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Full text of "The Victoria history of the county of Lancaster. Edited by William Farrer and J. Brownbill"

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IDictotfa Dfstot^ of the 
Counties of lEnglanb 









This History is issued to Subscribers only 

By Constable & Company Limited 

end printed by Eyre & Spottiswoode Limited 

H.M. Printers of London 




















Dedication ..... 
Contents ..... 

Index of Parishes, Townships, and Manors 
List of Illustrations .... 
Editorial Note .... 

Topography ..... 

West Derby Hundred (cont.)- 
Liverpool . 

Wigan . . 

Winwick . 

Salford Hundred- 




. . . ... . . . v 

.;'.- . . . . . . . xi 

, . . . . . . . . . xiii 

. . . . . . xv 

Architectural descriptions by C. R. PEERS, M.A., 
F.S.A., and F. H. CHEETHAM. Heraldic draw- 
ings and blazon by the Rev. E. E. DORLING, 
M.A., F.S.A. 

Historical description by Professor RAMSAY MUIR, 

M.A .1 

Historical description by W. FARRER, D.Litt., and 

J. BROWNBILL, M.A. . . . . -57 

* 122 

Historical descriptions by W. FARRER, D.Litt., and 

J. BROWNBILL, M.A. . . . . .171 




In the following list (m) indicates manor, (p) parish, and (t) township 

Abram (Wigan), (t) 1 1 1 , (m) 1 1 1 

Agecroft Hall (Eccles), 397, 400 

Alport (Manchester), 237 

Ancoats (Manchester), 237 

Arbury (Winwick), (t) 166, (m) 168 

Ardwick (Manchester), (t) 279, (m) 280 

Ashton-in-Makerfield (Winwick), (t) 142, (m) 142 

Ashton-under-Lyne, (p) 338, (m) 340 

Aspull (Wigan), (t) 118, (m) 118 

Bamfurlong (Wigan), 113 

Barlow (Manchester), 298 

Barton (Eccles), (t) 363, (m) 364 

Bentcliffe (Eccles), 369 

Beswick (Manchester), (t) 281, (m) 281 

Bickershaw (Wigan), 114 

Billinge Chapel End (Wigan), 83 

Billinge Higher End (Wigan), 83 

Birch (Manchester), 305 

Birchley (Wigan), 85 

Bispham Hall in Billinge (Wigan), 83, 85 

Blackley (Manchester), (t) 255, (m) 255 

Bolton, Little (Eccles), 395 

Booth Hall in Blackley (Manchester), 256 

Booths (Eccles), 382 

Boysnope (Eccles), 370 

Bradford (Manchester), (t) 274, (m) 275 

Brindlache (Eccles), 394 

Bromyhurst (Eccles), 373 

Broughton (Manchester), (t) 217, (m) 217 

Burnage (Manchester), (t) 310, (m) 310 

Byrom (Winwick), 151 

Cadishead (Eccles), 371 

Cayley (Winwick), 140 

Cheetham (Manchester), (t) 259, (m) 259 

Chorlton-upon-Medlock (Manchester), (t) 251, 
(m) 252 

Chorlton-with-Hardy (Manchester), (t) 297, 
(m) 298 

Clayden (Manchester), 240 

Clayton (Manchester), 282 
Clifton (Eccles), (t) 404, (m) 404 
Collyhurst (Manchester), 241 
Croft (Winwick), (t) 168, (m) 168 
Crumpsall (Manchester), (t) 262, (m) 262 
Culcheth (Manchester), 271 
Culcheth (Winwick), (t) 156, (m) 156 

Dalton (Wigan), (t) 97, (m) 97 
Davyhulme (Eccles), 372 
Den ton (Manchester), (t) 311, (m) 311 
Didsbury (Manchester), (t) 293, (m) 293 
Droylesden (Manchester), (t) 282, (m) 282 
Dumplington (Eccles), 374 

Earlestown (Winwick), 132 

Eccles, 352 

Ellenbrook (Eccles), 391 

Failsworth (Manchester), (t) 273, (m) 273 

Garrett (Manchester), 240 
Gidlow Hall (Wigan), 120 
Golborne (Winwick), (t) 148, (m) 148 
Gorton (Manchester), (t) 275, (m) 276 
Gotherswick (Manchester), 270 
Greenlow (Manchester), 254, 277 
Grindlow. See Greenlow. 

Haigh (Wigan), (t) 1 1 5, (m) 115 

Hardy. See Chorlton 

Harpurhey (Manchester), (t) 270, (m) 270 

Haughton (Manchester), 322 

Hawkley (Wigan), 81 

Haydock (Winwick), (t) 137, (m) 137 

Heaton Norris (Manchester), (t) 323, (m) 324 

Hey (Winwick), 134 

Hindley (Wigan), (t) 106, (m) 106 

Hindley Hall in Aspull (Wigan), 120 

Hindley Hall in Pemberton (Wigan), 80 



Holcroft (Winwick), 160 

Holt (Manchester), 308 

Hope (Eccles), 394 

Hough End Hall (Manchester), 291 

Hough Hall (Manchester), 268 

Houghton (Winwick), (t) 166, (m) 166 

Houghton, Little (Eccles), 389 

Houghton Peel (Winwick), 167 

Hulme (Manchester), (t) 335, (m) 335 

Hulme Hall (Reddish), 328 

Hurst (Winwick), 163 

Hyde Hall in Denton (Manchester), 3 1 6 

Ince (Wigan), (t) 101, (m) 102 
Irlam (Eccles), 371 

Kempnough (Eccles), 388 
Kenyon (Winwick), (t) 154, (m) 154 
Kersal (Manchester), 219 
Kingnull (Winwick), 163 
Kirklees (Wigan), 12 1 
Kirkmanshulme (Manchester), 271 

Levenshulme (Manchester), (t) 309, (m) 309 

Lightbowne Hall (Manchester), 265 

Lightshaw (Winwick), 149 

Litchford Hall (Manchester), 259 

Liverpool, (p) i, (m) 2 

Lowe (Wigan), 108 

Lowton (Winwick), (t) 150, (m) 151 

Manchester, (p) 174, (t) 222, (m) 230 

Markland (Wigan), 82 

Middleton (Winwick), (t) 166, (m) 166 

Monks' Hall (Eccles), 368 

Monsall (Manchester), 272 

Monton (Eccles), 369 

Mossley (Ashley- under-Lyne), 347 

Moss Side (Manchester), 302 

Moston (Manchester), (t) 264, (m) 267 

Newchurch (Winwick), 164 

Newham (Eccles), 370 

Newton (Manchester), (t) 271, (m) 271 

Newton-in-Makerfield (Winwick), (t) 1 32, (m) 1 33 

Norley (Wigan), 79 
Nuthurst (Manchester), 265 

Occleshaw (Wigan), 1 1 3 

Openshaw (Manchester), (t) 287, (m) 287 

Ordsall (Manchester), 210 

Orrell (Wigan), (t) 89, (m) 89 

Peasfurlong (Winwick), 159 
Pemberton (Wigan), (t) 78, (m) 79 
Pendlebury (Eccles), (t) 397, (m) 397 
Pendleton (Eccles), (t) 392, (m) 393 
Platt (Manchester), 303 

Reddish (Manchester), (t) 326, (m) 326 

Risley (Winwick), 161 

Rusholme (Manchester), (t) 303, (m) 303 

Salford (Manchester), (t) 204, (m) 205 
Shoresworth (Eccles), 397, 403 
Slade (Manchester), 306 
Smedley (Manchester), 261 
Southworth (Winwick), (t) 168, (m) 168 
Stalybridge (Ashton-under-Lyne), 347 
Strangeways (Manchester), 260 
Stretfbrd (Manchester), (t) 329, (m) 330 
Swinton (Eccles), 389 

Tetlow (Manchester), 218 
Trafford (Manchester), 330 
Tunstead (Wigan), 8 1 

Upholland (Wigan), (t) 91, (m) 92 

Walkden (Eccles), 390 

Wardley (Eccles), 384 

Weaste (Eccles), 396 

Whittleswick (Eccles), 374 

Wigan, (P) 57, (t) 68, (m) 70. 

Winstanley (Wigan), (m) 83, (t) 87 

Winton (Eccles), 370 

Winwick, (p) 122, (t) 140, (m) 141 

Withington (Manchester), (t) 288, (m) 288 

Worsley (Eccles), (t) 376, (m) 376 

Worsley Mesnes (Wigan), 80 



Old Dock and Custom House, Liverpool, 1721 .... 
Liverpool : Plan, 1765 ........ 

Old Haymarket, 1850 

Old Tithe Barn \ 

St. John's Lane, 1865 ) 

Lord Street, about 1798 . 

in 1680 ......... 

North Shore Mill 

Shaw's Brow j 

St. Nicholas's Church / 

St. Peter's Church . . . . 

Old Bluecoat School j 
Goree Buildings, 1828) 

Wigan Church from the North-west, showing Towerl 
Upholland Priory Church looking East / 

Billinge : Bispham Hall \ 
Abram : Bamfurlong Hall J 

Upholland Church : Plan . 

Dalton : Scotts Fold, Douglas Valley 
Stane House, Douglas Valley/ 
Winwick Church from the South \ 

,, North Arcade of Nave) 

Newton in Makerfield : Newton-le-Willows Hall "i 

Village Street looking towards Church/ 

Manchester and Salford : Plan, about 1650 . 
,, Map, 1740 . 

Plan, 1772 i 
Salford : Bull's Head Inn, Greengate j 

Manchester : General View from Mount Pleasant .... 
Cathedral, from the South-east ..... 

Plan . 

The Quire ...... 

Stalls in the Quire . . . 

The Nave, showing Screen and Organ . 

View across the Nave from the South-west . 

Salford : Ordsall Hall : General View from the North-east, 1875 . 
Bay Window of the Hall, &c., 1875 

North Face of the Hall after removal of Plaster 

Window of the 'Star Chamber,' c. 1875 . 

Plan in 1 849 . 

Plan . . . 

Broughton : Kersal Cell : The South Front 

Hall : The West Front . . . . . . 

Manchester : The Market Place, about 1825 | 
Chetham's Hospital, 1797 J 

Plan . . .'* . 

The Cloister \ 

The Great Hall J 



. frontispiece 
full-page plate, facing 2 

> 4 


,. 22 

., ,, 26 


> > 4^ 
> 54 

> 5 

> 4 

> > 9^ 

9 8 

> M 124 



coloured plait, facing 
fall-page plate, facing 


2I 4 




Manchester : Chetham's Hospital, Corner of Reading Room | ^ _ fall-page plate, facing 226 

The Screens 

M The Gatehouse 

Poet's Corner 
The Seven Stars Inn . 

St. Ann's Church 2 47 

Moston : Hough Hall, Back View . .269 

Droylsden : Clayton Hall, from the South-west . .284 

Plan .286 

Withington : Hough End Hall : South-west Front . J full-page plate, facing 292 

from the South-east . 

Didsbury Church : Plan . 2 94 

Chorlton-with-Hardy : Barlow Hall . .... ... 300 

Rusholme : Platt Hall . ... . 35 

Slade Hall, East Front . 37 

Denton Hall from the North-west . . ....... 3 1 3 

Plan . . .314 

Hyde Hall, Entrance Front . - 3 7 

South Front .... .318 

St. Laurence's Church 3 2 

Hulme Hall: the Courtyard in 1843 . . . full-page plate, facing 338 

Ashton-under-Lyne : Old Hall . -343 
Parish Church : Glass in South-west Window \ 

of South Aisle . .... , - . , 

> full-page plate, facing 346 

./^l HJT* 1 II XTT* J f ~ ^ * " ^ ' 

Glass m Middle Window of J 

South Aisle . 

Glass in East Window of South Aisle 348 

Glass in West Window of North Aisle 350 

Eccles Church : Plan ... -354 

South View ..... . . fall-page plate, facing 356 

Barton : Monk's Hall 368 

Worsley : Wardley Hall : The Gateway 385 

Plan . .... 386 

The South Front full-page plate, facing 386 

Courtyard from South-east . . . . . . . .387 

,, from the South-west t 

Pendlebury: Agecroft Hall, North-east Angle of Courtyard, c. 1875 J f tt 'W P ate > f actn Z 3** 
Worsley : Kempnough Hall . . . . . . . . . . . .389 

Pendlebury : Agecroft Hall from the South-east ..... fall-page plate, facing 400 

............ 401 

,t P^n . .... -403 


Index Map to the Parish of Wigan . . . . . . . . . . -57 

Winwick , . 123 

Hundred of Salford . . . . . . . . ... 172 

Parish of Manchester . . . . . . . . , -175 

.> <. Ashton-under-Lyne . . . . . . . . -339 

Parishes of Eccles and Flixton . 353 


THE Editors are desirous of expressing their thanks to Mr. C. W. Sutton, 
M.A., Mr. Ernest Axon, and Mr. H. T. Crofton, for their assistance 
with regard to the history of Manchester and in many other ways ; and 
in addition to those whose help has been acknowledged in previous 
volumes they desire to record their obligations to the following : The 
Earl of Wilton, the Earl of Ellesmere, Sir Humphrey de Trafford, bart., 
Mr. T. H. Davies-Colley, Mr. H. T. Folkard, F.S.A., Mr. S. Mills, 
Mr. J. J. Phelps, and the Town Clerks and Librarians of Eccles and 

For the use of plans and for information regarding the architecture 
of the county, the Editors are indebted to the late Mr. Alfred Darbyshire, 
F.S.A., Mr. John Douglas, Mr. Harold Gibbons, Mr. A. Corbett and 
the Manchester Society of Architects, Mr. Frank Oakley, Mr. George 
Pearson, Mr. R. Basnett Preston, and Mr. Henry Taylor, F.S.A. 

For the use of photographs for illustrations the Editors desire to 
express their obligations to Mr. Fletcher Moss, J.P., and Mr. James Watts 
for permission to reproduce those of Chetham's Hospital in Mr. Moss's 
' Pilgrimages to Old Homes,' to Mr. A. E. H. Blackburn, and also to the 
Editor of the Manchester City News for the block of Platt Hall. 

Owing to unforeseen circumstances the publication of this volume 
has been delayed, and although an attempt has been made to bring 
the information up to the date of finally going to press, it has been 
impossible to do so in every instance. 

It should be noted that the class of documents at the British Museum 
here cited as c Norris Deeds ' has been re-named ' Aston Hall Charters.' 
The Towneley Manuscripts denominated G G and R R are in the British 
Museum ; C C is in the Chetham Library. 







Liuerpul (1207) ; Leuerepul (1229) ; Liuerpol 
(1266) ; Lyuerpole (1346) ; Leuerpoll (1393) ; 
Lytherpole (1445); Letherpole (1545); Litherpoole 
otherwise Liverpoole (1752). The form in th is found 
mainly in the I5th and i6th centuries. 

The city of Liverpool extends for 6 miles along the 
eastern margin of the Mersey estuary, covering the 
western and part of the eastern slope of a ridge which 
runs from north to south, roughly parallel with the 
river, and varying in height from looft. to 200 ft. 
In the southern part of the city this ridge rises by 
gradual stages from the water's edge ; in the north- 
ern part it is more abrupt, and stands back at some 
distance from the river, leaving a broad margin of 
comparatively flat ground. The modern city (1906) 
includes not only the ancient township of Liverpool, 
but also the townships of Kirkdale, Walton, part of 
Fazakerley, Everton, West Derby, Wavertree, the 
Toxteths and Garston, as well as Smeddon or Smith- 
down, the Esmedun of Domesday. These areas have 
been added by successive enlargements in 1835, 1894, 
and 1902. The continuous house-covered or urban 
area economically dependent upon Liverpool includes 
also the townships of Bootle, Litherland, and Great 
Crosby. The history of these townships is separately 
treated elsewhere in this work, and the original town- 
ship of Liverpool is all that has to be considered 

There are few cities whose modern development 
has more profoundly modified the original topo- 
graphical features of its site. The water-line has been 
pushed out for a considerable distance by the erection 
of a continuous line of 6 miles of docks. The first 
of these docks, opened in I7I5, 1 was made out of 
the mouth of a tidal creek re-entering from the 
estuary, the upper reaches of which were at the 
same time filled in. This creek, known as the Pool, 
curved inland in a north-easterly direction along 
the line of the modern Paradise Street, Whitechapel, 
and the Old Haymarket for a distance of nearly 
half a mile.* It was fed by two streamlets, one 
coming from Everton at the northern end of the 
ridge, while the other ran a more rapid course from 
a marshy expanse, called the Mosslake, which lay half- 

way up the slope to the south-east, between the 
modern Hope Street and Crown Street.* The latter 
stream fed the chief water-mill of mediaeval Liver- 
pool. At the inner or north-eastern end of the Pool 
there was a stretch of wet ground known as the 
Moor Green ; the path which led to it from the 
village (the modern Tithebarn Street) was known as 
Moor Street until the 1 6th century. This ' moor ' 
may have given its name to the great Liverpool family 
of Moore, More, or de la More. Between the Pool 
and the Mersey a small peninsula was thus inclosed, 
roughly triangular in shape, with its base to the north 
and its apex overlooking the mouth of the Pool. The 
peninsula sloped gently from each side and from the 
level ground on the north, reaching its highest point, 
about 50 ft. above sea level, near the apex of the tri- 
angle, at the top of the modern Lord Street. This 
point was the obvious site for the erection of the 
castle ; while the whole peninsula formed a natural 
fortress, easily defensible except on the north until 
the age of artillery, when it was commanded from the 
ridge behind. The Pool divided into nearly equal 
halves the total area of the township, which amounted 
to 1,858 acres, and almost exactly corresponded to the 
modern parish. 

Until the middle of the I7th century all the 
houses and all the cultivated lands lay to the north of 
the Pool and of the stream which ran into it from the 
Mosslake, while the southern half of the township as 
for as the wall of Toxteth Park (marked by the 
modern Parliament Street) lay waste. It appears that 
the limits of the Liverpool common were not pre- 
cisely determined on the south-east ; for in 1617 the 
copyholders of West Derby laid claim to a part of it, 4 
apparently the Mosslake, which was valuable for tur- 
bary. The Mosslake in the 1 5th century seems to 
have been known as the West Derby fen. 

From the earliest date all the streets of the 
borough were clustered in the form of a double cross on 
the gently rising ground within the small peninsula: 
Juggler Street or High Street across the modern Ex- 
change Flags forming the centre from which Castle 
Street struck off to the south, Oldhall Street to the 
north, Water Street or Boncke Street and Chapel 

1 See below. a See map. 

8 The evidence for these and other topo- 


graphical details is to be found mainly 
in the numerous local deeds of land-trans- 

fer preserved by the Moore and Crone 
families. 4 See below. 


Street to the west, and Dale Street and Moor Street to 
the east. All these streets are known to have existed 
in the i-j-th century,* and no others were added until 
the I yth. 

The geography of the fields of early Liverpool forms 
a very obscure and difficult subject. The chief authori- 
ties for them are the numerous deeds of transfer of 
lands from the I3th century onwards, which were 
preserved in the muniments of the Moore and Crosse 
families ; but it has not yet been possible to construct 
a detailed map of the mediaeval field system. Many 
field-names are given in the deeds, the chief being the 
Old Fields (Great and Little), the Heathy Lands 
(Nether and Over), the Brecks, the Dalefield, the 
Wallfield, the Milnefield, the Sheriffacres, the Castle 
field, the Whiteacres, the Wetearth. 6 Some of these 
doubtless represent approvements from the waste ; but 
only one of these approvements can be definitely 
dated. This was the Salthouse Moor, of which 
45 acres were inclosed between 1296 and 1323,* 
and 19 more between 1327 and I346. 8 The Salt- 
house Moor probably lay at the north-west of the 
township by the Mersey shore, but it is not possible 
to be certain. 9 

Next to nothing is known of L1VER- 
MJNOR POOL before the creation of the borough 
in 1207. In Domesday it is almost cer- 
tainly one of the six unnamed berewicks attached to 
the manor of West Derby. 10 What degree of depen- 
dence upon the parent manor was involved in the 
berewick period cannot be determined ; but probably 
the Liverpool tenants did suit at the West Derby 
halmote, as the tenants of the other berewicks long 
continued to do. 11 At some date between 1 166 and 
1 189 Liverpool was granted by Henry II to Warine 
de Lancaster, along with other lands, and this may 
have involved separation from West Derby and the 
institution of a distinct court. The deed of grant 
does not survive, but is referred to in an undated 
confirmation " granted to Henry son of Warine by 
John Count of Mortain, after his succession to the 
honour. But Liverpool was not long permitted to 
remain in the hands of a mesne lord. On 23 August 
1207 John reacquired it, 13 giving the township of 
English Lea near Preston in exchange. Five days 
later the so-called ' charter ' " was issued which turned 
the vill into a borough. Henceforward the descent 
of the lordship of the borough follows the descent of 
the honour of which it formed a part ; except during 
the brief interval, 1315-22, when it was held by 

a cormorant sable beaked 
and legged gules holding 
in his beak a branch of 
sea-weed called lover in- 
verted -vert. 

Robert de Holand under grant from Thomas Earl of 
Lancaster. 13 

Liverpool is distinguished from most 
BOROUGH other boroughs by the fact that it owes 
its foundation absolutely to an exer- 
cise of the royal will ; there is no evidence that the 
place was a centre of any trade before the date when 
John fixed upon its sheltered 
Pool as a convenient place of 
embarkation for rnen and sup- 
plies from his Lancashire lands 
for his Irish campaigns. He 
may have visited the place in 
February 1206, on the way 
from Lancaster to Chester ; K> 
and probably the creation of 
the borough should be re- 
garded as part of the prepara- 
tion for the great expedition 
of 1 209. Some part of the 
new population which was 
necessary may have been found 
by a transplantation from West 

Derby, which is described in 1208 as having been 
remota usque ad Liverpul ; 17 others doubtless came in 
response to the 'charter,' which may more accurately 
be described as a proclamation of invitation ; and the 
original tenants of the township appear all to have 
been enfranchised. For the reception of the new 
population John had set apart a number of burgages 
facing on the seven main streets of the borough. 
The number of the original burgages it is impossible 
to determine. There were 168 in I296, 18 and there- 
after the number remained fixed. But it is probable 
that there were fewer to begin with. Nor is it pos- 
sible to be precise about the area of the burgage 
proper, i.e. the building lot. It was big enough to 
be divisible into minute fractions, as small as -^ or 
-jV 19 Probably each burgage was a selion. In 1346 
the commonest holding was half a burgage, and it is 
likely that the burgages were divisible from the outset. 
At the same date large holdings are found of 2, 3, 4, 
5, and even 8 burgages. To each burgage proper was 
attached one Cheshire acre in the town-fields, usually 
consisting of two strips in different fields. 20 The rent 
for burgage and field-holdings together was I ^d. per 
annum, 21 payable half-yearly, a figure which suggests 
the influence of Norman parallels. Or, rather, it 
would be more accurate to say that the rent was charge- 
able for the burgage, but ' acquitted ' also the corre- 

6 Moore and Crosse deeds, passim. 

4 The positions of these lands (in some 
cases conjectural) are indicated in the 
map. The names of most frequent 
occurrence are the Oldfields, the Heathy 
Lands, and the Dalefield, and it is prob- 
ably in these that we should look for 
the original town-fields. It may be con- 
jectured that the Dalefield formed origi- 
nally a part of the Little Oldfield, which, 
lying round the village, was naturally 
broken up by the streets ; that the two 
Oldfields thug reconstructed formed the 
lands of the township on a two-field sys- 
tem before the constitution of the bor- 
ough ; and that the Heathy Lands (as the 
name itself suggests) were an approvement 
from the waste on the north between 
Liverpool and Kirkdale, made at an early 
date, probably to meet the requirements 
of the new population whom King John 

introduced at the creation of the borough. 
Other field-names may represent either 
the original demesne (e.g. Castlefield), or 
distinct portions of the older fields (e.g. 
Milnefield, part of one of the Oldfields), 
or more recent approvements (e.g. Wet- 

7 See Muir in Trans. Hist. Soc. (new 
ser.) xxi, 16, 17. Cf. Inq. p.m. 25 
Edw. I, no. 51, with L.T.R. Enr. Accts. 
Misc. 14, m. 76 d. 

8 Ibid, and Add. MS. 32103, fol. 140. 

9 The name seems to have been an 
official one, not popularly adopted, for it 
does not appear in the Moore or Crosse 

10 V.C.H. Lanes, i, 283. 

11 See Lanes. Ct. R. (Rec. Soc. of Lanes. 
and Ches. xli), passim. 

13 Original at Hoghton Tower. Printed 
in Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 432. 

18 Chart. R. (Rec. Com.), 17 it. In 

the Charter Rolls the date is given as Aug. 
xxviii ; but this is a mistake for xxiii. The 
deed is dated from Worcester, where John 
was on the 23rd (Itin. of John) ; on the 
28th he was at Winchester. 

14 Orig. in Liv. Munic. Archives. 
Printed in Hist. Munic. Liv. 153. 

15 Inq. p.m. i Edw. Ill, m. 88. 

16 Itin. of John prefixed to Pipe R. of 

17 Pipe R. of 1207-9 ' n Lanes. Pipe R. 
220, 228, 234 ; where an allowance of 
9 8j. is made to the sheriff ' in defalta 
de West Derbei quae est remota usque ad 
Liverpul, per breve Regis.' 

18 Inq. p.m. 25 Edw. I, no. 51. 

19 Moore and Crosse deeds. Also Add. 
MS. 32103 (extent of 1346). 

20 Moore deeds, passim. 
ffl Add. MS. 32103. 


spending holdings in the fields ; for, as the Moore and 
Crosse deeds abundantly show, these could be separ- 
ately sold or let by the tenant, still being ' acquitted ' 
so far as the lord was concerned by the burgage to 
which they were originally attached. The I zd. rent, 
together with suit at the borough court, constituted 
the whole of the 'service' due from the tenants." 
There is no evidence for the payment of a heriot, 
such as was exacted in Salford. 23 

The privileges which John promised to the occu- 
pants of the burgages are included under the general 
phrase ' all the liberties and free customs which any 
free borough on the sea has in our land.' This, if 
taken literally, would place Liverpool from the outset 
at the same level of burghal liberties as Bristol and 
Southampton ; but probably nothing of the sort was 
intended, 24 and the phrase is to be taken merely as 
securing to the burgesses personal liberty, freedom 
from service, free tenure of land, and exemption from 
the payment of tolls within the limits of the borough, 
though seemingly not beyond them. The grants of 
John are essentially promises to individuals, not formal 
concessions of powers to an organized community. 
During the next twenty-two years the borough was 
doubtless governed by a royal bailiff or steward, and 
the burgesses were represented, as in the rural period, 
by a reeve. 85 Probably, however, 1207 saw also the 
establishment of a weekly market and an annual fair, 
the erection of a mill, 16 and perhaps of a chapel.* 7 

The gradual progress of the new borough is best 
illustrated by the history of its yield to the royal 
exchequer. From 1211 to 1219 the profits of Liver- 
pool seem to have been included in those of West 
Derby, from which it may be inferred that the borough 
was administered in these years by the steward of the 
neighbouring manor. In 1222 and the following 
years " an assized rent of 9 was charged on the 
borough, being answered for by William de Ferrers as 
sheriff of Lancaster. How much was covered by this 
rent it is not easy to determine, 29 but if it included 
mills, ferry, and courts as well as the burgage rents 
the borough must have been poor enough, or the 
sheriff have made a substantial profit. Possibly the 
burgesses may themselves have paid the assized rent, 
but more probably the borough was farmed for this 
sum by the sheriff. The tallages assessed on the 
borough during the early years of Henry III show, 
however, a steady advance. In 1 2 1 9 30 Liverpool 
paid half a mark, West Derby a mark, Preston 10 


marks. In 1222" Liverpool paid 5 marks, West 
Derby I mark, Preston 15 marks. In 1227" Liver- 
pool paid 1 1 marks js. 8</., West Derby 7 marks 
4/. Afd., Preston 15 marks 6V. In these years the 
parent manor of West Derby had been completely 
outstripped, while the new borough was rapidly over- 
taking Preston. 

A very important step forward was taken when on 
24 March 1229 Henry III granted a charter" to 
Liverpool, the burgesses paying for it 10 marks. The 
payment shows that they had learnt to take common 
action ; perhaps they had formed an illicit gild. The 
charter of Henry III is of the first importance, as 
it remained the governing charter of the borough 
down to 1626, all the intervening charters being 
merely confirmations with or without modifications. 
The charter is on the most ample scale. It opens by 
conceding that Liverpool should be a free borough 
(liber burgus], for ever ; but this, though it secured, 
probably did not extend the privileges already con- 
ferred by John. In the second place it grants inde- 
pendent jurisdiction to the borough court in the 
regular formula of sac and soc, thol and theam, and in- 
fangenethef, and exempts the burgesses from suit at 
shire and hundred-courts for their holdings in the 
borough. In regard to trade, the exemption from 
tolls in the Liverpool market granted by King John 
was now extended to all markets within the king's 
dominions, and the Liverpool traders were thus placed 
on a level with the burgesses of the most favoured 
boroughs. But the most important concession of the 
charter was the right to have ' a gild merchant with a 
hansa and all the liberties and free customs pertaining 
to that gild ' ; the privileges of trade, previously con- 
fined to holders of burgages, being now limited to 
members of the gild, while in future no one might be 
permitted to trade in the borough without licence of 
the gild. No evidence whatsoever survives as to the 
mode of organization of the gild thus granted, or its 
relation to the ordinary governmental machinery of 
the borough. Doubtless all holders of burgages were 
entitled to membership. 34 

During the first century of the borough's existence 
it is as difficult to say anything definite about the 
borough government as about the gild. With regard 
to officers, in 1246 the 'vill' was represented at the 
eyre of the justices by twelve jurors, including 
' Ranulf de Moore, reeve of the vill,' 35 but this seems 
to be the only mention of a reeve ; probably he was 

22 Add. MS. 32103 ; Reg. St. Wer- 
burgh Hall MS. 1965, fol. xviii. 

28 For discussion of this, see Hist. 
Munic. Go-vt. in Liv. 1 3 n. 3. 

24 Ibid. 15-17. 

25 A reeve is mentioned in I 246 ; As- 
size R. 1404, m. 1 6. 

26 The mills certainly existed from 
1256, and probably from 1229. 

a ? The small chapel of St. Mary del Key 
was in existence before 1257 ; see below. 

28 Pipe R. 10 Hen. Ill ; Hist. Munic. 
Go-vt. in Li-v. Z95. 

29 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new sen), xxi, 6, 7. 

80 Pipe R. 3 Hen. Ill, m. 12 d. 

81 Ibid. 6 Hen. Ill, m. 5 d. 

82 Ibid. II Hen. Ill, m. I. 

88 Orig. in Liv. Munic. Archives ; 
Chart. R. 13 Hen. Ill, m. 9; Hist. Munic. 
Go-vt. in Liv. 155. 

84 In the 1 6th century it had become 
the practice to admit to the freedom of 
the gild all sons and apprentices of free- 

men (Munic. Rec. passim) on payment of a 
small fixed fee, whether they held bur- 
gages or not ; and as early as 1525 non- 
resident merchants were admitted in large 
numbers ; Duchy of Lane. Misc. vol. 
95, fol. 36^ ; Hist. Munic. Govt. in Li-v. 
402. Whether or no this practice 
existed from the beginning it is impossible 
to say ; but in any case the grant of gild- 
powers rendered possible the admission to 
trading privileges of persons other than 
burgage holders, and thus prevented the 
limitation of these privileges to a narrow 
landholding oligarchy. But the non- 
burgess members of the gild, in so small 
a borough, must always have been few ; 
and there can have been little distinction 
between the burgess body proper and the 
gild. Hence it is probable that, as in 
other cases (Gross, Gild Merchant, i, chap, 
v.), a single assembly and a single set of 
officers served for both. 

There is, indeed, throughout the Middle 

Age no allusion in any document to 
separate officers of the gild. In the i6th 
century gild business and borough busi- 
ness were indifferently transacted in the 
same assemblies and by the same officers. 
In 1551 there were elected two 'sene- 
schals of the Gild Court ' (Munic. Rec. i, 
za. But they were then only keepers of 
the gildhall), whose existence suggests 
that there had once been a distinctive 
court for the enforcement of trade regula- 
tions, which would not naturally fall 
under the review of the borough-court. 
But that is the only mention of any such 
officials. Probably, therefore, the gild 
added little to the complexity of burghal 
organization ; and it should be regarded, 
not as a distinct body, but rather as simply 
adding certain new executive and legisla- 
tive powers to the existing ruling bodies 
of the borough. The question is dis- 
cussed at length in Hht. Munic. Go-vt. in 
Liv. 31-6. 86 Assize R. 404, m. 16. 


replaced by a bailiff. In 1292" the burgesses asserted 
that they ' had been accustomed to have ' a bailiff ' of 
themselves,' i.e. elected by themselves ; numerous 
local deeds, 17 the earliest dating from 1309, show, 
however, that there were two bailiffs. The pro- 
bability is that the burgesses normally elected one, and 
that the lord appointed the other to look after his dues. 
When the burgesses held the farm of the town 
they may have elected both bailiffs. In the only roll 
of the borough court M of Liverpool which survives 
from the mediaeval period, the lord's steward pre- 
sides ; but this may be because the burgesses did not 
then hold the farm of the town." 

The great advance marked by the charter of 
Henry III was completed by the concession to the 
burgesses on the following day, 25 March 1229, of a 
lease of the farm of the borough 40 at a rent of 
10. The lease is in the most general terms, but it 
is clear from the items included in the same rent in 
1256" that it comprised the burgage rents, the 
market tolls, and the profits of two water-mills and a 
windmill." If at this date the burgages at all 
approximated to their ultimate number of 1 68 the 
burgesses must have made a substantial profit on this 
lease. But the lease was only for four years, expiring 
in 1233. While it lasted, the lease freed the bur- 
gesses from the intervention of royal agents. 

The burghal system of Liverpool had no sooner 
been completed by these deeds than the borough 
passed from royal to baronial control, as a result of 
the grant of the borough, along with the rest of the 
Lancashire lands of the Crown, to Ranulf, Earl of 
Chester. 4 * During Ranulfs occupancy, which lasted 
for three years only, and that of the three Ferrers, 
Earls of Derby, whose tenure extended (with the 
interval of the minority of Robert de Ferrers, 
1254-62 (?)) until 1266, the material for the history 
of the borough is singularly scanty. But the Ferrers 
family appear to have respected the burghal liberties, 
and to have renewed the lease of the farm (which fell in 

in 1233) regularly at the same rental throughout the 
period of their control. 44 In 1266, just before his 
last rebellion and confiscation, Robert de Ferrers con- 
firmed the charters 4A of Liverpool ; probably as a 
means of raising money. 

The most important event of the period 
C4STLE was the erection of the Liverpool Castle, 
which had taken place before 1235 and 
may safely be attributed to the first William de 
Ferrers. 46 There had long been a castle at West 
Derby ; it was in ruins in 1296,^ but it had been 
in existence in 1232," when 
the first Ferrers took posses- 
sion ; when his son succeeded 
him, Liverpool Castle had 
been built ; 49 probably the 
one was intended to take the 
place of the other. No re- 
cord of its erection survives, 
nor any account of the fabric 
before a late date. It was 
demolished in 1720, and no 
satisfactory views or plans of it 




survive. 60 It stood at the top 

FERRERS, Earl of 
Derby. fairy or and 

of the modern Lord Street 
that is, on the highest point of land in the town, imme- 
diately overlooking the entrance to the Pool. Occupy- 
ing an artificially created plateau, almost exactly 50 yds. 
square, it was surrounded by a moat some 20 yds. 
wide, cut out of the solid rock." The main fabric 
consisted of (i) a great gatehouse surmounted by two 
small towers, which stood at the north-eastern corner, 
and looked down Castle Street ; (2) three circular 
towers at the three other corners ; one of these, 
probably that at the south-east corner, was built later 
than the rest of the fabric, in 144.2 ; the south- 
western tower seems to have been regarded as the 
keep of the fortress ; (3) curtain walls connected the 
four main towers ; on the eastern side the wall rose 
from the edge of the rock-plateau ; on the north and 

88 Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), 

7 Moore D. passim. 
M Roll of 1324; Lane. Ct. R. (Rec. 
Soc. xli), 77-88. 

89 As to lesser burghal officers there is 
no evidence before the i6th century, 
when we get the titles (Munic. Rec. i, za) 
of a hay ward, two burleymen, two moss- 
reeves, two ale-founders, all of whom 
must have had mediaeval predecessors ; 
and two water-bailiffs, four merchant 
prysors, and two leve-lookers, who were 
probably officials required by the gild 
powers obtained under the charter of 
Henry III (Gross, Gild Merchant) ; the 
1 6th century also shows us in exis- 
tence a body of jurats like those of 
Leicester (Bateson, Rec. Leic.), Ipswich 
(Little Domesday of Ipswich), and other 
towns. They numbered twelre or twenty- 
four, and made regulations for the better 
government of the town, besides making 
presentments in the portmoot. Their 
decrees were at that date disregarded, but 
they were considered to be the representa- 
tives of an institution which had once 
been powerful (Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. 
i, 52). It is likely, therefore, that in 
mediaeval Liverpool, as in Leicester, Ips- 
wich, and all the other boroughs of Eng- 
land ' (Little Domesday of Ipswich), there 
was a standing body of jurats who exer- 
cised a general control over the adminis- 

tration carried on by the bailiff and other 
elected officers. 

In the i6th century all the officers 
were elected at an assembly of all freemen 
held on St. Luke's Day, 18 October. 
Other assemblies were summoned for 
special business as occasion required. 
There were also two solemn courts, or 
portmoots, in each year ; the great port- 
moot being held a few days after the 
electoral assembly. In the mediaeval 
period the only general bodies of which 
there is mention (Add. MS. 32103 ; 
Court Roll of 1324, Lane. Ct. R. 77-88) 
were two great courts, corresponding 
to the portmoots of the i6th century, 
at which all burgesses were bound to be 
present, and a lesser court held theoreti- 
cally every three weeks, but in practice at 
irregular intervals. Thus in 1 3 24 twelve 
courts were held, at intervals varying 
from a week to three months. 

It is likely that the i6th century 
differentiation between the portmoots for 
legal business and the assemblies for 
general business did not exist in the early 
days of the borough ; but that the single 
governing organ of the borough was the 
portmoot, at which all burgesses were 
entitled to be present, and, on two solemn 
occasions a year, required to be present. 
For a fuller discussion of the burghal 
constitution under the charter of Hen. Ill 
see Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 20-36. 

40 Pat. 1 3 Hen. Ill, m. 9 ; Hist. Munic. 
Govt. in Liv. 296. 

41 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xxi, 8. 
4a On the history of the mills and 

milling soke of Liverpool, see Bennett and 
Elton, Hist, of Corn-milling, iv, chap, iv, 
where the facts are fully marshalled. 

48 Cal. Close, 1227-31, p. 221 ; Chart. 
R. 1 3 Hen. Ill, pt. i, m. 2. 

44 This is a fair inference from the 
fact that in 1256, during the minority of 
Robert and the occupancy of his lands by 
the king's son Edward, Edward's bailiff 
renders account for the farm of the vill of 
Liverpool at the old rent ; Duchy of 
Lane. Mins. Accts. bdle. 1094, no. n ; 
Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 39, 296. 

45 Hist. Munic. Govt. 156. Original in 
Liv. Munic. Archives. 

46 Cal. Pat. 1232-47, p. 89. 

4 ' Inq. p.m. 2$ Edw. I, no. 51. 

48 Cal. Close, 1231-4, p. 169. 

49 Fine Roll, 32 Hen. Ill, pt. i, m. 14. 

* The best discussion and reconstruc- 
tion of the castle is by E. W. Cor, 
Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), vi. 

&1 Mr. Cox has been followed in infer- 
ring these main features of the castle 
from (i) the Extent of 1346 ; (2) de- 
tailed instructions for repairs in 1476 
(Duchy of Laac. Bk. of Orders, etc. 
Edw. IV, fol. 140) ; (3) report of com- 
missioners on demolition of the castle, 
1706, Okill MSS. iv, 337. 



south it was recessed so as to be commanded from the 
towers ; on the west it formed an obtuse angle, the 
angle touching the edge of the rock ; (4) the hall 
and a chapel probably lay respectively along the 
western and southern walls, and were connected with 
the south-western tower ; (5) there were also a brew- 
house and a bakehouse, the sites of which cannot be 
determined ; they may have been in the north-west 
angle, near which a postern gate led to an under- 
ground passage from the moat to the edge of the 
river. 5 * The courtyard seems to have been divided 
by a wall running from north to south. A survey 
of 2 October I559 52a gives further interesting details 
of the building. It was at the time ' in utter ruin 
and decay,' there having been no lead on any of 
the buildings within the memory of man. The 
great tower, probably that at the south-west, had 
a slated roof, and the commissioners suggested that 
it should be repaired and used for the keeping of 
the * Quenes Majesties Courtes for Her Graces 
Wappentacke of West Derbyshyre, being a very greate 
soken,' and for the storage of the court rolls. The 
* ringe walle ' or curtain and the masonry of the 
towers seem to have been fairly sound, and only 
needed protection from the weather, and the com- 
missioners strongly advised the putting of the castle 
into substantial repair at a cost of about 100, 
' otherwaies it were a grate defacement unto the said 
towne of Litherpole.' No mention is made of any 
moat in the report, and there is some tradition that 
none existed till the Civil Wars, but no proof of this 
is obtainable. 

There was a dovecot under the castle wall, and an 
orchard ran down the slope to the Pool on the east. 
Out of this orchard Lord Street was cut in the 1 7th 
century. Thus the first period of baronial suzerainty 
had resulted in the overawing of the burgesses by a 
formidable fortress. 

On the rebellion and forfeiture of Robert de 
Ferrers Liverpool, with other possessions between 
Ribble and Mersey, passed to the hands of the 
Crown. Henry III at once granted them with the 
honour of Lancaster to his second son, Edmund ; to 
whose representatives Mary de Ferrers, wife of the 
forfeited earl and niece of the king, was ordered to 
surrender the castle of Liverpool in July I266. 53 
This begins the second part of the baronial period of 
Liverpool history, extending over the earldoms of 
Edmund and Thomas of Lancaster, 1266-1322. 
Both of these earls seem to have treated the borough 
with some harshness. In the first place the lease of 
the farm was not renewed. Earl Edmund took the 
administration of the town into his own hands, 54 or 
at least broke up the farm into several parts ; and the 
total yield under the new system in place of the old 
rent of 10 amounted to 25 los. in the latter 
years of Earl Edmund and about 30 by the end of 

the reign of Earl Thomas ; the tolls of market and 
fair alone brought in as much as the old rent ; but 
there seems reason for believing that a farm of these 
tolls was held by the burgesses. 55 

The greatly increased yield of the town affords 
evidence, however, that the earl was doing his best 
to develop its resources, and the beginning of a period 
of prosperity may perhaps be attributed to this time. 
In addition to the suppression of the lease of the farm, 
Edmund overrode the chartered rights of the burgesses. 
In 1292 the bailiffs and community of Liverpool 
were summoned on a quo warranto 56 plea to Lancaster. 
No bailiffs came ; but several men came for the com- 
munity, and, producing the charters of John and 
Henry III, stated that they had been a free borough 
with a gild, &c. ; but that Earl Edmund suffered 
them not to have a free borough, or to elect a bailiff 
* of themselves ' ; wherefore they did not claim these 
liberties at present. The further hearing of the case 
was adjourned, but there is no record of the decision. 
Whatever the decision, the burgesses did not regain 
their rights till the beginning of the reign of 
Edward III. 

During this period the growing importance of the 
town (or the power of its masters) is recognized in the 
summons of burgesses from Liverpool to the Parliament 
of 1295, and again to that of 1307." The first 
Liverpool members of Parliament were Adam son of 
Richard, and Robert Pinklowe. After 1307 the 
borough did not again return members to Westminster 
until the middle of the 1 6th century. 

During the earldom of Thomas of Lancaster the 
steady progress of Liverpool appears to have continued. 
It is to this period that we 
must attribute the inclosure of 
Salthouse Moor, of which no 
mention is made in 1296, but 
which was in occupation and 
yielding rent in I322. 48 This 
is the only large approvement 
from the waste of which there 
is any trace, before the I7th 
century. The area first in- 
closed amounted to 45 acres ; 
which were in 1 346 59 divided 
among 5 1 free tenants and 47 
tenants-at-will, and in 13227 

yielded 4O/. of rent. Most of the tenants in these new 
lands already held burgages in the borough, but 32 
of them were not included in the burgess roll, and 
this involved that they were a new class of tenants, 
not sharing in the liberties, but directly under the 
control of the lord. He could hold a distinct court 
for them if he wished ; and though this does not 
seem to have been done at this period, that was only 
because the lord's steward was presiding over the 
borough-court. At a later date questions of the first 

THOMAS, Earl of Lan- 
caster. ENGLAND -with 
a label of FRANCE. 

53 A rock-cut passage still runs under 
James Street, from tomewhere near the 
position of the castle, towards the river. 
It was entered and examined in May 1862 
by Mr. P. M. Coogan (Rep. in vol. 2, 
p. 132 of the Misc. Rep. in the City En- 
gineer's Office), and a plan and sections 
were made, showing that it varied in 
height and width, averaging about 8 ft. in 
height, and has in its floor on the south 
side a channel, which, when lately sounded 
on the suggestion of Mr. Robert Glad- 
stone, junr., has proved to be as much as 

7 ft. 6 in. deep. It was again examined 
by the city engineer in 1908, and a new 
plan made. That it had some connexion 
with the ditch of the castle seems pos- 
sible, and its depth is said to be sufficient 
to allow the river water to reach the ditch 
at high water. 

62a Duchy of Lane. Special Commis- 
sions, no. 9. 

68 Pat. 50 Hen. III. 

64 Inq. p.m. 25 Edw. I, no. 51 5 
L.T.R. Enr. Accts. Misc. no. 14, m. 77. 
Perhaps this may have been the result of 

his visit to Liverpool in 1283 ; Whalley 
Coucher, 507. 

K Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xxi, 

"Plac. de Quo War. (Rcc. Com.), 
38 1 1.\ Hist. Munic. Govt. in Li-u. 41, and 


W Par I. Writ*, i, 39 (18). 

68 L. T. R. Enr. Accts. Misc. no. 14, 
m. 77. 

M Extent of 1346, Add. MS. 32103, to 
which a full list of burgesses and tenants 
in Salthouse Moor is appended. 


importance were to arise from the existence of this 
group of tenants. 

This was not the only new use made of the waste 
by Thomas of Lancaster. In the year 1310, on a 
visit to the borough, the earl granted to the burgesses M 
6 Cheshire acres of moss ' adjoining the mill-pool of 
the vill of Liverpool ' at a rental of one silver penny 
per annum. This was in exchange for the right 
which they had previously possessed of digging peat in 
Toxteth Park. Important as being the first piece of 
corporate property owned by the burgesses, this patch 
of moss lay at the upper end and on the eastern side 
of the Pool, and formed part of the Mosslake. The 
rent of it appears among the revenues of the town 
during the remainder of the I4th century ; in the 
1 5th it disappeared, being merged in that general 
control over the whole of the waste which the bur- 
gesses of that period quietly usurped. But in spite 
of this gift the earl does not seem to have attached 
much value to the borough, for in 1315 he granted 
both castle and borough to Robert de Holand. But 
no charter was sealed, nor did the tenants do homage ; 61 
in consequence of which Holand's son, after the death 
of Thomas of Lancaster, failed to obtain restitution 
of the estate, though he petitioned Parliament and 
obtained a favourable report from the treasurer and 
the barons of the exchequer. 6 ' 

The confusion produced by the turbulence of 
Thomas of Lancaster and the weak government of 
Edward II was felt at Liverpool as elsewhere. In 
1315 Adam Banastre, Henry de Lea, and William 
de Bradshagh raised a rebellion against the earl ; and 
marching from their rendezvous at Charnock by way 
of Wigan, under the standard of Adam Banastre, made 
an assault upon Liverpool Castle. 63 They were driven 
back, and then fell upon West Derby. This is the 
only occasion on which the castle is known to have 
been attacked before the Civil War. 

On the attainder and execution of Thomes of Lan- 
caster royal agents reappeared in the borough. The 
very full accounts 64 which they rendered from 1322 
to 1327 supply some of the most valuable material for 
ascertaining the condition of the town ; and it is to this 
time that the single court roll for the mediaeval period 
that for the year 1324 belongs. In 1323 King 
Edward II himself visited Liverpool, staying for a 
week in the castle between 24 and 30 October. In 
preparation for him the castle was thoroughly repaired 
and victualled ; M and the sum of is. $>d. in particular 
was expended in mending the roof of the hall. 66 
During the last troubled years of Edward II, the 
bailiffs of Liverpool were kept busy carrying out 
feverish orders : such as to hold ready for the king's 
service all ships of sufficient burthen to carry 40 tuns 
of wine, to make returns of such ships, to warn 
mariners to beware of pirates, 67 to proclaim kindly 
usage for Flemings. 68 When, in 1326, the situation 
became really critical, the bailiffs were ordered to send 
all ships of 50 tons and upwards to Portsmouth j 69 to 
search all persons entering or leaving the port, and to 

seize letters prejudicial to the king ; 70 and to prevent 
the export of horses, armour, or money. 71 So, amid 
feverish feeble strife, the reign of Edward II came to 
an end. With it ended an epoch for Liverpool. 
The century from 122910 1 3 27 had seen a serious 
diminution of burghal liberties, but it had also wit- 
nessed a substantial expansion of the borough's re- 
sources. In the next age this expansion continues, 
and is accompanied by a remarkable revival of the 
privileges of the burgesses, which attained their highest 
point at the end of the century. 

The disorders which had marked the later years 
of Edward II continued to disturb Liverpool in the 
early years of his successor, and their echoes are 
audible in the trials of the period of which record 
remains. In 1332 Robert son of Thomas de Hale 
slew Henry de Walton at Liverpool, in the church 
before the altar ; a few days later Simon son of William 
de Walton struck and wounded Henry Ithell, and on the 
next day his brother Richard struck and wounded Robert 
the Harper." In 1335 Sir William Blount, sheriff 
of the county, was murdered in Liverpool while en- 
gaged in the execution of his office, 73 and four 
years later five men, in consideration of their hav- 
ing ' gone beyond the seas ' in the king's service, 74 
were pardoned for this crime and also for the murder 
of Henry Baret and Roger Wildgoose. As late as 
St. Valentine's Day 1345 there was a serious disturb- 
ance of the peace in Liverpool : 7i a body of lawless 
men having entered the town in arms, with banners 
unfurled as in war, forced their way into the court 
where the king's justices were in session, and after 
hurling * insulting and contumacious words,' ' did 
wickedly kill, mutilate, and plunder of their goods, 
and wound very many persons there assembled, and 
further did prevent the justices from showing jus- 
tice . . . according to the tenour of their commis- 
sion.' Three weeks later special justices were appointed 
to deal with the offenders, and in July a large number 
of persons, many of them being men of position in 
the county, were pardoned at the request of the Earl 
of Lancaster, on condition that they went at their 
own charges for one year to do service to the king in 

A condition of society such as is indicated by these 
events could scarcely be favourable to the growth of 
peaceful trade ; nevertheless, the growth of Liverpool 
continued. In 1338 the earl appears to have made 
an addition to the approved lands in Salthouse Moor, 
and enfeoffed a number of tenants at fines of 5 marks 
to the acre ; 76 and the details of the assessment for the 
levy of a ninth in 1340 show a number of substan- 
tial persons to have been resident in the town. 77 We 
now obtain the first clear indications of the extent and 
nature of the trade of the town, of which something 
will be said later ; it would appear that Liverpool had 
become one of the most considerable ports of the 
west coast. As such, during the Scottish wars of the 
early years of Edward III, and during the Irish wars 
of the later years of his reign, it proved very useful as 

60 Original in Liv. Mimic. Archives. 

61 Inq. p.m. i Edw. Ill, m. 88. The 
manor of West Derby was granted to 
Holand 3 Feb. 1320. The charter was 
inspected and the grant confirmed by the 
king 22 Feb. 1320. Cal. Pat. 1317-21, 
p. 431. 

a Rot. Par!, ii, 1 8. 

68 Coram Rege R. 254, m. 51. 

64 L.T.R. Enr. Accts. Misc. no. 14. 

65 The walls, towers, houses, and gates 
of the castle were ordered to be repaired 
and the castle victualled 7 Feb. 1323. 
Cal. Close, 1318-23, p. 627. 

66 L.T.R. Enr. Accts. loc. cit. 
6 ? Cal. Close, 1323-7, p. 183. 
68 Ibid. pp. 367, 378. 

89 Ibid. p. 641. 


7<> Ibid. p. 537. 71 Ibid. p. 546. 

73 Assize R. no. 1411, m. 2. 
78 Cal. Pat. 1334-8, p. 580. 
7< Ibid. 1338-40, pp. 217, 229, 232, 

75 Ibid. I343-5. PP- 495-95 Coram 
Rege R. 344, m. 8. 

76 Add. MS. 32105, GG. 2901. 

77 Exch. Lay Subs. bdle. 130, no. 15. 



a port of embarkation ; and it is probably to the 
attention thus directed to it that we must attribute 
the revival of the town's political fortunes. 

In 1327 the constable of Liverpool Castle was 
ordered 78 to receive within the castle men fleeing 
from the invading Scots. Next year the bailiffs of 
Liverpool were ordered to have all vessels in the port 
of 40 tons burthen in readiness to resist the king's 
enemies from Normandy and Poitou. 79 In 1333 the 
bailiffs were commanded to retain all vessels of 
burthen sufficient for 50 tuns of wine, and to pre- 
pare them hastily with double equipment for the 
defence of the kingdom against the Scots,* and the 
mandate was repeated in the next year, a royal com- 
missioner being told off to supervise the preparations. 81 
In 1335 a clerk of the Exchequer was told off to pro- 
vide two ships of war fully manned and armed, to 
sail from Liverpool in pursuit of a great ship loaded 
with wine and arms, coming from abroad, and destined 
for the aid of the king's enemies in the castle of Dum- 
barton. 82 These ships seem also to have been used to 
carry supplies for the royal army to Skymburnesse, at 
the mouth of the Solway. 63 In the same year six of 
the largest ships to be found on the west coast be- 
tween Liverpool and Skymburnesse were ordered to 
be manned and armed and sent against the Scottish 
ships. 8 * 

In the French wars of the middle part of the reign 
Liverpool naturally took less share ; M but the inse- 
curity of English waters which marked the first part 
of the war is indicated by the receipt of an order to 
the Liverpool bailiffs not to permit vessels to leave the 
port for foreign parts save in great fleets and under 
escort, 86 while on more than one occasion Liverpool 
ships were summoned to southern ports to help in 
dealing with threatened French attacks. 87 

In the later part of the reign of Edward III, and 
during the reigns of Richard II and Henry IV, Liverpool 
was still more actively engaged in connexion with the 
Irish wars than she had been at the commencement 
of the period with the Scottish wars. In 1361 ' the 
whole navy of the land, competently armed,' was 
brought to transport Lionel of Clarence and his army 
to Ireland from Liverpool and Chester; 88 in 1372 
all ships between 20 tons and 200 tons burthen 
between Bristol and Liverpool were ordered to be 
collected at Liverpool for the transport 89 of William 
de Windsor, * governor ... of our realm of Ireland, 
.and of the men at arms and others about to depart 
in our service in the retinue of the said William.' 
In the next year all ships between Southampton and 
Furness were ordered to be brought to Liverpool for 
a similar purpose. 90 The port was constantly uti- 
lized for the embarkation of troops, and the Patent 
Rolls contain frequent notices of the assemblage of 

78 Rot. Scot, i, 209. 

79 Cal. Close, 1327-30, p. 307. 

80 Rot. Scot, i, 248, 258. 

81 Ibid. 306, 309. 

82 Cal. Close, 1333-7, p. 414 ; Rot. Scot. 
i, 321. 83 Pipe R. 9 Edw. III. 

84 Cal. Rot. Scot, i, 355. 

85 It has long been supposed that one 
Liverpool ship took part in the siege of 
Calais ; Baines, Liverpool, 152 ; Kaye's 
Stranger in Liv. (1825 ed.), 1 5. It is clear, 
however, that this vessel hailed from 
Mersea in Essex, and not from the River 
Mersey, as pointed out by Mr. Robert 
Gladstone, jun. See the Liverpool Courier, 
26 Dec. 1905. 

ships and considerable forces of men in the town on 
the way to Ireland. 91 

This frequent use of the port for royal purposes, 
which doubtless brought with it an expansion of trade 
to both Scotland and Ireland, is beyond question the 
main reason for the favour now shown to Liverpool 
both by the king and by the earl. 91 The first sign of 
this is the grant of the right to collect certain dues for 
paving the town, first made in 1328 for a period of 
three years, and renewed several times during the 
century. 93 The collection of these dues and the 
spending of them represent a new kind of corporate 
action on the part of the burgesses, and therefore 
mark a stage in the development of municipal govern- 
ment. The money does not seem always to have 
been used for the purpose for which the grant was 
made, for in 1341 a commission of investigation had 
to be sent to Liverpool, as the king was informed that 
much of the money collected had been misappro- 
priated. 94 In 1333 a still more valuable favour was 
received from the king in the grant of a new charter. 95 
The charter contains no new grant, being merely a 
confirmation of its predecessors. But we have seen 
that such a confirmation was highly necessary, and we 
may assume that from this date the free exercise of 
chartered liberties, prevented since the accession of 
Edmund of Lancaster, recommenced. 

Still more important than the charter, the lease 
of the farm of the borough is gradually regained 
during this period. 96 At the beginning of the reign 
of Edward III the burgesses seem to have held a 
lease only of the tolls of the market and fair. 97 
The first great advance is marked by the extent 
of the lands of the second Henry of Lancaster, 
made in 1346 after his succession to the earldom. 
In this deed there is a combined farm of the 
mills, tolls, and ferry for 24 per annum, which 
has been held for some years by an unnamed farmer, 
almost certainly representing the burgesses, and which 
is henceforward to be raised to ^26. 98 In 1357 
there comes a highly important new lease of the 
farm," at a rent of 33, which was granted to eight 
leading burgesses on behalf of the community. This 
lease included the burgage rents and the profits of 
courts, in addition to the rights covered by the 
previous lease. 100 From this lease, however, the rents 
of the new inclosures in Salthouse Moor seem to be 
omitted, and it would appear that while the burgesses 
resumed control of their own borough-court, a separate 
court was now instituted for these tenants. Apart 
from this, the sole reservations were the castle with 
its purlieus, forfeitures of lands, and (probably) escheats. 
By 1357, therefore, the burgesses had again attained 
to all but the highest degree of municipal liberties. 
The 1357 lease appears to have been continued 

88 Rot. Scot, i, 467. 8 " Ibid. 

88 Pat. 35 Edw. Ill, pt. 2, m. 24. 

89 Ibid. 47 Edw. III. Printed in Baines, 
Liv. 165-6, from Okill's transcripts. 

<JO Ibid. 48 Edw. Ill ; Baines, op. cit. 

91 Cal. Pat. 1377-81, p. 385 ; 1385-9, 
p. 163; 1388-92, pp. 134. 405, 385; 
1399-1401, p. 164, &c. 

92 Ibid. 

93 Ibid. 1327-30, p. 231; 1330-4, p. 
39 6 5 J334-8, p. 223 ; 1381-5, p. 130. 

1 Ibid - I340-3. P; 3*3- 
93 Original in Liv. Munic. Archives. 
Hist. Munic. Go-vt. in Liv. 158. 

96 The steps in this process are analysed 


in detail in Trans. Hist. Sec. (new. ser.), 
xxi, 1-27. 

9 <" Ibid. 13 ; L. T. R. Enr. Accts. Misc. 
no. 14, m. 77. 

"Ibid. 19; Add. MS. 32103; Hist. 
Munic. Govt. in Liv. 299. 

99 Duchy of Lane. Chan. R. no. 2 ; 
Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 302 and 47. 
See also Trans. Hist. Soc. loc. cit. 23. 

100 In view of these additions the rent 
is extremely moderate, for the burgage 
rents of 8 more than make up the 
difference between the old rent of 26 and 
the new rent of ,33. Possibly the rea- 
son for this moderation was that the town 
suffered severely from the Black Death. 


regularly until I393, 101 when it was replaced by a still 
more extensive lease granted by John of Gaunt, which 
represents the highest point attained by the municipal 
liberties of Liverpool during the Middle Ages. 103 
The rent was raised to 38, but the lease included a 
grant of control over the whole of the waste, a power 
which the burgesses were never to lose, though it is 
not mentioned in later leases ; it included all the 
lord's jurisdictional rights (embracing, apparently, the 
right of holding a court for the Salthouse Moor tenants, 
which brought these tenants under the control of the 
borough courts and officers) ; and it included the 
right of taking escheats and forfeitures. In brief, the 
effect of this lease was to extrude the feudal power 
entirely from the borough, except within the walls of 
the castle. The lease was for seventeen years, and 
expired in 1410. It thus extended well into the new 
period which began when, by the accession of the 
House of Lancaster to the throne, the borough was 
once more brought into direct relation with the 

The extension of municipal powers represented by 
these leases was accompanied by a development of 
the burghal system of government. In 1351 there is 
the first mention of a mayor of Liverpool. 103 No 
royal or ducal grant of the right to elect such an 
officer survives, and the probability is that his appear- 
ance is the result of the re-acquisition of the lease of 
the farm, and perhaps dates from 1346, or even earlier. 
Up to that time it seems probable that the burgesses 
had only elected one bailiff, 104 the other being nomi- 
nated by the lord ; and as the functions performed 
by the latter (collection of dues and presidency of the 
court) were much the more important, he would be 
very definitely major ballivus. When these functions 
pass into the hands of the burgesses, they elect their 
own major ballivus. It was as major ballivus that the 
mayor began, 10 * but later he nominated a bailiff of 
his own. It is instructive to find that this second 
bailiff was always regarded as representing the Crown 
(i.e. the lord) as well as the mayor. 196 

It is possible that the same period also saw the 
institution of another element in burghal government 
the Court of Aldermen. 107 Each of the leases from 
1357 was granted to a group of leading citizens, most 
of whom repeatedly occupied the mayoral chair, and 
who were probably selected as substantial men, able to 
stand surety for the payment of the rent. In the 
lease of 1393 they were formally empowered to hold 
the borough courts. Both in its functions and in its 
personnel, this group closely resembles the Court of 
Aldermen as it is found in the 1 6th century, when 
records begin to be abundant. 

Thus the 1 4th century, in spite of the disorders of 
its first half, and the distresses caused by plague and 
war in its second half, witnessed firstly a steady growth 
of the town and a steady expansion of its prosperity ; 
and secondly a striking revival and development of its 
municipal liberties. One exception to this statement, 

however, must be made. Though there is no trace of it 
in the records, it would appear that the influence of the 
Peasants' Revolt extended to Liverpool. One of the 
demands made by the rebels was the withdrawal of the 
monopoly enjoyed by the privileged burgesses in 
towns ; and it is probably to some such demand that we 
must attribute the grant of the charter of Richard II in 
1382, the year after the rising. 108 The only distinc- 
tive feature of this charter is its revocation of the 
power of prohibiting trade by non-members of the 
gild which had been contained in the earlier charters, 
and it is inconceivable that the burgesses can have 
applied for this. But in spite of this charter, clearly 
the little borough was thriving ; and it is possible, 
through the greater abundance of material, to get 
some notion of its life and working at this, the moment 
of its greatest prosperity. 

The burgess roll appended to the extent of 1346 
shows that there were 196 householders in Liverpool 
paying rent to the lord. On the usual basis of calcu- 
lation, this would give a population of just under 
1,000. But as the more substantial burgesses, who 
held large holdings in the fields or engaged largely in 
trade, must have had dependants not included in this 
estimate, the population may perhaps be put down at 
something like 1,200. It probably did not increase it 
may have decreased during the second half of the 
century, for Liverpool suffered severely from the 
Black Death ; in 1360 the deaths were so numerous 
that the dead could not be buried in Walton 
Churchyard, and a licence was obtained from the 
Bishop of Lichfield for burials in St. Nicholas's 
Churchyard. 109 

This population must be regarded as being still, for 
the most part, except on market days, engaged in 
agriculture. Every burgess had holdings in the fields. 
The commonest holding was half a burgage, with 
about I acre in the fields, but some of the leading 
townsmen held much larger allotments. The will of 
William de Liverpool, 110 the leading burgess in the 
second half of the I3th century, survives, and an 
inventory of his property attached to it shows that his 
wealth was almost purely agricultural in character. 
He has grain in his barn worth 6 i$s. 4^., and 
24 selions of growing wheat in the fields, worth j. 
He has nine oxen and cows worth about 101. apiece, 
six horses worth about js. each, and eighteen pigs 
valued at is. 6d. each. His domestic furniture is 
valued at j 6s. %d. But no merchandise is included 
in the inventory. As we shall see, William de Liver- 
pool derived most of his wealth from milling. 

The trade of the borough was probably mainly local 
in character. The weekly market, held every Saturday, 
and the annual fair on St. Martin's Day, probably 
mainly dealt in agricultural produce from the neigh- 
bouring parts of Lancashire and Cheshire. The ferries 
over the Mersey were of first-rate importance for this 
purpose ; of these there seem to have been three. 
There seem to have been two ferries included in 

101 Irant. Hilt. Soc. loc. cit. 26-7 ; Hist. 
Munic. Govt. in. Liv. 47-54, 304-6. 

101 The original of this is lost. A copy 
it printed in Gregson's Fragments, 352 ; 
there is another copy among Okill's 
manuscripts in the municipal archives. 
Printed in Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 

10 Elton, 'Early Recorded Mayors of 
Liv.' Trans. Hist. Sec. (new ser.), xviii, 

1 1 9 ff. gives a catalogue of the early 
mayors, taken from the witnesses to the 
deeds in the Moore and Crosse collections. 

104 They only claim one bailiff in the 
Quo Warranto Plea of 1292. 

105 Willielmo filio Ade tune maiore de 
Lyverpull, Roberto filio Mathaei tune altero 
ballivorum ibidem ; Add. MS. 32105, GG. 

06 Thus in 1647 Richard Williamson 


nominatus et electui est Ballivus fro 
domino rege et majore burgi predict! ; 
Johannes Sturzaker nominatus et electut 
est Ballivus pro villa et burgo predicto. 

10 7 On this see Hist. Munic. Govt. in 
Liv. 51. 

108 Original in Liv. Munic. Archives ; 
Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 52 and 159. 

109 Lich. Epis. Reg. v, 44-5. 

110 Crosse Deeds, 77. 




Quarterly gulei and or, 
over all a crazier erect 
proper, in the fir tt quarter 
a lion of England. 

the Liverpool farm, 111 one to Runcorn, the other 
(probably) to Birkenhead. In addition, the prior of 
the Benedictine monastery in Birkenhead enjoyed, 
from 1330 at the latest, 111 * the right of ferry from 
Birkenhead to Liverpool. In 
1 3 1 7 m Edward II granted to 
the prior the right of build- 
ing houses of entertainment 
for the use of the ' great num- 
bers of persons wishing to 
cross there,' who were 'often 
hindered,' by reason of 'con- 
trariety of weather and fre- 
quent storms.' From the re- 
cord of a Quo Warranto inquiry, 
to which the prior was sum- 
moned in I354, us we learn 
that the ferry tolls from the 
Birkenhead side were : for a 
man on foot, \d. ; for man and 

horse, id. On Liverpool market days a man on foot 
was charged \d., and if carrying baggage \d. Probably 
the fares on the Liverpool ferry were the same. The 
connexion of the Birkenhead monastery with Liverpool 
was intimate. The prior held in Water Street a house 
and barn for the storage of corn waiting for the 
market. 114 There is no evidence as to the nature of 
the tolls charged in the Liverpool market and fair. 
They yielded in all never less than jio a year during 
the 1 4th century. 

With regard to the sea-going trade of Liverpool the 
evidence is equally scanty. 115 The appointment by 
the Crown of the mayor as deputy steward for the 
prisage of wines in the Port of Liverpool in I364 116 
seems to indicate that there was some importation of 
wines from Gascony, and this is borne out by other 
notices. Probably the sea-going trade of Liverpool at 
this period, as in the 1 6th century, was mainly with Ire- 
land, and consisted of an exchange of rough manufac- 
tured goods and iron, against cattle and hides. The fact 
that down to the 1 8th century Bristol, Waterford, and 
Wexford were the only ports 117 in which Liverpool 
merchants claimed, and to whose traders the Liverpool 
burgesses habitually conceded, that right of exemption 
from dues which the charters granted in universal 
terms, seems to show that it was the Irish trade which 
was alone developed to any considerable extent. 118 In 
1350 we get a glimpse of the nature of a Liverpool 
merchant's goods from a suit in which William de 
Longwro sued Adam de Longwro, his bailiff, for an 
account of his stewardship during the previous year, 
and his use of twenty entire woollen cloths (pieces), 
IO quarters of barley, 40 quarters of oats, and iron 
worth i oo, and of I oo/., which he had received to 
trade with. 119 Lancashire and Yorkshire woollen goods, 
iron from Furness, and corn seem to be the staples of 
export trade. Perhaps salt from Cheshire may be 

Nor can much be said about the industries of the 

borough. There is no trace of the existence of craft 
gilds in the mediaeval period. Two such gilds are 
recorded to have come into existence in the i6th 
century, but they were then novelties ; If probably 
the number of craftsmen was too small a few weavers 
and smiths may have exhausted the list. Two gold- 
smiths are named in the burgess roll of 1346. But 
the industries were doubtless merely the normal 
industries of a rural market-town. Brewing seems to 
have been carried on very actively. In the single 
year 1324 m there were thirty-five prosecutions for 
breaches of the assize of ale, and this involves that 
many more were brewing and selling ale on legal terms. 
Not only the demands of market days, but especially 
the healthy thirst of the soldiers who were constantly 
encamped in Liverpool during this period, makes it 
natural to imagine almost every burgess as making some 
profit in this way. 

The mills play an important part in the life of the 
borough. 1 " In I256 1 " there had been three mills, 
two water-mills and a windmill, probably all at or 
near the same place, on the stream which ran into 
the upper end of the Pool, where a mill-dam remained 
long after the mills had vanished. By 1 296 one of 
the water-mills had disappeared ; m by 1 3 2 3 the second 
had been replaced by a horse-mill, 125 probably in 
Castle Street. The single windmill was that of 
Eastham, on the rising ground south-east of the Pool, 
behind the modern art gallery. By 1348 m a second 
windmill had been added. This was the Townsend 
Mill, which stood close to the Eastham Mill, near the 
site of the Wellington monument. The horse-mill 
still survived, and the three mills were included in the 
leases held by the burgess body from (at the latest) 
1348 ; each of them being separately sub leased to a 
working miller. At one or another of these mills all 
inhabitants of Liverpool were bound to grind, and 
they may also have been used by some of the neigh- 
bouring townships. 117 Much the most important of 
the mills was that of Eastham, for which, in the next 
century, twice as much rent was paid as for the 
Townsend Mill." 8 In 1375 it was leased to William 
son of Adam de Liverpool, the most important burgess 
of the period. 119 The lessors were Richard Nunn, the 
parson, and John Heathorn, who may have acted on be- 
half of the burgess body. The Townsend Mill, and per- 
haps the horse-mill, may have been held by the Moore 
family, who held them both at a later date ; Sir Edward 
Moore, in the I /th century, claimed that his ancestors 
had built the Townsend Mill. 130 Thus the mills of 
the borough were probably in the hands of its two 
chief families. 

It would be possible to give, from the Moore and 
Crosse deeds, the assessments for subsidies, and the 
burgess roll of 1346, an account of a number of 
principal families in the town. Some of these were 
branches of important county families, or landholders 
in neighbouring townships. Such were the Waltons, 
lords of the manor of Walton, who held the serjeanty 

111 Duchy of Lane. Mins. Accts. bdle. 
103, no. 1821. 

"1* Harl. MSS. 2101, fol. 208. 
118 Pat. ii Edw. II, pt. i, m. 14. 
"'Chester Pleas, 27 Edw. III. 

114 Moore D. 280 (20), 297 (38), 309 
(50), &c. 

115 The pavage grants give long lists of 
commodities upon which dues may be 
charged, but in all probability these were 
conventional lists, and cannot be taken as 

representing the actual commodities dealt 
in. " 6 Close, 40 Edw. Ill, m. 22. 

"7 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 77. " 8 Ibid. 

"'Duchy of Lane. Assize R. no. 2. pt. 
2, m. 4 d. lao Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 74. 

121 Lane. Ct. R. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches. xli), 77. 

laa Bennett and Elton, op. cit. iv, 

128 Duchy of Lane. Mins. Accts. bdle. 
1094, no. ii. 

124 Inq. p.m. 25 Edw. I, no. 51. 

185 L.T.R. Enr. Accts. loc. cit. 

138 Duchy of Lane. Accti. various, bdle. 
32, no. 17. 

la / Everton, e.g. which had no mill of 
its own. 

198 Duchy of Lane. Mins. Accts. bdle. 
101, no. 1800. 

129 Moore D. no. 450. 

" Moore Rental (ed. W. F. Irvine), 
63 ff. 87. 


WALTON or Walton. 
Sable three swans ar- 

of the wapentake of West Derby," 1 and provided at 
least one constable for the Castle of Liverpool ; 1M in 
1 346 Richard de Walton held four burgages in Liver- 
pool; 133 or the Fazakerleys, or the Irelands of Hale, or 
the Booties of Kirkdale, or 
the hereditary reeves of West 
Derby, all of whom held lands 
in Liverpool. Among the 
more purely burghal families 
something might be said of 
the Barons, the Corvesors, the 
Longwros, the Mariotsons, the 
Tippups. But two families 
stand out in such marked pro- 
minence as to deserve special 
mention. The first of these 
was the family of Liverpool, 
which from the mere fact 

that it habitually used the place-name as its sur- 
name may be supposed to have been settled in the 
borough from a very early date. In 1346 the 
various members of the family seem to hold among 
them something like fifteen burgages, 134 and the 
Moore and Crosse deeds show them making constant 
ac ]uisitions. The earliest notice of a member of this 
family, Richard de Liverpool, occurs between 1212 
and I226; 135 and it may be his son, or grandson, 
who, as Adam son of Richard, is recorded as one of the 
first Liverpool members of Parliament. From the 
beginning of the 1 4th century their genealogy can be 
traced in detail. 186 Adam de Liverpool, who in 1346 
held five and five- eighths burgages, had in 1332 paid a 
larger sum towards the subsidy on goods than any 
other person in Liverpool ; 137 
and he was one of the jurors 
in the Inquisition into the 
earl's lands in 1346. His 
father, his uncle, his brother, 
and his nephews, each in their 
generation appear in more or 
less prominent positions. But 
the most distinguished member 
of the family was William son 
of Adam, whose will has been 
already referred to. He lived 
through the period of the re- 
vival of burghal liberties, dying 
in 1383, and he played a principal part in securing this 
remarkable advance. He was the first recorded mayor 
of Liverpool in 1351, and though the list of mayors is 


LIVFRPOOL. Quarterly 
gules and or a cross 
formy argent. 

far from complete, he is known to have held the 
office eleven times. 138 As mayor he received, and 
probably took a large part in obtaining, the writ for the 
erection of the chapel of St. Nicholas in 13 56."' In 
1357 he is named first among the lessees of the great 
lease of the farm of the borough which forms so remark- 
able a landmark in the history of burghal liberties. 140 In 
1361 he was rewarded by Duke Henry, for * the good 
and free service' which he had done, by the grant of 
a pension of zos. for life from the profits of a West 
Derby manor. 1 " We have already seen him a tenant 
of the principal mill of Liverpool. In addition he 
owned a bakery in Castle Street, 141 and seems to have 
controlled a fishery, probably leasing from the duke 
the weir which he had erected near Toxteth Park. 148 
In short, he is at once the wealthiest and the most 
public-spirited Liverpool burgess of his day. 144 

William de Liverpool left two sons, by different 
wives, both named John, one of whom founded the 
chantry of St. John in the Liverpool Chapel, 145 perhaps 
in memory of his father ; but his lands and his mill 
presently passed into the hands of Richard de 
Crosse, a son of his wife by another marriage. 146 With 
him begins the connexion with Liverpool of the Crosse 
family, who are to play an exceedingly prominent part 
in the affairs of the borough during the next century. 147 
The other branches of the Liverpool family seem to 
have adopted various surnames, especially William- 
son 14S and Richardson, and to have become indistin- 
guishably merged in the mass of burgesses. 

The other principal Liverpool family of whom 
mention must be made was 
that of the Moores, for whom 
their descendant Sir Edward 
Moore claims that they were 
established in Liverpool from 
the earliest date. 149 This claim 
is probably not without justi- 
fication if, as seems likely, 
they took their name 15 from 
the moorish piece of ground 
which lay to the north of 
the upper end of the Pool, 
at the end of Moor Street 
or Tithebarn Street ; and we 
may regard them as the rivals of the Liverpool 
family throughout the first three centuries of the 
borough's history. Their seat, More Hall, lay at 
the northern end of the house-covered area, and 
its gardens ran down to the estuary. When in 

MOORE 01 ivl o r e 
Hall. Argent three 
greyhounds courant In 
pale sable collared or. 

181 See V.C.H. Lanes, iii, 3. 

811 Lane. Exch. R. 20 Edw. I. 

138 Extent of 1 346 already quoted. 

134 From the burgess roll appended to 
the Extent of 1 346. But owing to the 
dropping of the surname, it is not possible 
to be certain in the allocation of their 

m Margaret, relict of Adam de Garston, 
married Richard de Liverpool between 
1 21 2 and 1226 ; Lanes. Inq. and Extents 
(Rec. Soc,), i, 128 ; Whalley Coucher, 

86 Mr. Elton has given an account of 
some of the principal members of the 
family in his paper on William the ton 
of Adam,' Trans. Hist. Soc. (new sen) xix- 

" 133- 

"7 Exch. Lay Subsidies. 

188 Elton, 'Early Recorded Mayors of 
Liv.' Trans. Hut. Soc. (new ser.), xviii. 

189 Pat. 29 Edw. Ill ; see Okill, iv, 415. 

140 Duchy of Lane. Chan. R. no. 2. 

141 Close R. of Duke Henry, 52. 

142 Moore D. no. 257. 

148 Ibid. ' Quoddam gurgitum vocatum 
le ffisheyard juxta parcum de Toxtath' 
is mentioned in the Extent of 1346 (but 
in no other document) as yielding 6r. per 

144 His will contains one of the few 
personal notes surviving from the me- 
diaeval period. ' I bequeath my soul to 
God and the blessed Virgin and all saints 
and my body to be buried in the Chapel of 
Liverpool before the face of the image of 
the Virgin, where is my appointed place of 
burial. I leave to be distributed in bread 
on the day of my burial three quarters of 
wheat. I leave six pounds of wax to be 
used about my body. I leave to every 
priest in the chapel of Liverpool fourpence. 


I leave the rest of my goods to Katherine 
my wife and our children born of her* ; 
Crosse D. no. 77. 

143 Raines, Lanes. Chantries (Chet. Soc. 
lix), 82. 

146 Add. MS. 32105, GG. 2301, 2840. 

147 Perhaps their mansion of Crosse 
Hall, with its croft sloping down to the 
Pool near the town's end on the south side 
of Dale Street, may represent the original 
home of William son of Adam. 

148 In 1668 Sir E. Moore writes of 
Richard Williamson and his relations. 
4 There is a great faction of them . . . 
They have always been enemies of me and 
all yourpredecessors time out of the memory 
of man' ; Moore Rental (ed. W. F. Irvine), 
58 and note. 

149 Moore Rental (ed. W. F. Irvine), 8, 

150 Moore D. 377 (120) et passim. 



the 1 5th century they acquired a large amount of 
land in Kirkdale, 151 and built a new mansion, Bank 
Hall, there, the More Hall came to be called the 
Old Hall ; and has given its name to a modern street. 
They appear in prominent parts in the borough 
affairs, contemporary with the Liverpools. In 1 246 
Ranulf de More appears as reeve of Liverpool, 15 * and 
in 1292 John de la Mor, along with Richard de 
Liverpool, represented the burgesses at the Quo 
Warranto plea already referred to. 153 Down to the 
middle of the 1 4th century they are frequently found 
acting as bailiffs. 154 The younger members of the 
family seem often to have acted as clerks, and in that 
capacity to have written and preserved many deeds of 
land-transfer ; 155 hence the archives of the family 
included numerous deeds not relating to their own 
lands. In 1346 the holdings of the family in Liver- 
pool included sixteen and one-eighth burgages, 156 so 
that they slightly surpassed the Liverpools. In 1348 
it was John del Mor who held, probably on behalf of 
the burgesses, the farm of the tolls, market, and mills. 157 
But after that date the leadership of the borough seems 
to have been wrested from them by the Liverpools. 
While William son of Adam held the mayoralty at 
least eleven times, and his intimate friend and ally, 
Richard de Aynsargh, nine times, the name of Moore 
is conspicuously absent from the roll of mayors until 
1 38 2, 1M when William de Liverpool had practically 
retired. Thereafter the Moores in their turn have 
almost a monopoly of the mayoralty. 159 There seems 
here to be indicated a keen rivalry between these two 
leading houses, which would doubtless be accentuated 
if, as has been suggested above, both were rival millers. 
This rivalry found vent in the law courts when in 
1374 Thomas del More sued William de Liverpool 
for having dispossessed him of the Castle Street bakery, 
the fishery and some turbary. 160 The matter was 
compromised by William's remaining in possession, 
but paying More an annual rent of 3*. These are 
the dim echoes of what was probably a pretty lively 

Outside of the liberties of the borough, but con- 
stantly affecting its fortunes, was the castle. It was 
ruled by a constable, receiving an annual salary of 
6 6s. %d. ; 1S1 the constable was generally, if not 
always, also keeper of Toxteth Park, and sometimes 
also of Croxteth and Simonswood Parks, 163 for which 
he received a further salary of 2. The connexion 
of Toxteth Park in particular with Liverpool was so 
intimate that in the next century the Crown found it 
necessary to make a special statement in the farm 
leases reserving it from the farm. 163 The names of 
several constables survive ; 16< the office at this period 
being not yet hereditary, as it became in the next 
century. The constable did not usually reside in the 
castle, but in a house just outside of its gate. 165 In 
normal times there was no standing garrison in the 
castle, and the permanent paid staff seems to have con- 

sisted of a watchman and a doorkeeper, each of whom was 
paid I \d. per diem. 166 There were, however, several 
houses within the castle, 167 where there may have been 
permanent rent-paying residents, though they may 
have been reserved for the use of the officers of the 
forces, which constantly passed through the town. A 
detailed list of the castle plenishment survives ; 16S it 
includes 186 pallets, 107 spears, 39 lances, 15 
bal/istae, ^ engines, 7 ' acketouns, old and weak,' I 
large vat for brewing, and a considerable amount of 
domestic furniture. 

The 1 5th century, for many English trading 
ports a period of advance, was for Liverpool a period 
of retrogression in population, prosperity, and politi- 
cal freedom. The process of decay does not perhaps 
become evident until the reign of Henry VI ; but 
already, before that date, the causes which were to 
contribute to it were making their appearance : 
namely, the weakness of the Crown, and the turbulence 
of the uncontrolled nobility. In I4o6 169 Sir John 
Stanley obtained licence to fortify a house in Liver- 
pool. This was the Tower, at the bottom of Water 
Street, which remained in the possession of the house 
of Stanley until the Commonwealth. This is the first 
appearance in the borough of a family which from that 
time onward was to play a mightily important part in its 
history. The reason for it was that, having acquired 
the Isle of Man as a result of the forfeiture of the 
Percies after the battle of Shrewsbury, Stanley needed 
a base for communications with his new dominion. 
The Tower seems to have been, at any rate occasionally, 
used as a residence by the family ; it was frequently 
occupied by troops. Thus the town was burdened 
by the presence of a second feudal fortress, only a 
bowshot from the original castle. 

By the accession of Henry IV, which united the 
duchy of Lancaster to the Crown, Liverpool again 
came under direct royal control. It might have been 
expected that this would redound to the advantage of 
the borough, but the reverse was the case. The lease of 
the farm of the borough of 1393 was, it is true, con- 
firmed by Henry IV ; 17 but only for the remainder of 
its term, which expired in 1410. Immediately on its 
expiration serious trouble began. From an interesting 
memorandum inscribed on the back of the confirma- 
tion 171 it appears that the burgesses had resolved to 
apply not only for a renewal, but also for a supple- 
mentary charter, conveying to them new powers, in 
particular the right to hold courts under the Statute 
of Merchants and the right to make arrests for debt. 
Henry V did actually grant a charter 171 in the first 
year of his reign, probably as a result of this applica- 
tion ; but it was merely a confirmation of the previous 
charters, and its sole advantage was that by disregard- 
ing the charter of Richard II it restored to the bur- 
gess body the right of prohibiting non-members of 
the gild to trade in the town. But it was over the 
renewal of the lease that the chief difficulties arose. 

151 See under Bootle and Kirkdale for 
the lands of the Moores outside of 

152 Assize R. 1404, m. 16. 

lss Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), 381. 
154 Moore D. fatsim. lss Ibid. 

168 Extent of 1 346, loc. cit. 
1J 7 Duchy of Lane. Accts. various, bdle. 
32, no. 17. 

158 Elton, loc. cit. ; Moore D. 255. 
1S Ibid. Thomas del More held the 

mayoralty at least 16 times more often 
than any other Liverpool man has ever 

160 Moore D. 190, 230, 231, 257. 

161 e.g. Harl. Cod. 433, fol. 317*. 

162 e.g. Reg. Due. Lane. 46 Edw. Ill, 
fol. 50, 232 ; 14 Hen. IV, fol. 29. 

168 Duchy of Lane. Mins. Accts. bdle. 
117, no. 1934. 

164 A partial list is given in Gregson's 


185 Moore D. 452 (169*7). 

188 L.T.R. Enr. Accts. Misc. 14, m. 


W Duchy of Lane. Book of Orders, &c. 
Edw. IV, 140. 

16 L.T.R. Enr. Accts. loc. cit. 

169 Pat. 7 Hen. IV, pt. ii, m. 14. 

1 7 Hist. Munic. Go-vt. in Liv. 308. 

1 ^ 1 Original lost ; printed in Gregson's 
Fragments, 352 ; Hist. M unic. Go-vt. in Li-v. 
309. VS Ibid. 1 6 1. 


being forgotten on both sides. This was the control 
of the waste, which from this time remained burghal 

It appears from the memorandum already referred to 
that the mayor and leading burgesses had to face 
opposition on the part of a section of the inhabitants property. 

described as ' those that hold of the king in Liverpool/ Itjs not known what was the^ result of the petition 
and, in order to frighten these recusants into line, 
hought of obtaining a privy seal ordering them all to 

appear before the king's council in London, unless 
they came to an agreement with the mayor. * Those 
that held land of the king ' can only have been the 
tenants in the recent inclosure in Salthouse Moor. It 
has already been suggested that these tenants had been 
separately governed up till 1393, when the great lease 
put them under the control of the burgess body. If 
they had been since that date forced to pay 'scot 
and lot,' to bear their share of burgess burdens without 
being admitted to burgess privileges, it is easy to 
understand why they should object to a renewal of 
the lease, and should prefer to return to the state of 
things before 1393. It is probably due to their 
opposition that the lease was not renewed in all its 
amplitude. No lease at all, indeed, survives for the 
period 1411-21. But such evidence as exists goes to 
show that the burgesses obtained a partial farm con- 
sisting of the market tolls, ferry and burgage-rents ; the 
perquisites of courts and the mills, together with other 
miscellaneous rights, being reserved by the Crown and 
administered by royal agents, who now reappeared in 
the borough for the first time since 1393, or perhaps 
since 1357. The rent paid by the burgesses seems 
to have been 22 17*. 6J."* 

But trouble at once resulted from this arrangement. 
In 1 41 3 m the royal agents do not appear to have 
been able to collect any money at all ; and in the 
following years they got only 2$ to 26, including 
the burgesses' payments, in place of the ^38 paid 
under the old lease. There is no entry at all in their 
accounts for perquisites of courts ; the only moneys 
they were able to get over and above the ' rent and 
farms' which represent the burgesses' payment was 
a payment for mills, generally largely swallowed 
up in repairs. The explanation of this curious state 
of affairs is to be found in an interesting petition sent 
by the burgesses to the House of Commons in 141 5,'" 
in which they ask for protection against the ' officers 
and servants ' of the king, who, * since the confirmation 
(of 1413) and not before . . . have come, usurped 
and held certain courts ' in the borough, in defiance 
of the terms of all the burghal charters, and of the 
king's own confirmation. By right of the grant of 
sac and soc contained in these charters, the burgesses 
claimed to ' have at all times had and continued a 
court ' and to ' have taken and received the perquisites 
of the said court with all the profits belonging 
thereto.' The assertion that the king had no claim 
to the profits of burghal justice is directly contra- 
dicted by the whole preceding history of the borough : 
it was only since 1357 that the burgesses had taken 
these profits, and then only in virtue of a special 
grant in the lease. But the episode is a striking 
illustration of the difficulty of regaining rights 
once conveyed by lease. One right included in the 
lease of 1393 was not even claimed by the Crown, 

to Parliament, which was referred to the king's 
council. But the burgesses continued to resist the 
royal agents, and to hold the courts themselves ; and 
apparently they also quarrelled with the Crown over 
some question of tolls possibly customs duties such 
as the prisage on wine, which in later leases the Crown 
is careful to define as not being covered by the lease. 
At length in 1420"" the steward of West Derby 
Hundred was ordered to summon all the mayors and 
bailiffs of Liverpool for the preceding seven years to 
appear before the Exchequer Court of the duchy at 
Lancaster ' to render us account for the time they 
have held our courts at Liverpool . . . and for the 
tolls and other profits levied by them in the mean- 
time.' This summons, however, had no better result. 
In the next year (1421) Henry V found it necessary 
to grant a lease '" of the whole farm, without limita- 
tion, for a year, pending an inquiry into the terms on 
which it ought to be held. The rent paid was 23 ; 
that is, 2s. 6d. more than the burgesses had been 
paying for their partial farm, and 15 less than they 
had paid up till 1410. Before this inquiry could be 
completed Henry V had died, and during the 
minority of his son it was npt to be expected that 
rights would be enforced which the vigorous father 
had failed to defend. The burgesses continued to 
hold a lease, at the slightly increased figure of 
23 6s. 8</., until I449- 178 Thus the conflict with 
the Crown had ended in a burghal victory ; the bur- 
gesses were left in possession of several royal rights, 
above all the control of the waste and the supre- 
macy of the Borough Court over all the inhabi- 

In the meanwhile, however, the disorder and tur- 
bulence of the district had been increasing. In 1424 
a violent feud broke out between Thomas Stanley 
and Sir Richard Molyneux. 179 Ralph RadclifFe and 
James Holt, justices of the peace for Lancashire, were 
sent by the sheriff" to keep order. They found Stanley 
entrenched in his father's tower in Liverpool, with 
about 2,000 men, waiting for the attack of Sir Richard 
Molyneux, who was advancing from West Derby with 
1 ,000 men or more in battle array. The two pro- 
tagonists were both arrested by the sheriff, and forced 
to withdraw, Stanley to Kenilworth, and Molyneux 
to Windsor. Record of this episode, which nearly 
made the streets of the borough the scene of a pitched 
battle, survives because the period of full anarchy was 
not yet begun. The episodes of the age of the war 
are left unrecorded. 180 

In February 1421-2 Sir Richard Molyneux ob- 
tained a grant of the constableship of Liverpool 
Castle, together with the stewardship of West Derby 
and Salford, and the forestership of Toxteth, Crox- 
teth, and Simonswood. 181 In 1440-1 the offices 
were renewed for the lives of Sir Richard and his 
son, and five years later they were made hereditary. 181 
In 1442 the castle was further fortified by the erection 

1 ' 8 Duchy of Lane. Min. Accts. bdle. 
731, no. 1202 id; Hist. Munic. Govt. in 
Li-v. 56 n. 4, and 58 n. I. 

^Mins. Accti. B 731, 12017, 1*019*, 

" s Rot. Par/, iv, 55 ; Hitt. Munic. Govt. 
in Li-v, 399. 

176 Duchy of Lane. Misc. vol. 17, fol. 

17 " Ibid. fol. loo. 

V* Ming. Accts. bdles. 117, 732, 733 ; 
Hist. Munic. Go-vt. in Liv. 112, 717. 

Dods. MSS. 87, 89. 

180 The outrage at Bewsey in 1437 in 


which the leader, Pooie, is described as a 
Liverpool man, it another significant 

181 Reg. Due. Lane. Bk. 17, fol. 

183 Ibid. ; Com. Hen. VI, fol. 57*; 
Okill Transcripts, iv, 275. 



of the south-east tower. 183 The cost of the addition 
was 46 1 3*. i oj</. The stone was obtained from 
Toxteth Park, the wood from the royal forest, now 
controllel by Molyneux, and the money from the 
Dachy Exchequer. Throughout the period the 
expenditure in repairs of the castle was large and 
constant. 184 The effect of the establishment of the 
Stanleys in the tower, and of the Molyneuxes in the 
castle, was to leave the borough very much at the 
mercy of the two great noble houses entrenched 

a crust moline or. 

STANLEY. Argent 
on a bend azure three 
harts' heads cabossed or. 

in their midst, especially at a period when the 
Crown was perfectly incapable of maintaining order. 
Simultaneously, the prosperity of the borough steadily 
diminished, 184 and it was not till the beginning of the 
1 7th century that it again stood on the level to 
which it had attained at the beginning of the i$th, 
either in population or in trade. 

The decay is most strikingly demonstrated in the 
history of the lease. The last of the continuous 
series of burgess leases which followed the quarrel 
with the Crown expired in 1449, and apparently 
the burgesses found themselves 
unable to offer to continue 
it. A royal agent, Edmund 
Crosse, 186 of the local family 
already noticed, appears ; but 
could only collect a little less 
than 19 in 1450, and 
15 14*. in 1452, as com- 
pared with even the reduced 
rent of 23 6s. %d. long paid 
by the burgesses. The most 
striking decline is in the 
market-tolls, which in 1450 
yield only 2, though in 
1327 they had yielded 10, and in 1346 much 
more. The failure of Crosse to produce increased 
revenues enabled the burgesses to get a new farm 
in I454 187 at the low rent of ij 6s. 8</., but they 
were 5/. in arrears on the first year, though they 
had never been in arrears when they had to pay 38. 
In 1461 Edmund Crosse again rendered account 188 : 
the town was at farm, whether held by himself or 
by the burgess body it is not possible to say. But 
it was a * new farm, ' and the rent was only 14. Dur- 

CROSSE. Quarterly 
gules and or a cross po- 
tent argent in the jirit 
and fourth quarters. 

ing the period of this lease the Crown, disregarding its 
terms, made a special grant of one of the mills 189 and 
of one of the two ferry-rights, 190 apparently with the 
desire of increasing the yield. The burgesses held a 
lease at 14 from 1466 to 1471 ; but for the last two 
years of the period no account was rendered. The 
civil war had broken out afresh after Warwick's insur- 
rection, and the burgesses were either suffering from 
its effects, or seized the opportunity to withhold pay- 
ment. When Edward IV was again safely established 
on his throne, he did his best to exact arrears for these 
two years ; but never succeeded in getting from the 
poverty-stricken burgesses more than 9 of the ^28 
due from them. 191 He did not renew their tenure, 
but granted a lease, this time unquestionably a per- 
sonal lease, to Edmund Crosse (1472) at ,14 2J. 191 
The burgesses never regained the lease. But even 
Crosse was unable to pay so modest a figure. Three 
years Iater(i475) his son, on having the lease renewed, 193 
got the extra ^s. knocked off again, and obtained also a 
concession of the two rural mills of Ackers and Waver- 
tree, in addition to the burghal mills. But this was 
not enough. In the next year (1476) he obtained a 
revised lease, 194 by which the rent was reduced to 1 1 . 
This represents probably the lowest ebb of Liverpool 
prosperity. When, in 1488, the lease passed out of 
the hands of the Crosses and was granted to David 
Griffith, 195 the rent was raised to .14; this was in- 
creased to 14 6s. %d. in I528, 196 and at that figure 
it remained. Evidence is lacking as to the trade of 
the port during this period ; but its absence is in itself 
significant. And indeed it is needless to ask for more 
striking evidence of the decay of the borough than that 
afforded by the leases of the farm. At the same time 
the very misery of the place, removing it from all 
envy, saved to it some valuable privileges. 197 The 
control of the burgess body over the waste, their right 
to conduct their own courts, and the extension of their 
governmental authority over the non-burgess inhabi- 
tants, should probably be regarded as having been estab- 
lished by usage in this period of helplessness and poverty. 
It is with the Tudor period that the material for 
Liverpool history begins to be abundant. To the 
regular records of the borough, which begin in 1555, 
there is prefixed a collection of ' elder precedences,' 
some of them dating from 1525; and in addition, 
the national or duchy muniments provide ampler 
material than before. But the reign of Henry VII, 
the period of transition, is still very scantily supplied. 
Substantially all that is known of this period is that 
in 1488 Henry VII gave a lease of the farm to 
David Griffith, 198 in whose family it remained till 
I537 199 at the increased rent of ^14 ; that in 1492 
he empowered Thomas Fazakerley 20 to form a fishing 
station on the shore of the waste, between Toxteth 
Park and the Pool ; that in 1498 the burgesses were 
summoned to a Quo Warranto plea which does not 
seem to have been heard ; and that in 1486 he made 
to one Richard Cook m a grant of ferry at 3 per 

183 Okill Transcripts, iv, zo8 ; Cox, 
4 Liv. Castle,' Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.) 
vi, 195 ff. 

184 Okill, iv, 208, has summarized these 
expenditures from the Mins. Accts. 

184 A like decline is observable in the 
prosperity of Preston at this period, 
though the circumstances, apart from the 
weakness of the Crown and the distress 
caused by the war, were different from 
those of Liverpool. 

is Duchy of Lanes. Mins. Accts. bdle. 

101, no. 1800; 117, no. 1941. 
18 'Ibid. 101, no. 1804. 

188 Ibid. 102, no. 1820. 

189 Duchy of Lane. Chan. R. 3 Edw. IV, 
no. 54 ; Hist. Munic. Govt. in Lii>. 318. 

190 Chan. R. 8 ; Hist. Munic. Go-vt. 319. 

191 Duchy of Lane. Mins. Accts. bdle. 

1 02, no. 1818. 

193 Duchy of Lane. Chan. R. no. 55 ; 
Hist. Munic. Govt. 321. 


198 Chan. R. 55 } Hist. Munic. Govt. 324. 
194 Chan. R. 57; Hist. Munic. Go-vt. 325. 
194 Duchy of Lane. Misc. no. 21. 
196 Croxteth Mun. (Liv. box 10, R 2, 
no. 2). 

19 ? On this see Hist. Munic. Govt. 62-6. 

198 Hist. Munic. Go-vt. 328. 

199 Ibid. 329, 330, 331. 

200 Duchy of Lane. Reg. Bk. 
801 Hist. Munic. Go-vt. 401. 
202 Ibid. 327. 


annum, and for icven years, in place of a grant for life 
and without rent, which had been made two years 
before by Richard III.* 03 

In the first half of the 1 6th century Liverpool 
seems to have begun slowly to emerge from the 
profound depression of the previous period, though 
even in the second half she is still described as a 
' decayed town.' Perhaps the revival was partly due 
to the renewed use of the port, under Henry VIII, 
for transport to Ireland. Skeffington's army in 1534 
shipped from Chester and Liverpool ; 1M and a 
memorial of 1537 for the instruction of the king 
states that the army in Ireland ' must be vitelid with 
bere, biskett, flowre, butter, chease, and fleshe out of 
Chestre, Lirpole, Northwales and Southwales and 
Bristow.' wi Some of the bullion required by the Irish 
army was also exported through Liverpool.* 06 Probably 
the Irish trade of the port revived as a consequence. 
Leland, in a brief note on Liverpool, 107 says that 
' Irish merchants come much thither, as to a good 
haven ... At Liverpool is small custom paid that 
causeth merchants to resort. Good merchandize at 
Liverpool ; and much Irish yarn, that Manchester 
men do buy there.' Thus already Liverpool was 
importing raw material for the nascent industries of 
Lancashire, and exporting the finished product. 80 * We 
hear of one Liverpool merchant* 09 trading with 
Drogheda, who in 1538 had for sale 1 2 Ib. of London 
silks, and 1 2 pieces of kerseys, white, green and blue ; 
three of the latter sold for 15 izs. But the trade 
of the reviving port extended beyond home waters. 
Edmund Gee of Chester and Liverpool, who is 
spoken of as the 'chief man and head merchant' of 
Liverpool, 110 persuaded a Spaniard, Lope de Rivera, 
to import into Liverpool large quantities of wine ; * u 
in 1 5 34 the deputy- butler for Lancashire complains 
that William Collinges has imported 1 8 tuns of wine 
into Liverpool without paying prisage ; "* while in 
1545 we hear of a Biscayan ship 'stayed at Liver- 
poole.' m When the embitterment of the Reforma- 
tion struggle led English traders to prey upon 
Spanish ships, Liverpool sailors seem to have taken 
some part in these piratical adventures : in 1555 
Inigo de Baldram, a Spaniard, complained to the 
Privy Council that he had been robbed by 'pirates 
of Lierpole and Chester.' * u But the Spanish trade 
can only have been of the smallest proportions ; even 
that with Ireland, the staple of Liverpool traffic, was 
humble enough. 

Within the borough a modest development can be 
traced. In 1516 Oldhall Street was, by agreement 
with William Moore of the Oldhall, made an open 
road to the fields.* 15 From 1524 a deed survives* 16 
in which the burgesses granted to Sir William 
Molyneux at a rental of 6s. a few roods of waste land 
beside the Moor Green, for the erection of a tithe- 

barn to hold the tithes of Walton Church, which 
belonged to the Molyneux family. Moor Street now 
becomes Tithebarn Street. The importance of this 
deed is that it shows the burgesses acting as owners of 
the waste ; and this is still more clearly exhibited 
in a borough rental of 1523,"' prefixed to the 
Municipal Records, in which eight tenants pay 
among them js. ^d. for patches of common. A 
rental of the king's lands in Liverpool * 18 dating from 
1539 yields further interesting particulars. The 
total value was 10 is. ^d. t which was, of course, 
included in the lease of the farm. It is significant that 
only 3f burgages are enumerated ; which appears 
to indicate that the burgage as a distinctive holding 
was passing out of use. Twenty-six burgages were 
included among the endowments of the four chantries 
in I546.* 19 

The early years of the century saw the establish- 
ment of the last of the chantries, that of the priest John 
Crosse, who provided that the chaplain should also 
teach a school.* 20 His will contains also a bequest to 
the ' mayor and his brethren with the burgesses ' of 
the * new [house] called our Ladie house to kepe their 
courtes and such busynes as they shall thynke most 
expedient.' Thus by one act the borough became 
possessed of a school and a town hall. 

The period, however, witnessed a number of dis- 
putes between the burgesses and the Crown or the 
lessees of the farm. In 1514 (David Griffith with 
his wife and son being then the lessees) * 21 a com- 
mission *** was appointed by the Crown ' on the be- 
half of our farmer of our toll within our said town 
of Liverpool ' to inquire whether ' the Mayor and 
Burgesses . . . for their own singular lucre and 
advantage now of late have made many and divers 
foreign men not resident nor abiding in the said 
town to be burgesses of the same town to the intent 
to defraud us and our right of toll there.' The result 
of this inquiry (which was probably due to dissatis- 
faction with the yield of the farm) is not known. 
But it shows the burgesses trying to recoup them- 
selves for the loss of the farm by taking payments 
for the admission of non-burgesses to that exemption 
from dues which was their chartered privilege. In 
I528* 2S another commission was appointed to 
' survey search and examine the concealments and 
subtraction of all and every such tolls customs and 
forfeitures as to us rightfully should belong ... of any 
goods . . . conveyed to or from our port of Liver- 
pool.' In the next year a new cause of quarrel 
appears. Thirteen men had been working a ferry 
from Liverpool to Runcorn. This ferry-right the 
lessee, Henry Ackers, claimed to be covered by the 
farm ; and as a result of his complaint to the Crown, the 
mayor was ordered m to put an end to this illegal 
ferry. The order seems to have been neglected, for 

908 Hist. Muntc. Go-vt. 326. As a ferry- 
right was also included in the farm 
lease, this grant is only explicable on the 
assumption that there were two ferries. 
The probability ie that Cook's ferry plied 
between Liverpool and Runcorn. 

"> State Papers, Hen. VIII, ii, 205. 

* Ibid, ii, 4 !5. 

908 Acts of P.O. 1552-4, p. 104. 

807 Leland, Itin. vii, fol. 50, 44. 

**See Duchy Plead, v, m. 2 (19 
Hen. VIII). 

* Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lane*, 
and Ches. xxxv), ii, 119. 

910 In the judgement in the case of 
Molyneux v. Corporation of Liv. ; Hist. 
Munic. GO-HI. 411. 

211 Duchy Plead, ix, c. 10, p. 47. 

212 Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches. xxxv), ii, 50. 

918 Acts of P.O. 1542-7, p. 248. 
814 Ibid. 1554-6, p. 236. 
a6 Okill Transcripts, xiv, 118. 
814 In the Municipal archives. 
V Munic. Rec. i, 5. 
818 Printed in Gregson, Fragment*, App. 

219 Raines, Lanes. Chant. (Chet. Soc. 
lix), 82-93. 

220 Duchy of Lane. Depositions, P. 
& M. v, m. 3 ; Inventories of CA. Gds. 
(Chet. Soc. cxiii), 97-8. 

821 Duchy of Lane. Misc. zi ; Hist. 
Munic. Go-vt. in Li-v. 329. 

222 Duchy of Lane. Misc. 95, 366 ; 
Hist. Munic. Go-vt. in Li-v. 402. 

828 Duchy of Lane. Misc. 22 ; Hist. 
Munic. Go-vt, in Li-v. 403. 

224 Duchy of Lane. Misc. 95, fol. 104 b ; 
Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 403. 

ii mi mi 


{From a Water-colour Drawing, c. 1800) 



in the next year Ackers petitioned the Chancellor of 
the Duchy for redress. 225 The dispute was settled 
by the lessee granting a sub-lease 226 to the burgess 
body, whereby they undertook to collect all the 
customs, tolls, and ferry-dues, and pay half of the total 
proceeds and 10. The royal rents of jio and 
the mills (separately leased at 5O/.) 227 were excluded 
from this sub-lease ; and as the sub-lease must have 
yielded to the lessor at least .20, his income from 
the town must have amounted to over 32, yielding 
him a handsome profit after he had paid his 1 4 6s. %d. 
to the Crown. Incidentally these figures show that 
the town was regaining much of its prosperity, and 
approximating to the conditions of 1394, when the 
rent was 38 ; though it should be remembered 
that the value of money had in the meantime 
materially declined. 

Of the effects of the first stages of the Reformation 
there is little to record. The only monastic property 
connected with the borough 
was the house and barn in 
Water Street and the ferry- 
right over the Mersey, which 
belonged to the Priors of Bir- 
kenhead, and passed with the 
manor of Birkenhead to Ralph 
Worsley. But the later con- 
fiscation of the chantries affect- 
ed Liverpool deeply. There 
were now four chantries in the 
chapel of St. Nicholas ; their 
lands in 1546 had been worth 
21 us. 3//., 228 paying in 
chief rents to the king I o/. 3</. 22 * 

The lands of two of these chantries those of the 
High Altar and of St. John were sold, though the 
priests attached to them seem to have remained resi- 
dent in the town. 230 Among the purchasers 2S1 were 
many of the burgesses of Liverpool, who were thus to 
some extent committed to support of the Reformation. 
The lands of the chantries of St. Nicholas and St. 
Katherine remained in the hands of the Crown, and 
their revenues were respectively devoted to the main- 
tenance of a priest for the Liverpool chapel and of a 
schoolmaster for the parish of Walton, 232 the pre-sup- 
pression chantry priests remaining to perform these 
functions. 233 In 1565 the administration of these lands 
seems to have been transferred from the Duchy officers 
to the mayor and burgesses, 234 who added further 
revenues raised among themselves, 234 and henceforth 
controlled the appointment both of the priest and of 
the schoolmaster of the town. 

Difference of opinion on the religious question may 

WORSLEY. Argent a 
cheveron sable between 
three falcons of the last 
beaked legged and belled 


have helped to precipitate a serious quarrel between 
the borough and the lessee of the farm. This had 
been since 1537 in the hands of Sir William Moly- 
neux 236 and his son Sir Richard, who however had 
continued the arrangement of their predecessors 
whereby the burgesses administered the various powers 
and collected the dues, 237 retaining half of them on 
payment of .10 per annum. In 1552 a mysterious 
lease was issued by Edward VI to one James Bedyll. 238 
It never took effect, but it may have been intended as 
an attack by the Protestant court upon the Roman 
Catholic Molyneuxes. If we suppose the burgesses 
to have been concerned in obtaining this lease, the 
quarrel with Molyneux which broke out immediately 
on the accession of Mary is easier to understand. Moly- 
neux obtained a renewal 2S9 of his lease, though his 
previous lease was still unexpired, and, the sub-lease 
to the burgesses having expired, 2 " he put in his own 
officers to collect the dues and hold the portmoot. 
The burgesses on their side obtained a confirmation 
of their charters, 241 though, having apparently over- 
looked the charter of Henry V, 242 it was the less favour- 
able charter of Richard II of which they obtained a 
renewal. They seem to have trusted to this to justify 
their claim to collect the dues and hold the portmoot, 
which they proceeded to do in spite of the lessee, even 
throwing his agents into prison. 243 The question was 
tried before the Chancery Court of the Duchy 244 
which gave its award on every point in favour of the 
lessees, awarding them * all and singular tolls and other 
profits in any wise appertaining to the said town,' 
whether paid by freemen or by strangers, and also 
definitely declaring that the lessee had the right to 
* keep courts within the said town . . after such sort 
... as the courts . . have been used to be kept,' 
and that suit at these courts must be rendered by all 
inhabitants. 144 This was a serious blow to the bur- 
gesses ; and, while space does not permit of an exam- 
ination of the question, it seems clear that the burgesses 
were deprived of some rights which justly belonged to 
them. 14 ' Two years later, on the intercession of Lord 
Strange and the attorney of the Duchy court, the 
quarrel was compromised by the renewal to the bur- 
gesses of the old sub-lease, which seems to have been 
continued throughout the remainder of the cen- 
tury. 247 

The municipal records from 1555 enable a clear 
account to be given of the mode of government to 
which the burgesses had now attained. At an as- 
sembly of burgesses held on St. Luke's Day,! 8 October, 
a mayor and one bailiff were elected, a second bailiff 
being nominated by the new mayor at the same 
meeting. 248 Other assemblies were held as occasion 

225 Duchy of Lane. Judic. Proc., Plead- 
ings, iv ; Hist. Munic, Go-vt. in Li-v. 404 ; 
Lane. Pleadings (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches. xxxii), i, 186. 

Probably the ferry in dispute was not 
the farm-ferry, but a continuance of that 
district ferry-right granted by Henry VII 
to Richard Cook. 

228 Croxteth Mun. Liv. Box 10. R2, 
no. 7 ; Hist. Munic. Go-vt. 335. 

M 7 Croxteth Mun. loc. cit. no. 3 ; Hist. 
Munic. Go-iit. 333. 

228 Raines, Lanes. Cbant. (Chet. Soc. ix), 


* Rental of Hen. VIII, loc. cit. 

230 Munic. Rec. passim. 

231 The list of purchasers is printed in 
Gregson's Fragments, Ixiv. 

233 In the list of official payments of the 
Duchy printed in Gregson's Fragments, 3 1, 
' the stipend of a clerk to serve in the 
chapel at Litherpoole ^4 \js. $d. and the 
fee of a clerk and schools mr. of Walton 

5 i3'-4^' 

283 Munic. Rec. i, 13^ and 390. 
231 Ibid. 39. 

235 Ibid. 13*. 

236 The details of the history of the 
farm during this period, and copies of the 
leases, will be found in Hist. Munic. Go-vt. 
in Liv., 70-7 and 336-53. 

23 ' Ibid. 338. 
238 Ibid. 345 and 71 n. 
*> Ibid. 349. 

2:3 The previous sub-lease had been for 
15 years. 


241 Original in Liv. Munic. Arch. Hist, 
Munic. Go-vt. 1 64. 

942 This appears from their pleading be- 
fore the Duchy court, Ibid. 408. 

8 "Mun. Rec. i, 17*. 

844 Duchy of Lane. Misc., xcv, 104*. 
Hist. Munic. Go-vt. 403. 

M6 Hist. Munic. Go-vt. 412. 

946 For an analysis of this question, see 
Hist. Munic. Go-vt. 73-6. 

"W Croxteth Mun. Liv., Box 10, no. 
13, R. z. Printed in Hist. Munic. Govt. 
352. But in 1588 a new quarrel broke 
out with Sir R. Molyneux over the 
milling soke ; Duchy Plead, cxlvii, 
m. 2. 

248 Mun. Rec. i, 3* 


demanded." 9 Attendance was compulsory on all bur- 
gesses on penalty of a fine of is. tM The assembly 
elected freemen, 1 " and occasionally expelled them 
from the liberties. 1 " Distinct from the assembly was 
the Portmoot and Great Leet, held twice yearly. 
The Great Portmoot immediately followed the annual 
assembly, and elected all the minor officers, among 
whom may be named the serjeant at mace, two 
churchwardens two leve-lookers, two moss-reeves, 
four mise-cessors and prysors, two stewards of the 
common-hall, a water-bailiff, a hayward, two ale- 
testers." 5 The portmoot was the lineal descendant 
of the old manorial court, and as such the right to 
hold it was claimed by the lessee of the farm. When 
this right was exercised, as in 1555, portmoot and 
assembly were at war," 4 but normally almost all 
business was indifferently transacted at either. At 
the portmoot presentments of breaches of burghal 
custom were made by a jury of twenty -four or twelve 
burgesses impanelled by the bailiffs ; they also * ap- 
pointed and set down ' all sorts of orders or by-laws, 
indistinguishable in character from those passed by the 
assembly of burgesses, and including many affairs not 
properly coming within the sphere of a manorial court, 
but rather belonging to the sphere of the gild- 

The mayor exercised supreme control over the 
whole executive business of the borough, the bailiffs 
and other officers being under his orders. He was 
always either a leading merchant, or a country gentle- 
man of the neighbourhood. He presided over the 
ordinary sessions of the borough court, now called the 
mayor's court, which does not seem to have been 
claimed by the lessees. With him acted * the Mayor's 
Brethren ' or aldermen, who were not popularly 
elected, but seem to have consisted of the ex-mayors. 
It is clear that this system of government was breaking 
down ; and it was to undergo great changes in the 
next period. 

In the second half of the century it becomes possi- 
ble to trace in more detail the movement of popula- 
tion and the development of trade. In 1565 there 
were 144 names on the burgess rolls, 2 " but some of 
these were non-resident, and the number of resident 
burgesses was probably about izo. In the same year 
the number of householders is given as ijS. 256 In 
1572,*" of 159 names in the burgess roll about 130 
may have been resident, while in 1589 * 58 there were 
190 names on the roll, of whom over 150 were 
resident. The number of houses rated for a subsidy 
in 1581 was 202. K9 Including therefore resident 
burgesses and other non-burgess inhabitants, we may 
estimate the population at about 700 or 800 in the 
middle of the century, increasing slowly to about 
1,000 or 1,200 at its close. In other words, the i6th 
century only succeeded in bringing the population 
back to the figure it had already attained in 1346. 
The explanation of this slow growth is to be found 

largely in the ravages of the plague which repeatedly 
attacked Liverpool during the period. The visitation 
of 1558 was so virulent that the fair was dropped in 
that year, no markets were held for three months, and 
over 240 persons, or one-fourth of the population, 
are said to have died.* 60 

The progress of shipping was equally unsatisfactory. 
A return of I 5 5 7 Kl shows that there were in the port 
one ship of 100 tons and one of 50 tons, 161 together 
with seven smaller vessels, while four vessels of 
between 10 and 30 tons were at sea ; there were 200 
sailors connected with the port. In 1565 16S there 
were fifteen vessels, three of which belonged to 
Wallasey ; the largest was of 40 tons burthen, and 
the number of seamen was about eighty. In 1586 184 
sixteen vessels can be counted in the entrances and 
clearances for a single month ; probably the list is 
not exhaustive. The character of the port's trade 
continued unchanged. Manchester, Bolton, and 
Blackburn men frequented the market to buy Irish 
yarns,* 65 and sell ' Manchester cottons ' (coatings) ; 18S 
the outgoing trade was mainly to Ireland, and consisted 
of mixed cargoes of coals, woollens, Sheffield knives, 
leather goods, and small wares. The return cargoes 
from Dublin, Drogheda, and Carlingford were invari- 
ably of yarns, hides, and sheep skins or fells. The 
foreign trade was of small proportions, and seems 
mainly to have been conducted by foreigners. But we 
hear of a Lancashire family sending to Liverpool to buy 
' 44 quarts of sack, 8 5 quarts of claret, 4 cwt. of iron, 
4 lb. of pitch.' K7 French and Spanish ships were 
sometimes brought as prizes into Liverpool, but not 
by Liverpool captains. 263 Piracy was rampant, and 
government had much ado to keep it in check even in 
the Irish Sea. 169 There were, it is true, one or two 
merchants in Liverpool who traded with Spain ;*" 
one of these spent twelve months in a Spanish prison 
in 1585-6, and on returning was the first to give 
details of the preparation of the Armada. 171 But the 
trade with Spain was on so small a scale that when 
the monopolist Spanish trading company was estab- 
lished in 1578,*" the Liverpool merchants were con- 
temptuously excused from submission to its regulations 
on the ground that they were only engaged in small 
retail trade. Even from the payment of tonnage and 
poundage duties Liverpool was exempt until the 
reign of Elizabeth, 173 no doubt because the yield 
would be so small as not to be worth the cost of 

It was probably for this reason that during the 
reign of Elizabeth the central government treated 
Liverpool as part of a large customs district which 
included the ports of North Wales, and had its centre 
at Chester. Orders of various sorts were frequently 
transmitted to the Mayor of Liverpool through the 
Mayor of Chester ; * 74 in one writ Liverpool and 
Chester were treated as a single port, 875 while in 
another Liverpool was actually catalogued with Chester 

**' Mun. Rec. i, pattim. 
**e.g. Ibid, i, izb, ijA. 
" Ibid, i, 6a, yb. 
Ibid. i, 12*. 

** See especially the elections of 1551 
and 1558 ; Munic. Rec. i, 34, and 394. 
254 Mimic. Rec. i, iza, 13*. 
855 Ibid, i, 131*. 

