger than big peas. They form 

compact bouquets, and have a 

very burning taste. This Pepper 

possesses the same qualities as 

the Chili Pepper, and can be used 

as a condiment or as a plant for 

ornament 

Large Bell Pepper or 

Capsicum. A rather thick-set 

plant, with large leaves of light 

green ; branches short and stiff ; 

flowers large, and often irregular in form ; seed-vessels blunt and 

squared at the ends, with four deep furrows and four corresponding 

prominent ridges along 
the sides ; flesh rather 
thick ; seeds few. This 
Pepper is entirely free 
from the acrid or burning 
pungency which charac- 
terises some other kinds. 
The variety of it which 
is most commonly grown 
produces seed-vessels 
about 2 in. in length and 
the same in diameter. 
This is a form that may 
be eaten as a vegetable, 
and a very pleasant ad- 
dition it is, as the Italians 
cook it. Of late years 
this variety has been 
partly superseded by the 
Improved Bull-nose Cap- 
sicum, described hereafter. 
In the south of France 
Improved Bull-nose Pepper. and in Spain a form is 




1 8o 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Ruby King Pepper. 

scarlet ; fleshy, and mild in flavour, 
seeds, which to the seed- 
grower is a great drawback, 
although an advantage in 
cooking. 

Ruoy King Capsicum. 
A very productive variety, 
with large, red seed-vessels, 
somewhat variable in shape, 
square near the stalk, and 
more or less tapering at the 
top. 

Golden Dawn Capsi- 
cum. There are several 
known strains of Yellow 
Bell-shaped Capsicums,some 
of them with erect-growing 
fruit, and others in which 
the fruit is pendent. Of 
these the Golden Dawn 
Capsicum is the most in- 
teresting and profitable to 



cultivated which has the 
seed-vessels much larger 
and somewhat rounder 
in shape, but with the 
furrows very deeply 
marked, especially to- 
wards the end of the 
seed-vessel. It is not 
unusual, in this variety, to 
see seed-vessels measuring 
from 3 to 4 in. across 
every way. It is a very 
late kind, and does not 
keep well. 

Improved Bull-nose, 
or Sweet Mountain, 
Capsicum. A smaller 
plant, less branching, not 
so leafy, and decidedly 
earlier than the Large 
Bell Capsicum. The seed- 
vessels also are larger, 
smoother, and fewer ; in 
colour a very fine glossy 
The pods contain very few 




Golden Dawn Pepper. 



CAPSICUM, OR RED PEPPER 



iSi 




Mammoth Golden Queen Pepper. 



grow. It is a dwarf branch- 
ing plant, with pendent 

seed-vessels about ij in. 

in length and of about the 

same thickness ; in colour 

a beautiful bright yellow, 

sometimes orange. It is 

fairly productive, and about 

as early as the Sweet 

Mountain Capsicum. 

Mammoth Golden 

Queen Capsicum. A 

strong plant, with abundant 

leaves of dark green colour. 

and slightly spoon-shaped. 

For earliness it equals the 

Golden Dawn Capsicum, 

and surpasses the Sweet 

Spanish Capsicum. It is 

distinguished from both by 

the greater size of its seed- 
vessels. 

Monstrous Capsicum. The seed-vessels of this variety are 

up to a certain point, intermediate between those of the Guinea 

Pepper and those of the Bell Pepper, but they surpass both in size. 

They are an irregular 
ovoid or conical shape, 
swollen in the part next 
the stalk, and narrowed 
at the other end, usually 
more abruptly on one 
side than on the other, 
so that one side is 
generally quite convex, 
while the other is more 
or less concave. The 
appearance of the seed- 
vessel is well indicated 
by the name of Sheep's- 
head Pepper, which is 
sometimes given to it 
Well grown, it measures 
about 6 in. in length, 
with a diameter of about 
3 in. in the thickest part ; 
Monstrous Capsicum ( natural size> and, when ripe, it is a 




1 82 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



fine deep red and perfectly mild in flavour, and therefore one of 

the kinds that have a distinct value for use in the green state. 
Elephant's Trunk Capsicum. Seed-pod bright red, large, 

thick. Broad, and more or less ribbed 
at the base, tapering progressively 
towards the end. Like most large- 
fruited Peppers, it is mild in flavour. 
In growth and productiveness it 
resembles the Monstrous Pepper, from 
which it has probably been derived. 

Spanish Mammoth Capsicum. 
The seed-vessels of this variety 
resemble those of the Monstrous 
Capsicum in size, but their shape is 
that of a cone, or rather a prism, 
with rounded angles and truncate 
at the end. They are 6 or 7 in. in 
length, with a diameter of between 
2 and 3 in. at the base, and rather 
more than I in. at the extremity. 
They are very handsome, and very 
mild in flavour. 

Of this variety there are two 
forms, one of which has bright red, 
and the other fine yellow seed-vessels. 
Only in very warm climates do the 

seed-vessels attain their full size. Very fair specimens of it, 

which have come from Valencia or Algeria, may be seen in Paris, 

in the shops where the produce of the south of Europe is sold ; 

but it is almost impossible to grow anything like them in the 

climate of Paris. 

Red Tomato Capsi- 
cum, or American Bonnet 

Pepper. This Pepper 

has some resemblance to 

the Bell Pepper, but the 

seed - vessels are much 

shorter, and are marked 

with numerous ribs and 

furrows, like some kinds 

of Tomato. When ripe, 

they are of a fine bright 

red, and measure about 




Spanish Mammoth Capsicum 
( natural size). 




Red Tomato, or Squash, Pepper. 



2 in. across and about I in. in depth. This is not a very productive 
kind, and is chiefly interesting on account of the singular shape 
of the seed-vessels, which are usually mild in flavour and only hot 



CAPSICUM, OR RED PEPPER 



183 




Early Dwarf Red Squash Pepper 



in exceptional cases ; the flesh is always rather dry and thin. 

There is a sub-variety with yellow seed-vessels. 
Early Dwarf Red Squash 

Capsicum. Of dwarfer habit, 

less leafy, and earlier than the 

Tomato Capsicum, and therefore 

a good substitute for it in places 

where that fails to ripen its pods, 

although the fruit is not perhaps 

quite as regular in shape. The 

fruit is sometimes pungent. 
Celestial Capsicum. Of 

medium size, erect, and branch- 
ing. It is something like the 

Chili Pepper, but smaller and 

not so bushy. The pods are 

numerous, erect, and conical ; 

in colour white, striped purple 

at first, which gradually changes to yellow, and finally to 

scarlet The contrasting colours of the pods on the same plant 

are strangely effective. 
Other varieties : 
Violet-coloured or Black Capsicum. A vigorous plant, often 

over 3 ft. in height, with violet stems. Fruit variable in shape, 

sometimes short conical, 
but oftenest four times 
as long as broad ; deep 
violet - red when ripe. 
Very pungent. 

Chinese Giant 
Pepper. A late, leafy 
variety, with large square 
fruit of a brilliant red. 

Kaleidoscope Capsi- 
cum. This plant has 
the fine shape of the 
Celestial Pepper, with 
spreading branches. 
Fruit at first yellow- 
white, changing to orange, 
and then rose or pale red. 
Procopp's Giant 
Capsicum. A kind of 
celestial Capsicum. Monstrous Capsicum, the 

fruits being very large, bumpy, and twisted like those of the 
French varieties. 




1 84 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Golden Upright Capsicum. A small and early variety, with 
upright square pods of beautiful yellow. 

The names of Bird's-beak Pepper and Mad Pepper are some- 
times given to the seed-vessels of the smallest varieties of Capsicum 
annuum, which are remarkably hot to the taste ; but, properly 
speaking, these names should be applied to the seed-vessels of 
Capsicum frutescens, which only grows well in tropical climates 

CARAWAY 

Carum Carvi, L. Umbelliferce 

French, Carvi, Cumin des pres. German, Feld-Kiimmel. Dutch, Karvij. Danishj 
Kommen. Italian, Carvi. Spanish, Alcaravea. Portuguese, Alcaravia. 

Native of Europe. Annual or biennial. Root as thick as 
the thumb, long, yellowish, with white compact flesh, which has 

a slight carrot flavour ; 
leaves chiefly radical, 
numerous, composed of 
opposite whorled leaflets ; 
leaf-stalk channelled, 
hollow and undulated ; 
stem straight, I to 2 ft. 
high, branching, angular, 
and smooth ; flowers small, 
white, in umbels ; seeds 
oblong, rather curved, 
marked with five furrows, 
aromatic, and of a light 
brown colour. Their 
germinating power lasts 
for three years. 

CULTURE. The seeds 
are often gathered in the 
meadows, where the plant 

^11^=^%^--^ " grows naturally. When 

Caraway. the plant is cultivated, the 

seed is sown in drills, in 

May or June. As soon as the seedlings are pretty strong, they 
are thinned out, and nothing further is required, except to keep 
the ground free from weeds, until the crop is gathered in July 
of the year after that in which the seed was sown. By sowing 
some of the seed as soon as it is ripe, plants may be raised which 
will run to seed in the summer of the following year, and a month 
or two may thus be saved in the cultivation of the crop, as 
compared with the ordinary mode of sowing. 

USES. The root may be eaten, but is seldom so used. The 




CARAWAY 185 

leaves and young shoots are sometimes eaten. The seeds are used 
for flavouring bread in Germany and other countries, and certain 
kinds of cheese in Holland. They are of very ancient use, and are 
still used in bread, pastry, cheese, sweets, and sauces. 

CARDOON 

Cynara Cardunculus, L. Composite 

French, Cardon. German, Kardone, Cardy. Flemish, Kardoen Italian, Spanish, and 

Portuguese, Cardo. 

Native of Southern Europe. Perennial. Notwithstanding the 
different botanical names which have been given to them, the 
Artichoke and the Cardoon appear to belong to the same species, 
cultivation having, in the case of the latter, developed the leaf- 
stalks, and, in the former, the receptacle of the flower. The 
Cardoon is a larger plant than the Artichoke, and of a more 
vigorous habit of growth, but the botanical characteristics and the 
general appearance of both present the greatest analogy to each 
other. In the Cardoon, the stem, which attains a height of from 
4 to 6 ft., is channelled and of a whitish hue ; the leaves are very 
large, pinnated, slightly gray-green on the upper surface, and 
almost white underneath, and armed, in several varieties, at the 
angle of each division with very finely pointed yellow or brown 
spines from about in. to over in. long. The very fleshy leaf- 
stalks or ribs are the edible part of the plant. The flowers, which 
have usually pointed scales, resemble those of the Artichoke, but 
are smaller. The seed is thick, oblong, rather flat, and angular, 
gray, striped or streaked with dark brown. Their germinating 
power lasts for seven years. 

CULTURE. Unlike the Artichoke, which is almost always 
propagated by means of offsets, the Cardoon is always raised 
from seed, which is usually sown in May, in holes or " pockets " 
filled with compost, and made at a distance of about a yard from 
one another in every direction. It might be sown earlier in pans 
on a hot-bed, but this practice has few advantages, as the Cardoon 
has ample time to develop itself during the summer and autumn, and 
is not a vegetable that is sought after before its natural season. The 
ground must be kept very clean, and the plants should be plentifully 
watered through the summer. As they will not have grown large 
enough to touch one another before September, the ground between 
the rows may be utilised in the meantime by sowing some other 
crop there. The stalks or ribs are blanched by tying them together 
and wrapping them round with straw, which is also tied up with 
cord, bast, etc. The plants are then earthed up, and left so for 
about three weeks, when the stalks or ribs will be in proper 
condition for use ; but if left longer than this, they will be in danger 



1 86 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



of rotting. The Cardoon does not bear frost ; therefore, before 
severe weather comes on, the, plants should be taken up and placed 
in a vegetable-house for winter use. 



The Cardoon, if treated in the 
same manner as Celery, will gene- 
rally be found to succeed ; the 
only difference is in the mode 
of blanching, which requires more 
care than blanching Celery. Tho- 
rough blanching is essential, in 
order to bring out the delicacy of 
flavour possessed by the Cardoon, 
without which it is worthless. It is 
better to have small heads well 
blanched and crisp than to have 
large rank ones half-blanched, and 
consequently tough and strong. In 
order to have good tender heads, it 
is necessary to grow the plants from 
the beginning to the time of blanch- 
ing without a check, and this can 
only be done by planting them in 
deep, rich soil, and keeping them 
well supplied with water at the 
roots during dry weather. 

Where Cardoons are in demand 
early in winter, it is necessary to 
sow seeds of them in heat early in 
March, and to transplant in either 
May or June, according to the 
weather. For this purpose seed may 
either be sown in small pots and 
placed in a warm house, or sown in 
drills 4 or 5 in. apart, in a gentle 
hot-bed. Sowing in pots is, how- 
ever, considered to be the best, in- 
asmuch as the plants can be more 
easily removed when required to be 
hardened off, and they are not so 
liable to a check when transplanted 
as when lifted out of a bed. The 
best-sized pots for the purpose are 
4-in. ones, in each of which should 
be sown four or five seeds, thinning 
out the plants as they advance in 
growth, and finally leaving only the 
strongest one. They should be 
placed close to the glass, where 
they will get plenty of light and air 



to keep them strong and stubby, 
gradually hardening them off early 
in May ; and towards the end of the 
month they may be transferred to 
the trenches in which they are to 
grow, if the weather be favourable, 
planting them from 2^ to 3 ft. apart 
in the row. It is not well to sow 
too early, as the plants become 
pot-bound before they can be planted 
out, and consequently checked in 
growth. A second sowing may be 
made in May in open trenches, and 
the main sowing early in June. 
The trenches should measure at least 
4 ft. from centre to centre, and be 
dug 2 ft. wide and 18 in. deep. 
Into the bottom of these should be 
placed 2 or 3 in. of good rotten 
manure, which should be dug in 
with a fork, and well incorporated 
with the soil in the bottom of the 
trench. The seeds should then be 
sown in patches from 2^ to 3 ft. 
apart, and slightly covered with fine 
soil well watered, and flower-pots 
should be placed over them until the 
plants are up, when they may be 
removed and the weakest plants 
thinned out, eventually allowing 
only the strongest to remain. The 
subsequent treatment consists in 
keeping them well supplied with 
water at the roots until the end of 
September, when they will have 
nearly completed their growth, and 
when they will require moulding up. 
Those planted earlier will, however, 
be ready before that time, and should 
be earthed up as early as possible 
the aim in this case generally 
being earliness rather than large 
heads. 

TYING AND EARTHING UP. 
Choose a fine day, when the foliage 
of the plants and the soil are dry. 



CARDOON 



187 



The leaves should be carefully 
brought to an upright position, and 
then placed neatly together and tied 
with broad pieces of matting. A 
good armful of dry hay or straw 
should then be placed round the 
base of each plant, and secured by 
strong haybands being wound round 
it, gradually narrowing to the top, 
leaving only the tips of the leaves 
bare. This done, the soil between 
the trenches should be turned over 
and well broken with the spade, and 
afterwards placed equally and firmly 
round the plants, forming an even 
ridge by beating the sides with the 
back of the spade. The plants will 
be well blanched and fit for use four 
or five weeks after earthing. Blanch- 
ing may also be done by placing a 



drainpipe over the plants, after tying 
the leaves closely .together, the 
apertures between the plants and 
pipes being filled with sand. This 
plan, though a good one, is too 
expensive where many plants are 
grown. Many lift their Cardoons on 
the appearance of severe weather, 
and place them in dry cellars or 
sheds from which frost is excluded. 
This is really unnecessary so far 
as the plants are concerned, as 
they can be effectively protected by 
placing litter, etc., along the ridges ; 
but there is one advantage in lifting 
them, and that is, they may be got 
at easily in hard weather, whereas 
those left out-of-doors sometimes 
cannot be dug out without much 
labour. 



USES. The blanched stalks or ribs of the inner leaves are 
chiefly used as a winter vegetable, as well as the main root, which 
is thick, fleshy, tender, and of an agreeable flavour. Cooked in a 
delicate way, it is ex- 
cellent ; the degree of 
tenderness to which it is 
boiled should be studied, 
and the sauce should not 
be rank with salt and 
spice. 

Prickly Tours Car- 
doon. This is one of the 
smaller varieties, and has 
very thick and solid stalks 
or ribs. On the other 
hand, it is the most spiny 
kind of all, which, however, 
does not prevent it from 
holding the first place in 
the estimation of the 
market-gardeners of Tours 
and Paris. 

Ivory-white Cardoon. 
Smaller and much less 
spiny than the Tours 
Cardoon, it has numerous 

Very fleshy ribs of fine Prickly Tours Cardoon (& natural size). 




188 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



remarkable also for their 
facility with which they 



very 
can be 



quality and very tender ; 
pale yellow colour and the 
blanched. 

Smooth Solid Cardoon. This variety, which is almost spine- 
less, is rather larger than the preceding, has longer leaves 
and ribs, and grows from about 4 to 4^ ft. high. The ribs are 
always broader than those of the Prickly Tours Cardoon, but 
not so thick, yet they become hollow sooner, if the plant is allowed 
to suffer ever so little from drought or want of nourishment. The 
leaves are neither quite so much cut nor quite so whitish in hue as 
those of the Prickly Tours variety. 




Ivory-white Cardoon. 



Long Spanish Cardoon. A large variety, which is chiefly 
grown in the south of Europe, with large, broad-ribbed leaves. 
It is not spiny, but the ribs are not so solid as those of the preceding 
varieties. 

Artichoke-leaved Cardoon (Cardon Puvis). A very distinct 
spineless variety. Leaves very broad and large, not much cut, and 
dark green. It is a vigorous plant, with broad ribs, usually half- 
solid, and is chiefly grown about Lyons, where it attains about the 
same height as the Smooth Solid Cardoon, but is broader in all its 
Darts. 



CARDOON 



189 



In some varieties the lower part of the leaf is more or less 
coloured with purple or red ; such as the Red-stemmed and the 




Smooth Solid Cardoon (^ natural size). 



Artichoke-leaved Cardoon. 



Purple Cardoon, but they have now gone out of cultivation, their 
ribs generally being wanting in firmness, and their red or purple 
colour being against them. 



French, Carotte. 



CARROT 

Daucus Carota, L. Umbellifercz 

German, Mohre, Gelbriibe. Dutch, Wortel. 
Spanish, Zanahoria. Portuguese, Cenoura. 



Italian, Carota. 



Native of Europe. Biennial. The root of this plant, when 
artificially developed by cultivation, exhibits the widest differences 
in shape, size, and colour. The leaves are very much divided, and 
twice or thrice pinnate, the divisions being deeply cut and pointed. 
The flowers, produced in umbels, are small, white, crowded together, 
and with long linear bracts, and are borne on the top of a stem 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



from 2 to 5 ft. high, and do not appear until the year after the 
seed is sown. The seeds are small, green or gray-brown, slightly 
convex on one side and flat on the other,* channelled, and set 
with recurved points or bristles on two of the ridges ; they have 
a very strong, peculiar, aromatic odour. Their germinating power 
lasts for five years. 

CULTURE. The cultivation of the Carrot is most simple. The 
seed is sown in the open ground, where the crop is to be grown, 
from February to autumn. The soil should be well prepared by 
being manured, if possible, six months at least beforehand, and 
deeply dug for the long-rooted varieties. As soon as the plants 
appear, hoe, and continue to hoe as long as the crop remains in the 
ground. This operation will be found all the easier if the plants are 
sown in drills. The seedlings are thinned out two or three times, 
leaving them more or less far apart according to the size of the kind 
grown. The short and very early varieties are most usually sown 
broadcast, either in the open air or under a frame. A first thinning- 
out is made while the plants are young, and afterwards the removal 
of such as have grown large enough for eating gradually makes 
room for the slower-growing ones that are left. By making suc- 
cessional sowings, crops of Carrots may be obtained from April to 
June on hot-beds, and from July to November in the open ground. 
In November the plants should be pulled up and stored for winter 
use in a dry, sheltered place. Sometimes they are left in the 
ground, covered with straw, leaves, or earth, and dug up as they 
are required for the table. Plants sown late in the open ground, 
and protected in severe weather by a covering of some kind, will 
sometimes get through the winter, and yield an early crop in the 
ensuing spring. 



Carrots require a good, light, warm 
soil, well trenched, and which has 
been previously well manured. Sow- 
ing must be done in dry weather ; 
for, should a shower happen soon 
after the seed is in the ground, the 
crop will, in most cases, be a 
failure, if not sown again imme- 
diately. Drills ought to be pre- 
ferred to broadcast sowing. On 
account of its numerous bristles, 
Carrot-seed is somewhat difficult to 
sow with regularity ; therefore it is 
mixed with sand or dry soil. This 
difficulty is obviated now by buying 
cleaned seed from seedsmen. Lay- 
ing the seed in wet sand or wet 
loam a few days before sowing, in 



order to stimulate germination, was 
once much practised; but this 
method is now seldom employed. 
It may, however, do under some 
circumstances; for instance, in 
forcing and sowing in the open 
ground, where drought is feared. 

FORCING. The French Forcing 
and the Scarlet Horn Carrots are 
best for the purpose, but the former 
is to be preferred. Prepare mild 
hot-beds 2 1 ft. high in November or 
December and 1 1 or 2 ft. in January 
or February ; put on the frames, 
cover the bed with 5 or 6 in. of 
rich soil or mould, and, as soon as 
the whole is sufficiently heated, sow 
the seed broadcast,, cover with j in. 



CARROT 



191 



of mould, smooth the surface, and 
cover the glass with mats until the 
seed comes up. Should the interior 
get dry, give a slight watering, 
but be careful of damp. When the 
plants have four or five leaves, thin 
them | in. apart ; admit air as often 
as the temperature will allow it, 
which will give strength to the 
seedlings. Take care the heat does 
not exceed 60 during the day and 
50 at night, which may be easily 
regulated by tilting the glass. In 
the case of sharp frost, covering 
with mats is preferable to artificial 
heat. Shading, if needed, must not 
be omitted. Sowing in November, 
if carried on practically, will produce 
fine young Carrots at the end of 
February, which will last through 
March and April. Subsequent sow- 
ings in December for March to 
April, in January for April to May, 
and, lastly, in February for April to 
June must be attended to as re- 
quired by market-gardeners ; but, 
in private gardens, the .first bed 
should be made in November and 
the second in January ; these will 
afford an ample supply until new 
open-ground Carrots are fit for use. 
Where frames are not available, pre- 
pare, at the beginning of February, 
in some warm corner, a bed of hot 
manure mixed with leaves, covered 
with 4 or 5 in. of mould; sow the 
seed and protect with mats supported 
by sticks or other apparatus. As 
soon as the seed comes up, remove 
the covering every day as frequently 
as the weather will permit, and the 
crop will be ready from the end of 
April to the end of May. 

EARLY AND MAIN CROPS. For 
the first outdoor crop the seed should 
be sown in February, on a warm, 
dry border, in 5 in. drills; cover 
the seed with | in. of fine mould ; 
when the young plants have formed 
a few leaves, thin them to i or 2 in. 



apart, hoeing and watering as re- 
quired. The crop should be ready 
by the end of May, and will last 
until the general crop comes in. 
The best variety for this purpose is 
the Scarlet Horn. In June sow the 
same kind of Carrot again, if small 
roots be preferred. Intermediate 
Scarlet and Intermediate Nantes are 
the best varieties for general crops. 
Sow from March to May (the latter 
month for winter Carrots), in well- 
prepared soil, in 9 to 12 in. drills, 
J in. deep. As the Carrots make 
their appearance, hoeing, weeding, 
watering, and thinning them to | in. 
apart should be duly attended" to. 
As soon as the plants attain the 
size of a lead pencil, thin them to 
3 or 4 in. apart without hesitation. 
Thinning generally receives too 
little attention in every country; and 
the Carrots, crowded when young, 
are left to be taken up for use when 
they have attained sufficient size. 
In most cases the ground gets dry 
and hard, and thus prevents the 
lifting of the roots, which are then 
left until the autumn, when only 
small, useless Carrots are the result. 

AUTUMN SOWING. In August and 
September, select a warm border. 
Sow French Forcing or Scarlet Horn 
Carrot, as for the early crop. The 
roots must remain in the ground the 
whole winter ; but if well protected 
and the bed covered with i in. of 
mould, healthy little Carrots will be 
ready from February until May. 

STORING. In October, before 
the frosts occur, and on a fine day, 
take up the crop, cut the leaves | in. 
from the top, clear the roots from 
soil, and store them at once in a 
cold shed or cellar; there arrange 
them in tiers, spreading between 
each a layer of sand or dry soil, up 
to the height of 3 ft., the length 
being determined by the quantity 
fo roots ; two boards will secure the: 



192 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



ends of the pile. By this means 
the roots can be easily and often 
examined, and those that are decayed 
removed. On the first symptoms of 
vegetation appearing, pull down the 
pile and build it again, and this 
method will enable the Carrots to 
be kept in a good state as late as 
possible. Another method. In open 
ground, in a dry place, remove the 
soil to the depth of i ft., trench the 
bottom, adding some sand if pos- 
sible ; plant the roots vertically close 
to each other, and protect from frost 
and from wet. The objection to 
this plan is, that decay cannot be 
attentively watched, and vegetation 
is much more liable to be excited, 
to prevent which the roots must be 
lifted and again buried. Heaps 
should be avoided in the case of 
garden varieties. 

DISEASES AND INSECTS. The 
Carrot is a prey to many enemies. 
Perhaps the worst to be feared is 
the rust, and this occurs generally 
from the roots being grown in wet 
soil, or having suffered from dryness 
in summer. Too much fresh manure 
will also provoke it There is no 
effective remedy for it, but salt and 
quicklime applied to the ground 
before sowing is an excellent pre- 
ventive as well as a fertiliser. At 
spring-time, in hot-beds or borders, 
the young plants of the first sowings 
are sometimes entirely destroyed by 
a small spider. Gardeners watching 
young Carrots are surprised the next 
day to see that every plant has 
disappeared. Soot spread over the 
drills, or the entire bed, will effec- 
tually prevent such a disaster. Snails 
and slugs are very fond of young 
Carrots, one snail or slug being able 



to destroy a small bed in a single 
night. Quicklime spread over the 
young plants (which it does not 
injure), and around the beds, will 
secure the crops, for one ap- 
plication effectually destroys these 
marauders. D. G. 

The Carrot-louse attacks the 
young plants almost as soon as they 
appear, often doing much damage, 
like the Turnip-fly, if growth be re- 
tarded at the beginning. Then the 
Carrot-grub is even more destructive, 
boring into the roots, and often ruin- 
ing a crop. Wireworm, millepeda^ 
and several other enemies sometimes 
do much mischief. 

Early Carrots are largely supplied 
for the London market from France : 
they are tender and delicious, and 
often far better than those obtained 
from the London market-gardens. 
Seed of early varieties is sown from 
February to March, after which the 
main crop is put in, and the plants 
are not thinned out quite so much 
as other coot-crops. The Early Horn 
is the kind used for early sowings ; 
and, when in good condition, they 
sell well in the market. In our 
market-gardens the Long Surrey 
and Long Orange are the chief kinds 
grown for main crops, and roots of 
these are furnished by hundreds of 
tons all through the winter months. 
Some market growers force the Early 
Horn on hot- beds and in frames, in 
order to have them ready for use 
in March or April, and these realise 
good returns. Some also sow beds 
in a warm position in August and 
September for winter use. If the 
weather is mild, fine little roots are 
obtained, and they sell readily at 
good prices. 



USES. The roots are well known and largely used, both as a 
table vegetable and as forming excellent food for cattle. The seed 
is employed in the manufacture of some kinds of liqueurs, and the 
juice of the Red varieties is used for colouring butter. 



CARROT 



193 



Parisian Forcing Carrot. The earliest and the shortest of 
all Carrots. It is a special strain selected from the French Forcing 
Carrot with a view to its cultivation in rotted manure-mould under 
glass, which is the only 
way to cultivate it ; is 
often broader than long, 

is smooth, very clean, with .KHERBJE 'JiMIIJ-E-^&n 
a fine neck. The leaves 
are light and thin, the skin 
smooth, and the colour 
rather lighter than that 
of the French Forcing ^P 
Carrot. 

French Horn, or 
Earliest Short Horn, 
Carrot. Root almost 




Pansian Forcmg Carrot - 



globe, or slightly top-shaped, of a half-transparent orange-red 
colour, paler towards the point ; neck very fine and very 
short ; leaves very few. This variety, which is generally pulled 
when it has only four or five leaves, is used in open-air 
culture for very early or very late sowings, but is especially 
suitable for forcing under a frame, both on account of its 
earliness and the shortness of its root. 

The forcing of the Carrot 
demands no particular care, 
except that of pressing the soil 
down well after sowing the seed, 
and giving the plants as much 
air as possible while they are 
growing. 

Early Scarlet Dutch Horn 
Carrot. Root nearly twice as 
long as broad, thicker at the 
neck than at the tip, which is 
generally blunt; neck fine; leaves 
,. very few, yet not so few as those 
\\t ' of the preceding kind. , This is 
an excellent Carrot for open-air 
culture, and, in certain cases, 
may be found suitable for forcing. 
Both it and the preceding kind 
are most usually pulled for table 
use while they are young, and 
before they have attained their 
full size a practice which might well be carried out with regard 
to all Carrots for the table. 

13 




Dutch Horn Carrot. 



194 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Blunt-rooted Guerande, or Ox-heart, Carrot. A very distinct 
variety, remarkable for great size and quickness of growth. It 
might be described as an enormous Dutch Horn Carrot, for often 

its length does not much 
exceed its thickness, which 
measures sometimes 3^ in. 
in diameter. The flesh is 
very tender and delicate, 
and a beautiful orange-red, 
paler at the centre ; not, 
like the Nantes Carrot, a 
coreless variety. The 
foliage is light and rather 
scant. It is an excellent 
kitchen Carrot, but requires 
a light, substantial, well- 




Blunt-rooted Guerande Carrot. 



dunged soil and moisture. 
Well grown, it is one of the 
best Carrots for the table. 
English Horn, or Early Half-long Scarlet, Carrot. Root 
spindle-shaped, two and a half or three times as long as broad ; 
neck often tinged with green or brown, level with the surface of 
the soil, and slightly hollowed out around the base of the leaf- 
stalks ; leaves somewhat stouter than those of the preceding kind. 
A good, productive, and pretty early variety, grown on a large 
scale in many localities for market supply. 

James's Intermediate Carrot. This variety is evidently an 
improved form of the Half-long Scarlet Carrot, but as it has now 
been a good while in 
very general cultivation, 
it has undergone a con- 
siderable amount of 
modification, in conse- 
quence of which it ex- 
hibits at the present day 
numerous diversities of 
character in different 
districts. In a general 
way it may be described 
as a handsome Half-long 
Carrot, with a long, 
pointed, well - coloured 
root, vigorous and rapid 
in growth, and having a stoutish neck, as might be expected 
from a variety which is as much grown in fields as in gardens. 
It is very productive, and much in request for field culture. 




English Horn, or Half-long Scarlet, Carrot. 



CARROT 



195 




There is a green-necked sub-variety of it, but the root of the 
true James's Intermediate is entirely red. It is the most ex- 
tensively cultivated Half-long Carrot 
in England, both in fields and 
gardens, but in many cases some 
of the Continental kinds might be 
advantageously grown instead of it 

Half-long Blunt Scarlet Carrot. 
This may be considered as a variety 
of the Pointed kind. The root is 
not so slender, and ends in a blunt 
cone, but there is no apparent differ- 
ence in the leaves or in any- other 
respect. The Blunt-rooted variety is 
to be preferred for kitchen-garden 
culture. It may be regarded as the 
form from which have been derived 
in succession the Early Scarlet Horn 
and the French Forcing (or French 
Horn) Carrot, both of which, like the 
present variety, are characterised by 
the blunt, rounded end of the root, 
the fineness of the neck, and the 
paucity of leaves. There seems to 
be a sort of reciprocal dependence and an intimate correlation 
between the blunt form of the end of the root and the fineness 
of the neck in the Carrot tribe. Those varieties which have few 
leaves and a very short and very fine neck have almost invariably 
a blunt-ended root, and vice versa. Great earliness also is generally 

found to accompany these 
physical characteristics. 

Early Nantes Carrot. 
Root almost perfectly 
cylindrical, not wide at 
the neck, and with a 
blunt, round point ; skin 
very smooth ; neck fine, 
hollowed out around the 
base of the leaf-stalks ; 
leaves not very large ; 
flesh entirely red, very 
sweet and mild, and 
almost devoid of the broad 
yellow heart or core which 
is seen in most of the other kinds of Red Carrots. Although this 
variety only recently began to be distributed, it has already 



James's Intermediate Carrot. 




Half-long Blunt Scariet Carrot 



196 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Early Half-long Scarlet Nantes Carrot. 



become one of the most generally cultivated of all the kitchen- 
garden varieties of Carrots, and indeed, by a remarkable combination 

of good qualities, it justifies 
the preference which is given 
to it. It excels all the other 
kinds of Half-long Carrots in 
earliness, without being inferior 
to them in productiveness. Its 
roots, which are very clean- 
skinned and even in shape, are 
easily pulled, and keep well ; 
and, lastly, its somewhat deeper 
colour and freedom from heart 
or core cause it to be preferred 
to all the other kinds for table 
use. For all these reasons the 
Early Nantes Carrot deserves 
to be very generally grown ; 
but it requires a certain amount 
of care, for, like all improved and early varieties, it suffers more 
than the ordinary coarser kinds from want of nourishment and 
watering. It only attains its full quality in a mellow, deep soil 
which has been previously well enriched with vegetable mould, 
compost, or manure, and which is sufficiently substantial and 
kept moist by frequent waterings. The roots are more regular 
in shape and smoother in skin in proportion 
as the soil is soft and free from stones and 
gravel. Any attention given to the cultivation 
of this Carrot will be amply repaid by a more 
abundant crop, and especially by the finer 
appearance and improved quality of the roots. 
In the neighbourhood of Nantes another 
Half-long variety of Carrot is grown, which has 
a very blunt-pointed root, sometimes broader 
at the end than at the neck, like the Jersey 
Navet Turnip. This variety is larger than the 
Nantes Carrot which we have just described, 
and also differs from it in having a very large 
yellow heart or core. 

Early Carentan Carrot. A very distinct, 
slender, almost cylindrical variety, with a very 
fine neck, and very small and few leaves ; skin 
glossy, smooth ; flesh red, without any heart Early Carentan Carrot 
or core. This variety can be sown pretty thick, '(* natural size )- 
and is consequently very well adapted for frame culture. It does 
best when grown in very rich soil or compost. Being a fancy 




CARROT 



197 



kind, it is not suitable for cultivation on a large scale, but it is 
one of the varieties known for perfection of shape and fineness 
of quality. 

Luc Half-long Carrot. Root rather broad at the neck and 
a little longer than that of the preceding kinds ; the lower end is 
usually more blunt than pointed, although the whole root narrows 
gradually from the neck to the lower extremity. This is an early 
and productive variety, and is suitable for spring culture in the 
open ground. It is not entirely free from heart or core, although 
the differences between the central and the exterior layers of the 




Luc Half-long Carrot, 



Chantenay Half-long Carrot. 



flesh are not so clearly defined in it as they are in many other 
varieties. 

Chantenay Half-long Carrot. Although belonging distinctly 
to the class of the Half-long Stump-rooted Carrots, this variety 
differs from all the others by its large volume and by being 
completely rounded at the end; in fact, it is a Guerande Carrot 
of considerably longer size. It resembles the Luc Carrot, but is 
larger, thicker, more rounded, and a darker red. As with the 
Guerande Carrot, the inner part of the root is a little lighter 
than the outer. It is delicate in flavour, juicy, and sweet. 

Half-long Danvers Orange Carrot. It is difficult to give a 
precise description of this variety of Half-long Carrot, which comes 
to us from the United States of North America. For several years 



198 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



we have been comparing this Carrot with the European sorts, 
and we have seen it varying considerably in its characteristics. 
We refer to trials made with seeds imported from America every 
season. At first it was a Half-long Pointed Carrot, of medium 
thickness, more pale orange than red, much like that of the Pale 
Red Flanders Carrot. It is still a 
slender half-long root, but well coloured, 
and with a blunt end very like our 
Luc Carrot. The leaves are rather 
short, finely cut, and rather bronzy. 

St. Valery Carrot. A large hand- 
some variety, the connecting-link be- 
tween Half-long and Long varieties of 
Red Carrot. The root, which is very 





Half-long Danvers Carrot. 



St. Valery Carrot (J. natural size). 



straight, very smooth, and bright red, is very broad at the neck, 
where it is frequently 2 to 3 in. in diameter, so that the entire 
length, which may be 10 to 12 in., is only about four times the 
diameter, which would almost bring it into the category of the 
Half-long varieties. It is suitable for field culture, but does best 
in light, rich, well-dug soil. The leaves are remarkably slight 
for the size of the root. This fine variety was for a long time 
grown only in its native locality, but since it became better known 
it has grown in favour ; for, with a handsome appearance and good 
quality, it is a good kitchen-garden as well as a good field Carrot, 
combining great productiveness with a iine regular shape and 
thick, sweet, tender flesh. 



CARROT 



199 



Long Surrey, or Long Red, Carrot. Root long, narrowing 
gradually to the lower extremity, five or six times as long as broad, 
not unusually I ft. to 14 in. in length ; neck broad, flat, or slightly 
hollowed out around the base of the leaf-stalks ; leaves stout and 
numerous. This variety, which often attains a considerable weight, 
is very much used, both for field and market-garden culture. It 
requires a rather deep soil, but in return yields a very remunerative 
crop. By protecting the plants with a covering of straw or leaves, 





Long Red Carrot. 



Coreless Long Red Carrot ( natural size). 



they may be left in the ground for a long time in winter, and taken 
up as they are wanted for table use. 

Coreless Long Red Carrot This Carrot rather resembles 
the Early Nantes variety, but is very strikingly longer, and 
consequently more productive. It is almost cylindrical in shape, 
blunt-rooted, very fine in colour, very melting, sweet, and fine in 
flavour. This is especially an early small-leaved kitchen-garden 
variety. 

Red Long Smooth Meaux Carrot. A fine strain of kitchen- 
garden Carrot ; it is cylindrical in shape, smooth, thicker than the 
Coreless Carrot, and not ring-marked. A very good variety for 
market-gardeners. It requires a deep, mellow, moist, and rich soil. 
In having a core, it differs also from the preceding variety, which 
it resembles in other ways. Like most of the highly improved 



2OO 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



stump-rooted varieties, the Meaux Carrot has a very light and 
scant foliage. 

Altringham Carrot. This variety, which is of English origin, 
has been for a long time known and valued in France. It is a very 
long, slender kind, with the flesh entirely red (like that of the 
Coreless varieties) and of excellent quality. The neck, instead of 
being flattened, or even hollowed, as in many other kinds, is raised 
in the form of an obtuse cone. The 
root is usually of a bronzy or violet 
colour on the over-ground portion, which 
is from I to 2 in. in length. The length 
of the whole root is often 20 in. or more, 





Red Long Smooth Meaux Carrot. 



Altringham Carrot (i natural size). 



and its diameter is relatively small, the length being equal to eight 
or ten times the diameter. Its surface exhibits a series of alternate 
ridges and depressions, having the appearance of being tightly 
bound around with a thin cord. This Carrot requires a rich and 
deeply dug soil, and, from its peculiar shape, it is liable to be 
broken when pulled. For these two reasons it is not so generally 
cultivated as it deserves to be on account of its good quality and 
great productiveness. 

Of late years the English growers have considerably altered the 
characteristics of their Altringham Carrot, and the old form is now 



CARROT 



201 



difficult to find in the trade. The new form is much thicker, 
shorter, and smoother. This is an improvement, as it makes the 
lifting of the roots much easier. 

Long Blood-red Carrot. Root long, thin, shapely, dark red. 
The top scarcely seen above the ground. The flesh is tender and 
dark orange-red. The leaves are light, small, and the stalks are 
usually tinged with purple. The Blood-red Carrot is a half-late 

variety, specially suited 
for autumn use. Given 
care, it keeps in con- 
dition through the 
winter. This variety 
is remarkable for the 





Long Blood- red Carrot. 



Flanders, or Sandwich, Carrot 
( natural size). 



intensity of its colour, which forms one ot its principal merits. 
The skin itself becomes almost purple with exposure to light for 
any length of time. 

Flanders, or Sandwich, Carrot. A kind of Half-long Red 
Carrot, much used in field culture on account of its great pro- 
ductiveness. Leaves abundant ; neck flat and broad ; root almost 
entirely sunk in the soil, rather bright orange-red, and regularly 
narrowed from neck to point. It is only about three times as long 
as broad, the entire length being about 8 in., with a diameter of 
between 2 and 2\ in. at the neck. The chief merit of this variety 



2O2 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



is that it is large, productive, early to form, and keeps well. 
Formerly quantities of it were sent to the Paris market from 
Flanders in waggons at the close of winter, when the Scarlet Horn 
and the Long Red Carrots were beginning to grow scarce. It is 
now less frequently seen there since the Parisian cultivators 
discovered that by successional sowings fresh Carrots can be raised 
at all seasons. 

Orange Belgian, or Long Orange Green-top, Carrot. This 
very hardy and productive kind is more generally grown in the 




Orange Belgian, or Long Orange Green- 
top, Carrot (i natural size). 



Long Lemon Carrot. 



fields than in the kitchen-garden. The root is at least six times as 
long as broad, pale orange on the underground portion, and quite 
green above-ground, or for about one-fourth of its entire length ; 
hence it is indifferently termed the Green-top Red, or Green-top 
Yellow, Carrot. It keeps well, and is considered to be very 
nutritious. 

Long Lemon Carrot. Root rather slender, four or five times 
as long as broad, almost entirely sunk in the ground, and bright 
yellow, except at the neck, where it is slightly tinged with green. 



CARROT 



203 



It is extensively grown in the fields in the north-west of France, but 
is not without merit as a kitchen-garden plant, especially when 
young, as when it has advanced in growth it sometimes becomes 
hard and almost woody at the heart. The flesh is yellow. When 
it is desired to be used in winter without becoming hard, it should 
be sown rather late about the end of May or the first days in 
June. This is one of the oldest French varieties of Carrot. We 
find it described in old horticultural works before there was any 
mention made in them of the Red or Orange varieties. In the 
present day these are most generally preferred ; and the place 
which the Lemon Carrot 
formerly occupied in 
cultivation for market 
supply is now filled by 
the Common Long Red 
Carrot, which, in its turn, 
is being largely super- 
seded by the St. Valery 
Long Red variety. 

Short Lemon Carrot. 
Root scarcely twice or 
thrice as long as broad, 
conical in shape, and 
sunk in the ground ; neck 
flat and wide ; rather 
pale yellow throughout. 

Yellow Interme- 
diate, or Long Yellow 
Stump-rooted, Carrot. 
The root is almost 
cylindrical, and very 
blunt at the end ; the 
flesh and skin a true 
yellow. It is a good 
Carrot grown on a large 
scale for cattle-feeding, and is also an excellent kitchen-garden 
Carrot, despite its light colour. It is very productive, and although 
very sweet, it keeps well during the winter. 

Improved Wild Carrots. About the year 1830 M. Vilmorin, 
sen., commenced several cultural experiments with the view of 
obtaining from the Wild Carrot enlarged and edible roots similar to 
those of the cultivated varieties. In the course of a few years, his 
sowings yielded him a certain proportion of plants with fleshy roots 
of various colours. Some of these forms remained constant for 
several years, reproducing themselves from seed with great 
regularity. The most remarkable of them were the Improved 




Long Yellow Stump-rooted Carrot. 



204 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

White Wild Carrot, which was rather like the Breteuil White Carrot, 
and had a fine flavour and odour, but was deficient in sweetness ; 
and the Improved Red Verrieres Wild Carrot, which was not 
productive, but was very regular in shape, with a very fine neck 
and remarkably slight leaves. These varieties, however, after 
having been grown for some time as a scientific curiosity, did not 
come into general cultivation, and were eventually discarded. 

Amongst the varieties which do not come under any of the 
strains which have just been described, we may mention the 
following : Bardowick Carrot. A fine variety of Long Red 
Carrot, almost free from core, and somewhat resembling the 
Altringham Carrot. The Dutch variety named De Duwick is a 
rather shorter kind than the Half-long Red varieties, yet bears no 
analogy to the Early Scarlet Horn. It is a pretty good kind for 
field culture, but the Blunt-pointed Half-long varieties are much 
better. The Long Orange Carrot is a variety grown in the 
United States of America, of a lighter colour, greater length, and 
with a broader neck than the Common Long Red Carrot. 

The English varieties Matchless Scarlet and Scarlet Perfection 
come very near the St. Valery Carrot. They are, however, a little 
thinner and more elongated. 

There are several varieties of large white Carrots which we need 
not describe, as they are grown exclusively for cattle-feeding. 

CAULIFLOWER 

Brassica oleracea Botrytis, D.C. 

French, Chou-fleur. German, Blumenkohl, Carviol. Flemish and Dutch, BloemkooL 
Italian, Cavolfiore. Spanish, Coliflor. Portuguese, Couve-flor. 

In the different varieties of Cabbage known as Cauliflowers, it 
is the floral organs, or, more properly speaking, the flower-stems, 
which have been artificially modified in size and appearance in the 
course of cultivation. The flowers themselves have, for the most 
part, been rendered abortive, and the branchlets along which they 
grow, gaining in thickness what they lose in length, form a sort of 
regular corymb with a white fleece-like surface, which is rarely 
broken by a few small leaves growing through it. These floral 
branchlets, having become large, white, thick, and very tender, 
produce nothing but a homogeneous mass, so to say, and the 
rudiments of the flowers are only represented by the minute and 
almost imperceptible prominences which are found on the upper 
surface of what is termed the " head " of the Cauliflower. 

CULTURE. It may be said that the cultivation of the Cauli- 
flower is one of the most simple processes, and, at the same time, 
one of the most difficult to carry out well. In fact, with the 



CAULIFLOWER 205 

exception of the spring Cauliflowers, which are sown in autumn and 
wintered under frames, it is grown as an annual, which is sown in 
the spring in the open ground, and yields a crop in the course of 
the same year, without requiring any attention whatever except 
frequent waterings. But, on the other hand, it is certain that, in 
order to obtain a fine crop, the cultivation of the Cauliflower 
requires a certain amount of skill and tact which no mere cultural 
directions can supply. The " head " will not be regularly formed 
unless the growth of the plant proceeds rapidly and without any 
check from beginning to end, and the greatest watchfulness and 
most assiduous care sometimes fail to ensure this. 

At Paris there are three principal seasons or successional periods 
for growing Cauliflowers. - In the first, the seed is sown in autumn, 
and the crop comes in in spring. In the second, the seed is sown 
late in autumn or in winter, the crop, in this case, not coming in 
until the following summer. In the third, the seed is sown in 
spring, and the crop is gathered in the autumn of the same year. 
Those which are sown in autumn, for the spring crop, are sown 
either in the open ground, or (most usually) on a hot-bed, in 
September. In the course of the autumn, the seedlings are pricked 
out under a cold frame, or in the open ground in a border with a 
warm aspect, where they are protected with cloches or bell-glasses. 
In January or February they are transplanted to a hot-bed, six 
plants to each light. The heads obtained in this way are the first 
that appear in the market in May. Almost at the same time that 
the plants are removed to the hot-bed, other plants are placed in 
cold frames ; the crop from these is naturally later, and comes in 
in succession to that which was obtained from the hot-bed. 

The Cauliflowers of the second season are sown in the beginning 
of January, in a hot-bed ; the plants are pricked out into another 
hot-bed, and are not transferred to the open ground until they are 
pretty strong, about the end of March or the beginning of April, at 
which time they have no further need of artificial heat ; the crop 
from these comes in about the end of June or the beginning of 
July. Successional sowings are made in February and March, and 
the seedlings, reared under frames or bell-glasses, are planted out 
a little later than those which were sown in hot-beds. This second 
season, in which the plants are pushed forward by special treatment 
and artificial heat, produces by far the largest quantities of Cauli- 
flowers that are sent to the Central Market at Paris. 

Lastly, in the third season, the entire growth of the plant is 
effected, without the help of artificial heat, in the open ground. 
The seed is sown in May or June in a sheltered or shaded border, 
and the seedlings are planted out permanently in July, without 
having been previously pricked out. This method, which at first 
sight appears the simplest of all, does not always produce the best 



206 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



results, owing to the difficulty of protecting the plants from 
excessive heat and drought in the early stages of their growth, 
and, later on, from early frosts, which often mar the formation of 
the heads. 



In England this is a summer 
and autumn vegetable, and at that 
season fills the position occupied by 
the Broccoli in winter and spring. 
The most valuable crops are the 
early ones in spring and the late 
in autumn. In summer they are 
frequently unsatisfactory during hot 
weather, and when Peas and French 
Beans are plentiful, they are not so 
much in demand. 

The first sowing is in a general 
way made about August 25th, the 
time being varied according to 
latitude, as experience may direct. 
In some places the first week in 
September may be early enough. 
Select an open situation where the 
land is in good condition from a 
previous manuring. If the weather 
is hot and the land very dry, stir 
the surface for a foot or so in depth 
with the fork, and give water 
enough to moisten it. Draw drills 
9 in. apart, and sow the seeds 
(which should have been obtained 
from a good source) thinly. Cover 
with nets to keep off birds ; and if 
the weather continue hot, shade a 
little by laying a few branches with 
the leaves attached over the net. 
As soon as the plants are up and are 
large enough to move safely (which 
will be early in November), prepare 
one or more frames by placing a 
layer of coal-ashes in the bottom, 
and on the ashes, which should be 
beaten down firmly with the back 
of the spade, place 5 in. of light 
rich soil. Into the bed so formed 
dibble the plants 3 in. apart, and 
give water to settle the soil round 
them. During the winter the frames 
should be fully ventilated when the 
weather is mild, keeping out cold 



rains. In times of severe frost, 
scatter a little dry litter or fern 
over the lights. Sometimes Cauli- 
flower-plants pass through the winter 
safely pricked out at the foot of a 
south wall, or on the south side 
of a thick hedge, and sheltered in 
severe weather by placing evergreen 
branches among them. Another 
way of raising early plants, and an 
excellent one, is to sow in heat 
about January ist, and treat the 
plants as we should treat tender 
annuals. The seeds are sown in 
pans covered lightly with sandy soil, 
and placed on a shelf in a house 
where the temperature is about 60 
at night. When the young plants 
appear, they will occupy a position 
in the full light near the glass, and 
when large enough will be pricked 
off into 6o-sized pots, one plant in 
each pot. The soil and the pots will 
be taken into the house to warm a 
little before the potting takes place. 
The plants will be grown on in the 
same temperature till March, when 
they will be well established ; they 
should then be hardened off, and 
early in April planted out. This 
plan will not give more trouble than 
is taken every spring with the same 
number of bedding plants, and they 
do not bolt, as sometimes happens 
with the plants raised in August. 
Still another way of raising the first 
early Cauliflower-plants may be 
described as intermediate between 
the cool treatment first mentioned 
and the warm plan last described. 
About the middle of October sow the 
seeds in boxes and place in a frame 
which rests on, say, an exhausted 
Melon or Cucumber bed, and which 
still retains a little of the summer's 



CAULIFLOWER 



207 



warmth. Keep close till the seeds 
germinate, then give air freely, and 
when the plants are large enough, 
pot off singly in small pots. Winter 
on a shelf in the lightest part of the 
greenhouse. 

PLANTING UNDER HAND-LIGHTS. 
These are old-fashioned but excel- 
lent contrivances. About March, 
acting as all must according to the 
character of the weather, arrange 
the lights for the early crop in a 
warm, sunny, sheltered position, 
where the soil is deep and rich, 3 ft. 
apart each way, and plant four 
plants under each light. As the 
season advances, ventilation will be 
required, either by placing the lights 
on bricks, or, if the lights have 
movable tops, by altering their 
position. A few early Cauliflowers 
may generally be obtained by 
planting in front of a south wall, 
almost close to it, to take advantage 
of the sun's warmth, which accumu- 
lates there both on the soil and in 
the air. Such plants may be further 
assisted by a ridge of soil in front, 
and when the weather gets warm, 
later in the season, this ridge of soil 
will help to confine the soakings of 
liquid manure which good culti- 
vators will obtain by hook or by 
crook for their early Cauliflowers. 

SUCCESSIONAL SOWINGS should be 
made in March in heat. A few 
seeds may be sown among any other 
young crops, such as Early Horn 
Carrots, as the Cauliflowers will be 
transplanted before any harm can be 
done. If it is not convenient to do 
this, sow the seed in a box, and place 
it where there is some artificial 
warmth, harden off, and plant out 
as seems necessary. The Autumn 
Giant should be sown in March 
for late summer and autumn use. 
This is a very valuable Cauliflower 
for hot seasons. It is very difficult 
with any other sort to secure close, 



firm hearts in August and Septem- 
ber, but the cross of the Broccoli, 
that is so apparent, and which gives 
this kind its hardiness, almost makes 
it heat and drought proof hence 
its great value, not only in the late 
autumn, but also through the season 
from August up till Christmas. Sow 
the Walcheren in April, and again 
in May and June for autumn. This, 
with the Autumn Giant, will furnish 
a supply till the winter Broccoli 
turn in. In some situations Cauli- 
flowers are very uncertain ; they 
must have plenty of rich manure. 
In such, to get them good, I have 
opened a trench 4 ft. wide all across 
a quarter, worked in plenty of 
manure, then drawn three drills at 
equal distances apart in the trench, 
and sown seeds of the Walcheren 
thinly. If it is necessary to sow in 
trenches, this is a better plan than 
having single rows, as the better soil 
and manure being in bulk will retain 
the moisture longer, and the plants 
will do better. When the seedlings 
are strong enough to transplant, 
single them out, leaving the strongest, 
and for this crop they may with 
advantage be much thicker than 
we should plant them generally. 
Small, white, close hearts are in the 
hot weather more useful than large 
ones, which nearly always develop a 
tendency to open. Some of the 
plants thinned out may be useful if 
planted under a north wall in rather 
deep drills. This is acting on the 
principle of never throwing a chance 
away. The crop in the trench had 
better be started about the first or 
second week in June, and if well 
attended to, and grown without a 
severe check, they will be sure to 
produce nice useful hearts at a very 
small expense. And it is worth 
something to feel that, under all 
circumstances, we may rely upon any 
particular crop turning out right. 



208 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



WATERING AND MULCHING. 
Mulching with manure in hot sum- 
mers is to this crop invaluable, and, 
except in extreme cases, will obviate 
the necessity for much watering, 
though, of course, a good soaking of 
liquid manure in a dry season will 
never come amiss. The three 
sowings in the open air in April, 
May, and June, with the previous 
sowings under glass, will, if planted 
out in the usual order when the plants 
are large enough, furnish a supply 
from June till Christmas, if need be ; 
indeed, I have had both the Wal- 
cheren and the Autumn Giant till 
after Christmas in good condition in 
a cold pit. The distances between 
the rows, as well as the distance 
between the plants in the rows, will 
vary according to the situations and 
seasons, but 2 ft. between the rows, 
and 1 8 in. separating the plants 
from each other in the rows, may be 
taken as a good average distance. 
E. H. 

CULTURE IN MARKET GARDENS. 
In London, it is hardly possible 
to overstock the market with this 
vegetable. It has the advantage 
over Broccoli in this particular, viz. 
that pickle merchants are always 
ready to buy up any quantity of 
Cauliflowers in summer, whilst for 
this purpose scarcely any Broccoli is 
used. In May, before Peas and 
Beans can be had at reasonable 
prices, good Cauliflowers realise 
good profits to the grower. Early 
Cauliflowers are usually grown under 
hand-lights, or are protected by 
old baskets or small boughs of ever- 
green trees. To provide plants for 
this purpose, a sowing is made on a 
well-sheltered piece of ground or a 
warm open quarter, in beds, in the 
second or third week of September. 
The young plants are allowed to 
remain in the seed-bed until the end 
of October, or even the middle of 



November. Should frosty weather 
set in whilst the plants are in the 
seed-beds, they are protected by 
mats supported on short stakes 18 
in. above the ground. Sometimes 
a stout plank is set on edge along the 
centres of the beds, and two rows of 
short stakes are put one on either 
side to support it, and over this are 
placed mats. When the weather 
becomes too severe for them to be 
thus protected, and when they re- 
quire to be transplanted, they are 
taken up and planted in frames or 
under hand-lights. The frames are 
placed in a sheltered spot sloping 
to the south, and are filled to within 
8 or 9 in. of the top with ordinary 
soil firmly trampled down with the 
feet ; over this better soil is sifted to 
a thickness of 3 or 4 in., and in this 
the Cauliflowers are planted 3 in. 
or so apart. In this position they 
remain until the February following 
or early part of March without any 
further care beyond that of closing 
the sashes to exclude frosts, cold 
winds, hail, or rain, and tilting them 
up at front and back during favour- 
able weather, and on very fine days 
drawing them off entirely. Cold 
rains are very injurious to Cauli- 
flowers, but a warm shower in 
February benefits them. Sometimes 
the plants grow so strongly that 
their leaves touch or press against 
the sashes ; when that happens, the 
sashes are tilted up at front and back, 
night and day, with pieces of wood 
or brick, otherwise frost would in- 
jure such leaves as touch the glass.- 
Dry sand, kept in a shed for the 
purpose, is scattered amongst the 
plants two or three times while they 
are in frames, in order to guard 
against damp,, and such plants as 
show signs of " buttoning " are im- 
mediately pulled out to give the 
others more room. Where room is 
limited and the weather appears 



CAULIFLOWER 



209 



mild, young Cauliflowers are often 
wintered in the beds where they are 
sown, or they are pricked off into 
raised beds of light soil not likely 
to be soaked with wet in winter. 
Here they are sometimes left unpro- 
tected, and at other times they 
are covered with hoops and mats. 
Continued dampness of soil and 
atmosphere is their worst enemy, as 
it induces growth so soft that it can- 
not withstand frost so well as that 
produced on high and dry ground. 
Where hand-lights are employed, an 
open field or quarter is lined off into 
squares measuring about 6 ft. each 
way. At every intersection nine 
Cauliflowers are planted in a suffi- 
ciently small space to be conveniently 
covered with cloches or hand-lights, 
which are immediately placed over 
them, and a little earth is drawn 
around the base of the lights so as 
to shut up all apertures. The empty 
spaces between the rows of hand- 
lights are planted with Coleworts. 
In spring these Coleworts are either 
thinned out or entirely removed for 
market, and a crop of Cos Lettuces 
is planted in their place. As soon 
as the Cauliflowers have become 
established they are allowed abun- 
dance of air, and otherwise treated 
the same as those grown in frames. 
When the plants become too thick, 
they are all lifted from under the 
hand-lights and planted in open 
quarters or under other hand-lights. 
Market-gardeners generally begin 
to cut from Cauliflower-plants raised 
in this way some time in the month 
of May, according to the mildness 
or otherwise of the season. The 
best growers seldom make many 
sowings of Cauliflowers ; one or 
two in autumn and one or two 
in spring being the usual number. 
The first autumn sowing, as before 
stated, is made out-of-doors some 
time between the last week in 



August and the third week in Sep- 
tember; and the second one, in 
frames, in the last week of Septem- 
ber or first week in October. From 
these two sowings Cauliflowers are 
obtained from the last week in April 
to the end of June. The first 
spring sowing, if the autumn one is 
a failure, is made in a frame in the 
last week of February or first week 
of March, or it may be made in 
the open border any time during 
the first fortnight of March; from 
this sowing a crop is obtained from 
the middle of June till August or 
September. The third sowing is 
commonly made in beds, in some 
open quarter, between the middle of 
April and the first week in May, in 
order to furnish an autumn supply. 
Different market- gardeners have 
different times for sowing Cauli- 
flowers, but it is well understood 
that strong, grossly grown plants do 
not stand the winter so well as 
medium-sized ones, and they are also 
more liable to "button." Moderate- 
sized plants are decidedly the best 
for mild winters, but in the event of 
very severe winters occurring, strong 
plants are the best. Cauliflowers 
which have been wintered in frames 
or under hand-lights are often planted 
on ground cropped with Radishes 
before the latter crop is marketable, 
and by the time it is so and has been 
cleared off, the Cauliflowers will 
have gained good strength, when the 
ground will be intercropped with 
Lettuces. In other instances, fields 
are marked off into beds 5 ft. wide, 
with i -ft. alleys between them, and 
these beds are sown with Round- 
leaved Spinach. As soon as this is 
done, three rows of Cauliflowers are 
planted along the beds. The Cauli- 
flowers outgrow the Spinach, which, 
by continual picking for market, is 
kept in check until it is eventually 
exhausted, leaving the Cauliflowers 

14 



210 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



masters of the field. The autumn 
crops obtained from spring sowings 
are thinned out a little in the seed- 
beds, and, when large enough for 
handling, are planted where they 
are to remain permanently. Should 
the weather be dry at planting time, 
a pint of water, or a little more, is 
given to each plant, and the sodden 
soil is soon afterwards freshened up 
by the hoe, thus, in some measure, 
preventing evaporation. Late Cauli- 
flowers are nearly always inter- 
cropped with some other vegetable, 
such as Lettuces, French Beans, 
Celery, Seakale, etc. Some large 
growers, however, depart from this 
rule, and save much labour; for, if 
intercropping be practised, people 
must be employed to keep down 
weeds by means of the hoe ; but 
when Cauliflowers alone occupy the 
ground, horse-hoes can be freely 



worked among the rows. The Early 
London is the variety used for the 
first crops by most market-gardeners, 
but some use the Walcheren for 
that purpose. The Walcheren is 
the kind almost entirely grown for 
use after June, because it suffers 
less from drought than any other 
sort, and is not liable to "button." 
Snow's Winter White, an excellent 
sort, is, as a rule, regarded as a 
Broccoli; nevertheless, it has fine 
white, solid heads, and is largely 
grown to succeed the Walcheren, 
being hardier than that sort. Snow's 
White, if sown together with the 
Walcheren in April or May, makes 
a fine succession to it, and comes in 
usefully till January. Early Cauli- 
flowers are always sent to market, 
but those produced in summer and 
autumn are disposed of to a large 
extent to pickle merchants, S. 



USES. The head, boiled or pickled, is usually the only part 
which is eaten. The Cauliflower is one of the best liked of all 
vegetables. 

Early Dwarf Erfurt Cauliflower. A very early, very distinct, 
and really valuable variety, but difficult to keep true to name. It 

is somewhat under middle height, 
and has a rather short stem. 
Leaves oblong, entire, rounded, 
very slightly undulated, and a 
peculiar light gray-green, which, 
with their shape and rather erect 
position, gives the plant some 
resemblance to the Sugar-loaf 
Cabbage. The head is very 
white, but does not keep firm for 
a long time. When exposed to 
the sun, it soon takes a purple 
tinge, unless protected from direct 
strong light. " The leaves, which 

Early Dwarf Erfurt Cauliflower. at first have an Upright position 

and cover the head, later on, as 

the head increases in size, sometimes spread and recline even to 
touching the ground. 

Early Snowball Cauliflower. This variety, a selection from 




CAULIFLOWER 



211 




Alleaume Dwarf Cauliflower. 



the last, differs from it in its greater earliness. It is well suited for 

forcing ; and is, so far, the best Cauliflower we have for growing 

in frames. It is now largely 

grown for early crops in the 

south of France. 

Alleaume Dwarf Cauli- 
flower. A dwarf and very 

early variety of the Half- 
early Paris Cauliflower. The 

stem is so short that the 

head appears to rest on 

the ground, like that of the 

Early Dwarf Erfurt Cauli- 
flower. From this variety, 

however, it differs entirely in 

the appearance of the leaves, 

which are broad, undulated 

at the margin, and generally 

twisted. The head forms 

very quickly, but soon grows out of shape, if it is not cut in time. 
The Early Picpus Cauliflower is a slightly taller strain, and more 

vigorous than the Alleaume Cauliflower. 

Earliest Paris Forcing Cauliflower. A variety with a slender 

and rather long stem. Leaves narrow, nearly straight, almost flat 

at the ends and edges ; 
head of medium size, 
forming soon, but not 
continuing firm very long. 
This kind is especially 
suitable for sowing in 
summer; if sown in April 
or May, the head forms 
in August or September. 
Imperial Cauliflower. 
This handsome variety 
is very much like the 
Dwarf Erfurt, but a 
darker green, and larger 
altogether. It is an 
early kind, with a fine 
white, broad, firm head, 
and remarkable for the 
regularity of its growth 
and productiveness. 

When grown true to name, it is certainly one of the best early 

varieties of Cauliflower. 




Imperial Cauliflower. 



212 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Half-early, or Intermediate, Paris Cauliflower. A plant of 
medium size, with large, deep, somewhat glaucous green leaves, 

surrounding the head 
well, and having the 
ends turned towards the 
ground, the edges being 
undulated and coarsely 
toothed. Stem rather 
short and stout ; head 
large, very white, and 
keeping firm for a long 
time. This variety was 
formerly more extensively 
grown than any other 
by the Parisian market- 
gardeners, but at the 
present day it is rivalled 
by the Short - stalked 
Lenormand and several 
other newer varieties of 
the same earliness. 

Half-early Pans, or Nonpareil, Cauliflower. The ff a y _ ear fy ^ m 

maitre Cauliflower is a good strain of the Half-early Paris variety. 
The stalk is short, and the head is handsome, large, very compact, 
and very white. It is much used for autumn cultivation in 
the fields in the vicinity of Paris, at Chambourcy, etc. 

Lenormand's Short- 
stalked Cauliflower. 
The appearance of this 
variety distinguishes it at 
once from all other kinds 
when it comes true to 
name. The stem, which 
is extremely short, stout, 
and thick-set, is furnished 
almost to the ground with 
short, broad, rounded 
leaves,not much undulated 
except at the edges, very 
firm and stiff, rather 
spreading than erect, and 
deep, almost .glaucous 

green The head is very Lenormand's Short-stalked Cauliflower 

large and firm, a splendid ( natural size) " 

white, and keeps firm for a long time. The plant is early, hardy, 

and productive, and takes up comparatively little ground, so that 




CAULIFLOWER 213 

it is not surprising that its cultivation has been very much 
extended in the course of a few years. 

Large White French Cauliflower (CJwufleur demi-dur de 
Saint- Brieuc). A large, stout plant, with long, undulating, deep 
green leaves. Stem long ; head firm, compact, and keeping pretty 
well. This variety, which is very much grown in Brittany, whence 
the heads are sent to Paris, and even to England, is very hardy 
and highly suitable for culture in the open ground. 

Late Paris Cauliflower. This is the latest of the varieties 
grown by the market-gardeners about Paris. It differs from the 
preceding variety chiefly in being somewhat later, and the head 
has the advantage of remaining hard and firm for a longer time. 




Large Algiers Cauliflower. 

It also differs in the appearance of its leaves, which are very 
numerous, long, very undulating, and intensely green. It is the 
least extensively grown of the three kinds which are most com- 
monly cultivated about Paris, the market-gardeners there only 
using it for summer sowings to bring in a crop in the latter end 
of autumn. 

Large Algiers Cauliflower. A very good kind for the south 
of France and Algeria, of dwarf habit and vigorous growth, quite 
hardy and very early, with stiff entire leaves, only slightly con- 
voluted at the edges, and dark green, almost slate colour. It is 
mostly grown for use at the end of summer and during autumn, 
and is easily grown, not only in kitchen gardens, but also in the 
fields, provided it gets all the water it needs. The head is large, 
and its beautiful white head is well set off by the dark foliage. In 



214 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



foreign markets a very tall, late, and leafy variety is sometimes 
offered under the name of Algiers Cauliflower, but it is really the 
Autumn Giant Cauliflower, a very interesting variety, but entirely 
different from the true Algiers Cauliflower here described. 

Early London, or Early Dutch, Cauliflower. A large and 
hardy variety, suitable for field culture. Stem long and rather 
slender ; leaves long, not very broad, gray-green, and undulated. 
This is one of the kinds of Cauliflower which have the midrib of the 
leaf bare at the base for the greater part of its length. The head 
is hard and firm, but not very large. It is a half-late variety, and, 

in its native country 
succeeds better than the 
French kinds. It is grown 
on a large scale about 
Leyden, whence great 
quantities of it are ex- 
ported to England to 
compete in the London 
markets with the Cauli- 
flowers sent from the 
French coasts, especially 
from Brittany. The name 
of Dwarf Dutch Cauli- 
flower given to it by the 
Germans is only by way 
of comparison with other 

Early London, or Early Dutch. Cauliflower Dut .^ . va , rietieS > for it is 

(^ T natural size). a tall kind compared with 

the French varieties. 

Late Asiatic Cauliflower. A vigorous kind, with numerous 
large, undulated, rather dark green leaves, and a shorter stem than 
the preceding variety, like which it is hardy and rather late. It is 
suitable for growing in the open ground, and should not be sown 
later than May, to bring in a crop in the autumn. This is a large 
and very highly esteemed late variety. 

