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Full text of "The Victoria history of the county of Lancaster. Edited by William Farrer and J. Brownbill"

FOUNDED 8Y I GOL.DWI.M SMITH I i'-Vjl 




J 



IDictotta Ibistot^ of the 
Counties of Enolanb 

EDITED BY WILLIAM PAGE, F.S.A. 



A HISTORY OF 
LANCASHIRE 

VOLUME I 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 
IN SEVEN VOLUMES 



THE 

VICTORIA HISTORY 

OF THE COUNTIES 
OF ENGLAND 

LANCASHIRE 





LONDON 
ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE 

AND COMPANY LIMITED 



This History is issued to Subscribers only 

By Archibald Constable & Company Limited 

and printed by Eyre & Spottiswoode 

H.M. Printers of London 



INSCRIBED 

TO THE MEMORY OF 

HER LATE MAJESTY 

QUEEN VICTORIA 

WHO GRACIOUSLY GAVE 

THE TITLE TO AND 

ACCEPTED THE 

DEDICATION OF 

THIS HISTORY 



THE ADVISORY COUNCIL 
OF THE VICTORIA HISTORY 



His GRACE THE LORD ARCH- 
BISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

His GRACE THE DUKK OF 
BEDFORD, K.G. 

President of the Zoological Society 

His GRACE THE DUKE OF DEVON- 
SHIRE, K.G. 

Chancellor of the University of Cam- 
bridge 

His GRACE THE DUKE OF 

RUTLAND, K.G. 
His GRACE THE DUKE OF 

PORTLAND, K.G. 
His GRACE THE DUKE OF 

ARGYLL, K.T. 
THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF 

ROSEBERY, K.G., K.T. 

THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF 
COVENTRY 

President of the Royal Agricultural 
Society 

THE RT. HON. THE VISCOUNT 
DILLON 

Late President of the Society of 
Antiquaries 

THE RT. HON. THE LORD LISTER 

Late President of the Royal Society 

THE RT. HON. THE LORD 
ALVERSTONE, G.C.M.G. 

Lord Chief Justice 

THE HON. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, 
M.P. 



SIR FREDERICK POLLOCK, BART., 
LL.D., F.S.A., ETC. 

SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S., ETC. 

SIR EDWARD MAUNDE THOMP- 
SON, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.S.A., ETC. 

Director of the British Museum 
SIR CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

President of the Royal Geographical 
Society 

SIR HENRY C. MAXWELL-LYTE, 
K.C.B., M.A., F.S.A., ETC. 

Keeper of the Public Records 

COL. SIR J. FARQUHARSON, K.C.B. 
SIR Jos. HOOKER, G.C.S.I., M.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S., ETC. 
SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, LL.D., 

F.R.S., ETC. 
REV. J. CHARLES Cox, LL.D., 

F.S.A., ETC. 
LIONEL CUST, M.V.O., M.A., 

F.S.A., ETC. 

Director of the National Portrait 
Gallery 

CHARLES H. FIRTH, M.A., LL.D. 

Regius Professor of Modern History, 

ALBERT C. L. G. GUNTHER, M. A., 
M.D., F.R.S., PH.D. 

Late President of the Linnean Society 



F. HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., 

F.S.A. 
COL. DUNCAN A. JOHNSTON, C.B., 

R.E. 

Late Director Genertloftbc Ordnance 
Survey 

PROF. E. RAY LANKESTER, M.A., 
F.R.S., ETC. 

Director of the Natural History 
Museum, Seuth Kensington 

REGINALD L. POOLE, M.A. 

University Lecturer in Diplomatic, 
Oxford 

]. HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. 

WALTER RYE 

W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, M.A. 

Assi-.tant Secretary of the Society of 
Antiquaries 



Among the original members of 
the Council were 

THE LATE MARQUESS OF SALISBURY 
THE LATE DR. MANDELL 

CREIGHTON, BISHOP OF LONDON 
THE LATE DR. STUBBS, BISHOP 

OF OXFORD 

THE LATE LORD ACTON 
THE LATE SIR WILLIAM FLOWER 

and 
THE LATE PROFESSOR F. YORK 

POWELL 



General Editor WILLIAM PAGE, F.S.A. 



GENERAL ADVERTISEMENT 

The VICTORIA HISTORY of the Counties of England is a National Historic Survey 
which, under the direction of a large staff comprising the foremost students in science, history, 
and archaeology, is designed to record the history of every county of England in detail. This 
work was, by gracious permission, dedicated to Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, who gave it 
her own name. It is the endeavour of all who are associated with the undertaking to make it 
a worthy and permanent monument to her memory. 

Rich as every county of England is in materials for local history, there has hitherto been 
no attempt made to bring all these materials together into a coherent form. 

Although from the seventeenth century down to quite recent times numerous county 
histories have been issued, they are very unequal in merit ; the best of them are very rare 
and costly ; most of them are imperfect and many are now out of date. Moreover, they were 
the work of one or two isolated scholars, who, however scholarly, could not possibly deal 
adequately with all the varied subjects which go to the making of a county history. 



In the VICTORIA HISTORY each county is not the labour of one or two men, but of many, 
for the work is treated scientifically, and in order to embody in it all that modern scholarship 
can contribute, a system of co-operation between experts and local students is applied, whereby 
the history acquires a completeness and definite authority hitherto lacking in similar 
undertakings. 

The names of the distinguished men who have joined the Advisory Council are a 
guarantee that the work represents the results of the latest discoveries in every department 
of research, for the trend of modern thought insists upon the intelligent study of the past 
and of the social, institutional, and political developments of national life. As these histories 
are the first in which this object has been kept in view, and modern principles applied, it is 
hoped that they will form a work of reference no less indispensable to the student than 
welcome to the man of culture. 



THE SCOPE OF THE WORK 

The history of each county is complete in itself, and in each case its story is told from the 
earliest times, commencing with the natural features and the flora and fauna. Thereafter 
follow the antiquities, pre-Roman, Roman, and post-Roman ; ancient earthworks ; a new 
translation and critical study of the Domesday Survey ; articles on political, ecclesiastical, social, 
and economic history ; architecture, arts, industries, sport, etc. ; and topography. The greater 
part of each history is devoted to a detailed description and history of each parish, containing 
an account of the land and its owners from the Conquest to the present day. These manorial 
histories are compiled from original documents in the national collections and from private 
papers. A special feature is the wealth of illustrations afforded, for not only are buildings of 
interest pictured, but the coats of arms of past and present landowners are given. 

HISTORICAL RESEARCH 

It has always been, and still is, a reproach that England, with a collection of public 
records greatly exceeding in extent and interest those of any other country in Europe, is yet 
far behind her neighbours in the study of the genesis and growth of her national and local 
institutions. Few Englishmen are probably aware that the national and local archives contain 
for a period of 800 years in an almost unbroken chain of evidence, not only the political, 
ecclesiastical, and constitutional history of the kingdom, but every detail of its financial and 
social progress and the history of the land and its successive owners from generation to 
generation. The neglect of our public and local records is no doubt largely due to the fact 
that their interest and value is known to but a small number of people, and this again is 
directly attributable to the absence in this country ot any endowment for historical research. 
The government of this country has too often left to private enterprise work which our con- 
tinental neighbours entrust to a government department. It is not surprising, therefore, to find 
that although an immense amount of work has been done by individual effort, the entire 
absence of organization among the workers and the lack of intelligent direction has hitherto 
robbed the results of much of their value. 

In the VICTORIA HISTORY, for the first time, a serious attempt is made to utilize our 
national and local muniments to the best advantage by carefully organizing and supervising 
the researches required. Under the direction of the Records Committee a large staff of experts 
has been engaged at the Public Record Office in calendaring those classes of records which are 
fruitful in material for local history, and by a system of interchange of communication among 
workers under the direct supervision of the general editor and sub-editors a mass of information 
is sorted and assigned to its correct place, which would otherwise be impossible. 

THE RECORDS COMMITTEE 

SIR EDWARD MAUNDE THOMPSON, K.C.B. C. T. MARTIN, B.A., F.S.A. 

SIR HENRY MAXWEIX-LYTE, K.C.B. J. HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. 

W. J. HARDY, F.S.A. S. R. SCARGILL-BIRD, F.S.A. 

F. MADAN, M.A. W. H. STEVENSON, M.A. 

F. MAITLAND, M.A., F.S.A. G. F. WARNER, M.A., F.S.A. 

riii 



FAMILY HISTORY 

Family History is, both in the Histories and in the supplementary genealogical volumes 
of chart Pedigrees, dealt with by genealogical experts and in the modern spirit. Every effort 
is made to secure accuracy of statement, and to avoid the insertion of those legendary 
pedigrees which have in the past brought discredit on the subject. It has been pointed out 
by the late Bishop of Oxford, a great master of historical research, that ' the expansion and 
extension of genealogical study is a very remarkable feature of our own times,' that ' it is an 
increasing pursuit both in America and in England,' and that it can render the historian most 
useful service. 

CARTOGRAPHY 

In addition to a general map in several sections, each History contains Geological, Oro- 
graphical, Botanical, Archaeological, and Domesday maps ; also maps illustrating the articles on 
Ecclesiastical and Political Histories, and the sections dealing with Topography. The Series 
contains many hundreds of maps in all. 



ARCHITECTURE 

A special feature in connexion with the Architecture is a series of ground plans, many 
of them coloured, showing the architectural history of castles, cathedrals, abbeys, and other 
monastic foundations. 

In order to secure the greatest possible accuracy, the descriptions of the Architecture, 
ecclesiastical, military, and domestic, are under the supervision of Mr. C. R. PEERS, M.A., 
F.S.A., and a committee has been formed of the following students of architectural history 
who are referred to as may be required concerning this department of the work : 

ARCHITECTURAL COMMITTEE 

J. BILSON, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, M.A. 

R. BLOMFIELD, M.A., F.S.A., A.R.A. W. H. KNOWLES, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

HAROLD BRAKSPEAR, F.S.A., A.R.I.B.A. J. T. MICKLETHWAITE, F.S.A. 

PROF. BALDWIN BROWN, M.A. ROLAND PAUL, F.S.A. 

ARTHUR S. FLOWER, F.S.A., A.R.I.B.A. J. HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. 

GEORGE E. Fox, M.A., F.S.A. PERCY G. STONE, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

J. A. GOTCH, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. THACKERAY TURNER. 

GENEALOGICAL VOLUMES 

The genealogical volumes contain the family history and detailed genealogies of such 
houses as had at the end of the nineteenth century seats and landed estates, having enjoyed 
the like in the male line since 1760, the first year of George III., together with an intro- 
ductory section dealing with other principal families in each county. 



The general plan of Contents and the names among others of 
those who are contributing articles and giving assistance are as 
follows : 

Natural History 

Geology. CLEMENT REID, F.R.S., HORACE B. WOODWARD, F.R.S., and others 
Palaeontology. R. L. LYDEKKER, F.R.S., etc. 

{Contributions by G. A. BOULENGER, F.R.S., H. N. DIXON, F.L.S., G. C. DRUCE, M.A., 
F.L.S., WALTER GARSTANG, M.A., F.L.S., HERBERT Goss, F.L.S., F.E.S., R. I. POCOCK, 
REV. T. R. R. STEBBING, M.A., F.R.S., etc., B. B. WOODWARD, F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 
etc., and other Specialists 

Prehistoric Remains. SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., W. BOYD DAWKINS, D.Sc., LL.D., 
F.R.S, F.S.A., GEO. CLINCH, F.G.S., JOHN GARSTANG, M.A., B.Litt., F.S.A.,and others 
Roman Remains. F. HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Anglo-Saxon Remains. C. HERCULES READ, F.S.A., REGINALD A. SMITH, B.A., F.S.A., and others 
Domesday Book and other kindred Records. J. HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D., and other Specialists 
Architecture. C. R. PEERS, M.A., F.S.A., W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, M.A., and HAROLD BRAKSPEAR, 

F.S.A., A.R.I.B.A. 

Ecclesiastical History. R. L. POOLE, M.A., and others 

Political History. PROF. C. H. FIRTH, M.A., LL.D., W. H. STEVENSON, M.A., J. HORACE ROUND, 
M.A., LL.D., PROF. T. F. TOUT, M.A., PROF. JAMES TAIT, M.A., and A. F. POLLARD 
History of Schools. A. F. LEACH, M.A., F.S.A. 

Maritime History of Coast Counties. Prof. J. K. LAUGHTON, M.A., M. OPPENHEIM, and others 
Topographical Accounts of Parishes and Manors. By Various Authorities 
History of the Feudal Baronage. J. HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D., and OSWALD BARRON, F.S.A. 
Agriculture. SIR ERNEST CLARKE, M.A., Sec. to the Royal Agricultural Society, and others 
Forestry. JOHN NISBET, D.OEC., and others 

Industries, Arts and Manufactures ) 

..,_ -IT- f By Various Authorities 

Social and Economic History J 

Ancient and Modern Sport. E. D. CUMING and others 
Hunting \ 

Shooting I By Various Authorities 
Fishing, etc./ 
Cricket. HOME GORDON 
Football. C. W. ALCOCK 



THE 

ORIA HISTORY 



WH.UAML 



THE 

VICTORIA HISTORY 

OF THE COUNTY OF 

LANCASTER 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM FARRER AND J. BROWNBILL, M.A. 



VOLUME ONE 




LONDON 

JAMES STREET 
HAYMARKET 

1906 



DA 
1,10 
L2VI, 

V. I 



County Committee for Xancaebire 



THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF DERBY, K.G., P.C., G.C.B. 
Lord Lieutenant, Chairman 



His GRACE THE DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH, K.G., K.T. 

THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF WILTON 

THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF ELLESMERE 

THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF LATHOM 

THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF SEFTON 

THE RT. HON. THE VISCOUNT CROSS, P.C., 

G.C.B., G.C.S.I. 

THE RT. HON. THE VISCOUNT RIDLEY, M.P. 
THE RT. HON. THE LORD BALCARRES, M.P. 
THE RT. HON. THE LORD STANLEY, P.C., C.B., 

M.P. 

THE RT. REV. THE LORD BISHOP OF LIVERPOOL 
THE RT. REV. THE LORD BISHOP OF MANCHESTER 
THE RT. HON. THE LORD KENYON 
THE RT. HON. THE LORD LILFORD 
THE RT. HON. THE LORD SHUTTLEWORTH, P.C. 
THE HON. WILLIAM R. W. PEEL, M.P. 
THE HON. ARTHUR STANLEY, M.P. 
THE RT. HON. A. J. BALFOUR, P.C., M.P. 
THE RT. HON. SIR WILLIAM H. WALROND, 

BART., P.C., M.P. 

THE RT. HON. SIR JOHN T. HIBBERT, P.C., K.C.B. 
SIR JAMES DE HOGHTON, BART. 
LT.-COL. SIR HENRY EARLE, BART. 
SIR GILBERT GREENALL, BART. 
SIR THOMAS BROCKLEBANK, BART. 
SIR JOHN ORMEROD S. THURSBY, BART. 
SIR WILLIAM H. HOULDSWORTH, BART., M.P. 
SIR WILLIAM AGNEW, BART. 
SIR DUDLEY B. FORWOOD, BART. 
SIR JOHN E. S. MACLURE, BART. 
SIR LEES KNOWLES, BART., M.P. 
SIR WILLIAM W. B. HULTON, BART. 
SIR EDWARD L. WILLIAMS, M.I.C.E. 
SIR CHARLES W. CAYZER, M.P., F.R.G.S. 
SIR HENRY SETON-KARR, C.M.G., M.P. 
COL. DAVID AINSWORTH, D.L., J.P. 
COL. RALPH J. ASPINALL, D.L., J.P. 
RALPH ASSHETON, ESQ., M.A., D.L., J.P. 
THE REV. CANON AYRE 
COL. IRELAND-BLACKBURNE, D.L., J.P. 
COL. H. B. H. BLUNDELL, C.B., M.P., D.L. 
FREDK. STAPLETON-BRETHERTON, ESQ., D.L., J.P. 
W. FITZHERBERT-BROCKHOLES, ESQ., D.L., J.P. 
VICTOR C. W. CAVENDISH, ESQ., M.P., D.L., 

J.P. 

H. S. COWPER, ESQ., F.S.A. 
OCT. LEIGH CLARE, ESQ., M.P. 
CHAS. A. CRIPPS, ESQ., K.C., M.P. 
COL. H. T. CROOK 
ALFRED EMMOTT, ESQ., M.P. 
JOHN FELL, ESQ., D.L., J.P. 
JOHN FORMBY, ESQ. 

xi 



COL. WM. HY. FOSTER, D.L., J.P. 

WM. J. GALLOWAY, ESQ., M.P. 

HARPER GAYTHORPE, ESQ., F.S.A. (Scot.) 

JOSEPH GILLOW, ESQ. 

ROBERT GLADSTONE, JUNR., ESQ., B.C.L., M.A. 

JAS. GRIMBLE GROVES, ESQ., M.P. 

EDW. MARSHALL-HALL, ESQ., K.C., M.P. 

ERNEST F. G. HATCH, ESQ., M.P. 

CHAS. HESKETH BIBBY-HESKETH, ESQ., M.A., D.L. 

T. CANN HUGHES, ESQ., M.A. 

WM. B. HUNTINGDON, ESQ., D.L., J.P. 

W. FERGUSSON IRVINE, ESQ., F.S.A. 

COL. GEORGE KEMP, B.A., M.P. 

JOHN KERR, ESQ., M.P. 

WM. F. LAWRENCE, ESQ., M.A., M.P. 

WILLIAM ALEX. LINDSAY, ESQ., K.C., M.A., F.S.A., 

Windsor Herald. 
DAVID MAC!VER, ESQ., M.P. 

ROBT. PlERPOINT, E$Q., M.P. 

R. D. RADCLIFFE, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A. 

W. O. ROPER, ESQ., F.S.A. 

COL. C. M. ROYDS, C.B., M.P., D.L., J.P. 

J. P. RYLANDS, ESQ., F.S.A. 

COL. THOS. MYLES SANDYS, M.P. 

DAVID JAS. SHACKLETON, ESQ., M.P. 

EDW. JAS. STANLEY, ESQ., M.P., D.L. 

C. W. SUTTON, ESQ. 

PROFESSOR JAMES TAIT, M.A. 

AUSTIN TAYLOR, ESQ., M.P. 

GEORGE TOULMIN, ESQ., M.P. 

PROFESSOR T. F. TOUT, M.A. 

ROBERT A. YERBURGH, ESQ., B.A., M.P. 

THE RT. HON. THE LORD MAYOR OF LIVERPOOL 

THE RT. HON. THE LORD MAYOR OF MANCHESTER 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF BACUP 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF BARROW-IN-FURNESS 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF BOLTON 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF BOOTLE 

THI WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF BURNLEY 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF BURY 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF COLNE 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF DARWEN 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF ECCLES 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF HASLINGDEN 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF LANCASTER 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF NELSON 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF PRESTON 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF ROCHDALE 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OP ST. HELENS 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF SALFORD 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF SOUTHPORT 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF WARRINGTON 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE 



Dedication ...... 




T 


The Advisory Council of the Victoria History 





vii 


General Advertisement .... 


. 


vii 


The Lancashire County Committee 




xiii 


Contents 




XV 


List of Illustrations ..... 




xvii 


Preface 




xix 


Table of Abbreviations .... 




xxiii 


Natural History 
Geology 


By H. BOLTON, F.R.S.E. 




Palajontology ..... 


By R. LYDEKKER, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S. 


3' 


Botany ...... 


By HARRY FISHER 


37 


Zoology 






Marine ...... 


By JAMES JOHNSTONE, B.Sc. (Lond.) 


87 


Non-Marine Molluscs 


By B. B. WOODWARD, F.G.S., F.R.M.S. 


97 


Insects 


By W. E. SHARP, F.E.S 


IOI 


Spiders 


By the late F. O. PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE, M.A., 
revised and corrected by the Rev. O. 
PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE, M.A. 


'45 


Crustaceans ..... 


By the Rev. T. R. R. STEBBING, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.Z.S 


'57 


Fishes 


By JAMES JOHNSTONS, B.Sc. (Lond.) 


179 


Reptiles and Batrachians . 


. . . 


188 


Birds 


By H. O. FORBES, LL.D 


189 


Mammals ..... 


> > 


206 


Early Man 


By JOHN GARSTANG, B.Litt., M.A., F.S.A. 


211 


Anglo-Saxon Remains .... 


,. v 


2 S7 


Introduction to the Lancashire Domesday . 
Text of the Lancashire Domesday 


By WILLIAM FARRER ..... 


269 
283 


Feudal Baronage ..... 





2 9 I 


Index to the Lancashire Domesday 




377 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

The Mersey. By William Hyde Frontispiece 

Contorted Beds in Clitheroe and Blackburn Railway 1 1 

Arrowheads and Miscellaneous Small-worked Flints from the) . 

Neolithic Floor of South-east Lancashire . . .[ ' ' W-pagf plate, fatm S 214 

Mottled Stone Celt from Windy Harbour, Pendle 217 

Celt with flattened sides from Leagram Hall . . . . . . . . .217 

Stone Celts and Hammers of Lancashire ...... full-page plate, facing 2 1 8 

Stone Adze from Greenheys, Manchester . . . . . . . . . .219 

,, Corporation Street, Manchester ........ 220 

Large Adze from Cheetwood, Manchester . . . . . . . . . .220 

Section of Stone Axe from Harpurhey, Manchester 221 

Stone Axe found at Wilpshire, near Blackburn 222 

Perforated Stone Axes and Axe-Hammers of Lancashire . . . full-page plate, facing 222 

Axe- Hammer from the Lune, near Lancaster . . . . . . . . -223 

from Heaton Chapel . . . . . . . . ... .224 

,. found near Lancaster . . . . . . . . . . .225 

Small Hammer from Queen's Park, Bol ton . . . . . . . . . .226 

Round Stone Hammer from Goosnargh . . . . . . . . . .227 

Bronze Celt with slight Flanges, from Read . . . . . . . . . .230 

Palstave found at Ainsworth . . . . . . . . . . . -231 

from Martin Mere . . . . . . . . . . . -231 

Bronze Palstave from Ashworth Moor . . . . . . . . . . .232 

Plain Socketed Celt from Winmarleigh 232 

Bronze Implements of Lancashire ....... full-page plate, facing 232 

Ribbed Socketed Celt from Winmarleigh . . . . . . . . . -233 

Celt with Outcurving Edge from Winmarleigh . . . . . . . . -233 

Celt with Recurving Edge from Winmarleigh . . . . . . . . -233 

Bronze Dagger from near Colne . . . . . . . . . . .234 

Bronze Spear-head from Preston . . . . . . . . . . -23; 

Spear-head looped on Shaft, from Irlam . . . . . . . . . .236 

Bronze Implements from Winmarleigh, North Lancashire . . . full-page plate, facing 236 

Spear-Head looped in Blade from Piethorne, near Rochdale 237 

Section of a Bronze Age Tumulus at Winwick . . . . . . . . .241 

Patterns upon Cinerary Urns from Darwen .......... 242 

Urn with Punctuated Decoration from Darwen ......... 242 

Urn from Blackburn 243 

Plan and Section of Timber Burial Circle, &c., at Bleasdale 243 

Wooden Canoe and Pottery Vessels of Bronzs Age, from Lancashire . full-page plate, facing 244 

Sword and Sheath from Warton 247 

Late Celtic Dagger-Sheath from Pilling Moss 247 

Bronze Beaded Torque from Mow Road (Rochdale) 248 

Wooden Dug-out Canoe from Barton-upon-Irwell ........ 248 

Wooden Dug-out Canoe found at Irlam .......... 249 

Dug-out found at Crossens ............ 249 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Coins from the Cuerdale Hoard . . . . 

Bronze Brooches from Claughton ..... 
Boss of Shield from Ribchester .... 

Fibula of White Metal from Claughton .... 
Silver Cup found on Halton Moor ..... 
Torque found at Halton Moor ..... 
Fragment of Cross-head at Winwick, Lancashire . 
Cross in Bolton Parish Church, Lancashire .... 
Whalley : Cross in Churchyard (front and back views) . 
Hornby : Loaves and Fishes, Cross-shaft in Church 
Lancaster : Cross of Cynebalth Cuthbertson 
Halton : West face of Cross in Churchyard and Detail of East Fa 
Heysham : Lower part of Cross-shaft in Churchyard 

Hog-backed Stone in Churchyard 
Seals of Feudal Barons of Lancashire : 

Plate I 

Plate II. . 

Plate III -C . . 

Plate IV. 



PAGE 

full-page plate, facing 258 



full-page plate facing 262 

262 

. . . . 263 

. 264 

full-page plate facing 264 

266 
266 



292 
296 



LIST OF MAPS 



Geological Map, Northern Section 
Southern Section 

Orographical Map . 
Botanical Map. 
Pre-Historical Map . 
Anglo-Saxon Map . 
Domesday Map 
Feudal Baronage Map 



PAGE 

between xxviii, I 

I*, '3 
2 4, 25 

36, 37 

,, 2 I O, 21 I 

256,257 

268, 269 

2 9 0, 2 9 I 



xviii 



PREFACE 

THE County Palatine of Lancaster presents to the eye of the 
traveller and historian alike a wide diversity of characteristics, 
physical, social, and industrial. The western or coastal 
region is flat, or very slightly undulating, whilst the eastern 
and northern regions consist of extensive areas of moorland and fell, 
intersected by deep and once secluded valleys. Inhabited at the Con- 
quest by a sparse population mainly dwelling in the open country, 
the hills and pastoral region in course of time afforded settlements to the 
gradually increasing population, under conditions somewhat removed 
from the old-established village communities with their feudal influences. 
Whilst the western and southern regions were in the main composed 
of large estates held by knightly families and their dependent 
franklyns or freeholders, the eastern and northern regions consisted of 
small estates painfully improved from the woods and hilly wastes by the 
predecessors of the small yeomen and copyhold tenants, a vigorous and 
thrifty race of men, whose rapid disappearance during the last half- 
century amounts almost to a grave national and social disaster. From the 
race inhabiting these small pastoral estates sprang the great bulk of the 
spinners and weavers, artisans and colliers, who have done so much to give 
to this county that industrial supremacy which has long distinguished it 
in common with the neighbouring county of York. The impetus which 
led to the result was largely due to the limited application of labour 
required upon small pastoral estates, whereby the leisure time of the 
inhabitants was available for home industries, a condition which did not 
obtain on the arable lands of western and south-western Lancashire. A 
hardy life, an invigorating climate and surroundings, engendered industry, 
thrift, and inventiveness. Wool, the raw material for manufacture, and 
water power for the fulling mills necessary to finish the woven cloth, 
were available in every valley, whilst an unlimited supply of materials for 
building and of fuel for burning engendered amongst the people a love of 
substantially built homesteads and homely comforts. 

Trading centres naturally sprang up in such places as Manchester, 
Liverpool, Warrington, Wigan, Preston, and Lancaster, due to their 
situation upon frequented roads giving communication between the west 
of England and the lowlands of Scotland on the one hand, the eastern 



PREFACE 

shires and Ireland by way of Chester, Liverpool, Formby, Preston, and 
Lancaster on the other. 

Such is a brief outline of the causes and conditions which have 
made the Lancashire of to-day. To give some account of the race of 
men who utilized these natural conditions for the development of their 
native county, and of the gradual growth and ultimate result of their work, 
is one of the main purposes of this history. In this and in other direc- 
tions the design and scope of The Victoria County Histories differ materially 
from any other county history hitherto published. The plan of execu- 
tion is described in the general advertisement, and will be found to 
embrace natural history ; pre-historic, Roman, and Anglo-Saxon remains ; 
a topographical account of each parish, township, and manor ; chapters on 
ecclesiastical history, architecture, agriculture, industries, social conditions, 
schools, sport, and family history. In dealing with the wide field of 
learning, the services of specialists in the various branches of knowledge 
here represented have been secured, with the object of placing upon record 
in a scientific and entirely original manner as much matter touching local 
history and its kindred subjects as may be contained in a work of limited size 
and cost. The chapters on pre-historic, Roman, and Anglo-Saxon remains 
are admittedly brief and fragmentary ; but there is, unfortunately, no such 
interest or activity of research in these directions as to encourage the 
hope that greater light may be thrown locally upon these periods of 
history within the era of the present generation. 1 In the department of 
natural history a great amount of work has been and is being done. 8 

In the department of topography only one important history of the 
county has been written. In 1836 Edward Baines, M.P. for Leeds 
(1834 1841), published A History of the County Palatine and Duchy of 
Lancaster in four quarto volumes, a work which since then has been 
slightly enlarged, but not greatly improved, in an edition edited by John 
Harland, F.S.A., in two quarto volumes issued in 1868-1870, and 
another edition by James Croston, F.S.A., in five quarto volumes 
issued in 18881893. A more scholarly work dealing with a portion 
of north-east Lancashire is The History of the original Parish of Whalley and 
Honor of Clitheroe by Thomas Dunham Whitaker, LL.D., F.S.A., i8oi. s 
The same author also wrote An History of Richmondshire, two volumes, 
1823, a work dealing with part of the ancient archdeaconry of Rich- 
mond, in which were formerly included the Lancashire hundreds of 
Lonsdale and Amounderness. In scope, however, this work can hardly 
be described as a topographical history, consisting merely of historical 
collections illustrated by engravings of local scenery painted by Turner. 

Valuable collections of historical materials in the history of the 

1 The published works illustrating this department are The History of Manchester, by the Rev. John 
Whitaker, 1771-5 ; Roman Lancashire, by W. Thompson Watkin, 1883. 

3 The Natural History of Lancashire, Cheshire, and the Peak in Derbyshire, by Charles Leigh, Doctor 
of Physick, 1700. 

8 A second edition was issued by the author in 1806, followed by a third edition in 1818. In 
1872 a fourth edition, revised and enlarged, was edited by John Gough Nichols, F.S.A., and the 
Rev. Ponsonby A. Lyons, B.A. 



PREFACE 

county were made by Roger Dodsworth 1 (1585-1654), Christopher 
Towneley 8 (1604-1674), Richard Kuerden 8 (1623-^ 1690), Randle 
Holme (1627-1699), and his son Randle Holme* (died 1707), and the 
Rev. F. R. Raines 6 (1805-1878), but no attempt has hitherto been made 
to utilize these collections for the history of the county. During the last 
twenty years transcripts of charters from these collections and of a great 
part of the Duchy and Palatinate of Lancaster records have been made, 
these being supplemented by abstracts of many records of the Crown, and 
of documents in museums, public libraries, and in private hands. 

In the department of printed works the volumes of the Chetham 
Society, the Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society, the Lancashire and 
Cheshire Antiquarian Society, and the Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire contain a vast amount of original material, which in the 
main has been critically and carefully edited. 

By utilizing a selected portion of this mass of material it will be 
possible to give a succinct and precise account of each parish and town- 
ship with the descent of each manor and large estate from the earliest 
time to the present day. Four or five volumes will be devoted to this 
department of history, the remaining subjects being dealt with in 
volumes i, ii, and vii. 

The editors are under great obligations to Mr. Edmund Dickson, 
F.G.S., Mr. Harper Gaythorpe, F.S.A. (Scot.), and Mr. H. Murray 
for information in the department of Natural History and Mr. W. E. 
Gregson, Mr. W. F. Irvine, Mr. R. D. Radcliffe, Mr. J. P. Rylands, 
Mr. C. W. Sutton, and other members of the Lancashire Committee 
for their active and friendly services. 

They also wish to express their thanks to Sir John Evans, K.C.B., 
Col. Fishwick, F.S.A., Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co., and the Society 
of Antiquaries for the use of blocks, and to the British Numismatic 
Society, and Mr. P. W. P. Carlyon-Britton, F.S.A., for the loan of a 
series of casts of the coins found in the Cuerdale hoard. 

1 In the Bodleian Library, Oxford. For material relating to this county the most important 
volumes are Nos. xxxix, liii, Iviii, Ixi, Ixii, Ixx, Ixxxvii, cxxxi, cxlii, cxlix, cliii. 

8 The greater part of these MSS. was dispersed at the Towneley Hall sale in 1883. Twenty 
volumes of transcripts of charters were acquired by the Trustees of the British Museum ; the most 
important being Add. MSS. Nos. 32,103, 32,104 (B.B.), 32,105 (C.T.), 32,106 (E.E., F.F.), 32,107 
(G.G.), 32,108 (R.R.). A dozen volumes are in the possession of William Farrer, the most important 
being those marked by Chr. Towneley D.D., H.H., and O.O. Eighteen volumes were acquired by 
the Feoffees of Chetham's Library, the most important volumes being C. 8-13 (A-Y), C. 8-14 (C.C.), 
C. 8-7 (P.P., W.W.). 

8 Six volumes are preserved in the College of Arms, one volume is in the British Museum, Harl. 
MSS., No. 7,386, and two volumes are in Chetham's Library. These MSS. consist of brief abstracts 
made from original documents, mostly charters, and of abstracts of Chr. Towneley's MSS. The 
caligraphy and the paper and ink used by the compiler render the deciphering of these MSS. a work of 
great difficulty. 

4 Preserved in the British Museum, the most important volumes being Harleian MSS., Nos. 2,042, 
2,063, 2,077, 2,085, and 2,112. 

'& These consist of forty-five volumes of Lancashire MSS., and are preserved in Chetham's Library 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. 


Abbreviatio Placitorum (Re- 


Chartul 


Chartulary 


Com.) 


cord Commission) 


Chas 


Charles 


Acts of P.C. . . 


Acts of Privy Council 


Ches 


Cheshire 


Add 


Additional 


Chest 


Chester 


Add. Chart. . . 


Additional Charters 


Ch. Gds. lExch. 


Church Goods (Exchequer 


Admir 
Agarde .... 


Admiralty 
Agarde's Indices 


K.R.) 
Chich 


King's Remembrancer) 
Chichester 


Anct. Corresp. . . 
Anct. D. (P.R.O.) 


Ancient Correspondence 
Ancient Deeds(Public Record 


Chron 
Close .... 


Chronicle, Chronica, etc. 
Close Roll 


A 2420 


Office) A 2420 


Co 


County 


Ann. Mon. . . . 


Annales Monastic! 


Colch 


Colchester 


Antiq 


Antiquarian or Antiquaries 


Coll 


Collections 


App 


Appendix 


Com 


Commission 


Arch 


Archaeologia or Archaeological 


Com. Pleas . . 


Common Pleas 


Arch. Cant. . . 


Archaeologia Cantiana 


Conf. R. . . . 


Confirmation Rolls 


Archd. Rec. . . 


Archdeacons' Records 


Co. Plac. . . . 


County Placita 


Archit 


Architectural 


Cornw 


Cornwall 


Assize R. . . . 


Assize Rolls 


Corp 


Corporation 


Aud. Off. . . . 


Audit Office 


Cott 


Cotton or Cottonian 


Aug. Off. . . . 


Augmentation Office 


Ct. R 


Court Rolls 


Ayloffe . . . 


Ayloffe's Calendars 


Ct. of Wards . . 


Court of Wards 






Cumb 


Cumberland 


Bed 


Bedford 


Cur. Reg. . . . 


Curia Regis 


Beds 


Bedfordshire 






Berks .... 


Berkshire 


D 


Deed or Deeds 


Bdle 


Bundle 


D. and C. . . . 


Dean and Chapter 


B.M 


British Museum 


De Bane. R. . . 


De Banco Rolls 


Bodl. Lib. . . . 


Bodley's Library 


Dec. and Ord . . 


Decrees and Orders 


Boro 
Brev. Reg. . 


Borough 
Brevia Regia 


Dep. Keeper's Rep. 
Derb 


Deputy Keeper's Reports 
Derbyshire or Derby 


Brit 


Britain,British, Britannia, etc. 


Devon .... 


Devonshire 


Buck 


Buckingham 


Dioc 


Diocese 


Bucks .... 


Buckinghamshire 


Doc 


Documents 






Dods. MSS. . . 


Dodsworth MSS. 


Cal 


Calendar 


Dom. Bk. . . . 


Domesday Book 


Camb 
Cambr 


Cambridgeshire or Cambridge 
Cambria, Cambrian, Cam- 


Dors 
Duchy of Lane. . 


Dorsetshire 
Duchy of Lancaster 




brensis, etc. 


Dur 


Durham 


Campb. Ch. . . 


Campbell Charities 






Cant 


Canterbury 


East. 


Easter Term 


Cap 


Chapter 


Eccl 


Ecclesiastical 


Carl 


Carlisle 


Eccl. Com. . . 


Ecclesiastical Commission 


Cart. Antiq. R. . 


Cartas Antiquae Rolls 


Edw 


Edward 


C.C.C. Camb. . . 


Corpus Christ! College, Cam- 


Eliz 


Elizabeth 




bridge 


Engl 


England or English 


Certiorari Bdles. 


Certiorari Bundles (Rolls 


Engl. Hist. Rev. . 


English Historical Review 


(Rolls Chap.) 


Chapel) 


Enr 


Enrolled or Enrolment 


Chan. Enr. Decree 


Chancery Enrolled Decree 


Epis. Reg. . . . 


Episcopal Registers 


R. 


Rolls 


Esch. Enr. Accts. . 


Escheators Enrolled Accounts 


Chan. Proc. . . 


Chancery Proceedings 


Excerpta e Rot. Fin. 


Excerpta e Rotulis Finium 


Chant. Cert. . . 


Chantry Certificates (or Cer- 


(Rec. Com.) 


(Record Commission) 




tificates of Colleges and 


Exch. Dep. . . 


Exchequer Depositions 




Chantries) 


Exch. K.B. . . 


Exchequer King's Bench 


Chap. Ho. . . . 


Chapter House 


Exch. K.R. . . 


Exchequer King's Remem- 


Charity Inq. . . 
Chart. R. 20 Hen. 


Charity Inquisitions 
Charter Roll, 20 Henry III. 


Exch. L.T.R. . . 


brancer 
Exchequer Lord Treasurer's 


III. pt. i. No. 10 


part i. Number 10 




Remembrancer 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



Exch. of Pleas, Plea 
R. 


Exchequer of Pleas, Plea Roll 


Memo. R. . . . 
Mich 


Memoranda Rolls 
Michaelmas Term 


Exch. of Receipt . 
Exch. Spec. Com. . 


Exchequer of Receipt 
Exchequer Special Commis- 
sions 


Midd 

Mins. Accts. . . 
Misc. Bks. (Exch. 


Middlesex 
Ministers' Accounts 
Miscellaneous Books (Ex- 






K.R., Exch. 


chequer King's Remem- 


Feet of F. . . . 
Feod. Accts. (Ct. of 
Wards) 
Feod. Surv. (Ct. of 
Wards) 
Feud. Aids . . . 


Feet of Fines 
Feodaries Accounts (Court of 
Wards) 
Feodaries Surveys (Court of 
Wards) 
Feudal Aids 


T.R. or Aug. 
Off.) 

Mon 
Monm 
Mun 


brancer, Exchequer Trea- 
sury of Receipt or Aug- 
mentation Office) 
Monastery, Monasticon 
Monmouth 
Muniments or Munimenta 


fol 


Folio 


Mus 


Museum 


Foreign R. . . . 


Foreign Rolls 






Forest Proc. 


Forest Proceedings 


N. andQ. . . . 


Notes and Queries 






Norf. .... 


Norfolk 


Gaz 


Gazette or Gazetteer 


Northampt. 


Northampton 


Gen 


Genealogical, Genealogica, 
etc. 


Northants . 
Northumb. . 


Northamptonshire 
Northumberland 


Geo 


George 


Norw 


Norwich 


Glouc 


Gloucestershire or Gloucester 


Nott 


Nottinghamshire or Notting- 


Guild Certif.(Chan-) 


Guild Certificates (Chancery) 




ham 


Ric. II. 


Richard II. 


N.S 


New Style 


Hants .... 


Hampshire 


Off. 


Office 


Had 


Harley or Harleian 


Orig. R. . . . 


Originalia Rolls 


Hen 


Henry 


O.S 


Ordnance Survey 


Heref. .... 


Herefordshire or Hereford 


Oxf. 


Oxfordshire or Oxford 


Hertf. . . . . 


Hertford 






Herts .... 


Hertfordshire 




Page 


Hil 
Hist 


Hilary Term 
History, Historical,Historian, 


Palmer's Ind. . . 
Pal. of Chest. . . 


Palmer's Indices 
Palatinate of Chester 


Hist. MSS. Com. . 


Historia, etc. 
Historical MSS. Commission 


Pal. ofDur. . . 
Pal. of Lane. . . 


Palatinate of Durham 
Palatinate of Lancaster 


Hosp 


Hospital 


p ar 


Parish, parochial, etc. 


Hund. R. . . . 


Hundred Rolls 


Parl 


Parliament or Parliamentary 


Hunt 


Huntingdon 




Parliament Rolls 


Hunts .... 


Huntingdonshire 


ParL Surv. . . . 


Parliamentary Surveys 






Partic. for Gts. 


Particulars for Grants 


Inq. a.q.d. . 


Inquisitions ad quod damnum 


Pat 


Patent Roll or Letters Patent 


Inq. p.m. 


Inquisitions post mortem 


P.C.C 


Prerogative Court of Canter- 


Inst 


Institute or Institution 




bury 


Invent 


Inventory or Inventories 


Pet 


Petition 


I P S 


Ipswich 
Itinerary 


Peterb 

pu:l 


Peterborough 
Philip 






rail. . 
Pipe R 


Pipe Roll 


Jas 


James 


Plea R 


Plea Rolls 




Journal 


Pop. Ret. . . . 


Population Returns 






Pope Nich. Tax. 


Pope Nicholas' Taxation (Re- 


Lamb. Lib. . . 


Lambeth Library 


(Rec. Com.) 


cord Commission) 


Lane. ... 


Lancashire or Lancaster 


P.R.O 


Public Record Office 


L. and P. Hen. 
VIII. 


Letters and Papers, Hen. 
VIII. 


Proc 
Proc. Soc. Antiq. . 


Proceedings 
Proceedings of the Society of 


Lansd. . . . 


Lansdowne 




Antiquaries 


Ld. Rev. Rec. . . 


Land Revenue Records 


pt 


Part 


Leic 


Leicestershire or Leicester 


Pub 


Publications 


Le Neve's Ind. . 


Le Neve's Indices 






Lib 


Library 


R 


Roll 


Lich 


Lichfield 


Rec 


Records 


Line 


Lincolnshire or Lincoln 


Recov. R. . . . 


Recovery Rolls 


Lond 


London 


Rentals and Surv. . 


Rentals and Surveys 






Rep 


Report 


m 


Membrane 


Rev 


Review 


Mem 


Memorials 


Ric 


Richard 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



Roff. .... 


Rochester diocese 


Topog 


Topography or Topographi- 


Rot. Cur. Reg. 


Rotuli Curia Regis 




cal 


Rut 


Rutland 


Trans 


Transactions 






Transl 


Translation 






Treas 


Treasury or Treasurer 


Sarum .... 


Salisbury diocese 


Trin 


Trinity Term 


Ser 


Series 






S ess . R 


Sessions Rolls 


Univ 


, University 


Shrews 


Shrewsbury 






Shrops .... 


Shropshire 


Valor Eccl. (Rec. 


Valor Ecclesiasticus (Record 


Soc 
Soc. Antiq. . 


Society 
Society of Antiquaries 


Com.) 
Vet. Mon. . . , 


Commission) 
, Vetusta Monumenta 


Somers 
Somers. Ho. 


Somerset 
Somerset House 


V.C.H 

Vic 


, Victoria County History 
Victoria 


S.P. Dom. . . . 


State Papers Domestic 


vol 


Volume 


Staff. .... 


Staffordshire 






Star Chamb. Proc. 
Stat 


Star Chamber Proceedings 
Statute 


Warw. . . . 


. Warwickshire or Warwick 


Steph 
Subs. R. . . . 
Suff. 


Stephen 
Subsidy Rolls 
Suffolk 


Westm. ... 
Westmld. . . 
Will. . . . 


. Westminster 
. Westmorland 
. William 


Surr 
Suss 


Surrey 
Sussex 


Wilts . . . 
Winton. . . 


. Wiltshire 
. Winchester diocese 


Surv.'of Ch. Liv- 


Surveys of Church Livings 


Wore. . . . 


. Worcestershire or Worcester 


ings (Lamb.) or 


(Lambeth) or (Chancery) 






(Chan.) 




Yorks . . . 


. Yorkshire 



A HISTORY OF 
LANCASHIRE 



HISTOKY OK LANCASHIRE 



GEOLOGICAL M > 




- NORTHERN SECTION 



K.XI'I., \NATION OK rill.OI'ltINt; 
MM, S3*~*"" 



JKwwurx 
Ml 

;-,;;:'?D/ iM " < "" 



"""' iw ^f ; ' ' .'.-.. - '.<.?- 




GEOLOGY 



THE Geology of Lancashire is of such a character that probably no 
other county in England can so well show the mercantile develop- 
ment due to its mineral wealth. The Furness and Ulverston 
districts with their rich deposits of haematite have furnished an 
abundance of iron ore, and the rich Coal measures which cover a large 
portion of the county have alone rendered possible the creation of huge 
manufacturing towns crowded with factories and workshops, whilst the low 
Triassic plains, with overlying superficial deposits, which form the seaboard 
from Liverpool to Fleetwood yield a soil well adapted for agriculture. The 
Carboniferous Limestone and Millstone Grit are admirably fitted for road- 
making and building purposes, and many of the shales and under-clays asso- 
ciated everywhere with the coal, and the thick layers of boulder clay, are 
equally useful in the manufacture of bricks and coarse pottery. Many of the 
large towns are crowded so closely together as to be practically continuous, 
and it is no fanciful figure of speech to say that at least the southern half 
of Lancashire is one great workshop. 

The general sequence of formations is as follows : 

Blown Sand 

Alluvium . 

Glacial Drift . . Boulder Clay and Sands. 

_. . f Keuper Marls and Sandstone. 

1 nas ' ' ' t Bunter Sandstone and Pebble Beds. 

n . f Sandstones, Marls, and thin Limestones. 

Permian . . . j Magnesian Limestone. 

TCoal Measures. 
Carboniferous . . -< Millstone Grit. 

[_ Mountain Limestone Series. 

("Bannisdale Flags. 
Silurian . . < Coniston Grits and Flags. 

LStockdale Shales. 

r Coniston Limestone Series. 
Ordovician . . < Borrowdale Volcanic Series. 

|_Skiddaw Slates (in part Cambrian ?). 

PALMOZ01C 

The only exposures or the older Palaeozoic rocks (Ordovician and Silurian) in Lancashire are 
limited to the Ulverston, Coniston, and Cartmel area, which is geographically a part of the Lake 
District. They consist of a small patch of Skiddaw Slates, the Borrowdale Volcanic series, and 
the Coniston Limestones seen in the neighbourhood of Ireleth, and a much larger northern area 
covered by the Stockdale Shales, Coniston Flags and Grits, and the Bannisdale Flags. 

ORDOVICIAN 

SKIDDAW SLATES 

The Skiddaw Slates, which occupy a considerable area in the adjacent county of Cumberland, 
consist of from 10,000 to 12,000 feet of dark grey slates, mudstones, and grits, which have 
undergone so much alteration since they were deposited that the task of determining their genera) 

i I 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

sequence and stratigraphical position has proved a most difficult one. At one time they extended 
much farther to the south-west, as a great part of the northern portion of the Isle of Man is made 
up of them. The Skiddaw Slates are, as a rule, unfossiliferous, although some of the less altered 
beds have yielded a fauna sufficiently distinctive to determine their true position. The most abundant 
organic remains are those of graptolites, of which 59 species are known. Other forms are brachio- 
pods, such as Lingula brevis, genera of trilobites belonging to /Eglina, Agnostus, and dsapkus, small 
crustaceans known as Caryocaris, and doubtful remains of plants. Miss G. L. Elles, who has made 
a special study of the Skiddaw Slates, 1 is of opinion that the fauna is in the main of Arenig age, but 
that certain of the beds belong to lower and higher horizons. 

BORROWDALE VOLCANIC SERIES 

Towards the close of the Skiddaw Slate period the Lake District became a centre of great 
volcanic activity, showers of ashes and streams of lava being thrown out intermittently, and alter- 
nating for a while with the sediments then forming on the sea floor. Eventually the only 
accumulations taking place were those derived from the volcanoes, one or more of the latter rising 
above the sea-level into enormous mountains. The total thickness of lavas and ashes has been 
estimated at about 1 2,000 feet. They overspread a great portion of the Lake District, which owes 
most of its wild, rugged and mountainous character to them. 

The Borrowdale Volcanic Series crosses the Lancashire border on its north-western side, and 
occupies a north-east and south-west strip of ground some sixteen miles in length and four miles in 
breadth at the widest point, lying between the boundary and a line drawn from the northern end 
of Lake Windermere to Broughton-in-Furness. This area presents all the characteristic features of 
the Lake District, and is very mountainous, the chief elevations being Dunnerdale, Coniston Old 
Man and Grey Friars. Most of the earlier lavas poured out during the Borrowdale Volcanic 
period were andesitic in character, whilst towards the close they assumed the condition of rhyolitic 
felsites. Many of the fine ash beds have undergone cleavage, and are now quarried for roofing 
slates. Near Coniston, ores of copper and iron occur in the beds, and mining of the former was 
carried on for many years. 

THE CONISTON LIMESTONE SERIES 

This series represents the upper limit of the Ordovician in North Lancashire, and has been 
classified by Dr. J. E. Marr as follows : 



AshgiU G P . . , 

p, . ( Applethwaite Beds, 100 feet. 

Coniston ) \ Conglomerate, 10 feet. 

Limestone > Sleddale Group . . < -i T? j u j 

c . I j Stile End Beds, 50 feet. 

( with Yarlside Rhyolites above. 
Roman Fell Group . Corona Beds, 100 feet. 

The series is generally accepted as the equivalent of a part of the Bala Beds of Wales, the 
remaining part of the Bala Beds and the Llandeilo being represented by the Borrowdale Series, 
whilst the Skiddaw Slates are, without doubt, in part of Arenig age, and may also in part correspond 
to the Tremadoc Slates and Lingula Flags. 

On the Lancashire border, the Coniston Limestone Series does not seem to attain a greater 
thickness than 300 to 500 feet, and only the upper members are represented, namely, the Apple- 
thwaite Beds, Staurocephalus Limestone, and Ashgill Shales. 

The Applethwaite series consists of very fossiliferous calcareous shales and limestones, with a 
white horny limestone at the top of the series, which in Dr. Marr's opinion is the equivalent of the 
Keisley Limestone. At Ireleth the beds rest on the Borrowdale rocks, whilst they can also be 
traced from the mouth of the Duddon northwards to near Ambleside. Good exposures of the 
Coniston Limestone Series are seen near Sunny Brow on the west of Windermere, and on the high 
moorland to the south-west of Coniston Water, the Applethwaite beds being especially fossiliferous. 
Dr. Marr, who has given considerable attention to these beds, states that the best section of the 
lower part of the series is shown at High Pike Haw, near the head of Appletreeworth Beck, whilst 
the upper portion is excellently displayed in Ashgill Quarry. 

The Ashgill Shales. These consist of grey and green calcareous shales with limestone, and have 
a variable thickness. They are well developed at Ashgill ; at Rebecca Hill quarry, north of 
Dalton in Furness ; near Coniston, and at various places in Westmorland. 

1 Quart. Jaunt. Geol. Soc. liv. 463 (1898). 
2 



GEOLOGY 

LIFE DURING ORDOVICIAN TIMES 

The abundant graptolite fauna of the Skiddaw Slates has been well worked out by Miss G. L. 
Elles, and her general conclusions have been already mentioned. It must not be supposed, however, 
that the whole of the fauna of these beds has been fully determined, as such is hardly likely to be 
the case for a long time to come owing to the great changes which have taken place in the character 
of the beds since they were deposited. Strong cleavages have been induced sufficient to convert the 
mudstones into slates, and the beds have also been invaded by intrusive rocks and much altered by 
contact-metamorphism. Before the close of the Skiddaw Slate period the volcanic eruptions which 
were to give rise to the overlying Borrowdale Volcanic Series had commenced, so that thick ash beds 
and lava flows alternated with the last phases of marine sedimentation. Many of the ash-beds have 
undergone a later cleavage development, and are at times almost indistinguishable from the true 
slates. 

The Coniston Limestone series has yielded a large number of fossils peculiar to the Bala Beds 
of North Wales. Amongst these are several corals, including Monticulipora (Favosites) fibrosa and 
Heliolites interstinctus. Brachiopods are especially distinctive, and include such well-known forms as 
Orthis calligramma, 0. porcata, 0. e/egantula, Leptcena sericea, and L. (Strophomend) rhomboidalis. 

The Ashgill Shales are characterised by the trilobites, Trinucleus concentricus, Phacops mucronatus, 
and P. apicu/atus, together with species of Orthis and Strophomena. 

A very complete list of fossils from various horizons is given in Dr. Marr's paper on the 
Coniston Limestone Series. 1 

It is needful to remember that the Ordovician strata of the English Lake District and North 
Lancashire are the equivalents of the vast mass of slates, grits, and limestones which in North 
Wales form the Arenig, Llandeilo, and Bala groups, and that it is also quite possible that the lower 
portion of the Skiddaw Slates may prove of Cambrian age and to belong to the Tremadoc or Lingula 
Flag series. 

SILURIAN 

Rocks of Silurian age form a broad fringe to the south of the Borrowdale Volcanic Series in the 
Lake District, the Ordovician beds already considered forming but a narrow ribbon between them. 
Almost the whole of North Lancashire north of a line drawn from Lindale and Ayside to Cartmel, 
Ulverston, and the Duddon is occupied by these rocks, and they stretch across the eastern half of 
Cumberland to Yorkshire. 

The series consists of shales or mudstones, flags and grits which reach a thickness of between 
14,000 and 15,000 feet. They have been divided as follows: 

Kirkby Moor Flags 2,000 feet 

Bannisdale Flags 5> 2O 

Upper ( Coniston Grits and Flags .... 4,000 

Coniston ] , , , , , f Browgill Beds 

Group (Stockdale Shales { Graptolitic Mudstones . 200-450 

Basement Bed 

The Basement Bed which at Austwick possesses the character of a calcareous conglomerate, 
rests unconformably upon the upper members of the Ordovician series, 2 or, as near Souththwaite, 
upon a series of slates with gritty bands, which pass into rocks sometimes called ash-beds. Below the 
latter are flaggy slates passing down into the Coniston Limestone. At Skelgill and Pullbeck, near 
Ambleside, the place of the conglomerate is taken by grit bands and calcareous beds, whilst in other 
places it seems to be absent. A marked unconformity separates the basement beds from the under- 
lying Ordovician, and this is also accompanied by a marked Silurian fauna in the upper beds. 

STOCKDALE SHALES 

These consist of blue mudstones and calcareous and graptolitic shales, which are divided into 
Browgill Beds and 
Graptolitic Mudstones. 

The Graptolitic Mudstones are of great interest notwithstanding the thinness of the beds, 
owing to the prevalence of graptolites. The dark shales or mudstones are especially prolific in 
species of graptolites, the chief zones being in descending order as follows : 
Monograptus spinigerus Monograptm argenteus 

Clingani fimbriatus 

convolutus Dimorphograptus confertus 

i Geol. Mag., Dec. iii. (1892), ix. 108-1 10. 2 T. McK. Hughes, Geol. Mag., iv. 352 (1867). 

3 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

The lower zone lies in calcareous shales. Numerous other genera and species occur, amongst 
them being Rastrites peregrinus, Diplograptus Hughesii y Climacograptus normalis, etc. Crustacea are 
represented by trilobites such as Addaspis, Praetus, Harpes, Pbacops, Encrinurus, etc. ; brachiopods by 
Leptesna quinquecostata and Atrypa flexuosa ; cephalopods by Orthoceras. 

Dr. J. E. Marr, when discussing the general facies of these beds, 1 drew attention to the fact 
that the dominant forms were almost all Silurian, and indicated a relation to the May Hill beds of 
Wales. A similar conclusion has been reached by other observers, and the beds together with the 
overlying Browgill or Pale Shales series are now classed as equivalents of the Llandovery Group. 

The Browgill beds, which are frequently termed the Pale Shales, are very similar to certain 
beds associated with the Graptolitic Mudstones. They have a thickness of about 1 30 feet, and have 
yielded graptolites and brachiopods, examples of Monograptus lobiferus having been found in them on 
Applethwaite Common, and Stricklandinia lirata in the Pale Shales of Rebecca Hill near Ulverston. 

CONISTON GRITS AND FLAGS 

Coniston Flags. The Coniston Flags, which have a great thickness and are well exposed in the 
Coldwell and Brathay quarries, about two miles south-west of Ambleside, consist of finely laminated 
blue flags, overlaid by three series of flaggy and calcareous grits. Dr. Marr divides them as follows: 

( Upper 

Coldwell Beds . J Middle 

I Lower 

Brathay Flags. The Brathay Flags are of fine texture, and cleave readily, and make up about 
a third of the total thickness. They are sparingly fossiliferous, and have yielded Favosites aspera t 
Monograptus priodon, RetioKtes Geinitzianus, and a few other forms, chiefly in the neighbourhood of 
Stockdale. 

The Coldwell Beds are made up of basal coarse grey grits, middle calcareous flaggy grits of a 
blue colour and fairly fossiliferous, and an upper series of blue to grey gritty flags, which exceed in 
thickness the middle and lower beds and Brathay Flags combined. 

The Upper Coldwell beds are well seen in a quarry 200 yards south of the Coldwell quarry. 
The numerous fossils obtained from the Middle and Upper series include the corals, Petraia, and 
Favosites fibrosa ; a trilobite, Phacops obtusicaudatus ; brachiopods such as Ortbis and Strophomena, 
cephalopoda, amongst which are six species of Orthoceras, and malacostraca ; Ceratiocaris and Peltocaris 
being found in the upper beds at Troutbeck and Rebecca Hill. The Brathay Flags are of Wenlock 
Group age, whilst the Coldwell Beds correspond to the lower portion of the Lower Ludlow Group. 

Coniston Grits. These beds have a thickness of from 4,000 to 4,200 feet and consist of flags 
and felspathic grits. In the Sedbergh district they have yielded a suite of fossils which show them 
to be closely related to the Coniston Flags below, the grits and flags together corresponding to the 
whole of the Lower Ludlow Group of Shropshire and Wales. 

BANNISDALE FLAGS 

This series of beds, which attains a thickness of over 5,000 feet in the adjoining counties of 
Westmorland and Cumberland, consists of slates, grits and flags. Their representatives in the 
Lancashire area are to be found in the Upper Ireleth Slate group described by Sedgwick in 1 846, 
who showed that they could be traced along the line of strike by Coniston Water and Windermere to 
Long Sleddale and Bannisdale Foot. The great slate quarries at Ireleth are opened in these rocks. 

KIRKBY MOOR FLAGS 
This group overlies the Bannisdale series beyond the Lancashire border on the north-east. 

OLD RED SANDSTONE 

Between the uppermost members of the Silurian in Lancashire which we have now dealt with, 
and the Carboniferous, there intervenes the- Old Red Sandstone, a great deposit of red and grey 
sandstone, and flagstones, with conglomerates and shales. Although representatives of this system 
occur in adjacent counties, there is yet no evidence of its occurrence within the county beneath the 
Carboniferous Limestone. As, however, the Upper Old Red conglomerate underlies the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in Cumberland, it is possible that if the base of the latter was exposed in 
Lancashire, we should also find the conglomerate beneath it. The conditions which existed in 

1 ' On Some Well-defined Life-zones in the Lower Part of the Silurian (Sedgwick) of the Lake District,' 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Sac. (1878), xxxiv. 879. 

4 



GEOLOGY 

Old Red Sandstone times were a natural prelude to those which brought about the formation of the 
limestone and limestone-shale of the Lower Carboniferous Series, and it is therefore necessary to a 
full knowledge of the latter that the main facts be at least outlined. 

There is abundant evidence to show that a prolonged period elapsed after the formation of the 
Silurian, during which the deposits of the latter were subjected to considerable change and 
denudation. Only after prolonged erosion of their upturned edges, which formed part of a land 
surface, did a period of subsidence set in, and a series of depressions form, within which the red 
sandstones, shales, and conglomerates of the Old Red Sandstone were deposited. The character of 
these deposits clearly shows that they must have been accumulated not far from land, and the accepted 
belief is that the areas of subsidence, whilst in all probability connected with the sea at first, gradually 
became inland waters, passing in fact from a marine to a lacustrine condition. 

The extensive development of the Old Red Sandstone deposits indicates also that a large 
continental tract must have existed around the areas of sedimentation from which the material was 
derived. The sandstone and conglomerates formed at the close of that period gradually gave place 
to calcareous muds and limestones, the latter showing that after a period of rest a slow and wide- 
spread period of depression had again set in. As subsidence went on the Old Red Sandstone lakes 
became once more merged into the sea, and as the movement continued the continental land surface 
also sank beneath the water, until marine conditions were established over almost the whole of 
England, Wales, and Ireland, and the southern half of Scotland, with the exception of a few island 
masses, one of which stretched from Leicestershire into Wales, occupying what is now St. George's 
Channel, and striking northward to the North of Ireland and the western coast of Scotland. As the 
sea area increased, beds of silt and mud took the place of pebbles and sand banks, to be overlaid in 
turn by purely marine deposits. 

CARBONIFEROUS 

The thick limestone beds which were gradually accumulated over the sea floor show that the 
water was clear and fairly destitute of material derived from the land. That these marine con- 
ditions were permanent for a long time is shown by the thickness of the Carboniferous Limestone, 
which in the neighbourhood of Clitheroe has been estimated at over 3,000 feet, without the base 
being seen. The waters of the carboniferous sea were tenanted with an abundant marine fauna, 
crinoids and corals predominating, the former to such an extent that great thicknesses of rock were 
built up almost entirely of the broken-up and commingled stems. Limestones of this character are 
well seen in the neighbourhood of Clitheroe, Whalley, and Whitewell, and also at the Salt Hill 
quarries. The corals grew either singly or in colonies, the latter often covering large areas with a 
thick layer of one species only. This was especially the case with forms like Lithostrotion, Syringopora, etc. 

Brachiopods and pelecypods were well represented, and abundant evidence is furnished of 
shark-like fishes by the presence of teeth, spines, and scales. The boundaries of the Carboniferous 
sea are indicated by the intercalation of beds of mud and sand around the edges of the massive lime- 
stone, and by a thinning of the latter. It is by the careful mapping of these estuarine and littoral 
deposits that it has been possible to determine the main outlines of the sea area. 

The formation of the thick limestone gradually began to fill up the sea-floor, and the materials 
brought to the sea margin by rivers, or derived from the eroded coastlines of the land, were carried 
farther and farther out until muddy and detrital deposits extended over the greater part of the sea- 
floor, and the formation of the Pendleside Group (' Yoredale Series ')* began. The filling up still 
continued until large areas of the sea were cut off wholly or partially from the rest, and by the 
constant discharge into these of river waters marine conditions gave place to brackish, and the 
latter to fresh water, until, by the accumulation of sand and silt, the Millstone Grit Series was 
formed. At times, shallowing of the enclosed areas proceeded so far that vegetation extended 
from the land over the muds and sands, so giving rise to the thin coal seams occasionally found in 
the Millstone Grits. Subsidence still continued, but irregularly, so that a prolonged period of rest 
resulted in some lagoons becoming filled up and overgrown by coal forests, whilst very slow subsi- 
dence, and the continuance of shallow conditions, permitted the deposition of inshore materials, 
such as coarse sands, to be overlaid in turn by fine muds, when a greater subsidence caused the shore 
line to recede, and only finer water-borne material to be carried so far out. In this way arose the 
alternation of sandstones, grits, shales, and coals which make up the Lower Coal Measures. 

The same process of subsidence followed by periods of rest brought about the formation of the 
Middle Coal Measures, only in this case, the land-derived waste was mainly deposited in the form 
of fine mud, probably owing to the general level of the land from which it was derived being so 
low that only the finer material could be carried in suspension by rivers. The existence of a low 

1 The name Pendleside Group' is here used in preference to ' Yoredale Series,' as the latter division at the 
typical locality in Wensleydale is considered to be on a lower horizon and equivalent to the upper portion of 
the Carboniferous Limestone. Hind and Howe, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. 1901, Ivii. 376. 

5 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

land surface with sluggish rivers would thus account for the greater prevalence of shales and the 
feeble development of sandstones which mark the Middle Coal Measures. 

Similarly it has been held that the great development of grits and sandstones which form the 
Millstone Grit can only be accounted for by a general and rapid upheaval of the land surface at the 
close of the Pendleside period, by means of which rivers acquired greater velocity and destructive 
power, and were thus able to carry heavy loads of sand and pebbles from the land into the sea. 

The former wide extension of the Coal Measures over England, and their development over 
many parts of the continent of Europe, point unmistakably to the existence of vast tracts of 
alluvial land at this time, and these in turn were probably but the maritime plains of a huge 
continent whose inland surface was very mountainous, watered by a heavy rainfall, and drained by 
mighty rivers. 

The Upper Coal Measures, best seen in the neighbourhood of Manchester and along the 
southern borders of the Lancashire coalfield, differ markedly from the rest of the Carboniferous 
series in being made up mostly of red, green, and purple shales and clays, with thin limestones and 
sandstones. Coal seams only occur in the lower portion. The character of these deposits seems to 
indicate that the conditions we have already described were followed by the formation of freshwater 
lakes cut off from the sea and subject to evaporation. The limestones are such as would be formed 
by precipitation, whilst the prevalence of ferric oxide would seem to show that it was deposited as 
the sediments were formed, every grain being coated with it, a circumstance hardly likely to occur 
in sea-water or where the sea had access. As is evidenced to-day in many parts of the world, 
landlocked waters subject to evaporation are but little fitted to support life, and the deposits formed 
under similar conditions in Upper Coal Measure times show a great reduction in numbers as 
contrasted with the rest of the series, whilst, with the exception of the ostracods and Spirorbis y those 
species which persisted are found to be dwarfed and thin-shelled, whilst fish remains are rare. 

Considerable attention has been paid of late years to the palaeontology of the Carboniferous 
System and the occurrence of life zones, and it may be regarded as certain that the facts which are 
being collected will result in some modification of the existing and generally recognised sub- 
divisions. 

These at present are as follows : 

( I Upper. 

TT ,-, , ., Coal Measures / Middle. 

Upper Carboniferous (Lower. 

{ Millstone Grit Series. 

f Pendleside Group ('Yoredale Series'). 
Lower Carboniferous < Mountain or Scar Limestone. 
I Lower Limestone Shale. 

THE CARBONIFEROUS OR MOUNTAIN LIMESTONE 

This lowest visible member of the series rises to the surface in North Lancashire, occupying 
a tract of country between Barrow in Furness, Dalton in Furness, and Ulverston, thence passing 
eastwards by a few outliers to Cartmel and Burton in Kendal, from which it trends south by 
Carnforth to near Morecambe. The rocks then dip to the south-east under the Millstone Grit 
country, rising again to the surface in the Forest of Bowland, or Bolland, and the Longridge Fells. 
From here they sweep round the Millstone Grit hills to the river Hodder, Whalley, and Clitheroe, 
where they form a strong anticline known as the ' Clitheroe Anticlinal.' To the south-east of 
Whalley and Clitheroe they dip from the anticlinal under the Pendle Range and the Burnley 
Coalfield, to again re-appear in the Todmorden and Hebden Bridge valleys over the Yorkshire 
border. 

The Carboniferous Limestone country is well marked, rising into bold hills along the flanks of 
which are majestic mural cliffs or ' scars ' formed by the outcrop of the massively bedded limestone. 
Such ' scars ' are perhaps best seen in Derbyshire, but examples are not unfrequent in North 
Lancashire, in the Cartmel and Ulverston districts, in the Longridge Fells, and near Clitheroe, 
Whitewell, and Whalley. 

It will be perceived that the Carboniferous Limestone really forms two basin-shape de- 
pressions or troughs, with the Clitheroe Anticlinal between. The Carboniferous Limestone of 
the Furness and northern district is chiefly remarkable for the extensive deposits of haematite which 
occur in it, usually in the form of irregular masses and pockets. 1 At Clitheroe it consists of a lower 
black biturninous bed overlaid by shales containing Fenestellts, and a massive light-coloured limestone 
seen at Salt Hill and Coplow quarries, near Clitheroe, Worsaw Hill, and other places. The lower 
black limestone can be seen at Horrocksford quarries, the Bold Venture limeworks, and Tiviston 
1 J. D. Kendall, The Iron Ores of Great Britain and Ireland (1893), pp. 54, 64. 
6 



GEOLOGY 

Lane, whilst on the north side of the latter is a quarry showing the intervening shales. It is in the 
higher bed of limestone that crinoid stems occur in greatest abundance, the upper 40 feet at Salt 
Hill being almost entirely made up of them. The same, or a similar bed, is seen at Whitewell. 
Many of the rough field walls are built of this rock, which readily breaks up, the crinoid stems 
weathering out in high relief. 

Both the lower and upper beds are much quarried for lime-burning, that derived from the black 
limestone being especially good. 

PENDLESIDE GROUP 

This group, as its name implies, occurs on the flanks of Pendle Hill, of which it forms what 
have been called the buttresses of the north-western slope. This slope rises to a height of 1,831 feet, 
and shows a regular succession of deposits from the Carboniferous Limestone to the Pendle Grit. 
The stream courses from the summit have cut down through the beds, so that it is possible to work 
out in them the full succession, and Dr. Wheelton Hind and Mr. J. Allen Howe have determined 
the sequence as follows l : 

Pendle Grit, or ' Upper Yoredale Grit.' 

Holland Shales, including the ' Lower Yoredale Grit,' or Pendleside Grit. 

Pendleside Limestone with overlying Shales and Mudstones. 

Black Shales with a few bands of impure Limestones. 

Shales with Limestones. These beds consist of shales, thin limestones, mudstones, and at times 
thin ironstone. They are exposed in the Pendle branch of the Worston Brook by the lane east of 
Worston, and the brooks flowing from Lower Gills to Ings Beck near Skeleron Mines. 2 The 
upper beds consist of limestone from one to three feet in thickness, which regularly alternate with 
clayey shale. 

In brook courses, as at Angram-Green near Worston, the rocks form a series of waterfalls, 
owing to the markedly unequal erosive action of the streams upon the clay-shale and limestones. 

The Geological Survey calculated the thickness of this division as close upon 2,500 feet thick, 
but the estimate is considered too high by Dr. Hind and Mr. Howe, who calculated it at 1,500 feet. 3 
Many of the springs issuing from these shales are charged with sulphuretted hydrogen. 

The Pendleside Limestone has a thickness estimated by Professor Hull at 350 feet, and consists 
of a series of thin limestones and shales below, passing into thicker beds of limestone and a few 
shales above, the upper member being a bed of large hard ' bullions,' which contain a goniatite, 
Glyphioceras reticulatum. 

The upper limestones contain crinoid stems and examples of Productus scabriculus and P. 
semireticulatus, forms which pass up into the Millstone Grit and Lower Coal Measures. The black 
shales at the base contain species of Chonetes, Productus, Prolecanites, and Orthoceras. 

The series is also developed around the flanks of Longridge Fell, where it contains well-bedded 
dark limestones and shales. Sections can be seen in a quarry north of the Longridge and Clitheroe 
road, three-quarters of a mile east of Thornley Hall.* 

At Black Hall and Cold Coats quarries, the lower beds are fairly fossiliferous, numerous species 
of goniatites being found, together with Posidoniella lesvis and Posidonomya Becheri. 

Bolland (Bowland) Shales, with the 'Lower Yoredale Grit: The 'Lower Yoredale 
Grit ' forms a lenticular mass of grits and sandstones, with shales and ironstone interbedded. By 
the officers of the Geological Survey it was regarded as lying at the base of the black Bolland Shales, 
but by Messrs. Hind and Howe is included in the latter. By these authors it is also termed the 
Lower Yoredale or Pendleside Grit. The beds are local, although acquiring a thickness of 750 feet 
at Weets, immediately west of the Great Barnoldswick Fault. The topmost bed is well shown in 
Little Mearley Hall Clough, where it forms a well-marked conglomerate. 

The Bolland Shales on the northwest side of Pendle Hill are about 700 feet thick, and consist 
mainly of black shales. They are usually calcareous, very fissile, and full of flattened fossils in a 
poor state of preservation. In the thin ironstones which accompany the shales the fossils are better 
preserved and uncrushed. The shales are very bituminous and not unfrequently smell strongly of 
rock oil. This bituminous character has in the past often led astray coal seekers, who have been 
convinced that the beds belonged to the coal measures, the shales of which they so much resemble. 
Not merely is there a superficial resemblance, but many of the fossils of the Bolland Shales are 
identical with those of the Lower Coal Measures ; amongst these may be noted Posidoniella tew, 
Orthoceras, Goniatites, and fragmentary fish remains. 

1 'The Geological Succession and Palaeontology of the Beds between the Millstone Grit and the Lime- 
stone-Massif at Pendle Hill.' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1901, Ivii. 348. 

2 Prof. E. Hull, 'The Geology of the Burnley Coalfield,' Mem. Geol. Survey, p. 17. 

3 Op. cit., p. 349. * Hind and Howe, op. cit., p. 352. 

7 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

We are strongly of opinion that the identity of lithological character of these beds with those 
of the Millstone Grit Series and Lower Coal Measures, coupled with a fauna which is practically 
the same in all, will eventually result in the old stratigraphical boundaries between them being set 
aside, and the whole series grouped together, as indeed they ought to be. 

Pendle Grit, or ' Upper Yoredale Grit.' The summit of Pendle Hill is occupied by a 
massive bed of grit sometimes known as the Pendle Grit. It is a fine-grained sandstone, rarely 
passing into a conglomerate, and containing much felspar and mica. It has been correlated with 
' Farcy's Grit ' in the Peak district of Derbyshire. 1 Quarries are opened in it on the south side 
of the Nick of Pendle, where it is seen to contain large ovoid concretions marked with brown and 
yellow bands. The same beds form the summit of Longridge Fell, and constitute the greater part 
of the Fells around the Ribble and Hodder basins. It is also to be seen near Mellow, along the 
north side of Billington Moor, and so on to Whalley. 

The occurrence of the massive Pendle Grit on the summit of Pendle has served to protect the 
latter from suffering so heavily from the effects of denuding agents, which have lowered the sur- 
rounding country. That Pendle was subjected to these forces is shown by the deep ice scratchings 
impressed on the surface of the grit during the glacial period, and still to be seen on a freshly 
exposed surface. 

Probably also, this Sandstone capping was equally effective at a still earlier period, just as it is 
to-day, now that Pendle rises so grandly out of the surrounding low country to an elevation which 
can be seen across two score miles of country. 

Lying above the Yoredale or Pendle Grit are a series of shales but seldom seen, but where 
exposed, as in the road between Offa Hill and Stank Top, having a thickness of about 2OO feet. 
Shales and sandstones occupying the same position are seen north of Foulridge. 

Above these shales we meet the lowest member of the Millstone Grit Series, known as the 
Fourth Grit, or Kinder Scout Rock. 

MILLSTONE GRIT SERIES 

The Millstone Grit Series is extremely well developed in Lancashire, where it forms a well- 
marked boundary to the Coal Measures on the east and north. 

The eastern flanks of the Millstone Grit rise up into the elevated moorland hills which form a 
natural boundary to Lancashire and Yorkshire. 

This region may be rightly regarded as an outlying portion of the Pennine Chain, which runs 
as an elevated ridge from Derbyshire to the borders of Scotland. 

The Millstone Grit of the northern border of the coalfield rises up into a similar range of bare 
and bleak moorlands, running from a little west of Blackburn to Colne and Skipton, between which 
places it merges into the hill ranges of the eastern side ; on the western side, the series extends 
northwards by Longridge and Great Mitton. 

South of a line drawn from Blackburn to the Holme Valley between Burnley and Todmorden, 
the coalfield encloses two other areas of Millstone Grit, the most westerly forming Anglezark 
Moor, and the easterly the hill district of Rossendale. In the latter area the grits form what is 
known as the ' Rossendale Anticlinal.' 

North of a line drawn from Garstang to Long Preston is an extensive area of Millstone Grit 
the westerly border of which reaches the coastline in the neighbourhood of Heysham, where 
it forms a line of low cliffs, upon which Heysham Church is built. From Heysham the grits pass in 
a northerly direction to a little east of Kirkby Lonsdale. Skirting the whole of the comparatively 
unimportant Ingleton Coalfield, except on the north-eastern side, they swell out into Yorkshire as far 
as Clapham and by Giggleswick. Within this area are included the Bleasdale Moors and the 
Forest of Bowland with its two inliers of Carboniferous Limestone. Throughout the Lancashire 
coalfield wherever the Millstone Grit occurs, the surface features are of a remarkable character. 
The moorlands are everywhere bare, lofty hills, rising in many places to heights of 1,200-1,900 feet, 
and supporting a sparse vegetation of heather, cotton grass, &c., whilst extensive areas are covered 
with thick beds of peat. The hill sides are often steeply scarped, and stand out as bold bluffs 
of grit, sometimes fantastically weathered, and deeply indented along their margins by steep narrow 
gullies, usually termed 'cloughs,' which form the beds of mountain streams. The doughs, 
or ravines, run upwards into the hills, where they finally disappear on the moorland. For the 
greater part of their length, however, they present features widely different from those of the 
hills which enclose them. 

The steeply sloping sides are usually formed in their lower half of scree material derived from 
the weathering of the sandstones and shales above, and on the material thus accumulated, vegetation 

1 R. H. Tiddeman, in Geology of the Burnley Coalfield,' Mem. Geol. Survey, p. 23. 



GEOLOGY 

grows rank and abundant. Many of the common forest trees grow along the sides of the cloughs, 
whilst the undergrowth is a tangle of the wild raspberry, bramble, honeysuckle, and ivy. Marshy 
spots are carpeted with Sphagnum moss, whilst great clumps of bracken fern, horse-tails, and mare's- 
tails grow in sheltered spots. The bracken fern frequently grows up above the timber line amidst 
the grass and heather. 

The stream courses are littered along the greater part of their length with flood debris 
of stones, and frequently it has happened that a period of flood has caused a great pile of debris 
to accumulate in the main track of the stream, so that further progress downwards of the 
water could only be effected by the cutting of a new passage to one side, when the stream, once 
diverted, has continued to cut into the side of the clough until a vertical cliff has been formed, often 
of great height. In this way a clough is sometimes seen to suddenly widen out into a sort of sylvan 
amphitheatre, the bottom of which is filled with a level tract of bog or meadow land covered with 
ferns and trees, and bounded by the stream, which margins on the opposite side a tall cliff 
festooned with trailing ivy, honeysuckle, ferns, and flowering plants. 

Another special feature of these moorland cloughs is the frequency of waterfalls, owing to the 
marked difference in hardness of the sandstones and intervening shales. 

When the stream of water in its downward course passes from a sandstone to a shale, the rate 
of destruction of the latter is greater owing to its softness. It therefore follows that after a time 
there is a perceptible drop in the stream level at the point where it passes from one rock to 
the other. 

This alteration of level is naturally increased in the course of time, both by the weight of 
water dropping from the higher level and by the wearing effect of debris brought over, until a well- 
defined waterfall results. 

Once the waterfall is formed, it begins to be cut backwards by reason of the shale which 
underlies the grit rock being picked out by the water of the pool formed below the fall, and 
by spray being continually driven against it, until the outer ledge of rock over which the water 
pours ceases to be supported from below, and it is hurled down, a new ledge or lip appearing 
behind it. The destruction of the outer lip of the fall is accelerated by the fact that the grits are 
usually open-jointed, and water continually finds its way down to the pool by a passage through 
these crevices, some distance back from the edge of the fall. The passage of water through these 
open joints results in their widening and thus allows more water to pass, the process, when long 
continued, cutting off more or less completely the outer masses of rock until the succeeding 
flood waters dislodge them altogether. 

Waterfalls which have arisen in this manner are common in all cloughs and add considerably 
to their beauty. 

Where a rock is massively bedded and well jointed, the fall is broken up into irregular steps 
formed of the various bedding planes, and the water leaps from step to step, forming miniature 
cascades all the way. Where the sandstone is passing into a shale or where the rock of the 
fall consists of bands of shale and grit, the face of the fall slopes outwards, and the water rushes 
down its length like broken water down a weir. 

In some cases, a thick bed of hard grit rock overlies a still thicker bed of softer shale, and 
where this occurs the water drops clear from a projecting ledge of sandstone into the pool below. 

The increased volume of mountain streams due to lateral feeders results in the cloughs 
becoming widened out, and the sides are thus better exposed to the action of storms of wind 
and rain, and frosts. As a result, they are destroyed more rapidly, and the greater part of the cliff- 
like character is lost in the steep scree slopes already mentioned. 

The characteristics of these cloughs have been thus fully dealt with because they are one 
of the most distinctive physical features of the moorland areas formed by the Millstone Grit, 
and also because along their stream courses it is possible to trace the upward or downward 
succession of the strata over great distances. 

The Millstone Grit Series everywhere underlies the productive measures, and rises into 
moorlands on the north and east. 

As its name implies, the series consists of beds of hard quartzose grits, often very coarse, and 
interbedded with bituminous shales and a few thin coals. In a few cases, the coals have been 
worked to a limited extent, but they are generally much too thin to pay for working. 

The grit rocks are largely quarried for flags, building-stone, paving-stone, and road-metal. 
The massively bedded rock bands furnish huge blocks, used as engine beds and supports for heavy 
machinery. 

The grits contain casts of Lepidodendroid and Sigillaroid trees, not unfrequently many feet in 
length, and two to three feet in diameter at the base. In most cases, these tree trunks have been 
much flattened, but erect stumps, still circular and 6 to zoo feet in height, are found, as at Oldham 
Edge, with the marks of the leaf-bases clearly impressed upon them. 

9 2 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

On the other hand, the intervening shales contain brackish and marine forms of life more 
nearly related to those of the Yoredale shales and Carboniferous limestone below. A species 
of Lingula is most common, but species of Productidts, Streptorhynchus, Spirifera, Aviculopecten % 
Modio/a, Posidoniella, and Goniatites also occur. Fish remains are rare. 
The Millstone Grit Series is separated into four divisions : 

First Grit, or Rough Rock. 
Second Grit, or Haslingden Flags. 
Third Grit. 
Fourth Grit, or Kinder Scout Rock. 

Rough Rock One or, more usually, two beds of massive coarse grit, separated 

by a twelve to eighteen inch seam of coal called the ' Feather 

Edge ' Mine. 
Shales Usually thin and at times absent. In the Rossendale area from 

30 to 100 feet thick. 
Second Grit, or Haslingden Flags. Fine-grained hard grey sandstone forming three beds in the 

Rossendale district. 
Shales A shale series containing a thin coal at the base, and a workable 

seam at Mossley and Mottram, in Cheshire. 
Third Grit Fine grits and flagstones, the lower beds being especially thick and 



Shales Shales with two thin coals near the base. 

Fourth Grit, or Kinder Scout 

Rock Massive coarse sandstone grits, with conglomerates and shales. 

It must not be supposed that the sequence of beds given here can always be determined. 
Many of the grits are much current-bedded, whilst their thickness is constantly changing, and 
important members are in some places absent. The Kinder Scout and Rough Rocks are the most 
stable members of the series, the Second and Third Grits being more lenticular in form, so 
that their thickness, even in adjoining districts, may vary extremely. 

Kinder Scout Rock. This rock consists of two or more beds of grit, varying in their character 
from ordinary sandstones into conglomerates, the pebbles consisting of quartz which is mainly milky 
in colour, the glassy form being less constant. Rotten felspar and flakes of mica are also abundant, 
so that the coarser grits have a granite-like appearance. The extensive Millstone Grit capping of 
the Anglezark, Wheelton, and Withnell Moors and Bromley Pastures is formed of this grit. 

To the north of Anglezark Moor is a long elevated ridge of Kinder Scout Rock, passing 
from Holster Hill two miles north of Hoghton Tower in a direction E 38 N. by Mellor, 
Whalley Nab, and Wiswell Moor to Nick of Pendle. Along the foot of Pendle and at 
Newchurch-in-Pendle outcrops are numerous. In the neighbourhood of Cocker Hill the grit 
consists of two beds of coarse sandstone separated by about 125 feet of shale. The total thickness 
has been estimated by Prof. Hull as between 750 and 800 feet. It forms a well-marked feature in 
the neighbourhood of Foulridge, north of Colne. 

The Kinder Scout Grit is well seen to the east of Oldham cropping out in the valley of 
the Tame from Warmton Wood to Harrop Edge, and stretching on into Cheshire and Yorkshire. 
On the Yorkshire side of the boundary at Chew Brook and Greenfield the grit rises into 
bold, majestic cliffs. The thickness is here estimated at 500 feet, but this is increased at Saddle- 
worth owing to the greater development of one of the beds of shale. 

A fine section is exposed along the Mottram and Staleybridge road at Roe Cross, where 
the total thickness has increased to about I,ooo feet. 

Shales. The shales seen on the flanks of Winter Hill are supposed by Prof. Hull to lie above 
the Kinder Scout Rock and below the Third Grit. They attain a thickness of 350 to 400 feet. 
In the river Darwen below Malmesbury Mill they show a thickness of 625 feet, and the bottom is 
not seen. They have been traced to Whalley, where they occur in the bed of the river Calder and 
also between Wiswell Moor and Sabden. 

Between Rough Lea Water and the road from Colne to Foulridge exposures are difficult 
to find, but numerous sections occur south of the canal reservoir. 

In ironstone nodules from the shales, and in the shales themselves, have been found Goniatites, 
Posidoniella lavis, and fish remains, together with Calamites. 

Two thin coal seams occur at the base of the shales in Dean Brook at the northern end 
of Rivington Hill, and also at Grange Brook near Belmont. 

At Pule Hill on the eastern side the shales vary from 100 to 300 feet in thickness. They 
show a tendency in both localities to become sandy or flaggy. 



GEOLOGY 

The Third Grit. This consists of two, sometimes three, beds of grit, flagstones, and shales, 
the lowest bed being especially massive and at times passing into conglomerate. The grit occurs at 
Belmont between Turton and Rivington, where it forms the cliff known as ' the Ratchers,' and 
then runs northwards, being again seen in Roddlesworth Brook below Tockholes. Along the 
Pendle range two and sometimes three beds of grit divided by shales are met with, the basement 
bed being especially coarse or passing into conglomerate. A good section of this bed is exposed in 
a cutting of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway at Brown Hill, about two miles north of Black- 
burn. Here the beds are violently contorted, owing to the proximity of a fault passing from 
N.N.W. to S.S.E. 




Contorted Beds in Clitheroe and Blackburn Railway. 



The Third Grit is exposed at various places along the Sabden valley north-eastwards to Colne 
and Foulridge, and down the eastern side of the coalfield by Widdop and Stiperden Moor to the 
heights above Littleborough, where the top bed is pierced by the Summit tunnel on the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Railway, and southwards to Stalybridge. At Ramsden Clough and Clough Foot in 
Dulesgate, a thin coal and shale parting occurs in the top bed of grit. A similar thin coal seam lies 
under the grit at Black Clough. 

The Third Grit is well exposed at Gauxholme in Dulesgate, and along the Irwell valley 
between Rawtenstall and Waterfoot in Rossendale. In the latter district it contains two thin coal 
seams. Below Rawtenstall it forms the floor and sides of the Irwell valley from Holden Wood to 
Ramsbottom, where it can be seen at several places along the railway. Shuttleworth Moss and 
Harden Moor are capped by the upper beds of grit. 

Shales below Second Grit. These shales have not received much attention, except from the late 
E. W. Binney, who described them as the ' Holcombe Brook Series,' at which place they contain 
three thin seams of coal, one being 15 inches thick and formerly worked at Cheeseden Brook. 
Similar thin coals have been found in the shales in the Foulridge district, notably at Laneshaw 
Bridge, and on Pule Hill on the eastern side. 

Second Grit, or Haslingden Flags. This valuable series reaches its highest development in the 
Rossendale area and the Whitworth and Facit valleys. It consists of fine grained sandstones well 
bedded and exceedingly hard and durable. The utilisation of these beds has increased considerably 
during recent years, so that over large areas on the Brandwood Moors, Cowpe Moss, and at Back 
Cowm, the hill crests are being studded with great quarries. In the Rossendale area the Haslingden 
Flag Rock consists of three beds of grit, averaging 36 feet in thickness, and separated by 30 to 
100 feet of shale. 

Away from this particular area the beds deteriorate in character, and even pass into ' raggy ' 
shale as at Newchurch-in-Rossendale. In the Pendle Range they approach the overlying Rough 
Rock, being only separated by 15 to 2O feet of shale. On the eastern side they are feebly repre- 
sented. North of Rivington the series is well developed and can be seen in the valley below the 
Anglezark Lead Mines on the western and southern slopes of Rivington Pike, and at Tockholes, 
and in the river Roddlesworth. 

First Grit, or Rough Rock. The Rough Rock forms the highest member of the Millstone Grit, 
and may usually be recognized by its coarse character and the presence of a thin coal seam in its 
upper portion. It is not very useful as a building stone, being often soft and incoherent and readily 
breaking down into a coarse sand. For this reason it is sometimes called the ' Sandrock,' and the 
coal seam the ' Sandrock Mine.' More commonly the latter is styled the ' Feather-Edge ' Mine. 
Quartz pebbles occur abundantly in the beds, and hand specimens of the latter may at times be 
mistaken for a conglomerate. The Rough Rock forms a capping to many of the hills in the Mill- 
stone Grit areas, and hence can be easily traced around the coalfield. From Hoghton Towers, 
where it forms a lofty hill and is estimated at 400 feet thick, to the south slopes of Pendle and east- 
wards to Colne, it is well in evidence, the latter town being built on a ridge of this rock. Good 
exposures can be seen in the river bottom on the eastern side of the town. In the Anglezark area 
it is found at Pike Low, Withnell, and Stanworth Edge, and crops in massive beds at the top of 
Blackburn Park. At Winewall, near Colne, large quarries are opened in it, and south from this 
point it forms a hilly crest by Entwistle Moor, Shedden Edge, and Stiperden Moor to the Ports- 
mouth valley at Red Water Brook. On the opposite side of the valley it is continued along the side 

ii 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

of Thieveley, Flower Scar Hill, and Dulesgate (where the ' Feather-Edge ' coal is seen at Banks 
Mill) to Shore and Littleborough. 

In the Rossendale area, the lower bed of grit and the ' Feather-Edge ' coal are present as a 
surface bed below the peat over the Brandwood, Cowpe, and Knoll Moors, whilst at Bacup the 
upper bed can be seen in Bankside Quarry resting directly upon the coal. 

The conformation of Brandwood Moor, Seat Naze, and the flanks of Cribden have been largely 
dependent upon the occurrence of this grit. In the case of the former it forms a complete capping, 
and, judging from the abundant evidence of glaciation, has served to protect it during the glacial 
period. At Bury the ' Feather-Edge ' coal is two feet thick, and is not overlaid by grit. It has been 
worked on Scout Moor, near Edenfield. Holcombe Moor is largely capped by this rock, and we 
also find it on Darwen Moor, Bunkers Hill, Tockholes Fold, and other places. Along the northern 
side of the Burnley coalfield the various members of the Millstone Grit series dip southwards, the 
Rough Rock having a strong dip. The same upheaval has brought up the overlying Lower Coal 
Measures, the seams of which were formerly termed ' Rearing mines.' 

It must not be forgotten that the Millstone Grit series in Lancashire forms but a small portion 
of an extensive mass of sandstones and shales which spread over the high ground of the West Riding 
of Yorkshire and stretch southwards and eastwards into Cheshire, Derbyshire, and North Stafford- 
shire. Taken as a whole, these irregular deposits of sandstones and shales are indicative of a lengthy 
period of subaerial denudation of older crystalline rocks of a granite texture ; hence the prevalence of 
decayed felspar and mica in the sandstones, and also of a corresponding sedimentation along the 
borders of the old Carboniferous limestone sea. The labours of Professor Green and others have 
shown that the greatest amount of deposition took place over Lancashire and South Yorkshire. 
Outside this area the grits thin off, especially to the north and north-west. Dr. Sorby, from a study 
of the current-bedding which is so marked a feature of the sandstones, concluded that the material 
of the grits in Lancashire and Yorkshire was brought by currents flowing from north-east to south- 
west, and an examination of the mineral constituents led him to suppose that the main mass of the 
grits was derived from the destruction of a western prolongation of what is now Scandinavia, this 
prolongation, if we follow Professor Hull's view, being part of a continental land which stretched 
from Scandinavia over the north of Scotland and Ireland into the North Atlantic. It is quite 
possible also that some of the grits and shales on the southern side of these counties were derived 
from a central land area which occupied the middle of the old Carboniferous sea. 

At this time, as during the deposition of the Pendleside (' Yoredale') Group, the north- 
easterly part of this sea had become landlocked, either by blocking up of its outlets or by upheaval of 
the sea floor. The enclosed inland sea, by the gradual spreading out over its floor of sand and mud 
brought by rivers from the north and east and south, became converted into a huge swampy marsh- 
land, enclosing large lagoons with communicating channels, and over these the Coal Measures were 
in turn deposited. 

COAL MEASURES 

The Lancashire Coal Measures, which were accumulated upon the substructure of grits 
and shales, are divided into the lower, middle, and upper series, but the boundary lines are purely 
arbitrary and drawn for convenience rather than as indicating any real change in the deposits or 
their contents. 

Speaking generally, the Lower Coal Measures are specially marked by shales containing sup- 
posed marine forms of life, thick beds of grit, and but few and thin coals. The Middle Coal 
Measures form the productive measures, marine bands, with a single exception, being absent. 

The Upper Coal Measures contain a few coal seams in their lower half, the upper beds consisting 
of red shales and thin limestones. 

Topographical Features. The topographical features of the Lancashire Coalfield are well 
marked. On the south and west it is bounded along a line of faulting by the low Triassic plain 
of Cheshire and western Lancashire. Along the northern and eastern sides it is shut in by a series 
of lofty moorlands covered by extensive peat deposits and overgrown with heather. 

The flanks of the moorlands are deeply gashed by the narrow ravines called ' cloughs ' (see 
p. 8), the sides of which, clothed with the bracken and other ferns, lodge a few hardy trees and 
shrubs. Here and there the ravines have vertical walls of massive grits or well-bedded shale. 

At the base of the highest moorlands are low rounded foot-hills whose sides and crests are clad 
with trees or occupied by grazing farms. These hills consist of the upper members of the Mill- 
stone Grit, or of the Lower Coal Measures, in which grit rocks are a strong feature. The hill 
slopes are usually steep. Most of the mining of the Lower Coal Measures is done by means of 
'adits' which pass into the sides of the hills or else by shafts which rarely exceed 100 yards in 
depth. 



HISTOKY OK I.ANCASIIIHK 



Blat-kjoo] 



I 




tL& 



GEOLOGICAL VJX 



;;:/,:";, 



rUrt 






- SOUTHERN SECTION 









., 









I Keuper Mart* 
J Ranter Smditont 
| Bretvia and Stuuist, 
-.oal Jteasures 



< Yomhilr Rorks, Maintain 1 

Or LimtR\ \ an j l nwer Linvstani Shale 



GEOLOGY 

The southern fringe of the coalfield might be described as a hummocky country, a series of 
shallow river valleys separated by low, broadly rounded hills. It is along this southern fringe that 
the rich Middle Coal Measures chiefly occur, only a few isolated patches being found in the 
northern half, the chief of which is known as the BurrJey Coal Basin. 

The large cotton and iron manufacturing towns of Lancashire lie along the lower parts of the 
valley systems, the flanks of the moorlands being occupied by grazing farms, and the crests by 
quarries. 

On the south and west of the Lancashire Coalfield is the great Cheshire and west Lancashire 
plain of Triassic rocks. The district is almost entirely agricultural, flat and monotonous. 

Mining History. Whether coal mining was practised in Lancashire by the ancient Britons is 
a point upon which there is no certain evidence. 

Previous to the time of the Roman occupation, the county was largely forests and swamps, 
and the ease with which wood could be obtained discounts any theory of coal working by the 
Britons. 

That coal was mined and used as fuel by the Romans is very probable, for Whittaker, the 
Lancashire historian, has recorded that the evidence of a large coal fire, and an abundance of ashes 
and scoriae were dug up in the ' Castle Field ' in the Roman centre of Mancunium or Manchester.i 

Whether coal was used in Lancashire by the Saxons is not known. 

That the coal was taken out at a remote period has been proved by the finding of old workings 
and old implements of mining, such as oaken shovels tipped with iron, etc. 

Coal was mined in the Burnley area in the time of Henry VIII., 3 but only with the com- 
mencement of the nineteenth century did mining become important, its progress being synchronous 
with the development of woollen, iron, and cotton industries. 



LOWER COAL MEASURES 

These measures bound the northern side of the South Lancashire Coalfield, and send three 
arms northwards through the Millstone Grit country to the Burnley Coalfield, which they com- 
pletely encircle. Immediately to the south of the latter coalfield they cover a tract of country 
fifteen miles long from east to west, and three to five miles broad from north to south. 

The Lower Coal Measures include all the beds lying between the Upper Rough Rock of the 
Millstone Grit Series and the floor of the Arley Mine (also known as 'Little DelP at St. Helens, 
' Riley Mine ' at Bolton, and ' Dogstone Mine ' at Bury). They consist mainly of shales, with 
thin bands of nodular ironstone, sandstones and thin coals, reaching in all a thickness of 1,200 feet 
along the line of the ' Rossendale Anticlinal.' Not more than six coal seams are present in the 
series, the total thickness rarely exceeding ten feet. 

The accompanying generalized section in the Rossendale area serves to illustrate the position 
and thickness of the seams : 

ft. in. ft. in. 

Pasture, Bassey and other thin coals . 431 o Shales and Grits 20 o 

Upper Mountain Mine Coal ... i 6 Lower Foot Mine Coal .... 08 

Shales 

Firecla 

Strata 



Coal 




3" 

O 


2 


Bassey or Salts Mine Coal . 


. 2 to 3 


o 






56 





Shales and Grits 


. . 100 


o 




Upper Foot Mine 






First Coal 


o 


IO 


in Four 


Coal .... 


O 


8 


Rough Rock 


. . 




Mine 


Shales 


30 


o 









where they | Lower Mountain or 
unite. Canister Mine 

1 Coal .... 26 

The coal seams are frequently termed ' Mountain Mines,' owing to their general ocurrence on 
the high ground. But three are of commercial importance, viz. the ' Gannister,' ' Yard ' or 
' Lower Mountain Mine,' the ' Upper Foot ' or ' Bullion Mine,' and the ' Upper Mountain 
Mine.' The ' Bassey ' or ' Salts Mine ' is a very impure coal and not much used. It is worked 
to some extent in the Blackburn area. The Upper Mountain Mine and the Gannister seam have 
been largely worked by adits and shafts to supply the wants of the numerous cotton manufacturing 
towns of Lancashire, and are still largely used. The chief coal supply from the Lower Coal 
Measures will, in the future, have to be drawn from a four-foot seam formed by a union of the 

1 History of Manchester, i. 301. 2 Hull's Coalfields of Great Britain, ed. 4, 1891, p. 220. 

'3 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

Gannister and Upper Foot seams, which takes place along an irregular north-west and south-east 
line a little to the north of the Rossendale anticlinal. Although up to the point of union the 
individual thicknesses of the two mines are but two feet six inches and eight inches respectively, 
yet at their junction the united seams swell out to a thickness of nearly eight feet, and the average 
over a great area is four feet. 

The special features of the union of these two seams were dealt with by J. Aitken, 1 and his 
explanation is probably the correct one, viz., that a part of the Gannister area was one of subsidence, 
the submersion going on until a sufficient depth beneath water was obtained to allow of the 
deposition of sufficient detritus to form the rock mass overlying that mine and separating it from 
the thin coal above. He goes on to say in his paper : ' It would further appear that the surface 
over which the four-foot coal was then in process of formation remained stationary and undisturbed, 
and that the operations of nature were not in any way interrupted.' 

This view is supported by the fact that the coal of the Four-Feet Mine is considerably thicker 
than the aggregate of the two mines while separate, the growth of vegetation over the area being 
evidently continuous during the period in which the submerged portion was being silted up. 
When the latter had taken place, the coal forest grew out over the shallows, giving rise to the thin 
' Upper Foot ' coal, after which the whole area occupied by the Four-Feet Mine and the Upper 
Foot coals was submerged, and a uniform deposit of mud took place. 

The Upper Foot Mine is worthy of note, not on account of its thickness, which is almost 
invariably 1 2 inches, but because of the occurrence of great quantities of ' bullions ' or coal balls 
within it, each bullion ball containing portions of coal plants in which the structure has been so 
well preserved as to allow of the closest microscopical investigation. From these bullions were 
obtained the stems, etc., of coal plants described by Binney, Carruthers, Williamson, Hick, Scott, 
and others. 

Upon the coal are found numerous flattened limestone nodules called ' bawn-pots,' each with 
a thin crust of iron pyrites and containing well-preserved examples of Goniatites, Orthoceras, Pterino- 
pecten (Aviculopecten\ and Posidoniella. 

The coals are all bituminous and caking. Iron pyrites occurs as nodules in some of the coals, 
and also as a thin film upon joint planes, in some cases (the upper seams) so abundantly as to 
seriously injure the usefulness of the coal. The demand for these coals is entirely local, and their 
use as fuel is restricted to engine boilers and the open fireplaces of the people. 

The fireclays under the Gannister seams have been worked at times in conjunction with the 
coal, as they make excellent firebricks, drain pipes, etc. Works of this description can be seen at 
Colne, Townley near Burnley, Sharneyford, north-east of Bacup, Littleborough, and other places. 

MIDDLE COAL MEASURES 

We have already alluded to the broken-up character of these measures, whereby small isolated 
portions have been dignified with the name of coalfields. The most southerly patch is the 
Manchester coalfield, which is about four miles long from north-north-west to south-south-east, 
and a mile and a half broad across its greatest diameter. This coalfield, whilst relatively insignificant 
and now little used, is of considerable geological importance in that the upper coal measures are 
well developed. The Middle Coal Measures are deep seated and scarcely touched, owing to the 
great thickening of the barren measures below the Four-Feet coal of Bradford and Clayton. 

This latter seam was formerly supposed to be the equivalent of the Worsley four-feet seam, 
which marks the upper limit of the Middle Coal Measures in other parts of Lancashire, but more 
recent researches seem to render this correlation doubtful. Attempts to reach the thick coals of the 
Middle Coal Measures have hitherto failed, the unproductive beds lying below the Bradford Four-Feet 
having been penetrated by Mr. Livsey to a depth greater than should have been necessary had the 
Crumbourke and Rams Mines occupied the same position relatively to the Bradford Four-Feet as they 
do to the Worsley Four-Feet. 

Professor Hull is of opinion that at least 616 yards of barren measures will have to be 
penetrated below the Bradford and Clayton Four-Feet seam before a workable coal is reached. 

In this present state of our knowledge it is best to regard the presence of the Middle Measures 
as certain, and the upper limit as undetermined. 

The Upper Coal Measures which have been worked in this coalfield will be dealt with 
elsewhere. 

SOUTH LANCASHIRE COALFIELD 

This coalfield, which is extremely irregular and much cut up by faults, can be best dealt with 
by a division into districts. 

1 Trans. Manchester Geol. Sue., v. 185. 



GEOLOGY 

As a whole it covers a tract ot country thirty-two miles long from east to west, and averaging 
six miles in breadth. 1 To the north it runs out upon the Lower Coal Measures, to the south it dips 
under a narrow band of Permian sandstones and marls, the whole being faulted down beneath the 
Trias of the Cheshire plain, which extends into the margin of the coalfield in a few broad 
triangular tongues. To the east, as to the north, the measures run out upon the Lower Series, 
whilst to the west they are faulted down to a great depth under the Trias, which here forms a low, 
flat maritime plain. 

Although it would thus appear that the coalfield is compact, yet faulting and denudation 
have been so extensive that no complete correlation of the coal seams has yet been established. 

Whilst also some of the seams are fairly persistent, others thin or swell out, whilst hundreds of 
feet of shale in one place are represented by a few feet of sandstone in another. 

It is possible that some of the thicker and more valuable coals are persistent over a great part of 
the coalfield, being known under different names in different districts, and altering somewhat in their 
character. The extreme east of the coalfield we may define as the 



(A) OLDHAM AND DUKINFIELD AREA 
The best general section is that given by Professor Hull 2 and reproduced here. 



COAL SERIES OF OLDHAM AND MIDDLETON 



Bardsley Colliery 



Ft. In. 



' Bardsley Rock ' Sandstone . . 
Shale 
Stubb's Mine (Coal) 


Ft. 
45 
3 1 


Ins. Blenfire Coal : 
6 Coal and cannel, I ft. 1 1 in. . ") 
7 Dirt, o ft. 6 in. (very variable) 






Metal (Shale) 


25 










2 








Shale, with three thin seams of coa 
Park Mine (coal, with parting of clay 
Shale 29 ft., Foxhole's rock 79 ft. 8 in 
Foxhole's Mine 
Soft Metal 


7 6 

3 

108 

2 

3 2 


6 Sandy Shale and shale .... 
6 Great Mine : 
8 Top coal, I ft. 1 1 in. . . . "1 
4 Clay, o ft. 5 in 
6 Coal, 3 ft. 6 in \ 


7 6 
9 


7 


Cannel 
Strata, principally shales, with s 
coal seam 16 inches 
Hathershaw Mine .... 
Shale, with two seams of coal . 
Rock and rock bands, with wate 
(Chamber rock) .... 
Shale and sandstone .... 
Nield or Upper Chamber Mint 
(sometimes absent) . . . 


187 

2 
51 

88 
38 

2 

54 


6 Clay, oft. iin 
Bottom coal, 4 ft. o in. . . J 
8 Sandstone with shale, with shells . 
2 Little Coal 
o Sandstone and shale with fish remains 
Black Mine (the best seam in the 
6 district) 
3 Shales, sometimes strong with two 
coal seams 
o Stone Mine ; 


33 

2 

66 
4 
117 


9 
3 
9 

2 

6 


Lower Chamber Mine : 
Coal I ft. 5 in 




Stone, I ft. 2 in. (roof dark stone')? 


3 


4 


Dirt, o ft. 4 in 










Coal, I ft. 2 in 
Dirt, o ft. 8 in 


4 


3 of white rock 


21 


4 

7 


Coal, o ft. 8 in. . 








g 






Lower Bent Mine 
Strata 


2 
97 


8 
6 


Glodwick Colliery 

Shale and bands of sandstone 
Red sandstone, with plants (Blenfirt 
Rock) 


66 

146 


Hollingworth Coal 
Strata 
O Neddy Mine 
Strata, with several thin coals, about 
9 Royley Mine (with a partingof shale) 


I 

234 
2 
441 

4 


6 
o 
6 
o 
o 



The two sections are practically continuous, the interval between the base of the Bardsley 
Colliery section and the Blenfire rock of Glodwick being occupied by a series of shales and sandstones. 

1 Hull's Coalfields of Great Britain, ed. 4 (1881), p. 197. 

3 'Geology of the Country around Oldham,' Mem. Geol. Survey, p. ^\, 1864. 

15 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

The chief coal seams of the Oldham area * are about ten in number. The most valuable and 
the one which has been most worked is the Black Mine, averaging four feet in thickness. Another 
seam of considerable importance is the ' New Mine ' of the Ashton-under-Lyne district, which lies 
below the Black Mine, and about 100 yards above the Royley or Arley seam. It may be 

Suivalent to the Neddy Mine of Oldham, or one of the thin seams below it. The Lower Bent 
ine or Peacock coal is of good quality and much used. 

The ' Great Mine ' of Oldham yields over 8 feet of coal, but at Ashton-under-Lyne it 
includes dirt bands. 

Higher in the series than any given in Professor Hull's list are the Great and Roger Mines of 
Ashton-under-Lyne and Dukinfield. The former is 6 feet thick, the latter 4 feet, and the 
interval is but 32 yards. 

Still higher in the series, and at some 400 to 500 yards above the Great Mine, is the Yard 
Mine of Moston, which is supposed to represent the Bradford Four-Feet. 

Nowhere in this area is the whole of the Middle series present from summit to base, unless it 
be to the south of Dukinfield and at Moston. 

Between the Great and Yard Mines at Dukinfield is a coal seam about eighteen inches in 
thickness, the shale roof being rich in fossils, and containing ironstone balls very similar to those 
over the Upper Foot of the Lower Coal Measures. This horizon is exposed in the banks of the 
river Tame, near the bend west of Dunkirk Colliery, and was also cut through in sinking the shaft 
of the Ashton Moss colliery. The remarkable feature of this horizon is that it has yielded 
Goniatites, Pterinopecten, &c. The late J. W. Salter regarded the fauna of this horizon as 
comparable to that of the Lower Coal Measures of Shropshire, and as markedly different from that 
of the Lancashire Lower Coal Measures. This can now hardly be said to be correct, as the 
observations of the writer have shown that the ' Marine Band,' as it is often called, has yielded 
several species of fossils characteristic of the latter. The fauna of the Marine Band most 
closely approximates that of the Upper Foot or Bullion and Mountain Four-Feet Mines, and the 
differences are probably those naturally due to a later development. 

(B) BOLTON AND BURY AREA 

In this area the Middle Coal Measures reach fully a thousand yards in thickness, and scarcely 
any portion remains untouched, mining being particularly active. 

The best generalised section of it is that of Professor Hull, curtailed from a much more 
detailed section published by J. Dickinson, Esq., late Chief Inspector of Mines. 

GENERALISED SECTION BETWEEN MANCHESTER AND BOLTON 



Worsley Four Feet Coal 
Strata 


Ft. 
. . . . 4 
782 


In. 

3 


Five Quarters Coal 


Ft. 
266 


In. 

6 


Bin Coal 
Strata 
Albert Mine 
Strata 


'.'.'.'. 78 


6 
o 
.3 


Trencherbone Coal 
Strata 
Cannel Mine (Cannel only 6 inches) . 


5 

102 

4 

"8 


o 
o 

6 


Crumbourke Coal 
Strata 
Rams Mine .... 


4 
. ... 144 
5 


o 
o 
6 


Saplin Coal 
Strata 
Plodder Coal 


4 
107 

7 


o 
o 

o 


Strata 












White Coal 
Strata . . 


3 


o 


Yard Mine 
Strata 


168 


o 


Black Coal 


-3 


o 


Three Quarters Mine 


2 


o 


Strata 
Old Doe Coal . . . 
Strata . 


. . . . 45 
. . . . 8 

71 


o 
o 
a 


Strata 
Arley Mine 


206 

4 


o 
o 



(Slightly modified from Hull's Coalfields of Great Britain, 1881, pp. 2O2, 203.) 

Fourteen seams are worked, yielding nominally about sixty feet of coal, but from this must be 
deducted the thickness of shale partings, bass, and dirt bands, which frequently occur. The lowest 
bed of the series is the Arley Mine. 

1 It must not be forgotten that the Oldham Middle Coal Measures are flanked to the north and east by 
ground in which coals of the Lower Series are extensively mined. 

16 



GEOLOGY 



The Cannel Mine, which occurs some way above it, is remarkable in that it consists of a 
basal layer of bituminous coal and an upper layer of cannel which has a thickness of 3 feet at 
Wigan and thins away in all directions from it ; the common coal thickens as the cannel 
diminishes. 

The coal itself has yielded numerous remains of fish-teeth, spines, scales, &c., as well as 
large Stigmarian roots. 

The Trencherbone is of good quality in some parts of the area, whilst in others it contains so 
much dirt as to prove unworkable. At Tyldesley it is associated with a bastard cannel. It is in 
great demand as a house coal, and large quantities are sent into Manchester and other towns. The 
Doe Mine and Rams Mine are also good and in great request. The Worsley Four-Feet, which 
marks the upper limit of the Middle Measures, has been worked at Leigh, Pendleton, and other 
places, and is a good coal. 

A great fault known as the Irwell Valley Fault cuts through this area from the Millstone 
Grit, north of Bolton, in a south-east direction to Manchester, along the line of the valley of the 
river Irwell ; the downthrow is to the north-east, and is over one thousand yards. The various 
seams given on the section abut against the fault in regular order from north to south on the 
upthrow side ; on the downthrow side the seams are shifted to the northwards, and a narrow tongue 
of the Trias runs up into the middle of the coalfield. 

(C) WIGAN AND ST. HELENS AREA 

The St. Helens district forms the most westerly section of the South Lancashire Coalfield, that 
of Wigan lying between it and the Bolton area. 

In this area, as in that previously mentioned, the Middle Coal Measures are about 1,000 yards 
in thickness. 

Notwithstanding their nearness only two seams of St. Helens the Little Delf and Rushy 
Park have been directly correlated with two of Wigan, viz. the Arley Mine and Smith Coal. 

The remaining seams are not equally capable of correlation owing to the changing character 
of the coals themselves, to alterations in thickness and character of the intervening non-productive 
measures, and to extensive faulting. 





1 COMPARATIVE 


COAL SERIES 




St. Helen's 








Ft. In. 


Lyon's Delf. 





2 8 


Measures 




55 


London Delf 




2 6 






86 2 


Potato Delf (v 


nth partings) . . 


5 3 



ST. 



HELEN'S AND WIGAN 
Wigan 



Measures 4 1 9 

Earthy Coal (with partings) ... 62 
Measures with Coal, 2ft. . . . 121 6 





157 


St. Helen's Main Delf . 


9 


Cannel .... 


2 




. . . 18 


Four-feet Coal .... 


3 

56 




. . . 2 


Measures 
Ravenhead Higher Coal . 
Warrant . . 
Main Delf . 
Measures 
Bastion's Coal .... 
Measures 


. . . 271 

3 
. 4 

. . . 7 
. . . 66 
. . . 4 
. . . 22 



Coal-seam of Red Rock Brow 

Riding Mine 

Measures 

Ince Yard Mine .... 

Measures 

Ince 4~feet Mine .... 
Measures with 3 coal-seams. 

Ince 7-feet Mine .... 

Measures 

(Wilcock or( Coal 2 ft. 1 1 in. 
\ Furnace \ Clay o ft. 6 in. 
( Coal ( Coal I ft. 8 in. 



y 
9 

2 

18 
56 

2 

271 

3 
4 

7 
66 

4 

22 


3} 

2 
2 


O 

11 

oj 
9 
3 




Pemberton 5-feet Mine .... 


Little Coal 


Pemberton 4-feet Mine .... 






Wigan 4-feet Mine 
Measures 



Ft. 

4 

36 

2 

108 

3 
150 

6 
7 1 



252 



3 

2 

45 

387 
5 

90 
4 

72 



1 ' Geology of the Country around Wigan,' Mem. Gcol. Survey, by Prof. E. Hull (i 



5z), p. 12. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



St. Helen's (continued) 



Wigan (continued) 



Higher Roger coal 
Measures 


Ft. 
6 
123 

48 

78 

5 

333 

4 
161 

3 

300 
1800 

ging frc 


In. 
6 
o 
4 
3 
8 
o 
3 

8 
6 




o 
o 

n 3 


Wigan g-feet mine (inferior) 
Measures 
! Cannel (varying from i ft. 8 in. 
to 3 ft.) average 
Measures (varying from oft. to 
15 ft-) i 
King coal 
Measures 
Ravin Mine (inferior) .... 
Measures with 2 ft. coal .... 
Haigh Yard coal . . . 


Ft. In. 

9 o 

280 o 

2 6 

to 15 O 

3 6 
66 o 

3 

168 o 

3 
150 o 

I 1 

186 o 
4 o 
300 (?) o 
1800 o 

are usually 


Sir John coal 


Flaggy Delf 
Measures 
Lower Roger coal (with partings) . 

Measures (with thin coal seam). 

Rushy Park Coal 
Measures 




Bone coal 
Measures 
Smith coal (Orrell 5 ft.) . . . . 
Measures 


Little Delf 
Strata, principally shales .... 
Gannister beds 

The best coals are those avera 


Arley Mine (Orrell 4 ft.) . . . 
Strata principally shales .... 
Gannister beds . 


to 4 feet. Seams which are thicker 



of poorer quality and contain dirt bands. 

Northwards of St. Helens, a great slice of the Middle Measures is cut out by the great Up- 
Holland Fault, which has a throw of 700 yards. This fault, like all great faults in the Lancashire 
area, ranges approximately N.N.W. and S.S.E., and is roughly parallel to the Irwell Valley Fault 
already mentioned. It brings in the Lower Coal Measures on its eastern side. 

(D) BURNLEY COAL FIELD 

This area of Middle Coal Measures is surrounded by the lower series and overlaid by Glacial 
drifts, no upper series being present. The best section obtainable is that of Fulledge, which, omitting 
detail, is as follows : 

FULLEDGE SECTION 





Ft. 


In. 


Strata 


14 


O 


Doghole Coal 


5 


O 


Strata 


16 


O 


Charley Coal 


i 


o 


Strata 


2 


9 


Kershaw Coal 


3 


5 


Strata 


7 1 


o 


Coal 


3 


IO 


Strata 


10 


2 


Burnley 4~feet 


4 





Strata 


25 


O 


Old Yard Coal .... 


5 


I 


Strata 


177 


6 


Lower Yard Coal. . . . 


2 


ii 



Ft. 

77 
3 
23 

2 

62 
2 

44 
4 
116 

2 

9 6 
2 



Strata 

Low Bottom Coal 

Strata 

Cannel 

Strata 

Fulledge Thin Bed Coal 

Strata 

Great Mine Coal . . . 

Strata 

China Bed Coal . . . 
Strata, with thin coal . 
Dandy Bed Coal . . . 

Strata 

Arley Mine Coal . . . 
Neglecting thin coals, the section shows about 40 feet of coal lying in a dozen seams. Of 
these, the Arley Mine is most valuable and has the greatest development, outcropping around the 
whole Coalfield. One seam, the Californian or Thin Bed, possesses a strong shale roof which 
is remarkably fossiliferous, no less than 26 species being recorded from it, most of which are fishes. 

When surveying the Burnley Coalfield prior to 1874, Professor Hull calculated the Arley 
Mine to have an area of about 23 square miles. Allowing 5,000 tons per acre, he estimated 
the total yield as 73,600,000 tons, of which about one-tenth had been extracted, leaving, after 
deduction for loss and waste, 65,000,000 tons to be mined in the future. 1 The total yield 
to 1874 of the whole coalfield was estimated at 18,500,000 tons, leaving 89,000,000 tons 
to be mined. 8 

1 'Geology of the Burnley Coalfield,' Mem. Geol. Survey (1875), P- 7$. 
8 Op. tit., p. 83. 

18 



GEOLOGY 

The basin-like area of this coalfield causes the mines lying above the Arley to have a much 
diminished superficial area, so much so that Professor Hull calculated that the Mountain Four-Feet 
Mine, which passes under the whole of the Middle Measures, may yet be made to yield 
100,000,000 tons, or more than the whole of the seams of the Middle Series. 



UPPER COAL MEASURES 

These measures are better developed in the Manchester area than in any other part 
of England. The development is, however, altogether local, the other areas of Upper Coal 
Measures in Lancashire being of insignificant proportions. 

A small patch of shales and flaggy sandstones in the Wigan area, overlying a coal supposed to 
be the Worsley Four-Feet, belongs probably to the lower part of the Upper Series. 

Another small patch occupies the southern border of the South Lancashire Coalfield in the 
neighbourhood of Leigh, Worsley, and Pendleton. A portion of the same measures forms a 
similar border to the Middle Series from Kingley to Prestwich, but has been carried to the north by 
the great Irwell Valley Fault. 

The Upper Coal Measures along the southern border are partially concealed by the overlap of 
Permian and Trias. Since they are mainly unproductive, they have not been exploited. They 
consist of reddish shales, clays, and sandstones with thin bands of limestone and a calcareous 
haematite, worked at Patricroft. They also contain a coal known as the Yard Coal of Pendleton. 



MANCHESTER COALFIELD 

This small coalfield has already been mentioned as one in which the Middle Coal Measures 
are still untouched, the rocks nearest the surface belonging solely to the upper series. 

Considerable light has been thrown upon these by the construction of a new line of railway 
along the eastern outskirts of Manchester in 1890-91. The succession of beds belonging to 
the Upper Coal Measures was exposed, as well as their junction with the Permian. Full details of 
the sections are to be found in papers of C. Roeder, C. E. De Ranee and J. W. Brockbank. 1 

The series as a whole consists of reddish mottled clays, shales, and sandstones, with thin bands 
of limestone. At Ardwick, near the centre of the coalfield, and in the railway section to the south, 
twelve beds of limestone are shown, the total thickness in the former case being 29 feet, in 
the latter 21 feet 4 inches. 

The general dip is southwest, the lowest members of the series cropping in the north-east 
of the district, and being succeeded regularly by others until the thin limestones of the upper 
part come in along the southwest border. Below the lowest limestone are about 200 yards of strata 
under which the following section was obtained at the Bradford Colliery : * 

BRADFORD AND CLAYTON COAL SERIES 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Openshaw Mine 3 Four Feet Mine 3 IO 

Strata about 135 o Strata 108 o 

Charlotte Mine 2 O Yard Mine . ... to i o 

Strata 210 o Strata 210 o 

Three Quarter Mine ... I 7 Two Feet Coal 20 

Strata 15 o Strata 120 o 

Coal o 10 

The total thickness will not fall far short of 2,000 feet. All the seams have now been worked 
out, but twenty years ago several collieries were busily engaged. It must not be supposed however 
that the coalfield is exhausted, for underneath the 2,000 feet of Upper Measures is a rich 
Middle Series similar to that of Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne, and Dukinfield, and it is very 
probable that this will eventually be sought for and mined. 

Should this ever be the case, and the Middle Coal Measures be reached, another 80 feet 
of coal, spread over nearly 4 square miles, will be added to the coal resources of Lancashire. 

1 Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc., xxi (iSgo-i-z), and Proc. Lit. and Phil. Soc., Manchester, for same year. 
* ' Geology of Country around Oldham, including Manchester and its suburbs,' Mem. Geol. Survey 
(1864), p. 35. 

19 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

POST-CARBONIFEROUS CHANGES 

The causes which have operated in altering the character of the Lancashire Coal Measures 
since their deposition are of three kinds, viz. flexures or folding, denudation, and faulting. 

FORMATION OF SYNCLINES AND ANTICLINES 

1. Careful mapping has shown that the whole of the Carboniferous system of Lancashire has 
been thrown into a number of anticlines and synclines along a line running west of north and east 
of south, the axes of the folds being north of east and south of west. This folding caused the 
separation of the Burnley Coalfield from that of South Lancashire, the crest of the intervening arch, 
'the Rossendale Anticlinal,' being afterwards denuded down to the Millstone Grit Series. The 
former field owes its preservation to the formation at this time of the Pendle Hill Range, in which 
the lower beds are brought up again to the north of the coalfield in a line parallel to the Rossendale 
anticlinal. 

The approximate age of this system of folds is indicated by the occurrence of Permian deposits 
in the Pendle range lying upon the upturned and denuded edges of the Coal Measures, and even 
overlapping on to the Millstone Grit. 1 

This evidence shows that the development was post-Carboniferous and pre-Permian, and that 
denudation of the Coal Measures preceded the deposition of the Permian. 

2. The high ground on the east of the Lancashire Coalfield, in which the Millstone Grit Series 
outcrops, owes its origin to a simple fold formed subsequently to those we have considered, and 
developed along a north and south line. The fold as a whole gave origin to the Pennine chain of 
hills now forming the main axis of elevation in the north of England. 

This huge fold cuts off the Lancashire Coalfield on the west from that of Yorkshire on the east. 
That the two were formerly continuous is abundantly proved by the close correlation which can be 
established between them, and the regularity of succession upon each side of the axis of upheaval. 

The age of this north and south flexure is not by any means clearly determinable. That it was 
formed before the deposition of the Trias is proved by the latter lying upon the Lower Carboniferous 
along the southern extremity of the Derbyshire hills, 2 but that it was post-Permian, as is supposed by 
Professor Hull, rests upon the belief that a great anticlinal fault traversing Lancashire and contem- 
poraneous in its development with the upheaval of the Pennine chain is older than a second fault 
which it meets to the south of Staffordshire. The anticlinal fault fractures the Coal Measures, and 
passes under the Trias in Staffordshire without fracturing them, but the second fault which it joins 
fractures both. 

Immediately to the south of the Lancashire Coalfield the anticlinal fault is accompanied by a 
parallel series, one of which, known as the ' Red Rock Fault,' throws in the Permian Sandstone 
against the Carboniferous. 

If the anticlinal fault and the parallel system above mentioned are of the same age, as seems 
most probable, it follows that the former, as well as the latter, is of post-Permian age ; and since the 
anticlinal fault is directly connected with the upheaval of the Pennine Chain, the age of the latter 
appears to be established as post-Permian and pre-Triassic. It would thus appear that the dominant 
features of the topography of Lancashire were determined by the formation of two systems of folds 
and the denudation of their crests before the commencement of the Mesozoic. 

FAULTING 

3. The third change which was induced in the Lancashire Coal Measures was caused by the 
great system of faults which strike across the coalfield from N.N.W. to S.S.E. That these are 
post-Triassic is shown by their continuance into the Trias of the Cheshire plain. That they are 
possibly post-Jurassic is assumed, because the continuity of deposition was not interfered with from 
the top of the Trias to the close of the Jurassic so far as is known. The more important of these 
faults will be dealt with under their respective districts. 

OLDHAM DISTRICT 

Several faults start in the neighbourhood of Ashton-under-Lyne and range north-west as far as 
Rochdale and Hey wood, with downthrows of from 100 to 200 yards. Immediately to the east of 
this district in the Millstone Grit country runs the great Pennine Fault, passing almost north and 
south, and bringing up the Pendleside (' Yoredale ') shales against the Millstone Grits. 

1 Hull ' Observations on the Relative Ages of the Leading Physical Features and Lines of Elevation of the 
Carboniferous District of Lancashire and Yorkshire,' Quart. Journ. Geol. Sac., xxiv. 323 (1868). 
8 Hull, op. cit., p. 329. 



GEOLOGY 

BOLTON AND BuRY AREA 

The chief fault is that known as the Great Irwell Valley Fault, having a downthrow to the east 
of over 1,000 yards, and crossing the whole of south Lancashire. Further to the south it is con- 
tinued into the Trias of Cheshire. A great fault bounds the north-east border of the Manchester 
Coalfield, and passing N.N.W. across the Trias, runs fairly parallel to the Irwell Valley Fault across 
the coalfield to a little west of Bury. 

WIGAN AND ST. HELEN'S DISTRICT 

The main faults of this district are the Great Upholland Fault, with a downthrow of 650 yards 
and a set of five faults at nearly equal distances of 1,400 yards from one another ; these are : 

1 . Great Pemberton Fault. 

2. Great Shevington Fault. 

3. Giants Hall Fault. 

4. Great Standish Fault. 

5. Great Haigh Fault. 

All the faults mentioned thus far belong to the N.N.W. or post- Jurassic System. They are 
accompanied by smaller faults which run out from them at acute angles or remain parallel, and by a 
system of east and west faults of less importance which break up the ground between them. This 
latter series was doubtless in part developed when the Pendle range system of folds was formed. 

COAL MEASURE FLORA 

The flora of the Lancashire Coal Measures has long been famous, largely because of the 
excellent preservation of vegetable tissues in nodules overlying the Bullion Seam or Upper Foot 
Coal. These nodules supplied material to Lindley, Hutton, Brongniart, Binney, Carruthers, 
Williamson, Solms-Laubach, and Hick, whereby they were enabled to throw a flood of light upon 
the structure and relationship of the coal flora. 

The study of the minute structure of coal plants has also been a favourite subject with the 
miners, and many can be found to-day with valuable cabinets of coal slides and all the machinery 
necessary for their production. Their knowledge of the structure of these plants is considerable, and 
Williamson and others have testified repeatedly to the energy and skill with which these men have 
prosecuted their studies and produced valuable results. 

The study of the external features of coal plants has not been followed so assiduously, probably 
because of a perplexing synonomy, and the want of books dealing with this section of the subject. 
As a result, the published list of coal plants is by no means complete. 

The great bulk of the coal flora consisted of ferns and Lycopodiaceae, the latter, however, not 
restricted to the coal measures, the casts of large trunks being not unfrequently found in the sand- 
stones of the Millstone Grits. 

The shale roofs of the coal seams are the chief repositories of fossil plants ; ferns, Catamites, and 
Lepidodendra occurring in abundance. All the under-clays or seat-rocks contain Stigmaria, whilst 
the roof of the Bullion Seam contains the irregularly rounded nodules already mentioned, in which, 
amidst a tangle of broken-up vegetable matter, are found stems, twigs, and fruit of Catamites, Lepi- 
dodendron, and other plants, with their minute structure perfectly preserved. 

In addition to the shale-roofs, plant fossils are found in some of the shales and sandstones. 

In some cases ironstone nodules occur in the shales containing well-preserved ferns and Lepi- 
dostrobi, especially in the shales under the Doe Mine of the Middle Coal Measures of Pendleton. 
The sandstones often contain casts of trunks and faint impressions of leaves and ferns, covered by a 
thin layer of carbon. Ferns are most abundant so far as regards species in the shales of the Middle 
Coal Measures, where they are better preserved than those of the Lower series. The stems of 
Catamites and Lepidodendron are also less crushed. 

Plant remains of any description are scarce in the Upper Coal Measures, Neuropteris and 
Spbenopterls being the most common. 

The most common plants of the Lancashire Lower Coal Measures are : 

Alethopterts lonchittca Lepidodendron obovatum 

Mariopteris muricata >> aculeatum 

Sphenopteris Schillingsit Sigillaria elegam 

Lepidodendron opbiurus Trigonocarpus Parkinsoni 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

The most common plants of the Middle Measures are : 

Spbenopteris furcata Sigillaria ovata 

trifoliolata reniformis 

Footneri Saulii 

Mariopteris muricata Lepidodendron ophiurus 

Pecopteris Miltoni aculeatum 

Alethopteris decurrens Bothrodendron minutifolium 

Serlii Cordaites 

Neuropteris gigantea Lepidostrobus variabilis 

obliqua Trigonocarpus Parkinsoni 

heterophylla Dawsii 

Calamocladus equisitiformis ,, Nceggeratbi 

Catamites (Stylocalamites) Suckmuii Carpolithus inflatus 
Sigillaria tessellata 

Some of the Middle Measure sandstones occasionally yield fine specimens of Halonia and the 
large leaves of Cordaites. 

LOWER COAL MEASURE FAUNA 

The fauna of the Lower Measures is quite as sharply marked off from that of the Middle Series 
as are the plant fossils, and for this reason must be dealt with separately. The lowest forms of life 
represented are worms, of which two species are known. The one (Arenicola carbonaria] is only 
known by worm burrows, and tracks, whilst the other (Spirorbis pusillus) has left a minute coiled 
shell. Brachiopoda are represented by Lingula cf. mytiloides. 

The ordinary mollusca or bivalves are most common, especially Carbonicola (olim Anthracosia), 
the chief species being : 

Carbonicola robusta Carbonicola subconstricta 

acuta aquilina 

rugosa 

Other common forms which link these coal measures with the Millstone Grit are Pterinopecten 
(olim Avicuhpecteri) papyraceus and Posidoniella laruis and P. minor. Gasteropoda are feebly represented 
by a few undescribed species. 

Cephalopoda are chiefly found in the upper part of the measures in the roof and shales asso- 
ciated with the Mountain Four Feet or Bullion Mine ; the common forms are : 
Gastrioceras (plim Goniatites) Listeri 

carbonarium 

Dimorphoceras Gilbertsoni 
Glyphioceras (olim Goniatites) reticulatum 
diadema 

paucilobum 

Several species of Orthoceras occur, but few are well defined, Orthoceras obtusum being the most 
marked. 

Crustacea are represented by several species of ostracods and by a few rare forms of malacos- 
traca, of which Pygocephalus Cooperi, Anthrapalamon Etberidgei, and Prestuiichia rotundata are the 
chief. Fishes were fairly abundant in numbers and species, the remains, chiefly teeth and scales, but 
at times whole fishes, being found in the black shales. The commonest forms are Coelacanthus 
elegans, Rhizodopsis sauroides, and Strepsodus sauroides. A small amphibian, Hylonomus Wildi, has been 
recorded from the ' soapstone ' bed over the Mountain Four Feet Mine of Colne and Trawden. For 
a full list of the fauna the reader is referred to papers by the author. 1 

MIDDLE AND UPPER COAL MEASURE FAUNA 

Recent researches on the part of the writer have shown that the fauna consists of 75 genera, 
which include 137 species, and further work by other observers has shown that the numbers will be 
increased. 

Whilst as in the Lower Coal Measures the mollusca remained the dominant forms mainly 
owing to the great increase in the three genera, Carbonicola (olim Antbracosia\ Naiadites (olim Antbra- 
coptera) t and Antbracomya, the fishes show an even more pronounced development. Cephalopoda 
and brachiopoda only occur at one horizon, viz. the ' marine band ' at Ashton-under-Lyne and 
Dukinfield. 

1 ' The Palaeontology of the Lancashire Coal Measures,' Trans. Manch. Geol. and Mining Soc. xxviii. 

22 



GEOLOGY 

The Middle Measures of the Bolton, Oldham, and Rochdale districts have yielded a number 
of rare and interesting crustaceans ; and work which is now being carried on at Sparth Bottoms 
near Rochdale in shales over the Arley Mine bids fair to reveal many new forms. 

Fossil fishes are represented by large spines, teeth, scales, and not rarely by whole fishes. Seven 
species of Pleuracanthian spines are known, the commonest being Pleuracanthus larvmimus. All 
these spines consist of a stout bony rod which was imbedded in the body muscles of the fish, either 
behind the head, or in front of each of the paired fins. The hinder surface of each spine is armed 
with small acutely pointed denticles arranged in two or even more rows. Larger and stouter spines, 
often a foot in length, and ornamented by oblique rows, or tubercles, have received the name 
of Gyracantkus, whilst spines ornamented by longitudinal ridges are known as Sphenacanthus. Many 
of the Lower Coal Measure fishes continue to exist, and the black shales forming the roof of several 
of the thick coal seams are veritable storehouses of fish remains. Amphibia are not satisfactorily 
represented, although certain large ring vertebrae and small ribs are known and doubtfully referred 
to Archegosaurus. 

UPPER COAL MEASURE FAUNA 

As already stated, the fossils found here are scanty and small. The period was one in which 
extinction was going on. 

Spirorbis pusillus, and ostracods, the latter of several species, alone seemed to have flourished 
in anything like numbers, whilst Anthracomya Phillipsii, and A. lievls var. Scotica are the only 
common forms amongst the mollusca. Arthropods are represented by Estheria tenella, and Leaia 
Leidyi var. WiUiamwniana. The fishes were mainly Pleuracanthus, Gyracanthus, Ctenodus Murckisoni, 
and Megalichthys Hibberti, a typical Middle Measure form. Small phalanges referred to Laby- 
rinthodon were found by Mr. Chas. Roeder at Longsight and are the only remains of amphibia 
known from these beds. 

PERMIAN 

Strata belonging to this period formerly occupied a much greater area in the county than now, 
the formation having been extensively swept away by post-Permian denudation, which was possibly 
rendered more effective by a considerable amount of earth movement, such as faulting. (See p. 20.) 
Much of the existing Permian strata is covered by the Trias or Glacial Drift, so that the only 
portions readily accessible are small and comparatively unimportant. A narrow band of Red Sand- 
stones, Marls, and Limestones borders the South Lancashire Coalfield from Sutton near St. Helens, 
Edge Green, Leigh, and Astley to Eccles. At the latter place, and again at Salford and Cheetham 
Hill, the formation has been faulted northwards by the Great Irwell Valley and other faults, which 
here traverse the coalfield. The fact that the Permian has shared in the movement and faulting of 
the coal measures indicates that the latter movements took place after the deposition of Permian 
and not before. 

The Red Sandstones, Marls, and Limestones are best seen on the east side of Manchester 
from Collyhurst to Stockport. They were also cut through in the making of the Fallowfield 
and Burnage section of railway on the east of Manchester, where their junction with the Coal 
Measures below could also be seen. Small patches of the Permian sandstones occur west of Preston, 
on the banks of the Ribble near Clitheroe, on the Ingleton Coalfield, and in the Furness district. At 
this latter place the beds are much obscured by drift. 

The position of the Permian has been determined in a number of cases by means of borings 
made in search of iron ore. The Red Sandstones are seen at High Cocken, north of Barrow, and 
quarried at Hawcoat, whilst old quarries opened in the same rock exist in the grounds of Furness 
Abbey. The Magnesian Limestone which underlies the sandstone is also present in the Furness 
district, and has been worked at Old Holebeck. The smaller patches which occur near 
Clitheroe and elsewhere owe their preservation to their position on the downthrow side of faults. 
They are outliers of the great mass of Permian strata which formerly existed. 

Fossils are poorly preserved in the Permian sandstones and marls, the latter yielding at various 
places examples of Schizodus and Bakevellia, whilst the thin limestones are at times crowded with 
species of Rissaa, Turbo, etc. Polyzoa are not un frequent in the Magnesian Limestone. 

The Permian System as a whole consists of the following divisions : 

Upper Red Sandstones, Marls, and Clays, with thin limestone. 

Magnesian Limestone. 

Marl Slate. 

Lower Red variegated Sandstones, Marls, and Breccias. 

Only the Upper Red Sandstone and Magnesian Limestone are exposed in the county. 

23 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

MESOZOIC PERIOD 

The formation of the red sandstones and marls which we have considered under the name of 
Permian brought to a close that period of geological time known as Palaeozoic, and was in turn 
succeeded by the Mesozoic, in which higher orders of animals and plants appeared, and in which the 
rocks were less mechanical in origin, and owed more to accumulation in quiet waters and the 
aggregation of the remains of various life forms. The rocks of this period have also suffered much 
less by earth movement and change than the older rocks. The distinction between Palaeozoic and 
Mesozoic rocks is a purely arbitrary one, retained for convenience, but possessing no actual 
justification, as in many places no satisfactory line can be drawn between the Permian and the 
Trias, the one apparently passing gradually into the other. 