* Ibid, i, 32*. M7 Ibid, ii, 21. 

M Ibid, ii, 375. 
*** Ibid, ii, 210. 
*o IbiJ. i, 39.. 

961 Ibid, i, 320. 

363 These may have come from other 
ports, as there is no mention of ships of 
this size in Liverpool later in the cen- 

Ks Munic. Rec. i, 144. 

964 This list of clearances is printed 
from the Munic. Rec. by Raines, Liver- 
pool, 242 ff. 

868 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 76. 

868 Acts of P.C. 1558-70, p. 308; 
Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 88. 


267 Stewards Accts. of the Shuttlewortht 
(Chet. Soc. xxxv), 1 8. 

M8 Act: of P.C. 1 558-70, pp. 271, 305 } 

1580-1, p. 212. 

269 Ibid. 1558-70, pp. 278, 288. 

270 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 39. 

271 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. v, App. i, 
57 8. 

272 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 44. 
278 Munic. Rec. i, 15611. 

274 e.g. Acts of P.C. 1580-1, p. 214, 

275 Acts of P.C. 1589-90, p. 298. 



and ' Ilbiye ' as one of the ports of Cheshire." 6 This 
was made the basis of a claim on the part of Chester 
to superiority over Liverpool. This was not merely 
due to the claim of the Mayor of Chester to be vice- 
admiral of Lancashire and Cheshire ; nr Chester 
claimed that Liverpool was only ' a creek within its 
port,' and that all ships entering the Mersey should 
pay dues through Chester. This claim, first formally 
advanced in i$6$, 176 was, in spite of backing from 
London, entirely repudiated by the Liverpool bur- 
gesses.* 79 They petitioned the Crown for protection; 
and eventually a commission sent down to investigate 
reported in Liverpool's favour. 280 When Chester in 
1578 made the more limited claim of supremacy over 
the Cheshire shore of the Mersey, 181 equal vigour was 
shown in repudiation. The question was not settled 
during this century ; it reappeared in the early part 
of the I 7th century,* 8 ' and was not disposed of till in 
1658 283 an award was given in favour of Liverpool by 
the Surveyor-General of Customs an award which 
was later confirmed by the first Restoration Surveyor- 
General in 1 66o.* M 

The administrative arrangement which gave to 
Chester the pretext for this claim had been dictated 
largely by convenience in organizing the transport of 
troops to Ireland, which went on with great vigour 
throughout the period. In 1573 Essex and part of 
his army were transported from Liverpool, 285 and sub- 
stantial forces also left the port in 156$ I574,* 87 
I579,' 88 I588, 189 1595," and 1596.*" The trans- 
port of these troops was not unprofitable ; z/. a head 
was allowed for food during the passage/ 91 and the 
cost of transport was more than i a head, 193 while 
during the stay of the troops in Liverpool, which 
lasted sometimes for a long period,* 94 3</. a head was 
allowed for each meal, and \d. a day for a horse's 
fodder. 294 But the visits of the troops were trouble- 
some. Quarters and food had to be compulsorily 
provided. Even when they were promptly paid for, 
it must have been difficult for a town of less than zoo 
houses to provide for large forces ; but the payment 
was often long delayed.* 96 Moreover the troops were 
often riotous. The town records give a vivid account 
of an affray which broke out among Lord Essex' men 
in I 5 73, m and which brought out all the burgesses 
in battle array on the heath, while in 1581 there was 
a formidable mutiny* 98 which was only suppressed 
after sharp and exemplary punishment. A third in- 
convenience arose from the fact that the shipping of 
the port was often withdrawn from trade and detained 
for long periods in harbour, waiting for troops which 
never came. In 1593 it was only the intercession of 
Lord Derby *" for ' the poor masters and owners of 
vessels stayed at Liverpool ' which obtained their 
release, though no troops were nearly ready. 

This was by no means the only occasion on which 
Lord Derby came to the aid of the burgesses. He 
was almost officially described by Walsingham as the 
' patron of the poor town of Liverpool,' so and was 
appealed to on every occasion. One of the seats in 
Parliament (to which Liverpool had resumed the 
right of election in I545), 301 was always reserved for 
his nominee ; the other was usually placed at the dis- 
posal of the Chancellor of the Duchy, from whom, in 
all probability, Francis Bacon received the nomination 
which made him member for Liverpool in the session 
ofi588-9. so * When in 1562 m the burgesses cele- 
brated their reconciliation with Sir Richard Molyneux 
by nominating him to the seat usually reserved for the 
Chancellor, that official was so angry that he made a 
separate return, so that two sets of Liverpool members 
appear in the lists for that year, 304 and it was only the 
protection of Lord Derby which reassured the town 
against his direful threats. Nothing can exceed the 
pitiful submissiveness of the burgesses when they have 
the misfortune to offend Lord Derby, 305 nor the 
lavish enthusiasm with which they welcomed him in 
his visits to the town. 306 He was their one protector 
against aggressive lessees, greedy rival towns, crushing 
monopolist companies or angry chancellors. 

It follows from the use they made of their Parlia- 
mentary privilege that the burgesses took small interest 
in the progress of national affairs. They lit bonfires 
on the Queen's birthdays, 307 but the only reflection of 
the excitement of 1588 which their records contain 
is the note of the erection of one gun on the Nabbe 
at the entrance to the Pool. 308 Even the change of 
religious opinion is but faintly reflected in the records* 
As time went on they became more and more Protes- 
tant ; their patron, the fourth Earl of Derby, was one 
of the keenest of Protestants by profession, offering 
the use of the Tower for the safe-keeping of recu- 
sants. 309 Towards the end of the century we find the 
burgesses ordering the closing of all ale-houses on the 
* Sabbath ' day, demanding a sermon or homily every 
Sunday, and engaging, in addition to the ' minister,' 
a zealous and faithful preacher at 4 per annum. 310 

For the burgesses indeed, the development of their 
own institutions (which now entered on a striking 
new phase) was more vital than political or religious 
events. Probably it was the series of disputes into 
which they had been drawn, and which had so seri- 
ously threatened their liberties, that led to the de- 
velopment of an executive committee within the 
assembly of burgesses, hitherto supreme. 311 The 
assembly was unsuited to carry on these struggles, 31 * 
and after several experiments with councils elected for 
a limited period, which all failed through the jealousy 
of the burgess body, in 1580 a permanent self-renew- 
ing council of twenty-four ordinary members with 

*7 Actt of P.O. 1558-70, p. 288. 

9 77 Cal. S.P. Dom. 1625-6, p. 430. 

*7 8 Munic. Rec. i, 143^. 

a 7' Ibid, i, 1590 ; ii, 31. 

980 Ibid, i, 15612. 

281 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 37. 

888 Cal. S.P. Dom. 1619-23, pp.24, 34, 


288 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 153. 

284 Ibid. 306. The award is printed 
in full by Baines, Hist. Li-v. 242 n. 

285 Actt ofP.C. 1571-5, p. 113. 

286 Ibid. 1558-70, p. 264. 
1& Ibid. 1571-5, p. 279. 
888 Ibid. 1578-80, p. 223. 

a 8 ' Ibid. 1588,?. 331. 

990 Ibid. 1595-6, pp. 280, 314, 422. 

291 Ibid. 1596-7, pp. 165, 478. 

MS. 1926, Art. 10, foL 


998 Acts of P.O. 1588, p. 331. 

994 Ibid. 1578-80, p. 296 ; 1571-5, 


295 Ibid. p. 296. 

996 Ibid. 1571-5, p. 279. 

"7 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 109. 

998 Acts of P.O. 1580-1, pp. 64, 96. 

999 Ibid. 1 592-3, p. 439. 

soo pi c ton, Munic. Rec. i, 44. 

801 Pink and Beavan, Parly. Rep. oj 


Lanes. 350. In this work will be found 
a full list of the members, with biograph- 
ical notes. 

> 8 Ibid. 184. 

808 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 62 ff. 

8 <x Return of Memb. of Par I. 438. 

808 Munic. Rec. i, 43. 

808 Ibid. 48 and passim. 

7 Ibid. 48. 

808 Ibid. 93. 

809 Acts of P.O. 1580-1, p. 270. 

810 Munic. Rec. passim. 

811 On this movement see Hist. Munic. 
Govt. in Liv. 79-86. 

812 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 68. 


twelve aldermen was appointed." 1 Though it was to 
go through some vicissitudes, this body remained in 
control of the borough till 1835. 

The records of this period present a very vivid 
picture of the social condition and customs of the 
borough. Space does not permit of any summary of 
these, but something must be said on the methods of 
conducting trade. 114 The regulation of trade was in 
the hands of the mayor and aldermen, acting under 
by-laws laid down by the portmoot or the assembly 
of burgesses. In the weekly market for local traffic 
no outsider was allowed to purchase corn until the 
wants of the burgesses had been satisfied. Forestalling 
and regrating were severely punished. Ingate and out- 
gate dues were charged for goods brought to or from 
the market ; from these the burgesses and also the in- 
habitants of Altcar and Prescot were free. The masters 
of ships bringing cargoes into the Mersey, after paying 
anchorage dues, had to obtain permission from the 
mayor before offering their goods for sale. First the 
mayor determined whether he should offer to take 
the whole cargo as a * town's bargain.' If he decided 
to do this, a sum was offered which had been es- 
timated by the merchant prysors. If the importer 
refused this offer he must either leave the port or 
agree with the mayor as to the sum he must pay to 
make his best market,' i.e. to offer his goods for sale 
in open market. It was a system of high protection 
for the burgesses and minute regulation, so vexatious 
and hampering to trade that it was already breaking 
down by the end of the century. 

The first three decades of the iyth century saw 
the prosperity and the burghal liberties of Liverpool 
safely re-established. The port was largely used for 
transport to Ireland during the reigns of James I and 
Charles I S15 more largely now than Chester. In 1 62 5 
five transports containing 550 men were wrecked on 
the coast of Holyhead on the way to Carrickfergus, 
and less than two hundred men were saved. 518 The 
loss of five vessels was a serious blow to a small port, 
and the mayor feared that ' unless the king compas- 
sionates the town, it will be the utter overthrow of 
that corporation.' Pirates, too, still haunted the Irish 
seas ; frequent levies of money had to be raised for 
dealing with them, 317 and even under the firm rule of 
Wentworth in Ireland a ' Biscayan Spanish rogue ' 
took up his station off Dublin Bay, ' outbraved the 
two kingdoms,' and captured two Liverpool vessels, 
one of which had cargo to the value of 3,000, while 
another bore * a trunk of damask ' belonging to the 
lord-lieutenant himself." 8 Nevertheless the prosperity 
of the port steadily increased, and gained especially 
from the development of Irish industries under Went- 
worth. In 1618 the number of vessels in the port 319 
was twenty-four, with a total tonnage of 462. In 
the next year Chester had to represent to the Crown 
that it possessed no ships, trading only in small barks." 
The superior rival of the previous century had been 
distanced ; and this being so, it is not surprising that 

Liverpool should have repudiated, with even greater 
vigour than in I 565, the claim of Chester to supremacy, 
which was revived in i6i9. S21 To retain a share of 
the trade in Irish yarn, Chester had to make special 
treaties with Irish exporters ; 32a but even then Liver- 
pool more than held its own. 818 Foreign trade as 
well as Irish trade was increasing, 824 especially with 
Spain ; a part of the salt of Cheshire, hitherto almost 
monopolized by Chester, came to supply outgoing 
cargoes ; malt was brought from Tewkesbury to Liver- 
pool by the Severn and the sea ; 32i and there is even 
a record of one cargo of tobacco 326 brought direct 
from the Indies the beginning of Liverpool's Ameri- 
can trade. 

This growing prosperity is reflected in a growth 
of population, despite a visitation of the plague in 
i dog. 8 * 7 The number of freemen rose from 1 90 in 
1589 to 256 in 1620 and to 450 in i645. 818 Though 
some of these were non-resident, there was also a con- 
siderable non-freeman population in the borough, and 
the population on the eve of the Civil War may, per- 
haps, be estimated at 2,000 or 2,500. At the same 
time the corporate revenue undergoes a remarkable 
expansion. In 1603 it was ^55 ; in 1650 it had 
risen to 273 

The borough was comparatively little troubled 
during the early years of the century by the diffi- 
culties by which it had been faced in the preceding 
age. In 1617 the copyholders of West Derby, 
instigated by Sir Richard Molyneux, raised a claim 
to a part of the Liverpool waste, 33 ' now administered 
by the borough ; but the mayor and bailiffs were 
instructed to * make known untc them . . . that 
time out of mind the liberties which we claim have 
belonged to our town, and that we have evidence to 
maintain the same,' and the question was not pressed. 
In 1620 there was an obscure dispute with Six Richard 
over the levying of prisage duties on wine, 331 tht issue 
of which is unknown. Several times during the period 
the borough authoritiei came in conflict with the 
Duchy courts on the question of the competenct of 
the borough courts to try all cases arising within the 
liberties, 33 * a right which was vigorously and success- 
fully maintained. But the questions which occupy 
most space in the records are internal disputes, espe- 
cially concerning the powers and duties of the burghal 
officers. From 1633 to x ^37 a fierce controversy 
raged with the town-clerk, 333 Robert Dobson, who, 
having paid ^70 for his office, considered himself 
irremovable, and bore himself with intolerable inso- 
lence towards the mayor and bailiffs. This controversy 
eventually led to a dispute with the Chancery Court 
of the Duchy, to which Dobson tried to remove his 
case. There were disputes also with the bailiffs. The 
bailiffs of 162 6 s34 were imprisoned in the Common 
Hall for refusing to carry out the instructions of the 
Town Council; the bailiffs of i629 835 brought an 
action against the corporation in the King's Bench, 
for which one of them was deprived of the freedom. 

818 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 52 ; and Hut. 
Munic. Go-vt. 85. 

814 Munic. Rec. passim ; the detailed 
regulation! of trade occupy perhaps a 
larger amount of space in the records than 
any other single subject. 

814 Liv. Munic. Rec. passim ; Hist. 
AfSS. Com. Ref>. viii, App. i, 380^-6 A; 
ibid, iv, 2, 3, 6 ; ibid, v, 350 ; Cal. S.P. 
Dom. 1625-6, p. 40, Sec. 

416 Cal. S.P. Dom. 1625-6, pp. s, 6, 8. 

81 7 Ibid. 1619-23, pp. 24, 43. 
* w Hist. AfSS. Com. Rep. xii 
ii, 10. 

819 S.P. Dom. Jas. I, cix, 9 (i). 

820 Cal. S.P.Dom. 1619-23, p. 24. 

821 Ibid. pp. 34, 104. 

822 Hitt. AfSS. Com. Rep. viii, App 
38 1 b. 

828 Ibid. 399*. 

824 Liv. Munic. Rec. passim. 

825 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 181. 


82 ibid. 

App. 8a 7 Shuttleworth Accounts (Chet. Soc. 

JUKV), 1 86 ; Hist. AfSS. Com. Rep. x, 
App. iv, 62. 

828 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 124. 

8! Ibid. 174. 

880 Ibid. 169. 

881 Ibid. 274. 

882 Ibid. 136, 131, 165, 171. 
888 Ibid. i6iff. 

884 Ibid. 126. 885 Ibid. 


Probably the cause of these disputes was the control 
exercised by the new Town Council over officials, 
who, before its establishment, had been accustomed 
to uncontrolled authority. During this period the 
Town Council seems to have remained on good 
terms with the body of burgesses ; 33S partly because 
its meetings were open ; partly because it appears to 
have been the practice for the bailiffs, elected on the 
annual election day, to become thereafter members of 
the council for life. 337 This gave to the burgesss-body 
some control over the membership of the council, and 
probably left few places to be filled up by the council 

But the most striking sign of the growing inde- 
pendence of the borough is to be seen in the use 
made of its privilege of electing to Parliament. Lord 
Derby still occasionally nominated one member, but 
the Chancellor of the Duchy lost his right ; always 
one, and sometimes both, of the members were now 
genuinely elected by the borough, wages were paid to 
them, and care was taken that they earned them. In the 
elections all freemen took part, and, probably because 
the Town Council was so recently established and 
because national politics were beginning to be in- 
teresting, this power was never usurped from the 
freemen by the council. An illustration of the mode 
of treatment of their members by the burgesses may 
be quoted. In 1611 Mr. Brook 138 sent in a bill for 
28 io/. for the wages of his attendance during the 
previous session. Of this he had already ' received in 
allowance and payments 14. 5/. yd., and so rested 
due to him 14 4/. 5^., which 4/. $d. was deducted 
in regard of his stay in Chester about his own business 
four days, and so he was allowed 14 absolutely, pro- 
vided he delivered first the New Charter.' 

Mr. Brook did not produce a charter, and we are 
left to infer that his wages were not paid. This is 
one of a series of applications for a charter which 
occur at frequent intervals in the later years of the 
1 6th century and the first quarter of the ijth, 
inspired by the sense of insecurity in their privileges 
to which the controversies of the previous fifty years 
had given rise. There survives a memorandum, 3 - 39 
dating from about 1580, in which the Recorder gives 
it as his opinion that the borough had never in any 
of its charters been incorporated in express words, and 
that all its privileges must remain insecure until this 
was rectified. Applications in i6o3, 340 i6n,* 41 and. 
i6i7 3 " were unsuccessful ; but at length in 162 6 s43 
a new charter was purchased from Charles I, then 
embarrassed by the war with Spain and by the quarrel 
with Parliament. 

The charter of Charles I is the most important 
of the series, after that of Henry III. It definitely 
incorporated the borough ; confirmed it in all the 
powers it exercised, whether enjoyed by grant or by 
usurpation ; vested in the burgess body full powers of 
legislation not only for themselves but for all in- 
habitants of the borough ; and granted, probably for 


the first time, 844 the right to hold a court under the 
Statute of Merchants. The charter did not even 
name the town council, which was thus left at the 
mercy of the burgess body ; but in the next year the 
existing council was re-elected, and as there is no 
trace of any discussion of the question until the 
second half of the century, it would seem that no 
attack on the powers of the council was intended. 
The existence of the bench of aldermen is only in- 
cidentally recognized by the appointment of the 
senior alderman for the time being as a justice of 
the peace. The charter thus gave ground for a good 
deal of dispute, though none seems to have arisen. But 
it was an invaluable grant, for it secured the burgesses 
in the possession of all the vague rights which they 
had usurped since 1 394, but which had been threatened 
since the Molyneuxes obtained possession of the lease 
of the farm ; particularly the ownership of the waste 
and the sovereignty of the borough officers over the 
whole population of the borough. It left unsettled, 
however, several questions at issue between the borough 
and the lessees of the farm which had remained 
dormant since 1555. 

It was fortunate that the charter had been obtained 
before 1628, for in that year Charles I sold Liver- 
pool, 345 with some three hundred other manors, to 
trustees on behalf of the citizens of London, in 
acquittance of a number of loans. So long as the 
Molyneux lease lasted the Londoners' ownership of 
the lordship meant nothing beyond the right of 
receiving the 14 6s. %d. of farm rent, which 
had to be at once paid over to the Crown, the sale 
having been made subject to an annual rent-charge of 
this amount. The lordship was therefore worthless 
to the Londoners ; it was valuable only to Sir Richard 
Molyneux, who by buying it from them for 400 in 
1 636 s46 obtained in perpetuity and in freehold the 
rights he had previously enjoyed by lease, as well as 
any other rights that might be construed as coming 
under the lordship. This placed the burgesses more 
fully than ever at his mercy. In 1638 he commenced 
an action in the Court of Wards 347 to prohibit the 
burgesses from working an illicit ferry and mill which 
had somehow got into their possession. The bur- 
gesses, resisting, petitioned the Crown for a grant of 
the lease of the farm to themselves ; 348 but this, although 
the king ' made a most gracious answer,' was obviously 
out of his power since the sale, and they found it 
necessary to come to an agreement, 349 whereby they 
were to pay Molyneux 20 per annum without 
prejudice to their rights. Before the question could 
be raised again, and before Molyneux could attempt 
to press home other claims, the Civil War had broken 
out, and the later stages of the dispute were postponed 
until after the Restoration. 

The side which Liverpool was likely to take in the 
great struggle would not have been easy to predict 
from its action during the preceding years. On the 
whole the temper of the burgesses, in religious matters, 

836 It is impossible to tell whether the 
assembly had in this period been wholly 
superseded, the word 'Assembly' being 
used for both types of meetings. There is 
some evidence that council meetings were 
open to freemen ; Li-v. Munic Rec. i, 127. 

8S " Hist. Munic. Go-vt. in Li-v. 88 and 

883 Picton, Li-v. Munic. Rec. i, 157. 

839 Hist. Munic. Go-vt. in Liv., 90. 

840 Norrit Papers (Chet. Soc. ix), 8. 

841 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 157. 
849 Ibid. 156. 

848 Orig. in Liv. Mun. Archives ; Hist. 
Munic. Go-vt. 16589. An analysis of 
the charter is given in the same work, 

844 The docquet of the charter speaks 
of it as ' a confirmation ... of ancient 
liberties ivith an addition of a clause for 


the acknowledgment of statute merchant ;' 
ibid. 1 66. 

846 The deed of sale is printed in Hist. 
Munic. Go-vt. in Liv. 362-81. 

848 Deed of sale at Croxteth (Liv. box 
io, bdle. R, No. 6), Hist. Munic. Go-vt. in 
Liv. 381. 

84 ? Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec i, 132. 
8 Ibid. 

849 Ibid. 133. 


seems to have been Puritan. Thus it was found 
necessary to have, in addition to the incumbent of the 
chapel, a preacher of the Word of God,' 35 who re- 
ceived 20 or 30 per annum together with 'a 
reasonable milk cow,' which was to be ' changed at the 
discretion of the Council ;' and in 1629 the mayor 
petitioned the Bishop of Chester, Bridgeman, for per- 
mission to arrange ' once a month two sermons upon 
a week-day.'" 1 The list of preachers arranged for 
the following year in accordance with the licence then 
obtained, is significant. It includes Kay, Vicar of 
Walton, who later became a Presbyterian, and Richard 
Mather, minister of the Ancient Chapel of Toxteth 
Park, who was driven to America by Laud in 1636. 
Probably the presence in Toxteth of a little group of 
Puritan formers, planted there by Sir Richard Moly- 
neux when the park was brought under cultivation in 
1 6c>4, MI had considerable influence upon the Puritan 
temper of the borough. 

On the other hand, the influence of the surround- 
ing gentry was exercised almost entirely on the Royalist 
side. The Royalism of West Derby Hundred was 
even stronger than the Parliamentarianism of Salford 
Hundred, and the centre and support of it was the 
special patron of Liverpool, Lord Strange, who during 
the incapacity of his father, until he succeeded to the 
title in 1642, represented the house of Stanley. The 
only considerable family in the district which took the 
Parliamentarian side was that of the Moores, of Liver- 
pool, 353 and, local as they were, they could not balance 
the Derby influence. Thus torn asunder, the borough 
followed an extremely vacillating course. To the 
Parliament of 1623 two Royalist members were re- 
turned. 354 In that of 1625 the Puritan, Edward 
Moore, was balanced by Lord Strange. 356 In the 
Petition of Right Parliament there were again two 
strong Royalist members. 858 Thus in the first period 
of the national controversy, the influence of the neigh- 
bouring gentry was able to outweigh the Puritan 
tendencies of the borough. But during the eleven 
years of personal government, the tide of opinion 
turned. On the first levy of ship-money in 1634, 
Liverpool was required to pay 15 as its share of the 
cost of a ship of 400 tons, to be raised by the mari- 
time counties of Wales, by Cheshire, Lancashire, and 
Cumberland ; K7 the same sum was assessed by a com- 
mittee of mayors and sheriffs upon Carlisle, while 
Chester had to pay 100. The burden was a light 
enough one for a town which a little later raised with- 
out difficulty 1 60 to fight a single law-suit ; SM 
but there was keen opposition, 359 several burgesses de- 
clined to pay, and threatened the bailiffs with actions 
at law if they should attempt distraints ; the Town 
Council had to resolve that the costs of such actions 
should be borne at the town's expense, but there were 
two members of the council itself who protested against 
this. In the next year John Moore, the regicide, was 
elected mayor, and on the second levy of ship-money 
there were similar difficulties. 859 * 

When the meeting of the Short Parliament ended 

the period of personal government, both of the Liver- 
pool members were in the opposition ; $6 while to the 
Long Parliament Liverpool returned the acrid Puritan, 
John Moore, along with Sir Richard Wynne, 361 who, 
though he had accompanied Charles I on his journey 
to Spain, was by no means a staunch Royalist : he 
voted against the attainder of Strafford, but he was a 
member of the deputation to present the Grand Re- 
monstrance to the king. 36 * It is tolerably clear that 
had the burgesses been left to themselves, without the 
influence of Lord Derby and others, Liverpool, like 
other ports, would have been enrolled on the Parlia- 
mentarian side. 

When, on the outbreak of war, the Parliamentarian 
party in Lancashire began to organize their resistance 
against the vigorous action of Lord Strange, John 
Moore of Liverpool was the only gentleman of West 
Derby Hundred whom they could find to include in 
their list of deputy-lieutenants. Even he was appa- 
rently helpless in Liverpool, for he is found with the 
other Parliamentarian leaders at Manchester in the 
middle of iS^z. 363 Liverpool, controlled by the 
Molyneux Castle and the Stanley Tower, was defence- 
less against the Royalist party. Lord Strange was able 
to seize the large stock of powder which lay in the 
town, 364 and to garrison both castle and tower. He 
was actively supported by the mayor, John Walker, 364 
who received a royal letter of commendation for his 
action ; but the presence of a considerable Parliamen- 
tarian party in the town is indicated by the note that 
the mayor had been threatened, perhaps by John 
Moore, with imprisonment and transportation from 
the country. 366 Colonel Edward Norris, of Speke, be- 
came governor, 367 and thirty barrels of gunpowder were 
sent into the town from Warrington. 368 Nothing, 
however, seems to have been done to strengthen the 
defence of the town. It remained under Royalist 
control so long as Lord Derby's strength was sufficient 
to hold the western half of the county. When, in the 
early months of 1643, his main force was called off for 
service in the midlands, the Parliamentarian forces 
from Manchester rapidly overran the western half of 
the county, and by May, Lathom House and Liverpool 
were the only Royalist strongholds left. Colonel 
Tyldesley, with the remnant of the Royalist forces, 
fell back upon Liverpool ; 369 but he was hotly followed 
by Assheton with the Manchester Parliamentarians, 37 ' 
while a Parliamentarian ship entering the Mersey cut 
off retreat in that direction. 371 After two days' fighting 
Assheton had captured the whole line of Dale Street 
and also the chapel of St. Nicholas, in the tower of 
which guns were mounted which commanded the 
town. Tyldesley was forced to treat, asking for a free 
retreat to Wigan with arms and artillery. These terms 
were refused, and an assault completely routed the 
Royalists, who lost eighty dead and 300 prisoners, while 
the loss of the attacking force was only seven killed. S71 
the date of this first siege is unknown, but it was pro- 
bably at the end of May 1643. 

The Parliamentarians, now masters of Liverpool, 

, jso picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 197. 

" Ibid. zoo. 

" V.C.H. Lanci. iii, 42. 

848 The Ireland* of Hale -were a little 
too far away. 

" Ret. ofMemb. ofParl. 

" Ibid. 8M ibid. 

W Hut. MSS. Com. Rep. viii, App. i, 
383* ; Cal. S.P. Dom. 1634-5, p. 568. 

848 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 133. 

The money was, how- 
Cal. S.P. Dom. 1634-5, 

869 Ibid. 220. 
ever, duly paid 5 
p. 569. 

859a CaLS.P.Dom. 1636-7, pp. 205-6. 

860 Ret. ofMemb. ofParl. 

881 Ibid. 

163 Commons' Journ. sub die. 

m Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. v, 32*. 

*** Ibid, iz, App. iii, 391^. It amounted 
to 3,000 cwt. of powder in 1637 and 1638 ; 


Cal. S.P. Dom. 1637, p. 507 ; 1638-9, 
p. 387. 

865 picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 137. 

8 " Ibid. 7 Ibid. 138. 

8S8 Ibid. 137. 

Exceeding joyfull News,' &c. printed 
in Ormerod, Lane . Civil War Tract* (Chet 
Soc. ii), 104. 

8 ' Ibid. on Ibid, and 138. 

873 Ormerod, loc. cit. 105. 


proceeded to make very effective use of their capture. 
Lieut. -Col. Venables was appointed governor, 373 with 
martial powers overriding the town council. On his 
recall, early in 1644, he was succeeded, as a result of 
a petition from the burgesses, by Colonel John 
Moore,* 74 who remained in command until the town 
fell before Rupert. The German engineer Rosworm 
was brought from Manchester to reconstruct the forti- 
fications, 375 which were, however, not very skilfully 
laid out. A ditch 36 ft. wide and 9 ft. deep was cut 
from the river, 376 north of the Old Hall, to the Pool. 
Behind it ran a high earthen rampart, which was 
broken by gates where it was crossed by Oldhall Street, 
Tithebarn Street, and Dale Street, each gate being 
protected by cannon. Earthworks with batteries 
guarded the line of the Pool, and a strong battery of 
eight guns was placed at the angle of the Pool, below 
the castle. In addition, a number of guns were 
placed on the castle. A regular garrison, consisting 
of a regiment of foot and a troop of horse, 377 was kept 
in the town ; but in addition military service was 
required of the burgesses, for whose use 100 muskets, 
100 bandoliers, and 100 rests were delivered to the 
mayor and aldermen, 378 a fine of is. being imposed on 
any burgess who failed to turn out for duty ' at the 
beating of the drum.' 379 During the period of military 
occupation the authority of the governor overrode that 
of the town council. He was present at its meetings, 380 
and most of his officers were admitted to the freedom. 
John Moore seems to have been far from successful as 
a governor. Adam Martindale, who served as his 
chaplain, 381 gives a terrible picture of the governor's 
entourage, though he praises m the ' religious officers of 
the company ' with whom he ' enjoyed sweet commu- 
nion,' as they met ' every night at one another's 
quarters, by turnes, to read scriptures, to confer of good 
things, and to pray together.' 

The functions which Liverpool had to perform 
were threefold. On land, the garrison had to hold 
a Royalist district in check, and to take part in the 
siege of Lathom House. In addition it had to keep 
in touch with the Parliamentarian forces in Cheshire, 
and be prepared to deal with movements of the Royal- 
ist garrison of Chester. On the sea the function of 
Liverpool was still more important. It was the ' only 
haven ' 382a of the Parliamentarians on the west coast, 
and it therefore became the base of naval movements 
intended to prevent communication between Ormond, 
in Ireland, and the English Royalists. 883 For this pur- 
pose part of the fleet was stationed here as early as 
June i643, 384 and five months later this force amounted 
to six men-of-war, 385 and Colonel Moore, Governor of 
Liverpool, became Vice-Admiral for Lancashire and 
Westmorland. 388 It was under the command of one 
Captain Danks or Dansk, 337 and though the prevalent 
north-west winds sometimes shut him into the Mersey, 
he was able very seriously to harass the Royalists, inter- 
cepting supplies 388 upon which the Irish Royalists were 


dependent, and preventing the transport of troops. 
Royalist vessels from Bristol, indeed, disputed with the 
Liverpool ships the command of the Irish Sea, 389 but 
not very effectively ; the Puritan sailors of Bristol were 
half-hearted in the service, and one Bristol ship laden 
with arms and supplies for Chester deserted and sailed 
into the Mersey. 390 Ormond felt the position to be 
so serious for himself that he wrote to the Royalist 
forces in Cheshire, 391 * earnestly recommending ' them 
to attack Liverpool 'as soon as they possibly can,' and 
urging that ' no service to my apprehension can at 
once so much advantage this place (Dublin) and 
Chester, and make them so useful to each other.' The 
same urgent advice was given by Archbishop Williams, 3 " 
in command at Con way. The capture of Liverpool 
was one of the immediate objectives of Byron's force of 
3,000 Irish, which landed in Cheshire in November 
1643, and on its arrival supplies were sent in to 
Liverpool, 393 and forces called up to its aid. 394 The 
defeat of Byron in January 1644 left the Liverpool 
garrison free to press the siege of Lathom 395 in con- 
junction with Assheton's forces from Bolton. But the 
straits of Lathom formed an additional reason for a 
vigorous blow from the Royalist side. Lord Derby 
was urgent 396 upon Prince Rupert to relieve Lathom. 
and to seize Liverpool, 'which your highness took 
notice of in the map the last evening I was with you, 
for there is not at this time fifty men in the garrison.' 

Urged by these motives, the capture of Liverpool 
was one of the tasks which Rupert set himself on his 
northward march, in May and June, to the relief of 
Newcastle in York. His approach caused Moore to 
retreat hastily to Liverpool, while the garrison was 
reinforced by 400 men sent from Manchester ; 397 the 
ships in the Mersey were drawn up in the port to 
assist in repelling the attack ; 39S women, children, and 
suspects were removed from the town, 399 and all who 
remained ' were resolute to defend ' the place. 

It was on 9 June that Rupert, fresh from a brilliant 
success over the Parliamentarians, came down over the 
hill which overlooked and commanded the little town. 
' A mere crow's nest,' he is said to have called it, 
' which a parcel of boys might take.' 40 But two 
furious assaults of the kind which had carried all 
before them at Bolton were alike unsuccessful, 401 the 
loss to the besieging force being stated at 1,500. 
Rupert had then to throw up earthworks 4M and bring 
up his artillery, which during several days' cannonade 
cost ' a hundred barrels of munition, which,' says a 
correspondent of Lord Ormond, ' makes Prince Rupert 
march ill-provided.' 403 At length a night attack was 
led by Caryll, brother of Lord Molyneux, 404 whose 
local knowledge brought the surprise party through the 
fields on the north to the outhouses of the Old Hall, 
the family mansion of the governor of the town, 
which they reached at three o'clock in the morning. 
They found the ramparts deserted by the regular 
garrison, which had been drawn ofF by Colonel 

8 ? 8 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. x, App. iv, 66. 

87* 'Rosworm' s good service," &c. in Or- 
merod, loc. cit. 229. 

V6 Seacome, Hist, of the House of Stanley. 
877 Martindale, Autobiog. (Chet. Soc. iv), 


87<* Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 138. 
879 Ibid. 139. 8 80 Ibid. 

881 Martindale, Autobiog. 36-7. 

882 Ibid. 37-8. 

882 Hut. MSS. Com. Rep. xiii, App. i, 
157. 883 Ibid. 133. 

88< Ibid. 713. 885 Ibid. 157. 

886 Ibid, x, App. iv, 67. 
M 7 Carte, Life of Ormond, iii, 1 90. 

888 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiii, App. 1,133. 

889 Ibid. 153. 

890 Ormerod, op. cit. 154. 

891 Carte, Life of 'Ormond, iii, 229. 
w Ibid. 212. 

898 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. x, App. iv, 68. 


894 Ibid. 

895 Ormerod, op. cit. 162, 173, 185. 

896 Warburton, Rupert, 364. 

897 Merc. Brit, in Ormerod, op. cit. 199. 

898 Seacome, House of Stanley, 117. 

899 Ibid. 
* Ibid. 

401 Ormerod, op. cit. 199. 
403 S, a come, loc. cit. 

403 Ormond MSS. ii, 319. 

404 Moore Rental (ed. W. F. Irvine), 1 6. 


Moore during the night, and embarked with the 
military stores on the shipping in the Pool. 405 About 
400 men of the garrison, however, still remained, and 
these offered a vigorous resistance. Street fighting 
went on for several hours ; though there seems to have 
been some sort of surrender, ' Prince Rupert's men 
did slay almost all they met with, to the number of 
360, and among others . . . some that had never 
borne arms, . . . yea, one poor blind man ' ; 406 
Caryll Molyneux, according to Sir Edward Moore, 
the runaway Colonel's son, killing 'seven or eight 
poor men with his own hands.' 407 The remainder of 
the garrison surrendered at the High Cross. They 
were imprisoned in the tower and the chapel, while 
Rupert took up his quarters in the castle, and the town 
was given over to sack. The number of the killed is 
indicated by the fact that six months later every house- 
hold had to provide a man to aid in ' better covering 
the dead bodies of our murthered neighbours ' of the 
'great company of our inhabitants murthered and 
slain by Prince Rupert's forces.' 408 

The capture of the town probably took place on 
14 or 15 June; it is mentioned in the Mercurius 
Britannicus of 1 7 June. 409 Rupert remained in the 
castle till the igth, 410 when he marched for Lathom. 
The intervening days were probably spent in drawing 
up proposals for the refortification of the town, which 
was intrusted to a Spanish engineer, de Gomme. His 
excellent plan survives, but was never carried out. 

The defeat of Rupert at Marston Moor probably 
gave pause to these elaborate schemes. On his retreat 
he was expected to call at Liverpool, 411 but does not 
seem to have done so. Liverpool was now again, 
except Lathom, the only Royalist stronghold in Lanca- 
shire. 411 To garrison it Sir Robert Byron had been left 
with a large force of English and Irish troops ; 41S 
there was also a considerable number of cattle within 
the walls, 414 while guns had been mounted on ' Wor- 
rall side ' (probably near the modern New Brighton) 
to prevent the approach of Parliamentary ships. 415 
To deal with Liverpool and Lathom 1,000 horse 
were detached by Lord Fairfax from the main army on 
8 August to join the Lancashire Parliamentarian levies, 416 
and the whole force was placed under the command of 
Sir John Meldrum. During August the Royalists 
were strong enough to keep the field, and there was a 
good deal of fighting between Liverpool and Lathom. 
But after 20 August, when the Royalists were severely 
defeated at Ormskirk, 417 it is probable that the formal 
siege of Liverpool began. Meldrum did not waste 
men on assaults, but sat down before the town and 
drew formal lines of entrenchment. 418 He was as- 
sisted by a fleet in the river under Colonel Moore, 419 
probably the same with which he had escaped in June ; 
and ' the sad inhabitants from both sides are deeply 
distressed.' The Royalist forces in the neighbour- 
hood strained every nerve to effect a relief ; a new 
force raised by Lord Derby had to be beaten back on 

10 September ; 420 the Chester garrison had to be 
strictly blockaded to prevent its sending relief ; and on 
1 7 September a force of 4,000 men was met by the 
Parliamentarians at Oswestry 421 marching to the re- 
lief of Liverpool. It was doubtless the value of 
Liverpool as a point of contact between Ireland and 
the northern Royalists which accounted for the im- 
portance attached to it. Well provisioned and , 
strongly garrisoned, the town held out for nearly two 
months. In the last days of October fifty of the 
English soldiers in the garrison, fearing to share 
the fate threatened to the Irish, deserted, 42 * driving 
with them into Meldrum's camp the greater part of 
the cattle in the town. On I November the re- 
mainder of the garrison mutinied, imprisoned their 
officers, and surrendered the town at discretion. 4 * 3 An 
attempt to imitate Moore's example by shipping sup- 
plies and ammunition in some vessels in the river 
was checked by the commander of the besieging force, 
who sent out rowing-boats to capture the ships. 

During the remainder of the war Liverpool re- 
mained at peace, but for some years seems to have 
been used as one of the principal places of arms in 
the county. 483 * Colonel Moore for a time resumed 
command ; but his prestige was ruined by his be- 
haviour during Rupert's siege ; and though Meldrum 
exonerated him from blame, 4 * 4 the townsmen them- 
selves felt that the town had been needlessly aban- 
doned, and petitioned Parliament to inquire as to 
whose was the ' neglect or default.' m Moore left for 
Ireland, and was replaced by another governor. His 
family never recovered from the discredit into which 
he had brought it, or from the financial difficulties in 
which he involved himself. As a recompense for its- 
services and sufferings the town obtained several im- 
portant grants from the Commonwealth government ; 
money for the relief of widows and orphans, 426 licence 
to cut timber from the Molyneux and Derby estates 
for the rebuilding of the town, 427 the abolition of the 
Molyneux tenancy of the lease, 428 and a grant of 
i 0,000 worth of land, at first assigned from the 
estates of ' malignants,' in Galway, 429 which, how- 
ever, turned out to be entirely illusory. At the same 
time the Tower passed from the possession of the house 
of Stanley, being sequestrated, and on 19 September 
1646 sold by the Committee for Compounding. 43 " 
The period of the Civil War thus saw the borough re- 
leased from the feudal superiority which had so long 
oppressed it ; and though this came back at the 
Restoration it was less patiently endured, and lasted 
but a short time. The period also saw the division 
of the burgesses into two acrimonious political and 
religious parties, whose strife was to give a new charac- 
ter to the political development of the next epoch. 

In the second half of the 1 7th century the develop- 
ment of Liverpool, which had begun in the first half 
of the century and been checked by the Civil Wars, 
received a remarkable impetus ; so that in 1699 t ^ e 

406 Ormerod, op. cit. 199. 

409 Martindale, Autobiog, (Chet. Soc. 
iv), 41. 

*> Moore Rental (ed. W. F. Irvine), 16. 
408 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 140. 
** Ormerod, op. cit. 199. 

410 Hist. MSB. Com. Re/>. xiii, App. i, 179. 
* u Ibid, iv, App. 2756. 

4U London Post, 30 .Sept. 1644, in 
Ormerod, op. cit. 206. 

4U Vicars, Pad. Chron. iv, 62. 
414 Ormerod, op. cit 207. 

416 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. iv, App. 270*. 

416 Ormerod, op. cit. 206. 

V Ibid. 

418 London Post, in Ormerod, op. cit. 206. 

Ibid. "20 Ibid> 207 . 

431 Ibid. 206. 

4M Perfect Diurnall, in Ormerod, op. cit. 

* w Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. vii, App. i, 

428a See Cal. S.P. Dom. 1649-54, where 
there are numerous references. 


424 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. x, App. iv, 73. 

426 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. 1,226. 
488 Ibid. 144. 

427 Ibid. 145. 

4i Ibid. Ibid. 147 ff. 

480 Cal. of Com. for Compounding, ii,. 
1 1 8. The purchaser was one Alexander 
Greene, who was still in possession in 
1663 ; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xvi, 
136. These points have been brought out 
by Mr. Peet, Liv. in Reign of Queen Anne,, 
5 5 and note. 



borough could claim 431 that ' from scarce paying the 
salary of the officers of the Customs, it is now the 
third port of the trade of England, and pays upwards 
of 50,000 per annum to the king.' In 1673 the to- 
pographer Blome 432 found that it contained ' divers emi- 
nent merchants and tradesmen, whose trade and traffic, 
especially unto the West Indies, make it famous.' 
When in 1689 the Commissioners of Customs were 
asked to report as to the ports which could best supply 
shipping for transport to Ireland, they stated 433 that 
while Chester had ' not above 20 sail of small burden 
from 25 to 60 tons,' Liverpool had' 60 to 70 good 
ships of from 50 to 200 ton burden, but because they 
drive a universal foreign trade to the Plantations and 
elsewhere,' it was impossible to tell how many of them 
would be available. 

The port continued to control the larger share of 
the Irish trade. It still maintained a considerable 
traffic to France and Spain, and also to Denmark and 
Norway. 434 But, as the statements above quoted show, 
it was the opening out of a lucrative trade with ' the 
plantations,' especially the West Indies and Virginia, 
in sugar, tobacco, and cotton, which made this period 
mark the beginning of Liverpool's greatness. Several 
causes conspired to assist this development. The 
industries of Manchester were undergoing a rapid 
development, so that, in the words of Blome, 434 the 
situation of Liverpool ' afforded in greater plenty and 
at reasonabler rates than most places in England, such 
exported commodities proper for the West Indies.' 
The plague and fire of London had caused ' several 
ingenious men ' to settle in Liverpool, ' which caused 
them to trade to the plantations,' 436 while when the 
French wars began in 1689 London traders found 
that 'their vessels might come safer north about 
Ireland, unload their effects at Liverpool, and be at 
charge of land-carriage from thence to London than 
run the hazard of having their ships taken by the 
enemy,' 43r and Liverpool profited accordingly. As 
early as 1668 a 'Mr. Smith, a great sugar-baker 
at London,' was bargaining with Sir Edward 
Moore 43S for land on which to build * a sugar-baker's 
house . . . forty feet square and four stories 
high ' ; and Sir Edward Moore expected this 
to * bring a trade of at least 40,000 a year from 
the Barbadoes, which formerly this town never 
knew.' Even more important than the establish- 
ment of a sugar-refining industry was the tobacco 
trade, which grew to large dimensions in these years. 
In 1701 it was asserted 439 that a threatened interfer- 
ence with the tobacco trade would ' destroy half the 
shipping in Liverpool ' ; 44 it was * one of the chiefest 
trades in England,' and * we are sadly envyed, God 
knows, especially the tobacco trade, at home and 
abroad.' 441 All the tobacco of Scotland, Ireland, and 
the north of England was supposed to come to Liver- 

pool. 442 The result of this growing trade was a 
remarkably rapid increase of shipping ; in the twelve 
years between 1689 and 1701 the number of vessels 
in the port had grown from '60 or 70' to 102, 
which compares not unfavourably with the 165 
vessels owned by Bristol in the same year. Shipping 
brought with it several new industries, and in par- 
ticular rope-walks began to be a feature of the town, 
and remained so for more than a century to come. 
Many new families of importance begin to appear ; 
the Claytons, the Clevelands, the Cunliffes, the 
Earles, the Rathbones, the Tarletons, and the John- 
sons, 443 win the superiority in municipal affairs from 
the Moores and the Crosses ; ' many gentlemen's sons 
of Lancashire, Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, 
Cheshire, and North Wales are put apprentices in the 
town,' 444 and a new set of names appears in the re- 
cords. The population was steadily increasing. The 
ravages of the war, together with outbreaks of plague 
in 1647 and i65O, 445 had kept it down, so that in 1673 
only 252 householders were assessed for the hearth 
tax, 446 giving a total population (allowing for ex- 
emptions) of about 1,500 ; but by the beginning 
of the 1 8th century the number was well over 
5,ooo. 447 And now, for the first time, new streets 
began to be made in addition to the original seven : 
Moor Street, Fenwick Street, Fenwick Alley, and 
Bridge's Alley 448 having been cut by Sir Edward 
Moore out of his own lands, while Lord Street was 
cut by Lord Molyneux in 1668 through the castle 
orchard to the Pool, and Preeson's Row, Pool Lane 
(South Castle Street), and several other thoroughfares 
were being built upon. 449 Public improvements on a 
large scale began to be carried out or talked of. In 
1673 a new town hall was built, 'placed on pillars 
and arches of hewn stone, and underneath the public 
exchange for the merchants.' 450 This building re- 
placed the old thatched common hall with which the 
burgesses had been content since it was bequeathed to 
them by John Crosse ; it stood immediately in 
front of the modern town hall. The difficulty of 
accommodating the growing shipping of the port was 
already felt, and among the modes suggested for re- 
lieving the pressure was the deepening of the Pool, 451 
a scheme which, in a modified form, ultimately led to 
the creation of the first dock. Proposals for improving 
the navigation of the Weaver 452 to facilitate the 
Cheshire trade, and for erecting lighthouses 45S on the 
coast, met indeed with keen opposition at first from 
the burgesses, who feared to see trade carried past 
their wharves ; but they were to be converted to both 
of these schemes before half a century had passed. In 
the meantime an improvement in the navigation of 
the Mersey below Warrington, carried out by Mr. 
Thomas Patten, 454 of the latter place, led to a material 
increase of Liverpool's trade, and was the first of a 

481 In the case for the establishment of 
a separate parish, printed in Picton, Liv. 
Munic. Rec. 1,325. 

482 Blome, Britannia, 134. 

488 Hiit. MSS. Com. Rep. xii, App. vi, 

484 pi c ton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 309 and 

485 Loc. cit. 

486 Case for the new parish, loc. cit. 

48 7 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 
430. In 1 6 94 we hear of no less than 32 
hips sent from Liverpool to the West 
Indies ; Cal. S.P. Dom. 1694-5, p. 237. 

488 Moore Rental (ed. W. F. Irvine), 99. 
Apparently he did not complete his bargain; 
but a sugar-house was built by his firm in 
Redcross Street ; Peet, Liv. in the Reign of 
Queen Anne, 32 n. 

489 N orr i s Papers (Cher.. Soc.), 81. 
4 Ibid. no. 441 Ibid. 114. 
442 Ibid. 89. 

448 Mun. Rec. passim ; Peet, Liv. in tie 
Reign of Queen Anne, 6 and passim. 

444 Case for the new parish, loc. cit. 

445 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 192, 194. 
448 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xvi, 



44 7 Mr. Peet, on the basis of the poor- 
rate assessment of 1708, estimates the 
population in that year at a little under 
7,000 ; Liv. in the Reign of Queen Anne, 16. 

448 Moore Rental, passim. 

449 Moore Rental, passim} also Picton, 
Munic. Rec. i, 3 14 ff. 

450 Blome, loc. cit. j Picton, Munic. 
Rec. \, 286. 

451 Moore Rental (ed. W. F. Irvine), 79 ff, 

101, IO2, 104. 

4S3 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. viii, App. i, 
39611. 45S Ibid. 395*. 

454 Norris Papers, 38. 


series of such improvements which were pushed for- 
ward during the next period. 

The rapid growth of the town, and the influx of a 
new and thriving population unused to the influences 
by which the town had been so long dominated, 
reflects itself in a rapid shaking-off of old connexions, 
which had already been seriously weakened by the 
Civil War and its consequences. This is perhaps 
clearest in the case of the Moores, so long the leading 
family of the town ; for Sir Edward Moore, son of 
the regicide and runagate Colonel John Moore, has 
left, in the form of instructions to his son, an elaborate 
description 4M of his own properties in the town and 
of his relations to its leaders which is invaluable as an 
elucidation of this period of transition. Deeply em- 
barrassed by the debts incurred by his father, his 
estates had only been saved from confiscation by the 
fact that his wife, Dorothy Fenwick, was the daughter 
of a noted Royalist ; he suffered also, doubtless, from 
the shadow which hung over his father's name since 
his desertion in the siege of 1644. Soured by his 
misfortunes, he was on the worst of terms with the 
burgess-body, whose records are full of quarrels with 
him. 454 Moore had a clear prevision of the growth 
of the port, and hoped by its means to rehabilitate the 
fortunes of his house ; but the Town Council checked 
more than one of his schemes. Worse than this, the 
burgesses refused to elect him either to the mayoralty 
or as a representative of the borough in Parliament, 
and this he regarded as ingratitude to his family, as 
well as a direct injury to his fortunes. His Rental is 
full of bitterness on this score. ' They have deceived 
me twice, even to the ruin of my name and family, 
had not God in mercy saved me ; though there was 
none at the same time could profess more kindness to 
me than they did, and acknowledge in their very own 
memories what great patrons my father and grand- 
father were to the town .... Have a care you 
never trust them ... for such a nest of rogues was 
never educated in one town of that bigness.' 4S7 He 
exhausts an extensive vocabulary for epithets to 
characterize those who were ' against him,' ' either for 
parliament man or mayor.' One of his greatest 
troubles was the difficulty which he experienced in 
enforcing the use of his mill. The ancient feudal 
milling rights had now quite broken down, and it was 
only by inserting a special clause in his leases that 
Moore, though lessee of two of the principal mills, 
could enforce the use of them even upon his own 
tenants. 4 * 8 Sir Edward Moore died in 1678, a worn- 
out old man at the age of forty-four. His son, Sir 
Cleave Moore, a useless spark,' 459 was the last repre- 
sentative of the family in Liverpool ; in 1712 he 
allowed a foreclosure to be made on his heavily mort- 
gaged Liverpool lands and retired to estates in the 
south of England which he had got by marriage. 460 
The departure of the Moores was the breach of one 
of the last links with the past of a town rapidly 
reshaping itself. 

The same period which saw the departure of the 
Moores saw also the final settlement of the long feud 

with the Molyneuxes. At the Restoration the con- 
fiscation of their lordship during the Commonwealth 
was of course annulled. Immediately on taking 
possession, Caryll Lord Molyneux renewed the 
action 461 which his father had brought against the 
burgesses for invasion of his rights as lord of the 
manor. The burgesses, knowing that the case would 
go against them, made an accommodation similar to 
that which they had made in 1639, whereby they 
paid 20 per annum for a lease of all the lordship 
rights. But this did not settle the dispute. Lord 
Molyneux claimed that the burgesses were bound to 
pay the rent-charge of .14 6s. %d. due from him to 
the Crown over and above the 20 ; they, on their 
side, contended that this sum was included in the 20. 
This dispute presently merged in another. 46 * In 
1668 Lord Molyneux had made a thoroughfare 
through the castle orchard to the Pool. Wishing to 
continue it, he consulted counsel, who advised him 
that as lord of the manor he was owner of the waste 
and had a right to make a thoroughfare over it. He 
therefore erected a bridge, thus raising the whole 
question of the ownership of the waste. The mayor 
and burgesses pulled down the bridge ; Molyneux 
replied with a whole series of actions at law, con- 
cerning ' the interests and title of the Corporation of 
Liverpool as to their claim in the waste grounds of 
Liverpool,' and also raising anew the old questions of 
tolls and dues. Had the question been fought out (as 
the burgesses were prepared to fight it) they would 
probably have won ; for the charter of Charles I, 
antedating the sale of the lordship, with its grant of 
all lands, &c. which they then held, however obtained, 
certainly covered the waste. After two years' fighting, 
however, a compromise was arranged, by which 
Molyneux was allowed to build his bridge on pay- 
ment of a nominal rent of id. per annum in recog- 
nition of the borough's ownership of the waste ; while 
on the other hand he granted to the borough a lease 
of all the rights of lordship except the ferry and the 
burgage-rents (which he still had to pay to the 
Crown) for 1,000 years at 50 per annum. 463 In 
1777 the lease was bought up from the then Lord 
Sefton, and this purchase included ferry and burgage- 
rents, which the Molyneuxes had previously purchased 
from the Crown. 464 Thus the ancient connexion of 
this family with the government of the borough came 
to an end ; and with it feudal superiority vanished 
from the borough. 

Molyneux, indeed, remained hereditary constable 
of the castle, 464 which was still outside the liberties of 
the borough, and received the tithes payable to the 
parochial church of Walton. But both of these 
powers also vanished during this period. The castle 
had been partially dismantled between 1660 and 
l6jB, m and it was now mainly used by a number of 
poor tenants who were allowed to remain within its 
walls, 467 beyond the control of the borough authorities. 
But when in 1688 and 1689 Lord Molyneux, actively 
supporting James II, made use of the castle for stores 
and arms, 468 and when in 1 694 he was suspected of 

<* The Moore Rental, already quoted, 
has been published by W. F. Irvine, under 
the title of Liverpool in King Charles H's 
Time} also by the Chetham Society 
(vol. iv). 

444 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, I54ff. 

4 *7 Moore Rental (ed. W. F. Irvine), 

10, II. 

458 Ibid. 64 and passim. 

459 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 

460 Moore Rental (ed. W. F. Irvine), 


481 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 14. 
*Ibid. 1,275-8 1. 


468 These documents are printed in 
Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 391 ff. 
484 Ibid. 395, 227. 

465 Picton, Liv, Munic. Rec. ii, 37 ff. 

466 Ibid. ; Cox, Liv. Castle. 

467 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 40. 

468 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 



being concerned in the organization of a Jacobite 
rising, 469 he was confiscated, and the constableship 
passed out of his hands. 470 In 1699 the burgesses 
obtained a lease of the castle for a year, 471 thus for the 
first time bringing its precincts under their control. 
In 1 704 they obtained from the Crown a lease 4 " 
of the castle and its site for fifty years with power to 
demolish its ruins. Disputes with Lord Molyneux, 
who still claimed the hereditary constableship, delayed 
the settlement, and it was not until 1726 that the 
last relics, the wall at the top of Lord Street, dis- 
appeared. 473 The acquisition of the lordship and of 
the castle by the burgesses marks the conclusion of the 
period of struggle with feudal superiors which has 
hitherto been the staple of burghal history ; and, no 
less than the great development of trade, makes this 
period the real beginning of modern Liverpool. 

The establishment of Liverpool as a separate parish 
is another sign of the same tendency. The arrange- 
ment whereby the tithes paid by Liverpool to Lord 
Molyneux had during the Commonwealth period been 
devoted to the provision of a minister for the new 
parish of Liverpool had, of course, with other Com- 
monwealth arrangements, been suppressed at the 
Restoration. But the rapid growth of the town made 
some readjustment inevitable. In 1673 Blome noted 474 
that the chapel of St. Nicholas, though large, was too 
small to hold the inhabitants of the town, and this 
inadequacy became accentuated as the influx of popu- 
lation continued. In 1699, in response to a petition 
from the Corporation, 474 Liverpool was cut off from 
the parish of Walton, and created into a separate 
parish with two rectors appointed and paid by the 
Corporation. Compensation to the rector of Walton 
and to Lord Molyneux was also paid by the Corpora- 
tion. 47 ' The borough thus became ecclesiastically as 
well as administratively independent. Under the same 
Act which constituted the parish, a new church, that of 
St. Peter, was erected on the continuation of Lord 
Molyneux's road across the waste, henceforth to be 
known as Church Street. But the creation of the 
parish involved the institution of the vestry as a 
separate poor-law authority, levying its own rates ; 4rr 
and this marks the beginning of a subdivision of 
administrative authority which was to be greatly 
extended during the next century. 

The new temper of the burgesses, induced by their 
prosperity, is further exhibited in the use they made 
during the period of their Parliamentary franchise. 
Contested elections had been rare before the Restora- 

tion, but almost every election after 1 660 was acri- 
moniously contested. Lord Derby, who had once 
regularly nominated to one of the seats, was still 
influential, and his support often sufficed to turn the 
scale ; but he was now only one of a group of mag- 
nates who wrote to use their influence at elections, 478 
and after the Revolution his preferences were entirely 
disregarded. The wealthy merchants who now con- 
trolled Liverpool were not to be dictated to. Party 
feeling had run high, and influence in elections now 
mainly took the form of bribery, which became 
rampant in this period. 

The bitter feud of two organized parties is indeed 
the chief feature of municipal history during these 
years. Since the fever of the Civil War the great 
issues which divided the nation affected the town as 
they had never done before ; and under the stress of 
strife between Puritans and Cavaliers, or Whigs and 
Tories, the forms of borough government underwent 
a series of remarkable changes, always influenced by 
the synchronous events in national history. The 
rising port had emerged from its backwater into the 
full stream of national life. 

Puritanism had been strong in Liverpool, and con- 
tinued to be strong under Charles II. The Act of 
Uniformity drove forth two of the ministers of Wal- 
ton and Liverpool ; but there remained a substantial 
number of Nonconformists. 478 * No less than five alder- 
men and seven councilmen, together with the town 
clerk, refused to take the oaths in i66z-3, 479 being 
almost one in three of the council ; though many 
who were Puritan in sympathy, like Colonel Birch, 480 
who had been governor of the town under the Com- 
monwealth, made no difficulty about accepting the 
oaths. Wandering Nonconformist preachers like 
Thomas Jolly 481 found ' many opportunities ' and 
' much comfort ' when they came to Liverpool ; and 
on the issue of the Declaration of Indulgence a 
licence was obtained for a Presbyterian conventicle in 
* the house of Thomas Christian,' as well as for two 
chapels in Toxteth Park. 481a The rector of Walton 
writes in 1693 of the presence in Liverpool of 'a 
number of fanatics from whom a churchman can 
expect little justice.' 4M 

The presence of this substantial element of declared 
Nonconformists, backed by a number of Conformists 
who were Puritan in their sympathies in both poli- 
tical and religious affairs, brought it about that Liver- 
pool was the scene of acute and acrimonious party strife 
down to, and even after, the Revolution. In 1662 a 

Hiit. MSS. Com. Rtp. xiv. App. iv, 
292 ft". 302. He received a commission 
from the exiled monarch giving him ' in- 
structions for the care and government of 

470 There was much competition among 
the local nobility to obtain the succession. 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. i, 20, 21 ; iii, 270*. 

4 ? 1 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 292 ff. 

4 7* A full abstract of the lease is given 
by Picton, Li-v. Munic. Rec. ii, 33 ff. The 
condition was at first imposed that part 
of the castle should be used as an armoury 
for the local militia ; but in 1709 Lord 
Derby as lord lieutenant empowered the 
removal of these arms to the custody of 
the mayor. Ibid. 41. 

4 '* Picton, Liv. Munic. Rtc. ii, 61. 

V* Loc. cit. 

75 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 3*5. 

<7 Ibid. 

*77 It would appear, however, that 
Liverpool had acted as a poor-law autho- 
rity for some time before it became a 
separate parish, no doubt under the terms 
of 13 & 14 Chas. II, cap. 13, which 
provided that in certain counties of the 
north of England populous townships 
should have overseers of their own, distinct 
from those of the large parishes of which 
they formed parts. From 1682, when the 
records begin, a poor-rate was levied and 
administered by elected ' overseers of the 
poor." The amount raised rose from 40 
in 1682 to ,100 in 1698, the year before 
the Act constituting the parish was 
passed. There is no marked change 
either in the amount raised or in the 
mode of administration after the Act. 
Vestry Minutes, i. 

8 OrmondMSS. (Hist MSS. Com. new 
sen), iii, 367. 


4 7 te In 1669 the Bishop of Chester re- 
ported to Archbishop Sheldon that at 
' Leverpoole was held a frequent conven- 
ticle of about 30 or 40 Anabaptists, mostly 
rich people,' while ' two conventicles of 
Independents ' were held in Toxteth Park, 
'the usual number of each is between 
100 and 200, some of them husbandmen, 
others merchants with severall sorts of 
tradesmen' ; Lambeth MSS. 639, quoted 
Bate, Declaration of Indulgence, App. viii. 

W Picton, Lii>. Munic. Rec. i, 238, 
240. Cf. for presence of ' fanatics ' in 
Liverpool, Col. S.P. Dom. 1665-6, p. 

480 Ibid. 

< Notebook of T. Jolly (Chet. Soc. new 
ser. xxxiii), 60. 

481a Bate, op. cit. App. Ixx and xxxii. 

Hiit. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 


batch of thirty-eight new freemen were admitted, 48 * 
nearly all powerful local landowners, and presumably 
good church and king men, and the object of this was 
doubtless to modify the Puritan complexion of the 
borough. But in spite of this it seems clear that the 
Puritans (or, as it will be more convenient and more 
accurate to call them, the Whigs) remained in a standing 
majority in the burgess body, throughout the period, and 
for a time held their own even in the carefully purified 
council. 484 This is especially indicated in the mayoral 
elections, the only function now left by the council 
to the burgess body at large. In 1669 a mayor was 
elected who had refused to take the oaths in 1662 ; 485 
and when a petition against his election was sent to 
the Privy Council, a majority of the Town Council 
voted in favour of paying the costs of resistance. From 
this it would appear that in 1669 the Whigs were still 
strong in the council. So long as the bailiffs con- 
tinued to be elected, under the terms of the Charter 
of Charles I, by the burgess body, and to become 
thereafter life members of the council, it seemed 
impossible for Tory predominance to be established. 

Applications for a new charter were made in 1 664 4 * 
and 1667 ; 487 and as the influence of Lord Derby, that 
sound Cavalier, was enlisted in favour of these appli- 
cations, it is reasonable to suppose that their object was 
to obtain a revision in a sense favourable to the Tories. 
The non-success of these applications maybe attributed 
to the fact that Charles II, until the secession of 
Shaftesbury in 1672, hoped for Puritan support in his 
monarchic aims, and was unwilling therefore to weaken 
Puritan power. 

In 1672 the Tories, now in a majority in the 
council though not in the assembly, and led by a 
Tory mayor, took the law into their own hands. They 
appear to have assumed the right of nominating the 
bailiffs ; and when a protest was made, it was con- 
demned as ' very scandalous and of bad consequence,' 
and a resolution was passed deposing any of the (Whig) 
members of council who should be proved to have 
been concerned in it. 488 At the next electoral assembly 
the outgoing mayor, having declared his successor duly 
elected, adjourned the meeting seemingly without 
proceeding to the election of bailiffs. 489 A number of 
the burgesses, however, refused to be adjourned, and 
forcing the mayor to continue in the chair, transacted 
business for two hours, until the mayor was relieved by 
force. There is no record of their proceedings, which 
were regarded as illegal. They may have held that 
the result of the mayoral election was not truly 
declared ; they may have demanded an election of 
bailiffs ; and they may also have insisted upon exercising 
their chartered right of passing by-laws. For this 
riotous conduct twenty-six men were deprived of the 
freedom. In 1676, however, there was again a Whig 
mayor ; *" who in conjunction with three Whig 
aldermen, proceeded to admit a number of new free- 
men without consulting the council, doubtless for the 
purpose of affecting the next elections. The council 
refused to recognize these freemen ; and when in 1677 

another Whig mayor was elected, declared his election 
void on the ground that he had been struck off the 
commission of the peace for the county. 491 It is worth 
noting that these events occurred at the time when 
the Crown was engaged in its death-grapple with 

On 1 8 July 1677 the council at last succeeded in 
obtaining from Charles II a new charter. 492 In the 
charter of William III, by which its main provisions 
were repealed, this charter is described as having been 
obtained ' by a few of the burgesses by a combination 
among themselves, and without a surrender of the 
previous charter or any judgement of quo warranto or 
otherwise given against the same.' 49S This doubtless 
means that the application was made by the Tory 
majority of the council, without confirmation by the 
assembly, to which under the charter of Charles I full 
governing powers belonged. The main purpose of 
the new charter was to secure the predominance of the 
council, unmentioned in the Charles I charter, and 
its control over the whole borough government. The 
number of the council was raised from forty to sixty in 
order to permit of the inclusion of ' fifteen . . . bur- 
gesses of the said town dwelling without that town, 'i.e. 
fifteen good Tory country gentlemen who would secure 
the Tory majority. The charter also transferred from 
the assembly to the council the right of electing both the 
mayor and the bailiffs, as well as the nomination of free- 
men. As the election of the mayor and bailiffs was 
the sole municipal power remaining in the hands of 
the body of burgesses, this provision deprived them of 
any shadow of power over the government of the town. 
Their only remaining function was that of electing 
members of Parliament, and the right of nominating 
freemen gave control even over these elections 
ultimately into the hands of the council. Thus the 
result of this charter was to place the absolute control 
of the borough in the hands of a small self-electing 
Tory oligarchy. 

The action of the council in the restless strife of 
the later years of Charles II was what might have 
been predicted. They passed vigorous loyal addresses 
against the Exclusion Bill 494 and in condemnation 
of the Rye-house Plot ; 49S the latter address con- 
tains an interesting allusion to Dryden's dbsalom and 
Ackitophel, which shows how keenly the movement of 
national affairs was now followed in the borough. 
But there is visible in the addresses also an under- 
current of nervousness ; their fear of ' Popish contri- 
vances,' and their * adherence to the true Protestant 
religion ' is a little too loudly insisted upon. This 
may explain why it was thought necessary to include 
Liverpool in the list of general revisions of municipal 
charters at the end of the reign of Charles II and the 
beginning of that of James II. Issued in the first 
year of James II, the new charter 496 simply confirmed 
its predecessor, but it contained also two new clauses, 
one reserving to the Crown the right of removing any 
member of the council or any borough official : the 
other conveying the power of exacting from any 

188 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 240. 
484 On this point see Hist. Munic. Govt. 
in Liv. 102, 103. 

** Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 245. 
484 Munic. Rec. iii, 779. A ley' of 80 
was raised for the purpose. 
8 7 Ibid. 837, 847. 
488 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. 5, 246. 
89 Ibid. 247 ; and Hist. Munic. Govt. in 

Liv. 102-3, where this curious episode is 

490 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 248. 

491 Ibid. 

IM Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. i 9 1 ff. 

498 Ibid. 237. The only allusion to 
the episode in the Council minutes is 
a resolution on i Nov. 1676 authorizing 
the mayor 'to take care about renewing 


of our charter, taking to his assistance 
such as he shall think meet at the charge 
of this Corporation.' Munic. Rec. iv, 137. 
Clearly the assembly of burgesses had not 
been consulted. 

494 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 2CI. 

495 Ibid. 253. 

496 Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 207 ff. 



freeman the oaths hitherto required only from coun- 
cillors, and thus rendering possible a further purifica- 
tion of the burgess body, still predominantly Whig. 

Under the terms of this charter, the deputy-mayor 
and the senior alderman (both Tories) were removed 497 
by the Crown for persisting in prosecuting two Catho- 
lics, a surgeon and a schoolmistress, for pursuing their 
professions, in spite of a licence issued by the Crown. 
This indicates that in Liverpool, as elsewhere, the 
loyalty of the Tories to the Crown was limited by 
their loyalty to the Church. Tory as it was, the 
council never willingly accepted this charter, which 
indeed would appear never to have had legal force. 498 
The increasing restiveness of the council is still more 
clearly shown in the answer given 4 " to commissioners 
who were in 1687 sent round to obtain promises of 
aid in securing a Parliament favourable to the repeal 
of the Test Act. The mayor answered ' that what is 
required by his Majesty is a very weighty and new 
thing ; and that he was not prepared to give any 
answer but this : when it shall please the King to call 
a new Parliament, he proposed to vote for such per- 
sons as he hoped would serve the just interests both of 
his Majesty and the nation.' Only 'four or five 
customs officers ' were ready to promise their votes. 500 

The borough as a whole was thus ready to wel- 
come, and even the ruling oligarchy was ready to 
accept, the Revolution. A small force of royal troops 
were for a time in Liverpool, 501 and Lord Molyneux, 
Constable of the castle, took a vigorous part for 
James as Lord Lieutenant of the county ; 50f but the 
attitude of Lord Derby, who, Tory as he was, after 
some wavering, threw himself on the side of the 
Prince of Orange, 503 had more to do with determin- 
ing the attitude of the town ; and one of the things 
he protested against was the 'extravagant methods 
practised by the new magistrates in the ancient loyal 
corporations ' of Wigan, Liverpool, and Preston, into 
which he urged that inquiry should be made. 504 
Though some of the townsmen made some difficulty 
about accepting the oaths to the new monarchs, 505 on 
the whole the Revolution was most enthusiastically 
received in Liverpool ; and during 1689 the port 
was very actively employed in the transport of troops 
for the Irish campaign, 506 General Kirke being for a 
time in command in the town, 507 while Schomberg 
passed through it 508 on his way to embark at Hoy- 
lake. So great was the demand for shipping that the 
merchants complained that they were being ruined. 509 

The Revolution brought about a temporary recon- 
ciliation between the two parties in the town. Not 
only the Tory magistrates removed by the Crown, 510 
but some of the Whigs who had declined the oaths 
in idyS, 511 returned to the council. The charter of 
James II was dropped by common consent, if it had 

ever come into force, and in 1690 an inspeximus and 
confirmation 51 * of the charter of Charles II was 
obtained from William and Mary. In the first 
Parliament of the Revolution Liverpool was repre- 
sented 513 by Lord Colchester, son-in-law of Lord 
Derby and a sound Tory, and by Thomas Norris, a 
strong Whig. 

But it was inevitable that the Whigs, in a majority 
in the burgess-body, should desire power in the town 
government, and the reconciliation did not last long. 
In 1694, Lord Colchester being called up to the 
House of Peers, a Whig was elected in his place by 
400 votes against 1 5 cast for his Tory opponent, 514 
in spite of the support given by Lord Derby to the 
latter. The Tory mayor went so far as to declare the 
defeated candidate elected, 415 for which he was repri- 
manded by the House of Commons. This election 
was regarded as a triumph for the party which was 
anxious to overturn the charter of Charles II ; and 
the two members, Jasper Maudit and Thomas Norris, 
worked actively 516 to obtain a new charter. The 
Town Council voted funds for the defence of the 
Charles II charter, 517 and appealed to Roger Kenyon, 
member for Clitheroe, and to Lord Derby, to fight 
their case for them at Westminster. 518 In 1605, 
however, a new charter 519 was granted, which first 
declared the Charles II charter invalid on the grounds 
already noted, then recited and confirmed the Charles I 
charter, and went on to reduce the number of the 
Town Council to forty. This charter remained the 
governing charter of the borough until 1835. I ts 
general principle (in consonance with the conservative 
character of the whole revolution of which it was a 
part) was to restore the system of government as it 
was supposed to have been before the recent changes. 
But it was badly drafted ; and left open several vital 
questions over which there was much discussion dur- 
ing the next century notably the question whether 
it was within the power of the burgess body at its 
pleasure to override the powers of the Town 
Council. 5 * 

The Whigs were now in power in the council as 
well as in the assembly ; and though the Tories 
refused to accept the new charter, 521 and the ex- 
mayor (deposed from the council) refused to yield 
up the town plate, 521 they were powerless ; and the 
Whig predominance remained unshaken until the 
middle of the i8th century. An attempt to obtain 
the revocation of the William III charter, made by 
the Tories during the period of Tory ascendancy in 
national councils in 1710, was unsuccessful; 523 as 
were also sundry attacks in a different form upon the 
dominant Whigs, to which we shall have to allude in 
the next section. The Liverpool members of Parlia- 
ment during this period were also steadily Whig. 

49 7 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 257. 

498 Against the docquet of the charter 
re written the words ' never past,' Hist. 
Munic. Govt. in Liv. 206. In a list of 
charters in the House of Lords MSS. it 
is entered with a note '(did not pass),' 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xii, App. vi, 299. 

499 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 257-8. 
600 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xii, App. vii, 


801 Ibid. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 2OI-2. 
602 Ibid. Rep. xii, App. vii, 205 ff. 
508 Ibid. Rep. xiv, App. iv, I98ff. 

504 Ibid. 198. 

505 Ibid. 223. 

506 Ibid. Rep. xii, App. vi, 170, 174, 
175, 183, 187 ; App. vii, 237, 244, 248, 

W Abbott's Journ. (Chet. Soc. Ixi), 2. 

508 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xii, App. vii, 

509 Ibid. Rep* xiv, App. iv, 263. 

510 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 260. 
" Ibid. 281. 

512 Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 233. 
418 Ret. ofMemb. of Parl. } Norris Papers 
(Chet. Soc. ix), 21. 

514 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 
321 ; Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 261. 

515 Ibid. 

2 7 

6U Norris Papers (Chet. Soc. ix), 25- 


517 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. !, 262. 

518 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 


519 Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 110-14, 
and 236 ff. 

sac f or an analysis in detail of these 
points see Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 

521 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. 263-4. 

822 Ibid. 

423 Ibid, ii, 4-7 ; Hist. Munic. Govt. 
in Liv. 114, 115 ; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. 
xiv, App. iv, 673. 


The chief of them, Sir Thomas Johnson, sat for 
Liverpool from 1701 to 1727 and all attacks upon 
his seat were unsuccessful." 5 He and his father had 
been the leaders in the struggle against the Tory 
supremacy. A representative of the new class of 
Liverpool merchants, he was assiduous in his atten- 
tions to the interests of the town," 6 and deserves to 
be regarded as one of the principal fosterers of its 
new prosperity. He died a poor man after a labo- 
rious life, and his memory now survives only in the 
name of Sir Thomas Street. 6 " 

Fairly launched on its upward career by 1700, 
Liverpool was to enjoy during the course of the 1 8th 
century a rapidly increasing prosperity, the course 
of which it will be impossible to follow in any detail. 
Staunchly loyal to the Protestant succession, the town 
enjoyed the favour of the Whig party. Its Whiggism 
may be illustrated by the fact that in 1714 it for- 
warded an address to the Crown, asking for the 
punishment of the Tory ministers of Anne, who had 
endeavoured to restore the exiled Stuarts ; 628 by the 
fact that in 1 709 it was the only provincial town to 
offer hospitality to the exiled ' Palatines,' of whom 
it took 130 families ;"* and above all by the fact 
that in the rebellion of 1715, during which it was 
the single stronghold of Whiggism in Lancashire, it 
threw itself vigorously into a state of defence. 530 
When the rebellion was crushed it was not unnaturally 
chosen as the venue for many of the trials ; 631 two of 
the unfortunate prisoners were executed on the 
gallows in London Road, while many hundreds were 
transported, to the no small profit of the Liverpool 
traders who took them out. The later rebellion of 
1745 found Liverpool equally loyal; a regiment of 
foot was raised and equipped by public subscription,* 3 ' 
and after having a brush with the Highlanders near 
Warrington, it played a useful part in garrisoning 
Carlisle, during the Duke of Cumberland's northward 
advance, its conduct earning warm praise. 433 When 
the rising was over, the party feeling of the town 
burst forth in mob riots, in the course of which the 
only Roman Catholic chapel was burnt. 434 As might 
be expected in a town so vigorously Whig, the 
ascendancy of the Whig party remained almost 
unshaken both in municipal politics and in the 
Parliamentary elections. Liverpool was generally 
regarded as a safe Whig borough, 435 and the power of 
electing new freemen, hitherto pretty generously 
exercised, now began to be used by the Town 
Council for the purpose of securing party ascend- 
ancy. 438 Under these circumstances the Tory party, 
extruded from power, made themselves the advocates 
of the rights of the burgess body as against the Town 
Council rights of which they had formerly been the 
principal opponents. The election of Sir Thomas 

Bootle as one of the members for the borough from 
1727 to I734 437 represents the partial triumph of 
this interest. During the same period, and largely 
under Bootle's influence, a vigorous attack was made 
on the ascendancy of the Town Council, 433 which was 
for some years quite overridden, the government of 
the town being assumed, in accordance with the 
popular interpretation of a clause in the William III 
charter, by a succession of popular mayors acting 
through the assembly of burgesses. In 1734 Lord 
Derby was elected mayor, and under his powerful 
direction, an attempt was made to regularize the 
position of the assembly, and to establish its right of 
passing by-laws and electing freemen. Lord Derby 
died before the end of his year of office ; and after 
his death the agitation quietly and completely died 
out. There was a partial revival of the controversy 
in 1757, when Mr. Joseph Clegg, 439 one of the alder- 
men who had been mayor in 1 748, led a renewed 
attack upon the council. But though the council 
tried in vain to obtain a new charter 640 establishing 
beyond question its control of borough government 
Clegg's attack came to nothing, and the challenge of 
the council's authority was not again renewed until 
the time of the French Revolution. The chief 
interest of this struggle is the demonstration which it 
affords that the ascendancy of the Whigs was as 
narrowly oligarchic as that of the Tories had been 
after the Restoration. Indeed, it was even more so ; 
for it is to this period that we must attribute an 
increasing chariness in granting the freedom of the 
borough to new-comers. 441 Up to the beginning of 
the 1 8th century it would appear that almost all resi- 
dents obtained the freedom without difficulty. By 
the middle of the century it was rarely granted to 
new-comers except for the purpose of influencing 
elections; and finally in 1777 the rule was laid 
down 4W that none but apprentices and sons of freemen 
should be admitted to the freedom. Thus in the 
second half of the century a minority of the principal 
merchants of the town exercised political rights in it. 
This increasing restriction was peculiarly unfortunate 
at a period when, owing to the rapid growth of trade, 
the population was increasing with unheard-of rapidity. 
But it is probably to be attributed to the very fact of 
this increase of trade, the town council being 
unwilling to sacrifice the large revenue which they 
derived from the dues paid by non-freemen. These 
dues were now for the first time becoming very 
valuable ; and hence arose a new series of struggles, 
due to the attempt of boroughs such as London, 
Bristol and Lancaster, to obtain exemption from the 
payment of dues in Liverpool under the mediaeval 
charters which freed them from the payment of dues 
throughout the kingdom. One such question had 

6! Ret. of Memb. of Par!. 

624 Even in 1710, when the Tory re- 
action wa at its height ; Hist. MSS. Com. 
Rep. xiv, App. iv, 579. 

' See Norrit Papers (Chet. Soc. ix), 

52 7The facts of Johnson's life have 
been summarized by E. M. Platt, Trans. 
Hist. Soc. (new ser.), rvi, 147. 

SM Lanes, in 1715 (Chet. Soc. v), 4. 

SM Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. viii, App. i, 
47*. The reception of the 'Palatines' 
was a very definite party issue ; cf. for 
example, Swift's attacks on it, Examiner, 
nos. 41, 45. 


S3 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. 
Ware, Lanes, in 1715, passim. 

681 Ware, Lanes, in 1715, 190-202; 
Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 79 ; Stuart 
MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), ii, 232 ; Milne- 
Home MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), 112. 

5811 Picton, Li-v. Munic. Rec. ii, 105 ff. 

688 Walpole, Letters (ed. Toynbee), ii, 

&M Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 109 ; 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xv, App. vii, 

as Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 
579 5 Re f>- *v, App. vii, 121-2 et passim. 
' Ibid. Rep. xv, App. vii, 122-3. 

687 Picton, Li-v. Munic. Rec. ii, 99. 


588 Ibid. 89-99. For a full analysis 
and description of this struggle and its 
results see Muir, Hist, of Li-v. 167-73; 
also Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 125-8, 
269,. where full excerpts from the 
municipal archives are printed. 

689 Picton, Li-v. Munic. Rec. ii, 101, 2 ; 
A letter from Mr. Joseph Clcgg, etc. ; A 
Correct Translation of the Charter etc. by 
Philodemus ; and other pamphlets and MS. 
by Clegg preserved in the Liverpool City 

540 Hist. Munic. Govt. in Liv. 270-1. 

641 For the steps in this development 
see Hitt. Munic. Govt. in Liv 120-1. 

542 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 194. 


already been raised by the London cheesemongers in 
1690 ; 543 it was revived at intervals during the cen- 
tury, 544 both on behalf of the freemen of London, and 
on behalf of those of other towns, and was not finally 
determined till I799, 545 when after a long trial, it 
was laid down that only ' freemen residing within the 
liberties ' of the borough which put forward the claim 
were entitled to the exemption. 

All these disputes were in themselves evidences of 
the growing wealth to which they were due. The 
secret of this rising prosperity was that Liverpool was 
in this period obtaining an increasingly large share of 
the trade which was then the richest in the world 
that with the West Indies, whence almost all the 
sugar, tobacco, and other * colonial produce ' consumed 
by Europe was derived. In comparison with the 
West India trade, the trade with the American 
colonies was of very small importance, and as late as 
1752 only one Liverpool vessel is said to have plied 
to New York. 548 Not only was there the direct trade 
with the British West Indies, but, even more lucrative, 
a large irregular smuggling trade with Spanish 
America was carried on, in spite of the prohibition of 
the Spanish government. In this traffic, the southern 
ports of Bristol and London possessed at the end of 
the 1 7th century a very great advantage. During 
the early years of the 1 8th century Liverpool rapidly 
gained at their expense. For this two reasons are 
alleged. The first is that her ships were largely 
manned with apprentices who received next to no 
wages until they reached the age of twenty-one, and 
that the customary rate of pay for the captains and 
officers was lower than the rate which held in the 
southern ports. 547 More important was the second 
cause : namely, that the coarse stuffs of mixed linen 
and cotton, or linen and woollen (linsey woolsey) 
which were produced by the looms of Manchester 
were in great request in the West Indian markets, 
and were produced more cheaply than the correspond- 
ing German goods with which the southern traders 
endeavoured to supply the market. 548 Thus, as 
always, the growth of Liverpool trade was concurrent 
with the growth of Manchester industry. The 
smuggling trade with the Spanish colonies, and the 
frequent conflicts with Spanish guarda costas to which 
it gave rise, ultimately led to the Spanish war of 1739, 
and was almost brought to an end by an Act of 
Parliament of 1747, which forbade foreign vessels to 
frequent British West India ports. 549 But while it 
was at its height (about 1730) this branch of trade 
alone is said to have brought into Liverpool an 
annual profit of 250,000 and to have consumed over 
500,000 worth of Manchester goods. 550 

The legitimate and illegitimate trade of the West 
Indies and South America equally led on the traders 
who engaged in it to the still more lucrative African 
trade which could be worked in combination with it. 


It was in this period that Liverpool first entered upon 
the slave trade, out of which she was to draw, during 
the century, fabulous riches ; and which was to earn 
for her a highly unsavoury reputation. At the end 
of the century the greatness of Liverpool was generally 
attributed by her own citizens as well as by others 5S1 
entirely to the slave trade. Yet it was not until 
the fourth decade of the century, when Liverpool 
was already rapidly overtaking Bristol, that this line 
of trade began to be seriously developed ; and she 
had long been preceded in it by the two great 
southern ports. Up to 1698 the monopoly of the 
African trade had been held by the Assiento Com- 
pany of London. In that year its formal monopoly 
was abolished, 55 * though it still retained the sole right 
of importing slaves into the Spanish dominions. In 
the early years of the eighteenth century Bristol 
began to compete with London led on, as Liverpool 
was later to be, from the West Indies to the source 
of their labour supply. Indeed the Bristol merchants 
seem to have been driven to the African trade largely 
by the successful competition of Liverpool in the 
Spanish smuggling trade. 553 In 1709 one Liverpool 
vessel of 30 tons burthen was dispatched to Africa ; 554 
but the venture does not seem to have been success- 
ful, probably owing to the jealousy of the Bristol and 
London men, for it was not repeated for twenty 
years. In 1730 an Act of Parliament for the regu- 
lation of the African trade i55 established an open 
company to which any person trading to Africa 
might belong on payment of 40.;. The money was 
to be used for the up-keep of factories on the African 
coast ; and the administration of these was entrusted 
to a committee of nine, consisting of three members 
elected by the merchants of each of the three ports, 
London, Bristol, and Liverpool. At once, under the 
new system, Liverpool threw herself energetically into 
the trade. In the same year, 1730, fifteen vessels of 
1,1 1 1 tons were dispatched to Africa. 666 In 1752 
the number had risen to eighty-eight vessels ac- 
commodating nearly 25,000 slaves, 557 though it 
had sunk by 1760 to seventy-four vessels of 8,178 
tons. 658 In 1751 a separate Liverpool company was 
established 559 by Act of Parliament. The Act states 
that there were 101 African merchants in Liverpool, 
but though there were 135 in London and 157 in 
Bristol, ' their trade to Africa is not so extensive as 
the merchants of Liverpool.' The methods and 
development of this trade cannot here be described. 
The materials for its history have been fully mar- 
shalled by Mr. Gomer Williams, to whose valuable 
book 56 the reader who is inquisitive on this subject 
may be referred. But it should be noted that the 
immensely lucrative character of this traffic is to be 
attributed to the fact that a treble profit was made on 
every voyage. The cheap guns, ornaments, and stuffs 
which formed the outward cargo were exchanged for 

MS Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. i, 265, 
301 ff. 

M4 Ibid, ii, 21 ff. et passim. 

Ibid. 212. 

846 Smithers, Liverpool, 112. A useful 
general description of Liverpool trade in 
the 1 8th and early igth centuries, with 
statistics, is contained in this book, and 
indeed, forms its best feature. See also, 
Kaye, Stranger in Liverpool (1825 ed.), 

M ' Wallace, Central Descr. 216. 
Derrick (Letters from Liv, &c. 1767) 
attributes the success of Liverpool to the 

fact that owing to the security of the 
passage through the Irish Sea, insurance 
could be dispensed with. 

M8 Williams, Liv. Privateers and Slave- 
trade,^. <* Ibid. 

450 Edwards, Hist, of the W. Indie*. 

M1 Wallace, Central Descr. 229. 

Ma Williams, loc. cit. 

sss Williams, op. cit. 467. 

644 Troughton (Corry), Hist. Liv. 265, 
gives a table of the number and tonnage of 
slave-ships sailing from Liverpool from 
1709 to 1807. 


sss Williams, op. cit. 467. 

Ibid. 470. 

W Williamson, Liv. Memorandum Bk. 
1753, gives the full list of ships and 
owners for 1752. The list is reprinted 
by Williams, op. cit. 675. 

* 68 Troughton, loc. cit. 

23 Geo. II, cap. 31. The list of 
merchants incorporated in the new com- 
pany is printed by Williams, op. cit. 674. 

660 Hist, of the Liv. Privateers and Letter! 
of Marque with an account of the Liv. Slave- 
trade, Lond. 1897. 


slaves at an average cost of about 15 ; the slaves 
were then shipped to Virginia or (more often) to 
Kingston, Jamaica (where the Liverpool merchants 
combined to maintain permanent agents) and sold at 
a price which varied from 60 upwards ; the ships 
were then loaded with sugar, tobacco, and other highly 
saleable West Indian produce for the homeward 
voyage. Comparatively few slaves were brought 
home to England, though occasional advertisements 
in the Liverpool papers show that a few were im- 
ported before 1772, when the Somerset case made 
such importations illegal. This 'great triangle' of 
trade was probably the most lucrative in the history 
of commerce, for its profits were not only very large 
but rapid. Thus vast fortunes were made, and a 
vast capital accumulated in Liverpool, much of which 
went to develop other lines of trade, or to aid those 
works, now beginning to be undertaken, for the im- 
provement of the equipment of the port and its com- 
munications with inland markets. 

Of these activities the most important was the 
creation of the first dock. The idea of deepening 
the Pool which curved round the town and turning 
it into a more effective harbour had long been enter- 
tained by some of the more enterprising townsmen ; 
it is alluded to by Sir Edward Moore as early as 
I668. 561 But in the first years of the i8th century 
the necessity of some such provision for the increasing 
shipping became obvious. The first project, put for- 
ward in 1 708 by a Mr. Henry Hun of Derby, 562 was 
one for simply deepening and walling in the whole 
length of the Pool. But in the next year Mr. 
Thomas Steers, an engineer brought from London by 
Sir Thomas Johnson, proposed the alternative scheme 
of making a square dock with gates in the mouth of 
the Pool. This proposal was accepted, and an Act 
of Parliament obtained to empower the Town Council 
to borrow the necessary funds and to raise dock dues 
for the payment of the interest thereon. 688 The con- 
struction of the dock was begun in 1710 under the 
direction of Steers. It took longer, and cost more 
to build, than had been anticipated ; it was opened 
for use on 31 August 1715, but was not then com- 
pleted, and a second Act had to be obtained in 
1 7 1 6 564 to empower the council to raise additional 
funds for the completion of the works. A 'dry 
dock' or basin was added two years later. 565 From 
the first the dock (whose site is now represented by 
the Custom House) was fully used, but it was not 
until 1734 s66 that the creation of a new dock, known 
as the South or Salthouse Dock, was begun. This, 
as there was no natural inlet to facilitate the work, 
took nineteen years to build, and was not opened 
until I753. 567 

The beginning of the dock estate marks an epoch 
in the history of the town ; it is the beginning of 
modern Liverpool. The Pool, the characteristic 
feature of mediaeval Liverpool, now vanishes from 
the maps, leaving as its sole trace the irregularity of 

the directions of the streets that had been compressed 
into the triangle between it and the river. But the 
creation of docks was not the only enterprise of this 
period for the improvement of the port's trading 
facilities. The channel of the river was buoyed and 
charted ; 56S lighthouses were erected, 869 the first good 
carriage roads out of the town were made with the 
aid of the Town Council ; S7 the streams running 
into the Mersey estuary were deepened so as to make 
them navigable : the Weaver (not without opposi- 
tion) in I72O, 571 the Mersey and the Irwell also in 
I72O, 57 * and the Sankey Brook in 1755 ; 57S while 
the deepening of the Douglas from Wigan to the 
Kibble 574 cheapened the transport of coal. The 
Sankey navigation, carried out seemingly by a Liver- 
pool engineer, and largely financed by Liverpool 
men, 575 departed frankly from the line of the original 
brook, and so foreshadowed the era of canals. 

The increment of trade which produced all these 
activities may be indicated by the single fact that 
during the first half of the i8th century the shipping 
of the port rose from seventy ships with 800 men .(in 
1700) to 220 ships with 3,319 men in 1751.*". 
In the same period the population rose from 5,000 
(est.) in 1700 to 18,000 (est.) in I75O. 57S New 
local industries were also created or greatly developed 
in this period : shipbuilding, sugar refining, rope- 
making, iron-working, watch-making, and pottery, all 
flourished. 579 In pottery, in particular, Liverpool 
enjoyed in this age a brief eminence. By the middle 
of the 1 8th century, therefore, the town was already 
vigorous and thriving ; rejoicing especially in its re-' 
cently acquired mastery of the most lucrative trade in 
the world. 

In the second half of the 1 8th century the com- 
mercial triumph of Liverpool was secured. This 
was due to several causes, the first of which was the 
effect of the wars which almost filled this age. 

In the Spanish War of 1739 and the War of the 
Austrian Succession into which it merged, Liverpool 
seems to have taken comparatively little part, though 
she had shared so largely in the irregular traffic of the 
South Seas from which it sprang. Four or five 
privateers are known to have plied from the town, 
and they made a number of valuable captures ; sw 
but the non-existence of local newspapers during this 
period makes it difficult to discover the exact extent 
of these privateering activities. On the other hand 
103 Liverpool vessels are known to have been cap- 
tured by the enemy. 581 Nevertheless the port profited 
exceedingly from the war, owing to the comparative 
security of the route through the Irish Sea. A local 
observer writes in 1753 that the war had brought 
such wealth that if it had lasted ' seven years longer 
it would have enlarged the size and riches of the 
town to a prodigious degree . . . Trade since the 
late peace has not been so brisk as formerly.' 58S War 
therefore was welcomed in Liverpool. 

From the Seven Years' War the town derived even 

481 Moore, Rental (ed. W. F. Irvine), 
104 et passim. 

M1 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 47. 

** 8 Anne, cap. 12; Picton, Liv. 
Munic. Rec. ii, 48. s ' 4 3 Geo. I, cap. i. 

MS Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 141. 

** Ibid. 133, 143. 

W Ibid. * Ibid. 49. 

* Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. viii, App. i, 

870 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 63 ; 
Acts of 12 Geo. I, cap. 21 ; 19 Geo. II, 
cap. 19 ; 26 Geo. II, cap. 65. 

871 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. viii, App. i, 
396^ ; 7 Geo. I, cap. 10 ; 7 Geo. II, 
cap. 28. 

s " 2 7 Geo. I, cap. 15. 
V* 28 Geo. II, cap. 8 ; z Geo. Ill, 
cap. 56. 

874 6 Geo. I, cap. 28. 


575 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 144 j 
Brooke, Liv. in the xviii Cent. 105-6. 
877 Smithers, Lw. 185. Wlbid. 195-6. 

879 Williamson, Liv. Memorandum Bk. 


880 Williams, Hist, of Liv. Privateers, 
39, 40. 

681 Ibid. App. i, p. 659. 
ssa Williamson, Liv. Memorandum Bk. 



greater advantages. Though Thurot, 553 a brilliant 
French privateer, found his way into the Irish Sea, 
and in 1758 and 1759 caused much alarm in the 
Mersey, rendering necessary the fortification of the 
port, 584 and though ninety -eight Liverpool vessels 
were during the course of the war captured by the 
French, 585 the activity of the Liverpool traders in 
privateering was vastly greater than it had ever been 
before, and their captures were on the whole exceed- 
ingly valuable. It is not possible to state the exact 
number of ships employed ; 5S6 but it was very large, 
and these years in particular were distinguished by 
the activity of William Hutchinson, perhaps the 
boldest and most successful of Liverpool privateers. 567 
The result of the war was practically to sweep French 
commerce from Atlantic waters, and to establish 
English ascendancy in the West Indies almost as 
completely as on the North American continent. 
In the commercial gains which thus accrued Liverpool 
had the lion's share. 

In the War of the American Revolution the port 
suffered very seriously. Not only was trade with the 
revolted colonies practically stopped, but American 
privateers made West Indian waters unsafe, and under 
Paul Jones even ravaged the coasts of Britain, 588 
while the commerce of the Americans themselves was 
of such negligible amount as to make privateering use- 
less. 569 ' Our once extensive trade with Africa is at a 
stand ; all commerce with America is at an end,' and 
the * gallant ships ' were ' laid up and useless ' in the 
docks. 590 During the war the population actually de- 
creased, and the shipping of the port diminished from 
84,792 to 79,450 tons. 5 " 1 The distress thus caused 
led to grave riots, the most serious of which broke out 
in 1775, when 3,000 unemployed sailors laid siege to 
the Town Hall, and terrorized the town for a week. 491 
The regular troops of the garrison had to be distri- 
buted through the town. 498 Nevertheless the town 
took a vigorous and patriotic part in the war. A 
large fort with barracks was erected on the north 
shore, where the Prince's Dock now is ; 59< a regiment 
of regular troops known as the Liverpool Blues was 
raised, mainly at the cost of the Corporation it was 
employed in the garrisoning of Jamaica ; 596 a corps of 
local volunteers was also raised in 1782 ; 696 while the 
pressgang found a field in Liverpool for its unpopular 
.activity. 697 When in 1778 France and later Spain 
and Holland joined in the war, privateering once 
more became a profitable pursuit, and provided em- 
ployment for idle ships ; no less than 120 privateers, 698 
of 31,000 tons, were plying from Liverpool within a 

year of the French declaration of war, and nearly 
9,000 sailors thus found employment. 599 The years 
from 1778 to 1782 were the period of Liverpool's 
greatest activity in privateering ; 60 ' the merchants 
of Liverpool,' we are told, 'have entered more 
into the spirit of arming ships than any others in 
England ' ; 601 and many brilliant feats are recorded, 
of which no account can here be given. Some hun- 
dreds of French prisoners occupied during these years 
the old tower and the powder magazine in Brownlow 
Hill. 603 

The profits of privateering, however, great as they 
were, were a poor consolation for the almost com- 
plete destruction of trade. The declaration of peace 
was immediately followed by a great revival, and the 
decade, 1783-93, was an era of amazingly rapid 
advance. 603 The French Revolutionary War did not 
at first interrupt this advance, but rather accentu- 
ated it. Though it at first caused a commercial panic, 
which rendered necessary the issue of Corporation 
notes under Parliamentary powers, 601 this was tempo- 
rary only ; and the port gained far more by the 
destruction of French trade than it lost by the dislo- 
cation of its commerce caused by the war. At the 
outset of the war privateering was again actively under- 
taken ; 60S but it never attained the same dimensioni 
as during the American War, because there were not 
so many idle vessels to welcome this mode of employ- 
ment ; and after a few years privateering almost 
ceased, for the very satisfactory reason that there 
were so few ships belonging to France and her allies 
on the seas as to make it an unprofitable enter- 
prise. 606 French privateers made the seas dangerous, 
and trading vessels had to be prepared to fight 
unless they sailed in large convoys ; W7 many hun- 
dreds, perhaps thousands, of Liverpool sailors were 
captured by the enemy and peopled French prisons, 
from which they sometimes made daring escapes* 01 
On the other hand French prisoners in large num- 
bers (4,009 in 1799) were immured in the gaol in 
Great Howard Street, and formed a feature of Liver- 
pool life. 609 

Deprived to a large extent of the excitement of 
privateering, the military enthusiasm of the turbulent 
Liverpool population found other vents. The press- 
gang was a continual terror, and its ravages frequently 
passed all reasonable bounds. 610 The fort was strength- 
ened and armed with fifty guns, while batteries were 
erected at the mouths of the docks. 611 Large forces of 
volunteers and yeomanry were raised ; 61S in 1 804 
1 80 officers and 3,686 men were reviewed. 613 A 

688 Williams, op. cit. 172 and passim. 

684 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 120 } 
Derrick, Letters from Liv. &c. 

585 Williams, op. cit. App. iii, 665. 

588 Mr. Williams has collected a large 
amount of material bearing upon this 
period, op. cit. 79-178. 

58 7 Williams, op. cit. I27ff. 

588 Brooke, Li-v. in the last quarter of the 
x-viii Cent. 365-6 ; Williams, op. cit. 223, 
262 ; Mahan, Infl. of Sea-power. 

589 Nevertheless, it was carried on not 
without success; cf. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. 
xv, App. vi, 371. 

590 Liv. General Advertiser, 29 Sept. 

691 Williams, op. cit. 181. 
5M Brooke, Liv. in the last quarter of the 
jcviii Cent. 328 ff. 

593 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xv, App. v, 152. 

894 Picton, Rec. ii, 181-3; Brooke, 
op. cit. 371. 

595 Brooke, Liv. in tht last quarter 
of tht xviii Ctnt. 339, 379; Amer. MS. 
in Royal Inst. (Hist. MSS. Com.), i, 

698 Brooke, op. cit. 372 ; Williams, op. 
cit. 319. 

M ? Williams, op. cit. 189-302, collects 
many examples from contemporary news- 
papers and other sources. 

"< Ibid. 183. 

Ibid. 20. 

800 Ibid. 183. 

801 St. Vincent Gazette, ^ Mar. 1778, 
apud Williams, 215. 

603 Brooke, op. cit. 135. 

60S Thus the number of ships engaged 
in the slave trade, which had sunk as low 
as ii (tonnage 1,205) m T 779> rose at 

3 1 

once to 85 (12,294) in 1783, and to 132 
(22,402) in 1792. 

804 33 Geo. Ill, cap. 31 ; Picton, Li-v. 
Munic. Rec. ii, 251-2; Hughes, Liv. Banks 
and Bankers, 14458. 

60s Williams, op. cit. 315. 

806 Ibid. 316. 

8 7 Williams, op. cit. 306 ; Picton, Liv. 
Munic. Rec. ii, 189. 

608 Seacome Ellison, Prison Scenes, gives 
a typical narrative of such an escape. 

609 Brooke, op. cit. 489 ; Troughton, 
Hist. Li-v. 226. 

810 Williams, op. cit. passim ; for a 
peculiarly flagrant episode, see Liv. Ad- 
vertiser, 19 May 1794. 

411 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 254, 

612 Brooke, pp. cit. 434. 

618 Liv. Advertiser, 1 1 Jan. 1 804. 


regiment of regulars was, after the peace of Amiens, en- 
listed in the town at the expense of Mr. John Bolton, 6 " 
a wealthy merchant ; and the Duke of Gloucester 61 ' 
took up his quarters at San Domingo House, Everton, 
to command all these forces. 

The first part of the war unquestionably told 
heavily in favour of Liverpool trade, in spite of the 
commercial insecurity caused by the ever-present risk 
of capture. In the second period Napoleon's conti- 
nental system i nflicted grave hardship, especially severely 
felt by the poor of the town ; "' and its result, the 
American War of 1812, which produced a swarm of 
dangerous American privateers, 617 was disastrous in its 
effects : the number of ships entering the port declin- 
ing from 6,729 in 1810 to 4,599 in i3i2. 618 Yet 
even this struggle ultimately tended to the increase of 
Liverpool's trade, by driving finally all rival shipping 
from the seas ; at the end of the period of war in 
1815, Liverpool found herself practically absolute 
mistress of the trade between America and Europe. 

While the wars were securing to Liverpool the 
dominance of the Atlantic trade, the other main 
source of her wealth, the industries of Lancashire, 
were being transformed. The amazing story of the 
great inventions and the great development of roads 
amd canals of this period concern Lancashire at large 
and the whole of England. But it should be noted 
that no town more directly profited by these develop- 
ments than Liverpool, for almost the whole of the 
districts most affected by the new inventions lay with- 
in a hundred miles of her harbour ; while the canals 
and roads made communication with them easy, and 
for the first time overcame that geographical isolation 
which had been the main obstacle to her progress. 
For this reason the merchants at Liverpool took an 
immense part in devising and carrying through these 
nterprises, and much of the capital for the new canals 
was supplied by the wealth earned in the slave trade 
or the trade with America. 

Concurrently with these movements, the same 
period saw a remarkable development of foreign mar- 
kets. The great expansion of the United States into 
the Middle West 619 began in the last years of the 1 8th 
century, and was much stimulated by the Louisiana 
purchase ; emigration on a large scale, caused by the 
distress which accompanied the Industrial Revolution, 
helped to fill up these lands ; they provided new 
sources of raw materials, and it was in this period, in 
particular, that the supply of raw cotton began to be 
derived mainly from the Southern States ; as late as 
1784 it was so exclusively drawn from the West 
Indies that a custom-house officer is said to have seized 
a small consignment brought in an American vessel 
on the ground that its importation was an infringe- 
ment of the Navigation Acts. 6 * At the end of the 
period (in 1813) the trade with the East Indies, 
hitherto confined to the East India Company, was 
thrown open, and in 1814 the first Liverpool ships 
rounded the Cape of Good Hope. 6 " In a few years 

India had become one of the principal markets for the 
goods exported from Liverpool. The period of the 
Revolutionary wars also saw Spanish America thrown 
open to trade. When Napoleon took possession of 
Spain the Spanish colonies declined to accept his rule, 
threw off the close restrictions which the mother- 
country had imposed upon their trade ; and, on the 
restoration of peace, declined to return to their allegi- 
ance, mainly because they were unwilling to sacrifice 
their newly-acquired commercial freedom. From the 
first Liverpool controlled the bulk of this rapidly ex- 
panding South American trade, 6 " which she has held 
ever since ; and it is more than a coincidence that 
Canning, the minister responsible for the British 
recognition of the Spanish- American colonies in 1825, 
had himself been member for Liverpool for ten year* 
(1812-22). Thus during the years when the com- 
merce of rival nations was being driven from the 
Atlantic mainly to the advantage of Liverpool, the un- 
exampled development of the industrial and mineral 
advantages of Lancashire and the northern midlands 
was supplying the Liverpool merchants with an inex- 
haustible supply of goods for export, and the expan- 
sion of America and the opening of trade to India and 
South America were providing enormous new markets. 
It is not surprising that the trade of the port advanced 
with a rapidity hitherto unknown in English history, 
and that the population of the port grew concurrently. 

The growth of trade during this period is indicated 
by the fact that the gross tonnage owned in the port, 
19,175 in 1751, had risen to 72,730 in 1787,10 
129,470 in 1801. Other figures tell the same tale. 
During the period 17561815 four new docks and 
two tidal basins were opened. The dock area of the 
port, less than 30 acres in 1756, had risen to over 
50 acres in 1815. Still more rapid was the expansion 
of the next period, as the table on p. 42 will show. 
During the same period several local industries rose to 
their highest prosperity, and then decayed and 
vanished destroyed mainly by that localization of 
industrial functions and that growing ease of com- 
munication which were the principal causes of Liver- 
pool's commercial ascendancy. Thus shipbuilding was 
at its height in the last quarter of the 1 8th century ; 6W 
it decayed thereafter. The Greenland fishery, 6 ** 
which began for Liverpool in 1764, and in 1788 
employed 21 ships, had almost vanished by 1815, as 
had the oil-refining industry to which it gave birth. 
The curing-houses for herring, 61 * which carried on a 
large export trade with the Mediterranean, were at 
their height about 1770, but had almost vanished by 
1815. Two or three iron foundries existed in the 
town in the same period ; M6 they were driven out of 
work by the competition of the coalfield towns. The 
pottery industry also came to an end during these 
years. 6 " 

The destruction of productive industries is indeed 
a feature of this period. It did not interfere with the 
growth of the town's wealth or population, but it left 

814 Picton, Mem. i, 301 ; Liv. Adver- 
tiser, 30 May, 1803. 

414 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 289-90. 

614 Ibid, ii, 3 i i ; Liv. Courier, i Feb. 
1809; Liv. Advertiser, 25 Nov. i8n 
it passim. 

"7 Williams, op. cit. 442-9. 

618 Ibid. 407. For the general effects 
on price* and trade in Liverpool see 
Ewart, Rutson's trade circular, quoted in 

Baines' Liverpool, 738-41. For insu- 
rance rates, M crcury, 13 May 1813. 

619 For a fuller summary of these causes 
of development, see Muir, Hist, of Liv. 
chap. xiv. 

420 Smithers, Liverpool, 124. 

421 Ibid. 1 60. Within seven years 
the port possessed one-seventh of the 
total British trade with India. Ibid. 


622 Ibid. 163. 

6M Smithers, Commerce of Liv. 190 j 
[Wallace], General Deter : iSoff. 

634 Brooke, op. cit. 241 ; Smithers, 
Commerce of Liv. 97-8. 

625 Smithers, Commerce of Liv. 95 ;. 
[Wallace], General Descr. (1795), 26. 

424 [Wallace] and Smithers, loc. cit. 

62 7 Brooke, op. cit. 248 ; J. Mayer,. 
Liv. Pottery. 



it entirely dependent upon sea-borne commerce, and 
imposed upon it the specific social characteristics in- 
volved in that fact. 

The growth of population in this period was very 
rapid. About 20,000 in 1751, it was 60,000 in 
1791, 77,000 in 1801, 94,000 in 1811, 118,000 in 
1821. The last two figures do not fully represent 
the actual growth, for the town had by this time 
overpassed the limits of the old township, especially 
on the south and on the north-east, and very popu- 
lous suburbs had been created in Toxteth and 
Everton, which contained in 1831 a population of 

The great inrush of new inhabitants represented by 
these figures came from all parts of the United King- 
dom. A writer of 1795 notes 'the great influx of 
Irish and Welsh, of whom the majority of the inhabi- 
tants at present consists.' 628 There were also many 
Scots, especially among the captains of ships and the 
heads of great trading-houses. Irish immigration 
became still more vigorous after the rising of 1798, 
though it was not to reach its height until the potato- 
famine of 1846. Though the town was expanding 
geographically with great rapidity, building did not 
go on fast enough to accommodate the numerous im- 
migrants. They were crowded together in the most 
horrible way in the older part of the town ; in 1 790 
it was calculated 6S9 that over one-ninth of the popu- 
lation lived in cellars, at the rate of four persons to 
each cellar. 630 In the new quarters built for the re- 
ception of these immigrants the building was so shoddy 
that a storm in 1823 blew many of the houses 
down ; 6SI there were no building regulations, and the 
houses were erected back to back, without adequate 
provision for air and light, and almost without any 
sanitary arrangements ; it is with these slum areas 
that the government of the city has been struggling 
ever since. Most of the streets were unsewered. The 
water supply was exceedingly scanty ; before 1 800 
water was sold from carts ; 63Z after the institution of 
the two water companies in 1799 os and i8o2, 634 the 
supply, being conducted for a commercial profit, was 
naturally inadequate in the poorer quarters. Public- 
houses were extraordinarily numerous ; as early as 
1772 the Town Council had to urge the magistrates 
to reduce the number, 634 and in 1795 it was calcu- 
lated that one house in every seven was licensed for 
the sale of strong drink. 636 

Overcrowded, unhealthy, dirty and drunken, the 
population of the town was also very turbulent, as 
might be expected from the influence upon them of 
the slave traders and the privateers-men. The police 
arrangements were quite inadequate. Under an Act 

of 1 74S, 637 which established a commission, indepen- 
dent of the Town Council, for the watching, lighting, 
and cleansing of the town, the police force consisted 
of sixty night watchmen ; the number was increased 
under the Act of I 788, 638 but no day police was pro- 
vided until 1 8 1 1 , when the Town Council divided 
the borough into seven districts and allotted three 
constables to each. 639 

Thus the evils which had followed the sudden 
growth of wealth and population seemed to outweigh 
its advantages. This was in part due to the fact that 
the system of borough government had been in no 
way adapted to the new conditions. 640 The self- 
elected Town Council still continued in absolute con- 
trol of the corporate estate, including the docks, and 
still possessed the power of regulating the trade of the 
port. It regarded itself merely as the trustee of the 
body of freemen, which now formed only a small 
part, and by no means the most important part, of 
the population. Even the freemen's privileges, how- 
ever, were limited to the right of voting in the elec- 
tion of mayor, bailiffs, and members of Parliament, 
and to exemption from the payment of town dues. 
They were admitted to no further share in the 
government of the borough, and hence arose, under 
the influence of the French Revolution, a new chal- 
lenge to the authority of the council, and a new 
attempt to establish that of the assembly of burgesses. 
Begun in I79I, 641 it was brought into the law courts, 
where a verdict was three times given in favour of 
the claims of the assembly. The council, however, 
was always able to claim a new trial on technical 
grounds, and in the end the attack on their position 
was abandoned, partly because private resources were 
unable to stand the conflict with public funds, partly 
because the reaction against the French Revolution 
distracted support from this quasi-democratic move- 
ment, Liverpool had, indeed, by this time become 
very firmly Tory, and the change in its politics from 
the Whiggism of the previous age is one of the most 
curious features of the period. It seems to have 
begun in the early years of George III, when the 
Town Council took the side of the king in the 
Wilkes struggle, sending up addresses of support. 64 * 
The body of burgesses still, however, remained pre- 
dominantly Whig, as is shown by the continual elec- 
tion of Sir William Meredith as member until 1780, 
At the outset of the American struggle addresses of 
protest against the policy of government were sent 
from Liverpool, 841 but the Town Council and the 
mass of the burgesses very loyally supported the war, 644 
and in spite of the distress which it caused, its pro- 
gress only made the town more Tory. 644 The first 

888 [Wallace], General Descr. 267. 

629 Ibid. 

480 Ibid. 69. 

881 Smithers, Commerce of Li-v. 227 ; 
Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii. 

63a [Wallace], General Descr. 88. 

688 Bootle Company, instituted by 39 
Geo. Ill, cap. 36, under the title of the 
Company of Proprietors of the Liverpool 
Waterworks, powers enlarged by 50 
Geo. Ill, cap. 165, and 53 Geo. Ill, cap. 
122 ; Brooke, Li-v. in last Quarter of the 
x-viii Cent, 387. 

684 The Corporation obtained power to 
contract for the supply of water by 26 
Geo. Ill, cap. 12. A company was 
formed to carry out the work, which was 
incorporated as the Liverpool Corporation 

Waterworks Co. by 3 Geo. IV, cap. 77 ; 
its powers were extended and its title 
altered to the Liverpool and Harrington 
Waterworks Co. by 7 & 8 Geo. IV, 
cap. 36. 

485 Picton, Li-v. Munic. Rec. ii, 2O2. 

686 [Wallace], General Descr. 185. 

"7 21 Geo. II, cap. 24. 

688 28 Geo. Ill, cap. 13. 

689 Picton, Lii>. Munic. Rec. ii, 317; 
see also 201-2. 

640 On the characteristics of the old 
system of borough government in its 
latest form, see Hist. Munic. Go-vt. in Li-v. 
n8ff. and I37ff. 

841 Hist. Munic. Go-vt. in Li-v. 129 ; 
Picton, Li-v. Munic. Rec. ii, 203 ff. ; Pro- 
ceedings at an Action at Law brought by 


the Mayor and Burgesses, &c. (1796) ; 
Brooke, Li-v. in the last Quarter of the x-viii 
Cent. 22-4 ff. 

Ma Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 179. 
For a summary of the political history of 
the town, see Muir, Hist, of Li-v. i62ff. 
215 ff. 

848 Picton, Li-v. Munic. Rec. ii, 178-9 5 
Hist. MSS. Com. Ref. xiv, App. ix, 299. 
Dartmouth received the freedom for hav- 
ing supported the repeal of the Stamp 
Act, Hiit. MSS. Com. Ref. xiv, App. 
*, 47- 

644 Brooke, op. cit. 326 ; Picton, Liv. 
Munic. Rec. ii, 180; Hist. MSS. Com. Ref. 
xiv, App. x, 380. 

645 Cf. result of the election of 1784 ; 
Poll-book and squibs. 


events of the French Revolution revived Whiggism 
for a time, 646 but the reaction after the September 
massacres completed the Tory victory; and the group 
of leading Whigs who surrounded Roscoe had to 
withdraw from public life. 647 In the first years of the 
new century Whiggism held up its head again. 
Roscoe was returned to Parliament in i8o6, M8 but 
mainly on the ground of his local popularity, and the 
votes which he cast against the slave trade and for 
Catholic emancipation earned him an unpopularity 
which expressed itself in riots on his return to Liver- 
pool. 649 During the struggle on the slave trade ques- 
tion, indeed, Liverpool had been absolutely committed 
to the support of the party from which alone it had 
any prospect of the maintenance of its most lucrative 
traffic, 640 while the inrush of Catholic Irish, having 
produced already the characteristic Orangeism of the 
Protestant population, formed another motive to 
Toryism. Not even the unpopularity of the Orders 
in Council sufficed to enable Brougham (who had 
been mainly identified with the opposition to them) 
to defeat Canning in the fiercely-fought election of 
1 8 1 2, 641 and Liverpool remained steadily Tory down 
to the eve of the Reform Act. 