Stadtholder Cauliflower. Very nearly allied to the Early 
Dutch Cauliflower, this variety exhibits almost the same charac- 
teristics of growth, and its difference is that it is a few days later. 
In this respect it is intermediate between the Early Dutch and the 
Walcheren Cauliflower. The stem is shorter than that of the other 
Dutch kinds, and the leaves are more undulated at the edges. 

Walcheren Cauliflower, or Walcheren Broccoli. This is the 
latest of all Cauliflowers and one of the hardiest, so that it may be 
regarded as intermediate between the Cauliflowers, properly so- 
called, and the Broccolis, among which it is not unusual to find it 
classed. It has a long, stout stem, and numerous long, stiff, and 




CAULIFLOWER 



215 



erect gray-green leaves. The head forms very slowly ; it is hand- 
some, large, very white, and of a fine close grain. The seed should 
be sown in April to ensure the head being well grown before the 
approach of frosty weather. When sown late, it often withstands 
the winter and heads early in spring. 

Incomparable Cauliflower. Vigorous in growth, with tall, 
erect, broad, twisted leaves, of a gray-green colour, resembling those 
of the Autumn Giant Cauliflower, and medium stem. Head very 
large and fine in grain. A good variety for producing a late 
outdoor crop in the autumn. Sown in April and May, it is fit for 
use several days before the Autumn Giant Cauliflower, which it 




Veitch's Autumn Giant Cauliflower. 

resembles very nearly in the vigour of its growth and the largeness 
of its leaves. 

Veitch's Autumn Giant Cauliflower. A large and vigorous 
variety, with a long stem and large, undulating dark green leaves. 
Head very large, firm, very white, and well covered by the inner 
leaves. It is a late kind, coming in about the same time as the 
Walcheren Cauliflower, but it is not so hardy. In the north of 
France it can only be grown for a late autumn crop in the open 
ground. It should be sown in April or May. 

Giant Italian Self-protecting Cauliflower. Before the head 
forms it is not easy to distinguish this variety from the preceding 



2l6 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



one, like which it has long and broad leaves, and the leaf-stalks 
much tinged with purple on the part next the stem. The ends of 
the leaves, however, are somewhat narrower and more pointed. 
When the head is about to form the central leaves turn and fold 
themselves over it so as to cover it completely until it has attained 
nearly its full size, when it comes into view for the first time. 

Purple Cape Broccoli (Choufleur noir de Sidle}. In its habit 

of growth this 
variety resembles 
the Algiers Cauli- 
flower. It has a 
long stem, very large 
dark green leaves, 
rather wavy, almost 
crimped, short, and 
broad for their 
length. It differs 
from all other kinds 
in the colour of 
the head, which is 
purple and coarser 
in grain than in 
any other variety, 
although very com- 
pact, firm, and large. 
This is not a very late variety. It is always grown in the open 
ground, and the crop begins to come in early in September. 

The Russian Cauliflower, grown in the north of France, is a 
handsome long-stemmed variety, with oblong grayish, light green 
leaves, narrower and more pointed than those of the Early Dutch 
Cauliflower. It is a late field sort. 

The varieties of Cauliflower grown in Germany under the names 
of Cyprischer % Asiatischer y etc., come very close to the Dutch 
varieties. 

BROCCOLI 

Brassica oleracea Botrytis, D.C. 

French, Chou Brocoli, Chou-fleur d'hiver. German, Broccoli, Brockoli, Spargelkohl. 
Flemish, Brokelie. Danish, Broccoli, Asparges kaal. Italian, Cavol broccolo. 
Spanish, Broculi. 

The Broccoli, like the Cauliflower, is a cultivated variety of the 
Wild Cabbage, and is grown for the sake of the head, which is 
produced in the same way and has the same qualities. The 
growth of the Broccoli, however, is much more prolonged, and 
instead of producing the head the same year in which the plants 
are sown, it usually does not do so until early in the following 




Purple Cape Broccoli (^ natural size). 



BROCCOLI 217 

spring. The two plants also differ somewhat in appearance, the 
Broccoli usually having more numerous, broader, stiffer, and 
narrower leaves than the Cauliflower, and generally bare leaf- 
stalks ; the veinings of its leaves are also stouter and whiter. Its 
heads, although handsome, firm and compact, are seldom as large, 
in this climate, as those of good varieties of Cauliflower. The seed 
of both plants is identical in appearance. 

The cultivation of the Broccoli dates back to a more remote 
period than that of the Cauliflower, as the name, at least, would lead 
us to infer. In Italy, the name broccoli is applied to the tender 
shoots which, at the close of the winter, are emitted by various 
kinds of Cabbages and Turnips preparing to flower. These green 
and tender young shoots have, from time immemorial, been highly 
esteemed as vegetables by the Italians, who were careful to select 
and cultivate only those kinds which produced the most tender 
shoots in the greatest abundance. The Sprouting, or Asparagus, 
Broccoli represents the first form exhibited by the new vegetable 
when it ceased to be the earliest Cabbage, and was grown with an 
especial view to its shoots. After this, by continued selection and 
successive improvements, varieties were obtained which produced a 
compact white head, and some of these varieties were still further 
improved into kinds which are sufficiently early to commence and 
complete their entire growth in the course of the same year. These 
last-named kinds are now known by the name of Cauliflowers. 

CULTURE. The seed is sown in a nursery-bed from the 
beginning of April to the end of May, according to the earliness of 
the variety ; the seedlings are usually pricked out in a bed, and in 
June or July are finally transplanted. Like all plants of the 
Cabbage family, they are benefited by frequent hoeings and 
waterings. At the beginning of winter a mulching of manure is 
applied, and the plants are earthed up to the lowest leaves, or they 
may be taken up altogether and laid in a sloping trench, with the 
heads turned to the north. The ground in which they are to pass 
the winter should be sweet and well drained, and the plants should, 
if possible, be protected in severe frosty weather. In March the 
heads begin to form, and may be cut until June, if successive 
sowings have been made. 

As a rule, in private gardens select a number of varieties that 

Broccoli is cut when about a third will naturally succeed each other, 

or half its full size : the aim of although they be all sown and planted 

growers should be, not the produc- out at the same time, 

tion of gigantic heads, but a constant This is doubtless the best plan 

succession of firm, compact Broccoli when the ground intended to be 

of medium size. Some growers occupied with Broccoli can be all 

choose a few good kinds and make spared and got ready at one time ; 

successional sowings, whilst others but it frequently happens, where the 



218 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



demand for vegetables is great, that 
part crops must be planted as the 
ground becomes vacant. Many 
people plant Broccoli between rows 
of Potatoes, and where the ground 
is limited and the kind of Potatoes 
grown are dwarf and planted a good 
distance apart, it is doubtless a good 
system. Where this system is 
adopted the hardest pieces of land 
should be selected ; the firmer the 
land, the better the plants stand the 
severity of the winter. They also 
come into use more regularly in 
rotation in their several seasons, and 
form larger and closer hearts than if 
planted in less compact soil. Plenty 
of room to grow must be allowed 
them. Supposing two rows of early 
or second-early Potatoes are planted 
from 20 in. to 2 ft. apart, there 
should be two rows of Potatoes 
between every two rows of Broccoli, 
which will place the rows of Broccoli 
about 3 ft. 6 in. or 4 ft. apart ; and 
this distance is not too much, as it 
gives both crops plenty of room to 
develop themselves. The Potato 
haulm should be turned from the 
Broccoli to the unoccupied space 
between each two rows of Potatoes. 
It is now a common practice to 
plant Broccoli with a crowbar ; the 
holes are filled in with fine soil, 
and afterwards thoroughly soaked 
with water. 

SOWING AND PLANTING. Though 
June is the month in which most 
plantations of Broccoli are made, 
yet it is frequently July before the 
work is done. Plants put out in 
August will make nice heads, but 
the sooner the planting is done after 
the middle of June the better. 
Though planting early ensures the 
finest plants and largest heads, the 
time of sowing or planting does not 
materially affect the plants as regards 
the time they come into use. The 
time for sowing Broccoli-seed varies 



from February till April, according 
to different localities ; as a rule, from 
the end of March to the middle of 
April is the best time if the weather 
be genial. The best manner of 
sowing is in shallow drills, 6 in. 
apart, and, if the seed be good, it 
should be sown thinly. The whole 
sowing may be made at the same 
time, and planted at the same time, 
for convenience' sake ; and by plant- 
ing many varieties a regular supply 
throughout winter and spring may 
be ensured when the winters are 
mild for it is certain that no prac- 
tice as to time of sowing or planting 
will ensure the heads forming at a 
certain time, if during winter we 
have protracted periods of frost or 
cold, during which all growth is 
at a standstill. Plants from sowings 
made early in April will, under 
favourable circumstances, be large 
enough for pricking out by the 
middle of May ; they should have 
a moderately rich, open border, 
where they can have the benefit of 
the sun to keep them strong and 
sturdy. They should be pricked 
out 7 or 8 in. apart from plant to 
plant, and by the beginning of June 
the ground should be prepared and 
the plants finally planted out 
choosing a showery time, if possible. 
Many people never transplant their 
Broccoli previous to final planting ; 
but where time can be spared, it is 
much the best, as the plants get 
stronger and better able to resist the 
attacks of slugs, snails, etc., than 
small plants put out direct from 
the seed-bed. 

If practicable, the ground should 
be trenched two or three spades 
deep, or at least double-digged. 
When there is not time for doing 
either of these, then the ground 
must be dug over a spade deep 
only, taking care to break the soil 
up thoroughly, as deeply as a good 



BROCCOLI 



219 



spade will do it, and working in 
some well-decayed manure at the 
same time, the soil being broken up 
well in the trench, and the surface 
a little rough. Plant as soon as the 
digging is finished. If the planting 
be done in June or July, from 2^ to 
3 ft. must be allowed between the 
plants ; if deferred till August, they 
heed not be allowed so much room. 
If the weather be dry, the seed-bed, 
or that from which the plants are 
taken, should be watered well the 
night before, to soften the soil. The 
holes to receive the plants should 
always be made sufficiently large to 
admit of their being easily put in 
without breaking their roots. " But- 
toned " and stunted plants are in 
many cases caused by bad planting. 
They are put in with broken and 
mutilated roots ; and those that have 
a tap-root often have it bent double 
in getting it into the hole, and, 
instead of the point being at the 
bottom of the hole, it will be stick- 
ing up above the surface. No one 
should wait a very long time for wet 
weather in which to plant Broccoli : 
it is better to get the planting done 
and water well once or twice, and 
the plants will then do till rain 
comes. When the plants are fairly 
established, and have grown a little, 
they must be earthed up with the 
hoe, which will prevent the wind 
from twisting them about and dis- 
turbing their young roots. 

SOIL AND MANURE. Broccoli 
thrives best in a deep, loamy, well- 
drained soil ; but it is not very 
particular in this respect, and will 
produce fine heads in any well- 
enriched soil of which the staple is 
loam. In old garden soils in which 
humus has accumulated, it is often 
attacked with the grub or maggot, 
which causes " clubbing." In such 
cases lime may be applied with 
advantage, or burnt clay and fresh 



loam. The ground should be 
trenched two or three spades deep 
previous to planting, and the 
manure, if rotten, well incorporated 
with the soil, or, if rank, buried in 
the bottom of the trench. If 
trenching cannot be done, then 
Broccoli should follow some other 
crop, such as Potatoes or Onions, 
or any crop not belonging to the 
Cruciferse or tap-rooted section, such 
as Carrots, Turnips, or Beet, and the 
ground should be dug as deeply as 
a good spade will go, and well 
manured. Where the soil in which 
Broccoli is to be planted is naturally 
of a light character, if moderately 
rich, it should not be dug, but 
made as firm as possible round the 
plants. The best kind of manure 
for Broccoli is undoubtedly well- 
rotted stable manure, with a sprink- 
ling of soot added to destroy worms. 
Watering is seldom necessary after 
plants get well established. 

HEELING-IN BROCCOLI. As re- 
gards the heeling-in or layering of 
Broccoli, many growers think it a 
great advantage, whilst others think 
it at least unnecessary. As a rule, 
private growers are in favour of the 
practice of layering ; their objects 
being, firstly, to check growth, as 
they believe that disturbing the roots 
has the effect of hardening the whole 
plant, and of enabling it better to 
withstand severe weather ; secondly, 
to place the plants in such a posi- 
tion that the sun, during alternate 
frost and thaw, will not get to the 
hearts, as these suffer more after 
being thawed by the sun in the day 
than when continuously frozen. For 
this reason the heads are laid so 
as to face the north or west. To 
accomplish this, if the rows run 
east and west, they commence on 
the north side of the first row, and 
take out a spit of soil just the width 
of the spade, so as to form a trench 



220 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



within 2 or 3 in. of the stems of the 
plants, laying the soil, as the work 
proceeds, on the side away from the 
row. This necessarily removes the 
soil from the roots, no more of 
which is broken off than can be 
avoided. All the plants in the row 
are then regularly bent over, until 
their heads rest on the ridge of soil 
taken out of the trench. When this 
is done, commence with the next 
row, taking the soil out so as to 
form a similar trench, and laying it 
in a ridge upon the stems of the 
row of plants bent over, so as to 
cover them right up to their bottom 
leaves ; and, in this way, proceed 
until the whole is completed. If 
the rows stand north and south, the 
work is begun on the west side. By 
this process, as will be seen, all the 
roots on one side of each row, and a 
portion of those on the other, are 
disturbed. This causes the leaves 
to flag a good deal for a week or 
two, and checks growth. The 
larger and more vigorous the plants, 
the greater the need for thus pre- 
paring them for winter. In light 
soils, where they can be got up 
without much mutilation of the 
roots, should it be desirable to 
prepare the ground for some other 
crop before the Broccoli is off in 
spring, they may be taken up alto- 
gether and laid in some more 
convenient place, lifting them, as 
far as possible, with all their roots 
intact. Where time can be spared, 
we believe this to be a good system, 
as we have noticed that where 
Broccoli is managed in this way, it 
is only during exceptionally severe 
winters that it gets destroyed. The 
length of time during which this 
vegetable affords a succession, at a 
period of the year when there is not 
much variety, makes it worth while 
to do all we can to prolong its 
season. Fortunately, however, severe 



injury to the Broccoli crop is the 
exception rather than the rule, and is 
quite as likely to be the consequence 
of imperfectly ripened stems as of 
hard weather. 

PROTECTING. When Broccoli 
comes into use in too large quan- 
tities at a time, and a blank in the 
supply is likely to occur, some of 
the plants may be taken up and 
placed in an open shed in which 
there is a fair amount of light and 
air. Some ordinary soil may be 
put into it, and the plants, the heads 
of which shall have attained a usable 
size, may be placed in the soil but 
not too thickly, or the leaves will 
turn yellow and injure the heads. 
If this be done in succession as the 
plants form heads, there will always 
be on hand a supply of Broccoli. 
Frames or pits are better than a 
shed in which to keep them, but 
these are generally required for 
other purposes. The practice of 
taking up Broccoli in autumn when 
nearly fit for use, and hanging them 
head downwards in a shed or other 
building, is not good ; for, although 
they will keep for a time in that 
way, they get tough and inferior 
compared with those that have had 
their roots in moist soil. 

GROWING FOR EXHIBITION. 
When Broccoli is required for ex- 
hibition, small plantations should 
be made in different situations, in 
order to make sure of having them 
in at the required time. For this 
purpose large compact heads are 
indispensable, though it is better 
to have them somewhat small and 
close than large and open. Trenches 
are sometimes dug for the plants, 
and it is a good system where time 
can be spared. The trenches should 
be dug 2 ft. wide and two spits deep; 
the top spit being taken out and laid 
on each side, then a good thick coat 
of fresh horse-droppings, or rotten 



BROCCOLI 



221 



manure, thrown in the trench, to be 
turned in and well incorporated with 
the second spit. The plants may 
then be put in, and as they grow the 
soil that was taken out of the trench 
may be put back round the stems 
of the plants and trodden in firmly, 
Good soakings of manure-water may 
be given when the soil is dry, but 
after the heads are once formed it 
must be discontinued, or it will cause 
the flower to open. In cutting, the 
whitest and firmest heads should be 
selected, and the more they resemble 
each other in size and appearance 
the better ; they should never be 
trimmed until they are going to 
be put on the exhibition table, and 
then not so severely as is often done. 
If it be necessary to cut the heads 
some time previous to their being 
shown, the best way is to divide 
them with 5 or 6 in. of stem and 
place them in shallow pans filled 
with cold water standing in a cool 
spot. The leaves should be tied 
over the flower, and, if an occa- 
sional sprinkling overhead be given 
them, it will help to keep them 
fresh. This will be found better 
than pulling up the roots and hang- 
ing them up in sheds and similar 
places. 

CULTURE FOR MARKET. This 
crop is grown by market-gardeners 
near London chiefly under the shade 
of fruit-trees, but in the valley of the 
Thames there are acres of Broccoli 
in the open fields. The early sup- 
plies of Broccoli brought to the 
market are produced in the west of 
England, where the climate is mild, 
and the heads produced there are 
superior in size and quality to those 
grown near London. In mild seasons 
Broccoli is so good and plentiful as 
to be of little profit to the grower. 
In the winter of 1878 many never 
brought their produce to market at 
all, but made use of it at home, so 



low were the prices offered for it in 
the market. In the market-gardens 
about London, the Purple Sprout- 
ing, the Walcheren, Snow's Winter 
White, and Veitch's Autumn Giant 
are the kinds chiefly grown. ,The 
first sowing is usually made during 
the month of April on beds of rich 
soil. Sometimes, however, the time 
of year when ground will be vacant 
to receive the plants influences the 
time of sowing, for it is an important 
matter to have the young plants 
healthy and stocky at planting time. 
If sown so early as to have to be 
kept long in the seed-bed, they be- 
come "drawn," and consequently 
do not yield such good results. 
Another sowing is generally made 
in the middle of May; indeed, 
from this sowing the principal 
winter crop is obtained, and more 
plants are raised than are required, 
so that all clubbed and weakly 
ones can be discarded at planting 
time. 

A sowing of Sprouting Broccoli is 
made in the end of May or early 
in June, from which is obtained a 
supply of sprouts during the following 
winter and early spring, a time when 
they are in great demand. When the 
young Broccoli-plants appear above- 
ground they are first hand-weeded, 
and afterwards thinned by means 
of narrow hoes. As soon as they 
are strong enough for transplanting 
they are planted in rows under fruit- 
trees, or in any convenient situation. 
When planted between rows of fruit- 
bushes, two lines of plants are in- 
serted in the intervals between every 
two rows of trees ; if two drills of 
Potatoes occupy the space between 
the trees, then only one line of 
Broccoli is planted, and that between 
the two drills of Potatoes. Should 
the whole space under an orchard be 
planted with Potatoes, as soon as 
these are earthed-up Broccoli is 



222 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

planted between the rows without we often see them in private gardens; 

the soil being loosened or dug. The yet it is seldom they are injured by 

Potatoes ripen before the Broccoli frost, and the fine white, firm heads 

can injure them much, and when the that may be seen by thousands in 

Potatoes are removed the Broccoli Covent Garden Market during the 

has the whole space to itself.-* The autumn are seldom surpassed, if 

trees lose their leaves in October; even equalled, in private gardens, 

then the Broccoli, having the benefit In the neighbourhood of Shepperton, 

of increased light, becomes invigo- in the Thames valley, may be seen 

rated, and some of the plants then breadths of Broccoli from twenty to 

begin to afford a good supply of thirty acres in extent, and from this 

sprouts, which are not all gathered place alone it is calculated that in 

at once, even from the same plant, the height of the season as many as 

but at intervals as they become 30,000 heads per week are sent to 

fit for use. The immense breadths market. In some parts of Kent 

of Broccoli grown in some of the Broccoli is grown to a large extent, 

market gardens render it almost one grower yearly planting over 

impossible to have all heeled in as 200,000 plants. 

USES. The same as those of the Cauliflower. The value of 
this vegetable to the many who depend on the markets for their 
supplies is greatly lessened by the deterioration it suffers from 
being cut long before being used. Early crops being grown in 
perfection in Cornwall, and at considerable distances from London, 
the heads are often stale before being used, even when they do not 
seem so. We have frequently noticed an intensely bitter flavour in 
the Broccoli sent to market, even when cooked in the most careful 
manner. Every one who can should grow their own, and cut it an 
hour before dinner ! 

Extra Early White Broccoli. Hardy enough in the climate 
of Paris ; in earliness it surpasses all the other kinds. The 
leaves are short, compact in growth, somewhat less undulating 
than those of the Large White French Broccoli. The head is 
large, firm, white, and very fine in grain. It is a good variety 
for forcing. 

Early Saint-Laud Broccoli. Leaves short but well developed, 
broad, of a grayish dark green colour, and slightly crimped ; head 
white and regular. A fine variety much grown in the south-west 
of France, where it comes into use between the Extra Early and 
the Extra Late Broccoli, a few days earlier than the Early White 
Broccoli. 

Large White French Broccoli (Brocoli blanc de Saint- Brieuc). 
A vigorous-growing plant, with rather numerous, long, stiff 
leaves, of a glaucous green colour and deeply undulated on the 
edges ; the interior leaves which cover the head are very much 
twisted and almost curled ; head white, very compact, and 
continuing firm for a long time. A hardy and easily grown 
variety. 



BROCCOLI 



223 




Adam's Early White Broccoli ( T V natural size). 



Adam's Early White Broccoli. This variety differs but little 
in its general character from the preceding one, from which it is 
particularly distinguished by being ten or twelve days earlier. It 
produces a great number 
of leaves, which are un- 
dulated at the edges to a 
remarkable degree. 

Roscoff White 
Broccoli. This very ex- 
cellent kind, which is most 
extensively cultivated in 
the department of Finis- 
tere, is very like the 
preceding one, of which 
it may be considered a 
very constant and very 
early local form. This 
is the variety of which 
such large quantities are 
brought to Paris every year, at the end of the winter. 

Easter Broccoli. This is a very handsome, early, and distinct 
variety. Its leaves are not so numerous as those of most other 
kinds of Broccoli, and have a peculiar triangular appearance, 
being rather short, broad at the base, and pointed at the end ; 
they are stiff, not much undulated, and are finely toothed on 
the edges ; their gray colour is equally characteristic. This 
variety, which in the south of France is also called the Easter 
Cauliflower (Chou-fleur de Pdques\ is very early, requires less 
attention than many other kinds, and even the weakest plants of it 

form very regular heads. 
It is one of the best kinds, 
though tender. 

Large White Mam- 
moth Broccoli. A thick- 
set variety, lower in growth 
than the preceding kinds, 
and with shorter and 
broader leaves of a dark 
green colour, very nume- 
rous, surrounding and pro- 
tecting the head well ; the 
inner or heart leaves are 
often twisted ; head very 
large and white, and of remarkably good quality. This is 
one of the latest varieties which continue to bear for the 
longest time. 




Easter Broccoli ( T V natural size). 



22 4 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Extra Late White Broccoli. Leaves broad, entire, slightly 
crimped, undulating at the edges, set close to the head, which is 




Large White Mammoth Broccoli. 

firm, white, and very finely grained. A very vigorous-growing and 
hardy variety, coming into use after the White Mammoth Broccoli 
in April or May, before the spring Cauliflowers appear in the 
markets. 

Purple Cape Broccoli. See under Cauliflower. 
Purple Broccoli. An exceedingly hardy kind, totally distinct 

from all other varieties ; 
leaves rather deeply 
lobed, numerous, long, 
spreading, pale grayish 
green, with purple- 
tinged veins ; head 
purple, rather firm, of 
medium size, and late 
to form. 

Purple Sprouting, 
or Asparagus, Broc- 
coli. Under this name 
different varieties have 
been cultivated ; that 
which is now most 
commonly grown has 

^^^^^^ purple stems and leaves, 

resembling a curled Red Cabbage up to a certain point, and 
producing not only in the heart but also in the axils of the leaves 




Extra Late White Broccoli. 



BROCCOLI 



225 



rather thick, fleshy purple shoots, the flower-buds of which do 
not abort like those varieties which form a true head. These 
shoots are produced in succession for a long time, and they are 
gathered as they lengthen and before the flowers open, and are 

used like green Asparagus, 
from which circumstance 
the plant has received 
the name of Asparagus 
Broccoli. 

Under the name of 
Sp rout ing Brocco li, a 
variety with green shoots 
is most commonly grown 
in England, the flowers 
of which are partially 
abortive and form at the 
end of every shoot a 
small bulging mass or 
lump, of a greenish yellow 
colour. The Marte Cauli- 
flower, of Bordeaux, is a 
true Sprouting Broccoli, 
which produces a great 
number of small, compact 
purplish heads of very 
good quality. This variety, 
unfortunately, does not endure severe winters in the climate of Paris. 
The number of kinds of Broccoli is extremely large, as it is one 
of those vegetables the varieties of which are not well established. 
In England, more than forty different forms of it are grown. Of 
these we mention here the kinds with coloured heads : 

Green Cape. A green-headed variety, which comes in in 
October and November. 

Late Green, or Late Danish. The head of this is of the same 
colour as the preceding kind, but comes in in April and May. 

Late Dwarf Purple, or Cock's-comb Broccoli. A very hardy, 
purplish-headed kind, coming in only in April and May. 

Among the white-headed kinds, the most esteemed are : 
Backhouse's White Winter. Distinct from Snow's and 
Osborn's, with the good qualities of both. 

Osborn's White Winter. A fine mid-winter variety, with 
heads as white as a Cauliflower. 

Improved White Sprouting. A variety very productive of 
shoots. 

Early Penzance (Cornish). Turns in very early ; fine, com- 
pact, pure white head. 

15 




Purple Sprouting broccoli. 



226 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Knight's Protecting. A very useful protecting variety. 

Sulphur. Very useful, extremely hardy, and produces fine 
heads. 

Champion (Barr). A very distinct, hardy early Broccoli. The 
flower is well protected, and, with good culture, if allowed to attain 
its full size, produces very large heads. 

Criterion (Barr). The best of all the late Broccolis, coming 
into use after the middle of May, and giving a succession till the 
Cauliflowers are ready to cut. 

Chappel's Cream. A fine variety, with large creamy white 
compact head. 

Lauder's Protecting Late White Goshen. A fine, hardy late 
variety. 

Leamington (Perkins). A well-protected, first-rate late 
Broccoli. 

Ledsham's Latest of All. Certificated by the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society as one of the finest and latest varieties known ; 
head " white as snow." 

Cattell's Eclipse. A handsome late form of the Mammoth 
Broccoli. 

Grange's Early Cauliflower Broccoli, or Bath White. An 
extremely early kind, which begins to come in in October. 

Cooling's Matchless. A rather leafy kind, but producing a 
fine white head, like the White Roscoff. 

Snow's Superb White Winter. A compact, short-stemmed 
variety, which may be grown to come in either a.t the end of 
autumn or in spring. 

Veitch's Protecting. A good hardy kind, the fine white 
heads of which are naturally protected by the peculiar growth of 
the leaves. 

Wilcove's. A good late variety, which withstands the winter 
well. 

The Italians cultivate a great many varieties of Broccoli, and 
Italy is the country in which this vegetable originated ; but as 
Cauliflowers of every kind pass the winter there without injury, they 
give the name of Cauliflower to all the varieties which produce 
white heads, the name Broccoli being restricted to the sprouting or 
coloured varieties. The Giant Cauliflower of Naples is called a 
Broccoli in its native country. On all the coasts of the Mediter- 
ranean there are varieties of Cauliflower which come in all through 
the winter, in uninterrupted succession to the autumn kinds. There 
are also, among the purplish coloured Broccolis, particular kinds 
for every month of the winter ; those which come in in November 
are named San-Martinari, in December Nataleschi, and the rest 
Gennajuoli, Febbrajuoli, Marzuoli, and Apriloti, according as they 
come in in January, February, March, and April. 



CELERY 



227 



CELERY 

Apium graveolenSy L. Umbellifera. 

French, Celeri. German, Sellerie. Flemish, Selderij. Danish^ Selleri. Italian, 
Sedano, Apio. Spanish, Apio. 

Native of Europe. Biennial. A plant with a fibrous, rather 
fleshy root. Leaves divided, pinnate, smooth, with almost triangular 
toothed leaflets, of a dark green colour ; leaf-stalks rather broad 
furrowed, concave on the inside ; stem, which does not appear until 
the second year, about 2 ft. high, furrowed, and branching ; flowers 
very small, yellow or green, in umbels'; seed small, triangular, five- 
ribbed, and having a very aromatic odour. Their germinating 
power lasts for eight years. 



CULTURE. In England Celery 
may be had for use from the begin- 
ning of September till late in April. 
The ground on which it is to be 
grown must be well drained to the 
depth of 3 or 4 ft., and trenched 
2 ft. deep, enriching it at the same 
time with good stable-yard manure 
and rotten leaves. The 'best way is 
to trench and ridge the ground at 
the same time, burying the manure 
deeply, so as to encourage deep 
rooting an advantage during dry 
weather. Some time before the 
ground is required, level down the 
ridges ; if the soil is heavy, fork it 
over several times, in order to bring 
it into good condition before form- 
ing the trenches. The latter, for 
tall-growing varieties, should be 6 ft. 
apart, and for dwarfer sorts 4 ft. 
apart. Make them 18 in. deep and 
15 in. wide. If possible, they ought 
to run north and south, in order 
that the plants may have the benefit 
of the midday sun. Tread the 
bottom of them quite firm, and 
place in them from 6 to 9 in. of 
perfectly rotten manure, always pre- 
ferring rich, well-decayed material 
from the stable-yard. On this must 
be placed some soot, when the 
trenches will be ready to receive 
the plants. By placing the manure 
deep the roots reach it just when 



the centre leaves that are blanched 
are coming up, and if the plants 
are well fed at that time they form 
large hearts, crisp, and white as 
ivory. 

FOR VERY EARLY CELERY, pre- 
pare some rich soil and fill a seed- 
pan or box with the compost, firming 
it well ; sow the seeds thinly, cover 
them over lightly with some finely 
sifted soil, and water through a fine- 
rosed watering-pot, placing the pans 
or boxes upon a shelf in the stove or 
in a vinery at work. The seeds will 
soon germinate, and when the young 
plants have made two or three leaves 
prick them off into boxes in rich 
loamy soil with plenty of manure, 
a portion of leaf-mould, and a 
sprinkling of silver sand to keep the 
compost open. Seeds for the early 
crop ought to be sown in February, 
and the seedlings will be ready to 
plant out as soon as all danger from 
frost is over. Sometimes early 
Celery-plants are grown in 4 in. 
pots where pits or houses are at 
command, and thus treated they 
sustain no check when planted in 
the trenches and well watered. 

A second sowing may be made 
about the middle of March, either 
in boxes in a warm house or pit, or 
a slight hot-bed on which are put 
6 in. of fine, rich soil made pretty 



228 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



firm, covering lightly with some 
finely sifted soil. Prepare a piece 
of ground by treading it firmly and 
placing on it 6 in. of rotten horse- 
manure and leaf-mould in equal 
portions, tread firmly, and cover 
with 2 in. of fine, rich soil. When 
the plants have made two or three 
leaves, prick them out in rows 4 in. 
apart upon the bed thus prepared, 
firming them well in as the planting 
proceeds, and watering them with a 
fine-rosed pot, so as to settle the soil 
round them. If at hand, a frame 
might be placed over the bed for a 
short time until the young plants 
have got established, giving plenty 
of air during the daytime, or the 
plants can be covered with mats at 
night. If properly cared for, they 
will be fit to be transplanted into 
the trenches in two months from the 
time the seed was sown. 

For late plants a sowing may be 
made in April the same as in March, 
only the plants will need no pro- 
tection when pricked out. 

TRENCHES for Celery are often 
made between rows of early Peas, 
which shade the Celery -plants when 
newly planted in hot weather, and 
when the Pea crop is harvested the 
Celery has the full benefit of sun 
and air. The trenches being ready 
for the reception of the plants, water 
them the day previous to trans- 
planting ; lift them carefully with 
a trowel, preserving every fibre, 
replant i ft. apart, press the soil 
firmly round the roots, water well, 
and shade for a few days if the 
weather be dry and warm. The 
summer treatment consists in keep- 
ing the ground free from weeds by 
frequent hoeings, watering twice a 
week if the weather is very dry, 
and once if dull. When the plants 
are from 6 to 9 in. high, weak 
manure-water may be given them 
once a week. This is prepared by 



soaking either cow or horse manure 
in a large tub or tank, applying a 
portion of soot with the manure- 
water, or a handful of soot may be 
scattered occasionally around the 
plants before watering them. This 
destroys slugs and feeds the plants, 
giving them a fine green colour. 
In exposed situations it is often 
necessary to tie the leaves up when 
i ft. or so high, to save them from 
being broken by high winds, using 
for the purpose strands of fine 
matting, but be careful that the ties 
do not cut the leaves when growing. 
It is best not to earth the plants 
up much until they have nearly 
completed their growth. Merely 
scatter a little soil over the roots 
once a fortnight to serve as a mulch- 
ing and induce the roots to come to 
the surface. 

BLANCHING requires from five to 
seven weeks after the final earthing. 
Before commencing to earth up, 
all small leaves and any suckers, or 
secondary shoots, which may have 
grown from the base of the plants 
should be removed; tie the leaves 
carefully with some pieces of thin 
bast, which will give way as the 
plants swell. Some use tubes for 
blanching, such as drain-pipes, 
placed round the plants ; others 
paper collars, and some employ 
clean paper, which keeps the soil 
from getting into the hearts of the 
plants when earthing is being per- 
formed, raising the collars as the 
earthing proceeds, or the collars 
may be left upon the plants. If 
tubes are not used, the soil must be 
banked up in the usual way at several 
times, being careful to keep the 
leaves close together, so that the 
heads may be straight and compact 
after being blanched. Choose dry 
weather for earthing, for if damp 
the hearts are sure to rot. Before 
earthing scatter a little lime round 



CELERY 



229 



each plant, which destroys all slugs, 
which are often destructive to Celery 
during the winter in damp soil. A 
sprinkling may also be used when 
proceeding with the earthing. 

Celery may be grown in single 
rows or as many as may be thought 
fit, making the trenches wide enough 
to receive the number of rows in- 
tended. One row is the most con- 
venient in private gardens, and even 
market growers adopt single rows 
more than double ones. When the 
earthing is finished, and before 
severe frost sets in, cover the tops of 
the ridges with dry straw, or better, 
if at hand, some dry bracken, which 
prevents the frost from injuring the 
tops of the leaves and keeps the 
hearts of the plants dry. Perfect 
specimens of Celery must have the 
following good points viz. the leaf, 
or stalk, must be broad, thick, crisp, 
free from ridges and stringiness, 
and the heads good in form and 
weight. W. C. 

MARKET-GARDEN CULTURE. 
The valley of the Thames is well 
adapted for Celery culture, and many 
acres of land in the Fulham fields 
and elsewhere are occupied by it. 
The sowing for the first crop of 
Celery is generally made early in 
February; a large main sowing is 
made in March, and for the latest 
crop sowing takes place in the 
middle or end of April. The early 
and main sowings are usually made 
in frames on hot-beds, but for a late 
crop the seed is sometimes sown in 
the open air on manure-beds or in 
similar positions. The seed is sown 
at all times rather thickly, in moist, 
light soil, and is but lightly covered. 
When up, the seedlings, if too thick, 
are thinned out to i in. or so apart. 
Some dig out trenches and fill them 
with fermenting material, on which 
they place a few inches thick of light 
rich soil, and after sowing the seed 



cover the bed with mats or rough 
litter until the seed has germinated, 
when the coverings are removed 
during the daytime and replaced 
at night should the weather be 
unfavourable. 

In all cases the beds on which 
Celery-seed is sown are made firm 
either by treading or rolling, and 
a little light soil is sifted through a 
fine sieve over the seed after it has 
been sown. The seedlings in all 
cases are freely exposed to light and 
air in order to render them stout 
and stocky. Those from the first 
sowing, when large enough, are 
pricked out in frames on a bed of 
rotted manure, and those from the 
main and later sowings are pricked 
out in May and June on beds simi- 
larly prepared on a sheltered border 
out of doors. In these positions 
they receive abundance of water in 
order to keep them growing, for a 
check at any period in the growth 
of Celery-plants is very detrimental. 
The plants are usually pricked out 
in rows from 6 to 8 in. apart, about 
half that distance being allowed be- 
tween the plants in the rows. When 
planting time has arrived a spade is 
run between the rows and a good 
soaking of water is given, after which 
nothing more is done for a few days. 
A spade is then pushed under the 
plants, which are thus carefully 
raised, separated, and taken on 
hand-barrows or in boxes direct 
to the trenches. When planted, a 
good watering is given them, and 
thus they sustain a very slight check 
through removal; but market-gar- 
deners seldom plant Celery in double 
rows, as is done in private gardens, 
one row in each trench being con- 
sidered the most profitable way. 
The strongest plants are in all cases 
selected and placed in trenches by 
themselves, and the weaker ones 
by themselves. In that way a 



230 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



succession is formed, uniformity in 
the size of the heads is secured, and 
thus a whole row of plants becomes 
marketable at one time. They need 
no sorting, and the ground, being 
cleared, is made available for other 
crops. 

The ground on which it is in- 
tended to plant Celery is, if possible, 
prepared in autumn by being heavily 
manured and trenched, the surface 
being either thrown up in ridges or 
left in as rough a state as possible 
until spring, when it is levelled 
down to be sown with Radishes. In 
that case the land is marked out into 
a series of beds from 5 to 6 ft. wide, 
leaving good wide alleys between 
them. In these alleys is placed 
an extra supply of manure, and in 
them are planted the earliest Celery- 
plants. By the time these require 
earthing up the Radishes will have 
been marketed and the ground 
cleared of weeds, etc Sometimes, 
however, whole fields are marked 
off in beds and the trenches dug out 
in winter in readiness to receive 
the Celery, the beds being planted 
with Lettuces or early Cauliflowers. 
Market gardeners never plant Celery 
in deep trenches; on the contrary, 
they contrive to allow the roots, 
after the crop is fully earthed up, to 
be considerably above the bottom 
of the ridges. Especially is this the 
case as regards late crops, which in 
damp, badly drained soils are very 
precarious. During the growing 
season Celery is abundantly sup- 
plied with water, as are also the 
crops of salad plants, or French 
Beans, which are invariably grown 
between the lines. 

Earthing up is performed for the 
first time when the plants have 
become fairly established and are 
6 in. high ; the sides of the trenches 
are chopped down on the morning 
of some fine day, well broken up, 



and allowed to dry for an hour or 
two, when two men, one on each 
side of the row, push the soil with 
the back of a wooden rake to within 
a few inches of the plants, so as to 
leave a ridge for the reception of 
water. At the next earthing the 
soil is pressed tightly round the 
bases of the plants, and more of it 
is chopped down from the ridges ; 
and at the third, which is the final 
earthing, the ridges are made firm 
and smooth in such a way as to 
effectually throw off the rain. The 
Red and White varieties of Celery 
are the principal kinds grown, and 
under the treatment just recorded 
they become very crisp and solid. 
Sometimes a crop of Celery is grown 
for culinary purposes early in spring, 
and in that case the seeds are sown 
in June, and the young plants are 
pricked out rather closely together ; 
they are never earthed up more 
than once, the object being to 
secure plants with flavour rather 
than crispness and good quality. 

KEEPING CELERY. In severer 
climates than ours it is often neces- 
sary to resort to other and better 
methods of preserving Celery than 
are generally practised in this 
country. In America, where the 
winters are much harder than they 
are here, various methods are in 
use, but the following, described by 
Mr. Peter Henderson, of New York, 
we consider the neatest and best, 
and it would be as well, in cases of 
a severer season than usual, that it 
should be known in this country. 
Indeed, it would be better to adopt 
it always, as by so doing this vege- 
table, which all enjoy, may be kept 
better- Much disagreeable labour 
may also be avoided in digging in 
all sorts of weathers, apart from the 
injury to the plant from exposure 
to greatly varying temperatures and 
conditions of weather, as it is at 



CELERY 231 

present. "Get a box 4 or 5 ft. box of the size named will hold 

long, 12 in. wide, and 20 or 24 in. about from seventy-five to one 

deep. In the bottom place 2 or 3 in. hundred roots, according to size, 

of sand or soil it makes little differ- It is quite common for many fami- 

ence what, provided it is something lies to purchase their Celery from 

that will hold moisture. Into this the market-gardeners, place it away 

box at the time when Celery is dug in a box in this manner in their 

up (which in this district ranges from cellars during the winter, where it 

October 25th to November 25th), can be conveniently got at, and it 

have the Celery stalks packed per- costs also in this way less than half 

pendicularly with the roots resting what it does when purchased tied 

on the sand. All that is necessary up from the benches in the market 

is to see that it is packed moderately in the usual way. We have for many 

tight, for if not packed tight the air years followed this method for what 

would get around the stalks and we want for our own private use, 

prevent blanching. The box may finding it much more convenient to 

be then set in any cool cellar, and get it out of the boxes in the cellar 

will keep from the time it is put than to go to the trenches in the 

away until March if necessary. A open ground for it in all weathers." 

USES. The leaf-stalks of some kinds and the roots of others 
are eaten either raw or boiled. In England the seeds (or an 
extract from them) are used for flavouring soups. Popular as 
Celery is in England as a cooked vegetable, we have still much 
to learn about it. The Turnip-rooted, the best of all winter roots, 
is hardly ever seen out of a few foreign houses. 

Cultivation, in developing the leaves and the root of the Celery, 
has produced two very distinct varieties of the same plant, which 
are differently employed and require a different mode of culture. 
These are known as the Common, or Stalked, Celery, and the 
Celeriac, or Turnip-rooted Celery. 

Common Celery* (CV/m' d Cotes). This is undoubtedly the 
most anciently known and the most commonly cultivated kind. 
It requires a good, rich, soft, well-manured soil, rather moist than 
dry, and is not usually sown where the crop is to be grown. The 
earliest sowings are made on a hot-bed in January, February, or 
March, and the seedlings, while still small, are pricked out into 
another hot-bed, and not planted out permanently until the end of 
April or the beginning of May. Subsequent sowings, which may 
be continued till June, are made in the open ground, so as to have 
a successional supply of fresh, tender stalks all the year round. 
The seedlings of these later sowings are not pricked out, but 
simply thinned and allowed to remain where they were sown, 
until they are finally planted out. When this takes place, the 
plants are set in rows, with a distance of 10 or 12 in. from plant to 
plant in all directions, and the only attention they require is that 
of hoeing, and frequent and plentiful waterings, in which they 
delight. 

* Celery Leaf Blight, see p. 776. Celery Maggot or Leaf Miner, see p. 776. 



232 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Before the stalks are sent to table, they are blanched by 
excluding the light from them. This is done in many ways, most 
usually by tying up the outer leaves around the inner ones, and 
then earthing up the stalks as far as the lowest leaves. This is not 
generally done all at once, but at first the stalks are earthed up for 
about one-third of their height, and, eight or ten days afterwards, 




Solid White Celery ( natural size). 



Golden-yellow Large Solid Celery. 



up to two-thirds, the remaining third being completed at the end 
of eight or ten days more. 

Sometimes the plants are taken up with balls and planted side 
by side in a trench, which is then filled with soil ; and sometimes 
they are planted in spring in trenches, where they are blanched 
when the time comes, without being transplanted, by filling in the 
trench with the soil which was taken out in opening it. 

Solid White Celery. A vigorous-growing kind, 16 to 20 in. 
high, with fleshy, solid, and tender stalks, which, in blanching, 



CELERY 



233 



become yellow-white. Leaves erect. This variety is the best for 

market-garden culture. 

Paris Golden Celery. A very fine variety of Parisian origin ; 
half-dwarf, compact, with well-developed leaves, of light green with 
golden tints. The ribs are thick, broad, fleshy, and naturally ivory- 
white, though to fit it for the table it is blanched the same as other 
varieties. It is vigorous and early, easy of cultivation, and in every 
way desirable ; but it calls for some care at the end of the season, 
as it does not stand _ 

wet so well as most of 
the other sorts. 

Rose-ribbed Paris 
Celery. An excellent 
variety selected from 
the Golden Paris, of 
which it possesses all 
the good qualities, and, 
like it, has broad, thick 
ribs, and is not liable 
to become hollow. It 
is upright and com- 
pact. The foliage has 
a golden tinge which 
increases and becomes 
more conspicuous as 
the autumn advances. 
It is also distinguished 
for the rosy colour of 
the ribs. The stalks 
are much less coloured 
than those of the red 
varieties, and, when 
blanched, assume an 
ivory colour slightly 
tinged red, which is 
very attractive. It is one 
cultivation. 

Pascal Celery. A very vigorous and an extremely productive 
variety, with short, broad, thick, tender and fleshy green ribs, which, 
however, blanch very readily if only tied or earthed up. The 
leaves are upright, vigorous, short, and dark green. It keeps quite 
well under cover during winter. 

White Solid Arezzo Celery. A very fine, tall, vigorous 
variety, with dark green and slightly crimped leaves, and very thick, 
broad, tender, and fleshy stalks. Its interest is rather for growers 
in the south of France. 




Rose- ribbed Paris Celery, Self- blanching. 

of the best celeries for autumn 



234 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Dwarf Solid White 
Celery. This variety, 
besides being easily 
blanched, has the further 
advantage of not pro- 
ducing suckers. The 
stalks are extremely 
broad, solid, and erect, 
so that the plants may 
be grown very close 
together, thereby obtain- 
ing from an equal area 
as heavy a crop as that 
produced by the larger 
varieties. The stalks are 
more largely developed 
in proportion to the 
dimensions of the leaves 
in this variety than in 
any other. 

Curled Solid White 
Celery. A very distinct 
variety, with numerous 
large leaves. Leaflets 
crisped and undulating, 

and a lighter green than those of any other variety. The stalks 

are fairly thick and perfectly solid, and the leaves, instead of 

being bitter, like those of 

other kinds, have a mild 

flavour and can be used 

in salads. This new 

variety was raised in the 

neighbourhood of Niort 

(Vendee), and began to 

be distributed about the 

year 1870. It is, perhaps, 

somewhat more sensitive 

to cold than the plain- 
leaved kinds. 

White Plume Celery 

(Ce'leri Plein Blanc 

d'Amtrique}. A very 

distinct kind, introduced 

from the United States 

of North America in 1885. 

It is characterised by the Dwarf Solid White Large-ribbed Celery. 




White Solid Pascal Celery. 




CELERY 



235 




Curled Solid White Celery. 



silver-white colour with which its 

leaves are partly tinged at first, 

and which later on extends to 

all the central part of the plant 

and sometimes to the whole of the 

foliage. The ribs are white, but, 

like those of the other varieties, 

need to be blanched to become 

quite tender. It is about the 

same size as the Paris Golden 

Celery, but broader in habit. It 

suffers easily from cold, for which 

reason it should be grown for 

autumn rather than for winter use. 
Fern-leaved Celery. A very 

curious variety, with finely cut 

foliage, having the same qualities 

as the other White Solid Celeries. 
Endive Celery (Ce'leri Scarole}. 

This is an almost unribbed variety, with leaves that spread 

over the ground. Rather uncommon in appearance, it hardly 

deserves a place in the vegetable garden, seeing that the only 

useful part of it has been reduced to almost nothing. 

The Hartshorn Celery 
is a sub-variety of the pre- 
ceding kind, and, like it, 
almost unribbed. It is dis- 
tinguishable by its finely 
cut leaves, which resemble 
those of the Rouen, or 
Staghorn, Endive. 

Dwarf Solid White, 
Sandringham, or Incom- 
parable, Celery. A more 
thickish kind than the 
common Solid White Celery. 
Stalks broad and very solid ; 
leaves short. This variety is 
easily blanched, on account 
of the great number of its 
leaves, which cover one 
another closely, so that very 
white stalks may be obtained 
from it by merely earthing 




White Plume Celery. 



them up, without the trouble 
of tying up the leaves. In 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



the United States a variety is grown, under the name of Boston 
Market Dwarf Celery, which comes very close to the present kind, 
differing from it only in being somewhat taller. Unfortunately, 
very frequently it has the defect of sending out underground 
shoots or suckers. 

Mammoth White Celery (Cfleri Tun). A sub-variety of the 
White Solid Celery, of extremely vigorous growth, attaining a 
height of from 20 in. to 2 ft. Stalks very solid, thick, and long, 

but relatively not so broad 
as those of the Solid 
White Celery. This form 
seems to be disappearing. 
Amongst good English 
varieties of White Celery 
the following are worthy 
of note : Danesbury Celery \ 
or Veitctis Solid White 
Celery, Dicksoris Mammoth 
White Celery, and Luck- 
hurst Giant White Celery. 
These are compact varie- 
ties, with very solid stalks, 
something like those of 
the Dwarf Solid White 
Celery. Dobbies Invin- 
cible Celery, Seymour s 
White ,or Goodwin's White, 
and Northumberland 
White Celery. A very 
tall kind, somewhat re- 
sembling the Mammoth 
White Celery. 

London Market Red, 
Red Giant Solid, or 
Ivery's None-such Celery 
(Celeri Violet de Tours]. 
A vigorous kind, with 
very broad, very solid, tender, and brittle stalks of a purple tinged 
green colour. Leaves half-spreading, broad, and dark green. It 
is a very hardy variety, and of excellent quality. 

Red Large-ribbed Celery. This is less coloured and more 
vigorous in growth than the preceding. In shape it resembles the 
Pascal Celery, from which it has sprung ; but it has thicker and 
stiffer stalks. It is a short, compact plant, hardy, and keeping well. 
The stalks are thick, tender, and do not become hollow, like most 
of the early varieties. It is well suited for autumn cultivation. 




Red Giant Solid Celery. 



CELERY 237 

In England a great number of varieties of Red-stalked Celery 
are grown, of which, in addition to the present one, we may 
mention : Aylesbury Prize Red Celery, tall and well coloured. Early 
Rose Celery ', with purplish ribs and pointed leaves. Major Clarke's 
Solid Red, or Wilcods Dunham Red, Ramsey's Solid Red, Turners 
Red Celery. A vigorous-growing variety, almost as tall as the 
Mammoth White, but with more branching leaves, which are also 
of a deeper green colour. Select Red Celery, Standard-Bearer Celery, 
and Winchester Pink Celery, well coloured and rather short. 
Carter's Incomparable Crimson, or Hood's Dwarf Red, Celery. This 
is dwarfer than any other Red variety, but very solid, and crops 
well. Man of Kent, rose-coloured rather than red, half-compact 
and distinct. Manchester Red, Laings Mammoth, Fulham Prise 
Pink, or Giant Red, Celery. An extremely vigorous-growing kind, 
attaining a height of over 3 ft. 

Celery culture in the United States has grown greatly in extent 
of recent years ; Michigan, Ohio, and New- York States alone 
devoting thousands of acres annually to an industry which supplies 
the great markets of the east and centre from June to January ; 
and California and Florida keeping up the supply for the remain- 
ing months of the year. In America the varieties of celery in 
cultivation exceed largely in number those grown in Europe. 
The Paris Golden, the White Plume, the Pascal, and the Dwarf 
Large-ribbed White Solid Celery are the kinds most cultivated ; 
but, besides these, there are a certain number of varieties which 
more or less resemble the last-named Celery, with slight differences 
as regards height, earliness, and colour. Among the most important 
of these we may cite : 

Boston Market Celery. A compact thick-ribbed, solid white 
variety, much esteemed in Boston markets. 

Crawford's Half-dwarf Celery. Rather taller than our Dwarf 
Large-ribbed White Solid Celery, with solid, not very large stalks, 
ivory-white when blanched. 

Evans' Triumph Celery. One of the best of the late kinds, 
medium-sized, long-ribbed, white, solid, and good in quality. 

Golden Heart, or Golden Dwarf, Celery. Half-long, given to 
throwing out suckers, solid-ribbed and good in quality ; also a 
handsome light-coloured stalk when blanched. It is hardy, and 
much cultivated for the late season's and winter market. 

New Rose Celery. A handsome violet-coloured variety, 
resembling the Violet Tours Celery, but with ribs uniformly solid, 
tender, and excellent in quality. 

Perfection Heartwell Celery. A late variety, a little taller 
than the Dwarf Large-ribbed White Solid Celery ; it is yellow- 
hearted, with medium-sized but solid stems, tender, and good in 
quality. 



2 3 8 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Pink Plume Celery. Differs from the White Plume Celery 
only in being more or less rosy in the ribs. 

Winter Queen Celery. Late, compact, easily blanched to a 

cream shade, with solid 
fleshy ribs that are much 
esteemed. 

Two other Celeries 
cultivated in America are 
Fin de Siecle and 
Schumacher, vigorous, tall, 
long-ribbed varieties, 
much liked in some 
localities. 

Soup Celery. A 
variety that has been very 
little improved by cultiva- 
tion, and is probably a 
reversion towards the wild 
state. It is hardy, and 
produces an abundance 
of erect-growing leaves. 
Stalks hollow, rather thin, 
tender, and brittle. The 
plant sends up great numbers of suckers, and is grown for its 
leaves, which are cut, like Parsley, and is used in soups and for 
seasoning. After being cut it produces new leaves. 




Soup Celery ( natural size). 



CELERIAC, or TURNIP-ROOTED CELERY 

French, Celeri-rave. German, Knoll-Sellerie. Flemish and Dutch, Knoll-Selderij. 
Danish^ Knold-Selleri. Italian, Sedano-rapa. Spanish, Apio-nabo. 

In this kind of Celery it is the root which has been developed 
by cultivation, and not the leaf-stalks, which remain hollow and of 
moderate size, while the flavour is so bitter that they are unfit for 
table use. On the other hand, the root (which, even in the wild 
plant, forms an enlargement of some size before it divides into 
numerous rootlets) has been brought by cultivation to easily attain 
the size of the fist, and often even double that size. The Turnip- 
rooted Celery is an excellent vegetable, but, as its introduction into 
cultivation is of comparatively recent date, it is not, as yet, very 
commonly grown. It keeps well, and forms a valuable contribution 
to the winter supply. 

CULTURE. It is grown nearly in the same way as the Common 
Celery, and, like it, requires good, rich, moist, mellow, and well- 
manured soil. It is generally sown in a nursery-bed in March, and 
planted out in May. The plants require no further attention than 



CELERIAC, OR TURNIP-ROOTED CELERY 239 



frequent waterings, and to have the ground kept free from 
weeds. The market-gardeners of Paris are in the habit, while 
the plants are growing, qf chopping off with the spade the 
rootlets which grow around the main root, under the (perhaps 
erroneous) impression that by doing so they cause the main root 
to attain a greater size. 

Common Celeriac, or Turnip-rooted Celery. Leaves smaller 
than those of the Common or Stalk Celery ; stalk always hollow, 
bitter-tasted, and tinged with a red or bronzy hue ; root forming a 
sort of ball, which is roundish or conical in the upper part, and 
divided underneath into a great number of rootlets or ramifications, 
which are more or less 
fleshy and tangled together. 
The weight of this, when 
trimmed of the leaves and 
rootlets, ranges from 7 to 
over 10 oz. in the Common 
variety, but roots of much 
larger size have been ob- 
tained from other varieties. 

Smooth Paris Celeriac. 
Root generally broader 
than long, and somewhat 
irregular in shape ; leaves 
rather numerous, more 
spreading than erect. 

Improved Paris 
Celeriac. This is a variety 
obtained by selection from 
the preceding, than which 
it is larger and smoother, 
though the roots would 
grow rather irregular if growers were not careful to cut 
the side rootlets with the spade, and to pinch off the neck 
shoots. The market-gardeners of the vicinity of Paris prefer 
this variety over all others for growing in spent manure mould, 
or terreau. 

Large Early August, or Variegated-leaved, Celeriac. The 
root is round, regular, of medium size, and excellent quality. 
Remarkable for its very conspicuously striped yellow and green 
foliage, which, with the rosy ribs, has a pleasing effect. It makes 
a handsome border that will last until the frost sets in, and help to 
brighten the monotony of the kitchen-garden. 

Early Erfurt Celeriac. A smaller kind than the Paris Celeriac, 
but also earlier. Root very clean-skinned, regularly rounded in 
shape, and with a fine neck. 




Turnip-rooted Celery. 



240 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Apple-shaped Celeriac. A sub-variety of the Early Erfurt 
kfrrd, with sHght, half-erect leaves, and long purplish leaf-stalks. 
Root very regularly rounded in shape, and entirely free from 
rootlets on the upper part. 

There is an extraordinarily small kind of Turnip-rooted Celery, 
the leaves of which are only 4 or 5 in. long, while the root is seldom 




Apple-shaped Celeriac. 



Large Smooth Prague Celeriac. 



larger than a walnut. It is more curious than useful, and is known 
as the Tom Thumb Erfurt Turnip-rooted Celery. 

Prague Celeriac. This may be described as a highly developed 
form of the Erfurt variety, the roots of which are almost spherical, 
evenly shaped, and without rootlets, except on the under-part. 
They are usually double the size of those of the Erfurt variety, 
and the leaf-stalks are somewhat stouter and whiter. 



CHERVIL 

Scandix Cerefolium y L. ; Anthriscus Cere folium, HofTm. Umbtttifcr& 

French, Cerfeuil. German, Kerbel. Flemish and Dutch, Kervel. Danish, Have-kjorvel. 
Italian, Cerfoglio. Spanish, Perifollo. Portuguese, Cerefolio. 

Native of Southern Europe. Annual. Leaves very much 
divided, with oval, incised, pinnatifid leaflets ; stem 16 to 20 in. 
high, smooth and few-leaved ; flowers small, white, in umbels ; seed 
black, long, pointed, marked with a longitudinal furrow. Their 
germinating power lasts for two or three years. The seed may be 
sown all through the year in the open ground, where the crop is to 
grow, but in very hot weather it is better to sow in a shady position 
with a northern aspect. According to the season, the leaves may 



CHERVIL 




Common, or Plain, CherviL 



be 6ut in from six weeks to two months after sowing. The leaves 
are aromatic, and are used for seasoning and in salads. It is in 
much demand in Englislji 
gardens. 

Common, or Plain- 
leaved, Chervil. Leaves 
slight, very much divided, 
and light green ; stems 
slender, slightly swollen 
below the joints, chan- 
nelled, and smooth; 
flowers in thin umbels 
produced in tiers on all 
the upper half of the 
stem. This is one of the 
most widely distributed 
and best known of all 
kitchen-garden plants. It 
is seldom used by itself, 
but, from its fine, strong, 
aromatic flavour, forms an 
almost indispensable ac- 
companiment to a great 
number of dishes. It constitutes the basis of the mixture known 
by the French name of fines herbes. It can be grown in almost 
any climate, but where the heat is great, it should have a shaded 
position. 

Curled Chervil. A variety of the preceding kind, with crisped 

or curled leaves. It has 
exactly the same per- 
fume and flavour as the 
Common, or Plain-leaved, 
Chervil, and is better for 
garnishing dishes. It 
should always be grown 
in preference to the 
Common kind, as it has 
all its advantages, viz. it 
is easily cultivated, early, 
Br of vigorous growth, pro- 
ductive, and, as we have 
just mentioned, it is 
Curled Chervil handsomer and more 

ornamental. Its chief 

merit, however, is that it cannot be confounded with any other 
plant ; for although the least practised eye may be able to 

16 




242; THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

distinguish the Chervil from other umbelliferous plants, there is 
a double security in cultivating a form of it for which no noxious 
wild plant whatever can possibly be mistaken. 

TURNIP-ROOTED CHERVIL 

Chcerophyllum bulbosum, L. Umbelliferce. Cerfeuil tubtreux. 

Native of Southern Europe. Biennial. Plant hairy, with leaves 
very much divided, spreading on the ground, and violet leaf-stalks. 
Root much swollen, almost like a short Carrot, but generally 
smaller, with a very fine dark gray skin and yellow-white flesh ; 
stem very stout and tall, 3 ft. or more in height, swollen below the 
joints, of a violet tint, and covered on the lower part with long 
whitish hairs ; seeds long, pointed, slightly concave, light brown on 

one side, whitish on the 
other, and marked length- 
ways with three furrows 
of no great depth. Their 
germinating power lasts for 
only one year. 

CULTURE. The seed 
should be sown in autumn, 
in well-prepared, mellow, 
well-drained soil, care being 
taken to cover it very 
slightly. It is generally 
quite sufficient to press the 
soil down well after sowine. 

Turnip-rooted Chervil (| natural size). The seed _ bed should & 

kept very free from weeds, as the seeds will not germinate before 
spring. The seed may also be sown in spring, if the precaution 
is taken of keeping it in the meantime "between layers of sand 
in a box, basin, or other vessel, in which it should be placed as 
soon as it is ripe. If this is done, it will germinate immediately 
after it is sown, but if kept in any other way, it will not 
germinate until the spring of the following year. While growing,. 
the plants require no attention at any time, except frequent 
waterings. About July, the leaves begin to lose colour and to- 
dry up, which indicates that the roots are nearly matured. When 
the leaves are quite withered, the roots may be taken up, if the 
ground is required for other purposes, but it is better not to com- 
mence using them too soon, as they improve very much in quality 
by being allowed to remain in the ground some weeks or even 
months, provided they are in well-drained ground and safe 
from frost 




TURNIP-ROOTED CHERVIL 243 

USES. The roots are eaten boiled. The flesh is floury and 
sweet, with a peculiar aromatic flavour. They keep well all through 
autumn and winter. v 

Attempts have been made of late years to introduce into kitchen- 
gardens the culture of the Prescott Chervil (Cerfeuil de Prescott), a 
native of Siberia, which produces large edible roots like those of the 
variety just described, and is grown much in the same way. Its 
roots are longer and larger than those of the Common Tuberous- 
rooted Chervil, but their flavour is coarser and more like that of 
the Parsnip. The seeds grow easily, but should not be sown 
before July, or the plants will rapidly run to seed. 

CHICKLING VETCH 

Lathyrus sativus, L. Leguminosce. 

French, Gesse cultivee, Lentille d'Espagne, Pois carre. German, Essbare Platterbse, 
Weisse Platterbse, Deutsche Richer. Flemish, Platte erwt. Spanish, Arveja. 
Spanish- American, Muelas. 

Native of Europe. Annual. Stem winged, 16 to 20 in. high, 
maintaining an erect position with difficulty without some support ; 
leaves compound, pinnate, without an odd one, the place of which 
is supplied by a prehensile tendril ; leaflets four in number, long 
and narrow; flower-stalks slender, axillary, one-flowered, com- 
mencing to appear at the fifth or sixth joint of the stem. Flowers 
smaller than those of the Pea, but the same in shape, white, tinged 
with blue on the standard ; pods broad and short, very flat, thick, 
and winged ; seed white, somewhat variable in shape, triangular or 
square, broader and thicker at the side of the hilum than at the 
other side. The seed is sown in spring like Peas, in the place 
where the crop is to grow, and the growing plants require no special 
attention. The unripe seeds are eaten like green Peas ; when ripe 
and dried, they may be used to make pea-soup. The use of this 
Vetch is very little understood in England, but we have heard 
that Spanish cooks make a nice dish of it. 

CHICK-PEA 

Cicer arietinum, L. Leguminosce. 

French, Pois chiche. German, Richer- Erbse. Italian, Cece. Spanish, Garbanzo. 
Portuguese, Chicaro. 

Native of Southern Europe. Annual. A rough-stemmed plant, 
almost always branching near the ground, and from 20 in. to 2 ft. in 
height. Stem hairy, as are also the leaves, which are compound, 
pinnate with an odd one, and with small, round, toothed leaflets ; 
flowers axillary, small, solitary, white in the ordinary variety, and 
red in the kinds which have coloured seeds ; pods short, much 



244 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

swollen, hairy, like the rest of the plant, with a hard membranous 
lining, each containing two seeds, one of which is often abortive. 
Seed rounded, but flattened at the sides, and with a kind of beak 
formed by the projection of the radicle ; its appearance resembles 
that of a ram's head and horns, whence the specific name of the 
plant. Its germinating power lasts, like that of all other Peas, 
for at least three years. 

CULTURE. The seed is sown in spring, as soon as the ground 
is warm enough, preferably in drills 16 to 20 in. apart, and so that 
the plants will be 8 to 10 in. from one another in the drill. They 
are treated much in the same way as Dwarf Kidney Beans, and 
require no attention except the occasional use of the hoe. They 
bear dry weather better than almost any other kind of leguminous 
plant. In the south of France the seeds may be sown in February. 

USES. The ripe seeds are eaten either boiled entire or made 
into pea-soup. They are sometimes roasted and used as a substitute 
for coffee. 

White Chick-pea. This is the most generally cultivated 
variety, and, indeed, is the only one that deserves to be con- 
sidered a table vegetable. There are a great many forms of it, 
differing slightly from one another in earliness and the size of the 
seed. In Spain some kinds of remarkable size and beauty are 
grown. 

There are two varieties of the Chick-Pea grown in the East, one 
of which has red and the other black seeds. The former is very 
extensively cultivated in the East Indies, both as a table vegetable 
and for feeding cattle, and is one of the kinds known as Horse 
Gram, as it is very much used for feeding horses. The Black- 
seeded variety is more curious than useful. 

CHICORY, or SUCCORY 

CicJiorium Intybus y L. Composite. 

French, Chicoree sauvage, C. Barbe-de-capucin. German, Wilde oder bittere Cichorie. 
Danish, Sichorie. Italian, Cicoria selvatica, Radicchio, Radicia. Spanish, 
Achicoria amarga o agreste. Portuguese, Chicorea selvagem. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. Radical leaves deep green, 
sinuated, with pointed, toothed, or cut lobes, and hairy, often red 
stalks ; stems from 5 to over 6 ft. high, cylindrical, downy, green or 
red, with spreading branches ; flowers large, blue, axillary, almost 
sessile ; seed generally smaller, browner, and more glistening than 
that of the Endive. Its germinating property lasts for eight 
years. 

The Common Chicory, which is found in almost all parts 
of Europe in the wild state, has been used from time im- 
memorial for salads, and also as a medicinal plant. When 



CHICORY, OR SUCCORY 



245 



cultivated, its produce is increased in quantity and improved in 
quality, the leaves losing much of their natural bitterness. Forced 
in darkness, in winter, it forms the highly esteemed blanched 
vegetable known as Barbe-de-capucin. The large-rooted variety 
of it, treated in the same way, produces the vegetable known in 
Belgium by the name of Witloof. 

CULTURE. The Common Chicory is an exceedingly easy plant 
to grow. The seed is sown in spring, in the place where the crop 
is to stand, in drills, or, more commonly, along the sides of 
alleys, and is generally sown very thick, in order that the leaves 
of the plants may be 
closely crowded together. 
The leaves are gathered 
as they are wanted by 
cutting them near the 
ground with a sickle or 
a knife. They may be 
cut several times in the 
same year. It is a good 
plan to make a fresh 
sowing every year, clear- 
ing out the old plants 
which have fallen off in 
produce and are about 
to run to seed. In 
order to produce the 
Barbe-de-capucin ^ plants 
are employed which have 
been sown rather thinly 
in the open ground 
about the end of June. 
At the beginning of 
winter these are taken 
up, and the leaves are trimmed off about J in. above the neck of 
the root; then, in a dark cellar, or other place, the temperature 
of which is not too cold, sloping heaps are made, composed of 
alternate layers of sand or of soil taken from well-drained ground, 
and of Chicory-roots placed horizontally and with the necks of the 
roots pointing outwards, clear of the sand or soil, so that the leaves 
may grow freely. If the soil used is too dry, a slight watering will 
be necessary, after which the plants are left to themselves, and in 
about three weeks' time, if the temperature is not too low, leaves 
8 to 10 in. long may be gathered. 

A few years ago, in the neighbourhood of Paris, they began to 
use for this purpose the Large-rooted Chicory, the roots of which 
are allowed to attain the thickness of the finger before they are 




Chicory, or Succory (blanched) ( natural size). 



246 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Red-leaved Lombardy Chicory. 



forced. These roots, being very straight and regular in shape, are 

easily arranged in the forcing heaps, and the leaves are generally 

much larger and stouter than those of the Common Chicory. 

USES. The leaves 
are used as salad, either 
in their natural state or 
blanched, as described 
above. Cut into thin 
shreds, and mixed with 
oil and vinegar, they 
are very largely used 
in some countries as 
a seasoning for boiled 
beef. 

Red Italian 
Chicory. The merit of 
this variety consists in 
the variegations which 
sometimes cover the 
entire surface of the 

leaves and give a bronzed appearance to the green. On the 

blanched leaves these blotches are a fine bright red, and a very 

effective contrast. With this Chicory it is possible to have variegated 

salads in winter, as with the blotched Lettuces and Cos Lettuces 

during summer. 

Large - rooted Chicory. 