TRIAS 

The various members of the Triassic System which are represented in Lancashire are the 
following : 



Upper Trias or Keuper 



Lower Trias or Bunter 



Keuper or Red Marls. 
Keuper Sandstone. 
Upper Red Mottled Sandstone. 
Lower and Upper Pebble Beds. 
Lower Red Mottled Sandstone. 



The Triassic rocks occupy a large extent of the flat country forming the Lancashire sea-board 
from Liverpool to Morecambe Bay, which it encircles as far as Walney Island and the south part of 
the Furness district. The greatest breadth of this lowland plain is in the neighbourhood of Preston, 
where it is about 20 miles across. The Triassic beds have been brought against the edges of 
the older rocks by a great fault system in post-Triassic time, with a western downthrow. 

BUNTER 

The Bunter Sandstone and Pebble Beds are well developed in the neighbourhood of Liverpool, 
where they have received considerable attention from local geologists. The Bunter Sandstone 
usually lies deep, but could formerly be seen at Eastham and Ince before the making of the Man- 
chester Ship Canal. It is also seen at Eccleston Hall, near St. Helens. The beds are famous for 
the amount of water they contain, and many borings have been put down into them, from which 
a huge supply is obtained. The Pebble Beds are well exposed near Liverpool, and in quarries at 
Wavertree, the section at Olive Mount being especially good. By the late G. H. Morton they 
were divided in the Liverpool area into Lower and Upper Pebble Beds, the latter containing few 
pebbles. 

The Upper Red Sandstone is exposed in nearly all the railway cuttings on the north, east, and 
south of Liverpool, and it lies in massive beds often of a bright red colour, streaked with grey. At 
Liverpool it is usually too soft to use as a building stone, but at Frodsham, Runcorn, and Ormskirk 
it is very hard, although it weathers badly. 

KEUPER 

The Keuper Sandstones and Marls which form the Upper Trias lie at the surface to the west 
of the Bunter series, the two running side by side from Liverpool northwards, the Keuper Series 
forming a goodly portion of the coastline, though occasionally obscured under a heavy load of 
Glacial drift, or Blown sand. At one time the Keuper Sandstone was extensively quarried at 
Liverpool, the lower beds forming a good building stone. That obtained from Runcorn is even 
more durable. Just outside the county boundary at Storeton in the Wirral peninsula, extensive 
quarries are opened in the Keuper Sandstone, and have yielded sandstone slabs showing a most 
interesting series of footprints, ripple markings, and rain pittings. The footprints, which are of large 
size and five-toed, are believed to have been made by an amphibian closely allied to, if not identical 
with, the Labyrinthodon. To the animal which made them the name of Cheirotberium has been 
given. To smaller footprints of a different type the name of Rhynchosaurus has been given. 
Remains of the latter have also been found in Warwickshire. 

The Keuper Red Marls consist of red and grey marls and shales, with bands of sandstone. The 
thin flaggy sandstones are often ripple-marked, and their surfaces are at times studded by beautiful 
pseudomorphous crystals of common salt. A large area of the Red Marls stretches from Formby to 
Southport, having been proved by borings, but it is all deeply covered by drift. At Runcorn the 
Marls are seen on the banks of the Weaver. Near Fleetwood, at Preesall, a boring put down in the 

24 



GEOLOGY 

Marls reached a bed of rock-salt at a depth of 258 feet, the rock-salt with a layer of shale being 
nearly 300 feet thick. Rock-salt is of widespread occurrence in the Keuper Marls, more 
especially in Cheshire, where, in the Marston Mine, are two beds, one 85 feet thick and the 
other 1 06 feet. 1 

PLEISTOCENE 
GLACIAL PERIOD 

After the deposition of the Trias there is no evidence of rocks of later age in Lancashire until 
we reach the Glacial Drift, a thick layer of boulder-laden clay and sands which occupies the bottoms 
of the valleys in the Coal Measure country and occasionally spreads up their sides, even to a height 
of over a thousand feet. On the low Triassic plain the boulder clay masks the solid geology 
almost everywhere. 

It must not be supposed, however, that rocks later than the Trias and older than the Glacial 
Drift never were laid down in the Lancashire area, because the presence of a small patch of Lias 
in Cumberland, at Orton, west of Carlisle, and the presence of extensive deposits of Liassic and 
Cretaceous age in the north of Ireland, indicate that these formations had a much greater develop- 
ment than now, and might very probably have extended over the county, and have been denuded 
before the Glacial Period commenced. 

The Glacial Period occurred when the greater part of the British Isles and Northern Europe 
became covered in by snowfields and mighty glaciers, the climatic conditions being such that the 
snows of winter were not wholly dissipated in summer, and the accumulation of snow thus formed 
increased until the mountains and mountain valleys were filled, and a downward movement com- 
menced which went on until the lower levels were encroached upon and covered, and the ice sheets 
ultimately reached the sea, and even travelled over parts of its area. The conditions were in all 
probability like those which now exist in the Alps, but were more widespread and general. Where 
rocks or mountain-tops projected through the snow and ice, masses were broken off by the expansive 
force of water in its freezing, melting and re-freezing, the blocks from time to time falling upon the 
glacier fields and becoming entombed in them by the opening of crevasses. The lower layer of 
the snowfields became compacted into ice by the superincumbent weight, the passage of water, and 
partial melting. Every high mountain peak became a centre of dispersion, and from the centres of 
high altitude, such as the mountainous region of the Lake District, North Wales, and similar areas, 
there began a steady outward flow of glaciers to lower levels. As the glaciers moved along, their 
great weight and the stones locked up within caused them to exercise an erosive action upon the 
ground over which they moved. The surface soil was worn away until the hard rock was reached, 
and the latter then became deeply scratched and polished by the slowly sliding mass of stones and 
ice. As far as the glaciers travelled, so far, of course, were stones carried away from their parent 
source, and strewn along the course of the glacier stream. The grinding-down of the surface rocks 
and the ice-borne stones gave rise to clays, which were deposited over the whole country traversed. 
How much rock material was thus carried away from the high ground, and deposited upon far-away 
and lower levels, we shall never be able to accurately determine, but there is no doubt that it was 
enormous. By some authorities it is believed that many, if not all, the basins of the lakes in the 
Lake District were ground out during this period, the old river valleys everywhere widened, and the 
hill crests much reduced in height. In some cases river valleys were filled up by earthy material 
and ice, and the general ice movement passed across them and not along their length. By a close 
study of the boulders of rock now found in the glacial clays, and an equally careful mapping of the 
ice scratches upon the rocks below, it has been possible to trace the general course of these ' erratics,' 
as they are called, back to their source, and to construct maps showing the lines of flow and centres 
of dispersion. In this way, for example, it can be shown that the glacial clays of Lancashire are 
derived from the Lake District and the south of Scotland, examples of Criffel granite being strewn 
in the Boulder Clay along the Cumberland coast, and as far south as Liverpool and the Wirral 
peninsula. Rocks derived from the Lake District are numberless in the clays of Lancashire, most 
of them being derived from the mountainous district on the west of Westmorland, but others from 
the Shap Fell area. They consist mainly of flattened and polished specimens of felspathic rocks, 
rhyolite, Shap granite and slate, intermingled with local rocks which were also caught up and 
carried forward. In many places the clays contain boulders of large size, weighing tons, and in 
several Lancashire towns these have been set up in parks and public places. A fine example is to 
be seen in the quadrangle of Victoria University at Manchester. The Boulder Clay in the 
Furness district is known as Pinel, and contains fragments from the Coniston Grits and Shales in 

1 For particulars relating to the Triassic rocks see G. H. Morton, The Geology of the Country around Liverpool, 
ed. 2 (1891), with Appendix (1897). 

25 4 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

addition to those mentioned. Sections in the Boulder Clay can be seen almost everywhere, and are 
especially marked on the coast, where at times they form cliffs, as at Blackpool, from 40 to 70 feet 
in height. 

One interesting feature of the Lancashire drift which still requires working out is the occur- 
rence of broken and comminuted shells, and isolated valves. These are found even in the inland 
clays. Amongst others, the writer has found valves belonging to species of Cardium, Jlfactra, 
Mytilus, and a portion of the test of an Echinoderm. Foraminifera also occur. 

In many places the drift can be divided into three parts, a middle division of sand being inter- 
calated between lower and upper Boulder Clays, or Drift. Pockets of sand, sometimes of large size, 
at times occur interbedded with the clays. 1 

Post-Glacial Deposits. To this category belong the extensive peat deposits of the moorlands and 
plains, which are often of considerable thickness, especially in the ' Mosses,' as Chatmoss, etc., and 
contain trunks and stumps of trees, sometimes in such profusion as to indicate that many districts 
and even hills were densely wooded instead of bare and bleak as we now see them. 

Here also must be placed the banks and deposits of Alluvium at the mouths and along the 
sides of many of the rivers, and the extensive dunes and sandhills which are so striking a feature 
of the coast between the mouths of the Mersey and the Kibble, near Blackpool, and at Walney 
Island. 

In the neighbourhood of Fleetwood, Poulton, and Blackpool, these later deposits have been 
classified by the officers of the Geological Survey as follows : 

Blown Sand . 



Post-Glacial 



Recent 



Upper ' Cyclas ' clay, sand, etc. 

Upper ' Scrobicularia ' clay. 

Marsh clay and tidal alluvium Peat. 



j Lower ' Cyclas ' clay. 
Pre-historic . . < Lower ' Scrobicularia ' clay. 
I Presall Shingle. 



A somewhat similar division holds good for the district around Southport, the place of the Presall 
Shingle being taken by the Shirdley Hill Sand and Lower Peat. 

BLOWN SAND 

Sandhills are forming so extensively along the Lancashire coast that a few words need to be 
written respecting them. The set of sea currents is such along the coast from north of Liverpool 
to Fleetwood that almost continuous sandy beaches are formed. Indeed, these have accumulated in 
some places to such an extent that the sea appears to be retiring from the land. This is well seen 
at Southport, where marine lakes and promenades take the place of what was once open beach swept 
by every tide. The exposure of the sandbanks at low tide to the sun results in the upper layer of 
sand becoming dried, when it is easily moved by the wind and swept inland, where it collects against 
any obstacle, such as fences or buildings, and accumulates until it at length overtops them, and falls 
over upon the other side. In this way a low eminence is formed, which is continually being added 
to on the seaward side and as continually being reduced by the surface being carried further inland. 
In this way an extensive belt of arable land has been covered over, and the encroachment has 
become so serious that vigorous attempts are made to stop its further progress by planting ' starr- 
grass,' Psamma arenaria, and Ammophila arundinacea, whose long-matted roots hold the sand together, 
whilst the leaves protect the surface. Southport is entirely built upon blown sand, which can also 
be seen inland behind it. 

At Formby the sandhills are three miles in width, although it is stated that none existed so late 
as 1690, the whole deposit having been formed since by the silting up of the then Formby Harbour, 
and the formation of a sandbank against the land, from which the loose sand was carried landwards. 
Between Formby and Birkdale, near Southport, many farms have been entirely covered up within 
the last hundred years, and houses completely buried. 

The sand often contains shells and shell fragments, which have been also wind-borne, and, these 
decaying, the carbonate of lime of which they consisted becomes dissolved in the acid-laden rain, 
and, being afterwards reprecipitated, it serves as a cementing material to the sand, which thus becomes 
solidified, and even impermeable to water. Between Fleetwood and Rossal the sand is extremely 
large-grained. 

1 There is a considerable literature dealing with the Glacial Drifts, and we are indebted especially to 
Mr. T. Melkrd Reade, Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, and Mr. C. E. De Ranee for records of &cts and 
explanations. 

26 



GEOLOGY 

Pre-hhtoric Man. Examples of flint arrowheads, scrapers, polished stone axes, and the various 
other implements used by Palaeolithic and Neolithic man have been found very generally distributed, 
more especially on the moorlands bordering on Yorkshire, where they occur under the peat. A fine 
series of these, collected by Dr. Colley Marsh, Mr. Parker, and others, is to be seen in the Rochdale 
Museum, and many collections are in private hands. 

The abundance and widespread character of these implements point to Lancashire having been 
well populated by Early Man, whilst the rinding of the bones and teeth of the red deer, ancient 
British ox, and other animals shows that the fauna was of a more varied nature than is now the 



ECONOMIC GEOLOGY 

Useful Minerals. The opening pages of this paper made mention of the many and great 
industries carried on in Lancashire, and dependent more or less upon the character of the geology. 

It now remains for us to consider what the mineral wealth consists of, and to what extent it is 
utilised. 

Coal. The chief source of mineral wealth is of course coal, which is mined over the whole 
of the coalfields. The thin seams of the Lower Coal Measures have been to a large degree worked 
out, the only seam of any importance remaining to be exploited being the Gannister, and that 
portion of it more especially which is united to the overlying Bullion seam to form the Mountain 
Four-Feet. This latter seam lies around the fringe and beneath the whole of the Burnley Coal- 
field, and has been comparatively little worked. The coal is bituminous, and not so good as in the 
Gannister proper, but as the seam is of greater thickness than the latter, and may improve when 
followed deeper, it is extremely likely that it will be increasingly used in the future. All the seams 
of the Lower Coal Measures have been, and are now, where mining in them is still carried on, 
worked solely for local consumption, the many factories and industries and the homes of the people 
supplying a constant and near market. 

The main source of the coal supply is the Middle Coal Measures, the seams of which are 
thicker and contain much better coal than is found in the Lower Series. 

The potential yield of the Lancashire Coalfield has been estimated by Professor Hull 3 and 
others on several occasions, and lastly by a Royal Commission on Coal Supplies. 8 The investiga- 
tions of the latter, based upon the evidence supplied by mine managers, engineers, and geologists, 
lead to the conclusion that most coal seams of a thickness of twelve inches and upwards can be 
safely, and in all probability profitably worked down to a depth of 4,000 feet. The finding of the 
Royal Commission can be best expressed in tabulate form as follows : 

Tons of Coal remaining unworked in Seams of Coal which are : 



Inches, 12-15. 


Inches, 15-18. 


Inches, 18-24. 


Inches, 24 and upwards. 


Total Estimated Quantity 
of Coal remaining 
Unworked. 


156,451,034 


206,122,247 


392,731,612 


4,594> 2 49>544 


5,349-554.437 



Estimated Quantity not capable of being worked due to Barriers required to be left or for 
support of Surface Buildings, etc. : 



Seams of Inches, 
12-15. 


Scams of Inches, 

15-18. 


Seams of Inches, 

18-24. 


Seams of Inches, 24 and 
upwards. 


4,108,961 


7,383,851 


15,917,265 


220,955,775 



1 Morton, Geology of the Country around Liverpool, ed. 2 (1891). 

Hull, Mm. Geol. Survey, ' Geol. of the Burnley Coalfield, Coal Fields of Great Britain,' ed. 4 (1891). 
Our Coal Resources at the Close of the Nineteenth Century (1897). 

8 Final Report of the Royal Commission on Coal Supplies, Part I. General Report, 1905. Published by His 
Majesty's Stationery Office. 

27 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

Loss in Working due to faults and other natural causes in Seams of: 



Indie* 12-15- 


Inches, 15-18. 


Inches, 18-24. 


Inches, 24 and upwards. 


Total Estimated Deductions 
due to all the Foregoing 
Causes. 


33,882,284 


48,740,170 


61,596,103 


718,462,301 


1,111,046,710 



Estimated net available Tons remaining unworked, 4,238,507,727. 

The output of the Lancashire collieries for the year 1903 was 24,517,761 tons. At the 
same time there was also raised 24,442 tons of clay and shale, 190,406 tons of fire-clay, and 
287 tons of iron pyrites; giving a total yield from the mines of 24,732,139 tons, and finding 
employment for 93,912 people. 

The clay, shale, and fireclay are all used in the manufacture of bricks, tiles, coarse earthen- 
ware, and pottery. The fireclays are capable of withstanding an intense heat after they have been 
moulded into bricks without much material change, hence the bricks manufactured from fireclay are 
much used in furnaces, hearths, and other places where there is great heat. 

Iron pyrites is worked for the manufacture of sulphuric acid and sulphate of iron. 

Clay. Lancashire being a most densely populated county, and the solid geology to a large 
extent obscured by thick deposits of boulder clay, it has naturally followed that the latter has been 
made good use of in the manufacture of bricks. Temporary brick-kilns are frequently established 
in the vicinity of large towns where building operations are in progress, the clay being obtained 
close to the site of the kilns by removing the surface soil. The bricks thus obtained are not so 
close in texture or so durable as those manufactured from the better class of shales and are chiefly 
used for internal walls. In many cases, the coal shales are quarried at the surface and moulded 
into bricks, and it is probably clay obtained not merely from the Glacial drift but also from the 
clayey shales which goes to make up the 1,418,340 tons of clay which represents the output ot 
Lancashire for 1903. 

Sandstone. The main supply of sandstone in Lancashire is obtained from the Millstone Grit series, 
many of the beds being massive, and nearly all exceedingly durable. The sandstones of the Lower and 
Middle Coal Measures are worked to a less extent, those of the former, whilst of fair thickness and 
fairly durable, at times being even equal to the Millstone Grit, yet, being also more current-bedded 
and jointed than the former, can only be worked with a greater waste, and are therefore not so 
economical. In most cases also where Lower Coal Measure sandstones occur those of the Mill- 
stone Grit are not far off, and almost invariably at a greater altitude on the flanks or tops of the 
hills, from which the stone can be conveyed by its own weight down inclined rails to sidings 
connected with the railways which traverse all the chief valleys. Most of the stone is used for road 
and street paving in the large towns, or for building stones, whilst the thicker and more massive 
beds furnish huge blocks for engine beds, foundations, retaining walls, and structures requiring great 
weight and strength. Many of the beds both of the Millstone Grits and Lower Coal Measures 
split up into slabs of from two to four inches in thickness, and are cut up for flagstones. 

The readiness with which the stone can be worked, and its nearness to the towns, accounts for 
one feature of Lancashire towns which often puzzles visitors from other counties : in nearly all 
the towns the great bulk of the buildings and dwelling houses have the outer walls built of the 
local rocks, houses entirely constructed of brick being not so numerous. One other feature to be 
seen in the agricultural districts surrounding the large towns is the prevalence of stone walls 
dividing the meadows, which are mostly laid down in grass. The multiplicity of these walls of 
dark weathered stone, and the absence of the pleasant hedgerows and earthen banks which are so 
common a feature in most counties, give the landscape a hard and chilly look, and lead one 
erroneously to suppose that the industrial districts are barren and devoid of shrubs, trees, and copse. 

Sandstone quarries are numerous, especially in the hill ranges north of Manchester, which 
stretch on to Rochdale, Littleborough, Whitworth, and the spurs running into the Rossendale 
valleys. The industry is a very important one, no less than 760,534 tons being quarried in 1903. 

Limestone. The quarrying of limestone is not much behind that of sandstone in the weight of 
output, 612,427 tons being quarried in 1903. Much of this is burnt for lime, used in the towns 
or on pasturage, and a great quantity is used as building stone. In the limestone districts, the lime- 
stone is used in the construction of nearly all buildings, and also for rough walling. It thus takes 
the place of sandstone in other parts of the country, and being of a light grey colour the towns are 
much cleaner looking and more cheerful. 

The Carboniferous Limestone in Lancashire is not so metalliferous as we find it in Derbyshire 

28 



GEOLOGY 

for example, for, although lead, zinc, barytes, and other minerals are known to occur, the veins are 
hardly profitable. Lead mining has been carried on at several places, as at Rimmington, near 
Clitheroe, but very little mining is done now. The Limestone of the Furness district is the great 
repository of iron ore, which has been deposited in it as the result of chemical replacement. 

Iron Ore. The output of Iron Ore, in the form mainly of haematite, in 1903, was 382,271 
tons. The haematite occurs in masses filling up irregular cavities in the limestone. It is 
generally believed that the iron owes its position and condition where found to having been carried 
to the spot by underground waters in solution, and that a gradual displacement took place of the 
limestone by haematite. The original source of the iron was probably the red rocks which overlie 
the limestone, although it must not be forgotten that iron is a mineral universally diffused and there- 
fore capable of being brought from many sources. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Rock salt and brine to the amount of 216,785 tons was obtained in 1903 from the Triassic 
marls, whilst the older rocks in North Lancashire yielded 20,576 tons of slate and 1,300 tons of 
igneous rock. Gravel and sand was used to the extent of 50,673 tons. 

If we tabulate the minerals and quantities mined in 1 903 in Lancashire alone the result is : 

Tons. Tons. 

Coal 24,517,761 Rock Salt and Brine 216,785 

Clay 1,418,340 Gravel and Sand 50,673 

Sandstone 760,534 Slate 20,576 

Limestone 612,427 Igneous Rocks I >3 

Iron Ore 382,271 Iron Pyrites 287 

Giving a total output of 27,980,954 tons, and also finding employment for 102,298 people. 

The total value of minerals raised in Lancashire during 1903 much exceeded 10,000,000. 

Soil. Most of the soil of Lancashire is cold, owing to the subsoil being in large part derived 
from and resting upon the boulder clay. As a result, Lancashire cannot claim a high position for 
agriculture. 

On the limestone, the soil is thin, but usually covered with short, sweet turf, which makes it 
good for sheep. In the Coal Measures and Millstone Grit districts, the land is mainly cut up into 
grazing farms, whilst the maritime plain, with its underlying Trias, makes good meadow and 
pasture land, and here agriculture reaches its highest level. 

Dependence of Scenery upon Geology. In few counties is the relation of scenery to the geology 
better illustrated than here. North Lancashire, with its hard slates, grits, and interbedded volcanic 
series, rises into a bare mountainous country, and is geographically part and parcel of the rugged 
Lake district. Where the Carboniferous Limestone reaches the surface, the country is picturesquely 
scarred with mural cliffs, supporting an abundant vegetation, whilst the succeeding Millstone Grit 
and Coal Measure country rises into bleak brown moorlands, intersected by narrow valleys supporting 
a bare pasturage and grazing ground. 

Many of the hills are step-like, owing to the shales weathering away into steep slopes, leaving 
the sandstone and grit beds standing out in high relief. 

The softer Permian and Triassic rocks have been ground down to a low-lying plain, on which 
by skilful and diligent methods agriculture has made most progress. 

ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS 1 

Above a horizontal plane, approximately marked by the 25-feet contour above Ordnance datum, 
the purely alluvial deposits of Lancashire are found in the river valleys, and are well represented in 
almost all valley bottoms and in the excavations of the Manchester Ship Canal. 

The bottom lands are formed by accretion during flood overflows. Sometimes, as in the Lune, 
alluvial terraces occur at higher levels cut out of the drift. Outside these limited riverine deposits 
the soil of the country is largely formed by the subafirial crumbling of the boulder clays and sands, of 
which a mantle covers the country up to more than 300 feet above Ordnance datum. 3 This sheet of 
drift spreads over and obscures the pre-glacial topography of the county, so that what in former times 
was a diversified landscape, standing at a higher level relatively to the sea, is now a somewhat 
monotonous gently undulating plain the characteristic feature of south-west Lancashire. 

The second physical feature of this portion of the county is of more geological interest, 

i By T. Mellard Reade, F.G.S., F.R.I., B.A. 

3 A much greater altitude than this is given in Man and the Glacial Period, 178. 
29 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

inasmuch as it brings us nearer to the historic period. It consists of a second plain formed entirely 
by the deposition of marine or estuarine sands, muds, and clays. These beds nearly all lie below the 
25-feet contour and are the mixed detritus and sediments brought down by the Mersey, Ribble, and 
Lune, which have been sorted and deposited on the coast between the mouths of these rivers. 
The lands over which the Liverpool and Southport Railway runs are part of this plain of deposition, 
which has added many square miles to what is now the county of Lancaster. 

The muddy sediment, of which these ' Formby and Leasowe Marine or Estuarine Beds' are 
composed, is crowded with Foraminifera, as was proved by borings at Altcar, recently made by the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. 1 The mollusc Scrobicularia piperata, in a vertical position as it 
lived, also occurs, showing that some of the beds were laid down between tide marks. 

Perhaps the most interesting deposit of all is the peat and forest bed, which was known over a 
century ago. A description and plate of it appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine in 1796, p. 549. 
This bed underlies the moss lands, and upon it the sand-dunes previously described in the chapter on 
Geology have been built up by the wind. They occupy an area between Liverpool and Southport 
of 22 square miles. 

The outcrop of the peat and forest bed at and south of the Alt mouth is still to be seen, but it 
has of late been much destroyed by the inroads of the sea. 8 

Geologically the most interesting fact in connection with the extensive post-glacial deposits is 
the proof they afford that oscillations of the land with respect to the sea level have taken place in 
very late probably miocene time (see Dawkins' Prehistoric Man) geological times. The peat and 
forest bed with stools of oak, birch, and pine are washed by the tide now at the Alt mouth, 
and elsewhere they have been proved by dock and other excavations to occur below low-water 
mark situations where it would be impossible for trees to grow now. 

This belt of alluvial deposits extends northwards with little interruption past the Fylde country 
to the mouth of the river Lune, and with some intervals extends to the river Duddon. Here 
knolls of boulder clay rise through the moss lands and are distinguished by their greenness. 
Excellent sections of the deposits and underlying boulder clay and rocks were disclosed in the 
excavations of the Midland Railway dock at Heysham, and are described in the Proceedings of the 
Liverpool Geological Society, session 1901-2 (Reade). 

All the fringes to the solid land of south-west Lancashire are but parts of an extensive belt of 
deposition, remains of which occur all round the British Islands. Still more extensive plains form a 
large part of Belgium, and the excavations for the Bruges Ship Canal presented excellent sections 
showing a similar series of estuarine and peat beds with the remains of trees. 8 

Before artificial drainage and pumping was resorted to, much of the land was little better than 
a series of marshes, and many meres, such as Martin Mere, near Southport, existed, but on a smaller 
scale. The land is now under cultivation, excepting where built upon, as at Southport and Birkdale, 
and is peculiarly favourable to the growth of potatoes, which are produced in great quantities. The 
more sandy portions are in some cases used for growing asparagus, which seems to like the soil and 
saline surroundings. 

The mean rainfall at Park Corner, Blundellsands, for twenty-nine years, 18761904, is 
29*95 inches. 

Enough has been said to show that this desolate-looking coastal plain abounds in lessons of the 
greatest interest from a geological, historical, and a human aspect, lessons of a kind that are absent in 
more beautiful landscapes. 

1 Proe. of the Liverpool Geol. Soc. 1903-4. 

3 A full account illustrated with maps and sections of the geological and physical feaures will be found in 
the Proc. of the Liverpool Gecl. So:., Session 1871-2, by T. Mellard Reade. 
Q.J.G.S., 1898, pp. 575-58'- 



PALEONTOLOGY 

PUBLISHED records of the occurrence of remains of mammals from 
the superficial deposits of Lancashire appear to be comparatively few, 
and many which have come under the writer's notice are of interest 
from an historical rather than from a zoological point of view. 
Sir Richard Owen, 1 for instance, called attention to the discovery of a large 
antler of the red deer (Cervus elaphus] in 1727, which was drawn out of 
Ravensbarrow Hole, adjoining Holker Old Park, entangled in a fisherman's 
net. A sketch of this specimen was transmitted to the Royal Society of 
London by Hopkins, and is reproduced in the Philosophical 'Transactions? 
Although the terminal branches of the crown are broken off, this antler 
measures 30 inches in length ; the basal circumference being 10 inches, and 
the length of the brow-line 1 6| inches. The tide flows constantly over the 
spot where this specimen was found, and the adjacent land is high. 

The antlers attached to the skull of another stag of the same species 
discovered beneath a peat-moss in another part of the county, and figured by 
C. Leigh in his Natural History of Lancashire , Cheshire ; and the Peak of Derby- 
shire (1700), are equally fine, each measuring 40 inches in length. Red-deer 
antlers are also recorded from Preston, and they have been likewise found in 
several other parts of the county. 

Other cervine antlers recorded by Leigh as having been obtained from 
the marl beneath the peat between Martin's Mere and Meols (now North 
Meols) have been identified with the great extinct Irish deer, or ' Irish Elk ' 
(Cervus giganteus), 3 such remains being stated by Mr. C. E. de Ranee 4 to be far 
from uncommon in the county. From shell-marl underlying the peat near 
Whittingdon Hall the antler of a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus} is said to have 
been obtained ; 6 while remains of the great extinct wild ox, or aurochs (Eos 
taurus primigenius) , are recorded from Preston. During the excavation of 
Preston Docks a number of mammalian remains were discovered. Accord- 
ing to Mr. E. Dickson (Proceedings Liverpool GeoL Assoc. v. 258, 1887) they 
included 30 pairs of red deer antlers and 50 odd ones, 25 aurochs' skulls, 
two skulls of the domesticated Celtic shorthorn, one skull of a pilot-whale 
(Globicephalus me/as), and two whale-vertebras. 

The skull of a hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius major), said to 
have been found in the county under a peat-bog, is figured in Lee's work, 
the figure being reproduced in plate xxii. fig. 5 of Buckland's Reliquicz 
Diluviana? 

Mammalian remains of late Pleistocene age have been found in some 
abundance on the Cheshire side of the mouth of the Mersey 7 and a few are 
recorded from the Lancashire bank. Mr. G. H. Morton, 8 for instance, 

Brit. Toss. Mamm. and Birds, 473 (1846). s Vol. xxxvii. No. 422. 

Owen, op. cit. 467, and De Ranee, 'Superficial Geology of Liverpool' (Mem. GeoL Survey, 1877), 77. 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. xxvi. 668 (1870). 6 Harting, Extinct British Animals, 65. 

Owen, op. cit. 401. ^ Moore, Trans. N. H. Soc. Lane, and Cheshire, x. 265 (1858). 

Geology of Country round Liverpool, ed. 2, 250. 

31 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

records the discovery of the skull of a brown bear (Ursus arctus] in 1876, at 
Bootle, during the excavation of the Alexandra Dock ; and likewise states that 
a skull and other bones of the same species have been found in the Bewsey 
Valley, near Warrington. With regard to the Bootle specimen, it has been 
suggested from its battered appearance, that it may have remained for some 
time on the surface of the ground before being embedded in the clay, or may 
have been washed out of an earlier deposit and re-buried. A few antlers and 
bones of the red deer, together with bones of the horse and undetermined 
cetaceans, are likewise recorded by Mr. Morton from Bootle ; and the same 
writer states that a horn-core of the aurochs has been obtained from this 
neighbourhood. The latter specimen was exhibited to the Zoological Society 
by Mr. J. G. Millais in April, 1905. Recently Prof. W. B. Dawkins 
(Mem. Manchester Lit. Soc. 1 904) has described remains of the straight-tusked 
elephant (Elephas antiquus] from Blackpool. 

From Prehistoric and Pleistocene deposits to the Keuper, or upper 
division of the Trias, is a long leap, but intermediate formations are lacking 
in the county. As regards the Keuper and the other divisions of the Trias, 
vertebrate fossils are represented solely by footprints of the primeval salamander 
known as Chirosaurus (otherwise Chirotherium) and perhaps also of the 
reptile Rhynchosaurus of the Trias of Shropshire. The great majority of 
these footprints are met with in one particular horizon at Storeton and other 
localities in the Wirral peninsula on the Cheshire side of the river, but, 
according to Mr. Morton, 1 specimens of both types were discovered many 
years ago by Mr. A. Higginson in a quarry, long since buried, where now 
stands Rathbone Street, at the corner of Washington Street, in the city of 
Liverpool itself. A report on these tracks has been recently drawn up by 
Mr. H. C. Beasley, 2 who has also figured 8 the type specimen of C. herculis 
from Cheshire. 

The next and only other formation from which vertebrate fossils appear 
to have been recorded within the limits of the county is the Carboniferous, 
which has yielded evidence of two kinds of labyrinthodont amphibians, and 
also a considerable number of fish-remains from all the three divisions of the 
Coal Measures. Information with regard to these fish-remains from the 
neighbourhood of Prescot and St. Helens will be found in Mr. Morton's 
book* and likewise in Dr. A. Smith Woodward's invaluable Catalogue of 
Fossil Fishes in the British Museum. Of the Carboniferous fishes of the Little- 
borough district Mr. E. D. Wellburn 6 has drawn up a careful list. All the 
specimens from the latter district, it may be mentioned, are from the Lower 
Coal Measures. Finally, Mr. H. Bolton, 6 in 1875, published a synopsis of 
all the known fish-remains from the county, which embraced thirty-seven 
species, arranged in twenty-three genera, to which he added another in the 
following year. Since the present article was in type Mr. Bolton has published 
(Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc. vol. xxviii. pts. 19 and 20) a new and revised 
list of the Carboniferous fish-fauna of the county. 

The most interesting Lancashire vertebrate fossil is undoubtedly 
Hylonomus wildi, a representative of that group of small labyrinthodont or 

1 Op. cit. no. 2 Rep. Brit. Assoc. for 1903 (1904). 

3 Pnc. Liverpool Geol. Soc. xlii. 81 (1901). * Pp. 48-55. 

5 Pnc. Torks. Geol. and Poly t. Soc. xiii. 419-430. 6 Trans. Manchester Mic'r. Soc. 1895, 13 pp. 2 pl. 

32 



PALEONTOLOGY 

stegocephalian amphibians known as Microsauri. It was described by 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward in the Geological Magazine for 1891 (p. 211), and 
belongs to a genus of which the first known specimens were collected by the 
late Sir William Dawson from hollow Lepidodendron trunks in the Nova 
Scotian Coal Measures. Of that genus it is the only known British repre- 
sentative. 

The second and more typical Lancashire labyrinthodont, which was 
obtained by Mr. Wild in the Middle Coal Measures of the Bardsley Colliery, 
is at present undescribed. It is regarded by Mr. Bolton as probably referable 
to the Carboniferous and Permian genus Archegosaurus. 

Passing on to the Coal Measure fishes, and commencing with those 
primitive Palaeozoic sharks known as Ichthyotomi, the first specimen to record 
is a spine from the Lower Foot Mine at Littleborough, identified by 
Mr. Wellburn with Pleuracantbus cylindricus^ a species known elsewhere from 
the Coal Measures of Scotland, Northumberland, Yorkshire, and Staffordshire. 
Mr. Bolton includes in his lists P. lavissimus, P. undulatus, P. erectus, and 
P. denticulatus ; the first of these is a good species, but the second is a synonym 
of the first, and the other two are founded on spines. The allied genus 
Diplodus is represented in the county by two species, D. gibbosus and D. tenuis, 
of which the first alone is recorded from Littleborough ; D. tenuis has a distri- 
bution very similar to that of Pleuracanthus cyclindricus, but D. gibbosus is not 
known to occur in Scotland. Among the more typical sharks, the Palaeozoic 
family of Petalodontidae, characterized among other features by the pavement- 
like dentition of a peculiar type, is represented by several species in the Car- 
boniferous of the county. Firstly, we have Ctenoptychius apicalis, typically 
from Staffordshire, recorded by Dr. Smith Woodward as a Lancashire fish ; 
while Mr. Bolton mentions a second species, C. lobatus, typically from Scotland. 
Mr. Wellburn includes in his Littleborough list a member of another genus, 
Callopristodus pectinatus, first described from the Scottish coal-fields. To another 
family of Palaeozoic sharks, the GochKodontidai, whose nearest relationships are 
probably with the Port Jackson sharks (Gestraciontula), belongs Pleuroplax 
ranking of which remains are recorded from Littleborough, the species having 
a wide distribution in Britain. The Northumberland species P. attheyi appears 
in Mr. Bolton's list. Next on our list comes a species of the genus Sphenacan- 
tbus (belonging to the family Cestraciontidce), which Mr. Wellburn considered 
might be new ; it is represented by a spine from the Lower Foot Mine of the 
Littleborough district, said to be unlike any hitherto described. Mr. Bolton's 
Lancashire list includes, however, only the widely distributed S. hybodoides. 
Certain other specimens from the Littleborough district are of the type of 
those to which the ill-defined name Stemmatodus has been applied, such speci- 
mens being probably dermal ossifications belonging to Pleuracanthus or one of 
the allied genera. The imperfectly-known genus Tristychius or Petrodus is 
represented in the Yoredale rocks near Todmorden. A single spine from the 
Littleborough district is assigned to Acanthodes wardi, a species typically from 
Staffordshire belonging to an altogether peculiar group of Palaeozoic sharks 
collectively known as Acanthodii ; remains of the same genus are recorded by 
Mr. Morton from St. Helens, and the species occurs in Mr. Bolton's list. 
Following this come two representatives of the lung-fishes, or Dipnoi, belong- 
ing to the extinct genus Ctenodus, which takes its name from the somewhat 

1 33 5 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

comb-like structure of the palatal teeth. The first species, C. murc&isoni, is 
common to the upper Coal Measures of Shropshire and Lancashire and to the 
middle Coal Measures of Staffordshire ; while the second, C. cristatus, is widely 
distributed. Sagenodus incequalis, which has an equally wide range, appears 
in Mr. Bolton's list, where the fish known as Hybodopsis tvardi is likewise 
recorded as a Lancashire species. 

The great group of fringe-finned enamel-scaled fishes, of which the 
African bichirs and reed-fish are the sole survivors, are represented in the county 
by an undetermined species of Rhizodopsis recorded by Mr. Wellburn from the 
Littleborough district, and also by scales from Pendleton and the Victoria 
pit which have been identified with R. sauroides. The large and well-known 
Megalichthys hibberti^ of which the remains occur in all the British coal-fields, 
is common to the Lancashire area, as are also the species known as M. inter- 
medius and M. pygmaus, which appear in Mr. Bolton's list. Teeth and scales 
of this genus are also recorded from St. Helens. Very widely spread is a 
species, Ccelacanthus e/egans, of another genus of the same group, which is 
common to the Coal Measures of North America and Great Britain, and of 
which remains have been recorded from Lancashire. Bones and teeth of a 
second representative of the same genus from the St. Helens neighbourhood 
are identified with C. lepturus. 

Of fish-spines or ' ichthyodorulites ' of uncertain systematic position from 
the Coal Measures of the county, Mr. Bolton records the types respectively 
known as Gyracanthus formosus, Oracanthus milleri, and Lepracantbus colei. In 
the Geological Magazine for 1896 the same gentleman describes a fish-spine 
from the county which, under the name of L. spinatus, he identifies with the 
American generic type Listr acanthus. 

Leaving the fringe-finned group for that section of the enamel-scaled 
series in which the fins are of a more ordinary type of structure, we find the 
great Palaeozoic family P alceonucidae represented in the Coal Measures of the 
county by three species of the genus Elonicbthys, namely E. aitkeni, E. semistria- 
tus, and E. egertoni, all of which occur in the Littleborough district, while the 
genus is also recorded in Mr. Morton's list from the Victoria pit in the St. 
Helens neighbourhood. The first named species is typically a Lancashire 
fish. In addition to these we have from the Littleborough district another 
member of the family in question, Rbadinichtbys monensis, a species typically 
from Anglesea belonging to a genus with numerous representatives. A scale 
of Rhadinicbtbys is also recorded by Mr. Morton from the Victoria pit ; and 
Mr. Bolton includes in his list the two species known as R. wardi and R. 
planti, the latter being typically from the present county, 1 while the former 
was described on the evidence of Staffordshire specimens. 

Lastly, Acrolepis hopkinsi, which occurs at Littleborough, belongs to 
a large genus, and is common to the Carboniferous of Derbyshire, Yorkshire, 
Lanarkshire, and Belgium. 

The remaining fishes recorded from the Coal Measures of the county are 
mostly referable to the family Platysomatida^ the members of which are readily 
distinguishable from the Palaoniscida by the much deeper and more rhomboi- 
dal form of the body. Among these Cbirodus granu/osus, which is not included 
in the Littleborough list, is recorded elsewhere from Staffordshire and Lanark- 

1 Traquair, Gfol. Mag. (3) v. 253 (1888). 
34 



PALEONTOLOGY 

shire. The second species, Platysomus parvulus, which is common to the 
Littleborough and St. Helens districts, and is also widely distributed in the 
north of England and Scotland, is a member of the type genus. A second 
representative of the same genus, P. forsteri, is included in Mr. Morton's list 
from the Victoria pit. 

At the close of his list of the species from the latter locality Mr. Morton 
adds the following note : 

' The genera Ccelacanthus, Ctenoptychius, Diplopterus, Gyrolepis, Holoptychius, 
Megalichthys, and Platysomus, have been recorded from various localities in 
south-west Lancashire, but since Mr. William Peace, of Wigan, collected fish- 
remains associated with the cannel coal of that place, fifty years ago, so little 
has been done that the list requires revision.' 

From the Millstone Grit of the county Mr. Wellburn 1 has recorded 
the following fishes, viz. : Pristodus falcatus, Psephodus, sp. Pcecilodus jonesi, 
Orodus elongatus, Helodus, sp. Acanthodes ivardi, Climatius, sp. Euctenodopsis 
(gen. nov.), Acondylacanthus, sp. Ccelacanthus,yp.Rhadinichthys, spp. Elonichthys 
aitkeni, and Acrolepis hopkinsi. 



ADDENDUM 

The following species of Carboniferous fishes appear in Mr. Bolton's 
list of 1905 in addition to those above-mentioned, viz. : Pleuracanthus alatus, 
P. cylindricus, P. serrafus, Helodus simplex, Psephodus magnus, Sphenacanthus 
hybodoides, Hoplonchus elegans, Gyracanthus formosus, Euctenius unilateral!*, 
Ctenodus cristatus, Strep Sodus saur aides, S. sulcidens, Elonichthys striatus, and 
Mesolepis scalaris. 

1 Geol. Mag. (4), viii. 216 (1901). 



35 



BOTANY 



FOR the purposes of Topographical Botany Lancashire was divided 
by Mr. H. C. Watson into three vice-counties, namely, V.C. 59, 
South Lancashire ; 60, West Lancashire ; and 69, Lake Lanca- 
shire. This last vice-county, however, was combined with West- 
morland, but for this article only that part of Watson's vice-county which 
lies within the boundaries of the county of Lancaster is treated of. 

V.C. 59. Lancashire South is all the county north of the Mersey and 
south of the Ribble. Its flora, as regards flowering plants and mosses, is 
about as well known as any tract of land of similar size in Britain. The 
density of its population is only exceeded by that of Middlesex, and therefore 
great changes have taken place in its plant life during the past century. 
Some of the more interesting plants have disappeared from the mosses through 
drainage and the rapid spread of the towns. There are one or two cloughs in 
the east which afford a home for a few uncommon plants, and the sand- 
dunes of the coast have lost few of the rare plants which have been known to 
grow more or less abundantly there for over a century. The highest ground 
in this vice-county is Pendle Hill, 1831 feet, in the north-eastern corner near 
Clitheroe, a striking feature in the landscape when seen from the main line 
of the Midland Railway at Hellifield, as it is also from the other side from 
various standpoints. The summit of this hill is just above the superagrarian 
zone of Watson, and is the only land in this vice-county within the inferarctic 
zone. All the eastern side of the vice-county is hilly, but the rest is very little 
above sea level in any part. There are no rivers of importance within its 
boundaries. The geology is uniform and of no special interest to the botanist. 
The great port of Liverpool accounts for a considerable alien flora, propagated 
by seeds in ballast and in other ways common to all great seaports. Many 
of these seeds are very small and are easily blown by the wind from quays 
and wharves on to the banks of estuary and canal. Some few of these are 
spreading, but the majority only flower once and then disappear. Some of 
the larger seeds fall in the water, and are thrown up later amongst the dredg- 
ings, and soon produce flowers when the conditions are favourable. Almost 
all these aliens are annual or biennial. This extensive alien flora makes up in 
a measure for the loss of the few rare natives. Few districts have been so 
thoroughly and carefully worked by such a number of able bryologists 
during the last sixty years, therefore it is not likely that many additions will 
be made to the moss flora in the future. Little or nothing has been done 
with the fungi, 1 the alga? have been neglected, 1 and the lichens have only 
recently had any attention. No attempt has been made to study the myce- 
tozoa of any part of the county as far as is known. 1 The student need not 
therefore travel far for material of interest and importance. There is no 
published flora of this vice-county. There are, however, several local floras 

1 Thus comparing very unfavourably with the county of York. 
37 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

which taken together furnish a good deal of information. These are the 
floras of Manchester, Liverpool, and Ashton districts, each and all covering an 
area beyond the county border, so that unusual care has been necessary in 
writing this article to avoid errors, because the county is not mentioned in a 
great number of cases. This vice-county is remarkable amongst other things 
for the number and excellence of its artisan botanists who lived during the 
past century. 

V.C. 60. Lancashire West. The Kibble divides this from V.C. 59. It 
is all on the east side of Morecambe Bay, has Yorkshire on its eastern 
boundary, and Westmorland on its northern. Excepting the greater height 
of its fells and moorland it is not different to South Lancashire to any great 
extent. Its flora is more montane. Greygarth Fell, in the extreme north- 
east corner, is the highest ground (2050 feet). Just outside this county this 
same fell rises some 200 feet more. Several uncommon montane plants grow 
here, but it is not quite so rich in upland forms as some of the neighbouring 
fells outside the county. 

A number of uncommon plants grow in the cloughs and on the moor- 
land fells to the south of Greygarth. This vice-county was one of the least 
known, botanically, until the last decade, when Messrs. Wheldon and Wilson 
determined to make it their special study. Thanks to their enthusiasm and 
zeal it is now quite as well known as any county. It must be remembered, 
too, that many of the localities lie far away from a railway. The two 
botanists named above have in progress a flora of West Lancashire. There 
is a great deal yet to be done as regards the algs, fungi, and mycetozoa. 

The chief river is the Lune. It rises in Ravenstonedale, in Westmor- 
land, running northwards, then westwards it receives numerous becks, full 
of trout. Turning to the south, past Tebay, it separates Westmorland from 
Yorkshire; and just below Sedbergh (i m.) it receives a considerable trout 
stream, the Rawthey, which rises on West Baugh Fell, and is mainly a 
Yorkshire river. The Lune runs to Middleton, with Rigmaden on the other 
bank, where is the well-known trout fishery. Three miles down, Barbon 
Beck joins the Lune on the right bank. After passing through the beautiful 
park and grounds of Underley, the Lune passes Kirkby Lonsdale, entering 
Lancashire a quarter of a mile below the bridge. Two miles down it receives 
Leek Beck, and between Thurland Castle and Arkholme it is joined by the 
Greta. The Lune then runs to Melling and Hornby, where the Wenning 
meets it on the left bank after its junction with the Hindburn river, which 
is formed of three considerable becks. Passing Caton and Halton, receiving 
three small becks, the Lune runs to Lancaster. Up to this point the river is 
remarkable for the purity of its water, but below Lancaster the state of the 
river is most unsatisfactory. 

This vice-county may be divided into three main divisions, as suggested 
by Messrs. Wheldon and Wilson : 

i . North Division. Separated from remainder of vice-county by the 
Lune as far as its junction with the Wenning, beyond which this tributary 
forms the line of demarcation to the Yorkshire boundary. Carboniferous 
limestone, Yoredale series, Millstone grit, with small tracts of Upper Silurian, 
Coal measures, and Permian sandstone are represented here. The coast line 
consists of alternations of sandy shore, muddy salt-marshes, and rocky cliffs. 

38 



BOTANY 

Compared with South Lancashire or any other division of West Lancashire 
this is the most interesting botanical district. It is more varied geologically 
than the other parts, and its numerous woods, scars, and crags, its hills and 
glens, its tarns, limestone pavements, and ' pot holes ' are the homes of many 
uncommon plants. The highest ground is 2,050 feet. 

2. East Division. Consists of elevated, bleak and barren moorlands, 
intersected by deep wooded glens or cloughs, each with its stream of sparkling 
water derived from extensive spongy peat-beds, which are fed by frequent 
rains and cloud fog. The remainder of this division is less interesting, 
consisting of upland pastures with some low land on the banks of the rivers. 
The strata are almost entirely composed of the Yoredale series (grits and 
calcareous shales) and Millstone grit. The highest ground is Wardstone 
(1,83 6 feet). There are only small patches of limestone near Chipping and 
Whitewell. 

3. West Division presents a marked contrast to those already dealt with. 
It consists of a nearly level plain, termed the Fylde (or garden) lying between 
the estuaries of the Lune and Ribble, and intersected about midway by the 
Wyre. Its highest ground is not anywhere more than 130 feet, and usually 
only from 25 to 60 feet. 

The shale consists principally of Permian sandstone and Triassic marl, 
generally overlaid with glacial drift, and in the northern and central portions 
are the scanty remains of what was formerly an immense peat-moss. This 
has been extensively reclaimed and the greater part of this division is 
now highly cultivated. The coast-line exhibits muddy salt marshes and sand- 
dunes resembling those of South Lancashire (V.C. 59) and Cheshire (V.C. 58). 
These aboriginal features are rapidly disappearing before the operations of the 
builder and agriculturist and the extension of foreshore improvements by 
various watering places. To the north of Blackpool are low cliffs of glacial 
drift. The more interesting plants are those of the dunes, salt-marshes, and 
peat-mosses. 

V.C. 69. Lake Lancashire (without Westmorland), all the county 
north of Morecambe Bay. On the west it is separated from Cumberland by 
the Duddon, the same river and the Brathay and part of Elter Water are its 
northern boundary, dividing it from Cumberland and Westmorland, thence 
the boundary southwards is along the west shore of Windermere, then up the 
east shore for four miles. It then turns eastwards for a mile and a half, and 
then southwards, following the river Winster to Lindale, crossing the river 
twice. The boundary runs south to Morecambe Bay, a mile to the east of 
Grange, and half a mile to the west of the Winster mouth, having Westmor- 
land all along its eastern border. Walney Isle on the south-west, opposite 
Barrow, is included in this vice-county. This part of Lancashire is almost an 
island, the two rivers Duddon and Brathay rising near the three-shire stone. 

The highest ground is Coniston Old Man, 2,633 feet. Two of the 
Seathwaite fells are over 2,500 feet. All the fells about Coniston, from the 
northern boundary of the vice-county to Broughton and Waterhead, are 
composed of middle slates; there are no exposures of granite as in Cumberland 
(Skiddaw, etc.) . The south-eastern boundary of these slates is marked by a variable 
band of limestone (only partially calcareous), dark in colour and intermingled 
with beds of shale. These rocks belong to the Lower Silurian system. To 

39 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

the Upper Silurian belong the Coniston grits (flags and greywacke) and 
Coniston flags. The Mountain limestone is abundantly exposed near 
Ulverston, Conishead, and Grange, near which is the precipitous headland 
known as Humphrey Head, long known to botanists. Rocks of Permian 
age occur near Dalton-in-Furness, passing north-westwards along the coast of 
Cumberland, and south-eastwards across Morecambe Bay to near Lancaster 
in V.C. 60. 

The flora of this vice-county is somewhat different to that of the other 
two, owing to the great mass of slate which rises some 500 feet above that of 
the highest ground of the other two vice-counties. It is not however richer 
in forms. The plants of this slate region are like those of the lake 
mountains, but a number of the rarer plants of Cumberland are wanting in 
this vice-county. It is less varied geologically and of much smaller size than 
Cumberland, which has ground rising to over 500 feet beyond that of the 
highest point in Lake Lancashire, and also has considerable exposures of 
granite. The limestone tract is of much interest, as a considerable proportion 
of the plants which are more or less peculiar to that formation in west and north 
central England and Wales are to be found. The flowering plants of this 
portion of the county are well known, but the cryptogams have been 
neglected. The woods along the shores of Windermere will furnish a very 
large fungus-flora, and a wide and beautiful field is open to the student. 

This vice-county is about 25 m. from N. to S. and 13 from E. to W. 
Besides the rivers already mentioned as forming boundaries there is the Crake, 
also lakes Coniston Water, Esthwaite Water, Blelham Tarn, Tarn Hows Tarn, 
Levers Water, Goats Water, Low Water, and Seathwaite Tarn. 

LIST OF WORKS RELATING TO THE LANCASHIRE FLORA 

The works here enumerated refer to either one of the three divisions or vice-counties or to 
some portion of them, or contain more or less frequent references to localities for plants found in 
the county. 

Gerard, J., The Herbal!, 1597 Luxford, G., The Phytologist (old ser.), 1841-8 

The Herbal! (cA. by T. Johnson), 1633 Jopling, Furness and Cartmel, Ulverston. Plants: 
Merrett, C., Pittax, 1 666 Furness by Aiton ; Cartmel by Wilson, W., 1 843 
Ray, J., Catalogus Plantarum Anglite (ed. l), 1670 Buxton, R., Botanical Guide to Manchester, Flowering 

Catalogs Plantarum AngRee (ed. 2), 1677 Plants, Ferns, Mosses, and Algae found in- 

Synofsis Methodlca Stirfium Britannica (ed. i), 1690 digenous within 16 miles of Manchester. 

Synopsis Methodica Stirpium Britannica (ed. 2), 1696 Quoted in this article as Buxton's G., 1849 
Synopsis Methodlca Stirpium Britannica (ed. 3, Newman, The Phytologist, 1849-1854 

Dillenius), 1724 Dickinson, Dr. J., The Flora of Liverpool, 1851 



Wilson, John, A Synopsis of British Plants on J. Ray's The Flora of Liverpool Supplement (Mosses), 1855 

Method, 1 744 Marratt, F. P., ' Mosses of Liverpool and Southport,' 

Hudson, W., Flora Anglica, \ 762 in Phytologist. This contains Dr. J. B. Woods' 



Withering, W., Botanical Arrangement (ed. l), 1776 ' Bryology of Southport,' 1855 

Botanical Arrangement (ed. 2, J. Stokes), 1787; Wilson, Wm., Bryologia Britannica (ed. 3), 1855 

and later editions down to (ed. 7) 1830 Irvine, The Phytologist (new ser.), 1855-1863 

Turner and Dillwyn, Botanists' Guide, 1805 Linton, W. J., The Lake Country, 1864 

Smith, Sir J. E., Engl. Flora (1824-8) and vol. v., Ferns of the Lake Country (ed. 2), 1878 

pt. i. by W. J. Hooker Aspland, L., Guide to Grange. Plants by A. Mason 
Watson, Hewitt CoKerd, New Botanical Guide, 1835-7 and L. Aspland, 1869 

Cybele Britannica, 18471852 Liverpool Nat. Field Club, Flora of Liverpool, 1872 

Compendium of the Cybele, 1870 Linton, Rev. E. F., Catalogue of Plants of West Lanca- 

Topographical Botany (ed. i), 1873 shire in Botanical Locality Rec. Club, 1874 

Topographical Botany (ed. z, Baker and Newbould), Hodgson, Miss E., 'Flora of North or Lake Lanca- 

1883 shire,' in Journal of Botany, 1874 

Hall, T. B., A Flora of Liverpool, 1839 B ^er, John Gilbert, F.R.S., Flora of English Lake 
Wood, J. B., Flora Mancuniensis, 1840 District, 1885 

40 



BOTANY 



Cash, James, 'The Early Botanical Work of the late 
Will. Wilson,' in the Naturaftst, 1887 

Whitehcad, John, ' Mosses of Ashton-under-Lyne 
District,' in the Naturalist, March and April, 
pp. 85-100. The District Flora, or Flora of 
Ashton - under - Lyne. Mosses by Whitehead, 
Hepatics by G. A. Holt, 1886 

Martindale, J. A., The Westmorland Note Book, 1888-9 

Gerard, J., and Newdigate, C. A., Flora of Stonyhurst 
District (ed. 2), 1891 

Petty, L., ' Plants of Leek,' in Naturalist, 1893 

' Constituents of the North Lancashire Flora,' in 

Naturalist, with complete Bibliography and 
interesting Biographical foot-notes, 1894 

'Plants of Silverdale,' in the Naturalist, 1902 
Wheldon, J. A., 'The Mosses of South Lancashire,' 

in Journal of Botany, April 1898 

' The Mosses of South Lancashire ' in Journal of 

Botany, January, 1899 

' West Lancashire Flora Notes,' in Naturalist, 

1900 

' Mosses of the Mersey Province,' in Naturalist, 

1900 

The North of England Harpidia (after Renauld) 

contains numerous Lancashire localities, 1902 



Wheldon, J. A., The Southport Handbook for the British 
Association, 'Mosses and Hepatics,' 1903 

Various papers in the Naturalist, 1903 

and Wilson, Albert, 'The Mosses of West Lan- 

cashire (Hepatics), in Journal of Botany, \ 899, 
1901, 1902 

'Add. to the Flora of West Lancashire,' in 

Journal of Botany, 1900-1-2 

' Notes on the Flora of Over Wyresdale,' Naturalist, 

1901 

' Kantia submersa in Britain,' in Journal of Botany, 

1903 
Rogers, Rev. W. Moyle, M.A., Handbook of British 

Rubi, 1900 
Horrell, E. Chas., 'The European Sphagnaceae,' in 

Journal of Botany, 1901 
Bennett, Arthur, various papers in the Naturalist, 

Journal of Botany, Botanical Exch. Club Reports, 

etc., down to 1902 
Batters, E. A. L., LL.B., 'Catalogue of Marine 

Algae,' in Journal of Botany Supplement, 1902 
Green, C. T., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., etc., The Flora of 

Liverpool District (edited for the Liverpool 

Nat. Field Club), 1902 
Pearson, W. H., British Hepatic* 



SHORT PAPERS AND REFERENCES TO LANCASHIRE PLANTS 



Sidgwick, N. V., in the Naturalist, 1894, p. 49 

Stabler, George, in the Naturalist, 1896-7 

Lees, F. A., M.R.C.S., etc., in the Naturalist, 1897, 

p. 127 ; 1899, p. 299 ; 1900, p. 5, etc. 
Henry, John, in the Naturalist, 1897, pp. 127, 339 
Hamilton, W. P., in the Naturalist, 1898, p. 28 
Petty, L., in the Naturalist, 1899, p. 330; 1898, 

p. 258 ; 1903, p. 84 



Friend, Rev. H., in the Naturalist, June, 1901 
Kirkby, Wm., in the Naturalist, 1902, p. 316 
Bailey, Charles, F.L.S., Botany of Manchester District 
for British Association, 1887 

Numerous records in Botanical Exch. Club Reports 

Numerous records in Journal of Botany 

Dixon, H. N., M.A., F.L.S., in Journal of Botany, 
September, 1 899 



The herbarium of the British Museum contains many Lancashire plants. Recently it has 
been enriched by the purchase of Mr. W. H. Pearson's valuable and extensive collection of 
Hepaticae. It would be impossible to enumerate all the local herbaria, although some are of 
much value. The herbaria of Bicheno and Motley at Swansea contain plants found in Lanca- 
shire, as stated in the Naturalist for November, 1902. There are very few plants of any value 
in them, and some are more than doubtful. A few important plants are in the museum at York. 



The writer has left the most pleasant task for his last remarks. He 
has received considerable help from several well-known botanists. First and 
foremost, his most cordial and sincere thanks are due to Mr. J. A. Wheldon 
of Liverpool for the loan of his papers, books with marginal and foot-notes, 
for reading and correcting manuscript, and for useful suggestions, which have 
always been done without the least delay. 

To Mr. Albert Wilson for his MS. of Lake Lancashire mosses, and for 
help in other ways. To Mr. Arthur Bennett for a list of the Naidacese 
and Characes of the county, examples of which plants in his collection from 
Lancashire are marked thus ! in this article ; also for help in other ways. To 
Mr. E. C. Horrell for his help with Sphagna. To Mr. Symers M. Mac- 
vicar for opinion on Hepatica?. To Mr. J. Cosmo-Melvill, M.A. (who 
kindly searched in vain for further records of Alga?), for much help in various 
ways. To Professor Carr, M.A., etc., for the loan of books, and the use of his 
extensive library. To Mr. William West of Bradford. To the Rev. W. 
i 41 6 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

W. Mason for a MS. list of flowering plants from all the three vice-counties. 
To Mr. C. Crossland for much help with fungi, and to Mr. J. A. Martindale 
for help with lichens. 

N.B. The writer wishes it to be clearly understood that the com- 
monest of British flowering plants and mosses, including hepatics, are not 
enumerated. This was unavoidable. 



EXPLANATION OF SIGNS 

t signifies possibly introduced, * probably or cer- 
tainly introduced in the county, and -f- more than 
three stations known, ' r. r.' is an abreviation for ' very 
rare.' 

A full stop after a locality signifies that the writer 
has gathered the plant there. Otherwise the name 
of finder is given. 

CLASS I. PH^NOGAMIA 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES 
Order I. Ranunculaceet 

*Clematis Vitalba, L. [59] 69. Limestone 
rocks near top of Yewbarrow-over- 
Grange, etc. ; J. G. Baker, W. Fog- 
gitt, F. Clowes 

Thalictrum dunense, Dumort. 69. Walney, 
J. Lawson. Ray, Fascic, 1688. Ch. 
Bailey, 1872. Journ. of Sot. p. 61. 
60. Lytham, Ashfield 

minus, L. Aggreg. incl. T. majus. 59 

and 60. Top. Bot. 69. Linton and 
Miss Hodgson 

collinum, Wallr. 60. Da/ten Crag, Sydney 

Wilson with Wheldon and A. Wilson. 
(6.1899.) This should be abundant 
on the limestone of 60 and 69, but 
Mr. Wheldon says it is not 

majus, Crantz. 69. See Baker's flora, 

1885, p. 1 6, and Petty's Consti- 
tuents 

Ranunculus circinatus, Sibth. 59. Canal near 
Ford; Wheldon. +. nr. Liverpool, 
Green's F/. Little Crosby, Rev. 
W. W. Mason. 60. Canal nr. Lan- 
caster, Wheldon. 69. Nr. Hum- 
phrey Head; H. T. Soppitt 

fluitans, Lam. 59. ' Dugdale,' Top. Bot. 

60. In Ribble; Fl. Stony hurst 

Drouetii, Godr. 59. F. M. Webb, MS. 

Top. Bot. Nr. Great Crosby; Green's 
Fl. A bear; Wheldon. 60. Top. 
Bot. Nr. Arnside Tower, but in 
Lane.; C. Bailey. Ponds at Win- 
marleigh; W. and W. (not typical, 
Groves) 

heterophyllus, Web ex p. 59. Common ; 

Green's Fl. 60. Nr. Morecambe; 
Wheldon. 69. Urstoick Tan; 
Plumpton; Miss Hodgson 
var. submersus (Hiern). 60. Between 
Silverdale and Arnside ; C. Bailey 

peltatus, Schrunk. Aggreg. incl. flori- 

bundus, etc. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 
Webb. Common, Green's Fl. Nr. 
Oldham; Whitehead, Wheldon. +. 
60. Top. Bot. Hiern. + 



CLASS I. PH^NOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order I. Ranunculacete (continued) 

Ranunculus diversifolius, H. C. Wats. 59. 
Ditches at Lydiate; Wheldon 

Baudotii, Godr. 59. Top. Bot. Nr. Old 

Formby Church; J. H. Lewis. 60. 
Hiern. Top. Bot. St. Anne's ; Pres- 
ton to Hey sham Peninsula ; W. and W. 
var. confusus (Godr.). 69. In Winder- 
mere ; Hiern. Baker's Fl. 

Lenormandi, F. Schultz. 59. Top. Bot. 

Goodlad, sp. Oldham; Whitehead, 
Wheldon. Ashtm Moss; White- 
legge. Liverpool district ; Green's 
Fl. 60. Hiern Hb. Top. Bot. O. 
Wyreidale;+. W. and W. 69. 
Coniston ; J. Backhouse, Junr. See 
Phytol.il. 467(1846) 

Lingua, L. 59. Tudor MS. Top. Bot. 

Liverpool district ; Green's Fl. Little 
Crosby; Hightown ; Wheldon. 69. 
Hawkshead ; Derham, 1718. Baker's 
Fl. + 

auricomus, L. 59. Goodlad Hb. Top. 

Bot. Liverpool district ; Green's Fl. 
Reddish; Whitehead. Buxton's G. 
p. 74. 60. Simpson, sp. Top. Bot. 
Silverdale ; A. Wilson. +. 69. Petty's 
Constit. + 

acer, L. var. tomophyllus (Jord). 60. 

Silverdale; + ; W. and W. 
var. Boreanus (Jord.). 59. +. 60. +. 

Wheldon 
var. rectus, Bor. 60. Caton ; + ; W. 

andW. 

sardous, Crantz. 59. Top. Bot. Liverpool 

distr. ; Green's Fl. Nr. Leigh; 
Buxton's G. 60. Boswell ms. Top. 
Bot. 69. Barrow ; J. Henry, + ; 
Petty's Constit. 

parviflorus, L. 59. Top. Bot. Crosby; 

Bootle; Withering. No modern 

record 
Caltha palustris, L. var. minor, Syme. [59. 

Speke ; T. Gibson. Green's Fl.} 60. 

Graveffi C lough ; Tambrook Fell; 

W. and W. 69. Seathtvaite Tarn; 

Walna Scar; Miss Hodgson 
Trollius europxus, L. In most places of 

Yorkshire and Lancashire. Gerard, 

Herball, 1597, p. 809, and first as 

British. 59. Goodlad Hb., Tap. 

Bot. Thornham ; Pilsworth ; R. Bux- 

ton in Whitehead's Fl. About Bol- 

ton ; Buxton's G. p. 75. 60. +. 

A. Wilson. 69. Plentiful, frequently 

reported since 1 796 



BOTANY 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 



SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order I. Ranunculacea (continued) 

*Helleborus viridis, L. 60. Top. Hot. ' na- 
tive.' Silverdale, ' native.' A. Wil- 
son. 69. Nr. Grange ; Miss Hodg- 
son and others 

* foetidus, L. 60. Gatebarrow Wood, near 
Silverdale ; ' where it is perhaps 
native,' A. Wilson. Barton nr. Pres- 
ton ; H. Beesley (Denizen, Ar. Ben- 
nett, Wheldon) 

Aquilegia vulgaris, L. t59- Green's Fl. and 
Buxton's G. 60.* Hiern MS. 
Top. Bot. Silverdale, 1864, abun- 
dant, C. J. Ashfield. Rev. W. W. 
Mason, 1902. Wheldon and Wil- 
son. + . 69. Frequent, and re- 
peatedly recorded since 1843 

Actsea spicata, L. 60. Pot-hole, Leek Fell, 
1888 ; A.Wilson 

//. Berberidex 

Berberis vulgaris, L. 59. Top. Bot. *Dick- 
inson's Fl. Knotvsley ; + ; ' ? na- 
tive or denizen,' Green's FL 60. 
Silverdale ; A. Wilson. 69. ' Doubt- 
fully wild,' Miss Hodgson. ' Seems 
planted,' Petty, Constit. 

[Epimedium alpinum, L. 69. Alien. Miss 
Burton, Petty in Naturalist, December 
1898] 

HLNymftuface* 

Nymphsea lutea, L. 59. 60. 69. 

Castalia speciosa, Salisb. 59. F. M. Webb. 

cat. Top. Bot. ; Green's Fl. ; Buxton's 

G. p. 71. Aintree ; Wheldon. 60. 

Top. Bot. Linton cat. ; Havies Water ; 

Jenkinson 1775. Still there, Petty, 

1893 (A. Wilson 1904. +). 69. 

Not unfrequent ; Baker's Fl., p. 245. 

and others 

iy.Papaverace<e 

tPapaver Argemone, L. 59. F. M. Webb. cat. 
Top. Bot. Buxton's G. p. 70. 
Whitehead's Fl. 'colonist.' 60. 
Cornfield, St. Anne's; 1898. Whel- 
don. 69. Furness, etc. Evans and 
others. ; Petty's Constit. 

dubium, L. a. Lamottei (Bor.). 59. Com- 
mon, Green's Fl. +. b. Lecoqii 
(Lamotte). 59. Green's FL 69. C. 
C. Babington ex Newbould 

t hybridum, L. 59. Top. Bot. Exch. Club, 
sp. 

Meconopsis cambrica (L.) Vig. 69. Re- 
peatedly recorded since Withering's 
time, 1787 ; 'Nearly every hamlet 
in High Furnessj Miss Hodgson. 
Baker's Fl. 1885; shores of Es- 
thwaite Water and Windermere, ' truly 
wild,' Mr. and Mrs. Hill ; Petty's 
Constit. ; ' Possibly wild in West- 
morland,' H. C. Watson. By this 
he would mean Lake Lancashire also, 
as he treated the latter as part of 
Westmorland. See also Smith's 
Engl. Fl. 1825, vol. iii. p. 12 



CLASS L PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order IV. Papaverace<t (continued) 

Glaucium flavum, Crantz. 59. Top. Bot. 
Not seen lately ; Green's Fl. 60. 
Top. Bot. Syme sp. 69. Re- 
peatedly recorded since Withering's 
1787 record. Abundant in places, 
Petty's Constit. 

V. Fumariacet? 

Capnoides daviculata (DC). 59. Top. Bot. 
Goodlad Hb. Crosby ; + ; Green's 
Fl. Ashtm; + ; Whitehead's FL 
Chorlton ; + ; Buxton's G. 60. 
Top. Bot. Linton rec. 69. Not 
uncommon, Petty's Constit. 

Fumaria pallidiflora, Jord. 59. Top. Bot. 
Ormskirk ; Green's F I. ; Chorlton ; 
+ ; Buxton G. Ford ; Wheldon. 
60. Carr. rec. Top. Bot. 69. Fhok- 
borough; Rev. W. W. Mason 

Boraei, Jord. 59. R. Brown, Top. Bot. + ; 

Aintree; + ; Wheldon. 60. Pree- 
sall; Wheldon. Silverdale; A. 
Wilson. Nr. Little Eccleston, 1895 ; 
Rev. E. S.Marshall. +. 69. Walney 
I. ; Rev. W. W. Mason. Winder- 
mere; + ; Miss Hodgson 

confusa, Jord. 59. Top. Bot. Common, 

Green's Fl. Walton; Wheldon. 60. 
Nr. Little Eccleston; Rev. E. S. 
Marshall. 69. Miss Hodgson, and 
later 

muralis, Sender. 59. Lewis rec. Top. Bot. 

densiflora, DC. 69. Hatvksbead ; Rev. F. 

J. Hort 

Vl.Crucifer* 

Nasturtium silvestre, R.Br. 59. Top. Bot. 
Waterbouses; Wm. Jones. White- 
head, Fl. 60. Simpson sp. Top. Bot. 
69. Barrow ; W. Foggitt 

amphibium, R.Br. 59. Top. Bot. Nr. 

Ashtm ; Whitehead. ' Probably 
extinct in Liverpool district,' Green's 
Fl. Nr. Manchester; Buxton's G., 
p. 84. 60. Linton cat. Top. Bot. 

Barbarea stricta, Andrz. 59. Native, nr. 
Stoke ; F. M. Webb. Needs recent 
confirmation, Green's Fl. 

Cardamine amara, L. 59. Goodlad, Top. Bot. 
Medlock Vale; Whitehead. Liver- 
pool district ; Green's Fl. Reddish ; 
+ ; Buxton's G. 60. C. J. Ash- 
field; Linton cat. Top. Bot. 
O. Wyresdale; + ; A. Wilson. 
69. Not common, Baker's Fl. ; 
Petty's Constit. 

flexuosa, With. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. Webb, 

cat. Hortm: + ; Green's Fl. ; 
Common, Whitehead's FL 60. 
Wheldon and Wilson. 69. Grey- 
tbwaite, Windermere; Miss Hodg- 
son 

impatiens, L. 60. Melvill, Top. Bot. 

Silverdale; Melvill, 1868 
Erophila vulgaris, DC., var. brachycarpa 
(Jord.). 60. Silverdale; A. Wilson 



43 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS I. PH^NOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order Vl.Cruclfer<e (continued) 

Draba muralis, L. 60. Between Klrkby Lons- 
dak and Whittington ; A. Wilson, 
Hodder Valley, 1903 ; J. A.Wheldon 
and A. Wilson 

Cochlearia officinalis, L. 59. Top. Bot. 60. 
Linton cat. Top. Bot. Saltmarsh, 
SUverJale; A. Wilson. 69. Ray, 
1670, and frequently recorded since 
up to 1885, on the shore Flook- 
bonugh ; ]. G. Baker 
var. alpina (H. C. Wats.). 60. Leek; 
Petty. 69. Seatbwaile Fells ; recorded 
since 1805, Petty's Constit. 

danica, L. 59. Top. Bot. By Walton 

Gaol, 1891 ; Wheldon. 60. Top 
Bot. C. J. Ashfield. tS/. Anne's; 
^Blackpool; Wheldon. 69. Wai- 
ney I. ; Mr. Lawson, Ray, Fasc. 
1688. Frequently recorded since. 
Rev. W. W. Mason, 1902, in 
litt. 

anglica, L. 59. Top. Bot. Frequent, Green's 

Fl. 60! Top Bot.; +. W. andW. 
69. +; Petty's Constit. 

'Sisymbrium sophia, L. 59. Top. Bot. Webb 
cat. Frequent, Green's Fl. Formby ; 
Wheldon. 60. tNr. Lytbam ; Whel- 
don 

[Erysimum chevianthoides, L. 59. Green's 
Fl. Barton to A hear ; Whitehead's 
Fl. Ashtont. Barton to Irlam ; Bux- 
ton's G. Black Bull Lane, Walton; 
Wheldon. A casual] 

Brassica monensis, Huds. 59. Shore of 
Mersey nr. Liverpool; R. Roscoe, 
Sm. E. F. 1825. Top. Bot. Tudor 
sp. Frequent, Green's Fl. Formby ; 
Rev. W. W. Mason. 60. Lytham ; 
Prof. Henslow, 1830 ; 1896, Whel- 
don. 69. Often recorded since 
1690 (Ray Syn.) from Wahey to 
Grange 

sinapoides, Roth. 59. Webb cat. Top. Bot. 

Frequent, Green's Fl. Nr. Klrkby ; 

+ ; Wheldon. 60. Syme MS. Top. 

Bot. 
[Diplotaxis tenuifolia, DC. 60. Linton 

cat. Top. Bot. St. Anne's; Bailey, 

casual] 
* muralis, DC. 59. Webb cat.t Top. Bot. 

Freshfield; Scarisbrick ; Green's Fl. 

Blundellsands ; Rev. W. W. Mason, 

all Babingtonii, Wheldon in litt. 
var. Babingtonii, Syme. 59. Formby, 

1896 ; Blundellsands, 1900 ; Rev. 

W. W. Mason. 60. St. Anne's; 

Wh. 
[Coronopus didymus, Sm. 59. Dickinson sp. 

Top. Bot., casual ?] 

Ruellii, All. 59. Webb cat. Frequent in 

Liverpool district, Green's Fl. Bootle ; 
LMerland; Rev. W. W. Mason. 
Neiherton; Wheldon. 60. Top. Bot. 
Nr. Garstang; nr. Blackpool; A. 
Wilson 



CLASS I. PH^NOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order VI. Crueifene (continued) 

*Lepidium latifolium, L. 60. Top. Bot., casual, 

extinct ? 
[ ruderule, L. 59. Formby; Alntree ; 

Walton ; Green's F /.] 60. St. Anne's ; 

Bailey 
Smithii, Hook. [L. heterophyllum, Benth.] 

var. canescens, Gren. and Godr. 59. 

Top. Bot. 60. SUverJale. Top. Bot. 

69. + ; Baker's Fl. Rev. W. W. 

Mason, 1902 
Thlaspi arvense, L. t59- Tudor sp. Top. Bot. 

+ ; Green's Fl. 60. Syme sp. Top. 

Bot. 
Teesdalia nudicaulis, R. Br. 59. Tudor MS. 

Top. Bot. Formby; Soutbport ; + ; 

Green's Fl. Little Crosby ; Rev. W. 

W. Mason, MS. Nr. Prestwlch ; 

Buxton's G. 
Crambe maritima, L. 69. Known since 

1680. ' Now almost eradicated," L. 

Petty Constit. Alton, B.G. Top. Bot. 

Roosebeck; Walney Isle; 29 July, 1902, 

Rev. W. W. Mason. It is greatly 

to be feared that this rare plant will 

be lost in a very few years hence. It 

is hoped that collectors will spare it 

as much as possible 
Raphanus maritimus, Sm. 60. Syme sp. Top. 

Bot. 69. Shore nr. Rampside ; L. 

Petty 



[Reseda lutea, L. 59. Colonist, Green's Fl. 
60. Casual only ; Wheldon. 69 
Miss Ashburner, casual] 

HI!. Cistinea 

Helianthemum marifolium, Mill. 69. On the 
rocks about Cartmel Wells in Lanca- 
shire, plentifully, Fitz Roberts in Ray 
Syn. ed. ii. 203, 1696. Frequently 
recorded since. Plenty there in 
1883, J. G. Baker. Humphrey Head; 
H.T. Soppitt, 1894. Rev. W. W. 
Mason, 1902, MS. These records all 
refer to the same place 

IX.Vlolarlea; 

Viola palustris, L. 59. Top. Bot. Knowsley 
Woods; F. M. Webb. Ni.Asbton; 
Whitehead's Fl. Nr. Lydtatt ; R. 
Brown, 1888. Bickers taffe Moss; 
Dickinson. 60. C. J. Ashfield. 
Top. Bot., very common ; Wheldon 
and Wilson. 69. Nr. Elterslde 
Mosses; Wilson. About Ulverstm ; 
Aiton. Plumpton Peat Moss; Miss 
Hodgson 

hirta, L. 59. Top. Bot. 60. SUverJale; 

A. Wilson, 1 88 1. Ease Gill; A. 
Wilson. W. and W. ; + ; 69 

silvestris, Reich. 60. Lees rec. Top. Bot. 

Hodder falley; Wheldon in litt. 
69. NetcfielJ; Seatbtvaite ; Miss 
Hodgson. Cockley Beck; J. G. 
Baker 



44 






BOTANY 



CLASS I. PH^NOGAMIA (continue*) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order IX.V'tahriex (continued) 

Viola canina, L. (V. ericetorum, Schrad.) 59. 
Sansom sp. Top. Bot. Crosby to South- 
port; Green's Fl. 60. Lytham ; 
Wheldon. 69. Linton and Miss 
Hodgson 

carpatica, Borbas. 'Native, local.' 59. 

Simonstvood Moss; + ; Wheldon. 
60. Cockerham Moss ; Wheldon and 
Wilson ; E. G. Baker in Journ. of 
Bot. 1901, p. 10 ; + ; W. and W. 
Supposed to have been passed over 
as V. tricolor. ' Undoubtedly native,' 
Wheldon in litt. 

Curtisii, Forster. 59. F. M. Webb, cat. 

Top. Bot. Formby ; Lewis ; Waterloo ; 
Southport ; H. S. Fisher. Green's Fl. 
Purple, all yellow, and variegated 
varieties occur, J. A. Wheldon. 60. 
Melvill, Top. Bot. Blackpool; George 
Webster. +. 69. Walney Isle; 
F. A. Lees, Baker's Fl. 

lutea, Huds. [59. Top. Bot. Error, Whel- 

don in litt.] [60. Top. Bot. Error, 
Wheldon in litt.] 69. Nr. Colwitb ; 
Furness Fells ; A. W. Bennett 
But see ' The Yellow Violet,' found by 

' Master Thomas Hesketh, 

growing upon the hills in Lancashire 
neere unto a village called Latham.' 
Gerard, Herbal!, p. 701, 1597 

X.Pofygale* 

Polygala oxyptera, Reichenb. 59. Fisher sp. 

Top. Bot. Formby ; Hightown ; J. H. 

Lewis. Crosby ; Dickinson. Waterloo ; 

H. S. Fisher. 60. Sandhills, west 

of Lytham, 1895 ; Rev. E. S. 

Marshall 

XlLCaryophyllea; 

[Dianthus Armeria, L. 59. Top. Bot. Culti- 
vated ground, Dickinson, extinct. 
69. Grange; Rev. W. M. Hind, 
casual 

- deltoides, L. 59. F. M. Webb, cat. 
Hale Point ; Dickinson, extinct f 69. 
No record since 1843. In common 
pasture in High Furness ; Alton 

fSaponaria officinalis, L. 59. Formby ; 
Hightown; Crosby; Southport; Dickin- 
son, Webb, H. S. Fisher. Seven 
miles to the north of Liverpool; Dr. 
Bostock. Sm. Eng. Fl. vol. ii. 285. 
60. Banks of AM? and iaw; Wh. 
and Wilson* 

var. puberula, Wierzb. 60. *Lune 
Bank, Halton to Caton ; Wheldon 

Silene maritima, With. 59. Southport; Ch. 
Bailey, 1892 ; + ; Wheldon. 60. 
Syme sp. Top. Bot. Frequent on 
shore, Silverdale ; A. Wilson. +. 
W. and W. 69. Abundant on 
shores ; Miss Hodgson, Wm. Foggitt, 
Ch. Bailey, etc. Inland near sum- 
mit ofConiiton Old Man, Miss Beever. 



?LASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order Xll.Caryophylle* (continued) 

tSilene anglica, L. 59. Webb cat. Top. Bot. 
Spec, in Herb. Oxon. Rare, Green's 
Fl. 

Lychnis alpina, L. 69. Coniston Old Man, 
1879, in Bot. Exch. Club Rep. 
Baker's Fl. R. Potter rec. Top. Bot. 

* Githago, Scop. 59. Hightown; + ; 
Wheldon. AshtonMoss; Whitehead. 
60. Greenfield ; Fl. Stonyhurst. 
Cornfield, St. Anne's, 1896 ; Whel- 
don. 69. Miss Hodgson, no loc. 
Colonist 

Cerastium quarternellum, Fenzl. 59. Webb 
cat. Nr. Park Side station, M. and 
L. Railway, Buxton's G. 24. 
Hightown; R. Brown, 1873 

tetrandrum, Curtis. 59. Wood sp. Top. 

Bot. Common on the sandhills ; 
Wheldon. 60. Linton Cat. Top. Bot. 
Abundant on sand-dunes ; Wheldon. 
69. Ulverston; Walney; Miss Hodg- 
son 

semidecandrum, L. 59. Webb cat. Top. 

Bot. Southport; Wheldon. 'Com- 
mon,' Green's Fl. 60. Lytham to 
St. Anne's; Wheldon. +. Silverdale ; 
Rev. W. W. Mason 

arvense, L. 59. Southport; ]. Garside, 

Green's Fl. Hightown; Wheldon. 
60. Syme sp. Top. Bot. 

Stellaria aquatica, Scop. 59. Top. Bot. Nr. 
Scarisbrook; Dickinson. Nr. Chorl- 
ton ; Rusholme to Moss Side, very rare. 
Buxton's G. 

nemorum, L. 59. Goodlad Hb. Top. 

Bot. Wood at Halsnead; Wiggles- 
worth; Green's Fl. (fig. in this Flora 
does not represent the plant in ques- 
tion.) Nr. Pendleton; Prestwich to 
Clifton ; Melvill in litt. 60. Over 
Wyresdale; + ; Wheldon and 
Wilson 

umbrosa, Opitz. 59. Upholland ; R. 

Brown. Green's Fl. 

palustris, Retz. 59. F. M. Webb cat. 

Top. Bot. Scarisbrook and Martin's 
Mere, 1831, 1841, 1866. Green's/"/. 
Arenaria serpyllifolia, L. var. b. glutinosa 
Koch. 59. Crosby; Wheldon. c. 
leptoclados (Guss). 59. Green's Fl. 
60. Bare; Wheldon. 69. Hum- 
phrey Hd.; Miss Hodgson, d. Lloydii 
(Jord.). 60. Bare; Wheldon 

verna, L. 60. Top. Bot. Silverdale, 1864 ; 

C. J. Ashfield. Frequent in Silver- 
dale, 1^02. A.Wilson. 6^. H amps- 
fell; Miss Hodgson. Between Grangi 
znALindale; Baker's Fl. 
Sagina maritima, Don. 59! Fisher sp. Top. 

Bot. 

var. debilis, Jord. 5 9. Nr. Bromborough ; 
Caldy Shore ; Green's Fl. 

apetala,L. 59. Top. Bot. Southport; Ain- 

tree; Wheldon. 69. Coniston ; Miss 
S. Beever. Grange; ]. G. Baker 



45 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS I. PH.ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued') 
Order XII. Caryophyllea (continued) 

Sagina ciliata, Fr. 59. Top. But. Sandhills, 
freshfield; + ; Green's Fl. 69. 
Crevices of walls, Kenft Bank ; ]. G. 
Baker 

Buda marina, Dumort. 59. (Aggreg. !) 
Webb cat. Top. Bot. 60. (Aggreg.) 
Linton cat. Top. Bot. Silverdale shore ; 
Petty. 69. (Aggreg.) Rev. W. W. 
Mason 
var. media (Fr.) 59. Wheldon. 69. 

Petty 

var. neglecta (Kindb.). 59. Webb cat. 
Top. Bot. Walton ; (casual) Wheldon. 
60. (?) Top. Bot. Salt marshes, 
Pilling, 1895 ; A.Wilson. 69. Cark; 
flookborough ; J. G. Baker. Walney ; 
John Henry. 

media, Dum. 60. Salt marshes, Pilling, 

1895; A. Wilson. +. $<). North 
SanJs, Southport ; Wheldon 

rupestris (Lebel), F. J. Hanb. 59. Lewis sp. 

Top. Bot. Dingle Rocks; H. S. 
Fisher, in Hb. Wheldon. 

Xr.Elatine* 

Elatine hexandra, DC. 59. Knowsley, 1886; 
R. Brown. 1893. Green's Fl. 

XVI. Hypericinete 

Hypericum Androsaemum, L. 59. Webb 
cat. Top. Bot. BamfordWood; Scout, 
near Mossley ; Whitehead's Fl. 60. 
Top. Bot. 69. Known since 1690. 
Ray, Syn. ed. i. 143. Windermere ; 
Uherston; Coniston ; Miss Hodgson, 
and others. Lower Allithwaite, 1902 ; 
Rev. W. W. Mason. Woods, Neteby 
Bridge to Backbarrow ; J. Henry 

dubium, Leers. 59. Top. Bot. Chorlton ; 

+ ; Buxton's G. 96. Aigburth ; 
Rev. W. W. Mason in litt. 60. Bank 
of Lune, near Arkkolme, 8/1900 ; 
A.Wilson. Elston Wood ; Wheldon 
Silverdale ; Rev. W. W. Mason. 69. 
Walney I. ; Penny Bridge; Mis; 
Hodgson. Nr. Coniston Lake; Miss 
Beever. Humphrey Hd. ; F. A. Lees 
var. maculatum, Bab. 59. R. Brown ; 

Wheldon 

hirsutum, L. 60. Simpson sp. Top. Bot. 
Silverdale; Petty. 69. Baker's Fl. ; 
etc. 

montanum, L. 60. Simpson sp. Top. Bot. 

69. Withering, 1796. Nr. Cartmel 
Wells. Confd. by Ch. Bailey in 
Baker's/"/. 1885. See Petty's Cmstit. 
for other loc. and collrs. Grange. 
1900 ; Rev. W. W. Mason. 

elodes, L. 59. Tudor ms. Top. Bot. Nr. 

Halsall; R. Brown. 60. Ribbleton 
Moor; Wm. Dobson, 'extinct.' 
Wheldon and Wilson. (Lost through 
drainage.) 69. Reake Mosses, Cartmel; 
Wilson. Walney I ; Miss Hodgson. 
Nr. Rampside ; Miss Beever 



46 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued} 
SUB-CLASS I. -DICOTYLEDONES (continued} 
XVll.Malvacex 

Althza officinalis, L. 59. Nr. Crossens ; Melvill 
Malva moschata, L. 59. Webb. cat. Top. 
Bot. Reddish ; Taunton; Whitehead's 
Fl. Nr. Withington; Buxton's G. 
60. Silverdale; Leek; Petty. +. W. 
andW. 69. Miss Hodgson, Baker's 
Fl., Petty's Constit. Humphrey Head, 
1902 ; Rev. W. W. Mason 

XVlll.Tdiacea 

Tilia cordata, Mill. [59. Top. Bot.] 60. 
Wood near Warton, 1888 ; A. Wil- 
son. Silverdale; W. Kirkby, 1902. 
69. Humphrey Hd., Ch. Bailey in 
Baker's Fl. 1885. Rev. W. W. 
Mason, 1900 

XIX. Line* 

Radiola Linoides, Roth. 59. Tudor ms. 

Top. Bot. Seaforth; Hall. Simms- 

vioodMoss; Dickinson. Near Fr/3y ,- 

R. Brown. 60. Linton cat. Top. 

Bot. Arkholme Moor, 8/1900. A. 

Wilson. 69. Near Coniston; Miss 

S. Beever 
Linum angustifolium, Huds. 59. In a field 

by Allerton Hall, near Liverpool; Mr. 

]. Shepherd in Sm. Eng. Fl. vol. ii. 

119. Lane. S. ! Top. Bot. 

XX. Qeraniaceec 

Geranium sanguineum, L. 59. 'Extinct?' 
Top. Bot. 60. Simpson, sp. Top. Bot. 
Fleetwood, \ 842 ; Hailstone. Silver- 
dale; C. }. Ashfield ; A. Wilson. 69. 
Withering, ed. ii. 734, 1787. 
Walney I ; Baker's FL Rev. W. W. 
Mason. Humphrey Head; Baker's 
Fl. 1885 ; Rev. W. W. Mason, 1902, 
in litt. 
var. lancastriense (With.). 69. 'In in- 

sula Walney copiosissime.' 

Ray. Fate. 9, 1688. Still there. 

[ phasum, L. 60. "Wheldon and Wilson 
in Journ. of Bot. Feb. 1900. p. 42. 
In Lancashire, Eng. Bot. Sm. Eng. 
Fl. vol. iii. 233. 69.] 

silvaticum, L. 59. Dugdale, sp. Top. Bot. 

60. Halton; 1 885, A. Wilson. Near 
Kirkby Lonsdale ; Wheldon and Wil- 
son. 69. Known since 1 775, and fre- 
quently recorded since for Coniston, etc. 

pratense, L. 59. Goodlad Hb. Top. Bot. 

Very rare in Lwtrpctldhtrict. Green's 
Fl. Nr. Warrington; }. Price. Nr. 
Ince Blundell Hall ; R. Brown. Red- 
dish ; Whitehead's Fl. Buxton's G. 
p. 87. Whalley; Pendleton; 7/1000 
Rev. W. W. Mason. 60. Linton 
cat. Top. Bot. Silverdale; Petty, 
Rev. W. W. Mason. Leeks Petty. 
+ ; W. and W. 69. Miss Hodgson. 
Baker's Fl. Cartmel, 1902. Rev. 
W. W. Mason. Common as this 
plant is in England, it is becoming 
quite scarce near great towns. 



BOTANY 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued} 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XX. Geraniacea: (continued) 

Geranium pusillum, L. 59. Dugdale ms. Top. 
Set. Hightotvn; casual ; Green's Fl. 60. 
Roadside between Caton and Halton, 
'perhaps . . casual . . .' Wheldon. 
69. Lake Lane. AT. Bennett from 
Newbould. (? Casual only in Lan- 
cashire) 

columbinum, L. 59. Top. But. Simons- 

tuood Moss; Dickinson. Chorlton to 
Stretford ; Buxton's G. 87. 60. 
Simpson, sp. Top. But. Silverdale, 
1898 ; A. Wilson. 69. Words- 
worth's Guide, 23, 1842. Petty's 
Constit. Lower Allithviaite ; Grange ; 
Rev. W. W. Mason 

lucidum, L. 59. Dugdale, sp. Top. Sot. 

60. Silverdale; C. J. Ashfield, 1864 ; 
Rev.W.W. Mason, 1900. Common 
in Districts I, 2, 3, and 8, W. and 
W. 69. Grange; Rev. W. W. 
Mason, 1900. Locally plentiful. 
J. G. Baker, 1885 

[Erodium moschatum, L'Herit. 59. Dickin- 
son. Never confirmed. Guidebridge, 
'Alien.' Whitehead's F I. Swinton, 
Buxton's G. p. 87. 69. Biggar Bank, 
Wahiey I. 1897; 'Denizen' John 
Henry] 

*Impatiens Noli tangere, L. 60. Nr. Whit- 
tington Hall, S.W. of K. Lonsdale ; 
F. A. Lees. Naturalist, Sept. 1900, 
p. 279. Journ of Sot. Jan. 1901, 
W.andW. 69. Ray. Syn. ed. i. 209. 
Sm. Eng. Fl. vol. i. p. 299, and often 
recorded since. Near Brougbton ; 
near Duddon Bridge ; Lowick, 1903 ; 
Petty 

XXII. Celastrinex 

Euonymus europaeus, L. 59. ' Denizen, very 
rare and always planted.' Green's 
Fl. 60. C. J. Ashfield, 1864, ap- 
prox. Top. Sot. Bailey rec. Silver- 
dale ; Ch. Bailey, 1874. Petty, 
1902. 69. Rather frequent. J. G. 
Baker, 1885. Miss Hodgson. Rev. 
W. W. Mason, 1902 

XXlIl.Rhamneo! 

R. catharticus, L. 59. Very rare. Robinson 
in Green's Fl. 60. Silverdale; C. J. 
Ashfield, 1864. A.Wilson, 1902 
(approx.) 

Frangula, L. 59 ! Webb cat. Top. Sot. 

Dickinson's Fl. Green's Fl. Ashton ; 
Whitehead's Fl. Tyldesley Moss; +; 
Buxton's G. 32. 60. Silverdale; 
A.Wilson. 69. Baker's Fl. 1885 

XXir.Sapindacex 

Acer campestre, L. 59. Webb cat. +. Top. 
Sot. Green's Fl. (often planted). 60. 
Top. Sot. Linton cat. Lindale ; Rev. 
W. W. Mason. 69. Petty 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
XXV. Leguminoste 

Genista anglica, L. 59. Top. Sot. Slackcote ; 
Whitehead, Fl. Between Dungeon and 
Hale Wood; Dickinson. Greystone 
Heath; ]. Peers in Green's Fl. 60. 
Formerly on Ribbleton Moor, now ex- 
tinct ; Win. Dobson (W. and W. in 
J. of B. Feb. 1900.) Abundant in bog 
near Docker ; A. Wilson, 1901. 69. 
Below Newby Bridge; J. Sidebotham, 
in Baker's Fl. Petty's Constit. 

Ulex Gallii, Planch. 59. Dugdale, sp. Top. 
Sot. Green's^/. 60. +. A.Wil- 
son. 69. Coniston ; F. J. A. Hort, 
1850. Frequent ; Miss Hodgson. 
Ulverston; + ; Baker's Fl. 1885 

Ononis repens, L. var. horrida, Lange. 69. 
Roosebeck ; Flookborough ; Baker's Fl. 

spinosa, L. 59. Top. Sot. F. M. Webb 

cat. Hale ; Green's Fl. 60. Can- 
forth ; Pilling; A.Wilson 

[Melilotus alba, Desr. [59. Top. Sot.] In- 
creasing in Liverpool dist. Green's 
Fl.] [69. Barrow; John Henry, 
' casual.'] A frequent plant now in 
England, introduced with foreign 
seeds. Such casuals require a flora 
or a catalogue to themselves. Many 
ballast heaps and bare waste spots are 
rendered more interesting by their 
presence, but the London Catalogue 
is already overburdened with them, 
many of them being of quite trivial 
significance 

Trifolium striatum, L. 59. Webb cat. Top. 
Sot. Rainhill ; Dickinson. Between 
Hightown and Formby ; R. Brown. 
Hestvall; Wheldon. Woolston, nr. 
Harrington; Wm. Wilson. 69. 
Bailey rec. Top. Sot. nr. Grange; 
Bailey. Kent's Bank, Mason 

scabrum, L. 59. Nr. OUham ; Hailstone 

filiforme, L. 59. Webb cat. Top. Sot. 

Nr. Formby ; R. Brown 

Lotus tenuis, Waldst and Kit. 59. Webb cat. 
Top. Sot. Nr. Hay tan Quarry; 

F. M. Webb. Not recorded for 
many years, Green's Fl. Buxton's 

G. 94. 66. Meadow west of Hum- 
phrey Hd. Sot. Exch. Club Rep. 

1873 

Astragalus glycyphyllos, L. 69. Recorded by 
John Wilson in 1744. Humphrey 
Hd. 1842; T. Gough. Recent 
confn. wanted, J. G. Baker 

Ornithopus perpusillus, L. 59. Webb cat. 
Top. Sot. Buxton's G. p. 92. 60. 
Moss Side, nr. St. Michael's on Wyre ; 
Rev. P. J. Hornby. 69. Not com- 
mon. Baker's Fl. 1885. Petty 

Hippocrepis comosa, L. 60. Warton Crag; 
Over Kellet, 1899; A. Wilson; 
Silverdale ; Rev. W. W. Mason. 
69. Petty's Constit. W. Foggit, 
Ch. Bailey. L ower AlIMu-aite ; + ; 
Rev. W. W. Mason, 1902 



47 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued?) 
Order XXV. Leguminosie (continued) 

Vicia gemella, Crantz. 59. Webb cat. Top. But, 
Frequent, Whitehead's Fl. Chorlton ; 
+ ; Buxton's G. 91. 69. Seen only 
once nr. Windermcre ; Baker 

angustifolia, L. var. Bobartii, Koch. 59. 

Top. Sot. Green's FL Whitehead's 
Fl. (V. angustifolia). Buxton's G. 
92. (V. angustifolia, Sibth.). 60. 
Near Pilling, 1899, A.Wilson. Mr. 
Wheldon says he thinks this was Sege- 
talis 

lathyroides, L. 59. Bean, sp. Top. Sot. 

Formby; Wheldon, 1899. 60. Ly- 
tbam; St. Anne's; Wheldon, 1899 

silvatica, L. 69. Withering, ed. iii. 

635, 1796. Extinct ? 

[Lathyrus palustris, L. In some parts of Lan- 
cashire ; Huds. Sm. Eng. Fl. vol. iii. 
278. Never confirmed, but perhaps 
truly recorded. It may even have 
been plentiful in Hudson's time, i.e. 
1762] 

XXVI. Rosace* 

Prunus Padus, L. 59. Goodlad Hb. Top. 
Sot. Reddish ; Buxton's G. ; White- 
head's Fl. ' Native.' Halsall; Whel- 
don. Green's Fl. 60. C. J. Ash- 

of E. and 'N. (W. "? W.)? 69! 
Common in woods, Baker's Fl. 1885. 
(In Lancashire almost in every hedge. 
Gerard, Herball, p. 1322, 1597, 
and first as British) 

*Spira:a salicifolia, L. 69. Near Hatvkshead ; 
Mr. Dalton, Withering, 1796. Sm. 
Eng. Fl. vol. ii. 1824. W. Borrer, 
Phytohgist, 427. 1846. Windermere 
shores. Coniston; Baker's Fl. 1885 

Filipendula, L. 60. Simpson, sp. Top. 

Sot. Silverdale, 1883 ; A. Wilson. 
69. Humphrey Hd. ; Dr. Windsor; 
A. Wilson. 

Rubus, Linn. A. Frutescentes. Rogers' Hbk, 
p. i. 

Sub-section I. Ida:!. (Bab.) 

idaeus, L. 59, 60, 69. Rogers' Hbk. p. 99. 

Sub-section 2. Fruticosi (Bab.) 
Group I. Suberecti 

fissus, Lindl. 59. Mere Clough, Prestwich, 

1895, J. C. Melville teste E. S. 
Marshall and W. Moyle Rogers. 
Exch. Cl. Rep. (1895), p. 473. 
Rogers' Hbk. p. 99. 60. Rogers' 
Hbk. p. 99. Abbeystead, Wyresdale ; 
north side of Beacon Fell; A. Wilson. 
J. of B. Jan. 1901. Near Emmetts, 
Over Wyresdale; Wheldon and Wil- 
son, 1901 

suberectus, Anders. [59]. 60. Botton Mill, 

Hindbun, 7/1901 ; A. Wilson. 69. 
Coniston; Grange; Duddon Valley; 
Baker's Fl. 



48 



CLASS L PH^NOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XXVI. Rosace* (continued) 

Rubus plicatus, W. and N. 59. Withering Hb. 
Rogers' Hbk. p. 99. Top. Sot. 
Simonswood Moss, 1 900, J. A. Whel- 
don. 60. Cockerham Moss; 1900, 
W. and W. 

Group III. Rhamnifolii 

incurvatus, Bab. 59. Rogers' Hbk. p. 100. 

60. Rogers' Hbk. p. 100. Near 
Inskip, 1895, Rev. E. S. Marshall. 
J. of B. Feb. 1900 

Lindleianus,Lees. 59. Rogers' Hbk. p. I oo. 

Near Altcar ; + ; Wheldon. 60. 
Rogers' Hbk. p. 100 ; common, W. 
andW. 69. Baker's Fl. 

argenteus, W. and N. (erythrinus). 60. 

Rogers' Hbk, p. 100. Bank otWyre, 
near Preesall ; Wheldon. Near Gar- 
stang; W. and W. 

rhamnifolius, W. and N. 60. Garstang; 

A. Wilson 

subsp. Bakeri, F. A. Lees. 59. Heaton ; 
W. Moss, 1901. J. of B. April, 
1902 

nemoralis, P. J. Muell 

var. Silurum, A. Ley. 60. Rogers' Hbk. 
p. I oo. Lancaster Moor, 1 900 ; 
Wheldon 

Scheutzii, Lindeb. 60. Rogers' Hbk. p. 

100. Emmetts, O. Wyresdale ; W. 
and W. 

pulcherrimus, Neum. 59. Lydiate ; CR- 

theroe; + ; Wheldon. 60. Rogers' 
Hbk. p. 100. Silverdale; Wheldon. 
Hindbun, ; A. Wilson 

Lindebergii, P. J. Muell. 60. Rogers' 

Hbk. p. 101. Near Inskip, E. S. 
Marshall. 

Group IV. Villicaules 

mercicus, Bagnall 

var. bracteatus, Bagn. 59. Rogers' Hbk. 
p. I o i ; Walton ; Near Ince Blundell ; 
Wheldon. 60. Longridge; Wheldon. 
Bamacre; W. and W. 

villicaulis, Koehl 

subsp. Selmeri (Lindeb.) 59. Rogers' 
Hbk. p. I o I . Simonstvood Moss ; near 
Altcar; Wheldon. 60. Generally 
distributed ; W. and W. 

subsp. calvatus, Blox. 59. Rogers' Hbk. 
p. 101. "Next Altcar; + ; Wheldon. 

gratus, Focke. 59. Near Altcar ; + ; 

Wheldon. 60. Rogers' Hbk. p. 101. 
Preston Wives; Wheldon 

Group V. Discolores 

rusticanus, Merc. 59. A in tree ; + ; 

Wheldon. 60. Rogers' Hbk. p. 101. 
Garstang ; A. Wilson. Bare ; F. A. 
Lees. Siherdale; + ; Wheldon. 
69. J. G. Baker 



BOTANY 



CLASS I. PH^NOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XXVI. Rosace* (continued) 

Group VI. Silvatici 

Rubus lentiginosus, Lees. 59. Rogers' Hbk. 
p. 101 

macrophyllus, W. and N. 59. Rogers' 

Hbk. p. 10 1. 60. Alston; Wheldon. 

Group VII. Vestiti 

Sprengelii, Weihe. 59. Rogers' Hbk. p. 1 02. 

Walton; Simonswood; Wheldon. 60. 
Rogers' Hbk. p. 102. Silverdale; 
Wheldon 

pyramidalis, Kalt. 59. Park Clough Wood, 

Ballon; Moss, 1901. Rogers in 
J. of B. April 1902 ! 60. Between 
Morecambe and Snatchems, 1899 ; 
Wheldon 

leucostachys, Schleich. 59. Rogers' Hbk. 

p. 1 02. Hightown; + ; Wheldon. 
60. Rogers' Hbk. p. 102. Silverdale; 
Wheldon. 69. Locally common ; 
Baker ! 

Group VIII. Egregii 

cinerosus, Rogers. 60. Near Preesall ; 

Knot End ; 1900, Wheldon. Barn- 
acre ; W. and W. 

mucronatus, Blox. 59. Ince BlundellWood; 

1900, Wheldon. Rogers in J. of B. 
April 1902 ! 60. Knot End ; 1901, 
+ ; Wheldon. 69. Ch. Bailey, 
29 Sept. 1893. 'Too late, but 
probably correctly named,' Rogers 

infestus, Weihe. 59. Rogers' Hbk. p. 103. 

Walton; V/heldon. 60. Rogers' Hbk. 
p. 103. Dolfhwholme ; Wheldon. 
Caton Moor; 1900, Wheldon and 
Wilson 

Drejeri, G. Jensen. 60. Longridge, 

July, 1900 ; Wheldon 

Group IX. Radulse 

radula, Weihe. 60. Bare (Naturalist, 

Oct. 1899); F. A. Lees. 69. Between 
Grange and Cartmel ; Hamfsfield ; 
Ch. Bailey (named thus by Rev. 
W. M. Rogers) 

oigoclados, Muell and Lefv. ? syn. R. 

fusco-ater, Bab. (in part) 
var. Newbouldii (Bab.)? ^.Walton; 
Thornton; Netherton; Wheldon 

podophyllus, P. J. Muell. 59. Rogers' 

Hbk. p. 104. Daisy Nook, Ashton 
district ; Wheldon. 60. Rogers' Hbk. 
p. 104 

Group XI. Sub-Bellardiani 

fuscus, W. and N. 

var. macrostachys, P. J. Muell. 59. Wal- 
ton ; Wheldon, 1900. J. of B. 
April, 1902, Rogers! Hightown, 
Wheldon 
i 49 



CLASS I. PKLENOGAMIA (coutinued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XXVI .Rosace* (continued) 

Group XII. Koehleriani 
Rubus rosaceus, W. and N. 59. Nr. A hear ; 
Wheldon '(Agg)'. 60. Siherdale ; 
Wheldon. (Sp. Coll.).' 69. Baker's 
F/. 1885. (Aggr. ?) 
var. hystrix, W. and N. incl. v. Silves- 
tris, Murray. 59. Rogers' Hbk.f.\o$. 
Simonswood Moss, 1896; Ince Blun- 
dell; Wheldon. 60. Quernmore Park ; 
Wheldon 

var. infecundus, Rogers. 60. W. and 
W. in litt. 

Koehleri, W. and N. 59. Rogers' Hbk., 

p. 105 

subsp. dasyphyllus, Rogers, syn. R. pallidus, 
Bab. (now W. andN.). 59. Heaton 
Moss, 1901, Rogers in J. of Sot., 
April, 1902; Rivington; Clitheroe ; 
Burnley; Wheldon. 60. Rogers' 
Hbk. p. 105. Siherdale; Wheldon, 
1898. O. Wyersdale; W. and W. 
1901. 69. Baker ! 

Group XIV. Cssii 

dumetorum, W. and N. 69. Grange ; 

Baker 

var. ferox, Weihe. 59. Rogers' Hbk. 
p. 1 06. Crosby ; + ; Wheldon 

var. concinnus, Warren. 59. Walton; 
Wheldon. 60. Rogers' Hbk. 

In one or other of its many forms this 
may be found generally distributed 
in the low ground of the county. 
It is, however, most abundant on 
clay, and cannot therefore be expected 
in the same profusion on the light 
soils and sands of Lancashire as it is 
on the Permian and lias clay of 
central England. 

corylifolius, Sm. 59. Rogers' Hbk. p. 106. 

Nr. Altcart Wheldon. 60. Rogers' 
Hbk. p. 1 06. 69. Baker's Fl. 

var. sublustris (Lees). 59. Walton ; Ain- 
tree ; Netherton; Wheldon. 60. Rogers' 
Hbk. p. 1 06. Siherdale; Wheldon; 
+ . 69. C. H. Bailey, named by 
Revs. E. F. Linton and W. Moyle 
Rogers. Exch. Cl. Rep. 1893, 
412 

var. cyclophyllus (Lindeb). 60. Nr. 
Knott End; nr. Yealand ; W. and W. 

caesius, L. 59 and 60. Rogers' Hbk. 

69. Baker's Fl. 
var. aquaticus, W. and N. 59 and 60. 

Wheldon 
var. intermedius, Bab. 59. Fazakerley, 

Wheldon 

Section B. Herbacei 

saxatilis, L. 59. Rogers' Hbk. p. 107. 60. 

Rogers' Hbk. p. 107. Silverdale ; A. 
Wilson. 69. Baker's Fl. 

7 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS I. PtLENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XXVI. Rosace* (continued) 

Rubus Chamaemorus. L. 59. Rogers' Hbk. 60. 
Hatcthomthwaite Fells ; Roeburndale 
Fells; 1 90 1, Wheldon and Wilson. 
Leek Fell, 1893, L. Petty 1 

Geum rivale, L. X urbanum, L. (G. inter- 
medium, Ehrh.). 59. Top. Sot. 
Dickinson's Fl. 1851. 60. Stonyhurst; 
F.S. Nr. K. Lonsdale Statn. ; L. Petty 

Potentilla verna, L. 60. Siherdale ; Miss S. 
Beever. Nr. Longridge ; H. Beesley. 
69. Nr. Grange; Rev. H. Higgins in 
Baker's Fl. Has been reported since 
for Humphrey Hd. Nat. Feb., 1894. 

procumbens, Sibth. 59. Webb cat. Top. 

Dot. 60. Fl. Stonyhurst; Wheldon. 
69. Miss Hodgson. Baker's Fl. 

argentea, L. 59. Nr. Ford; Wheldon 
(alien) 

Alchemilla vulgaris, L. 

var. alpestris (Schmidt). 60. Ease 
Gill; nr. Ireby ; Wheldon and Wil- 
son. 69. Grange ; Tower ; Rev. W. 
W. Mason 

Agrimonia odorata, Mill. 60. Nr. Melling; 
1900. A. Wilson. 69. Shore of Win- 
dermere, nr. Ferry Inn ; ]. G. Baker 

Poterium Sanguisorba, L. 59 ? Top. Bot. Very 
rare below Halsall ; Dickinson. 60. 
Siherdale, Herb. Oxon. and 1864. 
C. ]. Ashfield. 'Common,' Petty, 
Leek; Petty, 1893. 69. Known 
since 1796. See Petty's Constit. 
Abundant between Backbarrow and 
Netoby Bridge; John Henry, 1897 

officinale, (L.), Hook. fil. 59. Top. Bot. 

Buxton's G. Very rare in Liverpool 
area, Green's Fl. 60. ' Common," 
Wheldon and Wilson. 69. No re- 
cord since 1874 

Rosa spinosissima, L. 59. Webb cat. Top. 
Bot. Sandhills and occasionally in- 
land, Green's Fl. 60. Hiern. Top. 
Bot. Siherdale; Hiern. Over Kel- 
let; A. Wilson. 69. Withering, 
ed. iii., 465, 1796. Miss Hodgson, 
1874. Baker's Fl. 1885 

involuta, Sm. 

var. S.ibini (Woods). 69. Abundant in 
several places about Cartmel ; }. Side- 
botham in Baker's Fl. 1885 

mollis, Sm. 59. H. S. Fisher. Buxton's 

G. 60. O. Wyresdale; Wheldon and 
Wilson. +. ' Common ' in N. and E. 
69. Miss Hodgson. The records for 
59 and 69 require confirmation 

1 There are other records of Rubi fruticosi in the various 
floras of Liverpool, Manchester, Ashton, etc., but they are not 
sufficiently trustworthy to admit them here, not through any 
fault, perhaps, of the recorders, but because of the unsatisfactory 
tatc of the literature on Rubi in this country previous to the 
publication of the Handbook of the Rev. W. Moyle Rogers. Of 
the too species of fruticose brambles described in the Handbook, 
only thirty-three are here recorded, and this list comprises all 
the known species. There should be fifty, and may be consider- 
ably more. See paper on 'Distribution of Rubi in Great 
Britain,' by the Rev. W. M. Rogers, in the Journal of Botany 
for April, 1902 and August, 1905. 



CLASS I. PHJENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XXVI. Rosace* (continued) 
Rosa tomentosa, Sm. 59. 60. 69 

canina, L. 

Most, if not all, the common varieties of 
this species are recorded for Lancashire. 
There are no uncommon ones to en- 
ter here. The roses have only been 
partially studied in any part of the 
county. It may be that the need of 
a recent monograph is an excuse for 
their neglect. 

obtusifolia, Desv. 

var. frondosa (Baker). 69. Miss Hodg- 
son, J. G. Baker 

glauca, Vill. 60. Wheldon and Wilson, 

1901. 69. Miss Hodgson 
var. subcristata (Baker). 69. Miss 

Hodgson 
var. coriifolia (Fries.). 69. Ulverston ; 

Woods, 1 8 1 8, in Sm. Eng. Fl. vol. ii. 

391. Baker's Monog. p. 236. Syn. 

R. bractescens, Woods in Tr. Linn. 

Soc., vol. xii. 2 1 6. This var. should 

be found frequently in both V. C. 60 

and 69 
There should be at least 16 forms of 

R. canina, obtusifolia, and glauca, in 

the county. Messrs. Wheldon and 

Wilson have found ten 

arvensis, Huds. 59. 60. 69 

Pyrus tormmalis, Ehrh. 59. Top. Bot. Webb 
cat. [Green's Fl., 'planted.'] 69. 
Plumpton Woods; Alton. Baker's Fl. 

Aria.L. [59.] 69. Humphrey Hd. ; Baker's 

Fl. Plumpton; Ulverston; Miss Hodg- 
son. There are records since 1805 
var. rupicola, Syme. 60. Silverdale ; 
1872, Ch. Bailey. 1902, A. Wilson. 
69. Humphrey Head; H. T. Soppitt 



. Saxifrage* 
Saxifraga stellaris, L. 69. Old Man, 1830; 
S. Hailstone. Walna Scar; South 
of the 3-shire stone ; Miss Hodgson 

aizoides, L. 69. Coniston. Withering, 

ed. iii. 405. Cockley Beck; Dobby 
Shaw; Miss Hodgson, 1874. Conis- 
ton; Petty, 1892 

tridactylites, L. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb. Buxton's G., 57. Sandhills, 
Hall ; no modern record. 60. Sil- 
verdale, 1883 ; A. Wilson. Leek; 
Petty. 69. Baker's Fl. 

granulata, L. 59. Scholes sp., Top. Bot. 

Buxton's G., 57. Whitehead's Fl. 
'Planted in Liverpool district,' Green's 
Fl. 60. Fl. Stonyhurst. 69. Miss 
Hodgson, and others earlier 

hypnoides, L. 60. Ease Gill; A. Wilson. 

69. Coniston Old Man; Mr. Jackson 
in With. ed. iii., 403. 1796. 
Baker's Fl. ' On the mountains of 
Lancashire with us as Mr. Hosket 
[Hesketh] told us,' Parkinson's 
Theatrum, p. 739, 1640, and first as 
British 



BOTANY 



CLASS L PRSNQGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XX HI. Saxifrage* (continued) 

Chrysosplenium alternifolium, L. 59. Top. Bat. 
GoodladHb.! Whitehead's Fl. Bux- 
ton's G. 57. 60. Hodder Galley; 
Wheldon in litt. 1903. Ease Gill; 
A. Wilson. 69. Miss Hodgson, 1 8 74 
Ribes alpinum, L. 59. Top. Sot. Webb cat.* 
[Green's FL 'planted.'] 60. Fl. 
Stonyhunt. 69. J. T. Foggitt in 
Baker's FL, 1885 

petraeum, Sm. 60. Native, W. and W. 

XXrill. Crassulace* 

Cotyledon Umbilicus, L. 59. Tup. But. \ 
Aughton; Dickinson. Speke : }. H. 
Lewis. Green's FL 69. H. Gay- 
thorpe in 'Naturalist, March, 1901. 
Rocks, Haverthwaite ; Petty in Natu- 
raFist, 1903, p. 84 

Sedum Telephium, L. 59. Top. Bot. Dickin- 
son's Fl. Green's Fl. Buxton's G., 
p. 59. 60. Nr. Garstang, 1 88 1 ; 
A. Wilson, B. R. C. Rep. Silver- 
dale; nr. Leek ; Petty, 1903 
var. Fabaria, H. C. Wats. 60. Rocks, 
Silverdale; Journ. of Bot., Feb. 1900. 
A. Wilson 

anglicum, Huds. 59. Top. Bot. (Sm. 

Eng. FL, vol. ii., 3 1 7, quotes Ray, 
Syn. ed. iii., 270, t. 12, f. 2 ; rocks 
Lancashire). 60. Nr. Sunderland ; 
Ashfield, still at Far Naze, 1902 ; 
A. Wilson 

XXIX. Dnserace* 

Drosera anglica, Huds. 59. Leyland, sp. 
Top. Bot., extinct ? Ashton Moss ; 
formerly abundant, now extinct (J. 
Tinker), Whitehead's FL 9. Cfifton 
Moss ; Buxton's G. 44. Chat Moss, 
1868 ; J. C. Melvill in litt. 1905. 
60. Cockerham Moss; A. Wilson. 
(In Lancashire, Dr. Hull. Sm. 
Eng. FL vol. ii. 123) 

intermedia, Hayne. 59. Top. Bot. I Liver- 

pool district ; Wheldon. Clifton 
Moss; Buxton's G. (? Wheldon in 
litt.) Chat Most; J. C. Melvill in 
litt. 1905 
Probably both the last are extinct in 59 

XXX.Halorage* 

Myriophyllum verticillatum, L. 59. Bloxam 
ms. Top. Bot. Sp. in Herb. Oxon. 
Green's FL ' rare.' Hightouin ; 
Rev. W. W. Mason, 1898, in litt. 
(where it was discovered by R. Brown). 
69. Coniston Lake; Miss S. Beever 
in Baker's Fl. 

spicatum, L. 59 and 60. Top. Bot. + ; 

Buxton's G. 1 1 8 ; + ; Whitehead's 
FL, etc., 69. Urstvick Tarn; Miss 
Hodgson 

altcrniflorum, DC. 59. Top. Bot. Dickin- 

son, H. S. Fisher. Buxton's G., 1 1 8. 
60. A. Wilson. 69. Uriwick Tarn ; 
Miss Hodgson 



CLASS L PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XXX. Haloragete (continued) 

Callitriche autumnalis, L. [59] 60. Ashton- 
m-RiM;.C.K\ng. Ar. Bennett 
in Naturalist, 21 Oct., 1901, 362. 
Berwick; Garstang; Lancaster; A. 
Wilson 

XXXI.-Lythrarie* 

Peplis Portula, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's 

G. 45. Whitehead's F,. 60. Top. 

Bot. Overton, Heysham ; [Ribbleton 

Moor ' extinct '] ; Wilson. 69. Lake 
Lane; W. F. Miller. Coniston Moor ; 
1888, Petty 

XXXlI.Onagrarie* 

Epilobium angustifblium, L. 59. Top. Bot. 
Dickinson's Fl. Green's Fl. 60. 
Leek Fell, 1,280 feet, July 1888 ; A. 
Wilson. 69. Recorded by J. Wilson 
in 1744. Perhaps not native here 
(almost certainly not in 59). This 
plant is increasing rapidly, in both 
its forms, in lowlands, but is probably 
only native in montane districts 

roseum, Schreb. 59. Windsor sp. Top. 

Bot. 60. Top. Bot. ! 

obscurum, Schreb. 59. Top. Bot. Simons- 

wood; Wheldon. 60. Cockerham 
Moss; W. and W. 69. Near Ulver- 
ston ; Miss Hodgson. 

Circza alpina, L. Lancashire, Sm. Eng. FL 
i. 16. [59. [Top. Bot.'] Dickinson's 
FL] Withering, 1787, ed. ii. 24. 
69. Withering and frequently reported 
since up to 1885. Baker's Fl. Conis- 
ton; Miss S. Beever and J. G. 
Baker 

lutetiana, L. var. intermedia. Lon. cat. 

59 ? Top. Bot. 60. Wood below 
White Moss, Hindburn, 1901 ; A. 
Wilson. 69. Wmdermert Lake s Bot. 
Exch. Cl. Rep. 1886 

XXXHI.Cuturtttace* 

Bryonia dioica, Jacq. 59. Top. Bot. Green's 
FL ' extinct ? ' Buxton's G. 117. 
' Probably planted ' 

XXXlV.UmbtUiftr* 

Eryngium maritimum, L. 59. Tudor sp. ! 
Top. Bot. Green's Fl. Crosby; Whel- 
don. 60. Hailstone, 1801-42. Top. 
Bot. Linton cat. 69. Wilson syn. 
1 744. Roosebeck ; Walney ; Miss 
Hodgson. Walney ; W. W. Mason 
[Echinophora spinosa, L. 69. Mr. Lawson, in 
Ray, Fasc. 5, 1688. 'Roosebeck in 
Low Furness, Lancashire,' an extinct 
casual only interesting as an old re- 
cord. Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 38, 1824, 
not found by any recent botanist ' 
(recorded previously for six stations 
in Eng. See Petty's Constituents) 
Bupleurum tenuissimum, L. 60. Syme sp. 
Top. Sot. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS I. PH^NOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTVLEDONES (continued) 
Order XXXIV .Umbell'ifer* (continued) 

Apium inundatum, Reichenb. fil. 59. Top- 
Bot. Dickinson's Fl. Crosby; P.M. 
Webb. Buxton's G. Whitehead's 
Fl. Green's Fl. 60. Marsh between 
Tea/and Starrs and Berwick ; A. Wil- 
son, 1900. Formerly on Ribbleton 
Moor ; Ashfield. J. ofB. Feb. 1 900. 
69. Withering, ed. iii. 301 (Jack- 

Cicuta virosa, L. 59. Windsor sp. Top. Bot. 

Sium erectum, Huds. 59. Top. Bot. Fresh- 

feld; Barton; Wheldon. 60. Top. 

Bot. Gars tang; Halton ; A. Wilson 
Pimpinella major, Huds. 59. Burnley, 1 8 1 o ; 

Hailstone. Top. Bot. Buxton's G. 

59 and 60. Both banks of Ribble ; 

Nordigate. J. ofB. Oct. 1885 
Myrrh is odorata, Scop. Lancashire,' frequent,' 

Hudson. 59. Webbcat.t Top. Bot. 

'Native,' Waterhouses ; Whitehead's 

Fl. Abundant, + ; Buxton's G. 

Kirkby, near Liv erpool ; Mason. 60. 

'Frequent,' W. and W. In distr. 

1-8. About Leek; Petty, 1893. 

69. Miss Hodgson, (' Near old halls 

and farmhouses ') native ? 
Anthriscus vulgaris, Bernh. 59. Webb. cat. 

Top. Bot. Formby ; Blu ndelhands ; 

Rev. W. W. Mason in litt. 60. Knot 

End, \ 894 ; A. Wilson 
[Fceniculum vulgare, Mill. 59. Top. Bot. 

' Casual,' Green's Fl. 60.] 
Crithmum maritimum, L. 60. Silverdale cliffs; 

sp. in Herb. Oxon. C. J. Ashfield, 

1864. ' Extinct,' Petty. 69. Wilson 

syn. 71. 1744. (Lawson). Humphrey 

Head; Dr. Windsor, 1805. Soppitt, 

1894. Rev. W. W. Mason, 1902 
CEnanthe fistulosa, L. 59 and 60. Top. Bot. 

etc. 

Lachenalii, C. Corel. 59. Top. Bot. 

Buxton's G. etc. 60. Top. Bot. 

crocata, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's G. 

60. Top. Bot. 69. 

Phellandrium.Lam. 59. Top. Bot. Dickin- 

son's Fl. Green's Fl. 60. Top. Bot. 

Stockenbridge ; Rev. P. J. Hornby 
Silaus flavescens, Bernh. 59. Whitehead's Fl. 

60. A. Wilson, 1900 
Meum Athamanticum, Jacq. In Lancashire, 

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 85. 59. Top. Bot. 

WindhillFarm ; Littleborough ; Mr.W. 

Parkinson, in Whitehead's Fl. p. 21. 

69. Coniston Fells ; Jackson, in With. 

ed. ii. 305 (1796). Coniston Moor. 

Hb. Bicheno at Swansea (needs con- 
firmation) 
Peucedanum palustre, Moench. Lancashire, 

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 97. [59] Top. Bot. 

59. Southport, 1870 ; F. A. Lees. 

69. Nr. Cartmel, 1779 or 1780, 

Hall. Hb. Winch at Linn. Soc. 

from With. Hb. from the station 

given in the Bot. Guide (1805)^.301. 

(Nr. Cartmel) 



CLASS L PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XXXiy.Umbellifer<e (continued) 
[Caucalis arvensis, Huds. 59. Top. Bot. Tudor 
MS.] 

nodosa, Scop. 59. Webb cat. Top. Bot. 

Orrell; 1892, Wheldon. 60. Nr. 
Borwick ; Carnforth ; 1 900, A. Wil- 
son 

XXXVll.Capriforiacex 

Sambucus ebulus, L. 59. Top. Bot. Bux- 
ton's G.* 69. W. Atkinson, 1796 

XXXVlll.Rubiace* 

Galium silvestre, Poll. 60. Warton Crag, 
1900 ; A.Wilson. Silverdale; Petty, 
1902. 69. Humphrey Head; Dr. 
Windsor. Hampsfell; Miss Hodgson, 
1874 

Mollugo, L. 60. +. Wheldon and Wil- 

son. In distr. 1-8 

uliginosum, L. 59. Top. Bot. Webb cat. 

Simonswood; Rev. W. W. Mason. 
60. Swamp near Borwick, 1887. 
A. Wilson, J.ofB. Feb. 1900 

boreale, L. 60. Banks of Lune, nr. Caton; 

A. Wilson (probably brought down 
with flood from Westmorland) 
Asperula cynanchica, L. 60. Silverdale ; C. 
J. Ashfield, 1864; A.Wilson, 1902. 
Lindale; Rev. W. W. Mason, 1902, 
in litt. 69. Wilson W. 1843 ; Dr. 
Windsor, 1805 

XL. Dipsace<e 

Dipsacus silvestris, Huds. 59. Not common. 
69. Known since 1843, but rare 

pilosus, L. 59. Top. Bot. 69. Ulverston 

1830; Hustler in York Mus. (ex- 
tinct ?) 

XLI. Composite 

Solidago Virgaurea, L. 59. Top. Bot. Bux- 
ton's G. 1 04. Fazakerley ; Wheldon. 
60. Petty. 69. Miss Hodgson. 
Baker's Fl. 

var. cambrica (Huds.) 60. On Yoredale 
grit rocks, Upper Ease Gill, Aug. 1899. 
A. Wilson, in J.ofB. Feb. 1900 

Aster Lynosyris, Bernh. 69. Hampsfell ; W. 
Nixon, in Baker's Fl. Humphrey 
Head; W. C. Worsdell. Hb. Brit. 
Mus. J.of B. 1892, 309 

Erigeron acre, L. 59. Bootle, 1801 ; Hail- 
stone. Top. Bot. Freshfteld; Whel- 
don. 60. Top. Bot. Ashfield, 1864. 
Silverdale ; St. Anne's ; A. Wilson 

Filago germanica, L. 59. 60. 69. 

minima, Fr. 59. 60. 69. 

Inula Conyza, DC. 59. Top. Bot. 60. Simp- 
son sp. Top. Bot. Known since 1775. 
Silverdale; Petty. 69. Lawson, in 
Ray's Fasc. 1688. Mason, 1900 
* Helenium, L. 69. W. Atkinson, 1796. 
Petty, 1892, in NaturaRst. Sm. 
Eng. Fl. iii. 440. 60. Near Dalton, 
Lane. Mr. Atkinson ; near Tealand ; 
A. Wilson. 



BOTANY 



CLASS I. PILENOGAMIA (continued) 



SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued') 
Order XLI. Composite (continued) 

Inula dysenterica, Gaertn. 59. Top. Bot. 
Green's Fl. 60. Top. Bot. Linton 
cat. Very common ; W. and W. 
69. Lawson, 1680 (circ.) ? Fre- 
quently reported since. Petty, 1901, 
in Naturalist 

tAnthemis arvensis, L. 59. Top. Bot. Bux- 
ton's G. 1 06. Casual near Walton; 
Wheldon. 69. Miss Hodgson, 
1874 

Cotula, L. 59. Top. Bot. 60. Syme sp. 

Top. Bot. ! Frequent in the low 
country; W. and W. 

nobilis, L. 59. 'Wilson,' Top. Bot. 

Sankey Gr. Warringttm, 1830; J. 
Dalton. Dickinson's Fl. (extinct ?) 

[69] 

Matricaria inodora, L. var. salina, Bab. . 59. 
Coast of Mersey, above Liverpool; 
Sir J. E. Smith, in Eng.Fl. iii. (1825), 
453 (sub Pyrethrum maritimum). 
Green's Fl. 60. F. A. Lees, 1899 ; 
A. Wilson, 1893 ; Wheldon, 1896. 
69. Baker's Fl. 

Chamomilla, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's 

G. 1 06. 60. Top. Bot. 

t Artemisia Absinthium, L. 59. 69. Miss 
Hodgson. 

maritima, L. 59. Top. Bot. 60. Syme 

sp. Top. Bot. Ashfield, 1858. 69. 
Walney I. Atkinson, 1 796 
Senecio viscosus, L. 69. Lake Lane. Top. Bot. 
Walney L F. A. Lees. Between 
Barrow and Rampside ; L. Petty 

erucifolius, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's 

G. 104. Whitehead's Fl. 60. Syme 
sp. Top. Bot. Ashfield, 1858 
[ palustris, DC. 59. In ditches about 
Pilling Moss, Lancashire ; Ray. Syn. 
1696. Repeated in Smith's Eng. 
Fl. iii. 444, 1825. [59] Top. Bot. 
error ?] 

Arctium majus, Bernh. 59. Top. Bot. 69. 
John Henry ; Naturalist, Nov. 

i897 

intermedium, Lange. 60. Wheldon and 

Wilson. 69. Miss Hodgson, 1874 
Carduus pycnocephalus, Jacq. 59. Top. 
Bot.! lace Blundell; Mason. 60. 
Tap. Bot. Bare; F. A. Lees. 
Silverdale; A.Wilson; +. 69. 
Miss Hodgson, 1874. w - Foggit, 
Mason 

nutans, L. [60] [69.] 

Cnicus eriophorus, Roth. 60. Top. Bot. ? 
error ? 69. John Henry ; Naturalist, 
Nov. 1897 

heterophyllus, Willd. 59. Goodlad Hb. 

Top. Bot. Buxton's G. i o i . 60. Fl. 
Stonyhurst. Banks of Roeburndale 
River about Salter, 1887 ; A. Wil- 
son, in /. of B. 1900. 69. Miss 
Hodgson 

*Onopordon acanthium, L. 59. Tudor ms.* 
Top. Bot. .' 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XLI. Composite (continued) 

Serratula tinctoria, L. 59. Top. Bot. ! Otters- 
pool ; Hall, extinct? (Green's F/.) 
The Dingle ; R. Brown, 1 890. Bux- 
ton's G. 100 ; +. 60. Silverdale, 
1864 ; C. J. Ashfield. A. Wilson, 
1899. It has disappeared from Ash- 
field's station (Mr. W. Kirkby). Still 
grows at Silverdale ; A. Wilson, 1904. 
69. Miss Hodgson. Baker's Fl. 
A. W. Bennett 

Cichorium Intybus, L. [59] [69] 

Picris echioides, L. 59. Top. Bot. Dickin- 
son's Fl. 60. Claybanks, nr. Lytham, 
1888. A. Wilson. 69 ? 

Crepis paludosa, Moench. 59. Goodlad Hb. 
Top. Bot.! Buxton's G. 98. +. 
Whitehead's Fl. 60. Top. Bot. Lin- 
ton cat. Do/phinholme ; Rev. W. W. 
Mason. Very common amongst the 
hills ; W. and W. 69. W. F. Mil- 
ler. J. ofB. 1882, 347 

Hieracium vulgatum. 60. +. E. F. Linton, 
Wheldon and Wilson, etc. 69. 
Baker's Fl. 

var. ravusculum, Da hist. 60. E. S. 
Marshall, 1895 

murorum, L. 60. Ease Gill ; + ; Whel- 

don and Wilson. [59] [69] 

duriceps, F. J. Hanb. 

var. cravoniense, F. J. H. 60. Ease 
Gill, Leek; 1883. Banks of Lane, 
Ha/ton ; 1896. A. Wilson 

diaphanoides, Lindeb. 60. By the Lune, 

nr.Halton; 1905 ; W. and W. inlitt. 

sciaphilum, Uecht. 60. + ; Wheldon 

and Wilson 

var. tridentatum (Fr.). 60. Upper Ease 
Gill, Leek, 1899 ; left bank of Greta, 
nr. Wragton ; A. Wilson in J. of B. 
Feb. 1900 

crocatum, Fr. 69. Duddon Valley ; Rev. 

A. Ley 

Hypoclueris glabra, L. 59. Top. Bot. Lewis 
rec. Sandhills, rare. North of Crosby, 
1866. Lord de Tabley. Freshfield ; 
1869. Green's Fl. (G. G. H.). 
Sandhills, Birkdale. 1880. C. T. 
Green 

maculata, L. 69. Humphrey Hd. ; }. Hall 

in With. ed. iii. 1796, p. 691. 

Smith's Eng. Fl. vol. iii. 374, rep. 

Repeatedly confirmed. 1902. A. 

Wilson 
Leontodon hirtus, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's 

G. 97. Whitehead's Fl. Green's Fl. 

60. Ganlang; + ; A. Wilson, 1887 
Taraxacum offkinale, Web. 

var. erythrospermum (Andrz.). 59. 

Top. Bot. 60. Wheldon and Wilson. 
var. palustre (DC.). 59. Top. Bot. 

60. W. and W. 
var. Izvigatum (DC.). 60. W. and 

W. 69. Miss Hodgson 
var. corniculatum, DC. 60. W. and W. 



53 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS I.PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued') 
Order XLI. Composite (continued) 

Lactuca virosa, L. [59] 60. t Wheldon and 
Wilson. 69. Furness Abbey; Hail- 
stone, 1804; Baker's Fl. 1885. 
W. W. Mason, 1902 
Tragopogon pratense, L. 59. 60. 69 

XLH. Campanulaceee 

Lobelia Dortmanna, L. 69. Windermere ; 
LawsoninRay. Sy. 1690. Coniston 
Water ; Windermere ; Woodward, 
Withering, ed. 11.895, 1787. Head 
of Coniston Lake ; Miss Hodgson, 
1874. Baker's Fl. 142. 1885. 
Petty's Constit. 

Jasione montana, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's 
G. Whitehead's Fl. 60. Top. Bot. 
Heysham; Rev. W. W. Mason in 
litt. 1902. 69. Miss Hodgson. +. 
1874. Baker's Fl. 1 8 8 5 . Walney I. 
Rev. W. W. Mason in litt. 1902 

Wahlenbergia hederaceae, Reichenb. 59. Top. 
Bot. Dickinson's Fl. Whiteley Dean ; 
R. Buxton in Whitehead's Fl. 60. 
In two localities. A. Wilson 

Campanula Trachelium, L. 60. Linton cat. 
Top. Bot. 

latifolia, L. 59. Top. Bot. Rev. W. W. 
Mason in litt. 1900. Dickinson's 
Fl. Buxton's G. Green's Fl. Ap- 
parently rather common in Buxton's 
time. 60. Top. Bot. Linton cat. 
Camfortb; O. Wyresdale ; Rev. W. 
W. Mason in litt. 1902. Common, 
Wheldon and Wilson. 69. Phytol. 
1 86 1. Miss Hodgson. +. 1874. 
Humphrey Hd. ; Rev. W. W. Mason, 
1902 

XL11I. Yacciniacea: 

Vaccinium Vitis-Idza, L. 59. Goodlad Hb. 
Top. Bot.! Buxton's G. 52. + 
Pcndle Hill; Wheldon. 60. Top. 
Bot. Wheldon and Wilson, 1901, 
in J. of B. ' Locally known correctly 
as Cowberry.' It is singular that no 
one has reported it for 69 

Schollera Oxycoccos, Roth. 59. Ch. Babing- 
ton, sp. Top. Bot. Buxton's G. 52. 
Dickinson's Fl. 60. O. Wyresdale ; 
Wheldon and Wilson, 1901, in 
J. of B. ; ' fruit gathered in quantities 
by the dales people.' 69. Miss Hodg- 
son ; Miss S. Beever. Baker's Fl. 
Petty's Constit. 

XLlV.Erhace* 

[Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, Spreng. 59. Four 
miles from Heptonstall, nr. Widdop, on 
a great stone by the river Gorple, 
Lancashire, Merrett, p. 123, 1666. * 
Shown to Ray on the same spot by 
T. Willisel, Ray, Syn. (1724). This 
is repeated in Sm. Eng. Fl. vol. ii. 
254. 1824. Extinct?] 

1 Pinax rerum Naturalium Brifannicarum, by Christopher 
Merrett, M.D. (F.R.S. later). 



LASS L PH&NOGAMIA (continue*) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued') 
Order XLIV .Ericace* (continued) 

Andromeda Polifolia, L. 59. Top. Bot. F. 
M.Webb. Simonswood Moss; Dickin- 
son, 1851 ; confd. by Wheldon (in 
litt.). Green's Fl. Whitehead's Fl. 
Buxton's G. 56. 60. Top. Bot. 
Linton. Tarnbrook Fell ; O. Wyres- 
dale, abundant, ascg. to 1,730 feet ; 
Wheldon and Wilson, 1901. 69. 
Withering, ed. iii. 398-9. Miss 
Hodgson, +, 1874, in J.ofB. 
Pyrola rotundifolia, L. In Lancashire, Parkin- 
son's Theatrum, p. 510, 1640, and 
first as British. 59. Hardy sp. Top. 
Bot. 60. Top. Bot. Simpson sp. 
var. maritima (Kenyon). 59. Sand- 
hills (in wet hollows) Crosby to South- 
port. Green's Fl. 60. C. J. Ashfield. 
Now nearly gone ; Wheldon in litt. 
1904. Doubtless Top. Bot. records 
mean the variety 

media, Sw. 59. Leyland sp. Top. Bot. 

minor, L. 59. Whalley sp. Top. Bot. 
XLY.Mmotropea: 

Hypopitys Monotropa, Crantz. 59. Kingsp. 
Top. Bot. Formby, 1897. Rev. W. 
W. Mason in litt. Also forma glabra 
(Bernh.) Wheldon. Common be- 
tween Hightown and Freshfield ; Whel- 
don in litt. +. 60. A. Wilson, 
B.R.C. Rep. 1883. St. Armts; 
Wheldon and Wilson, 'r.r.' 
XLri.Plumbagine* 

Statice Limonium, L. 59. Formerly at 
Garston ; Hall. 60. Syme sp. Top. 
Bot. +.W. andW. 69. Withering, 
ed. iii. 1796. Baker's/ 1 /. 1885 
var. pyramidalis, Syme. 60. Preesall, 
1899. Wheldon 

rariflora, Drej. 60. Syme sp. Top. Bot. 