Alongside of its more unpleasant developments, 
this period witnessed the rise of many promising 
movements. The administration of the Poor Law 6M 
was undertaken with exceptional vigour and enlight- 
enment, and while in other suddenly-grown industrial 
and commercial towns the old administrative fabric of 
the annual Easter vestry and the elected overseers 
broke down completely, in Liverpool there was 
gradually developed a system of government through 
an annually elected committee, which regulated extra- 
legally the work of the overseers with such success 
that Liverpool has been described as the model urban 
poor-law district of this period. The chief credit for 
the successful establishment of this system, which had 
assumed its final form by 1775, belongs to Mr. Joseph 
Brooks, who as unpaid treasurer from 1768 to 1788 
exercised almost absolute authority over the affairs of 
the parish. It was under his direction that in 1770 
the new workhouse in Brownlow Hill was erected ; 84S 
it was on the whole so well administered that the poor 
rates in a town where poverty was more widespread 
than in most others never rose beyond 3/. gd. 6M in 
the even in the height of the Revolutionary war. 
The committee, that is to say, kept itself free from the 
extravagant and mischievous methods of indiscriminate 
relief which were general throughout England from 
1795 onwards. This remarkable success is mainly to 
be attributed to the work of a group of public-spirited 
citizens, among whom may be named Dr. Currie, the 
friend of Roscoe. 664 

The Evangelical revival affected Liverpool deeply. 
Wesley visited the town several times, 656 with con- 
siderable effect, and within the Church of England the 
Evangelical party became dominant in the town. 647 
This was a period of great activity in church building, 
as will be seen later. It was also a period of con- 
siderable activity in the provision of schools for the 
poor, 658 a movement which was carried on in Liver- 
pool in the last twenty years of the century with a 
concerted activity greater than was displayed in most 
other towns. An eager charity, too, was born, 659 the 
expression of that new humanitarian spirit, born of 
the Evangelical revival, of which another expression 
was to be found in the movement for the abolition 
of the slave trade. In Roscoe, William Rathbone, 
Currie, Rushton, and others, Liverpool provided 
some of the most vigorous apostles of this reform ; 
their courage is the more noteworthy because the 
popular feeling of the town was, naturally, intensely 
strong on the other side. 

The period witnessed also a remarkable intellectual 
revival. This showed itself in the wit and humour of 
the numerous squibs issued during parliamentary elec- 
tions, 660 many of which still retain some of their salt ; 
it showed itself in that keen interest in the history and 
antiquities of the borough which produced no less 
than four Histories of Liverpool between 1 770 and 
I823, 661 and was still more profitably displayed in the 
learning of Henry Brown 66 * the attorney, which illu- 
minates the trials on the powers of the Town Council 
in 1791, in the researches of Matthew Gregson, 
whose Portfolio of Fragments was published in 1819, 
and above all in the monumental collections made by 
Charles Okill, which are still preserved in the muni- 
cipal archives and have formed the basis of all later 
work on the history of the borough. But above all 
these newborn intellectual interests were fostered by 
the circle of illuminati which surrounded William 
Roscoe, and of which no detailed account can here 
be given. 663 Roscoe himself wrote lives of Lorenzo 
de' Medici and of Leo X which were hailed with 
delight throughout Europe ; he produced also a great 
monograph on the Monandrian plants, a good deal of 
verse, and a large number of pamphlets, including 
some very enlightened speculations on Penal Juris- 
prudence ; he took a profound interest in the fine 
arts, and himself did some etching ; he threw himself 
into the movement for agricultural improvements ; he 
corresponded with many of the leading men of his 
day ; he formed a noble library and a fine collection 
of pictures. His friend William Shepherd, 664 Uni- 
tarian minister of Gateacre, wrote a life of 
Poggio Bracciolini which is still valuable. Dr. 
James Currie, 665 besides taking up poor-law admini- 

< Life ofW. Rotcoe, i, 99 ff. ; Life ofj. 
Currie, passim. 

W Ibid. 

* Poll-book and gquibi of the elec- 

Life ofW. Roscoe, i, 392 ff. 

480 Cf. the addresses of the corporation, 
on, and grants of freedom for, energy in 
thii cause the defence of the slave trade; 
Picton, Li-v. Munic. Rec. ii, 220, 347, 

* 51 Poll-books and squibs of the elec- 
tion ; Creevey Papers. 

* M The administration of the Poor Law 
in Liverpool is the theme of an admirable 
chapter by S. and B. Webb, Hist, Local 
Govt. i, 130 ff. An edition of full extracts 

from the Vestry Minutes, with introduction 
by W. L. Blease, is in preparation. 

668 Picton, Li-v. Munic. Rec. ii, 1 60; 
Vestry Minutes s.d. ; Brooke, Lii>. in the 
last Quarter of the x-viii Cent. 69, 70. 
This building replaced one in College 
Lane dating from 1732. 

654 Vestry Minutes, April 1802 and 

6 - 5 W. W. Currie, Life of James Currie, 

656 Tyerman, Life of Wesley, ii, 1 96, 
274, 328, 566, &c. ; Wesley's Journal. 

657 See Morley's Life of Gladstone, i, 
chaps, i, ii. 

658 Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 284 ; 


Brooke, Liv. in the last Quarter of the x-viit 
Cent. 380 ; Smithers, Li-v. 243 ff. 

659 See the list of charities below. 

660 See the Poll-books and Collections 
of Squibs of the various elections, especi- 
ally those of 1806 and 1812. An account 
of these effusions is given by Picton, 
Memorials, i, 347. 

681 By W. Enfield (1773), J. Wallace 
(published anonymously, 1795), J. Corry 
(known by the name of its first publisher, 
Troughton, 1810), H. Smithers (1825). 

668 For Brown, see G. T. Shaw in 
Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xvi, 77. 

663 Life of W. Roscoe, by his son, 2 vols. 

664 Diet. Nat. Blog. 

665 W . W- Currie, Life ofj. Currie. 

(From a Water-colour Drawing c, 1860) 


stration, was the friend and biographer of Burns. 
Others also might be named if space allowed. 666 
Under the encouragement of this group of friends 
Liverpool became for a time a centre of fine printing 
and of exquisite bookbinding ; 667 Roscoe had his own 
books printed in his own town. From this intel- 
lectual revival proceeded a remarkable group of public 
institutions. The Liverpool Library, founded as early 
as I758, 668 became a thriving institution. 669 The 
Athenaeum was founded in 1798 67 as a library for 
scholars, and was later enriched by many of Roscoe's 
books. The Botanic Gardens were instituted in 
i8o3. 671 The Medical Library came to birth in 
I775. 67S Finally, the Royal Institution, meant to be 
the focus for every kind of intellectual interest, was 
projected in 1813 and opened in i8i7. 673 These 
promising beginnings did not lead to any very striking 
results ; partly, no doubt, because they were not 
spontaneous, but were due to the accidental presence 
in uncongenial surroundings of a group of fine spirits; 
partly because they were swamped by the flood of 
growing wealth ; partly because the coming of the 
railway imposed, during the greater part of the 
I gth century, the intellectual dominance of the 
metropolis upon the provincial towns. 

The twenty years which followed the great war saw 
a steady expansion of foreign trade less swift, indeed, 
than had been expected ; but more steady in Liver- 
pool than in England at large. The course of this 
expansion may be best indicated by the figures of 
entrances and clearances 674 of vessels engaged in the 
foreign trade : 










1816. . 







1821 . . 


3 9 ',473 





1826. . 







1831 . . 







1835. . 







But the principal interest of these years is to be 
found rather in the signs of coming political change 
which they exhibited, and which resulted from the 
expansion of the earlier period, than in the proof 
that the earlier causes of prosperity were still at 
work. Though Liverpool remained predominantly 


Tory in sentiment until the eve of the Reform Bill, 
the twenty years which followed tKe war saw many 
movements towards change, and an increasingly clear 
realization of the necessity of recasting the traditional 
system of administration. It was, indeed, with the 
left or progressive wing of the Tory party that the 
town was associated ; as is ihown by the election of 
Canning by large majorities from 1812 to 1822 and of 
Huskisson from 1822 to 1830 beyond comparison the 
most distinguished politicians who have ever repre- 
sented Liverpool. 674 * The steady growth of the popu- 
lation of the town, which, with its suburbs, had reached 
the figure of 205,000 in 1831, and the expansion of 
trade, which has been already summarized, made the 
earlier system of administration impossible. These 
ysars witnessed an awakening on the part of the Town 
Council to a keener sense of its responsibilities, as is 
shown by the large schemes of public improvements 
for which parliamentary authority was obtained ; 67i by 
the establishment in 1826 of two elementary schools 
in the north and south of the borough, 676 at the ex- 
pense of the corporation, as a sort of compensation for 
the old grammar school which had been suppressed in 
1802 ; 6 " by the purchase of lands on a large scale in 
Birkenhead 678 with a view to preventing the creation 
of a rival port, and providing for the possible future 
requirements of Liverpool trade ; and by great activity 
in the extension of the docks, which were increased 
between 1815 and 1835 from 50 acres to 80 acres 
of area. The rise of a demand for change is perhaps 
most clearly seen in the discussions on the administra- 
tion of the Dock Estate, hitherto under the absolute 
control of the corporation, which led in 1825 to the 
addition to the Dock Committee of representatives of 
ratepayers using the docks. 679 The same kind of dis- 
content was shown in the attempt of a number of 
non-freemen ratepayers to escape from the payment of 
town dues, which led to long litigation extending 
from 1830 to i833. 6SO But the most serious aspect 
of the situation was the fact that the council, regard- 
ing itself simply as the trustee for the property of the 
body of freemen, had allowed many of the main 
functions of urban government to slip, wholly or 
partially, out of its hands. Thus the control of the 
watching, lighting, and cleansing of the streets had 
been since 1748 under the control of a separate com- 
mission 681 consisting partly of the mayor and some of 
the borough magistrates, partly of representatives 
of the ratepayers elected at the annual Easter vestry ; 
while the control of sewerage, except in the ' old 
streets/ had recently been vested in another commis- 
sion. 681 

The corporation had since the iyth century 
ceased to raise rates, and all public functions which 
necessitated the raising of rates were performed by 

664 About 150 volumes printed or pub- 
lished in Liverpool between 1770 and 
1800 are catalogued in the admirable Cat. 
of tht Collection of Liv. Prints and Docu- 
ments issued by the City Library, 1908. 
These include nineteen volumes of poems, 
fifteen of history and biography, an edition 
of Burns in four volumes, many volumes 
on politics, Sec., &c. 

M 7 Ibid. J. McCreery's printing in 
this period has not since been surpassed. 

668 Brooke, op. cit. 89-92 ; papers in 
Trans. Hist. Soc. ix, xxii. This library 
claims to be the oldest circulating library 
in England. 

I6 [Wallace] General Descr., 171. 

*7 Shaw, Hist, of the Athenaeum, Liv. 

6? 1 Life of Roscoe, i, 253 ff; Smithers, op. 
cit. 367. 

6 ? 3 Smithers, op. cit. 366 ; Bickerton, 
Hist, of the Lii>. Medical Inst. 

6 ' 3 Life of Roscoe, ii, 151 ff. 

6 ? 4 Compiled from the Reports on 
Trade and Navigation laid before the 
Houses of Parliament, 1 847. The figures 
for the coasting trade which are omitted 
would, of course, enormously increase 
these totals ; but it is the foreign trade 
that forms the best barometer of Liver- 
pool's prosperity. 

74a q^e poll-books and squibs, espe- 


cially for the hard-fought elections of 1 8 1 2, 
1818, 1820, provide excellent illustrations 
of the sentiments of the borough. 

6 ' 5 i Geo. IV, cap. 13, and 7 Geo. IV, 
cap. 57. 

'7* Picton, Ltv. Munic. Rec. ii, 395. 

6 ?7 Ibid. 394. 6 ' 8 Ibid. 343, 345. 

6 ?9 26 Geo. IV, cap. 43. For discussions 
see Munic. Corp. Com. : Rep. of Proc. in 
Li-v. t passim. 

680 Report of the resistance of payment 
of town dues in Liverpool by Bolton and 
others, 1835. 

681 Under 21 Geo. II, cap. 24. 

683 Under a special local Act, i Will. IV,. 
cap. 15. 


other public bodies of limited powers, so that there 
was no single body responsible for the general over- 
sight of the health and well-being of the town. The 
corporation, while, as we have seen, it retained con- 
trol of public improvements and of the dock estate, 
had to perform these functions out of the revenue 
from its estate and from the town dues and other tradi- 
tional payments, and as these were inadequate to the 
purpose these functions had not been fully performed, 
while their partial performance had formed so grave a 
strain upon the resources of the corporation that the 
value of the borough estate had been seriously dimin- 
ished. 685 But for this condition of things the borough 
might very well have been the owner of the greater 
part of the land on which it was built ; as it was, a 
large part of the corporate estate, secured originally by 
the burgesses' usurpation of the waste in the I5th 
century, had been sold to meet the corporate debt. 684 
Finally, the exclusive political privileges of the free- 
men and their exemption from the payment of town 
dues had become an anomaly and an injustice, be- 
cause the body of freemen, which since 1777 had 
not been increased except by the customary modes 
of inheritance or service, no longer at all repre- 
sented the community. There were in 1833 only 
3,000 freemen 684 out of a population of 165,000, 
and many of the 3,000 were non-resident. This 
number included few of the principal merchants, 
and only seven out of the zoo doctors practising 
in the town. 688 It was composed principally of 
artisans, to whom their privileges were chiefly valu- 
able for the money to be made out of them in 
bribes at elections. Hence Liverpool had become 
so notorious for its political corruption that in 1830 
a bill for the disfranchisement of the borough was 
only prevented by the prorogation of Parliament from 
passing into law. 687 

The unsatisfactoriness of the old institutions was 
$hown also in the sphere of poor-law administration, 
which had been perhaps the most efficient department 
of borough government. The committee which had 
for so long controlled the administration of the Poor 
Law was not recognized by law, and was liable at any 
time to be overridden by the overseers, if they chose 
to disregard its orders. In 1814 the committee tried 
in vain to persuade the open vestry to make an 
application for a private Act legalizing their posi- 
tion ; 6S8 after two years' discussion the proposal was 
rejected, 689 and in 1 8 1 7 a Mr. Dennison, being elected 
overseer, justified these fears by paying no attention 
to the committee, and launching upon lavish expen- 
diture. 690 The Sturges-Bourne Act of 1819 691 came 
in the nick of time to prevent the breakdown of the 
system, for its adoption legalized the position of the 
committee by turning it into a select vestry, and for 
some years it was able to do admirable work. 69 * But 
in the excitement of the agitation for the Reform 
Act party feeling crept in here also and showed 
itself by constant appeals to the open vestry 
and to polls of the whole body of ratepayers on 
the smallest points. 693 The survival of the open 

vestry in so large a population was a nuisance and 
a danger. 

Liverpool was thus ready for the Reform movement, 
and it is not surprising that in the reforming Parlia- 
ment of 1830 and in its successor the Tory town was 
for the nonce represented by Whig members. The 
Reform Act of 1832 itself began the process of local 
reconstitution. Not only did it enfranchise the rate- 
payers, placing them on a level, for the purposes of 
parliamentary elections, with the freemen, but, for 
the same purpose, it enlarged the borough's boun- 
daries, including within them the populous suburbs 
of Everton and Kirkdale, the northern half of Tox- 
texth, and part of West Derby, 694 and thus foreshadow- 
ing the full absorption of these districts for municipal 
purposes also, 

But the legislation which followed the Reform Act 
was of far greater local import. The two great 
commissions that on the Poor Laws and that on the 
Municipal Corporations which the Reformed Par- 
liament sent out to investigate the condition of local 
government both reported not unfavourably on Liver- 
pool : the Poor Law Commission found the town, 
indeed, to be among the best administered in 
England, 695 while the Municipal Corporations Com- 
mission, though it disclosed many grave defects, found 
no evidence of serious maladministration/ 95 But the 
changes introduced by the two great Acts were of 
such a character as to mark the beginning of a new 
epoch. The terms of the new Poor Law did not, 
indeed, involve any such wide change in Liverpool as 
in other places ; it established finally the authority of 
the popularly elected select vestry, and put an end to 
the defects and uncertainties of the Sturges-Bourne 
Act ; but the authority of this body was still confined 
to the limits of the old township and parish, the new 
and populous outlying districts being left to the 
adm'nistration of the Toxteth Board of Guardians 
or the West Derby Union. The Municipal Reform 
Act was far more serious in its results. It made the 
Town Council for the first time in its history a 
popularly elected body. It placed the election in 
the hands of the body of ratepayers, to whose level 
the freemen were now in practice reduced. It 
empowered the council to take over the functions of 
the Watching, Lighting, and Cleansing Board ; that 
is to say, it turned it from being the mere admini- 
strator of the estate of a privileged minority into a 
body responsible for the health and general well-being 
of the whole community, and thus rendered possible, 
and indeed suggested, an indefinite enlargement of 
municipal functions. Finally, in one of its schedules, 
it enlarged the boundaries of the municipal borough so 
as to correspond with those of the parliamentary 
borough as fixed in 1832. 

The history of Liverpool since 1835 has been one 
of rapid and steady development on all sides, un- 
marked by outstanding or conspicuous episodes. It 
is impossible to follow its course in detail ; and it will 
be most convenient to summarize it under headings, 
in a more or less tabular form. 

*" Picton, Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 224-6. 

684 Ibid, ii, 338-9. 

685 Munic. Corf. Com. : Rep. of Inquiry in 
Liv. 50. 

686 Ibid. 325. 

S7 Walpole, Hist. Engl. i, 125 ; Picton, 
Liv. Munic. Rec. ii, 333. 

488 ' Addreu to all who are assessed to 

the Poor-rates ... by the Parish Com- 
mittee, 1814.' 

689 Vestry Minutes, 6 Aug. 1816. 

690 Ibid. 1818 and ^19; Picton, 
Memorials, i, 391-2. 

691 S. and B. Webb, Hist. Local Go-v. 

698 Vestry Minutes, passim. 

693 Liv. Chron. April and July 1832; 
Vestry Minutes, April 1833. 

694 The area vras increased from 1,860 
to 5,210 acres. 

6U3 Poor Law Com. Rep. 
696 Munic. Corp. Com. Rep. (Liv.), 295, 


The following table shows the growth of the 

CPniVTH f re i n trade of the port, as measured 

OF TRADF ^7 the entrances and clearances of 

vessels from or to foreign or colonial 

ports 697 at intervals of five years : 
















3, 6 5 











i8 4S 














i8 5S 





































49 I 3,3 2 4 
















5 I 5945 




3,7 ' 6 






i goo 898 












6,4 '3 









Two periods only show an actual decline in this 
table. The first is the quinquennium 1860-65, the 
period of the American Civil War, when the blockade 
of the southern ports caused the Lancashire cotton 
famine and for a brief time brought about a revival, 
in blockade-running expeditions, of the adventurous 
spirit of the age of privateering. 499 The other is the 
quinquennium 1890-95, a period of general bad 
trade. The periods of most rapid growth are those 
from 1850 to 1860, from 1865 to 1880, and again 
from 1900 onwards. The period from 1880 to 1900 
is one in which Liverpool was feeling for the first 
time seriously the competition of the European 
nations which from 1815 to 1870 had left to Eng- 
land almost a monopoly of oversea trade. This 
competition may be said to have begun about 1870, 
and though the gross increase since that date has 
been twice as great as the increase in the preceding 
period of the same length, its effects have been shown 
in a tendency to more violent fluctuation, which will 
perhaps better be illustrated by the value of imports 
and exports than by the record of the actual sailings 
of vessels that might be either full or empty. 



Value of 

Value of 







Space does not permit of any detailed analysis of 
the character and direction of Liverpool trade during 
this period, but some idea of its principal features may 
be derived from the following summary of the ten 
leading articles of import and the ten leading articles 
of export, with their approximate value, as in the year 
1906 : 


Value in 


Value in 

Raw Cotton 


Cotton Manufactures 


Dead Meat . 


Iron and Steel Manu- 


Corn and Cereals 





Woollen M anufactures 


Wool . . 


Machinery . . 


Live Animals 


Linen Manufactures 


Copper . . 


Cotton Yarn . . . 

3-6 1 

Timber . . 


Chemicals . . . 


Tobacco . . 


Carriages (chiefly 


Sugar . . 



China and Earthen- 



Hardware .... 


A further striking feature of the first table above, 
which indicates a characteristic of Liverpool's de- 
velopment, is the fact that, especially from 1850 
onwards, the number of vessels employed tends to 
increase slowly, or even to diminish, while the 
tonnage rapidly grows. Thus in 1906 almost the 
same number of vessels entered and cleared as in 
1835, but their tonnage is ten times as great. This 
remarkable increase of the tonnage of vessels is due 
above all to the replacement of sailing vessels by 
steamships, and to the increasing employment of 
large ' liners ' sailing at regular intervals in place of 
the irregular sailings of an earlier period. The .first 
regular liners begin with the institution of the Cunard 
line in 1842. The figures of the shipping registered 
in the port of Liverpool since 1850 bring out this 
point still more clearly. 






No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


1850 . 







1860 . 





2,45 i 


1870 . 





2,6 1 1 


1880 . 





2,49 i 


1890 . 





2,3 I 9 


1900 . 







1906 . 







Though steamboats had appeared in the Mersey as 
early as 1815, they were for long used purely for 

W The figures for coasting trade are 
omitted. This table is compiled from the 
Annual Reports on Trade and on Shipping 

and Navigation laid before the Houses of 


698 Including transports for the South 
African War. 

699 Running the Blockade. 


river or at most coasting traffic ; 70 it was not until 
the forties that they began to be employed for the 
ocean trade in which Liverpool is mainly concerned. 
But as soon as this happened, the size of the vessels 
in the port rose with great rapidity, from an average 
of 280 tons in 1850 to an average of 1,270 tons in 
1 906. Liverpool has indeed become peculiarly the 
home of large vessels. While the number of her vessels 
is only two- thirds of that of London, their total 
tonnage is one-third greater ; m that is to say, the 
average Liverpool ship is twice as big as the average 
London ship. Of 171 British vessels which in 1906 
measured over 4,000 tons, no less than 146 belonged 
to Liverpool ; and while in number Liverpool pos- 
sesses not much more than one-tenth of the British 
mercantile marine, in tonnage she possesses consider- 
ably more than one-fifth. 

In regard to the position of Liverpool among the 
ports of the world, the following comparative state- 
ment of the value of the trade of the first six ports of 
the world may be quoted. 702 In 1905 the trade of 
London was estimated to be worth 261,000,000 ; 
of Liverpool, 237,000,000 ; of New York, 
221,000,000; of Hamburg, 196,000,000; of 
Antwerp, 147,000,000; of Marseilles, 86,000,000. 
The following are the census 
GROWTH OF returns during the period, includ- 
POPULATION ing for the earlier dates the suburban 
districts later added to the town : 

1841 286,487 

1851 376,065 

1861 462,749 

1871 493,405 

1881 ...... 611,075 

1891 617,032 

I9 01 684,947 

1907 .... 746, 1 44 7M 

These figures, however, do not adequately represent 
the growth which has taken place, since they omit 
notice of the growth of Bootle, of the northern 
suburbs of Seaforth, Waterloo, and Crosby and other 
outlying districts outside of the municipal boundary, 
as well as of the population of about 200,000 in 
Wirral, which almost wholly depends economi- 
cally upon Liverpool. The whole of this popula- 
tion has been created during the period under notice, 
and the urban population dependent upon Liver- 
pool now exceeds 1,000,000. 

It should be noticed that the Irish population of 
Liverpool, always large, was enormously increased by 
the inrush of immigrants after the Potato Famine of 
1 845-6 ; over 90,000 entered the town in the first 
three months of 1846, and nearly 300,000 in the 
twelve months following July 1847. Most of these 
subsequently emigrated to America, but many thou- 
sands, unable to find the passage money, remained to 
swell the misery of the Liverpool slums. 

No account can here be given 

GEOGRAPHICAL of the rapid expansion of the 

GROWTH street-covered area, but it is 

necessary to note the stages of 

the expansion of municipal control over this area. 

" Smithers, Liverpool, 186. 

7 fll In 1906 London had 3,300 vessels 
of z, 1 00,000 tons ; Liverpool 2,200 ves- 
sels of 2,800,000 tons. 

' M Annual statement of the Chairman 
of the Dock Board, quoting American 

After the enlargement of the boundaries in 1835 
nearly sixty years passed without any further en- 
largement ; in the meantime the borough of Bootle, 
which was essentially an expansion of Liverpool, 
had grown up and obtained its incorporation with- 
out opposition in 1869 ; beyond it the populous 
areas of Seaforth and Crosby lay separated from the 
town ; the borough of Birkenhead was similarly 
incorporated in 1877. At the end of the century, 
however, the city awoke to the danger of allowing 
the wealthy residential suburbs which derived their 
prosperity from the city to escape from their share 
of the costs of government. In 1895 the township 
of Walton, a second large section of the extensive 
township of West Derby, the township of Waver- 
tree, and the remaining southern half of the town- 
ship of Toxteth, were added to the city. 704 In 
1901 the township of Garston, on the eve of apply- 
ing for an incorporation which would have shut in 
the city on the south as it was inclosed by Bootle on 
the north, was also taken in. In 1903 an attempt 
was made to incorporate Bootle in the city ; but 
though the approval of the Local Government Board 
was obtained, the vigorous opposition of Bootle pre- 
vented the passage of the bill through Parliament. 
In 1 904 the township of Fazakerley was incorporated. 
The increase of the city's area involved in these 
successive enlargements may be briefly shown : 

1830 1, 860 acres 

1835 5,* 10 



I9 7 16,619 

After the Municipal Re- 
form Act the Whig party 
for a brief period enjoyed 
control of the borough gov- 
ernment. At the outset they 

possessed an overwhelming majority, but by i 842 this 
majority had disappeared. The main cause of this was 
the unpopularity of the Whig attempt to abandon 
compulsory Anglican religious teaching in the two 
corporation schools, which was advocated on the 
ground that the population served by these schools 
was mainly Roman Catholic ; but the proposal aroused 
a fierce opposition. The Whigs, however, also initiated 
a series of elaborate inquiries into the various depart- 
ments of borough government, reconstituted the 
corporation service and effected large economies by 
reductions of salaries, and commenced a vigorous pro- 
gressive policy in regard to the regulation of buildings 
and the safeguarding of the health of the town. In 
these respects the transference of power to the Tory 
party led to little change ; and the years from 1835 
to 1870 witnessed a vigorous, sustained, and not un- 
successful campaign for the amelioration of the con- 
ditions of the borough. The powers of the Watching, 
Lighting, and Cleansing Board had been taken over 
by the corporation under the Act of 1835, and were 
administered by a special Watch Committee; they were 
now enlarged by a new local Act, 706 under which the 
council took powers to impose numerous penalties for 



official estimates. 

7 8 From the Medical Officer's Report 

704 The birth-rate, which shows a slow 
but steady decline throughout the later 
half of the period, was in 1907 estimated 
at 31-7 per 1,000, as compared with 


26*3 per 1,000 for England and Wales. 
On the other hand the death-rate has sunk 
from an average of 32-5 per 1,000 in 
1861-70 to 20-4 in 1901-7. 

705 59 vict. cap. 7. 

7 i Vict. cap. 98. 



neglect of civic duties. In regard to the regulation 
of buildings the new regime was especially vigorous. 
The council obtained powers by an Act of i839 707 
to appoint building surveyors who should be required 
to certify before any new building was permitted to 
be occupied that it fulfilled the numerous require- 
ments laid down in the Act. These regulations were 
made still more exacting by the important Act of 
1 842, 708 which forbade the erection of inadequately 
lighted courts ; the same Act also empowered the 
magistrates to order the cleansing at the owner's ex- 
pense of any * filthy or unwholesome ' house. The 
most important clause of this epoch-making Act was 
that which decreed the appointment of a Health 
Committee to carry out its terms. Another Act of the 
same year, 709 while providing for the widening of 
certain main streets, provided (section 107) that on 
the presentment of the grand jury or the complaint 
of four or more householders the council might de- 
molish a ruinous house. Meanwhile the Commis- 
sioners for Paving and Sewerage had continued to 
perform their duties independently, being expressly 
safeguarded from any interference by the growing 
activity of the council ; 71 but in 1842 it was pro- 
vided that half of them should be elected by the 
council. 711 Their authority extended only over 
the old township, and in the same year a separate 
commission was created for Toxteth Park. 711 

The new Health Committee found its work ham- 
pered by the existence of these independent and 
unrelated authorities. Moreover, in 1843 a very 
powerful pamphlet 71S published by Dr. Duncan, then a 
lecturer in the Royal Infirmary School of Medicine, 
awoke the town to a new sense of the horrors of its 
slums . He showed that nearly half of the working- 
class population lived in cellar-dwellings ; that most of 
the poorer streets were quite unprovided with sewers ; 
that the water supply was such as to render impossible 
even ordinary personal cleanliness ; in short, that the 
condition of the poorer quarters of the town was 
such as not only to degrade their inhabitants, but 
also to form a grave menace to other residents. This 
powerful statement came at a moment when the cor- 
poration was already awakening to the difficulty of 
the problem, and the ineffectiveness of its weapons 
for coping with it. The immediate result was that a 
new Act was obtained in 1846,"* which was of the 
most far-reaching importance. It provided for the 
first time for the appointment of a Medical Officer of 
Health an office to which, with singular appropriate- 
ness, Duncan was the first to be appointed. It 
transferred the powers and properties of the Liverpool 
and Toxteth Paving and Sewerage Boards to the 
Health Committee of the Town Council, on which 
it imposed the obligation to pave and sewer every 
street and house. 715 It also imposed upon the council 
a totally new obligation, namely that of laying down 
pipes and supplying water throughout the borough ; 
for which purpose the Green Lane Waterworks were 
transferred to the corporation. 

Under Duncan's guidance the council now began 
a systematic campaign against cellar-dwellings ; in 
1 847 over 5,000 such dwellings were declared unfit 
for human habitation, and absolutely closed, while 
over 10,000 more were measured, registered, and in 
some cases cleansed at the owners' expense. 716 But the 
powers possessed by the council for carrying out such 
reforms were as yet slight. By the Sanitary Amend- 
ment Act of l864 717 these powers were very largely 
increased ; so much so that under the terms of this 
Act the facilities for the demolition of insanitary 
property are in some respects more useful than any 
conferred by the later national Acts for this purpose. 

Even more important than the demolition of in- 
sanitary property was the provision of an adequate 
water supply. The supply of water had hitherto been 
in the hands of two companies the Company of 
Proprietors, and the Liverpool and Harrington Com- 
pany, founded respectively in 1799 an ^ 1802 ; both 
drew their supply from wells, some of which are still 
in use. These were now taken over ; 718 but in 
addition the corporation took powers to construct 
a series of reservoirs on the Rivington moors, north 
of Bolton. 719 The scheme produced much discus- 
sion, being one of the first of its kind, and several 
additional Acts 720 were passed before it had been 
finally settled. The Rivington Waterworks were not 
completed till 1857 ; their completion for the first 
time rendered possible a continuous supply of water 
throughout the city. As population grew, it in turn 
became inadequate ; and in 1879 the Vyrnwy scheme 
was entered upon. This involved the acquisition of 
the valley of the River Vyrnwy in Merionethshire, 
with its drainage area of 22,742 acres ; the construc- 
tion across the mouth of the valley of a masonry dam 
1,172 ft. long, 161 ft. high, and 1276:. thick, thus 
creating a lake 4^ miles long, capable of yielding a 
supply of forty million gallons of water per diem ; 
and the construction of an aqueduct 68 miles long, 
including tunnels of 4^- miles, one of which passes 
under the Manchester Ship Canal and the Mersey. 
The supply was first brought to Liverpool in 1891, 
after eleven years' work. The value to the com- 
munity of this magnificent achievement cannot be 
exaggerated. 721 

Meanwhile the town had not been altogether neg- 
lectful of the amenities. St. George's Hall, 722 de- 
signed to serve the double purpose of a public hall 
and assize courts, had been projected by private citi- 
zens in 1835, and was begun in 1838, and completed 
by the corporation in 1854 at a cost of 238,000. 
The design was by a young architect, H. L. Elmes, 
who died before his work was completed, and much 
of the interior was carried out by R. P. Cockerell. 
The design was much criticized, but it is now agreed 
that the building is one of the noblest modern classic 
buildings in the world. It is enriched by a fine pedi- 
ment by Alfred Stevens at the south end and by a 
series of external bas-relief panels ; it contains one of 
the best organs in England, long played by W. T. Best ; 

707 2 & 3 Viet. cap. 92. 

708 5 vict. cap. 44. 

709 5 & 6 Vict. cap. 106. 

710 i Vict. cap. 98 ; z & 3 Vict. cap. 92. 

711 5 Vict. cap. 26. 

712 5 & 6 Vict. cap. 105. 

718 Read before the Lit. and Phil. Soc. 
in 1843. 

714 9 & 10 Vict. cap. 127. 

715 An excellent account of the sani- 

tary administration of the city is given in 
Hdbk. of Congress of Roy. Inst, of Pub. 
Health, 1903. 

716 Gore's Annals, 1847. 

717 27 & 28 Vict. cap. 73. 

718 Under powers conferred by 39 Geo. 
Ill, cap. 36 ; 9 Vict. cap. 35 ; and 10 & 
II Vict. cap. 261. 

719 10 & II Vict. cap. 261. 

720 13 & 14 Vict. cap. 80; 15 Vict. 


cap. 47; 1 8 Vict. cap. 66; 19 Vict. 
cap. 5. 

721 On the history of the water supply 
in general, Hist, and Deter. Account of the : 
L'fv. Water Supply (Water Engineer's 
Rep. 1899); article in Hdbk. of Congress of 
Roy. Inst. of Pub. Health, 1903. 

< M R. P. Jones, 'H. L. Elmes,' Archil. 
Rev. 1904 ; H. L. Elmes, Corrcsp. rela~ 
ti-ve to St. George's Hall, &c. 


and both the great hall and the plateau without are 
used for the display of statuary. 

Another fruitful new enterprise was begun in 1852. 
As early as 1 849 before the Free Libraries Act 
the establishment of a public library had been pro- 
jected. In 1851 the thirteenth Earl of Derby had 
bequeathed his large natural-history collection to 
the town. At the same time the Liverpool Academy, 
founded in 1810, had succeeded in stimulating artistic 
interests in the town by its annual exhibitions. In 
order to meet this triple need a private Act rn was 
obtained empowering the council to establish and 
maintain a public library and museum with a gallery 
of arts, to provide lecture rooms and arrange lec- 
tures. With this were at first linked the Botanic 
Gardens, originally started as a private organization 
by Roscoe, but taken over by the corporation in 
1 846. "* A fine classic building for the library and 
museum was provided by Sir William Brown, re- 
placing the rather ragged houses at the north of 
Shaw's Brow, and facing St. George's Hall. Thus 
began a noble group of buildings devoted to know- 
ledge and the arts, gradually extended by the erection 
of the Picton Reading Room, a fine rotunda, in 1872, 
the Walker Art Gallery (the gift of Sir A. B. Walker) 

BROWN of Astrop, 
Bart. Gules a che-veron 
or between /wo bear? 
paws erased in chief ar- 
gent and four hands con- 
joined in saltire of the 
second in base, on a chief 
engrailed gold an tagle 
displayed sable. 

WALKER of Osmas- 
ton, Bart. Or three pal- 
lets gules surmounted by 
a saltire argent charged 
with a harfs head erased 
proper, on a chief azure a 
garb between two stars 
of the first. 

in 1877, and the Museum Extension and Technical 
School in 1902 ; a proud adornment to the city, 
later made still more attractive by the laying out of 
gardens with statues in the centre of the great place. 
The development of these institutions during the last 
half-century can only be briefly summarized. The 
Central Library, opened in 1852 with 8,296 volumes, 
now contains close on 150,000 volumes; it is most 
strongly equipped on local history and topography, 
natural history, and the fine arts; the last-named section 
has been greatly strengthened by the bequest of the 
Hornby Library, now housed in a beautiful additional 
room. There are also nine lending libraries in various 
parts of the city, having among them nearly 140,000 
volumes."* The Museums fall into two sections 
the Museum of Natural History, which has been built 

up round the nucleus bequeathed by Lord Derby in 
1852, and is now of great range, probably unsurpassed 
out of London ; and the Museum of Antiquities and 
Anthropology, which includes some very valuable col- 
lections mainly provided by bequest of Mr. Joseph 
Mayer in 1867. The large extension of the build- 
ings effected in 1902 for the first time gives adequate 
room for the display of these collections. 724 In the 
Art Gallery a large permanent collection has been 
accumulated by gift and purchase. It includes some 
modern paintings of wide fame, also the Roscoe col- 
lection of Early Italian art, formerly housed at the 
Royal Institution. The controlling committee has 
wisely set itself to obtain as full a representation as 
possible of the remarkable group of Liverpool painters 
who flourished in the middle of the igth century. 
An exhibition of contemporary art has been held 
annually since 1871, and many special exhibitions 
have also been organized. 7 * 7 

The increasing attention to the amenities which 
the council were now showing was exhibited 
especially in 1868. Up to that date the town had 
possessed no public parks, except the small public 
gardens in St. James's Mount; for though as early as 
1848 the Newsham estate had been purchased, no use 
had been made of it. In 1 868 powers were obtained 7 * 8 
for the creation of three parks Sefton Park, Newsham 
Park, and Stanley Park at a cost of 670,000. The 
expenditure thus begun has been continued without 
intermission, and supplemented by private munificence, 
to which the city owes Wavertree Playground and 
Bowring Park. The total area of parks and gardens 
laid out in various parts of the city amounts to almost 
1,100 acres. 

The last twenty-five years of the i gth century were 
largely engaged in a renewed attack on the problem 
of the housing of the poor. In the earlier period 
the council had been content with the demolition 
of insanitary property, a work in which it had been 
a pioneer ; it now began to undertake the re- 
placement of the demolished property by model 
dwellings. The first block of cottages to be thus 
erected was in i869. 7 * 9 In 1885 a large group of 
dwellings was erected, known as Victoria Square. By 
1900 accommodation had been provided for over 700 
families. More recently this work has been pushed on 
with such vigour that in February 1907 over 2,200 
dwellings were either in occupation or almost com- 
pleted. The total cost has been more than 1,000,000, 
the interest on which is almost met by the rents paid. 
The elaborate and efficient tramway service, taken 
over by the corporation in 1897, has also tended to 
facilitate the solution of the housing problem. 

Of other municipal activities no account can here 
be given. But enough has been said to show that 
the seventy years since the Municipal Reform Act 
have been marked by a systematic attempt at the 
reorganization and reconstruction of the city. In the 
last part of the period the establishment of the sepa- 
rate diocese of Liverpool in 1880, the more recent 

7M 15 Viet. cap. 3. 

"* 8 & 9 Viet. cap. 43. The library 
of the Botanic Gardens, founded by Ros- 
coe, was transferred to the City Library 
in 1907. 

'** Cowell, Li-v. Public Libraries, a bis- 
tor y f fify years (1903). 

7 M Forbes, descriptive account of the 
Liverpool Museums in Hdbk. of the Con- 

gress of Roy. lust, of Pub. Health, 1903 ; 
annual reports. 

"^ Annual Reports, 1872-1907. On 
the Liverpool painters, Marillier, The 
Liv. School of Painters, 1904. 
28 28 Viet. cap. 20. 

7" The following facts are from infor- 
mation supplied by the Medical Officer of 
Health. It may be noted that the Royal 


Com. on the Housing of the Working 
Classes reported in 1885 that housing re- 
form was more urgently needed in Liver- 
pool than in any other Lancashire town. 
A good account of housing work in 
Liverpool may be found in the Hdbk. of 
the Congress of Roy. Inst. of Pub. Health, 



commencement of the erection of a cathedral, and 
the foundation of a university, have added the dignities 
of a cathedral, episcopal, and university city to those 
of a great port. The advance thus made was re- 
cognized by the first charter of Queen Victoria in 
i88o, 7SO whereby the title of 'City' became the 
official designation of Liverpool, and by the queen's 
second charter in i893, 731 whereby the chief magis- 
trate of the city was empowered to assume the style 
of Lord Mayor of Liverpool. 

Under the first Dock Act, 1708,"* the 
DOCKS mayor, aldermen, bailiffs, and Common 
Council became the trustees of the proposed 
dock, and were empowered to construct the dock and to 
levy dues. They were not incorporated, but used the 
corporation seal ; managing the first and successive 
docks through committees, which were as completely 
under their control as any other council committees. 
By an Act of 1 8 1 1 ," 3 however, they were separately in- 
corporated and given a seal of their own ; the finances 
of the docks were separately administered from those 
of the corporation, by a statutory committee of 
twenty-one members appointed by the trustees (i.e. the 
Town Council), but the Town Council still claimed 
and exercised the right of voting sums from the dock 
funds, and of overriding the actions of the com- 
mittee. The control of the docks by a close corpora- 
tion, which was in no way representative of the rate- 
payers or of those who used the docks, led to much 
discontent and discussion, and in the end produced 
a new Act, that of i8z5/ 34 whereby, though the 
trust remained unaltered, the committee was changed 
by the inclusion of eight members elected by dock 
ratepayers. The council still retained a majority, 
thirteen of the committee being councillors, while 
the chairman was also selected from among the 
members of the committee by the council. The 
Act also provided that the proceedings of the dock 
committee could only be overridden by a majority 
of two-thirds of the council, and only at the meeting 
of the council immediately following that of the 
committee. By an Act of i85i rji the number ot 
the committee was raised to twenty-four, half of 
whom were to be dock ratepayers, while the chair- 
man was to be elected by the committee itself. But 
the power of revision still remained with the Town 
Council. Outside of both council and committee 
there had been from the first an independent body 
of auditors, numbering nine under the Act of ijoS, 736 
and appointed in equal groups by the corporation, 
the justices of the county of Lancaster, and the jus- 
tices of the county of Chester. An Act of I734 786 * 
raised the number to twelve, four nominated by the 
council, eight by the dock ratepayers. By an Act 
of 1 84 1 737 the mayor, the chairman of the dock 
committee, and the senior borough magistrate, were 
appointed revisers of rates. 

Even with these safeguards, however, and even 
though the council was now a representative elected 
body, dissatisfaction was felt with this system of ad- 
ministration, which identified the interests of the 

dock estate with those of the municipality. This ex- 
pressed itself in controversies on the rating of the 
dock estate, and in the agitation for the Act of 1851, 
which was originally an attempt to alter the consti- 
tution of the dock committee so as to leave the 
council only the mere shadow of control, but which 
was amended to the effect already described. It also 
lowered the voting franchise for dock ratepayers. 
But the strongest opposition came from the merchants 
of Manchester and the railway companies, which re- 
sented the traditional charges for town dues ; this 
went so far that a society was founded in Manchester 
called ' The Society to secure the right appropriation 
of the Liverpool Town Dues.' In 1857 they pro- 
moted a Bill, based upon the recommendations of the 
Commissioners of the Board of Trade, who had in 
1853 reported in favour of the appointment of in- 
dependent bodies of conservators for the regulation 
of public harbours, and of the transference to them 
of all dues levied by municipal corporations. The 
Town Council fought the Bill with all its power, 
especially objecting to the confiscation of its tradi- 
tional town dues ; but eventually withdrew its opposi- 
tion in consideration of a payment of 1,500,000 
for the loss of the town dues, and of certain other 
modifications. By the Act thus passed 7373 the Mersey 
Docks and Harbour Board was constituted, and took 
over the control both of the Liverpool and of the 
Birkenhead Docks, and the right of collecting not 
only dock dues but also the ancient traditional town 
dues. The board has continued to collect the town 
dues, despite the fact that opposition to these dues 
was one of the principal causes of its establishment. 
The board consists of twenty-eight members, four of 
whom are nominated by the Mersey Conservancy Com- 
missioners (the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade, and the Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster) ; while the other twenty-four 
are elected by all persons paying rates on ships or 
goods to the amount of not less than 10 per 
annum. Members of the board must be resident 
within 10 miles of the boundary of the borough or 
port of Liverpool, and must have paid rates on ships 
or goods to the amount of not less than 25 per 
annum. The office of Chairman of the Dock Board 
is commonly regarded as the most honourable at the 
disposal of Liverpool citizens. 

The history of the actual dock estate may be 
conveniently divided into three periods, 7371 " corre- 
sponding to the periods in the history of its governing 
body : 

I. Between 1709 and 1825, when the docks were 
under the direct control of the corporation, the fol- 
lowing wet docks were opened : 

1 . Old Dock, opened 3 1 August 1715; closed 

31 August 1826. 

2. Salthouse Dock, opened 1753 ; altered 1842 ; en- 

larged 1855. 

3. George's Dock, opened 1771 ; enlarged 1825 ; 

closed 1900. 

"so Printed in Hut. Mimic. Gout, in Lt-v. 
290. 7S1 Ibid. 292. 

783 8 Anne, cap. 12. On the whole 
history of the administration of the docks, 
see the Town Clerk's Report on the Pos- 
sibility and Expediency of obtaining re- 
presentation of the Corporation on the 
Dock Board (1907). 

788 5 1 Geo. Ill, cap. 43. 

784 26 Geo. IV, cap. 43. For the de- 
fects of this system, see Munic. Corp. 
Com. Rep. of Li-v. Inquiry, passim. 

785 14 & 15 Viet. cap. 64. 

786 8 Anne, cap. 12. 
786a j Geo. II, cap. 29. 

787 4. & 5 Viet. cap. 30. 


"S7a 20 & 21 Viet. cap. 162. 

787b Fjg ure i taken from Memorandum 
Bk. of the Mersey Docks and Harbour 
Board, 1908. Smithers, Li-v. 169 ff. and 
452, describes the condition of the docks 
in 1824; Baines, Li-v. App. describes 
them in 1852. 


4. King's Dock, opened 1788 ; closed 1906, the 

name being preserved for two new branches of 
the Wapping Dock. 

5. Queen's Dock, opened 1796; enlarged 1816 ; 

deepened and half-tide dock added 1856, and 
closed 1905 ; enlarged 1901 ; branches added 
1901, 1905 ; altered 1906. 

6. Union Dock, opened 1816 ; thrown into Coburg 

Dock 1858. 

7. Prince's Dock, opened 1821 ; half-tide dock 

added 1868. 

The total area of wet docks in 1825 amounted 
to 46 acres 3,179 sq. yds. ; the lineal quayage to a 
little over 2 miles. The dock dues paid in the 
same year amounted to 130,911. It may be 
noted that the first London Dock was not opened 
until 1802. 

II. Between 1825 and 1857, when the docks were 
under the control of the Dock Committee, the Old 
Dock was closed (1826), and the following new docks 
were opened : 

1. Canning Dock, opened 1829 ; previously a basin 

known as the Dry Dock, opened 1753 ; en- 
larged 1842. 

2. Clarence Docks, &c., opened 1830 ; enlarged 


3. Brunswick Docks, opened 1832 ; enlarged 1848, 

1858, 1889; branch dock added 1878; 
altered 1900. 

4. Waterloo Dock, opened 1834; reconstructed as 

E. and W. Waterloo Docks, 1868. 

5. Victoria Dock, opened 1836 ; altered 1848. 

6. Trafalgar Dock, opened 1836. 

7. Coburg Dock, opened 1840; altered from 

Brunswick Basin ; enlarged 1858 ; altered 

8. Toxteth Dock, opened 1842 ; closed to make 

way for new works, 1884. 

9. Canning Half-tide Dock, opened I 844. 

10. Harrington Dock (bought), opened 1844 ; closed 

to make way for new works 1879. 

11. Albert Dock, opened 1845. 

12. Salisbury Dock, opened 1848. 

13. Collingwood Dock, opened 1848. 

14. Stanley Dock, opened 1848; partly filled in 


15. Nelson Dock, opened 1848. 

1 6. Bramley Moore Dock, opened 1848. 

17. Wellington Docks, opened 1850 ; half-tide dock 

closed 1901. 

1 8. Sandon Dock, opened 1851 ; half-tide dock 

added 1901 ; altered 1906. 

19. Manchester Dock (bought), opened 1851. 

20. Huskisson Dock, opened 1852 ; branch docks 

added 1861, 1872, 1902 ; altered 1896, 1897; 
enlarged 1900. 

21. Wapping Dock and Basin, opened 1855 ; two 

King's Dock branches added 1906. 

The water area in 1857 amounted to 192 acres 
129 sq. yds., or an increase of over 82 acres in twenty- 
five years ; the lineal quayage was about I 5 miles ; 
and the river-wall, when the Dock Board came into 
existence, already extended for just over 5 miles. At 

the same time the Dock Committee and the Corpora- 
tion had acquired the Birkenhead Docks, which do 
not fall within the purview of this work. It is clear 
that the old Dock Committee did not lack energy. 
For the ten years preceding the establishment of the 
Dock Board the dock dues averaged nearly 250,000. 
It was on the security of these that the capital for the 
construction of the docks was raised ; and no profits 
were used for purposes other than the service of the 

III. During the fifty years of the Mersey Docks 
and Harbour Board more time and money have been 
spent on the enlargement and reconstruction of the 
existing system than on the creation of new docks. 
The new docks of this period are : 

1. Canada Dock, opened 1858; enlarged 1896; 

altered 1903 ; branches opened 1896, 1903, 

2. Brociclebank Dock, opened 1862 ; known until 

1879 as Canada Half-tide Dock; enlarged 

3. Herculaneum Dock, opened 1866 ; enlarged and 

branch dock added 1881. 

4. Langton Docks, opened 1879. 

5. Alexandra Dock (and three branches), opened 


6. Harrington Dock, opened i883. 738 

7. Hornby Dock (and branch), opened 1884. 

8. Toxteth Dock, opened i888. 73S 

9. Union Dock, opened 

During the last thirty years, however, the board 
has been mainly occupied in reconstructing large sec- 
tions of the dock system, so as to accord with that re- 
markable change in the size of vessels resorting to the 
port which has brought it about that while the ton- 
nage of the port has since 1880 increased 66 per cent. 
the number of vessels has in the same period actually 
declined from 10,000 to little over 6,ooo. 73Sa The 
new type of gigantic steamships demanded a wholesale 
reconstruction of the docks to which they resorted. 
The docks have accordingly been grouped in systems, 
each adapted to the needs of different kinds of trade, 
and each equipped with its appropriate warehouses, 
sheds, cranes, graving-docks, &c. The southern sys- 
tem, including the Herculaneum, Toxteth, and Har- 
rington docks, was vastly enlarged between 1881 and 
1888 ; the Canada-Huskisson system, at the north 
end, was radically reconstructed between 1890 and 
1906, with the result that the largest American liners 
now use it in place of the Alexandra-Hornby system, 
which at the time of its construction represented 
the last word in dock engineering ; the Brunswick- 
Wapping system, in the south-central region, which 
includes some of the oldest of the docks, was com- 
pletely rearranged, enlarged, and deepened so as to 
admit the biggest vessels, between 1900 and 1906. 
The accommodation, however, being still inade- 
quate, a large new system of docks is now (1908) 
under construction at the extreme north end of 
the line. 

In 1900 the George's Dock, one of the oldest of 
the series, which lay between the city and the pier- 
head, was closed by arrangement between the Dock 
Board and the Corporation. Part of its site was 

18 These are name* of old docks, given to new docks in the same region. 


78a g ee ta bi e O f entrances and clearances, p. 3 7 aboye. 


utilized for the magnificent domed building in which 
the offices of the Dock Board are now housed ; two 
of the main shoreward thoroughfares were continued 
across the site of the dock direct to the pier-head ; 
and the main entrance to the city has thus been 
materially improved and dignified. 

The total water area of the docks (excluding those 
on the Cheshire side of the river) now (1908) amounts 
to 418 acres 320 yds., and the lineal quayage to 
26 miles 1,083 yd s - The continuous dock-wall fronts 
the river for a distance of 7^ miles. 

In addition to the docks controlled by the Dock 
Board, the London and North-Western Railway 
has three docks at Garston, now within the limits 
of the city, which have a water area of 14 acres 
2,494 yds. 

As the period of the Dock Board's administration 
has been the period of the rapid development in the 
size of ships, which is in no port more marked than 
in Liverpool, a large part of the Board's work has 
consisted in maintaining a clear channel in the river. 
The task of dredging the bar which impedes the 
entrance to the river was seriously begun about 1890. 
Carried on by dredgers of unusual magnitude and 
power, it has cost not far short of half a million of 
money during the last fifteen years, but the result has 
been to provide a clear deep-water passage, lacking 
which Liverpool might have found it impossible to 
maintain her control over ocean trade under the new 
conditions. No account can here be given of the 
other works of the Board, of its vast warehouses, of its 
appliances for the disembarkation of cargo, or of the 
immense floating stage, 2,478 ft. long, whereby the 
landing of passengers at all times is rendered possible 
despite the very great rise and fall of the tides in the 

The erection of a chapel at Liver- 
CHURCHES pool was probably contemporaneous 
with the foundation of the borough ; 
burgages 'next to the chapel' are mentioned in a 
charter of the middle of the 1 3th century. 739 The 
building is identified with the chapel of St. Mary 


del Key (or Quay) which was standing, 'a great 
piece of antiquity,' used as the free school, in 1673. 
It was a chapel of ease to Walton, and without any 
permanent endowment. 

In or before 1356 there was built, perhaps at the 
cost of the town, the larger chapel of Our Lady 
and St. Nicholas, which then became the chapel of 
Liverpool. In the year named the king allowed the 
mayor and commonalty to devote lands of the value 
of 10 a year to the maintenance of divine service 
in the chapel according to an agreement they had 
made with Henry, Duke of Lancaster/ 41 who him- 
self gave an allowance of I2/. a year to the 
chapel. 7 " 

In September 1361 the Bishop of Lichfield 
granted a licence for burials in the churchyard, 
during a visitation of plague ; 74S and in the follow- 
ing February he gave permission for the chapel and 
cemetery of St. Nicholas of Liverpool to be conse- 
crated ' by any Catholic bishop having the grace of 
the Apostolic See and faculties for his office.' 744 Shortly 
afterwards William de Liverpool gave a rent of 6s. %d. 
towards the stipend of the chaplain, as long as the 
chantry should continue. 744 The chantry referred to 
was probably that at the altar of St. John, founded 
by John de Liverpool to celebrate for the souls of 
his ancestors, the priest of which was nominated 
by the mayor and burgesses. 746 Another ancient 
chantry was that of St. Mary at the high altar, 747 
founded by Henry, Duke of Lancaster ; 74S while 
the succeeding duke, John of Gaunt, founded one 
at the altar of St. Nicholas. 74 ' There were thus 
three priests in residence serving the chantries from 
the latter part of the I4th century down to the 

Further endowments were acquired from time to 
time ; 7SO and in 1459 the Bishop of Lichfield granted 
an indulgence of forty days on the usual conditions 
to contributors to the restoration of the old chapel of 
St. Mary del Key and to the maintenance of a 
chaplain there and of its ornaments, or to those who 
should devoutly pray before her image. 751 This 

7* Most of the information relating to 
this ancient chapel is derived from an 
essay by Mr. John Elton in Trans. Hist. 
Soc. (new ser.), rviii, 73-118, and the 
documents there printed. 

Randle del Moore of Liverpool, who 
occurs from 1246 onwards, granted to 
Margery his daughter and John Gernet 
half a burgage next to the chapel ; Moore 
D. no. 264 (i). In the same deeds 'the 
Chapel street ' is mentioned in 1318 (ibid, 
no. 331 [71]), in a grant by John son of 
Alan de Liverpool, to which John del 
Moore was a witness. 

Liverpool was named as a chapelry in 
1327 at the ordination of the vicarage of 
Walton ; Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. 
Soc.), ii, 191. 

740 Blome, Britannia (quoted by Pic- 

7 41 Elton, op. cit. 80, quoting Pat. 
29 Edw. III. The rents were to be paid 
' to certain chaplains to celebrate divine 
service every day, for the souls of all the 
faithful departed, in the chapel of Blessed 
Mary and St. Nicholas of Liverpool, ac- 
cording to the order of the mayor and 
commonalty.' The sum of 10 may in- 
clude the endowments of the two chan- 
tries of John de Liverpool and Henry 
Duke of Lancaster. 

7 a Elton, op. cit. 79, quoting a rent 
roll of 1395. 

7 Ibid. 83, from Lich. Epis. Reg. v, 
fol. 44. 

7 44 Ibid. 82, from Lich. Epis. Reg. v, 
fol. 45. Facsimiles of this and the pre- 
ceding entry are given. 

7 45 Elton, op. cit. 86, from Moore 
D. no. 466 (183), dated 6 Sept. 1361. 

7 William de Liverpool's phrase, ' as 
may be ordained by the mayor and com- 
monalty,' agrees with the above-quoted 
licence of Edward III, and with the con- 
dition of the chantry in 1548 ; Raines, 
Chantries (Chet. Soc.), 82. At this date 
the priest (John Hurdes) did 'sing and 
celebrate there according to the statutes of 
his foundation ' ; the plate and ornaments 
were scanty ; the rents, derived, as were 
those of the remaining chantries, from 
burgages, houses, and lands in Liverpool, 
amounted to 105*. id. In 1534 the can- 
tarist was Thomas Rowley, and the net 
revenue was 731. $.d.\ the founders' names 
were recorded as John de Liverpool and 
John del Moore ; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), 

V, 221. 

It was the duty of the priest of the 
altar of St. John to say mass daily be- 
tween five and six in the morning, so that 
all labourers and well-disposed people 


might come to hear it ; Picton, Munic. 
Rec. i, 31. 

7 4 / Raines, op. cit. 86. Ralph Howorth 
was the incumbent in 1548, 'celebrating 
accordingly,' ' with the chalice and other 
ornaments pertaining to the inhabitants 
of the same town' ; the gross income was 
1151. n</., a chief rent of 2s. $d. being 
paid to the king's bailiff of West Derby. 
Richard Frodsham was cantarist in 1534, 
when the revenue was ^4 71. n</.; Valor 
Eccl. (Rec. Com.), loc. cit. 

78 Duchy of Lane. Auditors' Accts. 
bdle. 728, no. 11987. 

7 4 > Raines, op. cit. 89. Richard Frod- 
sham was in 1548 'the priest remaining 
and celebrating there according to his 
foundation ' ; there were chalice, two sets 
of vestments, and missal, and an endow- 
ment of 1 141. f,d. Ralph Howorth was 
cantarist in 1534, when the income was 
751. u</., the foundation being ascribed 
to Henry and John, Dukes of Lancaster ; 
Valor Eccl. loc. cit. Probably there has 
been some transposition of the names of 
the incumbents of these chantries. 

750 See Elton, op. cit. 86, 88. 

7" Lich. Epis. Reg. xii, fol. 124*. It 
is described as 'the chapel of Blessed 
Mary within the cemetery of the chapel 
of the town of Liverpool.' 


ancient chapel continued in use until the Reforma- 
tion, for John Crosse in 1515 made a bequest to 
' the priest that sings afore our Lady of the Key.' n 
The same benefactor established the chantry of 
St. Katherine, the priest of which was also to teach 
and keep a grammar school.' 7M By this means the 
endowed staff was raised to four priests. A house 
was provided for them, with a garden adjoining. 744 
The church, consisting of a nave and a chancel of 
about equal lengths, with a tower at the west end, 
a south porch, and *n aisle on the north side, 7 " had 
four or five altan the high altar, St. Nicholas's 
(perhaps the same), St. John's, St. Katherine's, and 
the Rood altar/ 54 The chapel of St. Mary of the 
Key, which was a separate building standing on the 
river bank, a little to the west of St. Nicholas's, also 
had its altar. 7 " There is no means of deciding how 
many priests and clerks were employed, but the size 
of the chancel indicates a considerable staff. 

The suppression of the chantries and the change of 
religion made a great difference. St. Nicholas's chapel 

continued to be used, and one of the old chantry 
priests, John Hurdes, was placed in charge in 1548 ; 
he appeared at the visitation in 1554, but not in 
I56z. 748 At the abolition of the ancient services in 
1559 it is uncertain what took place at Liverpool ; 759 
Vane Thomasson was curate in i$6i, 760 and next 
year the Crown allowed the old stipend of one of 
the chantry priests for the payment of a minister to 
be nominated by the burgesses. 761 In 1590 the 
minister was * a preacher,' 76 * and the corporation 
afterwards took pains to secure a preacher or an 
additional lecturer. 763 

In 1650 the Commonwealth surveyors found that 
the Committee of Plundered Ministers had assigned 
to the curate of Liverpool all the tithes of the town- 
ship and jio from the rectory of Walton ; the 
duchy rent of 4 1 5/. was also paid to him ; the 
curate had, on the other hand, by the committee's 
order, to pay l I los. to the wife of Dr. Clare, the 
ejected rector of Walton. 764 Shortly afterwards, in 
1658, Liverpool was made an independent parish, 765 

7* Church Goods, 1552 (Chet. Soc.), 98. 

T<* Raines, Chantries, 84 ; Valor Eccl. 
(Rec. Com.), v, 221. Humphrey Crosse 
was the incumbent in 1534 and 1548, 
celebrating for the souls of his founder and 
heirs, with a yearly obit at which 31. 4</. 
was distributed to the poor, and teaching 
the grammar school. The endowment 
amounted to 4 15*. lod. For a dispute 
concerning this foundation see Due hy Plead. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 156. 
John Crowe's will ii printed in full in 
Church Goods, 97, 98. 

744 Raines, op. cit. 85. 

An account of the chantry lands after 
the confiscation is given by Elton, op. cit. 
97, 98 ; see also Trans. Hist. Soc. (new 
ser.), iii, 165 ; and Gregson, Fragments 
(ed. Harland), 348-50. 

The ornaments of the chapel in 1552 
are detailed in Church Goods, 96. 

'* A south elevation is given in En- 
field's Liverpool. The spire and the 
upper story of the tower were additions 
to the original building. Perry's plan of 
1769 shows that there were then two 
aides on the north side, but one of these 
had been built in 1697, with an addition 
in 1718 ; Picton, Memorials, ii, 58. The 
principal changes were : A west-end gal- 
lery, erected in 1681 ; an organ, provided 
in 1684; the boarded ceiling, painted and 
starred in 1688 ; the churchyard wall on 
the east and south, built in 1690 ; a spire, 
built in 1745 5 tn * churchyard extended 
in 1749 ; a new organ procured in 1764 ; 
and in 1774 the whole body of the church 
was rebuilt in its present form, the in- 
terior, which must have been very irre- 
gular, being entirely transformed, and the 
exterior walls being made uniform ; ibid. 
'' 57-9- The following is Enfield's de- 
scription of the old building : ' In its 
structure there is no appearance of mag- 
nificence or elegance. The body of the 
church within is dark and low ; it is irre- 
gularly thougi. decently pewed ; it has 
lately been ornamented with an organ. 
The walls have been repaired and sup- 
ported by large buttresses of different 
colours and forms, and a spire has been 
added to the tower' ; Liverpool, 41. 

The Corporation arranged the order of 
precedence in the pews ; Munic. Rec. i, 
103, 210, 329. 

The old peal having been reduced to 
a single bell, three more were ordered 
in 1628, but were not satisfactory, and 

changes were made in 1636 and 1649 ; 
Munic. Rec. i, 2 1 1, 212. A new peal 
was procured in 1725, the number being 
increased to six. Their ringing brought 
about the ruin of the tower. The pre- 
sent peal consists of twelve bells, cast in 
1813; an account of them will be found 
in Mr. Henry Peet's Inventory of the 
Parish Churches of Liverpool. Mr. Peet 
has kindly given other information re- 
specting the churches. 

A clock was set up in 1622, on the 
motion of the curate ; Munic. Rec. i, 212. 

Notes of the arms in the windows, 
taken in 1590, have been printed in Trans. 
Hist. Soc. xxxii, 253, with an account of 
Captain Ackers, by Mr. J. P. Rylands. 

After the fall of the tower and spire 
on ii Feb. 1810, the present tower with 
its open lantern-spire was built. It stands 
at the centre of the west end, instead of 
at the south-west corner like the former 
one. The church now retains no traces 
of antiquity, being in a dull modern 
Gothic style, and is chiefly interesting for 
the many monuments of iSth and 19th- 
century date. The spire is, however, a 
creditable piece of work for its date. 

756 St. Katherine's altar is mentioned 
in 1464 ; Munic. Rec. i, 23. 

757 This building, ceasing to be used 
for divine worship, was purchased by the 
corporation, apparently for zos. ; it be- 
came the town's warehouse, but later was 
used as the schoolhouse, and so continued 
until the 1 8th century, when it was de- 
molished ; Elton, op. cit. 103, 1 12- 1 8. 

At the west end of this chapel was an 
image of St. Nicholas, 'to whom seafaring 
men paid offerings and vows ' ; see Blome, 
op. cit. and Pal. Note-book, iii, 119. 

7 M The corporation seem to have con- 
tinued to hold and regulate the chapel ; 
Elton, op. cit. 99-104. Many details 
will be found in Picton's Munic. Rec. 

The clerk, Sir John Janson, in 1551 
went away to Spain ; one Nicholas Smith 
was clerk in 1555 5 Elton, op. cit. 100, 104. 

7S The priest in charge, Evan Nichol- 
son, appointed in or before 1555,^35 still 
there in 1559, but does not appear in the 
Visitation List of 1562 ; Munic. Rec. i, 97. 

7" Visitation List. It is possible that 
Vane (Vanus) Thomasson was the Evan 
Nicholson of 1555. 

In 1564 Master Vane Thomasson, cu- 
rate of Liverpool, and one of the wardens 
appeared before the Bishop of Chester, and 


were enjoined to ' charge the people that 
they use no beads ' ; the curate was to 
minister the sacrament and sacramentals 
according to the Book of Common Prayer ; 
Erasmus's Paraphrase must be procured ; 
and ' all manner of idolatry and supersti- 
tion" was to be immediately 'abolished 
and utterly extirpated ' ; Raines, op. cit. 
92, quoting the Liber Correct, at Chester. 

761 Elton, op. cit. 104. The amount 
allowed was 4 ijs. $d. a year. 

7 6a Lydiate Hall, 249; quoting S.P. Dom. 
Eliz. ccxxxv, 4. 

768 In 1591 the mayor and burgesses 
paid 4 to ' Mr. Carter the preacher,' in 
consideration of 'his great good zeal and 
pains ' in his ' often diligent preaching 
of God's word amongst us more than 
he is bound to do, but only of his mere 
good will ' ; Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 102. 
In 1621 a stipend of 30 a year was 
promised to ' Mr. Swift to be a preacher 
here'; in 1622 James Hyatt, afterwards 
vicar of Childwall and Croston, was ap- 
pointed ; and in 1629 an arrangement was 
made with clergy of the neighbourhood to 
preach week-day sermons ; ibid, i, 197, 
198, 200. 

The authorities were in the I7th cen- 
tury inclined to the stricter Puritan side, 
as this insistence on preaching suggests ; 
but in 1602 the portmoot inquest pre- 
sented the curate ' for not wearing his 
surplice according to the King's injunc- 
tions' ; and in 1610 it was 'agreed' that 
he should wear it ' every Sabbath and 
every holiday at the time of Divine ser- 
vice." The clerk also was to wear one ; 
ibid, i, 102, 196. 

Laud's reforms apparently did not reach 
Liverpool. In 1623 it was ordered by 
the corporation that, as the place where 
the first and second lessons were usually 
read was 'more convenient for the read- 
ing of Common Prayer than the place in 
the chancel where it hath formerly been 
read, in respect the same place is in the 
middle of the same church and in full 
audience and view of the whole congre- 
gation,' the whole service should be read 
there ; ibid, i, 198. In 1687 Bishop Cart- 
wright had to command the churchwarden 
to 'set the communion table altarwise 
against the wall ' ; Pal. Note-book, iii, 1 24. 

784 Commonwealth Church Survey (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 84 ; Plund. Mint. 
Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, i. 

765 Plund. Mins. Accts. ii, 21 5 j 224. 


(From a Water-colour Drawing) 

S,' Nicholas's Church 

(From Enfield's History of Liverpool, 1774) 



but on the Restoration this Act was adjudged to be 
null, and St. Nicholas's became once more a chapel 
under Walton. The following is a list of the 
curates : 

c. 1563 
oc. 1577 


oc. 1590 



? 1625 

c. 1634 




Vane Thomasson " M 
James Seddon 767 
James Martindale 768 
Hugh Janion 769 

- Bentley 770 
Thomas Wainwright m 
Edwin Lappage 7 " 
Henry Shaw 773 
Joseph Thompson 7M 
John Fogg 775 
John Leigh 776 
Robert Hunter 777 
William Atherton 778 
Robert Stythe 

Liverpool had by this time become so important 
that the governing body thought they might claim 
full parochial rights for the township. 779 After nego- 
tiations with the rector and vicar of Walton, and the 
patron, Lord Molyneux, an Act of Parliament was 
procured ' to enable the town of Liverpool to build 
a church and endow the same, and for making the 
same town and liberties thereof a parish of itself, 
distinct from Walton.' r80 Two joint rectors were 
appointed, the first being the two curates then minis- 
tering, and it was directed that 110 should be 

levied from the parishioners for each of them. 781 The 
church built under this Act was St. Peter's in Church 
Street, consecrated in 1704, which has since been 
regarded as the principal church of the parish, and 
was therefore appointed the pro-cathedral in 1880. 
It is a plain building with wide round-headed 
windows, consisting of a chancel with vestries, nave, 
and west tower. Its chief merit lies in the woodwork, 
and it preserves its galleries on three sides of the 
nave, the general arrangement of the seating having 
been but little altered since its first building. 7 It 
is to be demolished as soon as 
part of the new cathedral is 
in use. 

The patronage was vested 
in the mayor and alder- 
men, such as had been alder- 
men or bailiffs' peers, and the 
common council. In 1836 
the reformed corporation sold 
the patronage to John Stew- 
art, and about the same time 
provision was made for the 
union of the two rectories. 783 
From the Stewarts the patron- 
age was purchased in 1890 
by the late W. E. Gladstone, 
whose son, the Rev. Stephen 

E. Gladstone, now holds it. 784 There is no rectory- 
house, but the gross value of the benefice is stated as 
1,600 a year, largely derived from fees. 785 

a savage's head wreathed 
ivith holly and distilling 
dr pt of blood proper 
'within a fiotuertd orle 
gules all "with an orle of 
martlets sable. 

7M Visitation Lists of 1563, 1564; 
name crossed out in 1565. 

7*7 Picton, Munic. Rec. i, 97. 

7 Ibid. 98. 

" 8 Ibid. He was also vicar of St. 
John's, Chester. He died hi 1596; 
p. 97. 

77 Ibid. 97, 98. He could not endure 
the interference of the mayor and council, 
and only remained two years. He it 
called * Mr.,' and was therefore a graduate 
of some university. 

771 Ibid. 98. He was also appointed 
schoolmaster, 'until God send us some 
sufficient learned man.' He was only a 
' reading minister,' as might be inferred 
from thii ; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, 
App. iv, 13. Accordingly in 1616 the 
mayor and burgesses considered ' the pro- 
viding of a preacher to live within the 
town'; Munic. Rec. i, 196. He contri- 
buted i to the clerical subsidy of 1622 ; 
Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Che?.), i, 65. 

In 1609 he appears to have had an 
assistant named Webster ; Raines MSS. 
(Chet. Lib.), xxii, 298. 

The will of Thomas Wainwright, dated 
26 June 1625, and proved in the following 
October, shows that he had a small 
library, including commentaries, Perkins 
on the Creed, and Synopsis Papismi ; these 
two books he left to Thomas son of his 
half-brother Godfrey Wainwright. To 
Mr. Hyatt he left Fulke upon the 
Rhemish Testament, on condition that 
he preached the funeral sermon. To 
John Moore of Bank Hall he left his 
watch. He also mentions his sisters, 
Ellen Okell and Cecily Blinston, and 
other relative*. He desired to be buried 
'within the chapel of Our Lady and St. 
Nicholas under the Communion table 

77 a Munic. Rec. i, 1 99. He is described 
as 'minister and preacher.' 

77 s He contributed to subsidies 1634 to 
1639 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 94, 122. He may have been the Henry 
Shaw who was, in 1649, minister of St. 
John's, Chester ; Plund. Mint. Accts. i, 
208. One Henry Shaw, of Brasenose 
College, Oxford, took the M.A. degree in 
1629 ; Foster, Alumni. 

In 1633 the corporation ordered 'that 
there shall be morning prayer as formerly 
hath been ' ; also that the clerk should, 
if possible, be ordained deacon, in which 
case his wages should be raised by (if. 8, A; 
Munic. Rec. i, 201. 

77* Picton's Liverpool, i, 92. In 1644 
the Corporation provided a second minis- 
ter, Mr. David Ellison ; Munic. Rec. i, 
202. Thompson was shortly afterwards 
placed in the rectory of Scfton. 

"7* Ibid, i, 203. He was son of Law- 
rence Fogg of Bolton, educated at Brase- 
nose College, Oxford ; M.A. 1646 ; Foster, 
Alumni. He signed the 'Harmonious 
Consent* in 1648. Refusing to take the 
engagement, he had to abandon his charge 
in 1651, Peter Stananought (afterwards of 
Aughton) and Michael Briscowe being 
appointed. Shortly afterwards John Fogg 
was reinstated, and remained at Liverpool 
until he was ejected for Nonconformity in 
1662 ; he then retired to Great Budworth; 
Picton, Liverpool, i, 105. In 1650 he 
was described as ' an able, godly minister '; 
Commonwealth Ch. Surv. 84. 

77* Munic. Rec. i, 322. The appoint- 
ment was made by the corporation, as on 
previous occasions ; but the rector of 
Walton after some time endeavoured to 
obtain the patronage. In this he was 
defeated ; ibid, i, 322-3. 

777 Ibid, i, 323. He was described as 
' reverend, learned, and laborious ' ; ibid, i, 
^24. He had been incumbent of Knuts- 
ford and Macdesfield ; Earwaker, East 
Ches. ii, 505. In 1681 an assistant curate 


was appointed to read morning prayers 
daily (except Sundays and holidays). 

77* It was considered, on Mr. Hunter's 
death, that two ministers should be ap- 
pointed, to do equal duty and receive 
equal wages, and both to reside in the 
town ; ibid, i, 324. It appears that they 
also served the chapel of West Derby. 

"79 Munic. Rec. i, 324-6. 

7 so 10 and 1 1 Will. Ill, cap. 36. The 
rectors were to divide the duty and the 
surplice fees. The tithes of the township, 
on the then rector of Walton's death, 
were to go to the corporation, in relief 
of the assessment lor the rectors' stipend. 
The rectors of Liverpool were to pay 
one-sixth of the tenths and other ecclesi- 
astical dues levied upon the parish of 

Lord Molyneux's interest was indirect, 
the separation of Liverpool from Walton 
rendering his right of patronage of the 
latter rectory somewhat less valuable. 

In 1786 an Act was passed 'for aug- 
menting and ascertaining the income of 
the rectors' ; 26 Geo. Ill, cap. 15. 

7 M Gastrell, Nttitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), 
ii, 190-3 ; Picton, Munic. Rec. ii, 86. 

783 T^ building has never excited any 
admiration. There is a peal of ten bells, 
added in 1830. In 1715 John Fells, a 
sea captain, gave 30 towards the expense 
of forming a library in this church ; a list 
of the books is printed in Mr. Peet's In- 
ventory, 25-52. This work contains an 
inventory of the plate, &c., and a full list 
of the parish registers, with a reprint of 
the earliest volume (1661-73), a ^ 8 a '' 8t 
of the churchwardens from 1551. 

The church was used for a series of 
musical festivals, commencing in 1766 ; 
Picton, Liverpool, ii, 155. 

7 i & 2 Viet. cap. 98. 

7 84 Information of the patron. 
7 M Dice. Calendar. 


The following is a list of the recton : 


1699 Robert Stythe, B.A. m 
1714-17 vacant, owing to a dispute. 7 " 1 

1717 Thomas Bell, M.A. W 

1726 John Stanley, D.D. 7 * 

1750 Robert Brereton 

1784 George Hodson, M-A. 1 " 

1794 Samuel Renshaw, M.A. m 

1829 Jonathan Brooks, M.A. 7 * 



1699 William Atherton, B.A. 7 * 1 

1706 Henry Richmond, B-A. 718 

1721 Thomas Baldwin, M.A. m 

1753 Henry Wolstenholme, M.A. m 

1772 Thomas Maddock, M.A. 7 * 

1783 Thomas Dannett ^ 

1 796 Robert Hankinson Roughsedge, M.A. 7 * 

1829 Augustus Campbell, M.A. (sole rector, 
1855) " 

Alexander Stewart, M.A.** 

John Augustine Kempthorne, M.A. 1 * 

St. George's Church, for which an Act of Parlia- 
ment was obtained in 1715,** was begun in 1726 on 
the site of the castle ; it was completed in 1734. It 
had originally an elegant terrace, supported by rustic 
arches, on one side ; these arches the frequenters of Red 
Cross market used to occupy.' *" The church was re- 
built piecemeal between 1819 and 1825, and its new 
spire was reduced in height in 1 83 3 ; in its time it was 
regarded as ' one of the handsomest in the kingdom.' 
It was the property of the corporation and main- 
tained by them, the mayor and the judges of assize at 
one time attending it. On Mr. Charles Mozley, who 
was a Jew, being elected mayor in 1 863, the incum- 
bent preached a sermon denouncing the choice, and 
from that time the mayor and corporation ceased to 
attend St. George's. The building having long failed 

to attract a congregation was dosed in 1 897 and then 
demolished, the site being acquired by the corpora- 
tion.'* 4 

St. Thomas's, Park Lane, was built in 175.0 under 
the provisions of an Act of Parliament. 8 "' 'The 
land was given by Mr. John Skill, who, however, 
afterwards charged three times the value of the ground 
for the churchyard when it was required.' m A very 
tall and slender spire was a feature of the exterior ; 
after various accidents it was taken down in 1822, 
and the present miniature dome replaced it. A large 
part of the churchyard was acquired by the corpora- 
tion about 1885 for a new thoroughfare. *** 

St. Paul's, one of the corporation churches, was 
begun in 1763 in accordance with an Act obtained 
the previous year,* 6 and opened in 1 769. Its chief 

7 Educated at Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford ; B-A. 1680; ordained deacon and 
priest by the Bishop of Chester in 1 6 So 
and 1682 ; master of the Free School at 
Liverpool, 1684. Held the rectory of 
Garstinj for twelve months (1697-8), 
apparently as a 'warming pan.' He is 
regarded as co-founder, with Bryan Blun- 
dell, of the Blue-coat School, Liverpool. 
He died in Dec. 1 71 3. See H. Fishwick, 
Gtrstug (Chet. Soc.), 185. 
^* Picton, Mamie. Ree. ii, 68. 
!* Educated at Pembroke College, Ox- 
ford ; M-A. 1698 ; Foster, Alxmad. 

* Son of Sir Edward Stanley of Bicker- 
staffe ; Fellow of Sidney-Sussex College, 
Cambridge ; rector of Win wick 1740 to 
1742, and 1764 to 1781 ; also rector of 
Bury 1743 ID 177!. 

Son of the Rer. George Tin Jinn. 
curate of West Kirby ; educated at Brase- 
nose College, Oxford ; M-A. 1763 ; died 
14 Apr. 1794; Foster, Miaou; Mm 
fkearr Sckstl Reg. i, 53. 

r * Son of John Renshaw of Liverpool ; 
educated at Brasenose College, Oxford ; 
MJL 1775; ied 19 Oct. 1829, nine 
days after the other rector, Mr. Rough- 
sedge ; Foster, AlxmtmL He published a 
volume of sermons in 1791. 

* He belonged to a mercantile family 
in Liverpool, being son of Joseph Brooks, 
Everton. He was educated at Trinity 
dilirtr, Csjskifri ; M-A. iSoz ; Arch- 
deacon of Liverpool, 1848. He died 29 
Sept. 1855. ' Few men have enjoyed in 
their day and generation more general 
respect than fell to the lot of ArrUrsxBSl 
Brooks. Of a dignified and noble pre- 
sence, his manners were genial, courteous, 
and, with perfect troth it may be said, 
those of a gentleman. Who fnaiis^ 
at vestry meetings in the stormy times of 
contested Church rates, when occasionally 
very strong language was indulged in, a 

quiet, pleasant remark from the " old rec- 
tor " would calm the troubled waters and 
frequently cause all parties to laugh at 
their own violence. . . . His great popu- 
larity led to the erection of a memorial 
statue in St. George's Hall, by B. Spence' ; 
Picton' s Lfcerfool, ii, 136, 367, 349. 

?* Ordained deacon and priest by the 
Bishop of Chester in 1678 and 1679 re ~ 
pectirely. Ancestor of the Athertons of 

A William Atherton of Lancashire 
entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
in 1674, and graduated as B-A. in 1677 ; 
information of Mr. J. B. Peace, bursar of 
the college. 

?* Son of Sylvester Richmond, a Liver- 
pool physician ; educated at Brasenose 
College, Oxford; B-A. 1695. He was 
rector of Garstang from 1698 till 1-12 ; 
he was buried in St. Nicholas' Church; 
see Fishwick, Ganttmg, 186. 

7" Son of John Baldwin, Alderman of 
Wigan 5 educated at Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge; M-A. 1709. In 1748 he pur- 
chased the advowsons of North Meols and 
Leyland ; his son John became rector of 
the former parish, and himself (1748-52) 
and his son Thomas were successively 
vicars of Leyland. He was a councillor of 
Liverpool from 1733 to 1748. See 
Fairer, Nortm Mesh, (4 j Baines, .Lacs. 
(ed. Croston), iv, 166. 

* Author of two volumes of sermons. 

7* Educated at Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford ; B^. 1735 ; Foster, Alm*an. For 
his sons see Mmrnrmntrr Scmool Reg. (Chet. 
Soc.), ii, 13. See Gilbert WakenekTs 

w Chosen by a majority of die mayor 
and council. 

^Sonof Edward Roughseoge of Liver- 
pool ; educated at Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford ; M^. 1771. He died 10 Oct. 
1829 j Foster, 


"** Also vicar of Child wall, 1824- 

aM Educated at Clare College, Cam- 
bridge ; M-A. 1852. Vicar of Cogges, 
Oxfordshire, 186870 ; Hon. Canon of 
Liverpool, 1880. 

881 Educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge ; M-A. 1890. Vicar of St. Marc's, 
Rochdale, 1895 ; of St. Thomas's, Sun- 
derland, 1900 ; Rector of Gateshead, 
1901 ; Hon. Canon of Liverpool, 1905. 

" I Geo. I, cap. 21. 

* Strmmger im Liverpool. From this 
guide, of which there were many editions, 
much of the information in the text is 

At one end of the ' terrace ' was the 
office of the clerk of the market ; at the 
other that of the night watch. There was 
a vault beneath the church for interments. 
The interior fittings were good. The east 
window had a picture of the Crucifixion, 
inserted in 1832. There were originally 
two ministers, the chaplain and the 
lecturer, and the appointment was i-valry 
a stepping-stone to the rectory ; D. 
Thorn in Trmms. Hist. Soc. iv, 161. This 
essay on the changes and migrations of 
churches was continued in vol. v, and 
illustrated with views of the older build- 

** An effort was made to retain die 
spire. There is an account of this church 
and St. John's by Mr. Henry Pert in 
Trims. Hot. Soc. (new ser.), xv, 2744. 

** 21 Geo. n, cap. 24. 

" Strmmger im LrverfoeL 

f The Bishop of Liverpool's com- 
mission in 1902 recommended that the 
incumbency be extinguished at the next 
vacancy, die district to be annrxrd to St. 
Michael's, Pitt Street, 

" 2 Geo. Ill, cap. 68 ; the same Act 
authorised St. John's Church. There were 
formerly two incumbents at St. PauTs. 





feature is a dome ; internally this had the result of 
rendering the minister's voice inaudible. In time 
this defect was remedied, but changes in the neigh- 
bourhood deprived the church of its congregation, 
and falling into a dangerous condition, it was closed 
by the corporation in igoo. 809 

St. Anne's, also erected under the authority of 
Parliament, 810 was built by two private gentlemen in 
1772 ; it was * chiefly in the Gothic style.' The first 
minister, the Rev. Claudius Crigan, was appointed to 
the see of Sodor and Man in 1783, in the expecta- 
tion, as it was said, that he would live only a short 
time, until the son of the Duchess of Atholl, sove- 
reign of the Isle, should be old enough ; he lived 
thirty years longer, surviving his intended successor. 811 
The old church was removed a little eastward to 
enable Cazneau Street to go through to St. Anne 
Street, the corporation replacing it by the present 
church, consecrated in 1871. 

In 1776 a Nonconformist chapel in Temple Court 
was purchased by the rector of Aughton and opened 
in connexion with the Established Church. In . 
1820, some time after his death, it was purchased by 
the corporation and demolished. 81 * In 1776 also 
another Nonconformist chapel, in Harrington Street, 
was opened as St. Mary's in connexion with the 
Established Church ; the congregation is supposed 
to have acquired St. Matthew's, in Key Street, in 
1795, after which St. Mary's was demolished. 81 * 

St. John's, like St. Paul's, was built under the 
auspices of the corporation, and consecrated in 1785 : 
the style was the spurious Gothic of the time. There 
was a large public burial ground attached, consecrated 
in 1767. Becoming unserviceable as a church, there 
being but a scanty congregation, it was closed in 
1898, demolished, and the site sold to the corpora- 
tion. 814 

Trinity Church, St. Anne Street, was erected by 
private subscription in I792. 814 In the same year a 
Baptist Chapel in Byrom Street was purchased and 
opened as St. Stephen's Church. 816 This was taken 
down in 1871 in order to allow the street to be 
widened, the corporation building the present church 
further north. In 1795 the English Presbyterian 

or Unitarian Chapel in Key Street was purchased for 
the Established worship, being named St. Matthew's. 
It was consecrated in 1798. The site being required 
in 1 848 for the Exchange railway station, the Lan- 
cashire and Yorkshire Company purchased a Scotch 
Presbyterian Chapel in Scotland Road, which was 
thereupon consecrated as St. Matthew's. 817 In 1798 
a tennis court in Grosvenor Street was converted into 
a place of worship and licensed for service as All 
Saints' Church. It continued in use until the present 
church of All Saints', Great Nelson Street, was built 
in i848. 818 

Christ Church, Hunter Street, was built in 1797 
by John Houghton. 81 ' It was intended to use an 
amended version of the Book of Common Prayer, but 
the design proving a failure, the church was 'put on the 
establishment,' and consecrated in i8oo. MO Originally 
there was a second or upper gallery, close to the roof, 
but this was taken away about 1865. 

St. Mark's was built by subscription in 1803, and 
consecrated in 1815, becoming established by an 
Act of Parliament ; 811 the projector was the Rev. 
Thomas Jones, of Bolton, who died suddenly on a 
journey to London before the opening. 828 St. An- 
drew's, Renshaw Street, was erected by Sir John 
Gladstone in 1815 ; 8M the site being required for the 
enlargement of the Central Station, a new St. An- 
drew's was built in Toxteth in 1893. St. Philip's, 
Hardman Street, was one of the ' iron churches ' of 
the time ; it was opened in 1 8 1 6 and afterwards 
regulated by an Act of Parliament. 814 It was sold in 
1882, the Salvation Army acquiring it, and a new 
St. Philip's built in Sheil Road. 815 

More costly churches were about the same time 
designed and slowly carried out by the public 
authorities. St. Luke's, Bold Street, was begun in 
1811, but not completed and opened till 1831 ; 8 * 6 
it is a florid specimen of perpendicular Gothic, the 
chancel being a copy of the Beauchamp Chapel, War- 
wick. 8 " St. Michael's, Pitt Street, in the Corinthian 
style, but with a lofty spire, was begun in 1816 under 
Acts of Parliament, 828 and opened in 1826. There is 
a large graveyard around it. 

The chapel of the Blind Asylum was built in 1819 

809 It is proposed to abolish the in- 
cumbency and sell the site. 

810 12 Geo. Ill, cap. 36. The church 
was remarkable for being placed north and 
south. It stood on the line of Cazneau 
Street between Rose Place and Great 
Richmond Street. A part of the ground 
remains open. 

A district was assigned to it under St. 
Martin's Church Act, 10 Geo. IV, cap. 

811 Church Congress Guide, 1904. This 
contains much information as to the pre- 
sent condition of the churches, of which 
use has been made. 

812 Trans. Hist. Soc. iv, 139. It had 
been called the Octagon. It is mentioned 
in Brooke's Liverpool as it -was. 

818 Trans. Hist. Soc. iv, 157. Other 
' private adventure ' chapels were tried 
with greater or less success. A Rev. 
Thomas Pearson opened the Cockspur 
Street Chapel from 1807 to 1812, calling 
it St. Andrew's ; then he went to Salem 
Chapel in Russell Street, which he re- 
named St. Clement's, until 1817. The 
curious history of the latter building is 
given in the essay in Trans. Hist. Soc. v, 33. 

l4 An effort wai made in 1885 to se- 

cure the site for a cathedral for the newly 
erected Anglican diocese ; but it failed, 
although an Act of Parliament (48 & 49 
Viet. cap. 51) was obtained authorizing 
the scheme. See Trans. Hist. Soc. (new 
er.), xv, 27-44. 

815 32 Geo. Ill, cap. 76. 

816 Trans. Hist. Soc. iv, 178. A district 
was assigned to it under St. Martin's 
Church Act, 10 Geo. IV. 

W Ibid, iv, 143. The old building 
was demolished in 1849. A district was 
assigned under St. Martin's Church Act. 

818 Ibid, iv, 1 66. The incumbent and 
sole proprietor, the Rev. Robert Ban- 
nister, was the most popular minister of 
the time locally ; he died in 1829. Some 
singular occurrences in the church's his- 
tory are related in the essay referred to. 
It does not seem to have been licensed 
until 1833. 

819 A small burial ground was attached, 
and a vault was constructed below the 
church. The endowment was 105 a 
year, derived from the rents of twenty- 
four pews. The upper gallery was free, 
for the poor. The view from the cupola 
was in 1812 recommended to the Stranger 
in Liverpool, 


820 39 & 40 Geo. Ill, cap. 106 'for 
establishing a new church or chapel 
(Christ's), lately erected on the south side 
of Hunter Street'; Trans. Hist. Soc. iv, 167. 
It is proposed to extinguish the incum- 
bency, and sell the church and site. 

831 56 Geo. Ill, cap. 65 ; amended by 
2 & 3 Viet. cap. 33. It is now proposed to 
extinguish the incumbency and sell the 
church and site. 

822 Stranger in Liverpool. 

828 St. Mary's, an oratory or cemetery 
chapel in Mulberry Street, now disused, 
was consecrate;! about the same time. 

824 i Geo. IV, cap. 2. 

825 The old church seems to have been 
consecrated in 1816, though this is 

826 An Act was obtained in 1822 ; 3 
Geo. IV, cap. 19 ; also 2*3 Viet. cap. 33. 

W The cost was over 44,000 ; the 
architect was John Foster. 

828 54 Geo. Ill, cap. 1 1 1 ; 4 Geo. IV, 
cap. 89 ; 2 & 3 Viet. cap. 33. 'The 
parish authorities, after spending 35,000 
upon it, handed it over to the corpora- 
tion, who finished it at an additional cost of 
50,000.' More than a third of the seats 
were free. 


in Hotham Street in imitation of the Temple of 
Jupiter at JEgma.. The site being required for Lime 
Street Station, the building was taken down and care- 
fully re-erected in its present position in Hardman 
Street in i85o. 819 It is the Liverpool home of Broad 
Church doctrine. 

St. David's, for Welsh-speaking Anglicans, was built 
in iSzy. 830 As far back as 1793 Welsh services had 
been authorized in St. Paul's Church.** 1 Another 
special church was the Mariners' Church, an old 
sloop-of-war moored in George's Dock. It was used 
from 1827, but ultimately sank at its moorings in 

St. Martin's in the Fields, a Gothic building with 
a western spire, was erected out of a Parliamentary 
grant in 1829, the land being a gift by Edward 
Houghton. 833 It was the first Liverpool church to be 
affected by the Tractarian movement. 834 

St. Catherine's, Abercromby Square, was conse- 
crated in January I83I, 835 a fortnight after St. 
Bride's. 838 The first church of St. Matthias was 
built in 1833-4. in Love Lane, but the site being 
required by the railway company, the present church 
in Great Howard Street was built in 1 848 ; the old 
one was accidentally destroyed by fire. 837 St. 
Saviour's, Falkner Square, was built by subscription 
in 1839 ; ** was burnt down in 1900 and rebuilt in 
1901 on the old plan. 838 In 1841 a congregation which 
had for some five years met in the chapel in Sir 
Thomas's Buildings, which they called St. Simon's, 
acquired a chapel previously used by Presbyterians 
and Independents, and this was consecrated as 
St. Simon's. 839 The site being required for Lime 
Street Station, a new church was in 1848 built close 
by, 840 and this was taken down and rebuilt in its 
present position in 186672, on an enlargement of 
the station. 

A building in Hope Street, erected about fifteen 
years earlier for the meetings of the ' Christian 
Society,' and in 1838 occupied by the Rev. Robert 
Aitken, an Anglican minister who adopted 'revivalist ' 
methods, was in 1841 acquired for the Established 
Church and called St. John the Evangelist's." 1 It 
was abandoned in 1853, but under the name of 
Hope Hall is still used for religious and other meet- 
ings. In 1841 also the churches of St. Bartholomew 
and St. Silas were opened. 84 ' St. Alban's, Bevington, 
dates from 1849-50. 

In 1854 Holy Innocents' in Myrtle Street, pri- 
marily the chapel of the adjoining orphan asylums, 
was opened. All Souls', begun in the same year, had 
as first incumbent Dr. Abraham Hume, one of the 
founders of the Lancashire and Cheshire Historic 
Society. 843 ' As the population of this parish is 
mostly Roman Catholic ' it is proposed to abandon 
the building. 844 A Wesleyan chapel was acquired 
and in 1858 consecrated as St. Columba's ; soon 
afterwards St. Mary Magdalene's was erected for an 
object indicated by its dedication ; MS and more 
recently St. James the Less' M6 and St. Titus' 847 have 
been built, the former serving to perpetuate the High 
Church tradition of St. Martin's when this had re- 
sumed its old ways. 848 

The new cathedral is being erected within the 
township. The Church House in Lord Street provide* 
a central meeting-place and offices for the different 
societies and committees ; it contains a library also. 

Scottish Presbyterian ism was first represented by 
the Oldham Street Church, opened in 1793 ; 84S St. 
Andrew's in Rodney Street in 1824 ; 8M and Mount 
Pleasant in I827- 851 Others arose about twenty 
years later : St. George's, Myrtle Street, in 1845 ; 8M 
Canning Street MS and Islington in 1 8^6, Kt and St. 
Peter's, Silvester Street, in 184.9.*^ Another was 

8 * J Trans. Hist. Soc. iv, 153 ; 10 Geo. 
IV, cap. 15. 

880 7 Geo. IV, cap. 51. 

831 This was supposed to be the first 
instance of the kind in England ; the 
corporation allowed an additional ,60 
salary on account of it ; Stranger in 
Liverpool. The services were still held in 

882 The vessel was the Tees, and was 
presented by the government to the 
Mariners' Church Society, formed in 1826. 

883 Out of two millions voted 20,000 
was spent on this church. The Act lo 
Geo. IV, cap. n, vested it in the mayor 
and burgesses, and made provision for the 
division of the parish into districts. 

884 Church Congress Guide. 

885 It exhibited ' the Grecian style in 
its purity and perfection,* according to the 
opinion of the time. A district was 
given by a special local Act, 10 Geo. IV, 
cap. 51. 

886 A district was assigned to it under 
St. Martin's Church Act. For its en- 
dowment an Act was passed, I & 2 Will. 
IV, cap. 49. 

8*7 Trans. Hist. Soc. iv, 159. 

888 A district was assigned to it under 
St. Martin's Act, and it was consecrated 
in 1854. One of the incumbents, the 
Rev. John Wareing Bardsley, was pro- 
moted to the bishopric of Sodor and Man 
:n 1887 and of Carlisle in 1892 ; he died 
in 1904. 

889 Trans. Hist. Soc. iv, 155. The site 
was above the centre of the present Lime 
Street Station. 

840 In St. Vincent's Street. 

841 Trans. Hist. Soc. iv, 182. 

843 They were consecrated in 1841 and 
1843 respectively. 

848 Dr. Hume considered that only an 
endowed church could minister to the 
needs of the poorer districts, and pointed 
to the regular migration of Nonconformist 
chapels from the poorer to the richer 
districts, i.e. the building followed the 
congregation. All Souls' appears to have 
been built to illustrate his theories. He 
remained its incumbent until his death 
in 1884. See Diet. Nat. Biog. 

844 Church Congress Guide, 

848 Districts were assigned under St. 
Martin's Church Act, 10 Geo. IV. St. 
Mary Magdalene's was built in 1859 and 
consecrated in 1862. 

846 Opened January 1863 ; consecrated, 

W 7 Built in 1864 and consecrated in 
1865. It is proposed to extinguish the 
incumbency and dispose of the site. 

848 The patronage of many of the new 
churches is in the hands of trustees. The 
Crown and the Bishop of Liverpool pre- 
sent alternately to All Saints', All Souls', 
St. Alban's, and St. Simon's ; the Bishop 
alone to Holy Innocents' ; the Bishop, 
Archdeacon, and Rector of Liverpool 
jointly to St. Mary Magdalene's ; the 
Archdeacon and Rector of Liverpool and 
the Rector of Walton to St. Titus's ; the 
Rector of Liverpool to St. Matthew's, St. 
Matthias's, and St. Stephen's. Mr. H. D. 
Horsfall has the patronage of St. Paul's. 
The incumbent of St. David's, the Welsh 
church, is appointed by trustees jointly 
with the communicants. 

849 Previously, it is said, they wor- 
shipped with the Unitarians, who still re- 
tained their old title of Presbyterians in 
consequence of the legal penalties attach- 
ing to a denial of the Trinity. Oldham 
Street Church was built by a combination 
of shareholders or proprietor?, among 
them being (Sir) John Gladstone. 

In 1792 the Scotch Presbyterians used 
Cockspur Street Chapel, previously the 
Liverpool cockpit ; Tram. Hist. Soc. v, 38, 
where an account of the many uses of the 
building may be seen. 

850 A full account of the Scottish 
churches in Liverpool, by Dr. D.ivKi 
Thorn, may be seen in Tram. Hitt. Stc. 
ii, 69, 229. 

851 This was built by the Scotch 
Seceders, afterwards the United Presby- 
terians ; it replaced a smaller chapel in 
Gloucester Street, built in 1807 after- 
wards St. Simon's. The United Presby- 
terians used a meeting room in Gill 
Street about 1868. 

8sa The congregation were seceders 
from St. Andrew's, Rodney Street, under 
the influence of the Free Church move- 

853 A secession, under the same in- 
fluence, from Oldham Street Church. 

854 This was connected with the Irish 
Presbyterians. It is now a Jewish Syna- 

855 An earlier St. Peter's, built in 
1841, in Scotland Road, had to be aban- 
doned owing to the Free Church contro- 
versy breaking up the congregation ; it is 
now St. Matthew's ; Trans. Hist. Soc. iv, 


built in Vauxhall Road in 1867. Except the first 
two, which remain connected with the Established 
Church of Scotland, they are now associated with the 
Presbyterian Church of England. The formal union 
which constituted this organization out of many 
differing ones took place at Liverpool in l876. 857 

The German Evangelical Church occupies New- 
ington Chapel, formerly Congregational. It seems 
to have originated in a body of converted Jews 
speaking German, who met for worship in the 
chapel in Sir Thomas' Buildings from about 1831, 
and were considered as attached to the Established 
Church. 858 

Wesleyan Methodism made itself felt by the middle 
of the 1 8th century. Pitt Street chapel was built in 
I 75> Si9 enlarged 1765, rebuilt in 1803, and altered 
in 1875 ; John Wesley preached here for a week in 
1758. A second chapel within the township was 
built in 1 79O, 860 and Cranmer Chapel at the north 
end in I857. 861 These are now all connected with 
the Wesleyan Mission, formed in 1875, which has 
also acquired the old Baptist Chapel in Soho Street, 
now Wesley Hall, and a mission room near. 861 Leeds 
Street Chapel, of some note in its day, was opened 
about 1798 and pulled down in iS^o.* 63 Formerly, 
from I 8 I i to 1864, the chapel in Benn's Gardens was 
also used by Welsh-speaking Wesleyans. 864 Trinity 
Chapel, Grove Street, erected in 1859, is the head 
of a regular circuit ; the conference was held here in 
1 88 1. The Wesleyans have also mission rooms. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Association, later the 
United Methodist Free Church, . had a chapel in 
Pleasant Street before 1844, now St. Columba's ; it 
was replaced in 1 8 5 2 by Salem Chapel or St. Clement's 
Church, in Russell Street, 866 recently given up, the 
Pupil Teachers' College now occupying the site. 
Another chapel in Scotland Road, built in 1843, is 
still used, as also one in Grove Street, built in 


I873. 867 The Welsh-speaking members used a chapel 
in Gill Street from 1845 to iS6-j. m 

The Methodist New Connexion, who appeared as 
early as 1799, had Zion Chapel, Maguire Street, by 
St. John's Market, before 1813 ; they removed to 
Bethesda in Hotham Street about 1833, after which 
the old building was converted into a fish hall. 86 * 
They had also a chapel in Bevington Hill. Both 
have long been given up. 870 The Primitive Metho- 
dists also had formerly meeting-places in Liverpool.*" 

At the Bishop of Chester's visitations in 1665 and 
later years Anabaptists were presented, and it was 
said that conventicles were held. The Baptists, who 
had from 1707, if not earlier, met in Everton, 
opened a chapel in Byrom Street in \j2i. m A much 
larger chapel was erected in 1789 in the same street, 
and the old one sold to the Established Church. The 
later building is still in use as Byrom Hall. 873 Myrtle 
Street Chapel, the successor of one in Lime Street, 
built in 1803, was opened in 1844 and enlarged in 
i859. 874 In 1819 a chapel was built in Great Cross- 
hall Street. 876 Soho Street Chapel, begun for ' Bishop 
West,' was used by Baptists from 1837 to 1889, 
when Jubilee Drive Chapel replaced it. 87 ' The 
Welsh-speaking Baptists had a chapel in Ormond 
Street, dating from 1 799, but it has been given up, 
one in Everton succeeding it. 877 

The Sandemanians or Glassites long had a meeting- 
place in the town. 878 

Newington Chapel was in 1776 erected by Con- 
gregationalists dissatisfied with the Unitarianism of 
the Toxteth Chapel, and wishing to have a place 
of worship nearer to Liverpool. 579 It was given up 
in 1872, and is now the German Church. A youth- 
ful preacher, Thomas Spencer, attracting great con- 
gregations, a new chapel was begun for him in 1811 
in Great George Street ; he was drowned before it 
was finished, 6SJ and Dr. Thomas Raffles, who was its 

85 ? The Reformed Presbyterian Church 
or Covenanters had a meeting-place in 
Hunter Street in 1852, afterwards moving 
to Shaw Street, Everton ; see Tram. Hist. 
Soc. ii, 73, 230. 

848 Ibid, iv, 174 5 v, 49. 

859 Ibid, v, 46. 

860 In Mount Pleasant ; afterwards 
called the Central Hall. 

861 Less permanent meeting-places were 
in Edmund Street, used in 1852, and 
Benledi Street, in 1863. For the former 
see Trans. Hist. Soc. v, 49. 

862 The head of this mission for many 
years was the late Rev. Charles Garrett, 
one of the notable figures in local 
Methodism. He died in 1900. The site 
of the Unitarian church in Renshaw 
Street has been acquired for the Charles 
Garrett Hall, in connexion with the 
work he organized. 

868 Trans. Hist. Soc. v, 47. The chapel 
in Great Homer Street, Everton, re- 
placed it. 

864 Ibid, v, 51. The chapel in Shaw 
Street, Everton, took its place. Another 
meeting-place of Welsh Wesleyans was 
in Burroughs Garden, which seems to 
have been replaced by a chapel in Boundary 
Street East about 1870. Services have 
also been held in Great Crosshall Street 
(1871-84) and Hackins Hey (1896). 

866 For the history of this building, 
occupied by preaching adventurers and 
different denominations, including the 
Swedenborgians, see Trans. Hist. Soc. v, 

*7 The same body has a preaching 
place in Bostock Street. In 1852 it had 
one in Bispham Street. 

868 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new sen), vii, 322. 

869 Trans. Hist. Soc. v, 50. They had 
previously had Maguire Street, Cockspur 
Street, and other places, 43, 40. 

870 Bethesda was given up about 1866 ; 
it is represented by a chapel in Everton. 
The old building was for some time used 
as a dancing room. Bevington Hill was 
given up about the same time. 

W 1 Trans. Hist. Soc. v, 42, 44. One in 
Rathbone Street was maintained until 
about 1885. It seems to have belonged 
to the Independent Methodists. 

8 ? a Trans. Hist. Soc. iv, 178. The first 
minister, J. Johnson, offended some of his 
congregation by his doctrines, and a chapel 
in Stanley Street was in 1747 built for 
him, where he preached till his death. 
This congregation migrated to a new 
chapel in Comus Street in 1800; ibid, 
v, 51. 

8 ' 8 Ibid, v, 23 ; services were discon- 
tinued from 1846 to 1850 on account of 
its purchase by the London and North 
Western Railway Company. 

8 ' 4 Ibid, v, 26 ; the stricter Calvinists 
separated about 1800 from the Byrom 
Street congregation. 

8 ? 5 Ibid, v, 49 ; the Particular Baptists, 
who had had Stanley Street Chapel from 
1800, succeeded the first congregation, and 
moved in 1 847 to Shaw Street. The Welsh 
Baptists had it in 1853 and 1864. The 
building has ceased to be used for worship. 


Other places are known to have been 
used at various times by Baptist congre- 
gations ; ibid, v, 33, 48, 49. Two, in 
Oil Street and Comus Street, existed in 
1824 ; the latter was still in use in 1870, 
and seems to have been replaced in 1888 
by one at Mile End, now abandoned. 

876 Ibid iv, 177. This congregation 
had sprung from a split in the Byrom 
Street one in 1826, and had had places of 
worship in Oil Street and Cockspur Street. 

A somewhat earlier division (1821) 
resulted in the Sidney Place Chapel, 
Edge Hill. 

8 '7 This was perhaps the Edmund 
Street Chapel mentioned in the Directory 
of 1825 ; later were the chapels in Great 
Crosshall Street (already named) and Great 
Howard Street. The last-named, begun 
in 1835, was removed to Kirkdale in 
1876. A later congregation (1869) met 
in St. Paul's Square for some years. 

? For details see Trans. Hist. Soc. 
(new ser.), vii, 321. The places were 
Matthew Street, and then Gill Street t 
about 1845. 

s < 9 For the history of these buildings 
see Trans. Hist. Soc. v, 3-9 ; and Night- 
ingale's Lanes. Nonconformity, vi, I2O on. 

8o See his Life by Dr. Raffles (Liver- 
pool, 1813). Thomas Spencer was born 
at Hertford 21 Jan. 1791 ; commenced 
preaching when fifteen years of age ; was 
called to Newington Chapel in Aug. 1810, 
and after a remarkably successful ministry 
there, was drowned while bathing at th 
Dingle, 5 Aug. 1811. 


minister for nearly fifty years, became one of the most 
influential men in Liverpool. 881 This chapel was burnt 
down in 1840, and the present building erected. 
Seceders from All Saints' Church in 1800 met for 
worship in Maguire Street and Cockspur Street, and 
in 1803 built Bethesda Chapel in Hotham Street; 
from this they moved in 1837 to Everton Crescent. 881 

Burlington Street Chapel was bought as an exten- 
sion by the Crescent congregation in 1859; about 
1890 it was weakened by a division, most of the 
congregation assembling in Albert Hall for worship ; 
this is now recognized as a Congregational meeting, 
but Burlington Street was worked for a time as a 
mission by the Huyton Church. 883 

The Welsh Congregationalists have a chapel in 
Grove Street, in place of Salem Chapel, Brownlow 
Hill, 884 given up in 1868. Formerly they had one in 
Great Crosshall Street, built in 1817, but the congre- 
gation has migrated to Kirkdale and Everton. 

In Elizabeth Street is a United Free Gospel 
Church, built in 1871 to replace one of 1845 as an 
Independent Methodist Church. 

The Calvinistic Methodists, the most powerful 
church in Wales, are naturally represented in Liver- 
pool, where Welshmen are very numerous. The first 
chapel was built in Pall Mall in 1787, and rebuilt in 
1 8 1 6, but demolished to make way for the enlarge- 
ment of Exchange Station in 1878, a new one in 
Crosshall Street taking its place. 886 There are others 
in Chatham Street and Catherine Street built in 1861 
and 1872 respectively ; at the latter the services are 
in English. 

The Society of Friends had a meeting-place in 
Hackins Hey as early as 1 706, by Quakers' Alley ; 
this remained standing until 1863. The place of 
meeting was removed to Hunter Street in 1790 ; this 
continues in use.* 87 

The Moravians held services ' for many years ' in 
the Religious Tract Society's rooms. 

The Berean Universalist Church was opened in 1 85 I 
in Crown Street, but had only a short existence. 888 

The Bethel Union, an undenominational evange- 
listic association for the benefit of sailors, maintains 
several places of worship near the docks. 889 

The Young Men's Christian Association has a large 
institute in Mount Pleasant, opened in 1877. 

It has been shown above that Nonconformity was 
strong in the town after 1662. A chapel was built 
in Castle Hey, and the minister of Toxteth Park is 
said to have preached there on alternate Sundays 
from i689. 890 This was replaced by Benn's Gardens 
Chapel in 1727, from which the congregation, which 
had become Unitarian, moved to Renshaw Street in 
181 1, and from this recently to Ullet Road, Toxteth. 
Another Protestant Nonconformist chapel was built 
in Key Street in 1707 ; in this case also the congre- 
gation became Unitarian. 891 A new chapel in Paradise 
Street replaced it in 179 1, and a removal to Hope 
Street was made in 1849, the abandoned building 
being turned by its new owners into a theatre. The 
Octagon Chapel in Temple Court was used from 
1762 to 1776 to meet a desire for liturgical services, 
the organ being used ; but it proved a failure and 
was sold to the Rev. W. Plumbe, Rector of Aughton, 
who preached in it as St. Catherine's. The Uni- 
tarians have a mission room in Bond Street. 89 * 

The Christadelphians formerly (1868-78) had a 
meeting-place in Gill Street. 

The Catholic Apostolic Church (Irvingite) was 
built in 1856. The choir is a rich specimen of 
flamboyant Gothic. 

The ancient religion appears to have been stamped 
out very quickly in Liverpool, which became a 
decidedly Protestant town, and there is scarcely even 
an incidental allusion to its existence 8M until the 
beginning of the 1 8th century. Spellow and Aig- 
burth were the nearest places at which mass could 
occasionally be heard in secret. Fr. William Gilli- 

881 Hi biography was written by his 
son, Thomas Stamford Raffles, who was 
for many years the stipendiary magistrate 
of Liverpool ; see also Diet, Nat. Bio^. 
Dr. Raffles was born in London in 1788, 
educated at Homerton College, LL.D. 
Aberdeen 1820, died 18 Aug. 1863, and 
was buried in the Necropolis. 

888 Salem Chapel in Russell Street was 
used from 1808 to 1812 by seceders 
from Bethesda. 

883 Gloucester Street Chapel was occu- 
pied by Congregationalists from 1827 to 
1840, when it became St. Simon's 

884 Salem Chapel in Brownlow Hill was 
bought in 1868 by the Crescent congrega- 
tion, and occupied until 1892. It is now 
a furniture store. 

886 In 1825 they had two chapels, in 
Pall Mall and Great Crosshall Street ; in 
1852 they had four, in Prussia Street (i.e. 
Pall Mall), Rose Place (built 1826), Bur- 
lington Street, and Mulberry Street (built 
184.1). The last-named, having been re- 
placed by the Chatham Street Chapel, was 
utilized as Turkish baths. Burlington 
Street seems to have been removed to 
Cranmer Street, built in 1860, now dis- 
used. The Rose Place Chapel was at the 
corner of Comus Street ; it seems to have 
been disused about 1866, a new one in 
Fitzclarence Street taking its place. 

887 The old meeting-house had a burial 
jround attached. The building was used 

as a school from 1796 to 1863, when it 
was sold and pulled down. 

888 Its minister was Dr. David Thorn, 
whose essay on the migration of churches 
has been frequently quoted in these notes. 
He had been minister of the Scotch Church 
in Rodney Street, but seceded ; in 1843 
he had a congregation in a chapel in Bold 

889 The society had a floating mission 
vessel, the William, in the Salthouse Dock 
in 1821. Afterwards three buildings on 
shore were substituted, in Wapping, Bath 
Street, and Norfolk Street. 

890 Hist. MSS. Com. Ref. xiv, App. iv, 
231 ; the 'new chapel in the Castle Hey 
in Liverpool ' and Toxteth Park Chapel 
were licensed 'for Samuel Angier.and his 
congregation.' See also Peet, Liverpool 
in the Reign of Queen Anne, 100. Castle 
Hey is now called Harrington Street. 

891 For the Unitarian churches see 
Tram. Hist. Soc. v, 9-23, 51 ; Nightin- 
gale, op. cit. vi, no. 

898 Ibid. 

894 In the catalogue of burials at the 
Harkirk in Little Crosby is the following : 
' 1615, May 20. Anne the wife of 
George Webster of Liverpool (tenant of 
Mr. Crosse) died a Catholic, and being 
denied burial at the chapel of Liverpool 
by the curate there, by the Mayor, and 
by Mr. Moore, was buried ' ; Crosby Rec. 
(Chet. Soc.), 72. The Crosse family did 
not change their religious profession at 


once, for in 1628 John Crosse of Liver- 
pool, as a convicted recusant, paid double 
to the subsidy ; Norris D. (B.M.). 

John Sinnot, an Irishman, who died at 
his house in Liverpool, had been refused 
burial on account of his religion in 1613 ; 
Crosby Rec. 70. 

The recusant roll of 1641 contains only 
five names, four being those of women ; 
Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiv, 238. 

In 1669 four 'papist recusants* were 
presented at the Bishop of Chester's visi- 
tation, viz. : Breres gent., Mary wife of 
George Brettargh, and William Fazaker- 
ley and his wife. 

In 1683 there were thirty-five persons, 
including Richard Lathom, presented for 
being absent from church, and in the fol- 
lowing year thirty-nine ; Picton's Munic. 
Rec. i, 330. The revival of presentations 
was no doubt due to the Protestant and 
Whig agitation of the time. James II 
endeavoured to mitigate the effects of it ; 
in 1686, being 'informed that Richard 
Lathom of Liverpool, chirurgeon, and 
Judith his wife, who keeps also a board- 
ing-school for the education of youth at 
Liverpool,' had been presented for 'their 
exercising the said several vocations with- 
out licence, by reason of their religion 
(being Roman Catholics),' and being 
assured of their loyalty, he authorized 
them to continue, remitted penalties in- 
curred, and forbade further interference ; 
ibid, i, 256. 



brand, S.J., who then lived at Little Crosby, in 1701 
received 3 from Mr. Eccleston 'for helping at 
Liverpool.' 895 The first resident missioner known 
was Fr. Francis Mannock, S.J., who was living here 
in 1710 ; and the work continued in the hands of 
the Jesuits until the suppression of the order. The 
next priest, Fr. John Tempest, better known by his 
alias of Hardesty, built a house for himself near the 
Oldhall Street corner of Edmund Street, in which 
was a room for a chapel. 896 In 1746, after the 
retreat of the Young Pretender, the populace, relieved 
of its fears, went to this little chapel, made a bonfire 
of the benches and woodwork, and pulled the house 
down. 897 Henry Pippard, a merchant of the town, 
who married Miss Blundell, the heiress of Little Cros- 
by, treated with the mayor and corporation about re- 
building the chapel. This, of course, they could not 
allow, the law prohibiting the ancient worship under 
severe penalties, whereupon he said that no one 
could prevent his building a warehouse. This he 
did, the upper room being the chapel. 898 It was 
wrecked during a serious riot in 1759, but was 
enlarged in 1797 and continued to be used until 
St. Mary's, from the designs of A. W. Pugin, was built 
on the same site and consecrated in 1845. In con- 
sequence of the enlargement of Exchange Station it 
was taken down, but rebuilt in Highfield Street on 
the same plan and with the same material, being 
reconsecrated 7 July 1885. The baptismal register 
commences in 1741. After the suppression of the 
Jesuit order in 1773 the two priests then in charge 
continued their labours for ten years, when the Bene- 
dictines took charge, and still retain it. 899 

They at once sought to obtain an additional site 
at what was then the south end of the town, and in 
1788 St. Peter's, Seel Street, was opened. It was 
enlarged in 1843, and is still served by the same 
order. 900 The school in connexion with it was 
opened in 1817. 

