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f) 



\U. i(-,z o. 



65 




lo. I., Ne^w Series. Price One Shilling. January 1865. 



rnTTTT' 



HE 



VETERINARY REVIEW 

AND 

STOCKOWNERS' JOURNAL. 

PUBLISHED HONTHLT. 

EDITEH BY 

I'llOFKSSOR JOHN GAMGEE. 




EDINBURGH: 
WILLIAM P. NIMMO. 

LONDON: Slilll^rN, MA11SIIA.LL AND CO. 
"^ 18C5. 



.CONTENTS. 



OBIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS AND CASES. 

PAGE 

Mr W. A. Cartwriqht, M.R.C.V.S., Whitchurch, Salop.— Cases of "Parturi- 
tion Apoplexy," " Puerperal Fever," or " Loin Fallen," ... 1 

Mr O. Armatage, V.S. to the Marchioness of Londonderry. — Worms and 

Fibrinous Concretions in the Bloodvessels of Horses and Colts, . . 18 

Mr G. Armataqe, V.S. to the Marchioness of Londonderry. — Veterinary 

Records, ........ .20 

Mr Gamgee, Sen.— On the Economy of the Foot of the Horse; Injuries and 
Diseased States incident to it ; and on the Art of Shoeing. Being In- 
troductory Lecture, delivered at the New Veterinary College, Edinburgh, 22 

Mr William Hunting, Student in the New Veterinary College, Edinburgh. — 

Fibrous Degeneration of the CEsophagean Canal, ... 27 

Mr Arthur Gamgee, M.D., Assistant to the Professor of Medical Jurispru- 
dence in the University of Edinburgh, Lecturer on Chemistry in the New 
Veterinary College. — On the Presence of a Peculiar Modification of Albu- 
men (Metalbumen ?) in the Urine of Horses, . . . .20 

LEADING ABTICLE. 

Modifications in the Preliminary Tests for the Admission of Candidates to 

the Imperial Veterinary Colleges of France, .... 32 

PEBISCOPE. 

Some of the Causes that Tend to render Farming Unprofitable, . . 34 

Kelso Farmers' Club, ........ 43 

Observations on the Effects which are produced by Feeding Cattle and Sheep 

exclusively on Turnips, ....... 47 

Salving and Dipping Sheep, ....... 48 

Wholesome and Unwholesome Meet, . . . .54 



THE VETEEINAET RETIEW 

AND 



OBIOINAL COKKUNICATIONS AHB CA8ES. 



Cdses of " Parturition Apoplexy," " Puerperal Fever," or " Loin 
FaUenr By W. A. Cartwright, M.E.C.V.S., Whitchurch, 
Salop. 

Case 1. 

Eably on the morning of the 16th October 1840, an Ayrshire cow, 
five years old, the property of Mr Joyce of this town, calved. It was 
a breech presentation, with one of the hind legs down, but which was 
got np ; and the calf was extracted in that position. 

In the course of the day she fed well, and was half her time stand- 
ing up ; but in the afternoon she began to totter, and about 6 o'clock 
she fell down. 

Soon after, I was sent for, and found her down in a very helpless 
and restless state, with her head to her side, and breathing short, 
and gasping for breath. With a little assistance, she soon after got 
up, but soon came down again. Her pulse was very feeble, but not 
much qtdcker than natural. Horns warm. About the hips the parts 
seemed flabby and puffed. She was straining, and only part of the 
placenta had come away. I did not think it prudent to bleed her, 
considering thfe state of the pulse and the symptoms. 

Treatment. — Gave Mag. Sulpk, Bbss ; OL Ricini, Oj ; OL Croton, 
guttae x; Sps. Tereb., §ij; Pulv. Zingib., 3ij ; Opii 3j, in some gruel; 
blistered the spine, and fomented the parts behind. In two hours 
after, she rallied a little, and sat up pretty cocket, with her head from 
her side. Her diflScult breathing and gasping had subsided. 

9 P.M. — Still improving. Gave 3vj Sps. ^Eth. Nit., 3vj Sps. Tereb., 
and 3ij Ant. P. Tart., in some gruel. Bepeat blister. She continued 
pretty easy most of the night ; but about 5 ^ext morning she was as 
bad as ever, and she lingered in this state till about 2 p.m., when I 
ordered her to be knocked on the head I forgot to state, that about 
6 A.M. I gave her §ij Tinct. Opii and gj Sps. ^Eth. Nit. in some gruel, 
as she was struggling a good deal. 

Post-mortem Examination. — ^There was no constipation in the 
ikird stomach, nor was there any inflammation, or anything that I 
thought was disease, in any part of the contents of the abdomen. The 
Vol. I. — No. I.— New Sbbies. January 1865. A. 



2 CASES OF PAETURITION APOPLEXY, PUERPERAL FEVER, 

spine was split up in the usual rough way, but I could not detect any 
effusion. At last I thought that I had made a grand discovery in 
finding a large piece of coagulated blood on the cord, about the first, 
second, and third cervical vertebrae ; but, on second consideration, I 
have no doubt it was produced by the blow on the brain, as I have 
seen it in several instances since. 

• Case 2. 

On the 2d May 1842, an aged cow of Mr Churton's, of this town, 
calved. She was very fat, and had an immense udder. At night she 
was left well. 

Zd May, — This morning about 6 o'clock, the man found her down 
and unable to get up. I saw her soon after. Pulse small and quick. 
Kespiration natural ; and there seems little the matter with her, except 
being unable to get up on her hind parts.' She can rise up on her 
fore ones, and sits up as well as usual, and keeps her head well up. 

Treatment — ^Took six quarts of blood from her, which came away 
in a very full stream ; gave a purging drink, stimulated the spine, and 
had her removed into a hovel 

10 A.M. — I fancy she has not so much power in her fore extremities, 
and I think her head totters more about; but she does not lay* it to 
her side. Gave Ojss of 01. Eicini. She has even now a difficulty in 
swallowing. 

4 P.M. — Is worse, and appears in a good deal of pain, as she is 
restless, and moves her legs up and down, as if it were in her bowels. 
She tries to turn over. Has decidedly less power in supporting her 
head ; for when she lifts it up it rolls about, and she then drops it on 
the ground, or lays it to her side. With very great difficulty she 
turned over and lay on the opposite side, and I think I can hear as if 
some bones were rubbing on each other about the loins or pelvis. Is 
tderably warm, and her pulse is distinct. Gave 3ij Ant. Potas. Tart. 

10 P.M. — She is decidedly sinking. Pulse very indistinct ; and she 
is colder. Gave 5iv Brandy and 3ij Camphor. 

4^A, 8 A.M. — ^About the same, but if anything a little more lively 
in appearance, and her pulse, I think, is more distinct. Has dunged a 
small quantity. 

10 A.M. — ^Better. Is warm. More lively ; and has dunged twice, 
which is tolerably soft. Gave gj Sps. Tereb., 3jss Ant. P. Tart., and 
5xij 01. Eicini. Has altered her position. Udder soft. 

12 M. — Worse. Makes a noise as if some of the drink had entered 
the trachea. 

5 P.M. — Eespiration very quick. Is warm all over ; and udder soft. 
Has scarpely the power of raising her head now, and if lifted up it 
unconsciously falls on the ground. One can move one's finger on the 
eye without her feeling it. I could not introduce the catheter. Dung 
soft. Pulse scarcely to be felt at the chest, and not at all at the jaw. 
Gasps for breath tliough the mouth. Hind legs are quite stiff and 
stretched out 



OR LOIN FALLEN. 8 

5th. — This morning about 3 o'clock she was killed, as she appeared 
almost dead. 

Post-mortem Examination. — The third stomach was full, but the 
contents were not hard, but becoming a little so from heat of body. 
The other stomachs were not above half filled, and their contents 
were soft. Nearly the whole of the intestines were inflamed. The 
small ones, for three or four yards, were highly so on the mucous 
coat. The larger ones were not so much inflamed, but were more 
speckled and streaked. The uterus, on its inner membrane, was 
coated with some lymph and serum, and was contracted and hard ; but 
I don't think it was more diseased than naturally, or after calving. 
Lungs a little congested. Spinal cord, as far as I could examine it, 
was sound, and I could not detect any efiusion ; but I was not satis- 
fied with the examination, as it was only split up by the butcher. 

Case 3. 

On the 29th July 1843, about 11 A.M., an eight-year-old cow, in 
fair condition, but not by any means fat, the property of Mr Joseph 
Evanson of this town, calved in the field and required but little assist- 
ance; and soon after she ate a bran-mash, and in the afternoon some 



10 P.M. — She was seen, and would not then eat or drink ; and in 
the course of the night she got worse, and lay down, and could not 
get up again. 

SOth, 5 A.M. — I first saw her, and she had then every symptom of 
being "loin fallen" — throwing her head about and to her side, and 
could not rise. 

6 P.M. Treatment — Gave ibj Soda Sulph.; P. Zingib.,^] ; Sps. Mth. 
Nit. et Sps. Gent., aa, ^ij. From the milk-vein on the near side I took 
five quarts of blood, and rubbed on the loins and spine occasionally 
a blistering liniment. The medicine caused a deal of flatus to be 
belched up. 

8 A.M.: — Seems in pain in her bowels. Gave 3j 01. Croton ; 3ij Ant 
Potato. Tart.; OL Eicini, Oss ; Sulphur, Jiij ; Pulv. Lyttse, gr. xv. 

2 P.M. — She is easier, but she still throws her head about and to 
her sides ; but I think she is better, as she steadies her head a little 
firmer. Is very warm and comfortable all over, and she has drawn 
her legs close to her body, and moves them occasionally. Sent 3j OL 
Croton and 3iss of Ant. Potas. Tart., to be given at twice. Mustard 
applied to the loins and spine. From the last date she gradually got 
worse and worse, and died sometime in the night. I saw her about 
9 P.M., she was then all at full length and breathing most labori- 
ously, and I could hear liquids working up and down the trachea, 
and I ascertained that what gruel had last been given to her she had 
a difficulty in swallowing — indeed she really did not swallow, it 
merely ran down anywhere. 

Post-m^ortem Examination, — The first stomach was tolerably filled 



* CASES OF PAETUEITION APOPLEXY, PUERPBEAL FEVER, 

with moist food, and I could see some of the sulphur interspersed 
amongst it. The second stomach was empty. The third stomach 
was full, but no part of it was hard or constipated ; and that part 
towards the oesophagean canal was very pultaceous, and evidently 
showing the effects of the medicine — ^indeed the medicine appeared 
to have produced disease about them, as there was extravasation of 
lymph and serum within its coats, and appeared quite dropsical. 
The fourth stomach was nearly empty, and showed some vestiges of 
the probable injurious effects of the medicine in a similar way to 
what the niouth of the third stomach did. The S7naU intestines, for 
about half way along them, were tolerably sound, with the exception 
of some slight patches of inflammation on their mucous coat. The 
remaining part of the small intestines was very much diseased, be- 
ing in some places highly inflamed and of a dark-red colour; in 
other places there were patches of inflammation. The intestines con- 
tained liquid of a dirty-red colour. Some parts of this intestine 
were streaked of a blackish colour. The large intestines were toler- 
ably healthy, and contained but little fseces, and which were not 
hard. The lungs were a little congested. 

Head and Spine, — I had these sent home for examination. There 
was nothing particular about the brain, except that the ventricles of 
the cerebrum had too great a quantity of serum in them ; and on 
separating the head from the spine, a large quantity of serum ran out 
from the latter. I then exposed the whole of the spinal marrow, and 
found that the cervical portion of it and opposite the first four or five 
dorsal vertebne were pretty natural ; but from this place throughout 
the remainder of the spinal cord there was a very large quantity of 
serum within the theca vertebralis, and especially so about the dorsal 
and lumbar vertebrae. About the lumbar vertebrae the cord had a few 
dilated bloodvessels on it, and more so than on the other parts. On 
each side of the external surface of the theca vertebralis there was a 
vein, as large as a goose-quill, completely distended with black blood, 
and one would have supposed would have caused great pressure on 
the cord. 

Case 4*. 

About 6 A.M., April 1 6, 1844, I was called in to an aged cow, 
belonging to Mrs Jones of the White Lion Inn in this town, that 
was " loin fallen." She calved yesterday, and was left at night as 
well as could be expected, and had no symptoms then of the disease. 
She was very fat. She now attempts to rise, but cannot ; moves her 
hind legs up and down, and looks lively. Treatment. — Took 7 quarts 
of blood from her, and gave Jxij Soda Sulph. ; 3j 01. Croton ; Pulv. 
Lyttse, 9j ; Pulv. Zingib., 3vj ; Sps. Gent., gij ; and rubbed a quantity 
of mustard all along the spine, and covered her well up. 

12 m. — Is warmer, but no better. Gave Soda Sulph. et Sulphur 
Sub., aa, 5iv ; OL Croton, 3ss ; Sps. Gent., Jij ; Pulv. Zingib., 3iv ; and 
rubbed a miiment composed of Lin. Lyttse et Sps. Tereb. on her loins. 



OE LOIN FALLEN. 5 

4 P.M. — Is decidedly worse. Bowels not moved. She now begins 
to hang her head to her sides, and cannot move her hind legs so 
welL About this time she drank a few draughts of water. Pulse 
not very quick. Horns not quite so warm. We turned her over 
and got some milk from her udder at intervals. 

5 P.M. — Gave her Tinct. Opii ; Sps. Mth. Nit., aa, ^ss. Lies at 
full length. 

6 P.M. — Still lying at full length. Turns her head sometimes to 
her side. Is warm all over. Does not look any worse. Gave her a 
clyster, with ^ Sps. Tereb., and a handful of salt in it ; and when 
giving it, she strained a little, and also stretched her hind legs out 
from her body, thus showing that all muscular power was not gone. 

7 P.M. — Repeated the last drink. The other appeared to have 
produced perspiration very freely. 

9 P.M. — Worse. Cannot lift her head up. Pulse quicker and 
small Will bear the eye pressed. Respiration all along has been 
too quick. Bowels not moved. Has a diflSculty in swallowing. 

11 P.M. — About the same. Lifted her head up, but it soon fell to 
her side again. Blisters taken no effect Bowels not moved. Gave 
^ij Aloes Cape; 5ss Pip. Cayenne; 5j Pip. Jamaica; 3ij Ant. 
rotas. Tart., all having been boiled in some linseed gruel Has great 
diflSculty in swallowing. Seeing next morning that there were little 
hopes of her recovering, she was slaughtered for meat, being very fat ; 
and I am sorry to say I did not see her opened, but I was told that 
the third stomach was not at all constipated. 

Case 5. 

About 8 o'clock A.M., Feb. 13, 1845, a cow, in excellent con- 
dition, of the Jersey breed, the property of Thomas Groom, Esq., 
surgeon, of this town, calved without assistance, and afterwards fed 
weU and cleansed. 

On the morning of the 14th she was also well and suckled the 
calf, and gave more milk after ; but about 

1 P.M. she was again seen, and found to be down and ill ; and 
with some little difficulty she got up, but was soon down again. 

3 P.M. — I saw her for the first time. She was down. Pulse at 
the jaw small, but at the shoulder I could feel it more distinctly, and 
it was not above the natural rate per minute. Was not swollen. 
On attempting to move her from an unfavourable position, she with 
great difficulty got up without assistance ; but when up she was very 
weak, and soon after dropped down on the opposite side. 

As I had hitherto been foiled in curing these cases by the anti- 
phlogistic treatment, I was determined to try the opposite one. I 
accordingly gave Sps. -^th. Nit., §ij ; Tinct. Opii, gij ; Sps. Gent, 
^. In half an hour after, I thought it prudent to give her Soda 
Sulph., fibj ; 01 Croton, 3j ; Zingib., §ij, in some gruel The first 
medicine caused the expulsion of a good deal of wind from the 



6 CASES OF PARTURITION APOPLEXY, PUERPERAL FEVER, 

stomach. Had her well covered up. Seems in pain, and struggles 
with her legs. 

6 P.M. — About the same. She has either been up, or has struggled 
about the cowhouse. Horns and ears coldish. Is very heavy about 
the head. Gave Sps. -^th. Nit., 5ij ; Sps. Gent., §j ; Tinct. Opii, 
3vj ; also Sulphur, ibss ; Aloes Bbds., 5j ; Ant. P. Tart., 3ij ; Pip. 
Jam., Jj. A pretty good dose, some will say^ but I thought prudent 
to give it whilst she could swallow. Rubbed §v of strong Mustard 
and gv Sps. Terebinth, on the spine, and clothed her weU up. She 
had a difficulty in swallowing the gruel and medicine, even at the 
first time of drenching. Eespiration tolerable, but at times it is 
stertorotis. We at this time drew a little milk from her. During 
part of the night she was very restless ; but about two o'clock in the 
morning she became quite warm, and the person sitting up with her 
said she chewed her cud for a quarter of an hour, and kept her head 
straight out before her, and he thought she was getting well fast 
Strongly stimulated the loins in the night. 

16th, 8 A.M. — I saw her again. She was uncovered, and cold all 
over. Head at full length before her, and unable to move it. She 
can scarcely swallow. Has dunged in the night, which was soft. I 
now drew six or seven quarts of urine from her, and gave her 5ij Sps. 
-^th. Nit. and ^j Tinct. Opii. I fear the result. She is much more 
swollen. Struggles. Pulse at the jaw feeble, but at the chest more 
distinct, and scarcely quicker than natural. 

12 M. — Seeing no amendment, or the probability of her getting 
better, she was killed and made meat of. 

Post-mortem Examination, — The first stomach was not by any 
means full or overloaded. The third stomach was full, and there was 
no appearance of " staking " in any part of it, but on the contrary, it 
was becoming pultaceous, and no doubt she would have soon purged 
had she lived. The fourth stomach was not inflamed, nor showed any 
disease. The folds of this stomach were the largest I ever saw, being 
4 or 5 inches in depth, but they are always larger in aged cows. 
The intestines. — Those proceeding from the stomach, for half way 
along, contained a good deal of chyle or mucous secretion, and the 
other portion had much more liquid faeces in them. The large ones 
contained faeces of a more solid nature, but there was no constipa- 
tion, and there was but little inflammation in any part of the whole 
tract of intestines. The brain could not be examined, having 
been injured by the butcher, and the spine he also split up, but it 
was not materially injured. There was no extravasation of blood or 
lymph within or external to the theca vertebralis. There were 
streaks of filled bloodvessels on the surface of the spinal cord, but 
more so across the loins, but whether more than natural I cannot say. 
The interior of the spinal cord was softer and of a darker colour 
than the cortical portion, which was quite white. 

The Uterus, &c, — The uterus was larger and harder I fancy than 
usual, after such a period from calving, and about its neck was of a 



OR LOIN FALLEN. 7 

very dark colour ; and on closely examining it, I found that there was 
a good deal of extravasated blood in the cellular membrane, and a 
little on the surface of the vagina, a little posterior to the os uteri The 
body of the uterus was decidedly much thicker than it should be, 
and lay contracted in considerable wreaths lengthways. There was 
also some extravasation of blood within the pelvis external to the 
uterus. On cutting into the substance I found, especially around 
the fundus, a large quantity of serum and lymph, but there was no 
deposit of blood, or of the appearance of the bloodvessels being 
congested.. 

Case 6. 

On Friday, March 23, 1848, a cow, ten years old, cross bred, the 
property of Mrs Currie, calved. 

24^A. — This morning she fed, and, seemed pretty well About 
10 A.M. she was weaker, and tottered about a little. At 12 M. 
she was turned out of the cowhouse to go into the field close ad- 
joining, but on doing so she staggered and fell. At 2 p.m. I saw 
her, and she had then every symptom, in its first stage, of being 
" loin fallen'' — ^viz., inability to rise on her hind parts ; a tottering of 
the head ; moaning ; pulse almost imperceptible ; and there appeared 
to be a laxity and looseness of the spine, and joints about the loins 
and pelvis. As I hardly ever knew a case to get well about here, 
no matter whose hands they had been under, I advised them to dis- 
pose of her. 

At 7 P.M. she was slaughtered, and being night I could not trace 
disease as I could wish. The third stomach was quite full, but there 
was not the least appearance of " stiiking " in it, and apparently there 
was nothing imusual about the internal parts. On the external parts, 
about the lumbar vertebrae, there was a good deal of extravasated 
blood, but most probably it was produced by her falling against 
something. 

27<A, 6 A.M. — I saw the spine sawn through, but I could not detect 
the least effusion or disease on the cord, and the bruise on the loins 
was quite superficial 

Case 7. — Cure. 

A cow, eight years old, the property of A. Worthington, Esq. of 
the Mount, in this town, calved on January 25, 1853. At night the 
placenta was expelled. Is in good condition, and has a very large 
udder, and calved without assistance early in the morning before the . 
family got up. On the morning of the 26th she was thought not to be 
so well, being weak and tottering. About 1 1 A.M. I saw her. Is stand- 
ing up, and there are slight muscular tremours. Pulse about its natural 
stwidard, but feeble. Udder large, and she gave this morning about 
two quarts of milk, more than the calf required. She is weak, and 
totters in her hind parts. As she stood up to the wall, and close to 
the door, I thought it better to remove her into another stall, more in 



8 CASES OF PAETUEITION APOPLEXY, PUERPERAL FEVER, 

the middle of the cowhouse. In doing so she manifested great diffi- 
culty in walking, and had a narrow escape of falling head-fore- 
most into the ** boosy." She has, in short, eveiy symptom of ap- 
proaching "loin fallen." 5^ Soda Sulph., Jxij ; 01. Croton, guttse xl; 
Aloes Capen, Jy; Pulv. Capsici,3ij; Pulv. Zingib.,§ss ; one-half to be 
given in some gruel immediately, and the remainder in an hour's 
time. Mustard-paste was rubbed over the spine, and in the after- 
noon a strong liquid blister was also applied. 

3 P.M. — ^The animal is down and moaning. Pulse about natural. 
Has not dunged. Paunch and abdomen distended. 

8 P.M. — Lies with her head to her side ; but she is seusible, and can 
move her head straight out, but it soon falls to her side again. Gave 
her Soda Sulph., §iv; Aloes Barb., 5j; OL Croton, guttse xx; Pulv. 
Capsici, 3ij ; Pulv. Zingib. et Gentian, aa, 5j. This medicine was 
well macerated before it was given to her, and she gulped it down. 

27^A, 9 A.M. — She is still down, and has not been up since she first 
went down. Is sensible, and can move her head a little about, but 
it generally lies on her side. Pulse and respiration natural. Skin 
warm. Bowels not acted on. Gave Pip. Jam., §j, (that had been 
macerating all night ;) 01. Croton, 3ss ; 01. Ricini, Jvj. I poured 
some hot water along the spine from a tea-kettle, and she was 
evidently sensible to the application, as it gave her great pain, and 
made her turn over on the other side. Rubbed some brandy on her 
loins. 

5 P.M. — The symptoms are more favourable, or at any rate they 
are not worse. Has not yet been up. On passing my hand up the 
rectum I withdrew a quantity of hardened f seces. Although I do not 
think it of much use, generally speaking, to back-rake or clyster 
cows, yet I think in this disease it is proper to remove any faeces, as 
they may press on the nerves supplying the hinder extremities. Sits 
with her head out before her. Does not moan. Has urinated. On 
raising her up a little she strained to force the dung out, which I 
consider a favourable symptom. Several quarts of milk have been 
drawn from Jher during the day. 

9 P.M. — On going to give her more medicine, the man found her up. 
2Sth, 9 A.M. — On my visiting her I found her up. Udder soft ; 

and the calf had sucked her freely, by which the udder was very 
much reduced in size. She looks more lively, and now carries her 
head straight out before her. Has voided dung once, which is softer, 
but still mixed with some that is hard. Give some 01. Ricini, with 
some Pip. Jamaica every hour or two, and allow nothing but gruel 
and water. Legs to be well rubbed, as she seems weak and shuffling 
behind. Applied some more brandy and mustard to her loins. 
From this time she got better, and was soon all right again. 

Case 8. 
On the 13th March 1858, a cow, ten or eleven years old, the pro- 



OR LOIN FALLEN. 9 

perty of C. Clay, Esq. of this town, calved with great ease, and soon 
after cleansed. She continued well and fed well on the 14th, and 
ate her feed of hay in the night of the same day. On the morning 
of the 15th the servant found her down when he went to see her. 
I was then sent for. Symptoms, — Could not get up, and seemed 
very weak in her hind parts. She sat up, and looked pretty well 
about the eyes. Pulse and respiration about natural. She was full 
of food, but not swollen of any moment. I gave her Mag. Sulph., 
ibj ; Sulph. Sut, Jiv; 01. Croton, guttse xx ; Pip. Jam., ^ss ; Sps. iEth. 
Nit., 5j ; Aqua Vitse, §iv, and she swallowed it well. Blistered spine, 
and covered her well up. 

12. M. — Her head is heavy, and is partially laid to her side — 
indeed she has now every symptom of being " loin fallen." 

I now boiled Jss Pip. Jam., Jss Pulv. Zingib., 3j Pip. Capsici in 
some water, to get the strength out of it, and gave half of it, and 
^iv of Brandy and ^ Sps. JEth. Nit., and the remaining dose two 
hours after. 

6 P.M. — Worse. Bowels not open. Gave ^j of melted Aloes and 
^ Sps. M\h, Nit, and more pepper stimulants and brandy. 

8 P.M. — About the same, or worse if anything, yet she is pretty 
warm. Gave ^ Aloes and more stimulants, and clothed her up, and 
left her for the night. 

IQthy 7 A.M. — ^About the same. Nothing has come through her. 
Gave more opening and stimulating medicine. Baked her, and drew 
seven quarts of urine from her. 

12 M. — ^About the same. The owner would have her killed, and 
he sold her for £2 to a butcher for meat, sadly against my will, although 
her recovery was very uncertain. 

Post-mortem Examination. — The first stomxtch was pretty full of 
moist food. The second stomach was half full, but its contents were 
nearly liquid. The third simnach was quite full, and one-half of its 
contents was hardish, but not so dry as I have seen it, but still it 
was too dry. The remaining part that was in it, about its mouth, 
was pretty soft. The fourth stomach was nearly full, but what was 
in it was nearly liquid. There was not the least appearance of any 
inflammation in any parts of the stomachs. The s(ifnall intestines 
were nearly empty, and there was no appearance of them being in- 
flamed. The large intestines were moderately filled, and they were 
quite sound. The lungs and heart were pretty natural ; the former, 
perhaps, were a little redder than natural in one or two places, most 
likely from some of the medicine having passed down the windpipe. 
The head and spine could not be examined. 

There was a little efi*usion of lymph between the stomachs and 
diaphragm. Of course these are cases that require more minute 
examination of the head and spine, but certainly the abdominal 
viscera was quite sound, and I cannot say I ever saw one more so in 
this complaint. 



10 CASES OF PAETUBITION APOPLEXY, PUERPERAL FEVER, 

Case 9. — Cure. 

About 3 o'clock A.M., September 19, 1860, a large half-bred cow, 
six years old, and very fat, the property of Miss Dymocke of this 
town, calved, and soon after she parted with the placenta, and fed 
and appeared well all day. 

20^A, 6 A.M. — She was discovered down, and could not get up, and 
also had, as the man in care of her said, " her reid down,"' (uterus.) 
I saw her at 7 a.m. Symptoms, — She was tied up at the stake, and 
lying down with her head to her side. She could not get up, and 
had every symptom of being loin fallen. Her " bulk" or vagina pro- 
truded to double the size of my head, and in the middle of it there 
was a portion of the. uterus as large a^ my head. I returned the pro- 
truded parts, and put four sutures through the vulva, and raised the 
hinder parts. 

. I commenced giving her, about every hour, 3ij of the Sesq. CJarb. 
of Ammonia in water, and continued it until she had had six doses. 

About 4 P.M. I gave 01. Croton 3ss. ; Hydr. Chlorid., 3ij. 

7 P.M. — Gave another dose of the Ammonia, with ^vi of Brandy. 
She has lain most of the day in a perfectly helpless state, and most 
of the time she has had her head to her side. Eesipiration has been 
quicker than natural, but not particularly stertorous, and she has 
been quite warm all day. Has had some little difficulty in swallow- 
ing, but I have seen many swallow worse. Bowels not opened. 
There has been but little bearing down from the uterus. 

9 P.M. — ^About the same. Is quite warm, and perfectly helpless 
Eyes are sinking. No particular protrusion of the vagina. We now 
turned her over, and I left three more doses of the Ammonia and 
gxij of Aqua Vitae to be given in the night ; but as she was swollen 
a good deal, I thought it prudent before I left to " tap " her. 

2l5^, 6 A.M. — I have been informed that she remained about the 
same all night. Is warm. Bowels not opened, and the tapping has 
kept the swelling down. Breathes too quick. Has had difficulty in 
swallowing. Turned her over, and to be left alone. 

2 P.M. — Has been struggling a good deal Is warm and sensible, 
and has had another half-pint of brandy. We lifted her head up, 
and she drank about six quarts of cold water. Has voided her urine 
well this morning, and there is no swelling from the vulva. The 
trochar has been out all day, but as she was a little too full I tapped 
her again. Respiration better after being tapped. Blistered spine, 
gave an aperient, and left alone. 

8 P.M. — Is better, and the symptoms more favourable. 

22d, 9 A.M. — Is lying all at full length, but she is warm, and is 
evidently more sensible. Urinates and dungs a little. We pulled 
her up on her side, and she sat up very fairly and drank some 
water. Is decidedly better. Gave her some more opening medicine, 
chloride of lime, and half -pint of brandy. 

1 P.M. — Progressing favourably. Gives a fair quantity of milk. 



OR LOIN FALLEN. * 11 

2 P.M. — Is all at length, and seems worse now, and more swollen 
I again tapped her, which relieved her very much. 

6 P.M. — She got up. Gave her some OL Lini et OL Castor. 

23d, 9 A.M. — Got up again. Is warm and more lively. Ate some 
bran-mash, and drank some gruel and water. Bowels lax. 

5 P.M. — Found her down, but sitting with her head up, and looks 
better. She got up, and gave five quarts of milk. Does not care to 
eat. ' Nose dry. Respiration pretty natural She is, in short, 
decidedly better, and going on well Urinated freely. To have a 
little more oil, and I took the canula out. 

24iA, 9 A.M. — ^Has been up, but is now down, and sitting quite 
cocket Does not care to feed. From this time she gradually got 
all right, getting up every day, increasing her milk, and ultimately 
did well, and made a good piece of beef when dry. 

Case 10. 

A cow, about six years old, of the Jersey breed, very fat, the pro- 
perty of Thomas Groom, Esq., surgeon, of this town, calved at 11 
o'clock P.M., September 22, 1860, and cleansed soon after. She 
calved quite easily, fed well, and was left all right at night. 

23d. — The first thing this morning, she was apparently all right 

11 A.M. — She was, most imprudently, taken half a mile through 
the town to the field, and was left there until five P.M. She then 
was brought home, and it was stated to me that she took her feed at 
night, and was left the last thing apparently well. 

24^, 8 A.M. — She was now seen for the first time, and found 
down, and in an apparent dying state. 

9 A.M. — I first saw her. Symptoms. — All at length in the cow- ^ 
house, and almost lifeless. Legs, ears, and the surface of the body ' 
cold. Cannot support her head, but dashes it about. Udder 
very large and hard. . Little milk can be drawn from her. I gave 
half-pint of brandy, and in half an hour after I gave 3ij of the 
Sesq. Carb. of Ammonia, and to be repeated every hour. 

11. — ^Was swollen. Tapped her. 

12 M. — ^About the same. Gasps as if for life. Does not stir. 
Gave half-pint of brandy. 

8 P.M. — Died. This cow never rallied in the least, and was in a 
sort of collapsed state all the time. I had not an opportunity of 
opening her. I should have liked to have done so, as she had 
had no purgative medicine to produce disease in the bowels, as I am 
suspicious it does so sometimes. 

Case 11. 

At 5 P.M., June 13, 1862, a half-bred cow, eight years old, and in 
excellent condition, the property of Mr Joinson of this town, showed 
symptoms of parturition. Soon after, the fore feet made their 
appearance, but no head. Several neighbours were called in, (the 



12 CASES OF PARTURITION APOPLEXY, PUERPERAL FEVER, 

COW was at a farm in the country,) who got the head into its proper 
position ; and with some little force the calf was extracted alive, and 
all was over by 8 P.M. 

14ith, — This morning she ate a mash and some hay, and an aperi- 
ent was given her ; and in the course of the morning she was walked 
into the field for a short time ; but even then she seemed weak, and 
tottered about a little, which was thought to proceed only from the 
calviDg. 

6 P.M.— The owner called on me now for some more opening 
medicine, as he said she was staked ; and I sent Ojss of 01 Eicini et 
OL Lini., and most of it was given to her. In the evening she tot- 
tered about more than ever, and at 12 o'clock she lay down and 
could not get up. 

1 5th, 5.30 A.M. — I was called in to attend her, and went three miles 
to where she was at. 

Symptoms, — Those of " loin fallen ;" and she seems in pain, and 
struggles now and then, and throws her head about. 

Treatment. — Not having any hopes, from my past experience, in 
bleeding, I desisted from that, and gave half-pint of Brandy and 
half-pint of the Liq. Ammon. Acet. in some water, and we had great 
diflSculty in getting it down. Rubbed a blistering liniment on the 
spine, and covered her well up. 

10 A.M. — Is in a very helpless state, and scarcely ever stirs. Lies 
at full length on the ground, and has not power to shake her head. 
Ordered half-pint more of Liq. Ammon. Acet. and some Brandy ; 
but she could not swallow nor gulp it down. 

6 P.M. — ^About the same ; but breathes laboriously, and evidently 
has got some of the medicine in her windpipe, &c. I attempted to 
give her some more medicine, but was obliged to desist, as she could 
not swallow it. Drew a large quantity of urine from her ; but I 
have very little hopes of her recovery. She continued to get gradu- 
ally worse, and at 10 P.M. she died. 

Post-mx)rtem Examination, 10 A.M. — She was lying on her right 
side. The first stomach was three-parts full of food, which was 
moist, and the stomach was healthy ; second stomach healthy ; 
third stomach full of well-masticated food, three parts of which was 
quite soft, and the remainder was getting a little dry, but of little 
consequence, or indifferent to health. The fourth stomach was a 
good deal inflamed on its inside. The whole of the intestines were 
removed out of the abdomen, and on examining them I found that 
their interior was a good deal diseased, being inflamed and dis- 
coloured very much ; but as I was in a hurry I could not examine 
them, as I would have wished ; but I often suspect that they are dis- 
eased in this complaint. 

There was great discolouration and inflammation about the 
spine, on the right side of the thorax ; but, as I stated before, she 
lay on the right side on dying. On looking at the heart, I found 
that there was some slight ecchymosis in places about the pericar- 



OB LOIN FALLEN. 13 

dium and heart. The whole of the muscular tissue was very defi- 
dent in blood — ^indeed it was almost bloodless from some cause. 
The owner said that a large quantity of blood came from the cow, 
and also from the cord of the calf, which they tied up on the calf 
being expelled from the womb. The uterus was well contracted and 
perfectly sound, and the cotyledons were three parts absorbed. 

I am sorry I had not time to examine the head and spine. The 
lungs were very much enlarged and diseased, with effusion of lymph 
and serum in them, but which no doubt was produced by the medi- 
cine getting into them whilst being drenched. I never saw any lungs 
worse diseased from such a cause, and which shows the absolute 
necessity of having a stomach-pump with us. She only lived twenty- 
four hours from the time I saw her, during which time she was in 
an ahnost collapsed state. 

Case 12. 

At 12 M., May 16, 1862, an aged half-bred cow, of Mr Edwards's, 
Black Park, calved a live calf, and she had a very good time of it 
and soon after cleansed. 

Vjth — In the morning she gave a fair quantity of milk, and was 
turned out into the field ; but in the course of the morning she seemed 
to be tottering on her hind legs, and apparently restless, and wandered 
about the field. About 9 a.m. she came home with difficulty, and 
fell down in the yard. She afterwards got up, and was taken into 
the cowhouse. About 12 at noon I first saw her, and she was then 
lying down in the cowhouse. She appeared to be in pain, and had 
the usual symptoms of the disease. A butcher had bled her, but he 
could only get about three quarts of blood from her. I had given to her, 
Ojss OL Eicini et 01. Lini. ; gxij Mag. Sulph. ; §iv Sulphur ; 01. Croton, 
guttaex; Zingib., §ss, and half-pint of Brandy. Covered her well up 
with bags, and made her comfortable. She had afterwards, at intervals 
of four hours, three doses of Liq. Ammon. Acet, with giv of Brandy in 
each dose. 

18^, 6 A.M. — The owner thought proper to have her killed, and sold 
her for meat. 

Examination, 9 A.M. — The first stomach was only very partially 
filled. Second not examined. The third stomach was not at all con- 
stipated, and the medicine was acting weD. I slit open some six or 
eight yards of the small intestines, and they only contained a small 
quantity of liquid yellowish faeces. On their interior there were,.here 
and there, some specks of ecchymosis, but nothing of much moment ; 
and I am sorry to say that I had not time to examine them in the 
way I coidd have wished, as I often fancy, from the pain they have, that 
they have disease in the bowels. There was not the least vestige of 
disease in the uterus. It was beautifully contracted, and its inner sur- 
face was of a pale natural colour, and seemed so throughout its sub- 
stance. The cotyledons were partially absorbed, and most of them 
were of the same pale colour. 



14 CASES OF PAETURITION APOPLEXY, PUERPERAL FEVER, 

It contained only about a quart of the usual discoloured secretion. 

It was, in short, one of the most healthy I ever saw, and there 
could not have been any cause here to produce the disease. I did not 
see any effusion of importance on the spine or cord, but of course 
these parts were not examined in a proper way, as the spine was 
merely sawn through by the butcher ; but certainly there was no ex- 
travasation, to my mind, of any importance. Perhaps there, would 
have been some congestion, had she not been bled. 

Case 13. 

On Thursday, April 14, 1864, at 11.30, 1 was called in to attend 
a cow eight y^rs old, the property of Mr Newbrook, in Whitchurch, 
that was down, and could not get up. I was informed that she calved 
a live calf, about 8 A.M. of the 13th, without any diflSculty, and fed, 
and seemed well all day. Towards 7 A.M. the calf was suckled, and 
of course she was then standing up, but soon after she went down, 
and could not be got up, and became worse very fast. An ignorant 
farrier was in attendance on her, who had taken two quarts of blood 
from her, and had given some saltpetre " for the water." 

11.30 P.M. — I first saw her. She was then all at full length in the 
cowhouse, with every symptom of being " loin fallen."' I took three 
quarts more blood from her, and gave a purging drink, and blistered 
her loins, and in the course of the night gave two doses of the Liq. 
Ammon. Acet. and Tinct. Aconite, and made her comfortable. 

Ibth, 8 A.M. — ^As I did not see the least prospect of her recovery, 
I advised her to be slaughtered, as the owner was a butcher. 

Post-mortem Examination, — She was split up along the spine 
when hung up, but of course I did not examine her in the way I could 
have wished ; but the bones all about the loins appeared to be satu- 
rated with blood, and were of a deep red colour, and very diflferent to 
the other parts of the spine, i^hird stomach not " staked." Uterus 
perfectly sound and contracted. 

There was not the least vestige of disease in the intestines. Lungs 
and heart sound. Indeed I could not detect any disease in any part 
of the carcase except in the spine. The head I could not examine, 
as it was smashed in being cut oS. The spinal cord was injured in 
being cloven up. 

Case 14. — Cure. 

About half-past 7 o'clock on Friday morning, the 13th May 1864, 
I was requested to go and see a cow of Mrs Euscoe's, of this town, 
that was thought not to be well, and that her bowels were not suflS- 
ciently opened. . 

I saw her immediately, and ascertained that she had calved yester- 
day morning, and had had a very good time of it, cleansed, and 
seemed very well all day, and she had given a fair quantity of milk 
besides what the calf had taken. 



OB LOm FALLEN. 15 

She is a very large cow of the shorthorn breed, and in good milk- 
ing condition, and has had six or seven calves. She is idso a first- 
rate milker, and has always a large pendent udder. 

Symptoms, — Is standing up and looking very anxiously, as if tired 
and wanting to lie down, and is all of the shuffle with her hind legs, 
and evidently has been doing so for some time, as there is a great 
patch in the cowhouse floor with the marks of her feet Respiration 
too quick. Ears cold. Pulse too quick, but weak. There appears 
to be great weakness in her loins, and her hind parts wriggle about. 
She has just dunged a fair quantity, and also urinated about a quart. 

The symptoms evidently denote " puerperal fever." 

Treatment — Gave Liq. Ammon. Acet, ^vj ; 01. Eicini, Jsx ; Mag. 
Sulph., ^j ; Sulphur Sub., Jij ; OL Croton, guttae v ; and applied Lin. 
Sinap. et Lin. Lyttae, c ; Sps. Tereb., § j. As Symonds recommends 
the antiphlogistic treatment in the early stage, I thought I would 
once more bleed, (notwithstanding my failure in numerous cases,) 
and accordingly I took about four quarts of blood from her whilst 
standing, and on doing so we had great difficulty in keeping her up, 
as she appeared a little faintish. Soon after she lay down very com- 
fortably and remained so for upwards of two hours pretty quiet, and 
with her head up and not to her side. 

10 A.M. — She got up very fairly, but when up she was very weak, 
and tottering in her hinder parts. When up her respiration became 
quickened. Soon after she lay comfortably down. Gave Tinct. 
Aconite, guttse xv; Liq. Ammon. Acet, ^vj, in some water, which she 
swallowed well. She also drank about three quarts of chilled water 
prior to giving the medicine. 

11 A.M. — Still down. Pulse 60, but small. Drinks a little water 
occasionally. 

1 P.M. — ^About the same. She made an attempt to rise, but could 
not do so. 

5 P.M. — ^Worse. Head totters about much. Gasping as if for 
breath ; and as it was an excessively hot day, I gave her all the air I 
could, by knocking oflf the boards. Pulse 68. Ears and horns colder. 
The spine rubbed every now and then with mustard. Repeat Haust 

7.30 P.M. — Seems better a little. Pulse the same. Bowels not 
opened. Gave Soda Sulph., ibss ; Liq. Ammon. Acet, §vj ; 01. Croton, 
guttae xij, in water, which she had some difficulty in swallowing. 

10 P.M. — She has turned over on her other side, and a little milk 
has been obtained. Pulse 64, stronger and more distinct. Does not 
seem in very much pain, or struggle as they generally do, and she 
has been so throughout the day. Sits up in a listless way, and has 
not her head quite so much to her side as she had. She has been 
well clothed recently, and her body is warmer, but her ears are not 
warm. I almost fancy she is quite as well as she was. 

12 P.M. — She is in the same place as where we left her, and evi- 
dently she has not stirred. Ears deathly cold. Head turned more 
to her side^ and she is in a dull listless way. Scarcely any pulse to 



16 CASES OF PAETURITION APOPLEXY, PUERPERAL FEVER, 

be felt. Drew a little milk from her. Gave Ammon. Carb., 3ij ; 
Tinct. Aconite, guttse x, in water. She swallowed it fairly. Stimu- 
lated spine; clothed her well up, and left her. 

14ith May, 2 A.M.— pAbout the same. No signs of amendment. 
Ears still very cold. Drew from her two quarts of milk. Moans a 
little. Is sensible. Gave Sps. JEth. Nit., 3jss, in some water, which 
she swallowed pretty well Head mostly inclined to her side. 

4 A.M. — ^Much about the same. Ears no warmer. Has not altered 
her position. Moans occasionally. 

5 A.M. — ^Bowels not opened. Ears still cold. Sits up pretty cocket, 
and does not seem in much pain. Grunts occasionally. I do not 
think her any worse. Gave Ammon. Carb., 3ij ; Tinct. Aconite, guttae x. 

7 A.M. — ^From last date she has been about the same. Bowels not 
open. Is warmer, and I think better. Respiration calmer. Pulse 
stronger, which occasionally intermits. Continues in a sitting posture, 
and seems more comfortable, and the symptoms are more favourable. 
She drank some water. Rubbed her spine. 

11.30 A.M. — I found her sitting up, and she was warm and com- 
fortable, and apparently going on welL I felt inclined to introduce 
the catheter for the first time, as in these cases there is frequently 
retention of the urine ; but I found, on trying to do so, that she was 
too near the wall, when the man in charge of her said, " I daresay 
she will founder forwards if we hit her ;" and on 4oing so she not 
only foundered, but she actually got up very fairly. I then tried to 
introduce the catheter, and in doing so it induced her to urinate, I 
should think, three quarts, and soon after she dunged a little, which 
was rather hard. 

1 P.M. — rStUl up, and looks very fair, and does not shuffle about 
much. Gave some linseed gruel and water gruel occasionally. She 
has also dunged, which is tolerably soft. Gave Ammon. Carb., 3ij ; 
Tinct. Aconite, guttae x ; OL Croton, guttse xij. I gave her a handful 
or two of hay, which she ate. Have got several lots of milk from 
her, and her udder is softer. 

12 M. — She lay down, and remained so for two hours. 

2 P.M. — She got up again, and remained up for twenty minutes. 
4 P.M. — She is now apparently going on welL 

16tk — From last date to the present she has been going on very 
well, both in getting up, feeding, &c. ; and her bowels have been well 
opened ; and this morning she was taken out of the cowhouse, and 
walked tolerably well, and from this time she went on very favour- 
ably and got all right. 

Case 15. 

A cow of Mr Bates's, baker, of this town, six years old, three 
parts bred, in nice condition, but not to say over fat, calved at 9 p.m., 
June 19, 1864, and had an easy time of it ; cleansed three hours 
after, and afterwards fed well, and stood up until 3 in the afternoon. 

Symptoms. — At 5 p.m. I first saw her. Is down, and cannot get 



OB LOm FALLEN. 17 

up. On hitting her on the left flank and across her loins she 
seemed very much affected by it, and which made her quite nervous, 
and threw her in apparent pain. 

She made an attempt to get up when I hit her, but she failed in 
doing so. She sat up in a natural way, and showed no signs of put- 
ting her head to her side. Pulse not much different to health. 
Udder large and hard. Was warm all over. There seemed a nervous 
anxiety about her, as if something more was to follow. 

Treatment — ^Although I did not notice anything, particularly about 
the pulse, to warrant me in bleeding, yet I thought it prudent to do 
80, as " loin fallen" is considered an inflammation of the spinal cord 
and brain. I therefore took five quarts from the left jugular vein. 

The blood, I thought, was of a much darker colour than natural, 
and it issued from her very fluently at first, but the latter half came 
more slowly. I then gave to her about three parts of the following 
drink in some gruel : — Mag. Sulph. ibj gxij ; OL Croton, 3ss ; Sulphur, 
3vj ; Pulv. Sem. Carui, giss, and rubbed on her spine some Lin. LyttsB, 
a; Sps. Tereb. et 01. Croton, 3ij, and had her made comfortable, and 
her udder to be well rubbed and drawn. 

8 P.M. — She has now turned, or rather shuffled down into the 
"grooping." The symptoms now are completely those of "loin 
fallen." Gave Lig. Ammon. Acet., gviij. All milk to be got out of 
the udder. 

10 P.M. — About the same. We now drew her round into a 
better position. She is more helpless, and scarcely struggled on put- 
ting her round. After putting her round we lifted her up on her 
side, and bolstered her up, but she seemed to have scarcely any in- 
clination to stir, and her head was barely supported. In the course 
of the night she had two doses of medicine, each composed of Liq. 
Ammon. Acet., gvj ; Tinct. Aconite, guttae vj. The last dose was given 
towards 6 o'clock, and she had great difficulty in swallowing it. 

21$t, 6 A.M. — She is all at fidl length down on her right side, and 
has been so for hours. Is quite insensible, as one can move one's 
finger over the eye without producing any effect, and she does not 
stir on pricking or hitting her. Her skin is smooth and moist, as if 
she was gently sweating. Pulse at the breast distinct but quick. She 
has swollen a little, and nothing has come to her. I told the owner I 
had scarcely any hopes of her recovery, and that he had better make 
the best of hdr ; and he took my advice and sold her for £3. There 
came from her about a bucketful of blood. 

Post-mortem Examination, 9 a.m. — I went down to the slaughter- 
house and saw her opened. The uterus was found hard and well 
contracted, and altogether sound. The cotyledons were much dimin- 
ished in size, and there was not a vestige of placenta or any secretion 
in it. 

The whole substance and the interior and exterior surfaces of the 
uterus were of a nice pale natural colour, and not a tint of inflamma- 
tion on them. 

Vol. L— No. L— New Sbrdss. Janvabt 1865. B 



18 WORMS AND FIBRINOUS CONCRETIONS IN THE 

The inside of the right loin, in the neighbourhood of the kidney, 
was a little redder than on the other side, and there was some little 
eflfusion of lymph at the fundus of the bladder and around it. The 
first stomach was filled with well masticated food, and was healthy. 
The second stomach had little in it, and was sound. The third 
stomach was also filled with well masticated food, which was all quite 
soft, especially so about the opening into it, and I must say I never 
saw any stomach look more healthy in its textures or contents. The 
fourth stomach was slightly discoloured on its mucous surface. I 
laid open the whole tract of the small intestines ; one half of them — 
viz., that half extending from the fourth stomach — had the appearance 
as if they were very much diseased, especially so on their mucous 
membrane, which was of a dark brownish gray colour, and streaky 
in placeg. Some places were slightly ecchymosed. The other half 
were discoloured and of an unhealthy dark colour, but not so much 
so as the former half were. The whole of them contained liquid 
fseces or secretion, and as if the medicine had been operating on 
them. The whole of the small ones, exteriorly, looked dark-coloured 
and blackish before they were opened. The large intestines were 
quite healthy, and. contained hardish faeces or ingesta. There wasa- 
little more hardish ingesta in the small intestines a short distance 
prior to entering into the large ones. 



Worms and Fibrinous Concretions in the Bloodvessels of Horses 
and Colts. By G. Armatage, V.S. to the Marchioness of Lon- 
donderry. 

In the September number of the Review, an interesting account of 
some cases of the above nature are given by Mr J. Seaman, V.S., 
SaflTron, Waldon. 

During my residence in Oxfordshire, six years ago, several parallel 
cases came under my notice, which, in their specific characters, hitherto 
as I believe undescribed, and unnoticed by veterinary writers, claimed 
a place among a file of rough notes, which I had intended for future , 
arrangement and comparison ; but unfortunately were lost, or other- 
wise appropriated by some imknown hand to purposes not intended 
at the time of their collection. 

My memory therefore serves only to admit of my recognising in 
Mr Seaman's report a close analogy to the cases which came under 
my observation, with this addition, that the worms were found in 
some instances also in the cavities of the abdomen, under the peri- 
toneum, and even among the intestines in isolated conditions ; — ano- 
rexia, marasmus, diarrhoea, &c., being prominent features of the cases, 
all of which were in animals on low-lying lands and rank cold pas- 
tures, situate on the Oxford clay in the com'se of the river Eay towards 
the Isis ; a district frequently imder water for a great length of time. 

In February last I had the good fortune to meet with another case. 



BLOODVESSELS OF HOSSES AND COLT& 19 

an acconnt of which I lost no time in making more secore than the 
last ; it is as follows : — 

Several ponies, barely nine hands high, were received at our hos- 
pitals on the evening of the 13th, all of which, in appearance, were 
healthy, bnt in very low condition. When placed into a proper shed 
for their reception, each partook of the hay provided with relish, 
and irfter the lapse of twelve hours, with the rest and food, their 
general appearance was much improved. None, however, would 
eat com ; at this we did not feel surprised, as that is a practice which 
most animals purchased of this class have to undergo some tuition in, 
never having seen or tasted it in their native wilds — the Highlands 
of Scotland, and Shetland. On the afternoon of the 15th, one — the 
poorest — ^was observed to be dull, and to move stiffly when led out to 
water ; but nothing further was noticed, or even this communicated 
to me; as the whole were suffering from slight colds, it was considered 
of no moment by the attendant. However, on the morning of the 
16th, in making my usual rounds, I noticed a pony absent from the 
number, and in searching found him lying in the darkest comer of 
the building — pulseless, paralysed, and comatose. He died in twenty 
minutes. 

Post-mortem EaximincUion, immediate. — ^The animal was about 
nine years old. Abdominal viscera devoid df fat. Muscles flabby, 
and lacking natural moisture. Blood black, thin, and uncoagulable. 
Intestines pale, and contained much fluid. 

Mesenteric artery surroimded by a large mass of partly fibrous and 
partly ossified matter, the coats being thickened and involved in the 
deposition ; it also contained thread-worms somewhat larger than the 
filarii bronchi! of the calf. Several others were also found in the 
aorta. In length they were about three-fourths of an inch, small, 
tapering at the extremities, and perfectly white. 

Further minute search revealed no more, at which I was rather 
disappointed. 

The stomach was healthy extemally ; intemally, the mucous mem- 
brane exhibited two different colours— a light and dark red, the latter 
being in irregular patches, exhibiting a mottled appearance ; which 
in reality proved that the ordinary membrane was partially removed, 
and when touched, or slightly rubbed with the finger, came away alto- 
gether. The 'whole was covered with a very thick coat of glairy 
mucous, — exactly like the white of egg, — ^which coagulated and turned 
white in alcohol 

The liver was enormously enlarged, hardened, and obliterated in most 
part So tense and unyielding, as if forcibly distended from the in- 
side, the outer membrane being stretched and glistening. 

No bile or fluid of any kind escaped when cut into. The whole 
gland weighed eleven pounds. Lungs healthy. Heart firm and 
bloodless in its texture, with black patches of ecchymoses on its ex- 
terior, especially in the locality of the coronary vessels. Left ventricle 
' contained no blood, nor the stain of it ; but the auricle possessed iT 



20 VBTBEINARY EECOEDS. 

small quantity similar to that found in the right auricle and ventricle, 
and bloodvessels generally — thin, black, and uncoagulable. 

Brain congested and serum eflfased; spinal cord not perceptibly 
altered. 

About four ounces of deep amber-coloured semi-transparent urine 
was found in the bladder, of Sp. G. 1016. The various tests for 
albumen were negative. Trommers' test gave the characteristic red- 
dish brown precipitate ; and the fermentation test produced copious 
globules of gas after being set aside some time, occupying about half- 
an-inch of the test tube |ths diameter, both indicating the presence of 
sugar. 



Veterinary Records. By G. Armatage, V.S. to the Marchioness of 

Londonderry. 

CHRONIC DISEASE IN A PONY ; AND INJURY TO THE RECTUM. 

The subject of the present description was a chestnut pony nine years 
old, ten hands high, employed in one of the coal mines of Lady Lon- 
donderry. On the 30th of January of the present year he was 
brought to the stable at two o'clock in the afternoon, after having 
completed his work for the day, without having exhibited any un- 
usual symptoms, and partook of his food as usual on his arrival ; the 
horsekeeper also noticing nothing different to his ordinary habits. 

Next morning — Sunday — he was found standing in an oblique 
direction across his stall, and stretched as far as his tegs would 
admit, without actually touching the floor. 

He had urinated, and evacuated the rectum also. When turned 
to the water-trough he drank a little. His morning meal was not 
touched, which caused the horsekeeper to feel surprised ; but still 
nothing warranted him to believe that any serious condition was 
indicated. Being quite a favourite, however, many inquiries were 
put by "Tommy" to '* Peter" in pure pit phraseology; but as his 
charge was silent, the old man determined to see him again in a few 
hours. 

At twelve at noon the respiration was slightly accelerated. Ho 
was walked out, and beyond the disposition to stand unusually 
stretched across the stall, nothing further was observed, and " Peter" 
was declared to be " shammin\ ** At 5 p.m., however, he was found 
dead. 

A post-mortem examination could not be made before the third 
day, when the following were the conditions : — 

Lungs healthy. On opening the abdomen large quantities of adi- 
pose tissue were met with. The stomach greatly distended with gas. 
Intestines, especially the small ones, presented patches of extravasated 
blood on the peritoneal surface here and there. A few lumps of masti- 
cated chaff and grains of oats were found distantly located throughout 
the cavity of the abdomen, — an occurrence which favoured the conclu- 



YETEBINABT BECOBDa 21 

sion that rupture must be present. The intestines were carefully 
traced throughout their entire length, when about a foot or fifteen 
inches from the anus the rectum was thickened in all its coats, secret- 
ing pus on the inner surface ; and in a longitudinal direction there 
existed an opening, opposite to its attachment to the meso-rectum, 
about an inch long, with well defined edges, and apparently having 
been done by some sharp instrument. 

The peritoneal surface was blanched over the diseased portion of 
intestine, extending the length of a man's hand. Contents of stomach 
and intestines pultaceous throughout 

The liver was found to be diseased, one half at least of each lobe 
granular, easily torn, and structure impervious, performing no func- 
tions, being of a deep red colour. The small lobe was soft, flaccid, 
externally of a dirty green colour, resembling most closely in appear- 
ance what is termed black cotton wadding, as seen under the modified 
influences of reflected light. 

The ducts in the small portion which was healthy, were much 
filled with bUe. Spleen and pancreas healthy. Kidneys apparently 
healthy, and of normal size ; but when cut the pelvis contained pus. 
The left ventricle of the heart contained a closely-fitting clot of 
lymph. Hitherto the animal had always exhibited the most perfect 
signs of health ; was in capital condition at the time, and looked upon 
with pride by the driver, who was so fortunate as to have him 
** cavilled*' i.e., ^'aUoUedy" for his use, and envy, when the end of 
the quarter brought with it the usual changes. 

As the drivers of these animals in coal mines are very brutal in 
many instances, it is supposed that some rival, who grudged the boy 
his fortune in having this pony during the present quarter, had pur- 
posely committed the injury, by forcibly thrusting up the anus some 
sharp instrument, such as a ^* driUJ' — a kind of chisel made of round 
steel, used for boring the coal when blasting with powder. 

The most atrocious acts are sometimes committed by these cruel in- 
dividuals, which are seldom traced to the proper quarter, as ** nobody" 
ever sees them, or if they do, resist all attempts to obtain from them 
evidence to the effect It is the interest of all to keep silent ; and 
thus many poor unoffending creatures have their eyes literally 
knocked out with whip-handles, pick-shafts, or anything which 
happens to be within their grasp. Sometimes a coal-pick itself is 
used to chastise a horse or pony, the point of which is forced 
several inches into the flesh. I have known horses and ponies irri- 
tated to run away, and kick, to the extreme danger of all who may 
be on their track — ^ligatures tied round the penis when drawing — 
and the tongue also firmly tied to the lower jaw, or otherwise 
pulled or cut out The cases of compound and comminuted fractures 
of the extremities are common from the practice of racing to the 
stable along a waggon-way beset with rails, sleepers, and pulleys. 
The latter, being half sunk in the ground between the former, or 
otherwise lying on their flat sides, according to the position of the 



22 INTEODUCTOEY LEOTUEB, BY ME QAMGEB, SEN. 

rope which runs over them, present a most effective means for such 
an accident, particularly when they are in motion, or the encounter 
takes place in the dark, which is not unfrequently the case. 

Not long ago, an accident having occurred during a race, in which 
the metacarpal-bone was broken in the middle, and hanging only by 
a piece of skin about half-an-inch broad, the inhuman rider, after 
stopping to ascertain the cause of such an interruption to his pro- 
gress, actually mounted again, and compelled the poor creature to 
carry him to the stable, where he left him, without pointing out to the 
horsekeeper what had happened. 



Introductory Lecture, delivered at the New Veterinary College, 
Edinburgh, by Mr Gamgee, Sen. : On the Economy of the Foot 
of the Horse ; Injuries and Diseased States incident to it ; and 
on the Art of Shoeing, 

Gentlemen, — ^The duty I have to discharge attaching to the sec- 
tions of veterinary science and art, which have been allotted as 
my part to expound to you, consists in demonstrating the physical 
construction and functional characters of the foot of the horse, and in 
establishing rules for guidance in the art of shoeing, so as to obviate 
the many evils which commonly foUow from irrational application in 
practice of the resources at our command. It also forms a very 
essential part of my course to exhibit the morbid conditions to which 
the feet of horses are subject, describe their causes, preventive mea- 
sures, and the remedies to be had recourse to for their restoration. 

The foregoing, however, affords only a partial view of the objects 
contemplated in the course before us, since, apart from the conse- 
quences to which empirical management of horses' feet give rise, 
there is enough to arrest the attention of thoughtful men, — ^well 
repaying the time and labour necessary for an analytical and syste- 
matic study of those regions, in investigating the normal state on 
which perfection 6i action in horses depends. 

Horses, the subjects of our special solicitude, demand of us know- 
ledge, not as is commonly believed, merely for relieving their pain, 
though that is one, and an important part, as I shall hereafter 
notice ; but it is neither our first nor greatest object to be achieved ; 
the whole subject requires to be approached with a predetermination 
to investigate first causes. The art of relieving may be, and com- 
monly is, only the soothing of pangs which previous bad manage- 
ment has brought on ; and the most certain way to learn how to 
avoid the occurrence of disease, and how to cure it, is to become 
profound in the knowledge of what is health. 

We must learn the mechanism of the horse, theoretically and 
practically, before the derangements commonly present can be, to 
any usefiJ purpose, appreciated. 



IKTEODUCTOEY LECTUEE, BY ME GAMGEE, SEK. 28 

Horses, in their nprmal state — viz., free from disease — represent a 
current value in the kingdom, varying from five pounds a-head to 
several hundreds of guineas. What, then, constitutes the difference 
in the value of the two extreme classes, or degrees in perfection, for 
which the different sums are obtainable^the highest prices for the 
best being the most easily obtained, and competition for their pur- 
chase is usually the most keen? Who should be the pioneers in 
establishing knowledge, varying in kind, and capable of, firstly, 
raising the standard of merit amongst the several classes, and, 
secondly, of shewing the value, individually and relatively, of all 
horses, if not the veterinarian? There is, or should be, a centre 
whence positive knowledge of the kind contemplated should eman- 
ate, and where capability for critical analysis should lead to exposi- 
tion and exclusion of erroneous doctrine, where merely questions of 
fact are at issue. In some such way must all human institutions 
exert their influence for common good. If universities, colleges, and 
schools harbour false systems, not only will the immediate disciples 
partake of such mental culture as is supplied, but the teaching will 
thence radiate, and become the means of wide-spread error and dis- 
appointment. On the other hand, all that is laudable as tending to 
the common good, flows from these fostering centres, and this is now 
happily becoming more and more the case, under the influence of 
public institution^ throughout the civilised world. To such, however, 
the veterinary art in this country has furnished regretable excep- 
tion ; the errors which were rife in our boyhood, and cherished within 
the walls of a veterinary college, where they took firm hold on the 
minds of those most ardent in the pursuit of knowledge, became 
with time widely disseminated, and now and for many years past 
have been popularised and adopted by horse owners, and imitated by 
their dependants. 

Anatomy, constituting as it does the chief pillar on which all true 
art of medicine and surgery is founded, whether applied to man or 
to the lower animals, is pre-eminently the indispensable guide in all 
theory and practice having reference to the feet and action of horses, 
their physical form affording the criterion of the degree of speed and 
power with which they are endowed. As the relative degrees of 
perfection in development of form and action, determine the worth 
of horses^ it follows that ample understanding of these matters 
demands earnest attention, corresponding to the interests involved. 

In advising students at this opportune time to entertain a 
broader view than has been customary, of the proportions of the 
horse, the proposition before us resolves itself into the ultimate ques- 
tions of the condition of the foot, of soundness and unsoundness, of 
great worth and worthlessness ; in fact, as to whether a most exten- 
sive and important department of the veterinary art is to be usefully 
and honourably cultivated and practised or not. Now, while first- 
session students are devoting much time to the acquisition of a 
knowledge of the skeleton, so necessary as preparatory to all 



24 INTRODUCTOEY LECTURE, BY ME GAMGEE, SEN. 

succeeding steps in anatomical learning, and while the senior 
workers among you are for several hours daily dissecting in turn 
the diflferent regions of the horse, it may be of some encouragement 
to be assured that it is only by such means that you can attain to a 
knowledge of the foot, in a way to be of avail in your practice 
hereafter. It may occur to some that in this course we are treating 
of the foot, and therefore should confine our attention to the distal 
regions of the limbs exclusively ; but without going over the general 
system brought under notice by your able teachers, from whom you 
are receiving ample advantage, I beg to state that it is desirable that 
the general course of instructional investigation should take preced- 
ence, and also be carried on simultaneously with that of the sectional 
division. The animal economy is required to be comprehensively 
studied, system after system, beginning with the osteological as the 
framework. From such methods alone can we proceed to treat on 
phenomena with full advantage ; the whole enters into every part in 
considering design in animal mechanism. I purpose, therefore, in 
accordance with these views, to submit for your attention the 
anatomical arrangement of the foot, with my own views on the laws 
which govern action, — not confining the notice to detached parts, but 
extending observations to laws, constituting a whole system of action ; 
and in this way of treating the subject, reference will have to be made 
to parts remote from the foot, and thus it will be found that not re- 
petition, but observations supplementary to your general anatomical 
course, will characterise our special department relating to the foot. 

Shoeing, as far as it is practical to teach so diflScult an art by 
rules, will form the second division of my course, and I have tried 
hard, over a period of many years, to acquire a mastery over this 
department, so as to be able to infuse some right notions on the 
matter ; and, so far as success in carrying out the work goes, I have 
reason to feel satisfied ; but it would be wrong to ignore the fact that 
it is by no means easy to popularise a system, and to train hands as 
well as minds to work it out, where much discipline is required to 
ensure proficiency in the art. Still, I have continued working on, 
encouraged by the reflection that all advances or changes of method 
exact long and patient labour. Again, I begin to see that my 
labours are appreciated, and that the system we are adopting is 
being imitated, and that, too, in some of the great centres of England. 
I therefore feel assured, that once begun, there will be no stoppage 
until a general change for the better in the art of horse-shoeing has 
been made in some degree eflfectuaL 

Since, however, I have seen it is impossible to do all that is desired, 
I have determined to use my powers to do all I can in a good cause ; 
and that which I see is practicable, and from which some good re- 
sults have been achieved, is to point out the erroneous tendencies of 
past teaching. Meanwhile, some of our students have become instructed 
in details suflScient to enable them to carry on the work with excellent 
eSect. Nor have readers of my papers and workmen who have seen our 



INTEODUCTORY LECTUEB, BY ME GAMGEB, SEN. 25 

plan, failed to take up ideas. But that which I cannot do, and which 
neither you gentlemen, can do, is this — I cannot make proficient pupils 
by the mere delivery of a few lectures. Knowledge comes by doing. 
Then again it should be apparent to all that in the short time which 
is devoted to the routine work necessary for the obtainment of a 
diploma at the Eoyal College of Veterinary Surgeons, none can be 
spared for practically working at horse-shoeing. Progress, therefore, 
may be slow for a while in the realisation of a proper system of shoe- 
ing and its general adoption. 

When due consideration is given to the fact, that the art of shoeing 
is the most effective and general of all known agencies for the con- 
servation of horses, and also the first among remedial appliances for 
their restoration in almost all cases of lameness, its importance as a 
branch of the veterinary art can hardly be over estimated. 

The abnormal or diseased states of horses' feet will form the sub- 
ject for consideration in the third division of my course. And since 
disease implies alteration of natural structures, and correspondingly 
of functions, reference to these latter, as standards, will frequently be 
made. 

Besides showing some of the reasons why an intimate knowledge 
of the foot of the horse should be acquired by veterinary students, 
I think it equally incumbent on me to point out causes which have 
hindered the advance of systematic cultivation of this branch of 
veterinary science. There have been the indulgence in too much talk 
and too little application to the work amongst men in authoritative 
positions, who have assumed to teach what they never learnt, by using 
many words, the tendency of which was to explain away established 
truths, and the confounding the good works of able men in past ages, 
by the intermixture of the new notions. 

It may be asserted that no section of veterinary art calls for so 
large a combination of scientific culture and manual skill, as that 
which takes for its sphere the whole locomotive system of the horse, 
in all possible comprehensiveness — ^viz., development, conservation, 
and restoration. 

In the department of our art under consideration many labourers 
are required, necessarily difiering in the extent of their attainments, 
yet all would be gainers by a commonly-prevailing, well-grounded 
system of knowledge to work upon. When the teaching on a science 
or an art is sound, the knowledge prevalent amongst its followers 
will differ little in kind — ^it will be more in degree by which distinc- 
tions will be drawn. 

In all relating to horses* feet, how they should be managed, shod, 
and surgically treated, how different is the case ! All has been governed 
in the matter, during the last seventy years in this kingdom, by opin- 
ions and crotchets,, each individual adopting his own, — as if facts, 
phenomena, and systems had no reality, or that these mysteries, be- 
wildering as they have been made to appear, are beyond the pale of 
sudi tests and standards as measure men and their works generally. 



26 INTRODUCTORY LECTURE, BY MR GAMGEE, SEN. 

The working farriers are, as a class of men, the most abused and 

ill-appreciated of any body of artisans we could name, relative to the 

kind and amount of trained skill required of them, and taking also 

into account the value of the subjects committed to their care, and 

. the extent of evil resulting from injury by uninstructed hands. 

Knowledge of a true and undeviating kind should be established 
and made common ; and once let the educated veterinarian possess 
this material, it would soon extend to the less privileged, in the same 
way as the whole array of workers in the establishment of an able 
engineer acquire ability and character accordingly. 

" They manage these things better in France," where they very 
early attained to a systematic plan of horse-shoeing ; for when they 
took the lead in founding modern veterinary colleges, they aimed to 
instruct the then practising farriers — improved the material they 
found well advanced for the purpose. The founder of those colleges, 
Mons. Bourgelat, did not" despise, but enlisted those men in the cause 
of veterinary reform. While in England the opposite, was done ; the 
farrier was pronounced to be ignorant, obstinate, in fact, unlike other 
men, he was regarded as not capable of all degrees of improvement, 
as naturally the whole body are. 

At present, the veterinary student and teacher lack encourage- 
ment in that part of the college curriculum to which our subject 
belongs, in so far as scarcely any knowledge of the matter is re- 
quired by the examining boards ; and then comes the question as 
to what will be found satisfactory there ; you have no guarantee that 
that which I show and demonstrate will have found its way to all 
the tables, or have been regarded with suflScient favour there to re- 
ceive consideration. 

We are subject to no such common or bye-law as compels men 
to give up old errors, or to test the merits of new doctrines ; these 
have to find their level by time and force of circumstances. In the 
truly liberal arts, there is always prevalent a generous catholic spirit, 
by which the common good and advancement of knowledge is the 
chief aim, and no sooner has a phenomenon been made out, or some 
important mistaken view cleared up, than it is hailed with delight, 
and made known at the proper centres in all countries. These re- 
marks admit of abundant illustration relative to the science of 
chemistry, anatomy, medicine, and surgery, and the other arts and 
sciences, — exception in veterinary matters ahnost alone calls for notice 
or new action. 

In conclusion, I beg to state, that while I think it advisable that 
you should bring your energies to bear on every part in the curri- 
culum prescribed, during your stay at your college, into practice ; I 
think it would be well to follow the example of the medical profession, 
and divide the labour. 

Our brethren, of the higher sphere in the healing art, carry on 
their university studies, to a. great extent alike, as medical students, 
during the several years of their career, and towards its close make 



FIBBOUS DEGBNEEATION OF THE (ESOPHAGEAN CANAL. 27 

choice of one or other of th^ two great branches of medicine 
or surgery into which the talented men dividS. When again 
sub-divisions are made, by different practitioners following some 
special branch, to the almost exclusion of other departments, every 
inclination to prosecute inquiries, and to concentrate attention on a 
given subject, can be satisfied, and science and the art of medicine 
gain thereby. While in our case, with every species of domesticated 
animal for our patients, it is taken for granted, that every veterinary 
surgeon, with a part of two separate years devoted to the learning, 
is to understand the natural characteristics and ailiogs of the whole 
range of animals committed to his skill. 

It is not long since the horse alone was made the subject of atten- 
tion at our, then, only veterinary college ; at length it was shown that 
cattle, sheep, and other stock, clainaed, in the name of public and pri- 
vate interest, in the interest of the public health, and of humanity, a 
large share of all available veterinary knowledge, and those views 
have continued to become more and more recognised. 

While, however, these new fields for veterinary science and art are 
opening, the number of horses in use continues on the increase, and 
their value is likewise multiplying, and yet there is no stir made to 
prepare for these emergencies, no increase in the time devoted to 
acquire the status of veterinary surgeon; and no new special branches 
are cultivated, or followed in practice, in accordance with the known 
requirement. All members are, by virtue of their diploma, assumed 
to be expert, alike in the stable, the shoeing forge, the byre, the fold, 
the farm steading, and the kennel. 

I venture to say, that there is not one young veterinary surgeon in 
twenty that would not feel ashamed to acknowledge his insufficient 
acquaintance on any one of the above departments — ^while it would, I 
firmly maintain, be infinitely more creditable and laudable, even to state 
that, ** I have not devoted myself to this or that, but have marked 
out such a. range for my labour." Out of such procedure good would 
follow, by the multiplicity of subjects being better understood and 
done — ^the pra<5tical part, accordingly, better accomplished. Under 
these means, mutual friendships would grow up, as one member would 
consult and recommend his neighbour. 



Fibrous Degeneration of the (Esophagean Canal, By William 
Hunting, Student in the New Veterinary College, Edinburgh. 

Sib, — As I believe such cases as the following are by no means 
common, perhaps it will not be deemed by you unworthy of a place 
in your valuable periodical : — 

On Monday, September 5, I was requested to see a cow in the 
possession of Mr Wood of Seaham Harbour. On my arrival I found 
the animal standing in the stall, and presenting nothing unusual to 
lead one to think her amiss ; but on giving her a handfiU of hay, she 



28 FEBBOUS DEGENERATION OF THE (ESOPHAGEAN CANAL. 

ate it, and immediately began to vomit a nasty greenish fluid. This 
was accompanied in about live minutes by enormous distension of the 
rumen. The bowels were costive, but there was no general disturb- 
ance. 

The history of the case is as follows : — She was bought in April 
1864, in calf; was about twelve years old, and not in very good 
condition, but improved very much after her last calf. She was 
always a good milker. Previous to her coming into Mr Wdod's pos- 
session she had belonged to Mrs Wood's brother for five years, and 
during that time had never had a turnip in her throat, or a probang 
passed ; neither had she with Mr Wood until after I first saw her. 
She was first noticed wrong on the 3d, two days before I saw her, 
when she was found in the field enormously swollen. 

I diagnosed the case as one of functional derangement of the 
rumen, and gave an aperient and two or three doses of Sps. Ammon. 
Arom. 

On Wednesday, the 7th, my father saw her, and gave Prussic Acid, 
Chloroform, and Quinine every four hours. After the fourth dose, 
the vomiting ceased and never returned. 

He diagnosed the case as organic disease of the oesophagus at its 
entrance into the rumen. She was ordered to be fed on soft food, as 
bran-mashes, linseed-tea, aiid steamed hay. With these substances 
she was never swollen. She also had vegetable tonics, salt in her 
mashes, and an occasional aperient. Under this treatment she ap- 
peared to improve a good deal for a week or two, but was as bad as 
ever on being allowed dry hay or grass. She was always anxious to 
eat dry hay if it was given her, but invariably with the same result — 
viz., swelling of the rumen. From the day I first saw her till Novem- 
ber 19th — the day she was killed — she never ruminated. The last 
week or ten days of her illness ^she refused the mashes and the 
steamed hay ; of course she wasted a good deal 

P.M. — Being at college when she was killed, I was not at the post- 
mortem examination ; but my father sent me the oesophagus and a 
small portion of the rumen. He also said that no disease was 
visible in any other organ. The parts sent me were as follow : — 

The oesophagus, quite healthy, and presenting no dilatation. The 
oBsophagean canal and the anterior sac of the rumen were very 
much thickened. 

This swelling presented a tough, tuberculated appearance; was 
destitute of mucous membrane ; and when cut into, revealed numbers 
of little sacs, containing a kind of inspissated pus. 

The whole mass was of a hard, cartilaginous nature, and nearly 
obliterated the orifice of the cesophagean canaL The specimen 
being somewhat decomposed on its arrival, I am not able to give 
anything definite as to the^ real nature of the disease. If, Sir, you 
can afford time to add any remarks, I am sure they will have the full 
attention of your obedient servajUt, 

W. Hunting. 



OK THE PRESENCE OF METALBUMEN IN THE XJBINE OF HOBSES. 29 

Ebmarks. — ^The morbid production at the lower end of the gullet 
appears to involve the whole thickness of the mucous membrane and 
muscular coat The exposed surface is very irregular, presenting 
numerous rounded elevations of various sizes, with here and there 
an ulcerated depression, in the depth of which are fragments of disin- 
tegrated tissue and pus. The mass of the tumour is firm and 
resistant, and appears to be almost exclusively made up of fibrous 
tissue. The small cavities scattered through the substance of the 
mass at irregular intervals, are filled with a whitish semi-solid mate- 
rial, having all the characters of altered pus. On the cut surface 
there is no appearance of cancer juice, and microscopic examination 
does not enable us to detect any of those cells usually considered 
characteristic of cancer. An examination of the gastric lymphatic 
glands would have been of interest, but as the morbid deposit did 
not seem to extend in the walls of the viscus beyond where it was 
freely exposed on the surface, and as there was no sign of a corre- 
sponding morbid production in other parts of the body, it may bo 
assumed that the product was not of a malignant nature. 



On the Presence of a Pecvliar Modification of Albumen {Metalbu- 
menf) in the Urine of Horses. By Arthub Gamgee, M.D., 
Assistant to the Professor of Medical Jurisprudence in the Uni- 

.' versity of Edinburgh, Lecturer on Chemistry in the New Veterinary 
College. 



^o^ 



So little has been written concerning the composition of the urine of 
the horse in health and disease, that I venture to place the following 
observations on record, as not altogether uninteresting : — 

Some weeks ago, I received from my brother a few ounces of the 
urine of a horse> which had been sent for analysis by Mr Parker of 
Birmingham. The urine presented a remarkable appearance, for its 
consistency was that of glue ; and when poured from one vessel into 
another it nearly passed en masse. It emitted a slightly fragrant, 
not unpleasant odour ; its reaction was decidedly acid. 

When the urine was treated with nitric acid or acetic acid, the 
gluey character almost entirely disappeared ; in boiling it became per- 
fectly fluid, nor was there any appearance of precipitation. 

On heating the urine for some time, coagulation took place, when 
the temperature rose to 173** Fah. The precipitate was entirely 
soluble in nitric and acetic acids. 

Tincture of gaUs added to the urine produced an abimdant, floc- 
culent precipitate. 

Alcohol produced a precipitate, which was soluble on the addition 
of a large quantity of cold water. 

Corrosive sublimate produced an abimdant white precipitate. 



so ON THE PBESENCE OF METAL6UMEK IK THE UBINE OF HOBSES. 

Solution of suhnitrate of mercury heated with the urine produced 
a precipitate of a beautiful red colour, (Millon's test.) 

Acetate of lead produced an abundant white precipitate* 

Ferrocyanide of potassium added to the urine produced no preci- 
pitate. When acetic acid was also added, no precipitate occurred. 
On heating the fluid it was abundantly precipitated. 

Sulphate of magnesia did not produce a precipitate. 

Chlorine water caused the formation of a white precipitate. 

The above reactions proved very conclusively that the urine con- 
tained a peculiar modification of a protein body, differing very essen- 
tially in its chemical reactions from ordinary albumen. Several 
physicians have placed on record cases where the albumen in urine 
presented certain abnormal reactions. It has been noticed, for ex- 
ample, by Prout and Bence Jones, that in certain cases albuminous 
urine is precipitated by heat, but not by cold nitric acid ; and some 
writers have stated that the converse has also been noticed. As far 
as I am aware, no case has been recorded where a substance having 
exactly the reactions which belonged to the one I have described was 
discovered in the urine. In its characters it agrees essentially, if not 
completely, with a substance which Scherer once discovered in the 
fluid of ascites, and to which he gave the name of Metalbumen. The 
characteristics of this substance are the non-precipitation of its solu- 
tion when modified by acetic acid, by ferrocyanide of potassium, and 
the solubility of the precipitate caused by alcohol in water. The sub- 
stance discovered by Scherer possessed the other properties of albu- 
men, with some slight modifications. Boiling produced a precipitate, 
as did also the addition of tincture of galls, corrosive sublimate, and 
chromic acid. The fluid in which Scherer discovered this substance 
was of a slimy consistence. 

The interest attaching to the facts which I have stated above is 
considerably enhanced by the fact that, in the short time that has 
intervened since the period when I made the above observations, I 
have had the opportunity of examining the urine of an aged mare 
which had for a short time been suffering from slight oedema of 
the legs. The urine on one occasion presented the same slimy 
appearance as it did in the case I have recorded above. It was 
found to contain an albuminoid substance, possessing essentially the 
same characters, being precipitable by heat, alcohol, &c., but not by 
nitric or acetic acids. 

Apart from the great chemical interest which the facts I have 
stated possess, it is not improbable that they may prove of more 
practical importance to the veterinarian. The tests for albu- 
men which the physician is usually satisfied with, are the action of 
heat and nitric acid ; combined, these two tests enable him to detect 
albumen with certainty in the immense majority of instances, al- 
though either taken alone abound in fallacies. The application of 
heat, for example, to urine of feeble acidity, or of alkaline reaction, 
will often induce a precipitation of the earthy phosphates, which are 



OK THE PBESEKCE OF METALBUMEN IN THE UBINE OF HOBSES. 31 

Teiy readily soluble in nitric acid ; whilst, on the other hand, nitric 
acid frequently throws down an abundant precipitate of urates, which 
are readily dissolved when the fluid is heated. In examining the 
urine of man, we may lay down as a rule that if the fluid is not 
coagulable by heat and nitric acid combined, no albumen is present. 
If metcUbumen shall be proved to be a common occurrence in the 
urine of horses Isufiering from renal afiections, the veterinary surgeon 
will have to be careful in ascertaining its presence, for although 
differing from albumen in chemical details, its pathological and 
semeiological value must be the same. 

That the albumen which occurs in the urine of horses in a state of 
disease differs very materially from normal albumen, is rendered 
almost certain by the statements of Mr Percival on this subject. 
This author alludes to several cases of albumenuria in the horse, 
which had come under his notice, and in describing the characters of 
the urine, says, — " Should it prove albumenous, it will assume a deep 
or dead straw colour, and be found of the consistence of a thick 
solution of gum." In all such cases it is obvious the substance 
occurring in the urine must have been very different from normal 
albumen, such as occurs in the urine of Bright's disease ; most 
probably it was identical with the protein body which I have in this 
short memoir described ; and it is likely that future researches may 
prove metalhumen to be the form in which protein bodies occur 
when passing into the urine of the horse. 



^t fttmnarg "^thuia anJr 3tath\amx& ^mxml 



MODIFICATIONS IN THE PRELIMINARY TESTS FOR THE 
ADMISSION OF CANDIDATES TO THE IMPERIAL VE- 
TERINAEY COLLEGES OF FRANCE. 

The Journal dea VHirinaires du Midi informs us of certain mo- 
difications in the programme to be observed in future by the students 
entering the French veterinary colleges. 

The particular changes made, consist in testing more extensively the 
candidates' knowledge of Geography and History; while the trial, 
hitherto enforced, of forging a horse-shoe, is abolished. 

It is the last-named test on which we would ofiTer a few ob- 
servations, because it has reference to a most important branch of 
veterinary art, — a branch, too, in which the French excel, having 
succeeded in founding the best system of shoeing yet established in 
any country. 

We fully concur in the wisdom of relinquishing a test, the enforce- 
ment of which tended more to indispose youths than to encourage 
them, to take up the art of shoeing as a special favourite subject, which 
many of them would more eflfectually do voluntarily. 

It is some twenty or more years, since we discussed these questions 
with some of the old and most eminent of Continental veterinary 
professors, all of whom concurred in assigning the first place in im- 
portance to the art of shoeing, — the only question to determine being, 
how to raise it to the highest possible standing of eflfectiveness. 

Monsieur Bouley, the elder, who was the companion of the first 
Baron Larrey, during the Northern campaigns of the first Emperor 
Napoleon, and the late Professor Carlo Lessona, formerly director 
of the veterinary school at Turin, both justly renowned men, and in 
the zenith of their labours at the beginning of the present century, have 
testified to us, how efl&ciently the art of shoeing was cultivated at the 
veterinary schools of Alf ort and Lyons, and both of them alike affirmed* 



TO THE IMPEBIAL VETEEINARY COLLEGES OP PRANCE. 33 

to what Kving an(J younger professors in the art, on the Continent, 
are agreed on, that there are not so many students who, on entering 
the schools in later years, are equally expert at horse-shoeing com- 
pared with those of early times ; and the reason is plainly discernible, 
and holds good in all countries. 

When veterinary schools were first established, the most able 
amongst the men already initiated in the art sought to be admitted into 
the reformed and improving institutions, and thither as candidates 
brought their already acquired manual skill 

Now, however, the veterinary schools are all, mainly, supplied with 
students who, having obtained their ordinary education, go there to 
conmience their professional course ; therefore while it was wise to 
test the men of former days as to their relative skill in the art of 
horse-shoeing, it would be unwise to continue the same test, taking 
into account the different conditions of the candidates of the different 
epochs. 

It is by no means a well defined proposition as to what limit 
or kind of knowledge ought to disqualify a candidate for admission 
into a veterinary college, — so much depends on young men, and such 
the variety in veterinary matters, in the several departments 

In these days, when average school education is almost universal, 
it seems less than formerly necessary to adopt stringent restrictions 
on entry; far better, in our opinion, are periodical examinations 
daring college residence, and the insisting on longer courses, with 
regular attendance. Time forms an essential element in the acqui- 
sition and consolidation of all real knowledge. 



YoL. L— No. L— New Ssbixs. Januabt 1865. 



34 SOME OF THB CAUSES THAT BSNDEB 

FESISCOFE. 



SOME OP THE CAUSES THAT TEND TO RENDER FARMING 
UNPROFITABLE. 
By Aldeman Mbohi. 

The December meeting of the Club for discussion took place on Monday eyening, 
December 6, in the large room of the Society of Arts, which was kindly lent by the 
Council for the occasion. The chair was taken by Mr T. Congreve, of Peter Hall, 
Coventry ; and about one hundred members and others were present The subject 
appointed for discussion, as introduced by Alderman Mechi, was " Some of the causes 
that tend to render farming unprofitable." After a few remarks from the Chainnan, 
Mr Mechi said — In accordance with the notice on our paper of business, I purpose 
this evening to point out and investigate some of the causes that tend to render 
farming unprofitable. I shall classify them under the heads of uncontrollable and 
controllable, apportioning the latter between landlords and tenants, according to 
their responsibilities. In the tenants' department I shall consider the causes as affect- 
ing animal and vegetable management ; also soil, climate, and manures. I need 
hardly say that it will be impossible to deal with so large a subject comprehensivebr 
within the time limited, but I will do my best to be brief and, if possible, clear, li 
the farmers of Great Britain generally knew as well how to produce a profitable re- 
sult as most of the gentlemen I now see before me, I should have no occasion to read 
this paper ; but, as I have said before, this Club represents the sunny side of agri- 
culture, and that is but a small area compared with tne shady recesses of mismanage- 
ment, misfortune, and loss. " Plenty of meat and manure" must be, for the future, 
the motto of successful agriculture. The want of this is a prominent cause of un- 
success in farming. Farmers must learn to sell their crops to their animals, rather 
than to the miller : even with an immediate loss of 15 per cent., there is a greater 
gain in so doing. If sending away the crops from the farm impoverishes it, 
keeping them at home must produce an opposite result ; and,, therefore, if I 
want to know how a man is getting on, I ask him how many score pounds of meat 
per acre he makes over the whole area of his farm. 200 lbs. per acre is a useful 
quantity. Apologising for this digression, I will now proceed to consider " some of 
the causes that tend to render farming unprofitable." Here is a long list of them : 
Not understanding the business of farming, especially the proper management of 
live stock ; farming with insufficient capital, or taking too much land; extravagance 
in personal expenditure; not attending to your business; hiring your land without 
a lease ; not stipulating for the power of selling or transferring that lease ; hiring 
your land too dear ; not suiting your crops to the soil and climate ; buying too dear ; 
selling too cheap ; robbing, and thus starving, your grass land ; too many weeds, and 
too little hoeing ; too shallow cultivation ; too little manure ; too little live stock ; 
too little purchased food ; too little purchased manures ; too little good grass land ; 
the absence of steam-power ; fat horses and lazy ploughmen ; the use of old-fashioned 
and improper implements ; too many trees and fences ; too small fields ; bad roads 
and ill-placed homesteads; insufficient shelter for live stock, especially on heavy land; 
want of drainage on twenty millions of acres, according to Mr Bailey Denton, one of 
our best authorities ; being bound for an unsuccessful friend ; too little experimeat, 
and too much prejudice ; not insuring against fire and hail-storms ; family calamities; 
personal affliction ; the seasons ; murrain and blight ; wind storm ; incendiarism ; 
inundation ; local self-sufficiency, and want of general information and agricultural 
literature; difficulties in the transfer of land; want of agricultural statistics; a 
minimum crop causing a maximum per-centage of expense; too much seed ; absence 
of piece-work ; non-application of chalk or lime to poor, ferruginous, stiff clays ; not 
having a good agricultural library; selling your produce on credit to unsafe persons ; 
wire-worm ; late sowing ; being generally behind with your work ; waste of manure ; 
having a dishonest bailiff; having unskilled or incompetent labourers ; neglecting 
the use of salt for animals and on the land ; satisfaction with farming as it is ; 
adulterated manures ; adulterated oil-cakes ; the want of selection and great care as 
to sowing the very best seed ; the neglect of good parentage in live sto^ ; breeding 
in-and-in with either live stock or poultry ; b^ng behindhand in tillage, sowing; and 



FABMING UNPBOFITABLE. 35 

the general work of the farm ; the state of oar laws aa regarding the transfer of land ; 
the want of associated capital for the pnrposes of agricultural improvement ; the want 
of a desire on the part of landowners to seek the aid of associated capital ; the want 
of improyed arterial drainage ; the want of water suf^ly for summer irrigation. In 
this list are many unavoidable causes, such a^ blight, murrain, and adverse seasons. 
We have an illustration of the latter this year, when tens of thousands of acres, on 
which nearly £10 per acre have been expended in preparation for a root crop, have 
partially or totally failed, owing to the protracted drought, thus depriving the farmer 
of that money return in meat on which he reasonably calculated, throwing him 
almost entirely upon his com crop, which can only be disposed of at a very low price. 
Then, again, a cold, wet season like 1861, deprived many a farmer of his year's 
profit and in many cases trenched upon his capital. The furious gale that swept 
through parts of Sootlimd early in September, just at the period of harvesting, 
thrashed out the com and caused an immense amount of damage. Against these 
the farmer cannot insure, although he can against hailnstorms. The recent 
Karsh-land inundations ruined several farmers. To all these must often be 
added personal and family afflictions of various kinds. Our Boyal Agricultural 
Benevolent Institution has brought to light already too many of the causes to 
which I have alluded; for, on perusing the 160 appeals for our support, losses 
by stock, bad seasons, and family affliction figure prominently, to which are not 
unfrequently added loss of tenure without valuation or allowance for capital 
sunk in improvements. Slowness of return is also a natural cause of moderate 
profit We sow our wheat, and wait eleven to eighteen months for its conver- 
sion into money ; while a dealer in stock with a good connexion will make his 
return and realise his profit daily or weekly, accumulating frequently money enough 
to purchase and occupy large farms. A dealer can thus readily obtain advances from 
his banker, or assistance from a friend, because the article in which he deals is tan- 
gible and readily transferable; while the trammelled farmer, who has necessarily 
invested capital in the improvement of the soil, cannot deposit his lease as security, 
for he has not (as we have in towns) the power to transfer or dispose of it ; and in 
case of premature death or failure, his family may be deprived of the value of his 
investment in improvements. This is an anomalous and unbusiness-like state of 
things, and tends to diminish the value of land, and discourages the introduction of 
wealthy and independent tenants. I should like to know what would become of 
business in towns, if we could not dispose of our leases when it suited us to do so. I 
have written a long paper in my book on this subject. In considering the short- 
comings of landlords, I deal vritb the question nationally, and not individually. 
Landlords are like other men — naturally and properly anxious to preserve their own 
rights and privileges. Many of them, noble by birth and vast in estate, have taken an 
advanced view of the proper condition of British agriculture. They have emerged 
from, and cast of, old-fashioned feudal restrictions and restraints, and have ceased 
to look upon fiumers either aa churls or vassals, and have attracted, encouraged, and 
I may say created, on their estates men of high intelligence and considerable capital. 
They have granted leases, valuations, &c., in a business manner. The tumble-down 
and insufficient sheds and hovels of antiquated farming have been swept away, and 
replaced by substantial buildings adapted to a large increase of stock, machinery, 
&C. ; and such a class of tenants have been properly thought worthy of residential 
improvement. The labourer has no longer been looked upon as an incumbrance to 
be foisted on an adjoining pari^ ; but a sufficiency of well-constracted cottages, with 
pure water, and the necessary area of garden, give evidence of a humanity and an 
intelligence highly conducive to diminished poor-rates and increased monility and 
efficiency. But has this emergence from feudal trammels abstracted aught from the 
di^ty, the influence, the respect, or the esteem felt for these worthy landlords ? 
Certainly not, but the reverse. Such men prefer intelligent respect to clownish or 
ignorant servility. It is gratifying to find noble dukes and great landlords treating 
agriculture as a business, and not ashamed to avail themselves of associated capital 
to improve their estates and increase their rentals. I know some of them who 
prefer letting the shooting to their tenants, at 6d. or more per acre, rather than to 
strangers. Such a system does away with the heartburnings of game-preserving, 
and in some cases attract a sui>erior class of tenants. But, unfortunately, the picture 
I h&ve drawn does not apply generally, and there is abundant need of a more liberal 
and commercial system in letting land. 
Farminff Profits,-^! have reason to beUeve that eacb faxmer \w\Lft %X m^ x^t&B2!^% 



36 SOME OF THE CAUSES THAT BENDEB 

from his own point of view, according to the circumstances in which he is indiyidu- 
ally placed. For instance, those who hold deep, rich fertile soils, having attached to 
them an extensive area of fine old grass land or meadow, will consider my estimate 
of profit too low ; while the struggling occupier of cold, hungry, ferruginous, un- 
drained clays, or other poor soils, who is losing his capital, or merely obtaining a 
scant and penurious livelihood, may think my estimate of profit much too high. 
High farmers who are doing their duty to themselves and to their country are apt to 
fancy that I am censuring them, which, of course, is not the case. In forming my 
opinion of British agriculture as a whole, I pass in review the entire territory of the 
United Kingdom, and, while doing so, am bound to accept the unpleasant truth that 
there is an enormous scope and necessity for agricultural progress and amendment. 
That amendment ought to commence with the owner of the land, whose duty and 
interest it is to foster progress and afford opportunities for a better state of things. 
Yery vague notions prevail among outsiders generally on the question of farming 
profit ; I will therefore touch tenderly on this delicate but essential subject. Farm- 
ing is known to be proverbially a slow way of making money, although a healthy, 
Eleasant, and independent occupation — ^permanent in its character, and not affected 
y fashionable changes, for appetite is ever recurring, and must be provided for ; 
therefore, so long as there is a population to be fed, so long must the land be culti- 
vated — farmed. As many persons not conversant with agriculture take far too san- 
guine a view of agricultural profits, I will endeavour to set the matter as clearly as I 
can before them. When I had the honour to read before your Club a paper on 
** The Capital of Agriculture : its Application and Kemuneration," I stated 
that, taking the 56,000,000 of available acres of good, bad, and middling land 
in the United Kingdom, — including, of course, its grass land, which occupies one-half 
the area of the United Kingdom, — I estimated the capital employed at £4 per acre, 
landlords' measure, and the annual profit on that capital at 10 per cent, besides a 
house and offices rent-free, which may be taken as an additional 'l\ per cent., so that 
the profit may be roughly calculated at 8s. per acre, and house rent-free. This would 
give for th6 United Kingdom a tenant's profit of about £25,000,000 annually. On 
well cultivated arable farms employing £10 per acre capital, £1 per acre profit would 
be certainly a good average ; and I know many very good farmers who consider £500 
a year on a 500-acre farm a full remuneration, having their residence, stabling, &c., 
rent-free, and some trifling advantages of the farmyard. Unlike townspeople, they get 
their bread, pork, poultry, milk, and eggs first hand, unadulterated, and unburthened 
with intermediate expenses and profits ; alsO their hay, corn, and straw for their rid- 
ing horses. Vegetables are also fresh and untaxed ; servants' wages are always much 
lower than in towns ; so that altogether their 10 per cent, is equal to a much larger 
profit in towns,- where rent and other matters form a large charge. Where much 
money is realised in agriculture, it often begins in rigid economy, combined with 
very superior ability in hiring, buying, selling, and dealing, by great vigilance in 
the economy and superintendence of manual and horse labour, and a thorough 
knowledge of stock management. We have many notable instances of great wealth 
and position attained by those who once followed their own plough, sowed their 
own seed, fed their own stock, and so got " the fore horse by the head." In 
fact, sound, practical agriculture is composed, like our good old city of Lon- 
don, of self-made men, who began at the lowest step of the ladder, and reached 
competence and independence by their own good qualities. So strong is the 
belief in the truth of this theory, that a respect^ practical friend of mine in Cam- 
bridgeshire said to me, " I never knew a young man succeed as a farmer who began 
with £10,000 capital" And on asking him why, *' Well," he said, " his habits are 
usually too expensive for a beginner ; he trusts too much to others, and is not suffi- 
ciently impressed with the necessity for personal supervision, vigilance, frugality, and 
general economy in the management of his farm." Gentlemen farmers who employ a 
manager, who himself ranks as a farmer, naturally find a difficulty in obtaining a 
profit beyond their rent. Extensive practical farmers, who must have assistance, 
frequently employ working bailiffs, or overlookers, receiving only a moderate increase 
on the wages of a labourer. Farming profits depend so much upon odds and ends, — 
I mean on the successful working of every part, — that each should be well done to 
make a full and satisfactory result. 

Mismanagement of Live Stock. — If a farmer is wrong in the management of his 
live stock, he must bid adieu to all hope of profit. With the very best management 
he is liable to serious losses^ from causes beyond his control. This morning I 



FABMINO UNPROFITABLE. «S7 

received an application on behalf of a most respectable and esteemed farmer, for my 
presentation to Christ's Hospital, for his son, owing to his having lost £2000 by his 
Uve stock. I attach so much importance to this subject, that I consider it 
should hold a first place in agricultural study and instruction. There are cer- 
tain gn^^at general preventive principles that might be profitably acted upon, 
although they are now too often neglected; and in very difficult cases, 
the veterinary should give his scientific and professional aid. But are 
our ordinary " horse doctors ** creditable to British agriculture ? ' In too many 
cases there is much room for improvement. Our Veterinary College has indeed been 
a great boon to agriculture, which owes a heavy debt of gratitude to Professor Simonda 
and other scientific veterinarians. I have written so much in my book upon this 
subject, and there is so little time* here to treat upon the question, that I will dismiss 
it by saying that Alderman Mechi's once-poohpoohed notion, about the chaffing and 
preparation of food, are now becoming fashionable among practical agriculturists, who, 
I hope, will no longer compel their bullocks to drink, in the shape of 150 lbs. of 
frozen turnips, 13^ gallons of frozen water, with only 15 lbs. of dry, but frozen matter. 
Let ns afford to animals the very same opportunities for comfort that we, as human 
beings, find most agreeable and profitable, both in food and shelter. I have generally 
been very successful in avoiding losses by stock ; but this year I lost some calves, 
merely by allowing them to eat their fill of rich sewaged Italian rye-grass. Where 
they received only a moderate quantity of the same food, they did well. Possibly, if 
they had received salt on the field, they would not have suffered. Being convinced, 
by practical ezperienee as well as by theory, that no farmer distant from a town can 
succeed weU without plenty of live stock, that is, without producing plenty of meat 
and manure, I attach the utmost importance to the proper knowledge of stock 
management, either by yourself or your stockman, or by both. I look upon this as a 
vital question as regards profit. As a proof of this, look at the causes of distress 
assigned by the 150 decayed farmers who are now candidates for relief from our 
Agricultural Benevolent Institution. In almost every case " losses by stock *' are 
assigned as a prominent cause of failure. Within my own knowledge and neigh- 
bourhood I might quote numerous cases. Mr lost all his farm horses by eating 

▼heat from the barn floor, the doors having been imperfectly closed. Other live stock 
suffer from the same cause. This dry season no end of sheep have died from '' shacking,' 
or eating dry barley on the stubbles. There was not enough green succulent food to 
mix with it, and they were allowed to fill their stomachs with the bare barley, which 
B welled when moistened by drinking. Farmer so-and-so lost several cows by turning 
them out to feed when the hoarfrost was on the leaves — icing their insides, in fact. 
Want of water has caused much loss by fever, &c. Whole fields of wet and frozen 
turnips fail to increase the weight of sheep, but on the contrary, cause immense 
losses by death, especially among ewes and lambs. Some very fine cut straw, with a 
proportion of com and cake, would prevent all this. So would shelter. When a 
bullock has consumed 150 lbs. of cold turnips in a day, you have obliged him to take 
into his stomach 13^ gallons of water, with only 15 lb. of dry food. 

Farm Horses, — In the feeding of horses, and cattle too, I have often seen very 
great waste. I have said jocularly that ploughmen are more fond of their horses 
than their wives. They love to see them fat, and as they have not to pay for their 
food, they will, if you do not control them, give it in superabundant wastefulness. 
How frequently the haystack is at the entire mercy of the horsemen ! The dainty, 
ov6r-fed horses pick out the choicest morsels, and tread the rest into manure. In my 
case, the hay is^ all cut into chaff, mixed with some straw chaff, the oats and beans 
ground into meal, and the meal mixed with the cut chaff in the manger, the chaff 
being slightly sprinkled with water, to cause the meal to adhere to it, and 
to prevent the horses throwing out the chaff to get at the meal. When it is con- 
sidered that in ordinary farming one-fourth, or at all events one-fifth, of the whole 
farm (landlords' measure) is required to feed the farm horses, in the ordinary way of 
taming them out, the question of diminishing this great charge is a most important 
one. If the loss of farm horses by mismanagement could be statistically ascertained, 
it would form a sum of astounding magnitude, and show a great deduction from the 
farmer's profits. Take, what is too often a common practice, as an example of mis- 
management : Horses, in a state of perspiration after hard work, are ridden into a cold 
horsepond, or allowed to drink heartily of cold water before they begin to feed ; re- 
BQltfl — farcy, gripes, Inflammation, &c The London brewers' horses drink when they 
please ; but then a steam tube ipasBes through the tank, and the water is always 



38 SOME OF THE CAUSES THAT BENDER 

warm. We know what is tlie probable effect upon ourselves of drinking cold water 
when our bodies are overheated. Fat horses are, like fat men, unable to do a hard day's 
work. Plenty of muscle and condition, with good exercise and wind, pay better. It 
is observable that a farmer's nag horse is rarely turned out, and yet he looks glossy 
and well-conditioned. Why this difference of treatment ? Again, a farmer seldom 
goes to market on four wheels. Why does he use waggons ? I pronounce them, from 
unmistakable evidence, to be a cause of loss to hiuL If he will have the waggon, let 
it be on two wheels. If your stockman does not understand his business, your profit 
is endangered. If a man is deficient in quickness of observation and comparison, he 
will not do for stock. Yon cannot give them to one who does not naturally possess 
them. 

VentilaJtion. — Farmer always had illness among his horses when stalled. 

Kow he turns them out into the yard, they are healthy. The cause is obvious : the 
stable had no ventilation, consequently the putrescent atmosphere produced farcy 
and other diseases, much as it does with human beings huddled together in small 
close rooms. A few 9 or 12-inch pipes inserted through the brickwork near the ceil- 
ing, where there is a floor over it, or an opening in the ridge, and at the ends of the 
roof, will cause ventilation and circulation. The best test of a well-ventilated room 
or stable, is to get in half-a-dozen cigar smokers for an hour. If the ventilation is 
good, the smell will soon have passed away. If deficient in ventilation, the scent will 
long remain. I have a room with a door at each end ; after a smoking party no 
trace of our doings is perceptible the next morning, provided both doors are left 
open at night. If one only is left open, there is not proper ventilation, and the 
room is impure. Therefore, have several opening under the wallplate, near the ceil- 
ing or the roof, both in your cattle-sheds and horse stables, and a couple of doors. 
In my cattle-sheds I have many openings under the wallplate, and on the ridge, as 
ventilators. It is important that the hanging or dividing board should reach some 
distance below the side openings in the roof ventilator. In very cold weather, or 
during strong cold winds, some of the openings can be closed by straw-bands, so as to 
regulate the temperature according te season. We all know that cold air contains so 
much more oxygen than hot air in a given space. I have known several unwhole- 
some cottages and sleeping rooms made healthy by the insertion near the ceiling of 
fiome siflaU 2-inch draining pipes. We all know how offensive even spacious bed- 
rooms smell if we enter them after enjoying the pure morning air. 