(bahusiensis) Lune Estuary ; A. Wil- 
son. Saltmarsh at Preesall. 1899. 
Wheldon (also a hybrid between this 
and the last). 69. Greenodd, 1874. 
Miss Hodgson. Walney I.; F. A. 
Lees. Nr. Barrow ; L. Petty 

auriculsfolia, Vahl. 60. Syme sp. Top. Bot. 

a. occidentalis (Lloyd). Preesall, \ 899 ; 
Wheldon. KnottEnd,l 884; Wilson.eg. 
Miss Hodgson, 1874. L - Peu 7 (later) 
XLVll.PrtnHL'acne 

Hottonia palustris, L. 59. Top. Bot. ! White- 
head's, Fl. 1 1 Green's Fl. +. Rev. 
W. W. Mason, 1895, in litt. 60. 
Top. Bot. Pilling; Wilson. 69. 
Bardsea ; Aiton, 1 849 

Primula farinosa, L. ' In Harwood neere to 
Blackburn,' Gerard, Herbal!, p. 639, 
1597, and first as British. 60. Simp- 
son sp. Top. Bot. Silverdale ; 1775, 
Jenkinson. 1864, C. J. Ashfield. 
1904, A. Wilson. + 69. Wilson 
W. 1843, Cartmel 

[Lysimachia thyrsiflora, Ait. 59. Alcock, 
Top. Bot.} 



BOTANY 



CLASS I. PH^NOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XLVII.Primulace* (continued) 

Lysimachia vulgaris, L. ^. Top. Bot. Crosby; 
Withering. Dickinson's Fl. Green's 
Fl. 69. Phytol. 1861. Miss Hodg- 
son, 1874. Baker's Fl. 1885. 60. 
In districts 1-8 ; W. and W. 

Trientalis europjea, L. 60. In great abundance 
on both sides of Black dough, Mar- 
sbaw Fell, fVyresdale ; June, 1900, 
A. Wilson. Extending abundantly 
on the adjacent fells from nr. Marshaw 
to the moor on the S.E. side of Blaze 
Moss, Wheldon and Wilson in /. ofB. 
Oct. 1902. 'This plant is singu- 
larly rare in the North of Eng. on 
the west side of the Pennine range,' 
A. Wilson. 69. North-west Furness 
Hills; Alton, 1843 

Centunculus minimus, L. 59, Top. Bat. Nr. 
Formby ; Dickinson. Southport ; R. 
Brown. Green's Fl. 60. Arkholme 
Moor, alt. 300-860 ft. Aug. 1900. 
A. Wilson. 69. Withering, ed. iii. 
198-9. Confirmation required 

XUX.Apecyuct* 

t Vinca minor, L. 59. Top. Bot. 'Denizen,' 
Green's Fl. and Whitehead's Fl. [69] 
Note. Recorded for 59 by Withering 

L. Gcntianacea 

Blackstonia perfoliata, Huds. 59. Ch. Bab. 

sp. Top. Bot. ! Southport ; Hightown ; 

Wheldon. Formby; + ; Rev. W. 

W. Mason in litt. 69. Nr. Cork ; 

W. Duckworth in Naturalist, 1892 
Erythraea Centaurium, Pers. b. capitata, Koch. 

59. Hightown; Wheldon 

latifolia, Sm. 59. In sandy ground near 

the sea, to the north of Liverpool ; 
Dr. Bostock and Mr. Shepherd, 1803, 
Sm. Fhra Britannica, iii. 1393 (1804), 
and new to science. Formerly found 
about Seaforth Common ; Formby ; 
A'msdale ; Blrkdale ; F. M. Webb, 
H. S. Fisher. Nr. Frcsbfield Railu-ay 
Station, 1871-2. R. Brown. Top. 
Bot. Tudor sp. ' Probably extinct,' 
Green's Fl. All the specimens in 
the British Museum came from the 
neighbourhood of Formby. See Brit- 
ten in J. of B. 1872, pp. 166-7. 
The plant has never been found in 
any other locality than the above 

littoralis, Fr. Lancashire, Sm. Eng. F!. 

vol. i. 320. 59. Sm. Eng. Fl. vol. i. 
321. /3. Top. Bot. ! Rylands sp. 
Green's Fl. Southport; + ; Wheldon. 

60. Top. Bot. Nr. Middleton; A. 
Wilson. 69. Low Marsh, nr. Raven 
Winder; Petty 

pulchella, Fr. 59. Tudor sp. Top. Bot. 

Formby ; Southport ; Dickinson. Fre- 
quent on the sand-hills ; Wheldon in 
litt. 60. Fielding sp. Top. Bot. 
St. Anne's; A. Wilson. 69. Plump- 
ton; Miss Hodgson 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order L. Gentlanacete (continued) 

Gentiana Pneumonanthe, L. 59. Phillips sp. 

Top. Bot. Runcorn Heath; E. Davis 

in Green's Fl. Southport, Aug. 1 892. 

J. B. Foggitt. 60. Simpson sp. 

Top. Bot. A. Wilson, 1903. 69. 

Withering, 1796, and later re- 

cords. Probably extinct. Baker's 

Fl. 1885 
campestris, L. baltica, Murb. 60. 

Between Lytham andS/. Anne's; Rev. 

E. S. Marshall. B. Exch. Cl. Rep. 

1895, 490 
Menyanthes trifoliata, L. 59. Top. Bot. 60. 

Top. Bot. Frequent ; W. and W. 

69. Ursivick Tarn ; + ; Miss Hodg- 



LI. Polemoniacere 

Polemonium cseruleum, L. 69. Willisell to 
Ray. See 'Naturalist, 1897, p. 230 

Lll. Boraginete 

Symphytum tuberosum, L. 69 

Pneumaria maritima, (L.), Hill. 69 ..... 
Isle of Walney .... Lawson in 
Ray, Fasc. 1688. 22. Previously re- 
corded by Parkinson in the Theatrum in 
1640, and first as a British plant. It 
was found by Thos. Hesketh in 1640. 
Frequently reported up to 1902. 
The same remarks apply here as 
those under Crambe marilima. Surely 
this beautiful plant will be collected 
very sparingly. It is one of the in- 
teresting gems of the county flora 

Myosotis repens, G. Don. 59. Goodlad sp. 
Top. Bot. Greenbank ; ]. H. Lewis. 
60. Wheldon and Wilson, 1899 and 
1901. 69. Miss Hodgson, 1874 

silvatica, Hoffm. 59. Reddish; Buxton's 
G. 27. Whitehead's Fl. Wheldon. 
Top. Bot. 60. Top. Bot. Linton cat. 

Lithospermum officinale, L. 59. Buxton's G. 
25. Dickinson's Fl. Green's Fl. 
60. Wennington; between Carnforth 
and Silverdale ; Wheldon and Wilson. 
69. Miss Hodgson, 1874, W. Fog- 
gitt, J. G. Baker 

t arvense, L. 59. Buxton's G. 25. Top. 
Bot. Green's Fl. 

tEchium vulgare, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's 
G. 25. Green's Fl. 60. Nr. Fleet- 
winds Wheldon. 69. L. Petty, 
1888-1890. Barnw ; J. Henry 

Llll.Convolvulacea; 

Volvulus Soldanella, Junger. 59. Top. Bot. .' 
Southport; Blrkdale; Green's Fl. 60. 
South Shore; A.Wilson. Fleettoood ; 
Wheldon. 69. Walney I. ; Lawson 
to Ray, 1718. John Dalton in 
With. ed. iii. 1796. 240. Miss 
Hodgson, 1874 ; no locality 

Cuscuta Epith mum, Murr. 59. Formby, 
1901: Laverock in Green's Fl. 60. 
Ansdell; Chas. Bailey 



55 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order LlV.Solanacea: 

Atropa Belladonna, L. 60. Top. Sot. Cam- 
forth ; Rev. W. W. Mason. Silver- 
dale, 1902. L. Petty. 69. Humphrey 
Hd. 1 86 1, E. Green. 1885, J. G. 
Baker. In the Park at Holker ; A. 
Ley in Baker's Fl. Shore at Canon 
Winder; 1892 ; L. Petty 

L V. Scrophularineie 

[Verbascum nigrum, L. 59. Alntree ; +; 
Wheldon.] [V. virgatum 69.] 
[V. Blattaria, L. 60, 69.]. Casuals 

[Linaria repens, Mill. 60, 69, garden escapes] 

* viscida, Moench. 59. Casual, A'mtree ; 
Wheldon. 60. +. 69 

Scrophularia umbrosa, Dum. 60. Knotolt 
Green; 1899. Wheldon 

Limosella aquatica, L. 59. Top. Hot. Nr. 
Ormskirk; Dickinson. 60. Overton 
Marsh, Aug. 1900. A. Wilson in 
J. of B. Jan. 1901, p. 25 

'Veronica polita, Fr. 59. Linacre ; Wheldon. 
Buxton's G.* 60.* 69. Baker's Fl. 

hybrids, L. 60. Silverdale ; Miss S. 

Beever. Baker's Fl. 1885. 69. Jen- 
kinson. Desc. Brit. PI. 14. About 
Cartmel Wells. 1775. Repeatedly 
confirmed in the chief works up to 
the present time. Humphrey Hd., 
1902. Rev. W. W. Mason in litt. 
A. Wilson, 1904, sp. 

montana, L. 59. Goodlad Hb. Top. Sot. 

Dickinson's Fl. Green's Fl. White- 
head's Fl. Buxton's G. 60. + . 
W. andW. 69. Baker's/ 1 /. 1885. 

scutellata, L. 59. Top. Sot. Buxton's G. 

Whitehead's F/. Green's Fl. 60. 
+ . W. and W. 69. near U hers ton ; 
L. Petty, 1898 

Euphrasia officinalis, L. var. nemorosa H. 
Mart. 59. Wheldon. 60. Wheldon. 
69. Petty ; named by Ar. Bennett 
var. gracilis, Fr. 69. Baker's Fl. 1885. 

Petty, 1903 
var. curta, Fr. 60. Wheldon 

borealis (Towns.), Wetts. f. 60. Whel- 

don and Wilson 

Bartsia viscosa, L. 59. Plentiful near Orm- 
skirk ; Hudson, (Hall). htAllerton 
near Liverpool, Mr. Robt. Roscoe in 
Sm. Eng. Fl. vol. iii. 1 18. Bean sp. 
Top. Bot. Sandhills, Formby ; Ains- 
dale ; Southport; Green's/ 1 /. Whel- 
don in litt. 1903. Nr. Sefton ; 
Dickinson. 60. Fielding ms. Top. Bot. 

Pedicularis palustris, L. 59. Top. Bot. 
Buxton's G. 80. Green's Fl. 60. 
Bleasdale; +; 1899. A.Wilson. 69. 
Jopling, Linton, and Miss Hodgson 

Melampyrum silvaticum, L. 69. In woods 
on E. side of Humphrey Hd. Dr. 
Windsor in Phytol. 1862, p. 259. 
Blawith; /. of B. 1874. Rev. 
W. M. Hind. Woods, Yewdak 
Beck, Conlston ; Miss S. Beever 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued} 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued') 
Order LVl.Onbanchacea; 

Orobanche major, L. 59. Allerton ; Wither- 
ing. Billinge Beacon; Dickinson, 1850. 
Formerly found on roots of broom 
near Eccles. Mr. J. Martin in 
Buxton's G. p. 8 1. Top. Bot. 

minor, Sm. 59. Hale; 1850; + ; but 

rare and local; Green's Fl. Crosby, 
1902. Wheldon in litt. 
Lathraea squamaria, L. 59. Buxton's G. 
80. Top. Bot. 60. Fl. Stony- 
hurst. H odder Valley. March, 1903. 
Wheldon and Wilson in litt. 69. 
Plumpton ; Jackson in With. ed. iii. 
1796. Nr. Hawkshead; W. Satter- 
thwaite. 1885. Nr. Coniiton ; 
Miss S. Beever ; + 

LVlLLentibularinea: 

Utricularia vulgaris, L. 59. Top. Bot. Nr. 
Southport ; Dickinson. Buxton's G. 
Green's Fl. Little Crosby; Rev. 
W. W. Mason, ms. 1900. 69. 
Hawkshead ; Ray cat. 210. 1670. 
Flookborough ; Jackson in With. ed. 
iii. 20, Urswick Tarn ; 1874. Miss 
Hodgson. Park Fell; 1885. Alf. 
W. Bennett 

intermedia, L. 69. Between Brathay and 

Hawkshead; F. J. Hort. Bot. Gaz. 
1850. Nr. Coniston. . . . Miss S. 
Beever, in Baker's Fl. 1885 (with 
the following sp.) 

minor, L. 59. Dickinson 'sf/. Top. Bot. 

69. Jenkinson, 1775. Jackson in 
With. 1796. Miss S. Beever 
Pinguicula vulgaris, L. 59. Top. Bot. sp. in 
Herb. Oxon. Buxton's G. Dickin- 
son's Fl. Green's Fl. Rare. 60. 
Fl. Stony hurst; + ; W. and W. 69. 
+ ; Miss Hodgson and others. 
First recorded as British ' neere to 
Blackburne,' see Gerard's Herbal, 
1597, p. 645 

LVlILVerbenace* 

Verbena officinalis, L. 59. Top. But. 
Dickinson's Fl. (Southport). 60. 
Silverdale; A. Wilson. 69. Miss 
Hodgson, 1874; + ; Baker's Fl. 
1885 

LIX.LaMat* 

Mentha rotundifolia, Huds. 69. Lawson to 
Ray, 1688. Uiverston to Greenodd '; 
L. Petty, 1901 

piperita, L. 59. Heys sp. Top. Bot. 

Dickinson's F I. ; ' native,' near Red- 
dish ; Whitehead, Wheldon. Med- 
lock Vale; Whitehead. Bathvood ; 
Ormskirk. T. Williams. Green's 
Fl. Buxton's G. 75 

saliva, L. 59. Top. Bot. Nr. Liverpool, 

etc. Wheldon and others. 60. 
'Common' W. and W. 69. Nr. 
Littlt Langdak Tarns Miss Hodgson, 
1874 



BOTANY 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued'] 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued') 
Order LIX.Libiat* (continued) 
*Mentha viridis, L. 60. Lune banks, Halton ; 
A. Wilson* 

rubra, Sm. 59. Canal bank Maybull to 

Lydiate ; R. Brown. Green's FI. 
60. Higher Bridge Island; Flora of 
Stmyburst (prob. correct J.A.W.). 
69. Baker's Fl. 1885. (Miss Hodg- 
son form near rubra) 

gentilis, L. 60. By the Hodder, nr. 

Mytton, Aug. 1899 ; Wheldon 

Pulegium, L. 59. Newton Common, 

1851 ; Dickinson. 69. On Goose 

Green, Dalton ; Atkinson, see Baker's 

Fl. 1885 ; also Petty's 'Constit.'in 

Naturalist, Oct. 1897 
Thymus serpyllum, Fries. 59. Top. Sot. 

Green's Fl. 60. Silverdale ; A. 

Wilson, 1887. Leek Beck and Fell; 

Petty. 69. Dr. Windsor, 1857, 

Miss Hodgson, 1874 
Calamintha arvensis, Lam. 59. Top. Sot. ! 

60. Carnforth; A. Wilson. 69. 

C. J. Ashfield in Pbytol. 1861, 

p. 237. J. G. Baker, 1885. Rev. 

A. Ley, Baker's/"/. 1885 

officinalis, Moench. 59. Top. Sot. Nr. 

Garston; Hall. Nr. Ditton ; Miss 

Gowthwaite. 69.]. G. Baker, 1885 
Salvia Verbenaca, L. 60. Silverdale, 1901 ; 

Petty 
Nepeta Cataria, L. tS9- Canal banks, 

Aintree ; Wheldon. 60. +. A. 

Wilson. 69. Beach at Rampside ; 

Atkinson in With. ed. iii. 1796, 327. 

Baker's Fl. 1885. Petty's Constit. 
Scutellaria minor, Huds. 59. Top. Sot. 

Formhy ; T. Glover. Knowsley ; 

Marrat. 60. Wkittington Moor; 

Arkholme Moor ; A. Wilson, 1900. 

69. Nr. Dalton, Atkinson in With. 

ed. iii. 1796. 540. Hawkshead 

Hill; Coniston tarns, and by stream 

below Tarn House, Miss S. Beever in 

Baker's Fl. 1885 
* Marrubium vulgare, L. 59. Top. Sot.* 

F. M. Webb.* Dickinson's Fl. [69] 
Stachys arvensis, L. 59. Top. Sot. Green's 

Fl. 60. A. Wilson, 1888. 69. 

Miss Hodgson, 1874 ( no l c ) 
Galeopsis Ladanum, L. 59. Top. Bot. Dick- 
inson's Fl. * Garston; R. Brown. 

69. Baker's Fl. 

[ ochroleuca, Lam. Frequent in Lanca- 
shire ; Hudson. Sm. Eng. Fl. rep. 

1825] 

versicolor, Curt. 59. Top. Bot. Wheldon, 

etc. 60. Top. Bot. also W. and W. 
69. Baker's/"/. 

Lamium amplexicaule, L. 60. Wheldon, 
1900. 59. Top. Bot. Green's Fl. 
' very common," nr. Liverpool ; 
Wheldon 

intermedium, Fries. *59- Casual ; 

Wheldon. 60. Top. Bot. = Silver- 
dale; Melvill 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order LIX.Libiata (continued) 

Lamium hybridum, Vill. 59. Top. Bot. Speke ; 
Wheldon. 60. Top. Bot. Melvill 

Galeobdolon, Crantz. 59. Top. Bot. 

Goodlad Hb. ! Whitehead's Fl. 
Buxton's G. 60. P. J. Hornby. 
69. Coniston ; 1864. Linton ; see 
Baker's Fl. 

Ballota nigra, L. 59. Top. Bot. ' Very rare.' 
Wheldon in litt. Pilkington ; Bux- 
ton's G. 69. C. C. Babington from 
Netvbould. See Petty's Constit. 

LX. Plantaginetf 

Littorella juncea, Berg. 59. Top. Bot. Crosby 
Marsh; Withering. Formby to 
Southporl; Dickinson. Green's Fl. 
Whitehead's Fl. 60. Canal, nr. 
Garstang; 1891. A.Wilson. ? 69. 
(Linton's Lake C. only) 

LXI.IIlecebrace* 

Scleranthus annuus, L. 59. Top. Bot. Bux- 
ton's G. 56. Green's Fl. 60. Nr. 
Garstang; 1891. A.Wilson. 69. 
Miss Hodgson ; Baker's Fl. 

LXll.Chenopodlacea; 

*Chenopodium ficifolium, Sm. 59. Wheldon, 
'casual,' 1896-1904 ! 60. Whel- 
don ' casual ' 1 90 1 

* murale, L. 59. Wheldon and others. 
Green's Fl. Top. Bot. 60. Top. 
Bot. Syme sp. Wheldon, 1900* 

* hybridum, L. 59. Top. Bot. ? Green's Fl. 

* urbicum, L. 59. Wheldon ; 1901.* 
60. A. Wilson, 1899.* 

rubrum, L. 1 59. Top. Bot. Green's Fl. 

60. Wheldon,* 1899. A.Wilson, 
1901* 

Beta maritima, L. 60. Nr. Lytham ; A. 
Dullman. 69. Walney I. ; Rev. 
W. W. Mason in litt. 1902 

1 The first four of these Chenopodia are introduced with 
chicken corn and in ballast ; they arc all likely to spread, but 
have little claim to a place in the British Flora. They are to 
be found more or less plentifully on rail and river banks, and 
waste places at all the great seaports, and inland in similar 
places by malt kilns and flower mills, along with a host 
of other aliens, and occasionally turn up in the neighbourhood of 
pheasant and poultry runs, the seeds of many species which are 
separated from foreign barley by the Boby machine along with 
the fruit of Polygonum Fagopyrum (F. esculentum) being much 
used as pheasant food. A flora of aliens found in Britain, with 
the date of the first appearance or record of each plant, will 
require an annual supplement, but it will be useful to future 
botanists. The aliens found in Lancashire will fill many pages 
of such a flora, hence these remarks. A vast number of these 

best summers, a considerable number arc hardy annuals, and a 
few are biennial and perennial. Besides these aliens, plants 
occasionally spring up (often in profusion) of species which have 
been considered for a century, more or less, as true natives of a 
district, in company with obvious introductions ; these are usually 
on dredging or newly made ground. These are especially inter- 
esting problems for the botanist. Our oldest records do not 
give us the approximate year of the introduction of such plants 
as Veronica Tournefortis; if they did we should have to treat 
a great many of our cornfield weeds as ' foreigners ' ; abundant as 
they now are thev would have to take their places in the alien 



57 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order LXIL Chenopodiace* (continued) 

Atriplex deltoidea, Bab. 59. Top. Sot. 

Lewis Rec. Aintree ; Wh. 
var. prostrata, Bab. 59. Wheldon, 
1897. 60. Wheldon, 1899 

Babingtonii Woods. 50. Top. Hot. 

F. M. Webb, cat. 60. Wheldon, 
1900. 69. Baker 

var. virescens, Lange. 60. Wheldon, 
1901 

laciniata, L. 59. Top. Hot. Bloxam ms. 

Dickinson. 60. Top. Bot. Syme sp. 
69. Woodward in Withering, ed. iii 
1796. L. Petty, 1892 

portulacoides, L. 59. Top. Bot. 60. 

Syme sp. Top. Bot. 69. Walney 
I.; Ch. Bailey. Barrow; Prof. 
Oliver. Ken ft Bank; nr. Cark 
Statn. ; J. G. Baker. E. of Hofme I ; 
Petty. + 

littoralis, L. 59. Top. Bot. Hightozvn; 

Wheldon. Dickinson's F/. 60. Top. 
Bot. Linton,cat. Pilling; A.Wil- 
son. Fleetwood; Wheldon 
Salsola Kali, L. 59. Top. Bot.\ Wheldon;+; 
60. Top. Bot. 69. Miss Ashburner 
(only). Petty's Const. 

LXir.Polygonacea 

tPolygonum Convolvulus, L. 59. Top. Bot. 
etc. 60. Ch. Bailey, 1901. Bot. 
Rec. Club Rep., 1884-6. 69. Con- 
firm, required 

Rail, Bab. 59. Syme sp. Top. Sot. 
Crosby; Dickinson. Southport; Lewis. 
Hightown ; Wheldon. 60. Top. Bot. 
Linton. Fleetwood; Wheldon 
- minus, Huds. 59. F. M. Webb. Top. 
Bot. Walton Mere ; H. S. Fisher. 
Buxton's G. 54. Simonsicood Moss 
to Kirkby ; F. M. Webb. 

Bistorta, L. 59. 60. 69 

Oxyria digyna, Hill. 69. Tilberthwaite ; 
W. Duckworth in /. of B. 1893, 
374. 

Rumex sanguineus, L. Dickinson and others, 

but not seen by Wheldon. (? 59) 
var. viridis (Sibth.). Top. Bot. 59 and 
60. 60. 'common,' Wheldon. (59. 
Nr. Ormskirk; T. Williams. Bux- 
ton's G.) 

maritimus, L. 59. Top. Bot. Dickinson's 

Fl. Green's Fl. 60. C.J.Ashfield. 
1860. v. Wheldon and Wilson's 
paper in /. of Bot. Oct. 1902, p. 350, 
who refer to Mr. C. E. Salmon's 
record. 69. John Henry 

limosus, Thuill. 59. Top. Bot. (Lewis) 

* crispus, L. var. triangulatus, Syme. 59. 
Wheldon in litt. 1902. 60. Fleet- 
wood salt-marshes, 1901. Wheldon.* 
69. J. G. Baker 

crispus X obtusifolius. Syn. R. pratensis, 

M. and K. (acutus, L.) 59. Top. 
Bot. Green's Fl. 60. Near Knovile 
Green, 1899, Wheldon 

58 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONIS (continued) 
Order LXir.Polygmace* (continued) 

Rumex domesticus, Hartm. 60. Fl. Stonyhurst. 
By the Lune, near Kirkby Lonidale, 
1901. Wheldon and Wilson in 
J. ofB. 

Hydrolapathum, Huds. 59. Top. Bot. 

Buxton's G. Whitehead's Fl. 
Dickinson's Fl. Green's Fl. 60. W. 
and W. 69. Lawson only, 1680 

LXr.ArutoIochiace* 

Asarum europsum, L. 59. Dugdale, sp. 
Top. Bot. In several woods in Lan- 
cashire ; Leigh, Ray. Sm. Eng. Fl. 
vol. ii. 317 

LXVLThymelaacc* 

Daphne Laureola, L. * 59. Denizen. Green's 
Fl. 60. Silverdale area. Petty (Local). 
69. Dr. Clowes, 1861. Baker's W. 
Petty's Const. Grange ; 1903. A. 
Beardsley 

LXX.Euphorbiace* 

Euphorbia amygdaloides, L. [69. Cartmel ; 
1 840. Hb. Motley at Swansea] 

Paralias, L. 59. Scholes, sp. Top. Bot. ! 

Between Formby and Southport; 
Withering. Rev. W. W. Mason. 
Blundellsands ; R. Brown, Wheldon. 
Hightown; Wheldon. 60. C. J. 
Ashfield, 1864 (approx.). C. E. 
Salmon. 69. Walney I. ; Atkinson in 
With. ed. iii. 1796. Near Holker ; 
1843. Wilson, W. 

portlandica, L. 59. Scholes sp. Top. 

Bot.! Crosby to Southport; Dickin- 
son. ' Still there,' Wheldon in litt. 
1903. 69. Walneyl.; John Henry, 
teste J. C. Melvill, 1897 

* Mercurialis annua, L. 59. Dugdale sp. Top. Bot. 
Ballast casual, Green 

LXXILMyriuKt* 

Myrica Gale, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's 
G. 125. Hall, Dickinson, H. S. 
Fisher, R. Brown. Wheldon in 
litt. 1903. 60. C.J.Ashfield, 1864. 
Top. Bot. Linton. Wheldon and 
Wilson, 1902. 69. Abundant. Wil- 
son, Wm., Miss Hodgson, J. G. 
Baker 

LXXIII.Cupulifer* 

Betula verrucosa, Ehrh. 59. 60. Middle- 
barrow Wood; 1899, A.Wilson. 69. 

pubescens, Ehrh. 60. A. Wilson in 
S.R.C. Report, 1887. 'In all dis- 
tricts.' W. and W. in litt. 1904. 
69. Strikers; Haverthwalte ; Miss 
Hodgson, 1874 

Quercus Robur, L. a. pedunculata, L. 59. 
Top. Bot. ! c. sessiliflora. 59. Top. 
Bot. 60. Wheldon and Wilson, 
1899. 69. 

t Fagus silvatica, L. 59. Top. Bot. ' Planted ' 
Buxton and Whitehead. 60. Top. 
Bot. ' Denizen.' Wheldon in litt. 



BOTANY 



CLASS I. PILENOGAMIA (continued) 
SUB-CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONES (continued) 
LXXlV.Salicincx 

Salix pentandra, L. 59. 7ty. .Bfl/.t Dickinson's 
Fl. 'Native,' Whitehead. Chorl- 
ton ; Gorton ; Buxton's G. 121. 
Barton; Wheldon. +. 60. +. W. 
andW. 69. Miss Hodgson, 1874. 
* triandra, L. 59. Top. Bat. Dickinson's 

Fl. 69. L. Petty 

* fragilis, L. 59. 60. A. Wilson, 1887, 
B.R.C.Rep. +. 69. Miss Hodgson, 
1874 
* alba, L. 59. Top. Bat. Buxton's G. 

122. Whitehead's Fl. 69. 60. A. 
Wilson, 1887. B.R.C.Rep. + . 

aurita, L. 59. Top. Sot. Rare in Lifer- 

poo! district ; Wheldon. Whitehead's 
Fl. Buxton's G. 123. 60. A. 
Wilson, 1888. 69. 

aurita X cinerea. Wyresdale ; W. and 

W. 

Caprea, L. 59. Top. Bot. Whitehead's 

Fl. Green's Fl. Buxton's G. 

123. 60. Near Garstang; A. Wil- 
son, 1888. Silverdale ; near Leek; 
Petty. 69. 

repens, L. 59. Top. Bot. Green's Fl. 69. 

Walney L; Miss Hodgson, 1874. 
Baker's Fl. 1885. 60. A. Wilson, 
B.R.C.Rep. 1884 

phylicifblia, L. 59. Top. Bot. ' Dug- 

dale ' ! 60. Fl. Stonyhurst; Whel- 
don and W., 1901 

nigricans, Sm. [59] 60. Fl. Stony- 

hurst; Bank of Lime, near Kirkby 
Lonsdale; A.Wilson 

viminalis, L. X Caprea, L. (Smithiana 

Willd. p. part). 59. Top. Bot. under 
Smithiana. Dickinson's Fl. and 
Buxton's G. 123, both under Smithi- 
ana. 60. A. Wilson in B.R.C. Rep. 
1887. Fl. Stonyhurst. +. Leek Beck ; 
Petty. 69. J. G. Baker, Miss Hodg- 
son 

All these records are under 
Smithiana. 

* purpurea,L. X viminalis, L. (rubra,Huds). 

59. Top. Bot. 60. Top. Bot. 

* purpurea, L. 59. Wheldon. +. Top. Bot. 

60. Top. Bot. +. W. and W. 69. 
Miss Hodgson. Hawksheadto Amble- 
side ; ]. G. Baker 

Populus tremula, L. 59. Top. Bot. Green's 
Fl. Buxton's G. 121. 60. Silver- 
dale ; Petty, Wheldon and Wilson. + . 
69. Miss Hodgson. Only one very 
old tree on Plumplon Peat Most. 



LXXri.Cera 

Ceratophyllum demersum, L. 59. Top. Bot. 
Dickinson's Fl. Green's Fl. Bux- 
ton's G. 117. 60. Fl. Stonyhunt, 
1887. 

submersum, L. 59. Altcar Marsh; Dickin- 
son. Southport ; T. Gibson, senr. 
Green's Fl. 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued') 
SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES 
LXXVlll. Hydrocharidea: 

Hydrocharis Morsus-ranse, L. 59. Top. Bot. 
Tudor ms. Buxton's G. +. Dickin- 
son's Fl. Soulkport ; Wheldon. 
Green's Fl. 60. Top. Bot. Linton. 
Cockerham ; A. Wilson 

Stratiotes Aloides, L. 59. Top. Bot. Bottle; 
Walton; Hall. 'Not there now.' 
Wheldon in litt. Whitehead's /V.t 
Buxton's G. 72. +. 60. SifaerJale ; 
]. C. Melvill, 1868. A. Wilson, 
i883,t and 1903 

LXXIX.Orchidex 

Malaxis paludosa, Sw. 59. Percival. Top. Bot. 
Near Milnrotv ; Buxton's G. 109. 
69. Withering, ed. iii. 30-40, 1796. 
Between Estbtvaite and Grtzedale 
valleys, Aug. 1892, Mr. Webb ! 
Miss S. Armitt in Naturalist, Aug. 
1902, p. 272, and in litt. 

[Corallorhiza innata, R. Br. 69. Petty in 
Naturalist, Dec. 1898, from a draw- 
ing by Miss Barton] 

Neottia Nidus-avis, Rich. 59. Top. Bot. 
Dickinson's Fl. Green's Fl. 60. 
Middleton Wood, Goosnargh, 1870 ; 
not seen since, R. Standen in litt. ad 
J. C. Melvill, 1905. Fl. Stonyhurst. 
69. Withering, ed. iii. 1796. Wil- 
son, Wm. 1843 

Listera cordata, R.Br. 59. First described as 
British ' from near the beacon on 
Pendle Hill, in Lancashire,' Merrett's 
Pinax, p. 15, 1666 ; Dickinson's Fl. 
Buxton's G. 109. Pendle Hill; 
Wheldon, 1901. 60. Wheldon and 
Wilson, 1901. +. 69. Baker's 
Fl. 

Spiranthes autumnalis, Rich. 59. Top. Bot. .' 
Allerton and Ince Woods ; Withering. 
Hale; Southport; + ; Dickinson's Fl. 
60. Silverdale, 1864; C. J. Ash- 
field. Known since 1775. 69. 
Withering, ed. iii. 33-4, 1796. 
Baker's Fl. 1885. Kenfs Bank 

Cephalanthera ensifolia, Rich. 69. Wilson, 
Wm. 1843. Baker's Fl. 1845 

Epipactis atro-rubens, Schultz. 60. Near 
Silverdale ; WartonCrag; Gatebarrow 
Wood; 1892. A. Wilson 

palustris, Crantz. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb. Buxton's G. 109. 60. 
Simpson sp. Top. Bot. Yealand; 
Jenkinson, 1775 ; A. Wilson, 1902. 
Lytham, 1903 ; Wheldon in litt. 
69. Baker's Fl. 1885 

Orchis pyramidalis, L. 59. Top. Bot. T. 
Gibson. F. M. Webb. 69. Near 
Cark ; W. Duckworth, in Naturalist, 
1892, p.8i 

ustulata, L. 60. Top. Bot. Simpson 

sp. ' Still there,' 1904. A. Wilson. 

Morio, L. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. Webb. 

Buxton's G. 60. Simpson sp. Top. 
Bot. 69. Walney I. ; John Henry 



59 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued-) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order LXXIX.Orcbidc* (continued) 

Orchis incarnata, L. 59. Top. Bot. F. A. Lees. 
Crosby to Southport ; H. S. Fisher, 
F. M. Webb. ' Still common on the 
sandhills of both S. and W. Lane.' 
Wheldon in litt. 1903. Hightown ; 
Birkda/e; +.Wh. 60. St. Anne 1 ! ; 
between Scorton and Dolphinholme ; 
A. Wilson. Near Docker ; W. 
and W. 

latifolia, L. 59. Near Crosby ; Hall. 

'Still there.' Wheldon in litt. 1903, 
Hale ; Southport ; + ; Dickinson's Fl. 
Top. Bot. R. Brown. Formby ; 
by the Alt, below Lydiate ; R. Brown. 
Buxton's G. 60. ' In Districts I, 2, 
3,4,'' Wilson and Wheldon ' in litt. 
69. C. Bailey ; Baker's Fl. etc. 
Some of the older records must be 
accepted in the aggregate sense 
Ophrys apifera, Huds. 59. Top. Bot. Sand- 
hills near Crosby Station ; Dickin- 
son 

muscifera, Huds. 60. Siherdale ; C. J. 

Ashfield, 1864. 'Still in several 
places,' 1 904 ; A. Wilson. 69. 
Withering, 1796 

Habenaria albida, R. Br. 59. Goodlad Hb. 
Top. Bot. Buxton's G. 108. 9. 
Cockley Beck ; Banks of Duddon ; + ; 
Miss Hodgson, 1874. Coniston ; 
Miss Beever 

viridis, R. Br. 59. Top. Bot. Dickinson's 

Fl. Buxton's G. 108. 60. C. J. 
Ashfield, 1864. Siherdale; A. 
Wilson. +. 69. Miss Hodgson 

bifolia, R. Br. 59. Dickinson's/ 1 /. (Agg.?) 

60. Bailey sp. Top. Bot. C. J. 
Ashfield, 1864. Siherdale, 'fre- 
quent,' A. Wilson. + ; W. and W. 
69. Baker's Fl. 

chloroleuca, Ridley. 59. Buxton's G.+ 

108. Extinct? and must be ac- 
cepted in the aggregate sense. 60. 
+ . W. and W. 69. Miss Hodgson, 
1874. J. G. Baker, 1885 
[Cypripedium Calceolus, L. ' Lancaster.' 
3rit. Mus. Herb. ' Borough Hall 



Park' ; Martin. Bot. Guide, p. 272, 
1805. 'Ina wood called the Helkes, 
in Lancashire ' (Yorkshire ! H.F.). 
Parkinson, Theatrum, p. 218, 1640. 
Extinct] 

LXXX. Index 

Crocus nudiflorus, Sm. 59. Top. Bot.! Liver- 
pool, towards Allinglon ; Withering. 
Green's Fl. (no recent records). 
Whitehead's Fl. Buxton's G. Locally 
abundant about Manchester, 1875- 
1903. J. C. Melvill in litt. 60. 
Nr. Goosnargh ; R. Standen in litt. ad 
J. C. Melvill, 1905 

LXXXl.Amaryllidta; 

Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus, L. 59. 60. 69. 



CLASS I. PH^NOGAMIA (continued-) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES (continued) 
LXXXIlI.Lifiace* 

Polygonatum officinale, All. 60. Gissing ms. 
Top. Bot. Dalton Crag, 1884; A. 
Wilson. [Siherdale ; C. J. Ashfield, 
1864. The station is in West- 
morland, and the plant is still there, 
Wheldon in litt., 1904] 

Convallaria majalis, L. 60. Siherda/e ; 
B.R.C. Rep. 1883. + . W. and W. 

Allium Scorodoprasum, L. 59. Bab. sp. Top. 
Bot. Bank of Mersey; Dickinson. 
Wheldon conf. 69. +. Miss Hodg- 
son, 1874. Soppitt, 1894. L. 
Petty in his Constit. Rev. W. W. 
Mason 

vineale, L. 59. Webb sp. Top. Bot. Near 

Speke ; Dickinson. 60. A. Wilson, 
1896 

oleraceum, L. var. complanatum, Fr. 60. 

Bank of Greta, near Wrayton, 1901 ; 
A. Wilson 

Schcenoprasum, L. 69. J. Seward. Top. 

Bot. Chivey Syke, in Cartmel Fell. 
Wilson, Sya. 255, 1744. Miss Hodg- 
son, 1874 

[Maianthemum Convallaria [Weber], ap. 
Wigg. ' In Lancashire, in Ding/ey 
Wood, six miles from Preston in Aun- 
dernesse ; and in Haruiood, neare to 
Blackburne.' Gerard, Herbal!, p. 330, 
1597. Extinct] 

Tulipa silvestris, L. 60. Found nr. Whitting- 
ham, 1870 (approx) by R. Standen ; 
now lost as a wild plant. In litt. 
per J.C. Melvill, 1905 

Gagea fascicularis, Salisb. 60. Fl. Stonyhurst. 
69. Higgins in Baker's Fl. 

Colchicum autumnale, L. 59. Nr. Middleton ; 
Buxton's G. jo 

Narthecium ossifragum, Huds. Formerly 
called Lancashire Bog Asphodel. 59. 
' All mosses . . . around Manchester 
abundant ; ' Buxton's G. 47. Formby 
to Barton. Green's Fl. 1892. Top. 
Bot. 60. Ascends from Cockerham 
Moss to 1,730 feet ; Wheldon and 
Wilson. ' Neere unto the towne of 
Lancaster.' See Gerard's Herball, 
p. 88, 1597. 69. Baxter (ra.Conistori), 
1837. Miss Hodgson, 1874 

Paris quadrifolia, L. 59. Top. Bot. Dickin- 
son's Fl. Buxton's G. 55. Nr. Cli- 
theroe ; Wheldon in litt. 60. Simp- 
son sp. Top. Bot. Plentiful, ascend- 
ing to 1,000 feet, and found in 
eight districts ; Wheldon and Wil- 
son 

LXXX1V. Juncacca: 

Juncus compressus, Jacq. 59. Burton Marshes ; 
C. T. Green in Fl. L'pool. 60. Long- 
ridge Fell ; Fl. Stonyhurst 
* tenuis, Willd. 59. St. Mary's Church- 
yard, Bootle, Oct. 1903. 'Native' 
(?) Rev. W. W. Mason in litt. 
Alien 



60 



BOTANY 



CLASS I.-PJLNOGAMIA (continued) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONKS (continued) 
Order LXXXIf.Juncace* (continued) 

Juncus effusus X glaucus. 60. Between Grlm- 
sargh and Alston, Wheldon. Disputed 
in Sot. Excb. Club Rep. 1900. 646. 
Mr. Wheldon does not now consider 
it is J. diffusus, Hoppe, but still con- 
siders it must be placed here. Nr. 
Bare ; F. A. Lees in Naturalist, 1 899 
(diffusus, Hoppe). Fl. Stonyhunt 
(diffusus). 69. Humphrey Hd. . . . 
east side . . . J. G. Baker, 1885 
(diffusus) 

filiformis,L. 69. AtWindermereinCartmel ; 

. . . Mr. Jackson. Withering, ed. iii. 
346, 1796. See D. Newton in Ray's 
Historia, ii. 1305, 1688. Hd. of 
Coniston Water; J. G. Baker, 1885 

maritimus, Lam. Lancashire ; Rev. W. 

Wood in Sm. Eng. Fl. vol. ii. 160, 
1824. 59. Top. Bot. F.M.Webb. 
Mersey Banks; Wheldon. Green's 
Fl. 60. Top. Bot. H. C. Watson ! 
+ . W. andW. 69. Miss Hodgson, 
1874. Rev. A. Ley, Baker's F/. 
[ acutus, L. 69. Holker, Lancashire, Mr. 
Woodward in Eng. Fl. vol. ii. 1824. 
Extinct f] See note in Top. Bot. 

obtusiflorus, Ehrh. 59. Top. Bot. 60. 

F. A. Lees, Naturalist, 1 899. Hatves 
Water ; F. Pickard. Carnfortb ; A. 
Wilson. 69. Greenodd shore / Miss 
Hodgson (! J. G. Baker) 

Juncoides pilosum, Morong. Luzula (DC.). 

59. Top. Bot. Buxton's G. 48. 
Whitehead's Fl. Hale ; Green's FL 

60. +. W. and W. Petty ; Rev. 
W. W. Mason, 1902. 69 

multiflorum,Druce. 59. Top. Bot. Green's 

Fl. Simonswood; Altcar ; Rev. W. 
Mason in litt. 1902. 69. John 
Henry. 60. +. W. and W. 

IXXXr.Typhace* 

Typha latifolia, L. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 
Webb. Buxton's G. in. White- 
head's Fl. Wheldon. 60. +. W. 
and W. 69 

angustifolia, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's 

G. in. Kirkhy; Wheldon in litt. 
1903. 60. +. W. and W. 69. 
Urstvick Tarn ; Miss Hodgson, 1874. 
Blelham T. ; W. H. Hills in Baker's 
FL 1885 

[Sparganium affine, Schnizl. 59. Nr. Man- 
chester ; Dr. Hull, 1808 (approx.). 
Buxton's G. HI. [Top. Bot.] almost 
certainly a floating-leaved simplex. 
Buxton and Hull record their plant 
as natans, L.] 

minimum, Fr. 60. Little Hatves Water, 

Silverdale; A. Wilson, 1884. 69. 
Coniston Lake ; Miss S. Beever. War- 
ton Tarn; W. Southall, 1885 

neglectum, Beeby. 60. Nr. Lytbam ; 

Salmon and Thompson. Wheldon, 
1905 



CLASS I. PH^NOGAMIA (continued) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES (continued) 
LXXXri.Aroidex 

Acorus Calamus, L. 59. Top. Bot. Green's 
FL Rev. W.W. Mason in litt. 1902. 
Buxton's G. 47. 60. +. W.andW 

LXXXriL Lemnacex 

Lemna gibba, L. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. Webb. 
Buxton's G. 60. C. J. Ashfield (not 
seen recently, W. and W.) 

polyrhiza, L. 59. Top. Bot. F.M.Webb. 

Buxton's G. Dickinson's Fl. White- 
head's/ 1 /. Wheldon. +. 60. Whel- 
don, 1900 

LXXXriU.Alismacea; 

Elisma natans, Buchen. 69. Coniston ; Miss 
S. Beever. Baker's/ 1 /. 1885 

[Sagittaria sagittifolia, L. 59. 60. Top. Bot. 
Linton cat. Confirmation desirable. 
60. Canal nr. Preston ; H. Beesley 
(W. and W.)] 

Butomus umbellatus, L. 59. Nt.Ince; With- 
ering. Top. Bot. F. M. Webb. 
Formby ; Hall. Little Crosby ; South- 
port ; Dickinson. Sefton Park ; H. S. 
Fisher. Halewood, 1886, Day in 
Liverpool Fl. 1902. Nr. Warrington; 
Wm. Wilson, Buxton's G. 55. 
Rufford; Rev. W. W. Mason in litt. 
1903. Wheldon and Wilson. +. 
60. +. W. and W. 

LXXXIX.Naiadace* 

Potamogeton natans, L. ! 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 
Webb. Whitehead's Fl. Green's 
Fl. +. Wheldon. 60. Very com- 
mon, W. and W. 

polygonifolius, Pour. ! 59. Top. Sot. 

F. M. Webb. Litkcrland; Hall. 
Aintree; F.M.Webb. Little Crosby ; 
Green's Fl. 60. Ar. Bennett in 
J. ofB. May 1886. Silverdale; C. 
Bailey, 1883. +. W. and W. 

alpinus, Balk ! 59. Merrick sp. Top. Bot. 

Dickinson's^/. Reddish; Whitehead's 
Fl. Wheldon conf. Formby ; F. M. 
Webb. Nr. Warrington; T. Gib- 
son. Altcar ; Wheldon. Buxton's 

G. 60. Top. Bot. +. W.andW. 

heterophyllus, Schreb. ! North of Crosby ; 

Dickinson. Formby to Freshfield ; E. 
Davies. Nr. Birkdale ; F. M. Webb 
and H. S. Fisher. 60. (Bailey) Top. Bot. 
[ nitens, Weber. 59. 'Hale Moss' Hb. 
Ch. Bailey. Ar. Bennett in litt.] 

lucens, L. ! 59. Top. Bot. Formby Marsh ; 

Dickinson (not recently, Wh.). 69. 
Coniston Lake ; Miss S. Beever in 
Baker's/ 1 /. 1885 

angustifolius, B. and Presl. 69. ! Arthur 

Bennett in litt. 1 903. Coniston Lake ; 
Ch. Bailey in J. ofB. 1884, p. 370. 

pra;longus, Wulf. 69. ! A. Bennett in litt. 

1903. Windermere ; Borrer in Phytol. 
1846. p. 426. N. end of Coniston 
L. ; J. G. Baker, 1885 



61 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS L PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order LXXXIX.Naiadace* (continued) 

Potamogeton perfoliatus, L. ! 59. Canal be- 
tween Bootle and Litherland; Hall. 
R. Brown. ' common all along the 
canal,' Wheldon, 1902. 60. +. 
W. and W. 69. Coniston ; Winder- 
mere; Baker's Fl. 1885 

crispus,L. ! 59. +. Top.Bot. 60. +. 

W. and W. 69 

densus, L. ! 59. Top. Bot. F. M. Webb, 

sp. Nr. Liverpool, F. M. W. See 
Green's Fl. 

obtusifolius, Mert. and Koch. 59. Good- 

lad, Hb. Top.Bot. Dickinson's Fl. 
Little Crosby ; ]. H. Lewis. Altcar; 
Wheldon. Whitehead's Fl. 60. 
Top. Bot. 

var. fluvialis, Lange and M. 60. 
Wheldon 1900, teste Ar. Ben- 
nett. Mill-dam nr. Quernmore; 
W. and W. 

Friesii, Rupr. ! 59. Ar. Bennett in litt. 

1903. J.ofB. May, 1886 

pusillus, L. ! 59. Top. Bot. Ashton Moss ; 

Reddish ; Whitehead's Fl. Reddish ; 
Southport ; Wheldon. Buxton's G. 
24. Green's Fl. 1902. 60. Top. 
Bot.; + . W. and W. 

pectinatus, L. ! 59. Top. Bot. Walley sp. 

Liverpool canal ; Hall. Reddish ; 
Whitehead. Nr. Eccles ; Buxton's G. 
60. Lancaster; A. Wilson. Top. Bot. 
var. 59. Green's Fl. next sp. 

interrupts, Kit. 59. Whalley, Top. Bot. 

Lancashire. Ar. Bennett in litt. 
Ruppia maritima, L. f. rostellata (Koch). 59. 

Wheldon, 1899. 60. Wilson, 1893. 

69. Rev. W. W. Mason, 1902, in 

litt. f. spiralis (Hartm.) 59. Crosby ; 

Hall 
Zannichellia palustris, L. ! 59. Top. Bot. 

F. M. Webb. Buxton's G. no. 

Reddish ; Newton in Whitehead's Fl. 

Wheldon conf. Southport; Wheldon. 

Green's/ 1 /. 60. A. Wilson, 1894. 

+ . W. and W. L. Petty, 1902 
Zostera marina, L. 59. Top.Bot. Nr. mouth 

of Alt. ; Hall 
[Najas graminea 

var. Delilei Magnus. Alien, Canal. 

Reddish; Lee and Berkenshaw in 

Whitehead's Fl. Ashton, p. 39, 

1888. J. of B. Oct. 1884. Ch. 

Bailey, ' introduced with cotton from 

Egypt probably.' J. C. Melvill 

in litt.] 

XCI. Cyperace* 

Eleocharis acicularis, R. Br. 59. Top. Bot. 
Crosby ; Dickinson. Buxton's G. 7. 
+ . Hightown; Wheldon 

multicaulis, Sm. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb. Dickinson's Fl. Knowsley ; 
R. Brown, 1885. 60. Top. Bot.l 
Nr. Chipping; 1900, A. Wilson. 
69. W. Foggitt, 1885 



CLASS I. PttfiNOGAMIA (continued) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XCI.Cyperacea: (continued) 

Eleocharis uniglumis, Link. 59. F. M. 
Webb sp. Top. Bot. Altcar ; + 
F. M. W. Whitehead's Fl. Brown, 
in Green'sF/. 60? Chadwick sp. 
Top. Bot. St. Anne's ; Searle in Hb. 
Wheldon 
Scirpus pauciflorus, Lightf. 59. Top. Bot. 

F. M. Webb. Crosby ; Hall. Birk- 
dale; Lewis. WarbreckMoor ; H. S. 
Fisher. +. 60. A. Wilson, 1892, 
Bolton-le-S. 69. Plumpton . . . ; 
Miss Hodgson, 1874. Flookborough ; 
J. G. Baker, 1885 

caespitosus, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's 

G. Dickinson's Fl. 60. +. W. 
and W. 69. DunnerJale Fells; Miss 
Hodgson, 1874 

cernuus, Vahl. 59. F. M. Webb sp. 

Top. Bot. Nr. 4 tear ; F. M. 
Webb, 1873. Birkdale; Wheldon, 
1897 

fluitans, L. 59. Top. Bot. Dickinson's 

Fl. Buxton's G. Little Crosby ; F. 
M. Webb. Nr. Formby ; R. Brown. 
60. Nr. Morecambe; Wheldon, 1899. 
Nr. Bare ; A. Wilson. 69. I. Hall 
in Withering, 1796. Rev. W. M. 
Hind in /. ojfB. 1874, p. 370 

lacustris, L. 59. Top. Bot. 60. F. A. 

Lees. SilverJale ; A. Wilson. 69. 
Urswick Tarn; Miss Hodgson, 1874 

Tabernaemontani, Gmel. 59. Top. Bot. 

F. M. Webb. Dickinson's Fl. Crosby 
Marsh. 60. Bolton-le-Sands ; + ; A. 
Wilson, 1893 

silvaticus, L. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. Webb. 

Dickinson's Fl. ; +. Whitehead's 
Fl. Buxton's G. 7. +. 60. +. 
W. and W. 

Caricis, Retz. 59. Ryland's sp. Top. Bet. 

Mouth of Alt; R. Brown, 1874, 
Wheldon, 1901. 60. St. Anne's; 
J.C. Melvill, 1891. Bank of Greta. 
m.Wrayton; Aug. 1901. A.Wil- 
son 

rufus, Schrad. 59. Top. Bot. Tudor sp. ; 

. . . between Bootle and Crosby . . . 
. . . ; Mr. John Shepherd in Sm. 
Eng. Fl. vol. i. 59. Birkdale, 1904, 
Wheldon. 60. Bolton-le-Sands, 1892 ; 
A. Wilson 

Eriophorum vaginatum, L. 59. Top. Bot. 
Dickinson's Fl. Buxton's G. S;- 
monswood; Hall. (W. W. Mason, 
1900, in litt.) 60. Wheldon and 
Wilson. +. L. Petty. 69. +. 
Miss Hodgson, 1874. L - P ettv 
(' common ') 

angustifolium, Roth. 59. Top.Bot. Bux- 

ton's G. Green's Fl. 60. Hatcei 
Water Most; Petty. W. and W. +. 
69. +. Miss Hodgson, 1874. 
Plumpton; Baker 

latifolium, Hoppe. 59. Top. Bot. ? Hall, 

Dickinson, Green's Fl. 



BOTANY 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XCl.Cyperaceee (continued) 

Rynchospora alba, Vahl. 59. Top. Bot. F. 
M. Webb. Buxton's G. 6. Gill 
Moss; Hall. Simonswood Moss; 
Dickinson. Whitehead's Fl. (extinct 
nr. Moston). 60. Very rare. Wyres- 
dale ; Cockerham Moss, 1877-1903. 
(The moss is being rapidly cut up 
and made away with by a moss 
litter company. A. Wilson, see 
J.ofB.igoi.) 69. Miss Hodgson, 
1874. Baker's Fl. 1885. "... all 
mosses in Lancashire,' Ray, 1670 

Schcenus nigricans, L. 60. Bailey rec. Top. 
Bot. C. ]. Ashfield, 1864. C. 
Bailey, 1875. A. Wilson, 1883. 
L. Petty, 1902. 69. L. Petty in 
/. ofB., 1892 

Cladium jamaicense, Crantz. 60. Silverdale ; 
Ashfield, 1864. A. Wilson, 1883- 
1904. Rev. W. W. Mason, 1902, 
in litt. 

Carex dioica, L. 59. Top. Bot. 60. Little- 
dale Fell, Udale; + ; Wheldon 
and Wilson, 1899. 69. Leven and 
Duddon basins ; Westm. Notebook, 
1888 

disticha, Huds. 59. Top. Bot. Dickin- 

son's Fl. Whitehead's Fl. Green's 
Fl. 60. +. W.andW. 69. Grange; 
Miss Hodgson, 1874. Kent Basin ; 
Westm. Notebook, 1888 

teretiuscula, Good. 59. Hunt sp. Top. 
Bot. [Dickinson's Fl.] Buxton in 
Whitehead's Fl. and in his own 
guide, 1 1 2. Confn. desirable. 60. 
Bog near Docker, 1901. Wheldon 
and Wilson, confd. by Ar. Ben- 
nett. 69. Urswick Tarn; Miss 
Hodgson in J.of.B. 1874 and in 
Top. Bot. 

paniculata, L. 59. Top. Bot. F.M.Webb. 

Dickinson's Fl. +. Buxton's G. 1 12. 
+ . Eccleston ; Higgins, in Green's 
Fl. 60. A Wilson in B.R.C. Rep., 
1883. +. W.andW. 

muricata, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's G. 

112. Whitehead's Fl. Nr. West 
Derby; Lewis. 60. +. W.andW. 
A. Wilson in B.R.C. Rep., 1883 

remota, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's G. 

Whitehead's Fl. Green's Fl. 60. 
'very common.' W. and W. 69. 
Miss Hodgson, 1874. + 

axillaris, Good. 59. Whitehead sp. Top. 

Bot. Sp. in Herb. Oxon. R. Brown 
in Green's Fl. Buxton's G. 

elongata, L. 59. Wood sp. Top. 

Bot. About Warrington ; Dickinson. 
Dungeon Marsh; Higgins. Bux- 
ton's G. 

curta, Good. 59. Top. Bot. ; Wood sp. 

Dickinson's Fl. + Buxton's G. 1 13. 
Whitehead's Fl. Nr. Aintree; 
Wheldon. 1891. 60. +. W.andW. 
69. Westm. Notebook, 1888 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XCLCyperacea; (continued) 

Carex Hudsonii. A. Benn. 59. Hall's // 
1839. Top. Bot. Dickinson's Fl. 
60. Nr. Silverdale; A. Wilson. 
69. W. Borrer in Phytologist, 430, 
1846 

var. turfosa, Fr. 60. Nr. Reliefs A. 
Wilson. Nr. Higbfild ; Wilson and 
Wheldon 

acuta, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's G. 1 1 3. 

Dickinson's Fl. 60. A. Wilson, 
1891. 69. Miss Hodgson, 1874 

ngida, Good. 60. Greygarth Fell, 2000 ft. ! 

A. Wilson, 1902. 2050 ft.! 1903 

aquatilis, Wahlenb. 69. Blelbam Tarn; 

Lloyd Praegerto Ar. Bennett, 1895. 
Naturalist, March, 1897 

limosa, L. Lancashire ; Hudson's Flora 

AngRca, ed. 2, p. 409, 1778 and 
first as British. 59. Top. Bot. 
(aggr.) 60. Cockerham Moss ; ' prob- 
ably extinct.' A. Wilson in /. oj 

B. 1900 

digitata, L. 60. Nr. Silverdale; A. 

Wilson, 1888, and often seen since 

pilulifera, L. 59. Top. Bot. Dickinson's 

Fl. Whitehead's Fl. Wheldon, etc. 
60. +. W. and W. 69. Westm. 
Notebook, 27 

pallescens, L. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb. Sp. in Herb. Oxon. Bux- 
ton's G. 114. Dickinson's Fl. +. 
etc. 60. +. W.andW. 69. Miss 
Hodgson, 1874. Westm. Note- 
book, 27 

pendula, Huds. 59. Top. Bot. Dickin- 

son's Fl. Buxton's G. 114. 60. 
Top. Bot. Linton cat. +. W.andW. 

strigosa, Huds. 59. Top. Bot. Reddish 

Wood; Buxton's G. 114. Extinct, 
Whitehead. Mill Wood; Hale; ]. 
Shillito. Green's Fl. 

lasvigata, Sm. 59. Goodlad, sp. Top. 

Bot. Buxton's G. 114. White- 
head's Fl. 60. Near Garstang, 1888. 
A. Wilson. 69. Westm. Notebook, 

binervis, Sm. 59. Top. Bot. Park Bridge ; 

Whitehead. Pilkington ; Buxton, 
114. 60. Fl. Stonyhurst. +. W. and 
W. 69. Miss Hodgson, 1874. 
Westm. Notebook, 1888 

distans, L. 59. Top. Bot. R. Brown. 

Wheldon. 60. A. Wilson, B.R.C. 
Ref. 1883. 69. Baker's Fl. 1885. +. 
H. T. Soppitt, 1894 

fulva, Good. 59. Wood sp. Top. Bot. 

60. Wheldon and Wilson, 1891- 
1901. +. 69. MissHodgson, 1874. 
Confirmation desirable (? distans.) 

extensa, Good. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb. Dickinson's Fl. Wheldon 
and others. +. 60. W. and W. 
69. Miss Hodgson. Rev. A. Ley, 
J. G. Baker, 1885. See Westm. Note- 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XCI. Cyperacea (continued) 

Carex flava, L. 60. +. W. andW. In the 
fell district. 59. Warbreck Moor, 
1899; Wheldon. Rainford Moss; 
+ ; Wheldon 

var.minor, Towns. The forms of this 
very difficult species have not been 
studied in the county. Botanists 
cannot agree in assigning names to 
the different forms. Mr. Wheldon 
believes minor to be the lowland form, 
and the type a plant of the fells as far 
as Lancashire is concerned 

CEderi, Ehrh. 59. Top. Bot. Whalley 

sp. R. Brown, 1876. Walton, 1892; 
Birkdale; Southport, 1893 ; Freshfield; 
Wheldon. 60. St. Anne's, 1897; 
Wheldon 

filiformis, L. [ Stalyhinsley, Lancashire 

(f Cheshire H.F.) ; G. E. Hunt, 
June, 1865.] 69. Low End, Coniston 
Water, near Lake Bank; W. Mat- 
thews. Ar. Bennett in 'Naturalist, 
1901 

Pseudo-cypcrus, L. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb. Buxton's G. 215. White- 
head's Fl. Wheldon, etc. 60. 
Silverdale; 1883. A. Wilson. + 

acutiformis, Ehrh. 59. Goodlad Hb. 

Top. Bot. ! Whitehead's Fl. Green's 
Fl. Buxton's G. 115. 60. +. W. 
andW. 69. Miss Hodgson, 1874. 

riparia, Curtis. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb. Near dstley ; Buxton's G. 
1 1 6. 60. Near Borwick ; near 
Lancaster ; A. Wilson (' rare ') 

rostrata, Stokes. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's 

G. 115. +. etc. 60. A. Wilson in 
Bot. Rec. Club Rep. 1881-2. +. 69. 
Westm. Notebook 

vesicaria, L. 59. Top. Bot. Sp. in Herb. 

Oxon. Between Runcorn and War- 
rington ; Dickinson. Cborlton ; nr. 
Chat Moss; Buxton's G. 1 1 5. 60. 
Silverdale. A. Wilson, 1884. 69. 
Newfield ; Seatbwaite; Miss Hodgson, 
1874. Westm. Notebook, 27 

XCIL Graminea: 

Alopecurus pratensis, L. 59. Top. Bot. etc. 
60. +. W.andW. 69. Miss Hodg- 
son, no loc. 

Phleum arenarium, L. 59. Top. Bot. ! F. M. 
Webb. 60. Top. Bot. Linton cat. 

Agrostis canina, L. 59. Top. Bot. Buxton's 
G. etc. 60. H. Beesley. 69. Vlver- 
ston ; Miss Hodgson, 1874. Baker's 
Fl. 1885 

alba, L. var. maritima, Mey. 59. 

Wheldon 
var. coarctata,Hoffm. 59. C. H. Bailey, 

1892. Wheldon. 60. Wheldon 
var. subjungens, Hackel. 59. F.C.King. 

Ar. Bennett in /. ofB., 1887 
var. pro-repens, Aschers. 60. Wheldon, 

1900 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES (continue'd) 
Order XCIL Gramme* (continued) 

Calamagrostis epigeios, Roth. 59. Top. Bot. 
Otterpool; Jigburtb; Hall. Kirkby ; 
]. H. Lewis. Ormskirk; T. Williams. 
60. Top. Bot. Heysham Peninsula; 
A. Wilson. Syme MS. 69. Near 
Dalton; F. A. Lees in Baker's Fl. 

lanceolata, Roth. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb. Buxton's G. Green's Fl. 

Melvill, 1903. 69. Lloyd Praeger 

to Ar. Bennett, 1895. Naturalist, 

1897. 77 

[Apera spica-venti, Beauv. 59. Near Warring- 
ton, Lancashire, Sir J. E. Smith in Eng. 

Fl. vol. i. 89. 59 and 60. casual ? 

Wheldon. Top. Bot. [59] ] 
Holcus mollis, L. 59. Top. Bot. etc. 60. 

L. Petty, 1902. 69. Baker's Fl. 

1885 
t Avena fatua, L. 59. Top. Bot. Wheldon t. 

60. Wheldon t. 

pratensis, L. 60. Near Silverdale ; L. Petty, 

1902 

pubescens, Huds. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb. Green's Fl. 60. Silver- 
dale ; Petty, 1902. 69. Miss Hodg- 
son 

Sieglingia decumbens, Bernh. 59. Top. Bot. 
Buxton's G. 13. Whitehead's F /. +. 
60. +. W.andW. 69. Near Ulver- 
ston ; Miss Hodgson 

Sesleria csrulea, Ard. 60. Silverdale ; C. J. 
Ashfield, 1864. C. Bailey, 1875, 
and in several other loc. A. Wil- 
son, 1902. +. 69. Humphrey Head. 
Dr. Windsor in Phytol. 1857. About 
Grange; J. G. Baker, 1885 

Koeleria cristata, Pers. 59. Aintree ; H. S. 
Fisher. 60. Top. Bot. Finder MS. 
About Silverdale ; A.Wilson, 1902 

Catabrosa aquatica, Beauv. 59. Top. Bot. 
Buxton's G. Dickinson's Fl. R. 
Brown, H. S. Fisher, Rev. W. W. 
Mason, 1903, in litt. 60. Near 
Berwick, 1888; Gars tang; A. Wil- 
son. + 

Melica nutans, L. 60. Near Silverdale, 1888. 
A. Wilson 

Poa nemoralis, L. 59. Top. Bot. Near 
Warrington ; Wm. Wilson. Buxton's 
G. 60. Top. Bet. Linton. Arkholme ; 
+ ; A.Wilson. Alston: H. Beesley. 
+ . Wheldon and Wilson. 69. J. G. 
Baker, 1885 

compressa, L. 59. Parkfield, 1864. 

H. S. Fisher. Walton, 1892-1902. 
Wheldon in litt. 60. Wheldon, 
1899. 69. J. G. Baker, 1885 
Glyceria plicata, Fr. 59. Top. Bot. \ Clay- 
ton Bridge ; J.Whitehead, 1887. 60. 
Between Grimsargb and Alston; Whel- 
don in /. ofB., 1901. 69. Dalton; 
Miss Hodgson, 1874. Skelwith ; 
Dalton; Baker, 1885 
var. pedicellata, Town. 59. F. M. 
Webb 



BOTANY 



CLASS I. PH^ENOGAMIA (continued) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XCI1 .Graminete (continued) 

Glyceria maritima, Mert. and Koch. 59. Top. 

Bot.\ F.M.Webb. Green's^/. 60. 

L. Petty, 1902, teste J. C. Melvill. 

'Common on coast,' Wheldon and 

Wilson. 69. Below Humphrey Head; 

Dr. Windsor. Near Holme Isle; H. 

T. Soppitt, 1894 
* distans, Wahlenb. 59. Top. Bat. ! P.M. 

Webb. Kirkdale; H. S. Fisher. 

Canal by Booties casual, Wheldon. 
*Festuca procumbens, Kunth. 59. Top, Bot. 

Tudor sp. Dickinson's Fl. (.'native, 

Wheldon) 

rigida, Kunth. 59. Top. Bot. Formby ; 

Southport; Dickinson. 60. Wheldon 
in Bot. Exch. Cl. Rep., 1900. 69. 
Grange; T. J. Foggitt, 1885 

uniglumis, Soland. '59. Top. Bot. Tudor 

sp. Dickinson's Fl. Formby ; Birk- 
dale; Wheldon, 1900-4. Rev. W. 
W. Mason, 1902, in litt. 60. St. 
Anne's; Wheldon, 1897 

rottboellioides, Kunth. First as British, 

found by Mr. Newton and shown to 
Ray, at Bare about a mile from Lan- 
caster. See Ray's Fasc. p. n, 1688. 
59. Top. Bot. 60. Top. Bot. Hey- 
sbam, 1902. Rev. W. W. Mason, 
in litt. 69. Walney I., 1902. Rev. 
W. W. Mason, in litt. 

sciuroides, Roth. 59. Top. Bot. Kirkby, 

1904, Wheldon. 60. Moss Side, 
St. Michaels; Rev. P. J. Hornby. 
69. Near Lake Side Station; Wm. 
West m.Rec. Club Rep., 1883. Near 
Fern I ; W. Foggitt ; Wall .... 
J. H. Lewis ; in Baker's Fl. 

ovina, L. 59. Top. Bot. etc. 60. common,W. 

and W. 69. Walney I. Miss Hodgson 

elatior, L. 59. Top. Bot. etc. 60. Mell- 

ing; +; 1888. A. Wilson. 69. 
Miss Hodgson, 1874 

silvatica, Vill. 60. Ease Gill, Leek ; A. 

Wilson in /. ofB., 1900, 46. Wood 
by the Wyre above Dolphinholme ; A. 
Wilson. Whitewell ; W. and W. 

Bromus giganteus, L. 59. Top. Bot. Reddish; 
Buxton's G. etc. 60. Common. W. 
and W. 69. Miss Hodgson, 1874 

* racemosus, L. 59. Canal bank, Aintree, 
1901 ; Wheldon. 

Agropyron caninum, Beauv. 59. Top. Bot. 
Robinson MS. Southport; Dickin- 
son. Buxton's G. Whitehead's Fl. 
Green's Fl. 60. Between Wray and 
Lower Salter, 1887; A. Wilson. 
69. Miss Hodgson, 1874. 

pungens, R. and S. 59. Southport; Whel- 

don in lit. 1903. 60. F. A. Lees in 
Naturalist, 1899 (f. littorale), Fleet- 
wood; Glasson; Preesall ; + ; Whel- 
don and Wilson. /. of B. 1900. +. 
69. Walney I.; Rev. A. Ley. Cark ; 
below Humphrey Head. ]. G. Baker, 



CLASS I. PH^NOGAMIA (continued) 

SUB-CLASS II. MONOCOTYLEDONES (continued) 
Order XCII. Gramine* (continued) 

Agropyron acutum, Auct. brit. 59. Top. Bot. 

F. M. Webb. J. H. Lewis. 69. 
(Probably a hybrid of A. repens x 
junceum) 

junceum, Beauv. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb, common '. . .Green's Fl. 60. 

Common, W. and W. 69. Miss 

Hodgson 
Lepturus filiformis, Trin. 59. Tudor sp. Top 

Bot. Dickinson's F I. Ditton Marsh ; 
. Fidlei's Ferry ; H. S. Fisher. Cros- 

sens, 1893 ; Wheldon. 60. +. W. 

and W. Top. Bot. Syme sp. 69. 

Granges W. Foggitt in Baker's Fl. 

1885. H. T. Soppitt, 1894, in 

Naturalist 
Hordeum silvaticum, Huds. 69. Grange ; ]. 

G. Baker, 1885 

secalinum, Schreb. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb. Ditton Marsh ; H. S. Fisher. 
Hale; by the Alt; R. Brown 

marinum, Huds. (H. maritimum, With). 

60. nr. Lytham, 1883 ; A. Wilson 
in /. of B. 1900 

Elymus arenarius, L. 59. Top. Bot. Southport ; 
Dickinson. N. of Blundellsands ; 
R. Brown. Crosby. 60. +. A. Wil- 
son, P. J. Hornby, etc. 

CLASS III. GYMNOSPERMjE 

XCIIL Conifer* (LXXfll. L.C.) 

Juniperus communis, L. 60. C. J. Ash- 
field, 1864. +. A. Wilson, 1883. 
69. Miss Hodgson, 1874, etc. ! [f. 
nana (Willd). 69. W. Wilson, Miss 
Hodgson] 

XClX.Taxwe*. 

Taxus baccata, L. [59.] 60. C. J Ashfield, 
1864. A. Wilson, 1883. 69. 
Atkinson in With. ed. iii. 615. 
1796. Humphrey Hd. ; + ; Baker's 
Fl. 1885 

CLASS IV. CRYPTOGAMIA VASCULARIA = 
PTERIDOPHYTA 



[Hymenophyllum tunbridgense, Sm. .'59. Top. 
Bot. 69] 

unilaterale, Bory. 59. Top. Bot. 60. 
Clougha; George Stabler, 1881. 
Udale district, 1902 ; O. Wyresdale, 
1902 ; Wheldon and Wilson. Top. 
Bot. 69. Coniston Old Man; Miss 
M. Beever in Phytol. 1841. Bnugh- 
ton-in-Furness ; 1902. R. J. Till- 
yard, Rev. W. W. Mason in litt. 

Cryptogramme crispa, R.Br. 59. Buxton's G. 
128. Leyland sp. Top Bot. 60. 
Top. Bot. Wyresdale; A. Wilson in 
J. of Bot. 1901. +. W. and W. 
69. Jackson in With. ed. iii, 764, 
1796. About Uherston ; luxuriant 
on the Fells ; Miss Hodgson ! 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

CLASS IV. CRYPTOGAMIA VASCULARIA = CLASS IV. CRYPTOGAMIA VASCULARIA = 



PTERIDOPHYTA (continued} 
Order XCr.Fi&es (continued) 

Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum, L. 59. Top. 
Bot. Kirkby; Hall. Hale; + ; 
Dickinson. Tyldesley; Buxton's G. 
60. Trowbarrow, Siherdale; Nr. 
Leeks 1883, L. Petty. +. W. and 
W. 69. Coniston; Miss M. Beever 
in Phytol. 1843. Nr. Humphrey 
Head; Dr. Windsor in Phytol. 1857, 
etc. 

marinum, L. 59. Hall sp. Top. Bot. 

Dingle rocks ; Hall, seen as recently 
as 1895, Green's FL 60. Top. Bot. 
coast of north district, 1884 and 
since ; A. Wilson. 1902, Rev. W. 
W. Mason in litt. 69. Ruins of 
Piel Castle, Piel I.; Miss Hodgson. 
L. Allithwaite, 1902 ; Rev. W. W. 
Mason in litt. 

viride, Huds. 59. Top. Bot. ? 60. A. 

Wilson in B.R.C. Rep. 1887. 69. 
Goathwaite Moor .... Mrs. Wood- 
house in Miss Hodgson's paper in /. 
of Bot. 1874. Coniston O.M.; 
Baker's Fl. 1885 

Ceterach officinarum, Willd. 59. ? Top. Bot. 
60. Top. Bot. Silverdale. Known 
since 1859. L. Petty, 1902. +. W. 
and W. 69. Dr. Windsor. Miss 
Hodgson, +. 1874. Ch. Bailey 
confirmed Dr. Windsor's record, 
Baker's Fl. 1885. Coniston; Miss 
Beever, Windermere ; J. Coward in 
Baker's/ 1 /. Grange; Torver ; 1902. 
Rev. W. W. Mason in litt. 

Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. 60. Top. Bot. 
Linton. In districts I, 2, 3, 6, 7 and 
8. W. and W. Warton ; + ; L. 
Petty. 69. Miss M. Beever in 
Phytol. 1843. Dr. Windsor in Phytol. 
1857 
var. dentata, Hook, 60 

Polystichum lobatum, Presl. 59. Top. Bot. 
F. M. Webb, Nr. Knowsley ; Dickin- 
son. Nr. Harrington ; ]. F. Robin- 
son. Upholland (aculeatum), C. T. 
Green in FL of L 'pool., 1902. 60. 
Top. Bot. (aculeatum). Hodder Banks ; 
+ ; Fl. Stonyhurst. 69. Miss M. 
Beever, 1843. Dr. Windsor, 1 860. 
Both in Phytol. 

angulare, Presl. 59. Top. Bot. F. M. 

Webb. Dickinson's Fl. Nr. War- 
rington ; F. J. Robinson. 60. Fl. 
Stonyhurst. Miss M. Beever, 1843. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hodgson in Miss 
Hodgson's paper in J. ofB. 1874 
Lastraea Thelypteris, Presl. 69. Miss Hodg- 
son, 1853, in J. of B. 1874. J. 
Coward, Baker's FL 1885 

rigida, Presl. Lancashire ; Hooker, Ferns 

of Gt. Britain, 16. 59. Top. Bot. 
60. Top. Bot. Silverdale, 1843. 
Smythes. A. Wilson in J. of Bot. 
Oct. 1902. 69. E. T. Bennett, 
/. of Bot. 1885. Baker's/ 1 /. 1885 



PTERIDOPHYTA (continued) 
Order XCV . FiRcei (continued) 

Lastraea spinulosa, Presl. 59. Top. Bot. Dickin- 
son's Fl. Simonswood Moss, 1902 ; 
Wheldon. 60. +. W. and W 
69. Linton, 1864. J. C. Melvill, 
1865. Miss Hodgson, 1874 

semula, Brackenbridge. 69. Miss Hodg- 

son, 1874, in /. of B. Baker's FL 
1885 

Phegopteris Dryopteris, Fe"e. 59. Top. Bot. 
Dickinson's FL Buxton's G. 1 29. 60. 
Top. Bot. Fl. Stonyhurst. Hindburn ; 
A. Wilson in /. ofB. 1900. +. W. 
and W. 69. Miss M. Beever in 
Phytol. 1843. J. C. Melvill, 1865. 
Miss Hodgson, 1874. A. W. Ben- 
nett and Baker's Fl. 1885 

calcarea, Fe. 59. Leyland sp. Top. Bot. 

(?) 60. Ease Gill, Leek ; 1883. L. 
Petty. +. W. and W. 69. Hamps- 
feld Fell; Mr. Douthwaite in Miss 
Hodgson's paper J. ofB. 1874 

polypodioides, Fee. 59. Top. Bot. Dick- 

inson's Fl. Buxton's G. 129. 60. 
Top. Bot. Linton. Leek Fell ; Petty. 
O. Wyresdale; W. and W. 1901. 
+ . 69. Pinder in Phytol. 184. 
Miss Hodgson, 1874. Baker's Fl. 
1885. 

XCVI. Equisetacett 

Equisetum pratense, Ehrh. 59 ? Top. Bot. 

hyemale, L. 59. Goodlad Hb. Top. Bot. 

60. Nr. Halton, 1899 ; A. Wilson. 
69. Mr. Gabriel Baini in Miss 
Hodgson's paper, 1874. (Lan- 
cashire ; Ray, Merret) 

variegatum, Schleich. 59. Top. Bot. F. 

M.Webb. Blundellsands ; Formby ; 
Birkdale; Wheldon. 60. St.Annfs; 
South Shore. 69. On the shore nr. 
the road to Holme Isle ; C. C. Babing- 
ton in Baker's Fl. 1885 

XCV11. Lycopodiaee* 

Lycopodium Selago, L. Lancashire ; Hudson, 
1778. 59. Top. Bot. Goodlad . Hb. 
Dickinson's Fl. 60. Top. Bot. Linton. 
Wheldon and Wilson, 1901.! 69. 
Jackson in Withering, ed. iii. 1796. 
Miss Hodgson, 1874. ' 

inundatum, L. 59. Hobson sp. Top. Bot. 

Hale; Dr. Carrington. Formby ; H. 
S. Fisher, (error ? selaginella, Whel- 
don in litt. 1904) 

clavatum, L. 59. Goodlad Hb. Top. Bot. 

Buxton's G. 133. Dickinson's Fl. 
60. +. W. andW. 69. Miss M. 
Beever, 1841. Phytol. Miss Hodgson, 
1874. Rev. W. W. Mason in litt. 
1902. 

alpinum, L. 59. Top. Bot. 60. Grey- 

garth Fell and Ease Gill; A. Wilson. ! 
69. Jackson in With. ed. iii. 759, 
1796. Miss M. Beever. Miss 
Hodgson ! 



66 



BOTANY 



CLASS IV. CRYPTOGAMIA VASCULARIA - 
PTERIDOPHYTA (continued} 
XCV111. Selaginellace* 

Selaginella selaginoides, Gray. 59. ! Top. Bot. 
Dickinson's F/. H. E. Smith. 
Birkdale; Wheldon. +. 60. Whel- 
don and Wilson. +. 69. Miss M. 
Beever in Phytol. 1841,90. W. F. 
Miller, 1882, /. ofB. 347 
Isoetes lacustris, L. 69. Neighbourhood of 
Coniston; Miss M. Beever, Phytol. 
,842, 154 
XCIX. Marsileace* 

Pilularia globulifera, L. 59. Top. Bot. Aller- 
ton ; Hall. Formby ; Dickinson, F. M. 
Webb 

In the following orders the sign * means sub-species. 

CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE 
Order Musci 

Sub-Order I. Sphagnaceae 
Section I. Sphagna acutifolia, Schimp. 
Sphagnum fimbriatum, Wils. 59. Rain- 
ford Moss; Parr Moss; Marrat. 
Whiteley Dean; Holt. Reddish; 
(Warbreck Moor ; extinct, J. A. Whel- 
don) ; Whitehead. 60. Calder Valley ; 
Grizedale; A. Wilson. Damas Gill 
Head; W. and W. +. 
var. tenue, Grav. 60. Cockerham Moss ; 

also f. compacta. 

var. robustum, Br. 60. Thrushgill, Hind- 
burn ; W. and W. 

Russowii, Warnst. var. virescens, Russ. 

60. Caton Moor; W. and W. 
var. rhodochroum, Russ. 60. Tatham 
Beck; Hindburn; A. Wilson; 
Grizedale, Abbeystead ; W. and W. 

Warnstorfii, Russ. var. versicolor, Russ. 

60. Marshaw Fell, A. Wilson. Over 
Wyresdale; W. and W. +. 

var. viride, Russ. 60. Bog nr. Docker ; 
A. Wilson. 

var. flavescens, Warnst. 60. Cocker- 
ham Moss ; W. and W. 

rubellum, Wils. var. flavum, C. Jens. 60. 

Cockerham Moss; W. and W. 

var. purpurascens, Warnst. 60. O. 
Wyresdale; + ; W. and W. 

var. rubrum, Grav. 60. O. Wyres- 
dale ; + ; W. and W. 69. Newly 
Bridge; Paul in HorrelPs Sphagn. 
p. 24 

var. versicolor, Warnst. 60. O. Wyres- 
dale ; + ; W. and W. Greygarth 
Fell. 

var. pallescens, Warnst. 60. Cockerham 
Moss; W.and W. + 

fuscum, Klinggr. var. fuscescens, Klinggr. 

60. Cockerham Moss; W. and W. 
var. pallescens, R. and W. 60. Cocker- 
ham Moss; Wheldon and Jones 

acutifolium, R. and W. var. flavo-rubellum, 

W. 60. Mallowdale Fell; + ; W. 
and W. 



CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cmt.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE.S (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sphagnum acutifolium, R. and W. (continued) 

var. griseum, W. 60. Longridge Fell; 
+ ; W. and W. 

var. pallescens, W. 60. Mallowdale 
Fell; + ; Wheldon 

var. pallido - glaucescens, W. 60. 
Harris End Fell ; A. Wilson 

var. rubrum, W. 60. Clougha ; Whel- 
don. Lower Salter ; A. Wilson 

var. versicolor, W. 60. O. Wyres- 
dale; W. and W. Ease Gill. Grey- 
garth Fell 

f. robusta. 60. Tarnbrook Fell ; A 
Wilson 

var. viride, W. 60. O. Wyresdale ; 
+ ; W. and W. Leek Fell. 69 
Coniston Old Man. 29 Oct. 1903 

quinquefarium, W. var. fusco-flavum, W. 

60. Greygarth Fell; W. and W. 

var. pallescens, W. 60. Leek Fell; 
W. and W. 

var. roseum, W. 60. Greygarth Fell; W. 
and W. 

var. viride, W. 60. Clougha; Whel- 

don. -f- 

- subnitens, R. and W. var. flavescens, W. 
60. Gressingham Moor ; Wilson. 
Clougha; Wheldon 

var. flavo-rubellum, W. 60. Longridge 
Fell; + ; W. and W. 

var. griseum, W. 60. Upper Ease Gill; 
A. Wilson 

var. obscurum, W. 60. O. Wyresdale ; 
+ ; W. and W. 

var. pallescens, W. 60. Upper Grize- 
dale ; A. Wilson 

var. versicolor, W. 60. Upper Grize- 
dale ; + ; A. Wilson. 69. Conis- 
ton Old Man (1780 feet) 

var. violascens, W. 60. O. Wyresdale; 
+ ; W. and W. 69. Coniston Old 
Man (l 150 feet) 

var. virescens W. 59. Barton Moss, 
nr. Soutkport; Wheldon. +. 60. 
Chugha Scar; Wheldon and Beesley. 
+ . Fairsnape C lough ; A. Wilson. 
69. Coniston Old Man (1780 feet) 

Section II. Sphagna squarrosa, Schimp. 

squarrosum, Pers. 59. Rainford Moss; 

Higgins. Middleton; Whitehead. 
Whiteley Dean ; Belfield. Netherton; 
Wheldon 

var. spectabile, R. 60. Mallowdale 
Fell; + ; W. and W. 

var. subsquarrosum, R. 60. Calder 
Valley; Mallowdale Fell '; W. and W. 

var. imbricatum. Schimp. 59. Nether- 
ton; Wheldon 

teres, Angstr. var. squarrosulum, W. 59. 

Netherton; Wheldon. 60. Cockerham 
Moss; W. andW. 

var. subsquarrosum, W. 59. Netherton ; 
Wheldon 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA QELLULARIA (rent.) CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cont.) 



SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Section III. Sphagna cuspidata, Schimp. 
Sphagnum riparium, Angstr. 60. Cockerham 
Mas ; H. Beesley, J. A. Wheldon, 
and A. Wilson. This handsome peat 
moss has been found in only one 
other locality in England (E. 
Cornw.) 

cuspidatum, R. and W. 59. Woohton Moss ; 
W. Wilson. Rainford Moss; Simons- 
wood Moss ; Harrison and Skellon. 
Crosby; Tudor. Walton; Gasking 
(extinct, J.A.W.). 60. Common on 
the fells and mosses ; W. and W. + 

var. falcatum, R. 59. Whittle) Dean; 
Holt. 60. Upper Grizedale ; + ; 
W. and W. 

var. submersum, Schimp. 59. 60. ! 
Common on all the fells, W. and W. 

var. plumosum, Nees and Hornsch. 
59. Netherton; Pendle Hill; Whel- 
don. 60. Cockerham Moss ; W.andW. 
Nr. Scorton; H. Beesley. [59. 
Whiteley Dean; Rooley Moor; Holt 
(require confirmation)] 

var. densissimum, Horrell in litt. Summit 
of Greygarth Fell. 21 Oct. 1903. 

trinitense, C. Mull. 60. Cockerham Moss ; 

Longridge Fell; Wheldon. Lower 
Bleasdale; A. Wilson 

pulchrum, W. + . 60. Cockerham Moss ; 

Wheldon. U. Roeburndale ; A.Wil- 
son. Nr. Abbeystead; W. and W. 

Torreyanum, Sulliv. 60. Mallowdale Fell ; 

W. and W. (teste Horrell and Warn- 
storf) 

obtusum, W. 59. Nr. Aintree, about 

6 miles from Liverpool Town Hall; 
Wheldon, in litt. (confd. by Warn- 
storf and Horrell). 60. Cockerham 
Moss ,- Wheldon and Wilson 
var. tenellum W. 59. With the type, 
Wheldon 

These are the only known stations 
in Britain at the time of writing this 
article 

recurvum, R. and W. Very common on 

the fells and mosses ; W. and W. + . 
59. Pendle Hill; Netherton; Whel- 
don. 60. MaUmH/akFtllsWmdW. 

var. amblyphyllum, Warnst. 59. 
Netherton ; Wh. 60. +. W. and W. 
Longridge Fell; H. Beesley. Upper 
Roeburndale ; nr. Docker ; W. and W. 
Greygarth Fell 

var. mucronatum, W. 59. Netberton. +. 
Wheldon. 60. O. Wyresdale ; + ; 
W. and W. Leek Fell. Greygarth 
Fell. 69. Coniston Old Man. The 
commonest peat moss in the county, 
and probably in Britain 

molluscum, Bruch. 60. O. Wyresdale ; 

Tanbrook Tell; W. and W. +. Ease 
Gill; Whitmoor; A. Wilson. Cocker- 
tarn Moss (f. compacta, W) ; W. 
and W. 



SUB-CLASS MUSCINE./E (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Section V. Sphagna rigida, Schimp. 
Sphagnum compactum, DC. Frequent on 

the drier fells ; W. and W. + 
var. imbricatum, W. 60. O. Wyres- 
dale ; + ; W. and W. 
var. subsquarrosum, W. 60. Long- 
ridge Fell; + ; W. and W. 

Section VII. Sphagna subsecunda, 
Schimp. 

contortum (Schultz), Limpr. Syn. S. 

laricinum, Spruce MS. 1847. 60. 
Wolfhole Crag; A. Wilson. Very 
fine and abundant in the bog at 
Docker; W.andW. + 

subsecundum, Limpr. 60. Longridge ; 

H. Beesley, Wheldon. Summit of 
Greygarth Fell; W. and W. 

inundatum, W. 60. Lords Lot Wood, Ark- 

holme; A. Wilson. Catfortb ; Long- 
ridge; H. Beesley 

Gravetii, W. 60. Tattam Beck; A.Wil- 

son. Harris End Fell; W. and W. 
+ . Nr. Fulwood; H. Beesley 

rufescens, W. Common on the fells and 

mosses ; W. and W. 60. O. Wyres- 
dale ; + ; W. and W. 69. Conis- 
ton Old Man 

aquatile, W. 60. Whitmoor ; W. and W. 

(first station recorded for Britain). 
Longridge Fell; Wheldon. Tarn- 
brook Fell; W. and W. 

crassicladum, W. 60. Slope otFairsnape 

Fell; Wh. Harris End Fell; A. 
Wilson. 1] dale ; + ; W. and W. 

Section VIII. Sphagna cymbifolia, 
Schimp. 

turfaceum, W. 59. Rainford Moss ; Whel- 

don. 60. Clougta ; + ; W. and W. 

cymbifolium, W. 59. Pendle Hill; 

Wheldon. Woohton Moss; W. Wil- 
son. Whiteley Dean ; Holt 

var. glaucescens, Warnst. 59. Wh. 60. 
O. Wyresdale; + ; W. and W. 
Scorton; H. Beesley. Greygarth 
Fell, 21 Oct. 1903. 69. Newby 
Bridge; Paul. Coniston Old Man. 
29 Oct. 1903 

var. glauco-pallens, W. 59. Wh. 60. 
O. Wyresdale; + ; W. and W. 

var. pallescens, W. 60. Longridge Fell ; 
+ ; W. and W. 

var. flavo-glaucescens, Russ. 60. Hd. 
ofDamas Gill; W. and W. 

var. carneum, W. 60. Bog nr. Docker ; 
Arkhdme Moor ; A. Wilson. Hd. of 
Damas Gill; W. and W. 

papillosum, Lindb. 59. Rooley Moor; 

Whiteley Dean ; Syke ; Holt 
var. normale, Warnst. 59. Barton Moss, 
Southport; Wheldon. +. 60. Com- 
mon on the fells, O. Wyresdale ; + ; 
W. and W. Greygarth Fell. 69. 
Coniston Old Man. 



68 



BOTANY 



CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cont.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE.H: (continued) 

Order Musci (continued) 

Sect. VIII. Sphagna cymbifolia, Schimp. (cont.) 
Sphagnum papillosum, Lindb. (continued) 

f. conferta (Lindb.), W. 60. Common 
on the fells ; W. and W. 59. Barton 
Moss, Sotithports Wheldon 
var. sublaeve, Limpr. 60. Frequent 
on the fells ; W. and W. +. 69. 
Newby_ Bridge; Paul 

medium, Limpr. var. roseum, W. 60. O. 

Wyresdale ; + ; W. and W. 

var. roseo-pallescens, W. 60. Wolf- 
hole Crag; A. Wilson. Ctckerkam 
Moss ; W. and W. 

var. glauco-purpurascens, Russ. 60. 
TathamMoor; W. and W. 

Sub-Order II. Andrezacex 
Andresea petrophila, Ehrh. 60. Silurian 
rocks, nr. Leek Beck ; A. Wilson. 
Grit rocks, nr. the summit of Grey- 
garth Fell; + ; W. and W. 

Rothii, Webb and Mohr. . 60. Roeburndale ; 

4- 9 other localities ; W. and W. 

var. falcata, Lindb. 60. Haivthorn- 

thwaite; Catshaw Greaves ; W. and W. 

* crassinervia, Bruch. 60. U. Roeburn- 

dale ; Gt. dough of Tambrook Fell; 

W. and W. 69. Coniston Old Man. 

Sub-Order III. Tetraphidaceae 
Tetraphis Browniana, Grev. 60. Nr. Hind- 
burn ; W. and W. Barter Beck; 
Roeburndale ; Wilson. Fall of the 
Keer, in Wash Dub Wood; W. 
andW. + 



Sub-Order IV. Polytrichaceae 



Cath 



tharinea crispa, James. 59. Nowell, White- 
head, and Wheldon. 60. A charac- 
teristic plant of this part of the 
county, on Millstone Grit uplands, 
by streams ; W. and W. + 

undulata, Web. and Mohr. var. Hauss- 

knechtii (Broth.), Dixon. 59. Walton; 
Wheldon 

Oligotrichum incurvum, Lindb. 59. Rooky 
Moor; Wheldon. 60. Wyresdale ; 
+ ; W. and W. 

Polytrichum nanum, Neck. 59. Harrison, 
Percival, Buxton's Guide App. 60. 
Gatebarrow Woods, nr. Siherdale ; 
Wilson. 69. Pathside, on muddy pul- 
verized slate, Coniston Old Man 

abides, Hedw. 59. Ashton-under-Lyne ; 

+ . Wheldon. 60. +. Siherdale; 
Longridge Fell; W. and W. 69. 
Grange ; A. Wilson 

var. Dicksoni, Wallm. 59. Prestwick ; 
Buxton's G. 60. Nr. Lancaster; 
Wh. 

alpinum, L. 60. O. Wyresdale, descend- 

ing to 600 feet ; + ; W. and W. 

gracile, Dicks. 59. Rainford Moss ; + ; 

Wheldon, Beesley, Whitehead, etc. 
60. Cockerham Moss; Ratecl'iffe Moss ; 
A. Wilson. 



CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cont.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE.S (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-Order IV. Polytrichaces (coat.) 
Polytrichum strictum, Banks. 59. PendleHill; 
Wheldon. 60. O. Wyresdale ; + ; 
W. and W. Greygarth Fell. Locally 
abundant. 69. Coniston 

Sub-Order V. Buxbaumiaceae 
Diphyscium foliosum, Mohr. 60. Scars, 

N.W. side of Wardsttme ; W. and W. 

Silurian rocks, Ease Gill, May, 1903 ; 

C. fr. ; A. Wilson in litt. 

Sub-Order VI. Dicranaces 

Archidium alternifolium, Schimp. 59. Hyde 

Road, Manchester ; Hunt 
Pleuridium axillare, Lindb. 59. Ashton ; 

Whitehead. Burnley ; Dearden. 

Hulme; nr. Warrington; W.Wilson. 

+ . 60. Calder Valley ; W. and W. 

subulatum, Rab. 59. Roby ; Harrison. 

Nr. Warrington; W. Wilson. 
Pilkington ; Blackley ; Buxton's G. 
60. Siherdale ; A. Wilson 

alternifolium, Rab. 59. Nr. Liverpool; 

Taylor. 60. Nr. Blackpool; Whel- 
don. Cottam ; H. Beesley 
Ditrichum homomallum, Hampe. 59. CR- 
theroe; Wheldon. 60. Common in the 
East, not always barren. W. and W. 

flexicaule, Hampe. 59. Southport ; Mar- 

rat. Crosby; Skcllon ; Wheldon. 

60. St. Anne's; H. Beesley. 60. 

Siherdale; frequent in this part of 

the county, always barren ; + > W. 

andW. 
Swartzia montana, Lindb. 60. Ease Gill, c. 

fr. ; A. Wilson. By the Greta ; W. 

andW. 
Seligeria pusilla, B. and S. 60. Caton ; 

Wheldon 

recurvata, B. and S. 59. Bamjbrd Wood; 

Whitehead. Ashworth Wood; Whel- 
don. 60. Caton; Wheldon. Nr. 
Kirkby Lonsdale ; W. and W. 

Brachyodus trichodes, FUrnr. 59. Bolton ; 
Ainsworth ; Scholefield. 60. Nr. the 
foot of Graveirs Clough, c. fr. ; + ; 
W. and W. 

Dichodontium flavescens, Lindb. 59. Pendk 
Hill; Wheldon. Bamford ; Buxton's 
G. 60. Not uncommon by streams. 
Nr. Lancaster; Holt. Caton ; +; 
Wheldon 

Dicranella crispa, Schimp. 59. Oldham ; 
Whitehead. Pmtwich ; Tatlow. 
Nr. Warrington ; W. Wilson 

secunda, Lindb. 59. Boggart Hole Clough ; 

Kent. Sailot's Shore; Percival. Rad- 
cliffe ; Buxton's G. 

rufescens, Schimp. 59 Wheldon's paper, 

7. ofB. Jan. 1899. 60. Bindburn ; 
+ ; W. and W. 

Schreberi, Schimp. 59. Nr. Bardsley ; 

Weldon. Rochdale ; Holt. + ; 
Buxton's G. etc. 60. Nr. Lancaster; 
Hamilton 



6 9 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cunt.) CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cont.) 



SUB-CLASS MUSCINE/E (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-Order VI. Dicranaceae (cont.) 
Dicranella squarrosa, Schimp. 59. Bamford 
Wood; Whitehead. Healey Thrutch ; 
W. Wilson. Pendle Hill; Wheldon. 
60. Udale; + ; W. and W. Leek 
Fell. 69. Conlston Old Man 
Blindia acuta, B. and S. 59. Bamford Wood ; 
Holt. 60. O. Wyresdale ; W. and 
W. GravelPsC lough; Grey garth ell ; 
A. Wilson. 

var. trichodes, Braithw. 59. Wheldon 
[Dicranoweisia crispula, Lindb. 59. Rochdale ; 

+ ] 
Campylopus flexuosus, Brid. Common on the 

fells. 59. 60. 69 
var. uliginosus, Ren. 60. + ; A. 

Wilson 
var. paradoxus,Husn. 60. Halton ; + ; 

W. and W. 
var. zonatus, Milde. 60. Clougha ; + ; 

W. and W. 

* pyriformis, B. and S. 59, 60. Common ; 
W. and W. C. fragilis, B. & S. 59. 
60. W. and W. 

atrovirens, De Not. 60. Clougha; + ; 

W. and W. 69. Conlston Old Man 

brevipilus, B. and S. 60. 'Rare.' Clougha; 

1 88 1. G. Stabler 

Dicranodontium longirostre, B. and S. 60. 
Hell Crag, Tarnbrook Fell; O. Wyres- 
dale ; W. and W. 

var. alpinum, Schimp. 60. Thrushgill 
Fell ; Greygarth Fell; A. Wilson 

Dicranum Bergeri, Bland. 59. Riiley Moss ; 
W. Wilson 

scoparium, Hedw. 59. 60. 69 

var. orthophyllum, Brid. 59. 60. W. 
and W. 

var. turfbsum, Boul. 60. W. and W. 

var. paludosum, Schimp. 60. Whitting- 
ton Moor; Dalton Hall; A. Wilson 

var. ericetorum, Corbiere. 60. Cocker- 
ham Moss ; + ; W. and W. 

var. spadiceum, Boul. 60. Greygarth 
Fell, 2,000 ft. ; + ; A. Wilson (rare) 

fuscescens, Turn. 60. O. Wyresdale ; + ; 

c. fr. in several localities ; W. and 
W. 69. Conision Old Man 
var. falcifolium, Braith. 60. Clougha ; 
Wheldon. Upper Roeburndale ; A. 
Wilson 

Sub-Order VII. Fissidentacea: 

Fissidens exilis, Hedw. 59. 60. Blackpool; 
Wheldon. Lea ; H. Beesley 

viridulus, Wahl. 59. Walton ; nr.Jintret; 

Wheldon. 60. Bank of Wyre ; + ; 
Wheldon 

var. Lylei, Wils. 59. Kirkby ; Whel- 
don and Beesley. Rainford ; Whel- 
don. 60. Nr. Garstang ; A. Wilson 
_ pusillus, Wils. 59. Wmiutck; W. Wilson. 
60. W. and W. 

incurvus, Starke. 59. 60. Nr. Stonyhurst ; 

Wheldon 



SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-Order VII. Fissidentaceae (cont.) 
Fissidens tamarindifolus, Wils. 59. Ashton ; 
Whitehead. Clifton Junction ; Hunt 

bryoides, Hedw. 59. 60. 69 

crassipes, Wils. 59. Hulme ; W.Wilson. 

60. Crook of Lune; W. and W. 

osmundoides, Hedw. 59. Fo Edge ; Scond 

Moor,- Percival. If kite ley Dean; 
Holt. 60. Nr. Gravels Clough, e. fr. ; 
W. and W. 

adiantoides, Hedw. 59. 60. 69 

decipiens, De Not. 60. Only on the lime- 

stone in the north ; W. and W. + 

taxifolius, Hedw. 59. 60. 69 

Sub-Order VIII. Grimmiaceae 
Grimmia maritima, Turn. 59. Dingle; 
Marrat. 60. Abundant on rocks 
about Lower Heysham ; Wheldon 

Doniana, Sm. 59. 60. Clougha ; Wolf 

Fell; Greygarth Fell; A. Wilson. 
69. Coniston Old Man 

trichophylla, Grev. 59. Aigburth ; Gar- 

ston ; Marrat 

Rhacomitrium aciculare, (L.), Brid. 60. Fre- 
quent among the fells. O. Wyresdale ; 
W. and W. Ease Gill 
var. denticulatum, Wils. 59. Nr. 
Bolton; Scholefield 

protensum, Braun. 60. Nr. Dolphinholme ; 

Wheldon. 69. Coniston 

fasciculare (Schrad.), Brid. 59. Pendle 

Hill; Wheldon. \Smithdown Lane; 
Marrat, etc. ; extinct.] 60. Com- 
mon in the hilly districts, O. Wyres- 
dale ; + ; W. andW. 

heterostichum (Hedw.), Brid. 59. Aig- 

burth ; Smithdown Lane ; Marrat. 
West Derby ; Skellon. Probably ex- 
tinct, Wheldon. 60. Frequent on 
the fells ; + ; W. and W. 

var. alopecurum, Hub. 60. Ease Gill ; 
U. Roeburndale; A. Wilson. 69. 
Abundant on Coniston Old Man. Some 
forms approaching type 

var. gracilescens, B. and S. 60. Grey- 
garth Fell, 2,000 feet. A. Wilson. 
69. Coniston Old Man, 2,630 feet 

lanuginosum, Brid. 60. Common. W. and 

W. 69. Hamps Fell; A. Wilson, 
MS. Coniston Old Man 

canescens, Brid. 60. Nr. Marshaw, 

O. Wyresdale. +. W. and W. 

Coscindon cribrosus (Hedw.), Spreng. 69. 
Coniston ; Binstead, Holt 

Ptychomitrium polyphyllum (Dicks), Ftirnr. 
59. Walton ; Skellon. Garston ; San- 
som. (Extinct, Wheldon in litt.) 
Worston ; Wheldon. 60. Longridge 
Fell; Clougha; DamasGill; Wheldon. 
Garstang; + ; A. Wilson. Ease 
Gill; W. and W. 69. Nr. Grange; 
A. Wilson, MS. 

Hedwigia ciliata, Ehrh. 69. Nr. Higher Neta- 
ton,on Silurian rocks ; A.Wilson, MS. 



7 



BOTANY 



CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cant.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-order IX. Tortulaceae 

Acaulon muticum (Schreb.), C. Mdll. 59. 

Maghull; Skirby ; Walton; Wheldon. 

Nr. Blacklej ; Buxton's G. 

* mediterraneum, Limpr. 60. Muddy 

bank nr. Bispham ; H. Beesley 
Pottia recta, Mitt. 59. Manchester; Hunt. 
60. Nr. Garstang; A. Wilson. Nr. 
Carnforth ; Silverdale ; + ; W. and 
W. 

Heimii (Hedw.), FUrnr. 59. Southport ; 

Marrat. Ht.WarriagtonW.Wdxm. 
Hightown; + ; Wheldon. 60. Fre- 
quent along the coast ; W. and W. 
Lytham; Yates, Wheldon. +; Wh. 

intermedia, Filrnr. 59. 60. and f. lit- 

toralis (Mitt.), W. and W. 

Wilsoni, B. and S. 59. Southport ; Wild, 

1876 

minutula, Ftlrnr. 59. Very frequent, 

Walton; Aintree ; + ; Wheldon. 
60. Caton ; + ; Wheldon. Tunbrook 
Wood; H. Beesley. Chipping; A. 
Wilson 

lanceolata, Ftlrnr. 60. Nr. SilverJale ; A. 

Wilson 

Tortula pusilla (Hedw.), Mitt. 59. Between 
Broadgreen and Roby ; Harrison 

rigida, Schrad. 59. Blackburn; Burnley; 

Hunt. Nr. Maghull; Wheldon 
ambigua, Angstr. 60. Garstang ; + ; A. 
Wilson. Scorton ; H. Beesley 

abides, De Not. 59. Blackburn; Hunt. 

Walton ; Wheldon. Burnley ; Schole- 
field. 60. Lytham; Wheldon. + . 
W. and W. 

mutica, Lindb. 59. Mitton ; Clitheroe ; 

Chatburn; Wheldon. 60. Nr. Stony- 
hurst ; nr. Lancaster ; nr. Kirkby 
LonsJale ; + ; W. and W. 

ruralis, Ehrh. 60. Silverdale ; nr. White- 

well ; Wheldon. 'Rare' 
* ruraliformis, Dixon. (T. ruralis var. 
arenicola, Braithw.) 59. Southport; 
Hunt. Frequent from Crosby to 
Southport; Wheldon. 60. Abundant 
on the sand-hills ; Wheldon 

papillosa, Wils. 60. ' Very rare.' Silver- 

dale ; Nowell. Nr. Heysham ; Whel- 
don 

Barbula lurida, Lindb. 60. ' Rare,' Caton ; 
+ ; Wheldon 

spadicea, Mitt. 59. Pend/e Hill; Wheldon. 

60. Preston ; Ease Gill; + ; W. and 
W. 

recurvifolia, Schimp. 60. Silverdale ; + ; 

W. and W. 

cylindrica, Schimp. 59. Chatburn ; Whel- 

don. 60. +. W. and W. 
* vinealis, Brid. 59. Southport; Marrat. 
Walton ; + ; Wheldon. 60. Most 
frequent on the sandhill ; +. W. 
and W. 

sinuosa, Braithw. 60. Silverdale ; Whel- 

don 



CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cont.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE./E (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-Order IX. Tortulace* (cont.) 
Barbula Hornschuchiana, Schultz. 59. New- 
ton ; W. Wilson. Burnley ; Dearden. 
Southport; Wheldon. 60. Throng 
End; nr. Blackpool; W. and W. 
St. Ami* ; Wheldon 

revoluta, Brid. 59. Childwall ; Harrison. 

Clifton ; Hough End Hall; Buxton's G. 

Leptodontium flexifolium (Dicks), Hampe. 
59. Manchester; Hobson. 60. Nr. 
Lancaster; Holt. Greygarth Fell; 
W. andW. +. Clougha ; Wheldon 

Weisia crispata, C. Mtlll. 60. Confined to 
the scar limestone of the north, where 
it is abundant. Silverdale ; Borviick ; 
Warton ; A. Wilson. Tealand ; Trow- 
barrotv ; ThrangEnd; + ; Wheldon. 
Da/ton Crag, W. and W. 69. Grange; 
A. Wilson, MS. 

Grows in rock crevices often with 
Funaria calcarea and Bryum murale, 
also with Polygonatum offic.,L. rigida, 
Polyp, calc., Hylocom. rugosum, and 
Scap. aspera ; Wheldon. SeeJ.ofB. 
Sept. 1899, p. 375 

squarrosa, C.M. 59. Nr. Parkside ; W. 

Wilson. Walton ; Wheldon. 60. 
Coat Banks, Preesall ; Wheldon 

microstoma, C.M. 59. Walton ; Wheldon. 

KersalMoor; Buxton's G. 60. White- 
well ; F. C. King. Silverdale; W. 
and W. Preesall; Wheldon 

tenuis, C. M. 59. Broughton ; Holland 

Wild 

rupestris, C. M. 59 60. +. W. and W. 

verticillata, (L.), Brid. 60. Garstang; A. 

Wilson. Wash Dub Wood; nr. 
Abbey stead; W. and W. + 
Trichostomum crispulum, Bruch. 59. Chat- 
kurn ; Wheldon. 60. Apparently 
only on the limestone area. Dalton 
Crag; -f ; W. and W. 

mutabile, Bruch. 59. Dingle; Marrat. 

Gashing, 1898, Wheldon. 60. Silver- 
dale ; Lindeth; Wheldon. Lancaster; 
W. P. Hamilton 

var. littorale, Dixon. 59. Southport; 
Cash. Hall Road; Wheldon. 60. 
Silverdale ; A. Wilson 

var. cophocarpum, Schimp. 60. Silver- 
dale ; Wheldon 

flavovirens, Bruch. 60. St. Anne's ; Cash. 

Lytham; Preesall; Heysham ; Wheldon 

nitidum, Schimp. 59. Pend/e Hill; Chat- 

burn (var.) ; Wheldon. 60. Common 
on the scar limestone, Silverdale ; + ; 
W. and W. 

tortuosum, (L.), Dixon. 60. Frequent. 

Silverdale; + ;W.andW. Lancaster; 

W. P. Hamilton. Ease Gill, Leek 

Fell. 69. Grange ; A. Wilson, MS. 

var. fragilifolium, Dixon. 60. Ease 

Gill, 2,000 feet ; + ; W. and W. 
Pleurochzte squarrosa, Lindb. 60. Limestone 
rocks near Silverdale ; Wheldon 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS V.CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (/.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE./E (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-Order X. Encalyptacez 
(Only the common species have been found) 

Sub-Order XI. Orthotrichaceae 
Zygodon Mougeotii, B. and S. 59. Fo Edge ; 
Percival. 60. 'Rare.' Middle Gill, 
Hindburn; Ease Gill; A. Wilson. 
69. Coniston Old Man, 2,630 feet 

Stirtoni, Schimp. 60. Limestone rocks 

nr. Whitewell, March, 1903. W. 
and W. MS. 

conoideus, Hook and Tayl. 59. Man- 

chester; Hobson. 60. Trees by Lune, 
K. Lonsdale ; Wash Dub Wood; wood 
below Whitewell, ' fruiting freely, 
a rare occurrence' ! 1903. W. and 
W.MS. 

Ulota Drummondii, Brid. 60. Tree by the 
Keer, in Wash Dub Wood; W. and W. 

Bruchii, Hornsch. 60. On ash in pot 

hole on Leek Fell; Docker ; nr. Wray ; 
A.Wilson. Hindburn ; Wash Dub Wood, 
with the last sp. ; + ; W. and W. 

crispa, Brid. 59. Rainhill ; Higgins and 

Marrat. 60. Ease Gill; A. Wilson, 
MS. 

Orthotrichum rupestre, Schleich. 60. ' Rare,' 
Silverdale; nr. Leek ; W. and W. 
Ease Gill; A. Wilson, MS. 

anomalum, Hedw. var. saxatile, Milde. 

59. Clithene; + ; Wheldon. 60. 
Ease Gill; Dalton Crag ; + ; W. and 
W. 69. Grange; A. Wilson MS. 

cupulatum, Hoffm. 60. Silverdale ; + ; 

W. and W. 

var. nudum, Braithw. 60 . Leek Beck ; 
A. Wilson. Whitewell ,- W. and W. 

leiocarpum, B. and S. 60. Silverdale ; A. 

Wilson 

- Lyellii, Hook, and Tayl. 60. Melling ; 
+ ; A. Wilson 

rivulare, Turn. 59. Clitheroe, sparingly; 

Wheldon. 60. Caton ; Hamilton. 
Preston; Mitton ; Wheldon. Nether 
Barrow; A. Wilson, MS. + 

stramineum, Hornsch. 60. Over Kellet ; 

Whittington ; Tealand ; A. Wilson. 
Nr. Cockleach; Wheldon. Nr. Kirkby 
Lonsdale ; W. and W. 

tenellum, Bruch. 60. Nr. Garstang; nr. 

Arkholme, on ash ; A. Wilson 

Sub-Order XII. Schistostegaceae 
Schistostega osmundacea, Mohr. 59. Between 
TyUesley and Worsley; Evans. Chad- 
wick; nr. Bo/tons W. Wilson. Clif- 
ton Junction ; Hunt 

Sub-Order XIII. Splachnaceas 
Splachnum ampullaceum, L. 59. Prob- 
ably common on the mosses formerly, 
but now very rare (Wheldon). Wool- 
ston Moss; W. Wilson (extinct, 
Wheldon in litt.). Nr. Blackley ; Bux- 
ton's G. Unsworth Moss ; Percival 



CLASS V.CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (ant.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-Order XIII. Splachnaceae (cont.) 

Splachnum sphaericum, L. 59. Chat Moss; 
Grindon. Woolston Moss; W. Wilson. 
Rochdale; Belfield. Wbiteley Dean; 
Holt. 60. Greygarth Fell; Botton 
Head Fell; A. Wilson. O. Wyres- 
dale; Grizedale Hd. ; Wolfhok Crag; 
W. and W. 

Tetraplodon mnioides, B. and S. 59. Rain- 
ford Moss; Skellon. Wlndle Moss; 
Higgins; Chat Moss; Grindon ; Wool- 
ston Moss; W.Wilson. 60. Clougha; 
Wheldon. Marshaw Fell; A. Wil- 
son. Cockerham Moss, 1881 ; A. 
Wilson, perhaps exterminated 
Sub-Order XIV. Funariaceae 

Discelium nudum, Brid. 59. Manchester, 
1795 ; Caley. (Probably Boggart 
Hole C lough, Wheldon). Sailor's Shore, 
etc. ; Whitehead. So/ton ; Sims. + ; 
Wheldon in J. of B., January, 1 899. 
60. O. Wyreidale; Abbeystead Fell ; 
+ ; W. and W. 

Ephemerum serratum, Hampe. 59. Liver- 
pool Bot. Gardens ; Skellon. Walton; 
Wheldon. Wilgrave ; Dallam ; W. 
Wilson. 60. Lytham, 1 88 1 ; Whel- 
don (infrequent) 

Funaria fascicularis, Schimp. 59. Railbanks, 
Walton ; Wheldon 

Templetoni, Sm. 59. Clifton ; Prestwich; 

Horsefield 

calcarea, Wahlenb. 60. Frequent on 

limestone in the north, Silverdale ; 
+ ; W. andW. 69. Hamps Fell; 
A. Wilson, MS. 
Sub-Order XV. Meesiace* 

Amblyodon dealbatus, P. Beauv. 59. Sand- 
hills, Crosby to Southport ; Marrat 
(still plentiful, Wheldon, in litt.). 
60. Lytham ; St. Anne's, c. fr. ; 
Wheldon. Nr. Gravel's Clough ; 
Tarnbrook Fell; A. Wilson. Over 
Wyresdale ; W. and W. Clougha, 
1 88 1 ; Stabler 

Meesia trichoides, (L.), Spruce. 59. South- 
port ; Marrat (Wheldon). Sailor's 
Shore; Percival. Formby (very fine), 
Freshfield, c. fr., 1903 ; Wheldon in 
litt. 60. St. Anne's; Wheldon 
Sub-Order XVII. Bartramiaceae 

Catascopium nigritum, Brid. 59. Southport; 
Higgins. Formby ; B. B. Scott (both 
confirmed by Wheldon). Freshfield; 
Captain P.G.Cunliffe. Birkdale ; Cash 

Bartramia GEderi, Swartz. 60. ' Rare,' Ease 
Gill; Leek; A. Wilson 

ithyphylla, Brid. 60. ' Rare,' Ease Gill; A. 

Wilson. Greygarth Fell; W. and W. 

pomiformis, Hedw. 59. Walton; dying 

out rapidly. Fazakerley ; Wheldon, 
+ ; 69. Frequent, Garstang; Ease 
Hill; nr. PilKng; + ; W. and W. 
69. Ceniston 



BOTANY 



CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (coat.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE (continued') 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-Order XVII. Bartramiaceas (cant.) 
Philonotis calcarea, Schimp. 59. Formby ; 
Dr. Braithwaite, Wheldon, and H. 
Beesley, 1903 ; Wheldon, in litt. 
60. Marshaw Fell ; Tarnbnok Fell; 
above O akenc lough ; all $, W. 
andW. 

Breutelia arcuata, Schimp. 59. Nr. Man- 
chester; Bradbury in Turner's But. G. 
1805. 60. Nr. Leek; Middlebarroto; 
Hindbum; A. Wilson 



Sub-Order XVIII. Bryacere 

Leptobryum pyriforme, (L.), Wils. 59. Formby; 
Higgins. Clifton Junction; + ; Holt. 
Ashtm; Southport; Walton; Whel- 
don. Rusholme ; Cash. Not native 
in all these, some would be in garden 
ground, etc. Perhaps native on the 
sandhills, Wheldon, in litt. 60. 
Sandhills, Lythatn ; Wheldon 

Webera elongata, Schwaegr. 59. Shawforth ; 
Horsfield. 60. 'Rare.' Ease Gill; 
W.and W. Nr. Garstang; H. Beesley 

annotina, Schwaegr. 59. Winviick ; Pad- 

gate ; W. Wilson. Taunton; Whel- 
don. Clifton; Holt. BamJordWood; 
Holt, Whitehead. 60. Tootell Heights; 
Clougha ; Wheldon. Barnacre ; A. 
Wilson. Nr.dftw; W.and W. 

commutata, Schimp. 59. Pendle Hill; 

Wheldon 

erecta(Roth.),Correns. 60. TatkamMoor, 

Hindburn; W. and W., September, 

1902 
Plagiobryum Zierii, Lindb. 60. < Rare,' V. 

Ease Gill, 1,500 feet ; A. Wilson 
Bryum filiforme, Dicks. 59. Clifton Viaduct; 

Buxton's G. 60. Lower Ease Gill, 

on Silurian rocks ; A. Wilson 

pendulum, Schimp. 59. Common on the 

sandhills from Hightown to Southfort ; 
W. and W. 60. Frequent, Black- 
pool to Lancaster and Garstang; + ; 
W. and W. 

Warneum, Bland. 59. Southport ; Mar- 

rat, W. Wilson, still plentiful, 
Wheldon, 1903. BirkJale; Wild, 
abundant in 1903, Wheldon. Form- 
by ; Freshjield; still plentiful, 1903, 
Wheldon. 60. St. Anne's; Whel- 
don 

calophyllum, R. Br. 59. Southport; 

Marrat, still there, Wheldon, 1903. 
Taunton; Gordon and Whitehead. 
Ainsdale; Wheldon, plentiful still, 
1903 

Marratii, Wils. 59. Southport; Ainsdale; 

Marrat, 1854 

' I think this is now lost as a Lan- 
cashire plant,' Wheldon, in litt. 
(Phytologist, Dec., 1858, pp. 638- 
643, ibid. April, 1859, pp. 104- 
107) 

1 73 



CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cont.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-Order XVIII. Bryacese (coat.) 
Bryum lacustre, Brid. 59. Taunton ; Schimper, 
Whitehead, and Gordon. Freshjield; 
Ainsdale; Southport; Hunt. Still 
occurs in all these localities, Wheldon 
in litt. 1903 ; also a little seen at 
Birkdale, 1903. 60. 'Rare.' St. 
Anne's ; Lytham, c fr., Wheldon 

inclinatum, Bland. 59. Sandhills, Crosby 

to Southport; Marrat. Ashton-under- 
Lyne; Whitehead. Chadbum; Whel- 
don. 60. Frequent, but less so than 
B. pendulum ; W. and W. 

uliginosum, B. and S. 59. Southport; 

Wood, 1843, Marrat, W. Wilson, 
still there and at Formby, Wheldon 
in litt. 1903. Nr. Manchester; 
Wood. Sailor's Shore ; Percival. 
Taunton; Prestviich; Hunt. 60. St. 
Anne's; Wheldon 

turbinatum, Schwaegr. 59. Scar Wheel, 

Broughton; Dr. Wood. Clifton June- 
ton ; Wild. Adams Gordon and 
Whitehead ! 

pseudo-triquetrum, Schwaegr. 59. Rain- 

ford Moss; + ; W. and W. etc. 
60. Common on the fells ; W. 
and W. 

var. compactum, Schimp. 59. South- 
port, 1863 ; Whitehead. Birkdale ; 
Ainsdale; Wheldon 

neodamense, Itz. 59. Southport, Dr. 

Wood, 1859 ; Percival and Rogers, 
June, 1875, c". fr. Ainsdale, 1860. 
Hb. Brit. Mus. (young fruit). Formby; 
(fr. 1905.) Freshjield; Wheldon, 
who showed it to Dr. Braithwaite 
in 1903 

affine, Lindb. 59. Oxford; W. Wilson. 

Eccles; OldTrafford; Hunt. Taun- 
ton ; Whitehead. 60. Longridge Fell; 
Wheldon. Greygarth Fell; A. Wilson 

Donianum, Grev. 59. Wimoick Quarry ; 

W. Wilson. Quarry, nr. Kirkby ; 
Wheldon 

alpinum, Huds. 60. O. Wyresdale ; 

Tarnbrook Fell; Marskaw Fell; W. 
and W. Ease Gill; A. Wilson. +. 
Clougha ; Wheldon in litt. 

roseum, Schreb. 59. Bootle ; Skellon 

(not there now, Wheldon in litt.) 
Hightown, under Salix repens ; Whel- 
don. Blackley; Hobson, 1839. 60. 
' Very rare ' and barren. Nr. Fair- 
haven ; Wheldon. Silverdale ; A. 
Wilson. 69. Tewbarrow, in mossy 
limestone rock crevices ; A. Wil- 
son, MS. 

Mnium serratum, Schrad. 59. Between 
Birkdale and Ainsdale; Marrat. 
BamfordWood; Holt. Clifton Junc- 
tion (Wheldon in J. o/B.). 60. Dale 
Gill, Hindburn; A. Wilson. Ease 
Gill; Near Whitwell ; W. and W. 
Longridge ; H. Beesley 

IO 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (font.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE./E (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-Order XVIII. Bryace* (cont.) 
Mnium orthorrhynchum, B. and S. 60. 
' Rare.' Ease Gill; A. Wilson 

stellare, Reich. 59. Between Birkdale 

and Ainsdale; Marrat. 60. Rocks 
by the Brock; A. Wilson. Hoddet 
Valley ; Wheldon 

subglobosum, B. and S. 59. Ashton ; 

Reddish; Whitehead. + ; Wheldon 
in J. ofB.}3.t\. 1899. 60. Fairsnape 
Clougb; c. fr.; Wilson. Blaze Moss; +; 
W. and W. 

Sub-Order XIX. Fontinalaceae 

Fontinalis antipyretica, L. var. gracilis, 
Schimp. 60. Leek Beck ; Ease Gill ; 
A. Wilson. Roeburndale; W. andW. 

squamosa, L. 59. Blackley ; Miller. 60. 

' Rare.' Udale ; W. and W. Leek 
Beck; A. Wilson 

Sub-Order XX. Cryphseaceae 

[Obs. C. heteromalla, Mohr., has never been 
found in Lancashire] 

Sub-Order XXII. Hookeriacese 
Ptcrygophyllum lucens, (L.), Brid. 59. 60. 
Not common, fruiting in some 
upland doughs ; W. and W. 

Sub-Order XXIII. Leucodontaceae 
Myrinia pulvinata, Schimp. 59. Jackson's 

Boat; Buxton's G. ' Now lost.' 

J. A. W. 
Antitrichia curtipendula, Brid. 'Apparently 

very rare." 60. On a wall in Wash 

Dub Wood; near Leek ; W. and W. 

Sub-Order XXIV. Leskeaceaj 

Heterocladium heteropterum, B. and S. 59. 
Bamford Wood; Whitehead. Bo/tan ; 
Makin (Dixon). Rowley Moor; 
Buxton's G. Jumbles; Percival and 
Rogers. 60. Nr. Buttons W.andW. 
Nr. Hindburn ; Clougba ; Wheldon 

Thuidium recognitum,Lindb. 59. Ni.CAat- 
burn ; Wheldon. 60. 'On the lime- 
stone only, rare.' Silvera'ale ; +; 
W. and W. 

delicatulum, Mitt. 60. Lower Ease Gill, 

July, 1903. A. Wilson in litt. 

Sub-Order XXV. Hypnacex 

Climacium dendroides, (L.), Web. and Mohr. 

59, 60. Common, but very rarely 
found in fruit. (Hightown ; Fl. 
L'pool) 

Cylindrotheciumconcinnum(De Not) Schimp. 

60. Silverdales Wheldon. Da/ton 
(>#, A. Wilson 

Orthothecium intricatum, B. and S. 60. 
'Rare and barren.' Nr. Leek; nr. 
Silverdale ; A. Wilson 



CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cont.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE^; (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-Order XXV. Hypnacea; (cmt.) 
Brachythecium glareosum, B. and S. 59. 
Whitehead and Grindon. 60. W. 
andW. 

albicans, B. and S. 59. Whitehead and 

Grindon. 60. W. and W. 

salebrosum, B. and S. ' Rare.' 59. 60. 

Nr. Preston ; H. Beeslcy 
var. palustre, Schimp. 59. Crossens ; 
Wheldon. Simmwitd ; Wheldon and 
Beesley. 60. St. Anne's; Wheldon 

rivulare, B. and S. 59. Whitehead and Grin- 

don. 60. ' Frequent ' ; W. and W. 

velutinum, B. and S. var. intricatum, 

Hedw. 60. Catforth; H. Beesley 
var. praelongum, B. and S. 60. Lytham ; 
H. Beesley. (Both confirmed by Dr. 
Braithwaite) 

populeum, B. and S. 59. Whitehead and 

Grindon. 60. Not very common ; 
W. and W. 

plumosum, B. and S. 59. Whitehead and 

Grindon ; 60. Frequent in east and 
fruiting; W.andW. 

caespitosum, (Wils.), Dixon. 59. Dal/am ; 

Longford; W. Wilson. ' Extinct.' 
Chemicals in refuse in stream ; Whel- 
don 

Hyocomium flagellare, B. and S. 59. Bamford ; 
Whiteley Dean ; Holt. Clithene ; 
Wanton; Wheldon. Rowley Moor ; 
Buxton's G. 60. Frequent in east by 
streams, Ease Gill; + ; W. and W. 

Eurhynchium speciosum, Schimp. 59. Nr. 
Aintree ; Wheldon ; 60. Nr. Preston ; 
H. Beesley 

hians (Hcdw.), Lesq and James. 60. 

Caton; Wheldon 

abbreviatum, Schimp. 60. Silverdale; 

Wheldon 

tenellum, Milde. 60. Silverdale; Wheldon. 

Scorton; H. Beesley. 69. On lime- 
stone rocks, Grange ; A. Wilson, MS. 

megapolitanum, Milde. 59. Crosby; 

Harrison, W. Wilson. Birkdale; 
Wheldon. 60. ' Rare,' St. Anne's ; 
Fairhaven; c fr. ; Wheldon 
Plagiothecium depressum (Bruch), Dixon. 60. 
' Rare and sterile,' U. Roeburndale ; 
A. Wilson 

Borrerianum, Spruce. 59. Bamford ; Holt. 

60. Common ; W. and W. 69. 
Coniston 

var. collinum, Wils. Clougha ; W. and 
W. (The Coniston plant should 
perhaps be placed here.) 

pulchellum, B. and S. 59. Burnley ; 

Dearden. 60. ' Rare,' Clougha ; W. 
andW. 
Amblystegium Sprucei, B. and S. 59. SoutJ)- 



fort_;_Wood, 1853 

" v.), Lindb. 59. Un damp 
sricks in a ditch near Aintree ; Whel- 



(Hedw.), 



On damt 



don. Paddington ; Wilson. (A rac 
cale, P. de Beauv.) 



74 



BOTANY 



CLASS V.CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (tout.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE/E (continued) 
Order Musc't (continued) 

Sub-Order XXV. Hypnaceae (cent.) 
Amblystegium irriguum, B. and S. 60. ' Rare." 
NT. Lancaster ; Hamilton. Nr. Silver- 
dale; A. Wilson 

Juratzkanum, Schimp. 59. Birkdale ; nr. 

Aintree; Wheldon. 60. Nr. Glas- 
son ; Wheldon. Lea ; Beesley 

fluviatile, B. and S. 60. Leighton Beck ; 

on stones in Lune below Kirkby 
Lonsdale; Ease Gill; A. Wilson. 
Halton; W.andW. 

filicinum, De Not. var. Whiteheadii, 

Wheldon. ^.Southfort ; +; Whel- 
don. Rainford; Beesley and Wheldon. 
60. Between Lytham and St. Anne's; 
Wheldon. Distr. Haddington ; 
Dixon. 

Tar. elatum, Schimp. Soutbport, 1882 ; 
Holt 



A. CAMPYLIUM 

Hypnum 

elodes, Spruce. 59. Soulhport ; W. Wilson, 

Marrat. Birkdale; Burscough ; + ; 

Wheldon. 60. ' Rare,' St. Anne's ; 

Wheldon. Hatves Water; Silverdale ; 

A. Wilson 
polygamum, Schimp. $<).Warbreck Moor; 

Wheldon in litt. 60. Mostly on 

sandhills, St. Anne's ; + ; Wheldon. 

Ribbleton ; nr. Preston, not sandhill; 

Beesley 

B. ' HARPIDIUM ' 

(' Harpidioid ' Hypna, after Renauld, arranged 

by J. A. Wheldon) 
Hypnum aduncum, Hedw. 

Group typicum, Ren. 
forma falcata, Ren. 59. Wheldon and 

Holt. 60. Wheldon 
forma gracilescens, Ren. 59. W. Wilson. 

60. Wheldon 

forma tenuis, Ren. 59. Holt 
var. aquaticum, Sanio. 59. W. Wilson, 

Wheldon. 60. H. Beesley 
var. diversifolia, Ren. 59. Wheldon. 

60. Wheldon 

Group Kneifii, Ren. 

var. polycarpon, Bland. 59. Wheldon. 
60. Wheldon 

var. attenuatum, Boul. 59. Wheldon. 
60. A. Wilson 

var. intermedium, Schimp. 59. Whel- 
don, Holt. 60. A Wilson 

f. penna, Sanio. 59. Wheldon 

f. laxifolia, Ren. 59. Wheldon, 
Holt. 60. H. Beesley 

Group pseudo-fluitans, Sanio 
var. paternum, Sanio. 59. Wheldon, 

Holt. 60. H. Beesley 
f. gracilis. 59. Wheldon 



CLASS V.-CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cant.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Group pseudo-fluitans (cent.) 
Hypnum Sendtneri, Schimp. ' In marshes 

near the sea, but also inland.' 
f. vulgaris, Sanio. 59. Wheldon. 

60. Wheldon 

f. trivialis, Sanio. 59. Renauld in 
Hum. Muse. Gall. p. 374 

Wilsoni, Schimp. Southport (locus classi- 

cus), W. Wilson. Birkdale ; Ainsdale ; 
W. Wilson. Still abundant in these 
localities, Wheldon. 60. St. Annis ; 
Wheldon 

var. hamatum, Schimp. 59. Wheldon. 
60. Wheldon 

Obs. This rare moss, named by 
Schimper in honour of the well- 
known Lancashire botanist Wm. Wil- 
son, has only been found in three 
other localities. 

lycopodioides, Schwaegr. 59. Ainsdale ; 

Soutbport; W. Wilson, Marrat, etc. 
'Where it still grows abundantly, 
and occasionally fruits.' Formby ; 
Wheldon. 60. St. Anne's ; Wheldon 

uncinatum, Hedw. ' Frequent in sub- 

alpine places, not a marsh plant.' 
f. plumosa, Ren. 60. Nr. Preston ; 
H. Beesley. Grey garth Fell ; A. 
Wilson 

fluitans, L. Not common, except in parts 

of East Lancashire. 60. Lower Bleas- 
dale; + ; W.andW. 
Group amphibium, Ren. 

var. Jeanbernati. 60. O. Wyresdale ; 
Greygarth Fell; + ; W. and W. 

f. tenella, Ren. 60. Bleasdale Fell; 
+ ; W. and W. 

f. condensata, Ren. 60. White Moss, 
Hindburn ; W. and W. 

var. atlanticum, Ren. 59. Pendle Hill; 
Wheldon ; 60. Wyresdale ; Greygarth 
Fell; + ; W. and W. 

var. elatum, Ren. et Arnell. 60. Cocker- 
ham Moss ; W. and W. 

var. gracile, Boulay. 59. Pendle Hill; 
Wheldon. 60. Longridge Fell; + ; 
W. and W. 

var. setiforme, Ren. 60. Goodber Com- 
mon ; A. Wilson 

var. Payoti, Ren. [60. Greenbank Fell; 
W. and W. ' Not typical.'] 

Group falcatum, Ren. 
var. falcatum, Schimp. 59. Pendle 
Hill; Wh. 60. Nr. Garstang; + ; 
W. and W. 

var. ovale, Ren. MS. in litt. ad Whel- 
don. 59. Pendle Hill; Wheldon. 
60. Greygarth Fell, \ 800 ft. ; A. 
Wilson 
Group exannulatum, Ren. (H. exan- 

nulatum, Gtlemb.) 
60. Calder Galley ; + ; A. Wilson. 
Not very common 



75 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cent.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE^E (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Group exannulatum, Ren. (continue*/) 

var. pinnatum, Boul. 59. PendkHlll; 
Wheldon. 60. H'mdburn ; + ; W. 
andW. 

f. acuta, Sanio. 60. W. and W. 

f. stenophylloides, Ren. 60. W. and W. 

f. polyclada,Ren.MS. 60. W.andW. 

var. falcifolium, Ren. 60. O. ffyres- 
dale ; W.andW. (also f. inundata, 
Ren.) 

var. brachydictyon, Ren. 60. Long- 
ridge Fell; + ; W. and W. 

var. purpurascens, Schimp. 60. Calder 
Valley; + ; A. Wilson. 69. Bar- 
row ; Mrs. Monsarrat. 

var. molluscum, Sanio. 60. Crag Wood, 
near Chugha ; Wheldon in litt. 
' new to Britain.' 



Sub-group Rots, Ren. 

59. PendleHill; Wheldon (a form) 
var. falcifolium, Ren. 59. Simonswood 

Moss ; Marrat. Martin Mere, near 

Southport; Wheldon. 60. St. dime's; 

+ ; W. and W. 
f. viridis, Boul. 60. Above Mar- 

shaw ; A. Wilson 
f. inundata, Ren. 60. O. Wyresdale ; 

W. and W. 
verniscosum, Lindb. 60. Bog nr. 

Decker; A. Wilson 
var. majus, Lindb. 60. Bog nr. 

Docker; A. Wilson 
revolvens, Swartz. f. typica, Ren. 59. 

Pendk Hill; Southport; Ainsdale; 

Wheldon. 60. St. Anne's ; Roebun:- 

dale ; + ; W. and W. 
var. Cossoni, Ren. 59. Southport; 

Holt. Birkdale ; Wheldon (f). 60 

Docker ; U. Roeburndale ; W. and W. 
f. falcata (Sanio), Ren. 60. Udale ; 

W. and W. 
var. intermedium (Lindb.), Ren. 59. 

Soutbport; Whiteley Dean; Holt. 

Ainsdale; W. Wilson. (Still there, 

Wheldon.) 60. Leighton Beck; W. 

andW. 
. falcata, Sanio. 59. Southport; Holt. 

Formby; Wheldon 
scorpioides, L. ' Deep bogs, either siliceous 

or calcareous, rather rare.' 59. South- 
port ; Marrat. Nr. Todmorden ; 

Nowell. 60. Siherdale; + ; W. 

and W. 
giganteum, Schimp. 60. St. Anne's ; 

Ease Gill; nr. Docker; A. Wilson 
falcatum, Brid. 59. Clifton ; Wild, Dixon. 

Burnley; Scholefield. 60. Berwick 

Swamp; Hawes Water; + ; W. and 

W. 
intermedium, Lindb. 59. Ainsdale ; W. 

Wilson. Southport; Holt. 60. 

Udale ; W. and W. Leigbton Beck ; 

A. Wilson 



CLASS V. CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cot.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE.: (continued) 
Order Musci (continued) 

Sub-group Rotae, Ren. (cont.) 
Hypnum intermedium, Lindb. (continued) 

f. falcata, Sanio. 59. Southport; Holt. 
Formby; Wheldon 1 

c. DREPANIUM 

Patient!*, Lindb. 59. Newton; War- 

rington ; W. Wilson. Hale ; Marrat. 
60. Ease Gill; Warton ; Garstang; 
Lower Bleasdale ; A. Wilson 
[ crista-castrensis, L. 59. Whitworth ; Grin- 
don. ' Error,' Holt, etc.] 

D. LlMNOBIUM 

palustre, L. 59. Wheldon. 60. Common 

and fruiting ; W. and W. 
var. hamulosum, B. and S. 60. Wyres- 
dale ; Wheldon 

ochraceum, Turn. 59. Whiteley Dean; 

Holt. 60. O. Wyresdale; + ; 
W. and W. Ease Gill; A. Wil- 
son 

var. flaccidum, Milde. 60. H'mdburn ; 
Marshaw Fell; W. and W. 

var. complanatum, Milde. 60. Hind- 
burn ; A. Wilson 

E. CALLIERGON 

stramineum, Dicks. 59. Prestw ich ; Per- 

cival. Simons-wood; Marrat. 60. 
'Plentiful,' Ease Gill; Hindburn ; 
A.Wilson; +. 

cordifolium, Hedw. 59. Several places ; c. 

fr. in two ; + ; Wheldon. 60. 
Siherdale ; + ; W. and W. 

sarmentosum, Wahlenb. 60. North side 

of Marshaw Fell, alt. 650 ft. only ; 
' a remarkably low altitude for this 
moss.' W. and W. 

Schreberi, Willd. 59, 60, 69. 
Hylocomium brevirostre (Ehrh.), B. and S. 

59. Clitkeroe; Worston ; Wheldon. 
Trovib arrow ; Wheldon. Gatebarrow ; 
nr. Leighton Beck; A. Wilson. 
Tarnbrook Wood ; H. Beesley 

loreum (L.), B. and S. [59. Waver tree ; 

Marrat.] 60. Abundant, locally. 
Udale ; + ; W. and W. 

rugosum (Ehrh.), De Not. 60. ' Very fine 

and locally abundant on the scar 
limestone in the north, unknown 
elsewhere.' Thrang End; Troto- 
barrow ; Da/ton Crag ; Siherdale to 
Hatves Water ; W. and W. Leighton 
Beck; A. Wilson. 69. Tewbarrow, 
very fine ; A. Wilson, MS. 

IThe last two species are included under ' Harpidium ' by 
Dixon, but not by Renauld and Wheldon, who place falcatum 
under Cratoneuron. 



BOTANY 



CLASS V.CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cent.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE (continued') 
Qrder Hepaticte 

Sub-Order I. Jungermamaceas 
Frullania Tamarisci (L.), Dumort. 60. Oliver- 
dale ; Ease Gill; + ; W. and W. 

fragilifolia, Taylor. 60. Ease Gill; Da/ton 

Crag; W. and W. 

Lejeunia Mackaii (Hook), Spreng. 60. 
Over Kellet ,- A. Wilson. Tealand ; 
Woodwett ; Trowbarrow ; Dalton 
Crag; W. and W. 

calcarea, Lib. 60. Ease Gill, 1905. W. 

and W. in litt. 