About the same time Fr. John Price, an ex-Jesuit, 
was ministering at his house in Chorley Street (1777), 
and by and by (1788) built the chapel in Sir Thomas's 
buildings, which was used till his death in I8I3. 901 
It was then closed, as St. Nicholas' was ready, work 
having been commenced in 1808, and the church 
opened in i8i2. 902 Since 1850 it has been used as 
the cathedral. At the north end of the town 
St. Anthony's had been established in 1 804 ; the 
present church, on an adjacent site, dates from 
1833, and has a burial ground. 903 St. Joseph's in 
Grosvenor Street was opened in 1846, a new build- 
ing being completed in i878.* 4 

These buildings' 05 sufficed till the great immigra- 
tion of poor Irish peasants, driven from home by the 
famine of 1847. St. Vincent de Paul's mission had 
been begun in a room over a stable in 1843, but 
after interruption by the fever of 1847 a larger room 
in Norfolk Street was secured in 1848, and served 
until in 1857 the present church was erected. Holy 
Cross was begun in 1848 in a room over a cowhouse 
in Standish Street, and in 1850 was given to the care 
of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, who are still in 
charge. The church was built in 1860, and the 
chancel opened in 1875. St. Augustine's, Great 
Howard Street, was an offshoot in 1849 from 
St. Mary's, and is still in charge of the Benedictines. 

MS Foley's Rec. S. J. v, 320. It may 
be inferred that tome attempt was made 
to provide regular services, and, of course, 
that there was a congregation. 

886 i while I lived in the foresaid town 
I received, one year with another, from the 
people about one or two and twenty pounds 
a year, by way of contribution towards 
my maintenance, and no other subscrip- 
tion was ever made for me or for the 
buildings. From friends in other places 
I had part of the money I had built with, 
but much the greatest part was what I 
pared, living frugally and as not many 
would have been content to live. . . . 
Nor do I regret having spent the best 
years of my life in serving the poor Catho- 
lics of Liverpool ; ' Letter of Fr. Hardesty 
in Foley, op. cit. v, 364. Edmund Street 
at that time was on the very edge of the 
town. On Palm Sunday 1727 there 
were 256 palms distributed here ; N. 
Blundell's Diary, 224. 

"7 Picton's Liverpool, i, 1 80. An ac- 
count by Thomas Green, written in 1833, 
is preserved at St. Francis Xavier's Col- 
lege ; his mother witnessed the scene. 
It was printed in the Xaverian of Feb. 
1887, and states : 'The incumbents, the 
Revs. H. Carpenter and T. Stanley, met 
the mob, which behaved with the greatest 
respect to the priests and several of the 
principal Roman Catholic inhabitants at- 
tending there among the rest, Miss 
Elizabeth Clifton (afterwards Mrs. Green) 
and without noise or violence opened a 
clear passage for the Rev. Mr. Carpenter 
to go up to the altar and take the 
ciborium out of the tabernacle and carry 
it by the same passage out of the 

898 Subscriptions were collected for it. 
The site was at the upper end of Edmund 

Street. Considerable precautions were 
taken for its safety. The writer just 
quoted states that on the street front 
three dwelling-houses were built, one to 
serve for the resident priests ; at the back 
was a small court, and then the 'ware- 
house,' the outside gable of which had the 
usual teagle rope, block and hook, and 
wooden cover. The folding doors were, 
however, bricked up within. 

He adds the following : ' After 24 Sep- 
tember, 1746, when Mr. and Mrs. Green 
went to their house in Dale Street, while 
the new chapel was being built, mass was 
said, Sundays and holidays, in their garrets, 
the whole of which, as well as the tea and 
lodging rooms of the two stories under- 
neath, and the stairs, were filled by their 
acquaintances of different rankt and ad- 
mitted singly and cautiously through 
different entrances, wholly by candle light, 
and without the ringing of a bell at the 
elevation, &c., but a signal was commu- 
nicated from one to another. The house 
adjoining on each side to the dwellings of 
two very considerable, respectable, and 
kind neighbours, Presbyterians, and their 
wives, aunts of the present Nicholas 
Ashton, esq., of Woolton.' 

899 These particulars are from articles 
in the Li-v. Cath. An. for 1887 and 1888, 
by the Rev. T. E. Gibson, and in the 
Xa-vtrian of 1887. 

Among the last Jesuits in charge were 
Frs. John Price and Raymund Hormasa 
alias Harris. The former, after the sup- 
pression of the society, settled in Liver- 
pool, continuing his ministry as stated in 
the text. The latter, who was a Spaniard, 
published a defence of the slave trade in 
reply to a pamphlet by William Roscoe, 
issued in 1788, and was cordially thanked 
by the Common Council. He had in 


1783 been deprived of his faculties by the 
Vicar Apostolic, on account of bitter dis- 
putes between him and his colleague at 
Liverpool over the temporalities of the 
mission, and he lived in retirement till his 
death in 1789. On account of the dis- 
putes the charge of the mission was given 
to the Benedictines. A full account of 
these matters is given in Gillow, Bibl. 
Diet, of Engl. Cath. iii, 392-5 ; Trans. 
Hist. Sac. (new ser.), xiii, 162. Harris 
preached and printed a sermon ' on Catho- 
lic Loyalty to the present Government,' 
noticed in the Gent. Mag. Feb. 1777. 

900 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiii, 164. 
Fr. Archibald Macdonald, the founder, 
engaged in the Ossianic controversy ; Diet. 
Nat. Biog ; Gillow, op. cit. iv, 369. 

901 It was afterwards used at intervals 
by a number of religious bodies in turn ; 
then as a warehouse ; till a few years ago 
it was taken down and the school board 
offices erected on the site. 

903 It is rather surprising to find it de- 
scribed in 1844 as 'an elegant building in 
the Gothic style ' ; Stranger in Liverpool, 

903 In the original building divine ser- 
vice was performed by the 'Rev. Jean 
Baptiste Antoine Girardot, a French 
emigrant priest by whom it was erected. 
M. Girardot was held in high respect for 
his many virtues and unostentatious mode 
of living ; and besides was much celebrated 
in this part of the country for numerous 
cures performed by him in cases of 
dropsy' ; Dr. Thorn in Trans. Hist. Soc. 
v, 32. 

904 It had been built on the site of a 
famous tennis court as an Anglican church, 
All Saints', in 1798, and closed in 1844. 

905 St. Patrick B, erected in 1824, is in 


Later came St. Philip Neri's Oratory near Mount 
Pleasant, 1853. All Souls', in Collingwood Street, 
was erected in 1870 by the efforts of a Protestant 
merchant, who was anxious to provide a remedy for 
the horrible scenes at wakes ; the middle aisle of the 
church was for the bodies of the departed to lie in 
previous to interment, and was quite cut off from the 
aisles where the congregation assembled, by glass 
partitions. This has recently been changed. St. 
Bridget's, Bevington Hill, was also opened in 1870, 
and rebuilt in 1 894. St. Sylvester's in Silvester Street 
began with schools in 1872 ; at the beginning of 1875 
a wooden building was erected adjacent, continuing 
in use until 1889, when the present permanent church 
was opened. 

There are two convents : Notre Dame, at the train- 
ing college, Mount Pleasant, 1856; and St. Catherine, 
Eldon Place, 1 896. 

The followers of Emmanuel Swedenborg have long 
had a place of meeting in Liverpool, where they had 
been known from 1 79 5 .* 6 The present building, New 
Jerusalem, in Bedford Street, was opened in 1857. 

The IVormons have an institute. 907 

The Jews have had a recognized meeting-place 
since about 1750. The earliest known was at the 
foot of Matthew Street ; it had a burial place attached ; 
afterwards Turton Court, near the Custom House, 
and Frederick Street were places of Jewish worship. 903 
The synagogue in Seel Street was built in 1807, the 
congregation migrating to Princes Road in 1874. 
A disused Presbyterian church in Islington has recently 
(1908) been purchased and reopened as the Central 
Synagogue. The Hope Place Synagogue of the New 
Hebrew Congregation was built in 1856.^ 

The establishment of the diocese 
CATHEDRAL of Liverpool 910 immediately gave 
rise to the demand for the erection 
of a cathedral ; the parish church of St. Peter, which 
had been assigned as pro-cathedral by an Order in 
Council of 1880, being manifestly inadequate, being 
indeed the most modest church to which that dignity 
has been allotted in any English diocese. A com- 
mittee was formed in 1881, and a lively discussion as 
to sites was carried on, 911 the St. John's churchyard 
site (west of St. George's Hall) being eventually 
decided on. In 1885 an Act was obtained empower- 
ing the erection of a cathedral, and a competition was 
held for designs," 1 and the premium was awarded to 
Mr. William Emerton. The problem of raising 
funds, however, was found too great, and in 1888 
the project was abandoned. Under Bishop Ryle the 
main strength of the diocese was devoted to the 
urgently-needed provision of new churches and the 
augmentation oi poorer livings. At the beginning of 
1901, however, the project was revived 813 by Bishop 
Chavasse, who appointed a committee to discuss the 
question of sites. Amid much public discussion, 

St. James's Mount, in the south-central district of the 
city, was decided upon a rocky plateau occupied in 
part by public gardens and overlooking an ancient 
quarry, now used as a cemetery. The site presented 
a clear open space of 22 acres ; the steep side of the 
plateau, clothed with trees, gives it something of the 
picturesqueness of Durham, while the deep hollow of 
the cemetery will serve to isolate the cathedral and 
give to its architecture its full effect. Over 150 ft. 
above sea-level, the site will enable the cathedral to 
dominate the city and the estuary. The drawbacks 
of the site were two : its shape forbade a proper 
orientation, and made it necessary to put the ' east ' 
end of the cathedral to the south, while the fact that 
the southern part of the plateau was made ground 
involved a large expenditure for foundations. 

The scheme was formally initiated and committees 
appointed 914 at a town hall meeting on 17 June 1901, 
and on 2 August 1902 an Act was obtained authoriz- 
ing the purchase from the corporation of the St. James's 
Mount site. After a preliminary competition, com- 
petitive designs were submitted by five selected can- 
didates on 30 April 1903 ; the assessors, Mr. G. F. 
Bodley and Mr. Norman Shaw, selected the design of 
Mr. G. Gilbert Scott, who was accordingly appointed 
architect in conjunction 1 with Mr. Bodley. On 
19 July 1904 the foundation stone was laid by His 
Majesty the King. The general character of the 
design is Gothic, but it is not a reproduction of the 
style of any particular period. The main qualities 
aimed at are simplicity and massiveness. The most 
striking features will be the twin central towers and a 
third tower at the north end, respectively rising 415 
and 355 ft. above sea-level ; the vast height of the 
nave and choir, and the six high transepts, which are 
carried to the full roof height, and will produce 
unusual light effects. Both in height and in area the 
dimensions considerably exceed those of any other 
English cathedral. The principal dimensions are as 
follows : 

Total external length (including 

Lady chapel) ..... 584 ft. 

Length of nave, without narthex 192 

Width of nave between centres 

Width across transepts ... 
Width of north fafade ... 
Height of arches in nave and 

choir ........ 

Height of barrel-vaulting in 

nave and choir ..... 
Height of vaulting in high tran- 

septs ........ 

Height of vaulting under towers 
Height of central towers . . . 
Height of northern tower . 






Superficial area ..... 90,000 sq. ft. 

906 They occupied Key Street Chapel 
from 1791 to 1795. In 1795 Maguire 
Street Chapel was built for them, but the 
donor became bankrupt and the place was 
sold. From 1815 to 1819 the Sweden- 
borgians used Cockspur Street Chapel, from 
1819 to 1823 they shared Maguire Street 
with the Primitive Methodists, and from 
1838 to 1852 they occupied Salem Chapel 
in Russell Street, removing to the Concert 
Room in Lord Nelson Street until the 
Bedford Street Church was ready ; Tram. 
Hi,t. Soc. v, 33, 38, 43. 

"'~ In 1863 their meeting-place was at 
the corner of Crown Street and Brownlow 
Hill ; later in Islington, and Bittern Street. 

908 For fuller accounts see Trans. Hist. 
Soc. v, 53, and (new ser.), XT, 45-84.. 
There were burial places at Frederick 
Street and at the corner of Oake and 
Crown Streets. 

One of the results of the Jewish settle- 
ment in Liverpool was a series of three 
letters addressed to it by J. Willme of 
Martinscroft near Warrington, printed in 


909 The congregation had previously 
met in Pilgrim Street. 

910 y.C.H. Lanes, ii, 96. 

911 Articles in Nineteenth Century, 1881 
and 1884, &c. 

912 Copies of designs are preserved in 
the City Library. 

918 A collection of papers, &c., &c., in 
seven volumes, in the City Library, pro- 
vides full material for the history of tlis 

914 Rep. of Proceedings published by 
Cathedral Committee. 



It is estimated that the cost of erecting the whole 
cathedral will be at least 750,000 ; of the Lady 
Chapel, choir, and twin towers, which are being first 
built, about 350,000. Towards this sum over 
300,000 has been already contributed, including 
over 70,000 for special purposes, among which may 
be named the Lady Chapel, to be erected by the Earle 
and Langton families, the chapter-house, to be erected 
by the Masonic Lodges of the West Lancashire pro- 
vince, as well as several windows, the organ, the 
font, &c., which have been already given by various 

The first attempt to establish in 
UNIfERSITT Liverpool an institution for higher 
education was the foundation of 
the Royal Institution, opened in 1817 ; it maintained 
collections of scientific objects and paintings, it also 
organized series of lectures in its early years. 91 * But, 
though highly valuable as a nucleus for the meetings 
of various learned societies, it never developed, as its 
founders had hoped, into a great teaching institution. 
In 1 8 5 7 an attempt was made to develop, in connexion 
with the Mechanics' Institute (now the Liverpool 
Institute), a system of courses of instruction in prepara- 
tion for London degrees. 916 This organization was 
called Queen's College ; but, based upon the fun- 
damentally false idea that instruction of this type could 
be made to pay its own expenses, it never attained 
any success, and being merely a drain upon the re- 
sources of the flourishing schools to which it was at- 
tached, it was finally suppressed in 1879. 

Meanwhile, in 1834, the physicians and surgeons 
of the Royal Infirmary had organized a Medical School, 
wh ch attained considerable success, though quite un- 
endowed. This school was to be the real nucleus of 
the university. It was from the teachers in this 
school all leading medical men in the city, among 
whom should be especially named the late Sir W. M. 
Banks and Dr. R. Caton that the main demand 
came for the foundation of a college, during the seven- 
ties, when such institutions were springing up in most 
large English towns. 917 They received warm support 
from a few of the most enlightened citizens, especially 
from the Rev. Charles Beard, whose influence in the 
early history of the university can scarcely be over- 
valued ; and the proposal to found a university college 
was formally initiated at a town's meeting in 1878. 
But the merchants of the city were found to be hard 
to convert to any interest in the scheme. It took a 
year to collect 10,000 ; and it was not until Mr. 
William Rathbone, 913 relieved from Parliamentary 
duties by a defeat at the election of 1880, took up 
the cause that money came in freely. In a few 
months, mainly by his personal efforts, 80,000 were 
collected. In October 1 8 8 1 a charter of incorporation 
was obtained, based on the lines laid down in London, 
Manchester, and elsewhere; in January 1882 the 
institution, under the name of University College, 
Liverpool, commenced its work in a disused lunatic 
asylum on a site beside the Royal Infirmary and the 
Medical School, provided by the corporation. At the 
outset there were six chairs and two lectureships. 

The next stage in the history of the university was 
marked by its admission in 1884 as a mexber of the 

federal Victoria University, in association with Owens 
College, Manchester, and (after 1887) Yorkshire 
College, Leeds. In order to obtain this admission an 
additional endowment of 30,000 was raised by 
public subscription, out of which two new chairs 
were founded ; while the old Medical School was 
formally incorporated with the college as its medical 
faculty. The association with the Victoria University 
lasted for nineteen years, and was in many ways 
advantageous. The progress of the college in equip- 
ment and teaching strength during this period was 
both rapid and steady. A series of admirably equipped 
buildings was erected ; a spacious chemical laboratory 
(opened 1886, enlarged 1896) ; a large engineering 
laboratory (the gift of Sir A. B. Walker, 1889) ; the 
main Victoria building, including a fine library pre- 
sented by Sir Henry Tate, and the clock tower 
erected from the civic subscription to commemorate 
the jubilee of 1887 (opened 1892) ; magnificent 
laboratories of physiology and pathology, given by 
Rev. S. A. Thompson Yates (opened 1895) ; and a 
handsome botanical laboratory given by Mr. W. P. 
Hartley (1902). During the same period eight 
additional chairs were endowed, and many lecture- 
ships and scholarships were founded. Throughout 
the early history of the college it had rested mainly 
on the support of a comparatively small group of 
friends ; among those whose munificence rendered 
possible the rapid development of the college, special 
mention should be made, in addition to those already 
named, of the fifteenth and sixteenth Earls of Derby, 
successive presidents of the college, both of whom 
founded chairs ; of Mr. George Holt, most princely 
of the early benefactors ; of Sir John Brunner, Mr. 
Holbrook Gaskell, and Mr. Thomas Harrison, all of 
whom founded chairs ; and of Mr. E. K. Muspratt, 
Mr. John Rankin, Mr. J. W. Alsop, Mr. A. F. Warr, 
Mr. C. W. Jones, Sir Edward Lawrence, and others. 
But the chief feature of the later part of this period 
was the gradual acquisition of the confidence and 
respect of the city at large. This came slowly ; but 
it was due especially to the demonstration of the 
utility of the institution which was afforded by the 
creation of a remarkable series of special schools, due 
in large measure to the vigour and inventiveness of the 
teaching body, among whom may be especially named 
Professor (now Sir Rubert) Boyce and Professor J. M. 
Mackay. A training college for teachers, a school of 
architecture and the applied arts, the first of its kind 
in England, a school of commerce, a school of law, 
a school of public health, and, most remarkable of all, 
the now world-famous school of tropical medicine, 
were successively organized. These organizations 
brought the college into intimate contact with the 
most important intellectual professions of the city, 
demonstrated to the community the direct value of 
higher studies, and earned the growing support both 
of the public and of the city council, which co- 
operated in the organization of most of them. They 
also gave to the college a distinctive character of its 
own, and rendered its continued association with 
other colleges, developing along different lines, more 
and more inappropriate. 

The establishment of an independent university in 

9U Life of W. Roscoc , ii, 151 ff.; Rep. of 91 ?J. Campbell Brown, First Chap, in 

the R.I. ' the Hist, of Univ. Coll. ; R. Caton, article 

916 Rep. of the Liverpool Institute and on The Making of the Univ. (1907); Univ. 
of Queen's College. 


Coll. and the Univ. of Liv. : a Retrospect 

18 E. Rathbone, Life of ir. Rathbone. 


Birmingham sharpened this feeling, and in 1901 a 
movement began for the securing of a separate univer- 
sity charter. This demand, which involved the dis- 
solution of the Victoria University, met with keen 
opposition. But it also aroused a quite remarkable 
and unexpected popular interest in the city. An 
endowment fund of 180,000 was raised in a few 
months ; the city council unanimously supported the 
application, and later voted an annual grant of 
10,000 ; and in 1903, after a searching inquiry by 
the Privy Council, a royal charter was granted 
establishing the University of Liverpool. It began its 
career distinguished among British universities by 
the intimate relations in which it stands to the city 
which is its seat, an intimacy which time increasingly 

Since the grant of the charter, the growth of the 
university has been remarkable ; despite the large 
subscription of 1903, each year since that date has 
brought gifts of the average value of 30,000. A 
series of new buildings, including the George Holt 
Physical Laboratory, the William Johnston Laboratory 
of Medical Research, a new medical school building, 
laboratories of zoology and electrical engineering, and 
the first British laboratory of physical chemistry, built 
by Mr. E. K. Muspratt, have been erected. Thir- 
teen new chairs have been endowed, besides numerous 
lectureships, fellowships, and scholarships. The num- 
ber of students has grown rapidly, from 581 in 1 90 1 
to 1,007 m I 97 t But perhaps the most striking 
feature of these years has been that while the more 
utilitarian studies, to which some hostile critics ex- 
pected the whole strength of the new university to be 
devoted, have by no means been starved, the greatest 
developments have been in the field of advanced 
research in pure arts and science. Several chairs 
exist exclusively for the encouragement of research. 
Perhaps the most astonishing result of the establish- 
ment of the university has been the institution, in a 
trading town, of the most powerfully-organized school 
of archaeology in Britain, a school which possesses 
three endowed chairs, has got together admirable 
teaching collections, and has organized expeditions for 
the excavation of sites in Egypt, Central America, 
and Asia Minor. 

The university is governed by the king as visitor, by 
a chancellor, two pro-chancellors, a vice-chancellor and 
a treasurer, by a court of over 300 members represent- 
ing donors and public bodies, a council of 32 members, 
a senate of 42 members, a convocation of graduates, 
and five faculties. Its capital amounted in 1907 to 
7 3 5, oop, 919 entirely provided by private gifts, and its 
annual income to 6 1 ,000, derived in part from inter- 
est in endowments (17,000), in part from government 
grants (over 12,000), in part from municipal grants 
(over 14,000, of which the largest item is 11,750 
per annum from the Corporation of Liverpool), and in 
part from students' fees (15,000). The university 
is divided into five Faculties Arts, Science, Medicine, 
Law, and Engineering. Of these the Faculty of Arts 
is the largest, both in the number of students and in 
the number of its endowed chairs ; the University of 
Liverpool having been from its initiation distinguished 
among modern English universities by the prominence 
which it has given to arts studies. All the principal 
hospitals of the city are connected for clinical pur- 

poses with the Faculty of Medicine, while St. Aidan's 
College, Birkenhead, Edge Hill Training College, and 
the Liverpool Training College are affiliated to it. 

Elementary education began in Liver- 
SCHOOLS pool with the provision of a number of 
Sunday-schools for the poor, founded as 
the result of a town's meeting in 1784.** These 
were rapidly followed by the institution of day- 
schools, provided either by various denominations or 
by endowment. The earliest of these schools were 
the Old Church School in Moorfields (1789), the 
Unitarian Schools in Mount Pleasant (1790) and 
Manesty Lane (1792), and the Wesleyan Brunswick 
School (1790). In 1823 there were thirty-two day- 
schools ' for the education of the poor )9X1 educating 
7,441 children, of which 14 were Church Schools with 
2,914 pupils, 2 Roman Catholic with 440 pupils, and 
1 8 Nonconformist with 4,087 pupils. The number 
of schools largely increased between 1823 and 1870, 
so that there was no very serious deficiency of 
school places when, in 1 870, education became univer- 
sal and compulsory. When the school board began 
its work in Liverpool in 1871 there were already 
two public elementary schools, founded by the cor- 
poration in 1826, and transferred to the administra- 
tion of the board ; and the provision of school places 
in voluntary schools was above the average for England; 
but many new places had to be gradually provided by 
the erection of board schools. The following table 
shows the state of elementary education in 1871, and 
the progress made up to 1902 : 9S ' 



5 7 i 



Type of School 

No. of 


No. of 


Church of England . . 
Roman Catholic .... 
Undenominational and Wes- 









6. cio 



Total .... 





No detailed account can be given of the work of the 
board during the thirty years of its work, but two or 
three features deserve note. In a city which beyond 
most others is torn asunder by religious strife, the intru- 
sion of this strife was throughout avoided, owing to the 
wise policy initiated in the early years, largely by Mr. 
S. G. Rathbone and Mr. Christopher Bushell. The 
school board was distinguished almost from the be- 
ginning by the attention which it gave to the training 
of teachers. As early as 1 875 a Pupil Teachers' College 
was established in two houses in Shaw Street, the rent 
of which was provided by Mr. S. G. Rathbone. In 
1898 the college entered upon its handsome premises 
in Clarence Street, and in 1906 it became the Oulton 
Secondary School. It was largely also through the 
zeal of members of the school board that the Edge 
Hill Training College for women teachers was founded 
in 1884. A further striking feature of the work of 
the board was its intimate association with the Liver- 
pool Council of Education, founded in 1873, which 
in the days before any public authority was empowered 
to undertake such work provided a scholarship ladder 

19 R. Muir, Ttt Univ. of Liv. . it* pre- 
tent state, 1 907. 

920 Picton's Li-v. Munic. Rec. ii, 284. 

921 Smithers, Liverpool, 264. 


922 Information supplied by the Educa- 
tion Office. 


(From an old Print) 


(From an Engraving) 




from the elementary schools to the secondary schools 
of the city, by which many poor boys have climbed 
to the universities and thence to important positions 
in the world. The Council of Education still exists. 
It administers a scholarship trust fund of over 20,000, 
as well as the Waterworth Scholarship fund, the in- 
come of which is over 300 per annum. Its scholar- 
ships are now merged in the scholarship system 
instituted by the City Education Committee. 

The elementary schools now controlled by the City 
Education Committee are as follows ; m 






i) "S 





bo o 



rt _C 






3 rt 
















Church of 






3 7,63 




Roman Catho- 














1 06 















Totals . 




3 10 3 





There are also five day industrial schools, to which 
children from drunken homes are committed on a 
magistrate's order, and receive food as well as instruc- 
tion ; ten ordinary certified industrial schools, a 
reformatory ship, the Akbar, five schools for physically 
and mentally defective children, and one truants' 
industrial school. The total cost of the elementary 
tystem in 19067 was 625,623. 

During the last few years the Education Committee 
has been engaged in providing facilities for higher 
education, in which, thanks to the failure to develop 
the ancient grammar school, 914 Liverpool was behind 
most other English cities. Of the older secondary 
schools some account has been already given. 914 Of 
these schools three the Liverpool Institute, Black- 
burne House, and the Liverpool Collegiate School 
(formerly Liverpool College Middle and Commercial 
Schools) have passed under the direct control of the 
Education Committee. The Pupil Teachers' College 
in Clarence Street has been turned into the Oulton 
Secondary School, with 873 pupils ; one of the most 
highly developed of the elementary schools has been 
turned into a secondary school (Holt Secondary 
School), and a large secondary school for girls has 
been built. Eight city scholarships, tenable at the 
University of Liverpool, are thrown open to the 
competition of pupils of these and other secondary 
schools in the city. Outside of the system controlled 
by the Education Committee, there are, in addition to 
the schools enumerated in V.C.H. Lanes, ii, 595, four 
denominational pupil teacher centres, two of which, 

St. Edmund's College (Church of England) and the 
Catholic Institute, have been transformed into se- 
condary schools. Note should also be made of the 
school-ship Contcay, moored in the Mersey, which 
trains boys to be officers in the mercantile marine, and 
for Dartmouth. 

The Technical Instruction Committee conducts 
classes in the Central Technical School, Byrom Street ; 
it has three branch schools in other parts of the city, 
and conducts regular evening classes also in ten other 
institutions. There are also a nautical college, a 
school for cookery, and a school of domestic economy. 
The City School of Art is largely attended, and has 
now incorporated the School of Applied Arts, formerly 
associated with the University School of Architecture. 

The city also contains two training colleges for 
teachers, the Liverpool Training College, Mount 
Pleasant, founded in 1856, and conducted by the 
sisters of the Notre Dame, and the Edge Hill Train- 
ing College (undenominational) founded in 1884. 
Both are for women, and both are affiliated to the 
university. For the training of Roman Catholic 
priests there is St. Edward's College, in Everton. 

The earliest Liverpool charities, 
CHARITIES apart from the grammar school, 926 were 
the almshouses. 917 In 1684 twelve 
almshouses were built by David Poole near the bottom 
of Dale Street; in 1692 Dr. Silvester Richmond 
founded a small group of almshouses for sailors' 
widows in Shaw's Brow ; in 1706 Richard Warbrick 
established another small group, also for sailors' 
widows, in Hanover Street. Successive small gifts 
during the 1 8th century, amounting in all to over 
2,500, increased the endowment. In 1786 the 
almshouses were consolidated and removed to their 
present site in Arrad Street (Hope Street). They are 
administered in part by the corporation, in part by 
the rector, in part by trustees. 

In i 708 the Bluecoat Hospital was founded by the 
Rev. R. Styth, one of the rectors, and by Bryan 
Blundell, master mariner, as a day school for fifty 
poor boys, on a site granted by the corporation in 
School Lane. 91 * Blundell, by liberal gifts and assidu- 
ous collection, raised sufficient funds for the erection 
of a permanent building where they could be housed. 
The graceful and dignified building, still standing, 
was begun in 1714 and completed in 1718. The 
number of inmates has been successively increased ; 
there are now 250 boys and 100 girls. In 1905 
the school was removed to a spacious and handsome 
new building on open ground in Wavertree. The 
Bluecoat Hospital ranks as the premier charity of the 
city, and has always received the warm support of 
Liverpool merchants. 

One hundred and twenty-eight distinct charitable 
institutions now in existence are enumerated by the 
Charity Organization Society. 929 They cannot all be 
enumerated, and it will be convenient to group them. 

i. Medical Charities. The Royal Infirmary, which 
is the second oldest medical charity in the north of 
England, was instituted in 1745. Its first building 

* M Rep. for 1907. 
2: Omitting Pupil Teachers. 
2 < y.C.H. Lanes, ii, 593. 
* Ibid. 595. 

926 For the grammar school, see 
Lanes, ii, 593. 

927 See Digest of Lnncs. Charities (House 
of Commons Papers, 1869). The annual 
income at that date was 2,037. This 
was mainly derived from the interest on 
the Molyneux foundation, which was 
wisely invested in lands in the township 
of Liverpool (the Rector's Fields, formerly 


part of the Moss Lake). When leases fall 
in the charity will be very rich. 

988 Trans. Hist. Soc., papers in vols. 
xi, xiii, xvi, xxxi. 

929 On charities, Li-u. Charities (an- 
nual) ; Burdett, Hosp. and Charities ; re- 
ports of the individual charities. 


was on the site of St. George's Hall, and was opened 
in 1749. In 1824 it was removed to Pembroke 
Place, and it was again rebuilt in 1890. From 1792 
to 1879 a lunatic asylum was connected with it ; it 
also maintained a lock hospital ; and in 1860 it insti- 
tuted, under the guidance of William Rathbone, 930 a 
nurses' home which formed the basis of the first 
English experiment in district nursing. In 1834 a 
medical school was established at the infirmary ; it 
has since developed into the medical faculty of the 
university. The ether general hospitals are the 
Northern, instituted in 1834, rebuilt by aid of a grant 
from the David Lewis fund in 1896-7, whence it is 
now known as the David Lewis Northern Hospital ; 
the Royal Southern Hospital, instituted in 1814 and 
rebuilt in 1872, which provides clinical teaching for 
the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine ; and the 
Stanley Hospital, established in 1 867. These three 
hospitals, together with some of the special hospitals, 
unite to form the United Hospitals Clinical School 
in connexion with the medical faculty of the uni- 
versity. There is also a homeopathic hospital, 
opened in 1887. In 1778 a dispensary was opened 
in John Street, 931 eight years after the opening of the 
first English dispensary in London. There are now 
three dispensaries, for the north, south, and east of 
the city. The special hospitals, in the order of their 
foundation, are : the Ladies' Charity (founded in 
1796; Lying-in Hospital opened 1841); the Eye 
and Ear Infirmary 931 (Eye 1820, Ear 1839); the 
St. George's Skin Hospital (1842); the Children's 
Infirmary (instituted in 1 85 I, rebuilt in 19057); 
the Dental Hospital (1860) ; the Cancer Hospital 
(1862) ; the Consumption Hospital (1863, rebuilt 
1904), to which is attached a fine sanatorium in 
Delamere Forest, founded in 1901 ; the Liverpool 
Convalescent Institution at Wool ton (1873) ; the 
Hospital for Women (1883) ; the Hospital for 
Diseases of the Throat, Nose, and Ear (1884) ; the 
Home for Epileptics (1887) ; the County Hospital 
for Children ; the Home for Female Incurables ; and 
the Vergmont Institution for Female Inebriates. To 
the same group belongs the District Nursing Associa- 
tion, in Prince's Road, founded by Mr. William 
Rathbone in 1862, the first of its kind in England. 
The income of these charities from endowments and 
subscriptions amounted in 1906 to more than 
80,000. But in addition to these voluntary hos- 
pitals the corporation maintains six hospitals for 
infectious diseases, with 88 1 beds; and the select 
vestry not only maintains a workhouse infirmary, but 
also, in conjunction with the Toxteth and West 
Derby Guardians, a consumption hospital at Heswall 
on the Dee. The total number of beds available in 
all the Liverpool hospitals is over 4,000. 

For the blind, deaf, and dumb, there are : The 
School for the Indigent Blind (founded 1791), the 
oldest institution of its kind, with 210 inmates , the 
School for the Deaf and Dumb (1825) with no 
pupils ; the Catholic Blind Asylum (1841) with 199 
inmates ; the Workshops and Home Teaching Society 
for the Outdoor Blind (1859) ; the Adult Deaf and 
Dumb Benevolent Society (1864) ; and the Home 
for Blind Children (1874). 

ii. Homes, Orphanages, \3c.,for Children. In addi- 
tion to the Bluccoat Hospital, already described, the 
following institutions exist for the rescue of chil- 
dren : Female Orphan Asylum (1840), Orphan 
Asylum for boys (1850), Infant Orphan Asylum 
(1858), each accommodating 150 inmates ; the Shel- 
tering Homes for Destitute Children (1872) annually 
train and send out to Canada 250 children ; the 
Seamen's Orphan Institution, which is comparatively 
well endowed, maintains 350 children ; the Indefati- 
gable training ship (1865), with which is connected a 
sailing brigantine, prepares about 250 boys for the 
mercantile marine ; the Lancashire Navy League Sea- 
training Home does similar work ; the Children's 
Friend Society (1866) maintains a Boys' Home ; the 
Newsboys' Home takes in sixty-five street boys ; and 
there is a group of homes for training poor girls, 
chiefly for domestic service, including the Magdalen 
Institution (1855) for fifty girls; the Mission to 
Friendless Girls (1862); the Preventive Homes 
(1865) for forty-four girls ; the Training Home for 
Girls (1894) for thirty-two girls; and the Bencke 
Home ; while the Ladies' Association for the Care 
and Training of Girls maintains four distinct homes. 
There also exist a Children's Aid Society for clothing 
poor children attending elementary schools, and a 
Police-aided Clothing Association, which provides 
clothes for children engaged in street-trading (who 
are in Liverpool required to be registered) and with 
the aid of the police prevents parents from selling the 
clothes. The Liverpool Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Children has been at work for a longer 
time than the National Society. 

iii. Penitentiary Charities. The Lancashire Female 
Refuge (1823) maintains a home for women coming 
out of prison, and is the oldest charity of its kind. 
The Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society does the same 
work on a more general plan. For fallen women 
there are the Female Penitentiary (1811), the Bene- 
volent Institution and Rescue Home (1839), *ke 
Home of the Midnight Mission (1875), and the 
Home of the Liverpool Rescue Society (1890). 

iv. Homes for the Aged. These include the Widows' 
Home (1871) ; the Homes for Aged Mariners (1882), 
including a large central building founded by Mr. 
William Cliff, and seventeen detached cottages in the 
grounds in which married couples may live ; and the 
Andrew Gibson Home for the widows of seamen 

v. Pension Charities. These are numerous. The 
Aged Merchant Seamen and Widows' Fund (1870) 
gave 1 66 small pensions in 1906 ; the Governesses 
Benevolent Institution (1849) distributes 900 per 
annum in pensions ; the Seamen's Pension Fund was 
founded by Mr. T. H. Ismay in 1887 with a capital 
of 20,000, to which Mrs. Ismay later added 10,000 
for seamen's widows ; the Shipbrokers' Benevolent 
Society (1894) distributes annuities of not more than 
30 to old employees ; and the Merchant Guild 
administers ten distinct pension funds, chiefly for the 
relief of distressed persons of the middle and upper 
classes ; it awarded 1 79 pensions in 1 906, the largest 
being of 42. 

vi. Of Miscellaneous Charities there are too many to 

Liftoff^. Rathbont. 
931 Now North John Street. It was in 
1781 removed to Church Street. 

983 Originally Ophthalmic Infirmary. 
In 1820 was also founded the Liverpool 


Institute for Curing Diseases of the Eye, 
now defunct. 



be enumerated, but mention should be made of the 
Sailors' Home, founded in 1852, which provides 
cheap lodging and help for sailors when they are paid 
off. And it should be noted that its continuous 
existence, since in 1 809 it was founded as the Society 

for Preventing Wanton Cruelty to Brute Animals, 
makes the local branch of the R.S.P.C.A. an older 
body than the national institution. The David 
Lewis Club and Hostel is an immense Rowton House 
with a very handsome club in relation with it. 








This large parish was at the time of the Conquest 
included within the hundred of Newton, with the 
exception of its western townships, Upholland and 
Dalton, which were within West Derby, and perhaps 
also of Haigh and Aspull in the north-east. The 
parish with the same exceptions became part of the 
fee or barony of Makerfield. Aspull was either then 
or later placed in the hundred of Salford, in which it 
has remained till the present. Except in the town- 
ship of Abram the geological formation consists entirely 
of the Coal Measures. Coal was discovered and used 
in the I5th century, or earlier ; the mines were ex- 
tended, and during the last century became the pre- 
dominant feature of the district. Other industries 
have also grown up. 

Though Wigan was the meeting place of Roman 
roads which traversed the parish, but few remains of 
the Roman period have been discovered, and these 

chiefly at Wigan itself. From that time practically 
nothing is known of the history of the district until 
after the Norman Conquest. 

A town with busy traders grew up around the 
church, and became a centre for the business of a 
large part of the hundred, political and mercantile. 
The rebellion of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, in 
13212, affected it through its rector and also 
through the Holands, one of the chief local 
families, who adhered to his cause. The only 
monastery in the parish, Upholland Priory, was 
founded in 1317, and Edward II stayed there a fort- 
night when he passed through the district on his way 
to Liverpool in 1323. 

The landowners were hostile to the Reformation, 
and in 1630-3 the following compounded for the 
sequestration of two-thirds of their estates for re- 
cusancy by annual fines : Abram, Henry Lance, 



10 ; Richard Ashton, 15 ; Aspull, Ralph Haugh- 
ton, 6 1 3/. \<t. ; Billinge, Edmund Bispham, 3 ; 
Birchley, Roger Anderton, 21 12s. \d. ; Dalton, 
Thomas Bank, 2 ; John Reskow, 2 ; Haigh, 
William Bradshaw, 3 6s. %d. ; Hindley, Abraham 
Langton of Lowe, 10 ; Ince, Thomas Gerard, 40 ; 
Thomas Ince, 8 ; Pemberton, Edmund Winstanley, 
2 i os. 1 

The Civil War found the district as a whole loyal 
to the king ; but the Ashhursts and some other 
families were Parliamentarians. There was fighting 
at Wigan in 1644 and 1651, and much confiscation 
by the Commonwealth authorities. The Restoration 
appears to have been generally welcomed. At the 
Revolution there was much more division, but no 
open opposition was made, and the Jacobite rising of 
1715 does not seem to have had any adherents in the 
parish. The march of the Young Pretender through 
Wigan, Ince, and Hindley in 1745 brought in no 
recruits. The more recent history has, as in the north 
of England generally, been that of the growth of 
manufactures and commerce. 

The total area of the parish is 29,033^ acres. Of 
this at present 12,938 acres are arable, 7,179 per- 
manent grass, and 854 woods and plantations. The 
population in 1901 numbered 157,915. The county 
lay of 1624 was arranged so that the parish counted 
as six townships and a half, Wigan itself answering for 
two. The other groups were Pemberton and Ince, 
Hindley and Abram, Holland and Dalton, Orrell, 
Billinge and Winstanley ; Haigh was the half town- 
ship. Aspull, being in Salford Hundred, was grouped 
with Blackrod. When the hundred paid 100 
Wigan parish, excluding Aspull, paid 12 los. The 
ancient fifteenth was more irregularly levied thus : 
Wigan 3, Haigh js., Hindley i6s. 8</., Ince <)s., 
Dalton I9/., Abram I is. 8</., Upholland i js. 8</., 
Billinge cum Winstanley l"js., Orrell 6s., Pemberton 
1 8/. 4^., or 9 1 2s. ifd. when the hundred paid 
106 9/. 6d. Aspull paid js. 8</. in Salford. 

The church of ALL SAINTS ' has a 
CHURCH chancel of two bays with north and south 
chapels, the Legh chapel on the north 
and the Bradshagh or Bradshaw chapel on the 
south, a nave of six bays with aisles, and a tower at 
the north-east angle of the north aisle of the nave, 
with the Gerard (now Walmesley) chapel adjoining 
it on the west. East of the tower is a modern 

Though the plan of the church is ancient, the 
building has undergone even more than the general 
amount of renewal which has been the lot of so many 
of the neighbouring churches. The chancel is re- 
corded to have been rebuilt in 1620 by Bishop 
Bridgeman, and was again rebuilt in 1845. The 
Bradshagh and Legh chapels, which had been re- 
paired if not rebuilt in 1620, were also rebuilt in 
1845, and the nave taken down and rebuilt from the 
foundations in 1850, much of the old material being 
however used. The Gerard chapel, rebuilt about 
1620, escaped the general fate. The tower and the 
lowest parts of the stair turrets at the west end of the 

chancel were not rebuilt, and contain the oldest work 
now existing. With such a history, any definite idea 
of the development of the plan is out of the question. 
The tower is at least as old as the I3th century, and 
in the course of rebuilding some 1 2th-century stones 
are said to have been found. 

The nave arcades, as noted by Sir Stephen Glynne,* 
have somewhat the appearance of 14th-century work, 
with moulded arches and piers of four engaged shafts 
of good proportion. All the old stone has been re- 
tooled at the rebuilding of 1850, and the capitals are 
entirely of that date, so that it is impossible to deduce 
the former details of the work. A clearstory runs for 
the whole length of the nave and chancel, and the 
nave roof retains a good deal of old work, being 
divided into panels by moulded beams. The figures 
of angels on the roof corbels are terra-cotta substitutes 
for old oak figures. All the windows of the church 
before 1850, except the east and west windows, were 
like those still remaining in the Gerard chapel, with 
uncusped tracery and four-centred heads. The tower 
opens to the north aisle by a pointed arch, with half- 
octagon responds, and its ground story is lighted by 
a two-light window on the north, and a three-light 
window on the west. The latter was built up, per- 
haps when the Gerard chapel was added, and was 
opened out again in 1850; it is of three lights, 
apparently of the second half of the 1 3th century, 
though much repaired. In the sill of the north 
window is set an effigy of which only the face can be 
seen, the rest being entirely plastered over. It is 
said to be that of an ecclesiastic, wearing a mitre, and 
was found under the tower. In the east jamb of the 
same window is set a panelled stone with two scrolls 
on the top, locally believed to be part of a Roman 
altar. It is impossible to examine it satisfactorily in 
its present condition. The tower has been heightened 
to make room for a clock, and has pairs of windows on 
each face of the belfry stage, and an embattled parapet 
with angle pinnacles. In its upper stages no ancient 
detail remains, but it seems probable that all above 
the first stage was rebuilt in the 151)1 century. Of 
the ancient fittings of the church nothing remains. 
The turret stairs at the west end of the chancel 
doubtless led to the rood-loft, and before 1850 a 
gallery spanned the entrance to the chancel, carrying 
an organ given to the church in 1708, and afterwards 
moved into the Legh chapel. At the west end of 
the nave was a gallery with seats for the mayor and 
corporation, and a ' three-decker ' pulpit and desk 
stood against the fourth pillar of the nave arcade. 
The altar-table is of the 171)1 century, of oak with a 
black marble slab. A piece of tapestry with the story 
of Ananias and Sapphira, formerly hung as a reredos 
to the altar, is now above the south doorway of the 
nave. A font dating from c. 1710, removed from the 
church in 1850, is now in St. George's church, and 
the present font is modern. 4 Two 14th-century 
gravestones with floriated crosses are built into the 
walls of the tower, and near them lies a slab with a 
plain cross and the inscription, 'OL 1585.' In the 
Bradshagh chapel is an altar-tomb with two effigies, 

1 From the list in Lucas's Warton' 

' By an inquisition in 1370 it was 
found that Roger Hancockson of Hindley 
had, without the king's licence, bequeathed 
a rent of od. to the church of Blessed 
Mary of Wigan. Possibly the gift was 

to the Bradshagh chantry, which had this 
dedication. See Q. R. Mem. R. 160 of 
Mich. 6 Ric. II. The All Saints' fair 
dates from 1258. For burial places in 

8 Cbs. of Lanes. (Chet. Soc. xxvii), 58. 

4 The octagonal bowl of a 14th-century 
font, used successively as a water trough 
and flower pot, lies in the garden of 

the church in 1691, see Genealogist (new Wigan Hall; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), 
er.), i, 282. Arms in the church ; xvii, 68. 
Trant. Hist. Soc. xxxiii, 248. 





said to be those of Sir William de Bradshagh and his 
wife Mabel, the effigy of the lady alone being old. 
Sir William's effigy was much damaged, and a new 
figure has taken its place, the remains of the old effigy 
being put inside the altar-tomb. Against the south 
wall of the chapel is the monument of Sir Roger 
Bradshagh, 1684, and there are several igth-century 
Balcarres monuments. 5 

There are eight bells ; the first seven of 1732, by 
Abraham Rudhall of Gloucester, and the tenor of 
1876, by Taylor of Loughborough. There is also a 
priest's bell of 1732, by Rudhall. 

The church plate was for the most part given by 
Richard Wells in 1706, but was remade about 1850, 
the former inscriptions recording the gift being pre- 
served. One large paten is, however, old, having an 
embossed centre with the Adoration of the Magi. 
There are three sets of large silver-gilt communion 
plate, and a smaller set, also silver-gilt. Of plain 
silver are three flagons and three cruets, and two alms- 
dishes, the last dating from 1724. There are also 
seven brass almsdishes of various dates, two pewter 
dishes of 1825, and twelve of 1840. 

The registers begin in 1580, and are contained 
in over seventy volumes, 6 and the churchwardens' 
account books are complete from 1651. The sex- 
ton's day book has much detailed information about 
the burials in the church. 

In 1066 'the church of the 
ADVOfPSON manor ' of Newton had one plough- 
land exempt from all dues. 7 It may 
be assumed that the lord of Newton, who at that 
time was the King, was patron. When the Makerfield 
barony was formed the patronage of this church 


naturally went with it, although owing to frequent 
minorities the kings very often presented. 8 This led 
to disputes. On a vacancy in 1281 the patronage 
was claimed by Edward I, but judgement was recorded 
for Robert Banastre. 9 At the following vacancy, 
1303, William son of Jordan de Standish claimed the 
right to present, but failed to justify it. 10 The value 
of the benefice in 1291 had been estimated at 50 
marks a year. 11 The value of the ninth of sheaves, 
wool, &c., was only 24 z/. in 1341, but Wigan 
borough was not included. 11 

In 1349 tne crown revived its claim to the 
patronage and this time obtained a verdict. 13 It was 
certainly an erroneous decision, and the Bishop of 
Lichfield seems to have been unwilling to accept th*e 
royal nominee, 14 John de Winwick. It is to the 
credit of this rector that some time before resigning in 
1359 he persuaded the king to restore the advowson 
to the Langtons. 15 The Standish family afterwards 
revived their claim to the patronage, and the matter 
appears to have been closed only in 1 446 by a verdict 
for James de Langton, then rector. 16 

In the 1 6th century the Langtons began to sell the 
next presentations, 17 and in 1598 Sir Thomas Langton 
appears to have mortgaged or sold ' the parsonage of 
Wigan' to the trustees of John Lacy, citizen of 
London ; the latter in 1605 sold it to a Mr. Pears- 
hall, probably a trustee for Richard Fleetwood, of 
Calwich, the heir of the Langtons. 18 Bishop Bridge- 
man, then rector, agreed about 1638 to purchase the 
advowson for 1,000 from Sir Richard Fleetwood, 
but Sir Richard Murray, D.D., warden of Manchester, 
offering 10 more, secured it, and then tried to sell 
it to the crown for 4,000. Charles I not being 

5 The monuments are fully described 
in Canon Bridgeman's Wigan Ch. (Chet. 
Soc.), 689-715. 

6 The first volume, 1580-1625, has 
been printed by the Lancashire Parish 
Register Society. The volume for 1676-83 
is among Lord Kenyon's family deeds ; 
Hht. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 102. 

7 See V.C.H. Lanes, i, 2860. 

8 This, it will be found, was the case in 
the earliest recorded presentation, 1205. 
About ten years later Thurstan Banastre 
granted the patronage to the canons of 
Cockersand, but this gift does not appear 
to have had effect ; Cockersand Chart. 
(Chet. Soc.), ii, 676. The Wigan charter 
of 1246 was witnessed by Robert Banas- 
tre, lord of Makerfield, as ' true patron ' 
of the church. 

9 Abbre-v. Pldc. (Rec. Com.). 201 ; 
Dtp. Keeper's Rep. \, App. 262. A few 
years earlier there had been a dispute as 
to the patronage, but the particulars are 
not recorded ; De Banco R. 7, m. 39. 

10 William de Standish alleged that his 
ancestor Ralph, living in the time of 
King Richard, had presented his own 
clerk, Ulf by name, to the chapel of 
Wigan ; and that Ulf was instituted and 
received the tithes, oblations, and dues, 
' amounting to half a mark and more.' 
Nothing otherwise is known of this Ulf. 
Although it is unlikely that such a claim 
would have been put forward by the 
Standishes against great personages like 
the lords of Makerfield unless there was 
justification for it, the description as a 
' chapel ' and the very small amount of 
dues received raises a doubt. The dis- 
tinction of ' church ' and ' chapel ' was at 
once seized upon by the defence ; ' We can- 

not yield up what plaintiff demands, for 
we hold the advowson of a church, and at 
present we do not know if he demands 
the advowson of a chapel in that church, 
as we have seen in other cases, or if he 
means to say that there is another chapel.' 
See the late Canon Bridgeman's Hist, of 
the Ch. of Wigan (Chet. Soc.), quoting 
Year Bk. of Ed-w. I (Rolls Ser.), 358. The 
information in the present notes is largely 
drawn from his work, in which documents 
quoted are usually printed in full. Many 
of them are from the family records. The 
Standish claim was still pending in 1312 ; 
Bridgeman, op. cit. 797. The following 
references to the suit may be added : De 
Banco R. 153, m. 98 d an extent of the 
chapel of Wigan; R. 161, m. n the 
chapel extended at 9 a year, but the 
case adjourned because Robert de Langton 
was setting out for Scotland on the king's 
service. Thomas de Langtree released 
his claim to the advowson of the church 
or chapel of Wigan in favour of Standish ; 
Coram Reg. R. 297, m. 20. 

11 Pope Nick. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 249. 
In the claim made by the rector against 
John del Crosse in 1329 it was alleged 
that the gross value was about 200 a 

la /f. Non. (Rec. Com.), 41. The 
values were : Haigh 471. 8^.; Aspull 
47*. 8^. ; Hindley 64*. 5^. ; Abram 
321. 2%J. ; Ince 321. z\d. ; Pemberton 
641. &d. ; Billinge 64$. t,\d. ; Orrell 
321. 2%d. ; Holland 641. tfad. ; Dalton 
32*. z\d. The value of the ninth of the 
movable goods of the men living in the 
borough of Wigan was 109*. ^d. 

18 De Banco R. 358, m. 50. The king 
alleged in support of his claim that Ralph 


de Leicester and John Maunsel had been 
presented by Henry III. Sir Robert de 
Langton replied that he had himself pre- 
sented Master John de Craven, who was 
admitted, John de Craven, and Ivo de 
Langton ; while his father John had pre- 
sented Master Robert de Clitheroe, and 
before that Robert Banastre had pre- 
sented Master Richard de Marian in the 
time of Henry III ; he had thus the 
prescription of a century in his favour. 
See also Coram Reg. R. 357, m. 21. No 
allusion was made to the presentation of 
Adam de Walton, which renders it almost 
certain that he was the clerk presented in 
1281, when the king had before claimed 
the patronage. 

14 See De Banco R. 361, m. 42 d ; the 
king -u. the Bishop of Lichfield, who had 
refused to admit John de Winwick to the 
vacant rectory. Adam de Hulton was 
also nominated ; Cal. Pat. 1 348-50, pp. 

473>49 6 5H, 5*4. 

18 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 336. 

18 Bridgeman, op. cit. 61-7, quoting 
Standish papers in Local Glean. Lanes, and 
Chet. ii, 60, 6 1. A fine concerning it, 
dated 1432, may be seen in Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 6, no. 59. 

J 7 Bridgeman, op. cit. 102, 107, 121, 

18 Ibid. 477-80, where abstracts of 
fifteen deeds relating to the transfers are 

19 Dr. Bridgeman appears to haye 
thought of purchasing the advowson soon 
after he became rector; ibid. 197. For 
his later attempt to purchase, see 
416-18. Laud's letter in reply shows 
the demands made by Dean Murray ; 
418, 419. 


able to afford this, Sir John Hotham became the pur- 
chaser shortly afterwards ; M and his trustees about 
1 66 1 sold it to Sir Orlando Bridgeman, 21 son of the 
bishop, in whose family it has since descended, the 
Earl of Bradford being the patron. 

Sir Orlando and his son adopted a 'self-denying 
ordinance,' and formed a body of trustees to exercise 
the patronage,** and thus it happened that for nearly 
half a century the Bishops of Chester were presented 
to the rectory." 

Meanwhile the value had very greatly increased. 
In the 1 6th century, and perhaps earlier, the system 
of farming the tithes prevented the rectors receiving 
the full revenue," and in 1535 the gross value was 

set down as 110 i6s. 8</., from which had to be 
deducted a pension of 20, anciently paid to the 
cathedral of Lichfield, and other fees and dues, 25 so 
that the net value was reported as 80 13^. \d. In 
the first half of the next century Bishop Bridgeman 
found that the clear yearly value was 570 on an 
average. 28 Bishop Gastrell, about 1717, recorded it 
to be 'above 300 clear, all curates paid.'" In 
1802 the receipts from tithes amounted to 
1,306 8/., 28 and afterwards receipts from the coal 
mining under the glebe were added. The value is 
now estimated at 1,500." The rector of Wigan 
pays a considerable sum from his income to the in- 
cumbents of various churches built in the parish. 

The following is a list of the rectors and lords of the manor of Wigan : 
Instituted Name Presented by 

oc. 1199 . . Randle* 

23 April 1205 . Robert de Durham S1 .... 

2 Nov. 1226 . Ralph de Leicester 32 .... 

oc. 1 24 1 . . . John Maunsel 83 

Cause of Vacancy 

The King res. of Randle 

20 Bridgeman, op. cit. 483 ; quoting 
the Wigan ' Leger,' in which Sir John 
Hotham is in 1641 called 'the new 
patron.' At Michaelmas 1638 an agree- 
ment seems to have been arrived at 
between Charles Hotham and others and 
the Bishop of London and others as to 
the advowson ; Com. Pleas, Recov. R. 
Mich. 14 Chas. I, m. 3. In a fine of 
Mar. 164.2 relating to the advowson, 
John Murray, esq., and Marian his wife 
were deforciants ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 140, no. 15. 

21 Bridgeman, op. cit. 484. In a fine 
of 1659 Charles Hotham and Elizabeth 
his wife were deforciants ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 164, no. 16. See also 
Com. Pleas, D. Enr. Mich. 1662, m. 
95 d. 

22 Bridgeman, op. cit. 484 ; ' bearing in 
mind the corrupt practices of former pa- 
trons, who had turned the advowson into a 
means of private gain,' and wishing to 
avoid such abuses, Sir Orlando associated 
with himself as trustees the then Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and others. 

M Ibid. 60 1. In 1713 the Bishop of 
Chester made inquiries as to the condi- 
tions of the trust, supposing that some 
preference was to be given to the Bishops 
of Chester ; ibid. 613. 

94 See the Kitchin lease described 
under Rector Kighley. Apart from dis- 
advantageous leases it was not always 
easy to secure the tithe ; see Duchy Plead. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 1 1 1 ; 
and the complaint of Rector Smith in 
1553, quoted by Canon Bridgeman, op. cit. 
123-7, I 3 > see *' 80 X 58 '59- The 
difficulties of the rectors concerning their 
tithes were quite independent of those 
they had with the corporation of Wigan 
as lords of the manor. 

Besides disadvantageous leases and open 
violence the rectors lost thiough prescrip- 
tion, by which a modus or composition in 
lieu of tithes was established. Thus the 
Earls of Derby had long held the tithes of 
the townships of Dalton and Upholland at a 
low rent ; and about 1600 William, the 
sixth earl, claimed an absolute right to 
the tithes, paying only 12 131. 4^. a 
year to the rector. Rector Flcetwood 
tried to defeat this claim, and Bishop 
Bridgeman made a still more vigorous 
effort, but in vain ; and the same modus 
is still paid by the Earl of Derby's 

assigns in lieu of the tithes ; Bridgeman, 
op. cit. 161-3, 254-9, 647-50. Pre- 
scription was likewise established in the 
case of Ince, 4 being paid by the 
Gerards and their successors ; ibid. 190, 

25 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 220. 
The gross value was made up of the rents 
of tenants, free and at will, 25 ; rent of 
two water-mills 66j. 8</.; tithes of corn, 
hay, wool, &c., 61 31.4^.5 oblations, 
small tithes, and roll, ,18 ; perquisites 
and profits of the markets, 66s. 8</. 
Robert Langton as chief steward had a 
fee of 4. 

26 Bridgeman, op. cit. 417. A state- 
ment of his receipts and payments for his 
first year of occupation ending at Christ- 
mas 1616 is printed 188-203 > m n y 
curious details are given. A later account 
of the profits of the rectory will be found 
on pp. 307-19. Bishop Bridgeman com- 
piled his ' Leger,' extant in a copy made 
by Rector Finch in 1708, recording all 
the lands and rights belonging to the 
rector and the endeavours he had made 
to recover and preserve them. In 1619 
he compiled a terrier of the demesne 
lands of the rectory ; op. cit. 244-6. The 
names of the fields include Parson's 
Meadow, Diglache or Diglake, the 
Mesnes, Conygrew, Rycroft, Carreslache, 
Parsnip Yard, and Cuckstool Croft. 
Potters used to come for clay to the par- 
son's wastes, undertaking to make the 
land level again ; 268. Another terrier 
was compiled in 1814, and is printed ibid. 

*7 Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.). ii, 242. 
The rector was instituted to ' Wigan with 
the chapel of Holland.' There were two 
wardens and eighteen assistants, serving 
jointly for the whole parish ; seven of 
the assistants were for the town. 

28 Bridgeman, op. cit. 642. ' The tithes 
were valued by two competent persons and 
offered to the farmers at their separate 
valuations, which they all accepted, and 
paid their respective shares on the first 
Monday after Christmas, which is the day 
usually appointed for payment.' The 
tithes of Wigan itself were gathered in 
kind. The mode of tithing is thus 
described : 'The corn in this parish is 
bound up in sheaves. Eight sheaves set 
up together make one shock, and every 
tenth shock is the rector's property, and 


if under the number of ten the rector had 
none. The practice was so common on 
small farms to have eight or nine shocks 
in each field bound up in large sheaves 
the farmers called it " binding the tithe- 
man out " to put a stop to this I (Rector 
G. Bridgeman) now take every tenth 
sheaf when small quantities of corn are 
grown. Beans and peas which were hoed 
in rows or drills were not tithed. . . . 
The practice in this parish was so com- 
mon for corn growers to claim waste land 
corn exempt from tithe that in the year 
1809 I was advised to make them pay an 
acknowledgement or to take it in kind ' ; 
ibid. 645, 646. 

29 Liverpool Diocesan Cal. 

80 Farrer, Lanes. Fife R. 436 ; Dtp. 
Keeper's Rep. xxi, App. 5 ; a charter by 
which the king appointed Adam de Freck- 
leton perpetual vicar of the church of 
Wigan, ' which is of our donation,' at the 
request of Randle treasurer of Salisbury 
and rector of Wigan ; the latter was to 
receive a pension of a mark. 

81 Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 147. A 
few years later the church of Wistow 
was given to the same Robert ; ibid. 177. 
The patronage at this time was in the 
king's hands through the minority of the 
heir of Warine Banastre. The new rector 
was one of the king's clerks, and probably 
never visited Wigan ; the ' vicarage ' of 
Adam was expressly reserved in the pre- 

82 Cal. Pat. 1225-32, p. 88. The 
cause of vacancy is not stated, but Robert 
de Durham was living in 1222 ; see Cal. 
Pat. 1216-25, p. 332. In 1228 Ralph de 
Leicester was presented to the chapel of 
Cowesby ; ibid. 195. See also De Banco 
R. 358, m. 50, where it is stated that he 
and John Maunsel were nominated by 
Henry III. A Ralph de Leicester was 
Treasurer of Lincoln Cathedral in 1248 ; 
he died in 1253 ; Le Neve, Fast, ii, 88. 

88 John Maunsel was one of the most 
important of the royal officials ; for a 
sketch of his career see Bridgeman op. cit. 
4-30, and Diet. Nat. Biog. He was a 
great pluralist, adding Wigan to his other 
benefices before 1241, when he charged 
Thurstan de Holand with setting fire to 
a house in Wigan ; Cur. Reg. R. 121, m. 
26 d. As Robert Banastre is supposed to 
have come of age about 1239, the presen- 
tation must have been earlier than this ; 




1265 . . . 

? I28l . . . 

22 Sept. I 303 . 

15 June 1334 . 
1 3 Nov. 1 344 
26 Dec. 1344 

oc. 1347 . . . 
12 Mar. 134950 

3 May 1350 . 
10 July i 359 . 

4 Sept. 1359 
2 Jan. I 361-2 . 

Presented by 
Robert Banastre 

Jo! n de Langton . 
Sir Robert de Langton 


Mr. Richard de Marklan 34 . . 
Mr. Adam de Walton 3i . . . 
Mr. Robert de Clitheroe " . . 
Ivo (John) de Langton 3 ' . . . 

John de Craven 38 ,, 

Mr. John de Craven S9 . . . . 

Henry de Dale, M.A. 40 .... 

John de Winwick 4I The King .... 

Richard de Langton " Sir Rob. de Langton . 

Robert de Lostock 43 

Walter de Campden " John Earl of Lancaster 

Cause of Vacancy 

d. of J. Maunsel 

d. of Clitheroe 

res. R. de Langton 
res. R. de Lostock 

Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 147. In local 
history he is notable as procuring the first 
borough charter. He died abroad in 
great poverty at the end of 1264 or be- 
ginning of 1265. 

There are numerous references to him 
in Cal. of Papal Letters. Alexander IV, in 
1259, approved the dispensation granted, 
at the king's request, by Pope Innocent, 
allowing Maunsel to be ordained and 
promoted although his mother married 
his father, a man of noble birth, not 
knowing that he was a deacon ; his father 
repenting, resumed his orders, and a di- 
vorce was declared ; the dispensation 
should hold good, even though the mother's 
plea of ignorance and the reputation of a 
lawful marriage could not be sustained ; 
ibid, i, 362. Many documents refer to 
his superabundance of benefices ; see 
specially ibid. 378. 

84 He in July 1265 joined with the 
patron, Sir Robert Banastre, in assigning 
an annual pension of 30 marks to the 
mother church of Lichfield. Canon 
Bridgeman states : 'A sum of 16 is now 
(1887) paid annually by the rector of 
Wigan to the sacristan of Lichfield Cathe- 

Master Richard was itill living in 
1278; Assize R. 1238, m. 33d. His 
surname shows that he was a local man. 
He had a son Nicholas, who in 1292 was 
summoned to warrant William, rector of 
Donington, in the possession of a mes- 
suage in Wigan claimed by Robert Sper- 
ling and Sabina his wife ; Assize R. 408, 
m. 35 d. 

85 This rector was probably appointed 
at the vacancy in 1281, when the king, as 
stated in the text, claimed the patronage. 
Adam was the rector summoned in 1292 
to show his title to manorial rights in 
Wigan ; Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), 
371. He was chancellor of Lichtield 
Cathedral from 1276 till 1292, when he 
was made precentor, retaining the latter 
office till his death in August i 303 ; Le 
Neve, Fast, i, 579. His executors were 
Adam de Walton, rector of Mitton, Adam 
de Walton, junior, and Richard de Ful- 
shaw ; De Bane. R. 164, m. 300 d. 

Lichfield Epis. Reg. i, fol. gb. He 
was not ordained priest till he became 
rector ; ibid, i, fol. 98^. John de Lang- 
ton, afterwards Bishop of Chichester, pre- 
sented as guardian of Alice Banastre, 
heiress of the barony of Newton. 

The new rector was a king's clerk and 
held several public appointments ; Parl. 
Writs, ii (3), 685-6. Leave of absence 
was granted by the bishop in September 

1322 ; Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. 7. He sided 
with Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and in 

1323 was called upon to answer for the 
part he had taken in the rising of 1321. 
By the jury of the wapentake of West 

Derby it was presented that Robert de 
Clitheroe, rector of Wigan, who had for 
thirty years been a clerk in the king's 
chancery and for some time escheator this 
side of Trent, had at his own cost sent 
two men at arms to the earl's assistance, 
one of them being his own son Adam de 
Clitherow, accompanied by four men on 
foot, all properly armed ; also, that on a 
certain solemn day, preaching in his 
church at Wigan before all the people, he 
had told them that they owed allegiance 
to the earl and must assist him in his 
cause against the king, which was a just 
cause ; in consequence whereof divers of 
his hearers joined the earl. Robert at 
once denied that he had sent anyone to 
swell the earl's forces ; and all he had 
said in church was to ask his parishioners 
to pray for the king and the nobles and 
for the peace of the realm. He was, how- 
ever, convicted, and made peace with the 
king by a fine ; Parl. Writs, ii (2), App. 

At the beginning of the next reign he 
sued for relief as to the payment of his 
fine of 300 marks, alleging that most of 
it had been paid, though the sheriff, since 
deceased, had not accounted for it to 
the Exchequer. He did not obtain his 
request. He acknowledged that he had 
sent a man mounted and armed for the 
earl's service, as indeed he was bound to 
do by the tenure of hit rectory ; Rolls of 
Parl. ii, 406. 

He died 4 June 1334 and was buried in 
Sawley Abbey. He granted his ' manor of 
Bayley ' to the abbey of Cockersand in 
1330 ; Harland, Salley Abbey, 64, 65 ; 
Whitaker, Wballey (ed. Nichols), ii, 471. 

7 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, foL 109^, where 
he is called John, son of John de Langton. 
On the day of his institution two years' 
leave for study within England was granted 
him, on condition that he proceeded to 
the higher orders, ibid, ii, fol. 8. The 
new rector was a younger brother of the 
patron, with whom in 1343 he had a dis- 
pute as to the tithes of Hindley ; it was 
alleged by Robert that Ivo was bound to 
pay him twenty marks a year, and ,20 
every other year, and that the tithes taken 
had been assigned in lieu of the pension ; 
Assize R. 430, m. 8 d. ; 434, m. 3 (quoted 
by Canon Bridgeman). 

Ivo was still rector in 1344 ; Assize R. 

H3 5. m- 37- 

Clarice de Bolton, ' formerly aunt of the 
rector of Wigan,' in 1354 brought a suit 
against the Langtons to recover an an- 
nuity ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 3, m. 
4d, i. 

88 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. 118, may re- 
fer to his nomination. See De Bane. R. 
358, m. 50. Though presented it is not 
certain that he was instituted ; he is prob- 
ably the John de Craven indicted two 


years previously for entering into a con- 
spiracy to procure the presentation of him- 
self to the rectory ; Lanes, and Cites. Recs. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 362. 

89 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. 1 18 ; De Bane. 
R. 358, m. 50. Master John de Craven 
was a canon of St. John's, Chester, from 
1344 (or earlier) until 1363; Ormerod, 
Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, 308, 309. Before 
1 348 he was commissary for Peter Gomez, 
Cardinal Bishop of the Sabines, as arch- 
deacon of Chester; Cal. Pat. 1345-8, 
pp. 245, 297. 

In 1351 he was fined 40 for extortion 
in his capacity as official of the deanery 
of Warrington ; Assize R. 431, m. 2. 

40 In 1347 the pope reserved to Henry 
de Dale, M.A., B.C.L., B.M., a dignity 
in Wells, not episcopal ; he held various 
canonries and the churches of Higham 
and Wigan, but was ordered to resign the 
latter ; Cal. of Papal Letters, iii, 242. See 
also Cal. Close, 1349-54, p. 54. Nothing 
further seems known of this rector's pos- 

41 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. 126, 125*. 
The dispute as to the patronage has been 
related above ; John de Winwick was 
twice presented and instituted. He was 
another busy public official ; see Rymer, 
Feed. (Syllabus), 330, &c. Among his 
ecclesiastical preferments he held the 
treasurership of York Minster ; Le Neve, 
Fasti, iii, 160. He was entrusted with 
the wardship of William de Molyneux in 
1359 ; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 346. 
He died about the end of 1359 and was 
buried at Huyton, where a chantry for 
him was founded. In 1352 the pope 
granted him the union of the rectory with 
the Treasurership of York, of which he 
was not yet in actual possession ; Cal. 
of Papal Letters, iii, 460. 

A detailed account of his career will be 
found in Canon Bridgeman's work, 47- 

43 Lich. Epis. Reg. iv, fol. 6 ; he pro- 
mised to pay the 20 a year to Lichfield 

<* Lich. Epis. Reg. iv, fol. 6 (quoted by 
Canon Bridgeman). 

44 Lich. Epis. Reg. iv, fol. 80 ; he took 
the oath to pay the pension. John of 
Gaunt presented, owing to the minority 
of Ralph de Langton. The new rector 
had leave of absence granted him in Jan- 
uary 1365-6 ; ibid, v, fol. izb. 

This rector complained to the pope as 
to the pension he had to pay to Lichfield ; 
the Bishop of London was thereupon, in 
1367, directed to inquire into the matter, 
and if the facts were found to be as 
alleged he was to relax the rector's oath 
regarding this payment ; Cal. of Papal Let- 
ters, iv, 66. Walter de Campden died at 
Plymouth 10 July 1370, as appears by the 
Lich. Reg. 



24 Aug. 1370 . 
oc. 1415-31 . . 

oc. 1432-47 
oc. 1451 . . . 
oc. 1485 . . . 

9 Aug. 1504 . 
1 6 Aug. 1506 
10 Oct. 1519 
oc. 1528-32 . . 
oc. 1532-3 
24 Mar 1534-5. 

8 Aug. 1543 . 

? March 1550 , 

1550 , 

2 Mar. 1554-5 


James de Langton 4i . 
William de Langton 46 . 
James de Langton 41 . 
Oliver de Langton 48 . 
John Langton 49 
Thomas Langton * . 
Richard Wyot, D.D. ". 
Thomas Linacre, M.D 53 
Nicholas Towneley" . 
Richard Langton M . . 
Richard Kighley M . . 
John Herbert M . . . 
John Standish, D.D." . 
Richard Smith s8 . . 
Richard Gerard . . 

Presented by 
Ralph de Langton . 

Cause of Vacancy 
d. W. de Campdcn 

Langton feoffees 
The King . . 
Thos. Langton . 

d. J. Langton 
d. T. Langton 
res. R. Wyot 

Sir T. Langton 
Thos. White . 
The King . . 

10 Aug. 1558 . Thomas Stanley 

Earl of Derby, &c. 
fjohn Fleetwood . 
\Peter Farington . 

d. R. Langton 
d. R. Kighley 

d. R. Smith 
d. R. Gerard 

Lich. Epis. Reg. iv, fol. 85* ; v, fol. 
28^, 30. He had received only the ton- 
sure, but was made priest n April 1371 ; 
ibid, v, fol. loob. 

James de Langton is mentioned as rec- 
tor down to 1414, about the end of which 
year he died ; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, 
App. 12, 'late rector.' He was one of 
the feoffees of Richard de Molyneux of 
Sefton in 1394; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. 
Soc.), i, 70 ; ibid. 103. 

46 William de Langton is mentioned as 
rector a number of times from 1417 to 
1430 ; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, 13, &c. 
In 1431-2 he was 'late rector '; ibid. 32. 

*7 In a plea of 1441 mention is made 
of William de Langton as rector before 
10 Hen. VI, and James de Langton as 
rector in the same year ; a note is added, 
recording a pardon to the latter, dated 
1446-7 ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 3, m. 31 A. 

In 1436 James de Langton, rector of 
Wigan, was proceeding to France in the 
retinue of the Duke of York ; Dep. 
Keeper's Rep. xlviii, App. 310. 

He appears to have been a violent and 
lawless man, and his name frequently 
occurs in the plea rolls. In 1442 the 
sheriff" was ordered to arrest Christopher, 
Edward, Edmund, and Oliver de Langton, 
sons of James de Langton, the rector ; also 
Margaret Holerobyn of Wigan, the rector's 
mistress ; Pal. of Lane. Plea" R. 4 (quoted 
by Canon Bridgeman). 

46 Oliver Langton in 1451 covenanted 
to pay the 20 yearly to Lichfield ; 
Bridgeman, op. cit. 69. He was still living 
in 1462 ; ibid. 70. 

In 1457 the Bishop of Lichfield issued 
a commission to Dr. Duckworth, vicar of 
Prescot, and others to inquire as to the 
pollution of the churchyard of Wigan by 
bloodshed, forbidding it to be used for in- 
terments until it should be reconciled ; 
Lich. Epis. Reg. xi, fol. gib. 

49 John Langton, rector of Wigan, 
occurs in July 1485 ; Local Glean. Lanes. 
and Ches. i, 266. In 1498 he was called 
upon to show by what title he claimed 
various manorial rights in Wigan ; Pal. of 
Lane. Writs, Lent, 1 3 Hen. VII. 

60 Lich. Epis. Reg. xiii-xiv, fol. 53 ; 
the patrons were James Anderton, Wil- 
liam Banastre, Thomas Langton (brother 
of Gilbert Langton of Lowe), and William 
Woodcock, feoffee* of Ralph Langton, de- 

61 Lich. Epis. Reg. xiii-xiv, fol. 54^ ; 
Act Bks. at Chester ; the king presented 
on account of the minority of Thomai 
Langton. Dr. Wyot was a man of some 
university distinction, being at one time 

master of Christ's College, Cambridge ; 
and he held several benefices ; see Atbe- 
nae Cantab, i, 26. 

* a Lich. Epis. Reg. xiii-xiv, fol. 6ob. The 
biography of this distinguished man may 
be read in Dr. J. N. Johnson's Life of 
him $ also in the Diet. Nat. Biog., and 
Canon Bridgeman, op. cit. 73-95- He 
appears to have exchanged the Precentor- 
ship of York Minster for the rectory of 
Wigan, Dr. Wyot receiving the former 
office on 13 November 1519 ; Le Neve, 
Fasti, iii, 156. It was only in his later 
years that Linacre, though made rector of 
Mersham in 1509, devoted himself to 
theology, and he was not ordained priest 
until 22 December 1520, the rectory of 
Wigan giving him a title. 

58 Nicholas Towneley,as rector of Wigan 
and chaplain to Cardinal Wolsey, com- 
plained of a disturbance in his court at 
Wigan in Apr. 1528 ; Duchy Plead. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 173. He was 
appointed to a prebend in York Minster 
in Dec. 1531 ; Le Neve, Fasti, iii, 181 ; 
and died at Hampton Court on or about 
10 Nov. 1532; Duchy Plead, ii, in 
(where there is an error in the year ; cf. 
Le Neve). 

54 There is mention of him in Piccope's 
Wills (Chet. Soc.), ii, 247 n. 

66 Lich. Epis. Reg. xiii-xiv, fol. 34 ; he 
made oath that he would pay the^2O to the 
dean and chapter of Lichfield, according 
to ancient custom. 

Soon after his appointment he leased 
the rectory for five years for 106 i 3*. $d. 
a year, the odd 6 131. 4^. being payable 
to the curate in charge. The lessee, John 
Kitchin, a lawyer, had become surety for 
the first-fruits, which had now become 
part of the royal revenue. This transac- 
tion was the origin of much disputing. 
Kitchin was not satisfied with this short 
lease, and appears to have obtained the 
promise of an extension for thirty-three 
years, and to this he obtained the patron's 
consent. When, therefore, the rector 
attempted to regain possession in 1 540 he 
was resisted, and though he had the as- 
sistance of a number of persons 'of cruel 
demeanour,' who ' in a riotous and forcible 
manner ' entered the glebe lands and 
turned the lessee's cattle out, the inquiry 
which took place was so far favourable to 
Kitchin that the rector granted a lease for 
thirty years at the same rent ; Ducatus 
Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 164 ; ii, 64. The 
evidence is given very fully in Canon 
Bridgeman's History, 102-7. 

M Act Bks. at Ches. Dioc. Reg. ; Bridge- 
man, op. cit. 113. Paid first-fruits 6 Aug. 


1543 ; Lanes, and Ches. Recs. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 408. John Kitchin 
had purchased the right of next presenta- 
tion from Sir Thomas Langton in 1538, 
and afterwards sold it to Sir Richard 
Gresham and Thomas White, citizens of 

John Herbert became one of the canons 
of St. Stephen's, Westminster, in Dec. 
1530 ; L. and P. Hen. Vlll, iv, 6803 
(19). He was vicar of Penistone from 
1545 to 1550, the patron being the dean 
of the Chapels Royal ; Hunter, Doncaster, 

"> 339- . 

*7 It is possible that Dr. Standish was 
never actually rector of Wigan, though 
Edward VI presented him on the death of 
John Herbert ; Strype, Mem. iv, 260. 
He does not appear to have paid first- 
fruits. His singular and discreditable 
career is sketched by Canon Bridgeman, 
op. cit. 115-21. See Foster, Alumni 
Oxon. } Diet. Nat. Biog. 

88 He paid his first-fruits ii Feb. 
1550-1. He had much trouble with the 
tithepayers, or rather the sub-lessees under 
Kitchin' s lease ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), ii, 141 ; Bridgeman, 123-7. 

69 Act Bks. at Chester. The patrons 
were the Earl of Derby, Lord Strange, 
and others, under a demise by Sir Thomas 
Langton in 1551. The new rector, a son 
of William Gerard of Ince, had been pre- 
sented to Grappenhall as early as 1522, 
and to Bangor on Dee in 1542, resigning 
the former on becoming rector of Wigan ; 
Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, 600. He 
took part in 1554 in the examinations of 
George Marsh at Lathom ; speaking of 
the second Prayer Book of Edward VI he 
remarked, ' This last Communion was the 
most devilish thing that ever was devised ' ; 
Foxe, Acts and Monuments (ed. Cattley), 
vii, 42. 

60 Act Bks. at Chester ; Bridgeman, 
op. cit. ; the patrons acted under a grant 
made by Sir Thomas Langton on 10 May 

Thomas Stanley, supposed to have been 
an illegitimate son of Lord Mounteagle, 
was Bishop of Sodor and Man from 1558 
to 1568 ; Moore, Sodor and Man, 96, 138. 
He also held the rectories of Winwick 
and North Meols in Lancashire and Bar- 
wick in Elmet. He was living quite un- 
disturbed in South Lancashire about 1564 
to the great indignation of the Protestant 
Bishop of Durham ; Parker, Carres. (Par- 
ker Soc.), 222. The metrical history of 
the house of Stanley is attributed to him. 
See Foster, Alumni Oxon. ; Diet. Nat. 



Apl. 1569 

8 Feb. 1570-1 . 

9 Oct. 1604 

21 Jan. 1615-16. 
c. 1643 . . . 

1653 . . . 

1662 . 

1668 . . . 

1673 . . . 



William Blackleach, B.A. 61 
Edward Fleetwood 6 * . . 
Gerard Massie, D.D. 63 . 
John Bridgeman, D.D. 64 . 
James Bradshaw, M.A. 65 . 
Charles Hotham, M.A. 66 . 
George Hall, D.D. 67 . . 
John Wilkins, D.D. 68 . . 
John Pearson, D.D. 69 . . 

Presented by 
John Fleetwood . 
The Queen .... 
The King .... 
,, .... 
Parliamentary Comm'rs,, 
[Hotham Trustees] 
Sir O. Bridgeman . 
Bridgeman Trustees . 

Cause of Vacancy 
d. Bp. Stanley 
res. W. Blackleach 
d. E. Fleetwood 
d. G. Massie 

[d. Bp. Bridgeman] 
ejec. C. Hotham 
d. Bp. Hall 
d. Bp. Wilkins 

61 Church P. at Chester. First-fruits 
paid 22 June 1569. 

ra Ches. Reg. (quoted by Canon Bridge- 
man) ; first-fruits paid 12 Feb. The 
queen presented by reason of the minority 
of Thomas Langton, and opportunity was 
taken to place in this important rectory a 
staunch adherent of the newly-established 
religious system. Edward Fleetwood was 
a younger son of Thomas Fleetwood of 
the Vache, Buckinghamshire. He was 
but a young man, and established a good 
example by residing in his rectory ; he 
was ' the first beginner ' of monthly com- 
munions at Wigan ; Bridgeman, op. cit. 
235. He also caused forms to be placed 
in the nave ; they were made from the 
timber of the rood-loft ; ibid. 272. He 
instituted various suits for the recovery of 
the revenues and rights of his church ; 
Bridgeman, op. cit. 143-63. 

He took part in the persecution of 
'Popish recusants," and it is clear from 
the letter printed in Bridgeman, 166-71, 
as from his not wearing the surplice in 
1589 (Visit. Bks.), and his joining in the 
petition to Convocation in 1604, that he 
was a Puritan ; he was indeed charged 
with 'neglect and contempt* in not ob- 
serving the forms of the Book of Common 
Prayer, op. cit. 160 ; a\aoHist. MSS. Com. 
Rep. ativ, App. iv, 597. A sympathizer 
with the victims of his zeal 'could not 
stay his pen from writing unto him to 
commend him to leave off blaspheming 
against this our Catholic faith or else he 
would drink of Judas' sop," and threw 
the protest into the rector's pew ; Bridge- 
man, op. cit. 1 74. For some of the present- 
ments made by Rector Fleetwood against 
parishioners alleged to have received 
priests, see Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 239, 

68 On 21 June 1604 the benefice was 
sequestered to preserve the fruits for the 
next incumbent ; on 6 Oct. Brian Vin- 
cent, B.D., was presented by John Sweet- 
ing and William Hobbes, acting by demise 
of Sir Thomas Langton ; but this grant 
not being satisfactory, the Bishop of Ches- 
ter referred the matter to the king, who 
had presented Gerard Massie, B.D., as 
early as 17 July ; Bridgeman, op. cit. 

179. The first-fruits were paid 23 Feb. 
1604-5. See also Pal. of Lane. Plea 
R. 296, m. 5, where it is stated that the 
advowson was held by the fifth part of a 
knight's fee. 

The new rector was son of William 
Massie of Chester and Grafton, near 
Malpas ; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), ii, 
706. He was educated at Brasenose Col- 
lege, Oxford; B.A. 1592; D.D. 1609; 
Foster, Alumni Oxon. In 1615 he was 
nominated to the bishopric of Chester, 
but died in London, 16 Jan. 1615-16, 
before consecration ; Bridgeman, op. cit. 

1 80. 

64 Bridgeman, op. cit. 181-455, the 
whole of pt. ii. The following is a brief 
outline: John SOD of Thomas Bridgeman 

was born at Exeter in 1577 ; educated at 
Oriel College, Oxford, and Peterhouse, 
Cambridge, being elected fellow of Magda- 
lene in the latter university in 1599 ; he 
also took degrees at Oxford ; D.D. at 
Cambridge, 1612. He soon obtained pre- 
ferment, and married ; having attracted 
the attention of James I his advance was 
rapid (pp. 1 8 1-6). At Wigan he recovered 
many rights of the church, and thus greatly 
increased the rectorial income (pp. 188- 
262). In 1619 he was appointed Bishop 
of Chester, retaining in commendam the 
rectory of Wigan and the prebends he 
held at Exeter and Lichfield (p. 236). 
He compiled the valuable 'Wigan Leger' ; 
caused the church to be repaired, procured 
the erection of an organ (destroyed under 
the Commonwealth), and made the seats 
in the body of the church uniform ; with- 
out interfering with claims to particular 
sitting places, ' he advised them to rank 
the best in the highest seats, and so place 
on the one side only men and on the 
other side their wives in order ; and to 
seclude children and servants from sitting 
with their masters or mistresses ' (pp. 272, 
273). Down to 1629 he usually resided 
at Wigan (p. 333). In ecclesiastical 
matters he was a somewhat strict disci- 
plinarian, though not unduly harsh to the 

Adhering to the king at the outbreak 
of the Civil War, he was ejected from the 
bishopric and rectory and fined 3,000 by 
the Parliament (pp. 437-40). He died at 
his son Orlando's residence, Morton Hall, 
near Oswestry, in Nov. 1652 (p. 440). 
This son was made a judge on the Re- 
storation, and was Lord Keeper from 
1667 to 1672 ; the Earl of Bradford is his 
descendant and heir. Foster, Alumni 
Oxon. } Diet. Nat. Biog. 

85 James Bradshaw, son of John Brad- 
shaw of Darcy Lever, was educated at 
Brasenose College, Oxford ; M.A. 1637 ; 
Bridgeman, op. cit. 462 ; Foster, Alumni 
Oxon. He was placed in the rectory by 
the Committee of Plundered Ministers 
' upon the delinquency of Dr. Bridgeman,' 
but was never legally the rector ; in 
1650 he was described as 'a painful, able, 
preaching minister,' but he had refused 
to observe the last fast day ; Common- 
wealth Ch. Suri>. 59 ; Plund. Mint. Accts. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 41. He 
lost the benefice in 1653 because of the 
leg;il rector's death, but was soon after- 
wards appointed to Macclesfield, where 
he remained till the Act of Uniformity 
of 1662 was enforced ; ibid. 470. After- 
wards he ministered as a Nonconformist 
in Lancashire. 

66 Charles Hotham was a son of Sir 
John Hotham and ancestor of the present 
Lord Hotham. He was educated at 
Christ's College, Cambridge ; M.A. 1639 ; 
fellow of Peterhouse, 1640-51, being de- 
prived by Parliament. He was probably 
presented by his father's trustees, after 
the death of Bishop Bridgeman, and paid 


his first-fruits 9 May 1653. Soon after 
the restoration of Charles II John Burton 
was presented to the rectory by the king, 
Hotham being accused of heterodoxy ; 
but on 8 October 1660 the latter was re- 
instated, only to be ejected in 1662 on 
refusal to comply with the Act of Uni- 
formity ; Bridgeman, op. cit. 473-6 ; Def. 
Keeper's Rep. xliv, App. 34,68. He after- 
wards resided in the Bermudas ; returned 
to England and became a fellow of the 
Royal Society ; Diet. Nat. Biog, 

7 Son of Dr. Joseph Hall, Bishop of 
Norwich j educated at Exeter College, 
Oxford , of which he became fellow ; M.A. 
1634; D.D. 1660. He was made Bishop 
of Chester in 1662, and held the arch- 
deaconry of Canterbury and the rectory of 
Wigan in commcndam. While he was rector 
communion was administered at Wigan six 
times a year. Bishop Hall died 23 Aug. 
1668 from a wound inflicted by a knife 
in his pocket when he chanced to fall in 
his garden at Wigan. See Bridgeman, 
op. cit. 485-96; Foster, Alumni Oxon. , 
Diet. Nat. Biog. 

An inventory of the church goods in 
Apr. 1668 is printed by Canon Bridge- 
man, op. cit. p. 551 ; the vestments con- 
sisted of two surplices ; there was a green 
carpet cloth for the communion table ; 
the books included a copy of Juell and 
Hardin , there were an hour-glass, a 
great chest, and other miscellaneous ar- 

s Son of Walter Wilkins of Oxford ; 
educated there, graduating from Magdalen 
Hall; M.A. 1634. He was made vicar 
of Fawsley in 1637; conformed to the 
Presbyterian discipline under the Com- 
monwealth ; D.D. 1649 ; readily accepted 
the Prayer Book on the Restoration and 
rose rapidly, being made Bishop of Chester 
in 1668, and receiving with it the rectory 
of Wigan. As bishop he was extremely 
lenient to the Nonconformists. He was 
devoted to scientific studies, and was one 
of the founders of the Royal Society in 
1660. He died 19 Nov. 1672. See 
Bridgeman, op. cit. 497-513; Foster, 
Alumni Oxon. ; Diet. Nat. Biog. 

69 Bishop Pearson, the most famous of 
the modern rectors of Wigan, was the son 
of Robert Pearson, archdeacon of Suffolk. 
He was born in 1613, educated at Queens' 
and King's Colleges, Cambridge, becoming 
fellow of the latter in 1634 ; M.A. 1639. 
He retired into private life on the success 
of the Parliament and devoted himself to 
study and controversy, his Exposition oj 
the Creed first appearing in 1659. '" 
1662 he was made master of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. In 1673 he was ap- 
pointed Bishop of Chester and also rector 
of Wigan. He resided part of the summer 
at Wigan, employing three curates, two 
being preachers and the third a reader in 
deacon's orders. He died 16 July 1686 
at Chester, and was buried in the cathedral. 
See Bridgeman, op. cit. 513-64 ; Diet. 
Nat. Biog. 


Instituted Name 

1686 . . . Thomas Cartwright, D.D. ro . . . 

1689 . . . Nicholas Stratford, D.D 71 . . . 

Mar. 1706-7. Hon. Edward Finch, M. A." . . . 

30 April 1714 . Samuel Aldersey, M.A. 73 . . . . 

12 May 1741 . Roger Bridgeman, D.D. 74 . . . 

(3 J ul y) '75 shirle y Cotes, M.A. 75 . . . . 

27 Feb. 1776 . Guy Fairfax, M.A. 76 

30 July 1 790 . George Bridgeman 77 

4 Jan. 1833 . Sir Henry John Gunning, M.A 78 . 

17 Oct. 1864 Hon. George Thomas Orlando 

Bridgeman, M.A. 79 

24 Feb. 1896 . Roland George Matthew, M.A. 80 . 

Presented by 

Bridgeman Trustees 

Wm. Lord Digby . . 
Sir H. Bridgeman . 
Sir H. Bridgeman, &c. 
Earl of Bradford . . 
Bishop of Chester . . 

Earl of Bradford . 

Cause of Vacancy 
d. Bp. Pearson 
d. Bp. Cartwright 
d. Bp. Stratford 
res. E. Finch 
d. S. Aldersey 
d. R. Bridgeman 
d. S. Cotes 
res. G. Fairfax 
d. G. Bridgeman 
res. Sir H. Gunning 

d G. T. O. Bridgeman 

The earlier rectors of Wigan, when presented by men of no distinction, whose only recommendation 
the kings, were busy public officials, who probably was their family connexion. 

never saw the church from which they drew a small 
addition to their incomes ; and when presented by 

The Vahr of 1535 does not record any chapelries 
or chantries nor mention any clergy except the rector 

the hereditary patrons were, with few exceptions, and the Bradshagh chantry priest, but Upholland 

70 Thomas Cartwright was a grandson 
of his namesake the famous Puritan of 
Queen Elizabeth's days. His parents 
were Presbyterians, and he was educated 
at Queen's College, Oxford, while it was 
under Puritan rule ; M.A. 1655. This 
makes it the more noteworthy that he 
ignored the laws in force and was ordained 
in the year just mentioned according to 
the Anglican form by Dr. Skinner, who 
had been Bishop of Oxford, but was then 
living in retirement. He took a benefice 
under the existing rule, but as might be 
expected, at once conformed on the Resto- 
ration, and received various preferments. 
He also secured the firm friendship of 
the Duke of York, and was one of the 
very few who thoroughly devoted them- 
selves to his cause when he became king. 
He was made Bishop of Chester and also 
rector of Wigan in 1686, and retired to 
Ireland with the king, dying in Dublin 
15 Apr. 1689. His diary, printed by the 
Camden Society, contains many particulars 
of local interest. 

See Bridgeman, op. cit. 564-78 ; Fos- 
ter, Alumni Oxon. ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; 
Chester Arch. Soc. Trans, (new ser.), iv, 


7 1 He was the son of a tradesman at 
Hemel Hempstead ; educated at Trinity 
College, Oxford ; M.A. and fellow 1656 ; 
D.D. 1673 ; warden of Manchester 
1667-84 ; dean of St. Asaph 1674 ; noted 
for his tolerance of Dissenters ; Bishop of 
Chester and rector of Wigan, 1689, being 
jne of the first bishops nominated by 
William III. He resided at Wigan oc- 
casionally, and rebuilt the parsonage 
house in 1695. See Bridgeman, op. cit. 
578-601 ; Foster, Alumni Oxon. } Diet. 
Nat. Biog. 

7* The bishopric of Chester was at this 
time kept vacant for a year, while the 
rectory of Wigan was filled by the appoint- 
ment of the Hon. Edward Finch, a son of 
the first Earl of Nottingham, and a brother 
of Henry Finch, dean of York and rector 
of Winwick. He was educated at Christ's 
College, Cambridge, of which he was a 
fellow ; M.A. 1679. He represented his 
university in the Parliament of 1690 ; Le 
Neve, Fasti, iii, 650. The patrons were 
Sir John Bridgeman, the Bishop of Lon- 
don, Lord Digby, and John and Orlando 
Bridgeman. The old organ, situated in a 
gallery in or near the arch between the 
nave and chancel ' between the two 
hollow pillars which divide the new and 

old chancel,' was the phrase used had 
been pulled down in the Commonwealth 
period, and in its place the mayor and 
corporation had in 1680 made themselves 
a pew. This was pulled down in 1709 
and a new organ erected, the rector 
being himself a musician ; while the rents 
from the west end gallery, originally in- 
tended for the singers, were appropriated 
to the organist's salary. Members of the 
corporation did not take kindly to this 
ejection from their gallery, and it was 
probably owing to the ill-feeling and dis- 
putes thus engendered that Rector Finch 
resigned in 1713, apparently before the 
new organ had been brought into use. 
He died at York, where he had a canonry, 
in 1738. See Bridgeman, op. cit. 601-13 ; 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 447 ; 
Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Le Neve, Fasti, iii, 223 ; 
i, 48. 

" 8 He was the second son and eventual 
heir of Thomas Aldersey of Aldersey ; was 
born in 1673, educated at Brasenose Col- 
lege, Oxford ; M.A. 1700. He no doubt 
owed this promotion to his marriage with 
Henrietta, daughter of Dean Bridgeman of 
Chester ; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), ii, 
740. He appears to have resided at 
Wigan. Among the improvements in the 
church during his incumbency were the 
recasting of the bells, including ' the little 
bell called the Catherine bell,' a new 
clock, ' repairing the curtains at the altar,' 
a new gallery, &c. At other times (e.g. 
p. 658) 'a small bell called the Ting- 
tang' is named. The dispute as to the 
corporation seat was settled by assign- 
ing them the western gallery. See Bridge- 
man, op. cit. 614-28 ; Foster, Alumni 

7* He was a son of Sir John Bridgeman ; 
educated at Oriel College, Oxford, of which 
he became fellow; M.A. 1725; D.D. 

1736. He held several benefices, and was 
appointed vicar of Bolton in 1737. He 
appears to have resided at Wigan from 
time to time. He died unmarried in June 
1750. See Bridgeman, op. cit. 628-34 ; 
Foster, Alumni Oxon. 

75 Lord Digby was the only surviving 

The new rector was a son of John 
Cotes of Woodcote in Shropshire, &c. ; 
educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford ; M.A. 

1737. He appears to have resided at 
Wigan until the last years of his life. He 
died at Woodcote, n Dec. 1775. His 
eldest son John was member for Wigan 


from 1782 to 1802. See Bridgeman, op. 
cit. 635-8 ; Foster, Alumni Oxon. 

' 6 Guy Fairfax, a son of Thomas Fair- 
fax of Newton Kyme, and a cousin of 
Lady Bridgeman, was educated at Christ 
Church, Oxford ; M.A. 1759. A new 
church, St. George's, was built in 1781. 
It appears that the 'prayer bell' was 
rung twice a day on week days. Mr. 
Fairfax resided at Wigan during his 
tenure of the rectory, which he resigned 
for Newton Kyme in 1790. See Bridge- 
man, op. cit. 638-40 ; Foster, Alumni 

77 The other patrons were Richard 
Hopkins and John Heaton. The new 
rector was a son of Sir Henry Bridgeman, 
who in 1794 was created Lord Bradford. 
He was educated at Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge ; M.A. 1790. He also became 
rector of Weston under Lizard and of 
Plemstall. He died 27 Oct. 1832. See 
Bridgeman, op. cit. 640-59. 

7 8 H. J. Gunning was a younger son 
of Sir George W. Gunning, bart., and a 
nephew of the patron. He was educated 
at Balliol College, Oxford; M.A. 1822. 
On the death of his brother Sir Robert 
in 1862, he succeeded to the baronetcy. 
The parish church was restored during 
his tenure of the rectory; and in 1837 
he obtained an Act of Parliament en- 
abling the rector of Wigan to grant min- 
ing leases for working the coal under 
the glebe. In 1860 with the consent 
of the patron he sold the manorial rights 
to the mayor and corporation. See 
Bridgeman, op. cit. 659-73 ; Foster, 
Alumni Oxon. 

7* The new rector, a son of the second 
Earl of Bradford, was collated by the 
Bishop of Chester, to whom the right had 
lapsed. He was educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge; M.A. 1845; ordained 
in 1849, an d ne ^ various preferments. 
He was chaplain to Queen Victoria, rural 
dean of Wigan, hon. canon of Chester and 
then^ of Liverpool. He procured the 
passing of the Wigan Glebe Act, 1871, 
enabling him to rebuild the rectory, much 
shaken by coal-mining, and to sell part of 
the glebe. Canon Bridgeman died in 
1896. See his work, already cited, 


80 Son of David Matthew of London ; 
scholar of Wadham College, Oxford ; 
M.A. 1877; vicar of St. Michael and 
All Angels', Wigan, 1881 ; hon. canon 
of Liverpool, 1904. 



Priory was still in existence. 81 The Clergy List of 
I 541 2 8J shows that there were four priests within 
the parish, apart from rector and cantarist ; one of 
these was the curate, Ralph Scott ; two were paid by 
Robert Langton and Thomas Gerard ; the mainten- 
ance of the other is not recorded. 

In the Visitation List in 1548 is left a blank for 
the rector's name ; then follow eight names, one 
being that of the chantry priest ; but two of the 
clergy seem to have been absent. In 1554 Master 
Richard Smith, rector ; the curate, and three others 
appeared, including the former chantry priest. No 
improvement took place under the episcopate of 
Bishop Scott, though he had a personal interest in 
the parish. In 1562 the Bishop of Sodor and Man 
did not appear, being ' excused by the Bishop of 
Chester.' Ralph Scott appeared and exhibited his 
subscription, so that he was prepared to accept the 
Elizabethan order, as he had accepted all the previous 
changes ; two other names also appear in the list, one 
of an old priest, the other a fresh name. In 1565 
only three names are shown in the list Bishop Stan- 
ley, who ' did not exhibit,' his curate Ralph Scott, and 
Thomas Baron or Barow, whose name had appeared 
in each list from 1 548, and who perhaps had no minis- 
terial office. 83 Thus it appears that by this time the 
working clergy had been reduced to one, the curate 
of the parish church. 84 

The short incumbency of William Blackleach, of 
whom nothing is known, was followed by that of a 
decided Protestant, Edward Fleetwood. He was one 
of the two ' preachers 'in 1 590 at the parish church ; 
there were no preachers at the two chapelries, Uphol- 

land and Billinge. 85 The Puritan rector and his 
curate in 1592 were reported to 'wear no surplice,' 
nor did they catechise the youth, and were admon- 
ished accordingly ; it is also stated that ' they want a 
chancel.' 86 In 1610 there was 'a preacher' at the 
parish church, but none at either of the chapels. 87 

The Commonwealth surveyors of 1650 recom- 
mended the subdivision of the parish ; Holland 
Chapel had already been cut off by an Act of 1 646, 
and the committee of Plundered Ministers had made 
several increments in the stipends of the incumbents 
of the chapelries out of Bishop Bridgeman's sequestered 
tithes. 88 After the Restoration both the rector and 
a large number of the Protestants remained firm in 
their attachment to the Presbyterian discipline, while 
the rectory was till 1706 held by the Bishops of 
Chester, among them the learned Pearson. Here, as 
in other parishes, the great increase in population 
during the igth century has led to the erection of 
many new churches and the subdivision of the ancient 
parish, there being now twenty parochial churches in 
connexion with the Establishment, besides licensed 
churches and mission rooms. 89 

There was only one endowed chantry ; it was 
founded in 1338 by Mabel, widow of Sir William de 
Bradshagh, who endowed it with a messuage in Wigan 
and tenements at Haigh. 90 In 1548 the chantry 
priest was celebrating at the altar of our Lady in the 
church according to his foundation. 91 

The charities of Wigan M comprise 
CHARITIES a large number of separate benefac- 
tions, mostly for the poor in general, 
but some especially for clothing or apprenticing boys. 91 

81 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 220. 

M Printed by the Rec. Soc. of Lanes, 
and Ches. p. 14. 

88 A Thomas Baron, perhaps the same, 
had been chantry priest in 1534; Valor 
Eccl. v, 220. 

84 These details are taken from the 
Visitation Lists preserved in the Diocesan 
Registry at Chester. A communion 
table had replaced the altar by 1561 ; 
Bridgeman, op. cit. 136. 

85 Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 248, quoting 
S.P. Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4. The second 
preacher at the parish church was paid by 
the lord of Newton, apparently in con- 
tinuation of the old custom. 

86 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new sen), x, 192. 
Bishop Bridgeman gives a full account of 
the 'old chancel' as it was in 1620. 
Rector Fleetwood had removed the 
' goodly, fair choir seats ' formerly there 
and allowed 'plain, rude seats' to be 
placed instead. The communion table 
stood in the middle of it ; the bishop as 
rector was placed at the west end, his 
' wife, Sec.,' at the east end, his servants 
on the south side ; the ' minister's box ' 
was on the north side, where also the 
clerks had a seat. In the old rood-loft 
the bishop had lately placed an organ ; 
and he built up a ' new chancel,' at the 
east end of the old one. See Bridgeman, 
op. cit. 263, 264. This new chancel 
was several steps higher than the old, and 
contained the altar, 271. 

8 ? Hist. AfSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 13. 

88 Common-wealth Ch. Sur-v. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 59-64 ; Plund. Mins. 
Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 25, 
41 ; ii, 129. 

A list of the modern curates is given 
by Canon Bridgeman, op. cit. 723-9. 

88 An account of the sale of a pew in 

the parish church in 1796 is given in 
Lanes, and Ches. Antij. Notes, i, 128. 

90 Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 213, no. 16-21 ; 
Cat. Pat. 1334-8, p. 468. The chaplain 
was to celebrate at the altar of St. Mary 
in Wigan Church for the souls of Edward 
II, Sir William de Bradshagh, Mabel his 
wife, and others. 

Very few names of the chantry priests 
have been preserved ; Raines, Lanes. Chant. 
(Chet. Soc.) i, 66 : 

1338. John de Sutton, presented by 
Dame Mabel de Bradshagh. 
Richard Fletcher. 

1488. William Holden, presented by 
James Bradshagh, on the 
death of R. Fletcher, 
oc. 1521. Geoffrey Coppull, vicar of 
Mountnessing and chantry 
priest of our Blessed Lady 
at Wigan, aged 56, gave 
evidence in a plea of 1521- 
2 ; Duchy Plead, i, 102. 
oc. 1534. Thomas Baron. 
1535. Vacant. 

1544. Hugh Cookson. In 1541 he 
was paid byThomas Gerard, 
and soon afterwards ap- 
pointed to this chantry. 
In 1553 he had a pension 
of 6oj. 3</., and was fifty- 
one years of age. He was 
not summoned to the 
visitation of 1562, so that 
probably he had died be- 
fore that time. 

91 Lanct, Chant, loc. cit. His duty was 
' to celebrate for the souls of the founders 
and to sing mass with note twice a week.' 
There was no plate, as he used the orna- 
ments of the church. The total rental was 
665. iod., but is. was paid to the rector as 
chief rent, perhaps for a burgage in Wigan. 


M There was an inquiry at Wigan in 
the time of Jas. I concerning 100 
given in 1616 by Hugh Bullock the elder, 
citizen and haberdasher of London, for 
setting the poor of the borough to work 
' in spinning of cotton, wool, hemp, flax, 
and making of fustians, and other stuffs ;' 
it was alleged that the fund was misap- 
plied ; and an order was made, 3 Mar. 
1624-5, to rectify it ; Harl. MS. 2176, 
fol. 32*, 34. 

98 The particulars hereafter given are 
taken from the Char. Com. Rep, xxi 
(1829), 271-319. An inquiry into the 
endowed charities of the parish, except 
the township of Wigan, was made in 

For Wigan township Hugh Bullock of 
London, as recorded in the previous note, 
and Henry Mason, rector of St. Andrew 
Undershaft, London, each gave 100, the 
latter adding 140 later, which in 1632 
and 1639 were conveyed to the corpora- 
tion ; and a farm in Rainford, and lands 
called Bangs in Wigan, and Hall Meadow 
in Pemberton, were purchased. In 1828 
these were underlet at rents amounting 
to ^60 a year, of which only part was 
received by the charity. This was used 
in binding apprentices. In a feoffment 
of 1665 lands at Angerton Moss, Brough- 
ton in Furness, are described as the gift 
of Oliver Markland, citizen and inn- 
holder of London ; this land was sold in 
1706, and with the proceeds, 25, a rent- 
charge of 201. a year on premises in 
Standishgate, Wigan, was purchased ; but 
in 1828 no payment had been received 
for many years, and it was not known 
upon what premises the charge was made. 

John Guest, by will in 1653, charged 
^3 151. upon premises in Abram called 
Bolton House, for cloth to the poor, to be 


Some have been lost. 94 The most important used to 
be the Edmund Molyneux bread charity, being the 
profits of his estate at Canewdon in Essex. 94 

In the following notes the Report of the 1899 

Abram has certain lands, the rents of which are 
devoted to charitable uses, and some minor bene- 
factions. 96 Pemberton also had some small chari- 
ties. 97 At Ince, linen, oatmeal, and gifts of money 

inquiry has been used ; in it is reprinted the Report were provided, 98 but part of the fund is lost ; while 

_^ . * *- A ,1 .> itl 1 *\f +1* A f-ixr^ t- n ififi ^c r\n ** en r"irnr**e *** A fr 

of 1829. 

distributed by the minister of the parish 
church ; in 1828 3 I Of. was divided 
among Wigan and the other townships 
in the parish. 

Robert Sixsmith, by his will dated 
1688, gave two closes in Wigan and one 
in Ince, for the needy people of the town, 
half the rent* being applicable to schools. 
In 1828 the nominal income was about 
30 ; the usual practice was to give to 
each poor person in the districts into 
which the town was divided for distribu- 
tion, so that from zd. to is. was all that 
each received. Gilbert Ford, in 1705, 
left the moiety of a close at Wigan called 
the Bannycroft ; in 1828 the half-rent 
amounted to 3, which was spent in 
linen or flannel garments. 

In 1707 Ellen Wells left 100 for the 
poor, and Richard Wells, her husband, 
,200 for apprenticing boys ; Edward 
Holt in 1704 bequeathed 150 and 75 
for oat bread or other sort for a Sunday 
distribution of bread ; these sums and 
other charitable funds were in 1768 used 
in building a workhouse, and in 1828 
27 6i. 3</. was paid to the churchwar- 
dens out of the poor-rate as interest, 
which was to be laid out according to the 
wishes of the donors in linen, apprentic- 
ing boys, doles of bread, and school fees. 
An inquiry respecting the Wells charity 
is printed in Local Glean. Lanes, and 
Ches. ii, 143. 

John Baldwin in 1720 left doses called 
Barker's Croft and Pilly Toft, charged 
with the payment of 100, which had 
been entrusted to him by Orlando Bridge- 
man for apprenticing two boys each year ; 
T, a year was still paid in 1828. 
William Brown in 1724 augmented a 
bread charity founded by his uncle George 
Brown ; and 2 a year was paid by the 
owner of a farm in Poolstock as interest, 
and laid out in bread. 

Ellen Willis, widow, by her will of 
1726 left a bond for 100 to her sons 
Thomas and Daniel Willis, as trustees, 
and added another ,100 ; Margaret 
Diggles, widow, gave 100 also ; and in 
1 7 3 7, Daniel Willis, the surviving son, and 
William Hulton, conveyed to trustees 
closes called the Page fields in Frog 
Lane, Wigan ; two-thirds of the interest 
was to be spent in clothing for poor per- 
sons ' frequenting the communion of the 
Lord's Supper in the parish church of 
Wigan,' while the other third might be 
used for apprenticing boys. In 1828 the 
rental amounted to about 42, which was 
distributed with the Sixsmith and Guest 

Thomas Mort of Damhouse, in 1729 
gave money for the Throstle Nests or 
Baron's fields, near Gidlow Lane, the 
interest to be spent in binding children as 
apprentices. The rent in 1828 was 16, 
but the trustee being in difficulties, a con- 
siderable sum was in arrears. John Hard- 
man in 1742 left 200 to found a clothing 
charity, and 9 los. a year was available 
in 1828, being spent on woollen coats and 
cloaks distributed by the curate of Wigan. 
James Molyneux, by his will of 1706, 
left his lands of inheritance, as also a 
leasehold messuage in the Wiend, until 
jioo should accrue from the rents to 

at Aspull of the two charities one survives." At 

found a charity for the poor, or for ap- 
prenticing boys. The money was not 
paid, but in 1757 Richard Barry, son and 
executor of Lord Barrymore, who had 
given a bond for the execution of the 
will, gave Houghton House and another 
burgage in Wigan to the corporation to 
fulfil the trust. The lands were leased 
for 1000 years, bringing in total rents of 
11 5*.; but the buildings upon them, 
including tbe Woolpack Inn, were worth 
over ,100 a year in 1828. Philippa 
Pennington in 1758 gave j2OO to found 
two charities, one for the poor generally, 
the other for apprenticing boys in Stan- 
dishgate ; this seems to have been intact 
in 1828. 

In 1899 the following changes were 
reported in some of the charities named. 

John Guest's Charity : The rent- 
charge on Bolton House has been re- 
deemed, and ,140 consols produces the 
income required for the charity. 

Holt's Charity : The workhouse hav- 
ing been sold ,302 was invested in 
consols as the share of this charity. The 
income was practically unused, and has 
recently been applied to found exhibitions 
for poor boys in the grammar school. 

94 John Bullock left a rent-charge of 5 
a year on premises in St. Dunstan's in 
the East, and St. Botolph's to the cor- 
poration of Wigan for the poor ; but in 
1828 no information could be obtained. 
Ralph Sale in 1722 bequeathed to his 
wife Hannah a burgage in Wigan, on 
which, after paying 201. as lord's rent and 
four groats as chief rent to the rector, he 
charged ics. a year for the poor. His 
widow gave ,15, the messuage being 
chargeable. In 1828 the Charity Com- 
missioners could not find which the pre- 
mises were ; only one house in Wallgate 
paid four groats to the rector, and the 
owner, Sir R. H. Leigh, was not aware of 
any charge of that kind upon it. John 
Baldwin, brother of Thomas Baldwin, 
rector of Liverpool, by his will of 1726, 
charged his house with ^3 a year for the 
apprenticing of a child ; but no informa- 
tion as to the premises or the charity was 
forthcoming in 1828. Robert Forth in 
1761 left a charge of zos. for the purchase 
of religious books for the poor ; up to 
December, 1816 this sum had been yearly 
paid to a Wigan bookseller for the purpose 
named, but in 1828 nothing could be 
ascertained as to who was liable. Anne 
Lyonin 1803 left 40 for the poor ; but 
the acting executor died insolvent, and the 
money was lost. 

98 Edmund Molyneux was a citizen of 
London, whose will was dated 8 October 
1613 ; sixty poor people at Wigan and 
thirty at Upholland were to have each a 
penny loaf every Sunday. In 1828 it 
was producing 55 a year, and the in- 
terest was distributed in bread. 

A new scheme was approved in 1889, 
by which the net income is applied for 
the benefit of schools at Wigan and Up- 
holland. Owing to agricultural depres- 
sion the net income has fallen very much, 
being at best only ,9 a year. 

98 Abigail Crook gave 1 2, Thomas Ince 
,40, and others various sums, so that 
95 was laid out in lands, on which a 


schoolhouse and cottages had been erected, 
producing ,18 a year in 1825, laid out 
in linen and blankets. The trustees 
of Thomas Crook distributed 1 a year 
from his foundation in accordance with 
their father's will ; and 6s. 6d. was re- 
ceived for woollen cloth as the interest of 
10 left by William Newton in 1724. 

Elizabeth Bevan of Lowton, widow, 
left 700 in 1833 for a church and school 
in Abram, and the Rev. Nicholas Robin- 
son in 1839 left 20 for the Sunday school. 
Frances Elizabeth Chadwick in 1878 be- 
queathed 200 for the benefit of the poor. 

Dissatisfaction existing as to the ad- 
ministration of the older charities a 
scheme was prepared in 1877, and a new 
one was made in 1897, under which the 
charities are administered by the same 
body of trustees, who have greater liberty 
in the application of the income, which 
now amounts to ,114 a year. 

m Thomas Molyneux gave 20 and 
James Rainford ,10 for the benefit 
of the poor ; the money was devoted to 
building the school, and 30.1. a year was in 
1828 paid out of the rates and given to 
the poor in sums of fid. to each, a ' use- 
less mode of distribution.' Similarly 5, 
arising from ,100 given by James Kitts, 
was distributed in sums of is. each. 
William Worthington's gift of ^10 had 
been lost. Molyneux's and Rainford's 
benefactions have since 1829 been lost, 
and Kitts' is applied improperly to the 
benefit of the schools. 

The Rev. Joshua Paley in 1849 left 
,1,000 for the endowment of the church, 
but the greater part was lost in 1886 by 
the bankruptcy of a solicitor ; ,200 re- 
mains, the interest of which is applied to 
the schools, and a ground rent of 
jg i6i. zd. applied to the choir. Pem- 
berton also shares in the Algernon Eger- 
ton Memorial Fund. 

98 John Walmesley, by his will of 1726, 
gave jioo to his son John and others to 
purchase a rent-charge or estate, the in- 
come to be spent on linen for the poor. 
Edward Richardson directed that for fifty 
years after his death five loads of oatmeal 
should be given to the poor, and this was 
still in operation in 1828. Mary Collier 
in 1684 left ,20, for which it was con- 
jectured zos. a year had been given by 
a Mrs. Anderton, though this her son re- 
garded as a voluntary gift. Peter Whittle 
in 1727 bequeathed 401. out of his mes- 
suage in Ince ; z los. had for long been 
received out of a close called Fillyhey, but 
for some years before 1828 Mr. Legh's 
agent had refused to pay. 

In 1899 it was found that the Walmes- 
ley charity had been in existence as late 
as 1863. For the Whittle charity z is 
still paid by Lord Newton out of Rothwell's 
or the manor-house estate, and is distri- 
buted by the overseers to the poor. 

99 Houghton' s charity was a charge of 
,5 upon an estate called Kirk Lees ; it 
was in 1828 given in doles of is. each. 
James Hodkinson's benefaction produced 
I or. a year, given in money or calico. 

In 1899 the rent-charge of ,5 out of 
Kirk Lees was still paid and distributed to 
the poor ; the ,10 belonging to Hodkin. 
son's chanty had disappeared since 1863. 



Haigh Dame Dorothy Bradshagh about 1775 erected 
a building called the Receptacle, being an almshouse 
for twenty poor persons ; luo there were also a poor's 
stock and some minor charities, most of which have 
been lost. 101 Hindley has linen or flannel charities 
and one or two others. 102 

For the Billinge townships the principal foun- 
dation is that of John Eddleston, who in 1672 
bequeathed his house and lands here for charitable 

uses ; 103 there were several other benefactions. 104 At 
Winstanley are two charities founded by James and 
William Bankes, with incomes of about 20 and iy, 
used to provide cloth and blankets. 1 " 5 In Orrell, 
out of a number of gifts, about 6 a year is still dis- 
tributed in doles of calico. 106 Pimbo Lane House 
and other tenements in Upholland were given by 
Henry Bispham in 1720 and 1728 for the benefit 
of that and neighbouring townships ; 107 there are 

100 The Receptacle in 1828 contained 
ten dwellings, each having a sitting-room 
and pantry below and a chamber above, 
with a little garden attached. The town- 
ships of Haigh, Wigan, Aspull, and 
Blackrod were to benefit. The donor's 
charitable bequest of 3,000 was void by 
the Statutes of Mortmain, but the Earl 
and Countess of Balcarres decided to give 
effect to her charitable designs. The in- 
come in 1828 was about no, of which 
80 was given to the almspeople, 10 to 
the chaplain, and 12 on an average to 
the apothecary. 