The non-VfSe of Salt for Live Stock.— -i hear of so many cases where, by the use of 
salt, disease and non-success in stock have been remedied, that I consider its absence as 
very prejudicial. I have always had rock-salt in the mangers; common salt will do 
as well. Large losses in sheep often occur when being fed on rape or coleworts, 
especially after frost. This may be prevented by sowing over the leaves, in early 
morning, about two or three quarts of common salt, according to the size of the fold. 
I learned this from a large flockmaster who had profited by this practice. Salt 
appears to prevent swelling or flatulence. 

ffiVe-ioorm.— Nothing is more easy than to get rid of these pests, either by salting 
the land, or by the use of about 5 cwt. of rapecake per acre ; a little of both is good. 
I commend this especially to our light-land friends. Iliave always been a great user 
of salt^ even on heavy land when drained, and especially on grass lands. From 2 to 6 
cwt. per acre, according to lightness of soil, is a sufficient quantity. I have found 
salt and quicklime mixed together very beneficial, especially for potatoes. I always 
mix guano with about half its weight of salt. This answers well for cereal crops, 
especially wheat. 

Fit Labourers well Supervised.— ^ht reverse of this causes much loss. The labour 
on an arable highly-manured farm, with a large quantity of stock and steam ma- 
chinery, is probably, including bailiff and engineer, 45s. per acre. Mismanagement 
or neglect in this matter to the extent of 20 per cent, would cause a loss of 9s. per 
acre, or nearly half the farmer's profit. I prefer piece-work where possible. The 
want of honest or active men on a farm is a sure source of loss. The want of fore- 
thought, method, and order adds to this loss ; so does the dishonesty of either bailiff 
or labourers. I have known instances of collusion between bailiff and dealers in re- 
gard to the purchase and sale of live stock. Honesty is no doubt the rule — roguery 
the exception ; but the watchful eye of the master is always desirable. 

Farmers do not trust enough to Science. — Witness the disbelief in the value of rape 
and cotton-cake for feeding. And again, they do not often enough refer to their 
chemifltB for opinion as to the quality of the cattle food, cake, and manures that they 



FABMIKO UNPROFITABLE. 39 

purchase. The qaestion of a few shillings, or a guinea paid to Messrs Way or 
Voelcker for their opinion, is trivial as compared with the advantage gained. 
Farmers are grossly imposed upon, and victimised in many ways. 

Soil and Climate. — Probably there is no cause more prolific of failure than 
attempts to violate the laws of nature. We should always be governed more or less 
by the nature of the soil and climate. Any farmer changing his occupation and his 
district must leave behind him local customs, and study attentively the practice of 
the new neighbourhood. How well this is illustrated by the statistical returns from 
Ireland, where its moist atmosphere and friable soil are availed of to produce potatoes 
and oats, and root and green crops, in the proportion of 4 and 8 to 1 as compared 
with wheat, which only figures for 277,000 acres out of nearly six millions of acres of 
arable land ! A Scotch or Welsh farmer from among the hills must give up all 
hopes of growing turnips in the ^ stiff days and cereal climate of Essex, where he 
must depend upon mangel wurzel, which luxuriates in stiff soil near the sea and hot 
sunshine, and will produce nearly twice as much weight, and better quality, at no 
greater cost. light-land farmers coming to the stiff clays must give up winter 
folding, and resign themselves to covered yards, and mangel brought home, 
also to beans and tares. Nature indicates the right crops by her natural 
productions; where the wild carrot and the wild oat thrives, we know what 
we should grow. The wild mangel on the sea shore tells us that salt 
is essentisd in the growth of that root. The quality of grasses grown on 
limestone and chalk teaches us that it is in vain to hope for such a produc- 
tion upon our poor stiff uncalcareous ferruginous clays, uiUess we chalk or lime 
them artificially. A piece of ground on my lawn grows wild camomile super- 
abundantly ; and I have heard of a great pear-grower who always looked out for soil 
that naturally produced superior pears. We may change the nature of the soil and 
the character of its products by amalgamation. It is well known about here that on 
our heath soils 50 tons an acre of chalky clay from the valley will eradicate the former 
class of weeds, and do more good than manure. 

Damage by Gam£.^The influence of game upon the farmer's profit is a matter 
deserving our consideration. I presume that we are all agreed that it is highly de- 
sirable that our great and dignified landowners should have every proper inducement 
and encouragement as residential notabilities. We all feel proud of our landed aris- 
tocracy, and know their residential value. I am myself an old and ardent sportsman, 
and therefore can appreciate the zest such an amusement affords to those who love it. 
Pheasants and partridges I look upon as real farmers' friends, assuming, of course, 
that sufficient food is provided for them by the landowner. I speak practically on 
this matter, for 300 fowls have at all seasons, not excepting harvest time, the free 
range of my com fields. The harm they do is trivial, compared with the benefit they 
confer as destroyers of grub and insect. The question of ground game presents a 
different aspect : hares and rabbits, however well fed, have a strong affection for the 
first shoot that comes from the germinating seed of wheat in October or November. 
A hundred rabbits will clear off acres of these shoots in a single night : the consequence 
is, a deficient and blighted crop at harvest time. Hares take a wider range, and do less 
injury. I am convinced that the destruction of that first stem is most injurious to 
the crop ; in fact, it cripples irrecoverably the parent stem of the future family. 
The dainage to spring-sown corn is very much less, because at that period of the 
year there is a great variety of young sweet grasses. Heavily-stocked covers should 
always be surrounded by grass land ; because if highly farmed, which it ought to be, 
the loss is comparatively small, and may be made good by extra manuring. This 
cannot be done with wheat, which should never be sown adjoining a cover. We all 
know that game farms are let below the ordinary rent for land. One thing is quite 
certain, as affecting the profit — that the land immediately surrounding game covers 
should be manured much more heavily than any other part of the farm, especially if 
grain land. So much extra produce limits the area of damage. 

The Sewage Quettion, — Probably there is no more extensive or insidious cause of 
loss to agriculture than the waste and non-utilisation of our excreta. In the paper 
I read to you on this subject I estimated that to'xfeed London alone, the produce 
raised on six millions of acres was annually required, so that the produce of the whole 
area of the kingdom (sixty millions of acres) may be said to pass through the London 
sewers into the Thames in ten years. The agricultural mind can scarcely realise 
•nch a gigantic and suicidal throwing away of valuable properly. Our metropolitan 
sanitarians must give up all hope of a pure stream wlule th\& gQ«& on «Xi G«xWTi% 



40 SOME OF THE CAUSES THAT BENDEB 

Creek. Already every inlet in the neighbourhood gives unmistakable evidence, by its 
black and foetid banks of mud, of its proximity to the great sewer. Owing to the recent 
Parliamentary Committee evidence the sewage question may be said to be now fairly 
solved, and reduced to the simple question of a pump to raise it, and a pipe to convey 
it to the farmer. Those who, like myself, remember the time when there was no gas and 
a very indiflferent water supply, and now see that in almost every house and room in 
the metropolis a supply of light is obtained by turning on a tap, can easily foresee the 
time when each farmer will turn on the tap and supply himself with town sewage 
through his meter according to his requirements. Sewage, like gas, will pass from 
the impossible to the actual and practical result Who is to do it is not yet deter- 
mined. Baron Liebig has shown that all that is wanted to make the sewage perfect 
is a certain quantity of superphosphate of lime to replace the bones of the animals, 
fish, poultry, and game, the flesh of which we consume, but the bones do not go into 
the sewers. If the farmer^s produce were returned to him after consumption, we 
should hear fewer complaints of costly manures and want of profit. Steam-power has 
rendered this practicable, for.it was clearly proved before the recent House of Commons 
Committee on Sewage that 1000 tons of sewage might be pumped to an elevation of 
SOO feet at a cost of only 13s. to 14s. I am pleased to see that the question of town 
sewage is now occupying the columns of our principal newspapers. Twenty-odd 
years ago, when I first pressed it upon public attention, I was snubbed as a " nasty 
fellow," and it required all my moral convictions to support me : but I am rewarded 
now by the prospect of a great public good. 

More Meat, more Manure. — The great want in farming is more meat, more manure, 
and more artificial manures. I have been making up my books to the 31st October, 
my usual period, and find that after paying for £660 of purchased food, (£300 of which, 
as grain, was bought of myself at market prices,) my live stock have left me £7 per 
licre for .root and green crops. It would have been £9 per acre but for the loss 
of £70 by calves, which died owing to being allowed to help themselves to some rich 
luxuriant Italian rye-grass. The quantity of meat actually made on the whole farm, 
170. acres landlords' measure, was 200 lbs. for each acre. I am convinced that the 
system of shelter and preparation of food, combined with a few acres of sewaged 
Italian rye-grass, is the key to true economy and profit. 

Bad Cotton- Cake causes much loss in stock. The husk of cotton seed is black, and 
as hard and indigestible as the bark of a tree. Seed-crushers have found out that by 
keeping a considerable portion of this bark ground up with the kernal, a greater 
quantity of oil can be expressed ; whereas when the seed is decorticated, the outside 
skin or husk being screened from it, it coagulates or consolidates so much, that they 
cannot obtain so much oil. Therefore avoid buying dark or black hard cotton cake; 
good green rapecake is much to be preferred at the same price. Cotton cake when 
good is brittle, friable, and of a bright yellow colour. The quality of this hard husk 
is easily ascertained by chewing a small piece of the cake. 

Little Fields and Large Fences.— I met at Newmarket, the other day, a good prac- 
tical farmer, who said, " Mr Mechi, I have only one fence on my farm, of 700 acres, 
and that is an outside one. Owing to what you have said and written, my landlord 
altered his mind, and gave me permission to get rid of my internal and unprofitable 
enclosures." How can a Devonshire farmer, with his 3 and 4-acre fields, compete with 
my 700-acre friend ? and look at the landlord's responsibilities in gates and posts ! 

Artificial Manures. — Starving or half -starving the land is one of the most certain and 
serious causes of unprofitable farming. Although I make so much meat and manure, 
and consume so much purchased food, still I find it profitable to have recourse to arti- 
ficial manures, especially the best Peruvian guano and superphosphate of lime, and some 
salt. I have tested this again this very season, and find that although my mangel land was 
so heavily-dressed with rich shed cake and corn manure, still the addition of 3 to 4 cwt. 
of guano and some salt gave me a good profit over and above the payment for its cost. 
The same remark applies to wheat ; by omitting to guano it at a cost of 30s., I lost 
a quarter of wheat and some straw. One can hardly overrate the benefits conferred 
upon the farmer who applies to exhausted soils an ample supply of artifical manures. 
Bape and cotton-cake are excellent fertilisers. These remarks hold good for grass 
lands, which are too often sadly neglected and robbed. Many a farm might be 
converted from an unprofitable to a profitable condition by the use of artificial 
manures. 

The want of Sound Middle-Class Education.— The establishment of middle-class 
colleges promises to effect a great good. A sound and suitable education is much 



FARMING UNPROFITABLE. 41 

needed among farmers in certain districts— agricultural literature and examinations 
should certainly form a prominent part of such education — and then we might expect 
to find in each farmery a small but useful library of agricultural books, containing 
the valuable experience and advice of good and clever men who are no longer with 
US. How rare one sees such a library now ! A score of pounds so invested would 
form a profitable speculation. The Royal Agricultural College and the Glass Nevin 
Schools of Ireland have already been fruitful of result. 

In conclusion, there is, in perspective, a grand future for British agriculture, 
not merely by the reclamation of waste land, for of that there is but little 
left, but rather by intensifying our farming — by concentrating capital in a 
limited area. Taking out of view individual capability, which must ever vary, 
our general system will be based on commercial and manufacturing principles, looking 
rather to result than to cost. Education, intercourse, and intelligence, goaded by 
foreign competition, will cause our agriculture to emerge from its ancient customs and 
feudiJ restraints. Set free to act, the national character will exhibit in this — as in 
manufactures, commerce, and railways — a vigorous, I would say a gigantic, action. 
But all this can scarcely be effected without a remapping of the country. Our crooked 
▼ays and cramped and wooded enclosures must give place to rectilinear extension, 
but not bare or untimbered enclosures. The feelings of enthusiastic lovers of old 
landscape will no doubt be somewhat outraged, but the pleasures of the eye must sub- 
serve the imperative demands of the British stomach, for if that is not duly and cheaply 
filled, suffering will produce discontent, and then will follow its usual numerous con- 
comitant attendant evils. I am not of opinion that it is desirable to depend upon 
foreigners for our food any more than for our manufactures. If we have the means 
to produce all or most of it at home,— and I know that we have, if we choose to apply 
them, — then we should put our shoulders to the wheel, and resolve that the agricul- 
tural carriage shall move faster, and that we will set to work in earnest to remove the 
obstructions that impede its progress. Landowners should lead the way, supported 
by capitalists, and then the sturdy British yeoman will not be found wanting in the 
good work of cheap and abundant production. 

Mr W. Walton (Chowton Park, Alton) said he wished to mention some of 
the causes which tended to render farming unprofitable. First, Want of security : 
This was the most important thing on entering upon a farm. No man could farm to 
advantage without having good security for the outlay of his capital, either by a long 
lease or good tenant-right, or both. For instance, when a man entered upon a farm in a 
dirty, impoverished state, which was an every-day occurrence — a farm which was wet, 
cold, full of couch, and other weeds, and had never been half -ploughed, or cultivated, 
or manured— what had he got to do ? To lay out most of his capital before he could 
get any return. Was there a man who would submit to this without security ? 2d, 
Wimt of commercial principles : To prevent any dispute, all agreements and engage- 
ments should be in writing. (Hear, hear.) 8d, Want of good and sufficient buildings 
for stock and implements. (Hear, hear.) This would come home to a great many. 
Every good farmer should make out of his farmyard one-third or half of his rent. 
All implements should be pnt under cover in the winter, and this could not be done 
without proper buildings and conveniences. 4th, Want of equality of rates and 
taxes : Government was desirous that all should pay their fair share of rates and 
taxes. This would not be, however, the case until the farmers and others who paid 
taxes had a voice in the expenditure of the same. He was sorry to say that since the 
new law of rating parishes came into operation the committee had found very great 
inequality in the mode of rating land and buildings. 5th, Want of a reduction of 
game and rabbits. (Hear, hear.) All farmers should have the full benefit of the pro- 
duce of their farms, and not see it half-eaten by game and vermin. 6th, Want of 
double hedgerows grubbed, and timber growing upon the same cut. This was a great 
hindrance to good cultivation, particukrly where steam was used, and an encourage- 
ment to all kinds of vermin. 7th, The want of all burdens and impediments to good 
husbandry being done away with, particularly the malt tax. (Hear, hear.) No impedi- 
ment should be left in the way of good cultivation, especially as regards the produc- 
tion of food for the people. Why should the product of our lands be so heavily taxed, 
and that of foreign countries free ? This would rest with the farmers at the next 
election for M.P.'s. (Laughter. ) 8th, Some would add want of capital : If the farmers 
had security, or a long lease, sufficient capital would be forthcoming; but what could 
be expected under tenancy-at-will, a landlord's law of preference, and high i:ents ? 
9th, Want of political influence on the part of farmers : This might appear to some 



42 SOME OF THE CAUSES THAT RENDER FARMING UNPROFITABLE. 

of no importance ; indeed, a great many renting farmers had told him it was not 
their bread and cheese. He concluded, however, that if farmers were to do as other 
men did, to exercise proper control over the choice of members of Parliament, they 
would soon get rid of the malt-tax, half the county rates, and all other unfair burdens 
they now had to contend with. (Hear hear.) 

Mr Edmunds (Rugby) said, having come there that evening hoping to hear some- 
thing new, he must confess he had been rather disappointed. If he might describe 
the worthy Alderman, he would say that he was a sort of rough pioneer for agricul- 
ture. (Hear, hear.) He went out with his pickaxe, and broke ground in all directions. 
He began with sewage, and he had ended with it, and the result was not yet satisfac- 
tory. In his opinion, the Alderman did not lay sufficient stress in his papers upon 
the evils which pressed most heavily upon farmers., He (Mr Edmunds) agreed 
with the last speaker, that want of security in the holding was the greatest 
cause of want of success. If a farmer held land on a secure tenure for a certain 
number of years, he could then farm at a profit. There were some tenant farmers 
who had something like security under a good landlord ; but, speaking gene- 
rally, he must say it was the want of proper security which kept farmers back. 
(Hear, hear.) The Alderman had described almost every evil under the sun as an 
evil which affected farmers ; but, in reality, most of the evils to which he alluded, 
belonged to trade and professions as well as to agriculture. For example, if a man 
did not possess sufficient knowledge, he would not succeed in anything, whether in 
agriculture or in commerce ;' men must be educated or prepared for their callings. 
So also sickness was, of course, one of the " ills that flesh was heir to ;'* it did not 
belong to farming life merely, but was common to humanity. A lease was the first 
thing that a farmer wanted, as a farmer. The next requisite was, perhaps, that the 
farmer should really have the benefit of what he paid rent for. When a man took 
land, he ought, in a certain sense, to be able to do what he liked with it; and this 
could not be the case if his landlord stocked it for him with game. Having lived 
among farmers all his life, he had never met with one who would not be glad to see 
game on the land he occupied, provided it were not there in excess; but if the farmer 
were expected to keep game at the cost of his own pocket for other people's pleasure, 
he naturally felt dissatisfied. It might be said that there were two parties to every 
contract, and that it was the farmer's own fault if he entered into a contract which 
was bad for himself with his eyes open. It should, however, be borne in mind 
that toere were many families which had been for centuries on the same estate. They 
had, perhaps, lived under a succession of good landlords. At last there came fl needy 
man, who began to cultivate game excessively. The farmer had no lease ; and what 
did he do in this state of things ? Why, he had a strong affection for the home of 
his fathers ; and there he stuck till perhaps he had hardly anything left. (Hear, hear.) 
Another evil was the present system of administering county rates. Farmers, he 
believed, paid more proportionately under that head than the inhabitants of towns; 
and surely those who paid the money ought to have a voice in the spending of it. 
(Hear, hear.) Further, he thought that farmers had the same right as every other 
class of the community to demand that all protection and restrictions which affected 
them should be done away with. They had a right to do what they liked with the 
grain they produced. If it were objected that the tax to which he alluded was useful 
revenue, then he replied that so also was the tax formerly imposed on corn, yet its 
usefulness in that respect was not considered by those who wanted to have it abol- 
ished. If they wanted the malt-tax taken off, they must not be quite so thin-^nned 
As they had been; it required a pretty thick skin to agitate so as to get a tax like that 
repealed. 

Dr YoELCKEB said they must all have listened with great pleasure to Alderman 
Mechi's paper. Their worthy friend had said so many good things, so many spicy 
things, so many profitable things, that one felt loth to enter upon the disputable por- 
tions of his remarks ; but still, as the introducer of the paper, he would not look so 
much for mere compliments as for honest conclusions, and even at the risk of being 
considered captious he would allude to one or two disputable points. When ihe worthy 
Alderman commenced speaking on the subject of sewage there was considerable mer- 
riment He remarked very justly that that subject was one of great importance. No 
one could deny that an immense quantity of valuable fertilising matter was annually 
swept away and lost. The question was, how was that valuable matter to be utilised. 
(Hear, hear). He (Dr Yoelcker) would like to hear something tangible as to the 
manner in which that was to be done. (Hear, hear.) They had been told that the 



KELSO FABMEBS' CLUB. 43 

time would probably come when the farmer would merely have to open the sewage 
tap, just as the tap was now opened to let the gas out. But there was this important 
difference between gas and sewage, that if they opened the gas tap they got a splendid 
light at a cheaper rate than oil, wax, or candles of any description could be supplied; 
whereas, if the sewage tap were opened it was very questionable what profit there 
would be. (Hear, hear.) They might, indeed, get a very large profit ; but on the 
otiier hand, there might be nothing to pay for the outlay on the pipes. (Hear, hear.) 
Kow, that was a question upon which there was still required a great deal of infor- 
mation ; it was a question which could not be settled in a general way, (hear, hear ;) 
it ?ra8 a question which depended especially on the character of the land. Whatever 
might be said about the wildness of the scheme of sending the metropolitan sewage 
down to ICaplin Sands, at least this might be affirmed, that the land there was just 
the kind of land that was most likely to be benefited by sewage, (hear, hear ;) for 
just in proportion as land was poor and hardly capable of producing anything was 
sewage likely to be good, and just in proportion as land was naturally fertile was 
sewage unlikely to prove beneficial He would be a very hazardous farmer who, 
having good pasture land, poured upon it a large quantity of sewage manure, thereby 
converting it into that sort of rye-grass land of which Alderman Mechi had spoken. 
He (Dr Voelcker) would not deny the utility of sewage rye-grass for the keeping of 
Btodc in good condition ; but he maintained that pasture grass was better, and he 
would appeal to those who had had more experience in tMs matter than himself 
having resided only for a few years in the country, whether sewage did or did not 
increase the nutritive value of produce. He had on former occasions contended 
against his worthy friend (Alderman Mechi) on this point. His own opinion was 
that the more rapidly you forced produce of any kind the less nutritive it became, 
hoik for bulk ; the slower it grew the more nutritive it was. On pasture lands that 
was especially the case. By applying sewage to the land they gradually reduced the 
herbage to one or two predominant grasses, favouring the growth of the coarser 
kmds to the destruction of the finer, (hear, hear;) one particular grass— a coarse one 
r-often prevailed. They all knew that in mixed herbage they had a variety of grasses, 
and that, bulk for bulk, those mixed grasses were more nutritive than the succulent 
produce which consisted of one particular kind of grass. 



KELSO FABMERS' CLUB. 

DCFOBTANT DISCUSSION OK THE LOUFIIfO ILLS 

At a meeting of this Club, held in the Cross Keys Hotel, on Friday last — Mr 
Gilbert Stuart, Bunningbum, in the chair — the subject introduced for discussion was, 
"What is the cause of the disease called 'louping ill' in sheep, and the best pre- 
yentiveor cnre?" 

It has not been usual for this Club tor publish any part of their discussions ; but on 
the motion of Mr Pubycs, Bumfoot, seconded by the Chairman, and the unanimous 
voice of the company, Mr Usher and Mr B. Bobertson, who were the pryicipal 
speakers, were requested to deliver their remarks to be reported, to which they con- 
sented, in the hope that, as the subject is one of great interest and importance, 
other Clubs may be induced to discuss it, and perhaps lead to the better understand- 
ing of this hitherto most mysterious and fatal disease. 

Mr UsHiB, Stodrig, said— I proposed the subject for this day's discussion in the hope 
that I might pick up some information rather than impart it, as it is one of which 
I am comparatively ignorant. In the short experience I have had of the disease 
called "louping ill" in sheep, I have, however, undergone rather a severe ordeal, 
which naturally induced me to investigate the nature and causes of the disease, with a 
view to its prevention. Tou are, I dare say, all aware that at Whitsunday 1863, my 
son and I entered to a farm in Bule Water. We were not ignorant of the said 
farm being liable to " loupingill" in sheep, but certainly had no idea of its extent; 
bemdes, the disease seems to have been more virulent during the last two years than 
for a considerable time previous. Our predecessor in the farm had an unusual heavy 
loss before Whitsunday, when we entered to the stock rather in poor condition at a 
valuation, and after that our loss was also considerable. This led us to look to the pre- 
vious management of the stock for some supposed error which might perhaps have led 
to such an unfavourable result We found that the ewes while hunbing had been con- 



44 KELSO FABMEBS' CLUB. 

fined to a moor field, getting a few tornips on grass up to a certain day in May, 
when a part of them were turned to the hill, to which the disease was chiefly 
confined, and on which at this season there was a great flow of grass. Knowing, 
then, little or nothing of "louping ill," we attributed the loss more to the 
rapid transition of the stock, while in poor condition, from middling keep to 
too luxuriant pasture, and thought by guarding against such extremes in 
another year, we might at least ameliorate the virulence of the disease. 
Under this impression' we commenced to get the stock well up in condition by 
using turnips, of which we had a fair crop, very liberally, and giving oats, in addition, 
to the flock. We brought them through the winter in first-rate order. We had, in 
consequence, an extraordinary crop of lambs, the ewes during the lambing season 
still getting a few turnips on grass, and all went on to a wish till about the middle 
of April. We then began to remove the ewes and lambs in small numbers, accord- 
ing to their strength ; those with double lambs to young and improved grass, those 
with single lambs to the hill. I may here mention that the former, beyond a few 
casualties incidental to every breeding stock, continued to do well during the whole 
season. As there was no great luxuriance of grass on the hill, the stock were, in 
addition, supplied with a small quantity of oats daily. They appeared to do well 
enough for about ten days or so, when, in a single night, several ewes and lambs 
were attacked with " louping-ill," and the disease went on, varying in intensity 
according to the state of the weather, till about the 10th June, when it gradually 
abated. It was not in all cases fatal — several ewes and lambs slightly affected got 
round, after losing a great deal of condition ; but whenever they got what is called 
" grounded " — viz., completely prostrated, we had scarcely a single case of recove^. 
We tried purgatives and stimulants of various kinds, with no benefit whatever. We 
had a very heavy loss of both ewes and lambs, and setting aside the question of 
" profit and loss," ^together it was a most pitiful sight — in fact, the hill looked 
somewhat like a district infected with a plague. A man who acted as assistant to 
the shepherd in lambing time, and had done so on the same farm in previous years, 
told me that according to his observation, the disease began to shew itself just about 
ten days after the stock was sent to the hill. Regarding the cause of the disease, 
every one seemed to have his own theory. The top of the hill is good land, produc- 
ing fine grass, but from the sheep naturally drawing up to it, is somewhat foul, and 
by some thought to induce the disease. The circumstance of the great majority of 
deaths taking place on this part of the ground seemed to favour this opinion. Others 
attributed it (1 fancy with more truth) to a tract of rough white grass land about the 
middle of the hill ; while others again blamed a piece of improved moss land at the 
bottom. Somewhat bewildered by the collision of so many opposite opinions, we gladly 
accepted the offer of a medical friend in Kelso, who kindly volunteered to proceed 
with me to the scene of the calamity, and investigate the case. We had no lack of 
subjects to operate upon. He carefully dissected the brain and spine of several, and 
found them in a comparatively healthy state ; but in every case found the first 
stomach gorged with a large mass of undigested food ; and in the second, nothing 
whatever but a little brown-coloured liquid. He was clearly of opinion that the disease 
originated in the stomach, probably from eating the dry white grass formerly alluded 
to, which we found in large quantities, undigested, forming something like a mass of 
plaster hair, and so preventing the sheep fmm ruminating or chewing the cud. We 
know that in the human subject, the stomach is the seat of many of ''the ills 
that flesh is heir to " — so in the sheep, derangement of the stomach, if not checked 
in its first stage, may ultimately resolve itself into paralysis, prostration of the whole 
system, or, in other words, " louping ill." I may here mention a peculiar feature 
attending this mysterious disease — viz., its being almost invariably accompanied 
with "ticks" on the sheep. When the ewes and lambs were turned out to the hill, 
no such thing as a " tick was to be found on them ; but after a very short sojourn 
there, they were to be found in great numbers, and often distended with blood to a 
great size. This has led many to believe that these parasites are the cause of the 
disease. My scientific friend and I differed somewhat in opinion regarding them ; 
I maintaining that the ticks must be located in the grass on the bill, and so communi- 
cated to the sheep; while he scouted the idea, and said that, if in the grass at all, 
they must first be produced on the sheep. He upheld his opinion by giving me the 
aid of a very powerful microscope, and challenging me to find a single tick in the 
grass ; while i retaliated on him, and defied him to find a single tick on the ewes 
and lambs in the lower fields; and let it be borne in mind, they had all been in one 



KELSO FABMEBS' CLUB. 45 

floek during the winter. In each case we were nnsuccessfal in finding one. I still 
adhere to the opinion that they are in the grass; but although the tick seems to me 
to be an invariable concomitant to " louping ill/' and may also be an aggravation 
of it, I am quite convinced of the correctness of my friend's theory, that it proceeds 
originally from indigestion. The two following cases have very much tended to 
ooi^rm this opinion : — In the end of July we brought home six scores of half- 
bred gimmers, purchased in Caithness, and put them into a field we had taken 
for the season in the neighbourhood. The said field was understood to be liable to 
"louping ill/* but it was kept clean for them, and the season of the year was 
thought to be past for its ravages. Under these circumstances, we expected 
to keep the gimmers in it for three weeks or so with impunity. In about ten 
days, however, several were found affected, but only one " grounded." This one 
died ; but the others, on being immediately removed to a young grass field, in a few 
d&ys recovered, and are all alive and healthy to this day. The second case is similar. 
About the month of September, the disease again showed itself among the ewes on 
the farm, probably in consequence of the protracted drought. A few died, their 
Btomacks being in the very same state as those early in the season, and a consider- 
able number were affected. We at once began to give them a very small quantity of 
turnips daily, when the disease was immediately arrested, and we have not since had 
a single death. I may here mention that we attributed the severity of the disease 
in spring also to the unusual dryness of the season. I come now to the all-import- 
ant question — What is the probable preventive of this dreadful malady?— and if we 
are correct in our hypothesis about the cause of the disease, this ought not to be very 
difficult of solution. I shidl now tell you what we' have done, and propose to do. 
Before the commencement of our lease, the said hill was pastured with sheep only. 
Being left very rough, the coarser grasses naturally predominated, and^usurped the 
▼hole ground, with the exception of the hill top, which was eaten bare. Since our entry 
to the farm we have grazed a good many cattle on the hill ; the said rough grasses 
are now eaten nearly bare, and where they are not, we intend, as early in the spring 
as practicable, to bum any part remaining which may still be too rough. We find 
from the experience of last year, that whether eaten with cattle or burned, it affords 
'a bite for sheep sooner than it did formerly, when the grass had to force its way 
through a large mass of fog and fibre. Besides, the texture of the grasses was much 
improved, the finer sorts coming away, particularly white clover, which is indigenous 
to the soiL Next year, and the year following, we propose throwing out again to 
grass without a crop two fields of about twenty-five acres each, and likewise improv- 
ing other portions, so as to give the stock a variety of herbage. As this, however, is 
a wotk 01 time, I shall tell you what we intend to do in the meantime, and then 
conclude, having trespassed already on your time much longer than I anticipated. 
We are at present storing on the hill a considerable quantity of good sound green-top 
yellow turnips. With these we propose to supplement the food of the ewes next 
spring, when turned out, through the month of April, and as far into May as we can 
preserve them. While the turnips last, we mean to teach the ewes to eat linseed- 
take, newly made and of the best quality, and continue to give them from a half to 
three quarters of a pound daily till about the middle of June. If we are right in the 
origin of the disease, I fancy we are warranted to look with confidence to this treat- 
ment producing an amelioration, if not a perfect cure. And if the system be suc- 
cessful in saving life, the cost will be very trifling indeed, if anything at all ; for it . 
will improve both ewe and lamb, increase the quantity of wool, and, if persevered in 
for a few seasons, improve the grass both in quantity and quality as much as any top- 
dressing that could possibly be applied. There are other points on which I shall not 
enter. For instance, on the opposite side of a march-dyke, land forming part of the 
same hill, and formerly liable to " louping-ill," is said to be perfectly cured by a top- 
dressing of lime. If so, I think I am consistent in supposing that the result arises 
from the circumstance of its eating barer, and so producing more succulent and di- 
gestible grasses ; and I purpose to arrive at the same happy consummation by other 
and cheaper means. Kot having tried' it myself, however, I leave some one to speak 
on this point that can do so experimentally. 

Mr B. Robertson, Ladyrig, then spoke as follows: — After the able manner in 
which Mr Usher has handled this subject, I should have considered it quite unneces- 
sary to rise on the present occasion, were it not that his remarks refer entirely to 
half-bred sheep ; and although the disease is the same, I think the effect different 
upon Cheviot sheep. Of all the diseases that infest our flocks, there axQ 11011^ \>W» 



46 KELSO farmers' club. 

commit such deyastationg as the one referred to ; and much as we owe to yeterinary 
science, we certainly cannot in this case give it the credit of ascertaining either 
cause or remedy. I do not dispute that much may have been done to find out the 
root of the evil, but I say it is a glaring fact that thousands of our sheep are buried 
in the earth every year unfit for the use of man or beast ; and certainly a greater in- 
terest ought to be taken to find out the cause and remedy, as there is no disease more 
fatal, and, I am sorry to say, none that we are more ignorant of. As is naturally 
the case with a disease so fatal, many causes are giren for it. It is alleged by some, 
that a plant natural to certain districts contains the root of the malady ; that the 
sheep eat that plant in the spring, take the disease, and die. If so, it is evident that 
that plant must only prove fatal when eaten in the spring, as I have had sheep upon 
a hill all winter, and never take it till that season ; and, again, I have frequently 
had sheep entirely off the hill for two months, and, when put on in the beginning of 
April, take the disease. In both cases the sheep take the disease in the spring, with 
this difference, that those that have been on the hill all winter are more apt to die 
than those that have had a change for two months ; and the reason is obvious. If 
you clear your hill and give your sheep a change on turnips for two months, they 
return in better condition, and therefore more able to resist the disease than if they 
had not had that change. As a preventive to the disease, I certainly would recom- 
mend the ewes to be taken entirely off the hill for two months and put on turnips on 
the best clay land ; and doubtless the condition of your sheep will, in my opinion, be 
so much strengthened as to resist the disease to that extent that you will save life. 
The quality of your lambs will be deficient unless you bring the ewes on to better meat, 
such as young grass or fresh fields, as the milk goes off them for some time after they 
recover. If you approach a ewe or lamb affected with the disease, they will never 
move till you almost touch them, when they spring up quite paralysed and fall, re- 
peating it as often as you approach them — hence, I suppose, the name ** louping ill." 
In such cases it is certain to prove fatal I only once saw a ewe ** grounded " and 
get better. Perfect quietness is necessaiy. Hill herds have tried many cures, but I 
don't think they ever succeeded. Medicine seems to have no effect in loosening their 
bowels. In the year 1860 (a very memorable one) I kept all the stock on the hiU 
throughout the winter, and gave each sheep a pound of oats and lentila They were 
in much thinner condition than they usually are, but the deaths were small consider- 
ing the year, my loss being ten old sheep. Now, many may say your sheep got no 
change that year, and your deaths were trifling. Yes ; but I attribute the saving of 
the stock entirely to giving them a pound of oats and lentils from the commence- 
ment of bad weather till they were all lambed. A pound of oats and lentils given 
to each sheep the first thing in the morning induces them, after resting, to scatter 
over the hill and pick their food, thus keeping them healthy, although in poor con- 
dition. A very remarkable circumstance in regard to ** louping ill" is the fact that, 
whenever I have had it on Lustrutherhill, it has always been on one particular ridge 
of land, and that the barest dating and earliest. A few years ago, the Hon. W. 
Elliot of Wolflee applied for leave to botanise that portion of the hUl, to see if he 
could discover any particular plant, but I have never heard of the result Another 
very curious thing happened two years ago. I have a field of seven acres under cultiva- 
tion, which has been drained and limed, and into it I put a score of ewes and double 
lambs, and in less than a fortnight I lost six ewes and ten lambs. The ewes were 
never on the hill, but getting turnips in another field till they lambed, and, having 
double lambs, I put them into the best grass I had. I removed .the remainder into 
another field, and no more deaths occurred. If the field referred to had not been 
drained and limed, I would not have wondered at the presence of the disease, but at 
it is so, it displaces all hope in my mind that lime is a preventive. I have often 
noticed that, if you bought Cheviot hogs or ewes and put them on a diseased hill, 
you will lose more of them than you will of the stock that is reared on it. It does 
not confine itself to sheep altogether, as both cattle and horses frequently take it 
I have seen them covered with ticks, which is another curious omen of the dis- 
ease ; for where ticks are, there, you may depend upon it, is " louping ill." If you 
examine your sheep in the spring and find ticks, you may lay your account for the 
disease. Whether ticks have anything to do with the disease is a question I cannot 
answer^ Certain it is, that where the disease is there is the tick. There are many 
mysteries in the disease, and I sincerely hope that those men who stand high in 
veterinary science will put their shoulders to the wheel, and, with that encourage- 
ment which I can guarantee they will get from every sufferer, surmount the evil, gir* 



OBSERVATIONS ON FEEDING CATTLE AND SHEEP ON TURNIPS. 47 

ing xm both cause and remedy. They will then place ns in that happy poBition that 
we will have it in our power at least to save some ; and I am sure we will give 
ereiy encouragement in our power to hare both the land and sheep thoroughly ex- 
tmined. 

Several other members afterwards joined in the discussion, and generally approved 
of the views expressed by the preceding speakers. Mr Usher said he saw nothing in 
Hr Robertson's remarks opposed to his own opinion regarding the cause of the dis- 
ease or its remedy. The meeting generally assented to the feasibility of Mr Usher's 
mwB, and looked forward with much interest to the result of his experiment. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE EFFECTS WHICH ARE PRODUCED BY FEED- 
ING CATTLE AND SHEEP EXCLUSIVELY ON TURNIPS. 
By A. J, Mttbrat, 
Pr<^e98or of Veterinary Surgery at the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 

Ah examination of the conditions which favour the production of disease is of 
the greatest importance to farmers. The following remarks refer more especially to 
the eflfect produced on the system by the exclusive use of food composed of a single 
ipecies of plants. I am well aware that among the more advanced agriculturists the 
advantages of a mixed diet are recognised. My own experience, however, is that 
many agriculturists are not aware that food must supply to the blood a sufficient pro- 
portion of organic principles, and that if these are not supplied in sufficient propor- 
tion, disease will result. It is true that the farmer may gain such knowledge by ex- 
perience, but it must be acknowledged that such a method of acquiring information 
is rather expensive. It is desirable, then, that the experiments of a few persons 
ihould be of service to the public, so that others may not be under the necessity of 
icquiring information practically but painfully. 

The turnip, according to Dr Voelcker, contains from 88 to 92 per cent, of water. 
It contains a very small proportion of the nitrogenised or flesh-producing matters — 
only between 1 and 2 per cent. The proportion of water is excessive, while the 
albuminous compounds are very deficient ; and these two peculiarities explain why 
the exclusive use of the turnip, as an article of food, is attended with such bad 
results. By comparing the composition of the turnip with that of the grasses, which 
may be r^arded as the natural food of the sheep and ox, its deficiency is very 
marked. The proportion in which nature has combined the various nutritive ele- 
ments in the natural food of those animals must be adopted when they are kept 
under artificial conditions. The frequeney of disease will thus be reduced to a 
*»inimum. 

The disadvantages of a diet consisting exclusively of turnips are — 1st, That the 
inta^uction of a larger quantity of water into the system, which in winter is fre- 
quently as low as 82° F., and must, when taken into the stomach, be raised to a 
temperature of at least 100° F., must greatly increase the consumption of the carbon 
and hydrogen compounds supplied to the blood in the food. The carbon and hydro- 
gen consumed in this way are furnished by the oleaginous, starchy, mucilaginous, 
and saccharine principles of the food which have not been converted into tissue, and 
also by the disintegrated tissues themselves. A portion of the food which under 
more favourable circumstances would have increased the animal's bulk is thus ex- 
pended in maintaining animal heat, the wear^ of the body being at the same time 
accelerated. 

2d, The digestive fluids are excessively diluted, so that digestion is imperfectly 
performed, and the nutritive elements which the food actually contains are not 
thoroughly dissolved out, and they consequeiitly pass through the intestines with 
the innutritious matters. This frequently induces chronic disorder of the digestive 
system. 

8d, The turnip, as has already been shown, contains but a small proportion of the 
albuminous or flesh-forming constituents. The loss consequent on the wear and 
natural decay of the particles of the tissues is repaired by the incorporation of new 
nutritive principles into their substance. This process, however, can only be per- 
fectly carried on when the elements contained in the food are identical with, and 
bour a certain proportion to, those contained in the blood. When the proportion of 



48 SALVING AND DIPPING SHEEP. 

any one of the nntritive elements is deficient, the blood does not obtain a sufficient 
supply of new materials, the wear of the body exceeds the process of reparation, and 
the animal consequently sickens and dies. 

4th, Turnips are also injurious from the influence which such cold watery food 
exercises in depressing the action of the nervous system. The power of resisting 
depressing influences is thus impaired, and all the functions of the body are feebly 
performed. 

The nutritiye yalue of the turnip is frequently reduced to a minimtim by causes 
which I have not yet mentioned. The detrimental effects of frost and mildew on its 
feeding qualities are well known to the farmer. Turnips which have run to seed, 
and which consequently contain a large amount of woody fibre, are also innutritions 
and indigestible. In the disorders which have come under my observation, and which 
I have been able to trace to the exclusive or the excessive use of a turnip diet, I have 
occasionally noticed that the turnips were affected by one or other of the above causes. 
Chronic indigestion and blood diseases are the usual results of such a diet, though we 
may have the one condition complicated by the presence of ^he other. The blood 
disorder consists chiefly in a diminution of the plastic or tissue-forming elements, 
and we may then have a disintegration of the blood globules which appear in the 
urine, giving it the red colour which is popularly known under the name of red 
water. In ewes and cows the effects of such a diet are usually noticed shortly before 
calving and lambing, and occasionally only after parturition, when the copious secre- 
tion of milk removes a large portion of the nutritive elements of the blood. This 
diet produces more injurious and fatal effects on female than on male animals, owing 
to the materials removed from the blood by the rapidly developing foetus during 
pregnancy, and by the secretion of milk after parturition. 

A case illustrating my previous remarks has lately been brought under my notice 
by a farmer. His ewes were taken from the ram during the first week in November ; 
they were then fed exclusively on turnips until the period of lambing. They ap- 
peared healthy, and even fattened well on this diet until about a fortnight before 
lambing, when some of them began to look dull, and they also gradually became 
weak. It was necessary latterly to have them in the fold, as they could not walk to 
the field, which was only 600 yards distant. They lay down in the yard until they 
lambed, after which some of the weakest ewes died in from one to three days. Some 
recovered after careful nursing and the administration of stimulants. The ewes most 
severely affected invariably hs^d twin lambs, and though the lambs when dropped were 
tolerably strong, in a few days afterwards they generally sickened and died. In such 
cases nutritious food — such as hay, oats, and oUcake — must be given, combined with 
the administration of tonic and stimulant medicines. It will frequently, however, be 
found that the weakness induced by such a system of diet is so great, and that the 
digestive functions are so impaired, that the animal has no appetite for food. These 
lines, however, have been written not so much for the purpose of recommending 
treatment in disease, as for the purpose of preventing disease. The importance of 
studying the causes of maladies was well estimated by Professor John Gamgee, when 
he said at a recent lecture at Edinburgh : — " Veterinary medicine is something more 
than the art of heiJing jick animals ; it is the art of preserving animala from 
sickness." 



SALVING AND DIPPING SHEEP. 

PENI0X7I0K AOBIOULTUBAL SOOIETT. 

A UEETiNa of the members of the Penicuick Agricultural Society was held on Fri- 
day evening in Stewart's Inn, Penicuick — Mr Penman, Bonally, in the chair. The 
suWect for discussion was " Salving and Dipping Sheep." 

The Chairman called on Mr Wilson, Crosshouse, to open the discussion. 

Mr Wilson said — I believe it will be allowed by almost all stockholders that some 
dressing should be applied to sheep, either by smearing, pouring, or dipping, at least 
once in the twelvemonths; but this being acknowledged, a great diversity of opinion 
seems to prevail, both regarding the ends to be served by the operation^ and ^so in 
regard to the materials employed as dressings. Every one, I daresay, believes that the 
destruction of keds with which sheep are so universally infested, and also the de- 
struction of the scab insect, which often does incalculable mischief, are important 
ends to be served by the operation of dressing; but to what extent applications affect 



SALVING AND DIPPING SHEEP. 49" 

the health of the sheep or the growth of wool, apart from the destruotion of yermin, 
is perhaps not so clearly decided. In openiDg this discussion, I may state that I 
have had trials of a good many substances alike in smearing, pouring, and dipping, 
comprehending mixtures of simple substances, as well as the most of the compositions 
offered by different parties to the public. I would, however, in drawing conclusions 
from my experience, remark that a dressing suited for sheep in a mild and sheltered 
district may be unsuitable for those that have to bid defiance in an elevated situation 
to the pitiless storm. In high and mountainous districts the comparisons we draw 
would not apply; as, however much pouring or dipping may be satisfactory here, 
smearing of one kind or another may be necessary for the protection of the flocks 
through the severity of winter in exposed regions. I consider it is very doubtful 
whether any application to the skin of the sheep will encourage the growth of wool 
in the same vray as crops are benefited by an application of manure; but of this 
we may be quite certain, that dressings are often applied of a nature that, by washing 
out the natural yolk of the fleece without supplying its place, the growth of wool may 
be checked. At one time I was in the habit of applying black soap liberally, both in 
pouring and dipping,, but have now come to the conclusion that it is of too washing a 
nature to be recommended. In examining the fleeces of sheep eight or ten days after 
being poured or dipped with tobacco juice, spiriij of tar, and black soap, which is a 
very common, and, as far as regards the destruction of the vermin, a very effectual 
application, I liave found of course the colouring of the tobacco and spirits of tar, 
which is not easily washed out, but what has come of the soap ? The frothy greasy- 
like nature of the dip has disappeared, and should a drenching rain have intervened, 
I have found the scouring very effectual ; the yolk being washed out, and its place not 
supplied till nature creates a" new supply — a process which in cold weather especially 
is very slow. In this state the wool feels hard and dry, and judging from appearance 
itfi growth suffers; If the growth of wool can at all be promoted by artificial dress- 
ings to the fleece, there can be no doubt but this will in the greatest degree be ac- 
complished, the nearer the composition employed approaches in its character to the 
natural yolk existing in the wool. Oily or fatty matter should, in my opinion, enter 
into the composition used ; but in reducing these to a workable state for pouring or 
dipping, I believe they are often saponified to such an extent that they can in no de- 
gree be impervious to water, and are therefoife liable to be washed from the fleece, 
more especially if heavy rains immediately succeed their application. This fact is no 
doubt in favour of smearing, as a salve, although saponified to some extent when ap- 
plied to the skin, under a good covering of wool, along with the natural yolk which 
has not been washed out, will be found to repel external moisture, and I believe 
has the effect of lessening the conducting power of heat, thereby preventing the heat 
of the animal's body from escaping. In exposed mountainous districts, I am quite 
of opinion that smearing of some sort is generally beneficial, and some of the white 
smears now in the market are superseding in some districts the old smear of tar and 
butter. One great drawback to smearing is the tediousness of the operation ; it is 
also in general very expensive ; and I must say it has often proved with me inadequate 
in destroying vermin, not perhaps so much in every case from a deficiency in the mate- 
rials employed, as in the difiiculty of getting it thoroughly over the skin, so as to prevent 
the keds making their escape to some undressed portion of the fleece. I have found 
this difficulty greater when using the white smears now in the market, than from the 
application of those formerly in use. I must say, as far as my experience goes, there 
is still great room for improvement in some of the compositions offered for smearing 
purposes, but I am sanguine that if practical and scientific men go hand in hand in 
making experiments, stockholders willby-and-bye be less liable to annoyance and disap- 
pointment from failure in the results of their sheep dressings. The health of the sheep 
and production of wool have to farmers become more than ever worth the attending 
to, for while the price of grain has been reduced to a point that will never pay its 
cdtivation, mutton is high, and wool is commanding higher prices than we have 
ever been jiccustomed to. Great encouragement is therefore given for paying atten- 
tion to this department. I stated before that I was very doubtful if we could pro- 
dace a growth of wool by any application to the skin ; but we all know that some 
dressing must be applied for the preservation of our flocks, without which a diminu- 
tion of wool would evidently take place, consequent upon the health of the 
sheep suffering from annoyance, and from the constant tear and wear of the wool 
from the animal's endeavours to rid itself of its tormentors. Loss of wool may 
also be occasioned by the application of substances hurtful to the sheep, or from 
Vol. I. — No. L— New Series. Januab.y 1865. \^ 



50 SALVING AND DIPPING SHEEP. 

the wool being too thoroughly scoured from the washing nature of the substances 
employed ; and I believe not the least consideration is the improving or deteriorating 
of the quality of the wool. From the prices I have myself obtained at the public 
sales, where, from the competition, wool is likely to meet with a purchaser at its real 
value, I have seen a material difference in the return, consequent upon the materials 
that have been used in dressing. It must, therefore, be a desideratum to produce 
our wools in a condition best calculated for being fabricated into a class of goods 
that will bring out their greatest value. By giving our experience, and stating our 
views on the subject, I consider we, as members of this Society, will be most bene- 
fited by confining our remarks to our own practice ; and allow me here to state that 
what I say will apply more to a regular breeding flock than to skheep merely for feed- 
ing purposes, knowing that others who will take part in this discussion have had 
better opportunities than I have had of arriving at correct conclusions on this part 
of the subject. I mean my remarks also to refer to what suits the district of country 
within our range, which I reckon of medium altitude ; for although our hills rise to 
an elevation of nearly 2000 feet, they cannot be said to be very much exposed, as in 
general we have good natural shelter. Therefore, considering that the greatest bene- 
fit to be derived from smearing is the protection of the sheep in severe weather, I, 
for my part, cannot think that at our elevation there are sufficient benefits to be 
derived from this mode of application to urge its adoption. I am now, after many 
experiments, confining myself entirely to dipping, and have for the last few years 
avoided all compositions containing, as far as I can ascertain, arsenical or mei;curial 
ingredients. When using compositions containing these substances, I am confident 
I had good reasons for believing that my sheep were to some extent injured. I know 
this, that they evidently got broken mouthed sooner than sheep that had been dif- 
ferently treated. I may state, however, that I would not expect that result to show 
itself so much in every case as it does with me, as my hill sheep have a little ten- 
dency to that at any rate, but if it affects them in that way at all, as I have good evi- 
dence for believing, it must, no doubt, to soxjie extent tell upon their constitution. 
I have this autumn dressed the greater part of my sheep with '* M^BougaFs sheep 
dip," and " Girdwood's Melossoon." Having used M'Dougal's dip to some extent 
for some years back, I have reckoned it one of the best dips, although I admit it did 
to some extent discolour the wool. I used the Melossoon as a second dressing to a 
portion of my sheep last winter, and with entire satisfaction regarding the appear- 
ance of the wool, which opinion was corroborated by the fact that the. clip of these 
sheep brought the very highest price in the market. In regard to destroying vermin, 
however, the dressing was not quite satisfactory. In other trials I made during sum- 
mer the results were very much the same. I believe, however, since that time some 
alteration has been made in the composition of the Melossoon, and having dressed 
nearly the half of my flock with it in the beginning of November, I can without 
hesitation say that the result is very satisfactory. A live ked is now scarcely to b© 
seen, the wool is very while, and there is a richness and mellowness in the touch 
which I have not seen equalled from dressing with any other composi^on. I am 
afraid I am taking up too much of your time, but the importance of the subject in- 
duces me to make one or two further remarks upon the permanence in the results of 
our sheep dressings. I believe some of you will agree with me in thinking that we 
have a tendency to be too sanguine. To protect our flocks during the whole time 
they are growing their fleeces, will it not have to be admitted that at least two dress- 
ings ought to be applied to rid them of vermin thoroughly ? I know I have never 
been able to keep the keds in abeyance otherwise. I have found this to be the case 
particularly in my young sheep, and even my regular flock of ewes have been bene- 
fited by receiving a dressing shortly after being clipt, and again during the winter. 
In some experiments I made lately, keds exhibited a tenacity of life very remarkable. 
When performing my dipping I strictly adhered to the instructions given, to keep 
the sheep immersed a full minute. The shepherds engaged in the operation naturally 
thought it tedious, and seemed to think that the vermin would be drowned were they 
simply to be immersed in cold water for such a length of time, but the fact is, they 
will scarcely drown at all. I collected a number, and put them in cold spring water 
for different periods, up to forty-five minutes, and when taken out, although they 
seemed dormant for a time, when brought into contact with heat they began to piove 
about, and were soon as lively as ever. I took from the dipping-trough a bottle of 
the different dips as I used them, and collecting a number of keds, I made several 
trials, to ascertain the killing power of the dips, and also to teat the comparative 



SALVING AND DIPPING SHEEP. 61 

certainty of the destrnction of the keds when subjected to immersion, with or with- 
out being enveloped in wool. In these trials I found the killing power of ' '' M'Dougal's 
dip" and " Gird wood's Melossoon'' nearly equal, and will only give the result of 
experiments with the Melossoon. All the keds immersed up to two minutes in the 
(lip lived when allowed to dry after being taken out, and all enveloped in wool died, 
even down to simple immersion, when allowed to remain in the wet wool afterwards, 
thus proving that sheep with a good quantity of wool may not require to be kept so 
long in the bath as sheep that have been more recently shorn, and that have con- 
sequently little covering of wool ; and it shows also the importance of being care- 
ful to have the whole sheep immersed, so that no portion of the wool may be 
left dry on which keds may find refuge. I do not think that the operation of 
dipping should ever be performed in less than half a minute to each sheep, 
more especially if fatty or oily substances are used. I consider that indepen- 
dently of killing the vermin, the wool softens and absorbs the dip the more the 
longer it is immersed, even up to one minute. In examining sheep that have been 
hurriedly immersed in a bath and pushed through at the rate of eight or ten scores 
in the hour, and comparing them with others that have been kept in th^ bath for 
one minute, a decided difference will be seen. In the one case the yolk no doubt has 
been washed out, but the wool is hard and fibry, and the dip is not absorbed ; in the 
other, the wool is soft and mellow, and exhibits convincing proofs that it has bene- 
fited by the operation. Other ends are also to be served by doing the operation 
fdowly; while the wool softens, the eggs of the keds that are lying loose in the fleece 
escape into the bath in great numbers, which cannot be the case in the same degree 
when the sheep are merely plunged in and out again. More time is also given for 
draining, which, as far as regards the saving of waste, should not be overlooked. 
The draining, fold of my apparatus holds twenty sheep in each division ; these 
divisions are emptied alternately, and I find that when each sheep is kept one minute 
in the bath, the draining is quite efifectual ; scarcely a drop is lost after they leave 
the fold, and I do think there is less loss when the operation is performed in this 
way, than what takes place even when pouring is practised ; and the ingredients of 
the dressing are in my opinion more regularly distributed by thorough dipping than 
by any other mode of application. In drying, the watery portion of the dip evapo- 
rates, while if not too much saponified, its other constituents are absorbed and retained 
by the fleece. I may state that I have found great advantage from having the 
liquid pretty hot, whatever was the nature of the composition used, and have never 
seen sheep injured by too much heat, although I have generally performed the opera- 
tion at the temperature of 100 degs. In closing these remarks, all I would say in 
reigard to sheep that are to be kept for a limited time is, that a dressing that will 
thoroughly kill the keds, and that will prevent or cure scab, and at the same time 
not injure the health of the sheep, or deteriorate the quality of the wool, may be all 
that can be desired for this description of stock; while our regular flocks retained 
to six years of age should have their dressings of a greasy or oily nature, with the 
killing principle devoid of arsenical or mercurial ingredients. In a district 
of moderate elevation the ends desired will be better served by dipping than 
by any other mode of application, believing that the wool may be more improved, 
and its growth more accelerated, by the regular distribution of grease through the 
fleece, tl^ by any mere application to its roots. As far as my experience goes, no 
simple substance will answer all the ends required, and I therefore believe that some 
sort of composition carefully prepared by qualified parties who are provided with the 
necessary arrangements for scientifically combining these substances, is what we 
should support and encourage. Our present duty, in my opinion, is to go hand in 
hand with and encourage those parties who are already providing us with the best 
compositions. We have more than one of our wool brokers who have taken up the 
Babject in the most spirited manner. These parties, it must be allowed, stand in a 
position the most favourable for obtaining a knowledge of what is really required ; 
learning from daily experience what quality of wool suits the manufacturers; they 
have also ready means of knowing the requirements of the farmer, and I for one 
think that, in place of throwing cold water on their exertions, we should, by every 
means in our power, assist and encourage them in what I reckon a most important 
and responsible undertaking. 

Mr MuBBAT, Eastside, said — Were it not that smearing is such a tedious operation, 
a mixture of tarred butter and palm grease would be found to be one of the best 
dressings for sheep in high situations. When butter is very high in price, mixing 



62 SALVING AND DIPPING SHEEP. 

with oil is often resorted to ; but as it keeps the tar from closing the sheds and the 
wopl wet the greater part of winter, the sheep in this case are comparatively out of 
condition in spring, and although the wool weighs heavier, there is not so much of 
it, for I believe that by keeping the sheep warm and comfortable, as well as by 
giving good food, a greater amount of wool can be grown. Mr Wilson is quite right 
in regard to the height of the Pentland Hills, but I differ from him in thinking 
them better adapted for sheep dipping than many other districts. True, they are 
not high, but then the whole of the Lowlands are cut off, leaving little but the hill 
tops compared with many hill ranges both north and south, with their long glens 
running into the rivers' edge, and stretching along their banks for miles. Hence it 
is that sheep -from our district stand so well when removed to higher grounds. 
Dippers should let them know what ingredients they used, and what quantities, as 
sometimes they required to drown the keds ere they could eradicate them. 

Mr Brown, Pentland Mains, said — The subject of smearing, or dipping of sheep, which 
was proposed at last meeting for discussion to-night, is one of great importance, when 
we take into consideration the large increase in the consumption of wool, the many uses 
to which wool is nbw applied, and the enhanced price it has attained the last few 
years. We find from statistics that at the beginning of the present century the im- 
portation of foreign wool amounted to 9,000,000 lb&, and although this has increased 
in 1863 to nearly 60,000,000 lbs., gives us some idea of the prosperity of Great Britain 
and British manufactured goods ; but in a great measure we may attribute the high 
price of wool to a scarcity of cotton caused by civil war in the United States of Ame- 
rica. The system of smearing sheep is now to a large extent done away with, princi- 
pally on account of its tedious process ; but where still practised, the wool being first 
shed, an admixture of tar and butter, or tallow, applied with the fingers along the 
shed, is the common mode. Smearing is found to have largely decreased these last 
three years, chiefly caused by the high price of tar and butter, also the introduction 
of dips designing to effect the same purpose and at a much smaller cost. There are 
many dips now offered to the sheep farmer, all vieing with one another in embellished 
advertisements, and purporting to have the desired effect. In giving a few remarks 
relative to their compositions, it is to me obvious, that unless the sheep intended for 
the application are free from scab or other eruptions of the skin, which may be caused 
by contagion, or arising from overcrowding in railway trucks, or on deck of steam- 
boats, they do not cure or eradicate such eruptions. The principal dips used in this 
district are Wilson's, Bigg's, Elliot's, M'Dougall's, and Girdwood's Melossoon. The 
first three may be nearly classed alike, the poisonous or parasite-killing ingredient 
being arsenic : the latter, prepared I believe by Professor Gamgee, the poisonous in- 
gredient of which is said to be the refuse of paraffin. Many hundreds of sheep have 
been killed in the using of dips such as Elliot's, Bigg's, &c., from an undue caution 
in administering them, especially during warm weather ; I have only to refer you for 
instance to the lawsuit of Black v. Elliot, in 1859, upon which occasion Mr Black 
lost 850 sheep out of 869, by the animals imbibing part of the arsenic or other 
poisonous matter contained in Elliot's sheep-dipping composition. Although the 
evidence in this case was conflictory, it was proved that, unless administered at the 
rate of half an ounce or six drachms of arsenic to a gallon of water, and applied 
during cold weather, it was somewhat precarious. In regard to Girdwood's Melos- 
soon, although it has not been proved dangerous, its effect on parasites and eruptions 
of the skin is akin with the others. The word "melossoon," I believe, is derived 
from a Greek word signifying "lotion to save a sheep;" and in interpreting this I 
would say the word is very well applied, because in many cases where used, the result 
went to prove that although a puncheon of this artificial yolk were applied to one 
sheep, the animal would be as little the worse as on immersion in cold water, and the 
parasites would awake as if from a stupor, brisker than ever. In almost every instance 
where this dip was applied, the sheep were to dip over again with a different solution, 
which was not only aggravating to the owner, but hurtful to the sheep. I will" now, 
in giving my experience in the use of some of these dips, first give an outline of the 
class of sheep to which they have been applied. I usually purchased from two to 
three hundred half-bred wedders from Caithness or Ross-shire, which on arrival in 
August or beginning of September 'are found, from overcrowding on deck of steam- 
boat or railway truck, to be heated in the blood, and showing irritation of the skin ; 
they are usually bathed about ten days after arrival. I ventured two years ago 
firstly to try Bigg's, and afterwards M'Dougall's dip, according to the directions given, 
both of which professed to be a sure eradicator of scab or other eruption of the skin ; 



SALVING AND DIPPING SHEEP. 53 

however^ in less than ten days from application, I found I might as well have applied 
80 mach cold water. Girdwood's Melossoon has never been tried by me, and from 
Batisfactory evidence has little chance in supplying the desideratum. The mixture I 
have used for some years, which when carefully applied has been found to be thor- 
oaghly e£fectual, is composed of 3 lbs. of tobacco paper, 3 lbs. of soft soap, 1^ quart 
of spirits of tar, 4 lb. sulphur, | lb. carbonate of soda, adding 1^ gallon of hot water 
to the score, costing nearly 34d. each sheep. This solution will give the desired 
effect either when poured on or used as a dip. Using the same mixture for my ewes, 
1 found them clip well, and had few ticks upon them at shearing time. In conclu- 
sion, I would remark that many experiments have been tried by English as well as 
Scotch farmers in crossing different breeds of sheep for procuring more wool, which 
ultimately resulted in favour of long-wooUed sheep. As indicative of this, we read 
from Mr Lucock's statistics, showing the average of short- woolled sheep to be 3 lbs. 
4 oz., and that of long-woolled 7 lbs. 10 oz., being fully double the weight in favour of 
long- woolled. But I am fully convinced that the great secret of obtaining most wool 
is not in the application of this or that dip, which no doubt is essential in eradicating 
the animal of parasites, and cleansing the skin of all eruptions ; but in the case of a 
pnre-bred flock or a judicious cross having been effected, a progressive and regularly 
maintained condition of the sheep during winter and spring months up to the shear- 
ing time is the true basis of growing and obtaining either the largest quantity or best 
quality of wooL 

Mr AiNSLiE, Hillend, was of opinion that the flockmaster who seldom changed his 
sheep could do with a dip of far less stringent quality than the man who was prone 
to change. He thought Mr Wilson had made some very pertinent remarks as to the 
dips which were most valuable, and Mr Murray had likewise added considerably to 
their information on the subject. In regard to scab and foot-rot he was aware that 
recently there had been a very great deal of these diseases in boats, railway trucks, 
and even in the Edinburgh market. Indeed, if one continued buying sheep in Edin- 
burgh, he could scarcely keep his place clean. In some instances this year he 
required to dip his sheep twice, and he had used a dip of tobacco paper and spirits of 
tar. It was a very strong dip, however, and several turkeys had died through eating 
on the grass. For feeding stock. Bigg's and Girdwood's he considered the most 
effectual dips. Wilson's, he had found, loosened the teeth of the animals, and he 
thought there was a good deal of arsenic in it. 

A Member said, that until these arsenical dips were used, ewes without their teeth 
were hardly known. 

Mr MuBBAT said he used 1 lb. of arsenic to 53 pints of water, and he found there 
was nothing dangerous about it but in the name. 

Mr QiRDWOOD, Edinburgh, asked Mr Brown if he had tried the dip ? to which he 
replied he had not; when Mr Gird wood expressed himself surprised he should so 
strongly condemn it. At same time, he must admit there had been more com- 
plaints of it than he liked, but it was a new thing — the first year of it, and he had 
no doubt that all difficulties could be got over. Mr Girdwood continued — A great 
many farmers had tried his dip, and it had almost uniformly given the greatest 
satisfaction. In this matter, he felt that it was the farmers' interests that he had 
to serve, it was not for his own benefit So far as regards the quality of the dip, 
nothing would be wanting on his part to make it both efficacious and useful, as he 
was aware, from practical experience, that a great deal of wool was spoiled by dips 
used They could not imagine how much wool came into his stores spoiled in this 
manner. If they used arsenic in their dips, they would not only hurt the skin, but 
to a great extent injure the wool. By all means let them apply a dip that would not 
hurt the animal or wool Mr Girdwood then read a letter he had just received from 
an extensive stock-breeder regarding the efficacy of the dip sent out by him, in which 
the farmer said, " I am glad to say your dip had proved quite successful. I have 
carefully examined the hoggs, and do not find a live ked on them. I attribute the 
failure of the last dipping to the fact of the hoggs being only about half a minute 
instead of a whole minute in the bath." Mr Girdwood proceeded to say that failure 
often took place by the animal not being kept in the dip a whole minute ; a half- 
minute would not do. He complimented Mr Wilson on the details he had given of 
his experience, and it was only by such experience that they could gather informa- 
tion as to what was best to be done. His whole aim was to put the best dip in the 
hands of the farmer, and he would be glad to take any suggestions that experience 
might give. The article he sent out would not only kill keds, but would cure scab, 



54 WHOLESOME AND UNWHOLESOME MEAT. 

although he did not expect the latter would be effected by a simple dipping in it. 
An oily dressing was far better than a watery one, and the expense would not after- 
wards be grudged. Mr M'Lagan of Pumphersfcon had gained 2s. 6d. a head on wool 
by using such a smear. Mr Girdwood concluded by earnestly recommending them 
to abstain from all arsenical poisons, and stating that tobacco juice stained the wool. 
It was not yet a year since they had begun the manufacture of their dip, and it was 
astonishing to know how many had used it. 

Mr Bbown afterwards explained that what led him to his remarks on the dip, was 
when present at a dipping he took some keds off the sheep after being removed from 
the bath, and they became quite lively. 

Mr GiBDWOOD objected to such sweeping remarks from such an experiment, as no 
farmer was going to gather the keds off his sheep after dipping ; and remarked that 
his object was simply to make the dip strong enough, and not to add more of the 
active principle than was actually necessary ; but with the assistance of such farmers 
as Mr Wilson, we would arrive at a perfect dip. 

Mr Brown said, no doubt Mr Girdwood had endeavoured to shew what was con- 
sidered to be the ground-work of a good dip, and that farmers should go hand and 
hand with him in obtaining a successful issue. This may be well for those farmers 
who wish to support Mr Girdwood in forwarding the end in view, and ultimately 
paying 10 or 15 per cent, over cost price. I maintain farmers should experiment 
for themselves, thereby knowing qontents of solution applied, which could either be 
augmented or deteriorated the ensuing season if necessary. For instance, in any one 
season the stockholder could select twenty sheep ; let them be divided into, say five 
lots ; let a solution of arsenic and soft soap be applied to No. 1, spirit of tar and soft 
soap to No. 2, castor oil to No. 3, and Girdwood's Melossoon, or any other dips, to 
Nos. 4 and 5, and carefully to mark the results, which should be the basis for guid- 
ance in after years. The experience thus derived from using a solution, knowing it 
will give the desired effect, at prime cost will accrue a profit to the farmer instead of 
Mr Girdwood*, part of which may be expended, if considered expedient, on artificial 
food for the animal, which will do more to encourage the natural and most essential 
yolk than the external application of artificial yolk. 

The Chairman said he thought dipping was the best mode of dressing. Among 
the various dips which had been tried, Girdwood's was proving a 'very satisfactory 
one, and likely to become a favourite. It should at least get a fair triaL He had 
found that shepherds with a long flock before them frequently did not give the sheep 
a full minute in the dip. Bigg's was, he thought, falliug off, and although M'Dou- 
gall's was good, he thought it injured the quality of the wool. He had no doubt 
they had all derived great benefit from the papers which had been read, and the dis- 
cussion which had followed. The writers had evidently bestowed a great deal of 
labour on the subject. 

Mr AiNSLiE proposed a vote of thanks to Mr Girdwood for the trouble he had 
taken in being present. 

Mr Girdwood replied. 

A vote of thanks to Mr Penman for presiding terminated the proceedings. 



WHOLESOME AND UNWHOLESOME MEAT. 
{From the Lancet.) 

In the current number of a contemporary journal * may be found a lengthy but inter- 
esting report of the trials of some important " diseased meat cases," afi they are 
called, which recently took place in our northern capital. Amongst the witnesses 
for the prosecution were Professor Gamgee and Dr Lettlbjohn, medical officer of 
health, whilst those for the defence included Dr Grainger Stewart, Pathologist to 
the Royal Infirmary, and Dr Alexander Wood. The evidence of some of these 
gentlemen opened a point of argument of such an important character that we 
feel called upon not to let the record of this trial escape the notice of our readers. 
The court was crowded to excess during the trials, which lasted three days, and the 
determination and acuteness of the cross-examining powers of one of the counsel for 
the defence attracted considerable notice. But ihey were all in vain : the charges 
were found to be proved, the carcases were confiscated, and a penalty only not 
inflicted because the cases were the first that had occurred under the new Act. 

* Edinburgh Veterinary Eevitw, December 18G4. 



WHOLESOME AND UNWHOLESOME MEAT. 55 

William Eobb, flesher, and Peter Gardineb, dairyman, were charged at the Burgh 
Court on the 5th and 9th of November with having in their slaughterhouses, 'on the 
29th and 31st of Octobei', the carcases, or parts of the carcases, of cows, unsound, un- 
wholesome, and unfit for human food. These cows, it was asserted by the prosecu- 
tion, had laboured under the epidemic form of pleuro- pneumonia now raging amongst 
cattle ; the Inspector of Markets (Mr Wilson) adding that he thought two " of these 
animiUs had been brought to the slaughterhouse to save them the trouble of dying." 
It was likewise shown that, independent of the disease present in the chest, "the 
meat was dry and clammy" or " soft and flabby ;" that ** numbers of bruises existed 
on the surface " of the carcase ; that ^' the midriif was decomposing ;" that " the flesh 
had a dark appearance, and was inclining to wet," &c. On the part of the defence 
it was admitted that the animals had been slightly affected by, or. were in the very 
early stage of pleuro-pneumonia, but it was maintained that in such condition and at 
such a period no deleterious influence was produced upon the flesh, and that it was 
consequently wholesome and fit to be employed as food. As may be supposed, there 
was abundant evidence, lay and professional, on both sides, to prove just opposite 
states of things. Professor Gamoee asserted that the meat in question was unfit for 
human food, and, said he, " I would not like to eat it myself ; " whilst Dr Alexander 
Wood maintained that there was nothing wrong in the condition of the flesh, and 
rejoined, '' I will eat a beefnsteak off that cow if 1 can get it." Professor Gamoee 
asserted that there was evidence for strongly inclining to the belief that the use of 
the flesh of animals as food which had had pleuro-pneumonia gave rise to colic, 
diarrhoea, and carbuncular affections in man ; and that inflammation of the skin and 
eyes was produced in the Edinburgh slaughterhouses from contact of the septic fluids 
of such animals with those structures in men. On the other hand, Dr Alexander 
Wood expressed the opinion that all such ideas were old women's fables, and said 
that " he would not be there as a witness were it not that he felt it would be the 
greatest calamity that could befall the poorer classes of the city if every carcase 
affected with pleuro-pneumonia were to be condemned. It would raise the price of 
meat so much that it would be unattainable by the lower classes, and then the diseases 
that were produced by the absence of butcher's meat would be found to prevail. It 
was very decidedly his opinion that it was much more likely to be injurious to the 
health of the poor than if the trade were to be allowed to go on in their own way." 
Whilst Dr Littlejohn considered an animal afflicted to the slightest extent with 
pleuro-pneumonia as unfit for human food, Dr Grainger Stewart contended that in 
the early stage of the malady the flesh was not affected. Mr Eobb's cow, whose car- 
case was found by Professor Gamoee to be " obviously that of a diseased animal," 
** soft and flabby," so satisfied Professor Dick that he was led to exclaim, ** I am 
ready to eat a steak off" it just now." " I fancy," said Mr Dtmock, who was cross- 
examining, " you would not give your friends that steak." " Yes," replied Mr Dick, 
** and many of them would lick their lips after it. Many of those who make a work 
about it do not know what diseased beef really is." The old adage, De gustihiLS 
fton est disputandum, will no doubt help us to explain some of the discrepancies of 
the professional and other evidence. What one will tolerate or even enjoy, another 
will instantly repudiate. For ourselves, we must confess, however, that we should pre- 
fer Professor Gamoee and Dr Littlejohn to cater for our mess, rather than Professor 
Dick and Dr Stewart. There is a strong feeling with us that " sticky steaks, inclin- 
ing to wet," with " bluish fat " to them as trimmings, are not model steaks, nor steaks 
of which as jurors we could make "honourable mention." Moreover, we really are 
simple enough to avow the belief that these are just the steaks which might be sup- 
plied by pleuro-pneumonic cattle. 

But, leaving the steak question, let us come to a point which we had mainly in 
view in referring to these trials. From the carcase of Robb's cow, which " seemed to 
me, as far as 1 could judge, perfectly godd," says Dr Stewart, — but which c§.rcase, 
it will be remembered, to the Inspector of Markets, to Mr GAMGEE,,and to Dr Little- 
john at once appeared unwholesome and unfit for food, — " I had certain portions of 
the flesh cut out, and took them with me to the Infirmary to look at them more nar- 
rowly. I put portions of them under the microscope to see if there was any morbid 
appearance, and there was none. .... I dissected a piece of the pleura in three 
parts of the cow, and cut sections of the muscles, and examined them with the 
microscope, and there was nothing but the thickening of the pleura, probably the 
result of inflammatory action ; and the muscular tissue was quite healthy. 1 saw no- 
thing in the flesh of the cow to indicate any unsoundness, and it seemed to me quite 



56 WHOLESOME AND UNWHOLESOME MEAT. 

fit for human food I cannot tell at what stage of the disease the flesh becomes 

affected, but if you show me the flesh, I will tell you whether it is normal or abnormal." 

Again, as respects Gardiner's cows (concerning which Dr Littlejohn, the officer 
of health, observed: " For the last ten years I have examined almost every animal 
that has been condemned in Edinburgh ; a single glance at one of Mr Gardiner's 
animals would have shown that it had been extensively diseased,") the Pathologist to 
the Royal Infirmary remarked that " he had examined the carcases of the two cows in 
question, that he had used the microscope in his examinations, and that he considered 
the flesh was quite sound, wholesome, and marketable ; " and " by the term whole- 
some, I mean tending to promote health.'* 

Whatever may be fir Stewart's qualifications as a microscopist, it is clear to us 
that we should not like to trust him to buy our mutton. In this respect we would 
prefei'rather giving him the ** cold shoulder " than taking it from him. Further, 
we entirely disagree with such a doctrine as would teach that animal flesh which 
under microscopical examination does not betray evident structural change cannot be 
unwholesome ; and such was the opinion of Professor Gamgeb and Dr Littlejohn. 
The formei" stated in his cross-examination that " the microscope could not be of the 
least use in examining the muscles in cases of pleuro-pneumonia. Occasionally the 
flesh that looks most beautiful is bad, for the appearances are often very deceptive ; 
therefore great caution is required in the inspection. Defective nutrition makes the 
muscle pallid and thin.'* The latter witness observed : " I am well acquainted with 
the pathological appearances in the human body, and without such experience 
as I have had during the last ten years, I would be perfectly helpless in giving 
an opinion regarding the cattle of Mr Gardiner. I did not consider it neces- 
sary to subject these animals to microscopic examination, as it would have been a 
mere case of scientific trifling." With these same cows of friend Gardiner, Dr Wood 
was equally delighted. *' There was no trace of any disease whatever having extended 

to the flesh The only methods of examining tissues known to scientific men 

were by the eye and by the microscope. The microscope frequently reveals morbid 
conditions of tissues which the eye fails to observe. No scientific man would call it 
trifling to use the microscope to examine whether the flesh of animals was diseased. 
He had heard it called trifling by flippant people who are ignorant of the use of the 
microscope ; but he had never heard a scientific man say so." 

Dr Alexander Wood will probably admit, however, that the important question at 
issue here is, whether the flesh of an animal used as food may not be positively noxi- 
ous to the consumer, whilst microscopic examination of its muscular tissue shows no 
departure from a normal structural state ; and not whether the microscope may not 
often reveal structural changes imperceptible to the naked eye, and that by it, and 
by it alone, can be detected certain organic lesions which cannot b^ demonstrably 
exposed by any other method. To ridicule the general use of the microscope in 
examining supposed morbid tissues is one thing ; and to maintain that tissues may 
be endowed with certain noxious molecular activities which the microscope cannot 
detect is another thing. We should be amongst the last to do the former, and 
amongst the first to do the latter. The microscope can do much, but not everything. 
It cannot show us any stable and essential structural differences between the pus- 
globules of gonorrhoea, chancre, small-pox, and ophthalmia ; and yet with what dif- 
ferent activities or vital forces are they endowed. Can it point out wherein lies the 
essential difference, structurally, between the poison of the cobra di capello and that 
of curari ? In fine, does not the more advanced science of the day lead us to the 
belief that, speaking generally; every disease must necessarily have been one of func- 
tion before it can have become one of structure ? — that the influence of a vast num- 
ber of poisons— i.e., azotised substances in states of putrefactive alteration — upon the 
blood must be regarded as rather dynamical than material, consisting more in the 
propagation of force than in the introduction or substitution of components ? 
Changes of structure may be detected by the microscope ; forces, except in the struc- 
tural lesions they give rise to, never. True it is that such is the correlation of force 
and matter that alterations of the one would appear necessarily to involve modifica- 
tions of the other. But may not a particular vital force be stored up in a structure 
in a state of tension as it were, and to which no transparency of vision can ever 
penetrate ? Be this as it may, we refuse to accede to the doctrine that flesh-meat 
cannot be unwholesome because the microscope fails to detect any abnormal struc- 
tural state of the muscular tissue. 



BALLANTYME AND CO., PRINTERS, EDINBURGH. 



THE VETERINAEY EEVIEW 

AND 



OBIGINAL COHHUNIGATIONS AND CASES. 



Remarks on Pleuro-Pnevmonia JEpizootica, and its Relations to the 
State of the Foreign Cattle Trade. 1864. By William Robert- 
son, Member of the Scottish Board of Examiners of the Royal 
College of Veterinary Surgeons, Kelso. 

What is intended in the subjoined remarks is not something new 
regarding plenro-pneumonia, either in its nature, development, or 
post-mortem lesions ; with these we are all already conversant. And 
I rather fear, however humiliating may be the confession, that this 
advancement in our knowledge of its nature has not been productive 
of a corresponding advancemejit in the success of our curative treat- 
ment. I am free to confess that a larger percentage of animals re- 
cover than in the earlier days of its appearance; but whether this is 
the direct result of a more rational therapeutic treatment or the mere 
sequel of our more active interference being kept in abeyance, or that 
the disease has in iteelf become altered in type, I will not stay to in- 
quira Rather would I allow what I have to say to be taken as so much 
in proof of the truth of two points in connexion with the disease, and 
these probably the most important because the most practical, and of 
which the longer I am acquainted with it the more I am convinced of 
their verity. First, that pleuro-pneumonia is a highly contagious epi- 
zootic. Second, that we could, by many means, in a few years reduce this 
affection to the minimum both of extent and virulence, could we de- 
liver ourselves from periodic fresh importations of the malady from 
those countries where it seems ever to be in ascendancy. Of the 
truth of these assertions we in the border counties have had addi- 
tional proof, if this were needed, in the prevalence of the epizootic 
and condition of the foreign cattle trade during the year which has 
now closed. These coimties are more properly feeding than breeding 
districts — ^as iregards cattle — and thus we are ever necessitated to 
have additions to our existing stock ; much more frequently than 
others diflFerently circumstanced. It is during the autumn that these 
additions are mostly made, preparatory to the animals being put on 
winter keep ; and it is at this season also that we have our regular 
YoL, I.— No. XL— New Sbbibs. Fibbuabt 1865. R 



58 REMABKS ON PLEUEO-PNEUMONIA, ETC. 

visits of lung disease, or, if already existing, the area of its existence 
is much widened. There are two dates in the history of pleuro- 
pneumonia during the last twelve years in these districts, at which it 
was much more prevalent than it had been for years before, and when 
the cause of this increase was easily and clearly traceable to the presence 
of an extra number of diseased foreign cattle. Those periods were, first, 
dui'ing the latter part of 1848 and beginning of 1849; and, second, 
during the autumn and winter of 1864. It was at the former of these 
dates that I first met with foreign cattle in numbers. They were at that 
time, as also last season, apparently from the Low Countries, mostly 
queys, and of the same colour (white and black.) They would certainly 
have paid the feeder well if they had kept free from disease. Previous 
to their appearance the district was very free from the epizootic. Shortly 
following their location we had a most violent outbreak of the disease, 
which, beginning with the foreign stock, spread to the home-bred 
animals, and was in both cases very fatal. I shall only detail two 
individual outbreaks of the disease at this period, as showing the 
manner of its propagation, and indicating slightly the loss sustained. 

In September 1858, Mr A purchased somewhere about a score 

of foreigners, average specimens of their class. There had been no 
pleuro-pneumonia about his farm for years, nor any that I was 
aware of in those adjoining. His cattle were all in good health when 
the Dutch ones were taken home. For three weeks all went well : at 
this stage one animal was taken ill, and after four days succumbed. 
Post-mortem examination revealed hepatization of one lung, with 
extensive adhesions and fiuid in the thorax; that same week two 
more were seized and terminated as the first. This state of matters 
continued for a month, during which time there were eight deaths from 
this lot of cattle. At this period the remainder were disposed of .No 
treatment had been adopted in any case : I had been simply asked to 
give an opinion as to the nature of the disease. From fourteen days 
to three weeks from the outbreak of the malady amongst the im- 
ported cattle, the first case of pleuro-pneumonia declared itself 
amongst the milch cows in the place. There had been free and 
uninterrupted contact with the former, ever since their arrival, being 
with them daily at the water and in the strawyard; the cow byre is also 
in close proximity to the curtain where the foreign stock was housed. 
February 1859, the disease still continued amongst the stock All 
the cows were affected, and either died or were sold for fear they 
should die. Pleuro-pneumonia has not, during this period, been in 
any of the immediately adjoining farms. 

Case second. Mr B obtains eight foreign cattle. He has 

never had lung disease amongst his stock, which are at present 
healthy. After being on the farm for a few weeks, pleuro-pneumonia 
shows itself, three of this number die, and the malady seems arrested. 
Contrary to my advice, the remaining five are brought to the home- 
stead and placed amongst a lot of store cattle: these were imperfectly 
separated from an adjoining lot of fat cattle. Fourteen days after 



EWirAKKS ON PLEUBO-PNIUMOKIA, BTC. 59 

being brought here the first case of pleura shows itself amongst the 
latter. From that time to midsommer 1859, cases of the disease were 
repeatedly showing themselres in both store and fat cattle. 

No plenro-pnenmonia ocearred at the immediately adjoining farms. 
Veiy much similar in all details to its predecessor has been the 
visit of the epizootic of 1864. During the early part of the summer, 
and for some time previously, there had been Uttle pleuro-pneumonia 
in the district. Not that we were entirely free from the disease, for 
where so many hold stock, some must of necessity be changing and 
importing firesh animals, the liability of which to be diseased is much 
greater than when home-bred. 

About midsummer, the first of a large influx of foreign cattle, 
dmilar to those mentioned as appearing in numbers in 1848, began in 
oar markets. From what I had seen on former occasions, I antici- 
pated a fresh outbreak of pleuro-pneumonia amongst, at least, the new 
importations, and was not disappointed. Of the very numerous lots 
disposed of, I do not think there was one which has proved free from 
the disease ; although one dealer, in his seeming confidence of their 
soundness, gave many a guarantee of their immunity from the 
disease for six months. Many who invested in these animals lost * 
sefoely. Most, if not all, were first affected with the foot and mouth 
disease, and some were a considerable time ere pleuro-pneumonia 
showed itself amongst them. There is one point worthy of remark 
in reference to this last outbreak, which is, that it has not extended 
in the same degree as its predecessors to other stock than those with 
which it originated : this I believe may be accounted for by knowing 
that greater care had been taken than formerly to keep the foreign 
stock separate from the home-bred. Still, even when confined to 
the stock purchased, the loss has been considerable, the deaths in 
many cases amounting to one-fourth, at which point the remainder 
were removed — ^to where and with what result I am not able to state. 
This stock I believe were this season mostly landed at the port of 
London, and forwarded to our Border markets by rail ; but the evil 
does not stop with contaminated railway carriages ; the damage is in- 
definitely extended over the district from the travelling along and 
resting upon our country roads, to accommodate our local fairs and 
weddy markets. The fences separating our fields from the parish 
and turnpike roads are seldom or never sufficient to prevent animals 
Irisurely passing along the latter having direct contact with such 
stock as may be pastured in the fields adjoining. Now I am not of 
the opinion that our breeders or feeders of stock are indifferent to the 
eonsideration of this scourge. I rather suspect, could they be canvassed, 
there would be few dissenting voices to the assertion, that of all 
affoetions incident to cattle, pleuro-pneumonia is the one they have 
most to dread. To be indifferent to its consideration is to be indifferent 
to their own interests. More meat and more manure is certainly the 
cry which is heard loudest from the ablest of our agriculturists — ^thoaa 
whose eyes are open to the requirements of the day. 1\i^ ^to^w^^'Ql 



60 RKMARK3 ON PLKUEO-PNEUMONIA, ETC. 

of grain is, and has been for some time, a matter of secondary im- 
portance. The most approved methods whereby the greatest amount 
of beef and mutton may be produced from a given number of acres, 
have by far the best chance of gaining a hearing from our British 
farmers. In truth, we seem but to be in the infancy of our know-, 
ledge and appliances in much that concerns the feedmg of animals. 
I have ever thought that it is an extremely hard condition that the 
man who is so smartly treated, if attempting to dispose of his ox, 
which has become a victim of pleuro-pneumonia, should receive so 
little assistance from that same law which pimishes, in the protection 
of his stock from the influence of disease. More, that it is decidedly 
unfair to permit the dissemination of diseased cattle over the entire 
country, and then punish those who, from no fault or mismanage- 
ment of their own, are endeavouring to make the most of a misfortune. 
I do not put this forward as a plea for the trafiic in diseased animal 
food, but merely state the case as it may be viewed by any one from 
an imprejudiced point of view. Nor can I understand, on the other 
hand, how our stockowners have been so apt to fancy that those who 
have approached this subject with a view to a calm investigation of its 
causes and remedy were so many bitter foes leagued against their in- 
terests. No doubt, in the consideration of this question there are many 
difficulties ; but why should these be deemed insurmountable ? An 
inspection of imported cattle, it is understood, does exist ; but it is 
evidently worthless for the accomplishment of the end in view. Nor 
will any mere inspection ever succeed much better. The most that 
any inspection, without some quarantine, can accomplish is the 
detection and detention of the actually diseased ; but in how many 
instances are animals passed as sound in which the disease is latent, 
not to be developed in obvious symptoms for many weeks, and under 
favourable circumstances ? Doubtless, many will say, we may as well 
prohibit the importation of foreign cattle as establish a quarantine 
sufficient to guard against the contamination of pleuro-pneumonia. 
I doubt it ; but if it should be so, rather let us have no importation 
of live stock than have the periodic outbreaks of this direful scourge, 
as we have already experienced them. For there are considerable 
doubts if we do not lose more stock from this one disease alone 
than aU the animals we import. And while remarking on this, I 
have much thought upon the value of statistics bearing on the point 
at issue ; for I am sure, if their collection were instituted in a proper 
manner, and by some body in whom the stockowners of this country 
have confidence, the desired information would be most readily given. 
Much has been said on this subject of pleuro-pneumonia in all its 
bearings, I am aware ; and much expressed, more strongly than wisely. 
Many deny its contagious nature entirely ; and others there are who 
as completely exonerate those animals we have referred to from any 
share in its propagation. K my memory serves me correctly, I fancy 
that one gentleman, a large live stock-agent and extensive importer of 
foreign cattle, gave it as his experience, when examined before the 



VSTEBINABT BEOOBDS. 61 

parliamentary committee lately, that he never had seen a case of 
plenro-pneumonia amongst foreign cattle, referring, I believe, to the 
very Dutch animals we have noticed. How this can be I am at a loss 
to understand. 

I cannot see how any amount of individual and associated exertion 
will ever perceptibly reduce the mortality in stock so long as the 
indiscriminate importation and distribution over the country of 
cattle afflicted with pleuro-pneumonia is allowed. It is from our 
legislature that we must look for any assistance worth being enter- 
tained; while it may not be far distant when even this question 
will h^ forced on the consideration of government, however unwillingly 
— ^forced on them, because in it is involved much of the solution of 
another;, and more readily understood as important — How is our 
increasing population to find a suitable and pecuniarily reasonable 
supply of animal food ? 



Veterinary Records. By G. Armatage, V.S. to the Marchioness 
of Londonderry. 

TUBEECULOSIS, ACCOMPANIED WITH EXTENSIVE CHRONIC DISEASE 

IN A COW. 

A FINE bred, attenuated-looking, short-horn cow, having been put to 
feed, and moderate progress made during the succeeding two months, 
on Sunday, 13th March, of the present year, was reported unwelL 

Symptoms. — Pulse 105, small, weak, and compressible, felt only to 
advantage at the brachial artery. 

Horns, ears, and extremities cold as clay ; mouth hot, nose dry. 
There are indications of acute internal pain, — e.g,, head protruded, 
mouth open, tongue hanging loose, drivelling of a ropy saliva from 
the lower jaw ; protruded^ blood-shot eyes, and general wild appear- 
ance. A long groan is uttered, which terminates in a spasmodic in- 
spiration, and hard, dry, painful, convulsive cough. 

Considering it probable that a piece of turnip supplied to the 
animals had become lodged in the oesophagus, within the thorax, the 
probang was passed, which let off a small quantity of gas, and 
afforded temporary relief, symptoms, however, speedily being re- 
established. 

The rumen was found to be moderately filled with food, and as felt 
in the flank, the contents, although stiff, were compressible, but no 
distention from gas had taken place, nor did pressure on the viscus 
induce pain. 

The third stomach could not be felt even after prolonged and 
repeated examination, which dispelled the idea of its being im- 
pacted 

A farther examination at this juncture was prevented b^ m^ \iw\w.^ 



62 YETEBINABY BECOBDS. 

an urgent call I left the assistant to make up and administer the 
following : — 

5^ Magnes. Snip., §• x. vj. 
Hydrarq. Chlor., 3. ji. 
01. Crotonis, gutt. xxx. 
Zingib pulv., |. ij. 
To be given in warm ale, and succeeded in two hours by a dose of 
ammon. carb. 

After the second dose, which followed the first at an interval of four 
iours, the pulse was reduced to 84, being fuller and stronger, with a 
slight diminution of all the other symptoms. , 

On auscultation, the lungs appeared pervious, but the action upcm 
the contained air evidently depended upon some other causes tiian 
pressure from the rumen and its contents; each expiration being 
completed by a slow and careful process, accompanied by the peculiar 
groan of suffering, which rendered this mode of examination much 
more diflBcult to prosecute with exactness, and rarely possible except 
during an inspiration. 

Percussion favoured the idea of adhesion, a heavy dull sound being 
emitted on the right side. On the succeeding morning, the 14th, the 
bowels, which had exhibited great irregularity in their functions, now 
gave indications of being imder the influence of the medicines ad- 
ministered, copious streams of a dirty straw-coloured fluid coming 
away in rapid succession, without the least pain or tenesmus, but on 
the contrary, rather passively than otherwise. The pulse is 84, fuller 
and soft ; less power, and a greater equalisation of temperature, and 
other symptoms as before. Throughout the day, after oft-repeated 
visits, up to the latest hour at night, no improvement of importance 
has taken place beyond what has been related. 

She drinks but little, hay tea being allowed ; and in the way of food, 
hay only would be consumed, and in quantities which I considered 
prudent to withhold, and allow only small portions of the best. 

The stimulant medicine ordered to be continued every six hours. 

J.5tk — No change ; symptoms as before — no fermentation from the 
contents of the rumen. The continued fluid evacuations, which escape 
from the small intestines, induced me to form the opinion that the 
medicine administered was passing off without entering the first 
stomach. 

How far I was correct in this supposition, will be apparent from 
one or two facts to be noticed. 

The peculiar groan, and convulsive sob-like accompaniments, 
aroused an ardent curiosity within me, and I earnestly sought for a 
conclusive explanation. The chest was again searchingly explored, 
the soimds emitted from which were considerably interfered with by 
the expiratory groan, and inspiratory gasp as before. 

Percussion revealed nothing more than previously over the thoracic 
regions ; but when carried backwards on the left side on the superior 
arch of the ribs^ symptoms of pain were manifest, which increased in 



VETEEINAEy EECOBDS. 63 

proportion to the amonnt of force used, and producing at each time 
the hard, dry, convulsive, — in fact purely diaphragmatic — cough, and its 
general accompaniments, the painful excitement, which took consider- 
able time to subside. 

In following the spine forwards, and the arches of the ribs on the 
right side, the effects of each blow would be strikingly apparent as far 
as the shoulders, particularly when the closed fist was used. 

During a lengthened examination of my patient, and rigorous in- 
terrogation of tiie cow-mau, I learned, as I thought, new facts. As 
the effects of percussion were mostly witnessed over the hepatic 
region^ I considered it most probable the liver was involved in chronic 
disease, and the cough a result of nervous disturbance, — a conclusion 
which appeared to account for the greater effects of pressure from 
the rumen, which has not undergone any change in its general 
characters, nor of that state or appearance to justify the adoption of 
surgical means for the removal of its contents. 

The animal had rapidly lost flesh; and as the hope of cure was far 
distant, she was looked upon more as an object about which some 
useful information was to be gleaned, than capable of affording much 
satisfaction from a line of treatment, the accuracy of which would be 
in a great measure questionable. 

I meref ore spent several hours in the byre during the day, eagerly 
watching the symptoms, my attention being particularly drawn to 
the action of the bowels. 

I noticed, or thought I did, on entering the byre, that linseed and 
other matters pass which had only been administered the previous 
evening. Accordingly, to test the correctness of the supposition, 
necessary precautions were instituted, which resulted in collecting 
small quantities of hay which had scarcely experienced the effects of 
digestive action, together with linseed and unground carraway and 
aniseeds, given with the powders of ammonia, by the assistant only, 
as before observed,, the day previous. I' now also concluded some 
impediment existed at the entrance to the rumen ; but remembered 
the ease with which the probang passed in the first instance. It was 
however again used, when pain was plainly observed to be produced, 
both on entering the organ as well as during its withdrawal, the bulb 
being plugged with froth, mucous, and masticated sour food, totally 
unlike any that had come away by the intestines. 

The propriety of removing the contents of the rumen was again 
discussed in my mmd, as much with a view of exploration, and con- 
firmation of my opinion, as anything else, but overruled by reigning 
powers. Instead, a severe blister was applied over the arches of the 
ribs, and a dose of cathartic medicine given, — the base being sodii 
chloridum, followed by acid, hydrochlor. with extr. tarraxaci. 

16th. — ^The blister has not acted so well as its composition, 
ol lyttse, c. oL crotonis, suggested it should have done. The 
bowels have acted inordinately, and shortly after the drench being 
administered. 



64 VETEEINAKY RECORDS. 

Thirst is excessive ; the rumen evidently not affected in the least, 
and seeds given in the drench yesterday evening, coming away in 
the copious fluid evacuations. 

The pulse rose to 130 by the 18th, and all symptoms increased 
in severity. Ammon. carb. was again resorted to, which speedily 
gave relief and brought down the pulse to 84, indicating great 
regularity, but having a peculiar vibration or rhythm succeeding 
each beat. 

Greatest relief being afforded by this stimulant, it was continued 
every six hours ; each day now showing the animal was gradually 
becoming rapidly nearer her end. 

On the 24th, further treatment was discontinued, as the mouth 
and fauces shewed the effects of the ammonia, and considered to 
augment the sufferings of the animal 

Late on the night of the 25th or morning of the 26th, she died, 
evidently without a struggle. 

During this protracted case the pulse never fell below 84, nor 
assumed any greater tone or volume than at first ; and the respira- 
tion was never hurried, although symptoms of oppression were evi- 
dent. The temperature of the body and extremities, if stimulants 
were not persisted in, would rapidly fall, and become intense. 

The animal would lie down occasionally, but not for any great 
length of time, the act of changing her position being attended 
with great pain, the convulsive cough and groan being produced 
in all their painful severity, which lasted some time, particularly at 
the close of the case. 

The bowels continued throughout to pass a thin fluid, in which 
from time to time were found the various articles given but shortly 
previous to that: as matters thus progressed, and various conditions 
accurately noted, the conviction that some extensive disease was going 
on within became stronger, — the precise nature of which, however, 
from symptoms ambiguous in their character, or otherwise modified 
by co-existent circumstances, I could not determine. 

On the 26th, an examination of the body was made. 

Externally the animal has wasted much ; the parotid and con- 
tiguous glands, which have increased in size within the past forty- 
eight hours, becoming painful to the touch, are now very plainly 
visible. 

Internally much adipose tissue is present, particularly on the 
rumen and intestines. 

The former viscus was not over-distended, and contained a fair 
quantity of masticated hay and ground com. The latter had been 
supplied up to her iUness; the whole of which was rolled together 
in one complete mass, firmly adherent by means of the secretions of 
the stomach. 

The spleen was but little altered in structure ; one-half, however, 
was attached to the rumen by adventitious membranes. 

The liver was found to be in a most extreme state of disorganisa- 



VETEBINABT BECOBDS. 65 

tion^ scarcely a particle of its natural structure being recognisable : 
in parts, of a grayish-red colour, condensed, or otherwise congested, 
and its tissue in a state bordering on gangrene. 

It was considerably altered in shape, and firmly adherent to the 
diaphragm by a mass of tubercular deposit in the form of a multi- 
tude of knotty enlargements. The gall bladder was dilated, and con- 
tained about a pint of dark green fluid. 

When the liver was removed, it weighed 331bs. 

The lungs were attached to the right side of the chest, bottom, 
whole course of the spine, and diaphragm by a similar adventitious 
product to that found between the liver and diaphragm, which also 
lay in very large quantities around the trachea, within the thorax, 
bronchia, oesophagus, down to the stomach and base of the heart. 
The substance of the lungs was pervious, but emphysematous, darker 
in colour than natural, and mottled. Between the lobes lay a large 
pillar of tubercular matter, extending their whole length. 

The heart was larger than natural, ventricles dilated, and atrophied 
in their walls ; each cavity and the arteries for some distance being 
filled with a clot of coagulated blood. 

The thoracic viscera, with the diaphragm, from which they could 
not be fully dissected, weighed 75 pounds. 

Tracing the course of disease along the spine from the liver pos- 
teriorly, it was found to involve the eras of the diaphragm, and 
connected with a large ovoid tumour, weighing 51bs., embedded in 
fat, anteriorly to the right kidney, and contiguous to the liver and 
^sophagean canal. 

This body was enclosed in a covering of peritoneum ; blood vessels 
were seen to enter, and when cut, it was found to be composed of 
cells filled with blood, undergoing changes, some containing a yellow 
matter not unlike pus, others a stiff, deep yellow, pasty substance of a 
cheesy consistence. 

The right kidney was double its natural size, emphysematous, 
disorganised, and contained froth only; in fact it resembled cellular 
tissue more than any other thing, and weighed 3lbs. and half an ounce. 
Left kidney of great size, but apparently healthy, weighed 51bs. and 
half an oimce. Tumours, varying in size from a horsebean to that 
of a cricket ball, occupied the course of the oesophagus to the rumen, 
containing a deep ochre-coloured matter, of a cheesy consistence, with 
calcareous admixtures. 

The cuticular coat of the rumen peeled off easily. The contents 
of the second, third, and fourth stomachs were mostly fluid, and 
contained linseed and aromatic seeds given during her illness. The 
maxillary, sublingual, and parotid glands contained the same cheesy- 
looking matter, which was found in other parts described, in large 
quantities, the principal structure being absent in greater part. 

Memarks, — I have purposely given in minute detail the particu- 
lars of this highly interesting case: and little remains for me to add 
by way of comment. 



66 VETERINARY RECORDS. 

The general appearance of the animal from the first convinced me 
that her constitution was not of the most perfect ; and my opinions 
were freely expressed as to her being decidedly of a scrofulous nature. 

Formerly she was owned by a person who carried on a dairy of 
nineteen or twenty cows in the city of Durham, and about two years 
ago was purchased at a sale of the whole, when the establishment 
was broken up, by a small farmer in our neighbourhood, and the 
animal was still used for milking purposes. 

She is said to have been in very fair condition when purchased, 
and continued so for two years, up to the time of her removal to our 
feeding byre. Here she was supplied with the best of food ad libitum, 
and appeared to make very great progress ; but her high state of 
breeding, delicate form and organization, had doubtless suffered not 
a little from the extreme differences of treatment to which she had 
been subjected, first in the city dairy, and afterwards in the poor 
farmer's byre, — states as widely different from each other as it is pos- 
sible to imagine, added to which the high stimulating diet and 
heated atmosphere of a feeding place in which twenty-four others 
were tied up, and proper principles of ventilation not thoroughly 
carried out. 

The contents of the rumen after death clearly showed that no 
additions had been made to them since the commencement of her 
illness ; as, notwithstanding that extreme doses of purgative medicine 
had been given, and large quantities of fluid had passed through the 
gullet, with admixtures which could not be mistaken, not a particle 
could be found in that organ ; nor had the contents been in the least 
degree moistened by any fluids given. The only conclusion which I 
can give for this unnatural condition is, that the tumour, — which 
measured about seven inches in its long, and four and a-half in the 
short axis, imbedded in a large mass of fat anterior to the right kidney 
— had interfered with the passage of food or medicines to the rumen 
by direct pressure ; for, in turning over the viscus before removal, 
that portion of the stomach where the oesophagus enters, came into 
direct apposition with the mass of fat in which the tumour and 
emphysematous kidney were found. 

Probably, also, the diseased condition of the outer part of the oeso- 
phagus, extending to the canal and pillars, would also minister to a 
great extent to the occurrence by an effect upon the muscular fibres, 
as well as the condition of the organ itself under the influence of the 
contents. 



VENTRAL HERNIA IN A FOAL. By the Same. 

I WAS called on the 8th of September 1856, about 6 A.M., to see a 
foal about four months old, which had been injured in its endeavours 
to jump a wall, across which it was firmly arrested, and found in that 
position. 



YETESIKABY BEOOBDS. 67 

The yoimg creature stands with an anxious expression of counte- 
nance. There is occasional internal pain, with a desire to stand 
stretching and putting the hind legs widely apart ; respiration acce- 
lerated slightly, penis considerably elongated, and hanging near the 
ground ; t£e glands being partially protruded from a side opening, but 
evidently not under such pressure as to cause inconvenience. In a 
short time urination was effected without difficulty. 

The tumified parts hang within a few inches of the ground, but 
are not hot or tender ; when pressure is applied no diminution takes 
place, and resembles a bladder moderately distended with air. 

The animal was cast by means of two halters placed on his back, 
and during a stru^le the tumour disappeared entirely ; but all en- 
deavours to find the opening through which the intestines had pro- 
truded were fruitless. I endeavoured to pass my hand up the rectum, 
but failed from the size — my patient being about ten hands high, — 
to obtain any actual information as to the situation of the rupture. 
He was allowed to rise, when it returned in a short time, but not so 
large as before. A dose of cathartic medicine was given, and after 
failing to adjust a temporary pad to prevent the reappearance of the 
hernia, left to procure one specially, if possible, adapted to the purpose. 

Next day I had him again cast, with the same result as before, 
— bowels have acted well, and the animal looks himself. 

Still being unable to detect the real seat of rupture, the pad which 
had been constructed could not be made of service. When my 
patient was cast the tumour disappeared ; but when allowed to rise 
with the apparatus adjusted, I was again disheartened to see the 
tumour slowly develop itself, but not quite so largely as before. 

The creature being very passive from frequent previous handling, 
he would allow the owner and his son to place him on his side, or lift 
him up, without struggling, which materially facilitated the examina- 
tions and endeavours to adjust the pad, with a view of producing 
pressure to the opening. 

At this time I had the assistance of a professional friend and 
college companion, who, like myself, was compelled to arrive only at 
a conjecture as to the probable situation of the orifice. The hind 
legs were raised by litter, tumour reduced and pressure once more 
applied ; and all appeared to go tolerably well until the 20th, when, 
after exhibiting signs of abdominal pain — ^for some hours, for which 
homely and other remedies at hand were applied without afibrding 
relief — I was again called in sufficient time to witness the act of 
vomition, which shortly preceded death. An examination of the 
body took place next day at noon. 