Rossettiana, Massal. 60. Leefers Wood, 

Kellet Seeds, 1905 ; W. and W. in 
litt. 

ulicina (Taylor), Spruce. 60. Wood 

below Whitewell, March, 1903 ; W. 
and W. A. Wilson in litt. 

Radula complanata (L.), Dum. ' Rare,' Silver- 
dale ; between Caton and Aughton ; 
W. and W. 

Porella laevigata (Schrad.). 60. Silverdale ; 
Trowbarrow; W. and W. 

Blepharostoma trichophyllum, (L.), Dumort. 
60. Clougha; Wheldon 

Trichocolea tomentella (Ehrh.), Nees. 59. 
Rochdale; G. A. Holt. 60. Wood- 
well; Ease Gill; Colder Valley ; + ; 
W. and W. 

Lepidozia cupressina (Swartz.), Pearson. 60. 
Clougha ; G. Stabler. Long Crag, 
O. Wyresdale ; ' always associated 
with L. Pearson!, M. Taylori, Bazz. 
trilobata, and D. fuscescens,' W. and 
W. 

Pearsoni, Spruce. 60. ' Frequent on 

higher grit-stone moorlands,' Hell 
Crag, O. Wyresdale ; -f- ; W. and 
W. 

setacea (Web.), var. setularioides, Nees. 59. 

Simonswood Moss; Wheldon. 60. 
Cockerham Moss; Jones and Whel- 
don 

Bazzania trilobata (L.). 60. Clougha; + ; 
W. and W. Hlndburn ; A. Wilson 

Kantia submersa, Arnell. 60. Cockerham 
Moss; W. and W. /. oj Bot. 
January, 1903 

Sprengelii (Mart.). 59. Walton ; Kirkby ; 

Rainford ; Wheldon. 60. Longrldge 
c. fr. ; Wheldon. + ; W. and W. 

arguta (Mont, et Nees), Lindb. 59. 

Ormskirk ; Wheldon. 60. Quern- 
more; Colder Wood, nr. Garstang ; 
W. and W. 

Cephalozia catenulata (Htlben) Lindb. 59. 
Kirkby, in a damp quarry ; Wheldon 

lunnlaefolia, Dumort. 59. Carr, nr. 

Netherton; Wheldon. 60. Cocker- 
ham Moss; Kempk End; Clougha; 
+ ; W. and W. 

Lammersiana (Huben). 59. Kirkby ; Si- 

monswood ; Wheldon. 60. Pilling; 
Wheldon. Upper Grizedale ; A. 
Wilson. Cockerham Moss, C. per. 
W. and W. 



CLASS V.CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cont.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE (continued) 
Order Hepaticte (continued) 
Sub-Order I. Jungermaniaceae (cent.) 
Cephalozia connivens (Dicks.), Lindb. 59. 
Chat Moss ; W. H. Pearson. Simons- 
wood Moss; Wheldon. 60. White- 
stone Chugh; W. and W. in litt. 
Longridge Fell; Wheldon 

fluitans (Nees), Spruce. 59. Barton Moss; 

W. H. Pearson. Rainford Moss; 
Wheldon. 60. Tarnbrook Fell; Cocker- 
ham Moss; + ; W. and W. Ark- 
holme Moor ; A. Wilson 

heterostipa, Spruce. (See Jungermania 

inflata, var.) 

Dr. Spruce is said to have changed 
his opinion in the latter part of his life 
regarding the position of this plant 

Sphagni (Dicks.), Spruce. 59. Whiteley 

Dean; Holt. Rainford Moss; S<- 
monswood Moss ; Wheldon. 60. 
' Rather rare,' Uda/e ; + ; W. and W. 

denudata (Nees), Spruce. 59. Clifton 

Junction; C. J. Wild. 60. Tarn- 
brook Fell; A. Wilson 

Scapania compacta (Roth.), Dumort. 60. 
Arkholme Moor ; Wash Dub Wood; A. 
Wilson 

resupinata (L.), Dumort. 60. ' Frequent.' 

Tarnbrook Fell; + ; W. and W. 
var. minor. 60. Long Crag; + ; com- 
mon on the fells, W. and W. 

aspera, Mttll. and Bern. 60. ' Locally 

abundant on limestone rocks,' Silver- 
dale ; Longridge Fell ; + ; W. and 
W. 69. Grange ; A. Wilson, MS. 

nemorosa (L.), Dumort. 59. Bamford 

Wood; Clifton Junction; Holt. Knows- 
ley ; Higgins and Marrat. Nether- 
ton ; Wheldon. 60. Greygarth Fell ; 
W. and W. Warton ; Upper Grize- 
dale ; A. Wilson 

purpurascens (Hook.), Taylor, MSS. 60. 

Longridge Fell; Wheldon. Clougha ; 
+ ; W. and W. Hindburn ; A. 
Wilson. 69. Coniston Old Man 

irrigua, (Nees), Dumort. 59. Bog nr. 

Netherton ; Wheldon. 60. amacrt,nr. 
Garstang; Greygarth Fell; A. Wilson 

curta (Mart.), Dumort. 59. Barton Moss ; 

Dr. Carrington. 60. Ease Gill ; W. 
and W. 69. Coniston Old Man up to 
2630 ft. 
Diplophyllum obtusifolium (Hook.), Dumort. 

59. Damp sandstone rocks, nr. 
Kirkby; Wheldon 

Lophocolea cuspidata, Limpr. 59. Nr. 
Formby; Wheldon. 60. Wall, nr. Leek; 
A. Wilson. Leagram Hall; Wheldon 

heterophylla (Schrad.), Dumort. 59. 60. 

' Very common,' W. and W. 
Chiloscyphus polyanthus (L.), Corda. 59. 

60. < Very common,' W. and W. 
var. pallescens (Schrad.). 59. Bamford 

Wood; Reddish; Rainford Moss; 
Netherton ; Wheldon. 60. Nr. 
PilRttF; Wheldon 



77 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS V.CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cont.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE.S: (continued) 
Order Hepaticte (continued) 
Sub-order I. Jungermaniacea; (cont.) 
Mylia Taylor! (Hook.), B. Gr. 60. O. Wyres- 
dale ; Mars haw Fell; Long Crag; 
Tarnbrook Fell; + ; W. and W. 
Greygarth Fell, 20506. 

anomala (Hook.). 59. Barton Moss ; Pear- 

son. 60. White Moss; Hindburn; 
Cockerham Moss ; W. and W. 

Plagiochila spinulosa (Dicks.), Dumort. 60. 
Clougha ; Halton ; W. and W. Grey- 
garth Fell; Wheldon. Ease GUI. 
69. Coniston. +. 

Jungermania cordifolia, Hooker. 60. Udale ; 
Ease Gill: Tarnbrook Fell ; + ; W. 
and W. 

riparia, Tayl. 59. Bamford Wood; G. A. 

Holt 

inflata, Huds. var. laxa, Carr. 59. S<- 

monswoodMoss ; Beesleyand Wheldon 
var. heterostipa (Spruce), Lindb. Tarn- 
brook Fell; Wheldon. Greygarth Fell ; 

21 Oct. 1903 

turbinata, Raddi. 59. Southport; G. E. 

Hunt and Dr. Carrington 

Obs. Recorded as J. affinis, Wils. Its 
rediscovery would be interesting. 
60. Nr. Wennington ; W. and W. 

sphaerocarpa, Hook. 60. Kemple End ; 

Wheldon. Hindburn ; + ; W. and 
W. 

Flcerkii, W. and M. 60. Commonest 

' barbata ' form, Wheldon in lit. 
var. Naumaniana, Nees. 60. Heights 
Wood; Wheldon 

barbata, Schmidel. 60. Much rarer than 

J. Flcerkii, but frequent. Hindburn ; 
Udale; +. W. and W. 

Lyoni, Tayl. 60. Clougha ; Wheldon. 

Greygarth Fell; W. and W. Ease 
Gill 

gracilis, Schleich. 60. Clougha; Udale; 

O. Wyresdale ; + ; W. and W. 

incisa, Schrad. 60. Clougha Pike; Whel- 

don 

capitata, Hooker. 60. Udale ; W. and 

W. 

bicrenata, Schmid. 59. Whiteley Dean, 

nr. Hollingworth Lake ; G. A. Holt 

ventricosa, Dicks. 59. Bamford Wood; 

Clifton Junction; Holt. 60. W. 
and W. 69. 

minuta, Crantz. 60. Clougha; Hell Crag; 

Great dough ; Tarnbrook F. ; + ; 
W. andW. 

crenulata, Sm. 60. ' Very frequent,' nr. 

Garstang ; Ease Gill ; + ; W. and 
W. 

Eucalyx obovata (Nees), Lindb. 59. Bam- 
ford Wood; Clifton Junction; Holt. 
60. Udale s + ; W. and W. 
Thrushgill Fell; Ease Gill; A. Wil- 
son 

Nardia compressa (Hook.), B. Gr. 60. Long- 
ridge Fell; nr. Wolfhole Crag; Hay- 
lot Fell; W. and W. 



CLASS V.CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cont.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE (continued) 
Order Hepaticte (continued) 

Sub-order I. Jungermaniaceas (cont.) 
Nardia silvrettas (Gottsche), Pears. 59. Gor- 
pley dough, Todmorden ; G. A. Holt 
'This locality is within the Lanca- 
shire area,' being 3 miles S.W. of 
Todmorden. Albert Wilson in litt. - 
Marsupella emarginata (Ehrh.), Dumort. 60. 

Udale ; + ; W. and W. 
Saccogyna viticulosa (L.), Dumort. 59. 
Bamford Wood; C. J. Wild. 60. 
Ease Gill; W. and W. in litt. 1905. 
' r.r.' 

Fossombronia caespitiformis, De Not. 59. 
Taunton; Whitelegge. Clifton Junc- 
tion; Cheetham Hill; Holt 

pusilla (L.), Dumort. 59. Bowker Bank ; 

C. J. Wild 
var. ochrospora, Lindb. Wintvick ; W. 

Wilson. Eccles ; Dr. Carrington 
Petalophyllum Ralfsii, (Wils.), Gottsche. 59. 

Southport; Dr. Carrington, C. J. 

Wild, W. H. Pearson 
Moerckia (Dikena) hibernica (Hook.), 

Gottsche. var. Wilsoniana, Gottsche. 

59. Southport; Dr. Carrington, 1863. 
C. J. Wild, 1882. W. H. Pearson, 
Crosby to Southport; Wilson and 
Marrat. Formby ; Jones and Whel- 
don, August, 1905 

For synomyms see Du Mortier, 

Hep. Eur. pp. 1 36-7, and later works 

Blasia pusilla, L. 59. Daisy Nook; Sailor's 

Shore; Holden dough; Whitehead. 

60. Caton Moor; + ; W. and W. 
TathamBeck; A.Wilson 

Pellia Neesiana, (Gottsche). 60. Hindburn; 
Gravelfs dough ; Greygarth Fell; W. 
and W. Whiteray Gill, Hindburn; 
A. Wilson 

calycina (Tayl.), Nees. 59. Southport; 

Rainford; Walton; Wheldon. 60. 
Longridge; St. Jnne's ; Wheldon. 
Hindburn ; Arkholme ; A. Wilson 
Aneura palmata (Hedw.), Dumort. 59. Park 
Bridge; R.Roberts. (Fl. Ashton and 
Pearson's Hep. 45 1) 

multifida (L.), Dumort. 59. Walton Junc- 

tion ; Formby; Wheldon. 60. Nr. 
Stonyhurst ; nr. Loud Lower Bridge ; 
Wheldon 

latifrons, Lindb. 59. Walton; Wheldon 

sinuata (Dicks.). Dumort. 59. Bamford 

Wood; Clifton Junction ; Whitehead. 
Walton; Rainford; Netherton; Wheldon 

pinguis (L ), Dumort. 59. Taunton; Cheet- 

ham Hill; CKfton Junction; White- 
head. Walton; Formby; Southport; 
Pendle Hill; Wheldon. 60. 'Fre- 
quent on the fells.' O. Wyresdale ; 
+ ; W. and W. 

Metzgeria pubescens (Schrank), Raddi. 60. 
Silverdale; Over Kellet ; + ; W. and 
W. Ease Gill; A. Wilson 

conjugata, Lindb. 60. Throng End; 

Wheldon 



BOTANY 



CLASS V.CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cont.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINEJE (continued) 
Order Hepaticx (continued) 

Sub-order II. Marchantiaceae 
Reboulia hemispherica (L.), Raddi. 59. South- 
port; Crosby; Marrat. Nr. West 
Derby ; Harrison. Churcbtown ; 
Wheldon. 60. Middlebarrow ; Leek 
Fell; A.Wilson. Da/tan Crag ; Bur- 
wick; Whitewell ; W. and W. 
Chomocarpon quadratus (Scop.), Lindb. 59. 
Sand-hills, Formby; Soutbfort ; Wh. 
60. Wash Dub Wood; Gravel! s 
dough; Dolphinholme ; + ; W. and 
W. 

There are two forms in the county ; 
for description see Lindberg's last 
work. C. commutatus is an arctic 
plant. Lindberg also corrects the 
spelling of the generic name of 
Corda 



CLASS V.CRYPTOGAMIA CELLULARIA (cent.) 
SUB-CLASS MUSCINE/E (continued) 
Order Hepatic* (continued) 

Sub-order II. Marchantiaceae (cont.) 
Lunularia cruciata (L.), Dumort. 60. Between 
H a/ton zndS/yne; Wheldon. Garstang; 
A. Wilson. Nr. Hurst Green; W. & W 
Sub-order III. Ricciaceae 
Riccia glauca, L. 59. Walton ; Aintree ; Whel- 
don. 60. Nr. Marlon Mere, 1905. 
Wheldon in litt. var. minima. 59. 
C. J. Wild 

Lescuriana, Aust. 60. Limest. rocks, nr. 
Silverdale, 1904 ; W. and W. in litt. 
Ricciella fluitans (L.), Braun. 59. Ashton- 
under-Lyne ; ]. E. Sunderland, J. T. 
Newton. Moston ; R. Lees. Reddish 
Canal ; Holt. Pearson's Hep. rep. 
Sub-order IV. Anthocerotaceae 
Anthoceros punctatus, L. 59. Formby ; Ain- 
tree; Wheldon 



SUB-DIVISION AND CLASS. CHARACE/E 



ORDER CHARES 

Chara fragilis, Desv. A. Bennett ! in litt. 59. H. Searle, 
Hb. Ar. Bennett. 1882. J.ofB. March, 1885, 
pp. 8 1 -8 3 . West Kirby ; C. T. Green. Reddish ; 
+ ; Whitehead, Wheldon. 60. Silverdale ; 
Leek; Petty. Nr. Leighton Beck, Silverdale; 
A. Wilson. 69. VrsvAck Tarn; Miss Hodgson 

aspera, Willd. A. Bennett ! in litt. 60. Canal nr. 

Cabus, July, 1901. H. Beesley, W. and W. 

contraria, Ktttz. Lancashire ; A. Bennett ! in litt. 

59. Birkdale, 1898, 'abundant.' Southport ; 
Ainsdale, ' sparingly ; ' Wheldon 

hispida, L. 59. H. Searle, 1884. J.ofB. March, 

1885. Ponds on Caton Moss ; Buxton's G. App. 
Nr. Birkdak ; Wheldon. 60. Silverdale, 1890 ; 
C. Bailey 

vulgaris, L. A.Bennett ! in litt. 59. Buxton's G. 

App. 60. Stonyhurst ; Croushaw Reservoir; 
quarry nr. Leagram Mill ; Fl. Stony hurst 
var. longibracteata, Kutz. 59. H. Searle, 1882. 
/. ofB. March, 1885. Nr. Crossens ; nr. Wal- 
ton: Wheldon. Guidebridge ; Whitehead. 60. 
Between Blackpool and St. Anne's ; Wheldon 



ORDER CHARES (continued) 
Chara vulgaris, L. (continued") 

var. papillata, Wallr. 59. H. Searle, 1882. Mouth 
of Alt; Wheldon 

Braunii, Gmelin. Lancashire ; ' probably intro- 

duced, A. Bennett ' ! in litt. (with cotton 
from Egypt probably, J. C. Melvill, in litt. 
59. Canal at Reddish; Whitehead, Armitage, 
Wheldon 

ORDER NITELLE^E 

Tolypella glomerata, Leonh. Lancashire ; A. Bennett ! 
in litt. 59. Birkdale ; Wheldon. 60. Nr. Lan- 
caster, 1900,- Wheldon 

intricata, Leonh. 60. Canal nr. Cabus; W. 

and W. 

Nitella flexilis, Ag. or N. opaca, Ag. 59. Chorlton 
Fields. 60. Abundant in Grizedale Reservoir ; 
' not yet found in fruit,' W. and W. 

opaca, Agardh. Lancashire ; A. Bennett ! in litt. 

59. Waterhouses; Park Bridge; Filton Hill; 
Whitehead. 60. Garstang; A. Wilson. 69. 
T. Hebden. J. ofB. March, 1885 



SUB-DIVISION AND CLASS. ALG^E 
A. FRESH WATER 



In the Appendix to Buxton's Botanical Guide to environs of Manchester (16 miles radius), 
1849, there are a few records by Professor Wm. C. Williamson, F.R.S., and Mr. Joseph Sidebotham. 
The following list contains all the species named therein, very little having been added since so far as 
is known. There must be upwards of a thousand species of F. W. Algas, including diatoms, in the 
whole county. The meagre lists given below will show how much might be done. 



B. G. App. = Buxton's Guide Appendix. 

CLASS FLORIDE.E 

Batrachospermum moniliforme, Roth. 59. Reddish ; 
+ ; B. G. App. 

CLASS CHLOROPHYCE^E 
Coleochaste scutata, Breb. 59. In a pond in Victoria 

Park ; B. G. App. 

CEdogonium Rothii (Le Cl.), Pringsh. 59. Victoria 
Park; B. G.App. 



* = Additions since B. G. App. 1849. 
CLASS CHLOROPHYCE^E (continued) 

Bulbochaete setigera (Roth.), Ag. 59. Chorlton Field; : 

B. G. App. 
*Hormiscia subtilis (Kutz.), De Toni. 60. Summit 

of Greygarth Fell. 21 Oct. 1903 
Chaetophora cornu-damae (Roth.), Ag. 59. Victoiia 

Park ; + ; E.G. App. 



70 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CLASS CHLOROPHYCE^E (continued) 
Chztophora tuberculosa (Roth.), Ag. 59. Chorlton 
Fields; B. G.App. 

elegans (Roth.), Ag. 59. Common (locally). B. G. 

App. 

Draparnaudia plumosa, (Vauch.), Ag. 59. Chorlton ; 
B. G. App. 

glomerata (Vauch.), Ag. 59. Reddish; B. G.App. 
Cladophora glomerata (L.), Kiitz. 59. Abundant 

(locally). B. G. App. 
Mougeotia genuflexa (Dillw.), Ag. 59. In almost 

every ditch ; B. G. App. 
Zygnema Vaucherii, Ag. 

var. stagnale (Hass.), Kirchn. 59. Common in 

ditches ; B. G. App. 
Spirogyra gracilis (Hass.), Kiitz. 59. Boggy pools ; 

B. G. App. 

Fam. DESMIDIACE.K 
Cylindrocystis Brebissonii, Menegh. (59.) E.G. App. 

(no loc.) 
Closterium Dianae, Ehrenb. (59.) B. G. App. (no loc.) 

moniliferum (Bory), Ehrenb. (59.) B. G. App. 

(no loc.) 

Leibleinii, Kiitz. (59.) B. G. App. (no loc.) 

acerosum (Schrank), Ehrenb. (59.) B. G. App. 

(no loc.) 

- Lunula (Miiller), Nitzsch. (59.) B. G. App. (no 
loc.) 

lineatum, Ehrenb. (59.) B. G. App. (no loc.) 

striolatum, Ehrenb. (59.) B. G. App. (no loc.) 

juncidum, Ralfs. (59.) B. G. App. (no loc.) 

turgidum, Ehrenb. (59.) B. G. App. (no loc.) 

Ralfsii, Breb. (59.) B. G. App. (no loc.), conf. 

needed 

rostratum, Ehrenb. (59.) B. G. App. (no loc.) 
*Tetmemorus penioides. 69. Among Sphagnum, 

Fumess Fells. M. C. Cooke in GreviSea, vi. 

1886 
*Cosmarium Sphagnicolum, West. 60. Summit of 

Greygarth Fell. 21 Oct. 1903 
'Staurastrum margaritaceum (Ehrenb.). Menegh. 60. 

Summit of Greygarth Fell. 21 Oct. 1903 

Fam. PALMELLACEJE 
Raphidium polymorphum, Fresen. 

var. falcatum (Corda), Rabenh. (59). B. G.App. 
Apiocystis Brauniana, Nag. 59. Broad Green, Liver- 
pool ; W. Narramore 



CLASS MYXOPHYCE^. Order HORMOGONE/E 

Tolypothrix distorta (Fl. Dan.), Kiitz. 59. Very 

common ; B. G. App. 
Lyngbya Martensiana, Menegh. 59. Abundant on 

boggy pools ; B. G. App. 
Symploca muralis, Kiitz. 59. B. G.App. (This and 

the last need confirmation) 
Oscillatoria tenuis, Ag. 59. B. G. App. 69. Cmiston 

OldMan. 29 Oct. 1903 (ascending to i.yooft.) 

CLASS DIATOMACE^E = BACILLARIE^E 

Achnanthes minutissima, Kiitz. (59-) Pond in Bot. 

Gardens 

Cymbella lanceolata, Kirchn. 
Stauroneis Phcenicenteron (Nitsch.), Ehrenb. 
Navicula viridis, Kiitz. 
Gomphonema acuminatum, Ehrenb. 

dichotomum, Ktltz. 

Eunotia Arcus, Ehrenb. Ditches, Independent College 
Synedra capitata, Ehrenb. 

ulna, Ehrenb. 

affinis, Ktttz. 

var. fasciculata (Kutz.). V.H. (Needs confirmn.) 
Meridion circulare, Ag. 
Diatoma elongatum, Ag. 

vulgare, Bory. 

Surirella biseriata, Breb. Charlton Fields 

Meloseira varians, Ag. 

All the above diatoms are recorded in Buxton's 
Guide App., and are said to be more or less com- 
mon, but no locality is given excepting as quoted 
above. Presumably they were found in the 
Lancashire area, otherwise they would not be 
considered common about Manchester. 

The following from Buxton's G. App. must be 
considered ambiguities if not errors : 
Gyrosigma hippocampus, Hass. 
Shinctocystis librilis, Hass. 
Fragilaria pectinalis, Lyngb. 

hyemalis, Lyngb. 

rhabdosoma, Breb. 
Navicula platystoma, Ehr. 

There is also Mr. Comber's list of Diatomacese 
found in the neighbourhood of Liverpool, publ. 
in Trans, of Historic Soc. of Lane, and Chesh., 
vol. xi. 1859. 



Mr. ]. A. Martindale very kindly furnished a summary of Fresh Water Algae, and one of 
Desmids only, for Westmorland and Lake Lancashire, V.C. 69. Diatoms are not included, there 
being no reliable information in reference to them. The lists were very carefully drawn up by 
Mr. Martindale, from the Journal of the Roy. Microsc. Soc. 1884, 1886, and 1892, and the plants 
were collected and vouched for by Mr. ]. P. Bisset, Alf. W. Bennett, and Wm. West. The total 
number of species recorded, 35 Fr. Water Algae (excl. Diatoms) ; 167 Desmids, for V.C. 69. Lake 
Lancashire. The district is the Lancashire Leven, that is, the lower portion. Less time was spent 
here than in the upper (Westmorland) portion ; the number of species is therefore greater for the 
latter. Mr. Martindale, however, thinks the lower Leven basin will be found quite as rich in forms 
as the upper. 

SUMMARY OF FR. WTR. ALGJE (EXOLG. DIATOMS). V.C. 69 



Palmellace* . 
Protococcaceae 
Volvocineae . 
Zygnemaceae . 
Vaucheriaceae . 



Ulvaceae . . 
Confervaceae . 
CEdogoniaceae . 
Ulotrichaceae . 
Chroolepidez . 



Chactophoracea 
Chroococaceae 
Nostochinex . 
Scytonemeas . 
Trichophoreas 



Chantransiaceas . 
Batrachospermeae . 
Lemanaceae . 

Total . 



So 



Gonatozygon . 
Sphoerozosma . 
Hyalotheca . 
Gymnozyga . 
Bambusina 
Desmidium 



SUMMARY 



BOTANY 

GENERA AND SPECIES OF DESMIDIACE^E 



Docidium . 
Closterium. 
Mesotoenium . 
Tetmemorus . 
Spirotcenia 
Micrasterias . 



Euastrum . . 
Cosmarium 
Calocylindrus . 
Xanthidium . 

Cylindrocystis . 



. 1 7 Arthrodesmu 

. 42 Staurastrum 

'. 4 Total . 
'3 



4 

32 

167" 



LIST OF MARINE 

Of V.C. 69. Lake Lancashire, compiled by J. A. MARTINDALE, revised by E. M. HOLMES. 

x Collected chiefly near Barrow-in-Furness 

Authorities for records : Martyn's Plant* Cantabrigiensis, 1763 ; Dr. Gibson, Handbook to the 
Lakes, 1854; Miss Hodgson, Ulverston ; Mr. W. B. Kendall 



Enteromorpha compressa, Grev. (Dr. Gibson) 
Monostroma lactuca (L.), J. Ag. (Dr. Gibson) 
Ulva latissima, J. Ag. (Dr. Gibson) 
Cladophora pellucida, Klitz. (Robson's Brit. F/. 1777) 

Hutchinsiz, Harv. (Dr. Gibson) 

utriculosa, Ktltz. 

var. laetevirens, Hansch. (Dr. Gibson) 

rupestris (L.), Ktitz 

glaucescens, Guff. (Mr. Kendall) 
Bryopsis hypnoides, Lamour. (Dr. Gibson) 

plumosa (Huds.), C. Ag. (Dr. Gibson) 
Vaucheria litorea, B. and Ag. -j 

synandra, Woronin I M j j. 
_ Thuretii, Woronin Nordstedt. 

sphoerospora 

Dictyosiphon fosniculaceus (Huds.), Grev. (Dr. 

Gibson) 
Punctaria latifolia (Roth.), Grev. (Mr. Kendall) 

plantaginea, Grev. (Dr. Gibson) 
Ectocarpus confervoides (Roth.), Le Jol. 

f. siliculosa (Dillw.), Kjellm. (Dr. Gibson) 
Pylaiella litoralis (L.), Kjellm. (Dr. Gibson) 
Arthrocladia villosa, Duby. Miss Hodgson 
Elachista fucicola (Veil.), Aresch. (Dr. Gibson) 
Sphacelaria cirrhosa (Roth.) C. Ag. (Martyn's PL 

Cantab. 1763) 
Cladostephus spongiosus (Lightf.), C. Ag. (Miss 

Hodgson) 

Stypocaulon scoparium (L.), Ktltz. (Dr. Gibson) 
Leathesia difformis (L.), Aresch. (Miss Hodgson) 
Scitosiphon lomentarius (Lyngb.), Jag. (Mr. Ken- 
dall) 
Fucus ceranoides, L. (Dr. Gibson) 

vesiculosus, L. (Dr. Gibson) 

serratus, L. (Dr. Gibson) 

Ascophyllum nodosum (L.), Le Jol. (Dr. Gibson) 



Pelvetia canaliculata (L.), Decaisne et Thuret. (Dr. 

Gibson) 

Halidrys siliquosa (L.), Lyngb. (Dr. Gibson) 
Dictyota dichotoma, Lamour. (Dr. Gibson) 
Padina pavonia, Gaill. (Martyn's Fl. Cantab. 1763) 
Porphyra laciniata, C. Ag. (Dr. Gibson) 
Chondrus crispus (L.), Stack. (Dr. Gibson) 
Phyllophora membranifolia (Good and W.), J. Ag. 

(Miss Hodgson) 

Ahnfeltia plicata (Huds.), Fries. (Mr. Kendall) 
Gracilaria confervoides, Grev. (With. Arr. 1796) 
Calliblepharis ciliata, Ktltz. (Rodymenia ciliata, 

Miss Hodgson) 
Lomentaria articulata, Lyngb. (Dr. Gibson) 

clavellosa, Gaill. (Miss Hodgson) 
Champia parvula, Harv. (Dr. Gibson) 
Chylocladia kaliformis, Grev. (Dr. Gibson) 
Nitophyllum laceratum, Grev. (Mr. Kendall) 
Laurencia obtusa, Lamour. (Dr. Gibson) 

pinnatifida, Lamour. (Dr. Gibson) 
Chondria dasyphylla, C. Ag. (Miss Hodgson) 
Polysiphonia urceolata (Lightf.), Grev. f. formosa, J. 

Ag. (Dr. Gibson) 

fibrillosa (Dellw), Grev. (Dr. Gibson) 

migrescens (Huds.), Grev. f. affinis, Harv. (Miss 

Hodgson) 

fastigiata (Roth.), Grev. (Dr. Gibson) 
Antithamnion plumula, Thur. (Dr. Gibson) 
Ceramium rubrum (Huds.), C. Ag. f. prolifera, J. Ag. 

(Miss Hodgson) 

flagelliferum, J. Ag. (Mr. Kendall.) (?H. F.) 
Microcladia glandulosa (Soland.), Grev. (Mr. Kendall) 
Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Carm. MS. (Miss Hodgson) 

Rare. 

Dumontia filiformis (Fl. Dan.), Grev. (Dr. Gibson) 
Corallina officinalis, L. (Dr. Gibson) 



Since the latest records of the above list a number of marine algae have been recorded as 
follows : 

Trans. Liverpool Marine Biological Committee, containing reports and memoirs of work since 
1885. The marine algae were named by Prof. R. J. Harvey Gibson, Prof. Weiss, Dr. Darbishire, 
and others. Trans. L'poo/ Bio/. Sac. vol. 5, 18901, pub. 1891, pp. 83143, contains a revised 
list of marine algae of the L.M.B.C. District. Reprinted in vol. iii. of Reports on the Fauna of 
U pool Bay, 1892, with pagination altered to 65-125. The first list of algas was published in 1886, 
pp. 312-314, by Alfred Leicester. There are ten memoirs of the L.M.B.C., containing full 
descriptions of typical marine plants and animals. The greater number of these memoirs relate to 
animals. The district embraces not only Lancashire, but the whole coast from S.W. Scotland to 
Cardigan, and the Isle of Man. A list of marine algae extracted from the above Transactions was 
given in the Southport Handbook, Brit. Assoc. meeting, 1903, under Zoology, but no localities 
are given ; therefore the plants mentioned must not be considered as belonging to the county, with- 
i 81 ii 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

out reference to the above Transactions. Two very common plants are recorded in Ann. Rep. Manch. 
Mlcr. Soc. for 1889, pp. 114-116. These are F. vesiculosus and F. nodosus. 

The following six species of marine algas are recorded in ' A Catalogue of the British Marine 
Algae,' by E. A. L. Batters, LL.B., Supplement to the Journal of Botany, 1902. Of the six species 
only three are additional to the list compiled by Mr. Martindale. They are marked thus.* 



Vaucheria litorea, B. and Ag. Ulverston 
'Sphacelaria plumigera, Holmes. Addingham, Walney 1. 
*Padina pavonia, Grillon. Walney 1. 



Lomentaria articulata, Lyngb. Walney I. 
*Ceramium Deslongchampsii, Chauv. Ulvmton 
flabelligerum. Ulverston 



Dr. H. Stolterforth, M.A., of Chester, named all the marine diatoms for the Liverpool Marine 
Biol. District. The account is published in 2nd Report of the L.M. B.C., 1889. None of these 
records refer to Lancashire, but to Cheshire and North Wales. A bibliography of Liverpool, etc., 
is given. It is unaccountable that Lancashire Algae (including Diatoms), both of fresh and salt 
water, should have been so neglected, more so than any other county apparently. 

For further references see Dr. Van Heurck's Synopsis, ch. iii. p. 43, etc. 



Series II. Tribe III. 

Basomyces rufus, DC. 60. Middle Gill, H'mdburn ; 
nr. Gressintham ; W. and W. 



CLASS LICHENES 
(Lichen forming Fungi) 

More conveniently placed here than under the class Fungi proper. No attention was paid to 
the lichens until the present decade. Messrs. Wheldon and Wilson have recently devoted some 
time to the study of West Lancashire species. The following list, which is based on their MS. 
must not therefore be taken as representative of the lichen flora of the county. Many of their 
doubtful plants have been submitted to Messrs. J. A. Martindale and E. M. Holmes. See Journal 
of Botany, September, 1904. 

FAM. II. COLLEMACEI 

Tribe II. COLLEMEI 
Lichina confinis, Ag. 60. Tidal rocks, nr. Silverdale; 

W. and W. 

Collema granuliferum, Nyl. 59. Birkdale ; Wh. 
60. Silverdale ; + ; Wh. and Wi. 

melaenum, Ach. 60. Tealand ; Wheldon 

furvum, Ach. 60. Siherdale ; W. and W. 

flaccidum, Ach. 60. Nr. Henridden ; W. and W. 

pulposum, Ach. 60. Nr. Tealand 

multipartitum, Sm. Eng. Sot. 60. Silverdale ; near 

Whitcwcll; W. and W. 

isidioides, Nyl. 60. Warton Crag; Martindale 
Collemodium plicatile, Nyl. 60. Silverdale Cove; 

near Whitewell ; W. and W. 

fluviadle, Nyl. 60. Stones in R. H odder ; Wh. 

Schraderi, Nyl. 60. Da/ton Crag; W. and W. 
"Leptogium pulvinatum, Nyl. 60. + ; Wi. 

lacerum, Gray. 60. Dalton Crag; Ease Gill; 

W. and W. 

FAM. III. LICHENACEI 

Sphinctrina turbinata, Fr. 69. Nr. Ferry Hotel, 

Windermere ; J. A. Martindale in litt. 
Coniocybe pallida, Fr. 60. Clougha ; R.Jacob 
Calicium hyperellum, Ach. 60. Between Hornby and 

Melling; nr. Wennington ; Wh. and Wi. 
Trachylia tympanella, Fr. 60. Greystoneley ; Crag 

Wood; W. and W. 

FAM. SPH^EROPHOREI 

Sphsrophorus coralloides, Pers. 60. Graveirs Clough ; 
Clougba; W. and W. 69. Conistm Old Man. 

fragilis, Ach. 60. GravelPs Clough; Bottom Head 

Fell; Deer dough; Woljhole Crag; Wh. and 
Wi. 



FAM. STEREOCAULEI 

Stereocaulon evolutum, Graewe. 60. Clougka. Deer 
Clough ; W. and W. 

denudatum, Florke. 60. Head of Great Clough ; 

Grey garth Fell; W. and W. 

condensatum, Hoffm. 60. Wolfhole Crag; W. 

andW. 

FAM. CLADONIEI 

Cladonia pyxidata, Fr. Common. 59. 60. 69. 

var. chlorophaea, FlOrke. 60. Tatham Moor ; 
W.andW. 69. Nr. Ferry Hotel, Winder- 
mere; Martindale. Waterhead, Coniston 

var. pocillum, Fr. 60. Shore at St. Anne's ; 
Wheldon 

pityrea, Florke. 60. Gully nr. Lea Fell; W. 

and W. 

fimbriata, Fr. 60. Railbanks, Silverdale ; Parlick 

Pike, etc. ; W. and W. 

var. tubaeformis, Fr. 59. Netherton ; Whel- 
don. 69. Waterhead, Coniston 

* fibula, Nyl. var. subcoronata, Nyl. 69. Ferry 
Hotel, Windermere ; Martindale 

ochrochlora, Florke. 69. Nr. Ferry Hotel, Winder- 

mere ; Martindale 

cervicornis, Schaer. 60. Clougha; Long Crag, 

etc. ; W. and W. 

lepidota, Nyl. 60. Clougha; Wheldon. Ward- 

stone; W. and W. 

furcata, Hoffm. 59. Hightown ; Wheldon. 60. 

Whiteviell, etc. , W. and W. Greygarth Fell. 
69. Coniston Old Man 



82 



BOTANY 



Cladonia furcata, Hoffm. (continued) 

var. corymbosa, Nyl. 60. Greygarth Fell 
var. spinosa, Hook. 69. Nr. Ferry Hotel, 

Windermere ; Martindale 

* racemosa, Hoffm. f. recurva, Florke. 69. Coniston 
Old Man 

pungens, Flarke. *C. muricata, Crombie. Grey- 

garth Fell, 2,050 ft. ; A. Wilson 

squamosa, Hoffm. 60. Clougha Pike ; W. and W. 

L. Easegill; Wilson. Greygarth Fell 

caespititia, Florke. 60. Common ; W. and W. 

coccifera, Schuer. 60. Clougha, etc. ; W. andW. 

digitata, Hoffm. 60. Grizedale; Clougha; + ; 

W. and W. 

macilenta, Hoffm. 60. Common on the fells ; 

W. and W. 69. Coniston Old Man 

var. coronata, Nyl. 60. Greygarth Fell 

bacillaris, Nyl. 60. Clougha ; Middle Gill; W. 

and W. 

var. subcoronata, Nyl. 69. Coniston Old 
Man 

Florkeana, Fr. forma. 60. Grizedale Hd. W. 

and W. 

Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl. 60. Greygarth Fell ; 
A. Wilson. 

silvatica, (Hoffm.), Nyl. 59. 60. On all the fells ; 

A. Wilson. 69. Common 

var. alpestris, Nyl. 60. Wardstone Breast ; 
W. and W. 

uncialis, Nyl. 60. Tambrook Fell ; Clougha, etc. ; 

W. and W. Greygarth Fell 

f. adunca, Cromb. Greygarth Fell, 2,050 ft. ; 
W. and W. 

Series III. Tribe IX. 

Ramalina farinacea, Ach. 60. Ireby ; nr. Leek ; A. 
Wilson 

fraxinea, Ach. 60. Nr. Burrow ; A. Wilson 

fastigiata, Ach. 60. Lower Ease Gill; A. Wilson 

polymorpha, Ach. 60. Nr. Heysham; W.andW. 

scopulorum, Ach. 60. Heysham ; Wh. 

var. incrassata, Nyl. Heysham ; Wheldon 

cuspidata, Nyl. 60. Heysham ; Middleton (and 

f. minor) ; W. and W. 

Tribe X. USNEI 

Usnea hirta, Hoffm. 60. Whitewell; Trough of 
Rowland; W. and W. Leek ; Wi. 

ceratina, Ach. var. scabrosa, Ach. 60. On grit 

rocks, Clougha ; Ease Gill; W. and W. 

dasypoga, Nyl. var. plicata, Nyl. 60. Nr. 

Lower Emmetts ; W. and W. 

articulata, Hoffm. 59. Burnley ; Crombie (pro- 

bably extinct) 

Tribe XL, Nyl 

Alectoria bicolor, Nyl. 60. Clougba ; W. and W. 

jubata, Nyl, var. lanestris, Ach. 60. On fir tree, 

Marshaw Fell: W. and W. 

Tribe XII., Nyl 

Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. f. crispa, Ach. 60. 
Summit of Greygarth Fell 

aculeata (Ach). Fr. 59. 60. 69. Very common 

on the fells, f. hispida 60. 69. 



Platysma glaucum (L.) Nyl. 59. Wh. 60. Common ; 
W. and W. 

f. ampullaceum, Crombie (a monstrosity, 
caused by a parasite, Abrothallus Smithii) 
59. Coin (first detected here as British 
Crombie, p. 227) 

var. tenuisectum, Crombie. 60. Clougha ; 
Martindale. Hell Crag, Wardstone, etc. ; 
W. and W. 

triste (Web.). (Parmelia tristis, Nyl.) 60. Hell 
Crag; Long Crag; W. and W. 



Series IV. Tribe XIII., Nyl 

Evernia prunastri, Ach. 59. Langho ; Wh. 60 
Tealand, etc.; W. and W. 69. (Martin- 
dale) 

f. sorediata. 60. Whitewell ; Leek; W. 
and W. 

furfuracea, Fr. 59. Pendle Hill; 60. Greygarth 

Fell (2,000 feet), etc. ; W. and W. 
Parmelia perlata, Ach. 60. Lower Ease Gill; A. 
Wilson. 69. Nr. Windermere Ferry Hotel- 
Martindale 

cetrarioides, Nyl. 60. Chaigley ; nr. Clougha ; 

W. and W. 

laevigata, Ach. 60. Whitewell ; W. and W. 

scortea, Ach. 69. Nr. Ferry Hotel, Windermere ; 

}. A. Martindale (in litt.) 

saxatilis, Ach. 59. Maghul! ; Wh. 60. (W. 

and W.) ! 69. (Martindale) ! 

sulcata, Tayl. 59. Netherton ; Wh. 60. (W. 

and W.) 69. (Martindale) 

omphalodes, Ach. 59. (Wheldon). 60. (W. 

and W.) 

Borreri, Turn. 60. Nr. Aughton ; W. and W. 

caperata, Ach. 60. Ireby ; nr. Caton ; etc. W. 

andW. 

conspersa, Ach. 60. Ease Gill; W. and W. 

69. Nr. Ferry Hotel, Windermere; Martindale 

prolixa, Nyl. 60. Ease Gill; W. and W. 

exasperata, Nyl. 60. Do/phinholme, etc. ; W. 
andW. 

subaurifera, Nyl. 60. Nr. Kirkby Lonsdale ; 

Whitewell; W. and W. 

fuliginosa, Nyl. 59. Netherton; Wheldon. 60. 

Whttestone, etc. ; W. and W. 69. Windermere; 
Martindale 

v. laete-virens, Nyl. 59. Wheldon. 60. 
(W. and W.) 

lanata, Wallr. 60. Hell Crag 

physodes, Ach. 60. Frequent, W. and W. 



Tribe XV., Nyl 

Peltidea aphthosa, Ach. 60. Middle Gill; Hindbuni; 

Silverdale ; Ease Gill ; W. and W. 
Solorina saccata (L.), Ach. 60. Ease Gill Kirk; 

Silverdale; W. and W. Daltm Crag; A. 

Wilson 
Peltigera canina (L.), Ach. 59. 60. 69 

rufescens, Hoffm. 60. (W. and W.) 

f. prxtextata, Flk. 69. Nr. Feny Hotel, 
Windermere ; Martindale. Coniston 

polydactyla, Hoffm. 60. Lower Baiter ; W. and 

W. 69. Nr. Ferry Hotel, Windermere; Mar- 
tindale 

horizontalis, Hoffm. 60. (W. and W.) 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Tribe XVI., Nyl 

Physcia parietina (L.), De Not. 59. 60. 69 

ciliaris, DC. 60. Aughton ; W. and W. 'rare' 

lychnea, Nyl. 60. Nr. Whltewell ; W. and W. 

pulverulenta (Schreb.), Nyl. 59. Kirkby ; Whel- 

don. 60. Silverdale; Tea/and; Wh. Nr. 
Carnforth; Wi. 

pityrea, Nyl. 60. Silveretale ; nr. Carnforth ; W. 

and W. 

stellaris, Nyl. v. leptalea, Ach. 59. Kirkby; 

Wh. 60. Between Carnforth and O. Kellet ; 
Wi. Eaves Wood; Wh. 

* tenella (Scop.), Nyl. 60. Greystoneley ; White- 
well; W. and W. Nr. Carnforth; Wi. 

aipolia, Nyl. 60. Nr. Gressingham ; W. and W. 

Tribe XVII. 

Gyrophora cylindrica (L.), Ach. 69. Coniston Old 
Man (2,630 feet and 1,780 feet) 

torrefacta (Lightf.), Crombie. 60. Frequent 

above 1,500 feet ; W. and W. 

polyphylla (L.), Turn, and Borr. 60. Wardstone; 

FoxdaleHead; Grizedale Hd. ; Long Crag; Gt. 
C lough of Tarnbrook Fell; W. and W. Wall. 
Lower Ease Gill; A. Wilson 

flocculosa (Wulf.), Turn and Borr. 60. Tarn- 

brook Fell; Gravell's C lough ; W. and W. 

hyperborea, Ach. 60. Leighton's Lichen Flora 

Series V. PLACODEI, Nyl 

Pannaria brunnea, Nyl. 60. Lower Ease Gill ; W. 

andW. 
Pannularia nigra, Nyl. 59. Clitheroe ; Wh. 60. 

Silverdale ; nr. Leek Hall; Whltewell; Grey- 

sloneley; Warton Crag; W. and W. 
Coccocarpia plumbea, Nyl. 60. Nr. Aughton ; nr. 

Arkholme ; W. and W. 
Leproloma lanuginosum, Nyl. 60. L. Ease Gill; W. 

andW. 
Lecanora crassa, Ach. 60. Nr. Berwick ; W. and W. 

Silverdale; Wh. 69. Hamps Fell, Grange; A. 

Wilson, MS. 

saxicola, Ach. 60. Nr. Whltewell; nr. M filing 

callopisma, Ach. 60. Silverdale ; W. and W. 

sympagea, Nyl. 60. Whltewell ; Berwick ; Hornby ; 

W. and W. 

tegularis, Nyl. 60. Silverdale ; Lower Emmetts ; 

Wh. and W. 

lobulata, Somm. 60. Silverdale ; W. and W. 

xantholyta, Nyl. 60. Over Kellet; A. Wilson. 

Silverdale; Wheldon 

pruinosa, Nyl. 60. Nr. Wennington ; W. and W. 

laciniosa, Nyl. 60. Nr. Carnforth; W. and W. 

vitellina, Ach. 59. Maghull ; Wheldon. 60. 

Berwick ; Caton ; Aughton ; Hornhy ; W. and W. 

erythrella, Nyl. 60. Ease Gill; W. and W. 

ferruginea, Nyl. 60. L. Ease Gill; W. and W. 

galactina, Ach. 60. Ease Gill; A. Wilson 

chlarona, Nyl. 60. Abbeystead; W. and W. 

coilcarpa, Nyl. 60. L. Ease Gill ; W. and W. 

allophana, Nyl. 59. Kirkby ; Wh. 60. Wash 

Dub Wood; Abbey stead 

rugosa, Nyl. 60. Siherdale ; Yeaknd ; W. and 

W. 

glaucoma, Ach. 60. Greygarth Fell; A. Wilson 

varia, Ach. 60. Nr. Whltewell ; W. and W. 



84 



Lecanora conizaea, Nyl. 59. Maghull; Wheldon. 60. 
Whltewell; W. and W. Barnacre ; A. Wilson 

conizaeoides, Nyl. 60. Silverdale; Whltewell; 

Wheldon 

intricata, Nyl. 60. L. Ease Gill; W. and W. 

expallens, Ach. var. lutescens, Nyl. 60. Below 

Kirby Lonsdale ; W. and W. 

badia, Ach. 60. L. Ease Gill; W. and W. 

symmictera, Nyl. 59. Palings, nr. 

Wheldon 

polytropa, Schaer. 69. Coniston Old Man, 2,633 

ventosa, Ach. 60. Ease Gill; W. and W. 

tartarea (L.), Ach. 60. Wolfbole Crag; Ward- 

stone ; Clougka, etc ; W. and W. 

subtartarea, Nyl. 60. Nr. Burrow ; W. and W. 

parella, Ach. The Perelle d'Auvergne of S. 

France. 59. Netherten ; Wheldon. 60. Nr. 
Carnforth; A. Wilson. Me/ling; W. and W. 
69. Wlndermere; Martindale 

subfusca, Nyl. 60. Hornby ; W. and W. 

atra, Ach. 60. Trees, nr. Caton ; Wheldon 

ochracea (Schaer). 60. Silverdale ; W. and W. 

irrubata, Ny-. 60. Siherdale ; Wheldon 

privigna, Nyl. 59. Maghull ; Wheldon 

pallescens, Nyl. Nr. Dalton Hall; W. and W. 

calcarea, Somm. f. contorta, Nyl. 60. Silver- 

dale ; W. and W. 

Sub-Tribe III., Nyl 

Pertusaria globulifera (Turn.), Nyl. 60. Crook of 
Lune ; W. and W. 69. Nr. Ferry Hotel, Wln- 
dermere; Martindale 

velata, Nyl. 60. Black Chugh ; W. and W. 

dealbata, Nyl. 60. Middle Gill, Hindburn, and 

Tarnbrook Fell; W. and W. 

lactea, Nyl. 60. Nr. Hornby; Caton; W. and 

W. 

communis, DC. 60. Hindburn ; W. and W. 

Wennington; Wilson. 69. Nr. Ferry Hotel, 
Windermere ; Martindale 

aipolia, Nyl. 60. Gressingham ; W. and W. 

f. rupestris, DC. 60. Black C lough ; W. 
and W. 

Wulfenii, DC. 60. Middle Gill; Weljkele Crag, 

on trees ; W. and W. 

amara, (Ach.), Nyl. 59. Clitheroe; Wh. 60. 

Whltewell, etc., W. and W. 69. Wlndermere; 

Martindale 
Phlyctis agelaea, Korb. 60. Nr. Wennington; W. 

and W. 
Thelotretna lepadinum, Ach. 60. Whltewell, W. and 

W. 69. Nr. Ferry Hotel, Windermere; Mar- 
tindale 
Urceolaria scruposa, Ach. 59. Rainford ' ; Wheldon. 

60. Chugha ; Whitestone Clough ; W. and W. 
* bryophila, Nyl. 60. On Cladonia pyxidata and 

mosses in Whitestone Clough; W. and W. 

FAM. LECIDEINEI 

Lecidea lurida (Swartz.). 60. Dalton Crag; W. 
andW. 

crustulata (Ach.). 60. Dale Gill, Hindburn; 

Clougha; W. and W. 

lucida, Ach. 59. Nr. Liverpool; Sir J. E. Smith. 

60. Meting, etc.; Wh. and Wi. 69. Nr. 
Ferry Hotel, Windermere ; Martindale 



BOTANY 



FAM. LECIDEINEI (continued) 
Lecidea decolorans, FlOrke. 60. Clougha; Wh. Ward- 
stones W. and W. 

enteroleuca, Ach. 60. Grey garth Fell ; A.Wilson 

parasema, Ach. 59. RainforJ. 60. Silver/tale ; 

Yealand; Wh. Wash Dub Wood; W. and W. 
var. tabescens, Leight. 60. Nr. Haioes 

Water; Wheldon 

uliginosa (Schrad.), Ach, 60. Wardstone Breast ; 
W. and W. 

coarctata (Sm.). 60. Hindburn ; W. and W. 

plana, Lahm. 60. Clougha; Wheldon 

lactea (FlOrke). 60. Ease Gill; W. and W. 

fusco-atro, Ach. f. fumosa, Ach. 60. L. Ease 

Gill; W. and W. 

subkochiana, Nyl. 60. Greygarth Fell; W. and 

W. 

contigua, Fr. 59. Netherton ; Wh. 60. White- 

stone Chugh ; + ; W. and W. 

f. platycarpa, Fr. 60. Gravel? s Chugh; W. 
and W. 69. Nr. WinJermere ; Martin- 
dale 

confluens, Web. 60. Wall on summit of Grey- 
garth Fell; Wilson. Great Chugh ; W. and W. 
- calcivora (Ehrh.). 60. SilverJale; W. and W. 

canescens, Dicks. 60. Borteitk ; W. and W. 

SilverJale; Wheldon 

myriocarpa, DC. 60. Melting; W. and W. 

Caton ; Wh. 

caeruleo-nigricans, Nyl. 60. Frequent about 

SilverJale; Teaknd ; Wheldon. Dalton Crag; 
A. Wilson 

lenticularis, Ach. 60. SilverJale ; W. and W. 

albo-atra (Hoffm.). 60. On oak, Bamacre ; A. 

Wilson 

aromatica, Ach. 60. Warton Crag ; A. Wilson 

exauthematica, Sm. 60. Nr. Howes Water ; 

Wheldon. Dalton Crag; A. Wilson 

pelidna, Ach. (umbrina, Ach.). 60. Lower Ease 

Gill; W. and W. 

sabuletorum, FlOrke. 60. Dalton Crag; A. Wil- 

son 

endoleuca, Nyl. 60. Below Kirkby Lonsdale ; W. 

andW. 

muscorum (Swartz). 60. L. Ease Gill; W. 

and W. 

geographica (L.) 60. Great Clough ; W. and W. 

Ease Gill; A. Wilson. 69. Coniston Fells 

concentrica, Dav. 60. Gravel!'' 't Chugh; 60. 

Whitewell; W. and W. 

rimosa, Dicks. 60. Greygarth Fell ; A. Wilson 

cupularis (Ehrh.). 60. Greygarth Fell; nr. 

Hatves Water; A. Wilson 

parasitica (FlOrke). 60. On Lecan. parella, Ease 

Gill; W. and W. 

coriacella, Nyl. 69. Coniston Old Man; ]. A. 

Martindale (in litt.) 



Lecid 



FAM. LECIDEINEI (continued) 
XL neglecta, Nyl. 60. An undeveloped state of 
this (Lepraria lobiferaria, Nyl.), spreading 
over mosses, Borwick, etc. ; W. and W. 

FAM. GRAPHIDEI 
Opegrapha atra, Pers. 60. Dolphinholme ; Wheldon 

herpetica, Ach. 60. Nr. Abbeystead ; W. and W. 

varia, Pers. 60. (W. and W.) f. notha, Ach. 

Barnacre ; Wi. f. pulicaris, Lightf. 60. Silver- 
dale; W. andW. 

vulgata, Ach. 60. Homes Water ; Whitewell; W. 

and W. 

saxatilis, DC. 60. (W. and W.) 

Chevallieri, Leight. 60. (W. and W.) 
Arthonia Swartziana, Ach. 60. Wash Dub Wood ; 

W. and W. 

pruinosa, Ach. 60. Nr. Abbeystead; W. and W. 
Graphis elegans, Sm. 60. Roeburndale ; O. Wyres- 

Jale; Whitewell; + ; W. and W. 

scripta, Ach. 60. Roeburndale ; Abbeystead ; + ; 

W. and W. 

sophistica, Nyl. 60. SilverJale ; Whitewell; Ease 

Gill: W. and W. 

PYRENOCARPEI 
FAM. ENDOCARPEI 

Endocarpon miniatum (L.), Ach. 60. SilverJale; 
Hodder Valley, etc. ; W. and W. 69. Yew- 
barrow; A. Wilson, MS. 

v. complicatum (Sw.). 60. Hatves Water ; 
Wheldon. Leek Fell; Wilson 

rufescens, Ach. 60. Hawes Water ; Wh. Warton 

Crag; Wi. 69. Hamfs Fell; A. Wilson, MS. 

FAM. VERRUCARIEI 

Verrucaria calciseda, DC. 60. SilverJale ; Wh. 
Whitewell; W. and W. 

Dufourei, DC. 60. Ease Gill; SilverJale; W. 

andW. 

nitida, Weig. 60. SilverJale; Wh. Whitewell; 

W. and W. 
- glaucoma, Ach. 60. SilverJale ; W. and W. 

conoidea, (Fr.). 60. Over Kellet ; A. Wilson 

margacea, (Wahlenb.). var. ^Ethiobola.Wahlenb. 

60. Wash Dub Wood Beck ; W. and W. 

nigrescens (Pers). 60. SilverJale ; Wheldon 

rupestris, Schrad. 60. Ease Gill; W. and W. 

epidermidis, Ach. 59. Netherton ; Wheldon 

immersa, Leight. 60. Ease Gill; W. and W. 

gemmata, Ach. 59. Trees near Clitheroe ; Whel- 

don. Nr. Whittington ; W. and W. 

maura, Wahlenb. 60. S. of Hey sham ; W. and W. 

mauroides, Schasr. 60. L. Ease Gill; W. and W. 

chlorotica, Ach. 60. SilverJale ; W. and W. 



SUB-DIVISION AND CLASS. FUNGI 

Of this great and important sub-division of the vegetable kingdom with its groups and classes, 
not a single order has had any attention given to it. As far as publications go, there are only the 
most casual references to solitary species. The only attempt at list-making is one of eight species, 
all found in the north of the county. All these eight species are more or less well known parasites on 
herbaceous plants, and as all flowering plants and many flowerless plants have theirs, there should be 
found in the county some two to three thousand forms. Of the fifteen hundred British Agaricaceae 
only two names have been put on paper in a little-known periodical, that is as far as we can ascertain. 

85 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

Three other Hymenomycetes in the same periodical, and twenty miscellaneous species, belonging to 
various groups and orders, constitute the records. There may be old records, and some in local 
societies' publications, unknown to us. A well organized mycological society is much needed in the 
county, having members residing in all the vice-counties. However energetic the student may be 
he cannot alone investigate more than a small portion of a county the size of Lancashire, even if 
he gave all his leisure hours to the study of its fungi. It does not seem desirable to enumerate 
the recorded species of fungi, but the references are given below. 

Grevilka, March and June, 1886 ; March and Decem- Gardener's Chronicle, 28 July, 1888, p. 104, fig. II 

ber, 1887 ; June and September, 1889 ; Wesley Naturalist, June, September, i?" 
December, 1890 1889, etc. 

The Naturalist, June, 1901 ; November, 1896, etc. Rep. Manch. Microsc. 1889, pp. 117-118 

Midland Naturalist, July, 1888, p. 189 Research, November, 1889, p. 114 

The vertical range in Lancashire of some more or less well-known Agaricacese may be of 
interest, as they have not previously been recorded for the county. The observations were made in 
the middle of the autumn of 1 903 by the writer of this article. In other parts of the county some 
of these fungi, now recorded for the agrarian zone of Watson, may be found just within the 
Inferarctic zone, that is, where the land rises to that height. 



Lepiota granulosa, Batsch. . . . 
Clitocybe brumalis, Fr. 


Greygarth Coniston 
Fell. Old Man. 
Feet. Feet. 
2,050 2,62O 

1,600 


Naucoria semiorbicularis, Bi 
Stropharia stercoraria, Fr. . 


Greygarth Conirton 
Fell. Old Man. 
Feet. Feet, 
ill. . 2,050 1,150 
. . 2,6oo 


Mycena galericulata, Scop. . . . 
filopes, Bull, forma .... 
pullata, Bolt 
Omphalia fibula, Bull, v. Swartzii, 
Fr 
Entoloma sericeum. Bull . 


400 
1,15 

400 
I, ICO 1,700 


semiglobata, Batsch. 
Hygrophorus laetus, Fr. . 
obrusseus, Fr. 
Colemanianus, Blox. 
Marasmius androsaceus, 
Fr. 


. . 2,300 
. . 9 00 
. . 800 

(L.)i 

400 



ZOOLOGY 

MARINE ZOOLOGY 

It is quite impossible, in an article of this nature, to treat the invertebrate 
fauna of the sea fringing the coast of Lancashire in anything like detail. 
An immense amount of investigation has been carried out during the last 
twenty years, and the fauna and flora of the Irish Sea have now been investi- 
gated more completely than most other similar areas of the British seas, the 
Firth of Forth and St. Andrew's Bay in Scotland and the English Channel 
being excepted. There are now two biological stations in the northern part 
of the Irish Sea one at Piel in the Barrow Channel, and the other at Port 
Erin in the Isle of Man. Four distinct organizations the Lancashire Sea 
Fisheries Committee, the Liverpool Biological Society, the Liverpool Marine 
Biology Committee, and the Southport Society of Natural Science are now in 
existence and are still investigating Lancashire waters. The marine zoology 
of this area has therefore received and is still receiving very considerable 
attention. 

Physically the Irish Sea is for the most part a shallow water basin. The 
North Channel which connects it with the Atlantic and the Firth of Clyde 
is, in places, of considerable depth (over 140 fathoms), and on the south 
St. George's Channel varies from 40 to about 90 fathoms. To the westward 
of the Isle of Man there is a deep depression in which depths of 50 to 80 
fathoms may be found. With these exceptions the greater extent of the Irish 
Sea area is comparatively shallow. The southern entrance is wide, but the 
northern inlet is very restricted, and to this cause is due the peculiar conditions 
of the tides. The tidal wave coming in from the Atlantic impinges obliquely 
on the south-west coast of Ireland, and there splits up into three main streams. 
One of these passes up the English Channel and enters the North Sea through 
the Straits of Dover, but, becoming reflected from this narrow outlet, sets up 
very peculiar tidal phenomena. Another main stream passes up the Bristol 
Channel, producing the high tides in the Severn. The remaining stream 
passes up through St. George's Channel into the Irish Sea. Continuing on, 
the Atlantic tidal crest passes round the north of Scotland, entering the North 
Sea, but a part of it also runs down the North Channel, and so enters the 
Irish Sea from the north. Thus there are two main tidal streams entering 
the latter basin from different directions, but in consequence of the much 
wider southern channel, more water enters the Irish Sea from the south than 
from the north. There is therefore a very evident surface drift of the water 
from south to north, helped no doubt by the prevailing west to south winds. 

These two tidal streams meet in a straight line drawn from the north of 
the Isle of Man across to Morecambe Bay, and from the Isle of Man to the 
Irish coast. Between the Irish and Manx coasts there is a large area where 
tidal streams practically do not exist, and where the water simply rises and 
falls. All along the east Irish coast the velocity of the stream is small, but 

8? 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

over towards the coasts of Lancashire and north Wales it is very much greater, 
and in the bays and estuaries of that side the stream is very rapid and the rise 
of the water is very great. Thus at Liverpool the maximum velocity of the 
stream in the River Mersey is from 7 to 8 knots per hour, and the maximum 
tidal rise during spring tides is over 30 feet. 

It is due to these conditions that the gradient of depth in the Irish Sea 
is much greater on the Irish than on the Lancashire side. Starting out from 
(say) Dundrum Bay on the former side we encounter the 5O-fathom line at 
about 1 5 miles from the coast, and long before we reach the Calf of Man we 
are in water of about 80 fathoms in depth. But crossing from Fleet wood 
towards the Calf, the gradient is very much less, and the average distance of 
the lo-fathom line from the coast may be stated as about 10 miles. The 
2o-fathom contour is about 20 to 30 miles from land, and between the 
Lancashire and Manx coasts the greatest depth is not over 20 fathoms except 
for one considerable depression. It is a credible hypothesis that Morecambe 
Bay itself has resulted from the rapid eastward stream due to the meeting of 
the north and south tidal streams, and however this may be it seems certain 
that the shallow water area along the coast of Lancashire is due to erosion of 
the coast-line in the past, and the distribution of the debris so formed by the 
strong easterly and north-easterly tidal streams. The peculiarly evanescent 
nature of the Lancashire coastal waters is due to the shallow sea so produced, 
and to the great rise and fall of the tides. Twice a day practically the whole 
of Morecambe Bay and great stretches of the Lancashire coast are laid bare 
and become dry land. 

Sand is the characteristic bottom deposit in the sea off the coast of 
Lancashire. Here and there the bottom consists of sand with varying pro- 
portions of mud, and far out at sea we find extensive deposits of calcareous 
matter, shells and comminuted fragments of the same, with material resulting 
from the denudation of calcareous rock, also deposits formed by calcareous 
algae. For the most part the Irish Sea bottom is clean sand or shelly gravel, 
and affords good trawling ground. Only here and there do we find rough 
ground on which the trawl net cannot be used. The greater portion of the 
inshore sea bottom consists of sand or mud, with in places very restricted 
patches of rough stones or gravel. 

We find as a result of the shallow seas and the rapid tidal streams that 
the sea water off the Lancashire coasts hardly ever presents that pellucid 
appearance which may be observed in the sea off a rocky coast, or far out from 
land. The rapid tidal streams stir up the bottom and cause muddy particles 
to be carried about in a state of suspension. River waters also carry down a 
considerable amount of suspended inorganic matter to the sea. There are no 
great rivers falling into the Irish Sea on the coast of Lancashire, but those 
that do exist exercise a considerable influence on the specific gravity of the 
sea water, which nowhere has the high density characteristic of truly oceanic 
water. As a general rule the specific gravity is less than 1*026, and is often 
very much less than that. Hydrometer readings of i -o 1 6 have been made in 
the River Mersey off Liverpool landing stage, and readings of less than 1-020 
in the Crosby Channel. On one occasion (Nov. 1904), I found the specific 
gravity of the sea water a mile or two off Blackpool to be no more than 1*021. 
About a week before this date there had been exceptionally high floods in 



MARINE ZOOLOGY 

both the Kibble and Wyre, and the fresh water carried down by these rivers 
was, even a week later, floating at the surface of the sea in admixture with 
normal sea water. 

The characteristic marine fauna of the Lancashire inshore waters is the 
result of these physical conditions the shallow depths, the extensive sand and 
mud deposits, the rapid tidal streams and the great rise and fall of the tides, 
and the somewhat low salinity due to river water. While these conditions 
produce a fauna which to the marine zoologist is somewhat lacking in variety, 
and may be described as commonplace, they have at the same time made the 
Lancashire inshore waters and the foreshore between tide marks one of the 
most valuable inshore fishing grounds round the British Islands, and one 
which presents many features of interest. 

Shellfish beds are thickly distributed over the whole of the Lancashire 
coast, and the cockle fishery of Morecambe Bay is without exception the 
most valuable round the British Islands, while some parts of the coast yield 
mussel fisheries not much less important. Practically the whole of the northern 
part of Morecambe Bay consists of cockle-bearing sands. Here and there over 
this extensive area, and also at the mouth of the Ribble estuary and out from 
the Mersey along the Lancashire coast from Liverpool to Formby Point, cockle 
beds are abundantly distributed. The exact positions of these beds are always 
changing, for the formation of such a shell-fish bed depends on the deposit of 
the cockle ' spat ' or ' seed ' that is the minute free swimming larvae of the 
mollusc. During the spring of the year the cockle spawns, and after a week 
or two the eggs so produced develop into larvae provided with ciliated 
swimming organs. These larvae are borne in the water by the tides and 
currents, and the place where they settle down depends on the winds, tides, and 
other conditions. When they do settle down in the sand a cockle bed is pro- 
duced and sometimes an incredible abundance of these shellfish results, so that 
the molluscs may actually smother each other. In a few months these shell- 
fish may grow from half an inch in diameter to nearly twice that size and 
become big enough to be taken by the fishermen. Walking over a cockle bed 
one does not at first see many signs of the presence of these bivalves, for they 
are buried in the top layer of the sand with only the tops of their siphons pro- 
jecting, presenting the appearance of a pair of small dark holes (the ' eyes ' of 
the cockles). Sometimes a tuft of alga? attached to the posterior end of the 
shell betrays the presence of the mollusc, and the appearance of the ' groats ' (a 
north Lancashire term) also indicates where a cockle lies hidden. The 
' groats ' are the extruded strings of faecal matter lying on the surface of the 
sand. Few people have any idea of the value of this humble mollusc to the 
Lancashire fishermen, and it will surprise most to learn that from five to 
ten thousand tons of cockles may be taken annually from the Lancashire 
foreshores. 

The habitat of the mussel is somewhat different from that of the cockle. 
While the latter mollusc lies buried in the sand and unattached to any sub- 
stance, the mussel lives above the surface and is attached to stones, etc., by 
means of its byssus. In almost every case a deep deposit of mud, sometimes 
several feet thick, may be formed between the layer of mussels and the solid 
substratum of stones or gravel, etc. (the mussel 'skear'), to which the molluscs 
are attached, this process being accompanied by the gradual lengthening of the 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

byssus. Sometimes this muddy deposit becomes so unresistant as to be washed 
away by the tides, and then the mussel bed is for a time destroyed. Mussel 
beds of greater or less extent are to be found all along the Lancashire coast, 
but the most extensive accumulations are at Morecambe and Heysham. Here 
there are literally miles of mussel beds, and in some years over 2,000 tons of 
this animal may be sent away from Morecambe alone. The mussel thrives 
best in localities where it is not uncovered by the tide for a very long 
interval, and where some considerable proportion of fresh water finds its way 
into the sea. Unhappily it must be added that it finds a certain admixture of 
sewage matters a reason for self-congratulation. 

Although these two animals, the cockle and mussel, form perhaps the 
most abundant element of the Lancashire marine inshore fauna, the shrimp, 
prawn, and ' fluke ' are not far behind them. The shrimp (Crangon vu/garis) 
is found all along the Lancashire coast a mile or two from low-water marks, 
but it is particularly abundant about the banks off the estuaries of the Mersey 
and Ribble, and in Morecambe Bay, and hundreds of boats are almost con- 
tinually fishing for it there. The value of this little crustacean to the 
Lancashire fishermen, and to the shrimp potters of Southport and Morecambe, 
cannot be less than about 50,000 annually. The prawn, 'red shrimp,' or 
' sprawn ' (not the true prawn, but Pandalus montaguf) is found also in all 
parts of Lancashire waters, but it is particularly abundant in the inshore 
waters near Fleetwood (hence the term Fleetwood prawn). It inhabits rough 
stony ground, while the shrimp prefers sand or sand and mud, and it is caught 
in trawl nets fitted with extra stout foot-ropes so as not to catch on the 
stones among which the prawn lives. 

Then in addition to this characteristic ' shellfish ' fauna, consisting of the 
cockle, mussel, shrimp, and prawn, we find that the Lancashire inshore seas 
contain enormous numbers of young fishes of comparatively few species. 
This indeed is the most striking feature of the inshore marine fauna. 
Nowhere round the British Islands (nor indeed on the north European 
coasts, so far as I am aware) do we find so abundant a piscine fauna. The 
whole of the inshore waters, but particularly those off the Mersey, off 
Blackpool, and in Morecambe Bay, are a vast ' nursery ' for young pleuronectid 
fishes, particularly dabs, plaice, and soles. With these are associated shrimps, 
' sprawns,' and a host of invertebrates belonging to comparatively few species. 
I will illustrate the general character of the fauna of these nursery grounds by 
quoting the results of a haul with a shrimp trawl witnessed by myself in 
August, 1899. The shrimp trawl was dragged for about an hour over two 
miles of sand and mud in the vicinity of the Deposit Buoy off Burbo Bank 
at the mouth of the Mersey. There were caught : 896 dabs (Pleuronectes 
limanda), 285 whiting (Gadus mer/angus), 265 plaice (Pleuronectes plate ssa) , 
257 soles (Solea -vu/garis), and 18 ray (Raia c/avata). All these are of course 
edible fishes. 

But in addition to such hauls of these common fishes, of which the 
above figures may be regarded as fairly representative, others are always found, 
whiting (Gadus eeglejinus), cod (G. morrhua), herring (Glupea barenga), 
sprats (C. sfratta), and gurnards (Trig/a spp.) being most common. Inedible 
fishes such as the solenette (Solea luted] , butterfish (Cenfronotus), the bullhead 
(Coitus scorpio), the sand eels (Ammodytes tobianus and lanceolatus), the toad 

90 



MARINE ZOOLOGY 

fish (Liparis montagui), the lump sucker (Cyclopterus lumpus), and others are 
(some of them at least) always present. A remarkable fish which is always 
present in more or less abundance is the virulent ' stinger ' Trachinus vipera. 
A huge host of invertebrates is always present. Chief among these is the 
swimming crab Portunus depurator, and it is remarkable that an unusually 
large proportion of these are infested with the parasitic cirripede Sacculina. 
Starfishes (Asterias) are extraordinarily abundant at times, and during the 
summer months the Medusa? Rbizostoma, Aurelia, and Cyanea are present. 
Sometimes the former is a great nuisance to the shrimping boats. Large 
forms, a foot or more in diameter, are so abundant at times as to clog up the 
net with broken fragments. If these are allowed to dry on the meshes a fine 
dust is formed when the latter are shaken out which produces most 
unpleasant effects on the nasal and respiratory epithelia, due no doubt to the 
dried substance of the nematocysts of the medusa?. Other crabs, the shore 
crab (Garcinus), spider crabs such as Hyas, Stenorhynchus, the hermit crab 
(Pagurus), and the edible crab (Cancer), are often present. The squid 
(Lo/igo) and the cuttle fish (Sepia), mostly young specimens, occur during 
the autumn. The Ctenophore Pleurobrachia is incredibly abundant at times, 
being just large enough to be retained by the meshes of the nets. Shrimps 
and ' sprawns ' are found, the former in immense numbers, the latter rarely ; 
and small lobsters are frequently present. Zoophytes are rare. 

The above forms may be regarded as fairly representative of the inshore 
marine fauna of Lancashire waters. The abundance of the fishes varies with 
the season, but large numbers are always present. As many as 15,000 dabs 
and 10,000 plaice have been taken on the shallow water grounds off 
Blackpool. About the middle of June (but the precise season varies) small 
pleuronectid fishes are extraordinarily abundant. If one walks along the 
shore about that time, following the receding tide, almost anywhere on the 
Lancashire coast say on the shore near the New Brighton Pier it is possible 
to observe and collect great numbers of small plaice and dabs in the pools left 
by the tide. These are then no bigger than the thumbnail. A few weeks 
later they disappear, having sought deeper water. 

Further out at sea, beyond the zone of which I am now treating, the 
fauna changes somewhat. I may give as an instance a haul with a shrimp 
trawl near Liverpool Bar, in water of 6 fathoms. On this occasion over 
17,000 specimens, belonging to thirty-four genera and thirty-nine species, 
were identified. The fishes were sole, plaice, dab, cod, whiting, haddock, 
herring and sprat, skate, ray, goby, ' stinger,' and the ' pogge ' (Agonus 
cataphractus) . The Mollusca were the mussel (Mytilus edulis), 'hen pens' 
(Tel Una tenuls and Mactra stultorum), the whelk (Fusus antiquus). The 
Crustacea were various, swimming crabs (Portunus spp.), the hermit crab 
(Eupagurus bernhardus), shrimps, Sacculina, several Amphipoda, Copepoda 
(Longipedia coronata, Ectinosoma spinipes, Sunaristes paguri, Dactylopusia rostrata, 
Cletodes limicola, Caligus rapax) ; the sea-mat (F/usfra). The polychsetes were 
the sea mouse (Aphrodite), the sand-pipe (Pectinaria), and Nereis; the starfish, 
Asterias. The zoophytes were Hydractinia echinata, Sertularia abietina, and 
Hydrallmania falcata. The coelenterates were the Medusa? Aurelia aurita and 
Cyanea. 

Because of the extensive sand and mud flats, the Lancashire coast does 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

not form a very inviting shore collecting ground. An abundant and varied 
shore fauna is only to be seen on a coast with rock pools, caves, seaweeds, and 
the like. Nowhere on the Lancashire littoral do we find such conditions. 
Only here and there by taking advantage of the lowest spring tides do we 
find shore collecting at all attractive. But even the ordinary beach, unattrac- 
tive as it may appear to the casual naturalist, yields a fair abundance of forms 
if studied minutely. Thus Dr. Chaster has recorded no less than 150 species 
of Foraminifera and 140 species of Mollusca from the ordinary beach round 
Southport. At a few places we do find a shore fauna of considerable interest 
to the amateur zoologist, and I may give as an instance the shore in the 
vicinity of the Lancashire Fishery Research Station at Piel in the Barrow 
Channel. There we have on the one hand the sandy flats with occasional 
Zostera meadows on which small crustaceans abound, and on the other the 
' Scars ' rough stony ground with seaweed which are exposed at low 
spring tides. Mussels, cockles, and periwinkles are of course abundant. 

In association with the former Molluscs we find the extraordinary 
Trematode ILeucitbodendrium somaterice, Lev., which is the cause of the pearls 
so abundant in the mussels on the Piel foreshore. This animal, as Dr. 
H. Lyster Jameson has shown, passes through larval stages in the cockle and 
mussel, and in the latter becomes encysted and surrounded by the calcareous 
investment which becomes the pearl. The adult stage of the Trematode is 
found in the ' Scoter ' or Black Duck, which feeds on the mussel. Other 
Mollusca are abundant ; oysters are found, though not frequently ; Mytilus 
modiolus, the horse mussel, is frequently dredged in Barrow Channel ; ' hen 
pens ' (Mactra, Scrobicularia, and Tellina) may be got alive, and dead valves of 
the tapestry shell ('Tapes), Nucula, the spiny cockle (Cardium ecbinatum), 
Psammobia, Donax, and others are numerous. The Clam (Mya arenaria) is 
quite common, and it often harbours the peculiar commensal Nemertine 
(Malacobdelld) in its mantle cavity. The whelks Bucclnum undatum and Fusus 
antiquus, the dog whelk (Purpura lapillus], and the limpet (Patella vulgata] 
are of course abundant. Nudibranchs such as the sea slugs Doris and Eolis 
are present, and the gelatinous spawn of the former may always be got during 
the early summer. Cephalopods turn up ; Octopus is often got in the stake 
nets. Many Crustacea occur, such as the crabs Cancer, Carcinus, Portunus, 
Hyas, Stenorhynchus, and the hermit Pagurus. The beautiful fairy prawns 
Hippolyte varians, H. cranchii, H. fascigera, and H. pusiola may be got here in 
greater abundance than anywhere else in the Irish Sea. These animals are 
remarkable for the adaptation of their colour markings to that of the seaweeds 
on which they are found. This form of adaptation has been explained 
as one of ordinary protective resemblance, but the phenomenon is far from 
being a simple one. Mysis neglecta, a common Schizopod, is extremely abun- 
dant. At least four genera of Pycnogonids may be collected Nympbon, 
Pallene, Ammothea, and Anoplodactylus. Of the Ecbinoderms, the starfishes or 
' crossfishes,' Asterias and Cribella, the Sun star (So/aster), and the urchin 
(Echinus] may be obtained alive, and dead tests of the heart urchin (Spatangus] 
and Ecbinocardium can be picked up. On this side of Morecambe Bay the 
common starfish has proved itself at times an intolerable nuisance, for many 
acres of the beach may be literally carpeted with these animals, which can be 
extremely destructive to the mussel beds. The starfish pulls apart the valves 

92 



MARINE ZOOLOGY 

of the mollusc by long continued traction by its tube feet, and then inserts 
its eversible pharynx between the valves and devours the soft body of the 
mussel. Anemones, of which Actinia is the commonest, used to be abundant 
on the piles of the old pier and may still be obtained from the rock pools. 
Simple and compound ascidians are very abundant on the same ground, 
Ascidia and the peculiar colonial Perophora on the stones, and the compound 
forms Botryllus and Amaroucium on the seaweeds. Worms are abundant, the 
commonest being the lugworm (Arenicola), which forms an extensive bed, and 
Sabellaria, the agglomerated sand tubes of which form the hard sandy excres- 
cences known locally as ' knarrs.' Sabella, Serpula, Terebella, Pectinaria, and 
Onuphis (the latter rare) are other common tubicolous Polychaetes, and the 
errant forms Phyllodoce, Scoloplus, Nereis, and Aphrodite may also be obtained. 
The two former worms deposit green and red albuminous cocoons containing 
their eggs, and these little masses, about the size of a grape, are very abun- 
dant here during the spring and in Morecambe Bay generally, where they 
were formerly supposed by fishermen to be the spawn of the plaice and 
flounder. Nemertines may also be taken, but they are not abundant. 

These are the common forms which can always be collected, but there 
are in addition hosts of amphipods and microcrustacea among the seaweeds 
and on the bottom deposits. Zoophytes are not uncommon. Incidentally 
it may be remarked that the mud flats yield a great abundance of diatoms. 



PLANKTON 

By plankton is understood the drifting pelagic microscopic life of the 
sea. This department of local marine zoology has received very considerable 
attention during the last twenty years. The late Mr. I. C. Thompson of 
Liverpool and the late Mr. R. L. Ascroft of Lytham both devoted much 
attention to this subject, and our knowledge of it is to a great extent the 
result of their joint labours. The former was one of the original members 
of the Lancashire Sea Fisheries Committee, and perhaps more than any 
other member of that Board encouraged and assisted in the scientific investiga- 
tion of sea fisheries questions. 

The uniformity of composition which one finds in oceanic plankton is 
wanting in that of inshore waters, where there is much greater variety in the 
collections made in different places and at different times in the year than in 
deep water far removed from land. At the beginning of the year the plank- 
ton of the Lancashire coastal waters is rather scanty. We find the Chastogna- 
than worm Sagitta usually very abundant ; Copepods too, belonging to the 
genera Acartia, Galanus, Pseudocalanus, Anomalocera, Lias, Euterpe, Oitbona, 
and many others. Then about the beginning of March the pelagic eggs of 
teleostean fishes the plaice, cod, haddock, whiting, dab, flounder, and many 
others appear, and persist till about the beginning of May. Following these 
we often find the larvae of the same fishes, though it is rare to find these little 
creatures in the surface tow-nets. About this time of the year the larvas of 
various crustaceans appear in great abundance. The commonest is perhaps 
that of Balanus balanoides, the Barnacle or ' Scab.' I have seen a tow-net 
gathering containing practically nothing else than the nauplii of this Cirri- 

93 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

pede. Somewhat later in the year these nauplii disappear and are succeeded 
by the ' Cypris ' stage of the same barnacle. The adult creatures resulting 
from this latter form then begin to settle down on all solid objects in the 
shallow water and they become a great nuisance to fishermen by encrusting 
the bottoms of their boats. Other crustacean larva? are the nauplii of cope- 
pods, and the zoea stages of the crabs Carcinus, Portunus, and Cancer. 

About the end of March and the beginning of April diatoms appear in 
great abundance, the principal genera being Coscinodiscus, Biddulphia, Chceto- 
ceros, and Rhizosolenia. After lasting for a month or so the diatoms become 
very scarce and towards midsummer may almost disappear from the tow-net 
gatherings. About this time of the year the gelatinous alga Halospbeera 
viridis becomes very abundant. This form is always accompanied by a great 
mass of mucus which almost at once clogs up the meshes of the tow-nets 
and prevents the latter from 'fishing.' Another common constituent of the 
summer plankton is the flagellate Noctiluca miliaris, a common 1 cause of the 
phosphorescence of the water at this time and later in the year. Noctiluca is 
curiously restricted in its distribution. It appears in abundance all along the 
north Welsh, Cheshire, and Lancashire coasts in inshore waters, and it may 
reach out as far as the Liverpool N.W. and the Morecambe Bay light-ships; 
but it does not appear to get into Manx waters, nor is it common in the 
Firth of Clyde. Other flagellates are Ceratium tripos and J urea, but these are 
not abundant. The ctenophores Pleurobrachia and Beroe also appear in the 
summer, the former being at times especially abundant. The Larvacean 
tunicate Oikopleura occurs also in the summer and autumn. During the autumn 
months diatoms may again become abundant. Medusoids, the zoea and 
megalopa stages of crabs, and the larva? of the shrimp also occur. Copepods and 
the ubiquitous Sagitta form the bulk of the plankton and last until the begin- 
ning of the winter. Then the abundance of the plankton undergoes decrease 
and copepods form its principal constituent. This general scarcity in mass 
and lack of variety in forms lasts during the colder winter months. 

SUM MART OF LANCASHIRE AND IRISH SEA INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

PROTOZOA 

Two hundred and forty species of Foraminifera were recorded in the British Association List 
of 1 896. Radiolaria and Infusoria are practically unworked, though both groups are abundantly 
represented. Quite recently the study of the parasitic Sporozoa has received much attention, and 
the following forms are recorded : Glugea (Nosemd) lophii, G. stephani, G. anomalum, Sphterospora 
platessa, and the remarkable Lymphocystis johnstonei. 

PORIFERA (Spmges) 

The sponges are fairly well known. Fifty-nine species were recorded in the B.A. List of 
1896, of which five were new to science when first described in Lancashire waters. 

CCELENTERATA (Jelly-fish, sea anemones, etc.) 

Ninety-two species of Hydroids, 43 Hydromedusae, 2 Siphonophores, 4 Ctenophores, 
3 Alcyonaria, and 22 Actinians, are recorded in the B.A. List. The strictly Lancashire forms 
constitute only a fraction of this list. All the Hydromedusae are, however, found in the inshore 

1 But by no means the exclusive cause. Occasionally when the water is phosphorescent the tow-nets 
may yield no organisms which are to be regarded as light-producing ones. In such cases the cause is no doubt 
some photogenous bacterium. 

94 



MARINE ZOOLOGY 

Lancashire waters, and also the Ctenophores, but the county waters contain relatively few of the 
zoophytes, and not all the Actinians described. The Siphonophores are Agalmopsis elegans, Sars., and 
Vtlella pe/agica, Esch. These are to be regarded as visitants only. 

PLATYHELMINTHES (Flat worms) 

Thirty-three species of Turbellaria are recorded in the B. A. List of 1896 and in subsequent 
lists. Most of these have been described from Manx waters, but there can be little doubt that they 
exist also on the Lancashire coasts, which, in many places, furnish a suitable habitat for these 
creatures. 

Trematoda or ' flukes ' are all parasitic in fishes, sea birds, and marine mammalia, larval stages 
being, however, found in every class of invertebrata. It is only recently that these animals have 
been worked at, and then only in connexion with the economic investigations of the Lancashire 
Sea Fisheries Committee. It is mainly because of the great importance that these parasites may 
possess in connexion with disease that this study has become of such importance. About a dozen 
ectoparasitic and four or five endoparasitic Trematodes have so far been recorded from fishes caught 
on the Lancashire coast. This can only be a small fraction of the number of these worms that are 
no doubt present. Of the ectoparasitic forms, four, Diplectanum esquans, Diesing, Leucithodendrium 
somateria;, Lev., Microcotyle lairacis, van Ben. and Hesse, and Placunella pini, van Ben. and Hesse, 
were new to the British fauna when recorded from Lancashire. 

Cestoda or tapeworms are as yet practically untouched, only about three species having been 
actually recorded from Lancashire fishes. These are Bothriocephalus punctatus, Tetrarhynchus 
tetrabothrius, van Ben. and T. erinaceus, van Ben. 

ECHINODERMATA (Starves, etc.) 

Thirty-five species of Echinoderms are recorded in the B. A. List of 1896. Most of these 
occur on the Lancashire shores and sea, but the crinoid Antedon, the rosy feather star, is found about 
Puffin Island on the south and round the Isle of Man. The sea-cucumber, Cucumaria plancei, was 
first found in Britain in this district. I have seen it in great abundance in Luce Bay, north of the 
Irish Sea proper. The commonest forms, such as Asterias, Echinus, So/aster, Spatangus, Ophiocoma, 
and Ophiura, are, however, very abundant. I have known a tow-net gathering taken off the mouth 
of the Kibble to consist of practically nothing else than the pluteus larvae of some Echinid. 

ACANTHOCEPHALA 
This small group of parasitic worms is apparently represented by Echinorhynchus acus only. 

CH^TOGNATHA 

Sagitta tipunctata, Quoy and Gaimard, the arrow worm, is the only species recorded from 
Lancashire ; but I think that other species probably exist and have not been discriminated. 

NEMERTINEA 
Twenty-six nemertines are recorded in the B.A. List of 1896. 

HIRUDINEA (Leeches) 

The well-known skate-leech, Pontobdella muncata, and a leech from the angler fish, are the 
only hirudineans recorded. 

GEPHYREA 

Only Thalassema lankesteri, Herd., and Phascolosoma vu/gare, de Bl., are recorded, but no doubt 
other species exist. The former species does not belong to Lancashire waters, being got far out 
at sea. 

CH^TOPODA 

Ninety species of Chaetopods (including the Archiannelids and Myzostomida) are recorded in 
the B. A. List of 1896. Not all these are recorded from the Lancashire shores, but there is little 
doubt that the majority are to be found if properly looked for. 

POLYZOA 

About 150 species and named varieties are recorded in the B. A. List. 

95 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

BRACHIOPODA 

Only two species, Terebratula caput-serpentis, Linn., and Crania anomala, Mull., are known 
from the Irish Sea. 

CRUSTACEA 

The Crustacea have received more attention than any other marine group. The number of 
recorded species in the various sub-groups are: Brachyura, 28 ; Anomura, 13; Macrura, 23 ; 
Schizopoda, 18 ; Cumacea, 20 ; Isopoda, 22; Amphipoda, 134. The Copepoda have received an 
exceptional amount of attention ; about 260 species are now recorded, and of these nearly 50 are 
parasitic forms inhabiting fishes. 

Cirripedia are represented by eleven species. Balanus balanoides, Linn., the common barnacle or 
' scab,' is, of course, the most abundant. At certain seasons in the year (March-April) the tow-nets 
at Piel may contain 'practically nothing else than the nauplius larvae of these pests. The 
extraordinary form Sacculina carcini is very abundant on the crabs captured off the mouth of the 
Mersey. Peltogaster, a peculiar cirripede parasitic on the hermit crab, has also lately been recorded. 

Ostracoda are relatively abundant, about fifty species being recorded. 

PYCNOGONIDA 
These are represented by twelve species. 

MOLLUSCA 

This group has naturally received very much attention ; 98 species of Lamellibranchia are 
recorded, about 175 species of Gastropoda, 10 species of Chiton, 3 scaphopods ; Dentalium enta/e, 
Linn., D. tarentinum, Lam., and Siphonodentalium lofotense, Sars. The cephalopods are Sepiola atlantica, 
Lam., and S.scandica, Steenstrup, Rossia macrosoma,De\[e Chiaje, Loligo media, Linn., and L. forbesi, 
Steenstrup, Sepia officinalis, Linn., and Eledone cirrosa, Lam. 

TUNICATA 

Fifty-four species in all have been recorded from the Irish Sea. Most of these have been 
recorded from Puffin Island and Port Erin, and only four species are apparently recorded from the 
Lancashire coast. But there is no doubt that this is far below the number that might be found if 
looked for in suitable places. 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS REFERRING TO THE MARINE ZOOLOGY 
OF LANCASHIRE 

1. Bryerly, Isaac, Fauna of Liverpool, 1856. 

2. McNicoll, D. H., Handbook for Southport, 1859. 

3. Herdman, W. A. (Editor), Fauna of Liverpool Bay, 5 vols., 1886, 1889, 1892, 1895, 
1900. Liverpool Marine Biological Committee. 

4. Herdman, W. A. (Editor), Annual Reports Port Erin Biological Station, 1894 to 1904. 
Liverpool Marine Biological Committee. 

5. Annual Reports Lancashire Sea Fisheries Laboratory, 18921905 ; Liverpool. 

6. L.M.B.C. Memoirs. Monographs on Irish Sea Animals and Plants : Ascidia, 
W. A Herdman, 1899; Cardium, J. Johnstone, 1899; Echinus, H. C. Chadwick, 1900; 
Codium, R. J. Harvey Gibson and Helen P. Auld, 1900; Alcyonium, S. J. Hickson, 1901 ; 
Lepeophtheirus and Lerntea, A. Scott, 1901 ; Lineus, R. C. Punnett, 1901 ; Pleuronectes, F. J. Cole 
and J. Johnstone, 1901 ; Chondrus, O. V. Darbishire, 1902 ; Patella, J. R. A. Davis and 
H. Fleure, 1901 ; Arenicola, J. H. Ashworth, 1904; Gammarus, Margaret Cussans, 1904. 
London, Williams and Norgate. 

7. Proceedings and Transactions Liverpool Biological Society, vols. 1-18. Liverpool, 1887- 
1904. 

8. Reports of the Soutbport Society of Natural Science : Southport, 1892-1904. 

9. British Association Handbook : Liverpool, 1896. 
I o. British Association Handbook : Southport, 1 903. 

NOTE. Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6 are reprinted in Proceedings and Transactions Liverpool Biological 
Society. 

96 



MOLLUSCS 

NON-MARINE 

Except in the northern or lake-district portion of the county there is 
little limestone, while the drift deposits that mask the plains, the peat-beds, 
and the sand-dunes of the coast do not offer favourable conditions for mollus- 
can life. Hence land-snails are not individually very numerous in Lancashire. 
That so many species are recorded is we believe mainly due to the industry 
and enthusiasm that seem to permeate north country naturalists. 

The freshwater shells on the other hand abound, while it is among the 
brackish water forms that the few possible additions to the list are chiefly to 
be sought. 

Of the 140, or so, species known to occur in the British Islands, 106 
have been recorded for Lancashire. This is a very considerable proportion, 
and the number is not likely to be much increased by future researches. 

Three aliens of note have invaded the county : Specimens of Pupa 
quinquedentata (Born) [= cinerea, Drap.] are recorded by Mr. Wrigglesworth 
from Church, and by Mr. Long from near Stonyhurst, whither they have 
probably been brought from the continent by some student. Physa heterostropha, 
Say, a North American freshwater species, has been taken in canals at 
Gorton and Droylsden, and may ultimately become naturalized. Another 
freshwater form from the United States, Planorbis dilatatus, Gould, is almost 
certain to do so ; it has been found in abundance at Pendleton, Gorton, 
Burnley, Stoneyholme, and Gannow, and is supposed to have been introduced 
adhering to cotton bales. 

The more representative Lusitanean or south-western forms are absent, 
and the white-banded snail (Helicella virgata) and the heath snail (H. itala), 
so abundant in our southern coasts, occur but sparsely on the sand hills of the 
Lancashire sea-board ; while the common garden snail (Helix aspersa] is not 
so universally distributed as it is further south. 

Certain well-known southern or continental forms are missing from the 
fauna, such as the Kentish snail (Helicella cantiana}. 

On the whole, therefore, the assemblage may be considered to present a 
normally British facies. 

The literature on the subject consists largely of scattered notes, the most 
complete list for the county being a paper by Mr. R. Standen (Naturalist, 
1887, pp. 155176), while the Manchester district has been dealt with by 
Mr. C. Oldham (Science Gossip, xx. 213), and the neighbourhood of Burnley 
by Mr. F. C. Long (Journ. Burnley Lit. & Phil. Soc., No. 17, 1901). 

For the sake of uniformity the same nomenclature is here followed as in 
other volumes of the Victoria County Histories, but for the most recent 
information on this subject reference should be made to the List published 
by the Conchological Society. 

1 97 13 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



LIST OF THE NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA 



A. GASTROPODA 



I. PULMONATA 



a. STYLOMMATOPHORA 

Testacella kalwtidea, Drap. Clayton Hall, Accring- 
ton 

icutulum, Sby. Cuerden Hall, Preston 
Limax maximus, Linn. 

-- flavus, Linn. Oldham ; Preston; Swinton ; 
Liverpool 

arborum, Bouch.-Chant. Grange ; Didsbury ; 

Greenheys 
Agriolimax agi'estis (Linn.) 

Itevls (MUll.). Riversvale ; Southport 
Amelia sowerbii (Fer.). Southport 
Viirina pellucida (Mull.) 

Vltrea crystallina (Mull.) 

luclda (Drap.). On a fernery, Avenham 

Lane, Preston ; Swinton ; Clayton-le- 
Moors ; Grange 

alliaria (Miller) 

/tf/vj(Brit.Auct.). Coniston ; near Preston ;near 

Chatburn ; Manchester ; at Whalley Nab 
and other localities in the Burnley district 

cellaria (Mull.) 

nitidula (Drap.) 
- fun (Aid.) 

radlatula (Aid.) 

excavata (Bean.). Coniston ; Clifton ; Preston ; 

Manchester ; Bardsley ; Southport ; Liver- 
pool 

nltida (Mull.) 

fuha (Mull.) 
Anon ater (Linn.) 

hortensis, Fer. Common : also the var. citi-ulea, 

by some considered a species 

circumscriptus, John. Coniston 

subfuscus (Drap.). Near Widness ; Bardsley ; 

Southport 
Punctum pygmaum (Drap.). Barlow Woods ; 

Grange ; near Lancaster ; near Southport ; 

Liverpool 
PyramiJularupestris(T>r3.p.'). Grange; Carnforth ; 

Clitheroe district ; near Whalley 

rotunJata (Mull.) 

Hellcella virgata (Da. C.). Sandhills at Southport ; 
and at Rossal 

itala (Linn.) Rare : Southport ; Carnforth ; 

near Silverdale 

caperata (Mont.) 

Hygromia fusca (Mont.). Hough-end-Clough ; 
Barlow Moor Woods ; Clerkhill Wood 

granulata (Aid.) 

hlsplda (Linn.) 

rufescens (Penn.) 
Acanthinula aculeata (Mull.). Local 
Vallonia pulchella (Mull.) 
Helicigpna laplclda (Linn.) 

arbustonim (Linn.) 

HeRx aspersa, Mull. Common : a reversed mons- 
trosity was taken in Whalley Churchyard 



Helix nemoralis, Linn. Common in places : supposed 
to be decreasing round Southport ; a re- 
versed monstrosity was found at Burnley 

hortensis, Mull. 
Buliminus obscurus (Mull.) 
Cochlicopa lubrica (Mull.) 
Azeca trident (Pult.) 

Ccfdlianella acicula (Mull.). Near Silverdale 
Pupa anglica (Fer.). Lord's Wood ; Whalley ; 
Clerkhill Wood 

cylindracea (Da. C.) 

muscorttm (Linn.) 

Sphyrajium edentulum (Drap.). Carnforth ; around 
Whalley ; Molly Wood, Rosegrove 

Vertig) antivertigo (Drap.). Barlow Wood (2 speci- 
mens) 

substriata (Jeff.). Preston ; Grange ; Holden 

Clough ; Riversvale ; Clerkhill Wood 

Pygfttfa (Drap.). Grange ; near Ashley Mill ; 

Clitheroe ; Farington ; Southport ; near 
Silverdale 

alpestris, Alder. Holker, near Cartmel ; 

Clerkhill Wood (rare) ; Grange ; near 
Silverdale 

pusilla, Mull. Grange ; Silverdale ; near Lake 

Windermere 
Balefl perverse (Linn.) 
ClausUia laminata (Mont.) 

bidentata (Strom.) 
Succinea putris (Linn.) 

ekgans, Risso. 

b. BASOMMATOPHORA 
Carychium minimum, Mull. 
Ancylus fluviatilis, Mull. 
Velletia lacustris (Linn.) 
Limn<ea aurhularia (Linn.) 

pereger (Mull.) 

palustris (Mull.). Common : a pure white 

variety was taken at Southport in 1876 

truncatula (Mull.) 

stagnalis (Linn.) 

glabra (Mull.). Around Manchester ; Hun- 

coat 
Planorbis corneus (Linn.) 

albus, Mull. 

glaber, Jeff. 

nautileus (Linn.) 

carinatus, Mull. 

marg'maius, Drap. 

vortex (Linn.) 

spinrbis, Mull. 

contortus (Linn.) 

fontar.us (Lightf.) 

Kneatus (Walker). Prestwich ; Birch ; Goos- 

nargh ; Whittingham ; Gooseleach ; Simon- 
stone ; Harwood. 
Physa fontinalis (Linn.) 

hypnorum (Linn.). Southport ; Lytham ; St. 

Annes ; near Whalley 



MOLLUSCS 

II. PROSOBRANCHIATA %% 

Paludeitrina jenkinsi (Smith). Droylsden cnstata, Mull. 

ventrosa (Mont.). Dead specimens, sparingly, Pomatlas elegans (Mttll.). Between Grange and 

at Southport Carnforth 

Bithynia tentaculata (Linn.) Acicula lineata (Drap.). Fleetwood ; Grange ; 

leachii (Shepp.) around Manchester ; Preston 
Vivipara vivipara (Linn.) Neritina fluviatilis (Linn.) 

B. PELECYPODA 

Drelssensla polymorpha (Pall.) the variety P. obtusale, now held by some 

Unlo plctorum (Linn.) to be a distinct species, is found in a Shell- 

tumidus, Retz. marl. 

margaritifer (Linn.). Gibertson (Alder Collec- Pisidium nitidum, Jenyns. 

tion) ; River Lune at Caton (Dyson) fontlnale (Drap.). Common : the var. Hen- 

Anodonta cygna-a (Linn.) shwiana has been found near Preston and 

Spha-rium rivicola (Leach) near Manchester, and the variety P. pul- 

corneum (Linn.) cbettum occurs in a Shell-marl near Silver- 

ova/e (Fer.) dale. 

lacustre (Mttll.) milittm (Held.). Ikrdsley and neighbour- 
Pisldium amnicum (Mttll.) hood 

pusillum (Gmel.). Near Silverdale, where also 



99 



INSECTS 



If Lancashire maintains a smaller part of the total number of British 
insects than do several English counties of lesser area, we may attribute 
such a paucity more to its geographical position in the north-west than 
to natural condition of surface or environment, for these indeed in Lanca- 
shire are most varied. We have mountains, moorlands, extensive mosses 
and wide belts of littoral sand dunes all of which suit and protect 
their exclusive fauna the only distinct natural feature that is wanting 
being extensive and ancient forest land. There are however many 
detached woods, both of recent origin and of the earlier more primi- 
tive growths of birch and fir on the mosses or bogs of the southern 
part of the county. In fact, but few English counties excel Lancashire 
in diversity of natural conditions, and although in few counties have such 
conditions been more altered and indeed obliterated than they have in 
south-west Lancashire, still large tracts in the north and north-east 
remain untouched by the hand of man, and are populated by a fauna pro- 
bably unaltered since it was first established there. 

Before proceeding in detail to an enumeration of the insects which 
have so far been recorded from Lancashire, a few words may not be 
out of place on the local students of the order and the special locali- 
ties whence most of our information of the occurrence of its members 
is derived. 

LANCASHIRE ENTOMOLOGISTS 

No account of the Insecta of Lancashire would be complete without 
some reference to the band of workers who have done so much in the 
past to explore the county entomologically, and to whose efforts is due to 
a great extent our knowledge of its fauna. 

Most of these men have now passed away the school of Lancashire 
working men entomologists especially seems to have left no descendants. 
For in the early years of the last century this county was distinguished 
by a group of self-taught naturalists, who, born for the most part in 
quite humble circumstances, without education, and denied all the 
assistances to self-education now so abundant in our large towns, living 
obscure and toilsome lives, were yet inspired by an innate and ineradicable 
love of nature. 

These men belonged principally to the large manufacturing towns 
of the south of the county, and in days before factory acts and cheap rail- 
way excursions their scant leisure was employed in assiduous collecting 
and expeditions to distant parts of the county on foot, almost incredible 
to the modern collector. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

Unfortunately few of them left any enduring record of their labours; 
some of the later members of the group however, such as Chappell of 
Manchester and Gregson of Liverpool, were able to take advantage of 
the increased facilities for the recording of their knowledge afforded by 
the numerous periodicals devoted to natural history, and to them we 
certainly owe the best part of our knowledge of the entomological fauna 
of south Lancashire as it was before the changes of the last forty or fifty 
years had so altered the face of the county. 

One of the earliest of these students of nature of whom we have 
any knowledge was James Crowther, 1 born 1768 in a cellar in Deansgate, 
Manchester, and employed at the age of nine as ' draw boy ' at petti- 
coat weaving. He was a botanist as well as an entomologist, but poverty 
necessitated the disposal of his collections before his death (1847), anc ^ 
except from oral traditions and a few references in natural history works 
of the last century, we know but little of his work. 

Jethro Tinker of Staleybridge is a figure which stands out more 
distinctly. He was born near Staleybridge in 1788, where he died in 
1871. Quite without education he began life as a hand-loom weaver, 
becoming overseer of a mill, inn keeper, and finally a gardener, but con- 
tinuing throughout his life an ardent and self-taught botanist and ento- 
mologist. His entomological collections were left to the Staleybridge 
museum, where they now are, and a public monument in the town park 
attests the respect in which he was held by his fellow citizens. 

Edward Hobson (after whom is named a variety of a beetle, Chry- 
somela orkhalcia^ Mull.) was born in Manchester 1782, dying there in 
1830. His claim to fame rests perhaps more in his researches as a 
muscologist than as an entomologist, although Stephens was much in- 
debted to him for many of his localities in his Manual of the Coleoptera of 
Great Britain. 

Other names that occur are those of George Crozier, a saddler, born 
at Eccleston in the Fylde, who died at Manchester 1847, an accomplished 
entomologist and a member of the old Banksian Society of Manchester, 
and Samuel Gibson, born near Hebden Bridge 1790, died 1 849, an entirely 
self-educated naturalist. The latter's entomological collections were for 
many years in the Peel Park Museum in Manchester, and his fine collec- 
tion of fossil shells of the lower coal measures still remains in the Owens 
College Museum of that city. Samuel Carter, a cabinet maker, also 
of Manchester, who rearranged the entomological collections in the 
Manchester Museum in 1858, was one of the same group. 

More especially should be mentioned Joseph Chappell, a mechanic 
in Sir Joseph Whitworth's works in Manchester, whose obituary ap- 
peared in the Manchester City News, 17 October 1896. His know- 
ledge of the entomological fauna of Lancashire was intimate and exhaus- 
tive, his enthusiasm and perseverance unlimited ; he has told the present 

1 For particulars as to the career of this and of other south Lancashire artisan naturalists I am 
greatly indebted to Dr. H. Bailey of Port Erin, Isle of Man, some time of Pendleton, Manchester. 
W.E.S. 

102 



INSECTS 

writer how on a Saturday evening after work and there was no Saturday 
half-holiday in those days he would walk some thirty miles to Burnt 
Wood in Staffordshire, sleeping in the open, collect all day Sunday and 
walk back on Sunday night in time for work at six o'clock on Monday 
morning. Most of Chappell's knowledge however perished with him, 
but his fine local collections were purchased at his death by Mr. C. H. 
Schill of Manchester, in whose private museum they remain. To coleop- 
terists his name will be remembered in connection with those rare species 
Lymexelon nava/e and Cryptocepbalus biguttatus ; and to lepidopterists with 
the clearwing moth, Sesia culiciformis. 

C. H. Gregson, a plumber of Liverpool, belonged to the same 
group, and was possibly the last member of it. Born in Lancaster 1817, 
he died in 1899 in Liverpool. His first note on entomological subjects 
seems to have appeared in the Annals of Natural History in 1842, on a 
local moth, Nyssia zonaria, and from that time to his death his notes and 
contributions appear constantly in the various serial publications devoted 
to entomology. He had some acquaintance with the Coleoptera, but was 
more especially a lepidopterist, and his magnificent collection of Lepidop- 
tera, particularly rich in varieties and aberrations, was purchased in 1888 
by W. Sydney Webb of Dover, in whose possession it still remains. 

Belonging to a somewhat different rank in life were Noah Greening 
of Warrington, the brothers Cooke of Liverpool, and Hodgkinson of 
Preston. 

Noah Greening was born in 1821 and died in 1879. He is best 
known to the general public as an eminently successful business man and 
the founder of the Warrington firm of wire drawers which bears his 
name. But he was also an ardent student of nature, an ornithologist 
and geologist of considerable attainments, but more especially a lepidop- 
terist. He left little in writing, but the assistance he rendered Newman 
is obvious to all readers of that author's British Butterflies and Moths, for 
years the standard work on our Lepidoptera. Greening introduced several 
species of moths to the British list, and formed a very complete and ex- 
tensive collection of British Lepidoptera, the greater part of which is now 
in the Liverpool Museum combined with that of Nathaniel Cooke. 

The brothers Cooke, Nathaniel above mentioned and Benjamin, 
born respectively in 1818 and 1817, were leading entomologists in south 
Lancashire during the second quarter of last century. They were both 
engaged in mercantile pursuits, devoting all their leisure to their favourite 
study. Nathaniel was almost exclusively a lepidopterist, and to him we 
owe the discovery of Nyssia zonaria as a British insect (1838). 

He died in Liverpool 1885. His brother Benjamin was perhaps 
the better all round entomologist. He studied nearly all the orders, 
and the few records which exist of the Hemiptera, Diptera, etc., of 
south Lancashire are almost entirely his work. He died in Southport 
in 1883. Notes and articles by both brothers are to be found in all 
the magazines devoted to natural history quite up to the time of their 
deaths. 

103 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

J. B. Hodgkinson, a yarn agent of Preston, who died in 1897 aged 
73, and his friend, W. H. Threlfall (who still survives) are best known 
as micro-lepidopterists. They collected together for many years in the 
country round Morecambe Bay, and their explorations of Witherslack 
have rendered that locality almost classic ground to the student of 
the Micro-lepidoptera. Hodgkinson 's notes appear continually in the 
Entomologist of twenty to thirty years ago, and to his energy is due the 
addition of some six or eight species to the British list of Lepidoptera. 
His fine collection of some 40,000 specimens was sold at ' Stevens' ' and 
realized about jC5- 

As has been already said, the school of Lancashire artisan entomolo- 
gists appears to have almost died out. The present local students of the 
class belong to a somewhat different social order. With better education 
and a wider grasp of the general scope of biology, their contributions 
to entomological science are more likely to survive than was the case 
with an older generation. Such present workers will be more particu- 
larly alluded to in the more detailed treatment of the separate orders 
which follows. 

COLLECTING GROUNDS 

The special localities or collecting grounds whence most of our 
knowledge of the Lancashire entomological fauna is derived may perhaps 
demand a few words. Since nearly all the workers in this branch of 
natural history have been dwellers in towns, these localities are principally 
in the south-west of the county where the population is densest. With 
a few exceptions, such as the district round Grange and Windermere, 
the extreme north and north-east still remain entomologically unexplored, 
and no doubt many species occur there yet unrecorded in our lists. 

A district which has maintained, and to a great extent does still 
maintain a rich and exclusive fauna, is the belt of sandhills which line 
the coast from the mouth of the Mersey to that of the Kibble. 

Although the lateral movements of this littoral zone have been, pro- 
bably even within the historic period, extensive, yet its characteristic 
features are of high antiquity, and its fauna is for this reason perhaps the 
most specialized of the district. The immunity however which these 
sterile sands have enjoyed for centuries from either cultivation or other 
industrial operations has to some extent been interrupted by the spread 
of golf links, and this pastime is probably responsible to a greater extent 
for the diminution of the littoral fauna all round our coasts than all other 
human agencies put together. Among these sand dunes occur many 
otherwise very rare insects, and for a few species this is the only recorded 
locality in Great Britain. The great peat mosses of the south of the 
county were formerly favourite collecting grounds. These however 
within the last fifty years have been very much curtailed and are probably 
doomed to complete disappearance in the near future. 

Of the largest of these, Chat Moss, which formerly extended over 
some 1,000 acres, there now remain only about 300 acres undrained and 



INSECTS 

uncultivated, and the greater part of this remnant is being yearly 
dissipated as ' peat-moss litter ' over the entire kingdom. 

Risley and Carrington Mosses, which however are strictly outside 
the county, are in no better condition from an entomological point of 
view, and their special fauna and flora will no doubt within a few years 
become a memory merely. 

The ' cloughs ' or narrow gorges between the hills westward of Man- 
chester, often well wooded, were favourite haunts of the older collectors, 
but of these few would now repay a visit from any entomologist. 

The famous ' Stalybrushes ' was a locality of this kind, and though 
strictly in Cheshire may be considered almost as one of the Lancashire 
collecting grounds. Here a wooded glen runs up between the hills a 
couple of miles from Staleybridge and opens out on the wild moorlands 
of the Peak. This was the favourite locality of Jethro Tinker above 
mentioned. Of late years however reservoirs have been erected in the 
valley, the trees cut down, and but little of the wild charm of the place 
and but few of the special insects now remain. Many of the favourite 
resorts of the old Manchester collectors, such as the Bollin valley, Dun- 
ham Park, and Delamere Forest, are in Cheshire. These localities have 
undergone but little change and are still most prolific hunting grounds, 
but they can hardly be considered or described as Lancashire collecting 
grounds. 

Traffbrd Park near Manchester, lately opened to the public, al- 
though much disfigured by various ' works ' as well as by the ship canal, 
has been found by Dr. Bailey (formerly of Pendleton) to be an excel- 
lent collecting ground for Coleoptera. 

The moors and mosses round Bolton have been explored by Mr. 
Stott of that town, and the Southport district has been exhaustively 
worked for Coleoptera by Dr. Chaster. 

Further north the researches of Messrs. Threlfall and Hodgkinson 
of Preston have made Witherslack a name familiar to all Lepidopterists. 
Witherslack and Arnside is a district of low limestone hills, woods, 
and mosses a few miles north-east of Grange and extending partly into 
Westmorland. The locality is entomologically very rich and is singular 
in maintaining a few species of Lepidoptera which are of quite southern 
distribution. 

Near Preston the district of Red Scar has been worked with great 
success for Lepidoptera by Mr. J. R. Charnley of Preston, and the Rev. 
A. M. Moss (now of Norwich) has studied and recorded the same order 
as it occurs about Windermere. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS 

In most of the museums of the county there exist collections of 
insects of more or less importance. The town museums of Liverpool, 
Manchester, Preston, Warrington and Bolton may be specially mentioned. 
The best collection of Lepidoptera is probably the ' Cooke ' collection of 
Liverpool. This includes the collections of N. Cooke and E. Birchall 
i 105 14 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

of Liverpool and N. Greening of Warrington. It was rearranged some 
years ago by Dr. Ellis of Liverpool, and the specimens being principally 
of local origin and in admirable condition it forms probably one of 
the best public collections of Lepidoptera in the provinces. In the 
other orders Liverpool possesses a fairly representative but small col- 
lection of exotic insects of the several orders. The British collections 
other than Lepidoptera are in process of reformation and will probably 
in course of time be worthy of the other excellent biological collections 
of the Liverpool Museum. 

In the Owens College Museum of Manchester the insect collec- 
tions are exceptionally good. This is particularly the case with the 
Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. The fine and extensive collection of 
exotic Lepidoptera presented by Mr. Schill of that town is also a note- 
worthy feature of the museum. 1 

Bolton in the Chadwick Museum possesses excellent collections of 
Lepidoptera and Coleoptera and good representative ones of Hymenop- 
tera, Hemiptera and Diptera. In this museum also are the exotic 
Coleoptera collected by the late Mr. Gray of Bolton and presented to 
the museum. 

The Preston Museum contains one of the best generally representa- 
tive entomological collections in the provinces. It has been formed to 
illustrate the distribution of the Insecta of the world and includes Coleop- 
tera, Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera and Diptera. 
Besides these there is a very good local collection of over 500 species 
of Lancashire Lepidoptera and several cases illustrating life histories of 
insects, mimicry, protective resemblance, etc. 

The Warrington Museum is of somewhat recent date, and the en- 
tomological collections therein are to a great extent in process of form- 
ation. The local Lepidoptera are already fairly representative and the 
other orders have not been neglected. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETIES 

At the present time there are two societies in Lancashire founded 
for and exclusively devoted to the study of entomology. The elder of 
these is the Entomological Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. 

This society was founded in 1877 by Messrs. S. J. Capper, Ben. 
Cooke, and a few other local entomologists. The first president was 
Mr. Capper, and he has worthily filled the chair ever since. The meet- 
ings were held in the Liverpool Museum till about 1901, when a 
removal was made to the Royal Institution, Colquitt Street, in that 
city, and periodical meetings during the session are now held at Chester 
and St. Helens. This society has done much to encourage the study 
of entomological science throughout the district, and has numbered 
amongst its members all the local entomologists of the last thirty years. 

Recently a somewhat similar society has been founded in Man- 

1 The very complete and valuable collection of British Coleoptera formed by W. Reston of Stretford, 
Manchester, has lately been acquired by this museum. 

1 06 



INSECTS 

Chester, under the presidency of Mr. Hoyle of the Owens College 
Museum. 

Besides these bodies, which are exclusively devoted to the study of 
insects, nearly every town in Lancashire has its field club or some form 
of natural history society. At many of such societies papers on en- 
tomology are read and discussed, but few of them publish more than 
an abstract of their proceedings. Larger and more comprehensive 
societies, such as the Liverpool ' Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire,' ' Biological Society,' and ' Literary and Philosophical Society,' 
have from time to time published papers dealing more especially with 
the entomology of the district. 

In earlier days the ' Manchester Banksian Society,' which flourished 
between 1829 and 1836, formed a centre for the naturalists of that 
time in south-west Lancashire, and most of the early Lancashire ento- 
mologists appear to have been members of it. 

At least two other more exclusively entomological societies seem 
to have existed in Manchester at a somewhat later date : ' The Northern 
Entomological Society,' which meets at the house of one of the members 
at Old Trafford, Manchester, and was in existence at any rate in 1862 ; 
and the ' Manchester Entomological Society,' which seems to have 
flourished from 1857 to some time in the 'sixties.' These societies 
appear however to have published no transactions or proceedings, and 
their meetings were probably of rather an informal character. Indeed it 
is difficult now to secure any authentic or consecutive information as to 
their character or results. 

In the lists which follow, the local distribution of the orders 
Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Aculeata), Hemiptera, and Orth- 
optera is given with as much detail as the space at our disposal will admit. 
These lists are far from exhaustive, and additions to all of them are 
yearly being made by students of the several orders. Few of the older 
entomologists appear to have realized the importance of the accurate 
recording of the localities of their captures, and the greater part of these 
lists is due to the exertions of more modern workers. 

In regard to the other orders, Neuroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera, etc., 
there exists no material for the compilation of lists that would be 
of value for publication here. Of the Neuroptera and Trichoptera 
no authentic records are known to the writer. The Diptera have 
been to some extent studied by the late Benjamin Cooke of Liverpool 
and the late Rev. H. H. Higgins of Rainhill. The former published 
a list of Diptera taken near Manchester and Southport in the pages of 
the Naturalist^ No. Ivii.-lx. vol. 5 (1880), and the latter a short list of 
the Syrphidce of the Liverpool district in the Transactions of the His- 
toric Society of Lancashire and Cheshire (1858). Neither of these 
lists however is very complete and in some cases perhaps not absolutely 
trustworthy, and as neither professes to represent the order as it is gener- 
ally distributed throughout the county they are not reproduced here. 

107 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 
ORTHOPTERA 

The order Orthoptera, including the Euplexoptera and Dermaptera, 
contains by far the smallest number of species of any order of the Insecta 
as represented in Britain. Malcolm Burr, in his recent work on the 
British Orthoptera, enumerates not more than fifty species in all, and 
many of these are undoubtedly of recent introduction. The Orthoptera 
include such familiar and, indeed, generally unpopular insects as the cock- 
roaches, the earwigs, and the grasshoppers. 

The order has been specially studied as it occurs locally by Mr. 
E. G. Burgess Sopp of Birkdale, to whom is due the substance of the 
notes which follow. 

As the economy of many of the Orthoptera, especially of the cock- 
roaches, has been extensively modified to suit that association with man r 
kind which they in so many cases unfortunately adopt, they have been 
particularly the subjects of accidental immigration. Ports such as Liver- 
pool and Manchester have thus been the avenues for the introduction of 
many exotic species, of which some have been able to establish them- 
selves with more or less success in limited areas ; but the greater number, 
if they succeed in escaping instant destruction at the hands of some unsym- 
pathetic discoverer, are only occasionally noticed and recorded by the 
entomologist before they succumb to a climate to which they find it 
impossible to adapt themselves. 

The following are the members of this order which have been 
recorded from Lancashire : 

EUPLEXOPTERA BLATTIDJE (continued) 

(Earwigs] occurred in Liverpool, Manchester, 

T c , ,,, and some of the other large Lan- 

Lab.a minor, L. Southport, Warnngton, cashire towns 

Liverpool Stylopya-a (Blatta) orientalis, L. The 

Forficula aunculana, L. Generally abun- ^fLiliar ' blackbeetle ' of our kitchens 

is only too abundant everywhere. 
There are also a few records of the 
occurrence of strictly exotic species 

BLATTID;E (Cockroaches) from the Liverpool docks, such as 

Ectobia lapponica, L. Liverpool Blabera gigantea, L., and species of 

livida, F. the genera Epilampra and Panchlora, 

Although a few members of the but these can in no sense be con- 

genus Ectobia, including these two sidered as part of the fauna of Lan- 

species, are properly indigenous, still cashire 

it is probable that these records are of ACRIDIDJE (Grasshoppers) 

imported exotic specimens, as the Stenobothus viridulus, L.~) Generally dis- 

normal range of the genus in Eng- bicolor, Char. J tributed 

land is exclusively southern parallelus, Zett. Southport district 

Phyllodromia germanica, L. Gomphocerus maculatus, Thun. South- 

Periplanata americana, L. port district 

_ australasiae, F. Tettix bipunctatus, L. Liverpool, High- 

Mi recently introduced species town, Southport 

which have apparently succeeded to Acridium asgyptium, L. Certainly intro- 

some extent in establishing them- duced ; is also recorded from South- 

selves in a few localities ; have port 
108 






INSECTS 

ACRIDID.S: (continued") generally abundant, the cockroach 

Pachtylus cinerascens, L. Manchester having in many places supplanted 

migratorius, L. Bolton and even exterminated it 

GRYLLID^E (Crickets) [The determination of several of the exotic 

The only species recorded from species mentioned above is due to the kind- 

the county is Gryllus domesticus, L., ness of Mr. Malcolm Burr, the well-known 

the common cricket of our houses, authority on the Orthoptera] 
which is locally common, but hardly 

HYMENOPTERA 

The only portion of this order of which detailed and trustworthy data 
are obtainable is the Aculeata^ that is the ants, wasps, and bees. These 
have been studied by the late Benjamin Cooke of Southport, and the 
Rev. H. H. Higgins, formerly of Rainhill near Liverpool. The result 
of their observations, together with those of a few other local students of 
the order, has been incorporated in a paper on * The Hymenoptera- 
Aculeata of Lancashire and Cheshire, with notes on the habits of the 
genera,' by Willoughby Gardner, F.L.S., reprinted from the Transactions 
of the Liverpool Biological Society^ 1901. This list deals however only 
with the southern part of Lancashire. The centre and north of the 
county are still practically virgin ground to the Hymenopterist, and 
probably many species are to be found there which have no place in the 
list referred to. 

As regards the remainder of the order the ichneumons, saw-flies, 
gall-flies, etc. a short list exists compiled by Benjamin Cooke which 
enumerates about 150 species as having been noticed by himself of the 
Tenthredinidtz, Xiphydrndce^ Uroceridce, Cynipidce^ Ichneumonidce, Braconidce, 
Bethylidce^ and ILmbolimidce, and also about 23 species of Chalcididte and 
Chrysididce. These are all from the immediate vicinity of Manchester. 
This list was published in the Naturalist^ vol. v. No. liii. Dec. 1 879. 
It makes no pretension to be in any sense exhaustive, and is really not 
much more than a ' note ' of species observed near Manchester. We 
have however no other accessible local information on this part of the 
order known to the writer. 

Reverting to the Aculeata^ it appears to be unnecessary to mention 
in detail species generally and everywhere abundant. The following 
records however seem worthy of attention as of species more or less rare 
and local. They are taken from the list of Mr. Gardner already men- 
tioned. 

HETEROGYNA POMPILIDJE 

FORMICID;E Pompilus rufipes, L. \ , , , 

Ponera contracta, Lat. Near Manchester plumbeus, F. Recorded from 

-niger,F. \ thecoastsand- 

FOSSORES P ectinipes,V.deLind.J r 

SAPYGIDJE Salius exaltatus, F. Bowden near Man- 

Sapyga 5-punctata, F. Rainhill near Liver- chester 

pool Ceropalpes maculata, F. Southport 

1 B, Brown, Market Place, Huddersfield. 
109 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



SPHEGIDJE 

Astata stigma, Panz. One of the earliest 

records in Britain of this, till recently 

rare, species was made by B. Cooke 

(June 1879) from specimens taken by 

him at Southport. It is one of the 

most noteworthy of our local wasps 

Trypoxylon figulus, L. Bowden 

Ammophila hirsuta, Scop.) Occur on the 

lutaria, F. / sandhills 
Diodontus minutus, F. Manchester district 
Psen pallipes, Panz. 
Gorytes mystaceus, L. Generally dis- 
tributed, but not common 

Oxybelus uniglumis, L. Southport and 

near Manchester 
Crabro podagricus, V. d. Lind. Hazle- 

giove near Manchester 

DIPLOPTERA 

VESPID^E 

Vespa crabro, L. One nest of this usu- 
ally southern species is recorded from 
the county, found at Hawkshead 
near Coniston, and now in Owen's 
College Museum, Manchester 

norvegica, F. Not infrequent in pine 

woods throughout the county 

EuMENID^E 

Odynerus, callosus, Thorns. Rainhill 

pictus, Curt. Bolton 

trimarginatus, Zett. Near Manchester 

sinuatus, F. 

ANTHOPHILA 

COLLETIDJE 

Colletes succinta, L. Among heather, on 
many of the mosses 

fodiens, Kirb. Southport 

daviesana, Sm. Banks of Mersey, Bollin, 

etc. 

cunicularia, L. This species was first 
recorded as British from specimens 
taken at Wallasey in Cheshire. The 
first captor was the Rev. H. H. Hig- 
gins (May 1855), who however did 
not publish his discovery. In 1867 
the bee was taken by N. Cooke of 
Birkenhead, and recorded by F. 
Smith (E.M.M. 1869), the locality 
being erroneously given as Ventnor. 
Since then it has occurred freely 
along the Lancashire coast from 
Crosby as far north as Blackpool, and 
it also seems to occur sporadically in- 
land 

Prosopis communis, Nyl. Fairly common 

signata, Panz. 

confusa, Nyl. }) 



ANDRENID^ 

Halictus laevigatus, Kirb. Near Manchester 

villosulus, Kirb. 

atricornis, Sm. Is another local bee of 

considerable interest. When first 
discovered by B. Cooke at Hazle- 
grove near Manchester it was not 
only new to Britain, but new to 
science (Ent. An. 1870, p. 26). The 
species has since been recorded from 
Stretford and from Whalley in Lanca- 
shire as well as from other localities, 
in the Midlands, but it still remains 
exclusively British 

Other species of the genus re- 
corded from Lancashire are : 

minutissimus, Kirb. 

tumulorum, L. 

morio, F. 

Sphecodes pilifrons, Thorns. Hazlegrove 
Southport 

Andrena fulvicrus, Kirb. Is only recorded 
from Rainhill near Liverpool. The fol- 
lowing species, together with others 
of general distribution, have been 
recorded from the Manchester or 
Southport districts 

cineraria, L. 

angustior, Kirb. 

helveola, L. 

humilis, Imh. 

labialis, Kirb. 

minutula, Kirb. 

nana, Kirb. 

wilkella, Kirb. 

Dasypoda hirtipes, Lat. Occurs on the 
sandhills and also inland near Man- 
chester 

Nomada. The following of the less 
common species of the genus have 
been recorded, principally from near 
Manchester : 

jacobasae, Panz. 

lathburiana, Kirb. 

lateralis, Panz. 

ochostroma, Kirb. 

ferruginata, Kirb. 

fabriciana, L. 
APIDJE 

Epeolus productus, Thorns. Near Man- 
chester 

Chelostoma florisomne, L. Rainhill 
Ccelioxysquadridentata,L."| Occur on sand- 

elongata, Lep. / hills 
Megachile maritima, KirbA 

willughbiella, Kirb. I Qc f cur not . In - 
- circumcincta' Lep. J fre 1 uentl y 
Osmia fulviventris, Panz. Crosby 
Anthidium manicatum, L. Near Man- 
chester, Rainhill 



INSECTS 

APIDJE (continued') A.VIDM (continued) 

Anthophora retusa, L. 1 Recorded from Marsden, and also on some of the 

pilipes, F. / near Manchester mosses of the south-west 

Bombus. Besides the generally abundant Psithyrus vestalis, Fourc."\ .~ 

species. B. lapponicus, F., occurs on barbutellus, Kirb. !<** 

the moors and hills on the borders campestris, Panz J " e 7 
of the county between Rochdale and 

COLEOPTERA 
(Beetles) 

The first recorded notice of this order as it occurs in Lancashire 
appears to have been two papers on the Geodephaga and Hydradephaga of 
the district communicated to the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire (Trans. 1861 and 1862) by C. H. Gregson of Liverpool. 
Gregson was more of a Lepidopterist than Coleopterist, and these lists 
can only be taken as approximately correct. At a somewhat later date 
F. Archer of Liverpool contributed to the ' Liverpool Naturalists Scrap- 
book ' (a MS. serial having a limited circulation among Liverpool 
naturalists) a short paper on the Coleoptera of the district (pp. 167-9). 
It is however to Dr. Ellis of Liverpool that we owe anything like a 
complete account of the local distribution of this order. This list, origi- 
nally communicated to the Liverpool Biological Society, 13 April 1888, 
was subsequently published in book form in 1889. 

To Dr. Ellis's own exertions are due the greater part of these records, 
but associated in their compilation were Gregson, Archer, B. Cooke, 
Chappell, Wilding, Smedley, and Willoughby Gardner, all local students 
of the order. Unfortunately the district embraced in this list is only a 
circle of a fifteen mile radius from the Liverpool Town Hall. Hence a 
large number of the records belong to Cheshire, and only the fauna of 
the extreme south-east of Lancashire is included in it. 

The ' Handbooks ' of the British Association meeting at Manchester 
in 1886, and at Liverpool in 1896, both contain short papers on the 
Coleoptera of the respective districts. 

Much more copious and informing is the excellent article contributed 
by Dr. Chaster and Mr. Burgess Sopp to the Handbook of the Southport 
meeting of the Association in 1903. 

To it and to Dr. Ellis's Liverpool list the writer is greatly indebted 
in the compilation of the following notes, which are not intended to be 
in any sense exhaustive. His thanks are also due and hereby accorded to 
the following gentlemen for their kind and valuable assistance 

Dr. J. Harold Bailey, Port Erin, Isle of Man (sometime of Pendleton, 
Manchester), who has assiduously collected in the Manchester district, 
and re-discovered many species recorded by the older collectors. 

Dr. G. H. Chaster and Mr. Burgess Sopp of Southport, who 
have most exhaustively explored that part of the county. 

Mr. J. F. Dutton of Helsby, Cheshire, to whom most of the 
Warrinp-ton records are due. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

Mr. E. C. Stott of Swinton, Manchester, the only explorer of the 
Coleoptera of Bolton. 

Mr. R. Wilding of Liverpool, who has collected in the Liverpool 
and Preston districts. 

Mr. J. R. le B. Tomlin of Chester, who has collected more especially 
along the coast north of Liverpool. 

Mr. A. Reston, Stretford, Manchester, an assiduous collector of 
thirty years ago, whose name will be familiar to readers of the localities 
given in Canon Fowler's British Coleoptera. 

Mr. G. Dunlop of Mossley Hill, Liverpool, who has discovered 
several species near Liverpool new to the district. 

Use has also been made of records by Chappell, Sidebotham, T. 
Morley, Eddleston and Kidson Taylor, all of Manchester, who collected 
in that district fifty to thirty years ago ; of F. Archer and Constantine, 
former collectors of the Liverpool district Coleoptera ; and of Father C. 
Redman, sometime of Stoneyhurst, Lancashire. 

The nomenclature and arrangement here adopted is that of the 
British Coleoptera of Canon Fowler, published in 1887. 



ADEPHAGA 

ClCINDELID,K 

Cicindela campestris, L. Generally distri- 
buted but not common 

hybrida, L. Formby and Freshjield 

sandhills, abundant in certain years ; 

Birkdale, occasional 
CARABID^: 

Cychrus rostratus, L. Generally but 

sparingly distributed 
Carabus catenulatus, Scop. Common 

violaceus, L. Common 

monilis, F. West Derby 

nemoralis, Mull. Rainhill, Witkington, 

Southport, Bolton 

granulatus, L. Chat Moss, Parbold 

arvensis, F. Moors near Bolton 

glabratus, Payk. Probably occurs on 

the mountains of the north-east of 
the county, and one specimen, un- 
doubtedly an importation, was taken 
by Dr. Chaster at Birkdak 

nitens, L. Chat and Risley Mosses 

(formerly), Knowsley, Freshfield sand- 
hills 
Notiophilus aquaticus, L. \ Generally dis- 

palustris, Duft. / tributed, and 

more frequent in dry, heathery locali- 
ties than, as their names would imply, 
in damp and marshy ones 

substriatus, Wat. Coast, under sea- 

weed, etc. 

Leistus. All the species with the exception 
of L. montanus, Steph., have been 
recorded. L. ferrugineus, L., and L. 



CARABID./E (continued') 

rufescens, F., sometimes occur in 
great abundance 

Nebria brevicollis, F. Common every- 
where 

gyllenhalii, Sch. Under stones in dry 

bed of stream, Lostock near Bolton, 
Withington, Ringley Wood near Man- 
chester 

Blethisa multipunctata, L., has been re- 
corded by Gregson from Crosby 

Elaphrus cupreus, Duft. \ Generally 

riparius, L. j distributed 
Loricera pilicornis, F. Abundant every- 
where 

Clivina fossor, L. Common 

collaris, Herbst. Banks of Alt, Mersey, 

Irwfll and Douglas 
Dyschirius thoracicus, Rossi, j All occur on 

impunctipennis, Daws. J the coast 

nitidus, Dej. |- between 

politus, Dej. Crosby and 

salinus, Sch. j Southport 

globosus, Herbst. In wet ditches; 

abundantly distributed 

Miscodera arctica, Payk. Recorded from 
Longridge Fell near Ribchester, June 
1884, by C. Redman, Stoneyhurst 

Broscus cephalotes, L. Common on the 
shore 

Badister bipustulatus, F. Generally distri- 
buted, but not common anywhere 

Chlcenius nigricornis, F. Recorded from 
Knowsley near Liverpool, and Mere 
Mere near Manchester 



INSECTS 



CARABIDJE (continued) 

Stenolophus vespertinus, Panz. Southport 

district 

Acupalpus dorsalis, F. One specimen re- 
corded from Crosby shore 

meridianus, L. Occasional ; Chat and 

Carrington Mosses 
Bradycellus cognatus, Gyll. \ Common on 

verbasci, Duft. I the moors 

similis, Dej. J and mosses 

distinctis, Dej. ~| Not uncommon in 

harpalinus, Dej. J damp places 

collaris, Payk. Also probably occurs in 

the north, as it is taken on the West- 
morland mountains 

Harpalus. Of this genus, besides the 
universally common species, the fol- 
lowing have been noted : 

rupicola, Sturm. Hightown 

latus, L. Manchester, Southport, etc. 

neglectus, Dej. Birkdale sandhills, not 

common 

tardus, Panz. Southport, scarce 

anxius, Duft. Common on coast sand- 

hills 
Dichirotrichus pubescens, Payk. Common 

on the shore 
Anisodactylus binotatus, F. Hightown, 

Chat and Hoole Mosses, Birkdale, 

Bolton 
Stomis pumicatus, Panz. Occasional on 

the mosses, but not common 
Pterostichus. Besides the quite common 

species 

cupreus, L. Crosby, Lostock, Withington, 

etc. 

versicolor, Sturm. Hoole and Lostock 

Mosses, Southport district 

picimanus, Duft. One specimen, mar- 

gin of pond, Rainhill 

aethiops, Panz. Moors near Stoneyhurst 

minor, Gyll. Southport district 

vernalis, Gyll. Northenden, Birkdale 
Amara fulva, De G. Mersey shore, Crosby, 

Birkdale, etc. 

apriciaria, Payk. Withington, Kearsley, 

and Kersal Moors, Southport 

consularis, Duft. Banks of Douglas 

near Preston 

aulica, Panz. Generally distributed 

rufocincta, Dej. Lydiate near Liver- 

pool, Crosby 

livida, F. Cratby, Birkdale 

ovata, F. Southport and Bolton districts 

similata, Gyll. Southport, not common 

tibialis, Payk. Generally common on 

the sandhills 

lunicollis, Schiod. Generally distri- 

buted, but not common 

trivialis, Gyll. Abundant everywhere 
I 1 



CARABID^: (continued) 

Amara familiaris, Duft. Abundant every- 
where 

lucida, Duft. Not rare on the sand- 

hills 

plebeia, Gyll. Southport district, Lan- 

caster ; scarce 

Calathus. All our species except C. fuscus, 
F., and C. micropterus, Duft., have 
been recorded as common, and C. 
micropterus almost certainly occurs 
on the high moors of the north and 
north-east 

Taphria nivalis, Panz. West Derby, Kearsley 
Moor, Southport 

Pristonychus terricola, Herbst. Occurs 
generally in cellars and outhouses, 
and occasionally in the open, through- 
out the county 

Lemosthenus complanatus, Dej. One 
specimen taken in warehouse in 
Liverpool. This species has only re- 
cently been added to the British list, 
but doubtless occurs frequently, and 
is probably mixed with the previous 
species in most collections 

Sphodrus leucopthalamus, L. In cellars ; 
seems to live in drains, and is but 
rarely seen, but occurs in most large 
towns of the county 

Anchomenus dorsalis, Mall. Abundant 

albipes, F. 

marginatus, L. 

parumpunctatus, F. 

fuliginosus, Panz. 

angusticollis, F. Generally distributed 

under loose bark and in damp places 

ericeti, Panz. Simonswood, Chat Moss 

viduus, Panz. Southport, occasional 

var. maestus, Leuft. 

gracilis, Gyll. Hightown, Rivington, 

near Manchester 

puellus, Deg. Almost certainly occurs 

among reeds, although it has not been 
recorded, and is difficult to dis- 
tinguish from A. fuliginosus 

Olisthopus rotundatus, Payk. Frequent on 
the high moors among heather 

Tachys parvulus, Deg. The first British 
specimen of this insect was taken in 
September 1884 by Mr. J. H. 
Smedley of Liverpool on the Wal- 
lasey sandhills. This locality is of 
course not within the county, but it 
is probable that the insect may also 
occur on the sandhills to the north 
of the Mersey estuary. The dis- 
covery of the species since that date 
near Plymouth and in the New Forest 
rather discredits the suggestion, 
il 15 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CARABIDJE (continued) 

which had been made, that Mr. 
Smedley's specimen had been im- 
ported in ballast. 

Tachys bistriatus, Duf. Recorded from 
Lostock near Bolton, on daffodils 

Cillenus lateralis, Sam. Banks of Alt and 
Mersey at Aigburth 

Bembidium. Of this large genus the fol- 
lowing are abundant and widely dis- 
tributed : 

obtusum, Sturm. Generally common 

guttula, F. 

lampros, Herbst. 

littorale, Ol. 

biguttatum, F. \ Generally but 

concinnum, Steph. I sparingly distri- 

minimum, F. J buted 

rufescens, GueY. 