This variety is distinguished 

by the large size of the root, 

which is thick and straight, 

attaining a length of 12 to 

14 in., with a diameter of about 

2 in. below the neck. It is 

the kind which is employed 

for the manufacture of " Coffee 

Chicory." This is obtained by 

cutting the roots into thin slices, 

which are then roasted and 

ground. The plant is grown 

for this purpose chiefly in Ger- 

many, Belgium, and the north 

of France. There are two very 

distinct varieties of it, named the 

Brunswick and the Magdeburg 

Large-rOOted Chicory. 




Brunswick Chicory G natural size). 



The Brunswick variety has very deeply cut leaves, divided like 
those of the Dandelion, and more or less spreading horizontally 



CHICORY, OR SUCCORY 



347 




while the leaves of the 

Magdeburg variety are 

undivided and stand qiu'te 

erect. The latter is con- 
sidered the more productive 

of the two. Its roots are 

longer and thicker, although 

not quite so regular. It is 

not unusual to find single 

roots of it which weigh 

from 14 to 17 oz., and 

which look very like dwarf 

White Sugar Beets, such 

as the German kinds, when 

they are grown very close 

together. As already men- 
tioned, the Large - rooted 

Chicory is often employed 

to form \htBarbe-de-capucin. 
Witloof, or Large 

Brussels Chicory. This 

plant may be considered 

as a sub-variety of the 

Magdeburg Large - rooted 

Chicory. Its principal merit consists in the width of its leaves 

and the great size of their ribs or stalks. When blanched in the 
way described farther on, it forms the vegetable 
which the Belgians call Witloof, as already 
mentioned. As shown in the illustration, this 
very much resembles a blanched head of Cos 
Lettuce in appearance. 

CULTURE. In order to obtain good specimens 
of Witloof, well-grown roots of the plant should 
be used ; and to obtain these the seed should 
be sown in the open ground, in June, in drills 
10 or 12 in. apart, selecting good, deep, rich soil 
for the purpose. The plants are allowed to grow 
on till the beginning of winter, without any 
attention except keeping the ground free from 
weeds, and watering when necessary. In the 
beginning of November, the roots (which by that 
time should have attained a diameter of from i 
to nearly 2 in.) are taken up, those which have 
divided or too narrow leaves being thrown aside, 
|f a ny such are met with, as well as any which 
natural size), bear several heads. The leaves of all the selected 



Magdeburg Chicory (^ natural size). 




248 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

roots are then trimmed off about ij in. from the neck, and 
any secondary shoots that may appear on the sides of the roots 
are pinched out, the lower end of the roots being also shortened 
so as to bring them all to a uniform length of 8 to 10 in They 
are then ready for planting, for which a trench 16 to 18 in. 
deep is opened, and the roots are placed upright in it, about 
li in. from one another; the necks of the roots will thus be 
about 8 in. below the level of the ground. The trench is then 
filled up completely with good, light, well-drained soil. If a 
speedy growth is desired, the surface of the trench, or of what- 
ever portion of it is to be forced, should be covered with a layer of 
manure varying in depth according to the quality of the manure 
and the prevailing temperature, but never less than 16 in. nor 
more than a little over 3 ft. In about a month's time, the leaves 
will have attained their proper size. The manure is then taken 
off, the roots are dug up, and the blanched head is cut off with a 
portion of the neck of the root attached. Placing the layer of 
manure under the roots has not been at all satisfactory, the heads 
opening instead of remaining closed, from which it would appear 

that a heavy pressure is 
needed in order to induce 
the heads to grow into the 
right shape. The Witloof 
is eaten raw as a salad, and 
also boiled, like the Curled 
Endives. 

Broad -leaved Chicory. 
This is a very different- 
looking plant from the 

Broad-leaved Chicory (i natural size). Common Chicory, of which 

it is a variety obtained by 

successive sowings of seeds from selected plants. The leaves are 
broad, very large, undulated, and sometimes crimped, always more 
or less covered with short hairs, and often resembling those of the 
Green Broad-leaved Winter Endive in their form and arrangement. 
When the plant runs to seed, the flowering stems are exactly like 
those of the Common Chicory, so that it is very certain that this 
plant is a variety of it, and not a hybrid between the Common 
Chicory and the Endive, 'as some persons are inclined to think. 
We should be much more disposed to assign this hybrid origin to 
the Curled-leaved Chicory, described farther on. 

Improved Variegated Chicory. A form of the preceding 
variety, which has the leaves blotched and striped with red, or, 
in the case of plants grown in the open air, with brown, which 
changes to red if the plants are deprived of light. This very 
bright variegation is very pretty in a salad. 




CHICORY, OR SUCCORY 



249 



Curled-leaved Chicory. This variety is curious from its 
leaves being very finely cut, slashed, and curled. It resembles 
an Endive to a certain ^extent. There is the more reason for 
supposing it to be a cross between the two species as it is 
extremely variable, the leaves being often nearly smooth, and it 
does not appear to be quite as hardy as the other garden varieties 
of Chicory. 

M. Jacquin, sen., who has made assiduous and successful 
attempts to improve the Common Chicory, succeeded in estab- 
lishing a certain number of varieties. None of them, however, we 
believe, are now in cultivation. 



CHIVES 

Allium Schcenoprasum, L. Liliacea. 

Fretich, Ciboulette, Civette. German, Schnittlauch. Flemish and Dutch, Bieslook. 
Italian, Cipollina. Spanish, Cebollino. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. A plant growing in thick tufts. 
Bulbs oval, small, scarcely as large as a hazel-nut, forming a com- 
pact mass by the intertangling 
of the fibrous roots ; leaves 
very numerous, slender, and of 
a deep green colour, resembling 
those of a grass, but hollow, 
like those of the Onion ; 
flower-stems very little taller 
than the leaves, bearing small 
terminal clusters of violet-red 
flowers, which are usually 
barren. Chives are always 
propagated by division of the 
tufts. The best time for 
dividing them is in March 
or April. The plants are 
usually grown as an edging, 
and appear to do better that 
way than when grown in a bed. It is a good plan to take 
them up and replant them every two or three years, as this has 
the effect of freshening up the tufts. The leaves, when wanted 
for table use, are cut with a knife, and seem to grow more 
vigorously the oftener they are cut. They are used for seasoning, 
and are much grown in British gardens, more especially in 
the north. 




Chives. 



2 $0 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



CLARY 

Sah>ia Sctarea, L. Labiates. Sauge Selaree. 

Native of South Europe. Perennial, but cultivated as an annual 
or a biennial. An herbaceous plant, with the radical leaves very 
broad, oval-obtuse, broadly sinuated or toothed, woolly haired, 
gray-green, and crimped like the leaves of Savoy Cabbage. Stem 

very tall, quadrangular, 
branching in the upper 
part and bearing long 
spikes of white or lilac 
flowers in clusters of two 
or three ; seed brown or 
marbled, smooth, and 
shining. Their germina- 
ting power lasts for three 
years. The plants do 
not run to seed until the 
second year from the time 
of sowing. After they 
have flowered, it is better 
to pull them up and 
replace them by young 
plants. The seed is sown 
in April, in drills 16 to 
20 in. apart, or in a 
seed-bed, from which the 
seedlings are pricked out 
in May at the same 
distance from one another. During the summer hoeing and 
watering must not be neglected. In August, the first leaves 
may be gathered, and the plants will continue to yield up to 
June or July in the following year. The leaves are used for 
seasoning. 

CORIANDER 

Coriandrum sativum, L. Umbellijerce. 

French^ Coriandre. German, Coriander. Flemish and Diitch, Koriander. Italian.. 
Coriandorlo. Spanish, Culantro. 

Native of Southern Europe. Annual. Stem branching, 2 to 
over 2^ ft. high ; radical leaves not much divided, with incised- 
toothed leaflets of a rounded shape ; stem leaves very much 
divided, with linear segments ; flowers small, whitish, in umbels. 
Seed generally united in pairs, presenting the appearance of a 
small seed-vessel of the Flax-plant. Each seed is hemispherical. 




Clary (^ natural size ; detached sprig, 
% natural size). 



CORIANDER 



251 



slightly concave on the side which joins the other seed, and 
lighter in colour than the outer and convex side, which is 
brown-yellow and marked* 
with deep longitudinal 
furrows. Their germi- 
nating power lasts for six 
years. The Coriander 
likes a warm and rather 
light soil. The seed is 
sown in autumn or spring, 
and the crop comes in 
in summer. 

USES. The seeds 
form an important article 
of commerce. They are 
used in the manufacture 
of liqueurs, and in a great 
number of culinary pre- 
parations. Some writers 
say the leaves are used for 
seasoning, but this state- 
ment seems odd, as all the green parts of the plant exhale a very 
strong odour of the wood-bug, whence the Greek name of the plant. 




CORN-SALAD. M&cke. 

A great number of kinds of Corn-salad, before running to seed, 
form rosettes of tender edible leaves. The genus Valerianella, to 
which they all belong, is very rich in species, and these are not 
always easily distinguished from one another. They are, for the 
most part, small plants of rapid growth, flowering but once, their 
entire period of cultivation embracing the latter part of one year 
and the early part of the next They generally run to seed in 
April or May, and the seed, falling to the ground as soon as it is 
ripe, seldom germinates before August. Amongst the most com- 
monly grown kinds are Valerianella olitoria and V. eriocarpa. 



COMMON CORN-SALAD, or LAMB'S-LETTUCE 

Valerianella olitoria, Mcench. Valenanacece. 

French, Mache commune. German, Feldsalat. Flemish and Dutch, Koornsalad. 
Italian, Erba riccia. Spanish, Canonigos. Portuguese, Herva benta. 

Native of Europe. An annual autumnal plant, that is, germi- 
nating from seed in autumn and flowering and seeding in the 
ensuing spring. Radical leaves sessile, of an elongated spoon- 
shape, and of a slightly gray-green colour, with rather strongly 



252 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



marked veins, and growing in pairs, placed cross-wise over one 
another, and forming a rather dense rosette ; stem angular, entirely 
herbaceous, forking several times, and bearing very small bluish 
white flowers, in terminal clusters at the extremities of the 
branches ; seed almost globular, slightly compressed, and gray in 
colour. Their germinating power lasts for five years. This is one 
of the commonest native plants, especially in cultivated ground, 
and in some countries large quantities of it are gathered amongst 
the growing crops of winter and spring wheat. The wild form, 
however, is now seldom used for kitchen-garden culture, and is 
only gathered where it is found growing naturally, having been 
superseded in cultivation by the improved kinds which we are 
about to describe. 

CULTURE. The seed is sown at the end of summer, or in 
autumn, in any kind of soil, and the plant produces leaves from 
October to spring, without requiring any attention or protection. 
Generally, small thick-set plants are preferred to those of coarser 
growth, the leaves of which become too large and long. Contrary 
to what is experienced in the case of most other cultivated plants, 
seeds of the Corn-salad sown the same year in which they ripened 
do not germinate so soon or so well as those which are kept for a 
year before they are sown. 



This plant is grown to some ex- 
tent by the London market-gardeners. 
The seed is sown for succession crops 
from August to October, the result 
being a supply from October till 
spring. There are two kinds grown 
the Round and the Regence ; the 
former is considered the best for 
winter use, but it runs to seed earlier 
in spring than the latter kind, there- 
fore the Regence is sown in October 
for a supply after the Round kind 
has run to seed. The land on which 
the seed is sown is of a rich character, 
and in many cases it is sown broad- 
cast among winter Onions or some 
similar crop for which the land has 
been liberally manured and other- 
wise well prepared. No more pre- 
paration is needed beyond raking the 
surface before and after the seed is 
sown. In gathering, the plants are 
pulled up by their roots, washed, -and 
sold in small punnets. Most growers 
save their own seed. For this pur- 



pose a bed is specially prepared, 
levelled, and made fine on the 
surface, after which it is rolled 
or otherwise pressed down firmly. 
Good plants from the general sowing 
are then selected and planted thickly, 
and the bed is afterwards kept free 
from weeds. In summer the seed 
which ripens is allowed to fall on 
the bed, after which the old plants 
are pulled up and the seed is care- 
fully swept off the hard surface 
and placed in water to separate 
it from the soil, which sinks to the 
bottom. The seed is then dried 
gradually in the sun and put in 
bags in a dry place, and under 
such conditions it will retain its 
vitality perfectly for several years. 
Corn-salad is not considered of 
itself a paying crop, but when sown 
amongst other crops it takes up but 
little room, and therefore in such 
cases may be considered to be fairly 
remunerative. 



COMMON CORN-SALAD, OR LAMB'S-LETTUCE 253 




Round-leaved Corn-salad (5 natural size). 



USES. The whole of the plant is used as a salad, and an 

excellent and distinct salad it is, far too little used in England. 

This forms with the oujer 

stalks of Celery one of the 

best mixed salads. 

Round - leaved Corn- 
salad. A very distinct 

variety, differing from the 

Common kind in having 

much shorter leaves, which 

are narrow at the base and 

widen upwards into an oval, 

almost rounded, blade. They 

also stand half-erect, instead 

of spreading on the ground, 

like those of the Common 

kind, and are lighter green 

in colour, with the veins 

much less marked. The 

plant is productive and of rapid growth, and is the kind which 

is almost exclusively grown by the market-gardeners around Paris. 

When sown in good soil in August, and kept carefully free from 

weeds, it is wonderfully 
productive. 

Large-seeded Corn- 
salad. A strong-grow- 
ing kind, differing from 
the Common Corn-salad 
in the greater size of 
the plant, and also of 
the seed, which is nearly 
twice as large as that 
of the other kind. The 
leaves, like those of the 
Common kind, are com- 
paratively narrow for 
their length, and are 
slightly gray-green, and 
marked with numerous 
secondary veins. This 
variety is very much 
grown in Holland and 




Large-seeded Corn-salad. 



Germany. 

Golden Corn-salad. 

This variety probably sprang from the Round-leaved Corn-salad; 
which it resembles in size and habit, but differs from it in the 



254 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




colour of the leaves, which are very light green with a pronounced 
golden tinge on the parts exposed to the light. The leaves are 

oval, broad, and very smooth. It 
is used for salads, and when mixed 
with the dark green varieties makes 
a pleasant contrast 

Etampes Corn-salad. This 
variety is especially characterised 
by the extremely dark colour of 
its leaves, which, like those of the 
Common kind, are rather narrow 
and marked very perceptibly with 
veins ; they are also often undu- 
lated or folded back at the edges. 
The whole plant forms a rosette 
Etampes Com-saiad ( natural size), somewhat more compact and stiff 

than of the Common kind, and 

the leaves are rather thicker and more fleshy than those of the 
other varieties. They bear cold weather remarkably well, and 
they have the advantage of losing their freshness less than those 
of any other kind while they are being brought to market a 
valuable quality in plants which have sometimes to be sent to 
markets at a considerable 
distance. 

Cabbaging Corn- 
salad. A very distinct 
variety, with short,rounded, 
smooth, half-erect, stiff, 
and intensely green leaves, 
the veins of which are 
hardly visible. It forms 
a compact rosette, the 
heart of which is full and 
firm. It is, to all appear- 
ance, a less productive 
kind than the Round- 
leaved variety, but firmer, 
more compact, and much 
more agreeable to the 
taste in a salad. Like 
the preceding variety, it 
bears carriage well. 

This is undoubtedly 
the same variety as that 
which was grown some years past under the name of Chevreuse 
Smooth-leaved Green Corn-salad. 




Cabbaging Corn-salad. 



ITALIAN CORN-SALAD 



255 



ITALIAN CORN-SALAD 

Valerianella eriocarpa, Desf. Mdche cFItalie, Rtgence. 

Native of Southern Europe. Annual. This species is easily 
distinguished from the Common Corn-salad and its varieties by 
the much lighter colour 
and greater length of its 
leaves, which are slightly 
hairy, and somewhat 
toothed on the edges to- 
wards the base. Seeds 
more or less pale brown, 
flattened, convex on one 
side and hollowed out on 
the other into a deep 
channel, and surmounted 
by a sort of collar shaped 
like a twisted paper bag. 
Their germinating power 
lasts for four years. This 
variety is thought very 
highly of in the south of 
Europe, where it does not run to seed so soon as the Common 
kind, but in the neighbourhood of Paris it has the drawback of 
being somewhat sensitive to cold. Its culture and uses are exactly 
the same as those of the Common variety. 




Italian Corn-salad ( natural size). 




Lettuce-leaved Italian Corn-salad. 



Lettuce-leaved Italian Corn-salad. Leaves spreading on 
the ground, broad, rounded, and a very peculiar golden tint. The 



56 



THE VEGETABLE 6ARDEN 



plant is larger and stouter than the ordinary Italian Corn-salad, 
and more suitable for southern than for northern climates. 

Varieties of Corn- 
salad with variegated 
leaves have often been 
highly spoken of, but 
none of them have ever 
appeared to us to equal 
the good varieties of 
the green-leaved kinds. 
Variegation, as a rule, 
does not add to the value 
of a table vegetable, and 
it is almost always a sign 
of weakness of growth. 
Of these variegated kinds, 
one has leaves marbled 
with white, and another 
has the heart and the 
base of the central leaves 
of a bright yellow colour. 
These variegations, be- 
coming more intense in 
hue after the first touch 
of frosty weather, have rather a pretty effect 

The Spoon-leaved Corn-salad, now nearly superseded by the 
Cabbaging Corn- salad, was distinguished mostly by its leaves 
being hollowed in the shape of a spoon or hood. 




Spoon-leaved Corn-salad. 



CRESS, or GARDEN CRESS 
Lepidium sativum, L. Cruciferce. 

French, Cresson alenois. German, Garten-Kresse. Flemish, Hofkers. Dtttch, Tuinkers. 
Danish, Havekarse. Italian, Agretto. Spanish, Mastuerzo. Portuguese, Mastri^o. 

Native of Persia. An annual plant of very rapid growth. The 
pungent flavour of its leaves has caused it to be used as a con- 
diment from time immemorial, and its culture is so easy that it 
finds a place in the humblest kitchen-garden. The radical leaves 
are very much divided and very numerous, forming a straggling 
rosette, from the centre of which soon rises a smooth branching 
stem furnished with a few almost linear leaves. The flowers are 
white, small, and four-petalled, and are succeeded by roundish pods, 
which are very much flattened and slightly concave. The seeds 
are comparatively large, furrowed, oblong, and of a brick-red colour ; 



CRESS, OR GARDEN CRESS 257 

they have a biting taste and a garlicky flavour. Their germinating 
power lasts for five years. 

CULTURE. There is fio plant more easy to grow than this. It 
may be sown at any time and in any kind of soil, with the certainty 
of having leaves fit to cut in a few weeks ; only, during very hot 
weather, it is best to sow in a moist and shaded position, in order 
to obtain more tender and more abundant leaves. In summer it 
is a good plan to make successional sowings, as the plants run very 
quickly to seed. The seed germinates with very great rapidity. 
In a temperature of 10 to 15 Centigrade (or 50 to 60 Fahrenheit) 
it usually germinates in less than twenty-four hours. This rapid 
growth is sometimes utilised for the purpose of furnishing rooms 
with verdant foliage in winter, and to do this it is sufficient to 
sprinkle Cress-seed plentifully on wet moss or sand, or on a vase 
or anything else covered with wet moss or moist clay, and in a few 
days a mass of verdure will be produced, which has a very pleasing 
effect. 

In the London market-gardens he then deftly takes the cut material 
Cress is grown to a large extent, up with both hands and places it 
along with Mustard, in beds made in an upright position in the pun- 
on the floors of vineries, a portion net. So precisely do practised hands 
being sown and a portion cut every perform this work, that one would 
other day. During February and almost imagine the Mustard and 
March the floors of such Vineries Cress had been sown in the punnets, 
remind one of a verdant pasture, so During January, February, and 
green and so healthy do the crops March, Mustard and Cress fetch 
of Cress and Mustard in various from 2S. to 4*. per dozen punnets, 
stages of growth appear. After sow- but later on they become much 
ing, a good watering is given, and cheaper. Rape is often sold for 
the beds are covered with mats until Mustard. It is mild in flavour 
the seeds have germinated, when and, perhaps, equally wholesome; 
they are immediately removed. The it is also stiffer, and keeps longer 
Mustard and Cress are cut when in good condition in a cut state 
they attain a height of i to 2 in., than Mustard. On hot -beds out-of- 
a long-bladed knife with a crooked doors, in temporary frames, and in 
handle being used for the purpose, warm moist borders, Mustard and 
With this implement in one hand Cress are grown in enormous quan- 
the operator cuts as much at a time tities, some using as much as 500 
as he can hold with the other, which bushels of seed in one season! 
is about as much as will fill a punnet; C. W. S. 

USES. The radical leaves are much used as a condiment, and 
for garnishing dishes, especially of roast meat. They are also used 
for side-dishes and in salads. 

Common Garden Cress. This form, which is most commonly 
grown, is a decided improvement on the wild plant. The leaves 
are larger, of a deeper green colour, and more abundantly 
produced. 

17 



2 5 8 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Curled, or Normandy, Garden Cress. In this variety the 
divisions of the leaves are finer and more numerous than in the 




Common Cress. 



Curled Cress. 



Common kind ; they are also curled and more or less twisted on 
themselves, which gives the foliage a very pleasing appearance. 

Extra Curled Dwarf Garden Cress. A distinct kind, of 
compact growth, with leaves cut to the midrib forming lobes toothed 

and curled at the edges. By this 
and its greater pungency it may 
easily be told from the other 
varieties. 




Extra Curled Dwarf Cress. 



Broad-leaved Cress. 



Broad-leaved Garden Cress. This variety differs from the 
type in having the blade of the leaf entire, without any divisions 



CRESS, OR GARDEN CRESS 



259 



and merely notched here and there on the edges. The leaves 
are oval in shape, about 2, in. long, and about I in. broad. They 
have slender stalks and a somewhat irregular outline. 

Golden, or Australian, Garden Cress. This might be taken 
for a sub-variety of the Large-leaved Garden Cress, as the leaves 
are similar in shape and only differ in their colour, which is a pale 
yellowish green, and always so marked that it strikes even the most 
unpractised eye at once. These two varieties differ so much in the 
appearance of their leaves from the Common Garden Cress, that 
any one seeing them growing side by side before flowering might 
think they were plants of quite different species. 



WATER-CRESS 

Nasturtium ojpcinale y R. Br. Cruciferce. 

French, Cresson de fontaine, C. de ruisseau, Sante du corps. German, Brunnenkresse. 
Flemish and Dutch, Waterkers. Danish, Brondkarsen. Italian, Nasturzio acquatico, 
Crescione di fontana. Spanish, Berro de agua. Portuguese, Agroiao d'agua. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. An aquatic plant, with long 
stems, which readily take root, and which even send out into 
the water white rootlets 
serving to supply the 
plant with nutriment. 
Leaves compound, with 
rounded divisions,slightly 
sinuated, and of a dark 
green colour ; flowers 
small, white, in terminal 
spikes ; seeds usually few, 
very fine, in slightly 
curved siliques or pods. 
Their germinating power 
lasts for five years. 

CULTURE. The plea- 
sant and pungent flavour 
of the Watercress, and 
also its well - known 
hygienic properties, have 
from time immemorial 
caused it to be highly 




Water-cress ( natural size). 



esteemed for table use. The preference which the plant exhibits 
for moist positions and even running streams renders the cultiva- 
tion of it rather difficult, so that most people are content to gather 
it where it grows naturally in brooks, ditches, or springs. In the 
neighbourhood of some large towns, however, it is cultivated 



260 . THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

systematically, and usually very profitably. For this purpose 
a portion of a meadow or pasture field is selected which has 
a clear stream or rivulet running by or through it, and across 
this portion, from one side to the other, a number of large 
trenches are excavated. These are from about 16 to 20 ft. wide, 
and about 13 ft. distant from one another, and are so arranged 
that the water may run from one to another. This is managed 
by having a slight difference in the level of the trenches, so that 
the water may run out of each of them at the end opposite to 
that at which it flowed in. Thus the water does not finally leave 
the trenches until it has made a long serpentine course through all 
of them. After the soil at the bottom of the trenches has been 
properly dug and manured, the finest and strongest stems that can 
be selected are pricked in with a dibble. The water is then let into 
the trenches just so much for a week or two as will cover the 
cuttings and the plants are not interfered with until they have 
grown strong enough to allow the leaves to be gathered without 
injury. After the plants are well established, and growing 
vigorously, the leaves may be gathered all through the year, except 
in very frosty weather, when the trenches should be flooded and 
entirely submerged for the protection of the plants. 

Some growers plant the cuttings in a specially prepared ditch, 
allowing the water to rise as the plants grow in length. When the 
plants have grown 4^ to 7 in. in height, they are pulled up care- 
fully with their roots and dropped singly into other trenches that 
have been filled with water to about one-half their depth, some 
well-decayed cow-manure being also dropped in at frequent 
intervals. The plants, carried by the flowing water, collect at the 
lower end of the ditch in close touch with the manure, when they 
soon start into luxuriant growth. The water is then at its normal 
height. 

In many cases sowing the seed will be found the best means of 
propagation. The bottom of a small shallow trench is carefully 
prepared for receiving the seed, which, being very small, is mixed 
with some dry earth or sand sown broadcast and slightly raked in. 
The soil is then cautiously watered and kept moist until the plants 
show their first leaves, when the water is let in, but only so much 
as will barely cover the plants. When a few inches high, the plants 
are pulled up in small tufts and planted in other trenches, into 
which water is admitted and kept steadily on a level with the tops 
of the plants, until the ditch is completely filled. 

Plantations of the same kind, on a smaller scale, might be made 
anywhere where there is a sufficient supply of pure fresh water. It 
is not even absolutely necessary that it should be running water, if 
it can be renewed often enough to keep it clear and pure. Water- 
cress has been grown almost without water, by planting it in tubs 



WATER-CRESS 



261 



half-filled with good soil and kept in a moist, shaded position, under 
which circumstances occasional waterings will suffice for the growth 
of the plants. This mode of culture, however, has its drawbacks, 
and all who attempt it are not equally successful. 



Water-cress is said to have grown 
in a wild state on the banks of 
the Thames and other places near 
London for many years before its 
culture for market was attempted 
on anything like an extensive scale, 
and there being then little demand 
for it, the supplies from these quar- 
ters were sufficient ; but as it gained 
popularity in France, Prussia, and 
elsewhere, so the demand for it in 
London also increased, and beds for 
its .culture were formed at Spring- 
head and Northfleet, near Gravesend, 
as far back as the beginning of 
the nineteenth century. Springhead 
Cress is still noted for its superior 
quality. Large supplies are now 
obtained from Waltham, Cheshunt, 
and other low-lying places near the 
Great Eastern Railway, and the 
annual amount icalised by 
growers for London alone 
is very great. The space 
at Springhead allotted to 
Water - cress culture is 
about three acres in ex- 
tent, and consists of a 
winding ditch varying in 
width from 6 to 20 ft. 
The supply of water is 
furnished by numberless 
springs of fresh clear 
water, which bubble out 
near the banks of the 
stream in various places. 
The water contains a 
good deal of iron, and 
on the sides of the Cress- 
beds, where it is some- 
what stagnant, the Cress 
assumes a less healthy 
colour than that in the 
middle of the stream. 
The Cress-beds at 



Springhead lie in a warm sheltered 
valley ; the sloping banks on both 
sides of the stream, which appear 
to be exceedingly fertile, are 
covered with fruit-trees, such as 
Apples, Plums, etc. The Water- 
cress is replanted yearly, generally 
in August and September, and some- 
times in spring. Tufts of the roots 
are taken up and pulled apart, and 
planted in rows about i ft. apart, 
after which they are trodden or 
rolled down, with a view to induce 
the roots to take quickly. The 
water is just deep enough to cover 
the roots, and when fully grown the 
young shoots in summer form a 
miniature meadow of Watercress. 
Cutting is done three times a week, 
as much being cut at a time as the 
markets require. 




Improved Broad-leaved Water-cress. 



262 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



USES. The Water-cress is such a well-known plant that a 
description of its uses is almost superfluous. At Paris, where the 
market is always very abundantly supplied with it, it is used for 
garnishing, in salads, and sometimes also boiled and minced, like 
Spinach. Serving fresh good Cress in liberal quantities with 
broiled meat or roast fowl should be more general in England. 

Improved Broad-leaved Water-cress. For some years past 
this variety has been a favourite in the Paris markets. The culture 
and uses are exactly the same as those of the Common Water-cress, 
but the leaves are much larger, more tender, and more pungent. 

AMERICAN, or BELLE-ISLE, CRESS 

Barbarea prcecox, R. Br. Erysimum pr<zcox> L. Cruciferce. 

French, Cresson de terre. German, Amerikanische Winterkresse. Flemish, Wilde kers. 

Danish, Winterkarse. 

Native of Europe. Biennial. The leaves of this plant have 
some resemblance to those of the Water-cress, but the plant itself 

always grows on the dry 
land. If sown in spring, it 
forms during the summer 
a tolerably full rosette of 
compound leaves of a dark 
and very glistening green 
colour. In the following 
spring the flower -stems 
make their appearance, and 
bear rather long spikes of 
bright yellow flowers, which 
are succeeded by slender 
siliques or pods, containing 
small, gray, rough-skinned 
seeds, slightly flattened on 
one side and round on the 
other. Their germinating power lasts for three years. 

CULTURE. This is extremely simple and easy. The seed 
may be sown during the whole of the spring, summer, and 
autumn, in any kind of garden soil, and successional sowings 
are unnecessary, as there is no fear of the plants running to seed 
too soon. On the other hand, if the plant is easily grown, its 
produce is not so valuable as that of the Water-cress or the Common 
Garden Cress, as the leaves are always hard, and their pungent 
flavour is accompanied with a certain amount of acidity. The 
radical leaves are used for seasoning and garnishing. 

The Winter Cress of English gardens is Barbarea vulgaris^ 
R. Br. (Erysimum Barbarea, L.). Its culture and uses are precisely 
the same as those of the American Cress. 




American, or Belle-Isle, Cress ( natural size). 



MEADOW-CRESS 



263 



MEADOW-CRESS 

Cardamine prattnsis, L. Cruciferce. 
French, Cresson des pres. German, Wiesenkresse. Spanish, Berros de prado. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. A wild plant, common in moist 
meadows and on the banks of rivers, etc. Leaves pinnate, some- 
what like those of the Water-cress, but far less fleshy and often 
tinged with violet-brown ; stem erect, furnished with a few leaves 
cut into linear divisions ; flowers of fair size, rose-coloured or pale 
lilac, opening very early in spring ; seed small, oblong, irregular in 
shape, and brown. Their germinating power lasts for four years. 
This plant is not of much value as a table vegetable. There is, 
however, a double-flowered variety which, with its clusters of pale 
lilac blossoms, is pretty in gardens when winter has just ended. 
The leaves have a biting and pungent taste. 



PARA CRESS 

Spilanthes oleracea, L. Composites. 

French, Cresson de Para. German, Hussarenknopf. Flemish, ABC kruid. 

Native of the West Indies. Annual. An almost creeping 
plant, with entire oval leaves, which are truncate at the base. 

Flowers in conical heads, 
without petals, and of a 
yellow colour, borne on 
the top of the stem ; seed 
very small, oval, flat, 
grayish, and covered with 
small round prominences. 
Their germinating power 
lasts for at least five years. 
The seed is sown, in the 
place where the crop is 
to grow, in March or 
April. The plants com- 
mence to flower in about 
two months afterwards, 
and continue to bloom all 
through the summer. In 
hot weather they require 
to be watered plentifully. 

USES. The leaves Brazil Cress ^ natural size) . 

mixed with salads impart 

a pungent flavour, and have the effect of stimulating the action of 
the salivary glands. This use of them is not common, and the plant 
belongs to the province of pharmacy rather than the kitchen garden. 




254 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Brazil Cress. This plant appears to differ from the Para Cress 
. only in the brown tint of its stems and leaves, which also extends 
to the upper part of the flower-heads. The culture and uses of the 
two plants are exactly the same. 

CUCUMBER 
Cucumis sativus, L. Cucurbitacece. 

French^ Concombre. German, Gurke. Flemish and Dutch, Komkommer. Danish, 
Agurken. Italian, Cetriulo. Spanish, Cohombro. Portuguese, Pepino. 

Native of the East Indies. Annual. A creeping plant, with 
herbaceous stems, flexible, angular from the first, rough to the 
touch, and furnished with tendrils. Leaves alternate, placed 
opposite the tendrils, angular heart-shaped, bluntly toothed, rough 
like the stem, dark green on the upper surface and gray underneath. 
Flowers axillary, on short stalks, more or less green-yellow, some 
male, others female, the latter placed on the top of the ovary, which 
becomes the fruit, and which is of some size before the flower opens 
on it. The plant continues to produce flowers in succession for a 
long time, and the intervention of insects or of man seems to be 
necessary to fertilise them. The fruit is oblong and more or less 
cylindrical, smooth, or bearing protuberances which end in a hard 
spine ; flesh abundant and watery. . Seed yellow-white, very flat, 
long oval, enclosed in three longitudinal compartments, which are 
filled with a pulpy substance, and are nearly as long as the fruit 
itself. Their germinating power seldom declines before the tenth 
year. 

CULTURE. The Cucumber is that with a span roof, a pathway 
grown extensively in almost all running through the centre, and a 
parts of the world, and in warm bed on each side. The size of the 
countries is brought to perfection house must depend upon the 
without the aid of artificial heat, demand. Small houses are, how- 
In Great Britain, however, the case ever, best for Cucumber-growing ; 
is different ; and in order to secure and if two can be used for them 
a good supply of Cucumbers, even and Melons alternately, it will be 
during the warmest seasons of the found much more convenient than 
year, artificial heat is indispensable, having one large house. A house 
Cucumbers are grown in a variety of entirely devoted to Cucumber- 
ways as in houses, pits, frames, etc., growing all the year round must 
and occasionally out-of-doors. The necessarily be larger than when it is 
best mode of culture is that of only used for winter or spring crops 
growing them in houses, which, if inasmuch as, having to keep up a 
properly constructed, will yield a continuous succession, fresh planta- 
supply at all seasons of the year, tions must be constantly made ; 
Propagation is effected by seeds and therefore the best kind of house is 
cuttings. The best kind of house is that with a bed on each side, as, 



CUCUMBER 



265 



before mentioned, planting the beds 
alternately as each set of plants 
becomes exhausted. A span-roofed 
house, from 15 to 20 ft. long and 
10 or 12 ft. wide, will, if properly 
managed, afford a sufficient supply 
for most private establishments, un- 
less they are very extensive. Houses 
with comparatively low-pitched roofs 
generally yield the best results, with 
least trouble from scorching or red 
spider. They should be built high 
enough to allow of head-room, but 
not higher than is really necessary, 
as low, close houses are most suit- 
able. Heat produced by hot-water 
pipes is decidedly the best for giving 
warmth, as it is of a more humid 
nature than that produced by flues. 
There should always be sufficient 
piping to keep up the required 
temperature without being obliged 
to make the pipes intensely hot 
the latter being productive of many 
evil results, such as scalding, red 
spider, etc. Evaporating pans, 
placed over the pipes, are of great 
assistance in keeping the atmo- 
sphere of the house in a moist 
state. Cucumbers may be success- 
fully grown in low lean-to houses, 
with no other glass than that of the 
roof the heat being supplied by 
means of a brick flue running round 
the house, and a stage consisting of 
rough wooden slabs or planks, sup- 
ported upon brick piers or wooden 
posts, erected over the flue along 
the front of the house. The stage 
should be 3 1 ft. from the glass, which 
will allow for 18 in. of soil, and 
12 in. for the plants to grow before 
reaching the trellis, supposing the 
trellis to be 12 in. from the glass. 
If the front of the stage be boarded 
up, a good bottom-heat may be 
secured. 

Bottom heat is considered by 
many to be indispensable in Cucum- 
ber-growing; this, however, has 



been proved to be a mistake, and 
we have often seen the best Cucum- 
bers grown without it. That plants 
are benefited to a great extent by 
the use of bottom heat judiciously 
applied, we do not for a moment 
dispute ; but still it is not absolutely 
necessary, except in the case of early 
Cucumbers grown in pits and frames. 
Where, however, it is applied, it 
must be done with judgment, for 
there are often crops of Cucumbers 
ruined by an excessive bottom heat. 
Stable manure is frequently used to 
supply bottom heat to Cucumbers ; 
and where it can be properly regu- 
lated it is the best. As the heat 
gradually declines, the roots descend 
into the decaying manure and draw 
therefrom a vast amount of nourish- 
ment to support the heavy crops of 
fruit they carry. A considerable 
amount of labour in root-watering 
is also saved. In private gardens 
hot water is much cleaner and per- 
haps gives less trouble, and where 
the pipes are laid in a tank, and the 
tank at intervals supplied with 
liquid manure, good results can be 
obtained. 

WINTER AND SPRING CUCUMBERS. 
For this crop many cultivators 
obtain plants by means of cuttings, 
with the view of getting fruit quicker 
than from those raised from seed. 
There can be no doubt that if cut- 
tings be put in at the same time as 
seeds, the cuttings will make plants 
capable of bearing fruit earlier ; but 
they will not continue in a bearing 
condition so long, nor produce such 
good fruit, as healthy seedling plants. 
Where any particular kind is grown, 
and it is desirable to keep it true, 
propagation by cuttings is the only 
sure way of attaining that object ; 
but as a rule seedling plants are the 
best. Where, however, cuttings are 
preferred, they should be put in 
about ten or twelve days before they 



266 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



are required to be planted out. The 
best way is to stop the plants from 
which the cuttings are to be taken 
a week or two previously ; they will 
then send out side-shoots, which 
should be taken off with a joint of 
the older wood attached to them, 
and inserted singly in small pots 
well drained and filled with a com- 
post of leaf-mould, loam, and sand, 
in equal parts. If inserted close to 
the side of the pot, they will strike 
sooner than if placed in the centre. 
The pots should then be plunged in 
a bottom heat of 70, have a hand- 
light or bell-glass placed over them, 
and be shaded from the sun ; and if 
kept well watered and sprinkled 
overhead, they will be sufficiently 
rooted in a few days to allow of the 
hand-lights being taken off; thus 
the plants will be gradually inured 
to the light and sun, which treat- 
ment will effectually prevent them 
from becoming drawn. If the plants 
be likely to become pot-bound before 
the bed is ready to receive them, 
they should be shifted into larger 
pots, otherwise they will be materially 
injured. In order to obtain a good 
supply of Cucumbers during the 
winter and spring, it is necessary to 
sow sufficiently early to allow of the 
plants becoming strong and in a 
fruit-bearing condition before the 
short dark days arrive ; strong plants 
should therefore be in readiness for 
putting out not later than the end 
of September. If plants be obtained 
from cuttings, they will require to be 
put in the second or third week in 
that month ; if from seed, a week or 
ten days earlier. 

Many cultivators soak their Cu- 
cumber seeds in water for a few 
hours previously to sowing ; and in 
the case of old or very dry seeds it 
is an excellent plan, inasmuch as it 
softens the seeds and causes them 
to germinate quicker than they 



otherwise would. There are various 
methods of sowing : some growers 
sow single seeds in small pots, and 
thence turn them out into the beds ; 
others sow a quantity of seed thickly 
in pans or large pots, and transplant 
them. We have found it a very 
excellent plan to put two or three 
seeds into 48-sized pots half filled 
with light leaf-mould and sand, just 
covering the seeds, and when they 
are up select the strongest of the 
plants to remain, and pinch the 
others out. By the time the remain- 
ing plants have made a pair of 
rough leaves, roots will frequently 
be seen pushing from the bases of 
the stems. The pots should then 
be filled up with soil to within half 
an inch of the rim, into which their 
roots will quickly penetrate, and 
thereby strengthen the plants, and 
afford them more room to grow 
without disturbing the roots, as 
would be the case in re-potting or 
transplanting. In whatever way 
they may be sown, they should, if 
possible, be placed in a gentle 
bottom heat, and kept moderately 
moist until they are up, when they 
must be placed near the glass, or 
where they can obtain plenty of 
light and sun, in order to keep them 
dwarf and stocky. Whilst the 
plants are becoming established the 
bed should be prepared for plant- 
ing, bottom heat being provided by 
means of hot-water pipes or ferment- 
ing material. A layer of good thick 
turves should be laid on the bottom 
of the bed, grassy side downwards ; 
upon this lay the soil in a ridge 
along the centre of the bed, and 
when it is sufficiently warm the 
plants may be turned out into it 
2 ft. apart, planting them i or 2 in. 
deeper than they were in the pots, and 
afterwards watering them copiously 
with tepid water. A good brisk 
heat should be kept up until the 



CUCUMBER 



267 



plants get well established in the 
beds say 65 by night and 70 by 
day, allowing the glass to rise 10 
higher by sun-heat, with a bottom- 
heat of 65 to 70. After the plants 
begin to root freely into the soil in 
the bed, air should be admitted in the 
morning on every favourable oppor- 
tunity, closing early in the afternoon 
in order to secure all the sun-heat 
possible. No more fire-heat than is 
absolutely necessary to keep up the 
required temperature should be used, 
inasmuch as all plants thrive much 
better under the influence of solar 
than of artificial heat. The sub- 
sequent treatment consists of train- 
ing the leaders of the plants up the 
wires and stopping them when they 
reach the top. This will cause 
them to send out side-shoots all the 
way up the stem, which shoots 
should also be stopped at the second 
or third joint; these shoots always 
show fruit, but only one or two 
should be left on each plant at first, 
and more as the plants get older 
and stronger. The stopping of the 
shoots must be continued at every 
second or third joint from the last 
pinch, and also thinned out when 
needful. Crowding of the wood 
and foliage should always be 
avoided. The object of planting 
2 ft. apart at first is only to secure 
a good crop of Cucumbers early by 
taking one or two fruits off each 
plant as soon as possible ; but this 
space is too little ultimately for each 
plant, and when it becomes neces- 
sary, every alternate plant may be 
removed to give the others more 
room. Watering must be attended 
to regularly. The bed should be 
kept moist, and when water is given 
it should be a thorough soaking till 
it runs out at the bottom of the 
bed, and should always be of the 
same temperature as that of the soil. 
Syringing in the morning and after- 



noon must also be attended to, 
and more or less air should be ad- 
mitted according to the state of the 
weather. The roots should be top- 
dressed every two or three weeks 
with a little fresh soiL If these 
simple directions be carried out, a 
supply of Cucumbers during the 
winter and spring will not be found 
a difficult matter. The Cucumber 
is an easy plant to grow ; unlike the 
Melon, the fruit is not wanted ripe, 
' but only when half swelled ; and 
the way to obtain it is to keep the 
plants in a healthy growing state. 

CUCUMBERS IN PITS AND FRAMES, 
Where hot-water pits are employed 
for growing winter Cucumbers, it is 
a good plan to apply a thick lining 
of fermenting material round the 
pit; also a covering of mats or other 
warm material over the glass during 
the night ; by these means less fire- 
heat will be required, and the plants 
consequently kept in a healthier con- 
dition. To train Cucumbers, pieces 
of wire trellis-work should be fitted 
in each light about i ft from the 
glass, the bed containing the plants 
being about 8 or 9 in. below this, 
which will afford greater facility for 
applying top-dressing; whereas if 
the ordinary mode of pegging down 
be adopted, top-dressing cannot be 
given without injury to the foliage. 
The greatest objection to pits for 
winter Cucumbers is the incon- 
venience of attending to the plants 
in severe weather ; and plants are 
frequently allowed to run wild and 
get dry at the roots, in consequence 
of not being able to take off the 
lights when there is a continuance 
of frosty weather. Where there is 
no other convenience for growing 
Cucumbers in winter, a few plants 
may be put into large pots and 
placed in the corners of a warm 
house, such as a Pine or plant stove. 
The pots should be well drained and 



268 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



filled three parts full of compost, 
adding a little at a time, as the 
plants require it, until the pots are 
full. Plenty of water must be given 
them, without causing the soil to 
become sodden, and when they are 
in bearing, occasional soakings of 
manure-water will be beneficial in 
keeping them in a healthy state. 

SUMMER AND AUTUMN CUCUM- 
BERS. Plants put out in September 
will, if properly treated, continue in 
bearing until May or June; there- 
fore, to have plants ready to succeed 
them, a sowing should be made 
early in April, and grown either in 
houses, pits, or hot-beds, whichever 
is at hand ; these will generally con- 
tinue in bearing until August, by 
which time plants that have been 
put out in cold frames, such as those 
in which Potatoes have been grown, 
will be in bearing, and these, if 
liberally treated, will give a supply 
far into the autumn. They will, 
however, require to have linings 
applied, and be covered up at night 
when the cold nights set in. If 
thus treated they will Jast until late 
in October, by which time those 
planted for winter will be progress- 
ing towards fruit-bearing. Where a 
hot-water pit can be spared, a few 
plants may be put out in July or 
August, to give supplies during the 
early part of the winter. 

GROWING CUCUMBERS ON HOT- 
BEDS. Though hot-beds have been 
superseded to a great extent by hot- 
water pipes, they still occupy a place 
in gardens, especially in those of 
moderate extent, and are often 
very serviceable as Cucumber and 
propagating frames combined. A 
moderate and steady temperature is 
what is required, and this can be 
secured in a well-made hot-bed for 
six months. The materials required 
for a lasting hot-bed are stable litter 
and leaves in equal quantities; in 



the absence of leaves, use half- 
decayed hot-bed manure, refuse 
turf-choppings, or any other mate- 
rials likely to moderate the fermenta- 
tion of the stable litter a material 
to be had in most establishments. 

The first consideration is the 
choice of a site for the bed, which 
should always be in a dry and shel- 
tered situation. Nothing extracts 
heat so rapidly as cold winds ; in- 
deed, where a hot-bed is made up 
annually, it is better to have it 
sunk two-thirds in the ground. It 
would be preferable, in fact, to 
have it wholly in the ground, but as 
the bed will settle down at least 
one-third of its height during the 
summer, the frame would get below 
the ground-line, which would be in- 
convenient. For a frame 9 by 5 ft. 
the pit would require to be 14 ft. 
long and 10 ft. wide; and if the bed 
were intended to last eight or nine 
months it should be quite 4 ft. deep 
which, allowing one-third of the bed 
to be above ground, would give a 
total depth of 6 ft. of fermenting 
material. If the pit be double- 
boarded with strong rough deal, so 
as to form a 2-in. cavity all round 
between the earth and the sides of 
the bed, the heat will last a consider- 
able time longer, as the cavity pre- 
vents the bed from being robbed of 
its heat by the cold earth. Another 
advantage of having a pit for the 
bed is that the latter is made with 
greater facility, for it requires a 
skilled hand to build up a compact 
and permanent hot-bed on the sur- 
face of the ground. Whatever kind 
of site is chosen, the next step is 
to have the materials placed con- 
veniently near. These may be 
thrown roughly together the first 
time, sprinkling plenty of water 
upon them if they be at all dry. 
In a week or ten days the heap 
will usually be found to be heating 



CUCUMBER 



269 



violently, when it should be turned 
over again, taking care to mix the 
litter thoroughly, adding more water 
if required. A week or so later it 
will want another turning, which as 
a rule ought to be sufficient to bring 
it into a fit condition for making up 
into a bed, even though it be heating 
strongly, for the temperature will 
subside a good deal after the mate- 
rials are well trodden down. Where 
the hot-bed is the only accommoda- 
tion, the seed, of course, cannot be 
sown till the bed is ready; but where 
there is a hothouse or pit, it is by 
far the best to sow the seed about 
the time the first preparations are 
made for making the bed ; and when 
the bed is ready the plants will be 
strong and fit 'for planting. The 
seed may be sown in small pots, well 
drained, and the seeds covered with 
about J in. of fine soil, and the pots, 
if possible, plunged in a bottom heat 
of 75 or 80, with a moist atmo- 
spheric heat of from 65 to 70 at 
night, and 75 to 80 by day. The 
seeds should not be watered for a 
day or two after planting, when they 
should be well soaked ; and from 
this time forward the soil about the 
roots of the plants should never be 
allowed to get dry, nor wet enough 
to become sour. When the plants 
are up they should be placed 
near the glass, to keep them 
strong and stocky, and should be 
planted out before they become 
pot-bound. 

In preparing the bed for planting, 
the bottom of the frame should be 
covered with turves, grassy side 
downwards ; on the top of these lay 
a ridge of soil the whole length of 
the frame. This should afterwards 
be levelled up, as the plants root out 
in both directions. Frequent soil- 
ings are an evil in hot-bed culture, 
for such operations cannot be per- 
formed without disarranging the 



foliage and injuring the plants. The 
bed being prepared, and presuming 
the bottom heat to have subsided to 
about 75 or 80, the plants should 
be planted, one in the centre of 
each light. If not done before, they 
should at the same time have their 
tops pinched off above the second 
or third leaf. After planting, with 
the assistance of linings, in the shape 
of stable litter and a careful economi- 
sation of sun-heat, the bottom heat 
may be kept at 70 at least, and the 
top heat at 70 at night, and 80 or 
85 with sun. In very bright weather 
a shading of thin canvas should be 
rolled over the frame during the 
hottest part of the day, but shading 
should not be resorted to more than 
can be helped. Air must be admitted 
at all times, and even in severe 
weather the sashes should be raised 
the thickness of a label to let the 
steam escape. The bed should be 
kept moist, but not sodden, and the 
plants should be sprinkled every 
afternoon in bright weather with 
soft, clean, tepid water. Under this 
treatment they will soon start into 
growth by sending out two strong 
leaders below where they were 
pinched. One should be trained 
towards the back of the frame and 
the other towards the front, and 
when they have come within about 
i ft. of the sides of the frame they 
should be pinched again, which will 
cause them to throw out laterals, 
showing fruit in all probability, 
which, with the exception of three 
or four on each limb, should be 
picked off and the laterals stopped 
one joint beyond the fruit. If the 
foliage be large and vigorous, it will 
perhaps be found advantageous to 
cut out some of the laterals alto- 
gether. It is much better to thin 
out the foliage and wood frequently 
than to let the plants get over- 
crowded, and then cut out a great 



270 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



quantity of wood at one time. After 
this the training of the plants con- 
sists in laying the shoots out, so as 
to cover the bed, stopping them 
regularly, and disposing of them 
generally so as to secure the greatest 
amount of light and air possible to 
every leaf. The plants should not 
be allowed to bear too heavily, if 
expected to keep up the supply for 
any length of time. When cropped 
moderately, and the fruit cut as fast 
as it is ready, the plants bear con- 
tinuously from April to November. 

SOIL AND MANURE. A great 
depth of soil is unnecessary for 
Cucumbers ; indeed, it is to be 
avoided, for they will succeed far 
better if they be planted in a little 
soil at first, and receive frequent 
top-dressings afterwards. For plant- 
ing, 8 or 10 in. of soil is quite deep 
enough, if the bed receive slight 
dressings of stable manure mixed 
with soil to keep the plants in a 
vigorous state of health. Good turfy 
loam mixed with rotten manure is 
the best material in which to plant 
them, but the dressing should be of 
a richer nature. Many people use 
a quantity of peat mixed with the 
loam for winter Cucumbers; others 
use leaf-mould, but it is too light : 
the plants thrive well in it, but do 
not last so long nor fruit so freely as 
when grown in more holding soil. 
Cocoa-nut fibre refuse is highly 
recommended by some as a good 
dressing for Cucumber beds; but 
stable manure is by far the best kind 
of surfacing, and may be applied 
fresh from the stable, and if a little 
old mortar or brick rubbish be mixed 
therewith, it will be better still. 
Weak guano-water is the best kind 
of stimulant to apply to Cucumbers ; 
other kinds of manure-water are 
said to affect the flavour of the 
fruit. Abundance of water is at 
all times necessary to Cucumber- 



plants growing under advantageous 
circumstances. 

IN MARKET-GARDENS. During 
summer the long ranges of pits and 
frames in market-gardens devoted 
in winter to the production of 
tender culinary plants are applied 
to Cucumber culture, and from 
these are cut thousands of fruits 
weekly. Indeed, few frame crops 
pay better than Cucumbers where 
they succeed well, and therefore 
every frame that can possibly be 
spared is planted with them. One 
grower at Fulham has a field 
of frame-ground, containing many 
ranges of frames with from 800 to 
1,000 ordinary sashes, in summer 
entirely devoted to Cucumbers. 
From this field are sent to market 
weekly during the summer from 200 
to 220 dozen fruit. Two or three 
men are usually kept at work in 
these frame-grounds, and on three 
days of the week (Monday, Wednes- 
day, and Friday) they are employed 
in cutting fruit for market, and on 
the other three week-days they are 
busy stopping and regulating the 
shoots of the Cucumbers, watering, 
etc. Should any young fruits ex- 
hibit a tendency to become crooked, 
they put them into cylindrical glasses 
open at both ends. These glasses 
are about 12 or 15 in. long, and 
i or 2 in. in diameter, and several 
thousands of them are employed in 
one large frame-ground, as one good 
and straight Cucumber is worth 
nearly a dozen small and deformed 
ones. The crooked ones are dis- 
posed of for pickling. Should any 
" nosed " fruits, as they are termed, 
or such as have swelled at the point, 
be found, which occurs late in the 
season, a piece of string is tied round 
them, and they are left to ripen, as 
such fruits are certain to contain 
good seed. When the seed-fruits 
become yellow and are cut, they are 



CUCUMBER 



271 



placed under sashes or on boards ex- 
posed to the sun, so that the seeds 
get thoroughly ripe and hard before 
being separated from the pulp. 

The first sowing to supply plants 
for growing in frames is made in 
little punnets or flower-pots, early in 
the year, which are placed in hot 
manure frames. When the seeds 
germinate and are fit for potting off, 
two plants are potted into a 6 in. 
pot, and the whole replaced in the 
frames, keeping them near the glass. 
As soon as the frames to be planted 
can be spared, they are moved aside, 
and trenches cast out 5 ft. wide and 
2 ft deep, and firmly filled with 
stable litter. Over this some soil is 
placed, and the frames set on again. 
Another sowing is generally made 
to succeed the first one ; but, as a 
rule, there are seldom more than 
two sowings made, and the second 
is only sown because all the frames 
are not empty at one time to be filled 
by the first sowing. When the heat 
is at a proper temperature for plant- 
ing, a little more soil is introduced 
into the frames, and one potful (con- 
taining two plants) is planted under 
each sash, and one of the plants is 
trained towards the front of the 
frame and the other towards the 
back. The sashes are then put on 
and all is kept close for a few days, 
and, if need be, a little shading is 
also given by strewing some litter 
over the glass. Afterwards, until 
the plants have fairly begun to grow, 
no more ventilation 'is given than is 
necessary to prevent scorching in the 
case of bright sunshine. For several 
weeks after having been planted 
they are covered up at night with 
litter, removing it next morning ; 
indeed, this covering is not dis- 
continued until the month of June. 
When the plants have grown suffi- 
ciently to come into bloom, they 
are most attentively looked after in 



the way of regulating the growths, 
pegging them down, and stopping 
the lateral shoots at the joint beyond 
the embryo fruit, and preventing an 
accumulation of superfluous growths. 
Throughout the day they are allowed 
to have plenty of air during the 
summer, but it is all taken off at 
night ; in the morning the sashes 
are tilted up a little, and as the heat 
of the day increases they are still 
further opened. 

Water is given in the morning 
abundantly to those requiring it, 
whilst those that are not dry have 
simply a sprinkling overhead. It 
is cold water from v the tap that is 
entirely used, and doubtless that is 
the greatest drawback to Cucumber 
growing with which the market- 
gardener has to contend, as where 
one or several acres are covered with 
frames, it would be almost an im- 
possibility to make tepid all the 
water that would be required. Large 
hogsheads, however, are sunk here 
and there about the frame-ground, 
and brick or cement tanks are 
frequently used for containing water, 
with which they are filled for the 
next day's use. Guano-water is 
sometimes given during the summer- 
time, being applied through a fine 
rose overhead. This application is 
not only useful as a stimulant, but 
when given overhead has been found 
to be of material benefit in destroy- 
ing or preventing red spider, as well 
as invigorating old plants. In refer- 
ence to woodlice, toads are put in 
the frames to destroy them. Cucum- 
bers require sunny weather to set 
well, and in dull wet seasons they do 
not thrive well, especially in the 
earlier part of the year. Should the 
summer be hot and bright, the sashes 
are shaded a little, and this is done by 
strewing some rank litter over the 
glass ; but many market-gardeners, 
by way of economy of labour, paint 



272 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



the sashes with whiting. By August 
the plants axe getting exhausted ; 
therefore careful attention is paid to 
thinning out old and bare vines, and 
encouraging young wood by means 
of stimulants, in the way of manure- 
water and coverings from cold ; and 
in this way they last till September. 
No fruits are saved for seed until 
August, for if left sooner they would 
materially weaken the crop of market- 
able fruit. Until August, Cucumbers 
are liable to red spider, thrips, green 
fly, mildew, canker, and various 
other diseases ; the only remedy 
being that of keeping the plants in 
as vigorous growth as possible. 
When mildew attacks the Cucumber 
it is generally the result of insuffi- 
cient ventilation and too low a 
temperature, When it does appear, 
dusting' thinly but evenly with flour 
of sulphur through a piece of muslin 
cloth is the only cure. Thrips are the 
most terrible of the insect enemies 
which attack the Cucumber; for 
these, and also for green fly, which 
is sometimes troublesome on the 
young growths, fumigating with 
Tobacco is usually resorted to ; but 
the foliage of the Cucumber is so 
tender, especially when forced, that 
fumigation, unless done very care- 
fully, is a cure which is often worse 
than the disease, and should never 
be attempted by the inexperienced. 
CUCUMBERS IN THE OPEN AIR. 
Market-gardeners in the neighbour- 
hood of London grow but few 
Cucumbers in the open air. Many 
have attempted it, but most of them 
have now abandoned it, the result 
not having proved very satisfactory. 
Where, however, it is carried on, 
they are grown under glass and 
hardened off and planted out 6 ft. 
asunder and 10 ft. row from row, 
and hand-glasses are put over them. 
When they begin to grow, the ground 
is well mulched with straw, to keep 



the earth moist and the fruit clean. 
Due attention is paid to their after- 
culture in the way of stopping, 
thinning, etc., and in some cases 
fairly good results are obtained. In 
one or two counties, the soil and 
climate of which seem unusually 
well adapted to their growth, large 
quantities are grown in the open air 
for the London markets ; from such 
sources there are said to be sent to 
London not less than 600 tons a 
week during what is termed the Cu- 
cumber season. Of these upwards of 
100 tons have been known to be sent 
to Covent Garden in a single day. 
In good Cucumber-growing localities 
the seed is sown about the beginning 
of May, where the plants are in- 
tended to grow, in r"ows some 4 ft. 
apart, and the plants stand nearly 2 
ft. asunder in the row. In favourable 
seasons they soon push into active 
growth and cover the ground with 
vines, which during the latter end of 
May, the whole of June, and begin- 
ning of July, spread in all directions 
and come into bearing. During their 
growth, weeding and thinning their 
superfluous shoots are well attended 
to, and if the plants should not en- 
tirely cover the ground, or wherever 
blanks occur, Mangold-Wurzel is 
planted in the vacant spaces. About 
4 yards apart are also rows of Onions, 
set early in the spring, which, being 
allowed to run to seed, serve in some 
measure both for shade and shelter. 
Where Onions are not used for this 
purpose, Rye, sown in the autumn, 
4 or 5 yards apart, and cut as soon 
as the vines cover the ground, is 
employed instead : Peas are also 
sometimes used for the same purpose. 
In this way the ground is made to 
produce two or three kinds of crops 
at the same time, and if one should 
happen to fail, one or more of the 
others, as the case may be, takes its 
place. By the middle of July or 



CUCUMBER 



273 



earlier, according to the season, the 
crop is ready for a first gathering, 
and from that time to the end of 
September fruit varying in length 
from 10 to 12 in., green and solid, 
though sometimes unshapely, is 
continually being cut. 

GHERKINS. These are extensively 
cultivated in London market-gardens, 
some growers frequently gathering 
from 18,000 to 20,000 fruit in one 
day. The seed is sown in May in 
rows, where the plants are to remain, 
in well-manured land. The rows 
are usually about 9 ft. apart, and the 
plants, which are thinned out when 
sufficiently advanced to admit of the 
strongest being discerned and left, 
allowed to stand 6 ft. apart in the 
rows. The after-treatment is exactly 
the same as that practised in the case 
of outdoor Cucumbers, except that 
the shoots of the Gherkins are allowed 
to grow unpinched. The fruit is 
gathered when about the size of a 
man's finger, placed in bushel baskets, 
and sent direct to the pickle manu- 
facturers. A good place for Gherkins, 



and one often devoted to them, is the 
alleys between the rows of spring- 
sown Cabbages or Radish beds. The 
alleys are dug over, the drills for the 
seeds opened in the morning, and the 
seeds are sown in the afternoon when 
the ground is warm. When the 
Radishes or other crops are cleared 
off the intervening beds, the latter 
are dug, and a line of Cauliflowers or 
French Beans is planted along the 
centre of them, or sometimes two 01 
three lines of Lettuces are put in. 
Some sow the Gherkins on an open 
quarter in patches of three or four 
seeds together, in rows about 5 or 
6 ft apart, and 3 or 4 ft. asunder in 
the row. Hand-glasses are then 
placed over the seeds, and when the 
young plants have come above 
ground, abundant ventilation is 
given until they show flower, when 
they are fully exposed. In most 
cases, however, they are raised in 
frames and transferred to the open 
ground in June, and in this way 
they fruit earlier and usually give 
less trouble and better results. 



USES. Cucumbers are eaten raw, boiled, or pickled. They are 
very good as a vegetable in the hands of a good cook, but are not 
often enough treated in this 
way in England. 

The varieties of Cucumbers 
are extremely numerous, and 
the designed or accidental 
crossings of different varieties 
are still producing new ones. 
We shall confine ourselves to 
the description of the kinds 
which are most distinct and 
most valuable for cultivation. 

Early Russian Gherkin. 
A truly miniature Cucumber, 
with a slender stem 20 in. to 
2 ft. long, and small, bright 
green leaves. It is perfectly 




Early Russian Gherkin ( natural size; 
detached fruit, i natural size). 



well adapted for frame culture, 

each plant producing from six to eight fruit, which are short, 

18 



274 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




egg - shaped, yellow, 
smooth, and a little 
larger than a hen's egg. 
This variety, which is the 
earliest of all, ripens fully 
in less than three months, 
and does not require 
any pinching or stopping. 
The flesh of the fruit is 
not very thick, and is 
slightly bitter, but its re- 
markable earliness makes 
some amends for these 
trifling defects. In Russia 
there are many varieties 
of it, the earliest of which, 

Brown Netted, or Khiva, Cucumber ( natural size), generally producing but 

one fruit to each plant, 
is said to complete its entire growth in ten or eleven weeks. 

Brown Netted, or Khiva, Cucumber. As the very early 
small-fruited Cucumbers 
grow better in Russia 
than any other kind, a 
great many distinct forms 
of them are cultivated in 
that country. They are 
not all so well known in 
France. We shall, how- 
ever, notice, next to the 
preceding variety, which 
is remarkable for its ex- 
treme earliness, another 
kind, which, although 
coming very near it in 
some respects, is strikingly 
distinct from it in the 
colour and appearance of 
the skin of the fruit. 
When ripening, the fruit 
of this variety does not 
take on the yellow tint 
common to a great 
number of other varieties 
of Cucumbers, but its 
skin turns brown, inter- 
sected by numerous lines Long Turkish Cucumber. 




CUCUMBER 



275 




Early White Cucumber. 



of a paler hue which 

cross one another, 

giving it the appear- 
ance of being cracked. 

The fruit is something 

larger, and the plant 

stronger, than in the 

preceding variety, but 

not quite so early. 
Long Turkish 

Cucumber. A very 

vigorous grower, with 

leaves of a dark green 

colour until the fruit 

has ripened. The fruit 

is long, slightly curved, 

and measures 12 to 

15 in. in length and between 2 and 3 in. in diameter. It is 

light green when young and turns to dark yellow as it ripens 

and then to brown. When ripe, the skin is marked with tiny 

white lines, resembling 
that of the Russian 
Brown Netted Cucumber. 
It is a very productive 
variety, a plant yielding 
generally five or six 
beautiful fruit. 

Early White Cucum- 
ber. A variety with 
elongated, almost cylin- 
drical fruit, nearly three 
times as long as broad, 
at first pale green, but 
turning, as they ripen, to 
a porcelain-white. The 
fruit ripens early, but 
considerably later than 
that of the Early Russian 
Gherkin. 

White Parisian Long 
Ridge Cucumber. This 
splendid variety produces 
smooth fruit, of regular 
cylindrical shape, as much 
as 20 in. in length by 3^ 
Parisian Long Ridge Cucumber. to 4 in. in diameter, all 




276 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Bonneuil Large White Cucumber. 



white from first to last, with dark green, vigorous, and abundant 
leaves. The plant can produce four to five Cucumbers if grown 

in substantial soil. Al- 
though not a hothouse 
variety, in France it 
succeeds much better and 
produces finer fruit grown 
in that way. In beauty 
of fruit it excels all the 
other White Cucumbers. 
Bonneuil Large 
White Cucumber. This 
Cucumber, which is almost 
always grown in the open 
ground, is quite distinct 
from all other varieties. 
The fruit instead of being 
cylindrical, is ovoid in 
shape, swollen about the 
middle, and, moreover, 
very perceptibly flattened 
from end to end in three 
or four places, producing 

the same number of more or less rounded angles. It is very large, 

not unfrequently attaining the weight of four and a half pounds. 

It is at first of a pale green colour, and gradually becomes white 

as it increases in size. This is the Cucumber which is most 

generally grown about Paris for the perfumers, who use large 

quantities of it in their 

manufactures. 

Early Yellow Dutch 

Cucumber. Plant usually 

branching, with rather 

slender stems. Leaves of 

a light green colour, and 

with well-marked angles ; 

fruit longer and later than 

that of the Early Russian 

variety, but still well 

adapted for forcing. At 

first yellow - green, it 

becomes slightly orange- Early Yellow Dutch Cucumber ( i natural size) . 

yellow when quite ripe. 

There are usually only two or three fruit on each plant. 

Half-long Green Cucumber. A vigorous half-early plant 

with light green stem and large leaves. The fruit is rather spiny ; 




CUCUMBER 



277 



green striped with yellow when young or yellow at maturity, 
when it measures about 9 in. long and 2j in. in diameter. It is 
much grown, and very productive. 

Long Green Cucumber. A rather large and vigorous- 
growing plant. Fruit slender and narrowed like that of the Early 
Yellow Dutch variety, but still longer and more pointed at both 
ends, and covered with very 
numerous and prominent spiny 
excrescences. It remains dark 
green in colour until ripe, when 
it turns a brown-yellow. The 
flesh of this variety is thick, 
firm, and crisp, on which 




Fournier Long Green Cucumber. 



Green Giant Ridge Cucumber. 



account it is highly valued for use in salads before it is ripe, 
generally when only half or three-quarters grown. 

Fournier Cucumber. An early Cucumber with slender stem 
and pointed leaves. The fruit measures an average 1 6 in. in length 
and between 3 and 4 in. in diameter at the lower end, which is 
thicker than the end near the stalk. The colour is a vivid green. 
The fruit is spiny when young, and when ripe is quite smooth. 
It is vigorous, early, and productive, and well suited for the 
open culture, though better grown on a hot-bed. It keeps its 



78 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



colour and crispness long. The flesh is thick, and the seed space 
not large. 

Green Giant Ridge Cucumber. A fine and very productive 
variety, which may in favourable conditions be grown in the open, 
though in the climate of Paris it succeeds better in hot-beds. This, 
we may add, is the case with all Cucumbers, except the Gherkins. 
The leaves are fairly large and strong, and the fruit more than 
in. in length. Green when young, they gradually become 

yellow as they get ripe. 
The skin is rough with 
only a few spines and 
generally straight and 
well-shaped. It may 
be recommended for 
the kitchen-garden 
and also for market- 
gardens. 

Long Green Stour- 
bridge Cucumber. A 
productive and vigorous 
grower, with leaves 
large and pointed ; fruit 
almost spineless, in 
colour a vivid green, 
turning to pale yellow 
towards maturity. It 
is cylindrical in shape, 
blunted at both ends, 
and measures 13 to 
15 in. in length and 
I J to 2\ in. in diameter. 
Grown in hot-beds, it 
yields an early and 
abundant crop of re- 
markably fine fruit. 

Green Parisian 
Long Ridge Cucum- 
ber. A vigorous plant, 
the leaves of which are pointed at first, and rounded later 
on. The fruit is long, cylindrical, measuring 15^ in. in length, 
2 to 3 in. in diameter, weighing often as much as four to six 
pounds and more, of an intense green colour up to full size, when 
it turns to a greenish yellow and afterwards to a pure yellow. 
The flesh is white, firm, and crisp. Given the right conditions, 
it may be grown out-of-doors, but succeeds much better raised 
in hot-beds. 