After the skin was removed, the sheath of the penis was slit open 
and penis turned backwards. That portion nearest the abdomen, 
which had been forced downwards with the intestines, to which it 
had formed the sac, was found to be very loosely attached to the 
JEMchia above, and an interposition of effosed lymph and changes 
bordering on gangrene, having proceeded to some extent. 



68 VETEEINAEY EECOEDS. 

About midway from the extremity of the sheath anteriorly, to the 
pelvis posteriorly, was a longitudinal slit in the linea alba, which was 
partly closed by the products of inflammation. 

On opening this orifice with the scalpel, the same signs of disease 
extended along obliquely towards the left flank, for the space of 
several inches, terminating in a second opening in the oblique muscles 
of the abdomen and faschia transversalis. 

A knuckle of intestine occupied this orifice, to which it had be- 
come imited in the process of inflammation, from which the act of 
vomition had undoubtedly arisen. 

In looking at the size of each orifice, it surprised me much that 
so large a tumour could have been developed, particularly when the 
intestines had to make such an indirect course. This also will ac- 
count for the fact that it was irreducible when the animal was stand- 
ing, and go far to explain why the openings could not be detected. 
The penis and sheath also, with the connecting cellular tissue which 
is met with in this part, and the rupture being indirect, or only 
through one portion of the parieties, while the other was left to act 
as a covering, were also obstacles to a complete diagnosis. 

However complete an opinion might have been formed, when 
acted upon, there were grave impediments in the way of operating 
successfully. 

If the first or outer woimd beneath the penis had been detected 
and closed, still the internal wound, through muscles torn extensively 
and irregularly, yet not affording a larger orifice than would admit 
a couple of fingers, would offer such obstacles, that if even the after 
descent of the intestines were provided against, peritonitis, and union 
of the various parts by the resulting inflammation, would probably 
have resulted. In fact, the internal wound was attended with exten- 
sive laceration of muscular fibre and destruction of vitality in the 
parts, sloughing having commenced. 

The pulses, as would be expected, during the life of the patient, 
continued at a great height ; but otherwise, little could be observed 
that was wrong, until the day before death, when the appetite was 
completely gone ; symptoms, however, throughout, not being of that 
urgent character that the nature of the injury would have led one to 
believe. 



VENTRAL HERNIA IN A DOG : OPERATION AND CURB. By the Same. 

Shortly after the foregoing case had come under my notice, a 
young dog, of the mastiff breed, was brought to me, vnth a large, 
soft, elastic, reducible tumour in the right hypochondriacal region, 
extending under the skin of the thigh almost to the hock joint. 

The animal was about nine or ten months old, and attained a toler- 
able size, VTith large limbs, and bid fair to become of great power, — 
in fact, akeady a good weight for the young man who carried him. 



YETEBINABY RECORDS. 69 

I was told he had been ran over by a cab in the morning ; since when 
he had been continually lying in a comer, or any place out of reach, coiled 
up very closely. His appetite was absent, and he was very feverish. 

I had the jaws firmly secured by a coil of tape, and the animal 
held lying on a table : the head and fore limbs by one assistant, the 
hind 1^ by another. The sac formed by the skin only was then 
opened by a scalpel, and the incision afterwards carried, with greater 
freedom, a sufficient length to enable the muscles beneath to be 
secured, — ^the rupture in which proved to be about four and a half 
inches long, in the direction from the stifle joint to the symphgsis 
pubes, thus allowing a great quantity of the intestines to escape,, 
which were held by the skin, as it was separated from the muscles of 
the thigh, formii^ a tumour larger than the closed fist. 

As the animal was placed on his back, the intestines fell back 
within the abdomen; and when the sac was opened they were fully 
exposed to view. 

The edges of the muscles were drawn together by strong thread 
sutures, deeply inserted, the end of which was left hanging from the 
external wound. 

The skin was united by pins and the twisted suture. 

Purgative medicine was administered, and an outward application 
provided, and the animal was carried away. Proper instructions 
were also furnished for the domestic treatment of my patient, with a 
request that he should be shown to me again in a day or two, if 
alive ; for I must say I had many doubts as to the successful issue of 
this case. Previous to his departure, I had been informed this 
animal belonged to a butcher, but when, I could not remember ; and 
after several days elapsed without again seeing him, reproached my- 
self for extreme carelessness, feeling chagrined and disappointed. 
Weeks passed, and I then felt convinced that he was " no more." At 
length months, in the lapse of time, assured me such must be the 
case ; and he was almost forgotten when, one day, more than a year 
following, turning from a shop window into which I had been look- 
ing, I heard a growl of dissatisfaction which proceeded from a 
large and ponderous dog, not unlike what I had pictured my young 
patient to become. I felt a desire to have him examined then and 
there ; but his face presented a forbidding look. My next determi- 
nation was to watch him to his home ; for it could not be far dis- 
tant,— the locality seemed to be his territory. 

Ultimately the owner, who did not know me, observing my move- 
ments from his shop door, inquired, "2>o you know that there dog?" 
I replied, I thought we had been previously acquainted, and detsuled 
my belief that he had been tmder my care for rupture, which turned 
out to be the case. 

We adjourned to the shop ; and after being turned up, I could not 
find any other signs of the previous injury ^n a thickening in the 
situation of the external wound. The owner said he never took any 
notice of the dog after he was brought home ; fox, ou Ykedxuv^ >^ 



70 VETERINAEY EECOEDS. 

account from the young man of the operation, left it to his care, 
feeling conyinced that he could not recover. 

Being a great safeguard to the premises, he was now valued, and 
came under my notice for a skin affection on two occasions after- 
wards. 

EXOMPHALUS, OE UMBILICAL HERNIA. By the Same. 

A BAY filly, two years old, by " Orlando," out of " Clementina," the 
property of the (fifth) Earl of Jersey, Middleton Park, was the sub- 
ject of the above affection ; and my advice regarding the possibility 
of its removal was sought on August 7, 1858. 

The tumour, which was of the size of a cricket ball, possessed all 
the characters of umbilical hernia, which, after reduction, exposed 
an orifice in the subjacent tissues capable of allowing the passage of 
the middle finger, and during the preceding two months, had evi- 
dently increased in size. 

In a conversation with his Lordship, it was ultimately decided 
that, previous to any operation being instituted, which would neces- 
sitate the use of the hobbles, — a proceeding, I was informed, there 
was great reason to defer, if possible, — pressure should be tried. As 
the animal was intended for sale shortly, reduction by this means 
was to be preferred. 

With this view, a pad of stout leather, heart-shaped, with a contact 
surface of chamois leather, was placed on the tumour, and secured in 
its position by flank strops to a kind of crupper, — all being brought 
to, and deriving their security from, a stout circingle in front. 

This was worn for three months, when it was left off; and no re- 
appearance of the tumour having taken place, the animal was sold, 
and I lost all traces of her. 

Although pressure in this instance was productive of results quite 
satisfactory, I am of the opinion that reductions and permanent 
closure of the orifice which occasions these hernial tumours in young 
animals is much more effectively, and in less time, insured by the 
application of clams, enclosing a fold of skin, — ^pressure being ex- 
erted thereon by screws, so as to remove a portion, by destroying the 
vitality in the parts, and setting up adhesive inflammation beneatL 

During the years of 1858, '59, and '60, I operated in this manner 
on some scores of colts and fillies, most of which were traced to be 
the progeny of a stallion similarly affected, used by a great many of 
the agriculturists of the locality ; and I do not know of a single case 
in which the plan was not successful 

The clams I use are made of iron, ab^ut six or seven inches long, 
having a hole at each end, through which a screw works, to draw up 
the opposite half. The flat sides, which come together, are counter- 
parts of each other, — i.e., one is provided with a groove throughout its 
entire length, into whidi a piece of wire, riveted into the opposite 
half, accurately fits. 



VBTBEINAEY BBCOEDS. 71 

These being applied, the screws tnrned to draw them together, the 
parts soon ei£ibit signs of separation, and generally drop off in four 
<» five days, leaving little to be seen, particularly when care is exer- 
cised to place them on in the direction of the linea alba. 

An old cow-leech, who had a grudge against me for being success- 
ful in these cases, wagered with a farmer that he could operate more 
skilfully, and, of course, more successfully, by another method pecu- 
liarly his own. Accordingly, a colt which had been shown to me for 
die purpose of being operated upon was turned over to him, and cast 
by the rope. Two stout needles were inserted in a crucial manner 
through the tumour held in his left hand, and strong waxed cord 
firmly twisted and drawn round the skin above the needles, close to 
the abdomen. The colt was released, and declared to be neatly done 
by Mr Bloodstick, for which he received the substantial fee of ten 
shillings. In the evening I was called to see the colt, which was 
now affected with gripes (?) I could not convince the owner that the 
needles were at fault, but persisted in removing them. The animal 
died, notwithstanding, before morning, and the post-mortem appear- 
ance fully confirmed my accusations. The old man afterwards 
gathered courage to inquire if I would allow him to look at " them 
ere things," as he now considered them to be superior in safety to his 
needles. I, however, warned him not to be so sanguine as to the 
truth of tbat statement, as the intestines might be enclosed within 
their grasp as well as taken up by needles. A pair of these clams 
were forwarded to him shortly afterwards, but I never heard of his 
having had an opportunity of using them. 



SUPEENUMBEAEY POEE-LEG IN A FOAL ; OPERATION FOR REMOVAL. 

By the Same. 

The subject of the present description was a fine colt of the cart 
breed, about four months old, which had been foaled with b, fifth foot 
and phalanges, for the removal of which my advice was sought in the 
month of June 1861. 

Description. — The adventitious member was situate upon the inner 
side of the near fore-leg, and possessed a well-formed hoof, ossa coronae, 
08 suffraginis, and rudimentary metacarpal bone, which branched 
from the larger and natural bone about two and a half or three inches 
above the fetlock joint ; it was altogether less than the natural limb, 
and reached within two inches of the ground as the animal stood. 
Although the whole were perfectly mobile, principally by virtue of the 
joints of the major and minor pasterns, and secondarily, at its point 
of origin it was not imder the control of muscular power, — states 
favourable for total removal, which was decided to be effected at the 
first opportunity. Succeeding this arrangement, however, I was un- 
usually and persistingly engaged in a totally opposite direction with 
others, more urgent cases, which delayed the operation about* lovvt 



72 VETEEINABY EECOED& 

weeks, when, meeting the owner, I learned that the extra foot, &c., 
was becoming troublesome, which hastened my visit for taking it oflf. 
By this time a change had come over the parts. As the yomig crea- 
tm-e gambolled around the dam, irritation was set up by the tall rye- 
grass of the pasture, and contact with the opposite limbs ; the hoof 
was now absent, and the coverings of the ossa coronse and part of the 
OS suffraginis were partially sloughed off, and the whole appeared to 
be exquisitely sensitive. 

I had them removed to the stables, where the colt was secured, and 
led out upon the straw. He was then cast upon the near side by a 
couple of halters, and the three unaffected limbs firmly secured and 
held by an assistant. I next secured the affected limb by a stout 
halter, which was drawn round an iron bar driven into the litter 
several inches, both given to the charge of a second person, whilst a 
third son of Agricula took possession of the head. 

A strong ligature was passed round the leg below the knee. An 
incision was then commenced through the skin at the inner and lower 
point of attachment, and carried upwards, terminating at the upper 
centre, forming one-half of an elliptic ; a similar action being effected 
upon the opposite side, which completed, blood-vessels of importance 
were visible, and as many secured before division as possible. Further 
dissection to the point of origin of the small and rudimentary with 
larger and metacarpal bone, with the securing and elision of vessels, 
was continued, when a strong scalpel was selected for passing through 
the semi-osseous metacarpal at its origin, parallel with the larger one, 
in which I succeeded perfectly. 

The common integument was now brought together, and secured 
by the twisted suture, and presented a most satisfactory appearance; 
when the animal was released, a laxative administered, turned into a 
loose building with the dam, where they were supplied with green 
food, and the parts regularly dressed with tinct. arnic. mont. dilut. 

In a few days the sutures came away, the parts healed rapidly and 
successfully, and in twelve months afterwards scarcely any signs 
remained to indicate that an abnormal condition had ever existed. 

Remarks. — In the January number of the Veterinarian for 1859, 
there is an account of a similar case by Professor Vamell, of the 
Eoyal Veterinary College, London, for which an operation was per- 
formed, with these differences, however — the adventitious member 
in his case was upon the off fore-foot, and it was divided at the 
pastern joint. Now I may be considered worthy of the verdict due 
to a tyro, or guilty of a breach of all scientific rules in the practice of 
surgery by my procedure ; but as a proof of rectitude is only generally 
seen after the termination of affairs, I think I may arrogate to myself 
the policy in having divided the osseous attachment ; otherwise I 
must have had considerable enlargement by the remaining portion ; 
but in this instance no wound could progress with greater satisfaction, 
and the successful result after twelve months more demonstrative. 



ON THE MANAGEMENT OF HOUSES. 73 



Fatty Deposit in a Fimr-Year-Old Ox. By Alexandeb Gillespie, 
M.RC.V.S., Wooler, Northumberland. 

The subject of this communication — a four-year-old ox — was bred 
by the Messrs Rutherford of Wooler, and was slaughtered by them 
at the age of four years. He was a very plain animal, having high 
hocks, high rump, a want of flesh behind the shoulder, flat ribs, and 
light quarters. After death a fatty deposit was found in the right 
hypogastric region enveloping the right kidney ; this fatty mass was 
of a conical form, and extended from the brim of the pelvis over the 
three last false ribs. Its entire length was 3 feet 1 inch, and it 
pressed upon the diaphragm at every respiration. The circumference 
at its thickest part was 5 feet 3 inches, and its weight was 131 lbs. 
When cut into it was of a beautiful rich cream colour, and perfectly 
solid. The left kidney was much less than the right, the former weigh- 
ing only three-quarters of a lb., while the latter weighed 3^ lbs., and 
was perfectly healthy, though situated in the centre of the deposit. 
The kidneys of an ox of that age and size generally weigh from 2 to 2^ 
lbs. each. The nett weight of the animal was 74 stones, but the four 
stomachs were much less than those of an ox slaughtered the week 
before, which only weighed 66 stones. I estimated them to be aboutone- 
third less, particularly the manyplies, which was very much flattened. 
I attributed the flattening to the pressure of the deposit, as it was 
situated on the same side. The other organs of the body were 
healthy, with the exception of the liver, the external surface of which, 
however, appeared healthy ; but when it was cut into and the biliary 
ducts exposed, they were found to be surrounded by a calcareous 
deposit one-eighth of an inch in thickness. 



ON THE MANAGEMENT OF HORSES. 

Under the above title, we purpose producing a series of papers, to 
be given in successive monthly issues of the Review, in the course of 
this year. 

The entire subject embraced by the phrase, "management of horses," 
as well as being most important in its bearings, is indefinite in its 
range. Horse-breeding, constituting, as it does, an important section 
of the question we contemplate discussing, having received much 
attention of late, (at least, by words,) we shall not make it bear the 
burden of all the errors to be noticed, nor yet omit the many very 
important relations in which a good system of breeding stands 
to all good management of horses. The many questions regarding 
the custody of horses, their perfect development, preservation, and 
restoration, in which the science of hygiene may be made to play a 
most important part^ are those to which we purpose Bd\idVivxi^ xcv^^X^ 
Voji. L—Jfa IL-^Nbw Smbubb. FmBXSkXt 1866. '5? 



74 ON THE MANAGEMENT OF H0B8EB. 

attention. The over-mucli discussion about blood and breeding of 
horses, of late so freely indulged in, seems to exhibit no true 
progress, the tendency being little, if in any way, to advance the 
general understanding of the matter ; nor can we discover the funda- 
mental rules or rallying points that have been established through 
the exchange of opinions and recent controversies on horse-breeding. 

To go into the subject of the management of horses broadly and 
rationally is the task we have spontaneously set ourselves to perform ; 
and while respecting, not to be biassed by, the many prejudices which 
are always present where discussions on horses go on, despite the 
incalculable amount of sound and scientific knowledge subsisting, 
though widely dispersed. 

Theoretically, knowledge on the management of horses must repose 
on the same grounds as that relating to other domesticated animals, 
the sources of life and health being uniform. Practically, however, 
the details to be observed differ widely in kind and number, and yet 
the successful sheep-breeder and improver of cattle, is frequently 
found to be the most rational and successful horse-breeder and manager; 
the plain reason being that the same innate love for the subject predo- 
minates, experience — the result of inquiry and observation — ^being the 
means by which the intelligence is made to compass the wider field. 

In the whole range of management of horses, the amount of know- 
ledge required, having due regard to animate verstis inanimate stock, 
stands second only to that required by man of his fellow-men ; hence 
the compatibility of the position affirmed, that the knowledge of 
horses extant is surprisingly great for extent and kind, while more is 
urgently required. 

The knowledge established by the experience of individual men 
on matters relating to horse management is to a great extent localised 
and limited in the sphere of its influence ; and reflective observation 
will show the truth, — ^whether we observe men professionally bred to 
the art of ministering to the requirements of horses, breeders, dealers, 
or the large proprietors and consumers of horse-flesh, — ^in no one in- 
dividual amongst these is there to be found more than a part of the 
required knowledge about horses, and that blended with more or less 
cumbersome error. 

Another aspect, peculiar to our subject, may be referred to, viz. — 
that knowledge on the management of horses is only slowly and not 
consecutively progressive ; experience gained in one generation is 
lost, or lies dormant, in the next. Self-wrought-out experience 
amongst men has been too boastingly pitted against rational know- 
ledge and written precepts, hence one cause of its uncertainty and 
other faults. It has long been proverbial that horsemen are intolerant 
of new methods when reasoning has to be had recourse to for their 
acquisition ; if, however, it be so, the attribute can only apply par- 
tially, because it must be obvious to our readers that amongst men in 
the higher ranks of all nations, from reigning princes downwards, the 
ahlest and best are admirers of the horse — taking interest in hie state> 



ON THB BfAKAGEMENT OF H0BSE3. 75 

much in proportion to the well-beiDg of their respectiye countries. 
And it always appears to ns that the same feature is traceable gener- 
ally, so much so that in consultations we find the liberal-minded are 
always earnest inquirers into matters tending to elucidate cases and 
causes ; whilst the ** rule-of-thumb horsemen " only prefer to remain 
ignorant, which implies in the instances improvidence and cruelty, 
at least cruelty in a negative form. 

From the prefatory remarks made, it may be inferred that we are 
no pretenders to, nor believers in, infallibility in horse management, 
neither do we deem it necessary to prove that bad management pre- 
dominates everywhere over good, in order to form a jNretext for going 
into the matter. Assuming it to be a fact that much irrational prac- 
tice, involving loss and cruelty (and all animal suffering becomes 
cruelty, where, under the control of men, the means of avoidance 
are not sought out) prevails, there seems good reason why any 
one with honest intention, and something to suggest, should urge 
the adoption of such systems in the management of horses as would 
effect good results if generally applied. 

That some horse proprietors have enjoyed a satisfactory success, 
from the course of management they pursued, in no way weakens our 
proposition, that there is much need for improvement Without hav- 
ing recourse to that vague phrase, good luck, there are local influ- 
ences, degrees of care, and applied common sense, which make the 
absence of system far from uniform in effects; especially so in 
the case contemplated, where the health and life of animals are at issue 
natural influences play great parts. 

In whatever way one takes up for theme the cause of the horse 
and the interest of the owner, instead of being greeted as a worker 
for good, antagonism has to be encountered, more especially where 
radical changes are counselled, without compromise or masking the 
truth, which, to be effective, must be set forth without reserve. 

The horse, rather than any description of horses, is the motto 
under which our subject may be best treated and most fuUy em- 
bodied ; from such common standing- point divergence can be taken 
and details brought in. 

The horse, the most delicate of all the higher species of quad- 
rupeds, in the choice of food and for cleanly habits, co-exists with 
man, as his servant and companion, over the greater part of the 
known world ; always faithful under duty, alike in the arts of peace, 
the pleasures of the chase, and the tumults of war. 

Though in his unredeemed state, and in those countries where 
found nearest approaching to that state, the horse species is found of 
very different character in different countries ; the animal, however, 
is brought more imif ormly up to the required standard of perfection 
in those countries where the advance of civilisation and the state of 
agriculture have made greatest progress. How good horse manage- 
ment and good farming constitute mutually dependent branches of 
applied skiU it will be the aim of the writer to Bilio^ \u^<^ ^^\Slx^ 
to be followed by succeeding papers. 



^\t f {tearg lltbttto anb Biothkwtx& |onrnaL 



ON THE PEOBABLE INTRODUCTION OF A NEW DISEASE 

IN MAN. 

The sewage question has been agitating the public mind, and a word 
of caution has been called forth from Dr Spencer Cobbold, whose 
researches on parasites entitle him to speak with authority on the 
subject of a pamphlet he has recently issued* "In Egypt, and 
apparently throughout North-Eastern Africa generally, and likewise 
at the Cape, at Natal, and in the Mauritius, there exists a more or 
less constant and formidable endemic disease, the nature of which 
was first described by Drs Griesinger and Bilharz. The disorder, or 
* helminthiasis' in question, is caused by a small parasite or entozoon, 
which infests the bloodvessels, delighting more especially to take up 
its abode in the veins connected with the liver and other abdominal 
viscera, and in these situations it gives rise to very painful symptoms, 
followed in the more advanced cases by excessive prostration and 
death. Minute details respecting the peculiar features of the disease 
itself it is here quite unnecessary for me to adduce, as those who 
desire further information on this score have already been informed 
where to look for it; but," says Dr Cobbold, "I cannot proceed 
without a passing comment on the extraordinary prevalence of the 
disease in Egypt, which may readily be realised by the fact, that out 
of 363 post-mortem examinations conducted by Dr Griesinger, these 
parasites were found in no less than 117 instances. It would there- 
fore seem that nearly one-third of the entire population suffer from 
this parasitic malady.'' 

The Egyptian parasite referred to is one of the forms of fluke — 
Distoma haematobium — of Bilharz ; and whilst in its mature con- 

* A National Sanitary Question. New Entozootic Malady : Observations on the 
probable introduction of this formidable disease, and on the almost inevitable increase 
of Parasitic Diseases in general, as a consequence of the proposed extensive Utilisa. 
tion of Sewage. By T. Spencer Cobbold, M.D., P.R.S., F.L.S., Ac. 



ON THE PROBABLE INTEODUCTION OF A NEW DISEASE IN MAN. 7T 

dition it sucks the blood of men and monkeys, in its larval or imma- 
ture state it is present in the bodies of moUasks, which would find 
ample scope for life in the waters interspersed on lands on which 
any large quantity of sewage might be discharged. The parasite has 
been imported into this country, but under circumstances which have 
interfered with its extensive propagation ; and Dr Cobbold justly 
remarks, that every colonist returning from the Cape is liable to 
bring the parasitic treasure with him as a " guest," dwelling in his 
blood and feeding on his body. The usual course of the eggs of 
these parasites now is, however, into a cesspool, a common sewer, 
and the sea ; whereas, if any one of the gigantic schemes now in 
vogue are adopted, these eggs will be scattered far and wide over 
thousands of acres of ground, and the larvae will penetrate the bodies 
of land and water snails, and ultimately perfect their growth in the 
bodies of the British people. It is not consoling to learn from Dr 
Cobbold that *' in a natural-history point of view, it would not be an 
altogether singular result if, twenty years hence, this parasitic malady 
should be as prevalent in this country as it is now known to be in 
particular sections of the African continent'' 

We do not wish to create unnecessary alarm, but a word of caution 
in time may save us from great disasters and from serious pestilence. 
If the sewage schemes are to flourish, why not adopt some means 
whereby to destroy the germs of parasites ? This is no impossibility. 

Dr Cobbold draws attention to the untold number of tapeworm 
eggs which would be distributed and preserved by the quantity of 
sewage to be utilised. He shows how human beings are tormented 
and killed by these eggs gaining access to our bodies, and very 
appositely asserts that scores are the instances which he could adduce^ 
showing not only that parasitic affections are but little imderstood, 
but demonstrating also that they are constantly overlooked. If one 
person afflicted with tapeworm may infect a whole neighbourhood, 
proving dangerous to the life of his friends and neighbours, may we 
not, asks Dr Cobbold, but too reasonably conjecture that the whole- 
sale distribution of tapeworm eggs (by the utilisation of sewage on a 
stupendous scale) will inevitably tend to spread abroad a class of dis- 
eases, some of which are severely formidable ? The question is as 
grave and important as any which those who attend to the sanitary 
condition of the coimtry have occasion to study. To introduce new 
diseases is to sap the resources of our favoured land. Their prevalence 
will cost far more than can possibly be gained by recklessly T«dfi«ix&a% 



78 SUNDAY CATTLE TRAFFIC IN LONDON. 

that which some people, and only some, bow consider waste ; and we 
have great pleasure in doing all in our power to re-echo Dr Cobbold's 
wise and timely warning. 



SUNDAY CATTLE TEAFFIC IN LONDON. 

The trafBc in foreign stock has involved us in many difficulties. It 
has cost this country many milliops sterling ; and though we are 
now compelled to buy as much as we can from abroad, inasmuch as 
our home production has been largely curtailed by foreign diseases, 
those engaged in the trade need not be permitted tmrestricted power 
to annoy and injure, when with a little care the evils of the traffic 
may be mitigated. 

We have taken pains to obtain some ixiformation as to the practice 
complained of by Inspector HoUoway, and which led twenty-one 
drovers to be summoned before Mr Partridge at the Thames Police 
Court on the 6th of January. Owing to the Islington cattle market 
being held on Monday, large quantities of foreign stock enter the 
port of London on Sunday. This is of course not worse than the 
gathering together of British stock from all quarters on the same day> 
but the want of proper accommodation at some of the wharves leads to 
far more noise and inconvenience in some parts of London than there 
is any proper occasion for. When vessels arrive laden with cattle 
there is an instant overcrowding, and the animals are thrust into any 
shed or yard, often jammed together in the most unmerciful manner. 
The veterinary surgeon then examines the stock, and is worried by 
the drovers and dealers to certify that the animals require to be re- 
moved for the sake of their health, Such certificates we have seen 
granted afber the animals had been comfortably watered, and could 
have remained where they landed without detriment ; but what was 
perhaps once granted as a favour to clear out stock, is now impera- 
tively demanded by the dealers and others. The veterinary surgeon 
is made to sign a certificate which in many cases he must feel need 
not be granted, and vexed indeed are th« drovers if there be any 
delay in the surgeon's arrival We feel that the duties of professional 
inspectors of live stock at the port of London are very onerous, and 
often ill appreciated. They are made to do work which in reality 
had better be left undone, and they are prevented by circumstances 
too numerous to mention from carrying out all the provisions neces- 



GHAMBSK OV AaRICULTUBS AND SCOTTISB FASMSBS' CLUB. 79 

sary to preserve our lire stock from foreign disease. Mr Partridge 
suggested the proper way out of the difficulties connected with the Sun- 
day traffic, for which the twenty-one drovers were fined. The cattle 
should be landed all at one spot, where proper accommodation would 
be provided for them. We should go further. For the protection of 
the lieges and of British cattle we strongly recommend the erection 
of a special market and special slaughter-houses near to the place of 
landing, and the disposal and slaughter there of all animals entering 
the port of London. If this will not do, some means could be devised 
to convey the cattle by rail to Islington, and thus avoid the dangers 
and unnecessary noises and fears incidental to driving cattle through 
the narrow and crowded metropolitan thoroughfares. 



CHAMBER OP AGEICULTURE AND SCOTTISH 
FARMERS' CLUB. 

It has been often remarked that, with tiie wide dissemination of 
knowledge which has resulted from the facilities afforded to all to 
write and publish their views at little if any expense, there has been 
an increasing tendency to silence. There has been more reading and 
writing, and less talking. The acquisition of knowledge from personal 
intercourse has, perhaps, not been encouraged as much as it might 
have been. Any institution, therefore, which ten ds to f ostera free 
interchange of opinions amongst men who can teach each other 
much in the course of casual conversation or systematic discussion, 
must be regarded as the best of antidotes for that dreaded poison — 
taciturnity. If those who have written best have often been bad prac- 
titioners, it is to be inferred that they have been good men spoiled 
f(Mr want of proper opportunities to learn from all sources ; and the 
workers are certainly often those who are disposed to be silent, ex- 
cept when spurred into discussion, and rendered communicative by 
cross-examinations. To secure the thorough sifting of all scientific 
and practical questions, it is essential to elicit the views of persons 
of all kinds,— of every shade of opinion. Very able men are often 
modest and positively shy, and a vast amount of knowledge is to be 
gleaned from those who do not aspire to the honours of authorship. 

In agriculture free and imfettered discussion is much needed, and 
this especially in the best-farmed regicms of the world — the far- 



so CHAMBEB OF AGBICULTUBE XSD SCOTTISH FABMEBS' CLUB. 

famed Lothians. There have been many societies scattered through- 
out the kingdom which have developed a taste for free interchange 
of thought ; but, strange to say, in Edinburgh, where mental culture 
is highly appreciated, the ablest fanners of Europe have been con- 
demned to silence in a very effectual manner. With every possible 
respect for brief, respectful, and ducal sentences as to the wishes and 
wisdom of successive directorates, there has been a cold, formal, and 
meaningless intercommunication between landlord and tenant, be- 
tween the farmers of east and west, north and south, which has 
almost banished from the capital of Scotland the idea of hearty and 
wholesome talking and reciprocal teaching. The agricultural mind 
must be developed. The great questions of the day are rudely, 
roughly, and ignorantly dealt with. There has been no rational 
consideration for the opinions of those whose investigations have led 
to the appreciation of dangers ahead — indeed of great evils exist- 
ing. Interests appear to clash when contending parties do not 
uinderstand each other, and it is this imderstanding which is so 
much desired, to homologate the discordant elements working now in 
apparent opposition to each other, but which in reality aim at the 
same great point — the good of the farmer and of the country at 
large. 

We have, therefore, great cause to congratulate the well-meaning 
men who have established the Scottish Farmers' Club. It has started 
under the most favourable auspices. It has already assimilated ma- 
terials at opposite poles, and promises to elaborate them into a 
xmiform, homogeneous compound, flowing smoothly in a broad cur- 
rent, fertilising as it expands, and bestowing great bounties on all 
around. If we have one reason for bright hopes more than any 
other, it is in the first appointment made since the institution of the 
Club. Mr David Curror, the secretary elect, is a landowner, a farmer, 
a sterling, well-meaning, and prudent man. A combination of such 
qualities renders such a person well fitted to reconcile differences and 
encourage friendships in an association established for the common 
good. Autocratic rule or guidance would not have been relished 
in a farmers' club. Leading by the nose may be good for bulls, but 
it is certainly enervating and stupid for agriculturists. They need 
no dragging or pushing, but the genial influence of free and social 
intercourse. The great want is genuine catholicity, and a proper 
respect for the opinions of others. The rough-shod system of the 
past has led to concussion, and we trust we shall now have more of 
the healing of wounds and bridging over of dangerous gaps than it 
has been our privilege to witness for a long time past. 



THE TBUTH WILL COMB OUT SOMETIMES. 81 



THE TRUTH WILL COME OUT SOMETIMES. 

A FoRFAESHiEB farmer has made an instructive comparison between 
his books for 1864 and those of his father for 1834 The results of 
this comparison he has handed to an agricultural editor, and we 
have the following interesting, though not very common, con- 
fession : — 

" When you pay lOd. or lid. for a pound of steak, and read in the newspapers that 
prime Scots are worth 73s. to 75s. per cwt. in the Glasgow market, you very naturally 
conclude that the profits of the rearer and feeder must be exorbitant ; but I am firmly 
convinced that more money was made by cattle-feeding when beef was 6s. 6d. and 7b. 
per stone than there is now at 10s. or lis. If you rear your own stock, you pay two 
prices for your calves ; and for one that died twenty years ago you now lose two or 
three. Not only is this the case with the calves, but at every subsequent period of 
their lives cattle are much more subject to disease. In my father's time the diseases 
were few, the loss from death trifling, and the nearest blacksmith our only doctor. 
Kow, what with pleuro-pneumonia, the grass disease, and the foot-and-mouth disease, 
&€., the veteriiuiry-surgeon is almost in constant attendance, and his bills form no 
inconsiderable item in our expenses. It is a very fortunate year, indeed, in which no 
deaths occur on a farm of any size ; and too often the stock is decimated by epi- 
demics. I once lost aU my cows except one — the worst in the lot ; and £300 would not 
cover my loss by deaths since I began farming, to say nothing of deterioration in 
those which survived. In this way a large percentage of the price of our fat stock is 
swallowed up. On the other hand, if, instead of rearing, you purchase your stock 
either as one or two-year-olds, you now pay a price relatively fully as high as that of 
beef, and are still subject to loss from disease. Having less grass than formerly, I 
now buy in a few bullocks for feeding; and this autumn I paid £16, 10s. a-head for 
them. High as this price is, it would have been still higher had it not been for the 
large numbers of English and Irish cattle that have for some seasons appeared in our 
local markets. The purchase of these is attended with great risk, and several parties 
in our neighbourhood have got their stock tainted by them. The railway trucks get 
the blame of this, and probably not without reason. The expenses attending feeding 
are now much greater than formerly ; and you cannot get the high prices before men- 
tioned unless you use something more than turnips and straw. Only a few of our best 
cattle bring anything like the top prices quoted in the newspapers ; and in the same 
report you will often find a difference of 2s. per stone between the two extremes. 
This on an ox of 40 or 50 stones amounts to £4 or £5, and the animal may have con- 
sumed nearly as much food as a high-priced one. If forced from want of keep or 
any other cause to send our stock to market before they wiU sell for prime fat, they 
leave little or nothing for keep. Last season I received £265 for cattle, but this in- 
cludes the price of a cow which I had to replace. This is the largest sum I have ever 
drawn for them, for my turnip crop was good, and I used the damaged grain freely. 
But, after all, it leaves a balance of £60 against me on the expenses already enumer- 
ated, besides what was required for my personal and household expenses. You will 
not say that I am extravagant in either, but I know that I am going back in the 
world considerably more than £100 a year.*' 

It is unfortunately only too true, that cattle disease is effectually 
keeping in check the production of the stock we so much require, 
Mr Eobertson's paper, published in this number of the Veterinary 
Review, affords another indication of the great losses incurred by 
fanners since the reckless introduction of foreign diseases. 



82 BOYAL COLLEGE OF YETEBINARY SUBQEOK& 

THE SCOTCH BOARD OF EXAMINERS OF THE ROYAL 
COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 

It is with infinite satisfaction that we announce the unanimous elec- 
tion of Professor Syme to the vacant seat in our Scottish Board. The 
most illustrious British surgeons have readily lent a helping hand in 
the examination of veterinary students since the earliest days of vete- 
rinary education in this country. The Bells, the Coopers, the Brodies, 
and many more have manifested a great interest in the progress of our 
profession. The veterinary diplomas of the whole of the present 
century have aflSxed to them the brightest names in the history of 
medicine, and none will tend more to extend the influence of our 
northern examining board than that of the greatest of European sur- 
geons. There is ample room for congratulation as to the progress 
made during the past few years. Prior to 1858, the Royal College 
enrolled few members in Edinburgh. There is now a prospect of the 
numbers in the north equalling those of London, notwithstanding ike 
opposition on the part of one of the schools ; and we doubt not that 
students will soon learn how useless it is to trust to any qualification 
but the one that is alone genuine, and granted under proper authority* 



ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 

QUAETEELY MEETING OF COUNCIL, HELD JANTJAEY 17, 1865. 

Present — The President, Professors Spooner and Gamgee, Messrs 
Broad, Cartledge, Dickens, Ernes, Greaves, Harpley, Harrison, 
Helmore, Lawson, Mavor, Moon, Robinson, Seeker, Silvester, 
Wilkinson, and the Secretary. 
The President in the Chair. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 
Among the correspondence, which occupied the attention of the 
Council for some considerable time, was a letter received from Mrs 
Gabriel, in which she begged to thank the Coimcil for their kindness 
in making the usual allowance to her late husband. 

It was moved by Professor Spoonee, and seconded by Mr 
Ernes — 

"That, owing to the death of the late Secretary, the balance of the 
allowance made to him be now paid in full to the widow." — 
Carried. 

A copy of the letter of condolence to the widow of the late Mr 
Ellis was read, together with her son's reply, thanking the Council 
for tbeir sympathy in her great bereavement 



BOYAL COLLEGE OF YETESINABT SXTBOSONS. 83 

The Secretary next read copies of letters which he had addressed 
to the editors of the Hereford, Times, BelVs Life, and Sporting 
Gazette, iDforming them "that a Mr W. L. Williams, of Hereford, 
and a Mr J. C. Pickering, of Gainsborough, who had styled them- 
selves ' Veterinary Surgeons,' were not members of the Royal College 
of Veterinary Surgeons." 

The Secretary laid upon the table a portrait of Professor Spooneb, 
in a handsome gilt frame, which had been presented to the Council 
by Messrs Harding & Co., artists and publishers, 16 Southampton 
Street, Strand, London. 

It was moved by Mr Silvestee, and seconded by Mr Secbjib — 

" That a letter of thanks be sent to Messrs Harding & Co. for their 
kindness." — Carried. 

Two paintings from Central Africa were also laid upon the table, 
for presentation to the Museum, at the express desire of the late Mr 
R N. Gabriel 

It was moved by Mr Lawson, and seconded by Mr Caetledge — 

*' That a vote of thanks be given to Mrs Gabriel for the same." — 
Carried. 

The Registrar reported the following deaths, viz., Mr E. N. Gabriel, 
kte Secretary of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, whose 
diploma was dated July 3, 1822 ; Mr (Jeorge Smith, Coxhoe, Dur- 
ham, diploma dated 1862 ; Mr Harry Burt, Lewes, Sussex, diploma 
dated 1856 ; Mr Alexander Dunlop, Glasgow, diploma dated 1837 ; 
Mr Thomas Dickson, Durrisdeer, Dumfriesshire, diploma dated 1840 ; 
Mr Peter Campbell, Waltrie, Fife, diploma dated 1843 ; Mr Hope 
Hutchinson, Scone, Perth, diploma dated 1827 ; Mr John Hawthorne, 
Kettering, Northamptonshire, diploma dated 1817 ; and Mr Charles 
James Pyatt, of Nottingham, diploma dated April 30, 1863. 

Mr Pyatt, whose death took place from an accident in the hunting 
field. Professor Spooneb referred to, as being a talented and pro- 
mising young man, and the son of a distinguished member of the 
profession, to whom he proposed that a letter of condolence, expres- 
sive of the deep sympathy of the Council in his great bereavement, 
should be sent. This was seconded by Mr Cabtledge, and carried 
unanimously. 

The Eegistrar also reported that 160 copies of the Register, with 
the Addendum and Bevised list, had been issued gratuitously. 

He next reported that three candidates, late pupils of the Royal 
Veterinary College, had been admitted members of the body corpo- 
rate. Their names were also read, together with those of the Exa- 
miners and ex-oflScio members who were present. 

A letter was read from Professor Morton, suggesting the propriety 
of placing before the students, at the examinations on Veterinary 
Materia Medica, samples of the drugs used at the Eoyal Veterinary 
College, to test their practical knowledge. 

It was ordered, that the Secretary should write to Professor Mor- 
ton, and inform him that tiie Council desired to leavQ t\i^ ic^XXi^t 
entirely In bis bands. 



84 EOYAL COLLEGE OF VETEBINABY SUBGKONS. 

The election of a member for the Scotch division of the Court of 
Examiners in the place of Professor Miller, deceased, was next pro- 
ceeded with. 

It was moved by Mr Harpley, and seconded by Mr RoBiNSON — 

" That Professor Syme, of Edinburgh, be elected to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Professor Miller/' 

On the ballot being taken, Professor Syme was declared to be 
unanimously elected. 

The further considering the question of remuneration to Dr 
Struthers was also proceeded with, and the Secretary stated the 
duties which that gentleman had to perform to the Scotch division 
of the Court of Examiners. 

It was then moved by Mr Cartledgb, and seconded by Mr 
Lawson — 

" That Dr Struthers be elected Secretary to the Scotch division of 
the Board of Examiners." 

It was next moved by Mr Silvesteb, and seconded by Mr Cart- 
ledge — 

"That Dr Struthers be requested to receive the sum of £10, 10s., 
in addition to his examination fees." — Carried. 

The House Committee, in their Beport, recommended that a floor- 
cloth for the entrance hall, a cocoa-nut mat for the stairs, a new 
coal-scuttle for the Council-room, and some teacups, be purchased, 
and also that the doors of the Library, Museum, and Students' room 
be re-covered with baize ; that the tables and chairs be repaired, and 
that the defective brick-work in front of the house be made good, 
and also that the walls of the back yard be repaired and coloured. 

It was moved by Mr Helmore, and seconded by Professor 
Gamgee — 

" That the Beport be received and adopted." — Carried. 

The Finance Committee reported that they had examined the 
vouchers and receipts of payments during the preceding quarter, and 
found them correct. The quarterly balance sheet of the Treasurer's 
account was read. The liabilities for the quarter ending 1st January, 
amounted to £119, 14s. 6d., including Messrs Garrard's bill for law 
expenses, which the Committee recommended should be discharged. 

It was moved by Mr Ernes, and seconded by Mr Broad — 

" That the Beport be received and adopted." — Carried. 
' Cheques were ordered to be drawn for the current expenses. 

A letter from Mr Braby was then read, in which he expressed a 
wish to withdraw his motion for the present, in consequence of 
severe indisposition. 

It was moved by Mr Ernes, and seconded by Mr Wilkinson — 

" That Mr Braby's motion be postponed until the next quarterly 
meeting." — Carried. 

By order of the Council, 

William Henry Coates, Secretary. 



THE LAKCASmSE YSTEBINABY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 85 



THE LANCASHIEE VETERINAKY MEDICAL 
ASSOCIATION. 

The Lancashire Veterinary Medical Association held their ninth 
meeting, and first annual dinner, at the Brunswick Hotel, Piccadilly, 
Manchester, on the evening of the 11th ultimo, the president in the 
chair. Peter Taylor, Esq., president, Mr John Lawson, Mr Thomas 
Greaves, Mr Cuthbert Simpson, Mr Bodger Hampson, Mr James 
Haslam, Mr Wm. Haycock, Mr George Sermons, Mr Thomas Taylor, 
Mr Alexander Gibson ; Mr J. S. Wilson, for the Federal army ; Mr 
D. Maclean, army; Mr Challoner, Mr Alexander Lawson, Mr J. 
Howel, Mr G. Brown, Mr J. C. Taylor, Mr Heap, Preston ; Mr 
Folding, Bury; Mr W. Whittle, Worsley; Mr John Greaves, Al- 
tringham ; Mr J. P. Brookes, Pilkington ; Mr Buckley, Blackburn ; 
Mr Williams, Secretary to the Yorkshire Association; Mr Lord, 
Halifax; Mr Carter, Bradford ; Mr litt, Shrewsbury ; Mr Cartwright, 
Whitchurch ; Mr Lucas, President of the Liverpool Association ; Mr 
Morgan, Secretary of the Liverpool Association ; Mr Gilbert Heys ; 
Mr Simpson, jun., Liverpool; Mr Friend, Liverpool; Mr Briscoe, 
Liverpool ; Mr Bryden, Liverpool ; Mr Wood, Ormskirk ; Mr Robert 
M. llann, surgeon ; Mr Boyle ; Mr Bleakley ; Mr Harvey and others, 
were present 

THE INAUGURAL ADDRESS READ BEFORE THE LANCASHIRE 
YBTERINARY medical association on ELECTION AS PRESI- 
DENT, BY PETER TAYLOR, V.S. 
Gbntlemen, — By your kindness I appear before yon as President of the Lanca- 
shire Veterinary Medical Association; and as it is a time-honoored custom to 
present an inaugural address upon election to any important office, I do so on the 
present occasion, in the hope that my humble aid may be a means of raising the 
standard of yeterinary science, and show how necessary it is that veterinary medical 
associations should be so formed and conducted as to raise and elevate our minds in 
the pursuit of knowledge ; and this can only be done when each member is deter- 
mined ta fulfil his allotted duty ; for I do maintain, however high in the walk of 
science a man may be, more nobly, more faithfully is he fulfilling his mission to his 
Maker, and to his fellow-man, when he lends his presence and his abilities to endea- 
vour to raise, to exalt, and elevate the thoughts and ideas of his fellow-man. At 
oar last anniversary our esteemed ex-president was kind enough to read an interest- 
ing paper, giving an historical account of the veterinary surgeons who had practised 
the veterinary art in the city of Manchester. I will not repeat the kind, lucid, and 
good remarks he made of gentlemen who had, and are now, adding fame and 
honour to the science of veterinary medicine. I propose, by your kind indulgence, 
to review veterinary science up to the present time. The definition of *' science," by 
Sir John P. W. Herschel, is the following : — " Science is the knowledge of many, 
orderly and methodically digested and arranged, so as to become attainable by one." 
Gentlemen, we are the living representatives of the veterinary science of the present 
day, and our knowledge has been gathered from those that have departed from this 
stage of life, matured and improved by our own observation, reasoning, and practical 
minds ; therefore it behoves us to be on our guard and faithfully to perform our 
duty, as there is scarcely any well-informed person who, if he has but the will, has 
not the power to add something essential to the genersd stock of knowledge, if he 
will only observe regularly and carefully some particular class of facts, which may 
most excite hia attention, or which his position may best enable him to study with 
effect High, noble, and great the members of the Law, Divinity, and Medical 



86 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

Science professionally are, and great are the honours and emoluments conferred on 
some of the most eminent Not so with ours. Oar profession, from its earliest his- 
tory, is, and ever will be, much indebted to its sister profession — viz., Human^ Medi- 
cine. Hippocrates, the father of medicine, who lived 460 years before the birth of 
Christ, was the most celebrated physician of early times. He wrote a treatise on the 
curative treatment of horses, and practised indiscriminately on the horse and its 
rider. 300 years after the birth of Christ we have a veterinary Hippocrates of the 
name of Yegetius, who took upon himself to collect and record the knowledge of the 
previous veterinary authors. After this a long period of darkness succeeded these 
barbarous ages, and after a great lapse of time iron shoes, before but partially tried, 
became generally used, and the treatment of diseases of the horse was the province 
of the horse-shoer, and medical assistance to other animals was trusted to tne shep- 
herds and their attendants. The sixteenth century opened unto us a new field of 
learning and encouragement of the arts, and amongst the first patrons was Francis 
I., who ordered the Constantino collection to be translated from the original Greek 
into Latin, and afterwards into Italian, German, and French. From this time it 
became diffused throughout Europe. About this time Yegetius' works were translated 
into the popular European languages, and our art continued to progress up to the seven- 
teenth century. At this period we have a treatise on horse-shoeing by an Italian, Caesar 
Fiarchi ; and advanced in this century we have handed down to us an elaborate work 
of great merit on veterinary medicine, by Solleysel, which was a great means of ad- 
vancing the knowledge of the veterinary art. In the year 1761, France, with the 
acuteness and alacrity which distinguishes her even in our day, set the noble and 
good example at this period in establishing under royal patronage a public veterinary 
college at Lyons, having the celebrated Bourgelat for its professor. His medical and 
anatomical works were numerous and well known. Five years afterwards, which 
brings the time to 1766, a second college was opened at Alfort, near Paris, showing 
with what energy and industry the French nation advances a science, which was 
necessary and profitable for their country. Soon after this other colleges were opened 
at Yienna, Berlin, Copenhagen, Dresden, Leipsic, Prague, Munich, London, Hanover, 
Naples, Russia, &c., &c. As a contemporary with Bourgelat, the first professor of 
the veterinary college at Lyons, lived the elder La Fosse, a name that will ever be 
appreciated and respected for the great improvements and discoveries he made in 
veterinary medicine, which he communicated in the form of memoirs to the Royal 
Academy of Sciences at Paris. About this time works were published by the follow- 
ing eminent French veterinarians: — Chabert, Flandrin, Huzard, and others; a 
veterinary dictionary by Buchos ; a treatise on peri-pneumonia in cattle and mango 
in horses, by Chabert; and a work on glanders by Chabert and Huzard. France has 
given us enlightened and scientific men since this period; we have Hurtsel, d'Arboval, 
Dupuy, and not the least is Girard, to whom the French colleges were indebted too 
lor their text-book on the anatomy of the horse ; and even at the present time we 
have the enlightened, scientific, and patriotic Professor Bouley at the Alfort College, 
who has published veterinary scientific works, and who receives English veterinary 
surgeons and students with that high, noble, and gentlemanly grace which deserves 
our warmest thanks and admiration. In the year 1788, Mr Charles Yial de St BeU, 
whose name will ever live in the memory of succeeding veterinary surgeons, bv being 
the first professor of the veterinary college in England. He was professionally edu- 
cated at Lyons Yeterinary College, afterwards became junior assistant at ^fort ; 
came over to England, and published proposals for forming a veterinary college in 
London ; was disappointed, and returned to France. In the year 1790 he again 
visited England, and made a second attempt, and was supported by a Hampshire 
Agricultural Society, who were fully convinced of the advisability of such an insti- 
tution, after a time ; and in February 1791, the first organised meeting took place, 
at a coffee-house in Bond Street, London, and formed themselves into a society, and 
history will^record that a high and influential nobleman condescended to undertake 
the office of president — viz., his Grace the Duke of Northumberland. Yice-presidents 
and directors were selected, and a house in St Pancras was taken. Pupils were ad- 
mitted, and St Bell was skilfully assisted, as a translator and anatomical demon- 
strator, by the able services of Mr Delaberre Blaine. St Bell's works were an ** Essay 
on the Geometrical Proportions of Eclipse," " Lectures on Farriering, Shoeing, and 
Diseases of the Feet." 

In August 1793, St Bell's death^took place, and there appears to have been some 
differences of opinion who was the most suitable person to succeed him. We have 



INAUOUBAL ADDRESS. 87 

the iiAineB of Mr Clarke, of Edinburgh ; Mr Morecroft, and a Mr Coleman, a young 
nugeon. It appears that Mr Coleman and Mr Morecroft undertook the profeasorship 
oorgointly, but yerjr soon afterwards Mr Morecroft seceded, and Mr Coleman became 
the sole professor, and under whose able and scientific care the London Veterinary 
Goll^^ will ever be indebted too. In his most successful reign we have a theatre 
opencMl for the delivery of lectures, a dissecting-room erected^ a museum formed, and 
an infirmary added to the college, for the reception of patients. The pupils were 
examined by medical professors and practitioners, and received a diploma, if found 
qualified by having the necessary abilities. Professor Coleman was most generously 
and ably assisted in his good work by two of the greatest ornaments in the medical 
profession, viz., the illustrious John Hunter and the high and able Sir Astley Cooper. 
GkK>rge the Third granted the rank of commissioned officers to such veterinary sur- 
geons as might be appointed to regiments. Under these high and most noble en- 
oouragements, the college soon acquired additional teachers. Mr Sewell was appointed 
assistant-professor, and subsequently Mr Vines and Mr Morton became active and 
useful assistants. About this time the teaching and practice of the college became 
considerably extended, by attaching to the teaching of the horse, the anatomy, physi- 
olo^, and pathology of the ox, the sheep, dog, and other animals. 

We have now come down to the eighteenth century, which period was destined to 
witness a great advancement in veterinary science and art. We have works of nume- 
rous authors. Professor Coleman published works on ** The Formation and Uses of 
the Natural Frog of the Horse -/* on " The Structure^ Economy, and Diseases of the 
Foot;" and "Observations on Wounds of Circumscribed Cavities." Mr Morecroft 
published a work on " The Various Methods of Shoeing Horses," with incidental 
observations. Mr John Lawrence published a collection of extracts from St Bell, 
Osmer, Clarke, and Lord Pembroke, 1801. Mr White, a veterinary surgeon of Exeter, 
prodooed a '* Vade-mecum of Farriery." At this time a work of great merit and 
practical knowledge, on " The Paces and Proportions of the Horse," appeared, written 
by a very able and enlightened veterinary surgeon of Birmingham, Mr Richard 
JUwrence. We have a work on " The Diseases and Treatment of Cattle/' by Mr 
Downing. In 1803 a " Veterinary Treatise," by Mr Feron, V.S., 13th Dragoons; 
and Mr Eyding's " Veterinary Pathology." In 1805 we have a "Veterinary Dio- 
tlonary," by Thomas Boardman, V.S., 3d Dragoons ; a " Treatise on Cattle," by John 
Lawrence ; and a work by Francis Clater. In 1809 we have Mr Bracy Clarke's, of 
liOndon, elaborate and enlightened works, viz., ** Dissertation on the Foot of the 
Horse, with Experiments on Shoeing;" a "History of the Bots of Horses," which 
has established a reputation for its author, and which will hand down to posterity a 
name which will ever be spoken of as one of the great luminaries in veterinary science. 
In the year 1818 we have a Mr William Dick, who was destined to play an important 
part in the history of veterinary science. He received his anatomical knowledge and his 
professional education at the London Veterinary College, under the professorship of 
Edward Coleman. William Dick received his diploma in 1817, and returned to Scot- 
land» and with his sagacious mind saw the necessity of opening another college, which he 
did in Clyde Street, Edinburgh, in the year 1818, under the auspices of the Highland 
and Agricultural Society of Scotland, and became Professor of Veterinary Science of 
Scotland ; and there is no man who has elevated the character of a profession by 
dint of professional ability, in so short a time, and to so high a position, as he hia 
done for veterinary science in Scotland, and has continued to perform the duties of 

Srofessor to the college up to the present time, fulfilling the important and daily 
uties for the large space of forty-seven years. Where is the man who has done 
more to advance veterinary science, or to elevate the position of the veterinary 
surgeon ? Who knows him, knows a man — a true type of Scotland's sons ! He has 
a large, profound, and practical knowledge on all veterinary subjects; of unremitting 
perseverance and industry, and a determination not to be behind in the noble race, 
peculiar to the men and their country. Gentlemen, he has not that brilliant elo- 
quence of an accomplished speaker, nor is he a fluent lecturer ; but he has a tact, a 
property above all properties, of leading and directing a youthful mind up and 
through the steep, and rugged, and slippery paths of advancement to the summit of 
veterinary collegiate education, and shows him, by forcible truths, the sands and 
shoals he must avoid, which results in producing a qualified man, that goes forth 
and proclaims his alma mater and pater noster of veterinary medicine in the city of 
Edinburgh — ^living monuments, that honour the name of Professor Dick. His works 
are two infli^"^!" on veterinary science, and written much more in other periodicals, 
and was co-editor to the Veterinarian for a long time. 



88 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

In 1823 we have another important explorer in veterinary science of the name of 
Mr William Percivall, a veterinary surgeon of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, 
afterwards to the Ist Life Guards. I cannot find language to do ample justice to 
one of the most brilliant veterinary ornaments that ever shone. It sent forth its 
brilliant and illuminating light to enlighten the ignorant, to refresh and improve 
the educated, and has shown, by eloquent and flowing language to those that repre- 
sent, study, and pursue the science of veterinary medicine, that it is a high, noble, 
and benevolent calling. This year he published his veterinary lectures on " The 
Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology of the Horse." In 1832 he published the first, 
and I think I can safely say, without fear of contradiction, the only work in English, 
even at the present day, on " The Anatomy of the Horse,"— a great and meritorious 
work at that time, illustrating what a determined and energetic labourer he was in 
the field of veterinary science. He afterwards published his beautiful and scientific 
work called " Hippopathology," and was for a number of years co-editor of the 
Veterinarian. Here, gentlemen, is a noble man that deserves our admiration and 
praise for his great talents, much more for the handsome and intellectual manner 
he has recorded them for the benefit of succeeding ages whose lot it will be to follow 
after. All this time our Royal Veterinary College, under the able and scientific care 
of Professor Coleman, sent forth every year a large number of educated, gentlemanly, 
and accomplished veterinary practitioners throughout England, Ireland, and Scot- 
land. I will give you the great Sir Astley Cooper's opinion of Professor Coleman, 
given at a dinner presided over by him on January 23, 1833. In proposing Professor 
Coleman's health, he said — He had been acquainted with him forty-five years, and their 
friendship had never been broken or weakened. During that period he had pub- 
lished a " Treatise on Asphyxia," which did him infinite credit. He had been selected 
as successor to St Bell, for his anatomical knowledge and his physiological inquiries, 
and the accuracy of his deductions from the various experiments he had instituted. 
He had carried the same spirit of inquiry to the study of the horse, and veterinary 
pupils and veterinary science had been incalculably indebted to him. The profession 
might be said to be indebted to him, and to him alone, for the rank it held in public 
estimation ; for it was the commission which he procured for regimental veterinary 
Burgeons which proved their passport, and for many a long year the only one they 
could have, to the highest society in the country. It is the support of such men, and 
the advantages which their friendship secures, that raises the dignity and position of 
a college. Professor Coleman worked, lectured, and laboured for the cause of veteri- 
nary science for the long space of forty-six years. He died in July 1839, after a 
long, active, and most useful life, at the advanced age of 71. 

We have a Mr William Sewell, who was apprenticed to Professor Coleman in the 
year 1796, received his professional education, and afterwards became his assistant; 
subsequently was appointed sub-professor, and lastly was appointed professor, on the 
death of Professor Coleman. Professor Sewell devoted fifty-seven years of his life- 
time to the duties devolving upon him in these several capacities, and was professor 
for fourteen years. He was (1 am indebted to the Veterinarian) not gifted with 
those high talents of a Coleman, but had an average share of talent, in conjunction 
with all the requisites of a plain, efficient man of business, who has left an example, 
after more than fifty years' devotion to the veterinary profession, of a perfect pattern 
to the rising generation ; — an illustration of the success of industry, temperance, and 
frugality, when combined with integrity and honesty of purpose. Professor Sewell 
made the grand discovery of Neurotomy in the year 1818, and published and pre- 
sented the paper to the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. In 1835 he intro- 
duced a novel operation, by (Uviding the periosteum for the relief of pain in exostosis, 
and became a great advocate for setons. He also, I believe, assumed to be the dis- 
coverer of the administration of sulphate of copper for the cure of glanders. Such, 
gentlemen, is a sketch of one who did his best, with his head and his heart, to ad- 
vance our science, to which be was singly and ardently devoted. Another instance 
of a long, honourable, and useful life, when death removed him at the advanced age 
of 72 years. He died on the 8th of June 1853. 

In 1853, we have Professor Spooner elected as his successor, — a person whose 
mental acquirements are in every respect well qualified to fulfil that high, honour- 
able, and noble position. He is a fluent and eloquent lecturer, a profound anatomist, 




INAUGURAL ADDEESS. 89 

protect, and advance the interest of our alma mater with a maternal care even at the 
present time. He is skilfully, ably, and scientifically assisted by Professor Simonds, 
Professor Vamell, Professor Tuson, and Mr Pritchard. 

Gentlemen, I should regret losing the present opportunity of paying a just tribute 
to the high and sterling merit of such great and enlightened men as the late Mr 
Belaberre Blaine, William Youatt, James and Thomas Turner, William Robinson, 
Mr Goodwin, John Barlow, Professor Stewart, Mr Karkeck, John and William Field, 
Mavor and Brothers, Thomas Morton, William Haycock, Professor Brown, Professor 
Gamgee, and Finlay Dunn ; who have, by their transcendent talents and published 
veterinary works, and many more who have unostentatiously, but in a quiet and prac- 
tical manner, assisted to raise the position of the veterinary science. 

We have now arrived at our own time, and we have recently two new colleges 
opened in Scotland. Professor (kmgee has opened another in Edinburgh. I wish 
he had planted his vineyard in our sister isle (Ireland) in place of Edinburgh ; it 
would, I am sure, have done more good, and advanced the interest of our science, and 
conferred greater benefit on mankind at large, and have yielded more abundant and 
wholesome fruit, rather than have the appearance of sapping the vital supplies of an 
established college which had existed for more than forty years. A fourth college is 
opened at Glasgow, with Professor M'CuU at its head. 

Gentlemen, let us now take a survey of our science, and ask ourselves the follow- 
ing questions : — Firstly, Have we made great progress ? Secondly, Are we higher in 
our social life ? Thirdly, Is our calling so appreciated by our Legislature as it merits ? 
Fourthly, Do our colleges treat us with that high regard as our position deserves ? 
Fifthly, have our colleges made that onward progress they should have done ? 

First, Have we made great progress ? Our ancestors bled, rebled, purged, blistered, 
seton^, &c., &c. Their impression was, there was an enemy within ; they must 
reduee the city by taking away its vital supplies, and placing on a greater enemy 
without ; they bled, purged, and blistered, in all diseases. Not so in our age. We 
rarely bleed, never purge (with aloes) in inflammatory diseases. We husband our 
vital energies to carry on the warfare to a successful result, and admit pure and 
wholesome air, and by careful observation we inquire whether the city demands ex- 
traneous aid, and find out the nature of supplies required. Look, again, to an open 
joint They plastered and bandaged up the inflamed and injured joint. We relieve 
the active inflammation ; afterwards we stop the discharge of synovia, by acting 
chemically upon the escaping fluid. We certainly do " counter-irritate," but not to 
that extent which they did. In fact, diseases are now treated more scientifically and 
much more successfully than formerly. We do not throw in bucketfuls of medicine, 
but we regulate our dose and repeat it, so as to have the desired cflcct in assisting 
nature's eflforts. I think we have good reason to say we have made great progress. 

Secondly, Are we higher in our social life ? Formerly the farrier and veterinary 
surgeon was the companion of the coachman, groom, carter, and dair}'man. !N^ot so 
now. We treat them with becoming gentlemanly respect ; we do our duty, and ex- 
pect them to do the same. We are admitted upon social terms with our clients, and 
are by the majority greatly respected. Allow me to say that the elevation of our 
ocial position is in our keeping ; we must protect ourselves by never shirking to fulfils 
our duties honestly and fearlessly, and always pride ourselves to be the gentleman. 
Associations like these are high steps in right directions. I say our social position 
is higher and more respectable. 

Thirdly, Is our calling so appreciated by our legislators as it merits ? On looking 
over our history, we do not find in it a lord, a baronet, or even a knight ; but if any 
ingenious man should form a weapon which will be a means of destroying more men, 
at a given time, and at a greater distance than any in present use, he is honoured by 
knighthood. Our profession has many members, who have formed many scientific 
weapons, but they are used for preserving and protecting animal life. Our legislators 
cast us away, as a ship upon the open sea, without a rudder ; we have no charter, and 
we are not even allowed^the same privileges as our sister profession,— viz., the exemp- 
tion upon juries, and protection to our science. I say they do not sufficiently ap- 
preciate our calling, or do justice to our profession. 

Fourthly, Do our colleges treat us with that high regard as our position deserves ? 
High and noble as they are, I think not. If any youth, even if he be a joiner, a 
mechanic, or a labourer, and had never seen a horse, " pays his fees," he would be 
admitted as a pupil to all the privileges of the college. This should not be so. First, 
he should pass an educational examination, which I am pleased to say that Professor 
Vol. L— No. II.— Nkw Skmks. Febbuabt 1866. Qt 



90 INAUGUEAL ADDRESa 

Spooner has recently made it a sine qua non at th« London CoU^e. Secondly, he 
should be apprenticed under a practical veterinary surgeon for three or five years; 
on presentation of these certificates, be admitted to the college duties. By these 
means we should have a higher and a more enlightened veterinary surgeon. 

Fifthly, Have our colleges made that onward progress they should have done ? 
Thanks be to them, they have sent forth a large number of intelligent men to practise 
the veterinary art; but withal we have not a text-book on the anatomy of the horse, 
the ox, the sheep, or the dog. We have still to fall back upon Percivall's " Anatomy 
of the Horse " (which some of them discard) for the education of our youth. We are 
obliged to read and consult the medical works of physiology, and to consult our 
medical authors for much more information, which we ought to gather from our own 
professional resources. Gentlemen, our profession consists of two parts — first, its 
principles, upon which it is based, the knowledge of which is called science ; second- 
ly, of the art, means by which the knowledge is applied and carried into efiect ; and 
a judicious practitioner requires a combination of both, in conjunction with a clear 
head, a quick eye, a steady hand, and a good ear ; but, gentlemen, to grasp the all- 
hidden wonders of the universe is beyond the power of our finite mind. I am sure 
you all know that a knowledge of our profession is only acquired by continued la- 
bour and application. Work is the beginning, the middle, and the end of our pro- 
fession ; therefore, gentlemen, let us work onwards, with firmness and resolution, to 
raise the standard of our profession still higher, and make the Lancashire Veterinary 
Medical Association the arena where we can all come and draw from the fountains 
of the practical, the intelligent, and well-stored minds, and invite our professional 
labourers to come into our field of science, to meet us as brethren, to lay open the 
results of their labours, to set forth their deductions at which they have arrived at, 
to ask for their examination, and to maintain, in the combat of debate, the truth of 
their position and the accuracy of their observation ; for, gentlemen, we have yet 
boundless fields still before us for intellectual exercise and honourable distinction. 

After dinner, various toasts were proposed and responded to. In 
responding to the toast of "Provincial Veterinary Medical Asso- 
ciations/' Mr Greaves made the following observations : — 

Mr President and Gentlemen, — In rising to respond to the toast which you have 
been pleased to designate the toast of the evening, I beg to say I am fully aware there 
are numbers of gentlemen present who could respond to it much better than I am 
able to do ; but there are none to whom I will yield in a desire to advance the trne 
interests of my profession, or to promote the welfare of these associations. In the few 
remarks which 1 have to make I shall take a retrospect and an anticipation of Veteri- 
nary Medical Associations. During the year that it has been my high honour to 
preside over your association, we have increased in members from eleven to thirty- 
three or thirty-four ; our funds, which were below zero, are now £30 to £40 ; we have 
held four quarterly meetings and ten or twelve special meetings ; at our quarterly 
meetings we have been well supported by our professional brethren ; we have been 
honoured by the President of the College, the President of the Yorkshire Association, 
and many other eminent practitioners. The success which has been attained is at- 
tributable in no small degree to the untiring exertion of our late secretary and trea- 
surer, who have rendered all my duties a positive delight. I have thought that I was 
doing my profession a service by encouraging these associations. With that object 
in view, 1 have attended the Yorkshire, North of England, and the Liverpool Asso- 
ciations, also the banquet at Birmingham, and the annual meeting of our profession 
in London, and spoke at each of these places, commending as ably as I could the 
cause of these associations, and the remarks have been deemed worthy to be record^ 
in the pages of the Veterinarian. It is very becoming and proper that we should 
occasionally quit the arena of toil, and rejoice with those who rejoice. Let us weave 
a web of kindness, and warm each other by a mutual transfusion of kind feeling. 
The vexations, disappointments, and irritations common to our professional duties, 
which is the witnessing of one continual succession of suffering and death, demand 
occasional relaxation to enable us to discharge the obligation of life aright. On the 
last occasion the mover of the vote of thanks was pleased to say — " I had watched 
over these associations with a paternal care." I covet no higher honour. I felt my 
bosom swell with gratitude and pride as I listened to that statement. I feel proud 
of the honour done me in permitting me to respond to this toast. Let us aim high, 



THE LANOASHIBE YETEBIKABY MEDICiX ASfiOCIATIOK. 91 

and make onrselTes respected bj the steidy force of true principles. You will see in 
what estimation I hold the snccess of this association when you see the banner I hare 
taken the liberty to unfnrl and dedicate to this association, and which I beg now to 
offer for the acceptance of its members; also the reading-d^; and last, though not 
least, the portrait of Professor Spooner, than whom no man is more worthy to occupy 
a conspicuous place upon our walls, — no professor has more assiduously endeayourea 
to uphold the dignity and honour of the profession. Amongst his students he has 
been almost idolised ; presentations of plate have almost showered upon him ; and 
the various improvements in the rules and regulations of the College, especially that 
appertaining to the preliminary examination, which he has now adopted, having re- 
jected two candidates for admission at the commencement of this session. During 
the year that is passed we have had to contend with one of the most formidable and 
important strikes of the shoeing smiths that ever occurred in the annals of England. 
Thanks to this association, we maintained a steadfast and honourable conduct towards 
each other, and the result was a signal and complete triumph. We are now our own 
masters in our own shops, which was not the case before, and have now better men 
working for us ; they are more obliging and more attentive to their duties ; the men 
are not unsettled or dominated over by a restless and mischievous club. During that 
period of excitement the misguided turn-outs assaulted and tried to intimidate some 
of the men who were working. I, being your president, was waited upon and re- 
quested to assume the unenviable character of public prosecutor. I saw the justice 
and the necessity of such a course. This was attended with considerable personal 
inconvenience, having to attend the court eight or ten times, two, three, and even 
four and a-half hours at a time, exposing myself to the odium, ill-feeling, and danger 
from the misguided men. On these several occasions there was one gentleman who, 
without a particle of vindictive feeling in his nature, but who, being prompted purely 
by a high sense of honour, evinced sufficient moral courage as to dare to do his duty, and 
to share with me the responsibilities and the dangers. I feel it to be only my duty to 
make known that you, sir, kindly extended to me your countenance and support in that 
tiying hour. Three of those men were imprisoned ; and they have each of them since 
called upon me, not with feelings of spite and malice, but to express their sorrow and 
their contrition. Amongst the remarkable actions of this association this one will 
shine most prominently. I shall therefore, with your permission, proclaim this 
"Triumph the First** for our association. Our first paper was introduced by Mr 
HaycodL, on Pleuro-pneumonia. This dire disease was handled in a most able 
manner, and occupied two evenings' discussion. The next was a paper by Mr Lawson, 
on Tetanus in the Horse, indicating an amount of success (nine out of eleven cases) 
whidi has never been attained before in the annals of veterinary science — at least, no 
such success has ever been recorded. It is our bounden duty to meditate upon this 
Uct It is, perhaps, the greatest step in advance ever taken in the treatment of this 
disease, idien we see that gentleman come forward and take great pains to instruct 
us in the system he adopts, and by which our success may be equal to his ; and since 
which announcement practitioners have acknowledged to me complete success by its 
adoption. To cure one case of tetanus, even, is no child's play. This we all know ; 
often, alas ! to our sorrow and humiliation; but to be initiated into a system resulting 
in such success as this is conferring a benefit upon his profession that deserves our 
lasting gratitude. Let us not be chary in this matter; let us speak right out, and 
accord to him the honour that is his due, and hand over freely to him the laurel 
branch, and see that the wreath is put upon the right brow. Therefore, with your 
permission, I will proclaim this "Triumph the Second.*' I allude to Mr John Lawi-on, 
jun. Our next paper was introduced by Mr Howil, on Puerperal Fever in Cattle. 
It was compiled in a most practical and masterly manner, and what I characterise 
the best written paper upon that subject in our literature. But the impetus which 
has been given and the emulation which has been excited have not been confined 
to this association. There is in the town of Manchester a young man whose 
innate sense of diffidence and modesty deprives us of his appearance amongst 
us in public, bat who is working out one of the most difficult problems we are 
ever called upon to solve, viz., the cure of canker. He is maturing and developing 
a successful mode of treatment which assumes the character of apparent cer- 
tainty. During my thirty years'" practice I have treated scores of cases of canker, 
and I beliere no man has more diligently or persistently employed the b^t 
known remedies, but very rarely indeed witu success. To cure one bad case of 
canker, even, is no child's play. This we all know ; often, alas ! to our mortification. 



92 THB LANCASHIEE VETERINAEY MEDICAL ASSOCUTION. 

Many eminent men admit their inability to cure canker. But here is a young man 
whom I have seen to cure four cases hand running, — four bad cases — cases which I 
freely admit I should not have been able to cure at all ; nor do I know any other 
practitioner who could have cured them. I do not think I am reflecting any disre- 
spect upon the members of the profession in saying this much ; but what I am desirous 
of doing is to give honour to whom honour is due. This is another mighty step in 
the onward progress in our profession, which, I believe, has never been gained before. 
Let us hand over to him the laurel branch, and place the wreath upon the right brow. 
And, with your permission, I will proclaim this ** Triumph the Third" for our asso- 
ciation. I beg to congratulate this association upon these substantial results. It is 
only right and proper that we should be up and doing. It is no idle word that we 
live in an age of rapid progress, that science is making rapid and gigantic strides. 
It is almost certain that, before another summer's sun warms this our happy isle, the 
Manchester daily papers will contain the events that occurred the evening before in 
Washington ; and before Christmas, they will contain the events that occurred the 
evening before in Calcutta ; and in twelve months later, we shall have the events 
occurring in Pekin of the preceding evening recorded in our Manchester morning 
papers. We stand upon a loftier eminence than our forefathers did ; and I cherish 
the hope that these associations will stimulate fresh vitality, so that the rate of pro- 
gress we have made may be maintained ; and if it is maintained at the same ratio 
for the next five years, and each of the other associations in England and Scotland 
will contribute an equal amount of beneficial result, the gross advancement which 
will have been made may be likened to the engineering and mechanical sciences (they 
having made equal progress) commencing and completing the construction of a Bri- 
tannia tube, with its two million rivets, in one week, and fixing it in one day. But, 
sir, much as has been done, there remains yet much to be done. The deplorable 
dissensions in the profession, and which have unfortunately existed now so long, though 
it is not for me to say who is the party to blame, there are parties in London and in 
Edinburgh whose characters are esteemed by me too highly for me to even whisper a 
breath of disrespect ; still, I feel bound to say, the spirit of disunion and antagonism 
existing between the Highland and Agricultural Societies with the Edinburgh College 
on the one hand, and the Koyal College of Veterinary Surgeons on the other, has all 
along operated like a millstone around the neck of the profession, effectually pre- 
venting all successful efforts in obtaining a new charter or other advantageous enact- 
ment ; and until a cordial unanimity between these institutions have been achieved, 
the complete success of provincial veterinary medical associations will not have been 
attained. Again, there still confronts us a long list of diseases which nearly always 
baffles our best treatment ; but that they are curable diseases is proved by one every 
now and then being cured. I look forward to the cordial alliances and the veterinary 
congresses of these associations contributing mightily to this consummation so de- 
voutly to be desired. Therefore, until some method has been adopted whereby the 
cure of all curable diseases in our patients has been achieved, the complete success 
of Provincial Veterinary Medical Associations will not have been attained. Again, 
there exists one vexatious question which often appears to blacken the fair fame of 
our profession, bringing down upon its members ridicule, humiliation, and disgrace. 
I allude to the incongruous and unfortunate difference of opinion upon the soundness 
of horses, in our courts of justice. Do you tell me it is the result of different con- 
struction and organisation of the minds of different men ? Such an answer appears 
very sorry, very inconclusive, and unsatisfactory to me; for I am bound to say it often 
appears to me that we allow the spirit of partisanship to have more power over our 
opinions than our conscientious convictions, occasionally causing our best men to 
stultify themselves and to stultify one another. I believe, if we will base our opinions 
upon broad principles and sound judgment, an approximation to unanimity may be 
arrived at ; and until that is achieved, the complete success of Provincial Veterinary 
Medical Associations will not have been attained. With these observations, I beg to 
thank you for the honour you have done me by coupling my name and identifying 
me with these most useful associations^ and the good spirit you have shown towards 
them. 

The meeting was in every way satisfactory, and one which will be 
long remembered by the profession in the North of England. 



THS mStESL DSSaBaOTG OF SHEEP. 93 

FEKEBOOFK 



THE WI5TEB DBESSIXG OF SHEEP. 

Thi foDowiB^ P*IKr warn imd bgr SheriiT Bobertaoii, Emj, Tobermorj^at the Decem- 
ber mctHag of tlte M«I1 Agnaltenl Aifwiation : — 

In ecmMBliiis to vnie a paper oa tiie Biljeet of the ** Winter DreflBuig of Sbeepr I b^ 
no idea of the dificaltr of tiit tad^ I had undertaken. The snbject is, howerer, one of 
Badiimportuee to tlie flkockholden of the ooontzr in general, and to those of this dis- 
trict in particalary that I do not gmdge the labour if it tnmsoat of anr ralne to men 
whoae aTocatioiia I ao eordiallT irmpathiBe with, and whose character for soond com- 
mon^eBse intelligeaee I no mnch admire. Owing to the extraordinary price wool 
eommands at prcacnt, it is of tma oMtsequenoe to the &rmer to coltiTate its growth 
and improre its qoalitT. A man who makes two blades of grass grow where onlj 
one used to grow is pronovneed a public benefactor; and in these times a man who 
makes two fibces of vool grow where onlj one nsed to grow, most be r^arded as 
eqnallj entitied to ovr gim^SBde ; and the qoestion under discoasion has reference to 
this eananminatioB. Mr own ezpenenee is too limited to enable me to lav down an j 
opinkm with eonfidesee ; and were it ten times as great, there might be some liak. 
in doii^ BO, oonsidermg the rerr gnat direnitT of opinion that eii£is on the subject. 
As the onlj wmj of making this paper of anr ralne, I give in it the result of eommu- 
BicstioBs I hare had from some of the most respectable and extensiTe wool-brokers, 
eoaasmexs, ajnd othera in Scotland, whom I hare the pleasnre of numbering among 
B^ sequainiaiioea. I have reeeired from all what appean to me rezr valuable infor- 
""'♦tfn, and it e&haiiioes it in mr ftsimition that it wu given with a readv politeness 
that lam gzatefui for, aad an absiitv that I rejoiee to think is brought to bear on our 
iateresla in n wmr we can aeareeiv £ul to benefit bv when our wool goes to market 
fist I am somewhat perplexed bj the different ideas entertained in the trade as to 
the proper treaxment of wool win growing. Whoi I see moi extensivelj engaged 
in wool tzansaetknuL, and thnmgk whose hands vast quantities of wool pass, it not 
daflv, I maj aafei j aar weeklv, having different opinions on the question. What oon- 
ttitBtea the* most profitaik drnsing for wool f I must come to the eonduaon that no 
fltaadard of treatinest has vet been diasovered, and that in all probability the dressing 
mnsi rajj in order to Knt the grsat Tariety in f3imal<e, and other circumsUnees pecu- 
liar to d^Ecreat parts oi the eoBatzj. Indeed, the gentlemen who have favoured me 
with their views aaj tha : and when we consider that the weight of the fleece greatl j 
depends cm the eoBdixaon <d the animal, and as the oondition of the animal depends 
not more, if ao mneh, on the winter dressing it receives, as on keep and shelter, 
we see the great difienhj of casaUishing a standard. 

One thing, however, mav be taken as estaiUished, viz.. that sheep kept in high eon- 
dition cam illijuraT with all dreaang better than sheep ill kept and in low condition, 
and the reaaoa is oiiviona. The growth of wool on a well-eonditioned sheep is m :<re 
heahhv aad rapid, aad there exndea from the skin of the animal an oilv substance 
known aa "^ joik," which if liiti the action of the rain, and yields a natural pr^ptection 
that we wonki do wcO to Imitator The skin of low-o^nditioned sheep is dry, and the 
wool is also dry. Tolk m matiMsAe in small quantities, and artifdal protection be- 
comes aseesaary. It is reaaoaahie to soppoee, that whatever artificial application 
beazB the aacd VeseoBX^iaace to the natoial protection of yolk mn^ be the best for the 
encase aa we^ as tyr the wool, aad it a impossible to arrive at this resemblance with- 
out the nae of fassy aabstaacea. The dips in nae have none, aad are intended prinei- 
paliy to proftaet the ^in, aot aa mnch from the weather as from ticks, the attack of 
tiie'fy, aad the like, aad most of the gentlemen I wrote to are agreed that the fibre is 
nther dstenocased than imp t wed by theae. One gentleman, whose opinion I con- 
sider eatst^ed u^ ^^aOL weight, becanar he is a large consumer, aays on this point : — 
" Any dip, higiJy ctorzed with aneaical or alkaline prc^wrties^ most have the effect 
of hsdcaiae t^ asa^ aad injving the texture of the fleeee, although this depends 
on the tii^ir 1 1 1* s^ hea2th of the •■i™*i when dipped." Another says that ^ dress- 
ing <d^ tMct docs act a&ict the eoloor of the fleeee if applied year after year, tends 

to BiiBt the crvwth aad weakeas the staple.* 
Wiascr dreasar ia this incieMeat wet district most then, I think, consist of fatty 

m oilv m^Mfiaaieea'ai oae of its rompoiicnt parts. So far these is no great difTerenioe 



94 THE WINTER DRESSING OF SHEEP, 

of opinion — indeed I may Bay none — ^among the gentlemen I have consulted. Here, 
however, irreconcilable differences arise. I applied to five, and three of them are in 
favour of tar in connexion with one or other of the ingredients I have mentioned, 
and two decidedly against it. I will recapitulate their views, and 

1st, As to those in favour of tar. In the first place, they consider that a good 
mixture of tar and butter, or other material having the same properties as butter, 
affords the best protection to the animal in a climate like ours. In the second place, 
one of the three says, that *' As the value of Blackfaced and Cheviot wools almost 
entirely depends on the length and strength of the staple, I recommend tar and 
butter or good grease as the most beneficial dressing. Fineness of quality is not so 
requisite as length and strength." Another of them says that when the sheep have 
" to contend with a very wet climate, no dressing has proved so beneficial to the pre- 
servation of the animal, or so advantageous for the growth and the sound condition 
of the fleece, as a proper mixture of tar and butter, or a grease instead of batter pos- 
sessing the same qualities for smearing that butter has. But," he goes on to say, 
** great care should be taken in selecting smearing materials. " He recommends the 
best American tar. Archangel and Stockholm tar generally, he says, " contain much 
more of a caustic or burning material than American, and are much more apt to 
leave the fleece of a dark, dull, brown colour after smearing.'* This gentleman re- 
commends light smearing in Cheviots, the fibre being finer, and the wool thicker on 
the animal, affording a better natural protection than the coarse fibre of the Black- 
faces, and more liable to injury in the washing. The third says, — " Where much ex- 
posed, and many moss rubbings which would affect the colour of the wool, I should 
consider smearing the best 'dressing. Where the farm is sheltered and near the sea, 
and the land hard and clear of moss, you may keep the fleece white by using some 
of the non-colouring preparations. On the whole, however, for your part of the 
country I would be decidedly in favour of smearing, if properly managed, and the 
best materials used. 

2d, The gentlemen who condemn the use of tar entirely state their reasons, and I 
consider them of great weight. One of them recommends some preparation partak- 
ing of the nature of the yolk, and calculated to protect the animal and stimulate the 
growth of the wool, and thinks the discovery of such preparation not beyond the 
reach of science. He does not, however, state any specific objection to tar. The 
other does. He says — ** The use of tar has been much discussed, and it is even yet a 
turning point of opinion. But it is patent to the most ordinary perception that any 
substance put upon wool which has just to be taken off again at great trouble either 
to the man who puts it on or to him who takes it off, that its use can only be war- 
ranted by some other advantage than that of benefit to the wool.'' This gentleman 
is of opinion that if tar were indispensable to the proper preservation of a sheep 
stock from the effects of a wet climate, it would be used by the Highland shepherds 
in Australia, where periodical heavy rain falls, who are well acquainted with its 
merits. 

The specific objection to the use of tar here made, is touched upon by the consumer 
already quoted. He says — " The only objections to smearing with a mixture of tar 
and butter or a proper substitute for butter, are first, the expense ; and second, the 
discolouring or straining the wool. As to the first, it is scarcely a fair objection, for 
although admitted to be an expensive process, yet if by its use wool-growing can be 
carried on profitably in districts and climates where without this treatment it could 
not be grown to profit, then smearing with tar and butter at once classes itself as one 
of those unavoidable evils which must be submitted to, or it resolves itself into a 
simple question of profit or loss." In another part of his very instructive communi- 
cation, he says, in reference specially to Cheviot wool — '* Heavily smeared wool neces- 
sitates the using of a powerful alkali in scouring to remove the tar ; and all wool 
being soluble in a hot solution of alkali, — and the finer the wool the more easily it is 
dissolved, — it follows that when a strong solution of alkali has to be used to remove 
the tar from wool, the fibre is often partially dissolved, and its toughness and elas- 
ticity destroyed, causing much loss in weight as well as a great depreciation in the 
quality and the consequent value of the manufactured article." This is not intended 
as a condemnation of the use of tar, but of the abuse of it by b^ing laid on in too 
large quantities, and in combination with inferior materials. For he says further, — 
'< The beneficial effect of proper smearing with tar and butter, or a grease possessing 
the same qualities as butter, is very plainly shown in the fact that laid wools (that is 
wools smeared with tar and butter) spin to finer numbers than white wools of the 
iome class; thus proving that wools, when properly smeared, attain greater length of 



THE WINT£B DBESSINQ OF SHEEP. 95 

fibre, and are otherwise more perfectly deyeloped than the same claai of wools grown 
even on low and rich lands, but not smeared." He goes on to say, (and I think this 
particularly merits the attention of the wool-grower,) in reference to non-colouring 
dressing, — " Butter, oils, and other fatty matters, when properly applied, confer on the 
fieece a certain power of throwing off the water, and sustaining the animal heat; but an- 
other difficulty there arises ; for although the substances above enumerated, or prepar- 
ations of which these substances form the basis, to a certain extent protect the animal, 
and thus tend to promote the growth of the fleece ; yet they (we may say without excep- 
tion) give the wool a yellow or brown tinge, and lower its value. It is not a fair test of 
the non-colouring qualities of a salve to wash a fleece soon after it is separated from the 
animal, and because it washes white conclude that the salve is non-colouring ; the fleece 
should lie for at least twelve months in the state it was dipped, and if it then washes 
white we would be satisfied with it in this respect.'* It will thus appear that the pre- 
ponderance of the trade, so far as I have ascertained its views, is with butter and tar, 
and taking the question in its relation to the trade, I was not prepared for this result. 
I will now glance at it from the farmer's point of view ; and 1st, As to whether it is 
more profitable as regards the wool alone, to use such dressing as will preserve it white, 
or non-colouring dressing, or to smear with good tar and butter. The difference in 
i^ue between unwashed white and laid wools is in blackfaced from 20 to 25 per cent, 
in favour of the former. It is more in Cheviot, say from 25 to 30 per cent., accord- 
ing to the returns I have received. The increase in weight on laid-over white wools 
is variously stated from 45 to 78 per cent. By basing bis calculations on the price 
actually got for his wool, a farmer, by means of these figures, can, without much dif- 
ficulty, arrive pretty near the advantage or disadvantage of the one system over the 
other. But a fair average should be taken — say 274 P^^ ^^^' ^^ favour of the white 
wool in the matter of value, and say 57^ per cent, against it in the matter of weight. 
It is quite possible greatly to increase or diminish this difference by high keep and 
shelter, but t^ing the average of the farmers in this district, the differences above 
mentioned will, I think, very nearly represent the estimates furnished to me. Tar 
and batter are admittedly the most expensive dressing hitherto applied, and in order 
to make correct calculations, allowance must be made for the difference against smear- 
ing in the matter of expense. A sheep to be really well smeared cannot cost less 
than 9d. one year with another : a dip will not cost above 4d., but there are prepara^ 
tions used, such as tobacco juice, and certain oils, &c., that cost at least half what 
smearing does, in some instances as much. I will give an instance of the kind of 
calculation I mean. Take a stone of laid and one of white Highland wools. The 
value of the laid is say 18s., and it consists of four fleeces, which cost 3s. in the smearing. 
This reduces its value to me to 15s., or 3s. 9d. per fleece. The value of the white, both 
being of the same class, is 24s.; and it consists of six fleeces, which cost 2s. in the dipp- 
ing. This reduces its value to me to 22s., or 3s. 8d. per fleece ; leaving Id. per fleece 
in favour of the tar and butter. Take Cheviot wool : laid, it is worth 36s. ; white, 48s. 
Deduct 3s. for smearing, and 2s. for dipping, and you have respectively 838. and 46s., 
or 8s. 3d. per fleece for laid, and 7s. 8d. for white, showing 7d. per fleece in favour of 
tar and butter. I do not mean these calculations to be taken as representing the real 
actual state of matters, or the real value of either system : but at the same time I 
think they are sufficiently suggestive, and show that great judgment and caution 
should be observed by farmers in making up their mind on the winter dressing they 
give their sheep. In the next place, as to the benefit to the carcase derived from 
winter dressing, it is universally admitted to be indispensable in any part of Scotland ; 
and it being used for the purpose of protecting the animal from the inclemency of 
the climate, it is natural to suppose that the necessity does not arise in an equal de- 
gree in dry and sheltered places as in humid and exposed ones. By studying the re- 
ports of the Meteorologi(^ Society, which, taken in. connexion with other reports, 
such as the Begistrar-G^neraVs, will be found extremely instructive and interesting, 
we find that the amount of rain which falls in different parts of Scotland varies ex- 
ceedingly. The average over the whole of Scotland is under 45 inches, while here in 
Mull, and in many other parts of the west coast and Hebrides, the average is upwards 
of 80 inches. To bring the general average to what I have stated, the rainfall in 
many parts of the country must necessarily be very small, and it does not stand to 
reason to suppose that outlying stock like sheep should not require a greater amount 
of artificial protection in the one case than in the other, especially as rain on the west 
coast and Hebrides is usually accompanied by high wind, which makes it exceedingly 
penetrating and difficult to- guard against. As regards the carcase alone, then, what 
we especially require is a dressing that will resist the peneUttbmf^ nuk 1\iaX li^ Vdl 



96 THE WINTBR DBESSING OF SHEEP. 

such large qaantities in this district, and the great desideratum is a dressing that will 
accomplish this without deteriorating the staple of the wool. I have put myself in 
communication with farmers in different parts of the Highlands, and while some of 
them — with that intelligence which has of recent years shone so conspicuously among 
agriculturists and stockholders as a class, desirous to avail themselves of the scientific 
discoveries of the day — advocate different smears, of which tar forms no part, the 
great majority are out-and-out advocates for good tar and butter. Most of these are 
able and willing to give cogent reasons for their preference ; and I have only met 
with one or two who prefer tar and butter, if not solely for their own odoriferous sake, 
for the mere reason that they and their fathers and their fathers* fathers had used 
them, and nothing else. One gentleman mentioned a striking instance of the pro- 
tecting power, and consequent benefit to the animal, of tar and butter. A shepherd 
was smearing a sheep, and as he finished the one side, he, in turning the animal, 
observed it was not one of his own flock, and at once threw it off the form without 
completing the operation. The sheep thus half smeared remained all winter on the 
farm ; and the shepherd remarked that, invariably on a cold, windy, and wet day, 
it fed with the smeared side to the weather. This, however, proves nothing as to the 
advantage of one dressing over another, but a great deal as to the benefit of winter 
dressing generally, and the power it confers on the animal to seek its food in bad wea- 
ther, without exposing its body to wet and cold in the sensitive condition that nature 
leaves it in. One of the gentlemen I have consulted says that the use of tar is extend- 
ing in some parts of the north of England where the rainfall is heavy and the weather 
boisterous, and that it is maintaining its place in most parts of the country. Another 
says that the reverse is the case, and especially that in Caithness it is going fast out. 
There are two reasons why the use of tar may diminish in Caithness, at least for a time, 
— viz., in the first place, it is dry, both as regards soil and climate ; in the next place, 
the price of white Cheviot wool has been exceptionally high for the last two or more 
years, which has induced many holders of Cheviot stock, both there and elsewhere, to 
use non-colouring winter dressing. Whether or not a permanent change has set in 
remains to be seen. Considering the expense of smearing with tar and butter, and 
the difficulty that has existed since the Crimean war broke out of procuring them 
of good quality, — a difficulty greatly increased by the war now going on in North 
America, and considering further the vast number of dips and dressings pressed upon 
the sheep farmers, it is wonderful the extent to which tar and butter hold their ground. 
With so little practical experience I cannot assume to advise stockholders in this 
matter, further than to use a smear of good materials, whatever it may be, although 
it may, in the first place, cost a little more money, in preference to cheap materi^s, 
which, as a general rule, must be inferior in an least an equal degree to their cheap- 
ness, and may do more harm to a stock in one season than the saving upon them 
would make up in twenty. Dips are very well to kill ticks and other insects and 
animalculse that infest sheep, but for the purpose of protection from the inclemency 
of the climate of this district they are worth very little. In conclusion, I may men- 
tion that for my own stock I use the best tar and butter I can get, sometimes mixed 
with grease, which is said to possess the same good qualities as butter. I get a pound 
of butter for every sheep I smear ; twenty-six pounds are put to the eight pints of 
tar, and this carefully applied to twenty-six animals. The result is satisfactory — my 
stock is clean, I get a ready sale and a good price for my wool, and I have never lost 
an animal from the effects of smearing. I have tried dips for preventing the fly strik- 
ing my sheep, and was satisfied with the results. I have tried them for winter dress- 
ing, at intervals, on part of my stock, with a very unsatisfactory result; I will, there- 
fore, rest content with past experiments, and try no more of them. If, however, as 
I hope may ere long be the case, a material is discovered with the beneficial qualities 
of tar and butter that will stimulate the growth and improve the fibre by increasing 
its length and strength, without its prejudicial effects of staining the fleece, I shall 
esteem the discoverer as conferring no small benefit on the stockholders, not only of 
this district, but of all parts of Scotland, and wherever the inclemency of the weather 
makes winter dressing indispensable. 

After the paper was read, the following remarks were made by Mr Thornbum, 
Calgary, who said he had listened with pleasure to the able and comprehensive paper 
now read by Sheriff Robertson, on a subject of the very greatest importance to the 
flockmaster : — The high price of both mutton and wool, with the annually increasing 
rents of pastoral farms, are facts which press upon the stock farmer the necessity 
of giving the very greatest attention to the subject of winter dressing for sheep — 
and all the more especially when we take into consideration the very high per-centage 



THE WmTES DRESSING OF SHEEP. 97 

of deaths which occur among hill sheep in. the district of Mull during winter and 
spring. The paper now read appears to me particularly valuable, as embodying the 
opinions of some of the most respectable consumers and brokers of wool, and I think 
it a very fortunate circumstance for the wool growers that the demands and consump- 
tion of the trade seem in exact ratio with their views as regards smearing and keep- 
ing white — the holder of a laid fleece having as ready a market as the holder of a 
white one. In the few remarks and figures which I have to submit to the meeting on 
the present subject, I shall refer to the profit or loss on wool arising from winter 
dressing, rather than its effects on the health of the sheep— believing as I do, that 
all fatty, greasy, or oily su))8tances generally used for such purposes, when not 
charged with arsenical or alkaline ingredients, do not injure the health of the 
sheep. In approaching this subject, gentlemen, I can assure you I rather expect 
to get than give information, and therefore beg that the large and experienced 
flockmasters that surround me will put me right if the figures I proceed to submit 
do not tally with their views. I frankly confess, I have always been rather of 
the old school, that is, more inclined to abide by a good old system of which I 
thought I knew something, than draw the bow at a venture of which I had no 
experience, although the prize might seem a little tempting. I have, therefore, 
always smeared with butter and tar, using, occasionally, the finest American grease 
instead of butter. I give lib. butter and about l^lb. tar to each sheep, and in 
looking into the wool quotations in Liverpool and elsewhere for Cheviot wool, (which 
is the kind I shall select,) I find laid washed quoted from 36s. to 40s., and white 
washed ditto, 5ia. to 60s. per 241bs. Taking then 36s. and 54s. as the relative value 
of good laid and white Cheviot wool, washed, per 241bs., let us see how the profit and 
loss will stand, always supposing we have a good hill stock of ewes of all ages, not 
exceeding five or six years, but not including wedder sheep : — In laid washed Cheviot 
wool my experience is, that five fleeces go to a stone of 241bs. in average over a whole 
stock, and at 36s. the value per fleece will be 7s. 2.3d., less the following deduction 
for smearing, — viz., lib. butter, 6d. ; IJlb. tar, 2d., calculating the Archangel barrel 
at 30s., and to contain on average 50 pints ; also Id. per head for putting on, making 
in all 7a 2id., less 9d.— 68. 5id. the clear value per fleece. Now, let us turn to white 
wool quoted at 54s. per 241bs., and we shall first suppose it is dipped or poured with 
some comparatively light, cheap stuff, such as tobacco juice, which can be done for 
Ijd. a head ; and, as far as I have been able to ascertain, eight fleeces on an average 
over a stock of hill sheep will go to a stone, which, at 54s., gives 6s. 9d. as the 
value per fleece, less l^d. per dip, leaving 6s. 7 id. for clear value; but here I 
believe — though I give it as my belief only — ^that something like a penny per lb. 
further deduction should be made on this quality, partly owing to slight dis- 
colouration of the wool by the tobacco juice, but more owing to its not being a 
greasy substance, and so leaving the wool too dry for manufacturing purposes ; and 
if thiis opinion holds true, as I believe it will, it would leave 3d. per fleece to be 
deducted from the value of the wool, or what would be better, a mixture of grease to 
that amount in the dip used ; in either case the clear fleece value would be 6s. 4 jd. 
In the second place, let us suppose the white wool is dressed with butter alone, and 
in this case it would perhaps be right to allow Id. per lb. more for the wool than the 
price quoted, say 56s. per stone, as pure butter is well known to be the finest dressing 
that can be applied. In this case, butter being a fine adhesive grease, seven fleeces 
on average will make the stone, which at 568. gives the high fleece value of 8s., sub- 
ject to the following deductions,— viz., If lb. finest butter, say at 7d. — 124d., and 
IJd. for putting on, making 134d. for dressing per sheep : but as pure butter does 
not kill ticks or cure scab, a previous dip with tobacco juice or some such substance 
would be necessary. This would cost IJd. per sheep, which, added to 13|d. for the 
butter dressing, leaves Is. 3d. to be deducted from Ss. — 68. 9d. the clear value of wool 
per fleece. In the third place, suppose the white wool is dressed either with Mr Gird- 
wood's or M'DougaH's white smear, I have used both this season on a small scale as 
trials, and think favourably of them ; and further, have the authority of a gentleman 
who has tried them for expecting the following results — viz., that seven fleeces will 
on average be the stone, and that the value may be quoted Id. per lb. below pure 
white wool, say 52s. per 241bs., giving 7s. 5d. as gross value per fleece, less IJlb. 
stuff at 6d. — 10 Jd., and IJd. per head for putting on ; in all llfd., leaving 68. 5Jd. 
as clear value per fleece. I might go on, gentlemen, to talk of castor, olive, and other 
oils as winter dressings, but as I am of opinion that the results would not be mate- 
rially different from those already shown, I shall sum up by plafiius ^^^ ^^^^ 
ahtady advanced beside each other as follows, viz. : — 



8. 


d. 


6 


5 

4, 


6 


6 


9 


6 


5i 



98 DISEASED CATTLE IN LEEDS. 

Clear yalue of an average hill fleece of Cheviot wool, dressed with butter 
and tar — 368. per 241bs., ....... 

Do. do. dipped or poured with tobacco juice at 543., 

Do. do. dressed with pure butter and a previous dip — 568. per stone, 

Do. do. dressed with Mr Girdwood's or M'Dougall's white smear — 528., 

I submit the above figures very humbly as the result of my experience, and as refer 
ring to the district of Mull. Heavier or lighter fleeces may be produced on the ave' 
rage of hill stocks in other districts, in proportion to the quality of the pasture, the 
condition of the sheep very materially influencing the weight of the wool. I have nc 
wish, gentlemen, to favour one kind of dressing for sheep in prefei*ence to another. 
and therefore tender my views to you simply for what you may think them worth, 
assuring you at the same time that, taking as I do a very great interest in this im- 
portant subject — a subject upon which there is, at the present day, a great and per 
plexing difference of opinion among both the growers and consumers of wool of the 
highest standing and greatest experience, I have- left no stone unturned with a view 
to arrive at true average results. Of my success or failure I leave you, gentlemen, 
individually to judge. It is right, however, that I should add that my experiments 
with those dressings which leave the wool white have been on a much smaller scale, 
and are priven with much more deference to the larger experience of others than what 
I have said regarding smearing with butter and tar. 



DISEASED CATTLE IN LEEDS. 

(From the Leeds Mercury of 2Zd January.) 

Meat formed so important a part of the sustenance of all classes of the community, 
that any observations as to the causes which may affect the condition of animals from 
which this portion of our food is derived, cannot fail to possess great interest. We 
have been favoured with some facts and statistics bearing upon this subject, which 
we lay before our readers, prefacing them with a return of the number of diseased 
cattle and carcases which have been brought into the various slaughter houses of the 
borough, and examined previous to their being exposed for sale, during the year end- 
ing December Slst, 1864, together with the result of that examination : — 

Condemned 
Examined. Passed. and 

Destroyed. 

Beasts 787 ... 574 ... 213 

Calves 99 ... — .. 99 

Sheep 367 ... 199 ... 168 

Pigs 161 ... 92 ... 69 

1,414 865 549 

The principal disease which has affected homed cattle during the past year, U 
pleuro-pneumonia or lung complaint No less than 347 have been sent to slaughtei 
which were found to be affected with that complaint, which is a considerable decrease 
as compared with the year ending 1863, when the number was 477. Many of the 
cattle which have been attacked with this complaint were milch cows in good con 
dition, and cowkeepers in and about Leeds have suffered severe losses among theii 

cattle from this complaint. One of them Mr , of Bualingthorpe, lost 21 fine 

cows out of 25. They were very valuable animals, worth upon the average £20 each 
He lost the whole of them by pleuro-pneumonia in seven weeks. In another case, i 

widow, Mrs B , of Armley, lost in four weeks, last spring, no fewer than six cowi 

out of seven she kept. In other cases the money loss has been very great. This dis 
ease, we have reason to believe, may be prevented in most, if not in all cases, by th( 
application of measures of a purely simple sanitary character. Any one who hai 
visited farmsteads where disease has been the most prevalent will generally have f ounc 
the cattle in low, confined sheds, the animals breathing a hot vitiated atmosphere 
and every aperture through which pure air could enter carefully stopped up. In look 
ing over the monthly returns of cattle affected by lung complaint, we ascertain thai 
during the six winter months (from November to the end of April) in which catth 



TBIOHINOUS DISEASE IN AMEBICA. 99 

are kept in sheds, there is only a decrease of four as compared with the correspond- 
ing fdx months. We fear that fanners and cowkeepers are mnch to blame in this 
matter, that plenro-pneumbnia is narsed in the mistals during the winter months, 
and that when spring comes the cattle are turned out into the fields to infect other 
stock. The prevention of the spread of disease among cattle has engaged the atten- 
tion of the Government, and bills having this object in view were brought into the 
House of Commons last session. The committee which sat upon the bUls, however, 
found it exceedingly difficult to legislate in the matter, principally owing to the very 
conflicting opinions entertained upon the subject. All must recognise how desirable 
it is that the public should be supplied with healthy butchers' meat, and healthy milk 
for the younger members of their families, but it is impossible that this can be sup- 
plied unless owners of stock more thoroughly understand the great importance of 
strict sanitary improvements in the buildings in which they house their cattle. It 
may not be out of place to mention a fact which will illustrate this. In December 
last, several cattle brought to slaughter, affected with pleuro-pneumonia» were sub- 
jected to examination, and on inquiry it was found that they came from Mr , of 

Adel. His farm was visited, and there were seen a number of fine milch cows con- 
fined in low ill-ventilated places ; six had been sent away to slaughter in that week, 
and one that morning. The owner was recommended immediately to cause the cow- 
houses to be well whitewashed with quick-lime, to open all the closed apertures and 
let in fresh air, to disinfect his stock by using chloride of lime, and to keep a tem- 
perature of not higher than 55, and, by the adoption of these remedies and others of 
a similar character, the disease was at once arrested, and, to this time, no further 
loss in his stock has occurred. Similar means have been adopted in other cases with 
the same success. 

The following is the number of diseased cattle which*'have been sent to slaughter on 
accoant of their being affected with pleuro-pneumonia, and which were examined in 
the years ending December 31st, 1863, and December, 1864 : — 
Month. 1863 1864 Month. 1863 1864 

January 33 ... 23 July 56 ... 51 

February 24 ... 28 August 60 ... 32 

March 26 ... 22 September 53 ... 27 

April 21 ... 28 October 28 ... 18 

May 53 ... 23 November 28 ... 23 

June 64 ... 37 December 31 ... 35 

Total 477 347 



TRICHINOUS DISEASE IN AMERICA. 

Tbiohinous disease has lately been observed in the western part of New York. Dr 
L Krombein giyes the following account of some cases seen by him in Cheektowaga : — 
" T. F., a blacksmith, aged thirty, and his wife, aged twenty, were taken ill simul- 
taneously, the 29th of April, with stiffness of the limbs and the whole body, bloating 
of the face, with a slight oedema of the eyelids. Soon there followed distinct pains 
in all the limbs and body, so that they could not bear even the slightest touch. By 
and by the pains diminished ; there set in very laboured respiration and great pro- 
stration, combined with very profuse sweats. In the commencement of the illness 
they had both had slight diarrhoea for a few days, and during the whole course of the 
sickness they suffered greatly from sleeplessness and unquenchable thirst. The 
woman, who was in the third month of pregnancy, had aborted on the 12th, and from 
that time there was oedematous swelling of both lower extremities. Fever in both 
patients was very high, (pulse 138 in the man, 1 46 in the woman ;) but the skin was 
not hot, but rather cool.'' The man died on the 16th, the woman on the 17th of 
May. The microscopical examination of the muscles of the thorax, abdomen, and 
thigh disclosed many trichinae, both in the encysted and free state. The same dis- 
ease was observed in another family of seven persons, living at a distance of two miles 
from the above patients. At the time of the report the father and mother were dead, 
and the remaining members of the family in great danger. In a specimen of muscle 
from one of these cases a number of free trichinse were found. Some of the sausage 
they had eaten was also found to contain a number of the parasites in an encysted 
state. 