In 1899 the annual income was found 
to be 139. Some of the rules as that 
against the use of Bohea or green teas 
are now inapplicable ; but preference is 
still given to Haigh people who have 
worked in the mines ; applicants must be 
over fifty, and adherents of the Established 

101 Ellen Kindsley charged an estate in 
Whittington Lane with i a year, which 
was usually distributed with other chari- 
ties. Ralph Greaves in 1696 gave 20 
for apprenticing children or for the poor ; 
James Monk 20 in 1723 for cloth or 
apprenticing; William Higham in 1729 
a similar sum for linen or woollen ; and 
Sir Roger and Lady Bradshagh in 1767 
each gave 20 to augment the fund ; it 
appears to have been lost before 1828 by 
the practical bankruptcy of the person to 
whom it had been lent. A poor's stock 
of 68 51. existed in 1744, but no infor- 
mation could be obtained in 1828. James 
Grimshaw in 1822 left 40 for the poor. 

For Kindsley's charity in 1899 the rent- 
charge of i on Hilton Farm was found 
to be paid by the Wigan Coal and Iron 
Company ; the money is distributed in 
doles of flannel. All the other charities 
have been lost. 

102 Frances Dukinfield in 1662 left 
four closes in Mobberley for the minister 
of Hindley Chapel, ' So as he should be 
elected or approved by the trustees for the 
time being, by any two or more godly 
ministers, and by the greater number of 
the householders and masters of families 
in Hindley,' and for other charitable pur- 
poses ; in 1828 4 was given for the poor 
of Hindley and Abram from this source, 
being 2 8x. for the former and i izs. 
for the latter, and laid out in linen cloth. 
Randle and Mary Collier also left 60 for 
linen cloth and a further 10 ; and Ed- 
ward Green and Robert Cooper 30 for 
the poor ; all was in practice used for 
gifts of linen. 

In 1899 it was found that 7 ioj. was 
paid out of land at Mobberley in respect 
of the Dukinfield charity ; under a 
scheme sanctioned in 1890 2 los. was 
paid to the vicar of All Saints', Hindley, 
i to the grammar school, i 12*. to 
the trustees of the Abram United Chari- 
ties, leaving 2 81. for distribution in 
Hindley. The other charities have a 
capital of i 51 consols, the interest being 
spent on flannel, which is distributed on 
New Year's Day. 

Richard Mather in 1852 conveyed cer- 
tain lands to trustees for the use of a 
school and for bread for the poor ; but 
the school has been given up, and a new 
scheme was in 1899 being prepared. 
Thomas Winnard in 1860 left 40 for 
the benefit of the poor attending St. 
Peter's, Hindley. The public park and 
the library are also noticed. 

los The estate consisted of a house and 
about 14 acres of land, part of the Black- 
leyhurst estate, on which was a quarry 
called Grindlestone Delph ; it was sub- 
ject to a fee-farm rent of 20*. to John 
Blackburn and his heirs (to Sir William 
Gerard in 1828 by purchase). The use 
was for the maintenance of ' a pious and 
orthodox minister" for Billinge chapel, 
for the school, and the relief of the poor. 
In practice the house and land were 
occupied by the incumbent of the chapel, 
and the profits of the quarry, let for 50 
a year in 1828, to the schools and the 
poor of the two townships of Billinge. 
The gross income in 1899 was 98, out 
of which i ground rent was paid to 
Lord Gerard. The beacon on the hill 
stands on this property. As the quarry is 
becoming exhausted the trustees have 
ceased to distribute the income from it, 
but 10 a year has been given to the poor. 

104 William Bankes in 1775 left 20 
to each of the Billinges, and in 1828 iSs. 
was paid yearly out of the estate of Mey- 
rick Bankes. For Chapel End from the 
same estate was paid 2 izs. a year for 
bread for the poor, which was distributed 
every other Sunday ; in 1786 there was a 
poor's stock of 23 51., the accumulation 
of numerous small gifts, producing in 
1828 231. 4^. from the overseer's accounts 
and expended in linen and woollen cloth ; 
57 resulting from the sale of William 
Birchall's estates, and supposed to have 
arisen from a gift of 40 by Ok ill, 
was in 1799 used to purchase a cottage, 
the rent of which was also spent in linen 
for the poor. The cottage in 1899 pro- 
duced a net income of 4 3*. 6d., distri- 
buted by the vicar in money and cloth- 
ing ; and iBs. was paid to the overseers 
by Mrs. Bankes of Winstanley, and dis- 
tributed in doles of calico or flannel. 
Nothing is now known of the other 
ancient funds. Elizabeth Comber in 1 896 
left 100 for the provision of coals and 
food for the poor at Christmas. 

For Higher End the Digmoor estate in 
Upholland in 1828 produced 10 a year, 
which was added to other charities and 
spent in linen and cloth. The net income 
is now 13 ioi. ; this is added to the 
township's share of the Eddleston and 
other charities, and distributed in doles of 

106 The Rev. James Bankes, rector of 
Bury, in 1742 gave 40 for linen cloth 
for the poor; William Bankes in 1775 
gave 50 j Robert Bankes in 1747, 
100 ; Frances Bankes in 1764, 50 ; 
Catherine Bankes in 1766, 20 ; and 
there were smaller sums, the total being 
402 1 01., yielding in 1828 19 iu., 


which was laid out in linen for the poor. 
William Bankes in 1798 left 400 for 
blankets ; this yielded about 19 in 1828, 
and was spent according to the benefac- 
tor's wishes. On account of the former 
set of charities 19 8j. 6d. is now 
paid by Mrs. Bankes at Winstanley : the 
overseers distribute it in cloth. Wil- 
liam Bankes' benefaction is represented 
by 600 consols ; the income is distri- 
buted in blankets, and ' it is supposed 
that every cottager in the township re- 
ceived a blanket every alternate year.' 

106 Jane Leigh in 1707 gave 10 to 
the poor, William Naylor 8, and Peter 
Parr 4 ; Anne Sandford in 1746 gave 
25 ; in 1828 the agent or trustee of 
Sir Robert Holt Leigh and Meyrick 
Bankes paid i and i 7*. as interest on 
these sums. Out of the poor rates 5*. 
was paid as ' Widow Naylor's Charity.' 
One Holt in 1723 left land called Cross- 
brook, which brought in a rent of 2 ioj. 
These sums were all placed together and 
distributed on St. Thomas's Day to poor 
persons in sums of is. or is. 6d. James 
Thomason in 1786 left 200, of which 
100 had been lost ; the 5 interest on 
the other half was distributed to the poor 
on 25 July. 

In 1899 it was found that i is paid 
yearly by Mr. Roger Leigh, and i js. by 
Mrs. Bankes, on account of the Leigh, 
Naylor, and Parr, and Sandford gifts ; 
Thomason's charity has an income of 
3 175. 4</. The whole sum is given in 
doles of calico. Holt's charity has failed ; 
the land called Crossbrook was owned 
by the late Colonel Blundell. 

lu ' In 1720 he surrendered a messuage 
and tenement with right of turbary on 
Upholland Moss, and land called Moss 
Close, to trustees for the townships of 
Upholland, Orrell, Billinge, and Pember- 
ton, also Rainford and Windle, the yearly 
profits to be spent in apprenticing chil- 
dren ; it was let for 70 a year in 1828. 
Part of the income was used for repairs 
and legal expenses, and the rest divided 
among the townships named and used as 
intended. In 1728 by his will he gave 
Pimbo Lane House and another tenement 
called Sefton's Estate to provide woollen 
garments and oat bread for the poor of 
Pemberton, Orrell, Upholland, Billinge, 
Winstanley, Windle, and Eccleston. The 
gross income in 1828 was 117 io. a 
year, but owing to heavy expenses in 
buildings only about 50 was used for the 
charity, of which 20 was spent on wool- 
len cloth and 30 on oatmeal loaves. 

The income of the charity has greatly 
increased, owing to the development of 
coal mines on the lands, and now amounts 
to about 250, the estate consisting of 
lands and 2,120 consols, chiefly the 
products of mining leases. The charity is 
supposed to be regulated by a scheme 
giving larger powers, authorized in 1891 ; 
but no practical change has been made in 
the distribution of the income, the three- 
fold system of apprenticing, clothing, and 
bread doles being continued . 


here also other charities of considerable value, though 
several gifts have been lost. 108 Dalton has nothing 
for itself. 109 


Wigan, 1199 ; Wygayn, 1240; Wygan, common. 
Pronounced Wiggin (g hard). 

The River Douglas, in its unrestricted days, flowed 
down from the north and turned to the west round 
the hill upon which Wigan Church stands, thence 
running north-westward and northward to the 
Kibble. The township of Wigan consists of the tri- 
angular area inclosed by the river and a line drawn 
across in a north-easterly direction from one part of the 
river's course to the other ; in addition there are the 
district called Scholes on the eastern side, inclosed 
between the Douglas and a brook once called the 
Lorington, and now the Clarington, 1 which formerly 
joined it near the southernmost point of its course ; 
and a small area to the south of the river. It is 
curious that Wigan is cut off by the river from the 
rest of the parish and hundred, and has on the north 
no marked physical separation from Standish, in a 
different parish and hundred. The area is 2,188 
acres, including 47 of inland water. The population 
in 1901 numbered 60,764. 

The church stands on the crest of the hill, which 
slopes away rapidly to the south and more gently to 
the north. To the north-west is the hall or rectory, 
with Hallgate leading to it, and beyond this again the 
Mesnes part of it now a public park or rectory 
demesne lands. Further away in the same direction 
lie the districts known as Gidlow and Brimelow,* the 
latter on the Standish boundary ; while to the west is 
Woodhouses, near the river. 

On the eastern side of the church is a street 
representing the ancient Roman road to the north, 
opening out just at that point into the irregular area 
in which the market was formerly held, and from 
which Market Street goes off to the north-west. As 
the main road goes northward it is called in succession 
Standishgate and Wigan Lane, with Mab's Cross as 
dividing mark, and has Swinley and Whitley on the 

west and Coppull on the east. The ground once 
again rises as the northern limit is neared, attaining 
about 250 ft. 

The same road, descending south from the church 
and turning to the west through the more level 
ground running nearly parallel to the Douglas, is there 
called Wallgate. The border district to the south of 
Wallgate is called Poolstock. 

Another road, called Millgate, begins at the old 
Market-place, and proceeding south-east, crosses the 
Douglas by a bridge, 3 near which was formerly the 
principal corn-mill of the town, and then goes north- 
east through the Scholes and Whelley. There is an 
easterly branch called Hardy Butts, starting near the 
river and proceeding through Hindley towards Man- 
chester, probably on the line of another ancient 
Roman road. 

Around the church and along the main roads men- 
tioned the town of Wigan grew up. As the head of 
a great coal-mining district, the Douglas navigation 
scheme of 1720,* and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, 
opened in 1774, have been of great service ; the Lan- 
caster Canal followed in 1794, and a branch to Leigh 
connected the town with the Worsley Canal. The 
railway companies have also contributed to the pro- 
gress of the place ; the London & North Western 
Company's main line from London to Scotland passes 
through the place,* having a station in Wallgate, to 
the south of the church. The Lancashire and York- 
shire Company's Liverpool and Bury line, opened in 
1848, has a station (1860) in Wallgate, near to the 
church ; the company's Wigan and Southport branch 
(1855) turns off here. More recently the Great 
Central Railway has found access to the town, having 
a station near Millgate, opened in 1892. 

Wigan is identified with the Coccium of the An- 
tonine Itinerary ; it stands at the point where the 
Roman road, north and south, was joined by another 
important road from Manchester. Its position on a 
hilltop, surrounded on two sides of its triangular area 
by a rapid stream, suggests that it had been a British 
fort. Various Roman remains have been found. 6 

The town continued to grow and prosper through- 
out the mediaeval period, and Leland thus describes 

108 Henry Prescot in 1638 gave 20 
for poor householders ; Richard Walthew 
in 1643 gave 130; James Fairclough, 
,250, and others smaller sums ; the 1829 
information concerning the total sum of 
446 131. 4</. was that in 1771 ,376 
had been placed out on private security. 
James Fairclough also gave ,100 to 
establish a bread charity, and in 1828 $ 
a year was received from the rents of the 
Moss estate, and added to the share of 
Edmund Molyneux's benefaction. Thomas 
Barton in 1674 gave to the poor ot Up- 
holland 3 6s. 8<f. charged on an estate 
there, and paid in 1828 ; Thomas 
Mawdesley, by his will of 1728, devised 
his copyhold lands the Little, Rushy, 
and Meadow Baryards to the use of the 
poor as an addition to ' Barton's dole ' ; in 
1828 17 ioj. was received, and, with 
the preceding gift, divided among the poor 
in sums of zs. or zs. 6J. The Rev. 
Thomas Holme in 1803 left ,100 for a 
gift of blankets ; it wa in operation in 

Of the above the Fairclough charity 
has benefited by the working of mines, 
and now has an income of ^40 from the 
Moss estate and 124 from consols aris- 

ing from the investment of mining rents ; 
the money has been distributed indiscrimi- 
nately in doles of bread and flannel, &c. 
The rent-charge of 3 6s. 8</. on Barton 
House Farm is still paid, and distributed 
with Mawdesley's charity, the total vary- 
ing from \6 to 23 a year; tickets 
worth zs. 6d. each are given to the 
selected applicants. The Holme bequest 
produces 4 i6s. a year, expended on 
blankets for the poor. 

109 It shared in the charities of Peter 
Latham (Croston), and Edmund Moly- 
neux and John Gaunt (Wigan). Thomas 
Ashhurst was supposed to have made a 
rent-charge of 25*. to the poor, paid in 
1786 by the owner of Ashhurst Hall; but 
in 1828 nothing could be ascertained. 
The share of the Latham charity coming 
to Dalton is now ,68, and is distributed 
in doles of clothing, valued at from IQJ. 
to ji, and rarely in money gifts. 

1 Bridgeman, Wigan Cb. (Chet. Soc. 
new ser.), 239. Bottling Wood was in 
the northern part of Scholes. 

a Between these and Wigan town the 
Birley Brook flowed south to the Douglas. 

8 This is supposed to have been the 
first bridge constructed over the Douglas. 


In 1348 Henry Banastre of Walton 
granted to John son of Oliver (? Amory) 
the Walker, a strip of land stretching 
from the Millgate and the Stanrygate to 
the Douglas ; also land called the Mill 
Meadow, with a cottage adjoining Schole 
Bridge; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2221. 
In 1477 John Crosse of Liverpool con- 
firmed to John Burgess of Wigan a par- 
cel of land near Schole Bridge, between 
Scholes and the lane leading to Ince ; 
ibid. no. 233$. 

'At am' Bridge, between Wigan and 
Pemberton, was the subject of a dispute 
in 1334; Coram Rege R. 297, m. n 
Rex. Each township should keep in re- 
pair its own half of the bridge, which had, 
however, become so broken that there 
was no longer any crossing. 

4 This scheme was formed as early as 
1711 (Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 
450) ; the Act was passed in 1720 (9 
Geo. I, cap. 28). It was purchased by the 
Leeds and Liverpool Canal in 1783. 

5 As the Preston and Parkside (New- 
ton) Railway this portion of the system 
was opened in 1838. 

6 Watkin, Roman Lanes. 199 ; Pal. 
Note Bk. iv, 133. 



its appearance about 1536 : 'Wigan paved ; as big as 
Warrington and better builded. There is one parish 
church amid the town. Some merchants, some artifi- 
cers, some farmers.' 7 

Apart from its internal growth, the history of Wigan 
is interesting on account of the part taken in the Civil 
War. The townspeople were Royalist, 8 and the Earl 
of Derby appeared to make it his head quarters, its 
central position rendering it very fit for the purpose. 
He placed a garrison there, 9 but on I April 164 3, the 
town was captured by the Parliamentary forces under 
Colonel Holland, after only two hours' resistance. 
Many prisoners were taken, and the soldiers were 
allowed to plunder and carry away what they could. 10 
The Earl of Derby, who was 1 2 miles away, marched 
to its relief, but hearing that the town had surren- 
dered, and that the Parliamentary forces had retired 
after breaking down some of the defensive works, he 
desisted and went to Lathom. 11 A second assault and 
capture took place three weeks later. 1 * In 1648 Duke 
Hamilton's forces occupied Wigan after their defeat 
by Cromwell near Preston, but after plundering the 
people 'almost to their skins,' retired to Warrington, 
pursued by Cromwell. 13 A pestilence followed. 14 

When, in August 1651, the Earl of Derby was 
raising a force for Charles II, he again tried to secure 
Wigan. On 26 August a hot fight took place in 
Wigan Lane between his forces and those of Colonel 
Lilburne. At first the former were victorious, but a 
reserve of horse coming to Lilburne's assistance, put 
the Royalists to flight. Lord Derby took refuge in 
Wigan for a brief time, and after his wounds had been 
dressed, he went south to join Charles at Worcester. 
Sir Thomas Tyldesley and other notable Royalists 
were killed in the battle." 

The Restoration and Revolution do not appear to 
have affected Wigan much. 16 Some of those con- 
demned for participation in the rising of 1 7 1 5 were 
executed here. 17 The Young Pretender with his 

Highland army passed through the town on 28 No 
vember 1745, on his way to Manchester, and again 
on 10-1 1 December on his retreat northward. The 
inhabitants were not molested, but no recruits joined 
the force. 18 

At present the whole of the district is thickly popu- 
lated, the industrial town of Wigan occupying the 
greater part of the township, whilst its collieries, fac- 
tories, &c., fill the atmosphere with smoke. There is, 
however, a fringe of open country beyond the town 
itself, on the north, and here are arable and pasture 
lands, the crops raised being chiefly potatoes and oats. 
The soil is clayey and sandy. The woodlands of 
Haigh in the adjoining township make an agreeable 
background. The Douglas, turning many a factory 
wheel on its way, winds erratically across the district. 
The south-westerly part of the township lies very low, 
and is almost always flooded, the result of frequent 
subsidences of the ground. 

The worthies of the town include Ralph Brooke or 
Brooksmouth, York Herald in the time of Elizabeth ;" 
Henry Mason, divine and benefactor, 1 573 to 1647 ; * 
John Leland, nonconformist divine and apologist for 
Christianity, who died 1766 ;" Anthony Wilson, 
alias Henry Bromley, publisher of catalogues of En- 
graved British Portraits, 1793 ; w John Fairclough, a 
minor Jesuit writer, 1787 to 1832 ; 23 John Roby, 
author of the romances entitled Traditions of Lancashire, 
1795 to 1850;" John Howard Marsden, antiquary, 
1803 to 1891 ; M John C. Prince, minor poet, 1808 
to 1 866 ; * 6 and John Fitchett Marsh, antiquary, 1 8 1 8 
to 1880." 

A number of tokens were issued by local tradesmen 
in the I7th century.* 8 

The printing press is said to have been introduced 
into Wigan about 1760 ; books dated in 1780 and 
later years are known.* 9 There are three newspapers, 
two published three times a week and the other 
weekly. 80 

" Itin. vii, 47. 

8 * Wigan was better manned with sol- 
diers than Preston, it being the next gar- 
rison to the earl's house and the most 
malignant town in all the county ; for 
there were (for anything that was heard) 
not many in it that favoured the Parlia- 
ment;' Lanes. War (Chet. Soc.), 16. 
Wigan, however, had joined in the Pro- 
testation of 164.2 ; Pal. Note Bk. i, 8 1. 

9 The Wigan garrison, ' full of desper- 
ate cavaliers,' had made several assaults 
upon Bolton ; Lanes. War, 32 ; Civil 
War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 63, 81-3. 

19 Lanes. War, 36 ; also Stanley Papers, 
(Chet. Soc.), iii, p. Ixxxvi, where a facsimile 
of the Countess of Derby's letter, an- 
nouncing its fall, is given. See also Civil 
War Tracts, 93, 225-7. 

11 Lanes. War, loc. cit. 

" Civil War Tracts, 98. 

18 Ibid. 263 ; ' a great and poor town, 
and very malignant,' is Cromwell's descrip- 
tion of the place ; see Carlyle, Cromwell 
Let. i, 286, &c., for the details. 

14 Civil War Tracts, 278 ; there were 
' two thousand poor, who for three months 
and upwards had been restrained, no relief 
to be had for them in the ordinary course 
of law, there being none at present (April 
1649) to act as justices of the peace." The 
Wigan registers contain many entries re- 
ferring to the deaths from plague, the last 
burial being on 23 July 1649. 

A petition by the mayor and others in 

1660, addressed to Charles II, states that 
the people of the town had garrisoned it 
at their own charge for the king ; that it 
had been seven times plundered, burdened 
with free quarters, &c., by the Parliament 
army ; and that many estates had been se- 
questered ; Cal. S.P. Dom. 1660-1, p. 119. 

15 Stanley Papers (Chet. Soc.), clxxxiv- 
ix. For the monument to Sir T. Tyldes- 
ley near the spot where he fell, see 
cccxxxiii ; Lanes, and Cbes. Hist, and 
Geneal. Notes, iii, 62. 

A graphic account of the battle is given 
in Lanes. War, 74-6. 

16 Ogilby, writing about 1 670, called it 
' a well-built town, governed by a mayor, 
recorder and twelve aldermen, &c., and 
electing Parliament men.' It had two 
markets, on Monday and Friday, but the 
former was discontinued, and three fairs. 
It was noted for its pit coal, ironworks, 
and other manufactures. A somewhat 
later description, by Dr. Kuerden, giving 
many details, may be read in Local Glean. 
Lanes, and Ches. i, 209, 21 1, 212, 214. 

Bishop Cartwright procured an address 
to James II from the mayor and corpora- 
tion in 1687 ; Bridgeman, op. cit. 570. 
Their action was not popular ; Hist. MSS. 
Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 189. 

Several persons went to Chester in 
1687 to be touched by the king for the 
evil ; their names are given in Trans. 
Hist. Soc. i, 26. 

17 See Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. iii, 

6 9 

70. James Blundell, James Finch, John 
Macilliwray, William Whalley, and James 
Burn, who had been tried and sentenced 
at Preston, were executed at Wigan 10 
Feb. 1716 ; see Pal. Note Bk. iv, 93. 

18 The town was then famous for its 
manufactures of coverlets, rugs, blankets, 
and other sorts of bedding, brass, copper, 
&c., as well as for the adjacent Cnnnel 
coal mines ; Ray, Hist, of Rebellion, 154. 

There is a brief notice of the place as it 
appeared in 1791 in Pal. Note Bk., ii, 275, 
and a description written in 1825 ' n 
Baines, Lanes. Dir. ii, 610. 

19 Pal. Note Bk. iii, 33. 

20 Diet. Nat. Biog. M Ibid. * Ibid. 
23 Gillow, Bibl. Diet, of Engl. Cath. ii, 


** Diet. Nat. Biog. For a note on the 
Rev. James Clayton of Wigan, the inven- 
tor of gas, see Local Glean. Lanes, and 
Ches. i, 140, 248. 

25 Diet. Nat. Biog. M Ibid. V Ibid. 

28 Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. v, 93, 94. 

29 See Local Glean. Lanes, and Cbes. \, 
ii. The 1780 book was a translation of 
Gessner's Death of Abel, printed by R. 
Ferguson, ii, 57. The 'Local Catalogue' 
issued from the Wigan Free Library gives 
a list of nineteen books printed at Wigan 
between 1780 and 1796. At the end is 
a list of printers. 

80 The offices of the Examiner were 
formerly the Public Hall or Mechanics' 


Coal-mining is the characteristic trade of the place, 
but there are large cotton mills also ; ginghams, &c., 
are made. Forges, iron and brass foundries, wagon, 
screw and nail, oil and grease works, and breweries 
are also in operation. The ancient walk-mills show 
that cloth was made here from early times. A gold- 
smith was killed at Wigan in I34I. 31 The potters' 
right to dig clay on the wastes was vindicated in 
1619." ' Digging and delving mines for coals' was 
common in I595- 33 Bell-founding is a lost trade ; it 
was formerly in the hands of the Scott and Ashton 
families. 84 

In 1624 Bishop Bridgeman notified his objection to 
the ' barbarous and beastly game of bear baiting ' at 
the wakes ; but on the mayor's request he allowed 
the baiting to take place on the market hill after the 
market was over and the people had packed up their 

An old Wigan nursery rhyme is printed in Har- 
land and Wilkinson's Legends? 6 

The stocks were formerly near the main entrance 
to the churchyard from Wallgate. There was a cross 
in the market place, where proclamations were made, 
and the base of Mab's Cross, already mentioned, is in 
Standishgate. 38 * 

There was formerly a spa in Scholes. S6b 

The curfew bell, anciently rung at eight o'clock, 
was in 1881 rung at half-past ten. 37 

A body of volunteers, called the Wigan Rifles, was 
raised in 1 8c>4. 38 The present volunteer force con- 
sists of five companies of the 6th battalion of the 
Manchester Regiment. 

In Domesday Book WIGAN is not 
MANOR named ; it was only ' the church of the 
manor ' of Newton, 39 and a century later 
it is the church that brings it forward once more, 
a resident vicar being appointed. 40 The rectors were 
thus from before the Conquest until recently lords of 
the manor of Wigan under the lords of Newton, and 
the rectory was the hall. From the account of them 
already given it will be seen that a large number were 
non-resident, and exercised their authority by de- 

Among the rights which gave most trouble to the 
rectors were those over the mills. Rector Fleetwood 
in the first year of his incumbency (1571) had insti- 

tuted a suit against Hugh, Gilbert, and James Lang- 
shaw to recover seisin of two ancient water-mills, 
described as walk mills. 41 The dispute went on 
for many years. 4 * Bishop Bridgeman, thirty years 
later, complained that William Langshaw was en- 
deavouring to deprive the rector of his ownership 
of the mill. 43 The mills were situated at Coppull 
and a little lower down the river by the school ; in 
1627 they paid a rent of .4 a year to the rector. 44 

The corn mills, of which in the year just named 
there were five, also caused trouble. The principal 
was that on the Douglas in Millgate, of which Miles 
Leatherbarrow was the tenant in i6l7. 45 In Rector 
Fleetwood's time a new water corn-mill was erected 
by Miles Gerard of Ince upon Lorington or Clarington 
Brook, the boundary of the manors of Wigan and 
Ince, and the water-course was diverted to feed it. 
The rectors complained of the injustice done to them, 
but Dr. Bridgeman allowed the mill to stand on con- 
dition that 2Os. a year should be paid for tithe. 46 

In his first year Dr. Bridgeman received 1 6 1 3 s. zd. 
as manor rents, 47 and los. each for seven mortuaries. 48 
It is an indication that there was a 
BOROUGH strong community existing around the 
church to find one of the absentee 
rectors, the busy official John Maunsel, procuring 
from the king a charter creating a borough. This 
was granted on 26 August 1246 to John Maunsel ; 
the town of Wigan was to be a borough and a free 
borough for ever ; the burgesses should have a gild 
merchant, with a hanse and all the liberties and free 
customs pertaining to such a gild ; and no one but a 
member of the gild should do any business in the 
borough except by consent of the burgesses. Further, 
to the burgesses and their heirs the king conceded 
that they should have soke, sac, toll, theam, and 
attachment within the borough, infangenthef, ut- 
fangenthef ; that they should throughout the country 
and sea ports be free of toll, lastage, pontage, passage, 
and stallage ; that they should do no suit to county 
or wapentake for tenements within the borough j 
also that traders, even foreigners, provided they 
entered England peaceably and with the king's leave, 
should be allowed to pass in safety to and from the 
borough with their merchandise upon paying the 
usual dues. 49 

81 Assize R. 430, m. 12 d. 

88 Bridgeman, Wigan Ch. 222. 

88 Ibid. 161 ; see also 242. 

The Industries of Wigan, by H. T. Fol- 
kard, R. Betley, and C. M. Percy, published 
in 1889, gives an account of the develop- 
ment of coal-mining and other trades. 

84 J. P. Earwaker, Trans. Hist. Soc. 
(new ser.), vi, 170 ; N. and Q. (Ser. 10), 
v, 257. The will of John Scott was 
proved in 1648, and that of Jeffrey Scott 
in 1665. William Scott occurs 1670- 
1700; R. Ashton 1703-17, and Luke 
Ashton 1723-50. 

88 Bridgeman, op. cit. 286. 

88 Op. cit. 182. 

* 8a Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xix, 228, 

>6b lbid. 234; quoting from England 
Described, 1788. It had been ruined by 
1824 ; Baines, Lanes. Dir. ii, 612. 

*7 Lanes, and Cbes. Hist, and Geneal. 
Notes, ii, 33. 

88 Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. ii, 182, 
217. The Earl of Balcarres was colonel ; 
there were eight companies, and 552 men. 

V.C.H. Lanes, i, 286. 

40 Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 436. See also 
Engl. Hist. Rev, v, 395. 

4)1 Bridgeman, op cit. 143. In 1316 
Edmund de Standish granted to Aymory 
the Fuller land adjoining a narrow lane 
leading towards the Coppedhull mill ; 
Crosse D. (Trans. Hist. Soc.), n. 27. 

42 Bridgeman, op. cit. 144-6. 

43 Ibid. 225. The defendant relied 
upon the charter of John Maunsel ; he 
was a burgess of Wigan, and had by 
descent from his ancestors divers bur- 
gages in the said borough ; and those 
ancestors had enjoyed his share in the 
mills as parcel of their own inheritance, 
paying the accustomed rent for the same. 
The rector's right to the mills, as part of 
his glebe, was affirmed by a decree of June 
1618 ; ibid. 227, 229. 

44 Ibid. 309. 

45 Ibid. 220, 231. Miles seems to have 
claimed ownership. He died early in 
1628, and his widow Alice begged that 
either she or her son Orlando might be 
admitted as tenant. The bishop told her 
to take comfort, as he had never dealt 
unkindly with his tenants ; but as his 


right to this mill had been questioned he 
had determined to take it into his own 
hands for a time that there might be no 
possibility of dispute in future. On re- 
ceiving thii answer the widow refused to 
give up possession, and Lord and Lady 
Strange took up her cause. The bishop 
promised them that the widow should 
have the mill after a while ; but as she 
still remained obstinate, the matter came 
before the quarter sessions. It was not 
till the end of March 1630 that she finally 
submitted, gave up the key, and allowed 
the bishop to take possession. He re- 
tained it for three weeks, and then ad- 
mitted her as tenant ; ibid. 3208. 

46 Ibid. 240, 241. Two horse-mills 
were allowed to stand, rent being paid to 
the lord ; ibid. 240, 243. 

4 7 Ibid. 189. 48 Ibid. 192. 

49 This charter is known by its recital 
in that of Edw. II ; see Bridgeman, op. cit. 
9, 32. The charters are printed in Sin- 
clair's Hist, of Wigan. See Chart. R. 
7 Edw. II, m. 4, 3 ; 24 Edw. Ill, 145, 
m. 2, 4 ; m. 3, 7. The charter of 1314 
is still preserved at Wigan. 



The rector's concomitant charter grants that the 
burgesses of Wigan and their heirs and assigns should 
have their free town, with all rights, customs, and 
liberties as stated in the king's charter ; that each 
burgess should have to his burgage 5 roods of land ; 
that they should grind at the rector's mill to the 
twentieth measure without payment, should have 
from his wood sufficient for building and burning, 
quittance of pannage and other easements ; and that 
they should have their pleas in portmote once in 
three weeks, with verdict of twelve men and amerce- 
ments by the same ; paying annually to the rector 
I zd. a. year for each burgage for all services. Robert 
Banastre, lord of Makerfield and patron of the church, 
added his confirmation ; as did also Roger, Bishop of 
Lichfield. 50 

The burgesses, 51 regarded as equals, thus became 
the free tenants of the rector, as lord of the manor, 
with the usual liberties, and the special privilege of a 
portmote. The royal charter looks on the place as 
a trading centre and gives internal and external 
privileges accordingly ; these last, which the rector 
could not give, were doubtless the reason for invoking 
the king's help. A later charter, 1257-8, granted 
that the rectors should have a market at their borough 
of Wigan on Monday in every week, and two fairs 
there of three days each, viz., on the vigil, day and 
morrow of the Ascension and of All Saints. 6 * 

In 1292 Adam de Walton, then rector, was called 
upon to show by what warrant he claimed certain 
liberties ; it was asserted that Master Adam and his 
bailiffs had exceeded the terms of the charters by 
trying persons accused of felonies beyond their juris- 
diction, when those persons had placed themselves 
on a jury of their country. In reply to particular 
charges the community of the vill appeared by twelve 
men of the vill. As to the court and liberty of the 
vill they said that these belonged to the rector, and 
they were suitors there. The jury decided that soke 
and sac and other liberties had been granted to the 
burgesses, who did not claim them, and not to the 
rector, who did ; let them therefore be taken into 
the king's hands. As to the taking of emends of the 
assize of bread and beer on the market and fair days 
the rector's claim was allowed ; but as he had 
punished some frequent transgressors at his discretion 
and not judicially, he was at the king's mercy. 53 The 

liberties claimed by the rectors were afterwards re- 
stored, on the application of the guardian of Robert 
Banastre's heiress. 54 

The commonalty of Wigan were sued for a debt 
in I3O4- 55 

In 1314 Robert de Clitheroe obtained from the 
king a confirmation of the charter of 124.6.** 

About 1328 the rector complained that the burgesses, 
his tenants, every day held a market among themselves, 
and with strangers, in divers goods, although these be 
ill-gotten or stolen ; taking toll for such merchandise 
and appropriating it to themselves. They also made 
assay of bread and tasting of beer every day except 
Monday, taking amercements and profits by force and 
power ; all to the prejudice of the rector's market. 57 
Possibly it was on this account that the charter was 
confirmed in I329. 58 

A further confirmation was granted in 1350;*' 
with a special indemnity to the rector and the bur- 
gesses for any abuse or non-claim of the liberties and 
acquittances of former charters. The king also 
granted a view of frankpledge, freedom from the 
sheriffs tourn, cognizance by the bailiffs of the rector 
of all pleas concerning lands, tenures, contracts, &c., 
within the borough ; with many similar and comple- 
mentary liberties. * Moreover, whereas there has 
been a frequent concourse at the said borough, as well 
of merchants and others, for the sake of trading and 
otherwise,' the rectors, as lords of the borough, might 
for ever ' have a certain seal, by us to be ordained, of 
two pieces, as is of custom to be used, for recognisances 
of debts there according to the form of the statutes 
published for merchants ; and that the greater part of 
the seal aforesaid may remain in the custody of the 
mayor or keeper of the borough aforesaid for the time 
being, or other private person of the greater or more 
discreet men of the borough to be chosen for this 
purpose (with the assent of the rector) if there shall 
not be a mayor or keeper there.' M 

As a result of this charter suits by Wigan people 
were frequently stopped in the assize court by the 
bailiffs of the rector appearing to claim the case as one 
for the local court. 61 Another result was prob- 
ably the regular election of a mayor, the language of 
the charter implying that the burgesses had not 
hitherto had such a generally recognized head. There 
are numerous instances of * statutes merchant ' before 

60 Bridgeman, op. cit. 9, 10. Not 
many years later William de Occleshaw 
granted to Simon son of Payn de War- 
rington and Emma his wife a burgage 
and an acre of land in Wigan, rendering 
to the rector of Wigan \2d. yearly, and 
to the grantor a peppercorn. In 1284 
Simon Payn, son of the said Simon (son 
of) Payn, claimed the land; Assize R. 
1268, m. II. Simon Payn and Amabil 
his wife were engaged in suits in 1292 ; 
Assize R. 408, m. jjA. 60. Simon Payn 
of Wigan obtained a house and land here 
in 1336; Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 101. 

61 There does not seem to be any means 
of ascertaining the number of burgages. 
The earliest poll-book, 1627, shows that 
there were then about a hundred in-bur- 
gesses, but does not state their qualifica- 
tions ; Sinclair, Wigan, i, 197. 

52 Bridgeman, op. cit. 33. A charter 
for a fair at All Saints and a market on 
Monday had been secured in 1245 ; Cal. 
Chart. R. 1226-57, p. 284. In 1314 the 

All Saints' fair was changed to the vigil, 
day, and morrow of St. Wilfrid the 
Bishop; Chart. R. 7 Edw. II, m. 4, 4 d. ; 
but in 1329 reverted to the old day; 
ibid. 3 Edw. Ill, m. 6, 14. The autumn 
fair was afterwards held on the vigil, 
feast, and morrow of St. Luke ; Wm. 
Smith, Descr. of Engl. 1588 ; Hist. MSS. 
Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 4. 

68 Bridgeman, op. cit. 31-6, from Plac. 
de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), 371, 372. The 
rector stated that he did not claim utfan- 
genthef, though named in the charter. 

64 Bridgeman, op. cit. 37. There exists 
a petition by the people of Wigan for the 
restoration of their franchises made after 
the death of Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, 
1296 ; Anct. Petitions, P.R.O. 316, 
E 225. 

65 De Banco R. 151, m. 112. In 1307 
there were complaints that Welshmen, 
returning probably from the Scottish wars, 
had been maltreated and killed at Wigan; 
Assize R. 422, m. 4 d. 

66 Bridgeman, op. cit. 41. 


V Ibid. 44. 

48 Ibid. 45. The king granted a tax 
called pavage (for the mending of the 
ways) to the men of Wigan in 1341, Cal. 
Pat. 1340-43, p. 163 ; see also p. 313. 

89 Bridgeman, 48-53. In the same 
year is mentioned the smaller seal for the 
recognizances of debts ; Cal. Pat. 1348- 

5> P- 553- 

60 At the instance of Rector Jame de 
Langton the borough charters were con- 
firmed by Richard II, Henry IV, and 
Henry V at the commencement of their 
reigns in 1378, 1400, and 1413 ; Bridge- 
man, op. cit. 57, 59. 

61 Thus in 1350, when Richard de 
Mitton claimed in the King's Bench a 
messuage in the town from William del 
Cross, who had entry by Robert son of 
John del Cross, the rector's bailiffs 
appeared, made a statement of the 
jurisdictions conferred by the charter and 
drew the case to the local court ; De 
Banco R. 363, m. 203. In subsequent 
years the same thing happened. 


the mayor of Wigan commencing about i37O. 6t 
From a petition of Rector Wyot (1506-19) it 
appears that, ' for a long time past,' the custom had 
been that on a vacancy in the mayoralty the bur- 
gesses elected three of their number and presented 
them to the rector, who chose one to act for the 
ensuing year. 63 

The rectors in the time of Henry VIII, and 
probably much earlier, exercised their authority as 
lords of the borough through a steward and a 
bailiff, with an under-steward who was clerk of the 
court. 6 * 

About 1560 Bishop Stanley began to assert his 
rights as lord of the manor, and he challenged the 
claim to hold markets, 60 fairs, and courts leet put for- 
ward and exercised by the mayor and burgesses. Those 
accused of withdrawing ' did not know ' whether suit 
was due to the rector's law-day or leet, or to his three 
weeks court, though 'most of them had done so, 
until now of late ' ; and they endeavoured to draw 
attention from this aspect of the question by an 
allegation of outrage upon the mayor by one of the 
bishop's servants. Nothing seems to have been done, 
except that the bishop confirmed Maunsel's charter 
to the burgesses. 66 He yielded ' upon fear and for a 
fine of money received,' according to Dr. Bridge- 
man. 67 

Under Rector Fleetwood the struggle was more 
determined. The corporation about 1583 laid claim 
to the lordship of the manor, as lords improving the 
wastes and commons, and letting the houses built 
thereupon ; also digging for coal within the demesnes 
of the manor, and in many other ways usurping the 
rector's rights. They stated that a mayor, two 
bailiffs, and sundry burgesses were annually elected for 
the town and borough of Wigan, which had also five 
aldermen, the Earl of Derby being one ; that 
Maunsel's charter gave the burgesses all the liberties 
in dispute ; and that the moot-hall was their in- 
heritance. They had kept courts, taken waifs and 
strays, &c., in accordance with their right. The 
rector's reply traversed all this, alleging in particular 
that the burgesses had no grant enabling them to 
elect a mayor to be head of the corporation, though 
they had done so ' for divers years ' by usurpation, 
and that the appointment of aldermen was a recent 
usage, * without due rite.' 68 A charter was granted 
about this time, viz. in I585. 69 

A decree in the nature of a compromise was made 
in 1596 by the Chancellor of the Duchy. It was 
ordered that the corporation should keep such courts 
as they had usually kept, except the leets, and take 
the profits to their own uses ; that, as to the leets, 

the rector should appoint a steward to sit with the 
mayor and burgesses or their steward and take half 
the profits. Clay and stone might be dug as cus- 
tomary, but the ways must be mended as quickly as 
possible, and any damage done to the moat round the 
rectory must be repaired. As to the fairs and markets 
and the profits arising from them, the corporation 
should have them as before, but the rector's tenants 
must not be required to pay any increase upon the 
customary tolls. The rents claimed by the rector 
must be paid, with arrears. The question as to the 
improvement of the wastes does not seem to have 
been decided. 70 

The corporation were then left at peace for twenty 
years. Dr. Massie seems to have been very yielding. 71 
Bishop Bridgeman, however, an able man and strong 
in the royal favour, upon being appointed to the 
rectory made a vigorous and fairly successful effort to 
recover certain of his manorial rights as against the 
corporation. 71 The ownership of the markets and 
fairs, with the tolls belonging to them, had been held 
by the town for upwards of fifty years. On 1 7 Octo- 
ber 1617, being the eve of the fair, the rector sent 
his man to the mayor, entreating him not to deal or 
meddle with the fair until the controversy as to all 
these matters had been decided, and inviting the 
mayor and aldermen, &c., to meet him at the pentice 
chamber next morning. At this conference the rector 
desired them to allow him the rights his predecessors 
had enjoyed, without any lawsuits ; they answered 
that he had what his predecessors had, and ought not 
to ask more. The mayor was bold enough to 
challenge the rector's right to the manor, but met no 
support from the burgesses, who acknowledged their 
obligation to pay \zd. for each burgage plot. On 
matters of land-ownership no opposition was made ; 
but when the rector claimed the fairs, markets, courts 
leet, courts of pleas, and courts baron and other 
privileges, the burgesses' reply seems to have been 
firm and unanimous : ' They had a right to them and 
hoped so to prove in law.' No compromise was 
possible, the answer being that they were ' all sworn 
to maintain the privileges of the town.' n 

A special tribunal was appointed, and at the begin- 
ning of 1619 a decision was given : the rector was 
lord of the manor, with a right to the wastes and 
court baron and suit and service of the freeholders 
and inhabitants ; the moot-hall to be common to the 
rector and corporation for the keeping of their courts, 
of which the pentice plea and court of pleas should 
be the corporation's, the leets at Easter and Michael- 
mas being adjudged, the former to the rector and the 
latter to the corporation ; the Ascension-day fair and 

62 Early in 1406 Adam de Birkhead, 
mayor of Wigan, and William de Mede- 
wall, clerk, for taking recognizances of 
debts at Wigan, certified that in March, 
x 37 2 -3 s " William de Atherton came 
before Thomas de Heywood, then mayor, 
and Thomas Clerk, then clerk, and 
acknowledged that he owed his brother, 
Nicholas de Atherton, 100 sterling ; 
which he ought to have paid at the 
Christmas next following, but had not 
done so ; Pal. of Lane. Chan. Misc. bdle. 
i, file 9, in. 38. 

68 Bridgeman, op. cit. 72. 

64 Ibid. 101. Sir Thomas Langton, 
who, as lord of Newton, was chief lord 
of the manor, about this time laboured 
hard to secure appointment as the rector's 

steward, and though rejected he took it 
upon himself to act, making himself very 
obnoxious to the corporation. In 1539 
the mayor and burgesses complained that 
whereas it had been their custom to elect 
a mayor on the Saturday after Michael- 
mas Day, Sir Thomas with a number of 
associates had disturbed the election, and 
declared that he would not take Adam 
Bankes for mayor, though he had 
been duly chosen. A few weeks after- 
wards there was an invasion of the town 
by the Langton faction, which necessitated 
an inquiry by the Crown. It then 
appeared that the disturbers asserted the 
election of mayor to belong to the rector 
of Wigan or his steward ; ibid. 108-11. 
65 A book of tolls 1561-7 is among 


Lord Kenyon's deeds ; Hist. MSS. Com. 
Rep. xiv, App. iv, 4. 

66 Bridgeman, op. cit. 133-8. 

7 Ibid. 213. 

68 Ibid. 147-57. 

69 A contemporary paper copy is extant 
at Wigan. In Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 
253, m. 26, are copies of the earlier 

7 Bridgeman, op. cit. 157, 158. 

7 1 Ibid. 213. Dr. Bridgeman affirmed 
that 'none of his predecessors, except 
Dr. Massie, were without the use and 
possession of all those things which he 
claimed ; or did at least claim and sue 
for them as Mr. Fleetwood did.' Dr. 
Massie was rector from 1605 to 1615. 

7* Ibid. 205. ~ Ibid. 213-15. 


the Monday market to be the rector's, but St. Luke's 
fair and the Friday market to be the corporation's." 

In October 1620 the mayor of Wigan appeared 
in the moot-hall where the justices were sitting at 
quarter-sessions, and, ' putting on his hat before 
them,' claimed the ordering of the alehouses in Wigan, 
as belonging to his leet. The justices objected to his 
manners, and as he refused to find sureties for good 
behaviour sent him to prison ; but their action was 
annulled, though the mayor's action for false im- 
prisonment also failed." 

Bishop Bridgeman in 1622 claimed the pentice 
chamber in the moot-hall as built upon his waste 
within living memory, and appears to have succeeded. 76 
His next correction of the assumptions of the corpora- 
tion was provoked by the latter ; they refused liberty 
to one William Brown to sell his goods, on the ground 
that he was not a burgess. The bishop pointed out 
that they had no right to elect burgesses ; the true 
burgesses were those who paid the lord of the manor 
1 zd. rent for a burgage, and he had made William 
Brown a burgess by selling to him a burgage house 
recently bought of Thomas Gerard of Ince. The 
mayor and burgesses were by this time convinced that 
it was useless to contend with their lord ; they made 
no demur, and asked him to appoint his son Orlando 
as one of their aldermen ; he, however, did not judge 
it well to do so." 

From this time, 1624, till after the Restoration 
there appears to be no record of any dispute between 
rector and corporation. It can scarcely be doubted 
that the Commonwealth period would be favourable 
to the latter, and when in 1662 Sir Orlando Bridge- 
man was selected as arbitrator in a fresh misunder- 
standing, he ruled that though the rector was lord of 
the manor and must keep a court baron, yet in view 
of the municipal court of pleas it was of little im- 
portance except for inquiring into the chief rents due 
to the rector, and preventing encroachments on the 
waste. Hence the court baron was to be held once 
in two years only, in the moot-hall ; no pleas were to 
be held between party and party ; and the mayor and 
such aldermen as had been mayors should be exempt 
from attending. The streets and wastes were to be 
regulated as to encroachments by the rector and 
mayor. Sir Orlando's father had, by his advice, 
leased the rector's Ascensiontide fair and weekly 
market to the corporation ; and the arbitrator recom- 


mended the continuance of this system as 'a great 
means to continue peace and goodwill ' between the 
parties, a lease, renewable, for 2 1 years being granted 
at a rent of five marks a year. The lease included 
tha yearly fair, weekly market, and court leet, and all 
tolls, courts, piccage, stallages, profits, commodities, 
and emoluments belonging to them. 78 

Forty years ago the corporation purchased the 
manorial rights, an agreement being made 9 July 
1860 between the rector and patron on the one side, 
and the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses on the other. 
The rights transferred were the summer fair, the 
Monday market, and various tolls ; quit rents and 
manorial rights in slips of waste lying uninclosed 
adjoining streets in the borough and in mines under 
these slips ; rights in Bottling Wood and the wastes ; 
and the ancient quit rents amounting to 45 3/. \d. 
The price paid was 2,800. The conveyance was 
signed by the rector on 2 September i86i. 79 

The charter of 1662, under which the borough was 
governed down to the Municipal Corporations Act of 
1835, confirmed to the mayor, bailiffs, and burgesses 
of Wigan all their ancient liberties, and ordained that 
the corporation should consist of a mayor and eleven 
other aldermen, a recorder, two bailiffs, and a common 
clerk. The mayor was to be not only a magistrate 
for the borough, but also for the county, but this pri- 
vilege was not maintained. 80 A supplementary charter 
was granted by James II in i685, 81 providing in par- 
ticular that eighteen burgesses might be chosen to act 
as 'assistants,' so that there should be a common 
council of thirty-two in all. The mayor was to be 
chosen yearly ' on the Sabbath day next after the 
feast of St. Michael.' The corporation, like others of 
the time, was a close or self-electing one, the towns- 
men being able to make their wishes known only 
through the jury and court leet. The mayor was 
coroner ex official 

The election of burgesses was in the jury and court 
leet. The corporation had the power of admitting 
non-resident and honorary burgesses to vote at elec- 
tions without limitation ; in 1802 they made a hun- 
dred burgesses in order to rid themselves of the Duke 
of Portland's ' patronage.' 83 

Under the Act of 1835 Wigan was classed with 
other boroughs having a commission of the peace ; it 
was divided into five wards, to each of which were as- 
signed two aldermen and six councillors. 84 In 1888 it 

7* Bridgeman, op. cit. 221, 222. The 
bishop, accordingly, as rector, held his first 
court leet and court baron for the manor 
of Wigan just after Easter 1619, and at 
Ascension-tide his first fair. The matter 
was of great importance as preserving the 
lord's rights, but the profits of the courts 
were barely sufficient to pay the fees of 
the officers ; ibid. 237. 

The following year he discharged one 
William Brown from his service because 
though no burgess he had served in the 
mayor's court, ' as they call it," upon the 
jury. He did so because in former times 
the corporation had claimed the courts as 
their own on finding that servants of the 
rector had sued or served in them ; ibid. 
270, 271. 

7 5 Ibid. 265, 266. 

~ 6 Ibid. 268, 274. On Christmas-eve 
in the same year, ' and properly no market 
day,' he prohibited the Serjeants and 
bailiffs of the town from receiving toll, 
' because the wastes and streets are the 

parson's* ; and the jury were instructed 
to find that the town officers hal wronged 
the lord of the manor by receiving such 
tolls on the Saturday before the wake day. 
The jury demurred to the contention that 
the streets were part of the wastes, but 
gave way, and the tolls collected that day 
were given to the rector ; ibid. 274. 

77 Bridgeman, op. cit. 287. The dispute 
marks another step in the growth of the 
rights of the community ; first was the 
election of mayor ; next, the appointment 
of aldermen ; and thirdly, the co-option 
of burgesses. The last was important, 
because the burgage plots had a tendency 
to become the possession of a very few 

7 8 Bridgeman, op. cit. 486-91. See also 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 441, 
for a declaration in this sense by the cor- 
poration in 1708. 

In 1743 Dr. Roger Bridgeman refused 
to renew the lease, and a lawsuit followed 
which lasted for many years ; ' the result 


appears to have been that the fair and 
markets remained in the rectors' hands, 
but the courts leet were never afterwards 
held by them' 5 Bridgeman, op. cit. 632. 

7 9 Bridgeman, op. cit. 664-71. A list of 
the quit rents is given. They range from 
4</. up to 6 141. 8J., this sum being paid 
by the Canal Company. A considerable 
number were of the exact u., probably re- 
presenting ancient burgage rents. 

80 Pat. 14 Chas. II, pt. xviii, m. 5. 
The charter specially mentions the loyalty 
of the town to the late king ; it therefore 
allowed a sword to be borne before the 

81 The charters of 1662 and 1685 are 
in the possession of the corporation. 

82 Baines, Lanes. Dir. ii, 616. 

83 Ibid, ii, 607. 

84 The wards were : All Saints, the 
central portion of the town around the 
church ; St. George's, a narrow strip along 
the Douglas ; Scholes ; Queen Street, in 
the south ; and Swinley, in the north. 



became a county borough, and in the following year 
a rearrangement of the wards was authorized ; the 
borough was divided into ten wards, each with one 
alderman and three councillors, the membership of 
the council being thus unchanged in number. 85 The 
inclusion of Pemberton in 1904 has caused the in- 
crease of the council to fifty-six members, chosen from 
fourteen wards. 

The old town hall, rebuilt in 1720 at the expense 
of the members for the borough, stood at the western 
side of the market-place. It was pulled down and 
rebuilt in the first half of last century. It stood on 
pillars, the space underneath being subsequently filled 
with shops. The moot-hall, a stone building in 
Wallgate, with meeting-room above and shops below, 
was demolished in 1869, and 'the new town hall' in 
1882, the present town hall and borough courts 
having been finished in 1867. Anew council cham- 
ber was opened in 1890. The county police courts 
date from 1888. The Fish-stones, which were at the 
northern side of the market place, were removed in 
1866. The new market hall was opened in 1877; 
there is a separate fish market. The ancient cloth 
hall was superseded by a commercial hall in the 
market-place, erected in 1 8 1 6. 

The Public Libraries Act was adopted in 1876, 
and two years later there was opened the new free 
library building, presented to the town by Thomas 
Taylor, who died in 1892. A Powell Boys' Reading- 
room, presented by the member for the borough, was 
added in 1895. A school board was created in 1872. 
The mining college was founded in 1858 ; in 1903 
the present mining and technical building was opened. 

The corporation have acquired or inaugurated a 
number of works and institutions for the health and 
convenience of the people. The first Wigan Water 
Act was passed in 1764 ; the waterworks were pur- 
chased by the corporation in 1855 ; the gasworks, 
established in 1822, were acquired in 1875 ; and the 
tramways, opened in 1880, in 1902. An electric- 
power station was erected in 1 900, and the following 
year the corporation electric tramways started run- 
ning. The Mesnes Park was opened in 1878, the 
sewerage works in 1881, public baths in 1882, and a 
sanatorium in 1889. Victoria Hall was built in 
1902. The cemetery was established in 1856. 

A dispensary was started in 1798, and a building 
in King Street provided in 1801, now the Savings 

Bank. The Royal Albert Edward Infirmary was 
opened by the King, then Prince of Wales, in 1873. 

A court of quarter-sessions was granted to the 
borough in 1886. 

Impressions of the borough seal of the I5th century 
are known. 86 The device upon it the moot-hall 
is used as a coat of arms for the borough. 

As a borough Wigan sent two burgesses to the 
Parliaments of 1295 and 1306, but not again until 
1547. From this year the borough regularly returned 
two members until 1885, except during the Common- 
wealth, when owing to its royalist tendencies it was 
disfranchised by Cromwell. 87 In the I7th century 
the burgesses were of two classes in and out ; the 
latter were principally neighbouring gentry, and do 
not seem to have availed themselves to any great extent 
of the privilege of voting. On the other hand a large 
number of the townsmen made strenuous efforts to 
obtain a vote, and in 1639 the mayor, bailiffs, and 
burgesses prepared a memorial to Parliament on the 
subject. This stated that they were ' an ancient cor- 
poration by prescription, and that all such persons as 
are or have been burgesses of that corporation have 
always been received into that corporation by election 
made by the burgesses for the time present of that 
corporation, and have been afterwards sworn and en- 
rolled as burgesses in the burgess roll,' and that from 
time immemorial only such enrolled burgesses had 
voted for the burgesses who served in the Parliament ; 
but at the recent election, after the choice had been 
made but apparently before a formal declaration 
' divers inferior persons, labourers, and handicrafts- 
men, being free only to trade within the said town 
and not enrolled burgesses,' demanded voices. The 
mayor and bailiffs had replied asking them ' to make 
it to appear that they or any others of their condition 
had any time formerly any voices in election of the 
burgesses for the Parliament ' ; they could not prove 
anything of the sort, and so their votes were not 
allowed ; but the mayor and bailiffs, at the instance of 
the elected burgesses, judged it right to inform the 
Parliament concerning the matter. 88 By the Redistri- 
bution Act of 1885 Wigan was allowed but one 
member instead of two as previously. 

A number of families come into prominence from 
time to time in the records. One of the early ones 
took a surname from Wigan itself, 89 another from 
Scholes. 90 Other surnames were Jew, 91 Botling, 98 

88 The central ward is called All Saints; 
to the north is Swinley ward, and to the 
west of both St. Andrew's ward. The 
small but populous district in the south 
has three wards, Victoria and St. Thomas, 
on the west and east, being divided by 
Wallgate ; and Poolstock, to the south of 
the Douglas. Scholes has four wards : 
St. Qeorge and St. Patrick the inner- 
most, divided by the street called Scholes ; 
and Lindsay and St. Catherine outside, 
divided by Whelley. 

88 Lanes, and Ches. Hist, and Cental. 
Notes, iii, 100 ; an impression of it occurs 
among the De Trafford deeds. 

87 Pink and Beaven, Parl. Rep. of Lanes. 
217, where an account of the members 
will be found. 

88 Sinclair, Wigan, i, 222. 

89 In 1292 in various suits appear 
Quenilda widow of Nigel de Wigan, 
Thurstan de Wigan, Henry son of Hugh 
de Wigan, and others ; Assize R. 408, 
m. 54 d, 97, &c. 

About 1 290 Roger son of Orm de Wigan 
was defendant ; De Banco R. 167, m. 
8d. In 1307 Maud widow of Adam son 
of Orm de Wigan claimed dower in Wigan 
lands from Adam son of Roger son of 
Orm; De Banco R. 162, m. 258 d.; 
Assize R. 421, m. 4. Lands of Richard 
son of Adam son of Orm are mentioned 
in 1310; Crosse D. (Trans. Hist. Soc.), 
no. 19. 

Margery widow of Roger de Wigan 
(son of William son of Hugh de Wigan) 
in 1331 claimed certain lands as her 
inheritance. A deed granting portion of 
them to her brother John atte Cross was 
produced, but she denied it to be hers ; 
De Banco R. 287, m. 106. 

90 In 1291 and 1292 Richardson of 
Adam de Scholes claimed various tene- 
ments in Wigan ; his legitimacy was 
denied, but he appears to have recovered 
possession ; Assize R. 407, m. i ; 408, 
m. 3. 

91 Alice widow of Thomas the Jew, 


and Alice wife of Robert the Jew, occur 
in local suits in 1350 ; Assize R. 1444, 
m. 4, 7. 

Robert son of Richard de Ince in 1352 
granted land in the Scholes, adjoining 
John de Longshaw's land, to Hugh son 
of Henry the Jew ; Towneley MS. GG, 
no. 2618. 

In 1383 William de Whittington re- 
leased to William the Jew, chaplain, his 
claim to the land called Jewsneld near 
Whelley Cross; Add. MS. 32106, no. 
1351. William the Jew was a trustee in 
1417; Crosse D. (Trans. Hist. Sot.), no. 

92 William Botling was a burgess about 
1 300. Richard Botling made a feoffment 
of his estate in 1333 ; Crosse D. no. 6, 

John son of William Botling of Wigan 
claimed three messuages, &c., from 
Richard Botling and others in 1344 ; 
Assize R. 1435, m. 45 d. 

Birkhead, 93 Duxbury, 94 Pres- 
ton, 95 Ford, 96 and Scott. 97 The 
Crosse family, afterwards of 
Liverpool and Chorley, were 
long closely connected with 

98 This family held a good posi- 
tion in the town, and furnished 
several of the mayors. There is a 
quaint note concerning the Bilk- 
heads in Leland's Itinerary, vi, 14 ; 
he suggests a relationship with the 
Windermere Birkheads or Birketts. 

In 1308-9 John de Birkhead, son 
of Ralph, granted a burgage to Richard 
del Stanistreet ; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 253. 
John de Birkhead attested various local 
charters down to 1324; Adam de Birk- 
head others from 1377 to 1417 ; in the 
last-named year his son and grandson, 
Henry and John, also attested ; Crosse D. 
nos. 41, 72, 1 26. John Birkhead was living 
in 1434 ; Townelcy MS. OO, no. 1301. 
In 1471 Richard was son and heir of 
Henry Birkhead ; ibid. no. 148. John 
Birkhead appears in 1504 ; ibid. no. 165. 

In 1338 Hugh son of Robert de Birk- 
head claimed from Richard de Birkhead, 
litster, various tenements in Wigan, but 
did not prosecute his claim ; Assize R. 
1425, m. 2. Thurstan de Birkhead and 
John his brother were defendants in 
1356 ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 5, m. 
26 ; and Matthew son of Thurstan de 
Birkhead, in 1376 ; De Banco R. 461, m. 
276 d. Adam de Birkhead and Joan his 
wife were plaintiffs in 1374 ; De Banco 
R. 456, m. 10 d. ; 460, m. 364. Euphe- 
mia daughter of William son of Richard 
de Birkhead, litster or tinctor, demanded 
in 1357 20 acres in Wigan from Sir 
Robert de Langton, Robert his son and 
others ; Pal. of Lane. Misc. 1-8, m. 3, 4, 
5 ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 6, m. 3. 
The younger Robert defended, saying the 
land had been granted to himself and 
Margaret his wife and their issue. 

An undated petition, addressed to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, as Chancellor, 
complained that John Birkhead, feoffee of 
Richard Birkhead, had refused to make over 
an estate in the latter's land to William 
Marsh, the cousin and heir ; Early Chan. 
Proc. 16-528. 

Richard Birkhead, who died in or before 
1512, held land in Rivington and a 
burgage in Wigan ; Joan, his sister and 
heir, was four years of age ; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 26. A later 
inquisition shows that they were the 
children of Hugh, son of Richard, son of 
Henry ' Birkenhead ' of Wigan. The last- 
named Henry, who had another son John, 
had granted nine burgages in Wigan and 
other lands there, held of the rector by a 
rent of 431. 4</., to feoffees who had granted 
five burgages to Maud, the widow of 
Richard Birkhead for her life, and four 
burgages to Elizabeth, widow of Hugh 
Birkhead, who died 16 Jan. 1510-11, ibid, 
v, no. 23. Joan, the heiress, married 
Thomas, son and heir of Thomas 
Tyldesley of Ward ley ; Vitit. of 1567 
(Chet. Soc.), 44. 

94 Thomas de Duxbury was mayor of 
Wigan in 1402-3 ; he or another of the 
name was outlawed in 1420 ; Crosse D. 
(Trans. Hist. Soc.), no. 95, 127. John de 
Duxbury also occurs ; ibid. no. 116, 130. 

9d In 1277 Maud widow of Orm de 
Wigan claimed burgages and land in 
Wigan against William son of William de 
Preston, and Eleanor his wife and others ; 
De Banco R. 21, m. 62 d. About the same 


Wigan : Adam del Crosse 98 appears in 1277, his son 
John in the first half of the I4th century. 99 John's 
son Thurstan 10 was followed by Hugh del Crosse his 
son, 101 after whose death the property went to Richard 
del Crosse of Wigan and Liverpool. He may have 

CROSSE. Quarterly 
gulet and or a cross po- 
tent argent in the Jirst 
and fourth quarters. 

time Adam del 
Crosse obtained 
from the same Wil- 
liam and Eleanor 
a messuage and 14 
acres of land in 
Wigan ; Final Cone. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 153. 

From one of the Crosse D. (no. 19), 
dated 1310, it appears that Eleanor de 
Preston was a daughter of Nicholas de 
Wigan, clerk ; this charter concerns land 
in Henhurst Meadow, Hitchfield, Lorri- 
mer's Acre, Loamy Half acre, Hengande 
Half-acre, &c. ; the Stonygate is men- 

Adam Russell of Preston had land here 
in 1307; De Banco R. 163, m. 214 d. 
For Henry Russell see Lanes. Inq. and 
Extents (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 275. 

96 There were two families of this name, 
of Swinley and of Scholes ; see Bridge- 
man, Wigan Ch. 259. They supplied 
many mayors. In Oct. 1864 representa- 
tives of James Horrocks of Spennymoor, 
claiming to be the heir of Robert Ford 
who died in 1772, took possession of the 
4 Manor House ' in Scholes and were be- 
sieged for some days, to the excitement of 
the town. 

7 4 Roger Scott's land ' is mentioned 
in 1323 ; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2561. 
Roger ton of Roger Scott of Wigan in 
1 345 complained that Robert del Mouri- 
hilles had been wasting lands 'held by 
the law of England* ; De Banco R. 345, 
m. 95 d. Further particulars of the family 
will be found in the account of Pember- 

98 About seven hundred of the family 
deeds are contained in Towneley's MS. 
GG (Add. MS. 32107), no. 2196-905. 
Some of these and others are printed in 
the Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), v-ix, 
Crosse D. no. 1-224. 

The first of the family of whom any 
particulars can be stated is the Adam del 
Crosse, 1277, mentioned in a preceding 
note. Two grants to him are known, 
one being of land in Holywell Carr; Crosse 
D. no. 7; Towneley's GG, no. 2535. To 
his daughter Ellen he gave land in the 
Rye Field and Holywell Carr ; Crosse D. 
no. 13. She was living in 1292 ; Assize 
R. 408, m. 32 d. Adam del Crosse was 
also living in 1292 ; ibid. m. 32. The 
Adam son of Richard del Crosse of 1311 
(Crosse D. no. 20), was probably a different 
person. The de Cruce of Latin deeds also 
appears as ' de la Croyz,' 4 atte Crosse,' 
and 'del Crosse.' The family seems to 
have come from Lathom ; Crosse D. no. 5. 

In 1277 Richard, rector of Wigan, had 
a dispute with William del Crosse as to 
whether the latter's toft belonged to the 
church of Wigan or to a lay fee ; De 
Banco R. 18, m. 54. 

99 John son of Adam del Crosse was 
defendant, with others, in a plea of mort 
d'ancestor in 1295 ; Assize R. 1306, m. 
20 d. Later he had various disputes with 
Alan son of Waltsr the Fuller, husband 
of his sister Ellen. As early as 1299 he 
released all his right in the lands his 
father had given Ellen on her marriage, 
and in 1315 a final agreement was made ; 


Towneley MS. GG, no. 2638, 2435 ; 
Crosse D. no. 14, 23. He was a de- 
fendant in 1292 in two Wigan cases, 
Henry de Leigh being one plaintiff, and 
Hugh son of William the reeve the 
other ; Assize R. 408, m. 54, 76. 

In 1304 he had a grant of land in the 
Strindes in the islands of Wigan, on the 
east side of the high road from Wigan to 
Out-town Bridge ; Crosse D. no. 14*. In 
1324-5 he granted to his son Thurstan 
on the latter's marriage the burgage upon 
which his capital messuage was built ; 
another burgage which he had received 
from his sister Margery; the Greater Hey 
called the Eiclyves, and other lands ; 
with remainders to the grantor's son 
William, and to his daughter Maud, wife 
of Henry Banastre ; ibid. n. 36. In 
1329, by fine, Henry Banastre of Walton 
secured from John del Crosse four messu- 
ages and lands in Wigan ; Thurstan son 
of John and the rector of Wigan putting 
in their claims ; Final Cone, ii, 73. 

About the same time Robert de 
Clitheroe the rector called on John del 
Crosse to render an account for the time 
he was the rector's bailiff" in Wigan, viz. 
from Michaelmas 1313 till the end of 
August 1316, during which time the 
profits of three mills, markets, and fairs 
amounted to ,160 ; and from September 
1316 to 4 April 1324, during which 
time the issues of the church as in 
corn, hay, beasts, great tithes, small tithes, 
oblations, obventions, and other profits, 
amounted he said to ,1,500. The money 
receipts during the same period amounted 
to 335 I1J - 7^- At the trial John did 
not appear, but the jury decided against 
him and he was committed to the Fleet 
Prison ; De Banco R. 279, m. 61. In the 
following year the rector sought to make 
it clear that four messuages and lands 
held by John del Crosse and Thurstan 
his son were free alms of the church of 
Wigan and not their lay fee ; De Banco 
R. 283, m. 147. John seems to have 
died about this time, and Thurstan only 
is named in the following year ; ibid. R. 
285, m. 15 d. 

100 Thurstan del Crosse and Emma his 
wife were plaintiffs in a Wigan dispute in 
1334; Coi am Rege R. 297, m. 6. 
Thurstan appears as witness to charters 
from 1346 to 1367 ; Towneley MS. GG, 
no. 2753, 2423. He was defendant in a 
suit of 1355 ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 
4, m. 6. 

101 Hugh son of Thurstan del Crosse 
made sundry grants in 1370, charging an 
annual rent of i mark on his Wigan lands 
in favour of William son of Adam de 
Liverpool, who seems then to have 
married Katherine widow of John son of 
Aymory ; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2269, 
2896. In 1382 he made a feoffment of 
his lands in Wigan and Leigh ; Crosse D. 
no. 75 ; and in 1386 he was mayor of 
the town ; ibid. no. 80. He appears to 
have died about 1392. Katherine his 
widow, afterwards wife of Thomas de 
Hough, in 1403 granted to trustees the 
lands she had had from her late husband ; 
Towneley MS. GG, no. 2343. In 1395 
the feoffees of Hugh del Crosse gave lands 
received from him to his son Henry, with 
remainders to his widow Katherine (for 


been a descendant of Aymory the Walker, who appears 
to have been a Crosse also. 101 The Marklands were 
prominent up to the beginning of the 1 8th century. 103 
A number of deeds concerning the Marsh family have 
been preserved by Kuerden. 104 Other surnames were 
derived from various trades carried on here. 105 In 
few cases can any connected account be given of 

By an inquisition taken in 1323 it was found that 
one William de Marclan had held two messuages and 
two acres of land and half an acre of meadow in 
Wigan of the rector by the service of I ^d. yearly, and 
other lands in Shevington of Margaret Banastre. He 
granted them to feoffees, who in turn granted a moiety 
to Robert de Holand. The last-named at Christmas 
1317 assigned an annual rent of zgs. 6d. out of his 

life) ; to Imayne daughter of Hugh and 
Katherine ; to William and to Gilbert, 
brothers of Hugh ; ibid. GG, no. 2356. 
These are not heard of again. 

From all this it appears that Katherine, 
vrho was a daughter of Adam son of 
Matthew de Kenyon (Crosse D. no. 56), 
was four times married : (i) to John son 
of Aymory, about 1366 ; (2) to William, 
on of Adam de Liverpool, who died in 
1383 (ibid. no. 77); (3) to Hugh del 
Crosse, who died about 1392 ; and (4) to 
Thomas de Hough, of Thornton Hough 
in Wirral, who died in 1409 ; see Ormerod, 
Chei. (ed. Helsby), ii, 549, 550 (from p. 
576 it appears that Thomas had a pre- 
vious wife, also named Katherine). She 
had issue by the three earlier marriages. 
She was itill living in 1417 ; Crosse D. 
no. 126. The pedigree recorded in 1567 
Visit. (Chet. Soc. 107) gives her yet 
another husband, William de Houghton, 
the first of all ; but this may be an 

102 Adam del Crosse, who heads the 
pedigree, had another son William, who 
may have been the William del Crosse 
already mentioned in 1277. In 1292 
William son of William the Tailor of 
Wigan claimed a tenement from William 
*on of Adam del Crosse on a plea of mort 
d'ancestor ; Assize R. 408, m. 46 d. 
This William married Emma daughter 
of Thomas de Ince. The widow in 1316 
released to John del Crosse all her right 
in her husband's lands in Ormskirk ; 
Towneley MS. GG, no. 2384. 

There seems, however, to have been 
another of the name, for in 1331 Isolda 
widow of William de Cros complained 
that she had been deprived of 401. rent 
from a messuage and 60 acres in Wigan ; 
Assize R. 1404, m. 18 d. 

In 1329 Aymory the Walker, son of 
William del Crosse, granted to feoffees all 
his lands in Wigan ; these were regranted 
forty years later, with remainders to 
William, John, Henry, and Thurstan, 
sons of Aymory ; Towneley MS. GG, 
no. 2513, 2556. 

An Aymory the Walker appears as 
early as 1309, when William the Frere 
granted him half a burgage next to the 
half-burgage he already held ; ibid. GG, 
no. 2588. In 1316 he had a grant from 
Richard de Ince ; ibid. GG, no. 2654. 
In 1 345 Lora widow of Robert de Leyland 
granted to Aymory the Walker land called 
the Souracre ( ' Sowrykarr ' ) in Wigan ; 
ibid. GG, no. 2544 ; and in the same 
year he is named in De Banco R. 344, m. 

Before 1 347 John son of Aymory had 
acquired land near Standishgate from Adam 
son of John Dickson, whose divorced wife 
in that year released all claim to it ; 
Towneley MS. GG, no. 2568. A little 
later he purchased land in Liverpool from 
Adam son of Richard de Liverpool ; ibid. 
GG, no. 2576. In 1347 William son of 
Aymory granted to Thomas son of Henry 
Fairwood a toft lying in the Wirchinbank; 
ibid. GG, no. 2604. In July 1359 Wil- 
liam son of Aymory the Walker and 

Isobel his wife were non-suited in a 
claim against Agnes, widow of Aymory ; 
Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 7, m. 3 d. 
William had a son Aymory, who about 
1380 made a feoffment of his lands in 
Wigan; ibid. GG, no. 2567, 2534. In 
1388 Aymory the Walker leased the 
Priestsacre in Botlingfield to Richard de 
Longshaw ; Crosse D. no. 96. 

John son of the elder Aymory in or 
about 1366 married the above-named 
Katherine daughter of Adam de Kenyon ; 
Crosse D. no. 56 ; see also Towneley MS. 
GG, no. 2550. He died in 1369, leaving 
three sons by her, Richard, Nicholas, and 
Thurstan; Crosse D. no. 66. In 1377 
Robert de Picton, cousin and heir of 
Robert Barret of Liverpool, released to 
William son of Adam de Liverpool, 
Katherine his wife, and Richard son of 
John Aymoryson of Wigan, all actions ; 
Towneley MS. GG, no. 2713. 

It is uncertain whether the Richard 
del Crosse who followed Hugh was the 
latter's son or the Richard son of John 
Aymoryson and Katherine born about 
1367. The latter is the statement in the 
Visit, of 1567, and has probabilities in its 
favour. The charters state Richard 
del Crosse to have been the son of 
Katherine, but do not name his father, 
and he is not named in the remainders to 
Hugh's feofFment of 1395. Richard del 
Crosse first occurs in the charters in 
1400-1 (when, if he were son of Hugh, 
he could not have been of full age) ; 
Towneley MS. GG, no. 2526 ; Crosse D. 
no. 96. On the other hand, in a writ 
excusing him from serving on juries, 
dated 1445, he is said to be over sixty 
years of age, while Richard the son of 
John and Katherine would have been 
nearly eighty years of age ; Towneley 
MS. GG, no. 2286. In 1423-4 Richard 
Aymory son of Henry Aymoryson (i.e. 
son of Aymory son of William) released 
to his ' cousin ' Richard del Crosse all his 
right in land which had belonged to 
Aymory the Walker, son of William, son 
of Aymory de Wigan ; Towneley MS. 
GG, no. 2511. 

Richard del Crosse prospered. He was 
receiver for Lady Lovell (ibid. GG, no. 
2199) ; and acquired lands in Liverpool 
and Chorley at the beginning of the I5th 
century. Settling in the former town he 
and his successors had little further direct 
connexion with Wigan. A schedule of 
lands in Wigan included in the marriage 
settlement of John Crosse and Alice 
Moore in 1566 is printed in Crosse D. 
no. 224. Some of these were sold in 
1591 and later years ; Pal. of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. 53, m. 13, &c. For a com- 
plaint by John Crosse regarding trespass 
on his lands at Wigan see Local Glean. 
Lanes, and Ches. ii, 203. 

108 A pedigree was recorded at the Vltlt. 
of 1664 (Chet. Soc.), 193. A descendant 
acquired Foxholes in Rochdale by marriage 
with an Entwisle heiress ; Fishwick, 
Rochdale, 411. The surname is derived 
from Markland in Pemberton. Adam 
son of Richard de Marklan(d) attested 

a charter dated about 1280; Matthew 
and Henry one in 1323 ; Crosse D. no. 

3 34- 

John and Matthew Markland occur in 
the time of Richard II, and John son of 
Matthew Markland in 1413 ; Kuerden 
MSS. ii, fol. 253. John Markland of 
Wigan, mercer, occurs in 1443 and 1445 ; 
Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 5, m. I ; 7, m. 2, 
6 d. Alexander son of Matthew Mark- 
land was one of the receivers of the per- 
secuted priests in 1586 ; Bridgeman, 
Wigan Ch. 166, quoting Harl. MS. 360. 
Ralph Markland, as a landowner, contri- 
buted to the subsidy in 1628 ; Norris D. 

Captain Gerard Markland had served 
in a regiment of horse raised for the 
Parliament, but disbanded in 1648, after 
which he applied for arrears of pay. He 
may be the alderman Gerard Markland 
who left ^5 to the poor of Wigan ; Cal. 
of Com. for Compounding, i, 173 ; Bridge- 
man, Wigan Ch. 716. A short letter of 
his is printed in Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. 
xiv, App. iv, 62. 

104 Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 253. Grants 
of land were made to Roger del Marsh by 
Richard son of Adam son of Orm de 
Wigan and by Adam son of Roger son 
of Orm de Wigan in 1322 and 1336. In 
1323-4 John son of Robert del Marsh 
granted his inheritance to John del Marsh 
and Roger his brother. 

John son of Roger del Marsh gave 
land in Scholefield to Robert de Lai- 
thwaite and Anabel his wife. 

In 1398-9 Adam del Marsh received 
from the feoffees the lands he had granted 
them with remainders to Roger his son 
by his first wife ; this seems to have been 
upon the occasion of his later marriage 
with Joan, daughter of Hugh de Win- 

Deeds of the time of Hen. VI show 
the succession ; Roger s. William, who 
married Isabel s. Robert, whose wife 
was Margaret. 

In the time of Hen. VIII the lands of 
this family appear to have been sold to 
Thomas Hesketh. 

105 T^ following occur in the I4th 
and 1 5th centuries : -Baxter, Bowwright, 
Carpenter, Ironmonger, Litster, Lorimer, 
Potter, Skinner, Tanner, Teinturer, 
Walker, and Wright. 

Three minor families occur in the Visi- 
tations. The Rigbys of Wigan and Peel 
in Little Hulton recorded a pedigree in 
1613 ; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 65. In 1664 
Colonel William Daniell of Wigan re- 
corded a pedigree ; Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. 
Soc.), 95. Also the Pennington family ; 
ibid. 232. David de Pennington and 
Margery his wife occur in pleas of 1374 ; 
De Banco R. 455, m. 424d. ; 457, m. 
341. Margery afterwards married Richard 
del Ford, and in 1384 a settlement by 
fine was made between them and John 
de Swinley and Alice his wife concerning 
the latter's inheritance ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 2, m. 27. 

For the Baldwins of Wigan see Pal. 
Note Bit. i, 54. 



share to Aline the recluse of Wigan for her mainten- 
ance. This payment ceased when Sir Robert's lands 
were forfeited ; whereupon the recluse petitioned for 
its restoration, and inquiry was made. 10 * 3 

William Ford and the widows of James Houghton 
and Nicholas Standish contributed to a subsidy of 
Mary's reign as landowners. 106 The following were 
returned as freeholders in 1600 : Gilbert Barrow, 
Peter Marsh, Oliver Markland, William Foster, Ham- 
let Green, Charles Leigh, William Burgess, Edward 
Challenor, John Tarleton, Gilbert Bank, Ralph Mark- 
land of Meadows ; Thomas Molyneux and E Iward 
Laithwaite of Wigan Woodhouses ; Alexander Ford 
of Swinley, William and Hugh Langshaw, and 
William Bankes of Scholes. 107 William Ford contri- 
buted to the subsidy of 1628 as a landowner. 108 

Wigan people generally were royalists, but William 
Pilkington was in 1650 singled out as a 'grand 
delinquent ' ; he escaped with a fine of 29 5/. 109 
Minor offenders against the Parliament were Robert 
Baron, William Brown, and William Tempest. 110 
The following ' papists ' registered estates at Wigan 
in 1717 : Nicholas Mather of Abram, Richard 
Tootell, Thomas Naylor of Orrell, Gilbert Thornton, 
Thomas Scott, gent., John Thornton, Dr. Thomas 
Worthington, and Anne Laithwaite of Berwick. 111 

The parish church has been described above. The 
first additional church in the township in connexion 
with the Establishment was St. George's, between 
Standishgate and the Douglas, consecrated in 1781. 
A district was assigned to it in 1843, and this became 
a parish in 1864, on the resignation of Sir Henry 
Gunning, rector, as did the two following : 11J St. 
Catherine's, Scholes, consecrated in 1841, had a 
separate district assigned in 1843."* There is a small 
graveyard attached. St. Thomas's, consecrated in 
1851, had in the following year a district assigned 
to it. 114 The rector of Wigan is patron of the above 
churches. St. James's, Poolstock, was consecrated in 
1866, for a district formed in 1863. The patronage 
is vested in Mr. J. C. Eckersley. 114 St. Andrew's, 
Woodhouse Lane, consecrated in 1882, had a district 
assigned to it in 1 87 1. 116 The church of St. Michael 
and All Angels, Swinley, was consecrated in 1878 
as a chapel of ease to the parish church, and became 
parochial in i88i. 117 The patronage of these two 
churches is vested in the rector of Wigan. 

The various bodies of Methodists have in all eight 
churches and mission-rooms, the Wesleyans having 
two, the Primitive Methodists three, the Indepen- 
dents two, and the United Free Church one. The 
Wesleyans have also built the Queen's Hall, a large 
structure opened in 1908. 

A Particular or Calvinistic Baptist congregation 
was formed in 1795 by seceders from the Countess of 
Huntingdon's Connexion (St. Paul's) ; 118 the chapel 
in King Street was opened in 1854. There is 
another chapel in Platt Lane. 

What provision was made by those who became 
Nonconformists by the Act of 1662 does not appear. 
In 1689 William Laithwaite's barn was certified as a 
meeting-place of the Wigan Dissenters, 119 and two 
years later Roger Kenyon knew of two meeting-places, 
one held by Mr. Green, the supporter of Presby- 
terianism in Hindley, and the other by ' dissenters who 
do furiously dissent from each other.' m An ' old 
English Presbyterian congregation ' is mentioned in 
1773, and a little later William Davenport, also 
minister at Hindley, was in charge. He was pro- 
bably a Unitarian, but after his death the chapel was 
about 1 797 secured for the Scottish Presbyterians, who 
have retained possession to the present time. Trinity 
Presbyterian Church was built upon the old site in 
l8 77 . m 

The Congregationalists formed a church about 
1777, probably as a protest against the Unitarianism 
taught at the existing chapel ; in 1785 they opened 
a chapel, now St. Paul's Congregational Church. 
For some time it belonged to the Countess of 
Huntingdon's Connexion. Becoming ' unhealthy ' 
in 1839, it was dissolved and reformed. 1 " A new 
Gothic church replaced the old building in 1902. 
A new minister coming to Wigan in 1812 drew a 
congregation from dissatisfied Nonconformists, and a 
chapel was opened in 1818. Hope Congregational 
Church, opened in 1889, is a short distance from this 
older chapel, and continues its work. m Silverwell 
Congregational chapel originated in a secession from 
St. Paul's in 1867 and continued till 1888, when it 
was bought by the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincoln- 
shire Railway Company. 1 * 4 There is a chapel in 
Gidlow Lane. 

The Welsh Presbyterians have a place of worship ; 
the Christian Brethren have two ; and the Catholic 

105a Inq. a.q.d. 17 Edw. II, no. 137; 
Anct. Petitions, P.R.O. 150-7470. 

106 Mascy of Rixton D. 

W Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 239-43. Richard Molyneux of Wigan 
Woodhouses was trustee for lands in 
Orrell in 1522 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. n, m. 192. Thomas Molyneux 
was buried at Wigan, 18 Nov. 1611. 
John Molyneux of the same place fol- 
lowed ; Lanes. Inq. f>.tn. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 279. In the same work 
(ii, 1 54) is the inquisition taken after the 
death of John Lowe of Aspull, who died 
in 1619, holding lands in Wigan. 

108 Norris D. (B.M.). 

109 Cal. of Com, for Compounding, iii, 
2175. 'It was by his aid that the Earl 
of Derby got into Wigan ; he helped in 
its defence, assisted Prince Rupert with 
hay and money, and told the Earl of 
Derby that all the Wiganers would go 
with the Prince to York or Liverpool 
and turn out the Roundheads ; and when 
ethers refused, he went himself.' He 

had an estate of great value, which he had 
gone to London to underrate. 

110 Ibid, iv, 2913 ; iii, 1804, 2011. 

111 Engl, Catb. Nonjurors, 97, 124, 125, 
136, 144. At the time of the Oates Plot 
Dr. Worthington of Wigan and his son 
Thomas fled into Yorkshire for fear of 
an indictment; Lydiate Hall, 125, 126. 
'Old Dr. Worthington ' in 1682 entreated 
Roger Kenyon to withdraw the warrant 
out against him ; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. 
xiv, App. iv, 1 39 ; Dr. Thomas Worthing- 
ton was with other suspected persons im- 
prisoned in 1689 ; ibid. 314. 

112 Bridgeman, op. cit. 783 ; Land. Gats. 
I Aug. 1843 ; 28 July 1863. Under an 
Act obtained in 1904, St. George's will 
be removed to the east side of the Douglas. 
The Rev. Benjamin Powell, incumbent 
from 1821 to 1860, was the father of 
Sir Francis Sharp Powell, bart., M.P. for 
Wigan from 1885 to the present. 

118 Bridgeman, op. cit. 786 ; Lond. Gas. 
i Aug. 1843; 14 June 1 864; I4jan.i868. 
There is a mission church in Whelley. 


114 Bridgeman, op. cit. 788 ; Lond. Gax. 
24 Feb. 1852 ; 14 June 1864 ; 19 May 

116 Bridgeman, op. cit. 788 ; Lond. Gaz. 

i May 18635 2 * J ulv J ^ 6 3 > 5 Au S' 
1870. There are two Eckersley memo- 
rial brasses in the church. There is a 
licensed chapel at Worsley Mesnes. 

116 Bridgeman, op. cit. 789 ; Lond. Gam. 
28 Mar. 1871 ; 28 Apr. 1871 ; 13 Apr. 
1883. The incumbent, the Rev. W. A. 
Wickham, has given assistance to the 

U 7 Bridgeman, op. cit. 790 ; Lond. Gea. 
5 Apr. 1881 ; 15 June 1883. 

118 Nightingale, Lanes. Nonconformity, 
iv, 84. For notice of the congregation 
in 1798 see Rippon, Bapt. Reg. iii, 21. 

119 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. 
iv, 232. 

120 Ibid. 270. 

121 Nightingale, op. cit. iv, 67. 
" Ibid, iv, 74. 

128 Ibid, iv, 84. 
124 Ibid, iv, 88. 


Apostolic Church has a meeting-room. There are 
two unsectarian mission-rooms. 

The Swedenborgians have a meeting-place called 
New Jerusalem. 

Something has already been recorded of the loyalty 
of a large number of the people of Wigan to the 
ancient faith at the Reformation. 115 In 1681 there 
were ninety-one ' convicted recusants ' in Wigan, and 
an attempt to levy a fine for recusancy a result of 
the Protestant agitation of the time led to a riot. 1 -' 6 
The Jesuits were in charge of the mission. In the 
time of James II they had a flourishing school and 
well-frequented chapel, but at the Revolution the 
excited mob destroyed the buildings and the work 
was stopped for a short time. 127 The Society of 
Jesus, however, still possesses the ancient property. 
Fr. James Canell is known to have been there in 
1696, and died at Wigan 1722. Fr. Charles 
Brockholes built a house about i 740, the upper room 
being designed as a chapel. 1 * 9 Near this a chapel 
was built in 1785, and enlargement being necessary 
it was replaced by the present church of St. John 
in 1819. It is still served by the Jesuits. 130 The 
other churches, served by secular clergy, are St. Mary's, 

Standishgate, built in 1818 ; 130a St. Patrick's, Scholes, 
founded in 1847 and rebuilt in 1880 ; St. Joseph's, 
1870 ; and the Sacred Heart, Springfield, 1903. A 
convent of Sisters of Notre Dame is served from 
St. John's. 1 " 

The grammar school was founded before 1596. 


Pemberton, 1212. 

Pemberton is cut off from Wigan on the north-east 
by the River Douglas, and from Ince on the east by 
another brook running into that stream. Through 
the township runs eastward the brook dividing Orrell 
from Winstanley. Going north from this brook on 
the eastern side are found Hindley Hall, Worsley 
Hall, Newtown, Laithwaite House, Marsh Green, 
Walthew House, and Markland l ; and on the 
western side Tunstead, and Lamberhead Green, 
Norley, Kit Green, and Orrell City. To the south, 
on the eastern side lie Smithy Brook, Worsley 
Mesnes, Goose Green, Hawkley, 8 and Wheatlees. The 
lowest ground is that in the Douglas valley ; the 
surface rises to the south-west, where a height of 

125 E.g. in the account of Rector Fleet- 
wood. In 1580 the sons of Ford of 
Swinley and Marklard were being edu- 
cated beyond the seas, * where they were 
accustomed and nourished in papistry ' ; 
Gibson, Lydiatc Hal!, 218, 226, 240. 
For Alexander Markland see Foley, Rec. 
Sac. Jesus, vi, 14.7; Douay Diaries, 12, 
321, &c. For James Ford, ibid. 12, 
202, &c. 

In 1583 the Bishop of Chester described 
the ' papists ' about Preston, Wigan, and 
Prescot, as ' most obstinate and con- 
temptuous,' and desired the Privjr Council 
to arrange ' to deal severely and roundly ' 
with them ; ibid. 222 (from S.P. Dom. 
Eliz. clxiii, 84). 

The story told by John Laithwaite, 
born at Wigan in 1585, gives a picture 
from the other side. He was the son of 
Henry Laithwaite by his wife Jane Bolton, 
and he and three brothers became Jesuits 
and two of them laboured in England. 
He stated, on entering the English college 
at Rome in 1603, 'I made my rudiments 
at Blackrod under a Protestant school- 
master, with two of my brothers ; but 
being a Catholic, our parents removed us 
and we received instruction at home from 
a Catholic neighbour for about half a year. 
At length it was arranged for our attend- 
ing schools at Wigan until we were older, 
and that I did for four years or more. 
My father's family is descended from the 
Laithwaites, a wealthy family of the 
middle class. 

' For his faithful adherence to the 
Catholic religion my father was driven 
away by the Protestants, and compelled 
to abandon all his property and posses- 
sions, and seek an asylum in another 
county, until at length, by favour of 
Henry Earl of Derby, he was reinstated 
in his property, but rather in the con- 
dition of a serf, totally dependent upon 
the pleasure and ambition of the earl, 
who had the power of committing or dis- 
charging him at will. He was thus 
enabled to live quietly and securely at 
home, protected by the earl from the in- 
sults of the heretics, for the space of two 
fears ; after which, at the earl's pleasure, 
he was thrown into Lancaster Gaol, but 
was liberated after two months, on ac- 

count of corporal infirmity, and returning 
home with health completely broken, he 
died a fortnight after. 

' My mother, who is descended from 
the ancient stock of the Boltons, per- 
severing in the Catholic faith, about three 
years after my father's death suffered the 
loss of her whole property ; but death 
at length released her from all her tri- 
bulations.' A Joan Laithwaite, widow, 
of Pemberton, was 'a recusant and in- 
dicted thereof in 1590 ; Lydiate Hall, 

' I have five brothers, of whom the 
eldest, upon my mother's death, yielding 
to the solicitations and threats of many 
and the dread of the loss of his property, 
unhappily lapsed into heresy. . . . My 
second brother is a Catholic, and (as I 
hear) is a priest in Spain. My third 
brother is now a Protestant. In the first 
or second year after my mother's death 
he was seized by the pursuivants who are 
employed to hunt down the Catholics, 
and was taken before the Bishop of 
Chester, who endeavoured both by threats 
and blandishments to entice him to 
heresy, but in vain, for he preferred 
torture and death itself to abandoning 
his religion. But it seems his words 
were widely different from his actions, 
for having been discharged from custody, 
being under age, he was afterwards se- 
duced by a certain intimate friend and, 
now, though utterly ignorant, yet he is 
obstinate, and as he declares, acts by the 
inspiration of the Spirit. My fourth and 
fifth brothers were always brought up 
Catholics ; the younger of them is now in 
grammar at Douay. I have two sisters, 
both Catholics ; one married, one still a 
child. I was always a Catholic.' Foley, 
Rec. Soc. Jesus, iv, 641, 642. The stories 
of the other brothers fop. cit.) are full of 

The Recusant Roll of 1641 shows but 
few names in Wigan township ; Tram. 
Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiv, 239. 

128 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 
128, 132. The bailiffs made a distress 
on the goods of Anne, widow of Richard 
Pennington, for a fine of 100. A great 
disturbance ensued ; the bailiffs were kept 
imprisoned in the house for an hour and 


a half, and on venturing into the street 
were set upon by ' some hundreds,' and 
the distress rescued, the men hardly 
escaping with their lives. 

12 7 Foley, op. cit. v, 319. 'Some of 
the fathers resided there and taught 
several classes, numbering more than a 
hundred scholars. . . . There were con- 
stant sermons, which the mayor, or chief 
magistrate of the town, and his suite were 
accustomed to attend. . . . The Society 
had very large chapels in other places, 
which were much better attended than 
the neighbouring Protestant churches.' 
These sentences are from the Annual 
Letters of 1685, &c. In 1687 Bishop 
Leyburn confirmed 1,331 persons. 

Dr. Kuerden passing through Wigan 
about 1695, after crossing the Mill 
Bridge from Scholes, saw ' without the 
bars, a fair built house lately styled a 
college, with officers of learning belong- 
ing to it, but since violently pulled down, 
and the ruins thereof yet remaining, but 
neither Romanist master nor scholars are 
left.' Thence by the bars he passed into 
Millgate ; Local Glean. Lanes, and Cbes. 
i, 214. 

128 Foley, op. cit. v, 405. His stipend 
in 1701 amounted to ^"31 4?., of which 
^10 came from the people ; ibid. 321. 

129 Ibid, v, 406. His income in 1750 
was 47 101., of which 18 came from 
his family and 6 IQS. from the congre- 
gation ; sixty general confessions were 
made (for the Jubilee), and the ' cus- 
tomers ' or attendants numbered 300. 
Bishop Matthew Gibson confirmed 230 
in 1784, when there were 660 Easter 
communions ; in 1793 the numbers were 
285 and 300 respectively. The return 
made to the Bishop of Chester in 1767 
shows an increase of 'papists' from 594 
in 1717 to 1,194 in the main portion 
of the parish, apart from the chapel- 
ries ; Trans. Hist. Sec. (new ten), xviii, 

180 Liverpool Catb. Ann. 1901. 

isoa p or t}j e controversy about it see 
Gillow, Bibl. Diet, of Engl. Catb. iv, 270. 

181 Liverpool Cath. Ann. 1901. 

1 Ancient spellings : Marclane, 1276 j 
Marghlands, xvi cent. 

2 Or Hawcliff. 



245 ft. is attained. The area is 2,894 acres. 3 The 
population in 1901 was 21,664, including Goose 
Green, Highfield, Little Lane, and other hamlets. 
The whole district is unpicturesque, bare and open, 
occupied for the most part by collieries, mine shafts, 
and pit banks. There are, however, fields where 
some crops are raised, potatoes and oats surviving the 
smoke of the environs. Pastures are scattered about 
also. The soil is clay and loam, over Coal Measures 
and stone. 

There are several important roads. That from 
Ormskirk to Wigan enters the township at Lamber- 
head Green and passes through Newtown, where it is 
joined by the road from St. Helens through Billinge, 
and by that from Warrington to Wigan, through 
Goose Green. This last road has a branch to Wigan 
through Worsley Mesnes. The principal railway is 
the Lancashire and Yorkshire Company's line from 
Liverpool to Wigan, which has a station called 
Pemberton ; a loop line, avoiding Wigan, goes east 
to join the Wigan and Bolton line. The same 
company's Wigan and Southport railway crosses the 
northern corner of the township. There are minor 
lines for the service of the collieries. 

The Local Government Act of 1858 was adopted 
by the township in 1872.* The board was changed 
to an urban district council of fifteen members by the 
Act of 1894. It has now been dissolved and the 
township added to the borough of Wigan, with four 
wards each returning three councillors and having an 

A hospital was erected in 1886 by the local board. 
A public park was given by Colonel B. H. Blundell 
in 1903 ; and a Carnegie library has been opened. 

Coal-mining is the principal industry. There are 
stone qurrries. boiler works, iron foundry, cotton 
mill, and brick-making. The soil is loam and clay, 
with subsoil of clay, stone, and coal ; potatoes and 
oats are grown, and there is some pasturage. 

The pedestal and portion of a cross exist at Goose 
Green. 5 

There was formerly a burning well at Hawkley. 6 

At Lamberhead Green in 1775 was born William 
Atherton, a Wesleyan divine, president of the Con- 
ference in 1846. He died in i85o. 7 

Before the Conquest, as afterwards, 
M4NOR PEMBERTON seems to have formed one 
of the berewicks or members of the manor 
of Newton. 8 It is so regarded in the inquisitions. 9 

During the 1 2th century it was held in thegnage by 
a certain Alan, 10 whose son Alan, settling at Windle, 
was known as Alan de Windle. At the Survey of 
1 212 the latter was holding Pemberton, assessed 
as two plough-lands, by the 
rent of 2Os. and the service 
of finding a judge for the 
court of Newton. 11 Like other 
Windle properties this mesne 
lordship may have descended 
to the Burnhulls" and Ger- 
ards 1S ; no record of it occurs 
in their inquisitions, but Sir 
Thomas Gerard, who died in 
1621, held certain lands in 
the township 'of the lords of 
Pemberton.' " It seems, how- 
ever, to have been alienated 
to the Walton family, 15 and 

so to have descended with Northlegh or NORLET 
to Legh of Lyme. 16 

The first Alan de Pemberton had created a sub- 
ordinate manor for a younger son, known as Adam de 
Pemberton. 17 He in 1212 was holding it of Alan de 
Windie, and had granted out a quarter of it to 
Henry son of Lawrence, who in turn had granted an 
oxgang, i.e. a quarter of his share, to Alan son of 
Aldith. 18 Adam de Pemberton made grants to the 
Hospitallers 19 and to Cockersand Abbey. 10 He was 

a chrvercn btfwtcn thret 
buckets iablt with hoops 
and handles or. 

8 2,895, including 15 acres of inland 
water ; CensuD of 1901. 

* Land. Gaz. 20 Aug. 1872. 

Lanes, and Cbes. Antij. Soc. xiv, 235. 

6 Baines, Lanes, (cd. 1836), iii, 563, 
quoting Bowen's Geog. Roger Lowe re- 
cords that on i June 1665 he went to 
*ee the burning well at Pemberton, ' and 
we had two eggs which was so done by 
no material fire ' ; Local Glean. Lanes, 
and Cbes. i, 1 80. 

7 Diet. Nat. Biog. 

V.C.H. Lanes, i, 286. 

9 See for example Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
{Chet. Soc.), i, 138; ibid. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches. ), i, 105. 

10 In the Pipe Roll of 1200-1 the 
sheriff rendered account of 10 marks from 
Alan son of Alan for having seisin of the 
land of Pemberton and for his relief; 
also for a writ of right against Nicholas le 
Boteler, formerly deputy sheriff, concern- 
ing 40$. already paid ; Farrer, Lanes. Pipe 
R. 132, 141. 

In 1202 Edusa, widow of Alan de 
Windle, claimed dower in Pemberton 
from Alan on of Alan ; Final Cone. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 37. 

11 Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 75. 

18 See the case cited below. 

18 In the inquisition made in 1447 
after the death of Sir Peter Gerard it was 
found that he had held messuages, lands, 
and tenements, rents, and services in 

Pemberton, but the jurors did not know 
of whom they were held ; Towneley 
MS. DD, no. 1465. 

14 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 300. 

15 Alan de Windle granted to Master 
Adam de Walton the homage of Adam 
son of William de Pemberton, and this 
being transferred to Adam de Walton, 
lord of Walton le Dale, was by him 
granted to Thurstan de Northlegh in 
1316 ; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, 
509. In 1292 Adam de Pemberton was 
nonsuited in a claim against Adam de 
Northlegh ; Assize R. 408, m. 43. In 
1305 Adam de Pemberton claimed est- 
overs as against Thurstan de Northlegh 
and Maud, the widow of Adam de North- 
legh, and his claim was allowed ; Abbrev. 
Plac. (Rec. Com.), 258*. Adam de Pem- 
berton acknowledged that Thurstan and 
Maud had a right to housebote and 
haybote without view of the forester, but 
they had cut down their wood beyond 
due measure, 93 oaks having been re- 
moved ; Coram Rege R. 184, m. 53. By 
a fine of 1321 7 messuages, 2 oxgangs 
and 37 acres of land and 5 acres of 
meadow in Pemberton were settled upon 
Thurstan de Northlegh and Margery his 
wife ; Final Cone, ii, 40 ; see also ii, 3 3, 
43. Margery, widow of Thurstan de 
Northlegh, occurs in 1346 ; Assize R. 
1435, m. 31. 

18 Robert de Legh of Adlington and 


William de Radcliffe of Smithills married 
respectively Maud and Katherine, daugh- 
ters and co-heirs of Thurstan de North- 
legh in Pemberton, by his wife Margery, 
daughter and heir of John de Walton ; 
Ormerod, Cbes. (ed. Helsby), iii, 66 1 ; 
Lanes. Inq p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 35 ; 
Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, 256-9. 

In 1448 Robert Cantsfield of Pember- 
ton, holding of Peter dc Legh, had a 
dispute with John Pemberton 5 Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 12, m. 2, 14. 

In the inquisition (1528) after the 
death of Sir Piers Legh his lands in 
Pemberton were said to be held directly 
of Thomas Langton ; Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. vi, no. 63. In right of Norley 
the Leghs of Lyme had a chapel in 
Wigan Church, which was given up to 
the rector in 1682; Bridgeman, Wigan 
Ch. 694. 

V Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 75. That 
Adam was son of the elder Alan appears 
from the Burnhull case cited below. 

18 Ibid. It is probable that one of 
these grants is represented by Tunstead. 

19 Ibid. 76. No grant in Pemberton is 
mentioned in the list of the Hospitallers' 
lands in 1292 in the Quo War. or 
in the rental of 1 540. 

20 Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
668-71. He gave land called Ashbern 
ridding, within bound* starting at the 
Douglas and going up Whittle Brook to 
Flax ridding ; across the carr to the syke 


still living in i 246." His descendant William died 
about 1292," leaving a son Adam, 13 who in 1331 
made a settlement of the manor, his son William, 
who had married Eleanor, being the heir.* 4 

In or before 1362 William died, leaving Eleanor 
a widow," with six children. Thurstan, the heir, 
was a minor, and his wardship was in 1367 claimed 
by Robert de Legh and William son of Robert de 
Radcliffe, in right of their wives. 1 * Thurstan died 
soon afterwards and his five sisters were his heirs. 
One of these died young ; the other four each had a 
share, and it is easy to trace the descent of two : that 

of Emma, who married Robert de Hindley of 
Aspull ; * 7 and of Katherine, who married Alexander 
de Worsley. 18 The family of Molyneux of Rainhill 
had Hawkley in Pemberton, and in 1578 acquired a 
fourth part of the manor. 29 As late as 141 5, how- 
ever, the lord of the manor was said to be Henry de 
Pemberton. 30 

But few particulars can be given of the descent of 
the various portions of the manor. HINDLET HALL 
became the property of Meyrick Bankes of Winstanley, 
and is held by his trustees. 31 The Worsleys of 
JTORSLET MESNES " were succeeded by the Downes 

between Stephen's assart and the charcoal- 
man's assart, and by the syke to the 
Douglas. He also granted an assart 
which Randle de Pemberton had held, 
and another called White's cross. Henry 
son of Lawrence released his share of 
these lands to the canons. 

The abbot shortly afterwards (before 
1235) gave them to William son of 
Richard White of Wigan, who had 
married Hawise, daughter of Adam de 
Pemberton, at a yearly rent of ^^d. ; 
ibid. 671. About 1268 John the Smith 
held these lands by the same rent and a 
payment of a mark at the death of wife 
or heir ; ibid. 668. For the inquisitions 
after the death of Edmund the Smith of 
Pemberton in 1408,866 Lanct. Inq. p.m. 
(Chet. Soc.), i, 92. 

31 Assize R. 404, m. 9. Adam de 
Pemberton sued Peter de Burnhull for 
200 acres in Pemberton, of which Alan, 
the plaintiff's father, was seised in the 
time of Henry II, i.e. before July 1189. 
The decision was committed to the hazard 
of a due), and Adam's man Philip being 
defeated, Peter de Burnhull was allowed 
to hold the land in peace. The sureties 
for Philip were Alan de Windle, William 
and James de Pemberton, and John del 
Marsh. See also Assize R. 454* m - 2 5- 
At the same time Adam de Pemberton 
was summoned to answer Robert son of 
Hugh, who complained that the lord of 
Newton compelled him to do service to 
the three-weeks court at Newton, which 
Adam as mesne tenant should perform. 
Robert's tenement was 1 7 acres, for which 
he paid a rent of jd. ; Assize R. 404, 
m. 12. 

Adam and William his son, together 
with James de Pemberton, were charged 
with having disseised William White, 
John del Marsh, and Adam his brother of 
their common of pasture in Pemberton ; 
ibid. m. 2. Peter de Burnhull also 
claimed 6 acres in Ince from Adam de 
Pemberton, William his son, and James 
son of Henry; ibid. m. I2d. The last 
may be the James de Pemberton of the 
preceding case ; then the father may be 
the Henry son of Lawrence of 1212. 

22 The exact relationship is uncertain. 
A case in 1254, in which an Adam son 
of William was defendant, alludes to 
William de Pemberton as if he were then 
dead ; Cur. Reg. R. 1 54, m. 20. In 
1292 William son of Roger de Ince 
acquired a messuage and two oxgangs in 
Pemberton from William son of Adam de 
Pemberton and Mary his wife ; Final 
Cone, i, 176. Two years later Mary, 
widow of William, did not prosecute the 
claim she mide against Adam son of 
William son of Adam de Pemberton ; 
Assize R. 1299, m. 14 d. John son of 
William de Pemberton was of full age in 
1292 ; Assize R. 468, m. 27 d. 

28 Adam de Pemberton was both 

plaintiff and defendant in 1292 ; Assize 
R. 408, m. 58d. 43. Adam and Henry 
de Pemberton were jurors in 1293 ; Lanes. 
Inq. and Extents, i, 276. Hugh de Pem- 
berton, enfeoffed by Adam de Pemberton 
(probably the grandfather), recovered 
seisin of a messuage, mill, &c., against 
Adam de Pemberton and Robert de Rode; 
Assize R. 1306, m. 16. The fine of 1304 
(Final Cone, i, 203) may refer to a later 
agreement between the parties. 

84 Ibid, ii, 79. 

William son of Hugh de Pemberton 
is mentioned in 1343 ; Assize R. 430, 
m. 26. 

Hugh de Pemberton, rector of Brindle, 
was about this time engaged in a number 
of disputes and settlements in Pemberton; 
possibly he was the younger son of Adam 
mentioned in 1331. In 1356 Thomas 
de Pemberton and many others, including 
Henry de Pemberton the elder, Henry 
his son, Edmund and Lawrence de Pem- 
berton, and several 'nailers,' were con- 
victed of having disseised Rector Hugh of 
two messuages and lands in Pemberton ; 
Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 5,m. 5. Roger 
de Winstanley was defendant in another 
case; ibid. m. 5 d. In 1365 and 1366 
Emma, widow of Roger de Winstanley, 
who afterwards married John de Ince, 
brought a suit against the same Hugh ; 
De Banco R. 421, m. 504 d. ; 425, m. 
253 d. See also Final Cone, ii, 153. 

35 In 1362 Eleanor, widow of Adam 
[William] de Pemberton, and other 
executors of the will of William son of 
Adam de Pemberton, gave half a mark 
for a writ respecting a false judgement ; 
Fine R. 163, m. 7. 

26 De Banco R. 427, m. 236 ; 463, m. 
389, from which it appears that four of 
the daughters had by 1376 married as 
follows : Agnes to Alexander de Lynalx, 
Katherine to Alexander de Worsley ; 
Alice to Roger son of Richard de Ather- 
ton, and Emma to Robert de Hindley. 
The other daughter was named Joan. 

V See above, and Visit, of 1613 (Chet. 
Soc.), 117. In 1531 it was found that 
Hugh Hindley of Aspull had held six 
messuages, 60 acres of land, &c., and a 
water-mill in Pemberton, of Thomas 
Langton in socage, by the rent of 101. per 
annum, i.e. a moiety of the ancient thegn- 
age rent of the whole manor ; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 22. He had two 
of the shares, as will be seen below. 

28 The relationship of Alexander to the 
main Worsley stock is unknown. An 
Alexander son of Richard son of Henry 
de Worsley occurs in 1334, but can 
scarcely have been the husband of 
Katherine ; Coram Rege R. 297, m. 120. 

In October, 1431, a writ of redisseisin 
was issued in favour of Robert de Sankey, 
Hugh de Hindley, and Alice de Parr, 
against William dc Worsley and Alice, 
widow of Jordan de Worsley, regarding 


lands and tenements in Pemberton and 
Hindley ; Dtp. Keeper 1 * Rep. xxxiii, App. 
32. Hugh Worsley of Pemberton is 
mentioned in 1470 ; Towneley MS. GG, 
no. 2671. For a curious claim made after 
his death see Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 109. 

The Worsley portion of the manor was- 
in 1611 said to be held of Richard Fleet- 
wood, baron of Newton, by a rent of 5*. 
the service for a quarter of the manor ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanct. and 
Ches.), i, 172. 

29 From the preceding note it will be 
seen that a quarter of the manor is un- 
accounted for. Nothing further is known 
of William de Pemberton's daughter 
Agnes, wife of Alexander de Lynalx. 
Alice, who married Roger de Atherton,. 
may have been ancestor of the Athertons 
of later times. 

It appears from the last note that 
Robert de Sankey and Alice de Parr were 
lords of the manor in 1431, in addition 
to the Worsleys and Hindleys. One of 
the latter married a Parr heiress, appar- 
ently the Alice de Parr just named, so 
securing the estate they had later in Parr 
and a second quarter of the manor of 
Pemberton. The Sankey quarter seems 
to have descended to Thomas Sankey and 
Thomas his son and heir apparent, who 
in 1578 sold it to Thomas Molyneux of 
Hawkley, in whose family it afterwards 
descended ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
40, m. 171. 

80 Lanct. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 103. 
Henry, son of Henry de Pemberton, who- 
had brothers William and Peter, occurs in 
1430 ; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2675 ; and 
Henry de Pemberton in 1447 ; Lanct. Inf. 
p.m. ii, 54. 

81 A moiety of the manor of Pember- 
ton, i.e. the Hindley portion, was in the 
possession of Robert Bankes of Winstanley 
in August 1721, and appears to have 
descended with Winstanley ; Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 515, m. 4; 571, m. 6 d. ;. 
628, m. 7. 

82 The family attained some promi- 
nence in the i6th century. The Wors- 
leys of the Isle of Wight were the most 
conspicuous offshoot ; Sir James Worsley, 
their founder, in 1526 complained of the 
destruction of fences in the Crossfield ; 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 140. Sir 
James's will is in P.C.C. Ralph Wors- 
ley obtained a grant of Birkenhead 
Priory. Ottwell Worsley was concerned 
in various suits in 1525 ; ibid, i, 130, 
133. A pedigree was recorded in 16135. 
Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 72. 

James Worsley purchased land in Pem- 
berton from Sir Robert Worsley o 
Booths and Robert, the latter's son and 
heir apparent, and Elizabeth his wife, in 
1562; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
24, m. 61. 

James Worsley in 1570 had a dispute 



of Wardley, 33 and their estates are now held by the 
Earl of Ellesmere. 34 The Molyneuxes of HAWK- 
LET continued in possession until the death of 
Bryan William Molyneux in l8c>5. 35 By his will the 
Rev. William Hockenhull of Lymm in Cheshire 
succeeded, and assumed the surname of Molyneux. 33 

Hawkley, however, was afterwards sold, and is now 
the property of the trustees of Meyrick Bankes. 37 

The estate called TUNSTE4D was in the possession 
of a branch of the Pembertons during the whole of 
the 1 5th century. 38 One of the daughters and co- 
heirs of George Pemberton then carried it by mar- 

with James Winstanley and Thomas 
Taylor respecting lands abutting on Salters- 
ford Brook ; Ducafus Lane. (Rec. Com.), 
ii, 403. (It may be stated by the way, 
that an Adam the Salter and his wife 
Juliana had a tenement in Pemberton in 
1292 ; Assize R. 408, m. 44.) James 
Worsley died in September 1590, holding 
the capital messuage or manor house 
called the hall of Worsley, and other 
houses and lands, of Thomas Langton by 
a rent of 5*. } Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
XT, no. 29. 

His brother Ralph succeeded. He was 
one of the * comers to church but no 
communicants' in 1590; Lydiate Hall, 
246. He had spent some time in Salford 
gaol for religion in 1582 ; Engl. Martyrs 
(Cath. Rec. Soc.), 23-5. Dying in 1610 it 
was found that he had held the ' hall of 
Worsley ' in Pemberton with messuages, 
lands, and rents there, and in Parr, Win- 
Stanley, Wigan, and Hindley. The Pem- 
berton lands were held of Richard Fleet- 
wood in socage, by a rent of 51. but part had 
belonged to Upholland Priory,and was held 
of the king by the two-hundredth part of 
a knight's fee and 21. rent. His widow 
Ellen was in possession in 1611, and his 
heirs were his sister Alice, aged sixty 
years, and Roger Downes of Wardley, 
son of another sister, Elizabeth ; Lanes. 
Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 

An account of the sinking of a coal pit 
on his estate in 1600 is printed in Lanes. 
and Cbes. Antiq. Soc. vii, 49-53. 

83 Roger Downes represented Wigan in 
the Parliaments of 1601 and 1620 ; Pink 
and Beaven, Parl. Rep. of Lanes. 223, 
224. He was buried at Wigan 6 July 
1638. A monument to his grandson 
Roger, who died in 1676, is in Wigan 
Church. See the pedigree in Dugdale, 
Vhit. (Chet. Soc.), 100, and the account 
of Worsley. 

84 In a fine concerning the Wardley 
estates in 1741 George Lewis Scott was 
plaintiff and James Cholmondeley and 
Penelope his wife were deforciants ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 327, m. 80. 
Lady Penelope sold them to the Duke of 
Bridge water in 1760. 

85 Some particulars as to this family 
will be found in the accounts of Rainhill 
and Whiston. 

The Visit, of 1567 suggests that their 
coming to Pemberton was due to marriage 
with the heiress of the Ince family. Gil- 
bert de Ince of Hawkley occurs in 1374 ; 
Inq. a.q.d. 48 Edw. Ill, no. 19 ; see also 
Coram Rege R. 426. John Molyneux of 
Hawkley occurs in 1469 and 14901 ; 
Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 245, no. 1012 ; 
Towneley MS. GG, no. 2537. 

An agreement was made in 1512 be- 
tween Richard Molyneux of Hawkley or 
Hawclifte and Thomas Gerard of Ince 
for the marriage of the former's son 
Richard (? Roger) with the latter's daugh- 
ter Elizabeth ; Chet. P. 

In 1543 Thomas Molyneux, son of 
Roger and the last-named Elizabeth, and 
Elizabeth his wife had a dispute with 
Roger Molyneux concerning Hitchcock 
carr ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 

174. A settlement of lands in Pember- 
ton and Hawkley was made by fine in 

1546 between Roger Molyneux and 
Thomas, his son and heir apparent, and 
Elizabeth his wife ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 12, m. 193. Roger was living in 

1547 ; ibid. bdle. 12, m. 250. 
Hawkley Hall is mentioned in a dispute 

between John Kitchen and Isabel his 
daughter and Thomas Molyneux, the 
owner, in 1561 ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), ii, 228. Thomas Molyneux and 
his second wife Sibyl occur in various 
fines concerning lands in Pemberton and 
Markland from 15725 Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F., bdles. 34, m. 39, &c. ' Thomas 
Molyneux of Hawkley, gent., in lands 
40 and in goods 100,' was a recusant in 
1 5 77 ; LydiateHall, 215, quoting S.P. Dom. 
Eliz. cxviii, 45. He was buried at 
Wigan 1 6 May 1586 ; and soon after- 
wards disputes arose between his son and 
heir Richard and Sibyl the widow. In 
the pleadings the descent is thus given : 
Richard Molyneux-s. and h. Roger-s. and 
h. Thomas-s. and h. Richard. The estate 
is described as a capital messuage called 
Hawkley, containing demesne lands in 
Hawkley and Pemberton, and varioui 
lands in Aughton and Uplitherland of 
very good yearly value ; Duchy of Lane. 
Plead. Eliz. cliv, M. ii ; Decrees and 
Orders, Eliz. xx, fol. 37. 

Richard Molyneux of Hawkley was in 
1590 among the 'comers to church, but 
no communicants,' but he and his family 
appear to have soon afterwards conformed 
to the Established religion ; Lydiate Hall, 
246 (quoting S.P. Dor/i. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4). 
Pedigrees were reco/ded in 1567 and 
1664 ; Vint. (Chet. Soc.), 108,200. 