Green Parisian Long Ridge Cucumber. 



CUCUMBER 



279 



Long Prickly Cucumber. In England the Cucumber is very 
extensively cultivated, usually in houses specially constructed for 
the purpose, and with very great care and attention. Under 
these circumstances, the various kinds could not fail to become 
greatly improved in the size and appearance of the fruit, earliness 
and hardiness being considered 
only secondary qualities. This 
is precisely the result, and there 
are now in England many 
varieties of the Long Prickly 
Cucumber which have long, 
almost cylindrical fruit, and but 
few spines, with very solid flesh, 
and producing remarkably few 




Long English Prickly Cucumber. 



Rollisson's Telegraph Cucumber. 



seeds. We shall only mention the most noteworthy of these 
numerous varieties. 

Rollisson's Telegraph Cucumber. Slightly longer than the 
preceding, it takes more kindly to hot-bed culture. It is extremely 
productive, each plant being able to carry as many as six to 
eight fruit, especially if cut in succession before they reach full 
size. Length between 15 and 24 in. The skin is smooth and 
glossy ; the flesh white, firm, and crisp. The stalk end is narrow, 



280 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

and mostly curved. The fruit is finer and better in appearance 
if care is taken to straighten it betimes before it can take an 
objectionable form. 

Duke of Bedford Cucumber. A splendid Cucumber. The 
fruit is very long, straight, and smooth, with a very few spiny 
warts. Should be grown in a hothouse, or at any rate in a heated 
glass-pit In ordinary glass-frames with only the mild temperature 
of fermenting manure, it is almost impossible to obtain fruit of fine 
size and appearance, but when grown in the conditions prescribed, 
the fruit attains to a length and perfection unequalled by any other 
variety. 

The following varieties, likewise derived from the Long Prickly 
Cucumber, may also be mentioned : 

Blue Gown Cucumber. Fruit very long, frequently over 2 ft., 
cylindrical, covered with a glaucous bloom. Spines few, white, 
with black points. A very handsome variety. 

Cardiff Castle Cucumber. A vigorous plant, half-early, sets 
regularly ; good cropper. Fruit long and smooth. 

Hamilton's Market Favourite Cucumber. Fruit 12 to 15 in., 
long, thin, slightly ribbed, light-coloured spines with black points. 

Marquis of Lome Cucumber. Fine and long fruit, narrowed 
at the end ; spines few and white. 

Tender and True Cucumber. Fruit about 15^ in. long, 
cylindrical , spines scarce and light coloured with black points. 

The following varieties, which also produce long, handsome 
fruit, are also much grown in England : Long Gun, Duke of 
Edinburgh, Manchester Prize, Dr. Livingstone, Jarmans Improved 
Telegraph, Stourbridge Gem, Suttoris Peerless, Lord Roberts^ 
Triumph. These varieties, to succeed well, require to be grown 
in hot-houses or on beds heated by hot-water pipes. 

Ridge Cucumbers. The following varieties, although growing 
better in artificial heat, can be grown in the open ground, and 
hence are called Ridge Cucumbers : 

Bedfordshire Ridge Cucumber. A handsome, productive, and 
early kind, resembling Pike's Defiance, but with rather shorter fruit. 

Gladiator Cucumber. Fruit about I ft. long, nearly cylindrical, 
straight, gradually narrowed at the stalk end and more abruptly so 
at the other. Flesh white, firm, and solid. 

King of Ridge Cucumber. A fine variety, long, straight, rough- 
skinned, resembling the Green Giant Cucumber. 

Pike's Defiance Cucumber. The fruit of this variety differs 
from that of the Gladiator Cucumber in being lighter in colour. It 
is also rather earlier, hardier, and remarkably productive. It is one 
of the best kinds for growing in the open ground. 

Of the open-air varieties which are., not of English origin, we 
may mention the following : 



CUCUMBER 



281 



Goliath Green Cucumber. This seems to be only a variety ot 
the Green Giant Cucumber, from which it differs in being a little 
later and having the fruit a trifle longer. 

Tuscan Solid Green Cucumber. Fruit handsome and long 
smooth, nearly cylindrical, becoming of a bronzy colour as it ripens. 

Extra Long White-spine Cucumber. An American variety, 
with long, green, white-spined fruit, rather like the Long Green 
Chinese Cucumber. 

Greek, or Athenian, Cucumber. A vigorous-growing plant; 
but of low thick-set habit, rather than very tall. Stems stout, and 
not more than 4^ to a little over 5 ft. long, with the joints pretty 
close to one another. Leaves dark green, large, entire, or with 
three faintly marked lobes, 
toothed at the edges, de- 
creasing rapidly in size from 
the base to the end of the 
stem. Fruit always solitary 
in the axil of a leaf, three 
or four to a strong plant, 
nearly cylindrical, 10 to 12 in. 
long, sometimes narrowed 
near the stalk ; skin smooth, 
and entirely devoid of spines, 
uniformly green until nearly 
ripe, when it turns to bronzy 
yellow ; flesh white, firm, 
thick, completely filling the 
fruit, with the exception of 
a small portion occupied by 
the seeds. If gathered a short 
time before ripening, the fruit 
keeps fresh and firm for 

several days. The Greek Greek, or Athenian, Cucumber (i natural size). 

Cucumber is an excellent, productive, and moderately early kind. 
It is also hardy and well adapted for growing in the open 
ground. 

Green Long Chinese Cucumber. Leaves usually entire, but 
sometimes with three to five well-marked lobes. Fruit slightly 
flattened on three sides, 10 to 14 in. long, of a rather pale green 
colour, marked lengthways with whitish lines and bearing a few 
spines, which are entirely white, short, and easily detached from the 
skin. The colour of the fruit becomes paler as it ripens, until it is 
finally of a yellow-white with scarcely a shade of green. The flesh 
is very white, tender, and almost as thick as that of the Long White 
or of the Early White Cucumber. The plant is very productive, 
bearing for a long time in succession. It is a half-late variety. 




282 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Extra Long White-spine Cucumber. Fruit dark green, long, 
cylinder-shaped, with white spines ; the flesh tender and very white. 

A vigorous and productive 
variety. 

Arlington, or Im- 
proved White-spine, 
Cucumber. Cultivated 
in the United States. Is 
a sub-variety of the last- 
named, the fruit being 
much shorter, dark green, 
and more pointed at the 
ends. Adapts itself as 
well to forcing as to 
outdoor culture 

Gherkin, or Pickling, 
Cucumber. A vigorous, 
free-flowering, and pro- 
ductive plant, with stems 
from 5 to over 6 ft. long. 
Fruit oblong in shape, 
and intermediate between 
the Early Russian and 

Green Long Chinese Cucumber"* natural size). the . Early Yellow Dutch 

varieties. They are almost 

always gathered scon after the plant flowers, when they are about 
as thick as the finger, and they are used almost exclusively for 
pickling. There are two 
distinct kinds of Gher- 
kin, viz. the Southern 
variety (Cornichon Court 
du Midi), which is more 
properly a small yellow 
Cucumber, very produc- 
tive, and of rapid growth, 
and the Small Green 
Paris variety, a more 
thick-set and more pro- 
ductive plant, with smaller 
fruit. 

The Early Frame, or 
Early Short Pickling, 
Cucumber, cultivated in 
the United States, is a 
handsome, short, early, hardy, and a much less leafing variety 
than the Southern kinds. 





Gherkin, or Pickling, Cucumber (natural size 
of young fruit). 



CUCUMBER 



283 



The Early Cluster 
Pickling Cucumber, also 
an American variety, re- 
sembles the Green Paris 
Cucumber, excepting that 
its colour is dark green. 
The fruit is also some- 
what longer, growing in 
bunches of two and three. 
It is a productive variety. 

Green Meaux Gher- 
kin. Distinct from the 
ordinary Gherkin, the 
fruit being almost twice 
as long, nearly cylindrical 
in shape, and in colour 
a beautiful green, with 
an absence of spiny ex- 
crescences for a third of 
its length. Vigorous and 
hardy, it succeeds in open 
culture. It is more rapid in growth 





Improved Bourbonne Cucumber. 



Green Meaux Pickling Cucumber. 

than the ordinary Gherkin, 
and very productive. 

Improved Bour- 
bonne Cucumber. A 
true Cucumber, produc- 
ing long, thin, crisp fruit, 
which, if gathered soon 
after they have set, make 
unusually fine Gherkins. 
The spines are more 
numerous and smaller 
than in other varieties, 
and resemble short, stout 
hairs. It is quite dis- 
tinct from the Meaux 
Cucumber, being thinner, 
longer, and a more 
intense green. It is 
specially suited for the 
production of Cornichons 
or Gherkins, on account 
of its abundant and long- 
continued yield, provided 
the fruit is gathered 
about as soon as formed. 



284 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

The engraving shows the length and shape of the fruit when 
ready for pickling. 

Toulouse Gherkin. A vigorous plant, with rounded light 
green leaves. When fully grown the fruit is thick, egg- 
shaped, and yellow, measuring 7 or 8 in. in length and about 3^ in. 
in diameter. The half-grown fruit, as used for pickling, is thick, 
short, and spiny, with triangular section. This kind is much grown 
in the south-west of France. It is fairly early and very productive. 

Early White-spine Pickling Cucumber. A very hardy and 
vigorous and also very productive variety, each plant carrying 
eight or ten fruit if they are allowed to ripen, and many more if 
gathered young. When young they are green, short, and stout ; 
as they grow they become paler and marked with four or five white 
longitudinal lines ; when quite ripe they are almost white. Of 
recent introduction from America, it is particularly recommended 
for market-garden culture. 

Boston Pickling, or Green Prolific, Gherkin. An American 
smooth-fruited variety. It is short, bright green, and comes 
between the Russian and the Paris Gherkin, but is more like the 
Russian. In America it is much used for pickling. 

The Chinese Gherkin is a pretty and vigorous variety, low- 
growing, and not trailing much ; the fruit longer and more 
cylindrical than the European varieties. 

SNAKE CUCUMBER 
Cucumis Melo, L. var. ; Cucumis flexuosus, L. Cucurbi 



French, Concombre serpent. German, GrUne lange gekriimmte Schlangen-Gurke, 
Schlangen-Melone. Italian, Anguria. 

Native of the East Indies. Annual. Stem creeping, slender, 
round or bluntly angular, and covered with short hairs ; leaves 

rounded, almost kidney-shaped, or 
with five obtuse angles ; flowers 
monoecious, pale yellow, small, with 
five rounded divisions, exactly resem- 
bling the flowers of a Melon and 
quite unlike those of a Cucumber ; 
fruit very long and slender, almost 
always bent and twisted, dark green, 
Snake Cucumber (& natural size), marked with paler longitudinal furrows, 

and thickest at the end farthest from 

the stalk. They are about 3 ft. and sometimes more in length, 
and change to a yellow colour when ripe, at which time they 
exhale a strong odour of Melons. The seed is like that of the 
Melon. Its germinating power lasts for seven or eight years. 
This species, notwithstanding its common name, is a true Melon. 




SNAKE CUCUMBER 



285 



Individual plants of it are found bearing at the same time fruit 
seme of which are long and snake-like, while others are broad 
and oval in shape. Sometimes even the same fruit will be thin 
and snake-like near the stalk, and swollen at the other end into 
the semblance of a Melon. The culture is almost like that of 
the Melon. The plant does not grow well in the open air in the 
climate of Paris. The Snake Cucumber is chiefly grown as a 
curiosity, but it may be used for pickling, like the Gherkin. 



PRICKLY, or WEST INDIAN, GHERKIN 

Cucumis Anguria, L. Cucurbitacecz. Concombre des Antilles 

Native of Jamaica. Annual. A creeping and very branching 
plant. Stem slender, covered with rough hairs, from 6 to nearly 
10 ft. long, and furnished with simple tendrils. Leaf-stalks as long 
as the blade of the leaf, which is 
divided into five or seven rounded, 
slightly toothed lobes. Male 
flowers yellow, very small, less 
than \ in. in diameter, numerous, 
on short slender stalks ; female 
flowers long-stalked. Fruit oval, 
green, with white longitudinal 
streaks, turning pale yellow when 
ripe, covered all over with fleshy 
protuberances, which are pointed 
or curved like true spines or 
prickles. When ripe it is about 
2 in. long, and over i in. in 
diameter. The stalk is nearly twice as long as the fruit The 
interior of the fruit is almost entirely filled with the seeds. The 
flesh is very scanty, but white, firm, and of a very agreeable flavour, 
without any bitterness. Seeds small, oval, and rather swollen ; their 
germinating power lasts for at least six years. In the Colonies the 
fruit is eaten boiled or pickled. 




West Indian Gherkins. 



GLOBE CUCUMBER 

Cucumis prophetarum, L. Cucurbitacea. Concombre des prophetes. 

Native of Northern and Central Africa. Probably perennial, 
but annual in France. A plant with a rather short creeping or 
climbing stem, which seldom exceeds from about 3 to 5 ft. in 
length, and is very rough and a gray colour. Leaves also gray, 
oval, and divided into five round lobes. Fruit oblong in shape, 
about 2 in. long and about if in. in diameter, marked with 



286 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

alternate bands of yellow and dark green, and covered all over 
with stout and almost spiny hairs ; the flesh is scanty, and too 
bitter for eating. Seeds small, flat, oval, but terminating in a point 
at each end, and with a smooth, almost white skin. Their 
germinating power lasts for over six years. 

With this species is sometimes confounded the Gooseberry 
Cucumber (Cucumis myriocarpus, Ndn.) a plant with long stems 
and very green leaves, which produces an abundance of very 
small fruit covered with stout green hairs, and exactly resembling 
Gooseberries in shape and size. 

CUMIN or CUMMIN 
Cuminum Cyminum, L. Umbellifercz. 

French, Cumin de Malte. German, Pfeffer-Kiimmel. Dutch, Komijn. Italian, 
Comino di Malta-; Spanish, Comino. 

Native of Upper Egypt Annual. A very low-growing plant r 
seldom more than 4 to 6 in. high, and branching from the base. 
Leaves reduced to mere linear blades ; flowers small, lilac, borne 
in terminal umbels of from ten to twenty flowers on the extremities 
of very divergent branches ; seed large, elongated, concave on one 
side and convex on the other, with six rather prominent ribs on 
the convex side, and bearing long hairs, which fold up when the 
seed is ripe. The seeds have a hot taste and a strong aromatic 
flavour. Their germinating power lasts fairly well for three years, 
but declines visibly after the second year. 

CULTURE. The seed is sown in the open ground as soon as it 
has become warm enough, that is, in the beginning or middle of 
May. The plants grow rapidly, and the seed commences to ripen 
at the end of July. No attention is necessary, except the occasional 
use of the hoe. The seeds are used for flavouring soups and 
pastry, and also in the manufacture of some kinds of liqueurs. 



DANDELION 

Leontodon Taraxacum, L. Composite. 

French, Pissenlit, Dent-de-lion. German, Lowenzahn. Flemish, Molsalaad. Italian* 

Dente di leone. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. Leaves all radical, spreading 
into a rosette, smooth, oblong, runcinate, with triangular-lanceolate 
lobes, and entire towards the extremity ; youngest leaves often 
brownish at the commencement of their growth. Flower-stalks 
hollow, one-flowered ; flower-heads large with florets of golden- 
yellow. Seeds compressed, oblong, rough or scaly, and prickly at 
the top ; their germinating power lasts for two years. 



DANDELION 



287 




Thick-leaved, or Cabbaging, Dandelion 
( natural size). 



People contented themselves with gathering Dandelions in the 
meadows or fields until, as they became an important article of 
commerce in the Central Market of Paris, it occurred to some that 
it could be cultivated and 
improved by the selection 
of seed from choice plants. 
Thus the plant was im- 
proved to a remarkable 
degree, as may easily be 
seen by comparing the 
produce of seeds gathered 
from the wild plant with 
that of seeds obtained from 
the cultivated plants. 

CULTURE. The seed 
may be sown in March 
or April, either where the 
plants are to stand, or in 
a seed-bed, from which the seedlings are to be pricked out, in 
May or June, in rows, which should be 14 to 16 in. apart. The 
plants are extremely hardy, and require no attention beyond 
occasional hoeings and waterings. In autumn they commence 
to yield, and will continue to do so all through the winter, if 

they are looked after. The 
quality of the Dandelion 
is much improved by 
blanching, which may be 
effected either by covering 
the bed with a layer of 
sand, or by placing an 
inverted flower-pot over 
each plant, having pre- 
viously gathered the leaves 
up together. The pot 
should be - large enough 
to cover the plant without 
pressing the leaves too 
closelyagainst one another. 
In winter the plants lose 
most of their leaves, but 
an abundant new growth 

Improved Very Early Dandelion. takes P lace in Spring, and 

any plants which have not 

yielded much the first yeardoso plentifully in thespring of the second. 
USES. The whole of the plant is used for salad ; if blanched, 
so much the better. 




288 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Improved Giant Erect Dandelion. 



Large Green Montmagny Dandelion. This, now largely 

grown in the vicinity of Paris, is a more vigorous form of the 

Common Dandelion. It 
blanches well. 

Thick-leaved, or 
Cabbaging, Dandelion. 
A very distinct variety, 
obtained by cultivation, and 
surpassing the wild plant 
not so much in the size as 
in the very great number 
of its leaves, which form a 
regular tuft or clump, instead 
of a plain rosette. It yields 
a very abundant crop with- 
out taking up much ground, 
and blanches very easily 
and, indeed, almost naturally. 
It appears to us to be the 
best variety that has been 
obtained up to the present. 
Improved Very Early Dandelion. Increasing the breadth 

of the leaves of Dandelions has resulted in fewer leaves being 

produced. The variety 

known as the Improved 

Broad-leaved Dandelion, 

forms a simple rosette of 

very large and broad 

leaves, sometimes 20 in. 

across. Its productiveness 

not being in proportion 

to the amount of space 

it occupies, it has been 

almost completely super- 
seded by a sub-variety 

called the Improved Very 

Early Dandelion, in which 

less productiveness is com- 
pensated for by greater 

earliness. Its leaves are 

large, and are formed as 

soon as the winter is over. 

They make a very delicate 

salad. 

Improved Giant Erect Dandelion. A distinct variety which, 

instead of forming into a rosette, like other Dandelions, grows 







Moss-leaved Dandelion. 



DANDELION 289 

in erect, strong, thickly set tufts. The leaves are long, stout, 
toothed, and slightly brown. It is very early, vigorous, and more 
prolific than most of the other Dandelions. 

Moss-leaved Dandelion. A distinct variety of Curled-leaved 
Dandelion, much denser and more compact than the Common 
kind, and apparently permanent in its characteristics. The blade 
of the leaf is divided and, as it were, slashed into narrow strips. 
The plant can be easily blanched, and in that condition affords 
a salad not unlike Curled Endive, but coming in in spring, when 
it is very difficult to have any Endive fit for table use. 

DILL 

Anethum graveolens, L. Umbellifercz. 

French, Aneth. German, Dill. Flemish, Dille. Danish, Dild. Italian, Aneto. 

Spanish, Eneldo. 

Native of Southern Europe. Annual. A plant 2 to over 2\ ft. 
high. Leaves very much cut into thread-like segments ; stem 
glaucous green, hollow, very smooth, and branching ; flowers 
yellowish, with very small petals which are rolled inwards, borne 
in compound umbels without bracts ; seeds very flat, and having 
a strong and bitter flavour; their germinating power lasts for 
three years. The plant, in its general appearance, very much 
resembles the Common Fennel, and all its green parts have a 
flavour like that of Fennel and Mint combined. Sown in April, 
where the plants are to stand, it succeeds well in the open air, in 
any kind of well-drained soil, especially in a warm position. The 
seeds are used as a condiment, or for pickling with Gherkins. In 
the north of France they are often employed for flavouring winter 
preserves. 

EGG-PLANT 

Solanum Melongena, L. Solanacece. 

French, Aubergine. German, Eierpflanze. Flemish, Eierplant. Italian, Petronciano. 
Spanish, Berengena. Portuguese, Beringella. 

Native of India. Annual. Stem erect, branching ; leaves 
entire, oblong, of a gray-green colour, more or less powdery, and 
often spiny on the veins. Flowers solitary in the axil's of the 
branches, shortly stalked ; corolla monopetalous, and of a dull 
violet colour ; calyx often spiny, increasing in size with the fruit. 
Seeds small, flattish, kidney-shaped, and yellow ; their germinating 
power lasts for six or seven years. 

CULTURE. In the climate of Paris the Egg-plant can seldom 
be grown without the aid of artificial heat. The seed is usually 
sown on a hot-bed in February or March, and the seedlings are 

19 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



pricked out into another hot-bed six weeks or two months later. 
Early varieties raised in hot-beds may also be planted out in the 
open air about the end of May, when the ground has become well 
warmed. The plants require a warm and sheltered position, and 
plentiful waterings. In order to obtain handsome, well-grown fruit, 
a certain number only should be allowed to remain on each plant, 
proportioned to its strength. It is a good plan also to pinch the 
extremities of the branches towards the end of the summer. In 
England we have never seen this plant well grown even under 
glass. In the Eastern States of North America we were surprised 
at the fine health it attained in the fields, and the great size of the 

fruit as large as well-grown 
Melons. 

USES. The fruit is usually 
cooked. The different varie- 
ties are highly esteemed for 
table use in the countries of 
the south of Europe and 
South America. 

Long Purple Egg-plant 
Stem greenish, or faintly 
tinged with brown. Leaves 
oval, entire, slightly sinuate- 
lobed, and bearing a few 
purple-coloured spines on the 
veins of the upper surface ; 
youngest leaves purple at the 
base, the others entirely green. 
Flowers lilac, large, axillary, 
with a brown calyx, which 
increases very much in size 
after the flower fades, so that 
it is three or four times larger when the fruit is ripe than it was 
when the flower opened. Fruit oblong-oval, slightly club-shaped, 
thickest at the end farthest from the stalk, very smooth and 
glistening, and almost black-purple in colour ; flesh firm and 
compact, with few seeds, and best in quality before the fruit is 
fully grown. When quite ripe, the fruit is from 6 to 8 in. long 
and 2 to 3 in. in diameter. A well-grown plant may carry from 
eight to ten fruit. This is the best variety for table use in all 
countries where the summer is long and warm, as it requires five 
or six months' growth to ripen the fruit. It is therefore especially 
suitable for the south of Europe, but for the climate of Paris the 
following kind is to be preferred. 

Early Long Purple Egg-plant. A sub-variety of the pre- 
ceding kind, in comparison with which it is not quite so strong- 




Long Purple Egg-plant ( natural size). 



EGG-PLANT 



291 



growing nor so large, being of more slender habit. Stem almost 

black ; leaves oval, entire, with hardly any spines, and with the 

stalk and veins very deeply 

tinged with purple on the 

upper surface. The general 

tint of the leaves is grayer 

than that of the leaves of 

the preceding kind, and the 

fruit is smaller and more 

slender. This variety, on 

account of its earliness, is 

the most suitable for culture 

in the climate of Paris. 
Barbentane Very Early 

Long Purple Egg-plant. 

Stem black ; leaves oval, 

generally lobed, of a gray 

dark green colour, with 

black stalks ; veins much 

tinged, specially on the 

upper surface, and bearing 

a few spines on the lower 

side ; flowers large, purple, 

with brown calyx. The 

fruit measures 7 to 8 in. 

in length, and about 2 in. 

in diameter at the thickest part ; it is almost cylindrical and 

slightly pointed, and very dark, almost black. Each plant bears 

eight or ten fruit, which ripen well even in mild climates. It is 

very early and is the most productive Egg-plant grown in the 

climate of Paris. 

Early Dwarf Purple 
Egg-plant. A very 
early variety, and there- 
fore very valuable for 
our climate. Plant low- 
growing and branching, 
with a black stem and 
dark violet-coloured 
flowers. Leaves of a 
slightly gray-green 
colour, elongated, and 
faintly waved at the 
edges ; veins black on 




Barbentane Very Early Egg-plant. 




Early Dwarf Purple Egg-plant. 



the upper surface ; leaf-stalk dark violet, as are also the divisions 
of the calyx. Fruit ovoid, 3 or 4 in. long and about 2 in. in 



292 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



diameter at the thick end, numerous, of a rather deep but dull 
purple colour, and not glistening like those of the Long Purple 
variety. They are fit to gather at least a month earlier than those 
of any other kind, and each plant may be allowed to carry a dozen 
or so. The dwarf habit of this plant renders it very suitable for 
frame culture in early spring. This variety should be looked 
after, as one of the most likely to suit our English climate, in 
which the Egg-plant has not yet been successfully cultivated. 




Round Purple Egg-plant (| natural size). 



New- York Purple Egg-plant. 



Round Purple Egg-plant Stem brown, as are also the 
leaf-stalks and the veins of the leaves. Leaves rather large, very 
green, broad, and almost always sinuated at the edges ; veins purple 
on the upper surface, and bearing a few spines ; stalks very spiny. 
Fruit very large, and of a paler and duller purple colour than the 
fruit of the preceding varieties. It is not quite round, but more 
like a short Pear. The variety is later than the two preceding 
kinds, and is especially suitable for southern climates. A plant of 
it should not carry more than three or four fruit. 

New- York Purple Egg-plant. Stem stout, not very tall, 
usually branching, and of a gray-green, slightly, or not at all, tinged 



EGG-PLANT 



293 



with purple. Leaves entire, undulated at the edges, or faintly 
lobed, and bearing short spines on the ribs on both sides. Flowers 
pale lilac, rather large. Fruit very large, of a very short Pear- 
shape, and slightly flattened at both ends ; it is paler in colour than 
that of the Round Purple Egg-plant, but is larger and fuller and 
entirely devoid of ribs or longitudinal furrows. The fruit-stalk, 
and also the persistent calyx, usually remain green up to the time 
of ripening. This variety is distinguished from those already 
enumerated by its lower stature, its more compact and thick-set 
habit, and especially by the quality of the flesh, which almost 
entirely fills the interior of the fruit, leaving but very little space 
for the seeds. A plant 
seldom carries more than 
two fruit. The Common 
Giant Egg-plant is to be 
referred to this variety, 
which is steadily super- 
seding it in cultivation. 
There is a variety of this 
with cream-white fruit 
which is much appreci- 
ated in the United States, 
where it is known as the 
Pearl-white Egg-plant. 

Black Pekin Egg- 
plant. A strong-growing 
plant, almost entirely of 
a black-purple colour. 
Fruit nearly or quite 
spherical, 5 or 6 in. in 
diameter, glistening, and 



exhibiting this peculiarity 
that those parts of it 
which are protected from 
covered with the divisions 




Black Pekin Egg-plant. 

of the sun by 



the action of the sun by being 
of the calyx remain quite green. 
This variety is not of much account for the climate of Paris, 
as it is late, and the fruit has a very decided acridity in its 
flavour. 

Madras Egg-plant. Its culture is exactly like that of the 
other Egg-plants. Its chief use, however, is as an ornamental 
plant. The fruit is numerous, oblong, pear-shaped, varying in 
colour on the same plant between purple, yellow, green, and also 
striped white and yellow. It is eaten as a vegetable in India, but 
for table purposes it cannot be compared with the improved 
varieties as known to us. Here it can only be useful for its 
ornamental qualities. 



2 9 4 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Chinese Brinjal, or White China Egg-plant. A very distinct 
variety, with long slender white fruit, which are almost always 
curved. A late kind. 

There are a great many other varieties of Egg-plant, which are 
more or less closely allied to those just described. The most note- 
worthy of these we shall briefly mention, as follows : 

Catalonian Egg-plant. A late, spiny kind, resembling the 
Round Purple variety. 

Murcian Egg-plant Fruit purple, round, marked with a few 
ribs ; stem and leaves spiny ; the leaves are more lobed and the 
veins are more deeply coloured than those of the Round Purple 
variety. 

Antilles Giant Egg-plant. This is a strong-growing late kind, 
without spines, and bearing fruit resembling that of the Round 
Purple variety. 

Green Egg-plant. This does not appear to be a distinct and 
fixed variety, as, amongst the White Egg-plants, fruit are frequently 
met with which are more or less greenish or variegated with green. 

Thibet Egg-plant A late variety, with elongated fruit of a 
greenish white colour. It was introduced about thirty years ago, 
and seems to have gone almost out of cultivation. 

WHITE EGG-PLANT 

Solanum ovigerum, Dun. 
French, Aubergine blanche. German, Weisse Eierpflanze. 

A rather low-growing, branching plant. Stem and leaf-stalks 
green, or very faintly tinged with purple, and bearing a few white 

spines ; leaves wavy at the edges ; 
flowers lilac ; fruit white, exactly 
resembling a hen's egg, but turn- 
ing yellow when ripe. Like the 
Madras Egg-plant, its chief use 
is for ornament. The fruit is 
(probably erroneously) considered 
by some to be unwholesome. 
There is a form of it which has 
larger fruit, and another of dwarfer 
growth and with much smaller 
fruit, which is known as the Dwarf 
White Egg-plant. 

All the forms are cultivated 
White Egg-plant ( natural size). ' n tne same way as the common 

kinds. The fruit is not eaten, 

but may be used as ornaments in baskets of mixed fruits at 
dessert, etc. 




ENDIVE 295 

ENDIVE 

Cichorium Endivia, L. Composites. 

French, Chicoree Endive. German, Endivien. Flemish and Dutch, Andijvie. Danish, 
Endivien. Italian, Indivia. Spanish and Portuguese, Endivia. 

Native of the East Indies. Annual and biennial. A plant 
with numerous radical leaves, smooth, lobed, more or less deeply 
cut, and spreading into a rosette. Stem hollow, from 20 in. to 
over 3 ft. high, channelled, and branching ; flowers blue, axillary, 
sessile ; seeds small, angular, long, gray, ending in a point on one 
side, and having a sort of membranous collar on the other. Their 
germinating power lasts for ten years. All the varieties which 
have sprung from Cichorium Endivia are distinguished by having 
the leaves entirely smooth, both on the blade and on the stalk, and 
by being of a more tender constitution and more sensitive to cold 
than the cultivated varieties of Cichorium Intybus. 

CULTURE. As Endive is a plant of rapid growth, highly 
esteemed for table use, it is grown all the year round. The 
gardeners about Paris commence to sow it in the open ground in 
April, and make successional sowings up to the end of August. In 
September and October they sow under cloc/zes (or bell-glasses), 
and from December to April in hot-beds. (As far as possible, no 
plants are grown in the open ground except those which have been 
sown there, as, if planted out from hot-beds, they are liable to run 
to seed the same year.) The seedlings are pricked out as soon as 
they are strong enough and have seven or eight leaves, at a distance 
of from 10 to 1 6 in. from plant to plant, according to the variety, 
and, from the time they strike root until they are fully grown, 
should be frequently and plentifully watered. Endive grown in the 
open ground may be gathered for use from August, and the plants 
will continue to yield, if properly looked after, either where they 
stand, or removed to a vegetable-house, up to the end of winter. 
During the remainder of the year, the plants which are sent to 
table are raised under bell-glasses or in hot-beds. Before they are 
gathered, the plants are usually blanched. For this purpose they 
are left until nearly full grown, when the leaves are all tied up 
together, so as to protect the heart of the plant effectually from the 
action of sunlight. The plants are allowed to stand where they 
grow, and are watered when necessary, care being taken not to let 
any water get into the hearts, or they will be liable to rot. Endive 
treated in this way will be fit for use in about twenty days. Any 
plants which are standing when frosty weather comes on will con- 
tinue to grow if protected by a covering of leaves or straw mats, 
which should be removed when the weather becomes mild. In 
this way the yield of the different varieties, and especially of the 
Batavian Endive, may be prolonged for several weeks. Late- 



2 9 6 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



grown plants may be taken up with balls and removed to a 
vegetable-house, where they can be blanched. For particulars of 
the ways in which Endive is forced, we must refer to special 
treatises on market gardening and early spring crops. 



CULTURE IN BRITAIN. Endive 
requires much less heat than Let- 
tuce, and is chiefly valuable as an 
autumn and winter salad vegetable. 
In many gardens, if sown before 
August, it is almost certain to run 
to seed prematurely, and conse- 
quently it is unwise to depend upon 
one, or even two sowings. 

SOWING. Make a small sowing 
of the Moss-curled and Green Curled 
about the middle of July, another of 
the same varieties and Improved 
Broad-leaved Batavian about the 
first week in August, and a final 
sowing of Green Curled and Batavian 
at the middle of August. The Moss- 
curled is close-growing and blanches 
quickly, but is the least hardy, and 
is not at all suitable for late work. 
This variety requires less room than 
the others, and may be sown in 
drills 6 in. apart, and the plants 
should eventually be thinned out to 
the same distance asunder. The 
other two are strong growers, and 
the rows may well be 12 in. apart 
and the plants 10 in. asunder in the 
rows. The first sowing is made on 
a small border previously used for 
pricking out Cauliflowers and 
Brussels Sprouts, and but few of 
the seedlings are transplanted unless 
it be to make up blanks. A long 
border previously well enriched for 
early Cauliflowers is given up to the 
second sowing, being prepared by 
simply having the surface lightly 
coated over with lime and heavily 
hoed. The drills are drawn and 
watered, the seed sown thinly and 
lightly covered. For the final sow- 
ing a warmer or rather better drained 
border is preferred one previously 
cropped with early Potatoes. Dig- 



ging being unnecessary in the former 
case, it is still less so when planting 
or sowing ground after Potatoes, 
but if the ground be at all poor, 
fork in, but not deeply, a dressing 
of short manure. Usually there is 
great difficulty in preserving the 
young plants from slugs, and not 
unfrequently it is necessary to sow 
seeds in a frame so as to have 
sufficient plants to make up the 
large blanks caused by these pests. 
In some gardens where the soil is 
light, and the drainage good, it is a 
good plan to plant the Endive in 
shallow drills, say, about 6 in. wide 
and 3 in. deep. In such positions 
they can be easily watered, and an 
occasional supply of liquid manure 
poured between them will cause 
them to grow to a great size. These 
drills also render blanching a simple 
matter, all that is necessary being to 
cover a few plants a few days before 
they are wanted with either boards 
or slates. In order to have Endive 
in good condition over as long a 
period as possible, extra pains must 
be taken with the 

BLANCHING AND PROTECTING. 
Unless properly blanched, Endives 
are not appreciated, and unless some 
measures are taken to ensure pro- 
tection, they are liable to be much 
injured, if not actually killed, by 
frosts. All that is necessary in the 
case of the early crops is to either 
tie up a certain number at weekly 
intervals, much as we would Brown 
Cos Lettuces, or cover with boards, 
or with rough litter or hay, and the 
same methods of blanching may be 
adopted with those protected. Under 
hay the Endive blanches perfectly, 
without being soiled or injured in 



ENDIVE 



297 



any way. Only a given number, 
according to the demand, should be 
covered at a time, as the plants will 
not keep long after being blanched. 
Where portable garden frames are 
abundant, any number of plants may 
be covered with these, the lights 
being put on and further protection 
in the shape of mats and litter given 
when necessary. It is when frames 
are scarce that the grower has to 
adopt various contrivances in order 
to meet with the demand for salad- 
ing. In some districts Endive does 
not keep well if lifted and stored, 
but in less moist neighbourhoods I 
have kept great numbers closely 
packed in frames. In this case the 
plants were lifted before severe 
frosts were anticipated, as if only 
slightly injured early decay is certain 
to follow. A dry day was selected, 
the plants carefully tied up, lifted 
up with a trowel so as to secure a 
good ball of earth to the roots, and 
they were then carried in hand- 
barrows to the frame ground. 
Frames previously used for Melon, 
Cucumber, and Tomato culture 
were filled rather closely with the 
Endive, and into the good soil they 
soon pushed fresh roots. The whole 
of the plants were untied, and were 
blanched with hay according as 
required, the last to be covered 
being the Batavian, this being the 
best keeping sort. I do not care to 
leave any quantity of Endive in the 
open from want of frame room, and 
have frequently stored some in a 
Mushroom-house for early use, and 
many more in a dry shed, these 
proving serviceable in lengthening 
the period before those better stored 
under the frames, or covered where 
grown, are cut. Whatever plan of 
storing is adopted, care should 
always be taken to lift before the 
plants are injured and when as dry 
as possible. The small or half- 



grown plants of the hardiest sort 
sometimes stand out uninjured 
during the winter, especially if 
planted on a dry or raised border, 
and these sometimes prove of ser- 
vice in maintaining the supply of 
salading till such times as the frame 
Lettuces are fit for use. W. I. 

Endive is largely grown in nearly 
all market-gardens round London, 
and especially in those situated in 
moist districts. The first sowing is 
usually made early in May, either in 
frames or on prepared beds in the 
open air. In either case, good rich 
soil is used in which to sow the seed, 
and the surface after sowing is made 
firm by being beaten with the back 
of the spade. The chief point in 
reference to early-sown Endive is to 
keep the plants continually growing, 
as if they experience the least check 
they run to seed or "bolt," as it is 
termed. On this account early 
Endive, as a rule, is not grown in 
very large quantities. The principal 
sowing is made early in June, and is 
succeeded by smaller ones to the 
end of July. In most cases the out- 
door sowings are made on the ground 
on which they are to grow, as on 
Celery ridges or between the rows 
of any crops where there is room, 
and for which the ground was well 
manured. Sometimes, however, the 
seed is sown on beds, and the seed- 
lings thinned out if too thick, and 
transplanted when sufficiently large 
to handle. In any case the distance 
apart of permanent plants is from 
12 to 15 in. Endive and Lettuces 
are frequently planted on land 
alternately, large fields being often 
devoted to them ; sometimes whole 
fields of Endive alone occur. Blanch- 
ing is effected by tying up the leaves 
like those of Lettuces with withies 
or pieces of bast. In from twelve 
to fifteen days after being tied up 
Endive is ready for market. The 



298 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



most forward piece is then cleared 
by pulling the plants up by their 
roots, and in this state they are 
packed in hampers and conveyed to 
market. The Dwarf Green Curled 
and the Batavian are the kinds 
chiefly grown, but the former sort 
is that which is grown in the greatest 
quantity. The produce from the 



earliest sowings is ready for market 
early in August and onwards until 
Christmas, and even later. A few 
growers house plants for winter and 
spring supply, but now, when they 
have to compete in the market with 
the French, the prices obtained 
scarcely remunerate them for their 
trouble and house-room. 



USES. The leaves are eaten boiled or in salad. In England 
we make no such good use of Endive as a boiled vegetable as the 
French do. Many vegetables as we have, the distinct flavour of 
certain varieties of Endive when cooked should make them as 
welcome as table vegetables as they are in France. 

Green Curled Summer Endive. Under this name, two 
very distinct varieties are very extensively cultivated, namely, 

the Paris and the Anjou. 
The Paris, or Italian, 
variety is the older of 
the two kinds. It has 
its leaves arranged in a 
dense rosette, full even 
at the centre, and from 
12 to 14 in. in diameter. 
The leaves are very 
much divided in the 
upper half into slender 
segments, which are not 
much curled. The lower 
half of the leaf is a rib 
or stalk over I in. wide, 
and a faint rosy colour, 
especially at the base. 

The Anjou variety 
began to be very 
generally cultivated about twenty years ago, and is superseding 
the other variety, to which it is very much superior. It forms 
a rosette nearly as broad as that of the Paris variety, but much 
denser and more convex in shape. The leaves are very numerous, 
and closely crowded together ; the leaf-stalk or rib is entirely 
white at the base, J in. or more broad, and edged on the lower 
half with white thread-like leafy segments. In the upper half 
of the leaf the midrib widens perceptibly, is often more or less 
contorted, takes a green tint, and is furnished with very finely 
cut leafy appendages, which are only slightly curled, and are a 
clear green colour, changing to a butter-yellow in the heart of 




Green Curled Paris Endive. 



ENDIVE 



299 




variety) 



the plant. The extremities of the leaves become intertangled to 

such an extent that one leaf cannot be distinguished from another, 

and the whole plant almost resembles a great tuft of Moss. 
These two kinds are 

cultivated in the same way. 

They are both suitable for 

forcing and for open-air 

culture, especially in summer 

and early autumn, but later 

on they are very liable 

to rot. 

Green Fine-curled 

Winter Endive (Chicorte 

frisee de Meaux). This 

variety forms a broader 

rosette than the preceding 

kind, but not so full. It is 

usually from 16 to 18 in. 

across. The leaves are 

longer and their divisions 

are more curled and crisped Green Curled 

than in the summer variety. 

The midrib, which is tinged with rose-colour on the lower part, 

is often \ in. or more broad, the middle part being furnished 

with very much divided, crisped, and curled leafy segments. 

The terminal portion of the leaf is entire and almost flat, with 

the margin notched and curled. This variety is not so early 

as the preceding kinds, but it is more hardy, and is particularly 

suitable for an autumn crop. 

Golden-heart Curled Summer Endive. A vigorous, hardy, 

and productive kind, re- 
sembling the Meaux En- 
dive in size and general 
features. Its centre is 
very dense and full, and 
turns to yellow, which 
gives it the appearance 
of having been artificially 
blanched. 

Picpus Curled En- 
dive. This kind is nearly 

Green Fine-curled Winter Endive th am gize as the 

(i natural size). T- i - ^ i 

Meaux Endive, the 

diameter of the rosette being from 14 to 16 in., but the leaves 
are far more finely cut, and the heart of the rosette is fuller 
and firmer. The two varieties differ remarkably in the formation 




300 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Picpus Curled Endive (f natural size). 



of the terminal part of 
the leaf. In the Picpus 
variety, this is very 
narrow and almost re- 
duced to a midrib ; 
while in the other kind 
it has some degree of 
width. The midrib or 
stalk of the Picpus also 
is much narrower, is 
without the rosy tinge, 
and only furnished here 
and there with leafy 
appendages, which give 
it a very peculiar ap- 
pearance. The Picpus 
is a very good and 
hardy kind of Endive, 



and is well adapted for open-air culture. 

Green Curled Upright Endive (Chicorte Grosse Pancaliere). 
Resembles the Meaux Endive in shape and leaves, but it is 
earlier, more erect, and so dense in the centre that the crowded 
mass of foliage blanches 
of itself. The midribs of 
the leaves are tinged 
with rose, by which it is 
easily distinguished from 
the Ruffec Endive, which 
also forms compact tufts. 
For its rapidity of growth 
and productiveness it is 
much grown for salads, 
etc. 

Rouen or Stag's 
Horn Endive. A hand- 
some and very distinct 
variety, forming a very 
full rosette, 14 to 16 in. 
in diameter. The leaves 
are not so finely divided, 
nor are the divisions so 
much curled, as in the 
preceding varieties ; they 
are also of a duller and 
grayer colour. The mid- 
rib is thick, but very Green Curled Upright Endive. 




ENDIVE 



301 




narrow, and entirely white. This is one of the kinds which are 

most extensively cultivated at Paris, and through all the north 

of France. It is particu- 
larly well adapted for 

open-air culture, and, being 

hardy, yields a crop until 

late in autumn. 

Louviers Endive. 

This variety, which seems 

to be derived from the 

preceding kind, is very 

distinct and good. The 

plant forms a rosette, 

which is not so broad as 

the Stag's-horn variety, 

but is fuller, more compact, 

and more convex. The 

leaves are paler in colour, 

but the divisions are more Rouen> or Stag?s Horn> Endive ( i natural size) 

regular and narrower. The 

heart of the rosette is remarkably dense, so that plants of this 

variety, though occupying less space than those of the preceding 

kind, yield quite as heavy a crop. In consequence of the 

almost hemispherical form of the rosette, it contains a greater 

number of blanched leaves, in proportion to its size, than any 

other variety ; so that, bulk for bulk, it yields a larger amount 

of useful produce. 

After several trials, we 
have not been able to detect 
any difference between the 
Louviers Endive and the 
Guillande Endive, a variety 
much in favour in Normandy. 
Ruffec Green Curled 
Endive. Rosette very large, 
often 1 6 to 18 in. in diameter, 
at first sight slightly resem- 
bling that of the Moss T curled 
variety, but more tufty, and 
fuller in the centre. The 
midrib of the leaf is very 
white and thick, very tender 

Louviers Endive (i natural size). and fleshy, nearly an inch 

broad, but looking much 

broader on account of the blanching of a large portion of the 
blade of the leaf the remainder of which is cut and curled 




302 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



almost like the Moss-curled variety. The Rujjec is one of the 
best kinds for open-air culture, and is equally suitable for 




Ruffec Green Curled Endive ( natural size). 

summer and autumn. We do not know any other variety which 
bears cold weather so well, and we have seen it in the open 
ground, simply covered with leaves, surviving winters in which 

all other kinds perished. 
Imperial Curled 
Endive. A handsome 
curled variety, forming 
a broad, tall, and well- 
furnished rosette, and 
resembling the preceding 
kind more than any 
other variety, it differs 
from it, however, in the 
lighter colour of the 
leaves, which are also 
less finely cut, but have 
the segments very much 
curled and folded. This 
variety is especially 
noticeable in that its 
leaves do not exhibit a 
bare midrib at the 
bottom, like those of 
imperial Curled Endive. other varieties, but run 

down to the very ground, 

where they are from fin. to nearly ij in. broad. They are also 
perfectly white for at least one-half their length. 




ENDIVE 



303 




Moss-curled Endive ( natural size). 



Moss-curled Endive. Rosette rather small, seldom exceeding 

10 or 12 in. in diameter, and not often very compact. Leaves 

rather dark green, very much 

cut, curled, and crisped, 

so that it is difficult to 

distinguish one leaf from 

another, and the whole plant 

resembles a tuft of Moss. 

The midribs of the leaves 

are narrow and very white. 

Not a very productive 

variety, but sometimes in 

request on account of its 

peculiar appearance. As 

it occupies but little space, 

it can be grown under bell- 
glasses. Another equally 

dense thick-set variety is 

sometimes met with under 

the name of the Short 

Bell-glass Endive. This appears to be intermediate between the 

Moss-curled and the Small Green Curled Summer Endive, 

coming nearer, however, to the latter. 

White Moss-curled Endive. Very distinct, not exceeding 

12 or 13 in. in diameter ; with broad ribs, slightly tinged with 

rose, and leaves finely cut 
and curled, and light green, 
except at the heart, which 
is white with a golden 
tinge. Not very produc- 
tive, but a handsome plant 
and of excellent flavour. 

Ever-white Curled 
Endive. Rosette not very 
dense nor well furnished, 
14 to 16 in. in diameter ; 
midrib of the leaf yellow, 
and tinged with rose ; 
leaves very pale in hue, 
having the appearance of 
being artificially blanched. 
__ This peculiar colour is the 

White Moss-curled Endive. C ^ ief distinction of the 

plant, as it is neither very 

productive nor of particularly good quality ; yet it is always 
welcomed in the markets on account of its blanched appearance. 




304 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Ever-White Curled Endive (^ natural size). 



into narrow strips, 
which become much 
entangled as they 
grow and form a 
bulky and compact 
head weighing a little 
over 2 Ib. Its appear- 
ance seems to confirm 
the opinion that it is 
a cross between the 
Common Endive of 
the south and the 
curled Stag's - horn 
Endive. It is not to 
be recommended for 
the north of France, 
not being hardy 
enough. 

I ntermediate 
Bordeaux Endive. 
About Bordeaux 
there is a variety 
grown under the name 
of Bastard Endive 
with broadly cut 



Another variety of 
White Curled Endive, in 
which the leaves are 
wavy and curled rather 
tha'n much divided, was 
formerly in cultivation, 
but it has been super- 
seded by the present very 
finely cut variety. 

Curled Christmas 
Endive. A very inter- 
esting variety grown for 
some years past in the 
vicinity of Saint-Remy de 
Provence and Chateau- 
Renard, for winter use. 
The outer leaves are 
simply cut and curled 
at the edges, while the 
inner leaves are deeply 
laciniated and divided 




Curled Christmas Endive. 



ENDIVE 



305 



leaves. It forms the connecting link between the Curled-leaved 
and the Broad-leaved, or Batavian, varieties. It is chiefly in- 
teresting for having given birth to the following variety. 

Queen of the Winter Endive. A new variety, half way 
between the Broad-leaved, or Batavian, and the Curled Endives. 




Queen of the Winter Endive. 

The leaves are broadly lobated rather than cut. It is hardy, or 
almost so, in the climate of Paris. Raised from seed of the 
Bordeaux Bastard Endive grown for several years at Geneva, it is 
a decided improvement upon the original form. 

Broad-leaved, or Batavian, Endive (French, Chicoree-Scarole 
Ronde]. Rosette broad, often 16 in. in diameter ; leaves entire, 
toothed at the edges and more or less twisted or waved, with broad, 
thick white midribs. The central leaves, being partially turned 
inwards, serve to cover 
and protect the heart of 
the plant, thus forming a 
sort of a very dwarf head. 
When the plant is in 
this condition, the French 
gardeners say that it is 
" bouclt? or " curled." 
When well*" grown and 
artificially blanched in the 
manner described at the 
commencement of this 
article, this plant forms 
one of the best winter salads. The blanched inner leaves are 
particularly tender and crisp, and have a fine and very agreeable 
flavour. This variety is far more extensively cultivated than any 
other kind. 




Broad-leaved, or Batavian, Endive (\ natural sire). 



20 



306 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Broad-leaved Limay Endive. 



Broad- leaved 
Limay Endive. 

Leaves very large, and 
in a rosette of palish 
green, puckered, entire, 
the inner ones cut into 
rather deep but not 
very numerous lobes, 
very much puckered, 
and forming a stout 
head. This is a larger 
variety than the 
Common Broad-leaved 
kind, to which it is 
preferred in some locali- 
ties near Paris, with- 
out any very apparent 
reason. 

White Batavian 
Endive. Rosette 
rather broader than that 
of the Common Broad-leaved kind, but not so full, and especially 
remarkable for the very pale colour of the leaves. This variety 
heads to a much less extent than any other kind, and is usually 
cut when young, before 
it is fully grown. It 
is less hardy than the 
Common Broad - leaved 
kind, and more liable to 
be spoiled by damp, but 
on account of its light 
colour it is in much re- 
quest for salad. It is 
chiefly grown for summer 
and autumn use, and by 
making successional sow- 
ings it can always be had 
tender. 

Hooded Batavian, or 
Hardy Green Winter, 
Endive (Chicore'e en 
cornet). This variety 
differs very much in ap- 
pearance from the other 
kinds of Endive, and 
even from the Other White Batavian Endive (I natural size> 





ENDIVE 307 

Broad-leaved kinds. Its leaves are fewer, but much larger, being 
almost as broad as long, and cut at the edges into numerous 
long teeth. The midrib appears to branch from the base of 
the leaf, over which it 
diverges in all directions. 
The leaf, which is at first 
folded up in the centre 
of the plant, opens out 
as it grows, like a twisted 
paper bag unfolding it- 
self; frequently it forms 
a kind of hood, which 
continues to envelop the 
younger leaves for a 
considerable time, thus 
producing a genuine head. 

If the plant were im- Hardy Green Winter Batavian Endive. 

proved in this direction, 

it would afford an excellent winter salad, as it is hardy and with- 
stands ordinary winters in the climate of Paris when protected 
with a covering of leaves or straw mats. It is especially suitable 
for the west and south of France. It is possible that, by attention 
and perseverance, a sub-variety may be raised from this plant with 
a perfect head like that of a Lettuce or a Cabbage, but it is to be 
feared that it is not quite hardy enough for the northern and 
central districts of France. 

The Bordeaux Hooded Batavian Endive differs from the 
preceding only by its deeper cut foliage. It is much grown in the 
south-west of France. 

White Var Batavian Endive. A large, compact rosette of 
broad-toothed leaves, with thick ribs and of a light ashy green, 
more deeply cut than those of the Green and the White Batavian 
Endive. For winter cultivation in Provence it has superseded all 
other varieties. Sown at intervals from August to October, it 
produces fair-sized plants during the whole winter. 

EVENING PRIMROSE 
(Enothera biennis, L. Onagracece. 

French, Enothtre bisannuelle, Onagre. German, Rapuntica. Flemish, Ezelskruid. 

Italian, Rapontica. 

Native of Peru. Biennal. A plant with a rather thick, long 
tap-root, the flesh of which is white and firm. Radical leaves 
growing in a rosette, stalked, obovate or elliptic in shape, sinuate- 
toothed at the base ; stems erect, branching, over 3 ft. in height, 
bearing lanceolate leaves which are more or less narrowed into 



308 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



the leaf-stalk ; flowers yellow, large, in leafy terminal clusters ; 

seed-vessels long, furrowed, narrowed at both ends ; seeds small, 

brown, with five or six flat facets. 
Their germinating power lasts for 
three years. The culture and uses of 
this plant are almost the same as those 
of the Salsafy. It is more, however, 
as a curiosity that we mention it, 
although its rather tender and fleshy 
root is sometimes used as a table 
vegetable. It should be employed 
for this purpose at the end of the first 
year of its growth, -.when the plant 
has put forth only one rosette of 
leaves. 

FENNEL 




French, Fenouil. German, Fenchel. Flemish 
and Dutch, Venkel. Danish, F'ennikel. 
Evening Primrose (i natural size). Italian, Fmocchio. Spanish, Hinojo. 

Native of Southern Europe. 

Perennial. The following three plants of the genus Fceniculum 
are in cultivation, and most authors are agreed in thinking that 
each of them should be referred to a different botanical species. 

Common Wild, or Bitter, Fennel (Fcenicu/um vulgare, Gaertn.). 
Perennial. Rather common in France in the wild state. Leaves 
very much divided into thread-like segments ; leaf-stalks broad, 
almost membranous, clasping the stem, which is smooth, hollow, 
and about 5 ft. high ; flowers green, in broad, terminal umbels ; 
seeds long, round at both ends, and retaining the remains of the 
withered stigma, dark gray in colour, with five ribs, three of which 
are on the back of the seed, and one at each side. Their germi- 
nating power lasts for four years. This plant requires no attention. 
It is perennial and hardy to such a degree that it is often found 
growing on old walls, rubbish-heaps, etc. Sometimes, but rarely, 
the leaves are used for seasoning. The plant is chiefly grown for 
its seeds, which are often used in the manufacture of liqueurs. 

Common Garden, or Long Sweet, Fennel (Fceniculum 
officinale, All. ; Anethum Fceniculum, L. Fenouil Doux). Native of 
Southern Europe. Biennial, or annual in cultivation. Although 
this plant bears some resemblance to the Wild Fennel, it differs 
from it in having much stouter stems, and the leaves much less 
divided, the segments being also of larger size, and of a more 
glaucous green. It also differs in the remarkable size of the leaf- 
stalk, the sides of which spread and are curved in such a manner 



FENNEL 



309 



as to sheath part of the stem and even the base of the leaf above 
it. Flowers green, in broader umbels than those of the Wild 
Fennel, and with stouter and stiffer rays ; seeds at least twice as 
long as those of the wild kind, flat on one side and convex on the 
other, traversed by five thick yellowish ribs, which occupy almost 
the entire surface of the skin. Their germinating power lasts for 
four years. 

CULTURE. The seed is sown in drills during summer, but 
generally it is sown in autumn, in order to have the crop come in 
during the following spring. It is chiefly used raw as a side dish ; 
the seeds are also used in the manufacture of liqueurs. 

This is the famous " Carosella" so extensively used in Naples, 
and scarcely known in any other place ; the plant is used while in 
the act of running to bloom ; the stems, fresh and tender, are 
broken and served up raw, still enclosed in the expanded leaf- 
stalks. They are esteemed a great delicacy, and by means of 
successional sowings the Italian gardeners are able to send it to 
market almost all the year round. 

Finocchio, or Florence Fennel (Fceniculum dulce, D.C.). 
Native of Italy. Annual. A very distinct, low-growing, and 
thick-set plant, with a very short 
stem, which has the joints very 
close together towards the base. 
Leaves large, very finely cut, and 
light green ; leaf-stalks very broad, 
of a whitish green hue, overlap- 
ping one another at the base of 
the stem, the whole forming a 




Finocchio, or Florence Fennel 
( natural size). 



kind of head or enlargement 

varying in size from that of a 

hen's egg to that of the fist, firm, 

white, and sweet inside. The 

greatest height of the plant, even 

when run to seed, does not exceed 

from 2 to about 2} ft. The 

flower umbels are large, with thick 

rays, which have a mild, sweet 

flavour. Seeds oblong, very broad in proportion to their length, 

flat on one side and convex on the other, with five prominent 

ribs, in the intervals between which the gray colour of the seed 

is well shown. Their germinating power lasts for four years. 

CULTURE AND USES. The seed is usually sown in spring for 
a summer crop, and towards the end of summer for a late autumn 
crop, in warm countries. It is sown in rows 16 to 20 in. apart. 
All the attention required is to thin out the seedlings so as to have 
them 5 or 6 in. apart, and to water the plants as often and as 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



plentifully as possible. When the head or enlargement of the 
leaf-stalks at the base of the stem has attained about the size of a 
hen's egg, it may be slightly earthed up so as to cover half of it, 
and in about ten days afterwards cutting for use may be commenced 
with the most forward plant, and continued as each plant advances 
in growth. The plant is usually eaten boiled. In flavour it some- 
what resembles Celery, but with a sweet taste and a more delicate 
odour. Up to the present time, it is not much used in France, but 
it deserves to be more extensively cultivated. 

FENNEL FLOWER 
Nigella sativa, L. Ranunculacea. 

French, Nigelle aromatique. German, Schwarz-Kummel. Flemish and Dutch, 
Narduszaad. Spanish, Neguilla. 

Native of the East. Annual. An erect-growing plant, with 
a stiff, somewhat hairy, and branching stem. Leaves very deeply 

cut into linear segments, and 
of a gray- green colour ; flowers 
terminal, pale or gray-blue, 
succeeded by toothed seed- 
vessels filled with almost 
triangular seeds, which are 
rough-skinned, black, and have 
rather a strong aromatic flavour. 
Their germinating power lasts 
for three years. There is a 
variety with yellow seeds, but 
resembling the type in every 
other respect. The seed is 
sown in April or May, and 
preferably in light warm soil. 
The plants require no attention 
while growing, and the seed 




Fennel Flower (flower and seed-vessel, 
\ natural size). 



ripens towards August. The 
ripe seeds are used for seasoning 
in various culinary preparations. 
In Germany the name of Schwarz-Kummel is also applied to 
the seeds of the single-flowered Nigella damascena. 



COMMON GARLIC 

A Ilium sativum, L. Liliacece. 

French, Ail ordinaire. German, Gewohnlicher Knoblauch. Flemish, Look. Dtitch, 
Knoflook. Danish, Hvidlog. Italian, Aglio. Spanish, Ajo vulgar. Portuguese, Alho. 

Native of Southern Europe. Perennial. A bulbous plant, all 
the parts of which, and especially the underground portion, have 



COMMON GARLIC 



a very strong and well-known burning taste. The bulbs or heads 
are composed of about ten cloves, enveloped by a very thin white 
or rose-coloured membranous skin. The plant hardly ever flowers 
in the climate of Paris at 
least, and is propagated 
exclusively by means of 
the cloves, for which pur- 
pose those on the outside 
of the head should be 
selected, in preference to 
the inner ones, which are 
not so well developed. 

CULTURE. At Paris 
the cloves are usually 
planted as soon as winter 
is over. Sometimes, 
especially in the south of 
France, they are planted 
in October for an early summer crop. The plant likes rich, 
deep, well-drained soil. In damp soils, or when watered too 
much, it often rots. When the stem is fully grown, gardeners 
are in the habit of twisting it into a knot, in order to increase 
the size of the bulbs. After the stems have withered, the bulbs 
are taken up, and will keep well from one year to another. 
The Common Garlic is the most grown. The membranous skin 
or covering of the bulbs is of a silvery white colour. 




Common Garlic (^ natural size). 



Plant the cloves (i.e. the separated 
portions of the bulbs) in shallow 
drills about i ft. asunder, and 6 in. 
apart in the row, covering them 
with soil to the depth of i or 2 in. ; 
or plant whole bulbs i ft. apart eacn 
way, and never deep, as wet is apt 
to get down among the cloves, 
causing canker and mildew. Merely 
stretch a line or measure , take the 
bulbs by the neck and press them 
half or, say, two-thirds into the soil ; 
then drop a pinch of fine sifted 
cinder-ashes over them, to prevent 



worms from drawing them out of 
the ground. February is about the 
best season to plant them. A small 
quantity may be planted in autumn, 
if it be desired to have a stock early 
the following season. From this 
autumnal or, to speak more pre- 
cisely, October planting, bulbs may 
be taken up for use early in the 
succeeding summer. Any time after 
the leaves turn yellow the crop may 
be taken up and dried, hanging it 
up in bunches by the stalks in any 
airy room. 



USES. In southern countries Garlic is very much used in 
cookery, but it is not so highly esteemed in the countries of the 
north. It is only just to say, however, that, when grown in cold 
climates, it has a stronger and more biting or burning flavour than 
it has in warm countries. 



312 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Early Pink Garlic. This is an earlier variety than the 
Common Garlic, and is also distinguished from it by the pink or 
rosy colour of the skin which covers the head. About Paris, this 
variety is almost always planted in autumn, as it is said not to 
succeed well if planted in spring. 

Red Garlic. A variety cultivated in almost all parts of 
France, but especially in the eastern provinces. It is remarkable 
for the size of its bulbs, which are rather flat, and composed of 
short and thick cloves of a purple-red colour. These cloves 
separate from each other at the upper end of the head by tearing 
their membranous cover. The cloves of the Red Garlic are much 
larger than those of the White Garlic. The Red Garlic requires 
also a richer and more substantial soil. 

Some years ago, a variety came into notice, under the name 
of Ail Rond du Limousin. This did not appear to us to differ 
appreciably from the Common Garlic, from which round heads or 
bulbs can always be obtained by planting late in the season ; and, 
if these heads are replanted entire in the following year, they will 
produce heads of enormous size. 

Great-headed Garlic (A Ilium Ampeloprasum, L. Ail d* Orient}. 
Native of Southern Europe. Perennial. This plant produces a 
very large head or bulb, composed of cloves, in the same way as 
that of the Common Garlic, but of milder flavour. The stem, 
leaves, and flowers are so like those of the Leek that there is every 
reason to think that both plants have originated from the same 
type, and have been differently modified by cultivation, the bulb 
in the one case and the stem in the other having been the subject 
of improvement. When Leeks produce cloves, which occurs pretty 
often, these cloves are exactly like those of the Great-headed 
Garlic. The flowers, which grow in a large round head, yield 
fertile seeds, but the plant is most usually propagated by means of 
the cloves, this being a speedier method. The culture and uses are 
the same as those of the preceding kinds. 

ROCAMBOLE 

A Ilium Scorodoprasum, L. 

French, Ail Rocambole. German, Roccambol. Danish, Rokambol. Italian, Agile- 
d' India. Portuguese, Alho de Hespanha. 

Native of South Europe. Perennial. The stem, which is 
twisted spirally in the upper part, bears at the top a cluster of 
bulblets, from which the plant may be propagated ; they are 
seldom, however, used for this purpose, as more speedy results are 
obtained by planting the cloves of the underground bulb. The 
cloves should be planted in autumn, or not later than February, in 
rows about 12 in. apart, leaving about 3^ in. between the plants. 
Its uses are the same as those of the Common Garlic. 



ANNUAL GOOSEFOOT OR WHITE QUINOA 313 

ANNUAL GOOSEFOOT or WHITE QUINOA 

Chenopodium Quinoa^ Willd. Chenopodiacea. 
French, Anserine Quinoa blanc. German, Pemanischer Reis-Spinat. 

Native- of Peru. Annual. Stem 4 to 6 ft. high ; leaves arrow- 
shaped, divided into three not very deep lobes, smooth, glaucous, 
mealy, and of thin texture ; flowers small, green, in compact 
corymbs; seeds round and flat, small and white. Their germinating 
power lasts for four years. 

CULTURE. The plant is grown in the same way as Orache. 
The seed is sown in April, where the plants are to stand. The 
young plants should be thinned out 8 in. apart every way, and 
plentifully watered in hot weather, which is the only attention they 
require. The seed ripens in August or September. 

USES. The leaves are eaten like Spinach. In Peru the seeds 
are used in soups, cakes, and also for making a kind of beer. 
Before they are used for any of these purposes, they should be 
subjected to a preliminary boiling, in order to remove the acrid 
principle which they contain, and which, if allowed to remain, 
would render the flavour very unpleasant. 

PERENNIAL GOOSEFOOT or GOOD KING HENRY 
Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus, L. Chenopodiacece. 

French, Anserine Bon- Henri. German, Gemeiner Gansefuss. Flemish and Dutch, 
Ganzevoet. Italian, Bono Enrico. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. Stem about 2\ ft. high, smooth, 
slightly channelled ; leaves alternate, long-stalked, arrow-shaped, 
undulated, smooth, and dark green, frosted or mealy on the under- 
surface, rather thick and fleshy ; flowers small, green, in close, 
compact clusters ; seeds black, small, kidney-shaped. Their ger- 
minating power lasts for five years. 

CULTURE AND USES. This plant, being perennial and 
extremely hardy, will grow and yield abundantly for several years, 
without any attention except the occasional use of the hoe. It is 
easily raised from seed, which is best sown in spring, either where 
the plants are to stand or, preferably, in a seed-bed. In the latter 
case, the seedlings are pricked out once before they are permanently 
planted out 16 in. apart every way. The leaves are eaten like 
Spinach, and it has been suggested to use the shoots, like 
Asparagus, as a very early vegetable, blanched by simply earthing 
them up. 

An excellent vegetable for Eng- almost every garden having its bed, 

land, and deserves to be more which, if placed in a warm corner 

generally planted. It is extensively and well manured, yields an abun- 

grown by the Lincolnshire farmers, dant supply of delicious shoots a 



314 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

fortnight before Asparagus comes boiled in plenty of water. When 

in, and for some weeks after- tender, strain and serve simply* or 

wards. From a south border cut- upon toast. Some have melted 

ting generally commences early in butter with it, others eat it simply 

April, and continues until the end with the gravy and meat. In cul- 

of June. Some say they like it tivation, the Mercury, as it is called 

better than Asparagus. When pro- also, will grow anywhere ; but, to 

perly grown, the young shoots should have it in the best form, good cul- 

be almost as thick as the little tivation is necessary. To this end 

ringer, and in gathering it should you cannot have the ground too 

be cut under the ground some- deep nor too rich; plant as early 

thing the same as Asparagus. In in the spring as possible to get an 

preparing it for use, if the outer abundant yield of shoots, and to 

skin or bark have become tough, get them as strong as possible. In 

strip it off. from the bottom upwards, planting, put the rows 1 8 in. apart, 

and then wash and tie it up in and the plants i ft. apart in the row. 

bunches like Asparagus. It is best It is wild in some parts of England. 



GOURDS 

Cucurbita, L. Cucurbit acece. 

French, Courges. German, Speise-Kurbiss. Flemish and Dutch, Pompoen. Danish, 
Groeskar. Italian, Zucca. Spanish, Calabaza. Portuguese, Abobora. 

The cultivation of Gourds dates from a very early period, and 
few vegetables are more extensively grown. The almost innumer- 
able varieties of them which are met with have long since induced 
the conclusion that they could not all have possibly originated from 
a single type, but to M. Charles Naudin belongs the credit of having 
first thrown light upon the chaos of species and varieties, and of 
having ascertained the origin and parentage of the different forms, 
all of which he refers to three very distinct species, viz. Cucurbita 
maxima, Duch., C. moschata, Duch., and C. Pepo, L. We shall 
describe in succession the varieties which have sprung from each of 
these different botanical types, following the classification of 
M. Naudin, and we may remark that we do not know any form 
of Gourd that should necessarily be considered a hybrid between 
any two of these species. Although the various forms of cultivated 
Gourds have, as we have just observed, originated from plants 
which differ in their botanical characteristics and also in their 
native habitats, they nevertheless, in their mode of growth and in 
their fruit, exhibit a striking resemblance, from which it is easy to 
understand how it was that they were for a long time supposed to 
be mere varieties of a single species. They are all annual climbing 
plants, furnished with tendrils ; their stems are perfectly herbaceous, 
very long, pliant, and tough, angular and rough ; the leaves are 
broad, with hollow stalks, and roundish or kidney-shaped lobes 



GOURDS 315 

sometimes more or less incised or deeply cut ; the flowers are 
large, yellow, and monoecious ; and the fruit is round or elongated, 
almost always ribbed, and with the seeds in a central cavity, 
surrounded by usually thick flesh. The plants grow very rapidly, 
and heat is indispensable for their development. Being originally 
natives of warm climates, they cannot be sown in France before 
May without the aid of artificial heat, and their growth is com- 
pletely stopped by the early frosts, which make havoc of all 
their green parts. 