100 THE SHEEP FLUKE — ^DISTOMA HEPATICUM— IN MAN. 



ON THE PROPORTION OP BLOOD GENERALLY, AND OF ITS SEVERAL 
CONSTITUENTS, IN VERY YOUNG DOGS, AS COMPARED WITH 
ADULT ANIMALS. 

Dr Panum finds, on comparing the blood of a newly-born dog with that of the mother, 
that the former contains a much larger proportion of solids than the latter ; and 
that this difference is essentially attributable to the very large proportion of red cor- 
puscles contained in the blood of the young animal, as is shown by chemical analysis, 
by the specific gravity of the defibrinated blood, and by the evidence obtained from 
Welcker's " colour test/* His results are consequently in full accordance with those 
of Denis and Poggiale. Panum found in 1000 parts of the defibrinated blood of the 
mother 138*3 solid residue, in the blood of these recently-born animals 192*6, 222*3, 
and 228 parts of solid residue. The specific gravity of the blood of the mother was 
1039*6 ; of the young, 1053*6 and 1060*4. On examining the blood of somewhat older 
animals, (seven weeks,) Panum found that the quantity of solids, and especially of red 
blood corouscles, had undergone a diminution, whilst the proportion of water and of 
fibrin had increased ; but that at a still later period, when growth was completed, the 
proportion of solids had again risen, without, however, their having attained the high 
percentage characteristic of the recently-born animal. Other points, which he be- 
lieves to be incidentally established by his investigations, are, that the composition of 
the foetal blood as regards the proportion of red corpuscles is essentially independent 
of the composition of the maternal blood, appearing to be a function of foetal cell- 
formation. Further, it seems that the proportion of water contained in the blood at 
different ages by no means exhibits a corresponding ratio to that present in the dif- 
ferent tissues, which, as Von Bezold has shown, constantly diminishes with the ad- 
vance of life. Again, he believes he has proved that the quantity of blood in the 
newly-born animal is somewhat smaller than in older creatures, but the difference is 
small, and sometimes scarcely observable. Lastly, from some experiments on the 
effects of inanition in dogs, he finds that, ccBteris paribus^ well-fed, fat animals con- 
tain a smaller proportion of blood, in proportion to their weight, than sparingly-fed, 
lean young animals. 



THE SHEEP FLUKE— DISTOMA HEPATICUM— IN MAN. 

Pbofessob Biebmeb of Berne reports the following case, which is of interest, from the 
rarity of the occurrence of the distoma hepaticum in the human subject :— A soldier, 
aged forty-three, had jaundice in 1862, in Sumatra. The disease continued until his 
return to Europe. He came under treatment on January 5, 1863. His skin was of 
a deep yellow colour; there was no hypertrophy of the liver, no fever, hypertrophy 
of the spleen, bronchial catarrh. Mechanical jaundice from some unknown cause 
was diagnosed. Some days after, he was attacked with sharp pains in the region 
of the liver, and violent cough, with sanguinolent sputa and vomiting. There were 
signs of infiltration of the right lung, and the jaundice was increased. On the 
31st of January an extremely painful diffused swelling of the parotid appeared on 
the left side, accompanied by intense fever. On the 11th of February there was san- 
guineous suffusion in the axillary region, which soon invaded the right side of the 
thorax, and was accompanied by violent pain. He died on February 18 th. The 
post-mortem disclosed a liver of normal size ; the gall bladder distended, but not 
projecting beyond the free border of the liver. A sound introduced by the duodenum 
into the ductus choledoctus met- a slight obstacle, the cause of which was the presence 
of a distoma hepaticum, 2*4 centimetres long, and 11 in width. The parasite filled 
without distending the duct. The cystic duct was free, but the hepatic was com- 
pletely obliterated and changed into a solid cord for the extent of about a demi- 
centimetre. The two hepatic canals were distended into a number of ampullae beyond 
the obliterated point. No other flukes were found in the liver or in the intestine. 
The author thinks that the hepatic lesions were originally due to the presence of the 
parasite. In the sheep the distoma produces inflammation of the biliary passages, 
with subsequent obliteration and distension. In the above case, a microscopic eza- 
xnination showed that the obliteration owed its origin to adhesive inflammation. 



FATTENING LAMBS FOR THE LONDON MAEKET. 101 



VACCINATION FROM THE COW. 

The Paris correspondent of the Medical Times and Gazette writes, that Dr Lanois, 
a young physician of enthusiastic temperament, having listened to the recital at 
the Lyons Congress of the Neapolitan mode of vaccination, repaired to Naples to 
thoroughly study the subject under M. Negri, the successor of Galbiati, who has now 
the management of the enterprise in that city. Highly satisfied with what he ob- 
served, he brought back with him to France a heifer vaccinated with all the pre- 
caution which M. Negri deemed necessary. The cow, firmly tied, is thrown down 
on its left side, and its body so flexed as to render the abdominal region supple. A 
portion of the surface of the right inguinal and hypogastric region, from one to two 
square decimetres in size, is carefully shaved, and then, by means of a strong lancet 
with cutting edges and a rounded point, slight scarifications, from six to ten milli- 
metres in length and ten to fifteen millimetres from each other, are traced in a 
parallel line. Other lines of scarifications are also made, so that there may be about 
sixty or seventy ranged over the entire surface. They are not made deep, and within 
the Ups of each is deposited the vaccine virus collected on the flat side of a knife 
from the pustule already produced on another cow. The inguinal region is deemed 
the most fitting place for the vaccination, as the epidermis is very thin there, and 
the skin is mobile, while the part is protected from dirt, friction, and atmospheric 
influence. From the heifer brought over by M. Lanois, children and another heifer 
were vaccinated at Lyons, the pustules whence the virus was taken being at their 
fourth day only since inoculation. Indeed, M. Negri vaccinates from pustules only 
Beventy-two hours old ; and he does not open the pustule in the ordinary way from 
the exterior, but entirely removes it, and even a portion of the dermis situated below 
it. It is of great importance that this portion of the dermis should be well scraped 
away from the excised pustule, so as to expose the virus in its purest condition. To 
do this effectually requires practice; but the efficacy of the vaccination much de- 
pends upon it. All the vaccinations made at Lyons wore as successful as those 
observed at Naples. In a paper which M. Lanois has laid before the Academy, he 
states that the results of the observations which he made at Naples exhibit the follow- 
ing advantages of the practice : — The possibility of a constant transmission of virus 
from cow to cow, at all seasons of the year, in sufficient quantities to meet the 
demands of large establishments ; the regeneration and not the impoverishment of 
the virus by this transmission ; the easy practice of the vaccinations ; the innocuous- 
ness of the course of the eruption ; and the certainty of the prophylaxis. 

Dr Philippeaux, from whose paper in No. 51 of the Oajiette Hebdomadaire we 
have derived some of the above facts, in reply to the question why this practice, if 
so good, has not become generalised during half a century, points out that vested 
interests have stood in its way. Thus, while Ferdinand had his own children vacci- 
nated from the cow, he compelled his subjects to have theirs vaccinated in the ordinary 
mode at the national establishments ; and even members of the Vaccine Committee, 
who opposed the introduction of the vaccination from the cow, resorted to it for 
their own relatives. Then, again, it is a more expensive process than the ordinary 
one, for many heifers have to be kept on hand, so that one may be vaccinated every 
eight or ten days. In order to acquire the necessary facility and a complete know- 
ledge of this mode of vaccinating, it is necessary that the practitioner should, like 
M. Negri, make it a special occupation. 



FATTENING LAMBS FOR THE LONDON MARKET. 

Mr Evershed, in his Prize Essay on Agriculture says : — " On a stock-farm of 300 
acres about 200 Hampshire ewes are bought in July or August. They are kept on 
stubbles and layers as long as the feed lasts, and are then removed to the turnips. 
White turnips are considered best for milk at the first stage ; but later, when the 
lambs begin to eat, swedes are preferred, as being sounder and better food both for 
them and the ewes. Hay-chaff is always given before lambing. Lambing com- 
mences in the middle of December, and should be over by the middle of Januaiy. 
The lambs fall in a fold, and, if strong, are removed with their mothers to the 
turnip-fields in a few days. As soon as the lambs begin to eat they are supplied with 
cut swedes, oil-cake, beans, and cut-clover chaff, ad libitum. Oats, maize, and white or 



102 THE BENNIKOTON FLOCK. 

partridge pease are partially used. The ewes are also supplied with an unlimited 
quantity of similar food, oil-cake being preferred. The object is to sell them as soon 
after the swedes are finished as possible, since clover and summer forage are too 
valuable for hay to be spared for them. As soon as the lamb is of an age to eat freely 
the ewe begins to thrive fast, and with such liberal treatment is fat by the middle of 
May. The best plan for late feeding is to remove the swedes or mangold to the 
Btubbles and clovers. 

'* The horned Dorsets, which are sometimes kept, drop their lambs a month earlier 
than others. A few of them are sometimes mixed with a Down flock, under the 
impression that they incite them to earlier breeding. They are more prolific than 
other breeds, and their lambs are larger, but only make the same price per head as 
the Downs: 5 stones of 81b. is a fair average weight for the latter, and nearly 7 
■tones for the Dorsets. 

" Of late years 34s. to 35s. per head has been the average price of well-managed 
flocks, the first sales of the best lambs reaching 40s. The lambs were formerly all 
Bent to market in one-horse carts, and are still frequently so conveyed. The sales 
commence at twelve weeks old. The Oxford Down ram has been tried lately, and 
also the Shropshire, but Southdown rams are preferred ; close-coated lambs fatting 
faster, and selling more freely. The essentials in a good ram for this branch of 
breeding are, a deep and heavy carcase, good quarters, and short wool." 



SHEEP MANAGEMENT IN HERTFORDSHIRE. 

Mb Evershbd reports that, "though neither the breeding nor the fattening of 
sheep is carried out to a large extent, most of the better farms have a flock of ewes, 
generally Hants Downs. The Cotswold tup is most in favour; Leicesters and 
Lincolns are also used. The ewes are folded on turnips, with some dry food, such 
as malt-combs, with straw-chaff) or trefoil 'stover' — i.e., the straw after thrashing the 
seed." 

" The lambs are dropped between the middle of January and the middle of Feb- 
ruary. After lambing, the best managers give the ewes a little oil-cake or a few 
oats ; neither beans nor cotton-cake are liked for suckling-ewes. Most farmers now 
grow some mangold, to be given to the ewes with dry food on the young clovers. 
Lambs are weaned early in July, and are well kept on the mixed clovers and on 
Bainfoin, wintered on roots, and sold fat after being shorn. They get cake or corn 
early in autumn, or sometimes from weaning-time. The half-bred lamb will, with 
such treatment, weigh 10 to 11 stones at fifteen months old, and will sell for 60s., 
paying Is. a week from birth. Such early feeding with com should, however, never 
be commenced unless it can be steadily maintained, with a due admixture of green 
and dry food. The value of the purchased food is sacrificed by any check. 

" The ewes are usually fattened ; and this is generally desirable, because an old 
Hampshire crone, which cost from 40s. to 44s., is worth when poor after shearing 
only 258. to 28s. If fattened after weaning-time, they are put on the freshest after- 
crop of clover and sainfoin, with a pint of beans daily, or lib. of cake, and finished 
off on rape or early turnips. Of late years, the high price of old ewes and the 
danger of bringing the foot-complaint into the farm has led to the purchase of 
younger sheep, which are kept several years. 

" The half-bred ewe lambs are sometimes drafted into the ewe flock, and are either 
coupled with a long-woolled ram, or a west-county Down. The excellent constitution 
and general good character of the half-bred ewe is an inducement to adopt this 
practice, which however requires caution. A lamb, mongrel to the third genera- 
tion, must have been bred under the auspices of a very skilful breeder if he be not a 
worse animal than one of the first cross. Such stock often make bold-looking, well- 
sized lambs ; but in the spring they prove more scanty in their proportions, longer in 
the legs, and lighter both in wool and carcase than better bred tegs." 



THE BENNINGTON FLOCK. 

Thb Rbv. J. Clutterbdck, in "Agricultural Notes on Hertfordshire," writes:— 
"After a word of commendation of the Hoo flock of 400 Sussex Downs, improved of 
late by rams from Babraham, and a word of warning as to the ultimate results of 



BACTEEIDIA AND MALIGNANT PUSTULE. 103 

croBfl-breeding between the long and short woolled races, however promising at first, 
I pass on to speak of that which for not less than two centuries has been called " the 
far-famed Bennington flock." Bennington is a village near the centre of the county, 
between Stevenage and Standon. The flock, which is still owned by the descendants 
of those who first formed it, is said to have sprung originally from the old Wiltshire 
homed breed, which appears to have formed the staple of the sheep stock in the 
midland counties of England up to the beginning of the present century. Within 
the memory of many persons, the horn, one of its distinguishing features, though 
reduced in size, was still retained, and in all respects the sheep were nearer their 
original type than at present. Attempts at improvements were at one time made by 
the introduction of Leicester, Gloucester, or Cotswold rams, though the produce of 
one, if not both these crosses, was weeded from the flock. Of late years the chief 
if not the only new blood, has been Lincoln ; some of the flock still retain traces of 
the Roman nose, and other traits which render this flock remarkable, both as a 
record of the past, and a most interesting instance of the successful breeding of long- 
woolled sheep. It is said, and the assertion is borne out by the appearance, great 
size, and noble character of the flock, that the weight to which the ewes attain when 
fatted is 20 stones, that a teg has been known to shear 21 fib. of wool ; and that the 
average weight of two fleeces is 281b., or one tod. The flock now unfortunately 
nnmbers only 200. The value placed on them for breeding purposes may be learned 
by the significant fact, that all the ram lambs are saved, and command a ready sale 
at good prices. 

^ It may be a question whether this breed and quality of sheep is that best fitted to 
a neighbourhood and soil such as that on which it has been so long and so success- 
fully maintained ; the mere fact of its existence, however, supplies an argument in 
its favour. They are said to do better and to be more hardy than the Lincolns, by 
vhidi, from time to time, the stock has been replenished, and compared this year 
favomnbly with some Lincolns newly imported, which stood beside them in the 
fold." 



BACTERIDIA AND MALIGNANT PUSTULE. 
{To the Editor of the ''Lancet") 

Sm, — The facts related in the following extract from a masterly article on Spon- 
taneous Generation, by M. Jamin, in the Revue des Dettx Mondes, are in all ways so 
interesting, that I make no apology for asking you to publish them. I ought to add, 
that the italics which occur in one or two places are mine : — 

** Dr Davaine has devoted himself for some years to the careful study of a terrible 
malady of the 'charbon* genus — the splenic apoplexy, (sang de rate — anglice, 
* blood,*) which develops itself spontaneously in sheep, and is inevitably fatal to 
them. The blood of the diseased animals, examined under the microscope, has been 
found crowded with minute organisms allied to the bacteria^ and which have been 
named hacteridia. This blood, injected into the tissue of another animal, carries 
these creatures with it, and death is certain. The malady is equally transmitted 
when a rabbit is made to swallow either the blood or part of an animal affected with 
splenic apoplexy. The infected blood may be dried and kept for an indefinite time 
vnthout losing the germs of the infusoria which it contains ; and whenever it comes 
to be injected or to be given as food, the disease is propagated. These facts being 
ascertained, as the symptoms of splenic apoplexy offer some affinity to those of an- 
other malignant malady known by the name of 'charbon,' (or 'malignant pustule,*) 
inquiries were instituted as to whether there might not be a still closer bond between 
the two affections. ' Charbon* begins by a 'malignant pustule' of blackish colour, 
surrounded by a ring of vesicles, which must be speedily destroyed by caustic, if a 
general infection is to be avoided. On the 14th of April of the present year, (1864,) 
Dr Raimbert was called to a carter who had contracted a true malignant pustule on 
a &rm wtiere the sheep were suffering from splenic apoplexy. He removed the pus- 
tule, dried it at once, and handed it over to Dr Davaine, who examined it under the 
mieroBCope. It was a perfect feii, composed entirely of hacteridia. Rabbits fed 
with it contracted splenic apoplexy in consequence, and died with their blood crowded 
with ha^cteridia, and communicated * charbon * to other animals. Here, then, is a 
disease transmitted from sheep to man, and appearing in him under the form of a 
pustule, which in its turn has the power of communicating to all animals the parti- 



104 BACTEEIDIA AND MALIGNANT PUSTULE. 

cular virus which it contains. And what is this virus ? A brood of infusoria of a 
special and venomous species. The smallest qiuintity suffices to hilly because it suffices 
to sow and multiply the species. The malady is transmitted by inoculation, because 
the animalcules pass from the infected to the inoculated subject ; it is transmitted 
by the air, because the germs dry up and are wafted away, and become a^n sown ; 
possibly also, as many hold, by the bites of flies, which thus become the vehicle for 
the transmission of the ha^cUridia. Such is the explanation, not less simple than 
certain, of the effects of a particular virus. The future will decide how far it is 
possible to extend to all analogous cases so fertile a theory, but already it is easy to 
understand the hopes of physiologists and to predict their success : perhaps we are 
on the eve of knowing, avoiding, and curing contagious scourges/' * 

The facts here detailed are not altogether new. Virchow, and some earlier ob- 
servers whose names escape me for the moment, had already pointed out the occur- 
rence, in countless numbers, of a kind of '* vibrio '' in the blood of living animals 
affected with charbon. 

I have not been able to refer to Dr Davaine's own account of these researches ; but 
before the case which he wishes to make out for the minute organisms he describes 
can be considered as finally established, other data will be required beyond those 
adduced by his reviewer. Not only must the constant presence of this particular 
species of hacteridia in the diseases in question be ascertained, but its absence in 
other putrefactive disorders. In all such cases there is a special danger, which those 
who have most studied the subject will best appreciate, of falling into the old error 
of taking for essential what may possibly be only an epi-phenomenon. The perfec- 
way in which the facts seem to explain all the condition^ although a strong argur 
ment in favour of the interpretation set upon them, may, on the other hand, easily 
beguile us into a too ready acquiescence in it. 

At the same time, the whole tendency of recent research, and of Pasteur's dis- 
coveries in particular, is to the effect that the tribe of minute organisms to which 
the hacteridia belong, in reality take the initiative in, and are the primary cause of, 
the zymotic changes with which they are found associated. 

The uncontrollable itching which marks the first stage of malignant pustule, and 
is so characteristic of it, is, when considered as a phenomenon which betrays the pre- 
sence of so many parasites in other parts, not undeserving of attention in connexion 
with Dr Davaine's view. 

Should his discovery be confirmed by more extended researches, it is one of which 
it will be difficult to overrate the value. 

As regards malignant pustule, its importance will be supreme. Diagnosis, patho- 
logy, origin, mode of propagation, and indications of cure, will be all summed up in 
the conditions which attach to the growth and multiplication of a single parasite 
organism. 

In relation to diagnosis, the fact is one which might eventually become of the 
greatest possible use. For if it be true that the first brood of hacteridia is developed 
in the part which is to be the seat of the future pustule, the practitioner, armed with 
microscope and with the little " harpoon" with which the Germans did for trichina, 
might ascertain the characteristic presence of these minuter parasites by means of an 
operation not more formidable than the puncture of a grooved needle. 

But, as M. Jamin rightly suggests, the interest of this discovery, should it be con- 
firmed, culminates in its relation to the subject of contagion generally. 

In a memorandum on the Investigation of Epidemic and Epizootic Disorders, which 
I drew up at the request of the British Medical Association in March 1863, there 
occurs the following passage : — 

" In order to render the inquiry on which the Association is about to enter really 
comprehensive, it would be necessary to associate with the study of epidemics that of 
the diseases caused in man and animals by living parasites, external and internal. 

" A fuller knowledge of the phenomena attaching to the dissemination of the pro- 
lific and minute germs of these parasites, could not fail to be of great use in helping 
to the true interpretation of the phenomena, which attach to the strictly analogous 
dissemination of the equally prolific and equally minute germs of contagious poisons. 

** In particular, it would be of the highest value in showing, by data that could not 
be gainsaid, what is the real worth of the negative evidence now so implicitly relied on, 

* Rtvue det Dewe Jiondes, Nov. 16, 1864, pp. 442, 443. 



VETEBINARY OPEKATIONS — SBTONS. 105 

as an indication of spontaneous origin, and as opposed to the law of propagation bj 
continuous succession. 

" Additional reasons for putting the parasites and the contagions together in such 
an inquiry are — 1. That at manj points the two blend insensibly one into the other ; 
2. That, with the advance of knowledge, diseases are constantly being transferred 
from the group of common contagions to the group of parasites ; and, 8. That there 
already exists amongst the most advanced thinkers on these topics, a shrewd sus- 
picion that- the two groups will eventuaUy coalesce, and be found to be in their 
essence identical." 

Dr DaTsine's interesting discovery seems not unlikely to offer a striking illus- 
tration of more than one of the several positions here taken. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

William Budd, M.D. 

The Manob Housb, Cluton, Jan. 5, 1865. 



VETERINARY OPERATIONS— SETONS. 

br the management of the domesticated animals in disease, and even in health, setons 
ue largely em^doyed. They consist of pieces of tape or cord, which are carried for 
some distonce under the skin, and allowed to remain to keep open a passage for the 
draining away of some morbid product, or to establish some curative or prophylactic 
process by the local irritation which they produce. 

The word seton is from the Latin seia, a coarse hair or bristle — these having been 
tbe agents originally employed for this purpose. At the present time, the material 
in common use is coarse tape of a varying breadth, to suit the requirements of the 
eise or the whim of the operator. It is introduced by means of an instrument called 
a leton needle, formed of a flat piece of steel, of about four lines in breadth, and from 
six iachsfi to a foot or more in length. The one end has a square aperture or eye, 
vhile the other is flattened out and sharpened at the edges, which join each other at 
thepeint at fun acute angle. The point is sometimes left sharp, to allow of its being 
po^ed through the skin, though it is often made blunt, and it is passed through the 
ikin by an opening made with a lancet. They are often used with a handle, into 
which the blunt end is screwed ; and in this way they are more easily managed, and 
their course more certainly directed.' 

In introducing a seton, the skin is first incised transversely with a lancet, and the 
seton needle is directed between the skin and the muscles, its course being favoured 
l^ pulling out the skin with the left hand in front of the point of the instrument. 
It is usually carried in a direction from above downward, to permit a free discharge 
of the matter; and when carried far enough, a new incision is made with the ]ancet 
to allow of its exit. This is preferable to simply penetrating the skin by the sharp- 
pointed needle, as the wounds thus made are often so small that the pus cannot escape 
freely, and becoming imprisoned, is a source of irritation. The seton having been 
introduced, it is necessary to fix it by some means, and a common one is to tie the 
two ends together. Thus fixed, it is liable to be caught by projecting objects and 
torn out^ leaving an unsightly wound. A much better plan is to fold the tape into 
a series of short loops, and tie the end firmly round their middle. A couple of inches 
of tape should be left between each orifice and the knot, to allow for any subsequent 
swelling of the part 

The natural consequence of a seton introduced into a healthy structure is to pro- 
duce a considerable amount of inflammation, followed by a more or less profuse dis- 
charge of pus. This discharge of matter wiU usually take place on the third day, 
and is more than half a day earlier in summer than in winter. They are sometimes 
used to produce a derivative effect in the case of deep-seated or internal inflamma- 
tions, though for this purpose they are chiefly applicable when the disease is chronic, 
otherwise a blister is to be preferred, on account of the greater rapidity of its action. 
In spavin, and various other forms of lameness, they are at times employed with 
great benefit in the neighbourhood of the malady. Their effect is sometimes in- 
creased by smearing the seton with some irritant — such as a preparation of black 
lu^lebore, turpentine, euphorbium, &c. A peculiar system occasionally employed suo- 
eeasfully in spavin is the introduction of a thread, medicated in this way, deeply into 
the soft parts over the seat of the bony tumour. This is chiefly recommended by the 
fact that, if well managed, it leaves no blemish on the hock. 

Vol. L — No. II.— New Series. Pebbuaby 1865. 'fi. 



106 WHOIiKSOME AND UNWHOLESOME AIE. 

For internal inflammationB, it is probable that Batons possess no advantage un- 
attainable by blisters, although we frequently see them placed in the dewlap of cattle, 
and in the breast and sides of the chest in horses in certain thoracic complaints. 

Passed through fistulous wounds, they are often highly useful in maintaining a 
dependent orifice and exercising a stimulant action on the unhealthy and indurated 
walls of the cavity or canal. This last purpose may be still better fulfilled if the 
seton is impregnated with some stimulant or caustic agent. 

Setons are sometimes passed through indolent tumours to effect their destruction. 
This they generally do by exciting inflammation, and leading to the disintegration 
of the tumour, which is partly absorbed, and in part degenerates into pus, and is dis- 
charged externally. For this purpose, again, the agent will often be better medi- 
cated, more particularly as caustics act much more powerfully on morbid products 
than on healthy structures, and can accordingly be employed with comparative safety 
80 far as the latter are concerned. 

Another common use of setons is as a prophylactic in certain complaints, and in 
particular in blackquarter and its allied disorders. In young cattle, they are usually 
placed in the dewlap, and allowed to remain for months at a time, or so long as the 
subjects are in a condition supposed to predispose to the disorder. For this purpose 
they are often beneficial at first, as the animals most predisposed to these affections 
are such as are thriving rapidly, and forming large quantities of highly nutritive 
blood ; and the setons, by establishing a drain on the system, act in the manner of 
a safety-valve in preventing the onset of the disorder. It must be borne in mind, 
however, that a vigorous constitution soon accommodates itself to such a drain; and, 
accordingly, more blood is elaborated, and the predisposition may become as strong 
as before. The sudden removal of the seton in such a case would be attended with 
considerable danger. It is accordingly preferable to employ proper hygienic mea- 
sures as regards drainage, and a libenil allowance of food, so as to keep the animals 
constantly improving without becoming dangerously plethoric. 

In no case should the same seton be left more than a week in, as it gets impreg- 
nated with putrid matters, resulting from the decomposing pus, and may thus become 
irritating, or even dangerous. If it is necessary to keep up the effect for a longer 
time, a new tape attached to the end of the old may be drawn into the wound, and 
fixed as before. 



ON THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHOLESOME AND UNWHOLESOME 

AIR 

By J. A. Wanklyn, 

Professor of Chemistry <tt the London Ifistituiion, 

Davt showed, a long time ago, that the proportion of carbonic acid in respired air 
may be very much augmented without any physiological result. According to his 
experiments, as much as 20 per cent, of the atmosphere may consist of carbonic acid 
without injuxy to the animals breathing it. If anything like this amount of carbonic 
acid produces so little effect upon us, what shall we say of the 0'5 per cent., which is 
almost the highest per-centage of carbonic acid ever found in an ill-ventUated and 
crowded room in this country ? And what shall we say of the assertion that the dif- 
ference in salubrity between the air in the neighbourhood of a " midden" and the air 
'* over North Scotland (towns excepted") is due to the circumstance that there is 
00774 per cent, of carbonic acid in the former, whilst the latter contains only 00336 ? 
In a recent number of the Chemical News (Dec. 31st, 1864) I find an account of a 
paper of Dr Angus Smith " On the Composition of the Atmosphere ;" and it appears 
from this account that he attributes the wholesomeness or unwholesomeness of dif« 
ferent atmospheres to minute differences in the per-centage of carbonic acid. Al- 
though we meet with statements of this sort in the manuals (in Odling's Manual, for 
example, p. 217) — " a confined atmosphere is rendered unwholesome, not by a con- 
sumption of its oxygen, but by an increase in the proportion of its carbonic anhy- 
dride, effected by the processes of respiration and combustion,'' — I cannot understand 
how Dr Angus Smith, who has moreover made a special study of the various statea 
of the atmosphere, could fall into so desperate an error. And although the plain 
sense of the paper is, that minute quantities of carbonic acid are the cause, or part of 



LESION OF THE EXTEBIOB MUSCLES OF THE FOBEARBf. 107 

the cause, of the physiological differences between different atmospheres, snrelj he 
could not mean more than that these minute quantities of carbonic acid are concomi- 
tant with the physiological effects. And surely the utmost that Dr Angus Smith 
will think of maintaining ¥rill be in substance this : the deficiency of oxygen in the 
atmosphere of towns and of crowded rooms is so small that it can produce no physio- 
logical result ; the excess of carbonic acid is also too small to act physiologically ; yet 
tMs deficiency of oxygen and this excess of carbonic acid, being almost inyariably 
found in company with the deleterious thing which spoils the atmospheres of towns 
and of crowded rooms, may be taken as an index to the amount of deterioration 
which a given atmosphere has undergone. Even this proposition, under this limita- 
tion, I call in question, maintaining that the oxygen and carbonic add criteria are 
Teiy untrustworthy indices to the state of salubrity of the atmosphere. 

I will content myself with pointing out two striking absurdities which flow from 
the adoption of these indices : — 

1st, That the air on the Alps is far more pestilent than the air in the immediate 
neighbourhood of a Manchester ** midden," or the air of a close room. 

2dy That air taken from a court-yard is one day as wholesome as air from the open 
heath, and the next as pestilent as that from a back street in a town. 

In truth, there are many causes which determine the precise quantities of oxygen 
and carbonic add in the atmosphere, and the per-centages of these two gases foand 
in the air of a given locality are a veiy poor guide to the quantity of carbonaceous 
XDatter undergoing slow combustion. 

Before any real knowledge of the pestilent matters which cause the deterioration 
of the air in towns and close rooms can be arriyed at, chemists must investigate the 
sabject in a very different manner from that which they are too prone to adopt. Just 
u the difference between one mineral water and another depends not upon any dif- 
ference in the proportions of oxygen and hydrogen composing the water, but upon 
the presence of very minute traces of salts of different kinds, so the difference be- 
tween the atmosphere in one locality and another is due to minute quantities of 
Teiy active gases, vapours, or dust, and not to the relative proportions of nitrogen, 
oxygen, and carbonic acid. It is not at all improbable that the presence of minute 
traces of carbonic oxide (a very active poison) may have a great deal to do with the 
deterioration of the atmosphere in ill-ventilated rooms. But whether it be traces of 
carbonic oxide or of prussic acid, or of something else which are at the root of the 
inunense physiological difference between the atmospheres of various localities, certain 
it is that the air of a crowded room is not bad by reason of its carbonic acid or of 
any deficiency in its oxygen. 



LESION OF THE EXTERIOR MUSCLES OF THE FOREARM, PARTICU- 
LARLY THE MEDIAN HEAD OF THE TRICEPS EXTENSOR BRACHII, 
WITH SYMPTOMS RESEMBLING THOSE OF FRACTURE OP THE 
HUMERUS. 

By M. Urbain Leblano. 

{From La Clinique V^Urinaire, January 1865.) 

M. BouiiBT, junior, was the first to notice, in 1833, a frequent lesion of the flexor 
metatusi, usually attended with symptoms which, on superficial examination, resemble 
those of fracture of the tibia. 

The cases seen by M. Bouley all recovered, so that he had no opportunity of ob- 
serving the character of the lesion on the dead subject, but as the section of the 
tendon gives rise to the same symptoms, the lesion is probably either a laceration or 
at least undue distension of the muscle. The cause, in every case, is violent traction 
of the muscle in connexion with excessive exertion on the part of the animal. 

Rigot has well described lesions met with by him in certain muscles of horses lame 
in the hind limbs, {Eecueil, 1827.) These were lacerations, superficial or deep 
according as the muscles were thin and not enclosed in a sheath, or their thick 
and covered by a strong fibrous envelope; sanguineous clots in different degrees of 
organisation, dther infiltrated or encysted ; discolourations, indurations, and change 
of form. These, however, were not met with in the flexor metatarsi He has 
not met with cases presenting the symptoms noticed by M. Bouley. 



108 LESION OP THE EXTEEIOR MUSCLES OF THE POEEAEM. 

M. Leblanc has often noticed the lesions mentioned by Rigot They always 
diminish or annihilate the contractile power of the muscles, frequently terminating 
in atrophy of the muscle. 

These lesions are often unaccompanied by symptoms of active inflammation, such 
as swelling, abnormal heat, and pain on pressure. It is well to note this, as the 
absence of such symptoms does not necessanly prove that there has not been muscular 
distension or even laceration. 

M. Leblanc believes that all the published cases of muscular lesion simulating frac- 
tures have been those of the flexor metatarsi, hence he is led to notice a case of 
lameness in the fore extremity bearing similar characters. On 6th January 1860 a 
very active five-year-old entire horse, drawing a heavy carriage from the Bouen 
railway station, on the ice-clad streets, sustained the injury in attempting to start the 
load. After making a violent effort, it stopped, turned slightly to the left side, and 
refused to proceed. The left fore limb appeared useless, and the poor animLal was 
walked home on three legs. 

When standing quietiy, the fore limb described a curve from the elbow to the hoof. 
The anterior aspect of the hoof was rested on the ground, the digital, fetlock, knee, 
and elbow-joints being flexed. The humerus was almost vertical, and the elbow low 
and abducted from the body. 

On examination, neither fracture nor luxation could be made out. The forearm 
was easily flexed on the arm, no resistance being offered by the animal, and the 
muscular mass of the triceps was flaccid and elongated. Strong compression between 
the fingers and hands did not draw forth symptoms of pain, and there was no swell- 
ing or undue heat. 

When walked out, in attempting to flex the forearm, it was elevated suddenly, not 
in a dire<;tion parallel to the body, but describing a series of very irregular zig-zags. 
It seemed as if the member was paralysed. When advanced, the limb was kept 
straight for an instant, and then curved so as to bring the toe in contact with the 
ground. The animal advanced his body by a kind of leap, coming down again upon 
the right fore foot, and each time the left leg was more curved, and the foot, the fet- 
lock, or even the knee, are brought into contact with the ground. At first sight one 
would have concluded that the leg was broken, but such a conclusion was easily recti- 
fied by a close examination. 

An examination of the olecranon showed that it was sound. The distortion of the 
triceps was particularly marked in the lower and deeper part of the muscle. As the 
symptoms were much analogous to those observed by M. Bouley, it was decided to 
subject it to treatment. 

The analogies and differences between the two lesions are these : — With lacerated 
flexor metatarsi, the horse can maintain the standing posture perfectly, as the 
muscles engaged in extending the limb are intact ; there is, however, the greatest 
difficulty of flexing the leg and advancing the foot. With lesion of the triceps 
extensor brachii, on the other hand, the limb cannot be kept extended so as to let 
the weight rest upon it, whilst it is very easily carried forward. 

Nothing was done for the animal on the day of the accident. The following day 
there was still no pain on pressure, nor swelling. The animal lay down and rose 
easily. Strong tincture of canthaiides was applied on the shoulder and arm. 

On the 8th the skin and subcutaneous areolar tissue were tumified ; otherwise, the 
symptoms had not changed. On the 9th the horse was carefully led to M. Leblanc's 
infirmary, and walked better than on the day of the accident. He had here an ample 
loose box and liberal diet. It gradually improved until the 4th February, when, at 
the request of the owner, he was killed. The depression behind the arm was daily 
filling up, the animal rested on the limb, and did not jerk it forward in the same way 
in walking. 

The caput medium of the triceps was discoloured and indurated. Towards the 
middle of the muscle it was thinner than that on the right side ; it was flaccid, and 
the fibres separated easily from each other. The induration was at its insertion. 
There was no apparent solution of continuity, nor any trace of hemorrhage or serous 
infiltration. The soapulo-ulnaris and caput-magnum of the triceps were similarly 
affected, though to a mudi slighter extent. The small head of the triceps was even 
less affected, though still distinctly implicated. 



CATTLE TRAFFIC ON SXJNDAT — THAMES POLICE COUBT. 109 



CATTLE TRAFFIC ON SUNDAY— THAMES POLICE COURT. 

TiSTBBDAY, twenty-one licensed droven appeared before Mr Partridge, to aniwer 
gonunonflea taken oat bj Inspector Holloway, of the H diyision, for driving foreign 
oatUe along the streets of the district on Sunday, the 4th of December last, and two 
following Sundays, in violation of the statute. « 

The first ten defendants having answered to their names, Samuel Rimell, J.ohn 
Barnard, and Philip Bradley, constables of the H division, were called. They proved 
that the prisoners were driving large numbers of cattle along the streets of the dis- 
trict from the Dublin wharf. Lower East Smithfield, to the lairs at Hackney-wick, 
on the three Sundi^s mentioned, between ten and five o'clock. 

The defendants, on being asked if they knew they were doing wrong in driving 
cattle through the streets during the prohibited hours, said they were obliged to do 
so, and that the cattle must either remain on board the ships which brought them 
over, or be driven through the streets to the lairs, for there was no room for them 
on the Dublin-wharf. One of the defendants, mtk one hundred oxen, said, Here is 
my certificate from the veterinary surgeon, and that is enough. 

In answer to questions by Mr Partridge, the witnesses said the cattle seemed to be 
healthy, and were driven over the streets at a very rapid pace. There was no room 
for cattle to remain at the Dublin wharf. They must either be driven away directly 
after they were landed, or be sufibcated. 

Mr Partridge said that Mr Price, the superintendent of the Dublin wharf, and Mr 
Kidd, of the St Katharine's Steam-packet Wharf, who represented the General Steam 
Navigation Company, were both in attendance. He asked them if they had any 
observations to make. 

Mr Price said there was great difficulty in carrying out law as it stood. The pro- 
prietors and managers of the wharf did their utmost, on all occasions, to prevent 
iinoyance and inconvenience to their neighbours and the public. Although the cer- 
tificate of the veterinary surgeon, that it was necessary to remove the cattle, was in 
the possession of every drover, he knew that would not justify a violation of the law. 
He could assure the magistrate the necessities of a large and important trade in 
foreign cattle required that they should be landed on Sundays. Everything possible 
i^oidd be done to avoid complaint, and he hoped the magistrate, in the exercise of 
a wise discretion, would visit lightly the offences of a number of honest and industri- 
ous men who could not afford to pay heavy prices. The drovers are appointed by 
the master-drovers. We have no control over them. They are the deputies of the 
consignees. 

Mr Kidd said that all the cases were from the Dublin Wharf, and that none were 
from the St Katluuine's Wharf, which he represented. The necessities of the cattle 
trade rendered it.almost imperative that foreign stock should be landed on Sundays. 
As Sir Richard Mayne, the Chief Commissioner of Police, had expressed his willing- 
ness to receive a depntation on the subject of the regulations for cattle-driving gene- 
rally, he and Mr Price would avail themselves of Sir Richard Mayne's kindness and 
courtesy, and wait upon him for the purpose of obtaining some alterations, giving 
better accommodation to the trade and avoiding any infraction of the law. 

Mr Partridge thought the General Steam Navigation Company, with their resources, 
could have avoided the driving of cattle during the prohibited hours on Sundays. 

Mr Kidd. — No, Sir, we can't always avoid it. 

Mr Partridge said the duty of the magistrates was simply a ministerial one. The 
law prohibited the driving of cattle over the streets of the metropolis between ten 
and five o'clock on Sundays at all, and under any circumstances, and only before and 
after those hours with a veterinary surgeon's certificate that it was necessary for the 
health of the cattle that they should be driven from the wharves to the lairs. He 
had nothing to do with the policy or the impolicy of the law. If it was a bad law, 
those whom it affected must take the usual constitutional means to effect an altera- 
tion or repeal As long as the law existed he and his colleague must see it fairly 
carried out He had adjourned the sumnnnses that he might see the wharves for 
the landing of foreign cattle. Through the civility and attention of Mr Price and 
Mr Kidd, he and Mr Paget, his colleague, had visited the wharves of the General 
Steam Navigation Company at Blackwall and St Katharine's, the Dublin Wharf, and 
the Britiflli and Foreign Wharf. At Blackwall the General Steam Navigation Com- 
pany had provided laxge accommodation for the landing and storing of cattle^ ^itk 



110 CATTLE TRAFFIC ON SUNDAY — THAMES POLICE COUBT, 

slaughter-hoases; and a plentiful supply of water. He thought there was room 
enough there for all the cattle imported into the port of London, and they could be 
driyen to their lairs from Blackwall without passing through any of the crowded 
streets. He considered it a nuisance for cattle to he driven through the crowded 
streets of the metropolis on any day. At St Katharine's Wharf, also belonging to 
the General Steam Kayigation Company, there was a great deal of accommodation 
for cattle. At the DubUn and British and Foreign Wharves, extra building and 
sheds were being erected for the accommodation of cattle. At present they were not 
ready. When completed they would be capable of accommodating a large quantity 
of cattle. With thdse questions, however, he had nothing to do. If by any arrange- 
ment all foreign cattie could be landed at Blackwall, and not be brought up the Pool 
to be landed at wharves in the vicinity of narrow, crowded, and inconvenient streets 
and lanes, without detriment to the interests of other whai^ngers, it would be a very 
great advantage. Blackwall was nearer to the lairs than Lower East Smithfield and 
St Katharine's. He had been in consultation with Mr Paget, and they had resolved 
that, in future, not only the cattle-drovers should be summoned, but all those who 
employed them should be proceeded against, and the law strictly carried out Hence- 
forth the full penalty of 408. would be inflicted for any offence. At present the 
whole of the defendants would not be fined, but ordered to pay 2s. each for costs. 

A number of other drovers were then called, and addressed in a similar strain. 
They were ordered to pay 28. each, and told that employers, as well as men, must be 
summoned in future, and the fine would be 40s. for each offence. 

Mr Wilmot, of No. 19 Lower East Smithfield, complained that cattle landed at the 
wharves there had been frequently standing for three hours on Sundays, and other 
days, in front of his house. The annoyance was very great ; no one could pass in 
and out while the cattle were there. Foot passengers were put to inconvenience, and 
the street was blocked up while the cattle were there. 

Mr Partridge said he must refer the applicant to the police of the district. 

Mr Wilmot said he had done that before. The police seemed powerless. They 
could hot or would not act to put down a great and increasing nuisance. He made 
complaints at that court several weeks ago, and sought redress elsewhere, without 
avail. 

Mr Partridge was sorry to hear it. He was surprised to hear that cattle were kept 
before a man's house in a narrow street for three hours. He could afford no remedy. 
He was there only to hear cases brought before him in a regular manner. He had 
nothing to do with the regulations or the government of the police force. — The 
Times of Saitwdayf January 7, 1865. 



At a meeting of the Court of Examiners, held on Tuesday, December 20, at 10 
Red liion Square, the following gentlemen having undergone the necessaiy exami- 
nations for the diploma, were admitted members of the body corporate : — Mr Richard 
Wyer, Folkingham; Mr Alex. Floyer, Floore, Northamptonshire; Mr Willhun GUtra, 
Hampstead, Middlesex. 



BALLA17TTNS AND CO., FRIXTKRfl, EDIKBUROH. 



THE VETERINAKY REVIEW 

t AND 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS AND CASES. 



ON THE MANAGEMENT OF HORSES. 

{Continued from page 75.) 

In conformity with our programme, we proceed with the discussion 
on the management of horses generally, not restncting our remarks 
to such customs or requirements as apply to any one class ox breed of 
horses. 

Horses can only pay for breeding, either to keep, or for speculation, 
when they are so managed that a large proportion of them reach a high 
state of perfection, and when only few fall below average merit, and 
consume forage without rendering equivalent service, whatever be the 
purpose for which they are intended. 

Miose owners who keep horses for extraordinary purposes — the turf 
or the field — ^will necessarily fail to have more than a due proportion of 
select stock that will reach the required standard — that being a relative 
and not an absolute one ; therefore it forms part of good management 
to adapt, betimes, every horse to his proper work ; the animal that is 
pronounced worthless by one man for a given object, proves a good 
horse with another for a di£ferent purpose. 

In so far as the choice of parent stock influences the issue, though 
that stands first in the order of importance, it forms, after all, but one 
stage in the business of breeding ; and unless every step in the pro- 
cedure is well understood and efficiently prosecuted, inferior horses 
only will be found among the produce on trial. Without good 
culture, the best bred horses will fail to propagate their like, any more 
than choice specimens of pedigree wheat can be expected to give 
profitable returns if sown on an unredeenfed bog, or land in every 
way unsuited. 

All experience confirms that which sound reasoning will affirm, 
viz., — that horse management is not what many insinuate, a matter of 
chance or of luck ; but, like everything else on which human intelligence 
and industry are employed, the return is relative to the appliances. 

Some data applying to the laws of life and health are essential to 
the production and preservation of all species of animals, Tield \w \v\^\v. 
VojL J. — No. III—New Sebieb. March 1865. A 



112 ON THE MANAGEMENT OF HORSES. 

estimation for their use ; and especially do these remarks apply to the 
case of horses, seeing the purposes for which they are required, and 
the trials, of endurance and other qualities, to which they are exposed. 

In treating of the indispensable requirements for horses in all stages 
of existence, we may class these in the first place under three heads, 
viz., — Air, Aliment, and Exercise ; each of these in turn to be analysed 
and reduced to intelligible proportions. 

Pure air, in free circulation, is the first requirement of the horse, 
from the instant of birth to his death ; too much importance cannot, 
therefore, be attached to the question of ventilation. 

Ventilation of stables, as of human dwellings, has occupied much 
attention, and the subject has become better understood during the 
present century than at its commencement. To the devotees of veteri- 
nary science is due much of the initiative influence in making the 
general move in the question of pure air to breathe. Professor Cole- 
man, availing himself of the power his position gave him, made the 
subject of ventilation the most important of all his public services ; 
and it is our belief, as it was stated authoritatively forty years ago, 
that much evidence was brought together in a short time, by observ- 
ing horses, which could not have been acquired with equal facility 
in hospitals, or in any way where men were found congregated in 
large numbers. 

Understood as the subject of ventilation now is, we might have 
refrained from going at length into it ; but we draw the distinction 
between the question being clearly known by some, and of its being 
ill-appreciated and little acted on by the many. 

As regards the proper measures to be taken, much difierence of 
opinion prevails amongst even reflecting men. Then there are many 
who think little, and who yet are called practical managers, though by 
investigation it will be found, that thoroughly good horse-management 
prevails more exceptionally than as the rule. 

When speaking of ventilation in reference to stables, two things 
are commonly implied and confounded under the single word — 
temperature and impurity of atmosphere. "Hot and foul stables" is a 
commonly-heard phrase, yet, though the two phenomena may exist 
together — viz., excess of warmth and impurity of air — it is not neces- 
sary, and only occasionally that it is so. Horses may be breathing 
impure air the temperature of which is down at freezing point, or be 
in a pure atmosphere in which the thermometer would exhibit a 
temperature as high as that of the animal body ; in other words, a 
noxious stable may be twice or even thrice as cool as one that is pure ; 
in allowing for so great a difierence, however, seasons and climate 
must be taken into account. It is for the purpose of illustration 
chiefly that we adduce the example. 

That there has been, and still exists, good reason for confounding 
hot and foul stables, when crying out against badly- ventilated stables, 
we admit. Stables, constructed by the ablest of architects, are often 
found excessively hot, and the air within highly impure ; in which 



ON THE MANAGEMENT OF HORSES. 113 

case, one cause alone produces the twofold effect, — viz., the closing 
up of windows and other apertures where ingress and egress of air 
might freely ga on. The number of animals in a given space will 
also affect the question. 

That, however, which we wish to make clear is, that horses, or any 
animals, may and often do suffer from the twofold depressing evils, 
of cold and damp localities, amidst exhalations which are the con- 
stituent elements of pestilential air. 

It is, of course, not for the physiological chemist or the scientific 
architect that the foregoing is written ; there are, however, many 
beyond that fractional few, to whom, it is believed, it may not be un- 
acceptable to have their attention drawn to a matter so important. 

It is less our aim to go systematically into details on ventilation 
than to make suggestions bearing on principles to guide in the 
matter. Nor would prescribed rules as to the space of building 
necessary for each horse, and the measurement and distribution of 
apertures, be of much avail in this place. It is not the building of 
stables, but the knowledge how to use those at our command, which 
we are trying to point out. Therefore, when we say that open surface 
drainage, free use of the besom for clearing away early accumulations 
of dung, and that the apertures be ample, so that no offensive odour 
or dampness on the walls or windows is to be found, we have indi- 
cated some of the most urgent requirements. Opening and shutting 
of windows is not the way to ventilate stables — not that we object to 
air passing in and out of the windows — but it is because men in 
charge of horses (not through obstinacy or disobedience, but for want 
of knowledge) commonly open the window in the morning, by which, 
with the current passing through the door, and horses moving out 
and in, and the stable kept clean, the air is suflSciently pure ; but 
when evening comes men feel chilly, and many of them have vague 
and mysterious ideas about night air, and therefore let as little of it 
enter the stable as possible ; accordingly the windows are closed, and 
the poor horses are shut up to breathe an atmosphere over and over 
again for eight hours and more, during which time we have an 
exhausted condition of the air for respirable purposes, every atom 
of it having been brought many times in contact with the lung- 
cells and the pores of the skins of the animals. Therefore wo always 
want open spaces for the free circulation of air in stables ; and when- 
ever glass windows stand in our way, and the means of opening are 
wanting, we clear the passage by breaking a sufficient number of 
panes for the requirement. 

The sound precept reminding us that all extremes should be 
avoided, has its application in the ^ case under consideration; as 
regards horses, this subject of ventilation has been treated in a great 
measure as if any amount of exposure to the open air may be borne 
by the horse with impunity ; by which doctrine, and its application 
in practice, evils in a twofold direction have resulted ; — in the first 
place, much harm to horses by exposure; and, secoiidVj^Vj ^TAfe*^ 



114 ON THE MANAGEMENT OF HOESES. 

vouring to enforce the adoption of irrationally-entertained notions, 
men refuse to follow the instructions, and therefore the required 
reform is obstructed, because it was not presented in a right, prac- 
ticable, and well-defined manner. 

We have one word, peculiarly English, which, when treating on 
this subject, is sufficient to leaven a large volume, — that is, " Com- 
fort." Horses, like men, require to be made comfortable ; and when 
we see a horse confined to a limited space, with little room to move, 
and no choice of cover and protection from cold, we regard his case 
somewhat like that of a man who is made to sit in the village stocks. 

Language is seldom more perverted and abused than when men 
inconsiderately speak of nature or of following her ; under such cover, 
the most preposterous things are said and cruel actions prompted. 

We in England, or those in other parts of civilised Europe, can 
hardly conceive the true state of a horse in his natural and free liberty. 
It is easy to understand the state of smaller animals, whose wants are 
readily supplied, both of food and shelter ; but the horse differs as 
much from these in design and wants, as does the elephant from the 
giraffe. The horse likes warmth and dry ground ; and that which 
instinctively the animal selects and rejects, is found in practice, as 
might safely have been taken for granted in theory, to be most con- 
genial to his system, or noxious, as the case may be. 

Men devoted to field-sports, besides being the chief cultivators of 
the breeds of horses, are also, to no inconsiderable extent, the owners 
of all descriptions of them ; and it is often surprising to observe how 
profoundly some gentlemen study the natural history of the game 
they hunt ; whether in pursuit of a fox or a fish, the whereabouts of 
the game is reckoned on according to the state of the weather. As 
the huntsman rides to cover on a windy and rainy morning, he tells 
his gentlemen that he shall draw in a different line of country to that 
which had been the day before fixed on, because the woods then con- 
templated are not sufficiently dry and warm to shelter a fox in such 
"gather, therefore he tries the sheltered hillside or plantation. Mean- 
wnile it seldom occurs to those sportsmen, so thoroughly cognisant of 
the facts in the case of the fox, that the laws of nature, and the 
sentinels which instinct establishes, are all-powerful aijd peremptory 
in the horse ; and that, by violating these, great injury is done to 
that animaL While the fur-clad fox and the hare can make choice 
of a retreating place soft and dry, if we look how the horse fares, 
we shall find him very differently circumstanced ; confined to the 
bleak field or paddock, may be a shed, or even the spacious box of a 
few yards in diameter, with its cold brick or stone wall, and the 
naked tiled roof ; to compare the horse under any of these conditions 
with other animals, small and great, and nature s freedom, is a nega- 
tion of nature's privileges, and such custom is in violatipn of nature's 
laws. Horse managers may go with profit to the Zoological Society's 
unrivalled establishment in the Kegent's Park, where, rationally and 
scientifically, each species of animal is kept as its natural habits re- 



INFLUENZA. 115 

quire. WhUe young horses are exposed to the rain and the wind, 
with their feet perpetually in a quagmire, they are in a condition 
which in nature's free state they would be exempt from, as much as 
the sleek fox ; and if we look at the adult horses in use, while many 
are pampered and clad under two or more suits, let them be stripped, 
and we find them clipped, singed, or shaven as naked as an unfledged 
rook, and almost as ill adapted to be exposed to the ordinary weather 
encountered in everyday work. 

{To be continued.) 



Influenza : Being the Substance of a Paper read before the North 
of England Veterinary Medical Association by the Hon. Sec, 
Mr 6. Abmatage, V.S. to the Right Hon. the Earl Vane. 

** A Protean disease !" Such is the term employed to denote 
the character of that affection usually — and for a considerable num- 
ber of years past — known by the title of " Influenza," an Italian 
word signifying " influence,** 

In whatever light the tendencies of our Veterinary Medical Asso- 
ciation may be viewed, no higher standard of efficiency and usefulness 
can be claimed for it than under its present constitution, — the bring- 
ing together of the members of one profession, men almost of every 
shade of opinion, — all uniting with one common impulse, energy, and 
design, to fathom the impenetrable depths and mysteries of such dis- 
eases as that I propose to illustrate for present consideration ; and 
no occupation can be more ennobling to any community that shall 
undertake such pursuits, in which mankind in general shall reap a 
corresponding share of the resulting advantages and reward. 

A long pull, a strong pull, and a pull altogether, and we reach the 
haven of our desire. ^ 

It is not my intention to occupy your time with any critical dis- 
quisition on the history and ravages of influenza, as it has occurred 
during the past one hundred years ; suffice it, then, to state, that the 
disease occurred with more or less malignancy as early as 1733, and 
has continued at intervals of longer or shorter duration up to the 
present time. 

For a complete description of these outbreaks from the time above 
named to the year 1840, I must refer you to the fifth and ninth 
volumes of the Veterinarian, and the treatise on influenza by Mr 
W. C. Spooner, M.RC.V.S., Southampton. 

for the past thirty years we may trace its destructive effects upon 
our horses ; cattle and sheep even in some instances not escaping, — 
at one time assuming the mild form of a catarrhal affection, termi- 
nating in others in typhoid pneumonic, pneumo-enteric, or malignant 
pustidar and gangrenous disease ; hence the denomination " Protean 



116 INFLUENZA. 

By many writers it appears under the ambiguous title of ** epi- 
demic catarrh ;" and from its virulence at times, and under particular 
circumstances, as " malignant epidemic." With the exception of the 
characters as signified by such terms, English authors have hitherto 
been comparatively silent with regard to this disease, or otherwise 
have not given to it that important place which its nature and ten- 
dencies call for. 

Percival, who left the afiection altogether unnoticed in his lectures, 
treats of it in one part of his work on Hippo-pathology as ** bron- 
chitis, or influenza ;" and under the head of Fever.^, in vol. i., gives it 
a place under the recognised title; but from the short account there 
given, extending over six and a half pages, while thirteen and a half 
are devoted to the consideration of " strangles," immediately follow- 
ing — a disease by no means considered a fatal one — we may reason- 
ably imagine that the specific characters attributed to it in these days 
had not then become permanently recognised. 

Youatt calls it "catarrhal fever,*' "distemper among horses and 
cattle;" and with White, the writer on cattle pathology, confounds 
" epidemic catarrh" in the bovine species with " murrain/' or " vesi- 
cular epizootic/' 

Blaine speaks of the " epidemic catarrh" of horses and cattle, but 
appears to have noticed one form only of the complaint. 

Our continental brethren, who have had a full share of its ravages, 
appear not to have been so well satisfied vrith the term as ourselves, 
and have described several forms. 

There are several points with regard to this afiection which I wish 
to adduce for consideration, reserving others of a minor character for 
being dealt with in the discussion which is to follow :— 

1. What is the nature of influenza? 

2. What are the causes, proximate and.remote ? 

3. What is the treatment necessarily indicated by these consi- 

derations ? 

First, then, the nature of influenza. 

Professor Bering enumerates three distinct forms — the Catarrho- 
rheumatic. Gastric or Bilious Eheumatic, and the Gastro-erysipelatous. 

In our own coiintry, however, we have not been able to draw the 
line of demarcation so closely, symptoms which constitute the whole 
being more or less mixed upon each attack ; though difierences have 
been noted of various outbreaks which characterise the afiection as 
partaking of special predominating tendencies. 

During the autumn and winter of 1854, and spring of the follow- 
ing year, a great number of cases came under my observation and 
treatment, exhibiting all the characters of a gastro-rheumatic nature, 
extreme cases only partaking of the pneumonic complications ; for an 
account of which I refer you to an article furnished by me to the 
Veterinarian in July 1855. In the January number of that jour- 
nal for 1856, an account of the same afiection is given by Mr. B. 
Carthdge; and further observations on infiuenza noted by myself in 



INPLXmNZA. 117 

the March and April numbers for that year, which specify the par- 
ticular symptoms demonstrative of the disease. Subsequently to the 
publication of these memoirs, viz., in the following winter, and spring 
of 1857, the same disease exhibited ophthalmic and erysipelatous 
complications, which proved in most cases of a very troublesome 
character. 

Percival, at page 147, vol i. of the work already referred to, con- 
siders this malady "specific" in its nature, — "that is," says he, "a 
disease of a peculiar land," as deduced from the facts that — 

First, Because it breaks out at particular seasons, raging more in 
some localities than in'^others. 

Second, Because it is less under the power of remedies than com- 
mon fever. 

Third, Because of its variety of combinations, which remove it 
wholly from simple diseases. 

The term " specific," as applied to influenza, appears to me to con- 
sist principally in the strange tendency or precfisposition towards a 
rapid and early appearance of debility, accompanied by a strangely 
peculiar sensitiveness to certain medicaments, while to others the 
system is altogether incapable of response ; and even with regard to 
these, certain stages of the aSection have been known to efiect a 
complete reversion of the phenomena usually attendant upon their 
administration. 

That excessive prostration of aM vital powers which so rapidly follows 
upon the track of the proximate symptoms, evidently arises from the 
arrest placed at such an early period upon the organs of assimilation. 
Nutrition is thus wanting, and materials of a highly elaborate char- 
acter which should be formed, specially adapted to the maintenance 
of those functions essential to life, those of the nervous system, are but 
scantily developed, and at best but as most inferior productions as 
far as purity is concerned. This in turn failing to supply the re- 
quisite demands of organs dependent upon the sensations for all that 
constitutes, action, that great distributor gives as it receives — en- 
feebled life — ^receiving less and giving less, its own share contributing 
in no small degrjse to its special and perfect destruction. 

Vascular engorgement, and its inevitable result, — serous effusion 
through the dilated, stretched, and thin coats of weakened and inac- 
tive blood-vessels, lacking their proper stimulus, occurs at a quickly 
succeeding epoch; and in proportion as it takes place in parts of im- 
portance must we expect the natural functions to be additionally 
disturbed, suspended, or even totally arrested. 

I look upon ** influenza' as a disease induced in the "appropria- 
tive and eliminative systems," — disease of those wonderfully elaborate 
structures which are occupied in the production and appropriation 
of nervous energy, animal heat, &c., and perpetuation of those forces 
so essential to the whole which we denominate " vital ;" and also 
those which are delegated to the equally necessary and important 
office of secernation. 



118 INFLUENZA. 

Can we wonder, then, that nervous power should decline? that 
animal heat should be no longer formed, when materials for their 
propagation and support are not furnished ? 

Can we feel surprised that blood should become impure when organs 
for its purification, — by separating from it the misound and delete- 
rious elements, — are denied the power of action, nervous and struc- 
tural ? 

And can we feel bewildered when serious complications take place 
as an inevitable result of the perversion of all* those wondrous func- 
tions ? 

Disease of these minute structures I consider to be caused by a 
morbid ferment introduced within the circulatory system, by which 
vital force is more or less withdrawn ; and hence we have impeded 
circulation throughout the whole capillary system, vascular engorge- 
ment, suspension of the formation of all essential vital principles, 
sudden prostration, passive effusion without the power of becoming 
organised, internal combustion is not proceeded with, and excretion 
of all eflfete and hurtful products contemporaneously arrested, — the 
whole combining in producing within the system causes which are 
specially exerted towards its own destruction. 

Post-mortem appearances fully justify the conclusions arrived at, 
and treatment successfully pursued in accordance with inferential 
deductions perfectly ratify their soundness. 

I will not trespass on your time by an enumeration of the various 
symptoms, — an unnecessary proceeding in this instance, — ^and there- 
fore pass to the second portion of our subject. 

Second, What are the causes of influenza ? 

These may be enumerated thus : — 

First, Proximate — a low, weak, and vitiated state of fluids and 
solids ; inertia of the vital powers ; and total absence of all conditions 
which destroy parts, or the system, by violent and powerful actions, 
induced by continued exposure to some or all of the following : — 

Second, Remote causes. These may be further subdivided into— 
a. Predisposing ; and b. Exciting. 

a. Predisposing. — Hereditary taint ; ill-conditioned, badly-drained, 
and ill-ventilated habitations ; insuflScient food, or of questionable 
quality ; with other causes which tend to reduce the tone of the sys- 
tem, as the indiscriminate use of cooling or purgative medicines ; 
hard work long continued ; and in conjunction with the above, the 
process of depilation ; imperfect mastication on account of defective 
molars ; and subjection to diseases previously of various kinds, as 
strangles, colds, pneumonia, bronchitis, &c. 

6. The exciting causes are doubtless some of the above in excess, — 
exposure to extreme states of temperature suddenly; subjection to an 
atmosphere charged with morbific matter thrown off from animals 
severely affected ; the influence of easterly cold winds, other atmo- 
spheric conditions, and peculiarities of a profound and delicate nature 
too subtle for recognition by ordinary sense. 



INFLUENZA. 119 

Influenza I believe to be decidedly contagious, particularly in 
advanced pneumonic stages ; and I am inclined also to the belief that 
the disease has in no measure differed at the present period, in its 
material characters of a malignant typhoid and variable type, from 
those outbreaks of which we read as having occurred thirty or forty 
years ago, excepting, probably, that it has not been so prevalent, a 
result of the adoption of better understood principles of feeding, 
housing, and ventilation, &c. 

Third, What line of treatment is necessarily indicated by these 
considerations ? 

To this I would reply, briefly — That which soothes, supports, and 
raises the prostrate vital powers ; not violent and powerfully exciting 
agents : these must be strictly avoided. Pure air, even temperature, 
warm clothing, quiet, and seclusion, with an earnest attendant trained 
to implicit obedience, and well-directed domestic treatment, and half 
the means of cure are already in the hands of the veterinary surgeon. 

By soothing, supporting, and stimulating treatment, I would imply 
the effects derivable from the employment of such agents as the 
Acetate of Ammonia, the Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia, ai^d the Sesqui- 
carbonate in the solid fonn. These being used in conjunction with 
Belladonna or Hyoscyamus extract, prove very useful in reducing the 
frequency of the irritable and weak pulse of this disease, while cor- 
respondingly the nervous energy is restored and strengthened. Am- 
monia^ in its various forms, has proved a priceless agent in my hands ; 
and when combined in the solid form, with the Pulv. Scillse, and Ext. 
Bellad., given two or three times a day, the most irritable cough, 
defiant though it be, has rapidly given way ; besides the relief experi- 
enced by the conjested lungs and membranes of the respiratory track. 

Precursory diarrhoea is best treated with 01. Lini, and li. Opii, 
with Ammonia in one of the forms. Gastric irritation will also be 
benefited by relieving the bowels, for which I have preferred the 
oleaginous dose with Ammonia and the extract, viewing this form of 
complication more as the result of reflex nervous action than absolute 
impaction. Mr Gamgee recommends Cape Aloes ; these I have not 
used ; but of Barbadoes Aloes and Opium, except in the first stages of 
diarrhoea, have always produced with me greater harm than good — 
the former by their peculiar nauseant and depressant effect, and the 
latter by its influence on the brain, if repeated, — an effect not desirable 
in this affection. 

Ophthalmic-Rheumatic and Rachialgic complications, I have treated 
successfully with Potassii lodidum, and Potassae Nitras with alternat- 
ing doses of the Ammonias Acetas, when the symptoms appeared to 
call for its use. 

Blisters, rowels, and setons I have condemned as barbarous and 
unscientific in this disease, never having witnessed real good from 
their use. 

Anasarca will require in some instances scarification, and the use 
of mild diuretics, externally as well as internally. The former I 



] 20 INFLUENZA. 

have found of extreme benefit — when applied in the way about to be 
described — to horses in which the appearance of a permanently en- 
larged limb would prove of great detriment to appearances. 

The leaves of the Folium digitalis are used as a strong infusion, 
with the carbonate of soda, made by pouring boiling water on both 
in a pail — three or four ounces of the former to half a pound of the 
latter — and when cool applied by means of a bandage, kept constantly 
wet, by being poured from the top in small but oft-repeated quantities. 

The condition of the circulating fluid is also a question which con- 
cerns us much. Having lost its floating medium, by effusion more 
6r less into various parts of the body, we must endeavour to compen- 
sate for it by the administration of such medicines as will act with 
special direction in this particular. I have used the Potasses Bicar- 
bonas, Sodae Hyposulphis, Ammoniae Carbonas, &c., with peculiar 
advantage, and which would be further manifest a hundredfold when 
the returning appetite allowed the consumption of Swedish turnips, 
carrots, cabbage, clover, and such edibles, with hay-tea as drink ; 
these articles containing the very elements of which the sanguiferous 
system were utterly destitute, and particularly needed by the whole ^ 
frame, to insure the life of the animal. ^ 

Another question in connexion with the vital fluid, the blood, 
which demands important consideration at our hands, is the propriety 
of bleeding in influenza. My own belief is, that the proceeding 
is unwarrantable and uncalled for ; the quickly succeeding weakness 
of extreme characters being alone a sufficient reason for its avoidance. 
To preserve the quality of this fluid is to preserve life in this disease ; 
and to remove it from the system, we do not include the rekl cause. 

Absolute purgation is equally reprehensible. , 

Transfusion, in extreme cases, and the employment of some of the 
Phosphates anTi Sulphites, are courses open to our consideration. 

Such is an imperfect outline of my ideas in reference to this most 
destructive disease ; much more might have been said ; -indeed, the 
subject is inexhaustible, and concerns us much ; but I have endea- 
voured rather to provoke thought and discussion, than to be minute 
in descriptive detail, a course more in keeping with the objects for 
which we are met. 

Minor details of the nature, causes, and treatment of influenza, are 
purposely omitted from these propositions — debate must fill up the 
space. 



THOUGHTS IN THE SICK BOX. 121 



Thoughts in the Sick Box — " Influenza** By Thomas Greaves, 
M.R.C.V.S., Manchester. 

Thebe is perhaps no disease which presents to the close observer 
more deeply interesting phenomena than those developed in a 
patient as influenza propeeds through its various stages. The dili- 
gent inquirer cannot be a witness, and permit them to pass without 
contemplating them, and endeavouring to glean from them some use- 
ful knowledge which can be turned to advantage in succeeding cases. 
This disease has been very prevalent lately in many of the large towns 
and cities of England, and in some places has been attended with 
great fatality ; and I look upon it as a duty of every professional man 
to contribute whatever knowledge he can for one another's good ; and 
it is to me a source of great consolation to know that the veterinary 
surgeon of the present day is so much more competent to combat it, 
and consequently to save many lives which would have been sacrificed 
in the days of our forefathers. Still, we are yet far from comprehend- 
ing fully the true nature of this malady ; but, I presume, all men 
ere this are satisfied of the vital importance of fresh cool air, diff*us-_ 
able stimulants, vegetable and mineral tonics. I also presume that 
no man now-a-days bleeds or purges in this disease ; but I am bold 
to believe that there are still many scientific physiological questions 
concerned in this disease which have not received that full investiga- 
tion which, I think, their importance demands. And since science 
does not shun light, or affect mystery, nor does it trade in ignorance or 
cupidity, I am anxious to stimulate thought, and to arouse inquiry, 
upon some of these points, which I conceive should be better under- 
stood by us than they are at present. I will endeavour to show what 
I mean by putting three questions. 

Firstly, What is the first and real cause of the disease, and the 
exact mod'us operandi of attack ? 

Secondly, What is the clear and correct explanation of the debility? 

Thirdly, What is the small pulse dependent upon ? 

To say, " Influenza is, like many other epidemics, referable to some 
putrescence or deleterious state of the atmosphere ; that it is imbibed 
into the system during the process of respiration ; that it produces a 
certain mystical effect upon the nervous system, thereby prostrating 
the vital powers," is, to my mind, a very ambiguous answer — a very 
inconclusive hypothesis. The information I want is more definite — 
more self-evident. We see the exhaustion ; but in what manner has 
that effect been produced ? Let us not evade, but try to unravel 
these questions. We see, in a few hours after the attack, the rest- 
lessness in the legs and feet, the general lassitude, the eyelids so 
swollen that the eye is completely closed up, and constant weeping ; 
in some bad cases a discharge of positive pus from the eyes, and 
blindness for many days. In some cases there are malignant pustules 
and extensive desquamating, sloughing about the jaws or legs, ot ^.w 



122 THOUGHTS IN THE SICK BOX. 

inveterate discharge from the nostrils, simulating glanders; pulse, for 
the first or second twenty-four or forty-eight hours, 88 or ] 00 per 
minute ; but small, almost too little, too feeble to be distinctly taken, 
even with the utmost care, and with the greatest nicety of touch, an 
almost bloodless pulse. 

Generally speaking, influenza is an ephemeral disturbance, and 
where proper treatment is resorted to, As only occasionally fatal I 
have had a goodly number under my care during the last two months, 
and my treatment has been attended, upon the whole, with satisfactory 
results. In one stable of sixty-five horses, perhaps the largest and 
best cart-horses in the city of Manchester, thirty-five of them have 
been attacked ; the pulse of twelve of them reached 88 each, and five 
touched 100 beats in the minute. Of these, every case was success- 
ful. In two other stables, one thirty-eight and the other forty-two 
horses, almost every horse was attacked. In these stables I was not 
quite so successful I experienced considerable difficulty in conse- 
quence of the ventilation in these two stables not having been pro- 
perly carried out. Out of these two stables I had from time to time 
two at once, seventeen or eighteen of the worst cases brought into 
my own loose boxes, and their heads tied to the open door, paying 
constant attention to keeping the ears and skin of a natural tempera- 
ture. In each of these cAses they seemed to be at a standstill, eating 
nothing, pulse 88 or 96, and I could make no progress with them in 
their own stables ; but no sooner had they got into my boxes than 
they began to improve. They seemed to take a turn, and in two or 
three days their pulse came down to 40 or 44. Their appetite re- 
turned, and they went to their own stables convalescent. This result 
was the same in every instance, and under precisely the same 
medicinal treatment, viz. — medicines to disperse the tendency to con- 
gestion, and give increased vigour, such as Spts. Nit. Ether., Tinct. 
Piment. in draught, or Ammon. Carb., and ginger in ball. In some 
cases of universally thick coat, I clipped with magical eflfect. But 
more than this, and I invite particular and serious attention to this 
fact, viz — that in every case the pulse was found to have got up 
eight, twelve, or eighteen beats per minute on the day after they 
returned to their own stable ; but having got over the crisis, they 
continued to eat and improve. I look upon these instances as proof 
positive of the good effects of fresh air. I had in these stables coke 
fires, constantly burning day and night, and immovable grates. I have 
seen only one case of secon^ attack ; it was in an old horse, and he 
died. I have seen no clear instance of an affected animal propagat- 
ing it to a healthy one. I made a post-mortem examination of the 
above horse, and other old horses that died of influenza. In these 
cases I have found eff'usion into the chest or pericardium, and this, 
to all appearance, without having been preceded by any inflammatory 
action. In no case have I employed mustard or blister to the sides 
or breast ; but I have attended post-mortem examinations of 
horses which have died under the treatment of other practitioner?, 



THOUGHTS IN THE SICK BOX. 123 

where mustard and blister to the sides^ throat, and breast had been 
employed, but all in vain. And in such cases I felt constrained to 
form an opinion, that if pure fresh cool air had been supplied from 
the first, and the counter irritation had beeji wholly omitted, they 
would have lived to face the storm again. I have also examined 
horses where neither immaturity nor senility favoured the complaint, 
and where all the vital organs were free from disease ; but in every 
instance I have found the heart affected, and I beg to call particular 
attention to this fact, viz., — that one ventricle of the heart contained 
black coagulum by itself, and the other ventricle contained lymph by 
itself. In other cases, the two component parts of the blood had 
separated, but were coagulated, and had collected in one or both 
ventricles. Now, I am of opinion that this state may exist to a cer- 
tain extent for many days prior to death, and further, I am of opinion 
that it is possible for it to be wholly removed ; but whilst this 
clot exists in the heart, be it ever so small a body, it will produce in 
exact ratio an inability in the heart to perform its natural functions. 
It interferes more or less with the action of the tricuspid and bicuspid 
valves,, impeding the blood in its transit. Hence the debility and 
exhaustion of the vital powers. There must be a diminished, if not 
suspended, vis a tergo, hence the small pulse. I feel convinced that 
every horse that dies of pure influenza, dies from sinking and 
syncope. And I can readily conceive the nervous debility of the 
heart being such that it cannot acquit itself, but is struggling and 
struggling on, beating upon the same charge of blood over and over 
again ; the heart being too feeble eflfectually to empty itself in its 
action, until at length it becomes tired out, and nature sinks from 
sheer exhaustion, and in this manner the flickering wane of life flows 
on tremulously, just as it is about to be ingulfed into the vortex of 
death. There may be some who will dispute my conclusions. I 
want some one to do so, and enable me fully to comprehend the 
nature of this 

" Clot of blood in the heart" 
It may be said it is a natural sequence ; but in this they would be in 
error. I have examined numbers of hearts, and it is nearly always 
found in cases of sudden deaths. This day I have spent two hours in 
the knackers' yard, and have examined eight hearts of horses that 
have died, I was told, of "influenza." The appearance of this 
coagulum diflFered in different hearts, but in all it was there. I am 
aware when blood coagulates slowly and settles of itself, whether it 
be in a vessel or a natural cavity, its constituents separate in accord- 
ance with the laws of gravitation and a loss of cohesive affinity, and 
in such cases the lymph is ^uppermost, and has the appearance and 
consistency of jelly, and is of a straw colour. But the appearance of 
the blood in these ventricles showed it had been agitated in the cavity 
for some considerable time, and that the valves and cords of the 
valves had acted like an egg whisk ; the fibrine of the blood had become 
attached in considerable quantities to the cords and valves, asaum- 



124j 



VETEEINARY RECORDS. 



ing the character and appearance of fibrous matter. No doubt, 
admitting of an escape back of some considerable quantity of blood 
each stroke. Of this I am certain, that the blood can separate in the 
bi)dy during life. I had an instance of this last summer — a case of 
pneumonia, aggravated by some hemoptisis. After death, one lobe of 
the lungs was found to be tumefied, and was twice the size and 
three times the weight of its fellow. Eight or ten ropes of 
coagulated blood had percolated into the air-passages or air-tubes, 
eight or ten inches long each ; some W them were pure straw-colour 
lymph, and the others pure black particles ; they had acted like so 
many sticks or foreign bodies thrust into the lungs. Hence the 
tumefaction, the other lobe being free from disease. 

Whether this condition of the heart, which I have now called 
attention to, is .a cause of that state called " influenza," or is simply 
a result of functional derangement, or some peculiar condition of the 
blood, I should be anxious to see cleared up. Since, if it is a cause, 
how satisfactory it would be to know assuredly that nature can 
remove such obstructions in so vital an organ. 



Veterinary Records. — By G. Armataoe, V.S. to the Right Hon. the 

Earl Vane. 



IMPROVED PORTABLE BALLING IRON. 

I FORWARD sketches of an improved Portable Balling Iron, which I 
designed about ten years ago. Carried in a leathern bag, attached 
to the side of the saddle behind the flap, it has proved extremely 
useful in many cases of emergency, when the mouth of a colt, &c., 
has required examination, and a balling iron would not have been 
accessible. Its general character may recommend itself to those who 
do not believe in loading their pockets toofuU with too many things. 
The properties claimed for the instrument are portability and appli- 
cability. The weight is only a few ounces, forged out of the best Low 
Moor iron, easily adjusted in a couple of seconds, perfectly secure 
when between the jaws, extremely simple in its construction, and 
not likely to become disarranged when the parts are fitted with 
accuracy. 




Fi^.l. 




Fig. 2. 



VBTERINAEY RECORDS. 1 25 

Fig. 1 represents the iron adjusted for use. 

Fig. 2 the satne when closed for the saddle-bag or pocket. 

A brief description will not be altogether unnecessary. 

The ring which admits the hand is composed of halves, the upper 
one being continuous with the elbow, turned up on the left, and a 
stud on the right. 

The lower having two buttons, one at each end, and a nick or 
channel groove, into which fits a keeper or staple, riveted upon the 
upper half, allowing the lower to be turned round ; the long arm on 
the left being turned down, secures the button on that side, and a 
box shackle, with movement shown by the dotted lines, on the 
opposite, holds that of the right ; the whole being held firmly in the 
left hand with the tongue when infuse, is perfectly secure against 
closure from pressure by the jaws. 

I may state that I have had one in constant use since first de- 
signed and made. My friend, Mr W. B. Taylor, M.E.C.V.S., Anston, 
near Eotherham, who also has had one a similar length of time, 
speaks of it with the highest satisfaction, both being at the present 
time as perfect as when executed. 



PREPARATION OF PINS FOR CLOSURE OF WOUNDS. 
(By the same.) 

To those veterinary surgeons who are in the daily use of pins for the 
closing of wounds, I need not point out the extreme diflSculty which 
often attends the passage of these useful agents through the skin in 
various partSfc^of the body, such as the hips, knees, &c., &c. ; many 
attempts to efiect which are frustrated by the bending, which suc- 
ceeds to the required pressure ; the fingers become sore when any 
number are required, and the patience of the animal well-nigh 
exhausted. 

To obviate the resulting inconveniences various remedies have 
been adopted, amongst which may be mentioned Sharkers Pliers for 
holding the pins or wire while they are being passed through the 
lips of the wound ; and, as far as appearances go, we are justified in 
saying the instrument certainly appears to have been executed by a 
first-rate artisan, and possesses all the characters of a very neat pro- 
duction. 

Another device, which has the recommendation of Mr Haycock, 
in his treatise on the " Principles and Practice of Veterinary Medi- 
cine and Surgery" — a drawing of which is supplied at page 107 of 
part 1st — consists of a kind of bodkin, supplied with a groove for 
the pin, and mounted in a handle raised from the line of the blade 
by a crank or double elbow. Having a fine point, it is intended to 
be forced through the skin, the pin being passed down the groove 
before it is withdrawn. 

The old pin-director diflFers from the above in being devoid of the 



126 VETERINARY RECORDS. 

double elbow, — that is, perfectly straight, and is a very awkward 
instrument. 

Besides these, there are other articles of necessity required, such 
as cutting pliers, which are either exhibited in a form merely for the 
purpose of snipping oflF the points of pins, cutting through suture 
wire, or otherwise are attached to a pair of large fleams ; and have 
little else to recommend them but the fact of their making one 
among a pregnant case of instruments, and uselessly adding to its 
weight. 

Tlie pin-directors, in my estimation, savour too much of the 
shoemaker's awl, which I have permanently discarded from my case. 
The pin-cutter I obtain from the curved scissors — ^which always form 
an accompaniment to all well provided pocket-cases — a notch being 
filed across the edge of each of the blades, high up in the throat, 
holds the pin, and cuts through it with the greatest ease. The pins 
I prepare as follows : — 

A piece of inch-square steel, the upper end of which is filed or faced 
up perfectly flat, and the lower drawn to a point for fixing in a piece of 
hard wood, (Fig. 3,) has a notch filed from the 
edge towards the centre, with a small triangular 
file, corresponding to the thickness of a pin ; -this 
is afterwards hardened, and placed in a suitable 
position, as in a vice or piece of wood. A pin 
is placed in the groove, and struck with a small 
hammer, then turned one-third round and struck 
again, which has the effect of giving a triangular 
or three-square point to it. Every one knows 
the greater ease with which a needle with such 
*^* * a point, or a flat one, entefs the skin, — a pro- 

perty which each pin acquires under the proceeding described, and 
completely obviates the use of pliers or directors of any kind. 

To prepare all kinds of pins in the manner described it will be 
necessary to have at least three groovies cut into the stake, varying 
from a carpet pin to that in use among dressmakers, &c., — a supply 
of which, vrith some soft twine, and the elbow scissors in the case, 
the practitioner is ready at all times to face the most extensive 
wound which admits of the application of sutures. 




%\t f eterinarg |lelrieb anb Biathbmxs lotirnaL 



PLEURO-PNEUMONIA IN CATTLE. 

The ever-recurring outbreaks of this disease, deuied by those who 
fear the adoption of any proper measures for the arrest of contagious 
disorders, deserve to be specially noticed at this period. Earely have 
the manifestations of this disease in town dairies and on farms been more 
numerous and severe in certain districts than they have been of late. 
Our own investigations prove that few of the lots of foreign cattle 
purchased during the past year have escaped decimation ; and since Mr 
Robertson's statement appeared in our last we have received informa- 
tion of wholesale destruction on several farms where foreign cattle have 
been wintered. One farmer said that he might lose half before clearing 
off the remnant in hand, whioh is at present in good condition ; and 
that owing to the small price at which the animals had been bought, 
and the sums realised from butchers for the diseased ones, he would 
not lose much, if anything, by the transaction. Another farmer, 
similarly circumstanced, was recently threatened with prosecution for 
permitting his infected stock to rest by the roadside, and remain 
where the cattle of his neighbours might catch the disease. And the 
third has lost heavily, but, as usual, keeps the secret. In the last 
instance, an additional reason for secrecy is to be found in the fact 
that the loser has been strenuously opposed to any measure of reform 
in relation to the diseased cattle traffic. We know of one instance 
where a large holding was recently stocked with a numerous herd of 
cattle, by ten distinct purchases, and every lot bought proved to be 
diseased. 

The most superficial observer cannot fail to be struck with the 
effectual manner in which farmers shun publicity concerning the 
prevaljnt outbreaks. This they accomplish by getting rid of their 
diseased cattle, by means which they only se^k to justify on the 
ground that remedy is hopeless, and the butcher is e\^t i^^^^ \»q 
Toi. l—No, III.— New Series. IIarcu 18C5. IS. 



128 cLiPPma sheep in winter. 

buy. It is also much to be deplored that secrecy is purchased at a 
dear price to the farmer, as no rational means of prevention have been 
adopted. We are prepared to demonstrate that on farms, and espe- 
cially amongst feeding stock, prevention is usually easy and certain ; 
and it is much to be desired that the agricultural societies, and, if 
necessary, Parliament, should adopt means for demonstrating to the 
country at large that even so insidious and fatal a plague as pleuro- 
pneumonia can be controlled in its progress by the adoption of 
means which are both inexpensive and pre-eminently successful 

The opposition we have met in advocating the interests of stock- 
owners, and of the public at large, can in no way deter us from 
prosecuting the subject to a successful issue. Those who cannot, or 
will not, yet see the good which must flow from the adoption of all 
measures calculated to limit the spread of contagious diseases, must 
sooner or later become converts to views which are acknowledged as 
sound, wherever cattle plagues have been properly studied. It is a 
lasting disgrace to our profession that some of its most influential 
members have sided with the least enlightened of the cattle-rearers 
of this country ; and never can it be forgotten that nearly a quarter 
of a century has elapsed since the introduction of the lung disease, 
without the institution of proper inquiries and experiments for the 
extermination of a murrain which should be, as it once was, entirely 
foreign to the British Isles. 



CLIPPING SHEEP IN WINTER. 

On Saturday, the 18th of February, a sheep salesman appeared at the 
Clerkenwell Police Court, to answer to a charge of having cruelly ill- 
treated sheep by exposing them in cold frosty weather when newly 
shorn. In drawing attention to the report, which we publish in the 
following pages, it is important to state that for several years past 
serious complaints have reached us of the very objectionable prac- 
tice of exposing newly-clipped sheep to the severe frosts of a winter 
season. The love of money induces men to inflict great cruelty on 
the lower animals in a variety of ways; but we cannot adduce 
instances of greater barbarity than those, of which a fair instance was 
exposed at Clerkenwell, before Mr D'Eyncourt. It is needless to 
comment on the practice of shearing in the dead of winter, with the 
thermometer far below freezing point, and the animals shorn pre- 



PBIZE ESSAYS OK THE DISEASES OF ANIMALS. 129 

vented even the chance of moving to and fro, to keep np a certain 
amount of animal heat. There should be no compromise in these 
cases henceforward ; and if the farmers or dealers find it very profit- 
able to send forth sheep to market without wool on their backs, 
warm coverings should be provided for them, to be applied so soon 
as the fleeces are shorn. As, however, people cannot be trusted to 
deal with animals thus humanely, there is no doubt that great atten- 
tion should be paid to the subject by the Royal Society for the Pre- 
vention of Cruelty to Animals. 



PRIZE ESSAYS ON THE DISEASES QF ANIMALS. 

We have on former occasions drawn attention to the fact that veteri- 
nary surgeons overlook the inducements oflTered them by agricultural 
societies to write on subjects specially suited to them. Farmers, 
medical men, shepherds, and others, carry off prizes which should at all 
events be competed for — ^and doubtless they would with success — ^by 
members of our profession. We are happy to learn that Mr George 
Armatage, veterinary surgeon, Pensher, has been awarded a prize 
by the Highland and Agricultural Society, for an essay on the foot 
and mouth disease. The same Society now offers further premiums 
for Reports; and in the list published, we notice that a gold medal, or 
ten sovereigns, will be given for the best Essay on the Diseases of 
Farm Horses. The subject is too vast and comprehensive for an 
essay of moderate length, and the prize is small ; but as the Reports 
need not be of an exhaustive character, many might write much, and 
well, even on diseases of farm horses in general, with profit to them- 
selves and others, for the simple honour of getting a gold medal 
We deem it our duty to urge our readers to devote some attention to 
competitions which too often pass over unheard of for want of being 
referred to in veterinary periodicals. 



130 NORTH OF ENGLAND VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

NORTH OF ENGLAND VETERINARY MEDICAL 
ASSOCIATION. 

The Annual General Meeting of this Association was held on Friday, 
January 20, at the Crown and Thistle Hotel, Newcastle- on-Tyne, a 
considerable number of members being present on the occasion. 

Mr C. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

The Secretary's report showed a satisfactory state of the Society, 
financial and otherwise, and was. unanimously adopted, on the pro- 
position of Mr W. S. Moore, seconded by Mr J. Fairbaim. 

Mr Womack, Ponteland, Newcastle, and Mr R. Hall, Stockton- 
on-Tees, were admitted members of the Society. 

The following gentlemen were chosen to fill the respective offices 
during the present year : — 

President — Mr C. Hunting — re-elected. 
Vice-Presidents — Mr John Fairbaim, Aiiwick; and Mr G. Farrow, 

Durham. 
Council — Mr H. Hunter, Newcastle — re-elected ; Mr Thos. Thomson, 
Sunderland ; Mr Luke Scott, Hetton-le-Hole — ^re-elected ; Mr 
W. S. Moore, Gateshead ; Mr D. Macgregor, Seaton Delaval ; 
Mr John Hutchinson, South Shields — re-elected. 

Treasurer — Mr D. Dudgeon, Sunderland — re-elected. 
Hon. Secretary — Mr G. Armatage, Pensher — re-elected. 

On the motion of the Secretary, seconded by the President, and 
carried unanimously, it was resolved in future to hold the quarterly 
meetings alternately in Newcastle and Durham, or other towns in 
the counties of Durham or Northumberland, as may be decided by 
a majority of members present at the previous meeting. In accord- 
ance, therefore, with this arrangement, the next meeting will be held 
at Durham, during the month of April. 

On the conclusion of the business proceedings, the Hon. Secretary 
read a paper on " Influenza," which gave rise to an extended and 
profitable discussion, remarkable for the spirit of inquiry and desire 
to impart the fullest information on a subject of such importance, in 
which most present took part. 

A well-maintained discussion ensued, in which the majority of 
members took part. 

The use of rowels and setons were advocated by Mr Thompson, who 
stated his reasons for their preference at some length, to which, how- 
ever, the views of those present did not subscribe. 

The principle of blood-letting did not meet with favour ; a highly 
nourishing, sustaining, and stimulating plan of treatment being prin- 
cipally advocated. The remarks of Messrs Farrow, Stephenson, 
Dudgeon, Fairbairn, and others, were worthy of high consideration, 
as being reliable on account of practical bearing. 

The essayist briefly replied to the various conflicting arguments, 
and afterwards the President disposed of the proceedings by his usual 



NORTH OF ENGLAND VETEEINAEY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 131 

appropriate manner of summing up the various inferences to be drawn 
from discussions of this character ; which was succeeded by a vote of 
thanks being warmly accorded to each of these gentlemen for their 
offices on the occasion. 

The next quarterly meeting will be held at Durham, during the 
month of April. 

Mr Dudgeon and Mr Farrow drew the attention of the meeting to 
interesting cases which had recently fallen under their observation ; 
that by the former gentleman being illustrated by the first rib of a 
horse fractured obliquely across the middle, from a fall after a false 
step, with a load, on the highway. The latter produced about two 
pounds of the spray of rifle bullets, which had been taken into the 
stomach of a cow, which, with others, had died from their eflfects, 
having been picked up by the animals when grazing on ground used 
for rifle practice. 

The members and their friends* afterwards dined together, the 
duties of the Chair being efficiently performed by the President, (Mr 
Hunting,) and those of the Vice devolving upon the Secretary. 

The President proposed " The Queen, the Prince of Wales, and 
rest of the Eoyal Family;" "Army and Navy, and Eifle Volun- 
teers,'' — responded to by Mr Hutchinson, — and " The North of Eng- 
land Veterinary Medical Association." Mr Stephenson proposed 
"The Eoyal College of Veterinary Surgeons;" followed by '*The 
Visitors;" "Kindred Institutions, Metropolitan and Provincial;" 
"The President;" '* Veterinary Schools;" "The Vice-Presidents;" 
"Council;" "Authors of the Various Papers;" "Treaikrer ;" 
"Honorary Secretary;" "The Ladies;" and the meeting — highly 
satisfactory to all parties, who had entered into the proceedings with 
good spirit — ^terminated by the President proposing the last toaat — 
*' To Our Next Merry Meeting." 



132 STATISTICS OF LIVE STOCK. 

PEEISCOFE. 



STATISTICS OP LIVE STOCK. By R Hbbbert. 
[A Paper read at the Bath Meeting of the British Association.] 

In the consideration of the production of live stock for consumption in the United 
Kingdom, many features of special interest present themselYe& Of late years much 
has been written in reference to agricultural improvement, and in some quarters it 
has been affirmed that we are in a position to raise every head of stock necessary for 
consumption without the aid of the foreign grazier. It might be considered an im- 
portant matter to render ourselves independent of the producers in Holland, Den- 
mark, Germany, and Spain ; but the question here arises — How are we to accomplish 
so desirable an end ? The rapid increase in the population of Great Britain during 
the last ten years, and the consequent increase in the consuming powers, added to 
the extraordinary progress of trade and commerce, and the improved monetary posi- 
tion of the great mass of the consumers of meat, prove beyond a doubt that the 
period has now arrived when strenuous efforts are absolutely necessary to meet a 
demand that must continue to have a most important bearing upon price. At the 
present time both beef and mutton are selling at fully l^d. per lb. above the rates 
current twenty years ago. Prices are still tending upwards, and the prospect is that 
prices will rule high for a considerable period, notwithstanding that we may continue 
to import liberally from abroad. Had it not been for a free importation from the 
Continent, nearly all kinds of meat would ere this have been selling at enormous 
prices. Consumption must of necessity have declined, and a certain amount of dis- 
content must have been apparent amongst the labouring classes. But let us see 
what has been our actual dependence upon the foreigner. In 1853, we imported 
125,253 beasts, and 230,037 sheep and lambs. In 1^63, the supplies received were : 
— 150,898 beasts, and 430,788 sheep and lambs. The increase in the ten years is 
only about 26,000 of the former, and 200,000 of the latter. These supplies, however, 
though for the most part in very middling condition, have materially assisted the 
consumption, and prevented prices from advancing to dangerously high figures. We 
could all desire to see home productions keeping pace with the demand. But if we 
closely examine the returns of the great Metropolitan market^ which has to furnish 
a supply for nearly 3,000,000 people, we shall find a state of things which would 
appear to shake confidence as regards our powers of production. In 1853 and 1863 
the total supplies of stock disposed of in the above market were : — 

1853. 1863. 

Beasts .... 252,624 288,177 

Sheep and lambs . . 1,325,474 * 1,389,142 

Calves .... 20,395 23,291 

Pigs 34,677 53,986 

From the above figures we must deduct the numbers of foreign stock offered, in 
order to see how far production has increased in the United Kingdom. Those 
numbers were : — 

1853. 1863. 

Beasts .... 52,344 72,907 

Sheep and lambs . 220,499 285,296 

Calves 22,619 26,630 

Pigs 8,508 17,562 

It follows, therefore, that the increase in home-fed beasts in the ten years was 
trifling in the extreme, and that there was a falling off in the supplies of English 
sheep in 1863 compared with 1853. Hence, it will be perceived the question assumes 
more than ordinary importance, because the progressive nature of our home and 
foreign trade, and the increased power of purchase and consumption, must at no 
distant date tell seriously against the consumers. Let us now see how prices have 
ranged in the ten years. In 1853 and 1863 they were as under : — 

1853. 1863. 

Beef, from ... 28. 6d. to 5s. Od. 3b. 4d. to 58. 2d. 

Mutton .... 2s. 6d. to 5s. 4d. 3s. 6d. to 6s. 2d. 



STATISTICS OF LIVE STOCK. 133 

In the period here alluded to, then, inferior beef has advanced lOd., and all kinds 
of mutton Is. to Is. 2d. per 8 lb. ; although, as I have shown, the arrivaJs from abroad 
hare continued to increase. If we refer to 1842, and to the ten years prior to that 
period, we shall find even a greater difference in value. The best Scots were seldom 
worth more than 4b. to 48. 2d., and the best Downs 4s. 6d. to 4s. 8d. per 8 lbs. 
There is therefore, a much larger profit to the grazier without a corresponding in- 
crease in the supplies. We will now consider from what quarters London has derived 
its supply of stock. In 1853 and 1863 the arrivals were : — 

1853. 1863. 

Lincoln and Leicester . . 56,650 66,280 

Norfolk and Cambridge . . 60,490 70,790 

Other parts 31,700 27,580 

Scotland 18,446 12,823 

Ireland 10,200 12,844 

This statement shows that we received about 20,000 more beasts from Lincoln, 
Leicester, and Norfolk in 1863 than in 1853; and that the arrivals from other parts of 
England, as well as from Scotland, have fallen ofil Ireland exhibits a slight increase, 
but the quality of the arrivals from that country shows no improvement. In refer- 
ence to the deficiency in the weight of beasts from Scotland, a few observations are 
necessary, because we must not take the London market as a test of the productive 
powers of that country. Every year stock has increased in number, but the addi- 
tional supplies have found their way to London and various parts of the country in 
the shape of dead meat. In the two years ending with 1853, about 20,000 carcasses 
of beef and 200,000 carcasses of mutton, received from Scotland, were annually dis- 
posed of in Newgate and in Leadenhall. In the two years ending with 1863, the average 
number of the former received by railway and steamboats was 27,000 ; of the latter, 
300,000. It follows, therefore, that the production of food in Lincolnshire, Leicester- 
shire, Northamptonshire, Norfolk, Sufiblk, Essex, and Scotland, has steadily increased 
during the last ten years. And were it not that the dead markets were from time 
to time heavily supplied with meat from Scotland, Yorkshire, &c., prices would have 
been unusually high, since it is evident that the quantities of stock exhibited in the 
cattle-market are wholly inadequate to meet consumption. Again, we may remark 
that at varions periods of the year large numbers of prime beasts and sheep are pur- 
chased in London for transmission to the various outports and watering-places. It 
would be difficult to ascertain the quantity of meat annually consumed in the Metro- 
poUs, but we may consider it about as follows : — 250,000 beasts, 1,500,000 sheep and 
lambs, 20,000 calves, and 400,000 pigs. The enormous supply required year by year 
proves that great efibrts will be necessary on the part of our graziers to meet the still 
increasing volume of trade. If, however, we consider the progress made in the rear- 
ing and feeding of stock in some parts of England, we shall find reason to apprehend 
that, to some extent, we are in a non-progressive state. We have shown that the 
great grazing districts— viz., Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, Norfolk, 
and Sufiblk — continue to maintain their superiority. But what, it may be asked, is 
the barrier to p^gress in other quarters? Some remarkably fine Herefords and 
Devons are disposed of in London ; but the number is too small to have much in- 
fluence upon prices. Lincolnshire and Norfolk especially continue to furnish their 
full quota of prime stock, and Scotland supplies us with animals of a first-rate cha- 
racter. But what are all other districts about ? The consumers now ofier a price 
which, it must be admitted, is highly remunerative ; the wants of the country are 
increasing every year ; and those who have succeeded in getting possession of prime 
stock for breeding purposes are making large fortunes. Some twenty or twenty-five 
years ago, Pembrokeshire furnished us with from 6000 to 7000 head of beasts every 
season. Now, the number available for the Metropolis does not exceed 600 or 700. 
Again, the Metropolis could rely upon some 8000 or 10,000 Romney Marsh sheep — 
one of the finest breeds in England. Now, very few find their way to London, 
although high prices are ofi^ered for them. Those two sources of supply have, there- 
fore, been partly dried up, and we are compelled to look to the favoured districts and 
to Scotland for the adequate amount of food. I have no desire to draw invidious 
comparisons, but it is well known that Lincolnshire, Norfolk, and most of what are 
termed the " crack " grazing counties in England, are farmed by rich men. Some 

of them have leases. Their lands are, with very few exceptions, well drained, and 
they have succeeded in raising a highly valuable breed of stock. The grazing com- 
munity in Norfolk, Lincolnshire, and Scotland are now raising stock of a first-class 



134! STATISTICS OF LIVE STOCK. 

character, and of late years they have adopted a system of breeding which has added 
materially to the supply of food. The famous shorthorned breeds have been largely 
introduced into Scotland, and been used for crossing purposes among the best Scotch 
breeds. The result of this mixture has been early maturity — that is to say, Scotch, 
or rather crosses, are now forwarded to London from Scotland weighing from 80 to 
100 stones of 81bs. each under two years old. Formerly, so much weight and quality 
could not have been produced under from three and a half to four years. The result 
is that very few really pure Scotch are now to be met with either in Scotland or Nor- 
folk except for breeding purposes. This, perhaps, is one of the secrets why stock 
has not further advanced in price. But is there no possibility of carrying out the 
system further ? 1 am aware that many graziers in England are opposed to the cross- 
ing system, and they prefer the pure breeds to any other on principle. There are, 
however, obvious difficulties in the way, which time alone will move. Clearly, the 
soil of England, as a whole, is not half drained ; and in too many counties it is badly 
farmed. Not a few of the farmers are labouring under the great disadvantage of 
the want of capital ; and the majority of them are without leases. Inferior drainage, 
poor pastures, and a slothful attention to the requirements and capacities of the land, 
would never meet the wants of lean stock from Scotland. And were the stock placed 
upon other than strong pastures, the losses would be serious. Again, the small 
grazier, with limited means, cannot give the enormous prices demanded for the 
shorthorned bulls. The consequence is, that there is virtually a monopoly in the 
production of food ; and nothing short of an enormous outlay of capital in other 
counties, for drainage and other purposes, together with a more general system of 
letting land upon moderately long leases, will ever destroy it. At present the pro- 
spect is, even with increased importation of stock from abroad, that all kinds of meat 
will be very high in price for a long period. We must bear in mind that France, 
like ourselves, is suffering from a scarcity of stock, compared with the consuming 
powers of the country. Last year the imports into France, chiefly from Holland, 
Germany, Belgium, and Spain, amounted to nearly 600,000 head; and yet prices 
ruled high. From that country, therefore, we can expect no aid, because she is now 
competing with us for a supply of food. Here let me remark that the Norfolk and 
Scotch graziers possess great advantages in the production of stock. They have 
wisely turned their attention to the cultivation of beetroot and turnips upon extensive 
breadths of land. They have succeeded in raising enormous "bropa upon a moderate 
description of land, and secured ample supplies of cattle-food for winter consumption. 
It has become unfortunately necessary that the breeders in other counties should, if 
possible, follow their example. To show more fully the great changes which have 
t^ken place of late years in the various breeds of beasts exhibited in London, and 
which may be taken as a fair index of the whole country, I may observe that in 1853 
the percentage of the shorthorns was about 30; of Herefords, 13 ; of Devons, 11 ; of 
English crosses, 124; ^^ polled, or Scotch cattle, 10; and of Scotch crosses, 150. 
Welsh beasts figured for 10 per X5ent. of the total supplies. Last year the percentage 
of the shorthorns increased to 35 ; Hereford declined to 9^ ; Devons to 5 ; English 
and Scotch crosses advanced to 23; but Welsh beasts figured for only 175. It will 
therefore be perceived that the shorthorns and the various crosses are furnishing the 
Metropolis, so far as live stock is concerned, with a moiety of the supply. In the 
production of sheep, equally important changes have taken place of late years— 
indeed, so extensive have they become, from the adoption of the system of crossing, 
that some breeds once in great favour with the butchers are becoming almost extinct. 
In 1853, the percentage of the pure Lincolns exhibited in the Metropolitan market 
was 28; of Leicesters, 26; of Southdowns and Hampshire Downs, 10 ; of crosses, 15; 
of Kents, 5. In 1863, Lincolns declined to 22^, Leicesters to 22, and Rente to 3. 
Southdowns and Hampshire Downs figured for 15^; crosses, 21. It is. satisfactory 
to find that the new system, though it has failed to meet consumption, lias been con- 
structed on a good basis — that is to say, the best and most enduring breeds of both 
beasts and sheep have been allotted by the breeders for crossing purposes. But the 
system of crossing may, without the exercise of great judgment on the part of those 
most interested, be earned too far. So long as care is taken that there is an ample 
Bupply of pure blood to breed from, so long will the system continue. Without pure 
blood, however, we shall raise only a mongrel and profitless description of stock, of 
very little value either to the feeders, butchers, or consumers. In conclusion, I may 
observe that there is no actual want of supply of stock in England. It would be im- 
possible, in the' absence of statistical details, to give an accurate statement of the 
numbers in each district, but my impression is, that the number of beasts is about 



PllESEXT CONDITION OF THE TLTwF. 135 

4,700,000; of sheep, 32,000,000 head. These numbers, however, are about the same 
as we had some twenty years ago; hence, it follows that even the new system of 
crossing has, from the enormous consumption going on of late years, failed to insure 
for us what may be termed an abundant supply of food. Meat, therefore, assuming 
that the country continues in a flourishing state, must of necessity continue high in 
price for some time. 



PRESENT CONDITION OF THE TURF. 
(To tiie Editor of the Sporting Gazette.) 

Sib, — It will be admitted by every Turfite who was conversant with racing affairs 
thirty years ago, that they have been gradually declining from what in those 
days was an agreeable and profitable pastime, to a lamentable condition of degrada- 
tion and demoralisation. In former times, a meeting at Newmarket was always 
anticipated with a degree of pleasure, as an occupation attended and patronised by 
such noblemen as the Dukes of Portland, Grafton, and Rutland, Earls Egremont, 
Grosvenor, Clarendon, and a host of others of that stamp, who kept studs to furnish 
the best horses for their owlf gratification and for legitimate purposes in racing; and 
if we excepted the two breeding establishments of Mr Nowel, of Underley, and Mr 
Richard Wilson, of Didliugton, there was scarcely another to be met with breeding 
thorough-bred stock for the purpose of sale only. Now we have at least twenty diffe- 
rent studs, many of magnitude, and one of them belonging to the Crown, in which 
thorough-bred yearlings are produced with no other view than of realising a profit by 
their annual ssde at auctions^ 

Formerly we were accustomed to feel satisfied if we had the opportunity afforded 
us of seeing half a dozen races of interest in one day ; now we are of tener obliged, 
even at Newmarket, to look on whilst some fifteen events, more or less, are being 
contested, and many of them paltry affairs, " the winner to be sold for 20 or 50 
sovereigns." It is true that the number of animals bred for racing is now far greater 
than it was ; that we have about 2500 mares and 300 stallions, all of pure blood ; and 
although amongst such numbers there will always be found some of great superiority, 
and enough to sustain a certain reputation, yet it is evident that quantity rather than 
quality is the prevailing order of the day. The cost of training and entering horses 
for stakes deterred breeders from engaging an unpromising yearling, and they wisely 
selected their best only, and sold their refuse ; but handicaps and half-mile races, 
for which there are always an overwhelming number of worthless rips, are now in 
fashion, and have been created purposely for the unfortunate owners to get a chance 
of running them to serve a betting purpose. 