The following appear to be more 
local and rare : 

quinquestriatum, Gyll. West Derby, 

Southport, near Preston 

clarki, Daws. In moss, Birkdale sand- 

hills ; rare 

quadrimaculatum, L. Northenden, Cros- 

sens 

quadriguttatum, F. Wavertree, High- 

town 

bipunctatum, L. Banks of Alt, Birk- 

dale 

nitidulum, Marsh. Banks of Douglas, 

Hook, near Manchester 

femoratum, Sturm. West Derby, Aig- 

burth, near Manchester 

saxatile, Gyll. Shore near Garston 

bruxellense, Wesm. Moors near Bol- 

ton 

lunatum, Duft. Aigburth shore, Alt- 

mouth, Crossens, Withington 

stomoides, Deg. Banks of Alt and 

RMle 

pallidipenne, 111. Abundant on the 

shore between Crosby and Southport 

flammulatum, Clair. Banks of Alt 

obliquum, Sturm. ' Clifton near Man- 

chester ' (T. Morley), quoted in Fow- 
ler's Coleoptera, i. 121 

paludosum, Panz. Banks of Bollin, 

abundant 

tibiale, Duft. Clitheroe 

atrocoeruleum, Steph. 

decorum, Panz. 

Tachypus flavipes, L. Birkdale, banks of 
Mersey and Irwell, Bolton 

Perileptus areolatus, Crantz. Duddon sands 
(Fowler's Coleoptera, i. 124) 

Trechus discus, F. Banks of Alt, Liver- 
pool, Northenaen 

micros, Herbst. Banks of Mersey 



CARABIDJE (continued) 

Trechus secalis, Payk. Bolton 

longicornis, Sturm. First British speci- 

mens were taken on the Duddon sands 
near Broughton, Lancashire (Fowler's 
Coleoptera, i. 127) 

minutus, F. Abundant everywhere 
Patrobus excavatus, Payk. Hoole, Preston, 

Manchester district 

Pogonus chalceus, Marsh. Frequent on 
the foreshore 

Cymindis vaporariorum, L. Undoubtedly 
occurs on the moors, as it has been 
taken both in Cheshire and Yorkshire, 
although it does not appear to have 
been noticed in Lancashire 

Demetrias linearis, Ol. Abundant 

quadrimaculatus, L. 

melanocephalus, Deg. 

meridionalis, Deg. Less common but 

quadrinotatus, generally dis- 

Panz. tributed 

Metabletus foveola, Gyll. Generally com- 
mon 
HALIPLID^: 

Brychius elevatus, Panz. Near Warring- 
ton, Bolton 
Haliplus flavicollis, Sturm. 

ruficollis, De G. 

lineatocollis, Marsh. 

obliquus, F. Birkdale 

confinis, Steph. 

fulvus, F. Hightown, Ormskirk 

fluviatilis. Near Liverpool, Southport 
DYTISCID/E 

Noterus sparsus, Marsh. Southport 
Laccophilus interruptus, Panz. Clifton 
near Manchester 

obscurus, Panz. Southport 
Hyphydrus ovatus, L. Generally abundant 
Coelambus versicolor, Sch. Common 

inaequalis, F. 
Deronectes assimilis, Payk. "1 Generally dis- 

depressus, F. V tributed if 

duodecim-pustulatus, F.J not common 
Hydroporus. Besides the universally abun- 
dant species of this large genus the 
following have been recorded : 

lepidus, Ol. Bolton and generally in 

ditches near the coast 

rivalis, Gyll. Bolton 

halensis, F. 

tristis, Payk. Simons-wood Moss 

umbrosus, Gyll. Near Warrington, 

Birkdale 

gyllenhalii, Schio. Simonsivood Moss, 

Southport 

morio, Deg. Simonswood, Bolton 

memnonius, Nic. Birkdale 

obscurus, Sturm. Probably occurs on 



(Generally 
abundant 



114 



INSECTS 



DYTISCIDJE (continued) 

the mosses, as it is taken at Lindow 
and Delamere in Cheshire 
Hydroporus nigrita, F. Kirkdale 

lituratus, F. Southport 

obsoletus, Aube. Recorded by Chap- 

pell from Chat Moss and from 
Northenden by Dr. Bailey 
Agabus bipustulatus, L. ~\ Everywhere 

sturmii, Schron. J abundant 

guttatus, Payk. Common under stones 

in brooks 

biguttatus, Ol. Ribble near Preston 

paludosus, F. Bolton and near Manchester 

unguicularis, L. One specimen, Birch 

Fields, Manchester 

nebulosus, Forst. Southport 

chalconatus, Panz. Bolton and River 

Douglas near Preston 

Platambus maculatus, L. Generally dis- 
tributed in running water 

Ilybius fuliginosus, F. Common 

ater. De G. 

fenestratus, F. Wavertree near Liver- 

pool 

obscurus, Marsh. Southport 

guttiger, Gyll. Prestwich 
Colymbetes fuscus, L. Common generally 
Rhantus bistriatus, Berg. Prestwich 

exoletus, Forst. Hightown near Formby 
Dytiscus marginalis, L. 1 Recorded and 

punctulatus, F. / fairly common 
GYRINID;E 

Gyrinus bicolor, Payk. Near Southport 

elongatus, Aub. 

marinus, Gyll. 

natator, Scop. Abundant everywhere 
Orechtochilus villosus, Mall. Winwick 

near Harrington, near Manchester 

CLAVICORNIA 
HYDROPHILID.S: 

Hydrocharis caraboides, L. A single speci- 
men captured at Southport when fly- 
ing at night 

Hydrobius fuscipes, L. Common 
Philhydrus testaceus, F. ^ M Qccur ^ 

mgncans, Zett. , , 

- melanocephalus, Ol. f r l< f fre ' 

- coarctatus, Gredl. J ^^ 
Cymbiodyta ovalis, Thorns. Common 
Enochrus bicolor, Gyll. Near Liverpool, 

Formby 

Laccobius. All the four British species or 
forms occur near Southport and else- 
where 

Berosus affinis, Brull. Wavertree, Kirk- 
dale near Liverpool 

Limnebius truncatellus, Thorns. Common 

nitidus, Marsh. Southport 



Recorded from 
the Southport dis- 
trict, but are not 
common 



HYDROPHILID^: (continued) 

Anaccena. All our species occur 
Choetarthria seminulum, Herbst. Birkdale 
Helophorus tuberculatus, Gyll. This ex- 
ceedingly rare species was taken some 
years ago in the Manchester district 
by J. Chappell and named by E. C. 
Rye (E.M.M. October 1874) 

aquaticus, L. Generally abundant 

brevipalpis, Bedel. 

nubilus, F. 

intermedius, Muls. 

dorsalis, Marsh. 

arvernicus, Muls. 

aenipenuis, Thorns. 

Hydrochus angustatus, Germ. Southport ; 

rare 
Octhebius pygmaeus, F. Common 

bicolon, Germ. 

marinus, Payk. One specimen, South- 

port 

rufomarginatus, Steph. Recorded by 

T. Morley from Stretford near Man- 
chester in flood refuse 

Hydrcena riparia, Kug. Generally distri- 
buted 

nigrita, Germ. ") Fairy Glen, Appleby 

gracilis, Germ. J Bridge 

All species of Cyclonotum and 
Sphasridium occur not uncommonly 

Cercyon. With the exceptions of C. aquati- 
cus, Muls., C. depressus, Steph., and 
C. minutus, Muls., the whole of our 
British species have been recorded. 
The two species also of Megaster- 
num and Cryptopleurumare abundant 
SILPHID^E 

Clambus. Our three British species have 
all been taken near Southport 

Agathidium nigripenne, Kug. Under bark, 
Agecroft, Manchester 

marginatum, Sturm. Rare, Birkdale 

sandhills 

Liodes humeralis, Kug. Generally distri- 
buted 

orbicularis, Herbst. One specimen in 

Lycoperdon. Prestwich near Man- 
chester 

Anisotoma dubia, Kug., is the only species 
at all common, but A. picea, 111., 
A. rugosa, Steph., A. furva, Er., A. 
ciliaris, Schm., and A. ovalis, Schm., 
all species generally considered rare 
or very rare, have been taken by Dr. 
Chaster and Mr. Sopp on the South- 
port coast, also by the former one 
specimen of A. punctulata, Gyll. 

Hydnobius punctatus, Sturm. Recorded 
by Archer (1864) from Hightown 
near Crosby 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



SILPHID^E (continued) 

Hydnobius punctatissimus, Steph. Not un- 
common by evening sweeping on the 
sandhills 
Necrophorus humator, F. \Generally com- 

ruspator, Er. J mon 

vespillo, L. So on the sandhills only 

mortuorum, F. Scarce 

Necrodes littoralis, L. Shore at Aigburth, 

Birkdale 
Silpha rugosa, L. Generally common 

sinuata, F. 

opaca, L. Single specimens, Birkdale, 

Bolton 

tristis, III. Bolton 

obscura, L. Blackpool 

atrata, L. Crosby 
Choleva morio, F. ^ 

nigrita, Er. I Are the commonest 

tristis, Payk. j species 

watsoni, Spence J 

spadicea, Sturm. Recorded by Broad- 

bent from Drinkwater Park near 
Manchester 

fusca, Panz. Southport 

grandicollis, Er., and C. kirbyi, Spence 

(if these forms are really of specific 
value), have both been recorded 

chrysomeloideSjl 

Panz. j- Generally distributed 

velox, Spence J 

colonoides, Kraatz. Recorded by 

Chappell from ' near Manchester ' 
(E.M.M. xii. 62) 

nigricans, Spence. Bolton 
Ptomophagus sericeus, F. Generally com- 



Eumicrus tarsatus, Mull., and Scydmasnus 
collaris, Mull., are the only species 
recorded as common 
exilis, Er. Southport ; very rare 

PSELAPHIDJE 

The only species of the genera 
Pselaphus, Tychus, Bythinus, Ry- 
baxis, or Bryaxis recorded is Tychus 
niger, Payk., from Southport, although 
undoubtedly many more occur within 
the county. The genus Euplectus 
has been specially studied by Dr. 
Chaster, who records E. signatus, 
Reich., E. sanguineus, Denny, E. 
karsteni, Reich., and E. piceus, Mots., 
all from the Southport district 

TRICHOPTERYGID.S 

The small size, the difficulty of set- 
ting, and the still greater difficulty of 
naming the members of this family 
have occasioned the general neglect 
of this group by collectors, and the 



TRICHOPTERYGID.S: (continued ) 

few records, in some cases of doubt- 
ful authenticity, which exist afford 
no criterion of the distribution of 
the family in Lancashire 

CoRYLOPHID-ffi 

No records have been found 



Common 



'HXRiiDJE 

No records have been found 
PHALACRID^ 

Olibrus asneus, F. Southport 
COCCINELLID^: 



Hippodamia variegata, Gceze. 

on the sandhills 
Coccinella hieroglyphica, L. Not rare on 

the mosses 

Halyzia i8-guttata, L. 
- '4-guttata, L. 



Scymnus frontalis, F. Common on the 
sandhills 

suturalis, Thunb. Among fir trees 

redtenbacheri, Muls. Birkdale, sandhills 

nigrinus, Kug. Recorded by Kidson 

Taylor from ' near Manchester ' 
Chilocorus bipustulatus, L. Common on 

the sandhills 
ENDOMYCHID^E 

Mycetsea hirta, Marsh. Generally dis- 
tributed 
COLYDIID^: 

Orthocerus muticus, L. Sometimes com- 
mon on the sandhills 
Cerylon ferrugineum, Steph. Parbold 
HISTERIDJE 

Hister unicolor, L. 

cadaverinus, Hoff. 

bissexstriatus, F. All occur pnncip- 

purpurascens, ally on the sand- 

Herbst. hills 

bimaculatus, L. 

i2-striatus,Sch. 

carbonari us,^ Also almost certainly 

111. I occur more inland, as 

succicola, j they are common in 

Thorns. J Cheshire 
Gnathoncus nannetensis, Mars. Birkdale 

sandhills ; rare 
Saprinus nitidulus, Payk. Abundant 

aeneus, F. 

quadristriatus, HofF.\ More rarely on 

maritimus, Steph. J the coast 
Acritus minutus, Herbst. Southport district, 

common 

Onthophilus striatus, F. Generally dis- 
tributed 
MICROPEPLID.S: 

Micropeplus porcatus, Payk. Hightown, 
Southport 



116 



INSECTS 



All recorded from 
the Manchester 
district by the 
old collectors 



MICROPEPLID.E: (continued) 

Micropeplus margaritae, Duv. Generally 
distributed 

tesserula, Curt. One specimen re- 

ported from Grange, 1863, by R. S. 
Edleston (E.M.M. i. 259) 

NlTIDULIOS 

Brachypterus gravidus, 111. On Linaria vul- 
garis, Southport 

pubescens, Er. Generally abundant 

urticas, Kug. 
Carpophilus hemipterus, L. In a Liverpool 

warehouse ; perhaps imported 

mutilatus, Er. This species owes its 

position on the British list to Mr. T. 
Ray Hardy of Manchester, who re- 
corded it from Manchester (Fowler's 
Coleoptera, iii. 224), and it has not 
been since taken by any one in this 
country 

Cercus. All our three species have been 
recorded 

Epureadecemguttata, F. 1 

diffusa, Bris. 

melina, Er. 

oblonga, Herbst. 

florea, Er. 

parvula, Sturm. 

angustula, Er. 

Nitidula bipustula, L. Is the only species 
recorded, and that is not uncommon 

Soronia grisea, L. Trafford Park near 
Manchester, Southport 

punctatissima, 111. Southport 
Omosita colon, L. Generally common 

discoidea, F. ' 
Meligethes. Besides the generally com- 
mon species the following have been 
recorded by Chappell : 

symphyti, Heer. Eowden 

ovatus, Sturm. 1 On flowers of Gali- 

viduatus, Sturm. J opsis, Chat Moss 

flavipes, Sturm. On broom, Lancaster 

memnonius, Er. Chat Moss 

By Ellis : 

brunnicornis, Sturm. ' Occasional ' 

lugubris, Sturm. ' Two on Mentha, 

Hightown ' 

viridescens, F. Southport 
Rhizophagus depressus, F. Chat Moss 

cribratus, Gyll. Manchester 

parellelocollis, Er. Southport 

perforatus, Er. Liverpool 

dispar, Gyll. Generally distributed 

bipustulatus, F. 

politus, Hellw. Manchester district 

cceruleipennis, Sahl. One specimen 

taken from a decayed log at the 
Crosby sandhills ' many years ago ' by 
Mr. Kidson Taylor of Manchester 



TROGOSITIDJE 

Tenebrioides mauritanica, L. Under 
matting on the shore, and in shops 
and warehouses 
MONOTOMID^: 

Monotoma picipes, Herbst. Generally 
common 

quadricollis, Aub6. Southport 

rufa, Red. 

longicollis, Gyll. 
LATHRIDIID^: 

Of the genera Lathridius, Coninomus and 
Enicmus only the quite common 
species have been recorded 

Cartodere ruficollis, Marsh. Abundant in 
haystack refuse at Birkdale 

Corticiaria pubescens, "| 

Gyll. Not infrequent in 

crenulata, Gyll. f haystack debris 

denticulata,Gyll. generally 

elongata, Gyll. ' 
Melanophthalma gibosa, Herbst. Abundant 

everywhere 

fuscula, Man. Abundant everywhere 
CUCUJIDJE 

Silvanus surinamensis, L. Common in 
grain warehouses 

bidentatus, Steph. Near Manchester 
Lemophlosus ferrugineus, Steph. In grain 

warehouses 

pusillus, Schon. In grain warehouses 
BYTURID^E 

Byturus tomentosus, F. Common through- 
out the district 
CRYPTOPHAGID^ 

Telmatophilus caricis, Ol. Generally com- 
mon 

Antherophagus nigricornis, F. Southport, 
not common 

silaceus, Herbst. Southport, not common 

pallens, Gyll. Ringlej Wood, Man- 

chester 

Cryptophagus pubescens, Sturm. Generally 
distributed 

lycoperdi, Herbst. Generally distributed 

setulosus, Sturm. 

saginatus, Sturm. 

scanicus, L. 

cellaris, Scop. 

acutangulus, Gyll. 

distinguendus, Sturm. Southport 

bicolor, Sturm. 

punctipennis, Bris. 

umbratus, Er. 

rufkornis, Steph. Rare ; has been re- 

corded by Chappell and recently 
taken by Mr. Kidson Taylor in 
fungus on Chat Moss 

Micrambe vini, Panz. Generally distri- 
buted 



117 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CRYPTOPHAGIDJE (continued) 

Henoticus serratus, Gyll. A single speci- 
men recorded from under birch bark 
near Manchester, also by Mr. Kidson 
Taylor 

Atomaria fimitarii, Herbst. Occasionally 
abundant in fungus, Birkdale, and 

nigripennis, Payk. In a cellar in Man- 

chester, are the only two except the 
universally common species recorded 
Ephistemus. Both species are common 

SCAPHIDIIDJE 

Scaphisoma agaricinum, L. Worthy near 
Manchester 

boleti, Panz. Southpart 
MYCETOPHAGID^E 

Mycetophagus piceus, F. Traffbrd Park, 

Manchester 
DERMESTIDJE 

Dermestes vulpinus, F.~| Common in car- 

murinus, L. J rion on the shore 

lardarius, L. Generally distributed 
BYRRHIDJE 

Syncalypta hirsuta, Sharp. Soutbport sand- 
hills 

Byrrhus pilula, L. Common 

Cytilus varius, F. Common on the sand- 
hills 

Simplocaria semistriata, F. Generally dis- 
tributed 
GEORYSSID^E 

Georyssus pygmaeus, F. Banks of Bollin 

and jilt sandhills ; not uncommon 
PARNIDJE 

Limnius tuberculatus, Mull. Scarisbrick, 
near JVarrington 

Elmis asneus, Mall. Halsa/l, Scarisbrick 

Parnus prolifericornis, F. Abundant on 
the sandhills 

auriculatus, Panz. On the sandhills 

nitidulus, Heer. Very rare ; on the 

sandhills 
HETEROCERIDJE 

Heterocerus marginatus, F. Common, 
banks of Bollin and at Southport 

fusculus, Kies. One specimen of this 

rare and hitherto quite southern 
species was taken by Dr. Chaster as 
Birkdale 

STAPHYLINID^ OR 

BRACHELYTRA 
ALEOCHARIN^ 

Aleochara. Besides the more abundant 
species : 

bipunctata, Ol. Occurs at Formby 

obscurella, Grav. Common under 

seaweed on the shore 
Microglossa suturalis, Man. Birkdale 



ALEOCHARINJE (continued) 

Oxypoda lividipennis, Man. Generally 
distributed 

opaca, Grav. Generally distributed 

longiuscula, Er. 

umbrata, Grav. Southport 

exigua, Er. 

exoleta, Er. 

hsemorrhoa, Man. 

waterhousi, Rye. 

alternans, Grav. Not uncommon in 

fungi 

Ocyusa maura, Er. Near Manchester 
Phlceopora. Both our species occur under 

bark 

Chilopora longitarsis, Er. Hightown 
Myrmedonia limbata, Payk. Fallowfield 
near Manchester, Birkdale sandhills ; 
scarce 

Astilbus canaliculatus, F. Generally dis- 
tributed 

Homalota. Of this large genus the fol- 
lowing are recorded : 

insecta, Thorns. Hightown, Man- 

chester 

luridipennis, Man. Common 

elongatula, Grav. 

volans, Scriba. 

gregaria, Er. 

vestita, Grav. 

gyllenhali, Thorns. Southport 

silvicola, Fuss. Stretford near Man- 

chester 

vicina, Steph. Simonswood 

crassicornis, Sharp. Usually con- 

sidered a rare and mountain species ; 
recorded from Drinkwater Park 
(1870) by Morley 

halobrectha, Sharp."! Beneath seaweed 

algas, Hardy. J on shore 

occulta, Er. Generally distributed 

angustula, Grav. 

circellaris, Grav. 

cuspidata, Er. 

analis, Grav. 

exilis, Er. 

cavifrons, Sharp. Hitherto only taken 

in Scotland. Parbold near Southport, 
one specimen (Chaster) 

depressa, Gyll. Birkdale sandhills ; 

rare 

hepatica, Er. 'Near Manchester' 

(Chappell) 

aquatica, Thorns. Generally distributed 

trinotata, Kr. 

triangulum, Kr. 

fungicola, Thorns. 

coriaria, Kr. 

palustris, Kies. One specimen, Birk- 

dale 



118 



INSECTS 



ALEOCHARIN;E (continued) 

Homalota nigra, Kr. Common 

atramentaria, Gyll. 

germana, Sharp. Birkdale 

orbata, Er. 

pilosiventris, Thorns. 

villosula, Kr. Near Manchester 

setigera, Sharp. 

sordida, Marsh. Abundant 

longicornis, Grav. 

fungi, Grav. 

pygmaea, Grav. Birkdale 

subsinuata, Er. 

sericea, Muls. 

fungi var. clientula, Er. Birkdale 
Gnypeta labilis, Er. Common on banks of 

streams, etc. 
Tachyusa constricta, Er.^All occur on the 

scitula, Er. j- sandy banks of 

flavitarsis, Sahib. J the Mersey, 

Inuell and Batten, and probably 
other rivers 
Falagria sulcata, Payk. Generallydistributed 

obscura, Grav. 
Autalia. All our three species occur, but 

not commonly 

Epipeda plana, Gyll. Under bark, Bootle 
Leptusa fumida, Er. Chat Moss, Birkdale 
Sipalia ruficollis, Er. In cut grass, Birk- 

dale 
Bolitochara bella, Maerk.") Occur, but are 

obliqua, Er. J 

Kr. \ 
hev. J 

shore in carrion and beneath egg 
capsules of the whelk 
Diglossa submarina, Fair. Hightown shore 

(EMM. x. 290) 
Oligota inflata, Man. Very common 

atomaria, Er. Also occurs 

punctulata, Heer. 
Myllasna gracilis, Mat. Birkdale 

infuscata, Mat. 

brevicornis, Mat. Ringley Wood near 

Manchester, Birkdale 
Gymnusa brevicollis, Payk. Chat Moss 

variegata, Kies. Near Manchester 
TACHYPORIN^: 

Hypocyptus longicornis, Payk. Common 

ovulum, Heer. Ainsdale, Drinkwater 

Park 
Conosoma pubescens, Grav. "I Occur fairly 

lividum, Er. / commonly 
Tachyporus. All the common species are 

abundant generally 
Cilea silphoides, L. Not uncommon 
Tachinus. Of the less common species 

flavipes, F. Crosby 

subterraneus var. bicolor, Grav. South- 

port 

119 



not common 



Phytosus balticus, Kr. \ Are not uncom- 
nigriventris, Chev. mon on the 



TACHYPORINJE (continued) 

Megacronus analis, F. Not rare 

inclinans, Grav. Drinkwater Park near 

Manchester 

Bolitobius lunulatus, L. Although not 
recorded doubtless occurs, although 
perhaps not commonly 

trinotatus, Er. Abundant in fungi 

pygmzus, F. 
Mycetoporus splendidus, Grav. Common 

on the sandhills 

lucidus, Er. ^ . 

- longulus, Mann. H k ave als CCurred 

- lepidus, Grav. , ^^ nOt COm - 

nanus, Er. J 

The rare mountain species, M. angularis, 
Rey., and also M. clavicornis, Steph., 
have both occurred at Birkdale 

Habrocerus capillaricornis, Grav. Scaris- 

brick 
STAPHYLININ^ 

Heterothops dissimilis, Grav. Probably 
occurs 

binotata. Common on the sandhills 
Quedius fulgidus, F. Generally distributed 

mesomelinus, Marsh. 

cruentus, Ol. 

cinctus, Payk. 

molochinus, Grav. 

tristis, Grav. 

fuliginosus, Grav. 

maurorufus, Grav. 

rufipes, Grav. 

semiaeneus, Steph. 

obliteratus, Er. 

boops, Grav. 

puncticollis, Thoms.l Rare on the sand- 

scintillans, Grav. J hills 

fumatus, Steph. Has occurred at Aig- 

burth 

Creophilus maxillosus, L. Abundant 
Leistotrophus murinus, L. One specimen, 

Crosby 
Staphylinus pubescens, De G. Generally 

common 

stercorarius, Ol. Occasional on the 

sandhills 

caesareus, Ceder. Simonswood, Coniston 
Ocypus. Except O. cyaneus, Payk., O. 

similis, F., and O. pedator, Grav., 
all our species occur not infrequently 
Philonthus. Of this large genus, besides 
the generally common species, the 
following have been recorded : 

umbratilis, Grav. West Derby, South- 

port 

fumigatus, Er. Formby near War- 

rington 

longicornis, Steph. Lynn^ near Wr- 

rington 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



STAPHYLININJE (continued) 

Philonthus debilis, Grav. Birkdale 

vernalis, Grav. Hightown 

micans, Grav. Sandhills 

puella, Nord. Traffbrd Park, Man- 

chester 
Cafius fucicola, Curt. \Both occur on the 

xantholema, Grav.J shore 
Actobius signaticornis, Rey.) Bir&da/esand- 

procerulus, Grav. j hills 
Xantholinus. All our species except X; 

glaber, Nord., X. distans, Kr., and 

X. fulgidus, F., occur 
Leptacinus. All except L. formicetorum, 

Maerk., are recorded 
Baptolinus alternans, Grav. Traffbrd Park, 

Manchester 
Othius fulvipennis, F. Common 

melanocephalus, Grav. 

Izviusculus, Steph. Occasional on the 

sandhills 

PCEDERINJE 

Lathrobium. Besides the common species, 
L. multipunctatum, Grav., L. 
quadratum, Payk., and L. longu- 
lum, Grav., occur rarely on the 
Southport sandhills, where also Cryp- 
tobium glaberrimum, Herbst, has 
been taken 

Stilicus rufipes, Germ. Southport ; not 
common 

affinis, Er. Generally distributed 

orbiculatus, Er. 
Medon obsoletus, Nord. Southport 

melanocephalus, F. Litherland 
Lithocharis ochracea, Grav. Common 
Prederus riparius, L. Southport 

EV/ESTHETINJE 

Evaesthethus ruficapillus, Lac. Barton 

Moss near Manchester 
STENIN;E 

Stenus. Of this extensive genus, the fol- 
lowing are generally distributed : 

biguttatus, L. 

bimaculatus, Gyll. 

guttula, Mull. 

Juno, F. 

bupthalmus, Grav. 

canaliculatus, Gyll. 

speculator, Lac. 

declaratus, Er. 

crassus, Steph. 

brunnipes, Steph. 

impressus, Germ. 

bifoveolatus, Gyll. 

picipes, Steph. 

nitidiusculus, Steph. 

cicindeloides, Grav. 

similis, Herbst 

. tarsalis, Ljungh. 



STENINJE (continued) 
Stenus paganus, Er. 

latifrons, Er. 

Rarer species are 

ater, Man. Southport district 

binotatus, Ljungh. 

melanopus, Marsh. 

pusillus, Er. 

exiguus, Er. 

ossium, Steph. 

subceneus, Er., Crosby, Aigburth ; and 

probably other members of the 
genus occur, although so far un- 
recorded 

OXYPORINJE 

Oxyporus rufus, L. Mossley Hill near 

Liverpool 
OXYTELIN^ 

Bledius. Of this genus, the following 
occur in wet places among the sand- 
hills : 

spectabilis, Kr. 

fuscipes, Rye 

fracticornis, Payk. 

opacus, Block. 

longulus, Er. 

arenarius, Payk. On the shore ; very 

abundant 

subterraneus, Er. Bollin Valley 

longulus, Er. 

pallipes, Grav. 
Platystethus arenarius, Fourc. Abundant 

cornutus, Gyll. Hightown 
Oxytelus insecatus, Grav. Liverpool district 

inustus, Grav. Birkdale ; rare 

maritimus, Thorns. Not uncommon 

under seaweed, etc., on the shore 

rugosus, F. Generally abundant 

sculptus, Grav. 

laqueatus, Marsh. 

sculpturatus, Grav. 

nitidulus, Grav. 

tetracarinatus, Block. 
Ancyrophorus omalinus, Er. Recorded 

from Clifton near Manchester by 
Morley 

Trogophlceus spinicollis, Rye. The only 
specimen of this insect ever taken in 
this country was captured by Mr. 
Kidson Taylor under refuse banks 
of River Mersey, 9 August 1868 

bilineatus, Steph. Southport district 

rivularis, Mots. 

corticinus, Grav. 

pusillus, Grav. 

tenellus, Grav. 
Thinobius brevipennis, Kies. Two speci- 
mens of this rare beetle, hitherto 
only taken in the fens of Cambridge- 
shire, are recorded from flood refuse, 



INSECTS 



OXYTELIN^ (continued) 

Birkdale sandhills, May 1902, by 

Dr. Chaster 

Syntomium aeneum, Mull. Near Soutbport 
Coprophilus striatulus, F. Fazackerly near 

Liverpool, Manchester district 
Deleaster dichrous var. Leachii, Curt. 

Taken by Reston on the wing near 

the Mersey at Stretford 
HOMALIINJE 

Anthophagus testaceus, Grav. ' Southport ' 

(Fowler's Col. ii. 399) 
Geodromicus nigrita, Mttll. This subalpine 

species is recorded by Morley from 

Clifton near Manchester 
Lesteva longelytrata, Goeze.~| Generally 

sicula, Er. J common 

sharpi, Rye. Probably occurs, as it is 

recorded from Delamere in Cheshire 

Acidota cruentata, Man. Near Manchester 
(Broadbent) 

Olophrum picium, Gyll. Generally com- 
mon 

Deliphrum tectum, Payk. Rudd Heath 
near Manchester 

Lathrimaeum. Both our species occur not 
uncommonly 

Homalium rugulipenne, Rye. Very local ; 
common under seaweed, carrion, 
etc., on the shore from the Mersey 
to Southport 

rivulare, Payk. Abundant 

laeviusculum, Gyll.l Occasional on the 

riparium, Thorns. J shore 

allardi, Fairn. Drinkwater Park 

(Broadbent) 

oxycanthae, Grav. 

excavatum, Steph. 

caesum, Grav. 



concinnum, Marsh. 



All occur more or 
less frequently 



deplanatum, Gyll. 

vile, Er. 

rufipes, Fourc. 

striatum, Grav. 

Anthobium minutum, F. Banks of Bollin 

ophthalmicum, Payk."| Generally dis- 

torquatum, Marsh. J tributed 
PROTEININJE 

Proteinus ovalis, Steph. Abundant 

macropterus, Gyll.l Rare on the South- 

brachypterus, F. J port sandhills 
Megarthus denticollis, Beck. Recorded 

depressus, Payk. 

affinis, Mall. 
PHLCEOBIIN^; 

Phlceobium clypeatum, Mull. Hesketh 

near Southport 
PHLCEOCHARIN.S: 

Pseudopsis sulcata, Newn. In garden 
refuse, Southport 
I 121 



LAMELLICORNIA 



Sinodendron cylindricum, L. Child-wall 
near Liverpool 

CARASJEIDJE 

Onthophagus fracticornis, Preys. Is the 

only species recorded ; coast sandhills 

The genus Aphodius is well represented : 

Aphodius fossor, R. More or less common 

haemorrhoidalis, L. 

scybalarius, F. 

fcetens, F. 

fimitarius, L. 

ater, De G. 

var. terrenus, Kirby. 

granarius, L. 

rufescens, F. 

nitidulus, F. 

plagiatus, L. 

inquinatus, F. ,, 

conspurcatus, L. 

pusillus, Herbst. 

merdarius, F. 

prodromus, Brahm. 

punctato-sulcatus, Sturm. 

contaminatus, Herbst. 

rufipes, L. 

luridus, F. 

depressus, Kug. 

fcetidus, F. Staleybrushes 

scrofa, F. Very rare ; recorded from 

Southport (E.M.M. v. 44) 

lapponum, Gyll. Probably occurs on 

the mountains of the north 
[ melanosticticus, Schm. Had a place in 
the British list introduced by Rye 
from specimens from the Manchester 
district. These appear however to 
have been merely forms of A. in- 
quinatus, and the species probably 
does not occur in Britain] 
Heptalaucus villosus, Gyll. Three speci- 
mens taken by Dr. Chaster at Birk- 
dale 

Oxyomus porcatus, F. Crosby, Southport 
Ammoecius brevis, Er. First taken in 
Britain by Mr. Haward in May 
1859 at Southport, and occurs there 
more or less abundantly every year 
Psammobius sulcicollis, 111. Didsbury, Man- 

chester, Southport 

./Egialia sabuleti, Payk. Banks of Mersey, 
Irwell and Bollin 

rufa, F. So far has only been taken in 

Britain on the coast sandhills, be- 
tween the mouths of the Dee and 
the Ribble, Here it occasionally 
appears in abundance as in June 
1862, 1885, 1886 and 1902 (see 
Ent. Record, xiv. 243) 

16 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



SCARAB;EID/ (continued] 

./Egialia arenaria, F. Abundant 
Geotrupes stercorarius, L. Recorded 

spiniger, Marsh. 

sylvaticus, Panz. 
Hoplia philanthus, Fttss. Chat Moss. Bollin 

Valley 

Serica brunnea, L. Generally distributed 
but not common 

Rhizotrogus solstitialis, L. Bolton 

Melolontha vulgaris, F. Occurs generally, 
but not commonly anywhere 

Phylopertha horticola, L. Occasional and 
very uncertain in appearance 

Anmola frischii, F. Common on the sand- 
hills 

Oxythera stictica, L. This very doubtfully 
British species has been recorded by 
Sidebotham from the ' Lancashire 
coast,' June 1862 (E.M.M. i. 235), 
and also by Reston from a garden at 
Whalley Range near Manchester 

SERRICORNIA 
THROSCID^E 

Throscus dermestoides, L. Rixton Moss 
near Warrington 

carinifrons, Bouv. One specimen Church- 

town near Southport 
ELATERIDJE 

Lacon murinus, L. Coast sandhills ; not 
uncommon 

Cryptohypnus riparius, F. Generally dis- 
tributed 

quadripustulatus, F. Near Warrington 
Elater balteatus, L. Abundant on the 

mosses and also at Southport under 

peat 
Melanotus rufipes, Herbst. Mossley Hi//, 

Liverpool 
Athous haemorrhoidalis, F. \ More ^ ^ 

~ n !S er > L " f common 

vittatus, r . J 

Limonius cylindricus, Payk. Common on 

the sandhills 
Sericosomus brunneus, L. Chat Moss, 

Simonswood 

Adrastus limbatus, F. Common 
Agriotes sputator, L. 

lineatus, L. 
obscurus, L. 

pallidulus, 111. 

Dolopius marginatus, L. Abundant 
Corymbites pectinicornis, L. Damp mea- 
dows near the Bollin 

cupreus, F. Bolton 

var. aeruginosus, F. Bolton 
quercus, Gyll. \ Agecroft, 

var. ochropterus, Steph.j Ringley Wood 

aeneus, L. Almost certainly occurs on 



ELATERIDJE (continued} 

the moors, although it does not ap- 
pear to have been recorded 
Campylus linaris, L. Frequent on the 

mosses 
DASCILUD^E 

Helodes minuta, L. Common 

marginata, F. Ringley Wood 
Microcara livida, F. Abundant 
Cyphon coarctatus, Payk. 1 Generall 

vanabilis, Thumb. } 

- pallidulus, Boh. J C0mmon 

padi, L. In fir woods ; abundant 
LAMPYRID.S 

Lampyris noctiluca, L. Does not appear 
to have been recorded from the 
county, although it certainly must 
occur 
TELEPHORID^E 

Podabrus alpinus, Payk. Bollin Valley 

Ancistronycha abdominalis, F. On moors 
near Bolton 

Telephorus. All our species have been re- 
corded except T. oralis, Germ., T. 
figuratus, Man., and T. obscurus, L. 
The latter however probably occurs 
in the northern part of the county. 
The most interesting record is that 
of T. darwinianus, Sharp., from the 
Southport shore 

paludosus, Fall. Is recorded from Ring- 

ley Wood, Mere dough, Bolton 
Rhagonycha unicolor, Curt. Ringley Wood, 

one specimen 

All our other species except R. 

elongata, Fall., occur commonly 
Malthinus punctatus, Fourc. Generally 

common 
Malthodes marginatus, Lat. Southport 

dispar, Germ. Bollin Valley 

minimus, L. Abundant 

misellus, Kies. ' Clifton near Manchester ' 

atomus, Thorns. ' Barton Moss ' (see 

E.M.M. vii. 107) 
MELYRID^ 

Malachius bipustulatus, L. Very occasional, 
but generally distributed 

Haplocnemus nigricornis, Fab. Recorded 

by Chappell near Manchester 
CLERID^ 

Thanasimus formicarius, L. One speci- 
men Mossley Hill, Liverpool 

Necrobia ruficollis, F. Not uncommon 

violacea, L. 

rufipes, De G. 

LlMEXYLONID^E 

Hylecaetus dermestoides, L.") Recorded by 

Limexylon navale, L. J Reston from 

Stretford near Manchester ' many 

years ago,' and there is reason to 



INSECTS 



LIMEXYLONID/E (continued) 

suppose that both species may have 
been imported to that locality in 
timber 
PTINIDJE 

Niptus hololeucus, Fald. Generally distri- 
buted 

crenatus, F. Near Manchester 
Trigonogenius globulum. This species 
has been recently introduced to the 
British list by Mr. Tomlin on speci- 
mens occurring in a granary at Old- 



Anobium domesticum, Fourc. ) Generally 

paniceum, L. j distributed 
Ptilinus pectinicornis, L. Southport, Stock- 
ton Heath, IParrington 

Dorcatomachrysomelina, Sturm. ) In rotten 
Anitys rubens, HofF. j oak, 

Tra/ord Park, Manchester 

ClSSID.ffi 

Cis boleti, Scop. Is the only member of 
the genus at all abundant, but the 
following have also been recorded : 

villosulus, Marsh. Childwall near 

Liverpool 

bidentatus, Ol. Bolton 

festivus, Panz. Near Manchester 

vestitus, Mell. 
Octotemnus glabriculus, Gyll. Generally 

distributed 

LONGICORNIA 

CERAMBYCID^ 

Aromia moschata, L. Not uncommon on 

willows about Southport and near 

Harrington 
Clytus arietis, L. Generally distributed 

but not common 
Rhagium inquisitor, F. Not uncommon 

bifasciatum, F. 
Strangalia armata, Herbst. Frequent 
Grammoptera ruficornis, F. Common 

LAMIIDJE 

Acanthocinus aedilis, L. Has often been 
taken in South Lancashire ; probably 
imported from Scandinavia in pit 
props 

Leiopus nebulosus, L. Not uncommon in 
oak woods 

Saperda scalaris, L. Formerly taken in 
some abundance by the old collectors 
in the ' cloughs ' round Manchester 

Stenostola ferrea, Schrank. Manchester dis- 
trict 

Owing to the presence in South Lan- 
cashire of large quantities of foreign 
timber, principally pine and larch im- 
ported in the bark, and used extensively 
I 



L.AMUDJE (continued) 

in the colliery districts for pit props 
the occurrence of many rare British 
and European wood feeding Coleop- 
tera is not unusual. Such records 
are of course difficult to dissociate 
from those of the indigenous fauna, 
and the possibility of such involun- 
tary immigrants becoming tempor- 
arily established in the natural timber 
of the district adds to the ambiguity 
of many of these recorded occurrences 

PHYTOPHAGA 

BRUCHIDJE 

Bruchus pisi, L. ) , 

- runmanus,Boh. Have a11 occurred 

. ,-,' ( in warehouses 

villosus, F. ) 

EuPODA 

Donacia crassipes, F. Windermere, War- 
rington 

versicolorea, Brahm. Ballon, Southport, 

Clifton near Manchester 

sparganii, Ahr. Bolton Canal at Clifton 

- dentipes,_F. } Recorded from near 



limbata, Panz 



Manchester 



bicolora, Zsch. 

obscura, Gyll. Recorded by Chappell 

from ' Castle Mill,' Bollin Valley 

simplex, F. Bolton, Clifton 

vulgaris, Zsch. Ince Blundell and near 

Manchester 

sericea, L. Generally distributed 
Zeugophora subspinosa, F. Ormskirk, on 

white poplar 
Lema lichenis, Voet. Generally distributed 

melanopa, L. 
CAMPTOSOMATA 

Cryptocephalus labiatus, L. Common on 
birch on all the mosses 

fulvus, Goez. Generally distributed 

biguttatus, Scop. Recorded by Chappell 

from Chat Moss, August 1865 
(E.M.M. ii. 85). Other species 
probably occur in the county, but 
they do not appear to have been re- 
corded. 
CYCLICA 

Chrysomela staphylea, L.\ Generally com- 

polita J mon 

orichalcea, Mall. \ Recorded from 

var. hobsoni, Steph. /near Manchester 
Timarcha tenebricosa, F. Bolton 
Phytodecta olivacea, Forst, and its varieties 

not uncommon on broom 
Gastroidea. Both our species occur not 

uncommonly 
Phasdon tumidulus, Germ.] 

armoraciae, L. 

cochleariae, F. 



(Generally dis 
tributed 



23 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CYCLICA (continued) 

Phyllodecta vulgatissima, L. Scarisbrick 

vitellinae, L. Generally abundant 
Hydrothassa marginella, L. 1 Occur com- 
Prasocuris phellandrii, L. J monly 

junci, Brahm. Chat Moss, Southport 
Luperus rufipes, Scop. Commonly 

flavipes, L. Less frequently on birch 

on the mosses 
Lochmaea capreas, L. Ainsdale 

suturalis, Thorns. Abundant on hea- 

ther 
Galereucella nymphasa, L. Common 

calmariensis, L. 
Sermyla halensis, L. Abundant on Galium 

on the sandhills 
HALTIOE 

Longitarsus. Of this large genus, difficult 
as its members are to determine, 
probably many more occur than have 
been recorded, viz. : 

luridus, Scop. Chat Moss ; frequent 

suturellus, Duft. 

melanocephalus, De G. 

suturalis, Marsh. 

pusillus, Gyll. 

jacobaeae, Wat. 

ochroleucus, Marsh. 

lasvis, Duft. 
Haltica ereceti, All. 
Phyllotreta atra, F. Birkdale 

exclamationis, Thunb. 

undulata, Kuts. Common 

nemorum, L. 

Apthona nonstriata, Goeze. Common on 
iris 

Sphaeroderma. Both species common 

Apteropeda orbiculata, Marsh. Bollin 
Valley 

Mantura rustica, L. Generally distri- 
buted 

obtusata, Gyll. Chat Moss 

chrysanthemum, Koch. Near Southport, 

Chat Moss 

Crepidodera transversa, Marsh. Generally 
abundant 

ferruginea, Scop. Generally abundant 

aurata, Marsh. 

helxines, L. Churchtown, Southport 

chloris, Foud. One specimen, South- 

port 

Hippuriphila modeeri, L. Generally dis- 
tributed 

Chaetocnema hortensis, Fourc. Southport 
Psylliodes chrysocephala, L. Not uncom- 
mon 

affinis, Payk. Generally distributed 

picina, Marsh. Southport district 

marcida, 111. 

cuprea, Koch. 



CRYPTOSOMATA 

Cassida viridis, F. Common 

flaveola, Thunb. Occasional 

vibex, F. Hightown 

sanguinolenta, F. One specimen taken 

near Birkdale 

HETEROMERA 

TENEBRIONID^ 

Blaps mucronata, Latr. Generally abun- 
dant in cellars 

mortisaga, L. Recorded from Liver- 

pool 

Heliopathes gibbus, F. \Abundant on the 
Microzoum tibiale, Redt.J coast sandhills 
Phaleria cadaverina, Latr. Not uncommon 
under refuse on the shore 

Most of the ' grain warehouse ' 
species of the genera Tenebrio, Alphi- 
tobius, Gnathocerus, Palorus, Tribol- 
ium and Latheticus occur frequently 
in the towns of South Lancashire, but 
as such species as have become estab- 
lished here, as well as others which 
appear incapable of the adaptation 
necessary to ensure permanent resi- 
dence, must be constantly recruited 
by immigration through such ports 
as Liverpool and Manchester, it be- 
comes impossible to decide whether 
any particular record of such species 
refers to indigenous or imported 
specimens 
Helops striatus, Fourc. Abundant 

pallidus, Curt. Probably occurs on 

the sandhills, as it has been taken at 
New Brighton on the Cheshire side 
of the Mersey estuary 
CISTELID;E 

Cistela marina, L. Common in flowers of 
the dwarf rose which flourishes on 
the sandhills 
LAGRHDJE 

Lagria hirta. Also frequent on the sand- 
hills 
MELANDRYID^E 

Tetratoma. The rare species T. desma- 
resti, Latr., and T. ancora, F., have 
both been recorded from near Man- 
chester by Chappell 

Abdera quadrifasciata, Steph. Recorded 
by Edleston from Dunham Park 

Melandrya caraboides, L. Crosby near 
Liverpool 

Phloeotrya rufipes, Gyll. Simonsivood Moss 
PVTHIDJE 

Salpingus castaneus, Gyll. Simonswood Moss 

Lissodema cursor, Gyll. Reported from 
near Manchester by Chappell and 
Reston 



124 



INSECTS 



PYTHIDJE (continued) 

Rhinosimus. All the British species occur 
not uncommonly 

CEDEMERnxS 

Oncomera femorata, F. Silvenlalt, N. 
Lane. 

Nacerdes melanura, Schm. Common in 

Liverpool and other towns 
MORDELLID^: 

Anaspis. Only the universally distributed 

species have been recorded 
RHIPIDOPHORID^E 

Metascus paradoxus, L. Not uncommon 

in wasps' nests 
ANTHICIDJE 

Notoxus monocerus, L. Common on the 
coast 

Anthicus floralis, L. Abundant 

bimaculatus, 111. Occurs not uncom- 
monly in carrion on the coast. Until 
Mr. Tomlin discovered this species 
in Glamorganshire in 1898 it had 
only been recorded in Great Britain 
from Wallasea in Cheshire and the 
Formby coast in Lancashire 



Meloe proscarabzus, L. The only species 
recorded 

RHYNCOPHORA 

Pl.ATYRRHINID.ffi 

Choragus sheppardi, Kirby. ' Near Man- 
chester,' Chappell (E.M.M.xi. 15) 

CuRCULIONID-ffi 

Rhynchites minutus, Herbst. Generally 
distributed 

nanus, Payk. Abundant on birch on 

the mosses 

uncinatus, Thorns. Eirkdale ; very 

common 

DeporaOs megalacephalus,*| Occur not un- 
Germ. I commonly on 

betulae, L. J birch 
Apion. Besides the universally distributed 

members of this large genus the 
following have been recorded in the 
county : 

rubens, Steph. Soutbport district 

viciae, Payk. 

confluens, Kirb. 

aethiops, Herbst. 

spencei, Kirb. 

unicolor, Kirb. 

tenue, Kirb. 

pubescens, Kirb. 

marchicum, Herbst. 
Otiorrhynchus atroapterus, De G. Very 

occasional on the coast sandhills 

maurus, Gyll. Recorded from near 

Staleybridge by Chappell 



CURCULIONIDJE (continued) 

Otiorrhynchus rugifrons. Agecroft, Man- 
chester 

muscorum, Bris. Hightown near Crosby 

scabrosus, Marsh. Generally common 

ligneus, Ol. 

picipes, F. 

sulcatus, F. 

ovatus, L. 
Strophosomus. All our species except S. 

fulvicornis, Walt., have been re- 
corded 

Brachysomus echinatus, Bonsd. One speci- 
men, Aigburth 

Sciaphilus muricatus, F. Common 
Tropiphorus tomentosus, Marsh. Anfield 
Liverpool, Northenden, Agecroft 

carinatus, Mull. Recorded from 

Chorlton near Manchester by Mr. 
Kidson Taylor 

Liophloeus nubilus, F. Generally dis- 
tributed 

Polydrusus pterygomalis, Boh. Bollin 
Valley 

confluens, Steph. Occasional 

cervinus, L. Abundant 
Phyllobius. All the British species have 

been recorded more or less com- 
monly 

Philopedon geminatus, F. Abundant on 
sandhills and occasionally inland 

Occur not infre- 
quently 

Alophus triguttatus, F. Generally dis- 
tributed 

Sitones griseus, F. Common on the sand- 
hills 

flavescens, Marsh. 

suturalis, Steph. 

cambricus, Steph. 

humeralis, Steph. 

sulcifrons, Thumb. 

tibialis, Herbst. 

regensteinensis, Herbst. 

lineatus, L. 

puncticollis, Steph. 

hispidulus, F. 
Hypera punctata, F. 

rumicis, L. 

plantaginis, De G. 

polygon), L. 

variabilis, Herbst. 

nigrirostris, F. 

trilineata, Marsh. 

suspiciosa, Herbst. Represented on 

the sandhills by a very elongate 
varietal form which has been (in 
other localities) erroneously referred 
to H. elongata, Payk. The type 
form occurs near Manchester 



suuuuiua <um uc\-asi 

Barynotus obscurus, F."| 
sch5nherri, Zett. J" 
Alophus triguttatus, F. 



Are all recorded 
from the Soutbport 
district, but are 
not common 



Abundant 
everywhere 



All occur more or 
less frequently, 
principally on the 



125 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CURCULIONID^ (continued) 

Cleonus sulcirostris, L. Common on this- 
tles on the sandhills 

Liosoma ovatulum, Clairv. Generally dis- 
tributed 

Hylobius abietis, L. Common in fir 
woods 

Pissodes notatus, Germ. Chat Mass, on 
moribund fir trees 

Orchestes salicis, L. The only gene- 
rally abundant species 

stigma, Germ. On birch on the mosses 

rusci, Herbst. 

ilicis, F. Occasional 

fagi, L. 

quercus, L. 

avellanae, Don. 

saliceti, Payk. Very rare ; Eirkdah 
Rhampus flavicornis, Clair. Not uncom- 
mon on willow on the sandhills 

Orthocaetes setiger, Beck. Eirkdah sand- 
hills ; not common 

Grypidius equiseti, F. Generally dis- 
tributed 

Erirrhinus scirpi, F. Not uncommon 

bimaculatus, F. 

acridulus, L. 
Thryogenes nereis, Payk. Soutbport 
Dorytomus vorax, F. Generally distributed 

maculatus, Marsh. 

pectoralis, Gyll. 
Tanysphyrus lemnx, F. Common 
Bagous alismatis, Marsh. Common wher- 
ever Alisma plantago occurs 

limosus, Gyll. Birkdale, among water 

weeds 

Anoplus plantaris, Naez. Generally dis- 
tributed 

Tychius squamulatus, Gyll. One speci- 
men, Birkdale sandhills 

Miccotrogus picirostris, F. Southport 

Gymnetron beccabungae, L., with its var. 
veronicas, Germ. Recorded by Mr. 
Kidson Taylor from the Bollin 
Valley 

collinus, Gyll., and G. linariae, Panz. 

On Linaria vulgaris near Southport ; 
the former rare, the latter very local 

Mecinus pyraster, Herbst. Generally dis- 
tributed 

Anthonomus ulmi, De G. Bollin Valley, 
Scarisbrick 

pedicularius, L. Generally common 

pomorum, L. 

rubi, Herbst. 

rosinae, Des Goz. Southport, on poplar 
Nanophys lythri, F. Common on Lyth- 

rum 
Cionus scropularias, L. Recorded 

pulchellus, Herbst. 



, 

I Generally 
. I common 



CURCULIONIDJE (continued) 

Orobitis cyaneus, L. On Viola on the 

sandhills 
Cceliodes rubicundus, Herbst. Chat Moss, 

Southport 

cardui, Herbst. Not uncommon 

quadrimaculatus, L. Abundant 
Ceuthorrhynchus. Besides the generally 

abundant species the following 
occur : 

erica?, Gyll. Commonly on heather 

viduatus, Gyll. Recorded by Chappell 

on Lamium purpureumat/fl//0w;/W</, 
Manchester 

asperifoliarum, Gyll. Southport 

arcuatus, Herbst. Chat Moss (Kidson 

Taylor and Reston) 

euphorbias, Bris. Southport ; rare 

punctiger, Gyll. 
Ceuthorrhynchidius floralis, \ 

Payk. 

pyrrhorhynchus, Marsh. I common 

troglodytes, F. 

terminatus, Herbst. Recorded from 

Chat Moss 

dawsoni, Bris. One specimen re- 

corded from the foreshore at South- 

pert 
Rhinonchus. Except R. bruchoides, Herbst. 

and R. denticollis, Gyll., all our 

British species have been recorded as 

more or less common 
Litodactylus leucogaster, Marsh. Southport 
Phytobius comari. Occasional 

quadrituberculatus, F. Rare at South- 

port 
Limnobaris T-album, L. Generally dis- 

tributed 
Balaninus salicivorus, Payk. Generally 

common 

pyrrhoceras, Marsh. Local and rare 
Calandra. Both our species occur com- 

monly in rice and flour mills, etc. 
Rhyncolus gracilis, Ros. A large number 
of this rare species was taken by 
Chappell at Greenheys, Manchester, in 
a piece of old timber 



Hylastes palliatus, Gyll. Chat Moss 
Myelophilus piniperda, L. 

Hylesinus crenatus, Gyll. Liverpool, Swin- 

ton near Manchester 
Cryphalus binodulus, Ratz. Drink-water 

Park, Manchester 

Dryocaetes villosus, F. Not uncommon 
alni, Georg. Drinkwater Park, South- 

port 
Tomnicus typographus, L., T. nigritus, 

Gyll., and T. acuminatus, Gyll., 

are all recorded by Chappell from 



126 



INSECTS 

CURCULIONID/E (continued) CURCULIONIDJE (continued) 

near Manchester ; and T. laricis, F., Pityogenes bidentatus, Herbst. Chat 

from Crosby. All however may easily Moss 

have been introduced in fir logs Trypodendron domesticum, L. Agecroft, 

grown elsewhere than in Lancashire Manchester 

LEPIDOPTERA 

Butterflies and Moths 

The order Lepidoptera is undoubtedly better known and more 
widely studied than any other order of the Insecta. This has been 
especially the case in Lancashire, and our Lancashire records consequently 
amount to a much larger proportion of the total of known British species 
than do those of any other order. Nearly all the Lancashire entomolo- 
gists have been firstly lepidopterists, and their united efforts have left a 
very large mass of accumulated information in regard to the local distri- 
bution of the order, so that it seems probable that very few species occur 
which have not been put on record by some of them. 

Among those to whom we are more especially indebted for our 
knowledge of the Lancashire Lepidoptera may be mentioned N. Greening 
of Warrington, Chappell of Manchester, Threlfall and Hodgkinson of 
Preston, Gregson and the Brothers Cooke of Liverpool, all of whom, 
with the exception of Mr. Threlfall, are now dead. Present students 
of the order are to be found in all the larger towns, and are indeed 
too numerous to mention individually. 

Some excellent private collections of British Lepidoptera exist in the 
county, that of Mr. S. J. Capper of Huyton near Liverpool being one 
of the most complete in the country. In all the public museums also 
the Lepidoptera are without exception the largest and most complete of 
the entomological collections. 

The first list of Lancashire Lepidoptera, as of Coleoptera, was com- 
piled by C. S. Gregson of Liverpool, and published by the Historic 
Society of Lancashire and Cheshire (Trans. 1855-85). About the same 
time, 1856, Isaac Byerley, F.L.S., published his Fauna of Liverpool. 
A fairly full list of the Lepidoptera of the district is given in this work, 
but the records relate more to the Wirral peninsula than to Lancashire, 
and there are none outside the immediate vicinity of Liverpool. The 
preface acknowledges the assistance rendered by Messrs. Brockholes, 
Warrington, Diggles and Almond (mostly Cheshire collectors) in the 
compilation of the Lepidoptera section of the Fauna. 

After an interval of several years these lists were followed by the 
publication by Dr. Ellis of Liverpool of his very complete Lepidopterous 
Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire, first published in the pages of the 
Naturalist, and afterwards in book form in 1890. This list incorporates 
the observations and records of all the local lepidopterists, and from it 
principally is drawn the substance of the somewhat condensed list which 
follows, few additions having been made since its publication. 

The writer however has pleasure in acknowledging the assistance 
127 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

rendered in its compilation by the following gentlemen : The Rev. 
A. M. Miles Moss of Norwich (formerly of Windermere) ; the Rev. R. 
Freeman of Repham, Norfolk (formerly of St. Helens) ; Mr. J. R. 
Charnley of Preston ; Mr. C. E. Stott of Manchester (formerly of 
Bolton). 

The arrangement and nomenclature of Souths List of 1884 has with 
some hesitation been adopted in the notes which follow, as probably more 
familiar to the majority of readers than the possibly more severely 
scientific systems which have been published since that date. 



RHOPALOCERA 

Of the 63 or 64 species of butterflies which are recognized as 
British about 45 have been recorded from Lancashire. -In the case 
however of three of these, Colias edusa, F., C. hyale, D., and Vanessa 
cardui, L., the county has only shared with the rest of England in special 
visitations caused by the quasi-migratory movements of these insects 
which occur during certain years, and the two first of these cannot be 
considered as in any sense indigenous. 



PIERID.S 

The three common species of 
Pieris are abundant 

Euchoe cardamines, L. Generally dis- 
tributed, but hardly common 

Leucophasia sinapis, L. Occurs at Grange 
and Witherdack in North Lancashire, 
but apparently not so abundantly as 
formerly. The two species of Colias 
have occurred sporadically during 
their years of migratory abundance, 
but neither species seems to succeed in 
perpetuating itself beyond the second 
generation 

Gonopteryx rhamni, L. Generally rare, 
but not uncommon at Grange and 
some of the northern mosses 
NYMPHALIDJE 

Argynnis selene, Schiff. Grange, Silverdale 

euphrosyne, L. 

adippe, L. 

aglaia, L. On the coast sandhills and 

near Windermere 
Melitasa aurinia, Rott. Very local and 

scarce, and apparently much less 

common than formerly 
Vanessa. The records of V. polychloros, 

L., are somewhat doubtful, and V. 

antiopa, L., has only been taken in 

its ' years.' All our other species 

occur, V. c-album, L., however very 

rarely 
SATYRIDJE 

Erebia. Both E. epiphron, Knoch., and E. 

aethiops, Esp., occur in the extreme 



SATYRID^ (continued) 

north of the county on mountains 
and moorlands 

Pararge cegeria, L. Occasional and much 
less common than formerly 

megaera, L. Generally distributed 
Satyrus semele, L. Abundant on all the 

coast sandhills and on many of the 
moors and mosses 

All our species of Epinephile and 
Caenonympha occur ; E. hyperan- 
thus, L., however is distinctly local, 
and of C. typhon, Rott. = davus, F., 
only the var. Rothliebi, Stgr. = 
philoxenus, Esp., seems to occur, 
but rather frequently on the mosses 

LvCffiNIDJE 

Thecla betulae, L., and T. quercus, L., are 
recorded from Grange, the latter 
more commonly 

rubi, L. Local, but not uncommon 
Polyommatus phloeas, L. Abundant 
Lycaena. The quite southern forms usually 

associated with the chalk 

minima, Fues., and L. corydon, F., 

have both been taken on the lime- 
stone district around Grange, and 
there is a record of the former from 
BirkdaU 

argiolus, L. Locally not uncommon 

aegon, Schiff. 

astrarche, Bgstr. 

icarus, Rott. Generally abundant 
ERYCINID.S 

Nemeobius lucina, L. Grange, Silverdale 



128 



INSECTS 



HESPERIID^ 

Syrichthus malvae, L. Has been recorded 

from Si her dale 
Nisoniades tages, L. Not uncommon 



HESPERIIDJE (continued} 

Hesperia sylvanus, Espr. Chat 

Simonswood, Grange, etc. 
thaumas, Huf. Silverdalc only 



Moss, 



HETEROCERA 

Of the 2,014 species of Heterocera or moths recorded in South's 
list, rather more than 1,300 have been recorded from -Lancashire. 



SPHINGID.E 

Acherontia atropos, L. Generally dis- 
tributed and sometimes common in 
potato districts 

Sphinx convolvuli, L. Generally distributed 
but very irregular in appearance ; 
one specimen of S. ligustri, L., has 
been recorded from near Charley 

Deilephila galii, Schiff. Has appeared in 
some numbers on the sandhills 
during certain years. The last of 
these was 1888. Previous years 
were 1870, 1859 and 1834. Afew 
larvae were taken by Rev. A. M. 
Moss also in 1897. For these ap- 
parently irregular manifestations an 
explanation has been sought in a 
theory of continental immigration, 
which however seems hardly ade- 
quate to support the facts of the 
case. More probably this moth 
persists in small numbers from year 
to year in suitable localities, and its 
years of abundance are caused by 
a concatenation of particularly 
favourable phenological conditions 
extending probably over more than 
one year. (The subject is discussed 
more in detail in a paper by the 
present author contributed to the 
Liverpool Biological Society. See 
Trans, vol. vii. ' Occasional Abund- 
ance of Insects ') 

livornica, Espr. Some half-dozen 

stray captures are reported since 
1846 

Chsrocampa. All our three British 
species are recorded 

porcellus, L. Most commonly from 

the mosses and the sandhill zone 

nerii. Two records from near Man- 

chester (1885 and 1847) 
Smerinthus populi, L. Abundant 

ocellatus, L. 
Macroglossa stellatorum, L. Frequent and 

generally distributed 

bombyliformis, Och. Not uncommon 

on the moors of the northern part 
of the county 



SESIID.S: 

Trochilium crabroniformis, Lewin. Gener- 

ally distributed 
Sesia sphegiformis, F. Chat Moss formerly 

culiciformis, L. 

myopoeformis, Bord. Doubtfully re- 

corded from near Grange 

tipuliformis, Clerck. Generally dis- 

tributed 

ZYG/ENID.ffi 

Ino statices, L. Chat Moss, Crosby, War- 
rington 

geryon, Hb. Occasional on the mosses 

and at Witherdack 
Zygaena filipendulae, L. Is the only mem- 

ber of the genus at all common 
NYCTEOUD^: 

Sarothripus undulanus, Hb. Grange 
Hylophila prasinana, L. Local on the 

moors ; Silverdale and near Bolton 



Nola cucullatella, L. Generally common 

confusalis, H.S. Recorded from Grange 

by Hodgkinson 

LlTHOSIID.ffi 

Nudaria mundana, L. Generally dis- 
tributed but not common 

Lithosia mesomella, "\ Found on most of 
L. I the mosses of 

sericea, Greg. J the south-west 

lurideola, Zinc. Generally distributed 

EUCHELIIDJE 

Gnophria quadra, L. Recorded from 

Birkdale and Maghull 
Euchelia jacobaeae, L. Always frequent, 

and sometimes in profusion on the 

sandhills and mosses 
CHELONIIDJE 

Nemophila russula, L.\Occuronthe mosses 

plantaginis, L. J and moors 
Arctia caia, L. Generally common 
Spilosoma lubricipeda, Esp. Abundant 

menthastri, Esp. 

mendica, Clerck. Occasional 

fuliginosa, L. Common on the sand- 

hills and mosses 
HEPIALIDJE 

All our British species of Hepialus 
occur more or less commonly 



129 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Cossus ligniperda, F. Generally distributed 

and fairly common 
LIPARIDJE 

Porthesia chrysorrhaea, L. Formerly at 

Crosby, but not seen there recently 

similis, Fues. Abundant everywhere 
Leucoma salicis, L. Abundant among 

sallows near the coast 

Ocneria dispar, L. A male in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Hodgkinson, ' taken near 
Warrington some fifty years ago ' 

Dasychira fascelina, L. Common on the 
sandhills 

pudibunda, L. Occasional on the 

mosses 

Orgyia antiqua, L. Abundant everywhere 
BOMBYCID.S: 

Trichiura cratasgi, L. Recorded by Stain- 
ton (Manual, p. 155) from the 
Preston district, but there are no 
records of recent captures 

Pasliocampa populi, L. Generally distri- 
buted, but not common, except in 
the north 

Eriogaster lanestris, L. Not uncommon 
in the extreme north of the county 

Bombyx neustria, L. Rare. Chappell 
records it (probably introduced on 
fruit trees) from Blackpool 

rubi, L. Common 

quercus, L. 

var. callunae, Palmer. Common 

trifolii, Esp. Formerly common on 

the coast sandhills and still occasional 
there 

Odonestris potatoria, L. Very abundant 
SATURNIID;E 

Saturnia pavonia, L. Is common on all 

the mosses and moorlands 
DREPANULID.S 

Drepana lacertinaria, "j Common among 
L. L birch on the 

falcataria, L. J mosses 

Cilex glaucata, Scop. Generally abundant 
DICRANULID^; 

Dicranura. All our British species occur ; 
the rare D. bicuspis, Bork., however 
is only recorded from the Preston 
district 
NOTODONTID.S: 

Pterostoma palpina, L; Furness district 

Lophopteryx camelina, L. Generally dis- 
tributed 

Notodonta dictaea, L., and N. dictaeoides, 
Esp., are not uncommon, the latter 
more especially on the mosses 

dromedarius, L. Rather common on 

all the mosses 

ziczac, L. Generally distributed 



Phalera bucephala, L. Generally abundant 
Pygaera pigra, Huf. Has been recorded by 

Gregson from Kirkby 
CYMATOPHORIDJE 

Thyatira. Both our species are generally 

distributed throughout the county 
Cymatophora or, F. Occasional near 

Preston 

duplaris, L. Rare, but appears to be 

generally distributed 

Asphalia diluta, F. Recorded from near 
Manchester, Bury, Kendal 

flavicornis, Haw. Common on all the 

mosses 

ridens, F. Recorded by Hodgkinson 

from near Windermere, and by 
Chappell from Staleybrushes 
BRYOPHILIDJE 

Bryophila perla, F. The only species 
which occurs ; common 

BOMBYCOIDJE 

Demas coryli, L. Very occasional 
Acronycta psi, L. Common 

rumicis, L. 

ligustri, F. 

megalacephala, F. 

leporina, L. Not rare on the mosses 

menyanthidis, View. Not rare on the 

moors 

alni, L. Very occasional 

aceris, L. Has been recorded from 

Ashton-on-Mersey by Chappell 
Diloba caerulocephala, L. Generally dis- 
tributed 
LEUCANIID^E 

pallens, L. 

impura, Hb. 

comma, L. 

lithargyria, Esp.J 

littoralis, Curt. Confined exclusively 

to the sandhill zone 

conigera, F. Rather rare, but widely 

distributed 

Calamia lutosa, Hb. "j Found not un- 
Tapinostola fulva, Hb. L commonly in 
Nonagria arundinis, F.J marshy districts 
APAMEIDJE 

Gortyna ochracea, Hb. Generally common 
Hydraecia nictitans, Bork. 

micacea, Esp. 

petasitis, Dbl. Generally associated 

with the beds of Petasitis vulgaris, 
which grows in abundance on most 
of the river banks of the southern 
part of the county 

Axylia putris, L. Abundant 

Xylophasia rurea, F. 

lithoxylea, F. 

monoglypha, Huf. 



Common, more espe- 
cially near the 
coast 



130 



INSECTS 



APAMEID^ (continued) 

Xylophasia hepatica, L. Not rare 

scolopacina, Esp. Recorded from Age- 

croft near Manchester and Preston 

Dipterygia scabriuscula, L. Near Man- 
chester 

Charaeas graminis, L. Generally common, 
and sometimes in immense abundance, 
as when the larvae appeared on the 
moors near Clitheroe in 1 88 1 in such 
numbers as to attract public atten- 
tion to their profusion 

Laphygma exigua, Hb. A single specimen 
is recorded as having been taken at 
Croiby by the late Mr. G. A. Harker 
of Liverpool 

Neuronia popularis, F. Common 

Cerigo matura, Huf. 

Luperina testacea, Hb. 

caespitis, F. Local ; Carnforth, Preston, 

Crosby 
Mamestra abjecta, Hb.) Recorded from 

sordida, Bork. J Preston 

albicolon, Hb. Common on the sandhills 

brassicae, L. Only too abundant every- 

where 

persicariae, L. Generally common 
Apamea basilinea, F. 

gemina, H. 

didyma, Esp. 

unanimis, Tr. Occasional 

Miana. All our species occur fairly com- 
monly 

Phothedes captiuncula, Tr. Recorded 
from the extreme north on the 
Westmorland border 

Celcena haworthii, Curt. Not rare in 

most of the moorlands and mosses 
CARADRINIDJE 

Grammesia trigrammica, Hf. Generally dis- 
tributed 

Stilba anomala, Haw. Rare ; recorded from 
Rochester, Silverdale, Staleybrushes 

Charadrina morpheus, Huf. ") Generally 

quadripunctata, F. J common 

alsines, Brab. Rare ; Preston, etc. 

taraxaci, Hb. 
Rusina tenebrosa, Hb. Occasional 

NOCTUIDJE 

Agrotis suffiisa, Hb. Generally abundant 

segetum, Schiff. 

exclamationis, L. 

saucia, Hb. Occasional 

corticea, Hb. 



vestigalis, Hf. 

cursoria, Bork. 

nigricans, L. 

tritici, L. 

aquilina, Hb. 

praecox, L. 



More or less common 
on the sandhills 



NOCTUID^ (continued) 

Agrotis agathina, Dup.jMore or less com- 

strigula, Thumb. / mon on the heaths 

cinerea, Hb. Recorded from near 

Grange 

ripas, Hb. Runcorn 

obelisca, Hb. Crosby 

obscura, Brab. Near Manchester 

simulans, Hf. Lytham near Liverpool 

lucernea, L. Near Bo/ton, Grange 
Noctua augur, F. More or less common 

plecta, L. 

c-nigrum, L. 

brunnea, F. 

festiva, Hb. 

rubi, View. 

baja, F. ^ 

xanthographa, F. 

glareosa, Esp. Occasional 

triangulum, Huf. 

umbrosa, Hb. 

depuncta, L. Staleybrushes 

dahlii, Hb. Windermere, Waolton near 

Liverpool 
Triphaena orbona, Huf.\ Abundant every- 

pronuba, L. J where 

ianthina, Esp., T. interjecta, Hb., and 

T. fimbria, L. Generally distributed, 
but not at all common, except locally 
the latter, which is frequent near 
Windermere 
AMPHIPYRID^E 

Amphipyra tragopogonis, L. Generally 
abundant. Both species of Mania 
are common and widely distributed 
ORTHOSIIDJE 

Panolis piniperda, Panz. Common in all 
fir plantations 

Pachnobia leucographa, Hb. Preston, Wm- 
dermere 

rubricosa, F. Preston, Chat Moss ; 

rather more common than the pre- 
ceding 
Orthosia lota, Clerck. Not very common 

macilenta, Hb. 

suspecta, H. Recorded rarely from 

the Manchester district 

ypsilon, Bork. Preston, and the north 
Taeniocampa. Of this genus all the 

British species occur more or less 
commonly 

opima, H. Almost exclusively re- 

stricted to the coast 
Anthocelis pistacina, F. Generally common 

litura, L. 

rufina, L. Crosby 

Cerastis vaccinii, L. Generally distributed 

spadicea, Hb. 
Scopelosoma satellitia, L. 
Xanthia cerago, Tr. Fairly common 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



ORTHOSIIDJE (continued} 

Xanthia ferruginea, Esp. Fairly common 

flavago, F. 

citrago, L. Rare ; near Liverpool, Pres- 

ton, Windermere, Manchester 

aurago, W.V. Recorded from Lydiate 

near Liverpool by Gregson 
Cirrhaedia xerampelina, H. Recorded only 

from Clitheroe and near Manchester 
COSMIIDJE 

Tethea. Both species occur, but neither 

are at all common 

Calymnia trapezina, L. Generally com- 
mon 

affinis, L. One record by Gregson 

from near Liverpool 
HADENIDJE 

Dianthecia nana, Roth. A few records 

capsincola, Hb. Generally distributed 

cucubali, Fues. 

carpophaga, Bork. Not infrequent at 

Crosby, Formby, Morcambe, and 
Grange 

Hecatera serena, F. Not uncommon, es- 
pecially on the sandhills 

Polia flavicincta, F. Recorded by Gregson 
from near Liverpool, but the record 
seems doubtful 

chi, L. Generally distributed 
Dasypolia templi, Thumb. Has occurred at 

Crosby, Windermere, near Preston 
Epunda lichenea, Hb. Confined to the 
coast, where however it is not com- 
mon 

Aporophyla nigra, Haw. Windermere, 
Chat Moss 

lutulenta, Bork. Occasional 
Cleoceris viminalis, F. Recorded from 

near Bolton, Windermere, and by 
Gregson from near Liverpool 
Miselia oxycanthae, L. Generally abundant 
Aplecta occulta, L. Occasional 

prasina, F. 

nebulosa, Huf. Common 

advena, F. Recorded on two occasions 

from near Liverpool by Gregson, but 
require confirmation 

tincta, Brahm. From Grange by 

Hodgkinson 
Agriopis aprilina, L. Preston, Manchester, 

and more commonly at Windermere 
Euplexia lucipara, L. Generally abundant 
Phlogophora meticulosa, L. Generally 

abundant 
Hadena adusta, Esp. More or less common 

protea, Bork. 

dentina, Esp. 

oleracea, L. 

pisi, L. 

thalassina, Rott. 



HADKNID.S: (continued] 

Hadena porphyrea, Esp.\ Local on the moors 

glauca, H. J and mosses 

dissimilis, Knoch. Very occasional 

contigua, Vill. Only from Barlow 

Moor by Chappell 

rectilinea, Esp. From the extreme 

north only 
XYLINID./E 

Xylocampa areola, Esp. Generally dis- 
tributed 

Calocampa. All our three species occur 
but not commonly 

Xylina ornithopus, Rott. Chat Moss, Man- 
chester district ; very occasional 

socia, Rott. One specimen recorded 

from the Dingle near Liverpool 
Asteroscopus sphinx, Huf. Hodgkinson 
records a specimen bred from a larva 
found near Preston 

Cucullia asteris, Schiff. The larvae are not 
uncommon near Grange and Winder- 
mere 

chamomillae, Schiff. Not uncommon 

umbratica, L. 

GoNOPTERIDjE 

Gonoptera libatrix, L. Generally abundant 
PLUSIID;E 

Habrostola. Both species are generally 

distributed but not common 
Plusia chryson, Esp. One specimen taken 

near Preston by Hodgkinson 

chrysitis, L. Generally distributed 

bractea, F. Manchester, Preston, Bolton ; 

occasional 

festucae, L. Not uncommon but local 

iota, L. 

pulchina, Haw. 

gamma, L. Abundant everywhere 

interrogationis, L. Not uncommon at 

heather near Windermere 
HELIOTHID.S: 

Anarta myrtilli, L. Abundant on all the 
heaths and mosses 

Heliodes tenebrata, Scop. Local but not 
uncommon 

Heliothis armigera, Hb. First recorded as 
British from a specimen taken near 
Salford in 1 840 by Mr. Jno. Thomas. 
The species has also been recorded 
from Windermere, Huyton, Linacre 
near Liverpool, and from Staleybridge 

peltigera, Schiff. Very rare, but has been 

noted from Blackpool and Lytham 
Chariclea umbra, Huf. Not uncommon 
at Crosby, but not recorded from 
elsewhere 

PoAPHII.IID.ffi 

Phytometra viridaria, Clerck. Generally 
distributed on the mosses 



132 



INSECTS 



EUCLIDIID/E 

Euclidia mi, Clerck. Locally common 

glyphica, L. Recorded from Speke 

near Liverpool by Gregson 
CATOCALIDJE 

Catocala fraxini, L. Captures have been 
recorded at Bolton and Charley, and 
three or four from near Manchester 

HERMINHDjE 

Rivula sericealis, Scop. Scarce and local 
Zanclognatha grisealis, Hb. Not common 

tarsipennalis, Tr. 
HYPENID^E 

Hypena proboscidalis, L. Generally abun- 
dant 

Hypenodes costasstrigalis, St. Wmdermere 

Tholomiges turfosalis, W. R. Pilling Moss 

Brephos parthenias, L. Recorded by 
Gregson from a birch wood at Wool- 
ton near Liverpool and from Winder- 
mere 
UROPTERYGID.S: 

Uropteryx sambucata, L. Generally com- 
mon 
EUNOMID^ 

Epione apiciaria, Schiff. Generally dis- 
tributed but not common 

Rumia luteolata, L. Abundant 

Venilia macularia, L. Grange and Silver- 
dale only 

Metrocampa margaritaria, L. Generally 
distributed 

Ellopia prosapiaria, L. Common in most 
of the fir woods 

Eurymene dolobraria, L. Recorded only 
from Grange and rarely there 

Pericallia syringaria, L. Very occasional 

Selenia bilunaria, Esp. Widely distributed 
and fairly common 

lunaria, Schiff. Recorded from only a 

few localities as Chat Moss, near 
Kendal, Preston, Pendlebury 
Odontopora bidentata, Clerck. Common 
Crocallis elinguaria, L. 

Eugonia alniaria, L. Widely distributed 
but not common 

quercinaria, Huf. Very rare 

erosaria, Bork. 

fuscantaria, Haw. 

Himera pennaria, L. Generally distributed 

but not common, except in the 

Wmdermere district 
AMPHIDASYDJE 

Phigalia pedaria, F. Common 

Nyssia zonaria, Schiff. Abundant on the 

sandhills at Crosby and Hightown 
Amphidasys strataria, Huf. Generally 

distributed 

betularia, L. Rather common on 

the mosses in South Lancashire. The 



AMPHIDASYD^ (continued) 

black form (doubledayaria, Mill.) of 
late years has been much more com- 
mon than the type form 

BoARMIIDjE 

Hemerophila abruptaria, Thunb. Rare ; 
recorded only by Gregson from near 
Liverpool and near Kendal 
Cleora lichinaria, Huf. Preston 
Boarmia repandata, L. Common 

gemmaria, Brahm. 
Tephrosia consonaria,"! Recorded, perhaps 

Hb. Y rather doubtfully, 

luridata, Bork. J from Wmdermere 

crepuscularia, Hb. Chat Moss, Hale, 

Longridge 

biundularia, Bork. Near Manchester ; 

occasional 

punctularia, Hb. Chat Moss, Knowsley, 

Preston, Silverdale 
Gnophos obscurata, Hb. Not uncommon 

on the heaths 
GEOMETRIDJE 

Pseudoterpna pruinata, Hut. Morcambe 

and Silverdale only 
Geometra papilionaria, L. Occasional but 

not at all common 
lodis lactearia, L. Common 
Hemithea strigata, Mttll. Local but not 

uncommon 
EPHYRID^: 

Zonosoma punctaria, L. Recorded from 

Halt near Liverpool only 

linearia, Hb. Silverdale 

ACIDALIID^E 

Hyria muricata, Huf. Occasional on the 

mosses 
Asthena luteata, Schiff."| Generally distri- 

candidata, Schiff. j- buted but not 

sylvata, Hb. J common 

blomeri, Curt. Only recorded from 

near Preston 
Venusia cambrica, Curt. Scarce ; northern 

part of county, and recorded from 

Bury and Bolton 
Acidalia dimidiata, Huf. More or less 

common 

bisetata, Huf. More or less common 

remutata, Hb. 

imitaria, Hb. 

adversata, L. 

virgularia, Hb. 

ornata, Scop. On the mosses only 

fumata, St. 

inornata, Haw. 

immutata, L. 

dilutaria, Hb. Barlow Moor, banks of 

Wyre 

subsericeata, Haw. Local ; near Man- 

chester, Grange 



133 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



ACIDALIIDJE (continued) 

Acidalia rubiginata, Huf. Ashton- 
recordcd by Chappell 



trigeminata, Haw.lVery local on some 
"* J < 



of the mosses 
Goeze. Silverdale 



emarginata, L. 

marginipunctata, 

only 

circillata, Gn. Formerly on Chat Moss 

but now supposed to be extinct 
CABERID/E 

Cabera. All our species occur not un- 
commonly 

Bapta temerata, Hb. Local 

bimaculata, F. Only from Grange 
MACARIID.S 

Macaria alternata, Hb. Recorded from 
Wmdcrmtre only 

liturata, Clerck. Generally distributed 
Halia wavaria, L. Not uncommon in 

kitchen gardens 
FIDONIIDA 

Strenia clathrata, L. Near Carnforth 

Panagra petraria, Hb. Silver dale. Chat 
Moss 

Numeria pulveraria, L. Very occasional 

Scodiona belgiaria, Hb. On most of the 
heaths and mosses 

Selidosema ericetaria, Vill. Very local ; 
Pilling Mosiy near Preston 

Ematurga atomaria, L. Common on all 
the heaths and mosses 

Bupalus piniaria, L. Common in fir 
woods, more especially on the 
mosses 

Sterrha sacraria, L. One specimen taken 
by Mr. S. J. Capper at Huyton near 
Liverpatly and one in Manchester. 
The species formerly occurred ap- 
parently not uncommonly on the 
sandhills, but has not been taken 
there for many years 

Aspilates strigillaria, Hb. Generally on 

the mosses 
ZERENIDJE 

Abraxas grossulariata, L. Abundant every- 
where. This was a favourite subject 
for variety breeding by C. S. Gregson, 
and in his collection (now in the 
possession of Mr. Sydney Webb of 
Dover) some extraordinary aberra- 
tions are to be found 

sylvata, Scop. Local, but generally 
distributed 

Ligdia adustata, Schiff. Grange district 
only 

Lomaspilis marginata, L. Generally abun- 
dant 
HYBERNIID^B 

Hybernia. All our species occur more or 
less commonly 



HYBERNIIDJE (continued) 
-Mersey; Anisopteryx aescularia, Schiff. Aigburth, 

Manchester and Preston 
LARENTIIDJE 

Chiematobia brumata, L. Abundant 

boreata, Httbn. Local ; Chat Moss, etc. 
Oporabia dilutata. Common 

filigrammaria. Not uncommon on the 

moors 
Larentia didymata, L. Generally common 

multistrigaria, Haw. 

viridaria, Fb. 

csesiata, Lang. \ Occur not uncom- 

salicata, Hub. I monly on the 

olivata, Bork. J moors 
Emmelesia albutata, Schiff. Common 

decolorata, Hb. 

afEnitata. Scarce and local 

alchemillata, L. 

unifasciata, Haw. 

taeniata, St. Only occurs in the ex- 

treme north, Wmdermere, Silverdale^ 
etc. 

Eupithecia. Of this large genus the greater 
part occur in the county 

oblongata, Thunb. Common 

castigata, Hb. 

virgaureata, Crewe. 

nanata, Hb. 

vulgata, Haw. 

absinthiata, Clrk. 

minutata, Guen. 

abbreviata, Steph. 

exiguata, Hb. 

pumilata, Hb. 

rectangulata, L. 

pulchellata, St. Generally rare or local 

succentauriata, L. 

subvulvata, Haw. 

venosata, F. 

plumbeolata, Haw. 

pygmasata, Hb. 

satyrata, Hb. 

fraxinata, Crewe. 

pimpinellata, Hb. 

subnotata, Hb. 

albipunctata, Haw. 

assimilata, Dbl. 

tenuiata, Hb. 

lariciata, Frr. 

scabiosata, Bork. 

isogrammaria, H.S. Recorded only 

helveticaria, Bdv. from quite 

trisignaria, H.S. the north, 

valerianata, Hb. principally 

constrictata, Guen. the Grange 

expallidata, Guen. district 

sobrinata, Hb. 

innotata, Huf. Lytham 

linariata, W.V. Ait ley Moss 



134 



INSECTS 



(Generally 
abundant 



LARENTIID.E: (continued) 

Eupithecia debiliata, Hb. Chat Moss only 
Lobophora sexalisata, Hb. Recorded by 
Gregson from Croxteth 

viretata, Hb. ) Scarce and local on 

carpinata, Bork. r the mosses, at 

polycommata, Hb. ) Grange and Win- 

dermere 
Thera simulata, Hb. Grange only 

variata, Schiff. Common in all fir wood 

firmata, Hb. 
Hysipetes 1 All the British species occur 
Melanthia J more or less commonly 
Melanippe sociata, Bork. 

montanata, Bork. 

fluctuata, L. 

hastata, L. Chat Moss 

tristata, L. 

unangulata, Haw. Scarce and local 

galiata, Hb. 
Anticlea badiata, Hb. Rather common 

nigrofasciaria, G8ze. Rare and local 
Coremia unidentaria, Haw. Abundant 

designata, Huf. Fairly common 

ferrugata, Clerck. 
Camptogramma bilineata, L. Very abun- 
dant 

fluviata, Hb. Birkdale, Manchester, 

Preston ; very rare 

Phibalapteryx vittata, Bork. Scarce and 
local 

Triphosa dubitata, L. Generally distri- 
buted 

Eucosmia undulata, L. Chat Moss, Preston, 
Windermere 

Scotosia vetulata, Schiff. Grange only 

Cidaria. With the exception of C. picata, 
Hb., and H. sagittata, L., the whole 
of our British species have been found 
within the county. The Winder- 
mere district was indeed the only 
known locality in this country for 
C. reticulata, F., but the species has 
not been taken there for some years 

truncata, Huf. \ Generally common. 

immanata, Haw. L The other species 

testata, L. more or less local 

and rare 

Pelurga comitata, L. Local and not 
common 

EuBOLIID.ffi 

Eubolia limitata, Scop. Generally abun- 
dant 

cervinata, Schiff.l Not uncommon, but 

plumbaria, F. / very local, the latter 

confined to the heaths and mosses 
Mesotype virgata, Rott. Common on the 

sandhills 
Carsia paludata, Thunb. Confined to the 

mosses, where it is common 



EuBOLUD-ffi (continued*) 

Anaitis plagiata, L. Occasional 
Chesias spartiata, ) .-. 

Fues I Occur not uncommonly 

rufata, F. j near W ' lndermere 

SlONIDJE 

Tanagra atrata, L. Local, but not un- 
common in some districts 

PYRALIDID.ffi 

Aglossa pinguinalis, L. Common 

cuprealis, Hb. Barton near Man- 

chester 

Pyralis glaucinalis, L. Barton and Halebank 
only 

farinalis, L. Common 
Scoparia ambigualis, Tr. 

cembrae, Haw. 

murana, Curt. 

mercurella, L. All more or less 

resinea, Haw. frequent 

truncicolella, Sta. 

pallida, Steph. 

augustea, St. Wd. 

dubitalis, Hb. Local, and re- 

conspicualis, Hodg. j corded only 

crataegella, Hb. r from Winder- 

atomalis, Dbl. J mere or With- 

erslack, principally by Hodgkinson 
Nomophila noctuella, Schiff. Common 
Pyrausta. All our three species occur, but 
locally, and principally in the Grange 
district 

Herbula cespitalis, Schiff. Generally com- 
mon 
Ennychia cingulata, L. Grange 

octomaculata, F. 
BOTYDJE 

Eurrhypara urticata, L. Generally com- 
mon 

Scopula. Except S. alpinalis, Schiff., and 
S. decrepitalis, H.S., all our species are 
generally distributed and more or 
less common 

Botys fuscalis, Schiff. Rather common 

terrealis, Tr. Grange only 

Ebulea crocealis, Hb.\Both occur, thelatter 

sambucalis, Schiff./ more commonly 
Spilodes sticticalis, L.I Have both occurred, 

palealis, Schiff. J but very rarely 

verticalis, L. Not uncommon 
Pionea forficalis, L. Generally distributed 

HYDROCAMPIDJE 

All the members of this family 
occur and are not uncommon 
PTEROPHORID/E 

Platyptilia bertrami, Rossi. Recorded only 
by Hodgkinson from near Ribchester 
and Grange 

ochrodactyla, Hb. Not uncommon 

gonodactyla, Schiff. 



135 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



PTEROPHORIDJE (continued] 

Amblyptilia acanthodactyla, "j Occur, but 
Hb. I are not 

cosmodactyla, Hb. J common 
Oxyptilus parvidactylus, Haw. From 

Grange is the only species of the 
genus recorded 

Mimasseoptilus zophodactylus, Dup. The 
first recorded British specimen was 
taken at Southport by Gregson, 
August 1857 (Zoologist, 1857, 5855). 
The other species, except M. phaso- 
dactylus, all occur at Grange 
CEdematophorus lithodactylus, Tr. Grange 
Pterophorus monodactylus, L. 

Leioptilus tephradactylus, Hb. 

microdactylus, Hb. 
Aciptilia tetradactyla, L. 

pentadactyla, L. Generally distributed 
Alucita hexadactyla, L. Local, but not 

uncommon 
CHILIDJE 
Schaenobiusforficellus,Thunb. Rare and local 

mucronellus, SchifF. 
Chilo phragmitellus, Hb. 

CRAMBID.S 

Crambus. The majority of this large genus 
has been recorded, the exceptions 
being C. alpinellus, Hb., C. ericellus, 
Hb., C. verellus, Zinck., C. sylvellus, 
Hb., C. uliginosellus, Zell.,C. fasceli- 
nellus, Hb., C. chrysonuchellus, Scop., 
and C. craterellus, Scop. 

furcatellus, Zett. Has only been re- 

corded from Conhton Old Man ; the 
others are all fairly common or local 
PHYCID^E 

Anerastia lotella, Hb. Lytkam sandhills 
(Hodgkinson) 

Homaeosoma nimbella, Zell. Morcambe 

Ephestia. All the species occur in mills or 
warehouses more or less commonly 

Cryptoblabes bistriga, Haw. Single speci- 
mens are recorded from near Preston 
and near Liverpool 

Plodia interpunctella, Hb. Liverpool ware- 
houses 

Phycis betulas, Goze. -\ 

-fusca,Haw. l < fT *! 

Dioryctria abietella, Zinck. f heaths and 

Pempelia palumbella, F. J ' 

Phycis adornatella, Tr. From Prescot only 

Rhodophoea consociella, \ Very rare on 
Hb. j- some of the 

tumidella, Zinck. J mosses 

advenella, Zinck. Banks of the Wyre 
GALLERIDJE 

Aphomia sociella, L. Banks of Wyre 
Achrcea grisella, F. Not uncommon about 
beehives 



Common and 
generally distri- 
buted 



TORTRICIDJE 

Tortrix podana, Scop. 

xylosteana, L. 

rosana, L. 

heperana, Schiff. 

ribeana, Hb. 

unifasciana, Dup. 

costana, F. 

viridana, L. 

ministrana, L. 

forsterana, F. 

corylana, F. Rather rare and local 

viburniana, F. ,, 

palleana, Hb. 

sorbiana, Hb. Has only been taken 

near Liverpool and near Preston 
Dichelia grotiana, F. Recorded only from 

the mosses 
Amphisa. Both our species occur locally 

on the moors and mosses 
Leptogramma literana, L. Liverpool, Win- 

dermere 
Peronea sponsana, F.~\ 

- comparana, Hb. Generall distribu ted 

Qrnall^rianii I. V * . - 

but not abundant 



j , 

schalleriana, L. 



I 

mixtana, Hb. 

ferrugana, Zr. J 

variegana. Generally distributed ; abun- 

dant 

comariana, Zell. Local and scarce 

hastiana, L. 

caledoniana, Zeph. 

aspersana, Hb. 

perplexana, Bar. Preston 

logiana, SchifF. Wmdermere 

shepherdana, Steph. Lytham 

lipsiana, SchifF. Grange 
Racodia caudana, F. Not uncommon 
Teras contaminana, Hb. Generally abun- 
dant 

Dictyopteryx loeflingiana. Very local on 
some of the mosses 

holmiana, L. ~\ 

bergmanniana, L. Generally 
- forskaleana,L. distributed 
Argyrotoza conwayana, Fb. 
Ptycholoma lecheana, L. J 

PENTHINID^: 

Diluta semifasciana, Haw. Fleetwood, Crosby 
Penthina pruniana, Hb. Generally common 

ochroleucana, Hb. 

variegana, Hb. 

corticana, Hb. Local on the mosses 

betulaetana, Haw. 

sororculana, Zett. 

dimidiana, Zr. 

sauciana, Hb. 

marginana, Haw. 

sellana, Hb. Wmdermere only 

postremana, Zell. 



136 



INSECTS 



PENTHINIDJE (continued) 

Antithesia salicella, L. Local and not 

common 
SPILONOTID^: 

Hedya ocellana, Fb. More or less common 

pauperana, Dup. 

dealbana, Frol. 

neglectana, Dup. 

aceriana, Dup. St. dnne's 
Spilonotatrimaculana, Haw. Not uncommon 

rosaecolana, Dbl. 

roborana, Tr. 

incarnatana, Hb. Grange 
Pardia tripunctana, Fb. Abundant 

SERICORID/E 

Aspis udmanniana, L. Common 
Sericoris rivulana, Scop. 

urticana, Hb. 

lacunana, Dup. 

bifasciana, Haw. Rare and local 

cespitana, Hb. 

littoralis, Curt. 

micana, Frol. Pilling Moss only 
Mixodia schulziana, F. Common on the 

mosses 

Roxana arcuana, Clerck. Windermere 
Euchromia mygindana, 1 T i r 

f Schiff ; \ the moors 

rufana, Scop. ) 

Orthotasnia antiquana, Hb. Scarce and local 

striana, Schiff. 

ericetana, West. 

SciAPHILIDjE 

Eriopsela fractifasciana, Haw. Halevjood 
near Liverpool, Grange 

quadrana, Hb. Windermere 
Cnephasia politana, Haw. \ Occur not un- 

musculana, Hb. J commonly 
Sciaphilasubjectana,Gn. Generally common 

virgaureana, Tr. 

hybridana, Hb. 

chysantheana, Dup. Scarce 

octomaculana, Haw. 

abrasana, Dup. Preston, Grange 

pascuana, Hb. 

conspersana, Doug. 

sinuana, St. Windermere 
Sphaleroptera ictericana, Haw. Generally 

distributed 

Capua favillaceana, Hb. Scarce ; Winder- 
mere, Hale 

Clepsis rusticana, Tr. Scarce on the 

mosses 
GRAPHOLITHID^ 

Bactra lanceolana, Hb. Not uncommon 
where rushes grow 

Phoxopteryx lundana, F. Abundant 

siculana, Hb. Local 

unguicella, L. 

biarcuana, St. 



GRAPHOLITHID^: (continuea) 

Phoxopteryx mitterbacheriana, Schiff. Local 

myrtillana, Tr. Common on the 

mosses 

uncana, Hb. "j Rare ; Grange, 

diminutana, Haw. J Windermere 
Grapholitha trimaculana, Don. Common 

noevana, Hb. 

nigromaculana, Haw. Scarce and local 

subocellana, Don. 

geminana, St. 

cinerana, H. Preston district 

penkleriana, F. 

nisella, Clerck. 

ramella, L. Windermere 

minutana, Hb. Pendleton near Man- 

chester 

obtusana, Haw. Grange 



f u I where common 

immundana, r isch. J 

Hypermecia angustana, Hb. Locally abun- 
dant ; Crosby, Lytham, etc. 

Batodes angustiorana, Haw. Rather com- 
mon 

Pcedisca bilunana, Haw. Common 

corticana, Hb. 

opthalmicana, Hb. Local 

solandriana, L. 

occultana, Doug. 

- semifuscana St. | R ^^ ^ 

_ sordidana, Hb. L ^ 

profundana, r. J 

Ephippiphora pflugiana, Haw. Common 

brunnichiana, Frol. 

similana, Hb. More or less local 

circiana, Zell. 

turbidana, Tr. 

trigeminana, St. 

tetragonana, St. 

populana, F. 

inopiana, Haw. North Lancashire 

nigricostana, Haw. 

signatana, Dougl. 
Olindia ulmana, Hb. Near Preston, Winder- 
mere 

Semasia janthinana, Dup. \ Rare ; North 

rufillana, Wilk. J Lancashire 

The only record of S. Wceberi- 
ana is by Gregson from his own 
garden in Liverpool 
Coccyx toedella, Clerck. Local 

splendidulana, Gn. 

argyrana, H. 

ustomaculana. Cur. 

vacciniana, Fisch. 

scopariana, H.S. \ Rare ; North Lan- 

nanana, Tr. J cashire 
Heusimene fimbriana, Haw. Not uncom- 
mon 

18 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



GRAPHOLITHIDJE (continued) 

Retinea buoliana, Schiff. "1 Common in fir 

pinivorana, Zell. J woods 

turionana, H. Recorded by Eddleston 

from Rudd Heath 

Carpocapsa pomonella, L. Not uncommon 
Opadia funebrana, Tr. Preston district 
Eudopsia nigricana, St. Wyre district 
Stigmonota coniferana, Ratz. \ Local and 

regiana, Zell. j- not com- 

roseticolana, Zell. J mon 

nitidana, F. Preston 
Dicrorampha petiverella, L. Common 

consortana, St. Grange 

acuminatana, Zell. 

plumbana, Scop. 

plumbagana, Tr. 

alpinana, Tr. 

simpliciana, Haw. Croxteth near Liver- 

pool 

Pyrodes rheediella, Clerck. Very local 
Catoptria ulicetana, Haw. Common 

hypericana, Hb. Scarce and local 

scopoliana, Haw. 

Juliana, Curt. Grange 

aspidiscana, Hb. 

expallidana, Haw. 

citrana, Hb. Very rare ; Lytham 
Trycheris aurana, F. Agecroft, Withington 

near Manchester 
PYRALOIDIDJE 

Choreutes myllerana, F. Very local 
Symoethis oxyacanthella, L. Abundant 

CONCHYLIDJE 

Eupoecilia atricapitana, St. Scarce and local 

maculosana, Haw. 

affinitana, Doug. 

rupicola, Curt. 

ciliella, Hb. 

nana, Haw. "| Not uncommon on 

angustana, Hb. J" the mosses 

vectisana, West. Fleet-wood 

notulana, Zell. Martinmere near Preston 

griseana, Haw. 
Xanthosetia zoegana, L. "1 Generally dis- 

hamana, L. J tributed 
Lobesia reliquana, Hb. Grange, Wmdermere 
Argyrolepia hartmanniana, \ , 

badiana^ Hb. J local 
Conchylis straminea, Haw. Local but not 

uncommon 

francillana, Fb. Lytbam 

dilucidana, St. 

smeathmaniana, F. Recorded only by 

Gregson from Liverpool district 

ApHELIID-ffi 

Aphelia osseana, Scop. Local on the mosses 
Tortricodes hyemana, Hb. Common in 
oak woods 



EPIGRAPHIIDJE 

Lemnatophila phryganella, Hb. Grange 
Dasystoma salicella, Hb. Very rare; 

Huyton (Gregson) 
Exapate congelatella, Hb. Rainhill near 

Liverpool 

Diurnea fagella, F. Common in oak woods 
Epigraphia steinkellneriana, Schiff. Grange 
PSYCH mx 

The only members of this family re- 
corded are : 

Fumea nitidella, Hb. Near Preston 
roboricolella, Brd. From some of the 



Solenobia inconspicuella. Very local 

triquetrella, Fisch. 
INEID^ 

Diplodoma marginepunctella, St. Local on 

the mosses 
Ochsenheimeria birdella, Curt.*| Occur, but 

bisontella, Zell. j- are very 

vaculella, Fisch. J local 
Scardia corticella, Curt. Abundant 

granella, L. 

picarella, Clerck. Local and not common 

cloacella, Haw. 

arcella, F. 
Blabophanes rusticella, Hb. Abundant 

ferruginella, Hb. Very local 

imella, Hb. Rare ; Linacre near Liverpool 
Tinea tapetzella, F. Generally abundant 

pellionella, L. 

fuscipunctella, Haw. 

fulvimitrella, Sodof. 
- albipunctella, Haw. 



Hh or less rare 

lapella, Hb. 

semivulvella, Haw. 

argentimaculella, St. Bowden near 

Manchester 

confusella, H.S. Morcambe 

merdella, Zell. In wool warehouses. 

This species was first recorded as 

British by N. Cooke of Liverpool 
Phylloporia bistrigella, Haw. Near Liver- 

pool, Grange 
Tineola biselliella, Hml. Too abundant 

everywhere 
Lampronia quadripunctella, F. Common 

rubiella, Bjerk. 

luzella, Hb. Local and rare 

przlatella, Schiff. 
Incurvaria muscalella, F. Common 

pectinea, Haw. Local and not common 

oehlmanniella, Hb. 

tenuicornis, St. Preston 

canariella, St. Grange 

capitella, Clerck. Recorded in Stain- 

ton's Manual (ii. 297) from Man- 
chester district 



138 



INSECTS 



TINEIDJE (continued) 

Micropteryx calthella, L. Not uncommon 

seppella, F. More or less rare and local 

aureatella, Scop. 

thumbergella, F. 

subpurpurella, St. ,, 



unimaculella, Zett. 



cally on the 



sparmanella, Bosc. 

mansuetella, Zell. Recorded by Stain- 

ton (Manual, ii. 303) from the 

Manchester district 
Nemophora. All our four species occur 

locally, principally from North Lan- 

cashire, Grange, Windermere, Preston 
ADELID^E 

Adela fibulella, F. Local and rare 

rufimitrella, Scop. 

croesella, Scop. 

degeerella, L. 

viridella, L. Not uncommon 
Nematois cupriacellus, Hb. Recorded by 

Stainton (Man. ii. 301) from near 
Manchester 

minimellus, Zell. Preston district 
HYPONOMEUTID^E 

Swammerdammia pyrella, Vill. Common 

combinella, Hb. \ 

griseocapitella, Sta. I Occur, but only 

oxyanthella, Dup. j very locally 

combinella, Hb. J 

Scythropia cratasgella, L. Stretford near 

Manchester 
Hyponomeuta padellus, L. Not uncommon 

evonymellus, L. 

plumbellus, SchifF. Grange 

cagnagellus, Hb. 

Prays curtisellus, Don. Generally dis- 

tributed 
PLUTELLID^; 

Eidophasia messingiella, Fisch. Very local 
Plutella cruciferarum, Zell. Common 

porrectella, L. Very local 

annulatella, Curt. Morcambe 
Cerostoma vittella, L."| 

radiatella, Don. I Occur, but are all 

costella, F. j very local 

lucella, F. 

Harpipteryx xylostella, L. Generally 
abundant 

scabrella, L. Local ; Preston, Grange 

nemorella, L. 
GELECHIID.S: 

Orthotelia sparganella, Thunb. Recorded 
from Pendleton only 

Of the large genus Depressaria, 
only D. costosa, Haw. ; D. flavella, 
Hb. ; D. ocellana, F. ; and D. app- 
lana, F., are common 



GEI.ECHIID.E (continued] 

The following arc local and more 
or less rare : 
Depressaria pallorella, Zell. 

umbellana, St. 

atomella, Hb. 

arenella, SchifF. 

liturella, Hb. 

conterminella, Zell. 

angelicella, Hb. 

ciliella, St. 

pimpinellae, Zell. 

weirella, St. 

chsrophylli, Zell. 

nervosa, Haw. 

badiella, Hb. 

heracleana, De G. 

The following are confined to 
the sea coast and taken principally 
at Lytham : 

nanatella, St. 

propinquella, L. 

subpropinquella, St. 

rhodochrella, H.S. 

alstraemeriana, Clerck 

purpurea, Haw. 

yeatiana, F. 

albipunctella, Hb. 

douglasella, St. 

capreolella, Zell. Grange, Preston district 

carduella, Hb. 

discipunctella, H.S. 

pulcherrimella, St. 
Gelechia ericetella, Hb. Not uncommon 

mulinella, Zell. 

malvella, Hb. "j Recorded from Man- 

velocella, Dup. I chester district on 

peliella, Tr. f the authority of 

sororcuella, Hb.J Stainton's Manual 

longicornis, Curt.") Are not rare on the 

diffinis. / moors and mosses 

rhombella, SchifF. Cheetham, Grange 

distinctella, Zell. Lytham 
Brachmia moufFetella, SchifF. Local ; 

Cleveleys on the coast, and near 
Manchester 

Bryotropha terrella, Hb. Generally dis- 
tributed 

domestica, Haw. Rather local 

desertella, Doug.\ 

senectella, Zell. Local; confined prin- 

mundella, Doug. V cipally to the coast 

affinis, Doug. sandhills 

umbrosella, Zell./ 



Coast 



instabilella, Doug 

acuminatella, Sircom. 

artemisiella, Tr. 

viscariella, Staint. 



139 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



GELECHIIDJE (continued) 

Lita maculiferella, Doug. Coast 

marmorea, Haw. 

costella, West. One record by Greg- 

son from near Liverpool 

junctella, Doug. Manchester district 

hubneri, Haw. 

(Staint. Man.} 

atriplicella, Fisc. Fleetwood 
Teleia vulgella, Hb. Not uncommon 

notatella, Hb. Local and not common 

luculella, Hb. 

dodecella, L. 

humeralis, Zell. Grange 

sequax, Haw. 

triparella, Zell. 

fugitivella, Zell. Croxtetb near Liver- 

pool 
Poecilia nivea, Haw. Recorded only from 

Grange 
Argyritis pictella, Zell. By Gregson at 

Hightoivn near Crosby 
Nannodia stipella, Hb. Grange, and near 

Liverpool ; very local 

hermannella, F. Lytham 

Sitotroga cerealella, Ol. Common in grain 

warehouses 
Ptocheuusa inopella, Zell. Cleveleys on 

the coast 

osseella, Staint. Grange 

Ergatis ericinella, Dup. Very local on 

the mosses 
Doryphora lucidella, St. Recorded by Greg- 

son from Tue Brook near Liverpool 
Monochroa tenebrella, Hb. Local ; Ly- 

tham, Liverpool 
Lamprotes atrella, Haw. Grange, Lytham 



Tachyptilia populella, Clerk. Generally 

abundant 

temerella, Zell. Lytham, Crosby 
Brachycrossata cinerella, Clerk. Very local 
Ceratophora rufescens, Haw. 
Parasia metzneriella, Staint. Grange, Long- 

ridge 
Cleodora cytisella, Curt. Manchester 

(Staint. Man. ii. 349) 
Chelaria htlbnerella, Don. Occasional on 

the mosses 

Anarsia spartiella, Sch. Preston 
Hypsilophus marginellus, F. Grange 
Sophronia parenthesella, L. Manchester 

(according to Stainton's Manual, ii. 

350. 

Pleurota bicostella, Clerck. Common on 
the mosses 



GELECHIIDJE (continued) 

Harpella geoffrella, L. Very local and 

rare ; Garston, Manchester 
Dasycera sulphurella, F. Common 
CEcophora pseudospretella, St. Generally 

common 

flavifrontella, Hb. \ Local ; Grange, 

fuscescens, Haw. J binder mere, etc, 

tinctella, Hb. ~\ 

stipella, L. I Recorded from near 

minutella, L. j Manchester, Preston 

tripuncta, Haw.J 

woodiella, Curt. This species was 

taken in some numbers by Robert 
Cribb about 1840 on Ker sail Moor 
near Manchester, and has never been 
taken since, either there or else- 
where. Of this capture three speci- 
mens alone are known to exist, one 
in the Curtis collection in Australia 
and two in the Owens College 
Museum at Manchester 

Endrosis fenestrella, Scop. Generally 
abundant 

Butalis grandipennis, Haw. Common 

fusco-aenea, Haw. Grange 

senescens, Staint. 

laminella, H.S. 

fuscocuprea, Haw. 
Amphisbatis incongruella, Staint. Very 

local on some of the mosses 
Pancalia leuwenhcekella, L. Grange, 

Lytham, Silverdale 
GLYPH IPTERYGID.S: 

Acrolepia granitella, Tr. Local and not 

common 

pygmseana, Haw. Grange 
Glyphypteryx fuscoviridella,>i 

c Local but not 

thrasonella, Scop. 

haworthana, Steph. 

fischeriella, Zell. 

equitella, Scop. North Lancashire ; 

rare 
Perittia obscurepunctella, Staint. Liverpool, 

Grange 
Heliozele sericiella, Haw. Local 

staneella, F. Manchester (Staint. Man.) 

resplendella, Staint. 
ARGYRESTHIID^E 

Argyresthia. The only abundant species 
is A. nitidella, F. 

conjugella, Zell. \ Local but not un- 

gaedartella, L. J common 

Local and rare, principally on the 
mosses and at Grange : 

ephippella, F. 

semitestacella, Curt. 

albistria, Haw. 

spiniella, Zell. 



uncommon 



140 



INSECTS 



ARGYRESTHIID^: {continued) 
Argyresthia semifusca, Haw. 

mendica, Haw. 

glaucinella, Zell. 

retinella, Zell. 

brochella, Hb. 

dilectella, Zell. 

andereggiella, Dup. 

curvella, L. 

sorbiella, Tr. 

pygmseella, Hb. 

arceuthina, Zell. 

aurulentella, Staint. 

Cedestis farinatella, Dup. Grange, Chat 

Moss 
Ocnerostoma piniarella, Zell. Not un- 

common among firs 
Zelleria hepariella, Mann. Grange 

insignipennella, Staint. 
GRACILARIIDJE 

Gracilaria alchimiella, Scop.l Generally 

syringella, F. J abundant 

stigmatella, F. 

elongella, Z. 



pnasiampennella, Hb. 

auroguttella, Steph. J 

semifascia, Haw. Grange 

populetorum, L. 

Coriscium curculipennellum, Hb. Rare ; 
Grange, Windermere 

sulphurellum, Haw. Hale near Liver- 

pool 
Ornix avellanella, Staint. Very local 

torquilella, Staint. 

guttea, Haw. 

betulas, Staint. -i Recorded from the 

loganella, Staint. mosses principally 

scutulatella, V in the north, 

Staint. Grange, Wlnder- 

scoticella, Staint. J mere 
COLEOPHORID.S: 

Coleophora alcyonipennella,") 

Koll. I Generally 

pyrrhulipennella, Zell. | common 

nigricella, Steph. J 

fabriciella, Vill. Local and uncommon 

discordella, Zell. 

albicosta, Haw. 

murinipennella, 

Zell. 

csespititiella, Zell. 

anatipennella, Hb. 

laripenella, Zett. 

juncicolella, Staint. 

laricella, Hb. 

fuscedinella, Zell. 

gryphipennella, 

Bouchd 

viminetella, Zell. 



COLEOPHORID/E (continued'] 

Coleophora lutipennella. Local and un- 
common 

fusco-cuprella,H.S. Grange 

paripennella, Zell. 

virgaureae, Staint. 

bicolorella, Scott. 

limosipennella, Fisch. 

wilkinsoni, Scott. 

niveicostella, Zell. Manchester 

therinella, Tgstr. Preston 

siccifolia, Staint. 

adjunctella, Hodg. 

salinella, Staint. Fleetwood 

tripoliella, Hodg. ,, 

deauratella, Lien. Windermere 
ELACHISTID.S 

Batrachedra praeangusta, Haw. Local ; 

Chat Moss, and the sandhills 
CEnophila v-flava, Haw. Ashton-on-Ribble 
Chauliodus chaerophyllellus, Goez. Rare 

and local ; Grange district 
Laverna propinquella, Staint. Local 

lacteella, Staint. 

ochraceella, Curt. 

atra, Haw. 

miscella, SchifF. Grange 

rhamniella, Zell. 

decorella, Sta. 

hellerella, Dup. Preston district 

vinolentella, H.S. 
Chrysoclysta aurifrontella, Hb. Common 

schrankella, Hb. Local 

bimaculella, Haw. Grange, Windermere 

terminella, West. 
Antispila pfeifferella, Hb. Pendlebury near 

Manchester 

Stephensia brunnichella, L. Grange 
Elachista albifrontella, Hb. Generally 

common 

rufocinerea, Haw. Generally common 

argentella, Clerck. 

trapeziella, Staint. 

apicipunctella, Staint. 

luticomella, Zell. 

kilmunella, Staint. 

nigrella, Haw. 

megerlella, Zell. 

cerussella, Hb. 

gleichenella, F. Gran t 

atricomella, Staint. 

densicornella, Hodg. 

cinereopunctella, Haw. 

subnigrella, Doug. 

bedellella, Sircom. 

adscitella, Staint. 

taeniatella, Staint. 

gangabella, Fisch. 

biatomella, Staint. 

pollinariella, Zell. 



Local, but not 
uncommon 



141 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



ELACHISTIDJE (continued) 

Elachista dispunctella, Dup. 



Wmdermere 



perplexella, Staint. 

humilis, Zett. 

obscurella, Staint. 

zonariella, Tgstr. 

serricornis, Logan. Pilling Moss 

subalbidella, Schlg. 

triatomea, Haw. Morcambe 

rhynchosporella, Staint. Generally on 

the mosses 

Tischeria complanella, Hb. Generally 
common 

marginea, Haw. Generally common 

angusticolella, Z. Manchester (Staint. 

Man. ii. 413) 

dodonsea. Grange, Wmdermere 

LlTHOCOLLETID^ 

Lithocolletis. This extensive genus is, 
thanks principally to the labours of 
Mr. Threlfall of Preston, rather 
largely recorded from the county 

cramerella, F. 

alnifoliella, Dup. 

ulmifoliella, Hb. 

pomifoliella, Zell. 

spinicolella, Staint. 

faginella, Mann. 

quercifoliella, Zell. 

corylifoliella, Haw. 

tristrigella, Haw. 

trifasciella, Haw. 

spinolella, Dup. 

viminitorum, Staint. 

salicolella, Sircom. 

coryli, Nic. 

messaniella, Zell. 

scopariella, Zisch. 

ulicicolella, Vaugh. Local and 

viminiella, Sircom. more 

nicellii, Zell. less rare 

dunningiella, Staint. 

frolichiella, Zell. 

stettinensis, Nic. 

kleemanella, F. 

schreberella, F. 

emberizaepenella, Bouch.y 

roboris, Zell. Wmdermere district 

amyotella, Dup. 

hortella, F. 



not com- 
mon 



LITHOCOLLETID.S: (continued) 
Grunge Lithocolletis tenella, Zell. 

m district 

heergeriella, Z. Wmdermere district 

irradiella, Staint. 

lautella, Zell. 

caledoniella, Staint. 

torminella, Frey. Recorded by Stain- 

ton from Manchester 

vacciniella, Scott. Occurs on the 

mosses. 

quinqueguttella. From the coast at 

Lytham 

LYONETIID-ffi 

Lyonetia clerkella, L. Grange, Liverpool, 

Bowdon near Manchester 
Cemiostoma spartifoliella, HbA j 

wailesella, Staint. 

laburnella, Staint. 

scitella, Z. 

Opostega saliciella ,Tr.| Mosses in Grange 

crepusculella, Z. } and Preston dists. 
Bucculatrix nigricomella, Zell. Near Grange 

ulmella, Mann. 

demaryella, Dup. 

frangulella, Goeze. 

thoracella, Thunb. 

cristatella, Zell. 

cidarella, Tisch. Manchester 

maritima, Staint. Fleetwood 
NEPTICULID.S: 

Nepticula. The only species which can be 
called generally common are N. 
aurella, F., and N. floscatella, Haw. 
Otherwise nearly the whole of the 
genus has been recorded from either 
Grange, Wmdermere, the Preston dis- 
trict, or Bowden near Manchester. 
The following however as given in 
South's lists have not been noted : 

basiguttella, Hein. Preston 

headleyella, Staint. 

quinquella, Bedell. ,, 

sericopeza, Zell. 

acetosae, Staint. 

agrimoniae, Heyd. 

continuella, Staint. ,, 
Bohemannia quadrimaculella, Boh. Preston 
Trifurcula pulverosella, Staint. Grange 



Fairly common 
and widely dis- 
tributed 



HEMIPTERA HETEROPTERA 

Plant bugs 

This is an order which has been and is but little studied by local 
entomologists, and for the few species enumerated below the writer is 
indebted almost entirely to a list published in the Naturalist of 1882 by 
B. Cooke of the species taken by him near Manchester, and to notes 

142 



(continued) 
Lyctocoris campestris, F. 



INSECTS 

made by Dr. Chaster of Southport of occurrences of the order in that 
district. 

There is no doubt that very many more species exist and will be 
recorded as the attention of local students is directed to this generally 
neglected order. 

The nomenclature here followed is that of the Hemiptera Heteroptera 
of the British Islands^ by E. Saunders, the most recent work on the order. 

PF.NTATOMiD.flE 

Corimelaena scarabaeoides, L. This dis- 
tinctly southern species has been 
taken near Southport by Dr. Chaster 
Piezodorus lituratus, F. Manchester 
BERYTIDJE 

Neides tipularius, L. On the coast sandhills 
Berytus minor, H.S. 

Metacanthus punctipes, Ger. 

Nysius thymi, Wolff. Southport 
Rhyparochromus chiragra, F. 
Stygnus rusticus, Fall. 

pedestris, Fall. Generally distributed 

arenarius, Hahn. 
Ischnorhynchus geminatus, Fieb. General 

on heather 

Ttapezonotus agrestfe. Fall. ) Generall 
Drymus sylvaticus, F. * ,. ., J , 

Scolopostethus neglectus, Ed.) 

TlNGIDID^E 

Serenthia laeta, Fall. Southport district 
Orthostira parvula, Fall. 

Derephysia foliacea, Fall. 

Monanthia cardui, L. 



Piezostethus galactinus, ^ 

Fieb. \Mancheste 

Acompocoris pygmasus, Fall, j district 
Triphleps minutus, L. J 

majusculus, Reut. Southport 
Microphysa elegantula, Baer. 



Aradus depressus, Fab. Manchester 
HYDROMETRIDJE 

Hydrometra stagnorum, Linn. 1 Generall 
Velia currens, Fab. [distributed 

Gerns lacustns, L. ) 

thoracica, Schum. Bolton district 

costas, H.S. 

odontogaster, Zett. 
REDUVIID^; 

Reduvius personatus, L. Warrington 
Nabis major, Cost. Common 

limbatus, Dahlb. 

ferus, L. Southport 

rugosus, L. 

Ploiaria vagabunda, L. Manchester 
SALDID^E 

Salda pilosa, Fall. Southport 

saltatoria, L. 

littoralis, L. 

orthochila, Fieb. Greenfield 

scotica, Curt. Shores of Wmdermere 
CIMICID.* 

Ceratocombus coleoptratus, Zett. South- 
port 

143 



Pithanus maerkeli, H.S. Manchester 
Miris calcaratus, Fall. Generally common 

laevigatus, L. 
Megaloceraea erratica, L. 

ruficornis, Fall. 
Leptopterna ferrugata, Fall. 

dolobrata, L. Near Manchester 
Phytocoris tilias, F. Not uncommon 

dimidiatus, Kbm. 

ulmi, L. 
Calocoris sexguttatus, F. 

fulvomaculatus, De G. 

bipunctatus, F. 
Plesiocoris rugicollis, Fall. Southport 
Lygus pratensis, F. Generally distributed 

viridis, Fall. 

pabulinus, L. 

pastinaca?, Fall. 
Liocoris tripustulatus, F. 
Poeciloscytus unifasciatus, F. Southport 
Rhopalotomus ater, L. Common 
Orthocephalus saltator, Hahn. Southport 
Dichyphus epilobii, Reut. 

pallidicornis, Fieb. I Manchester 



Cyllocoris histrionicus, L. district 
./Etorhinus angulatus, Fall.J 

Globriceps cruciatus, Reut. Southport 

dispar, Boh. 
Mecomma ambulans, Fall. 
Cyrtorrhinus caricis, Fall. 
Heterotoma merioptera, Scop. 
Macrotylus paykullii, Fall. 
Conostethus salinus, Sahib. 

roseus, Fall. 
Amblytylus brevicollis, Fieb. 
Phyllus palliceps, Fieb. 
Psallus ambiguus, Fall. 
Plagiognathus arbustorum, F. 

viridulus, Fall. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



CAPSIDJE (continued) 

Plagiognathus roseri, H.S. Soutbport 

bohemanni, Fall. 

pulicarius, Fall. 
NAUCORIDJE 

Nepa cinerea, L. Southport, Manchester, 

Bolton 

Notonecta glauca, L. Generally common 
Corixa geoffroyi, Leach. 

fossarum, Leach. 

fallenii, Fieb. 

atomaria, Illig. Bolton district 



NAUCORID/E (continued) 

Corixa lugubris, Fieb. Bolton district 

hieroglyphica, Duf. 

sahlbergi, Fieb. 

limitata, Fieb. 

moesta, Fieb. 

fabricii, Fieb. 

linnaei, Fieb. Southport, Bolton 

[These records of Corixae are due to Mr. 
Oscar Whittaker of Bolton, who has specially 
studied this genus.] 



HEMIPTERA HOMOPTERA 

Frog-hoppers, etc. 

The only information we have recorded as regards this section of 
the order is contained in the list of Ben Cooke published in the Natu- 
ralist, 1882, already referred to. The following is a summary of his 
observations, which are restricted to the district immediately round 
Manchester and Southport. As regards the remainder of the county no 
authentic information is available. 



ClXIID/E 

Cixius nervosus, L. Manchester district 

cunicularis, L. 

pilosus, Ol. 
DELPHACIDJE 

Liburnia pellucida, F. Manchester district 

discolor, Boh. 

fairmairei, Ferris. 
CERCOPIDJE 

Aphrophora alni, Fall. Manchester district 
Philaenus spumarius, L. 

lineatus, L. 
BYTHOSCOPID.S: 

Macropsis lanio, L. Manchester 
Bythoscopus flavicollis, L. 
Pediopsis nassatus, Germ. 
Idiocerus adustus, Schaff. 

populi, L. 
Agallia puncticeps, Germ. 
Idiocerus adustus, Schaff. Manchester, Riv- 

ington, Southport 
TETTIGONIDJE 

Evacanthus interruptus, L. Manchester 
ACOCEPHALIDJE 

Strongylocephalus agrestis, 

Fall. 
Acocephalus rusticus, F. Manchesle f 

bifasciatus, L. ' Southport 

albifrons, L. 

flavostriatus, Don. 



TYPHLOCYBID^ 

Alebra albostriella, Fall. 
Dicraneuravariata, Hardy. 
Eupteryx tenellus, Fall. 

urticas, F. 

pictus, F. 

stachydearum, Hardy. 

pulchellus, Fall. 
Typhlocybasexpunctata, Fall 

quercus, F. 

ulmi, L. 

geometrica, Schr. 

rosae, L. 

blandula, Rossi. 



All recorded 
from Man- 
chester dis- 
trict or from 
Southport 



Athysanus subfusculus, Fall. 

prasinus, Fall. 
Deltocephalus abdominalis, F. 

sabulicola, Curt. 

striatus, L. 

socialis, Flor. 

ocellaris, Fall. 

pulicaris, Fall. 
PSYLLID.S 

Psylla forsteri, Flor. 

alni, L. 

salicicola, Forst. 

mali, Schbdg. 
Psyllopsis fraxinicola, FSrst. 



Trioza urticae, L. 



Manchester 
district 



Manchester, 
Southport 



144 



SPIDERS 



ARACHNIDA 



As long ago as 1861 a 'List of Southport Spiders,' by the Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, was 
published in A Handbook for Southport by David McNicoll, M.D. and edition, pp. 102-109. 
Additions have subsequently been made by Mr. C. Warburton, of Christ's College, Cambridge, 
and Dr. A. Randell Jackson, M.D., of Hexham, to the Southport list, whilst Mr. Linnsus 
Greening, F.L.S., of Warrington, the Rev. J. Harvey Bloom, and Mr. W. Falconer have 
contributed various species to the county list. The present author has also been able to add 
considerably to the number during rambles in the fell and valley districts of Duddon Vale and 
Coniston, as well as on the coast at Blackpool and Grange. The number of species of spiders 
recorded reaches two hundred and thirty-one (231) ; of Pseudo-scorpions one only, and of 
Harvestmen seven ; the total number of spiders recorded as British being between five and six 
hundred ; of Pseudoscorpions 22, of Harvestmen 24 species. The list of all these Arachnida 
might be greatly increased, for Lancashire affords an abundant variety of good localities with 
its fells and vales, its sand-dunes and southern sea-board. In the following list where no 
authority or collector is quoted the author takes responsibility. 



ARANE^E 

ARACHNOMORPH& 
DYSDERID.E 



Spiders with six eyes and two pairs of stigmatic 
openings, situated close together on the genital rima ; 
the anterior pair communicating with lung-books, the 
posterior with tracheal tubes. Tarsal claws, two in 
Dysdera, three in Harpactes and Segestria. 

1 . Harpactes hombergii, Scopoli. 

Grange ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
Not common. Found under bark of trees and 
amongst moss. Recognizable by its linear ant-like 
form, black carapace, pale clay-yellow abdomen and 
three tarsal claws. 

2. Segestria senoculata, Linnaeus. 

Grange, Broughton, Coniston ; Warrington 

(L. G.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
Not common. Under bark of trees, in the crevices 
of loose stone walls, and amongst detached rocks. 
Recognizable by its linear form and the black dia- 
mond-shaped blotches on the dorsal surface of the 
abdomen. 

3. Oonops pulcher, Templeton. 

Grange ; Southport (A.R.J.). 
Rare. A very small linear brick-red spider, found 
beneath stones and amongst dry grass. It possesses six 
large oval pearly-white eyes. 

DRASSID^E 

Spiders with eight eyes situated in two transverse 
rows. The tracheal openings lie immediately in front 
of the spinners. The tarsal claws are two in number, 
but the anterior pair of spinners are set wide apart at 
their base, and the maxillae are more or less impressed 
across the middle. They are usually found beneath 
stones, logs, and bark of trees, amongst dry leaves in 
woods, and one species usually occurs in outbuildings. 
They are all nocturnal in their habits. 



4. Drassodes lapidosus, Walckenaer. 

Coniston, Lancaster, Duddon Vale, etc. etc. ; 

Southport (A. R.J.). 

Very common under stones all over the fells. The 
male dwells within a silken domicile together with the 
female, and becoming mature earlier awaits patiently 
the coming of age of the female. Known also as 
Drassus lapidicolens. 

5. Drassodes cupreus, Blackwall. 

Coniston, Duddon Vale, Southport (O. P.-C., 

A.R.J.). 

Very common, and in similar situations to the last 
species. It is rather smaller, coppery red in colour 
with a black marginal band to the sternum. The 
mandibles differ also in their armature and the vulva 
is different to that of D. lapidosus. It may take rank 
as a sub-species. Known also as Drassus cupreus, 

6. Drassodes reticulatus, Blackwall. 

Lancaster, J. Blackwall. 

The types of this species having been lost, it is 
difficult to say what it may be. 

7. Drassodes pubescens, Thorell. 

Garstang (L. G.). 

A rare species, resembling a very small D. lapidosus, 
and can be recognized by a comparison of the 
genitalia in both sexes as well as by a different relative 
position of the eyes (O. P.-C.). 

8. Drassodes troglodytes, C. L. Koch. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Coniston, Dud- 
don Vale. 

This species is common under stones on the fells. 
It is known also as Drassus troglodytes and D. clavator 

o. Prosthesitna nigrita, Fabricius. 
Southport (C. W.). 



145 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



10. Prostbesima Latrrillii, C. L. Koch. 

Southport (A. R.J.). 

1 1 . Prosthesima electa, C. L. Koch. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.). 
A rare spider in England as a rule, but abundant 
on the sandhills of Southport and probably occurring 
all along the coast. Known also as Draaus fumllus, 
Blackwall. 

1 2. Scotophams blackwallii, Thorell. 

Garstang (L. G.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
A dark elongate mouse-grey spider, often found 
wandering about the walls of dwelling and outhouses 
at night. Known also as Drassus blackwallll and 
Drassus serlceus, Blackwall. 

CLUBIONID^E 

Spiders with eight eyes situated in two transverse 
rows. The tracheal openings lie immediately in front 
of the spinners ; but the anterior pair of spinners are 
set close together at their base. The tarsal claws are 
two in number ; the maxillae are convex and not im- 
pressed across the middle. The spiders are found in 
a variety of situations, under bark of old trees or on 
palings, amongst dry grass or cut rushes, whilst many 
are to be beaten from the foliage of trees or may be 
found wandering at night on palings or the walls of 
outhouses. 

13. M icaria puficaria, Sundevall. 

Barton Moss (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C., 

A. R. J.) ; Coniston, Duddon Vale. 
A brilliant little spider with iridescent scales on its 
body. Not uncommon running about in the hot 
sunshine. Known also as Drassus nltens and D. 
micatis, Blackwall. 

14. Micariosotna festivum, C. L. Koch. 

Lancaster ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
Very similar in general appearance to the last 
species, but small and even more ant-like. Known 
also as Phrunllthus festivus and Drassus propinquus, 
Blackwall. 

15. Zora maculata, Blackwall. 

Grange ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
Common. Known also as Hecaerge maculata, Bl., 
and H. splnlmana, Bl. 

1 6. Agroeca brunnea, Blackwall. 

Southport, O. P.-C. ; Lancaster ; Grange. 
Rarely found amongst dead leaves and at the roots 
of herbage in woods. Known also as Agelena brunnea. 

1 7. Agroeca pnxlma, O. P.-Cambridge. 

Southport (A. R. J.). 

1 8. Agroeca celans, Blackwall. 

Grange; (W. F.). 

19. Agroeca gi-acilipes, Blackwall. 

Southport (A. R. J.). 

20. Clubiona terrestris, Westring. 

Grange; Warrington (L.G.). Southport (O.P.-C.). 

Sub. Clubiona amarantha. 

Not uncommon on the foliage of trees and shrubs, 
or running about at night on palings or on the walls 
of outhouses. Known also as Clubiona amarantha, 
Blackwall. 



21. Clubiona lutescens, Westring. 

Southport (A. R. J.). 

22. Clubiona stagnates, Kulczynski. 

Grange ; Lancaster ; x Southport (O. P.-C., 

A.R.J.). 

Not uncommon amongst sedge-grass on the river 
banks or in the mosses. Known also as Clubiona grisea, 
Thorell. 

23. Clubiona reclusa, O. P.-Cambridge. 

Grange ; Warrington (L. G.). 
A rather rare species, found amongst shrubs and 
bushes. The female spins together two bramble or 
other leaves and constructs therein an egg-cocoon. 
Previously the male and female may both be found 
together in the domicile. 

24. Clubiona phragmitis, C. L. Koch. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

A very common species amongst cut rushes near 
the banks of streams, marshes, and mosses. It can 
often be found also under the bark of posts or pollard- 
willows in similar situations. Known also as Clubiona 
holosericea, De Geer, and Clubiona deinognatba, O. P.- 
Cambridge. 

25. Clubiona neglecta, O. P.-Cambridge. 

Birkdale Park, Southport, W. Falconer (A. R. J.). 

26. Clubiona pallidula, Clerck. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C., A.R. J.) . 
A large species, usually fairly common amongst 
bramble bushes, where the female makes her egg- 
cocoon within the folded leaves. Known also as 
Clubiona epimelas, Blackwall. 

27. Clubiona trivialis, L. Koch. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Coniston. Birkdale Park, 

Southport, W. Falconer (A. R. J.). 
Rare amongst heather in the fell districts. 

28. Clubiona diversa, O. P.-Cambridge. 

Southport (A. R. J.). 

29. Clubiona subtilis, L. Koch. 

Lancaster (O. P.-C.). 

A rare species. Known also as Clubiona pollens, 
Blackwall. 

30. Clubiona comta, C. L. Koch. 
Grange (A. R. J.). 

A very pretty species, not uncommon amongst trees 
and bushes. The abdomen is striped diagonally on 
each side with red-brown. 

31. Chiracanthium erraticum, Walckenaer. 

Lancaster (O. P.-C.) ; Grange. 
Not uncommon in the folded leaves of various 
species of brambles in the summer-time. The spider 
resembles a Clubiona, but has longer legs and a red 
stripe down the abdomen. 

l There appears to have been some confusion in the author's 
mind here. The spider found by me at Southport, Handbook 
for Soutbfort, 1861, p. 106 (and supposed to be Clubiona stag- 
natilis, Kulcz. by the author), was without a doubt Clubiona 
bolosericea, Blackwall, and was so identified for me by Mr. Black- 
wall. This last species is identical with Clubiona grisea, L. Koch, 
of which I possess types from L. Koch, as well as the male type 
of Mr. Blackwall's C. bolosericea. What Kulczynski's C. stagnatilis 
may be I do not know, as I have never seen a type of it. The 
spider, however (No. 22), intended is probably Clubiona holosericea, 
Blackwall, as recorded (Handbook if Southport). O. P.-Cambridge. 



I 4 6 



SPIDERS 



32. Chiracanthium lap'idlcolens, Simon. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

THOMISID^E 

Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two transverse 
rows, two tarsal claws, and anterior spinners situated 
close together at their base. Maxillas not impressed. 
The crab-like shape and sidelong movements of these 
spiders are their chief characteristics, enabling them to 
be easily distinguished, as a rule, from the more 
elongate Drassidtf and Clubtonid<e. 

3 3 . Pkilodromus aureolus, Clerck. 

Grange, Southport (O. P.-C.) ; Warrington 

(L. G.). 

A very abundant species, with usually a dull red- 
brown abdomen, with yellowish central pattern. It 
frequents the foliage of trees of all kinds, and espe- 
cially in the immature condition will often outnumber 
all other species which fall into the umbrella beneath 
the beating-stick. 

34. Phlhdnmus cespitico&s, Walckenaer. 

Grange. 

This species is possibly only a variety of the last- 
named, and frequents similar situations. Known also 
as P. cespiticolens, Blackwall. 

35. Phllodromus fallax, Sundevall 

Southport. 

A very pale species frequenting the sand-dunes 
along the coast, squatting quite flat on the sand, where, 
being precisely the same colour as its surroundings, it 
is scarcely visible until it moves. Known also as 
Pbilodromus dektus, O. P.-Cambridge. 

36. Tibellus oblongus, Walckenaer. 

Southport (O. P.-C.). Sub. Phllodromus oblongus. 
A long, very narrow, dull white or straw-coloured 
spider, often common amongst dry grass in many 
different localities. They attain, however, their 
largest size amongst the sedge grass and rushes in 
swamps and bogs. The elongate form assists in their 
concealment from foes as they lie close to the pale dry 
rush stems and slender blades. 

37. Tbanatui striatus, C. L. Koch. 

Kirkby, Rev. J. H. Bloom (O. P.-C.). 

38. Xysticus cristatus, Clerck. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Warrington 

(L. G.). 

It is by far the commonest of the ' Crab-spiders,' 
and is found abundantly on foliage or crouching on 
bare places in fields and commons. Known also as 
Thomisus cristatus. 

39. Xysticus Kochii, Thorell. 

Southport, Dr. A. R. Jackson (O. P.-C.). 

40. Xysticus pint, Hahn. 

Southport (O. P.-C.). 

A rare species, found usually on the foliage of trees 
and shrubs. Known also as Thomisus audax, Blackwall. 

41. Xysticus erraticus, Blackwall. 

Southport (A. R. J.). 



42. Oxyptila atomaria, Panzer. 

Grange. Lake District, Dr. A. R. Jackson 

(O. P.-C.). 

Not uncommon in marshes among long grass. 
Known also as Thmlsus versutus, Blackwall. 

43. Oxyptila praticola, C. L. Koch. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

44. Oxyptila trux, Blackwall. 

Southport, Dr. A. R. Jackson (O. P.-C.), and 
W. Falconer. 



SALTICID.E 

The spiders of this family may be recognized in a 
general way by their mode of progression, consisting 
of a succession of leaps, often many times their own 
length. More particularly they may be known by 
the square shape of the cephalic region and the fact 
that the eyes are arranged in three rows of 4, 2, 2, the 
centrals of the anterior row being much the largest 
and usually iridescent. Those of the second row are 
the smallest, while the posterior pair is placed well 
back and helps to give the quadrate character to the 
cephalothorax. Otherwise these spiders are simply 
specialized Clubionids, with two tarsal claws and other 
minor characters possessed in common with members 
of this latter family. 

They can be beaten from foliage or found amongst 
herbage and under stones. The commonest, Salticus 
scenlcus, will be well known to all observers, running 
and leaping on the walls of houses in the bright sun- 
shine. 

45. 'Salticus scenicus, Clerck. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Warrington 

(L. G.). 

A black or grey species with white oblique lateral 
stripes. Known also as Epiblemum scetiicum and Calli- 
etbera scenlca. 

46. Salticus cingulatus, Panz. 
Warrington (L. G.). 

Known also as Epiblemum cingulatum and Cal&etkera 
cingulata. 

47. Heliophanus cupreut, Walckenaer. 

Southport (O. P.-C.). 

A shining black and coppery spider, found in some 
abundance on the coast. Known also as Salticus 
cupreus. 

48. Heliopkanusfiavipes, Hahn. 

Blackpool ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
A shiny black spider with yellow legs, not un- 
common amongst the marram grass on the sand- 
dunes along the coast. 

49. Euophrys erratica, Walckenaer. 

Grange ; Coniston ; Duddon Vale. Lancaster. 
Common under the coping stones of stone walls. 
Known also as Salticus distinctus, Blackwall. 

50. Euophrys fnntalis, Walckenaer. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Kirkby, Rev. J. 

H. Bloom (O. P.-C.). 

Not uncommon amongst grass. Known also as 
Salticus frcntalis. 



'47 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



5 1 . Attus pubescent, Fabricius. 

Southport (O. P.-C.). 
Known also as Salticus sparsus, Blackwall. 

52. Attus saltator, Simon. 

Blackpool ; Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.). 
Described and recorded as Salticus floricola. Black- 
wall. 

53. Neon reticulates, Blackwall. 

Duddon Vale; Kirkby, Rev. J. H. Bloom 

(O.P.-C.). 
Known also as Salticus reticulatus. 

54. Ergane falcata, Clerck. 

Grange ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
Not uncommon on bushes in August. Known also 
as Hasarius fakatus and Salticus coronatus. 

55. Marpessa muscosa, Clerck. 

Lancaster. 

A large species, elongate, compressed, yellowish- 
grey ; found amongst the stones of walls or on old 
wooden palings. Known also as Marpissa or Marptusa 
muscosa. 

56. Marpessa pomatia, Walckenaer. 

Southport, Hamlet Clark (O. P.-C.). 
Very similar in general appearance to the last 
species, but rarer. Known also as Marptusa pomatia, 
Hyctia prompta, Salticus promptus, Blackwall, and Salticus 
Blackwallii, Clark. 

57. Hasarius Adansonii, Savigny. 

Seaton Mersey, Rev. J. H. Bloom (O. P.-C.). 
In orchid house. 



PISAURID^ 

Spiders with eight eyes in three rows, and three 
tarsal claws. The first row of eyes consists of four 
small eyes which are sometimes in a straight line, 
sometimes recurved, and sometimes procurved. Those 
of the other two rows are situated in a rectangle of 
various proportions. Pisaura runs freely over the 
herbage, carrying its egg-sac beneath the sternum, 
while Dolomedes is a dweller in marshes and swamps. 