CULTURE. The seed is usually sown in the open ground in 
May. In order to forward the growth, round or square holes, of 
various widths and about 20 in. deep, are filled with manure, upon 
which is placed a layer of soil or compost from 6 to 8 in. thick. In 
this the seed is sown, two or three seeds being usually given to 
each hole. The space to be left between the plants varies according 
as the variety grown is of a more or less spreading habit of growth. 
For an early crop, the seed may either be sown in a hot-bed and 
the seedlings pricked out into another hot-bed before they are 
finally planted out, or it may be sown in pots placed on a hot-bed 
in which the plants are left until they are finally planted out. 
When very large fruit are desired, only two or three should be left 
on each plant, the best being selected, and the branches should be 
cut a few leaves beyond the last fruit. The readiness with which 
the stems of Gourds take root may also be turned to account by 
covering those stems which bear the finest fruit here and there 
with soil at the joints, where they soon strike root, especially 
if watered now and then, if needful. The effect of this is to 
increase the size of the fruit, in consequence of the additional 
supply of nutriment. 

USES. The fruit, whether young or fully grown, is cooked and 
sent to table in an infinite variety of ways, and there are also some 
varieties which are eaten raw, like Cucumbers. The only Gourd 
generally cultivated in England is the Vegetable Marrow, and the 
importance and value of the others, especially the keeping kinds 
grown in America and France, deserve to be better known here. 

I. Cucurbita maxima, Duch., and Varieties 

This species is the parent of the largest-sized Gourds ; amongst 
others, of those known by the name of Pumpkins. All the cultivated 
varieties of Cucurbita maxima exhibit in common the following 
characteristics : The leaves are large, kidney-shaped, rounded, and 
never deeply divided ; the numerous stiff hairs which cover all the 
green parts of the plant never become spiny ; the segments of the 
calyx are united for a certain portion of their length, and the whole 
of this portion is devoid of well-marked ribs and presents only a 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



few veins or nerves ; the segments of the calyx are narrowed from 
the base to the extremity ; lastly, the stalk of the fruit is always 
roundish and without ribs, often thickens considerably after the 
flower has fallen, becomes cracked, and sometimes attains a 
diameter twice or three times that of the stem. The seeds are 
rather variable in size and colour, but always very smooth. Their 
germinating power lasts for six years. The principal varieties 
which have sprung from Cucurbita maxima are the following : 



PUMPKINS 

French, Potirons. Gorman, Melonen-0dfe?--Centner-Kurbiss. Danish, Centner- Groeskar. 
Italian, Zucca. Spanish, Calabaza totanera. 

Under this name, which does not correspond to any botanical 
division, are grouped a certain number of varieties of Cucurbita 

maxima which are re- 
markable for the great 
size of their fruit. In 
France they are grown 
on a large scale for 
market, and also on 
farms for home use. At 
the Central Market in 
Paris Pumpkins may 
often be seen which 
weigh over a hundred- 
weight each. 

Large Yellow 
Pumpkin. Stems 
climbing, from 16 to 
nearly 20 ft. long; leaves 
very large, round, or 
with five faintly marked 
angles, and of a dark 
green colour ; fruit very 
much flattened at the 
ends, and with well- 
marked ribs ; skin of a 
salmon - yellow colour, 
and slightly cracked or 
netted when ripe ; flesh 
yellow, thick, fine flavoured, sweet, and keeping good for a long 
time. In the United States, under the name of Connecticut Field 
Pumpkin, a variety is grown which resembles the present one, 
except in having a somewhat finer skin. 




Long Yellow Pumpkin ( T \ natural size). 



PUMPKINS 



317 



Globe Mammoth Pumpkin. In some respects the fruit 
resembles that of the preceding sort. The colour is the same, 




Globe Mammoth Pumpkin. 

but it is spherical in shape. In size it surpasses it, however, 
and attains enormous dimensions. The flesh is yellow and delicate 
and x keeps well during winter. 

Etampes Pumpkin. Fruit of medium size, not so broad 
as that of the Large 
Yellow Pumpkin, but 
relatively thicker ; ribs 
broad and well marked ; 
skin a very bright and 
distinct orange colour. 
The cultivation of this 
variety has been very 
much extended of late 
years, and it is now 
the kind which is most 
frequently seen in the 
Central Market at Paris. 
In its habit of growth 
it resembles the Large 
Yellow Pumpkin, but 
its leaves are rather 
paler. There are two 
forms of it, one of which has the fruit quite smooth. This we 
consider to be truer to name than the other form, which has the skin 




Ltampes Pumpkin ( T ^ natural size). 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




of the fruit more or less cracked and netted. Some cultivators prefer 

the latter, saying that it has thicker flesh. It appears to us to be a 

reversion towards the 
Large Yellow variety. 
Nicaise Pumpkin. 
A reduced form of 
the preceding, and 
rougher and more 
netted. Each plant can 
produce three or four 
small fruit, which for 
the use of small families 
is more convenient than 
two large fruit 

Large Green 
Pumpkin. Fruit 
large, rather flattened, 
with a dark green skin, 
which is often cracked 
or netted when ripe. 
It is a good hardy 
variety, but the follow- 
ing kind is now rather 
more in favour. 
Spanish Gourd or Pumpkin. Stems 10 to 13 ft. long ; leaves 

of medium size, roundish, of a dark green slightly tinged with 

ash colour ; fruit of medium size or even small, very much 

flattened, hollowed on both ends ; skin green, often very finely 

netted, which gives it a 

gray tint ; flesh bright 

yellow, very thick, and 

keeping good for a very 

long time. This excellent 

variety, which is in very 

great demand in the 

markets, has the advantage 

of producing fruit of a 

moderate size, which are 

generally more convenient 

for family use than the 

very large kinds, which 

often become spoiled before 

the whole of them Can be Spanish Gourd or Pumpkin. 

eaten, all kinds of Gourds 

being very difficult to keep after the skin is cut. When growing, 

the plant will carry two or three fruit well. 



Nicaise Pumpkin. 




PUMPKINS 



319 



Boulogne Gray 
Pumpkin. The size of 
this fine variety approaches 
that of the old Large 
Green Pumpkin, but in 
the colour and appearance 
of the skin, and the 
quality of the flesh, it 
resembles the Spanish 
Gourd. The plant is of 
vigorous growth, pretty 
early, and very productive, 
with large broad leaves, 
and fruit which are often 
from 2\ to 3 ft. across, 
and about half as thick. 
The skin is a dark olive 
colour, sometimes a little 
bronzy on the side next 

the sun, and marked with 
. . L j. , i , r 
longitudinal bands of a 




. 
natural size). 



Boulogne Gray Pumpkin 

slightly paler colour; the whole surface is also covered with a 
great number of very fine short parallel lines, which give it the 

gray tint from which the 
variety is named. The 
flesh is yellow, thick, and 
floury. The fruit of this 
variety keeps at least 
as long as that of the 
Etampes Pumpkin. It 
was raised a few years ago 
at Boulogne - sur - Seine, 
and has come extensively 
into cultivation, being in 
high repute with the 
market-gardeners about 
Paris. 

Large Bronze- 
coloured Montlhery 

^^*^^BK--;Y\V^HV_ Pumpkin. Stem trail- 
ing, from 1 6 to 1 8 ft long. 
Leaves numerous, erect, 
large, lobate,and intensely 
green. The fruit is round, 
with well - marked ribs 
Large Bronze- coloured Montlhery Pumpkin. and dark greenish brown 




320 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Waited Marrow Squash . 
(| natural size). 



skin ; flesh a beautiful yellow, and of excellent quality. It ripens 

rather later than > the varieties described above, and keeps well 

long after the Etampes Pumpkin has disappeared from the 

market. 

Waited Marrow Squash. A vigorous plant, with stems from 

13 to over 1 6 ft. long. Large leaves, dark green, round, or some- 
times undulated in outline. This 
variety, raised in the neighbour- 
hood of Bordeaux, is evidently 
very closely allied to the Turk's 
Cap. or Turban Gourd, but differs 
from it in some very marked 
characteristics. In the first place, 
the enlargement in the upper part 
of the fruit is very slight, and 
sometimes altogether wanting; and 
in the next, the whole surface of 
the skin, when ripe, is covered with 

corky excrescences, somewhat like those seen on the skin of 

Netted Melons. This gives the variety a very distinct character. 

The flesh of the fruit is orange-coloured, very thick and sweet, 

and of excellent quality. 

Chestnut Squash. A vigorous plant, with stems from 13 to 

over 1 6 ft. long. Leaves round, entire, usually undulated at the 

edges. This is an excellent variety, with medium-sized or small 

fruit, somewhat flattened at 

the ends, but not concave, 

as Pumpkins often are. 

Ribs barely defined, or 

altogether wanting ; skin 

smooth, of an intense brick- 
red colour ; flesh deep 

yellow, very thick, sweet, 

floury, and keeping well. 

A plant may carry three 

or four fruit well. 

Valparaiso Squash. 

Stems trailing, from 16 to 

nearly 20 ft. long. Leaves 

entire, somewhat elongated, 

toothed and spiny at the 

edges, of a clear green colour, sometimes silvery gray on the 

upper surface ; fruit oblong, narrowed at both ends, about 16 to 

20 in. long, and 12 to 14 in. in diameter in its widest part, and 

shaped something like a Lemon ; ribs faintly defined, or altogether 

wanting ; skin white, slightly tinged with gray, covered, when ripe, 




Chestnut Squash ( natural size). 



PUMPKINS 



321 



with a great number of 
small cracks or very fine 
tracings ; flesh orange- 
coloured, sweet, and of 
delicate flavour. A plant, 
unless it is exceptionally 
strong, should not be 
allowed to carry more 
than two fruit. These 
often weigh from 27 to 
33 Ib. each, and even more, 
and are rather difficult 
to keep. 

Prolific Early 
Marrow. A distinct and 
very interesting variety, 
in shape like the Hubbard 
Squash, but with the 
colour of the Chestnut 
Squash. A trailing plant, 
not usually more than 
6 to 8 ft. in length, it 
branches out very little, 
and ceases altogether early 
in the season, after having 
produced three or four fruit. The 
of any other Squash, and keeps 





Prolific Early Marrow. 



Valparaiso Squash. 

fruit ripens earlier than those 
well into winter. They are 
not large, and seldom 
weigh more than 6J Ib. 

Boston Marrow 
Squash. Skin orange- 
red ; flesh salmon colour. 
Not quite so early as the 
Prolific Early Marrow, 
but in other respects 
differs little from it. 

Hubbard Squash. 
A very vigorous-growing 
kind, with trailing, 
branching stems, often 
1 6 to nearly 20 ft long. 
Leaves round, slightly 
sinuated, and very finely 
toothed at the edges. 
The fruit has a slight 
resemblance to that of 

21 



322 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



the Ohio Squash, but it is often shorter, more pointed at the 
stalk end, and is quite different in colour, being dark green, 

sometimes marbled with 
brick-red. The flesh is 
dark yellow, very floury, 
not very sweet, rather 
dry, and, in America, is 
considered to be of ex- 
cellent quality ; it also 
keeps good for a very 
long time. The skin is 
so hard and thick that 
it cannot always be cut 
with an ordinary knife. 
A plant will carry and 
ripen five or six fruit well. 
Warted Hubbard 
Squash. Only differs 
from the Hubbard Squash 
in having the skin com- 




Hubbard Squash (^ natural size). 



pletely covered with protuberances larger than in the type. 

Golden Hubbard Squash. Differs from the type in being 
orange-red. 

Marble-head Squash. 
Another American 
variety ; differs from the 
Hubbard only in being 
ashy gray. 

Olive Squash. A 
vigorous variety, derived 
from C. maxima. The 
fruit weigh from 6 to 
II lb., and in shape and 
colour resemble an olive. 
The skin is smooth, the 
rind thin, and the flesh 
golden-yellow, firm, very 
abundant, and of fine 
quality. Its weak point is 
its lateness in the climate 
of Paris. 

Ohio Squash, or 

Californian Marrow. A oiive Squash, 

variety of American origin. 

Stem creeping, 16 to nearly 20 ft. long ; leaves entire, round, 
kidney-shaped, or with five faintly marked lobes, sometimes 




PUMPKINS 



323 




wavy at the edges. The fruit_ somewhat resembles that of 

the Valparaiso Squash 

in shape, but is not so 

long in proportion to its 

width,, which is sometimes 

10 in., while the length 

seldom exceeds 12 to 14 in.; 

ribs very faintly marked ; 

skin almost quite smooth, 

of a light salmon -pink 

colour. The flesh is very 

flouty, and in high repute 

in the United States, where _> 

this variety and the Hubbard 

Squash are two of the most Oh io Squash, or Californian Marrow (J natural size). 

extensively grown kinds. 

A plant should not be allowed to carry more than three or 

four fruit. 

Large Waited Portugal Squash. Resembles the preceding, 
^ l-f i '^ but is larger. Other points 

of difference are its bright 
orange-red colour .and 
warted ribbed skin. The 
flesh is sweet, abundant, 
and a fine dark yellow. 

Mammoth Whale 
Gourd. This is one of the 
largest Gourds of the series 
of the Cucurbita maxima^ 
often measuring over a yard 
in length and weighing as 
much as | to I cwt. Its 
shape is long, thick in the 
middle and narrowed at 
both ends, especially at the 
stalk end. Its colour is 
gray-green. The flesh is a 
fine orange-yellow, and of 
excellent quality ; it keeps 
a long time. This Gourd 
appears to have been 
derived from a Pumpkin, 
but instead of being a 
globe shape, it lengthened 
out, the seed cavity being 

reduced to a small size, to the advantage of the fleshy part. 




Portugal Squash. 



324 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Turk's-cap, or Turban, Gourd. A very distinct kind of 
Gourd, well known everywhere from its peculiar shape, for which 
it has received the common name of Turk's-cap, or Turban, 

Gourd. There is an 
almost infinite number 
of forms of it, all of 
the characteristic tur- 
ban shape, but differ- 
ing from one another 
in the size and colour 
of the fruit. The kind 
which is most eom- 
m only grown, and 
which may be con- 
sidered the type of 
the variety, produces 
fruit weighing from 
about 6 to 9 Ib. each, 
bearing on the end 
farthest from the stalk 
a cap-shaped enlarge- 
ment, which is some- 
times hemispherical, 
and sometimes with 
four or five deeply 
cut ribs. The fruit is 
hardly ever uniform 
in colour, being often 
variegated in a variety 
of ways, most fre- 
quently with dark 
green, yellow, and red. 
One of these colours 
is often absent, and 
sometimes the fruit is 
entirely of a dark 
green hue. The flesh 
is of a fine orange 
colour, and is thick, 




Mammoth Whale Squash. 



floury, and sweet. 

Small Chinese 
Turban Gourd. Introduced from China by the authorities of 
the Museum of Natural History at Paris, it is a very distinct 
plant, and appear to possess a considerable degree of merit. It 
differs from the Gourds hitherto known in Europe, in the small 
size of its fruit, which do not usually exceed 2 or 3 Ib. each 



PUMPKINS 



325 



in weight. They are generally of a bright red colour, marked 

longitudinally with yellow and dark green. The crown is well 

marked, but usually not 

very prominent. Flesh 

yellow, firm, floury, and 

sweet. A plant may 

carry ten fruit or even 

more. They ripen pretty 

early, and keep admirably. 





Turk's-cap, or Turban, Gourd 

(i natural size). Small Chinese Turban Gourd Q natural size). 

This is one of the few kitchen-garden vegetables which we have 
received ready-made from China. 

OTHER VARIETIES OF Cucurbita maxima 

Sometimes, under the name of Ccurge de Chypre (Cyprus, or 
Musk, Gourd), a variety is met with which is of medium size, 
slightly flattened, with very faintly marked ribs, and with a smooth 
gray skin, variegated or 
marbled with pale green 
or pink. This kind does 
well in the south of France, 
but is rather late for the 
climate of Paris. The same 
applies to the Valencia 
Gourd, the fruit of which 
is larger, almost as thick 
as it is long, ribbed like a 
Melon, and ashy green. 
The Mission Gourd is a 
small milky white variety, 
flattened, with numerous 
prominent ribs. It weighs 

less than 2 lb., and often Valencia Squash. 

much less, but one plant 

can produce as many as a dozen fruit. To Cucurbita maxima 

must also be referred a variety of Gourd which does not climb 




326 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



or creep, and was introduced from South America, twenty years 
ago, under the name of Zapallito de Tronco. It is not a productive 
kind, and seems to have gone out of cultivation. In North 
America, under the name of Essex Hybrid Squash, or American 
Turban, a variety is grown which has thick, almost cylindrical 
fruit, with the crown hardly defined, and of a uniform salmon-pink 
colour, almost exactly resembling the tint of the Ohio Squash. 



II. Cucurbita moschata, Duch., and Varieties 

The varieties which have sprung from this species have all long 
running stems, which readily take root, and are covered (as are also 
the leaves and leaf-stalks) with numerous hairs, which never become 
spiny. They are also distinguished by having the fruit-stalk 
(which is pentangular or sexangular, like that of Cuburbita Pepd] 
swollen where it joins the fruit. The leaves are not cut, but exhibit 
well-marked angles, and are dark green relieved by blotches of 
silvery white produced by a thin layer of air under the skin, which 
rises here and there between the principal veins or nerves. The 
calyx has the segments divided almost as far as the stalk, and often 
broader at the extremity than at the base ; they sometimes become 
leafy. The seeds are variable in size, but always a dirty white, and 
margined and covered by a loosely adhering membrane or skin, 
which often becomes detached here and 
there, giving the seeds a shaggy appearance. 
Their germinating power lasts for six years. 
This species derives its name from the musky 
flavour which all the varieties of it possess, 
to a greater or less extent, in the flesh of 
the fruit. 

Carpet-bag Gourd, or Naples Squash. 
Stem trailing, 10 to 13 ft. long ; leaves 
medium-sized, entire, rounded or five-angled, 
of a deep and rather dull green, with veins 
and spots of whitish gray, clearly relieved 
on the green ground : fruit large, 20 in. to 
2 ft. long, and 6 to 3 in. broad in its widest 
part. The part next the stalk is nearly 
cylindrical, but the lower part is more or 
less swollen, and it is only in this part that 
[ seeds are found, the upper part being solidly 
* filled with flesh without any central cavity. 
Skin smooth, dark green, becoming yellow 
when the fruit is quite ripe ; flesh orange coloured, very abundant, 
sweet, perfumed, and keeping well. This variety is very productive, 
and the fruit is of excellent quality. It has no fault except that 




Carpet - bag Gourd, 
Naples Squash 
natural size). 



PUMPKINS 



327 



X ?m 



it ripens rather late. The Courge Pleine rfAlger and the Courge 

des Bedouins appear to be 

identical with this kind. 

In Italy a gigantic variety 

is grown, the fruit of 

which, usually slightly 

curved, often measures 

upwards of 3 ft. in length, 

and weighs from 33 to 

44 Ib. 

Early Carpet-bag 

Gourd, or Early Nea- 
politan Squash. This 

variety resembles the pre- 
ceding one in habit of 

growth, and only differs 

from it in the smaller size 

of its fruit, and its much 

greater earliness, which 

renders it a very valuable 

plant, and one to be re- 
commended for the climate 

of the north of France in 

preference to the previous 

variety. 

Mirepoix Musk Squash. Stem strong and trailing, leaves 

large, erect, with rounded lobes. Fruit pear-shaped, slightly ribbed, 

dark green streaked with light green. The flesh is dark red, firm, 

fragrant, and keeps well. A 
variety raised in the south 
of France, ripens well at 
Paris, but not so well farther 
north. 

Yokohama Gourd. 
The only flat-fruited variety 
of Cucurbita inoschata that 
we know of is the Yokohama 
Gourd, a Japanese variety 
that has often been intro- 
duced into Europe. It is a 
plant of very rampant habit 
and somewhat late in ripen- 
ing. Fruit flattened in shape, 
especially on the portion sur- 
rounding the eye, generally 

twice as broad as long, sometimes even more so, of a very dark 




Mirepoix Musk Squash. 




Yokohama Gourd ( natural size). 



328 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



green colour, with irregularly formed ribs, and the skin indented 
and wrinkled, and like that of the Prescott Cantaloup Melon. It 

has been named C. meloni- 
formis (Rev. hort. 1880) by 
M. Carriere. 

Canada, or Winter Crook- 
neck, Gourd. This pretty little 
Gourd is closely allied to the 
Early Neapolitan Squash, but 
differs from it chiefly in having 
the portion of the fruit which 
is next the stalk completely 
filled with flesh (as in the Naples 
Carpet-bag Gourd), and usually 
curved like the neck of a swan r 
in which respect it resembles 
the Siphon Gourd. It possesses 
the good qualities of earliness 




Canada Crook-neck, or Winter, Gourd 
($ natural size). 



and excellent flavour, and also 
keeps well. The plant is of 
small size, the stems seldom 

exceeding 5 or 6 ft. in length. It is therefore well adapted for 

gardens of moderate extent. 



OTHER VARIETIES OF Cucurbita moschata 

There are also some forms of this species in which the fruit is 
not elongated, but rounded or even flattened. Among the first 
of these we may mention the Bordeaux Melon Squash a vigorous- 
growing plant, bearing great numbers of fruit, which are nearly 
cylindrical, flattened at both ends, something like a drum, as broad 
as they are long, and with faintly defined ribs. It is a productive 
variety, with fruit of excellent quality, but rather late in ripening. 
The Courge a la Violette of the south of France and the Courge 
Pascale are two varieties closely allied to the preceding one, and,, 
like it, have almost spherical fruit. 



III. Cucurbita Pepo, L., and Varieties 

This species is the parent of a very great number of cultivated 
varieties, all of which exhibit the following characteristics of the 
type: Leaves with lobes always well defined, and often deeply 
cut ; hairs becoming spiny here and there ; fruit-stalks pentangular 
or five-ribbed, never swollen under the fruit, and becoming 
exceedingly hard when the fruit ripens ; segments of the calyx 
united for some part of their length, and often slightly contracted 



PUMPKINS 



329 



below the commencement of the divisions ; the part between the 

stalk and the contractions usually has five prominent ribs, and 

the segments of the calyx are narrowed from the base to the 

extremity. The seed varies very much in appearance, but is always 

winged or margined, 

and is seldom as large 

as that of the varieties 

of Cucurbit a maxima. 

The seed of the Custard 

and Fancy Gourds is 

much smaller. The 

germinating power of 

the seed of all kinds 

of Gourds, except the 

Large Tours Pumpkin, 

lasts for six years or 

more. 

Vegetable Marrow. 
A plant with long, 
slender, running stems. 
Leaves of medium size, 
deeply cut into five 
lobes, which are often 
undulated or toothed 
at the edges, of a dark 
green colour, sometimes Vegetable Marrow, 

variegated with gray 

spots, and very rough to the touch ; fruit oblong in shape, 10 to 
1 6 in. long, and 4 or 5 in. in diameter, with five or ten ribs more 
or less well marked, but most prominent on the part next the 
stalk ; skin smooth, of a dull yellow or yellowish white colour. 
The fruit is generally eaten when it is less than half grown, as 
the flesh is then very tender ; when ripe, it is rather dry. 




CULTURE. The Marrow will 
grow anywhere if supplied with 
plenty of manure and moisture at 
the root. For early Marrows the 
seed should be sown in pots and 
placed in a gentle heat any time in 
April ; when they have made two 
pairs of rough leaves they may be 
hardened off ready for planting early 
in June. Hand-lights should be 
placed over them for a few days 
after planting, until they become 
established. It is a bad practice 



to keep the lights on too long, 
inasmuch as the plants do not grow 
any faster and they are liable to 
mildew the latter disease being the 
only drawback to growing Marrows 
in pits or frames. Some gardeners 
sow earlier and plant earlier, but 
there is seldom anything gained by 
it unless in exceptionally favourable 
seasons. Marrows are generally 
planted on old refuse-heaps, or old 
manure beds, which places are well 
suited to their growth. We have 



330 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



seen them planted on great heaps of 
decayed leaf-mould; on this they 
grow and fruit, amazingly. They 
may, however, be successfully grown 
in any ground by taking out a few 
spits of earth and digging in a 
barrow-load of manure. Summer 
Marrows do well planted in old 
ditches or dykes that are compara- 
tively dry during the summer 



months. The usual time for sowing 
seed of Marrows is in May and 
June, and it is sown where- it is to 
remain, having a flower-pot or hand- 
light placed over it until it has ger- 
minated. It is a good plan to soak 
the seed in water for a few hours 
previous to sowing. The same re- 
marks as to culture apply to all the 
tribe of Gourds. 



Long Yellow Vegetable Marrow. Runner stem 16 to 
1 8 ft. long, with broad, lobate leaves. The fruit is three times 
as long as it is thick, and not longer than 16 or 18 in. Skin 
pale yellow, turning to gold as it ripens, smooth or slightly 
ribbed on the upper half next the stalk. It resembles the old 
Vegetable Marrow, but is longer and less ribbed. The flesh is 
more delicate too, and is at its best when the fruit is about half 
grown. 

Brazilian Sugar Gourd. A plant with long, slender, running 
stems. Leaves lobed, rough, of a very dark green colour, and 

finely crimped and puckered ; 
fruit oblong, rather short, 
swollen in the middle, with 
five faintly marked ribs, and 
sometimes slightly warted ; 
skin green, turning orange 
when ripe ; flesh yellow, thick, 
and very sweet. This variety 
is highly to be recommended, 
on account of its earliness, 
and the abundance and good 
quality of its fruit, which keeps 
for a long time. It ripens 
half-early. 

Patagonian Squash. A 
plant with very long running 

Brazilian Sugar Gourd. . , J , *>, , , P 

stems, and large, lobed, dark 

green leaves. Fruit from 1 2 to 20 in. long, and 6 to 8 in. across, 
traversed from end to end by five very regular ribs, which form 
so many prominent rounded flutings; skin smooth, of an extremely 
dark green, almost black, a colour which it retains when ripe ; 
flesh yellow, of medium quality. This variety is remarkable for 
its hardiness and productiveness. 

Under the name of Alsatian Gourd, a variety has been highly 
spoken of which resembles the Patagonian Squash, except that 
ithe fruit is less angular and of a lighter green colour. When the 




PUMPKINS 



331 




Patagonian Squash. 



fruit of this variety is full 

grown, but before it is 

ripe, it is used in salads, 

cut in slices, and seasoned 

in the same way as Gher- 
kins. With care, it will 

keep for some time in 

winter. 

Long White Bush 

Marrow. This variety is 

very distinct in its habit 

of growth. The stems, 

instead of running, remain 

very short and rather thick, 

bearing closely set leaves 

of a dark green colour 

with a few gray blotches, 

and deeply cut and toothed 

at the edges. Fruit longer 

than that of the Vegetable 

Marrow, being from 14 to 

20 in. in length, with a 

diameter of 5^ or 6 in., narrowed towards the stalk, and traversed 

by five ribs. Like the Vegetable Marrow, the fruit of this variety 

is usually eaten before it is fully grown, the plant continuing 

to produce new fruit in 
succession. 

Italian Vegetable 
Marrow. A very distinct 
variety. Stems not run- 
ning, very thick and short, 
producing numerous 
leaves of a dark green 
colour, very large, and 
very deeply cut into five 
or six lobes, which are 
also more or less notched. 
The luxuriant foliage 
forms a regular bush. 
Fruit very much elon- 
gated, being 20 in. or 
more in length, with a 
diameter of 3 to 4 in., 
furrowed by five ribs, 
which are most prominent 
Long White Bush Marrow. on the part next the stalk, 




332 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



where the fruit is also narrowest ; skirt very smooth, of a dark 

green, marbled with yellow or with paler green. All through 
Italy, where this Gourd is very commonly grown, the 
fruit is eaten quite young, when it is hardly the size 
of a small Cucumber, sometimes even before the 
flower has opened, when the ovary, which is scarcely 
as long or as thick as the finger, is gathered for use. 
The plants, which are thus deprived of their undeveloped 
fruit, continue to flower for several months most 
profusely, each producing a great number of young 
Gourds, which, gathered in that state, are exceedingly 
tender and delicately flavoured. This should be tried 
in England, and the same excellent way of gathering 
young adopted. 

Geneva Bush Squash. Stems not running ; 
leaves long-stalked, of medium size and clear green 
colour, rather deeply cut into elongated lobes which 
are toothed at the edges ; fruit numerous, small, very 
much flattened, 5 or 6 in. in diameter and 2 or 3 in. 
in depth ; skin smooth, brownish green, turning orange 
when ripe; flesh yellow ; and not very thick. The 

Italian Veget- f ru jt is eaten young, before it is fully grown, like the 

able Marrow. Vegetable Marrow 

Bush Nice Squash. Probably a sub-variety of the Geneva 

Bush Squash, which it closely resembles. It is much grown, under 

the name of Cougourdon, by the gardeners of the Riviera for the 

winter markets, i.e. December to March. It is grown in the open 

ground, with some kind 

of protection on the north 

side, and is covered up 

during the night. There 

are two forms, one round, 

resembling the Geneva 

Squash, but flatter ; the 

other long, and very like 

the Vegetable Marrow. 

The fruit is eaten when 

scarcely one-third of its 

full size. It is then dark 

green. When ripe, the 

skin is smooth and orange- 
red, like the Geneva 

Squash. 

Early Bush, or 

Summer Crook-neck, Squash. This plant is not a climber or 

trailer, but forms a tuft like the Custard Marrows. Leaves of a 




Geneva Bush Squash. 



PUMPKINS 



333 




clear green, large, toothed 

at the edges, and more or 

less divided into three or 

five rather pointed lobes ; 

fruit of a very bright orange 

colour, elongated, covered 

with numerous roundish 

excrescences, narrowed and 

most usually curved in the 

part next the stalk, and 

swollen at the other end, 

which, however, always ter- 
minates in a point. This 

variety is less grown for 

the table than for ornament, 

like the Fancy Gourds. or Crook . neck s h u natural size)> 

From the hardness of its 

skin, the fruit is easily kept all through the winter, and never 

loses the fine orange colour which is peculiar to it. 

Large Tours Pump- 
kin. Stems creeping, 16 
to 20 ft. long ; leaves very 
large, dark green in colour 
\ with a few gray blotches, 
sometimes entire, but most 
usually divided into three 
or five lobes ; fruit round 
or long, generally flattened 
at both ends, with faintly 
marked ribs, and a smooth 
skin of a pale or gray-green 
colour marked with deeper 
bands and marblings. The 
fruit often weighs from 90 
to no Ib. Its flesh is 
yellow, not very thick, and 
of middling quality. The 
seed is very large. Its 
germinating power lasts 
for only four or five years. 
This variety is generally 
grown for feeding cattle 
only. 

Custard Marrow. 
The Custard Marrows are 

Large Tours Pumpkir. SOIHC of the most CUHOUS 




334 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



varieties which have sprung from Cucurbita Pepo. They are not 
climbing or creeping plants, and have large leaves, of a clear 
green colour, entire, or with five faintly marked lobes. The fruit 

is very much flattened, and 
is much broader than long, 
and the outline, instead of 
being rounded, exhibits five 
or six projections or blunt 





Elector's-cap, or Custard, Marrow (\ natural size). 



Ydlow Cugtard 



teeth, which are either diverging from, or more or less curved 
back towards the stalk end of the fruit. The fruit of all the 
Custard Marrows is pretty solid, and the flesh is firm, not very 
sweet, but rather floury ; the skin is very smooth, and variable in 
colour and thickness. The seed is very small, compared with that 

of the other varieties 
of Cucurbita Pepo. 

The following are 
the most commonly 
grown varieties : 

Yellow Custard 
Marrow. This seems 
to be the original 
variety or type of the 
cultivated Custard 
Marrows. The skin of 
the fruit is a uniform 
butter-yellow, and the 
teeth or divisions of the 
crown are very pro- 
minent and curved back 
in the direction of the 
stalk. 

Green Custard 
Marrow. Fruit (un- 
ripe) dark green, nearly entirely so, or faintly marbled. The colour 
is very deep at first, but turns yellow as the fruit ripens. 




White Bush Scallop Custard Marrow. 



PUMPKINS 335 

Orange-coloured Custard Marrow. Like the preceding kind 
in shape, but of a far more vivid colour, resembling that of a ripe 
Orange. 

White Bush Scallop Custard Marrow. A milky white 
coloured variety with very large flat fruit. 

Striped Custard Marrow. Stems often running ; fruit rather 
small, with faintly marked teeth, and very prettily variegated with 
green and white. 

White Flat Waited Custard Marrow. Fruit with faintly 
marked lobes or teeth ; skin creamy white, covered all over with 
roundish warts. 

All these varieties pro- 
duce numbers of small fruit. 
A strong plant may be 
allowed to carry ten or 
twelve. 

Improved Variegated 
Custard Marrow is dis- 
tinguished from the pre- 
ceding kinds by the much 
greater size of its fruit, ___ 

which often weighs 7 or 8 Ib. ^ y ~ ^ ed Custard 

A plant Should not, as a Q natural size). 

rule, be allowed to carry 

more than three or four. In shape and colour the fruit resembles 

that of the Common Variegated Custard Marrow. 

Under the name of Pineapple Squash, Potato Squash, or 
Congo Squash, a variety is grown in the United States which is 
yellow in colour, and long conical in shape, and differs also from 
our European varieties in being trailing. 

FANCY GOURDS 

French, Coloquintes. German, Kleine Zierkiirbisse. Dutch, Kawoerd appel. 
Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, Coloquintida. 

The true Colocynth is an exclusively medicinal plant, and 
seldom cultivated, and the name Colocynth is a misapplication 
only sanctioned by usage, when it is employed to denote a large 
number of varieties of Gourds with small fleshy fruit, the chief 
merit of which consists in the elegance or singularity of their shape, 
and the handsome colours which they exhibit when ripe. The 
skin of these fruit usually becomes very hard, and the pulp in the 
interior dries up rather quickly, in consequence of which they 
keep much longer than most of the edible kinds. In habit of 
growth the Fancy Gourds, or Colocynths, resemble the varieties of 
Cucurbita Pepo. The stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit are generally 




336 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



of smaller size than those of any of the kinds hitherto described in 
this volume, but the characteristics of all those parts, and also of 
the calyx and flower-stalk, indicate the origin of the varieties 
clearly enough; and yet the Custard Marrows, which all are 
agreed to consider the undoubted offspring of Cucurbita Pepo, 
may be said to form, by their small hard-skinned fruit, a true 
connecting link between the Fancy Gourds and the edible kinds 
described in the Vegetable Marrow section. The Fancy Gourds 
have generally, if not always, long climbing or creeping stems, 
and, on this account, are very often grown as ornamental plants on 
trellises, arbours, etc. As they grow very rapidly, they are very 
useful for quickly covering bare surfaces with verdure, and their 
numerous and usually prettily variegated fruit are highly orna- 
mental late in autumn and up to the first appearance of frosty 
weather. The number of varieties is almost unlimited, and new 
kinds are constantly being raised from seed. As it would be 
impossible to enumerate them all here, we shall confine ourselves 
to the description of the best established and most generally 
cultivated kinds. 

Pear Gourd. One of the most common forms of Fancy 
Gourds is the elongated shape, with a spherical or ovoid swelling 





Pear Gourd. 



Ringed Pear Gourd. 



at the end farthest from the stalk. The varieties which have fruit 
of this shape are known by the general name of Pear Gourds, and 
differ more or less from one another in colour, as the White Pear 
Gourd, the skin of which is smooth and entirely milk-white ; the 
Striped Pear Gourd, which is dark green in colour, marked with 
irregular longitudinal bands, or rows of spots, which are either 
white or of a much paler green than the rest of the fruit ; the 
Two-coloured Pear Gourd, one half of which is yellow, and the 
other a uniform green ; the Ringed Pear Gourd, in which the green 



FANCY GOURDS 



337 



colour, instead of covering half the fruit, only forms a ring round 
it of greater or less width. These different variegations may also 
be found combined with one another in various ways, as in some 
two-coloured fruits which have the yellow part of a uniform tint, 
while the green part is striped or banded with different colours. 
All the varieties of Pear Gourds generally exhibit the following 
characteristics : The plants are of medium size, the stems seldom 
exceeding from 6J to about icj ft. in length. Leaves of moderate 
size, dark green, nearly entire, with five roundish angles, or divided 
into five faintly marked lobes. 

Several varieties of Fancy Gourds have fruit almost spherical 
in shape or slightly flattened at the ends, like an Apple or an 
Orange. Of these the following are the most commonly grown 
kinds : 

Early Apple Gourd. Stems of moderate length, not exceeding 
from 6^ to about 10 ft. ; leaves medium-sized, gray-green, cut into 
five lobes with toothed edges ; fruit nearly spherical, flattened at 
the ends, especially at the end farthest 
from the stalk ; skin very smooth and 
entirely white. 

Orange Gourd. The fruit of this 
variety is similar in shape to that of 
the preceding one, but of a fine orange 
colour. Leaves large, divided into five 
lobes more or less deeply cut, of a 
dark green colour, and often slightly 
crimped. The fruit exactly resembles 
a ripe Orange in size and colour. 

Miniature Gourd. A small plant 
with thin slender stems, seldom more 
than about 6J ft. long. Leaves dull 
green, with grayish blotches, some- 
times nearly entire, but most usually- 
divided into three (rarely into five) 
round lobes ; fruit generally rather flat 
at the ends, about 2 in. in diameter, 
and variegated with pale green on a 
darker green ground, almost like the Striped Pear Gourd. 

White-striped Flat Fancy Gourd. A vigorous-growing 
variety, with stems 10 to 14 ft long. Leaves largish, divided into 
five lobes, which generally terminate in rather sharp points ; fruit 
very much flattened transversely, much broader than long, 2 or 3 in. 
in diameter, and striped or marbled with various shades of green. 
The peculiar shape and regular markings of this Gourd give it 
quite a unique appearance, and would lead one to think, at first 
sight, that it belonged to some species very different from 

22 




Miniature Gourd. 



33* 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Cucurbita Pepo. There are, in fact, some small kinds of wild 
Melons to which it bears a striking resemblance. 

Egg Gourd. A vigorous-growing plant, with stems often 13 ft. 
long. Leaves large, of a rather dark green colour, entire, five- 
angled, or divided into five faintly marked lobes. Fruit entirely 
white, and of the shape and size of a hen's egg. 

Warty-skinned Fancy Gourd. Stems rather thick, but not 
very long, seldom exceeding about 6J ft. in length ; leaves of a clear 
green colour, shining, slightly crimped, entire, rounded, or divided 
into three lobes faintly toothed on the edges ; fruit usually 
spherical, and having the skin entirely covered with numerous 
round excrescences, of variable colour, sometimes green, but most 
usually white or orange. The stems of this variety, instead of 





White-striped Flat Fancy Gourd ( T V natural 
size ; detached fruit, \ natural size). 



Warty Fancy Gourd ( T V natural 
size). 



being slender and pliable like those of the other kinds of Fancy 
Gourds, are stiff and stout, as if the plant had a tendency to grow 
without any support. The plant does not branch much. 

BOTTLE GOURDS 

Lagenaria vulgaris, Ser. ; Cucurbita Lagenaria, L. Cucurbitacece. 

Courge bouteille. 

Native of South America. Annual. Like the Fancy Gourds, 
or small varieties of Cucurbita Pepo, the different varieties of 
Lagenaria vulgaris are much more grown for ornament than for 
any use that is made of them. The Common Bottle Gourd, the 
double swollen fruit of which is familiar to most people, is almost 
the only kind that is turned to any account in the way of practical 
utility, its dried fruit, when the flesh is removed, forming an excellent 
substitute for bottles and other vessels. The very rapid growth of 
this plant, the abundance and beauty of its large white flowers, and 



BOTTLE GOURDS 339 

the shape and extraordinary dimensions of the fruit of some of its 
forms, render it a valuable ornamental climbing plant. As it is 
easily grown, it appears to be cultivated in every part of the world 
where the climate is warm or temperate. From an early period it 
has been grown by the Chinese and the Japanese, who possess 
some varieties of it differing somewhat from those grown in Europe. 
CULTURE. The Lagenarias are annual plants vegetating very 
rapidly, and their culture is exceedingly simple. The seed is sown, 
where the plants are to stand, in May, or plants previously raised 
in hot-beds or frames may be planted out in the open ground that 
month. These, of course, will bear sooner than the others. The 
plants like good, rich, well-manured soil, and plentiful waterings, 
although not absolutely necessary, will help to increase the size and 





Club Gourd. Siphon Gourd (^ natural size). 



beauty of the fruit. No variety of Bottle Gourd ripens its fruit 
regularly in the climate of Paris. 

USES. The young fruit is eaten in some countries like the 
Vegetable Marrow, but is not very desirable for table use, and the plant 
should be regarded as purely ornamental. Its rapid growth renders 
it valuable for quickly covering trellises, arbours, trunks of trees, 
dead walls, and other bare places. The leaves and all the green 
parts of the plant, when bruised, give out a very strong and 
disagreeable odour, but the flowers, on the contrary, are scented 
almost like Jasmine. 

Club Gourd. Fruit very long, sometimes over 3^ ft. in length, 
almost cylindrical, but only about half as thick in the half next the 
stalk as it is in the other half. Sometimes the extremity is greatly 
swollen. All the forms of this plant, however, are extremely 
variable, and as changeable as the whims of amateurs. 

Siphon Gourd. The fruit of this variety is swollen at the 
extremity into a spherical or slightly flattened enlargement, 8 to 



340 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



12 in. broad, and about one-third less in depth ; the rest of the fruit 
forms a long thin neck, which is curved into a semicircle in the part 
next the stalk. When growing, the fruit should rest on the ground 





Common Bottle Gourd (j^ natural size). 



Miniature Bottle Gourd. 



or some other support, otherwise the neck will be broken by the 
weight of the enlarged lower part. 

Common Bottle Gourd. Fruit contracted about the middle, 
and presenting two unequal divisions, of which the lower one is 
larger and broader than the other, and sometimes flattened at the 
base, so as to allow the fruit to rest firmly upon it ; the upper 
division, next the stalk, is almost spherical. There is a certain 
number of forms of this variety, all of which bear fruit of nearly the 





Powder-horn Gourd. 



Flat Corsican Gourd. 



same shape, but of extremely variable dimensions, some of them 
being nearly 20 in. long and capable of containing at least two 
gallons, while others are seldom more than 5 or 6 in. in length, 



BOTTLE GOURDS 341 

with a capacity of less than a pint, and they are found of all sizes 
between these extremes. 

Miniature Bottle Gourd. A small form of the preceding, with 
very handsome fruit about 3 or 4 in. long. A very prolific variety, 
each plant producing as many as fifty fruit. 

Powder-horn Gourd. Fruit of a more or less long pear- 
shape, with a well-marked neck, and variable in size. They can be 
applied to the same kind of purposes as the fruit of the preceding 
kind, and are used as powder-horns in some country places. 

Flat Corsican Gourd. A remarkably distinct variety, with 
rounded flat fruit, rather like that of the Yokohama Gourd in 
shape, but quite smooth and without ribs. It is from 6 to 8 in. 
in diameter and 3 or 4 in. thick. 

WAX GOURD 

Benincasa cerifera, Savi. Cucurbitacece. Courge d la cire. 

Native of India and China. Annual. A creeping plant, which 
spreads on the ground like a Cucumber-plant, with slender sharply 
five-angled stems from 5 to 6J ft. in length. Leaves large, slightly 
hairy, rounded, heart-shaped, and sometimes with three or five 
faintly marked lobes ; flowers axillary, yellow, with five divisions, 
which extend almost to the base of the corolla, broadly cup-shaped, 
and 2 in. or more in diameter ; calyx reflexed, rather large, and 
often petaloid. Fruit oblong, cylindrical, very hairy up to about 
the time of ripening, when it attains a length of from 14 to 16 in., 
with a diameter of 4 or 5 in. It is then covered with a white 
bloom, like that which is seen on Plums, but much whiter and more 
abundant, and constituting a true vegetable wax. Seeds flat, 
gray, truncate. Their germinating power lasts for ten years. Its 
culture is similar to that of other kinds of Gourds. The fruit is 
eaten like that of other Gourds. The flesh of it is extremely light, 
slightly floury, and intermediate between that of a Gourd and a 
Cucumber. The fruit will keep pretty far into the winter. 

HOP 

Humulus Lupiilus, L. Urticacea. 

French, Houblon. German, Hopfen. Flemish, Hop. Italian, Luppolo. Spanish, Lupulo. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. This is not, properly speaking, a 
kitchen-garden plant, but as, in some countries, the young shoots 
are often used as table vegetables, we think it should be noticed in 
this book. When the plants commence to shoot in spring, most of 
the shoots are pinched off, so as to leave only two or three of the 
strongest to each plant. The shoots thus removed are used as 
vegetables. In Belgium the young shoots are much used as a 
table vegetable, prepared in the same way as Asparagus or Salsafy. 



342 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



HOREHOUND 
Marrubium vulgare, L. Labiates. 

French, Marrube blanc. German, Andorn. Italian, Marrubio. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. A common roadside plant, often 
growing on slopes with a southern aspect. Stems numerous, erect, 

entirely covered with a 
white down ; leaves almost 
square, with roundish 
angles, toothed and netted, 
and of a gray -green 
colour ; flowers white, in 
compact rounded whorls, 
growing in numerous tiers 
to the top of the stem ; 
seed small, oblong, brown, 

*!i ^WS^S^i^^S^ p inted at one end and 

<*&> ^HPl^^^^^^ rounded at the other, 

compressed, and with two 
or three faces. Its ger- 
minating power lasts for 
three years. The seed is 
sown, where the plants 
are to stand, in spring ; 

Horehound. or tne 7 ma 7 be propa- 

gated by division of the 

tufts at the same time. The plants are perfectly hardy and require 
no attention while growing. The leaves are used for seasoning, or 
as a popular cough remedy. 




HORSE-RADISH 

Cochlearia Armoracia, L. Crudfercs t 

French, Raifort sauvage, Cran. German, Meerettig, Kran. Flemish, Kapucienen mostaard. 
Dutch, Peperwortel. Danish, Peberrod. Italian, Rafano. Spanish, Taramago. 
Portuguese, Rabao de cavalho. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. Root cylindrical, very long, 
penetrating deeply into the ground, with a slightly wrinkled 
yellow-white skin ; flesh white, somewhat fibrous, very hot to the 
taste, something like mustard ; radical leaves long stalked, oblong 
oval, about 16 in. long and 5 or 6 in. broad, toothed, light green in 
colour, and shining. The first leaves, which make their appearance 
immediately after winter, are reduced to mere nerves and resemble 
a small comb. As the season advances, the blade of the leaf 



HORSE-RADISH 



343 



becomes developed and assumes its ordinary size and appearance. 
Flower-stems 20 in. to 2 ft. high, branching at the top, and smooth ; 
flowers white, small, in long clusters ; seed- 
vessels small, rounded, and almost always 
barren. 

CULTURE. The plant delights especially 
in good, deep, moist soil. It is propagated 
from pieces of the root, which are planted, 
immediately after winter, in rows 20 in. to 
2 ft. apart, and with a distance of about 
10 in. from piece to piece in the rows. 
The ground should be very deeply dug 
and well manured before planting. The 
better the soil is prepared, the more 
abundant will be the produce and the better 
the quality of the roots. They may be 
used in the autumn succeeding the spring 
in which they are planted, but the yield 
will be greater if they are left undisturbed 
for another year. It is a good plan to Horse-radish (* natural size) 
renew the plantation, at least partially, 

every year; but in many gardens people do not trouble them- 
selves about the Horse-radish, except to gather the roots, the 
fragments which remain in the ground sufficing to keep up the 
supply for an indefinite period ; the results, however, are more 
satisfactory when the plants receive some attention. 




CULTURE.- A correspondent of 
the Garden gave the following 
method of growing Horse-radish, by 
which he claimed to have produced 
in ten months sticks that measured 
from 5 to 8 in. in circumference : 
" During February, take small 
straight pieces of the roots about the 
size of, or somewhat smaller than, 
the little ringer ; from these remove 
all the side-shoots and roots, and 
form them into straight sets from 
8 to 14 in. long. Prepare a piece 
of ground by deeply digging and 
well manuring it, and plant the sets 
in it in rows 3 ft. apart and from 
12 to 1 8 in. in the rows. The sets 
must be planted in a slanting posi- 
tion, and must not be more than 
2 in. beneath the surface. The 
ground at all times must be kept 



free from weeds, and should be well 
watered in very dry weather. Plant- 
ing the set at an angle in fact, in 
nearly a horizontal position is, no 
doubt, the great secret of success : 
for, being placed so near the sur- 
face, it has the full benefit of the 
sun's heat, which causes it to make 
rapid growth long before that which 
is planted according to the old 
method i.e. from 1 8 to 20 in. deep, 
and in a perpendicular position 
reaches the surface. I am certain 
that want of success is to be attri- 
buted to this alone, and that the 
experience of any of your readers 
who may think fit to adopt my plan 
will be the same as my own." Mr. 
Bradley, of Preston Hall, grows his 
Horse-radish by sinking a common 
round drain-tile 2 in. in the ground s 



344 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



filling the tile with fine earth, and 
planting a set near the top of the 
tile and 10 in. above the surface. 
He says it is an admirable plan ; 
digging for the root is saved, and a 
fine clean stem is the result. Mr. R. 
Gilbert says that by placing leaves 
or litter on the tops of Horse-radish 
crowns 2 ft. or so thick, the plants 
grow through them in the course of 
the summer, making small white 
roots the thickness of one's finger, 
which are as tender as spring 
Radishes, and a great improvement 
on the stringy stuff often supplied 
with our roast beef. For winter use a 
supply of Horse-radish should always 
be at hand, stored away in sheds^ 
and covered with dry soil or sand, 
in the same way as Carrots, etc. 

Horse-radish is not grown to a 
very great extent in London market- 



gardens ; but where it is found in 
them it is always in deep, rich, open 
soil. Crowns such as are not market- 
able are planted deeply in trenches 
2 ft. apart ; the plants stand i ft. 
asunder in the row. Manure is then 
applied on and about the crowns, 
which lie in a slanting position in 
the bottom of the trench, and they 
are at first not deeply buried. Early 
in spring, after they have started 
fairly into growth, the ridges be- 
tween the trenches are levelled down 
lightly, and a crop of Radishes is 
sown on the surface, the latter being- 
off in May; and by the time the 
Horse-radish appears in full row, the 
Radishes are cleared off the ground, 
which is hoed and afterwards kept 
clean. Covent Garden is, however, 
now chiefly supplied with Horse- 
radish from Holland. 



The root is grated or scraped and used as a condiment, like 
mustard. 

HYSSOP 

Hyssopus officinalis, L. Labiates. 

French, Hyssope. German, Isop. Flemish and Dutch, Hijsoop. Danish, Isop. 
Italian, Issopo. Spanish, Hisopo. 

Native of Southern Europe. Perennial. An evergreen under- 
shrub with oblong-lanceolate leaves. Flowers usually blue, some- 
times white or pink, in whorled spikes ; seeds small, brown, shining, 

oval three-angled, with a small white 
hilum placed near the point. Their 
germinating power lasts for three years. 
All the parts of this plant, especially 
the leaves, have a very aromatic odour 
and a rather hot and bitter taste. The 
Hyssop prefers rather warm, calcareous 
soil. It withstands ordinary winters 
in England and Northern France, and 
is generally propagated by division of 
the tufts, which readily take root. It 
may also be raised from seed, as it 
usually is in cold climates. The seed 
is sown in the open ground, in April, 
Hyssop GV natural size). and the seecjlings are planted out in 




HYSSOP 



345 



July, most commonly as an edging to beds of other plants. It 
is advisable to renew the plantation every three or four years. 
The leaves and the ends of the branches are used as a condiment, 
especially in the countries of the North. 

ICE-PLANT 

Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, L. Ficoidece* 

French, Ficolde glaciale. German, Eiskraut. Flemish and Dutch^ Ijsplant. Italian, 
Erba diacciola. Spanish, Escarchosa. 

Native of Greece or the Cape of Good Hope. Perennial, but 
grown in gardens as an annual. A spreading, round-stemmed 
plant. Blade of the leaf 
widened towards the ex- 
tremity, and contracted 
towards the stalk; flowers 
whitish, small, with a 
swollen calyx, which is 
covered, as are all the 
green parts of the plant, 
with small, very trans- 
parent, membranous 
bladders, which give the 
plant the appearance of 
being covered with frozen 
dew ; seeds very small, 
black, and shining. 
Their germinating power 
lasts for five years. The 
culture is exceedingly 
easy. The seed is sown 
like Spinach seed, and 
the plants bear hot and dry weather admirably. This quality and 
the thickness and slightly acid flavour of the fleshy part of the 
leaves have caused it to be used as a fresh table vegetable for 
summer use in warm, dry countries. However, it is rather a plant 
to be grown as a curiosity in the gardens of amateurs, and it is 
also not without merit as an ornamental plant. The leaves are 
eaten minced and boiled. 




Ice-plant ($ natural size). 



LAVENDERS 

There are two small undershrubs used for perfumery purposes, 
and sometimes grown in our gardens, belonging to the genus 
Lavandula. Both-=are natives of Southern Europe, and exhale a 
delicate, penetrating fragrance. 



346 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




True Lavender. 



True Lavender (Lavandula vera, D.C. ; L. angustifolia, 

Moench. ; L. spica a L. ; Labiates]. Native of Southern Europe. 

Perennial. A dwarf shrub, 
not exceeding from 2 to about 
2j ft. in height. Stems very 
numerous, forming compact 
tufts or clumps ; leaves linear, 
gray ; flower-stems slender, 
square, bare, with the excep- 
tion of one pair of opposite 
leaves ; flowers violet-blue, in 
a short terminal spike ; seed 
brown, shining, oblong, with 
a well-marked white spot at 
one end, denoting its point 
of attachment to the bottom 
of the calyx. Its germinating 
power lasts for five years. 

CULTURE. The Lavender- 
plant delights especially in 

light and rather calcareous soil. It is generally grown as an 

edging to beds of other plants, and is propagated by division of 

the clumps, or from cuttings, rarely from seed. A plantation 

should be remade every 

three or four years. 

Common Lavender 

(Lavandula spica, D.C. ; 

L. spica fi L. ; L. latifolia, 

Vill.). More spreading 

in habit than the True 

Lavender and less shrubby, 

differing from it also by 

its larger leaves, which 

standout more horizontally 

and are slender in com- 
parison with their size. 

The flower-stems are less 

numerous, more vigorous, 

less erect, and bear more 

developed branchlets than 

the True Lavender ; the 

flowers are also smaller 

and the fragrance not so Common Lavender 

delicate, for which reason 

the perfume distilled from this plant has only half the value of 

that obtained from the True variety. In Provence the two plants 




LAVENDERS 



347 



grow wild on calcareous soils ; the Common Lavender is found 
on the plains and lower edges of the hills, whilst the True Lavender 
is never met with at a lower elevation than 656 ft. above the 
sea-level. The leaves are sometimes used for seasoning, but 
the plant is chiefly grown for its flowers, which are used in the 
manufacture of perfumery. 



In Surrey hundreds of acres of 
land are devoted to its culture, and 
almost as large a space may be 
found under Lavender in Hertford- 
shire. At Mitcham both cottagers 
and market-gardeners grow Laven- 
der for sale, and when the fields of 
it are in bloom its fragrance per- 
vades the air for miles. Lavender 
is increased by means of rooted 
slips, obtained by division of the 
old roots. The young plants are 
put out in March or April, 18 in. 
apart, in rows half that distance 
asunder, the space between the 
rows being the first year planted 
with Lettuce, Parsley, or some similar 
crop. When the Lavender becomes 
crowded, each alternate row and 
plant are lifted and transplanted to 
another field to form a new planta- 
tion. The remaining plants then 
stand 3 ft. apart each way, and in- 



tercropping is discontinued. During 
the first two or three weeks in 
August the flowers are harvested. 
The stalks are cut off with a sickle, 
bound up in sheaves similar to Wheat, 
and carried to the homestead for 
distillation or for other purposes. In 
Hertfordshire a somewhat different 
method is practised. The young 
plants are put out in November, 3 ft. 
apart each way, no other crop being 
grown between them, and the ground 
is well tilled and attended to. When 
three years old, the plants are con- 
sidered at their best, and after they 
have been planted seven years they 
are dug up and the ground is re- 
planted. A new plantation is, how- 
ever, made every year or so, and 
thus there are always young, vigor- 
ous plants upon which dependence 
for a crop of flowers can be fully 
placed. 



LEAF-BEET, or SWISS CHARD BEET 
Beta vulgaris, L. Chenopodia&a* 

French^ Poiree. German, Beisskohl, Mangold, Beete. Flemish and Dutch, Snij beet, 
Warmoes. Danish, Blad bede. Italian, Bieta. Spanish, Bleda. Portuguese, Acelga. 

Native of Southern Europe. Biennial. This appears to be 
exactly the same plant as the Beet-root, except that in its case 
cultivation has developed the leaves instead of the root. The 
botanical characteristics, especially those of the flowers and the 
fructification, are precisely alike in both plants. The root of the 
Leaf-beet is branched and not very fleshy, while the leaves are 
large and numerous, and, in some varieties, have the stalk and 
midrib developed to a remarkable extent. The seed resembles 
that of the Beet-root, but is usually somewhat smaller. Its 
germinating power lasts for six years or more. 

CULTURE. The Leaf-beet is grown in precisely the same way 
as the Beet-root, except that the soil need not be so deeply dug. 



348 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



The seed is sown in April or May, in drills 16 to 20 in. apart. 
The seedlings are thinned out to a distance of 14 to 16 in. from 
plant to plant, and after that require no further attention beyond 
occasional waterings. At the close of the summer, the leaves of 
the Chard varieties may commence to be gathered, the best-grown 
leaves only being then selected. The leaves of the Common 
White Leaf-beet, or Spinach Beet, may be cut for use even earlier. 
The varieties of Leaf-beet are pretty hardy, and will continue to 
yield, in the open ground, until late in the season, but in order to 
be sure of having a supply all through the winter, it is advisable 
to remove a sufficient number of plants to a vegetable-house, where 
they are treated in the same way as Cardoons or Turnip-rooted 
Celery. 

USES. The leaves of the Silver Leaf-beet, or Spinach Beet, 
are used, minced and boiled, like Spinach leaves. They are also 

often mixed with Sorrel, 
to lessen its acidity. In 
the Chard varieties, be- 
sides the green part or 
blade of the leaf, the 
stalk and midrib are also 
eaten. These are very 
broad, tender, and fleshy, 
and have a very agree- 
able and quite peculiar 
flavour. 

White Leaf-beet, or 
Spinach Beet. The 
leaves of this variety are 
very numerous, broad, 
slightly undulated, and 
of a very light or yellow- 
green colour. The leaf- 
stalks are somewhat larger than those of the Beet-root, and are 
of a paler colour than the blade of the leaf. This kind is chiefly 
grown in the eastern districts of France, where it is highly esteemed 
as a fresh vegetable for table use in summer and autumn, the 
leaves being boiled and minced like Spinach. They are also 
mixed with Sorrel, as mentioned above. 

Sea-kale Beet, or Swiss Chard. Leaves broad, short, and 
stiff, of a rather dark green colour, spreading rather than erect, 
with very white stalks, from about i to i| in. broad, and con- 
tinued into a midrib which is equally white, and narrows rather 
abruptly. This variety is hardy, and is chiefly grown in the 
countries of the North. It may be considered a drawback that 
the chards or midribs it produces have almost always an earthy 




White Leaf-beet ( T V natural size). 



LEAF-BEET, OR SWISS CHARD BEET 349 




Silvery Sea-kale Beet (^ natural size). 



flavour, and in this variety these are the only parts of the plant 

that are used. 

Silvery Sea-kale Beet, or Silvery Swiss Chard. A very fine 

and good kind, with large broad 

leaves, which are very much 

undulated, half-erect, and re- 
markable for the size of their 

stalks and midribs, which are 

often 4 in. broad or more. This 

variety is not quite so hardy 

as the preceding kind, but it 

is much more productive, and 

the chards are of far better 

quality, being quite free from 

any trace of earthy flavour,' 

and having a very delicate, 

slightly acid taste. Moreover, 

the blade of the leaf may 

also be used, like that of the 

Common Spinach Beet. In 

these plants a light and pale 

colour in the leaves appears to be accompanied by a mild flavour, 

while leaves of a dark green colour have always a strong acrid 

taste. There are few vegetables which require less care during 

their growth or yield a more certain crop than this variety of 

Chard-beet. Well-grown chards may be gathered from it in 

July, and the plants will continue to bear all through the 

summer and autumn, and 
even far into winter, if the 
precaution is taken of re- 
moving them to a vegetable- 
house. In France this 
excellent vegetable is hardly 
used, except in some of the 
departments of the north 
and east. 

White Curled Swiss 
Chard. This is almost as 
vigorous and productive a 
variety as the preceding one, 
__ with leaves equally white 

^r but crimped and curled in 




White Curled Swiss Chard ( T V natural size). 



a remarkable manner. The 
chards and stalks are not 

so broad as those of the preceding kind, but they are of quite 

as good quality. 



350 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Chilian Beet, or Red-stalked Swiss Chard. A very large 
kind, with long, stiff, almost erect leaf-stalks, 2 or 3 in. broad. 

Leaves rather large, un- 
dulated, almost curled, 
of a dark green colour 
with a metallic lustre, and 
2 to 2\ ft. long, including 
the stalk. This variety 
is much less grown as a 
table vegetable than as an 
ornamental plant. There 
are two forms of it one 
with bright red, and the 
other with deep yellow 
leaf-stalks. 

LEEK 

A Ilium Porrum, L. 
Liliacecz. 

French, Poireau. German, Lauch, 
Porree. Flemish and Dutch, 
Prei. Danish, Porre. Italian, 
Porro. Spanish, Puerto. Por- 
tuguese, Alho porro. 

Said to be a native of 
Switzerland. Biennial. 
Notwithstanding the different names given by botanists to the two 
plants, the Leek and the Great-headed Garlic are probably identical, 
the only difference between them being that, in the case of the 
latter, cultivation has developed the production of cloves, while 
with the former the object has been to develop the leaves in such a 
manner that they may both be numerous and cover one another at 
the base for the greatest distance possible. In the Leek, as in the 
Onion, during the first year the stem is reduced to a simple plate 
or very flat cone, from the under-side of which the roots issue, 
while the leaves spring from the upper part, sheathing one another 
at the base, and then forming a long blade, which is usually folded 
longitudinally and narrowed to a point. These leaves, of greater 
or less length and breadth, according to the variety, are arranged 
in two opposite rows, so that they spread one above another on 
both sides evenly from the central axis, in a kind of fan-shape. 
The flower-stem, which does not appear before the second year, 
rises from the centre of the leaves, dividing the fan into two equal 
parts. It is smooth, solid, of nearly the same thickness throughout 
its entire length, and not swollen like that of the Onion. The 
flowers, which are white, pink, or lilac, form a large, almost spherical, 




Chilian Beet. 



LEEK 351 

simple cluster on the top of the stem, and are succeeded by three- 
valved, roundish three-angled seed-vessels, which are filled with 
black, flat, wrinkled seeds, very like Onion seeds. Their germi- 
nating power usually lasts for three years. 

CULTURE. The Leek is a true biennial ; that is, it requires 
nearly a whole year to grow before it prepares to flower and ripen 
its seeds, which it does in the course of the following year. The 
seed is usually sown in March in a seed-bed. In May or early in 
June, when the plants (which should have been previously thinned 
if sown too thick, and watered when necessary) are about as thick 
as a good-sized goose-quill, they are planted out in good, moist, 
rich soil, which should have been prepared beforehand by being 
manured with well-rotted stable manure, if possible. It is best to 
plant in moist, cloudy weather, or else to moisten the soil well a 
few days before. The plants are generally set in drills or rows, 
1 6 to 20 in. apart, and with a distance of 10 to 12 in. from plant to 
plant in the drills. They should not be planted deeper than they 
were growing in the seed-bed, but soil should be laid on to cover 
the stalks, so as to blanch them for as great a portion of their 
length as possible. Another mode of planting is to make small 
circular holes in the rows, about 4 in. wide and the same in depth, 
in each of which a young plant is set, the holes being afterwards 
gradually filled up by rain and watering washing into them the 
soil which was taken out in making them and left beside them. 
Leeks planted out in May will commence to be fit for use about 
September, or they may be had earlier by sowing in February and 
planting out in the latter end of April. Some market-gardeners 
about Paris are able to send them to market in July, by sowing in 
a hot-bed in December. If the supply is required to be continued 
through the winter or until spring, when full-grown plants are 
preparing to run to seed, late sowings should be made in the latter 
end of April or May, and the plants should not be planted out 
before August. 

Large quantities of Leeks are opportunities. If severe weather 
grown in the valley of the Thames, sets in, the sashes are covered with 
where the soil is moist. The first litter or mats. On fine days plenty 
sowing is made towards the end of of water is supplied to the plants, 
January in a frame set on a gentle and the soil is kept frequently 
hot-bed, on which has been placed a stirred. If the seedlings are too 
few inches of light, rich soil. The thick, they are thinned out to i in. 
seed is sown rather thickly and or so apart, and those that remain 
afterwards slightly covered with fine are gradually hardened off until to- 
soil. The sashes are then kept close wards the end of March, when they 
until the young plants appear, when are carefully lifted and planted out- 
abundance of air is admitted both of-doors in rows about i ft. apart, 
night and day on all favourable the plants in the row being about 



352 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



6 in. asunder. Between the rows 
Lettuces are planted, and these, 
being of quick growth, are removed 
long before they can in any way 
injure the Leeks. The next sowing, 
which takes place about the end of 
February, is made out-of-doors in 
beds, and when large enough the 
plants are put out, in a similar man- 
ner to the former sowing, in heavily 
manured, deeply dug soil. Another 
sowing is made six or eight weeks 
later, and the last one generally 
about the first week in May. In all 
cases drills are drawn to a depth of 
4 or 5 in., in which the plants 
are put. These in some measure 
protect the plants in the early stages 
of their growth, and serve as re- 
ceptacles for water. The frequent 
hoeing of the ground, which is con- 
sidered a very important matter, fills 
in the drills and blanches the necks 
of the Leeks one of the main things 
to be considered in their culture. 
During dry weather abundance of 
water is applied, and some growers, 
after taking a crop of Lettuce from 
between the rows, heavily mulch the 
ground with manure. The produce 
from the first sowing is ready for 
market by the beginning of August, 
when it is quickly removed and the 
vacant ground cropped with other 
vegetables. The latest sowing keeps 
up a constant supply of Leeks far 
into the winter, when they are most 
in request. The fine qualities of 
this vegetable are much better 
known to the Welsh, Scotch, and 
French than to the English or Irish. 
A good mode of growing fine 
Leeks is to form trenches for them 
in the same way as for Celery, 
though not so wide 9 or 12 in. 
being quite sufficient. Fill each 
trench at the bottom with about 
6 in. of well-rotted, rich, light 
manure ; surface this with a few 
inches of soil, and leave the top from 



6 to 12 in. deep. Plant the Leeks 
out of the seed drills or beds 
into the trench in dull, showery 
weather, taking care to preserve all 
their roots. This will' be found a 
most convenient method to allow of 
the easy application of water and 
manure ; see that the plants are 
kept clear of weeds. As they ad- 
vance in growth fill in the earth a 
little at a time ; this will refresh 
and stimulate the plants. By the 
end of the season the trench will be 
level with the surface or probably 
converted into a slight ridge on 
either side of the Leeks, which will 
be from 12 to 18 in. long, tho- 
roughly blanched, and of the finest 
quality. Leeks are sometimes planted 
with a dibble in newly dug, highly 
manured ground in the same way 
as Cauliflowers or Cabbage-plants, 
and simply left to shift for them- 
selves. 

Another method of planting is 
that adopted for setting Potatoes 
with spade and line. The ground 
is dug and manured in the autumn, 
and again dug early in April. 
When i ft. or more is dug, set the 
line against the work and cut it 
down straight with the spade ; then 
plant the Leeks carefully against the 
straight cut along the face of the 
dug ground, spreading out the roots 
and covering them with some of the 
fine soil already cut down ; dig 
another foot of ground taking care 
not to bury the Leeks too deeply 
and proceed to plant another row, 
and so on until all are completed ; 
by this mode the plants will have a 
fresh, soft, untrodden root-run in 
which to start, and often thrive re- 
markably well. The subsequent 
management consists in merely keep- 
ing the surface clear of weeds, and 
in copiously watering should the 
weather prove dry. This style of 
planting is termed " digging in." 



LEEK 353 

USES. The blanched lower part of the leaves, improperly 
called the stem of the plant, is extensively used in culinary 
preparations. In the south of England and in Ireland, the great 
value of this vegetable is little known except to good cooks ; it is 
not always to be had in the best condition in these parts. 