The facility which vans and railroads have furnished for conveyance everywhere 
has been a means of destroying a great many of our best horses of all ages, but par- 
ticularly two-year-olds. We have but to refer to the book *' Calendars" for proof of 
the injurious number of engagements our young horses have to perform in — many 
three-year-olds with over twenty races to encounter in the year ; and for an example 
of two-3'ear-old treatment, we find that "Catalogue," a two-year-old filly, last year ran 
no fewer than twenty-one races, and was successful in winning thirteen of them. It 
too often happen^ at a race course we are kept waiting more than an hour, because 
the starter is vainly endeavouring to get some thirty runners off, to scamper half a 
mile ; and except to the betting man, during this tiresome delay, who is thereby 
favoured by more time to pursue his calling, there is neither profit nor amusement. 

The Jockey Club has shown its power at Newmarket by excluding from the Heath 
a reporter, because his obsei-vations were considered obnoxious ; but it admits to the 
betting ring, for the weekly stipend of 10s. 6d., the very lowest refuse of society — 
men who are a nuisance in every popuUus town — ruffians whose language is filthy, 
and whose demeanour is such as might be expected from low pugilists and their 
associates. Many of these notorieties, fearing they should not be recognised, have 
taken to wear a placard in their hats, and in large letters we have Mr Sharper of 
Penzance, Mr Nobbier of Berwick, Mr Landshark of somewhere else, cum mvXtis cUiis 
of the same obliging character. A fellow formerly, with a bill stuck round his hat, 
was only to be met with blowing a horn to sell papers, or a list of all the running 
horses, with the weights, names, and colours of the riders. The entire disregard of 
decency and respect in the authorised rinsr has engendered the formation of another, 
in close contiguity to it, where every potboy and stable lad who has a few shillings 



136 A NEW CROP FOR CATTLE. 

or a few pence can find the opportunity of depriving himself of the means which 
should have been employed to coyer his half-naked limbs. This scene has only to be 
witnessed to create the contempt and disgust it richly deserves. 

It was not thus in the days of Crockford, Gully, Cloves, Stuart, Justice, Brunton, 
and many others equally respected, but long since gathered to their forefathers. 
Then, it may reasonably be asked, what has led to this sad change ?— -for no doubt it 
would now be a very difficult task to alter the present circumstances, and yet if they 
are to be fostered as they have been hitherto, instead of being checked by the presid- 
ing authorities, it must be obvious that the result will be to deter every man of 
respectability from patronising such depravity by his presence. 

In France, the Qovernment spends large sums of money in the purchase of our 
mares and stallions, and Frenchmen have not yet commenced to abuse their young 
animals. In our own country, it is the individual, aided by a genial soil and climate, 
who has hitherto excelled all nations in the different breeds of horses, but particu- 
larly the thorough-bred one ; but, with the energy of our Continental neighbours 
and our own apathy, the day may too soon arrive when we shall no longer possess a 
prestige of superiority, and which was so justly an Englishman's pride. 

During the reigns of George IV. and William IV., their Majesties, at the soli- 
citation of influential persons, were induced to give sev^al plates to be run for in 
various localities, to produce sport ; and thus we find our gracious Queen is now 
paying from the Privy Purse annually the sum of one hundred guineas at each of the 
following places: — Chester, Hampton, Goodwood, Bedford, Shrewsbury, Leicester, 
Liverpool, Northampton, Egham, and the Curragh. If these sums were required 
formerly, when without them there were not adequate means for the supply of racing 
purposes, it would certainly now be a boon to the condition of our over-worked 
horses to withdraw an amount of money which is causing injury rather than benefit, 
and which might be more profitably, if wisely, invested in the purcliase of first-class 
thorough-bred stock for the royal paddocks. As to the Queen's plates, about which 
we so often have a foolish controversy, it would be more consistent to withhold them, 
and give up the heavy tax upon every race horse, which produces a greater sum to 
the revenue than they do. 

The racing season begins on the 21st instant, at Lincoln, where we have no fewer 
than forty-four two-year-olds entered in a stake of 5 sovereigns each, 40 added ; and 
several of these young creatures belong to members of the Jockey Club, who put 
8 stone 10 lbs. on the back of an animal whose bones, still in a cartilaginous condi- 
tion, are called upon to support them in a gallop of half a mile, urged to such a trial 
by whip and spur ! The Royal Humane Society ought to interfere in such cases of 
cruelty, and the promoters of them deserve to be fined for their inhumanity. 

The Jockey Club is the presiding body to which we are accustomed to look for 
rules and regulations to govern all circumstances connected with the turf, and as a 
body, individual opinions and interests should never be permitted to interfere with 
those duties which could be made avoidable, to prevent racing from becoming an 
injury, as it really is, instead of a benefit to both man and horse. 

It is sincerely to be hoped for that the members of the Jockey Club may find a 
higher and more profitable employment than in making handicaps for hacks, and 
that they may deem it necessary to take into their consideration the steps to prevent 
the very vitals of the turf coming to an untimely end. — Your obedient servant, 

Hampton Coubt, Feb. 9, 1865. W. J. Goodwin. 



A NEW CROP FOR CATTLE. 



The AgricvXtural Gazette announces a new green crop, yielding forty tons per acre 
of a food especially adapted for milch cows, as, being void of all aromatic flavour, it 
communicates none to milk. The cattle melon, a sort of gourd, grown like mangold- 
wurzel, but at wider intervals, appears in Mr Blundell's hands to have furnished a 
solid and substantial food, good for fattening bullocks, as well as for cows, and sheep, 
and pigs. Dr Voelcker's report of its composition is favourable \ and there is every 
reason to recommend our readers to give it a trial. The following is Mr Blundell's 
account of it : — 

*• This variety of the gourd tribe seems to have been hitherto overlooked, and not 
considered as adapted for cattle-feeding. My attention, however, was called to it a 



A NEW CROP FOR CATTLE. 137 

few years ago by a friend of mine in America, in the State of Indiana, who grows 
them extenaively for feeding his cattle, and believes that a much larger and heavier 
produce of them per acre can be obtained for cattle-feeding than of any known vege- 
table production used for thai purpose. I believe that ideas have prevailed in this 
country that our climate in the open air was unfavourable to their production, and, 
indeed, hitherto they have been usually grown for fancy purposes by the aid of artificial 
heat and large quantities of manuiae, in which case most of the varieties I have 
noticed, when thus treated, are very hollow and worthless for feeding animals. Not 
so, however, with the varieties as selected and grown by myself for some years past ; 
for when cultivated in the open air with a moderate amount of manure — in fact, the 
same quantity as required for other vegetable produce in field culture — they are very 
solid and weighty, and possess considerable feeding value, (equal to the common 
white turnip,) and are especially adapted for the feeding of milch cows at the time 
of year when grass is usually short and scarce, and before turnips, &c., are ripe and 
fit for feeding in the months of August, September, and October. During the past 
season I had fed the milch cows with them ; and from the circumstance of the fruit 
being so very agreeable, and so completely void of any peculiar flavour, like turnips 
and most other vegetable produce, it does not affect the flavour of the butter injuri- 
oudy ; but, on the contrary, I have never made butter, or tasted any made from cows 
fed on vegetables or roots, equal in quality to that made when the animals have been 
fed on the cattle melon. The cultivation may be carried out upon land usually 
appropriated to root culture, and particularly in the southern and eastern counties ; 
they will flourish and produce very large crops per acre under ordinary culture, such 
as may be required for mangold-wurzel, swedes, carrots, &c., which the following 
experiment will prove : — 

" On my own farm at Bursledon, near Southampton, a field prepared for mangold 
as usual, the land being sandy loam on a brick earth, was ridged 2 feet apart, 
manured with twenty tons of box dung and one cwt. Peruvian guano per acre, 
mangold seed dibbled on the ridge, May 15. A ridge 4 feet wide, extending the 
whole length of the field, was dibbled. May 15, with cattle-melon seed, and the same 
quantity of manure applied as for the like space of mangold. The crop of melons 
was removed on the 28th September at the rate of 40 tons per acre, there being 37 
fruit per pole, weighing 560 lbs., and the yellow globe mangold crop removed on the 
3d November at the rate of 22 tons per acre. 

" The expenses attending the cultivation of each crop were exactly the same. The 
melon plants, being four feet apart, give ample space either for the plough or culti- 
vator, and the growth of the plant is so slow in the early stage that the cultivation 
may be continued for five weeks after dibbling the seed. When the plants begin to 
8pi«ad, the growth is so rapid that all the land is covered with foliage in about 
seventeen or eighteen days ; and at the end of five weeks after the blossom the fruit 
will weig^ 30 lbs. and upwards. 

"Having for two seasons fed my fattening bullocks upon the melon, and the 
animals having fattened beyond my expectation, yet I wished to know the feeding 
value by analysis, and for that purpose forwarded to Dr Yoelcker part of a fruit 
which weighed 16 lbs. 

Composition of Cattle Melon. 

First Oenercd Composition. 

Water. ..... 92030 

Organic matters, .... 7*350 

Hinerals matters (ash) '620 



Second Detailed Composition. 

Water, 

*Soluble albuminous compounds, 
flnsoluble albuminous compounds, 

Sugar and mncilage, 

Woody fibre (crude,) 

Soluble mineral matters, 

Insoluble mineral matters, 



100000 

92-030 
•619 
•156 
4-661 
1-114 
•540 
-080 

100000 



138 tattersall's. 

• Containing nitrogen, . . • '099 

f Containing nitrogen, . * . '026 

Total nitrogen, . . . -124 

Equal to albuminous compounds, (flesh- ) yy^ 

forming matters,) . . J ' 

" My conclusions are as follow : — The cattle melon is now known to possess valu- 
able feeding properties, and is readily eaten by cattle, sheep, and pigs. It is easy 
of cultivation, exhausts the land less than any root-crop, being less time in the 
ground, and deriving so much nutriment from the atmosphere through the large and 
luxuriant foliage, it is more certain to plant than root-crops, having fewer enemies, 
and may be cultivated upon all soils suitable for root-crops." 



TATTERSALL'S. 



*•* Established 1766," — ^we learn from the simple inscription on the keystone of the 
new premises at Knightsbridge. Just ninety-nine years ago, come Michaelmas 1865, 
the great-grandfather of the present partners of the firm obtained from the grandfather 
of the present Marquis of Westminster the lease of the ground in Grosvenor Place, 
and established the " concern," whose name is " familiar as household words" through- 
out every portion of the civilised globe — famous alike for its honourable mercantile 
position, and as the seat of government of all matters connected with the enormous 
speculations that wield the destiny of the turf. What a theme for the moralist and 
historian does that simple word — Tattersall's — open up 1 How fortunes have been 
won and lost in " the Room," and how emperors, princes, and the most exalted of the 
aristocracy of all nations, have rubbed elbows with dealers, "legs," "copers," and the 
lower order of the " ossitocracy " in general in " the yard ; " but however tempting the 
theme to go back a century to sketch the history of Tattersall's itself, or to record the 
gradual increase in the business of the eminent firm who at last found themselves so 
cramped for room and otherwise inconvenienced as to sigh for " fresh fields and pas- 
tures new," we must defer the task to a future occasion, as the present article has 
mainly reference to the new establishment recently erected by Messrs Tattersall at 
Knightsbridge, rendered necessary by increased demands for accommodation on the 
part of the public, and by the expiration of the lease of the present premises at 
Michaelmas next. A great many of the Marquis of Westminster's leases in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood fall in at the same time, and before the year is out all traces 
of the " ride " or " lawn," — the favourite spring and summer retreat, with its shady 
tree in the centre, and characteristic " milker," (who, curiously enough, invariably 
hangs about certain members in the " milky way,") and the exclusive rendezvous of 
the subscribers on the Sundays before the Derby and St Leger, when the Subscription 
Room remains closed ; where, too. Masters of Hounds used to look over the various 
packs when up for sale — will have disappeared, together with most of the houses in 
Grosvenor Place between St George's Hospital and Chapel Street. Grosvenor Crescent 
will sweep into Grosvenor Place, where it is intended to erect some of the finest 
mansions in London ; and some idea of their palatial grandeur may be formed when 
we state that there will be only five houses between the Hospital and Halkin Street, 
each of the estimated value of £25,000. Nor are these the only improvements about 
to be carried out by the Marquis of Westminster, who intends, we hear, to erect 
splendid squares and boulevards on the recently-cleared vacant space this side of the 
Grosvenor Hotel, upon which, and in the neighbourhood, no fewer than thirty-six 
public-houses have been pulled down within the last six months, so averse is the noble 
marquis to having a single " public" on his property! 

However anxious to study the accommodation of their numerous patrons, both in 
the business and betting lines, Messrs Tattersall found it no easy matter to obtain the re- 
quisite amount of land in a suitable locality within a convenient distance of the West 
End ; but fortune favoured them in the immediate neighbourhood of Knightsbridge 
Green, this side of the barracks, at the corner of Brompton Road, within a stone's 
throw to the top of Sloane Street ; and some idea of the increasing value of freeholds 
in that locality can be formed from the fact oi Mr Richard Tattersall, who bought 
the ground six years ago, having refused between three or four times the amount of 
his purchase money within a short period of the completion of the bargain, and be- 



tattersall's. 139 

fore he bad even commenced to bnild ! In the neiglibourhood, it ia true, are some 
of the yilest dens in the metropolis, but their days are happily numbered, and before 
long the present unsightly row of small shops which form the junction of the Brompton 
and Knightsbridge roads will be removed. This will ** throw open " Messrs Tattersall's 
new establishment, and besides improving the approaches thereto, show off the archi- 
tectural merits of the building to greater advantage than at present The proprietors 
are likewise in treaty with the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, to whom it belongs, 
for the small railed-in oval-Bhap6d bit of grass land — Knightsbridge Green proper — 
with which all Brompton travellers are familiar, more for the sake of improving their 
frontage than any other purpose, as it is of no absolute use ; nor, if it could be trans- 
ferred en mcLsae to the rear of the new Subscription Room, would it replace the 
agreeable ** lawn we leave behind us" at Hyde Park Corner. This ** rural spot," by 
the by, played an important part during the great Plague of London, at which time 
Knightsbridge was " so far in the country " that an immense pit, which formerly ex- 
isted there, served as a charnel-house, and was literally filled up with corpsea In ex- 
cavating for the foundation of the new buildings a great many skeletons were dis- 
covered, and one of the partners of the firm was thereby enabled to fulfil a promise 
he made to his wife, that she should have all the " treasure ' ' discovered ! Here, too, stood 
the Old Manor House, which was erected three hundred years ago, and was the resi- 
dence of Sir John Lade, (a celebrated character in the time of George IV., who drove 
four-in-hand round Lackington's shop in St Paul's Churchyard,) some mementoes of 
which have been preserved in the new private offices of the firm, (built upon its site,) 
in the shape of an oak staircase, conducting from the ground floor to the Committee 
Booms above, (in one of which Marshall's well-known picture of Eclipse will be hung,) 
and a marble mantlepiece of great beauty, which adorned the drawing-room of the 
old building, and is now put up in Messrs Tattersall's private sanctum. 

The offices, store-room, and dwelling-house of Carter, the manager, are on the right- 
hand side as you enter the lofty gateway, (in the central arch of which is an immense 
tank for supplying water to the premises, with appropriate apparatus for submitting 
welshers, and other ** black sheep " who may intrude their " unholy presence," to the 
water cure,) and separated by a lofty screen from the public entrance, whereby all 
communication is cut off. On the left is the Subscription Room, with separate en- 
trance " for subscribers only " from the outside, and a private communication with 
the Committee Room *' over the way." This passage is somewhat narrow, perhaps, 
and will not allow of members loitering about, as it was desirable to throw all the 
available space into the room itself, which, when finished, will be one of the hand- 
somest in the kingdom — ^much larger than the Newmarket one, and, though not 
quite so long, as lofty and far more elegant than Doncaster. In addition to the 
windows at each end, it is lighted and ventilated by two lofty domes, between which, 
in the centre of the ceiling, is a sunlight for illumination in winter. We hardly 
know which will strike strangers most — ^the noble proportions of the room generally, 
the richness and brilliancy of the decorations, or the Byzantine floor, which has been 
laid down by Messrs Simpson & Sons, of 456 West Strand, and contains no fewer than 
200,000 pieces of Maw & Co.'s coloured variegated tiles. These are also used to orna- 
ment the sides and backs of the fireplaces, and present a beautiful contrast to the 
Italian marble and Derbyshire Spa mantlepieces, over which are lofty mirrors extend- 
ing to the roof. The walls are decorated in panels of green and gold, and round the 
whole extent of the room is a raised dais, on which handsome morocco seats will be 
placed, so that, when completed, no club-house will be able to boast of a more magni- 
ficent or luxurious apartment. There are two entrances, one at the side, and the other 
at the west end, and at the door of the latter, which leads into a paved yard, repose 
the two stone lions which kept guard for so many years on the top of the gateway at the 
entrance to the "ride" and present Subscription Room in Grosvenor Place. That 
the " lawn " will be missed in the summer it would be absurd to deny, and many will 
no doubt sigh for " the old place " before they become accustomed to the new one ; 
but " what can't be cured must be endured," and as members will be able to enjoy 
their weed in the air — happily "no smoking is allowed in the Subscription Room" — 
they must put up with one loss for the enormous gain that the comfort and conveni- 
ence of the new chambei* will secure them. Nor has it been studied inside only, as 
an inspection of the private offices in the yard, where the telegraphic office is erected 
80 as to be free from public intrusion, will show. 

Turning now to the business portion of the new establishment, the prevailing 
characteristics — elegance of design, vast space, and general excellence of arrange- 
ment — cannot fail to strike the habitiUa of the old mart with equal sur^ti&Q a.vvi 



140 tattersall's. 

admiration, as we feel convinced will be felt by the members of the Subscription 
Koom when they assemble therein on the Monday after Northampton, April the 
10th, for *' settling" on the first " legitimate" race meeting of the season. The first 
public sale will take place on that day, and not only has every stall been engaged for 
some time past, but we learn from Messrs Tattersall that they are "very fuS" for 
the months of May and June. They have been compelled to disappoint more than 
one breeder of blood stock ; in fact, notwithstanding the increased extent of the accom- 
modation. For the sales of blood stock in particular, the new premises afford vast 
advantages over the ''old shop," both as regards the ''auction mart" itself and the 
excellence of the " boxes." The latter are built at the rear of the main building, 
away from the noise and excitement of the sale-yard, and are twenty in number, ten 
of which are constructed with wide doors, so that a brood mare and foal may pass 
through side by side without injury. Timid young ones, we all know, will rush after 
their dams on seeing the latter led out of a box, and not unfrequently come into 
collision with the door-posts; hence the admirable precaution of extra width, in 
addition to which the posts and all the wood-work about the place are rounded, and 
the handles sunk to g^uard against injury. There is only one double box in the 
remaining ten, and the fittings up, ventilation, lighting, draining, and general 
management are perfection. Vast as the new premises are, Messrs Tattersall have 
been unable to build kennels for hounds, consequently (for the present) those sales 
will take place elsewhere, and Mr James Mason has liberally placed his farm at 
Hendon at the disposal of the firm for the sale of the West Noiiolk pack, the only 
one at present " on the books," at the close of the season. 

The sale yard, which is superior to anything in the United Eangdom, covers an im- 
mense area ; and a " ride " extends all round for " running down," and showing off a 
horse's action. The building is very lofty, and lighted by a handsome glass roof, which, 
from the intricate nature of the supporting iron-work, alone necessitated the writing 
of a " big cheque." The ground floor is devoted to stabling, and above is a commodious 
gallery (with hydraulic lift attached) for carriages and harness, which is open to the 
yard, and will be found a delightful retreat on crowded sale days, both for spectators 
and purchasers, as the pulpit, in the right-hand corner, commands the whole exten- 
sive area, thus removing one very general source of complaint ampngst noblemen 
and gentlemen who have to put up with all sorts of inconvenience from the crowded 
state of the yard in the present locality. The stalls are ninety-five in number, ** one 
as good as another," and equal to anything we have ever seen in England or on the 
Continent, racing stables included. All the latest and best improvements have been 
introduced, and special attention has been paid to drainage and ventilation, whilst 
the comforts of the animals themselves has been studied in the minutest particular. 
There is only one double stable of thirteen stalls in the whole place, and there is 
sufficient space in the centre, as well as in all the other stables, for the most timid 
visitor, male or female, to inspect the occupants without fear of being kicked. Each 
stall is nearly six feet wide, and of sufficient depth to prevent horses hanging back 
to kick round at each other. The partitions are of elm, the floor asphalte, and the 
fittings of iron, with polished slate backs above the manger; there is a constant 
supply of water to each stable. The latter has been obtained by sinking a depth of 
sixty feet into the sand, in the centre of the sale-yard, where the cupola, surmounted 
by a bust of George lY., which occupied a similar position over the pump in Gros- 
venor Place, is in course of erection. We recently announced the discovery made in 
connexion with this well-known object, which nobody, not even the oldest kabituS of 
Tattersall's, will recognise, deduded of its numerous coatings of paint (half an inch 
thick in places !) in its clean natural stone. Even King George in his cooked hat 
was becoming " presentable " at the period of our recent visit, and a few carbuncles 
(which had to be subjected to most stringent " pickle " beforehand) alone awaited 
the operation of the chisel before receiving the sculptor's " finishing touch." 

The erection of these magnificent premises cost an enormous sum, which in no 
way concerns either ourselves or the public, however ; but we cannot conclvde the 
foregoing imperfect and by no means high-coloured description of the " new Tatter- 
sall's," without congratulating Mr Freeman, of Lincoln's-lnn Fields, the architect, 
upon the general excellence of the whole design; Messrs HbUand, the builders, upon 
the superiority and solidity of the workmanship ; and the spirited proprietors them- 
selves upon the possession of such an establishment— the gratifying result of a long- 
tried, honourable career in the public service. 

We append a copy of the revised Rules, which come into force on the opening of 
the new Subscription Room : 



tattersall's. Ill 

1. Any person desirouB of becoming a member of this room will be required to 
send in to the committee an application in writing, accompanied by a recommenda- 
tion (to be also in writing) signed by any two or more members of the room, to be 
posted in the room for one clear week. At the expiration of that time he will be 
balloted for by the committee, five of whom will form a quorum. One black ball in 
five will exclude. Members of the Jockey Club and of the Arlington, White's, 
Brooke's, Boodle's, Arthur's, and the Travellers' Clubs can be admitted without 
ballot 

2. Every member, upon admittance to the room, must enter his name and address 
in a book provided for that purpose, in which these, together with any other rules 
and regulations from time to time adopted to be observed by the members, will also 
be entered ; and such signature in the book so containing the said rule and regula- 
tions will make it binding on the party signing to abide by all such rules and regula- 
tions, as well as by all consequences resulting from breach or non-performances 
thereof ; and such signature shall moreover be taken and deemed to absolve every 
person concerned in carrying out and enforcing such rules and regulations against 
such subscriber from all personal responsibility or legal liabilities on that account. 

3. No person who shall have made default in payment of stakes, forfeits, or bets, 
or who shall have been party at any time, anywhere, to any fraud or malpractice con- 
nected with horse-racing, shall be admitted a member of this room. And if any 
member should be hereafter discovered to have been, or should at any time become a 
defaulter, or be guilty of any fraud or malpractice as aforesaid, and, upon complaint 
to the committee, shall be adjudged by them to be so, his membership shall there- 
upon at once cease and determine, and he shall thenceforward be excluded from the 
room. 

4. Any member of this room having a disputed bet with another member shall be 
bound, if required by him, to refer such dispute to two referees (being members of 
the committee,) one to be chosen by each party ; such referees to appoint an umpire 
(being also a member of the committee) before they proceed to hear the case ; in the 
even of the referees not agreeing in the choice of an umpire, such umpire to be ap- 
pointed by the committee, and the decision of such referees or umpire to be final. 
Any member refusing to refer any bet so disputed, or to comply with the decision 
consequent upon such reference, within one calendar month next ensuing after notice 
of such decision from the referees or umpire, either personally or by letter, to be ad- 
dressed by post to the residence of such member as entered in the subscription book, 
shall, npon complaint to the committee, be deemed to be, and be treated by them as 
a de^ulter under the provisions of the third rule. 

5. Any member smoking in the room, or creating a noise, uproar, or disturbance, 
will thereby forfeit his right of membership, and render himself liable to immediate 
expulsion. 

6. The annual subscription to the room will be two guineas, commencing on the Ist 
of January. 

7. The room will be opened on everj- Monday and Thursday throughout the year, at 
one o'clock in the afternoon ; and on every day (excepting Sunday) in the weeks im- 
mediately preceding the Epsom and Ascot meetings, and on any other days that the 
committee may consider advisable. 

8. The following members will constitute the committee, of whom any five may 
form a quorum, and in the event of an equal number of the committee being present, 
and of an equal division taking place upon any question, the chairman pro tempore 
shall be entitled to a casting vote, in addition to his vote as a member of the committee. 
In case of any member retiring from the committee, his successor will be nominated 
by the committee, so that the original number of members constituting the committee 
may always be kept up. 

CoMMiTTBB. — His Gracc the Duke of Beaufort, the Earl of Chesterfield, the Earl of 
Coventry, the Earl of Westmoreland, Viscount Exmouth, Hon. Colonel Henry 
Forester, Hon. Admiral Rous, Mr H. Lowther, Colonel Astley, Mr 0. Higgins, Mr 
G. Payne, and Mr P. F. Wallace. 



14-2 THE GROWTH, MATURITY, AND AGE OF ANIMALS. 



ON THE GROWTH, MATURITY, AND AGE OP ANIMALS, AND ON 
THE DEPOSIT OP PAT AS INPLUENCED BY THE NATURE AND 
QUANTITY OP THE FOOD. By Edwards Crisp, M.D., late Physician to 
the Metropolitan Dispensary, P.Z.S., &c. 

In this essay my intention is to take a wide and comprehensive view of this matter, 
and to endeavour, hy looking at the varioas classes of animals in a state of natnre 
and in confinement, to throw some %ht on this most important question, viz., ike 
best and most economical means of fattening the domestic quadrupeds and birds that 
are used for the food of man. There are some who may object to the introduction 
of any animals except the oz, the sheep, and the pig ; but this would be taking, I 
think, a very limited view of the question. 

Many of the important discoveries in physiology and several in pathology have 
been derived from the lower animals, and there is no reason why in this particular 
inquiry, by taking a more comprehensive view of the matter than has hitherto been 
attempted, we may not profit largely by the investigation ; for, as regards the deposit 
of fat, the physiological law is equally applicable to man, ox, bird, reptile, or fish ; 
and I may here express my belief that a vast number of animals that are now con- 
sidered unfit for human food may, by a proper system of feeding, minister advan- 
tageously to the support of man. 

I divide my communication into five parts : — 

1. The growth, maturity, and age of animals, and the quantity of their food. 

2. On the composition of fat, its mode of formation, and uses in the animal 
economy. 

3. The deposit of fat in man and in the various classes of animals. 

4. The best and most economical methods of fattening the ox, sheep, pig, and 
other domestic animals, with a short account of those organs chiefly con- 
cerned in the elimination of fat. 

5. The supposed injurious effects produced by the obesity of the ox, sheep, and 
pig- 

1. The Growth, Maturity, and Age of . Animals, and on the Quantity of their Food. 

Among the domestic quadrupeds that chiefly concern the agriculturist there may 
be some difierence of opinion as to the time of maturity, whilst as regards the average 
age of our domestic animals we have but little trustworthy evidence, and our know- 
ledge respecting the natural term of existence of wild animals is still more obscure. 
The horse attains to maturity at the age of 6 or 7 years ; the ass at 5 ; the ox at 4 ; 
the sheep at 4 ; the pig at 8 ; the fallow and red deer at 6 to 8 : the goat at 4 years. 
Among our domestic birds, the turkey is mature at two years ; the cock, hen, guinea- 
fowl, duck, and goose, at from twelve to eighteen months. 

As regards the average duration of life of some of our British animals, from in- 
quiries and investigations I have made, the following estimate will probably not be 
very incorrect : — Horse, 25 to 35 years ; ass, 30 to 40 ; ox, 15 to 20 ; goat, 16 ; sheep, 
16 ; pig, 12 to 16; dog, 14. Among birds, the gallinaceous (poultry) are probably 
the shortest lived, and the rapacious and web-footed the longest The great age 
attained by the eagle, owl, parrot, goose, raven, and other birds, is well known. 
Many reptiles, as the tortoise and turtle, are very long-lived ; and there appears to 
be scarcely any known limit to the duration of life among fishes. Little is known 
of the natural duration of life among wild animals used for food in this and in other 
countries. The elephant is said to cut his last tooth at the age of 80, and probably 
lives to a greater age than any of the mammalia. The ruminants, oxen, bisons, buf- 
faloes, sheep, deer, and antelopes, are probably, judging from the teeth and from many 
that I have examined in confinement, comparatively short-lived, the term of exist- 
ence varying from 12 to 18 years. The wild hogs, peccaries, and tapirs, extensively 
used for food by the natives of some countries, probably do not reach an advanced 
age; 14 or 15 years being, I believe, about the average; and the same remark will 
apply to the Australian kangaroos, animals that in some districts are much used for 
human food. As with the human species, cases are found of extreme longevity 
among the lower animals. Youatt mentions an instance of a horse that lived to the 
age of 62, and I knew an example of a Suffolk cart-mare that bred a foal when she 
had reached the age of 39. But these are exceptions to the general rule. 

To return again to the growth of animals, I scarcely know anything so wonderful 



THE GBOWTH, MATXJRITy, AND AGE OP ANIMALS. 143 

as the rapid increase of a young bird. I have weighed many of the young of our 
British birds with their parents, and in six or seven weeks from the time of hatching 
I have found them as heavy as the old birds ; but the well-known instance of the in- 
crease of the young salmon from a few ounces to 5 lb. or 6 lb. in three or four months 
daring its marine sojourn is still more remarkable, especially when the constant mo- 
tion of the fish is taken into account. The bird, like the prize ox or pig, is not only 
abundantly supplied with food, but it is constantly at rest, so that the waste of tissue 
is comparatively slight. It is only among the birds that are bom naked, and that 
are unable to sUft for themselves, that this rapid growth occurs. 

As regards the quantity of food taken by various animals in connexion with the 
deposit of fat, of course much will depend upon the amount of water it contains ; thus 
the elephant will eat a hundredweight of dry substance daily, but it is said that he 
will consume more than 500 lbs. of green food. The hippopotamus eats about from 
60 to 80 lbs. of dry food daily. The rhinoceros, 60 lbs. ; the giraffe about the same 
quantity. Many of the flesh-feeding animals are enormous eaters, considering the 
nature of their food. The wolverine or glutton of North America ( Ursua luscus,) 
weighing about 30 lbs., will consume 6 lbs. of flesh at a meal ; the lion about 9 
lbs. The Tasmanian wolf, weighing about 40 lbs., eats 4 lbs. of flesh daily, and many 
of the smaller camivora eat very freely. The kangaroos are always large eaters, and 
have complicated stomachs. Among birds the quantity of fish consumed by the fish- 
feeders — pelicans, gannets, and cormorants — is enormous. Some of the reptiles at 
certain seasons eat ravenously ; the bull-frog {Bana pipiens) will swallow five or six 
common-sized frogs in succession, and the laSnge weight of food taken by the ophidians 
is well known, but most of the reptiles are in this respect inconstant : I have known 
a boa constrictor go ten months without food and without any apparent diminution 
in weight The fishes are constant and enormous feeders, and as we descend in the 
scale some of the smaller animals eat proportionately more than the larger. 

The daily quantity of food taken by some of our domestic animals is about as follows : 
—Horse, 16 to f 8 lbs. of hay and com ; ox, 2 cwt. of turnips ; sheep, 25 lbs. of turnips ; 
pig, 20 lbs. of carrots, potatoes, and bran. The quantity of mixed or dry food will 
be considerably less, and mnch of course depends upon the age, size, breed, and consti- 
tution of the animaL 

2. On the Composition of Fat, its Mode of Formation, and Uses in the Animal 

Economy, 
All the fats are ternary compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ; none of 
them are- nitrogenous. The proportion of these elements varies slightly in different 
kinds of &t. Chevreurs analysis of hogs'-lard will give the reader a tolerably correct 
notion of the composition of all : — 

Carbon 79098 

Hydrogen. 11*146 

Oxygen 9756 

Thus the stearin, the hard constituefit of fat, differs little from the elain, the oily 
part, in chemical composition ; the former containing a little less carbon and oxygen 
and a little more hydrogen. Yarious names have been given to different kinds of fat, 
as hircin to goats' fat, and phocenine to the fat of the dolphin, &c. 

As will be shewn hereafter, vegetable matter contains often a large proportion of 
fatty material. 

Of its mode of formation and deposit I need say but little, as it is not my inten- 
tion in this paper to enter into abstrose physiological questions. Whether the fatty 
matter from the intestines is taken up by the veins or the villi, or whether, as sup- 
posed by Liebeg and others, it arises n-om a process of imperfect oxidation, are sub- 
jects of no practical importance. 

The question as to the proportion of fat in the ox, sheep, and pig, is one of great 
interest to the farmer. It is difficult to arrive at very accurate conclusions as to the 
proportion in the various breeds, but the experiments instituted by Messrs Lawes and 
Gilbert, and published in the ** Philosophical Transactions,*' 1859, were conducted on 
so lu*ge a scale that I believe the inferences will apply to the above-named animals 
generaUj. I make a very brief analysis of the conclusions drawn from the chemical 
examination of a large number of animals. In the carcass of a half-fat ox the fat was 
22-6 per cent; store sheep, 23*8 ; store pig, 28'1 ; fat calf, 16-6 ; ox, moderately fat, 
84*8 ; fat lamb, 36*8 ; sheep, fat, 454 ; very fat sheep, 551 ; hog, moderately fat, 
49-6. In the above estimates the offal is not included. The peiceiiXagft oi Y\^w«^-\a.\» 
Vol. L-No. III.^New Ssbieb, Mabch 1865. \a 



14:4: THE GROWTH, MATURITY, AND AGE OF ANIMAL. 

was in the sheep 3*60; ox, 5*44 ; fat pig, 4' 32. The omentnm or caul in a half -fat ox 
was to the carcass 4*63 per cent; ox, moderately fat, 7.93; store sheep, 5*14 ; very 
fat sheep, 19.5. In the offal the fat amounted to about a quarter, so three-quarters 
of the total weight of fat belonged to the carcass. The animals were kept without 
food for twenty-four hours, and the percentage of fat to .the live weight was as fol- 
lows : — Very fat sheep, 45| ; sheep, moderately fat, 35^ ; ox, moderately fat, 30 ; fat 
lamb, 28 J ; pig, moderately fat, 42 ; store sheep, 18|. In a bacon-hog nearly one- 
half of the live weight was composed of pure fat. As regards the proportion of fat 
to nitrogenous compounds it exceeded these in fat animals in the proportion of from 
8 to 5 per cent. In lean animals the proportion of water in the carcass was from 54 
to 62 per cent ; in fatter animals from 40 to 50 per cent. Of bone to the carcass in 
a fat ox, 11*8 per cent ; fat sheep, 8*9 ; fat pig, 4*6. It must be remembered that in 
the carcass of a pig the head is included, but not so with the ox and sheep. For 
minute details I refer the reader to this instructive paper. 

It is scarcely necessary to enter fully into this question, as the views of Liebig and 
other celebrated chemists are so generally known that their repetition will be super- 
fluous. All animal bodies in a state of health contain a certain amount of fatty mat- 
ter. In a calf, at birth, that I recently dissected, I found a large quantity of fat, and 
so with other young quadrupeds. The examples I have already given of the autumnal 
store of fat in the bodies of the hedgehog, dormouse, marmot, and other hybernating 
animals, for respiratory and heat-forming processes, are well-known instances of the 
use of this material in the animal economy ; but the most striking example that I can 
quote is that of the fat pig mentioned by Martell in the 9th vol. of the ** Transactions 
of the Linnsean Society." This animal was buried under a slip of earth for sixty days 
without food, and when taken out alive it had lost 120 lbs. in weight The fat in this 
instance, as in the instance of a hybernating animal, furnished the diminished supplies 
required imder such circumstances to support vitality. 

3. The Deposit of Fat in the various Classes of Animals. 

Under this head I am obliged to include the human species, a division that might 
profitably occupy a larger space than can be given to it in the present paper. It is 
scarcely necessary to explain, that however man may pride himself upon his intellec- 
tual superiority over the brute, in most matters relating to physiology and pathology 
he is nearly on a par with the lower animals ; digestion, assimilation, and all the ex- 
cretory functions, are governed by the same laws in all classes of animated beings, 
although, as we descend in the scale, we have less complexity in the machinery ; the 
lowest animal organisms being so nearly related to the vegetable kingdom, that it is 
somewhat difficult to distinguish between them. 

Probably there is no country in the world, except China, where ma6 has so great a 
disposition to fatten as in England ; this tendency arising probably from three causes, 
viz., climate, the nature of the food, and the desire to accumulate money, so as to 
enable individuals to retire from business or to diminish their lalxyurs, and thus to 
lead comparatively inactive lives. On consulting several old people, whose recollec- 
tion extends back to sixty years, I am led to believe that obesity is not so common as 
it was fifty years ago, especially among farmers and agriculturists. This may readily 
be accounted for by the greater abstinence and sobriety now existing. Among Euro- 
peans — indeed the remark will apply to the human race generally in nearly all parts 
of the world — those who lead sedentery and indolent lives, who eat much and do 
little, are often, after a certain age, inclined to obesity. On the contrary, the hard 
workers in the human hive, as the agricultural labourers, whose muscles are well ex- 
ercised, are seldom corpulent. In the United States of America a fat person is rarely 
seen, although many lead luxurious and inactive lives. TroUope, in his late work on 
the United States, says that '* an Englishman who has a tendency to obesity loses it 
after being a short time in that part of America. It is difficult to account for this ; 
but climate, excessive smoking, and chewing tobacco, are probably important causes. 
In the Canadas I am informed that the tendency to accumulate fat is greater than in 
the States." 

Among Asiatics examples of obesity are not so frequent as in Europe ; and when they 
are met with, the same causes that I have already alluded to are in operation. In Africa, 
among savages generally, as I am informed by several travellers, a fat man (unless 
among the chiefs and kings) is but rarely seen ; but the women are not unfreqnently 
fattened, like our prize pigs, to enhance their value, and, according to African taste, 
to jncreiae their beauty ; and, degrading as it is to the human species, a useful lesson 



THB GROWTH, MATUBITY, AND AGE OP ANIMALS. 145 

may be learned by the agricaltnrist from the method of fattening these sable beauties, 
who appear greatiy to exceed onr prize cattle in obesity. Captain Speke, in his re- 
cent work on the " Discovery of the Source of the Nile," gives some amusing examples 
of this kind. I quote two of them (p. 534) : — " King Kamrasis^ sisters (Unyoro) are 
not allowed to wed, and they die virgins in his palace. Their only occupation in life 
consists of drinking milk, of which each one consumes the produce of from ten to 
twenty cows, aad hence they become so inordinately fat that they cannot walk. If 
they wish to see a relative or go outside the hut, it requires eight men to lift them on 
a litter." Again, he describes (p. 231) the sister-in-law of the king of Earague : — 
" She was another of those wonders of obesity, unable to stand, except on all fours ; 
her body was as round as a ball.*' Speke saw her sucking a milkpot, the father 
standing over her with a rod to compel her to drink ; and on measuring this woman 
the following were the proportions of the various parts : round the arm, 23 inches ; 
chest, 4 feet 4 inches ; height^ 5 feet 8 inches. 

Here the same plan of forcing is adopted as in feeding prize cattle, turkeys, geese, 
ortolans, and other animals, and with a somewhat similar result. 

I coold quote many examples in this country of excessive obesity occurring (as in 
the case of Daniel Lambert) without a large amount of fattening material having 
been taken, but these are exceptions to the general rule. Hereditary disposition, as 
with the lower animals, has often much to do with great obesity in the human sub- 
ject; and this tendency to deposit fat is difficult to overcome. The pamphlet lately 
issued by Mr Banting induces me to say a few wordson this subject, as the digression 
may be serviceable to some of my readers who may be desirous of rushing into ex- 
tremes. Mr Banting's history ma^ be told in a few words ; he was so fat that he 
could not stoop to tie his shoe-string. By abstaining as much as possible from bread, 
butter, milk, sugar, potatoes, and beer, and taking chiefly animal food, he reduced 
himself 35 lb. in thirty-eight weeks ; and is now, as he states in the letter that has been 
so extensively circulated and read, in good health. I allude to this pamphlet only for 
the purpose of cautioning those of my middle-aged readers who are inclined to ex- 
treme obesity, not to attempt the reduction of their bulk by this means without con- 
sulting their medical attendants. An animal diet would be highly objectionable to 
some constitutions, especially to those prone to constipation ; whereas the same effect 
may be more gradually produced by reducing the quantity of the food, and taking, 
when practicable, a larger amount of exercise. 

Let all men who have readied the age of sixiy beware of sudden changes in diet 
and drink, 

LowEB Animals. 

Before I commence this part of my subject, viz., the deposit of fat in the lower 
animals, I may premise that for many years I have exaxnined a large number of 
foreign animals that have died at the Regent's Park Zoological Gardens and else- 
where, and that I have taken notes as to the quantity of fat in all Many of these 
animals, it may be remarked, are in a somewhat similar condition to our stall-fed 
quadrupeds ; tney have but little exercise, eat largely and regularly, not depending 
upon the somewhat precarious supply of food they often obtain in a state of nature. 

Among the apes and monkeys, more than 200 of which I have examined, I have 
rarely found any amount of fat ; but both the Old and New World monkeys, in a 
state of nature during the fruit season, are often very fat. I have recently had an 
opportunity of seeing the thoracic and abdominiJ viscera of one of the largest gorillas 
(7\ OoriUa) ever brought to this country, and the intestines, as is often the case in 
the hnman subject, were abundantly covered with fat. 

The bats in a wild state, previously to their winter sleep, have a large amount of fat 
in their bodies, and some of the fruit-eating bats {Pteropi) are abundantly supplied 
with this material 

Some of the flesh-feeding animals in confinement ^re excessively fat. I have seen, 
I think, a larger proportional quantity of fat in a leopard than in the sheep. In two 
Tasmanian wolves {Thylacini) that I examined some years since, the fat was not only 
deposited in the abdomen and under the skin, but the interstices of the muscles were 
filled with &t in a liquid, oily state. These animals eat enormously, and are exclv - 
sively flesh-feeders. Lap-dogs I have seen in the same condition, but these were not 
fed on fledi only. Several months ago an old Tibetean mastiff was killed at the 
Zoological Gardens, and the man who flayed it obtained 36 lb. of fat, and by boiling 
he reckons that he might have collected double the quantity, so that the proportion, 
of fat in this dog probably exceeded more than half ila weigVil. 



146 TBE GROWTH, MATURITY, AND AGE OF ANIMALS. 

All the bears are much inclined to obesity. In the grisly bear, sun bear, black 
bear, brown bear, and Polar bear, I have seen immense quantities of fat in the abdo- 
men and under the skin. ^In the Polar bear, a fish-feeder, I have found the oily fat 
to pervade all the tissues. 

The beavers, otters, badgers, and hedgehogs, are often excessively fat, especially in 
the autumn ; indeed, as shown by Liebig, the hedgehog, dormouse, and other hyber- 
nating animals, require this carbonised material for their winter store of fuel. The 
armadillos, which in South America are considered excellent food, are sometimes, in 
confinement, one mass of fat and oily matter. The kangaroos, too, when in health, 
are much prone to fatten. Among the ruminants, the deer and antelopes are not 
often very fat in confinement, although I have met with some curious exceptions. 

In four girafies that I have dissected, I found but very little fat in their bodies. A 
leucoryx {A. Leucoryx) that died a few months since at the Zoological Gardens, 
from inversion of the womb during calving, had 37 lbs. of fat in the abdomen, and 
probably as large a quantity might have been collected from other parts of the body; 
but the most remarkable example of the local accumulation of fat I have met with 
occurred in an eland (Oreas canna,) a large antelope that was killed at the Zoologi- 
cal Gardens in 1860. The animal, from old age and disease, was emaciated and 
unsightly, and was therefore destroyed. The only fat in the body that I could dis- 
cover was a large solid mass around the heart, which weighed 8 lbs. 13 oz. ; the heart 
was encased in this dense mass of fat, so that no part of it was visible. 

This local accumulation of fat reminds me of the curious deposits in the tails of 
the Cape sheep, some of which are said to reach the great weight of 20 lbs. The 
local deposits of fat in the zebu and other wild oxen may also be mentioned.* 

Whilst speaking of the eland, I take this opportunity of calling the attention of 
agriculturists to this animal, as one that is likely hereafter to be acclimatised and 
used for agricultural purposes. It is nearly as large as a horse, very strong, an 
excellent walker, and very hardy. The Zoological Society has bred twenty-three 
since 1852, and only one has died from disease. The herd at Lord Hill's, Hawk- 
stone, have been out in the park during the winter, having only a temporary shed 
for shelter. The horns in early life might easily be got rid of, and castration would, 
I believe, render the animal perfectly manageable. The flesh is excellent, as I can 
testify by experience; and after a few generations this antelope would probably 
fatten as readily as the ox. 

There is another animal among the Pachyderms, the African wart-hog, {Phaco- 
chcerua JEthiopicus^) that will, I believe, hereafter be introduced into this country 
for the purpose of endeavouring to effect a cross with our English hog. I have 
dissected nearly all the wild hogs, but I have never seen in these, or in any other 
animal, the ribs so thickly covered as in this swine. Mr Bartlett, the superintendent 
at the Zoological Gardens, tells me that Sir George Grey, who has eaten the flesh in 
Africa, pronounces it excellent. In none of the wild hogs, peccaries or tapirs, that 
I have dissected, have I found a large amount of fat. 

It has been stated by some comparative anatomists that no fat is found in the 
body of the elephant when in confinement; but the last I dissected, which died, I 
believe, from fright during a thunderstorm, was very fat. According to Gordon 
Gumming, " the fat of the elephant (in a wild state) is a great' luxury to the 
Cafires ; it lies in extensive layers and sheets in his inside, and the quantity that is 
obtained from a full-grown bull in high condition is very great. The Cafires enter 
the immense cavity of the animal's inside, cut the fat away with .their assagais, and 
hand it to their companions." 

There is a curious difference between the hare and the rabbit as regards the 
accumulation of fat ; it is seldom met with in the body of the former in any quan- 
tity, but rabbits in a wild state, and especially in confinement, have an abundant 
supply. The Christmas rabbits in London, as regards obesity, will vie with the 
prize ox and sheep. The opposite habits of the hare and rabbit in a wild state will 
readily account for the difference, the comparative deprivation of exercise and the 
frequent absence of light being important adjuncts in the fattening process. There 
is one fact connected with these animals which I think may properly be mentioned 
here — viz., the cross-breed between the hare and the rabbit, termed " leporine.'* M. 
Boy, of Angouleme, (France,) by keeping very young hares and rabbits togethcf)*, has 

* I scarcely need add, that among our different varieties of oxen we have local deposits of fitt; 
thuB in tfae old Suffolk breed the internal fat is very great, and not dispersed about the muscles, 
as it should be in a well-bred animal, making what la called " marbled beef." 



THE GROWTH, MATURITY, AND AGE OF ANIMALS. 147 

obtained a cross which is more profitable than the rabbit, on account of its rapid 
growth and larger size. One of these leporines, which I examined, was bred at the 
gardens of the Zoological Society; and although only 34 months of age, it weighed 
3 lbs. 11 oz. M. Roy sends large quantities of these leporines to the neighbouring 
market yearly, and finds them profitable. I have entered more fully into this 
matter in the ** Proceedings of the Zoological Society/' March 1861. The circum- 
stance is one that may interest some of my readers ; but I mention it especially in 
connexion with the subject I am writing upon — viz., the deposit of fat, as it is toler- 
ably certain that these hybrids (as some will call them) may be fattened to a large 
size. In concluding this necessarily short account of the deposit of fat in the 
yarious orders of quadrupeds, I may mention a curious fact respecting the Cetacea; 
in this tribe of animals the Manate, Dugong, and Stellarine are chiefly vegetable 
feeders, whereas dolphins, porpoises, cachelots, and others, live on animal food ; but 
the proportion of fat and oil is greatly exceeded in the latter. It must, however, be 
remembered that the food of the animal-feeders contains a large amount of oily 
materiaL 

Birds, — Among the feathered creation we have some extraordinary instances of 
wild birds, although it has been stated by some writers on fatty degeneration in 
man that very little fat is generally found in wild animals. As is well known, many 
of the web-footed birds (Palmipedes) in a state of nature f»'e very fat, the fat being 
deposited under the skin as well as in the abdominal cavity; a beautiful provision 
to enable these birds to resist extreme cold, by the abundant supply of carbon, and 
by the action of the fat as a non-conductor of heat. An Australian goose, (Cereopsis) 
weighing about 10 lbs., that lately died at the Zoological Gardens, had 34 lbs. of fat 
on its body; and, if all had 'been collected by boiling, probably the quantity would 
have amounted to 5 or 6 lbs., although this bird wsua not intentionally fattened. 

The body of the storm-petrel. Mother Carey's chicken,'(T. Wilsonu,)ia often so impreg- 
nated with Jbtand oil, that some of the inhabitants of the Hebrides make candles of 
them by drawing a rush through the body. All the petrels, as is well known, when 
taken, throw up a large quantity of pure oil from the stomach. These birds are ex- 
clusively fii^-feeders, and it Is more than probable that the oil is at once converted 
into fatty matter. One of the most wonderful instances of rapid growth and abun- 
dant deposit of fatty material occurs in the young of the American passenger-pigeon. 
These birds are said to have seven or eight broods in the year. In twenty-three days 
from the deposit of the egg the young bird can fly, being fully fledged on the eighth 
day. So numerous are these birds that waggons and carts are sent to the place of 
nidification, and many tons of fat are collected from the young pigeons, which are 
stated to resemble lumps of butter. In many of our wild British birds I have found 
a large amount of fat, especially in the flesh-feeders ; in the common barn-owl in 
winter I have seen as much fat as in any wild vegetable-feeder. In foreign birds, in 
confinement, I have not met with so large a quantity of fat as in the quadrupeds ; 
but many of these have been afiected with tubercular disease a long time before 
death. In the ostrich family — ostrich, rhea, moruk, cassuary, emu, and the great 
bustard, in confinement — I have found a large amount of fatty material under the 
skin and in other parts. In one specimen of the African ostrich the fat collected 
weighed as much as 30 lbs., and was two inches in thickness under the skin of the 
back. 

BeptUes, — Turtles, as is well known, are largely furnished with fatty matter, and 
the same remark will apply to tortoises, especially at certain seasons. I have dis- 
sected many alligators and crocodiles in confinement, but in none of them have I 
found any large amount of fat ; although probably in a state of nature this material 
is often abim(£bnt. In many of the lizards, as in the iguanas, fat is stored up in great 
abundance, as I have seen in several that have recently arrived in this country. In 
tlie lurge pythons and boa-constrictors I have found several pounds of fat deposited 
in button-like flakes in the abdomen ; in some that had not fed for many months the 
fat has been abundant : but it must be remembered that the absence of animal-heat 
and the comparative inactivity of the respiratory functions will readily account for 
the non-absorption of this element for the process of combustion. 

Many fishes, as is well known, are highly impregnated with oil, although the pre- 
sence of solid fat is less frequent in this class. From a part only of the flesh of a 
tunny {Thifnnus vulgaris) that I dissected some years since, I obtained five quarts of 
oil. When tiie quantity of oily matter in fish is considered, the great obesity of many 
birds that prey upon them is readily accounted for. 

In many of the invertebrate animals large quantities of fatty matter are ^tot^dxij^v 



148 THE GBOWTH, MATURITY, AND AGE OF ANIMALS. 

Some insects both in the larval and perfect states are abundantly supplied with it. 
The larva of the goat-moth, {G. ligniperda,) so injurious to the wood of the elm, is 
largely supplied with fatty matter, and the common cockchafer, (M. vtUgaru,) so 
destructive in some districts (both in its larval and pupal states) to vegetation is abun- 
dantly furnished with fat and oil. In M. de Tschudi's treatise ** On the Destructive 
Insects and on the immense Utility of Birds," it is stated that " 16 measures of cock- 
chafers yield six of oil, and that a fair sort of cart-grease may be made from them.*' 
It must be remembered that sometimes these insects are collected by cart-loads. 

A few words will suffice to show the practical bearing of the foregoing researches 
upon the question we are investigating. Most animals, whether man or brute, if well 
fed and deprived of their natural amount of exercise, have a tendency to produce fat, 
the wear and tear of tissue being reduced, and the quantity of carbon required for 
the respiratory and heat-forming functions being considerably in excess. The asser- < 
tion of Liebig, however, that wild animals are not inclined to fatten, is not correct. 
I could give many examples of animals in foreign countries. Lieutenant Buigess, 
whose interesting papers on some of the Indian birds are published in the '' Proceed- 
ings of the Zoological Society," tells me that he has not unfrequently shot very fat 
birds in India ; and I could greatly multiply the instances I have already given in 
our own country, both as regards birds and quadrupeds, excluding, of course, the 
hybemating animals in the autumn. 

On the Form, Length, and Weight of the Viscera of some of our Domestic Quadru- 
peds and Birds ; and on the Best and most Economical Methods of Fattening 
these Animals, 

Let me briefly consider the form and length of the digestive apparatus, and the secre- 
tions poured into it in some of our domestic animals in connexion with the deposit of fat, 
and I will take the ox as the best illustration. First, we have a stomach of enormous 
capacity : that of a bull that I examined held 20 gallons of water, and I have known 
more than 6 bushels of turnips taken out of the stomach of a working ox that was 
*' blown." The intestinal canal of the ox measures from 120 to 140 feet ; the salivary 
glands about the mouth furnish several pounds of saliva daily ; the liver probably 
from 20 to 30 lbs. of bile; and the pancreas, (lower sweetbread,) about 10 or 12 lbs. of 
pancreatic juice. Besides these fluids, which are poured into the digestive tube, the 
stomach and intestinal glands and mucous surface supply a laige amount of secretion, 
the quantities of which have been variously estimated by different physiologists. 
The viscera of the ox I find weigh in ounces about as follows : — Lungs, without wind- 
pipe, 128; heart, 80; liver, 240; pancreas, 15; spleen, (melt,) 30. The kidneys do 
not go with the oflTal. In the sheep, as I have stated in my " Essay on Lamb Disease," 
vol. xi. p. 88, the alimentary tube varies from 109 to 117 feet. The viscera in ounces 
are about the undernamed :— Lungs, 22 ; heart, 9 ; Hver, 40 ; pancreas, 2^ ; spleen, 3. 
In ruminants, in addition to the large stomach, the projecting villi and folds of the 
lining membrane increase the absorbing surface to an enormous extent. In the pig 
the stomach is less complicated, but not resembling, as is often stated, that of man. 
The length of the digestive tube is from 70 to 90 feet; the viscera, in ounces, about 
the following: — Lungs, 24; heart, 84; liver, 56; pancreas, 6; spleen, 5. These 
numbers are the averages of many that I have weighed ; as regards the length of the 
alimentary canal much will depend upon the age of the animal, and I may remark 
that in all fat animals the viscera are relatively small. The length of the intestinal 
canal of the horse varies, I find, from 80 to 108 feet In our domestic and game 
birds, the length of the digestive tube, including the appendages, is given in inches : 
—Cock, 94 to 110; hen, 84 to 90; turkey, 105 to 120; guinea fowl, 76 ; pheasant, 
74 to 90; gray partridge, 46; capercailzie, 206; red grouse, 76; wood pigeon, 115; 
goose, 120 to 140 ; tame duck, 111 ; wUd duck, 86. The above are entirely from my 
own measurements. 

The same secretions as those named in quadrupeds are poured into the digestive 
tube of birds : viz., salivary, biliary» &iid pancreatic ; but the salivary secretion is 
much less, being compensated for by the large amount of glandular secretion anterior 
to the gizzard. I may remark that the fattening propensities of an animal do not 
depend altogether on the length of the alimentary canal ; thus, in an old giraflTe that 
I examined, the intestinal tract attained the great length of 254 feet. In the Tas- 
manian wolf, however, before mentioned, the digestive tube measured only 6 feet 6 
inches, not much exceeding double the length of the body. The girafie was devoid of 
fat, but the wolf, an animal-feeder, was abundantly supplied with it.* 

♦ ^ Proceedings of Zoological Society," 1865-1864. 



THS GROWTH MATUBTTT, AND AGE OF ANDCALfiL 149 

Before I agetik of the b«gi and most economical methods of fattening the ox, 
sheep, and pig, let me bring to the notice of the reader a few facts connected with 
the rapid deposit of fat in some of the smaller animals, that may serve as sign-posts 
on the way. Some of the best ezamides in this respect may be adduced among 
Inrds and animals that have a higher temperatore and a more rapid circulation than 
quadrupeds. 

The turkey has, by artifidal, unnatural feeding, reached the enormous weight of 
36 lbs., and three geese wore exhibited at the Birmingham Show, 1854, that averaged 
more than 26 lbs. each. The Aylesbury du^ too, has reached the weight of 12 lbs. 
The most ^proved method of kittening the first-named bird in Norfolk, as I am in- 
formed, is by thick barley-meal, adding bean-meal occasionally, keeping at the same 
time a good supply of brickHdnst in the coop, of which the birds will eat a great deal : 
they are also kept in a dark place, and let out for an hour each day. The system 
varies somewhat with different people : thus some add suet to the barley-meaL I be- 
lieve the absence of light, as one of the means of fattening the ox and the pig, is not 
sufiiciently .appreciated by the agriculturists of the country ; and, without adopting 
the cruel practices thai have been resorted to by some, and at the mention of which 
every Englishman will be di^usted, buildings might be constructed so as to admit 
only a very moderate amount of light, and at the same time be properly ventilated. 
In a recent article on Obesity by Dr Foissac, L' Union Midicale de Paris, March, 
1864, it is stated that " the farmers of Bresse put out the eves of their poultry to 
fatten them," and other authorities assert that the feet of geese have been nailed to 
the bottom of the coop, that they might, be more readily fattened. It is likewise said 
that the wild hog of India will only fatten in confinement when its eyelids are sown 
up, its restless dispoution being corrected by this meana But one of the most re- 
markable instances of the effect of inordinate and artificial feeding is exhibited in 
the ortolan, {Emberiza hortuUma,) a small bird not unlike our yellow-hammer. The 
habit of the bird is to feed at sunrise. According to Playfair, the ortolans are placed 
in a warm chamber perfectly dark, with only one aperture in the wall ; their food is 
scattered over the floor, and at a certain hour of the morning the keeper of the birds 
places a lantern in the orifice of the wall. This induces the birds to believe that the 
sun is about to rise, and they greedily consume the food. The lantern, after three or 
' four hours, is again used, and repeated four or five times daily, so that the birds, in- 
stead of getting one ftfll meal daily, are supplied with five or six, and in a few days 
become iSlo little balls of fat 

In the next part of my subject I shall not presume to dictate to the practical 
farmer, whose knowledge of the best methods of fattening our domestic animals is 
much superior to my own, although the old adage of " Doctors differ" is quite as ap- 
plicable, I think, to the cultivators of the soil. My object wiU rather be to place 
certain conmion-sense matters (as I believe) in a small compass before the reader, so 
as to refresh his memory with principles, rather than with practical information. 

In fattening an animal — ox, sheep, or pig — the important requisites are rest and 
quiet, a moderate temperature, a clean bed, subdued light, proper ventilation, a good 
supply of water, the destruction of parasites, epizoa, (by brush, currycomb, or other 
means,) and the selection of food that contains the nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous 
elements in due and proper proportions, so as to obtain an adequate supply of the 
flesh-forming and fat-forming materials ; the food should be given at regular inter- 
vals, and in such quantities that none may be left. 

Among the watery foods are turnips, mangold-wurtzel, carrots, potatoes, cabbage, 
tares, Incem, and the natural and artificial grasites : whilst in the dry foods a more 
extensive bill of fare presents itself such as linseed — ^boiled, crushed, or in cake ; 
cotton, rape, and poppy cake ; bran, wheat, barley, oat, pea, and bean meals ; Indian 
com, malt-combs, locust-beans, lentUs, lupines ; hay, clover, and straw-chaff. Treacle 
and sugar, to the amount of from half a pound to a pound, daily, may also be profit- 
ably add^ in some instances, and I believe the addition of some carminative seeds 
or oil, such as cummin, aniseed, and caraway, would often have a good effect. Vege- 
table bitters, too^as gentian, quassia, wormwood, and hop — I think might frequency 
be employed advantageously. I am not aware that their use has ever before been re- 
commend^, but they would probably give a " fillip" to the stomach, and excite it to 
take a larger amount of food. Salt, yeast, and other additions, have been recom- 
mended by some feeders. 

In looking at the composition of the different kinds of food that I have enume- 
rated above, it is necessary to bear in mind that the roots, vegetables, and fresh 
grasses contoin from 85 to 98 per cent, of water ; that these, with the exception of 



150 THE GROWTH, MATUBITY, AND AGE OF ANIMALS. 

the dry, natural, and artificial grasses, which contain about 1 J to 2 per cent of fatty 
matter, have but very little fat in them ; that the meals and cakes contain from 7 to 
14 per cent, of water; and that the percentage of fat contained in the undermentioned 
articles of food is about as follows, the proportion of course varying somewhat in 
different samples : — Flour, 1*2 ; Indian meal, 77 ; peas, 2 ; beans, 2 ; rice, 0*7 ; bar- 
ley, 0*3; potatoes, 0*2; cotton-seed, 23*50; rape-ca^e, 11 ; linseed-cake, 12. 

The percentage of sugar contained in the following articles of food is about as un- 
der: — Wheat, 5'5; rye, 374; beans, 2; peas, 2; potato, 3*2; sweet potato, {Convolv. 
BaJtataSy) 10'20; Jerusalem artichoke, 14 or 15; beetroot, 10; sugar-cane, 20. 

Of the albuminous and flesh-forming materials beans contain 31 per cent. ; peas, 
22; lentils, 33; oats, 11; barley-meal, 14; hay, 8; turnips, 1; carrots, 2; red-beet, 
1 J ; potatoes, 2. The above are taken from different authorities. 

In selecting the above foods, as has been fully explained by various writers, much 
must depend upon the locality, the nature of the crops, the age of the animal, the 
state of the market, and other circumstances, that the feeder only can determine. 
The quantity of live weight produced by a given amount of food has been estimated 
by several investigators. Thus it is said that 150 lbs. of turnips will produce a pound 
of flesh; according to Mr Lawes, (" Journal of Royal Agricultural Society," 1862, p. 
215,) 100 lbs. live weight of fattening ox should produce 1 lb. increase per week, the 
animal taking 12 or 13 lb. of dry substance to produce it. In a fattening sheep, 100 
lbs. live weight should yield 1 j lbs. of increase per week, the animal consuming 15 
or 16 lbs. of dry food. In a fattening pig, 100 lbs. live weight should yield 5 or 
6 lbs. of increase per week, 26 to 28 lbs. of dry food being taken to produce it. So 
that for 1 lb. increase of oxen, 12 or 13 lbs. of dry food are required ; for a sheep, 9 
lbs. ; and a pig, 4 or 5 lbs. 

For other information respecting the rate of increase, I refer the reader to the 
various papers of Dr Gilbert and Mr Lawes, to the communications of Messrs Chil- 
ders, Coleman, McDoual, and Templeton, in the " Journal of the Royal Agricultural 
Society," and to articles on the same subject in other journals. 

I will say a few words on the feeding of the pig. This animal in a wild state eats 
a large amount of animal food ; few things in the shape of snakes, lizards, frogs, and 
smaller animals, come amiss to him. In some districts in America he has cleared 
the country of rattle-snakes. A few years since it was discovered that a man in Paris 
was feeding a large number of pigs on horseflesh, and some of the Government offi- 
cials interfered, believing that the meat was not fit for human food. I have reason, 
however, to believe that the introduction of a small quantity of animal food will be 
beneficial during the fattening process. Tb show how much the quality of the flesh 
is influenced by the nature of the food, a gentleman of my acquaintance had some 
pigs near to a salt-water river, where there was a great mortality among the eels 
(conger and common.) The swine fox some time ate largely of these and fattened 
well, but the flesh was so fishy, that, when the pigs were sent to London, the sales- 
man was obliged to return the money. One of the most curious examples that I 
have met with of pig-fattening is recorded in the Leeds Intelligencer ^ August, 1850 : 
— *^ Mr Outhwaite fed a pig on rum and new milk, and in ten days it increased from 
87 stone 10 lbs. to 42 stone 12 lbs., drinking three tumblers of rum daily, and being 
constantly intoxicated." This animal when fed on milk and ale did not increase so 
rapidly. 

On the Supposed Injurious Effects Produced by the Excessive Obesity of &ie 
Ox, Sheep, and Pig, 
A great outcry has bee^ raised of late against the supposed cruelty and injurious 
effects occasioned by the excessive deposit of fat in some of our prize animals. I 
confess that I am unable to see the force of the objections that are generally urged 
against the system. Mr Gant in 1858, in a pamphlet extensively circulated among 
the press, " On the Overfeeding of Prize Cattle," dedicated to the Agriculturists of 
Great Britain, &c., says, in 1857 he saw at Smithfield Cattle Show oxen, sheep, and 
pigs, of an enormous size as compared to their age ; and he adds, ** when he con- 
trasted the enormous bulk of each animal with the short period in which so much 
fat or flesh had been produced, he naturally indulged in a physiological reflection on 
high pressure against time, which certain vital internal organs— as the stomach, 
liver, heart, and lungs — must have undergone at a very early age, and on microsco- 
pical examination he found in the heart and in other parts muscular fibre replaced 
by fat,** &c. I can scarcely conceive a greater amount of enjoyment among the lower 
aoimals than these brutes experience, in the good feeding they take to bring them 



^ SHEARIKG MABKET SHEEP IN WINTER. 151 

into ibis condition ; and their constant state of rest prevents, as I believe, anything 
approaching to crnelty. The breeding of an animal is tcst(Ml, to a great extent, by 
the quantity of fat that can be pnt on its carcass in a short time; and he who can 
bring an ox at the age of eighteen months to the same weight as formerly was attained 
in four years, I think, in the present increasing state of our population, is doing a 
good service to the public. I scarcely need say that an ill-bred animal will eat as 
much or more food, and the rate of increase will be much less. Fat, moreover, is a 
valuable article of diet ; for, a poor woman with a large family can make a pound of 
fat go further than the same weight of lean : and, on the score of health, I believe 
no objection can fairly be urged against the meat of these obese animals. It is not 
pretended that this large accumulation of fat is directly remunerative to the feeder, 
but indirectly it is beneficial to him and to the public also, by showing the breed, 
value, and quality, of the animal. 

Professor Brown, in the last number of the " Journal," takes objection to the for- 
cing system, especially as regards the artificial induction of disease. I fail, however, 
to discover the practical nature of this objection. I have made inquiries among ex- 
tensive breeders and feeders of cattle, and 1 cannot learn that fat, stall-fed animals 
are more liable to disease than lean ones. On asking a large grazier lately which 
were the most healthy — the fat or lean animals — his reply was ** the fat beasts." 
Again, in the report by Professor Gamgee, " On fee Health of Stock, 1863," not one 
of the 250 communicants speaks of disease specially in fat catthe. I can find no dis- 
ease which they are particularly prone to, with the exception of splenic apoplexy, an 
affection, as I stated in a former paper on that subject, that more especially attacks 
animals that are fat or suddenly repleted. From the more isolated position of beasts 
in sheds, I believe that they are leas liable to pleuro-pneumonia or foot and mouth 
disease than lean animals, that are more exposed to contagion and to depressing 
causes. There is one curious affection that I have found in fat animals, sheep espe- 
cially that are fed largely on beetroot and oilcake. They are subject to a crystalline 
deposit in the bladder, that blocks up the urethra (the urinary passage), and thus 
occasions death. I have known many very valuable rams die from this cause. I 
have also met with cases of jaundice from gall-stones in sheep and oxen, from the 
large amount of saccharine matter contained in their food. It is a curious fact, that 
London cows that are fed much on grains are not unfrequently affected with these 
concretions in the gall-bladder, whilst grass-fed oxen never have them. A useful 
hint to those who are troubled with these calculi. 

My essay has so much exceeded its intended limits, that I have been obliged to 
omit the record of my experiments, and of other matters that must be for the present 
deferred. 

42 Beaufobt Street, Chelsea, 1864. 



SHEARING MARKET SHEEP IN WINTER. 
{From the Times of February 20, 1865.) 

Clerkenwell. — On Saturday, Mr William Pratt, a sheep salesman at Oxford and 
the Metropolitan Cattle Market, appeared to an information laid against him by Mr 
Love in behalf of the Secretary of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, which charged him with " having cruelly ill-treated certain sheep at the 
New Cattle Market, by exposing the same for sale when shorn of their fleeces, there- 
by contravening the Statute 12th and 13th of Victoria, cap. 92." 

Mr Ricketts, solicitor, of Frederick Street, Gray's-Inn Road, prosecuted ; Mr 
Stammers was for the defendant. 

Mr Ricketts said that the Society was aware that, in taking these proceedings it 
was placing itself in antagonism to a very large body of graziers and others, whose 
interests it immediately affected. One thing was certain, that if the law were ever 
put in force against the salesman the practice must sooner or later cease. 

Mr D'Eyncourt said it appeared to him that the case must fail at the outset, as the 
wrong person was before him. The grazier or farmer who sent the sheep up should 
be proceeded against, not the salesman. 

Mr Ricketts said that before the grazier could be brought forward, it would be 
necessary to find out who he was, and where he was to be found, and there was more 



152 SHEABIXQ SUBEET SHEEP IN WINTER. 

difficulty in that than the magistrate might imagine. It was very difficult to get 
hold of the owners ; for if the salesmen, the drovers, or any one else in connexion 
with the market, were asked to whom the animals exposed for sale belonged, their 
invariable answer was, that they did not know. 

Mr Love said the most strenuous endeavours had been made in this case to find 
out the consigners, but without success. 

Inspector James Rutherford, an officer in the employ of the Royal Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, described the state in which he saw the sheep on 
the 20th of January, which were standing without cloths, shivering, shaking from 
head to feet, and their backs set up in the form of an arch. He told the defendant 
he ought to have cloths on the sheep on such a cold and wet day, and a short time 
afterwards some cloths were put on. 

Inspector Joseph Dobie, an officer in the employ of the Society, and Police-con- 
stable Floyd, 449 A^ corroborated the inspector. 

Mr George Tegg, veterinary surgeon and inspector to the Metropolitan Cattle 
Market, saw the sheep trembling and suffering from the weather. They suffered pain 
from having been clipped and then placed in an open market The effect of the 
cold would be death to a great many. Sheep thus exposed died of inflammation of 
the bowels. The slaughter-men call them '' chilled sheep.*' 

Professor Charles Spooner, chief of the Veterinary College, had heard the evidence 
of the witnesses. He considered the expansion of the nerves of' the skin of the 
animal consequent upon the removal of the wool, which was the natural covering, 
would have the effect of producing very serious suffering. An aching pain was pro- 
duced from exposure to the cold. If you took the natural covering from an animal, 
you exposed all the nerves of the skin, and the blood was prevented from proper cir- 
culation. He had not the least hesitation in saying that the mutton was influenced, 
and that it was affected in the taste. It was less palatable. The putting cloths on 
sheep would mitigate the evil, not altogether prevent it. 

Mr Arthur Cherry, veterinary surgeon to the Metropolitan Police, gave similar 
evidence. 

Mr Stammer^, for the defence, said the practice now complained of was not a 
matter of a few days or months, but had been the practice of the farmers of this 
country from time immemorial. If the Legislature had intended that sheep should 
not be shorn and sent to market in that state, it would have stated so ; but the 2d 
section of the 12th and 13th of Victoria, cap. 92— the Cruelty to Animals Prevention 
Act — did not say anything of the kind ; and he should call witnesses to prove that 
the sheep did not belong to the defendant, but were consigned to him. 

William Pratt said, — I am the son of the defendant, and I assist my father in his 
business. The sheep in question were not my father's sheep, but they were consigned 
to hioL 

Cross-examined by Mr Ricketts. — My father had 30 clipped sheep in the !i!!etropo- 
Htan Cattle Market on the 26th of January last. I do not know who consigned 
them. [The witness refused to answer the question who consigned the sheep several 
times, and said he was not prepared to do so.] 

Mr Ricketts said he was determined to have an answer to the question, and if an 
answer was not given he should ask the magistrate to commit the witness for con- 
tempt of court. 

Mr D'Eyncourt ruled that the witness must answer the question. 

Ihe witness then said the sheep belonged to Mr Thomas Acres, of Black Bourton, 
near Oxford, and that lie saw the sheep in Oxford market the day before they were 
brought to the London market. They were brought to London in covered vans. 

Mr Henry James HoneybuU, a butcher in Queen's Crescent, Haverstock Hill, pur- 
chased 10 of the sheep, and they were in very good condition. They were not 
chilled at all They were killed the same day, between 4 and 5, 

Mr D*Eyncourt said, that even if the case had been proved against Mr Pratt^ he 
would not have inflicted a fine, owing to the long practice. The evidence was so 
strong, however, that if another case of the kind were brought before him he should 
feel inclined to convict His own impression was that the salesman was bound to 
soil the sheep, and that if he was careless in the business he, to a certain extent, 
participated in the cruelty, although the consigner was most to blame. 

Mr Ricketts. — Do I understand you to say the salesmen are not liable ? 

Mr D'Eyncourt. — Sufficient for the day is the evil thereof. Every case must rest 
on its own merits, 
^sis were applied for and refused. 



" foot-eot" in sheep. 153 



"FOOT-ROT" IN SHEEP; WITH OBSERVATIONS UPON THE ALLIED 
DISEASES IN OTHER ANIMALS. 

By Q. T. Brown, M.R.C.V.S., late Veterinary Professor in the Royal Agricultural 
College, Cirencester. 

Upon the cavse and nature of " foot-rot," as of many other diseases affecting agricul- 
tural stock, much conflicting evidence exists. By some it is considered to he malig- 
nant^ developing during its progress a peculiar poison or virus, which is capable of 
producing the same disease, by inoculation in a healthy foot Other observers deny 
the contagious property, and refer the spread of the disease to the general prevalence 
of the cause in the locality where it may exist By some it is considered to be iden- 
tical with " canker" in the foot of the horse, and " foul" in the foot of the ox ; while 
others claim for it certain specific characters which render it distinct from either of 
these diseases. 

Among the defenders of the malignant nature of the disease is M. Vidal, who nar- 
rates the following circumstances : — ' 

On the 4th of September 1824, he had never had " foot-rot" in his flock, consist- 
ing of 46 ewes and 2 rams. He lent one of his rams for the purpose of breeding. 
The animal was put among a flock the greater part of which were affected by the dis- 
ease. On the 17th day of October the ram was returned very lame. M. Vidal know- 
ii^ nothing of the '' foot-rot," and paying no attention to the lameness, placed him 
among his sound flock. On the 11th of December, sixteen of them had evidently 
contracted the disease. In April 1825, after renewing his flock, he cautioned his 
shepherd not to allow the sheep to pasture with those of other persons. The man 
neglected the caution, and the sheep mingled with another flock among which " foot- 
rot" was general. On the 11th of May there were six sheep affected with the 
malady." 

M. Pictet says a flock of sheep, labouring under '' foot-rot," was driven into the 
neighbourhood of a Spanish flock. The straw upon which they had lain was not 
taken away, and the Spanish flock, having afterwards been sent into the pent-house, 
the " foot-rot" began to show itself among them in about fifteen days. 

Gasparin goes so far as to assert that '* foot-rot " extends, not only to the healthy 
sheep of the flock, but also to pigs, dogs, and poultry. 

Authorities, numerous and respectable enough, advance instances of its communi- 
cation from a ram to the ewes. Even the passage of infected sheep over a farm is 
alleged to have established the disease. The crowning argument, however, is re- 
served by those who maintain that the sod, on which a diseased foot has trodden, will 
eonvey the affection to a healthy organ. 

Inoculation has been practised experimentally, for the purpose of deciding the 
question of contagion, a portion of the matter from a foot suffering from " foot-rot" 
being introduced by incision, or kept in contact with a part of the foot from whence 
the horn had been previously removed. In some cases a similar disease has fol- 
lowed. 

In one recorded experiment 20 sheep, out of 32 inoculated, took the disease. One 
sheep seemed to possess a remarkable immunity ; and the operator, with a persever- 
ance that might have been exerted more advantageously in some other direction, 
repeated the inoculation seven times before the result was obtained. 

The opponents of the contagion theory have by far the most difficult task, because, 
setting aside the difficulty of combating a strong prejudice, it is not easy to prove 
that a disease which rapidly extends through a flock is not so transmitted by virtue of 
its contagious character. 

Instances are advanced to show that animals suffering from " foot-rot " may be 
associated with healthy sheep without any extension of the malady. Inoculation has 
also been tried, and failed, in a number of cases ; and smearing the matter over the 
hoof or sound skin, has not been found to produce any disease. 

Most of the information conveyed to us comes from men who were not acquainted 
with the characteristic elements of the disease, and who seem to have recorded effects 
irrespective of their possible causes, giving, in place of logical inductions, the mere 
impressions which the facts made on their own minds at the time of their occurrence. 
The only direct evidence bearing upon the question refers to inoculation, and the con- 
veyance of the disease by an infected animal to a perfectly healthy locality. On both 
these points the results recorded by different observers are opposed. The facts ad- 



154 " FOOT-ROT " IN SHEEP. 

vanced on one side prove that the disease will spread from a diseased sheep to healthy 
animals in a previously healthy situation; and further, that direct contact of a healthy 
foot with the matter of a diseased one, will induce the disease. The facts oiv the 
other side prove that a diseased sheep may, with impunity, be allowed to mingle with 
healthy ones on a dry soil; and that contact with the matter of "foot-rot" is not 
injurious unless the healthy foot has been previously denuded of a portion of its 
horny covering. 

So far, therefore, as the evidence is concerned, the question of contagion has yet 
to be decided; but before any consideration can be given to a point of such import- 
ance, it must first be determined what is the nature of the disease in respect of which 
the question arises. 

NATURE OP "POOT-BOT." 

Concerning the essential characters which distinguish ''foot-rot" from other affec- 
tions of the foot of the sheep, very little appears to have been ascertained. Should 
farmers consider this admission a reflection upon veterinary science, they are requested 
to pardon the suggestion that veterinary science has had very little to do with the 
matter. The great authority always has been the shepherd, whose assertion of the 
presence of ''foot-rot" or other disease in the floek is not likely to be questioned. 
Nor is veterinary science appealed to unless the consequences of the malady are 
especially serious. In many instances a diseased state of foot is constant on parti- 
cular lands ; remedies are systematically applied with an average amount of success, 
and the^ is no doubt at all felt about the character of the disease, or its origin, nor 
of the infallibility of the secret nostrums used for its cure. Whatever the disease is, 
it arises from some peculiarity in the land on which the animal is placed ; and it is 
calmly reckoned among the annoyances associated with farming. The shepherd is 
deputed to rectify the mischief as well as he can, and so the matter goes on year by 
year. In other cases a healthy locality suffers. A few instances of disease in the 
feet are noticed ; probably the affection spreads ; a new ram or some recently pur- 
chased sheep are first affected, and the verdict is, a touch of the " foot-rot," brought, 
of course, by the strangers lately introduced. No inquiry is instituted respecting the 
nature of the new disease ; no one doubts the revelations of the oracle who speaks, 
and "foot-rot" it is decided to be. Possibly justly so; but, rightly or no, th6 con- 
clusion is reached upon the shallowest of shallow premises. 

To determine accurately the essentials of the disease, the inquirer will naturally 
select a locality where the affection is constantly present ; and where, consequently, no 
sudden outbreak will interfere with his investigation. He will observe some animals 
to be lame, probably excessively so ; even, it may be, incapable of standing, and com- 
pelled to graze with their knees on the ground. Between the extreme and the inci- 
pient cases he will distinguish various stages, defined to some extent, by the animal's 
movements. Some sheep will move with tolerable freedom, probably showing lame- 
ness in one leg only ; others may manifest a slight defect in their action occasion- 
ally ; and many will not indicate any disease until they are caught and examined.^ 

According to the extent of the affection and the nature of the soil, the appearances 
will differ. In the most advanced cases the entire hoof may be detached ; sometimes 
only a small portion is loosened, or, it may be, that certain hollows and fissures com- 
prise all the changes that have occurred. The growth of the horn to an extraordi- 
nary degree, or its being worn down almost to the quick, cannot be considered essen- 
tial elements in the disease. " Foot-rot" may exist in association with either state, 
and it may.be absent in both. Either condition in excess will assist the development 
of the disease. 

The excessively elongated and overgrown hoof causes an unusual strain upon the 
internal structures, besides being liable to fracture, which may expose the open 
canals of the horn, or even furnish a direct channel through which dirt may pass to 
the sensitive parts. Excessive wear, on the contrary, lessens tha protective covering, 
and renders the horn more easily acted upon by moisture and grit. 

The general preference for the fore extremities is not peculiar to this malady ; and 
probably the extra weight thrown upon these parts may explain the prevalence of dis- 
eases in the fore feet of animals generally; " foot-rot," however, is not confined to the 
front feet^ occasionally one hind one is attacked, and very rarely both suffer. 

So long as the investigation is confined to the diseased animals, and includes only 
such a general observation, nothing of importance is gained. We ascertain, what 
has been long well known, that sheep affected with "foot-rot" are more or less lame ; 
that some portion of the horn is loose ; and that a soft fungoid exudation is quickly 
thrown out instead of the healthy horn structure. It will be further apparent that a 



" FOOT-KOT " IN SHEEP. 155 

large nnmber of animals are affected at the same time ; and that on particular lands 
it is especially rife, although modified in some degree according to the season. 
, Excluding all speculations, these few facts comprehend all that can be gathered 
from a general examination conducted with a view to ascertain the extent of disease, 
and to determine the necessary means for its cure or prevention. Science, however, 
imposes a more arduous task. At the commencement it requires several problema- 
tical positions to be satisfactorily resolved : — 

1. The precise nature of those structural alterations that have occurred in some of 
the tissues composing the foot 

2. The exact elements which distinguish '* foot-rot " from other affections of the 
foot arising from disease or injury. 

3. The character of the virus or specific poison, the contact of which with healthy 
structures induces the same disease. 

Structural alterations can only be appreciated by comparison with healthy tissues. 
Accordingly, it becomes indispensable to examine the elementary constituents of those 
parts of the foot especially implicated before attempting a consideration of the ele- 
ments of the disease. 

Elementary Structure of (he Tissues of Hie Foot particularly affected in " Foot-Rot" 

The external appearance of the foot of the sheep requires no description, nor is it 
necessary to indicate the differences in the arrangement of the foot structures in other 
hoofed animals. For our present purpose it is of no consequence that the foot of the 
sheep is cloven, and that of the horse single. These points, which interest the com- 
parative anatomist^ will not help to elucidate the questions with which we are at pre- 
sent concerned. 

One anatomical peculiarity of the sheep's foot, or, more correctly, of the parts con- 
nected with it, is the existence of a peculiar inflection of the skin between the digits, 
a short distance above the hoofs. This canal, called the " biflex," or " interdigital 
canal," is formed by the continuation of the tissues of the skin, including the hairs, 
and secretes a viscid fluid. Its functions are not apparent; but its opening being 
frequently blocked up by particles of dirt, a distension of the canal occurs by its own 
secretion, and much irritation and swelling follow. This condition may be super- 
added to ''foot-rot," and considerably aggravate the disease; or it may occur altogether 
independently. It certainly has nothing to do with the origin of the disease, and will 
not, for this reason, be alluded to in the course of the subsequent discussion upon the 
essential elements. 

The homy covering of the foot first presents itself to our observation. Externally 
we find it rough and hard; internally softer and more complicated in its arrange- 
ment^ being beautifully adapted to the surface of the internal foot. We realise at 
once the idea that the hoof is a protective covering, capable of resisting the effects 
of concussion and attrition^ which would be seriously detrimental to the more delicate 
tissues benetiih. 

This idea of a protective covering naturally becomes more extended as we. compre- 
hend the fkct^ that all free surfaces of membranes possess it. Every portion of the 
skin, as well as of the internal membranes, is covered by a layer, or several layers, of 
delicate ceJUs, united by their sides and edges, without the intervention of any con- 
nective tissue. These cells are secreted from the structures beneath, and perform 
veiy important offices — ^that of protecting the sensitive tissues being probably the 
most important 

Bapidly produced, insensitive, and non-vascular, these " epithelial cells" are emi- 
nently adapted to preserve the more vital structures from the influences of constantly 
acting physical and chemical forces. An idea of their nature is readily obtained. A 
sniall portion of the outer skin of the hand, or any part of the body, examined by 
the microscope, #ill suffice to render them familiar. 

After removing the several layers of cells which form the outer skin or cuticle, we 
come to the sensitive or true skin, or cutis, which is everywhere covered by minute * 
elevations or papillae, round which the cells of the cuticle are secreted. Keeping 
these facts in remembrance, we proceed to concentrate our ideas upon the foot. And 
first, with the recollection of the cells which form the protective covering of the "fekin 
and membranes, we examine the structure of the hoof, a small portion of which 
should be scraped off and softened in potass, for microscopic examination. The 
first glance convinces us that we have, composing the hoof-horn, the identical cells 
that we foond covering the skin, agreeing in every respect so closely that there is no 
possihility of distinguishing the one from the other. 



156 " foot-rot" in sheep. 

Pursuing the inyestigation, we proceed to make thin sections of the hoof in longi- 
tudinal and transverse directions, in order to see how these elementary cells are arranged 
in the compact homy structure. 

A drop of potass placed on the specimen will produce a very peculiar and instructive 
effect The concentric rings surrounding the openings will gradually resolve them- 
selves into layers of epithelial cells. From this examination we arrive at the 
certain conclusion that the hoof corresponds in elementary structure and arrange- 
ment with the insensitive covering of the true skin — that, in fact, horn is identical 
with the cuticle or outer skin. Next, keeping in view the idea of a secreting, sensi- 
tive, and papillated surface, such as we find in the true skin, we may proceed to investi- 
gate the tissues beneath the horny covering. Reflected over the whole of the internal 
foot is a highly vascular membrane, everywhere presenting numerous papillae. On the 
coronary surface, and over the sole, the papillae are large and numerous. On that 
part of -the membrane which is folded or lamellated, they are fewer in number, 
although distinct enough even under a low magnifying power. 

Hound the large papillae of the coronet and the sole, layers of epithelial cells are 
secreted to form the wall and sole of the hoof. The cells being developed round 
the papillae accounts for the cavities or canals which form the tubes, as they are termed. 
At their origin these canals are visible to the unaided eye, but in the densest part 
of the horn they are only perceived when highly magnified. 

The minute papillae in the lamellae undoubtedly secrete horn, but not to the same 
extent as the papillated surfaces of the coronet and sole. It is evident, from the 
arrangement of the two structures, that the delicate homy lamellae lining the interior 
of the hoof, corresponding to the lamellated membrane, arise from those vascular 
folds to which they are closely attached. 

To our previous conclusion of the identity of the hoof with the cuticle or other 
skin we may now consistently add the fact of the evident connexion between the sen- 
^ sitive skin, with its papillated secreting surface, and the sensitive, secreting mem- 
' brane of the internal foot, with its papillated surface ; completing the proof of the 
identity of the trae skin and its epithelial covering with the vascular membrane of 
the internal foot and its modified epithelium or horny covering. Under the mem- 
branous tissues of the foot there exists a quantity of fibrous structure attached to the 
bones forming the basis of the organ. Posteriorly the fibres enclose large fat vesicles, 
and form together a firm but very elastic*cushion, modifying the effects of concussion 
to which the foot is, from its position, constantly exposed during the movements of 
the animal. 

Being now acquainted with the healthy stracture of the tissues which are particu- 
larly affected in *' foot-rot," we may next consider those changes which are effected in 
the healthy textures by the progress of the disease. 

The Precise Nature of the Structural Alterations that occur in some of the Tissues 
composing the Foot during the Progress of " Foot-Hot" 

For the purpose of determining the elements of stractunil disease, the same mmute 
investigation will be required that was found necessary to ascertain the arrangement 
of tiie healthy tissues. The hoof being obviously altered in some important particu- 
lars, will first require consideration. Small portions taken from various parts where 
the effects of disease are apparent, will present under the microsoope very important 
evidence. 

. According to the condition of the diseased texture, our method of examination 
will be mocUfied. Selecting the worst forms of the disease to begin with, we shall 
take a little of the soft, spongy, discoloured horn that is most easily scraped from the 
foot. A few particles of this broken-up stracture should be placed on the glass slide 
with a little water, and examined under a moderately high power. 

The appearance presented is precisely what the pathologist would not anticipate. 
Instead of the diseased products which he might reasonably expect, he finds nothing 
but the epithelial cells, characteristic of the healthy horn or skin, mixed with par- 
ticles of (urt. 

It will be noticed that the cells are less regular in form, and occasionally have 
slightly ragged outlines, but they are unmistakably epithelial cells. 

Between the hoof of the healthy foot and the detached and broken-up stracture 
from the diseased foot, the distinction lies in the physical condition of the elements. 
In the healthy hoof the cells are regularly developed in layers, and form a compact 
structure. In the diseased foot the hoof has been macerated in the fluids exuded 



" rOOT-BOT" IN SHSEP. 157 

from the membnine, aa well as bj the moisture that may exist in the soil, nntil the 
cells are separated from their close connexion with each other ; and, being mixed 
with the dirt, and exuded fluid, form the mass which we inrariably find in those parts 
of the hoof which haye been most exposed to the combined action of these destmctive 
influences. 

In different parts of the same foot, and among different animals, we shall distin- 
guish many grades of the disease, as it affects the horn of the foot. Some parts are 
only slightly broken or withered. In a white hoof a dark spot may be detected, in- 
dicating a hollow place. A very close examination may probably result in the dis- 
coyery of a minute fissure from an eighth of an inch to an inch long, crossing the 
hoof transyersely. 

The importance of these seemingly trifling alterations of structure will be eyident 
as we trace them to their terminations. Either or all of the changes may have taken 
place in the feet of animals that show no eyidence of unsoundness in their moye- 
ments ; it is, therefore, only by examining the apparently healthy feet, that we shall 
discoyer the earliest indication of disease. 

The shriyelled condition of the hoof is yeiy peculiar ; it commonly occurs at the 
toe, but any part of the outside edge of the hoof may show it The appearance is 
suggestiye of decay or death of the part, from the absence of the necessary nourish- 
ment, and the microscopic examination sanctions the idea. A section of the shrivelled 
part showed the canals of the hoof to be obstructed by an accumulation of minute 
particles of dirt, extending for some distance up the horny structure, and effectually 
arresting the course of the nutrient fluids. 

The next condition indicated by the dark spot can only be readily seen when 
the hoof is light in colour; but the hollow, of which it is the evidence, may be 
suspected when the lower edge of the horn is broken at all or detached from the sole. 
A probe will at once detect the cavity when it is not sufficiently evident. In some 
cases the cavity will be found on section to extend only a short distance up the wall 
of the hoof ; in others it will have reached nearly to the internal structure, and some- 
times the penetration is complete, and the secreting membrane gives evidence of 
irritation by redness and the commencement of exudation. A section through the 
hollow part will render its origin very evident From some small fissure or crack at 
the lower part of the hoof, the dirt has gradually passed upwards in considerable 
quantities, mechanically excavating the horn, and ultimately reaching the vascular 
structures. The pressure from below will suffice to force up the foreign particles in 
. abundance, and the more the hoof is softened by moisture the more rapidly th.e 
structure will give way. Disease of the sensitive membrane of the internal foot will 
necessarily result from the irritation produced by the contact of the particles of sand 
or grit with its surface. 

Insignificant as the next condition is, amounting to no more than a mere scratch 
upon tiie side of the hoof, it is, nevertheless, the most serious of all the primary 
changes in the horn. In every instance we have found the minute black line to be 
the entrance to a passage leading obliquely into the internal foot 

It would seem that minute particles have at first been lodged in some little ridge 
upon the outside of the hoof, and gradually insinuated themselves into the structure, 
passing between the layer of cells, and being assisted in their course by the slight 
outward bending of the horn of the foot during progression, the tendency of the 
animal's weight idways being to bend the edge of the wall under, and thus cause 
a small fissure on the outside of the hoof to slightly expand, and allow the particles 
of grit to pass by degrees to the interior. This peculiar curving under the edge of 
the horn at the same time is injurious in another direction, permitting the accumu- 
lation of dirt underneath it, and assisting to force gritty particles up through the 
canals of the horn of the sole. 

From the commencement of the changes in the structure of the hoof on to that 
most advanced condition where the integrity of the horn is entirely lost, it appears 
from the most careful and minute examinations, that the alterations are purely 
physicaL In the early stages we find the horn shrivelled from the mechanical inter- 
ference with the supply of nutriment, consequent on the blocking up of the canals 
or we discover fissures or cavities varying in extent, but always the result of discon- 
nexion of the layers of epithelial cells, of which the hoof is composed, and the intro- 
duction of particles of gritty material. 

In the advanced forms of the disease, the hoof is altered in appearance ; its com- 
pact diaracter is exchanged for a spongy or even rotten mass : but nevertheless the 
microscope proves that the changes are still only mechanical; the ''rotten" mass 



158 "FOOT-ROT** IN SHEEP. 

consists of epithelial cells very little changed in form, but separated from their con- 
nexion with each other, as though from the effects of long maceration, and com- 
mingled with the dirt of the soil and the exudative matter from the irritated secret- 
ing membrane, but presenting no new pathological elements, nor even the ordinary 
products of disease. 

The condition of the secreting membrane next requires consideration. Rarely is 
this tissue the seat of ulceration in " foot-root." Cases have occurred in which all 
the foot structures have been destroyed, even the bone being extensively decayed ; 
but in the few instances alluded to, there has been good reason to believe that the so- 
called " foot-rot" arose from puncture penetrating the bone, and causing caries of 
this structure first. Generally the first effect of the contact of foreign particles with 
the membrane of the internal foot is to increase the secretion of epithelial cells from 
the surface, and thus to furnish in some degree a protection to the subjacent tissues. 

Covering, the whole of the surface from whence the horn is detached, will be noticed 
a layer of the fungoid or spongy material ; this under the microscope is found to con- 
sist of loosely aggregated epithelial cells, very abundant, and closely adherent to the 
membrane beneath them. The structure of the membrane is usually unchanged, and 
if we except the circumstances of its excited sensibility and increased vascularity, it 
can scarcely be said to be the seat of any disease at all. Its function of secretion, so 
far from being impaired, is particularly active ; but the abundant and rapid develop- 
ment of the epithelial cells, with the exudation of serous fluid from the distended 
vessels, prevents the condensation of those elements into firm and healthy horn, and 
perpetuates the formation of the well-known fungoid growths, so characteristic of 
"foot-rot;" these fungoid growths, be it remarked, being nothing more than horn 
wanting in density and firmness. 

The precise structural alterations which result from " foot-rot," so far as we can 
determine them, amount to the following : — 

1. Mechanical derangement of the structure of the hoof and the introduction of 
gritty particles into the canals, or into accidental fissures. 

2. Softening and disintegration of the horny structure by the moisture of the soil 
and the exuded fluids from the internal membrane. 

3. Irritation of the internal membrane, causing excessive secretion of epithelial 
cells with serous exudation, associated with increased vascularity and sensibility. 

If we were only in possession of evidence referring to the advanced stages of " foot- 
rot," it would be difficult to decide from the condition of the parts whether the inter- 
nal membrane or the homy covering was the primary seat of the derangement ; but 
with the facts which we have obtained from an examination of the incipient as well 
as the advanced stages, there is sufficient reason to believe that in most instances the 
integrity of the hoof must be impaired before the internal membrane can be injured. 
Many of the changes previously described affect the hoof to a considerable extent, 
while the secreting membrane remains perfectly intact. 

Such alterations of structure as we have found to exist in the various stages of 
" foot-rot," are sufficiently marked to be easily recognised ; we shall therefore find no 
difficulty in solving the next problematical position which requires solution. 

TTie Exact Elements which Distinguish "Foot-Bof* from other Affectiom of tfte Foot of 
the Sheep, or other Anim>als, arising from Injury or other Causes, not claiming 
to be "Specific" in tlieir Nature. 

As far as appearances go, it must be at once admitted that the changes indicative 
of "foot-rot" are commonly seen in the feet of other animals. In fact, whenever 
solution of continuity in the homy covering occurs, the entrance of particles of dirt 
is a necessary consequence; and in succession the occurrence of those structural 
changes that have been described. 

In ihmsh of the horse's frog ; in canker of the foot of the same animal ; in cases 
of neglected puncture; in instances of corns which have been neglected; in the foot 
and mouth disease of cattle and sheep, when the feet have not been attended to, simi- 
lar appearances are present, including softening of the horn in the exuded fluids, the 
admixture of particles of dirt, and the growth upon the membrane .of the spongy 
material consisting of the structural elements of hom loosely arranged, but presenting 
all the characters o| the normal constituent of the structure. 

If there are distinctive elements in any of these diseases, the present means of 
examination are not sufficient to enable us to detect them. Whether we take " foot- 



" FOOT-BOT " IN SHEEP. 159 

rot," or esnker, or thnuh, or foul in the foot of the ox, or com in an adfanced stage, 
or the diseased products arising from injury, the microscope fails to indicate anything 
characteristic of either disease after the changes have so far advanced as to present a 
general resemblance ; that is to say, where the hoof-horn has become spongy or rotten, 
and the secreting membrane is covered with fungoid growths. Whether these condi- 
tions be expressed by the term " canker," " thrush," " foot-rot," or " foul," or by other 
equally unmeaning and vulgar titles, it is necessary to insist upon the fact that the 
pathological elements of the structural changes are identical. 

It will not be understood that every instance of com, or punctured foot, of neces- 
sity shall present the appearance of ''foot-rot'* or " canker;'' on the contrary, it is 
admitted to be necessary that the ii^'ury or disease shall be neglected, that the defec- 
tive part shall be exposed to the influence of dirt and wet before the changes in the 
stracture of the hoof and the function of the membrane will occur ; but when they 
have occurred, — ^when the hoof or parts of it are soft and spongy, or black and rotten, 
— when the membrane is throwing out an abundance of epithelial cells, — then the 
apparent resemblance in all these differently-named diseases is proved by the micro- 
scope to be a true identity, and justifies the assertion that there are none of the pro- 
ducts of " foot-rot" -which are not common to other affections of the foot hitherto 
presumed to be entirely distinct from it and from each other. 

The third position which we have undertaken to discuss will require but little con- 
sideration. It refers to the '^ virus" of *' foot-rot," — the animal poison supposed to 
be capable of inducing the disease by contact. 

The question of the existence of such poison among the products of '' foot-rot" must 
be determined by experiment ; and the only foundation for the assumption of '* virus" 
lies in the fact that the introduction of the matter from a diseased foot to the healthy 
foot by puncture through the horn has produced " foot-rot" in some cases, although it 
has fiuled to do so in others. 

After all, the fact may be admitted without any question; it proves very little; we 
are quite prepared to learn that an injuiy to the horn of the foot, followed by the 
contact of a- mixture of moist epithelial cells and particles of dirt, will, if applied 
sufficiently long, produce " foot-rot ;" we know that dirt and moisture will suffice, 
witl^out any additional elements. 

Some of the experiments in inoculation failed, probably because there did not 
happen to be enough of the gritty particles ; others because they did not remain long 
enough in contact with the membrane to establish any irritation ; and at best there 
was not so much disease produced as would have occurred if the animals had been 
placed upon undrained land, where there happened to be a tolerably plentiful admix- 
ture of sand or grit in the soil. 

If it had ever been found that the introduction of the matter under the skin of the 
leg or any part of the body produced the disease, there would be fair evidence of its 
specific nature ; but, in the absence of this proof, we cannot admit an assumption 
which is altogether unnecessary to explain the results. 

From the present state of the argument we may consistently deduce the conclusion, 
that '' foot-rot" is primarily consequent tipon such a derangement of the structure of 
the horn as permits the introduction of foreign particles, which ultimately reach the 
internal membrane, and occasion irritation, followed by exudation and excessive 
secretion. 

Obioin of "Foot-Rot." 

Wherever the conditions of moisture and grit exist, on the same lands ''foot-rot" may 
be expected to be rife. Whether the famd be light or heavy seems to matter but little; 
the stiffest undrained clavs and the lightest of undrained sandy or chalky soils, are 
equally active in the production of the disease, which is consequently tolerably gene- 
ral in its distribution. 

It is usually admitted that "foot-rot" is unknown where the soil is efficiently drained; 
it is certunly well known on soils which are so porous that the idea of drainage is 
scouted, on tiie plea that the land is never wet enough ; although we have had the 
satisfaction of hearing these reasoners admit that in the dryest seasons on such soils 
the disease is less prevalent 

The rapid extension of " foot-rot" among the floek is easily explained where all 
are exposed to the same influences. If there is sufficient wet to soften the horn and 
dilate the canals, it is only necessary, further, for gritty particles to be present to 
complete the requisite conditions for the production of the effects we have been con- 
sidering : no more active virus is wanting than exists in the shape of wet and dirt. 
Vol. L- Ko. Ill,— New Sebhs. Mjleoh 1866. M 



160 " foot-rot" in sheep. 

In instances recorded of the spread of the affection on previously healthy lands 
from one or two diseased subjects, we have the usual difficulty, viz., ignorance of all 
the conditions ; nothing can be gained by endeavouring to combat such positions, or 
indeed to defend them. If they are facts, they are met by equally authentic instances 
of a totally opposite character ; therefore, whichever view may be taken^ there are 
facts recorded in contradiction. 

All the evidence obtained by investigation tends to prove that " foot-rot" only 
spreads under the influence of causes which i^t mechanicsdly upon the structures, and 
are not in any way connected with the development of a " specific" virus. 

Treatment and Prevention. 

It will not be necessary to insist upon the importance of perfect drainage ; but, 
looking upon the affection independently of the continuance of the causes which give 
rise to it, the question occurs, Can any remedies be applied to ameliorate or cure it 
while those causes remain ? 

Experience decides in the affirmative : indeed, so little difficulty attends the treat- 
ment that every shepherd has an infallible application, which certainly often succeeds 
in curing the affection about as fast as it is produced, so that an average number of 
cases wUl always require attention. This may be considered as a normal state of 
affairs on lands which give " foot-rot" 

The routine is perfectly simple. Each sheep that indicates by his lameness the 
necessity for treatment is caught, and the detached or decayed horn of the foot pared 
off by a strong somewhat curved knife; sometimes the entire hoof requires removal 
in this way. In the next place, the exposed surface is painted over with some 
caustic mixture, by means of a feather or brush. 

The rationale of the process seems to be the destruction of the extreme sensibility 
of the membrane and the production of an astringent effect upon the relaxed and 
distended vessels, and the condensation of the epithelial cells to form the compact 
homy texture which is required. The addition of some medium, as tar, for the pur- 
pose of temporarily protecting the parts while the new horn is being secreted is an 
important part of the treatment 

For the cure of severe cases caustic dressing appears to be indispensable, and gene- 
rally very powerful agents are desirable. Various preparations are in favour, but 
they may nearly all be included in one class. 

Among the most valuable we may name a mixture of nitrate of mercury with 
hydrochloric and acetic acids. Sulphate of copper, with tar, is preferred by some; 
and recently the preparations manufactured by JDr Calvert of Manchester, under the 
name of Phenyline and Terebane, have been advantageously employed as caustic 
dressings for ''foot-rot" in sheep and the allied diseases in the feet of other animals. 

The preparation of the nitrate of mercury is the most powerful, although its 
action can be modified by dilution. In its concentrated form it produces intense 
pain for a time, evidently followed by diminution of sensibility ; and in the course 
of a few hours after the application the animal will stand apparently without suffer- 
ing, even when the entire horn has been removed from both fore feet. 