Richard Molyneux and Thomas his son 
and heir-apparent made a settlement' of 
the manor of Pemberton in 1607 ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 71, no. 25. 
Richard paid 10 in 1631 on refusing 
knighthood ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 213. He was still living in 
1664, but Thomas was dead, and hia son 
Richard, aged forty at the Visitation in 
that year, soon afterwards succeeded to 
the estate. Early in 1681 he made a 
settlement of the manor and various lands 
in Pemberton, as also in Wigan, Ince, 
Standish, and Croft, Anne his wife, and 
Hugh his son and heir-apparent being 
joined as deforciants ; ibid. bdle. 206, m. 
91. Richard Molyneux was buried at 
Wigan 31 Oct. 1 68 1 ; Hugh suc- 
ceeded, but appears to have had no issue, 
and administration of his estate was 
granted at Chester in 1687. 

William Molyneux succeeded his 
brother Hugh ; he was buried at Warring- 
ton in 1698 and there is an inscription in 
the churchyard commemorating him ; 
Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. i, 216. His 
son William was succeeded by an uncle, 
Reginald, brother of the preceding William 
and Hugh ; and in turn was succeeded 
by his sons William (buried at Wigan 
4 Nov. 1740) and Richard (buried 
at Warrington in 1748). In a settle- 
ment made in 1721, William Molyneux, 
gentleman, being in possession, their 
part of the manor is described as 'the 


fourth part ' ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 288, m. 36. A monumental inscrip- 
tion for Richard Molyneux exists in War- 
rington Churchyard ; Local Glean, loc. cit. 

Hawkley descended to his only son 
Richard, who married Jane daughter 
and heir of Bryan Wilcock of Walsh 
Hall, Aughton. Among the Croxteth 
Hall muniments is a lease of Hawkley 
Hall in 1749, which describes the house 
and names the mill and several fields, 
as Hastings, Hiscow carrs, &e. In 1757 
a fine concerning the manor of Pem- 
berton has Hugh Wishaw for plaintiff 
and David Brodie, Mary his wife, Rev. 
Francis Gastrell, Jane his wife, William 
Prujean, Sophia his wife, and Richard 
Molyneux as deforciants ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 259, m. in. Richard 
Molyneux was buried at Wigan 9 Mar. 
1762, and was succeeded in turn by his 
sons Richard (died 1771) and Bryan 
William. The latter died at Lymm 
Parsonage, 29 July 1805, unmarried. 
There is a monument to him in Wigan 
Church, where he was buried. 

A full pedigree, from which this outline 
has been taken, will be found in Palmer 
MS. E. (Chet. Lib.), 202, 398. 

86 The will of B. W. Molyneux stated 
expressly : ' The said William Hockenhull 
shall not enjoy the said premises other- 
wise than upon the express condition 
that when such estate shall come to him 
in possession under the said trusts, he 
shall take use and bear the surname of 
Molyneux and shall cause himself to be 
called by the surname of Molyneux and 
no other.' A pedigree of the family is 
given in Burke, Family Rec. 433. 

87 Hawkley was sold by the Rev. Bryan 
William Molyneux, son of William 

88 There appear to have been several 
families bearing the local surname. James 
de Pemberton has been mentioned in 
1246 ; Henry son of James occurs in 
1276; Coram Rege R. 26, m. 3d. 
Henry attested a local charter in 1293 in 
the next place after Adam lord of Pem- 
berton ; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2649. 
Henry de Pemberton and James his son 
occur about 1283 ; Cocker sand Chart, ii, 

In the Towneley volume just quoted 
are a number of charters relating to Tun- 
stead, which was at first an oxgang of 
land, possibly that belonging to Alan son 
of Aldith in 1212. 

William de Pemberton granted * an ox- 
gang in Pemberton called Tunstead, 
which Aynhou (?) de Pemberton formerly 
held ' of him, to Christiana, daughter of 
Adam de Radcliffe ; Towneley MS. GG, 
no. 2649. This afterwards came into the 
possession of Simon de Holland, who 
called it his 'manor,' and in 1293 granted 
it to William son of Roger de Ince ; ibid. 
GG, no. 2647, 2648 ; also Crosse D. 
Trans. Hist. Soc. no. iia, b, c. 

Simon son of Thurstan de Holland 
had complained in 1292 that Robert de 
Holland, Adam his son, Adam de North- 
legh, and others had disseised him of his 
free tenement in Wigan and Pemberton 
(17 acres). Thurstan de Holland had 



riage to Robert Molyneux of Melling, 39 and it 
descended with the other lands of this family * until 
they were sold in the middle of the 1 8th century. 

MARKLAND was the property of the Hollands, 41 
and in 1360 was granted to the Priory of Upholland. 
On the suppression it was acquired by John 

Alexander Worsley, Thomas and John Molyneux, 
Gilbert Scott, and Robert HigginsoR, contributed 
to a subsidy of Mary's reign as landowners. 45 The 
freeholders in 1 600 " were : Ralph Worsley, 
Downes, 45 Richard Molyneux of Hawkley, Robert 
Arrowsmith, Thomas Laithwaite, 46 Richard Pem- 
berton, 47 Hugh Scott, 48 William Walthew, 49 Thomas 

granted the estate to Juliana daughter of 
John Gillibrand, for life, with remainders 
to her tons, Thurstan and Adam, and 
then to the plaintiff Simon, apparently a 
brother. Adam died before Thurstan 
without issue 5 Thurstan died at Oxford ; 
and Simon, who was then in Scotland, 
returned to Wigan to take possession, but 
found Robert's men in the tenement. At 
Pemberton, Adam de Pemberton, as lord, 
had entered, and held until Simon ap- 
peared to claim ; Simon had married a 
daughter of his. The lands in Wigan 
were held of Robert de Holland by the 
service of a barbed arrow ; Assize R. 408, 
m. i6d. 

Nothing further is known of its history 
for a century. Richard de Pemberton 
died in possession of it in 141 5> a * a l so f 
other lands called the Marsh, &c. ; his 
son Thomas being dead the heir was his 
grandson Hugh ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. 
Soc.), i, 103. In the same year William, 
another son of Richard, as trustee granted 
Tunstead to Alice, the widow of Richard, 
for life, with remainders to Hugh son of 
Thomas de Pemberton, and then to Hugh 
and Thurstan, sons of Richard ; Towne- 
ley MS. GG, no. 2626, 2655. 

Hugh de Pemberton by his wife Douce 
had a son John, whose son George was 
the last of the direct male line of the 
family. For Hugh's marriage see ibid. 
GG, no. 2596, 2597, dated 1435. He 
died in or before 1466, when Douce was 
a widow, and the son John in possession ; 
ibid. GG, no. 2650, 2671, and Crosse D. 
no. 146. 

89 Beatrice, Elizabeth, Ellen, and Alice 
were the daughters and co-heirs of George 
son of John Pemberton ; Towneley MS. 
GG, no. 2362, 2890, 2405, dated 1512 
and 1514 ; and Crosse D. no. 172. Bea- 
trice Pemberton and others in 1 5 1 2 claimed 
the wardship of Elizabeth Birkenhead ; 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 127. 

The third of the daughters, Ellen, mar- 
ried Robert Molyneux of Melling (fisit. 
of 1567, p. 100), and in the inquisition 
taken after the death of their son and 
heir John Molyneux in 1582, the estate, 
comprising Tunstead Hall and various 
lands, is fully described ; among the 
fields were Bridgeley and Mabcroft ; it was 
held of the heirs of the lords of Pember- 
ton, James Worsley and Robert Hindley, 
in socage by rents of 41. 8</. and jd. re- 
spectively ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
xiv, no. 73. 

40 See Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches. ), i, 43 ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 94, no. 15. 

41 In 1241 Robert de Holland q-iit- 
claimed to Adam de Pemberton all his 
title to twelve oxgangs in Pemberton in 
return for the homage and service of 
Thomas de Sifrethley ; Final Cone, i, 82. 
In 1292 Robert de Holland and Robert 
his son had an estate in Pemberton and 
Orrell ; ibid, i, 173. 

In 1348 Maud, widow of Robert de 
Holland, had claimed dower in the 
* manor of Markland,' described as three 
plough-lands ; De Banco R. 355, m. 307. 

Inquiry was made at Prescot on 25 

Jan. 1346-7 as to whether or not it 
would be to the king's hurt if a messuage, 
a mill, 60 acres of land, 3 acres of mea- 
dow, and 6 acres of wood in Pemberton, 
and the reversion of other lands held 
for a term by Adam de Orrell and Nicho- 
las his son, should be granted to the prior 
and convent of Upholland. The lands 
were held of Ralph de Langton by fealty 
and rendering a rose at midsummer, and 
were of the annual value of 53*. 4^. The 
answer of the jury was in the negative ; 
the king had already licensed a grant of 
lands to the value of 20 a year ; and 
after this land had been given Sir Robert 
de Holland had the manor of Holland, 
worth 100 marks a year, from which to 
discharge his liabilities to the king and 
others ; Inq. p.m. 41 Edw. Ill (2nd 
nos.), no. 12. 

In 1535 the clear value was reckoned 
at 8 IDS. a year, and after the Dissolution 
the various rents came to the same 
amount ; Dugdale, Man. iv, 412. 

4 Pat. 37 Hen. VIII, pt. iv ; included 
in the general grant of the priory lands. 
Markland was soon sold to Sir Robert 
Worsley of Booths, Thomas Molyneux 
purchasing part from Robert Worsley ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdles. 31, ro. 
i", M75 35. m. 41. 

48 Mascy of Rixton D. 

44 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 


45 Roger Downes had acquired land in 
1597 from Thomas Worsley and Kather- 
ine his wife ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. $8, m. 19. 

48 See the account of Wigan. 

47 In 1517 John Pemberton of Lone- 
merehead, with his son Thomas and the 
latter's wife Elizabeth, leased their chief 
place to Robert Molyneux ; Pal. of Lane. 
Plea R. 121, m. 6 d. John Pemberton 
and Alice his wife had an estate in the 
township in 1519; Pal. of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. n, m. 217. Robert Pember- 
ton and Margaret his wife in 1546; ibid, 
bdle. 1 2, no. 247. He may be the Robert 
Higginson alias Pemberton of 1549, who 
had a dispute with Roger Molyneux as to 
Wacarrs ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 
241. Ralph Pemberton alias Higginson 
appears in 1571 (ibid, iii, 25) and Rich- 
ard Pemberton alias Higginson in 1579 ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 41, m. 92. 

Richard Pemberton, yeoman, died 20 
Sept. 1628 holding a messuage and lands 
of Roger Downes and Richard Moly- 
neux ; the heirs were his daughters, 
Margaret wife of Henry Holme, and Mar- 
gery wife of Ralph Rylands, aged thirty- 
nine and thirty-four respectively ; Towne- 
ley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 976. 

48 Roger Scott was a defendant in a 
plea by John the Salter respecting a mes- 
suage and lands in Pemberton in Lent 

1351 ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. i. m. 
id. The Scotts held the lands of the 
Abbey of Cockersand ; Chartul. iii, 1246, 
1243 5 Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 266. 
Cuthbert Scott, Bishop of Chester 
1556 to 1559, is said to have been a 
member of the family, which adhered to 
the ancient faith j Gillow, Bibl. Diet, of 


Engl. Catholics, v, 484. A Cuthbert Scott 
and his wife appear in the Recusant Roll 
of 1641 ; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiv, 


A large number of deeds relating to the 
Scotts of Wigan and Pemberton have 
been preserved by Kuerden (ii, fol. 259) 
from ' Mr. Thomas Scott's charters.' In 
1384-5 a settlement was made on the 
marriage of Richard son of Roger Scott 
with Alice daughter of Richard the Mar- 
shal of Wigan (his land was in the 
Woodhouses) ; no. 108 ; see no. 37, 36, 
45. About 1411 Richard son of Roger 
Scott made a grant of land in Scholes in 
Wigan between the walk mill and the 
high road to his son Roger on marrying 
Alice daughter of William Laithwaite ; 71,69. Roger Scott the younger 
received the Marshal lands in Wigan 
Woodhouses in 1418 ; ibid. no. 48, 72. 
These lands descended by 1467 to Hugh 
Scott of Pemberton, a son of Roger Scott; 
ibid. no. 38, 53, 6 1. Hugh's son Richard 
was in 1467 married to Ellen daughter of 
Richaru Warburton ; lands called High 
Appletree Croft and Little Scholefield 
were granted to them ; Joan, wife of 
Hugh is mentioned ; ibid. no. 32, 80. 

Richard Scott had a son Hugh, whose 
marriage with Agnes, sister of Thomas 
Gerard of Ince, was arranged in 1508-9 ; 
ibid. no. 14, 47. In 1529 Hugh Scott of 
Pemberton, and Gilbert his son and heir, 
demised to Gilbert Mason and Margery 
his wife a burgage in Millgate, Wigan ; 
ibid. no. 104. In 15 52 Agnes, widow of 
Hugh Scott, and Gilbert her son, leased a 
tenement in Scholes to Charles Bank, 
brother of William Bank ; ibid. no. 19. 
Richard Scott of Lathom, household ser- 
vant to the Earl of Derby, mentioned in 
the story of George Marsh, occurs in 
these deeds, no. 41, 68. 

Gilbert Scott died in or before 1576, 
when a settlement was made by Hugh Scott, 
his son, and Alice his wife, of various lands 
in Wigan, Pemberton,and Urmston, with 
remainders to Gilbert and Roger sons of 
Hugh 5 ibid. no. 17. Gilbert married a 
Margaret, and his son Ralph in or before 
1592 married Elizabeth a sister of Gabriel 
Hesketh ; ibid. no. 21, 9, 91. 

Gilbert Scott died 28 January 1620-1, 
his son Ralph being then 27 years of age; 
various family arrangements are set out 
in the inquisition printed in the Rec. Soc. 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. ii, 237-9. Ralph Scott't 
estate was confiscated by the Parliamen- 
tary authorities, and ordered to be sold by 
the Act of 1652 ; Index of Royalists, 41 ; 
Cal, of Com. for Compounding, iv, 3105. 
Cuthbert Scott, a recusant, petitioned in 
1653 to contract for his estates ; ibid, iv, 

3 J 74- 

An old ballad about Gilbert Scott and 
his wife appeared in the Gent. Mag. 1740; 
Preston Guardian Loc. Notes, no. 1460. 

49 A Geoffrey Walthew was trustee in 
1589 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 31, 
m. 147. The William Walthew of the 
text was perhaps his son (buried at Wigan, 
November 1600) ; for Geoffrey, grandson 
of Geoffrey Walthew, died in 1607, leav- 
ing a son and heir Robert, three years 

Whalley, 60 Humphrey Winstanley, and John Worth- 
ington. The landowners who contributed to the 
subsidy of 1628 were Roger Downes, for Worsley's 
lands ; Richard Molyneux, and the heirs of Richard 
Pemberton. 61 Several ' delinquents ' compounded for 
their estates under the rule of the Commonwealth. 68 
The following ' papists ' registered estates here in 
1717: Barbara and Margaret Green, George Uns- 
worth, and William Winstanley. 63 The land tax 
returns of 1787 show the chief owners to have been 
the Duke of Bridgewater, the heirs of T. Barton, 
Mrs. Percival, W. B. Molyneux, and John Markland. 

During the last century a number of places of wor- 
ship have been erected in Pemberton. In connexion 
with the Established Church St. John's was 
consecrated in 1832 as a chapel of ease to the parish 
church ; a burial ground was attached to it. The 
rector of Wigan is the patron." The church of St. 
Matthew, Highfield, built in 1894, serves as a chapel 
of ease. St Mark's, Newtown, was built in 1891. 
The patronage is vested in trustees. There is a 
licensed chapel at Worsley Mesnes. 

The Methodist denominations are well represented, 
the Wesleyan, Primitive, Independent, and United 
Free Methodists having places of worship. There are 
also Free Gospel and Congregational chapels. 

The Roman Catholic church of St. Cuthbert 
dates from 1872 ; it was enlarged in 1887." 

A schoolhouse was built at Goose Green by Thomas 
Molyneux ; but no endowment was provided. 68 


Bulling, 1 2 1 2 and commonly in xiv cent. ; Billinge, 
1284 ; Bollynge, 1292 ; Bullynth, 1292. 

This township, which originally included Winstan- 
ley, has long been divided into two halves regarded as 
separate townships and known as Chapel End and 
Higher End. They form the south-west corner of 
the parish. 

The position of Chapel End township the eastern 
one is bleak and open, and the country bare ex- 
cept in the south, where there are more trees and 
green fields about the neighbourhood of Carr Mill 
Dam, a fairly large sheet of water. In the middle of 
this lake the boundaries of three townships meet. In the 
north there are sandstone quarries on the highest 
point of the hill. There are fields where potatoes, 
wheat, and oats are grown, besides pastures nearer the 
base of the hillside. The soil is sandy, over a sub- 
stratum of gravel and sandstone rock. The chapel 
lies near the centre of the boundary between Chapel 
End and Winstanley on the north. The village, 


with its long straggling street and stone houses, spreads 
from it along the road from Wigan to St. Helens, 
which is the principal thoroughfare. About the 
middle of the township it is crossed by another road 
which runs eastward from the chapel to Ashton 
in Makerfield. The south-western boundary is formed 
by Black Brook, near which lies Birchley ; and the 
south-eastern by the Goyt, its affluent, on which 
is Chadwick Green. Two detached portions of Win- 
stanley lie on this side. The surface rises from 
the two streams, a height of nearly 600 ft. being 
attained at the northern border. Here stands Billinge 
Beacon, 1 from which fine views can be obtained. The 
area of Chapel End is 1,161 acres/ and the population 
in 1901 numbered 2,068. 

Billinge Higher End, on the north-west side of 
the former township, has an area of 1,571 acres. 5 
The population in 1901 numbered 1,600.* Near 
the centre, by Brownlow, a height of 5 60 ft. is 
attained, the surface falling away somewhat quickly 
to the south-west boundary, which is formed 
by Black Brook, and also to the west and north. This 
ridge of high ground, known as Billinge Hill, is visible 
for miles around. There are extensive quarries of sand- 
stone and a gritstone used for making mill-stones. 
In the north of the district there are one or two 
unimportant coal-mines. In this part the hill is not 
entirely bare in spite of its exposed situation, for there 
are plantations of small pine trees and some larger 
deciduous trees. The west side of the township is 
occupied by cultivated fields where wheat, oats, and 
potatoes are grown in a rich sandy soil. On the west 
lies Billinge Hall ; to the north are Bispham Hall, 
Gautley, and the Great Moss. On the east a brook 
divides the township from Winstanley ; Longshaw lies 
here, with the village adjacent, on the road from 
Billinge chapel to Upholland. The main roads are 
macadamized ; others set with square blocks of native 
sandstone ; they are protected by walls in the upper 
parts and hedges in the lower parts of the township. 

A local board for Billinge was formed in 1872,* the 
district including both the townships and also part of 
Winstanley. This was succeeded in 1 894 by an urban 
district council of twelve members. 

The present townships of BILLINGE 
M4NOR (Higher End and Chapel End) and W. IN- 
ST4NLET were originally but one manor, 
rated as half a plough-land, and probably forming one 
of the berewicks of Newton before the Conquest, just 
as they constituted members of the Newton barony 
after it. 6 The inquest of 1212 shows that this ex- 
tensive manor had long been divided into three por- 
tions, almost equal. The lord was Adam de Billinge, 

old ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 80. 

Robert Walthew of Pemberton was 
charged with delinquency by the Parlia- 
ment in 1650, and his estate was in 
ganger of sequestration ; Col. of Com. for 
^Compounding, iii, 2333. In 1667 he built 
Ihe school at Upholland ; his daughter and 
heir Elizabeth married Ralph Markland 
of the Meadows ; Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. 
ii, 259, 260, with a reference to Nichol, 
Lit. Anec. iv, 657. 

60 John Whalley of Pemberton, yeoman, 
died m 1587, holding lands of the queen 
in Orrell and Pemberton by a rent of 
2i. 4</. ; Thomas his son and heir was 
twenty-eight years of age ; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 36. A later 

John Whalley died in April 1630, holding 
lands in Orrell and Pemberton of the 
king ; James his brother and heir was 
forty years of age ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. xxvii, no. 37. James Whalley is 
named in Dugdale's Visitation (Chet. Soc.), 
319 ; he appears in the recusant roll of 
1641 ; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiv, 

61 Norris D. (B.M.). 

62 In addition to those mentioned al- 
ready, see Cal. Com, for Compounding, iii, 
2014, 2394; Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 257. 

48 Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Non- 
jurors, in, 124, 152. 

64 Bridgeman, op. cit. (Chet. Soc.), 782. 
A district was assigned in 1838 (Land. 


Gam. 3 Apr.) ; the inclusion of part of 
Orrell led to disputes, as the ratepayers 
here were for a time called on to pay 
church rates both to the new church and 
to Upholland. 

55 Liverpool Catb. Annual, 1901. 

56 Gastrell, Notitia (Chet. Soc.), ii, 251. 

1 It was erected as a sea mark, about 
1780 ; Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), iii, 565. 

2 1163, including 9 of inland water, 
according to the census of 1901. 

8 1573, including 3 of inland water; 
census of 1901. 

4 Including King's Moss, &c. 

* Land. Gate. 17 Dec. 1872. 

8 V.C.H. Lanes, i, 286. See Lanes. Inq. 
p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 138; ii, 99; ibid. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 105. 


holding of ' ancient feoffment ' by the service of I or. 
rent and the finding of a judge at the Newton court/ 
The two subordinate manors were held by Simon 
and by Roger de Winstanley ; each was considered 
an oxgang and a third, but the services due are not 
recorded. Roger's share soon became independent. 
Yet another tenant, Uctred Leute, held a ridding, 
and paid \6d. rent. 8 Adam had made grants to 
Cockersand Abbey and to the Hospital of Chester. 9 

No satisfactory account can be given of the descent 
of these manors, through lack of evidence. Adam dc 

Knowsley had lands here in 1246 ; 10 and six years 
later he and his wife Godith seem to have had the 
lordship. 11 Henry de Huyton, the son of Adam, wa& 
in 1292 lord of two-thirds of the manor, the other 
third being Winstanley. 1 * Billinge, however, did not 
descend with Huyton ; Robert, son of Henry, be- 
coming lord of it, either by special grant or in right 
of his mother. His daughters were his heirs." In 
i 3 74 the manor is found to have been divided into 
four parts, which seem to have been held by Eves, 
Heaton, Billinge and Winstanley. 14 The Eves share 

7 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 76. Adam de Billinge 
contributed half a mark to the scutage in 
1 20 1 and later years ; Farrer, Lanes, 
PifeR. 152, 179, 205. 

8 Inq. and Extents, loc. cit. 

Uctred Leute's holding may have been 
in Crookhurst, a family taking its name 
from this place. Richard son of Richard 
de Crookhurst was a defendant in 1302 ; 
Assize R. 418, m. 10 d. 

9 To Cockersand Abbey Adam de Bil- 
linge gave all Falling and Ruhlow, the 
boundaries beginning at Kidsay Brook, 
going to Blackley, to Walley Clough, by 
this to Wetcroft Lache, and so by Little 
Ruhlow to the starting point. Further 
he gave half of Crookhurst, the bounds 
being from Swinepit Clough to Birchley 
Brook and Blackley Brook, and so to the 
start ; Cockirsand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
665, 666. William son of Simon de 
Bulling granted the same abbey a part of 
his land called Leyerich Ridding, within 
the carr and Hennecroft ; also his portion 
of Crookhurst, the bounds being named 
with great minuteness ; ' the ford next 
the house of Thomas Cert which was 
burnt' is among them ; ibid, ii, 667. 

From the charter last quoted 'the 
Hospital* is identified as that outside the 
north gate of Chester. 

The Abbey's lands in Crookhurst were 
in 1461 held by Henry Atherton of Bicker- 
stafFe, and descended with this estate ; 
ibid, ii, 668 ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
iv, no. 68. The rent paid was \%d. 

William de Falling, probably the tenant 
of the Abbot of Cockersand, in 1308 
held lands under the lord of Winstanley ; 
Assize R. 423, m. 2. A later bearer of 
the name forfeited his lands for felony, 
but those he held of Cockersand were 
given up to the abbot in 1384; Def. 
Keeper's Rep. xxxii, 356, 357. 

The Cockersand lands here, as in other 
places, were granted to Thomas Holt ; 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), ii, 288. 

10 Christiana widow of Henry son of 
Quenilda sued Hugh de Crookhurst for 
dower in 12 acres ; it was found that 
Adam de Knowsley held the land ; Assize 
R. 404, m. 13. 

Crookhurst was the subject of an agree- 
ment in 1256 between William son of 
Hugh and Emma his wife, and Adam 
son of Hugh and Agnes his wife ; Final 
Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 
127. William son of Hugh is called 
William de Rainford in a suit of 1292 ; 
Assize R. 408, m. 61. 

11 Final Cone, i, 114. 

19 In 1278 William de Billinge com- 
plained that Henry de Huyton had 
destroyed one of his ditches in Billinge ; 
Assize R. 1238, m. 35. 

Six or seven years later Adam de Bil- 
linge complained that Henry de Huyton 
and another had disseised him of his free 
tenement in Billinge ; Assize R. 1268, 
m. id. 

In 1290 it was Henry de Huyton who 
was plaintiff, regarding two-thirds of cer- 
tain wood and moor, and iron mineral ; 
Assize R. 1288, m. 12, 13. The defen- 
dants were Roger de Winstanley and 
Henry son of Ralph de Billinge ; they 
made an exchange of lands in 1283, to 
which Hugh son of Ralph de Billinge 
was one of the witnesses ; Cockersand 
Chart, ii, 659. 

Richard de Crookhurst in 1292 com- 
plained that Henry de Huyton, Adam de 
Billinge, and Roger de Winstanley had 
deprived him of estovers in 100 acres of 
wood for housebote and haybote i.e. for 
burning, fencing, and building pannage 
for his pigs, &c. Henry, in reply, said 
he was chief lord of two-thirds of the 
vill, and Roger of one-third ; as chief lords 
they had approved from the waste, and 
the complainant, who was Henry's tenant, 
had sufficient estovers outside the ap- 
provement. He wa non-suited ; Assize 
R. 408, m. 12 d. 

Adam de Billinge' s right in the manor 
is not here defined ; it appears that he 
was the representative, and no doubt 
descendant, of the Simon of 1212. He 
should, therefore, have had a moiety of 
Henry de Huyton's two-thirds, and from 
another suit of 1292 it appears that he 
claimed the moiety of 50 acres of moor 
and wood from Henry de Huyton, here 
called de Rycroft, and others ; ibid. m. 
25. Nine years later the suit, or a simi- 
lar one, appears in the rolls, Adam claim- 
ing the moiety of 60 acres of wood and 
waste. Henry de Huyton, the principal 
defendant the others were William Bird 
and Alan son of Eva de Billinge replied 
that he was lord of the two-thirds of Bil- 
linge and Adam of one-third ; and they had 
agreed that the 60 acres should pertain to 
Henry, and another portion of the waste, 
called Catshurst, should belong to Adam. 
The jury found that Catahurst was only 12 
acres, and that Henry had approved 40 
acres, a share of which should be given 
to Adam; Assize R. 1321, m. 5 d. In 
the following year Adam de Billinge and 
Henry de Huyton were chief lords, the 
complainants being William de Huyton 
and Robert his brother ; Assize R. 418, 
m. 10 d. 

A possible solution is that Winstanley, 
having become detached, paid 31. 6d. rent 
to the lord of Newton ; that the remain- 
ing 6s. 6d. was shared between Henry de 
Huyton and Adam de Billinge in the 
ratio of two to one, while they divided 
the land equally. 

18 Robert and William de Huyton were 
among the defendants in a suit of 1309 
affecting the boundaries of Billinge and 
Winstanley, Henry de Huyton and Adam 
de Billinge being also joined ; Assize R. 
423, m. 2. 

Four years later Robert de Huyton 
recovered from Henry de Huyton the 
manor of Billinge ; Assize R. 424, 
m. i d. 

8 4 

In 1321 William son of Robert de 
Huyton settled messuages and lands upon 
Robert de Huyton the elder for his life ; 
Final Cone, ii, 41. The pedigree of the 
Huyton family is not clear ; but Robert Ac 
Huyton the elder was probably a brother 
of Henry. Robert son of William brother 
of Henry de Huyton and Robert son of 
Henry de Huyton were last in the re- 
mainders of a settlement made by Ellen 
de Torbock in 1332 ; Croxteth D. Z, i, 
4. In the same year Robert de Huyton 
and William de Billinge contributed to 
the subsidy ; Excb. Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 26. Six years later 
Robert de Huyton of Billinge acquired 
some land in Ashton ; Final Cone, ii, 108. 

Robert de Huyton of Billinge, pro- 
bably a descendant, complained in 1348 
of the damage which William Dawson of 
Billinge had done to property while he 
had it on lease ; he had pulled down a 
hall worth 10, and two chambers worth 
^5 each, and cut down twenty apple-treei 
worth 201. each, <&c. ; De Banco R. 355, 
m. 21 ; 356, m. 234 d. Four years later 
certain lands were held jointly by Alan 
the clerk of Rainford, whose wife was 
Agnes, and Robert son of Matthew de 
Huyton ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 2 
(Pent.), m. 2. Another defendant in the 
case was Isolda, widow of Roger de Win- 
Stanley and daughter of Roger (? Robert) 
de Huyton. Richard de Huyton appears 
in 1357 ; ibid. R. 6, m. 5. 

14 By charter of June 1331 Robert de 
Huyton and Mary his wife granted an 
estate in Billinge to trustees, with re- 
mainders successively to their children, 
Henry, Richard, Isolda, Agnes and Avice. 
By 1363 Robert and Mary were dead, 
and Henry and Richard had died without 
issue j Isolda was the wife of William the 
clerk of Wigan, and her estate having 
been taken into the king's hands for some 
default of Eustace de Cottesbech, for 
whom her father had been a surety, she 
petitioned for restoration ; L.T.R. Memo. 
R.I 28, m. 5. Isolda seems to have been the 
widow of Roger de Winstanley ; in 1363 
Hugh de Winstanley sued William the clerk 
of Wigan and Isolda his wife for waste ; 
De Banco R. 416, m. 299 d. It appears 
from the following that there was another 
daughter who shared the inheritance. 

From a plea of 1372 it is clear that the 
manor of Billinge, i.e. the Huyton half 
as previously explained, had become di- 
vided among four co-heirs and their issue ; 
for Geoffrey de Wrightington and Ellen 
his wife, executors of the will of Robert 
de Winstanley (Ellen "being the widow), 
in that year claimed dower from Henry 
de Scarisbrick as guardian of the land and 
heir of Robert de Billinge, from Richard 
de Heaton and Isolda his wife ; and from 
Alan the Barker and Agnes his wife, 
each of the defendant parties holding a 
fourth part of the manor ; De Banco R. 
447, m. 1 84 d. 5454, m. 141. 

Alan the Barker may have succeeded 





descended to the Lathoms of Mossborough ; ld and 
one of the parts was later held by the Bispham 

The Heatons also held BIRCH LET in Chapel End, 
the service to the lord of Newton being 3/. zd. rent. 16 
This manor of Birchley was acquired in the i6th 
century by the Andertons of Lostock, a younger 
son settling here. 17 It is now owned by Lord 
Gerard. 18 

Higher End contains Bispham Hall and Billinge 
Hall, named after the lords of other portions of the 
manor. The share of the Bispham family 19 was 
described as a fourth part even in the 1 8th century, 
when it passed by marriage to Thomas Owen of 

Upholland, 10 and then by his two daughters to Holt 
and Edward Leigh.* 1 From Holt Leigh it has 

ANDERTON of Lostock. 
Sable three ihackbolts ar- 

GERARD, Lord Gerard. 
Argent a saltire gules. 

Alan de Rainford, who, with Agnes his 
wife, had a quarter of a moiety of the 
manor in 1366, when it was settled upon 
them for their lives, with remainder to 
Robert del Eves and his heirs ; Final 
Cone, ii, 172. It may be conjectured 
that this Robert was the son of Agnes by 
a former marriage. Thus the four co- 
heirs were in 1374 represented by Win- 
stanley, Billinge, Heaton and Eves, and 
each quarter would pay a rent of is. id. 
to the lord of Newton. 

Some further light on the descent is 
given by claims for debt made by the 
executors of the will of Sir John de 
Dalton in the next year against Geoffrey 
de Wrightington and Ellen his wife, 
executrix of the will of Robert de Win 
Stanley ; Geoffrey de Urmston, execute r 
of the will of Joan, who had been w'fe 
and executrix of Robert de Billinge ; 
Alan the Barker of Billinge, executor of 
the will of Margery, who was the wife 
and executrix of Robert de Staverley ; and 
Robert de Huyton, executor of the will 
of Agnes, who was the wife of Alan de 
Rainford ; De Banco R. 4.57, vn. 186. 
341 d. 

15 Agnes de Rainford being dead, as 
appears in the last note, Robert del Eves 
came into possession, and was defendant 
in 1375 ; De Banco R. 459, m. 162. 
He died in or before 1398 ; having held 
Galfhey (? Gautley) in Billinge of Ralph 
de Langton, baron of Newton, in socage 
by the rent of \$d. ; Nicholas, his son 
and heir, was twenty-four years of age ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 68. The 
heiress of this family married a Lathom 
of Mossborough ; Visit, of 1613 (Chet. 
Soc.), 1 06 ; and in 1620 Henry Lathom 
died, holding messuages and lands in Bil- 
linge of the barony of Newton by a rent 
of iT,d. ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), ii, 
205 ; see also Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
x, no. 2. 

16 The rent appears to be made up of 
2$. zd. due by the heir of Adam de Bil- 
linge, and 15. due from the quarter of the 
manor inherited from the Huyton family. 
In a later inquisition the rent is given as 
3>. id. ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxx, 
no. 7. 

What is known of the Billinge family 
has been stated in previous notes. A 
member of the family married one of the 
Huyton co-heirs, while the heiress of the 
main branch appears to have married 
William de Heaton, son of the Richard 
de Heaton who held another quarter of 
the Huyton share. In 1398 a dispensa- 
tion was granted for the marriage of Joan 
de Billinge with William de Heaton ; 
Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.) xxxvii. B, 615 
Dods. MSS. vii, fol. 326. In 1422 a settle- 
ment was made of the manor of Birchley 
and messuages and lands in Billinge, &c., 
the holders being William de Heaton and 

Joan his wife ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 5, m. 9. In 1530 Richard Heaton 
gave the manor of Billinge, and his mes- 
suages, mills, and lands there and in 
Birchley to trustees, for the benefit of 
his son William ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 
151, m. 8. 

" In a fine of 1581 relating to Birch- 
ley and a quarter of the manor, James 
and Thurstan Anderton, sons of Christo- 
pher, were plaintiffs, and William Heaton 
and his sons Ralph and Richard, defor- 
ciants; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
43, m. 133. Previously, e.g., in 1542, 
the manor of Birchley had been included 
in the Heaton settlements ; ibid. bdle. 12, 
m. 66, &c. James Anderton, of Lostock, 
died in 1613, seised among other proper- 
ties of the capital messuage called Birch- 
ley Hall, and of various houses and lands 
in Billinge, held of the Baron of Newton, 
in socage, by a rent of 31. id. ; Lanes. 
Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), ii, 26, 27. Roger, 
his younger brother, had Birchley by 
arrangement with his brother Christopher, 
of Lostock ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 94, m. 3, and note of Mr. Ince 
Anderton. In 1631 he paid 10 on 
refusing knighthood ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 213. He was buried 
at Wigan, i Oct. 1640, and Anne, his 
widow, on 14 Sept. 1646. 

His son, James Anderton, of Gray's 
Inn, took arms for the king in the Civil 
War, and joined in the attack on Bolton. 
Though comprised within the articles of 
Ludlow he forebore to compound within 
the time fixed, being a recusant, though 
not convicted. In 1649 he petitioned to 
be allowed to compound. His estates 
were, however, confiscated, and included 
in the third act of sale, 1652 ; Index of 
Royalists (Index Soc.), 41 ; and Thomas 
Wharton purchased Birchley in the fol- 
lowing year. Soon afterwards, however, 
a composition was arranged, the fine of 
j8oo being reduced to 650 31. 4</., and 
further afterwards ; Royalist Comp. Papers 
i, 75-81. Captain Thurstan Anderton, 
another of the family, was wounded at 
the battle of Newbury, and died at 
Oxford, in Sept. 1643 : Castlemain, Cath. 
Apology. Early in 1654, in a fine con- 
cerning the ' manor of Billinge,' James 
Anderton, Thomas Wharton, and Joseph 
Rigby were deforciants; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 153, m. 81. James 
Anderton died in 1673 ; Cavalier's Note 
Bk. 305. His only child was a daughter 
Elizabeth, who married John Cansfield of 
Cantsfield. A pedigree was recorded in 
1664 ; Dugdale, Visit. 5. 

18 Mary, the daughter and heir of the 
above John Cansfield, married Sir William 
Gerard, and in 1692 her lands were set- 
tled as the manors of Robert Hall and 
Cantsfield, and a fourth part of the manor 
of Billinge, with messuages and lands in 

these places, including Birchley ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 229, m. 109. 

19 No pedigree was recorded. The ear- 
liest of this family known is Thomas 
Bispham, who in 1552 was one of various 
persons charged with destroying timber in 
Galtly Wood, and who early in 1558 
made a settlement of three messuages, 
and other lands in Billinge and Rainford ; 
Ducatus, i, 242 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 20, m. 112. Henry and Thomas, 
jun., appear in a fine of 1571 ; ibid, 
bdle. 33, m. 39. Two years later, Thomas 
Bispham (probably the younger, on suc- 
ceeding), made a settlement of 4 mes- 
suages and lands in Billinge and Rainford ; 
ibid. bdle. 35, m. 19. In 1600 he was 
among the freeholders of the township. 

William Bispham, who appears in 
1628, on refusing knighthood paid 20 
in 1631 : Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 212. He died 10 Oct. 1639, 
holding lands in Orrell and Billinge, the 
latter of the Baron of Newton by a rent 
of 1 3</., the regular rent for a fourth part 
of the manor ; his son and heir, Samuel, 
was of full age ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. xxx, no. 97. William Bispham of 
Billinge married a niece of Bishop Bridge- 
man's ; Wigan Ch. 348. See also Fun. 
Certs. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 198, 
for further particulars of the family ; 
Samuel Bispham was one of King 
Charles's physicians in ordinary, and had 
a son and heir, Thomas, aged 1 8 months 
at his grandfather's death. 

In 1641 the manors of Orrell and Bil- 
linge, and messuages, windmill, and lands 
there were the subject of a settlement by 
Samuel Bispham, esq. ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 139, n. 32. Thomas 
Bispham died 22 Sept. 1677, aged 40 ; 
Wigan Ch. 746 ; and another of the 
same name followed, for Frances Bispham, 
widow of Thomas, and Thomas Bispham 
were vouchees in a recovery of the manors 
in 1703 ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 477, m. 
6. Frances died at the end of the same 
year ; Wigan Ch. loc. cit. 

80 Thomas Bispham had an only daugh- 
ter and heir Margaret, who about 1731 
married Thomas Owen ; Pal. of Lane. 
Plea R. 532, m. 7 ; Feet of F. bdle. 
307, m. 8 ; Wigan Ch. 746. 

21 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdles. 368, 
m. 64; 371, m. 137; Plea R. 599, 
m. 12 ; the ' manor or lordship of Orrell, 
a fourth part of the manor or lordship or 
reputed manor or lordship of Billinge, 
with lands, &c., in Orrell, Billinge, Up- 
holland, Rainford, and Wigan.' 

Holt Leigh died 1 1 March 1785, aged 
5 5, and was buried at St. Clement Danes, 
London ; his widow Mary died 28 Nov. 
1794, aged 53 ; Wigan Cb. 745, 746. 
Bispham Hall was about 1850 the pro- 
perty of John Holt ; Raines, in Gastrell's 
Notitia, ii, 254. 


LEIGH. Gules a cross 
engrailed argent between 
four lozenges ermine, a 
canton or. 

descended like Orrell to Mr. Roger Leigh, of Hindley 
Hall, Aspull. 

The shares of the Bi Hinge" 
and Winstanley* 3 families can- 
not be traced satisfactorily. 

One of the quarters of the 
manor was acquired by the 
family of Bankes of Winstan- 
ley. 24 

Thomas and John Winstan- 
ley and Thomas Bispham," as 
landowners of Billinge and 
Winstanley, contributed to a 
subsidy levied about 1556. 
The freeholders in 1600 
were : Anderton of Birchley, 

Thomas Bispham, Richard Billinge, William Ather- 
ton, and John Wood. 26 In 1628 the landowners, 
contributing to the subsidy 
were : Roger Anderton, Wil- 
liam Bispham, William Black- 
burn, Edmund Wood, and 
Edmund Bispham. The first 
and last of these, as convicted 
recusants, paid double. 17 Those 
who contributed for lands to 
the subsidy of 1663 were 
James Anderton of Birchley, 
Thomas Bispham, Peter Parr, 
Geoffrey Birchall, and Alex- 
ander Leigh. 88 In 1717 the 
following, as 'papists,' regis- 
tered estates here : John Gerard of Ashton, John 
Howard, Richard Mather, and Robert Rothwell of 
Winstanley.* 9 The principal landowners in 1787, 
according to the land tax returns, were William 
Bankes, Edward Leigh, and Sir Robert Gerard, con- 
tributing together about half of the sum total raised. 

BISPHAM. Sable a sal- 
tire between four hart? 
heads cabossed erminois. 

The Inclosure Award, with plan, is preserved in 
the County Council offices at Preston. 

A chapel of ease was built here in the 
CHURCH time of Henry VIII at the cost of the 
inhabitants, who also paid the priest's 
wages. 30 At the beginning of Mary's reign James 
Winstanley of Winstanley, ' minding utterly to destroy 
the same chapel for ever, out of very malice and hate 
that he had and bore towards the service of God, 
which he perceived the Queen's majesty was minded 
to advance and set forwards,' assembled a band of 
twenty ' evil-disposed persons,' and forcibly carried off 
the chalice and paten and other ornaments, broke the 
windows, turned out forms and chairs and the like 
furniture, and made it a barn, keeping his hay and 
corn there by force. 31 There was ' no preacher ' at 
Billinge in 15 go. 32 Eight years later the building 
was found to be out of repair ; there were no books 
but a Bible, the curate was ' no minister, but one 
licensed to read.' No attempt had been made to 
collect the is. a week fine for absence from the legal 
services, nor were there any collections for the poor. 
Very few came to the communion thrice yearly ; the 
parishioners could not say the Catechism, and many 
did not know the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and com- 
mandments. 33 

The Commonwealth surveyors recommended that 
the chapel should be made a separate parish church, 
but this does not seem to have been carried out. 34 
The minister in charge was ejected in I662. 34 The 
old building was demolished and rebuilt in I7i7-i8. ss 
The church has been of late considerably enlarged 
under the direction of Mr. T. G. Jackson, R.A. 
The oldest part of the building dates only from 1717, 
and before the additions was a plain rectangle in 
plan, 57 ft. by 37 ft., with a small eastern apse. The 
elevations are very plain, divided on north and south 
into four bays by shallow pilasters, with a round- 

83 A pedigree, imperfect, was recorded 
in 1665 ; Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 30. 

John Billinge was in 1590 reported as 
' soundly affected in religion ' Lydiate Hall, 
246. He was a trustee in 1573, and 
Richard Billinge was a freeholder in 1600. 
His grandson, another Richard, recorded 
the pedigree, being then 52 years of age. 
As a 'papist* two-thirds of his estate fell 
into the hands of the Parliamentary 
authorities, and in 1652 the whole was 
sequestered ; on inquiry it wag found that 
his estate in Wigan parish had been 
sequestered for recusancy, and that in 
Ormskirk parish for recusancy and delin- 
quency. Afterwards he petitioned to be 
allowed to compound ; Royalist Comf>. 
Papers, i,i 73 ; Cal. of. Com. for Compounding, 
iv, 3102. His son John was aged 17 in 
1665, and in 1691 Frances Bispham, 
widow, purchased from John Billinge and 
Margaret his wife, and Margery Billinge, 
widow, the part of the manor of 
Billinge, with houses, windmill, dovecote, 
and lands in Billinge and Rainford ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 226, m. 44. 
This ' fifth part ' of the manor is named 
in a later fine, Holt Leigh being posses- 
or ; ibid. bdle. 368, m. 64. 

88 This family may be the Winstanleys 
of Blackley Hurst, a detached part of the 
township of Winstanley. 

34 In a recovery of the fourth part of 
the manor of Billinge in 1729 Hugh 
Holme was vouchee ; this was before his 
marriage with the Bankes heiress 5 Pal. 

of Lane. Plea R. 528, m. 8. It has 
since descended like Winstanley ; ibid. 
Aug. Assizes, 1803, R. 10. 

25 Mascy of Rixton D. 

96 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 240, 243. 

John Wood in 1570 acquired lands in 
Billinge, Windle, and Winstanley from 
Richard Cowper, and ten years later made 
further purchases from Ralph and Richard 
Heaton ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
32, m. 51 ; 42, m. 143. 

The Orrells of Turton held lands, as 
appears by various suits recorded in Duca- 
tus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 242. 

For a Molyneux family, holding under 
Fleetwood, see Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. 
Soc.), ii, 128. 

a ? Norris D. (B.M.). 

28 List in possession of W. Farrer, con- 
taining also a catalogue of the charterers. 

29 Engl. Catb. Nonjuron, 124, 125, 
151. The son of Richard and Elizabeth 
Mather is described as a Protestant. In 
addition, Francis Estcourt of Birchley 
registered an annuity of 33 from a house 
in Ashton in Makerfield ; ibid. 151. 

80 The documents referred to are print- 
ed in Canon Bridgeman's Wigan Ch. 


The dedication of the chapel is un- 
known. In the earliest record, 1539-40, 
the priest in charge is called the vicar of 
Billinge ; op. cit. 750. Nothing but ' one 
little bell' belonged to it in 1552; Cb. 
Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 75. 


81 Wigan Ch. 751. It is possible that 
the chapel was not used in the time 
of Edward VI, there being no 'ornaments ' 
in 1552, and that James Winstanley had 
acquired some title to the building, or 
claimed a chief rent. As to his opponents, 
it is obvious that they would use the argu- 
ment most likely to move the queen. In 
the will of James Winstanley of Winstan- 
ley, made 12 Mar. 1555-6, and proved at 
Chester 19 Dec. 1557, he expressed a 
desire to be buried ' within the holy 
sepulchre in the parish church of Wigan.' 

83 Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 348 ; quoting 
S.P. Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4. A similar re- 
port was made about 1610 ; Hist. MSS. 
Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 1 3. 

88 Wigan Ch. 754 ; Raines MSS. (Chet. 
Lib.), xxii, 184. 

84 Common-w. Cb. Surv. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 62 ; the salary was 
j5O. An augmentation of stipend to the 
amount of ^30 was granted in 1656 ; 
Plund. Mini. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), ii, 145. M Wigan Ch. loc. cit. 

86 Ibid. Bishop Gastrell about this 
time found the income of the curate to be 
^34 os. 8J., of which 6 was paid by 
the rector, and the remainder was the in- 
terest of various benefactions, 1 5 coming 
from Eddleston House, an estate be- 
queathed by John Eddleston in 1672, and 
containing a stone delph set for z. A 
chief rent of i was payable to Mr. 
Blackburn. One warden was appointed ; 
Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 253. 



headed window in each bay, each window subdivided 
by mullions into three lights. The walls are crowned 
with an embattled parapet, with urns at intervals on 
the parapet, and in the west front is the doorway, 
with a window of semi-Gothic style over it. All 
the work is very good of its kind, of wrought stone 
without, and the fittings of oak, while a fine brass 
chandelier hangs from the ceiling. Galleries put up 
in 1823 have now been taken away. It has lately 
been dedicated to St. Aidan. In 1765 the patronage 
was disputed, but the rector of Wigan established 
his right, and is the present patron. 37 The church 
became parochial in l882. 38 

The curates in charge and vicars have been as 
follows 39 : 

1609 Richard Bolton 40 

1625 Edward Tempest 

1626 Peter Travers 
1646 John Wright" 

c. 1686 Nathan Golborne" 

1699 Edward Sedgwick 

1704 John Horobin 

1708 Humphrey Whalley 

1749 Edward Parr 

1763 Thomas Withnell 

1776 Richard Carr 

1813 Samuel Hall, 43 M. A. (St. John's Coll. Camb.) 

1833 John Bromilow 

1853 Howard St. George, M.A. (T.C.D.) 

1898 Francis Broughton Anson Miller, M.A. 
(Trinity Coll. Camb.) 

There is a Wesleyan Methodist chapel at Higher 
End, built in 1 845, and a Primitive Methodist one 
in Chapel End. 

If Billinge has afforded some evidence, though 
questionable, of the existence of a vigorous Protestant- 
ism in this part of the county as early as 1550, it also 
affords evidence of the vitality of the ancient faith, 
the Andertons of Birchley sheltering the missionary 
priests. One of the earliest to labour here was the 
Jesuit Roger Anderton, who served from 1645 until 
his death fifty years later. 44 The present church of 
St. Mary was built in 1828. A manuscript pre- 
served in the presbytery contains the Forma Vivendi of 
Richard Rolle of Hampole. 45 


Winstaneslege, 1212; Wynstanesleigh, 1252; 
Wynstanlegh, 1292 ; Winstanislegh, 1293. 

Winstanley is situated on the eastern lower slopes 
of Billinge Hill, 440 ft. above sea level being reached, 
on the edge of an extensive colliery district, several 
coal-mines being found in the township itself. The 
principal object in the landscape is the mass of trees 
surrounding Winstanley Hall, the grounds of which 
occupy nearly one-third of the whole area of the 
township. The rest of the country is divided into 
fields, usually separated by thin hedges, and sometimes 
by low stone walls. The arable fields produce crops of 
potatoes, oats, and wheat, whilst there are pastures 
and meadows, with isolated plantations. The sur- 
face soil is sandy, mixed with clay in places, with 
sandstone rock not far from the surface. 

The park is bounded on two sides by the roads 
from Billinge to Wigan and from Haydock to Up- 
holland, which cross at its southern point. The Lan- 
cashire and Yorkshire Company's Liverpool and Wigan 
Railway passes through near the northern boundary. A 
colliery railway goes south-west through the township. 

Withington lies in the north-west corner, and 
Longshaw on the western boundary ; south of this is 
Moss Vale. Two detached portions of the township 
lie within Billinge Chapel End ; one of these is called 
Blackley Hurst. 

The township has an area of 1,859 ac* 65 * 1 and in 
1901 the population numbered 564. 

Thomas Winstanley, an Oxford scholar of some 
distinction, was born in the township in 1749. He 
became Camden Professor of History in 1790 and 
held other university and college appointments. He 
died in 1823.'* James Cropper, 1773 to 1840, 
philanthropist, was also & native of Winstanley, 1 and 
Henry Fothergill Chorley, 1808 to 1872, musical 
critic and general writer, of Blackley Hurst. 3 

The earlier stages of the history of the 
M4NOR manor have been described in the account 
of Billinge. 4 There are no materials at 
present available for tracing the descent in the family 
of Winstanley, which continued in possession until 
the end of the i6th century. 8 Early in 1596 Ed- 
mund Winstanley and Alice his wife sold the manor 

W Wigan CA. 755. 

M Ibid. 756 ; Land. Gaz.% Dec. 1882. 

89 Wigan CA. 756, 757. The first 
who was formally licensed to the cure 
was Humphrey Whalley, in 1708. Most 
of the earlier ones, therefore, except 
during the Commonwealth, were pro- 
bably curates of Wigan who read the ser- 
vice at Biilinge on Sundays. 

40 He was merely a 'reader* in 1609 
(Raines MSS. xxii, 298), but contributed 
to the subsidy of 1622 as curate; Misc. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 65. 

41 He was a 'very honest, godly minis- 
ter, and of good life and conversation, but 
kept not the fast day appointed by Act of 
Parliament' ; Commonw. Cb. Sur-v. 63. 

42 There is probably some error in 
Canon Bridgeman's list at this point, as 
Humphrey Tudor' s name does not appear 
in Bishop Stratford's visitation list of 
1691. In 1689 Nathan Golborne was 
'minister' at Billinge, and was 'con- 
formable' ; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, 
App. iv, 228. In Stratford's list he is 
described as curate of Wigan, ordained in 
1686. He is probably the Goulburn of 

Canon Bridgeman. He was buried at 
Warrington 12 Mar. 1691-2. 

48 While at Billinge he renounced 
Calvinism, became a Universalist, and 
left the Established Church. He died in 
1858 ; Axon, Mancb. Annals, 275. Later 
he returned to the Church, but wai not 
again bcneficed. 

44 In 1717 the families in the chapelry 
numbered 178, ten being 'papists' and 
fourteen Dissenters (ten Presbyterian and 
four Quakers). There were ninety-four 
'papists' in 1767. See Gastrell, Notitia, 
ii, 253 ; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.),xviii. 

45 Thedetails in this paragraph are chiefly 
from the Liverpool Catb. Annual, 1901. 

1 1, 860, including 29 of inland water ; 
census of 1901. 

la Diet. Nat. Biog. a Ibid. Ibid. 

4 Roger de Winstanley held the manor 
under the lord of Billinge in 1212 ; Lanes. 
Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 76. He was a contributor to 
aids, &c. in the time of King John ; 
Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 205, 230. As 
Roger de Winstanley, son of Outi, he 
made grants to Cockersand Abbey : (i) 

Witlow Hurst, the bounds of which were 
the Syke, Green Lache, Thornhurst Brook, 
and Kempesbirines ; (2) another piece, 
the bounds beginning at the road from 
Northcroft to Sandyford on Budshaw 
Brook; and (3) another, bounded by Eldeley 
Brook and Thornhurst Brook to Green 
Lache ; Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
654-8. The lands were granted by 
the abbot to William de Burley, by a rent 
of I2</., and los. as obit; William de 
Whitlow held them in 1268, and James 
de Winstanley, paying zs. t in 1461 ; ibid. 

6 Adam de Winstanley was in possession 
in 1252 ; Final Cone, i, 114. By the 
agreement he appears to have secured a 
practical enfranchisement of his manor. 
It was probably Roger his son who made 
a grant to Cockersand of certain land 
marked out by crosses ; this had been ex- 
changed for other land held by Henry de 
Billinge, and the exchange and donation 
were confirmed by the lord of Newton in 
1283 ; Cockersand Chart, ii, 658-60. Ro- 
ger de Winstanley was a plaintiff in 1292 
against Henry de Huyton ; Assize R. 


of Winstanley, with the coal mines and view of frank- 
pledge, to James Bankes. 6 The purchaser, who 
belonged to a Wigan family, 7 died 4 August 1617, 


bart azure and in chief 
three crosses formy gules. 

BANKES. Sable a crosi 
or between four jteurs de 
Us argent, a canton of the 

leaving a widow Susannah, and a son and heir Wil- 
liam, then twenty-four years of age. The manor was 
held of Sir Richard Fleetwood, baron of Newton, in 
socage by a rent of 3/. 6d. ; the other possessions of 
James Bankes included the manor of Houghton in 

Winwick, and lands in Winstanley and adjacent town- 
ships. 8 William Bankes, the heir, represented Liver- 
pool in Parliament in 1675 ; 9 his son, another 
William, represented Newton in Makerfield in 1 660 ; 10 
the latter's son, also William, represented Wigan in 
1679." The last William Bankes dying in 1689, 
the manors passed to his brother Thomas's son and 
grandson. 18 Thomas had also a daughter Anne, who 
married Hugh Holme of Upholland in 1732, and 
their descendants, assuming the name of Bankes, 13 
ultimately acquired possession, retaining it until the 
death of Meyrick Bankes in 1881. His daughter, 
Mrs. Murray, was left a life interest in the estate, and 
it was entailed in tail male on her sons. She re- 
sumed her maiden name and died December 1907, 
when her only surviving son George Bankes came 
into the property." 

Another branch of the Winstanley family 15 is 
found at Blackley Hurst, a detached portion of the 
township. Their lands were sold to Richard or 
William Blackburne in 1617," and Blackley Hurst 
was later acquired by the Gerards, owners of the 
adjacent Birchley. 

408, m. 44 d. ; and in the same year 
Henry son of Roger de Winstanley and 
Adam son of William de Winstanley were 
defendants ; ibid. m. 36 d. 

In 1305 Roger son of Roger de Win- 
stanley recovered messuages and lands 
from Richard son of William the Lewed, 
Alice his wife, and Amota daughter of 
Alice. Alice, it appeared, was the real 
defendant ; her title came from a grant 
by Robert de Huyton and William de 
Winstanley ; Assize R. 1306, m. 19. In 
1332 Roger de Winstanley contributed to 
the subsidy ; Exch. Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 26. Roger son of Roger 
de Winstanley and Isolda his father's 
widow had disputes in 1352 j Assize 
R. 435, m. 29. Particulars of various 
suits will be found in the account of 

Hugh de Winstanley contributed to 
the poll tax in 1 3 8 1 ; Exch. Lay Subs. bdle. 
130, no. 24. In 1388 he had licence for 
an oratory for two years ; Lich. Epis. Reg. 
Scrope, vi, fol. 124. Henry de Winstan- 
ley and Malin his wife made a grant of 
land in Houghton in Winwick in 1400-1 j 
Towneley MS. GG, no. 1007. 

At the end of 1433 James de Winstan- 
ley the elder granted to trustees all his 
lands, &c., in Wigan, Winstanley, Pem- 
berton, and Billinge ; these in the follow- 
ing year were regranted to him with 
remainder to his son James and Agnes his 
wife ; ibid. no. 2857, 2224. In 1490-1 
Gilbert Langton (of Lowe in Hindley), as 
trustee enfeoffed Gilbert Langtree, James 
Molyneux, rector of Sefton, and Robert 
Langton, son of the grantor, of his manor 
of Winstanley and all his lands in Win- 
stanley, Wigan, Orrell, and Billinge, then 
occupied by Agnes mother of Edmund 
Winstanley, and by Randle and Robert 
Winstanley. After Edmund's death the 
manor and lands were to descend to James 
the son and heir of Edmund, with re- 
mainder to James's brother Humphrey ; 
ibid. no. 2537. Edmund Winstanley was 
tenant of the Cockersand lands in 1501 ; 
Rentale de Cockersand (Chet. Soc.), 5. 
Richard Crosse of Liverpool in 1493 
agreed to marry Elizabeth daughter of 
Edmund Winstanley ; Towneley MS. 
GG. no. 2250 ; Visit, of 1567 (Chet. 
Soc.), 107. 

Humphrey Winstanley was recorded 
among the gentry of the hundred in 
1512. A marriage agreement between 
him and Evan Haydock in 1505 is in 
Towneley MS. GG. no. 1534. For the 
child marriage of Humphrey Winstanley 
and Alice sister of James Worsley, see 
F. J. Furnivall's Child Marriages (Early 
Engl. Text Soc.), 2. 

6 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 59, 
m. 348. The remainder of the holding 
included forty messuages, five water- 
mills, two dovecotes, 300 acres of land, 
100 acres of meadow, common of pasture 
for all cattle, and various houses and 

Edmund Winstanley is mentioned in 
the Visit, of 1567, pp. 24, 107. He was 
steward of the rector of Wigan in 1575 ; 
Wigan Ch. 145. There is a deed of his 
in Towneley MS. GG, no. 2635. 

7 A pedigree was recorded in 1664 
(Dugdale, [Chet. Soc.], 26), and 
there are later pedigrees in Gregson's 
Fragments (ed. Harland), 232 ; Burke, 
Commoners^ iv, 213 ; Baines, Lanes, (ed. 
Croston), iv, 306. 

In 1588 William Bankes purchased a 
house and lands in Wigan and Ince from 
Miles Gerard and Grace his wife ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 50, m. 171. Five 
year* later James Bankes made a pur- 
chase in Aspull and Wigan, and in 1597 
he and Susan his wife made a sale or 
mortgage, Francis Sherington being the 
plaintiff in the fine; ibid, bdles. 55, m. 
127 ; 58, m. 220. 

8 Lana. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 97-9. 

9 Pink and Beaven, Lanes. Parl. Repre- 
sentation, 191. He was then 91 years 
of age. William Bankes in 1631 paid 
j 1 2 on refusing knighthood ; Misc. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 213. 

10 Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 281. 

11 Ibid. 229 ; he was a Whig. Some 
of his letters are printed in Hist. MSS. 
Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 128, &c. 

12 Thomas's son Robert was sheriff in 
1742 ; his grandson William (son of Wil- 
liam) in 1784; P.R.O. List of Sheriffs, 
74. William Bankes died in 1800, with- 
out issue, and the estates passed to his 
cousin, the Rev. Thomas Holme of Up- 
holland, whose mother's monument in 


Upholland Church states that she died 
2 June 1799, aged 93 ; Wigan Cb. 747. 
Thomas Holme was incumbent of Up- 
holland from 1758 to 1767 ; ibid. 749. 
Several of the family have been benefac- 
tors to the poor. 

is Meyrick son of Thomas Holme 
took the surname of Bankes in 1804 ; he 
was sheriff in 1805 ; P.R.O. List, 74. 

14 A view of the hall, about 1816, is 
given in Gregson, Fragments (ed. Har- 
land), 231. 

15 An undated fragment of a pedigree 
in Piccope's MS. Pedigrees (Chet. Lib.), ii, 
fol. 18, gives the succession : James 35. 
Ottiwell s. James, ' said to be an alms 
knight at Windsor." 

A Humphrey Winstanley about 1560 
married Jane, a daughter of William 
Heaton, and had disputes with the An- 
dertons and Heatons ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), ii, 236 ; iii, 12, 13. 

16 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 90, no. 
41 ; bdle. 91, no. 27 ; in the former 
James Sorocold was plaintiff, and in the 
latter Richard Blackburne was joined with 
him. James Winstanley and Margaret 
his wife were deforciants ; the property is 
described as the manors of Winstanley 
and Billinge, with various lands, &c., in 
these townships and in Ashton. 

William Blackburne in 1631 paid ^10 
on refusing knighthood ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 213. 

The Blackburnes, a Protestant family, 
near relations of those of Newton, Orford, 
and Hale, long continued in possession. 
They had an estate Crow Lane in 
the parish of Winwick, and a burial place 
there, for in the registers are records of 
the burials of Thomas Blackburne of 
Blackley Hurst, 9 Feb. 1664-5 5 Jhn, 
18 Dec. 1666, see Roger Lowe's Diary ; 
William son of John (of Billinge), 14 
July 1719; William, 21 Dec. 1724; 
Anne wife of John, i May 1745 ; and 
John, 2 Apr. 1766, aged 89 ; then Black- 
burne son of Mr. Gildart of Blackley 
Hurst, aged 2, 23 Dec. 1767 ; John 
Gildart of Billinge, 13 Feb. 1771-2 ; and 
Jane Creighton, of Blackley Hurst, aged 
86, 20 Jan. 1795. Sophia daughter and 
sole heir of John Gildart of Blackley 
Hurst married Major Richard Jones, a 
son of the fourth Viscount Ranelagh ; 



In 1600 the freeholders were James Bankes, Ed- 
mund Atherton, and James Winstanley of Blackley 
Hurst. 17 William Bankes and William Blackburne 
contributed to the subsidy of i6z8. 18 William 
Bankes, Thomas Blackburne of Blackley Hurst, clerk, 
and the heirs of James Winstanley of Hough Wood, 
contributed in i663. 19 A number of Winstanley 
Quakers were in 1670 convicted as 'Popish recu- 
sants,' two-thirds of their properties being sequestra- 
ted. 20 Thomas Marsh, John Buller, William Jameson, 
and Thomas Appleton, as ' papists,' registered estates 
here in 


Horul, 1212 ; Orel, 1292 ; Orhull, 1294 ; Orul, 

This township, sometimes called Orrell in Maker- 
field, to distinguish it from Orrell in Sefton parish, 
has an area of 1,617^ acres. 1 It is divided from Up- 
holland on the west by Dean Brook, flowing through 
a pleasantly- wooded dingle to join the Douglas, which 
forms the northern boundary. It is situated on the 
eastern slope of the ridge of high ground stretching 
north from Billinge to Dalton. The country is open 
and varied, and consists of pasture land and fields, 
where the crops are chiefly potatoes, wheat, and oats. 
Towards the south the country is even more bare and 
treeless as it merges into the colliery district. The 
soil is clay with a mixture of sand, over a foundation 
of hard stone. The town of Upholland is partly 
situated in this township, and the Abbey Lake, a small 
sheet of water, is the rendezvous of picnic parties and 
excursions from the larger towns in the neighbourhood, 
such a lake being attractive on account of the scarcity 
of water in the district. 

The principal road is that from Ormskirk to Wigan, 

which passes through the township from west to 
east, and is crossed by a road leading northwards 
from St. Helens to Standish. Orrell Mount, over 
300 ft., and Orrell Post are to the east of the 
point where the roads cross ; to the south-west is 
Far Moor, and to the north Ackhurst. Lamberhead 
Green lies on the eastern edge, partly in Pemberton. 
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Company's Liverpool 
and Wigan line crosses the southern corner of the 
township, having a station there called Orrell ; the 
same company's Wigan and Southport line passes 
through the northern portion, close to the Douglas, 
with a station called Gathurst. 

The population in 1901 numbered 5,436. 

Nail-making is carried on, and there is a cotton 
mill. Roburite is made at Gathurst. In 1787 there 
were coal mines working under five different owner- 
ships. 2 

A local board was formed in i872. s The town- 
ship is now governed by an urban district council of 
twelve members. 

Before the Conquest, as afterwards, 
M4NOR ORRELL was the extreme north-west 
berewick of the manor or fee of Newton 
in Makerfield/ and it remained a member of it until 
the 1 7th century. 6 The available materials for its 
history are but scanty. At the survey of 1 2 1 2 it was 
held in thegnage by Richard de Orrell as half a plough- 
land, by the service of i os, rent and finding a judge ; 
this was an arrangement ' of ancient time.' 6 There 
was an ancient subordinate holding, William holding 
half an oxgang after giving Thomas de Orrell two ox- 
gangs in free marriage in the time of King Richard. 
Richard de Orrell himself had recently given one 
oxgang to his brother John, and previously 4 acres to 
the Hospitallers. 7 Soon afterwards grants were made 
to Cockersand Abbey by Richard de Orrell and John 
his son. 8 

Gent. Mag. 1785, ii, 747. She died in 
1803 without issue. 

The following members of the family 
matriculated at Oxford, Brasenose College: 
William son of William Blackburne of 
Billinge, plebeian, i6z6, aged 17 (after- 
wards vicar of Chartbury) ; Richard son 
of William, 1633, aged 21 ; Thomas son 
of William, of Blackley Hurst, 1639, 
aged 18 (B.D. 1661) ; John son of Wil- 
liam, of Billinge, 1640, aged 18 (B.D. 
1662) ; Foster's Alumni. 

William son of Thomas Blackburne 
occurs in 1673 in the account of Newton 
in Makerfield. 

William Blackburne, of Blackley Hurst, 
John his son and heir apparent, and Wil- 
liam the son of John, are all mentioned 
in a lease enrolled in 1718 ; Piccope MSS. 
(Chet. Lib.), iii, fol. 200, from 2nd R. of 
George I at Preston. 

A Roger Rigby of Blackley Hurst, 
brother of Edward Rigby of Burgh, was 
in 1 5 90 reported as ' evil given in religion ' ; 
Lydiate Hall, 250. 

*l Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 239, 242. Edward Winstanley and 
Humphrey Atherton had a dispute con- 
cerning lands in Winstanley in 1593 ; 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 291, 319. A 
settlement of lands in Billinge was made 
in 1596, Humphrey Atherton and Alice 
his wife, and Edmund, the son and heir, 
being deforciants ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 59, m. 21. 

Edmund Atherton of Winstanley died 

in 1613 holding land in Billinge of the 
Baron of Newton ; Humphrey his son 
and heir was four years old ; Lanes. Inq. 
p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 277. 

From deeds in the possession of W. 
Farrer it appears that Romeshaw House 
was part of the Atherton estate. 

" Norris D. (B.M.). 

19 Schedule in possession of W. Farrer. 
A William Blackburne of Blackley Hurst 
is also named. 

30 Local Glean. Lanes, and Cbes. i, 234, 
where lists referring to this and neigh- 
bouring townships are printed. 

ffl Engl. Catb. Nonjurors, 97, 125, 135, 
151. Appleton's house was called The 

1 Including 7 acres of inland water ; 
Census of 1901. 

9 Land tax returns at Preston. The 
owners were William German, Blundell & 
Co., Hardcastle & Co., Rev. Thomas 
Holme, and Richard Culshaw & Co. 

8 Land. Gaz. 21 June 1872. 

4 y.C.H. Lanes, i, 286. 

5 See the various inquisitions of the 
Langtons ; e.g. Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. 
Soc.), i, 138 ; ii, 99; ibid. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 105. 

6 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 76. Richard de Orrell 
occurs from 1201 in the Pipe R. (Lanes. 
Pipe R. 152, 179, <fec.), but it appears 
from the Survey that he had been in 
posseition in the time of Henry II. 

7 Lanct. Inq. and Extents, loc. cit. 

The grant to the Hospitallers is not 
mentioned in the list of their lands 
in the Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), 
375, nor in the rental of 1540; but in 
1617 James Bankes of Winstanley held 
a messuage and various lands in Orrell, 
with common of pasture, of William, Earl 
of Derby, as of his manor of Woolton, by 
i zd. rent ; these were probably the Hos- 
pitallers' lands ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. 
Soc.), ii, 98. 

8 Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
651-4. Richard de Orrell granted a piece 
of land between Clamsclough and Bradley 
Brook, and between the Douglas and Os- 

John son of Richard de Orrell granted 
Haselenhurst ; from Bradley Brook where 
Small Brook enters it, up to the syke 
dividing the Cockersand land from that of 
William de Orrell, following the syke to 
Small Brook, and down this to the start. 
This land had been previously granted to 
Adam son of Robert ; the charter state* 
that Bradley Brook flowed down from 
Swithel Hills. 

William son of Leising released his 
claim in these lands to the canons. 

In 1501 Robert Orrell held a portion of 
the abbey's lands, and the heirs of Robert 
Holland the remainder, for a total rent 
of izd. ; Cockersand Rental (Chet. Soc.), 

4, 5- 

The Cockersand lands here, as elsewhere, 
appear to have been granted to Thomas 




Before the end of the century, in what way does 
not appear, the manor was acquired by the Holands 
of Upholland, 9 from whom it descended, like their 
other manors, to the Levels, 10 and, after forfeiture, to 
the Earls of Derby." 

William, the sixth earl, sold it to William Orrell 
of Turton, 11 and the latter soon after sold to the 
Bisphams, lords of part of the adjacent manor of 
Billinge ; ls then by marriage it descended to Thomas 
Owen, 14 and to Holt Leigh of Wigan. 15 His son, 
Sir Roger Holt Leigh, of Hindley Hall in Aspull, 
left it to his cousin, afterwards Lord Kingsdown, for 
life, and then to the present owner, Mr. Roger 
Leigh of Aspull. 16 

The Orrell family had numerous offshoots, but the 
relationships cannot be traced. The survey of 1212, 
quoted above, shows that there were then two subor- 
dinate holdings of one-eighth and a quarter of the 
manor. The former may have descended to the 
Orrells of Turton, 17 and the latter may be the holding 
of Alexander Orrell of Orrell Post, whose land in 
1607 was held by a rent of 3/. 18 

The freeholders in 1 600 were the Alexander Orrell 
just named, William Prescott, and Thomas Tipping. 19 
James Bankes of Winstanley also held lands here in 

About the same time another family, the Leighs of 
Ackhurst, are mentioned, continuing down to the 

9 Robert de Holand was lord in 1292 ; 
Assize R. 408, m. 37 ; Final Cone. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 173. 

In 1307 Robert de Holand desiring to 
give a plough-land in Orrell to the chap- 
lain of Upholland, inquiry was made on 
behalf of the king ; the manor of Orrell 
was found to be held of John de Langton 
and Alice his wife by the service of icw. ftd. 
an increase of 6d. and doing suit at 
the court of Newton in Makerfield from 
three weeks to three weeks ; Lanci. Inq. 
and Extents, i, 322. 

At a later inquiry in 1324 the same 
statement was made as to the tenure ; the 
value of the manor was 6 6s. T&d. ; 
Inq. a.q.d. 1 8 Edw. II, no. 68. See also 
Inq. p.m. 47 Edw. Ill (ist nos.), no. 19. 

10 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 2. 

11 Pat 4 Hen. VII, 25 Feb. ; Duchy 
of Lane. Inq. p.m. v, no. 68. In 1 597 the 
deforciants of the manors of Orrell and 
Dalton were William, Earl of Derby, and 
Edward Stanley ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 58, m. 254. 

12 Bridgeman, Wigan Ch. (Chet. Soc.), 
257 ; see further below. 

18 See Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), i, 
200, in 1607. William Bispham died in 
1639 holding the manor of Orrell of the 
king as of his manor of East Greenwich ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxx, no. 97. 

14 See the account of Billinge. 

15 See the account of Aspull. 

16 Burke, Landed Gentry. 

^ In 1292 Adam sou of William de Or- 
rell, asserting that he was lord of an eighth 
part of the vill, complained that Robert 
de Holland and Robert his son had dis- 
seised him of his free tenement in Orrell. 
Some of the waste had been improved by 
the elder Robert, and it was shown that 
sufficient pasture had been reserved for the 
commoners ; thus Adam lost his case 5 
Assize R. 408, m. 37. 

In 1334 William Hert and Emma his 
wife, Roger Hert and Agnes his wife the 
wives being granddaughters (or daughters) 
and heirs of Adam de Orrell claimed 
lands in Orrell against Henry de Orrell 
and the brothers Roger and William de 
Orrell, Henry alleging a grant by Adam ; 
Coram Rege R. 297, m. 103. 

18 In 1530 there wat a recovery of 
the manor of Orrell by William Orrell, 
sen., against William Orrell, jun. ; Pal. 
of Lane. Plea R. 151, m. i. William 
Orrell of Orrell claimed against John 
Orrell of Turton in 1551 a messuage and 
lands in Orrell, as heir of a certain Robert 
Orrell, giving his pedigree thus : Robert 
s. John s. Peter bro. Henry . 
William ; ibid. R. 191, m. 12. 

In disputes which arose in the time of 
Elizabeth are numerous details regarding 
this manor. 

It was tated that William Orrell of 
Orrell was seised of a capital messuage 
called the Hall of Orrell, a water corn- 
mill, and lands in Orrell, by descent from 
his ancestors. About 1558 he conveyed 
the estate to Hugh Anderton, from whom 
it passed to Richard Chisnall of Gray's 
Inn, and then to Sir Robert Worsley, who 
gave it to his son Robert. The younger 
Robert, at the desire of William Orrell, 
assured the premises to Gilbert Shering- 
ton of Gray's Inn, who about 1570 sold 
to Francis Sherington and Katherine his 
wife. Two years later William Orrell 
was charged with forging deeds to regain 
possession, his son John being an accom- 
plice, and ' they went to the said premises, 
shooting arrows at the said Katherine and 
her servants ' ; Duchy of Lane. Plead. 
Eliz. bcxxviii, S. 18. 

From another document it appears that 
Sir Robert Worsley, about 1558, was the 
owner of Orrell Hall and conveyed it to 
William Orrell, who bought out the in- 
terest of Thomas Molyneux in part of the 
estate. It is not clear whether Sir Ro- 
bert's title arose from a purchase from the 
grantee of Upholland Priory, or from a 
sale (or mortgage) by William Orrell ; 
ibid. Ixxiii, O. 4. The money to be paid 
to Sir Robert Worsley was 280. Gil- 
bert Sherington paid this ; William Orrell 
was to be tenant for life, and his son 
Thomas released all his interest in the 
estate ; ibid, xciii, O. i. 

Somewhat earlier, in 1549, James An- 
derton had purchased lands in Orrell from 
William Orrell ; PaL of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 13, m. 66. James died shortly 
afterwards holding lands in Orrell of the 
Earl of Derby by a rent of 31. a year ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. ix, no. 14. In 
April 1555 Hugh Anderton, the son and 
heir of James, purchased a messuage, 
water-mill, &c., from William Orrell ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle, 15, m. at. 
Two years later Richard Chisnall secured 
the same from Hugh Anderton and Alice 
his wife ; ibid. bdle. 17, m. 71. 

A settlement by William Orrell and 
Thomas his son and heir-apparent was 
made in 1561; ibid. bdle. 23, m. 193. 
Sir Robert Worsley, his son and heir Ro- 
bert, whose wife was Elizabeth, made a 
settlement two years later ; ibid. bdle. 25, 
m. 225. Gilbert Sherington's purchase 
took place in 1569 ; the deforciants being 
Robert Worsley and Elizabeth his wife, 
William Orrell and Margaret his wife, and 
William Stopforth and Blanche his wife ; 
ibid. bdle. 31, m. 200. 

There were perhaps two estates ; Or- 
rell Hall held under the priory and then 
under Worsley, and sold to Sherington ; 
and another held under the Earl of Derby 
and sold to James Anderton. If so, the 


latter was perhaps regained by the Orrells, 
the rent (3*.) being the same in 1552 and 
1607. In 1567 John Orrell conveyed an 
estate to feoffees ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 29, m. 85. He seems to have 
been the great-grandfather of Alexander 
(son of John) Orrell, who, as a minor, in 
1587 complained that Elizabeth, wife of 
John Rivington, and widow of the elder 
John Orrell, was detaining part of his es- 
tate ; Duchy of Lane. Plead. Eliz. cxlii, 
O. 2. This is no doubt the Alexander 
Orrell who died in 1607, leaving a son 
and heir Ralph, aged eighteen in 1612 ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 199. 

The former, Orrell Hall, was retained 
by the Sheringtons. In 1601 William 
Orrell of Turton, having purchased the 
manor, had disputes with Katherine, 
widow of Francis Sherington, as to her 
coal mine in Harre hey adjoining the 
High Street in Orrell. The latter com- 
plained that William Orrell had dug a pit 
in the highway and made a passage to her 
mine, had caused the water from the 
ditch to flow into it, and had stopped up 
the gate through which her coals were 
carried. He replied that Katherine's 
messuage was held of the manor, which he 
had demised to his brother Richard, of 
London ; and that she had taken coals 
from his land ; Duchy Plead. Eliz. cxcv, 
S. 10 ; cciv, O. i ; ccv, S. 27. 

In 1650 Edward Rigby, who held Or- 
rell Hall of Francis Sherington of Booths 
at a rent of ,38, petitioned the Parlia- 
mentary Commissioners for relief. Sher- 
ington's estate had been sequestered in 
1643, and from that time Rigby paid his 
rent to the sequestrators ; but when Prince 
Rupert was in the county (1644) Shering- 
ton took him prisoner, made him pay 
n 55., and seized his goods, &c., the 
place being within 3^ miles from Lathom. 
He desired that Sherington might not be 
allowed to compound until he had satisfied 
him ; Cal. of Com. for Compounding, ii, 

19 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 
242-3. Thomas Prescott died in 1591, 
holding a messuage, shop, and lands in 
Orrell and Upholland of the queen as of 
the late priory of Upholland, by a rent of 
iifed. His son William was thirty-five 
years of age ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
xv, no. 7. 

William Prescott occurs 1597 ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 58, m. 223. He 
died in 1601 leaving a son Thomas, one 
year old ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xviii, 
no. 21. 

20 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), ii, 97 ; 
part was held of Richard Fleetwood, and 
part, as already stated, of the Earl of 



middle of the 1 8th century. 21 They were recusants 
and incurred the usual penalties. Emma, or Emeren- 
tia, Leigh, widow, Margaret and Catherine Leigh, 
spinsters, and their sister, Anne Sandford, widow, 
registered their estates in xyiy. 22 Thomas Duxon 
and William Tarleton were the other ' papists ' who 
did the same. 83 

Orrell was formerly considered part of the chapelry 
of Upholland. Recently, in connexion with the 
Established Church, St. Luke's Chapel-of-ease has 
been erected. 

The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have 
chapels in the township, as also have the Welsh Cal- 
vinistic Methodists. 

Salem Chapel, built in 1824, belongs to the Con- 
gregationalists, who formed a church here about 1805 
and erected a temporary chapel about 1 8 1 o. The 
building is still called John Holgate's Chapel, from 
the name of one of the early ministers, 1820-50. A 
later minister conformed to the Established religion, 
an occurrence which almost ruined the Congregational 
interest. 24 

The Roman Catholic mission was founded at Cross- 
brook in 1 699 and removed to the present site at Far 
Moor in 1805 ; the church of St. James was enlarged 
in 1841, and a bell- tower erected in 1882. There is a 
burial-ground attached. 25 Anne Sandford in 1740 gave 
jioo to the mission with an obligation to say mass 
for herself, her mother, and two sisters. 26 A convent 
of French Benedictine nuns, driven out of their 
country by the Revolution, in the first half of last 
century occupied the house at Orrell Mount, but 
afterwards removed to Princethorpe, Warwickshire. 


Holland, Dom. Bk. ; Hollande, 1202 ; Holand, 
1224 and common; Holande, 1279; Upholond, 
1292 ; Upholland, xvi cent. 

This township, distinguished by the prefix from 
Downholland near Halsall, is the largest in the parish, 
having an area of 4,685 acres. 1 The population in 
1901 numbered 4,77 3. * From the northern and 
eastern boundaries, formed by the River Douglas and 
its affluent the Dean Brook, the surface rises rapidly to 
a point near the middle of the western boundary, 
where a height of about 550 ft. is attained. From this 
a ridge extends southerly, the ground to the south- 

west falling away continuously to the boundary, which 
is formed by Raw Moss and Holland Moss. The 
southerly aspect of the township is open and bare ; 
on the north there are more trees as the land 
dips down to the romantic valley of the Douglas. 
The arable fields, many divided by stone walls, are 
sown with oats and wheat, and potatoes are very 
extensively grown. On the south and west there are 
collieries and fire-brick works, whilst stone quarries 
give work to a section of the inhabitants. The soil 
appears to be chiefly sandy, clayey in places, a shaley 
rock appearing now and again on the surface, but the 
solid base is sandstone. 

The 1 7th-century registers name many * coalers ' and 
' delf men ' ; there were also nailers, linen-weavers, 
glovers, watchmakers, and other craftsmen, whose 
names are found in the township. 

Upholland village, where the priory formerly stood, 
lies on the eastern slope of the ridge, near the Orrell 
boundary. Through it pass from east to west the 
road from Wigan to Ormskirk, and from north to 
south that from Chorley to St. Helens. The 
village has a steep main street, with the church at 
the south end, overlooking a wide open space of 
churchyard on the north and east. Immediately south 
of the church is the site of the claustral buildings, but 
their remains, with a single exception, are buried in 
the ground and have never been explored. The 
houses of Upholland are from an architectural point 
of view of little interest, except one, an early 1 7th 
or late 16th-century house on the south side of 
the main street, with mullioned windows and a 
panel with the Stanley crest. To the north lie 
Walthew Green, Roby Mill, and Holland Lees ; 
to the west are Holland Moor, Birch Green, Dig- 
moor, and Tawd Bridge, the River Tawd forming 
a portion of the boundary at this point, and being 
joined by Grimshaw Brook ; to the south and south- 
west are Tontine, Pimbo, and Crawford. The Lan- 
cashire and Yorkshire Company's railway from Liver- 
pool to Wigan passes through the southern part of the 
township, with a station at Pimbo Lane now called 

Edward II stayed at Upholland for a fortnight in 
October 1323, on his way from the north to Liver- 

The Local Government Act of 1858 was adopted 
by the township in 1872.* The local board was, 
in 1894, replaced by a district council of fifteen 

81 The inheritance of this family was 
derived from Edmund Molyneux, mercer 
of London, lord of Vange in Essex, who 
died 31 Jan. 1615-16, seised of lands in 
Orrell and Upholland, held of Richard 
Fleetwood and of the king respectively. 
His heir was James Leigh, son of his 
ister Agnes, aged forty in 1618 ; Lanes. 
Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 
99. He was a benefactor of Wigan and 
Upholland. His will is printed in Gis- 
borne Molineux's Molineux Family, 143 ; 
it shows that he was related to the Moly- 
neuxes of Hawkley. An Edmund Moly- 
neux and his wife Agnes had lands in 
Orrell (apparently in the latter's right) in 
1532 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. n, 
m. 192. 

James Leigh and Margaret his wife, 
with their daughters Alice, Jane, and 
Ellen, were fined for recusancy in 1616. 

James and Alexander Leigh also appear on 
the recusant roll of 1641. James Leigh 
had a small copyhold estate at Barking in 
Essex sequestered for his recusancy by 
the Parliamentary authorities, and sold in 
1648 to Abraham Webb, apothecary- 
general to the army ; Alexander Leigh, 
the son and heir of James, afterwards 
for 220 concurred in the sale. In 1619 
he charged his lands in Orrell with a rent 
of j6 1 31. \d. for the maintenance of the 
grammar school at Wigan. Under the 
Parliamentary rule, two-thirds of his es- 
tate was sequestered for his recusancy. 
He died in or before 1649, when his son 
Alexander succeeded ; Royalist Comp. 
Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iv, 
8691 ; Cal. of Com, for Compounding, iv, 

Alexander Leigh appears in the recusant 
rolls down to 1667, and Richard Leigh, 


probably his son, to 1680. Two of Alex- 
ander's sons, Philip and John Joseph, be- 
came Jesuits ; the former was the author 
of a Life of St. Winefride. See Gillow, 
Bill. Diet, of Engl. Cath. iii, 191 ; Foley, 
Rec. S.J. vi, 518, 516 ; vii, 448-50. 

22 Engl. Catb. Nonjurors, 135, 124. 

28 Ibid. 149, 126. 

34 Nightingale, Lanes. Nonconformity, iv, 
37. Daniel Rosbotham of Rainford in 
1858 left ,200 towards the endow- 
ment ; Wigan End. Char. Rep. 1899, 

P- 57- 

35 Liverpool Cath, Ann. 1901. 
26 Gillow, op. cit. iv, 191. 

1 4,686, including 9 of inland water ; 
Census Rep. 1901. 

2 Including Bank Top, Crawford, &c. 

8 Cal. Close, 1323-7, pp. 25, 27, 28, 

4 Land. Cast. 13 Sept. 1872. 


A figure, probably of Cupid, dating from Roman 
times was found here. 5 

A fair, for pigs only, is held on Easter Mon- 
day. There was formerly a market on Wednesday. 6 
There were several crosses which have now disap- 
peared. 7 

In 1066 the manor of HOLLAND or 
MANOR Upholland was held by Stein ulf; it was 
assessed as two plough-lands and worth 
64</.* Nothing further is known of its tenure until 
1212, when it together with Melling was held in 
thegnage by Henry de Melling ; of him Matthew 
and Alan held the two plough-lands in Upholland by 
a rent of \2s. a year. 9 Ten years earlier Matthew 
de Holland or Holand, as the name was usually 
spelt held fourteen oxgangs here, to which Uctred 
de Church quitclaimed all his right. 10 Nothing 
further seems to be known of Alan, the joint tenant 
with Matthew. The latter was a benefactor of 
Cockersand Abbey. 11 

In 1224 Simon de Halsall quitclaimed to Robert 
de Holland all his right in the two plough-lands in 
Upholland. 11 The relationship of this Robert to his 
predecessor Matthew does not appear in the records. 
He was the ancestor of the great Holand family. 
His last appearance was to answer a charge of setting 
fire to one of the rector's houses in Wigan in 1241 ; 
he and his son Thurstan were lodged in prison, but 
released till the trial. 13 

Thurstan is said to have married a daughter of 
Adam de Kellet ; eventually the lordship of Nether 
Kellet descended to his heirs by this wife. 14 He also 
acquired lands in Hale, and large grants in Maker- 
field. 14 Sir Robert de Holland, the son of Thur- 
stan, who succeeded about 1276, married Elizabeth 
daughter and co-heir of Sir William de Samles- 
bury. 16 

Robert's son and namesake, Sir Robert de Holland, 
became one of the leading men in the county, being 
a favourite official of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, from 
whom he secured an alteration in the tenure of Up- 
holland, which does not seem to have been perma- 
nent. 17 He extended his possessions by a marriage 
with Maud, daughter and co-heir of Alan de la Zouch, 18 
and had many grants from his patron the earl ; l9 
some of these were held to be invalid. He was sum- 
moned to Parliament as Lord Holland from 1314 to 
1321. He took part in the earl's rebellion, and all 
his lands were forfeited ; * he himself was murdered 
in October 1328, it is said by followers of the earl 
who regarded him either as a coward or a traitor. 21 
Among his other acts was the foundation of the 
priory at Upholland in 1310 to 1317." This was 
practically the conclusion of the family's active interest 
in the manor. 

The forfeiture of the estates was in 1328 reversed 
by Edward III, 23 and Holland descended regularly to 
Sir Robert's son, Robert, who distinguished himself 

8 Watkin, Roman Lanes. 230. 

* It had long been discontinued in 
1836 ; Baines, Lanes, (ist ed.), iii, 561. 
7 Lanes, and Ches. Anti<j. Soc. xix, 237. 
V.C.H. Lanes. I, 284*. 

9 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 1 5. 

10 Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 14. The two oxgangs not 
accounted for may have been Alan's 

11 Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 610. 
The boundaries of his donation began at 
the head of the Ridge on the division be- 
tween Holland and Dalton, followed this 
division as far as Black lache, and by Black 
lache, Rutand Clough, Green lache, Pool 
lache, to the syke between St. Mary's 
land and the assart of Outi ; then by the 
carr beyond the Ridge to the starting 
point. He added an assart called Lithe- 
hurst, lying between Philip's boundary 
and Hawk's Nest Clough. The ease- 
ments included oak mast and shealings 
(scalingis). The ' St. Mary's land ' men- 
tioned was perhaps the abbey's land in 

12 Final Cone, i, 47. 

18 Cur. Reg. R. 121, m. 25 d., 26 d., 32. 
The result is not given. Robert de Hol- 
land granted to Cockersand Abbey all the 
land which Hugh and Wronow held of 
him in Bothams, on the boundary of 
Dalton, and apparently adjoining that 
granted by Matthew de Holland ; Chart. 
ii, 611. 

14 See Final Cone, ii, 118. Thurstan 
de Holland was one of the jurors as to 
those liable to contribute to the Gascon 
scutage in 1242-3 ; Lanes. Inq. and 
Extents, i, 146. 

In 1246 Thurstan de Holland was ac- 
quitted of having disseised Amice, wife of 
Thomas de Pendlebury, of 16 acres in 
Upholland ; Assize R. 404, m. i. 

In 1268 Thurstan de Holland, his 
brothers Matthew, Richard, Robert, and 

William, and his son Robert, were sum- 
moned to answer a charge of trespass ; 
Cur. Reg. R. 186, m. 23d.; 190, m. 

As Sir Thurstan de Holland he wit- 
nessed a charter to Stanlaw in 1272 ; 
Whalley Coucher (Chet. Soc.), ii, 585. 

There were other families bearing the 
local surname ; thus in 1258 Christiana, 
daughter of Adam de Holland, claimed 
6 oxgangs of land in Holland from 
Roger, Henry, and William, sons of Adam 
de Holland ; Cur. Reg. R. 160, m. 5, 32. 

15 See the accounts of Hale, Pemberton, 
Haydock, Golborne, and Lowton. 

16 Robert de Holland and Elizabeth his 
wife occur in 1276 ; Assize R. 405, m. 2. 
By his marriage he acquired part of the 
manor of Harwood and other lands ; 
Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 313 ; Final 
Cone, i, 173 ; ii, 193. He is supposed 
to have died about 1304. 

17 In 1295 Upholland seems still to 
have been dependent upon Melling, for 
the heirs of Jordan de Hulton were respon- 
sible for the 1 2s. rent ; Lanes. Inq. and 
Extents, i, 288. 

Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, by his 
charter granted to Robert de Holland and 
Maud his wife the manors of Upholland, 
Hale, &c., to hold of the chief lords by 
the services due, and further by the ser- 
vice of distributing each year for the earl's 
soul on St. Thomas the Martyr's Day, and 
on Christmas Day, to the poor folk coming 
to the manor house of Upholland, 20 
heaped-up measures of wheaten flour, and 
ox, swine, and calf flesh to the value of 
10 ; and of providing a repast of two 
courses for 240 poor persons in the hall 
of Upholland, on the same feast, to be 
served on dishes after the manner of 
gentlefolk, and a repast of one course 
the following day, a pair of shoes, or 4</., 
being given to each of the guests on de- 
parting ; Duchy of Lane. Misc. vol. cxxx, 
fol. 14 d. 


The endowment of the priory may have 
been a commutation. 

" Robert son of Robert de Holland had 
lands in Pemberton and Orrell settled upon 
him by his father in 1292 ; Final Cone, i, 
173. In 1304 a grant of free warren in 
Upholland, Hale, Orrell, and Markland 
was made to Robert de Holland ; Chart. 
R- 97 (3 2 Edw. I), m. 3, no. 48. 

In 1307 Sir Robert de Holland desired 
to assign two messuages and two plough- 
lands in Holland, and land in Orrell to 
two chaplains in his chapel at Holland to 
celebrate for his soul and the souls of his 
ancestors for ever. It was found upon 
inquiry that the manor was held of Adam 
de Pennington who was perhaps a trus- 
tee or a representative of the Melling 
family ; he does not occur again Adam 
holding of the Earl of Lancaster, and the 
earl of the king ; Lanes. Inq. and Extents, 
i, 322. 

In 1308 Robert de Holland had licence 
to crenellate his manor house at Uphol- 
land ; Cal. Pat. 1307-13, p. 57. 

The account of the family is mainly 
taken from G.E.C.'s Complete Peerage, iv, 

19 See the account of West Derby ; 
Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), iii, 851. 
There are numerous details in the Calen- 
dars of Close and Patent Rolls. 

20 In 1325 the forfeited manor wa 
held by Amota, widow of Simon de Hol- 
land ; Cal. Close, 1323-7, p. 391. 

In an account of Sir Robert's lands 
made about 1326 the manor of Holland 
with garden and castle-stead is recorded ; 
Duchy of Lane. Misc. x, fol. 15. 

31 For some account of his proceedings 
in Lancashire see Coram Rege R. 254, 
fol. 60. 

22 Dugdale, Man. iv, 409-12. 

28 Parl. R. i, 400 ; ii, 1 8 ; Cal. Close, 
1327-30, p. 286. Ct. R. of 1326 are 
printed in Lanes. Ct. R. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 73. 



in the French wars, and died 16 March 1372-3 ; 14 
and to the latter's granddaughter Maud, who married 
John Lovel, fifth Lord Lovel of Titchmarsh. 15 She 


semei de Us a lion ram- 
pant guardant argent. 

LOVEL. Barry nebu 
lee of six or and gules. 

survived her husband, and died 4 May 1423, holding 
the manor of Upholland of the king as Duke of 
Lancaster in socage by the ancient rent of izs. ; also 
the manors of Halewood, Walton in West Derby, 
Nether Kellet, half of Samlesbury, Orrell, and a 
quarter of Dalton, burgages in Wigan and Lancaster, 
and lands in Aughton, Cuerdley, and Ditton. The 
other estates had descended to her father Robert's 
brother John, as heir male, and he was succeeded by 
Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter. 86 

Lady Lovel's son John having died in 1414. 
Upholland was inherited by her grandson William, 
seventh Lord Lovel and fourth Lord Holland. It 
descended on his death in 1455 to his son John, 
Lord Lovel, who died ten years later, and then to 
the latter's son and heir Francis, created Viscount 
Lovel in 1483. Adhering to the cause of Richard III 
he had many offices and honours bestowed upon him ; 
but was attainted by Henry VII in 1485 and his 
honours and lands were forfeited. Two years later 
he fought on the Yorkist side at the battle of Stoke, 
and was either killed there or died soon afterwards. 17 

Upholland and the other forfeited manors were 

retained by the Crown until 25 February 1488-9, 
when they were granted to Thomas, Earl of Derby, 
with the lands and manors of other Yorkists. 28 It 
continued to descend with Lathom and Knowsley 
until 1717, when it was sold by Lady Ashburnham, 
as heir of William, the ninth earl, to Thomas 
Ashhurst of Ashhurst in Dalton. 29 In 1751 Henry 
Ashhurst sold it to Sir Thomas Bootle of Lathom, 3 * 
and it has since descended with his manors, the Earl 
of Lathom being the present lord. 31 

After the foundation of the monastery the prior 
were the chief residents within the manor. As r.~ 
the case of most other religious houses the extern ai 
history was uneventful. 32 After the suppression of the 
house by Henry VIII in 1536 the site and all the 
lands were granted to John Holcroft, 33 who soon 
transferred them to Sir Robert Worsley of Booths. 34 
Seventy years later the site was owned by Edmund 

BOOTLE. Gules On a 
cJteveron engrailed be- 
tween three combt argent 
as many crosses formy 
ftchyofthe field. 

three bendlett wavy gulet. 

Molyneux of London," who bequeathed it to his 
nephew, Richard Leigh." It is said to have been 
acquired by the Bisphams of Billinge, and descended 
with their estates to the Leighs of Orrell and 
Aspull. 37 

24 G.E.C. loc. cit. Robert was sixteen 
years old in 1328 ; Cat. Close, 1327-30, 
p. 348. From the fine above quoted 
(Final Cone, ii, 193) it will be seen that 
Sir Robert had three sons Alan, Robert, 
and Thomas. Of Alan nothing further is 
known, and it is supposed that he died 
before the restoration of the honours. 
Thomas married Joan daughter of Ed- 
mund, Earl of Kent, and granddaughter of 
Edward I ; he was summoned to Parlia- 
ment as Lord Holland in 1353 and as 
Earl of Kent in 1360; G.E.C. op. cit. 
v, 237, 351, 352. 

The inquiry made in June 1349, after 
the death of Maud, widow of Robert de 
Holland, showed that she had held the 
manor of Upholland for her life, with re- 
version to her son Robert and his heirs, 
in socage by a rent of 121. ; and doing 
suit to county and wapentake ; also the 
manors of Hale, &c. ; Inq. p.m. 23 Edw. 
Ill, pt. I, no. 58. She died outside the 
county ; Sir Robert, her son, was of full 

A similar return was made after the 
death of Sir Robert in 1373. The heir 
to Upholland and other manors was his 
granddaughter Maud (daughter of his de- 
ceased son Robert), wife of John Lovel, 
and seventeen years of age. The heir to the 
moiety of the manor of Haydock, &c., 
was his son John, aged twenty-four and 
upwards ; Inq. p.m. 47 Edw. Ill (ist 

nos.), no. 19. See also Surv. of 1346 
(Chet. Soc.), 42. 

Sir Robert in 1367 increased the en- 
dowment of Upholland by a grant of 
Markland in Pemberton and other lands ; 
Inq. p.m. 41 Edw. Ill (2nd nos.), no. 12. 

28 G.E.C. op. cit. iv, 236 ; v, 164-6, 
from which this account of the Levels is 

26 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 1-3. 
For the Exeter family see G.E.C. op. cit 
iii, 296. 

2 7 Diet. Nat. Biog. 

28 Pat. 4 Hen. VII. There is a later 
grant of this and other manors to James 
Lord Strange; Pat. 13 Chas. I, pt. 27, 

3 J ul y- 

In the inquisition taken after the death 
of Ferdinando, fifth earl, in 1595, it was 
found that Upholland was still held by 
the rent of izs. ; Add. MS. 32104, fol. 

29 James, Earl of Derby, seems to have 
released his right in the manors sold, in 
Sept. 1715 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 276, m. 52. 

Thomas Ashhurst and Diana his wife 
were in possession in 1721; Pal. of Lane. 
Plea R. 512, m. 8. 

Baines (ed. 1836) gives the date 1717, 
apparently from the Lathom D. ; iii, 559. 

so Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 347, 
m. 26. 

81 See the account of Lathom. 


82 In 1350 Prior John took action 
against a number of men who had in- 
vaded his lands ; De Banco R. 363, m. 
92 d. ; 364, m. 78 d. 

83 Dugdale, Man. iv, 411; Pat. 37 
Hen. VIII, pt. iv, 22 May ; the price 
was ,344 I2J. \od. 

In 1592 an annual rent from the site 
and demesnes of Holland Priory was 
granted to William Tipper and Richard 
Dawe ; Pat. 34 Eliz. pt. iv. 

84 Man. iv, 409 n. ; from Orig. 38 
Hen. VIII, pt. v, Lane. R. 118 ; Lanes, 
and Ches. Recs. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), ii, 385. 

85 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 99, where it is simply 
called ' a messuage, mill, 50 acres of land,' 
&c. in Upholland, held of the king by 
knight's service. 

88 Gisborne Molineux, Family of Moli- 
neux, 143. Richard Leigh was brother 
of James Leigh of Orrell. Edward Leigh 
of the Abbey gave a rent-charge of ,5 
a year for Upholland School ; Gastrell, 
Notitia (Chet. Soc.), ii, 259. The Pres- 
cott family also held land which had 
belonged to the priory ; Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. xv, no. 7 ; xviii, no. 21. The 
site and lands of the priory were the 
subject of suits in 1576 and 1580, Mar- 
garet Parker being plaintiff; Ducatus 
(Rec. Com.), iii, 46, 115. 

9 ~ Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), iii, 560. 


Little can be said of the remains of the monastic 
buildings. They were on the south of the church, 
but did not, as it seems, join it except as regards the 
western range of the claustral buildings. Part of the 
west wall of this range is standing, enough to show 
that it was of two stories with a row of narrow 
windows on the west side. In the deed of grant to 
John Holcroft in i 546 a chamber at the west end of 
the church is mentioned, which may be that on the 
south face of the tower, the roof corbels of which 
still remain. 

Sir John de Dalton and his accomplices, after 
carrying off Margery de la Beche in 1347, took 
refuge for a time in Dame Maud de Holland's manor 
at Upholland, which was then vacant ; but fled north 
on the arrival of the king's writ for his arrest. 38 

Among the landowners in the township may be 
named Hesketh," 9 Orrell, 40 Standish, 41 Crosse," and 
Fairclough. 43 In 1 600 the only freeholder recorded 
was Robert Smallshaw. 44 In 1628 William Whalley, 
Roger Brownlow, and Richard Smallshaw, as land- 
owners, contributed to the subsidy. 45 A family 

named Holme were also settled here. Hugh Holme 
of Upholland House in 1732 married Anne daughter 
of Thomas Bankes of Winstanley, and her descend- 
ants ultimately succeeded to the manors and lands of 
the Bankes family. 40 Pimbo was held of the Earl 
of Derby. 47 Though the Recusant Roll of 1641 con- 
tains but few names of residents here 48 the Ven. John 
Thewlis, a priest, executed for religion at Lancaster 
in 1617, was a native of this township. 48a 

The earliest record of a church of 
CHURCH any kind is that concerning Sir Robert 
de Holland's endowment of his chapel 
in 1307." This was succeeded by the priory church, 
which, after the destruction of the monastery, was 
preserved for the use of the people, as a chapel of 
ease to Wigan. 50 It appears to have been well fitted, 
but the church goods were seized by the Crown, as 
part of the priory,* 1 and in 1552 it was but poorly 

The church of ST. THOMAS THE MARTYR 
stands at the south-east end of the village on sloping 
ground, the churchyard, which lies on the north and 

88 Chan. Inq. p.m. 21 Edw. Ill, no. 63. 

89 The Heskeths of Rufford held various 
properties in this and neighbouring town- 
ships ; see Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. v, 
no. 16. In 1555 Richard Hey acquired 
a messuage and lands from Sir Thomas 
Hesketh and Alice his wife ; this property 
seems to have been secured in 1578 by 
Robert Hey from James, the bastard son 
of Richard ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdles. 1 6, m. 137 ; 40, m. 167. See also 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 145. 

40 The families of this name make 
frequent appearances. Henry Orrell was 
a defendant in a suit respecting Dean 
riddings in 1516 ; Ducatus, i, 127. Wil- 
liam Orrell and Thomas his son were 
deforciants in 1561 and 1562; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdles. 23, m. 193 ; 24, 
m. 256. Lewis Orrell and Ellen his wife 
in 1566 ; ibid. bdle. 28, m. 102. 

41 George Standish of Sutton held land 
in Upholland of the Earl of Derby by the 
looth part of a knight's fee ; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. ix, no. 3 (6 Edw. VI). 
William Standish, the grandson and heir 
of George, had secured to him in 1561 
the reversion of a tenement of Robert 
son of Thomas Topping ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 23, m. 153. William 
Standish and Margaret his wife made a 
settlement in 1573 ; ibid. bdle. 35, m. 
56. John, William's son and heir-ap- 
parent, was joined with them in 1597; 
ibid. bdle. 58, m. 26. 

42 Roger Crosse of the Liverpool family, 
in the time of Henry VIII, had copyhold 
lands in Upholland of the Earl of Derby 
at a rent of ijs. ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. vi, no. 18 ; also x, no. 20. See 
Crosse D. Tram. Hist. Soc. no. 165. 

48 Oliver Fairclough purchased lands 
from James Worsley and Beatrice his 
wife in 1584 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 46, m. 10. Arthur Fairclough oc- 
curs in 1613 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. 
Soc.), i, 276. 

Thomas Winstanley, clerk, and Thomas 
Fairclough were in 1588 defendants in a 
uit regarding Dean Mill in Upholland 
and Orrell 5 Ducatus (Rec. Com.), iii, 

Dr. James Fairclough, 1636, and his 
son James were benefactors; Notitia Cestr. 
ii, 260. 

44 Mite. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 

i, 241. William and Robert Smallshaw 
occur in fines of Elizabeth's reign ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 26, m. 55, &c. 
The name takes various forms, e.g. 

Thomas Chisnall acquired lands in Up- 
holland in 1549 and 1559 ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdles. 13, m. 73 ; 21, m. 90. 
They appear to have descended to Ed- 
ward Chisnall or Chisenhale, 1635 ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxviii, no. 8. 

Norris D. (B.M.j. Henry Whalley, 
as a landowner, contributed to a subsidy 
in Mary's reign ; Mascy of Rixton D. 
A later Henry Whalley died 31 July 
1627 holding lands in Euxton, Tockholes, 
and Upholland ; the last of William, Earl 
of Derby. His son and heir William 
was aged thirty and more ; Towneley 
MS. C. 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 1288. 

48 The surname Holme occurs early ; 
in 1352 the executors of the will of John 
de Holme of Holland are named ; Assize 
R. 432, m. i d. Gilbert Scott of Wigan 
married Elizabeth Holme of Upholland 
before 1620 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 238. There is a 
pedigree in Burke, Commoners, iv, 216. 
See the account of Winstanley and A. E. P. 
Gray, Woodcock Ped. 13, 14. 

4 ? Thomas Molyneux held the marled 
earth and Russell's cliffs in Pimbo. His 
widow Cecily, in or before 1598, married 
Thomas Worden, and various suits fol- 
lowed ; Ducatus (Rec. Com.), iii, 380, 

48 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiv, 239. 
Bishop Gastrell recorded no ' papists ' in 
1717, but there were 216 in 1767 ; this, 
however, is for the whole chapelry ; 
ibid, xviii, 215. 

48a Bishop Challoner, Missionary Priests, 
ii, n. 155, relates his story from an 
account published at Douay in 1617. 
There is another contemporary account 
in verse printed, together with extracts 
from a poem by Thewlis himself, in 
Pollen, Acts of Martyrs, 194-207. John 
Thewlis was educated at Rheims and the 
English College, Rome ; he entered the 
latter in 1590, and was sent to England 
as a priest two years later ; Foley, Rec. 
Soc. Jesus, vi, 1 8 1, 117. He was for some 
time imprisoned at Wisbech for religion ; 
afterwards he laboured in Lancashire and 
was arrested by order of William, Earl of 


Derby, and condemned to death for his 
priesthood. He escaped from Lancaster 
Castle by the aid of a fellow-prisoner for 
religion, Roger Wrennall, a weaver ; they 
were captured and executed together, 1 8 
Mar. 1616-17. It was with great re- 
luctance that the authorities carried out 
the execution ; the priest was at the last 
moment begged to save his life by taking 
the oath of allegiance, but to his challenge 
' Write me out a form of oath which 
contains nothing but civil allegiance and 
I will take it' there could be but one 
reply, that the Parliamentary form was 
binding, and this impossible for him. One 
of his quarters was exposed at Wigan. 

The name is an uncommon one, but it 
appears that the family was connected with 
the Asshetons of Lever. A Christopher 
Thewlis, alias Ashton, was at the English 
College, and sent to England as a priest in 
1585 ; Foley, op. cit. vi, 137. 

49 Lanes, Inq. and Extents, i, 322, quoted 

50 Bridgeman, Wigan Cb. 744. 

61 The inventory of the goods of the 
priory of Upholland in 1536 is in Duchy 
of Lane. Misc. n, no. 47. The plate 
was valued at ,28 3*. cjd. ; some of the 
pieces were in pledge to Geoffrey Shering- 
ton of Wigan and others. The crosses, 
vestments, and other church ornaments 
were worth nearly ^12 ; the bells, ^8 ; 
the lead (3 'foulders' weight), 10 ; and 
the books, 6s. %d. These last included 
four old mass-books, ' whereof two in 
paper printed and two in parchment 
written.' Then follows an account of 
the furniture in the hall, parlour, great- 
chamber with adjoining chapel, rooms, 
kitchen, outhouses, dorter, &c. ; horses, 
cattle, &c. ; carts and other gear, corn 
and oats. The chambers of two monks 
- John Codling and John Ainsdale had 
furniture valued at icw. zd. and 91. iv/. 
respectively ; the former monk had a 
feather-bed and bolster ; the latter per- 
haps the vicar of Childwall of that name 
had a mattress and bolster. 

The high altar had a tabernacle gilded, 
and the altars adjacent had alabaster taber- 
nacles. There were twenty-one great and 
small images of wood and stone, and 
' twelve fair windows glazed with divers 
and many pictures.' 

sa Cb. Gds. 1552 (Chet. Soc.), 75. 



east sides, falling rapidly from west to east and allow- 
ing the introduction of the vestry under the east end. 
The building consists of chancel 32ft. 6 in. by 
22 ft. 6 in., nave 80 ft. by 22 ft. 3 in., with north and 
south aisles 1 1 ft. wide, and west tower 14 ft. by i6ft., 
all these measurements being internal. With the 
exception of the chancel and the tower the building 
is of 14th-century date, the original structure having 
been planned as a T-shaped church with large 
central western tower and transepts, the present nave 
forming the chancel. Whether this plan was ever 
carried out is extremely doubtful, and only excavation 
on the west end could determine the extent of the 
original building, if it were ever greater than at pre- 
sent. It is probable, however, that the building 
came to a standstill somewhere about the middle of the 
1 4th century, perhaps during the Great Pestilence, 
and that in this unfinished state it remained till late 
in the I5th century, when the present west tower was 
added in the rather clumsy manner now apparent. 
In this form the church continued till late in the last 
century, the sanctuary being formed in the easternmost 
bay, inclosed on the north and south by low walls, 
the evidence for which may still be seen in the 
arcades ; but in 1882 (when a drastic restoration was 
commenced), a new chancel was begun to the east, 
and the building was brought to its present condition. 

It may be assumed that the original chapel founded 
here in 1307 was a small building, and that it stood 
for some years after the foundation of the priory 
twelve years later. There is no record, indeed, of 
the erection of a church by the convent, but probably 
a larger and more important building would be 
thought necessary, and the present structure begun 
towards the middle of the first half of the I4th 
century. The conditions of the site, which rises 
steeply at the west end, preclude the idea that the 
building was ever intended to extend much further 
in that direction, and the evidence of the masonry at 
the west end of the nave and aisles makes a transeptal 
T-shaped plan the only likely one. 

The walls are constructed of rough sandstone, 
finishing with a plain parapet, and the nave and aisles 
are roofed in one rather low span, which detracts 
somewhat from the external dignity of the building. 
This roof, which is covered with stone slates, is 
however not the original one, the line of which may 
still be seen on the exterior of the east face of the 
tower. The old pitch is only slightly more acute 
than the present one, and it may be assumed that the 
original aspect was not very different from that which 
now exists, the height of the aisle walls precluding 
the idea of there having ever been a clearstory. 

There seems to have been a restoration in the 
middle of the i8th century, the present roof dating 
from 1752 according to a date roughly cut on it, 
with the initials p T on one of the principals, and 
T w on another. The tower also appears to have 
been repaired at this time, and many of the bench-ends 
put in during the previous century renewed. Galleries 
were also inserted, and in 1799 a vestry was built on 
the north side at the east end of the aisle, a door being 
cut through the wall in the north-east angle of the 
aisle. The galleries, which were on the north, 
south, and west sides, projected in front of the nave 
piers, which were much damaged in being cut away 
to receive them. The interior remained in this state, 
with square pews and no chancel, down to the 

time of the restoration of 1882-6. In this restora- 
tion, in addition to the erection of the new chancel, 
the tracery of all the old windows which had not 
been already restored was renewed. A plan of the 
church with the seating as it existed in 1850 now 
hangs in the vestry. 

The chancel is built in 14th-century style, and is 
lit by a large five-light traceried window at the east 
and two windows on the north and on the south. 
On the north side a stone circular staircase leads 
down to the vestry beneath, access to which is 
gained on the outside by two doors at the east end. 
To obtain room for the vestry the chancel is raised 
four steps above the level of the nave, which makes 
it dominate the interior rather aggressively. The 
chancel arch is modern, of three moulded orders, 
and takes the place of a very poor east window, 
inserted in 1840, after a former 14th-century 
window had been blown out. The older window 
is shown in Buck's drawing of 1727. 

The nave is of four bays with north and south 
arcades of pointed arches springing from piers, and 
responds composed of four rounded shafts with 
hollows between, with moulded capitals and bases. 
The arches are of two orders with the characteristic 
1 4th-century wave-moulding. There is no clearstory, 
and the nave roof is ceiled with a flat plaster 
ceiling at the level of the crown of the arches, the 
aisles having plaster ceilings following the line of the 
roof. The 18th-century king-post roof above is of 
a very plain description, and not intended to be 
exposed. At the west end of the aisles are pointed 
arches springing from responds composed of three 
shafts, the moulded capitals of which range with those 
of the nave piers, and were designed to open to the 
transepts on each side of the tower. The arches are 
now filled in with modern windows, apparently 
reproducing early 1 6th-century work. The responds, 
both to nave and aisles, form on each side of the tower 
part of the great eastern piers of the crossing, the 
lofty clustered shafts of which, faeing west, are now 
partly exposed on the outside of the building in the 
internal angles of the tower and aisle walls, and 
partly hidden by the later masonry. 

The north aisle has four three-light pointed win- 
dows on its north side with net tracery, all modern 
copies of the original 14th-century work, and one 
similar window at the east end ; the later window, 
already mentioned, on the west end is of four lights 
with poor tracery, and all the windows have external 
labels. The south aisle is similarly lighted except in 
the west bay, where there is a deeply-splayed window 
placed high in the wall. Originally the wall of this 
bay appears to have been pierced for an opening about 
1 2 ft. wide which gave access to the western range of 
the priory buildings, which abutted here. The 
straight joints in the masonry on the outside wall 
show distinctly the extent of the former opening, and 
the present window must be a late insertion after the 
opening had been built up. At the east end of the 
south aisle is a good double 14th-century piscina, in 
the usual position, with trefoiled head, and on the 
corresponding side of the north aisle a square hole 
in the wall, probably an aumbry. Under the 
windows at a height of 6 ft. there is a moulded 
string, which is cut away for some distance on each 
wall on the west end. Below the string the walls 
have been cemented, but above it are of rough 



masonry. The capitals and upper parts of the western 
responds have also been much cut away at the time 
when the galleries were inserted. 

The west tower is narrower than that originally 
designed, built of very friable sandstone, and having 
apparently been untouched since the i8th century is 
in a very bad state of repair. Some refacing appears 
to have been done on the west front on the north 
side of the doorway and at the belfry stage, and a 
scheme of restoration which it is proposed shortly to 
carry out will include the refacing of the tower. It 
has little architectural merit, being of low proportion 
and little in keeping with the rest of the building. 
Externally on the west face it is of four stages, with 
rather weak diagonal buttresses of nine stages at the 
north and south-west angles. On the north and south 
sides the walls are quite plain up to the string under 
the belfry windows. The west doorway, now much 
decayed, consists of a pointed arch with moulded 
head and jambs, with a series of hollows filled with 
carvings, and so weathered as to be unrecognizable. 
Between the buttresses a moulded string-course forms 
the lower member of the sill of a large three-light 
west window similar to those of the nave, with net 
tracery and external hood-mould. The tracery is 
modern, but the jambs appear to be old, and the win- 
dow must have been moved here when the tower was 
built. Above this again is a string ornamented with 
four-leaved flowers which goes round the tower, break- 
ing round the buttresses at the level of the belfry 
window-sills. The belfry windows, which are of 
similar detail on all three sides (north, west, and 
south) are of two lights under a pointed traceried head, 
and appear to be of 14th-century date. They seem 
to have been originally intended for glass, as the jambs 
and mullions are grooved, and probably belong to some 
part of the monastery building either destroyed or in 
decay when the tower was erected. They have now 
stone louvres. Above the belfry stage there is a single- 
light narrow window on the north, south, and west 
sides, and on the east side one of two lights, but these 
are now hidden by the clock face. The present clock 
was given in 1 907, replacing an older one. The tower 
ends in an embattled parapet with 1 8th-century angle 
pinnacles, one only of which is perfect. The roof is 
apparently of the same date, being in the form of a 
stone-slated gable running east and west. There is a 
door also on the north side of the tower in the east 
angle, and on the south side below the string under- 
neath the belfry window are three corbels, showing 
that a building was set against it at this point. On the 
face of the north buttress is a niche now much decayed, 
with a trefoiled head. There is no vice in the tower, 
the first floor being gained by a wooden staircase, and 
the others by ladders, but at the belfry stage in the 
south-east corner is a stone staircase in the thickness of 
the wall, descending to a door which is now blocked. 
This must have been the original means of access to 

the upper part of the tower, and from this stage a 
stair in the south-east angle of the tower leads up to 
the roof. The tower was evidently meant to be open 
to the church up to 35 ft. from the ground, and at 
this level a chamfered string, with four-leaved flowers 
cut on it, shows on the inner face of the walls, mark- 
ing the position of the original floor here. 