Long Paris Winter Leek. This kind is very distinct from 
all others. Its leaves are consolidated for a considerable portion 
of their length, and, in the free part, are longer and narrower than 
those of any other variety ; they are also of a paler and grayer 
green. The lower part of the leaves, where they overlap one 




Long Paris Winter Leek (& natural size). 

another, and which is generally termed the stalk, measures, in well- 
grown plants, about 12 in. long and about I in. in diameter. This 
variety withstands the winter well, and is particularly suitable for 
planting out late in autumn. It is the only kind which produces 
those fine, very long, slender Leeks, which are seen in long bundles 
in the Central Market at Paris ; at the same time, it is true that 
the market-gardeners help Nature a little by earthing up the 
plants while they are growing. 

Long Mezi&res Leek. An excellent variety; the stem is thick, 
8 to 10 in. long, or longer, and very white; the leaves green, 
narrow, and erect. Lately it has been largely grown around Paris. 

23 



354 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



It is a true winter Leek, and from September onwards large 
quantities of it are sent to the Paris market 




Long Mezieres Leek. 

Bulgarian Leek. A very distinct kind, with a thick and high 
stem. It is a quick grower, and therefore a good summer Leek. 
The leaves are stiff, pointed, erect, and uniform dark green. 
Unfortunately it easily suffers from cold. 



LEEK 



355 



Broad, or London, Flag Leek. This kind should rather be 
called the Long Flag Leek, as it has a very long as well as broad 
stem. It is often, in fact, 10 in. long, with a diameter of nearly 
2 in. The leaves are large, pliant, often drooping backwards, 
rather variable in colour, but commonly of a rather dark green. 
It is a very fine, good, rather early, and very productive variety, 
but not very hardy. In the climate of Paris it can only be used 




',5* 



Broad, or London, Flag Leek. 

for an autumn crop, as it is unable to bear any winter that is 
not exceptionally mild. 

Large Yellow Poitou Leek. This variety, as its name indi- 
cates, originated in the west of France, and the climate of its 
birthplace seems to have influenced its constitution to the extent 
of rendering it rather too delicate to endure a Paris winter always 
without injury. It is, probably, a local variety of the Broad 
Southern Leek, but it differs from it very plainly in several 
characteristics. The stem is shorter, but quite as thick, at least, 
being often 2 in. or more in diameter, and from 8 to 10 in. long. 
The leaves are larger and more fan-like in their arrangement ; they 
are also longer and softer, and often have nearly one-half pendent 



356 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



so as sometimes to reach the ground. The colour, too, is very 
distinct, being a light, almost yellow green, totally different from 
the glaucous or gray tint of the leaves of almost all other kinds 
of Leek. As before observed, this is not a very hardy variety, but 
it is early and swells rapidly, which renders it very suitable for an 
autumn crop. 

Large Rouen Leek. Stem short, very thick, seldom exceeding 
6 to 8 in. in length, with a diameter of 2 in. or more, and growing 




Large Yellow Poitou Leek ( natural size). 

almost entirely covered by the soil ; leaves commencing to 
separate, fan shape, almost at the level of the ground, numerous, 
closely overlapping one another, folded into a spout shape, 
stiff, of moderate length, and usually pendent at the extremity. 
The blade of the leaf is broad and dark green, with a gray 
or glaucous tinge. This is a very fine and productive variety, 
equally good for a winter as for an autum crop, swelling less 
rapidly than the preceding kind, but, on the other hand, very 
slow in running to seed, and therefore yielding a more prolonged 
supply for table use. 



LEEK 



357 



Giant Carentan Leek. The characteristics of this variety are 
nearly the same as those of the preceding one, of which it is, very 
probably, only an improved form, but a very distinct one, on 
account of its much greater size, and the very dark colour of its 
leaves. The length of the stem, in this kind, seldom exceeds 
6 to 8 in., but it is often 3 in. or more in diameter in well-grown 
plants, and we have not infrequently seen it of still larger dimen- 
sions. Like the Rouen Leek, it is very hardy, and is not affected 
by Parisian winters. 

Flanders Winter Leek. A very hardy variety, proof against 




Large Rouen Leek ( natural size). 

drought as well as the severest^ frosts. The stem is short, not very 
thick ; the leaves gray-green,* narrow, folded over, and pendent. 
Its defect is producing suckers. 

Perpetual Leek. More curious than useful, producing an 
abundance of suckers which form large tufts of numerous thin 
shoots, not exceeding the thickness of the finger. Its merit 
is that it is very slow to run to seed, and thus such usefulness 
as it may have lasts for a longer time. 

In addition to the foregoing, we may mention the following 
varieties : 

Brabant Short Broad Leek. This is indeed a very short 
and very hardy kind, but of small size, the diameter of the stem 



358 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



seldom exceeding about i in. In its general appearance as to the 
colour and arrangement of the leaves, it is somewhat like the Rouen 
Leek, but much smaller. 

The Lion Leek. This is often grown in England. It is 
rather variable ; we have known it to resemble the Rouen Leek, 
with a thicker bulb ; more often its appearance is that of a broad 
flag Leek, with a long white stem and light green leaves. 

Musselburgh, or Scotch Flag, Leek. An improved form 
of the Common Long Winter Leek (raised near Edinburgh), 




Perpetual Leek. 



with a longer and thicker stem and broad leaves. It comes 
very near the Giant Carentan Leek. The Ayton Castle New 
Giant (Henry's Prize Giant) Leek is also a very superior large 
variety. 

Small Mountain Leek. A half-wild kind, grown in the 
southern and central districts of France. It has narrow leaves, 
which are folded longitudinally and of a dark glaucous green 
colour, and a very short and small stem, which frequently sends 
up shoots or suckers. Its only merit is that it is a very 
hardy kind. 



LENTILS 



359 



LENTILS 

Ervum Lens, L. ; Lens esculenta, Mcench. Leguminoscz. 

French, Lentille. German, Linse. Flemish and Dutch, Linze. Danish, Lindse. Italian, 
Lente. Spanish, Lenteja. Portuguese, Lentilha. 

Native of Southern Europe. Annual. A small and very 
branching plant, forming a tuft 14 to 16 in. high. Stems slender 
and angular ; leaves winged, composed of a great number of small 
oval leaflets, light green in colour, and terminating in a simple 
tendril ; flower axillary, small, white, produced in pairs, and suc- 
ceeded by very flat pods, each of which usually contains two very 
flat seeds, which are rounded in outline and convex on both sides. 
The germinating power of these seeds lasts for four years. The 
seed is generally sown in drills or lines in March. The plant 
usually prefers light soil ; at least, 
it seeds most plentifully when 
grown in soil of that description. 
It requires no attention until the 
seeds are gathered in August or 
September. These keep better 
in the pods than they do after 
they are threshed, so the crop is 
only threshed out as a supply 
is required. The seeds are eaten 
like Haricot Beans, and of late 
years their use has been very 
much more frequent in England. 
It is excellent for soups and 
stews, and a capital addition to 
our food supplies. 

Large Yellow Lentil. Plant 
of rather small size, but very 
branching, and of rather pale 
green colour ; seed very broad, 
flat, and pale. This is the most 
commonly cultivated variety, and 
is grown extensively in the eastern and central districts of 
France, and also in Germany. 

Like the Pea, the Lentil is often attacked by a small beetle or 
weevil, the grubs of which feed on the seed, in which they remain 
until they change into the form of a perfect insect ; and it is pro- 
bably owing to the ravages of these insects that the cultivation 
of Lentils has greatly fallen off in the northern districts of France. 

The two commercial names of Lorraine and Gallardon Lentils 
merely indicate the districts from which the seeds are supplied, but 
both refer to the same Large Yellow Lentil, just described. 




Large Yellow Lentil (^ natural size ; 
detached branch, natural size). 



360 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

.. Puy Green Lentil. A very distinct kind, with small seed, 
which is only about J in. in diameter, but very thick, and pale 
green, spotted and marbled with dark green. This variety is 
almost exclusively grown in the departments of Haute-Loire and 
Cantal, where it is highly esteemed both for table use and as green 
fodder for cattle. 

Small Winter Lentil. This variety is chiefly grown in the 
northern and eastern districts of France, and is sown in autumn, 
either among corn or, more commonly, by itself. It is seldom used 
as fodder for cattle, as the seed is highly esteemed for table use, 
many persons preferring it to that of the Large Yellow kind. It is 
small in size, thick, and of a rather deep reddish colour, which 
distinguishes it at first sight. 

Small March Lentil. The seed of this kind resembles that 
of the Large Yellow Lentil in colour and shape, but is only about 
half the size. It is sown in spring, like the Large Yellow variety. 
The name Small Queen Lentil (Lentille a la Reine) is sometimes 
given to this kind, and also to the preceding one. Both varieties 
are very highly esteemed for table use, on account of their 
delicate flavour and the remarkable thinness of the skin of the seed. 

Auvergne Lentil, or One^flowered Tare (Ervum monantJws, L. 
Leguminosce. L entitle d* Auvergne). Native of Southern Europe. 
Annual. A small plant, with slender stems, which require sup- 
port. Leaves compound, formed of numerous very small, oval 
leaflets ; flowers axillary, solitary, whitish, and long-stalked, 
succeeded by broad flat pods, each containing two or three seeds. 
The plant will grow about 2 or 2\ ft. high, if the stems have some- 
thing to support them ; otherwise they sprawl on the ground. 
Seed irregularly rounded, tolerably convex, intermediate in shape 
between the seed of a Lentil and that of a Vetch, of a gray-brown 
colour, streaked or marbled with black, floury, and rather agreeable 
in flavour. Its germinating power lasts for three years. The 
seed may be sown in autumn or in spring. The plant is much 
more frequently grown to furnish green fodder than for its seeds, 
and is mostly sown along with Rye or Oats, which furnish a support 
for its climbing stems. The seed is sometimes eaten boiled, like 
Lentils. 

LETTUCE 

Lactuca sativa, L. Composites. 

French, Laitue cultivee. German, Lattich. Flemish and Dutch, Latouw. Danish, 
Salat. Italian, Lattuga. Spanish, Lechuga. Portuguese, Alface. 

Native of India or Central Asia, Annual. The origin of the 
cultivated Lettuce is not known for certain, any more than the 
time when it was first introduced into Europe ; neither can we be 
sure that the ancients knew anything about it. However, the great 



LETTUCE 361 

number of varieties of it which now exist in cultivation, and the 
very permanent manner in which some of these varieties appear to 
be established, afford good grounds for the opinion that the plant 
has been cultivated for a very long time. 

The different varieties present such a diversity in the shape and 
colour of the leaves, that it is difficult to give a general description 
of the plant which will be applicable to all its forms. We may 
suppose, however, and especially from the fact that some Chinese 
varieties do not form a head, that in its original or natural state 
the Lettuce forms a rosette of broad and long leaves, somewhat 
spoon-shaped, and more or less undulated and toothed at the 
edges. From the centre of the rosette springs a nearly cylindrical 
stem, which narrows very rapidly and becomes branching at about 
one-third of its height, furnished with clasping leaves, which are 
auricled, and become narrower as they approach the top of the 
stem. The flower-heads are numerous, longer than broad, with 
pale yellow florets. Seed small, of a long almond shape, pointed 
at one end, marked with pretty deep longitudinal furrows, and 
usually either white or black, but sometimes brown or reddish 
yellow. Its germinating power lasts for five years. 

Good authorities appear inclined to refer all the cultivated 
varieties of Lettuce to two distinct botanical types, from one of 
which have been derived the Cabbage Lettuces, properly so called, 
which have rounded or flattened heads, while the other has been 
the parent of the Cos Lettuces, in which the head is tall and 
elongated in shape. We find it difficult to assent to this view of 
a twofold origin ; in the first place, because the two kinds pass into 
each other through almost imperceptible gradations ; and secondly, 
because as sopn as they run to seed they present no difference 
between each other, which is conclusive proof of the identity of 
their origin. 

We have described the Cultivated Lettuce as an annual plant, 
because the growth of the flower-stem uninterruptedly succeeds that 
of the radical leaves which form the rosette, and because the rosette 
itself is completely formed in a few weeks, or, at most, in a few 
months. Nevertheless, several varieties are. so hardy, that they 
may be sown in autumn, and, after withstanding the winter, will 
not run to seed until spring. All the varieties are by no means 
amenable to this treatment. On the other hand, there is a great 
deal of inequality in the degrees of readiness with which the 
different varieties run to seed under the influence of warm summer 
weather. These differences of constitution and suitability for 
various seasons have led to the division of the varieties of Lettuces 
into three classes, from a cultural point of view, viz. : 

i. WINTER LETTUCES, which, with a little care, will withstand 
ordinary winters in France, the south of England, etc. 



362 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



2. SPRING LETTUCES, which head rapidly when sown immedi- 
ately after winter. 

3. SUMMER LETTUCES, which are usually larger than - the 
spring kinds, and do not run to seed too fast in hot weather. 

Although this division is not very precise, we shall adopt it 
here, as affording a means of indicating the mode of culture suitable 
for each variety, without falling into endless repetitions. We shall 
accordingly first point out the treatment suitable for winter 
Lettuces in general, after which we shall enumerate and describe 
the varieties which come under that head, doing afterwards the 
same in the case of the spring and summer varieties. 



CABBAGE LETTUCE 

Lactuca capitata, D.C. 

French, Laitues pommies. German, Kopfsalat. Flemish and Dutch, Kropsalad. Italian, 
Lattuga a cappucio. Spanish, Lechuga acogollada. Portuguese, Alface repolhada. 

I. WINTER VARIETIES 

These are sown from the middle of August to the middle of 
September. About the end of October, when the plants form a 
rosette 2 to 3 in. in diameter and have each five or six pretty strong 
leaves, they are planted out permanently in as warm and favourably 
situated a position as possible preferably at the bottom of a 
south wall or in a thoroughly well-drained bed. In very frosty 
weather the plants should be protected with straw mats, which 
are to be taken off when the weather becomes mild. Winter 
Lettuces are not injured by snow so far from it, that we some- 
times see varieties which are not very hardy pass through the 

winter in safety when well 
covered by it. In February 
the growth of the winter 
Lettuces becomes more active, 
and the heads begin to form 
at the end of April or early 
in May, the plants continuing 
to yield for six weeks to 
two months, until the spring 
Lettuces come in. 

Madeira Large Winter 
Cabbage Lettuce ( White- 
seeded}. This variety, when 
young, has the leaves very much rounded and entire in outline, 
the blade being slightly twisted and faintly crimped in the lower 
part, of a rather dark green, with brown spots interspersed. 
The colour becomes much lighter as the plant increases in 




Madeira Large Winter Cabbage Lettuce 
( natural size). 



CABBAGE LETTUCE 



363 



size. The full-grown plant is of medium size, inclined to be 
broad, and of low growth, the leaves resting on the ground and 
forming a rosette somewhat irregular in outline, and 8 to 10 in. 
in diameter ; the outer leaves are not crimped, and are entire at the 
margin, but are broadly folded and twisted, and of a clear, light 
green colour marked with a few brown spots. The head is 
rounded, fairly thick, and pale green, tinged with red on the top. 
The leaves immediately surrounding it are crimped, rumpled, and 
tinged with red on the edges. This is considered one of the 
hardiest of all Lettuces, and is generally only used for winter 
culture in the open ground. If sown in spring, it runs to seed 
very quickly. 

White Madeira Lettuce (Black-seeded). The young plant 
differs from the white-seeded Madeira Lettuce in the absence of the 
brown blotches on the outer leaves. It is a vigorous plant, pro- 
ducing large, well-filled round heads, somewhat flattened, with 
tones of silver, which are also seen on the lower side of the leaves. 
The inner leaves are rounded, with plain, unnotched margins. The 
outer leaves are large, not pointed, with ample folds and only 
slightly crimped. The plant is a whitish green colour through- 
out, without any coloured spots. It is more compact than the 
Large White Winter Lettuce, and is also a little earlier to head. 
It is proof against the Paris winter. 

Hammersmith, or Hardy Green Winter, Cabbage Lettuce 
(Laitue Marine} ( White-seeded}. The leaves of the young plant are 
nearly round, shortly spathulate, 
finely toothed near the base, 
entire on the rest of the margin, 
generally folded in the direction 
of the midrib, frequently hollowed 
out like a spoon, and of a light, 
pale, or yellow -green colour. The 
full-grown plant is rather thick- 
set, not exceeding 7 or 8 in. in 
diameter, and somewhat irre- 
gular in outline. Outer leaves 
green, not very large, longer 
than broad, twisted considerably 
without being exactly folded, and partially crimped near the midrib, 
but not at the edges ; head rather close and tall, fairly solid and 
compact, and surrounded by leaves which are generally folded in 
two, almost like a twisted paper bag, very much crimped and a 
little paler in colour than the outer leaves. This variety is only 
used for winter culture. It is hardy and of good quality, and can 
be planted pretty close, which makes up in some degree for the 
small size of the individual plants. 




Hammersmith Cabbage Lettuce. 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Large White Winter Cabbage Lettuce 
Q natural size). 



Large White Winter Cabbage Lettuce (White-seeded^). 
The leaves of the young plant are spathulate, slightly puckered 
or folded, faintly toothed near the base, spreading very much, and 
of a very light green colour. The full-grown plant is stout, broad, 

and tall, 10 to 12 in. in 
diameter, and very irregular 
in outline. The outer leaves 
are green, entire at the 
edges, but very much twisted 
and folded into broad un- 
dulations; head round, thick, 
light green in colour, com- 
posed of and surrounded by 
leaves which are very much 
crimped, folded, and twisted, 
the margins, however, being 
entire or nearly so. This 
is very suitable for winter 
culture, being hardy, early, and very productive. It may also be 
sown in spring, and when raised at that time it keeps the head 
very long for a winter Lettuce. 

Tremont Winter Cabbage Lettuce (White-seeded}. -Very 
hardy, and as productive as the Large White Winter Cabbage 
Lettuce, and a better header than the Madeira Lettuce. A large 
plant, with broad, rounded leaves of light green, forming good- 
sized heads, with enough outer leaves to protect it against the 
cold. Owing to its hardiness, size, and good quality it is one of 
the best for sowing in 
the latter half of August 
for use at the end of 
the winter. 

Brown Winter 
Cabbage Lettuce 
( White - seeded}. The 
young plant of this 
variety is very consider- 
ably deeper in colour 
than the young plant 
of the Red Winter 
Lettuce. Its leaves are 
shortly oblong, and 
angular in outline rather 
than really toothed ; the blade, which is sometimes slightly 
undulated, is hollowed out like a spoon, and blotched and plentifully 
tinged with brown. The full-grown plant is compact and rather 
thick-set. Leaves all more or less spoon-shaped, the outer ones 




Tremont Winter Cabbage Lettuce. 



CABBAGE LETTUCE 



36S 




Brown Winter Cabbage Lettuce 
(-J natural size). 



almost smooth ; head rounded, rather solid, composed of and 
surrounded by coarsely crimped, rather ruffled leaves of a very 
light green colour. The whole plant seldom exceeds 7 or 8 in. 
in diameter. This is a very hardy variety, excellent in quality, 
and taking up but little space 
when growing ; but it is only 
right to say that it runs to 
seed rather faster than the 
following kind. 

Hardy Red Winter 
Cabbage Lettuce ( White- 
seeded}. The leaves of the 
young plant are oblong, 
slightly narrowed at the ex- 
tremity, and having very 
much the appearance of Cos 
Lettuce leaves ; edge nearly entire, faintly undulated, only 
toothed on the lower third part ; in colour light green, slightly 
tinged and blotched with light brown. A vigorous plant, very 
hardy and quite distinct, with a tall, almost conical head, com- 
posed of leaves twisted like Cabbage leaves. The head is large, 
solid, and lasts a long time ; the leaves composing it are light 
green, tinged with brown along the edges.' The outer leaves, 
which have felt the severity of the winter, are almost as dark 
as those of the Red Winter Cos Lettuce, particularly so towards 
the point. It is not very spreading, and may be planted 
fairly close. 

Roquette Cabbage Lettuce ( White-seeded). Under this 

name, a variety of winter 
Lettuce is grown which 
is remarkable for its 
dwarf size and the firm- 
ness of its head. The 
plant is very small and 
compact, with pale green 
leaves deeply tinged with 
bronzy red wherever it is 
exposed to the light, and 
in shape and general 
appearance it somewhat 
resembles a miniature 
Batavian Lettuce. When 

fully grown, it does not exceed 4 in. in diameter, and its small 
size makes it very suitable for growing in frames or under 
bell-glasses. 

The Silesian Winter Lettuce is a rather large and pretty hardy 




Hardy Red Winter Cabbage Lettuce. 



366 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



kind, somewhat resembling the White Batavian Lettuce. The 
leaves are large and twisted and pale green tinged with red. 
Head rather large, but flabby. This variety does not answer for 
summer culture. 



II. SPRING VARIETIES 

These are sown in March, on a spent hot-bed, or simply on compost 
(rotted spent manure), at the foot of a south wall. The seedlings 
are planted out in April, and the plants may commence to be cut 
for use about the end of May or early in June. These may also 
(as is usually the practice with market-gardeners) be sown, where 
the crop is to stand, about the end of February, among other 
vegetables growing in pure compost, or in soil covered with a thick 
layer of compost. In this case the small varieties should be grown, 
as being less likely to interfere with the other vegetables among 
which they are sown, 

The spring varieties, especially the Crisped and Tennis-ball 
kinds (Laitue Crepe and L. Gotte\ are those which are used for forcing. 
These two kinds, and especially the Black-seeded Crisped (L. Crepe a 
Graine Noire) are sown in October in hot-beds, and are entirely 
grown either in frames or under bell-glasses. The last-named kind 
(the ''petite noire" of the Paris market-gardeners) has the peculiarity 
of being able to grow almost entirely without air, so that it can be 
quickly raised with the help of a little artificial heat. The Tennis- 
ball is a more productive kind, but requires fresh air to be admitted 

from time to time. The 
sowings made in frames 
during winter may be 
finished off by a sowing 
made on the hot-beds 
with the frames and lights 
removed. The plants thus 
raised, and not trans- 
planted, will come in some 
days earlier than the first 
of those planted out in 
the open air. 

Milly Forcing Lettuce 
( White-seeded}. Does as 
well under glass in winter 
as in open culture during 
summer. The head is large, solid, and light green, much tinged 
with russet on the top and sometimes on the sides. It resembles 
closely the old Red-edged Victoria Lettuce, but is larger and is 
quicker to head. Sown in the autumn, and planted out under 




Milly Forcing Cabbage Lettuce. 



CABBAGE LETTUCE 



367 




Black-seeded Crisped Cabbage 
Lettuce ( natural size). 



hand-bells or in frames, it is ready for use about the same time 
as the early spring varieties, but is much larger in size. 

The variety known in America by the name of Crisp-as-Ice 
Lettuce resembles it very closely, although rather lighter in colour. 

Black-seeded Crisped Cabbage Lettuce (Laitue Crepe d 
Graine Noire). Young plant rather compact, with leaves nearly 
round in outline, but angularly indented. The young leaves begin 
very soon to fold themselves like a twisted paper bag. The full- 
grown plant is small, low, resting on 
the ground, of a very pale green, 
somewhat irregular in outline, and 6 
or 7 in. in diameter. Outer leaves 
broad but short, slightly undulated at 
the edges, twisted, and very sparingly 
crimped ; head round, slightly flattened, 
formed of leaves which are paler in 
colour, but much less crimped and 
curled than those of the White-seeded 
Tennis-ball Lettuce ; it is firm and 
forms quickly, but does not last long. This variety is chiefly 
grown for an early crop under bell-glasses and in frames, in winter 
and early spring. 

White-Seeded Crisped, or Early Paris Gutting, Cabbage 
Lettuce. The leaves of the young plant are broad and short, with 
an angular or bluntly toothed outline, and light green in colour, 
which changes almost to a butter-yellow in the parts exposed to the 
sun. The full-grown plant is of medium size, about 8 in. in 
diameter, with leaves of a light green colour, very much curled and 
undulated. Outer leaves very much folded and waved at the 
edges, broadly and bluntly toothed, and coarsely crimped here and 
there ; head of medium size, tall, formed of leaves which are 
paler and much more crimped than the outer ones, and also more 
curled than those of the Black-seeded Tennis-ball Lettuce. It 
is generally soft, although very full, forms 
quickly, but is soon put out of shape by 
the quick growth of the flower-stem. This 
variety is well adapted for spring culture, 
especially in the open air. When sown in 
autumn, it bears the winter pretty well. 

White-seeded Tennis-ball, or Boston 
Market, Cabbage Lettuce (Laitue gotte gr. 
/.). The young plant of this variety has 
leaves of a very light green colour (which become yellow where it 
is exposed to the sun), and of an outline which is angular rather than 
decidedly toothed, except at the base. The young leaves begin 
very soon to become crimped and rumpled, and plants which have 




Cabbage Lettuce i 
size). 



368 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

not made a dozen leaves will sometimes exhibit the rudiments of a 
head. The full-grown plant is small and thick-set, about 6 in. in 
diameter, and roundish in its outlines. Outer leaves rounded and 
partially crimped, with edges almost entire, but very much folded 
and sinuated ; head small, but rather compact, of a pale, 'almost 
yellow, green, and formed of leaves which are much more crimped 
and sinuated than the outer ones. Though of small size, it is very 
productive. It grows rapidly, keeps the head well, and may be 
planted very close. It is especially suitable for a spring crop that 
is, to be sown immediately after winter, and cut for use before 
summer. Sown in autumn it bears the winter well, but for this 
purpose we have other varieties which are hardier and much more 
productive. For summer culture also, although this kind is not 
particularly liable to run to seed, the true summer Lettuces are to 
be preferred. 

There is another form of White-seeded Tennis-ball named 
Laitue Gotte Dorte, or/,. Gotte Jaune cFOr (the Golden Tennis- 
ball), which is very like the variety next described, but runs to seed 
sooner. 

Early White Spring, or Paris Market Forcing, Cabbage 
Lettuce (Laitue gotte gr. n.} {Black-seeded}. The young plant differs 
very little from the preceding variety, except that its leaves are more 
crimped and folded. The full-grown plant is smaller than the pre- 
ceding, and has the head flattened and never very firm. In all other 
respects the two are much alike, and are grown in the same way. 

French Tom Thumb Lettuce (Laitue Gotte Lente a Monter) 
(Black-seeded). The leaves of the young plant are a rather dark 

green, rounded, entire, hollowed 
like a spoon, and with one-half 
almost always folded back. The 
central leaves begin to become 
crimped very early. The full- 
grown plant is low and rather 
thick-set, irregular in outline, and 
6 or 7 in. in diameter. Outer 
_ leaves falling back on the ground, 

French Tom Thumb Lettuce. rather short and stiff > and dark 

green in colour, generally folded 

along the midrib, with one half flat and the other turned up, and 
pretty well crimped ; central leaves also more or less folded, with 
numerous and prominent crimpings, forming a head of medium 
size, very firm and compact, green on the outside, very tender, 
and keeping for a long time, even in summer. This variety is 
rather small, but comparatively very productive and early, and 
keeps the head well ; it is one of the best for spring and summer 
culture. The head is tender and of excellent quality. 




CABBAGE LETTUCE 369 

Wheeler's Tom Thumb Lettuce (Black-seeded). Light green, 
with almost round leaves, slightly crimped and finely toothed near 
the base. It resembles the Algiers Lettuce, and still more closely 
the Early White Spring Lettuce, but it has smaller outer leaves. 
Its small size enables it to be planted very close, and it is well 
adapted for frames. 

Red-edged Victoria Cabbage Lettuce ( White-seeded}. Leaves 
of young plant rounded, folded in the lower part, and flat or 
slightly hollowed out like a spoon in the rest of the blade, light 
green in colour, faintly tinged with yellow on the parts exposed to 
the sun. Full-grown plant compact, 8 or 9 in. in diameter ; outer 
leaves rounded, nearly flat, resting on the ground ; those surround- 
ing the head slightly crimped, and pale, yellowish green, tinged 
with red at the edges ; head very solid, and compact, looking as if 





Wheeler's Tom Thumb Lettuce. Red-edged Victoria Cabbage Lettuce. 

twisted, and of a yellowish light green and tinged with red on the 
top. This is the most productive of all the spring Lettuces. It is 
also slower in forming the head than any other kind, and may be 
regarded as the connecting-link between the spring and the summer 
varieties. The head is very tender and, at the same time, very 
firm. It is one of the best kinds either for the private kitchen- 
garden or for market-gardening purposes, and a very good variety 
for forcing. 

The following varieties are only occasionally met with in 
cultivation : 

Laitue Bigotte. Head medium-sized or large, round, very 
light-coloured green, deeply tinged with red. A fine, early, and 
productive kind. 

Laitue Cocasse a Graine Noire. Leaves of a light glaucous 
green, crimped ; those around the head folded back ; head very 
firm and solid. The white-seeded form of this kind exhibits hardly 
any difference from it. 

Coquille Cabbage Lettuce. A small variety, with a tall head. 
Leaves stiff, crimped, folded in two, and turned back at the ends. 
The appearance of the plant is almost intermediate between that of 
a Cabbage and a Cos Lettuce. It is a pretty early kind, but not 
very productive. 

24 



370 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Green Tennis-ball Cabbage Lettuce. Leaves of the young 
plant broad, very entire, rounded, not toothed, except merely at the 
base, and a vivid green. . The head is slow in forming. Full-grown 
plant small, 7 or 8 in. in diameter, with an erect head ; leaves 
narrow, and very dark green, by which it is distinguished from all 
other Lettuces ; the outer ones almost flat, very like those of the 
Lettuce-leaved Spinach, the central ones tolerably crimped, and 
forming a head which is at least as tall as it is broad, and is never 
very solid ; seed black. This is an old variety, without any great 
merit except its hardiness. 

Green Crisped Cabbage Lettuce. Leaves large, undulated, 
curled at the edges, and light green ; head medium-sized, somewhat 
flattened, and tinged with brown on the top. A hardy kind, but 
not very tender or well flavoured. 

Laitue Dauphine. Leaves large, marked with a few red spots ; 
head tall, not very solid, light green, slightly tinged with red on the 
top. In appearance this variety somewhat resembles the Large or 
White Summer Cabbage Lettuce, except that it is of a darker 
green. Seed black. 

George Early White Spring Cabbage Lettuce. Leaves 

large, roundish, and not much 
undulated ; head round, light 
coloured, of medium size, com- 
posed of broadly crimped leaves. 
This variety is not so good as the 
Crisped or Tennis-ball kinds, and 
is most commonly grown as a 
cutting Lettuce. Seed white. 
George Lettuce. Laitue Grasse de Bourges. 

A rather compact kind, nearly the 

whole of the plant forming the head, with short spoon-shaped 
leaves. Head round and close. This is an early and tender 
variety, but is liable to rot very easily. 

Mousseronne Cabbage Lettuce. Leaves medium - sized, 
curled and toothed, slightly crimped, and light green edged with 
brown ; head small and loose, russet tinged ; seed white. This 
variety is very early, but heads badly. It may also be grown as a 
cutting Lettuce, like the George Lettuce. 

Some foreign varieties of spring Lettuces may be here men- 
tioned, of which the best and most commonly grown are the 
following : 

Early Cabbage, or Dutch Butter-head, Lettuce. A small 
and very distinct variety, with crimped leaves, blotched with 
pale brown. Head firm and compact, tinged with red, and 
scarcely as large as that of the Tom Thumb Lettuce. Seed 
white. 




CABBAGE LETTUCE 



371 



Earliest Dwarf Green Lettuce. A pretty little green variety, 
very thick-set and distinct, although evidently not far removed 

from the Tom Thumb Lettuce. Seed 
black. 

Laitue Empereur a Forcer. This 
small variety, which is very early, very 
much resembles the White-seeded Tennis- 
ball Lettuce, but is somewhat lighter in 




Earliest Dwarf Green Lettuce 
(^ natural size). 



colour, and runs to seed sooner. 



Hubbard's Forcing Lettuce. A 

large, light-coloured American kind, some- 
thing like the White-seeded Tennis-ball and the White Summer 
Cabbage Lettuce. It is forced under glass in spring. 



III. SUMMER VARIETIES 

The culture of these is of the most simple kind. The seed is 
sown in a seed-bed from March to July, and the seedlings are 
usually pricked out once before they are planted out permanently, 
which is done when they have made five or six good leaves. After 
this, they require no further attention except frequent and plentiful 
waterings. A good mulching of manure spread amongst them will 
keep the soil cool and moist and stimulate the growth of the plants. 

Algiers Lettuce (Black-seeded}. In general appearance this 
variety resembles the Red-edged Victoria Lettuce, but is smaller 
and of a darker green. 
A very nice little 
Lettuce, suitable both 
for the market and the 
kitchen garden. In the 
climate of Paris it is 
a spring and summer 
Lettuce, but in climates 
where there are no hard 
frosts it may be grown 
for a winter crop. It 
can bear close planting, 
like the Tom Thumb 
Lettuce. 

White-seeded 
All - the - Year - Round 
Lettuce (Laitue blonde #&f). Leaves of young plant light 
green, short, entire, rounded, very faintly toothed at the base, 
and slightly undulating. Full-grown plant with a round, com- 
pact, very solid head, of a very pale green ; outer leaves short, 




Algiers Lettuce. 



372 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



rounded, very entire at the edges, but finely crimped and slightly 
undulated ; the plant is 6 to 8 in. in diameter. An excellent 
variety, one of the most commonly grown, as shown by the 
great number of names which it bears. It is hardy and very 
productive, being, as the 
gardeners say, " all head." 
It makes a fine, tender, 
crisp salad, and grows 
well in almost any soil, 
so that it is found in 
cultivation almost all over 
the world. 





White -seeded All-the-Year-Round 
Lettuce ( natural size). 



' ' 
Marvel of Cazard Cabbage Lettuce. 



Marvel of Cazard Cabbage Lettuce (Black-seeded). Re- 
sembles the preceding, but superior to it. The head is round, very 
solid, not liable to split nor to grow out of shape, and always white 
and tender, with outer leaves of light green, broad and well 
crimped. A vigorous half-early variety. 

Black-seeded All-the-Year-Round Cabbage Lettuce (Blonde 
de Berlin}. Young plant of a light green colour ; leaves rounded, 




Black-seeded All-the-Year-Round 
Cabbage Lettuce. 



Golden-head Cabbage Lettuce. 



entire at the edges, and with a tendency to become twisted in the 
shape of a paper bag. Head of full-grown plant round, soft, but 
very Full ; outer leaves broadly crimped, rounded, entire, and very 



CABBAGE LETTUCE 



373 



pale green or almost yellow ; those surrounding the head are more 
erect and less folded than they are in the preceding kind. The 
head is also somewhat taller. The plant is seldom more than 8 in. 
in diameter. 

Golden-head Cabbage Lettuce ( White-seeded}. bounded 
leaves of light golden-green, crimped, with strongly marked veins. 
The full-grown leaves are a light gold colour, soft, and slightly 
twisted. The leaves of the head are lighter still, and form a 
compact head, which is tall, though not very large. 

Large Versailles Cabbage Lettuce ( White-seeded). Young 
plant of a rather light green colour ; leaves rounded, entire, with 
visible veinings. It resembles the young plant of the Large White 
Cabbage Lettuce, but is larger at the same age. Head of full- 
grown plant round or somewhat long, very firm and solid, and 
rather pale green ; outer leaves very large, entire, rather dark green, 
folded and crimped, especially about the midrib ; those surrounding 




Large Versailles Cabbage Lettuce. 



Chavigny White Lettuce (\ natural size;. 



the head are broadly undulated and twisted in all directions, giving 
the plant a somewhat irregular appearance. The plant is 10 or 
1 1 in. in diameter. 

Chavigny White Lettuce (Laitue Blonde de Chavignt) 
( White- seeded). Young plant of a light green colour, and exceed- 
ingly like the young plant of the White Summer Cabbage Lettuce, 
only not so light coloured ; the leaves also are rather narrower 
towards the base. Head of full-grown plant large, full, and 
compact, pale green, almost yellow, on the top ; outer leaves very 
much rounded in outline, with a few coarse, broad crimpings, and 
not nearly so pale in colour as the leaves which form the head ; 
plant 8 to 10 in. in diameter. This is a very fine variety, regular 
in shape, quick in forming the head, slow in running to seed, and 
yielding, with less bulk, quite as heavy a crop as the Large 
Versailles Lettuce. It is highly to be recommended. 

White Stone, or Nonpareil, Cabbage Lettuce (Laitue grosse 
blonde paresseuse) ( White-seeded]. Young plant rather light green ; 
leaves rounded, or shortly spathulate, flat, toothed and undulated on 



374 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




White Stone, or Nonpareil, Cabbage Lettuce 
(I natural size). 



the lower half. Head of full-grown plant large and tall, but flattened 
on the top, of a very pale yellowish green, almost the colour of 
wax or butter; outer leaves large, very much rounded, slightly 
crimped, and not quite so pale in colour as the head ; plant about 

12 in. in diameter. This 
fine Lettuce is large-sized 
and productive. It grows 
well and keeps the head 
perfectly in very hot weather. 
Turkish, or Butter, 
Russian or Asiatic, 
Cabbage Lettuce (Black- 
seeded). Young plant of a 
uniform dull, pale green ; 
leaves short, rounded, spath- 
ulate, and slightly toothed 
on the whole of the margin. 
Head of full-grown plant 

rounded, slightly flattened, of a very pale green, almost white ; 
outer leaves resting on the ground, rounded, very entire, scarcely 
crimped*, of an exceedingly pale green, and of an appearance 
betokening great thickness. The outside face of the leaves is of 
a still lighter tint and sometimes silvery. All the leaves are very 
entire, and those which form the head and also those which 
immediately surround it are rather crimped. Plant 8 or 10 in. 
in diameter. 

Imperial, or Asiatic, Cabbage Lettuce (White-seeded). 
Young plant of a uniform pale and rather dull green ; leaves round, 
short, flat, and bluntly 
toothed on the whole of 
the margin. This variety 
only differs from the pre- 
ceding one in the colour 
of its seed, which is white. 
Both kinds are only suit- 
able for summer culture, 
for which they are highly 
to be recommended, as 
they are very productive 
and bear hot dry weather 
well. 

The Laitue Caladoise 
and the German variety named Perpignaner Dauerkopf come very 
close to the Imperial Lettuce. 

Green Fat Cabbage Lettuce (Black-seeded). Young plant 
dark green ; leaves short, rounded, or bluntly spathulate, very 




Imperial, or Asiatic, Cabbage Lettuce 
( natural size). 



CABBAGE LETTUCE 



375 




slightly toothed on the margin, the lower ones crimped and twisted. 
Head of full-grown plant rounded or slightly flattened, close, firm, 
and surrounded by leaves with entire edges, all broadly crimped, 
light green, dark on the upper surface and almost silvery on the 
under-side ; outer leaves very 
round, small, entire, and smooth. 
All the leaves are stiff and of 
a dense texture, somewhat re- 
sembling Spinach leaves. The 
plant is from about 7 to o in. 
in diameter. This is a good 
summer Lettuce, yielding a 
heavy crop with small bulk, 
and keeping the head very 

,, Green Fat Cabbage Lettuce ( natural size). 

Large Normandy Lettuce (Yellow-seeded}. Young plant 
dark green ; leaves long, spathulate, usually twisted, toothed 
towards the base, and angular on the remainder of the margin, 
almost more like the leaves of the Batavian Endive than Lettuce 
leaves. Head of full-grown plant rounded or slightly elongated, 
rather thick, very solid, slightly crimped, and pale green ; outer 
leaves rounded, of a dense texture, very entire at the edges, of a 
uniform dark green colour, and coarsely crimped here and there. 
Some of the leaves spread on the ground and others stand erect 
around the head. The diameter ranges from 10 to 12 in. This 
variety is something like the Large Versailles Lettuce in appear- 
ance, but its leaves are considerably darker in colour, and it is 
unmistakably distinguished by the colour of the seed. 

Red-edged Trocadero, or Big Boston, Lettuce (White- 
seeded}. Light green leaves on the young plant slightly undulating 

and with a red tinge on the 
edge ; the outer leaves medium 
size, rounded, waving, ash-green ; 
those of the head are turned 
inwards, and paler, and tinged 
with purple-red. The head is 
flat, irregular, very like that of 
the Crisped Lettuce, very com- 
pact, firm, red on the top, and 
easy to recognise. Succeeds 
everywhere and in any kind of 
cultivation. 




Red-edged Trocadero Cabbage Lettuce. 



Unrivalled, or Improved Big Boston, Cabbage Lettuce( White- 
seeded}. An improvement on the foregoing. The head is very 
large, very solid, and excellent in quality. The outer leaves are 
not very large, and are light green and well crimped. Remarkable 



376 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Unrivalled Cabbage Lettuce. 



for early and quick growth ; it forms its head in six weeks, at least 
ten days before the Trocadero Lettuce. May be sown the whole 
season, and is fit for use during the greater part of the year. In 
summer, when most other sorts are withering or running to seed, it 

keeps its head very 
well. 

Mogul Cabbage, 
or Black-seeded Giant 
Summer, Lettuce 
(Laitue Grosse Brune 
Paresseuse} (Black- 
seeded). Young plant 
of a rather pale dull 
green, marked with 
brown spots ; leaves 
short, rounded, entire 
at the end and toothed 

. ^ ' uii'' 'iiiiMHimiMMMiMffii 1 along the sides. This 

^o" is a large strong- 

growing kind, the full- 
grown plant being 
ab,out I ft. in diameter. Outer leaves very large, light green, much 
paler on the inner side, folded rather than crimped, and marked, 
as are all the other leaves, with brown spots ; head tall, compact, 
tinged with brown-red on the top, and composed of leaves which 
are tolerably crimped, and become spoon-shaped as they overlap 
one another. This is a very hardy and exceedingly productive 
kind, very suitable for field culture. The Berlaimont Lettuce, 
which is in high repute in the north of France, appears to us to be 
identical with it. 

White-seeded Brown Dutch 
monte-a-peine gr. /.). Young 
plant dull green, tinged with 
brown on the veins ; leaves 
rounded, spathulate, slightly 
toethed towards the base, the 
central ones soon becoming 
crimped and undulated. Head 
of the full-grown plant rounded, 
or slightly elongated, very full 

and firm Pale green, deeply Mogul Ca bba ge Lettuce a natural size), 
tinged with red on top ; outer 

leaves rounded, with entire margins, crimped, of a gray-green 
colour, edged and tinged with light brown ; those which surround 
the head are very much crimped, folded, and twisted. All the 
parts exposed to the sun, whether on the upper or lower side 



Cabbage Lettuce (Laitue 




CABBAGE LETTUCE 



377 




Brown Genoa Cabbage Lettuce 
( natural size). 



of the leaves, become tinged with coppery red. This is a very 

good kind ; it is hardy, keeps the head well, and does not take 

up too much space when growing. The plant does not exceed 

from 8 to 10 in. in diameter. 

Brown Genoa Cabbage Lettuce 

(Laitue Palatine} (Black - seeded). 

Young plant green, tinged with brown ; 

leaves rather short, rounded, spathulate, 

entire at the margin, except towards 

the base, where it is toothed ; vein ings 

red. Head of full-grown plant medium 

size or large, rounded, very solid without 

being hard, and deeply tinged with 

brown-red on the top ; outer leaves rather large, entire at the 

edges, but crimped, folded, and twisted, tinged with red and with 

dark brown blotches interspersed ; plant 10 to 12 in. in diameter. 

This variety is one of the hardiest and least troublesome to grow. 

No other kind is superior to it for summer or autumn culture, 

either in productiveness or the certainty of the crop. It heads 

very quickly, keeps the 
head well, and withstands 
the early frosts in the 
latter end of autumn. 
During the latter part of 
summer and all through 
the autumn it furnishes 
more than half of the 
Cabbage Lettuces which 
are sent to the Central 
Market at Paris. 

Giant Summer 
Cabbage Lettuce 
( Yellow-seeded]. In the 
young plant light green 
leaves turning to yellow 
under the action of the 
sun ; leaves long-stalked 
and spiny at the edges, 
slightly folded outwards. 
At maturity the leaves 
are large, crimped, and 
yellow-white. The head 
is tall, large, rising well 

out of the leaves, tinged with red, and sometimes spotted brown 

at the edge. A good summer Lettuce, keeping its head well, 

and very productive. 




Giant Summer Cabbage Lettuce. 



378 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Brown Stonehead, or Blockhead, Lettuce (White-seeded*) 
The leaves in the young plant light green, streaked with brown 
towards the edges and slightly crimped, rounded, and somewhat 
recurving. In the full-grown plant the outer leaves are large, 

crimped, and tinged brown ; 
the head green, marked 
with bronze - coloured 
blotches, which are most 
conspicuous on the crimp- 
ings. It is a splendid 
summer Lettuce, heading 
promptly and not very apt 
to run to seed. 

Marvel, or Red Besson, 
Cabbage Lettuce (Black- 
seeded], Young plant of 

Brown Stonehead, or Blockhead, Cabbage Lettuce, vigorous growth, tinged all 

over with brownish red ; 

leaves short, almost round, very entire, with the edges turned up in 
a kind of spoon shape. The plant is easily recognised from its 
earliest age by its colour. The full-grown plant is stout and rather 
thick-set, and of rapid growth. Head rounded, slightly flattened on 
the top, where it is deeply tinged with bright red, which contrasts 
In a striking manner with the very pale tint of those parts of the 
plant which are not exposed to the sun. The outer leaves are 
similarly coloured with red on the exposed parts. All the leaves 
are rounded in outline, more or less undulated, and coarsely 
crimped here and there. This is the most highly coloured of all 
the Lettuces which are commonly grown about Paris, and is of a 
still deeper red than the old variety known as the Rouge Chartreuse. 
The plant is about I ft. in 
diameter. This variety may 
be grown almost all the year 
round, as one of its French 
names indicates, but it does 
best in spring and summer. 
The head forms very quickly 
and keeps firm for a long 
time, even in very hot 
weather. 

Improved Spotted 
Cabbage Lettuce (Laitue 
Sanguine Amelioree] (White-seeded}. Young plant marked with 
very small and fine red spots and streaks; leaves rounded, entire, 
undulated or folded. In the central leaves the green colour 
disappears altogether under the numerous small red-brown spots 




Marvel, or Red Besson, Cabbage Lettuce. 



CABBAGE LETTUCE 



379 




Improved Spotted Cabbage Lettuce 
( natural size). 



with which they are covered. In the full-grown plant the head is 
exceedingly close, of medium size, round, or slightly flattened on 
the top, the inner leaves being very much folded and of an ivory- 
white, very finely and plentifully 
streaked with carmine. The top 
of the head is of a deep copper 
colour. The outer leaves, which are 
small, numerous, and less crimped 
as they are nearer to the ground, 
are covered with a vast number of 
small red spots, which give the 
whole plant a bronzy tinge. The 
plant seldom exceeds from 7 to 9 in. 
in diameter. This variety, although small, is productive. It is 
also early and keeps the head well. The very lively colour of 
the spots forms a pleasing contrast on the leaves when they are 
blanched, making a nice-looking salad, which is at the same time 
tender and of excellent quality. 

Early Ohio, or Nonpareil, Lettuce ( White-seeded}. When young 
the leaves are very light green, undulating, fringed and closely 
crimped, the inner leaves erect. A very pretty variety, something 
like the Simpson Lettuce, but with smaller, whiter, finer cut, and 
more erect leaves, and also heading more readily. The head is rather 
tall and pointed, something like that of the Hooded or Hardy 
Green Winter Endive. It is a true summer Lettuce, very tender 
and crisp, well suited for hot climates, and welcome everywhere. 





Early Ohio, or Nonpareil, Cabbage 
Lettuce. 



Early Simpson Cabbage Lettuce 
(\ natural size). 



Early Simpson Cabbage Lettuce ( White-seeded). Young plant 
pale green, almost yellow ; leaves angular, very much undulated at 
the margin, curled and rumpled. Head of full-grown plant seldom 
well formed ; leaves large, light green, with a shining surface, very 
fresh and pleasing to the sight, very much curled and undulated, 
finely crimped, very numerous, and tender even when they do not 
form a head. This is one of the best summer Lettuces, and is very 



380 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




White Silesian Lettuce ( natural size). 



suitable for growing in warm climates. All it requires is to be 
plentifully watered. 

The Early Silesian Lettuce and the American varieties named 
the Hanson Lettuce, New Large-head Lettuce, Hamilton Market 
Lettuce, Large Indian Lettuce, and Early Curled Silesian Lettuce, 

all come so near the Early 
Simpson, that it is difficult 
to discover any difference 
between them. 

White Batavian, or 
Silesian, Lettuce (White- 
seeded). Young plant of 
light or yellow green ; leaves 
slightly toothed, undulated, 
and tinged with pale red 
on the margin. Head of 
full-grown plant very large, 
but not very firm, pale 
green tinged with light red, rounded or slightly flattened ; outer 
leaves broad, curled, finely crimped, very much undulated and 
broadly toothed at the edges, where they are also slightly tinged 
with red. The plant is 12 to 14 in. in diameter. 

The variety named Laitue Belle et Bonne de Bruxelles comes 
very near the White Silesian. Sometimes it is almost entirely 
without the red tinge, and then it very much resembles the 
following kind. 

Curled German Batavidn, or Curled Silesian, Cabbage 
Lettuce (White-seeded}. Leaves of the young plant broad and 
short, with the edges scalloped and undulated, and of a light, 
slightly yellowish, green colour. 
Head of full-grown plant large, 
soft, rounded or slightly flat- 
tened, and very pale green ; 
outer leaves crimped, curled, 
and slightly cut at the edges. 
The plant is u or 12 in. in 
diameter. With the exception 
of its very light colour, this 
variety is not unlike the 
Neapolitan Cabbage Lettuce. 
It is a vigorous-growing kind, 
very easily grown, and yields a sure crop in summer. 

Brown Batavian, or Marseilles, Cabbage Lettuce (White- 
seeded). Young plant very dark green ; leaves very long, narrow, 
sharply toothed at the edges ; midrib and margin of the leaves 
tinged with brown. Head of full-grown plant very tall and 




Curled German Batavian Lettuce 
($ natural size). 



CABBAGE LETTUCE 




elongated, more like the head of a Cos than that of a Cabbage 

Lettuce, almost always soft, and seldom well formed ; outer leaves 

very large, erect for some portion of their length, then turned 

backwards, crimped, very much undulated and puckered at the 

edges, and of a dark green 

colour tinged with brown on 

all the parts that are most 

exposed to the sun. The 

plant is about 16 in. in 

diameter, and nearly the 

same in height. This variety 

does not succeed well in the 

climate of Paris, but is in 

high repute in warm climates, 

and even in the south of 

France. 

Neapolitan Cabbage 
Lettuce (White- seeded). 

,,. | j i Brown Batavian. or Marseilles, Cabbage Lettuce 

Young plant dark green; (i natural size), 

leaves shortly spathulate, 

wavy at the edges, toothed, and slightly crimped. Head of full- 
grown plant large, depressed, sometimes almost flat, whitish green, 
and slightly crimped ; outer leaves of a rather dark green, spreading 
on the ground, finely crimped, very much curled and undulated 
at the edges. The plant is often 12 to 14 in. in diameter. This 
variety keeps the head better, perhaps, than any other kind of 
Lettuce. It often happens that the flower-stem is unable to make 
its way through the head, unless the latter is cut so as to give 
it a passage. 

Blond Stonehead, or Blockhead, Lettuce (White-seeded}. 
The leaves at first are a very light green, almost white, tinged 

yellow, sparingly crimped, 
much waving at the edges 
and slightly fringed or cut. 
The head is very large, rather 
flat and solid ; the outer leaves 
are large, broad, spreading, 
very finely crimped, and 
waving at the edges, much 
like those of Neapolitan 
Lettuce, but much lighter in 
colour. An excellent summer 
Lettuce much grown by market-gardeners around Paris. 

Large Bossin Cabbage Lettuce (Black-seeded). Young plant 
a light green, almost yellow, with some brown spots ; leaves 
longish, toothed, and tinged with brown on the veins and edges. 




Neapolitan Cabbage Lettuce ( natural size). 



382 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Head of full-grown plant large, flat, light green, tinged with 
brown ; outer leaves very large and luxuriant, spreading widely on 
the ground, and forming a rosette 16 in. or more in diameter, very 

much toothed and un- 
dulated at the edges, 
slightly crimped, and 
irregularly shaded and 
spotted with red-brown. 
This is a very vigorous- 
growing and hardy kind, 
bearing hot weather 
well, but the weight of 
the produce is not in 
proportion to the extent 
of ground covered by 
the plants. 

Malta, or Ice, 
Drumhead Lettuce 
( White-seeded}. You n g 

Blond Blockhead Cabbage-Lettuce. P lant a uniform light 

green ; leaves spathulate, 

long, veined, much toothed, and slightly undulated on the whole 
of the margin, and somewhat twisted. Head of full-grown plant 
composed of pale green leaves, which are folded and marked 
with elongated crimpings. When the head is commencing to 
form, it is something like that of a Cos Lettuce, but it widens 
and becomes nearly round when fully grown. The midribs of 
the leaves are thick, 
and often project 
from the head. Outer 
leaves very large, 
light green, with the 
edges folded, slightly 
cut, and sometimes 
rolled inwards on the 
under-side. The 
plant is 12 to 14 in. in 
diameter, and about 
the same in height. 
The Malta Lettuce 
grows rapidly, and 
bears hot weather 
well, but it does not keep the head long. It is especially suitable 
for warm climates. 

Green Madrid Cabbage Lettuce (Black-seeded}. The head 
in the full-grown plant is tall, with outer leaves of a glossy dark 




Large Bossin Cabbage Lettuce ( natural size). 



CABBAGE LETTUCE 



383 




Malta, or Ice, Drumhead Lettuce 
(\ natural size). 



green. An excellent winter Lettuce, keeping well and very pro- 
ductive. Although hardy enough for the Paris winter, in mild 
climates its good qualities are seen to perfection. Being of 
compact growth, it may be planted 
close. 

Lebceuf Lettuce ( White- 
seeded). Young plant dark green ; 
leaves very large, the first spa- 
thulate and flat, the succeeding 
ones shorter, crimped at the base, 
with broad white midribs, and 
more like the leaves of a Cos 
than those of a Cabbage Lettuce. 
Head of full-grown plant tolerably 
like that of a Cos Lettuce, com- 
posed of leaves pressed close to, 
but not regularly overlapping, 
one another ; outer leaves elongated, erect for a portion of their 
length, and then turned backwards near the end, all more or 
less folded in the direction of the midrib, and folded, crimped, 
and often twisted at the edges. The plant is 7 or 8 in. in diameter, 
and as much, or even more, in height. Except that its leaves are 
somewhat stouter and larger, this variety is tolerably like a Ground 
Cos Lettuce. It has the peculiarity of frequently producing shoots 
at the base of the head. 

In addition to the summer Lettuces already described, the 
following varieties appear to us the best and most distinct: 

Bellegarde Cabbage Lettuce ( White-seeded}. A tall, broad 
plant, the head surrounded with large leaves, which are cut and 
deeply toothed on the edges. In general appearance it resembles 
the Large Bossin Cabbage Lettuce, but is smaller and rather more 

deeply coloured. 

Brown Cabbage Lettuce 
( Yellow-seeded}. This variety comes 
very near the Brown Dutch Lettuce 
in shape, colour, and general ap- 
pearance, but differs from it in 
having the leaves more crimped 
and of a rather redder tinge, and 
differs entirely from it in the yellow 
colour of the seed. In Anjou there 
is another yellow-seeded kind grown, 
which must not be confounded with 
this one. The Anjou variety is small, entirely green, and is chiefly 
adapted for winter culture, but it is not very extensively dis- 
tributed, nor does it seem deserving of being more so. 




Lebceuf Lettuce. 



384 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Black-seeded Brown Dutch Cabbage 
Lettuce. 



Black-seeded Brown Dutch Cabbage Lettuce (Laitue Rousse 
Hollandaise gr. n.}. Young plant of a dull green colour, slightly 
tinged with light brown ; leaves short, roundish, or spathulate, 
finely toothed towards the base, where they are of a reddish colour, 

as are also the veins. This variety 
differs from the Brown Genoa 
Cabbage Lettuce chiefly in having 
no spots on the leaves, and the 
plant altogether is not so brown. 
In other respects the two kinds 
are much alike in size and general 
appearance. 

Dutch Cabbage Lettuce 
(Black-seeded). Young plant of a 
uniform dark green, leaves short, 
rounded, flat, slightly toothed near 
the base, the inner leaves crimped and sinuated. Head of full- 
grown plant small, round, very close and hard, and surrounded by 
entire, crimped, and slightly undulated leaves, which form a very 
compact rosette. The plant is, at most, from 6 to 8 in. in diameter. 
Its general appearance resembles that of the Large White Cabbage 
Lettuce, with which, however, it cannot be confounded, if the 
difference in the colour of the leaves and of the seed is taken 
into consideration. Small-sized Lettuces, like this variety, are 
often valuable to gardeners for growing amongst other vegetables. 

Cendrette du Havre Lettuce. A handsome summer Lettuce 
of medium size, somewhat like the Trocadero Lettuce, but with the 
leaves more crimped, and tinged with darker brown on the top. 

Fontenay Lettuce. A fine variety of Cabbage Lettuce, very 
slow in running to seed, large and productive. It resembles the 
Turkish Cabbage Lettuce, but is larger. It is very light coloured 
in all its parts. 

Frankfort Lettuce. A handsome variety, resembling the 
Black-seeded All the Year Round 
Cabbage Lettuce, but not so broad, 
and with a taller, egg-shaped head, 
of a peculiar gold shade. 

Mortatella Cabbage Lettuce. 
A very distinct variety, of Italian 
origin. A peculiarity which belongs 
almost exclusively to this Lettuce is 
that the stem is long like that of many 
round-headed Cabbages (especially those sown in autumn), in 
consequence of which the large outer leaves, instead of forming 
a rosette close to the ground, grow in tiers, the head forming at 
some distance above the soil. These outer leaves are of a dark 




Black-seeded Dutch Cabbage 
Lettuce ( natural size). 




CABBAGE LETTUCE 385 

dull green, short, rounded, and often hollowed like a spoon. The 
head is compact, of medium size, a little longer than broad, and 
frequently tinged with red on the upper part ; it preserves its shape 
for a long time. The axillary buds of the lower leaves sometimes 

become developed into sprouts or 
shoots, which are rarely of any 
great size. In Italy this Lettuce 
is said to grow well all the year 
round, but, from our experience 
of it, it is chiefly valuable as an 
autumn and winter Lettuce in the 
neighbourhood of Paris. 

Laitue de Neris. A fine 

Mortatella Cabbage Lettuce. sum er Lettuce very much re- 

sembling the Mogul Lettuce, 

except that it is much lighter in colour. It is very much grown 
and highly thought of in the central parts of France. 

New Gem Cabbage Lettuce. A pretty little kind, with a 
compact head, almost devoid of outer leaves. It takes up very 
little space when growing, and produces a comparatively large 
and very solid head. In general appearance the plant is rather 
like the Roquette Lettuce, but is somewhat larger growing, and 
does not bear the winter. 

Pas de Calais Cabbage Lettuce. Young plant of a uniform 
dark green colour ; leaves elongated spoon-shaped, slightly angular 
at the margin, and toothed and undulated towards the base. The 
full-grown plant is stout, and rather like the Mogul Cabbage* Lettuce, 
but differing from it notably in the total absence of brown spots from 
the leaves. It is also somewhat taller, and the head is more ovoid 
in shape and of a bronzy, rather than a red, colour in the parts 
exposed to the sun. Seed black. x 

Laitue Rose, ou Rouge d'Ete. A very distinct variety, not 
spotted, but very deeply tinged with brownish red on the edges 
of the leaves and on the head. It is something like a brown 
winter Lettuce, but more deeply coloured, and the head is taller. 
It is very suitable for growing in the latter end of spring, and in 
summer and autumn, and is often to be met with in the Central 
Market at Paris. 

Red Cabbage Lettuce (Laitue Rouge Chartreuse}. This fine 
variety has the same shape and, to a certain extent, the same 
appearance as the Palatine Lettuce, but it is not spotted, and 
the colour of the leaves is a much more decided red. It is a 
good summer variety, and will also bear the winter, if not toe 
severe. Seed black. 

Spotted Cabbage Lettuce (White-seeded^. A rather compact 
variety, with rounded, twisted leaves, forming a close and very 

25 



3 86 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

tender head. The inner leaves are almost white, and streaked 
with bright red ; the outer ones are of a dark green with brown 
blotches. 

Spotted Cabbage Lettuce (B lack-seeded}. ^^is variety differs 
from the preceding one in the fineness of the red streaks with 
which the leaves are marked, which gives the whole plant a bronzy 
tinge. The inner leaves appear as if dusted with red on a white 
ground. Both this and the preceding kind have been superseded 
by the new Improved White-seeded variety. 

Tannhauser. A compact variety, with thick, rounded leaves 
and round head, rather like the Large Normandy Lettuce, but 
differing from it entirely in the colour of its seed, which is 
black. 

White Stone Cabbage Lettuce. A compact plant, with 
crimped, wavy leaves of a light green, almost yellow, colour, 
tinged with light brown on the top of the head, which is of 
medium size, close, and somewhat flattened. It is a good summer 
variety, hardy, and slow in running to seed. The only fault it has 
is its slightly bitter flavour. Seed white. 

De Zelande. A handsome and compact variety of Cabbage 
Lettuce, of a very pale yellow colour, remarkably like the Berlin 
White Summer Lettuce, except that the head is almost ovoid in 
shape, being longer than broad. Seed black. 

In America they cultivate a very large number of varieties of 
Cabbage Lettuce, which, though not exactly similar, have many 
points in common with our own : 

The Yellow-seeded Butter and Market Gardener's Private 
Stock Lettuces are evidently closely related to the All the Year 
Round, or White Berlin Summer Lettuce. 

Premium Cabbage Lettuce, Large Yellow Surehead 
Lettuce, Philadelphia Butter Lettuce, Silver-ball Lettuce, 
Black-seeded Butter Lettuce have many points of similarity 
with the Large White Stone Summer Lettuce. 

Fox Sterling Lettuce, Hubbard's Market Lettuce, Golden 
Queen Lettuce : closely allied to the All the Year Round Lettuce. 

Russian Lettuce, St. Louis Butter Lettuce, Deacon or 
San Francisco Market Lettuce: closely related to Imperial or 
Asiatic Lettuce. 

Myer's All-Right Lettuce resembles the Red-edged Trocadero 
Lettuce. 

Large Loaf Lettuce, Maximum Lettuce, and California 
Cream Butter Lettuce resemble the Large Green Lettuce. 

Large Brown and Hardhead Lettuce are in most respects 
the same as Brown Stonehead Lettuce. 

Chartier Lettuce, India-head Lettuce, Marble-head Mam- 
moth Lettuce resemble the White Silesian Lettuce. 



CABBAGE LETTUCE 387 

Eureka Lettuce, Sugarloaf Lettuce, Tomhannock Lettuce, 
all red-coloured Lettuces, with a strong resemblance to the Brown 
Batavian Lettuce. 

Drumhead Lettuce, Detroit Market Gardeners Lettuce, 
Nonpareil Lettuce, Wonderful Lettuce have many points of 
similarity with the Neapolitan Cabbage Lettuce. 

Hamilton Market Lettuce and Golden Curled Lettuce 
closely resemble the Blond Stonehead Lettuce. 

Gardener's Favourite Lettuce, Moonshine Lettuce, the 
Morse Lettuce, Perpetual Lettuce, Hanson Lettuce, Tilton's 
White Star Lettuce, New Large-head Lettuce, Large India 
Lettuce, Early Curled Silesia Lettuce are very nearly related to 
the Simpson Early Lettuce. 

Hardy Green Winter Lettuce, Black-Seeded Tennis-ball 
Lettuce, and Salamander Lettuce resemble nearly Versailles 
Blond Lettuce. 

Boston Market Lettuce appears to be extremely similar to De 
Zelande Lettuce, or at least intermediate between that and the 
All the Year Round Lettuce. 



COS LETTUCES 

French, Laitues romaines. German, Romischer oder Binde Salat. Flemish, Ezelsoor 
salat. Dutch, Roomsche latouw. Italian, Lattuga romana. Spanish, Lechuga 
romana. Portuguese, Alface romana. 

The Cos Lettuces are distinguished from the common Cabbage 
Lettuces by the shape of their leaves, which are elongated and 
almost always somewhat spoon-shaped, and also by the usually 
large size of the midrib, which in some varieties forms a regular 
white, tender, and very thick chard. 

They are grown in exactly the same way as the Cabbage 
Lettuces, only that, as they do not naturally form a head so well 
as these, gardeners are in the habit of tying up the leaves together 
in order to blanch the inner ones. There are winter, spring, and 
summer varieties of Cos Lettuces. For forcing, and for early 
sowing in the open air, the preference is given to the White Paris 
Cos, next to which come the Green Paris Cos and the Gray Paris 
Cos, all of which are closely allied kinds. For summer culture the 
same varieties may be employed, and also the Florence Cos, or 
Magnum Bonum (Romaine Alphange), the Giant Cos (Romaine 
Monstreuse), and the Brown, or Bath, Cos (Romaine Brune 
Anglaise). Lastly, for winter culture in the open air, the Green 
Winter Cos, the Royal Green, and the Blood-red Winter Cos are 
the kinds most commonly selected. 



388 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Green Winter Cos Lettuce. 



I. WINTER VARIETIES OF Cos LETTUCE 

Green Winter Cos Lettuce (Black-seeded}. Leaves of young 

plant smooth, dark green, rather flat and rounded, but narrowed 

towards the end ; margin entire, with the exception of a few teeth 

on the lower third part. Full-grown 
plant compact, with the leaves closely 
pressed against one another, erect, and 
slightly turned back at the ends ; blade 
of the leaf shortly spathulate or oval, 
smooth, and of a very light green colour, 
with a glazed appearance; veins numerous 
and very distinctly marked. The head 
forms of itself without being tied up ; 
it is not tall, but is firm, compact, and 
very solid. This is a very old and very 
excellent variety; it is very little affected 
by frosty weather, and yields a heavy 
crop for the moderate size of the 
plants. 

The English Hardy White Winter 

Cos is only a paler-coloured sub-variety of this kind. 

Royal Green Winter Cos Lettuce (Black-seeded}. Leaves 

of young plant shortly spathulate, slightly crimped and twisted 

towards the base, rather deeply toothed on the lower two-thirds 

of the margin, and a uniform dark green. Full-grown plant 

vigorous, with light green shining leaves, oblong, slightly crimped, 

somewhat turned back at the 

edges, until the head begins to 

form, when they turn the other 

way, becoming spoon-shaped as 

they overlap one another; head 

rather tall, solid, and blanching 

without being tied up. This 

variety is chiefly distinguished 

from the preceding one by the 

rosette which it forms before 

heading being less spreading, 

stiffer, and of a paler and more 

glistening green colour. 

Red Winter Cos Lettuce 

(Black-seeded). Young plant Royal Green Wmter Cos Lettuce ' 

deeply tinged with brown red ; leaves spathulate, flat, smooth, and 

slightly toothed at the base. Head of full-grown plant tall, long, 

entirely green with the exception of a brown-red tinge on the top ; 

outer leaves long, rounded at the ends, very entire, nearly flat, and 




COS LETTUCES 



389 




Red Winter Cos Lettuce. 



very deeply coloured with red-brown. It is only in the centre of 
the plant, near the head, that any green colour is visible. This 
variety generally heads very well without being tied up. It is 
hardy, productive, and remarkably slow in running to seed. It 
is also so constant in character that 
it is hardly ever found to vary or 
degenerate. 

II. SPRING AND SUMMER 
VARIETIES OF Cos LETTUCE 

Green Paris Cos, or Buckland 

Cos, Lettuce ( White - seeded}. 

Young plant dark green ; leaves 

erect, with white midribs, elongated, 

spathulate, and very much toothed 

towards the base. Head of full- 
grown plant long, pointed, or slightly 

blunt, showing three well-marked 

faces ; outer leaves erect around the 

head, narrow, rather dark glossy green, and with very white midribs. 

A fast-growing kind, not so large as the White Paris Cos, but 

somewhat earlier. 

Green Limagne Cos Lettuce (White-seeded}. The young 

plant has dark green erect leaves, folded at the edge, angular, and 

toothed at the base. The head is round and very firm ; the leaves 

strong, crimped, a lighter 
colour than those of the 
Green Paris. A vigorous 
and quick grower. 

Gray Paris Cos Lettuce 
( White-seeded}. The young 
plant of this variety differs 
only from that of the White 
Paris Cos in that it is de- 
cidedly darker in colour. 
Head of full-grown plant 
well rounded at the top, and 
more thick-set than that of 
either the preceding or the 
following kind ; outer leaves 

Green Paris Cos Lettuce. lar f G > *>Unded at the end 

and not so light-coloured 

as those of the White Paris Cos ; those forming the head are 
very much hollowed out like a spoon. This variety is chiefly 
grown under cloches or bell-glasses, and for that mode of culture 




390 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



it is generally preferred by the Paris market-gardeners to all 

other kinds. 