The compound is made by dissolving two drachms of metallic mercury in two ounces 
of nitric acid, then adding an ounce each of hydrochloric and acetic acids, and dilut- 
ing with four to twelve parts of water, according to the degree of action required. 

To arrest the development of the malady, or to prevent its occurrence, by any 
means which can be devised to render the feet less susceptible to the action of the 
deleterious influences to which they are of necessity exposed in certain localities, is 
of more importance than the treatment of the disease in its worst forms. 

By systematic examination of the sheep among whom foot-rot is prevalent the 
primary symptoms may be detected, and by regular preparation of the hoofs they 
may be kept in a condition least favourable to attacks of the disease. In order to 
effect this object the surface of the hoof must be kept, as far as possible, free from 
ridges, or hollows, or fissures; and all unnecessary extension of the edges of the hoof 
must be carefully prevented. A great deal has been and is still urged against the 
use of the rasp and drawing-knife upon the foot of the horse ; the frogs in particular 
are held especially sacred from either instrument Observation, however, has led us 
to conclude that error may exist in both directions, and that however injurious the 
excessive use of the knife may be, the neglect of it is not less so. « 

Every loose portion of horn, should, at the very least, be removed, and eveir 
fissure or hollow capable of holding dirt should (particularly in the frog) be levelled, 
and the surface rendered smooth. In animals whose feet are much exposed to dirt 



CASE OF HYDROPHOBIA. 161 

and moisture, and where no great attention is paid to them in the stable, a neglect 
of these precautions leads to the development of those diseased conditions that we 
have considered a« allied to " foot-rot " in sheep. The horn of the sheep's foot on 
moist or light soils is very little, if at all, worn. The edges of the wall curve under 
and form receptacles for dirt; ridges and fissures and cracks are left untouched, 
and the very natural results follow. If every sheep, before being placed on lands 
known to produce " foot-rot," had his feet properly prepared and periodically attended 
to, the number of cases of disease, even with the continuance of its causes, would be 
reduced to a minimum. 

No particular skill nor any Urge amount of labour would be required to effect all 
we desire. The shepherd' being furnished with a small rasp, a strong curved knife, 
and a small point or awl for picking out the dirt from minute fissures, would be ex- 
pected to hold the animals successively bet^neen his legs, and first cut off with his 
knife any elongation of the edges of the horn until the sole of the foot is rendered 
perfectly flat and leveL Next, rasping the hoof generally aver the outside, he will 
examine the clean surface to see if any cracks, or fissures, or hollows, or shrunken 
parts exist; if they are found he proceeds to excavate by knife and rasp until he 
reaches the bottom of the cavity or removes the whole of the decayed structure ; 
afterwards applying a little tar to protect the parts, or using some stronger dressing 
if he finds the condition of the foot renders it necessary. Supposing the horn to be 
found quite perfeot, it will still be advisable, after the surface has been rendered 
sufficiently smooth, to apply a coating of tar to prevent the immediate action of the 
moisture and grit of the soil upon the exposed surface of the hoof. 

A little extra expense and trouble would enable the operator to use a more 
adhesive material than tar as a protection to the feet after the use of the rasp and 
knife. Yarious mixtures of pitch, resin, and tallow, with a small proportion of gutta 
percha, might be melted together, and applied warm with the greatest advantage. 

The repetition of the process of rasping and paring the feet and applying some 
external protective agent will be necessary according to circumstances. The nature 
of the soil and the character of the season will have an essential influence ; but, 
under any circumstances, once a month will be quite sufficient ; and we have prac- 
tical authority for saying that it would answer in a commercial sense to devote that 
amount of labour to the accomplishment of so important an object as the ameliora- 
tion or prevention of the disease. 

It may be accepted as a fact beyond all question, that if by any means the integ- 
rity of the hoof can be preserved, " foot-rot " will become an extremely rare disease ; 
idthough we do not, under any circumstances, anticipate its extinction so- long as an 
acre of land remains undrained. 

New Cavendish Strbet, Pobtland Place, Londoit, W. 



CASE OP HYDROPHOBIA-DEATH— AUTOPSY. 

(UNDEB THE OABE OF DB OWEN BEES.) 

Fob the notes of the following extremely rare and interesting case we are indebted 
to Mr Wootton Bushell :— 

Hydrophobia is a disease so very rare, that, Dr 'Wilks says, this is only the second 
case admitted into Guy's since his connexion with the Hospital. One little circum- 
stance mentioned to us by Dr Wilks is not alluded to in the report. It is sometimes 
said of persons affected by hydrophobia that they " barked like a dog." It is gene- 
qtlly believed that this statement is due entirely to the bystander's imagination. 
Now it seems that in this case the patient did occasionally make a strange explosive 
noise, which, iJthough not like the bark of a dog, yet resembled it enough to account 
for the origin of the popular notion alluded to. The bite was several weeks before 
the symptoms set in. In the other case Dr Wilks had seen the bite several years before 
the actual outbreak. That case was a well-marked one, but the interval was so long 
that it is hard to believe the hydrophobia to have been connected with a wound in- 
flicted at a time so very distant. 

George R., aged 13, admitted into Guy*s Hospital under Dr Rees, January 16, 1865. 
Has always been a healthy boy ; father and mother, and- numerous brothers and sis- 
ters alive and well. 



162 CASE OF HYDROPHOBIA. 

On December 18, twenty-nine days ago, as he was returning home from school, he 
was bitten in the upper lip by a large dog. This dog was then under treatment for 
madness, but had got loose in some way. The dog subsequently bit a little girl 
slightly in the hand, and was immediately afterward^ killed by a butcher with an 
axe. The boy went to a surgeon's at Greenwich directly he had been bitten, and 
within a quarter of an hour the edges of the wound were pared and adapted by pins 
and strapping, as in the operation for hare-lip. The pins were removed in nine days, 
and very soon afterwards the wound was healed. The mother says that he had severe 
rigors just before the pins were removed ; they came on twice a^y, and lasted about 
a quarter of an hour. 

The boy was in his usual health after the wound healed, and, according to the 
mother, even sharper and quicker than previously. 

On Thursday afternoon, January 12, however, he began to complain of headache 
and lassitude, and stiffness of the face, which commenced in the right side, (where 
the scar is,) and afterwards extended to the left. He slept well that night 

On the following day he still had more or less headache, and the stiffness of the 
face continued. 

On Friday night he was restless. 

On Saturday he was about the same, but began to lose his appetite, which np to that 
day had been very good. In the afternoon, however, he went out shopping with his 
mother. He was very restless that night. 

On Sunday morning at breakfast he first felt a difficulty in swallowing liquids, and 
had a spasm when trying to drink his tea, and stiffness of the neck came on. He 
swallowed a teaspoonful of gruel on Sunday with difficulty, but has taken nothing to 
eat or drink since. 

On Sunday night he was very restless, and did not sleep at all. At two o'clock in 
the morning he asked for a draught of cold water, but could not swallow, as the at- 
tempt brought on a spasm. He was again offered drink, but could not take any, 
although thirsty. 

State on admitaion at twdve o'clock on Monday morning. — He has an anxious, 
frightened expression of countenance. The intellect is quite clear, and he answers 
questions intelligibly, although unwillingly, because talking seems to bring on spasm 
of the cervical muscles. He had a convulsive attack when first placed in bed, owing 
to the draught caused by throwing a blanket over him. The scar on the right side 
of the upper lip. is like that after the operation for hare-lip, with the marks of the 
pins on either side. He says that there has been no pain, itching, nor numbness in 
the part, and there is no evident infiammation nor swelling. He complains of pain 
in the neck and face, but there is no spasm when in bed. The breathing is very 
peculiar, accompanied by sighing ; respirations 14 to 16, laboured. Pulse 92 to 98, 
irregular. 

When a glass of wine was brought he declared that he could not take any, but 
when pressed he raised the cup to his lips with a determined air, and succeeded in 
swallowing a little with much difficulty ; but immediately spasm of the cervical and 
thoracic muscles came on with a general convulsive fit. He then fell back into the 
bed exhausted and panting for breath. When asked some time after to take more 
he refused, and seemed almost to have a spasmodic attack at the thought of it. 

2 P.M. —Continues in the same condition. Has had no more spasms. On trying 
again to drink some wine, he succeeded in swallowing about half a teaspoonful) hot 
with much distress, and a spasm came on immediately afterwards. Respiration 
variable— 14 to 18. Pulse very irregular, varying from 88 to 102 in a few moments. 
Dr Rees ordered him to be kept as quiet as possible, aud curtains to be placed round 
the bed, to keep off draughts. 

DL. Quinse Disulph. gr. yj. ; acid, sulph. dil. M. x. ; vin. rubri. aqusd Sa 5j- fiat.; 
enema 2 dis horis. As much port wine as possible; but only to be given at intervals 
of three hours. 

4 P.M . — Pulse 98, irregular. Respiration 16, sighing and irregular. Complains of 
stiffness of the right arm. Ii\jection 4.30 retained. Refused to take wine. 

5 P.M. — The pulse 104, irregular. Respiration as before. He complains of pain in 
both arms, coming on with the paroxysms, which are slight, the respiratory muscles 
being chiefly affected. They begin with a slight cough, followed by rigidity of the 
cervical muscles, and quick, sighing respirations. 

6 P.M. — A spoonful of wine was administered, followed by the usual convulsions, 
and also by paroxysms of pain in the legs as well as in the arms. The pain went off 
in a few seconds. 



CASE OF HTDBOPHOBTA. 163 

7 P.M. — Poise 104 ; respiration 14. Has had two or three slight spasms dnriiig the 
hour. Complained of the light, and asked to hare the gas turned down. He then 
for the first time wanted to spit, and with difficulty spat up a little thin mucua In- 
jection giyen and retained. 

8 P.M . — Has been starting up in bed with a sensation of choking ; complains of 
aching pain in the epigastrium. He asked for cold water. Some wine was brought 
in a mug ; he held it for a moment, and then asked for a spoon ; this he thrust into 
his mouth with a determined efibrt, bat immediately spat out the wine, saying that 
he could not swallow. This was followed by a spasuL Complained of the light of 
the fire, and curtains were put up. The spasms are frequent, more serere, and ex- 
eited by any noise. The injection was repeated, but he passed -it directly afterwards 
with some urine, the first since admission. Pulse 100, weaker ; respiration 22. 

10 P.M. — The spasms haying become more frequent and severe, attempts were made 
to administer chloroform, but these caused violent spasms and a burning sensation, 
as of mustard, in the throat He threw himself out of bed during one severe spasm. 
Another iigection given, c. tr. opii. mxxx. 

11 P.M. — Has had several spasms during the last hour, shrieking out apparently in 
great pain, and trembling all over. Is becoming strange in his manner. 

Tucasday, 12.15 A.M. — Has been somewhat quieter. Asked for bread and butter, 
and swallowed a little without any spasm. He then asked for drink, but the sight of 
fluid caused a spasm, which was increased when he tried to drink. He said that his 
" throat was stuffed up." Asked the gentleman attending " to breathe away from 
him." 

1 A.M. — After a good deal of trouble we administered another injection (with 
opium.) Before this he had continuous attacks of spasm, passing rapidly from one 
to another for eighteen minutes ; after which he seemed quite exhausted, and panted 
for breath. He wanders in his mind. 

2 A.M. — Quieter ; has only had two or three spasms since the last injection. 

3 A.M. — For the past forty-five minutes, has been in a state of constantly recurring 
spasms. At the onset of a severe spasm he springs up in bed ; then puts his hands 
furiously to his throat, as if to tear something away ; the head is thrown violently 
back, the mouth open, and the eyeballs protruded ; then he makes several expiratory 
efforts, sometimes with a shrill, screaming cr}^, the head is thrown violently from side 
to side, and the hands tossed wildly about, beating his chest, and striking anything 
that is near ; the spasm generally ending by the expectoration of a viscid mucus, 
which receutly has been tinged with blood. The passage of the enema tube caused a 
spasm, but the injection was retained. Pulse 114 ; respirations very irregular, and ^o 
interrupted by the spasms that they cannot be counted. 

3.35 A.M. — Spasms continue, but perhaps somewhat less frequently. He has much 
trouble with viscid mucus, putting up his hands to tear it away from his mouth dur- 
ing the spasms. He asked for drink, and when wine was given him he took two or 
three spoonfuls hastily, just managing to swallow them before a spasm came on. He 
then asked for bread and butter, and ate some, though several times he was inter- 
rupted by spasms ; before finishing it, however, a severe spasm came on, and he 
vomited the whole into his hands, and threw the vomit to the other side of the room. 
Bespirations taken between the spasms 32 per minute. 

4.15 A.M. — Is in a state of almost constant agitation, throwing himself about in the 
most frantic manner. Skin so irritable that the least touch throws him into a spasm. 
Says he is hungry, but that trying to eat brings on a violent spasm. He keeps jump- 
ing out of bed and crawling about the floor and under the bed. Mind wandering 
very much. 

6 A.M. — Spasms continue very severe. He rolls about the bed, throwing his arms 
and legs about most violently. Vomits and spits a lar^e quantity of a thin matter 
mixed plentifully with blood. Is wildly delirious. 

6 A.M. — Has become so excessively violent that he is kept in bed with the utmost 
difficulty. Fights and struggles most violently, screaming, shouting, and spitting in 
all directions. 

7 A.M. — The violence of the struggling is abating, and the delirium now assumes a 
playful character ; he tosses his arms about in a choreic manner ; keeps coughing 
and hawking up a' viscid bloody mucus. An enema had been administered at 6.30, 
which before was quite impossible. Respirations laborious, and accompanied by a 
peculiar cry; pulse very irregular, and so weak as hardly to be felt, 150 to 180. 

7.45 A.M. — Quieter, but still rolls about in the bed, and tosses his limbs. Intellect 
somewhat clearer, but still wandering. Answers questions intelligibly. When asked 



164 RECUEIL DE MfiDECINE V^TEfilNAIRE. 

if he was thirsty, he said that he should like something to drink, and on wine being 
offered, he swallowed a mouthful pretty well with coughing and some spasm, and 
then asked for more, drinking altogether from two to three ounces, with very little 
general spasm only of the pharyngeal muscles. The mouth is filled with an adhesive 
frothy mucus, which he cannot spit up. Respiration less laboured ; pulse somewhat 
stronger— 114 to 120. 

8.15. — Seems exhausted ; going into a state of low muttering delirium, with twitch- 
ing of the limbs. An enema was administered before 8 without any apparent effect. 

8.25. — Is becoming insensible; pulse imperceptible; extremities cold. Died at 
8.30 very quietly, apparently from syncope. 

A poat^wrtem examination was made by Dr Wilks, but nothing was seen, With 
the exception of redness of the back of the tongue and fauces, and some injection 
of the larynx and upper part of the trachea. Nothing was seen on a superficial view 
of the brain and cord, but the pons, medulla oblongata, and spinal cord are in the 
hands of Mr Durham for careful microscopical examination. As these parts will re- 
quire to be hardened by chromic acid before sections can be made, some time must 
elapse before we can give the results of Mr Durham's researches. 



RECUEIL DB MfiDECINfi V^T^IRINAIRE.— LITHOTRITY IN THE HORSE. 

By Paofbssob Boulet, Alfort 

The subject of thiB» a bay five-year-old gelding of a light breed, was brought to the 
college (Alfort) by the owner, who had recently purchasisd him, under the impression 
that he was the subject of a redhibitory vice. The symptoms noticed by him were 
frequent attempts to stale, with the passage of urine in very small quantities only, and 
an unintermittent dropping of urine from the urethra. The horse appeared other- 
wise in perfect health, with supple skin, smooth, shining coat, and excellent appetite 
and spirits. The penis hung slightly from the sheath, and urine of a muddy charac- 
ter dropped from it incessantly. His frequent attempts to stale produced only a 
small stream of urine, which on standing threw down a yellowish white sedimentary 
deposit. 

The fossft navicularis contained some grayish-white sebaceous matter, of a pasty 
consistence, but too little to interfere materially with the discharge of urine. The 
mucous membrane of the sheath was inflamed, and apparently ulcerated, and bled on 
being touched. Examination through the rectum detected the presence of a round 
body on the floor of the pelvis, of the size of the closed fist On pressing with the 
fingers on its anterior part, it can be detached from the fundus of the bladder, in 
which it was evidently enclosed, and advanced towards its neck. It was undoubtedly 
a urinary calculus. 

Considering the ill-success of lithontriptics, it was decided to operate with the 
lithotriteur, which was accordingly done on the 21st February, after the patient had 
been prepared by two days of light diet 

The horse being left in the standing position, the urethra was distended by the in- 
jection of tepid water, and an incision made into it about eight lines beneath the anus. 
A grooved director was introduced, and with the bistoury a slight incision made 
upward in the course of the median raphe, until the wound was dilatable to the 
extent of nearly two inches.* 

"The animal was next cast and properly secured, being maintained on its back by 
bundles of straw on each side of the chest and abdomen. The lithotriteur of Dr 
GuiUon was now introduced through the urethra, but for twenty minutes all efforts 
to seize the calculus were ineffectual. Th^ obstacle being ascertained to be the con- 
traction of the vesical walls firmly over all parts of the stone, the bladder was dis- 
tended by the injection of tepid water, and the calculus was then readily grasped 
by the blades of the instrument. The first attempt, however, only crushed a frag- 
ment of the stone, yet a number of small pieces, of a grayish-brown colour, were ex- 
pelled immediately afterward. These were hard and coidd not be crushed between 
the fingers, but readily broke up under the pressure of £he nail. 

Several other successful attempts were made after the distension of the bladder, 
and at last the entire calculus was reduced to a kind of mortar, consisting of pieces of 
different sizes. One piece larger than the rest^ extracted by the lithotomy forceps, 
and weighing about ten drachms, (thirty-five to forty grammes,) was convex on the 



TEKXIGIXOrS STMFXOIIS Cfk THE HOK3S. 16o 

one sde aad incgvlmrij lKiol«n on the oppaete. IW farakea snifftce s^ved a wnes 
of Ujen €i Tuio«i deeroa of tkickBCK. mperpoHd oa m ceatnl B«ci^& It v«t 
condnded ikaX the moac kid boa iharouhlr brc^eo down lad cxp^led. vhea Uio 
hand intiodmeed imto the reessB bo l<mstr f eh abt hard moT&b2e bodT ia the b2ad- 
der, Aad when that Of^mo kid eoatnesod on itadf into the aoallost 'poKibk halk^ 
-wHhoiit any of the don^j ■mnrioa ii^iancd hr the poesence of sibaloas depont. 

The animal vas niaed, aad the voond ia the areUm plagged with tov to cheek 
the bKmorriiage, which had beem oowBdefable dnriac the fcifftr-fiTe miaates the ope- 
ration had lasted. He was sow rabbed dzr. eoBifiana^lT dothcd, aad coadoocd to a 
warm stable. The poise had l^Mome SLnm^ and qoi^ the conjnnctira iiyeeted. and 
the breathing aoedecated. Yeocal eohc own appeaxvd, bat of a mild tjpe. the 
patiait Ijin^ down eaationilT aad ertendin^ hiTnV';f on his ri^t or left side, with< 
ooi s tn uggling aboat as in riokat pain. 

TreatMrnemL — Walk two hocrs and gire laxatiTe iBJe<cti<HiB, \Sod» Sa]ph.> Giro 
laxatiTe dranghts il50 g:naunes» of the same salt, to exerdw a deriTatiTo effect to- 
ward the intestinal mneooB membrane. Gire camphorated electoair ^fifteen grammes 
camphor) to allaj the spasms of the bladder. Apply sinspifim^ to the four Umbs, and 
a Terr warm ponltice orer the Icnns. Inject decoction of poppy hoMis into the blad- 
der to calm the irritalHlitj of the mncoos membrane. 

Colicky pains eontinned daring the day and part of the night. 

At night was an exaeerbation of the febrile symptoms, with prostration, rapid, 
quick poise, aeederated breathing, profose sweating, and moscalar weakness. 

Next day, the 22d, the horse seemed better; the weakness and depression less ; the 
skin hot and dry ; the palse rafad, <6S per minate,) and rery weak, and respintioa 
calm. He sought to eat. The arine escaped by the wound and ran down the thighs, 
thoogfa at times a jet was expdled by a sudden contraction of the bladder. There 
was serous infiltration roond the wound. The animal has purged actirely. GiTe 
laxatiTe drinks and injections, and clothe warmly. Mashes allowed. 

On the 23d the improrement continued. Slon warm, pulse slower and stronger, 
aad req[>iration quiet. Aj^tetite good. Poplar ointment was applied to the thighs to 
prerent irritation by the urine. Laxatire dystera were continued, but the drau^ts 
replaced by dinretie doses of nitre, (twenty-fire grammes.) Half the ordinary diet 
allowed. 

On the following day there was marked improTement in the spirits and general 
condition. The wound discharged with the urine a little yellowish serous pus. A 
small quantity of urine paonod through the penis. The s^me treatment was con- 
tinued. Oii the 25th the pulse and respiration had returned to the normal standard, 
and laudable pus esc^ed horn the wound. On the 26th the poplar ointment was 
replaced by a layer of tar, as extensire depilation and separation of the epidermis 
was taking place. 

By the 4th ICarch the wound was so far closed that a few drops only escaped by it 
daring the most riolent contractions, and by the 12th it had completely closed. 

The gelding was discharged on the 17th, and at this time the wound showed only 
a slight cicatrix. The urine continued to be expelled at frequent intemds, the blad> 
der baring eridently undergone a considerable diminution in size, and become inca> 
pable of holding any quantity without being stimulated to expel it. In urination 
too, the last portions were expelled in a series of jets, coincidently with the riolent 
action of the expiratory muscles and accelorator urinse. It would appear that the 
muscular coat no longer enjoyed its natural contractility, that the riscus could not 
contract fully on itself, and that it could only be completdy emptied by the action of 
the expiratory muscles. 



VERTIGINOUS SYMPTOMS IN THE HOKSE DUE TO A 
CHOLESTEATOMA. 

By M. Vmbsajsti, junior, Vetertnciricm at Clameey, 

Thb subject of this affection, a horse in very good condition, was bought at a fair, and 
two days later did a good day's work in harness to the entire satisfaction of the drirer ; 
but the same evening at eleven o'clock, was attacked with the symptoms in question. 
When first seen by M. Yemant, he rested motionless, and insensible to all around 
him, his head in the manger, and pressed against the rack. The eye was dull, and the 



166 VEETIGINOUS SYMPTOMS IN THE HORSE. 

expression haggard and depressed, the moyements were stiff and difficnlt, that of 
backing particularly, and the animal inyariably returned to his manger where he could 
find a support for his head. The appetite was gone, there was marked trismus, the 
mouth was hot and dry, the belly tucked up and no passage of faeces. The 
breathing was deep and slow, the artery full, tense, and hard, and the mucous mem- 
branes red. 

During the examination a paroxysm came on, during which the eyes in place of 
being dull became fixed and prominent, and the moyements precipitate and reckless. 
He reared up and pushed with all his force against the rack, first at one side and 
then on the other, but always in a forward direction. After pushing in this way 
for some time, he reared anew and executed yarious irregular moyements, but in the 
course of a quarter of an hour relapsed into the same condition as before the 
paroxysm. 

He was treated by bleeding, counter-irritants, cold to the head, and other measures, 
but with little benefit. He sought to eat, but could take little on account of the tris- 
mus. He had three paroxysmal attacks during the next six days, at the end of which 
he died. Death was preceded by great prostration, the pulse gradually became 
weaker, the breathing more laboured, and the head and limbs engorged. 

The aiUopsy, made fiye hours after death, showed nothing remarkable until the 
left ventricle of the brain was opened, when there escaped an abnormally large quan- 
tity of a yellow serous fluid. The entire cayity was filled by a flattened elliptical 
tumour, an hypertrophy of the choroid plexus, weighing 9 drachms, and measuring in 
its longest diameter, 2 inches and 4 lines, and in its shortest, 1 inch 3 lines. The 
surface was in a series of irregular rounded masses, and the whole covered by a smooth 
membrane — apparently the pia mater. The mass was firm and resistant at the ex- 
tremities, and less so at the median part. The colour is yellowish, with a number of 
small glistening bodies of a golden hue. The envelope was intimately adherent to 
all parts of the tumour. The tumour was easily cut, and from the incision escaped a 
yellow, odourless fluid, having a saline taste, and holding in suspension a number 
of the glistening yellow bodies above referred to. The tumour was otherwise com- 
posed of a series of lamellae superimposed on each other, and permeated by numerous 
small vessels. The structures on the floor of the ventricle, particularly the corpus 
striatum and the hippocampus major, were greatly atrophied. 



ROYAL COLLEGE OP VETERINARY SURGEONS. 



THE TWENTY-SECOND GENERAL MEETING of the ROYAL COLLEGE 
of VETERINARY SURGEONS will be held, in accordance with the provisions 
of the Charter, at the College, No. 10 Red Lion Square, London, on MONDAY, 
the 1st of May, at One o'clock precisely, to receive the Annual Report of the Council, 
and also the Treasurer's Report ; and to elect Seven Members of the Council, Six in 
the place of the following, who go out by rotation, viz., — William Burley, William 
Ernes, William Mavor, J«hn Legrew, Samuel Hicks Withers, and Thomaa Dike 
Broad; and one in the place of John Ellis^ deceased. - 

ROBERT LEWIS HUNT, Esq., the President, in the Chair. 

W. H. COAXES, Secretary. 
10 RxD Lion Squabe, March 1865. 



The ANNIVERSARY DINNER will take place as usnal, on the evening of the 
same day, at Six o'clock. 



BALLANTTMB AND CO., PRINTXB8, KDINBUROH. 



THE VETEKEfAET REVIEW 

St0rkofon;ers' |0urnal* 



OUeniAL COKKiniCATIOIS AIB CA8S& 



Pleuro-Pneumania^ amd Epieootic Aphtha; infonnation rektiTe 
th^eto fmnished to Mr 6. Arvatage, Hon. Sec to the Noith 
of Enghnd Veterinaiy Medical Assodation ; V.S. to the Kight 
Hon. the Eail Vane: 

(To AeEdHor of ike VeterimaFy Bevier.) 

Febniary SO, ISeS. 
The following commnnication and accompanying questions have been 
forwarded by me to upwards of forty practitioners, including the 
whole of the members of our Association, with the view of obtaining in- 
formation respecting the nature and joevalence of "pleuro-pneumonia** 
and "epizootic aphtha'' in various districts. I r^ret^ however, in 
being compelled to content myself with so meagre a report firom 
sources which MotiU prove the most abundant Out of the above num- 
ber of communications forwarded, four replies only have been received, 
two of which, as will be seen, are from practitioners far distant from 
the centre of our operations. It cannot be that the diseases in question 
have not prevailed in many of the districts around, and thus have 
created an impossibility to supply the desired information — ^we know 
it is the contrary ; and if our brethren in active cattle practice would 
kindly forward information on such pointy it would materially assist 
in a general work of good. We cannot expect to advance under such 
apadiy ; like the faint-hearted waggoner, our entreaties for help with- 
out will never be heard or answered until the materials for an earnest 
movement are demonstrated to have an existence within. — ^Yours 
truly, George Abbdltagb, Hon. Sec. 



KOBTH OF EnOLAND Y VTEBIHABT MiDlCAL ASSOCIATION, 

October 1, 1864. 

Deab Sib, — Information upon the following diseases is earnestly 
requested. Will you kindly furnish the same as far as your ability 
wiU admit, observing the numerical order in the arrangement of your 
answers to facilitate reference, and oblige, dear sir, yours very faith- 
fully, Geobgb Abmatagb, Hon, Sec. 
Vol. L— No. IV.— N«w Sibiis. April 1865. N 



168 PLEURO-PNEUMONIA, AND EPIZOOTIC APHTHA. 



PLEUEO-PNEUMONIA. 

1. Ha« this disease prevailed in your locality of late ? and what 

have been the general characters ? 

2. Is it, in your opinion, on the increase, stationary, or otherwise ? 

3. What losses, direct or indirect, have come under your notice ? 

4. What has been the ordinary duration of the disease ? And how 

have animals or carcases aflfected been disposed of ? 

5. As a rule, are animals aflfected placed under medical treatment ? 

or, is it likely that many become aflfected, die, and are disposed 
of without ? 

6. Have any instances of direct contagion come under your notice ? 

If so, how was it eflfected ? 

7. What class of owners in your district suflfer the greatest losses ? 

and to what do you attribute the cause ? 

8. What kind of treatment, remedial or^ preventive, have you 
adopted ? and with what results ? 

MURRAIN, OR VESICULAR EPIZOOTIC. 

The same questions will apply in this disease also, with, however, 
this addition. 

9. Have you known the disease to be communicated to the human 

subject, by the use of the milk of aflfected animals, or other 
means ? and are such instances rare, or of common occurrence. 



REPLIES. 

}ir 1 Roxburghshire, 

October 27, 1864. 
PLEURO-PNEUMONU. 

1. There has been little of the disease in this district for some time, 
until within the past two months, about the beginning of which 
period there was a large importation of Dutch cattle. The 
cases occurring among the imported cattle have been virulent. 

% Since the period I have indicated, it has been on the increase. 

3. Losses to the amount of several hundreds of pounds. 

4. About fourteen days from the first observable symptoms of ill- 
ness, until the animals were either destroyed, or died. The 
carcases have generally been buried. 

5. They are not, as a rule, placed under medical treatment. Many 

I doubt not, become aflfected, and disposed of without treat- 
ment. 

6. Nearly all are cases of direct contagion, traceable to contact 
with the imported Dutch cattle ; almost every lot of which is 
diseased, — i.e^^ if not actually in some of the animals showing 
unmistakable symptoms of plearo-pneumonia, it is in a few 
weeks fully developed 



PUnJSO-PSSUlIOSIA, AXD EPIZOOnC APfllHA. 169 

7. Those who are most frequentlj in the market ; traceable to the 

purchasiiig of animals, to wUch they are liable from their ex- 
tensive dealings. 

8. To detail my treatment in cases of plenio-pnenmonia^ I fear 

wonld weary yon. I may, however, briefly express it as ex- 
pectorant in its nature. I endeavour as much as possible to 
treat symptoms as they arise; and by all means support the 
animals' strength. Secoveries amongst cases treated, I may 
state at about 25 per cent 
As a preventive, I have more confidence in s^regation, with at- 
tention to the general comforts of the animal, than aught else. I 
have tried various internal medicaments as preventives, but have little 
faith in them. 

MURRAIN. 

1. It has been in the district lately. Nothing particular observed 

in the symptoms, which have been of the usual character. 

2. Rather on the decline. 

3. The losses have been slight, only in deterioration of the stock 

afiected. 
4. 

5. Only in bad cases, or when animals affected are numerous* is 

medical advice sought 

6. The majority are cases of direct contagion, either by contact of 

healthy with diseased, or by the placing of sound animals on 
ground, or in trucks previously occupied by those diseased. 

7. &e answer under pleuro-pneumonia applies to this alsa 

8. In treating tases of vesicular epizootic, I simply direct them to 

have a clean and dry lair, and furnish an astringent wash for feet 
and mouth. 

9. I have never known of the disease being communicated to man ; 
but am acquainted with cases where disorder of the digestive 
organs have followed the use of milk from animals suffering 
from murrain. 

There is nothing I am more completely convinced of than the con- 
tagious nature of plenro-pneumonia. I could furnish hundreds of 
cases from my notes and memory to prove the truth of the asser» 
tion. 

The Dutch black and white cattle are, and have been at every 
great importation, the scourge of the country. They have within the 
last two months completely infected the border counties ; depend 
upon it* something must be done, sooner or later, to check Uiis state 
of affairs. 



Mr , Newcastle. 

October 4, 1864. 
Dear Sir, — In furnishing you with answers to questions relative 
to the diseases of cattle— pleuro-pneumoma a»d vesicular aphtha, 



170 PLEUEO-PNBUMONIA, AND EPIZOOTIC APHTHA. 

I may premise that my practice among cattle is not very extensive, 
being chiefly confined to cow-keepers in the town and neighbourhood ; 
but what information I can give you is at your disposal. 

As far as the latter disease is concerned, I have had but few cases, 
and those of a mild character. 

PLEUEO-PNEUMONU. 

1. It has prevailed much of late, and often fatal ; many cases being 

in an advanced stage before receiving medical aid. 

2. Continues quite as prevalent. 

3. I have not had any instance brought under direct notice when 

the losses have been very great ; but have heard of one pro- 
prietor who lost a great number of animals within the last 
month or two. 

4. Ordinary duration, from five to ten days, sometimes as long as 
three weeks ; and generally sent to the knackers' sometimes 
before, sometimes after, death. 

5. Many animals are undoubtedly affected, and never placed under 

treatment ; J)ut die, or are otherwise disposed of. 

6. I cannot say that I have traced any case to direct contagion, 

although they may have been placed in circumstances favour- 
able, to it. 

7. Cow-keepers. Sometimes to contagion, sometimes to atmos- 

pheric influence ; often aided by a want of proper attention to 
diet, exercise, and ventilation. 

8. As remedial measures, I recommend change of situation, but 

this is not often practicable — aperient, stimulant, &c., &c., 
with a liberal diet, and counter-irritation external to the parts 
affected. In the early stages, I have found treatment invari- 
ably successful. 



Mr W. JB. r., South Yorkshire. 

October 4, 1864. 
PLEUEO-PNBUMONIA. 

1. The disease prevailed in this neighbourhood in the months of 
April and May. I have had only a few cases since ; the disease 
mostly prevailing from April and May to June, — few instances 
occurring during the remaining nine months of the year. 
About twenty-four cases occurred in the above months ; seven 
only were treated; the others being in moderate condition, 
were sent alive to the slaughter-houses, and killed for human 
food. 

2. I am quite convinced, in my practice, however, that the number 

of cases gradually and regularly decreases every year. 

3. Four animals have died under treatment ; two old cows, and 

two heifers. 



FUXrSD-FSkEUMOXIA, ASD EPIZOOnC APHTHA. 171 

4. In the fatal cases, the animals lived about a fortnight^ and the 

carcases, except die skins, were buried deep ; the places in which 
thej were kept were well fumigated with sulphurous acid and 
chlorine gases. 

5. As the prognosis is so different in these cases if they are ia 

moderate condition I generally order them to be sent off at 
once to the butcher ; and in order to stay the spread of the in- 
, f ection, my adyice is generally taken. 

It is seldom we treat them unless they are in low condition, 
when young animals often recover— old ones but seldom ; on 
the averi^, two-thirds of those treated recover. 

6. I have never known a case arise from direct contagion; but 

have known scores of cases of infection, where healthy animals 
have been placed, and only for a short time, into places con- 
taminated with the expired air from the lungs of diseased 
cattla 

7. Cattle-dealers and farmers who are often changing their stock 

and bringing foreign cattle into their yards. Of these I find 
the Irish catde most dangerous, 

8. Treatment — aperient alteratives in the first instance — setons in 

dewlap — OL Mylabris. et Tereb. Tinct Crotonis, as a vesicant 
to parts externally ; succeeded by the various stimulants, and 
followed by tonics, mineral and vegetable, with the Pot lodid. 

ECZEMA EPIZOOTICA. 

1. This disease prevails in this district every year, raging for a few 

months, and then almost disappearing. I think it is generally 
during the first three months of the year that its worst forms 
are witnessed. This year, however, it has not been so fatal in 
milk cows, nor have I known a fatal case from implication of 
the mammary gland. 

2. Now stationary. 

3. No direct losses this year. 

4. From a week to ten days. 

5. They, as a rule, are not placed under medical treatment, except 

milk cows, when the mammary gland is affected. 

6. Scores of cases. 

7. Cattle-dealers, and farmers who are often changing their stock. 

I attribute the causes to contagion and travelling. 

8. We never use any preventive means, and scarcely ever treat 

them. 

9. I have known the milk from diseased cows used frequently, 

but never heard of any complaint, or ill effects from so doing. 



172 PLHXniO-PNEXJMONIA, AND EPIZOOTIC APHTHA. 

Mr y near Newcastle-on-Tyne, 

October 9, 1864. 
PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. 

1. It has prevailed to some extent, and of a milder character than 

formerly. 

2. On the decrease. 

3. Out of from 60 to 70 cases which I have had under my own 

treatment, more than half recovered. Some of these were very 
mild cases ; seven very severe cases out of that number re- 
covered. Indirectly I know of many cases which have not 
been treated, those dying and got rid of as quickly as possible; 
the owners of such being anxious to hide from their neigh- 
bours that they have had the disease. 

4. Individual cases, from three to six weeks ; where several had 

been aflfected, from five to six months. In one instance, it ex- 
tended over nine, months, no fresh animals being brought on 
the place. KB, — This is from the first visible appearance of 
the disease. 

No sale of diseased carcases have come under my notice this 
year. 

5. I believe that in this locality, the greater part of animals 

affected are not treated. 

Many are sold in public markets as soon as the disease shows 
itself. 

6. There is not one single instance of the disease occurring in my 
own practice that I have traced to direct contagion. 

7. Small farmers and cowfeeders who are buying fresh stock fre- 

quently. 

8. Remedial. — Counter irritation, stimulants, tonics, and careful 

nursing; the latter of the greatest importance. Preventive. — 
Tonics, removal of diseased animals. Use disinfectants indoors, 
and enjoin cleanliness, &c., &c. 

MURRAIN, OR VESICULAR EPIZOOTIC. 

Not a case of this disease has come under my notice for the past 
two years. 

There is little I can add to the above. Pleuro-pneumonia among 
our cattle I have not seen for the past two years. The animals 
under my charge being purchased in November, and housed for feed- 
ing, are sold off in May following, selected generally from the stock 
of the breeder — a course which has hitherto rendered them exempt 
from the scourge. 

Vesicular aphtha, however, caused much trouble during the spring 
of the past year. One animal died out of about fifty more or less 
affected ; and in one instance which came under my notice, fifteen 
animals which had remained a considera;ble time free from the affec- 



PLEUSO-PNEUXONIA, AXD EPIZOOTIC APHTHA. 173 

tion^ although kept tied np in a byre, showed symptoms of the dis- 
ease in a very short space of time after some cattle from Newcastle 
market, labouring under the affection, were placed in an adjoining field. 

Mineral tonics administered to cattle not ab-eady showing the 
symptoms of disease were singularly preserved during its effects 
subsequently. 

It has come to my knowledge that several farmers, not far dis- 
tant, during the past year lost their cattle by pleuro-pneumonia, and 
in other instances sold them in market to avoid loss themselves, and 
to the detriment of others. One careful old gentleman takes advan- 
tage of the niglU, and packs off the carcasses to London, Of the 
origin of these diseases I hear but one opinion, — fanners and butchers 
agreeing that the foreign cattle import the disease, while the trafiSc 
m our markets perpetuate them ; and as far as legislation goes are 
liberal enough to admit, that measures for preventing the sale of dis- 
eased living animals by dealers should be adopted, or powers given 
whereby a person could sue the salesman for damages ; but they 
dare not vote for such, because it acts as a two-edged sword, and 
cuts each way. In fact, what is wanted by them, is a measure to 
protect farmers, and legalise the sales of their unsound meat ; while 
the dealers from whom they purchase the living animals shall be 
liable to a heavy penalty. IVom what I have seen, disease of a con- 
tagious character arises quite as much from the practice of farmers 
and dairymen disposing of infected stock in neighbouring markets, 
when most probably a man equally as necessitous purchases under 
the idea that he had better do that from a fanner whom he knows^ 
or has heard of, than take them from the stock of a dealer ; when he 
finds himself no better off, and in most instances considerably worse. 

If a case occurs among cattle on a farm, in a majority of instances 
the whole are driven to market and sold ; other stock is thus ren- 
dered unsound by the spread of disease, and the farmer becomes 
equally as culpable for the mischief which is created in his own 
hands, as in the case of loss to others by his countenancing and 
fostering a proceeding unwarrantable as it is infamous. 

Next to placing a strict w^tch upon imported cattle, should come, 
in my opinion, the exercise of principles of judicious management 
on our farms and in town dairies. JWhen cattle are affected with con- 
tagious diseases, the removal of which is well known to imperil the 
health of the stock of another individual, it is high time the latter 
should not only be protected against such by the laws of his country 
— ^in his case the rights and liberty of the subject being respected — 
but no one should be allowed to elaborate and carry on a nursery 
for malignant fevers and virulent epizootics to the detriment of the 
former, because, in his opinion of the rights* and privileges of a sub- 
ject, he can do so with impunity upon his own premises. 

The same principles which attempt a provision against fraud on 
theone hand, would also diminish the pressure of evils giving rise 
to it on the other. 



174j on cebtipicatbs of soundness. 

It would therefore prove more profitable to the owner to prevent 
disease by measures specially studied and provided, than to sufier as 
at present from the insecure state of things, and propagate the same 
through the extent of the surrounding localities to the detriment, 
of he knows not how many, of his friends and neighbours. 

Agricultural education will not be complete, until the farmer is 
conversant with the elements of those principles which in their 
observance regulate the safety of his stock, increase his personal 
profits, and no longer endanger those of others. 



On Certificates of Soundness. By M. F. M. Case, New Veterinary 
College, Edinburgh. Being an Essay read before the Veterinary 
Association, in the New Veterinary College, on the 10th of 
March 1865. 

The subject which I have chosen for this evening's consideration is 
not one calculated to lead to much scientific discussion, but it may, 
probably, prove as interesting as the usual texts for our evenings' 
debates. 

The opinion is very generally entertained amongst veterinary 
surgeons, that many practitioners injure ' themselves permanently 
amongst educated men from the clumsy, ill-considered, and, indeed, 
ignorant manner in which they write certificates after they have exa- 
mined horses for which their opinion has been sought I am in- 
clined to attribute this to the very slight importance attached, as a 
general rule, to a thorough understanding of the various points which 
should always be embraced in such documents. There are un- 
doubtedly other causes which tend to render certificates of soundness 
unsatisfactory in the eyes of shrewd, though non-professional men. 
Amongst these I may mention, perhaps, the vagueness of the terms 
soundness and unsoundness, the extraordinary and ill-defined nature 
of many veterinary terms, such as spavin, curby hocks, thick wind, 
&c. ; lastly, the great difficulty attending the satisfactory description 
of animals examined with a view to their undoubted identification. 
A horse buyer can easily be led by a knave to believe that the gray 
horse that he is wanting to buy has been examined, and in proof of 
which a gray horse's certificate is tendered. 

Abroad the veterinary surgeon's duty is somewhat simplified, from 
the distinct manner in which the diseases are specified by law, for 
which horses may be returned. In some countries there are only 
three hidden maladies for which horses can be returned to the vendor. 
In some parts of Italy the defects are staggers, broken wind, and 
hsematuria. In France the list is a little extended, as it includes — 

1. Periodic Ophthalmia. 

2. Staggers, or Megrims, termed in France, Epilepsy. 



OK CERTIFICATES OF SOUXDXESS. 175 

3. Glanders. 

4. Farcy. 

5. Chronic disease of tlie Chest 

6. Immobility; sleepy staggers of English authors. 

7. Broken wind. 

8. Chronic roaring. 

9. Crib-biting without wearing of teetL 

10. Intermittent inguinal hernia. 

11. Do. lameness due to old standing disease. 

From the nature of this list you will readily understand why, whilst 
I was at Alfort, very few examinations of soundness could be seen, 
and these were not of the same rigorous character that we are com- 
pelled to institute in this country. Notwithstanding this the con- 
tinental certificates are far more precise than our own. They 
are complicated legal documents in which many particulars are 
stated concerning the veterinary surgeon who examines, the order 
he has received for such examination, the time and circumstances 
under which the animal was examined, the breed, age, size, colour, 
blemishes, and proprietorship of such animal, the description of the 
disease discovered, and lastly, the conclusions arrived at, with the 
veterinarian's signature. No erasures are permitted unless initialed. 
It is no donbt fortunate for us that we are not bound down in the 
preparation of our certificates by rules so complicated and exact 
Nevertheless we have greater difficulties to encounter in having to 
determine whether an animal is absolutely perfect or sound, or in the. 
slightest degree imperfect, diseased, or unsound. Our greatest diffi- 
culty, undoubtedly, lies in the proper interpretation of the words 
sonndness^ and unsoundness. The first means health and the second 
implies disease, and we are compelled thus strictly to interpret them 
in our daily practice. The opinion is very generally entertained that 
no horse can be unconditionally declared sound, and advantage is 
taken by unscrupulous men of the readiness with which slight imper- 
fections may be discovered by professional men, though such imper- 
fections in no way interfere with an animal's usefuhiess. When a 
horse has been purchased at too high a price it is well known that 
purchasers, in stable slang, try " to pick a hole in him.*' Unfortu- 
nately such practice has very much discouraged the breeding of high- 
class horses. Farmers know that if they invest their money in cattle 
and sheep they do not risk their money in law-suits ; but a 300 guinea 
colt may impoverish the countryman and enrich the lawyer to the 
extent of twice or thrice the same amount It is my opinion that to 
encourage litigation concerning the soundness or unsoundness of a 
horse is very reprehensible, and we should strive by all means in our 
power not to lead to misunderstandings ; and it is for this reason 
that I think we should carefully study the forms of our certificates of 
soundness, that they may not be the means of leading men on thin ice. 

The forms of certificates of soundness in this country vary much. 



176 ON CERTIFICATES OF SOUNDNESS. 

The simplest is probably the one, a copy of which I have obtained 
from Mr Cartledge of Sheffield. When filled up it reads as follows : — 

"Sheppield, lO^A March 1865. 
" By this I certify that I have this day examined, at the request of 
Joseph Brown, Esq., a bay gelding five years old, which I am of 
opinion is sound. (Signed) " B. Cartledge, 

Graduate of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, and 
Honorary Fellow of the Veterinary Medical Association." 

In the event of the horse examined being unsound, Mr Cartledge 
states this simply, or adds his reasons why he considers the horse un- 
sound. I have been informed that the London practitioners adopt a 
somewhat more complicated form. They usually add what is termed 
a note of identification, inasmuch as they are called upon to exa- 
mine the same horse on several occasions, and disputes are con- 
stantly,arising from the readiness with which a number of indepen- 
dent opinions are obtained. As an illustration of a London certificate 
I may adduce the following : — 

" London, 2StIi November 1864. 

" I hereby certify that I have this day examined a gray mare, seven 
years old, the property of James Willoughby, Esq., and find that the 
said mare is affected with ring-bone on the near hind leg, and that 
she is consequently unsound. I am also of opinion that the said 
ring-bone existed and constituted unsoundness on the 1st instant, on 
which day it is stated she was purchased. 

(Signed) " John Jones, M.RC.V.S." 

Note. — " With a view to identification I have to remark that the 
said mare is wall-eyed, has a blemish of old standing on the off hock, 
and a melanotic tumour on the tail.*' 

Some may think that the melanotic tumour should be mentioned 
with the ring-bone as a cause of unsoundness, but as it often consti- 
tutes nothing more than a blemish it may be mentioned as above. 

Certificates are sometimes granted for other reasons than declaring 
horses sound or unsound, as in the case of an animal being examined 
as to age or fitness*to work. We have to be guided somewhat as to 
the form by the wishes of our clients and the circumstances of pecu- 
liar cases. It must be understood that I am here alluding only to the 
form of certificate, as I do not wish you to suppose that I am in any 
way an advocate for distorting matters of fact. To explain what I 
mean I subjoin a third certificate : — 

Newoastlk-on-Ttnb, 20ih March 1864. 

" I hereby certify that I examined on the 17th instant, at 11-30 
A.M., at the request of Mr George Murray, horse-dealer, Newcastle, 
a bay gelding, seven years old, at the George Hotel, Kelso. I found the 
said gelding free from lameness, and capable of flexing both hock 
joints with perfect freedom. I am of opinion that the said gelding 
was fit for any work he could in reason be put to. 

(Signed) *' J. Smith, Veterinary Surgeon.'* 



ON CERTIFICATES OF SOXJNDKESa 177 

Note. — " The bay gelding above-mentioned has a white streak on 
the face, and old standing blemishes produced from the hocks having 
been fired, I was, moreover, informed that the said gelding was sold 
by Mr Gteorge Murray to Captain Ramsay, on, the 10th February 
1864/' 

This may be considered as a fair sample of a certificate given 
under very special circumstances and required for a horse under 
dispute. It is needless to multiply examples, and were I to attempt 
to do so, I should exhaust your patience. I must now refer to the 
separate points which we are to hold in view in framing certificates. 
It would be superfluous for me to insist on the importance of cor- 
rectly dating any such documents. The introduction which is 
usually " I hereby certify," may be slightly vari«d according to taste ; 
but immediately following this it is necessary to be precise as to the 
period of the examination, which is commonly at the time of writing 
the certificate, or may be some former period. The description of 
the animal then follows, and many prefer entering somewhat into 
detail on this point in the body of the certificate. There are no 
doubt speci^d advantages in a note of identification, but if this has to 
be dispensed with, it is usually necessary to say something at least as 
to the coloun and age of the animal examined. There is no doubt 
whatever that blemishes should not be overlooked, as such oversight 
may be viewed in the light of negligence, and the existence of a 
peculiar scar is often of more value for the recognition of an animal 
than a description of its breed, coat, or proportions. 

It is necessary that I should make a few remarks on the horse t 
mouth. Very often certificates are sought for no other purpose than 
that of ascertaining a horse's age. As the veterinary surgeon may 
not be informed of this, he should always be on his guard, and notice 
such irregularities as "Yorkshire fours," and "Bishops," "Parrot 
mouth," or teeth worn by crib-biting. 

It is well known that when there are no serious irregularities in 
dentition, a veterinary surgeon can form a very correct opinion as to 
a horse's age up to eight and nine years. Some pretend to do much 
more than this, but in certificates of soundness all animals above eight 
should be marked as aged. We are of course often required to 
inform a purchaser, whether a horse declared aged is within a few 
years above eight or so far beyond it, that he may be considered very 
old. Whilst I do not think it is prudent for a veterinary surgeon to 
attempt to be too precise under these circumstances, it is obvious that 
for all practicid purposes suflicient information may be obtained from 
the animal's general appearance, colour, angularity of bones, straight 
teeth with narrow triangular surfaces, and protruding tongue, in 
order to protect a purchaser from buying an old stager, which may 
be clean enough on his legs but worn out in his body. 

An interesting anecdote on this point may not be out of place. A 
lady of high rank, well known at Melton Mowbray during the hunt- 



178 ON CERTIFICATES OF SOUNDNESS. 

ing season, wished to secure a handsome gray pony as a match for 
another to be driven in a phaeton. A medical man, whose horse- 
dealing propensities were well known, oflfered her ladyship a perfect 
gem, which he declared to be six years old. A veterinary surgeon 
pronounced the somewhat disguised animal to be above sixteen. The 
doctor thereupon declared he could produce a certificate of birth. 
But though such a document would have secured the sale of the pony 
at an exorbitant price, it could not be procured. I have purposely 
alluded to this case because there are instances in which a veterinary 
surgeon would have to bow to a well-authenticated certificate as to 
the date when an animal was foaled, as in the case of thorough-bred 
stock. Every competent practitioner, however, hits the mark so 
closely that he is not likely to be troubled with such certificates. 

In certificates of soundness we are usually called upon to state at 
whose request an animal is examined, and mention is often made of 
the name of the proprietor. To all who intend practising in large 
cities, it is important to give a word of caution under this head. It 
is a common practice amongst horse dealers to have a horse frequently 
examined by a veterinary surgeon, and each time the ownership of 
the animal, is declared different. I have heard of so many incautious 
practitioners having been led by this means to give absurdly conflict- 
ing opinions on the same animal, that I should advise no heed being 
taken of men or names until a thoroughly impartial opinion had been 
arrived at. It is perfectly possible that a horse pronounced sound 
one week should be unsound the next ; but, on the other hand, it is 
impossible to reconcile some contradictory certificates, which prove 
that horses declared one day to have old standing spavins should ten 
days after be pronounced perfectly sound. If veterinarians lower 
themselves by passing or rejecting horses as it may suit their client's 
convenience, they of course disgrace their profession and must ruin 
their prospects for life. It is sometimes essential to hear what can 
be learnt of the history of a case, but it is best to do this after having 
carefully ascertained the condition of the animal at the time of the 
examination, and whoever consults, or owns the animal examined, 
must be treated in such a way as not to be led to believe that a 
veterinary referee is to be influenced by the Ukes and dislikes of those 
employing him. The temptation is often strong to make out a case 
for a friend ; but no practitioner can gain the lasting esteem of any 
large circle of patrons, unless he is determined to act with the strictest 
impartiality towards all. He may and will occasionally offend a friend 
and great supporter, but he has in his professional capacity a great 
public, duty to perform, jfrom which he must not flinch for friend 
or foe. 

The next element in a certificate is usually the decided statement 
whether a horse is or is not sound. There is no middle course to 
select. Explanations may be added, and a statement made that some 
slight defect which may exist in no way affects the animal's worth ; 
but if a veterinary surgeon is required unconditionally to declare a 



ON CEKTIFICATES OF SOUNDNESS. 179 

horse sound or unsound, he must tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, by which he may have to abide in the witness- 
box. I am aware that there are many who do not like to reject 
horses, if they do not find defects calculated to mar an animal's use- 
fulness, but we must adhere to the definition of the words sound- 
ness and unsoundness, as accepted by law, and though this may 
occasionally lead us into a dilemma, as a rule it is found to answer 
well in practice. 

Though a veterinary surgeon's opinion may very properly be asked 
as to peculiarity of conformation, it is not, as a rule, his duty to notice 
that a horse is cow-hocked, calf Jineed, or narrow-chested. It is pre- 
sumed that a buyer knows what he wants, and if he be at all a decent 
judge, all he needs professional advice upon is the question of health 
and disease. 

In stating under the head unsoundness what disease or defect has 
been noticed, it is essential to be as brief as possible. It is here that 
we find our veterinary nomenclature to be a great stumbling-block. 
The practice has become rather common of late to use the popular 
or commonly accepted name for a defect, and add a brief scientific 
definition. There are various ways in which this may be done, and 
this is perhaps best explained by a few explanations. Thus a vete- 
rinary surgeon says, " I find the said gelding to have chronic disease 
of the larynx, which renders him a roarer;" or, in another case, "I 
find the gray mare aforesaid to be affected with spavin of the near 
hock, that is to say, she has exostosis and ulceration, implicating the 
tarsal bones on their inner aspect." No doubt some of you will think 
the last-named definition rather pedantic for a certificate of sound- 
ness, but if a veterinarian includes in his certificate the name by 
which any disease is commonly known, he is at liberty to add what- 
ever he likes in the way of affording an unmistakable and scientific 
explanation of his opinion. With a view to secure simplicity, some 
veterinary surgeons are apt to fall into the error of usfng very vague 
expressions, such as " I hereby certify that the above-named gelding 
is unsound, from a defect in his wind." Besides this being very in-^ 
elegant, it bears no indication of the examiner having diagnosed the 
cause of imsoundness. Although a certificate were given by one of 
the highest London practitioners in terms such as the above, I can- 
not think that any of you would admire it. 

It is commonly at the conclusion of a certificate that a definite 
opinion is recorded as to whether or not a disease is of any long stand- 
ing. This is often the most onerous part of our duty, best honoured 
in the breach than in the observance. We should exercise the greatest 
caution, and not do as some who are prepared to stake their reputa- 
tion on an assertion that a malady has existed months and months 
prior to a horse's examination. Not long since there lived in a 
flourishing town in the west of England an old practitioner in very 
&ir repute, who would never hesitate to declare that a spavin or a 
ringbone must have existed for three or four years, and he would 



180 ON T.AMTNITIS IN THE HORSR 

even go so far as to swear that the animal must have been born with 
the disease upon him. 

It must savour of superfluity to remind you that you have to ap- 
pend your signature, and if you wish, your titles, to any certificate 
you may grant. I may be permitted here to express a wish that all 
my fellow-students may in due course pass a successful examination, 
and being pronounced sound, secure the proper authority to style 
themselves Members of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. 

Before concluding, I must say a few words on the note of identi- 
fication. The best note of identification is the one engraved on your 
memories. Watch your horses, that you may not speedily forget 
them.- Some men have a greater aptitude for this than others, but 
all can more or less cultivate the power of recollection. The note 
appended to a certificate, however, affords a means of determining 
whether a horse said to have been examined by a number of vete- 
rinarians has really been seen by them all ; and it is more with a 
view to detect or defeat a fraud than for personal satisfaction that 
such a note is made use of. Whatever marks are mentioned should 
be referred to in the fewest possible terms, and none need be intro- 
duced of a superfluous nature. 

I am aware that in selecting the difficult subject of certiflcates of 
soundness on which to write an essay, I have been guilty of no little 
temerity. I nevertheless felt that even my scanty experiences on this 
important topic might be somewhat acceptable. I might have said 
much more on the great responsibility which devolves on us when 
called upon to act either as advisers to, or mediators between, the pur- 
chasers and sellers of horses. We may be guilty of serious injustice 
through inadvertence. We are all liable to err, but we should strive 
to avoid the possibility of an imputation that any one has been wronged 
at our hands through a blameable partiality or carelessness. Nothing 
remains for me but to hope that the crude observations I have penned 
may lead to some profitable discussion, of benefit to aU. 



On Laminitis in the Horse. By James Brookes, M.R.C.V.S., 
The Hope, PUkington, near Manchester. Being an Essay read 
before the Lancashire Veterinary Medical Association on the 1st 
of March 1865. 

Mb RBEsroENT and Gentlemen, — The subject which I have to 
bring before you this evening, viz., Laminitis and its companion 
Symptomatic Fever, is one of the most important that has ever 
offered itself to the serious contemplation of our profession. 

It is a disease so dreadful in its manifestations, and attended with 
such agony, pain, and excessive distress to the poor patient, as cannot 
fail to excite compassion for him from all who witness a case of this 



ON LAMlinnS IN THE HOBSE. 181 

terrible type ; and, gentlemen, I can assure you, that I myself have 
frequently bc^n so affected, that I would not, nay, I could not leave 
my distressed patient until I was satisfied that the utmost had been 
done, so far as professional knowledge lay within my reach, ta relieve 
it from Some portion, at leasts of his intense sufierings. 

The first and most obvious requisite for a practitioner, therefore, 
is to possess the facility to diagnose a disease when he sees it — to 
distinguish it from others manifesting similar symptoms, and thus to 
foresee its probable phases and results. The treatment which he 
adopts will be judicious in proportion to the readiness with which he 
rec<^ises, and the accuracy with which be discriminates diseases, 
and will be either rational or empirical, according as he understands 
or not their real nature and true cause. It is in the investigation 
of the nature and cause of laminitis that I earnestly desire you 
this evening to co-operate with me. No man, whatever may be his 
pursuits, deserves the name of a. practiced man, whose knowledge and 
resources are limited by the experience of his predecessors in a 
similar walk of life, or who cannot or dare not experiment or 
reason for himself. In all professions, and in none more so than 
in the practice of medicine, novel events, remarkable phases, and 
rare combinations, are continually presenting themselves which can 
only be understood and successfully encountered by the aid of general 
principles. Hence the need that every successful practitioner should 
have a knowledge of pathology and therapeutics, which supply the 
general principles to guide him in treating disease, or complications 
which he has not previously experienced. 

Let us observe, for instance, the small strangulated hemorrhoid or 
pile in the human subject ; look at the intense suffering, the most 
excruciating pain, the sympathetic and symptomatic disturbance in 
the system, nay, even the complete prostration, with which the most 
powerful man is overcome when suffering from acute inflammation, 
attendant upon an external pile, arising from the circumstances that 
the lower extremity of the rectum is so vascular, that the veins 
possess no valves, and that this region of the human body is periodi- 
cally subject to mechanical disturbance. It is not a matter of sur- 
prise that hemorrhoids which are composed of structure in which 
blood-vessels are a main element, occur so frequently as they do. 
Here we clearly see that with increased vascularity we have greater 
tendency to inflammation and pain, when an abnormal or morbid 
condition of tissue is by any means produced. Well then, gentlemen, 
from the peculiar situation of the sensitive laminae, and their being 
so highly vascular and abundant in nervous texture, the disease called 
laminitis, which has its seat in the reticular tissue that envelops the 
coffin bone, consists, I conceive, primarily in a congestion of blood 
which is soon followed by the most intense inflammation. The 
laminae being leituated, as I may say, in a blacksmith's vice, betwixt 
two hard substances, viz., the coffin bone and the hoof, high con- 
gestive inflammation is readily produced, and the most violent paiu 



182 ON LAMINITIS IN THE HORSE. 

and the most severe results is the consequence when inflammation 
ensues. 

But, gentlemen, need I take up the whole of your time this even- 
ing, bringing before your notice a subject upon which so much has 
been written, by our late and eminently distinguished friend, Mr 
Percivall, in his " Hippopathology," — a work which constitutes a 
library in itself. I desire to direct your attention, in order that you 
may perceive for yourselves, to his able and excellent remarks which 
have often afforded ine profit and pleasure, and from which I have 
gathered fresh food as from a rich and always productive and valu- 
able pasture; in fact", gentlemen, he has been my pioneer for a 
lengthened period. But lately, we have two other gentlemen, who 
have given us their ideas ,on this important subject, — ^viz., Mr Wil- 
liams of Bradford and Mr Thomas Greaves of Manchester. I 
would commend to your notice the controversy which has been 
carried on between them within these last few months, and which will 
doubtless do much to convince you, and every other observer, that 
they are men well matured and well grounded in the science of dis- 
ease. 

Laminitis is of two specific kinds, which we may designate natural 
and unnatural. 

1st Natural Laminitis is mostly found in horses of a low breed, 
heavy and corpulent in body, such as draught horses of various kinds ; 
and this arises, doubtless, from constitutional causes. 

2d. Unnatural Laminitis, or artificial phase of this terrible disease, 
is most frequently met with in light bred animals, and, no doubt, is 
the result of their endeavour to resist the violence occasioned by over- 
exertion on hard roads, and by the exhaustion produced by rapid 
driving and other artificial deleterious causes, such as being suddenly 
called upon to perform long journeys, overloading or gorging the 
stomach with food, eating large quantities of wheat, or feeding upon 
new oats. There is one cause, however, so predominant and in- 
fluential in its character, that ought never to be lost sight of, and 
that is work, or what may be construed into violence done to the 
feet. For instance, a horse with high stamping action going any 
great distance, or for any length of time upon a macadamised road, 
or hard pavement of any kind whatever, will be a very likely sub- 
ject for an attack of this disease, particularly if it has been idle, at 
rest, or unseasoned, and is suddenly and at once put to do severe 
work. 

Of the former character or type of this disease, I have had no less 
than eight cases, which have come under my care during the last three 
years, some of which animals have not been out of the stable or box 
for weeks, nay, for months, and the remainder have only followed 
their ordinary employment, yet all have been attacked with symp- 
toms equally violent with the most virulent cases that have ever come 
under my experience. This is one among many evidences of the 
justice of my distinction of the natural from the unnatural or arti? 



ON LAMINinS IN THE HOBSE. 183 

ficial phases of laminitis, and which cannot be accounted for by the 
general and popularly received theory that this disease is the off- 
spring of violence or overwork. Surely, then, gentlemen, my theory 
is not ill founded, for there must be some occult or mysterious cause 
for this disease presenting itself under the peculiar circumstances 
which I have now related. 

What, I have frequently asked myself, is this hidden or undis- 
covered cause ? 

Is it idiosyncrasy or some peculiar element in the system of the 
patient ? 

Is it cachexia or a bad habit of body ? 

And when ruminating upon this subject, I have frequently had 
brought to my recollection the remarks made by Professor Spooner 
upon this form of disease, during the period when I was attending 
his lectures, which were to the effect that " Laminitis," to all intents 
and purposes, belongs to the rheumatic class. And more lately, on 
perusing an excellent paper on this subject, the production in 1855 
of our esteemed friend Mr Greaves, I find two right words used in 
their right place, in reference to the active cause of this disease — 
viz., the igneous element I feel quite satisfied and fully convinced 
that this expression, " igneous element," is the very essence of this 
lamentable affiction to which the equine race is subject, lurking as 
it does in the system, waiting only for some exciting circumstance to 
rouse it into activity. 

Just allow me, gentlemen, to call your attention to the rheumatic 
fever in the human subject. Here we have the symptoms somewhat 
similar to those which we see in the laminitic acute pain, — extreme 
tenderness attended with great constitutional disturbance, extreme 
restlessness, intense thirst and loss of appetite, the pulse often up to 
120, and full, hard, and jerking; the bowels are, obstinately costive, 
the urine scanty and high coloured, with a strong acid reaction ; the 
skin is often bathed in a profuse, strong, sour-smelling perspiration, 
which, however, affords no relief ; and it is an established fact with 
the medical profession, that the rheumatic is essentially a blood 
disease, and that the poison which is accumulated in it appears to be 
lactic add. It also contains a large excess of fibrin. The urine is 
excessively add, high coloured, and contains much uric acid ; and the 
remedy of the faculty in such cases — the treatment by alkalies. 

Since the system is saturated with the acid, the most rational treat- 
ment is the Alkalies, and it is the most successful — Bicarbonate of 
Potass, Nitrate, Bitartrate, and Acetate ; and I beg to suggest to our 
President that three or four of our Manchester practitioners should, 
when they have imder their care a patient, or patients^ labouring 
under this disease, they shall collect some urine, and also some por- 
tion of the blood, for the purpose of being analysed by some eminent 
analytical chemist, at the expense of this Association ; and I have no 
doubt, and not the least fear, but that we shall obtain thereby some 
peculiar poison, or effete matter, that has been secreted in the circu- 

VoL. L— No. IV.— Nkw Series. Apeil1865. O 



184 OK liAMINITIS IN THE HOESE. 

latory system ; and doubtless, then, this state of the blood will present 
an interesting subject for investigation. 

SYMPTOM& — The horse stands in a fixed position. If confined to 
the fore feet, the symptoms are of that peculiar character that they 
can hardly by any person of any experience be mistaken. All of a 
heap, is the old phrase used to denote Xhe animaFs position — ^the 
pulse is full, frequent, and remarkably hard; the respiration seeming 
to sympathise with the pulse. The horse places his hind legs under 
him in order to take the weight of his body off his fore-feet; he 
groans and moans from the severity of the pain, which in some 
extreme cases lays him completely prostrate. If forced to step 
forward, he most unwillingly makes an effort to do so; and his 
method of accomplishing it is expressive of no disease save laminitis. 
The feet are hot and painfuL If one foot be held up — ^which in some 
cases it is very difficult to do so — ^he can scarcely stand upon the 
other. He does not like to get up when laid down ; and if com- 
pelled, does so with great difficulty ; and he is very unwilling to move 
from one place to another. Throbbing of the pastern arteries is 
another well-marked symptom. The mouth is parched, breath hot, 
mucous membranes vascular and scarlet in colour ; parts of his body 
are in a state of tremor ; he is continually changing the position of 
hi^ feet in search of relief. The pain is explained by the larger 
supply of blood to the nerves of the part, combined with the pres- 
sure of the surrounding textures upon them. It is accordingly 
most severe when the surrounding textures are most unyielding. 
With increased heat of surface, great thirst, dry skin, scanty and 
high-coloured urine, we have the most obstinate and sluggish state 
of the bowels present. 

Teeatment. — Many different modes of treatment have been recom- 
mended ; and, reasoning on general physiological principles, the func- 
tions of the alimentary canal are so tardily carried on that we cannot 
insure the operation of a purge under 24 hours, there being no 
animal but the horse in which acute disease makes such sad havoc in 
so short a time. Empty his stomach we cannot with an emetic, nor 
can we purge in a few hours ; and, well knowing the obstinacy of the 
bowels in this disease, our measures must be prompt to act and 
decisive when they do act ; for the grand purpose, if the practitioner 
desires to be successful, must be to conquer the disease by resolution, 
as every other mode of termination is unfavourable if not destructiva 
Consequently to bring about this issue is the aim and desire of every 
one treating this malady; and as the nature of the disease, its 
seat, and the disorganisation which it produces, are weU known, this 
result is not so difficult of accomplishment as it may appear at first 
sight, in proof of which I beg to offer to your notice to-night the 
treatment which I have found most successful during a lengthened 
period of practice. It is as follows : — 

Bleeding from the coronary plexus. Aconite, M X every two or 
three hours in half a pint of cold water. 



ON LAMINinS IN THE HOBSE. 185 

Gentle pnige — Nitrate of Potass, 3ii in cold water every time the 
patient ddnks, day and night New yeast about half a pound two 
or three times a day. 

Externally — Cold water poured on the feet with great force every 
hour or two, day and night. 

Bleeding. — ^In inflammation there is diminished action ; that is, 
diminished contractility of the small arteries, with increased action of 
the heart, and the two together keep up that dilated condition of the 
small vessels which is the essence of inflammation. It is obvious that 
there are two ways which these minute vessels may be restored to 
their healthy degree of contraction. The first is, by lessening the 
quantity of blood to the part, and the second by increasing their con- 
tractility. In most acute inflammations both these remedies are 
required. If the inflammatibn be recent, the small vessels may 
recover themselves if once relieved from the undue quantity sent to 
them by the heart ; and in this case the abstracting of blood or the 
use of depressing remedies will suffice ; but if inflammation be 
chronic, the small vessels may have so lost their contractility as not to 
recover themselves, though the blood circulates through them in 
diminished quantity, and in this case we must use such remedies as 
restore the lost contractility of the vessels, and precisely the same 
treatment is required in that state to which we give the name of con- 
gestion. The treatment of inflanmiation, then, is twofold. It consists 
in diminishing the quantity of blood sent out by the heart on one 
hand, and in restoring the lost contractility of the small vessels on 
the other. As the increased action of the heart occurs only in the 
acute form of inflammation, it is in that form alone that general 
remedies are necessary. These remedies are bloodletting, aided in 
certain cases by active purgatives ^nd depressants. 

Bleeding alone, even though often repeated, will not suffice to sub- 
due the i^ammation, for each bleeding is followed by reaction, and 
that reaction establishes the inflammation. 

By combining depletion with depressing remedies, we save blood 
and avert chronic disease. The great principle to be observed in the 
treatment of acute inflammation is to' subdue it at once, so as not to 
allow reaction, and to give the small vessels time to contract to their 
usual size. 

Aconite. — ^Very little has been said or written on the properties of 
Aconite given in M X doses in half a pint of cold water; it diminishes 
vascular and nervous excitement. I have observed, after two or three 
doses, my patient has laid down and been disposed to sleep, which 
certainly appears to me to secure the desideratum so strongly urged 
by our friend Mr Greaves, in his remarks on this disease — ^viz., to get 
the weight of the body off the feet. I think that object is obtained 
here. 

Large doses produce alarming symptoms and considerable excite- 
ment^ but in small doses I have often seen the sedative effect almost 
instantaneous. 



186 ON LAMINITIS IN THE HOBSE. 

I well recollect, whilst attending the lectures of Professor Spooner, 
that he said, when speaking on sedatives — ^there was none like Bella- 
donna, for you had two objects in view in administering it. It was 
the best sedative and at the same time was a laxative, which power no 
other sedative possessed ; and I venture to assert that Aconite given 
with caution in small doses, and well diluted, has in my experience 
proved the best sedative we have, and stands pre-eminent as a 
diuretic. 

Nitrate of Potassa. — Nit. Potassse given repeatedly in water I 
believe to possess the property of destroying or neutralising certain 
morbid poisons existing in the blood, as well as in a less marked 
manner to have the power of checking inflammation, which result is 
attributed, at least in part, to its well-known property of rendering 
the fibrin of the blood more soluble. ' 

Cold Applications. — Cold water, according to the degree and man- 
ner of its application, acts in very different ways. Its general effect 
■ on the circulation depends upon its intensity ; but when, as in this 
instance, the feet are hot and dry, it reduces the temp»ature, lowers 
the circulation, soothes the nervous system, diminishes the extreme 
sensibility, and restores the contractility of the capillary vessels, 
thereby preventing further effusion, and allowing the absorbent ves- 
sels to remove any fluid which may have been thrown out. 

Dietetics. — In this disease, as the functions of the stomach and 
digestive organs are either primarily or sympathetically impaired, and 
the assimilation of nutriment consequently very feeble, it becomes a 
necessity for the practitioner to supply such concentrated forms of 
nutrition as will be most certainly and readily absorbed by the dis- 
ordered system. I have found these to be, amongst others, two eggs 
every two or three hours, day and night, in a cupful of cold water, 
until the fever abates — after which give small bran mashes and the 
raw swede turnips, or in summer green food in small quantities ; and 
thoroughly to eradicate the disease, along with the change of diet, 
there should be also secured for the patient a change of locality. 

Now, gentlemen, I have very briefly, and by no means pertinently, 
laid before you a meagre outline of the residts of my experience in 
the treatment of this fearful disease. I therefore earnestly entreat 
you, neither to discard it at once, because it at the first blush does 
not appear to follow in the time-honoured and beaten track of our 
craft — nor to ignore it because the appliances and modris operandi 
of treatment are novel and perchance to you untried. Every new 
discovery in science and art must, sometime or other, be an innova- 
tion, and necessarily be regarded by those who are habituated to the 
old and long recognised system of things in that sphere, with sus- 
picion and doubt. 

But if its pretensions b\3 not investigated, and its merits tested, 
there is at once an end of all progress. Invention and new appliances 
of long known powers are the distinguishing features of our age in 
every phase of life. Why, then, should our profession bean exception^ 



QEKEBAL PABALTSIS IN A MABE. 187 

We may be as sceptical as we choose and as conservative as we 
like, but truth is light, ever expanding, and .will shine over our path 
whether we will walk by it, or in it, or no. And if we fail, being 
weak-sighted, or blind to appreciate its life-giving expansive powers, 
other minds and geniuses less prejudiced, will, by experiment, gain 
experience, and by experience succeed in effecting marvels which 
might have been our achievements if we had been more progressive. 

Let me therefore, gentlemen, urge upon you the necessity of care- 
ful investigation into the facts now summarily brought before your 
notice, and let me induce you to ascertain for yourselves, by actual 
and careful experiment, the advantage or otherwise of the several ap- 
pliances which have been recommended as curative agents in this 
lamentable disease. And I feel confident, that if care be taken in 
the administration of proper doses, and in a careful diagnosis of the 
varied forms of the disease, you will not have cause for regret. 



General Paralysis in a Mare, By James Baillie, M.RC.V.S., 

Lauder. 

Sib, — ^Allow me to bring before you a case I had lately in practice, 
and if you think it worthy a place in the Review, please to insert it. 

I was called to see a six-year-old mare, the property of Mr Mill, 
Handsidehill, and on my arrival I found her lying motionless. On 
inquiry, I learned the following particulars : — The mare had been at 
Dalkeith market on Thursday — a distance of twenty-four miles — and 
had returned home on the Friday, arriving at noon. The same after- 
noon she had gone about an hour and a half in the mill, was taken 
out of it quite cool, had a drink of cold water, and was put into the 
stable. Shortly afterward, she was observed to move stiffly, and was 
walked out some distance ; but while doing so, fell down, and had to 
be placed on a gate and pulled in by two horses. This was about four 
o'clock P.M. A neighbouring farmer who was sent for, gave a bottle 
of ale and two glasses of whisky, and advised the owner to send for 
me, giving the messenger instructions to request that I should bring 
some strong purgative medicine, as the stomach and bowels were 
affected. 

I arrived about ten o'clock. She was down, with the legs stretched 
out, pulse eighty and full, active contractivse (apparently spasmodic) 
of the oesophagus, stiffness of the neck, the muscles being contracted 
as in tetanus, the conjunctivae and scheniderian membranes were 
reddened, and the extremities cold. The ears were kept in almost 
constant motion, their movements being particularly active when any 
noise was made. The eyes were bright, and sight seemed unimpaired. 
The mare also strained constantly as if for the passage of faeces. 

When the legs were pricked with a pin, there was no movement or 



188 GENEBAL PABALYSIS IN A MABE. 

other indication of suffering, and when bent up they were suffered" to 
remain so. 

Believing that I had to deal with a case of congestion of the ner- 
vous centres (spinal cord,) with constipation, and probably with in- 
flammation of the bowels, I attempted to give an aloetic ball, but 
failed, owing to the spasmodic closure of the jaws. In consequence, 
I gave thirty drops oL crotonis in a quantity of linseed oil and 
enemas. Having abstracted six or seven quarts of blood, and given 
4 oz. liq. ammon. acet., I had her warmly clothed, and she shortly 
broke out into a very copious perspiration, by which she seemed 
greatly relieved. As the pulse continued the same, I abstracted three 
cfuarts more blood two hours later, and gave twenty-four drops of 
Fleming's tincture of aconite. 

I remained with her the whole night, giving during the course of it 
thirty drops more oL crotonis, and repeating the enemas every hour and 
a half. These brought away a considerable amount of indurated faeces. 
I also had her turned from one side to the other, to excite the action 
of the bowels. On leaving in the morning, I gave orde^p to continue 
the enemas, turn her once, and keep her well clothed. 

I visited her again at five P.M., and found that a considerable quan- 
tity of dung had been passed throughout the day, but all in a hardened 
<5ondition. I gave thirty drops more oL crotonis in a quart oL lini, and 
passing the catheter drew off a very large quantity of urine of a na- 
tural colour. She had evidently passed none since taking ill. Before 
leaving I repeated ^the dose of croton oil, as I could hear no motion 
in the bowels, and also ordered the enemas to be kept up. The per- 
spiration continued free, and the tenesmus -persistent, often causing 
the return of the enemas as they were administerei During the 
d9,y the mare had regained the use of the legs somewhat, as she moved 
them backwards and forwards ; but she never attempted to rise. She 
also occasionally lifted her head and looked back, and moaned a good 
deal. I would have applied hot cloths to the abdomen had I not con- 
sidered the costiveness due to paralysis of the intestines. The modera- 
tion of the paralysis I considered in great measure due to the abun- 
dant perspiration. 

The pulse, which had all the while ranged from eighty to ninety 
per minute, was now becoming very weak. The mare moaned a good 
deal, and appeared very seusitive to noises. 

Having again turned her, and given orders to administer a bottle 
of linseed oU next day, if there was no improvement, I left at 10 P.M. 

I may state that deglutition was diflScult, and that aU along, in 
order to make her swallow, I had to manipulate the throat, keeping 
the head as well out as possible. 

The patient died next morning at six o'clock, having struggled a 
good deal during the night, particularly vnth the fore-feet, as evinced 
by the marks on the stones. On the following^ morning I made a 
post-mortem examination, and noted the following particulars : — On 
opening the abdomen, the walls of which were loaded VFith fat, a con- 



GENEBAL PABALYSIS IN A MABE. 189 

siderable quantity of reddish serum escaped. Discoloured patches 
were seen along the course of the ilium and on the mesentery, but 
these were by no means extensive. The omentum had throughout a 
similar appearance. . The spleen was large and very spongy, and the 
liver normal ' In removing the large masses of fat around the kid- 
neys, their capsules were torn off. The organs themselves were exten- 
sively diseased, the cortical substance being red, rough, or granular, 
and easily broken down. The bladder was quite empty, although the 
mare lived thirteen hours after the urine had been drawn off by the 
catheter. 

The lungs were congested, but not inflamed, and the pericardium 
contained a considerable quantity of bloody serum. The heart itself, 
with its valves, were quite healthy, and the pleural surfaces were in a 
similar condition. 

On opening the stomach I found it empty, with the exception that 
it contained a few straws, evidently recently swallowed and unmasti- 
cated. The small intestines were empty. The ccecum contained some 
softened ingesta, and the colon was full, but not over-filled, its con- 
tents being rather dry. 

My examination was conducted, under considerable diflSculties, in a 
field covered with snow, and, in addition to this, I was pressed for 
time, so that I was imable to dissect out the great nervous centres. I 
regret that the case is thus rendered incomplete, although there can 
be little doubt but that their examination wbuld have disclosed the 
existence of. congestion, and probably red softening of the spinal cord. 
The difficulty of deglutition seemed to imply that the medulla oblongata 
partook in part of the diseased condition, but the remainder of the ence- 
phalon, I believe, was healthy, as the functions of the eye, ear, &c., ap- 
peared normal, or only oves-excited. In the character of the pulse, fever, 
and loss of movement, the case bore a considerable analogy to puerperal 
fever in the cow, differing only in this, that the brain proper was less 
affected. The draught of cold water, when the mare was already ex- 
hausted by a long jeurney and subsequent work, had, I believed, 
caused a revulsion toward the nervous centres, inducing congestion 
and sudden paralysis. The kidneys appear to have become involved 
consequent on the disease of the spinal cord, as the urine, drawn off 
twenty-four hours after the onset of the disease, did not appear altered 
in any particular. The disorganisation of the kidneys, too, though 
extensive, was apparently of no long standing. 

The mare was very fat, but quite able for her work, and likely to 
be well used. — I am, &c. 



190 ON NAVICtTLAR DISEASE AND FOUNDEE. 

ON NAVICULAE DISEASE AND FOUNDER. 
By Joseph Gamgee, Senior. 

The following is the subBUnce of a Paper, with verbal changes, which was read at 
the Veterinary Association, in the New Veterinary College, on March 3. 

The above denominations which I use, in preference to others also 
in vogue, for conveying to the mind, notions concerning the charac- 
teristic features of different pathological affections to which horses' 
feet are prone, may require explanation on my part, with some 
statement of the reasons which induce me to couple together two 
such formidable diseases of the foot, as those which I submit for 
deliberate consideration and discussion at this meeting. 

With the knowledge that I am exposing myself to be questioned, 
as all men do who, not content with matters as they stand, raise 
objections, point out errors, and endeavour to contribute some share 
to the required amendments and advances; I do not, like some, 
believe that those who work, should do so, heedless of all the erro- 
neous doctrines in vogue, which are perpetually being promulgated 
anew. To such indifference on questions of the first importance, I 
profess to share no part ; neither my innate disposition, nor the dis- 
cipline which experience has imposed, prompt me to compound with 
adherents to false notions, because they paid to be taught them. 
None are so proper to point out the quicksands; as those who 
have worked through time and under disadvantages^ to escape from 
them. 

On the discovery made by the late Mr James Turner, of the ex- 
istence of a diseased state of the navicular bone, which he proved, by 
adducing cases and specimens, was not of unfrequent occurrence, 
he called the ulcerated condition of the bone "navicular disease;" 
and the phrase was most happy, owing to its simple plainness and 
neutral import, in so far as the adoption of the word only referred 
to a phenomenon without committing the user of it to any doctrine, 
physiological or pathological. For these reasons, and believing that 
the subsequently compound Latinised word, " Navicular arthritis,'* is 
objectionable on the grounds noticed, I see good reason for keep- 
ing to the original words, and to reserve the freedom of discussion on 
the pathology of the disease, unfettered by words. 

Founder is an old term, in use to designate a diseased state, ac- 
conapanied by lameness, and which has been often described, though 
not satisfactorily defined. Founder, as applied to the case of a lame 
horse, would seem to indicate inability to move, as is clearly the 
meaning when the same word is applied to a stranded ship. In 
French veterinary literature, the word " Fourbure"' is of old stand- 
ing, and is still in full -vogue, — clearly applied by our neighbours in 
the same sense as intended when rightly used by us. It is uncertain 
whether "founder" is a corruption of "fourbure," or whether both 
words originated from a common root. 



ON NAVICULAB DISEASE AND FOUNDER. 1 91 

With their usual clear way of describing symptoms, our neigh- 
bours across the Channel tell us, that *' La Fourbure is a disease^ 
while labouring under which, the horse can hardly walk, and scarcely 
can flex his limbs, which seem to be all of a pieca He appears to 
lack the equilibrium of all his limbs, and one would think that all 
the articulations were made immovable when the horse is made to 
tura" — Lttfosse, Dictionaire Raisonne D'Hippitrique, 1775. 

In our own country, " founder" has been used, in reference to 
conditions differing in the character and supposed seat of disease. 
At the beginning of the present century, horses were said to be 
foundered, and distinction was drawn between chest-founder and 
foot-founder. It was not until Turner had shown that navicular 
disease was a common sequence in the cases, pronounced chest- 
founder, that English veterinarians began to limit the term " founder" 
to typical cases, such as have been characteristically described by the 
learned French author of the last century, already referred to. In 
its properly defined and limited application, " founder" is, I believe, 
still the least objectionable of any term in use with us, and for pre- 
cisely the same reason as I have assigned for preferring the words 
" navicular disease." In both cases alike, I say keep to the original 
or older terms, especially as neutrality is of moment, in preference to 
taking up with the terms, " inflammation of the laminse," or " lami- 
nites," — ^phrases intended to convey the ideas of their originators, on 
the pathological character of the disease. 

When men talk learnedly about "navicularithitis," and "kminitis," or 
of other conditions of the feet, where lameness is the manifest symp- 
tom, and amongst whom no two members can be found to agree; it 
may fairly be inferred that the matter is not in a satisfactory state. 
None, however, but those unacquainted with such questions should be 
surprised at the conflicting state of opinion. If the subject was under- 
stood, though shades of difference in the opinions of professional men 
would still be found, on all the more essential points agreement would 
be arrived at. 

Can any rational man believe that under ignorance of the normal 
functions of the foot, the diseased conditions which supervene, are to 
be comprehensively seen into ? The prevalent ideas are that one pair 
of bones are* attached to a larger one by a yielding medium substance, 
which, by stretching, admits of their descent ; and that another pair 
of bones (the sessanoids) are suspended by an elastic ligament, endowed 
with considerable elongating properties ; and that the navicular bone 
is pressed down on to the tendon beneath it, which in turn reposes on 
the frog ; and lastly, that the coffin bone is slung by elastic medium 
bands to the inner surface of the wall of the hoof, that these bands 
(the laminae) allow by their stretching properties for the bones to 
descend, (if one descends, all must,) to admit of which the sole of the 
hoof must be cut away, and otherwise weakened to avoid obstruction 
(query, support.) 

i^oWf I ask, is this the material to harbour in men's brains as i^ 



192 ON NAVICULAB DISEASE AND FOUNDER. 

foundation on which to build a superstructure of any kind — either of 
normal actions or diseased conditions ? No ; the anatomy of the 
foot must be understood ; from phenomena, we must arrive at sys- 
tems, and then we may learn pathology — knowledge of healthy actions 
first, and then the altered states — disease, causes, and sequences — may 
be understood. 

Navicular disease is met with chiefly amongst the fine breeds of 
•speedy horses, with whom, and in their special kinds of work, a 
more constant energetic pressure is kept up in the region of this 
bone. The causes of this disease, like those of most others, are 
essentially of two kinds — ^viz., predisposing, and actual or direct 
causes. The first consists in the management of horses from the time 
they are foals to adult age ; well formed, strong feet, all other things 
being the same, withstand the efiects of after-causes the longest. 

Bad shoeing and fast work under weight or draught are the most 
common exciting causes of this as of most other diseased conditions 
of horses' feet. Bad shoeing is a vague expression ; but I call all 
bad, in degrees that is not done by system, subordinate to the 
necessary knowledge of the foot. There are some bad habits which 
have found their way into the practice of shoeing, and, indeed, have 
been all along enforced systematically, which may be pointed out in 
thi| place, though I cannot go into details on the art in this essay. 
Paring of the soles and the weakening of the hoof, either by instru- 
ment or softening, should be alike avoided ; as no skill is needed in 
attending to this step, alike conservative and remedial in tendency, 
I submit it with recommendation that it be taken as a rule appli- 
cable to the case of all horses. 

Navicular disease never occurs suddenly, is never caused by bruises 
from stones as alleged, nor does it appear as a primary aflFection. 
The cofl&n bone having the whole weight and exertion to sustain, is 
always the first to suffer, and it is when an altered position from the 
normal state takes place in the coflSn bone, and the other component 
structures of the foot relatively, that derangement of functions and 
stress of pressure is imposed on the navicular bone. The coflSn bone 
undergoes more change in physical formation, and that more rapidly, 
than occurs in any other bone, — I may say of any animal, — and that 
for the reason, that no bone is placed under so many complications of 
adverse influence and by misapplied art and exertion combined. 

The semilunar crest, and the normal asperities of the coffin bone 
become absorbed under the influences prevalent, by which the 
attaching processes for the tendon, the planta band and the frog, 
are all weakened and positions become altered ; the navicular bone in 
the case is more and more called on to bear pressure, when its normal 
bulk would lack space ; therefore absorption of its substance takes 
place from within, until at length its outer surface breaks down ; being 
always on its lower and posterior surface where the ulcerated aper- 
tures one or more are seen, whence limph issuing becomes attached to 
the tendon^ by which effort of nature the structures become in some 



OH HAYICULAB DBKAfiE AND FOUNDSB. 193 

measure fixed together^ and the otherwise unsupportable friction is 
diminished. 

Treatment — Ours is all of a prophylactic kind; firstly, preven- 
tive measures are the great resource^ — the taking care of the stable, ere 
the steed is lost, is our watchword. But cases will make their appear- 
ance, and though not one in ten of those pronounced to be the navi- 
cular disease are of that type ; yet in various stages of progress cases 
of navicular disease frequently appear. My remedies in these cases 
consist in the taking of very much the same measures as I adopt for 
prevention, or rather for the maintenance of healthy action regardless 
of any particular disease. I remove causes, i.e., in the first place the 
shoes, and withdraw all ascertainable causes of pain as soon as pos- 
sible ; rest and some fomentation to the feet are amongst the most 
efiective meana Continued rest in a loose box may be necessary for 
two or three weeks, during which time the feet will acquire form and 
strength, under such management as I carry out — ^viz., no softening 
application after the first two or three days, when circulation of the 
blood will have found its equilibrium over the foot, after which clean- 
liness and care and abstaining debilitating the hoof is observed. But, 
we may say, my friends, this is not surgery. Would you not bleed, 
blister, insert setons, and if the lameness continued persistent, unnerve 
the horse ? I shake my head and say — No ! Well, is it pretended that 
I can cure all cases submitted to me of the character under notice ? 
No. Then what is to be done with the incurables, are they not to 
-be submitted to the orderly routine of successive operations? I can 
hardly be made to comply, and for the following reasons : — ^I saw so 
much of that which is called the surgery of these cases in my early 
days, such torture, butchery, and sacrifice of property, that I tried 
what I believed then the more rational mode of procedure, and have 
been rewarded by great success ; the few cases of protracted and ad- 
vanced disease, which after due observation and trial I diagnose as 
incurable, I advise to be put out of their miserable state. They are 
very few, since all but a fractional part are redeemed to a state of 
ease and usefulness by the measures thus employed. 

Founder, the distinguishing feature of which I cannot better por- 
tray than by referring to the description given of symptoms, pub- 
lished by the distinguished Lafosse in the last century, is a disease 
which occurs most in the lieavy breeds of horses ; I advisedly dis- 
tinguish between heavy breeds, viz., — round formed, punchy bred 
horses, and those of high stature, or with reference to the actual 
weight of the animal It is the mode of breeding and management 
that furnishes the predisposing causes to founder ; and which rela- 
tively exempts horses from causes of lameness, by which from the 
same stock, soft, lumbering horses, with flat feet, are produced, under 
indefinitely bad management ; the cob horse of fourteen hands, and 
the coach or cart horses of seventeen hands, may alike contract in 
their early ages the predisposition to all diseased states common to 
flat feet : the words, '' flat feet,'' should always to be taken in a rela- 
tive, and not a positive sense. 



194 ON NAVICULAR DISEASE AND FOUNDEE. 

The description of horse under consideration, while prone to 
almost every form of disease of the feet, of which founder is the 
most formidable, are withal almost exempt from navicular disease ; 
and a few words in this place on phenomena comparatively, jnay help 
to show the existing causes in each case, illustrative of the fact that 
through predisposition by breeding and conformation, different effects 
and types of disease are brought on under similarity of treatment 
and work. It has been said already that the speedy, well-bred, 
energetic horse is prone to navicular disease ; that he, with greater 
leverage construction than the common bred, exerts more force on to 
the navicular bones, and that all disturbing influences tend to bring 
about effects in degree, until the extremes noticed become the results. 

While the flat-footed horse, with dwelling action, cannot give that 
intensity of force on to the navicular bones, which causes the disease, 
he bears on a greater surface with a less substantial foundation than 
lihe strong footed. The want of the natural, strong arches of the 
pedal-bone and hoof, the two structures which act together, and 
which mainly govern the position and functions of the complex organ, 
the foot, calls for artificial provision to sustain the whole ; and proper 
shoeing and excessive moisture constitute our means, whereby in 
these cases, as in the other types, the effects brought on by multiplied 
adverse conditions may be avoided. The horse, with hoofs and pedal- 
bones flattened under the ordinary modes of managing the feet, which 
give little support, and much unnatural obstruction to functions, is 
in a state progressively getting worse, — ^he goes, to use a comparative 
phrase applied to analogous cases in man, whole footed. 

This subject may be made more clear if we compare two bones of 
similar class and breed of horses. Say the thorough-bred ; for al- 
though these are the least liable to founder, still, relatively one with 
another they differ, and to that extent may be studied with profit. 
A race horse, with a shallow, flat foot, seldom runs on, as an aged horse, 
though many with feet so formed are large powerful horses ; and when 
the course is wet and soft they often win the race. Such feet, like those 
of the duck, in water, are in their element ; but change from swampy 
to hard ground, and the horse, physically in'ferior in other respects, but 
with strong, arched feet, wins the race. According to predisposition, 
and the accumulation of causes, absorption of the cofl&n bone goes on 
— the thin, weak sole renders the prominent points, margins, &c., of 
that bone incompatible with other abnormal phenomena ; the de- 
fective, mutilated hoof, always in conformity and conforming to the 
coffin bone, requires that that bone should have its sharp asperities 
removed, though at the expense of strength, energy, and action, and 
accordingly absorption does the work, as a provision of compensation. 
The horse thus loses form, speed, and power ; the active riding horse 
becomes a poor harness drudge ; the one that could trot with ease 
ten miles an hour, can, with much pain and difficulty, only do seven ; 
and the cart horse that could walk away with his load nimbly, at 
length goes kneeding .the ground, and dwelling on the posterior re- 
gions of his feet^ while he is jinable to revolve them, to use the 



ON NAYICULAB DISEASE AND FOUNDER. 195 

anterior region, the point where his powers should be exerted, with 
full energy and force. 

We have now come pretty close to all the conditions of chronic 
founder, and only want some little increased exertion, fresh exciting 
influences from shoeing, or a little more time, when ulceration of the 
pedal bone having proceeded to a great extent by slow degrees, now 
becomes more active ; and all the acute symptoms, indicating inflam- 
mation ^of the foot, with general derangement of the system, are set 
up. This stage, acute founder, may, and sometimes does occur, with- 
out the slow process of change above noticed. We never, however, 
have efiect without causes ; and there are usually several in operation 
at this juncture; the local, as regards condition of the feet ; general, as 
regards the constitution of the animal; and immediate, as in the case 
where violent exertion has been in force. 

These cases of intense suffering to the animal, and rapidly progress- 
ing destruction of normal organisation, have been called Laminitis, 
an absurdly applied term, given to represent an idea, as already 
alluded to— an idea that, instead of being supported, the coffin bone 
is suspended. Reverse the notion, and admit, since, whether admitted 
or not, nature's laws being omnipotent, that sole of the hoof, with the 
arches of the coffin bone, support the burden; give place to these views, 
and the subject may be contemplated more profitably, when it will 
be seen that, instead of the connecting medium between the pedal bone 
and cartilages being the seat of the affection, the lower and anterior 
region of the coffin bone is invariably the seat of suffiering, the en- 
veloping fibrous structure becoming simultaneously affected. Mean- 
while absorption and shortening of the bone goes on, its substance 
wastes, its removal being nature's object, and the posterior region, the 
foot, is alone sought to tak6 the whole or chief burden. It would be 
too much to attempt in this paper to enter on all the* metamorphoses 
that follow, comprising even death of the animal ; or to enlarge on 
the various degrees of restoration in other cases attainable. Suffice 
for the present to show character, causes, and the rationale of the 
subject. 

I have made selection of one, from amongst my collection of patho- 
logical specimens, very typical of the disease under consideration ; the 
subject was a cart-mare, whose fore-feet I ob- 
tained, the bones of one of which furnished the 
specimen drawn for the accompanying wood- 
cut. I never saw the animal until after she 
had been taken alive to the slaughter-yard 
and was killed, when I learned as much as 
can usually be relied on in such cases from 
mere report, which amounted to the state- 
ment that the mare had been many months 
excessively lame, that she had been kept 
at work until recently, and when impossible 
to proceed longer with torture she was 
destroyed. 




196 ON NAVICULAE DISEASE AND FOUNDER. 

The specimen represented on other side, exhibits in a marked degree 
the wasted condition of the coflSn bone over its lower surface, under 
which weakened state, with corresponding mutilated state of the hoofs 
(the sole) in particular, and from the cruelly imposed exertion to 
which the mare had been kept, the front of the bone has become bent 
upwards, or, more correctly speaking, it is partially fractured, after be- 
coming so reduced that the plates of bone composing the planta arch 
, became torn asunder, and a bending of the remainder and upper part 
of the pedal bone followed. 

My collection of morbid specimens of the foot, and of pedal 
bones in particular, all show that the planta region is the seat of dis- 
ease in founder ; and knowing that the conclusions I have arrived at, 
by the only method by which such questions admit of solutions-patho- 
logical researches — ^have not yet found many converts amongst the 
members of the profession, through their having become early im- 
bued with very different notions, I challenge any one to sustain their 
long-cherished hypothesis. 

Words and opinions count for nothing in my estimation, when 
these are opposed by phenomena ; therefore let any one produce the 
foot of a foundered horse, or call the disease what they please, 
laminitis will do for the occasion ; and let that foot, or any number 
of feet of the kini, be prepared in a proper way, so that its true 
pathological state is shown, which cannot be imtil the pedal bone has 
been divested carefully of its membranes; and let a single case be 
shown me, in which inflammation and ulceration (for the latter suc- 
ceeds the first in this disease) has existed over the upper connecting 
surface of the pedal bone, in which the inferior surface is found 
normal — show me, I say, one case, and I will admit that, without 
disputing about exception, as evidence against my position. But I 
will reverse the point, for my abundant evidence and proof enables 
me to say, that not one case will be found, even in those extreme, 
in which, a third of the bulk of the coflSn bone in front has disappeared 
by absorption, in which the course of diseased action has not pro- 
ceeded from below upwards, and from the anterior lower margin back- 
wards ; and to that extent when the whole lower part of the front of 
the pedal bone becomes involved, and only its joint articulations and 
posterior parts are left for the most essential offices in that deplorable 
existence of the animal 

TREATMENT, 

The difference we find in the pathological state of cases of founder 
is more of degree tlmn of kind, and to that extent brings us to form 
different prognoses of the result to be expected, and the time re- 
quired to effect a given measure of relief, as well as the best mode of 
procedure in the case. 

There is no disease to which the horse is liable, that is more con- 
trollable by a right application of veterinary skill, than the whole 
train of cases of founder, beginning with the sprawling, soft, fiat- 



OK NAYICULAB DISEASE AND FOUNDER. 197 

footed colt, off the swamp or wet dung of the farm-yard, to the con- 
vex or pummaced-footed horse, with the various complications which 
intervene and accompany these. 

The whole train of consequences giving rise to deformed and dis« 
eased feet is due to physical causes ; and to that branch of veterinary 
art and science which assumes to take care of horses' feet, whether 
in health on with reference to their restoration, should devolve the 
labour and credit pertaining. These cases require real knowledge and 
manual dexterity, and if one man does not embody all these, two 
must be employed. Sham knowledge is no use, and only perplexes ; 
as a matter of course it is understood that shoeing is the procedure 
which, least of all, admits of being done well in all its details by de- 
puty ; and, I regret to add, that the difficulty of learning this branch 
renders it unfashionable ; therefore, to prescribe is of little avail until 
some common ground is established as to how and where it is to be 
taught and learned, and what the recompense for services of such 
importance. The art of shoeing, well carried out, the feet sustained 
and protected, with freedom of functions provided for, nine-tenths of 
all cases of founder will be prevented, and the whole controllable 
thereby. 

All horses' feet, and flat feet especially, should be kept dry and 
clean, as a man would keep his own hands and feet. And the effect 
of excessive moisture, encountered in their daily employment, should 
be provided against. But, will say my opponents, horses' feet were 
designed to go in wet and dirt ; yes, but altogether of another kind 
and degree, and then with hoofs in a condition to withstand it. Our 
horses, with pared and rasped feet, are often exposed in a quagmire 
for many hours together daily, and exerting their weight on a hoof 
not in a state to bear it. Let a man walk with a wet soddened boot, 
and then change for a dry one, how comfortable he mil feel by that 
change. The case is illustrative of the fact that artificial usages call 
into play other resources of art, to counteract the evils that would 
otherwise result ; and, as a counter protection against external noxious 
influences to the hoofs of horses, that of moisture in particular, I use 
an ointment which has been productive of advantageous effects in my 
practice for the last twenty-five years. This hoof ointment is com- 
posed thus : take two parts of mutton tallow, to one of Burgundy 
pitch, melt these together in^a water bath, and then add one part of 
Barbi^oes tar. If this ointment is rubbed well into the sole and 
whole hoof with the hand, the feet to be clean and dry at the time, 
the protecting and nourishing properties will prove very decided. 
About once a week is often enough, in general, to apply it, and I 
usually recommend it to be done on a Saturday evening, because most 
of the horses standing in stable next day benefit the more by it. 
People think that anything is good enough for horses' feet, and ac- 
cordingly all sorts of offensive stuff is used, — ^kitchen stuff, common 
tar, &C.. I should as soon think of applying such material to my own 
hair as to a horse's foot 



1 98 ON NAVICULAR DISEASE AND FOUNDEB. 

Acute founder, with all its concurrent associations, presents symp- 
toms of inflammation of the feet, and general constitutional disturb- 
ance, viz., — fever, with throbbing pulse, and such a case is not en- 
couraging for the unprepared practitioner to look at, while the agony 
of the horse is most distressing. 

The measures I adopt in such cases with promptness in application 
have been tested for effect, and are not recommended for great dis- 
play. Some old friends may perhaps put these questions. Do you 
bleed, apply poultices, or ice to the feet? I reply. No, I do nothing 
of the sort. Guided by all the phenomena observable and the his- 
tory of the case, I proceed generally and locally, and applying 
to the last of these first, I remove all extraneous substances and 
matter from the feet, whether of iron shoes, leather soles, or of 
filth of all kinds. A loose place for the horse to rest, move, and lie 
down in, is sought. An aloetic laxative ball is given, and clysters, 
which are repeated at intervals of two or three hours, while the 
urgent symptoms last ; and warm water fomentations are applied to 
the affected feet, either by placing one foot at a time in a pait if the 
horse can stand, and if lying, flannels wrung out of warm water are 
applied to the feet. 

An forage should be removed from the rack and manger, and only 
the potions prescribed given at proper intervals, — ^viz„ tepid water, 
with a double handful of bran to about a gallon, to be given freely ; 
and good meadow hay in small quantity, say six lbs., in the course of 
twenty-four hours, is all that is beneficial, until the febrile sjmptoms 
abate, and the horse's appetite augments. 

If the horse is able to stand, he will in some instances be placed 
more at ease, and altogether the better for the affected feet being 
properly shod ; the good effect arises through obviating the contact 
of the prominent or more or less flattened sole pressing on an uneven 
floor, since the planta region of the foot in the ease is engorged 
with blood, and the vascular structures compressed between the sole 
of the hoof and the pedal bone are of twice or thrice their normal 
thickness; with deposited lymph in some cases contiguous to the hoof, 
so that direct pressure of the planta region on the ground cannot be 
borne, and it is to obviate this that horses instinctively endeavour 
to bear wholly on the yielding structures of their feet — in other words, 
their heels, while the front of the foot is raised in the air ; and thereby 
flexion of the limbs, so accurately described by Lafosse, is as much 
as possible avoided. Our object should be to afford the means of 
free circulation of the blood, which is a chief want in these flattened- 
down feet, and one of the phenomena giving rise to the acute stage of 
the disease ; therefore, by setting ^he outer aspect of the sole free 
from pressure, and making an artificial space between shoe and sole, 
a substitute for the natural arch of the pedal bone and sole is given. 
In adapting the shoe, the aim should be to bring it to bear on both 
the posterior extremities of the wall equally, ample cover and propor- 
tionate substance of iron is required, and no direct pressure must be 



ON KAVICULAE DISEASE AKD FOUNDEE. 199 

sought to be imposed on to the frog, as is often inadvertently done ; 
and only knowledge of a very different kind to such as has prevailed 
on the physiology of the foot can teach the reason why bad shoes and 
modes of forcing pressure on the frog are insupportable. So far 
placed in a favourable condition, or in the less unfavourable cases, 
where the foot is placed at ease by being set free from the shoes 
that caused pain, and allowed to stand barefooted, the fomentation 
being discontinued, and the hoofs being kept free from moisture, the 
horse being kept on firm flat surface, with a thin covering of litter, 
soothed locally, and nicely managed hygienically, the condition of 
the feet will change rapidly ; and since perhaps nine-tenths of my 
readers will, in accordance with their apprentice-imbued notions, con- 
ceive no other way of getting rid of the 4accumulation of blood and 
lymph in the foot but by plunging in an instrument and abstracting 
it largely, I will tell them what takes place, and how, after all exciting 
causes whatsoever have been removed, relief to the horse is attained 
within the first six hours of treatment, which goes on progressively 
in increased ratio once the tension is relieved. Once secure the free 
circulation of the blood, which was obstructed by physical causes, and 
tension diminishes, and thereby a new cause, which had been brought 
on, is being removed. Grant that, we have lesions left, and alteration 
of structures to be restored, but which nature's provisions at once set 
about to accomplish ; and as. the veins and lymphatics carry into the 
general circulation the local accumulation, the arterial system brings 
new material of life to fill up the breaches. Therefore we have only 
to think about our part, remove causes, and nature will do hers, and 
the disturbed balance find its equilibrium. Having advised in ac- 
cordance with the practice I follow, shoeing for the feet which are 
unable to bare pressure on the sole, and for the less urgent cases 
which can bear it, and will improve by the healthy stimulus, there 
is a third class, where the horse is so bad that he cannot stand to be 
shod. To such I give a nice level bed of used litter, into which the 
feet press during the short interval of standing, and on which the 
horse will repose and stretch himself during the greater time ; while 
in that case also relief will come, under the general treatment pre- 
scribed, when the case will become one of those noticed already, to 
be shod or not at a given time, according to the state of the feet. 