58. Pisaura mirabilis, Clerck. 
Duddon Vale ; Grange. 
Known also as Dolomedes mirabilis. 



LYCOSID^E 

Eyes and tarsal claws as in the Pisauridte, with 
slight differences. The members of this family are to 
be found running freely over the ground and carrying 
the egg-sac attached to the spinners. Many of the 
larger species make a short burrow in the soil, and 
there keep guard over the egg-sac. 

59. Lycosa accentuata, Latreille. 

Coniston ; Duddon Vale. Southport (O. P.-C., 
_ A.R.J.). 

This fine species makes a short burrow in the 
ground, where it bestows its egg-sac and constructs a 
low wall of short interlaced grass stems, a sort of 
zareeba, round the mouth. Known also as Tarentula 
or Lycosa andrenivora. 



60. Lycosa pulverulenta, Clerck. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.). Duddon Vale. 
Known also as Tarentula puherulenta or Lycosa rapax. 

6 1. Lycosa acukata, Clerck. 

Coniston Fells. 

This form is probably a large variety of L. pulveru- 
lenta. Known also as Tarentula acukata. 
6z. Lycosa miniata, C. L. Koch. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.). 
An abundant and small species, occurring on the 
sand-dunes along the coast. Known also as Tarentula 
miniata and Lycosa nivalis, O. P.-Cam bridge. 

63. Lycosa perita, Latreille. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C., 

A. R. J.), Blackpool. 

A beautiful spider found abundantly on sandhills 
and the gravelly spots in the heath districts. Known 
also as Trochosa picta and Lycosa picta, Hahn. 

64. Lycosa leopardus, Sundevall. 

Southport (O. P.-C.). 

This species occurs but rarely in marshy places, and 
may be known by its black-banded legs. Known also 
as Trochosa leopardus and Lycosa cambrica, Blackwall. 

65. Lycosa ruricola, De Geer. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.). 
Known also as Trochosa ruricola and Lycosa catnpes- 
tris, Blackwall. 

66. Lycosa terricola, Thorcll. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. I.) ; Warrington 

(L.G.). 

This spider very much resembles the last species, 
but is more orange-brown or ferruginous in colour, 
the other being of an olive-green tint. Known also 
as Trochosa terricola and Lycosa agretyca, Blackwall. 

67. Pirata piraticus, Clerck. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Warrington 

(L.G.). 

The species of Pirata are marsh and swamp-loving 
spiders par excellence, with two rows of white spots on 
the abdomen, and carrying a vivid white egg-cocoon 
in the spinners. Known also as Lycosa piratica. 

68. Pirata latitans, Blackwall. 

Duddon Vale ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
The smallest of the genus and the most abundant, 
very similar in general appearance to the last. Known 
also as Lycosa latitans. 

69. Pardosa amentata, Clerck. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Warrington 

(L.G.). 

Very abundant on logs of wood or hatchways in 
meadows and by riversides. One of our largest 
Pardosai. Known also as Lycosa amentata and Lycosa 
saccata, Blackwall. 

70. Pardosa annulata, Thorell. 

Warrington (L. G. ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
Somewhat similar to, but smaller than, the last 
species. Known also as Lycosa annulata. 

7 1 . Pardosa agricola, Thorell. 

Duddon Vale ; Coniston. 

A species confined to the mountainous districts, 
and quite abundant amongst the shingle fringes of the 



148 



SPIDERS 



rivers and streams, or the sandy margins of the lakes 
in those regions. Known also as Lycosa JtuviatiRs, 
Blackwall. 

72. Pardosa nigriceps, Thorell. 
Coniston ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

Occurs commonly throughout the heather districts 
on the fells. Known also as Lycosa nigriceps and Ly- 
cosa congener, O. P.-Cambridge. 

73. Pardosa traillii, O. P.-Cambridge. 

Coniston. 

Not uncommon among the ' screes ' or loose stones 
lying beneath the hills at a natural angle. They dash 
away amongst the stones, and are exceedingly difficult 
to capture. Known also as Lycosa traillii. 

74. Pardosa pullata, Clerck. 

Duddon Vale (E. T. C.) ; Southport (O. P.-C., 

A.R.J.). 

The commonest of all the species of this genus, 
with the exception, perhaps, of P. amentata. Known 
also as Lycosa pullata and Lycosa obscura, Blackwall. 

75. Pardosa lugubris, Walckenaer. 

Grange. 

A very abundant spider in the spring, running 
rapidly over the dead leaves in the woods. Known 
also as Lycosa lugubris. 

76. Pardosa palustris, Linnaeus. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Duddon Vale. 
A small species with a narrow yellow line down the 
carapace. Known also as Lycosa palustris and Lycosa 
exigua, Blackwall (ad partem). 

77. Pardosa mmticola, C. L. Koch. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Coniston ; War- 

rington (L. G.). 

Very similar to the last, rather larger, found on 
higher ground, with a dilatation of the central yellow 
stripe on the carapace, behind the eyes. Known also 
as Lycosa montlcola and Lycosa exigua, Blackwall (ad 
partem). 

78. Pardosa Purbeckensis, F. O. P.-Cambridge. 

Birkdale ; Southport, W. Falconer (O. P.-C., 
A.R.J.). 

AGELENID^E 

Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two transverse 
rows. Legs with three tarsal claws. The species of 
this family spin a large sheet-like web, and construct 
a tubular retreat at the back of it, which leads to some 
crevice amongst the rocks, or the herbage, or the 
chinks in the walls of outhouses, wherever the various 
species may happen to be found. The posterior pair 
of spinners is usually much longer than the other two 
pairs. 

79. Cryphasca sihicola, C. L. Koch. 
Duddon Vale ; Coniston. 

Not uncommon beneath stones on the fells. Known 
also as Tegenaria siMcola and Habnia silvlcola and 
Agelena byndmanii, Templeton. 

80. Amauroblus atropos, Walckenaer. 

Duddon Vale ; Coniston Fells ; Southport 

(A.R.J.). 

Abundant throughout the fell districts up to the 
altitude of 3,000 feet. It is found under logs of wood, 



in stone walls, or beneath isolated stones, where a 
sheet of white webbing often betrays the presence of 
the spider. A long tube runs beneath the log or 
stone, and both male and female can be found living 
together at the end ; while later the young spiders 
will be found spending the early days of their childhood 
with their mother. Known also as Ccelotes saxatiRs, 
Blackwall, and Cables atropos. 

8 1 . Argyrmeta aquatica, Linnaeus. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C.). 
This is the well-known water-spider, which makes a 
silken nest beneath the surface, and swims and dives 
freely, hatching out its young within the nest. 

82. Textrix dentlculata, Olivier. 
Duddon Vale ; Coniston Fells. 

A very abundant swiftly-moving spider found under 
the loose coping-stones of walls throughout the fell 
districts. It may be recognized by the red dentate 
band on the abdomen, which is sometimes almost 
white. Known also*~as Textrix lycosina, Sundevall. 

83. Tegenaria atrica, C. L. Koch. 
Garstang (L. G.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

A very large species, the male having much longer 
legs than the female ; not uncommon in cellars and 
outhouses, and also in holes in banks and in rabbit- 
burrows on the sandhills. 

84. Tegenaria derhamii, Scopoli. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Warrington 

(L.G.). 

A smaller, paler spider, and more common than the 
last named ; almost entirely confined to houses and 
outbuildings. Known also as Tegenaria chilis, Walck- 
enaer. 

85. Tegenaria sllvestris, L. Koch. 
Duddon Vale. 

A still smaller species, sometimes not uncommon 
amongst rockeries in greenhouses and gardens. Known 
also to English arachnologists as Tegenaria campestris, 
C. L. Koch. 

86. Agekna labyrinthica, Clerck. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C., A.R.J ). 
A common spider, large, when full grown, and 
spinning a huge, sheet-like, white web over the 
herbage, with a funnel-shaped tubular retreat. Like 
others of the family, the posterior pair of spinners is 
formed of two distinct segments, the end one being 
very long and slender. 

87. Agelena longipes, Carpenter. 

Southport (A. R. J. and O. P.-C.). 
The example recorded is as yet unique. 

88. Hahnia montana, Blackwall. 

Coniston Fells ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
Common in the heath districts. 

89. Hahnia nava, Blackwall. 

Southport (A. R. J.). 

90. Antlstea elegans, Blackwall. 
Duddon Vale ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

Not uncommon amongst the roots of aquatic plants 
close to the surface of the water, especially in the 
' Mosses.' Known also as Hahnia and Agelena elegans, 
Blackwall. 



149 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



ARGYOPID^E 

The spiders included in this family have eight eyes, 
situated in two rows, the lateral eyes of both rows 
being usually adjacent, if not in actual contact, while 
the central eyes form a quadrangle. The tarsal claws 
are three, often with other supernumerary claws. The 
web is either an orbicular (wheel-like) snare, or con- 
sists of a sheet of webbing, beneath which the spiders 
hang, and capture the prey as it falls upon the sheet. 
This immense family includes those usually separated 
under the names Epeirid<e and Linyphiida. 

91. Mela segmentata, Clerck. 

Duddon Vale ; Southport (O. P.-C.), A. R. J. ; 

Warrington (L. G.). 

A very abundant spider in the summer and autumn 
amongst nettles and other herbage along hedgerows. 
The spiders vary very much in size, and spin an 
orbicular web having a clear space in the centre, as do 
others of the genus and also letragnatha, thus differing 
from the genus Araneui (Epeira). Known also as 
Epeira segmentata, Epeira indinata, Blackwall, and 
Epeira mengii, Blackwall. 

gz. Meta merianee, Scopoli. 

Duddon Vale ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
A larger species, common in cellars and beneath the 
overhanging rocks and steep damp banks throughout 
the district. Known also as Epeira antriada, Walck- 
enaer, and Epeira celata, Blackwall. 

93. Nest'uus cellulanus, Clerck. 

Southport (A. R. J.). 

94. Singa pygmcea, Sundevall. 

Kirkby, Rev. J. H. Bloom (O. P.-C.). 

95. Tetragnatha extensa, Linnsus. 

Southport (O. P.-C.) ; Warrington (L.G.) ; Dud- 
don Vale. 

A very common species of elongate form, which sits 
in the centre of its web with legs stretched out in 
front and behind. Not so entirely confined to marshy 
localities as the next species, and easily recognized by 
the silvery white bands under the abdomen. The 
jaws in the males of this genus are very large and 
strongly toothed. 

96. Tetragnatha solandri, Scopoli. 

Grange ; Duddon Vale ; Southport (A R. J.). 
Very similar in appearance to the last species, but 
almost entirely confined to river banks and marshy 
swamps. Can be recognized by the dull white bands 
beneath the abdomen and the absence of any pale line 
on the sternum. 

97. Pachygnatha derckii, Sundevall. 

Duddon Vale ; Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.). 
Resembles a Tetragnatha in the possession of very- 
large mandibles, but is not elongate and spins no web 
to speak of. Found under leaves and at the roots of 
herbage, especially in marshy places. 

98. Pachygnatka listen, Sundevall. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (A. R.J.). 
Very similar to the last two species, but of a dark 
claret-red tint. Found usually amongst dead leaves 
in woods. 



99. Zilla x-notata, Clerck. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Duddon Vale ; Southport 

(O. P.-C., A. R. J.). 

A very common spider, usually spinning its web on 
or in the proximity of buildings. The web has 
usually a vacant wedge-shaped piece with a single free 
ray from the centre. Known also as Epeira similis, 
Blackwall. 

i oo. Zilla atrica, C. L. Koch. 
Duddon Vale ; Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; 

Warrington (L. G.). 

Almost as common as the above, but more usually 
confined to the foliage of trees and bushes, though 
often found on the walls of the fell districts. The 
males have a very long palpus, while in Z. x-notata 
these are very short. Known also as Epeira callophylla, 
Blackwall. 

101. Araneus cucurlitinus, Clerck. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C., 

A. R. J.) ; Duddon Vale. 

A beautiful green spider with bright red tip to the 
tail end, rendering it in appearance like the bud of a 
flower. Known also as Epeira cucurbitina. 



102. Ar 



diadematus, Clerck. 



Warrington (L.G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C., A.R.J.) ; 

Coniston. 

By far the commonest of our spiders, being usually 
known as the ' garden spider,' of large size, red- 
brown and black with white lozenge-shaped spots, 
spinning an orb-web. Known also as Epeira diadema 
or diademata. 

103. Araneus quadratus, Clerck. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Warrington 

(L. G.). 

A common spider in October on most heathy 
commons, where it spins a strong orb-web and makes 
a tent for concealment under the heather or gorse. 
Its food consists chiefly of the common honey-bees, and 
in colour it is warm pink with green shading and 
four large white spots on the back of the abdomen. 
Known also as Epeira quadrata. 

104. Araneus cornutus, Clerck. 

Duddon Vale ; Manchester, Liverpool (L.G.) ; 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.). 
Abundant in the rushes and grass-heads near streams 
or in swampy places. Known also as Epeira cornuta 
and Epeira apoclisa, Blackwall. 

105. Araneus umbraticus, Clerck. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

A large species, nearly black and much flattened, 
for it lives under the bark of trees and posts, spinning 
a strong orb-web and venturing out of its lurking 
place only at nightfall. Known also as Epeira um- 

106. Araneus redii, Scopoli. 
Southport (O. P.-C.). 

Common in the heather districts in June and 
July. Known also as Epeira sailers, Walckenaer, and 
Epeira solers, Blackwall. 



150 



SPIDERS 



107. Llnyphia triangularis, Clerck. 

Duddon Vale. Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; 

Warrington (L. G.). 

A very abundant species in autumn, whose sheet- 
like snares glistening with dew-drops form a con- 
spicuous feature on the hedges and bushes in the early 
mornings. The mandibles in the male are very long, 
resembling those in TftragnatAa. Known also as 
Llnyphia montana, Blackwall. 

1 08. Llnyphia montana, Clerck. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Warrington 

(L. G.). 

A large species whose habits are very similar to 
those of L. triangulans. It is, however, often found 
in conservatories and outhouses. Known also as 
L. marginata, Blackwall. 

109. Llnyphia hortensls, Sundevall. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Warrington 

(L.G.). 

Not a common species, somewhat similar to L. 
pusilla in general appearance and habits. Known also 
as Llnyphia pratensls, Blackwall. 

1 10. Llnyphia clathrata, Sundevall. 
Warrington (L.G. and A. R.J.). 

Resembles L. montana but is smaller. Very common 
amongst herbage, chiefly in the immature condition. 
Known also as Neriene marginata, Blackwall. 

111. Llnyphia pusilla, Sundevall. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Warrington 

(L.G). 

A smaller species than the last, with deep black 
ventral region. The palpus in the male sex has 
a long spiral spine. It spins its web near the ground 
amongst herbage. Known also as Llnyphia fuliglnea, 
Blackwall. 

112. Linyphiapeltata,W\di<x. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Warrington 

(L. G). 

A very small and common species found amongst 
the foliage of trees and bushes in the summer time. 
A pale variety is known also as Llnyphia rubea, Black- 
wall. 

113. Llnyphia Inslgnls, Blackwall. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

Very common amongst grass on the banks of 
streams and in other localities. 

1 14. Labulla thoracica, Wider. 

Duddon Vale ; Coniston ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

Abundant under overhanging rocks and banks. 

The male is remarkable for the enormously long 

spiral spine on the palpal bulb. Known also as 

Llnyphia cauta, Blackwall. 

115. Stemonyphantes Kneatus, Linnaeus. 
Southport (O. P.-C.) ; Warrington (L. G.). 

Not an uncommon species. Known also as Llnyphia 
buceulenta, Linn, and Neriene tiillneata, Blackwall. 

1 1 6. Drapetisca soclalls, Sundevall. 
Duddon Vale. 

Not uncommon, often abundant on fir trees and 
overhanging rocks on the margin of streams. It squats 



close to the bark or stone on which it rests. Known 
also as Llnyphia soda/is. 

117. Bolyphantes buscufentus, Clerck. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

1 1 8. Bolyphantes alllceps, Sundevall. 
Southport (O. P.-C.) ; Blackpool. 

Rare amongst the marram grass on the sand-dunes. 
Known also as Llnyphia altlceps. 

119. Bolyphantes luteolus, Blackwall. 

Blackpool ; Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport 

(A.R.J.). 

Abundant among marram grass on the sand-dunes 
in September. Known also as Llnyphia luteola. 

1 20. Tapinopa longidens, Wider. 

Duddon Vale ; Coniston ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
Common under stones throughout the fell districts. 
Known also as Llnyphia longidens and a variety is 
known as Tapinopa unicolor, O. P.-Cambridge. 

121. Lepthyphantes nebulosus, Sundevall. 

Grange ; Warrington (L. G.) ; Manchester 

(O. P.-C.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
Rare in outhouses. Known also as Llnyphia nebulosa 
and Llnyphia vlvax, Blackwall. 

122. Lepthyphantes leprosus, Ohlert. 

Grange ; Duddon Vale ; Southport (A. R. J.). 
A very common species in stables, hay-lofts, and 
outhouses. Known also as Llnyphia leprosa. 

123. Lepthyphantes blackwallll, Kulczynski. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Duddon Vale ; Southport 

(O. P.-C., A. R.J.). 

Often very common at the roots of herbage in 
September. Known also as Llnyphia tenebrlcola, Wider 
and O. P.-Cambridge, and Llnyphia terricola, Blackwall 
and O. P.-Cambridge. 

124. Lepthyphantes cristatus, Menge. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

125. Lepthyphantes tenuls, Blackwall. 
Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.). 

Very similar to the last species and found under the 
same conditions. Known also as Llnyphia tenebrlcola, 
O. P.-Cambridge (ad partem). 

126. Lepthyphantes tenebrlcola, Wider. 
Southport (A. R.J.). 

127. Lepthyphantes mlnutus, Blackwall. 
Southport (O. P.-C. and A. R. J.). 

A rather rare species under stones and rocks ; often 
found also in greenhouses and other outbuildings. 
Known also as Llnyphia mlnuta. 

128. Lepthyphantes flavlpes, Blackwall. 
Warrington (L. G.). 

Not uncommon at the roots of grass or beneath 
stones. Known also as Llnyphia flavlpes. 

1 29. Lepthyphantes ericieus, Blackwall. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Duddon Vale. 
A fairly common species at the roots of grass and 
under stones in the fell districts ; also amongst the 
marram grass on the sand-dunes. Known also as 
Llnyphia erlcita. 
51 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



130. Bathyphantes pullatus, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Duddon Vale ; Coniston. 

Common in marshy swamps. Known also as 
Linyphia pullata ; and probably is the Linyphia tenella, 
Blackwall O. P.-C. Handbook of Soutbport (1861), 
p. 108. 

131. Bathyphantes nigrlnus, Westring. 

Duddon Vale ; Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Blackpool. 
Common in marshes and swamps. Known also as 
Linyphia nigrina and Linyphia pulla, Blackwall. 

132. Bathyphantes approximates, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

133. Bathyphantes concolor, Wider. 

Duddon Vale ; Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.). 
Very common at the roots of herbage and under 
stones and pieces of rock. Known also as Linypbia 
concolor and Meridian fiRpes, Blackwall. 

134. Bathyphantes gracilis, Blackwall. 

Crumpsall Hall, Manchester (Blackwall) ; South- 
port (A.R.J.). 

A rare species found at the roots of herbage and 
beneath stones on the fells. Known also as Linyphia 
circumspecta. 

135. Bathyphantes parvulus, Westring. 
Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.). 

Not uncommon at the roots of herbage in swamps 
and mosses. Known also as Linyphia parvula. 

i 36. Batbypkantes dorsalis, Wider. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C.). 
Common on the foliage of trees and bushes in the 
summer time. Known also as Linyphia dorsalis, 
Linyphia claytonix, Blackwall, and Linyphia anthracina, 
Blackwall. 

137. Paeciloneta variegata, Blackwall. 
Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Coniston. 

Sometimes abundant under stones in the fell district. 
Known also as Linyphia variegata and Neriene variegata. 

138. Porrhomma pygmceum, Blackwall. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C., A.R.J.). 

Common running on railings in the sunshine. 
Known also as Neriene pygmaa. 

1 39. Hilaira uncata, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

140. Tmeticus Huthtuaitii, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (C. W., A. R. J.). 

141. Tmeticus sylvaticus, Blackwall. 
Southport (C.W., A. R.J.). 

142. Tmeticus reprobus, O. P.-C. 
Kirkby, Rev. J. H. Bloom (O. P. C.). 

143. Tmeticus Hardii, Blackwall. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

144. Tmeticus scopiger, Grube. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

145. Tmeticus expertus, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 



146. Tmeticus prudens, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

147. Centromerus bicolor, Blackwall. 

Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J.) ; Duddon Vale. 
Abundant running on railings in the hot sunshine 
in September and October. Known also as Linyphia 
bicolor ; Neriene bicolor ; and Tmeticus bicolor. 

148. Centromerus concinnus, Thorell. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

A very similar species to the last named, but 
smaller and not so abundant, though found in similar 
situations. Known also as Tmeticus concinnus. 

149. Macrargus abnormis, Blackwall. 
Southport (O. P.-C., A.R.J.). 

Not uncommon amongst dead leaves in woods in 
the summer months. Known also as Linyphia abnormis 
and Tmeticus abnormis. 

150. Mengea tearburtonii, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (C. W., A.R.J.). 

A rare species found in marshy pkces. Known 
also as Tmeticus tvarburtonii. 

151. Microneta conigera, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport, C. Warburton (O. P.-C., A. R. J.). 

152. Microneta viaria, Blackwall. 
Grange ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

Found in profusion in the springtime amongst dead 
leaves in woods. Known also as Neriene viaria. 

153. Microneia saxatilis, Blackwall. 
Southport (W. F., A. R. J.). 

154. Microneta decora, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (O. P.-C.) ; Liverpool (O. P.-C.). 

Known also as Neriene decora, O. P.-C., and Neriene 
clypeata, F. P.-C. 

155. Microneta rurestris, C. L. Koch. 
Southport, Dr. A. R. Jackson (O. P.-C.). 

156. Erigone dentipalpis, Wider. 

Duddon Vale; Blackpool; Southport (A. R.J.). 
Known also Neriene dentipalpis. 

157. Erigone atra, Blackwall. 
Blackpool. 

Known also as Neriene atra and Neriene longipalpis, 
Blackwall. 

158. Erigone longipalpis, Sundevall. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Kirkby, Rev. J. H. Bloom 

(O.P.-C., A.R.J.). 
Known also as Neriene longipalpis. 

159. Erigone promiscua, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Birkdale Park, Southport (W. F.). 

1 60. Dicymbium nigrum, Blackwall, 
Warrington (L. G.). 

Known also as Neriene nigra. 

161. Lopbomma punatatum, Blackwall. 
Southport (C. W., A. R. J.). 

162. Lophomma berbigradum, Blackwall. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

152 



SPIDERS 



163. Styhthorax apicatus, Blackwall. 
Southport (O. P.-C.) ; Blackpool. 

A very abundant species amongst the marram grass 
on the sandhills. Known also as Neriene apicata. 

164. Hypomma bituberculatum, Wider. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Coniston ; Southport 

(A.R.J.) 

A very abundant species amongst herbage in swamps 
and moss in the fell districts and elsewhere. The male 
may be recognized by two large oblong-oval tubercles 
on the caput, and the female by the lead-coloured 
abdomen and bright orange carapace. These dis- 
tinctions are not, however, sufficient for scientific 
purposes. Known also as Neriene bituberculata. 

165. Hypomma cornuta, Blackwall. 
Southport (O. P.-C. and A. R. J.). 

A smaller species than the last, and quite black and 
shiny ; rare on railings in the spring and early sum- 
mer. Known also as Neriene cornuta. 

1 66. Kukzynskiellum Juscum, Blackwall. 
Southport (O. P.-C. and A.R.J.). 

Known also as Neriene fusca and Neriene agrestis, 
Blackwall, ad partem. 

167. Kukzynskiellum agreste, Blackwall. 
Coniston. 

Known also as Neriene agrestis. 

1 68. Kukzynskiellum retusum, Westring. 
Southport (O. P.-C. and A. R. J.). 

Known also as Neriene retusa and Neriene elevata, 
O. P.-Cambridge. 

1 69. Gongylidium dentatum, Wider. 
Southport, Dr. A. R. Jackson (O. P.-C.). 

170. Gongylidium rufipes, Sundevall. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

171. Gongylidium distinctum, Simon. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

172. Gonatium rubens, Blackwall. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C.). 

Not a rare species amongst herbage. Known also 
as Neriene rubens. 

173. Gonatium isabellinum, C. L. Koch. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

Very similar to the last species in general appearance, 
but quite distinct. Known also as Neriene rubella, 
Blackwall, and Neriene isabellina. 

1 74. Gongylidiellum vivum, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (C. W., W. F., and A. R. J.). 

175. Tiso vagans, Blackwall. 

Southport, C. Warburton (O. P.-C. and A. R. J.). 

176. Entelecara erythropus, Westring. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

177. Entelecara favipes, Blackwall. 
Southport (O. P.-C.). 

Known also as Wakkenaera JJavlpes, Blackwall. 

178. Entelecara thorellii, Westring. 
Southport (O. P.-C.). 

Known also as Wakkenaera thorellii, and Walckenaera 
fastigata, Blackwall. 



179. Lophocarenum parallelum, Blackwall. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

1 80. Lopbocarenum nemorale, Blackwall. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

181. Savignia frontata, Blackwall. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

182. Pepmocranium ludicrum, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

183. Typhocrestus dorsuosus, O. P.-Cambridgc. 
Southport, Dr. A. R. Jackson (O. P.-C.). 

1 84. Araeoncus humilis, Blackwall. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

Known also as Walckenaera humiRs. 

185. Pocadicnemis pumilus, Blackwall. 
Southport (A. R.J.). 

1 86. Troxocbrus scabriculus, Westring. 
Southport (O. P.-C. and A. R. J.). 

Known also as Walckenaera scabricula and Walcke- 
naera aggeris, O. P.-Cambridge. 

187. Tnxochrus cirrifrons, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (O. P.-C.). 

Known also as Wakkenaera cirrijrons. 

1 88. Tapinocyba praecox, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport, Dr. A. R. Jackson, (O. P.-C.). 

189. Tapinocyba subitanea, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport, Dr. A. R. Jackson, (O. P.-C.). 

190. Diplocephalus picinus, Blackwall. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

Known also as Wakkenaera picina. 

191. Diplocephalus latifrons, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport, Dr. A. R. Jackson, (O. P.-C.). 

192. Diplocephalus cistalus, Blackwall. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

193. Diplocephalus permixtus, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

194. Diplocephalus fuscipes, Blackwell. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

195. Cnephalocotes puiillus, Menge. 
Southport, Dr. A. R. Jackson (O. P.-C.). 

1 96. Cnephalocotes curtus, Simon. 
Southport, Dr. A. R. Jackson (O. P.-C.). 

197. Cnephalocotes obscurus, Blackwall. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

198. Peponocranium ludicrum, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Lancaster (W. F.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

199. BlackwalKa acuminata, Blackwall. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

The male is one of the most remarkable spiders we 
possess, its eyes being carried up on a slender turret 
far above the general level of the caput ; the female 
to a less extent. Known also as Walckenaera acuminata. 

200. Cornicularia vigilax, Blackwall. 
Southport (O. P.-C., A. R. J., and C. W.). 

201. Cornicularia unicornis, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Southport (A. R. J.,O.P.-C.) ; Morecambe (W.F.). 



153 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



202. Arrecerus monoceros, Wider. 
Southport (O. P.-C. and A. R. J.). 

Known also as Wakkcnaera mmoceros. 

203. Wideria antica, Wider. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

204. Simula cornigera, Blackwall. 
Grange (W. F.). 

205. Maso Sundevallii, Westring. 

Kirkby, Rev. J. H. Bloom (O. P.-C.) ; Lan- 
caster, Morecambe, Grange (W. F.). 

206. Walckenaera nudipalpis, Westring. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

207. Walckenaera turgida, Blackwall. 
Crumpsall Hall, Manchester (Blackwall). 

This species is not at present known, no type being 
in existence, but may be found at some future time 
and identified. 

208. Ceratlnella brevipes, Westring. 
Southport, Dr. A. R. Jackson (O. P.-C.). 

209. Neriene lapiJicola, Thorell. 
Crumpsall Hall, Manchester (Blackwall). 

Found on railings and under stones, but the species 
is not known at present. Known also as Neriene 
i-ufipes, Blackwall. 

210. Neriene dubia, Blackwall. 
Manchester (Blackwall). 

Not at present identified. Type lost 

211. Netiene lugubris, Blackwall. 
Manchester (Blackwall). 

Not at present identified. Type lost. 



MIMETID^E 

Spiders of this family are similar in general respects 
to the Theridiidte, having eight eyes and three tarsal 
claws, but the anterior pairs of legs bear long spines in 
a series on the tibiee and protarsl. The species of En 
construct a small brown pear-shaped or cylindrical egg- 
cocoon suspended on a fine silken stalk. 

212. Enfurcata, Villers. 
Warrington (L. G.). 

Known also as En thoracica and Theridion varicgatum, 
Blackwall. 



THERIDIID.E 

The members of this family have eight eyes situated 
very much like those of the Argyopidce, but the man- 
dibles are really weak, the maxillae are inclined over 
the labium, and the posterior legs have a comb of 
stiff curved spines beneath the tarsi. The web con- 
sists of a tangle of crossing lines, and the spider often 
constructs a tent-like retreat wherein the egg-sac is 
hung up. 

213. Episinus truncates^ Walckenaer. 

Duddon Vale ; Coniston. 

Not very common, but found amongst dry grass or 
on sunny banks. Known also as Theridion angulatum, 
Blackwall. 



214. Steatoda bipunctata, Linnasus. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C. and 

A.R.J.). 

A dark brown, shiny, rather flattened globular 
spider, living in chinks of walls, angles of windows, 
and crevices in the partitions of old stables, etc., 
emerging usually at nightfall. The males are re- 
markable for their very large palpi and also for the 
possession of a stridulating organ, formed by a series of 
chitinous ridges in a hollow at the anterior part of the 
abdomen, which move over some cusps on the conical 
posterior portion of the carapace. Known also as 
Steatoda bifunctata and Theridion yuadripunctatum, Black- 
wall. 

215. Pedanottelhtts Kvidus, Blackwall. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

A common species under stones on the fells and in 
many other localities. Known also as Neriene livida, 
Blackwall. 

2 1 6. Theridion ovatum, Clerck. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C. and 

A.R.J.). 

A very common species. The female lives in the 
folded leaf of a bramble, or that of some other shrub, 
spinning the edges together. Within this domicile she 
constructs a round sea-green egg-sac about as large as 
a very small pea. The spider has a pale yellow 
abdomen with a broad pink central dorsal band, or 
two pink bands one on each side. Another variety 
has no pink bands, but a row of black spots on each 
side. The male and female can often be found 
together within their leafy domicile. This spider is 
also known under the name Pbyllonetbis Kneata and 
Theridion lineatum. 

217. Theridion vittatum, C. L. Koch. 
Southport (A. R. J.). 

218. Steatoda sisyphium (Clerck). 

Southport (O. P.-C. and A. R. J.) ; Warrington 

(L.G.). 

Very common on gorse and holly bushes, where 
they construct a tent-like domicile and spin up within 
its shelter the small greenish egg-sacs. The young 
when hatched pass their earlier days within the tent, 
but on the death of the mother spider they scatter, 
taking up positions for themselves amongst the neigh- 
bouring foliage. Known also as Theridion sisyphium 
and Theridion nervosum, Blackwall. 

219. Steatoda picta, Walckenaer. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C. and 

A.R.J.). 

A very beautiful species, resembling a large 
example of T. varians, with a bright red and white 
dentated band on the dorsal side of the abdomen, 
found, often abundantly, on holly and other bushes, 
where they construct a large and very perfectly 
formed thimble-shaped domicile, covered with dry 
chips of leaves and twigs, often decorated with the 
wings, legs, wing-cases and other debris of the victims 
which have served them for food. Known also as 
Theridion pictum. 

220. Steatoda varians, Hahn. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O.P.-C. and 

A.R.J.). 

A very much smaller species, varying considerably 
in colour, found abundantly in greenhouses and also 



'54 



SPIDERS 



amongst shrubs in the open garden. This species 
makes no tent-like retreat, but sits close to the one or 
more pale rounded egg-sacs usually spun up against a 
beam or window-sill. Known also as Theridion 
variant. 

221. Steatoda denticulata, Walckenaer. 
Warrington (L. G.) ; Duddon Vale ; Southport 

(A.R.J.). 

Also a very small and abundant species, occurring 
on the outside of windows and outhouses and also on 
walls and palings. It makes no tent-like retreat, and 
the habits are very similar to those of the last species. 
Known also as Theridion denticulatum. 

222. Steatoda bimaculata, Linnaeus. 
Southport (O. P.-C. and A. R. J.). 

The males can be recognized by the sharp spur on 
the coxa of the fourth pair of legs. Known also as 
Theridion bimaculatum and Theridion carolinum, Blackwall. 

223. Steatoda fallens, Blackwall. 

Warrington (L. G., O. P.-C. and A. R. J.). 
This minute spider, pale yellow in colour, often 
with a dark or paler dorsal spot on the abdomen, 
lives beneath the leaves of shrubs and trees laurel, 
elm, lime, etc. where it spins its minute pear-shaped 
pure white egg-sac, which rests on its larger end and 
has several small cusps towards the sharp-pointed end. 
Known also as Theridion fallens. 

224. Steatoda tepidariorum, C. L. Koch. 
Warrington (L. G). 

This large species is one of our commonest spiders 
in conservatories and greenhouses, where the curious 
triangular-shaped female may be seen hanging with 
legs closely gathered to the body in the middle of the 
tangled web. Sometimes, but not often, a few chips 
of dry leaf fallen into the web may be utilized as a 
sort of apology for a tent-like retreat, constructed in 
the case of T. firmosum with elaborate skill. When 
prey of any kind falls into the toils, the spider 
hurries down and with the tarsal comb on the fourth 
pair of legs commences kicking out from the spinners 
a silken fluid, often quite moist like treacle, which 
strikes against and hardens on the victim. In this 
way very large spiders, beetles, and wood-lice are 
ensnared and converted into food. With a rapid and 
irritable movement of the forelegs also, small tufts of 
fine silk are gathered and flung promiscuously over the 
web. The male, a much smaller spider, may be also 
seen hanging near at hand in the web, and the one 
or more brown pear-shaped egg-sacs also hang in the 
upper part of the toil. Sometimes these spiders are 
found outside the houses, but rarely amongst the 
shrubs in the open garden. Known also as Theridion 
tepidariorum. 



22$. Pholcmma gibbum, Westring. 

Lancaster( W. F.) ; Southport (A. R. J.). 

DICTYNIM; 

The spiders belonging to this family possess three 
tarsal claws, and the eyes, eight in number, situated 
in two transverse rows, the laterals being in contact. 
The cribellum (or extra pair of spinning organs) and 
the calamistrum (a row of curving bristles on the 
protarsi of the fourth pair of legs) are present in all 
members of the family. They construct a tubular 
retreat with an outer sheet of webbing, which is 
covered with a flocculent silk made with the cala- 
mistrum from threads furnished with the cribellum. 

226. Cinijla similis, Blackwall. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O.P.-C. and 

A.R.J.). 

A very common species in greenhouses, stables, 
and other outhouses. The males may often be found 
wandering about the walls of dwelling-houses after 
nightfall. Known also as Amaunbius similis. 

227. Cintflo fenestralis, Stroem. 

Warrington (L. G.) ; Southport (O. P.-C. and 

A.R.J.). 

A smaller species than the last, and easily dis- 
tinguished by the characters of the genitalia. It is 
found, however, almost exclusively in the open 
country under stones, bark of trees, or the coping 
stones of walls all over the fell districts, whereas 
C. similis is almost entirely confined to the neighbour- 
hood of dwelling-houses and out-buildings. Known 
also as Amaunbius fenestralis and Cintflo atrox, Black- 
wall. 

228. Cintflo ferox, Walckenaer. 
Garstang (L. G.) ; Southport (C. W.). 

A much larger species, shiny black with pale 
markings, found in cellars and also beneath rocks and 
stones on the coast, or in crevices of banks in the 
open country. Known also as Amaunbius ferox. 

229. Dictyna arundinacea, Linnaeus. 
Southport (O. P.-C.). 

A very common species, forming its nest in the 
rush-heads and grass in marshy places. Known also 
as Ergatis benigna. 

230. Dictyna latens, Fabricius. 
Southport (O. P.-C. and A. R. J.). 

A fairly common species, usually found on gorse 
bushes. 

231. Protadia patula, Simon. 

Kirkby, Rev. J. H. Bloom (O. P.-C.). 
A rare species. 



CHERNETES 

CHELIFERID^E 

Out of twenty species of false-scorpions hitherto usually extended wide open when the Arachnid is 

recorded as indigenous to Great Britain, only one is alarmed while it hastens backwards to take shelter, 

recorded from this county. The various species can In spite of this scorpion-like appearance, these little 

be found amongst moss and dead leaves, or beneath creatures are closely allied to the Mites or Acaridea. 
stones and the bark of trees. They are unmistakable 

on account of their possession of a pair of forcipated 2 3 2 - Chthonius rayi, L. Koch. 
palpi, like those of the true scorpion. These are Duddon Vale. 

155 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 
OPILIONES 

The Harvestmen are spider-like creatures with 236. Oligolophus mono, Fabricius. 

eight long legs, the tarsi long and very flexible. Eyes Coniston 
simple, two in number, situated on each side of an 

eye eminence. Body not divided into two distinct Known also as Phalangium morio and 

regions by a narrow pedicle, as in the spiders, urnigerum, Hermann. 
Abdomen segmentate ; breathing apparatus consisting 

of tracheal tubes with external stigmata at the base of 237. Oligolophus agrestis, Meade. 

the fourth pair of legs. Duddon Vale. 

233- Phalangium opiRo, Linnaeus. KnQwn also ^ ^ QRgolopbus 

Blackpool, ephippiger, Simon. 

Known also as Phalangium cornutum, Linnaeus. 

234. Phalangium parietinum, De Geer. 238. Nemastoma lugubre, O. F. Mailer. 

Duddon Vale. Duddon Vak> 

Found in plenty on the walls of outhouses, . . . . . . 

squatting in a small hollow. Its appearance is an ,. Kn wn als , as . ?**!&* lugubre and Nemastma 

infallible sign of the approach of autumn. hmoculatum, Fabncms. 

235 ' ?& Sco. p.-c.). *"- <r ma ch " iomelas ' Hermann " 

Easily known by the long spikes on the eye- 

eminence. Known also as Phalangium cbrysomelas. 



I 5 6 



CRUSTACEANS 

The carcinology of Lancashire is not of a commonplace character. On 
the one hand it appeals for attention by the quaint simplicity of its earlier 
records, on the other by the scientific ardour of its modern exponents. 
Some of the circumstances, however, are rather tantalizing. The highest 
forms of Crustacea are by no means copiously represented, in spite of the 
extensive and diversified sea-board which might be expected to yield them. 
But this seeming advantage is to a great extent neutralized by the volume of 
freshwater and land debris poured into the bays and diffused along the shore 
line from more than one considerable river. 1 Moreover, the naturalists of 
Liverpool University have found it expedient to push their marine investiga- 
tions so far out into the Irish Sea that many of the rarer captures cannot be 
specially credited to this county. Nevertheless its home waters have been 
found to contain numerous species of more or less desirable Entomostraca, and 
are still the field for valuable researches into the relations that exist, or should 
exist, between crustaceans, molluscs, fishes, and men, an affectionate readiness 
to eat one another being observable in all the groups, and only standing in 
need of intelligent regulation. 

Reserving certain earlier authorities for a later stage of this discussion, it 
will be convenient for us to begin with ' The Natural History of Lancashire, 
Cheshire, and the Peak in Derbyshire, by Charles Leigh, Doctor of Physick,' 
which was published at Oxford in the last year of the seventeenth century. 
From the seventh and the ninth chapters, which treat respectively of fishes 
and of birds, something may be gleaned which touches our present subject. 
Concerning fishes Dr. Leigh says, ' The Curious here have a large Field of 
Philosophy to range in, since both the Seas and Rivers in these Counties 
present us almost with an infinite variety of these Creatures.' 3 In the vague 
classification of that twilight era, the natural philosopher counted almost 
everything as fish that came to his net, so long as it came out of the water 
and was not of too insignificant a size. The whale-fish and the jelly-fish, 
the star-fish and the crab-fish, ranged alongside with a miscellaneous host of 
shell-fishes which might be either mollusca or Crustacea. It was not as yet 
understood how incongruous the mixture of all these forms with true fishes 
would appear to later eyes. But in truth from that very mixture we may 
infer a carcinological fauna of considerable interest, as will hereafter be shown. 
A few crustaceans are directly mentioned by Dr. Leigh, though only under 
their vernacular names. Thus he observes, ' The Oyster and Lobster are very 
common, and likewise the Shrimp and Prawn ; the Prawn is a Fish not much 
unlike the Shrimp, but much larger and far better Meat, and in my thought 
the most pleasing of any Shell-Fish whatever ; it generates in Eggs, and of 
these it deposits an infinite number, which by a clammy matter it fastens to 
the Rocks, and piles them one upon another, till they look like a Pyramid 

1 A. Scott, on Plankton Work, Trans. Liverpool Blol. See. xiii. 93 (1899). 3 Op. cit. Book i. p. 130. 

57 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

inverted, and hang like icicles on the Verge of a Penthouse.' l Here we 
have at least three (if not four) species and as many genera of crustaceans 
indicated. A presumption also that other members of the same class were 
observable in the waters of the county arises from Dr. Leigh's various records 
of star-fishes, of ' blebs ' or jelly-fishes, of salmon abounding in the rivers 
Kibble, Lune, Wire or Wyre, and Mersey, as well as from his discussion of 
the barnacle goose and his statement that ' sometimes we have Whales and 
Sturgeons.' No one, perhaps, would have been more surprised than 
Dr. Leigh himself to learn that the parasitic or semi-parasitic companions of 
his multifarious ' fishes ' could be lawfully and properly classed along with 
the shrimp and the prawn. His apparently strange coupling together of 
the oyster and the lobster will be explained, and in a certain sense justified, 
later on. The different parasitic organisms will also be noticed under the 
appropriate heads of classification. But the curious will have to range 
in rather a wide field of philosophy before they can find prawns which deposit 
their eggs on the rocks in inverted pyramids or pendent like icicles. For 
Lancashire prawns the process is undoubtedly mythical, whatever the marine 
substance may have been which led Dr. Leigh to imagine it. 

From the above-mentioned more or less garrulous work at the opening 
of the eighteenth century to the prim catalogue by Isaac Byerley at the 
middle of the nineteenth, is a scientific stride of considerable importance. 
Yet, so far as the Crustacea are concerned, Byerley's Fauna of Liverpool is 
not a little disappointing to a student of Lancashire zoology, since most 
of the localities specified are outside the boundaries of the county. 
That the author's list of species is trustworthy depends not so much on 
any intrinsic evidence, as on the fact that the animals named are common 
and easily identified, and on the circumstance that most of them have 
been subsequently again observed by expert investigators of the same region. 
In contrast to several other maritime counties of England, Lancashire 
allows the Malacostraca, which are of primary rank in the class, to take a 
somewhat secondary place in its fauna. Especially, as already suggested, 
the Brachyura or crabs, which are the leading members of the leading sub- 
class, are here but poorly represented. The ' arch-fronted ' Cyclometopa 
supply in the family Cancridas the well-known Cancer pagurus (Linn.), the 
great eatable crab, of which Byerley says that it is ' rather a plentiful species 
here, but seldom of large size ' ; 2 in the family Portunidas, Carcinus mcenas 
(Linn.), the common shore crab, mentioned by Byerley as 'very common 
upon the shores everywhere,' s and frequently referred to in the reports of the 
Liverpool Marine Biology Committee; Portunus depurator (Linn.), the cleanser 
swimming crab, according to Byerley ' common both in tide pools and in 
deeper water,' and according to A. O. Walker ' abundant everywhere ; 
generally on stony ground 3 to 7 fath. ' ; * Polybius hensloivii (Leach), men- 
tioned incidentally by Professor Herdman as by universal consent one of the 
worst enemies of the shrimp ; 5 and, lastly, in the family Corystidae, Corystes 
cassivelaunus (Pennant), the masked crab, which A. O. Walker speaks of as 
' not uncommon on sandy ground at various depths and between tide marks 
throughout the district.' 6 These five crabs are easily discriminated one from 

i Loc. cit. p. 134. Op. cit. p. 51 (1854). Ibid. 

4 Trans. Bio/. Sec. Liverpool, vi. 97 (1892). " Loc. cit. p. 25. 6 Loc. cit. p. 97. 

158 



CRUSTACEANS 

the other. The great eatable crab has a carapace much broader than long, 
with its anterior margin cut into nine lobes on either side external to the 
orbits, while the masked crab has the carapace notably longer than broad, 
with some lateral denticles, and on its back in low relief of natural sculpture 
the lineaments of a human face. On the other hand the three Portunidas 
show no great differences in the length and breadth of the carapace. They 
are called swimming crabs because of their agility in natation, which is 
promoted by the flattened blade-like termination of their fifth pair of legs. 
The shore crab, however, which is a rapid walker and tolerant of the open 
air, is distinguished from the other two by having its fifth pair of toes very 
moderately expanded. They all have the anterior margin on each side cut 
into five teeth outside the orbits, but while in the cleanser crab these teeth 
are prominent, in the nearly orbicular carapace of ' Henslow's swimming 
crab ' they are flattened, so as only slightly to interrupt the circle. Distinctive 
characters may be drawn also from the dentation of the ' front,' that part of 
the anterior margin which lies between the orbits. In the Catometopa the 
front is more or less bent downward. Within this tribe is the family Gone- 
placidas, with the species Goneplax angulata (Fabricius), the angular crab, 
which Mr. A. O. Walker records with what looks like an air of doubt and 
suspicion, ' One specimen said to have occurred at Southport (C. H. Brown). 
A Mediterranean species.' * It occurs in fact much nearer home than the 
Mediterranean, being not uncommon in the waters of South Devon, but there 
is reason to think that it is scarce in northern seas. Byerley speaks of 
' specimens taken rarely in shrimp-nets,' 2 without specifying any locality. 
Its quadrate carapace, its long-stalked eyes, and special colouring would not 
allow it to be easily mistaken. In the male the chelipeds are also of striking 
elongation. Any doubt as to its occurrence at Southport is probably based 
not on any question of identification, but on the possibility that the specimen 
seen may have been imported by fishermen from a distant cruise. In the 
family Pinnotheridas, Byerley records Pinnotheres pisum (Linn.) as ' very 
common in Muscles and Modioli,' and adds that ' the females from the latter 
are often very large.' s Whether Byerley selected the correct specific name 
it is impossible to say. His remark on the size of the females would rather 
point to Pinnotheres veferum (Bosc.). But as the waters of Lancashire abound 
in the molluscs whose shells are frequented by these little soft-coated crabs, 
there is little doubt that both species are to be found in the district. 

The Macrura anomala are not particularly demonstrative in this region, 
although the hermit, Eupagurus bernhardus (Linn.), is 'abundant every- 
where,' * and the so-called porcelain crabs, which are not true crabs, are 
evidently also plentiful. Byerley and Walker both represent the broad-clawed 
Porcellana platycheles (Pennant) as less common than its narrow-armed con- 
gener, P. longicornis (Linn.), Byerley supplying the information, presumably 
founded on experiment, that the former species ' seems to live for a long 
time in captivity, even with a small quantity of sea-water.' 6 

The genuine Macrura, or long-tailed Decapoda, including crawfishes, 
crayfishes, lobsters, prawns, and shrimps, make a fairer show than the two 
preceding groups. It is allowable perhaps to assign to the fauna of Lancashire 

1 Loc. cit. p. 96. 2 Fauna of Liverpool, p. 5 1 . 8 Ibid. 

* Trans. Liverpool Bio/. Sac. vi. 98. 8 Fauna of Liverpool, p. 52. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

an interesting member of the burrowing family Callianassidas, Upogebia deltaura 
(Leach), on the faith of Mr. Andrew Scott's account that 'An almost perfect 
specimen of this curious lobster-like crustacean, measuring two inches in 
length, was found in the stomach of a haddock caught on the off-shore station 
between Lancashire and the Isle of Man, 13 March, 1901. The Upogebia 
had evidently just been swallowed by the fish, as it was perfectly fresh, and 
the gastric juices had not had time to act upon the carapace.' 1 Another 
crustacean, which must be rather credited to the district than to any particular 
spot of tenancy, is the common sea crawfish, Palinurus vu/garis (Latreille). 
This has a kind of antiquarian interest; for when Dr. Leigh, as already 
quoted, in discussing the inhabitants of these waters, remarks that ' the Oyster 
and Lobster are very common,' and goes on to speak of prawns and shrimps, 
the oyster seems to be unaccountably introduced into very inappropriate 
company. It happens, however, that Borlase, in his Natural History of 
Cornwall, has supplied the same combination, but in a more intelligible and 
explanatory fashion. He compares the 'Long Oyster (the Locusta marina 
Aldrovandi de Crustat. chap. 2, tab. 2) ' with the lobster, 2 and, to make the 
explanation still more satisfactory, we find Conrad Gesner at a much earlier 
date writing ' Ostreorum nomen, ut abunde explicavimus, non raro com- 
muniter genus totum testatorum complectitur.' 8 Hence we may safely infer 
that the oyster, or long oyster, when compared by old writers with the 
lobster, signifies not the well-known mollusc, but the marine crawfish, which 
is distinguished from the lobster by much brighter colouring, much less 
powerful front feet, larger mandibles, and the spiny peduncles of its long and 
strong second antennas. As for Astacus gammarus (Linn.), the common 
lobster, so often erroneously called Homarus vu/garis, it is interesting to note 
once more that Dr. Leigh speaks of it as ' very common,' whereas Byerley 
makes the rather surprising statement, ' Many years since one of this species 
was caught at Hilbre by Mr. C. Robin. Some of the oldest fishermen 
remember that they were formerly caught there, but very rarely, as well as 
many other creatures now no longer found, the ledges between the rocks 
being silted up with sand and affording less harbour.'* The implication is 
that in 1854 the lobster had ceased to belong to the known fauna of Liver- 
pool. That this loss has since been repaired may be judged from Mr. Andrew 
Scott's chapter 'On the Spawning of the Common Lobster,' in which he says, 
' The usual process by which the eggs of the common lobster of the British 
coasts are shed and conveyed to the swimmerets appears to have been hitherto 
unknown. The following notes based on observation made at the Piel 
Hatchery may therefore be of interest.' As to the interest there can indeed 
be no question, but the whole account is too long for quotation ; only one or 
two points may here be mentioned. ' As the eggs leave the oviducts they 
become coated with an adhesive substance which causes them to stick together 
and to the swimmerets. The period of oviposition in the lobster under 
observation was just over four hours.' The eggs when extruded are quite 
soft, of an opaque dark green colour, with a thin transparent shell. They 
were i'8 millimetres, or a fourteenth of an inch, in diameter. 6 

1 Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc. xv. 345 (1901). s Op. cit. p. 274 (1758). 

3 De jiyuatilibus, p. 653 (1558, Edition 1604). * Fauna of Liverpool, 52. 

6 Trans, Liverp. Biol. Soc. xvii. 106 (1903). 
1 60 



CRUSTACEANS 

The lobster belongs to the family Nephropsida?, so called from Nepbrops 
norwegicus (Linn.), the Norway lobster, common in northern waters, but 
apparently not definitely recorded from any actual point in this county. The 
nearly allied family of the Potamobiidce supplies the river crayfish, Potamobius 
pallipes (Lereboullet), often less accurately called Astacus fluviatilis, about 
which Huxley wrote his celebrated book, The Crayfish, as an introduction to 
the study of zoology. It is rather singular that his inquiries as to the dis- 
tribution of this species in England should have been comparatively unsuc- 
cessful. In his sixth chapter, after noticing that crayfishes are abundant in 
some of our rivers, he goes on to remark that ' they appear to be absent from 
many others,' and says, ' I cannot hear of any, for example, in the Cam or 
the Ouse, on the east, or in the rivers of Lancashire and Cheshire, on the 
west.' In regard to one of these localities, however, his knowledge was 
subsequently widened by a letter from ' Giggleswick School, near Settle, 
Yorkshire, 28th June, 1886,' which reads as follows : ' Dear Prof. Huxley, I 
have read in Chapter VI. of your book on the crayfish that you had not heard 
of any in the rivers of Lancashire. Yesterday I went to Ling-Gill one of 
the first affluents of Ribble (which even in Yorkshire we count as a Lanca- 
shire river) and I am trying to keep them alive. I shall be glad to send you 
one if you will tell me where to send it. Yours faithfully, Arthur Style.' 
Though from the wording of the letter this intelligent and observant school- 
boy appears to be offering Huxley one of the affluents of the Ribble, it is 
clear that Huxley accepted the spirit of the communication as a trustworthy 
assurance that the river crayfish had been found in Lancashire. The letter 
itself was given to me on 10 April, 1902, by my lamented friend, the late 
Professor G. B. Howes, F.R.S., Huxley's assistant and successor at the Royal 
College of Science. Professor Howes assured me that the letter was taken 
from Huxley's own copy of his book, and it still bears the marks of an honour- 
able adhesion. 

The tribe Caridea is a great group, including not all, but the majority 
of the prawns and shrimps that have commercial value, along with many 
that from smallness or rarity do not influence our markets. This tribe 
occupies a prominent place in the marine zoology of Lancashire, although 
only seven or eight species can be definitely claimed for its coasts, and only 
two or three of these have any mercantile importance. In the family 
Crangonidse there are two species, Crangon vulgaris (Fabricius), emphatically 
the common shrimp, perhaps in England the most familiarly known of all 
crustaceans, and Crangon allmanni (Kinahan), the channel-tailed shrimp, dis- 
tinguished from the other by the longitudinal dorsal groove or channel in the 
penultimate segment of the tail. Professor Herdman, in the Fifth Annual 
Report of the Liverpool Biological Station, speaking of the year 1891, says, 
' In January, in all localities, the shrimps were smaller than in the previous 
years ; the weather was colder, frosty.' Mr. Ascroft writes from Lytham in 
February ' that there are a great number of Crangon allmani among the 
shrimps.' 1 Only a naturalist would be likely to notice the difference, and 
probably neither a naturalist nor an epicure could tell one species from 
another by his palate. With the capture of these shrimps some unexpectedly 
perplexing questions are connected. The ground that suits the shrimps is 

1 Trans. Liverp. Bio/. Sue. vi. 25 (1892). 
I l6l 21 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

also the ground that suits a number of small flat fishes, and the unthinking 
trawl catches indiscriminately the edible shrimps, the useless solenettes (Solea 
luted), and the young soles (Solea vulgaris) in their unprofitable stage. 
Professor Herdman has suggested that the clearing off of solenettes by the 
shrimp-trawlers may be indirectly beneficial to the young soles, which will 
thereby have fewer enemies and less competition in pursuit of food. 1 But in 
1895 he writes, 'The statistics of hauls taken during the past year from the 
steamer show once more, if any showing is still needed, that that destructive 
engine the shrimp-trawl brings up along with a miserably small number of 
shrimps, an astonishingly large number of young food fishes. On 2 November, 
off the Kibble estuary, with 5 quarts of shrimps were taken over 5,000 
undersized food fishes. On the same date, off Blackpool, with ij quarts of 
shrimps were 10,000 fish ; on 24 October, in Heysham Lake, with 2 quarts 
of shrimps were 4,000 plaice about 4 inches long ; and so on. Of course 
it is satisfactory to know that there are so many young fish on the ground, but 
it is deplorable that for the sake of a quart or two of shrimps several thousands 
of young fish should run some risk of being sacrificed.' 3 As a remedy it has 
been proposed that the net should not be attached to the frame, which stirs 
up the mud, but to a bar raised just so far above the frame, that the flat 
fishes may glide away beneath the net while the more excitable shrimps leap 
into it. To the plan of restoring the young fishes to the sea it is objected 
that only very few of them would be likely to survive the rough handling 
they meet with in the process. It is difficult to say whether even so they 
may not as provender for other animals by transmigration of bodies ultimately 
become serviceable to man. This is no more than a pious hope. It should 
not make the fishing industry deaf to that wisdom of the ancients which 
pronounces that wilful waste makes woful want. 

In the family Pandalidae the species Pandalus montagul (Leach), often 
less correctly spoken of as P. annullcornis, is probably the prawn on which 
Dr. Leigh bestows so high a gastronomic commendation. Byerley says of 
it, ' This species, which is the plentiful edible prawn (or locally ' sprawn ') 
of our district, has often been mistaken for the young condition of the true 
one.' 8 By ' the true one' he evidently intends Leander serratus (Pennant), 
of the family Palaemonida?, the common prawn of some districts, though not 
of all, as shown by Byerley's own remarks upon it, which follow the state- 
ment just quoted. He says that it is 'by no means common. Sometimes 
the fishermen may bring in from twelve to twenty amongst a hamper-full of 
the former species.' Similarly, A. O. Walker says of the Pandalus, 'abundant 
everywhere on stony ground,' but of Leander terrains, ' stony ground ; not 
abundant.' 4 The more modern writers appear to know nothing of ' sprawn ' 
as a local name for P. montagui, invariably in the vernacular calling it ' the 
shank.' Professor Herdman supplies the information that it ' feeds to a large 
extent on Sabellaria alveolata a worm which builds up masses of rock by 
cementing together sand grains as the stomach contains usually numerous 
setae, occasionally the remains of the worm itself,' besides several other items 
of a miscellaneous banquet. 6 Another prawn, Pasiphtza sivado (Risso), 
belonging not to the family Pensida? in which Byerley places it, but to the 

1 Op. cit. vii. 1 16, 118 (1893). * Op. cit. ix. 152 (1895). s Fauna of Liverpool, 53. 

* Trans. Liverp. Bio/. Soc. vi. 101 (1892). * Ibid. viii. 74 (1894). 

162 



CRUSTACEANS 

Pasiphaeida?, is made the subject of the following note in the Fauna of 
Liverpool, ' This, which appears to be a rare British species, has been 
given to me by a Dee fisherman. All the Hoylake men know it, and say 
that they may, on an average, meet with one in a week. The specimen is in 
the Royal Institution Museum.' 1 That the naturalist should prize one prawn 
above another because it comes more seldom into the net, is a species of 
idolatry or form of foolishness which the ordinary fisherman is very unwilling 
to encourage. Mr. A. O. Walker also records P. sivado from the ' Mouths 
of the Dee and Mersey, scarce.' But if every fishing boat finds on an 
average one every week, the scarcity for scientific purposes is rather artificial 
than real. From the shrimps and from one another the three prawns above 
named are easily distinguished. The shrimps alone have the first pair of 
legs sub-chelate, by which is meant that the penultimate joint or ' hand ' is 
not produced into an elongate process or ' thumb ' more or less parallel with 
the last joint or ' finger." The finger folds down on the distal margin of the 
hand. In Pandalus montagui the first legs are provided with minute chela?. 
In Leander the nippers are well developed, and in Pasiphcea they attain a 
conspicuous length, both finger and thumb being strikingly denticulate along 
their confronting margins, with curved apices which cross one another when 
the chela is closed. This species, like the shrimps, has an insignificant 
rostrum, while both the other prawns are armed with a long dentate frontal 
horn. In general aspect all the three differ among themselves considerably, 
owing to the superior size of Leander serratus and the singular lateral 
compression of the Pasiphcea. From the family Hippolytidas Messrs. F. W. 
Keeble and F. W. Gamble attribute more than one species to this county. 
Part of their work on the colour physiology of Hippolyte variant (Leach) 
was done at the Piel Laboratory, and they say, ' Hippolyte variant is one of the 
few Crustacea which may be considered abundant in the neighbourhood of 
Piel. It keeps for the most part to beds of weeds below low-water mark, 
and hence its habits have largely to be learnt from specimens in captivity.' 
They found that ' fresh weed or the dead bodies of its fellows serve Hippolyte as 
food.' In the Barrow Channel, they say, 'Shades of brown and yellow are abun- 
dant, whilst green and red are sometimes common, sometimes rare. With the 
large Halidrys siliquosa a dark brown variety is associated ; among the fine 
Polyzoon (Bowerbankici) which clothes the lower parts of the Halidrys stems, 
a speckled variety of Hippolyte occurs : in the tide-pools of Foulney Island the 
green variety, and it alone, is found among the Zostera? As a result of their 
experiments they say, ' We have arrived at the conclusion that there are two 
colour-phases in Hippolyte variant ; one diurnal, the other nocturnal. The 
recurrence of these phases is to some extent independent of the conditions of 
illumination, although the colour itself may be profoundly influenced by 
varying the quality and intensity of the incident light, and also by other 
stimuli, which do not act through the eye.' Lastly they say, ' The species 
of Crustacea we worked with have been kindly identified by A. O. 
Walker, Esq. From the very limited fauna of Piel shore it may be of 
interest to give the list, which, however, is not quite complete. Hippolyte 
variant (Leach), common, just below the level of ordinary spring tides. 
Hippolyte fascigera (Gosse), a doubtful species; almost certainly a variety of 

1 P . dt. 53. 
163 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

H. variant. Hippolyte cranchii and Hippolyte pusiola (Kroyer), less common, 
but occurring with the foregoing. A species of My sis which gave interesting 
results and which occurs with Hippolyte has been determined as Mysis neglecta 
(G. O. Sars).' * These three or four species are too small to be of any direct 
commercial importance. The tufts of hair on the body of H. fascigera, to 
which the specific name alludes, are easily detached, and when a specimen 
becomes bald there is apparently nothing left to distinguish it from H. variant? 
On the other hand there are weightier characters which may justify the 
assignment of the two remaining species to a separate genus. Hippolyte^ in the 
restricted sense, has a proper cutting edge to the mandible, but no palp, and 
the fifth joint or ' wrist ' in its second pair of legs is subdivided into only 
three pieces or subarticulations. In contrast to this the genus Spirontocaris 
(Bate) has a palp to the mandible, but the cutting edge is rudimentary, and 
in the second pair of legs the ' wrist ' is seven-jointed. It is with these latter 
conditions that H. cranchii and H. pusiola appear to comply, so that they 
should rather stand under the generic name Spirontocaris? 

The occurrence of Mysis neglecta introduces us to the sub-order Schizopoda, 
or cleft-footed Malacostraca. They derive their name from a feature which 
is not exclusively theirs, since trunk-legs with two branches are to be found 
in all the malacostracan sub-orders. The family Mysidas is in one respect 
very peculiar, inasmuch as the members of it have no true branchiae. 
Mr. Andrew Scott, in his observations on the habits and food of young fishes, 
says that plaice and flounders ranging from two-fifths to three-fifths of an inch 
in length make their diet almost entirely of Copepoda, but later on the stomachs 
of the smaller flat fishes ' from one inch up to four inches in length, captured 
on the shores of our neighbourhood, are usually almost entirely filled with 
Mysis,' and the young of many round fishes also feed on the same little 
shrimp. 4 For Mysis neglecta the name Praunus neglectus is to be preferred. 

Leaving the stalk-eyed Malacostraca we now pass on to the sessile-eyed 
division, containing three sub-orders, the Sympoda, Isopoda, and Amphipoda. 
The Sympoda, formerly called Cumacea, have characters which connect them 
pretty closely with the preceding podophthalmous division. In examining 
the food found in the various fishes Mr. A. O. Walker was able to identify 
Pseudocuma longicorne (Bate), sometimes called P. cercaria (van Beneden),from 
plaice and pogge taken at Morecambe, and Diastylis rathkii (Kroyer) from 
solenette at Blackpool. 6 The former of these species belongs to the family 
Pseudocumidas, in which the terminal tail-piece or telson is distinct, but small 
and unarmed. The other species belongs to the family Diastylidae, which 
have a well-developed telson ending in two spines. 6 

The Isopoda of the county have not yet found a collector with the 
enthusiasm which any thorough and effective knowledge of this sub-order 
imperiously demands. They differ from all the rest of the Malacostraca that 
have been here mentioned by the position of the breathing organs. These 
in the genuine Isopoda are supplied by the pleopods, appendages of the pleon 
or tail, instead of being connected (as in almost all the other groups) with 

1 Trans. Livetp. B'tol. Sue. xiii. 150, 152, 153 (1899). 
3 A. O. Walker, Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 7, vol. iii. 147 (1899). 
8 Stebbing, Hist, of Crustacea, Internal. Scientific Ser. Ixxiv. 234, 236 (1893). 
* Trans. Liverp. Bid. Soc. xiii. 90, 91, 92 (1899). 

6 Op. cit. vii. 113, 114 (1893). 6 See further in Hist, of Crustacea, 307, 310. 

164 



CRUSTACEANS 

appendages that precede the pleon. Byerley speaks of Limnoria Hgnorum 
(J. Rathke), the gribble, under the later and now discarded name L.terebrans, 
and says that ' the wooden piles of the Rock lighthouse are completely drilled 
by this species.' 1 Mr. Andrew Scott, discussing surface collections in the 
vicinity of the Lancashire coast, says ' On a warm day, when the sea is calm, 
numbers of Eurydice may be seen disporting themselves on the surface. In 
their movements they are not unlike the " whirligig " beetle of the freshwater- 
ponds.' 8 The species is not specified, but probably Eurydice achata (Slabber), 
often called E. pulchra (Leach), was the one observed. It is a curious cir- 
cumstance that dead specimens of this family when put into liquid often 
display the same whirligig movements as those executed by the live animals, 
from which it may be inferred that, when the creature is introduced to the 
surface film of the water, the structure of its body has something to do with 
the mode of motion independently of its will. Mr. A. O. Walker mentions 
Sphceroma serratum (Fabricius) from the stomach of a cod at Piel Island, and 
from that of a whiting at Morecambe, and Idotea marina (Linn.), also from a 
whiting at Morecambe. Though it does not seem to be specially recorded, 
the occurrence of Hemiartbrus abdominalis (Kroyer), so commonly parasitic 
beneath the pleon of Pandalus montagui, may almost be taken for granted. Of 
terrestrial Isopoda, or woodlice, strange to say, I have only found a single 
record, that of Oniscus murarius, another name for the very common O. asellus 
(Linn.), which Byerley oddly includes among the ' Myriopoda,' with the 
unimpeachable comment that it is ' very abundant about walls, rubbish, and 
damp localities.' 8 

The Amphipoda are associated with the Isopoda in classification on 
account of certain obvious points of resemblance. The two sub-orders, 
besides being alike edriophthalmous or sessile-eyed, agree also in the distinctly 
tri-partite arrangement of the body. The consolidation of head and trunk 
which prevails in crabs and lobsters here gives place to a severance of the 
cephalic division from a seven-segmented middle body or perason. The 
Sympoda make an approach to this arrangement by having five segments 
between the head and tail uncovered by the carapace. It is these five 
segments which throughout the Malacostraca must be considered as normally 
leg-bearing segments. But in the Isopoda and Amphipoda the two pre- 
ceding segments also carry legs, instead of having their appendages, as 
generally elsewhere, converted into mouth-organs. In some respects, however, 
the Amphipoda differ greatly from the Isopoda. They are usually com- 
pressed from side to side instead of being dor so- vent rally depressed. The 
appendages of the pleon are three pairs of pleopods with rami, as a rule 
flexible and many jointed, and three pairs of uropods with inflexible rami, 
not many jointed. In the Isopoda there are five pairs of pleopods and one pair 
of uropods, the flexible many-jointed condition being found only in the 
uropods, and there as an anomalous character. Above all, the Amphipoda 
are distinguished by the simple, or comparatively simple, branchial vesicles 
attached to some limbs of the peraeon, and by the forward position 
of the heart, in contrast to the Isopoda, among which the heart (except 
in the anomalous group) is carried towards the rear in connection 
with the branchial system of the pleopods. When diligently searched 

l fauna of Liverpool, 56. 2 Trans. Llverp. Bio/. Soc. viii. 96 (1899). 8 Fauna of Liverpool, in. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

for the purpose, the Lancashire coast will probably yield many more 
species of Amphipoda than can as yet with certainty be assigned 
to it. Mr. A. O. Walker records ' Ampelisca brevicornis (Costa) = 
A. Itevigata (Lilljeborg),' as taken ' off Southport, 10 to 20 f., June '91. 
Eyes crimson with a scarlet line behind them, and five black stellate spots 
behind that. Lower part of head having a scarlet cloud extending to the 
first epimere. Remainder of body transparent white with scattered black 
stellate spots. Length 13mm.' 1 Of Ampelisca spinipes (Boeck), he says, 
' Throughout the L.M.B.C. [Liverpool Marine Biology Committee] district 
in 20 to 50 fath. Length 17 mm. This is the commonest species in the 
district, the preceding one being the next commonest. I have little doubt 
that the species figured as A. gaimardii (Kr.) in the British Sess.-eyed Crust, is 
this species, and not, as Sars supposes, A. typica (Bate). I have examined 
Bate's specimen, in the British Museum, and find both it and the figure to 
confirm this view. The relative proportions of the upper and lower antennas, 
which are correctly drawn, are alone sufficient to show that it cannot be 
A. typica.' * There are, however, some difficulties in the way of accepting 
this view, because it is Bate himself who identified the supposed A . gaimardii 
with his own A. typica, and, though he was mistaken in that identification, 
it is tolerably clear that the description and figures of his species which he 
gave in a succession of works refer all to the same specimen, though not 
necessarily or even probably to the very specimen preserved in the British 
Museum. If it could be proved that A. spinipes (Boeck) is the same species 
as the original A. typica (Bate), the latter name by its earlier date would 
supersede the name given by Boeck. 3 From the stomachs of fishes Mr. 
Walker identified the following amphipods, Bathyporeia pilosa, in plaice and 
whiting at Morecambe ; but it is doubtful whether this was Lindstrom's 
original species of the genus, or one of its near allies, such as B. pelagica 
(Bate) ; Pontocrates arenarius (Bate) in Agonus, the armed bullhead or pogge, 
at Morecambe Bay ; Atylus swammerdamii, which should be called Nototropis 
sivammerdamei (Milne-Edwards), in dab and whiting at Morecambe, in cod at 
Garston ; Gammarus locusta (Linn.), in cod at Garston ; G. marinus (Leach), 
in cod at Morecambe and Piel Island ; Microprotopus macu/atus, Norman, in 
plaice and whiting at Morecambe, and Corophium grossipes (Linn.), more 
properly called C. volutator (Pallas), in cod at Piel Island, and in whiting at 
Morecambe. 4 The same excellent authority records Lafystius sturionis 
(Kroyer), ' one specimen from underneath the pectoral fin of a cod from 
Liverpool Bay (Lancashire Fisheries Laboratories, November, 1893), length 
3 mm.,' B and says of Amathilla homari (Fabricius), ' the young of this species 
is one of the commonest Amphipoda on our coasts in tidal pools during 
spring and early summer'; 6 and of Gammarus pulex (de Geer), that 'it is 
found in brooks and springs up to 700 feet above the sea. Length 16 mm.' 7 
Walker further records ' Podoceropsis excavata (Bate) = Nania rimapalmata] 
8 mm. in length, as taken off Southport, and ' Undo/a planipes, Norman = 

1 Trans. Liverp. Bio/. Sac. ix. 299 (1895). * Ibid. p. 298. 

8 See Bate in Ann. Nat. Hist. (Ser. 2), xix. 139 (1857) ; in White's Popular Hist. Brit. Crust, p. 171, 

. 10, fig. 4 (1857) ; in Brit. Sess. Crust, i. 127, fig. in text (1862) ; Cat. Amphipodous Crust. 91, pi. 15, 
j. i (1862) ; Sars, Crustacea of Norway, i. 165, pi. 57 (1891). 

4 Trans. Liverp. Biol. Soc. vii. 113, 114 (1893). & Op. cit. ix. 304. 

6 Ibid. p. 307. 7 ibid. 

166 



CRUSTACEANS 

U. leucopis (Kr.), Bate and Westwood,' 5-5 mm. long, as taken in 10 to 20 
fathoms, also off Southport. Pariambus typicus (Kroyer), formerly called by 
a pre-occupied name Podalirius, is reported as occurring throughout Liverpool 
Bay on the common starfish Asterias rubens? 

The Amphipoda, as at present known, are divided into three principal 
groups Gammaridea, Caprellidea, Hyperiidea. The first group is by far the 
largest, and almost certainly that from which the other two have branched 
off. The third group is not represented in our list, but no doubt members 
of it are sometimes to be found, floating about or cast on the shore, domiciled 
in those ' Blebs,' or jelly-fishes, of which Dr. Leigh long ago took notice. 
Of the Caprellidea an example has just been mentioned in the little Pariambus, 
a fifth of an inch long, and very slender, with the fifth pair of legs degraded, 
and the pleon almost obsolete. This poor development of the tail part is 
characteristic of the whole group, and easily explained by the habits of the 
various species. It is all the more notable by contrast with this part of the 
body in the other two groups, where for different reasons the pleon is, as a 
rule, particularly conspicuous and important. Whether the whales which 
Dr. Leigh has recorded brought with them to Lancashire any of their 
parasites, the Cyamidas, is matter for conjecture. These little companions of 
the whale belong to the same tribe Caprellidea, and show a remarkable agree- 
ment with the skeleton-shrimps of the companion family Caprellidas, except 
in the one particular that they are much more substantially built. 

The Entomostraca of Lancashire, although as yet far from exhaustively 
investigated, offer already a rather large number of species, in regard to which 
some brevity of treatment must be excused. An outline of the general 
classification shows three orders the Branchiopoda with branchial feet, the 
Ostracoda, shut up in shell-valves, the Copepoda with rowing feet. Some, 
however, of the Branchiopoda have shell-valves like the Ostracoda, while 
some are entirely without them. Some use their feet for rowing like the 
Copepoda, but others have locomotive antennae. One division, the Bran- 
chiura, has been as it were tossed to and fro between the Branchiopoda and 
the Copepoda, and, according to yet a third opinion, should be allowed an 
independent position between them. For the student bent upon sorting his 
specimens correctly these facts may seem unpleasantly perplexing, but they 
help to teach us that groups in some respects strangely dissimilar are never- 
theless closely united by bonds of relationship. To the order or sub-order 
Branchiura there belongs in England only the little greenish, almost circular, 
fish parasite Argulus foliaceus (Linn.), in which one pair of maxillae are trans- 
formed from jaws into suckers. Mr. Andrew Scott records it ' on trout from 
the Kibble, which were sent to University College, Liverpool, for examina- 
tion.' 2 It makes its meals on various freshwater fishes and even on tadpoles. 
Mr. Charles Branch Wilson observes as to species in the United States of 
America that ' ordinarily the Argulidas roam about so freely as to occasion 
little discomfort to their hosts. They change frequently from one fish to 
another, and must of necessity desert their hosts at the breeding seasons, since 
their eggs are deposited upon some convenient surface at or near the bottom, 
and are not carried about with them. Any fish, therefore, no matter how 
badly it may be infested, has a chance three times a year to get comparatively 

1 Op. cit. p. 313. 2 Op. cit. xv. 348 (1901). 

167 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

well rid of its argulid parasites.' 1 The late Professor Claus, in reference to 
the similar habits of European species, applied to them the term ' intermittent 
parasites.' In his opinion, however, it is not so much breeding as a surfeit 
of feeding that induces them to leave their living tables. 

A much more numerously represented and more familiar sub-order, the 
Cladocera or antlered branchiopods, derives its name from the character of 
the second antennas, which are as a rule two-branched, with setae on the 
branches to augment their swimming power. To prevent our being too 
presumptuously sure of anything, nature is fond of introducing unexpected 
exceptions. Accordingly, there is one very singular member of this group, 
Holopedium gibberum (Zaddach), reported by Mr. Conrad Beck from Lake 
Windermere, 2 in which the female has the second antennas not branched 
but simple. This species belongs to, and in fact of itself in this county 
constitutes, the family Holopediidas, having the animal remarkably clothed 
in a very large gelatinous involucre. The remaining records belong to a 
different section of the Cladocera and are distributed among three families. 
All the names appear to have been supplied to Byerley by Mr. W. H. 
Weightman, whose notices will be quoted, with occasional comments made 
necessary by changes in technical nomenclature since Byerley's work was 
published. The accepted authority for each species is also here appended, 
there being a fair general probability that the specific names given by 
Mr. Weightman were correctly identified. In the family Daphniidas, we 
have Daphnia pulex (de Geer), ' in various ponds and ditches; sometimes, 
when of a red colour and very numerous, giving the water quite a blood-like 
tinge'; D. -vetula, now called Simosa vefu/a (O. F. Miiller), 'occasionally met 
with both in Wirral and Lancashire : in ponds at Litherland and Scaris- 
brick'; D. rotunda, now Ceriodaphnia rotunda (Strauss), from 'ponds in 
Lancashire.' In the family Bosminidae, Bosmina longirostris (O. F. Miiller) 
has been observed ' in the brook that divides Seaforth from Litherland.' In 
the family Chydoridas, often erroneously called Lynceidae, Mr. Weightman 
thus notices the little universally distributed Chydorus spharicus (O. F. 
Miiller): 'Pond near Woodchurch, June, 1852. Has bred freely in my 
Vallisneria jar. Pond at Roby.' On Acroperus nanus, now Alonella nana 
(Baird), the remark is made, ' Mr. Weightman met with one specimen at 
Aintree bearing much resemblance to this species, but larger than it is 
described in Baird's work.' He found Alona quadrangular is (O. F. Miiller) 
'in the Litherland neighbourhood'; Pleuroxus trigonellus (O. F. Miiller) 
' tolerably plentiful in the same pond with the last species, but none of the 
specimens were striated as in Baird's British Entomostraca ' ; Peracantha 
truncata (O. F. Miiller), at 'Waterloo, October, i85i.' s The ephippium 
or case in which the winter egg of Bosmina longirostris is sheltered during its 
resting stage has recently been described by Mr. D. J. Scourfield, and shown 
to differ in some respects from the better known ephippium of the 
Daphniidas. 4 

A few Ostracoda are catalogued by Mr. Weightman as belonging to this 
county. He names Cypris monacha from Waterloo, C. minuta from Roby, 

1 Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, 1904, xxiv. 1 18. 

3 Journ. R. Microscopical Soc. (Ser. 2), iii. 780 (1883). 8 Fauna of Liverpool, 53, 54. 

4 Journ. Quekett Microscopical Club (Ser. z), viii. 51 (1901). 

168 



CRUSTACEANS 

C. elliptica from ponds in Lancashire, and Candona reptans as found at Scaris- 
brick, 1 all these being, like his Cladocera, freshwater species. The first of 
them is now called Notodromas monac ha (O. F. Miiller). Cyprisminuta (Baird) 
is recognised as a synonym of Cyclocypris faevis (O. F. Miiller) ; C. elliptica 
(Baird) retains its name, but Baird's Candona reptans has been transferred to 
the genus Erpetocypris (Brady and Norman), its generic and its specific name 
now alike pointing to the fact that this species has lost the power of swimming, 
and is content to crawl and creep. Cypris obliqua (Brady) has been taken by 
Dr. Brady in High Cross Tarn, Coniston. 8 All the preceding species belong 
to the family Cypridids. In the family Cytheridae, Lancashire has several 
species of the genus Cythere (O. F. Miiller), namely, C. lutea (Miiller) from 
Scarphole Scar, near Duddon ; C. pellucida (Baird), described by Brady and 
Norman as essentially a brackish-water species, obtained by Mr. Andrew Scott 
at Piel ; C, gibbosa (Brady and Robertson) from the same locality ; and 
C. Robertsoni (Brady) from the mussel beds at Morecambe. Cytheridea elongata 
(Brady) was obtained at Morecambe by Scott, and C. torosa (Rupert Jones) by 
Dr. Norman at Crossens. 8 Loxoconcha impressa (Baird) is recorded by Scott 
from Piel ; L. guttata (Norman) from Morecambe ; L. tamarindus (R. Jones) 
from Piel and Duddon ; this species having been also earlier supplied to Brady 
by Mr. E. C. Davison from the River Ribble. 4 Cytherura sella (Sars) is 
reported by Scott from Piel and Morecambe ; C. striata (Sars) from More- 
cambe ; C. angulata (Brady) from Piel ; C. nigrescent (Baird) from Piel ; 
C. cellulosa (Norman) from Morecambe. Cytheropteron latissimum (Norman) 
is recorded by Brady as found by E. C. Davison ' in shell-sand from the River 
Ribble,' 6 and C. humile (Brady and Norman), described by those authors as 'a 
most remarkable little species, on account of the excessive width as compared 
with the height,' 6 is recorded by A. Scott from near Piel. Sclerocbilus con- 
tortus (Norman) was found by Scott in the mussel beds of Piel, Duddon, and 
Morecambe ; Cytheridea subulata (Brady) at Piel ; and of the family (or sub- 
family) Paradoxostomatidas the same author has found Paradoxostoma variabile 
(Baird) at Duddon, and at Piel P. abbreviation (Sars), and P.flexuosum (Brady). 
All these species belong to the section of the Ostracoda called Podocopa, a tribe 
in which there is no heart. The species obtained by Mr. A. Scott from the 
mussel beds at Piel, Duddon, and Morecambe were identified for him by his 
father, the veteran expert in Entomostraca, Dr. Thomas Scott, LL.D., F.L.S. 7 
On some of them Mr. Andrew Scott has since published remarks of his own. 
Of Cythere pellucida (Baird) he says : ' This form is very abundant, especially 
during the summer months, on the muddy sandy flats along the coast ; common 
on the mud flats near Piel practically throughout the year.' Of C. porcellanea 
(Brady) he says : ' Usually associated with C. pellucida ; some care has to be 
taken in identifying the two forms owing to the amount of variation that 
occurs amongst the two species ; in the same locality as the last.' Upon 
C. gibbosa (Brady and Robertson) he remarks : ' This ostracod is frequently 
found in gatherings from the mud flats left dry by the receding tide ; associated 
with C. pellucida and C. porcellanea^ but is easily distinguished from either of 

1 Fauna of Liverpool, 54. Trans. Royal Dublin Soc. (Ser. 3), iv. 77 (1889). 

3 Op. cit. p. 175. * Monograph of British Ostracoda, Trans. Linn. Sue. Lond. xxvi. 436 (1868). 

6 Op. cit. p. 448. Trans. Royal Dublin Soc. (Ser. z), iv. 220. 

7 Trans. Liverp. Bio/. Soc. x. 127-131 (1896). 

I 169 22 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

these species : in tidal pools near Piel.' 1 Discussing Cytheropteron humile 
(Brady and Norman) Mr. Scott writes : ' Many specimens of this remarkable 
little ostracod are found by washing water-logged and decayed wood in weak 
spirit, and examining the sediment. My father, who first found the species in 
material dredged in the Clyde, tells me that he always finds it when examining 
the sediment washed from old wood brought up in the trawl net, and remarks 
that it seems to be partial to that kind of habitat. In water-logged wood 
burrowed by wood-boring Crustacea, collected between tide marks in Barrow 
Channel, near Piel, April i8th, 1901.' The wood-boring Crustacea noticed in 
this passage would no doubt be the isopod Limnoria lignorum (J. Rathke) and 
the amphipod Chelura terebrans (Philippi). 

. From the minute forms of the Ostracoda, self-contained in a kind of 
natural boxes which they are able to close tightly over all their appendages, 
we now pass to the much more showy Copepoda. These, however, attain to 
no majesty of size, and, except in some of the parasitic species, are as a rule 
diminutive. But there is a vast variety among them, sometimes great beauty 
of microscopic adornment, and no doubt some of the species attain to con- 
siderable economic importance by the dense masses of individuals with which 
they populate some waters. As to the strictly freshwater denizens of this 
county, it happens that the records are rather scanty, the attention of local 
investigators having been for the time principally fixed upon the marine 
fauna. The chief specialists on this group are not entirely unanimous as 
to the principles on which its internal classification should be based, and 
for the moment the lines which the leading authorities propose to follow are 
not completely mapped out. In arranging the order of our local species we 
are therefore unable to follow any single guide, but must be content with a 
systematic framework as harmonious as the indications already divulged allow 
us to make it. The family Calanidae has recently been much subdivided by 
Professor Sars. Accepted in the wider extension allowed it by Giesbrecht 
and Schmeil, 8 it supplies Lancashire with one of the smallest known Calanids, 
Paracalanus parvus (Claus), from the mussel beds at Piel, 3 and with Stepbos 
gyrans (Giesbrecht), obtained by Mr. A. Scott 'amongst material collected in 
Laminaria bed, near Piel, at a very low ebb.' * Mr. I. C. Thompson speaks 
of ' Pseudocalanus elongatus (Baird) ' as 'very common throughout the district, 
and seldom absent in any tow-net gathering.' 6 The name should properly 
read Pseudocalanus elongatus (Boeck). It is right to mention that the late 
Mr. I. C. Thompson, F.L.S., applied himself with enthusiastic industry to 
investigating the marine Copepoda not only of this county but of all the neigh- 
bouring waters, and that his labours have been supplemented in the same 
productive field by a worthy coadjutor and successor, Mr. Andrew Scott, A.L.S. 
Among the numerous species brought to light by their researches I propose 
as a rule to introduce to the readers of this chapter only those which have 
been definitely assigned to Lancashire localities, with merely an occasional 
reference to those spoken of in general terms as belonging to the district. 

The family Diaptomida?, corresponding with the Centropagidas of Gies- 
brecht and Schmeil, may be credited here with at least four species, namely, 
Diaptomus castor (Jurine), of which ' Mr. Weightman met with specimens of 

1 Op. cit. xv. 347 (1901). s D M Tierrelch, ' Copepoda Gymnoplea' (1898). 

8 Trans. Liverp. Biol. Sac. x. 127. 4 Op. cit. xv. 348 (1901). 6 Op. cit. vii. 181 (1893). 

170 



CRUSTACEANS 

a green variety at Roby in August and September, 1851 ; and a male of a 
very large green variety from a ditch near Seaforth : it was very distinct from 
that caught at Roby, and much more beautiful'; 1 D. hircus (Brady), of 
which the author, Dr. G. S. Brady, F.R.S., remarks, ' I took a few specimens 
only of this, which appears to be a quite distinct species, in Goat Water, a 
tarn lying at a considerable elevation on the side of Coniston Old Man ' ; 2 
femora longicornis (O. F. Miiller) from the mussel beds at Piel, a species of 
which Sars observes that ' it moves in a peculiar revolving manner, and this 
seems to be the case with all the members of this genus ' ; s and Eurytemora 
affinis (Poppe), of which Temorella affinis (Claus) is a synonym, noticed by 
Mr. Thompson in the following terms : ' Length 1-75 mm. A large number 
of this species were taken by tow-net off the sand-banks at the mouth of the 
Mersey in 1886. It was not subsequently recorded in the district until 1891, 
when the filter-beds of the Bootle Corporation baths were found to be swarm- 
ing with it. Mr. Ascroft has since sent me specimens found in tidal pools at 
Lytbam. The males I have found are conspicuous by the number of sper- 
matophores attached to them.' 4 In 1894 Mr. Ascroft found this species 
filling the stomachs of fishes only half an inch long. 6 

The family Cyclopidas appeals in this county for further research. At 
present it claims the vague Cyclops quadricornis, of which the Fauna of Liverpool 6 
says in general terms : ' Common in most ponds and ditches ; all the varieties 
are met with' ; C. abyssorun (G. O. Sars), reported by Brady as 'taken in 
gatherings made by the deep net in Windermere and Coniston Water, but 
by no means plentiful'; 7 C. scourfieldi (Brady), of which the same author 
says, ' My first knowledge of this species was .... derived from specimens 
which I took myself by moonlight in the surface-net at Coniston, in August, 
1883 ; in this gathering it occurred in considerable numbers, as also in a 
subsequent daylight surface-gathering from the same lake ' ; 8 and recently 
he writes : ' The form described by me years ago under the specific name 
scourfieldi has been identified by other authors (Lilljeborg, Herrick, Schmeil) 
with C. kuckarti (Claus). I am doubtful as to the correctness of this identifi- 
cation : both Schmeil and Herrick figure, with differences, peculiar pellucid 
marginal lamina? on the last two joints of the larger antennas. I have been 
unable to detect any such structure in my British specimens of C. scourfieldi, 
neither does it exist in the Natal specimens nor in others from Ceylon, which 
I refer to the same species.' 9 From these remarks the student will readily 
infer that a very close attention to details is exacted by the requirements of 
modern classification. The distribution too of a minute freshwater species 
over several continents, though by no means unexampled, may still excite 
some surprise. Concerning ' Cyclops magnoctavus (Cragin) ' Mr. Thompson 
says : ' One or two specimens of this brackish species were found along with 
quantities of Temorella affinis and Tachidius brevicornis in tow-net gatherings 
sent to me by Mr. Ascroft, taken by him in low-water marine pools at 
Lytham. It is evident that a considerable amount of fresh water finds its 
way into the Lytham pools.' 10 This C. magnoctavus is now regarded as a 

1 Fauna of Liverpool, 55. Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. etc. xi. pt. i. 101 (1891). 

8 Crustacea of Norway, iv. 98 (1903). 4 Trans. L'werp. Biol. Soc. vii. 182. 

6 Op. cit. ix. 107. 6 Op. cit. p. 55. 1 Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. etc., xi. pt. i. 74. 

8 Ibid. p. 76. Proc. Zoo/. Soc. Ltmd. ii. 122 (1904). 10 Trans. Liverp. Biol. Soc. ix. 99. 

171 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

synonym of C. prasinus (Fischer). In 1893 Mr. Thompson described a new 
species under the name Cyclops marinus, of which he says : ' Two specimens 
only, both females, were dredged in 20 fathoms, about 20 miles out from 
Southport Pier.' 1 The name is preoccupied by C. marinus, Prestandrea, 1833, 
a species now transferred to the genus Euchata. Apart from the accident 
of preoccupation, the name chosen by Thompson is in conflict with the 
opinion of Dr. Giesbrecht, whom I consulted on the subject, and who at a 
recent date still refused to believe that any species of Cyclops hitherto 
described could be relied on as exclusively marine. The settlement of this 
point may be commended to the further attention of Lancashire naturalists. 

The Arpacticidae, in the wider sense of the term, have been variously 
divided up into numerous sub-families or families, with which it would be 
inexpedient here to concern ourselves. Distributed over these minor divisions 
are the following Lancashire species : Arpacticus chelifer (O. F. Miiller) is 
recorded by A. Scott from the mussel beds at Piel ; Canuella perplexa (T. and 
A. Scott) from the mussel beds alike of Piel, of Duddon, and of Morecambe ; 
Longipedia minor (T. and A. Scott) from the mussel beds of Morecambe. 3 
With regard to Sunaristes paguri (Hesse) Mr. A. Scott writes : ' This rather 
peculiar and interesting species was obtained by washing the shells of Buccinum 
inhabited by the hermit crabs, Pagurus bernhardus, collected in the trawl-nets 
of the steamer while working in the mouth of the Mersey estuary on the 
23d of July, 1895. It seems to be a comparatively rare species, and so far 
as is known this is only the third time it has been found in British waters. 
From our present knowledge of its distribution it appears to be confined to 
areas having large volumes of brackish water passing over the bottom, and 
has not been found in pure sea-water.' Dr. T. Scott has pointed out the 
relationship between this genus and Longipedia and Canuella? and recently 
his son has described additional species of Sunaristes from the Indian Ocean. 
Mr. Thompson reports several specimens of Ectinosoma normani (T. and 
A. Scott) as obtained by the latter in material from Barrow Channel, 
collected by Professor Herdman, adding that ' when fresh this species has 
a brilliant red spot on the lower angles of the cephalothorax, and in this 
respect it agrees with E. erythrops (Brady).' 4 E. curticorne (Boeck) is reported 
by A. Scott from mussel beds at Piel and Morecambe, and from stomachs 
of young dabs at Blackpool. 5 Bradya minor (T. and A. Scott), reported from 
mussel beds at Morecambe, has been transferred by Sars to a new genus, 
Pseudobradya? Euterpe acutifrons (Dana) from Piel, Tachidius brevicornis 
(O. F. Miiller) from Duddon, Idya furcata (Baird) from Piel and Morecambe, 
are due to the mussel beds, but as to Tacbidius brevicornis, under a thirtieth 
of an inch long, Mr. Thompson should also be quoted. He says : ' Length, 
o'Somm. A brackish water species : we have taken it in quantity from 
material sent by Mr. Dwerryhouse from a brackish tributary of the Mersey 
at Hale.' 7 He adds that the broad square fifth feet of the female serve to 
distinguish it. In describing a new species, Idya elongata, Mr. A. Scott 

1 Op. cit. vii. 1 88. 

* It will perhaps suffice to give here a general reference for the species recorded by Mr. Andrew Scott to 
his papers in the Trans. Liverp. Biol. Soc. x. 127-131, 134-158 (1896), and vol. xv. 348-351. 

8 Ann. Nat. Hist. (Ser. 6), xx. 489 (1897). 4 Trans. Liverp. Biol. Soc. ix. 100. 

6 Op. cit. ix. 109. ' Crustacea of Norway, v. 40 (1904). 

7 Trans. Liverf. Biol. Soc. vii. 192 (1893). 

172 



CRUSTACEANS 

remarks that only a few specimens were obtained * from the mud collected 
on the mussel beds between Morecambe and Heysham,' and that the elongate 
form of the animal, the short first antennas and the small fifth feet are among 
its distinctive characters. Idya minor (T. and A. Scott) was taken by the 
latter at a very low ebb near Piel. Thalestris harpactoides (Claus) has been 
found at Duddon by A. Scott ; Canthocampus minutus Qurine) by Weightman 
at Seaforth. 1 C. palustris (Brady) is thus noticed by Scott : ' A considerable 
number of specimens of a copepod apparently belonging to this species 
were washed from mud adhering to samples of mussels (Mytilus edulis] 
sent from the St. Anne's mussel beds near Lytham ; one of the samples 
was from that part of the beds which never becomes dry at low water, and 
was obtained by means of a " mussel rake " ' ; the specimens, it is added, 
' differ a little from the figures given by Dr. Brady.' 2 Thompson reports 
Mesochra lilljeborgii (Boeck) as ' found in mud taken in a brackish tribu- 
tary of the Mersey at Hale ' ; Paramesochra dubia (Scott), ' in mud collected 
by Mr. Corbin from the Duddon cockle beds at the mouth of the River 
Duddon, near Barrow'; T'etragoniceps bradyi (Scott), 'found only at same 
times and habitat as the last named species ' ; and Cletodes linearis (Claus), ' in 
mud from Hale shore taken at low water.' 8 C. propinquus (Brady and 
Robertson) is reported by A. Scott from Piel and Morecambe ; Laophonte 
serrata (Claus) and L. lamellifera (Claus) from Piel ; L. curticauda ( Boeck) 
from Duddon ; L. intermedia (T. Scott) from Duddon and Morecambe. 
De/ava/ia palustris (Brady) is reported from Duddon by Scott, and from Hale 
by Thompson, who speaks of it as a mud-loving species, of which the male is 
very rare. Jonesiella hycence (I. C. Thompson) has been found at Ulverston 
in the stomach of a young dab, 4 but, as Sars has pointed out, the dab of the 
future must be entreated to consume it under the earlier generic name of 
Danielssenia (Boeck). 6 Ameira exigua (T. Scott) has been found by A. Scott in 
the mussel beds at Piel. A. exilis (T. and A. Scott) is noted by Thompson, 
who writes : ' This slender and characteristic species was taken amongst 
material collected from holes dug in the soft mud near the remains of the old 
steamboat pier, Piel; not uncommon; March, 1899.' He also names 
Stenhelia intermedia (T. Scott) as taken ' in the same locality as the last ; 
August, 1898 ; rare." Concerning Nannopus palustris (Brady), Mr. A. Scott 
writes : ' Several specimens of this species were obtained in the mud collected 
from the Fleetwood oyster beds. It seems to be a brackish water species, 
and in general appearance is very like PlatycJielipus littoralis, another brackish 
water copepod ; it can be distinguished from that species, however, even 
without dissecting, by making an examination of the fifth pair of feet and 
also of the inner branches of the third and fourth pairs of feet. Nannopus 
palustris has two ovisacs and Platyclielipus littoralis one only.' Of P. littoralis 
(Brady) Mr. Thompson had earlier reported that ' this striking species occurs 
in abundance in mud taken at low water ' at Hale and various other places, 
males and females being about equally plentiful. 7 

We now leave the Arpacticida?, and must pause over only a few of the 
remaining species, many of which are semi-parasitic or wholly parasitic, and 

1 fauna of Liverpool, 55. Trans. Liverp. Bio/. Soc. x. 140. Op. cit. vii. 197, zoo. 

* Op. cit. ix. 109. 6 Annuaire Mus. Zoo/. Acad. Infer. St. Petersburg, Jana Exped. p. 21 (1898). 

6 Trans. Liverp. Biol. Sac. xiv. 140 (1900). 1 Op. cit. vii. 201. 

'73 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

carry with their variations and abnormalities proportionate difficulties of 
description and classification. Writing in 1893 Mr. Thompson entered in 
his list Lichomolgus agilis (Scott), remarking, 'This species was recently 
described by Scott (Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., Sept., 1892), who found 
it plentiful in the shell of the cockle (Cardium edule) in specimens from 
Morecambe, Lancashire, and from the Firth of Forth. Upon examining 
fresh cockles of our district, I find several specimens of this active little 
Copepod in every bivalve opened. They may be readily found by carefully 
taking up the water contained in the shell by means of a camelhair brush and 
washing it into water contained in a watchglass under the microscope, when 
they will probably be seen actively darting about.' T In a later volume, how- 
ever, Mr. Thompson reported that ' Lichomolgus (Doridicola] agilis (Leydig) 
was found in the bottom of a tow-net, Morecambe Bay, May, 1894,' and in a 
subsequent reference to the occurrence of this species in another locality he 
observes, ' This is not the Lichomolgus agilis of T. and A. Scott referred to in 
the First Report as having been found in the cockles. The latter species is 
identical with Hermanella rostrata (Canu), a species which was described and 
published a short time before the figures and description by T. and A. Scott 
appeared.' 3 Canu's genus was apparently spelt Hermannella in 1891, and 
certainly Herrmannella in 1892, not Hermanella as Thompson writes it. Of 
Lichomolgus birsutipes (T. Scott) Thompson says, ' This well-marked species 
was obtained from collections made in the Zostera beds near Piel ' ; of 
Hersiliodes littoralis (T. Scott), that it ' occurred sparingly in gatherings made 
on the mud flats near Piel ' ; and of Nicothoe astaci (Audouin and Milne- 
Edwards), that this 'peculiar parasitic Copepod, which has all its appendages 
fully developed, is found occasionally in considerable numbers on the branchiae 
of the common lobster caught on our coasts ; we have noted its occurrence 
on lobsters from Holyhead, Port Erin, and Piel ; the wing-like projections 
of the fourth thoracic segment give it an unusual appearance.' 3 It may be 
looked upon as the familiar spirit of the lobster ; and those who would deprive 
the lobster of its proper generic name Astacus, commit an outrage upon the 
old-standing designation of this interesting little entomostracan, its attached 
companion. Mr. Andrew Scott records Modiolicola insignis, Aurivillius, living 
as a messmate within the mouth of the ' horse mussel,' Mytilus modulus. He 
relates that ' a number of specimens were found in the examples of this 
Mollusc which were brought up in the trawl-net of the steamer while 
working in the vicinity of the north end of " the Hole," on March 23rd, 1895,' 
and adds that ' this appears to be a widely distributed species of Copepod, its 
range being probably co-extensive with that of the Mollusc.' As he assigns 
the species to the family Sapphirinidae, Thorell, it may be convenient to 
notice that Canu places it along with Lichomolgus and Herrmannella in the 
Lichomolgidas, allotting Hersiliodes and Nicothoe to the Hersiliidas * (now 
preferably known as Clausidiidas). Giesbrecht thinks that the perplexing 
Nicotboe might find rest in a sub-family of its own among the Asterocherida?. 6 
In the family Ascomyzontidas, A. Scott in 1896 described the new species 
Ascomyzon thompsoni, first obtained off the Isle of Man, but of which he says : 

1 Loc. cit. p. 207. Op. cit. ix. pp. 102, 1 60. 

8 Loc. cit. p. 143. * Les Cop'epodes du Boulonnais, pp. 238, 248 (1892). 

6 Fauna und flora des Golfts von Neapel, Mon. 25, p. 57 (1899). 

'74 



CRUSTACEANS 

' A number of specimens have since been found in material washed from 
Ophiuroids (Ophioglypha and Qphiothrix) taken in the trawl-net off Blackpool, 
and sent to us by Mr. Ascroft.' He further remarks that ' This species is 
readily distinguished from the other members of the Ascomyzontida? by the 
almost oval outline of the cephalothorax, and on dissection, by the structure 
of the mandible palp and maxillas ; the stout seta on the larger lobe of the 
maxillas appears to be a well marked character.' 

For the fish parasites among the Copepoda of this county the arrange- 
ment adopted by Mr. P. W. Bassett-Smith, R.N., F.Z.S., may suitably be 
followed. 1 In the family Ergasilida? stands Bomolocbus solece (Claus), reported by 
Mr. A. Scott, ' From small cod caught in Barrow Channel,' with the remarks 
that ' A number of specimens of this copepod can usually be found by pressing 
the nostrils of cod, so that mucus, etc., may be ejected: the mucus is then 
placed in a drop of water, and the copepods, if present, are easily seen : the 
females have two large white egg sacs.' 8 The family Caligidas comprises 
C aligns minimus (Otto), ' frequent in the mouth of the Bass (Labrax lupus], 
caught in Barrow Channel, August, 1900'; C. brevicaudatus (A. Scott), 
' inside the mouth of the Common Gurnard (Trig/a gurnardus), caught in the 
vicinity of Piel, August, 1901,' and distinguished in the genus by 'the ex- 
tremely short abdomen and caudal stylets,' as also by * the fourth pair of feet, 
the exopodite of which is very slender' ; Pseudocaligus bre-vipedis (Bassett-Smith), 
of which a number of specimens ' were found inside the operculum of a 
three-bearded Rockling (Onus tricirratus] caught in Barrow Channel,' the 
new genus being characterized by Mr. Andrew Scott as having ' Fourth pair 
of feet very rudimentary, almost obsolete, consisting of a basal portion only ; 
no exopodite as in Caligus' ; Lepeopbtheirus pollacbii (Bassett-Smith), ' attached 
to the inside of the mouth of Pollack (Gadus pollachius), caught on the off- 
shore stations between Lancashire and Isle of Man ' ; L. pectoralis (O. F. 
Miiller), of which a very elaborate study has been made by Mr. A. Scott, 
using chiefly specimens from flounders (Pleuronectes flesus] in the Piel fish- 
hatchery. 3 To the above must no doubt be added L. salmonis (Kroyer), more 
commonly called L. stromii (Baird), the ordinary parasite of the salmon. In 
the family Dichelestiidas the county no doubt also occasionally harbours 
Dichelestium sturionis (Hermann), parasitic on the sturgeons, for which Dr. 
Leigh vouches as part of the marine fauna. In the same family is included 
the species recorded by Mr. Scott as Cycnus pallidus (van Beneden), 'on the 
gills of the Conger (Conger vulgaris), caught in the Barrow Channel.' The 
name Cycnus, however, is preoccupied, so that this species should now be 
called Congericola pallidus (van Beneden). 4 In the Lernzeidas, Mr. A. Scott has 
carefully studied Lerncea branchialis (Linn.), of which he says: 'The adult 
female is found on the gills of the Gadidae, such as cod, haddock, and whiting. 
Immature (cyclops stage) males, and females with adult males attached, are 
found on the apex of the gill filaments of the flounder, sometimes in large 
numbers. Full-grown females are not plentiful on the fishes caught in the 
vicinity of Piel. The length of a full-grown female Lerncea is a little 

1 Proc. Zoo/. Soc. Lend. pp. 438-507 (1899). 

3 Trans. Liverp. Biol. Soc. xv. 349 (1901), when not otherwise mentioned the remaining quotations are 
from this paper. 

s Op. cit. xv. p. 1 88. See also Thompson in op. cit. ix. 102. 
* Stebbing, in Wiley's Zoological Results, pt. v. 672 (1900). 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

over i inch. The adult female is securely fastened to its host by strong 
branched horns, three in number, which are buried in the tissues of various 
parts of the gill arches.' l Of the family Chondracanthidx, Mr. A. Scott 
mentions Ora/ien asellinus (Linn.), ' on the gills of a yellow Gurnard (Trig/a 
hirundo) from the offshore station between Lancashire and Isle of Man ' ; 
from the same quarter Chondracanthus cornutus (O. F. Miiller), ' on the gills 
of Plaice (Pleuronectes plate ssa),' and he says: ' What appears to be a variety of 
this species occurs on the gills of the Flounder (P. fesus] from the Barrow 
Channel and other parts of the Lancashire coast ' ; G. clavatus (Bassett-Smith), 
'on the gills of Lemon Soles (Pleuronectes microcepbalus},' from Barrow 
Channel; C. solece (Kroyer), which Bassett-Smith regards as a synonym of 
C. cornutus. C. lophii (Johnston) is recorded by Mr. I. C. Thompson in 
1893 under the name Lernentoma lophii, with the observations that ' numer- 
ous specimens of this species were recently found by Mr. Corbin adherent 
to Cod, Ling and Lophius taken off Barrow. The female is from J to J inch 
or more in length, and is adorned with numerous blunt spines or tubercles 
over the surface of the body. The oviferous tubes are very long, slender and 
twisted. The males of this genus are very small and rudimentary, living 
parasitically on the body of the female.' 2 In the neighbouring family of 
Lernasopodida? A. Scott reports Gharopinus dalmannii (Retzius), ' in the 
spiracles of the Grey Skate (Rata bails] from the offshore station between 
Lancashire and Isle of Man'; Erachlella ova/is (Kroyer), 'attached to the 
gill-rakers of the Common Gurnard (Trig/a gurnard/us) from the offshore 
stations,' and of Anchorella uncinata (O. F. Miiller) Mr. Thompson says that 
' several specimens were found by Mr. Corbin on the gills of whiting taken 
in the Mersey estuary.' 3 

Lastly we have to notice the sub-class Thyrostraca, better known as 
cirripedes or barnacles. The fact that many of the species, whether pedun- 
culate or simply sessile, attach themselves to all sorts of moving objects, 
living or lifeless, makes their distribution wide and irregular. It is quite 
unlikely that Lancashire should have any species peculiar to itself, but, with 
a reasonable share of the ordinary species found round our coasts, it probably 
has numerous exotic forms brought to it on the hulls of vessels from all parts 
of the globe. With whales may come the balanid Coronu/a, and on the Coro- 
nula may appear the lepadid Conchoderma. It is not, however, in these that 
the county has any separate and individual right to pride itself. Its true 
interest in the Thyrostraca goes back to ancient times and is founded on 
Gerarde's account of ' The Goose tree, Barnacle tree, or the tree bearing 
Geese.' After explaining its shell-bearing quality, he goes on to say, ' which 
shells in time of maturity doe open, and out of them grow those little liuing 
things, which falling into the water do become fowles, which we call Barna- 
cles ; in the North of England, brant Geese ; and in Lancashire, tree Geese ; 
but the other that do fall upon the land, perish and come to nothing. Thus 
much by the writings of others, and also from the mouthes of people of those 
parts, which may very well accord with truth. 

' But what our eies have scene, and handes have touched, we shall 
declare. There is a small Island in Lancashire called the Pile of Foulders, 

1 Trans. L'tverp. Biol. Sue. xv. 220. * Op. cit. vii. 211. 8 Loc. cit. p. 213. 

176 



CRUSTACEANS 

wherein are found the broken pieces of old and bruised ships, some whereof 
haue been cast thither by shipwracke, and also the trunks and bodies with 
the branches of old and rotten trees, cast vp there likewise ; whereon is 
found a certain spume or froth that in time breedeth vnto certain shells, in 
shape like those of the Muskle, but sharper pointed, and of a whitish colour ; 
wherein is contained a thing in forme like a lace of silke finely wouen as it 
were together, of a whitish colour, one end whereof is fastened vnto the 
inside of the shell, even as the fish of Oisters and Muskles are : the other 
end is made fast vnto the belly of a rude masse or lumpe, which in time 
commeth to the shape and forme of a Bird : when it is perfectly formed the 
shell gapeth open, and the first thing that appeareth is the forsaid lace or 
string ; next come the legs of the bird hanging out, and as it groweth greater 
it openeth the shell by degrees, til it is all come forth, and hangeth onely by 
the bill : in short space after it commeth to full maturitie, and falleth into 
the sea, where it gathereth feathers, and groweth to a fowle bigger than a 
Mallard, and lesser than a Goose, having black legs and bill or beake, and 
feathers black and white spotted in such manner as is our Magpie called in 
some places a Pie Anret, which the people of Lancashire call by no other 
name than a tree Goose : which place aforesaid, and all those parts adjoyning 
do so much abound therewith, that one of the best is bought for three pence. 
For the truth hereof, if any doubt, may it please them to repaire vnto me, 
and I shall satisfie them by the testimonie of good witnesses.' 

That there may be no mistake about the locality, Gerarde repeats that 
' The bordes and rotten planks whereon are found these shels breeding the 
Barnakle, are taken up in a small Island adjoyning to Lancashire halfe a mile 
from the main land, called the Pile of Foulders,' and in the pious conclusion 
of his volume he speaks of this anseriferous tree as ' the wonder of England.' 
His editor Johnson, between thirty and forty years later, will have nothing to 
do with this happy meeting ground of botany and zoology, but scornfully 
interpolates the remark that ' The Barnakle whose fabulous breed my Author 
here sets down, and divers others have also deliuered, were found by some 
Hollanders to have another originall, and that by egs as other birds have.' l 
With this it is of interest to compare Dr. Leigh's later discussion of the 
subject. He writes : ' These Counties afford us great variety of Birds, and 
in some places even clog the Inhabitants with their Plenty. Amongst the 
rest, the Barnac/e being very common, and the manner of its Generation 
having been a Matter of Controversy, I shall recite my Observations upon it, 
and endeavour to reconcile that Point. It is observable of our Ships which 
trade to the West-Indies, that upon their return home, an infinite number of 
small shell-fishes often adhere to them, at the first view not much unlike 
young Geese ; these for several Ages have pass'd for Barnacles, not only 
amongst the Vulgar, but Men of Learning likewise, wherefore to set things 
in their true Light, I shall in the first place give the Anatomy of this Shell- 
fish resembling the Barnacle, and afterwards that of the real bird, and then 
lay down some reasons to show the Impossibility of their being bred after the 
manner formerly receiv'd. This shell sticks to the outward Planks of Ships 
by a glutinous Matter, it resembles the Head of a Goose, to which there is a 
Neck annex'd, yet this Neck is not conserted to the Body, whence it is 

1 Gerarde, Herball, Johnson's edition, pp. 1587-1589 (1636). 
I 177 2 3 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

impossible that this should be the Barnacle in Embryo. Within the Shells 
are Claws, with Hairs like those of Lobsters, wound within one another in 
spiral Lines, and are not very unlike the wings of a Goose, but these I found 
to be perfect Shells, and not Quills or Feathers ; whence it is plain, that they 
could not appertain to the Barnacle, that being of the Feather'd Kind. These 
Shell-fishes are observable upon several Sea-weeds in the Gulph of Florida, 
and are there chiefly pick'd up by our Shipping : I never yet could meet 
with any Seeman who could affirm that he had seen any fall from Ships, and 
swim, which must have necessarily happen'd, had they been converted into 
Barnacles ; besides, in the Anatomy of Barnacles, I find them (as other Geese] 
Male and Female, the one having a Penis, the other Ovaria, whence it is 
evident that their way of breeding is no wise different from that of other 
Birds ; what therefore has been asserted by Speed and others concerning this 
Bird, is only a Vulgar Error, and they only wanted a thorow Enquiry, to 
give them satisfaction in this Matter.' 1 

That a thorough inquiry is the one thing needed to give satisfaction in 
matters of natural history may readily be conceded. How to make inquiries 
thorough is not so easily perceived. Gerarde had long-standing belief to go 
upon, the testimony of good witnesses, the evidence of his own senses, and 
yet they only combined to lead him completely astray. In Dr. Leigh's 
discussion it is interesting to note the comparison at one point of the 
cirripedes with lobsters, since it was not till well into the nineteenth century 
that the Thyrostraca were accepted as part of the Crustacean class. In the 
Systema Natures of 1758, Linnasus preserves a remembrance of the old fable 
in the name Lepas anatifera, the duck-bearing Lepas, but he places the genus 
in the Mollusca, between Chiton and Pbolas, without any suspicion that he is 
dealing with near kinsfolk of the prawn and the crab. 

The record of Lancashire crustaceans is still at many points incomplete. 
Especially the Sympoda, the Isopoda terrestria, and the Thyrostraca are 
awaiting fuller investigation. But for the class of Crustacea at large much 
valuable work has been already done. Some glimpses have been given in 
this chapter at the arduous operations by which successful research has been 
carried out. Among the workers pre-eminence must be awarded to A. O. 
Walker, F.L.S., I. C. Thompson, F.L.S., and Andrew Scott, A.L.S., a band 
of zealous experts brought together by the inspiring energy of the present 
president of the Linnean Society, Professor W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. Among 
the methods employed it is interesting to recall not merely trawling and 
dredging on the floor of the sea, digging and raking in the mud of the shore, 
but a number of other queer devices which experience has gradually evolved. 
Thus the naturalist of to-day seeks for crustaceans on whale and weed, on 
starfish and medusa, on shipping and wreckage, and still more laboriously 
obtains them by straining the liquor from a cockle, by examining the stomach 
of a juvenile flounder, or by pinching the nostrils of a cod. 

1 Hist, of Lane., etc., chap. ix. 'Of Birds,' p. 157. 



I 7 8 



FISHES 

In the latest list of marine fishes of the Irish Sea that of Herdman and 
Dawson 1 141 species are recorded, and owing to the amount of investigation 
that has been carried out, both on the English and Irish sides of the Irish Sea, 
this list is most probably a nearly exhaustive one. The present list, however, 
includes only those fishes which have actually been recorded from Lancashire 
shore waters, and from the sea within the 2o-fathom line off the coast. Too 
much, however, may be made of these niceties of zoological distribution, and 
the differences between the piscine faunas of, say, Cumberland, Lancashire, and 
Cheshire are no doubt due merely to the fact that none of these areas has 
been thoroughly investigated. Taking wider areas we find that Fries, Ekstrom, 
and Sundevall, in their History of Scandinavian Fishes, Sauvage and Giard in 
the Catalogue des Poissons du Boulonnais, and Day in his British Fishes, give 
what are practically the same lists of marine fishes. The slight differences 
that exist between the three north-west English counties will no doubt 
disappear on long-continued investigation. Thus both the Bonito, Thynnus 
pelamys (Linn.), and the Sword-fish, Xipbias gladius, Linn., have been recorded 
from the coast of Cumberland, and the former has been taken off the Isle of 
Man, while the latter has been caught in the Bristol Channel. Nevertheless, 
neither has been, so far as I am aware, observed in strictly Lancashire waters. 

But in respect of the abundance and sizes of fishes very considerable 
differences do exist even between such adjacent coastal waters as those of 
Lancashire and Cumberland. In the Solway Firth, it is true, we do find a 
fish fauna which resembles that of the Lancashire coast, but the Cumberland 
coast in its southern portion is not characterized by that abundance of very 
small fishes which we find in Lancashire waters. The greater part of the 
latter is indeed a ' fish nursery ' on a gigantic scale. This is particularly the 
case with regard to three great areas the shallow water off the mouth of 
the Mersey, the Kibble channels and their vicinity, and a great portion of 
Morecambe Bay. On these grounds we find all through the year immense 
numbers of small pleuronectid fishes, principally dabs, plaice, flounders, soles, 
solenettes, and others. The cause of this remarkable segregation of immature 
fishes is to be sought in the peculiar physical conditions which obtain off the 
coast of Lancashire. The set of the tides is such as to convey small floating 
objects from the offshore grounds and from the deep water off Carnarvon and 
Cardigan bays into the shallow water on the coast of Lancashire, and to a less 
extent that of Cumberland. This has been proved by the ' drift-bottle ' 
experiments made by the Lancashire Sea Fishery Committee, and it is 
familiar to coasters and others who are generally on the look out on the north 
Lancashire and Cumberland coasts for wreckage in the case of vessels which 
break up off Holyhead or off the Mersey. Now the deep water off the 
coasts of Lancashire and Wales is frequented by mature pleuronectid and 

1 Fishes and Fisheries of the Irish Sea ; Lancashire Sea Fisheries Memoir, No. 2. London : Geo. Philip and 
Son, 1902. 

179 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

gadoid fishes, and these spawn there in the early part of the year. Nearly all 
edible fishes except herring produce spawn which drifts at or near the surface 
of the sea ; and these drifting eggs are conveyed by the surface currents, due to 
tidal streams and to the prevailing winds, towards the shallow inshore 
Lancashire waters. 

There these eggs, having undergone their embryonic development while 
drifting in the sea, find their way ; and when the metamorphosis of the larvas 
hatching out from the eggs is completed, the little fishes sink to the bottom, 
and finding a suitable habitat in our shallow water they undergo further 
growth. During May and June we may find hosts of small pleuronectid 
fishes in the sand pools on the foreshore, and in the autumn incredible numbers 
of such may be trawled. They are about i to I inch long when found on 
the shore in June, and about 2 to 4 inches long when caught in the trawl net 
in the autumn. They inhabit the shallow waters for the first two or three 
years of their lives, moving along the coast, principally from south to north, 
in search of food. When they are three or four years of age they begin to 
move offshore, and getting into deep water they then begin to produce spawn. 
Incredible numbers of them are, however, caught during the first year or two of 
their lives by the shrimp trawlers. Catches of 10,000 or more dabs, plaice, 
or whiting, have frequently been made in the course of the fishery observation 
carried out by the Lancashire Sea Fisheries Committee. 

The most abundant fishes of the Lancashire coast are dabs (Pleuronectes 
limanda), plaice (P. p/atessa), whiting (Gadus mer/angus), soles (Solea vu/garis), 
solenettes (Solea lutea)^ skate and ray (various species of Raja, principally 
R. maculata, R. c/avafa, and R. fiatis), stingers (Trachinus vipera). Whiting 
are rather capricious as regards presence and abundance in any one locality. 
Dabs are always abundant, but are most numerous in the colder months. 
Plaice and soles are most abundant in the autumn. Herring in the form of 
' sprats ' are occasionally very abundant. Skate and ray are ubiquitous and 
nearly always numerous. The above forms are those which we may regard 
as characteristic of Lancashire waters. 

The shallow sandy-bottomed waters of Lancashire, and the scarcity of 
rocks and seaweeds, constitute a habitat from which many species of fishes are 
naturally absent. Rock-loving fishes are therefore not abundant in our 
district, and their absence may be noted in the following list. Fish-collecting 
on the coast of Lancashire is a matter to be dealt with by the use of the trawl 
and line, and nearly all the species I mention have been caught by these 
methods. 

TELEOSTEANS 

ACANTHOPTERYGH 4- Sea Bream. Pagellm centrodontus, De la 

I. Perch. Perca fluviati/is. Linn. _ . . . , _ 

_ J jj Fairly common in north Lancashire waters. 

Common in streams and ponds, 

5. Norway Haddock. Sebastes norvtgtcus (Ascan.) 

2.** Ruff. Acerma vulgarh (Belon.) There is a sp e c j me n of this fish in the Liver- 

Used to be common in streams running into poo l Public Museum recorded from the mouth of 

the Mersey. the Mersey estuary in 1871. It is, however, a 

3. Bass. Labrax lupus (Lac.) northern form, and uncommon in the Irish Sea. 

Common in Lancashire waters, especially in 6. Short-spined Cottus or Bull-head. Cottvs 

Morecambe Bay. It is caught chiefly by lines scorfius, Linn. 

or draft nets during the summer months. This is the commonest Cottus. It is taken 

180 



FISHES 



very often in the shrimp nets, and it may also be 
found in the shore pools. 

7. Long-spined Cottus or Bull-head. Cottus 

bubalis, Euphr. 

This species is not so common as Cottus scor- 
pius t but it occurs frequently. 

8. Yellow 'Gurnet 'or Gurnard. Trig/a lucerna, 

Linn. 
(Day, Trig/a hirundo.) 



15. Mackerel. Scomber scombrus, Linn. 

Mackerel are usually abundant in north 
Lancashire waters in June, July, or August, the 
season varying somewhat. They are caught 
with lines, and at Formby and at other places in 
stake nets. It is said that with westerly winds 
and seas they leave the coast. The season is 
always later off Walney Island than further south. 
Last year (1904) mackerel were more abundant 
than for twenty years previously. My colleague, 
Mr. A. Scott, has noted a relation between the 



Taken commonly in the trawl nets all along ablmdance of ' mackere i in the i ris h Sea and that 



the Lancashire coast. It is the least common of 
the three species of gurnards found in our 
waters. 



Noctiluca 



of the flagellate 
1 6. Horse Mackerel. Caranx trachurus (Linn.) 
This is not at all a common fish off the 
Lancashire coast, but it has been taken by the 
Fisheries steamer John Fell between there and 



9. Red Gurnet. Trig/a pini, Bloch. 

Day, T. cuculus. 

This gurnard is fairly abundant, and is some- t j le j g j e Q f M an- 
times taken in fair quantity out at sea. 

17. John Dory. Zeusfaber, Linn. 

Of occasional occurrence but never abundant. 
When caught it is usually small, about 5 inches, 
but occasionally it has been taken about twice 



10. Grey Gurnard. Trigla gurnardus, Linn. 

This is the commonest of the gurnards in 
Lancashire waters. 



II. Pogge, or 'Toad-fish.' Agonus cataphractus 

(Linn.) 
Also called the Armed Bull-head ; a very 



that length. 

1 8. Shade Fish. Sciana aquila (Lace>.) 

Mr. J. T. Moore recorded a specimen in the 



Httle fish fn s^low waTer 'near th'e f * b <? S f ^Liverpool Public Museum as 
having been caught in the Mersey estuary in 
October, 1870. 

19. Two-spotted Goby. Gobius flavescens (Fabr.) 

Day (G. rutbensparri.} 

There is a specimen of this fish in the Fisheries 
Museum at the University of Liverpool, but I 
am uncertain as to its precise locality. 

20. Black Goby. Gobius niger, Linn. 
Common in many shore pools. 



mouths of the estuaries. 

12. Angler or Devil-fish. Lopbius piscatorius 

(Linn.) 

This is a common fish, and is frequently taken 
in the trawl nets. Sometimes it is exceptionally 
large (6 feet), but in Lancashire waters it seldom 
exceeds 2 feet in length. Every adult specimen 
I have dissected has had the sporozoan Glugea 
lophii parasitic on the brain and cranial nerves. 



Formerly a valueless. fish, the Angler now comes 2I> Spotted Goby. Gobius minutus, Gmel. 



into the market in the form of ' cod steaks,' a 
portion of the trunk being utilized by the fisher- 
men for this purpose. 

13. The Weever or ' Stinger.' Trachinus vipera, 

Cuv. and Val. 

A very common little fish on the shallow 
water fishing grounds all along the Lancashire 
coast. It has poison organs in connexion with 
the spine of the first dorsal fin and with the 
opercular spines. Shrimp fishermen have a very 
wholesome dread of this fish, and never attempt 
to sort out a catch of the shrimp trawl when 
they see it except with a piece of stick or a 
marlinespike. The wounds made by the poison 
spines are, though not dangerous, exceedingly 
painful. 

14. Larger Weever. Trachinus draco. Linn. 

Very uncommon. I have only known one Liverpool N. W. light vessel were identified by 
specimen to be taken off the Lancashire coast. 
It was sent to me by a shrimper who caught it 
off the Mersey estuary. 



Very common in Lancashire shallow waters. 

22. Speckled Goby. Gobius parnelli. 

Day's G. Parnelli is only the estuarine 
' race ' of G. minutus. 1 

23. Transparent Goby or Nonnat. Aphia pellu- 

cida (Nard.) 

I have seen great numbers of this little fish 
near Roa Island in the Barrow Channel. 

24. Dragonet. Callionymus lyra, Linn. 

The Gemmous dragonet, ' skulpin,' or ' bishop.' 
Very common everywhere in shallow water. 

25. The Spoiled Dragonet. Callionymus macula- 

tus, Bon. 

Very rare in the Irish Sea, though no doubt it 
is often confused with C. lyra. Some specimens 
taken by Mr. J. A. Clubb in 1902 off the 



181 



1 Holt and Byrne. Rep. Board of Agriculture and 
Technical Instruction, Ireland. Fisheries. Pt. 2. Scien- 
tific investigations, 1902. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



my friend Mr. Andrew Scott. C. maculatus is 
smaller than C. lyra, and differs principally in 
the pigmentation of the anterior dorsal fin. 

26. The Lumpsucker or Hen Fish. Cydopterus 

lumpus, Linn. 

Quite common on the Lancashire coast. The 
female lays her eggs in rock pools in a large 
mass the size of a man's head, and the male 
stands by and aerates them by movements of his 
tail. Fishermen often mistake these eggs for 
those of the salmon, which they resemble only in 
colour, being, however, much less in diameter. 

27. Sea-snail or Sucker. Liparis montagui (Don.) 
Commonly taken in the shrimp nets in the 

estuaries. It has been found in the Mersey as 
far south as Garston (A. Scott). 

28. Sucker. Liparis vulgaris, Flem. 

Not so common as L. montagui, but with much 
the same distribution. 

29. Double-spotted sucker. Lepadogaster blma- 

culatus, Don. 
Frequent in shallow water. 

30. Cat-fish or wolf-fish. Anarrhichas lupus, 

Linn. 

Very uncommon. A specimen in the Liver- 
pool Public Museum and another in the Zoology 
Museum at the University of Liverpool are pro- 
bably local. 

31. Butterfly Blenny. Blennius ocellarius, Linn. 
A single specimen was dredged by Capt. A. 

Wignall near Morecambe Bay light vessel, and 
was identified by A. Scott. 

32. Shanny. Blennius pholis, Linn. 

Very common in shore pools between tide 
marks on the Lancashire coast. 

33. Butterfish. Pholis gunnellus (Linn.) 

Day, Centronotus gunnellus. 
Very common in shore pools and beneath 
stones. This pretty little fish lives well in small 
marine aquaria. The female may often be 
found in the spring coiled round a mass of her 
own eggs. 

34. Ballan Wrasse. Labrus maculatus, Bl. 
This species has been found in the Barrow 

Channel. The Fisheries steamer has trawled 
it from the offshore grounds between Lancashire 
and Isle of Man. 

35. Gold Sinny. Ctenolabrus rupestris, Linn. 
Herdman and Dawson record this fish from 

Liverpool Bay. 

ANACANTHINI 

36. Cod. Gadus callarias, Linn. (Gadus morrhua 

of most authors.) 

The cod is of course very common in Lan- 
cashire waters, though in the inshore waters it is 



mostly small ' codling ' that are caught. The 
cod spawns in deep water, and the eggs may be 
found about March. In June young cod about 
an inch long may be seen on the shore waters. 
In Lancashire waters these little fishes often 
have a peculiar chess-board arrangement of pig- 
ment on their sides. They occur mostly among 
seaweeds or on rocky ground. Towards the 
autumn they disappear. Codling are common 
all along Lancashire inshore waters, and are 
caught both by line and trawl, but chiefly by the 
latter. 

37. Haddock. Gadus /eglefinus, Linn. 

The haddock is abundant in Lancashire waters, 
but it is rather a capricious fish and occasionally 
seems to shun our inshore waters. Some years 
ago it was very abundant. It is caught both by 
line and trawl. 

38. Whiting. Gadus merlangus, Linn. 
Whiting are perhaps more abundant in Lan- 
cashire waters than either cod or haddock. This 
is particularly the case with small fish (5 to 7 in. 
long) in the winter, several thousands being 
sometimes taken in one haul of a shrimp trawl. 
The brain of whiting caught in Lancashire 
waters is very often infested with the Trematode, 
Gasterostomum gradlescens, and the cranial cartilage 
with the Myxosporidian, Sphaerospora platessa. 

39. Coal-fish or Bluffin. Gadus virens, Linn. 
Not so common as the above species of 

Gadidae. It is sometimes very abundant in the 
Barrow Channel off Roa Island. 

40. Bib. Gadus luscus (Will.) 

Not at all abundant. I have seen it in 
Barrow Channel. 

41. Poor-cod or 'Power' Cod. Gadus minutus, 

Linn. 

More common than the bib. It is very often 
taken in the trawl in Lancashire inshore waters, 
but never in quantity. 

42. Pollack. Gadus pollachius, Linn. 

This fish is less abundant than any of the 
above gadoids. It has been taken in the trawl off 
Blackpool. 

43. Hake. Merluccius vulgaris, Cuv. 
Scarce in Lancashire waters. 

44. Fork-beard. Phycis blennoides (Brun.) 

Mr. Andrew Scott records a specimen which 
came ashore on Roa Island in the Barrow 
Channel and was killed by some boys It is very 
uncommon in the Irish Sea. 

45. Ling. Moha vulgaris, Flem. 

Rare in Lancashire, but occasionally taken in 
the trawl. 



182 



FISHES 



46. Five-bearded Rockling. Onus muste/a, Linn. 

(Day's Motella mustela.) 

Not at all uncommon in Lancashire waters. I 
have obtained a medium-sized specimen from 
the shore in Barrow Channel. 

47. Three-bearded Rockling. Onus tricirrhatus 

(Bl.) 
Fairly common. 

48. Halibut. Hippoglossus vulgaris, Flem. 

The halibut is very scarce in Lancashire 
waters. I have not seen a specimen myself from 
inshore waters. When it does occur it is usually 
small. It is more often obtained south of the Isle 
of Man. A fisherman on Bardsey Island told me 
of a specimen taken on a line which weighed 
80 Ib. It was sold at Pwllheli for 8;. 

49. Long rough Dab. Drepanopsetta platessoides 

(Fabr.) 

Day, Hlppoghssoldes limandoides, 
Very scarce in the Irish Sea. I have seen 
three or four specimens taken about midway 
between Lancashire and the Isle of Man. It is 
so uncommon that there is no local name for it, 
and it is usually called a ' kind of megrim.' 

50. Turbot. Rhombus maximus, Linn. 

Rather uncommon. Small specimens are, 
however, taken in shallow inshore waters in 
the shrimp net. We have had it from the 
inshore waters of Blackpool, from Morecambe 
Bay, and from Barrow Channel. Turbot and 
brill in Lancashire waters are usually infested 
with the tapeworm Bothriocephalus punctatus. 

51. Brill or 'Brett.' Rhombus lce<vh, Rondel. 
More common than the turbot and with much 

the same distribution. 

52. Norwegian Top-knot. Scolophthalmus nor- 

vegicus, Gunth. 
(Day's Zeugopterus norvegicus.) 
There is a specimen in the Fisheries Museum 
at the University of Liverpool which is probably 
local. 

53. Bloch's Top-knot. Scolophthalmus unimacu- 

latus (Risso.) 

(Day, Zeugopterus unimaculatus.) 
Scarce. Two specimens were caught by 
Capt. Wignall near the Morecambe Bay light 
vessel in 1894. This is the only recent record I 
am aware of. 

54. Muller's Topknot. Zeugopterus punctatus 

(BL) 

This is the commonest Topknot in Lan- 
cashire waters. Fishermen have no local name 
for any of these little flukes. They are often 
caught in the shrimp nets, especially in Morecambe 
Bay and about the Ribble Channels. 



55. Megrim or ' Magrim.' Lepidorhombus mega- 

ttoma (Donovan.) 

Not uncommon, but not abundant enough in 
Lancashire waters to be of economic importance. 

56. Scald-fish. Arnoglossus laterna (Walb.) 
More abundant than the megrim which it 

resembles. 

57. Plaice. Pleuronectes platessa, Linn. 

Very abundant in Lancashire waters. The 
most valuable fishery in strictly local waters 
is that for the plaice. It is usually small and 
immature here on account of the active exploita- 
tion of Lancashire waters by fishermen. It is in 
all probability this excessive fishing which has 
produced the apparent correlation of the size of 
the fish with the depth of the water in which it 
is found. Generally speaking, the size of a plaice 
got in the Irish Sea varies directly (roughly of 
course) with the depth of water. Within the 
three mile territorial limit the plaice obtained in 
the trawl nets are small from 8 to 1 1 inches. 
Occasionally a large fish may be found, but not 
often. The plaice becomes sexually mature 
at about 15 inches in total length in the female, 
and about 12 inches in the male. It is very 
rarely that such sexually mature fish are caught 
within the territorial waters. It is, however, to 
be noted that the cause of this distribution may 
not be that large fish find a natural habitat in 
deep water only, but rather that because of the 
great amount of fishing in inshore waters these 
large plaice have been ' fished out.' As a matter 
of fact, we find that in such an area as Luce Bay 
on the south coast of Scotland, where trawling is 
prohibited, large plaice from 15 to 22 inches long 
are relatively abundant. There is not the same 
intensity of fishing in offshore waters as within the 
narrow zone of territorial waters, and as a con- 
sequence we find that large plaice are found on 
these offshore grounds. 

There are no doubt very definite migration 
habits in the case of the plaice (and of course 
other flat fish), but so far these have been made 
out only very imperfectly. The Lancashire Sea 
Fisheries Committee have, however, been making 
extensive experiments quite recently with a view 
to determining the migration paths of the plaice, 
and some interesting results have been obtained. 
The fish are marked by fastening a little num- 
bered brass label to the body by means of silver 
wire. Records are then made of the size of the 
fish, the number of the label, date, place, and so on, 
and the fish is liberated. Experiments of this 
kind have only been made during the winter 
months, but they seem to show that the plaice in 
the inshore Lancashire waters move along the 
shallow coast waters during the early part of the 
winter, and finally come to rest in the bays and 
estuaries. Most of the liberated and marked plaice 
have been recovered from Morecambe Bay, the 



183 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Ribble estuary, and the Dee. In comparatively 
few cases have the fishes moved offshore into 
deep water. 

Some of the journeys made by these marked 
plaice are rather remarkable. Several fish liberated 
near the mouth of the River Mersey were re- 



markable organism which produces white warts 
on the skin and fins of the fish. Fishermen often 
call these parasites eggs, and say that the flounder 
'carries its eggs on its back.' There is a pre- 
judice locally against these flukes, since it is 
believed that they frequent the neighbourhood 



caught in from one to two months near the of sewer outfalls. Mr. A. Scott believes that 



north end of the Isle of Man, and several fishes 
liberated near Blackpool turned up subsequently 
on the coast of Anglesey. One fish liberated off 
Great Orme's Head was caught some months 
later in Tremadoc Bay, having doubtless jour- 



flounders spawn in shallow waters. 

61. Witch or ' Whitch.' Pleuronectes cynog/ossus, 

Linn. 
Fairly common. The witch is a poor kind of 



neyed south through the Menai Straits, through edible fish, but it is often sold in poorer fish shops 

Carnavon Bay and through Bardsey Sound, as ' soles ' or white soles (at about 3^. a lb.). 

Speaking generally, however, the migration paths , _ . . . . _ 

of P plaic! g in Lancashire waters are very local 6a " Sole ' Me* vulgar*,, Quens. 

ones> Individually the sole is the most valuable fish 

It is interesting to note that nearly 20 per caught in Lancashire waters. It is found every- 

cent. of the fish so marked and liberated in where, but some grounds, as for instance in the 

Lancashire waters were found during the first neighbourhood of the Liverpool N.W. lightship, 

four months. This shows the intensity of the are very lucrative. The sole fishery in Lancashire 

fishing that goes on within territorial waters. It waters has been steadily improving for the last 

half-dozen years. 

63. Lucky Sole. Solea variegata (Don.) 

Very uncommon. Mr. A. Scott recorded 
a specimen from near the Morecambe Bay light- 
ship in April 1894. It is a smallish fish. 

64. Solenette. Solea lutea (Risso.) 

This is a small fish 3 to 5 inches long which 
is abundant on the shrimping grounds, especially 
in the Mersey estuary. It used to be mistaken 
for the true sole, which it resembles when the 
latter is young. It is thicker, redder, and has 
coarser scales than the latter. About half, or 
even more, of the small 'soles' got on the 
Mersey shrimping grounds are solenettes. The 
solenette becomes mature when about 3 to 5 
inches long. There are probably three species of 
Solea which are confused together by fishermen, 
especially offshore trawlers. Solea variegata and 
Solea lutea are certainly confounded, and are both 
called 'Lucky Soles.' Probably S. lascaris is also 
found, but I am not aware of any indubitable 
record of its occurrence in strictly Lancashire 
waters. 



means that 20 per cent, of all the fish on the 
bottom in that area were caught by fishermen 
during the same period. 

58. Lemon Sole. Pleuronectes microcepha/us, Don. 
Not very abundant and usually got in offshore 

waters. 

59. Dab. More commonly called ' Garve ' and 

' Skear-back.' 

The most abundant pleuronectid in local 
waters. I have known as many as 15,000 to be 
taken in one haul of a shrimp net off Blackpool. 
The dab is not regarded as a valuable food-fish 
and does not command a very good price. It 
is more distinctively an inshore fish than the 
plaice. 

There appears to be a curious complementary 
relation between the abundance of plaice and 
dabs in Lancashire waters. It is often the case 
that when plaice are scarce dabs are abundant 
and vice versa. Of late years dabs have become 
more abundant here than plaice. It is just 
possible that the restrictive measures imposed on 
trawl-fishing in Lancashire waters have benefited 
the dab to a greater extent than plaice. This is 
all the more probable since the dab is a species 
which spawns when it is (compared with plaice) 
relatively small. The relatively wide trawl and 
stake net meshes enforced now by the Fishery 
Board may possibly have produced this increase 
in the number of dabs in Lancashire waters. 

60. Flounder. Also called 'White Fluke.' 

Pleuronectes flesus^ Linn. 