White Paris Cos Lettuce ( White-seeded}. Young plant pale 

green ; leaves rather erect, spathulate, toothed and slightly crimped 

towards the base, and broad and 
rounded at the ends. Head of 
full-grown plant long and tall, 
but very thick, blunt or rounded 
at the top, and with the faces 
or angles less marked than those 
of the Green Paris Cos ; outer 
leaves spathulate, large, luxuriant, 
light green, and rather crimped ; 
those forming the head are always 
folded, of a very pale green 
colour, and with the midrib white 

Gray Paris Cos Lettuce. and Ver 7 prominent. The most 

grown of all the Cos Lettuces, 

and perhaps of all other kinds, it appears to be very well adapted 
for all temperate climates, and even for warm ones, as it is grown 
all over the world. It likes rich soil and plentiful waterings, and is 
grown under bell-glasses or cloches for an early crop, and in the 
open air from April to the end of autumn. When carefully 






White Paris Cos Lettuce 
(^ natural size). 



Early White Self-folding Trianon 
Cos Lettuce. 



attended to, it heads in seven or eight weeks after being planted 
out in the open air, and keeps the head firm for a remarkably 
long time. A well-grown plant will often weigh over 6J Ib. 

Early White Self-folding Trianon Cos Lettuce (White- 
seeded^. A very pretty strain of the Paris White Cos Lettuce, from 



COS LETTUCES 



which it differs only when nearly full grown in its whiter colour, 
leaves more crimped, broader ribs, and in being several days earlier. 

Large White Du Chesnay Cos Lettuce ( White-seeded}. The 
young plant is pale, slightly yellow-green ; the leaves small, narrow, 
stiff, erect, toothed at the edges, and twisted at the base. A Paris 
White Cos of larger size and about a fortnight later. Grows well 
under glass bells. Grown in the open air it is not liable to rust. 

Ground Cos Lettuce (Black-seeded}. Young plant short and 
compact, of a uniform, rather dark, clear green 
colour ; leaves stiff, short, oval, slightly spoon- 
shaped, erect, and with a very prominent white 
midrib. Full-grown plant very thick-set, and 
of a dark, shining green colour ; head, short, 
very close and hard, commencing so low down 
that it appears to be partially buried in the 
ground ; outer leaves very stiff, somewhat 
pointed, almost always folded in two and 
curved back outwardly, slightly crimped, with 
the midrib stout, stiff, and very large for the 
size of the leaves. The leaves of this variety 
are very crisp, and leave a slightly bitter after-taste which is not 
disagreeable. The plant bears frosty weather well, if slightly 
protected. As the head is very solid, the crop is pretty heavy 
for the small size of the plants. 




Ground Cos Lettuce 
($ natural size). 



III. SUMMER VARIETIES OF Cos LETTUCE 



/%' 



White-seeded Florence, or Magnum Bonum, Cos Lettuce. 

Young plant, of a dull, pale green ; leaves broad, oval, slightly 

toothed, and faintly tinged with 
light brown at the base, and also 
on the margins and veins. The 
full-grown plant does not head 
well unless it is tied up. Outer 
leaves very large, and especially 
very broad, rounded in outline, 
broadly crimped, with the edges 
turned backwards, and forming 
a large and very open rosette ; 
they are of a gray-green colour, 
very slightly tinged with light 
brown at the edges and on 
the parts exposed to the sun. 
The average diameter of well- 




Florence, or Magnm Boum, Cos Lettuce g r Wn P lantS 
(i natural size). thereabout. 



is l6 in< > Or 



392 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Black-seeded Florence, or Magnum Bonum, Cos Lettuce. 

Leaves of young plant spathulate, large, longish, bluntly toothed, 

and tinged with pale 
brown at the base and 
on the veins and edges. 
The plant is throughout 
much paler in colour 
than the young plant 
of the preceding variety. 
Head of full-grown 
plant elongated, seldom 
forming unless tied up; 
outer leaves very long 
and broad, pale green 
or yellow, slightly tinged 
with russet on the parts 
exposed to the sun, 
finely crimped, more 
pointed, and apparently 
White Long-standing Cos Lettuce. thinner in texture, than 

those of the preceding 

kind. They also form a broader rosette, this being often 20 in. 

in diameter. 

White Long-standing Cos Lettuce (B lack-seeded}. Young 

plant pale green, leaves spathulate, with long stalks, curved 

outwards and moderately 

toothed. Resembles the 

Florence Cos Lettuce, but 

its leaves are more numerous 

and stouter, and its head is 

firmer. Much grown in the 

south-west of France, and 

it keeps its heads well during 

the hot summer, when some 

popular varieties head badly 

and run rapidly to seed. 
Balloon Cos Lettuce 

(Black - seeded). Young 

plant a pale, clear green 

colour ; leaves erect, rather 

narrow, toothed on the en- 
tire margin, the teeth on 

the lower half being long 

and sharp, while those to- 
wards the end of the leaf are faintly marked ; the veins of the 

leaf, also, are not very clearly defined there. Full-grown plant 




Balloon Cos Lettuce ( natural size). 



COS LETTUCES 



393 



very vigorous, with a large, broad, rounded head, slightly flattened 
at the top, full and firm ; outer leaves not so much crimped as 
those of the White Paris Cos, but greener in hue and more 
rounded at the ends. The White Paris Cos heads sooner than 
the Balloon Cos, but the latter is considered hardier, and is very 
suitable for sowing in autumn. It is also a remarkably productive 
variety. 

Monstrous Brown Cos Lettuce (Black-seeded}. Young 
plant vigorous growing, half-spreading ; leaves fairly large, broad 
from the base, pale dull green, tinged with light brown on the veins 
and edges ; margin slightly sinuated or bluntly toothed. Head 
of full-grown plant oblong, not forming well unless tied up ; outer 
leaves large, numerous, in a broad and very open rosette, almost 
spreading on the ground ; they are entire in outline, but the edges 
are twisted and waved, and the surface is crimped and puffed from 
the midrib towards the edges. All the parts exposed to the sun 
are very deeply tinged with russet, while the rest of the plant 
is of a wan dark green. The general appearance of the plant is 
shining, as if varnished, not dull like the Florence varieties. It is 
often 20 in. in diameter. 

Brown, or Bath, Cos Lettuce ( White-seeded}. Young plant of 
a dull green colour ; leaves spathulate, deeply toothed to the very 
end, and tinged with red 
on the edges and veins. 
Head of full-grown plant 
oblong, almost pointed, 
pale green, slightly tinged 
with dull brown ; outer 
leaves rather spreading, 
entire, not much crimped, 
finely toothed on the edges, 
and tinged on all the parts 
exposed to the sun with 
pale brown on a gray-green 
ground. A well - grown 
plant is about 14 in. in 
diameter. This is an ex- 
ceedingly hardy kind, and 
does well under summer or autumn culture ; it sometimes also 
withstands the winter. Although it heads well enough when 
left to itself, it is usually tied up to increase the number and 
expedite the production of tender blanched leaves. The contrast 
of colour in the parts of the leaves which are bronzed by being 
exposed to the sun and those parts which are covered is very 
striking in this variety. This, and the following variety, are 
especially suitable for winter Lettuces in England. 




White-seeded Bath Cos Lettuce. 



394 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Black-seeded Bath Cos Lettuce 
( natural size). 



Black-seeded Bath Cos Lettuce. Young plant somewhat 
paler than that of the Common or White-seeded Bath Cos, but 
similar in other respects. The full-grown plant does not differ 

very materially from the pre- 
ceding kind, except in the colour 
of the seed ; however, there is a 
very apparent disparity between 
the two varieties in the habit of 
the plants, and the manner in 
which the leaves overlap one 
another, those of the black - 
seeded kind being shorter, 
forming a rosette, which spreads 
more broadly on the ground, and 
being slower in standing erect to 
form the head ; they are also 
more toothed at the edges. The 
two varieties are alike in produc- 
tiveness, earliness, and quality. 
Spotted, or Aleppo, Cos Lettuce (White-seeded} Leaves of 
young plant half-erect, stiff, oblong, toothed at the edges of the 
lower half, of a light green colour, which is almost entirely hidden 
by a multitude of brown-red spots, which are usually very small 
and often confluent. The full-grown plant does not head unless 
tied up. Outer leaves entirely spreading, almost always folded 
along the midrib, very much plaited, undulated, and twisted, and 
very much tinged with deep brown-red. When artificially blanched, 
the leaves of this variety ex- 
hibit the same red variegation 
on a white ground as those 
of the Dark-red Cabbage 
Lettuce. The plant is about 
16 in. in diameter. 

Improved Spotted Cos 
Lettuce (Black-seeded} 
Young plant deeply tinged 
with brown-red on a green 
ground ; leaves rather short, 
entire, rounded, spathulate. 
It is much dwarfer and more 
compact than the young plant 
of the preceding variety, and 
also not so red. The full- 
grown plant has erect leaves, closely pressed against one another, 
and surrounding an oblong, short, and rather compact head. 
Outer leaves stiff, rounded or blunt at the ends, not much crimped, 




Spotted, or Aleppo, Cos Lettuce 
( natural size). 



COS LETTUCES 



395 



a deep green colour, with brown spots and blotches. This Lettuce 
heads of itself, but the produce is better when it is tied up, 
and it then yields a large quantity of salad for the small size 
of the plant, which does not exceed IO or 12 in. in diameter. This 
variety differs entirely from the preceding one in having all its 
leaves erect before they form the head, giving the plant somewhat 
the shape of a funnel, while in the other kind the leaves are 
spreading, and even turned backwards. 

Sprouting Cos Lettuce (White-seeded). Introduced from the 
Pamirs of Central Asia, 
it is very hardy, and 
proof against drought. 
The leaves are long, and 
a dull light green. It 
does not form a head, 
but produces numerous 
leafy tender shoots, which 
issue vertically from the 
axils of the lower leaves. 
As a salad it is excellent 
in default of better. 

We shall now proceed 
to mention a few other 
varieties, which, although 
inferior in importance to 
those already described, 
nevertheless possess a 
certain amount of merit. 

Brunoy White Cos 
Lettuce. A rather leafy 
plant, not heading unless 
tied up ; leaves somewhat folded, entire at the edges and turned 
back at the ends. This variety grows to a considerable size, but 
runs to seed rather rapidly. There are both a white-seeded and 
a black-seeded form of it, the latter of which appears to be the 
same as the English variety named Ivery's Nonesuch. 

Romaine Blonde de Niort. This fine large variety is grown in 
Vendee, where it is highly esteemed. It very much resembles the 
Black-seeded Florence Cos, but runs to seed rather sooner. The 
seed is white. 

Romaine de Chalabre. A very good kind of winter Cos for the 
south of France, and even at Paris it bears ordinary winters well. 
In appearance it rather resembles the Green Paris Cos, but it grows 
much larger, and has the leaves tolerably toothed in the lower half. 

Romaine Epinerolle. A variety almost intermediate between 
the Green and the White Paris Cos Lettuces, and apparently hardier 




Sprouting Cos Lettuce. 



396 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

than either, but at the same time not so tender or delicate in 
flavour. It is especially suitable for the south of France, where it 
can be grown in winter. 

Romaine Frisee Bayonnaise ; R. Parisienne ; R. du Mexique. 
Under these three names two or three kinds of Cos Lettuces are 
grown which are rather like the Brown Batavian Lettuce. Like it, 
they are of vigorous and rapid growth, but somewhat leathery in 
texture. They are suitable for warm climates, and should be tied 
up in order to blanch the leaves and make them tender. 

Romaine Chicon Jaune Superieure. This may be considered 
as merely a sub-variety of the White-seeded Florence Cos, from 
which it is distinguished by having a shorter and entirely light- 
coloured head. 

Magdalena Cos Lettuce. Closely allied to the Giant Cos, but 
taller and lighter in colour. The leaves are large, pale, and tinged 
with red, especially at the edges. The plant almost heads of itself 
without being tied up. The head is not very solid. Seed black. 

Dwarf White-heart Cos Lettuce. Of American origin ; 
resembles the White Paris Cos Lettuce. 

SMALL or CUTTING LETTUCES 

French, Laitues a couper. German, Schnitt-Salat. Dutch, Snij salade. Italian, 
Lattuga da taglio. Spanish, Lechuguino. 

A certain number of varieties of Lettuce never form a head, but 
compensate, as it were, for this by producing a great abundance 
of leaves, which grow again after being cut, thus furnishing a large 
supply of green vegetables in a limited space. These are known 
by the general name of Cutting Lettuces, and a certain number of 
kinds are in cultivation. Sometimes some of the Early White 
Cabbage Lettuces are treated as Cutting Lettuces, especially the 
Crisped Lettuce and the Georges Lettuce, but the varieties which 
we are about to describe never form a head, and consequently can 
never be grown except as Cutting Lettuces. 

White Cutting Lettuce ( White-seeded}. A variety with spathu- 
late leaves, which become shorter and rounder as the plant advances 
in growth, with almost entire edges, slightly waved and toothed 
towards the base. If the leaves are not cut when the plant is young, 
the central ones become folded and rumpled so as to form a kind 
of heart, but not a true head. The plant soon runs to seed. This 
variety is chiefly grown in frames. 

Black-seeded Cutting Lettuce. A very distinct variety, 
forming a tuft 10 to 12 in. broad, dense and matted, and somewhat 
resembling a Curled Endive. Leaves cut into rounded lobes, 
twisted and puckered, of a rather dark green on the upper surface 
and somewhat gray underneath. This is a hardy and very productive 



SMALL OR CUTTING LETTUCES 



397 



kind, and is well adapted for growing in the open air. The leaves 
are entirely green at the ends and edges where they are exposed 
to the sun and air, but elsewhere they are white, like Endive leaves. 
Beauregard Lettuce. A distinct variety, with leaves deeply 
cut and toothed at the edges, and a fairly well-formed head. It is 




Black-seeded Cutting Lettuce 
( natural size). 



Laciniated Beauregard Cabbage 
Lettuce. 



sometimes called California Lettuce, but this name should be dis- 
carded in order to avoid a confusion with the California Curled 
Lettuce described below. 

California Curled Lettuce (White-seeded). Young plant of 
light green, with rounded leaves, finely cut edges ; the central leaves 
are folded into a barely perceptible head. It is an intermediate 
variety between the Cabbage Lettuce and the Cutting Lettuces. 
It grows into a broad rosette like an Endive. The leaves are light 
green, entire for the largest portion of their surface, and much 
puckered and folded at the edges. It is slow in running to seed. 
The Grand Rapids Lettuce comes very near it, but is less curly. 








California Curled Lettuce. 



American Curled Lettuce. 



American Curled, or Gathering 1 , Lettuce. A kind of Batavian 
Lettuce, with the leaves twisted, puckered, folded at the margin, 
and strongly tinged with coppery red at the edges. It is distinct 
and pleasing in appearance, but does not head well. It is used as 



398 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

a green salad, like the Early Simpson Lettuce, and sometimes the 
first leaves are plucked off very early, with the view of making 
a later gathering of the new leaves which are to follow, or of 
the sprouts or shoots which grow from the axils. From this it 
derives its name of "Gathering Lettuce." 

New Egyptian Sprouting Lettuce ( White-seeded}. Resembles 
the American Curled Lettuce, but is lighter in colour, and the 
leaves are longer and less crimped. It is remarkable for the 
abundance of its shoots. These shoots are composed of only a 
few long narrow leaves, and are very like the Cutting Lettuces 
raised on hot-beds. Their use is the same. 

Oak-leaved Cutting Lettuce. The plant forms a tallish rosette, 
tufty and rather full in the centre, 12 to 14 in. broad, composed 
of very numerous leaves, which are rather long, light green in 
colour, divided into rounded lobes, sinuated, and broader and far 
less undulated than those of the Black-seeded Cutting Lettuce. 
This variety is hardy and bears the winter well. It grows very 
well again after being cut. Seed black. 

A variety named Artichoke-leaved Cos Lettuce is sometimes 
grown. This is very like the Oak-leaved variety, differing from 
it chiefly in the brown tint of its leaves. 

Endive-leaved Cutting Lettuce. Leaves spreading in a rosette, 
light-coloured, curled and crisped like those of the Small Green 
Curled Winter Endive. This variety is tender to eat, very hardy, 
and very good for cutting. It bears the winter well. The seed is 
black, and is the smallest of all kinds of Lettuce seed. 

There is another variety which has a fuller heart, but the leaves 
are not so much curled, and are of a light grayish or silver hue. It 
is named the English Endive-leaved Cutting Lettuce. 

There is an American variety of Cutting Lettuce which is very 
distinct from any of the preceding kinds, named the Boston Curled 
Lettuce. The leaves of this variety are of a light green colour, 
spreading into a rosette, and are cut, curled, and puckered at the 
edges like the leaves of a Curled Endive. It is a summer Lettuce 
and has black seed. 

ASPARAGUS LETTUCE 

Lactuca angustana, Hort. 

Leaves long, very narrow, lanceolate, never forming a head. The 
plant soon runs to seed, and it is the thick swollen stems that are 
used as a table vegetable, gathered when they are about a foot 
high. This plant is very distinct, and resembles no other Cos 
Lettuce. The Lactuca cracoviensis, Hort., is a form of the Asparagus 
Lettuce with reddish stems and bronzy leaves. It is grown and 
used in the same way as the common form. Notwithstanding their 



ASPARAGUS LETTUCE 



399 



very peculiar appearance and the Latin names which they have 
received from horticulturists, these two plants are nothing but 
modified forms of the cultivated Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.). The 
indications obtained from the flowers and seeds leave no doubt 
whatever on this point. 

PERENNIAL LETTUCE 

Lactuca perennis^ L. Composites. 

Native of Southern Europe. This plant, which is common in 
the wild state on light or calcareous 
soils all over the central districts 
of France, has been highly spoken 
of as a vegetable for table use. 
The part eaten is the leaves, which 
are very much cut and form their 
rosettes in the early part of the 
spring. The plants are gathered 
where they grow (as Dandelion- 
plants are gathered in the meadows 
in various parts of France), but not 
in sufficient quantity to be sent to 
market. They do not make a bad 
salad, but the produce of the plant 
is so trifling that it is hardly worth 

cultivating. The seed is black, elongated, and small, 
germinating power lasts for three years. 




Perennial Lettuce ( natural size; 
detached leaf, \ natural size). 



Its 



LOVAGE, or LOVACHE 

Levisticum officinale, Koch ; Ligusticum Levisticum, L. Umbellifera* 

French, Ache de montagne. German, Liebstock. Spanish, Apio de monte. 

Native of Southern Europe. Perennial. A very tall plant with 
large, shining, dark green radical leaves, which are twice or thrice 
divided into pinnate segments, entire and wedge-shaped at the base 
and incised lobed in the upper part. Stem thick, hollow, erect,, 
dividing at the top into opposite whorled branches ; flowers yellow, 
in umbels ; seeds strongly aromatic, hollow and boat-shaped on one 
side, and convex on the other, with three prominent ribs. Their 
germinating power lasts for three years. 

CULTURE. The plant is propagated either from seed or by 
division of the roots. The seed is sown as soon as it is ripe that 
is, about August. The young plants are planted out permanently, 
either in autumn or early in spring, in good deep, moist, well- 
manured soil. The division of the roots should be made in spring. 



40O 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



A plantation will last several years without requiring to be renewed. 
When growing, the plants are treated exactly like Angelica-plants. 
USES. At the present day Lovage is almost exclusively used 
in the manufacture of confectionery ; formerly the leaf-stalks and 
bottom of the stems were eaten, blanched like Celery. 

MAIZE, or INDIAN CORN 

Zea Mays, L. Graminea. 

French, Mais sucre. German^ Mai's. Flemish and Dutch, Turksche tarwe. Italian, 
Grano turco. Spanish, Malz. Portuguese, Milho. 

Native of America. Annual. The Maize plant, or Indian Corn, 
was introduced in the sixteenth century from America into Europe, 

where its cultivation 
soon became very 
general, and where it 
now occupies an im- 
portant place among the 
cereal crops which 
furnish food for man. 
In many places the heads 
or " cobs " are gathered 
while the seeds are 
young and tender, and 
are parched and eaten 
as a delicacy, but it is 
almost exclusively in 
the United States of 
America that the Maize 
is regarded as a regular 
table vegetable and 
grown specially for that 
purpose. Almost all the 
varieties may be eaten 
as they are in America that is, boiled before the seeds have 
become hard and floury, and while the pulp of true interior is 
still in the condition of a soft paste ; but there are some kinds 
which are superior to the rest for this purpose, their seeds being 
sweeter and more tender, and which are known by the general 
name of Wrinkled Sweet Maize. These are distinguished by the 
very peculiar appearance of the seed, the skin of which is wrinkled, 
shrunken, and almost transparent when ripe, instead of being hard, 
swollen, and smooth, like that of other kinds. Its germinating 
power lasts for two years. 

In the United States, where this plant is highly esteemed as a 
table vegetable, there are at least a dozen distinct varieties grown, 




Maize, or Indian Corn (| natural size). 



MAIZE, OR INDIAN CORN 



401 



differing from one another chiefly in size and earliness. Most of 
these have white seed. The best varieties are : 

Extra Early Dwarf. This is one of the best for cultivation in 
Central Europe. 

Early Minnesota. A very early kind, growing from 3 to 4 ft. 
high. 

The Early Crosby and the Large Early Eight-rowed. These 
are somewhat larger kinds than the preceding one, with a longer 
head, but about ten days later. 

Concord. A stronger growing kind, of excellent quality. 

Stowell's Evergreen Late. A later kind, but a good bearer, 
and keeping the heads tender and delicate for a longer time. 

Besides these may be mentioned the Early Narraganset Dwarf, 
the ripe seeds of which are red, and the Sweet Mexican, which has 
black seeds. 

CULTURE. The Maize is sown in the open air about the same 
time as Kidney Beans that is, as soon as the ground has become 
somewhat warmed, and there is no longer any danger of frost All 
the attention it requires is the occasional use of the hoe when 
the plants are commencing to grow, and occasional waterings when 
they have become pretty strong. The earliest kinds sometimes 
yield a few well-grown heads about the end of July, and heads may 
be had somewhat earlier, if a sowing is made in a hot-bed and the 
young plants put out in the open ground about May 25th. 
By making successional sowings, and employing varieties of 
different degrees of earliness, fresh heads may be had up to the 
arrival of the first frosts. 

USES. The head or " cob " is boiled and served up, either 
entire, or the seeds are taken off and served up like Kidney Beans. 
The heads are also gathered when very young and small and 
before the flower opens, and are pickled in vinegar like Gherkins. 



CURLED, or CURLED-LEAVED, 
MALLOW 

Malva crispa, L. Malvacece. 

French, Mauve frisee. German, Krausblattrige 
Malve. Italian, Malva crespa. 

Native of the East. Annual. A 
large plant, with an erect, simple, or 
slightly branched stem, 4 to over 6 ft. 
high, and leafy to the top. Leaves 
large, round, light green in colour, very 
elegantly curled and puckered at the 
edges ; flowers white, small, in long 
leafy terminal clusters ; seeds brown, 




Curled Mallow. 
26 



402 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



kidney-shaped, with a rough and irregular surface. Their germi- 
nating power lasts for five years. The seed is sown in April, 
either where the plants are to stand or in a seed-bed, from which 
the young plants are transplanted when they are from 2 to 4 in. 
high. They require no particular attention. When this plant is 
once grown in a garden it generally continues to reproduce itself 
from self-sown seed. No part of the plant is eaten, but the leaves 
are sometimes used for garnishing desserts, etc., and a few plants 
may be worth having in the kitchen-garden. 

JEWS' MALLOW 

Corchorus olitorius, L. Tiliacece. 

French, Corette potagere. German, Gemlise-Corchorus, Nusskraut. 

Native of Africa. Annual. Stem cylindrical, smooth, more or 
less branched at the base, and about 20 in. high ; leaves alternate, 
broader near the base, narrowing for a considerable length to a 
point, and sharply toothed ; flowers yellow, axillary ; seed-vessels 
cylindrical, rather long, and smooth ; seeds very angular, pointed, 
greenish, and very small. Their germinating power lasts for five 
years. As this plant is a native of a very warm country, it does not 
succeed very well in the climate of Paris. The seed is sown in the 
open ground, in a warm position, in May, or may be sown earlier in 
a hot-bed. The plant, however, is more valued in tropical countries, 
where it can be grown in the open air without any trouble. The 
leaves are used for salad while they are young and tender. 

MARIGOLD (POT) 

Calendula officinalis, L. Composites. 

French^ Souci des jardins. German, Ringelblume. 

Native of Southern Europe. Annual. Leaves lanceolate, 

oblong, entire, rough, and of a rather 
gray-green ; stems short, branching 
from the base, and bearing broad 
orange-coloured flower-heads ; seeds 
gray, much wrinkled, covered with 
small round protuberances, almost 
spiny, and curved into the shape of 
a bow or ring. Their germinating 
power lasts for three years. The seed 
is sown where the plants are to stand, 
in March or April, in drills 14 to 
16 in. apart, and the seedlings are 
thinned out to a distance of 10 to- 
12 in. from one another in the drills. 
Marigold (Pot) (,v natural size). The plants commence to flower in 




MARIGOLD (POT) 



403 



July, and continue to bloom all through the summer and far into 
autumn. The flowers are used in some culinary preparations, 
for which purpose they are gathered during the summer, dried 
in the shade, and kept until wanted. They are also used for 
colouring butter. 



. 



POT, or PERENNIAL, MARJORAM 

Origanum vulgar e, L. Labiatce 

French, Marjolaine vivace. German, Perennirender Englischer Majoran. Flemish, 
Orego. Danish, Merian. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. This is a very common wild 
plant in France, especially on the borders of woods. It forms a 
branching tuft or clump, 
20 in. to 2 ft. high, bearing 
terminal clusters of pink 
or lilac flowers. Seeds 
very small, oval, and of 
reddish or dark -brown 
colour. Their germinating 
power lasts for five years. 

CULTURE. This is a 
very hardy plant, and will 
grow in almost any kind 
of soil, so that it is as 
easily cultivated as Thyme. 
The seed is sown in spring 
or in autumn, in drills, or 
to form edgings, which 
will last for many years 
without requiring any 
attention. 

USES. The leaves are 
used for seasoning. 

There is a variety 
which has short erect stems, bearing large clusters of almost 
white flowers, and forming a very compact tuft not more than 
from 12 to 14 in. high. This kind, which is named Dwarf Pot 
Marjoram, is especially adapted for forming edgings, and always 
comes true from seed. 

Some unscrupulous seedsmen of the South of France sell 
under the name of Perennial Marjoram the seed of Calamintha 
nepeta, commonly known as Mountain Mint, which grows 
abundantly in Provence on hills and along the roads. The 
difference, however, is easy to recognise. 




Pot, or Perennial, Marjoram (^ natural size ; 
detached branch, natural size). 



404 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



SWEET, or ANNUAL, MARJORAM 

Origanum Majorana, L. ; Majorana hortensis, Mcench. Labiate. 

French^ Marjolaine a coquille. German. Majoran. Flemish and Dutch, Marjolijn. 
Italian^ Maggiorana. Spanish, Mejorana. Portuguese, Manjerona. 

Native of the East. Perennial, but grown in gardens as an 
annual. A plant with an erect, square, branching stem. Leaves 

opposite, roundish, of a 
grayish green colour; flowers 
small, whitish, in rounded 
clusters with spoon-shaped 
bracts; seeds small, roundish 
or slightly oblong, of a 
more or less dark brown 
colour. Their germinating 
power lasts for three years. 
CULTURE. The seed 
may be sown at the end 
of March or early in April. 
The plant springs up 
rapidly, so that the leaves 
may commence to be 
gathered in the course of 

fc-^25W^ May< The flowers a PP e ar 

-SgBH^^ 




about the end of June or 
early in July. 

USES. The leaves and 
the ends of the shoots are 

used for seasoning, for which they are highly esteemed, especially 

in the south of France. 



Sweet, or Annual, Marjoram (^ natural size; 
detached branch, natural size). 



MELON 
Cucumis Melo, L. Curcurbitace&. 

French, Melon. German, Melone. Flemish and Dutch, Meloen. Italian. Popone. 
Spanish, Melon. Portuguese, Melao. 

Annual. A native of the warm parts of Asia, and cultivated 
from a very remote period of antiquity, the Melon is not now 
certainly known to exist in the wild state, but it is supposed that 
the original or typical plant, if it is still to be found anywhere, 
must have an oblong fruit like that of the Persian Melon. 

It is a plant with herbaceous, slender, flexible, almost cylindrical 
stems, furnished with tendrils, by means of which they attach 
themselves to surrounding objects, and climb when they meet with 
a suitable support ; otherwise they creep along the ground. The 
leaves, leaf-stalks, and stems are rough, with short thick hairs, 



MELON 405 

which have almost the texture of true spines. The shape and size 
of the leaves are very variable, and there is no unvarying relation 
between the size of the leaves and that of the fruit in any one kind 
or variety. Most usually the leaves are kidney-shaped, rounded, 
and often folded or waved on the margin ; frequently they are 
distinctly cut into three or five lobes, and sometimes the divisions 
even reach the depth of half the leaf ; the margin is smooth and 
unbroken in some varieties, and toothed and spiny in others. The 
Melon is a monoecious plant ; that is, male and female flowers, 
distinct from each other, are produced on the same plant. These 
flowers are rather small, and have a yellow corolla with five 
divisions and from f to about ij in. in diameter. The female 
flower is situated on the top of the ovary, which, in almost all the 
varieties, is ovoid, at the time when the flower expands, and is then 
about as big as a good-sized hazel-nut, at least. Insects, especially 
hive-bees and humble-bees, visit the flowers in great numbers, and 
are almost always effectual in ensuring their fertilisation ; but when 
the plants are forced, or when it is desired to preserve a certain 
variety free from any intermixture with others, it is better to 
fertilise the flowers artificially, by applying the pollen with a 
camel-hair pencil, or direct from the male flower stripped of its 
corolla. The fruit exhibits so much diversity of shape, size, and 
colour, that it is difficult to give any general description of it. It 
is met with under a variety of round, flat, and elongated shapes, 
ranging from the form of a Pumpkin to that of a Cucumber. The 
colour is equally diversified, from white to black, and passes 
through every shade of green and yellow, not to mention variega- 
tions of all kinds. The skin is often marked with wrinkles or 
creases, which become, as it where, corky, and stand out in bold 
relief on the surface. The fruit in this case is termed " netted," or 
" net-veined." In other instances the fruit is covered with pro- 
tuberances, more or less large and prominent, and known as 
" scabs " or " warts." Lastly, the skin of the fruit is sometimes 
perfectly smooth, and sometimes marked by a number of furrows, 
extending from the stalk to the eye of the fruit. These furrows 
have between them a certain number of ribs, usually from nine 
to twelve, which are more or less prominent, according to the 
variety. The seeds, which are smooth, usually white or yellowish, 
flat and oblong, are collected together in the centre of the fruit, 
and surrounded by a very watery pulp, full of soft filaments, 
which are the umbilical cords of the seeds. The flesh, properly 
so called, of the fruit is always watery, sweet, and usually highly 
perfumed ; its colour is green, white, or orange. The relation 
between the size of the fruit and that of the seed is not always 
constant. The germinating power of the seed lasts for five years at 
least, and often for more than ten years. 



406 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

CULTURE. Melons, like most other plants of the same natural 
family, require good soil, in order to grow well and produce fine 
fruit. They do not succeed well in the open air, except in very 
rich alluvial soil, or in ground that has been abundantly manured. 
All through the north of Europe they are only grown in the open 
air in exceptional cases, and, as a rule, are cultivated exclusively 
under glass. We shall, therefore, dwell more particularly upon this 
mode of culture. 

The Melon requires for its growth a moderately high tempera- 
ture. This should almost always exceed 54 Fahrenheit ; and the 
quality of the fruit is always better if the mean temperature is kept 
raised while they are ripening. Under the most favourable con- 
ditions, the plant requires four or five months to complete its 
growth, from which it may be seen that in the climate of Paris 
there is no positive certainty of ripening the fruit without the aid 
of artificial heat, and consequently they are almost always grown 
there in hot-beds. During nine or ten months of the year the 
market-gardeners about Paris have the plants under cultivation, 
and these furnish a supply of ripe fruit for six full months. The 
frames of Melon-pits being lined with manure, the plants are, in a 
manner, forced, as they thus receive a greater amount of heat than 
they would in the open air. Custom, however, has restricted the 
meaning of " forcing," in the case of Melons, to this mode of 
culture when commenced in January with the object of obtaining 
ripe fruit in May, while an " early " crop is that which ripens in 
June and early in July, and Melons "of the season," or the general 
crop, are those which are gathered from the end of July up to 
October. The details of the mode of culture are not exactly the 
same for these three periods, nor are the same varieties of plants 
grown in succession. 

FORCING. Melon-forcing commences, as we have just said, in 
January, and the kinds usually forced at Paris are the Prescott 
Small Early Frame and the Early Black Rock Melon. The seed 
is sown on a warm hot-bed during the month of January, and the 
fourth week after sowing the young plants are pricked out into 
another hot-bed, from twenty-eight to thirty plants under each 
light. During the whole of this early period of their growth the 
plants require continual attention in giving them air as often as 
that can be done with safety, occasionally watering them from a 
fine rose, and especially in guarding against the condensation of 
too much moisture on the lower part of the lights. In March they 
are planted out on another hot-bed. Before doing so, they should 
be stopped ; that is, the main stem should be cut above the second 
leaf. After they have taken root, two lateral branches are quickly 
produced, and these are allowed to grow until they have made eight 
or ten leaves each, when they are cut above the sixth leaf, and at 



MELON 407 

this time fresh branches are growing, which almost always bear 
fertile or female flowers. Various modes of stopping the plant 
have been suggested, all of which may be useful under certain 
circumstances, but the method which we have just described has 
been generally adopted in the neighbourhood of Paris, as the most 
simple and usually the most sure. There are two things which 
should not be lost sight of in growing Melons. One is, that 
vigorous, healthy, well-grown leaves are indispensable for the pro- 
duction of fine and good fruit. Care should therefore be taken to 
grow and maintain as many leaves as can find room in the portion 
of the frame where the plant is, without depriving one another of a 
due share of air and light. The other important point is, that it is 
almost always necessary to expedite the branching of the plants, in 
order to cause the fruit to set as soon as possible ; for if the plant 
is allowed to follow its natural mode of growth, it may only com- 
mence to produce fertile or female flowers too late for the fruit to ripen 
properly. As soon as there are a few fruit set, the best of them, or 
that which, from its strength and position, promises the best growth, 
should be selected, and all the rest pinched off. In forcing Melons, 
only one fruit is left on each plant. The last thing to be done is 
to cut away any useless branches that may make their appearance, 
and to ensure the symmetrical growth of the fruit by raising it off 
the hot-bed on a tile or small board, turning it so that it may, 
as far as possible, rest on the part where it is united to the stalk. 
Melons forced in this way sometimes ripen in April, but cannot be 
expected to do so with certainty until May. 

EARLY CROP. For this, the seed should be sown in the course 
of February, up to the end of the month, and the plants are treated 
in the same way as those which have just been described as "forced," 
the same operations being simply repeated three or four weeks later. 
This is a more certain crop than the previous one, as there is 
less danger of frosty weather and a better supply of light. The 
same varieties are now sown, and also the Cantaloup Prescott a Fond 
Blanc, a kind which is somewhat larger and more esteemed at Paris 
than the other two varieties. 

GENERAL CROP. This crop is grown on by far the most 
extensive scale at Paris, and is one in which the market-gardeners 
excel. The seed is sown in the usual way in a hot-bed, and the 
plants are planted out during May in hot-beds, which are generally 
arranged in great numbers one before another, occupying a whole 
square, or section of a garden. The varieties generally grown are 
the Cantaloups Prescott a Fond Blanc, Fond Gris, and Fond Blanc 
Argente ', sometimes the Rock, or Algerian, Cantaloup, and (rarely 
now) the Common Melon (Melon Maraicher}. When the plants 
are well rooted, the lights are completely removed, sooner or later, 
according to the prevailing temperature, and thenceforward, until 



408 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

the fruit ripens, the plants are grown entirely in the open air. 
The stopping, selection of the fruit, etc., are just the same as in 
the two previous seasons ; however, the plants are generally allowed 
to push a little more, and two fruit are often grown on the same 
plant, but the second one is not started until the first is nearly full 
grown. In this way the remaining strength of the plant is turned 
to account without injuring the first fruit, which requires no further 
supply of nutriment to increase its size, and has only to ripen the 
quantity of matter which it has already assimilated. 

OPEN-AIR CULTURE. This method, which, as we have seen, is 
very little used in the north of France, is, in fact, only a simplifica- 
tion of what has just been described. The plants are raised in the 
same way in a hot-bed, and planted out in rows of holes containing 
a good forkful of manure, covered with mellow soil or compost. 
For the first few days they are protected with cloches or bell- 
glasses, or, in some places, with oiled paper or calico, supported 
by thin rods bent in the form of an arch. As soon as the weather 
becomes quite warm these coverings are removed, and the plants 
are grown on in the open air without any protection. 

In gathering Melons, it is not necessary to wait until the fruit is 
perfectly ripe ; for if they are gathered a few days before that time 
and kept in a dry, warm place, they will ripen there more or less 
speedily, according to the temperature. It is not always easy to 
know the exact time when a Melon ripens, as the indications vary 
with the species, and are often not very plain. In a great many 
varieties, when the fruit is near ripening, the stalk exhibits a 
number of cracks (often deep ones), as if the fruit were about 
to separate from the plant. In almost all kinds of Melons, ripe- 
ness is indicated by the softening of the part of the fruit which 
surrounds the eye, and which yields to the pressure of the finger. 
A change in the colour of the fruit to a more or less decided yellow 
tinge is also a sign of ripeness. When this change makes its 
appearance, the fruit may be gathered and kept for a few days in 
the fruit-room. Lastly, the perfume, which Melons commence to 
give out almost as soon as they have attained their full size, 
becomes stronger and more perceptible as they grow ripe ; so that 
it is sometimes one and sometimes another of these indications,, 
according to the variety, that must be taken as a guide in fixing 
upon the proper time for gathering the fruit. 

Strictly speaking, Melons are Melon of the market with pepper and 

fruits, and among the best, but in salt. With us the difference in the 

the Paris market-gardens they are kinds and the great difficulty of 

commonly cultivated among the the culture make our garden Melons 

vegetable crops. It is also the among our very choicest " dessert " 

custom to eat before dinner, or in fruit. Slight though the distance be 

the early part of it, the common between North France and London, 



MELON 



409 



it is sufficient to cause a consider- 
able difference in Melon culture, and 
as this book is mainly intended for 
English use, we give here an account 
of the English culture. There are 
various methods of Melon culture 
in England, more especially since 
it has become the rule to devote 
a house or houses to their produc- 
tion, and an interesting modifica- 
tion of the common practice is 
suggested by Mr. Iggulden in the 
Garden : 

"Where they are grown princi- 
pally in frames, certain rules have 
of necessity to be followed, but in 
houses the case is very different. 
Much of this variance in practice 
may be due to the construction of 
the houses. As a rule, I believe that 
the majority of Melon-growers have 
a fixed routine from which they do 
not deviate any more than they can 
avoid, let the conveniences be what 
they may. Some prefer to cultivate 
Melons in large pots, not only the 
earliest, but also throughout the 
season. Others there are who plant 
in mounds of soil placed on a slate 
staging or iron gratings not far from 
the hot-water pipes, some of the 
latter, perhaps, being enclosed to 
afford bottom-heat ; while many more, 
probably the majority of cultivators, 
make a good hot-bed with fermenting 
material, and on this place a con- 
tinuous ridge of soil in which to 
start the plants. If all plans were 
alike successful, there would be no 
necessity nor room for criticism, 
but, as it happens, the reverse is 
the case, and really good fruits are 
by no means plentiful. Let those 
who doubt the truth of this assertion 
taste all the fruits in a well-filled 
Melon class at any exhibition, and 
after that probably they will change 
their opinion.. Several reasons for 
Melon failures may be given, fore- 
most among which should be placed 



premature ripening; this may be 
brought about either by the drying 
process or by the actual collapse of 
the plant. The fruits may be well 
coloured and otherwise tempting 
enough, but unless they are cut from 
a healthy plant they are certain to 
be unfit to eat. If we treat Melons 
much as we should some species of 
Orchids, that is to say, almost stew 
them at one time and bake them at 
another, we ought to expect failure. 
Treat Melons as Cucumbers are 
generally treated, and not only will 
they yield a succession of crops, but 
the fruits will be certain to be good. 
One set of plants may be easily made 
to perfect three crops of fruit, or I 
might say a continuous crop, and the 
last fruits to ripen may be as fine, 
both as regards size and quality, as 
the first. Two, or maybe three or 
four, Cucumber-plants are by many 
good cultivators considered ample 
for an average-sized house, and a 
similar number of Melons is also 
quite enough. Instead of this, we 
oftener see them planted 2 ft. and 
even less distances apart, and con- 
fusion is not unfrequently the conse- 
quence. If the cultivator is fortunate 
enough to set the first four fertile 
flowers, or, at any rate, a fair crop on 
the laterals thrown out by the main 
stem, the result may be satisfactory 
enough, but should he miss the 
chance it is very doubtful if another 
good one will offer. In the case of 
the plants allowed to extend freely 
and naturally, these will be con- 
stantly developing healthy, fertile, 
and easily set blossoms. Melons 
grown like Cucumbers, and in a 
house with them if need be, will be 
continually gaining strength, and, 
almost incredible as it may appear 
to some, will set fruit naturally and 
at different times. Instead, there- 
fore, of a glut we may secure a suc- 
cession from the same plant, and 



4io 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



this is one strong recommendation 
in favour of the practice which I 
recommend. True, these liberally 
treated plants are apt to produce 
rather large fruit, which for market 
purposes especially are not desirable, 
but this difficulty may be obviated, 
and need not deter any one from 
adopting the plan. 

" BOTTOM - HEAT. Many , culti- 
vators lay much stress upon the 
necessity for bottom-heat, this being 
afforded either by fermenting ma- 
terial or enclosed hot-water pipes, or 
the two combined. I shall try to 
prove that not only are these not 
absolutely necessary, but they are 
also not unfrequently a source of 
danger and a cause of failure. At 
the outset a bed of heating material 
composed, say, of stable manure and 
leaves, will give the plants an excel- 
lent start, and they will be apparently 
altogether superior to those started 
without such bottom-heat. All the 
while the heat lasts and the material 
is still in good condition the pro- 
gress is satisfactory, but when the 
mass of material is decayed and gets 
sodden with moisture the tempera- 
ture is materially lowered, and other 
evils follow. When the plants stand 
in most need of assistance, viz. when 
heavy crops are being matured, they 
get much less than at the earlier 
stages. A collapse is frequently the 
consequence, and the plants are 
either necessarily "dried off," or the 
fruits are cut and placed on hot 
shelves to colour or ripen where the 
bottom-heat is principally afforded 
by enclosed pipes; these, with the 
assistance, perhaps, of a small bed 
of heating material, answer very well 
for a time, but later on the material 
in contact with the gratings or slates, 
as the case may be, becomes very dry 
and non-conducting the bottom- 
heat thus being wasted. This is by 
no means an imaginary case, as I have 



several times opened the chambers 
formed over hot-water pipes in order, 
if possible, to discover why we ob- 
tained insufficient bottom-heat, and 
they have proved unbearably hot. 
Then, again, unless the valves are 
so regulated as to admit of all the 
heat being turned on to the bottom- 
heat, the chances are that during 
warm weather they are not heated 
at all. In this case the difference 
between the top and bottom-heat 
may be much too divergent for the 
well-being of the plant. A healthy 
root-action should be maintained as 
long as possible, and the bottom- 
heat should be equal to the top-heat. 
Without at present going into de- 
tails, I may state that our Melons 
are planted in raised square mounds 
of soil enclosed by loose bricks. The 
bottom-heat is not enclosed or con- 
centrated in any way on the mounds, 
but these being well exposed share 
more or less in the fluctuations of 
the top-heat. This plan entails more 
labour in the shape of very frequent 
waterings, varied with liquid manure, 
and the progress at the outset is 
rather slow, but in the end the stems 
become strong and woody, and it 
rarely happens that they fail. 

"SoiL. It may be a difficult 
matter for some to completely change 
their practice, even if they are dis- 
posed to do so, but there is nothing 
to prevent a modification, especially 
with regard to the disposition of the 
soil. Many seem to think that the 
poorest and heaviest loam procurable 
is the correct compost for Melons, 
this being placed in a rounded ridge 
on the top of the hot-bed and heavily 
beaten down in that position. In 
this case the loam has but little to 
do with an ultimate success, but may 
be partly blamed for a failure. It 
cannot be kept properly moistened, 
and the consequence is the roots 
quickly leave it and find their way 



MELON 



411 



down into the too rich manure under- 
neath. Given a square ridge of 
fairly stiff turfy loam, made tolerably 
firm (this will render watering an 
easy matter), and occasional slight 
top-dressings with good soil to which 
has been added a sprinkling of 
manure, and no difficulty will be ex- 
perienced in maintaining a healthy 
surface root action. The best varie- 
ties to cultivate ought in every case 
to depend upon circumstances 
whether green-fleshed or scarlet- 



fleshed, large, medium, or small, 
ought to be settled in accordance 
with what may be required. Some 
think the exigencies of the case are 
met by growing as many varieties as 
there are plants ; but this, although 
an interesting experiment, is far from 
being politic. At the present time 
I have seeds of upwards of twenty 
varieties in a seed-drawer, but of 
these only three varieties will be 
grown, and one of these only by 
way of experiment." 



USES. The fruit are eaten raw. In the south of France, some 
white-fleshed or green-fleshed kinds are preserved, or made into 
jam. The young fruit which are pinched off may be eaten like 
young Gourds or Cucumbers, or may be pickled in vinegar, like 
Gherkins. 

There are numerous classifications of Melons. Of these we 
shall follow the simplest and most common one, which divides 
them into the two groups of the Netted and the Cantaloup or 
Scabby-skinned Melons. 



I. NETTED MELONS 

French, Melons brodes. German, Netz-Melone. Italian, Popone primaticcio. 
Spanish, Melon escrito. 

Red-fleshed Pine-apple Melon. A vigorous, branching plant, 
with medium-sized or small, entire, rounded leaves, of a slightly 
glaucous green colour. Fruit very long stalked, with 
slightly marked ribs, and a delicate green colour, 
very plentifully dotted with black-green ; the furrows 
between the ribs are very shallow and of a clear 
green colour, and the ribs themselves are slightly 
netted when the fruit is quite ripe ; rind thin. The 
fruit is from about 3 to 4 in. in diameter, and weighs 
from about ten ounces and a half to over one pound. 
The flesh is red, rather firm, sweet, juicy, and highly 
perfumed. In this variety the central cavity seldom 
exceeds the size of a walnut. 

Green-fleshed Pine-apple, or Jersey Green 
Citron, Melon. The principal difference between this and the 
preceding variety is in the colour of the flesh, which is of a pale 
green, with a yellow tinge in the vicinity of the seeds ; the 
leaves also are somewhat larger and lighter coloured. The plant 
continues growing for a longer time, and the skin of the fruit 




Red-fleshed 
Pine-apple 

Melon 
(| natural size). 



412 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



is rather more netted when ripe. Both this and the preceding 
kind will readily carry and ripen from six to eight fruit on 
each plant. 

Green Climbing Melon. A vigorous, branching plant, with 
long slender stems. Leaves dark green, sometimes five-lobed, 
especially those near the ends of the stems ; fruit oblong, with ribs 
faintly marked, deep green in colour, slightly dotted with pale 
green, 4 or 5 in. long and 3 or 4 in. in diameter, and weighing from 
about one pound to one pound and a half; flesh green, very melting, 

exceedingly juicy and 
sweet, with an agreeable 
perfume, although not so 
delicate as that of the 
Cantaloup Melons. It 
cannot be said that this 
variety requires a different 
mode of culture from 
that which is commonly 
employed for the other 
varieties of Netted Melons ; 
yet its earliness renders 
it more suitable for grow- 
ing in the open air than 
most other kinds, and the 
small size of the fruit 
allows of the stems being 
grown on a slight trellis, 
which would be impossible 
in the case of a large 
heavy-fruited variety. By 
planting it in pockets 
filled with manure covered 
with good soil, it may be 
easily brought to climb 
on espalier stakes, or even on a wall, if it has something to which 
it can attach itself. When grown in this way, the fruit ripens 
quicker and better. 

Some other kinds of Melon might be grown in the same way. 
The American Pine-apple Melons, which have very long and 
branching stems, are particularly well adapted for growing on 
trellises. The kinds that succeed the best in this way are those 
which grow rapidly and ripen early, and the fruit of which does not 
require the artificial heat of a hot-bed along with the natural heat 
of the sun to render it very sweet. 

Golden Perfection Melon. Fairly vigorous in growth, not 
straggling, with rather thin stems and leaves of a pale gray-green. 




Green Climbing Melon ( natural size). 



NETTED MELONS 



413 



The fruit is spherical in shape, 4 to 5 in. or so in diameter, and 

usually not more than two to four pounds in weight. The skin is 

at first smooth and dull 

white, turning to yellow as 

the fruit ripens, becoming 

covered also with a thin 

network of slender lines 

crossed at right angles. The 

flesh is pale green, luscious, 

sugary, and perfumed. An 

early, rather delicate variety, 

only succeeding about Paris 

when grown under glass. 

Tours Netted Sugar 
Melon. This is a rather 
variable kind, having several 
sub-varieties which differ 
from one another in the 
shape of the fruit. One form 
of it is often met with, of 
which the fruit is oblong ; but the best form appears to be that which 
we are about to describe. This is a vigorous plant, of medium size, 
and rather branching. Leaves large, entire or not very deeply 
lobed, slightly folded at the edges, and a rather vivid green 
colour ; fruit spherical, about 6 in. in diameter, devoid of ribs or 
having them very faintly marked, and completely covered with very 
coarse, broad, and prominent tracings, crossing one another at right 




Golden Perfection Melon. 





Tours Netted Sugar 
Melon. 



Paris Market-Garden Melon 
( natural size). 



angles and surrounding the fruit like a network of cords ; flesh 
orange-red, thick, firm, and generally very good. The fruit ripens 
half-late. A plant may carry three fruit. 

Round Netted Paris Market-Garden Melon. A branching, 
vigorous plant, with numerous rounded light green leaves, slightly 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



toothed on the margin. Fruit nearly spherical or more or less 
flattened at the ends, entirely without ribs, and very uniformly 
covered with regular and very fine tracings, forming a very close 
network which completely hides the natural colour of the skin ; 
flesh orange colour, thick, and firm. The fruit is about 8 or 10 in. 
in diameter, and weighs, on an average, from four and a half to six 
and three-quarter pounds. A well-grown plant may carry two 
fruit. 

The Saint-Laud Market-Garden Melon and the Maze Market- 
Garden Melon (from the neighbourhood of Angers) are somewhat 
like the preceding kind, but differ from it in being oblong in shape, 
having the ribs rather well marked and the skin more coarsely 
netted. The flesh is orange-coloured, firm, and usually very sweet. 





Saint-Laud Market-Garden Melon 
( natural size). 



Nutmeg Melon Q natural 
size). 



Nutmeg Melon. A medium-sized, branching plant. Leaves 
largish, waved at the edges, and of a rather dark, wan green colour ; 
fruit oval, almost pear-shaped, narrowed to a point at the stalk end 
and bluntly rounded at the other ; skin dark green, almost black, 
marked with whitish tracings forming a rather loose network. The 
length of the fruit varies from about 6 to 8 in., and the diameter 
from 4 to about 6 in. The average weight is about two pounds and 
a quarter. Flesh green, not very thick, but juicy, sweet, and highly 
perfumed. This is a hardy and easily grown kind, ripening half- 
late. Three fruit may be left on each plant. 

Honfleur Melon. A very vigorous-growing plant, with very 
branching, long, and slender stems. Leaves large and luxuriant, folded 
and waved at the edges, light green in colour, usually distinctly lobed, 
and toothed on the entire margin, and especially so towards the 
extremity. The plant continues to flower for an exceedingly 



NETTED MELONS 



415 



lengthened period, producing blooms in succession on the branches, 

even after the fruit which set first have almost attained their full 

size. Fruit very large, 

long, with well-marked 

ribs, finely netted all over, 

and becoming a yellow, 

slightly salmon, colour 

when ripe ; flesh orange- 
coloured and thick. The 

fruit is sometimes 14 to 

16 in. long and 8 to 10 in. 

in diameter. When it is 

well grown, the quality is 

often excellent. It ripens 

half-late. 

This and the Black 

Rock Melon are the 

largest of all the Melons 

in cultivation, the Honfleur 

being equally remarkable 

for its great hardiness. 
Hybrid Vallerand 

Melon. A vigorous, 

branching plant of quick 

growth, a cross between 

the Green Climbing Melon 

and the Large Rock Very Large ^ etted Honfleur Melon ' 

Prescott Cantaloup Melon. The leaves are dark green, only slightly 

cut. The fruit is a long oval, and slighly ribbed, weighing about 
four pounds. The skin is dark green, with 
only a few markings. The flesh is a dark 
orange-red, thick, firm, juicy, and fragrant. 
It is a disease-resisting and good keeping 
variety, also early. 

Red-fleshed Cavaillon Melon. A large 
vigorous-growing plant, with large grayish 
green leaves which have distinctly marked 
and very rounded lobes. Fruit oblong, some- 
times almost spherical, blunt at both ends, 
and with well-marked ribs. When ripe, the 
skin is orange-coloured, and is broadly and 
densely netted, resembling the Tours Sugar 
Melon in this respect. The furrows between 
the ribs are very narrow, and, when the fruit 

is ripe, become reduced to mere lines. The stalk of the fruit is 

remarkably thick and strong. The flesh is a bright red colour, 





Red-fleshed Cavaillon 
Melon ( natural size). 



416 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

thick, a little coarse, juicy, and of a high vinous flavour. The fruit 
ripens slowly. This variety is hardy, and is grown in the open air in 
the south of France, almost without any attention. The fruit has a 
tendency to become modified in shape, and, at the present day, is 
more elongated than it was twenty-five years ago. The district about 
Cavaillon is one of the great centres of Melon-growing in the south 
of France, and there are many distinct varieties in cultivation there, 
so that the name " Cavaillon Melon " is rather an indication of the 
place in which the fruit has been raised than a true specific name. 
The variety which we have just described is at the present time far 
less commonly grown in its native district than the various forms of 
Malta Winter, and especially of Malta Summer Melons, such as the 
following : 

Green-fleshed Cavaillon or Malta Summer Melon. A 
vigorous-growing plant, with very long stems. Leaves broad, 
rounded, toothed on their entire margin, and of a palish green 
colour. Fruit oblong, 5 or 6 in. in diameter, and 9 or 10 in. in 
length ; skin smooth, of a dark green colour, thinly and loosely 
netted when ripe ; flesh pale green, rather firm, but very juicy, 
sweet, and perfumed in warm climates ; seldom good, however, in 
the climate of Paris. 

Ribbed Cavaillon Red-fleshed Melon. The Ribbed Cavaillon 
Melon differs from the Red-fleshed kind in having well-marked 
ribs. It is a vigorous plant, with leaves entire and vivid green. 
The fruit is spherical and ribbed ; the skin silvery white, much 
netted, and the stalk thick and swollen. The flesh is pale red, 
firm, perfumed, and sugary. Does not ripen well in the vicinity 
of Paris. 

Ribbed Cavaillon Green-fleshed Melon. Distinguished from 
the preceding by its fruit, which is oblong in shape and less netted. 
The flesh is green, juicy, perfumed, and very sugary. It needs 
much heat to ripen, and is at its best in the south of France. Of 
all the netted sorts, it is the one most grown around Cavaillon, 
whence it is distributed throughout the southern region. The 
Cavaillon Melons are largely used in the south for various kinds 
of preserves. 

Red-fleshed Malta Winter Melon. A plant of moderate 
vigour, with slender and very branching stems. Leaves slight, 
gray-green, usually entire, but slightly twisted at the margin ; 
fruit oblong, blunt at both ends, only about one-fourth or one- 
third longer than broad, seldom exceeding 9 or 10 in. in length, 
and weighing from three and a quarter to four and a half pounds. 
The ribs are marked, but not very prominently, the furrows between 
them being a gray-green, and the top of the ribs pale green spotted 
with dark green, and covered 1 ? when ripe, with very short, almost 
entirely longitudinal tracings. The fruit-stalk is inclined to be 



NETTED MELONS 



417 




long and very slender for the size of the fruit. Flesh red, rather 
thick, juicy, very sweet, and musky. If the fruit is gathered before 
the proper time, it remains 
firm and almost hard. 
This variety succeeds well 
in the open air, but re- 
quires a southern climate 
to grow it to perfection. 

Green-fleshed Malta 
Winter Melon. A 
vigorous - growing plant, 
with long trailing stems 
and numerous long 
branches. Leaves erect, 
dark and rather dull green, 
rounded and bluntly 
toothed ; leaf-stalks very 
stiff. The leaves are 
usually not large, and re- 
main rolled up, in the 
shape of a funnel. Fruit 
oblong, rounded, blunt at 
both ends, and particu- 
larly so at the end farthest 
from the stalk ; skin white, 
tinged with green, entirely smooth, or with a few tracings on the 
pair next the stalk. The fruit is from 7 to 9 in. long, and 5 or 
6 in. in diameter, and weighs from three and a quarter to four 

and a half pounds. A 
plant rrray carry two or 
three fruit. In the south 
of France this variety is 
very much grown for a 
late autumn crop. The 
fruit gathered at that time 
are kept in a fruit-room 
for winter use. They are 
also preserved in sugar 
or converted into jam. 

Olive Winter Melon. 
Much grown in the 
south of Europe and in 

Green-fleshed Malta Winter Melon (i natural size). Algeria; its merits are 

much the same as those of 

the other Winter Melons. It is one of those exported to northern 
cities late in the autumn. The fruit is oblong, tapering at both 

27 



Red-fleshed Malta Winter Melon. 




4i8 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



ends ; the skin smooth, dark green, more or less bronzed at 
maturity, and sometimes irregularly furrowed, but not ribbed. 

The flesh is red, fairly 
thick, very sweet, juicy, 
and of true Melon flavour. 
Antibes Green-fleshed 
Melon. A vigorous, 
branching, trailing plant, 
differing from most of 
the other varieties by its 
light gray, much-folded 
leaf, which makes it appear 
more deeply lobed than 
it is. The fruit bluntly 
oval and dull white, and 
smooth when ripe. The 
flesh is green, very sweet 
and juicy, and very fresh 
and agreeable in taste. 
It grows best on the coast 
of Provence. Gathered 
fully ripe in October, it keeps perfectly until the month of February, 
and furnishes a very welcome dessert during winter. In the 
climate of Paris it is not at its best, nor does it keep well. 




Antibes Winter Green-fleshed Melon. 



OTHER VARIETIES OF NETTED MELONS. 

Melon Blanc de Russie. Fruit small and round, without 
ribs ; skin smooth, and entirely white ; flesh white, with not much 
flavour. 

Melon Blanc a Chair Verte. A very distinct kind. Fruit 
medium-sized, very much flattened at the ends, and weighing from 
two to three pounds ; skin white, smooth ; ribs well marked ; flesh 
very thick, excellent in quality, and green throughout. 

Melon Boulet de Canon. A small and rather early variety, 
with spherical fruit 5 or 6 in. in diameter ; skin smooth, green, 
marked here and there with a few fine tracings ; flesh pale green. 

Melon de Cassaba, or de la Casba. This kind, which is in high 
repute in the East, appears to require a warm climate to bring it to 
perfection. In appearance it is like the Green-fleshed Malta 
Summer Melon. 

Cyprus Melon. Fruit oblong, with ribs faintly marked, of a 
grayish white colour, very slightly netted, the furrows being 
of a dark green ; flesh orange-coloured, firm, very thick, and high 
flavoured. 



NETTED MELONS 



419 




Moscatello Melon 
( natural size). 



Composite Melon. Fruit oblong, with prominent ribs and 

a thin rind, dark green in colour, almost entirely covered with 

network of medium thickness ; flesh red, firm, 

sweet, and well tasted. 

Melon de Coulommiers. Fruit large, ob- 
long, with tolerably well-marked ribs, and very 

like the Honfleur Melon, of which it appears 

to be a sub-variety. A rather late kind. 

Melon d'Esclavonie. A very distinct 

variety, with large fruit of a long oval shape, 

rounded at both ends, and with a white, smooth, 

and rather thick skin ; flesh nearly white, sweet, 

but insipid. 

Mftlon de Langeais. A variety of the 

Paris Market Garden Melon, with oblong fruit, 

almost twice as long as broad ; ribs pretty well 

marked and very much netted, furrows smooth ; 

skin thin ; flesh red, watery, and rather insipid. 

Ripens half-late. 

Moscatello Melon. Fruit very long, and almost pointed at both 

ends ; ribs rather well marked, of a pale gray or silvery green, and 

very seldom netted ; flesh red, very juicy, and highly perfumed. 

Persian, or Odessa, Melon. 
A rather vigorous plant, with 
long and somewhat slender stems. 
The fruit is devoid of ribs, very 
much elongated, and narrowed to 
a point at both ends, especially 
at the stalk ends ; skin smooth, 
very dark green, with yellow bands, 
themselves spotted or striped with 
green ; flesh very thick, almost 
without any rind and almost en- 
tirely filling the fruit, rather firm, 
but very finely flavoured, juicy, 
sweet, and highly perfumed. This 
Melon requires a great deal of 
heat, and seldom ripens very well 
in northern countries. 

In Persia and Turkestan there 
is a great number of varieties of 
Melons which are highly esteemed 
for their quality in those countries, 
and of which travellers speak in 

terms of admiration. The climate must have a great deal to do 

with this, as the very same kinds, when grown in France, are 




Persian, or Odessa, Melon 
( natural size). 



420 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



always inferior to the French varieties, both in quality and especially 
in the certainty of the crop. 

Quito Melon. Fruit small, oblong, scarcely larger than a hen's 
egg, and citron-coloured when ripe ; flesh white and acidulous. 

Siam Netted Melon. Fruit nearly spherical, rather small ; 
ribs tolerably well marked 
and dark green, almost black 
in the furrows, and covered 
with close coarse network ; 
flesh red. 





Siam Netted Melon. 



Green-fleshed Sugar Melon ( natural size). 



Green-fleshed Sugar Melon. A vigorous plant, with long 
branching stems. Fruit oblong, narrowed at both ends, of a pale 
green colour, finely netted when ripe, and bearing some pointed 
protuberances ; ribs well marked, but not very prominent ; flesh of 
a pale green colour, exceedingly melting and sweet. The length 
of the fruit varies from about 9 to 1 1 in., with a diameter of 4 to 6 in. 
It usually weighs from about four and a half to six and a half 
pounds. Two, or even three, fruit may be grown on each plant. 

Early Green Japanese Melon. Fruit rather small, almost 
spherical ; ribs regular, not prominent ; skin nearly smooth, slightly 
downy, deep green, marked by a very few small tracings here and 
there ; flesh red, firm, and perfumed. 



ENGLISH AND AMERICAN VARIETIES 

The English varieties of Netted Melons are very numerous. 
In this country Melons are mostly grown with the aid of artificial 
heat and more frequently as fruits than as vegetables. The varieties 
cultivated are generally rather small, and usually are round-fruited 
kinds with a very thin skin. Many of them do not succeed very 
well when grown in the open air. 



NETTED MELONS 421 

I. Red-flesJied Varieties 

Blenheim Orange Melon. Fruit shortly oval, netted and 
thin skinned ; flesh orange-coloured, rather thick, and very highly 
perfumed. 

Christiana Melon. An American variety. Fruit spherical, 
with a smooth dark green skin, hardly marked by a few very fine 
tracings ; flesh red, very thick, and exceedingly fine flavoured and 
perfumed. 

Crawley Paragon Melon. Fruit very small, spherical, netted ; 
flesh red, firm, tolerably like that of the Windsor Prize Melon. 

Emerald Gem Melon. Small, almost round fruit, slightly 
ribbed and netted, dark green and yellow when ripe ; flesh very 
thick, Salmon-red, juicy, and excellent in flavour. 

Hero of Bath Melon. Fruit small, round, netted ; flesh red 
and firm ; skin very thin. 

Munroe's Little Heath Melon. A very handsome and distinct 
little Melon, with slightly marked ribs flattened a little at the 
ends, and netted ; flesh red, thick, nearly filling the fruit, juicy 
and sweet. 

Osage, or Miller's Cream, Melon. Late, medium-sized, oval, 
and dark green fruit. Resembles the Green Climbing Melon, but 
has red-coloured flesh. 

Paul Rose, or Petoskey, Melon. Short, .oval in shape, pale 
green changing to yellow. Ribs and netting strongly marked ; 
orange-red flesh, thick and sugary. 

Read's Scarlet-flesh Melon. Fruit medium-sized, round ; skin 
dark green, netted ; flesh scarlet, melting, sweet, and good. 

Scarlet Gem Melon. A pretty little fruit, almost spherical 
about the size of a large Orange, with a smooth gray skin covered 
with fine and rather close tracings ; flesh red, juicy, sweet, and 
highly perfumed. 

Windsor Prize Melon. This appears to be only a sub-variety 
of the preceding kind, with still smaller fruit, but sweeter and more 
highly perfumed, if possible. 

Surprise Musk Melon. An American variety. This is a 
form of the Orange Cantaloup Melon, which has the fruit somewhat 
larger than that of the ordinary variety. It is slightly oblong in 
shape, and netted a little on the ribs ; flesh orange-coloured 
and firm. 

Victory of Bristol Melon. Fruit quite spherical, something 
like that of the Tours Sugar Melon, but more finely netted ; flesh 
orange-coloured, thick, sweet, and rather juicy. The skin is almost 
yellow when ripe. 



422 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

II. White-fleshed Varieties 

Bay View Musk Melon. An American variety. Fruit oblong, 
olive-shaped ; skin green, netted ; flesh white, sweet, and not very 
thick. 

Colston Bassett Seedling Melon. Fruit slightly oblong, blunt 
at both ends ; skin netted, yellow when ripe ; flesh white, melting, 
very juicy, and very delicately perfumed. 

Hero of Lockinge Melon. Fruit medium-sized, rounded ; 
skin bright yellow, netted ; flesh almost white, very tender, melting, 
rich, and excellent. One of the best of Melons. 

Longleat Perfection Melon. Fruit large, rounded ; smooth, 
greenish yellow skin ; flesh white, very melting, juicy and high 
flavoured. 

Queen Emma Melon. Fruit rather large, almost round ; skin 
thin ; flesh white, very melting. A productive kind. 

III. Green-fleshed Varieties 

Bailey's Green-flesh Melon. Fruit medium - sized, round 
ovate, smooth, greenish yellow ; flesh green, very tender, sweet, 
and richly flavoured. 

Baltimore, or Acme, Melon. A climbing variety, rather more 
netted than our own variety. 

Beechwood Melon. Fruit oval, netted, yellow-green when ripe ; 
flesh pale green, melting, sweet, and perfumed. Ripens half-late. 

Davenham Early Melon. Fruit small, spherical, with slightly 
marked closely netted ribs and smooth furrows. The flesh is 
green and very melting. It is very like the Green-fleshed Pine- 
apple Melon, but not so trailing. 

Eastnor Castle Melon. Fruit slightly oblong, nearly smooth, 
scarcely marked by a few tracings when ripe, and then becoming 
pale yellow, having been previously of a perfectly uniform dark 
green ; flesh very tender, sometimes a little clammy. A productive 
kind. 

Egyptian Green-flesh Melon. Fruit rounded, blunt at both 
ends, slightly netted ; skin gray or silvery ; flesh sweet and 
perfumed. 

Gilbert's Green-flesh Melon. Fruit rather large, oval, yellow 
when ripe ; flesh juicy and melting. A good and productive 
variety. 

Gilbert's Improved Victory of Bath Melon. Fruit rather 
large, shortly oval, not much netted, and with ribs slightly marked ; 
flesh pale green, melting, and highly perfumed. This variety some- 
what resembles the Green-fleshed Sugar Melon, but its fruit is not 
so large. 



NETTED MELONS 



423 



Golden Queen Melon. A vigorous kind, probably a sub- 
variety of the preceding one, with somewhat larger and well-netted 
fruit ; flesh firm, juicy, and highly flavoured. 

Hackensack Melon. This is a vigorous form, of the Green- 
fleshed Pine-apple Melon, with spherical fruit. 

Extra Early Hackensack Melon. Much in request in New 
York markets, and about ten days earlier than the type. 