Remarks, — I am not so indiscreet as to expect that my self-imposed 
work, of devoting my best efforts to the conservation and restoration of 
horses' feet during the greater part of the day, of prosecuting anatomi- 
cal and pathological researches at other times, with endeavours to teach 
what I know and daily learn, will have much weight with readers. Nor 
will they think that the work continued by the midnight light is worth 
any consideratiOli, all of which I freely admit. I am only, and but 
poorly doing my duty, for which I lay one claim — that of being 
allowed to record my views without curtailment. 

I have Been trying for many fast fleeting years, to discover from 
what source or direction, new, better, and more extended knowledge 
Vol. I.— No. IV.— New Sebies. Apbil 1866. P 



200 ON NAVICULAE DISEASE AND FOUNDER. 

and discipline could be drawn into the veterinary profession ; and the 
most recent inauguration which I hailed with pleasure and hope, was 
that of veterinary associations ; and while I still hope, I take warn- 
ing that we must not expect the good to come in the lump. None 
the worse in the long run ; the bringing of men together, and afford- 
ing the opportunity for free exchange of ideas, is' a most important 
step, worthy of my friends, among the first who took it. Associations 
always set forth the true character 6f the body they represent, the 
greater of all of them embodying the wisdom of the nation ; the rest 
that of sections of the community. Veterinary associations take their 
place amongst the bulk, and will in due time show the cl\^racter of 
our common body, which it is their object to ameliorate. 

Whilst some members of these associations enlighten by their 
suggestions, others perform, as perhaps at this crisis, an equally use- 
ful task, that of showing and proclaiming the nakedness of the 
land. Of such have been pre-eminently the discussions introduced 
and sustained on the subjects which I have, however inadequately, 
endeavoured to treat on, in this paper. I don't think that barbarism 
was ever set forth more plainly, than it is depicted by some of those 
who presume to possess a knowledge of the way to preserve sound, 
or how to cure lame horses. The last new doctrine that I have seen 
lauded forth, is that of casting and tying down horses with inflamed 
feet. I knew of the irrational practice sometimes adopted of hanging 
horses up by slings, when in that condition, by which irrational pro- 
ceeding, through the gravitation of the blood, and the impossibility 
of corresponding facility in its return, the state of the animal was made 
hopeless. 

Veterinary associations and periodical literature will, I believe, lead 
to changes toward a better system of knowledge, and application of 
it, than has yet been established in veterinary practice among us. 
Free intercourse, facility of giving widely-diffused effect to facts and 
ideas, will show in time the true state of matters. The prerogative 
of speech, and permanently giving effect to thought and knowledge, 
vouchsafed to men alone, was not given to be misused. Amongst the 
aggregate of associations the whole comes out, and the absurd is 
quite as much wanted as the more rational and positively true. 

Amongst the members of the veterinary profession in this country, 
few have spoken openly, still fewer have written ; but it is by those 
who speak and write that the whole body is estimate^, and, I believe, 
rightly so. If only five give effect to their views, and five hundred 
remain passive and silent, the latter must be held as agreeing with 
their self-constituted deputies. And on questions deeply affecting 
the credit of the veterinary profession, — affecting its status, and th« 
services it could render,^ — I say, in the words of Garibaldi, " Those who 
are not with us must be looked on as against us." 



THS OX : HIB DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT. 201 



REVIEW. 

The Ox : his Diseases and their Treatment, with an Essay on Par- 
turition in the Cow, By J. R. Dobson, Member of the Boyal 
College of Veterinary Surgeons. With numerous Illustrations. 
London : Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green, 1864. 

Veterinary surgeons in this country have shunned the writing of 
books. Some have written nothing who might have published much 
to the benefit of their profession. Others, on the other hand, have 
made attempts ; and whether judged on their scientific or practical 
merits, as a nde we can only record instances of ludicrous failure. 
Mr Dobson has published a treatise to supply what he calls a de- 
ficiency, viz., " A complete treatise upon the Diseases of the Ox,*' no 
such work having "been attempted" "since the elaborate work of 
the late Mr Youatt" Poor Youatt ! It is a quarter of a century since 
he laboured to create out of chaos a connected history of the breeds 
and diseases of cattle. His work contains, of course, much that we 
now condemn. There are errors in it of no small magnitude ; but be it 
remembered, it was the first work in any tongue embodying so vast 
an amount of knowledge on the ox and its diseases. It has been 
translated and extensively quoted in various countries, and is now 
worthy of being re-edited by some one who can bring to bear on the 
work some of the zeal and industry of its original author. 

Mr Dobson has not done for us what Youatt did. What induced 
him to write is to us a mystery. We are too charitable to believe 
that he had the presumption to fancy he could supersede our old 
text-book on cattle. Perhaps he wrote, because, as he tells us in his 
preface, he has had " nearly fifteen years' experience in country 
practice." Had he not told us this, we should have supposed he had 
not been engaged beyond fifteen months in the study, practical and 
theoretical, of his profession. London publishers bring out neat books ; 
they are determined to have something to look worth buying; and too 
often they trouble themselves less about the real abilities of authors 
than about the important question of aptitude for book manufacturing. 
There is something good in Mr Dobson's work, but that which is good 
is not Mr Dobson's. There are some good illustrations, which the 
Messrs Longman had ready access to, and in every other particular 
the publishers have done their part of the work well We cannot say 
as much for the author. 

Without a word of introduction, the first part of the treatise be- 
fore us refers to the organs of respiration and their diseases. Thirty- 
three small and broadly printed pages exhaust this part ; and as a 
specimen of the whole, we may refer to a description of the 
larynx, which is said to be " an irregri^Zariy-shaped, cartilaginous box 
situated at the upper extremity of the windpipe, and composed of 
rings of cartilage, slightly overlapping each other, and connected to- 



202 THE ox : HIS DISEASES AND THEIR TEEATMENT. 

gether by tovgh fibrous tissue/' This is a fair specimen of the ana- 
tomical descriptions in the work, and the pathological details are no 
less extraordinary. We are told, for example, that " when the larynx 
is affected by inflammation, it is known " (we presume the larynx is 
known) " as laryngitis. This, however^ is so exceedingly rare as a dis- 
tinct affection, and the symptoms and treatment so closely resemble 
bronchitis, as to render a separate description unnecessary."' 

Perhaps our readers may imagine Mr Dobson has given ample in- 
formation under the head Bronchitis. All he says about the symp- 
toms and diagnosis of this disease is as follows : — 

" The symptoms of bronchitis are, quickened respiration, attended 
with a wheezing sound — in more advanced cases increasing to a grunt, 
accelerated pulse, and the general febrile symptoms noticed under 
Catarrh. There is also cough, frequent, and attended with an effort. 
The discharge from the nose, at first limpid and clear, as the disease 
advances becomes thicl^, and in the latter stages mixed with pus or 
matter ; but so prone is this disease to run on to inflammation of the 
lungs and pleuro-pneumonia, that, as before remarked, it is seldom 
seen in its pure state. As, however, the treatment of this affection 
and inflammation of the lungs are veiy similar, its diagnosis, as a 
distinct disease, is not important." 

Such is the information furnished by a man of fifteen years' ex- 
perience. There is not a word on that important disease, croup in 
calves ; and under the head Hoose, we are told that the worms in the 
windpipe receive the name of "Filariae bronchiales," whereas the 
worm which infests the calf's respijatory apparatus is " Strongylus 
micrurus." 

We have marked many passages of a similar character to those 
quoted, but we fear that our readers' patience would be exhausted if 
we were to reproduce them. We may be permitted to add, that if Mr 
Dobson's practical experience does not seem to have been great, his 
learning is of the most meagre kind. The heaps, of facts which he 
could have gleaned from the veterinary and agricultural periodicals of 
the last twenty or thirty years have been sadly neglected, and Mr 
Dobson has not carried us a single step beyond Youatt's days. 

In conclusion, we may say that we have no doubt the Messrs Long- 
man, as good publishers, will sell " Dobson on the Ox," widely and 
to their profit. We regret that its purchasers will get so little value 
for their money ; and as it is intended for the farmer and stock- 
keeper, it may cost its readers much from- the crude and vague 
character of the information it conveys. 



%\t f etennarj Jltlmfe anir Biathbmx& |ottrnal 



THE EOYAL STUD. 



In the opening number of the Sporting Times, we find the follow- 
ing critical report given of the Hampton Court stud, after inspection, 
which we transcribe, because it is in our own way, and belonging to 
a question which we raised long ago. The editor says — 

" We walked through the whole of the paddocks; inspected all the 
mares and foals; examined the hovels and boxes ; criticised the mode 
of drainage, and decidedly objected to the water. The glandular 
swellings about the neck of the yearlings when brought to the ham- 
mer have long been a reproach to the management at head-quarters. 
Considering the prices realised for the young stock, and the enormous 
profit which is annually made thereby, it would not be too much to 
expect, that if the spring-water under the paddocks is so unfit for 
blood stock, that a supply from some purer source ought to be brought 
by conduits to the paddocks, and the present pumps demolished 
altogether. • The expense of bringing water from the Thames by 
means of pipes^could not be very large, and the outlay would soon be 
repaid by an improved state of health of the young stock. * Derby- 
shire neck' is always unsightly, and the unsightly appearance is not 
the only evil ; the cause of the cervical swelling must operate on other 
parts, and to a certain extent damage the nutritive powers." 

Although we do not participate in the editor's antipathy to Black- 
lock and his descendants, admitting, notwithstanding such failure at 
the stud as that of Charles XII., (and the best of horses having occa- 
sionally left such a blank,) it is not on little difierences of opinion 
that we are going to dwell, but on such a question as the above, 
which the editor has re-introduced, and which merits, we believe, 
public, no less than professional attention. 

On the 4th of June 1864, a letter from Mr Joseph Gamgee ap- 
peared in the Sporting Gazette, which was reproduced in the Veteri- 
nary Review, in which the case of the filly Saragosa, whose pastern 
bone was reported to have been fractured when running for the 



204 THE ROYAL STUD. 

Oaks, was discussed ; and we here reproduce that part of the letter 
bearing on the question, introduced for the second time by the 
spirited writer above quoted : — 

" There is one source of information bearing on the subject, which 
lies TOthin the reach of the public ; it is that which the Hampton 
Court paddocks will supply. I would suggest that, in the interest of 
science, a report be made of the number of foals and yearlings 
which have fractured a leg whilst in those paddocks, making the in- 
quiry extend over the last ten or fifteen years. If 1 am not greatly 
mistaken, we shall find a significant percentage of those accidents in 
all the stock that have been bred there, and that few years have 
passed without a recurrence, and those quite apart from any exposure 
to violence. We also find that the Hampton Court stock are subject 
to an enlarged state of the glands of the neck^ so much so that it has 
been named the Hampton Court deformity ; it generally subsides 
after the stock has been placed in good training stables for some 
months. This glandular affection seems to me inseparable from some 
abnormal state of the constitution, and especially as connected with 
the condition of the bones. When facts have been made out, and 
the number of fractures that happen to the stock before they are put 
into training ascertained, a scientific investigation should be set on 
foot ; this should, I suggest, be conducted simultaneously by chemists 
specially versed in two branches of that science — viz., by the agri- 
cultural chemist, who would examine the soil, its produce, and also 
the waters, and by the animal and pathological chemist, who should 
examine the secretions, &c. Then comes the question of topography 
and space, concerning which my own researches are available for 
reference. If these inquiries were to lead to our ascertaining the 
causes, the nation would be enriched thereby, infinitely more than by 
the amount of cash which the Royal treasury would receive by any 
number of annual sales of young stock produced there. 

** Without presuming to be well informed as to the average perform- 
ance of the produce of the Eoyal paddocks, I can but think that we 
shall find the best of them — mostly two and three year old performers 
— smart horses, but few of them run on. I think that if we note 
all the stock from Moses's year to the present time, we should not 
discover the like of Stockwell, Eataplan, Fisherman, Saunterer, Caller 
Ou, and the little dwarf Borealis. And yet no one can deny that 
some of the best mares in England have always been at the paddocks, 
and that a most judicious selection from the best stallions in the 
kingdom has always been made, irrespective of those kept on the 
spot from time to time.*' 

Ten years ago our attention was first drawn to the glandular swell- 
ings, exhibited in the necks of almost all the yearlings of the Hampton 
Court stud. To our inquiry into the general merits of the horses which 



THE EOYAL STTJD. 205 

had come from the Royal stud in former seasons, and which had 
shown similar affection, only vague replies were elicited, such as, 
** they soon outgrow it when they get into training." 

Obvious signs served to advise caution and delay in forming 
independent judgment, after facts had been made out sufficiently. 
We attended the annual sale, and saw the highest prices given we 
had ever heard bid for yearlings — proof of the esteem in which the 
stud was held by the aristocracy of the tur£ 

In 1856, we particularly noticed the yearlings belonging to Her 
Majesty, and also to Mr Greville, and were never more surprised at 
a sale of horses than to see a dark bay or brown colt, with nothing 
about him very attractive to us, but, on the contrary, exhibiting large 
goitre, with which we should hardly have taken him at any price. 
A high bid was made, succeeded by others, and the price of the 
colt went up rapidly, not by 10s. but by 50 guineas at a bid, until 
he was knocked down for 900 guineas, or something over. 

With such a sight before our eyes,, and other cases very much the 
same, it remained questionable whether those who bought for racing 
purposes, to add other heavy sums for engagements, were right, and 
whether our estimation of the importance of the subject was exag- 
gerated, or the reverse. 

The colt was called, after purchase. Greenfinch, and while biding 
our time for the report of his after-progress, we happened to be in 
Tattersall's yard on another and later day, when up came Goldfinch, 
the full brother to Greenfinch of the previous year, and which colt 
had also fetched an extraordinary high price, and had been heavily 
engaged. On the second appearance at the hammer, however. Gold- 
finch fetched 35 guineas, and of Greenfinch we never heard anything 
more; therefore, we held to the opinion already arrived at, after 
careful consideration, that goitre in foals is to be looked on as a sign 
of some constitutional anomaly, the true character of which has not 
yet been fully ascertained or investigated. 



206 THE BREEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF PIGS. 

PEEISCOPE. 



THE BREEDING AND MANAGEMENT OP PIGS. 

{From the Farmers* Club Journal.) 

Thi monthly meeting of the Farmers' Club took place on Monday evening, March 6, 
at the temporary Club-rooms, Robert Street, Adelphi, London. The subject was " The 
Breeding and Management of Pigs," introduced by Mr S. G. Steam, of Brandeston, 
Wickham Market. On the table there was an excellent model of Mr Steam's own 
piggery, which attracted great interest ; and plans on paper were also distributed. 

The Chaibman, Mr Robert Leeds, said the subject for consideration that eyening 
was a very practical one, and would be introduced by a practical man. Mr Steam 
was as well-known in connection with the local and national shows for his breed of 
pigs as Mr Booth had become for his Shorthorns or Mr Webb for his Downs. A 
few years ago the breeder who had achieved great success was anxious to keep his 
system of breeding secret ; but those times had passed by, and farmers now met to- 
gether, like other people, to talk over business matters for mutual information and 
advantage. (Hear, hear.) Mr Stearn was about to tell them, as he understood, not 
80 much what he had done — that they knew already — ^as how he had done it, how he 
had raised these wonderfully precocious pigs to such a state of perfection^ and had 
made them pay, not only in the show-yard, but also on the farm. 

Mr Stearn said — Mr Chairman and gentlemen, in bringing forward the subject for 
discussion this evening, as it stands upon the card, viz., '* The Breeding and Manage- 
ment of Pigs," I will explain, as far as I can, the importance of this much neglected 
and almost despised subject. I consider it one of more importance than almost any 
other subject to the public at large, as all classes, from royalty to the peasant, are in- 
terested in it. There certainly has been a great improvement in the last few years in 
Bwine, owing, I have no doubt, in a great measure to the agricultural shows having given 
to breeders a chance of seeing what a pig ought to be. Still there is not so 
much encouragement given at the shows to the pig class as there is to all other classes. 
For instance, Newcastle and Lynn gave away in local prizes last summer several hun- 
dred pounds to horses, cattle, and sheep, but entirely omitted the pigs ; from what 
cause I never could make out, unless it was that they thought a pig beneath their notice. 
The pig is an animal of great importance in an economical point of view, if we take 
into consideration with what extraordinary quickness the supply can be replenished ; 
for the fecundity of the sow is astonishing, and the early maturity of her progeny is 
almost unexampled in animal creation. The inhabitants of most countries are great 
consumers of the flesh of the pig ; and no other animal produces such a variety of 
dishes. I consider that pork must be the most profitable article to the butcher as 
well as to the farmer, the offal being so small compared with either cattle or sheep. 
In fact, there is scarcely any part of the pig but what can be used for food ; and the 
flesh, in the form of fresh or pickled pork, hams, bacon, sausages, pork-pies, and in- 
numerable other dishes, constitutes the principal food of thousands all over the world. 
It is my firm belief that the keeping of swine is fast becoming something more than 
a mere means of disposing of the refuse of the farm, which would otherwise be wasted. 
Formerly large breeders and graziers thought the pig beneath their notice ; but I find 
the thing is changing ; still I must say I am often disgusted as well as surprised to 
see what a disgraceful lot of pigs are kept by many of our large agriculturists as well 
as by the small ones, such as I am sure if kept to any great extent will ruin any one,- 
for they eat an enormous quantity of food, and will neither grow nor fatten upon it ,* 
but if farmers generally would pay proper attention to breeding, rearing, and feeding, 
I believe there could be double the meat raised at little more than the present cost, 
and especially if they had suitable piggeries, made use of propei' feeding-troughs, and 
selected a good herdsman. I have studied the management of pigs for the last thirty 
years, and have found that the better the attention the greater the profit; and if a 
pereon wishes to make a pig pay, the pig must be kept well when young, and not 
allowed to run twelve months in almost a starving condition. The first thing which 
I introduce must be the piggeries ; for any one commencing the breeding of pigs must 
provide a place to keep them in. I must say I scarcely ever see one that I consider 
fit to put a pig into. Some are badly ventilated, others low and damp, nine-tenths 
of them too small, some too cold^ others too much confined, and having no means of 



THE BREEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF PIGS. 207 

altering them between summer tnd winter ; and a great many of them have the cis- 
tems inside them, to receive the wash, &c^ from the hoose, which is Tery bad indeed ; 
for tiie constant stench from it injures the health of the animals, and I am sure is most 
unpleasant to those who have to attend them. But the worst of all sties are those 
wiUi wooden floors laid over a pit Some 1 obserFC a foot deep, which, of course, 
must get filled up with unwholesome rubbish. I have said that I am surprised at the 
pigs kept bj many persons ; but if I think again I do not know that I ought to won- 
der so very much, when I take into consideration the general construction of the 
places where the pigs are kept. If there is one comer on the premises worse than 
anoUier, that is where the pig-sty is placed, and people almost require marsh-boots to 
get to it There is no question but what it would be a great boon to the tenant 
&rmer if landlords would take more interest in providing better buildings for the 
pigs. It is not the most expensive place that is the best ; I consider it decidedly 
otherwise. But what is required is a simple, economical, well-situated, and well- 
planned piggeifT. Some build expensive brick or stone buildings, which I have proved 
are not so healthy as bmldings of another kind. I find a boarded building by far the 
. best ; if tiled or slated it should be reeded and plastered underneath, so as to prevent 
the extremes of heat and cold, having a ventilator on the top made to open and shut, 
half -doors and falls both back and front, like a model of one of my buildings which I 
have with me this evening, and which, gentlemen, I will exhibit to you at the close of 
my paper. The farrowing pen ought to be large, to allow the sow plenty of room, and 
likewise to admit of rails being placed round the sides, and so fixed as to prevent the 
sow lying on the young ones. These rails should be made to shift according to the size 
of the sow, in height from eight to twelve inches, and extend out from the wall about nine 
inches, having the supports carried up sloping from the rail to the wall, instead of 
straight from the floor, like an inverted bracket. I will introduce a model of these rails 
presently. When the sow lies down there will be no likelihood of her crushing the 
pigs ags^nst the side, as there is plenty of space left for them to pass between her and 
the w^ ; for that is generally where the mischief is done, as sows invariably like to 
lean against something when they lie down, especially when they are kept bare of 
litter, aa I like to have them. Since using these farrowing rails, I have had hundreds 
of pigs without losing one from being crushed ; whilst if we take an average of the 
country, nearly half the pigs are lost from that cause. I have heard a great many people 
lately complain of losing many pigs from the mother lying on them ; but if they wiU fol- 
low my plan they will find it a great protection. £xu:h pen ought to be at least from eight 
to twelve feet square, and the best floor I find is asphalt. No damp or scent can rise 
from that. I have tried boards, bricks, and almost everything in the way of floors. 
Many people will contend that boards must be best ; but, gentlemen, I think I can 
convince you to the contrary. If you will consider for only one minute, you will see 
that they cannot be healthy ; for if the boards are placed close, you will find the mois- 
ture stands, and the floor becomes quite saturated, and if a space is left the refuse 
litter* will go between, so that it will become one mass of putrid matter underneath, 
quite level with the floor, whatever the depth may be ; and this is likely to bring on 
all kinds of disease. In the cold weather I think the asphalt too cold for very young 
pigs, therefore I have false lattice floors to lay down on the asphalt, which are Uiken up 
once a we^, and everything is swept from underneath. Every morning I have the beds 
attended to and fresh littered, for I find the cleaner a place is kept the better the pigs 
thrive. The floors are washed down generally once a week ; everything runs ofij and the 
asphalt soon dries. There is another great advantage, namely, that it certainly does not 
take more than two-thirds of the straw which is required for any other floor ; for the 
moisture appears to run under the litter without wetting it so much, as the asphalt is 
laid a little on the slope. What litter is taken from the pens inside serves for the 
pounds outside, which ought to be paved in some way to prevent the pigs from root- 
ing. A tank should be made just outside to receive the drainage from the pounds; 
the building to be troughed to take off the rain-water, so as to prevent the manure 
being washed. By following this plan, the manure is made very regularly and good. 
I find this piggery most comfortable and convenient in the summer for getting pigs 
up for the shows. For on the hottest day it is always made cool and sweet inside by 
closing the top doors, opening the lower, and partly shutting down the falls on the 
south side, whilst on the north side everything is set open. Lattice slips are put to 
all tiie lower doors, to prevent the pigs getting out At the time when the pigs were 
perfectly cool in this model piggery, the herdsman was obliged to go round several 
times in the day to all the other places with a watering-pot, to pour water over the 
pigs to keep them alive. Now, gentlemen, I think I have said enough about the con- 



208 THE BREEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF PIGS. 

gtraction of piggeries. In selecting pigs for breeding great attention should be given 
to choosing a good breed, sach as will come to early maturity ; for that is where I 
find the profit is gained, and the better the quality of the breed the less food is re- 
quired to bring them to that maturity. The contrast between the coarse and the many 
beautiful specimens of our improved breeds is very manifest, and affords good proof 
of what may be achieved by the skill and care of the breeder. To give an extended 
outline or description of the original species, or of the various breeds and innumerable 
crosses and varieties of pigs, would occupy too much time — ^therefore, I shall just de- 
scribe our Suffolk pigs. From the many prizes awarded to them from the various 
agricultural shows all over the kingdom, and my own experience, I consider no other 
breeds so well adapted to most localities as the improved white and black Suffolks. 
The improvement took place not before it was needed, for a worse animal could not 
be found than the old Suffolk pig, with its long thin snout, large lapears, arched back, 
long legs, thin body, coarse bristly hair, thick, long, straight tail ; in fact, with every- 
thing to make it a disgusting-looking brute. When I read a paper on swine a few 
years since, as many persons no doubt will remember, I said I did not like black 
pigs so well as white ; but by judicious crossing they have become so nearly equal to 
the white that I now have scarcely a preference. They are similar in form and sym- 
metry, and will either of them come to early maturity, and fatten to a great weight 
with a small quantity of food in proportion to that weight. In choosing the boar and 
the sow of the Suffolk breed, the chief points are : a rather small head, with wide 
heavy chaps ; short snout ; broad deep chest ; ears rather small and thin, with the 
ends sharp and pendulous, pointing a little forward ; roundness of rib ; shortness of 
the legs ; small feet ; long body ; the thigh well dropp^ close to the hock ; shoulders 
and hams thick ; the neck rising well behind the ears ; small bones in proportion to 
the flesh ; broad and straight or slightly rising back ; tail smdll and curled, and placed 
high ; hair thin, long, fine and silky. Strict attention to these points in selection can- 
not fail of perpetuating good stock. As much or more attention ought to be given to the 
boar as to the sow; for I find the progeny generally resembles the boar more than the sow. 
I prefer the sows for breeding to be rather larger than the boar, and good-sized animals, 
since they are more likely to have a larger number of pigs. And great care should 
be taken not to save one with less than ten or twelve paps. I consider twelve good 
even pigs to be sufficient in a general way for a sow to bring up. I do not recom- 
mend breeding very young. Generally speaking, there is not sufficient care taken on 
this point. Breeding too young is a means of preventing the sows growing to the 
proper size, or acquiring sufficient strength. The proper time for the sow to begin 
ta breed is from ten to twelve months old, the boar being from eight to twelve months 
old. I think it well to cross as far distant as possible occasionally, so as to strengthen 
the constitution. Some think this of no consequence, and breed in-and-in many 
years following. Some time back I purchased a sow from a gentleman who had 
made a practice of this for more than twenty years. Th^ first farrow she produced 
with me came out full of ulcers ; the legs of most of them were crooked with large 
spavins ; in fact, they could scarcely be called pigs at all, and I was obliged to have 
them all killed when they were a few weeks old. But when wishing to make a cross, 
my plan is to buy a sow of different blood, and then fall back again to my original stock ; 
by which means I retain the same character, without injuring the breed. I find that 
by this method I can breed them almost exactly as I desire. So far as my experience 
goes, the time of gestation averages about 113 days, or sixteen weeks and one day. But 
old sows go rather longer than young ones. When a sow is in pig she should have 
full liberty to roam about and feed on grass in the summer, whilst in tiie winter she 
should have roots of various kinds and about a pint of beans per day. A short time 
before farrowing she ought to be put into a convenient pen or sty, and fed on simple 
food. As the time approaches she should be carefully watched, and allowed only a 
sm^l quantity of dry short straw ; otherwise, on farrowing, if the straw is too long, 
the pigs are very likely to be smothered. The proper plan is, at the time of farrow- 
ing, to have a man with the sow to attend to her ; for I think it is not wise to lose 
half, or perhaps the whole, of the pigs for the want of a. little attention at the most 
particular time, especially after having had the expense of keeping the sow so long 
previously. At the time of farrowing fallow a very small quantity of litter cut short, 
and have a hamper placed in the pen, with a little straw at the bottom, and Uned 
with an old blanket. I put a slip or partition about two and a half feet high across 
the pen, to prevent the sow from getting to the hamper. As the pigs come forth, I 

rut them into it, and cover them up, until the sow has done farrowing, after which 
put them to her and let them suck. When finished I put them back into the 



THE BBKEDINQ AND MANAGEMENT OF PIGS. 209 

hamper, giye the sow a little warm milk and bran, and whilst she is eating this have 
the bed attended to, by removing all the wet straw, &c I add a little fresh straw 
cat shorty and then, when the sow lies down, let the pigs go to her again. I always 

five the herdsman mzpence per head for all the pigs he can bring up to a month old. 
find thiB much the cheapest plan, for then there is no fear but that he will see to 
them property, and attend to them in the first instance as well in the night as the day. 
How often do we hear people complain of the sow eating her own young ? Therefore 
itepa ought to be taken to prevent her from doing so ; for, when once a sow does that, 
she is of very little nse for breeding purposes. If you will allow mc, I will explain what 
I have f onnd to be the caose. In some litters the side-teeth are much longer and sharper 
than in others ; when this is the case, and the pigs begin to suck, they bite and scratch 
the papBy ponishing and irritating the sow to such a degree, that it brings on inflam- 
mation, and the sow becomes mad with rage. She throws some one way and some 
anoUier; at last she bites tiiem, and, if she once draws blood, she will begin to eat 
them. NTow, my plan for preventing this is as follows : — When the pigs are a few 
hours old I have them taken away in the hamper, so that the sow cannot hear them, 
and nip those teeth off with a pair of pincers. As soon as this is done, and the pigs 
put back, the sow is as kind to them as possible, and perfectly docile. Since having 
my model piggeiy, I prefer breeding in the winter, rather than in the summer; for 
the proper temperature of the building can be kept up quite sufficiently in the coldest 
wea&er, and after the pigs have been taken proper care of the first day or night, the 
cold does not appear to affect them so much as the heat. If pigs are farrowed in 
January and February, and kept with the sow eight or nine weeks before being weaned, 
they will grow and thrive in the spring and summer, so that they are fit for either 
breeding, feeding, bullock yards, or any thing you may require them for in the au- 
tumn, and thus you can have another litter of pigs in August instead of October. 
When farrowed too late in the autumn, young pigs will not thrive through the severe 
weather in winter; and especially if the usual plan is resorted to, of turning them into 
open sheds or cold piggeries, you see them worth very little more for their two or 
three months* keep ; but by pursuing the plan I have recommended, you clear the 
worst time by having the pigs kept with the sow. The general opinion is, not to 
breed, so that the pigs come at the time of year I have stated, viz., January and Feb- 
ruary, because people care to give so little attention to the sow at the time of farrow- 
ing. She is put into a cold damp sty, with scarcely room to turn round in, and a 
great deal of straw. When she begins to make her bed, strict orders are given to the 
man or boy not to go near her for several hours, for fear of disturbing her ; but when 
he does go to the place, he finds that some of the pigs have crept away from the 
mother, and perished with the cold, and some are crushed against the wall for want 
of rails to protect them. Some sows, especially young ones, will not allow their pigs 
to ai^roach them ; others will eat the pigs in consequence of their paps being so bit- 
ten and punished by the teeth. Through all this mismanagement many gentlemen 
have declined breeding pigs altogether. I find eight weeks old is a good time for 
weaning pigs in the summer, and nine weeks in the winter. And I like to have those 
which are not saved for stoc^ operated upon a short time previously. The boars I 
keep for stock are confined in a shed with a roomy yard, under lock and key ; for if 
they are allowed to roam, we are likely to get wrong in the breed. I allow them 
plenty of water, and about a pint and a-half of beans each per day, and any other food 
which is most convenient, 'such as vetches or mangel-wurzel: I always keep some 
of the latter all the year on purpose. I will now explain my method of feeding. 
Many people think I have said too much already upon that subject for my own inte- 
rest; but never mind, I have no secfet. When the pigs are about three days old, and 
whitet the sow is feeding, I give them some new milk, warm from the cow, sweetened 
with a little sugar, just to induce them to eat. The milk is put into a flat wooden 
trough, with the sides about three-quarters of an inch high, placed in the bed where 
the pigs lie. After running into it once or twice, they will drink it, and are no more 
trouble. In three or four days I mix half skim milk with the new, and likewise 
some oatmeal and a little fine sharps ; by degrees I omit the new milk and sugar, and 
in their stead add some whole Indian corn or barley. The sow, as I have steted be- 
fore, after farrowing, should be fed for a few days on mild food, such as bran mixed 
with warm milk. After two or three days add a little barley or bean meal, and in- 
crease tiie quantity of these as the pigs keep growing. For a few weeks after the pigs 
are taken off the sow, they cannot be fed too well or too frequently; but care must 
be taken not to give them too much food at a time, and to make them clear their 
troughs ont^ for they will eat the food much better when it is fredi. I give them a 



210 THE BBEEDING AKD MANAGEMEI^T OF PIGS. 

yariety of meal, such as wheat, maize, barley, oat, and whatever is most convenient 
to mix together. I have it all wetted with cold water, and then scald it with boiling 
water, and sprinkle it with salt. The cooking house is fitted up with a copper and 
cisterns, and the food is mixed one under the other. What is mixed one day is used 
the next, thus giving sufficient time to allow the food slightly to ferment, and cool 
sufficiently to feed with. This is my winter plan, but in the summer I mix all with 
cold water, and feed with cold food. Between meals I give them whole maize, and 
mangel-wurzel or swedes cut small, a little coal and soil occasionally, and allow 
them plenty of clean water. When pigs are put up fatting, I find nothing better to 
feed them with than barley and maize meal, mixed together into slops, water always 
kept by them, and a little mangel cut for them occasionally. It is very beneficial 
to wash and brush them as often as convenient. This is quickly done by experienced 
hands, and will amply repay for the trouble. If you will try the experiment between 
this and the common mode of treatment, you will be surprised at the difference. I am 
certain that the cottagers would find their pigs fatten a great deal faster if they would 
wash and brush them, and feed them with warm food, instead of with food all ice, 
and that they would be well paid for any little extra trouble it might cause them. 
Store pigs ought to have their liberty, as far as convenient, to range in large^ards in 
winter^ and to have the run of a piece of pasture in the summer. They should also 
be fed two or three times a day. Good-bred and well-fed store pigs will always con- 
sume the refuse from the farm and dairy, which a bad-bred one would refuse. I have 
never known mine refuse anything in the way of pig-food yet that was offered them, 
not even the prize animals. I have received letters from a great many gentlemen at 
different times, requesting me, if I could, to inform them how to prevent little pigs' 
tails falling off. Now this is a thing I have given my attention to for a long time, 
but I am sorry to say up to the present I have not been able to solve the mystery. I 
have a^ed the opinion of a great many old pig-breeders, but no two thought alike. 
One would have it that it is only the winter pigs which lose their tails ; another says 
that it comes from the easterly winds ; another, from breeding too close ; another, 
from feeding. I have bred thousands of pigs, and tried a great many experiments. 
Once or twice I thought I had found out the riddle. But no ; what seemed to do 
good at one time took not the least effect the next I find that quite as many pigs 
lose their tails in the spring and summer as in the winter. I have bred as closely as 
anything could be bred, just for a trial, and not one tail has come off. Then, again, 
I_have bred as far distant as possible, and perhaps nearly half the pigs have lost their 
tails. Sometime last summer I had two sows, sisters of one litter, put into a place 
with only a low partition to divide them. They farrowed within an hour of one an- 
other. ' Several pigs of one sow lost their tails, whilst those of the other lost none. 
Both litters were bred precisely the same. In the coldest week last January five of 
my sows farrowed ; they averaged ten pigs each, and not one of them lost a tail. I 
have quite made up my mind it is neither breeding, feeding, hot weather, cold wea- 
ther, nor easterly wind which is the cause, nor does it signify whether the pigs are 
black or white ; therefore I must leave it to some one with a wiser head than I have 
to solve this mysterious affair. I will now introduce feeding-troughs. This is a subject 
which I consider has been but little studied, if we may judge from the badly-constructed 
troughs we see in use. Not being able to buy, or even see, a trough my short-legged 
heavy-&ced pigs could eat out of at all comfortably, I turned my attention to them, and 
designed some, which have been manufactured by Messrs Bansomes and Sims, 
Ipswich. They are of simple construction, easily adjusted so as to suit pigs of various 
sizes, and will prevent waste and soiling of food ; are a good width from back to 
front, and have no sharp edge left in the front, so that a pig with the heaviest chap 
can feed with the greatest ease and comfort, as well as those animals that can eat out 
of a quart mug. In fact, they are most economical in every respect. I have brought 
models with me ; but as the troughs have been out some little time, I think most 
likely many now present have seen them in use. I will offer nothing further, except 
my best thanks, gentlemen, for your kind attention. My statements are plain, and 
I hope intelligible. If they appear too plain for my present audience, they I trust 
will be good enough to accept an apology on the ground of my anxiety that every 
person, however unlettered, may be able to understand and apply them. 

Mr FiSHEB HoBBS (Boxted Lodge, Colchester) said, as an old pig-breeder, they 
perhaps expected him to make a few remarks. He had not, indeed, come prepared 
to make any, and should therefore merely refer to the points to which his friend Mr 
Stearn had alluded. In the first place, he would observe that Mr Stearn made a slight 
allasion to persons who having been exhibitors of pigs many years ago, did not come 



THE BBEEDINO AKD MANAGEMENT OF PIGS. 21 1 

before the public in that capacity now. PerhapB he intcndc<l to refer to him (Sir 
Fisher Hobbs) as having been an old pig-breeder, and as not being so successful as 
he was years back; those who knew his breed of pigs, and who had seen them of late 
years, would, he thought, admit that they were better now than they ever were before. 
His reason for withdrawing from exhibitions was well known to many. Thft reason 
was, that he had taken an active part in the Itoyal Agricultural Society as steward 
and as judge, and especially in the former capacity ; and it was hinted to him by 
some person that he had better give up that position or the position of an exhibitor. 
Of course, after a number of years every one got tired of exhibiting; but he still kept 
his breed of pigs, which was originally descended from three families. For upwards 
of five^md-twenty years he had never gone away from his own breed, either for a boar 
or a sow, and he contended that by judicious selection of both the male animal and 
the female the breed might be perpetuated in that way. Of course, this system re- 
quired a considerable number of animals, and a very choice selection of the male for 
the female. He concurred in most of the remarks that had fallen from Mr Steam, 
but wbuld have liked to see the paper turn more on the breeding of pigs. He was 
very glad that Mr Steam had come to what he considered a right conclusion on that 
subject, namely, that they should select their pigs according to the climate and the 
management to which they would be subjected. He knew that a few years ago his 
friend set forth to the world that all breeders of black pigs were in the wrong, and 
that there would soon be no pigs but white ones. Now, he (Mr Fisher Hobbs) con- 
tended that in a hot climate like the eastern counties of England, where pigs were 
daring the summer months turned out to grass and clover, black skins were favour- 
able to animals, as they did not attract the heat so much as white skins. Not long 
ago the black pig would have been hunted down in Suffolk, quite as much as a wolf 
would be at the present time ; but he was glad to find that in that county black pigs 
were now iJmost as common as white ones. He would appeal to Mr Steam whether 
that were not the case. 
Mr Stbabn. — No. 

MrFiSHEB Hobbs.— Well at all events, he had made a very considerable advance in the 
bust twenty years — (hear, hear) — and hence he thought agriculturists must have become 
aware that animals should be selected in accordance with such requirements as he had 
referred to. In the South of England also black pigs were almost universally selected, 
especially in Kent and Sussex, and they extended as far as Devonshire andCornwall. 
Mr Steam had laid down certain rules in regard to the selection of animals, and they 
were rales which must commend themselves to all breeders. As regards the com- 
plaint that the Royal Agricultural Society did not offer any special prizes for pigs, he 
would observe that when that question had come before the Council he had abstained 
from iaking part in the discussion, because he knew that the feeling of exhibitors 
was so strong that they might have supposed he was influenced by his own position ; 
but now that Mr Steam had introduced the subject, he must say that he thought that 
in most societies the pig had not hitherto occupied its fair position. As to early 
maturity^ small oflfal, and so on— those were points on which they were all agreed. 
He did not agree with Mr Steam that asphalt made the best floor for the pig or for 
any animal. It was exceedingly cold, and was so slippery that although plenty of 
litter might be placed upon it, it was very apt to slide away, and many injuries had 
taken place in consequence. Many years ago he was very partial to asphalt floors, 
both for pigs and for cattle ; but he had broken them all up. He believed that good 
hard concrete, made with one bushel of lime and six bushels of gravel, a few hard 
cinders, well pulverized, and perhaps a little chalk, would form the best kind of floor, 
and it was very inexpensive. He had had floors paved with hard white bricks, and 
in various other ways ; but he had found that concrete, when kept sufficiently clean, 
made as hard and good a floor as they could have. Certainly, when not well made 
such a floor was apt to get loose, and water softened it ; but when thoroughly made, 
it was as hard as a board, and no boar could put his nose into it— an evil which it 
was sometimes very difficult to obviate. With regard to the buildings recommended 
by Mr Steam, he (Mr Fisher Hobbs) considered them simple and economical, and 
when a man had to build a new piggery on a small scale, he could not perhaps lay 
out his money better than by erecting it in that form. There were, however, two 
points which it was very material to bear in mind : one was, that a piggery should 
never face the north ; the other was, that they should never use red bricks in build- 
ing it, as bricks of that kind absorbed moisture and interfered with the health of pigs. 
One great feature in the intemal arrangements of Mr Steam's piggery was the wooden 
rail, which prevented the sow from iiyuring her young. If there were nothing else 



212 THE BBEEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF PIGS. 

that entitled him to them, Mr Steam would deserve the thanks of pig breeders for 
exhibiting that excellent arrangement. As regarded parturition, there was one point 
mentioned by Mr Steam, which had certainly not been sufficiently attended to : he 
meant the proper amount of litter. He said that, in littering, brewers were very apt 
to give file animals too much straw, and that a good number of pigs were lost from 
that cause, a statement that he (Mr Fisher Hobbs) could fully confirm. With respect 
to the evil of sows eating a portion of their young, he must say that when a sow had 
become carnivorous, perhaps from having been in a butcher's yard, or eating portions 
of dead game or poultry thrown into the pig-yard, he did not see how the tlung was 
to be stopped. But the evil was too frequently brought on through the sows being 
in a feverish state, partly in consequence of irritation caused by the young pigs. He 
believed it was generally brought on by the milk's being inflamed, in consequence of the 
BOWS having eaten such fattening food as barley-meal beforehand, instead of milk-produc- 
ing food. He considered that that frequently conduced to make the animal camivorous 
as much as the irritation from the teeth of the young pigs. With regard to these 
black pigs being called Improved Suflfolks, he could never understand why the Suf- 
folk breeders claimed any priority in that respect. He had himself sent pigs into 
Devonshire, Oxfordshire, and other counties. He recollected sending^ a few years 
ago, a boar and a sow into Oxfordshire. In the first year the produce came out as a 
half -breed — improved Essex and Oxford ; in the next year as an improved Oxford — 
(laughter) — and so the change went on. Although they were the same animals in form 
and character, they lost the appellation of Improved Essex, and jumped into a new 
one. When he first bred pigs, he selected three animals which originally descended 
from Lord Western's. He had the Neapolitans, and with them he crossed the Old 
Eraex, which was formerly a black-and-white pig, very little better than the unim- 
proved breed which Mr Steam exhibited now ; but in course of time he got it all 
right. Having the privilege of sending his sows to Lord Western's boar, he used to 
send animals similar in colour to his lordship's own, but larger ; and Lord Western 
used to exclaim, " Why, whatever did Mr Hobbs send that brute here for ! " His 
object was to get a male animal which was erect in form, and at the same time a good 
female with plenty of room for young. From those three families he contrived to 
form one breed ; and for five-and-twenty years he had never used either a male or a 
female belonging to any one else. He did not mean to say that, if he did not sell 
one particular breed of animals, he would be right in keeping solely to that stock ; 
but there were many persons, both at home and abroad, who looked to him for a good 
boar. His friend Mr Steam had got hold of the Improved Essex, and called it an 
Improved Suffolk. Perhaps they wQuld some day have a little race together — (hear, 
hear) — and then it would be seen which breed was the best. At all events, he thought 
a long race of pure blood must be very beneficial, crossed with other breeds ; and his 
main reason for pursuing the course he had done was that he knew other persons 
liked to have a thorough-bred male animal. Mr Steam threw out a sort of challenge 
about pigs' tails. He had his own opinion on that subject, and he held that, on two 
out of the three points which he mentioned, Mr Steam was correct In the first 
place, he agreed with his friend that by high breeding pigs would lose their tails, if 
they were not properly attended to— that was to say, pigs were very subject to the in- 
fluence of weather, and many of them were lost through not being kept sufficiently 
warm. When pigs were high bred, coarse wheat-straw was often veiy prejudicial If 
straw was of very flinty character, it irritated the skin ; and the tail was, in conse- 
quence, more likely to break off. Some yeiars ago the late Lord Westem had a par* 
ticularly good boar which had lost its tail He asked his lordship why he was breed- 
ing from a pig without a tail. He only laughed at the question ; but in three years 
he had scarcely a pig throughout his herd with a tail, and that showed what was 
likely to follow where there was breeding in-and-in, by injudicious selection. But the 
question was, why pigs lost their tails ? He believed it was partly in consequence of 
the parts being so small that the blood could not freely circulate in cold weather. 
He recollected having formerly lost far more pigs' tails in winter than in summer, 
but he had latterly avoided that source of loss to a considerable extent. But he thought 
this evil was attributable, in a great measure, to breeding in-and-in too much, with- 
out a proper selection of the male animal. As regarded the troughs which Mr Steam 
recommended, he begged to say that he had used them himself for the last three years, 
and he considered them invaluable as regarded economy of food, and in every way. 
In conclusion, he would observe that he believed that pigs, if properly managed, 
would, quite independently of prizes, prove profitable animals, eating, as they did, 
the refuse of the farm,' and not requiring much expensive food. He knew that in 



THE BSEEDIKG AND MANAGEMENT OF PIGS. 2 J 3 

t 
Norfolk, and tome otiier conntieB, many of the best graziers hated the sight of a pig ; 
bat he thought that at the present time, with economical and well-arranged buildings 
and jodiciouB management, the quantity of pigs might in many cases be increased to 
a considerable extent with advantage. He knew that at the exhibitions abroad 
f<neigner8 had all the English improved breeds. Especially was that the case in 
France, and in that country pigs were now managed bo well, that if a challenge were 
riven by England to France for a show of pigs in 1867, he would rather back the 
French than the English, even with the English breeds. (Hear, hear.) Therefore, 
he would advise Mr Stearn, if he Intended to continue an exhibitor, to look about him, 
and keep up his iMreed. He would be happy to answer any questions which his friend 
might put to him, or to show him his pigs, and although he was not an exhibitor at 
present he might be enticed by a challenge to come out as an exhibitor again. (Cheers.) 

Mr L.. A. CoussMAKES (Westwood, Guildford) said — Mr Fisher Hobbs had made 
some remarks about the colour of pigs, to which he wished for a moment to allude. 
It was an old saying that there never was a good horse of a bad colour ; and perhaps 
that remark was applicable also to pigs. Mr Hobbs seemed to think that black pigs 
were better adapt^ f or the south of England than white ones. Now, unless Jie were 
mistaken, it had always been considered that black attracted the sun's rays more 
tlum white. (Hear, hear.) They painted their gates white to protect them from the 
sun; they wore white hats to protect their heads from the sun; and they painted 
their gurden walls black to attract the sun. He understood Mr Hobbs to say that 
bUck pigs were better adapted for the south than white ones. He should have 
thought that the reverse was the case, seeing that black attracted the rays of the sun, 
and retained heat much longer than white. 

Mr G. M. Allendbb (Lee Grange, Winslow) said — Some years ago he heard Mr 
Steam deliver a lecture, somewhat similar to that which he had given that evening, 
before a local society in Suffolk, and he then picked up a good many wrinkles from 
him, and had kept them. (Laughter.) He thought that gentleman was perfectly 
justified in what he had said about the neglect of pigs by the Royal Agricultural So- 
ciety. Speaking generally, he must say that pig breeders had not been at all well 
treated as regarded prizes. It cost quite as much to take a pen of three pigs to a 
show as it did to take a pen of Southdowns ; yet, while the owner of the latter might 
get £20, the owner of the former could only obtain £10. . That was, of course, merely 
the pounds;, shillings, and pence view of the matter ; but still the difference had its 
effects as regarded breeds of pigs. Eespecting the management of breeding-pigs, he 
perfectly agreed with Mr Stearn, that rails round the farrowing pen were a most 
valuable protection. Two or three years ago he adopted Mr Steam's plan in that 
respect, and since that time he had not, he thought, lost a single pig. On the pre- 
vious dfty he found quite unexpectedly a large litter. Not one of them was crushed ; 
whereaai, without the rails he would probably have lost half. Many persons bred far 
too early from young sows. Last year he sold to a gentleman in his neighbourhood a 
young pig, warning him against breeding too early. This advice was disregarded ; 
the purchaser of the pig commenced breeding when she was eight and a half 
months old, and the result was that out of the first litter, consisting of eleven 
pigs, only two were left. He was at issue with Mr Steam as regarded the merits 
of Berkshire pigs. There was one breed of pigs to which three parties were laying 
claim for their respective counties, Mr Steam claiming them as Suffolks, Mr Hobbs 
as Essex, and some one to whom Mr Hobbs alluded as Oxfords. . Now, Berkshire pdgs 
were Berkshires all the world over— (hear, hear)— in whatever county they were bred 
they were well received, and one great merit was that they yielded more lean flesh in 
proportion to the bulk than any other class of pigs. (Hear, hear.) The cooking of 
food was often very useful; but care should.be taken not to supply food in too warm 
a state, as in that case it was apt to affect the lungs. With regard to the best food 
for pigs, he would observe that when questioned on that point last week he replied, 
bofley-meal. As to the losing of the tail, he supposed that was confined to the Suf- 
folks ; he had not found the Berkshire pigs losing their tails. (Laughter.) Personally 
he felt veiy much obliged to Mr Stearn for his paper. Although pigs were generally^ 
put down Uust in show lists, it should be recollected that they were the animus which 
produced the largest amount of meat within a short time. (Hear, hear.) A litter, say 
of ten pigs, could be converted into a ton of meat in six months, with ordinary good 
feeding. There was no animal in creation that would yield such a return, and there- 
fore he thought neither the Norfolk graziers nor any other graziers ought to turn up 
their noses at pigs. (Hear, hear.) Biefore sitting down he would remark tfiat in his 
neighbourhood there was a disease among pigs, which was a sort of fever, and was so 



214 THE BREEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF PIGS. 

Berioua in its effects that some persons had lost from a hundred to a hundred and fifty 
pigs within the last twelve months. He lived near Aylesbury, and there many far- 
mers had given up keeping pigs because they had not been able to get rid of this dis- 
ease. They had gone into the market, bought a lot of pigs, and within three or four 
days had lost them. [A Voice : What are the Symptoms ?] The animal was at first 
a little drowsy and off its feed. A few red spots were afterwards found, principally 
about the belly. The redness sometimes extended to the intestines, and the whole 
body became red. Animals attacked with this disease had been killed in thousands 
during the last year. 

Mr T. Owen (Clapton, Hungerford) said— Being a Berkshire man, he rose to con- 
firm what had just been said with respect to the Berkshire breed of pigs. Having 
bred and fed a great many of them, he contended- that they were the most useful pigs 
in the world, inasmuch as they made more lean in proporti6n to the fat than any other 
kind of pigs, and were always in favour both with the butcher and the consumer. In 
his neighbourhood, a pig that weighed above ten score could not be sold without great 
difficulty. One great advantage of the Berkshire pig was that it could be fattened 
very quickly. The butcher or the bacon-curer who came into his district would always 
prevent the breeders from fattening their animals too much. Animals weighing from 
seven to eleven scores could besold veryreadily; but if farmers carried pigs beyond eleven 
scores, they had to look a long time for a customer. He quite agreed with Mr Steam, that 
the piggery which he had described was a very nice one, adapted to bring a pig to per- 
fection ; but he contended that it would not do in his own neighbourhood to breed 
and feed as Mr Stearn did, and for this reason, that there were no breeders who cared 
about the fineness of their pigs. They went into tjie market, as feeders, of pigs, to 
buy the most hardy animals they could obtain ; not animals which had been pam- 
pered, but such as had been fed moderately ; and he believed that there were ten 
times as many customers for pigs of the former as for pigs of the latter class. He agreed 
with Mr Stearn that, in order that a pig might be brought to perfection early and for 
show, it should be kept on as long as possible with sugar, warm milk, and things of 
that kind. He had himself fed three or four hundred pigs a year in accordance with 
the views which he had expressed. He once obtained a lot of Chinese pigs, and they 
fed so exceedingly fast that he thought he had got a complete nest-egg on his farm ; 
but the result was, that when he sent them to his butcher in London, whom he sent all 
his porkers to, he returiied a few chops out of one of them, and desired I should cook 
them. They were all fat, no lean, and said he could not sell them at any price. In 
his (the butcher's) opinion, there was no pig in the world equal to the Berkshire pig, 
t)ecause it yielded a greater proportion of lean to fat than any other breed. With 
regard to what Mr Stearn said about the breeding of sows, he would remark that, in 
his (Mr Owen's) district they never liked their pigs to farrow early, or in winter. 
They generally endeavoured to get sows to farrow not earlier than the first week in 
March. ' Then he kept the little pigs as growing as possible. At the end of seven 
weeks they weaned them. They then placed the sow for a few days where she was 
certain to go to hog (they had the boar always at hand ;) and they always found at 
the change, when the milk was going away, that she was sure to take the boar, so 
that they had a second litter, generally at the commencement of August. These pigs 
required very little care — at least,* not half the care that they would require if they 
were farrowed in January ; and, as Mr Hobbs had justly observed, the finer an animal 
is bred, and the purer its blood, the more liable it is to a weakness in the tail. A 
rough pig out of a litter will not, in Berkshire, lose its tail ; but he considered the 
frost had much to do with it. When exposed to a severe frost, he had seen as many 
as five or six out of a litter lose their tails. He quite agreed with Mr Stearn that 
for pigs, in the summer, pasture-land was the finest thing, for nothing was so good 
for them as gnawing the turf. The plan of Mr Stearn was not carried out in their 
neighbourhood, for this reason — namely, that landlords, as a rule, did not like to see 
an expensive building of that sort : they were sure to say it was too fine, or something 
of that kind. The last speaker had referred to the diseases of pigs. He had seen a 
lot of twenty bought at Newbury market ; and within a week, three parts of them 
had died : and he quite agreed with that gentleman in saying they could discover 
nothing indicative of disease but a small red spot. If they killed a pig in good con- 
dition, but diseased, and scalded it, they would see red spots upon it. It woidd be 
quite white when scalded ; but when it cooled down, it became a perfect pink along 
the belly and sides. He had had several in that state ; and though he had consulted 
a veterinary surgeon, that gentleman could never discover a remedy. He said that 
the only thing to be done was to remove them, and thoroughly whitewash the sties 



THE BEEEDING AND KAJ^AGEMENT OP PIGS. 215 

with qnick'lime, and, in fact, make a clearance, and get rid of the lot, because the 
disease, whaterer it was, was very infectious, and he had never yet seen or heard of 
its being cured. 

Mr JB^BSBT Smith, fEmmetVs Grange, South Molton,) would not have risen but 
for the observations which had been made with respect to the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England. Being intimately connected with that society, he wished to set 
one matter right He happened to be a member of the Prize-sheet Committee ; and 
the first object of that committee was to agree on the amount to be devoted to that 
prize-sheet, and then they proceeded to allot that amount in various proportions 
amongst the several breeds of animals throughout the kingdom. Of course, their 
first object was to encourage cattle ; next, sheep ; thirdly, horses ; and lastly, If they 
pleased, pigs. Turning now to the question of the management of pigs, it was many 
years since be bad taken any part in th^t business ; but he thought they would 
agree with him that there were some conclusions at which they had that night cer- 
tunly arrived. First, they had arrived at the conclusion that they had a most 
exceUent advertisement before them ; next that pig-breeding seemed to be quite a 
profession; next, that good diet and warmth were two great essentials towards 
early maturity. 

A Member.-^ And cleanliness a third essential. (Hear.) 

Mr Smith. — And a fourth, if you please, — " they clip no wool." (Laughter.) Another 
matter had been stoutly debated, but on that they had not arrived at a conclusion ; 
he referred to the pig's tail. (A laugh). Some gentlemen said that it dropped off at 
one age, some at another; some that all lost their tails at one time or another ; and 
that Berkshire pigs alone seemed to retain them. But whether they kept them on 
or dropped them off, his (Mr Smith's) experience in the breeding of pigs was this, that 
if a sow farrowed in warm weather, the pigs would not be troubled with tail-disease, 
while if she farrowed in cold weather they might be. Now he would suggest that if 
they pinched off a little bit from the end of the tail and thus caused the blood to 
circulate, Ae tails would remain on. Mr Hobbs had referred to pigs in Devonshire, 
and that waa a part of the country with which he (Mr Smith) was well acquainted. 
It was a notorious fact that the best farmers in the west of England had an opinion 
that white pigs burned in the sun, while black ones did not. As to the use of asphal- 
tum as a floor for pigs to lie on, he thought that would be rather a cold affair. He 
himsdf had lately erected a piggery, and in doing so had hit upon a grooved brick, 
which answered remarkably well, and he had adopted Torr's patent double feeding- 
trough. With the latter the fat pigs fed on one side ; they then lifted up the shield 
or slide, and the store pigs came and cleared out the trough. In some instances 
there was a yard attached, when the pig entered at the centre, then went in on the 
one hand to a raised ground of grooved bricks, with an incline towards the centre. 
They fed there, and went out for natural purposes to the yard, from which they went 
to the grooved bricks on the other side, where they lay on a raised bed. Where that 
plan was adopted, and they had a. supply of water to wash out the grooved bricks, it 
was certainly the most perfect they ha!d ever seen. He did not go altogether with Mr 
Mechi about feeding pigs on boards, because, as Mr Steam had very properly said, 
there would always be a certain amount of stench ; but within the last few days he 
had gone into his own piggery, and it was as sweet as they could wish a piggery to be, 
simply from the fact that the sewage could not remain. It was carried off by the 
grooved bricks on the incline ; and that arrangement was as nice a one as could be 
imagined. A remark had fallen from Mr Stearn as to the time when pigs should be 
dropped. He (Mr Smith) had a particular fancy with regard to that, whether it was 
the pig, the horse, the cow, or the sheep. He should like the young animal to be 
dropped as it were not in the rising of the moon, but the rising of- the year, about the 
Ist of January, and grow into the warm weather rather than the reverse. There 
was a principle involved in that, and the more they adhered to that kind of thing, 
keeping warmth strictly in view as nature's principal law, they would find they would 
not err so much as those of their neighbours who blundered along, and contrived to 
have their animals grow into the cold weather instead of warm. (Hear.) 

Mr Wilson (Althome, Maldon) said they were indebted greatly to Mr Steam for 
the very interesting lecture which he had delivered, and for having delivered it with- 
out reserve and telMng them all he knew. It was for those present to consider how 
&r they could individually apply his experience, or how far they found their own plans 
more convenient to carry out owing to their being accustomed to them. There were 
three objects in pig breeding, and according to the particular object which the breeder 
had in view so he must govern his proceedings. Thus one man bred pigs in order to 
Vol. I.— No. IV.— New Semes. Apbil 1865. Q 



216 THE BBEEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF PIGS. 

get a prize, another to get store animals, and a third for the shambles; and in all 
Siree a different mode of proceeding would be necessary. He himself had found that, 
as a general principle, they could not feed animals too highly from the earliest time, 
although they might at that time be apparently imsaleable. He had never found 
difficulty in selling stores because they were too fresh ; he had generally found it to 
be the reverse. With regard to various breeds, he thought every breed had some 
good property of its own which was appreciated by the . neighbourhood where it was 
best known. One reason for the disease amongst pigs, which developed itself in many 
various forms — sometimes in the pigs being without tails, sometimes with spots on 
their skins, sometimes in their suffering from CMunps— was that the hog was not suffi- 
ciently often changed. It matters less what hog they used, provided they changed the 
animal every year ; for breeding in-and-in was worse with pigs than with any other 
animal. The man who bred carefully, and had a good hind to manage his pigs, would 
manage to have five farrows in two years ; and that was breeding rather closely. They 
must not, however, be surprised if they got the blood diseased from too frequent com- 
munication. As to the cheapest food, he had generally found that to depend chiefly 
upon the market price. This year the great crop of barley made that the cheapest 
food ; but last year Indian com was by far the cheapest The best imported food for 
pigs would be lentils ; but the very first season of their Importation, it appeared they 
cleared out Egypt and other countries. To-day, at market, 36s. were demanded for 
lentils, whereas good Indian corn could be obtained at 288. They could not, there- 
fore, lay down successfully any fixed rule as to the best food for pigs ; but he imagined 
that, in proportion to the food consumed, a pig paid better generally for his keep than 
any other animal. He did not believe that a bullock or sheep would make anything 
like the large return that a pig did j and, with present prices of food, the pig will 
prove the best grazier. He said " grazier " because the pig was a good grazier, and 
made more money than anything else ; pigs came to maturity more quickly in pro- 
portion to the food they consumed, and they therefore made the greatest return. 
There was no doubt but that the disease in pigs originated in a peculiar state of 
the blood ; and if by the use of sulphur — only a pig was so difficult to physic — or 
any other medicinal preparation, they could put the blood into a right state, a pig 
might be as easily kept healthy as a sheep or a bullock. Unfortunately, however, 
they could not doctor him ; and, therefore, the knife was the only cure for the disease 
in pigs. With regard to the question of fat, it was a common experience that it was 
difficult to sell, it being said that people would not eat it, and that, therefore, they 
must get pigs of about eight score to meet the demand. He, however, would remind 
his brother farmers that the fat was easily converted into lard, while they could sell 
the leaner parts for bacon at a fair price. So that if any of them were tied up with 
a large lot of fat pigs, there was a sale for them without giving them away. 

The Chairman, in drawing the discussion to a close, said that they ought to 
feel grateful to Mr Stearn for the frank and open manner in which he had described 
his system of feeding. He (the Chairman) was not a pig man, but whenever he had 
taken it in hand he had lost money, and he believed moreover that eight out 
of every ten persons would find that they did the sataie if they kept accounts. 
At the commencement of his paper, Mr Stearn had remarked that farmers 
formerly despised pigs, but he (the Chairman) could not admit that, because 
when he began farming, some thirty years ago, he was obliged to keep from three to 
four pigs to every bullock ; and his system now in stocking the yard was to keep one 
pig to every two or three bullocks at the most. As to the question whether they 
could buy pigs and keep them on corn, he should like to see the accounts of those 
who had tried it during the last season. He could only say that his account was a 
very bad one ; but he had to pay his neighbour, Mr Hudson, for grinding a thousand 
coombs of corn, most of which they had eaten. He could not, therefore, agree with 
Mr Wilson. 

Mr Stearn, in reply, said he quite agreed with Mr Hobbs that there were certain 
districts where black pigs were the best. Where there was much clover grown, black 
pigs might be turned into it ; but looking to the average of the whole country, he 
would back the white ones against the black, whether in summer or winter. The 
heat of summer no doubt affected the white more than it did the black ; but in the 
winter the black was more tender than the white, as the latter could bear the cold 
much the best. With regard to the cause of the tail disease, some persons believed 
it to be occasioned by the frost or by close breeding ; but in January last, when there 
was plenty of frost and snow, he had five sows farrowed within a few days of each 
other^ averaging ten pigs in each farrow, and not one of them lost a tail; and, on 



ECLIPSE AND TOUCHSTONE. . 2l7 

the other hand, he had ten bows farrowed last summer about the same time, and 
seTeral of the pigs lost their tails, not one of those who were bred the most closely 
losing theirs ; but when he bought strange sows and cr}ssed them as far distant as 
possible, many of the pigs lost their tails, and he could never divine from what cause. 
He had tried eyeTything he could think of to check this disease ; he had even cut off 
pieces of the tail pretty well up to the red spot itself, and even then the small por- 
tion of the tail left would drop off. As to the Berkshire breed, that was no doubt 
good for bacon, there being plenty of lean, but perhaps it took more time to make 
the pigs fat than he should Hke. They were, no doubt, a kind of pig more suitable 
for some districts than for others ; and when large flitches of bacon were wanted, he 
would- recommend the Berkshire breed. With regard to the expense of his building, 
he could only say that if they could erect it for £25, and it would last for a lifetime, 
he did not think they could require anything cheaper, seeing that it had every con- 
venience, and was well ventilated. With regard to the floor being a smooth surface 
and wdl dnuned, he could, by taking the lattice floor up once a week, and sweeping 
everything away from under it, have the whole as clean as possible. With reganl to 
the prizes given by the Royal Agricultural Society, no doubt it was right to fix upon 
a certain sum to be distributed amongst the several classes, but he would recommend 
as a much better plan that they should give larger sums and fewer prizes. As to the 
Chairman not making his pigs pay, he was not surprised at it, for a bigger lot of 
vermin he never saw than Norfolk pigs. He had never yet seen a good pig bred in 
Norfolk ; they were the worst lot of pigs under the sun. He could scarcely call them 
pigs, and was satisfied that they would ruin any man in England who attempted to 
keep them, as it was impossible to make them pay. 

The Chairman said that tlie principal part of the pigs he had kept so unfortunately 
were animals brought from the county of Northampton, from a gentleman who had 
as good pigs as any man in that county. 

On the motion of Mr T. Congreve, seconded by Mr Coussmaker, a vote of thanks 
was passed to Mr Steam for his excellent paper ; and a similar compliment having 
been paid to the Chairman, on the motion of Mr R. Sjjiiith, seconded by Mr Nash, 
the proceedings terminated. 



ECLIPSE AND TOUCHSTONE. 
To the Editor of the Sporting Times, 



Sir, — ^I beg permission to correct a mistake which found its way into the Sporting 
Times of 18th instant ; where, in your reply to Sir J. B., the narrative runs thus : — 
" It is said that the skeleton of the famous Eclipse is in the Hunterian Museum of the 
Boyal College of Surgeons. Mr Flower, the articulator attached to that institution, 
has lately mounted ToucJistone for the Marquis of Westminster, by whom the animal 
was much prized." 

The above reference to the skeleton of Eclipse is void of foundation ; that about 
Touchstone is, I believe, sulwtantially correct. It is to set the matter right about 
the first-named horse that I intrude on your space, and the time of your readers. 

In November 1860 I became the medium of treating with the now lamented Mr 
Bracy Clark, the then owner, for the skeleton of the renowned Eclipse, for the New 
Veterinary College at Edinburgh ; and I accordingly purchased the skeleton for the 
price of one hundred guineas, of the man whose property it had been from the latter 
end of the last or beginning of the present century. The purchase was effected, and 
Eclipse's skeleton transferred to Edinburgh, from Clark's house in London, just 
seventeen days previous to the occurrence of the death of the able and zealous culti- 
vator of veterinary science, at the great age of ninety years. 

Besides bringing the bones of the best horse on record out of the box in which 
they had been so many years secluded, we were probably, as the following incidents 
wiU show, instrumental in causing those of the next grand horse of his time to be 
disentombed, and placed within the reach of the student, for observation and com- 
parison. 

The « facts stand thus : — Desirous to obtain the skeleton of some one of the best 
amongst the horses of our time, to place beside that of Eclipse, we began to make 



218 ECLIPSE AND TOUCHSTONE. 

inquiry, and turning our attention to the old animals then (1860) living, Touchstone 
and the mare Pocahontas stood foremost. A little time elapsed, and before any 
application was made the death and burial of Touchstone, which had taken place at 
Eiaton Hall, were publicly reported. 

Correspondence with the noble owner was begun by Professor John Gkimgee 
addressing a note, soliciting permission to obtain the bones of Touchstone, for the 
expressly avowed purpose of placing them beside those of Eclipse. To that applica- 
tion a most condescending reply was written by the Marquis of Westminster, and 
there appeared no impediment in the way of the obtainment of our object, until fur- 
ther consideration determined that the grand horse's skeleton should have a place in 
the Metropolis.* The disinterment was accordingly effected, and the bones conveyed 
from Cheshire to London, where, under the superintendence of Professor Flower, the 
skeleton was arranged and put up, to be seen with the most valuable collection of its 
kind in the world. 

With permission, I will take this opportunity of making a few observations on 
the importance of preserving skeletons of very choice specimens of the horse, inde- 
pendently of the high value to be attached to those of the two extraordinary animals 
referred to. 

All philosophic anatomists make profound study of skeletons, assiduously compare 
and often refer to them ; and none have more need of adopting such course than 
those whose aim it is to become profoundly instructed in the construction and move- 
ments of the horse, whose worth depends on degrees of perfection in conformation, 
substantially governed by the physical condition of the horse's frame. 

How it is that a subject of so much importance should have been so little recog- 
nised is matter of astonishment. There have been few skeletons of the horse 
accessible even to students, and those preserved, regardless, for the most part, of any 
typically high standard of perfection in the animal to whom they belonged. The 
best horses. Eclipse excepted, have been buried, which, in reality, amounts to burying 
the indexes to knowledge. — I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

Joseph Gahgee. 

New Veterinary College, 
Edinburgh, Feb. 21, 1865. 

[We were aware when we wrote the reply to Sir J. B. that Mr Gamgee had a 
skeleton which was reputed to be Eclipse's. But it \s just possible that neither the 
one in the Museum of our Royal College, nor the one in Mr Gamgee's College at 
Edinburgh, is the genuine one. Neither of them, we are sure, can be properly 
authenticated. The one at our college has had the repute of being Eclipse's for the 
last twenty years, and we do not altogether like, at our time of life, to have the 
" foundations of our faith " destroyed. Perhaps, as Mr Gamgee is a foreigner, he is 
not aware that it is usual in England for famous horses, as well as famous men, to 
possess a multiplicity of skeletons. If he has read up English history, he must have 
made acquaintance with the singular discovery of the Rev. Deaa Swift, who, when 
on a visit to Oxford, had shown to him the skull of Oliver Cromwell. The Dean 
afterwards went to Cambridge, and was there shown another and a different shaped 
skull, which was also declared to be the skull of the kinglet Oliver. Swift imme- 
diately said, " Why, his skull was shown to me the other day at Oxford. He could 
not have had two skulls."* " Oh yes, sir, he had," replied the Cambridge curator. 
" That at Oxford was his skull when a boy ; this one is his skull when grown up a 
man, and the one he possessed at his death ! " There are also no fewer than four 
skulls which are severally claimed as once the receptacles of the brain of Eugene 
Aram. The lantern of Guy Fawkes is at Oxford ; Edinburgh also claims to possess 
the genuine trophy. This may be the case with Eclipse. As in Homer's case nine 
cities contested the distinction of giving him birth, so here two renowned cities con- 
test the honour of preserving all that is mortal of the immortal Eclipse. We remain 
neutral; the point is hardly worth contesting.— Mr Gamgee speaks of '* Professor" 
Flower. Mr Flower, at the Royal College of Surgeons, though a most worthy man, 
is, in no sense of the term, a " Professor,'* his post of *' Articulator " being a com- 
paratively menial occupation. It is the custom, we believe, in Edinburgh for men to 
turn cottages into colleges, paddocks into '* parks," and for vanity to elect its " Pro- 
fessors,** and produce its parks where necessity compels an occupation or uses land 
as pasturage. There is another gentleman at our Royal College of Surgeons of the 
name of Flower, the successor of Mr Owen ; but in no proper sense of the term is he 
a " Professor." The " College" is not a " University/' and therefore cannot pro- 



ECLIPSE AND TOUCHSTONE. 219 

pcrly elect, appoint, or promote any of its officers to a Professorship, We contend 
that the heads of Universities only can appoint " Professors." When will mankind 
reach the goal of that admirable simplicity which constitutes the beau ideal of all 
greatness, whether in science or in art ?— Ed.] 



To Db Shortpousb, Editor of the Sporting Times, 

Sib, — When I addressed the letter which yon did me the honour to publish on 
March 4, 1 had no other motive for doing so than that of affording information which 
you appeared not to be in possession of. In your Inaugural Address occurs the fol- 
lowing words : — " It may be said that if we accustom ourselves to speak the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, . . . establishments will be closed against us. 
This is of little moment." In the course of your own remarks on my letter you say, 
" We were aware when we wrote the reply to Sir J. B. that Mr Gamgee had a skeleton 
which was reported to be Eclipse's. But it is just possible that neither the one in the 
Museum of our Royal College, nor the one in Mr Gamgee's, is the genuine one. 
. . . The one at our college has had the repute of being Eclipse's for the last twenty 
years, and we do not altogether like, al our time of life, to have the foundations of our 
faith destroyed." You say again, " We remain neutral; the point is hardly worth 
contesting." 

I beg now to submit the question, Whether your reply to Sir J. B. was in accordance 
with the motto which you adopted—" To speak the truth, the whole truth, and no- 
thing but the truth;" or whether the adhesion to a foregone determination, in defi- 
ance of evidence, because you " do not altogether like," at your " time of life," to have 
" the. foundations of your faith destroyed," was in harmony with the above motto ? 
Moreover, I beg to question the policy of raising fictitious questions, and then declar- 
ing " we remain neutral" The old adage of setting a town on fire, and running away 
by the light of it, comes to mind here. Everything relating to the history of Eclipse 
and his skeleton was so fully discussed four years ago, that I have not the inclination, 
even if I could spare the time, to go over the whole subject again now. This much, 
however, I may add, that no horse on record that I have heard of, has been proclaimed 
to the world so fully, reliably, and had a career marked by so many historical inci- 
dents as was the case with Eclipse. He was bred by a prince of the realm in Windsor 
Great Park, and was sold, after the death of his royal breeder, at a public auction in 
London, on which occasion some remarkable events occurred, wMch afterwards be- 
came part of the horse's history. 

Next we have the published and verbally-handed-down accounts of Eclipse's racing 
career, whilst he was the property of the Messrs Wildmanr and Dennis O'Kelly, and 
when the last named gentleman became his sole owner, in whose possession Eclipse 
retired victorious from the turf, and passed through his unrivalled career as a stallion. 
After being twenty years in the possession of his second owners (confederates) Eclipse 
died, and due care was taken to have his skeleton prepared, by careful dissection, by 
the man who, at that time, occupied the first position in England as an anatomist of 
the horse. The rest of the tale is soon told. Not long after Mr Vial de Sain Bel 
had dissected Eclipse, and written an essay on the proportions of that horse, death 
removed him from his sphere of labours, in the then newly-established Veterinary 
College, where he had been made professor. At this juncture, Mr O'Kelly presented 
the Eclipse skeleton to Mr Bond, a veterinary surgeon in London, who had been Sain 
Bel's pupil and assistant. After the death of Bondj his widow presented the Eclipse 
skeleton to Mr Braey Clark, another former pupil of Sain Bel's, and the intimate 
friend of her husband, to whom he had rendered many kind services. The sub- 
sequent transfer of the Eclipse skeleton to the New Veterinary College has been suffi- 
ciently dwelt on already ; therefore I ask. What ground ever existed for the founda- 
tion of a report of Eclipse's skeleton being in the Hunterian Museum ? I affirm, 
none whatever; and having narrated the positive facts connected with the case, I 
think I may, after the challenge received, notice some negative incidents relative 
to it. More than forty years ago, when I attended the anatomical classes at the 
old school in Windmill Street, (rendered so famous by the brothers Hunter,) not only 
was there no skeleton -of the horse, reputed to be that of Eclipse, amongst John 
Hunter's collection, but nothing of the kind was even mentioned. 

I come now in my narrative to a period near twenty years from the present time, 
when, and for several years afterwards, members of my family were constantly attend- 
ing as students at the Hunterian Museum, with whom I was regularly in the habit of 



220 IMPORTANT CASE TO PEALERS. 

communicating. I can therefore vouch that no skeleton of the horse, reputed to 
be that of Eclipse, was during these periods in the Hunterian Museum. Lastlv, when, 
about six years ago, I visited the Royal College of Surgeons, expressly with the object 
of inspecting the museum, in reply to interrogations about specimens of the osteology 
of the horse, I was told, " We have no good skeleton of the horse in the museum," — 
a fact soon demonstratively confirmed, when I saw the one there articulated and 
in possession, of no repute and of no special value. 

Permit me therefore, sir, to say that in this argument the onus probandi devolves 
on yourself. 

Regarding your personal remarks, evidence is again aflTorded of conclusions arrived 
at without premises. Essex-born and bred men like myself would seem to be about 
the last amongst the Queen's lieges who could be taken for foreigners. Nor does a 
few years' residence abroad usually deprive a man of his nationality, or confer the 
privilege of assuming that of the country in which hospitality has been shown him. 
— I am, sir, your most obedient servant, Joseph Gamqbjl 

New Veterinaby Colleqb, Mar, 9, 1865. 



IMPORTANT CASE TO DEALERS. 

SiLLBNOB V. POTHBCABT. — (JuTy CaSC.) 

(From the Hampshire Chronidey February 11, 1865.) 

The plaintiff, Mr Benjamin Sillence, is the well-known farmer and dealer in this 
county, who resides at New Barn, Compton, and the defendant is Mr T. Pothecary, 
also a farmer and dealer, residing at Newton Stacey, near Stockbridge. Mr W. 
Bailey appeared for defendant; Mr Sillence conducted his own case. The action 
was brought to recover compensation in consequence of some pigs which plaintiff 
had purchased of defendant turning out unsound, the damage being laid in the par- 
ticulars of claim at £50. 

Mr Sillence stated that he had bought a quantity of pigs in the Winchester market 
of defendant, upon the representation or warranty that they were sound, whereas 
they had turned out to be diseased with a malady known as the cattle murraine. He 
thought the case was a most important one, inasmuch as the practice of selling dis- 
eased animals in the market, for a long time past, bad caused great dissatisfaction, 
80 much so that many farmers and graziers were now afraid to enter the market 
The disease with which these animals were afflicted was so destructive that scarcely 
one ever survived it ; and it might safely be stated that nineteen out of twenty died 
in it. It was a very contagious malady ; so that animals of the pig'kind, if they 
came in contact with it on the road, or even on one's own premises, they were almost 
sure to catch it. Mr Pothecary was a large dealer in pigs, and it had been mooted 
in his favour, that unless a vendor gave a written warranty, a purchaser could have 
no claim : so that if a dealer once managed to get such animals out of his hand, the 
purchaser could sustain no claim for compensation. 

Judge. — There is no law of the kind. 

Plaintiff said it was the custom of the country to buy such stock, relying upon the 
honour of the seller. If he did not say anything to the contrary, the customer had 
a right to consider the animals as sound, such animals always being supposed to be 
sound. 

Judge. — The law does not assume the animals to be sound. There must be a war- 
ranty or representation that they are sound. 

Plaintiff continued— On Saturday, the 6th November last, he went to the Winches- 
ter market, where he saw defendant, with whom for a long period he had been in 
the habit of dealing. After examining one lot of pigs at 40s. a piece, defendant 
showed him a second and a third lot, the last being composed of thirty animals, 
which defendant said he would warrant to be good sound animals, and such as would 
suit him (plaintiff) well. Defendant further said to Mr Sillence, " You have bought 
a good many pigs of me ; I'll warrant that they will suit you better than any yoa 



IMPOBTANT CASE TO DEALEES. 221 

htLYB eyer bonght of me." Plaintiff stated that he asked him where he got the pigs 
from, and he replied that he had them from a farmyard the day before ; but this he 
(plaintiff) said he had since ascertained was not correct. Defendant asked 23s. each 
for the animals, and, relying upon what had been stated, plaintiff offered 22s. a piece 
for them, and the bargain was struck for the thirty animals. He also bought some 
pigs of a Mr Broad at the same time. The pigs were driven to Mr Sillence's, and 
next morning his man perceived something was the matter with them, which he did 
not observe the night before, because it was dark when they arrived. On the follow- 
ing Monday plaintiff left his home at an early hour ; but his man pressed him to 
examine the pigs, as they were in a very relaxed condition, and a serious nuisance. 
He saw them, and directed the man to give them beans. He was engaged much 
during that week, but saw them two or three times, and they appeared to iS very ill. 
Many of them refused to eat, and one died in the course of the week. Two more 
died on the following Tuesday, and in a few days more fourteen were dead, and 
twenty-three or twenty-four died in all. He saw defendant at Andover fair, on the 
17th November ; told him the state of the animals, and he replied that it was a bad 
job ; he was sorry plaintiff had them ; but it could not be expected that he (plaintiff) 
should lose the money. Defendant said he would see the party of whom he had 
bought the pigs, would meet plaintiff at Winchester the next Saturday, and he would 
then put the matter right. He asked plaintiff if he had written to Mr Broad, who 
" ought to share in with them ;" and he replied that he had not, for he did not 
believe Mr Broad's animals were diseased before they came in contact with defend- 
ant's, and therefore he should not be justified in doing so. The pigs he bought of 
Mr Broad did not show any signs of disease for nine or ten days. On the Saturday 
following he aga\n met defendant in the market at Winchester, when defendant said 
— " Mr Sillence, this is a bad job for me ; I am sorry for it. The other parties 
won't allow a penny, but I will give you five pounds or five guineas to settle it." 
Plaintiff refused this offer, considering it as unreasonable, as fourteen were then 
dead, and fourteen more had been separated from the rest, to see whether the disease 
could be arrested by so doing. Plaintiff again saw Mr Pothecary on a subsequent 
occasion, when he got in a rage, accusing plaintiff with annoying him by sending a 
most *' unanimous " letter. He then declared he would not allow plaintiff a farthing 
diunage, and told him to do his best. He had therefore brought this action. 

In answer to Mr Bailey, plaintiff acknowledged that the pigs appeared to be sound. 
Those he had bought of Mr Broad were mixed with those he had from Mr Pothecary 
almost directly. Some of Mr Broad's pigs were " killed to save their lives." The 
disease was very common now. He bought forty-five pigs altogether of defendant 
and Mr Broad. Defendant did not say, ** Bather than this should have happened I 
would have given £5 ;" but what he (plaintiff) had stated. 

To his Honour. — I relied upon defendant's warranty when I bought the pigs, and 
had he not told me they came out of a farmyard the day before, I would not have 
bonght them. 

To Mr Bailey.— Defendant volunteered the statement that the animals were sound. 

In answer to the Judge, plaintiff further stated that if anybody had asked him 
next day if he had a warranty with the pigs, he should have replied that he had. 

Charles Street, in the service of plaintiff, was then called, who proved the sad state 
the pigs were in when they were brought home, and afterwards. 

His Honour expressed some surprise that a veterinary surgeon had not been called 
in to examine the animals after they were dead. He might then have given the 
Court information as to their actual state ; but plaintiff explained this by stating 
that he knew, perhaps, more about the disease than a veterinary surgeon would. The 
disease appeared to strike into the whole system, and showed itself externally in the 
skin. He thought it was small-pox— just the same disease as the Wiltshire sheep 
Buffered from some time since. There was no cure for it. 

Mr Bailey (to Street.)— What is this mysterious disease ? 

Street. — 1 call it *' diseased miirraine." 

His Honour inquired the total loss to the plaintiff. 

Mr Sillence. — I believe that twenty-three died, nineteen were killed, and two are 
still living. 

Mr Hall, another farmer, said he bought twenty-five pigs, at 45s. a piece, from 
defendant. Twenty-three of them died, some before a week had passed. Others got 
infected ; so that his entire loss by the deal amounted to £150. He had every reason 
to believe that his stock were all right before he placed those he bought of defendant 
with them. He had no warranty with them. It was customary to say they werd tUl 
right when bought. 



222 IMPOBTAKT CASE TO DEALEES. 

Plaintiff. — The purchase was made by the witness on the 5th'of Norember out of 
the same herd as mine. 

Mr Sillence, of Hinton Ampner, fanner, said he bought eighteen pigs of Mr 
Pothecarj on the same day. They had the disease. Three died, and one hundred 
and twenty-five others caught it from the eighteen sent home. The whole one hun- 
dred and twenty-five died, and were worth 15s. a piece. He was obliged to kill more 
to prevent the disease spreading further. The pigs showed the disease nine days 
after the purchase. 

Mr Bailey then addressed the jury for the defence, and urged that plaintiff, before 
he could have a verdict, must show conclusively, firsts that there was a warranty as 
to their soundness ; and if he succeeded in doing that, he must show, also, that at 
the very time of the sale the animals had in them the seeds of that disease from 
which they afterwards died. There was nothing at all said about a warranty to the 
defendant, and it had not even been mentioned in the particulars of claim. After 
ably commenting upon the insufficiency of the evidence to prove these facts, he called 
the defendant, Mr Pothecary, who stated that he had attended Winchester market 
for the past fifteen or sixteen years. On the day he sold the animals to plaintiff he 
brought in something more than one hundred pigs in the same lot. Mr Lloyd 
Broad was present at the time of the purchase. Plaintiff did not ask whether the 
animals were sound, and he (defendant) made use of no words warranting them. It 
was not customary in Winchester market to warrant them. He never did. On Satur- 
day, the 12th November, plaintiff asked him about Mr Broad, but made no com- 
plaint whatever. He saw him at Andover on the following Thursday, when plaintiff 
said three of the pigs were dead. He (defendant) said he was sorry for that. Plain- 
tiff asked who he bought them of, and he told him of Mr Pearce. He (defendant) 
said nothing about a warranty. On the following Saturday he saw plaintiff at Win- 
chester, and asked him about the pigs, when plaintiff said he knew how they were 
when they were sold. Defendant said that was not correct, and afterwards that he 
would sooner have given five or ten pounds than anything should have happened. 
On the 18th November he received a letter asking him to take away the pigs, sug- 
gesting that they should be killed, and threatening an action for bringing (Sseas^ 
animals for sale into the market. He bought the pigs in Andover market. Plain- 
tiff had never alluded to a warranty, and as far as he (defendant) knew, the pigs 
were sound at the time of the sale. That same day he sold three lots to other gentle- 
men, who had made no complaint. 

To Plaintiff. — He did not say, " Write to Mr Broad, and let us share the expenses." 
He did not say in Winchester market that the other parties would not allow a far- 
thing towards the expenses. To his knowledge he never had a pig die on his farm 
of cattle murraine. 

Mr Broad, of Preston Candover, said he was present during the purchase, and did 
not hear a word about a warranty, and he believed he heard all that was said. 

Mr Pearce, farmer, near Andover, said he sold defendant some pigs, which he 
believed to be sound. It was not customaiy to warrant such animals. He believed 
that the pigs, or at least a portion of them, were the same as those sold by defendant 
to Mr Sillence. 

This was the case, and plaintiff offered a few remarks to the jury upon the evi- 
dence, after which his Honour summed up; and the jury returned a verdict for 
defendant, upon the ground that no warranty had been proved. 



BA.LLANTTNB, BOBEftTS, AND CO., PBUTTEBS, SDIMBUBGH. 



THE VETEEINAET REVIEW 



Stathabamxs ^anxnixL 



OSIOINAL COMMUNICATIONS AND CASES. 



The Siberian Bail-Plague, By John Gamgee, Principal of the 
New Veterinary College, Edinburgh. 

Thebk is something so terrible in the prospect, however slender, of 
an approaching plague, that any hint as to the possibility of such an 
event creates the greatest alarm. It is strange, but true, that we 
fear the ills that threaten more than those that directly afflict us. 
We are not kept in constant terror by the typhus and typhoid fevers 
which are preying on useful lives here ; nor are we disposed to listen 
to any observations on the means whereby existing cattle-plagues 
may be exterminated. The announcement, however, that the people 
of St Petersburg are being decimated by *' the black death,^' or that 
the cattle of Podolia have the Eussian steppe-plague, may prove 
quite sufficient to give rise to a panic, and suggest nimierous attacks 
on Government for its remissness in collecting information, or in 
encircling our islands with fancied shields capable of resisting any 
deadly pestilence. 

What a commotion about nothing have we not witnessed during 
the past month ! The death of three fever-stricken physicians in 
Dundee last year, the short intervals at which no less than seven 
worthy doctors have fallen victims to fever in Greenock, the steady 
rising in the number of cases of typhus in Glasgow, London, and 
other cities in these isles, have produced no such effect on the public 
mind and the legislature as the death of two physicians, first reported 
as forty, and a few dozen Eussian labourers, in or near St Peters- 
burg. 

Fortunately for us all, railroads and telegraphic communication 

are speedily correcting the state of ignorance in which we have been 

living, concerning the good and the bad, which nature has bestowed on 

mankind in various parts of the world The evils attendant on the 

Toi^ L— Ko. Y.— Nxw Ssbub. Mat 1865. B 



224 THB SIBERIAN BOIL-PLAGUE. 

great diversity of tongues seem to be fast vanishing, though it must 
be confessed that industrious men might, especially on questions 
aflfecting the health of men and animals, prevent much of the unne- 
cessary alarm occasionally created by disseminating knowledge con- 
cerning such events as plague-manifestations, and preventing the 
egregious blunders recently committed. 

What do we know of Asiatic diseases? We refer small-pox, 
cholera, boil-plagues, cattle-diseases, &c., to the East, but of what 
occurs beyond the frontiers of European Eussia we know much too 
little. There are records of great value, no doubt, in the archives of 
the government of the Czar; there are pamphlets and works relating 
to direct observations of the diseases of Siberia and Southern or 
Eastern Asia, but we know little or nothing of them. We are 
usually content with referring certain epidemics and epizootics to 
broad uncultivated plains, in the direction of which we can trace 
such maladies, and where we believe they are alone capable of spon- 
taneous development. 

The idea still seems preposterous to some that true plagues are 
never generated spontaneously. They creep, however, from place to 
place until a combination of circumstances intensify the effects of 
poisons, which, perhaps for ages, have not been allowed to die. The 
small-pox lymph, the virus of hydrophobia, the pestilential emana- 
tions from droves of cattle affected with contagious typhoid, or the 
killing breath of oxen suffering from pleuropneumonia, do not owe 
their origin to local and accidental influences, but to that same 
system of propagation which nature has ordained for the multiplica- 
tion of animals and plants. It is strange, but certain, that an unde- 
viating process of generation is as prolific in perpetuating certain 
plagues as it is in peopling the globe. It is clearly the duty of men 
of science to devote very special attention to the maladies which are 
propagated without regard to conditions of soil or climate, and to 
distinguish these, which I call true plagues, from diseases constantly 
developing, owing to inborn tendencies, in men or animals, or to the 
operation of such causes as heat and cold, drought or deluge, dirt or 
famine. 

Throughout the known world, certain maladies, capable of sud- 
denly affecting and destrojring a large number of animals or plants, 
undoubtedly arise, from circumstances not altogether foreign to the 
parts where the diseases appear. Indeed, I know of no country where 
a certain degree of cold or heat, rain or snow, may not directly induce 
a somewhat remarkable mortality amongst men or animals. Civili- 
sation has been tending, though slowly, to the diminution of pure en- 
demic and enzootic disprders, inasmuch as natural influences are 
counteracted by artificial conditions ; and, the hot summer, which on 
some ill-drained lands would really have bred, what some might call 
a plague amongst men and animals, has now no effect on the same 
lands well-drained, where the soil is ploughed deeply and regularly, 



THE SIBERIAN BOIL-PLAGUE. 22 T 

and abundant crops are reared with the aid of artificial manures. 
There are ague-stricken countries and broad fens, where malignant 
boils destroy human beings, or any warm-blooded animals, so soon 
as the summer heat is sufficiently intense; and shepherds migrate 
with their flocks from unhealthy plains, to mountain pastures, in 
order to escape a certain death. We need only visit the garden of 
Europe, the Apennines, and the Sicilian valleys, to test the truth of 
these remarks. Such examples of disease-generating districts are 
numerous, but from their usual isolation, and the conditions under 
which the people of these times exist, we have no such appalling 
results as those which furnished thrUling themes, on which the clas- 
sical writers of old dilated with so much effect. 

No well-informed person can doubt that the contagious pestilences 
of men and animals, of the majority of which we have only tradi- 
tional accounts, belong to the ever-recurring pustular plagues, repre- 
sented now-a-days by the milder and localised outbreaks of malignant 
anthrax, malignant pustule, milzbrand, &c., which have lost all their 
terrible features, especially in our healthy islands. Wild animals, as 
well as domestic, fell victims to infection, in former times, and still 
succumb where boil-plagues prevail. It is, indeed, an error to ima- 
gine that domesticity and civilisation breed disease. I am strongly 
disposed to believe the very reverse. Maladies of a peculiar kind 
appear ; but, on the whole, the terrible devastations, even of the 18th 
century, exceeded in virulence and numerical results anything that 
has been witnessed since 1800. As man advances in knowledge 
and wealth, cultivating the soil that it may yield its utmost, and 
engaging in commerce or intellectual pursuits, he is certainly less 
liable to such plagues ; and the annihilations which we are told 
awakened new life — the extraordinary " alternations of life and 
death," of times gone by — operate now on very limited areas of the 
earth's surface. 

Hecker* says : — "Were it in any degree within the power of human 
research to draw up, in a vivid and connected form, a historical 
sketch of such mighty events, after the manner of the historians of 
wars and battles, and the migrations of nations, we might then arrive 
at clear views vrith respect to the mental development of the human 
race, and the ways of Providence would be more plainly discemibla 
It would then be demonstrable, that the mind of nations is deeply 
affected by the destructive conflict of the powers of nature, and that 
great disasters lead to striking changes in general civilisation. For 
all that exists in man, whether good or evil, is rendered conspicuous 
by the presence of great danger." 

For the history of plagues to be written, as Hecker desires, we 
need information which has been lost. Yet much remains to demon- 



* The Epidemics of the Middle Ages, from the Gennan, by Dr Hecker. Tranfilated 
hj B. G. Babington, M.D., F.R.S. London : Trubner & Co. 1859. 



226 THE SIBERIAN BOIL-PLAQUE. 

strate that the beneficent object of nature, even in the production and 
dissemination of plagues, has been to make men better and wiser than 
they were. Industry has done much for longevity in man, and there 
are records of noble victories gained by man's intellect over the de- 
structive influences which must, no doubt, have been destined for our 
ultimate good. Jenner taught us how to annihilate small-pox in man, 
and a thorough study of the history, geographical distribution, and 
progress of every other plague, will enable us to circumscribe out- 
breaks of diseases still dreaded by Europeans. The terror of unex- 
pected death, by the loathsome diseases of old, is now rare and fleeting. 
The day must arrive, when all cause of fear will be effectually and 
satisfactorily removed ; and my object is to show that, had we been at 
all informed on the subject of the Siberian boil-plague, the early tele- 
grams from Berlin, announcing the appearance of that disease, would 
not have produced the effect they did. 

Synonyms and Definition, — Jaswo, Mohmo, Naguptan by the 
Tartars, Morowaja, Jaswa, Schelwaki, or boils, Wetrenitza, Powetrie, 
Wosduschnaja Bolesu; these are the local Siberian and Bussian 
names.* In German it has been called Sibirische Pest, Sibirische 
Seuche ; Beulen Seuche, Pestblatter, Wind oder, Luf tseuche, Schwarze 
Erankheit, Brandheulen, and Haupt says that the best name would be 
Sibirische Milzbrand. 

The Siberian boil-plague is a contagious disease, said to be capable 
of spontaneous development during the hottest months of the year, 
in man and in the horse ; it has been traced to Eastern and South- 
eastern Asia, from whence it spreads usually in a westward direction, 
attacking most of the provinces of European Kussia, where it also 
not unfrequently occurs as an endemic, but as a rule never extend- 
ing beyond the Eussian dominions. It is characterised in man by 
painful gangrenous boils, which form on any part of the body, and 
give rise to a fever of a malignant tjrpe, of which the leading symp- 
toms are difficult breathing, sense of great weight on the chest, fre- 
quent and filtering pulse, dizziness, or fainting, nausea, vomiting, 
constipation followed by diarrhoea, convulsions, and death. It pre- 
sents itself in the form of a relapsing as well as a continued 
fever. Though some observers speak of the Siberian plague as 
affecting cattle, sheep, swine, and other animals, it is asserted by 
authentic writers that it differs from ordinary anthrax in attacking 
men and horses alone, and not being readily communicable from the 
one to the other. Homed cattle are occasionally attacked with a 
disease very similar to the boil-plague when this disease is raging, 
and probably the bovine species must be included in the list of crea- 
tures subject to this fearful disease. 

GeographicaWistribuHon, — The Siberian boil-plague owes its usual 

* Haupt Ueber einige Seuchenkrankheiten der Haosthiere in Sibirien. — ^Yon 
Wilhelm Haupt, BerlixL 1845. 



THE SIBEEIAN BOIL-PLAGUE. 227 

name to the fact that Gmelin first reported on it as observed by him 
between the years 1 733 and 1743, in Western Siberia. It appears to 
have been originally imported from Mantchooria in Eastern Asia, hav- 
ing been traced to the neighbourhood of the river SoongarL It first 
penetrated South-western Siberia, and found its way through the 
Kirghiz steppe to the shores of the Caspian, the plains around the 
Ural Mountains, and some of the wellrwatered lands around the Wolga. 
We have no record of the Siberian boil-plague prior to 1 700, and it 
was believed by Gmelin and others not to be an old disease when 
first described in the early part of the eighteenth century. It is 
diflScult to say if it be the representative of the terrible oriental 
plague of five hundred years back, shorn, however, of its worst 
features. It is somewhat strange that the first accounts of the black 
death are found in the East, though little was heard of it until its 
appearance in Western Asia. It has been supposed to have begun in 
China. " From China, the route of the caravans lay to the north of 
the Caspian Sea, through Central Asia to Tauris. Here ships were 
ready to take the produce of the East to Constantinople, the capital 
of commerce, and the medium of connexion between Asia, Europe, 
and Africa. Other caravans went from India to Asia Minor, and 
touched at the citieys south of the Caspian Sea ; and lastly, from 
Bagdad, through Arabia to Egypt ; also the maritime communication 
on the Bed Sea, from India to Arabia and Egypt, was not inconsi- 
derable. In all these directions contagion made its way ; and doubt- 
less Constantinople and the harbours of Asia Minor are to be regarded 
as the foci of infection, whence it radiated to the most distant sea- 
ports and islands." * 

The black death of the fourteenth century not only invaded the 
Mediterranean islands and seaports in all directions, but it spread 
over the European continent, and what is most remarkable, did 
not make its appearance in Eussia ''until 1351, more than three 
years after it had broken out in Constantinople. Instead of ad- 
vancing in a north-westerly direction from Tauris and from the 
Caspian Sea, it had thus made the great circuit of the Black Sea, by 
way of Constantinople, Southern and Central Europe, England, the 
northern kingdoms, and Poland, before it reached the Eussian terri- 
tories ; a phenomenon which has not again occurred with respect to 
more recent pestilences originating in Asia'' "(• 

Whatever there may be of similarity between the great mortality 
of old, and the Siberian boil-plague of modem times, consists perhaps 
more in simple geographical distribution than essential patholo- 
gical characters ; and Hecker specially refers to the spitting of blood, 
the infallible diagnostic of the black death, as not occurring in the 
milder *• indigenous plague," which no doubt often was an anthracoid 
afiection, such as the one so often witnessed in Eussia. It is cer- 

* Hecker, loc. cit. t Idem. 



228 THE SIBERIAN BOIL-PLAGUE. 

taiiily remarkable, that so far as we are at present informed, the 
Siberian boil-plague, or the true black death, owes its origin to 
thinly-peopled regions in Eastern Asia, where rivers overflow, tem- 
pests are not uncommon, terrestrial commotions prevail, a rank vege- 
tation and organic debris putrify under the influence of excessive 
heat, and the soil seems, if we are to judge from results, occasionally 
to vomit forth pestilential miasmata which give rise to plagues of a 
highly communicable type. 

It is somewhat difficult to understand that a disease, originally in- 
troduced as a purely imported plague, should remain for ever after an 
endemic or enzootic in the Eussian dominions. We certainly have 
instances of maladies kept up by the original cause — contagion — 
which led to their introduction in any new land, as with the con- 
tagiouS\ bovine pleuropneumonia, of our own country, America, the 
Australian colonies, &c. ; but there, more or less, the malady always 
prevails — it does not die out and recur. It is said of the Siberian 
boil-plague that it breaks out suddenly in June or July, and ceases 
in August, very rarely victimising animals or men later on in the 
autumn, and never in winter or early spring. This would certainly 
point to the malady being, and perhaps having always been, endemic 
or enzootic in Eussia, though severe outbreaks might be aggravated 
by extensions of the same contagion from very unhealthy parts of 
Asia beyond the Eussian frontiers. 

Haupt tells us that the portions of the Eussian dominions, and 
especially of Siberia, where the disease appears most rife, are from 
Yameshevsk to Omsk on the Irtish and Kirghiz line, on the borders 
of the Irtish up to Yara, spreading somewhat westward, and extend- 
ing up between the Ural Mountains and the Eiver Obi, thus approach- 
ing the Arctic Ocean. The whole of the Tobolsk government is more 
or less infested with it. Much less so do we find it, though it is still 
endemic, in the vicinity of Irkutsk on the shores of Lake Baikal. 
To a certain extent, it occurs almost every summer amongst the 
Christian villages and settlements from Udinsk, Jerginsk, along 
the borders of the Eiver Seleuga, across the Altaian Mountains, to the 
Kirghiz Steppes. Dr Meyer, who travelled through thggfe-' steppes in 
1826, asserts that the boil-plaigue attacks animals, and rairely men, in 
their western portion more than the eastern. 

There are not a few high-lying hilly districts and table-lands where 
the malady has never or very rarely been seen. Haupt, Ledejbour, 
Meyer, Pallas, Georgi, and others refer to such healthy parts, where 
men nor animals have never been afiected with the disease. From 
the descriptions given of these places, some aslfigh as 2346 feet above 
the level of the sea, surrounded by mountains of which not a few are 
covered with everlasting snow, it is possible that their healthiness, 
or rather freedom from the Siberian boil-plague, may depend on 
distance from through routes, along which contagious disorders 
specially spread. Anthracic diseases of a purely endemic character 
are by no means rare in mountain regions, though contagious diseases 



THE SIBERIAN BOIL-PLAGUE. . 229 

spread' slowly wherever great obstacles to communication amongst 
men and animals are met at every step. 

It is certainly singular that so interesting and destructive a malady 
as the one under consideration should have claimed the attention of 
the learned to so slight an extent, that no satisfactory histoiy of its 
individual outbreaks has been written. 

Steller first observed the boil-plague in Tobolsk in 1738, when it 
aflfected horses, cattle, and men. The elder Gmelin* mentions that 
the malady prevailed at Tara in 1741, but it spared men and attacked 
the horses. In 1757 the summer heat suddenly attained a very 
high degree, and in the Dorpat district alone, Fisscherf says that 
1500 horses died of the boil-plague. The mortality suddenly ceased 
with the occurrence of a shower. HaartmannJ states that an in- 
credible number of horses died at the same time in Finland ; human 
beings died, and some oxen were also seized. 

In 1772, Georgi§ saw the malady in Eastern Asia, in the district of 
Dauria, on the banks of the river Argun, and in the Nertchinsk 
Steppes, where it destroyed half the horses of these regions, sparing 
those of the native and heathen population, but attacking fiercely 
those of the Christian settlers. Heusinger quotes Falk*s remarks || 
made after his journeys in Siberia from 17()8 to 1 773. Falk says : — 
" It is common over the whole of Southern Siberia, from the Ural 
Mountains to the Chinese frontiers, and especially on the Irtish and 
its tributaries; nevertheless, it does not appear to be altogether 
peculiar to Siberia, as here and there in the writings of physicians 
cases of disease are to be found described, the appearances of which 
present the greatest resemblance to the boil-plague. In Siberia it 
breaks out every year — sometimes here, sometimes there — often in 
several places ; but it has not been observed to become quite general 
over the country." 

At this period Pallas was also travelling, and alluded to the pre- 
valence of the disease on the Soongarian Steppe, along the Siberian 
frontier to the Wolga, where it was less common than in the easterly 
districts. He does not mention it as occurring in Eastern Siberia, 
but alludes to sad devastations by the disease amongst the good horses 
of the people in the broad district watered by the river Iset. Hablizl, 
one of Pallas's contemporaries, alludes to the disease as specially rife 
after floods. A staff-surgeon about the same period reports on the 
disease as occurring annually amongst human beings, from the Cas- 
pian Sea along the border of the Terk. 

Professor Uden, who, according to Heusinger, justly includes the 



♦ Gmelin J. Q., Reise durch Sibirien. Gottingen, 1752. 

t Liefl. landwb. p. 447. T Abhandlungen, d. Ednig. Schired. Akad. vol. zz. 