The tower arch is of two moulded orders spring- 
ing from a 1 5th-century impost moulding, and is 
filled in at the ringing-chamber stage with modern 
glazed wooden tracery, and below with a modern 
wooden door screen to the porch under the tower. 

The fittings are mostly modern, the pulpit and font, 
both of wood, dating from 1882. In the north and 
south aisles are the 17th-century bench-ends already 
mentioned, carved with initials, names, and dates, the 
majority belonging to the year 1635," and at the 
west end of the nave is a good oak churchwardens' 
pew with the names of the wardens and the date 
1679. There is a good 18th-century brass chandelier 
in the middle of the nave, suspended by a long orna- 
mental iron rod. In the tower porch above the 
north door is the board with the royal arms, dated 
1755 ; and on the opposite wall is an oak cupboard 
with doors inscribed with the churchwardens' names, 
Scripture texts, and the date 1720. 

There were formerly fragments of ancient stained 
glass in various parts of the church, but these were 
collected and brought together in the middle window 
of the south aisle in 1883. 

There is a ring of six bells cast by John Warner & 
Sons, London, 1877. 

The church plate consists of a chalice 1 706, a paten 
1720, another paten 1738, inscribed 'The gift of 
Thomas Henry Ashhurst Esqr. to the Chappel of 
Upholland in Lancashire 1739' ; two flagons of the 
same date ; one with a similar inscription, but the 
other without, and a chalice 1817, with the inscrip- 
tion * The gift of Meyrick Bankes Esqre. to the 
Chapel of Upholland 1817.' 

The registers of marriages begin in 1600, those of 
baptisms in 1607, and those of burials in 1619. The 
first volume (1600-1735) has been printed. 533 

During the time of Elizabeth, and probably later, 
only a reading minister was provided ; 54 but an 
improvement took place under Bishop Bridgeman, 55 
and in 1643 Upholland was made a parish, the 
district including also the townships of Dalton and 
Orrell, and parts of Billinge and Winstanley. 66 The 
Act was treated as null at the Restoration, and Up- 
holland remained a chapelry until 1882, when by 
Order in Council it was made a parish. 67 

The income of the minister appears to have been 
about 60 in i65o. 58 The principal tithes were 
owned by the Earls of Derby, who paid a small 
composition to the rectors of Wigan M ; the lands of 
the monastery were tithe-free. 60 In 1724 Bishop 
Gastrell found the curate's income about ^40, of 

68 Many have been recut and a late 1 8th- 
centnry date added. 

"a Transcribed and edited by Alice 
Brierley. Lane. Par. Reg. Soc. xxiii, 

64 Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 248 ; Hist. 
AfSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 13. In 
1598 there was no curate, but Mr. Moss, 
unlicensed, had done service for a time 5 
Wigan Cb. 744. 

65 It appears from the Act of 1 643 that 

William Ashhurst and others had guaran- 
teed to Bishop Bridgeman or his son 
Orlando, that hit tithes from the rest of 
the parish should be at least 600 a year, 
if he would consent to an Act being passed 
for making the chapelry an independent 

66 The Act it printed in Wigan Cb. 


w Wigan Ch. 745. 

68 Common-wealth Cb. Sur-v. (Rec. Soc. 

9 6 

Lanes, and dies.), 60, 62. There was 
no residence. 

89 Wigan Cb. 254-59. The tithes of 
Upholland were sold by Edward, the 
twelfth earl, in 1782 to John Morris, and 
those of Dalton to Prescott. The 
rector of Wigan still receives 8 8*. io$</. 
and 4 4*. $l%d. or 19 marks in all, as 
composition for the tithes of the town- 

eo Ibid. 258. 








I I 


10 * f f V 


is- CENTURY |y-r;/':; : | MODERN 




which half was paid by the rector. 61 Various grants 
and benefactions have since been added, and the gross 
income is now about ^oo. 6 * The rector of Wigan 
is patron. 

The following is a list of the curates and vicars : w 

1598 William Moss 

1609 Edward Tempest 

1626 William Lever 

1628 William Lewes 64 

1634 Richard Eaton 

1636 Richard Whitfield * 

1646 Henry Shaw 66 

1650 Richard Baldwin 67 

1653 Samuel Boden 68 

bef. 1671 Gerard Brown 

occ. 1 68 1 John Leigh 

1683 Roger Bolton, M.A. 69 

1694 William Birchall 

1719 John Allen, M.A. 70 

1726 Adam Bankes, M.A. 

1728 William (Simon) Warren 

1 746 Thomas Winstanley, B.A. 71 

1747 John Baldwin 
1758 Thomas Holme 7SI 
1767 Richard Prescott 
1798 John Fawel 

1802 Thomas Merrick, B.A. 

1821 John Bird, B.A. 

1844 Charles Bisset, B.D. (Clare Coll. 

1 88 1 Frederick D'Austini Cremer, M.A. 

(Wadham Coll. Oxf.) 7 ' a 
1888 George Frederick Wills. 

There is a licensed mission-room. 

There are Wesleyan, Primitive, and United Free 
Methodist chapels. 

The grammar school was founded in 1668 by 
Peter or Robert Walthew." 

At Walthew Park, in the north-east part of the 
township, is situated St. Joseph's College, the semi- 
nary for the Catholic diocese of Liverpool. After 
collecting a sufficient sum the foundation was laid in 
April 1880, and in 1883 the building was open to 
receive students preparing for the priesthood. The 
museum contains a rich collection of ancient furniture, 
china, &c. 74 


Daltone, Dom. Bk. ; Dalton, 1212. 

Dalton occupies hilly ground south of the River 
Douglas. The highest point is Ashhurst Beacon, 
known locally as the ' Beetle,' 569 ft. above sea level. 
From it the land slopes away gradually on every side. 
The district is extensively cultivated, fields of corn, 
potatoes, and other root-crops alternating with 
pastures. Plantations of trees appear more especially 
on the north-east under the lee of the hill and away 
from the assault of westerly sea winds. A few insig- 
nificant brooks find their way towards the Douglas, 
which forms the northern boundary of the township 
and divides the Hundred of West Derby from that 
of Leyland. The view from the top of the hill near 
the Beacon is an extensive one, affording a fine 
panorama of the surrounding country. The prepon- 
derance of holly trees and hedges on the sheltered 
side of the district is a noticeable feature. There are 
many picturesque stone-built houses in the neighbour- 
hood. The soil appears to be loam and clay, over 
solid sandstone rock. The area is 2,103^ acres. 1 
The population in 1901 was 422. 

The road from Upholland to Newburgh crosses the 
township in a north-west direction, ascending and 
descending ; Ashhurst Hall and the church lie on the 
western slope of the ridge ; to the north are Hawks- 
clough and Dalton Lees, and to the south lies Elmer's 
Green. Prior's Wood is in the north, and Cassicarr 
Wood on the eastern boundary. 

There is a colliery. 

The township is governed by a parish council. 

Ashhurst Beacon was erected a century ago, when 
a French invasion was regarded as imminent. 
Watchers were stationed day and night to be ready to 
light the beacon fire, and thus give notice of the 
enemy's landing. 

At the death of Edward the Confessor, 
MANOR DALTON was held by Uctred as one 
plough-land ; its value was the normal 
32^.* On the formation of the Manchester fee 
Dalton was included in it, and probably about 1 150 
Albert Grelley the elder enfeoffed Orm son of 
Ailward, of Kirkby Ireleth, of a knight's fee in 
Dalton, Parbold, and Wrightington, in marriage 
with his daughter Emma. The heirs of Orm held it 
in I2I2. 3 Dalton was reputed part of the Manchester 
fee down to the I7th century. 4 

61 Notitia Cestr. ii, 258. There were 
two wardens. 

63 Liverpool D'toc. Col. For particu- 
lars of the grants see Wigan Cb. 744, 


68 This list is taken, with a few addi- 
tions from Visitation lists, &c., from that 
compiled by Canon Bridgeman ; Wigan 
Cb. 748. It is not continuous until 

64 Perhaps the same as ' Lever." 

65 In 1639 Richard Whitfield, curate, 
paid lOi. to the clerical subsidy ; Misc. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 122. He 
was in charge when the Act of 1643 was 

66 He was a member of the classis 
in 1646; Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1870), i, 

67 'A very able minister, a man of 
honest life and conversation,' but he had 
not kept the last fast day ; Commonvj. 

Cb. Surv. 61. The name is spelt Bowden 
on p. 63. 

68 Paid first-fruiti 9 April 1653; 
Lanes, and Cbes. Recs. ii, 414. Probably 
a Baldwin also. He had recently been in 
trouble with the authorities, it being 
alleged that he had taken part with the 
Earl of Derby in his recent attempt to 
raise forces for Charles II ; Cal. of Com. 

for Compounding, iv, 2955 ; v, 3266. He 
is mentioned in 1658 ; Plund. Mint. 
Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 

69 Bishop Stratford's Visitation List. 
He was 'conformable* in 1689; Hist. 
MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 229. 

' At this time the church papers at 
Chest. Dioc. Reg. begin. 

7* It is possible that a James Miller 
(inserted between Winstanley and Baldwin 
by Canon Bridgeman) was assistant curate 
for a time. 


For Thomas Winstanley see Foster, 
Alumni Oxon. 

72 He succeeded his cousin, William 
Bankes, at Winstanley in 1800 ; died 
17 Aug. 1803. 

T**- Now vicar of Eccles. 

7 End. Char. Rep. 1899. 

7< Liverpool Catb. Ann. 1886. 

1 2,102, including five of inland water ; 
Census Rep. of 1901. 

3 V.C.H. Lanes, i, 284*. 

8 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 55. 

4 Ibid. 154 (Dalton probably included 
with Parbold) and 248. For claims by 
Lord La Warr see Ducatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), i, 264 5 ii, 74. From the Man- 
chester Ct. Leet Rec. (ed. Earwaker) it 
appears that constables for Dalton and 
Parbold were summoned to the court leet 
down to 1 73 3, though they did not appear ; 
vii, 25. 



The descent of the mesne lordship it is not possible 
to trace clearly. The descendants of Orm were the 
Kirkbys of Kirkby Ireleth, who long retained an 
interest in part of the fee of Dalton, Parbold, and 
Wrightington. Dalton and Parbold as half a knight's 
fee seem very early to have been granted to the 
Lathom family, 4 and Parbold and part at least of 
Dalton were in turn granted to younger sons. In 
the 1 3th century Dalton was held by Richard de 
Orrell, Richard le Waleys of Aughton, and Henry de 
Torbock, but how their interests had arisen there is 
nothing to show, though the Torbocks no doubt held 
their quarter of the manor by a grant from the 

The Orrell portion, called a fourth part of the 
manor, 6 was like Orrell itself acquired by the Holland 
family, 7 and descended in the same way to the 

Levels, 8 and, on forfeiture, to the Earls of Derby. 9 
The latter sold it about 1600 to the Orrells of 
Turton, 10 who soon afterwards sold all their rights to 
the Ashhursts. 11 The Dalton family, who took their 
name from this township, but who are better known 
as lords of Bispham in Leyland and afterwards of 
Thurnham, probably held under the Hollands and 
their successors." 

The Waleys portion was divided, half being given 
to a younger branch of the family. Richard le 
Waleys had a brother Randle, whose son Richerit was 
a benefactor of Cockersand Abbey. 13 Adam the son of 
Richerit sold his quarter share to Robert, lord of 
Lathom, who granted it to the priory of Burscough. 14 

The priory continued to hold this quarter of the 
manor to the Suppression, after which its fate has 
not been ascertained ; but all or most was probably 

6 Inq. and Extents, i, 55 ; see also Final 
Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 18. 
Robert de Lathom was holding the 
knight's fee in Parbold and Wrightington 
in 1242 (p. 154). Robert de Lathom 
was one of the tenants in 1282, but 
Thomas de Ashton did suit ; Mamccestre 
(Chet. Soc.), i, 136. The Lathom tenure 
was remembered in 1349 ; ibid. 443 ; 
and even in the Feodary of 1483 it is 
stated that ' Lord Stanley holds Allerton 
and Dalton of Lord la Warre ' ; sec also 
Feud. Aids, iii, 94. 

6 In the grants to Burscough of a 
quarter of the vill John de Orrell has the 
position of a superior lord, confirming 
the grant ; Burscough Priory Reg. fol. 
3 1 A. The same John granted to Bur- 
scough land held of him by Robert son of 
Henry the Smith of Lees ; ibid. 

He and his father Richard were bene- 
factors of Cockersand Abbey. One of 
the father's grants was the half of 
Lithurst, the other half of which seems 
to have belonged to Richard le Waleys, 
with lands of Burscough Priory adjacent. 
John de Orrell made grants of Nelescroft 
and Fernyhurst and of a piece of land, the 
bounds of which cause the naming of 
Full clough, Mickle clough, the Hill, 
Edwin's ridding, Barn lache, the Dyke, 
the carr, Lithurst and Buke side ; ac- 
quittance of pannage for thirty pigs in 
Dalton Wood was allowed with other 
easements ; Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), 
ii, 621-5. 

' See the account of Orrell. 

In 1320 Sir Robert de Holland was 
the principal mesne tenant, Richard le 
Waleys, the Prior of Burscough and Ellen 
de Torbock following ; Dalton and 
Parbold are joined, but the tenant of the 
latter is omitted ; the service was 31. for 
sake fee and 51. for ward of the castle of 
Lancaster. From the later statement of 
rents it is evident that half of this was 
due from Dalton, and the other half from 
Parbold ; thus each of the four quarters 
of the former should pay u. 

In 1341 and again in 1349 it was 
found that Maud de Holland held the 
fourth part of Dalton of the lord of 
Manchester in socage by a rent of i^d. 
and the lord of Manchester of the Earl of 
Lancaster by the same service ; Inq. p.m. 
15 Edw. Ill (2nd nos.), no. 30; 23 
Edw. Ill, pt. i, no. 58. In the latter 
year it was worth, in all issues, 535. 4</. 

8 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 2. 
The rent is this time stated as 6d., so 
that half had been alienated, probably to 
the Daltons. 

A Manchester rental of 1473 shows the 
division of the manor at that time : The 
Prior of Burscough, 6d. ; William Orrell, 
jun. (of Turton), izd. ; Richard Bradshaw 
of Uplitherland, izd. ; William Arrow- 
smith of Warrington, 6d. ; Lord Lovel, 
6d. ; Dalton, 6d. (making 41.) ; Edward 
de Lathom (of Parbold), 41. ; making up 
the 81. paid for sake fee and castle-ward 
as in 1320 ; Mamccestre, 491. 

9 Pat. 4 Hen. VII, 25 Feb. 

' Bridgeman, Wlgan Cb. (Chet. Soc.), 
257. Bishop Bridgeman recorded the 
division of the manor among four lords, 
of whom the Prior of Burscough was 
one; and says 'All these four lords 
called themselves lords thereof, and some- 
times kept courts all jointly and some- 
times severally' ; 258. 

11 Thomas Parker, who died in 1600, 
held various messuages and lands in 
Dalton of William Orrell, which in 1622, 
when the inquisition was taken, were 
held of Henry Ashhurst } Lanes. Inq, 
p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 


12 Robert de Dalton is mentioned as 
early as 1293 ; Inq. and Extents, 276. 
In 1305 Robert de Dalton was claiming 
common of pasture from Ellen, widow of 
Henry de Lathom, and from the Prior of 
Burscough ; De Banco R. 154, m. 252 d. ; 
156, m. 119. There was another family 
bearing the local name, who held of the 
Torbocks ; thus Gilbert son of Alan de 
Dalton speaks of ' my lord, Henry de 
Torbock' ; Kuerden MSS. iii, T, 2, 
no. 15. Robert de Dalton allowed the 
Prior of Burscough to approve in the 
hey of Dalton ; Burscough Reg., fol. 


The most conspicuous of the early 
members of the family was Sir John de 
Dalton, kt., whose exploit in carrying 
off Margery de la Beche in 1347 has 
been mentioned in the account of 
Upholland. Robert de Dalton, his father, 
was then living. Sir John died in 1369 
holding 40 acres in Dalton of Roger La 
Warr, lord of Manchester, in socage, by 
the rent of gd. yearly ; Inq. p.m. 43 
Edw. Ill, pt. i, no. 31. The service does 
not agree with the 6d. named in the 
rental previously quoted. Ellen, wife of 
Robert de Urswick, was executrix ; De 
Banco R. 454, m. 141 d. For later 
descents see the accounts of Bispham in 
Leyland and Thurnham. 

18 By a charter made in the first quarter 
of the 1 3th century Richard le Waleys, 
with the consent of his brother Randle, 
gave land to Cockersand ; Dolfin and 

9 8 

Itharthur were two of the tenants ; 
Cockersand Chart, ii, 6 1 6. This was 
followed by grants and confirmation from 
Richerit son of Randle le Waleys ; the 
first of these states that the quittance of 
pannage had the consent of John de 
Orrell ; while another was for the benefit, 
among others, of 'the soul of Thomas 
Grelley, my patron" (advocates) ; ibid, ii, 
617-20. These charters contain a num- 
ber of local names, as Hawk's nest 
clough, Rushy lea, Rodelea pool, Sandy- 
ford, &c. Adam the son of Richerit 
was also a benefactor ; ibid, ii, 621. 

The Cockersand lands were afterwards 
held in 1451 by Henry Birchinshaw by a 
rent of izd., in 1501 by the Earl of 
Derby, and in 1537 by the Prior of 
Burscough (who denied) ; ibid, iv, 
1244, &c. 

14 Burscough Reg. fol. 31, 31 b. 

John le Waleys released to Sir Robert 
de Lathom the annual rent of a pair of 
gloves due to him from the fourth part of 
the vill, which Richerit de Aughton and 
Adam his son had held of the lord of 
Uplitherland by that rent ; ibid. fol. 33. 
John le Waleys also granted lands in 
Bokeside, the bounds beginning at Livelds- 
bridge ; this charter mentions the house 
which Robert de Legh founded on the 
land of Blessed Nicholas of Burscough ; 
ibid. fol. 33^ ; see also fol. ^zb for another 
gift. His son Richard confirmed these 
grants ; ibid. fol. 35. 

The other Burscough charters include 
an agreement between the prior and 
Richard son of Stephen de Lees and 
Denise his wife as to land in Rodelea 
carr ; an engagement by Richard son of 
Simon de Haselhurst for himself and his 
heirs, to pay 6d. a year to the prior and 
canons to the end of the world ; and a 
grant of Gibhey, between Priors' Hey 
and the Douglas, made by Geoffrey de 
Wrightington ; ibid. fol. 34, 35. 

At the Dissolution the priory was 
drawing a rent of 6 31. from its lands 
in Dalton, viz. 4 from Dalton Hey, 
Richard Prescott being tenant at will ; 
loj. from Gorstilow or Gorstifield, the 
same tenant ; 25*. from Haselhurst, 
Buckshead, and Willins carr, leased to 
John son of Ralph Orrell for 509 years 
from 1533, when Edward Prescott was 
tenant ; the second best animal, or 6s. 8</., 
was paid as heriot ; and Ss. from a 
quarter of the Helde in Dalton, formerly 
Walsh's, William Shaw being tenant ; 
Duchy of Lane. Mins. Accts. bdle. 136, 
no. 2198, m. 7 d. 





acquired by the Earls of Derby, 15 and remained with 
this family till the sale of Lady Ashburnham's 
estates. 16 

The fourth part retained by 
the Waleys family descended 
like Uplitherland to the Brad- 
shaghs, 17 and was sold in 1546 
to Matthew Clifton, 18 and 
then apparently to the Ash- 
hursts, who before that seem 
to have been the tenants under 
Waleys and Bradshagh. 

The remaining quarter, that 
of the Torbocks, descended for 
some time with the principal 
manor of Tarbock ; but this 
portion of Dalton became, like 

Turton, the share of the Orrell family. 19 The estate 
was often called the manor of Walton Lees. A family 
named Lascelles, of long continuance in this township 

ORRELL. Argent three 
torteaux between two 
bendlett gulet t a chief 

and Upholland, appear to have been the immediate 
holders. 80 

In 1598 William Orrell of Turton was called lord 
of ' three-fourths ' of the manor, holding his here- 
ditary share and that of the Holland family ; and 
William Ashhurst lord of ' one-fourth,' i.e. probably 
the Waleys share.* 1 The Burscough quarter does not 
seem to be accounted for. Shortly afterwards, as 
stated above, the Ashhursts acquired the Orrells' lands 
and rights, and became sole lords of the manor. In 
1751 they sold it to Sir Thomas Bootle, and it has 
since descended with Lathom, the Earl of Lathom 
being lord of the manor. 

In the absence of records it is not possible to give a 
satisfactory account of the Ashhurst family. 12 The 
earliest known is Simon de Ashhurst, who about the 
end of the reign of Henry III granted to his son Robert 
all his land in Dalton, and to his son John all his land 
in Ashhurst. 23 Robert son of Simon next occurs ; 24 
and in 1300 Richard son of Robert de Ashhurst made 

15 A grant of Burscough lands, includ- 
ing Dalton, was made to the Earl of Derby 
in 1603 ; Pat. I Jas. I, pt. v, 21 July. 

William Rigby of Lathom, who died 
just before this date, held land in Dalton 
of the Earl of Derby, as parcel of the pos- 
sessions of the dissolved monastery of 
Burscough ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, zo ; see also i, 30, 
and ii, 185. 

Part of the Burscough lands was later 
granted to Robert Hesketh ; Pat. 12 Jas. I, 
pt. 5 . 

16 Lands in Dalton were included in a 
fine concerning the Derby manors, &c., in 
1708, John Earl of Anglesey and Hen- 
rietta Maria his wife, being deforciants ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 260, m. 53. 
They were sold under a decree of 14 July 
1719 to Thomas Franke ; Cal. Exch. of 
Pleas, D. 3 ; see the account of Lathom. 

1 7 John le Waleys acquired land in 
Dalton in 1283 ; Final Cone, i, 161. 
Richard le Waleys in 1322 held a fourth 
part of the manor of Dalton ; ibid, ii, 46. 
This was in possession of Eleanor wife 
of Thomas de Formby in 1372 ; ibid, ii, 

18 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 12, m. 
173 ; William and Edward Bradshagh 
were the vendors. About a year after- 
wards Matthew Clifton had a dispute with 
John Orrell and others regarding a coal- 
mine in Dalton ; Ducatus, i, 222. William 
Clifton was hanged at Lancaster 28 
Aug. 1562 for participation in the mur- 
der of William Huyton of Blackrod ; 
he had lands in Dalton held of William, 
Lord La Warr, by knight's service and 
the rent of \zd. ; also lands in Mawdes- 
ley and Ormskirk ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. xi, no. 40. 

19 For the descent see the account of 
Tarbock. See also Final. Cone, ii, 183, 
Maud widow of Richard de Torbock 
granted her annuity from Walton Lees to 
Gilbert de Haydock in 1340; Raines 
MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, 45 ; also 247, 
&c., for other arrangements, in one of 
which John the son of Maud is named ; 
he is not otherwise known. In the en- 
dorsement of one deed Maud is called 
' de Standish.' Walton Lees and Turton 
were early secured by the Orrells, accord- 
ing to the award of the arbitrators in 
1425 ; Croxteth D. Z. i, 21. Ralph 
Orrell, who died in or before 1535, held 
messuages and lands in Dalton of the Earl 
of Derby by a rent of I4</. and of 

Lord La Warr by a rent of 120". ; Duchy 
of Lane. Inq. p.m. vii, no. I ; those said 
to be held of the Earl of Derby were per- 
haps in Upholland or Orrell. 

In 1543 a formal agreement was made 
between Lord La Warr and John Orrell 
of Turton, setting forth that the latter 
held his lands, &c. in Dalton of the lord 
of Manchester by fealty and the yearly 
rent of izd., and by doing suit at the 
court of the manor of Manchester twice a 
year ; Manchester Corp. D. ; Ducatus 
Lane. (Rec. Com.), ii, 74. A grant 
or confirmation of lands in Orrell and 
Dalton was made to William Orrell in 
1599 ; Pat. 41 Eliz. pt. 1 1. 

20 Walton Lee is mentioned in a grant 
to ; Chart, ii, 629. Richard 
son of Thurstan de Waltonlees in or 
before 1270 released 2 acres in the vill of 
Walton Lees to Henry de Torbock; Kuer- 
den MSS. iii, T. 2, no. 17. 

In 1292 Denise, wife of Richard son 
of Stephen de Dalton Lees claimed lands 
in Upholland and Sivardslee against 
Richard Lascelles and Amice (or Avice) 
his wife ; William son of Warine son of 
Matthew, a minor, was called to warrant ; 
Assize R. 408, m. 33. The defendants 
are named in an earlier suit ; Assize R. 
1238, m. 31 d. 

In 1322 Henry son of Richard 
Lascelles quitclaimed to Ellen de Tor- 
bock all his right in the Green in Dalton ; 
Kuerden MSS. iii, T. 2, no. 14. 

In 1341 Gilbert de Haydock granted 
lands in Dalton to Burscough Priory. 
Part at least was held of Maud widow of 
Sir Robert de Holland by a rent of J*/. ; 
and part had been purchased from Warine 
Lascelles; Inq. p.m. 15 Edw. Ill (2nd 
nos.), no. 30 ; Kuerden fol. MS. fol. 175. 
Three years later Henry Lascelles of 
Walton Lees claimed certain lands in 
Dalton against Adam del Ley of Welch 
Whittle, John the Prior of Burscough, 
Gilbert de Haydock, Maud de Standish, 
and others ; afterwards the estate was 
described as a fourth part of four mes- 
suages, 2 oxgangs of land, &c., and the 
resulting suits show the descent of the 
Torbock quarter of the manor ; Assize R. 
1435, m. 38 d.; De Banco R. 346, m. 
'55 d - 5 34-8, m. 146, &c. Isolda widow 
of Warine Lascelles claimed dower in 1348 
from Thomas, Prior of Burscough, and 
Henry de Molyneux of Halsnead, respect- 
ing the grant to the priory ; Assize R. 
I444,m. 6. 


In 1501 John Lascelles held the 
Cockersand lands in Upholland by a rent 
of I2</. ; Cockersand Rental (Chet. Soc.), 7. 

In 1574 Thomas ' Lassell' and Eliza- 
beth his wife had a water-mill and other 
property in Upholland ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 36, m. 25. Thomas 
Lassell, who seems to have married a 
second wife named Margaret, had a son 
Edward, whose first wife was named 
Grace, and second Ellen; there are various 
fines concerning their estate in Dalton and 
Upholland, and in 1586 they sold land in 
Upholland to Anne Halsall ; ibid. bdle. 
41, m. 1 36 ; 48, m. 103, &c. The name 
occurs in later documents. 

21 Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 362. 
John Orrell was deforciant of the manors 
of Turton and Dalton in 1607 ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 72, m. 5. William 
Orrell of Turton died in 1612 seised of 
the manor of Dalton, which was held of 
Sir N. Mosley as of his manor of Manches- 
ter by a rent of izd. ; thus only the rent 
of a quarter of the manor was paid ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 224. 

22 There are a few brief notes of the 
family deeds in Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 95. 
Pedigrees were recorded in 1613 and 
1664; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), p. 97 and 
p. 9 respectively ; abstracts of some deeds 
are printed with the former. There is a 
later one in Foster's Lanes. Pedigrees. 

The place-name occurs in a charter by 
Richard le Waleys early in the I4th cen- 
tury, mention being made of lands which 
Hugh son of Osbert held in Ashhurst ; 
Burscough Reg. fol. 35^. 

The following other members of the 
family are named in the deeds in Harl. 
MS. 21 1 2 ; Roger, in Scarisbrick ; Hugh, 
with John and Adam his sons, in Shev- 
ington ; Thomas, whose mother was 
Hannah daughter of Robert Torbock, in 
Lathom ; William in Winstanley ; Ralph 
and Henry his son in Upholland ; all in 
undated deeds. 

83 Harl. MS. 2112; Vint, of 1613; 
grants from Simon to his sons Robert and 

Simon de Ashhurst was defendant in a 
plea concerning 20 acres in Dalton in 
1292 ; the plaintiff, Robert son of William 
de Senington (? Shevington) and grand- 
son of Robert son of Osbert, was non- 
suited ; Assize R. 408, m. 30. 

24 Harl. MS. 2112 ; Ashhurst is called 
a vill. 


a release of lands in Pemberton. 15 This Richard ac- 
quired lands about the same time from Henry the 
Miller of Skelmersdale, whose daughter Alice after- 
wards released her right in the same. 26 Richard's son 
Adam was the most distinguished member of the 
family until the Commonwealth period. He fought 
in the French wars under Edward III and was 
knighted, receiving also a grant of lands in Essex and 
Hertfordshire." He was succeeded by his son John, 
who married Margery, daughter of Henry de Orrell,* 8 
and had a son Roger. This Roger about 1385 
married Maud/ 9 daughter of Henry de Ince, leaving a 
son Robert, whose son John de Ashhurst about 1437 
married a daughter of Roger de Dalton. 30 From this 
date there is an absence of documentary evidence until 
the middle of the i6th century, 31 about which time, as 
already stated, William Ashhurst acquired, probably 
from the Bradshaghs of Aughton, a quarter of the 
manor, and afterwards acquired the remainder from 
William Orrell. 

This William Ashhurst was in 1590 reported to be 
'soundly affected in religion ' ; " and the family con- 
tinued Protestant, adopting Puritan and Presbyterian 
tenets. William Ashhurst died in i6i8, M and was 
succeeded by his son Henry, who married Cassandra 
Bradshaw,* 4 and had several children, including Henry, 
the draper and alderman of London, a wealthy man 
and a consistent Puritan. 55 The eldest son William 

was a member of the Long Parliament, and also of 
Cromwell's Parliament of i654. M He died in January 
1656-7, and was succeeded by his eldest son and heir 
Thomas, who recorded a pedigree in 1664. John 
Ashhurst, the brother of Wil- 
liam and Henry, took an active 
part in the Civil War on the 
Parliamentary side, having a 
commission as captain and 
major. He engaged in the 
second siege of Lathom, and 
was present at the surrender 
in December 1645 ; he was 
subsequently governor of Liver- 
pool. 37 

Thomas Ashhurst, aged 
twenty-five in 1 6 64, 38 was suc- 
ceeded in 1700 by his son 

Thomas Henry, who made a settlement of the manor 
of Dalton in ijo6, 39 and about thirty years later 
succeeded also to the manor of Waterstock in Oxford- 
shire, which had been bought by the above-named 
Alderman Henry Ashhurst. In 1751 the manors of 
Dalton, Upholland, and Skelmersdale, with various 
lands, were sold to Sir Thomas Bootle by Henry Ash- 
hurst, son of Thomas Henry, 40 and apparently an elder 
brother of Sir William Henry Ashhurst, the judge. 

Families named Arrowsmith, 41 Prescott," and Hol- 

ASHHURST. Gules a 
cross bet-ween f our Jleurs- 
de-lis argent. 

2 * Harl. MS. 2112. 

86 Ibid. ; Visit, of 1613. Richard and 
Adam de Ashhurst contributed to the 
subsidy of 1322, the former paying 5*. 
out of a total of 1 6s. ; Exch. Lay Subs. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 8. 

2 7 Staff. Hist. Coll. (W. Salt Soc.), xviii, 
38, 85, &c. Pardons were granted at his 
request in 1347 ; ibid. 277. His retinue 
consisted of four esquires and two archers; 
ibid. 200. 

In 1336, already a knight, he received 
a grant of land in Dalton from John the 
Harper of Dalton ; Visit, of 1613. Three 
years after he had a protection from the 
king, dated at Brussels, as being in the 
royal service in parts across the seas ; 
Harl. MS. 2112. There are also refer- 
ences to him in the Cal. Pat. 

In 1341 he acquired land in Dalton 
from Richard son of Adam de Huyton 
and Alice his wife ; Final Cone, ii, 114 ; 
see also De Banco R. 328, m. 155 d. He 
was still living in 1 3 66,when he granted his 
lands to his son John ; Harl. MS. 2112. 

28 Visit, of 1613 ; Harl. MS. 2112. 

29 Visit, of 1613. 

80 Ibid. A John Ashhurst of Dalton 
in 1481 granted to William Bolland, 
Abbot of Cockersand, a rent of I zd. and 
6s. %d. at death as an obit ; Towneley 
MS. DD, no. 1553. 

81 About 1 540 William Ashhurst was 
tenant of the Hospitallers' land in Dalton, 
at a rent of \zd. ; Kuerden MSS. v, fol. 
84. The rent suggests an alternative 
origin for the ' fourth part of the manor ' 
subsequently claimed for this family. In 
1559 a settlement was made of lands in 
Dalton by William Ashhurst and Cecily 
his wife, who according to the pedigree of 
1613 were the parents of the William Ash- 
hurst of 1590 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 21, m. 143. 

82 Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 246 ; quoting 
S.P. Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4. 

88 Manchester Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 19 ; 
his will dated 6 February 1615-16 was 
proved at Chester 9 April 1618. He 
mentions his wife Margaret ; his son 

Henry Ashhurst, and his daughter Anne 
Elston, and Robert, Elizabeth, Margaret, 
Henry, Anne, and Mary Elston, children of 
the latter. Henry Ashhurst was to pay 
his mother 40 a year ; in default of which 
she was to have all the testator's lands in 
Bispham and Wrightington for her life.' 

84 Visit, of 1613, p. 98 ; Local Glean. 
Lanes, and Ches. ii, 250 ; marriage settle- 
ment dated June 1606. Baxter says that 
he ' was a gentleman of great wisdom and 
piety, and zealous for the true reformed 
religion in a country where papists much 
abounded. And when King James, the 
more to win them, was prevailed with to 
sign the book for dancing and other such 
sports on the Lord's days, he being then a 
justice of the peace, as his ancestors had 
been, and the papists thus emboldened 
sent a piper not far from the chapel to 
draw the people from the public worship, 
he sent him to the house of correction. 
And being for this misrepresented to the 
king and council he was put to justify the 
legality of what he did at the assizes ; 
which he so well performed that the judge 
was forced to acquit him though he was 
much contrary to him ; and an occasion 
beingoffered to put the oath of allegiance on 
his prosecutors, their refusal showed them 
papists, as was before suspected '; ibid. 251. 

Henry Ashhurst was the only Dalton 
landowner contributing to the subsidy of 
1628 ; Norris D. (B.M.). He and Cas- 
sandra his wife were in possession of the 
manor in 1630 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. n5> no. 3. In the following year 
he paid ^25 as composition on refusing 
knighthood ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 212. About the same time he 
was engaged in the trial of Anne Spencer, 
a known witch ; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. 
xiv, App. iv, 55. 

85 * A very holy man,' according to 
Oliver Heywood ; Diaries, ii, 142. His 
career and virtues are recorded by Richard 
Baxter in the funeral sermon quoted in 
the last note. See also Wood, Athenae 
Oxon. (Eccl. Hist. Soc.), i, 157-8 ; and 
Diet. Nat. Biog. 


86 Local Glean, ii, 272, 275 ; Pink and 
Beaven, Parl. Rep. of Lanes. 280, 73. 
He was a member of the fourth Presby- 
terian Classis in 1646 ; Baines, Lanes. 
(ed. Croston), i, 308. 

V Local Glean, ii, 276. Afterwards, as 
a leading Presbyterian, he joined in the 
attempt to set Charles II on the throne in 
1651, and took refuge in the Isle of 
Man ; Cal. of Com. for Advance of Money, 
iii, 1464. See Civil War Tracts (Chet. 
Soc.), 77, &c. ; Royalist Camp. Papers 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 176-7. 

88 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 9. 

8 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 256, 
m. 3. The estate is described as the 
manor of Dalton, with messuages, barns, 
dovecote, lands, wood, common of pasture 
and turbary, and 201. rent in Dalton, 
Wrightington, Ormskirk, Lathom, Bisp- 
ham, Skelmersdale, Shcvington, Orrell, 
and Hutton. 

In 1721 King's Silver was paid by 
Thomas Ashhurst and Diana his wife for 
a fine concerning the manors of Dalton, 
Upholland, and Skelmersdale ; Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 512, m. 8. 

40 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 347, m. 
26. This Henry is omitted in the pedi- 
gree in-Foster, but appears in the Alumni 
Oxonienses as son of Thomas Henry Ash- 
hurst, having entered Exeter College, Ox- 
ford, in 1739, aged eighteen ; he was made 
D.C.L. in 1754, being then of Water- 
stock, Oxfordshire. Sir William Henry 
Ashhurst is stated to have been born in 
1725 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. 

41 William Arrowsmith of Warrington 
in the rental of 1473, already quoted, 
paid 6d. ; this was possibly a part of the 
Burscough quarter, the prior being re- 
turned as paying 6d. only. Hugh Arrow- 
smith occurs in 1555; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 15, m. 40. In 1598 
there was a dispute as to land between 
William Ashhurst and Robert Arrow- 
smith ; Ducatus (Rec. Com.), iii, 393. 

42 As will have been seen from the 
Burscough rental the Prescotts were 
tenants of the priory at the Dissolution 



land 43 also held lands in Dalton. In 1 600 William 
Ashhurst and William Moss were the only freeholders 
recorded. 44 

The Knights Hospitallers had land. 45 

In the I jth century an estate called Sifredlea is 
recorded ; it disappeared later. 46 

About 1400, 2 acres of land in Dalton, granted 
without royal licence for the repair of Douglas Bridge, 
were confiscated, but restored. 47 

For the adherents of the Established Church John 
Prescott of the Grange, owner of the great tithes of 
the township, turned the tithe barn into a place of 
worship ; a district was assigned to it in iSyo, 48 and 
it was consecrated in 1872 ; but five years later the 
present church of St. Michael and All Angels was 
built on an adjoining site, and the old one destroyed. 
The patronage is in the hands of Mrs. Prescott. 49 


Ines, 121 2 ; Ins, 1292 ; Ince, xvi cent. 

Ince, called Ince in Makerfield to distinguish it 
from Ince Blundell in the same hundred, lies im- 
mediately to the east of Wigan, of which it is a 
suburb, and from which it is separated by a small 
brook, the Clarenden or Clarington. A large part of 
the boundary on the south-west and eastern sides is 
formed by mosslands. Ambers or Ambrose Wood lies 
on the eastern edge. The ground rises slightly from 
south-west to north-east, a height of over 200 ft. being 
attained on the latter boundary. The area is 2,320 
acres. 1 The population in 1901 was 21,262, includ- 
ing Platt Bridge. 

Two great roads cross it, starting from Wigan ; the 
more northerly is the ancient road to Hindley and 
Manchester, while the other goes through Abram to 
Warrington. A cross road joining these is, like them, 
lined with dwellings. The portion of the township 
to the north-west of it is called Higher Ince. 
Numerous railway lines traverse the township, as well 

as minor lines for the service of the collieries. The 
Lancashire and Yorkshire Company's line from Wigan 
to Bolton and Manchester crosses the centre from west 
to east, and has a station called Ince ; it is joined 
near the eastern boundary by the loop line through 
Pemberton. The London and North - Western 
Company's main line goes through from south to 
north, and has junctions with the lines from Man- 
chester and St. Helens, as also with the Joint Com- 
panies' railway through Hindley and Haigh. The 
Great Central Company's line from Manchester to 
Wigan also crosses the township, with a station, called 
Lower Ince. The Lancaster Canal traverses it near 
the Wigan boundary, and the Leigh branch of the 
Leeds and Liverpool Canal near the western and 
southern boundaries. 

The general aspect is unpleasing, it being a typical 
black country in the heart of the coal-mining area. 
The flat surface, covered with a complete network of 
railways, has scarcely a green tree to relieve the 
monotony of the bare wide expanses of apparently 
waste land, much of it covered with shallow ' flashes ' 
of water, the result of the gradual subsidence of the 
ground as it is mined beneath. A good deal of the 
ground appears to be unreclaimed mossland. Need- 
less to say no crops are cultivated. All the energies 
of the populace are employed in the underground 
mineral wealth of the district, Ince being famous for 
cannel and other coal. 

The northern part of the township merges into 
the town of Wigan, the principal features being huge 
cotton mills and warehouses, crowding the banks of 
the canals and River Douglas, which here degenerates 
into a grimy ditch, with never a bush or tree to 
shade its muddy banks. 

The soil is clay, with a mixture of sand and gravel 
lying over coal. There are iron works, forges, and 
railway wagon works ; cotton goods also are manu- 

The Local Government Act of 1858 was adopted 
by the township in 1866.* The local board was 

for Dalton Hey and Gorstilow. Alice 
and Edward Prescott were among the 
defendants in a case regarding these lands 
in 1548 ; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), iii, 51. Richard Prescott and 
Ellen his wife occur in 1560 ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 22, m. 108. He 
seems to have been a lessee of the Orrells 
for their manor of Walton Lees, and his 
children were orphans in 1596 ; Ducatus, 
iii, 206, &c. 

The Recusant Roll of 1641 includes two 
Prescotts, also Crosses, Holland, &c. ; 
Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiv, 239. The 
Earls of Derby owned the tithes of Dal- 
ton, and about 1782 sold their right to 
Mr. Prescott, in whose family it re- 
mains ; Bridgeman, Wigan Cb. 258. 

48 In 1554 Lewis Orrell had a dispute 
with Robert, Ralph, Hugh, and Agnes 
Holland respecting a close in Dalton 
called the Barn Hey ; Duchy of Lane. 
Plead. Edw. VI, x, O. I. In 1560 Richard 
Holland and Margaret his wife had land 
at Dalton ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 22, m. 102. 

In a fine of 1572 concerning land in 
Dalton in which Richard Holland, Ralph 
Crosse, Philip Moss, and Edward Prescott 
were plaintiffs, and Richard Chisnall and 
Thomas Lathom deforciants, the latter 
warranted Richard Holland and his heirs 
against Lord La Warr, the heirs of 

William Bradshagh, deceased, James 
Howorth, and Margaret his wife, and 
Margaret's heirs, and John Parbold and 
Margery his wife ; ibid. bdle. 34, m. 1 6. 

Richard Holland died 29 Apr. 1587 
holding lands in Dalton, Parbold, and 
Ormskirk, which by his will he left to his 
wife Margaret for life and then to his 
son and heir James ; the latter was sixty- 
eight years of age ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. xiv, no. 20. James Holland, perhaps 
a son of the last-named James, died in 
160$, leaving a son and heir Richard, 
eleven years old ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 30. 

In 1717 Ellen Holland, daughter of 
James Holland, as a ' papist ' registered 
an estate at Dalton for the life of her 
sister Mary ; Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 131. 

44 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 
239,241. In 1653 Edward Moss of Dalton, 
two-thirds of whose estate had been se- 
questered for recusancy, asked leave to 
contract for the same ; Royalist Comf>. 
Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iv, 199. 

45 Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), 375 ; 
see also a preceding note. 

46 The name has a great variety of 

In 1 202 Syfrethelegh was part of the 
tenement of Alan de Windle (or de 
Pemberton) in which Edusa his widow 
claimed dower; Final Cone, i, 38. In 


1241 Robert de Holland released his 
claim to twelve oxgangs in Pemberton, 
on receiving from Adam de Pemberton 
the homage and service (viz. 5*. 6J. rent) 
of Thomas de Siverdelege in the latter 
place ; ibid. 82. 

Very early in the 1 3th century Edrith 
de Sivirdeleie granted a portion of his 
land to Cockersand Abbey, the bounds 
commencing at a burnt oak by Swinley 
Carr, so to two oaks, and to Raven's 
Oak, and by syke and brook to the great 
bank, and so to the start ; this was 
afterwards held by a tenant paying I2</. 
and a half a mark at death ; Cockersand 
Chart. 11,627. In 1271 or 1272 Robert 
son of Thomas de Siverthelege released 
to Matthew de Bispham and his heirs 
all his right in the abbey's land in 
Siverthelege, rendering to the abbot izd. 
a year; this land was in 1268 held by 
Matthew de Holland ; ibid, ii, 629, 630. 

It is clear that Matthew de Holland 
was the same as Matthew de Bispham, 
and it was for him probably that Robert 
de Holland had before bought out the 
interest of Adam de Pemberton. 

47 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 2. 

48 Land. Gax. 29 Nov. 1870 ; 23 Dec. 

49 Bridgeman, Wigan Ch. 789. 

1 Including 100 acres of inland water. 
a Land. Gaz. 23 Oct. 1866. 


changed into an urban district council by the Act of 
1894 ; it consists of fifteen members. 

The manor of INCE appears to have 
M4NOR been a member of the royal manor of 
Newton before the Conquest,* and to 
have been included in the fee of Makerfield from its 
formation. 4 In 1 2 1 2 Alfred de Ince held this in thegn- 
age with Haydock, 5 in succession to his father, Orm 
de Haydock, whose name occurs as early as Il68. 6 
The whole of Haydock had been granted out, and half 
of Ince was held of Alfred by Richard de Perpoint. 7 

Some forty or fifty years later Henry de Sefton 
began to acquire a share in the manor. In 1261 he 
held the Perpoint moiety by grant of Thomas de 
Perpoint, 8 and seems to have acquired the remainder, 
with the mesne lordship, from Henry son of John de 

Ince. 9 He was still living in 1288,' but in 1291 
his son, styled Richard de Ince, was in possession. 11 
Richard de Ince occurs as late as 1 3 3 3 ; lt he was 
succeeded by his son Gilbert, living in I347- 13 At 
this time Gilbert had a son Ivo living ; but in 1382 
the manors of Aspull and Ince were granted to feoffees 
by Richard son of Robert de Ince, whose relation- 
ship to Gilbert is not known. 14 The manor went 
with Ellen, daughter of probably the same Richard 
de Ince, who married John Gerard, a younger son of 
Peter Gerard of Brynn. 15 

From their son William the manor descended 
regularly to Thomas Gerard of Ince, who in 1514 
had a dispute with Sir Thomas Gerard of Brynn, as to 
the possession of Turneshea Moss, on the boundary 
of Ince and Ashton. 16 At his death in 1545 it was 

V.C.H. Lanu. i, 286. 

* Ibid. 366, note 8. For later notices 
see Lanci, Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, I38;ii, 
99 ; ibid. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 105. 

6 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 74. The separate 
assessment of Ince appears to have been 
one plough-land : and its share of the 
thegnage rent was probably los. ; one of 
the judges being also supplied by it. In 
1544 the Gerards' rent was stated to be 
51. only ; possibly this was a moiety of 
the manor, the other moiety being held 
by the Ince family. 

6 Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 12. Orm de 
Haydock gave to Cockersand Abbey a 
portion of land in Ince, between two 
brooks, as marked out by the canons' 
crosses ; Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), 
ii, 673. Robert Anderton held this in 
1501 at a rent of lod. ; Cockersand Rental 
(Chet. Soc.), 5. 

~' Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 74 ; the half 
plough-land was held 'of ancient feoff- 

Richard de (or le) Perpoint was a 
benefactor of Cockersand, his grant being 
thus bounded : The great brook up the 
Thele lache, down the lache between 
Beric-acre and Wolveley to the syke be- 
tween Hardacre and Bircacre, to the great 
brook ; Cockersand Chart, ii, 672. He 
seems to have been succeeded by Robert 
son of Adam de Perpoint, who released 
to the canons the lands he had held of 
them in Ince, and whose daughter Godith 
did the same ; ibid. 673, 674. For 
Alfred de Ince see Lanes. Pipe R. 152, 

8 Cur. Reg. R. 171, m. 28 ; Henry 
de Sefton called Thomas de Perpoint to 
warrant him as to 4 oxgangs in Ince. 
He may be the Henry de Seveton who 
with his wife Alice was taken into con- 
fraternity with the Knights Hospitallers in 
1256; Final Cone. ( Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 128. 

9 Assize R. 408, m. 21 d. John de 
Ince was witness to an Abram charter 
about 1240 5 Cockersand Chart, ii, 664. 

10 Assize R. 408, m. 73. It is pos- 
sible that there is an error in the date. 

11 Assize R. 407, m. 3 d. Gilbert de 
Southworth claimed in right of the dower 
of his wife Emma, who seems to have 
been the widow of Henry de Sefton ; but 
this would not have been so if Henry de 
Sefton was living in 1288. 

About this time there was a long suit 
between John son of Richard Maunsel 
of Heaton and Richard son of Emma 
de Marhalgh as to messuages, mill, &c., 
and 6 oxgangs of land in Ince and Aspull. 

Richard is described as son and heir of 
Henry de Wigan, a brother of Richard 
Maunsel ; Assize R. 1265, m. 22 d. ; R. 
1321, m. 13 d. ; R. 418, m. 2, II. As 
in one of the pleadings in 1284 (Assize R. 
1268, m. ii) Gilbert de Southworth and 
Emma his wife were joined in the defence 
with Richard son of Emma de Mar- 
halgh, it might seem that Henry de 
Wigan was the same as Henry de Sefton, 
but there it probably some other explana- 

12 In 1292 he was defendant in a 
number of suits concerning his father's 

Henry de Litherland claimed 4 ox- 
gangs less 12 acres ; he had in 1288 re- 
leased his right in them to Henry de 
Sefton, but now said he was a minor at 
the time ; Assize R. 408, m. 73. It is 
possible that the plaintiff was the Henry 
son of Thomas de Ince who at the same 
assizes claimed 6 acres of land, &c., 
from Robert son of Fulk Banastre, 
Hugh de Hindley, Alan son of Peter, 
Adam de Urmston and Isabel his wife, 
and Richard de Molyneux and Beatrice 
his wife ; ibid. m. 68. Agnes widow of 
Thomas de Ince was also a claimant in 
respect of dower ; 2 oxgangs of land are 
named ; ibid. m. 3, 13 d., 64 d. Henry 
son of Thomas de Ince held 12 acres 
claimed by William, brother and heir of 
Robert de Wytonelake, who asserted that 
Thomas had demised to Henry de Sefton, 
who had disseised Robert ; ibid. m. 51. 

Robert de Abram and Emma his wife, 
in right of the latter, claimed the moiety 
of an oxgang of land, Sec., from Richard 
son of Henry de Sefton of Ince, and from 
Gilbert de Southworth and Emma his 
wife. The latter pair said they had only 
Emma's dower out of Richard's inheri- 
tance. The plaintiffs said that Henry de 
Ince gave the tenements to Adam son of 
Wido and Margery his wife ; the latter 
being, it would seem, a daughter of Henry; 
and that Emma was their daughter and 
heir ; Robert was the son of John de 
Abram, who had married the said Mar- 
gery. Richard de Ince's reply was that 
Margery had granted the lands to his 
father while she was a widow and free to 
do so ; but the jury decided for the plain- 
tiffs, believing a grant was made after she 
had married John de Abram. Gilbert 
and Emma were also to have nothing 
from the land, ' because the seisin of the 
latter's first husband was unjust'; ibid, 
m. 26 d. The last sentence seems to 
prove that this Emma was widow of 
Henry de Sefton. 

In the same year, 1292, Richard de 
Ince and Alice his wife, 'put in their 


claim ' in a fine concerning the manor of 
Haydock ; Final Cone, i, 174. 

Late in 1334 Richard son of Henry 
de Ince granted Gilbert de Culcheth leave 
to carry turves from Hindley to Wigan 
through Ince ; Lanes, and Ches. Hist, and 
Gen. Notes, i, 52. 

18 In 1323-4 Gilbert son of Richard 
de Ince remitted to Gilbert de Haydock 
a rent of 1 31. 4^. ; Raines MSS. (Chet. 
Lib.), xxxviii, 33. Gilbert de Ince was 
witness in 1334; Crosse D. no. 45. 
Ten years later John de Tyldesley made 
a claim against Gilbert son of Richard 
de Ince and others concerning land ; As- 
size R. 143 5, m. 47. A little later, 1347, 
William son of John Donning of Ince 
sued Gilbert son of Richard de Ince for 
a messuage in Ince. Gilbert claimed by 
a grant from Elias Donning and Margery 
his wife, parents of John Donning ; in 
the defence there were associated with 
him his brothers Richard, Thomas, and 
John ; also his son Ivo ; ibid, m. 41 d. 
Gilbert de Ince at Easter 1354 was con- 
victed of disseising John son of Thomas 
Jew of a rent of 131. $d. in Ince ; and 
Hugh, Gilbert's brother, cut off Johr.'s 
arm ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 3, m. 
3. Henry, another brother, occur, in 
1347; Cal. Close, 1346-9, p. 49. Gil- 
bert de Ince attested a charter in 1358; 
Standish D. no. 46. 

14 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 2, m. 
36 ; a list of the tenants is given. 

Robert was perhaps yet another brother 
of Gilbert's, for a Robert son of Richard de 
Ince was plaintiff in 1353 against Roger 
de Leigh, and others; Assize R. 435, 
m. 20. 

Richard and Thomas de Ince contri- 
buted to the poll tax of 1381 ; Lay Subs. 
Lane. bdle. 130, no. 24. 

15 Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), ii, 131, 
where it is stated that a dispensation was 
granted for the marriage. John Gerard 
of Ince occurs in 1425 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Chet. Soc.), ii, 13. 

In 1420 John Gerard of Ince and Ellen 
his wife arranged for the succession of the 
manor of Ince, with fifteen messuages, 
140 acres of land, &c., in Warrington, 
Wigan, and Aspull ; Pal. of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. 5, m. 18. At the inquisition 
after his death, taken in 1434-5, his son 
and heir William was said to be aged 
twenty-three ; Ormerod, loc. cit. 

16 Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 3-7 ; the date should be 6 
Hen. VIII. The plaintiff's pedigree is 
given : ' The said moss ... is the freehold 
and inheritance of plaintiff as parcel of 
his manor of Ince, whereof William 
Gerard his great-grandfather, Thomas 



found that he had held the manor of Ince of Sir 

Thomas Langton in socage by a rent of 5/. ; also 

the manor of Aspull, a burgage in Wigan, and land? 

in Abram and Hindley. Miles 

Gerard his son and heir was 

thirty years of age. 17 Miles 

died in August I 5 5 8, 18 leaving 

a son William, 19 who in turn 

was succeeded by his son, 

another Miles Gerard. 10 The 

family adhered to the ancient 

faith, and Miles Gerard in 

1590 was reported to be 'in 

some degree of conformity, yet 

in general note of evil affection 

in religion.' 81 

Miles Gerard was still liv- 
ing in 1613, when a pedigree was recorded, show- 
ing Thomas his son and heir to be twenty-two 

GERARD. Azure a lion 
rampant ermine crowned 

years of age. 28 Thomas was a convicted recusant 
in i628, 83 and his estates were in 164.3 sequestered 
' for his recusancy and supposed delinquency.' 24 The 
documents relating to the matter give a number of 
interesting particulars as to the mining of cannel 
and the charges upon the lands ; K they also show 
that Thomas Gerard, his son, had fought against 
the Parliament, and had been taken prisoner at 
Naseby in 1645 ; afterwards he took the National 
Covenant and compounded for his part of the 
estate. 86 

It appears to have been Anne, the daughter and 
heir of the younger Thomas, who carried the manors 
of Ince and Aspull to her husband John Gerard, a 
younger son of Sir William Gerard, third baronet ; 
and the manors were afterwards sold to Richard 
Gerard, uncle of John. 87 Richard's son and heir 
Thomas and his wife, Mary Wright, were in posses- 
sion in i683. 18 His son Richard Gerard of Highfield 

his grandfather, and William his father, 
and many others of his ancestors were 
time out of mind peaceably seised.' 

In 1448 Thomas Gerard son of William 
Gerard, Roger Geranl, and Cecily wife 
of William Gerard, were accused of caus- 
ing the death of Robert Gidlow, but 
were acquitted ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 
12, m. 25 ; see also R. 1 1, m. 15, 1 6. 

In that year a dispensation was granted 
by Nicholas V for the marriage of Thomas 
son and heir of William Gerard of Ince, 
and Elizabeth a daughter of William 
Norris of Speke, the parties being related 
in the third degree ; Norrit D. (B.M.), 
no. 643. Ten years later an indenture 
was made, reciting the fact of this mar- 
riage, and stating that lands in Aspull and 
Hindley had been assigned to them ; 
William Gerard, the father, 'had not 
made and would not make any alienation 
of the manor of Ince or of any mes- 
suage, lands, and tenements that were 
Ellen's that was wife to John Gerard 
mother to the said William Gerard,' but 
such as should determine at his death. 
William's brothers, Robert, John, Hugh, 
and Richard are named, as also his younger 
sons, Roger, Edmund, Lawrence, and Seth; 
ibid. no. 644.. 

To Thomas Gerard, the son, a pardon 
was granted in 1479 5 Towneley MS. 
RR, no. 1430. In this year Thomas 
Gerard of Ince and William his son, with 
Roger and Seth his brothers, were par- 
ties to an engagement to keep the peace 
with Alexander Standish and others ; 
Standish D. nos. 160, 161. 

In 1490 the marriage of Thomas son 
and heir apparent of William Gerard, and 
Maud daughter of Sir Henry Bold, was 
agreed upon ; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 210, 
nos. 1 1 8, 119. 

V Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. vii, no. 27. 
The burgage in Wigan was held by the 
rent of a pair of gloves. 

18 Ibid, xi, no. 1 2 ; he held the manors 
of Ince and Aspull, with various messu- 
ages and lands, &c. ; including a wind- 
mill and a water-mill in Ince, and the 
same in Aspull ; sixty burgages, &c., in 
Wigan, and various lands there, held by a 
rent of 571. id. ; also lands in Pcmber- 
ton, Abram, and Hindley. William his 
son and heir was twenty-three years of 

19 William was a plaintiff against Sir 
Thomas Gerard in 1549 ; Ducatus Lane. 
(Rec. Com.), ii, 101. 

In 1567 a pedigree was recorded 5 Vlut, 

(Chet. Soc.), 1 01. William Gerard was 
buried at Wigan, 29 Nov. 1583 ; Reg. 

30 A settlement of the manors of As- 
pull and Ince was made by fine in 1586 ; 
Miles Gerard and Grace his wife being 
deforciants ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 48, m. 299 ; there was a later one 
in 1612; ibid. bdle. 82, m. 51. Several 
other fines relate to dealings with their 
properties ; ibid. bdle. 47, m. 57, &c. 

In I 599, as lord of the manor, he com- 
plained that Ralph Houghton and others 
were withholding suit ; Ducatus Lane. 
(Rec. Com.), iii, 336, 399. 

21 Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 245, quoting 
S.P. Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4. He and his 
wife had been accused in 1586 of sheltering 
one Worthington, a persecuted priest ; and 
his own brother, Alexander Gerard, was 
another priest in the neighbourhood ; ibid. 
239, 240. Thomas and Alexander Gerard, 
aged eighteen and seventeen respectively, 
entered Brasenose College, Oxf. in 1578 ; 
Foster, Alumni. In spite of a discrepancy 
in the dates it being recorded that 
Alexander left Rheims for England in 
1587 it seems certain that Miles's 
brothers were the Thomas and Alexander 
Gerard imprisoned for religion in Wisbech 
Castle, where Thomas died ; their brother 
Gilbert, born in 1569, and therefore not 
recorded in the Visitation pedigree, entered 
the English College, Rome, in 1587, and 
became a Jesuit ; Foley, Rec. S.J. vi, 
1755 vii, 293. 

In September 1590 Miles Gerard 
was indicted for fourteen months' absence 
from church, but for most part of the 
time he had been ' so extreme sick ' that- 
his life had only been preserved by the 
use of goat's milk ; before that he said 
he had been a regular attendant at church ; 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv,App. iv, 597. See 
also Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. ii, 252. 

Miles Gerard, a Douay priest, executed 
at Rochester in 1590 for his priesthood, 
is supposed to have been of this family ; 
Gillow, Bibl. Diet, of Engl. Cath. ii, 
430-2. He does not occur in the pedi- 
gree, but Miles seems to have been a 
favourite Christian name in this branch. 

M Vltit. of 1613 (Chet. Soc.), 25. 
' Miles Gerard of Ince, esquire, was buried 
at Wigan, 1615, in his own chancel, the 
28th day of September' 5 Reg. 

Thomas son and heir of Miles Gerard 
of Ince entered St. Mary Hall, Oxf. in 
1607, aged seventeen ; he was afterwards 
of Gray's Inn ; Foster, Alumni Oxon. 

38 Norris D. (B.M.). For a settlement 


in 1641 see Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 138, m. 38. He paid 13 6*. %d. 
on refusing knighthood in 1632 ; Misc. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 222. 

84 Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 34 ; petition of his 
wife and daughters. 

85 Ibid, iii, 34-51. Thomas Gerard 
had a mine of cannel in Aspull, for which 
he needed a trench through lands of James 
Gorsuch, paying him 20 for leave. 
Owing to neglect in the various seques- 
trations the trench was filled up, and the 
mine was ' totally drowned up ' ; the fault 
being that of the agents of the seques- 
trators. He asked for compensation or 
assistance to put the mine in order. 

The rents of the confiscated two-thirds 
of the estates amounted in 1653-4 to 
11 1 ijs. 6d.; it consisted of the 
demesne lands at Ince, a mill, tenants' 
rents, tithe corn, rents in Aspull, and a 
cannel mine in Aspull farmed to his son 
Thomas Gerard ; ibid. 47. 

Ince Hall was the subject of suits be- 
tween Thomas Gerard and Roger Stough- 
ton in 1663 ; Exch. Depot. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 37, 48. 

In 1667 an inquiry was made touching 
an annuity granted by Thomas Gerard 
to John Biddulph ; Lanes, and Cbes. Recs. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 348. 

28 Royalist Comp. Papers, iii, 40-43. It 
being alleged that the younger Thomas 
was ' a delinquent papist and not to be 
admitted to composition, notwithstanding 
his conformity,' his friends moved that he 
might be allowed to give the committee 
further satisfaction by taking the oath of 

*i For Richard Gerard see Diet. Nat. 

The descent which follows is taken 
from Piccope's MS. Pedigrees (Chet. Lib.), 
i, 1 19, with additions from his abstracts 
of Roman Catholic deeds enrolled in the 
Preston House of Correction. There is 
also a pedigree in Gregson, Fragments (ed. 
Harland), 239. John Gerard died in July 
1672, and was buried at Winwick ; Local 
Glean. Lanes, and Ches. i, 191. 

28 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 211, 
m. 25. Besides the manors the property 
included messuages and lands and a water 
grain mill in Ince, Aspull, and Wigan ; 
also tithes in Ince. For a fine of 1700 
see bdle. 245, m. 93 ; Thomas Gerard, 
Sir William Gerard, and William Gerard 
were the deforciants. Thomas Gerard is 
usually described as 'of Highfield' in 


succeeded, but dying without issue the manor of 
Ince went by the provisions of his will M to his 
wife Margaret for life and then to his heir, his 
cousin Richard Gerard's son William. 30 William's 
heirs were his sisters, Mary and Elizabeth ; but as 
the latter died unmarried, the whole devolved on 
the former, the wife of John Walmesley, a relation 
of the Showley family. 51 They settled at West- 
wood House in Ince, and the manor has descended 
regularly to the present lord, Mr. Humphrey Jeffreys 
Walmesley, of Ince and Hungerford. 3J The Hall 
of Ince was sold by Richard Gerard in 1716 to 
John Walmesley oi Wigan, whose descendant Mr. John 
Walmesley of Lucknam and Ince is the present 

Ince formerly possessed three halls, each bearing 
the name of the township ; two of them, very much 
modernized, still stand. The first of these, now 
known as above mentioned as Hall of Ince, stands in 
Warrington Road, near the cemetery, and was restored 
about ten years ago, the old timber work at the back, 
which was then visible, being removed, and the wall 
rebuilt in brick. 33a The whole of the exterior of the 
building, which was formerly timber framed, is now 
stuccoed and otherwise modernized, but the roofs 
retain their old stone slates. The building is now 
divided into three houses. 

Another branch of the Gerard family also resided 
in Ince from about 1600 ; their house was called the 
New Hall. 34 

The house now known as Ince Hall, which is 
situated off Manchester Road, near Rose Bridge, was 
originally surrounded by a moat and approached by a 
fine avenue of elms. It was a good specimen of 
timber and plaster building erected about the reign 
of James I, with a picturesque black and white front 
of five gables. 343 The entrance hall is described as 
being spacious and with a richly ornamented plaster 
ceiling and wainscoted walls. Three other rooms 
also were stated to have been panelled in oak, and the 
drawing-room ceiling was ornamented with ' carved 
work representing birds, shells, fruit, and flowers. 
There were two chimney-pieces of fine Italian 
marble. The staircase was of oak and 6 ft. wide, the 
ceiling much ornamented with stucco. The best bed- 
rooms were covered with tapestry.' 34b In 1854 
the house was so seriously damaged by fire as to 
necessitate a practical rebuilding. The ancient 
timber front has therefore given place to a brick 
elevation of no architectural pretension, and the 
house is internally wholly modernized. The line of 
avenue still remains, but the trees have disappeared, 
and the opening of coal pits in the immediate 
vicinity about thirty years ago has destroyed any 
sense of picturesqueness that the rebuilt structure 
might have possessed. 35 

A family using the local surname came into note in 
the 1 6th century. 35 * Thomas Ince, who died in April 
1573, held a capital messuage and other messuages 
with lands and wood at Ince of Thomas Langton in 

Aspull. As a 'papist' he registered his 
estate in 1717, the value being given as 
345 17*. 4< ; Richard Gerard, of High- 
field, who registered an annuity of ^150 
out of the manor of Aspull, was no doubt 
his son ; Engl. Cath. Nonjurort, 128, 153; 
he also owned the hall of Southworth ; 
Piccope, op. cit. Two of his sisters were 

In 1694 an inquiry was made as to the 
suspected devotion of the Hall of Ince to 
religious uses ; Exch. Depos. 84. 

29 Richard Gerard of Highfield died 
without issue in 1743. In 1721 he was 
in the remainders to the Brynn estate. 
By his will dated I Feb. 1734-5, he 
g-ive the manor of Ince to his wife 
Margaret, who was daughter of John 
Baldwin of Wigan, for life, with re- 
mainder to his right heirs ; his manors 
of Southworth and Croft to his brother 
Thomas ; Piccope, op. cit. This Thomas 
and another brother Caryll were priests ; 
for the latter see Foley, Rec. S.J. vi, 

30 Richard Gerard, a younger brother of 
Thomas, was an apothecary in Wigan. 
He and his son Richard registered as 
'papists' in 1717; Engl. Cath. Non- 
jurors, 107, 148. They mortgaged a 
messuage in the Market-place in 1731. 
The son, who died in 1743, married Isa- 
bella, another daughter of John Baldwin 
of Wigan ; and their son William, de- 
scribed as an apothecary in 1 744, was the 
heir to Ince. Aspull is not mentioned, 
having probably been sold. In 1751-2 
William Gerard was deforciant of the 
manor in a fine, which included lands in 
Ince, Abram, Himlley, Newton in Maker- 
field, and Wigan ; also 'one chapel open 
to the north side and adjoining the parish 
church of Wigan ' ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 346, m. 108. 

81 In 1773 John Walmesley and Mary 
his wife, Elizabeth Gerard, spinster, 

William Moss and Margaret his wife, 
and Richard Baron and Anne his wife 
were the deforciants in a fine re- 
garding this manor; ibid. bdle. 389, m. 

32 The descent is thus given in Burke, 
Landed Gentry John Walmesley, d.!78o; 
son, Richard, d. 1790 ; son, Charles, d. 
1833 ; son, William Gerard, d. 1868 ; 
son, William Gerard, d. 1877 ; brother, 
Humphrey Jeffreys, born 1 846. 

83 Information given by the present 
owner, \\ho also inherited the house in 
Hallgate, Wigan, in which the Young 
Pretender slept in November 1745. For 
the pedigree of the family see Burke, 
Landed Gentry, Walmesley of Hall of 

333 A view of the Hall, as it was a cen- 
tury ago, is given in Gregson, Fragment! 
(ed. Harland), 236. 

84 One Thomas Anderton had lands 
in Ince in 1529, as recorded in a later 
note ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. vi, n. 
14, 30. One of his daughters and co- 
heirs married Thomas Gerard, and a 
division was sought in 1546 ; Pal. of 
Lane. Writs, file 30. Ralph Gerard and 
Grace his wife sold lands here in 1548 ; 
James Gerard was a purchaser ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 13, m. 133, 136. 
See also Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xv, 
no. 1953 James Gerard was buried at 
Wigan 21 Sept. 1590. This James may 
have been the father of Miles Gerard, 
who in 1600 was one of the freeholders in 
Ince ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 239. The same name, as 'of New 
Hall ' appears among the landowners 
contributing to the subsidy of 1628 5 
Norris D. (B. M.). He was buried at 
Wigan in 1640, and in 1654 Charles 
son of James Gerard, of the New Hall, 
was buried, as appears by the Wigan 

For some ' delinquency ' James Gerard's 


estate was sequestrated about the end of 
1651 by the Parliamentary authorities; 
as ' son and heir of Miles Gerard, late of 
Ince,' he was admitted to Gray's Inn, 
1646 ; Royalist Comp. Papers, iii, 21 ; iv, 


In 1671, on a complaint by Henry 
Backer and his wife Jane against Ellen 
Gerard, depositions were taken as to the 
marriage of John Davies of Manby 
in Cheshire, with Alice eldest daughter 
of Miles Gerard, late of Peel Ditch in 
Ince, and moneys agreed to be paid to 
Jane and Margaret, daughters of Miles ; 
and touching a sum of 400 lent to 
Thomas Gerard of Ince ; Exch. Depos. 


843 The house is the subject of one 
of Roby's Traditions of Lancashire, where 
a view of it in its original state is 

84b Manchester City News, N. and Q. 
iv, 7 (1881). 

85 There is a tradition that the Young 
Pretender slept here when he was in 
this part of Lancashire, and that there 
was a skirmish in the hall during his s;ay 
in which two men were killed. 

8oa They may have descended from the 
Henry son of Thomas de Ince, of 1292, 
who had a son Thomas ; Assize R. 419, 
m. 12 ; De Banco R. 198, m. i36d. 
Richard son of Henry de Ince contributed 
to the subsidy in 1332; Exch. Lay Subs. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 6. The 
Thomas of 1381 may also have belonged 
to it ; a release by Thomas son of Robert 
de Ince, dated 1379, is in Towneley MS. 
GG, no. 2439. Robert son of William de 
Ince, occurs in 1398 ; Crosse D. (Trans. 
Hist. Soc.}, no. 86. Henry de Ince occurs 
in 1415 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 
107. Thomas son of Henry de Ince was 
party to a bond in 1428 ; GG, no. 2655. 
Henry Ince of Ince was one of the gentry 
of the hundred in 1512. 



socage by a rent of $t. Kb The residence was known as 
Ince Hall, or the New Hall. They also adhered to the 
ancient faith, 36 and John Ince's estate was sequestered 

by the Parliamentary autho- 

rities during the Common- 
wealth, 37 but not confiscated 
outright. It descended from 
him to his great-great-grand- 
daughter Frances Sobieski, 
daughter of Christopher Ince, 
and wife of William Anderton 
of Euxton. She died in 1 8 1 6, 
when the family ceased to 
reside here. 38 

The third hall, the resi- 
dence of the family of Ince, 
stood on a site a short distance from the junction of 
Ince Green Lane and Warrington Road, part of which 
is occupied by a building apparently erected some 
sixty years since from the materials of the former 
house. Two date stones, now on a rockery in front 

INCE. Urgent three 
torteaux between two 
bendlets gules. 

of the house, are said to belong respectively to the 
old barn and a stable now pulled down. One bears 
the date 1578 and the initials G J M, and the other 

the inscription 

w p 

referring to the above-named 


William Anderton and Frances his wife. There is 

also part of a stone sundial, dated GM - The hall 


is sa : d to have been built about 1721. 

Property here was acquired by a family named 
Brown, 39 in which it descended for about a century 
and a half. 40 Henry Brown, by his will in 1726, left 
it to his grand-nephew Edward, son of Robert Holt 
of Wigan ; by two daughters and co-heiresses it be- 
came the property of General Clegg and Thomas 
Case of Liverpool. 41 

Miles and Peter Gerard, Thomas Ince, and Ralph 
Brown were the landowners recorded about I556. 4 * 
Richard Pennington was a freeholder in 1600." 
The four halls of Ince were duly noted by Kuerden 

Kb Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xiii, no. 6. 
Miles Ince was his son and heir, and of the 
age of twenty-five years. The rent pay- 
able seems to prove that this was a moiety 
of the manor. Mr. H. Ince Anderton 
gives the descent as : Thomas Ince (15 
Edw. IV) s. Henry (20 Hen. VII) s. 
Arthur s. Thomas ; from Harl. MS. 
1987, fol. 88i. 

The father of Thomas was Arthur Ince, 
who in 1546 and later had a dispute with 
Ralph Brown over the marriage between 
the latter's daughter Ellen and Thomas 
Ince, son and heir apparent of Arthur ; 
Duchy Plead, ii, 211. In 1569 Miles 
Ince, as grandson of Ralph Brown, put in a 
claim to lands in Ince, Aspull, and Wigan; 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), ii, 378, 360. 

88 Miles Ince was one of the ' comers to 
church but no communicants' in 1590 ; 
Lydiate Hall, 246 (quoting S.P. Dom. 
Eliz. ccxxxv, 4). He was buried at Wigan 
7 Apr. 1593; Reg.; and was succeeded by 
John Ince, probably his son, returned as a 
freeholder in 1600; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes. 
and Ches.), i, 241. With him begins the 
pedigree recorded in 1664; Dugdale, 
Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 163. In 1628 he paid 
double to the subsidy as a convicted recu- 
sant ; Norris D. (B.M.) ; and died the 
following year, being buried at Wigan. 

8 ' In 1643 two-thirds was sequestered 
for Thomas Ince's religion only, and so 
remained till his death in Feb. 1653-4; 
it does not appear that he took arms for 
the king. John Ince was the only son 
and heir, thirty-four years of age, and in 
1654 had a wife and four small children 
depending on him. He mortgaged his 
property in order to pay his father's debts 
and provide for his wife Margaret and 
his children Thomat, Hugh, &c. ; Royalist 
Camp. Papers, iv, 1-13. 

88 Dugdale's pedigree is supplemented 
by that of Piccope (MS. Pedigrees, ii, 
291), who consulted the Roman Catholic 
deeds enrolled in the House of Correction, 
Preston. It appears that Thomas, the 
eldest son of John, mentioned in the pre- 
ceding note, had no issue, and the estate 
descended to Christopher Ince, a younger 
brother, who in 1717 as a 'papist' regis- 
tered his estate, being described as ' of 
Aughton;' Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 1 12. His 
four sisters, Dorothy, Anne, Ellen (wife 
of James Twiss), and Elizabeth also re- 
gistered ; ibid. 124. 


Christopher was executor of his bro- 
ther Thomas's will (dated 1703), and by 
his own will, dated 12 Dec. 1728, he left 
Ince Hall to his grandson Christopher ; 
John, the son, to have 'the profits of part 
of Brook House,' if he behaved himself to 
the satisfaction of the trustees. Thomas, 
a younger brother of John, had lands in 
Aughton and Billinge, divided between 
his sons Thomas and James ; Piccope, op. 

Mr. Ince Anderton adds that papers in 
Chest. Dioc. Reg. show that Christopher 
Ince died in 1735, leaving two sons, John 
and Thomas ; and that administration of 
the goods of John Ince of Ince was 
granted on 14 Jan. 1739-40. 

Christopher Ince, son of John, accord- 
ingly succeeded to Ince ; in 1740 he 
married Mary Catherine Parry of Holy- 
well ; and their daughter and heir, 
Frances Sobieski Ince, married in 1769 
William Anderton of Euxton ; Pic- 

89 In a suit in 1609 respecting a place 
called Rundiefield in Ince, the following 
pedigree was adduced : Roger le Brown, 
to whom the rent of 41. from the land 
had been granted by William de Ince s. 
Rowland s. William s. Ralph. Ralph 
in 1545 granted the rent to William 
Brown, whose son Roger was defendant 
in 1609 ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 303, m. 
1 6. 

Roger Brown of Ince, in August 1517, 
granted to Cecily daughter of Richard 
Urmston a burgage in Scholes for her 
life, with remainder to Ralph Brown, 
junior, son and heir of William Brown ; 
and at the same time this Ralph Brown, 
describing himself as next of kin and heir 
apparent of Roger, granted his burgages, 
&c., in Scholes to the same Cecily, pro- 
bably on his marriage with her ; Towne- 
ley MS. OO, no. 1109, 1108. 

Thomas Anderton of Ince died in 
August 1529, seised of messuages and 
lands in Ince held of Thomas Gerard of 
Ince, by a rent of zs. So 1 . ; and other lands 
in Thingwall, Walton, Halewood, and 
Aughton. His heirs were his daughters 
Margaret, Ellen, and Cecily, said to be 
ten, nine, and eight years of age in 1534. 
They were in the wardship of Ralph 
Brown of Wigan, who accordingly took 
possession ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. vi, 
no. 14, 30. 


Ralph Brown next appears in 1535 in 
a dispute with Thomas Gerard as to lands 
in Whitreding ; Ducatus Lane, i, 201 ; 
and then in 1546 regarding the marriage 
covenant with Arthur Ince, already re- 
ferred to. William Brown, feoffee of 
Ralph, and James Brown appear in 1568 
and 1569 in the disputes with Miles Ince. 
In 1581 William Brown made complaint 
as to Charles Bank, Miles Gerard, and 
Lawrence Wood regarding lands called 
Foxholes, &c. ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), 
iii, 92, 107. 

William Brown died 13 May I5961eav- 
ing a son and heir Roger, then about six- 
teen years of age ; he had held two mes- 
suages and various lands in Ince of Miles 
Gerard, by a rent of 41. 6d. and sixteen 
messuages in Wigan ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Cheg.), i, 157. 

Roger Brown, in 1597, alleged that 
Miles Gerard was withholding suit ; Du- 
catut Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 350. He 
died 2 Jan. 1619-20, seised of the paternal 
lands, and leaving as heir his son William, 
aged seventeen ; there was a younger 
son Ralph, as appears by a feoffment made 
in 1611 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 202. He had lived 
' roguing about London,' in Bishop Bridge- 
man's opinion ; Bridgeman, Wigan Cb. 

40 William Brown died in 1626, for his 
uncle Ralph, brother of Roger Brown, 
tendered his relief on succeeding ; he was 
buried at Wigan ii Mar. 1626-7, anc ' 
succeeded by his son ; Bridgeman, op. cit. 
250. The 'heirs of Ralph Brown' are 
mentioned in the Wigan rental of 1627 ; 
ibid. 310. 

41 Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), iii, 568} 
Gregson, Fragments, 176. 

48 Mascy of Rixton D. ; a subsidy roll. 

48 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 241. 

In 1546 was a fine between Nicholar 
Pennington (or Pinnington) of Wigan and 
John Pennington of Ince, respecting pro- 
perty in the latter place ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 12, m. 167. In 1559 
John Pennington was again deforciant { 
ibid. bdle. 21, m. 134. In 1600 Gilbert 
Bank sued Robert and Nicholas Penning- 
ton concerning a cottage and lands called 
Emme Fields ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), 
iii, 412. 


about 1696." In 1717 John Clarkson and Richard 
Richardson, as * papists,' registered estates here. 44 

Ambrewood inclosure award may be seen at 

The Established Church has two places of worship 
in the township ; Christ Church, consecrated in 
1864, the district assigned being the whole town- 
ship j 46 and St. Mary's, Lower Ince, consecrated 
I887- 47 The patronage of both is vested in Simeon's 

The Wesleyan Methodist chapel was built in 1866; 
the Primitive Methodist one in 1885. The Con- 
gregationalists also have a place of worship. 

The adherents of the ancient religion found assist- 
ance in the constancy of the families of Gerard and 
Ince. The chapel at New Hall was built in 1760 ; 
this was closed in 1818. There was a private chapel 
at Westwood House, and in 1873 the church of 
St. William was opened. Twenty years later the 
Church of the Holy Family at Platt Bridge was 
added. 48 


Hindele, 1212 ; Hindelegh, 1260 (common) ; 
Hindeley, 1292. 

Hindley lies in the centre of the great Lancashire 
coalfield, and consists of a level-surfaced country 
dotted over with collieries and black pit-banks. 
A close network of tramways and railways covers 
the face of a singularly dreary stretch of country, 
where the pastures are scanty and blackened. Fre- 
quent pools of water lie between the collieries, in- 
dicating subsidences of the earth caused by mining. 
What trees remain standing appear as dead stumps, 
with leafless branches reflected weirdly in the ' flashes' 
of water. In the more favoured parts of the town- 
ship, wheat, oats, and potatoes manage to find an 
existence. There is some pasturage also. The area 
is 2,610^ acres, 1 and the population in 1901 was 

The ancient road from Manchester to Wigan goes 
west-north-west through the township. The town of 
Hindley lies to the north of this road. At this point 
is a cross road leading north-eastward from Platt 
Bridge and Lowe Green to Westhoughton, having 
a branch north to Aspull. Through the town, 
adjacent to this cross road, runs a brook known here 
as the Borden. Near the eastern boundary is the 

village of Hindley Green ; from this a road leads 
south to Leigh. The London and North-Western 
Company's Manchester and Wigan Railway passes 
through the township from east to west, with stations 
at Hindley Green and Platt Bridge. The Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Company's line from Wigan to Man- 
chester also crosses the northern corner, where there 
is a station ; and the two companies' joint railway 
runs north through the western part of the township, 
being there joined by a connecting line from the 
North-Western main line. The Great Central Rail- 
way's line to Wigan crosses the western end, and has 
a station called Hindley and Platt Bridge. 

There were formerly two * burning wells ' here, one 
in Derby Lane, the other near Dog Pool, now called 
Grange Brook. 2 

The great business is coal-mining ; there is also an 
iron foundry, and cotton manufacturing is carried on 
extensively. The first factory is said to have been 
erected near the end of the i8th century by Richard 
Battersby at Lowe mill, formerly a water corn-mill. 
A little later hand-loom weaving was one of the chief 
industries, each cottage having a weaving shop at- 
tached. 3 

The Local Government Act of 1 8 5 8 was adopted 
by the township in l867. 4 Under the Act of 1894 
an urban district council of fifteen members has been 
constituted. New council offices were opened in 

A fair is held on the first Thursday in August. 

A sundial, dated 1699, formerly stood at Castle 
Hill. 5 

HINDLET was no doubt one of the 
M4NOR fifteen berewicks of the royal manor of 
Newton before the Conquest. 6 After the 
Conquest it continued to form part of the fee of 
Makerfield, 7 and in 1212 one part was held in thegn- 
age, in conjunction with Ashton, by Thomas de Burn- 
hull. 8 The remainder was held by local families. 

Swain son of Leofwin held the Burnhull share, 
and gave it to a certain Gospatric in free marriage ; 
in 1 2 1 2 Roger the son of Gospatric held this portion 
of Thomas de Burnhull. Two oxgangs were at the 
same time held by Adam de Hindley 'of ancient 
feoffment,' i.e. by a title going back to the time of 
Henry I at least. Another half plough-land was held 
by Richard de Hindley, son of Robert ; portions of 
this had been given to the Hospitallers and to Cocker- 
sand Abbey. Some portion was perhaps still held in 
demesne. 9 

44 Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. i, 
209-14. He states that the Browns 
had the Cockersand lands. 

45 Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 125, 152. 

46 Bridgeman, Wigan Ch. 787 ; a dis- 
trict had been assigned in 1862 ; Land. 
Gax. 4 Nov. 

47 Bridgeman, loc. cit. 

48 Liverpool Catb. Ann. 1901. 

1 2,612, including 30 of inland water; 
Census Rep. of 1901. 

2 Leyland, Hindley, 7. Baines quotes 
an account from the Life of Lord Guild- 
ford, of a visit to the burning well in 
1676 ; Lanes, (ed. 1836), iii, 555. 

8 Leyland, op. cit. 96, 104. An inter- 
esting account is given, pp. 105-8, of the 
former customs of the place ; the pace- 
eggers and their drama, the Eastertide 
lifting, maypole on the green, rush-bear- 
ing, &c. 

4 Land. Gax. 2 July 1867. 

8 Land, and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 165. 

6 V.C.H. Lanes, i, 286. The ancient 
assessment appears to have been a plough- 
land or a plough-land and a half. 

7 See e.g. Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), 
i, 138; ii, 99; ibid. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 105. 

8 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 74. He had half a 
plough-land in Hindley. 

9 Ibid. 75. The Hospitallers' holding 
is named in the Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. 
Com.), 375 ; see also Lanes, and Cbes. 
Hist, and Gen. Notes, i, 35. In the 
rental of their lands compiled about 1540, 
the following particulars are given : John 
Atherton, a messuage, it. 4</., and a close 
2s. $d. ; Robert Lee, a messuage, 6d. ; 
Jonathan (?) Bate for Crockholcs, 6d. ; 
Peter Langton, a messuage, 6d. ; Gilbert 


Hindley, a messuage, 6d. ; 6s. in all ; 
Kuerden MSS. v, fol. 84. John Leigh of 
Westhoughton in 1619 held lands for- 
merly belonging to the Hospitallers by a 
rent of 6d. ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 133. 

The Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
642-51, contains particulars of the grants 
made to this abbey. Robert de Hindley 
gave 6 acres, partly in Twiss Car by Lanu- 
lache and partly by Aspenhead, with pas- 
ture for as many animals as the man 
might have who held the land from the 
canons ; he also gave an acre on the 
northern side of Bickershaw. Richard 
his son confirmed these charters, and gave 
further parcels in Berlets-housted and 
Osbern meadow, and a third with his 
body. Adam de Hindley also was a 
benefactor, 10 acres and a messuage on 
the north of Stony street, 4 at Ferny- 



The mesne lordship of the Burnhulls appears to 
have been surrendered, and the lords of Makerfield 
had the various Hindley families as immediate tenants. 
It appears, however, down to 1330, and the Pember- 
ton holding was part of it. 10 Gospatric's immediate 
successors seem to have been the Waleys or Walsh 
family. 11 

The two oxgangs of Adam de Hindley may 
have been joined to that half plough-land or to 
the half plough-land of Richard de Hindley to 
form the moiety of the manor held by a family bear- 
ing the local name. Gilbert de Culcheth was over- 
lord of this in 1300. In November 1302 Adam 
de Hindley complained that a number of per- 
sons had joined in disseising him of a free tenement 

in Hindley, a messuage with an acre of land, and an 
acre of meadow, which he had had from one Adam 
de Plumpton, who had purchased from Hugh de 
Hindley. Gilbert de Culcheth replied as chief lord ; 
he had taken possession fearing that the feoffment 
made by Adam de Plumpton was contrary to the 
statute. 1 * Some settlement was made, and the claim 
was not prosecuted. 

This moiety was divided into four parts, the descent 
of which can be traced for some time. 13 

In 1308 half of the manor was claimed by Robert 
son of Fulk Banastre. 13a This was afterwards re- 
covered by Robert de Langton, baron of Aewton, 
from Jordan de Worsley, 14 and about 1330 the lord- 
ship of the whole manor, together with lands in it, 

halgh, and a land called Crokeland, 
one head of which lay towards Platt and 
the other towards Thuresclough, and 
another portion bounded in part by the 
Lanulache. These grants conveyed the 
usual easements, including quittance of 
pannage for pigs in Hindley Wood. Go- 
dith daughter of Adam de Hindley gave 
Tunkercroft by Glazebrook, lying north 
of the Hospitallers' land. Robert Ban- 
astre gave land in Fernyhalgh, and Robert 
his son confirmed the preceding and other 
gifts to the abbey. Thurstan Banastre 
gave all his portion of the water called 
Glazebrook from Marefalford to the ditch 
of Henry the Hosteller of Hindley. In 
1501 the heirs of Thomas Turton (6d.) 
and Gilbert Langton (6</.) held these 
lands ; Cockersand Rental (Chet. Soc.), 4. 

10 Katherine wife of Hugh de Venables, 
as widow of Peter de Burnhull, in 1331 
claimed dower in two-thirds of an eighth 
part of the manor of Hindley ; De Banco 
R. 284, m. 119; 287, m. 185 d. Peter's 
sisters and heirs, then minors, were called 
to warrant ; ibid. R. 286, m. 170. Wil- 
liam son of Adam de Pemberton was the 

11 Gospatric also had a grant of land in 
Lathom, supposed to be represented by 
the Cross Hall estates, of which in the 
1 3th century the tenants were named 
Waleys (i.e. Welsh). In Hindley Richard 
le Waleys and Eleanor his wife held lands, 
of which a portion was given in arms to 
Cockersand Abbey ; Cockersand Chart, ii, 

"Assize R. 418, m. 3, 13. The de- 
fendants were : John de Langton and 
Alice his wife, as chief lords of the fee ; 
Gilbert de Culcheth and Gilbert his son, 
as lords of Hindley ; Henry de Atherton; 
Richard de Molyneux of Crosby and 
Beatrice his wife ; Alan de Windle ; 
Robert son of Fulk Banastre ; Adam de 
Bradshagh ; Adam de Urmston and Isa- 
bel his wife ; Robert Bulgut ; Henry son 
of Roger de Ince ; Hugh de Hindley ; 
John son of Henry le Suur of Hindley ; 
and Richard son of William Hert. 

18 Some tenants occur in the last note. 

In 1306 and 1307 Beatrice widow of 
Hugh de Hindley claimed dower from 
Hugh son of Roger de Ashton and others. 
Hugh de Ashton called to warrant him 
Adam son of Hugh de Hindley ; Adam de 
Bradshagh and Margaret his wife also 
called Adam de Hindley and John de 
Broadash ; Thomas son of John son of 
Maud called William son of Simon de 
Warrington and Emma his wife ; John 
Gillibrand called Hugh and Gilbert sons 
of Richard de Culcheth ; De Banco R. 
1 6 1, m. 132 ; 164, m. 212. Henry de 
Atherton and Beatrice his wife in 1330 

claimed 25 acres in Aspull, Hindley, and 
Ince from Cecily the widow and Robert 
the son of Robert de Hindley ; but it 
appeared that Beatrice while sole had 
demised them to Cecily, and the latter's 
title was therefore admitted ; Assize R. 
1411, m. 12 d. 

In the following year Henry de Ather- 
ton the elder and Beatrice his wife did 
not prosecute a claim for lands in Aspull 
and Hindley ; Henry de Atherton the 
younger was one of his sureties ; Assize 
R. i44 m - 1 8. Their sons were Henry, 
William, John, and Thomas ; De Banco 
R. 297, m. 103. 

The younger Henry married Agnes 
daughter and heir of Thomas son and heir 
of Richard de Molyneux of Crosby and 
Beatrice his wife; Assize R. 1411, m. 
I2d. ; Final Cone, ii, 1 8. Henry and 
Agnes were concerned in numerous actions 
as to tenements in Hindley ; among others 
was a claim in 1345 by Beatrice widow of 
Richard de Molyneux to her dower in one- 
eighth part of the manor of Hindley ; De 
Banco R. 344, m. 442. The latest case 
in which they are mentioned is in 1356; 
Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 5, m. lod. 
Agnes daughter of Henry de Atherton of 
Hindley, after a divorce between herself 
and Adam son of John Dickson, released 
her right to lands in Wigan in 1347 ; 
Towneley MS. GG, no. 2568. 

In 1358 Beatrice daughter and heir of 
Henry de Atherton, and then wife of 
Thomas de Wight, claimed from Richard 
de Atherton and others a messuage and 
lands in Hindley. The defence was a 
grant by Henry de Atherton to Richard ; 
see Hindley D. no. 25, 26, in Local Glean. 
Lanes, and Ches. ii, 150. Beatrice alleged 
that this had been merely in the nature of 
a trust, she being then under age. Her 
claim, however, was rejected ; Assize R. 
638, m. 3d. Beatrice was soon left a 
widow ; Dtp. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 
338 ; and afterwards married Thomas 
Hert ; De Banco R. 462, m. 199 d. In 
1460 a bond of 100 was given at Wigan 
by John son of Richard Hert to Charles 
Hert, who purchased the Hert estate in 
Hindley and Westleigh ; Ellis son of 
Charles sold in 1500-1 to Thurstan 
Southworth ; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), 
iv, 166-71. Margaret wife of Richard 
Tothill and Alice wife of William Edge 
were in 1519 the heirs of their father John 
Hert, described as son of Richard son of 
John on of William Hert ; Pal. of Lane. 
Plea R. 128, m. 14 d. 

The share of the manor derived from 
the Molyneux family was by Thomas 
Hert in 1390-1 released to William de 
Charnock of Charnock, Richard and Henry 
Blundell of Little Crosby, other heirs of 


Richard and Beatrice de Molyneux ; 
Blundell of Crosby D. K. 282. In 1517 
the feoffees of Nicholas Blundell released 
to him their interest in the eighth part of 
the manor ; ibid. K.. 179. Henry Char- 
nock was in 1535 found to have held a 
messuage and lands in Hindley of Sir 
Thomas Langton by fealty only ; while 
in 1573 a moiety of (the eighth part of) 
the manor was claimed for Thomas Char- 
nock ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. viii, no. 
28 ; xiii, no. 5. In 1346 Robert de 
Nevill of Hornby demanded a messuage 
and land in Ashton in Makerfield from 
John son of Henry de Atherton of Hind- 
ley, in right of his wife Joan daughter of 
Henry son of Hugh de Atherton and heir 
of the latter ; De Banco R. 346, m. 349. 
It is probable that her inheritance was a 
portion of the estate in this neighbourhood 
held by the Harringtons of Wolfage in the 
i6th century; Hindley in the partition 
was allotted to the Standishes ; Norris D. 

The Athertons of Atherton held lands 
in Hindley under the Hospitallers; Lanes. 
Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 107. See also 
the Inq. p.m. of George Atherton in 1535; 
v, no. 12. His son John is named in the 
list of their tenants already given. A 
decree as to Kidd land in Hindley was 
made in Elizabeth's time between Stand- 
ish and Atherton ; Lanes, and Cbes. Recs. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 253. 

The Lathoms of Wolfall in Huyton 
held their lands under the Culcheths by a 
rent of id. ; Inq. p.m. ix, no. 10 ; the 
Gerards of Ince under the Langtons of 
Lowe by the rent of 3.1. id. ; ibid, vii, no. 
27. John Urmston in 1508 was found 
to have held his lands of Gilbert Langton 
of Lowe by fealty and a rent of zs. "jd. ; 
ibid, iii, no. 30. 

Hugh Hindley of Aspull was in 1531 
found to hold his lands in Hindley of 
Thomas Langton by a rent of iod. ; 
ibid, vi, no. 22. In this case the mesne 
lord may have been overlooked. 

Ua Harl. MS. 2042, fol. 60 ; quoting 
De Banco R. 167. In 1303 this Robert 
Banastre alienated an oxgang and a half 
to Jordan son of Richard de Worsley ; 
Final Cone, i, 202. John son of Robert 
de Langton and Alice his wife put in 
their claim as chief lords of Makerfield. 

14 In 1316 and later years Robert son 
of John de Langton and Alice Banastre 
claimed from Jordan de Worsley two 
parts of the moiety of the manor of 
Hindley which Robert Banastre, great- 
grandfather of the claimant, granted to 
Fulk Banastre and his issue, and which 
after the death of Robert son of Fulk 
Banastre without issue should revert to 
him. Jordan at first pleaded that the 


LANGTON. Argent 
three cheverom gulei. 

was granted to Robert de Langton, a younger son ot 
the Robert just named, from whom descended the 
Langtons of LOfFE in Hindley, 15 the last of the line 
being Edward Langton, who 
died in 1733. The descent 
is stated in cross-suits by Peter 
Langton and Ellen widow of 
John Langton in 1444. The 
former said that Henry son of 
Adam de Manchester, chap- 
lain, holding (as trustee) the 
manor of Hindley, granted it 
to Robert de Langton and 
Margaret his wife and their 
heirs. 16 In virtue of this 
their son and heir Robert 

succeeded them, and was followed by his son John, 
who married Amice daughter of Roger de Brad- 
shagh of Westleigh. John lived to a great age, 
dying in July 1443 ; his son Gilbert died before him, 
leaving as heir his son, the above-named Peter ; 
John's second wife Ellen was the other party to the 
suits. 17 Peter Langton died at sea in May 1450, 
leaving a son and heir Gilbert, seven years of age. 18 

In 1528 there was a dispute between Robert Lang- 
ton of the Lowe and others as to the title to waste 
lands and the right to dig coal. The plaintiff, son of 
Gilbert Langton, asserted that he was sole lord and 
owner of the manor of Hindley, and he had built 
some cottages on the waste, assigning to each a plot 
of ground ; this was on account of ' the increase and 

multiplying of the people in those parts,' and 
sufficient pasture had been left for the other free 
tenants. Gilbert Culcheth, however, held a manor 
described as ' half the manor,' and a dwelling called 
Hindley Hall ; and Hugh Hindley of Aspull, whose 
ancestors had from time immemorial been seised of nine 
messuages and 80 acres in this moiety of the manor, 
took the law into his own hand, disregarded the in- 
closure, and dug and got coal and turf as accustomed, 
and this 'with strong hand, by the aid of certain his 
masters, gentlemen.' It appeared that about 1475 
permission to get coal had been asked by ' old Hugh 
Hindley's wife,' and had been granted by Gilbert 
Langton, then chief lord of Hindley. Inclosures 
being then a general grievance, the Chancellor of the 
Duchy and his council ordered seven of the cottages 
to be pulled down and various parcels of land to be 
restored to the common, from thenceforth ' not to be 
kept in severally by any pretending to be lords of the 
said waste.' Others they allowed to stand. The 
tenants were to have the right to take turf and dig 
coals, which, ' within late years,' had been found on 
the waste ; but to prevent abuses Robert Langton 
and his heirs were to nominate three charter-holding 
tenants and Gilbert Culcheth one, to ' appoint the 
places where coal and turbary should be digged and 
taken for fuel ' of the general body of tenants. 19 

Peter Langton at his death in January 15723 held 
the manor of Hindley of the heirs of Thomas 
Langton of Makerfield in socage by fealty only. 20 
The heir was his son Robert, then twenty-six years of 

grant to Fulk had been in fee and not to 
his issue, but seems to have withdrawn, 
and the case went against him by de- 
fault; De Banco R. 216, m. 56 ; 257, m. 
72d.; 264, m. 264. In 1319 there was 
also a claim for the third part of the moiety 
against Adam de Bradshagh and Isabel his 
wife, widow of Fulk Banastre ; De Banco 
R. 229, m. 129. 

Jordan de Worsley left a daughter and 
heir Margaret, who married Thurstan de 
Tyldesley, and they at Michaelmas 1352 
claimed the manor of Hindley against 
Sir Robert de Langton. The jury, how- 
ever, did not allow it ; Duchy of Lane. 
Assize R. 2, m. 2 d. 

Edward Tyldesley of Morleys in 1621 
held his lands in Hindley of Philip Lang- 
ton ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes. 
and Ches.), ii, 260. 

15 Lanes. Inq .p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 95. 
There is a difficulty in having a younger 
Robert de Langton so early as 1330, but 
the pleadings seem to require it. It 
should be noticed that Robert de Lang- 
ton, the husband of Margaret, is usually 
identified with the baron of Newton ; see 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 98, and 
Vint, of 1533 (Chet. Soc.), 24, 25. 

16 Final Cone, ii, 194. The whole 
grant comprised a third part of the manor 
of Langton in Leicestershire, a messuage 
and plough-land in Hendon, a messuage 
and 38 J acres in Walton le Dale, the 
manor of Hindley, and half the manor of 

A number of Hindley deeds are among 
the additional charters in the B.M. in- 
cluding : 

No. 17670. Grant by Robert son of 
Sir John de Langton to Henry de Milne- 
gate, chaplain, of the manor of Hindley ; 


No. 17674. Grant by Robert de Lang- 
ton to Henry (son of Adam) de Man- 

chester, chaplain, of the manor of Hindley 
and half the manor of Golborne ; 1334. 

No. 17683. Quitclaim by Ralph son 
and heir of Sir John de Langton to 
Robert son of Sir Robert de Langton of 
the manors of Hindley, Langton, and 
Hendon ; 1361. 

No. 17687. Quitclaim by Henry son 
and heir of Ralph de Langton to John son 
and heir of Robert de Langton, junior, of 
the manor of Hindley, &c. ; 1395. 

No. 17690. Refeoffment to John de 
Langton of Hindley and Agnes his wife 
of tenements in Hindley; 1419. 

No. 17694. Settlement by John de 
Langton of Hindley in favour of his wife 
Ellen de Radcliffe ; 1429. 

No. 17698. Grant in tail by Peter de 
Langton, chaplain, to John de Langton 
his brother ; 1432. 

No. 17699. Grant to William son of 
John de Langton ; 1433. 

V Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 6, m. 1 5, 1 6. 
In the former of these suits Peter claimed 
from Ellen a box of charters, containing 
among others the final concord and 
marriage covenant referred to' and an 
exemplification of the said fine granted 
by Richard II in 1391 at the request of 
John de Langton. In the second Ellen 
claimed damages from Peter Langton, 
Robert Gerard, and many others, for 
trespass on her close at Hindley and 
destruction of her corn and grass. Ellen 
claimed a life interest in the manor by 
grant from her late husband ; but as she 
did not appear when summoned judge- 
ment was given for the accused. 

In a later case William son of John 
Langton is mentioned ; ibid. R. 8, m. i, 


The inquisition taken after the death 
of John Langton in 1443 confirms the 
statements in the text ; Peter the grand- 
son and heir was then twenty-four years 


of age. It recites a grant made in 141 3 by 
the deceased to Gilbert his son and his 
wife Elizabeth daughter of Sir Thomas 
Gerard, who afterwards married William 
Gernet. The manor was held of Henry 
Langton, lord of Makerfield, but by what 
service the jury were ignorant ; it was 
worth, including the Hollinhey, 10 a 
year ; Towneley MS. DD, no. 1471. 

18 Early Chan. Proc. 22-137, and 
26-611 ; petitions by William Langton, 
to whom his ' cousin ' Peter had be- 
queathed Gilbert's wardship. 

19 Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 160-71. The hall was tenanted 
by James Strangeways, and came to be 
known as Strangeways Hall. 

The Gilbert Langton, father of Robert, 
had a brother Thomas, to whom in 1485 
certain tenements in Hindley were granted 
for his life ; Agecroft D. no. 348. By an 
indenture of the same date Robert son 
and heir of Gilbert Langton of the Lowe 
confirmed a grant by Ralph Langley, 
warden of Manchester, to Peter Langton, 
son of the said Gilbert, for life ; B.M. 
Add. Chart. 17707. 

Gilbert Langton of Lowe, ' squyer,' 
was one of the gentry of the hundred in 
1512. Robert his son and heir apparent 
occurs in 1505 ; Towneley MS. GG, no. 
1534. In 1512 Gilbert Langton made a 
grant of certain lands in Hindley to 
Robert his son and heir apparent ; B.M. 
Add. Chart, no. 17715. In Aug. and 
Sept 1555 Sir Thomas Hesketh of 
Ruffbrd and others made grants of lands 
in Hindley to Gilbert son of Peter Lang- 
ton of Hindley, deceased ; ibid. 17719-20. 

20 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xii, no. 14. 
Peter Langton was in possession of the 
manor in 1549, when he made an ex- 
change of lands with Gilbert Culcheth ; 
Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. ii, i. It is 
with him that the recorded pedigree begins. 


age. The tenure is stated * as in free socage, by a 
rent of three pepper-corns ' in the inquisition after 
the death (1595) of Robert Langton, who was 
succeeded by his son Philip, then aged twenty-six. 21 
Robert Langton of the Lowe, a justice of the peace 
but of 'mean living,' was in 1590 reported to be 
' well affected in religion ' ; he had spoiled his estate 
and used ' bad company.' M At the same time 
Edward Langton of Hindley, one of the ' gentlemen 
of the better sort,' and perhaps a brother of Robert, 
was a ' recusant and thereof indicted.' 23 The head 
of the family, however, soon reverted to the ancient 
religion/ 33 and Abraham Langton, son and heir of 
Philip, in 1628, as a convicted recusant, paid double 
to the subsidy. 24 

This Abraham Langton, as a ' papist delinquent,' 
had his estates sold for treason by the Parliament in 
1652 ; 25 but appears to have recovered at least a 
portion of them. He was living, sixty-six years of 
age, in 1664, when he recorded a pedigree at the 
Visitation." 3 His son Philip, then aged thirty-six, 
succeeded him, and was tried in 1694 for participa- 


tion in the Lancashire Plot. 26 Very shortly after- 
wards he was succeeded by his son Edward Langton, 27 
who as a 'papist' registered his estate in 1717." 
Edward died without issue in 1733, leaving his pro- 
perty to Catherine his wife for life and to nephews 
and nieces named Pugh. Wil- 
liam Pugh had Hindley, and 
his nephew and heir, Edward 
Philip Pugh of Coetmor in 
Carnarvonshire, sold the manor 
of Hindley and the Lowe 
Hall estate to the Duke of 
Bridgewater, the Earl of 
Ellesmere being the present 



The Culcheth moiety of 
the manor descended to Tho- 
mas Culcheth, who died about 
1744 ; by his will it passed 
to the Traffords of Croston. 30 

Among the other early families of the place may 
be named Nightegale, 31 Barker/ 2 and Harper. 33 

EGERTON, Earl of 
Ellesmere. Argent a 
lion rampant gules be- 
tween three pheons sable. 

21 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvi, no. 
12. Philip Langton and Mary his wife 
were deforciants of tenements in Hindley 
in 1597 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
jS, m. 324 ; and of the manor and 
estate in 1612-13 ; ibid. bdle. 81, m. 52. 

22 Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 244, quoting 
S.P. Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4. 

23 Gibson, op. cit. 246. 

233 In 1607 lands of Philip Langton, 
recusant, were farmed out to Sir Arthur 
Aston ; Pat. 5 Jas. I, pt. 22, 25 July. 

He died at Lowe 22 Jan. 1625-6 ; the 
manor was held of Sir Richard Fleet- 
wood and the heir was Abraham Langton 
son of Philip, then aged twenty-nine 
years and more ; Local Glean. Lanes, and 
Ches. ii, 2. The heir's Christian name 
was derived from his mother's surname, 
she being one of the coheirs of Thomas 
Abram or Abraham of Abram. 

Norris D. (B.M.). Elizabeth his 
wife occurs in the Recusant Roll of 1641 ; 
Tram. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiv, 239. 
Abraham Langton in 1631 paid 10 as a 
composition on declining knighthood ; 
Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 

28 Index of Royalists (Index Soc.), 43. 
He afterwards petitioned to be allowed 
to compound ; and on the petition of 
' divers well-affected persons," his tenants, 
he was informed that it was 'just and 
reasonable' to request him to allow his 
tenants liberty of pre-emption or a 
renewal of their leases at the ancient 
rents. Later, in Dec. 1653, Major John 
Wildman, who had contracted to purchase, 
received an order to take possession ; 
Royalist Camp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), iv, 56-9. 

25a Dugdale, Vitit. (Chet. Soc.), 174. 

36 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 
303, &c.; on p. 362 is an account of his 
arrest at Wepre in Flintshire, where he 
was attending the burial of his sister-in- 
law ; he had married a daughter of Ed- 
ward Pennant of Bagillt. In Jan. 
1688-9 he broke an innkeeper's head 
with his cane, for proposing the health of 
the Earl of Derby a sufficient indication 
of his politics ; see the amusing anecdote 
on p. 214. He had been indicted for re- 
cusancy in 1678 ; ibid. 109. 

87 In Aug. 1687 a fine was made 
concerning the manor of Hindley, seventy 

messuages, a water-mill, dovecote, gardens, 
lands, wood, furze and heath, turbary, 
moor and moss and 801. rent in Hind- 
ley and Westleigh ; the deforciants were 
Philip Langton and Elizabeth his wife, 
Edward Langton son and heir of Philip 
and {Catherine his wife, and George 
Langton ; George Pennant was one of 
the plaintiffs ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 219, m. 64. 

28 Engl. Catb. Nonjurors, 123. The 
value of the estate was ^69 is. 20". For 
a mortgage by him see Local Glean. Lanes, 
and Ches. i, 272. Edward Langton of 
Lowe in 1728 granted to John Rigby of 
Hindley a messuage and land there ; B.M. 
Add. Chart. 17733. 

89 Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1870), ii, 191 ; 
from information ' supplied by Mr. 
William Langton.' In Piccope's MS. 
Pedigrees in the Chet. Lib. (ii, 234) it is 
stated that Edward Langton's sister Eliza- 
beth married Pugh; their son William is 
described as ' of Lowe, jeweller.' Their 
other children were Philip Pugh of 
Pemerhyn or Penwryn, Carnarvonshire 
(whose son Edward was the vendor), 
Joseph, Winifred, Anne, and Frances. The 
references are to Piccope MSS. (Chet. 
Lib.), iii, 178, 234, 254, 258, 270, from 
the Roman Catholic D. enrolled at Pres- 

In Aug. 1758, by fine, Edward 
Philip Pugh and Mary his wife remitted 
to William Carghey messuages and lands 
in Hindley ; the manor is not named ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 361, m. 

80 Cal. Exch. of Pleas, Lanes. C. 301, 
where the will of Thomas Culcheth is 
given. In 1771 Humphrey and John 
Trafford were vouchees of the manor of 
Croston and various other lordships, in- 
cluding a fourth part of the manor of 
Hindley, with the hall known as Hind- 
ley Hall or Strangeways Hall ; Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 613, m. 10; also at 
Aug. Assizes, 1797, R. n. 

In 1364 Gilbert de Culcheth, a minor, 
by his guardian John de Blackburn, de- 
manded against Cecily, widow of Gilbert 
de Culcheth the elder, messuages and 
land in Hindley which the elder Gilbert 
gave to Gilbert his son and Joan his wife, 
and which should now descend to the 
plaintiff as son and heir. Cecily claimed 

the manor of Hindley and all its demesne 
lands for life by a charter from her late 
husband and a quitclaim from his son, 
plaintiff's father; dated 1354; De Banco 
R. 418, m. 227. 

John Culcheth, who died at the begin- 
ning of the reign of Charles I, held ' the 
manor of Hindley ' ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. xxix, no. 67. For a decree as to 
Strangeways Hall at this time see Lanes, 
and Cbes. Recs. ii, 244. 

81 A number of suits are on record 
brought in 1292 by John Nightegale and 
Alice his wife against Hugh de Hindley, 
Adam son of Hugh de Hindley, Robert 
son of Adam de Hindley, and others. 
Alice was the widow of Adam de le 
Woodhouses. John had a son Henry. 
The surname is spelt in many ways 
Nutegal, Nithingale, Nichtegale, Nithe- 
gale, and Nightingale ; Assize R. 408, 
m. 12, 7 d. 59 d. 58 d. 57. 

In 1330 Robert del Coran and Eva his 
wife, Jordan de Rixton and Agnes his 
wife, and Amota daughter of Robert de 
Ashton, claimed land in Hindley from 
William the Fisher by inheritance. It 
appeared that Roger son of Whinilda 
married Leukia daughter of Richard the 
Boor, seised in the time of Edward I, 
and left a daughter Agnes as heir ; Agnes 
had three daughters Eva and Agnes 
plaintiffs, and Emma, formerly wife of 
Robert de Ashton, represented by her 
daughter Amota ; De Banco R. 275, m. 
7 ; 278, m. 31 d. ; 281, m. 78 d. 

82 Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. ii, 144. 
Alice daughter of Robert Dicconson of 
Hindley married Hugh the Barker in 
1401 ; her property descended, in the reign 
of Henry VIII, to William Barker, who 
was succeeded by five daughters, Agnes, 
Margery, Ellen, Cecily, and Elizabeth, 
married respectively to John Hulme, 
James Harrison, Richard Astley, Henry 
Waterworth, and William Ainsworth. 

88 In Towneley MS. OO, are preserved 
a number of deeds regarding the lands of 
Adam the Harper of Hindley and his 
descendants. Adam's son William acquired 
lands about 1299, an< ^ was living in 1331 ; 
nos. 1465, 1470, 1449. His son John 
made a feoffment in 1334 ; no. 1466; and 
his sons John and Thomas sold their 
lands in 136410 Adam son of Richard 
son of John de Hindley ; no. 1443, 


Philip Langton of Lowe, Robert Pinnington, and 
Peter Harrison of Hindley, occur among the free- 
holders of 1600.** In 1628 Abraham Langton and 
Christopher Stananought were the freeholders contri- 
buting to the subsidy. 84 Nicholas Ranicars of Hindley 
had his estate sequestered by the Parliament in 1650 
* for delinquency in the late wars,' and was allowed to 
compound. 36 A family named Marsh resided here.* 7 

A decree concerning the boundaries between 
Hindley and Ince, and the division of the wastes, was 
made in the time of Charles I. 88 

Before the Reformation there was a chapel at Lowe 
in Hindley ; but the Langtons probably claimed it as 
private property, and then allowed it to decay , 39 

The next church in Hindley was erected in 1641 
on land given by George Green, 40 subscriptions 
being collected for the building from the inhabitants. 
It was built with the approbation of the rector of 
Wigan, then Bishop Bridgeman ; there was a chancel 
at the east end, and the Established services were 
adhered to, one of the Wigan curates officiating. 41 
The place was, as early as 1643, regarded as Puritan, 41 * 
and its first regular minister, Thomas Tonge, con- 
formed readily to the Presbyterian discipline estab- 
lished a few years later. 41 He was succeeded by 
William Williamson, 48 and he by James Bradshaw, 
ejected in 1662 for nonconformity. 44 The chapel 
seems to have remained unused for six years, and 

then a succession of curates followed ; some of the 
feoffees were Nonconformists or sympathizers, and 
thus conforming ministers had probably an uneasy 
time. 45 In 1690 a determined attempt was made to 
secure the chapel for the Dissenters, their worship 
now being tolerated, by the appointment of Thomas 
Whalley, an open Nonconformist. 46 The matter was 
finally taken into the Duchy Court ; after a long trial 
the chapel was secured for the Establishment and con- 
secrated in 1698 on All Saints' Day. 47 It was rebuilt 
in I766, 48 and with some alterations remains in use. 
It is now known as All Saints' Church. The church 
property is still in the hands of trustees, but the 
curates and vicars since 1708 have been appointed by 
the rectors of Wigan. 49 There is a mission chapel 
called St. Augustine's. 

St. Peter's, Hindley, was consecrated in 1866, the 
patronage being vested in trustees. 50 To the recent 
churches of St. Nathaniel, Platt Bridge (1905), and 
St. John the Evangelist, Hindley Green (1903), the 
Bishop of Liverpool collates. 51 

The Wesleyan Methodists acquired land in 1846, 
and built a chapel in 1851. Another chapel was 
built in 1869 in Walthew Lane, Platt Bridge." The 
United Methodist Free Church have two chapels at 
Hindley Green Brunswick Chapel, built in 1855, 
and another in I866. 53 The Primitive Methodists 
have one at Castle Hill, built in 1856, and another at 

1462 ; Trans. Hist. Sac. (new sen), iv, 
161 ; the purchaser had a son Richard, 
who in 1430 made a settlement of his 
lands ; OO, no. 1459. The ancestor of 
this branch of the Hindley family was 
perhaps the Richard son of Beatrice who 
had a grant from Robert Banastre, lord of 
Makeriield ; the rent was to be 41. a 
year ; no. 1471. 

A grant of Burghurst in Hindley by 
Hugh de Thursaker is printed in Pal. 
Note Bk. iv, 150. 

84 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 238, 243, 251. 

In the Hindley D. printed in Local 
Glean. Lanes, and Ches. ii, 167, are some 
referring to the Harrisons of Hindley ; 
Peter Harrison, living in 1637 and 1651, 
had a son and heir John, who in the 
latter year was rector of Ashton under 
Lyne, and has found a place in Diet. Nat. 

Peter Harrison, 'late solicitor to the 
County Committee,' had in 1651 joined 
the Earl of Derby, but being angry with 
him for plundering, recalled his two sons ; 
Cal. of Com. for Compounding, iv, 2955. 
These sons are called Captain Jeremiah 
and Lieutenant Nathaniel Harrison in 
1652 ; Cal, of Com. for Advancing Money, 
iii, 1445. 

Richard Wood of Hindley died 12 Jan. 
1612-13 seised of a messuage and lands 
in Hindley held of the king, as of his 
manor of Enfield by a rent of 31. 4^. ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 262. 