High Cross Hybrid Melon. Fruit medium-sized, spherical, and 
of a uniform white colour ; flesh quite green, rather thick and melting. 

Montreal Market Melon. Very big, rather late, spherical or 
slightly oblong, the ribs well marked ; skin dark green and netted 
all over ; flesh light green and sugary. 

Rocky Ford, or Netted Gem, Melon. A late variety ; fruit 
almost round or slightly 'oval, ribs not high ; skin thin, netted, first 
green then a peculiar gray when ripe ; flesh pale green and very 
sweet. One of the favourites of the American markets, and grown 
in large quantities in Colorado State. 

Skillmann's Netted Melon. A sub-variety of the Green- 
fleshed Pine-apple Melon, with fruit twice as large. 

William Tillery Melon. Fruit oval, with ribs very feebly 
marked ; skin dark green, slightly netted when ripe ; flesh very 
green, not very thick, quite melting and exceedingly sweet, but 
deficient in delicacy of flavour. 



II. CANTALOUP, or ROCK MELONS 



French, Melons cantaloups. German, Cantaloup-Melone. 
Spanish, Meloncillo de Florencia. 



Italian, Zatta. 



The name of Cantaloup Melon is of Italian origin, and dates 
back several centuries. It 
is now used to denote those 
varieties of Melons with 
warty skins, which is sup- 
posed to have been the 
distinctive feature of the 
original Cantaloup Melon. 
In regard to certain varie- 
ties it is not always easy to 
draw a hard-and-fast line 
between the Cantaloup 
Melons and the Netted 
Melons. 

Bellegarde Cantaloup 
Melon. A rather slender 
plant of vigorous and rapid 
growth ; the leaves are light Bellegarde Cantaloup Melon. 




424 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Vaucluse Cantaloup Melon. 



gray-green, the fruit, which is rather long than round, measuring 
usually 4 to 6 in. in length by about 3 in. in diameter. It is only 
slightly ribbed and not very warty. It is easily recognised by the 

length and slenderness of 
the fruit-stem. The flesh 
is very thick, sugary, per- 
fumed, and a fine deep 
orange. In earliness it is 
equal, if not superior, to the 
Early Black Rock Melon. 
Vaucluse Cantaloup 
Melon. Plant of rather 
vigorous growth, with 
stems and leaves quite 
like those of a Cantaloup 
Melon. The leaves are 
slightly cut and rather 
dark green. The fruit is 
borne on a long stalk, is 
deeply ribbed, and remarkable for its very flattened shape, being 
little more than 2 in. deep, while it is often 6 in. in its transverse 
diameter. Its weight is more frequently under than over two 
pounds and a quarter. The skin is nearly smooth, and is marbled 
with dark green on a pale green ground. This little Melon is 
remarkable for its very great earliness, and is sent to the Paris 
markets in June and July 
from the department of 
Vaucluse. 

Apple-shaped Canta- 
loup Melon. A vigorous 
and productive plant. 
The leaves are large and 
rounded. The fruit are 
numerous, small, and 
round, measuring about 
4 in. in diameter by about 
3 in. in depth ; it is very 
slightly ribbed. The skin 
is rough and dark green 
when ripe. The flesh is 
dark orange, thick, juicy, 
and sugary, filling almost 
entirely the seed cavity. Apple-shaped Cantaloup Melon. 

It is a good Melon for small gardens, for its productiveness on a 
given surface is quite equal to that of the large-fruited sorts and 
is longer in point of time. 







CANTALOUP, OR ROCK MELONS 425 

Prescott Early Frame Melon. A medium-sized plant. 
Leaves broad, rounded or slightly angular, of a light gray-green 
colour, and almost always folded in the shape of a funnel ; fruit 
spherical, or slightly flattened at the ends, with the ribs marked, 
faintly warted, marbled with dark green on a pale green ground, 
and with the bottom of the furrows a uniform olive-green ; flesh 
orange-coloured, thick, juicy, and melting. The diameter of the 
fruit is from about 5 to 6 in., and its length (from stem to eye) from 
4 to 5 in. Its weight ranges from twenty-six ounces to over two 
pounds. A plant should carry only one fruit for the early crop, 
and two for the general crop. This variety is remarkably early, 
and its quality is almost invariably excellent. It and the Early 
Black Rock Melon are the best two kinds for forcing under frames. 





Prescott Early Frame Melon Early Black Rock, or Des Carmes Cantaloup, 
(i natural size). Melon ( natural size). 

Early Black Rock, or Des Carmes Cantaloup, Melon. 
A medium-sized, rather branching plant. Leaves largish, of a dark, 
shining green colour, very distinctly five-lobed, folded at the edges, 
almost in the shape of a funnel ; leaf-stalk short and thick ; fruit 
nearly spherical, but slightly flattened at the ends, with ribs clearly 
but not very deeply marked ; skin usually smooth and without 
warts, of very dark green, almost black, turning to orange when 
ripe ; flesh orange-coloured, thick, sweet, perfumed, and of excellent 
quality. The diameter of the fruit varies from about 6 to 7 in., 
and its length (from stalk to eye) from about 5 to 6 in. ; it weighs 
from about two pounds and a quarter to three pounds and a half. 
A plant may ca'rry two fruit for the general crop. This is one of 
the best and most easily grown of the early Melons. 

Bomb-shaped Cantaloup Melon. A very vigorous grower, 
with numerous leaves of vivid green, very much cut, especially 
when young. The fruit is oblong, narrowed at both ends, some- 
times slightly netted or scaly, and a black-green when ripe. 
The skin is very thin ; the flesh dark orange, very tender and very 
juicy. Evidently sprung from the Black Rock or des Carmes 
Melon, which it resembles except in shape, it is very productive, 



426 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




a plant producing three or four fruit, which ripen in succession 

up to September or October. It is suitable for frame as well 

as open culture. 

Sugar Cantaloup 
Melon. A medium- 
sized, very branching, 
vigorous, and hardy 
variety. Leaves rather 
large, distinctly lobed, 
and dark gray-green; 
fruit nearly spherical, or 
slightly flattened at the 
ends, with ribs not very 
strongly marked, of a 
uniform silvery gray 
colour, not very distin- 
guishable from the colour 
of the bottom of the 
furrows, which is a pale 
gray; flesh orange- 
coloured, very thick, 
sweet, juicy, and per- 
fumed ; skin remarkably 
thin. The diameter of 

the fruit is about 5 or 6 in., and the weight usually ranges from 

about 2 Ib. 10 oz. to 3 Ib. 13 oz. A plant may easily carry two 

fruit. This is one of the varieties which succeed the best in 

the open air. 

Large Rock Prescott Cantaloup Melon. A rather vigorous 

and branching plant. Leaves medium-sized, folded at the edges, 

often five-lobed, and a rather deep, light green ; fruit large, and 

very much flattened at the ends; ribs 

broad, very much wrinkled, covered 

with knobs and protuberances of all 

shapes, and irregularly variegated with 

dark and pale green on a whitish 

ground. The ribs are separated by 

very deep, narrow furrows. Flesh 

orange-coloured, very thick, exceedingly 

fine flavoured, juicy, and melting. The 

skin also is thick, but owing to the 

shape of the fruit, that does not prevent 

the flesh from being very abundant. 

The length of the fruit, from the stalk 

to the eye, varies from about 5 to 6 in., and the diameter from 9 

to 1 1 in., while the weight ranges from five and a half to nearly 



Bomb-shaped Cantaloup Melon. 




Sugar Cantaloup Melon 
( natural size). 



CANTALOUP, OR ROCK MELONS 



427 




Large Rock Prescott Cantaloup Melon. 



nine pounds. A plant is generally allowed to carry only one fruit, 

or, in rare cases, two. 

Silvery Prescott Cantaloup Melon. This variety only differs 

from the preceding one 

in the colour of the ribs 

being somewhat more 

metallic, and in the fruit 

being a little larger, but 

of the same quality. The 

two varieties are those 

which are the most ex- 
tensively grown by the 

Paris market-gardeners, 

who supply them in 

abundance from July to 

the end of October. As 

the large Prescott Melons 

are grown to an enormous 

extent, new varieties of 

them are of frequent 

occurrence. Whenever a 

particularly good fruit 

possesses any exterior characteristic which distinguishes it, even in 

a slight degree, from others, the cultivators aim at reproducing this 

characteristic as indicative of the quality, and that is how a new 

variety is often established. 

Parisian Cantaloup Melon. A vigorous plant with short and 

branching stem and dark green leaves, moderately cut and lobed. 

The fruit is large, 
spherical, about 12 in. 
in diameter, the ribs 
being separated by 
well-marked but very 
shallow furrows. The 
skin is silvery white 
with sometimes dark 
green blotches or warts. 
It is very like the 
Silver - white Prescott 
Cantaloup Melon, the 
most important differ- 
ence being in the depth 
of the flesh in com- 
parison with that of the rind. It would be difficult to find 

a Melon possessing depth of flesh and thinness of rind in the 

same degree. 




Silvery Prescott Cantaloup Melon. 



428 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




Parisian Cantaloup Melon. 



Algerian Cantaloup 
Melon. A rathr dense- 
growing plant, with 
numerous short branches. 
Leaves dark green, slightly 
cut, and very much folded 
at the edges, which gives 
them the appearance of 
being five - lobed. They 
are almost turned round 
in the shape of a funnel, 
and are very variable in 
size, those on the lower 
parts of the stems being 
three or four times as 
large as those at the ends 
of the branches. Fruit 
slightly elongated, some- 
times spherical, bearing 
embossed warts or scabs, 
which, as well as the 
bottoms of the furrows, 
are of a very dark green, 
almost black, colour, 



Vauriac Cantaloup 
Melon. Evidently a 
selection from the Silver- 
skinned Prescott Cantaloup 
Melon, which it resembles 
in colour, but not in its 
thick, well-developed ribs, 
separated by deep furrows, 
and rough, sometimes scaly, 
skin. The flesh is a fine 
orange-red, deep, juicy, and 
of excellent quality. The 
fruit is large and heavy. 
The defect of this variety 
is the thickness of its skin, 
as compared with some 
newer varieties, especially 
the Parisian Cantaloup 
Melon. It ripens mid- 
season, and can be well 
grown in small gardens, as 
well as market-gardens. 




Vauriac Cantaloup Melon. 



CANTALOUP, OR ROCK MELONS 



429 




Algerian Cantaloup Melon 
(I natural size). 



contrasting strongly with the light silvery hue of the other parts 
of the ribs. The dark green parts change to orange colour, but 
not fully until the fruit is over-ripe, so that it should be gathered 
before the change takes place. The length 
of the fruit varies from 6 to 10 in., and 
the diameter from about 5 to 8 in., the 
weight ranging from about four and a 
half to six and three-quarter pounds. A 
plant may carry two fruit 

It is surprising that this Melon is not 
grown by the Paris market-gardeners, as 
it is one of the hardiest summer Melons, 
and surpasses all of them, perhaps, in 
uniform goodness of quality. The flesh 
is thick, juicy, perfumed, and always very 
sweet. Ripens half-late. 

Green-fleshed Cantaloup Melon. A 
medium-sized, branching, rather slender- 
stemmed plant. Leaves medium-sized or 
small, dark green, folded at the edges, and often rather deeply cut 
into five lobes ; fruit spherical, or slightly flattened at the ends, with 
faintly marked ribs, light green at the bottom of the furrows, and 
slightly warted on the convexity of the ribs, which are marbled 

with white and dark green. The 
length of the fruit varies from about 
5 to 6 in., the diameter slightly 
exceeding those dimensions, arid 
the weight ranging from about 
2 Ib. 10 oz. to 3 Ib. 5 oz. A plant 
may carry two, and sometimes 
three, fruit. Flesh pale green, very 
thick, melting, juicy, sweet, and 
delicately perfumed. This is one 
of the finest flavoured of all the 
Cantaloup Melons. 

Black Portugal, or Rock 
Cantaloup, Melon. A very 
vigorous, branching plant, with very 
large, soft, rounded, entire leaves, 
of a clear-green colour, more like 
the leaves of Netted Melon than 
those of a Cantaloup. Fruit very 
large, slightly oblong, very blunt, 
and almost flat at the end farthest from the stalk; ribs. deeply 
marked ; skin irregular, knobby, and marked with spots of very 
dark green on a lighter green ground ; stalk very long, and swollen 




Black Portugal, or Rock Cantaloup, 
Melon (i natural size). 



430 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

to a remarkable degree close to the fruit. The shape of the fruit 
is somewhat variable, the length sometimes exceeding the diameter, 
and sometimes the reverse. The extreme diameters range from 
about 10 to 12 in. and the fruit often weighs from eleven to 
thirteen pounds. A plant should not be allowed to carry more 
than one fruit. 

The Maron Melon, which was mentioned some years ago, and 
which weighed, it is said, as much as twenty pounds, is a 
selection from the Black Portugal Melon. 

OTHER VARIETIES OF CANTALOUP MELONS 

Archangel Cantaloup Melon. A handsome, medium-sized 
variety. Fruit nearly spherical, or slightly flattened at the ends, 
with ribs faintly marked, and a gray-green, not very warty, skin, 
almost intermediate in appearance between the White Prescott and 
the Sugar Cantaloup Melon ; flesh red, thick, juicy, sweet, and 
high y flavoured. 

Epinal Cantaloup Melon. This appears to be a sub-variety 
of the Prescott Early Frame Melon, which it somewhat exceeds in 
size. The fruit is almost spherical, with ribs pretty well marked, 
and a pale green skin variegated with gray. Flesh red, and very 
thick. 

Early English Cantaloup Melon. This variety, which is 
now not much grown, is distinguished by its small size and great 
earliness. The fruit is slightly flattened at the ends, and does 
not exceed 4 or 5 in. in diameter. Flesh red, fine flavoured, and 
good. 

Mogul Cantaloup Melon. Fruit almost pear-shaped, twice as 
long as broad, with very prominent ribs ; skin wrinkled, velvety, 
and covered with warts ; flesh red and thick, but deficient in 
flavour. Ripens very late. 

Black Dutch Cantaloup Melon. Fruit very 
large, oblong, sometimes almost pear-shaped ; ribs 
well marked, warty, of a dark green colour, almost 
black, more or less marbled with paler green ; skin 
thick ; flesh orange-red, comparatively scanty, and 
rather coarse. Ripens late. 

Orange Cantaloup Melon. A small oblong 
Melon, ribbed ; with orange-coloured, firm, and 
not very thick flesh. Inferior in all respects to 
rang Mdon. tal UP the Bellegarde Cantaloup Melon. 

Passy Cantaloup Melon. This Melon almost 
exactly resembles the Prescott Early Frame Melon in all the 
parts of the plant, differing clearly from it, however, in the fruit, 
which in the Passy Melon is smoother, more regularly spherical, 




CANTALOUP. OR ROCK MELONS 



43* 




Passy Cantaloup Melon. 



and considerably smaller. The skin is not warty, but simply 

spotted with darker green on a light green ground, especially 

on the parts of the fruit 

which are exposed to the 

sun. The fruit seldom ex- 
ceeds 4 in., or a little 

more, in diameter, and the 

average weight is from one 

pound and a half to one 

pound and three-quarters 

at the most. The flesh is 

red, thick, sugary, and of 

a very uniformly good 

quality, even in fruit which 

ripen late in autumn., 

C. Prescott a Ecorce 

Mince. A handsome 

variety, more spherical in 

shape than most of the 

Prescott Cantaloups com- 
monly grown about Paris, 

and yet coming very near the Sugar Cantaloup, which is also 

distinguished by the thinness of the skin. 

C. Prescott Cul de Singe. In this variety the eye of the 

fruit is considerably enlarged, the part of the fruit around it 

being swollen in such a manner as to give the fruit something 

of the appearance of a Turk's-Cap 
Gourd. This peculiarity of shape being 
sometimes found to be accidentally 
accompanied with a remarkably good 
quality in the fruit, has caused it 
to be much sought after by some 
amateurs, but there is really no 
necessary connection between the two 
things, since quite as good fruit are 
found amongst the ordinary varieties 
of Prescott Melons. The peculiar 
shape, moreover, is not confined to 
this variety, as it occasionally occurs 
in the Sugar and other Cantaloup 
Melons, and even in the Netted Melons, 
and is never found to be accompanied 
with an invariable improvement of 
quality in any variety. 
Queen Anne's Pocket Melon, or Pomegranate Melon. A 

slender climbing plant of light foliage, the leaf more or less deeply 




fruit, 3 natural size). 



432 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

divided into five lobes. Fruit numerous, very small, depressed at 
the ends, unribbed, but marked with bands of green and yellow ; 
flesh not thick, pale orange, and uneatable; seeds small and oval 
shaped. The scent of this fruit, which resembles that of other 
Melons, though less powerfully, is pleasant enough in the ripening 
fruit ; but the flavour of the fruit does not correspond with the 
perfume, and its chief value as a plant is for covering trellises, etc. 
To this variety has been long ascribed the Peach Melon, a small, 
smooth, yellow fruit, scarcely worth eating when raw, but as a 
preserve recalling the flavour of the Peach to some palates ; but it 
is rather referrable to the Quito Melon, already mentioned, if indeed 
the two are not identical. 

WATER-MELON 

Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad. ; Cucumis Citrullus, Ser. ; Cucurbita 
Citrullus, L. Cucurbitacece. 

French, Melon d'eau, Pasteque. German, Wasser-Melone. Italian^ Cocomero. 
Spanish, Sandia. Portuguese, Melancia. 

Native of Africa. Annual. The Water-Melon is a climbing 
plant with slender and very long stems, particularly suitable for 
warm climates, where the watery but insipid pulp of the fruit is 
considered very refreshing. The whole of the plant is covered with 
long, soft, grayish hairs. The leaves are rather large, and divided 
into numerous segments, which are also cut or lobed. All the 
divisions of the leaves, as well as the spaces between the divisions, 
are rounded in outline, which gives the foliage of the plant a very 
peculiar appearance. The flowers are rather like Melon-flowers ; 
they are monoecious, and the female flowers are placed on the top 
of the ovoid and very hairy ovaries, which, as they grow, become 
changed into perfectly smooth, spherical, or oblong fruit. The 
colour of the fruit is sometimes a uniform more or less dark green, 
and sometimes variegated and marbled with grayish green on a 
darker ground. The fruit is filled with flesh or pulp, the colour of 
which varies from greenish white to dark red. The seeds are in 
longitudinal rows, and are flat, oval, short, and of various colours 
white, yellow, red, brown, or black. Their germinating power lasts 
for six years. The varieties of Water-Melons are almost without 
number, the plant being very extensively cultivated in countries 
where little importance is attached to pureness of variety, and 
where different kinds may be seen growing and flowering side 
by side. 

CULTURE. The Water-Melon, being a native of warm countries, 
is not much grown in Europe, except on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean and in the south of Russia, where it forms an important 
article of food. In all tropical countries it is one of the commonest 



WATER-MELON 



433 



fruits, and is grown there, like the Melon, in the open air and 

without any trouble. In the climate of Paris it requires, like the 

Melon, the aid of artificial 

heat ; but it is only grown 

there as a curiosity, the 

fruit being always insipid. 

The only difference in the 

culture of it from that of 

the Melon is, that the 

Water-Melon plants are 

never pinched or stopped, 

the produce being always 

better the more freely the 

stems are allowed to grow. 

We have never known it 

to be well grown in 

England. 

USES. The ripe pulp 
of the fruit is eaten raw, 
like a Melon. Sometimes 
the fruit is sliced, and 
preserved either alone or 
mixed with other kinds of 




It is also made into 



Early Russian Water- Melon. 



fruit. 

jam. Before it has ripened, it may be boiled and eaten like a 

Vegetable Marrow. It is of great value in hot countries. 

Early Russian 
Water- Melon. A 
vigorous plant, with olive- 
green fruit, weighing 
usually less than four 
pounds. It is the earliest 
of all Water - Melons, 
ripening in ordinary 
seasons as early as 
August. The flesh is 
melting and juicy. It 
is the best of all Water- 
Melons. 

Very Early Rodosto 
Water- Melon (Black- 
seeded). Not so early 
as the Seikon, it ripens 

Early Rodosto Water-Melon. ,, . ,, ,- r 

well in the climate of 

Paris. A vigorous plant, with stems 10 ft. long, bearing many 
fruit of pale green colour, rather small, spherical, very slightly 

28 




434 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




flattened, with ribs faintly marked. The flesh is .red, deep, juicy, 
very sugary, and of a very pleasant flavour. Grown on a hot-bed, 
it ripens in average seasons in the second half of August. 

Very Early Seikon 
Water-Melon. A 
variety introduced from 
Japan, of remarkable 
earliness, owing to which 
it ripens better in the 
climate of Paris than most 
Water-Melons, which, as 
grown in the north of 
France, are generally poor 
in flavour. It has a rather 
short stem, and deeply 
cut leaf, quite distinct, 
and wilting readily. The 
fruit is almost spherical, 
slightly flattened at the 

Seikon Water-Melon. ends; the colour dark 

green, with sometimes 

faintly black streaks. The tlesh is red, and the se^ds are black. 
Red-fleshed and Red-seeded Water-Melon. A very early 
Water-Melon. The fruit is slightly oblong, olive-green, and about 
7 or 8 in. in length, and about 4 in. in diameter, weighing two to 
four pounds. It is a productive and well-shaped variety from Pro- 
vence, early enough to ripen well in the climate of Paris. The flesh 
is melting, very juicy, 
delicately perfumed, and a 
fine bright red. 

Black-seeded Water- 
Melon. Fruit oblong, 20 
in. to 2 ft. long and 12 to 
14 in. in diameter ; skin 
smooth, dark green ; flesh 
red, very melting, slightly 
sweet, and filling the whole 
of the fruit ; seed varying 
from dark red to black. 
This variety is most 
usually eaten raw, and, 
along with its sub-varieties, 
is the kind most com- 
monly grown on all the shores of the Mediterranean. 

The Helopa Water-Melon is a vigorous plant, with very large, 
spherical, or slightly flattened fruit ; skin thin, pale green, marbled 




Black-seeded Water-Melon ( natural size). 



WATER-MELON 



435 




Red-seeded Water-Melon (| natural size). 



with still lighter green ; flesh greenish white, firm, but not very 
sweet ; seed black. The fruit sometimes weighs nearly five pounds. 
It ripens half-late, and is seldom eaten except as a preserve. It is 
sometimes used for feeding 
cattle. 

Red-seeded Water- 
Melon. A vigorous plant, 
but not so luxuriant in 
growth as the black-seeded 
variety. The stems spread 
along the ground, and are 
seldom more than about 
8 ft long ; they have com- 
paratively few branches. 
The leaves are broad, with 
the lobes broader and less 
cut than those of any 
other Water- Melon. Fruit 
spherical, 12 to 16 in. in 
diameter, of a rather pale 
green, variegated with gray bands marbled with green ; flesh 
watery, but rather firm, and greenish white ; seed pink or red. 
The fruit of this variety requires nearly four months' heat to 
ripen it, and is chiefly used preserved or made into jam. 

AMERICAN VARIETIES 

In the United States Water-Melons are very highly esteemed 
and very extensively grown. The chief varieties are the following : 

Black Spanish Water-Melon. Fruit large, rounded, or shortly 
oblong, with ribs slightly marked ; skin nearly black ; flesh dark 
red ; seed brown or blackish. A hardy and productive kind. 

Citron Water-Melon. A kind only used for preserving. 
Fruit small, spherical, marked with alternate bands of dark green 
and silvery white ; flesh white, very firm, almost hard, scarcely edible 
in the raw state. It is cut in slices, and preserved like Citrons. 

Cuban Queen Water-Melon. Fruit medium-sized, oval, 
marked alternately with bands of light and dark green ; flesh bright 
red and sugary. 

Excelsior Water-Melon. A handsome, almost spherical, fruit. 

Florida Favourite Water-Melon. Early, very large, long, 
streaked with light green on a darker ground ; flesh deep red and 
good in quality. 

Gipsy Water-Melon. An enormously large kind. Fruit 
oblong, dark green, marked with paler spots in longitudinal bands ; 
flesh red ; seed brown or black. 



436 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

Ice-cream, or Peerless, Water-Melon. --Fruit rounded, large, 
often flattened at the ends ; skin thick, of a very pale green ; flesh 
white and sweet ; seed white. 

Icing, Ice-rind, or Strawberry Water-Melon. A sub-variety 
of the White-seeded Water-Melon, remarkable for the red colour 
of the flesh of the fruit, which is of moderate size, very sweet, 
melting, and agreeably perfumed. 

Mountain, or Mountain Sweet, Water-Melon. Fruit large, 
elongated, oval, sometimes slightly contracted like a Gourd, and 
without ribs ; skin marked with faint bands, some pale, others 
darker in colour ; flesh red, entirely filling the fruit ; seed more or 
less dark brown. A hardy and productive kind. 

Mountain Sprout Water-Melon. This variety comes ex- 
ceedingly close, in every respect, to the preceding one, but is a 
little later. 

Orange Water-Melon. Fruit medium-sized, oval ; skin smooth, 
marbled with dark green on a paler green ground ; flesh red, tender, 
and sweet. 

Rattlesnake Water-Melon. A fine form of the Black-seeded 
Water-Melon. Fruit oblong, elongate, and of a uniform dark green 
colour ; flesh very red. 

Round Light Icing, Ice-rind, Strawberry Water- Melon. 
White-seeded, remarkable for the red colour of its flesh. Medium- 
sized fruit, rounded ; flesh very sweet, pleasantly perfumed, and 
melting. 

Dark Icing Water-Melon. Is a deeper green than the fore- 
going and the Long Light Icing, or Gray Monarch ; has larger fruit. 

Sweet Heart Water-Melon. Fruit large, rounded or slightly 
oblong ; skin pale green, with bands of deeper colour ; flesh red, 
melting, and sweet. 

Many other varieties of Water-Melons might be mentioned, as 
they are perhaps as numerous as those of Melons properly so 
called ; but as this work is chiefly written for countries in which 
the cultivation of Water-Melons seldom succeeds, we limit ourselves 
to the number just described. 

MINT, or SPEARMINT 

Mentha viridis, L. Labiates. 

Menthe verte. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. A plant with a creeping root- 
stock. Stem erect, with spreading branches at the top ; leaves 
nearly sessile, lanceolate-acute, slightly rounded at the base, and 
with distantly placed teeth on the edges ; flowers pink or lilac, in 
cylindrical spikes ; seed very scanty, exceedingly fine, roundish, 
brown. 



MINT, OR SPEARMINT 437 

CULTURE. This plant is usually propagated by division 
in spring. It prefers a cool moist soil, and a plantation of it will 
last for several years, if the stems are cut off close to the ground 
every autumn, and a layer of good soil or compost placed over the 
plants. 

USES. The leaves and the ends of the shoots are used for 
seasoning and for Mint sauce, which, in England especially, is 
considered indispensable for some dishes. 

PEPPERMINT 

Mentha piperita, L. Labiate. 

French, Menthe poivree. German, Pfeffermiinze. Danish, Pebbermynte. 

A native of North Europe. Perennial. A plant with a creeping 
stem, which readily takes root. Leaves stalked, oblong or 
lanceolate-acute ; flowers in a cylindrical-oblong spike and of 
a red-violet colour. This species does not produce seed. 

CULTURE. The Peppermint-plant is grown in the same manner 
as the Common Mint or Spearmint. Although, in the wild state, 
it is usually found in parts of meadows which are wet and almost 
under water, it nevertheless succeeds well in moist, deep garden soil. 
It is always propagated from cuttings of the stems, which take root 
with the greatest readiness. 

USES. The leaves and stems are sometimes used for seasoning, 
but they are chiefly employed for the distillation of the essence of 
peppermint. 

Japanese Mint. Introduced from Japan, it is very like the 
Peppermint, but differs from that by its flowers being situated at 
the axils of its leaves instead of being produced in terminal spikes, 
and also by being reproduced by seed. Its cultivation is the same 
as that of the Peppermint, except for the fact that it can be raised 
from seed. The uses of both are the same. Like the Peppermint, it 
contains menthol, but in larger quantity. 

PENNYROYAL 

Mentha Pulegium, L. Labiates. 

Menthe pouliot. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. A plant with prostrate stems, 
which readily take root, bearing round-oval, slightly hairy leaves 
of a gray-green colour. Flowers small, lilac-blue, in rounded 
whorled clusters rising one above another in tiers on the stem, 
sometimes to the number of ten or twelve ; seed exceedingly fine, 
oval, and of a light brown colour. The whole plant gives out a 
very agreeable odour, which is somewhat more powerful than that 



438 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

of any other kind of Mint. The Pennyroyal prefers stiff moist 
soils. It is propagated by division, and a plantation of it will last 
for several years. The leaves are used for seasoning puddings and 
various dishes. It is seldom seen in English kitchen-gardens. 

CAT-MINT 

Nepeta Cataria, L. Labiates. 

French^ Menthe de chat. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. A tall plant, with erect branch- 
ing stems about 3^ ft. high. Leaves stalked, oval or heart-shaped, 
notched at the edges, and whitish on the under-surface ; flowers 
white, in terminal clusters composed of small heads which are wide 
apart at the bottom, but become more crowded towards the top ; 
seeds brown, smooth, ovoid, with three well-defined angles. Their 
germinating power lasts for five years. It is easily raised from 
seed sown in spring or autumn in lines, which should be 20 in. apart, 
as the plants attain a considerable size. They require no attention, 
and will last for several years, if the ground is kept free from weeds. 
The leaves and young shoots are used for seasoning. 

MUGWORT 

Artemisia vulgaris, L. Composites. 
French^ Armoise. German, Beifuss. Dutch, Bijvoet. Italian, Santolina. 

Native of Europe. Perennial. An exceedingly hardy plant, 
forming very long-lived tufts or clumps. Leaves dark green on the 
upper surface, whitish underneath, pinnate, with oval-lanceolate seg- 
ments, the lower ones stalked, the stem-leaves sessile and auricled ; 
stems from 2 to over 3 ft. high, red and furrowed ; flower-heads 
small, green, in large, erect, pyramidal, irregular clusters on the 
ends of the stems and branches ; seeds very small, oblong, gray, 
and smooth. Their germinating power lasts for three years. 

CULTURE. Exactly the same as that of Wormwood (see 
Wormwood). 

USES. The leaves have a strong, bitter, aromatic taste, and are 
sometimes used for seasoning. 

MUSHROOMS 

Agaricus campestris, L. Fungi. 

French, Champignon comestible. German, Schwamm. Flemish and Dutch, 
Kanrpernoelie. Italian, Fungo pratajolo. Spanish, Seta. 

The cultivated Mushroom is the same kind as that which grows 
naturally in meadows and pastures, and in the wild state is known 



MUSHROOMS 



439 



in France by the names of Champignon Rose, C. des Prts, and C. de 

Ros&. In this species, as in the case of most other Mushrooms, 

people generally suppose that the parts which in reality are only 

the organs of fructification are the entire plant The true plant, 

however, which feeds, grows, and finally prepares to flower, is the 

network of whitish threads which form what is commonly called 

the " spawn," or, botanically, the mycelium, of the Mushroom. 

The growth of this spawn, which is suspended in dry weather, 

becomes active under the influence of moisture accompanied with 

a sufficient degree of heat, and is developed in an especial degree 

in horse-manure, which appears to be the most favourable medium 

of all for the growth of this species. When the Mushroom-plant 

is on the point of flowering, it swells and produces small whitish 

excrescences, which 

soon assume the shape 

of a miniature parasol, 

usually white on the 

upper surface, and 

covered underneath 

with a number of very 

thin radiating plates 

or " gills," which are 

at first of a pale pink . ^BwnMBH^HHHEi^^Sli^AH^'i 

colour, and gradually 

change to brown. 

This parasol or cap 

is borne on the top 

of a cylindrical, fleshy, 

white stalk. The 

colour of the "gills" is an index whereby the Edible Mushroom 

is distinguished from the poisonous, and happily rare, kinds with 

which it might be confounded. 

In the neighbourhood of Paris several varieties of the Edible 
Mushroom are in cultivation. These differ from one another in 
the colour and general appearance of the skin. It has been found 
from experience that these varieties (of which there are three 
principal ones, viz. the White, the Gray, and the Yellow) are not 
invariably constant, and that after some time, and when removed 
from the special conditions under which they were produced, they 
lose their distinctive character, and revert to the Common White 
kind. After several comparative trials, the White variety appears 
to us to be the best for the table. The Yellow variety is not so 
tender nor so well scented, while the Gray variety, although of a 
stronger flavour, has the drawback of discolouring the sauces made 
with it, even when it is not nearly full grown. 

CULTURE. Mushrooms may be easily grown everywhere, 




Mushroom Tablet (virgin spawn). 



440 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



and at all seasons, by following some directions which we shall 
endeavour to give as briefly and clearly as possible. The con- 
ditions essential to success in cultivating Mushrooms consist in 
growing them in very rich artificial soil and in a moderately warm 
steady temperature. And it is for this last that cellars and old 
subterranean quarries are often utilised for their culture. Any 
other kind of place would answer equally well, provided that, either 
naturally or by the use of artificial means, its temperature never 
rose above 86 Fahr., nor fell much below 50 Fahr. 

After selecting a suitable place, the first thing to attend to is 
the making of the bed or beds in which the Mushrooms are to 

grow. The indispensable 
ingredient of this is horse- 
manure, if possible that 
of strong, well-fed animals, 
not too abundantly bedded 
with straw, for it is best 
that the manure should 
not contain too much 
straw. It will not do to 
make the beds with this 




Mushrooms (natural size). 



manure just as it comes 
from the stable, as the 
fermentation would be too 
great and would give out 
too much heat. It should, 
therefore, be tempered 
down by mixing it as 
thoroughly as possible 
with a fourth or a fifth 
part of good garden soil. 
As soon as this is done, 
the beds should be at once made with the mixture, which will 
ferment slowly and give out a moderate constant heat. Care 
should be taken to place the beds in a very well-drained place, 
rather dry than damp ; and when they are made, all projecting 
straws, etc., should be removed and the surfaces made level and 
very firm. 

If the manure is used pure, as it is by some Mushroom growers 
about Paris, it should be allowed to spend some of its heat before 
being employed. For this purpose it is brought from the stables 
to a place of preparation, where it is put into a square heap, about 
a yard or more high, formed of successive layers, well mixed 
together, so as to render the whole mass as homogeneous as 
possible, all foreign substances being carefully eliminated. Any 
parts that seem too dry are slightly moistened ; the sides are then 



MUSHROOMS 



441 



Vfl 



trimmed and trodden down well, so as to reduce the height to 
about 2 ft. 8 in. The heap is then left until the heat produced by 
the fermentation threatens to become excessive, which is denoted 
by the hottest parts commencing to turn white. This usually 
occurs in from six to ten days after the making of the heap. The 
whole heap must then be taken down and made up again exactly 
as before, taking care to make the interior of it consist of the 
manure which was previously on the outside, and which was con- 
sequently less fermented. It generally happens that within a few 
days after the heap has been thus re-made, the fermentation 
becomes so violent that the heap has to be thrown down and 
re-made a third time. 

Sometimes after the 
second re-making, the 
manure will be fit for 
forming the beds. It 
may be known when 
this can be done with- 
out any danger by the 
manure having become 
of a brown colour, the 
straw having entirely 
lost its usual consistence, 
and the whole being 
elastic and greasy to the 
touch, and having no 
longer the smell of fresh 
horse-manure, but rather 
that of the Mushroom. 
It is difficult to obtain 
a good preparation of 
horse-manure unless a 

sufficient quantity is Small movab i e Mushroom-beds placed against a wall. 

operated upon at once. 

The heap should measure at least a yard, or a little more, every 
way. This is a frequent cause of failure with amateurs, and 
should be avoided. Even if a less quantity is required for the 
beds, the manure should be prepared in a heap of at least the 
dimensions we have just mentioned, and any of it that is not 
required for the Mushroom-beds will be very useful for any other 
kind of vegetables in the kitchen-garden. 

When the manure is in a proper condition, it is brought to the 
place where the Mushrooms are to be grown and made into beds 
at once. The beds may be of any shape or size desired, but 
experience has shown that both the manure and the space at 
disposal will be employed to the best advantage by making the 




442 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

beds from 20 to 24 in. high, and about as wide at the base. An 
excessive rise of temperature from a fresh fermentation is less to 
be apprehended in beds of this size than in larger ones. When 
there is a good deal of room to spare, the best plan is to make the 
beds sloping at both sides and of any length that may be thought 
fit, but always of the same height and the same width at the base 
as we have just mentioned. When the beds, however, are made up 
against a wall or other perpendicular support, and have but one 
sloping side, the width at the base should be less than the height. 
Beds may also be made in old tubs, in casks sawn in two, or on 
plain flat boards, in which cases the beds should be of a conical 
shape, or in the form of the heaps of broken stones or road-metal 
often seen on roadsides. In this way it is possible to carry beds 
ready-made into cellars or other parts of dwelling-houses, where 

one would not like to bring 
in a lot of rough manure 
and litter the place by 
making the beds there. 

The beds are made by 
hand. The dung to be in 
a fit condition must be 
mellow and well divided, 
and if hard or in lumps 
must be crushed. The more 
compact material should be 
Mushrooms grown in a tub. again mixed with the straw 

portion, so that the whole 

will be of an equal texture. It should be placed in regular layers, 
each layer being firmly trodden down. When the bed has attained 
the proper height, the sides should be made slanting and carefully 
trimmed, all projecting straws should be withdrawn and the surface 
made smooth and firm. 

After the beds are made it is best to wait a few days before 
spawning them, in order to see whether any excessive fermentation 
will ensue. This may generally be pretty well ascertained by 
thrusting the finger into the bed, but the surest way is to use a 
thermometer. As long as the temperature is over 30 C, or 86 
Fahr., the bed is too hot, and must be allowed time to cool down. 
The cooling will be quickened by making a few holes here 
and there in the bed with a stick, to allow the heat to escape. 
When the temperature stands pretty steadily at about 25 C., or 
78 Fahr., it is time to put in the spawn. This may sometimes be 
found growing naturally in old hot-beds, or on the edges of manure 
heaps, and may be used for this purpose ; but it is far better to 
employ the dried spawn sold by seedsmen, which may be obtained 
at all seasons, and which grows much quicker, is more to be 




MUSHROOMS 



443 




depended on, and will keep good from one year to another. For a 

few days before it is used, it should be kept in a moderately warm, 

moist atmosphere, which has the effect of stimulating it into a more 

speedy and certain growth. For that purpose, after having been 

slightly moistened on both sides, it may be spread out on the beds 

themselves or between 

two beds. Just before 

use, the spawn should 

be broken up in pieces 

about the length and 

thickness of the hand 

by half that width, and 

each piece then inserted 

lengthwise into the bed, 

flush With the surface, Movable two-sided Mushroom-bed. 

into openings made with 

the hand, at a distance of from 10 to 12 in. each way, carefully 

pressing the dung around each piece after insertion. 

In beds of the usual height (from 20 in. to 2 ft.), two rows of 
pieces are generally set, in such a way that those of the upper row 
may be opposite the intervals between those in the lower row. 
The pieces should only be buried their own depth in the bed, and 
they are commonly put in with the right hand, while the left is 
employed to excavate holes for their reception. If the bed has 
been made in a place with a sufficiently high and steady tempera- 
ture, there is nothing further to be done but to wait until the 
Mushrooms appear. But if it has been made in the open air, or 
in a* place exposed to a change of temperature, it should be covered 
with straw, long manure, or hay, which will serve to confine a 
certain amount of uniformly warm air around the bed. 

If the work has been properly done, and the conditions are 

favourable, the spawn should 
commence to grow in seven or 
eight days after it was placed 
in the bed. At the end of that 
time the beds should be ex- 
amined, and any pieces which 
have not germinated should be 
replaced by fresh ones. The 
failure of a piece to germinate 
is indicated by the absence 
of white threads from the manure which surrounds it. In a 
fortnight or three weeks after spawning, the spawn should have 
permeated the entire bed, and should begin to show itself at 
the surface. 

When this is accomplished, the pieces of spawn should be with- 




Mushroom Spawn in Clumps. 



444 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

drawn, or they would become mouldy and spoil the Mushrooms in 
their immediate vicinity. The empty openings should be closed by 
gentle pressure, the surface made smooth again, and the surround- 
ing place carefully swept and cleaned of all decaying matter. The 
top and sides of the bed should then be covered with a thin layer 
of soil, for which a light mould should be used, slightly moistened, 
but not too wet. If possible use virgin soil of a light nature and 
containing some lime, or old plaster finely crushed, sieved, and 
mixed with quarry sand. If the material chosen does not itself 
contain saltpetre, give a watering with a weak solution of this or 
liquid manure. The soil should not be thicker than about J in., 
and should be pressed down sufficiently to make it adhere firmly 
to the surface of the bed in every part. When the surface becomes 
dry, light waterings should be given sparingly. If the place is 




Mushroom-bed in the Open Air, protected with Straw. 

inclined to be dry, the surrounding soil or walls may be sprinkled 
with water to help maintain the bed in a permanent state of moderate 
moisture. Where a covering of litter or hay has been removed to 
perform any operation, it must be replaced at once. 

In a few weeks after the layer of soil has been added, sooner or 
later according to the temperature, the Mushrooms begin to appear, 
and, in gathering them, care should be taken to fill the cavities left 
with the same soil which covers the bed. All injured or diseased 
Mushrooms should be at once removed, together with the soil 
adhering to them. 

The bed will of itself continue to yield for two or three months, 
and for a longer time if watered with liquid manure, guano, or 
saltpetre ; the results being much better if the liquid is of the 
temperature of from 20 to 30 C, or 70 to 86 Fahr., when 
applied. Watering, however, should be done carefully, so as not 



MUSHROOMS 445 

to dirty the Mushrooms or interfere with their growth. By 
making three or four beds under cover in the year, a continuous 
supply may be secured ; and besides, during summer, beds may 
be made in the open air, which will yield abundantly at a 
trifling expense. Hot-beds, in which other plants are grown, 
might have their sides and the spaces between the plants 
spawned, and would often yield well, provided their temperature 
was suitable for the purpose, and that care was taken to protect 
the young Mushrooms' with a slight covering of soil as soon as 
they commenced to grow. 

The very interesting Paris culture of Mushrooms is fully 
described, and illustrated with a variety of original woodcuts, 
in " The Parks and Gardens of Paris," second edition ; and the 
English market-garden culture is fully treated of in Shaw's 
" London Market-Gardens." 

Mushroom spawn produced by the old methods was apt to 
degenerate. Some Mushroom growers to counteract this obtained 
virgin spawn from spores born in farmyard manure heaps that had 
remained long undisturbed ; but owing to the diversity of varieties 
and differences in the cultural value of spawn thus obtained, it failed 
to give satisfaction. 

All attempts at raising virgin spawn by sowing the spores of 
the best Mushrooms were fruitless until, in 1897, Dr. Repin, after 
numerous attempts, discovered a way of producing virgin spawn. 
This virgin spawn, now manufactured by Messrs. Vilmorin- 
Andrieux et Cie. in their laboratory by Dr. Repin's process, is 
characterised by great vigour of growth, and, being raised from 
spores of the healthiest Mushrooms only, is entirely free from 
the noxious bacterial organisms so prevalent in spawn not 
sterilised by the new process, and is therefore not so liable 
to be attacked by diseases a fact which removes one great 
hindrance to Mushroom growing. The virgin spawn is sold in 
the form of compressed slabs or tablets, of handy size, thoroughly 
pervaded by the spores. One hundred tablets weigh about eighteen 
pounds. 

Before using the tablets they should be revived, i.e. slightly 
moistened on both sides, and laid out in a moist, moderately warm 
place, i.e. on the prepared beds themselves or between two beds. 
In five or eight days the tablets should be ready for use ; they will 
then have an unctuous and fatty touch if pressed between the 
fingers, as also the smell of Mushrooms if a small portion of the 
inside is laid bare. Each tablet should then be split into two or 
three pieces, each piece being used separately and set into the 
bed in such a manner that the surface laid open is in contact with 
the prepared manure. A rapid and even growth of the spawn 
through the whole bed is thus secured. 



446 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

MUSTARD (WHITE or SALAD) 

Sinapis alba, L. Cruciferce. 

French, Moutarde blanche. German, Gelber Senf. Flemish, Witte mostaard. Dutch, 
Gele mosterd or mostaard. Italian, Senapa bianca. Spanish, Mostaza blanca. 

Native of Europe. Annual. A plant of rapid growth. Stem 
thick, often angular, branching, bearing incised leaves with rounded 
segments ; flowers yellow, in terminal spikes ; seed-vessels slightly 
hairy, terminating in a flat, membranous kind of beak, and swollen 
at the sides over the seeds. There are usually from three to four 
seeds in each side of the silique or pod, which is divided into two 
parts by a thin membranous partition. The seeds are white, quite 
spherical, and about the size of a Millet-seed. Their germinating 
power lasts for four years. The seed may be sown in pots, either 
in the open air or in a frame, and is cut as soon as the seed-leaves 
are well grown and of a good green, which is usually about six or 
eight days after the seed is sown. The leaves of this plant are 
generally only sent to table while they are quite young, when they 
are used in salads and for garnishing. 



MUSTARD (BLACK, BROWN, or GROCER'S) 

Brassica nigra, Koch ; Sinapis nigra, L. Cruciferce. 

French, Moutarde noire. German, Schwarzer oder Brauner Senf. Flemish, Zwarte 
mostaard. Dutch, Bruine mosterd or mostaard. Spanish, Mostaza negra. 

Native of Europe. Annual. A plant with a rather slender 
stem. Radical leaves oblong, lyrate ; stem-leaves becoming 
narrower as they approach the top of the stem ; flowers yellow, 
in terminal spikes ; siliques or seed-vessels long and slender, each 
containing about twenty small, almost spherical, red-brown seeds. 
The germinating power of the latter lasts for four years. 

The Large-seeded Black Mustard is remarkable for the large 
size of its yellow-green leaves. The Small-seeded Black Mustard 
of Sicily appears to come nearer the wild form of the plant. Its 
leaves are about one-third smaller than those of the Alsace variety, 
and are also a darker green. 

Like the White Mustard, this plant is only grown in kitchen- 
gardens for the sake of its young leaves, which are similarly used, 
and it is grown in precisely the same way. The ground seeds 
form the mustard of commerce or grocer's mustard. 

CHINESE CABBAGE-LEAVED MUSTARD 

Native of China. Annual. A large plant, attaining the 
height of from 4 to 5 ft. when in flower. Radical leaves very 



CHINESE CABBAGE-LEAVED MUSTARD 447 




Chinese Cabbage-leaved Mustard 
(^ natural size). 



large, often 14 to 16 in. long, lyrate, undulating in outline, and 
with the edges often turned in underneath. The blade of the 
leaf is of a delicate or yellowish green colour, and netted, and 
sometimes almost crimped 
like that of a Savoy Cab- 
bage. The first leaves, which 
are produced on the lower 
part of the stem, are also 
long and wide, but those 
higher up become smaller, 
until they are almost linear 
near the top of the stem 
when the plant is in flower, 
being a little broader at the 
base which clasps the stem. 
Flowers yellow, broad, in 
terminal clusters ; siliques 
almost cylindrical, each con- 
taining about twenty brown 
seeds, a little larger than 
those of the Black Mustard. 
The germinating power of the seed lasts for four years. The 
seed is sown, where the crop is to stand, in August, in the open 
air, either in beds or in drills from 16 to 20 in. apart. After 
sowing, the beds or drills should be watered a few times to ensure 

germination, but when the 
cool nights of September 
arrive, the plants will re- 
quire no further attention. 
In about six weeks from 
the time of sowing, the 
leaves may commence to 
be gathered, and the plants 
will continue to yield until 
very frosty weather sets 
lilf in. The seed may also 
be sown immediately after 
winter, but the plants soon 
run to seed, and never 
yield as fine leaves as those 
which are sown in autumn. 

Chinese Tuberous-rooted Mustard. The leaves are eaten like 

Spinach. They do not 

lose much in substance by cooking, and they have a very 
agreeable flavour. In warm countries they are highly esteemed 
among green vegetables. 




448 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



Chinese Curled Mustard. A curious variety of the Cabbage- 
leaved Chinese Mustard. It has the good qualities of the type, 




Chinese Curled Mustard. 



and its elegant foliage is very useful for garnishing, 
the culture are the same as for the type. 



The uses and 



NASTURTIUM, or INDIAN CRESS (TALL or LARGE) 

Tropceolum majus, L. Tropceolacece. 

French, Capucine grande. German, Kapuciner Kresse. Flemish and Dutch, Capucien- 
kers. Italian, Nasturzio maggiore. Spanish, Capuchina grande. Portuguese, 

Chagas. 

Native of Peru. Annual. Stems 
climbing, sometimes nearly 10 ft. 
long when they find a suitable 
support ; leaves alternate, long- 
stalked, peltate, entire or bluntly 
five-lobed, almost smooth ; flowers 
long-stalked, large, with five orange- 
coloured petals spotted with purple, 
especially the two upper ones ; seeds 
large, triangular, almost kidney- 
shaped, convex on one side, furrowed 
and wrinkled, and yellow-coloured. 
Their germinating power lasts for 
five years. The plant flowers con- 

***y almost a n through the 

flower, natural size). summer. 




NASTURTIUM (DWARF) 449 

NASTURTIUM (DWARF) 

Tropaolum minus, L. Tropaolacece* 

French, Capucine petite. German, Kleine Indianische Kresse. Italian, Nasturzio 
caramindo minore. Spanish, Capuchina pequena. 

Native of Peru. Annual. A smaller plant than the preceding 
kind ; the stem not so slender and not requiring support ; leaves 
nearly round ; flowers yellow, with five petals, the three lower ones 
especially marked with a purple spot ; seeds of the same shape as 

that of the Tall Nasturtium, but usually 
smaller, more wrinkled, and browner. 
Their germinating power lasts for five 
years. Sometimes dwarf varieties of 
the Tall Nasturtiums are confounded 
with this species. 

The culture of Nasturtiums is of 
the simplest. If sown during spring 
and summer in the open ground where 
the plants are to stand, they flower and 
seed profusely in about two or three 
months after sowing. The flowers are 
used for garnishing salads. The flower- 
Nasturtium (Dwarf) ( T v natural buds and the seeds, while young and 

size^ detached flower, * natural ^^ are pickled {n vinegar and use(J 

for seasoning, like Capers. For this 

latter purpose the Dwarf Nasturtium is to be preferred, as it 
flowers more abundantly than the Tall kind, and does not require 
stakes or any other kind of support. 



NASTURTIUM (TUBEROUS-ROOTED) 

Trop&olum tuber osum, R. and P. Tropceolacece. 

French, Capucine tubereuse. German, Peruanische Knollen-Kresse. Flemish, 
Knoll-kapucien. Spanish, Capuchina tuberculosa. 

Native of South America. Perennial. Roots tuberous, conical, 
as large as a hen's egg, with scale-like swellings, yellow in 
colour, striped with red, and pleasing in appearance ; stems 
very branching, weak, about 3 ft. long ; leaves peltate, divided 
into three or five blunt lobes ; leaf-stalks red ; flowers medium- 
sized, with a long spur and rather small petals of a yellow 
colour shaded with orange. The seeds seldom ripen in the 
climate of Paris, and the plant is propagated from the tubers. 

29 




450 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 




The tubers are planted in April or May, in the open ground, 
20 in. apart in every direction. The hoe should be used occa- 
sionally until the stems, spreading on the 
ground, cover it entirely. The tubers 
should not be taken up for use before 
the latter end of autumn, after the early 
frosts, as they do not form until late in 
the season, and are not affected by frost 
as long as they remain in the ground. 
When boiled like Carrots or Potatoes, 
the tubers are watery and rather un- 
pleasant to taste, although the perfume 
is agreeable. In Bolivia, where the plant 
is much cultivated in high mountain 
districts, the people freeze the tubers after 
boiling them, and they are then con- 
sidered a delicacy and are largely con- 
sumed. In other places they are eaten 
in a half-dried state, after having been 
M t Tr u x hung up in nets and exposed to the air 

Nasturtium (Tuberous-rooted) f & r . . 
(tubers natural size). f r some time. 

BLACK-BERRIED NIGHTSHADE 
Solanum nigrum, L. Solanacece. 

French^ Morelle noire. German^ Nachtschatten-Spinat. Italian, Erba mora. 
Spanish, Yerba mora. 

Native of Europe. Annual. A well - known wild plant, 
generally regarded as a 
weed, growing most usually 
near dwelling-houses and 
in cultivated ground. It 
has an erect branching 
stem from ij to 2j ft. long, 
with simple, broad, oval 
leaves, often wavy at the 
edges. Flowers white, star- 
shaped, growing in small 
axillary clusters, and suc- 
ceeded by round berries, 
about the size of a pea, of 
a black or, rarely, amber- 
yellow colour, and rilled 
with a green pulp, mixed 
with very small pale- 
yellow lenticular seeds. 
The germinating power of 




Black-berried Nightshade. 



BLACK-BERRIED NIGHTSHADE 



451 



the latter lasts for five years. The kind which is cultivated in 
the Isle of France, under the name of Brede, does not differ, 
botanically, from the common kind, but is more vigorous growing 
and larger in all its parts. The seed is sown where the plants 
are to stand, in April, in beds, or, preferably, in drills 12 to 14 in. 
apart. After being thinned out, the plants require no further 
attention, and are quite proof against dry weather. The leaves, 
however, are more tender and more plentifully produced if the 
plants are occasionally well watered when they appear to need it. 
This plant is not as yet used in France as a vegetable, but in 
warm countries the leaves are sometimes eaten as Spinach, and 
apparently without any injurious result, although the plant belongs 
to the dangerous family of the Solanacece. 



MALABAR NIGHTSHADE (WHITE) 

Base/la alba, L. Chenopodiacece. 

French, Baselle blanche. German, Indischer grliner Spinat. Flemish, Meier. Italian^ 
Basella. Spanish, Basela. 

Native of the East Indies. Biennial, but cultivated as an 
annual. A plant with creeping stems from 4 to over 6 ft. long, 
bearing alternate, oval-heart-shaped, slightly undulated, fleshy, 

green leaves. Flowers small, green or 
red, in spikes ; seeds round, bearing 
the remnants of the pistil and calyx, 
which are persistent. Their germi- 
nating power lasts for five years at 
least. 

CULTURE. The seed is sown in 
a hot-bed in March. In the end of 
May, or early in June, the seedlings 
are planted out at the foot of a south 
wall, and the plants will yield all 
through the summer without any care 
except occasional waterings. 

USES. The leaves are eaten like 
Spinach, and are abundantly produced 
all through the summer, growing in 
greater profusion the warmer the 
weather becomes. Care should be taken 
not to strip a plant of all its leaves at 
once, as this checks its growth. 
Basella Cordifolia. This is much like the Malabar variety, but 
has larger, stouter, and darker green leaves; it is also more productive. 
The culture and the uses are the same in both. An excellent 
substitute for Spinach in hot climates during the dry summers. 




Malabar Nightshade (White) 
(^ natural size). 



452 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

OKA-PLANT 

Oxalis crenata, Jacq. Oxalidacece. 

French, Oxalis crenelee. Flemish, Zuerklaver. Spanish (American), Oka. 

Native of Peru. Perennial, but cultivated as an annual. Stem 
fleshy, red, prostrate, bearing very numerous leaves, composed of 
three rounded triangular thick leaflets ; flowers axillary, with five 
yellow petals striped with purple at the base ; tubers swollen, long 
ovoid, marked with hollows and protuberances (like some kinds of 
Potatoes, especially the Vitelotte variety), and narrowed at the end 
which joins the stem ; skin very smooth, and of a yellow, white, or 
red colour. 

CULTURE. The Oka-plant is easily propagated from the 
tubers, which are planted in May, in light rich soil, in rows 
which should not be less than 3 ft. apart, on account of the 

spreading growth of the 
stems of the plant As 
it continues to grow for 
a long time and is very 
sensitive to cold, it ; is 
better, if possible, to start 
the tubers in a hot-bed in 
March, and plant them 
out in May, at which 
time they will be pretty 

Tubers of Oka-plant ( natural size), forward. As the Stems 

lengthen, they should be 

covered with light soil or compost, in order to promote the 
formation of new tubers, taking care to leave 6 or 8 in. of the 
end of the stem uncovered. The tubers do not commence to 
swell until rather late in the season, and are not gathered until 
the ends of the stems have been killed by frosty weather. In 
France they seldom grow as large as a hen's egg. 

USES. The tubers are highly esteemed in Peru and Bolivia, 
where they are largely used. Recently gathered, they have a very 
acid, and not very agreeable, taste. In South America they get rid 
of this acidity by putting tubers into woollen bags and exposing 
them to the action of the sun, the effect of which is that in a few 
days they become floury and sweet. If they are kept thus exposed 
for several weeks, they dry up, become wrinkled, and acquire a 
flavour which resembles that of dried Figs. In this condition they 
are known by the name " Caui" In addition to the tubers, the 
leaves and young shoots may be eaten as salad or as Sorrel. 

Two varieties of this plant have been introduced into France, 
namely, the Yellow and the Red, differing from each other only in 
the colour of the tubers. The Yellow variety has spontaneously 




OKA-PLANT 



453 



produced a sub-variety, with pure white tubers, which reproduces 
itself exactly, but appears to be inferior to the other two kinds in 
vigour and quality for table use. 



OKRA, or COM BO 

Hibiscus esculentuSy L. Malvacea. 

French, Gombo. Italian^ Ibisco. Spanish, Gombo ; {American}, Quimbombo. 

Native of South America. Annual. Stem stout, erect, 
branching but little or not at all, from. 20 in. to over 3 ft. high, 
according to the variety ; leaves very large, five-lobed, toothed, 
dark green on the upper surface, slightly gray underneath, with 
very prominent veins ; flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves, 
with five straw-coloured petals, brown or violet in the centre ; 
fruit pyramidal, ending in a point, with five prominent ribs, and 

divided into five cells or 
compartments filled with 
rather large gray or pale 
green seeds, nearly spheri- 
cal in shape and rough 
skinned. The germinating 
power of the latter lasts 
for five years. 

CULTURE. Like the 
Egg-plant and the Tomato, 
the Gombo requires arti- 
ficial heat in the climate 
of Paris, while in warmer 
climates it may be sown 
and grown in the open air. 
The seed is usually sown 
in a hot-bed in February, 
the seedlings are pricked 
out into another hot-bed, 
and are finally planted out 
in May, after which the 
plants only require plenti- 
ful watering to attain their 
full growth. 

USES. In the Colonies 
the young and tender seed-vessels are very extensively used as a 
table vegetable. They are exceedingly mucilaginous, and when 
cut into thin slices are made into soups and sauces, which are 
highly esteemed by the Creoles. The ripe seeds also are parched 
and used instead of Coffee. The infusion which is obtained from 




Long-fruited Green Okra (seed-vessels 
\ natural size). 



454 THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 

them is not inferior to that made from Chicory, Sweet Acorns, 
Astragalus baticus, and other substitutes for Coffee. 

Long-fruited Green Okra. Stem short, seldom exceeding 
20 in. in height ; leaves very deeply cut ; seed-vessels 6 to 8 in. 
long, slender, long, pointed, and about I in. in diameter. This is 
the kind most commonly cultivated. There is a sub-variety in 
which the seed-vessels are pendent 

Dwarf Prolific Okra. Much grown in America, it is a small- 
fruited sub-variety of the preceding one, and both early and 
productive. 

Round-fruited Okra. Seed-vessels short and thick, being 
about 2 in. long, and nearly 2 in. in diameter, and blunt at the ends 
rather than pointed. This variety is dwarfer and earlier than the 
preceding kind. 

Early Sultani Okra. Produces a number of short, thick fruit, 
very like those of the preceding. 

White Velvet Okra. The American variety known by this 
name is distinguished by its fruit, which is white, long, and 
fairly large. 

ONION 

A Ilium Cepa, L. Liliacece. 

French, Ognon. German, Zwiebel. Flemish, Ajuin. Dutch, Uijen. Danish, Rodlog. 
Italian, Cipolla. Spanish, Cebolla. Portuguese, Cebola. 

Native of Central or Western Asia. Biennial, sometimes 
perennial. The original native country of the Onion is not known 
with certainty ; within the last few years, however, M. Regel, jun., 
discovered, south of Kouldja, in Turkestan, a plant which had every 
appearance of being the wild form of A Ilium Cepa, and we believe 
the same plant has also been found on the Himalayas. 

The Onion has no stem, or rather the stem is reduced to a 
mere plate, from which issue, on the lower side, numerous white, 
thick, simple roots, and on the upper side leaves, the fleshy, swollen, 
and overlapping bases of which form the bulb of the Onion. The 
form, colour, and size of the bulb are very much varied in different 
varieties of the plant. The free portion of the leaves is elongated, 
hollow, and tapering into a point at the end. The flower-stems, 
which are very much longer than the leaves, are erect, hollow, 
and swollen in the lower part for about one-third of their length. 
The flowers, which are white or lilac, are severally borne on very 
slender stalks, and are collected in a very dense spherical head 
on the top of the flower-stem. Sometimes, instead of flowers, a 
head of small bulbs is produced. This may occur exceptionally 
in any of the varieties, but is an invariable characteristic of the 
Tree Onion, which is thence named the Bulbiferous Onion. The 



ONION 455 

flowers are succeeded by capsules of an almost triangular shape, 
filled with black, angular, flattish seeds. The germinating power 
of the latter lasts for two years. 

Usually,, the plant, after seeding, dies and disappears entirely ; 
but sometimes we find Onions which produce cloves as well as 
seeds. Such plants may be considered perennial, as well as the 
Potato Onion, which never seeds and is propagated by division of 
its bulbs. 

The culture and use of the Onion date back to a very remote 
period of antiquity. The strong odour and flavour of all parts of 
the plant caused it to be valued in very early times as a seasoning, 
and being easily grown, man has carried it with him into almost 
every climate of the world. Hence a great number of varieties 
have resulted, the best of which have become fixed, and form the 
various kinds which are now in cultivation. 

CULTURE. The Onion, considered only with a view to the 
production of bulbs for household consumption, is generally grown 
as an annual plant, whether sown for a summer crop or sown in 
autumn. For a summer crop, the seed is sown in spring, and the 
crop is gathered at the end of summer or in autumn. In this case, 
the entire growth of the plant is completed in the course of the 
same year. This mode of culture is the general one in the central 
and northern districts of France, where Onions are grown very 
extensively and as a field crop. The seed is sown in the latter part 
of February, or in March, in good, moist, but well-drained soil, 
which has been well manured and well pulverised at the surface, 
and at the same time is somewhat firm and compact underneath. 
The seed, being rather small, should be only slightly covered. In 
gardens, Onion-beds, after being sown, are often simply strewn with 
leaf-mould or with grape skins from the wine-presses. When the 
seedlings have grown pretty strong, they are thinned out more or 
less, according to the size of the variety, and after that require no 
further attention until they are fully grown. Watering is not 
necessary except in unusually dry weather. 

When the seed is sown in autumn, the growth of the plants is 
continued from one year into the next. This mode of culture is 
most common in districts where the winter is mild, as in the west 
and all through the south of France. The seed is sown from 
August to October, and the young plants are planted out either in 
the course of the same autumn or as soon as the winter is over. 
This way of growing Onions is not so simple as that first mentioned, 
but the crop is finer and earlier. It is generally practised, as we 
have just said, in southern districts, and it is in this way that the 
enormous Onions which are sent during winter to our markets from 
Spain, Italy, and Africa are raised. At Paris, too, it is almost the 
only way in which the Early White Silver-skinned Onion is grown. 



456 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



This is sown in August or September, and the seedlings are 
generally pricked out in October (the roots and leaves being 
trimmed at the same time), and they are slightly sheltered during 
the winter when the 1 frost is severe. The bulbs are fit for use in 
May. By sowing the New Queen variety in the same way, a crop 
could, no doubt, be obtained in April. 

Sometimes the Onion is grown as a biennial that is, its culture 
extends over nearly two whole years. In this case, the growth is 
retarded by planting out, not young seedlings, but small bulbs 
raised the year before by sowing very thickly in spring and growing 
them on like summer Onions, but without thinning them. These 
small bulbs, which are about as big as a Hazel-nut, easily keep 
through the winter, and when planted out in spring increase in 
size rapidly, and in a few months become as fine bulbs as those 
obtained from plants grown on through the winter in the usual 
way. This mode of culture was recommended a very long time 
ago by MM. Lebrun and Nouvellon, who applied it to Onions of 
every kind. At the present day it is generally practised, especially 
in the east of France, with a yellow variety, the small bulbs of 
which form an important article of commerce, under the name of 
Mulhouse Onions. When the bulbs of this variety are fully 
grown, it is very difficult to distinguish them from those of the 
Strasburg Onion. The Brown Portugal Onion may also be grown 
in the same way. 



For good Onions there is always 
a large demand, and late in the 
season they fetch high prices. In 
nearly all market - gardens round 
London, Onions are grown to a 
large extent both as summer and 
winter crops. In the neighbourhood 
of Lea Bridge large fields are devoted 
to them, and from this district come 
large quantities of the finest produce 
brought to market. Great breadths 
of Onions are also grown at Fulham, 
Chiswick, Deptford, and Mitcham, 
the land thereabouts being light and 
rich and well suited for their cul- 
ture. The main spring sowing, 
which consists usually of the Dept- 
ford and Reading varieties, is made 
as soon after the middle of February 
as the condition of the soil and 
weather permits. If the seed be 
good and is sown broadcast, nine 
to twelve pounds per acre are used ; 



but if sown in lines, only eight 
pounds to the acre are needed. 
Land intended for Onions is gene- 
rally roughly trenched during winter 
and thrown into ridges, so as to 
become thoroughly pulverised and 
sweetened by the action of the frost. 
During dry weather in February the 
ridges are levelled and the surface 
rendered smooth by raking and roll- 
ing, after which the seed is sown 
either broadcast or in drills 9 to 
10 in. apart. If small pickling bulbs 
be desired, seed is sown broadcast 
at the rate of twenty pounds per 
acre. After sowing, the seed is raked 
or harrowed in, and the operation 
is completed by rolling the surface 
firm and even. After the young 
Onions appear above the ground, 
weeding and thinning are proceeded 
with as may be required. Broad- 
cast sowing is considered the best 



ONION 



457 



for spring-sown crops, as involving 
less labour ; and as the bulbs, after 
thinning, stand at regular distances 
apart over the whole area, the pro- 
duce per acre is considerably more 
than when sown in beds or lines. 
Seed sown in the autumn is, how- 
ever, sometimes drilled on beds 4 or 

5 ft. wide, these being divided by 
narrow alleys, which serve as walks 
for labourers who weed the beds 
and draw the crop as required for 
market ; but this crop is also often 
sown broadcast. 

Onion seed takes a long time 
to germinate, but if the ground be 
clean and well tilled, weeds will not 
appear much sooner than the Onions, 
or, at least, not so thickly as to 
choke them. As soon as the Onions 
have fairly come up, women or men 
accustomed to Onion-cleaning are 
set to work amongst them. These 
operators are furnished with short- 
handled 2|-inch wide hoes, with 
which they hoe down the weeds and 
thin the whole crop with wonder- 
ful certainty and expedition. The 
field is marked off into strips for 
the guidance of the hoers, to each 
one of whom there is a space of 

6 ft. given, so that were four cleaners 
employed the strips would each be 
24 ft. wide. People accustomed to 
this work do not trample carelessly 
about ; nor, indeed, can the crop be 
materially damaged by doing so, for 
the Onions that are thus prostrate 
to-day are nearly erect to-morrow. 
Each plantation is generally cleaned 
by this means three times during 
the season, the last cleaning being 
made about the end of June or early 
in July, and any large weeds that 
appear after that time are pulled out 
by the hand. Towards the end of 
August or early in September the 
Onions, being ripe, are harvested 
when dry. Those that are green 
and thick-necked are laid aside for 



immediate sale; but the firm and 
sound bulbs, particularly of the 
Deptford kind, are either cleaned 
of any loose scaly skins and spread 
out a few inches deep over the floor 
of a loft, or tied into bunches and 
strung in pairs over poles or pegs in- 
a loft or shed, so that they can be 
marketed at any convenient season 
during winter and spring. 

The profits on a good crop of 
spring-sown Onions are remunera- 
tive, although they vary in some 
seasons. Sometimes as much as 
^45 per acre is made of them by 
the grower, the purchaser being at 
the expense of harvesting the crop. 
At other times, however, ^30 per 
acre is considered a good price. 
The Silver-skinned Onion, which is 
grown largely for pickling, is sown 
on good land, the plants being left 
as thickly as they come up, as the 
closer they are together the sooner 
they will cease growing in summer 
and the better they will ripen their 
bulbs. Good clean bulbs realise 
from Ss. to los. per bushel in the 
market. The au