§ Georgi J. G. Bemerk, auf einer reise ixn Russichen Reiche. Petersburg, 1775. 
II Falk J. P. Bertriige zur topographischen Kenntniss der Eussichen Reichs. 
Peienburg, 1785. 



230 THB SIBERIAN BOIL-PLAGUE. 

Siberian boil-plague in the general history of anthrax outbreaks, 
speaks of the disease as prevalent over a very wide extent of country 
in European and Asiatic Eussia, and as having killed many horses, 
cattle, sheep, pigs, and men. 

Haupt speaks from personal inquiries and observations for a period 
extending from 1810 to 1823, and alludes to the fact that in Eastern 
Siberia, due north of the supposed original seat of the malady, it had 
not been known more than from thirty to sixty years. The disease 
seems to have been very fatal, especially, on its first appearance, at each 
outbreak, from the year 1780 to 1800, but always less so in East than 
West Siberia. During the period of Haupt's observations the attacks 
over the country seem to have been more restricted and milder than 
before. Probably the ravages of the disorder had been mitigated by 
better treatment, for the renowned traveller Adolph Ermann,* whose 
journeys through Eussia commenced in 1828, says, after referring to 
the tormenting flies and gnats of the swamps of Asiatic Eussia : — 
" It is in the hot season, too, that that terror of natives and visitors, 
the Siberian plague (Sibirskaya yazva, as it is called) prevails. This 
malady is known to cut off frequently both men and cattle in the 
course of a few days. It is, however, much less feared now than for- 
merly, as it has been found that puncturation with a needle upon the 
exposed parts of the person will, if promptly resorted to, always pre- 
vent the extension of the irritation and swelling which invariably 
accompany the progress of the disease. 

I can add little to the above facts, relating to the history, of the 
disorder. It is singular how few have referred to special outbreaks, 
and the most recent notice alluded to by that most indefatigable 
compiler, Heusinger, in his work published so late as 1850, is that of 
Gebler, who speaks of the disease as very prevalent in 1829, at Bar- 
naul, in the government of Yomsk. The summer was rather dry and 
cool than hot, and the Siberian carbuncle began in the middle of 
July. Gebler compared it to the Hungarian anthrax (Schwarze 
blatter,) or the Swedish furia infemalis (Skott-sjukam,) and speaks of 
it as more severe than he had seen it previously. It is certain that 
the disorder has continued to appear yearly up to the present time, 
but invariably during the summer, and not attracting any special 
attention, from the usual character of its manifestations. Professor 
Unterberger, of Dorpat, spoke to me about it in 1863, and referred to 
it as one of the endemic plagues of Eussia. 

Causes of the Disease. — So far as we can learn, the malady has 
been traced invariably to the oppressive heat of summer. The mean 
temperature in July at Yakutsh is 68°8 Fahr. ; but this is much ex- 
ceeded in some parts, and at the same time the night temperature is 
very low. There are usually very sudden changes from cold to heat 
when the Siberian boil-plague manifests itself, whilst, on the other 

* Travels in Siberia, by Adolph Ermann. Translated by William Desborongh 
Cooley. London, 1848. 



THE SIBERIAN BOIL-PLAGUE. 231 

hand, it disappears rapidly if the temperature lowers speedily, or as 
the autumn sets in. Most observers admit, that outbreaks usually 
begin and cease in the months of May, June, July, and August, and 
the last two are probably the worst months for the disease. It has 
been known to break out suddenly in August and to cease in three 
weeks, committing sad havoc, so long as the heat was suflScient to 
induce it 

There are many records which tend to confirm Hablitzl's view, that 
inundations are prolific in causing outbreaks of the Siberian boil- 
plague. Rather unlike the contagious typhoid of the ox so prevalent 
in the Russian steppes, it is to be met with more in well-watered 
plains, free from the vast accumulations of brine, so common in the 
Russian dominions. The most remarkable and fertilising rivers of 
Siberia, or even of European Russia, as well as the inland seas, seem 
to saturate the soil periodically with superabundant moisture, favour- 
able when a certain degree of heat occurs to the development of the 
Yaswa. The spring floods, when the snow and ice melts, heavy falls 
of dew in summer, &c., are often followed by the development of the 
disease. 

It is common, therefore, on the rich and broad meadow lands, which 
are here and there disposed to be swampy, or on the wide plains 
through which rivers flow, which are often nearly dry in summer, 
where waters fit for the use of men and animals is only to be had on 
the surface in spring, though at any spot the soil, which is hard and 
dry, may be tapped with effect, and wells of this description have to 
be constantly bored. 

Although the Siberian boil-plague occurs annually to a greater or 
less extent, all observers have noticed the recurrence of severe and 
wide-spread outbreaks at intervals varying from ten to fifteen years. 
As many natural phenomena manifest a very remarkable periodicity, 
so do we recognise in disease a tendency to follow a similar law. 
This cannot be easily understood with regard to purely contagious 
diseases, and there is much need for very careful investigation into all 
circumstances which lead to the unusual development every now and 
then of the essentially contagious affections. With regard, however, 
to anthrax and the anthracoid maladies, including the Siberian boQ- 
plague, we can readily understand the connexion between their un- 
usual development and their atmospheric vicissitudes or other so- 
called *' cosmical phenomena," which operate so largely in inducing 
or preventing such diseases. 

Genelin, Haupt, and others, have noticed that during any special 
outbreak, there are days and weeks of greater mortality than others. 
Some days or weeks of serious illness are followed by brief healthy 
periods, and an aggravation of the disorder again occurs. It is al- 
ways most fatal at the commencement of an outbreak, and the fever 
becomes less severe. We now know that the simplest sporadic 
affections manifest the most interesting periodicity with reference even 



232 THE SIBEKIAN BOIL-PLAGUE. 

to remissions and exacerbations. The same applies especially to fevers 
and the various plagues. 

, Haupt asserts that the Siberian plague is most to be feared when , 
the atmosphere is still, or. during the prevalence of south and.westerly 
winds. North and east winds are against its appearance, as also cold 
and wet weather. 

In man, age and sex affect the development and severity of the 
disease. Males suffer more than females. Females experience less 
pain and recover more readily when attacked. Some say it never at- 
tacks children, whereas others assert that rare instances have occurred 
in early life, but the disease was mild and not fatal There is but a 
slight disposition to attacks up to the age of twenty ; from twenty to 
forty it is common ; it becomes rare in people above forty, though it 
is very deadly when it attacks the old and infirm. 

The malady usually commences among the lower classes, and there 
is no reason to doubt that the causes capable of inducing ordinary 
relapsing or famine-fever, have often combined to aggravate the 
genuine Siberian or Asiatic boil-plague. When the disease appears, 
however, the wealthy succumb, and there are many Siberian towns 
where peiteons of distinction, male and female, have died of the 
disease. 

I have now to consider that most important question, the contagi- 
ous character of the disease and the relations existing between these, 
in men and animals. ' 

As with anthrax and all allied disease, it has been supposed that 
the poison capable of producing the boil-plague is transmitted from 
place to place by flies and insects. Acting on this belief the Siberians 
have been known to set fire to a house in which there was lying the 
dead body of a man, the first afflicted in a village, and who was sup- 
posed to have been contaminated by a sting. The face, scalp, and 
neck are so often the seats of the boils, and, indeed, so much more 
frequently than other parts of the body, that there appears to be 
almost as much foundation for this belief in relation to the boil- 
plague as to the ordinary malignant pustule. Whereas, however, 
there is a general unanimity. of opinion regarding the invariable de- 
pendence of malignant pustule on communication from the lower 
animals, there is almost as decided a concurrence of statements with 
reference to the spontaneous and independent development of the 
Siberian boil-plague in man. 

Animals Affected with the Disease. — ^Very precise information has 
been published regarding the manner and extent to which horses are 
affected, and no doubt many outbreaks are almost entirely confined 
to the equine species. Haupt is very distinct in his remarks on the' 
almost complete immunity enjoyed by other animals during even 
severe manifestations of the Siberian boil-plague, and he has pub- 
lished information as to the number of horses attacked at stated 
periods. Thus, the chief of the Tobolsk government published a 



THE SIBEBIAN BOIL-PLAGUE. 



233 



list relating to an outbreak in the summer of 1822, before the 1st of 
July, when the number of horses aflfected is represented as follows : — 



YilUges. 


No. of horses kept. 


No. dead. 


No. stlU ill on the 1st of July. 


Sutchewa, 


83 
17 

156 

36 
62 
27 
65 
78 
25 
88 
20 
146 

29 

45 
50 
15 
25 
23 
20 


85 
9 

2 

1 

1 

1 • 
8 
8 
1 
1 
. 4 
12 

6 

5 
1 

1 

2 

1 


7 

( These two cases oc- 
— i curred on the 17th 
( to 24th June. 

Occurred on the 24th 
f of June. 

f Occurred on the 25th 
I of June. 

1 

o 1 After the Ist July, 9 

^ j taken iU and 6 dead. 

4 

2 

1 




Adbaachak, 


Owsanikowa, 

Rusanowa, 

Germakowa, 

Kopotulowa, 

Domaschnfya, 

Siinkowa, 


Burlakowa, 

Malkowa, 


Jurti Ji Statzkia, 

Bascbajewa, ...... 

Druswanka, 

Kaliki, 


Bertschustny, 

Schorukowa, 

Zarewskaja, 


Besrukowa, 




No. of Tillages,. 19 


950 


94 


18 



About 10 per cent, therefore, of the entire number of horses died of 
this one disease alone. It is also reported that in 1818, in the district 
of Jalutrovosk, 360 horses died out of 80,000 in the months of June 
and July. During the same months in 1821, in the town of Tobolsk, 
100 horses fell ill out of a total of 1000, and 30 died. 

Heusinger states that Steller, one of the oldest observers, spoke of 
the disease beginning amongst horses, and the most recent writer, 
Pobrowsky, also assures us that horses are first seized. 

The fact that horses are affected more than men has been attri- 
buted to human beings experiencing some protection from their 
houses; horses that are constantly in the open air, grazing, &c., being 
specially sieized in many districts. 

Horned cattle are not very liable to the disease. In 1818 only 15 
cows died out of 55,000, whilst the disease was raging amongst horses. 
In the outbreak of 1822 in one district only 2 cows out of 67 were 
affected, and in another district 4 cows were seized. Gmelin, Falk, 
and Ledebour assert positively that cattle are rarely affected, and 
Haupt trusts to his personal experiences in declaring that repeated 
cases of the disease in any animals besides horses are apt to be cases 
of other affections, raging at the time that the boil-plague is raging, 
but distinct from this malady. He specially indicates that where he 
observed the disease, that there were many more animals of other 
kinds than horses, but he never met with the disease except in the 
latter. 



234} STEANGULATED INGUINAL HERNIA AND 

All agree that sheep are rarely attacked, and pigs have very rarely 
been referred to in connexion with the subject. Camels and goats 
have been reported as subject to it in rare instances. 

Of the wild animals special notice has been takea of an outbreak 
amongst the dziggetais of the steppes, which are said by Wlassof to 
have been the first affected in 1779, and after them horses and even 
cattle were seized. Wrangell alludes to reindeer being affected at 
the same time that the boil-plague has been raging amongst men. 

From all this we learn that, however similar the causes induc- 
ing the Siberian boil-plague may be to those giving rise to ordinary 
anthrax, there is an essential difference between the susceptibilities of 
different animals in relation to the two maladies. Anthrax origi- 
nates principally in cattle, sheep, and pigs, and communicated by 
them to human beings. Horses are not so often affected as rumi- 
nants. The Siberian boil-plague is said to occur principally in men 
from causes apart from contagion ; and, indeed, rarely have instances 
of communications from the equine species been noticed. Horses 
are principally affected, and independently of other quadrupeds : a 
clear distinction seems therefore to be established between ordinary 
anthrax and the Siberian plague. 

(To be continued.) 



Strangulated Inguinal Hernia and Rupture of the Stomach in a 
Horse. By G. Armatage, V.S. to Eight Hon. the Earl Vane. 

I AM indebted to Mr A. Maun, sen., Lambton, for the morbid speci- 
men which accompanies this report. The case possesses features 
of peculiar interest, and I think it is worthy of a place in our 
Veterinary Records, 

The subject of this notice was a brown horse, 17 hands high, -and 
about 14 or 15 years of age, used on the collieries of the Earl of 
Durham, principally as a crab-horse ; that is, he was employed in a 
kind of windlass, by which the workmen are lowered or raised dur- 
ing their examination and repair of the pumps, &c., in shafts of coal- 
pits. Such an occupation is often long continued, necessitating an 
exposure frequently to most inclement weather; but when men are 
only to be lowered, the work is not considered laborious, nor was he 
found to suffer under it in any way whatever. 

On one occasion, six years ago, when drawing coal-waggons on a 
slight gradient, he stumbled and fell, and was pushed along the rails 
by the waggons a distance of about thirty yards, receiving extensive 
bruises about the haunch, loins, and thighs, which . appeared to be 
superficial, however, and were quite well in the space of a month, 
the animal being again put to crab-work, none the worse to all ap- 
pearance. From this time till December last, he continued to work 
well, maintained his strength and condition, yet appeared somewhat 



BUPTUBE OP THE STOMACH m A HOESE. 235 

dull, but never requiring medical assistance. On the 12t1i of that 
months he was seized with slight colic, for which Mr Mann prescribed 
an anodjme mixture, and returned to his work again in half an hour. 

Nothing further took place until the 2d of the present month — 
March — when the driver again brought the animal, now in extremis. 
Symptoms were urgent, and speedily developed, consisting of hurried 
respiration, cold perspiration over the whole body, which, in the first 
instance, broke out abruptly on each side of the thorax, behind the 
shoulder. As he walked, he reeled, and when allowed to stand, 
trembled much, and with diflSculty escaped falling. The hind legs 
were placed widely apart, and he constantly attempted to urinate, 
succeeding only in passing a few drops of normal-looking fluid. The 
eyeballs protruded in the extreme, the neck arched, and muscles 
strongly contracted, drawing the nose in close approximation to the 
chest, where it was retained. 

The tongue black, and hung from the mouth, which was tightly 
closed, allowing, however, of white froth to be discharged in great 
quantities. Mucous and froth, of a dirty colour, also came from the 
nostrils profusely. The conjunctiva was of a pale yellow colour, with 
its network of vessels finely injected. 

As nothing had passed his bowels for some time, it was attempted 
to introduce the hand, but this could not be efi'ected, on account of 
extreme spasm. At times he would attempt to lie down, and continued 
thus — experiencing no relief from treatment — from 10 A.M. to 3 P.M., 
when he suddenly dropped dead. 

From the first the pulse was imperceptible at the jaw and radius, 
accompanied with extreme coldness of the ears and extremities. 

A postrmortem examination was commenced on the morning of the 
3d instant. 

On opening the abdomen, a coDsiderable amount of fat adhered to 
the intestines ; and about four gallons of red serum escaped from the 
opening made into the walls. About half the quantity of fiuid also 
came away by the rectum, when the carcass was moved in the act of 
flaying. 

The transverse colon exhibited a patch of peritoneal inflammation, 
six or eight inches in area ; but all other tissues and viscera were 
blanched and flaccid. 

Food was distributed throughout the cavity, and extended to the 
pelvis. The intestines were next turned aside, and found to contain 
fluid only ; but in the omental sac was a large mass of half-masticated 
hay and oats, with whole beans, occupying a space equal to double 
the quantity found in any stomach in health. The small intestines 
were traced, when a portion was found to form an inguinal hernia, 
with adhesions ; at the pyloric end it was free. The oesophagus was 
divided, when the cardiac portion of the stomach, on being raised, 
was discovered to be extensively lacerated along the greater curvature, 
and the lacerations extended to the pyloric hsdf. 

When this case was first related to me, and special reference made to 



236 STRANGULATED HEBNIA IN A HOBSK. 

the apparent absence of much of the tissue composing the coats of the 
stomach, I fancied it might be a case of ulceration and perforation ; but 
on carefully examining the parts, and ascertaining some of the facts, I 
can glean that the horse was first seized with symptoms of severe and 
unmoveable obstructions of the bowels. The tenesmus, violent con- 
tractions of the rectum on the arm being forced up, the partial sweats 
bedewing the body, indicate, with the aid of the information derived 
from post-mortem appearances, that the animal had a strangulated 
inguinal hernia. This is so rare in geldings that its having been 
overlooked need not astonish us, especially as the symptoms were very 
decidedly those of ruptured stomachs. 

On examining the stomach and omentum at my leisure, I have 
found that the particles of undigested food still adhering to the 
omentum, indicate that the gastric laceration must have occurred 
shortly after the ingestion of a quantity of food. As is usual in these 
cases, the over-distended organ had become lacerated along the greater 
curvature by tearing of the peritoneal coat first, then of the muscular, 
which had receded so as to deceive one as to the amount of destruc- 
tion the stomach had sustained, and the mucous membrane was soft 
and irregularly torn, and in a condition as if it had sufiered somewhat 
from the action of the gastric juice. 

This case is replete with interest, and it shows how careful we 
should be in diagnoscing cases which appear at first sight trivial 
and unimportant Who thinks of examining the inguinal region of a 
gelding, though he may be suffering from some extraordinary and 
unaccountable obstruction ? It is very important to make a close ex- 
amination in all cases in which injections cannot be given or retained 
in the rectum. The strangulation in the case above related cannot 
have occurred before the horse had taken the full meal which rendered 
possible the rupture of the stomach, and I am disposed to believe that 
the animal was fresh and well until he took his last feed, after which 
the strangulation supervened, and this indirectly led, through the 
horse knocking himself about, &c., to the coats of the stomach giving 
way. 

When I say that the horse was perfectly well before the last attack, 
which ended in his death, I do not wish it to be understood that he 
was entirely free from inguinal hernia, as few will doubt that, in all 
J)robability, the inguinal hernia, with its adhesions, had existed for 
some time, and at last led to the horse'B sudden destruction through 
one of the many causes which are capable of producing a hernial 
strangulation. 



THB HISTOEY OF THE VETEEINAEY AET. 237 



Preliminary Examinations, with Reflections on some Epochs in the 
History of the Veterinary Art. By Joseph Gamgee, Senior. 

Whethbb it be advisable to institute preliminary examinations for 
candidates for studentship at the veterinary colleges, is a questions 
which has from time to time been discussed, without any apparent 
advance being made towards its solution, or the exhibition of much 
argument in favour of the measure. 

Some years ago, at the time when veterinary periodicals were 
first established, the general questions relating to modes- of granting 
diplomas, and the pursuance of a curriculum of instruction, were freely 
discussed imder various aspects, according to the views entertained by 
the men of progress at that time. Preliminary examination was 
then, amongst other means, suggested as calculated to guard against 
the admission of men insuflBciently educated into the ranks of the 
profession. 

At the time referred to, it was felt to be a peculiar hardship by 
some of the most distinguished members of the veterinary profession, 
that they were emphatically denied all participation in testing the 
fitness of candidates to receive the diploma, or in testifying to their fit- 
ness to practise the art ; and as they saw men entering at the Eoyal 
Veterinary College, of all ages and conditions, who in the space of 
from six to nine months after were, with few exceptions, allowed to 
pass the Board, and pronounced to be duly qualified to practise the 
veterinary art, they justly showed umbrage at the impolitic course 
so prevalent. Systematically shut out from deliberative assistance on 
all matters concerning their own profession, many of those talented 
members were determined to begin to attack the abuses at some one 
point ; and, therrfore, the question of fitness for admission at the 
College was raised. 

Comparisons were made of the courses adopted at the veterinary 
schools of France and those laid down in the programme on the 
establishment of the London College ; with the unsystematic manner 
subsequently carried out in practice at the last-named institution. 

The comparisons were fallacious, because partially drawn; there 
being hardly any resemblance between the French and English veter- 
inary schools. The first were fostered by Government support, and 
conducted under a modified military discipline, where the students 
fulfilled the first avowed objects of the State, these being the obtain- 
ment of able practitioners for the army service, departmental towns, 
and agricultural districts. Four years of systematic training was the 
least admissible course prior to granting the final examination ; and 
to enable youths to devote that time, the State helped them by pro- 
viding board and instruction at a charge below cost. Conditions 
were attached to these privileges ; the candidate had to afford 
documentary proof from his birth-place, of age, character, paren- 
tage, &c., and farther to submit to an ordeal to test the extent of 



238 THE HISTORY OP THE VETERINARY ART. 

preparatory scholastic knowledge possessed, and also some pertaining 
to the veterinary art. 

In England, in accordance with our free and self-supporting 
sy^ms, Government took no farther heed about the obtainment of 
able veterinary surgeons, than that of sanctioning the school and 
granting a military status to members admitted into the army 
service. The students received no aid from the State as in 
France. 

One great mistake made by its managers in the early stage of the 
London Veterinary College was, the election of one professor only, 
into whose hands all control and emoluments converged; every 
guinea which was paid as entrance-fee by pupils went into his private 
purse. Thfe professor filled, besides the College chair, a multiplicity 
of oflScial appointments, which, in the aggregate, gave an annual in- 
come reported at the time to have ranged between three and four thou- 
sand pounds per annum, — a sum suflScient to have commanded a staff 
of the most talented teachers of veterinary science that Europe could 
have furnished. Ninety lectures, or thereabout, were delivered at our 
College during the session, and the twenty guineas admission-fee, as 
might have been anticipated, formed a premium for allowing numbers 
to enter, without questions as to their capability of profiting by the 
course ; and rapid exit from the College, with admission into the pro- 
fessional body, was permitted, which encouraged others to enter — 
ours being the only one amongst the professions that could be decided 
on, qualified for, and entered into within the space of a year. A 
royal road was, iji fact, opened, afibrding quick and easy change 
from a nondescript person to the man of professional status, and 
the attempt to alter for the better such a state of things some years 
later, by merely extemporising a few questions to be answered before 
admission to studentship, was not affording evidence of much under- 
standing of the many shortcomings, which required change before a 
course of instruction could be provided and discipline established, 
such as an art like that of veterinary medicine and surgery urgently 
required. 

From comparing with foreign veterinary schools as in time past, it 
has of late become the fashion to vie with the universities and medical 
schools of our own country, but without profiting by the great re- 
forms that have taken place at these ; selecting for imitation only an 
incidental and most recent step — ^that of preliminary examination ; yet 
no analogy can be shown, and such hastily drawn comparisons, and 
precipitate action taken on them, are liable to lead to any but good 
practical results. There is a wide difference between the work re- 
quired and time to be devoted before a degree in medicine or surgery 
can be obtained, and that which the Eoyal College of Veterinary 
Surgeons deems sufiicient ; and whether admitted or not, it is a fact, 
that the work of the veterinarian differs greatly from the calling of 
the physician and surgeon, and it seems to me tJiat our proper course 
is, to emulate the older institutions in the solid and essentially sci^n- 



THE HISTORY OF THE VETERINAEY ART. 239 

tific and professional work, leaving for a while, at least, the prepara- 
tory scholarship test open. 

The great improvements which have been going on for centuries 
in the universities and medical schools, the advances in all pursuits 
which extend the borders of knowledge, not only of the science of 
human medicine, but of the veterinary art, has rendered the work 
of the student so much greater than formerly, that the time de- 
voted to study has been enlarged, and four years is now the mini- 
mum period of systematic work that will suflSce before a degree 
in medicine can be obtained. So pressed for time to do the neces- 
sary work are the students, that it has been deemed expedient by 
the boards and directors, to institute examinations in arts, as a 
prior step, in order to ensure a high standard of learning amongst 
physicians and surgeons, without allowing the scholastic to clash 
with the professional subjects, so that the last may have their undi- 
vided energies during the four years allotted. 

' An old proverb with the Italians says, " The fathers of citizen 
families, who have three sons, usually destine the most promising and 
talented to follow the legal profession, the second one, tried by the 
same test, is sent to study medicine, and the third, and least active of 
the three, becomes a priest." In our country, where high scholastic 
acquirements in young men is at a premium, we shoiJd not only 
have church, law, and medicine before us, but with an infinity of 
brilliant careers open to compete for by young men, we could hardly 
expect to be last among the bodies who seek new life and social 
strength from the dawn of manhood. Whereas, by leaving our por- 
tals open as heretofore, and inviting the really eligible to veterinary 
studentship — viz., the lovers of animals, men who have been bred 
amongst them^ and who to some extent have acquired habits in their 
management; — these, who will not only, in many instances, bring 
much scholastic lore, but they will do what others have all along 
done; they will bring sound vigorous minds and hands, used to 
work, which with honest-looking English, Scottish, and Irish faces, 
should find a welcome reception at any veterinary school in the king- 
dom ; and if such men cannot be made good veterinary practitioners, 
the fault must be sought in the system, and not the men. 

In veterinary practice, instead of wanting to obtain all men alike, 
the reverse should be the aim, and, if freedom be allowed, the men 
wlQ come from places to which they will go back again ; and it is 
clearly the province of the veterinary schools to send them away 
well accomplished for the future career that awaits them. An illus- 
tration is afforded, by some members of our profession, of what may 
be regarded as an axiom : that no section of men should be intrusted 
to make laws for their own governance, inasmuch as these members 
ask to be allowed to tyrannise over future candidates by excluding 
them, on the plea that the medical schools require preliminary educa- 
tion ; while we refuse to follow their example on all the more essential 
matters. Many of the graduates in medicine are always to be found 
Vol. I.— No. V.— New Semes. Mat 1865. S 



240 THE HISTOBY OF THE VETEEINAEY ABT. 

about the medical hospitals, devoting more time to learning after they 
have fulfilled the law, in giving up four years to study and then 
obtaining their diploma, than the Eoyal College of Veterinary Sur- 
geons demands altogether. 

At a recent meeting and dinner of one of the provincial veterinary 
associations, I observe that a member rose and made a laudatory speech, 
as a compliment to the Principal of our oldest Veterinary College, 
because he, " the Principal," had been bold enough to go in for pre- 
liminary examinations, and had actually given the blow first, and the 
word afterwards, for he had sent two candidates away from the Col- 
lege, without admission, this session. The strange narrative has so 
far excited my curiosity, that I long to make acquaintance with these 
two distinguished individuals. Were they merely extemporised for 
the purpose of producing a little dust to throw in the associated 
members' eyes ? Or were they blind, dumb, or could they have 
been the bearers of tickets-of-leave ? 

These questions are of moment, and the answers to them may 
prove relevant in forming a judgment on the matter. 

If we are to have preliminary examinations forced prematurely 
upon us, let us, in the name of English fair play, have the formality of 
a by-law from the Council of the Royal College of Veterinary Sur- 
geons, not to say some legislative enactment. What could the fathers 
of those two young men have said, in finding their sons sent away, 
snubbed, their anfiour propre and hopes destroyed by the arbitrary 
bidding of one individual ? 

Assuming the possible case of these men having reached the years 
of discretion, and to have earned the little packet of guineas which 
they took to invest in the acquisition of important knowledge ; and 
suppose them to be told, " Oh no, go and hammer iron and cut and 
rasp horses' feet, you are no scholars." I hardly think that the two 
men would have been made of such sterling stuff as such test would 
imply, or else we should have learnt of their having taken legal ad- 
vice, on being so peremptorily dismissed, before they bowed and 
backed out. 

Let us. have educated men to all available extent ; and education 
freely worked out ; we shall not attempt to prescribe the exact kind 
or quantity ; but at least give us sound minds and bodies, the last 
strengthened by the performance of useful works, and the former 
untenanted by vicious thoughts and crotchets ; and then if good 
practical veterinary surgeons are not formed, the fault will be with 
the schools. 

Be the case as it may, since the act of summarily dismissing these 
men was unprecedented, and without,, what sensible Englishmen would 
call, authority ; it would have been well if the profession had been 
informed more about the matter. 

Most fathers who send a son to the Veterinary College, provided 
with the necessary number of guineas to meet demands, and with a 
clean shirt and a blanket, would press for inquiry into causes, if then: 



EXTEACTION OF THE CALF IN BEEACH PRESENTATION. 241 

son was refused admission ; and if the case happened to be that of a 
young man subsisting on his own resources, coming with a light 
heart, and the money of his own earning, to buy the means of more 
knowledge, give such a man the cold shoulder, and send him away. 
I should think that once he had travelled all the way to London, 
he would tell the odd tale there. 

While I am for enlarging the means of instruction, lengthening 
the time for study, and exacting the performance of alloted work from 
students, I am convinced that all interests will be best served, and 
veterinary science and art grow to more solid proportions, by allowing 
freedom for action, and relying on healthy competition and honourable 
rivalry amongst schools and pupils. Distinguishing, however, between 
freedom and neglect, I believe that energy and wise procedure should 
prevail in the Council of the Eoyal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
which, if it lacks the powers to carry required measures of reform, 
should seek to obtain them. 

The second section of my paper on some epochs in the History of 
the Veterinary Art is unavoidably postponed. 



Oases and Observations on Extraction of the OqJIf in Breach Pre- 
sentations by One Leg, By Mr. W. A. CartweiC4HT, M.RC.V.S., 
Whitchurch, Salop. 

About one o'clock on Sunday morning, the 20th March 1865, I was 
called up to an aged cow that could not calve, belonging to Mrs 
Lewis, of Hadley, Marbury, Cheshire, and was informed it was a 
breach presentation. On my arrival, I found the cow Jiad had several 
calves, and was in fair condition. 

A person of the name of Jones, residing in the village of Marbury, 
and who in his younger days had been pretty clever at such work, 
had tried for several hours to extract the calf, but had only suc- 
ceeded in getting one of the hind legs up. I found the other hind 
leg lying very low down under the calf s body, and I was not able 
to lay hold of the foot, or large pastern, so as to put a cord around 
the latter. 

I then inserted a hook imder the tendons just above the point of 
the OS calcis, with the hope that I should draw the leg higher up so as 
to lay hold of the foot, but even then I could not reach the foot, as 
the point of the hook stuck under the partially expanded os uteri ; 
but at length we got the hook into the passage, with the leg bent 
under the thigh, and in this position we removed the calf by pulling 
at the hock of one leg, and at the other leg. 

The placenta immediately followed, and the cow was soon all right 
again. 

Ca^e 2. — On Sunday afternoon, the 3d of April 1865, 1 was sent 
for to the above farmhouse to another aged cow, from whom they could 
not extract the calf. On my arrival I found this also was a breach pre- 



242 EXTPvACTION OF THE CALF IN BREACH PBESENTATION. 

sentation, and the persons in attendance had not, in this case, even 
been enabled to get one of the hind legs up, but after a time I suc- 
ceeded in getting one of the legs straight into the passage, but after 
trying every expedient, I was not enabled to get the other leg up. 

I then began seriously to consider what next was to be done, and 
on thinking the matter over, I could see no reason why the calf would 
not come as easily away with the one leg under the belly as if it was 
straight out behind, and I then determined to see if such would 
not be the case ; and after obtaining the necessary help of three men, 
I found that, on steadily and gently pidling at one leg, we were 
gradually succeeding, and ultimately we got the calf away without 
using greater force than if we had had both legs straight out. The 
placenta soon after followed, and the cow is doing well. 

On the 15th April 1865, 1 had another breach case at an adjoining 
farmhouse, but as the calf was small and in a better position, I ex- 
tracted it in about ten minutes. 

Observations. — As I take very great interest in veterinary ob- 
stetricy, I should be glad if any other veterinary surgeon, who has 
had the opportunity of putting the practice of extracting by one hind 
leg to the test, would send to your journal any similar cases, either 
successful or otherwise ; for I think if we can as easily extract 
in this position as in the other, it will both save us a great deal of 
trouble, and the animal a great deal of unnecessary pain ; and, for 
my part, I see no reason at present why the calf should not come 
away with one leg under him as in both being straight out, as the 
stifle and thigh will lie in the flank and under the belly without im- 
peding the extraction of the calf. Some may say that, by pulling 
only at one side of the foetus, we cannot so easily extract it as by pull- 
ing at both legs, but of this I am rather doubtful, and am inclined to 
think, on the contrary, this position may actually be an advantage in 
pulling one side of the pelvis in advance of the other, so that the 
iliac projections should not be in opposition at the same time ; and if 
we don't like to pull at one leg only, we can easily insert a hook 
under the skin of the rump on the other side so as to pull at this, 
side also. 

In the twenty-eighth volume of the "Veterinarian,"' p. 12, will be 
found a case of breach presentation recorded by me, when the cow 
expelled a larger calf by the breach only, arid with both legs under its 
belly, and the cow and calf did well. The distension was enormous, 
and she expelled it without scarcely any assistance from me. In 
volumes xv., xix., xx., and others, of the " Veterinarian," your readers 
will find the subject of extraction in breach and other presentations 
pretty freely discussed by me. 

In conclusion, I cannot but observe, that I do not think there is 
any subject more worthy the attention of veterinary students than the 
subject of veterinary obstetricy, as it is highly essential that every one 
intending to practice in a country district ought to be well grounded 
- this department especially. 



FBACTUBES OF A NAVICULAE BONK 243 



Extraction of a Foal — Forefeet presented — Head hack. By the same. 

At 7 a.m., on Friday, 21st April 1865, I was called in to a large 
cart mare, seven years old, the property of Mr Billington of this town, 
that could not foal On my arrival I found the mare standing up, 
and two legs of the foal were presented ; and on examination I ascer- 
tained that they were fore ones. In my exploration I found that I could 
also lay hold of the two hind feet, and which were within the pelvis. 
The head I could not find anywhere, and it was stretched back. After 
a little consideration I determined, now I had the opportunity, to pass 
cords around the hind legs just above the fetlock joints, and having 
done so, I pushed them back as well as I could, and then tried to find 
the head, but without avail. I next tried to push the fore legs back 
and draw the hinder ones forward, and extract by the breach, but I 
found I could not force the fore legs suflSciently back in consequence 
of the mare's excessive straining. 

• Having no alternative, I removed first one fore leg and then the 
other, in the usual way, at the shoulders. 

We now drew the hind legs forward, and the remainder of the foal 
came away without any difficulty, and the placenta immediately 
followed. 

I saw her afterwards in the course of the day, and I fancy she will 
do well. I have ascertained since, that some of the neighbours heard 
the mare groaning and knocking about in the course of the night, and 
I have no doubt, from her general appearance when I arrived, that 
she was foaling then. 

I forgot to mention that the side of the face of the foal was curved 
and hoUow on one side, with the nose bent inclining to the left side, 
produced by, no doubt, lying against some part of its body, -and 
it must have been in this position for many months to produce the 
malformation. 



Fractures of a Navicular Bone, following on protracted and a pro- 
gressive diseased condition of the same, with altered condition of 
the Pedal Bone. By Joseph Gamgee, Sen., Professor in the New 
Veterinary College. 

To the Editor of the Edinburgh Veterinary Revieiu, 

Aldkrshott, April 7, 1865. 

SlE, — In a letter which you published in your journal for May 1864, 
commenting on Professor Gamgee sen.'s paper, which appeared in the 
previous number, on chronic lameness of horses, I stated with regard 
to navicular disease, that '* I do not expect to find absorption of the 
bone internally as the cause or first condition of the disease," to which 



244* FRACTURES OF A NAVICULAR BONE. 

letter. Professor Gamgee appended some remarks, and also invited in- 
vestigation, with the view of dispersing the fallacy of " old notions/^ 
which he gives me credit for holding conscientiously. At present I have 
hot heard or read of any new notions, which appear to accord with 
facts to be observed in the diseased parts after death, or with the his- 
tory and symptoms of a case during life ; while I submit that my " old 
notions " do both. I therefore trust to be excused if I briefly revert 
to the subject. I have despatched a navicular bone, with the portion 
of the flexor tendon which passes under it, to the Professor's address, 
'for his inspection and use. The specimen illustrates the disease as I 
believe it really exists in the majority of cases, viz., primarily in the 
flexor tendon, as it passes under or behind the navicular bone, al- 
though I think inflammation of the articular cartilage of the bone, or 
its lining synovial membrane, may, nay does, lead to that roughened 
warty appearance of the articular surface of the bone, sometimes found 
in this kind of lameness. In the specimen sent, the tendon at the 
surface next the bone presents the appearance of having been gnawed 
by mice ; and was, I doubt not, the part flrst afiected, which when 
sprained, having some fibres ruptured, as this tendon had, givps to my 
mind the reason wty this disease proves so incurable. The tendon acts 
over a lever, and is lined by a vascular secreting membrane, which also 
connects it with the articular cartilage ; hence every motion tends to 
keep up the inflammation in the tendon, and also to cause it to ex- 
tend to other tissues, till the whole bursa becomes involved, and subse- 
quently the bone also ; hut first at the surface, and that only after the 
articular cartilage has been afiected. This is an old notion, but not the 
one Professor Gamgee ascribed to all, as neither contraction nor bruis- 
ing, &c., enter into the question as causes of the disease. A horse 
may be sound one day, with a foot apparently healthy, and the next 
day lame from navicularthritis, never again to be sound. Such, in fact, 
was the case with the one from which the specimen was obtained. 
Contraction does not produce the disease, but it frequently follows it, 
as it does almost any chronic infiammation of the foot, and when pre- 
sent, causes absorption or wasting of the coffin and sometimes the 
navicular bone from pressure. Necessarily, as the box lessens, the con- 
tents must diminish in bulk ; besides, a diseased part cannot perform 
perfectly the natural functions, which is probably another cause of 
wasting of these bones ; but I distinguish between general wasting of 
a part, and ulceration of the same — one is diseased structure, the other 
diminished bulk. Professor Gamgee in his paper compares thie ulcera- 
tion on the surface of the navicular bone to a decayed tooth, and says 
in effect that it commences internally and extends towards the surface, 
till eventually the bone breaks in. Did he ever find true ulceration 
internally with a sound articular surface ? If it occurs so, why call it 
atrophy or wasting ? It would be simply caries extending from the 
centre — a very different condition to general wasting. Again, if it com- 
mences internally, as the Professor supposes, how is it that the ulcera- 
tion does not show itself on the anterior articular surface ? and why 



FBACTUEES OF A NAVICULAR BONE. 245 

does not the wasting of the coffin bone lead also to ulceration exter- 
nally? Seeing, according to the Professor's views, it is the first affected, 
I should expect to find the ulceration most marked in it — I have the 
honour to be, your obedient servant, 

Alfred J. Owles, 
Veterinary Surgeon, General Staff. 



New Vetbwnart College, Edinburgh, 
8^ April 1865. 

Dear Sir, — I beg to acknowledge receipt of a diseased specimen 
of navicular bone and section of tendon, which, with your letter, shall 
receive my best and early attention. 

In tendering thanks, I feel doubtful whether, as an individual, I 
am entitled to express my opinion on the merits of the step you have 
taken, because I believe the question to be of so much importance, 
that every member who takes the same means as you are doing to 
arrive at definite knowledge on so important a subject, deserves the 
thanks of his brethren. 

I should have been glad if you had sent me the pedal bones of the 
same foot ; and one of the reasons for my writing thus early is, in 
the hope that you may not have made away with that bone, to ask 
you to forward it also, and, if possible, at same time to secure the 
other fore-foot of the same horse, and send it as welL 

If you send those specimens, or either of them to me, I promise to 
afford you all the information that may be derived from their care- 
ful investigation. 

I may tell you, though you will have gathered it from my writings, 
that for several years past I have been in the habit of examining the 
whole pedal region in these cases; and in order to include the entire 
knee-joint, I have a section made through the lower extremity of 
the radius ; and but for such extensive research, thereby learning re- 
lations, I could not have made out much that will, with the aid of 
others, ere long become evident to all — I am, dear sir, yours faith- 
fully, J. Gamgee. 

10^ April 1865. 

Sir, — I beg you will excuse the trouble I am giving, in my desire 
to render the specimen you sent me of the utmost possible use to 
veterinary science. 

Since I wrote you on Saturday, I have examined the specimen ; 
and now, if you can answer me the following questions, or some of 
them, the information afforded wiU be of importance : — 

How old was the horse ? 

How was he bred ? 

How long had you known him ? 

Had he ever possessed free and good action in his trot since you 
knew him, or while in the possession of his last owner ? 



246 FEACTUBES OF A NAVICULAE BONE. 

Had he ever been lame to your knowledge ? 
Did the horse feel infirm or unsafe to the rider of late ? 
What exertion was he undergoing when the accident happened 
which led to his destruction ? — I am, sir, yours faithfully, 

Joseph Gamgee. 

Mr Owles favoured me with the bone, and I received the following 
from him : — 

Aldeeshott, 11^^ April 1865. 

Sib, — In reply to the questions in your letter of yesterday, I have 
the pleasure to state that the horse was rising eight years ; he was 
got by a thorough-bred horse, — I forget the size. I had known him 
about three years before his death in January ; he had fair action, 
fine, but not high ; he had never been lame during the time I knew 
him previously, and was not infirm ; the cause of the lameness is not 
known, it was sudden. Subsequently to the lameness he had influ- 
enza badly, and rheumatism followed ; the latter attacked both fore 
fetlocks. This complication of diseases reduced the animal and left him 
with diseased lungs and permanent lameness, which led to his being 
destroyed. The foot lameness commenced in June 1862 ; I did not 
see the case till two weeks after the attack — the symptoms were ob- 
scure, but indicated the foot as the seat of injury. — I am, yours faith- 
fully, Alfbed Owles. 

In a letter bearing date of the 15th, Mr Owles says, " The horse 
had never been lame since I knew him previous to June 1 862, when 
the foot lameness commenced ; and I did not see the case for two 
weeks after the attack, as I was on the march, but I heard of it im- 
mediately by letter." 

Eemabks. 

For the interesting specimen, an illustration of which is given fur- 
ther on, we are indebted to Mr Owles, Veterinary Surgeon to the 
General Staff at Aldershott, who has kindly supplied the history of 
the case, which will be found to head these observations. The 
navicular bone came to my hand through the post, on Saturday, 
April 8 ; it was carefully put up in dry tow and paper. On open- 
ing the parcel, same time reading the letter which accompanied 
it, I found some bloody exudation around the bone, and the tow 
adhering to it ; I therefore placed it in a basin of water, in order to 
clear it of extraneous matter, and to examine it at leisure. In the 
meantime, I acknowledged receipt, and the same evening, after wash- 
ing the bone, I looked at it with the attention such a specimen would 
at any time elicit from me. The first thing to be observed was a 
highly vascular state of the whole substance of the bone ; and two 
depressions, when viewed from its lower and broad surface, were seen 
on the inferior anterior ledge, which, on closer inspection, proved to be 
two fractures ; the commonly prevalent flattened surface of the bone 



FEACTUEES OF A NAVICULAR BONE. 247 

on its lower surface fonned a characteristic feature of it, so much so 
that a deep depression in the bone is manifest over three-fourths of its 
long axis, passing through the natural prominent ridge over the lower 
and broad surface of the bone. Having made these observations I tied 
a thread round the bone, and hung it to the window curtain, in order 
to see its true character by daylight next morning ; and accordingly, 
after a lapse of some eight hours, the bone being clean and dry, its 
pathological state could at once be seen. The membranous textures 
lining the bone having retracted by drying, left the fractured edges 
clearly defined through their whole extent, and I was able at this 
juncture to see how force had been exerted to produce the result, and 
that the urgent symptoms of lameness, which finally led to the destruc- 
tion of the horse, must have been sudden in their appearance; yet, 
seeing the chronic diseased state, I cannot conceive that the horse could 
have moved freely during many of the latter months, or a year previous 
to the occurrence of fracture. I wrote to Mr Owles for more historical 
details, and am indebted to him for them, which will be found annexed, 
and also duly received the pedal bone, which appears to be of the near 
fore-foot of a well-bred horse, and is evidently that to which the 
fractured navicular bone belonged. I find the pedal bone wasted by 
absorption, both on its planta surface and around the lower circum- 
ference of its outer surface, giving to it a diminished form; which 
altered condition, I consider, must have deprived the horse of the 
capability of showing free, safe, and easy action. This pedal bone 
exhibits the signs of abnormal stress having been imposed on to it, over 
two aspects — firstly, the socket formation on either side, which receive 
the inner and outer condyles of the coronary bone, are depressed, 
having their margins thin, and bulging, showing that the weight was 
conveyed vertically on to it, and that the foot would have, when 
viewed from the pastern joint, an overshooting appearance. 

The next aspect of the coflSn bone, on which I shall remark, is 
that where the most injury had been sustained, and though not first 
in the order, became an additional cause of increased general derange- 
ment ; I allude to the posterior and lower articulating surface of the 
coflSn bone, where it articulates with the anterior aspect of the 
navicular bone — that part of the pedal bone contiguous to, and im- 
mediately above, the ledge of the navicular bone, which was fractured 
in two places. 

I am now come to a part of my narrative where, with the com- 
monly-accepted notions on the structures and functions of these parts, 
I fear I shall not easily make myself understood; yet the questions 
involved are of great importance, which require to be cleared up 
regarding the economy of the foot and diseases incidental to it. 
However far it may be from my wish to give a partial and in- 
complete description of my views on the function of structures under 
consideration, as it is the only way to treat the matter, since fuller 
details are incompatible with space, I adopt the alternative. 
The navicular bone, which is oblong in shape, is placed transversely 



248 



FRACTUBES OF A NAVICULAE BONE. 



behind the centre of the pedal bone, it has three lubricated surfaces, 
— the uppermost receives the posterior and lower part of the cor- 
onary bone, the upper and anterior articulates with a corresponding 
surface of the pedal bone, and the lower and backward aspect of the 
navicular bone forms the surface for the flexor pedal tendon to slide on. 
This bone is of about twice the substance and strength in the middle, 
where it has a twofold convexity, as seen above and below, to what it 
is on either side, midway between the centre and each extremity; 
which again are thickened and strong, with obvious adaptation for 
the hold of ligaments. The relative extent of the two large articu- 
lating surfaces of the navicular bone, bear proportion to each other of 
from two to three, or two to one greater on the lower aspect than 
that above, where it faces the coronary bone. The difference between 
the extent of the two surfaces is given by two ledges being extended 
from the body of the bone inferiorly, one anteriorly, which extends 
partly over a concavity of the pedal bone, and gives support and form 
for the tendon to rest and move on, and the other ledge extending 
along the posterior aspect of the bone, is short and dense, and is of 
about half the thickness of the body of the bone. The whole margin 
of this bone gives strong attaching surfaces to ligaments. 

The accompanying illustration, which I republish fxom the Review, 

vol. iii., page 640, where I first 
demonstrated some of the most 
important connections and en- 
dowments of the navicular bone, 
exhibits a transverse section of 
the foot, the posterior region 
being removed, to show the 
ligament rising from the pos- 
terior ledge of the navicular 
bone, increased manifold in 
substance at each extremity, 
passes obliquely over either 
side of the coronary bone, up- 
wards and forwards to the an- 
terior and lower surface of the 
pastern bone, which latter is 
the shaft which acts on the 
navicular bone, the innermost 
nucleus of a system, these bones 
standing in relation to each other as pulley and fulcrum below, the 
pastern region constituting the leverage power. 

Turning to the anterior aspect of the navicular bone, and viewing 
its lower surface, we find an advancing ledge giving attachment to 
the ligament which connects this to the pedal bone, not, as has been 
inferred, by a uniform flat ligament, but one whose power is mainly 
at the central point, where the navicular bone pushes forward like a 
ship's bow, having great substance there, in a medean line from front 




FRACTUBES OP A NAVICULAR BONE. 249 

backwards, (or, having regard to the oblique position of the bone nor- 
mally, it would be about equally correct to say from below upwards.) 
From that anterior point a strong short ligament connects it to the 
inner inferior concavity of the pedal bone, the fibres of which ligament 
are mainly inserted directly into the latter; and part of them, the 
outermost, become blended with those of the perforans tendonae, with 
which they are inserted. Thus the pedal bone at its central positions 
inferiorly, in its most concave recess, and where its strength converges, 
gives three insertions to structures, on the integrity and the economy 
of which depends the power of movement, and value for all purposes, 
of the horse. These insertions are, firstly, the main anterior ligament 
in the medean line of the navicular bone ; secondly, the tendon of the 
flexor perforans ; and thirdly, the strong tendinous frog. I need not 
trace these connections and the blending of functions further for my 
present object. The ligament which connects the navicular to the 
pedal bone is continuous with the central part described ; and looking 
at the crescent-shaped front ledge, we find two other points of that 
bone pushing forward towards two prominent parts of the pedal 
bone ; and at these points the connecting ligament has increase of 
strength, and it was at these two points where the two fractures in 
the specimen before us took place ; they are on either side, equi- 
distant from the strong central attachment. 




Besides the attachment direct between the pedal and navicular 
bones, the latter is most strongly connected by ligaments from both 
its extremities, which are directly inserted on the inner surface of the 
lateral cartilage, where it is supported by the basilar process of the 
pedal bone on each side ; and as the cartilage runs forward and is 
attached to the lower lateral surfaces of the coronary bone, and is 
connected with the anterior part of the pedal bone, we shall presently 
see how functions blend there to sustain force. Lastly, those liga- 
ments from the ends of the navicular bone connect downwards and 
backwards with the cartilages and fibrous bands, all of which coalesce 
and constitute the substance and strength of the pliable region of 
the foot. 

How did these fractures of the navicular bone happen ? Why, in 
the same way as all fractures of that bone do happen, whether it 
occurs near one of its extremities, or, as in some cases of more ad- 
vanced disease, in its centre — the locality depending on the relative 
weak part of the bone, and the way the force was applied on it In 



250 PEACTXTRES OF A NAVICULAR BONE. 

the case under notice the most prone points were those connected 
strongly to the pedal bone ; at the connection of the navicular with 
the pedal bone the functions of the foot allow of limited relaxation 
when it is lifted, and corresponding slight recedence occurs from the 
connecting point of these bones. But as the foot is pressed down, 
when movement of the body is going on, the pressure of the coronary 
bone is great in proportion to the energy of the muscular force em- 
ployed when the weight is passing over the point of resistance, at 
which instant the navicular bone is put to the test. Fixed by its 
front ligaments as well as laterally, and abutting against the pos- 
terior surface of the pedal bone, pressed up from behind by the flexor 
tendon, the pastern applies its leverage force ; thus, all fast and beauti- 
fully harmonising below, nothing seen by man of creative mechanism 
equals this aspect of the horse's foot, with its cuplike concavity, 
formed by two bones, so connected as to receive the strong broad 
condyles of coronary bone, which of itself is pla3dng physical parts 
beyond my power to estimate their force. It was by this antagonism 
of downward pressure anteriorly, and the upward action posteriorly, 
that the two points of the ledge of the navicular bone were fractured 
by virtue of its own connecting ligaments, being stronger than the 
bone itself at the part. 

My concluding remarks on this instructing case shall be brief. 
When the horse was first known to be lame, with the remainder of 
the history of the case, will be best gathered from the account of the 
gentleman to whom we are indebted for the report. Though we have 
the pathological conditions of one fore-foot only, there is no ground 
for supposing that the other one was free from disease, and probably 
it was not exempt from some share of the recent injury, since many 
cases show that the feet often suffer in pairs, and sometimes three, 
and even all four give way under extraordinary efforts when fracture 
of one bone occurs under exertion. We see that Mr Owles speaks 
of the feet, and not of a foot, as the seat of lameness. He tells us 
that both pasterns were swollen, which was attributed to rheuma- 
tism ; and that this was succeeded by influenza, and this latter by 
confirmed disease of the lungs and breaking up of the constitutional 
system. 

My own opinion on this interesting case is, as far as opinion may 
be allowable on the basis of facts and concurring incidents, that a 
weakening and at length diseased process had long been in progress 
in both pedal and navicular bones, and that the fractures occurred 
through the natural powers of the horse being exerted on structure?, 
weakened and placed under physical disadvantages in relation to co- 
operating phenomena. 

Instead of rheumatism, I believe that the swollen state of the 
pasterns was due to the fractured and complicated condition of bones 
and tissues below ; and that in all probability with the bones loose, ' 
as the fractured parts remained without any sign of their union being 
in progress, that purulent affection of the blood followed; which ran 
its coarse in the way described^ with the fatal consequences. 



%\t ^tknmi^ S^tteltt s«b BUthiamxi Iffurnal 



THE PKOGKESS OF THE PKOFESSION. 

When, in 1858, we published the first number of this Journal, one 
great motive which induced us to take the step, so shortly after estab- 
lishing the new Veterinary College, was to advocate the combination 
of all veterinary practitioners into one body, with a liberal consti- 
tution, having full power over its governing council and examin- 
ing boards, as secured to our profession by royal charter in 1844. 
Many have since been the eflforts to bring such men as Professor 
Dick and Mr John Hall Maxwell to their senses on this question, 
but few in the south have known what essence of arrogance and 
obstinacy these two names represent — the one determined to crush 
every one, to have his own way in all that concerns veterinary teach- 
ing and examining in the north ; and the other ready to do anything 
in support of tyrannical and oppresive rule; — gentle lambs these 
to be coaxed into good ways — to be reformed after a long career of 
evil-doing ! What did they care if a small profession was split up 
into two halves, and if the students who went to England with these 
certificates were taunted and annoyed ? 

We have been told all along that Professor Dick had his students 
examined before the Highland Society's Board. Professor Dick has 
been represented as not being all-powerful with the unpaid examiners 
whom he chooses. He gives them a dinner, and formerly was liberal 
enough to invite the students to the entertainment, but of late has 
imposed a penalty which the students refuse to pay. They get off 
with a two-guinea fee for their examination, which, no doubt, covers 
the expenses incurred in parchment and paper. This irresponsible 
board has, however, been doing a little good duty. At the examina- 
tions during the past month, it rejected 7 out of 28 students. Out 
of the 21 which it passed, 3 were examined a second time. , It is, 
be it remembered, the work done by Professor Dick's friends, for 



252 THE PBOGKESS OF THE PROFESSION. 

Mr Maxwell told the gentlemen who dined with Professor Dick at the 
Waterloo Hotel, that " there had been often a deal of misapprehension 
as to the relations which existed between the Highland Society and 
the Edinburgh Veterinary College. Some thought that Professor 
Dick examined the pupils himself and passed them, while others 
believed that the Highland Society did the examination, and granted 
the students its own diploma. This, however, he was glad to say, 
was not the case." 

We should not have noticed these matters but for the circumstance, 
that whilst fewer students are taking the so-called Highland Society's 
certificate, which Mr Maxwell tells us is not the Highland Society's, 
but Professor Dick's, a large number of members is annually ad- 
mitted into the body of our legally-constituted profession. Many who 
were formerly contented with Mr Dick's certificate have gone to the 
expense of a journey to Edinburgh and London, to become properly 
qualified ; and some who have written to the Professor for certificates, 
have received them in an envelope, with the ungracious and not very 
grammatical sentence of " fools and their money is soon parted," 
alluding, no doubt, to the fee payable for the only legal veterinary 
diploma in these realms. 

If the Eoyal College has to congratulate itself on its present posi- 
tion, it certainly cannot thank Professor Dick, or Mr John Hall 
Maxwell ; and as the new Veterinary College led to the reorganiza- 
tion of the Scotch branch, it has steadily enhanced the interests of 
the body corporate, and exposed the rottenness of a system which, 
for many years, did no small damage to the profession in North 
Britain. It is no meagre result to find the number of properly quali- 
fied members of our profession steadily increasing in the North ; and 
we anticipate that what has not been accomplished by exhortation 
and earnest appeal to Professor Dick, has been attained by the strong 
hand of time, and the effect of rational advice with those who now 
seek to become veterinary practitioners. 



BOYAL COLLEGE OF YETESINABY SURGEONS. 253 

KOYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 

Quarterly Meeting of Council, April 5, 1865. 

Present — ^The President, Professors Spooner and Vamell, Messrs 
Broad, Ernes, Greaves, Harpley, Harrison, Helmore, Lawson, 
Robinson, Thacker, Wilkinson, and the Secretary. — The Presi- 
dent in the chair. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

Letters were read which had been received from several gentlemen 
holding the Highland and Agricultural Society's certificate, who were 
desirous of becoming candidates for the diploma of the Royal College 
of Veterinary Surgeons at the next meeting of the Court of Examiners. 

A letter was also read from Professor Syme, acknowledging his 
election, and accepting his appointment, to the Scotch section of 
the Board of Examiners ; and one from Dr Struthers, on the subject 
of his re-election as Secretary to the Board. 

The subject of the forthcoming examinations was then considered, 
when it was moved by Mr Ernes, and seconded by Mr Helmore, — 

" That the London examinations take place April 24, and be con- 
tinued on the 25th, 26th, and 27th.*'— Carried. 

It was moved by Mr Wilkinson, and seconded by Mr Ernes, — 

" That the Scotch examinations take place on April 24 and follow- 
ing days." — Carried. 

The Registrar reported the following deaths, — viz., Mr Henry 
Hogreve, halfway loth Dragoons; diploma dated July 1, 1806. 
Mr Wm. Woodman, half -pay, 2d Dragoons ; diploma dated June 30, 
1812. Mr Sargeant T. Harman, Arundel, Sussex ; diploma dated 
April 30, 1847. Mr Thos. Pengree Page, E.LC., 19th Hussars; 
diploma dated June 28, 1836. Mr John Robinson, Lichfield, Staf- 
ford; diploma dated April 27, 1815. Mr William D. Lines, St 
John's Wood ; diploma dated May 11, 1853. Mr James Buckeridge; 
Hungerford, Berks ; diploma dated April 28, 1863 ; and Mr Charles 
C. Brett, half-pay, Cavalry Dep6t, Maidstone ; diploma dated April 
1, 1828. 

The Finance Committee reported that they had examined the 
vouchers and receipts of payment during the preceding quarter, 
which were found to be correct. They also submitted the quarterly 
balance-sheet of the Treasurer's account, from which it appeared 
that the liabilities, for the quarter ending April 1, amounted to 
£69, 6s. lid. They recommended that these liabilities should be 
discharged. 

It was moved by Mr Broad, and seconded by Mr Helmore; that 
the report be adopted. — Carried. 

Cheques were ordered to be drawn for the current expenses. 

The arrangements for the forthcoming annual meeting were next 



254 EOYAL COLLEGE OF VETEBINARY SURGEONS. 

considered, when it was moved by Mr Lawson, and seconded by Mr 
Eobinson, — 

*' That Messrs Wilkinson, Emes, Harpley, and the Secretary, be 
appointed the committee to prepare the annual report." — Carried. 

It was moved by Mr Lawson, and seconded by Mr Greaves, — 

" That Mr James Hall, and Mr Joseph Woodger, be appointed 
auditors." — Carried. 

A discussion next took place relative to the anniversary dinner, 
when it was resolved, — " That the London Tavern be selected, and 
that the Council be the stewards." 

It was moved by Mr Wilkinson, and seconded by Mr Greaves, — 
" That Messrs Silvester, Emes, Harpley, and Thacker, constitute the 
dinner committee." — Carried. 

The Secretary called the attention of the Council to the propriety 
of having additional advertisements inserted, viz., in the Sporting 
Gazette and the Glasgow Herald, which was agreed to. 
By Order of the Council, 

Wm. Hy. Coates, Secretary. 



SPECIAL MEETING OP THE COUNCIL, HELD APRIL 19, 1865. 

Present — The President, Professor Varnell; Messrs Brown, Emes, 
Harpley, Harrison, Helmore, Moon, Thacker, Wilkinson, Withers, 
and the Secretary. — The President in the chair. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

A letter was read, which had been received from Dr Struthers, 
relative to an application for examination made by Mr Eobert Park, 
a veterinary student of the Glasgow school, who submitted an attested 
list of medical certificates which he had received from the University 
of Glasgow, during a period of three years' attendance, as well as a 
certificate from Professor M'Call of the Glasgow Veterinary College, 
for the session 1864-5. 

It was moved by Mr Wilkinson, and seconded by Mr Harpley, — 

" That Mr Park be considered eligible for examination, and that a 
telegram be sent to Dr Struthers to that eflfect." — Carried. 

A letter was also read from Mr Cowie, one of the members of the 
Court of Examiners acting for Scotland, relative to the meetings of the 
board in Edinburgh being held twice in one day on an emergency, 
and requesting to be informed whether in such a case the examiners 
would be entitled to double fees. 

The subject was discussed at some length, and ultimately ordered 
to be adjourned for future consideration. The Secretary was re- 
quested in the meantime to commimicate with Mr Cowie, and to 
ascertain from the medical examiners resident in Edinburgh whether 
it would be agreeable to them to attend two meetings in one day. 

The annual abstract of the proceedings of the Council, as prepared 



PBOGBAMME OF COKGBESS OF YETEBlNABIANa 256 

by the Report Committee, was then read, and submitted for approval, 
whereupon 

It was moved by Mr Harrison, and seconded by Mr Ernes, — 

" That the report be received and adopted." 

The amended balance sheet of the receipts and expenditure during 
the past year, as audited, was laid on the table. After considerable 
discussion. 

It was moved by Mr Thacker, and seconded by Professor Vamell, — 

*' That it be received and adopted." — Carried. 

A cheque was ordered to be drawn for the examiners' fees. 
By order of the Council, 

Wm. Hy. Coates, Secretary, 



PROGRAMME OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL 
CONGRESS OF VETERINARIANS, 

TO BE HELD AT VIENNA, FBOM THE 21ST TO THE 26TH AUGUST 1865. 

The International Congress of Veterinary Surgeons, which met in 
Hamburgh in 1863, on the invitation of Professors Gamgee of Edin- 
burgh, and Hering of Stuttgart, resolved at its sitting on the 18th 
July, that the next Congress, now fixed for 1865, should take place 
at Vienna ; and the Professors of the Imperial Veterinary College of 
Vienna, whose names are subjoined, and who were present at Ham- 
burgh, were deputed to make the necessary preparations. 

According to the desire expressed at the first Congress, the second 
should have been summoned for the time during which an extensive 
agricultural exhibition was to take place, but circumstances over 
which the Committee had no control have interfered with such an 
arrangement. 

As for the Agricultural Show of 1866, proposed by the Imperial 
Agricultural Society of Vienna, the details and particulars have not 
yet been under consideration. Still therefore undecided, notwith- 
standing that gentlemen who wish to attend the Congress might 
have preferred the Exhibition period, the Committee has felt the 
necessity of taking the requisite steps to call the Congress together 
in 1865, without having regard to the contingency of an agricultural 
show. 

By a supreme decision. His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty 
has deigned to acquiesce in the holding of the International Congress 
of Veterinarians at Vienna in 1865. 

The time most convenient for such a Congress seemed to the Com- 
mittee to be near the end of the month of August, as at that season 
the holidays have commenced at all the Veterinary Colleges, and the 
Vol. L— No. v.— New Sbbum. May 1865. T 



254 EOYAL COLLEGE OF VETEBINARY SURGEONfiL 

considered, when it was moved by Mr Lawson, and seconded by Mr 
Eobinson, — 

" That Messrs Wilkinson, Ernes, Harpley, and the Secretary, be 
appointed the committee to prepare the annual report." — Carried. 

It was moved by Mr Lawson, and seconded by Mr Greaves, — 

" That Mr James Hall, and Mr Joseph Woodger, be appointed 
auditors." — Carried. 

A discussion next took place relative to the anniversary dinner, 
when it was resolved, — " That the London Tavern be selected, and 
that the Council be the stewards.'* 

It was moved by Mr Wilkinson, and seconded by Mr Greaves, — 
" That Messrs Silvester, Ernes, Harpley, and Thacker, constitute the 
dinner committee." — Carried. 

The Secretary called the attention of the Council to the propriety 
of having additional advertisements inserted, viz., in the 8porting 
Gazette and the Olasgow Herald, which was agreed to. 
By Order of the Council, 

Wm. Hy. Coates, Secretary, 



SPECIAL MEETING OP THE COUNCIL, HELD APRIL 19, 1865. 

Present — The President, Professor Vamell; Messrs Brown, Ernes, 
Harpley, Harrison, Helmore, Moon, Thacker, Wilkinson, Withers, 
and the Secretary. — The President in the chair. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

A letter was read, which had been received from Dr Struthers, 
relative to an application for examination made by Mr Bobert Park, 
a veterinary student of the Glasgow school, who sabmitted an attested 
list of medical certificates which he had received from the University 
of Glasgow, during a period of three years' attendance, as well as • 



certificate from Professor M'Call of the Glasgow Veterinaiy College, 
for the session 1864-5. 

It was moved by Mr Wilkinson, and seconded by Mr Harpley^ — 

"That Mr Park be considered eligible for examination, and that a | 
telegram be sent to Dr Struthers to that effect." — Carriei 

A letter was also read from Mr Cowie, one of the niembei»a of thej 
Court of Examiners acting for Scotland, rc4ati va to tlic inc^t ^ n ^ . r ,r tb^ j 
board in Edinburgh being held twice in one d&y oil ftii -.j i ^l^ liC/i f 
and requesting to be informed whether in sacAi % caw Uio {^saimiias 
would be entitled t(» double fees. 

The subject was discussed at some la^i^th ^ miA ttltiauitely tst^m^ 
to be adjourned for future coDsideration. *rhe S^Kjf^l*^ waa re- 
quested in the meantime to commt'^' ^^Ctmi^t tna Hi f 
ascertain from the medical exanu^ 
it would be agreeable to them J 
The annual abstract of tk^l 



256 PROGRAMME OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL 

Professors have a good opportunity of being present. Moreover, the 
season is propitious for those who have to travel from the North and 
East of Europe. 

With the consent of the Imperial and Royal Ministry, the Com- 
mittee have fixed the time for the Congress, from the 21st to the 
26th of August, which, according to the time required for discussions, 
might be prolonged towards the end of the month. 

The Imperial and Royal Academy of Sciences has kindly placed 
at the disposal of the Congress the accommodation required in its 
palace. No. 2 University Square, and one of the members of the Com- 
mittee will have the honour to receive there, from and after the 18th 
of August, the gentlemen who intend taking part in the Congress. 

The object, already known by the rules of the Hamburgh meeting, 
is to deal with veterinary questions having an international import- 
ance, to consider propositions bearing thereon, and submitting reso- 
lutions to all the governments. 

The principal objects of discussion will be the means of commu- 
nication in the propagation and the progress of epizootics from the 
various countries ; the propositions, comprising common measures 
necessary to prevent the extension of and overcome these maladies, 
no less than the measures which concern the international commerce 
of the domestic animals. Generally speaking, all questions of veteri- 
nary science are dealt with which relate to sanitary or veterinary 
police. 

The epizootics of special interest in difierent countries of Europe 
must be brought under the special notice of the Congress by attending 
members, with a view to securing a discussion on the most important 
points before the assembly. 

The Committee has, with the consent of the Imperial and Royal 
Ministry of State, determined on proposing the following subjects 
for discussion : — 

I. On the contagious tjrphus (Russian cattle plague) of homed 
cattle, with special reference to two points, — 1st, The question raised 
in Hamburgh as to the number of days to which the period of qua- 
rantine for this disease, now extending to twenty-one days, may be 
restricted without inconvenience; 2dly, deliberation on common 
measures concerning the treatment of animals and animal products, 
in relation to international commerce, during the prevalence of the 
cattle plague in the country. 

II. Discussions on the methods of disinfecting railway waggons, 
already required by several states, with a view to attain, if possible, 
to the realisation of this desideratum in a uniform manner, with due 
regard to the interests of trade, of veterinary police, and of the rail- 
way companies. 

III. On rabies canina, which has attained an unusual extension of 
late years in Vienna, in other large cities, and in various parts of the 
country. A discussion on the causes of the malady, on the success 
of measures adopted up to the present time to prevent its propa- 



CONGRESS OP VETERINARIANS. 257 

gation, such as taxes, periodic examination of dogs, compelling the 
wearing of muzzles, &c., might, perhaps, lead to a plan whereby some 
reasonable regulation might be adopted for the supervision of dogs. 

IV. Of late years several states have passed laws concerning the 
redhibitory diseases, or, at all events, deliberations have been made con- 
cerning defects, or certain morbid states to which this character might 
be attributed. A uniform law concerning the redhibitory vices would 
be of great importance to the international commerce in domestic 
animals. The opinion of the assembly on these defects might be of 
much value to legislation. 

The Committee has the honour of inviting the professors of vete- 
rinary colleges, members of veterinary societies, veterinarians in all 
parts of Europe, and social economists, who take an interest in dis- 
cussions such as are proposed, to participate in the forthcoming Con- 
gress at Vienna. The Committee also hopes that gentlemen in- 
tending to be present will signify the same to one of its members, 
who will have great pleasure in furnishing any information which 
may be required. 

The Committee of the second International Veterinary Congress : 
Dr Pillwax, Dr RoU, Dr MuUer, 
Professors of the Imperial and Royal Veterinary College in Vienna. 

Vienna, ZOth March 1865. ' 



258 BREACH OF WAEBANTY. 

PERISCOPE. 



BRISTOL ASSIZE, Wkdnksday and THrRSDAi, 6th and 7th Apbil. 

{Before Mr Baron Channell.) 

Bbbach of Warranty — Green v. Groves. 

This action was brought to recover £81, Os. 2d., for breach of warranty of 200 lambs. 

Counsel for the plaintiff, Mr Karslake, Q.C., and Mr Edlin; for the defendant, Mr 

Cole and Mr Collins. 

Mr William Lewis, farmer, near Ilchester, was the first witness called, he swore 
that he was present when the plaintiff purchased the 200 lambs of the defendant, and 
that the defendant warranted the lambs " all perfectly sound." In cross-examination 
he admitted having heard the defendant say that if the plaintiff gave the lambs water 
after driving them, they would " run out.** 

Evidence was also led to show that the lambs were not mixed with others on their 
way to the plaintiff's premises. 

Mr G. A. Whitemore, Shepton-Mallet, Somersetshire, was asked by Mr Green to 
exffinine one of the lambs which died. Its liver was diseased and contained three 
flukes. Is not quite sure whether flukes breed in the liver or not. Cross-examined — 
The lamb died from disease of the liver. One of the lobes of the liver was turned in 
its colour. 

Professor Murray, Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester — Rot or coathe is a dis- 
ease depending on the presence of flukes in the liver. The germs or pupa cysts are 
tiU^en up by the sheep while feeding on the grass. They make their way through the 
stomach into the bil^ry ducts. The flukes develop there — cannot undertake to give 
an opinion as to the age of a fluke ; would conjecture that a fluke attains its full size 
in from six weeks to two months. Their presence in the liver is injurious to the 
health of the sheep. They are injurious by taking up bile which should be applied 
to digestive purposes ; and they are also prejudicial by pressing on the walls of the 
ducts, and thus producing structural disease of the liver. They do not breed in the 
liver, as their ova must pass out of the liver and undergo several changes of form be- 
fore they are fitted to develop in the sheep's system. Wet warm weather favours the 
production of it. Cross-examined — One fluke would not kill a sheep ; nor would two 
kill a sheep. The injury they produce depends on their number. Sheep are more 
liable to rot than other animsds, because they are closer feeders. Flukes may develop 
in the livers of sheep in early spring, if at that season there is mild rainy weather. 
Ewes affected with rot could not be kept for the purpose of breeding. Reexamined— 
Rot is not a curable disease. Its progress may be retarded by giving nutritious food, 
but the sheep will ultimately die. Sheep fatten well in the early stage of rot ; but 
when the liver becomes disorganised, they become emaciated and die. By Baron 
Channell — The presence of flukes in the liver has a tendency to weaken the animal; 
they will render it less able to resist depressing influences. In cold weather the 
germs of the fluke are shrivelled up and destroyed. 

Mr Cole, for the defence, contended that there was no evidence of a breach of war- 
ranty in the case. 

The Judge, however, ruled that there was such evidence. Mr Cole then addressed 
the jury. 

Mr Charles North, veterinary surgeon, Ceme Abbas, Dorsetshire, was called by the 
defendant. He examined a lamb and found his liver healthy. Saw the liver of 
another lamb, which was also healthy. Did not think a dozen flukes in a sheep's liver 
would do it any harm. Does not consider it incurable. Never knew lambs to have 
rot. The flukes taken from the lamb which have been shown him are three weeks 
old^ Cross-examined — Can tell the age of a fluke. A fluke attains it full size in 
from four to six weeks. Could cure it in the early stage when the flukes are not 
mature. They are not able to resist the effects of medicine then. They may be 
killed when they are three weeks old. Would ascertain that the flukes were of this 
age by the appearance of the sheep. Would give common salt and sulphate of iron. 
Was told that the second liver was that of one of the lambs about which there was a 
dispute. 

Several other witnesses were called in support of the defendant's case, and Mr 
ELarslake replied, after which the Court a4Journed until ten o'clock next morning. 

His Lordship occupied about two hours in summing up, after which the jury re- 
turned a verdict for the plaintiff for £81, Os. 8d. 



LANCASHIRE VETEBINABT MEDICAL ASSOCLiTION. 259 



LANCASHIRE VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The Members of the Lancashire Yeierinary Medical Association held their tenth 
meeting, on the evening of the 1st of March, at the Brunswick Hotel, Piccadilly — The 
President in the chair. The President opened the meeting with a short address, 
and afterwards read a letter from the committee of the Royal Institution, in answer 
to a communication from him (the President) requesting permission from the said 
committee to allow the meetings of the above Association to be held in the theatre 
of the Institution, and it was thought this permission would be obtained before the 
next meeting. The President also read a letter from the Dean of Manchester, pro- 
mising to do all he could to assist in promoting the scheme. A unanimous vote of 
thanks was accorded to Mr J. Qreaves for his very handsome present to the Associa- 
tion, viz., a reading-desk, silk banner, and a framed portrait of Professor Charles 
Spooner. The following gentlemen were then elected members of the Association : — 

Proposed. Seconded. 

Mr Lawson, . . Mr P. Taylor, . . . Mr J. Greaves. 

„ Woods, . . „ J. Greaves, . . „ Haycock. 

„ Billii^on, . „ Gibson, . . . „ Dixon. 

„ Paulden, . . „ J. Greaves, . . „ J. Taylor. 

„ Buckley, . . „ J. Greaves, . . „ J. Taylor. 

„ A. Challoner, . „ J. Taylor, ... „ J. Greaves. 

Ifr Heap was nominated by Mr J. Greaves. 

It was then proposed by the President that the Rules should be read ; but Mr 
Haycock moved an amendment to the effect that they should not be read, as there 
would be no time for discussion. Upon this being put to the meeting, the amend- 
ment was carried by a large majority. Mr Greaves intimated his intention of pro- 
posing an amendment to Rule 15 at next meeting, and Mr Haycock an amendment 
to the preamble. The Secretary then read the minutes of the last meeting, which, 
being duly confirmed, the President called upon Mr Brooks for his Essay on Laminitis. 
The subject elicited a warm discussion, which principally bore on the relation of 
laminitis to rheumatism. Several members entered into the discussion, and Mr J. 
Greaves read his thoughts on the subject After which, the time being expired, the 
President proposed a vote of thanks to Mr Brooks for his paper, which was seconded 
by Mr J. Greaves, and unanimously accorded. The meeting then terminated. Mr J. 
Greaves being asked for a paper on the prevailing influenza, by the whole of the 
gentlemen present, kindly promised to write an essay on the subject for the next 
meeting. 

Mr Ortavea* Observations on Laminitis, 

It is known to most of you that I have written upon this subject many years ago, 
and again lately, and that I entertain opinions upon it which differ from those 
generally received. It is reasonable to suppose that you will expect me, on the pre- 
sent occasion, to give a reason why I entertain these views. Veterinary surgeons, as 
a rule, do not publish their views to the world until they have carefully studied the 
subject they are writing upon. I have given to this question my best attention for 
over thirty years, having been in constant daily occupation during th^t period in a 
not inconsiderable practice. I have devoted much of my time in the sick-box by the 
side of my sufifering patient, have watched closely the progress of the disease, have 
consulted every author upon the subject, and meditated upon it for whole nights, 
without a moment's sleep night after night, and the conclusions I have come to is 
that the disease called laminitis lacks several essential particulars or conditions 
which are ever present in acute inflammation. 

The difference between my opinion and that generally received is, that the one 
ascribes it to acute inflammatory action affecting primarily, if not solely, the 
laminal tissues, whereas I consider that the pain emanates from the interior of the 
coffin bone and the dense nervous textures which invest that bone, that the laminal 
tissues are only secondarily affected, (they are simply implicated or involved in the 
general suffering,) and that the affection partakes much more of a rheumatic type 
or protracted cramp than actual inflammation, and would appear, in many cases, to 
be referable to hereditary causes. 

I base my opinion upon two points mainly. The first is, that it is contrary to all 
experience that intense inflammatory action can be developed instantaneously, as 
laminitis can be and often is. Now, in inflammation proper there must exist certain 



260 LANCASHIRE VETERINAEY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

phenomena. You may search throughout all human and veterinary records, and you 
will search in vain for a single example of true inflammation being fully developed 
instantaneously. Spasm sometimes attacks with intensity, but always suddenly, in- 
flammation never. Multitudes of examples might be adduced as illustrations of this 
truth; therefore I say, to call this instantaneous pain in the feet inflammation, 
whether that pain is the result of metastasis or from whatever cause it may be, and 
however intense it may be for the time being, is, I contend, calling it by an incorrect 
term. Acute founder, or fever in the feet, is an infinitely more proper term, or even 
pedltis, (Professor Dick's term,) than laminitis. 

The second point from which I draw my inference is, that the effects which we 
know must follow protracted intense inflammation do not attend or follow laminitis. 
If severe and protracted laminitis be true inflammation, then suppuration, destruc- 
tion of tissue, gangrene, and decay of laminal tissue must follow, as an inevitable and 
unavoidable consequence.. There is no plan of treatment you could adopt could pos- 
sibly prevent it It must unquestionably be attended by the same laws, and be followed 
by the same results, which inseparably belong to inflammation, but which results we 
never have in laminitis, however intense and protracted the pain may have been. I 
give this as my deliberate opinion after much serious and earnest consideration. 

I am well aware that authors and lecturers teach us that spasm can exist only 
where th^re is muscular fibre. Of this I am not so very sure ; but of one thing I am 
convinced that an intense pain may be instantaneously developed in which inflam- 
mation, as at present understood, is not an element, and where muscular fibre does 
not exist, at least not that we are aware of. I look upon what is generally under- 
stood by the term laminitis to be an affection of the feet hitherto undefined, a con- 
dition yet to be ascertained — it has no name in our nomenclature. I believe it to 
affect primarily the cellular membrane and nerve-fibre which enters into the compo- 
sition of the internal structure of the bone and its dense coverings, that the affection 
is dependent upon the feet and the system generally being in a peculiar condition 
fovourable to the disease at the time the attack takes place, — a wondrous -sympathy 
is developed by community of tissue, — there may be a preponderance of lactic acid, 
or uric acid, or some other morbid, irritable state of body, or a preponderance of 
phosphate of lime, or animal matter in the bone itself. These conditions to some 
extent emanate from derangement of the digestive organs, and may be in operation 
separately or simultaneously, (this may have been going on some time before and 
preparatory to the acute attack.) An element is generated or roused in the system, 
— call it igneous element or calorescence — for a moment it poises itself, and then it is 
irresistibly attracted to these tissues. 

" The obedient steel with living instinct moves, 
And veers for ever to the pole it loves." 

Something of the nature of a positive and negative electrical state, a current, is 
transmitted through the electrical wires, which creates incipient tumult or local irri- 
tation in the bone, and which is attended with instant and intense suffering. I use 
the term electrical, it being a definition the nearest approach to what I mean. I 
am anxious to reason this question as clearly as I can. I am persuaded the time 
will come when it will be found this is not merely speculative. I will advance some 
illustrations as practical proofs of this nerve-force. In forty-nine cases out of fifty 
where neurotomy has been performed for chronic lameness, say navicular disease, 
the operation may be performed with impunity, and, unless some puncture or bruise 
of the sensitive parts takes place, there is no fear of sloughing of the hoofs. But 
what is the effect if you operate whilst the foot is under this electrical influence ? 
I beg to call your particular attention to this point, since I have taken great pains to 
clear the point up. Whether the case be one of old-standing or recent laminitis, you 
will find that the adhesion or bond of union between the sensitive and insensitive 
laminaa is immediately destroyed after the operation. These laminae appear to quit 
or leave each other and become detached, as if an electric affinity had been suddenly 
withdrawn, and in a few days the hoof slips off. The sensitive laminae continue 
alive and vascular during this process. Perhaps you are ready to reply. This can be 
easily explained on the principle that the horse, experiencing an instant relief from 
all pain, places the whole of his weight upon his feet ; the attachment between the 
laminae, having become greatly weakened by recent acute disease, at once yields; 
that the separation is the result of ruptured and torn attachments. But I am con- 
vinced this is not so. Their separation is dependent upon, and is the result of, sheer 
inability to hold together. The cohesive affinity or mystic power which held their 



LANCASHIRE VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCUTION. 261 

serrated edges together before no longer exists. Now, this is a fact ; what is the 
deduction? 

Further, if you fire a horse's feet, or blister a horse's feet severely, after unnerving, 
you will have deep sloughing, and a hundred to one but you have sloughing of the 
hoofs also. I have witnessed these phenomena over and over again ; and again ask. 
What is the deduction ? It appears to me that it is dependent upon some agent or 
element analogous to, if not identical in principle with, the disconnecting of the con- 
ductor in an electrical machine. I am convinced of this element in the animal eco- 
nomy, and that it plays an important part in the functions of vitality. I have met 
with men who appear unaccustomed to inductive reasoning, who seem incapable of 
deep, concentrated thought for five consecutive minutes, prefer to pooh-pooh this idea 
rather than examine it. They have never examined the cause of animal heat, nor 
mastered the problem of how fever heat is generated, or what the increase of tem- 
perature under inflammation is dependent upon. They may tell me it is dependent 
upon chemical action, or combustion in the capillaries and air cells, but they seem 
unaware that some of the most profound thinkers of the present age have, during 
moments of their clearest, most lucid intuition, caught a glimpse of the fact that 
there is another element existing in the production of this phenomenon, an element 
apart from and wholly independent of this combustion theory. 

But what does practice teach us upon this point? I wish to address you as practi- 
cal and scientific men. What conclusions can we arrive at when we find one eminent 
man asseverate, that his success in these cases is attributable to prompt and efiectual 
blood-letting, and that operation performed over and over again ; another practitioner, 
of even longer experience, asseverates that his success in these cases is attributable to 
never bleeding at aU, even in the worst of cases ? Now, gentlemen, we are dealing 
with one of those questions in which both cannot he right. Again, we find many 
eminent practitioners strongly advocate the removal at once of all weight from off the 
parts, and place the laminae and the feet in a state of complete rest. This method is 
prompted, to all appearance, by scientific and humane considerations ; but we find 
other practitioners, equally eminent, as strongly advocate thin-heeled shoes and 
compulsory exertion. We are assured that both these systems are attended with 
more or less success ; but we are again dealing with one of those questions in which 
loth cannot he right. Again, I ask a number of eminent practitioners, " To what do 
they attribute the cause of the throbbing of the planta arteries in laminitis?" They 
answer me at once, and unhesitatingly, " It is in consequence of the blood meeting 
with an obstruction in its transit through the foot." I ask the same gentlemen, " To 
what they attribute the cause of the extreme small feeble pulse in influenza?" They an- 
swer at once, and unhesitatingly, " To the general congestion of the capillary system." 
Here again, gentlemen, we are confronted with an incongruity ; we are dealing with 
one of those questions in which both cannot he right; and what a labyrinth we get 
into if we dare to deviate from the trodden path, and ascertain where the truth lies ! 
The fact is, gentlemen, we may depend upon it, that in many of these cases, as in 
other diseases, nature has been the grand restorer ; that she has very frequently had 
to work the cure single-handed, if not in the very face of difficulties which our limited 
knowledge has been unwittingly placing in her way. I consider it would be a bur- 
lesque upon common sense, it would be stultifying true principle, to admit that the 
very opposite plans of treatment are producing the same effects. What dbes every-day 
experience teach us ? It teaches us this lesson, at all events, that we may bleed in 
severe cases of laminitis whenever we like, to syncope, if we choose ; in half an hour 
after such bleeding, the arteiy is throbbing again as hard as before ; we may bleed 
again and again, and yet again ; drain the system to exhaustion, at a fearful expense 
of vitality, but the artery is rebellious still. 

Now I believe this state of things is not dependent upon congestion or inflamma- 
tion at all. I do not believe there is a particle more blood sent to the feet in lami- 
nitis than there is at any other time ; and further, that the throbbing of the artery 
is solely and entirely referable to a peculiar action in the artery itself, and it receives 
its stimulus from the peculiar electrical condition of the parts. Some cases in which 
I have bled most promptly and most effectually have done the worst ; others, in which 
I have not bled at all, have recovered. The exudation or effusion which occasionally 
takes place in the sole, I consider of very light importance. Post-mortem examina- 
tions have led me to the conclusion that the disease partakes of rheumatism, and not 
inflammation ; that it is precisely similar in its nature to that troublesome and most 
painful affection which occasionally attacks the white fibrous tissues behind the fet- 
locks. Professor Spooner does not believe it to be inflammation. Professor Bar- 



262 THE MANAGEMENT OF GRASS LAND. 

low, who was one of the brightest ornaments of the profession in his day, considered 
it community of disease through community of tissue. But I have a strong faith, as 
science adyances, and the true physiology of this affection becomes better understood, 
it will be found that the true cure will differ in many essential particulars from 
that hitherto adopted, and it will be something simple and decisive. 

In reply to several questions put by Mr John Greaves of Altrincham, as to what 
plan of treatment he most recommended, Mr Greaves said, in all severe cases he 
strongly advocated prompt and copious bleeding from the arm, mild doses of opening 
medicine ; take the shoes off at once, and leave them off, but do not touch the soles ; 
put the feet in poultices ; allow a large quantity of soft litter to remain underneath 
the feet; if there is much lameness, by all means throw him down at the first visit. 
This is easily managed when you have got into the knack, and the horse comprehends 
what you are about. You may bleed in the sole, if properly done, with impunity, 
and often with much benefit. As to after-treatment, — nitrate of potass, 4 oz. ; extract 
of belladonna, 2 drams twice a tiay ; or bicarbonate of potass, \ oz. twice a day for 
some time ; or Fleming's tincture of aconite, in 10>drop doses, every six hours. But 
he confessed he had but little faith in any known medicine as after-treatment, in 
changing the natural tendency in the system, if a hereditary predisposition existed 
in the constitution. 



THE MANAGEMENT OF GRASS LAND. 

{From the Journal of the Farmers* Clvb.) 

The monthly meeting of this Club took place on Monday evening, April 3, at the 
temporary (Dlub-rooms, Robert Street, Adelphi. The subject appointed for considera- 
tion was " The Management of Grass Lands," the introducer being Professor Coleman. 

The Chairman, Mr R. Leeds, of West Lexham, Brandon, Norfolk, in opening the 
proceedings, said : — The gentleman who was about to address them might be regarded 
as embodying in his own person that combination of practice with science of which 
they heard so much in the present day. If he were correctly informed. Professor 
Coleman took a very good degree at their chief agricultural university — he meant the 
Cirencester College, where he afterwards continued for some time to manage the col- 
lege farm. That was the right way of turning his tuition to good account. The 
county from which he (the Chairman) came was not looked upon as a grass county, 
but he believed the members of that Club generally would feel an interest in a dis- 
cussion which had for its object an improved management of grass land, especially 
considering the extremely low prices of com, and the high prices of meat which had 
prevailed for the last three or four years, He believed that was not the first occasion 
on which that subject had been introduced for discussion, either directly or indirectly. 
If his memory served him rightly, four or five years ago, Mr Owen Wallis brought 
under consideration the best plan of feeding off grass lands during the spring, summer, 
and autumn months. The wording of the question on the card that evening took a 
much wider range ; and without attempting to anticipate the Professor's remarks, he 
would now call upon the Professor to introduce the subject. 

Professor Coleman said : — Mr Chairman and Gentlemen, — The subject which I 
have undertaken to introduce for discussion this evening is one of great importance 
to the agricultural interests at the present time, since it affects the great question of 
live stoci. The subject is so comprehensive, embracing such a variety of points, that 
in the short hour allotted me I can only hope to point out a few of its more salient 
features; and, first, allow me to explain that I do not claim any novelty in the matter 
I shall bring before you. I have no pet theory to develop by which grass land may 
be doubled in value, and great returns expected ; and even if I had any particular 
practice of my own to describe, I should feel that the Central Farmers' Club was 
hardly the arena for discussing local practices, depending, as they usuaUy do, upon 
peculiarities of soil, climate, &c. My object is to show that grass land is very grateful 
for liberal treatment, that our pastures require cultivation and attention just as much 
as our arable land, since the one is no more a natural condition than the other, though 
from the general practice we should conclude that farmers consider grass as requiring 
no sort of care — that our pasture cultivation is^ as a rule, far behind the arable manage- 



THE MANAGEMENT OF GRASS LAND. 263 

ment, and to point out how short-sighted and unprofitable is the system of mowing 
and grazing year after year, drawing from the soil its most valuable ingredients, until 
at length the sward becomes thoroughly worn out In the continued production of 
our pastures that have been utterly neglected, we have a proof of the economy of 
nature and the almost inexhaustible supply of plant food in our soils. We all know 
the result of cropping arable land without returning periodically as manure the mate- 
rials extracted by the crop. Yet the arable land is enriched by constant exposure to 
the atmosphere— -or rather, fresh stores of food are eliminated — ^and is thus placed in 
more favourable conditions than our grass land. And, lastly, I hope to show that 
grass land will give a good return for outlay. The subject divides itself into the fol- 
lowing heads : — 1st, Is it desirable to materially increase the proportion of grass land ? 
2d, How can we best produce a pasture ? 3d, Improvement of worn-out and neglected 
pastures ; 4th, Value of irrigation by water and sewage. 

I. — Is IT DESIRABLE TO MATEBIALLY INCBEABE THE PBOPORTION OF GRABS LAND ? 

At the present time we are constantly met by the assertion that land should go 
down to grass. Those who know nothing of practical matters seem to look upon this 
as the panacea for all our difficulties. Stock is high, and likely to maintain high 
rates. Com, on the other hand, is low ; therefore grow grass. And so, with a dash 
of the pen as it were, and a shrug of the shoulders at our dull stupidity in not at once 
seeing the necessity for altering our practice, the question is settled. A nobleman, 
who takes a lively interest in agriculture, but, like many others, has a theoretical 
rather than a practical acquaintance with the subject, lately fell into conversation with 
a large Lincolnshire farmer. " Ah,'* said he, " you are all wrong in Lincolnshire ; you 
should lay all your land down to grass." The gentleman to whom this remark was 
addressed soon proved that Lincolnshire was growing more beef, mutton, and wool 
now than would be possible if his idea could be carried out, and giving us a vast bulk 
of corn into the bargain, in the production of which a thriving population was very 
profitably employed, and added his opinion that the present prices of corn and horn 
would have comparatively no effect upon the increase of grass, but might prevent our 
churchyards being ploughed up. There may be, and doubtless are, instances where 
the land is strong, expensive to cultivate, and the climate moist and backward, where 
the return to pasture may be desirable ; but even in such cases we must have a consi- 
derable proportion of arable land, in order to winter our stock and make the most of 
our grass land. So that the loose way in which ignorant people talk is amusing, and 
at times irritating ; indeed, every one fancies he can give some advice to the farmer, 
who is considered rather dow, and all the better for a little jogging. And if the 
change from arable to grass was as easy to carry out as to talk about, many mijght be 
induced to increase the proportion, though we should much doubt their wisdom in so 
doing. But it is a slow and expensive process, and very little return can be obtained 
for some years, and in many cases a man loses valuations he would be entitled to on 
giving up his occupation. I cannot help giving the testimony of a celebrated short- 
horn breeder, whose farm consists of two-thirds pasture. He told me if he had double 
the arable land he could winter a greatly-increased stock ; as it was, he gave his neigh- 
bours £2 an acre for barley straw, and carted it, and could not get enough, and that 
it was utterly ridiculous to talk of laying down more land to grass. It certainly would 
be in his case, as he has too much already ; but there may be instances of land broken 
up from pasture in consequence of the high price of corn, that may advantageously 
go back to grass ; but except in the case of very rich land, as the alluvial soils resting 
on clay, such as the grazing lands of Leicestershire, accompanied, as they often are, 
with flooded meadoMrs that produce a great bulk of coarse hay, grass land cannot be 
worked to advantage without at least an equal quantity, and more often two-thirds, of 
arable, to grow fodder and litter. 

II. — How TO PRODUCE A PASTURE. 

First> select a proper mixture and sufficient quantity of good seeds. This can only 
be obtained by going to a respectable seedsman, and paying a full price. Professor 
Buckman's investigations proved that a frightful amount of dirt, weeds, &c., was 
often introduced into our fields with bad seeds — also that in many instances a large 
per-centage did not grow. The unfortunate weakness of farmers for a cheap article 
is well known. They are captivated by a low price — saving a few shillings per acre, 
eventually to lose pounds. We should have a due mixture of graminaceous and legu- 
minous plants, varying slightly according to the kind of soil. Thus in the case of 
good loams^ soils containing a due admixture of sand and clay, and land that is na- 



264 THE MANAGEMENT OF GRASS LAND. 

torallj kind for grass, we may sow grasses of a highly nutritive character, snch as 
meadow fox-tail (Alopecurus pratensis), cat's-tail or timothy (Phleum pratensis), and 
cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata); with these, which are all large-producing grasses, 
we may add meadow-grass (Poa pratensis), sweet-smelling vernal-grass (Anthoxanthum 
odoratum), which flavours the hay, perennial rye-grass, and common red and Dutch 
clover. In varying from the above for poor stiff clays, we may alter the quantities 
rather than the kinds of grass ; perhaps the introduction of rough meadow-grass (Poa 
trivialis) and the lolium fescue (Festuca loliacea) may be desirable, using more rye- 
grass and common clover, and a smaller proportion of the more nutritive grasses. 
For thin soils on limestone, which are generally undesirable as permanent pasture, or 
at any rate not suitable for mowing purposes, we may introduce sheep's fescue 
(Festuca ovina), a small-leaved sweet grass, which forms a large proportion of the 
sweet down pastures, and is most valuable as a pasture grass. Yellow oat-grass 
(A vena flavescens) and soft oat-grass, both poor quality, may be added in small quan- 
tities. Yarrow (Achillea millefolia) and the yellow vetchling may be sown in addi- 
tion to common and Dutch clovers. Lastly, for sandy soils, which again are seldom 
adapted for grass, we may leave out the richer grasses altogether, as they will not 
stand, and use a large quantity of common rye-grass, smooth-meadow and hard-fescue 
grasses, with a smaller quantity of soft-oat grass and sweet- vernal grass, filled up with 
a greater variety of clovers, using the zigzag clover principally, which appears natural 
to sandy soils, and adding bird's-foot, trefoil, and yarrow. For details as to the exact 
quantities to be sown in each case, I would refer to Professor Buckman's very useful 
work on " How to Grow Good Grasses," published by Robert Hardwicke, 192 Picca- 
dilly. The next point for consideration is the question of laying down " with or 
without a crop." Some discussion appeared on this subject in our agricultural papers 
last autumn, and even got into the Time^ The different opinions expressed were 
attributable to the diflferent conditions under which experience had been gained. 
Thus in the southern and eastern parts of England, the young seeds, especially on 
clay, if sown without a com crop, would frequently get scorched by the hot summer's 
sun ; whereas in the moister districts of the north and west, and upon more friable 
soils, the seeds grow fast, soon cover the ground, and do much better without a crop, 
which only draws them up, as well as exhausts the surface soiL Having been much 
struck with the appearance of the young pastures on Mr Henry Howard's property at 
Greystoke, Cumberland — where a large park of naturally rough land was gradually 
reclaimed by breaking up forty or fifty acres at a time, taking one or two crops just 
to clean the surface and allow the vegetable matters to rot — I have received a very 
full account of the process from Mr Barker, the highly-respected agent, and cannot 
do better than read it verbatim to the Club. Mr Barker says : — " I shall follow 
the or&er indicated by you. 1. The soil: Soils of various qualities have 
been treated — sandy clay, and moorish soils on a clay, and sandy clay subsoil ; 
red loam on limestone and red loam on freestone; soft spungy clays and hard 
gravels. 2. The mode of breaking up the old sward: Paring and burning 
were resorted to — on some rough heathy land at first; but latterly the first opera- 
tion has been simply ploughing out with two horses abreast, excepting the land was 
very rough with ling or rushes, and then these were mown off before ploughing. The 
land so ploughed (begun in October and carried on to be finished by January if pos- 
sible) was sown with oats, generally black Tartarian, and manured with from 2 to 3 
cwt. of Peruvian guano. 3. Course of Crops: Oats as above, the first year. Second 
year — Turnips, with a mixture of bones and guano, the turnips chiefly eaten on the 
ground. Third year, if the land appeared in sufficiently enriched or unbroken, another 
crop of turnips as before ; if considered in a proper state, then the land well scarified 
and worked, and about the latter end of May or beginning of June sown with rape 
and grass seeds, and a little guano. In the spring of the year, either preceding the 
turnip crop or before sowing down, the land received a good liming, say 150 or 160 
bushels to the acre. I have never in practice found any prejudicial effect or loss from 
applying lime and guano in the same year, but rather the contrary. If the ammonia 
is set free by the lime, I think the soil catches it. 4. The Mixture of Seeds : The fol- 
lowing may be taken as an average, but different soils had different quantities : — 
6 lb. rape, 5 lb. cow-grass, 5 lb. white clover, 2 lb. red clover, 2 lb. alsike clover, 2 lb. 
meadow foxtail, 1 lb. crested dogstail, 2 quarts meadow fescue, 8 quarts Italian rye- 
grass, 8 quarts Pacey's rye-grass, 8 quarts Stickney's rye-grass, 2 quarts cocksfoot 
5. Period cU which First Fed : Generally in August. The field sown is always divided 
by hurdles into three or four divisions, and these are fed in rotation, not allowing 
them to get too bare. The stock in the first year always sheep, which fatten with sor- . 



THE MANAGEMENT OF GRASS LAND. 265 

prising rapidity. The rape affords shelter to the young seeds, and the additional feed 
gives increased droppings on the land and increased fertility. 6. Future Manage- 
ment ; and Manures^ if any : The second year a part is generally cut for hay, mown 
early, about 4th to 8th of June, and a luxuriant fog follows. The part pastured is 
fed by a mixed stock of horses, cattle, and sheep, and so on from year to year. If 
judiciously stocked and attended to, the pasture becomes in the second or third year 
like old good pasture land, and will continue so. Land managed as above twenty 
years ago is now still fine pasture. You will observe that all wet land is first drained 
either before the first plougher out or in the stubble. As to improvement in value, 
the land has been advanced from 100 to 500 per cent. We took into our hands about 
100 acres from a farm that had been ploughed and mismanaged ; the farmer was glad 
to get quit of it at 3s. 6d. per acre. After undergoing the above course of treatment, 
and after we had three years of the first grass, the farmer was pleased to have 
it again at 25s. per acre, and it is now far cheaper to him than when he paid 
8s. 6d. Such is Mr Barker's description of a practice which from personal ob- 
servation I know to have been most profitable, and which I consider so valuable 
as to need no apology for introducing. In the southern counties, as I said before, 
his plan would not always, or perhaps generally, answer ; and we have the choice 
of spring corn or wheat. The latter is often the best crop to sow in, but it 
comes at the end instead of the beginning of a rotation, when the land is often 
not so clean as it should be. Where, however, wheat follows the fallow, I should 
recommend laying down with it in preference to either barley or oats ; and for this 
reason, that the seeds would have more air and light, and be less drawn up ; 
the surface firmer; and the seeds, if kept near the top, would vegetate better. 
Moreover, if the wheat is tolerably high, the seed will vegetate without requiring 
either harrowing or rolling ; and this is a point of more importance than is at first 
Buppose(^ for small seeds require to be as near the surface as possible, and too often 
rolling and harrowing puts much of them too deep to vegetate at all. This was alluded 
to by Mr John Grey, in an address to the Hexham Farmers' Club, when he called 
attention to some experiments made many years since for the Highland Society, and 
recorded in Morton's CyclopaBdia. Fine soil was sifted, and put into boxes in which 
grooves could be made to any desired depth. Grooves were made of a J-in., 4-in., 
1 in., 1 J-in., and 2 inches, sCad seeds sown in each. It was only in the J -in. depth that 
any quantity of the seeds came up ; about half the seeds were lost in the ^-in. groove, 
and at 1 in. hardly any penetrated. And, adds Mr Grey, " What was to become of 
those small seeds if they were thrown upon clods, and a heavy roller passed over them 
afterwards ? No doubt one-half of them would be lost sight of altogether ; and if they 
wanted permanent pasture they must be at the pains to make their mould as fine as 
possible, rolling the surface, and, having sown the seeds, covering them as gently and 
lightly as possible with a light harrow — doing it, in fact, as carefully as a gardener 
did with his light rake. Without that, they would very likely see only one-half their 
seeds have any produce." These experiments partly explain how it is that so little 
seed often vegetates. Where we sow-in barley or oats, I think it is a good plan to sow 
when the barley is up, first rolling, then lightly harrowing, and after seeds are sown, 
roll again. Having secured a plant, we have next to consider how to manage it. 
Hard stocking with sheep will not do, as they eat the heart of the clover, which in- 
variably dies. We have seen that with rape sheep may safely graze in the autumn ; 
but after corn it is best not to graze at all, but simply to consolidate the surface by 
heavy rolling. In some instances, it answers to mow a light crop the first year, cutting 
early, just as the grasses are coming into flower — either this, or rapid folding over 
with sheep. By these means we encourage the roots to spread out ; and if the surface 
is well roUed after mowing, and a moderate coat of rather rotten manure or manures 
and soil applied during autumn or winter, it will do very well. The third year we 
shall usually notice a falling off, this being the intermediate stage between the arti- 
ficial and the permanent condition. Some of the grasses we have sown are dying out, 
and those that have got a hold are hardly established. A few more seeds may be 
bushed in, and a dressing of farmyard manure and artificials applied ; indeed, the 
better we do the land, the sooner will a permanent sward be established. One thing 
we must not do, and that is, stock hard with sheep running at large, as the clover and 
fine grasses will be injured by continual gnawing ; whereas, if lightly folded over, the 
sheep eat it off at once, and little or no harm is done. 

III. — Improvement of worn-out and neglected pastures. 
The first point is to remove superfluous water. We cannot grow nutritious grasses 



266 THE MANAGEMENT OP GEASS LAND. 

80 long as the soil is saturated with molBture. We may have, it is true, a considerable 
bulk of watery bad herbage, and it is this fact that has led to an idea that grass land 
does not want drainage so much as arable ; indeed, in some instances it has been said 
that drainage has injured grass land. This I deny as regards clay. Instances may 
occur in which drainage does no good — where the subsoil is gravel, for instance, and 
where the moisture which found its way along the porous beds from higher land may 
have actually nourished, and only been in excess at rare intervals ; for, be it remem- 
bered, such water is not necessarily stagnant : it may fertilise and pass on, and so after 
a time escape. Now, close draining in such a case, by cutting off the water before it 
reaches the roots, may do harm, and I have heard of cases where this was so apparent 
that the drains were blocked up again. Draining alone will not renovate a worn-out 
pasture, as too often people appear to imagine it should do : the coarse grasses which 
have taken possession of the ground, and driven out or dwarfed the better sorts, die 
out when the water goes ; the soil contains little available food ; the atmosphere has 
not been able to circulate and act upon the minerals ; and consequently, if draining 
is not followed by liberal treatment, the produce, at any rate for a time, falls off, and 
the farmer who may have looked upon drainage as the only necessity is disgusted to 
find he has less grass than before, and perhaps jumps to a too hasty conclusion that 
the drainage was a mistake. An anecdote told me by a Cumberland landlord corro- 
borated this. His father was anxious to drain a field which was very wet ; the tenant 
strongly objected ; but as the landlord was willing to pay cost, and was continually 
urging the advantage, a reluctant consent was given. The drainage was well done, 
and much water ran through the pipes. About a year after the operation the parties 
met. "Well, Mr Smith, how does the drainage answer?" "Oh, confound the 
drainage ! I wish I had never seen a pipe on the place ; why, before I could never 
keep the grass down, and the cattle always had a good bite, and now it is as bare as 
a board." Two reasons might be given for this — actually less grass grew, the better 
sorts requiring encouragement ; and the cattle found the herbage so sweet and good 
that they ate it down close, which they objected to do when it was coarse and sour. 
Every one must have noticed that in a field partly wet and partly dry sheep will 
gnaw up the herbage very bare on the dry land, and leave it in bunches where it is 
wet The fact was really a satisfactory proof of the success of the drainage. Another 
idea was and is commonly entertained, viz., that grass land does not require such 
complete drainage as arable, and that shallower drains at wider intervals will answer. 
The frequency and direction of the drains depend upon the comparative porosity or 
stubbornness of the subsoil ; but if we have similar soil we must drain as thoroughly 
on grass as on arable. Whilst on this subject, I cannot refrain from alluding to the 
porous and impervious beds which are so frequently found side by side in a direction 
N.E. and S.W. I have seen the