Common. The best grounds for the flounder 
are perhaps in the Lune and Ribble estuaries. 
Flounders obtained from the former ground are 
often infested with the sporozoan parasite, 
Lymphocystis johnstonei, Woodcock, 1 a most re- 

1 Woodcock, Lancashire Sea fish. Laty. Report fir 
J 93> PP- 63-72, Liverpool, 1904. 



PERCESCOCES 

65. Grey Mullet. Mugil chelo, Cuv. 

This mullet is found all along the Lancashire 
coast in summer. Large numbers of the young 
occasionally enter Morecambe Bay and have been 
mistaken by fishermen for young salmon. I 
have seen them in abundance in Fleetwood Dock, 
and they are said to be very numerous in the 
Cavendish Dock at Barrow. They are frequently 
caught in stake and seine nets at Southport and 
in Morecambe Bay. The other grey mullet, 
Mugil capita, may occasionally turn up in 
Lancashire waters and may have been confused 



184 



FISHES 



with M. chela, the two species being very simi- 
lar, but I am not aware of any certain record of 
the occurrence of the former fish. 

66. Greater Sand-eel. Ammodytes lanceolatus, 

Lesauv. 

Not a common fish in Lancashire waters, but 
a specimen has been taken in Morecambe Bay. 

67. Lesser Sand-eel. Ammodytes tobianus, Linn. 
Much commoner than the greater sand-eel. 

It is caught almost everywhere in shallow waters, 
and is a common fish in the shrimp nets. There 
is a fishery for sand-eels at Fleetwood, where they 
are simply dug out of the sand. 

68. Garfish or Greenbone. Be/one vulgaris, 

Will. 

The occurrence of this fish is rather capricious. 
It is occasionally taken in Ulverston Channel 
in stake nets, and it has been caught in the 
Queen's Dock at Liverpool and in the Man- 
chester Ship Canal at Eastham ! 

HEMIBRANCHII 

69. Three-spined Stickleback. Gasterosteus acu- 

leatus, Linn. 
Locally, Jack Sharp. 

A semi-marine species. It occurs near Piel 
in the Barrow Channel. 
**yo. Ten-Spined Stickleback. Gasterosteus pun- 

gitius, Linn. 

This stickleback is recorded by Scott from the 
Barrow Channel. 

7 1 . Fifteen - spined Stickleback. Gasterosteus 

spinacbia. Linn. 

Scott has recorded this fish from Morecambe 
Bay and from the Barrow Channel. 

Sticklebacks are often infested with the Myxo- 
sporidian parasite, Glugea anomala, which forms 
little globular swellings underneath the skin. A 
number of these fishes from a pond in the 
public park, Preston, were sent to me some time 
ago, all infested with this Sporozoon. Ap- 
parently the parasite caused no inconvenience to 
the fishes. 

LOPHOBRANCHII 

72. Broad-nosed Pipe-fish. Siphonostoma typh/e, 

Linn. 

A shore fish which is very rare in Lancashire 
waters. 



73. Pipe-fish. Syngnathus am!, Linn. 

This is the common pipe-fish. It is got very 
frequently in the shrimp nets and in the shore 
pools. 

PLECTOGNATHI 

74. Sun fish. Orthagoriscus mala (Linn.) 

This fish must be very rare off the north-west 
coast of England. It is recorded in the stock 
books of the Liverpool Public Museum as having 
been taken 'off Southport' in 1864. I am not 
aware of any other record of its occurrence in 
the North Sea. 

HAPLOMI 

*75. Pike. Esox lucius, Linn. 
Common in rivers and meres. 

OSTARIOPHYSI 
*j6. Carp. Cyprinus carplo, Linn. 

In Bryerly's time l the carp was common in 
ponds and streams, but it is certainly much rarer 
now. 

77. Roach. Leuciscus rutilus (Linn.) 
Not uncommon. 

78. Chub. Leuciscus cephalus (Linn.) 
Not at all common. 

*79- Dace. Leuciscus vulgaris (Linn.) 

Bryerly states that Leuciscus lancastriensis was 
common in 1856 in the streams about War- 
rington. L. lancastriensis is identical with L. 
vulgaris. 

*8o. Minnow. Leuciscus phoxinus (Linn.) 

Common. 
*8i. Rudd. Leuciscus erythr aphtha Imus (Linn.) 

This is Bryerly's L. caeruleus. 

*82. Tench. Tinea vulgaris. Linn. 

Common in ponds. 
*83- Bream. Abramis brama (Linn.) 

In ponds and streams. 
*84. White Bream. Abramis blicca (Bloch) 

Bryerly recorded this fish from the Weaver. 

*85. Loach or ' Beardie.' Nemacheilus barbatu- 

tar, Rond. 

Not uncommon in smaller streams. 
1 Isaac Bryerly, Fauna of Liverpool, 1856. 



MALACOPTERYGII 



**86. Salmon. Salmo salar, Linn. 1901 a salmon smolt about Ib. in weight was 

Taken by seine nets, 'hang-nets,' 'heaves.' taken by the fishery steamer John Fell, off 
This fish also occurs frequently in the stake nets Blackpool, about two miles from land. This 

fish was feeding voraciously, when taken, on 
young fish (sprats or herrings), and its stomach 



in Morecambe Bay and elsewhere, and it is 
sometimes taken in the trawl. Our knowledge 
of the salmon in the open sea is very scanty. In 



also contained the remains of brittle stars and 



185 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



sponges. I believe that this is the first recorded 
instance of a salmon smolt being found in the 
open sea. 

The Lune is the chief Lancashire salmon 
river, and indeed this is one of the best salmon 
streams in England. During late years a deteriora- 
tion in the value of the Lune salmon fisheries 
has been noted, and one cause assigned is the 
excessive amount of netting at the mouth of the 
estuary. But I think the other alleged cause, 
the growing pollution of the stream, is a more 
important factor. All the sewage from Lan- 
caster, from an infectious disease hospital, and the 
effluents from several factories, enter the portion 
of the estuary where salmon are found. The 
effect of this pollution is perhaps not so much to 
kill the fish it is not bad enough yet as to 
prevent them going up the river. Attempts 
have been made in recent years to compel the 
local authorities concerned to adopt sewage 
purification measures, but these have so far been 
fruitless. 

**87. Sea Trout. Salmo trutta, Linn. 

Sea trout are very often taken along the sea 
coast. Fishermen in Lancashire distinguish 
between several kinds of salmonidas, giving them 
local names, such as ' mort," ' fork-tails,' etc., 
but most probably all these are to be referred 
either to the salmon or the sea trout. 

*88. Trout. Salmo fario, Linn. 

The Ribble is the best Lancashire trout 
stream. 

89. Sparling. Osmerus eperlanus (Linn.) 

Sparling are common enough in Lancashire 
waters to form the material for a fishery. They 
are taken by seine nets in Morecambe Bay when 
the fishery lasts, (legally) from I November to 
31 March. They are also got occasionally in 
Barrow Channel, and in the shrimp trawl nets 
off Blackpool. They are very small (3 ins. or 
thereabout) in the latter habitat. 



**go. Grayling. Corregous thymallus (Linn.) 

In Bryerly's time the grayling was taken 
abundantly in the Mersey near Garston Dock. 

91. Anchovy. Engraulis encrasicholus (Linn.) 
The anchovy is a rare visitant to Lancashire 

waters. I have seen specimens taken by Capt. 
Eccles in the shrimp trawl in the Mersey estuary 
and off Blackpool. It is so uncommon that 
fishermen usually fail to recognize it. 

92. Herring. Clupea harenga, Linn. 

There is no real fishery now for herring in 
Lancashire waters, though they are caught off the 
Isle of Man and in Welsh waters. They used 
to be abundant in Morecambe Bay, but have 
deserted this district for many years on account 
of the increased steam traffic in the bay, some 
fishermen say. They were, however, rather 
abundant in the Mersey between Rock Ferry 
and Eastham a few years ago, and some boats 
from Morecambe followed the fishing there with 
much success. They occur very frequently, 
however, though not in sufficient numbers to 
make a remunerative fishery, and are constantly 
met with in the trawl nets. 

93. Sprat. Clupea spratta, Linn. 

' Sprats ' are always mixtures of the true sprat 
and the herring. They are very abundant at times. 
In 1902 great quantities were taken by the 
shrimp boats off Southport. In this case the 
fish were caught by being ' meshed ' during the 
' shooting ' and hauling of the shank nets. The 
fish live in the intermediate and upper layers of 
the water and were caught by the net in 
descending and ascending. 

94. Twaite Shad. Clupea Jinta, Cuv. 

All silvery fishes in and about Morecambe 
Bay are known as ' shads.' The twaite shad is, 
however, very uncommon. It has been taken in 
the Mersey (20 October, 1876, Moore, Liver- 
pool Public Museum), at Formby, and off 
Blackpool. 



APODES 



95- Eel. Anguilla vulgaris, Turton. 

Common along the shores in many places. 

96. Conger. Conger vulgaris, Cuv. 

The conger is common in Lancashire waters. 
It is caught in the trawl and by lines. I have 
caught it on the Scars in Barrow Channel in low 
water by the 'gaff.' The immature stage is the 



well-known Leptocephalus. Mr. A. Scott 
captured a number of these in 1898 in the 
Barrow Channel by placing a fine net in the 
sand gutters through which the last of the tide 
was ebbing. These, however, were rather the 
transitional stage between Leptocephalus and the 
young congers than the true leptocephaline larval 
stage. 



GANOIDS 



96. Sturgeon. Acipenser sturio, Linn. 

The sturgeon is not a true member of our 
local piscine fauna, but is to be regarded as a 
rather rare visitant. Still, it occurs now and 
then. Frequently got at Morecambe in Burrow's 
Balks ; a specimen caught at the end of 1 904 



was between 9-10 feet long. One was caught 
by some salmon fishermen using a draft net in 
the Leven. This example was sent to Mr. 
Broadbent, fishmonger, Barrow, who sent the 
head to Mr. A. Scott at Piel. The fish was 
8 feet long and weighed 4 cwt. 



1 86 



FISHES 



CHONDROPTERYGIANS 



97. Toper. Galeus vulgarh (Linn.) 
Locally, Darwen Salmon. 

This large dogfish has been taken at the 
mouth of the Mersey, in the river above Liver- 
pool, and elsewhere. It is, however, rather 
rare. Along with (no doubt) other dogfish it 
is sold occasionally as human food. 

98. Pike Dog. Acanthlas vulgarh, Risso. 

The commonest ' dog ' in Lancashire waters. 
I witnessed a haul of a fish trawl made by Capt. 



102. Monk or Abbot. Rhina squatina (Linn.) 
Frequently taken in the trawl nets in offshore 

waters. 

103. Torpedo. Torpedo nobi/iana, Bonap. 
The electric ray is very rare in purely Lan- 
cashire waters. The stock books of Liverpool 
Public Museum record one as having been 
caught in Meols Bay, Southport, in 1884. 
This specimen, which does not appear to be in 
the museum, however, weighed thirty pounds. 



Wignall off Liverpool N.W. lightship in Sep- 104. Skate or Bluet. Raja bath, Linn, 
tember, 1904, in which there were 350 dogfishes, 
mainly Acanthlas. 

Dogfishes have, during the last few years, 
proved a veritable plague to fishermen. They 
occur in great numbers, eat fish from lines, and 
destroy nets. No method of getting rid of them 
is likely to prove effective, and it is only by 
making use of them as human food, openly and 
not surreptitiously, that their evil effects may be 
minimized. I have eaten dogfish and found it 
not unpalatable. 

99. Lesser spotted Dogfish. Scyllium canicula 

(Linn.) 

Less abundant than the preceding species. 
This and S. catulus are known to fishermen as 
' fay-dogs.' 

100. Larger spotted Dogfish. Scyllium catulus, 

Gunn. 

Least abundant of the ' dogs.' I have seen it 
off the Mersey estuary. 



Very abundant in all parts of the Lancashire 
district. 

105. White Skate. Raja alba, Lacp. 

I have not known personally of the capture 
of this fish, but according to Day it is recorded 
from Liverpool. Bryerly recorded it from 
Liverpool as R. marginata. These records are, 
however, very doubtful. 

1 06. Ray. Raja clavata, Linn. 

This is the commonest ray. It is always 
abundant. 

107. Spotted Ray. Raja maculata, Mont. 
Also abundant. 

108. Starry Ray. Raja radiata, Don. 
Rarer than any of the above Raj x. 

109. Cuckoo Ray or Butterfly Ray. Raja circu- 

laris, Couch. 

Not at all common, but got in the trawl 
now and then. Probably Raja miraletus. 



Black-mouthed Dogfish. Pristiurus melano- Couch has been confused with this species. 



stomus (RafHn) 
A specimen of this fish in the Fisheries 
Museum at Liverpool University is probably 
local. 



no. Sting Ray. Trygon pastinaca, Cuv. 

This species is recorded in the stock books 
of the Liverpool Museum as having been found 
off the Mersey estuary. 



CYCLOSTOMES 



** 1 1 1 . Sea-Lamprey. Petromyzon marinus, Linn. 
These ' fishes ' are rare in Lancashire waters, 
but have been taken in the shrimp trawl from the 
Ribble estuary, the Mersey, and the inshore 
grounds off the latter estuary. 

** 1 1 2. Lamprey or ' Silver-eel.' Petromyzon 

fluviatilis, Linn. 

Common. It has been got from Piel, Ulver- 
ston Channel, and off Morecambe. I have seen 
a flounder caught in the Lune which bears the 
wound inflicted by the suctorial mouth of the 
lamprey. It ' sucks ' on to living fishes. Fisher- 



men call it the ' nine eyes ' or ' nine holes,' a 
name which is curiously enough cognate with 
the German popular name for the species, 
' Neunauge.' 
113. Hagfish. Myxlne glutlnosa, Linn. 

I am doubtful as to whether this species really 
occurs in Lancashire waters. Capt. Wignall, 
however, informs me that he has seen cod with 
the internal anatomy destroyed, leaving only skin 
and bone, and my friend Mr. F. J. Cole tells me 
that this is the effect produced by hagfishes, 
which bore into the body of dead fishes like the 
cod and devour the interior parts. 



An asterisk (*) indicates occurrence in fresh water only, two asterisks (**) in both fresh and salt water. 



187 



REPTILES 
AND BATRACHIANS 



Neither the reptiles nor batrachians of Lancashire call for much attention. 
Scarce in Britain generally, these two groups are scarcer still in Lancashire, 
where uncultivated land now hardly exists except on the sandhills fringing 
the coast and in parts of the Furness district. This record of the local 
reptilian and amphibian fauna is taken from the lists given in the British 
Association handbook for Liverpool and Southport, except those for the 
Furness area, which have been collected by Mr. Harper Gaythorpe, of 
Barrow. 



REPTILES 



LACERTILIA 



i. Sand Lizard. Lacerta agilis, Linn. 

This species used to be, and indeed still is, 
abundant on the sandhills of Formby, Seaforth, 
and Southport. It is recorded from Walney 
Island, Piel Island, and Yarlside, but it is never- 
theless rare. It is, however, now becoming 
rarer than it used to be. 

2- Viviparous Lizard or Swift. Lacerta vivipara, 
Jacq. 

On the mosses and rarely on the sandhills. It 
occurs at Weston, near Runcorn, and on Latrigg 
Moss near Broughton-in-Furness. 
3. Slow-worm or Blind-worm. Anguis fragi/is, 
Linn. 

Found occasionally in the Leyland district and 
in woods in the Lake district. On the whole 
it is fairly common in Furness, but more so at 
Woodland than anywhere else. 



OPHIDIA 



4. Viper or Adder. Vipera ierus, Linn. 

Very common at Woodland and on the Fells 
about Torver and among heather and peat mosses. 
Four were destroyed at Haverthwaite station in 
June 1905, the largest being 4 feet long 
(R. Lord, Kirkby-in-Furness), also common on 
Warton Crag and at Kellet (W. Farrer). 

5. Common or Ringed Snake. Tropidonatut 

natrix, Linn. 

This snake has been found at Crake Valley 
and at Woodland (M. Rodgers, Barrow). 

These two species of snakes are said to occur 
in south-west Lancashire, but it is rather doubt- 
ful whether they do or not. Specimens have 
been reported as occurring in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Southport, but it is easy in such 
cases to satisfy oneself that such have not been 
imported. ' Snakes ' in the Furness district are 
called 'Hag- worms' by the country people. 



BATRACHIANS 



EC AU DAT A 

1. Common Frog. Rana temporaria, Linn. 
Even the common frog does not appear to be 

so common now as was formerly the case. 

2. The Toad. Bufo vulgaris, Linn. 
Common over the county. 

3. Natterjack. Bufo calamita, Laur. 

Both species of toad are fairly common. They 
are most abundant on the Formby and Southport 
sandhills in the slacks. But owing to the drain- 
ing of the latter B. calamita appears to be becom- 
ing less common. It is said to be common enough 
at Mureside Mosses (between Woodland and 
Broughton-in-Furness) (T. Johnstone, Woodland). 



CAUDATA 



4. Crested Newt. Molge cristata, Laur. 

5. Common Newt. Molge vulgaris, Linn. 

Both these newts are said to be well distributed 
over Lancashire that is, the portion of Lanca- 
shire still capable of forming a habitat for them. 
The crested newt is neither so abundant nor so 
well distributed as M. vulgaris. 

Molgepalmata, Schn., was recorded byBryerly 
in 1856 as rare. Three small specimens were 
taken in a shallow stream at Upton. It is very 
doubtful if it exists in Lancashire to-day. 



BIRDS 

Lancashire is rich in respect of its bird life. It forms one of the larger 
counties of England, possessing an extensive sea-board, and is well endowed 
with mountain and plain, with wood, river, and lake. It can consequently 
present to the ornithologist a very representative series of species in the 
majority of the avian families, and in most districts numerous individuals of 
each. Situated, however, in the north and west of England, its position is 
less favourable for receiving visits from the stream of migratory birds passing 
to and from the continent of Europe than the eastern and southern counties, 
where so many tarry for a time every spring and autumn. 

In general, the entire coast of Lancashire from the mouth of the river 
Duddon to the estuary of the Mersey is fronted by an enormous expanse of 
sandbanks, hundreds of square miles in extent, left dry by the sea at low 
water. In Furness, the country landward of the high-water mark forms 
a plain several miles in width, which rather abruptly rises to an altitude of 
over 2,500 feet in Furness and Dunnerdale fells. The whole district is rich in 
tracts of wild crag, elevated moorland and forested slopes, with abundance of 
brakes and timbered parks interspersed amid the extensively cultivated low- 
lands and the upland grass farms. In this portion of the county also occur 
the largest stretches of fresh water, Lake Windermere, Coniston and Esthwaite 
Waters, and numerous larger or smaller tarns. Many rare species of birds, 
therefore, survive in the seclusion of this safe sanctuary, and hosts of water- 
fowl find here unmolested nurseries. Within its boundaries still breed the 
merlin, the wood warbler, the dipper, the raven, the carrion crow, the great 
and lesser spotted woodpeckers, the hen-harrier, the white-tailed eagle, 
and the peregrine falcon. To Furness appertains Walney Island, which 
has long been noted as one of our chief safe nesting places for terns and 
limicoline birds. At the southern extremity of the island there is situated 
the largest of the two important gulleries in the county, the other being that 
on Cockerham Moss on the south-eastern shore of Morecambe Bay. Leigh, 
the historian of Lancashire in 1700, remarks that there were there vast quantities 
of sea-gulls : ' in the breeding time the whole island is near covered with 
eggs or young ones, so that it is scarce passable without injuring them.' 
In the list of rare visitors to Walney Island, the Duddon Sands, or the 
adjacent bay of Morecambe, occur the names of the barnacle goose, the 
scaup, the redbreasted merganser, the avocet, the whimbrel, and the eared 
grebe. During autumn and spring on migration, and in winter 
especially if severe weather prevail thousands of ducks, geese, swans, curlews, 
and dunlins find these sands an inexhaustible feeding ground. 

The coast between Morecambe Bay and the boundary of Cheshire is 
indented by the estuaries of the Lune, the Wyre, the Ribble, and the 
Mersey. The greater part of the long sea line of this region is fringed 
with sand dunes varying from one to four miles in width, and from 20 to 

189 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

30 feet in height. Between these dunes and a line drawn roughly from 
Lancaster through Preston and Wigan to Manchester, Lancashire is prac- 
tically a level plain undulating eastward, rarely anywhere rising over 
400 to 500 feet. Eastward of this line the country gradually ascends 
through the foot hills and outliers of the Pennine Range to the boundary of 
Yorkshire. A special feature of the plains is the extensive area covered by 
peat mosses. In former days these were vastly greater ; but now they are 
less continuous and more isolated. Yet still between the Ribble and the 
Mersey there is an almost continuous belt, twenty miles in length by some 
three miles in width, dotted with numerous meres and pools, the remnants of 
the more extensive water-expanses, some of which nearly equalled Lake 
Windermere in size, so that at one time the name of Lake Lancashire was 
given to these lowlands. In like manner the great woods and smaller plan- 
tations, still so abundantly preserved, are but the residue of the almost un- 
broken forest which once clothed this part of England and harboured so 
many now vanished species of animals and plants. Countless parks, shrubberies 
and orchards diversify the surface of the county in the midst of cultivated farms 
or extensive permanent grass-lands. Lancashire, south of the Fells, therefore 
presents suitable cover and abundant food supply for most species of birds. 
Still year after year constant drainage, the continuous additions being made to 
the arable land, and the growth of the population with the demand for wider 
areas for human habitation, are curtailing and extinguishing these pleasant 
habitats and driving their feathered tenants to other sanctuaries. Many species 
are now far less frequently met with than even a few decades ago ; some have 
entirely deserted us with little hope of their ever returning. The little bittern, 
the hobby, and, it is to be feared, the kite, are lost to us ; the honey-buzzard, 
the bittern, the night-heron and the wryneck are aves rarissimce ; the cross- 
bill, the chough, the carrion crow, the buzzard, the marsh harrier, the nut- 
hatch, and the tree-creeper, become rarer every season. 

The almost entire absence of shore rocks deprives the county of many 
of our common sea-birds as breeding species, the majority of which would 
certainly nest under different conditions, such as the puffin, most of the 
gulls, the guillemots, the chough, the rock-dove, the cormorant, and the 
shag. As might be expected, however, from the extent of our maritime 
sandbanks, our lakes, meres, rivers and the wide river-like ditches cut 
through the mosses, the number of sea or fresh-water-loving birds is very 
large. No fewer than seventy-nine can be enumerated either as resident or 
visiting species, and, as already said, during migration and in severe winters 
vast flocks congregate on the sandbanks, on the mudflats of the estuaries, and 
on our inland waters. 

Several species have been recorded for the first time as British birds 
from Lancashire, namely, the black-throated wheatear, the collared pratin- 
cole, the sociable plover, the great snipe, the white-faced petrel, and the lanner 
falcon ; while such rarities as Montagu's harrier, the goshawk, the honey- 
buzzard, the red-footed falcon, the glossy ibis, the spoonbill, and the Siberian 
thrush, have all been observed or taken in it. Several of these records are 
becoming ancient history ; many of those visitors have not for many years 
passed this way again. A goodly number of the specimens upon which these 
records are founded were fortunately acquired by the thirteenth Earl of 

190 



BIRDS 

Derby, in whose magnificent collection they were preserved till they passed 
by bequest to the custody of the city of Liverpool in 1851. 

Duck decoying is now almost extinct in Lancashire. In former days 
it was carried on in several localities ; but Hale, on the Mersey, the seat 
of the Ireland-Blackburnes, is the only place where a decoy still continues 
to be worked. It is provided with five pipes, and has been operated for over 
150 years. The chief species that are captured in it are mallard and teal, 
with a fair proportion of wigeon in most years. Fowlers, on the other hand, 
are numerous, and are successful in securing every season thousands of scoter, 
scaup, mallard, curlews, geese, and dunlins by means of douker or fly-nets. 
The former are suspended a foot or two over the birds' feeding grounds 
between tides, in diving down to which they get entangled by the neck and 
drowned in the rising water. The latter, often of great length and some four 
feet in height, are set on the sands athwart the track of the birds hastening 
to their feeding banks from which the sea has just retreated. Vast numbers 
of teal and snipe are also taken in horsehair snares, known as ' panties,' set in 
lone spots in grassy marshes, and on prepared and baited places when the 
ground is snow-covered. The ignoble skylark-fowler employs the usual 
clap-net. Dr. Leigh's History of Lancashire, which contains numerous quaint 
observations on natural history, has the following interesting note on the 
' fowling ' of mallard without their capture : ' but the most remarkable thing 
of the Wild Ducks is the way of feeding them at Bold in Lancashire. Great 
quantities of these breed in the summer season in Pits and Ponds within the 
Demesne, which probably may entice them to come into the Moat near the 
Hall, which a person accustomed to them perceiving, he beats with a stone 
on a hollow wood vessel ; the Ducks answer to the sound, and come quite 
round him upon an Hill adjoining to the Water. He scatters corn amongst 
them, which they take with as much Quietness and Familiarity as Tame 
ones ; when fed they take their flight to the Rivers, Meers, and Salt-marshes.' 

The latest list of birds enumerated as British contains 475 species ; but 
of these 72 have been disallowed as not sufficiently authenticated. Those, 
therefore, with a good title to the designation number only 403. Of this 
total 269 are entered in the following list as having been observed in 
Lancashire, so that only 134 have not yet favoured us by residence or visit. 
Of the 269 Lancashire birds, 136 nest with us as residents (93), or as summer 
visitors (43). The majority, just over a half (69), of these are passerine birds, 
while larine, limicoline, picarian, and accipitrine species form the bulk of the 
remainder. Winter sojourners or migrants making a short stay on their autumn 
and spring passages number 77 : 46 being anserine or limicoline. The 
balance of 56 are stragglers and occasional visitors, the greater number (48) 
belonging to anserine, larine, and limicoline species. 

1. Missel-Thrush. Turdus v iscivorus, Linn. 3. Redwing. Turdus i/iacus t Linn. 

Locally, Stormcock, Shirley. A common winter and spring visitor, fre- 
Common throughout the county, but more quenting lower grounds than the fieldfare, 
abundant year by year. Often frequents shrub- 
beries and orchards throughout the winter. 4. Fieldfare. Turdus pi/aris, Linn. 

2. Song-Thrush. Turdus musicus, Linn. An autumn and winter visitor, often in large 
Met with everywhere and apparently increas- flocks in the Mersey Valley and on the lower 

ing in numbers. Fells. 

191 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



5. Siberian Thrush. Turdus sibiricus, Pallas. 1 8. Blackcap. Sylvia atricapilla (Linn.). 

Seen by the writer in his garden in Liverpool A summer immigrant and lowland wood- 
many occasions during the severe winter of lander, only very occasionally wintering in the 

county. 

19. Garden-Warbler. Sylvia hortensis (Bech- 



1895. 

6. Blackbird. Turdus merula, Linn. 
Abundant. 

7. Ring-Ousel. Turdus torquatus, Linn. 

A summer immigrant, nesting more abun- 2Q QoUrfgct 
dantly in the Fells than elsewhere. 

8. Wheatear. Saxicola atnanthe (Linn.). 

Locally, Stone-chack, Wall-chack, White-rump 



stein). 

A common summer migrant, often seen late 
in autumn in gardens and orchards. 

Regulus cristatus. K. L. Koch. 
A fairly common resident, more conspicuous 
after the close of the breeding season, when it 
occurs in small companies. 
A summer resident, arriving at the end of 2 i. Firecrest. Regulus ignicapillus (Brehm). 
March or early in April. Common on the low- Qne of twQ occurrences of this species are 
lands and sandy hnks near the coast. recorded, but none of them appear absolutely 

9. Black-throated Wheatear. Saxicola stapazina, authentic; the record (Zoologist, 1903, p. 455) 
Vieillot. f tne finding of a male specimen near South- 

A specimen taken at Bury, 8 May, 1875, P rt > in Ct ber '93> P roved erroneous. 
was the first record in the British Islands. 22. Chiffchaff. Phylloscopus rufus (Bechstein). 
(P. Z. S. 1878, pp. 881-997). Figured in Ivty, Petty-chaps. 

Saunders' Manual, p. 23, and by Dresser, Birds A ^ summer ^.^ arrjving ear , y jn April> 



of Europe, under the name of Saxicola rufa (Hart- 
ing, Handbook of British Birds, p. 353). 

10. Whinchat. Pratincola rubetra (Linn.). 

A summer visitor to all our wastes, moor- 
lands, and low-lying open country. 

11. Stonechat. Pratincola rubicola (Linn.). 
Locally, Stone-chack, Flick-tail. 

A resident, frequenting commons and furzy 
wastes. Irregularly distributed. 

1 2. Redstart. Ruticilla pboenicurus (Linn.). 
Locally, Jennie Red-tail. 

An early spring immigrant and summer resi- 
dent, sparingly distributed. 

13. Black Redstart. Ruticilla titys (Scopoli). 
A rare autumn and winter visitant. 

14. Robin or Redbreast. Erithacus rubecula 

(Linn.). 
Abundant. 

15. Nightingale. Daulias luscinia (Linn.). 
The majority of the records of the occurrence 

of the nightingale in this county are insufficiently 



23. Willow - Warbler. Phylloscopus trochilus 

(Linn.). 

Locally, White Wren, Peggy Whitethroat. 
A quite common summer visitor. 

24. Wood- Warbler. Phylloscopus sibilatrix (Bech- 

stein). 

Locally, Fell Peggy. 

A summer immigrant, especially frequent in 
the more wooded districts among the Fells. 

25. Reed- Warbler. Acrocephalus streperus (Vie- 

illot). 

A summer immigrant, local and not uncom- 
mon by the margins of our meres and osier 
thickets. 

26. Sedge - Warbler. Acrocephalus phragmitis 

(Bechstein). 
Locally, Water Nanny. 

A summer visitor, common on meres and 
reedy swamps. 

27. Grasshopper - Warbler. Locustella neevia 

(Boddaert). 
A generally distributed species, arriving early 



authenticated, but its presence in the Irwell ; n M ~ a nd' spending the summer with us in 

valley seems worthy of respect. No authentic { numbers than usually supposed, 
nest has ever been taken. The writer may 

mention here that he saw it at close quarters in 28. Hedge-Sparrow. Accentor modulans (Linn.), 
his garden at Hoylake, in Cheshire, in 1900. Locally, Hedge-dunny, Dunnock, Dykey. 

, .... . , c , /TJ L \ A resident common throughout the county 

1 6. Whitethroat. Sykta cmerea (Bechstem). ^ ^ ^^ 

Locally, Peggy Whitethroat. 
A common summer immigrant. 

17. Lesser Whitethroat. Sylvia carruca (Linn.). 
Locally, Hazel-linnet. 

An occasional summer visitor. 



29. Dipper. Cine/us aquaticus, Bechstein. 

Locally, Bessy Ducker, Water-Ouzel, Betty 

Dowker. 

Numerous in all streams, especially in the 
higher parts of the county. 



192 



BIRDS 



30. British long-tailed Tit. Acredula rosea 

(Blyth). 

Locally, Bottle Tit. 

A fairly abundant species, especially in wooded 
districts. 

31. Great Tit. Parus major, Linn. 
Locally, Ox-eye Tit. 

An abundant resident. 

32. British Coal-Tit. Parus britannicus, Sharpe 

and Dresser. 

A resident but local. It is numerous in some 
districts of the Fells. More often observed in 
winter than at other seasons. 

33. British Marsh Tit. Parus palustris, Linn. 
A resident nesting species, but not so abund- 
ant as the last, except in the localities it affects, 
where considerable flocks may be seen in late 
autumn and in winter. 

34. Blue Tit. Parus ceeruleus, Linn. 
Locally, Blue Nope. 

A very common resident, in winter tame and 
familiar, loving the neighbourhood of dwellings. 

35. Nuthatch. Sitta cassia, Wolf. 
Locally, Kitty Wren. 

An extremely rare summer visitor. It is said 
to have bred near Manchester. (Mitchell, Birds 
of Lancashire, p. 38.) Its last recorded occur- 
rence is September 1880. 

36. Wren. Troglodytes parvulus, Koch. 
Locally, Kitty Wren. 

An abundant resident. 

37. Tree-Creeper. Certhia familiaris, Linn. 

A resident, but becoming rarer than it formerly 
was. A few pairs, however, nest annually in 
most of the woods throughout the county. 

38. Wall-Creeper. Tichodroma muraria (Linn.). 
A very rare straggler. The second specimen 

in England, after 1792, was shot at the village 
of Subden, Pendle Hill, 8 May, 1872. (Zoo- 
logist, 1876, p. 4839 ; Birds of Lancashire, ed. I, 
p. 56, with plate ; ed. 2, p. 60, woodcut.) 

39. Pied wagtail. Motacilla lugubris, Temm. 
Locally, Water Wagtail. 

An abundant resident, but more conspicuous 
in early autumn, when it frequents lawns, moist 
pathways, and wet sandy patches in companies 
of two or three pairs together. It is scarcer in 
winter. 

40. White Wagtail. Motacilla alba, Linn. 

A spring visitor, and less common than the 
preceding species, but occurring probably ' more 
frequently than is supposed ' (Mitchelf). It nests 
on many of our mosses. 

4 1 . Grey Wagtail. Motacilla melanope, Pallas. 
A resident, but nests in Lancashire less fre- 
quently than the pied wagtail, though still 



numerous on the rocky streams of Langridge 
Fell. 

42. Yellow Wagtail. Motacilla rail (Bona- 

parte). 

Locally, Yellow Hand-stir, Seedfore. 
A not uncommon summer visitor, nesting in 
maritime and inland meadows. 

43. Tree-Pipit. Anthus trivialis (Linn.). 

A summer immigrant, well distributed espe- 
cially near woods. 

44. Meadow-Pipit. Anthus pratensis (Linn.). 
Locally, Titlark. 

Abundant everywhere. 

45. Richard's Pipit. Anthus richardi, Vieillot. 
Specimens of Richard's pipit were killed at 

Crosby and on the Wyre in 1869. (Mitchell, 
Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 48.) 

46. Rock-Pipit. Anthus obscurus (Latham). 

A resident species, common along the coast 
and margins of our large estuaries, and on Walney 
Island, where it breeds. (Harting, Zoologist, 1 864.) 

47. Golden Oriole. Oriolus galbula, Linn. 
There are several records of the species as a 

summer visitor, but none of its having nested in 
the county. 

48. Great Grey Shrike. Lanius excubitor, Linn. 
An occasional visitor in late autumn and in 

winter. An adult female specimen was shot at 
Urmston in January 1904. (Zoologist, 1904, 
p. 115.) It used to breed at one time among 
the sandhills. Mr. H. Murray saw one shot at 
Chorlton near Manchester in 1905. 

49. Red-backed Shrike. Lanius collurio, Linn. 
A summer visitor. There are frequent re- 
cords of its having bred in the county. (Zoolo- 
gist, 1896, p. 70.) 

50. Woodchat Shrike. Lanius pomeranus, Sparr- 

man. 

Two occurrences of this species are on record. 
(Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 53.) 

51. Waxwing. Ampelis garrulus, Linn. 
There have been several invasions of con- 
siderable numbers at a time of the waxwing, 
generally at long intervals, and as a rule in mid- 
winter. 

52. Pied Flycatcher. Muscicapa atricapilla, Linn. 
A summer visitor on migration ; some few 

breed annually. 

53. Spotted Flycatcher. Muscicapa grisola, 

Linn. 
A common summer visitor. 

54. Swallow. Hirundo rustica, Linn. 

A summer visitor universally distributed. 
First seen in 1903 as early as the end of March, 
near Liverpool. In North Lancashire during the 
very unseasonable May of 1886 between six and 
3 25 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

seven hundred swallows perished from cold and 67. Lesser Redpoll. Linota rufescens (Vieillot). 



wet. (Zoologist, 1886, p. 248.) Great flocks 
frequent our meres in autumn before their 
migration flight. 

55. House-Martin. Chelidon urbica (Linn.). 
Equally common with the last species but 

later in arriving. For some unknown cause it 
is often weeks later in some years than in others in 
returning to its annually frequented haunts, 
though abundant in neighbouring districts. 
Numerous house-martins succumbed to the 
disastrous weather of May 1886. 

56. Sand-Martin. Cotile riparia (Linn.). 



Locally, Grey Bob, Jitty. 

A resident, common in the lowlands of the 
northern districts, where it nests freely. 

68. Twite. Linota Jlavirostris (Linn.). 
Locally, Moor Linnet. 

A resident species nesting on all heaths and 
moors both in the uplands and lowlands. 

69. Bullfinch. Pyrrhula europaa, Vieillot. 
An abundant resident. 

70. Pine-Grosbeak. Pyrrhula enucleator (Linn.). 
There exist two records of the occurrence of 



A summer visitor, numerous wherever it finds tne pine-grosbeak, one prior to 1837 at Hurlston, 



suitable sandbanks. 

57. Greenfinch. Ligurinus chloris (Linn.). 

Locally, Green Linnet. 
A resident and generally distributed species. 



and the second in February, 1895, at Rochdale. 
(Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 75.) 

71. Crossbill. Loxia curvirostra, Linn. 

The crossbill appears at intervals of a few 



In times of hard frost it frequents dwellings in year 



s in small flocks which frequent the pine 



association with starlings, sparrows, robins, and 
gulls. 

58. Hawfinch. Coccothraustes vulgaris, Pallas. 
Resident and fairly numerous, and becoming 

more so of late years. 

59. Goldfinch. Carduelis elegans, Stephens. 

A resident and widely distributed species, but 
less numerous than formerly. 

60. Siskin. Carduelis spinus (Linn.). 
Locally, Aberdevine. 

A winter visitor in small flocks. There is a 
record of the siskin having bred near Lancaster 
in 1836. (Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, 
P. 6 3 .) 

61. House Sparrow. Passer domesticus (Linn.). 
Abundant. 

62. Tree Sparrow. Passer montanus (Linn.). 

A resident occurring sparingly throughout the 
county. 

63. Chaffinch. Fringilla ccelebs, Linn. 
Locally, Pink-pink, Fleckie. 

A resident, and very common everywhere. 

64. Brambling. Fringilla montifringilla, Linn. 
An occasional mid-winter visitor. 

65. Linnet. Linota cannabina (Linn.). 
Locally, Brown Linnet, Gorse-finch. 

A resident and common species throughout 
the county in whin-covered moors and especially 
in gorse fields not far from the sea. 

66. Mealy Redpoll. Linota linaria (Linn.). 
This species was caught occasionally twenty 

years ago on Mellor Moor, as Mr. R. J. Howard 
has satisfied himself. (Saunders, in Mitchell's 
Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 73 .) 

194 



plantations. The occurrence of a bird of the 
year at Morecambe in 1883 suggests its having 
been bred in the county (Birds of Lancashire, 
ed. 2, p. 76). In former times this species nested 
regularly. 

72. Corn-bunting. Emberiza miliaria, Linn. 
A resident and locally abundant species, espe- 
cially on the lowlands of the Mersey Valley. 

73. Yellow Hammer. Emberiza citrinella, Linn. 
Locally, Goldfinch, Yellow Yoldring, Bessy 

Blakeling. 

Abundant everywhere, often frequenting farm- 
yards and lawns in company with sparrows. 

74. Cirl Bunting. Emberiza cirlus, Linn. 

A very rare visitor. It is recorded to have 
bred at Formby (Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, 
ed. 2, p. 79). 

75. Ortolan Bunting. Emberiza hortulana, 

Linn. 

A male of this species was killed near Man- 
chester in November, 1827 (ZoologicalJournal, iii. 
p. 498), and figured by Selby. (Mitchell, Birds 
of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 79.) 

76. Reed Bunting. Emberiza schaeniclus. Linn. 
Locally, Blackcap, Reed Sparrow. 

A common resident, locally distributed. 

77. Snow Bunting. Plectrophenax nivalis (Linn.). 
Locally, Shore Lark, Mountain Bunting. 

An annual winter visitant to our shores in 
considerable numbers. 

78. Lapland Bunting. Calcarius lapponicus 

(Linn.). 

A very rare winter visitant, and only four times 
observed in Lancashire between the years 1834 
and 1882. 



BIRDS 



79. Starling. Sturnus vu/garis, Linn. 
Locally, Shepster. 

A resident, abundant everywhere, nesting in 
hollow trees and about dwelling houses so 
numerously as to amount now to a nuisance. 
Its numbers are increasing with great rapidity 
every year. During winter immense flocks con- 
gregate in every suitable shrubbery. 

80. Rose-coloured Starling. Pastor roseus (Linn.). 
A rare visitor on migration during autumn. 

81. Chough. Pyrrhocrax graculus (Linn.). 
The chough, or red-legged crow, as it is often 

called, has no suitable breeding place nearer to 
Lancashire than Anglesea and the Isle of Man. 
It frequents the Fells, however. It is said to 
have nested formerly, if not now, at Whitbarrow 
in Morecambe Bay, just over the Westmorland 
border. 

82. Jay. Garrulus glaudarius (Linn.). 

A resident. Common in woods where it is 
not persecuted by gamekeepers. 

83. Magpie. Pica rustica (Scopoli). 
Locally, Piet, Pyanet. 

A common resident, but more abundant in the 
uplands and Fell districts. 

84. Jackdaw. Corvus monedula, Linn. 

An abundant resident throughout Lancashire, 
breeding in steeples and in old beeches and oaks. 

85. Raven. Corvus corax, Linn. 

The raven is a resident breeding annually 
among the cliffs in the high Fells and on crag 
ledges of the unfrequented dales of the northern 
districts. 

86. Carrion-Crow. Corvus corone, Linn. 
Locally, Kar-crow, Doup-crow. 

A resident species, occurring locally, but every- 
where becoming rarer through persecution. Its 
nesting places are chiefly in the retired districts 
of the Lancashire lakeland. 

87. Grey or Hooded Crow. Corvus comix, Linn. 
Locally, Manx Crow, Royston Crow, Sea Crow. 

A late autumn and winter visitor to our shores 
from the Isle of Man chiefly. In the early hours 
of a November morning they may often enough 
be heard announcing their arrival to sleepless 
dwellers near the coast. In the hurricane of 
3 December, 1821, a very large number of wild 
birds, such as 'sea-crows, snipe, and other aquatic 
birds,' were washed ashore dead on the Lancashire 
coast. (Bland, Annals of Southport, p. 82.) 

88. Rook. Corvus frugilegus, Linn. 

An abundant resident. During severe winter 
rooks may be seen feeding along the shore singly 
or in pairs widely separated, in company with 
plovers, gulls, and starlings. 



89. Sky-Lark. Alauda arvensis, Linn. 
Abundant. 

90. Wood-Lark. Alauda arborea, Linn. 

A once abundant but now very rare species, 
yet still probably often undistinguished from the 
sky-lark. 

91. Shore-Lark. Otocorys alpestris (Linn.). 
A very rare visitor and only in winter. 

92. Swift. Cypselus apus (Linn.). 

Locally, Devil skirler, Develin, Devil Screamer. 
An abundant summer visitant. 

93. Alpine Swift. Cypselus melba (Linn.). 

Of this bird only two occurrences are on 
record. (Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, 
p. 102.) 

94. Nightjar. Caprimulgus europcsus, Linn. 
Locally, Night Hawk, Fern Owl. 

A summer visitant, common in suitable locali- 
ties. 

95. Wryneck. lynx torquilla, Linn. 
Locally, Lang tongue. 

Formerly numerous, but now a very rare 
summer visitor. Observed on Stiperden Moor, 
Burnley, on 30 August, 1905. 

96. Green Woodpecker. Gecinus viridis (Linn.). 
Locally, Heyhough (Leigh). 

A resident and not uncommon in thick woods, 
where it nests, but scarce elsewhere. 

97. Great Spotted Woodpecker. Dendrocopus 

major (Linn.). 

A sparsely distributed resident, chiefly fre- 
quenting our fir woods. Specimens were taken 
on Cartmell Fell and near Ulverston in Novem- 
ber 1889. It nests in Witton Park, Blackburn. 
(Zoologist, 1904, p. 260.) 

98. Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. Dendrocopus 

minor (Linn.). 

A resident species, but much more rarely seen 
than the previous species, yet probably more 
numerous than is generally supposed. Nests are 
found every year. 

[Great Black Woodpecker. Picus martius, 
Linn. 

Yarrell (History of British Birds, ed. 3, ii. 
138) records that an individual had been shot in 
the county by Lord Stanley, but it was proved 
to be a mistaken idea. (Harting, Handbook of 
British Birds, p. 304.)] 

99. Middle Spotted Woodpecker. Dendropicus 

medius (Linn.). 

One visit of this species to Lancashire is on 
record. (Pennant, Brit. Zool. i. 180.) 

[' The Brazilian Magpie.' Rhamphastidarium 



'95 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Leigh, writing in 1700 in his History of 
Lancashire (i. 195), records : 'About two years 
ago in the same violent hail storm [which brought 
the Tropic Bird, see p. 198 infra} the Brazilian 
magpie was "found dead on the coasts of Lanca- 
shire." ' The figure 2 on ' Table ye I of Birds,' 
opposite p. 195, represents unquestionably a 
Toucan, but as Professor Newton suggests (Diet, 
of Birds, s.v. Toucan, p. 977), it may have 
escaped from captivity. Some probability, how- 
ever, is given to its having really been brought 
by the storm from the occurrence of another 
southern and western bird 'the Tropic bird' 
thrown on the Lancashire shore by the same 
storm.] 

I oo. Kingfisher. Akedo ispida, Linn. 

A resident occurring on streams and meres, 
where not too frequented, in large and apparently 
increasing numbers through the operation of the 
Protection Acts. It occasionally nests on sea- 
washed cliffs. 

i o I . Roller. Coracias garrulus, Linn. 

An irregular summer migrant of whose occur- 
rence some half dozen records, more or less 
authentic, exist. 

1 02. Hoopoe. Upupa epops, Linn. 
Formerly an irregular visitor to Lancashire, 

occurring generally in spring and autumn, more 
rarely in winter and summer ; now very rare. 
A specimen taken at Knowsley in 1815 is pre- 
served in the Lord Derby Museum, Liverpool. 
A late visit on record is from Walney Island in 
1884. (Macpherson, Fauna of Lakeland, p. 169.) 
A specimen shot at Sale near Manchester in 
1905 passed through Mr. H. Murray's hands. 

103. Cuckoo. Cuculus canorus, Linn. 

A constant annual summer visitor. It is still 
to be heard in the larger shrubberies even within 
the city bounds, generally in the stillness of the 
early morning before the din of its turmoil 
begins. 

104. White or Barn-Owl. Strix flammea, Linn. 
Locally, Howlet, White Owl. 

A resident species and quite common. 

105. Long-eared Owl. Am otus (Linn.). 

A resident, but more sparsely distributed than 
the last species, yet plentiful in some parts of the 
county. Nests in Witton Park, Blackburn. 
(Zoologist, 1904, p. 259.) 

1 06. Short-eared Owl. Asia accipitrinus (Pallas). 
The short-eared owl arrives in small companies 

generally in autumn and winter, and becomes 
fairly evenly distributed over the county. A good 
few remain and nest annually in suitable spots, 
such as unfrequented moors and dry mosses. It 
was seen in considerable numbers at Walney 



Island in 1891, and a pair bred there in 1885, 
as certified by Mr. Howard Saunders. (Mitchell's 
Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 1 1 7.) 

107. Tawny Owl. Syrnium aluco (Linn.). 
Locally, Wood-owl. 

Resident and still fairly common despite the 
persecution to which it is subjected. It is more 
frequent in our wooded districts. 

108. Tengmalm's Owl. Nyctala tengmalmi 

(J. F. Gmelin). 

A single specimen is recorded as taken near 
Preston in Mitchell's Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, 
p. 119, the bird being now in the Nottingham 
Town Museum. 

109. Little Owl. Athene noctua (Scopoli). 
The single record for Lancashire occurs in 

the Naturalist's Scrap-book, 1863, part 5. 

1 1 0. Scops-Owl. Scops giu (Scopoli). 

One insufficiently authenticated occurrence of 
this bird is on record. (Mitchell, Birds of Lan- 
cashire, ed. 2, p. 1 20). 

in. Marsh-Harrier. Circus aruginosus (Linn.). 
Formerly a not uncommon straggler over 
most of the low-lying parts of the county, but 
now very rare. 

112. Hen-Harrier. Circus cyaneus (Linn.). 
Locally, Ringtail, Blue Glede. 

Rather rare. It nests from time to time a- 
mong the Fells, and is seen occasionally still on 
the low heather-clad hills and on the plain. 

113. Montagu's Harrier. Circus cineraceus 
(Montagu). 

Has been recorded twice from Lancashire, 
once from Walney Island in 1874, and once from 
Whitendale Moor in 1889 (Mitchell's Birds 
of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 123.) 

114. Buzzard. Buteo vulgaris, Leach. 

A local much persecuted resident, nesting now 
only in our lake districts, where it receives less 
molestation from gunners and gamekeepers. 
The bird breeds more abundantly in Westmor- 
land and also numerously in Anglesea, and from 
these localities many of our Lancashire frequenting 
individuals doubtless come. 

115. Rough-legged Buzzard. Buteo lagopus 

(J. F. Gmelin). 

A rare autumn visitor, putting in an appearance 
at intervals of a few years in the neighbourhood 
of the rabbit warrens along our coasts or in the 
interior of the county. 

1 1 6. Spotted Eagle. Aquila maculata (J. F. 

Gmelin). 

One occurrence of this species is recorded for 
1875 from Walney Island by Mr. W. A. Durn- 
ford in his Birds of Walney (1883). 



196 



BIRDS 



117. Golden Eagle. Aquila chrysaftus (Linn.). 
Durnford in the Birds of Walney notes one 

occurrence of the golden eagle near Furness 
Abbey in 1815. 

1 1 8. White-tailed Eagle. Haliaetus albicilla 

(Linn.). 

The present writer thinks that the white- 
tailed eagle may still probably breed from time to 
time somewhere on the heights of this or the 
neighbouring counties, for several immature 
specimens have been taken along the coast and 
at other places. One killed at Blundellsands in 
1895 was brought to him in the flesh on 
3 December, and is now preserved in the Lord 
Derby Museum in Liverpool. 

119. Goshawk. Astur palumbarius (Linn.). 
The goshawk has twice been recorded from 

the county, in the years 1838 and 1863 respec- 
tively. (Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, 
p. 127.) 

120. Sparrow-Hawk. Accip'iter nisus (Linn.). 

A resident and still fairly abundant notwith- 
standing the hostility of every gamekeeper 
towards it. 

121. Kite. Milvus ictinus, Savigny. 
Locally, Gled. 

Formerly more frequently met with than now 
in Lancashire as elsewhere, where it nested, 
though rarely in the tall trees, among the Fells 
and in a few other favourable places. It does 
not appear to have been noted, however, during 
the last quarter of a century. 

[Swallow-tailed Kite. Elanoidesfurcatus(lu\nn.). 

A specimen from the Macclesfield Museum 
sold at Stevens' Auction Rooms in London in 
June 1 86 1 was said to have been shot on the 
Mersey in June 1843, DUt lt mav ** we ^ nave 
escaped from captivity as been wafted to our 
shores by westerly winds. A very doubtful 
record, which is not sufficient to qualify for the 
Lancashire register.] 

122. Honey-Buzzard . Pernis apivorus (Linn.). 
An occasional summer visitor to Lancashire ; 

but it has not occurred for many years now. 
Two female specimens, one shot (in Knowsley 
Park by the Hon. E. G. Stanley) in October, 
1818, and a second at Rainford in 1835, are 
preserved in the Lord Derby Museum, Liver- 
pool. 

[Greenland Falcon. Falco candicans (J. F. 
Gmelin). 

An insufficiently authenticated record exists of 
an adult specimen having been shot on a vessel 
coming into the port of Liverpool in the middle 
sixties. (Gregson, Proc. Hist. Sac. of Lancashire 
and Cheshire, 1865-6).] 



123. Peregrine Falcon. Falco peregrinus. Tun- 

stall. 

A resident still in small numbers in the Fells, 
where amid their wild isolation a few broods are 
annually reared. One with a dunlin fast in its 
talons was taken by a fisherman on the marsh 
near Carnforth in 1900. It is not infrequently 
seen in some districts in spring. 

124. Lanner Falcon. Falco feldeggii, Schl. 

A female was picked up newly shot on the 
sea-shore near Carnforth, in April 1 902, after fre- 
quenting the district for some weeks. (Robinson, 
Zoologist, 1904, p. 75.) No record is forthcoming 
that the bird was an escape from confinement. 

125. Hobby. Falco subbuteo (Linn.). 

An occasional spring and autumn migrant, 
now very rarely seen, though more frequent in 
former times, and for the last twenty-five years 
no occurrence has been recorded. A specimen 
shot at Knowsley is preserved in the Lord Derby 
Museum in Liverpool. 

126. Merlin. Falco atsalon, Tunstall. 

A locally distributed resident nesting on the 
hill sides and high moors and visiting the low- 
lands but rarely, and usually chiefly in winter, 
and these generally young birds. A very beau- 
tiful partial albino, shot at Lower Darwen, near 
Blackburn, in October, 1891, is preserved in the 
Lord Derby Museum, Liverpool. 

127. Red-footed Falcon. Falco vesper tinus, 

Linn. 

A rare straggler, observed in the county only 
three times, all in the year 1843, one ^ rom 
Heaton Park and two from Prestwich Clough 
the latter record, however, leaves much to be 
desired in the way of authentication. 

128. Kestrel. Falco tinnunculus, Linn. 
Locally, Windhover. 

A common resident, the best known and the 
oftenest seen of all our hawks, nesting in all 
suitable plantations, and often formerly among 
the coastal sandhills. It is still much persecuted 
by gamekeepers, although now it derives some 
indirect, rather than intentional, benefit (so far 
as its persecutors are concerned) from the Bird 
Protection Acts. 

129. Osprey. Pandion haliat'tus (Linn.). 
Locally, Fishing-hawk. 

A not infrequent spring and autumn visitor, 
frequenting our inland meres. 

130. Cormorant. Phalacrocorax carlo (Linn.). 
Locally, Scarf. 

A resident ' common in these parts ' (according 
to Leigh) in 1700, but not nesting within our 



197 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



area as there are no suitable building sites, but as 
it breeds in North Wales and in Cumberland it 
frequents our coasts and rivers, often ascending 
the estuaries for some distance chiefly in autumn 
and winter. It may be noted that the 'Liver' in 
the arms of the Corporation of Liverpool has 
been supposed to be the cormorant, as the same 
appears in the arms of the earl of Liverpool and 
is described in Burke's Peerage as a ' Cormorant 
holding in the beak a bunch of seaweed,' for 
which, however, as Prof. Newton remarks, there 
is no authority. 

131. Shag or Green Cormorant. Phalacrocorax 

graculus (Linn.). 

An occasional visitor. The same observations 
apply to the shag as to the cormorant, except 
that for some reason it visits our coasts less fre- 
quently than the latter. 

132. Gannet or Solan Goose. Sula bassana 

(Linn.). 

A frequent visitor to Liverpool Bay ; more fre- 
quently seen 8 10 miles off the coast and during 
winter. 

[The Tropick Bird. (? Phcethon tsthereus 
(Linn.). 

'About two years ago (1698) by a violent 
hailstorm . . . there was brought a bird all white 
(except only a short red beak) about the bigness 
of a pigeon. . . I could apprehend it to be no 
other than what our travellers call the Tropick 
Bird, met with usually in crossing that Line.' 
(Leigh, History of Lancashire, i. pp. 164, 165 ; 
Table ye I of Birds, fig. 3). The illustration 
(1. c.) certainly represents a species of Phathon 
which must no doubt have been brought from 
the S.W. regions of the Atlantic by the storm]. 

133. Heron. Ardea cinerea, Linn. 

Locally, Crane, Yern, Longricks, Jammy, Heron- 

shaw. 

Many heronries have existed in the county at 
one place and another within the last fifteen 
years, but the extension of cultivated land and 
the consequent destruction of the plantations 
frequented by the birds have greatly reduced 
their number. Isolated nests are occasionally 
found in suitable places throughout the county. 
The most important heronries still remaining are 
at Ince Blundell near Waterloo, where about a 
score of pairs breed annually, and at Scarisbrick, 
near Southport, where there is a colony of twenty- 
five to thirty pairs. Another colony of ten to 
twelve pairs finds a home at Ashton, near Lan- 
caster (Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 143). 
Macpherson (Lakeland, p. 223) records three 
other heronries : one of ten to twelve pairs at 
Roundsea Wood, which was destroyed in 1886, 
but exists probably somewhere not far off, as 
young birds were seen on Roundsea Moss in 
1891 ; a second in the Rusland Valley, where 



annually from eight to ten pairs nest, and the 
third at Whittington near Kirkby Lonsdale. The 
bird is far from an uncommon fisher by the banks 
of all our streams and canals and by our mere 
margins. Notwithstanding Lancashire's poverty 
in heronries large and flourishing colonies exist in 
Yorkshire and Cheshire, from which come many 
of our very welcome visitors. 

1 34. Purple Heron. Ardea purpurea, Linn. 
One visit of this species is recorded in 1887 

(Pickin, Zoologist, 1887, p. 432). 

135. Night Heron. Nycticorax grisius (Linn.). 
No certain record of the occurrence of this 

species can be traced during the last twenty years ; 
but Mr. Davies, of Lymm in Cheshire, possesses 
a specimen, received by him in the flesh, killed 
at Newton-le-Willows some < ten or twelve years 
ago' (Coward, Zoologist, 1904, p. 314). 

136. Little Bittern. Ardetta minuta (Linn.). 
In past years an occasional summer visitor, but 

no record exists of its presence within our boun- 
daries for many years past. 

137. Bittern. Botaurus stellaris (Linn.). 
Locally, Butter-bump, Bittery, Bog-bumper, Mue- 

A very frequent visitor in winter, but not now 
known to nest within the county, although there 
can be little doubt that it once did so when 
drainage was less undertaken, and our meres and 
mosses were, therefore, more extensive and further 
from human habitation than to-day. 

138. American Bittern. Botaurus lentiginosus 

(Montagu). 

One clearly authenticated occurrence is re- 
corded from Fleetwood on 8 December, 1 895 
(Cooper, Zoologist, 1846, p. 1248). 

139. Glossy Ibis. Plegadis falcinellus (Linn.). 
This species has been observed on four occa- 
sions in Lancashire during the past century. A 
specimen, preserved in the Lord Derby Museum, 
Liverpool, was shot at Ormskirk, and bequeathed 
to the city by the thirteenth Lord Derby in 1851. 
Some local interest attaches to this bird, as to it, 
amongst others, has been assigned the original of 
the ' Liver ' in the arms of the City of Liverpool. 
' The mysterious bird that figured on the ancient 
Corporation Seal seems to have been an eagle, 
the well-known symbol of St. John the Evan- 
gelist ' (cf. Picton, Memorials of Liverpool, i. p. 1 8, 
and Newton, Dictionary of Birds, sub voce ' Lever 
or Liver'; also under Cormorant, No. 129, 
supra). 

140. Spoonbill. Platalea leucorodia, Linn. 
The spoonbill is recorded only once from Lan- 
cashire the specimen now in the Preston Mu- 
seum having been taken on the Ribble in 1840 
(Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 148). 



198 



BIRDS 



141. Grey Lag-Goose. Anser cinereus, Meyer. 
This bird is seen annually during the spring 

and autumn migration in flocks which rest on 
the sandbanks off the mouths of the Mersey and 
Dee, and in Morecambe Bay on the large tract 
of land reclaimed since 1863 in the Ribble 
estuary. While other waders have ceased to find 
it a suitable rendezvous, geese of several species 
annually muster on it to the number of many 
thousands (Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, 
p. 151). A pair nested on the Formby Sands in 
1904, but on their eggs being taken the birds 
took their departure. 

[Egyptian Goose. Chenalopex eegyptiacus (Linn.). 
Shot on several occasions on the Ribble, but 
probably an escape from confinement (Mitchell, 
Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. xi.)]. 

142. White-fronted Goose. Anser albifrons 

(Scopoli). 

A winter visitor, seen and obtained on several 
occasions among flocks of migrating geese. 

143. Bean-Goose. Anser segetum (J. F. Gmelin). 
The bean-goose is often shot on passage during 

the spring and autumn migration, and so occa- 
sionally comes into the poultry markets of our 
large towns. 

144. Pink-footed Goose. Anser brachyrhynchus, 

Baillon. 

An annual winter visitant, assembling with 
other species of geese in our larger estuaries, 
visiting the mouth of the Ribble in large flocks 
every year to feed on the early bent-grass shoots 
abundant there. 

145. Red-breasted Goose. Bernicla ruficollh 

(Pallas). 

Two are said to have been shot between 1832 
and 1837 in the flooded marshes at Sowerby 
near Garstang (Hornby, Zoologist, 1872, p. 3236 ; 
Harting, Handbook of British Birds, p. 435). 

146. Barnacle Goose. Bernicla leucopsis (Bech- 

stein). 

An annual winter visitant, resorting in large- 
flocks to Walney Island and to the shores of 
Morecambe Bay, and to the sandbanks in the 
estuaries of the Ribble and the Mersey. 

147. Brent Goose. Bernicla brenta (Pallas). 
An annual winter visitor to all suitable banks 

and shores throughout the length of the Lancashire 
coast, and to many of the lakes, though not in 
large numbers. 
[Canada Goose. Bernicla canadensis (Linn.). 

Though often obtained on the coast, probably 
an escape from confinement.] 

148. Whooper Swan. Cygnus musicus, Bech- 

stein. 

A winter visitor, especially in severe winters 
such as 1895, when they were reported from 



the meres, lakes, and estuaries of the county in 
considerable numbers. 

149. Bewick's Swan. Cygnus bewicki, Yarrell. 
A winter visitor, generally in flocks, but so 

rare in Lancashire that only a few records exist 
during the past thirty years. 

150. Mute Swan. Cygnus olor (J. F. Gmelin). 
Individuals of this common domesticated 

species, which often make their appearance for a 
time on formerly untenanted waters, are doubt- 
less young birds driven from some private enclosure 
by their parents when about to nest again in the 
spring. 

151. Sheld-Duck. Tadorna cornuta (S. G. 

Gmelin). 

The sheld-duck is a resident and nests in all 
suitable places along our coasts, such as the 
Formby sandhills, among the warrens near the 
Ribble, and abundantly on Walney Island. 

152. Mallard or Wild Duck. Anas boscas, Linn. 
Locally, Mere Duck. 

A common resident, breeding in all our meres, 
and occasionally also far from water. In winter 
large numbers of migrants from the Continent 
augment our resident flocks. Several hundreds 
are taken every year in the large decoy at Hale. 

153. Gadwall. Anas strepera, Linn. 

A rare winter visitor to our inland waters, of 
whose occurrence several records exist, but pro- 
bably it is oftener seen than identified and 
recorded. 

154. Shoveler. Spatula clypeata (Linn.). 
Locally, Spoonbill-duck. 

An annual winter visitant to all the marshes, 
meres, river pools, estuaries, and lakes of the 
county ; a few probably every year remaining to 
breed. 

155. Pintail. Dafila acuta (Linn.). 

A regular winter visitor in increasing numbers 
to our estuaries and inland waters, and probably 
some remain to nest, though no record so far 
exists of their having done so. 

156. Teal. Nettion crecca (Linn.). 

A resident, breeding in all suitable heathlands 
in almost every district of Lancashire. During 
autumn the home flocks are greatly increased 
by migrants from the Continent. Over 450 teal 
on an average are annually captured at the decoy 
at Hale. 

157. Garganey. Querquedula circia (Linn.). 

A rare spring and autumn migrant, observed 
three or four times only. 

158. Wigeon. Mareca penelope (Linn.). 
During winter numerous flocks of this duck 

visit the larger estuaries along the coast and 



199 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



some of the meres. Considerable numbers are 
annually taken in the decoy at Hale, now the 
only remaining one in Lancashire. 

159. Pochard. Fuligula ferina (Linn.). 

A winter visitor, more numerous in some 
seasons than in others. 

1 60. Ferruginous Duck. Fuligula nyroca (Gtll- 

denstadt). 
Locally, White-eye. 

None of the records of the occurrence of this 
duck in Lancashire are sufficiently authenticated. 
The same applies to that reported from near 
Runcorn on the Cheshire side of the Mersey. 
(Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 175.) 

161. Tufted Duck. Fuligula cristata (Leach). 
A winter visitor, never very common, but 

apparently increasing in numbers. Although 
some pairs usually remain over the summer there 
are only a few records of this species breeding 
within the county. 

162. Scaup Duck. Fuligula marila (Linn.). 
Locally, Bluebill, Cockle Duck. 

An annual winter visitor to our off-shore 
sandbanks and estuaries, where it is caught in 
vast numbers in the douker nets set by the 
Morecambe Bay fowlers. This very maritime 
species has been taken on our inland lakes (Win- 
dermere) and reservoirs (near Hyde Park Road 
Station, Manchester). 

163. Goldeneye. Clangula glaucion (Linn.). 
Locally, Mussel Cracker. 

An annual winter visitant. 

164. Long-tailed Duck. Harelda glacialis 

(Linn.). 

This species has been recorded only three or 
four times from Lancashire, and always in 
winter. A female specimen was shot in the 
River Keer, in 1901. 

165. Eider Duck. Somateria mollissirna (Linn.). 
A very rare winter visitant. 

1 66. Common Scoter. (Edemia nigra (Linn.). 
Locally, Black Douker. 

The Common Scoter arrives in great flocks on 
migration in our larger estuaries and Morecambe 
Bay. It derives its local appellation from being 
the duck taken in largest numbers by the douker 
netters. 

167. Velvet Scoter. (Edemia fusca (Linn.) . 
An infrequent winter visitor to off-shore sand- 
banks and to the larger estuaries ; occasionally 
it frequents the lakes and inland open waters. 

168. Surf Scoter. (Edemia perspicillata (Linn.). 
A specimen shot by Mr. R. H. Thompson 

off the shore at Lytham, 9 December, 1882 
(Zoologist, 1884, p. 29), is the only recorded 
occurrence of this species in the county. 



169. Goosander. Mergus merganser, Linn. 
Locally, Sparling-fisher (Leigh), Dun-diver (the 

female), Sparlin' Fowl (Willoughby), Gravel 
Duck. 
An occasional winter visitor in small flocks. 

170. Red-breasted Merganser. Mergus serrator, 

Linn. 

A winter visitor in considerable numbers to the 
larger estuaries and Morecambe Bay, visiting also 
Lake Windermere. 

171. Smew. Mergus albellus, Linn. 

A rare winter visitant during specially severe 
weather. 

172. Ring-Dove or Wood-Pigeon. Columba 

palumbus, Linn. 
Locally, Cushat, Queeze. 
A widely distributed resident. 

173. Stock-Dove. Columba cenas, Linn. 

A resident, common along the coast on the 
sand-dunes, among which it nests. Its numbers 
are increasing. It is met with occasionally 
inland. 

174. Rock-Dove. Columba livia, J. F. Gmelin. 
To the absence in Lancashire of rocks suitable 

for the nidification of this bird is due the rarity 
of its occurrence within the county. Mr. W. 
Farrer of Carnforth mentions that several breed 
yearly on Jackscar, between Carnforth and 
Silverdale. 

175. Turtle-Dove. Turtur communis, Selby. 
A rare straggler in summer. 

176. Pallas's Sand-Grouse. Syrrhaptes paradoxus, 
(Pallas). 

To two at least of those extraordinary irregular 
(and at present inexplicable) migratory move- 
ments, originating on the Asiatic steppes in special 
force in 18634 and 18889, during which 
hordes of this species travelled across Europe and 
reached its western shores, we are indebted for 
the inclusion of a considerable number of this 
beautiful species in the avifauna of Lancashire. 
During both these irruptions large flocks reached 
the British Isles, of which a portion appeared in 
the Island of Walney on 22 May, 1863, the day 
after their being observed in Northumberland. 
In 1888 a larger number of birds visited Lanca- 
shire, the earliest of them reaching Walney Island 
on 19 May. 

177. Black Grouse. Tetrao tetrix, Linn. 
Locally, Black-cock. 

An introduced species, at one time fairly 
abundant on certain of the Fells and Dales, but 
now very rare if not exterminated. 

178. Red Grouse. Lagopus scoticus (Latham). 
Resident and abundant on the upland moors, of 

Furness specially. 



BIRDS 



179- Pheasant. Phasianus colchicus, Linn. 
Abundant. 

1 80. Partridge. Perdix cinerea, Latham. 
An abundant resident. 

[The Red - legged Partridge. Caccabis rufa 

(Linn.). 

This species was on more than one occasion 
introduced into Lancashire, but none have sur- 
vived, as in some other counties, to become 
naturalized residents.] 

181. Quail. Coturnix communis, Bonnaterre. 

A resident, but less numerous than formerly. 
[Virginian Quail. Ortyx virginianus (Linn.). 

Several attempts to introduce this species into 
Lancashire have failed, as they have also done in 
other parts of England.] 

182. Land-Rail. Crex pratensis, Bechstein. 
Locally, Corn-crake, Draken Hen. 

An abundant summer immigrant ; resting 
abundantly. 

1 83. Spotted Crake. Porzana maruetta (Leach). 
An autumn immigrant, less frequently observed 

than other rails. It winters occasionally ; three 
occurrences are recorded in 1898 and one in 1904, 
all from the Rusland Valley in Furness (Zoologist, 
1 904, p. 460) ; and with little doubt it occa- 
sionally nests in Lancashire. 

184. Little Crake. Porzana parva (Scopoli). 
Some half dozen specimens are recorded as 

having been taken in the county (Mitchell, Birds 
of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 2Oi). 

185. Baillon's Crake. Porzana bailloni (Vieil- 
lot). 

Two occurrences only of this species are on 
record (Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 2OI ; 
Macpherson, Fauna of Lakeland,?. 343). 
1 8 6. Water-Rail. Rallus aquaticus, Linn. 
Locally, Scarragrise. 

A numerous and widely distributed resident. 
[Purple Gallinule. Porphyrio caruleus (Van- 
delli). 

A specimen shot near Grange in 1876 (Zoolo- 
gist, 1877) was doubtless an escape from confine- 
ment.] 

187. Moor-Hen. Gallinula chloropus (Linn.). 

Locally, Water-hen. 

A resident, frequenting all our tarns and 
meres. 

1 8 8. Coot. Fullca atra, Linn. 

Locally, Lake-hen. 

An abundant resident, frequenting and nesting 
on our various lakes and in all reedy tarns and 
pools. 



189. Crane. Grus communis, Bechstein. 

Only once observed within the county 
(Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 206). 

190. Little Bustard. Otis tetrax, Linn. 

Four specimens of this species have been re- 
corded from Lancashire (Mitchell, Birds of 
Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 206). 

191. Collared Pratincole. Glareola pratincola, 
Linn. 

This species was taken for the first time in 
Britain at North Meols, near Ormskirk, in the 
spring of 1805 (cf. Trans. Linn. Sac. Ix. p. 198). 
The specimen is now preserved in the Lord Derby 
Museum, Liverpool. Though taken many times 
since in England, it has not occurred again in 
Lancashire. 

192. Dotterel. Eudromias morinellus (Linn.). 

A spring and autumn visitor on migration, 
spreading over the county, frequenting mosses and 
estuaries, then proceeding on its way. A few 
probably occasionally remain to breed. 

193. Ringed Plover. sEgialitis hiaticula (Linn.). 
Locally, Sand-lark, Tullet. 

An abundant resident. 

194. Golden Plover. Ckaradriusp/uvia/is,L,inn. 
Locally, Sheep's Guide. 

A spring immigrant distributed sparsely over 
the county, breeding in suitable localities and 
frequenting the shore in winter. 

195. Grey Plover. Squatarola helvetica (Linn.). 
A winter visitant. 

196. Sociable Plover. Vanellus gregariu (Pallas). 
A solitary straggler has been recorded from 

Lancashire. The unique specimen recorded first 
as a cream coloured courser by Mitchell (Birds of 
Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 212) is said to have come 
from St. Michael's-in-Wyre in 1860. The 
stuffed specimen was exhibited by the late 
Mr. H. Seebohm at a meeting of the Zoological 
Society in 1888 ; but there is no actual authenti- 
cation of the bird having been captured in the 
county. 

197. Peewit or Lapwing. Vanellus vulgaris. 

Bechstein. 

Locally, Peewit, Green Plover, Puetts. 
Resident throughout the year, congregating in 
large flocks in spring in their nesting quarters. 
Very abundant on Walney Island. Some dis- 
tricts are entirely forsaken by the lapwings after 
their young are reared, and are not again visited 
till the following spring. In other districts they 
remain the entire year through, or, if not, immi- 
grants from elsewhere fill their places. 

198. Turnstone. Strepsilas interpret (Linn.). 

A spring and autumn visitor to our coasts. It 
not infrequently appears in full summer dress on 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Walney Island and along the shores of More- 
cambe Bay in May (Mitchell). 

199. Oyster-Catcher. Hiematopus ostra/egus, 

Linn. 

Locally, Sea Pie. 

A resident frequenting the entire shore line of 
the county ; it is specially abundant on Walney 
Island, where it breeds freely, as it does on the 
sandhills further south. 

200. Avocet. Recurvirostra avocetta, Linn. 

A very rare visitor. It has occurred on Wal- 
ney Island and on the Kibble (Mitchell, Birds of 
Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 217). 

201. Grey Phalarope. Phalaridopus fulicarius 

(Linn.). 

An irregular autumn visitor. Mr. Macpherson 
records specimens from Walney Island and Win- 
dermere (Fauna of Lakeland, p. 368). 

202. Red-necked Phalarope. Phalaridopus hyper- 

boreus (Linn.). 

A very rare autumn and winter visitant to 
our estuaries. One is said to have been shot 
near Southport in 1832, and during the last ten 

S;ars eight specimens have been brought to Mr. 
. Murray, all shot on Cam forth and Martin 
Marshes. 

203. Woodcock. Scolopax rusticula, Linn. 

An autumn visitor on migration, arriving in 
large numbers and remaining over the winter. 
It breeds in the northern districts of the 
county. 

204. Great Snipe. Gallinago major (J. F. 

Gmelin). 

An autumn and winter visitor. It was first 
recorded as a British bird from this county. The 
specimen passed into Sir Ashton Lever's 
Museum, thence into the hands of an unknown 
purchaser on the dispersion of that celebrated 
collection. A specimen in the Lord Derby 
Museum, Liverpool, was shot by the late 
Edward J. S. Hornby, Esq., at Winwick, Lan- 
cashire. 

205. Common Snipe. Gallinago ccelestis (Fren- 

zel). 

Locally, Heather-bleat. 

Resident and abundantly distributed over Lan- 
cashire, nesting in all suitable places. The 
resident flocks are largely augmented in numbers 
during winter by immigrant visitors. 

206. Jack Snipe. Gallinago gallinula (Linn.). 
Locally, Indcock. 

A fairly abundant winter immigrant. 

207. Dunlin. Tringa a/ptna, Linn. 
Locally, Sealark, Oxeye, Sea Mouse. 

A winter visitor frequenting in countless 
thousands the off-shore sandbanks along the 



coast ; some few annually remain to breed, and 
are known to do so in fair numbers on Carnforth 
and Martin Marshes. 

208. Little Stint. Tringa minuta, Leisler. 

A scarce spring and autumn visitor on migra- 
tion. 

209. Temminck's Stint. Tringa temmincki, 

Leisler. 

A rare spring and autumn straggler on migra- 
tion, more rarely observed than the little stint, 
there being only a couple of records of its occur- 
rence ; but probably it is often unrecognized. 

210. Curlew Sandpiper. Tringa subarquata 

(Gttldenstadt). 

A fairly common spring and autumn visitant 
to our shores, occasionally travelling inland. 

211. Purple Sandpiper. Tringa striata, Linn. 
An annual winter visitor, but far from 

common. 

212. Knot. Tringa canutus, Linn. 

Large flocks of knots annually visit More- 
cambe Bay and the Mersey and Ribble estuaries 
as spring and autumn migrants. 

213. Sanderling. Calidris arenaria (Linn.). 

A spring and autumn visitor on migration to 
our off-shore sandbanks, often in very large 
flocks. 

214. Ruff. Machetes pugnax (Linn.). 

A fairly common spring and autumn visitor. 

215. Buff-breasted Sandpiper. Tringites rufescens 

(Vieillot). 

Very rare straggler. Recorded only once, 
from Formby, in 1829. 

2 1 6. Common Sandpiper. Tetanus hypoleucus 

(Linn.) 

Locally, Sand-snipe, Sand-lark, Willie Liltie. 
A summer immigrant which breeds on the 
Fells and uplands of the county. 

217. American Spotted Sandpiper. Tetanus 

macularius (Linn.). 

A North American species, of which four 
examples, well authenticated, have straggled into 
Lancashire in two closely set years, 1863 and 
1865. 

2 1 8. Wood Sandpiper. Tetanus glareola (J. F. 

Gmelin). 
A rare autumn and winter straggler. 

219. Green Sandpiper. Tetanus ochropus (Linn.). 
A regular autumn visitor on migration to most 

of the inland streams. 

220. Redshank. Totanus calidris (Linn.). 

An autumn and winter visitant, occasionally 
in large flocks ; but a few always reside through- 



BIRDS 



out the year, nesting only in a very few localities, 
Carnforth and Martin Marshes, Winster Valley 
and Walney Island among them. 

221. Spotted Redshank. Totanus fuscus (Linn.). 
Locally, Dusky Redshank. 

A spring and autumn migrant of rare occur- 
rence. 

222. Greenshank. Totanus canescens (J. F. 

Gmelin). 

An annual visitant in autumn, sparsely distri- 
buted on the coast, usually in small flocks. 

223. Red-breasted Snipe. Macrorhamphus gri- 

seus (J. F. Gmelin). 

Two occurrences of this N. American species 
are on record (Zoologist, 1875) in the years 1873 
and 1891 respectively, both by Mr. J. B. Hodg- 
kinson (Harting, Handbook of British Birds, 
p. 436 ; Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2, 
P- 235). 

224. Bar-tailed Godwit. Limosa lapponica, 

(Linn.). 

Locally, Curlew Knave. 

A short sojourner in spring and autumn on 
passage. 

225. Black-tailed Godwit. Limosa belgica (J. F. 

Gmelin). 

A rarer visitant than the last, but a few are 
seen every year, as a rule in the autumn. 

226. Curlew. Numenius arquatus (Linn.). 

A resident and abundant species, visiting 
Walney Island in large flocks, nesting on the 
Fells, the upland moors, and on the mosses of the 
lowlands. In autumn and winter frequenting in 
great numbers the off-shore sandbanks. 

227. Whimbrel. Numenius phceopus (Linn.). 
Locally, Curlew Hilp (Leigh), Curlew Knave. 

Rarer than the curlew, the whimbrel visits 
our shores, especially off Morecambe Bay, only in 
autumn and spring on migration to and from its 
nesting grounds. 

228. Black Tern. Hydrochelidon nigra (Linn.). 
A fairly frequent sojourner on its passage in 

spring and autumn to and from its nesting 
haunts. A specimen is recorded from Ashton- 
on-Mersey on 3 November, 1893. 

229. Gull-billed Tern. Sterna anglica, Mon- 

tagu. 

One occurrence of this species is recorded from 
Lancashire, but it lacks sufficient authenticity. 

230. Sandwich Tern. Sterna cantiaca, J. F. 

Gmelin. 

Locally, Cat Swallow. 

A summer immigrant nesting on Walney 
Island among the black-headed gulls. Rare 
elsewhere and taking its departure at the end of 
summer. 



231. Roseate Tern. Sterna douga Hi, Montagu. 
A rare summer visitor, breeding on Walney 

Island from time to time. It nested at one 
period on the isolated islet of Foulney, but does 
so no longer. 

232. Common Tern. Sterna fuviatilis, Nau- 

mann. 

Locally, Sea Swallow, Sparling. 
A summer visitor breeding in many places 
along the coast in suitable and undisturbed locali- 
ties, especially on Walney Island in association 
with black-headed gulls, and often among the 
Formby sandhills. 

233. Arctic Tern. Sterna macrura, Naumann. 
Locally, Sea Swallow, Sparling. 

A summer visitor, but few in numbers. 
Walney Island is one of its chief haunts in Lan- 
cashire, where it nests in association with gulls 
and other terns. 

234. Little Tern. Sterna minuta, Linn. 
Locally, Sea Swallow, Sparling. 

A summer visitor nesting on Walney Island. 

235. Sooty Tern. Sterna fuliginosa, J. F. 

Gmelin. 

This West Indian species was caught alive 
9 October, 1901, in a street in Hulme, near 
Manchester (Bull, B.O.C. xii. 26). 

236. Sabine's Gull. Xema sabinii (Sabine). 
Two specimens from Morecambe Bay are on 

record, obtained in October, 1893, and at the 
same place Mr. Moor of Morecambe has shot 
three specimens within the last few years. 

237. Little Gull. Larus minutus, Pallas. 

An irregular autumn and winter straggler, of 
which four or five occurrences are recorded 
(Mitchell, Birds of Lancashire, ed. 2. p. 254 ; 
Jourdain, Zoologist, 1904, p. 193). A specimen 
was shot by Mr. Murray's son on Carnforth 
Marshes in 1902. 

238. Black-headed Gull. Larus ridibundus, 

Linn. 

Locally, Chir-Maws, Cockle Maw. 
A resident, and abundant on our inland 
waters in great and increasing numbers. Many 
colonies breed in the sandhills and marshy parts 
of Walney Island. It is often seen far inland. 

239. Common Gull. Larus canus, Linn. 

An annual visitant throughout the winter, 
but the species breeds nowhere in England. 

240. Herring-Gull. Larus argentatus, J. F. 

Gmelin. 

Locally, Silver Gull. 

A resident, abundant on the coast at all 
seasons, but nesting only in a few places now, 
mainly at Foulshaw Moss, near Morecambe Bay, 



203 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



in association with lesser black-backed gulls. 
(Macpherson, Fauna of Lakeland, p. 428.) 

241. Lesser Black-backed Gull. Larus fuscus, 
Linn. 



251. Razor-bill. Alca torda, Linn. 

A resident, but chiefly an off-shore living 
species, rarely, if ever, breeding in Lancashire, 
purely through lack of such suitable localities as 
it finds abundantly on the Isle of Man and in 



Resident, and numerous all the year round ; N> Waks _ Mitchell records evidence of the 



but now its nesting places are confined to small 

colonies ' on the low grounds round the estuary coast 

of the Kent ' (Mitchell) ; also on Walney 

Island and Foulshaw Moss, near Morecambe 252. Guillemot. 

Bay. It formerly bred on Piling and Cockerham 



nesting of this species once on the Furness 

Uria troile (Linn.). 
The guillemot, being like the razor-bill a 



Mosses, but of late years it has not been observed rock-loving species, does not nest in Lancashi 
nesting there. It is quite commonly met with a few miles off 

shore. After storms it is very frequently thrown 
242. Great Black-backed Gull. Larus marinus, Qn the beach dead> 

Linn. 

Locally, Devoke Water Maw. 
A resident species, frequently seen on the 
Mersey during winter, and numerous a few 



253. Black Guillemot. Uria grylle (Linn.). 

An extremely rare visitor, and then generally 
in the winter. It would doubtless find a home 



miles off shore all the year round. It nests on on our coasts if they had been furnished with 
Piling Moss in numbers, and on the Fells near rock s> whlch thls blrd invariably loves to frequent. 
Rusland, not far from Morecambe Bay (Mac- 254. Little Auk. Mergulus alle (Linn.), 
pherson, Fauna of Lakeland, p. 432). -phe little auk is seen mainly on our shores as 

243. Glaucous Gull. Larus glaucus, Fabricius. fl tsam and jetsam after very cold and stormy 

weather. Macpherson records the capture alive 



A very rare visitant. 

244. Iceland Gull. Larus leucopterus, Faber. 
Seen on Duddon Estuary, 24 October, 18 

(Macpherson, Fauna of Lakeland, p. 437.) 

245. Kittiwake. Rissa tridactyla (Linn.). 



of specimens near Coniston and Windermere 
(Fauna of Lakeland, p. 446). 

255. Puffin. Fratercula arctica (Linn.). 

Locally, Coulterneb. 

The puffin, like the last species, is generally 
seen on our shores dead after storms. It would 



A resident, abundant all the year round, but nodoubt nest - n Lancashjre jf there ^ such sites 

as the Welsh coast and the Isle of Man provide. 
256. Great Northern Diver. Colymbus glacialls, 



because of the absence of rocks it does not nest 
within our boundaries. 

246. Ivory Gull. Pagophila eburnea (Phipps). 
This species is said to have been killed o 



Linn. 
An annual winter 



isitant in small numbers. 



yeral occasions in Morecambe Bay, but none It is occasionally taken in nets set for ducks. 



Colymbus arcticus, 
Linn. 
Only a very occasional visitant. 



Podicipes cristatus 



of the records seem quite sufficiently authenti- _. 

cated; Mr. Macpherson, however, vouches for 2 57- Black-throated Diver. 

one taken near Kendal 'within a short flight of 

the sea coast' (Fauna of Lakeland, p. 438). One 

shot on Foulshaw Moss in 1847 is now in the 258. Red-throated Diver. Colymbus septentri- 

collection of Dr. Jackson, of Carnforth. onalh, Linn. 

An annual visitor in winter. 

247. Great Skua. Megalestris catarrhactes 

(Linn.). 

A rare visitant at various seasons of the year ; 
but as it keeps off-shore its visits are probably 
not so rare as supposed. 

248. Pomatorhine Skua. Stercorarius pomato- 

rhinus (Temminck). 
A more frequent visitor than the great Skua. 

249. Arctic or Richardson's Skua. Stercorarius 

crepidatus (J. F. Gmelin). 



A few specimens are observed in most years. 



259. Great Crested Grebe. 

(Linn.). 
Locally, Diver. 

A resident, and numerous on our inland meres 
and lakes, nesting annually in suitable localities. 
In severe weather it frequents estuaries and the 
sea coast. 

260. Red-necked Grebe. Podicipes griseigena 

(Boddaert). 

Only a very occasional winter visitant, 
especially in severe weather. 



250. Long-tailed or Buffon's Skua. Stercorarius 261. Slavonian Grebe. Podicipes auritus (Linn.). 



parasiticus (Linn.). 
A goodly number of occurrences have been 
recorded, but at long intervals of time. 



Of the occurrence of this species only a few 
records exist ; but the bird has not been observed 
during the past twenty-five years. 



204 



262. Eared or Black-necked Grebe. 

nigricollis (C. L. Brehm). 
Mr. Hugh Hornby possesses a specimen ' killed 
near Lune Mouth late in March or early 
in April, 1886' (Saunders, in Mitchell's Birds 
of Lancashire, ed. 2, p. 262). An adult male 
specimen, in full summer plumage, was captured 
alive at Middleton, near Lancaster, 28 July, 
1 904 (Robinson, Zoologist, 1904, p. 350). 

263. Little Grebe or Dabchick. Podicipes fluvi- 

atilis (Tunstall). 
Locally, Douker, Little Diver, Foot-in-arse. 



BIRDS 

Podicipes stormy weather, 
viduals a 



When it occurs several indi- 



re generally observed together. 

266. Wilson's Petrel. Oceanitesoceanicus(KuM}. 
A specimen was washed up ' on the north- 

west shore of Walney Island in November, 
1890 ' (Macpherson, Fauna of Lakeland, p. 457.) 

267. Frigate or White-faced Petrel. Pelago- 

droma marina (Latham). 

A dead specimen was washed up after the 
severe gale of November, 1890, 'on the outside 



A resident species which breeds regularly in of Walney Island ' (Macpherson, Fauna of Lake- 



most suitable places throughout the county. 

264. Storm-Petrel. Procellaria pelagica, Linn. 
This species is never seen except after gales 

and stormy weather, when it is sometimes cast 
up on the shore dead, or occasionally blown 
inland. 

265. Leach's Fork-tailed Petrel. Oceanodroma 

leucorrhoa (Vieillot). 
This petrel reaches Lancashire only after 



land, p. 458). 

268. Manx Shearwater. Pitffinus anglorum 

(Temminck). 
A not infrequent winter visitant. 

269. Fulmar. Fulmarus glacialis (Linn.). 

A very rare visitant, reaching our coasts 
during or after severe weather. There are 
three or four occurrences on record. 



205 



MAMMALS 

The generally recognized British mammal fauna of the present day com- 
prises seventy-three species, of which, excluding the domesticated mammals, 
Lancashire has forty-seven representatives. The most notable absentees occur 
among the Cheiroptera and the Cetacea, and of the sixteen species of the former 
admitted into the British list, seven have so far been recorded for the county. 
Among the unregistered species, however, the hairy-armed bat (Pterygistes 
leisleri] and the whiskered bat (Myotis mystacinus), whose range has 
been recorded as extending to the ' Lake District,' without specifically 
mentioning any locality in Lancashire, will almost certainly be yet discovered 
within our limits when the bats have been more numerously collected and 
more carefully identified in the northern part of the shire. Of the remain- 
ing species of bats three are doubtfully British, and four are confined to the 
south of England. Of the unrecorded cetaceans four are unknown to have 
visited the western coasts of Britain ; one, Risso's grampus (Grampus griseus), 
is a very rare visitor to our seas ; and the other two, the black-fish (Globi- 
cephalus me/as) and the lesser rorqual (Baleenoptera acufo-rostrata), will in all 
probability, from their known wide range, be yet recorded as Lancashire 
visitants. Indeed, among the remains of various animals found in the excava- 
tions on the margin of the Ribble for the Preston Docks, no fewer than three 
skulls of the black-fish were discovered, besides the jaw-bone of a right whale 
(Balcena mysticetus) and the skulls of a porpoise and of a species of grampus. 
The most remarkable cetacean on our list is the great hump-backed whale, 
which, venturing into the Mersey in 1863, became stranded so far from the 
sea as the mud flats near to Speke Hall. 

The only other group in which Lancashire falls short of the full tale of 
English species is the Carnivora, in which no representative of the ringed seal 
(Pboca hispida) has yet been met with ; nor, indeed, has the species been 
recorded from the shores of any western county of England. 

The enormous and increasing sandbanks fringing the whole coast line 
from Cumberland to the mouth of the Dee are loaded with rich molluscan 
and ophiuroid deposits, and the waters overflowing them teem with polyzoa, 
crustaceans, and fish-fry. These sandbanks are just the localities towards which 
cetaceans and marine carnivores would be attracted ; and doubtless these 
unsupervised areas are visited by species of both groups, during their migrations, 
far oftener than can be observed from the shore. 

The ceaseless extension of the boundaries of our towns and cities ; the 
increase of chemical and other industries which invade with their fatal 
fumes ever broadening tracts of country ; the continous reduction by drainage 
of the mosses and meres which in Lancashire were once (and even yet are) so 

206 



MAMMALS 

extensive ; and, above all, the intrusion of man into every nook and corner of 
districts which long were sanctuaries for every beast of the field, are all having 
a reducing effect on its mammalian, especially its carnivorous, fauna. The 
fox, the otter, the badger, and the pine marten are becoming rarer every year, 
and will soon have passed altogether, if indeed the last-named, together, too 
probably, with the wild cat, has not already become extinct in Lancashire. 
The charming diminutive harvest mouse, whose grass-ball nest filled with 
tiny young was ever the delight of the old-time scythe-man, has been all but 
exterminated by the modern reaping machine. 

The present fauna has, however, long lost its most imposing members. It 
would have been possible a few centuries ago to have seen wild, amid the 
uplands of lakeland Lancashire and in the open glades and in the once 
dense but now vanished forests of the plain, some noble and formidable 
quadrupeds. The wolf, whose lair was among the crags of the Pennines 
and the Fells, was only finally exterminated in the seventeenth century. 
Innumerable wild boars infested the woods, and large beaver communities 
the banks of many of the streams. Herds of red-deer, generally more 
splendidly antlered than the species is to-day, roamed over the opener parts 
of the county till the close of the seventeenth century. If tradition 
may be trusted, one of the last retreats where the wild white cattle of 
Britain, the direct offspring probably mingled with other blood of the 
urus, lived and bred unparked and in a state of nature was the far-extending 
ancient forest of Bowland, just as they had ' bredde in times [longer] paste 
at Blakele.' Hence, doubtless, was obtained the foundation of those herds 
which during the past 500 years or more were enclosed in parks in many 
parts of Lancashire, such as at Houghton Tower, Whalley Abbey, and 
Middleton Hall, where the cattle roamed in a quite undomesticated state. 
According to Leigh's History of Lancashire, the herd of Sir Ralph Ashton at 
the last-mentioned hall was still wild as late as the year 1700, and apparently 
the bulls still sported flowing manes, an ancestral heritage which is generally 
hardly to be discerned in the majority of their male descendants to-day. 
Various other domestic breeds appear to have been specially reared in the 
county. The author just quoted notes that 'Lancashire . . . is most remark- 
able for breeding Cattle of a size more than Ordinary large, particularly 
about Burnley and Maudsley, from which places I have known Cattle sold at 
extraordinary rates, an heifer sometimes amounting to 15 or >C 2 the 
ground they feed upon is usually upon an ascent, and the grass shorter than 
in lower grounds.' A native breed of cattle which has now become nearly 
extinct had long horns, a thick firm textured hide with long thick shaggy 
hair variable in colour, large hoofs, and a coarse thick neck. Baines, too, 
speaks of ' a herd of black sheep which used to graze on the pastures of 
Higher Furness, furnishing wool that in former times rendered the woollen 
manufacture of Kendal and Cartmel famous throughout England.' The 
Haslingden sheep are probably the remains of the ancient Lancashire horned 
breed which had a grey face and carried a heavy fleece. The Hardwick 
breed in Higher Furness, which is hornless, produces short wool, and has the 
face and legs speckled. Any detailed notice, however, of the species of mammals 
which once inhabited the county, but have been entirely removed from the 
roll of living creatures, must be left to the palaeontologist to supply. 

207 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 
CHEIROPTERA 

1. Lesser Horse-shoe Bat. Rhinolophus hippo- 5. Pipistrelle. Pipistrellus pipistrt/lus, Schreber. 

siderus, Bechstein. Bell Scotopbllus pipistrellus. 

Rare. Locally, Flittermouse. 

2. Long-eared Bat. Plecotus auritus, Linn. Not uncommon. 
Common. 

3. Barbastelle. Barbastella barbastellus, Schreber. 6. Natterer's or Reddish-grey Bat. Myotis nat- 

KM-Barbastellus daubentonH. terert > Lelsler ' 

R are Bell Vesperl'iKo nattereri. 

4. Great or White's Bat (Noctule). Pipistrellus ^V^nT,' A specimen was taken at 

. , o , , v Cheetham Hill. Manchester, Christmas 1092. 
noctula, ocnreDer. 

Bell Scotophilus noctula; White Vesper ARo alti- *, , , -T-T 

volans ; Thomas Pterygiste, noctula. 7- Daubenton s Bat. Mjttu daubentom, Leisler. 

Now very scarce. Lancashire is, so far as 
known, its north-western limit. 



Not uncommon in wooded localities. 



INSECTIVORA 



8. Hedgehog. Erinaceus europ&us, Linn. 

Locally, Urchin. 
Abundant. 

9. Mole. Talpa europaa, Linn. 

Locally, Moodiwart, Mowdywark, Want. 
Abundant, occasionally albino. 

10. Common Shrew. Sorex araneus, Linn. 
Quite common. 



linutus, Linn. 



11. Pigmy Shrew. Sore* 
Bell Sorex pygmtttu. 

Occurring sparsely. 

12. Water Shrew. Neomys fodiens, Pallas. 
Bell Crossoput fodiens. 

Common. 



CARNIVORA 



13. Wild Cat. Felii catus, Linn. 

About a century ago the wild cat was to be 
seen on Cartmel Fell and other parts of Lake- 
land in considerable numbers, and it was, though 
extremely rare, still to be met with fifty years 
ago, but it is much to be feared that it is now 
extinct in Lancashire. 

14. Fox. Vulpes vulpes, Linn. 
Bell Vulpes vulgaris. 

Numerous. 



18. Weasel. Putorlus nivalis, Linn. 
Bell Mustela vulgaris. 

Abundant. 

1 9. Otter. Lutra lutra. Linn. 
Bell Lutra vulgaris. 

Still abundant in many of the upland streams 
on which they are regularly hunted. Not in- 
frequently reported from the River Alt. 

20. Badger. Meles melts, Linn. 
Bell Meles taxus. 

Locally, Brock. 

Abundant about 150 to 200 years ago. Now 
rare. Five taken by Mr. Gillow's keepers on 



15. Pine Marten. Mustela martes, Linn. 

Bell Martes abletum. 

Locally, Fox Cork, Mart Cork, Mart, Sweetmart. Warton Crag 7 or 8 years ago. 
Tolerably numerous in the uplands, Coniston 2 i. Common Seal. Phoca vitulina, Linn. 
Hills, Windermere and Furness districts. An 
old female specimen was caugl 
Valley, Furness, in May 1902 (Archibald, Zoolo- 



j Not uncommon in Morecambe Bay, in the Mer- 

>ld female specimen was caught in the Rusland sey and Ribble es tuaries, and along our shores. 



gist, 1904, p. 455). 

1 6. Polecat. Putorius putorius, Linn. 
Bell Mustela putorius. 

Locally, Foumart, Fitchet. 

Not nearly so common as the weasel, but more 
numerous formerly ; yet abundant in some 
localities. 

17. Common Stoat. Putorius ermineus, Linn. 
Bell Mustela erminea. 

Common. Very rarely seen in the white 
garb of winter except among the high Fells, and 
there often partially changed only. 



22. Harp Seal. Phoca grcenlandica, Fabricius. 
An occasional visitor to the estuary of the 

Mersey ; one was taken in Morecambe Bay on 
23 January, 1868 (Turner, Journal Anat. and 
Phys. ix. 163). 

23. Hooded Seal. Cystophora cristata, Erxl. 

A specimen was found alive on the Lancashire 
shore of the Mersey on 3 February, 1873 (Moore, 
Proc. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Liverp. xxvii. p. Ixxiii.). 

24. Grey Seal. Halicharus grypus, Fabricius. 
Bell HaRchterus gryphus. 

A specimen was captured in 1861 in the 
Canada Dock, in Liverpool. 



208 



MAMMALS 
RODENTIA 



25. Squirrel. Sciurus hucourus, Kerr. 
Bell Sciurus vulgar'u. 

Abundant in all our thicker woods. 

26. Dormouse. Muscardinus avellanarius, Linn. 
Bell Myoxut avellanarius. 

Local. Colonies occur here and there in 
woods in the western and northern districts of 
the county. 

27. Common or Brown Rat. Mus aecumanus, 

Pallas. 
Too abundant. 

28. Black Rat. Mus rattus, Linn. 

The black rat occurs from time to time in 
various parts of Lancashire. A few find sanctuary 
in Walney Island (Macpherson, Fauna of Lake- 
land, p. 81). One was caught in Liverpool in 
1896. 

29. House Mouse. Mus musculus. Linn. 
Abundant. 

30. Wood Mouse or Long-tailed Field Mouse. 

Mus sylvaticus, Linn. 
Generally distributed. 

3 1 . Harvest Mouse. Mus minutus, Pallas. 
Very sparingly distributed ; once abundant in 

fields and ricks, but the use of reaping machines 
has destroyed the nests and young so that now 



the species is almost extinct. Advertisement 
extensively made recently for specimens brought 
not a single favourable reply. There is a speci- 
men from Halsall Moss, Southport, in Owens 
College Museum, Manchester University. 

32. Water Vole. Microtus ampbibius. Linn. 
Bell Arvuola amphibiui. 

Common. 

33. Field Vole. Microtus agrestis, Linn. 
Bell Arvicola agrestis. 

Fairly common, and generally distributed. 
More abundant in some years than in others. 

34. Bank Vole. Evotomys glareolus, Schreber. 
Bell Arvicola glareolus. 

Locally, Red Field Vole. 

Fairly common locally. It lives on the 
margins of thickets, and winters among heaps of 
turnips. 

35. Hare. Lepus europteus, Pallas. 
Bell Lepus timiJus. 

Abundant, but diminishing in numbers. 

36. Rabbit. Lepus cuniculus, Linn. 

Very abundant ; extensive warrens exist along 
the sea coast. Melanistic varieties are not 
uncommon. 



UNGULATA 



37. Red Deer. Cervus elaphus. Linn. 

The red deer, indigenous and abundant in 
England from prehistoric times, was from the 
Roman period down to the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries widely distributed in Lancashire (as in 
other counties) upon the wooded heights and 
vales of the Fells and in the forests of the 
lowlands. After the middle of the seventeenth 
century the herds in their wild state became 
fewer and fewer, and those now existing, though 
probably retaining some of the blood of their 
feral ancestors, are all preserved and largely 
winter-fed. 



38. Fallow Deer. Cervus dama, Linn. 

The fallow deer, though in prehistoric times 
indigenous to England, is at the present day to 
be found in Lancashire, at all events only con- 
served in private parks. 

39. Roe Deer. Capreolus capreolus, Linn. 
Bell Capreolus caprea. 

There are at the present day, it is supposed, no 
truly indigenous roe deer in Lancashire, unless 
those in the woods of Higher Furness may be so, 
since it is believed that in some districts of 
Cumberland a few descendants of indigenous 
herds still survive. 



CETACEA 



40. Common Rorqual. Balanoptera muscu/us, 

Linn. 

Remains of this species have been obtained on 
the coast (Silloth excavations, Proc. R. Phys. 
Soc. viii. 336). 

41. Hump-backed Whale. Megaptera boops, 

Gray. 

An occasional visitor. A specimen in the 
Lord Derby Museum, Liverpool, was stranded 



on a sandbank near Speke, many miles up from 
the mouth of the Mersey, on 17 July, 1863. 

42. Bottle-nosed Whale. Hyperoodon rostratus, 

Chemnitz. 

An occasional visitor. A specimen now in 
the Nottingham Museum was stranded near 
Speke, some distance up the River Mersey, in 
1 88 1. Examples have been taken stranded in 
Morecambe Bay (in 1887) and at Cocken-in- 



209 



27 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Furness ; others have been taken on the East 
Hoyle Bank, which is at the mouth of the 
Mersey, but towards the Cheshire side. 

[The Narwhal. Monodon monoceros, Linn. 

This species, now almost extinct, has been 
recorded within the historical period from the 
coasts of Lancashire. H. H. Johnston, British 
Mammals, p. 380.] 

43. Grampus or Killer. Orca gladiator, Lac- 

pede. 

A rare visitor to Morecambe Bay and to the 
Mersey. 

44. Porpoise. Phoccena communis, F. Cuv. 
Very commonly seen off the coast, and strag- 



glers have been taken in the estuary of the Mersey, 
in Morecambe Bay, and at Walney Island. 

45. Dolphin. Delphinus delphis. Linn. 

Often seen off the coast, and specimens have 
been taken in the estuary of the Mersey and in 
Morecambe Bay. 

46. White-beaked Dolphin. Delphinus albi- 

rtstris, J. E. Gray. 

A specimen now in the Lord Derby Museum, 
Liverpool, was stranded on Hilbre Island, at the 
mouth of the Dee, after apparently passing down 
the Lancashire coast. 

47. Bottle-nosed Dolphin. Tursiops tursio. 
Seen in the estuary of the Mersey. 



ADDENDA 

17. Common Stoat. Putorius ermineus, Linn. 37. Red Deer. Cervus elaphus, Linn. 

Mr. H. Murray received eight specimens in A few are now at large in Wyresdale, Lons- 
winter coat (white) during the last winter, all dale, and Kentdale, which have been released 
taken within two miles of Carnforth. for chase by the late Wyresdale deerhounds and 

the existing Oxenholme pack. 



\ 




EARLY MAN 



THE physical boundaries of the county of Lancashire, which separate 
it for the most part from its neighbours, impart to its story an 
individuality that would not have been possible in a piece of land 
arbitrarily divided as by a county boundary only. In the extreme 
north-west, however, there lies a detached portion known generally as 
Lancashire over Sands, which cannot well be separated physically from the 
counties of Cumberland and Westmorland : the antiquities of this district, 
therefore, although described in the present articles, do not enter into the 
general consideration of early culture-development in the county. 

So far as evidence shows, it was to the moorlands of the Yorkshire 
border, though bleak and inhospitable, that man was first tempted to come 
and settle. The undrained lowlands around the coast were for the most part 
marshy and uninhabitable, while the uplands and valleys lying between were still 
largely covered with primaeval forest. There can be no certainty, however, 
in the matter. The disposition of early man is indicated for the most part by 
sporadic finds in recent times of a small number only of the objects and 
implements he used; hence, while the suggestion remains of some places in 
which man lived, the lack of finds in other places does not exclude the 
possibility of habitation there. 

Of the people themselves scant traces have been found. The human 
skulls found in making deep excavations at Preston for the Ribble Docks 
constitute the most reliable evidence. They were found associated with bones 
of the urus, which was already extinct at the dawn of this era, and with 
remains of earlier ages. The an thropometrical analysis of these (p. 256) shows 
them to belong probably to a population of mixed race the original stock of 
neolithic times upon whom had come the Celtic element usually associated 
with the rise of the Bronze Age in art; but the numbers of examples are too 
few to warrant any general conclusion. Other than these, the perishable 
bones from a few burials in isolated spots and the charred remains of those 
who were cremated are all that remain of man himself. Some of his burial 
places, however, are known. The long barrows characteristic of stone-using 
man, indeed, are few and uncertain; but possibly some mounds on the moors 
above Rochdale, particularly those which lie towards Extwistle near to Burnley 
and some few at Wavertree near Liverpool, as will be shown later, may be 
assigned to this period. The round barrows and burial mounds of the early 
metal age, however, are more numerous and more readily identified. The 
neighbourhood particularly of Winwick, near to Warrington, has yielded the 
best examples. The moors around Rochdale and Bolton in the south, and 
Bleasdale and Lancaster in the north of the county, are sites of a fair 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

number of interesting interments of that age, while here and there at different 
places Bolton, Darwen, Blackburn, and elsewhere isolated burials have 
from time to time been brought to light. 

The evidence of burial places ranks first in importance. As usual there 
is little or no trace of the places where man really lived, although the localities 
where implements have been found, particularly in accumulation, is some 
suggestion. The ancient canoes found at Preston, Martin Mere, Barton, and 
Irlam, are better evidence of settlement, but the precise period of these objects 
themselves is not at all certain. In lack of direct testimony the most prob- 
able indication is, then, the vicinity of funereal mounds. Save for such 
indirect (and non-exclusive) testimony there is little guide to the problem 
with one notable exception. The moors and hilltops of the Pennine range 
present a tract less liable than elsewhere to the disturbance of cultivation, and 
have yielded to the patient researches of enthusiastic investigators the know- 
ledge that at a remote period numbers of flint-using people dwelt there in 
settlements, finding the situation probably as advantageous for their own 
safety as it was for descending to the woods and valleys for food. There is 
little trace of man, but certain evidence of his handiwork in myriads of flints, 
flakes and chips, arrow-heads and knives, hammer-stones and the cores from 
which the flakes have been chipped, even his stores of flint and graphite, etc., 
abounding chiefly in the range of hills that lies eastward and northward from 
Rochdale and Ashton-under-Lyne. The flint is not geologically indigenous, 
and the absence of metal tools amongst the wealth of stone objects throughout 
this tract points to a settlement there of a neolithic population as early 
at least as present evidence shows man to have found his way at all into the 
county. 

Of the metal-using or Bronze Age which followed there is more 
general evidence of remains though less definite evidence of settlement. 
Undoubtedly the group of bronze implements containing a great spear, dagger, 
and eight axe-heads, found at Winmarleigh in the north of Lancashire, 1 
ranks first, though late in date, among the relics of that age. The vicinity 
of Warrington, and the range of upland lying north of Manchester by Bolton- 
le-Moors, also bear indirect witness of habitation in the weapons and inter- 
ments which have come to light. The mountain range to the east, and more 
particularly the river valleys and the sites of former marshes now reclaimed, 
contribute also their portion of evidence. 

The later Celtic period, characterized by the introduction also of iron 
among the metals worked, is represented somewhat sparsely, but some of the 
remains of this time are of exceptional character. The iron sword from 
Warton, north of Lancaster, in the British Museum ; the bronze sword- 
sheath from Pilling Moss, in the museum at Salford ; and especially the 
bronze torque found at Mow Road, near Rochdale, now in private possession, 
rank among noteworthy examples of late Celtic art. 

The classification of objects under three main divisions called the Stone 
Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age respectively, is conventional and generally 
adopted, but it should be recognized at the outset as a mere convenient 
terminology, liable, as is often the case, to error of general inference. The 
basis of the nomenclature is the most characteristic material employed in 

1 Preserved in the museum at Warrington, Plate V. 



EARLY MAN 

three successive major stages of development; but the distinction does not 
imply man's exclusive use of these materials, except at the superior limit of time. 
Some of the best examples of stone implements are the small polished hammers 
found in ' round barrows,' the burial mounds characteristic of the bronze age 
associated with the early Celtic population. 1 The overlap indicated is general, 
and it is by no means possible to assign some objects to any special age. 
Since, however, some method of classification is necessary for dealing with 
numbers of ancient remains, especially in regard to the implements and 
weapons, which are the most plentiful, a Bronze Age is usually supposed to 
begin with the first observed use of bronze, and similarly an Iron Age 
with the incipient use of that material. But neither the periods themselves 
in respect of different localities nor the materials involved in each are 
mutually exclusive. 

In the following pages the remains of Early Man are described under 
three main heads as follows : 

1. Stone implements and remains of the Neolithic Period. 

2. Bronze implements and remains of the Early Celtic Period. 

3. Iron implements and remains of the Late Celtic Period. 

4. Remains not included in this classification, being of doubtful age or 

miscellaneous character. 

This nomenclature is not so concise as the usual ' Stone Age, Bronze Age, 
and Iron Age ' upon which it is based, but it is proportionately less open to 
misinterpretation. It has also one other advantage in that it continues to 
associate the remains with the idea that a people made and used them. In 
any other regard the objects lose their chief interest as material remains of 
the human past, and become merely lifeless examples of special forms or 
technical series. To separate archaeology from its relation to humanity is not 
only to deprive early history of its fundamental material, but is inimical to a 
proper interpretation of all early remains. It should never be forgotten in the 
study of these objects that they are the products of man's hands, made by him 
to serve some purpose ; therefore every fact of human interest associated 
with an object of antiquity should be deemed equal in importance with the 
form and character of the thing itself. Such facts are perhaps scanty and to 
be gleaned only partially and indirectly, as from the position and place in which 
an object is found, its association with other objects, its own use and theirs. 
It is only in this way that it may be possible for intelligent and tempered 
imagination to catch a glimpse of the real life of olden times. 



I. STONE IMPLEMENTS AND REMAINS OF THE NEOLITHIC 

PERIOD 

The county of Lancaster has yielded no evidence of man in that 
primitive stage of development which is defined from the rough imple- 
ments of stone which he used as palaeolithic. Rough implements of 
stone are found, indeed, but from their association generally with objects 

1 E.g. the urn at Winwick, near Warrington, containing a bronze dagger and small stone axe-hammer, 
p. 240. 

2I 3 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

of more elaborate workmanship, such as delicate arrow-heads with barbs, 
it is plain that these are merely the ruder implements of man who 
had already attained the neolithic culture. This in itself would not be 
evidence of a stone age, purely defined, for the use of stone for implements 
continued down to historic times, and some of the best products of the art 
of stone-working were fashioned during the Bronze Age which succeeded ; 
but in regard to a variety of these, which are both very numerous and 
confined to a particular region, there is evidence in the absence of metal 
among the stone, as well as the intrinsic testimony of the finds themselves, 
that they were produced by a Stone-Age people settled in the locality. The 
region indicated is the range of moorland that forms the south-eastern boundary 
of the county and separates it from Yorkshire ; and the objects found freely 
on hilltops denuded by the wind, and in other places from 4 to 5 .(sometimes 
10) ft. below the surface, are the cores of flint, the chippings and flakes, 
' borers and gravers,' scrapers and small hammer-stones, which the flint 
worker of the neolithic age lost or rejected. In one place, on March Hill, 
have been found ' innumerable minute chippings of flint,' and on the same 
hill a ' half-made arrow-head.' 

On Knoll Hill again was found a core amidst numerous chippings, one 
of which, identified by its patina, fitted exactly in the place whence it had 
been struck. It is interesting to read the account of what students of these 
remains see of the life of neolithic man himself in the traces of his handi- 
work. ' He was undoubtedly a hunter, from the arrow-heads and spear- 
heads he has left behind him. He clothed himself in skins, for we find 
the flaying knives which he used to separate the skin from the carcase, the 
scrapers with which he removed the fat and hair from the hides. We also 
find the perforators used for boring the eyes in his bone needles with which 
he made his clothes. We find his graving tools for ornament or possibly 
tattooing, and we find the reddle and graphite which he used for personal 
adornment. We have found his hearth or dwelling-place, a rubble of millstone 
grit ; the ruins of rude sandstone shelters ; the iron pyrites and the hard 
hsmatite by which he got his light, and the charcoal, the remains of his 
long extinct fire.' l 

The burial places of these people, which are usually the more sure 
indication, are in this case less easy to identify from the accounts which have 
been published. Of the many burial mounds which are found along the 
same range of hills it seems probable that the majority at least belong to a 
later age. 

The area through which these remains are found is fairly extensive. 
The town of Rochdale is about its centre. Southward it reaches by the 
heights above Oldham almost to Ashton-under-Lyne. Westward it is 
bounded only by the edge of the moorland which spreads out beyond Bury 
towards Bolton-le-Moors. Northwards it follows the high crest of the 
Pennine range as far as Burnley, while towards the east it passes beyond the 
Yorkshire border. The small objects themselves are so numerous that it is 
not possible to describe them in detail in the manner subsequently adopted 
for the classes of larger antiquities. A few types of worked flints are 

1 Vid. Trans. Rochdale Lit. and Set. Sue. 1 897. ' Flint Implements,' W. H. Sutcliffe ; also various contri- 
butions by Dr. Colley March. 

214 




UPPER Row : BROWN WARDLE HILL (four). 

Row : MARCH HILL RUSH HILL BLACKSTONE EDGE MARCH HILL CUPWITH HILL K.NOWL Hi] 

BLACKSTONE EDGE BROWN WARDLE HILL. 
THIRD Row : FOXSTONE EDGE BROWN WARDLE RUSH HILL MIDDLE HILL. 



1 M 




UPPER Row :-BROWN WARDLE-MARCH HILL (two)-BROwN WARDLE-MARCH H.LL-KKOWL HILL-BROWN WARDLE 

SECOND Row : BROWN WARDLE ASHWORTH MOOR ROUGH HILL BROWN WARDLE (two) HUNGER HILL 

THIRD Row : MARCH HILL BROWN WARDLE-MARCH HILL ROUGH HILL-BROWN WARDLE 

ROUGH HILL WORSTHORNE MOOR. 



PLATE I. ARROWHEADS AND MISCELLANEOUS SMALL-WORKED FLINTS FROM THE NEOLITHIC 
FLOOR OF SOUTH-EAST LANCASHIRE. 



Tofat, faf, 214. 



EARLY MAN 

selected as illustration, and the distribution of them is indicated by lists of 
' findspots.' The arrow-heads, however, are few in number and of special 
interest : they are not altogether peculiar to this area, being found also at 
Manchester, and even towards the mouth of the Mersey at Wavertree 
near Liverpool. 

The flint chippings of the Pennine range, from their very numbers, 
combined with the absence of metal among the deposits, constitute the 
only definite evidence of habitation during the neolithic period. The stone 
implements described below, classified as celts and perforated implements, 
adzes, axes, hammers, and the like, are not necessarily to be considered as 
the product of a purely Stone Age, though of neolithic character. 

i. ROUGHLY-WORKED STONES 

Cores and flakes, and evidences of flint-working associated with these 
early inhabitants of the South Lancashire moors, have been found at many 
sites. Among them, in the main or central area, Brandwood Moor, Brown 
Wardle Hill, Cow Heys, Crow Knoll, Culvert Clough, Flower Scar Hill, 
Foxton Edge, Great Winning Gulf, Hades Hill (on the border), Haulgh, 
Helpet Edge, Hunger Hill, Longden End Moor, Lower Moor, Rushy Hill, 
Robin Hood's Bed, Ramsden, Rough Hill, Todmorden (on the border), 
Turnshaw Hill, Wardle Moor, Well i' th' Lane ; especially also at Besom 
Hill, Blackstone Edge, Bull Hill, Knoll Hill, Middle Hill (Wardle), 
Readycon Dean, Tooter Hill, Trough Edge, and Wardle. From Bolton-le- 
Moors comes a ' flint-polisher ; ' and from Hollingworth Lake, as from 
Trough Edge, Knoll Hill, Middle Hill, etc., roundish hammer-stones, and 
' thumb-stones.' 

Further south, in the Manchester area, similar finds are recorded : at 
Broughton, Cheetham, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Kersal Moor, Moss Side, 
and RadclifFe, near Bury. 

From the Irwell House grounds, Lower Broughton, is an interesting 
specimen with serrated edges, found in the gravel about 5 ft. deep. 

To the north the boundary of the settlement seems to be reached at 
the Worsthorne Moor, though isolated finds of small workings have been 
made at Mellor, Clitheroe, Longridge, Chipping, Bleasdale, and elsewhere 
as previously mentioned. A selection of typical worked flints from the 
moors around Rochdale is seen in Plate I. Other discoveries of miscella- 
neous worked flints have been made in association with interments and 
funeral deposits, and as such will be referred to in a later section. 

2. ARROW-HEADS 

With a few exceptions the finds of shaped arrow-heads are associated 
with the same area of neolithic settlements. The small pointed flints which 
might have been used as tips of arrows have been freely found wherever flint- 
working has been evidenced. A series of these is illustrated in the upper 
photograph of Plate I. 

Arrows fashioned with a definite form, lozenge-shaped, leaf-shaped, and 
winged, are also common : Tooter Hill and Culvert Clough have yielded 
good examples. A fine class of barbed arrow also was produced by these 

215 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

flint workers. On Bull Hill, near Bury, one measuring rj in. in length and 
i in. across the barb was found in the vicinity of numerous flakes and chips 
and small shaped flints. Others are recorded from Blackstone Edge, Foxton 
Edge, Great Winning Gulf, Hunger Hill, Knoll Hill, Middle Hill, and 
Walsden Moor. 

Barbed arrow-heads of similar workmanship have been found but rarely 
elsewhere. Such cases are, therefore, the more interesting. One of these 
comes from the hilly ground north of the Ribble, where a barbed flint arrow- 
head, 1 1 in. in length and i-jj-in. across the barbs, was picked up on Long- 
ridge Fell. 

A more notable instance is that found at Wavertree, near Liverpool, a 
beautiful specimen, which was near to and apparently associated with some 
cinerary urns and interments of the Bronze Age. The explanation of this as a 
survival of flint usage among the population during the Bronze Age would be 
possible ; but there is some suggestion of even earlier interments in the 
vicinity, and while the sum of present evidence indicates only the one 
moorland region as certainly inhabited during a neolithic age, that was not 
necessarily the only area so occupied. Even on those moors and uplands, at 
an average height of 1,300 ft. above the sea, the peat covers this * neolithic 
floor' to an average depth of 4ft., which in some instances is much increased. 
But on lower ground, in the great excavations made, for instance, for the Ribble 
Docks and the Manchester Ship Canal, objects of bronze were found even 
more than 20 ft. below the surface. Hence it is possible that the cultivated 
tracts below still cover the traces of the earliest population. 

In Lancashire over Sands, though not apparently connected in any way 
with the local settlements on the Pennine Hills of south-east Lancashire, there 
seems to be indication of neolithic population, particularly in some remains 
found high up in the indent between the boundaries of Cumberland on the 
one hand and of Westmorland on the other. Here in the vicinity of lakes 
and hills and wooded valleys was a region likely to attract early settlement. 
At Hawkshead and at Torver, on either side of Coniston Water, have been 
found remains of burial places associated with small objects and implements 
of flint ; in the former case a ' beautifully-worked flint knife.' l As before, 
the presence of stone implements alone is not a sufficient criterion in itself for 
the determination of the date of the burials ; but in the same region other 
signs of flint-working have been noticed. Southward, at Broughton-in- 
Furness have been found flakes and cores, scrapers, small arrow-heads, and 
the general indications of neolithic habitation, which is traced as far to the 
south as Grange-over-Sands on the east and Kirkby Ireleth on the west. 

3. STONE CELTS 

Among the more interesting stone implements of the county must be 
placed several great stone celts, of polished surface, two of them found in the 
south of the county at Newton-le- Willows and Flixton respectively, and 
other two on the hill slopes of Pendle. A fifth was found just over the 
Yorkshire border at Saddleworth ; while a sixth of analogous character is 
exhibited in the museum at Preston. 3 

1 See p. 245. 

* There is reason to doubt the accuracy of the label which states that this object was found at Longridge. 

216 



EARLY MAN 

These implements, which are of the form illustrated by the figure No. i, 

were probably used as hoes, and the purposely flattened sides characteristic of 

them seem to have been designed to better secure the implement from lateral 

movement in its haft. The polish upon the broad ends, and occasionally 

small chips, show them to have been considerably 

used in hoeing and digging the soil. 

The greatest of these, from Newton-le- 

Willows, where it was found near the Vulcan 

Foundry, now preserved in the museum at War- 

rington, was described when found as a club, 

owing to its remarkable length of 17$ in. It 

is 3! in. in greatest width and 2j in. broad. 

The material seems to be smoothed flint, which 

has become coated with a calcareous skin. It 

was found about 2 ft. below the surface, in 

cutting a drain in a field near the Vulcan Foundry 

at Newton. (See photo on Plate II. No. 3.) 

The flattened sides, a conspicuous feature in 

the Newton celt, are not apparent in that found 

at Shaw Hall, Flixton, now in the Blackmore 

Museum at Salisbury. This object also has the 

comparatively great length of 12$ in. One of 

the Pendle celts, now in the museum of Black- 

burn, with a length of i if in. is next in point of 

size. Its width is 3 Jin., thickness 1 1 in. Itsmaterial 

is described as felspathic porphyry. One side is 

smoothly polished as if by continued use in soil. 

It was found at Wiswell near Whalley in 1835. 

The other celt from Pendle, the subject of the 

figure No. i, is the most remarkable for its ap- 

pearance, though least of the four in size. Its 

length is 10 in. and breadth 2 in. It was found 
in a turf pit near 
Windy Harbour 
Farm on the north 
end of the hill. 1 

The material is a kind of green-stone, mottled, 
and the surface is beautifully polished. 

Among the small class of stone celts 
some of them retain the flattened side. Two 
very good specimens were found at Leagram, 8 
the one under the Hall itself, and the other 
northward in the Pale Farm, near the Loud. 
The former, which is illustrated by fig. 2, is 
4! in. by 2| by i, and the latter somewhat 





FIG. i. MOTTLED STONE CELT 
FROM WINDY HAREOUR, PEN- 
OLE. Scale, 1:2. 



FIG. 2. CELT WITH FLATTENED SIDES 
FROM LEAGRAM HALL. Scale, I : 2. 



ro- 1 T E r a "?' StMt Implements, 2nd ed. p. 117 from which the figure is taken by kind permission 
of Sir John Evans. 

* Where they were preserved in the Hall by the late John Weld, Esq., from whose MSS. this information 
is derived by courtesy of his daughter. 



217 



28 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

larger, with a length of 5! in. These two celts are similar in general 
character, being worked on the side in three main triangular curved faces, 
of which one includes the cutting edge. A curious example is a celt 
from Royton Park, of which one side only is flattened. The material is a 
green-stone, and its size is somewhat great, being 9 in. in length by a| in. 
wide. ' It is well polished and has a fine edge.' 1 

The other celts of the county fall chiefly under two classes, those which 
are smoothed all over, and those which, though worked with care, are not 
actually of smooth surface except near the cutting edge. Of the smooth 
kind that from Orford, seen in the photo No. i of Plate II. is a remarkable 
example. Its size is 5f in. by 2i by ij ; and its material is a 'hornstone 
flint.' The surface curves truly and is smoothly polished, while the cutting 
edge is continuous, smooth, and sharp. It is now in the museum at 
Warrington, near to where it was found. 

Another typical celt is seen in the photo, Plate II.-2. It is of rough 
polished body which is smoothed towards the edge. Its length is 4 in., 
width i fin., and thickness fin. The material is light-coloured limestone. 
This celt was found in Parliament Fields, Toxteth Park, Wavertree, and it 
remains appropriately in the public museum of the city of Liverpool. Most 
of the Lancashire celts, which are somewhat numerous, tend towards the 
last-named type. Two from the vicinity of Rochdale are examples. One of 
these from Wardle is 4! in. in length ; * the other from Milnrow is some- 
what larger, being 5 in. long by 2f broad : the material is black and very hard. 1 
A polished flint celt was found at Morecambe in 1878, 5 ft. deep in the 
clay. 8 It seems to have been about 5 in. long by 2 broad. Another celt, 
found on Pilling Moss, also in North Lancashire, seems to have been of 
curious size, measuring 7 in. by 3! in breadth. 

Other celts, of which no complete description is available, were found 
near Blackpool in the sandhills toward Lytham, at Chorlton-cum-Hardy in 
Back Lane, at Droylesden in the Moss, at Lancaster, and apparently at 
' Sawick ' in the Moss, about nine miles from ' Martin Mere.'* 

A stone celt 8j in. long by 2 J wide was found near Weeton in the Fylde, 
the site of some British interments probably of the Bronze Age. A flint celt 
of smaller size was found at Walmsley near Bolton, in a tumulus of boulders 
containing a skeleton and an urn, which from its decoration seems to be of 
the Bronze Age. This association lends to the celt an historical importance. 
Small flint instruments have been found in tumuli and interments at Cliviger, 
Littleboro,' and Stonyhurst also. 

Three curious implements should be mentioned. One of them is 
specially of interest, and seems to be unique among the records of the 
celts found in the county. This is a stone celt, or ' axe,' found in the 
Liverpool Docks, 6 with the rare feature of a groove down the sides for 
the better fitting or fixing of the handle. 6 The second is a roughly chipped 

1 Information of Mr. S. Andrew. s Fishwick, History of Rochdale, p. 4. * Weld MSS. 

4 Leigh, Natural Hist, of Lane., Ches., and the Peak, Bk. i. pp. 17, 181. Sawick is generally identified with 
Salwick in the Fylde : though Martin Mere is variously identified with Marton Mere in the Fylde, and 
Martin Mere near to Southport. 

6 Trans. Hist. Soc. of Lane, and Ches., 1867, p. 15. 

6 Two similar implements of interesting character are exhibited at Ashton-under-Lyne, in the Stanford 
Park Museum, but the probability is that they were imported. It is interesting to compare these with those 
used in the mines of Alderley Edge (Roeder : L.C.A. xix. 1901). 

218 




3. GREAT CELT or FUNT, FROM NEWTON-LE-WILLOWS (WARRINGTON MUSEUM). .2:5. 




4. AxE-H 





5. SMOOTH AxE-H 





S. LARGE ROUN 



PLATE IF. STONE CELTS AND HAMMERS OF LANCASHIRE 
(Chiefly in the Museum at Warrington.) 



EARLY MAN 

implement probably used as a pestle, 1 which seems to resemble a celt in 
general outline ; and the third is an implement of the form of a rough 
celt. This is in the museum at Preston, where it is described as * a stone- 
hammer found at Longridge, composed of Yoredale grit.' Its dimensions are 
7 in. by aj by if. 

In Lancashire over Sands the finds of stone celts are curiously localized 
in an interesting manner to the central district of Furness, with the 
exception of some implements found deep in the peat at Wray Hill near 
to Ambleside on the northern boundary of the county. From Furness 
Abbey, it is said, comes a celt nearly 9 in. in length, with a width of 
2f in. and thickness ij in. Other celts are reported to the east at Roose- 
beck near Aldingham and to the north at Stainton near Dalton. Further 
to the north-east again the area of finds embraces Ulverston, where a polished 
celt was found in some old workings of a haematite ore mine. At Penning- 
ton near Conishead a little way to the south was found a celt somewhat 
peculiar in form. It is of a green-stone, and is described as resembling 
' the butt end of a long celt of a common north country type, broken off 
short, then roughly chipped to a new edge. The edge thus formed has 
never been polished like the rest of the weapon.' Its present length is about 
3i in., breadth ijin., and thickness i in. It was turned up by the plough 
in a field on Castle Hill. The area of stone celts reaches eastward as 
far as Cartmel, where an implement of grey schist, measuring 8i in. by 3^ in., 
was found on Winder Moor. 



4. PERFORATED STONE IMPLEMENTS 

(a) Adze-like in form, with the hole transverse to the plane of the cutting 
edge. The city of Manchester furnishes the best example of adze-like stone 
implements. Those preserved in the Uni- 
versity Museum are shown in the following 
diagrams, Nos. 3-5, as they well illustrate 
the form and character of this class. The 
first of them, fig. 3, was found at Green- 
heys, in a brickyard in Upper Lloyd Street. 
It is interesting typologically from its resem- 
blance in plan to the rounder stone hammers 
described as mace-heads, etc., and in section 
to the rougher axe-hammers, having one end 
sharp and the other blunt. It has obviously 
been considerably used. It is 4^ in. in 
length by 2f in. in width, with a thickness 
of ijin. 

The second example, fig. 4, shows a 
more clearly adze-like implement, longer in 

proportion, which has been used obviously as an adze-hammer. It was 
found in 1870, in Corporation Street, 25 ft. below the surface, and is of 
a smooth glacial rock. It measures 5 in. by 2^ in., with a thickness of ijin. 
It has the feeling of a well-advanced Bronze Age implement. 

i Described as from near Blackpool. Weld MSS. 
219 




FIG. 3. STONE ADZE FROM GREENHEYS, 
MANCHESTER. I : 2. 




FIG. 4. STONE ADZE FROM CORPORATIC 
STREET, MANCHESTER. 1:2. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

The third illustration of this class, fig. No. 5, shows a larger and rougher 
stone, unfortunately broken. It was found in clay which was ' undisturbed,' 

at a depth of 1 3 ft., in Cheetwood, near 
Manchester. The preserved portion, 
however, well shows the general cha- 
racter of the implement, which though 
larger than the foregoing is pierced 
with only a small hole, measuring *.in. 
diameter. The width of this imple- 
ment is 3 Jin.; in thickness it narrows 
slightly from near the end (if in.) to- 
wards the centre (i^in.). It measures 
4 in. from hole to end. The end is 
roughly dressed to an edge towards one 
side, and the faces seem to show patches 
of the original surface of the stone. 
The form of the implement indeed 
seems to have been suggested very 
largely by the shape of the original stone 
before dressing. The material is a fine gritstone. 

A fourth example of this class found at Preston in or near the docks 
resembles the latter somewhat closely, not only in the fact that it also is 
broken in half, but that it has been fashioned to a similar form which seems 
to have been suggested by the original stone. The end is dressed to an edge. 
Like the last described its thickness decreases from near the end, where it is 
I J in. to I in. in the middle, being about 3^ in. wide throughout. From hole 
to end it measures 44 in., and it was presumably about twice that length. 

In this classification there naturally occur forms which cannot be strictly 
separated, but rather link the types naturally. In addition to that already 
described from Greenheys, Manchester, which links with the class hereafter 
described under 'round hammers and mace-heads,' there may be noted particu- 
larly the rounded hammer from Goosnargh, fig. 12, which merges with both 
types, and might be regarded also as a small adze-like implement. 

(b) Axes with one end rounded. 
The double axe proper is not 
represented among the stone imple- 
ments of the county. The speci- 
men figured on Plate III. No. i 
simulates the double axe in section, 
but is seen to belong to the next 
class of axes with one end rounded 
as classified by Sir John Evans. 
It was found near Mode Wheel, 
Salford, in cutting the Ship Canal, 
1890. Its length is 6jin., and 
greatest width 3 in.; its weight is 
i Ib. 13 oz. The photograph shows 
the character of this interesting 
implement, which in one respect 




FIG. 5. 



-LARGE ADZE FROM CHEETWOOD, 
MANCHESTER, i : 2. 



EARLY MAN 

again links the varieties of axes, in that it seems to have been used to some 
extent as an axe-hammer, though not fashioned for that purpose. 

A smaller implement of similar form was found in the old bed of the 
Roch [formerly Roach} stream, near Oakenrod, Rochdale, and is thus described 
by its former owner : ' It is 4 in. long, and the hole for the handle is unusually 
large, being nearly an inch in diameter. The clearly-marked ridge which 
runs on two sides of the stone would seem to indicate that the implement 
was made in imitation of a cast metal one.' l The surmise is more than 
possible. The smoothed perforated implements of stone are for the most part 
indubitably of the Bronze Age ; indeed Sir John Evans shows good reason to 
believe that perforated stone implements in general belong to a time subse- 
quent to the introduction of metal-working. 

A third example also from near Manchester, shown in fig. 6, is 
typical of this class. It was found near Turkey Lane, Queen's Park, 
Harpurhey, 3 ft. from the surface, in clay. It is of gritstone, described as 
'grained sandstone, with decomposition on the surface.' Its length is 6f in., 
width 2| in., and greatest height 3 in. The top surface is gently hollowed 
towards the socket hole ; and the lower side is partly chipped and broken 
away. At the one end the 
sides curve rapidly to the 
sharpened edge, while the 
other end preserves its ori- 
ginal curved form unbroken. 
It is a good specimen. The 
annexed diagram is due to 
the courtesy of the curator 
of the Queen's Park Mu- 
seum at Manchester, where 
the object is preserved. 

To this class must be 
referred also a series of implements of larger and rougher character, all of 
them from North Lancashire. The record of them" is fairly clear, and 
in some cases the implements themselves have been preserved. From 
Bowland is a specimen loj in. long, with a width and depth respectively 
of 3in. The perforation varies from i|.in. to ijin. in diameter, and is 
placed far back from the sharp edge, dividing the implement at J to 
| of its length. The edge is very chipped and the opposite end preserves a 
well-rounded form. The object is heavy and massive in appearance ; it was 
obviously designed as a single axe and was used as such. It was found, it 
is related, in 1860, in draining near Cow Ark in Bowland, 'a short distance 
from the Roman Road.' 

A second specimen is from Claughton. It was found near the surface 
of the ground in a field near the Hall, where it now remains. It is of a 
more solid and smaller design than the last. Its length is j\ in., with a 
width, however, of 4 in. and height of about 3^ in. The hole, which is 
more centrally placed, is unusually large, varying from i j in., in the middle, 
to ^\ in. in diameter. As in the previous instance, the broad cutting edge 

1 Fishwick, op. cit. p. 1 3, with figure. The object is now in the Rochdale Museum. 
a Weld MSS. 




FIG. 6. SECTION OF STONE AXE FROM HARPURHEY, MANCHESTER. 
Scale, I : 2 linear. (Queen's Park Museum, Manchester.) 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

is much chipped, while the after part, though originally rounded, shows 
also from the wear of its surface that it had been used as a hammer. 1 

A third specimen was found near Lancaster, and is more nearly of the 
design of that first described from Bowland, being 9! in. in length, and 
divided very unequally by the perforation. Though chipped at each end, 
it was designed as a single axe with one end rounded, and the surface hollows 
slightly towards the hole. It is 3^ in. wide, and 2 J in. deep at the cutting 
edge, which does not expand as in the former cases. The hole is placed 
at of the length from the rounded end. 1 

The fourth specimen, fig. 7, is from further to the south, near the 
Ribble valley, having been found at Wilpshire near Blackburn. It somewhat 
resembles in form the axe-hammer, described in the next section, which 
was found in the Lune near Lancaster (fig. 8). It has the same curious pro- 
jections to the already great width, and the same lack of special character 
in the section. The edge, however, is better marked, while the opposite 

end, instead of being flat for 
use as a hammer, is rounded 
and well preserved. The per- 
foration is near the centre and 
varies from 2 J in. to I J in. in 
diameter. 

(c) Axe-hammers of stone. 
The distinction drawn be- 
tween axes rounded at one end 
and axes flattened at one end 
is one of original form rather 
than of usage. The former, it 
has been seen, though not so 
conveniently shaped for the 
purpose, were commonly used 
as hammers. The latter class, 
which it remains to describe, 
is more numerously represented 
in Lancashire than any other variety of implement. 

The rough and larger stone hammer characteristic of the northern 
counties is frequent in Lancashire, particularly in the northern part of the 
county. Other large axes are noticeably shaped with broadened cutting edge. 
Others again have peculiar flanges and projections ; while not uncommonly there 
occur the small smooth hammers often associated with bronze or metal tools. 
The implements from Lancaster and Tatham are excellent examples of 
the rough axe-hammer of the north. The Lancaster specimen, found in 
the bed of the Lune, is 9 J in. long, with a width of 4| in. and depth of 
2| in. The material is a fine gritstone. The edge, as seen in the diagram, 
fig. 8, is very much dulled, and the flat hammer end also shows signs of 
use. A photograph is shown on Plate III. No. 4. 

A similar implement seems to have been found at Barnacre near 
Lancaster ' by a farmer while ploughing at Carter Houses. It must have 
been originally about 12 in. in length, and weighs 61b." 




FIG. 7. STONE AXE FOUND AT WILPSHIRE 
BLACKBURN. 



1 Weld MSS. 



3 Trans. Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. 
222 





1. FROM MODE WHEEL (SALFORD Mus.). 

2. MELLOR (BLACKBURN Mus.). 

3 . TATHAM (SALFORD Mus.). 



ST. HF 



. Mus.). 
Mus.). 



PLATE III. PERFORATED STONE AXES AND AXE-HAMMERS OF LANCASHIRE. 
Scale, 2 : 5 (nearly). 



To face page ^^^. 



EARLY MAN 

An axe-hammer found at Low House, Milnrow, 1 might be cited as a 
further illustration of this class, though smaller, smoother, and generally of 
more finished appearance. It is 6| in. long, and broad in proportion to its 
length. 

Another rough implement, from Tatham, is shown in Plate III. No. 3. 
It was found at Green Hill Farm, 10 miles east of Lancaster. It is Sin. 
in length and 4 in. in width, with a depth of about 2 J in. The perforation 
is large and placed well back. The material is ' grey trap.' A feature of 
some special interest in connexion with this object is the appearance of the 
surface, which suggests that the stone was naturally formed and had been 
dressed down only on one side to this shape and pierced with a handle 
hole. A somewhat similar implement is recorded also from Lindale 
(over Sands). 

In the examples previously considered there is an absence of definite 
attempt to fashion the implement 
to a standard pattern ; rather it 
appears from the sections figured 
that the form of the natural stone 
in those cases determined the 
ultimate shape. The county, 
however, provides a good series 
of axe-hammers of a special form, 
which is distinguished by the 
widening of the implement, in 
section, towards the offensive 
edge, giving to its contour a 
curve outwards rather than in- 
wards in that direction. A 
typical example was found in 
1855 at Mellor, a small village 
lying some 3 miles westward of 
Blackburn. A photo of this specimen may be seen on Plate III. No. 2. It is 
just over 8 in. in length and 3 in. in breadth. Its depth varies from 2 in. 
at the narrowest part, about the hole, to 3! in. near the edge. The head is 
broad and flat and the perforation is placed at about 5 of the length from 
that end. The material is an igneous rock from the north. 

Several implements not proportionately so broad resemble the Lancaster 
and Tatham hammers as regards their section and general appearance. That 
found at Heaton Chapel, 5 miles south-east of Manchester, now preserved in 
the museum of that city, is a good example. It is about yj in. long by 3! in. 
wide and 3 in. deep. The material is familiar fine gritstone. The surface 
from patination has almost the appearance of being original and undressed, 
but the sides incurve uniformly towards the edge and the head is fairly 
hammer-like. Its general features are indicated in the diagram, fig. 9. 

A great stone-hammer in the museum at Preston, of similar general 
character, is described as having been found at Longridge, a village 7 miles 
north-east of that town. Its length is ioi in., width 4 in., and depth 
3! in. ; and its weight 5 Ib. i oz. The hole is small, the head rough 

1 Roch. L. and Sc. Soc, vol. vi. 
223 




FIG. 8. AXE-HAMMER FROM THE LUNE, NEAR LAN- 
CASTER. Scale, 1:3. (Chadwick Museum, Bolton.) 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

and roundish; and the general appearance is not that of the Lancashire 
implements. 

A nice specimen, smaller, and better finished, was found, as it seems, 1 
near Blackpool, in 1881. Its dimensions are 8i in. by 4 in. by 3 in. in 
depth, and it weighs 5 Ib. It hollows slightly on the surface about the hole, 
which seems well cut ; while the hammer end seems especially to have been 
squarely dressed. 

Several good implements preserved in the county museums are of the 
same type as that from Mellor (see Plate III). At Chipping, which is not far 
distant to the north, was found one of 9 in. length and 4 in. breadth. Its 
depth increases from aj in. near the hole to 3^ in. towards the edge. Its 
weight is 5 Ib. 1 1 oz. The head is broad but not truly flat, and the perfora- 
tion is rather central. This specimen is in the museum of Preston. In the 
museum at Bolton there is to be seen another interesting example, found in 
1897 while ploughing near the church at Blackrod, which is not far from 

Wigan. It measures 8j in. in length, 
about 3 in breadth, with a depth vary- 
ing from 2j to a| in. In form it is not 
symmetrical, having on one side a con- 
spicuous flattening where the original 
surface of the stone has been used with- 
out dressing. The material seems to be 
a fine local gritstone. In the same 
museum is a portion of an instrument 
which seems from its preserved part to 
have been almost the largest of its kind 
in the county, measuring "j\ in. from 
edge to perforation and 4 in. in width. 
It belongs also to the type of the 
foregoing, with a depth which increases 
from 2j in. at the hole to 3^ towards the 
edge. It was found at Silverdale in North Lancashire in i8/i. 2 

A specimen with non-expanding edge, lojin. long, 4$ in. wide, and 
2|in. deep, was found in 1903 on the Burnley side of Pendle Forest in 
Ogden Clough. The perforation divides the length in the proportion of 
2 : 5 from the hammer end, and measures about i| in. across. The weight 
of the object is 6 Ib. i o oz., and the material seems to be a fine gritstone, 
with polished surface. 8 There is a slight smooth longitudinal depression, 
like a groove, running down towards the edge from the hole, in the middle 
of one face. This seems to have been worn by use, for the edge also shows 
signs of greater wear and redressing towards that side. 

Among the axe-hammers of the county are three or four of special 
interest. That found at Dean, near Bolton, as the photograph reproduced 
on Plate II. No. 4 suggests, has a broad flange to the head when viewed 
at the side. It is a nicely shaped implement, 9^ in. long and 3! in. broad, 
with a depth which gradually increases from 2 in. near the perforation to 
3! in. at the edge. The head is 2| in. across the surface, and 2| in. over the 




FIG. 9. AXE-HAMMER FROM HEATON CHAPEL 
(Manchester Museum). I : 3. 



Weld MSS. 



* Information of John Allen, Esq. 



Journ. Brit. Arch. Ante. xxix. p. 304 (No. 2). 



EARLY MAN 

flanges by the side. It is an excellent specimen, now in the museum at 
Warrington. 

A second special form is in the museum at St. Helens, where it was found 
about 1 2 ft. from the surface near the corner of Corporation Street and Hall 
Street in 1879. It is about 9 in. long, with a depth increasing from 2j in. 
at the hole to 3^ in. at the edge and 2j in. at the head. Its special features 
are the lateral flanges on opposite sides of the hole, which increase its breadth 
from 3 in. to 3! in. over all. The photograph of Plate III. No. 5 shows this 
feature, which is not common. 

A hammer of similar form seems to have been found at Throstle Nest, 
near Manchester, having a length of 1 2 in., but there is some obscurity 
about the record : l the description indicates a large double hammer, with 
side flanges as before. 

Another very unusual form shown in fig. 10 is described as found near 
Lancaster. 2 It is of massive ap- 
pearance, 9 in. long and 3 in. wide, 
with a depth of 3 in. at the cutting 
edge and 2J in. at the butt. It 
seems to have one side almost flat, 
while the other inclines suddenly 
just beyond the hole towards the 
edge, giving the appearance of an 
angle in the side and a general lack 
of symmetry. The edge is chipped, 
and the head curved and somewhat 
rounded. 

Two excellent examples of 
the small smooth stone axe- hammers 
of the Bronze Age are recorded, 
the one from Winwick, now in 
the museum at Warrington, the 
other from Claughton, where it re- 
mains in the Hall. The former 
was found in an urn which lay ' in 

some soft black stuff inside a tumulus ' at Middleton, Winwick. With it 
was associated a bronze dagger, described on page 235 (Plate IV. No. 7). 
In length it measures 4| in. by i& in width. Its depth varies from i in. to 
2 in. over the outcurved edge, and if in. across the flanges of the head, 
which are shown in the photograph of Plate II. No. 5. The hammer face 
itself is about f in. across, and the weight of the implement about 9 oz. 8 

The second example, from near Claughton Hall, is said to have been 
found in 'cutting through a tumulus in 1882, in a wooden cist, together with 
an iron axe, spear-head, sword, and hammer. There must, however, be an 
error in this account, and as an urn containing burnt bones was found in the 
same tumulus with this Saxon and Danish interment, it seems probable that 
the objects belonging to different burials, primary and secondary in the barrow, 
became mixed during the 27 years that elapsed between their discovery and 




FIG. 10. AXE-HAMMER FOUND NEAR LANCASTER. 



1 See a sketch hung in the Salford Museum. 
8 Arch. Journ. 1860, xvi. 295, plate 25. 
225 



Weld MSS. 



29 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

the communication to the Archaeological Institute.' * The implement itself, 
as seen in the photograph on Plate II. No. 6, is the best of its kind which the 
county has provided, being true of finish, smooth of surface, and symmetrical 
in form. Its upper and lower surfaces are hollowed towards the hole, which 
is centrally placed as regards the body of the implement. The sides curve 
round uniformly, at the one end drawing in to the edge, which is regular, 
at the other end inclining more directly towards the head, which is 
dressed in a circle and presents a disc-like surface as a hammer. This end is 
partly chipped by use, and there is a small modern break in one end of the 
cutting edge ; the implement is now broken in two halves but accurately 
joined. It measures about 4^ in. in length, 2 in. in depth, and aj in. in 
breadth. The perforation measures ij in. across at each end, diminishing to 
| in. about the middle. 8 

In addition to the implements described others have been found but less 
completely recorded. From Clitheroe, for instance, were ' a stone hammer and 
two axes ' ; from Hopwood a ' stone axe-hammer ' ; from Martin Mere ' a 
hatchet of dark stone found in peat ' ; from Turton, in Charters Moss, a 
' perforated stone hammer ' ; from Heaton and 
Quernmore, near Lancaster, ' a rude stone ham- 
mer-head.' 

(d) Round perforated hammers, mace-heads, 
etc. In grouping together all the perforated 
stone hammers of roundish form, there are neces- 
sarily included several which it is hardly possible 
to separate from the adze-like implements on 
the one hand, and the smaller stone hammers 
just described on the other. That from Bolton 
Park is an instance, fig. 11. It is of quartzite, 
nicely formed. Its length is 3! in., width about 
2! in., and depth ij in. One end is somewhat 
adze-like, the other is hammer-like. It was 
found buried in sand at the east end of the pro- 
menade in Queen's Park, Bolton, where it now remains in the Chadwick 
Museum. It is an interesting object. 

The maul-head from Silverdale, in North Lancashire, preserved in the same 
museum, is of similar general character. It is more definitely flat in form, 
but without any edge, being hammer-like at both ends. The hole is very 
much aslant in the section of this implement. Its length is 3^ in., breadth 
2j in., and depth in general ij in. 

A further instance may be cited. There was found in 1 879 while 
draining at the Stakes, Bowland, a perforated implement more round in form 
than the foregoing, and in this case clearly of adze-like section. Its extreme 
length is 4Jin., width 3^ in., and depth ij in. 8 

An implement found, as it seems, at Goosnargh, near to Longridge, 
north of Preston, is described by a sketch in the museum at Salford. It 
seems to be definitely rounded and of adze-like section, fig. 12. Its length 
is 3J in., and breadth 2j in. : the perforation is small. It links in type 




FIG. ii. SMALL HAMMER FROM 

QUEEN'S PARK, BOLTON. I : z. 

(Chadwick Museum, Bolton.) 



1 Evans, Stone Imp. p. 1 08. 
rfW. - 



artesy 



Fitzherbert Brockholes, Esq. of Claughton Hall. 
226 



Weld MSS. 



EARLY MAN 

the roundish hammers just described with those definitely round in form 
which follow. 

Of these round perforated implements, that from Irlam, in the museum 
at Warrington, and two from Alexandra Park, in the Queen's Park Museum 
at Manchester, are typical illustrations. The first-named is shown in the 
photograph on Plate II. No. 8. It is about 4J in. by 4 in., with a per- 
foration ijin. by ig in. The outer edge is chipped all around, but the hole 
remains smoothly polished. It is of grey gritstone, and was found in the 
Ship Canal works at Irlam in 1890. The two stones from Manchester 
are not quite similar. They were found in laying out Alexandra Park 
in that city. The one is 4| in. by 4 in., with a thickness of fin., and a 
perforation ij by i|- in. as in the former instance. The other is nearly 
round, being 4! in. across, except where it is chipped ; in thickness it just 
exceeds i in., and its perforation is i in. Both implements are badly 
chipped all around their outer edge, preserving, however, a good surface 
to their perforations. Another large round perforated stone is illustrated 
in the Salford Museum, where it is described as a ' stone fishing-net 
weight.' It is apparently 6J in. in diameter, and 
was found at Stalybridge, on the border of the 
county. 

The beautifully rounded specimen of a ham- 
mer, or more probably a spindle-whorl, shown on 
Plate II. No. 7, is in the museum at Warrington. 
It was found at Haydock, which is about two 
miles north-east of Newton, in a pit, 2 ft. below 
the surface, in clay. ' Beneath was every appear- 

r il TM u- el- I- FlG - I2- ROUND STONE HAM- 

ance of a paved way. The object is of light MER FROM GOOSNARCH. 

grey burr stone,' and measures af in. in diameter, Scale, i : 2. 

with a thickness of f in. The perforation mea- 
sures T V in. across, and is countersunk from each side. It is a well-finished 
specimen, and for the county of Lancashire apparently unique. An example 
is shown in a museum at Ashton-under-Lyne, but its provenance is doubtful. 
Another, rough and small, but fairly round, was found at Hollingworth Lake, 
near Rochdale. 

(e) In Lancashire over Sands : Stone hammers have been found through 
much the same area as that already indicated in the case of stone celts and 
other implements. 

Isolated instances, indeed, occur in the region of the Lakes, as at Wray 
Hill, near the head of Windermere, and at Torver, which is east of Coniston 
Water. At Rusland also, which lies between Coniston Water and the pool 
of Lake Windermere, was found in 1881 a comparatively large implement, 
measuring 9^ in. by 3^ in., with a depth at the hole of af in. An even 
larger hammer is recorded from Rampside, in the extreme south of Furness, 
with a length of loin, and breadth 4^ in. It was found there in the 
churchyard. 

In the eastern part of the county, at Ayeside, near Newby Bridge, was 
found in a wood a perforated hammer 8| in. in length, with a width of 3! in. 
and depth of 3 in., weighing 4^ Ib. ' It is considerably rounded in both 

1 Arch. Journ. xv. 233. 
22 7 




A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

directions at the butt ; the edge is narrower, and one side is much more 
rounded than the other. The edge is carefully ground, but further up the 
face the surface shows that it has been picked into form.' 1 

A little to the south another stout axe-hammer was found at Lindale. 
The implement has considerable breadth, and the butt is square. A per- 
forated stone hammer 6| in. long was found at Cark, in a ploughed field. 
Its width was 3 fin. and depth aj in. It shows considerable signs of 
abrasion at the pointed end. Still further south, at Flookburgh, several stone 
hammers are reported to have been found. 

In the Furness peninsula a number of stone hammers are recorded. 
One from Harbarrow, near Dalton, now in the museum at Warrington, 
has a length of 7! in., being 3! in. wide and about aj in. thick. It 
bears evidence of use at its shaped end. A hammer found in 1886 at 
Barrow-in-Furness, measuring loj in. in length and 4! in. in width, is 
the largest yet found in the district. Further south, at North Scale, in 
the Island of Walney, a perforated stone hammer was found as recently 
as 1 90 1. 3 

A curious implement comes from Bank Ground, on the east margin of 
Coniston Water. It is about 8 in. long, broad and heavy at one end and 
narrow at the other. The thick end is perforated with a narrow hole. One 
side is flat, the other is formed into two rounded ridges. It is suggested 
that this implement, which was hardly a hammer of usual character, may 
have been carried and used suspended by a cord to the waist. It has been 
considerably used. 3 



5. CLASSIFICATION OF LOCALITIES 

Flint chippings, and small worked flints. Bleasdale ; Besom Hill, Black- 
stone Edge, Bolton-le-Moors, Broadwood Moor, Brown Wardle Hill, 
Broughton ; Bull Hill, Bury ; Cheetham, Chorlton upon Medlock ; Chip- 
ping, Clitheroe ; Cow Heys, Crow Knoll, Culvert Clough, Flower Scar 
Hill, Foxton Edge, Great Winning Gulf, Hades Hill, Haulgh, Helpet Edge, 
Hollingworth Lake, Hunger Hill, Kersal Moor, Knoll Hill, Longden End 
Moor ; Longridge ; Lower Moor ; Mellor ; Middle Hill ; Moss Side, 
RadclifFe ; Readycon Dean, Rushy Hill, Todmorden, Tooter Hill, Trough 
Edge, Turnshaw Hill, Wardle Moor, Well i' th' Lane. 

OVER SANDS. Broughton, Cartmel, Dendron, Gleaston Castle, Grange- 
over-Sands, Hawkshead, High Haume, Kirkby Ireleth, Torver. 

Arrow-heads. Blackstone Edge, Bull Hill, Culvert Clough, Foxton 
Edge, Great Winning Gulf, Hunger Hill, Knoll Hill ; Longridge Fells ; 
Middle Hill, Tooter Hill, Walsden Moor ; Wavertree. 

Stone celts. Blackpool, Castleshaw, Chorlton cum Hardy, Droylesden, 
Flixton, Lancaster, Leagram (2), Liverpool Docks, Longridge, Milnrow, 
Morecambe, Newton-le- Willows, Orford, Pendle (Windy Harbour), Pilling, 
Royton, Saddleworth, Salwick, Walmsley, Wardle, Wavertree, Weeton, 
Wiswell. 

1 Evans, Stone Imp. p. 178. * Described in the Antiquary, Nov. 1901, p. 323. 

8 Proc. Soc. Antiq. Ser. II. xii. 229. 

228 



EARLY MAN 

OVER SANDS. Cartmel, Conishead, Dalton-in-Furness, Furness Abbey, 
Pennington, Roosebeck, Stainton, Ulverston, Wray Hill. 
Perforated stone implements : 

Adzes : Manchester (three, Cheetwood, Corporation Street, and 
Greenheys), Preston (R. Ribble). 

Axes : Mode Wheel, Oakenrod. 

Axe-hammers : Barnacre, Blackpool (near), Blackrod, Bolton Park, 
Bowland, Chipping, Claughton (two), Clitheroe, Dean, Heaton, 
Hopwood, Lancaster (Quernmore), Lune R., Longridge, Manchester 
(two, Throstles Nest, Withington), Martin Mere, Marton, Mellor, 
Milnrow, Preston (Saddleworth), Silverdale, St. Helens, Tatham, Turton 
(Charters Moss), Walton-le-Dale, Wilpshire, Winwick. 

Hound-hammers : Ashton-under-Lyne, Bowland, Haydock, Irlam, 
Silverdale (Stalybridge), Torver. 

OVER SANDS. Ayeside, Barrow-in-Furness, Cark-in-Cartmel, Conis- 
ton Lake, Dendron, Flookburgh, Harbarrow, Lindale, Rampside, 
Rusland, Torver, Walney Island, V/ray Hill. 



II. BRONZE IMPLEMENTS AND REMAINS OF THE EARLY 
CELTIC PERIOD 

The title of this section, as was previously explained, does not exclude 
from classification as objects of the Bronze Age implements other than those 
of bronze, as for example many of the perforated stone hammers already 
described ; nor is it intended to imply on the other hand that all the imple- 
ments described hereafter were made before the introduction of iron. 

The implements of bronze from Lancashire are not so numerous as those 
of stone, but they form an interesting series, which to some extent illustrates 
in itself the sequence and development of the various types. The difficulty 
experienced in the earlier chapter in separating the different classes of objects 
is not met with in this section, for though some types of implements are 
seen to be transitional, as for instance those which mark the evolution of 
palstave from celt, yet none are so markedly intermediary that they cannot 
be assigned readily to one or other of the standard classes of bronze imple- 
ments as defined by Sir John Evans in his Ancient Bronze Implements of 
Britain. 

i. FLAT CELTS 

Three flat celts of bronze apparently complete the record for the county. 
Two of these are in the museum at Warrington, near to where they were 
found, while the third, from Read, is in the British Museum. 

The first of these, from Risley, is plain and typical of a simple 
celt. It is 4Jin. in length, and measures 2 in. across the broadest part of 
the curved edge. It is somewhat corroded, but was probably Jin. in 
thickness. 

The second example is similar in form, but decorated. It is said to 
have been found with two others at Read in Lancashire. It is about 8 in. 
in length. The illustration 1 (fig. 13) shows its form and decoration. 'The 

1 Taken by kind permission from Sir John Evans, indent Bronze Implements, fig. 6, p. 47. 
229 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

central space between the two series of ridges, and also the margins 
of the faces, are ornamented with shallow chevrons punched in. The 
sides have been hammered into three facets, and this has produced 
slight flanges at the margins of the faces. The facets are ornamented with 
diagonal lines.' 1 

The Read celt is seen to have tended towards side flanges. The third, 
from Rixton, shows also an incipient feature, in a low ridge, just perceptible 
to the touch, about midway of the tang, obviously designed to resist the 
thrust of the handle in use. See the photograph in Plate IV. No. i . The 
Rixton celt is plain, though it has been erroneously described as ' decorated 
with punctured lines.' There seems to be no information as to its discovery. 
Its length is 6| in. The tang widens gradually from ijin. towards the cut- 
ting edge, which outcurves, having 
an extreme width of 3! in. 

The development of ridge and 
flange illustrated by the foregoing 
leads directly to the evolution of 
the palstave. 3 



2. PALSTAVES 

Perhaps the simplest form of 
palstave, nearest allied to the flat 
celt, is that found at Southworth 
near Warrington. It is not in 
good preservation, but it seems 
to be without side flanges, and 
almost of flat section, broken only 
by the definite ridge which was 
designed to hold back the handle. 
Its length is 3 in. from edge to 
ridge, and 4! in. over all the pre- 
served portion. The edge is not 
outcurving, measuring only i| in. 
at its greatest width. It is possible 
that the portion of the tang which 
is broken was pierced for a rivet 
hole, a very unusual feature. See Plate IV. No. 2. 

The second of these implements, which is also in the museum at War- 
rington, illustrates a further stage of development, revealing the palstave in its 
simple form. The edge is still hardly outcurving, but the other end is grooved 
for reception of the handle, showing a narrower section than the blade at that 
point, and it is supported on each side by simple flanges and ridge, against 
which to fix the handle. The length of the blade is 3^ in., and of the whole 
6 in., with a width at the edge of 2j in., and at the ridge of i in. The thick- 

1 Evans, Bronze Imp. 47 and Fig. 6. 

8 An instrument which from the picture given, Leigh, Nat. Hist. Lanes, Plate iv. No. 4, seems like a 
palstave, is recorded to have been found in a moss at Salwick, Martin Mere ; but it is not possible from 
the illustration to define its precise nature, nor from the description to identify the site. 

230 




Fie. 13. BRONZE CELT WITH SLIGHT FLANGES FROM 
READ. Scale, i : 2. (British Museum). 



EARLY MAN 

ness of the blade is about half an inch, and over the flanges one inch. See 
Plate IV. No. 5. This implement is said to have been found with a small 
bronze ring (Plate IV. No. 4) at Win- 
wick, which is the site of other dis- 
coveries associated with the interments in 
Highfield Lane and elsewhere. 

A very similar implement l seems to 
come from Martin Mere, west of South- 
port. It is somewhat timeworn, but seems 
to have measured about 4! in., the blade 
being 2j in. long. The width of the edge 
is 1 1 in., and of the haft and blade i&in. 
The thickness at the ridge was about I in. 
The museum at Bolton contains one 
of the best palstaves of the county, found 
in 1810 in Charters Moss at Turton, four 
feet below the turf. It bears the definite 
trace of ornamentation upon its face, as 
shown in the photograph on Plate IV. 
No. 3. In other respects it is simple in 
design. The edge is widened by the 
broadening of the blade itself, being 2f in. 
across at its widest point, and the blade 
i in. at the ridge. From ridge to edge 
measures nearly 4 in. The groove and 
flanges are well defined. 

A palstave described 3 as found at 

Ainsworth near Bolton on Cockey Moor has special features. A loop is 
provided at the side near the ridge for fixing the implement to the handle 
by a loose thong for security in case the hafting should give way. The 
cutting edge outcurves, measuring 2J in. from tip to tip. The implement 
is nearly 6 in. in length. Down the middle of the face runs a low rib, 
which gives way on each side to a lower facet or 
panel which constitutes the chief decoration, as shown 
in fig. 14. 

A second palstave from Martin Mere 1 is shown 
in the annexed sketch, fig. 15, because of a special 
feature. Unlike those previously described, the 
grooves for fitting the handle are placed in the plane 
of the cutting edge, that is to say at the sides, as shown 
in the figure. The object is also unusual in shape. It 
is 5 in. in length, the blade being at in. The width 
is $ in. over the flanges and f in. on the blade, which 
is of prolonged form, widening suddenly to the edge, 
where it measures i| in. across. The thickness 
uniformly decreases from | in. at the end and in. 
at the top of the blade to the edge, which is 
sharp. 

1 Now in possession of Mr. H. Taylor. 3 Lane, and Ches. Ant. Sac. xii. 209. 

231 




FIG. 14. PALSTAVE FOUND AT AINSWORTH. 
(From a Drawing.) I : 2. 




Fig. 15. PALSTAVE FROM 
MARTIN MERE. I : 2. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

The palstave latest found is also among the most- interesting (fig. 16). 

'A bronze palstave was found in February, 1905, under gin. of soil about 

five miles to the north-west of Rochdale, at about 900 ft. above ordnance 
datum, during the excavations of the Ashworth Moor 
Reservoir, and is now in the possession of the .Board in their 
offices at Heywood near Manchester. The implement is 
encrusted with various salts of copper and is of an olive- 
green colour. It measures 5! in. in length, with a maxi- 
mum breadth of 2yV in. across the blade. There is a well- 
marked stop 3^ in. from the anterior extremity of the blade. 
The ridged wings are continued as moulding on the face of 
the blade, but curved in a contrary direction so as to enclose 
a space below the stop ridge, thus producing a semi-elliptical 
ornamentation. The thickness of the metal at this point is 
f in., whereas it is f in. above the stop ridge. The sides are 
slightly concave and are roughly diamond shape, measuring 
if in. across at their maxima. There is a slightly defined 
transverse ridge 2| in. from the anterior extremity. The 
joint of the two moulds in which it was cast can be traced 
upon the sides of the instrument, and appears as if one of 
the moulds had been somewhat deeper than the other. There 
is no loop.' * 
A further palstave, of simple type, with well-preserved edge, is said to 

have been found in excavating for a reservoir in 1884 at Cant Clough, which 

is 3^ miles north-east of Burnley. 

Bronze palstaves are reported also from Egbert Dean, Sharpies, and from 

Weeton in the Fylde, but descriptions are wanting. 




FIG. 16. BRONZE 

PALSTAVE FROM 

ASHWORTH MOOR. 



3- 



BRONZE SOCKETED CELTS 



Five examples of socketed celts preserved in the museum at Warrington 
well illustrate the varieties of this class of implement found within the county. 
Four of them indeed come from the same site, Winmarleigh near Garstang, 
in North Lancashire, where two finds, possibly from the same source, dis- 
closed eight socketed celts with two spears and a dagger of bronze, which 
constitute by far the most striking deposit of the age. These objects are all 
preserved in the same museum : they are illustrated by photograph on Plate V., 
and are described together in connexion with the spears in Section 4. The 
first sketch, fig. 17, shows the simplest of these 
celts, without rim or decoration. The imple- 
ment is hollowed to receive the handle, and is 
provided with a loop whereby to attach it to the 
staff. It is 2$ in. in length, if in. across the 
mouth, and if in. across the edge at its widest 
point. This celt was found with the dagger and 
two other celts at Winmarleigh, as described in 
the next section. 




FIG. 17. PLAIN SOCKETE 
FROM WINMARLEIGH. : 



CELT 



1 From MSS. of Mr. W. Baldwin, by courtesy of Mr. W. H. Sutclifie. 
232 




PLATE IV. BRONZE IMPLEMENTS OF LANCASHIRE. 
(Chiefly in the Museum at Warrington.) 



To face page 232. 




FIG. 1 8. RIBBED SOCKETED CELI 

WlNMARLEICH. 2 : 3. 



EARLY MAN 

A number of socketed celts are recorded l as having been found in the 

River Ribble, the locality not being stated. They seem to have been five in 

number, mostly looped. Of these, one was quite plain like the above, 2 fin. 

in length, but was provided with a rim 

around the mouth, to which the loop was 

attached at one end. 

The next sketch, fig. 18, shows a 

difference of feature in the double rim 

about the mouth of the implement and the 

three elementary ribs along the length. 

The blade is not outcurving to widen the 

edge. Its extreme length is 3! in., breadth 

at mouth ijin., and across the edge i|in. 

This implement was found at Winmarleigh with two spears and four other 

celts, as described in the next section. One other of the celts from the same 

site is of this character. 

Quite similar, too, is one found at Walton-le-Dale, on the Ribble near 

to Preston (in the parish of Cuerdale). This one is 3! in. in length, with a 
breadth of ij in. across the mouth and 1.5. in. 
across the edge. There is a feeling to the touch 
that the ends of the decorative ridges are very 
slightly bulbed, as in the case of the Winwick 
celt, Plate IV. No. 6. The marks of the casting 
are quite plain around the sides of the weapon. 
This celt is in the museum at Preston, and it 
seems to correspond with that described * as 
having been found at Cuerdale in 1838 by men 
in deepening a ditch, between three and four feet 
from the surface, about three or four yards from 

a spear-head described in the next section. 

The next figure, fig. 19, shows a third of the Winmarleigh celts, varying 

from the former examples in the broad outcurve of the sides towards the edge, 

which is 2 in. across. The rim is i J in. wide, and the implement 2| in. in 

length. It is decorated, as before, with three plain ribs. It was found with 

the spear and four other celts, as subsequently 

described. Three others of the celts from the 

same site are of this character. 

The fourth of the Winmarleigh celts is an 

isolated specimen, distinguished by the sharp 

recurve of the ends of its outcurved edge, as 

shown in the annexed drawing, fig. 20. In 

other respects it is similar to those which have 

been described, and it is ornamented with the 

same three ribs along the face. Its length is 

3 in., breadth across the mouth i J in., and across 

the edge, extreme measure, 2 in. Like the previous example it was found 

in the deposit of two spears and five celts described on p. 236, and illustrated 

in Nos. 17 on Plate V. 

l Trans. Manchester Lit. andPhil. Sac. v. 527, 534, with plate. Arch. Journ. viii. 331-2. 

1 233 30 




FIG. 19. CELT WITH OUTCURVING 
EDGE FROM WINMARLEIGH. 2 : 3. 




FIG. 20. CELT WITH RECURVING 
EDGE FROM WINMARLEIGH. 2 : 3 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

A fifth celt, also in the museum at Warrington, is shown on Plate IV. 
No. 6. It is an excellent example of celt elaborately decorated with chev- 
ron ornament, the ends of the ribs upon its surface terminating in nodules 
towards the edge. 1 It was found at Winwick near Warrington. 2 It is 4^ in. 
in length, if in. across the mouth, and ai in. from tip to tip of the edge. It 
is certainly the best specimen in the county. 

Miscellaneous finds of celts have been made in various places. At 
Wegber near Carnforth, for example, several bronze celts are reported to 
have been found with other implements about 17 ft. below the surface, in a 
fissure in a limestone quarry. Also at Marton in the Fylde, it is said, was 
found near ' Robbins Row ... a Celtic axe, lying in the peat about a yard 
from the surface, with a handle of more than a yard in length, nearly the 
thickness of a man's wrist. At the side there was a loop.' 8 A looped celt 
or palstave seems to be indicated; and doubtless many others have escaped 
record. 

4. WEAPONS 

The county provides a fair series of offensive weapons in bronze, 
with some of exceptional quality. Some of the accounts of discoveries 
are meagre and lead to much difficulty in identification. In making 
a selection for illustration the deposit from Winmar- 
leigh again becomes conspicuous, providing in the great 
spear-head described last in this section one of the most 
remarkable objects of bronze in the country. 

(a) Knives. Of knives there are two doubtful re- 
cords, both found in association with decorated pottery 
in burial mounds of the Bronze Age. The best defined 
is that from Haulgh, where what seems to have been a 
bronze knife 4$ in. long and igin. broad is recorded as 
found in a tumulus about a quarter of a mile south-east 
from Bolton parish church. The implement is provided 
with three rivet holes for hafting, which is characteristic, 
but the point is bent back and the illustration of it 
leaves its real nature somewhat uncertain. 4 

At Darwen was found a piece of bronze of similar 
outline in very similar association. The object, however, 
is very much decayed and twisted, and its real character 
is uncertain. Its length is 6j in., with a greatest width 
of aj in. 

(b) Daggers. The bronze implement shown in an- 
nexed figure No. 21 is of exceptional interest. It was 
found in 1845 about 2j ft. from the surface of the 
ground in a field about half-way between the towns of 
Burnley and Colne. 6 It is apparently a dagger with 
a narrow tane in which is a rivet-hole. The tane 

r IG. 21. DRONZE DAGGER i-ii-ti 

FROM NEAR COLNE. 1:2. is smooth and the rivet-hole seems to have been 



1 See also Bronze Imp. p. 123, fig. 
*Ttarnber,56cfeM4 18,328. 
8 Information of W. Farrer, Esq. 



36. 



Arch. Journ. xv. 236. 

Hist. Soc. Lane, and Ches. iv. 132. 



234 



EARLY MAN 

wrought. The mid-rib is rounded. The surface of the implement is 
corroded in places, and the edge also chipped. It is just over 9 in. in 
length, the tang is 3 in. long, and the greatest width ij in. Tanged daggers 
are extremely rare, being known chiefly from the Arreton Down deposit, in 
the Isle of Wight. There, in 1735-7, some nine blades of the class (though 
differing in detail) were found near Newport, upon the Down, with other 
objects of the same material. 1 Though rare, the geographical distribution of 
this class is somewhat wide. A specimen comes from Matlock, Derbyshire, 
a second from Burwell Fen (both in the possession of Sir John Evans), another 
from Swaffham Fen, Norfolk (now in the Cambridge Museum), and another 
from Plymstock, in Devon. Ireland and the Continent also have yielded 
examples. 3 The class is difficult to distinguish from 
a type of spear-head, to which Sir John Evans and 
Mr. Franks seem disposed to assign it. 8 

A fine offensive weapon, sharp at both edges 
and point, was found at Winmarleigh in association 
with three celts previously described. The details 
of its discovery are somewhat dubious, but it is said 
to have been ' found in a box near Garstang ' with 
the other implements. Its length is 9! in. over all, 
with a 7! in. blade. In width near the handle it 
measures 1 1 in. ; it then narrows slightly and recurves 
outwards, as shown in the photo, Plate V. No. u, 
measuring i in. before turning again to the point. 
The handle was made firm by a longitudinal ridge 
on the tang which it enclosed. 

The photograph on Plate IV. No. 7 illustrates 
a third dagger of interesting character, though 
much smaller in size. It was found with an urn 
and stone hammer (Plate II.-5) in a tumulus at 
Highfield Lane, Middleton, Winwick. The end of 
the handle or tang is broken near and partly through 
a rivet-hole. Over all the weapon measures 4^ in., 
with a blade of length 3 in., and breadth near the 
handle of i J in. In shape, as may be seen from 
the illustrations, it differs from the foregoing. From 
its association it seems to be definitely a relic of 
the Bronze Age, and it is characteristic also of the 
deposits placed with interments early in the Bronze 
Age. A bronze dagger, with spear-head and arrow-head, is vaguely reported 
from burials on Lancaster Moor. 

(c) Spear-heads. Three excellent spear-heads are preserved in the 
museums of Preston and Warrington. 8 The former is shown in fig. 22. 
It is the plain leaf-shaped type, with long socket and a rivet-hole for fixing 
the shaft. It measures gin. over all, with a 6| in. blade, which is if in. 
across at its widest point. The mouth of the socket is ijin. in diameter. 
It is recorded to have been found with many other remains, human and 

1 Antueohga xxxvi. 326. Evans, Bronze Imp. p. 260. 

s Mane. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Trans, v. 527, No. 6. 

235 




FIG. 22. BRONZE SPEAR-HEAD 

FROM PRESTON. I : 2. 

(Preston Museum.) 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

animal, in the excavations made in the Kibble in 1885 for construction of 
the Preston Docks. It therefore seems to be distinct from an entirely 
similar implement described as a Roman spear-head found within three yards 
of a bronze celt (previously mentioned) in 1840,* at Cuerdale (Walton-le-Dale) 
by some men in deepening a ditch, at 4 ft. from the surface. 

Another spear-head is recorded as found with other bronze implements, 
socketed celts, etc., in the River Ribble, but the details are wanting. 3 

A finer example is that from Winmarleigh, found with the great 
looped spear described below. It is of similar general character, but with a 
regular deep sharpened edge along both sides. It measures 8f in. over all, 
with a blade of 6j in., and width ij in. The socket is just over an inch in 
diameter at the mouth, and as in the former case tapers gradually in straight 
convergence to the point. It is in excellent preservation. See the photo- 
graph of Plate V. No. 6, which illustrates this object among its deposit. 

An interesting socketed spear-head was found at 
Irlam, near Manchester, in digging the Ship Canal, at 
a depth of 20 ft., and is now preserved in the War- 
rington Museum. The blade is small, 3 in. in length, 
i Jin. in width, and the socket for the most part is 
external to it, the implement measuring over all 5! in. 
The socket is rimmed at its end, and provided on each 
side with a prolonged loop for securing to the shaft. 
Between the loop and the blade on the side are a series 
of notches (fig. 23). 

A double looped spear-head is reported to have 
been found near Leigh, 8 but the record is deficient. 

The spear-head from Piethorne, near Rochdale, 
where it was found at the waterworks, is double- 
looped in the blade, and though weather-worn is an 
interesting object. It measures over all 6| in., with 
a blade 5 in. long and if in. wide across the loops. 
The socket is very wide in proportion, measuring 
ire in. at the mouth. The implement is otherwise 
leaf-shaped, as seen in fig 24, and converges in section 
uniformly as in the other instances. 

The great spear-head from Winmarleigh, now in the museum at 
Warrington, is of similar type, leaf-shaped, with loops in the blade. This 
weapon surpasses all others of the county not merely for its size and preser- 
vation, but for the fine workmanship and finish of detail. The photograph 
Plate V. No. 7 shows this splendid specimen with the other implements found 
on the site. It measures 19^ in. over all, with a blade about 16 in. long and 
3i in. wide. The loops are symmetrical curves from the socket in the width of 
the blade. The socket is somewhat slender, being ij in. wide at its mouth, 
and it tapers elegantly to the point. A rivet-hole is provided for fixing the 
shaft. 

This spear-head and that described previously (No. 6) are recorded to 
have been found, together with the five celts (Nos. 15 in Plate V.),in 'a strong, 
rude, oaken box, with pins of the same, at Winmarleigh near Garstang.' 



FIG. 23. SPEAR-HEAD 
LOOPED ON SHAFT, FROM IRLAM. 

Scale, I : 2. 
(Warrington Museum.) 



1 Joan. Brit. Arch. Ass. viii. 332 



Mane. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Trans, 
236 



527, No. 6. Ibid. v. 531. 




To face page 236. 



EARLY MAN 




FIG. 24. SPEAR-HEAD LOOPED i 
BLADE FROM PIETHORNE, NEAR 

RoCHDALS. I : 2. 



The dagger described above (No. n), with the celts (Nos. 8-ro), is 
reported verbally to have been found ' in a box at Winmarleigh, near 
Garstang,' whence they were secured. It seems 
very possible that they form part of the same 
deposit, and that the latter were retained by 
those who handed over the former. Otherwise 
the latter were a distinct deposit, and the tradi- 
tion of the other discovery clings to them. 
However that may be, they form from one site 
a group of implements and weapons of excel- 
lent quality and exceptional interest, including 
one of the best spear-heads of the country, a 
second which is smaller, a dagger, and eight 
socketed celts, of which seven are ornamented 
with ribs. The group is shown in Plate V. 

5. BRONZE IMPLEMENTS FROM NORTH OF 

THE SANDS 

Several small hoards of bronze implements 
are recorded from this district. At Kirkhead, 
near Allithwaite, in the floor of Kirkhead Cave, 
which has yielded implements of the preceding 
ages also, were found with some pieces of rude 

pottery, a fluted earthenware bead, three bronze rings, a bronze pin 
' enamelled,' a piece of a fibula, a bronze palstave and spear-head, a large 
bronze celt ; also a flake of flint, a bone amulet (carved from the head of a 
human femur), and a quantity of human bones. At Little Urswick also, 
near Stone Walls, some workmen discovered under a flat stone a deposit 
which seemingly included several examples of the later bronze work. The 
record mentions a long spear-head (or possibly a sword), which was deliberately 
broken ; and near to this four or five ' celts or axes of brass,' which were 
probably bronze socketed celts, though described as axe-hammers ; also four 
or five rings. The latter were 'large enough to go over the hand, and 
had an external eye to them as if for the purpose of being strung.' Some 
interesting finds of isolated implements or groups are also recorded. Two 
or three bronze palstaves were ploughed up at Flookburgh ; a bronze celt 
and armlet have been traced to Furness, and in Cartmel parish several bronze 
implements there found seem to resemble socketed celts from the description 
given. A great bronze celt, 9 in. long and 8 in. broad, is recorded as found 
in the ruins of Gleaston Castle : and the find of two bronze celts from 
Stainton, near Dalton, was recorded in the newspapers of 1894. A bronze 
spear-head is reported from Dalton in Furness ; and an implement described 
as found with the fragments of a cinerary urn at Stainton simulates a spear- 
head also. A bronze dagger was found at Page Bank, near Leece. 

6. CLASSIFIED LIST OF LOCALITIES 
Flat Celts. Rixton, Read, Risley (Martin Mere). 

Palstaves. Ainsworth, Martin Mere, South worth, Turton, Winwick, 
Sharpies, Weeton. 

237 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

Socketed Celts. Marton, Kibble, Walton-le-Dale, Winmarleigh, Win- 
wick. 

Weapons. (a) Knives : Darwen, Haulgh. 

(b) Daggers : Colne Winmarleigh, Win wick. 

(c) Spear-heads : Irlam, Leigh, Piethorne, Walton-le-Dale, 

Winmarleigh. 
OVER SANDS. (a) Palstaves : Flookburgh, Kirkhead. 

(b) Celts : Cartmel, Furness, Gleaston Castle, Kirkhead, 

Little Urswick, Stainton. 

(c) Weapons : Dalton, Kirkhead, Leece, Little Urswick. 

III. INTERMENTS AND BURIAL URNS 

Without considering the whole subject of Bronze and Stone Age burials 
it would not be possible with the evidence accessible to discriminate between 
the periods of the early interments in Lancashire of which there is record. 
Those who have given to this branch of the subject their closest attention 
find in it great difficulties, and differ among themselves in their interpretation 
of the results. In general there is a disposition to draw hard and fast lines 
between different types of interment as representing different and distinct 
epochs of culture and development, which the evidence of observation does 
not warrant. The Lancashire burials do not help to solve the great problem, 
but partake fully of its difficulties. The great area of flint chippings in the 
south-east of the county, which we have accepted as evidence of a settled 
stone-working people in a neolithic age, is still without any representative 
and analagous class of recorded burials. A number of burial mounds, indeed, 
with interments apparently all by cremation, are found about these hills, but 
the urns found in these, the stone circles, and other features, are for the most 
part of the type usually assigned to the Bronze Age, and indeed here and there 
a small pin or other object of bronze has confirmed the date. But not even 
small pieces of metal are found upon these ' neolithic floors.' Looking at the 
problem of the settlements and culture-phases of early man in Lancashire 
with due regard to the physical features of the county, the possibility must be 
admitted of an even broader overlap of Bronze and Stone Age than is usually 
conceded. The aboriginal workers of stone may have still retained their 
homes upon the eastern hills, while elsewhere, nearer the coast or upon the 
river valleys, bronze-using man gradually made his way ; possibly the use 
of bronze might find its way without ethnical movement. However that 
may be, unfortunately we can only admit the insufficiency of local evidence. 
Hence in regard to these interments, those which bear trace only of stone 
implements are distinguished from those showing bronze, as belonging 
possibly but not necessarily to an earlier phase of culture development and ar. 
antecedent population. 

i. INTERMENTS WITH ASSOCIATED STONE DEPOSITS 

On Hades Hill, near Rochdale, in a depression which separates that hill 
from Rough Hill, 1,380 ft. above sea level, an approximately round, but 
deformed, barrow has been explored. Its dimensions give 52 ft. north to 

238 



EARLY MAN 

south and 45 ft. east and west, with a rise of 3 ft. above the surface : being 
placed upon a slope it has probably slipped and suffered slight change of form. 
' It was constructed as follows : a circle of large and rough native sandstones 
was laid on the surface of the ground, marking the extent of the supposed 
mound. Near the centre of this circle the urn was placed, mouth upwards, 
probably in a cairn of stones ; then a quantity of rough sandstone was thrown 
in, and afterwards covered with sandy clay or loam.' l The urn was of the 
two-tier variety, hand-made, decorated on the outside, on the apex, and on 
the interior by rope pattern in chevron designs. The contents were burnt 
human bones, burnt flint implements and flakes, and a ' broken nodule of jasper 
flint.' In the barrow itself were found also the burnt tooth of an ox, animal 
bones, charcoal, numerous flint flakes and implements, among them a barbed 
arrow-head, pieces of coal and quartz pebbles. 

This is a characteristic interment. Technically this mound and urn 
must be assigned to the Bronze Age ; but the deposit itself is significantly 
suggestive of the neolithic area amid which it is placed. 

The excavation of a barrow at Littleboro', further to the east, showed it to 
contain a similar interment, consisting of an urn, calcined bones, and small 
pieces of flint. But it is further to the north, on the moorland hills that lie 
away towards Burnley, that interments of this character are more numerously 
recorded. These are almost homogeneous, and the single discrepancy of a 
bronze pin occurring in one instance, only strengthens the suspicion that the 
real age of these neolithic sites may have been contemporary with the incipient 
use of bronze, and reciprocally, that these ' round barrows ' were fashioned 
by a people accustomed to the use of flint and to whom bronze was rare. To 
quote a few examples : At Worsthorne, near Black Hameldon Hill, was a barrow 
30 ft. in diameter and 4 ft. in height, in which were found ' flint flakes and 
arrow-heads,' the centre was occupied by stones arranged like a long sarco- 
phagus with two large stones as cover ; on the same site a tumulus 2 1 ft. in 
diameter yielded an unglazed urn ; a third mound was surrounded by a stone 
circle, and in it were found calcined human remains ; at Briercliffe, in the 
same region, was a tumulus and earth circle, 27 ft. in diameter, with a ' food- 
vessel ' ; near it was a circle of seven stones, from which came ' unglazed urns, 
human remains, and flint arrow-heads ' ; at Hellclough was another circle of 
seven stones, an urn, and the bones of two persons, with the bronze pin 
previously mentioned ; a third circle of seven stones yielded, in addition to 
an urn and bones, a flint axe. 

Further again to the north, on the hillside which forms the northern bank 
of the Kibble near Stonyhurst, there was examined a circular tumulus which 
was 1 1 5 ft. in diameter, with the result that a ' small flint knife or scraper ' 
was found with ' crushed bones in charcoal,' a bone hone 4 in. long, and the 
handle of a vessel (seen subsequent to the excavation), the edge of which was 
crimped. The bone hone was worn as by the sharpening of a metal instru- 
ment upon it. 

At Wavertree, near Liverpool, there have been made finds of no less 
importance. Some cinerary urns, reported to be eight in number, containing 
burnt human bones and ashes, seem, from those which are preserved in 
the City Museum of Liverpool, to have been possibly of very early date, 

1 In Rocb. Lit. and Set. Sx. 1898. Sutcliffe, ' Hades Hill Barrow.' 
239 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

lacking the decoration characteristic of the advanced Bronze Age. With 
them were found two small scrapers and other objects of flint, includ- 
ing a barbed arrow-head, an excellent specimen. Apparently near to 
these urns was another tumulus of sand with a chamber of hewn 
stones. These vary in size from about 3 ft. by 2 ft. to about 6 ft. by 5 ft. 
There may have been more of them, but early last century they were 
removed to their present position 1 where by the name of the Calderstones 
they are preserved at the foot of Druids' Cross Road. The arrangement of 
the stones, as has been suggested, 2 must have been dolmen-wise. The 
large flat stones probably formed the cover of a chamber or chambers formed 
by the smaller ones. Within, there is record of the discovery of several 
urns and general evidence of burials by cremation. The suggestion of 
tradition implies that the urns found did not and would not contain all the 
ashes uncovered. An additional interest is lent to these stones by the ' cup 
and ring ' markings, designs of spiraloid form, incised upon them. It is diffi- 
cult to believe that these are earlier than a Celtic age, but they are not 
necessarily contemporary with the construction of the tomb. The general 
character of the burial and construction of the tumulus accords with an early 
date, based upon the results of study in other places of Britain and the Con- 
tinent. Considering the local history also, probably there is no error in 
assigning it to a date at least as early as the overlap of Neolithic Age and 
Bronze Age. 

Some burials found at Stretton, near Warrington, seem somewhat analo- 
gous. ' The bodies lay in sand, each surrounded with ashlars placed at the 
side and head and feet, the bones being 1 6 in. below the surface. The side 
bones had not been placed perpendicularly, but inclining to one another like 
the roof of a house.' Two small urns of baked clay, about 4 in. deep and 
3 in. in diameter, were found, with black ashes, charcoal, and general indica- 
tions of firing. One of the urns had a pinched ornament on the neck, and 
another is quite plain. 

2. INTERMENTS WITH ASSOCIATED BRONZE DEPOSITS 

Winwick, in the neighbourhood of Warrington, has yielded up, in some 
of the interments which have been recorded, evidence of real importance to 
archaeology. That period early in the Bronze Age when as yet only simple 
weapons and implements were fashioned of that material seems to be indicated 
by a deposit found in one of the tumuli at Highfield Lane. In it were 
found a small bronze dagger, with rivet-hole in tang (described above in 
Plate IV. No. 7), and a small polished stone hammer (Plate II. No. 5), 
both within an urn. The decoration of some pottery from the site shows a 
simple linear design resembling parallel veins of a leaf. The dagger is of a 
type found in the Yorkshire ' Round Barrows,' and the association of a 
polished stone implement is not uncommon. The Bronze Age has certainly 
begun, and it provides a better example of a stone implement than anything 
of the Neolithic Age. The terminology is obviously not adequate ; the word 
' chalcolithic ' might be used to represent this phase. At Winwick also, and 

1 E. W. Cox, Lane, and Ches. Ant. Sor. x. 252 (1892). 

8 Prof. Herdman, 'The Calderstones' 1896, in pamphlet. 

2 4 



EARLY MAN 

possibly associated with the tumuli of the place, were found a flanged bronze 
palstave and flat ring about 2 in. in diameter (Plate IV. Nos. 4, 5). Unfortu- 
nately the evidence concerning this find is not clear. On accepted theory, the 
palstave should belong almost to a second phase of the Bronze Age, and it is 
an object rarely found in funerary deposits : a bronze socketed celt with 
chevron ornamentation (Plate IV. No. 6) found in the same vicinity seems to 
indicate a continuous Bronze Age population in the locality. 

Not more than a mile from Winwick, at Kenyon, there have been found 
other funerary mounds apparently of this same age. One of the most recently 
discovered was disturbed in making a diversion of a road, but a description 
of the tumulus and its contents has been skilfully rescued. 1 The mound was 
about 3 3 ft. in diameter and 3 ft. 6 in. in height, of the form shown in the 
annexed section (fig. 25). Portions of two urns were recovered. On one of 
these ' the outside surface of the lower portion for a depth of 3 in. is plain, 
An equal width above this is ornamented with small triangular indentations and 
short incised lines, forming chevrons in encircling rows. The upper portion 
is divided by three angular cordons into two hollow grooves, the lower 
of which is evenly marked with incised chevrons, and the upper one 
filled with a zig-zag moulding, dotted over with similar triangles and chevrons. 
The top of the everted rim is likewise covered with chevron markings in 




FIG. 25. SECTION OF A BRONZE AGE TUMULUS AT WINWICK. 

three rows.' Nearly eighty years ago fragments of an urn were found in the 
same vicinity decorated with 'large triangular or lozenge-shaped grating, 
marked with incised lines,' and with the urn a bronze pin or small implement 
with a flat tang. 

Further north, at Bolton, a tumulus was opened about a quarter of a 
mile south-east from Bolton parish church. It proved to be a Bronze Age 
'barrow, about 30 ft. in diameter and 46. deep, made of small boulders. 
About the centre was a cist urn, 4 ft. 6 in. long by 1 2 in. deep, of four up- 
right stones and a coverer, lying nearly north and south. The skeleton lay 
in a contracted attitude, with head to the north. Near to the head lay an 
incense cup 4! in. by 3 in. high, and a bronze spear-head 4f in. long by i in. 
broad.' The bowl was in excellent condition, with three rows of pattern 
incised, of which the first and third were adjoining triangles of parallel lines 
enclosed, with the interstices marked with lines in the complementary direc- 
tion ; the second tier has a deviation of vertical dotted lines. The bronze 
implement is a knife or knife-dagger, apparently with two sharp edges, having 
three rivet holes at the base for affixing it to its handle. 8 The vicinity bears 
other traces of burials, not only in tumuli which are preserved or recorded, as 
that at Walmsley, which contained a skeleton, urn, and flint celt, but in the 

1 Lane, and Chei. Ant. Soc. xxi. (1904). Thos. May, Notes on a Bronze Age Barrow. 
8 Hist. Soc. Lane, and Cbes. iv. p. 132. 
I 241 31 




A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

stone circles which here and there, as at Anglezarke and in places on the 
Extwistle and Lancaster moors, give indication of tumuli which have disap- 
peared from the 
surface. 

At Darwen, 
further to the north 
on the same upland, 
several burials are 
recorded. In the 
grounds of White 
Hall was a mound 
30 yds. in diameter, 
and of a height 
about i o ft. or 12 ft. 
maximum, above 
the contour of the 
ground. The mound 
is described as ' na- 
tural.' In it were 
ten distinct inter- 
ments, some being 

FIG. 26. PATTERNS UPON CINERARY URNS FROM DARWEN. burnt bones without 

urns or cist ; others 

in urns, one of which was in an inverted position. On the top of each of 
the cinerary urns was a rough flat stone surrounded and covered by small 
stones carefully filled in. The cinerary urns are mostly of the two-tier 
variety, with rectilinear decoration. The variety of designs found in 
association is of some special interest, and is illustrated in the sketch appended, 
fig. 26. One of them with punctuated decoration is less common, and 
shown in fig. 27. An incense-cup, plain, and bronze implement, presumably 
a knife-dagger, much corroded, were found in the same place. 

From the height of Revidge, above Blackburn, comes also a characteristic 
burial of the early Bronze Age, with a simple urn of two decorated tiers and 
overhanging rim (fig. 28), a bone pin about 2 in. long, and a bronze pin-head. 
The whole seems to have been enclosed as usual 
below a mound, while the urn was found 
inverted in a bed of sand. 

Further north again, upon the moors 
around Lancaster, burials of the Bronze Age are 
even more numerous than elsewhere recorded. 
In one spot were found a number of urns, about 
2 ft. below the surface, lying in pairs at intervals 
of a yard, in a row which extended east and 
west. One was enclosed in four flag-stones, 
with a fifth at the top. A bone pin, ' bronze 
arrow-head and spear-head,' are recorded among 
the deposit. The same alignment was noticed 
in another instance, at a place distant about a 
quarter of a mile, where one of the urns has two 

242 




FIG. 27. URN WITH PUNCTUATED 
DECORATION FROM DARWEN, 



EARLY MAN 

tiers, with the designs shown in the 
urn from Revidge, only with the 
triangular motive on the upper tier. 
There was found in this instance also 
an 'ornament of limestone, 4 in. long, 
convex in front, and flat at the back,' 
with the ends punctured apparently 
an armlet. 

But all these yield in point of 
interest and detail of discovery to 
that found on the moors at Bleasdale, 
in the same district of north Lanca- 
shire. There the late Mr. Jackson 
recently discovered and explored a 
group of prehistoric remains, placed 
in a striking position on a knoll of 
boulders in the middle of an amphi- 
theatre of moorland hills, about 650 
yards due west from Higher Fair- 
snape Farm. Of these he has handed 
down an exact and careful record, 1 
which Professor Boyd Dawkins has supplemented with some illuminatory 
notes. In the construction of the circles which enclosed some cinerary urns, 
wood was found in this case to have supplied the place of stone. There 
were two circles, one enclosed by and touching the other towards the east. 
The diameter of the smaller was 75 ft., and of the larger circle twice that 

1 Lane, and Ches. Ant. Sac. xviii. 1900, pp. 1 14-124.. 




FIG. z8. URN FROM BLACKBURN. 




Plan of Sepulchral Remains. 

Horizontal Scale about 3 4 feet = I inch. 

oaken Principals and Secondaries of Outer Circle. Vertical Scale about 34 feet = J inch. 

FIG. 29. PLAN AND SECTION OF TIMBER BURIAL CIRCLE, &c. AT BLEASDALE. From L. C. 

243 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

figure, which, it is pointed out, is in its turn half the diameter of Stone- 
henge. 

The outer circle (see fig. 29) consisted of round logs of oak, placed 
closely side by side. The lower ends of some of them have been noticeably 
trimmed with a metal axe or adze ; a fact which serves as a useful criterion 
in assigning a date to the remains. 

The inner circle is more complex in structure. It is formed of an outer 
ring of earth, the ' vallum,' about 5 ft. wide and 9 in. high, composed of clay 
thrown out of the ditch on the inside, which latter is about 5 ft. deep. Inside 
this again was a low mound, formed also of clay out of the ditch, in which lay 
concealed a circle composed of eleven rounded oak logs, forming a circle 34 ft. 
in diameter. In the centre of this were found a group of urns, lying with 
wooden ashes, in a small rectangular hole. The urns contained calcined 
bones, and inside one of them was a third smaller vase ; these are shown by 
photograph on Plate VI. 

The pottery and the cuts upon the wooden parts are evidence which 
lead Professor Dawkins to conclude that ' this remarkable burial place falls 
into line with the large series of burial mounds of the Bronze Age which lie 
scattered, not only over the area of the British Isles, but over by far the greater 
portion of Europe.' In other places the material employed for the circles and 
fences is stone. Here, in place of stone, wood was employed. In this respect 
the Bleasdale burial place is unique. 1 

In the vicinity of Manchester also have been observed traces of interment 
by cremation, in the survival of cinerary urns, unaccompanied, however, by 
any deposit of metal or stone. At Redbank was found an urn ' of late 
British period ' in 1830. At Clifton, on the banks of the Irwell, some work- 
men in making a trench through gravel came upon part of a skull, with signs 
of cremation also. A small ' incense cup,' decorated in three tiers, was found 
on the spot. In 1873, in the grounds of Broughton Hall, in the course of 
excavation, a V-shaped trench was observed, 3 ft. wide, which descended 7 ft. 
below the surface. An urn was lying in the middle of the trench filled with 
mixed materials. It was of coarse clay of a reddish colour, hand made. Its 
height was 5 in. and 6 in. across its widest parts ; the pottery is i in. thick all 
over. The ornamentation is composed of lines lying diagonally, incised with 
a pointed stick. 

In the northernmost part of the county also, at Yealand, which is z| miles 
west of Carnforth, have been found traces of ' neolithic settlement,' and among 
them ' many barrows of earth and stone.' In one of them was recently found 
about * three or four quarts of human bones calcined,' and adjoining the urn a 
human skeleton and a large (? glass) bead of blue colour. 



3- 



INTERMENTS IN LANCASHIRE OVER SANDS 



Passing north of the Sands a remarkable series of barrows and burial urns 
give evidence of the habitation of early man, for the most part, so far as can 
be judged, during the Bronze Age. In the nearer district of Cartmel, at 
Allithwaite, has been found a small earthen urn containing calcined bones in 
Yew Tree Field. In Cartmel itself, on the site of the new burial ground, an 



Lane, and Ches. Ant. Sar. xviii. 1900, p. 123. 
244 




WOODEN DUG-OUT CANOE, FROM P 





SMALL POTTF.RY VASE, FROM WADSWORTH MOOR. 
Scale, 2 : 3. (British Museum.) 




4. INCENSE Cup, FROM CLIFTON, MANCHESTER. 
Scale, 2:3. (British Museum.) 



PLATE VI. WOODEN CANOE AND POTTERY VESSELS OF BRONZE AGE FROM LANCASHIRE. 

To face page 244. 



EARLY MAN 

urn containing bones and ashes ; and in Aynsome Lane, an urn 14 in. high 
containing a quantity of half burnt bones and ashes. 

For the same geographical reason, probably, which results in a scarcity 
of all antiquities in the eastern portion of this district, where it abuts upon 
Westmorland, no burials are recorded between Cartmel and the head of Lake 
Windermere. At the latter place, in Hawkshead Hall Park, a little to the 
south-east of the mill-pond, was a cairn ; and a stone circle occurred east of 
Knipe Ground plantation, with more cairns a little more than half a mile 
south-south-west of this last. Interments seem to have been made in the 
first instance in a small square hole, which had been covered with a boulder. 
Amongst the burnt human remains was a small flint knife. 

West of Coniston Water at Torver (Bleaberry Hawes) is recorded a 
cairn 29 ft. in diameter, amongst others, with a burial cist and cremated 
interments, among the remains of which were found fragments of pottery 
and of worked flints. In the first case stones showing the action of fire were 
found all the way through, as well as small quantities of charcoal. 

From this place southward there is a continuous area of prehistoric 
interments. Just north of Knapperthaw, which is near to Lowick, are 
remains of a stone circle, which has been erected upon a stone ring platform 
or embankment. On the north-west side still remain five stones of small size, 
while the position of others is traceable. Probably the circle was about 90 ft. 
internal diameter. There was sign of an inner chamber on the north-west, 
and, to the south-west, of an entrance or gap in the ring, supposed to be 
ancient. Near Kirkby Ireleth, at Heathwaite, were two small barrows, close 
to two stone circles, called the ' Giants' Graves,' which on being excavated 
about two years ago were found to contain the bones of men covered by a flat 
stone. ' In one was a fragment of a stone ring about two inches in diameter.' 
At Ireleth Mill, also, were found eight urns without tumuli, arranged in a 
line north-east to south-west, each containing human bones. 

At Stainton, near Dalton, where some direct evidences of the Bronze 
Age have been found, there has been discovered also a large cinerary urn, 
with upper band, and ' rudely ornamented with diagonal lines forming a 
pattern.' A small bronze implement was found within. Another similar 
urn found at hand contained a smaller vessel, which is said to have held 
the calcined remains of a child. 

At Birkrigg Common, which is east of Dalton, on a part overlooking 
the village of Bardsea, was a circle about 10 ft. in diameter surrounded by 
ten unhewn stones, each about 3 ft. in height. It has long been called the 
Druids' Temple. This does not seem to have been explored. But on 
Kirkby Moor there has been found evidence of interments in association 
with stone circles and cairns. 

Further south, at Scales, near Aldingham, as long ago as 1803 there 
were found remains of cremated interments in an urn under a small cairn. 
Near to this spot was found also ' a tomb in which two persons had been 
interred, having a broad, flat limestone laid over it, upon two upright stones 
at the end.' At BayclifF, near to the same place, are recorded some 
sepulchral urns from near the Moat and Colt Park ; while in the southern 
limit of the peninsula, at Roose, has been found a burial by cremation, 
accompanied by vases of pottery deposited. The body seems to have been 

245 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

burnt upon the site, then covered over by a pool or mere of earth, upon 
which ' two or three hundred cartloads of earth ' had been piled. The vases, 
with their punctured and incised chevron patterns, may have belonged to 
the Bronze Age ; but some features of the burial are apparently very early. 

4. CLASSIFICATION OF LOCALITIES 

Bleasdale, Broughton Hall, Broughton (Manchester), Clifton, Cliviger, 
Darwen, Haulgh, Kenyon, Lancaster, Littleborough, Manchester (Red Bank), 
Revidge (Blackburn), Stonyhurst, Walmsley, Warton, Wavertree, Weeton, 
Winwick, Yealand. 

Over Sands : Aldingham,Allithwaite, Aynwine Lake, Rawcliffe, Birk- 
rigg, Cartmel, Ireleth Mill, Knapperthaw, Roose, Scales, Stainton, Torver. 



IV. IRON IMPLEMENTS AND REMAINS OF THE LATE 
CELTIC PERIOD 

It is hardly possible to see evidence in surviving remains of an Iron Age 
proper in Lancashire, intervening between the Bronze Age and the Roman 
occupation. Our record of iron implements of Celtic fabric is small indeed ; 
but to these must be added other implements or their attachments, recognized 
by their art as belonging to the Later Celtic phase of culture. There is nothing 
apparently which special criticism would date earlier than the first century 
B.C. ; but in the paucity of evidence the origins of this new phase of civili- 
zation remain obscure. The subject, however, is of special interest, and a 
reasonable inference may be made from the condition of the county as 
revealed when the first light of history dimly penetrates the darkness that 
hitherto has enfolded early man in all respects, except the general characters 
of his art in making weapons. If the account of Ptolemy is to be regarded 
as evidence, it seems clear that there was at least one settled and organized 
community in Lancashire at the time the observations were being made from 
which his notes were derived. Its name, Rigodunum, which is also essen- 
tially Celtic, 1 suggests the headquarters of a considerable community. There 
is reason to believe it possible that the situation of this place was at or near 
to Lancaster ; 2 and it was precisely in that vicinity that such evidence of 
Late Celtic art as exists is mostly to be found. It must not be forgotten, 
also, that the best bronze implements, already described, come from the same 
region ; and that while they suggest at least an earlier Celtic settlement, there 
is no reason to suppose they are the tokens of a purely bronze-using popu- 
lation. Looking again at the map, and considering also the general principle 
involved in the slow movement of culture waves and of people, it must be 
conceded as probable that in our northern county, open as it is to the south, 
while shut off to the north and west by its hills and the sea, the successive 
ages merged completely, culturally and ethnologically. That, in a word, the 
development of a full Iron Age, as technically defined, by no means eradi- 
cated the blood and art even of the Neolithic Age, much less of the 
first Celtic people of the Bronze Age, which was nearer and more akin. 

1 Rlx rigps, a king ; Dunon, a town or fortress. Prof. Rhys. 
* Lane, and Ches. Ant. Soc. vol. Hi. ' On the Rigodunum of Ptolemy.' 
246 




EARLY MAN 

Our first example is an iron sword, with bronze hilt and sheath, from 
Warton, near Lancaster. The two portions, sword and sheath, have become 
adherent and worn by corrosion, but the annexed restoration, 
in fig. 30, is courteously supplied by the Ethnographical 
department of the British Museum, where the object is 
preserved. It is a simple type. The handle is distinguished 
by the circular ball enclosed in the triangular end, in which 
circles and lines are blended with the characteristic geo- 
metrical and symmetrical effect. The grasp is embellished 
by three nicked, rounded ridges which run around it, one at 
each end, and one in the middle, where the thickness is 
somewhat greater. Opposed pear-shaped ornaments com- 
plete the decoration of the hilt. The sheath is much worn ; 
but down the attachment, which is 
fixed by pins, may be recognized a 
fine rope pattern, lying vertically down 
the middle. The date of this interesting 
relic, if the product of normal develop- 
ment, should be the first century B.C. 

Another relic of late Celtic work 
is a dagger-sheath from Pilling Moss, 
south of Lancaster, now in the mu- 
seum at Salford. The figure, fig. 31, 
illustrates this object in every detail. 
The position of the attachment, and 
the binding rings, are of interest ; and 
the circular ornament of the tip is 
apparently unique in character. There 
seems to be no record of its discovery. 
It was found in Pilling Moss, near to 
Garstang. Its length is nf in. Its 
date might be as late as the first 
century. 

Some bronze fittings, enamelled, 
but without decoration, said to have 
been found at Walton-le-Dale, and 
now in the museum at Preston, may 
be assigned to Celtic workmanship. 

Passing from the implements of 
war, the most striking object is a 
bronze-beaded torque, or necklet, found 
near Handle Hill, at Mow Road, near 
Rochdale, where it now remains in possession of the 
lord of the manor. It is figured in fig. 3 a. 1 A 
workman found it beneath a flagstone at the root of 
an oak tree. Technically this object belongs to FIG. 31. LATE CELTIC 
the class of beaded torques : ' Rather more than one DAGGER-SHEATH FROM P,L- 

i_ ir i_ 11 i /- i i , r - INC Moss. (Salford 

half the collar is composed of bronze beads of two Museum.) i : 3. 

1 Taken from Fishwick, op. cit., by courtesy of the author. 
247 



Fie. 30. SWORD 
AND SHEATH FROM 
WARTON. (BRITISH 

MUSEUM.) 
Scale, i : 4. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

different shapes (one convex and the other concave) strung alternately on 
a piece of iron of square cross section, so as to prevent the beads from 

revolving. The remaining segment 
consists of a bronze tube of rectangular 
cross section ornamented with the 
Late Celtic design.' l 

The two halves of this necklet 
are dowelled together with iron pins, 
fixing an iron tooth at each end which 
fits into an appropriate socket in the 
other half. It weighs about 5 oz. 
and is about 4 in. in diameter. It 
is a splendid specimen. 

A torque of three beads, the ma- 
terial bronze and of Late Celtic fabric, 
was exhibited by the Lancashire and 
Cheshire Historic Society in their 
collection now placed in the Liverpool 
Museum. Unfortunately much local 
archaeology is lost together with the 
descriptive papers of the Society. 2 

From Liverpool also comes a bronze coin of British workmanship. The 
description 8 is as follows : Obi}. Two boars back to back ; beneath each an 
amulet ; in the centre behind them a wheel with a line carried on between their 
backs. Rev. A horse to the right above, and below uncertain objects. The cha- 
racter of the coin is allied to those which may be assigned to the Icenian district. 
Naturally the list of the Late Celtic remains is longer than is here 
represented. But the history of Late Celtic art in the county is interwoven 
with the Roman occupation, and later also the Anglo-Saxon period ; hence 
the description of further remains of these dates, though Celtic in original 
motive, may be sought in the special sections dealing with those periods. 




FIG. 32. BRONZE BEADED TORQUE FROM Mow 
ROAD (ROCHDALE). Scale, I : 2. 



V. CANOES 

There remains an interesting series of wooden canoes or boats, among 
other miscellaneous remains, 
which cannot be ascribed in 
the present state of know- 
ledge to any particular place 
in the history of Early Man. 
There is little or nothing in 
these objects intrinsically 
whereby to date them : some 
of them may indeed have 
been fashioned after the com- 
ing of the Anglo-Saxons ; 
hence evidence derived from 
the circumstances of the dis- 




FIG. 33. WOODEN DUG-OUT CANOE FROM BARTON-UPON-!RWELL. 
(Manchester Museum, Owens College. I : 96.) 



l Romilly Allen, Celtic Art, p. 1 1 1, w. photo to face p. no. 

Hist. Sac. Lane, and Chei. xxxi. 1 1 7, pi. xii. 8 Sir John Evans, Ancient British Coins, p. 1 20, with fig. 

2 4 8 




FIG. 34. WOODEN DUG-OUT CANOE FOUND AT IRLAM. 
(Salford Museum.) i : 108. 



EARLY MAN 

covery becomes of special importance. It is known that dug-out canoes 
were used as late as the sixteenth century for special purposes. 

They have been found in various places, generally at considerable depths 
below the ground. That found 
at Barton-upon-Irwell (Man- 
chester Museum) was excavated 
at a depth of 27 ft. ; that from 
Irlam (Salford Museum) about 
the same; those from Martin 
Mere were found 'in the peat' 
(one from Crossens is at Cam- 
bridge Hall, Southport) ; two 
from Preston (in the Harris 
Museum) at about 14 ft. ; 
while two were found near 
Warrington (in the public 
museum of that place) at about 
1 8 ft. below the surface. These depths alone, whether caused by accumu- 
lation, or less often by the object itself settling in marshy ground, indicate 
in each case a proportionate antiquity. 

The canoe at Barton-upon-Irwell lay about 400 yds. from the present 
bank of the river at a depth of 27 ft. It is 13 ft. 8 in. in length, with a 
breadth of 2 ft. 7 in. fore and 2 ft. 2 in. aft. It has suffered considerable 
damage, but its form may be gleaned from the accompanying diagram, 

fi g- 33- 

There is a hollowed log or small trough, sometimes thought to be a dug- 
out canoe, from the same site, also in the Manchester Museum. It was found 
in 1889 in the Traffbrd Hall cutting of the Manchester Ship Canal, about 
six or seven hundred yards east of Barton Bridge. It is presumably modern. 
The canoe from Irlam, fig. 34, now in the Salford Museum, is some- 
what similar in general character. The stem is more curved : .the bow 
does not project as a nose like the former example, and it has been pierced 
at some, time for a painter. Its greatest length is 9 ft. 6 in., width 2 ft. 4 in., 
and depth 1 1 in. It was found in cutting the Manchester Ship Canal, 25 ft. 
from the surface. 

Eight canoes were recorded by Leigh 1 to have been found in the peat 
of Martin Mere. One from this vicinity is in the Cambridge Hall at South- 
port. It is longer than those previously described, measuring 1 6 J ft. over 

all, with a greatest width of 3jft. 
and depth of i ft. It differs also in 
form (see fig. 35), tapering regu- 
larly towards one end. Both ends 
are narrowed, and the bottom is 
round. It seems to have been 
patched at some time with pieces of 
lead, and it has been suggested that 
the monks of Burscough, whose house 
stood on the lake, may have used 




FIG. 35. DUG-OUT FOUND AT CROSSENS. 
(Cambridge Hall, Southport.) I : 216. 

1 Leigh, op. cit. bk. I, pp. 17, 1 8 1. 
I 249 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

and repaired it. It was dredged up near Crossens : there is no evidence 
in this case of great antiquity. 

The two canoes from Preston are of greater interest, not only because 
they differ somewhat in construction from those previously described, but 
also because the circumstances of their discovery are known and have been 
carefully recorded. 

In a considerable excavation made for the construction of the Kibble 
Docks at Preston, various objects of antiquity were come upon at levels 
which varied from 10 to 20 ft. below the surface, including a bronze leaf- 
shaped spear-head, shown in fig. 22, and animal remains of the urus or 
wild ox. Associated with these were a series of human skulls, described 
in a later section, p. 256, which, though too few in numbers to war- 
rant any general conclusion, suggest by their range of indices that 
mixing of races which, as the evidence of art also shows, took place at the 
uprising of the Bronze Age with the incoming of a Celtic element among the 
population. The great antiquity of this stratum is well substantiated, and 
is of importance in considering the date of unknown types. The first of 
these canoes lay, when found, on a bed of gravel 14 ft. below the surface, at 
a distance of 130 ft. from the present river bank. It is 8ft. 9 in. long, 2ft. 
6 in. across in extreme width, and has a greatest depth of i ft. Its stern was 
closed by a stern-board inserted in a groove, cut in the sides and bottom. 
The prow projects 10 in. forward of the dug-out portion. The stern is 
hollowed from the root of the tree-stem. 

The second of the Preston canoes (see Plate VI. i.) is smaller and less 
elaborate. Its length over all is 7 ft. 8j in., with greatest width 2 ft. 8 in., 
and width at the stern 2 ft. 2 in. Its depth is i ft. 2i in., while the bottom 
remains i J in. thick in the middle and 4* in. thick at the stern. In the bow 
is an irregularly-shaped hole. There are traces of clean cutting produced by 
sharp metallic tools. It was found at a depth of 13 ft., about a quarter of a 
mile east of Penwortham Church. 

Hitherto there has been found no criterion for assigning a date to such 
dug-out canoes from intrinsic evidence. The mere fact of simplicity of 
construction must not be taken alone as a sign of great antiquity. Movable 
stern-boards, also, are found alike in association with lake dwellings of the 
Bronze Age, 1 and in a deposit of Late Celtic times at Buxton.* The only 
satisfactory dating of these canoes must be separately done from the special 
associations of each example. The Preston canoes seem to be as early as the 
Bronze Age, and the oldest in the county ; while that from Crossens may not 
be as old as Norman times. 

There remain two canoes, 8 found near Warrington in the Arpley 
Fields, each found about 20 to 25 yards northward from the former bank 
of the Mersey at that place before the cutting of the Ship Canal, and at 
a depth of about 18 ft. below the surface of the ground. One canoe is 
ribbed in two places and of considerable elaboration. It is furnished with 
a seat in the broader end, and several pegs are fitted regularly around 
the gunwale. Each one is rounded, and several plug holes are provided 

1 Proe. SK. Antiq. Scot. xi. 21. Ibid. 206. 

8 Admirably described and illustrated, Hist. Soc. Lane, and Ches. N.S. x. 97, Madeley on 'Two Ancient 
Boats found near Warrington.' 

250 



EARLY MAN 

centrally. The whole length is 12 ft. 4 in., width 2ft. 10 in., and depth 
1 2 to 1 5 in. 

The other canoe is smaller and less elaborated, with a length of 
i oft. 8 in., breadth about 2ft. 6 in. towards the prow and i ft. 10 in. nearer 
the stern. The prow is beaked while the stern is rounded. There is again 
a suggestion of peg holes, but the canoe is very poorly preserved. The 
evidence of association takes these canoes back to considerable antiquity, 
certainly before the urus became extinct in the locality. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL LIST OF PREHISTORIC ANTIQUITIES 
FOUND IN LANCASHIRE 

The complete bibliography on the subject of Early Man in Lancashire may be found in The 
Archaeological Survey of Lancashire, edited by W. Harrison, Esq. and issued under the auspices of the 
Society of Antiquaries, which constitutes the essential preliminary index to the antiquities of the 
county. Recent finds and researches made since 1896 have augmented this list, and are incorporated 
below. Much information not separately acknowledged has naturally been derived from correspon- 
dence with archaeologists in the county and from personal inspection of the various museums and 
numerous private collections. 

AINSWORTH, COCKEY MOOR. Bronze looped palstave [Lane, and Ches.Antiq. Soc. Trans, x. 249], p. 231. fig. 14. 

ANGLEZARKE. Stone circle [Ibid. x. 249], p. 242. 

ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE, Museum. Perforated round stone hammer or mace-head, p. 227. 

ASHWORTH MOOR, near Rochdale. Bronze palstave [at Heywood Waterworks], p. 232, fig. 1 6. 

BARNACRE, near Garstang. Stone axe-hammer [Ibid. xii. 135], p. 222. 

BARTON-ON-!RWELL. Dug-out wooden canoe [Mane. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Trans, xxxii. 243 ; Manchester Mus.; 

Owens College], p. 249, fig. 33. 

Hollowed log [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, x. 249 ; Manchester Mus.], p. 249. 
BESOM HILL, near Oldham. Flint chippings, etc. [Ibid. x. 251] p. 215. 
BICKERSHAW HALL, near Wigan. 3 celts [Lane. C. iv. 308]. 
BLACKBURN, Revidge. Tumulus, urn, interment, bone pin, bronze pinhead [Lane. Local Gleanings, iii. 382 ; 

Law. and Ches. Antlq. See. Trans, v. 272, Plate 4 ; Blackburn Mus.], p. 242, fig. 28. 
BLACKPOOL. Stone polished celt [Weld MSS. ; Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soe. Trans, vi. 1 80] p. 218. 

Stone axe-hammer [Weld MSS.], p. 224. 
BLACKROD, near Wigan. Axe- hammer of stone [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soe. Trans, xvi. 158 ; Bolton Mus.], 

p. 224. 
BLACKSTONE EDGE. Neolithic flints, arrow-heads, etc. [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4 ; Rochd. Lit. and Phil. Soc.], 

pp. 215, 216. 
BLEASDALE, near Garstang. Flint implement [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, x. 249] ; tumulus, timber 

circles, urns, interments [Ibid. xvii. 254-280], p. 243, fig. 29, Plate VI. 
BOLTON. Roundish perforated hammer [Bolton Mus]. Neolithic chippings, flint implement, etc. [Ibid. v. 

329 ; x. 249], p. 226, fig. II. 
BOWLAND. Perforated stone axe [Weld MSS. ; Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soe. Trans, iv.], p. 221. 

Perforated round stone hammer [Weld MSS.], p. 226. 

BRANDWOOD MOOR, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Fishwick, op. cit. 314], p. 215. 
BROUGHTON. Mound, urn, interment [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soe. Trans, v. 296 ; Salford Mus.], p. 244. 
BROUGHTON (LOWER), Manchester. Neolithic chippings, flint implement, etc. [Ibid. v. 330 ; x. 250], p. 215. 



EDGE. Flint chippings, etc. [Ibid. vi. 139]. 
WARDLE HILL, near Rochdale. I 



BROWN WARDLE HILL, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 

Flint knife [MSS. of W. Baldwin]. 
BULL HILL, near Bury. Neolithic chippings [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soe. Trans, iv. 304. Arrow-head and flakes 

[Ibid. iv. 305-6 ; v. 328-9], pp. 215, 216. 

BURNLEY, Cant Clough. Bronze palstave [Information of J. Allen, Esq.], p. 232. 
CASTLESHAW. Two stone celts. [Mr. W. Andrew.] See also Royton Park and Milnrow. 
CHARTERS Moss. See Turton. 

CHEETHAM, Manchester. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Ibid. x. 251], p. 215. 
CHEETWOOD, Manchester. Perforated stone adze [Manchester Mus.], p. 220, fig. 5. 
CHIPPING, near Preston. Stone axe-hammer ; small worked flint [Preston Mus.], pp. 215, 224. 
CHORLTON CUM HARDY, Manchester. Stone celt [Ibid. x. 250], p, 218. 
CHORLTON UPON MEDLOCK, Manchester. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Ibid. v. 328], p. 215. 
CLAUGHTON HALL. Perforated stone axe [Weld MSS.], p. 221 ; tumulus, small polished axe-hammer of stone 

[Evans, Stone Imp. p. 188 ; Arch. Journ. vi. 74], p. 225, Plate II.-6. 

251 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

CLIFTON, Manchester. Urn, ashes [Arch, ix. 191 ; xliii. 362], p. 244. 

CLITHEROK. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Sac. Trans, v. 331], p. 215 ; stone hammer and 
two axe-hammers (?) [Mane. Geol. Soc], p. 226 ; bronze celts, looped [Hist. Soc. of Lane, and Ches. iii. 
p. 26, pi. I.]. 
CLIVIGER. Tumuli, stone circles, urns, interments, small flint implements [Lane, and Cbes. Antiq. Soc. Trans. 

xi. 156 ; Burnley Lit. and Phil. Soc.], 218. 

COLNE. Bronze dagger [Information of Mr. W. Farrer], p. 234, fig. 21. 
Cow HEYS, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. zij. 
CROSSENS (Martin Mere). Wooden dug-out canoe [Lane, and Cbes. Antiq. Soc. Trans, xvii. 264 ; Southport, 

Cambridge Hall], p. 249, fig. 35. 

CROW KNOLL, near Oldham. Neolithic chippings [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4]. 
CUERDALE. See Walton-le-Dale. 
CULVERT CLOUGH, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings [Ibid. 3, 4], p. 2 1 5 ; leaf-shaped arrow-head \Rochd. 

Lit. and Phil. Soc.], p. 215. 
DARWEN, OVER. Tumulus, urns, bronze dagger [Alrum, Hist, of Blackburn, 23 ; Liverpool Mus.], pp. 234, 

242, figs. 26, 27. 

DEAN, near Bolton. Stone axe-hammer [Evans, Stone Imp. 128 ; Journ. Brit. Arch. Asm. xv. 232 ; Warring- 
ton Mus.], p. 224, Plate II.-4. 

DROYLESDEN. Stone celt [Higson, Droylesden, 29, 30] ; [rhafted bronze axe, Ibid.], p. 218. 
EGBERT DEAN. See Sharpies. 

FLIXTON. Large stone celt [Evans, Stone Imp. 107 ; Arch Journ. vii. 389 ; Blackmore Mus.], p. 217. 
FLOWER SCAR HILL, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 
FOXTON EDGE, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, barbed arrow-head of flint [Ibid, 3, 4], p. 215, 216. 
GARSTANG. See Barnacre, Claughton, Pilling, Winmarleigh. 
GOLDSHAW BOOTH, Pendle. Perforated stone hammer [Baines, Lane. iii. 234]. 
GOOSNARGH, near Preston. Rounded stone hammer, perforated, pp. 220, 226, fig. 12. 
GREAT WINNING GULF. Flint chippings, arrowhead, etc. [Lane, and Cbes. Antiq. Soc. Trans, v. 328], p. 215. 
HADES HILL, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 

Barrow, urn, tumulus, and flint objects [Rocbd. Lit. and Phil. Soc. vii. 56-63], p. 238. 
Arrow-head, barbed, from near the barrow. 

HAMELDON HILL, BLACK (Worsthorne). Barrow [Burnley Lit. and Phil. Soc], p. 239. 
HAULGH, near Bolton. Barrow, stone chamber, urn, interment, bronze knife [Hist. Soc. of Lane, and Ches. iv. 

130], pp. 234, 241. 
HAYDOCK. Round hammer or spindle-whorl [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xv. 233 ; Evans, Stone Imp. 206 ; 

Warrington Mus.], p. 227, Plate II. 7. 

HEATON CHAPEL. Stone perforated hammer [Baines, Lane. iv. 484 ; Manchester Mus.], p. 223, fig. 9. 
HELPET EDGE, Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 
HIGH HODDER BRIDGE, near Clitheroe. Stone hammer (?) [Blackburn Mus.]. 
HOLLINGWORTH LAKE, near Rochdale. Flint chippings and worked stones [Rochdale Mus.], p. 216. 

Rounded perforated hammer [Rochdale Mus.], p. 227. 

HOPWOOD. Stone axe-hammer (?) [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xv. 232 ; Evans, Stone Imp. 178], p. 226. 
HUNGER HILL, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, arrow-head [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 
IRLAM. Rounded perforated hammer of stone [Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. Trans, x. 250 ; Warrington Mus.], 
p. 227, Plate II.-8. 

Bronze looped spear-head [Ibid. x. 250 ; Warrington Mus.], p. 236, fig. 23. 
Wooden dug-out canoe [Ibid. x. 250 ; Salford Mus.], p. 249, fig. 34. 
KENYON. Tumulus, urn, bronze pin [Ibid. x. 250 ; Warrington Mus.]. 

Bronze Age barrow, urns, interments, [Ibid, xxi.], p. 240, fig. 25. 

KERSAL MOOR. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Salford Mus. ; Ibid. v. 238, x. 250, xii. 118], p. 215. 
KNOLL HILL, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, etc., arrow-head [Ibid. xxi. v. 328], pp. 214, 216. 
LANCASTER. Perforated stone axe-hammer [Weld MSS.], p. 225, fig. 10. 
Perforated stone axe [Weld MSS.], p. 222. 
Stone celts [Watkin, Roman Lane. 164-5]. 
Armlet of stone [Evans, Stone Imp. 427 (2nd ed.)]. 

Urns, interments [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xxxiii. 125 ; Antiquary, May 1901], p. 242. 
LANCASTER (near, in bed of the River Lune). Axe-hammer of stone [Chadwick Mus. Bolton], p. 222, fig. 8. 
LEAGRAM. Two stone celts [Weld MSS.], p. 217, fig. 2. 

LEES (Thornley), near Oldham. Bronze spear-head, broken [Lane, and Cbes. Antiq. Soc. Tram. xix. 240]. 
LEIGH. Bronze looped spear-head [Mane. Lit. and Phil. Soc. v. 531], p. 236. 
LITTLEBORO'. Tumulus, urn, interment, flint implement [Rochdale Mus.], pp. 218, 239. 
LIVERPOOL. Stone axe, grooved [Evans, Stone Imp. 151 ; Hist. Soc. Lane, and Ches. xx. 15], p. 218. 
Stone implements [Evans, Stone Imp. 87 ; Hist. Soc. Lane, and Ches. xix. 168]. 
British coins [Evans, Coins, 1 20], p. 248. 

LONGDEN END MOOR, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 
LONGRIDGE, near Preston. Perforated axe-hammer [Lane, and Cbes. Antiq. Soc. Trans, v. 329 ; Preston Mus.], 
P. 223. 

Stone implement (rough celt), p. 219. 
Barbed arrow-head [Weld MSS.], pp. 215, 216. 

LOWER MOOR, near Todmorden. Neolithic chippings [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 

2 5 2 



EARLY MAN 

MANCHESTER. See Cheetham, Cheetwood, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Chorlton upon Medlock, Clifton, Heaton, 

Lower Broughton, Kersal, Moss Side, Salfbrd, Withington. 

MANCHESTER, Alexandra Park. Two round perforated stone hammers [Queen's Park Mus.], p. 227, Plate II.-8. 
Corporation Street. Stone adze-hammer [Queen's Park Mus.], p. 219, fig. 4. 
Greenheys. Stone adze-hammer [Manchester Mus.], p. 219, fig. 3. 

Red Bank. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Sac. Tram. iii. 254] ; arrow-head [Man- 
chester Mus.] ; urn [Ibid. v. 295], p. 244. 

Queen's Park. Perforated stone axe [Queen's Park Mus.], p. 221, fig. 6. 
MARTIN MERE. Stone hatchet, (?) eight wooden canoes [Leigh, op. cit. i. 17, 181], p. 249. 
Two bronze palstaves [Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Sue. Trans, xxi.], p. 231, fig. 15. 
Canoe found at Crossens [Southport, Cambridge Hall], p. 249, fig. 35. 

MARTON (Fylde). Stone celt, looped bronze celt or palstave [Thornber, Blackpool, 8, 328], p. 234. 
MELLOR, near Blackburn. Stone axe-hammer, small worked flint [Blackburn Mus.], pp. 2 1 5, 223, Plate III. 2. 
MIDDLE HILL, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, arrow-head [Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Sue. Trans, v. 328]. 
MIDDLETON. See Winwick. 
MILNROW, Rochdale. Stone axe-hammer [Ibid, xviii. 1 86 ; Rochdale Mus.], p. 223. 

Stone celt [private information], p. 218. 

MODE WHEEL. Perforated stone axe [Ibid. x. 251 ; Salford Mus.], p. 220, Plate III.-I. 
MORECAMBE. Flint celt [Weld MSS.], p. 218. 
Moss SIDE, near Manchester. Neolithic chippings [Lane, and Cbes. Antiq. Soc. Trans, x. 251], p. 215. 

Portion of bronze collar. 

Mow ROAD, near Rochdale. Bronze torque, with iron pins [Arch. xxv. J95]> p. 247, fig. 32. 
NEWTON-LE-WILLOWS. Stone celt [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xv. 231-2 ; Evans, Stone Imp. 107 ; Warrington 

Mus.], p. 217, Plate II.-3. 

OAKENROD. Perforated stone axe [Fishwick, op. cit. 13], p. 2ZI. 
OCDEN CLOUGH, Pendle Forest, near Burnley. Perforated stone axe-hammer, p. 224 [Information of J. Allen, 

Esq.] 

OLDHAM. See Besom Hill, Crow Knoll, Piethorne. 

ORFORD, near Warrington. Stone-celt [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xv. 231; Warrington Mus.], p. 218, Plate II. I. 
PENDLE. See Goldshaw Booth, Ogden Clough, Windy Harbour, Wiswell. 
PIETHORNE, near Oldham. Bronze spear-head [Lane, and Ckes. Antiq. Soc. Trans, xix. 271 ; Oldham Mus.], 

p. 236, fig. 24. 

PILLING, near Garstang. Stone celt [Ibid. v. 328], p. 218. 
Bronze celt [Ibid. xix. 248]. 
Bronze dagger -sheath [Hist. Soc. Lane, and Ches. iv. 105 ; Lane, and Ches. Antij.Soc. Trans, xiii. 134 ; 

Salford Mus.], p. 247, fig. 31. 
PRESTON. Stone celt, p. 219. Bronze spear-head [Ibid. v. 343 ; Preston Mus.], p. 235, fig. 22. 

Two wooden dug-out canoes [Ibid. v. 344; Preston Mus.], p. 250, Plate VI. I. Skulls, 

pp. 250, 256. 

Ribble, near. Portion of stone adze [Ibid. v. 329; Preston Mus.], p. 220. 
QUERNMORE, near Lancaster. Stone hammer-head (?) [Baines, Lane. iv. 484], p. 226. 
RADCLIFFE, near Manchester. Neolithic chippings and worked flints ; arrow-heads [Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. 

Trans, v. 328], p. 215. 

RAMSDEN, near Todmorden. Neolithic chippings [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 

READ. Bronze celt [Lane, and Ches. Ant'tq. Soe. Trans, xiii. 127 ; Evans, Bronze Imp. 47], p. 229, fig. 13. 
READYCON DEAN, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 
REVIDGE, see Blackburn. 

RIBBLE, River. Five bronze celts and spear-head [Mane. Lit. and Phil. Soc. v. 527, 534], p. 233, 236. 
RISLEY, near Warrington. Flat bronze celt [Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 2) v. 423 ; Evans, Bronze Imp. 46 ; 

Warrington Mus.], p. 229. 
RIXTON, near Warrington. Flat bronze celt [Arch. Journ. xviii. 154; Evans, Bronze Imp. 46 ; Warrington 

Mus.], p. 230, Plate IV.-i. 

ROBIN HOOD'S BED, Blackstone Edge. Neolithic chippings [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 
ROCHDALE. See Ashworth Moor, Brown Wardle Hill, Brandwood Moor, Culvert Clough, Cow Keys, 
Foxton Edge, Flower Scar Hill, Great Winning Gulf, Hunger Hill, Helpet Edge, Hades Hill, Knoll 
Hill, Longden End Moor, Middle Hill, Rushy Hill, Rough Hill, Readycon Dean, Robin Hood's Bed, 
Turnshaw Hill, Trough Edge, Well i' th' Lane, Wardle Moor, Tooter Hill, p. 215. 
ROYTON. Stone celt [Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Soe. Trans, viii. 1 80], p. 218. 
ROUGH HILL, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 213. 
RUSHY HILL, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings [Ibid. 3, 4], p. 215. 
SADDLEWORTH (on the Yorkshire border). Stone celt. 
SALFORD. See Broughton, Mode Wheel. 

Neolithic chippings [Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. Trans, v. 329]. 
SALWICK. Stone celt [Leigh, Bk. i. 181], p. 218. 

SHARPLES, Egbert Dean. Bronze palstave [Hist. Soe. Lane, and Ches. iv. 131], p. 232. 

SILVERDALE. Roundish perforated hammer [Bolton and Leicester Museums ; Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. Trans. 
v. 329 ; Evans, Stone Imp. 320], p. 226. 

Stone axe-hammer, broken [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xxix. 304-5 ; Bolton Mus.], p. 224. 
SOUTHWORTH (Croft) near Warrington. Bronze palstave [Warrington Mus.], p. 200, Plate IV.-2. 

253 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

SNODDLE HILL. Circle of stones : cist ; flint objects ; circular ornament perforated [MSS. of W. Baldwin, 

Esq. ; Manchester Museum]. 

STALYBRIDGE (Cheshire border). Perforated round stone hammers [Salford Mus.]. 
ST. HELENS. Stone axe-hammer [St. Helens Mus.], p. 225, Plate III.-j. 
STONYHURST. Tumulus, urns, interments, flint implement [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Sue. Trans, xii. 30 ; 

xiii. 27], pp. 218, 239. 

STRETTON, Warrington. Fragment of urns [Hist. Soc. Lane, and Ches. i.-ii. 33], p. 240. 
TATHAM. Stone axe-hammer [Lane, and Ches. Ant'tq. Sac. Trans, v. 329 ; Salford Mus.], p. 223, Plate III.-3. 
THROSTLE'S NEST, Manchester. Stone hammer [Salford Mus.], p. 225. 
TODMORDEN. See Lower Moor, Ramsden, etc. Neolithic chippings [Ibid. x. 252], p. 215. 
TOOTER HILL. Neolithic chippings, arrowheads [Ibid. iv. 305], p. 215. 
TOXTETH PARK, Liverpool. See Wavertree. 

TROUGH EDGE, Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, arrowhead, etc. [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 
TURNSHAW HILL. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Ibid. 3, 4], p. 215. 

TURTON, Charters Moss. Stone axe-hammer (?), bronze palstave [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xxvii. 526; Lane, 
and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, xii. 48], pp. 226, 231, Plate IV.-3. 

Chetham's Close. Stone circles [Hist. Soc. Lane, and Ches. iv. 131-2; Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. 

Trans, xi. 1 5 5, xii. 42]. 

WALMSLEY, near Bolton. Tumulus, urn, interment, stone celt, flint [Hist. Soc. Lane, and Ches. iv. 1 3 1], p. 2 1 8. 
WALSDEN MOOR. Arrowhead, p. 216. 

WALTON-LE-DALE (Cuerdale, near Preston). Bronze socketed celt [Evans, Bronze Imp. 119; Journ. Brit. Arch. 
Assoc. viii. 332], p. 233, Plate IV.-6. 

Bronze spear-head [Evans, Bronze Imp. 314; Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, xiii. 130, 155]. 

Bronze trappings [Preston Mus.], p. 247. 
WARDLE, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Fishwick, op. cit. 3, 4], p. 215. 

Stone celt [Ibid.], p. 218. 
WARRINGTON. Wooden dug-out canoes [Warrington Mus.], p. 250. See also Kenyon, Orford, Risley, Rixton, 

Stretton, Southworth, Winwick. 
WARTON. Tumuli, urns, interments [Arch. ix. 211, 217]. 

Iron sword with bronze handle [B.M.], p. 247, fig. 30. 
WAVERTREE. Remains of tumuli, urns [Arch, xliii. 347], p. 239. 

Calderstones, disturbed dolmen or chamber of tumulus [Herdman, The Calderstones~\, p. 240. 

Flint arrow-head and flake, stone celt [Evans, Stone Imp. 347 ; Liverpool Mus.], pp. 216, 218. 
WEETON. Tumulus, urns. 

Stone celt [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, v. 328], p. 218. 

Bronze palstave [Fishwick, Kirkham, 5], p. 232. 
WECBER, near Carnforth. Stone hammer, bronze celts and spear-heads [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans. 

ii. 116; v. 327], p. 234. 
WELL i" TH' LANE, near Rochdale. Neolithic chippings, etc. [Fishwick, Rochdale, 3, 4], p. 215. 



WILPSHIRE, near Blackburn. Perforated stone axe [Weld MSS.], p. 222, fig. 7. 

~ 3ne celt [Evans, Stone Imp. 1 06; Hora 
WINMARLEIGH. Five bronze celts and two spearheads [Arch. Journ. xviii. 158], p. 236, Plate V.-I-7, 



WINDY HARBOUR, Pendle. Stone celt [Evans, Stone Imp. 106 ; Horae Ferales, ii. 7, B.M.], p. 217, fig. I. 



figs. 18-20. 

Three bronze celts and dagger [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xv. 234], p. 235, Plate V.-8-II, fig. 17. 
Bronze tubes [Warrington Mus. ; Evans, Bronze Imp. 1 1 8, 314, 335, 466]. 
WINWICK. Tumuli, urns, stone axe-hammer and bronze dagger ; palstave and ring ; bronze socketed celt 

[Warrington Mus., Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xiv. 269 ; xv. 236 ; xvi. 295 ; Arch. Journ. xviii. 158 ; Evans, 

Bronze Imp. n 8, 314, 335, 466 ; Hist. Soc. Lane, and Ches. xii. 190], p. 225, Plate II.-5 ; p. 231, 

Plate IV.-4 ; p. 234, Plate IV.-6 ; p. 235, Plate IV.-7 ; p. 240. 
WISWELL, near Pendle. Stone celt [Blackburn Mus.], p. 217. 

WITHINGTON, near Manchester. Axe-hammer of stone [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, x. 251]. 
WORSTHORNE. Neolithic chippings, tumuli, urns, ring mounds, etc. [Booth, Grave Mounds, Burnley Lit. and 

Phil. Soc.], pp. 215, 239. 
YEALAND. Urn, interment [Arch. vii. 414], p. 244. 

LANCASHIRE NORTH OF THE SANDS 

ALDINGHAM. Urns [West, Antlq. ofFurness, 389], p. 245. 

ALLITHWAITE. Urns, interments [Watkin, Roman Lane. 215 ; Baines, Lane. iv. 718], p. 244. 

AYESIDE. Stone implements [Evans, Stone Imp. 178], p. 227. 

AYNSOME (Cartmel). Urn, interment [Stockdale, Ann. ofCartmel, 251], p. 245. 

BARROW-IN-FURNESS. Stone axe-hammer [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, v. 328; Cumb. and Westmld. 

Antlq. Soc. Trans, xiv. 442], p. 228. 

Perforated pebble [Barrow Nat. Field Club, xv. 1 1 7]. 

BAYCLIFFE (Aldingham). Interments [Jopling, Fumess and Cartmel, 96], p. 245. 
BIRKRIGG COMMON. Stone circle [Arch. xxxi. 450], p. 245. 
BROUGHTON-IN-FURNESS. Stone implement, flint flakes, and arrowheads [Baines, op. cit. iv. 641 ; Lane, and 

Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, v. 328], p. 216 
CARK-IN-CARTMEL. Perforated stone hammer [Cumb. and Westmld. Anfiq. Soc. Trans, ix. 203], p. 228. 

254 



EARLY MAN 

CARTMEL, Winder Moor. Urn, interment, stone celt, stone implements, bronze implements [Stockdale, 

op. cit. 250, 255 ; Baines, op. cit. iv. 712], pp. 219, 237, 245. 
CONISHEAD. Stone celt (curious) [B.M.]. 

CONISTON LAKE. Stone implements [Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Sue. Trans, ix. 203-4], p. 228. 
DALTON IN FURNESS. Bronze spear-head [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, xiii. 139]. 

Weapons [West, op. cit. 345 ; Sword, Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Soc. Trans, xv. 165]. 

Stone celt [Barrow N. F. Club, xv. 117]. 
DENDRON. Stone implements [Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Soc. Trans, ix. 504]. 

Two flint implements. 
FLOOKBURGH. Stone implements [Stockdale, op. cit. 250] ; bronze palstaves [Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Soc. 

Trans, viii. 265], p. 237. 

FURNESS ABBEY. Stone celt [Ibid. xv. 168], p. 219. 
FURNESS. Stone implement [Arch. xxxi. 452] ; bronze celt and armlet [Lane, and Cbes. Antlq. Soc. Trans. 

Z 5 2 1. P- 2 37- 

GLEASTON CASTLE. Stone implement [LonsJale Mag. iii. 383] ; bronze celt [Arch. v. 106], p. 237. 
GRANGE-OVER-SANDS. Stone implement, flint implements [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Sac. Trans, x. 250], p. 216. 
HARBARROW, near Dalton. Stone hammer [Ibid. xii. 146 ; Warrington Mus.], p. 228. 
HAWKSHEAD. Tumulus, urn, interment, flint implement [Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Soc. Trans, iii. 254]. 

Stone implement, pp. 216, 245. 
HEATHWAITE. Interments [Arch. xxxi. 452], p. 245. 

HIGH HAUME. Stone implements [Lonsdale Mag. iii. 383 ; Barber, Prehistoric Furness, 20]. 
IRELETH MILL. Urns, interments [Ibid. 30 ; Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Soc. Trans, ix. 202 ; Arch. 

liii. 414], p. 245. 

KIRKBY IRELETH. Flint implements, p. 216. 

KIRKBY MOOR. Stone circle, cairn, flint implements, etc. [Arch. xxxi. 450]. 

KIRKHEAD. Bronze celts and miscellaneous [Arch. Journ. xxv. 324 ; Evans, Bronze Imp. 168], p. 237. 
KNAPPERTH AW. Stone circle [Barber, op. cit. 23 ; A. liii. 418]. 
LINDALE. Stone axe-hammers [Arch. xxxi. 452 ; Evans, Stone Imp. 204], p. 228. 
MOOR HEAD. Two stone implements [Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Soc. Trans, xv. 169]. 
PAGE BANK. Bronze dagger [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, x. 251], p. 237. 
PENNINGTON, near Conishead. Stone celt [Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Soc. Trans, ix. 503], p. 219. 
RAMPSIDE. Stone axe-hammer [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, v. 328], p. 227. 
ROOSE. Tumulus, urns, interments [Arch. Journ. iii. 68], p. 245. 

Stone adze {Barrow N. F. Club, xv. 1 1 7]. 

ROOSEBECK, near Aldingham. Stone implement [Far. ii. 17], p. 219. 
RUSLAND. Stone axe-hammer [Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Soc. Trans, ix. 203], p. 227. 
SCALES. Urns, interment [West, op. cit. 392 ; Barber, op. cit. 26], p. 245. 

Two stone celts [Barrow N. F. Club, xv. 1 18]. 
STAINTON. Urn with bronze weapon [Fur. ii. 37], p. 245. 

Urn, stone celts, iron implements [Barber, op. cit. 31]. 

Two bronze celts, p. 237. 

STATION (Barrow). Stone celt, stone axe-hammer [Barrow N. F. Club, xv. 1 17-1 18]. 
TORVER. Stone hammer, p. 227. 

Tumuli, urns, interments, bone and flint objects [Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Soc. Trans, ix. 502], 

p. 245. 

ULVERSTON. Stone celt, stone implements [Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Soc. Trans, ix. 204 ; Salford Mus.]. 
URSWICK. Bronze sword (?) [Barber, op. cit. 1 8]. 

Six socketed celts [Pres.], p. 237. 
WALNEY ISLAND. Stone axe-hammer [Barrotv N. F. Club, xv. 1 17], p. 228. 

North Scale.-Urn. 
WINDER MOOR. See Cartmel. 

WOODLANDS. Stone implement [Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Soc. Trans, x. 252]. 
WRAY HILL. Stone implements, celts and hammers [Cumb. and Westmld. Antlq. Soc. Trans, ix. 204]. 



255 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



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ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

THE existing Anglo-Saxon remains in Lancashire are few : they 
consist chiefly of hoards or isolated finds of coins, some interesting 
ornaments, and sculptured Christian monuments. The coins alone 
afford any dates, but none of these apparently are earlier than the 
ninth century. Most of the other remains may be deemed as late or even 
later, but in the present state of local evidence an appearance of exactitude 
as to date could only be misleading. Hence archaeology can offer little direct 
help to history in the study of this period. The evidence of place-names, 
if this were available, coupled with what is known of the condition and 
natural features of the county reflected in the account of the Domesday 
Survey, might enable the historian and archaeologist together to unravel the 
story of this period almost stage by stage. While the etymological section 
of this evidence is still to be furnished by special research, some points of 
interest may nevertheless be elucidated by an examination of the monuments 
themselves, having due regard both to their nature and to their disposition. 

The sites of these remains are indicated on the map which accompanies 
this section. The county itself requires no further geographical description. 1 
At the close of the period that portion which lies between the Kibble and 
the Mersey contained, as Mr. Farrer has shown from the account of the 
Domesday Book, 3 246,480 acres of wood in a total area of about 700,000 acres, 
of which about 56,865 acres were cultivated. The area of woodland 
according to this account was thus more than a third of the whole when 
the survey was made. The greater part of this woodland lay in the hundreds 
of Newton and Salford, with the forests of Rossendale and Pendle in the 
hundred of Blackburn, and it embraced also a considerable area in the hundred 
of Leyland. The lowlands around the coast, with extensive tracts higher up 
the Mersey, were probably marshy. 

To judge from the scanty notes of the survey, the area of forest-land 
in the tract which lies between the Kibble and the Sands (particularly in the 
middle and north) must have been even larger in proportion, as it is to-day. 
The most habitable portions were the fertile plains of the modern Fylde, in 
which possibly the work of reclamation had been already begun during the 
Roman occupation. The district around Lancaster also, and thence along the 
coast, seems to have early attracted settlement. 

Beyond the Sands the land of hills and lakes to the north was still closely 
wooded, but in the promontory of Furness and the vicinity of Cartmel there 
seem to have been attractive sites for settlement. Here, at any rate, in a 
naturally defended home the Celtic element certainly survived. 

1 See Article on the Domesday Survey in this volume. Lane, and Ches. Antij. Sue. Trans, xvi. 

1 257 33 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

COINS 

The evidence afforded by literature as to the history of this county will 
be discussed in the article on the Political History, but there is one entry in 
the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which must be mentioned here as it throws light 
upon an archaeological discovery of considerable importance. In 9 1 1 the 
Chronicle records that the Danish army among the Northumbrians broke 
the peace and overran the land of Mercia. When the king learned that 
they were gone out to plunder he sent his forces after them, both of the 
West Saxons and the Mercians ; and they overtook the army as they were 
on their way homewards, and they fought against them and put them to 
flight, and slew many thousands of them ; and there were slain King 
Eowils, and King Halfdene, and Ottar the Earl, and Scurfa the Earl, and 
Othulf the Hold, and Benesing the Hold, and Anlaf the Black, and Thurforth 
the Hold, and Osferth the collector [i.e. of the revenue], and Guthferth the 
Hold, and Agmund the Hold, and Guthferth. 

There is good reason to believe, as Mr. W. J. Andrew shows, 1 that the 
famous Cuerdale hoard of silver coins, which was found in 1840 in a leaden 
chest buried near a difficult ford of the Ribble on the river bank about two 
miles above Preston, represents the treasure chest of this Danish army, over- 
taken in its retreat to Northumbria at this ford and destroyed. For amongst 
the English coins contained therein 8 were nearly a thousand of Alfred the 
Great, and forty-five of Edward the Elder, and as the latter reign was the 
latest in date of any in this hoard the time of deposit may be inferred as lying 
between 901 and 925. It is no difficult task for this numismatist to assign 
an even closer date. The fact that only three issues of Edward's coinage are 
represented, allowing an average of three or four years for each issue, brings 
the date approximately to 911, which is the year of the record quoted. 
Incidentally it is noteworthy that the presence of some continental money, 
apparently gathered from the west coast of France, including many coins 
issued from the district at the mouth of the Seine, is found to tally with 
two earlier records of the Chronicle ; the one of 897, which relates that the 
Danish army in England divided, some going into East Anglia and some 
into Northumbria, and they who were moneyless procured for themselves 
ships there and went southwards over sea to the Seine ; the other of thirteen 
years later, 910, when 'a great fleet came hither from the south, from 
Brittany, and greatly ravaged the Severn, but they there afterwards almost all 
perished.' A supposition that the remnants of this band united with the 
main Danish army might well account for the proportion of foreign money, 

1 Brit. Numis. Journ. i. 9. 

8 The analysis of the hoard is as follows : 



English 
Athelstan of East Anglia 
Ceolwulfll. of Mercia . 
Ethelred 


2 


Northumbrian 
Ecclesiastical 
Earl Sitric 
Siefred 


2,020 

2 
2?8 


Continental 
Principally French, but 
some German and Italian 


1,047 


Alfred the Great . . . 
Edward the Elder . . 
Archbishop Ceolnoth . 


9 1 

S 


Alwald 
Cnut 
Halfden 


L JO 

2 .534 

2 


Oriental 
Various 


31 


Archbishop Ethelred . 
Archbishop Plegmund . 


5 


1 Total Northumbrian 


4.797 


Illegible 
About 


65 



Total English . . 1,060 Grand Total Examined 7,000 

258 




COINS FROM THE CuERDALE HOARD. 

1-14. Pennies of Alfred, 871-901. I. Burgnoth, Mauyer. 2. Heahstan, Mauyer. 3. Hereferth, Mauyer. 
4. Ceneferth, Mauyer. 5. Athelulf, Mauyer. 6. Sclamund, Mauyer. 7-11. London Mint. 12. Tilevine, London 
Mauyer. 13. Diarvald, Canterbury, Moneyer. 14. Bernvald, Oxford, Money fr. 15-16. Edward the Elder 901-925 
15. Wlfred, Mauyer. 16. Uncertain Moneyer. 17-20. East Anglia, after 878, 'St. Edmund' type, three pennies and a 
halfpenny. 21-24. Cnut (of Northumbna), c. 900-910. 21, 22, 24. Pennies. 23. Halfpenny, struck at York. 

To face page 258. 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

The bulk of the coins, however, were Danish, issued by Danish kings of 
Northumbria, many of them from York. From the circumstances of its 
discovery it may well be believed that the hoard formed the treasure chest 
of this defeated and retreating army. The evidence, divested of other stories, 
is free from discrepancies. By this discovery Mr. Andrew has recovered a 
page of English history. 

The Cuerdale hoard is by far the greatest found in Lancashire, containing 
10,000 silver coins and nearly 1,000 ounces of silver ingots. With that 
find, however, must be classed another, though smaller, and made at a much 
earlier date. A hoard of some 300 silver pennies was discovered in 1611 at 
Harkirke, which lies toward the sea-coast between Crosby and Formby. 
The coins have long since been scattered, but fortunately some thirty-five 
were engraved in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and from the 
still extant plate it may be seen that they belonged to Alfred, Edward the 
Elder, the Danish king Cnut (Guthferth) of Northumbria, and the ecclesi- 
astical coinages of York and East Anglia. There was also a certain number 
of foreign coins, and the date of deposit must have been within a few 
years of that of the Cuerdale hoard. There are numerous records of 
other finds. On Halton Moor, five miles from Lancaster, there was found 
in 1815 a silver cup containing 860 silver coins of Canute, with certain 
ornaments which include a torque of silver wire. 1 The coins are 
described in a letter by Mr. T. Combe, written from the British Museum, 
as including 21 Danish and 379 of Canute. The latter were nearly all 
of one type, having on the obverse the head of the king with helmet 
and sceptre, and on the reverse a cross within the inner circle with 
amulets in the four angles. They were minted at Exeter (i), Cambridge 
[GRANT bricge] (i), Leicester (i), Lincoln (4), London (4), Maldon (i), 
York (366), and Winchester (i). The cup and torque of silver will be 
described later. 

Though isolated finds of coins cannot be relied on as evidence as to the 
state of the particular district in which they are found, the discovery in 
northern Lancashire of some of the early Northumbrian coins is of sufficient 
interest to be noted. Some stycas 3 of the Northumbrian kings Eanred and 
Ethelred and of Archbishop Vigmund were found in a cave with miscel- 
laneous objects at Merlewood, Grange over Sands. The cave floor as usual 
seems to represent several ages. In addition to some black pottery and 
charcoal were a few fragments of glass. Besides these were two rusted 
iron objects, perhaps fibulae. Below the deposit, it is said, were suggestions 
of a rough flooring. The animal remains included bones of a man, of red 
deer, roe deer, bos /ongifrons, wolf, pig, badger, and cat. In the same 
vicinity, at Castlehead near Grange, there were found, c. 1775, a number 
of stycas of Northumbrian kings, stated in one record 8 to be ninety-five in 
all, together with animal remains, rings of silver, iron, and brass, beads of 
stone, lead, clay, and glass, and numerous Roman coins. 

1 Arch, xviii. 197, with plates xvii. xviii. 

s Cumb. and Westmd. Ant. Sac. Trans, xii. 277. From the description given the stycas are apparently as 
follows: i. Obv., Eanred Rex; rev., Gaduteis. 2. Obv. Edilred Rex; rev., Eardulf [retrograde]. 
3. Obv., Edelred Rex ; rev., Fordred. 4. Obv., Erded Rex [inscription blundered] ; rev., Leofdegn. 
5. Obv., Vigmund Irep. ; rev., Coenred. 6. Undecipherable. 7. Broken and undecipherable. 

8 Baines, Hist. Lanes. (Harland), ii. 676. 

259 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

In south Lancashire there must be mentioned also two finds of such 
coins, both from sites of earlier Roman fortresses. The one is a styca of 
Eanred reported from Ribchester; 1 and the other consists of nine sceattas 
found c. 1820, in digging foundations for St. Matthew's Church, Campfield, 
Manchester. 8 

ORNAMENTS, ETC. 

Though belonging to a defensive weapon, the bronze boss of a shield 
shown on the accompanying plate may appropriately open the list of 
decorative remains of the Anglo-Saxon period. Archaeologists see in its 
design certain Celtic elements, and its decoration might be assigned by some 
to late Celtic rather than Scandinavian art. Even the snake-motive which 
it embodies is to be found, as Prof. Ridgway shows, 8 on objects of the late 
Bronze and early Iron Age in Britain. This object is in the City Public 
Museum at Liverpool, and is described as coming from Ribchester, the site of 
the well-known fortress of Roman times called Bremetennacum upon the 
Ribble. It is a small object of about 3 inches in diameter, and well worthy of 
close study. It comprises six concentric rings, separated by plain circles, with 
a broader plain band about all. The outer ring consists of continuous triple 
spirals in relief, alternating with an open knotwork pattern, being separated 
at the quarters by a transverse band. The next ring, which lies on the slope, 
is symmetrically divided into four quarters by portions of circles forming ovoid 
enclosures filled with snake pattern of graceful form, and the intervening spaces 
filled alternately with knotwork and spiraloid patterns of symmetrical design. 
A fillet with radiating lines leads to the outer ring of the central boss, which 
is decorated with open knots or plaits, sinuous but symmetrical. Two fillets, 
one plain and one ornamented as before, enclose the centrepiece, which is a 
geometrical rosette of seven petals. 

The silver cup found on Halton Moor contained, in addition to the coins 
of Canute previously described, a silver torque which had been squeezed into 
the vessel. Both these silver objects are highly decorative and instructive. 
The cup weighed just over 10 ounces ; the metal was described* as being of 
silver alloyed with copper in the proportion of about three of the former to 
one. It appeared to have been originally gilt, some of the gold still 
remaining, which was of remarkably pale colour. ' The ornaments consist 
of four circular compartments, separated from each other by branches 
which terminate in the heads of animals in the arabesque style. In the 
compartments are a panther and a butting bull alternately. These 
ornaments are included within two handsome borders, which encircle the 
cup in parallel lines.' 

The torque is equally of interest. It is a characteristic example of wire- 
work, twisted and plaited, with the ends beaten together for a double-hooked 
connexion. The face of this portion, which is flattened, was decorated with 
small triangular pieces fixed by imitation rivets. It was of good silver 
weighing 6 ounces 6 pennyweights. 

With the same deposit were some gold pieces, or thin laminae, struck on 
one side only, and rudely representing a human head. Similar pieces have 

1 Whittaker, Hist. Whalley, i. 37. Lane. andChes. Ant. Soc. Trans, iii. 269. 

8 Early Age of Greece, fig. 87, etc. * Arcb. xviii. 199-200. 

260 





RONZE BROOCHES FROM CLAUGHTON. 




BRONZE Boss OF SHIELD FROM RIBCHESTER. 



To face page z6o. 




ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

been found in Denmark, and the Danish element in the whole of the decoration 
predominates. 

A gold torque, apparently plain, but of pure gold, is described by 
Dr. Whitaker l as having been found upon the surface of Red Moss, Rossen- 
dale, apparently in the vicinity of other remains probably of Saxon times. 
The torque weighed about ij ounces, but when found it was very much 
twisted and distorted. 

Other ornaments of much interest were discovered at Claughton, and are 
now in the possession of Mr. W. Fitzherbert Brockholes, of Claughton Hall. 
They came from a tumulus 2 formed of sand in which remains of several earlier 
ages were also discovered. The mound had 
covered a burnt burial or burials of uncertain date, 
the ashes being found within a clay vessel. A 
number of objects seemed to the discoverers to 
have been contained in a box which had decayed. 
Chief among these were two bronze brooches or 
fibulae, 'joined together, forming a kind of oval 
box, the outer faces perforated with symmetrical 
banded patterns with raised bosses.' 8 These are 
similar to examples in the Scandinavian collection 
at Copenhagen. In the same deposit apparently 

were two beads, the one of blue glass and the FIBULA OF WHITE METAJ FROM 
other of red paste ; also a small fibula of white CLAUGHTON. 

metal, with an interesting pattern, of which a 

sketch is here figured. The box itself appeared to have been lined with a 
cloth. In the same mound were an axe-hammer, spear-head, and sword, all 
of iron and apparently of this period, and the stone axe-hammer previously 
described. 

WEAPONS AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Other interments of Lancashire may probably, but with less certainty, 
be assigned to this period, as for example the barrow of river stones on Hasty 
Knoll, at Blackrod, near Wigan, which was found in 1770 to contain 
numerous fragments of iron and various military weapons ; while under all 
was a cavity 7 feet in length filled with black earth and decomposed human 
remains. 4 

Near Stonyhurst, at Bullany Ford, Brockhall, south of the Ribble, a large 
mound of earth was removed in 1 846, revealing a kistvaen formed of rude 
stones, containing human bones, and the rusty remains of some spear-heads of 
iron, which crumbled to dust on exposure to the air.* 

In Lancashire north of the Sands, while excavating some cellars at 
Pennington a number of bones were found ' in a circular tomb,' and with 
them an ancient sword which crumbled on exposure. There were also 
recorded from the same site seven querns, some stone balls, and axes, found 
i z feet below the surface. 6 

l Whitaker, Hist. Whalley, iii. 366. * See ' Early Man,' p. 225. Arch. Jount. vi. 74. 

* Lane, and Ches. Hist. Soc. Trans, xxiv. 87. 6 Baines, Hist. Lane. (ed. Harland), ii. 86. 

6 Barbour, Prehistoric Remains, 30. 

261 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

Weapons not associated with interments are reported from Rossendale, 
where, in the Red Moss which formerly lay within the Forest of Rossen- 
dale, iron arrow-heads were commonly found in the same vicinity as the gold 
torque already described. An urn, sword, and dagger are recorded as found 
at Crossmoor. 1 

Two ancient ' chessmen ' of fine jet were found in the tumulus known as 
the Mote Hill at Warrington, and are generally described, without much 
evidence, as pre-Norman. 8 Another find of miscellaneous character contains 
an object which seems more likely to be of Saxon times. This is a wooden 
drinking cup, with two handles and bronze bands round it, found in the moss 
at Stalmine, which lies 3^ miles south of Fleetwood. A brass stirrup also is 
recorded from the same site.* 

SCULPTURED CROSSES 

The best archaeological evidence of Christian settlements of Anglo-Saxon 
date is to be gleaned from the occurrence of ecclesiastical or religious monu- 
ments which can be assigned to this period. Their character and extent may 
be appreciated from the papers on this subject which have appeared at various 
times in the transactions of the Historic and Antiquarian Societies of Lanca- 
shire. 4 As might be expected from the situation of the county, the monu- 
ments bear witness to the influence not only of the Anglian school of 
Northumbria, but also to Irish, Anglo-Saxon, and Norse tradition. It is 
probable that none of these monuments are earlier than the eighth century, 
but it may be noted that in the opinion of the late Rev. W. S. Calverley 6 
a few fragments in this corner of England might be survivals from the times 
of SS. Ninian, Patrick, and Kentigern. 

In the hundred of West Derby the most important monument is the 
fragment of a cross in the churchyard at Winwick. The centre and arms 
alone remain, but they show that the diameter of the head of the cross was 
4 feet 1 1 inches, and that it was of Irish type, the arms being connected by 
a circular ring. There is a large boss in the centre of each face, and the 
whole surface of the best preserved face is taken up with a symmetrical 
arrangement of two patterns of ornament, one consisting of a double row of 
Stafford knots, the other a diaper founded on the key pattern. The other 
face is much worn, but shows remains of beasts with interlacing tails. The 
ends of the arms show in one case a man carrying two rectangular objects 
with handles, which have been called bells or buckets, and in the other two 
men holding a third who is hung up by one foot and seems to have lost his 
hands. The two men seem to be cutting off the legs of the hanging figure. 
The dismemberment of the Northumbrian king St. Oswald is probably the 
subject of the sculpture, for the church and a well, distant only three-quarters 
of a mile, are both dedicated to that saint. An attractive theory, 8 indeed, 
identifies the local Makerfield with the Maserfield where St. Oswald met 

1 Fishwick, St. Michael' s-on-Wyre, 2. 

3 Arch. Journ. ix. 304. * Lane, and Ches. Hist. Sac. Trans, iii. 120. 

* ' Pre-Norman Sculptured Stones in Lancashire,' G. F. Browne, Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Sac. Trans, v. I ; 
papers on the Heysham sculptures, ibid. be. 30-90 ; ' The Ancient Crosses of Lancashire,' H. Taylor, ibid. 
xviii. I ; xix. 136; xx. 145 ; xxi. I ; 'The Early Christian Monuments of Lancashire and Cheshire,' 
J. Romilly Allen, Lane, and Ches. Hist. Soc. Trans. (New Ser.), ix. I. 

6 Notes on the Early Sculptured Crosses in the present diocese tf 'Carlisle, pp. 3, iz, 23, 302, etc. 

6 Baines, Lancashire (Harland), ii. 205. 

262 





SILVER CUP FOUND ON HALTON MOOR. 



To face page 262. 




SILVER TORQUE FOUND AT HALTON MOOR. 



To face page 262. 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 




FRAGMENT OP CROSS-* 



AT WINWICK, LANCASHIRE 



his death in battle with the Mercian Penda ; and applies to this well the 
account of the Venerable Bede, who mentions the miracles attributed to the 
earth carried from the place. But Mr. Romilly Allen considers the subject 
to be the martyrdom of Isaiah : l Maserfield is generally located at Oswestry ; 3 
and phonetic science does not warrant the identification with Makerfield. 

At Walton on the Hill 8 the existence of a cross is gleaned from the 
pedestal alone, which was dug up in the churchyard. It is of three steps 
carved in a single block, 3 feet square at the base, and is much timeworn. 

1 Allen, Christian Symbolism, p. 329. 

a Worsley, Winwick (Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Soc.), iv. 1886. 
* Lane, and Ches. Hist. Sot. Tram. (1894), 194. 
263 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

The analogy of the Halton cross and others indicates a pre-Norman date, 
which is helped by the mention of the church of this place in the Domesday 
Book. Mr. Taylor believes that a cross from Simonswood, which is not 
to be found, may have been pre-Norman. 1 In the east wall of Ormskirk 
church is part of a cross-shaft, the exposed face showing two human figures 
side by side. 

At Manchester, in the Cathedral Library, is a well-known sculptured 
stone, believed to be of pre-Norman date, on which is the inscription, ' In 
manus tuas domine commendo (meum) spiritum.' 2 The sculpture represents 
an angel, in archaic fashion, and recalls, as Mr. Taylor points out, those over 




CROSS IN BOLTON PARISH CHURCH, LANCASHIRE. 

the chancel arch in the pre-Norman church at Bradford-on-Avon. In the 
Manchester Museum, at the University of that city, there is a fragment of stone 
found during the excavation of the Ship Canal in the Barton reach. It is 
recognizably a portion of a Saxon cross-shaft bearing a deeply cut and un- 
usual device. 

Elsewhere in this hundred of Salford are a portion of a cross found 
on the banks of the Irwell near Eccles, and a cross and other early sculptures 
at Bolton le Moors. The latter cross illustrates some interesting varieties of 
decoration, as indicated by Mr. Allen, in twisted bands, with and without 



1 Lane, and Cbes. Hist. Soc. Trans. (1894), 172. 



264 



Ibid. (1905), Phelps. 




WHALLEY : CROSS IN CHURCHYARD (F 



HEWS). 



To face fagi 264. 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

angular bends, the broken plait of four knots terminating in the Stafford 
knot, the figure-of-eight knot, the three-cornered knot, and key patterns of 
single strokes alternating with and without the central zig-zag line. 

In the churchyard at Whalley, in the hundred of Blackburn, are three 
standing cross-shafts, all now upon the south side of the church, and in the 
church are remains of other crosses. 

The first of these shafts here shown is a monolith standing 7 feet 
6 inches above the turf, measuring 15^ inches by 10 inches at the bottom, 
and 9 inches by i o inches at the top. It carries ' a small mutilated cross- 
head, which apparently stood a foot or two higher up on a portion of the 
shaft, which is missing. Thus the total height of the monument from the 
ground level may have been about n feet.' 1 The west front and the sides 
are much weathered, but the design of the east front may still be made out. 
It is divided into six panels, the uppermost and the two lowest having inter- 
lacing patterns, while the three in the middle have respectively a bird, a 
nimbed figure with upraised hands having a serpent on each side, and a beast. 
The head of the cross has clearly been of a type rather Anglo-Saxon than 
Celtic, with expanded arms rounded at the ends. 

The second cross is in fair preservation, although wanting a portion 
of the shaft a piece estimated by Mr. Taylor at about 2 feet in length. 
Its total height would then have been about 9 or 10 feet. The three 
upper arms of the head, which is of the same type as the preceding, are 
broken away, but the central boss is preserved. Both faces of the shaft 
have a central roll ending in a circular boss, below which two rolls curve 
outwards to the angles of the shaft. The ground is filled with spirals. The 
shaft stands in a socketed base-stone. The third cross is also fitted into a 
base-stone, which has holes at each end of it suitable for supporting two other 
crosses or possibly figures of SS. Mary and John. 1 Much of the shaft is 
broken away, and the scrollwork which occurs on all four sides is almost 
obliterated. The designs illustrated by the Whalley crosses are chiefly twisted 
bands with angular bends, plaits of four and of eight cords, rings and crossbars, 
the Stafford knot and scroll foliage. 

Another cross of pre-Norman work is that at Burnley, known from its 
former situation as the Godley Lane cross. It ' consists of a tapering cham- 
fered shaft, terminating in a small cross which has been much mutilated.' * 
In the centre, at the intersection of the arms, which are broken away, is a 
raised boss similar to that on the cross at Whalley, mentioned above, and 
the head has had expanded arms with rounded ends. The total height 
above ground is 8 feet 6 inches, and the estimated width across the arms 
about 2 feet. 

The hundred of Lonsdale, and in particular the vicinity of Lancaster, 
is that which yields most evidence of pre-Norman times in the remaining 
early Christian monuments. No church in this region is directly mentioned 
in the Domesday Book, possibly because there was none which came within 
the purpose of the survey ; but the existence of some may be inferred with 
certainty. 

At Lancaster itself there have been found the remains of nine distinct 
crosses. Some of these monuments are of surpassing interest ; two of them 

i Lane, and Cbes. Hist. Soc. Trans. (1894), xviii. pp. 17-19. a Ibid. 50. 

I 265 34 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

are inscribed, and nearly all the fragments variously decorated. They are all 
carefully described by Mr. Taylor. 1 The best known is that which is 
preserved in the British Museum, bearing the inscription in Anglian runes, 

GIBHXiETHFO o> R^CUNIBAL THCUTHBCEREfHTING] 

which is translated, Pray for Cynebalth Cuthbertson. 

The cross is in fair preservation, and capable of full restoration as seen 
from the illustration ; its height may have been 6 or 7 feet. In the 
centre and the centres of the arms are circular bosses, and a characteristic 
pattern of interlaced ropework surrounds them. The rope terminates below 
in a curious head. The ornamentation of the reverse is less decorative, being 
an incised geometrical pattern enclosed in a small incised circle at the centre. 
The sides are plain. 

The next in importance of the Lancaster crosses was found as recently as 
1903, built into the north wall of the church. Its shaft only is preserved, 
the ornamentation being scrollwork of Anglian type. On one face at the 
top of the shaft is an inscription : 

+ ORATE P[RO] ANIMA HARD I 

A third fragment of a cross-shaft has Anglian scrollwork on all sides ; 
and a fourth is a cross of Anglian type, with two birds above the arms and 
two figures below which have beasts' heads and human feet. On two sides 
is the straight-lined interlacing design known as ' cat's cradle,' which is 
also found on one of the crosses from St. Oswald's, Durham. A fifth stone 
is part of a standing slab, after the fashion of a modern tombstone, 3 feet 
high and 5 inches thick, which was originally finished with a crosshead. 
It has on one side a design of double spiral knots, and on the other a large 
circular plait, above which is a stag chased by a hound. The decoration is 
very like that on a similar slab at Melling. Other fragments are (i) the centre 
of a crosshead, having over the figure of Christ a large circular boss with five 
balls on it ; (2 and 3) pieces of two cross-shafts with Anglian scrollwork ; 
and (4) part of the shaft of a cross of later style than the rest, carved on all 
four sides, but much defaced. One subject may be Adam and Eve on either 
side of the Tree of Knowledge. 

The village of Bolton-le-Sands, some 3 or 4 miles to the north of 
Lancaster, contains in some fragments of sculptured stone evidence of its 
pre-Norman origin. One of these is a portion of a cross decorated with bold 
interlacing design. Another is a portion of a ' hog-backed' gravestone. One 
side is decorated with the customary roofing-tile pattern, the other with a 
design supposed to -represent Eve and the serpent. 

In the churchyard at Halton, near Lancaster, is a tall cross-shaft, which is 
of particular interest as a specimen of what has been called the pagan-christian 
overlap. The crosshead, of which only part is ancient, was ornamented 
with interlacing designs. At the top of the shaft are the evangelistic symbols, 
one on each face. Below are parts of four arched panels containing figures, 
but this part of the cross has been broken and lost, and a piece of plain stone 

1 Lane, and Ches. Antlq. Sw. Trans, xxi. 44-55. 
266 







HORNBY: ' LOAVES AND FISHES' CROSS-SHAFT IN CHI 



Bart. 







LANCASTKR : CROSS OF CVNEBALTH CUTHBERTSON 



Tojace page 2 56. 




HALTON : WEST FACE OF CROSS IN CHURCHYARD, AND DETAIL OF EAST FACE. 



To face page 266. 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

is now inserted. At the base of the shaft are scenes from the Sigurd legend : 
Sigurd roasting the heart of Fafnir, and putting his burnt finger to his lips. 
Above are birds in a tree ; and below, Sigurd is seated at a forge, with Regin's 
headless body, and a piece of knotwork representing Fafnir above him. On 
the north side is Sigurd's horse Grani, riderless, and above him dragons 
perhaps representing the snakes of Gunnar. On the south side are panels of 
foliage, and on the west a scene which may be meant for the Resurrection. 
The style of decoration is late, and probably the cross is not earlier than the 
eleventh century. 

Parts of several other crosses have been set up within the church under 
the tower, with figure subjects in panels, and scrollwork of Anglian type. 
The fragments are built up on each other to a height of 1 1 feet, but they 
clearly belong to at least two separate crosses. 

In the same vicinity is Heysham, which possesses the ruins of a very 
early church of a type which is Celtic rather than Saxon. It stands on a 
rocky knoll to the west of the present church, and close to it are eight graves 
cut in the rock, with sockets at their heads, in which crosses have probably 
been set. The rock surface bears traces of having been carved with an inter- 
lacing pattern. In the churchyard of the present church is the lower part of the 
shaft of a cross with interlacing panels at the base, and spiral foliage pattern of 
Anglian type on the sides. On one face is a seated nimbed figure under an 
arch, and on the other a gabled building with three windows in which three 
human heads appear, while below is a central doorway in which stands a figure 
swathed in what may be grave clothes. It has been explained as the raising 
of Lazarus, or the Resurrection. 

In the churchyard is also a hogback stone 6 feet in length, with zig-zag 
lines in imitation of tiling on the top, and at each end an animal clasping 
the stone, as on other specimens of this form of monument. The subjects on 
the sides have been variously explained as a stag-hunt and as scenes from pagan 
mythology. 1 In the latter case the stone would belong to the same category 
as the Halton churchyard cross. 

Eight miles from Lancaster is the ancient village of Hornby (the 
' Hornebie ' of Domesday), where in the church is the upper portion of a 
cross, which from the decoration upon it is commonly called the ' loaves 
and fishes cross.' The portion is only about 2 feet in length, but the 
sculpture indicated is apparently unique in this country, representing two 
fishes below five loaves, above which is a conventional tree enclosing a figure on 
either side. The three other faces of the stone are decorated with devices of 
interlacing and coiling rope, while a panel at the top of the back seems to 
enclose an angel figure. The details of the work are very highly finished, 
and of unusual excellence. A fragment of a second cross, part of the lower 
arm of the head, with a zig-zag pattern, is also preserved in the church. 
In the churchyard is a pyramidal stone 6 feet 2 inches high, with a 
semi-circular arch in low relief on each face, and on the top the socket for 
a cross-shaft. 

Two miles to the north-east is Melling, where there are portions of a 
sculptured slab of the same type as that found in Lancaster parish church, 

1 This monument has naturally been much discussed and described. See Lane . and Ches. AnAq. Soc. Trans. 
(1841) ; Colley Marsh, 'The Pagan-Christian Overlap.' 

267 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 

and a short portion of a shaft of a standing cross, decorated with various 
devices of basket-work or interlacing ornament. 

The early crosses so completely described by Mr. Allen and Mr. Taylor 
now become valuable material for the history of Anglo-Saxon Lancashire. 
They are prima facie evidence of Christian churches at eleven sites, adding 
to our certain list recorded in the Domesday Book a further seven names, 
and confirming the existence of churches in four other cases. Nothing 
could be more valuable than such evidence ; for the critical study of these 
monuments, together with the scanty evidence of records, coins, and other 
remains, throws some light upon this obscure period. The history of the 
settling, the organization, and the struggles of the successive peoples, how- 
ever, cannot be traced in detail until the evidence of the early place-names 
is available and Celtic tradition has been carefully explored. 

Especial thanks are due to Mr. Henry Taylor for the loan of photo- 
graphs which he has had taken for his forthcoming work on early Lancashire 
crosses, many of which have been reproduced for the illustrations of ancient 
crosses accompanying this article. The author also wishes to express his 
obligations to the curators of the various museums in Lancashire and many 
others who have helped him in compiling this article. 



268 





HEYSHAM : (i) LOWER PART OF CROSS-SHAFT IN CHURCHYARD 
(2) HOG-BACKED STONE IN CHURCHYARD. 



To face fag, 268. 



NOTE TO DOMESDAY MAP 

COMPILED BY WILLIAM FARRER 

In this map the names of places mentioned in Domesday are 
shown. Those marked * were capital manors, having berewicks or 
dependent manors belonging to them. Those manors which had 
belonged to the king before 1066 have a line under their names ; 
those which Tostig held before 1066 are distinguished with a broken 
line. In 1086 all the manors lying within the regions which after- 
wards formed the county of Lancaster were in the king's hand, ex- 
cept five manors between Cockerham and Lancaster. 

The boundaries of hundreds and other territorial regions which 
existed at the date of Domesday have been constructed generally from 
the evidence of the survey itself, and differ from those which existed 
in I2I2. 1 'Kendal,' i.e. that part of Westmorland which lies in the 
valleys of the Kent and Lune, was included in Domesday with Fur- 
ness, Cartmel, Lonsdale and Amounderness in a ratable area con- 
taining 500 carucates. Certain manors in Cumberland territorially 
connected with Furness and Cartmel, and others in the Ewcross wapen- 
take of Yorkshire, similarly connected with Lonsdale, do not appear to 
have belonged to this geldable area. 

For convenience of reference it is to be noted that five manors 
in 'Kendal,' viz.: Jalant (Yealand), Dalton, Hotun (Priest Hutton), 
Warton and Berewic (Berwick) were incorporated in the county of 
Lancaster about the end of the eleventh or early in the twelfth century, 
when ' Kendal ' was added to Westmorland. 

The modern names of rivers and lakes including Marton mere 
in Amounderness and Martin mere to the south of the Ribble, both 
now reclaimed are given for convenience of reference as landmarks ; 
they are not with the exception of the rivers Ribble and Mersey 
mentioned in Domesday. 

The sparsity of place names in south and east Lancashire was 
not entirely due to paucity of manors, but partly to the character of 
the survey, which sometimes omits the names of manors or berewicks 
dependent upon capital manors. Thus Domesday enumerates 15 
manors in Newton hundred, 34 manors in Warrington hundred, 
21 berewicks in Salford hundred, 28 manors in Blackburn hundred, 
and 12 manors in Leyland hundred, without recording their names. 
In North Lancashire, on the other hand, the areas which contain few or 
no names of manors were regions either of peatmoss, as in the northern 
part of Amounderness and near