86 Norris D. (B.M.). Christopher Stana- 
nought was son and heir of William, 
living in 1602 ; Hindley D. no. 10. 

86 Cal. of Com. for Compounding, iv, 
2519. John Ranicars was not allowed 
to compound for a messuage and lands 
purchased from Nicholas. 

8 ? Wills of John and James Marsh, of 
1670 and 1687 respectively, are printed in 
Lanes, and Ches. Hist, and Gen. Notes, 
ii, 44, 80. See also Gillow, Bibl. Diet, 
of Engl. Cath. iv, 467-70. 

88 Lanes, and Cbes. Recs. ii, 278. 

89 It is mentioned in one of the 
Culcheth deeds dated 1517 ; as an an- 
nuity was to be paid there it must have 
been open to the people of the district ; 
Lanes, and Ches. Hist, and Gen. Notes, 

', ij. 

40 This account is derived from Canon 
Bridgeman's Wigan, 757-80, in which are 
reprinted a number of the Hindley D. 
from Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. ; John 
Leyland, Mem. of Hindley, 1873 ; the 
Kenyon MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, 
App. iv) ; Lanes, and Cbes. Hist, and 
Gen. Notes, i, 12, &c. In Leyland's 
book are given extracts from the wardens' 
accounts and many personal reminiscences. 
In the Liverpool Dioc. Gay,, for Oct. 1905 
will be found a further account, the 
object being to show that this was not a 
Puritan effort ; special stress is laid upon 
the almost perfect orientation. 

A contributor was Chisenhall Bret- 
targh, who died before 1652. In October 
that year a settlement was made of 
disputes between Alice Brettargh the 
widow and Edward son of Edward Chisen- 
hall, the former surrendering the lease of 
her house on receiving ,260. Chisenhall 
Brettargh was a captain at the defence of 
Lathom House, and otherwise took part 
in the wars on behalf of Charles I ; he was 
buried at Wigan 12 Dec. 1645, being 
described as ' Captain Chisnall Bretter de 
Hindley'; he left children: Edward, 
Jonathan (died in 1664), Frances, and 
Elizabeth. From j. P. Earwaker's MSS. 

41 Leyland, Hindley, 21, from the 
petition for consecration in 1698. The 
statement that the ' prayers of the 
Church' had been duly said from 1641 to 
1669 requires to be corrected by the re- 
membrance that at least the period 1645 
to 1668 was an exception. Part of the 
endowment was given in 1655 by John 

41a For the Cavaliers' behaviour in 
Hindley (Henden) Chapel see Ormerod, 
Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 63. 


4a Thomas Tonge was in 1646 a mem- 
ber of the fourth Presbyterian Classis ; 
Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1870), i, 227. 

48 William Williamson was minister in 
1650, 'an able, godly, and painful 
minister," the Parliamentary Commis- 
sioners described him, 'of good life and 
conversation ' ; Commonto. Cb. Surv. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 61. He 
died 9 Feb. 1656-7 ; Plund. Mins. Accts. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 181. 

44 Bridgeman, op. cit. 758-60 ; he 
afterwards ministered at Rainford Chapel. 
Another James Bradshaw had been acting 
rector of Wigan, 1643-53. 

45 Ibid. 779, 762. 

46 Bridgeman, op. cit. 763, 765-7. 

John Green in 1690 tendered a certifi- 
cate to the justices at Lancaster, so that 
the chapel might be recorded as ' a place 
appointed to dissenting Protestants for 
their religious worship ' ; but the court, 
on the opposition of the Bishop of 
Chester, refused ; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. 
xiv, App. iv, 245, 246 ; see also 270, 
where the quarrels of the Dissenters are 
noticed ; and 415. 

4 ? Bridgeman, op. cit. 769-72. In this 
document it is not called All Saints' 

48 A brief was issued in 1763 on behalf 
of the rebuilding. 

49 Bridgeman, op. cit. 602-5. See 
Lend. Gax. 2 July 1878 for the formation 
of the present chapelry. 

John Croudson, incumbent from 1789- 
1811, was also head master of Wigan 
Grammar School ; he visited the village 
one day in each week ; Leyland, op. cit. 

80 Land. Gaa. 14 May 1867, 26 Mar. 
1875, &c. See Bridgeman, op. cit. 780 ; 
Leyland, Hindley, 57, 58. 

61 Leyland, op. cit. 75-7 ; Nightingale, 
Lanes. Nonconf. iv, 13. 

52 Leyland, op. cit. 78, 79 ; Nightingale, 
op. cit. iv, 21. The chapel was practically 
unused from 1862-82. 

58 Leyland, op. cit. 79. 


Platt Bridge, built in I854. 54 The Independent 
Methodists have one at Lowe Green, built in 1867." 

The Particular Baptists built Ebenezer Chapel in 
Mill Lane in i854. 56 

The Congregationalists made a first effort in 1 794, 
but no church was formed until 1812 ; St. Paul's 
Chapel was built in 1815, meetings for worship having 
been held some years earlier in cottages. Certain 
differences between the minister, the Rev. William 
Turner, and the majority of the congregation caused 
him to resign in 1830; his friends opened a tem- 
porary building in the Bridge Croft, and built a 
church in 1838, where he officiated till l86z. 57 

The ejected Presbyterians of 1698 built another 
place of worship for themselves ; it has been continu- 
ously used, the present congregation being Unitarian 
in doctrine. 58 

Nothing is known of the permanence of the ancient 
religion during the I7th century, but mass was prob- 
ably said at Lowe Hall as opportunity was afforded. 
Dom John Placid Acton, a Benedictine, was stationed 
at this place in 1699, and died there in 1727 ; 
succeeding priests, who till 1758 resided chiefly at 
Park Hall in Charnock Richard, or at Standish Hall, 
moved the chapel to Strangeways and then to 
Hindley village; this change was made in 1789. 
From 1758 there has been a resident Benedictine 
priest in charge ; and the present church of St. 
Benedict in Market Street was built in 


Edburgham, 1212; Adburgham, 1 246, and com- 
mon ; Abraham, xvi cent. ; Abram, xviii cent. Pro- 
nounced Abbram. 

Abram is situated in the centre of a coal-mining dis- 
trict ; the surface of the country is flat except in the 
south, where it is very slightly undulating. The sur- 
roundings are characteristic of a coal-producing district, 
distinctly unpicturesque, dingy grass-fields alternating 
with collieries, pit-banks, and railway lines. Some 
fields are arable and produce crops of wheat and oats. 
There is much pasture land. Trees are in the 
minority, and stunted and blackened with smoke. 
The hawthorn hedges which divide the fields are low 
and spare. The soil is a stiff clay which holds a 
quantity of water on its surface, for besides occasional 
* flashes ' caused by mining, the fields appear to be 
slightly flooded at most seasons of the year. It is a 
district of sett-laid roads and cinder-paths. In the 
northern part of the township the geological forma- 


tion consists of the Coal Measures. At some distance 
from the southern boundary this formation dips under 
the New Red Sandstone and the intervening Per- 
mian Beds. 

The area is 1,982 acres, 1 and in 1901 the popula- 
tion numbered 6,306. Part of the western and nearly 
all of the southern boundary is formed by a brook 
running through Hindley, and called successively Eye 
Brook and Glazebrook ; by it Bamfurlong, 3 in the 
extreme west, is cut off from the main portion of the 

Abram village lies in the north-western corner, 
where the road from Wigan to Warrington by Gol- 
borne crosses the township, meeting at the village 
other roads from Ashton on the south-west, and from 
Leigh on the east. Bickershaw 3 lies by the last- 
named road, near the eastern boundary. Plank Lane 
is a hamlet in the south-eastern corner, situate on the 
road from Leigh to Newton. Dover is a hamlet on 
the south-west border. 

The London and North Western Company's railway 
from Warrington to Wigan crosses the western 
corner of the township, with a station called Bamfur- 
long ; a branch of its Wigan and Manchester line 
has a station at Plank Lane ; the Great Central Com- 
pany's Manchester and Wigan line passes north 
through the middle of the township, with two stations 
called Westleigh and Bedford, and Bickershaw and 
Abram. The Leigh branch of the Leeds and Liver- 
pool Canal passes through near the southern border. 

Coal-mining began about sixty years since. 

A local board was formed in 1880. The township 
is now governed by an urban district council of twelve 
members, elected by four wards. 

Before the Conquest, as after, ABRAM 
MANOR appears to have been a member of the 
manor and fee of Newton. 4 Henry II 
gave it to Warine son of Godfrey, and his descendants, 
assuming the local name, held it to the I7th century. 
This Warine confirmed a grant by his nephew, William 
de Occleshaw, to Cockersand Abbey, for the souls of 
King Henry and others. 5 His son Richard was a 
benefactor to the same house, granting Bernegrenes, 
on the south of Walter's Pool, with other lands and 
liberties. 6 Richard de Abram was in possession in 
1 21 2, holding the manor as 4 oxgangs by a rent of 
\s. ; a third part had been given in alms. 7 John son 
of Richard confirmed the previous grants to Cocker- 
sand and added a ridding by Glazebrook. 8 Warine 
Banastre granted an oxgang of his demesne to the 
same canons, 9 and Robert son of Robert Banastre 
gave a general confirmation about I25O. 10 

54 Leyland, op. cit. 79. 

55 Ibid. 79. 

56 Ibid. 78. 

*7 Ibid. 75-7; Nightingale, op. cit. iv,i3. 

58 Leyland, Hindley, 64-75. The chapel 
was built in 1700 by Richard Crook of 
Abram and conveyed to trustees in 1717, 
James Green of Abram being one. Owing, 
it is said, to an attempt by William Daven- 
port, minister in 1777, to carry the endow- 
ment to the Presbyterian chapel at Wigan, 
he became unpopular, was assaulted and 
finally resigned. He is said to have been 
Arian in doctrine. Unitarianism pre- 
vailed here by the end of the i8th century, 
but from the account of a disturbance in 
the chapel in 1833 it would seem that 
some Trinitarians then remained in the 
congregation. Particulars of the endow- 

ment, now considerable, on account of coal 
mining on the land, are given in the 
Report of the End. Char, of Wigan, 1899, 
pp. 90-7. 

59 Mr. Gillow in Trans. Hist. Sac. (new 
ser.), xiii, 153, 154, where it is stated 
that Bishop Matthew Gibson confirmed 
fifty-nine at Strangeways in 1784 ; there 
were 259 communicants ; Liverpool Cath. 
Ann. 1901. See further in Leyland, 
Hindley, 62, 63, for reminiscences of Dom 
Anselm Appleton, 1808-36. 

1 1,984, including 26 of inland water; 
Census of 1901. 

2 Banforthlang, 1448. 
8 Bykershagh, 1365. 

4 V.C.H. Lanes, i, 286. 

6 Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 661. 

' Ibid. 663. The first of his charters 


names ' the deep lache which was the 
boundary between Abram and Occleshaw.' 
' Lanes, Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 77. How King Henry 
came to have Abram in his hands is un- 
known. The third part in alms probably 
refers to the Occleshaw and other gifts 
recorded in the text. 

8 Cockertand Chart, ii, 664. In 1246 
John de Abram quitclaimed his right in 
200 acres of land to Peter de Burnhull ; 
Final Cone. (Rec.Soc. Lancs.and Ches.),i, 98. 

9 Cockersand Chart, ii, 660. 

10 Ibid, ii, 643. The following were 
the abbey tenants in 1501 : John Ashton, 
I2</. ; William Culcheth, I2</. ; Richard 
Atherton and Robert Bolton, in Bicker- 
shaw, each 6d. j Cockersand Rental (Chet. 
Soc.), 4. 


The family pedigree cannot 
be traced satisfactorily. 11 A 
Gilbert Abram died about 1470 
leaving two daughters as heirs ; 
Constance married Henry By- 
rom and Isabel married James 
Holt ; " and the later holdings 
of these families probably re- 
present the inheritance of the 

daughters." The manor, how- ABRAM. Azurtawn 
ever, continued in the male tplendour or, 
line 13a to Thomas Abram, who 

died in 1606, also leaving two daughters to divide the 
property. 14 The elder, Susan, married Henry Lance, 

of a Cornish family, 15 and the manor was assigned to 
her ; the younger daughter, Mary, married Philip 
Langton of the Lowe in Hindley. 16 All adhered to 
the ancient religion, and suffered accordingly under 
the persecuting laws in force. 17 In 1652, however, 
Abraham Lance, the son and heir of Henry and Susan, 
being ' conformable,' petitioned for the removal of the 
sequestration of his mother's lands, and on condition 
that he abjured his religion they were allowed to 
him. 18 It does not appear whether he actually re- 
gained possession or not, but the ruin of the family, 
several members of which fell in the Civil War fighting 
as Royalists, could not be averted. 19 

Shortly afterwards William Gerard and Anne his 

11 Adam de Abram occurs in 1246; 
Assize R. 404, m. 13 d. In 1270-1 
Robert de Abram and Robert and Adam 
his sons were defendants ; Curia Regis R. 
20 1, m. ijd. From one of these may 
descend the John son of Richard son of 
Robert de Abram mentioned in 1 342 ; 
Towneley MS. GG, no. 2670. 

Richard de Abram, probably the head of 
the family, was a juror in 1288 ; Inq. and 
Extents, i, 273. Johnson of Richa d de 
Abram was a defendant in 1301 ; Simon 
de Holland was plaintiff; Assize R. 419, 
m. 4d. ; 418, m. 2. John de Abram 
seems to have died soon after his father, 
for in 1 305 the defendants in a case con- 
cerning land were Richard son of John de 
Adburgham, Agnes widow of John, Maud 
widow of Richard (probably the grand- 
father), Henry de Huyton, William and 
Roger de Bradshagh, Simon de Holland, 
John Gillibrand, and William son of 
Roger de Ashton ; the plaintiff was 
Richard son of Adam del Lache. This 
list probably includes all or most of the 
freeholders ; Assize R. 420, m. 8. Many 
years later, in 1324-5, Richard del Lache 
claimed common of pasture from Richard 
de Abram ; Assize R. 426, m. 9. In 
1 3 24 an agreement was made between 
Adam de Kenyon and Richard de Abram 
that the latter should marry Adam's 
daughter Godith, her portion being ,40 ; 
Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 159-9$. 

William de Abram was a juror in 1387 ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 25. Soon 
afterwards there are several references to 
Gilbert de Abram, who was a juror in 
1416 ; ibid, i, 116. In 1419 a proclama- 
tion was issued forbidding armed men to 
go about to the peril of the king's peace, 
with special reference to Gilbert de Abram 
and his sons John and William, who had 
entered the lands of Richard del Lache at 
Abram ; Def>. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 17. 

John de Abram, probably the son of 
Gilbert just mentioned, appears to have 
died about the beginning of 1446, when 
the writ Diem clausit extremum was issued ; 
Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxix, App. 533. 
William de Abram, gentleman, and Joan 
daughter of John de Abram, occur in suits 
of 1445 ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 8, 
m. I, 6. 

12 In the time of Edward IV there was 
made a settlement of his estate, or part of 
it, in favour of his two daughters ; Towne- 
ley MS. CC, no. 651. It is described as 
seven messuages, 124 acres of land, &c. 
John Abram was the deforciant. Possibly 
he was the heir male ; in which case Gil- 
bert must have been dead at that time. 
In the Visitations the father's name is 
given as John. 

About 1500 James Holt with Isabel his 
wife and Constance Byrom a widow, as 

cousins and heirs of Hugh Boydell and 
daughters and heirs of Gilbert Abram 
claimed a right of toll from all who crossed 
the Mersey between Runcorn and Thel- 
wall ; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 39-41. In Ormerod's Ches. (ed. 
Helsby), i, 596, it is stated that Isabel, 
one of the sisters and co-heirs of Robert 
Boydell, was married to John Abram as 
early as 1405 ; Gilbert was the son and 
heir ; a few years later she was the wife 
of Nicholas Langton. The other sister, 
Margaret, married Hugh Reddish. See 
also op. cit. ii, 723. 

18 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 46 ; 
Thomas Holt of Grislehurst. In the in- 
quisition taken after the death of Henry 
Byrom in 1613, it was found that he had 
held lands in Abram, &c., of the lord of 
Newton, but the service was not known ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 273 ; ii, 12. 

X8a Thomas Abram seems to have been 
lord about 1500 and John Abram in 1528 5 
Duchy Plead, i, 162, 163. In 1540 Thomas 
Abram was defendant in a claim to mes- 
suages, &c., in Abram put forward by Gil- 
bert Hindley and Elizabeth his wife ; 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 163. 

14 In 1 567 Thomas Abraham, the last of 
the family, was deforciant of the manor of 
Abram, and lands in the township ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 29, m. 68 ; and 
again, in conjunction with Mary his wife, 
in 1600; ibid. bdle. 62, m. 275. The 
remainders in the former settlement are 
thus stated : To Peter brother of Thomas, 
Sir Thomas Gerard, Thomas and George, 
sons of the late Richard Abraham of 
Westleigh ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 223, 
m. 1 8. Thomas Abraham, in October 
1606, was buried at Wigan, as 'father-in- 
law to Mr. Henry Lance of Abram ' ; 
Wigan Reg. He was on the recusant list 
of 1599-1600; Gillow, Bill. Diet, of 
Engl. Catb. iv, 112. 

15 Visit, of Corn-w. (Harl. Soc.), 124. 
The story of the marriage is curious. 
'Abram of Abram, a gentleman of 100 
land in Lancashire, put his daughter 
and heir unto my lady Gerard of the 
Brynn. Sir Thomas and my lady being 
here in London, one Dwelles, a fencer 
near Cecil house, and his wife, by indirect 
means being of kin to the girl did in- 
vite all my lady's children and gentle- 
women unto a breakfast. They came 
thither, and at their coming the youths 
and serving men were carried up to the 
fence school. My lady's daughters and 
gentlewomen must needs play at the cards, 
will they nill they. The girl Abram, by 
the wife of the house, was conveyed into 
a chamber and shut the door after her and 
there left her. The girl found in the 
chamber four or five tall men. She knew 


them not. And immediately the girl fell 
into a great fear, seeing them to compass 
her about. Then began an " old priest " 
to read upon a book. His words she 
understood not, saving these words: "I 
Henry take thee Susan to my wedded 
wife," etc. This done they charged the 
wench never to discover this to anybody 
living ; and so sent her down to her 
fellows. And dinner being done the 
wench told to her fellows very lamentably 
what had been done ; and they over to 
Sir Thomas and my lady.' The date of 
this deposition is 1583. Quoted in Ley- 
land's .Abram from Ellis's Original Letters 
(Ser. i), ii, 292. 

16 By an indenture of 10 Dec. 1598 
the estate was secured to Mary wife of 
Thomas Abram for life, with reversion 
to Henry Lance and Susan his wife, eldest 
daughter of Thomas Abram, and their 
heirs ; in default, to Philip Langton and 
Mary his wife, younger daughterof Thomas 
Abram ; Leyland, op. cit. 1 1. Mary 
Abram gave 90 to the school at Hindley. 

17 An informer gave evidence that Abra- 
ham Lance and Abraham Langton so 
named from their mother's family were 
' present at a meeting of some of the 
leading Catholics of the county, held at 
the house of Widow Knowles in Ashton 
the day before Newton Fair, 30 July 1623, 
at which Sir Thomas Gerard is asserted to 
have made a treasonable speech. In 1626 
Abraham Lance, of Abram, gent, and 
Emma his wife are found in the recusant 
rolls' ; Gillow, op. cit. iv, 112. 

In 1628 Henry Lance the father, as a 
convicted recusant, paid double to the 
subsidy ; Norris D. (B.M.). He was 
buried at Wigan, 7 Jan. 1629-30. 

18 Cal. Com. for Compounding, iv, 2967 ; 
Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), iv, 55. No reason is assigned 
except the recusancy of the petitioner's 
mother, who was buried at Wigan 9 Sept. 
1648, as 'Old Mrs. Susan Lance of Dai- 
ton.' Emma wife of Abraham Lance 
was buried at the same place 17 Mar. 

19 Abraham Lance certainly had issue, 
for a son Henry was baptized at Wigan 
in 1619, and another was buried in 
1620; Wigan Reg. Hence the Cap- 
tains Abraham and Robert Lance stated 
by Lord Castlemain to have been slain at 
Rowton Heath may have been his sons ; 
John Lance was another of the family, 
killed at Islip ; Gillow, loc. cit. A Cap- 
tain Lance was taken prisoner 6 Mar. 
1 643-4 ; Civil War Mem. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.) 125. Abraham mar- 
ried again, Elizabeth daughter of Richard 
Mascy of Rixton, and afterwards wife of 
George Mascy, being his second wife ; 
Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 194. 



wife were in possession,* and sold the manor to 
Richard Hilton/ 1 with whose daughter Abigail it 
descended to her children by her husband Thomas 
Crook. 22 

The new owner it appears was a zealous Protestant, 
and his son Richard Crook was the builder of the Non- 
conformist chapel at Hindley, after the existing one 
had been recovered by the Bishop of Chester. 23 
Richard died without issue in November 1 727, and the 
inheritance, which, besides Abram, included lands in 
Walton le Dale and elsewhere in the county, 24 passed 
to his five sisters as co-heirs. 25 The manor of Abram 
seems to have been the portion of the second sister, 
Anne, who married John Darbyshire of Warrington, 
and her only child, Abigail, married Thomas Clay- 
ton, M.D., of Little Harwood. 16 Their grandson, 

Thomas Clayton, in 1785 sold the manor to Peter 
Arrowsmith of Astley, who in 1828 sold it to John 
Whitley, and his son Henry Jackson Whitley, of Big- 
gleswade, succeeded. 27 His son, Mr. John Henry 
Arthur Whitley, of Bourton, Salop, is the present 
owner ; but no manorial rights are claimed. 28 

The portion called OCCLESHAW, as has been seen, 
was granted to Cockersand Abbey, 29 and was occupied 
by the Urmston family ; 30 after the Dissolution it 
came into the possession of the Earl of Derby. 31 The 
Occleshaw family long continued to hold an estate in 
the township ; 32 this eventually passed into the hands 
of Abigail Crook, and became part of her Abram es- 
tate. 33 

BAMFURLONG was the possession of the Ashton 
family for a long period 34 ; it then passed to a junior 

90 In 1649 Abraham Lance appointed 
William Gerard of Garswood, son and heir 
apparent of Sir William Gerard of Brynn, 
receiver for behoof of Abraham Lance and 
his wife and their heirs, with remainder 
to the use of the said William Gerard ; a 
bond, signed by William Gerard in 1667, 
mentions that Abraham Lance had died 
about seven years before without male 
issue. See J. Leyland's Abram, 12, for 
fuller abstracts of these and other deeds. 

Fines relating to the above are Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdles. 146, m. in ; 180, 
m. 17. 

21 On 1 6 Sept. 1667 the estate was 
conveyed to Richard Hilton of West- 
leigh, yeoman, for 1,505 ; it included 
two pews in Wigan Church ; also the fol- 
lowing fee-farm rents : ' William Leyland, 
51. ; John Anderton, p. 4^. ; late Fran- 
ces Dukinfield, I \d. ; Richard Occleshaw, 
I3</. ; James Wreast, 3*. 5</.; Thomas Hol- 
land, is. 6d. ; Roger Culcheth, zd. ; John 
Lithgoe, id.;' see Leyland, op. cit. 12, 
13. Richard Hilton died at the beginning 
of 1690. 

22 Ibid. 14. Thomas Crook is described 
as of Hoole, Lancashire. He was the 
founder of numerous charities, and left 
money ' to the preaching Protestant min- 
ister of Hindley chapel.' He expressed a 
desire to be buried with his mother (Mar- 
garet Green) and brother in Standish par- 
ish church ; Leyland, op. cit. 14, 1 18-21 ; 
also Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. i, 147. 
An accusation of coin clipping, probably 
false, was made against William Crook and 
Thomas his brother in 1684 ; Hist. MSS. 
Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 173, 175. 

23 Leyland, Hindley, 65. 

34 The will of Thomas Crook already 
quoted mentions estates at Bretherton, 
Much Hoole, Mawdesley, Walton le Dale, 
Billinge, Euxton, Ulnes Walton, Leyland, 
Farington, Alston, and Whittingham. 

Richard had an elder brother Caleb, who 
also died without issue. 

Abigail Crook, the widow, died about 
1705 ; an abstract of her will is printed in 
Local Glean, ii, 231, in which volume is 
much information as to the Crook family. 
Several documents about their properties 
are in the possession of W. Farrer. 

25 Ibid, ii, 231, 237. The eldest sister, 
Lydia, married Thomas Yates of Whit- 
church ; the second, Anne, married John 
Darbyshire of Warrington ; the third, 
Abigail, married in 1707 John Andrews 
of Bolton le Moors ; the fourth, Margaret, 
married (i) John Percival of Liverpool 
and Allerton, and (2) Thomas Summers 
of Liverpool ; the fifth, Isabel, married (i) 
Danvers, and (2) Rev. Thomas Heysof 

36 In 1734 all the heirs joined in a 
lease of the manor of Abram, viz. Tho- 
mas Yates and Lydia his wife, Thomas 
Clayton and Abigail his wife, John An- 
drews and Abigail his wife, Thomas Sum- 
mers and Margaret his wife, Thomas 
Heys and Isabel his wife. There is an 
account of the Clayton family in Abram's 
Blackburn, 556-61. 

a ' Leyland, Abram, 15, 1 6. 

28 Information of Mr. Whitley and 
Mr. William Valiant of Newton. 

39 ' The whole land of Occleshaw ' was 
granted by William de Occleshaw to the 
canons of Cockersand about the end of 
the 1 2th century. The bounds are thus 
given : 'From where Deep lache runs 
down from Bageley head, by the lache to 
Glazebrook, up this brook and Occleshaw 
brook, to Rushy lache and so to Bicker- 
shaw, then up the lache to the Slavi-lache, 
by this to within Bageley wood Eves, and 
so to Deep lache ;' Cockersand Chart, ii, 
660, 664. William de Occleshaw is 
called William Gillibrand in the confirm- 
ing charter ; and John Gillibrand had the 
land as the canons' tenant in 1268 at a 
rent of izd. ; ibid. 643, 66 1. Other Oc- 
cleshaws occur in Hindley and Aspull. 
The spelling of the Cbartulary is Aculue- 
saue or Aculuesahe ; in 1292, Okeleshawe. 

80 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p. m. iii, no. 30 ; 
John Urmston of Westleigh, 1507. 

81 Lana. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), ii, 433 ; Richard Urmston, 1624. 
The rent payable was i zd., as paid by John 

82 In 1292 William del Platt unsuccess- 
fully claimed right of way beyond the 
lands of Thomas and Roger de Occleshaw 
in Abram ; Assize R. 408, m. 65 d. The 
same William demanded lands in Abram 
and Ince from William Gillibrand, Mar- 
gery his wife, and others in 1305 ; it was 
agreed that he should receive a rent of $d. 
for them ; Assize R. 420, m. 3 d. A fine 
between Beatrice daughter of Thomas 
de Occleshaw and her father in 1303 set- 
tled a messuage and lands upon her ; Final 
Cone, i, 200. Richard Gillibrand and 
Cicely his wife ; Roger Gillibrand ; and 
Margery and Lucy, daughters of Adam 
son of William Gillibrand, occur in vari- 
ous suits of 1365 ; De Banco R. 419, m. 
192, io8d. ; 420, m. 17. 

John Occleshaw of Abram, gentleman, 
was a trustee in 1531 ; Add. MS. 32105, 
no. 912. Thomas Occleshaw in 1568 
held four messuages, &c. in Abram ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 30, m. HI. In 
1600 John Occleshaw was a freeholder 
and Henry Occleshaw in 1628 ; Misc. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 240 ; 
Norris D. (B.M.). 

88 A mortgage by Richard Occleshaw 
and Thomas his son in 1698 seems to 
have prepared the way to a sale, the re- 
lease being granted 3 Apr. 1700 ; the 
purchase money was 590. In 1713-14 
an indenture was made between Thomas 
Occleshaw and Elizabeth his wife, and 
Thomas son of Thomas and the repre- 
sentative of Abigail Crook. From ab- 
stract of title in possession of W. Farrer. 

84 It is possible that this was the oxgang 
of land held by Alan de Burton in 1212, 
rendering yearly i zd. in fee-farm ; Lanes. 
Inq. and Extents, i, 77. 

William son of John de Ashton was a 
defendant in 1305 ; Assize R. 420, m. 8. 

Amota daughter of Robert de Ashton 
by his wife Emma was with Robert del 
Coran and Eva his wife and Jordan de 
Rixton and Agnes his wife a plaintiff in 
1329 respectingjlands in Abram; De Banco 
R. 278, m. 31 d. ; 281, m. 76. Another 
suit of the series is recorded under Hind- 
ley ; the defendant in the Abram cases is 
called William de Ashton instead of 
William the Fisher. William de Ashton 
contributed to the subsidy of 1332 ; Exch. 
Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 13. 
Richard de Ashton of Abram attested a 
Newton charter in 1373 ; Raines MSS. 
(Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, 146. Richard de 
Ashton of Abram in 1388 granted to his 
son Roger and another lands in Sankey 
and Penketh acquired from Margaret 
widow of Simon de Langtree ; ibid. 87. 

The name occurs in 1445 in a complaint 
by Katherine the widow and Gilbert the 
son of William de Ashton, as executors, 
against Richard de Ashton of Abram and 
others, respecting the seizure of cows and 
other property ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 8, 
m. 6. In the following year there were 
cross-suits between Katherine the widow 
and Oliver, Gilbert, and James the sons 
of William de Ashton, and Richard, also 
son of William de Ashton of Abram, 
Hindley, and Ince ; ibid. R. 9, m. 1 3^, 14, 
146. In 1448 William son of Richard 
de Ashton of Bamfurlong was charged 
with breaking into Sir John de Byron's 
close at Atherton ; ibid. R. 12, m. 6. 

In 1478 a marriage was agreed upon 
between Oliver son and heir of Thurstan 
Anderton and Margaret daughter of 
John Ashton of Bamfurlong ; Duchy Plead. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 92, 97. 

John Ashton, about fourteen years of 
age and in ward to Roger Anderton of 
Bickershaw, being son and heir of Gilbert 
Ashton, in 1552 made complaint that 
various servants of Sir Thomas Gerard 
had prevented his viewing Bamfurlong 
Hall and its lands, Sir Thomas apparently 
asserting that a Richard Ashton was the 



branch of the Gerards, described as ' of Brindle ' 3i ; and 
probably by sale to the later Gerards of Ince, and has 
descended with the Westwood property. 86 

Nothing definite can be stated about the descent of 
BICKERSH4W, formerly called a manor. 17 In the 1 6th 
century it was owned by the Holcrofts, and sold by 
them to Richard Ashton in I599-' 8 Ralph Ashton 
about thirty years later sold it to Frances widow of 
Robert Dukinfield of Dukinfield near Stockport.* 9 
It descended in this family until 1760, when it was 
sold to Richard Clayton of Adlington ; and it was 
again sold in 1790 to Edward Ackers of Newton, 
surgeon. The trustees of Abraham Ackers, who died 
in 1864, are the owners ; it is leased to the Abram 
Coal Company. 40 

A branch of the Culcheths were long seated in 
Abram. 41 The inquisition taken after the death of 
John Culcheth in 1586 shows that he had held lands 
in Abram of Thomas Abram by a rent of I d., and in 

Hindley of John Culcheth of Culcheth by a rent of 6d. a 
A pedigree was recorded in i664, 43 but the family 
afterwards migrated to War- 
wickshire, and in 1750 sold 
the property. 44 

Adam Bolton, 44 John Occle- 
shaw, John South worth, Roger 
Culcheth, Cecily Ashton, and 
Nicholas Huyton, were the 
landowners contributing to a 
subsidy collected about 1556. 46 
The Corless, 47 Lithgoe, 48 and 
Leyland 49 families were long 
resident here. 

A plot of land in Park Lane, 
known as the Morris Dancers' 
ground, is popularly supposed to be held by them on 
condition that a morris dance be celebrated there 
once in twenty years.* 

an eagle sable preying up- 
on a child swaddled gules. 

true heir; ibid, iii, 124, 125. At the 
same time John Ashton and Richard his 
son alleged their title to Bamfurlong 
against Richard, Cecily, and Anne Ashton, 
Roger Anderton, Gilbert Lee, Gilbert 
Houghton, and Ralph Anderton ; Ducatus 
Lane. (Rec. Com.), ii, 1 14. 

John Ashton of Bamfurlong, senior, and 
his son and heir were in 1590 among the 
'comers to church but no communicants'; 
Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 246, quoting S.P. 
Dom.Eliz.ccxxxv, 4. Ini 598 as an avowed 
recusant he was called upon to pay 10 
for ' her Majesty's service in Ireland ' ; 
ibid. 262, from S.P. Dom. Eliz. cclxvi, 80. 

John Ashton, claiming by inheritance 
from Richard Ashton, deceased, demanded 
in 1 594 an estate in Bamfurlong, &c., from 
Adam Hawarden, Margaret Ashton, and 
Lawrence Bispham ; Duchy Plead, iii, 293. 
In that year Richard Ashton of Bamfurlong 
had died holding nothing, as the inquest 
found, and leaving a son Richard who was 
but sixteen in 1609 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 130. At 
the Visitation in 1613 (Chet. Soc. 17) 
Richard was said to be twenty years of 
age ; his father Richard was son of John 
Ashton of Bamfurlong. John Ashton had 
died in 1603, being buried on 30 July at 
Wigan ; Reg. Richard Ashton, being a 
convicted recusant, paid double to the sub- 
sidy in 1628 ; Norris D.(B.M.). 

85 This family recorded a pedigree in 
1664, in which they are already described 
as 'of Bamfurlong'; Dugdale, Visit. 
(Chet. Soc.), 1 1 8. It is not clear how 
they obtained possession. In 1684 John 
Ashton called for an inquiry as to the 
title of Henry Gerard, son of Henry 
Gerard, a solicitor, deceased, to the 
hall of Bamfurlong, a water corn-mill, and 
various lands, formerly the property of 
Richard Ashton and his daughter Mary, 
deceased ; Exch. Depot. (Rec. Soc.), 65. 
There is a charge of ' dishonest contri- 
vances' against the elder Henry. 

86 See Gillow, Bill. Diet, of Engl. Cath. 
ii, 43 1 ; Leyland, Abram, 1 8, 19. From 
the latter it seems that Henry Gerard the 
son in 1681 married Cecily West, who 
in 1717 (now Cecily Howett) as ' a papist ' 
registered an annuity of 80 derived from 
her first husband ; Engl. Catb. Nonjurors, 
128. Henry's brother Ralph, a priest, 
served the domestic chapel at Bamfurlong. 

87 Sir Thomas Holcroft held Bickershaw 
manor of James Browne by a rent of 6J. 
in 1558 ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. x, no. 
13. There was a large amount of dis- 

puting about it at the time, as will be 
seen by a reference to the Ducatus Lane. 
(Rec. Com.), i, 145, 150; ii, 56, 194. 
Hugh Bradshaw and Constance his wife 
were in possession in 1535, but Thomas 
Holcroft's title was allowed. 

88 William Holcroft and Elizabeth his 
wife were vendors ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 61, m. 139. 

89 It was purchased from Edward Bolton 
in 1671, according to the statement in 
Leyland's A bram, 20 ; but was acquired by 
Frances Dukinfield in 1633 or 1634 from 
Ralph Ashton and Katherine his wife ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 124, m. 18. 

The later succession is described in 
Leyland, 21-8. See also Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 362, m. 129. 

40 Leyland, op. cit. 23, 24 ; and infor- 
mation of the secretary to the company. 
Nothing of the old house remains. 

41 Some deeds concerning the family have 
been preserved by Towneley, Add. MS. 
32105, no. 906-23. The other informa- 
tion is given in the Culcheth papers publish- 
ed in Lanes, and Ches. Hist, and Gen. Notes. 

In 1392 John son of Thomas de Cul- 
cheth had lands in Abram and Hindley ; 
his son Roger had married Ellen daughter 
of Henry son of Robert de Blackrod ; Add. 
MS. 32105, no. 915. 

William Culshaw in 1531 arranged for 
the marriage of Roger, his son and heir, 
with Janet daughter of John Richardson ; 
his own wife was named Margery ; ibid. 
no. 911, 912,919. The lands in Hindley 
were called Occleshull and Taleor, and in 
Abram, Longfield. 

42 Ibid. no. 909. The holding in Abram 
was two messuages, two tofts, two gardens, 
two orchards, 40 acres of land, 20 acres 
of meadow, and 20 acres of pasture. 
Roger Culcheth was his son and heir, and 
six years of age. 

48 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 92. 
Roger Culcheth was still living, aged eighty- 
four; his son George recorded the pedigree. 
His two eldest sons had been slain at 
Newbury, and a younger son in Wirral in 
the Civil Wars ; Thomas, the third son, 
aged forty-four, was the heir. 

44 See Lanes, and Ches. Hist, and Gen. 
Notes, ii, 228, for a continuation of the 
pedigree by Mr. J. P. Rylands. Roger 
Culcheth of Wottenbury in Warwick- 
shire, by his will of 1701, left his estate 
in the parish of Wigan to his brother 
Thomas of Studley in Warwickshire, 
tanner; ibid. p. 120. This Thomas left 
a son William, who seems to have been the 


last of the family connected with Abram; 
ibid, i, 275, 276. See also Payne's Engl. 
Cath. Rec. 26. Part of their land is now 
the property of the trustees of Abigail 
Crook's charities. 

Roger Culcheth of Abram, as a ' papist,' 
registered his estate in 1717, the value 
was 64 151. 4</. ; Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 
124. The name of the family had 
constantly appeared on the Recusant Rolls ; 
Gillow's Bibl. Diet. Engl. Cath. i, 608. 

45 Adam, son and heir-apparent of 
Robert Bolton, was a surety for William 
Culcheth in 1531 ; Add. MS. 32105, no. 
912. The father and son were engaged 
in numerous disputes as to their property, 
called Blackfields, Mossheys, Lower House, 
New Earth, etc. ; see Ducatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), i, 1 66, &c. It appears that Robert 
Bolton died in 1552 or 1553 ; his wife's 
name was Elizabeth Holden. Another 
Robert Bolton is mentioned in 1583 (ibid, 
iii, 149), and the inquisition after the 
death of Edward Bolton in 158713 in Duchy 
of Lane. Inq. p.m. xv, no. 48. The tenure 
is not recorded ; Edward's heir was his son 
William, twenty-three years of age. 

William Bolton was a freeholder in 
1600 and Edward Bolton in 1628 ; Misc. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 239 ; 
Norris D. (B.M). This is perhaps the 
Edward Bolton who sold Bickershaw Hall 
in 1671. Deeds relating to Bolton House 
in Abram and other properties of the family 
are printed in Lanes, and Ches. Hist, and 
Gen. Notes, ii, 39, 47. 

46 Mascy of Rixton D. 

47 Richard Corless as a landowner con- 
tributed to the subsidy of 1628 ; Norris D. 

48 Nicholas Huyton of Blackrod in 1528 
held lands in Abram of the heirs of John 
Abram by a rent of 51. ; Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. vi, no. 53. In 1628 John Lith- 
goe contributed to the subsidy 'for Huy- 
ton's lands ' ; Norris D. (B.M.). 

49 William Leyland was a trustee in 
1626 ; Add. MS. 32105, no. 906. Their 
connexion with the township ceased about 
1 780; but John Leyland of Cheetham 
House (afterwards called the Grange) in 
Hindley represented them down to his 
death in 1883 ; his accounts of Hindley 
and Abram, published in 1873 and 1881,. 
have been used in these notes. A grant 
of arms was made to him in 1863 ; Lanes, 
and Cbes. Hist, and Gen. Notes, iii, 34. 

50 Leyland, op. cit. 1 14 ; the custom 
was observed in 1880. Mr. William Vali- 
ant informs us that this is still kept up. 



The church of St. John was erected in 1838 for the 
accommodation of members of the Established Church. 41 
The rector of Wigan is patron of this, but trustees 
present to the new church of St. James and St. Eliza- 
beth, Bickershaw 

A Congregational chapel was built in 1897. 

A school was founded at Lowe in 1632 by Mrs. 
Mary Abram. 42 


Hage, 1193 ; Hagh, 1298, and common, with 
Haghe ; Ha, Haw, xvi cent. ; also Haigh. 

This township forms the north-eastern corner of 
the parish. On the west it is bounded by the Doug- 
las, and on the north a small brook running into the 
Douglas divides it from Blackrod. The ground rises 
towards the east and north, and the village of Haigh, 
near the middle of the Aspull boundary and z\ miles 
north-east of Wigan, is one of its highest points, 
about 5 20 ft. above sea level. The Hall is on the 
slope of the hill to the west of the village. The 
area is 2,135^ acres. 1 The population in 1901 was 

Roads lead from the village, north to Blackrod, west to 
Standish, and south to Wigan and Aspull. The London 
and North Western and Lancashire and Yorkshire Com- 
panies' joint railway passes through the township on the 
western side, where it is joined by a short connecting 
line from the Wigan and Preston Railway ; there is 
a station called Red Rock. The Lancaster Canal 
also winds through the western part of the township, 
near the Douglas. 

The woods and grounds of Haigh Hall, occupying 
500 acres, clothe the south-western slopes with 
pleasant scenery in contrast with the surrounding 
collieries of a black country. It is a common sight 
to see the gaunt and black coal-shafts rising from 

the midst of corn fields and plantations. For Haigh 
has its agriculture, as well as mining and manufacturing 
industries, wheat, oats, and potatoes being grown in 
spite of an exposed situation and smoke from 
neighbouring factories &c., the soil being clay upon 
a shaley rock. The Hall itself commands a fine 
panorama of the district around Wigan. Haigh has 
long been celebrated for its cannel coal ; 3 this is 
almost exhausted, but coal-mining is the great indus- 
try of the place. There are also a brewery, and 
dyeing and bleaching works. 

The township is governed by a parish council. 

William Roby, 1766 to 1830, a Congregational 
divine of note, was a native of Haigh. 4 

The early history of the manor of 
MANOR HAIGH cannot be traced. About 
12201230 it belonged to the Marsey 
fee, sold to Ranulf, Earl of Chester. 4 A Hugh de 
Haigh, most probably Hugh le Norreys, to whom the 
adjacent Blackrod was granted, paid 3 marks in 
11934 for having the king's good will. 6 Richard 
de Orrell granted to Cockersand Abbey land in 
Haigh, adjacent to Hugh's ridding, about I22O; 7 
and as a century later Sir Robert de Holland held 
it of the Earl of Lancaster, 8 together with other 
manors which had belonged to Richard de Orrell, 
it might be supposed that Haigh was part of the 
Orrell family's holding. 9 In 1282, however, Hugh 
son of Alan le Norreys was lord of Haigh. 10 

In 1298 William son of Richard de Bradshagh 
and Mabel his wife were in possession of the manors 
of Haigh and Blackrod, 11 which were Mabel's right 
as heir of the last-named Hugh le Norreys. Her 
husband from his name is supposed to have been a 
descendant of the Bradshaghs of Bradshaw, near 

In 1302 William de Bradshagh held the twelfth 
part of a knight's fee in Haigh of the Earl of 
Lancaster ; " ten years later the title of William and 

81 Leyland, Abram, 29-35. The tenures 
of the second and third of the incumbents 
appear to have been shortened by their 
parishioners' objection to what was called 
' ritualism.' The district chapelry was 
formed in 1843 ; Land. Gats. I Aug. and 
3 Oct. 1843. 

53 Gastrell, Notitia, ii, 256. 

1 2,130 acres, including 68 acres of 
inland water ; Census Rep. of 1901. 

2 Including Willoughby's. 

8 See the account by Roger North in 
1676, quoted in Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), 
from the Life of Lord GuildfirJ, iii, 554 j 
see also Baines, Lanes. Dir. 1825, ii, 613. 
There is a notice of a cannel mine being 
on fire in 1737 in Lanes, and Ches. Hist, 
and Gen. Notes, iii, 106. 

4 Diet. Nat. Biog. 

6 Ormerod, Cbes. (ed. Helsby), i, 37, 
from the Duchy Coucher. The Marsey 
fee is only imperfectly described in the 
survey of 1212. 

6 Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 78 ; after the 
rebellion of John, Count of Mortain, 
afterwards king. If Hugh le Norreys be 
rightly identified with Hugh de Haigh it 
may indicate that he had been settled in 
Haigh before Blackrod was granted to him; 
Lanes. Inq. and Extent* (Rec Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 68, where he is called Hugh 
de Blackrod. 

7 Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
612. The boundaries began at 'the road 
to the church,' and went up to the head 

of Green syke, and so to Hugh's ridding, 
and by the dyke to the starting point. 

8 Inq. 1 1 Ed w. II, no. 4, quoted 
below. Haigh and Blackrod were both 
held of Sir Robert. 

After Robert de Holland's forfeiture it 
was found that he had held the manor by 
a rent of lod. ; Roll of Foreign Rent 
of Derbyshire in Duchy of Lane. Ren- 
tals, 379. In an account of his lands 
made about 1326 it is stated that his 
manor of Haigh had been leased to Henry 
de Atherton and Adam de Bradshaw for 
20 a year ; Duchy of Lane. Misc. 

In the Feodary compiled in 1324 it is 
stated that Robert de Holland held the 
manor of Haigh by the service of io</. 
as the fourth part of a knight's fee ; Dods. 
MSS. cxxxi, fol. 36^. In all other 
inquisitions the twelfth, not the fourth, 
part of a fee is recorded. The lod. rent 
continued down to the I7th century. 

9 See the account of Orrell. 

It is more likely that Robert de Hol- 
land had had the grant of a mesne manor 
from Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and that 
it was not restored to him by Edward III. 

10 So described he attested a Haydock 
charter of Robert de Holland's in that 
year ; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, 
231. From the account of Blackrod it 
will be found that the descent was as 
follows : Hugh le Norreys (1191-1221) 
s. Hugh (1233) bro. Alan s. 


Hugh dau. Mabel. Hugh son of Alan 
had a brother Henry, &c. 

Emma la Norreys held messuages and 
lands in Haigh in 1290; De Banco R. 
86, m. 95. 

11 Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 185 ; a surrender to William 
de Atherton. It is recorded that Thomas 
de Osbaldeston put in his claim. Kuerden 
(MSS. ii, fol. 213, no. 5) has preserved a 
grant of the manor by William de Ather- 
ton to William de Bradshagh, about that 
time or earlier. 

In 1295 William and Mabel de Brad- 
shagh had a contest with Adam de Walton, 
rector of Wigan, the latter charging them 
with having diverted the water-course 
between Haigh and Standish to the injury 
of his mills. They replied that they had 
only erected a mill by the Douglas, two 
leagues from Adam's mill. The jury 
found that the new mill had been made 
by William's father, Richard de Bradshagh, 
while he was guardian of William and 
Mabel, and that it had been to the loss 
of the rector's mill; Assize R. 1306, m. 
19; 1321, m. 7d. 

Brief and unsatisfactory abstracts of 
some Bradshaw deeds are printed in 
Croston's edition of Baines, Lanes, iv, 
291, 292. There are others in Kuerden 
MSS. loc. cit. 

12 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 313; Feud. 
Aids,m,%i. The mesne lordship of Robert 
de Holland is not recognized here or later. 


Mabel was assured by a fine. 13 For his share in 
Adam Banastre's rebellion in 1315 and the death of 
Henry de Bury, 14 Sir William de Bradshagh was 
outlawed for felony and by 1317 his manors of Haigh 
and Blackrod had been taken into the king's hands 
and demised to Peter de Limesey, but Mabel de 
Haigh intruded herself. 15 Sir William was living in 
I328, 16 and appears to have been killed at Winwick 
in August i333- ir 

Mabel's title to the Norreys lands must have been 
recognized, for in 1336 and 1337, when a widow 
and childless, she arranged for the succession to the 
manors as absolute owner, granting them to her 
husband's nephews ; Haigh to William, a son of John 
de Bradshagh, and Blackrod to Roger son of Richard, 
who was another son. 18 In 1338 she founded a 
chantry in Wigan Church for her husband's soul and 
her own, as also for the soul of Edward II. 19 In 
1346 Mabel de Bradshagh, heir of Hugh le Norreys, 
held the manor of Haigh for the twelfth part of a 
knight's fee and by the service of lod. yearly. 20 She 
was living two years later.* 1 

Early in 1365 Roger de Bradshagh of Westleigh 
demanded the manor of Haigh from William de 
Bradshagh and Sir Henry de Trafford, in virtue of 
the settlement of 1312." There may have been two 

Williams in succession, for William de Bradshagh, 
who died in 1380 seised of the manor of Haigh, left 
a son and heir Thomas only twelve years of age. 23 
Thomas de Bradshagh took part in the Percy rising 
of 1403 and was present at the battle of Shrewsbury ; 
afterwards he received a pardon from Henry IV. 24 
He was living in 14.2$. 

His son and heir was James Bradshagh, 26 who, with 
many others, was accused of the death of John 
Tailor ; he appears to have been released from 
attendance at the trial, but died in the summer of 
1442 before it came to an end. 27 He had held lands 
in Wigan called Rudgatehurst of the rector, and the 
manor of Haigh of the king, as Duke of Lancaster, for 
the twelfth part of a knight's fee and by the service 
of ioJ. yearly. His son and heir was William 
Bradshagh, aged twenty-three. 28 

William Bradshagh was accuser and accused in 
various pleas of the next succeeding years." He had 
several children, but the manor descended to his son 
James, 30 who died in May 1491, leaving as heir his 
son Roger, then twenty-three years of age and more. 
There were also two younger sons, Ralph and William, 
and a daughter Constance. 31 Roger, who was made 
a knight, had no children, and died in December 
1537, the heir being his brother Ralph, then about 

18 Final Cone, ii, 9. The remainder 
was to 'the heirs of William,' which 
occasioned a lawsuit later. Also Kuer- 
den, loc. cit. no. 3. 

14 Coram Rege R. 254, m. 52. 

15 Inq. a.q.d. II Edw. II, no. 4. The 
inquiry was made at Haigh in June 1318, 
when the manors had been in the king's 
hands a year and a day. It may be added 
that in 1319 Mabel asserted that her 
husband was dead ; Assize R. 424, m. 

These facts are utilized in the well- 
known legend of Sir William and his 
wife ; see Bridgeman, Wigan Ch. 695-9 5 
also Harland and Wilkinson, Lanes. 
Legends, 45 ; Topog. and Gen. ii, 3659. 
That there is some basis for the legend 
may be gathered from entries in the 
Close R., Mabel being called wife of Peter 
de Limesey in 1318 (unless there is an 
error in the record) and ' Mabel de 
Haigh' simply in the following year ; 
Cat. Close, 1313-18, p. 554; 1318-23, 
p. 8. 

16 De Banco R. 273, m. 121 d. ; Sir 
William de Bradshagh charged Adam de 
Hindley and others with having forcibly 
carried off his goods at Haigh and Black- 

*' Coram Rege R. 297, Rex, m. 23 d. 

18 Final Cone, ii, 101, 107. The 
former of these was a grant of the manor 
of Haigh to William de Bradshagh for his 
life. The latter was a settlement of the 
succession after Mabel's death ; to Wil- 
liam son of John de Bradshagh, with 
remainders to the sons of Richard de 
Bradshagh his brother, and a further 
remainder to Henry son of Robert le 
Norreys. Alan son of Henry de Elton- 
head, another Norreys, put in his claim. 
Also Kuerden, loc. cit. nos. ii, 13. 

As Mabel de Haigh she made a grant 
of two plough-lands (probably the manor) 
in Worthington in 1318 ; Final Cone, ii, 

19 See the account of Wigan Church ; 
Kuerden, loc. cit. no. 16-21. 

20 Surv. of 1346 (Chet. Soc. 36). 
In the same year Dame Mabel accused 

William son of John de Bradshagh of 
breaking down her close and doing other 
damage ; De Banco R. 348, m. 338. 

21 The sheriff accounted for lod. 
from Mabel de Bradshagh for the manor 
of Haigh for ward of Lancaster Castle ; 
Duchy of Lane. Var. Accts. 32117, fol. 
7 b. 

22 De Banco R. 419, m. i8od. 5 425, 
m. 363 d. ; 429, m. 68. The descent 
is clearly stated ; Sir William de Brad- 
shagh died without issue, and the claim- 
ant, as son of Richard son of John de 
Bradshagh, brother of Sir William, was 
the heir entitled to the manor. For the 
Trafford feoffment see Kuerden, loc. cit. 
nos. 35-8. 

28 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 9 ; 
Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 354. 

In the aid collected in 1355 Wil- 
liam de Bradshagh contributed for the 
twelfth part of a knight's fee formerly 
held by Hugh le Norreys ; Feud. Aids, 
iii, 91. 

In 1397-8 Isabel, widow and executrix 
of William de Bradshagh, was called upon 
to account for the issues of a house at 
Haigh ; L.T.R. Mem. R. 163, m. xiii, 
167, m. x. 

24 Add. MS. 32108, nos. 1491, 1495, 

25 He was juror from 1397 to 1425 ; 
Lanes. Inq. (Chet. Soc.), i, 65 &c. In 
1399 his feoffees regranted the manor to 
him with remainder to James his son and 
heir ; Kuerden, loc. cit. no. 39. 

William de Bradshagh seems to have 
been in possession of Haigh at the time of 
Thomas's outlawry ; Duchy of Lane. 
Knts. Fees, 1/20, fol. 8i. Edward was 
there in 1429 ; Lanes. Inq, (Chet. Soc.), 

i', 35- 

26 Croston's Baines, iv, 292 ; his 
mother was Margaret, daughter of 
Robert de Highfield. It was an earlier 
Robert de Highfield who granted lands in 
Rudgatehurst to William de Bradshagh 
and Mabel his wife ; Kuerden, loc. cit. 
no. 10, 12. 

97 Lettice, widow of John Tailor, 
summoned a large number of people in 


the neighbourhood to answer for the 
death of her husband on 2 Feb. 1440-1. 
They included James Bradshagh of Haigh, 
Alice his wife, William son of James, 
Christopher on of Thomas Bradshagh, 
the wife of Gilbert (another son of 
Thomas), Ivo and Richard, sons of 
Thomas son of Ivo Bradshagh of Haigh 
or Pennington, Richard Houghton of 
Aspull, Ralph and John, sons of 
John Gidlow of Aspull, Alexander and 
Gilbert Nowell of Read, etc. ; Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 3, m. 15. James Brad- 
shagh seems to have taken part in the 
assault, but was allowed to go sine die ; 
ibid. m. 37. Two years later the trials 
concluded ; Christopher Bradshagh was 
outlawed for the felony, James had died, 
and the rest were all acquitted ; ibid. R. 
5, m. i8 ; 21, 5^. 

28 Tovrneley MS. DD, no. 1484. In 
1436-7 a dispensation was granted for 
the marriage of William Bradshagh and 
Agnes daughter of John Gerard of 
Ince ; Baines, op. cit. (ed. Croston), iv, 

29 Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 5, m. 24, 
ordered to keep the peace towards Tho- 
mas Cayley ; R. 8, m. 3, and R. 9, m. 
loA charged Christopher Bradshagh and 
others with waylaying him with intent to 
kill, but did not prosecute ; m. 12, 19^, 
37, accused of trespass and fined for 
defaults ; R. 10, m. 36^, warrant for his 
arrest. A pardon was granted in 1457-8 ; 
Baines, loc. cit. 

80 By fine in August 1477 the manor 
of Haigh with its appurtenances, as also 
a water-mill and land in Wigan, were 
settled on James son and heir of William 
Bradshagh of Haigh, whose widow Agnes 
was living, with remainders to Roger, 
Ralph, and William, sons of James 
Bradshagh and Joan his wife, daughter of 
Alexander Standish, and heirs male ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 9, m. 3. The 
covenant of marriage between James and 
Joan is dated 1463 ; Baines, loc. cit. 

81 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 
106 ; James's wife was named Joan, and 
Roger's Anne. 


sixty years of age. 31 Ralph died early in 1554, his 
heir being his brother William's son Roger, aged 
about thirty-six. 33 

Roger Bradshaw of Haigh 
died 20 February 1598-9." 
To the religious system estab- 
lished by Elizabeth he showed 
'some degree of conformity,' 
but was of 'general note of 
evil affection in religion, and 
a non-communicant.' 35 In 
temporal matters the time was 
one of prosperity for the fa- 
mily, the cannel-coal of Haigh 
being famous already, and 
bringing wealth to the lord of the manor. 86 

His son James having died before him he was 

Argent two bendleti be- 
tween three martlets sable. 


succeeded by his grandson Roger, twenty-one years 
of age in I599- 37 He also, after some wavering, 
adhered to the ancient religion, 38 but died in May 
1641, before the outbreak of the Civil War. 39 His 
grandson and heir Roger, being then only thirteen 
years of age, took no part in the war, and the estates 
escaped the sequestration and forfeiture which would 
no doubt have overtaken them under the Common- 
wealth. 40 The minority, however, involved the 
placing of the heir under a Protestant guardian ; 
he changed his religion and conformed to that 
established by law. 41 In 1679 he was made a 
baronet"; he was knight of the shire in i66o, 43 
showing himself an opponent of the Presbyterians 44 
and also of the adherents of Monmouth. 45 He died 
in 1684, and his son Roger three years later, 46 when 
the third Sir Roger Bradshaw, his son, succeeded. 4 ' 

82 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. vii, no. 
16 ; the fine of 1477 and other settle- 
ments are recited. Roger Bradshagh was 
'not at home' when the herald came 
in 1533, so that only his arms were 
recorded ; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 174. His 
will is in P.C.C. 

Sir Roger's widow Anne married 
Nicholas Butler of Rawcliffe and various 
disputes followed ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), ii, 70. She died at Hoole 
22 Aug. 1554; Duchy Plead. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 182. 

Henry Bradshagh of Halton, Bucking- 
hamshire, attorney-general of the king, 
seems to have been concerned in the 
manor ; Close, 37 Hen. VIII, pt. ii, no. 
46 ; pt. iv, no. 37. 

33 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. x, no. 41. 
William Bradshaw is named in various 
suits of the time ; Ducatus (Rec. Com.), 
ii, 32. 

84 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 
59 ; the tenure was unchanged. A 
pedigree was recorded in 1567 ; Visit. 
(Chet. Soc.), 88. 

85 Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 245, quoting 
S.P. Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4. His son 
Thomas was a serjeant-at-arms to the 
queen ; Ducatus (Rec. Com.), iii, 295. 

86 Leland, writing about 1536, noted 
that ' Mr. Bradshaw hath a place called 
Haigh a mile from Wigan. He hath 
found much cannel like sea coal in his 
ground, very profitable to him ' 5 Itin. vii, 
47. These mines led to various law 
suits ; see Ducatus (Rec. Com.), ii, 179, &c. 

In 1554 Roger Bradshaw said that 
he was owner of the demesne lands of 
the manor of Haigh, within which there 
had always been certain mines or pits of 
a kind of fuel called cannel, wherein the 
tenants within the lordship had been 
accustomed to dig and get cannel to be 
'spent and brent' in their tenements, 
for which they had paid by boons, presents, 
and averages ; Duchy Plead, iii, 182. 

8 ? James son and heir of Roger Brad- 
shaw married, in or before 1567, Jane 
the daughter and heir of Thomas Hoghton 
of Hoghton ; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 44. 

88 Richard son of Roger Bradshaw of 
Haigh was baptized at Wigan, 28 
Dec. 1601 ; Reg. 51. In 1623, on en- 
tering the English College at Rome 
under the name of Barton, he gave the 
following particulars : ' My true name is 
Richard Bradshaw. I am in my twenty- 
second year, was born in Lancashire, and 
for the most part brought up there. My 
parents are Roger Bradshaw of Haigh . . . 
and Anne his wife. The former, who had 
been brought up in the Catholic religion, 

left it in his youth ; at length, however, 
by the goodness of God, about six months 
ago, he again embraced the true faith and 
I hope will persevere in it until death. 
My mother, brought up a Catholic by her 
parents [Anderton of Lostock], has never 
professed any other religion. I have 
seven brothers and six sisters, all of whom 
are Catholics. I received some local 
schooling until my fifteenth year, when I 
gave myself up to hunting and suchlike 
youthful sports ; but by good fortune 
being sent to St. Omers College, I 
applied myself to humanity studies. I 
was always a Catholic.' He afterwards 
joined the Society of Jesus, and from 
1655 to 1660 was head of the English 
Province ; Foley, Rec. Soc. Jesus, i, 
229-32, where extracts from his letters 
are given ; vii, 78 ; Gillow, Bibl. Diet, 
of Engl. Cath. i, 287 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Thomas Bradshaw, a younger brother, 
entered the English College from St. 
Omers in 1626, and made a similar 
declaration : ' My chief relations are 
uncles and aunts, all Catholics, except 
one uncle, Alexander Bradshaw, who is 
a Protestant'; Foley, i, 228. He also 
became a Jesuit and laboured in England 
from 1650 to 1663 ; vii, 79. A third 
brother Peter, also a Jesuit, served the 
English missions from 1650 to 1675, and 
was twice rector of the Lancashire 
district ; ibid, vii, 77. Another brother, 
Edward, a Carmelite, after a term of 
imprisonment was banished, but returned 
to England and ministered at Haigh Hall ; 
he was a student of English antiquities ; 
Gillow, op. cit. i, 286. Another brother, 
Christopher, was a secular priest. Three 
of the sisters were nuns. A brother 
William was knighted by Charles I ; his 
will is printed in Lanes. Wills (Chet. Soc. 
new ser.), ii, 66. 

89 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxix, no. 
66. His eldest son James was buried 
at Wigan 7 June 1631 ; Royalist Comp. 
Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 
229, 230. 

A pedigree wat recorded in 1613 ; 
Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 57. Roger refused 
knighthood, paying in 1632 a composition 
of 20 marks ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 222. 

40 Royalist Comp. Papers, \, 228-33 ; it is 
obvious that strict inquiries were made 
by the Commonwealth authorities. There 
are numerous references to the family in 
the Cal. of Com. for Compounding. 

41 The guardianship system was a 
common and successful means of induc- 
ing such conformity. 

Dr. Wrocj warden of Manchester, who 


preached the funeral sermon, said : 
' His religion was true Protestant ; not 
that of late falsely so called, but that 
which is by law established, the religion 
of the Church of England ; in which he 
was happily educated and instructed in 
his greener years by the care and directions 
of the Right Honourable James, Earl of 
Derby, to whom he was entrusted by his 
faithful guardian, John Fleetwood of 
Penwortham, esq. ; to whose religious 
designs and the joint endeavours of his 
virtuous consort he owed the early 
impressions of piety, and in that family 
first commenced Protestant, and was 
thence sent into the Isle of Man, where 
the principles he had already imbibed 
were soon cultivated and improved under 
the umbrage of that religious, loyal and 
great man ; ' quoted in Pal. Note Bk. ii, 34. 
One of his sisters was a nun and the other 
married Thomas Culcheth of Culcheth. 

42 Burke, Extinct Baronetcies. A pedi- 
gree was recorded in 1664; Dugdale, 
Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 52. 

48 Pink and Beaven, Parl. Rep. of Lanes. 
77, 78. He was made a knight in the 
same year ; Le Neve, Knights (Harl. Soc.), 
77. He was re-elected in 1661, this 
Parliament lasting till 1678. There is a 
monument to him in Wigan Church ; 
Bridgeman, op. cit. 701, 702. 

In a fine of 1673 the estate is described 
as the manor of Haigh, sixty-four 
messuages, two water-mills, a saw-mill, 
500 acres of land &c., with views of 
frankpledge in Haigh and Wigan. The 
deforciants were Sir Roger Bradshaw, 
kt., Elizabeth his wife, and Roger Brad- 
shaw, esq. ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
191, m. 71. 

* Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 84. 
There are a number of Bradshaw letters 
in this volume. 46 Ibid. 161. 

46 The son represented the borough of 
Wigan in 1678, and the county in 1685 ; 
Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 228, 79. Like his 
father he was a Tory. He was knighted 
in 1679 5 ke Neve, Knights, 330. 

4 7 He was a member for Wigan in 
fourteen successive Parliaments from 1695 
till his death, 25 Feb. 1746-7 ; Pink and 
Beaven, op. cit. 230-3. According to 
this he was Tory down to the accession 
of George I, when he became a Whig. 
He restored the family chapel in Wigan 
Church in 1719 ; Bridgeman, op. cit. 620. 
A view of Haigh Hall as it existed in his 
time is given in Baines" Lanes. For 
recoveries of the manor in Aug. 1697, 
see Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 466 ; in 1727, 
R. 524, m. 7d. 5 in 1730, R. 533, m. 


LINDSAY, Earl of Craw- 
ford and Balcarres. Quar- 
terly, i and 4 : Gules a 
Jesse cheeky argent and 
azure for LINDSAY ; 2 and 
3 : Or a lion rampant 
gules debruised by a ribbon 
sable, for ABERNETHY. 

His son Sir Roger, the last baronet, died in 1787 
without issue, 48 the heir to the manor and estates 
being his sister Elizabeth. 49 

She married John son of Sir 
Humphrey Edwin, 50 and her 
daughter and heir, Elizabeth, 
married Charles Dalrymple of 
North Berwick, whose daugh- 
ter and heir, Elizabeth Brad- 
shaigh, 51 married Alexander 
Lindsay, sixth Earl of Bal- 
carres. He thus became lord 
of the manor of Haigh, 5 * which 
has descended regularly M with 
the title to James Ludovic 
Lindsay, Earl of Crawford and 
Balcarres, who succeeded in 
i88o. M His son, Lord Bal- 
carres, is the member of Par- 
liament for the Chorley divi- 
sion of the county. At the Hall is a valuable library, 
including a Mazarin Bible among the printed books. 66 

Apart from the Bradshaw family there do not seem 
to have been any important landowners 56 in the town- 
ship, though in 1600 Ralph Charnock was also re- 
turned as a freeholder." 

A poor man named John Rycroft was in trouble 
with the Commonwealth authorities during the Civil 
War ; he explained that he had assembled with the 
king's men on Westhoughton Common but had not 
joined them later. 68 

In connexion with the Established Church St. 
David's, Haigh, was consecrated in 1833 as a chapel 
of ease to Wigan ; a district was assigned five years 
later. The rector of Wigan is patron. 69 At New 
Springs, St. John Baptist's, an iron church, was licensed 
in 1871 ; and rebuilt in brick in 1897. 

A school was founded here about 1660 by the 
township. 60 


Aspul, 1 21 2 ; 1292 ; Hasphull, 1277 ; Haspehull, 
1292; Aspehill, 1292 ; Aspell, 1301; Asphull, 1304, 
common ; Aspull, 1356, common. Aspden and Asp- 
shaw occur in the district. 

This township, though in the parish of Wigan, is 
in the hundred of Salford. It is separated from West- 
houghton by a brook running through Borden or Bors- 
dane Wood, but has no marked physical separation 
from the other neighbouring townships, which, like 
itself, are in Wigan parish. The ground rises from 
south to north, reaching 400 ft. The area is 1,905 
acres. 1 The population in 1901 was 8,388.* 

The principal road leads north from Hindley to 
Haigh, passing through Pennington Green, which 
lies z\ miles east-north-east of Wigan Church. To 
the south-west of this lies Hindley Hall, and a 
road branches off to the north-west, going through 
New Springs to Wigan. The Lancaster Canal passes 
through the western corner of the township. 

Aspull Moor lies in the northern half of the town- 

Cannel coal was found in Aspull. There are several 
large collieries, also malt kilns and a cotton mill. Wheat, 
oats, and potatoes are grown. 

A local board was formed in 1876. This has been 
succeeded by an urban district council of nine members. 
The earliest notice of ASPULL is that 
M4NOR contained in the survey of 1 2 1 2, when, as 
one plough-land , it formed part of the Child- 
wall fee held by Richard son of Robert de Lathom, 
under the lord of Manchester. 3 Immediately after 
this lands in Aspull are found among the possessions 
of William de Notton, being described as the right of 
Cecily his wife, daughter of Edith, lady of Barton-on- 
Irwell. 4 The Lathom mesne manor was commonly 
ignored 5 ; thus, in 1302 Richard de Ince, as son and 
heir of Henry de Sefton, and Adam de Hindley, were 

48 Little seems to be known of the 
last Sir Roger, or of the male descendants 
of the previous baronets. 

49 These and the subsequent particulars 
are from the pedigree in Baines, Lanes. 
(ed. Croston), iv, 294-296. 

80 See the note in G.E.C., Complete 
Peerage, ii, 419 ; Herald and Gen. vi, 62 ; 
viii, 1 86, 187. 

"She died 10 Aug. 1816. There is 
a monument to her in Wigan Church ; 
Bridgeman, op. cit. 703. There was a re- 
covery of the manor in 1804; Aug. 
Assize, 44 Geo. Ill, R. 5. 

53 The Earl of Balcarres resided at Haigh, 
which has since remained the principal 
seat of the family. He became de jure 
23rd Earl of Crawford in 1808, but did not 
assume the title. He died in 1825, and 
was buried at Wigan ; see Diet. Nat. Biog. 

53 See G.E.C. loc. cit. James, son of 
the sixth earl by Elizabeth Dalrymple, was 
member for Wigan 1820 to 1825, and was 
created Baron Wigan of Haigh Hall in 
1826. In 1848 the House of Lords de- 
cided that he had justified his claim to the 
earldom of Crawford. He died 15 Dec. 
1869. For his younger son Colin, see 
Diet. Nat. Biog. 

The eldest son and heir, Alexander Wil- 
liam Crawford Lindsay, Earl of Crawford 
and Balcarres, author of Hist, of Christian 
Art, &c., died 13 Dec. 1880; see Diet. 
Nat. Biog. He was succeeded by his son, 
the present lord of Haigh. 

54 He was member for Wigan 1874 to 
1880, is a fellow of the Royal Society, and 
was formerly president of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society. 

68 Lanes, and Ches.Antiq. Sac. i, 59 ; iii, 

06 Robert ion of Richard de Windle 
granted to his brother Adam Haleshurst 
and Middlehurst in Haigh ; Kuerden MSS. 
ii, fol. 213, n. 22. 

*7 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 

Robert Charnock, in right of James 
Bradshaw, claimed possession of a water- 
mill, &c. in Haigh in 1581 ; Ducatus 
(Rec. Com.), iii, 109; see also iii, 435. 

Roger Bradshaw was the only landowner 
contributing to the subsidy in 1628 ; Nor- 
ris D. (B.M.). 

Other holders of land in the i6th century 
were Thomas Holt, Christopher Anderton, 
and Gilbert Sherington, probably as pur- 
chasers of land of suppressed monasteries 
and chantries. 

88 Cal. of Com. for Compounding, ii, 1093. 

89 Bridgeman, Wigan Ch. 783 ; Land. 
Can. 3 Apr. 1838. 

'"Gastrell, Notitia, ii, 251. 

1 1,906, including 23 of inland water, 
according to the Census of 1901. 

2 Including New Springs and Tor- 

8 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 54. The fee was a 
composite one of 6 j plough-lands (of which 


Aspull formed one), held chiefly by Richard 
de Lathom, and partly by Roger de Samles- 
bury and Alexander de Harwood. 

4 The evidence of Edith's holding is 
contained in grants preserved in the 
Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 695-8. 
Edith de Barton herself gave the canons 
of Cockersand a portion of land in Aspull 
in free alms ; Lonington Brook, Holelache, 
Scraplache, and Cranberry Lea, are named 
among the boundaries ; no. 6. 

William de Notton, with the assent of 
Cecily his wife, of whose dower it was, 
gave half of Hulgreave in Aspull ; and 
added a portion bounded by the Roskit 
(brook), from the ford, thence by a lache 
and oaks marked with crosses to the 
Meanway, and so back to the ford ; no. 4, 
I. Sir Gilbert de Barton, son of William 
and Cecily, confirmed these gifts, and him- 
self added the Millward's croft ; the bounds 
of this went by Mickle Brook, starting at 
the ford, to the boundaries of Richard de 
Hindley's land, and by various dykes to 
Sinerhill Leach, and so to the ford ; also 
waste near Brinshope; no. 5, 2. The land 
called Scrapps in Aspull was in 1501 held 
by Richard Houghton at a rent of zd . ; 
Cockersand Rent. (Chet. Soc.), 4. 

8 From a subsequent note it will be 
teen that the lordship of the Lathoms 
was recognized in 1290. In 1346-55 
Sir Thomas de Lathom is said to have 
held the same fee, including Aspull ; Feud. 
Aids, iii, 89. 



found to hold Aspull, as the eighth part of a knight's fee, 
directly of Thomas Grelley." From this time the lord- 
ship has been held with the adjacent Ince by the fami- 
lies of Ince and Gerard in succession ; until Aspull was 
sold to the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres,lordofHaigh. 7 

The Hindley family appear to have had a quarter of 
the manor by grant of William son of Richard son of 
Enot de Aspull. The succession can be traced from 
Adam son of Hugh de Hindley, living in izgz, 6 
until the i yth century, 9 when Roger Hindley suc- 

6 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 314. 
Richard de Ince and Robert de Hindley 
held the same in 1322 ; Mamecestre (Chet. 
Soc.), 579- 

Towneley (GG, no. 1 604), preserves an 
agreement between Henry de Sefton and 
the free tenants of Aspull, including those 
of the Hospitallers, their names being 
given. These granted to Henry as their 
lord all the land bounded by a line starting 
at Haigh on the west, going to the Quint- 
acres, Terneshaw Brook, Brinshope Bridge, 
and so to Quintacres ; also land in Fald- 
worthing shaw. Henry on his part granted 
them certain liberties. 

' See the account of Ince above. 

John son of Peter Gerard and Ellen 
his wife made a settlement of the manor 
of Aspull in 1421 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. 5, m. 12. 

Thomas Gerard, in 1473, held the lord- 
ship of Aspull of the lord of Manchester 
by a rent of So 1 , and the same sum for 
ward of the castle of Lancaster ; Mame- 
cestre, 48 1 . 

Miles Gerard, in 1558, held the manor, 
&c., of Lord La Warre in socage by a rent 
of i%d. ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xi, 
no. 12. 

Aspull descended with Ince until the 
early years of the 1 8th century, when 
Richard son of Thomas Gerard of Higli- 
field appears to have sold it to the Gerards 
of Brynn. The manor of Aspull was Sir 
William Gerard's in 1796, as appears from 
R. 12 of the Lent Assizes, 1796 (Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R.). It was sold tothe Ear! 
of Crawford and Balcarres before 1825 ; 
Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), iii, 553. 

8 A plea of 1292 gives an account of 
the acquisition. Adam de Hindley alleged 
that Robert de Lathom, Richard de Ince, 
Gilbert de Southworth, Emma hi wife, 
and others had disseised him of a messuage 
and 1 2 acres of moor and pasture in Aspull. 
Gilbert, however, claimed nothing but 
common of pasture. Robert de Lathom 
claimed lordship only. Richard de Ince, 
as tenant, asserted that Adam had no 
right beyond common of pasture, but had 
inclosed the disputed land by night, his 
fence being promptly thrown down the 
next day. 

The jury, however, found that Adam's 
title was derived from William son of 
Richard son of Enot de Aspull, who had 
delivered seisin of all his lands to Adam 
de Hindley ; that Henry de Sefton and 
Richard son of Enot had been lords of the 
waste in common, and had divided an 
approvement, Henry taking three parts and 
Richard the other part, amounting to 
7 acres ; that after they had lain unculti- 
vated Adam inclosed them, at the same 
time adding 5 acres more without the 
assent of Richard de Ince, and he and his 
man dwelt there some time ; that Richard 
ejected him vi et armis ; and that the 
7 acres should be restored to Adam, and 
the 5 remain waste at formerly ; Assize 
R. 408, m. 6. 

The Hindleys had several branches, one 
by marriage acquiring Culcheth. The 
Hindleys of Aspull continued to hold land 
in Hindley also. Hugh de Hindley, father 
of Adam, is mentioned in 1258-9 ; Ori- 
ginalia, 43 Hen. Ill, m. 3. Hugh de 

Hindley was living in 1292 ; Assize R. 
408, m. 12 ; and Beatrice widow of Hugh 
de Hindley perhaps another Hugh 
claimed dower in 1307 ; De Banco R. 
16 1, m. 132 ; Lanes, and CAes. Hist, and 
Gen. Notes, i, 27. 

Adam son of Hugh de Hindley, and 
Robert his son, were defendants in a plea 
concerning a markate of rent in Hindley 
and Ince in 1291 and 1292 ; Assize R. 
407, m. 3d.; 408, m. 7 d. This uit 
arose through a certain Adam de Wood- 
house, who gave land as dower for his 
wife Alice ; she took a second husband 
John Nightegale, and gave the land to 
Henry son of her previous husband, for 
the tent of 131. 4^. Adam de Hindley 
seems to have secured the land, and re- 
fused to pay the rent; the jury allowed 
half a mark to the claimants. 

Then Cecily, widow of Henry son of 
Adam de Woodhouse, claimed dower from 
lands in Hindley and Ince from Adam 
son of Hugh de Hindley, and Maud his 
wife ; they asserted that Henry was not 
dead, but living at Paris ; Assize R. 408, 
m. 55. Adam de Hindley occurs as plain- 
tiff or defendant in many suits ; e.g. Assize 
R. 419, m. 12 ; 421, m. id.; 1411, m. 
I2d. There was another Adam son of 
Richard de Hindley; Assize R. 1294, 
m. 9 d. 

A pedigree was recorded at the Visita- 
tion of 1613 (printed by Chet. Soc. pp. 
117, 1 1 8), in which abstracts of some 
family deeds are given. From these and 
other sources it is possible to give an out- 
line of the family history. The somewhat 
earlier pedigree printed in the Chet. Soc. 
Visit, of 1567 is from Harl. MS. 6159. 

Robert son of Adam de Hindley occurs 
in 1291, as already stated, and was in 
possession in 1322 ; Mamecestre, 379. 
He and his brothers Adam, Thomas, and 
John, seem to have taken a share in the 
rebellion of Thomas of Lancaster ; Coram 
Rege R. 254, m. 60. Robert married 
Cecily daughter of Henry de Tyldesley ; 
Visit. 117. She was a widow in 1329, when 
Henry de Atherton and Beatrice his wife 
claimed from her and Robert son of Robert 
de Hindley the fourth part of the manor of 
Aspull, and various lands in Aspull, Ince, 
and Hindley ; but it was shown that Bea- 
trice had granted them while sole ; Assize 
R. 1411, m. 12 d. From an earlier suit 
it appear* that Beatrice was a daughter 
of Adam de Hindley's ; Assize R. 420, 
m. 2 d. 

Among the Culcheth deeds is a grant 
from Adam son of Hugh de Hindley to 
his daughter Beatrice, for her life, of his 
lands in Aspull, ' Kastrelegh ' in Hindley, 
&c. ; she was to pay a rent to her brother 
John ; Lanes, and Ches. Hist, and Gen. 
Notes, i, 27. A release of lands was made 
in 1332 by Henry de Atherton to Robert 
son of Robert de Hindley; Visit. 117. 
Cecily the widow of Robert afterwards 
married Robert de Warrington ; Duchy 
of Lane. Assize R. i, m. 5 d. 

The younger Robert occurs in 1343 
and 1358 ; Assize R. 430, m. 26 ; 438, 
m. 8. He was still living in 1365, as 
appears by a suit concerning lands in Win- 
die, in which he was a plaintiff; the pedi- 
gree is there given as Robert son of Robert 


(and Cecily) son of Adam son of Hugh ; 
and it is further stated that Robert the 
father was seised of the lands in dispute 
in the time of Edward I ; De Banco R. 
421, m. 108. 

' Robert, who married Emma, a daughter 
and co-heir of Pemberton, had a son Hugh, 
as appears by a release made by Hugh son 
of Robert in 1398-9' ; Visit. 117. 

Robert son of Hugh de Hindley was 
a plaintiff in 1447 ; and at the same time 
Robert and Adam de Hindley of Aspull 
were defendants in another suit ; Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 10, m. 2, 2b. Robert 
Hindley in 1473 held a messuage and 
lands in Aspull of the lord of Manchester 
by the service of the eighth part of a 
knight's fee and a rent of i\d. ; paying a 
further 2 \d. for ward of the castle ; Mame- 
cestre, 480. This Robert Hindley and 
his son ' old Hugh Hindley ' are both men- 
tioned by aged witnesses in a dispute con- 
cerning the wastes of Hindley in 1528 ; 
Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 165. He made a lease to his son Hugh 
in 1472 ; Visit. 117. 

Hugh Hindley had a son Robert who 
married Alice daughter of William Parr, 
as appears by an entail dated 1489-90 ; 
ibid. Alice wife of Robert Hindley the 
younger and her husband, as well as Hugh 
Hindley, had numerous disputes with the 
Parr family from 1466 onwards ; Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 30, m. 10; 44, m. 6 d. ; 

There were three sons, Hugh, Gilbert, 
and Roger. Hugh Hindley's name is 
entered in a list of the gentry compiled 
about 1512 ; he died 30 Apr. 1531 hold- 
ing lands in Aspull called Greenhalf, 
Pilats croft, Kiln croft, and Rosket, of 
Thomas Gerard of Ince by the rent of 
5*. 4</. ; also Mickle croft of the heirs of 
John Aspull, by a rent of I2d. ; and six 
messuages, 100 acres of land, &c. and a 
water-mill, of Lord La Warre, by knight's 
service and the rent of 2^./. a year. He 
held other lands in Ince, Hindley, Pem- 
berton, and Parr. His son and heir was 
Robert, aged only about five years ; but 
six other sons had annuities assigned to 
them ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 
22. His wardship was assumed by Lord 
La Warre, who granted it to George 
Leigh, of Manchester, by whom it was 
sold to Peter Anderton, and by the last- 
named to Grace the widow of Hugh de 
Hindley ; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 237. 

From a suit in 1549 it appears that 
Hugh Hindley had been married, about 
1510 at Wigan, to Ellen Langton, both par- 
ties being ' within the age of consent ; ' and 
that they were in 1522 divorced by a decree 
of Richard Smith, rector of Bury, acting as 
commissary of Adam Becconsaw, rector of 
Brington and official of William Knight, 
archdeacon of Chester ; and then Hugh 
married Grace Turner, Robert, declared 
heir in 153 i, being their son. This decree 
was afterwards reversed in the Court of 
Arches, it appearing that Hugh and Ellen 
had lived together for eight years before 
the divorce was granted, and Gilbert, 
brother of Hugh, claimed the inheritance ; 
on Gilbert's death without issue Roger, 
another brother, claimed it, and the court 
gave sentence in his favour, the dispossessed 


ceeded. 10 HINDLET HALL, as the residence of the 

Hindleys was called, became the property of James, a 

younger son of Robert Dukin- 

field of Cheshire. 11 In the 

1 8th century it was acquired 

by the Leighs of Whitley Hall, 

Wigan, and Sir Robert Holt 

Leigh lived here till his death 

in 1843." His estates then 

passed for life to his cousin 

Thomas Pemberton, who took 

the name of Leigh, and made 

Hindley Hall his residence ; HINDLEY. Azure a, 

he was raised to the peerage hart lodged argent. 

as Baron Kingsdown in 1 858." 

After his death in 1867 it passed by the will of 

Sir R. H. Leigh to Mr. Roger Leigh, the present 
owner. 14 

The Knights Hospitallers held lands here from an 
early period. 15 

One of the ancient families here was that of Occleshaw. 
In 1246 Richard son of William recovered 8 acres in 
Aspull from Gilbert de Barton, Henry de Occleshaw, 
and Hugh his brother. 16 Thirty years later the prior 
of St. John of Jerusalem was claimant against John 
de Occleshaw and another ; 17 and John de Occleshaw 
and Henry his brother occur in izgi. 18 Afterwards 
Occleshaw was acquired by the Ince family. 19 

Yet another early family was that of Gidlow, whose 
residence was long known as GIDLOW HALL. In 
1291 Robert de Gidlow was a freeholder in Aspull, 20 and 
the name occurs frequently down to the i yth century, 81 

son Robert, then about twenty-four years 
of age, appearing and renouncing his title ; 
Duchy Plead, iii, 69. 

Roger's son Robert, one of the ' gentle- 
men of the better sort ' who were ' soundly 
affected in religion' in 1590 (Gibson, 
Lydiate Hall, 246), was living at the 
Visitation of 1613 (p. 1 1 8), and his will 
was proved in 1620. Roger Hindley was 
assessed to the subsidy in 1622, and refusing 

I knighthood compounded in 1631 ; Misc. 

j Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 162, 216. 

10 It appears from the Wigan Registers 
that he had several children ; his wife 
Alice died in Jan. 1624-5 > Roger Hind- 
ley himself was buried at Wigan, 1 5 Nov. 
1651. Robert son of Roger Hindley was 
baptized at Winwick in 1607. 

Margaret, a 'daughter and co-heir of 
Roger Hindley of Hindley,' is said by Dug- 
dale, Visit. (54), to have married Roger 
Bradshaw of Aspull ; it appears from the 
registers that the marriage took place in 
1596, a daughter Elizabeth was born 
in 1597, and in the following year the 
wife died. 

11 Ibid. p. too ; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. 
Helsby), iii, 817. Old Mrs. Dukinfield 
and her son James are mentioned in Roger . 
Lowe's Diary, 1663 ; Loc. Glean. Lanes, 
and Ches. i, 170, 171, 189. The mother 
left money to the chapel and school of 

12 Alexander Leigh, the grandfather, 
procured the Act of 1720 for making the 
Douglas navigable from Wigan to Preston ; 
for an anecdote of him see Hist. MSS. Com. 
Rep. xiv, App. iv, 458. Holt Leigh, the 
father, of Hindley Hall, Aspull, and Whit- 
ley Hall, Wigan, married Mary daughter 
and co-heir of Thomas Owen, of Uphol- 
land ; acquiring the manors of Orrell and 
Bi Hinge. Robert Holt Leigh was born 
at Wigan in 1762. He was educated at 
Manchester School, and Christ Church, 
Oxford, but though he passed the examina- 
tions he did not graduate till 1837. He 
was made a baronet in 1815, at the in- 
stance of Canning, and represented Wigan 
in Parliament from 1802 to 1820 ; he is 
described as ' a high Tory and firm Church- 
man, but strenuous Protestant.' He had 
a high reputation as a scholar, linguist, 
and man of culture, but ' over the latter 
years of his life it is better that a veil 
should be drawn. It is very sad to record 
folly and profligacy in the mature years of 
a life in which, otherwise, there is much 
to admire ; ' Manchester School Reg. (Chet. 
Soc.). He died at Hindley Hall, 21 Jan. 

His brother, Roger Holt Leigh, of Leeds, 
died 13 May 1831 from injuries received 
during election disturbances. 

18 Diet. Nat. Biog. } G.E.C. Complete 
Peerage, iv, 401. 

14 Burke, Landed Gentry. 

15 Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), 375. 
The rental compiled about 1540 shows 
that there were four tenements yielding a 
total rent of 41., viz. one messuage held 
by Thomas Gorsuch, 6d. ; Occleshaw, 
by Alexander Catterall, i%d. ; Whittington 
House, by John Byrom, izd. ; and a 
messuage by William Houghton, \zd. ; 
Kuerden MSS. v, fol. 84. 

16 Assize R. 404, m. 1 1 d. 

V De Banco R. 18, m. 6 ; 21, m. 26. 

18 Assize R. 1294, m. 9 d. 

19 By her charter, Cecily daughter of 
John de Occleshaw granted to her first- 
born son John all that she had received 
from her father in Aspull ; Henry de 
Occleshaw was a witness ; Add. MS. 
32104, fol. 117 (509). She is perhaps 
the same Cecily who, as wife of John de 
Worthington, in 1323-4 claimed a mes- 
suage and lands from Richard de Occleshaw 
and William son of Henry de Occleshaw ; 
Assize R. 425, m. 3 ; and, as wife of John 
de Warrington, quitclaimed to Hugh de 
Ince the land called 'Oculshagh' in Aspull, 
of which John son of William de Occle- 
shaw was once seised. Her grandson and 
heir, Thomas son of Henry son of Robert 
de Ulneswalton, in 1359 claimed it from 
Hugh de Ince ; Duchy of Lane. Assize 
R. 7, m. 2 d. 

Another Cecily, wife of Robert de War- 
rington, claimed dower here in 1351 ; 
ibid. R. I, m. v d ; 2, m. 2. 

30 Assize R. 1 294, m. 9 d. ; Henry son of 
Gunna and Roger de Swinley were other 
defendants. The Gidlows were probably 
so named from Gidlow in Wigan ; the 
name is spelt Gydelowe, Gudelowe, Good- 
law, &c. Robert de Gidlow was plaintiff 
in 1304 ; Astize R. 420, m. 2 d. 

21 Some family deeds have been preserved 
by Towneley (Add. MS. 32107, GG, no. 
1586-1619), and these and others more 
briefly by Kuerden (ii, fol. 244^), but they 
are not sufficient for a complete history. 

Henry, lord of Ince, gave lands in Ince 
to William de Gidlow, with reasonable 
entry from his land in Aspull, by follow- 
ing the Mill Brook and that part on which 
the Harleton lies to Ince boundary, ren- 
dering two white gloves ; GG, no. 1588. 
Robert de Gidlow gave the mill of Brins- 
hope ao 8.ichard de Ince ; Kuerden, loc. 
cit. vio. 27. Henry de Sefton (father of 
Richard de Ince) gave land in Ince to 
Robert son of William de Gidlow in 
exchange for some the latter had from 
Roger son of Godith ; also the greater 
hey in Aspull, the bounds mentioning 
Longshaw, Ballisdene, and the highway 


to Westhoughton ; GG, nos. 1595,1603. 
This latter was in 1294 transferred by 
Robert to his son William, except por- 
tions he had given to his daughter Ellen 
and another son Robert ; 131. a year was 
payable to Richard de Ince ; no. 1593. 

William son of Robert de Gidlow in 
1326 gave the Blackfield to his son 
Richard ; nos. 1598-9. 

Robert son of Roger de Gidlow at 
Easter 1354 claimed a messuage and 
lands in Aspull from John son of Richard 
de Gidlow, Gilbert de Ince, and William 
de Ince of Aughton ; but Gilbert de Ince 
showed that the father had held of him 
by knight's service, so that he had law- 
fully entered into possession, as guardian, 
on Roger's death ; Duchy of Lane. Assize 
R. 3, m. 3 d. 

Another John Gidlow, of the time of 
Henry VI, is the next of whom informa- 
tion is forthcoming; GG, no. 1586. Ralph 
son of John Gidlow was in 1444 con- 
tracted to marry Joan daughter of John 
and Elizabeth Parbold ; no. 1591. In 
1445 Thomas Pleasington accused John 
Gidlow and others of an assault upon him 
at Heapey, and Amice Gidlow accused 
Randle Charnock and others of waylaying 
her with intent to kill ; Pal. of Lane. 
Plea R. 8, m. i, \b ; 9, m. 6, 2. In the 
same year Ralph Gidlow was to be arrested 
for felony ; ibid. R. 7, m. i6b. In 1471-2 
the feoffees regranted to John Gidlow, 
senior, all his messuages and lands in 
Aspull, with remainders to John son of 
Ralph son of the elder John ; then to 
John, William, and Robert, brothers of 
Ralph ; GG, no. 1600. 

Ralph Gidlow of Aspull referred his 
disputes with Roger Brown to arbitration 
in 1514; no. 1529. He was murdered 
with a dagger 22 Sept. 1531 by one 
Christopher Shakerley. Thomas Gerard 
of Ince was called out of his bed by the 
constables of Aspull to view the body and 
search for the felon ; and on returning 
home with a crowd of neighbours, Cecily 
and Agnes, daughters of Ralph, desired him 
to take charge of two boxes belonging to 
their father. The complaint of Anne the 
widow followed ; Duchy Plead, ii, 25-27. 
At the inquisition after Ralph's death it 
was found that he had held lands in Lang- 
tree, Coppull, and Aspull ; the jury did 
not know what knight's service belonged 
to the last. Robert Gidlow his son and 
heir was sixteen years of age ; Duchy 
of Lane. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 12. 

In 1535 another inquisition was made 
at the petition of Robert the heir. It 
appeared that Ralph Gidlow had in 1520 
made a feoffment of the Dower house and 
others of his tenements in Aspull and Ince, 



when a short pedigree was re- 
corded." In 1 5 84 and 1586 
rights of way were investigated, 
Thomas Gidlow claiming a 
footpath from Gidlow Hall 
westward across Roger Hind- 
ley's meadows called Longer 
Hey to the highway between 

&c., for the use of Anne Shakerley, 
widow, for her life. Robert asserted 
that he was of full age, and not six- 
teen only, when the former inquisi- 
tion was taken ; also that the pre- 
mises in Aspull were held of Thomas 
Gerard of Ince and not of Lord La 
Warre. The messuage in Langtree had 
been the property of one John Perle- 
barn, whose heirs were Ralph Gidlow, 
Roger Haydock, and James Aspenall, de- 
scendants of his daughters Joan, Katherine, 
and Margaret. Joan had married a Gid- 
low (obviously the John Gidlow, senior, 
of a previous paragraph), and her son was 
Ralph father of John father of the Ralph 
Gidlow of 1531 ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. iii, no. 6. 

On Robert's coming of age Lord La 
Warre remitted all actions, &c. ; GG, 
no. 1610; and soon afterwards, in 1541, 
Robert made a settlement of his lands, the 
remainder being to Thomas his son and 
heir ; Kuerden MSS. loc. cit. no. 20. In 
15523 further settlement seems to have 
been made by Robert Gidlow and Ellen 
his wife ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
14, m. 1 06 ; and another including the 
capital messuage called Gidlow, Hindley 
House, Bank House, &c., three years 
later, perhaps on the marriage of his son 
Thomas with Elizabeth daughter of Wil- 
liam Kenyon of Pilkington ; GG, no. 
1 60 1, 1609, 1611. A release was made 
to Thomas in 1584 by John son of Wil- 
liam Kenyon; GG, no. 1606. Two 
years later Thomas Gidlow was elected 
coroner ; GG, no. 1608. He died 28 Oct. 
1606, holding various lands and the Lee 
in Aspull of Miles Gerard of Ince, by a 
rent of 141. and \id. ; also 12 acres and 
the water-mill of the king, as of the late 
Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. Thomas 
his son and heir was aged thirty-three 
years ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 73. 

William Kenyon, who died in 1557, 
held part of the old Hospitallers' lands in 
Aspull by the gift of Robert Gidlow ; John 
his son and heir was sixty years of age in 
1586 ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 27. 

22 Vint, of 1613 (Chet. Soc.), 50. The 
last-named Thomas Gidlow recorded it ; 
his son and heir, another Thomas, being 
then twenty years of age. 

The elder Thomas died about 1618-19, 
but the age of his son Thomas is given as 
only twenty-two years ; Kuerden, loc. cit. 
no. 23. Thomas Gidlow contributed to 
the subsidy in 1622 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 162. 

23 Towneley, GG,no. 1613-15. Risley 
Hey and a stile called the Merrel are 
mentioned ; also a lane called ' a certain 
lisle lane' which led to Aynscough Lane, 
going north to Aspull Moor. 

24 John son of Thomas de Halghton, 
or Houghton, of the Westhoughton family, 
had two messuages and land in Aspull in 
1317; Final Cone, ii, 25. John son of 
Thomas de Houghton was defendant in a 
claim for dower in 1351 and 1352; Duchy 
of Lane. Assize R. I, m. v d. and R. 2, m. 2. 

A Ralph Houghton of Kirklees married 
Margery daughter of Richard Molyneux 

Aspull Moor and Pennington Green, and so to 
Wigan. 23 

The Houghtons of KIRKLEES long continued in 
possession ; 24 Ralph Houghton in 1653 renounced 
his faith in order to secure his lands. 25 The Brad- 
shaghs, already mentioned, 26 the Lathoms of Wolfill, 27 
and the Lowes * s also held lands here. Later families 
were the Rigbys M and Penningtons. 30 

GIDLOW. s-izur 
r on argent between fwo leo- 
pard 's beads in chief and a 
cross formyjitchy in base or. 

of Hawkley ; Visit. 
of 1567 (Chet. 
Soc.), 109. For a 
plea of 1554-5 by 
Roger Heigham 
claiming against Ralph Houghton lands 
called Smyrrels and Gromerscroft in Aspull 
see Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), ii, 184. 

Richard Houghton acquired lands in 
Aspull, Ince, and Wigan from Christopher 
Kenyon and Margery his wife in 1572, 
and made a settlement in 1577 ; Lanes, 
and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), ii, 255 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 34, m. 138 ; bdle. 39, m. 13. 
Ralph Houghton was a purchaser in 1593 ; 
ibid. bdle. 55, m. 200. He was one of 
the ' comers to church but no communi- 
cants 'in 1 590 ; Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 246. 

Richard Houghton of Kirklees in 1616 
married Bridget daughter of Adam Mort ; 
Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 211. Richard 
son and heir apparent of Ralph Houghton 
of Kirklees in Aspull was a trustee for 
William Heaton in 1619 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 1 60. 
The succession of the various Richards 
and Ralphs is not quite clear ; for Clem- 
ence Simpson, formerly wife of Ralph 
Houghton, in 1604-5 claimed an interest 
in the Great Scraps in Aspull ; she had 
formerly had a writ of dower against 
Richard Houghton, uncle to Ralph, 
Thomas, and Anne Aspull, Christopher 
and Margaret Kenyon ; Duchy of Lane. 
Plead. Hil. 2 Jas. I, bdle. 221. 

A ' Mr. Ralph Houghton of Kirklees ' 
was buried at Wigan 12 Aug. 1643. 

28 ' By some omission or mistake ' his es- 
tate was in 1653 ordered to be sequestered ; 
he had never 'acted against the State,' 
had subscribed the engagement, but was 
also required to take the oath of abjura- 
tion. He was conformable, but being in- 
firm asked for more time ; and afterwards 
took the oath. The sequestration was dis- 
charged in 1654; Royalist Comp. Papers 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 293 ; 
Cal. of Com. for Compounding, iv, 3124. 

26 In 1343 John de Ince, John son of 
Henry de Tyldesley, and Robert son of 
Robert de Hindley were charged with 
having overthrown the house of William 
son of Adam de Bradshagh at Aspull, and 
shot at him ; Assize R. 430, m. 1 8 d. 20 d.26. 

In 1473 Henry Bradshagh held a mes- 
suage of the lord of Manchester, by rent 
of 2d. and zd. for ward of the castle ; 
Mamecestre, 480. The name of William 
Bradshagh of Aspull occurs in a list of the 
local gentry compiled about 1512. Wil- 
liam Bradshagh contributed to the subsidy 
of 1541, 'for 20 in goods' ; Misc. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 143. For his 
will see Lanes, and Ches. Wills (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 187. 

James Bradshagh in 1568 was deforciant 
of fourteen messuages in Aspull, Wigan, 
Hindley, and other places ; Humphrey 
Bradshagh was one of the plaintiffs ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 30, m. 75. Roger 
Bradshagh was a purchaser or feoffee in 
1583 ; ibid. bdle. 45, m. 122. He was 
reported as ' soundly affected in religion ' 
in 1590; Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 246. 


Margaret Bradshagh, daughter of Roger 
Hindley, was in 1598 found to have held 
lands in Aspull called the Several or Inland 
of Miles Gerard by the hundredth part 
of a knight's fee ; and other lands of 
Roger Hindley. Elizabeth Bradshagh, her 
daughter and heir, was only a year old ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 43. 

Roger Bradshagh was a freeholder in 
1 600 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc.), i, 247. The 
same or a later Roger contributed to the 
subsidy of 1622 as a landowner ; ibid. 
162. He died 17 June 1625, holding three 
messuages and cottages and lands in Aspull 
of Edward Mosley, as of the manor of 
Manchester, by the tenth part of the eighth 
part of a knight's fee ; also other mes- 
suages and lands in Hindley ; William and 
John were his sons by his first wife, liv- 
ing in 1619, and Edward by his second 
wife Ellen ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
xxvi, no. 52. 

There is a short pedigree of these Brad- 
shaghs in Dugdale, Visit. 54. 

About the end of the I7th century 
Nathaniel Molyneux had lands in the Hall 
of Bradshaw in Aspull, Westhoughton, &c. 

2 ? The Atherton family may have de- 
rived their holding here as also in Hindley 
from a grant by Adam de Hindley. In each 
township it seems to have descended to 
the Lathoms of Wolfall. The evidence, 
however, is defective. 

In 1420 Thomas de Atherton and 
Margery his wife were deforciants of 
eight messuages in Aspull, &c. ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 5, m. 16. In 
1473 Thomas Lathom of Knowsley held 
of the lord of Manchester a messuage in 
Aspull, in right of his wife, daughter and 
heir of Henry Atherton of Prescot, by the 
rent of T,d. with $d. for ward of the cas- 
tle ; Mamecestre, 48 1 . 

The Lathoms, as the inquisitions show, 
held the lands here till the end of the 1 6th 
century, when Thomas Lathom and 
Frances his wife disposed of them ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 36, m. 158, 250. 

28 Robert Law or Lowe in 1473 held a 
messuage of the lord of Manchester, by a 
rent of $d. and %d. for castle ward ; 
Mamecestre, 481. 

29 Alexander Rigby of Middleton in 
Goosnargh, who died in 1621, held land in 
Aspull of Thomas Gerard by a rent of 
loi. %d. ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), iii, 456, 458. His son, Jo- 
seph Rigby ' of Aspull,' Parliamentarian 
officer, to whom it had been bequeathed, 
is named in the pedigree in Dugdale, 
Visit. 245 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. Joseph 
and Alexander Rigby were clerks of the 
peace under the Commonwealth ; Pal. 
Note Bk. iv, 144-5. T he father, Major 
Joseph Rigby was, however, accused of 
'impeding profits,' by trying by threats to 
secure the lands of 'papists and delin- 
quents ' for himself under value ; Cal. of 
Com. for Compounding i, 371. The son, 
Alexander, was said to have joined Lord 
Derby in 1651 ; Cal. Com. Advancing 
Money, iii, 1455. 

80 In addition to those already named 
Robert Pennington, Robert Gorton, Roger 
Rycroft, and John Ainscough were free- 



In 1626 the landowners contributing to the subsidy 
were Roger Hindiey, the heirs of Roger Bradshaw, 
Thomas Gidlow, and Ralph Houghton. The two 
last-named, as convicted recusants, paid double. 31 

The hearth tax roll of 1 666 shows that i 3 5 hearths 
were charged. The most considerable houses were 
those of Richard Green, nine hearths ; Peter Orrell 
and James Dukinfield, eight each ; Major Rigby and 
Thomas Molyneux, seven each ; and Edward Gleast, 

John Roscow of Aspull compounded for his estate 
under the Commonwealth. 33 Besides Thomas and 
Richard Gerard of Highfield, the following ' papists ' 
registered estates here in 1717 : James and Roger 
Leigh, Thomas Cooke, and Robert Taylor.* 4 

The land tax returns of 1797 show the landowners 

to have been Robert Holt Leigh, Sir Richard Clayton, 
and others. 35 

In connexion with the Established Church 
St. Elizabeth's was built in 1882 by Mr. Roger 
Leigh. The patronage is vested in trustees. 36 There 
is also a licensed chapel known as Hi-dley Hall 

There are Wesleyan, Primitive Methodist, and 
Independent Methodist churches. 

The adherents of the ancient faith were formerly 
indebted to the lords of the manor for the mission 
established at Highfield; the Jesuits were serving it in 
1701." In 1858 the permanent church of Our Lady 
of the Immaculate Conception was erected 38 ; and 
mo-e recently services have been commenced at New 









The ancient parish of Winwicklies between Sankey 
Brook on the south-west and Glazebrook and a tribu- 
tary on the north and east, the distance between these 
brooks being 4^ or 5 miles. The extreme length of 
the parish is nearly 10 miles, and its area 26,502 

The highest ground is on the extreme north-west 
border, about 3 50 ft. ; most of the surface is above the 
I oo ft. level, but slopes down on three sides to the 
boundaries, 25 ft. being reached in Hulme in the 
south. The geological formation consists of the Coal 
Measures in the northern and western parts of the 
parish, and of the Bunter series of the New Red 
Sandstone in the remainder. Except Culcheth, which 
belonged to the fee of Warrington, the whole was 

included in the barony of Makerfield, the head of 
which was Newton. 

The townships were arranged in four quarters for 
contributions to the county lay, to which the parish 
paid one-eighth of the hundred levy, each quarter 
paying equally : (l) Winwick with Hulme, half; 
Newton, half; (2) Lowton and Kenyon, half; Hay- 
dock and Golborne, half ; (3) Ashton ; (4) Culcheth, 
two-thirds ; Southworth and Croft, a third. To the 
ancient 'fifteenth,' out of a levy of 106 gs. 6d. on 
the hundred, the parish contributed 8 $s. 6f</., as 
follows: Newton, i los. ; Haydock, los. 9^.; 
Ashton, z 14*. ^\d. ; Golborne, 8/. ; Lowton, 
15*. %d. ; Culcheth, i 8/. \Q\d. ; Southworth and 
Croft, gs. zd. ; Middleton with Arbury, 6s. 8< 

holders in 1600 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes. 
and Ches.), i, 249, 251. 

Ribert Pennington contributed to the 
subs'dy in 1622 ; ibid. 162. Pennington 
Hall is still marked on the map. 

Robert Gorton purchased a messuage 
&c. in 1581 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 43, m. 129. He died 10 Dec. 1624, 
holding a messuage and lands in Aspull of 
Edward Mosley, lord of Manchester, by 
the twentieth part of the eighth part of a 
knight's fee ; James, his son and heir, was 
aged forty and more ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. xxvi, no. 48. James died soon after- 
wards ; ibid, xxvi, no. n. 

Roger Rycroft seems to have purchased 
part of the Lathom holding ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 36, m. 250. He died 15 
Dec. 1612 holding of Miles Gerard, as of 
the manor of Aspull ; his eldest ion 
William having died before him he was 
succeeded by his grandson, Roger Rycroft 
the younger, son of William ; Lanes. Inq. 
p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 


Thomas Shaw and Alice his wife, and 
John Ainscough and Ellen his wife, were 
deforciants of a messuage and lands in 
Aspull in 1392 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 54, m. 67. Miles Ainscough of 
Aspull was a juror in 1619; Lanes. Inq. 
p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 127. 

John son of Henry del Ford of Aspull 
recovered land here from Robert son of 
Richard de Ince and a number of others, 
including John de Buckshagh, in 1356; 
Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 5, m. 29. 
Emma de Buckshagh, who had been 
'waived' for felony and died in 1401, 
held as widow of William Buckshagh some 
land here of Robert de Hulton and 
Katherine his wife, in right of the latter. 
Ellen daughter of William de Buckshagh 
was the heir, and twenty-two years of age 
in 1404 ; Lanes. Inq. (Chet. Soc.), i, 79, 

The Suttons and Gorsuches of Scaris- 
brick also held land here, as appears by 
their inquisitions. Edward Gorsuch had 
a dispute as to lands called Asmoll and 
Brandearth in Aspull in 1639 ; Exch. 
Dtp. 26. 

Hugh Swansey of Chorley was in 1567 
found to have held lands in Aspull of 
William Gerard of Ince by a rent of \d. ; 
Robert was his son and heir ; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 29. Robert 
Swansey and Anne his wife, and Edward 
their son and heir apparent, were deforci- 
ants of lands in Aspull four years later ; 
John Ainscough was one of the plaintiffs ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 33, m. 

Peter Catterall of Shevington (1583) 


had held part of the Hospitallers' lands by 
a rent of 1 8</. ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
xiv, no. 70. 

A yeoman family named Pemberton 
held land under the Hindleys. They became 
Quakers, suffering accordingly, and emi- 
grated to Pennsylvania in 1682, being 
among the earliest settlers ; Friend? Misc. 
(Phila.), vii ; Life of John Pemberton. 

31 Lay Subs. R. bdle. 131, no. 312, 

82 Ibid. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

88 Cal. of Com. for Compounding, ii, 

84 Engl. Catb. Nonjurors, 153. 

86 R. H. Leigh possessed Hindiey Hall, 
Bank House, Leyland'sand Morris's ; the 
devisees of James Hodson had Halliwell 
and Leylands, the same and Doncaster 
had Kirklees ; Sir R. Clayton had Gidlow 
Hall, and Sir John Smith Bradshaw 

86 Bridgeman, Wigan Ch. (Chet. Soc.), 
784 ; Land. Gam. 24 Apr. 1883. 

8 ? Foley, Rec. Soc. Jesus, v, 320 ; Fr. 
Richard Moore was in charge, with an 
allowance of 5. Soon after him Fr. 
John Bennet was there until his death in 
1751 ; ibid, v, 323 ; vii, 50. At this 
time ' Mr. Fazakerley ' is named as the 
owner or tenant of Highfield. 

88 Salford Dioc. Cal. 


One of the great roads from south to north has 
from the earliest times led through Winwick, Newton, 
and Ashton, and there are several tumuli and other 
ancient remains. 

The Domesday Survey shows that a large part of 
the surface consisted of woodland, and Garswood in 
Ashton preserves the name of part of it. In the 
Civil War two battles were fought near Winwick. In 
more modern times coal mines have been worked and 
manufactures introduced, and Earlestown has grown 
up around the wagon-building works of the London 
and North- Western Railway Company. 

The agricultural land in the parish is utilized as 
follows : Arable land, 16,2 5 8 acres ; permanent grass, 
4,820 acres ; woods and plantations, 653 acres. The 
following are details : 

Winwick 2,192 247 

Southworth and Croft . . . 1,596 130 

Newton in Makerfield . . . 1,614 4 2 3 

Lowton 960 570 

Haydock I > 2 44 4 11 

Golborne 951 448 

Ashton in Makerfield . . . 3,228 1,210 

Culcheth and Kenyon . . . 4,473 1,381 




Newton has given the title of baron to the lord of 
the manor, who has, however, no residence in the 
parish ; Lord Gerard of Brynn has his principal seat 
at Garswood. 

Dr. Kuerden thus describes a journey through the 
parish made about 1695 : ' Entering a little hamlet 
called the Hulme you leave on the left a deep and 
fair stone quarry fit for building. You meet with 
another crossway on the right. A mile farther stands 


a fair-built church called Winwick church, a remark- 
able fabric. . . . Leaving the church on the right 
about a quarter of a mile westwards stands a princely 
building, equal to the revenue, called the parsonage 
of Winwick ; and near the church on the right hand 
stands a fair-built schoolhouse. By the east end of 
the church is another road, but less used, to the 
borough of Wigan. 

'Having passed the school about half a mile you 
come to a sandy place called the Red Bank, where 
Hamilton and his army were beaten. Here, leaving 
Bradley park, and a good seat belonging to Mr. 
Brotherton of Hey (a member of Parliament for the 
borough of Newton) on the left hand, and Newton 
park on the right, you have a little stone bridge over 
Newton Brook, three miles from Warrington. On 
the left hand close by a water mill appear the ruins 
of the site of the ancient barony of Newton, where 
formerly was the baron's castle. 

' Having passed the bridge you ascend a rock, 
where is a penfold cut out of the same, and upon the 
top of the rock was lately built a court house for the 
manor, and near to it a fair re-edified chapel of stone 
built by Richard Legh, deceased, father to Mr. Legh, 
the present titular baron of Newton. There stands a 
stately cross, near the chapel well, adorned with the 
arms belonging to the present baron. Having passed 
the town of Newton you leave a cross-road on the 
left going to Liverpool by St. Helen's chapel. You 
pass in winter through a miry lane for half a mile ; 
you leave another lane on the left passing by Bil- 
linge. . . . 

* Then passing on a sandy lane you leave Haydock 
park, and (close by the road) Haydock lodge, belong- 
ing to Mr. Legh, and going on half a mile you pass 



by the chapel and through the town of Ashton, 
standing upon a rocky ground, which belongeth to 
Sir William Gerard, bart., of Brynn, who resides at 
Garswood, about a mile to the east (sic). Having 
passed the stone bridge take the left hand way, which 
though something fouler is more used. You then 
pass by Whitledge Green, a place much resorted to 
in summer by the neighbouring gentry for bowling. 
Shortly after, you meet with the other way from 
Ashton bridge by J. Naylor's, a herald painter and an 
excellent stainer of glass for pictures or coats of arms. 
Through a more open coach-way passing on upon the 
right leave the Brynn gate, a private way leading to the 
ancient hall of Brynn, and upon the left another road 
by Garswood to the hall of Parr, a seat belonging to 
the Byroms, and to St. Helen's chapel ; and thence 
past Hawkley to Wigan.' * 

Among the worthies of the parish may here be 
noted Thomas Legh Claughton, born at Haydock 
Lodge in 1808, who became Bishop of Rochester in 
1867, resigning in 1890, and died in 1892 ; s also 
Thomas Risley, a Nonconformist divine, 1630 to 1716.* 

The following in 1630-3 compounded by annual 
fines for the two-thirds of their estates liable to be 
sequestered for their recusancy : Ashton, Sir William 
Gerard of Brynn, 106 I 3/. \d. ; Jane Gerard ; Cul- 
cheth, Richard Urmston, 6 ; Lowton, Peter and 
Roger Haughton, 3 ; Southworth, Christopher Bow 
of Croft, 2 ios. & 

The church of ST. OSWALD has a 
CHURCH chancel 6 with north vestry, nave with 
aisles and south porch, and west tower 
and spire. It is built of a very inferior local sand- 
stone, with the result that its history has been much 
obscured by repairs and rebuildings, and cannot be 
taken back beyond the I4th century ; though the 
dedication and the fragment of an early cross, now set 
up outside the chancel, both point to an early occupa- 
tion of the site. 

The chancel was entirely rebuilt in 18478 in 
14th-century style, the elder Pugin being the archi- 
tect, and is a fine and well-designed work with a high- 
pitched leaded roof, a four-light east window, and 
three-light windows on north and south. There are 
three canopied sedilia and a piscina, and the arched 
ceiling is panelled, with gilt bosses at the intersection 
of the ribs, and a stone cornice with carved paterae. 

The nave is of six bays, with a north arcade having 
pointed arches of two orders with sunk quarter-round 
mouldings, and curious clustered piers considerably 
too thick for the arches they carry, and projecting in 
front of the wall-face towards the nave. The general 
outline is octagonal with a hollow between two 
quarter-rounds on each cardinal face, and a deep 
V-shaped sinking on the alternate faces. The abacus 
of the capitals is octagonal, but the necking follows 
the outline of the piers, and pairs of trefoiled leaves 
rise from the hollows on the cardinal faces. The 
bases, of very rough work, are panelled on the cardinal 
faces, with engaged shafts 6 in. high, while on the 
diagonal faces are badly-cut mitred heads. 

There is a curious suggestion of 14th-century de- 
tail in the arcade, in spite of its clumsiness, but the 

actual date is probably within a few years of 1600. 
The clearstory above has three windows set over the 
alternate arches, of four lights with uncusped tracery 
and low four-centred heads. 

The south arcade, ' from the first pillar eastward to 
the fifth west,' was taken down and rebuilt from the 
foundations in 1836. It has clustered piers of quatre- 
foil section, and simply moulded bell capitals with 
octagonal abaci, the arches being of two chamfered 
orders with labels ending in pairs of human heads at 
the springing. The original work belonged to the 
beginning of the I4th century. The clearstory on 
this side has six windows, of four uncusped lights 
without tracery, under a four-centred head, all the 
stonework being modern. 

At the east end of the north aisle is the Gerard 
Chapel, inclosed with an iron screen, which about 1 848 
replaced a wooden screen dated 'in the yere of our 
Lord MCCCCLXXXI.' There is a three-light east window 
and two four-light windows on the north, all with 
16th-century uncusped tracery. In the aisle west of 
the chapel are three four-light north windows with 
embattled transoms and uncusped tracery, and a north 
doorway with a square-headed window over it, of four 
uncusped lights. The tracery, except part in the 
Gerard Chapel, has been lately renewed, the original 
date of the windows being perhaps c. 1530-50. On 
the external faces of the transoms is carved the IHS 
monogram. The two east bays of the south aisle are 
taken up by the Legh Chapel, and separated by an 
arch at the west from the rest of the aisle. This 
western portion was rebuilt in 1530, being dated by 
an inscription running round the external cornice, 
and the Legh Chapel is somewhat earlier in date, 
perhaps c. 1500. The chapel has a small doorway on 
the south, a three-light window on the east, and two 
on the south, all with uncusped tracery, the stone- 
work being mutilated, and in the aisle are three four- 
light windows on the south, with embattled transoms 
and tracery uncusped except in the upper middle 
lights, and one window at the west, also of four 
lights, but of different design. On the external faces 
of the transoms are carved roses, all the stonework 
being modern. The aisle has a vice at the south- 
west angle. The south porch is low, and the inscribed 
cornice of the aisle runs above it without a break. 
The porch has been completely refaced, and opens to 
the south aisle by a four-centred doorway with con- 
tinuous mouldings. Both aisles and clearstory have 
embattled parapets and leaded roofs of low pitch. The 
inscription round the south aisle is in leonine hexa- 
meters, running from west to east, and is as follows : 

Hie locus Oswalde quondam placuit tibi valde ; 
Nortanhumbrorum fueras rex, nuncque polorum 
Regna tenes, prato passus Marcelde vocato. 
Poscimus hinc a te nostri memor esto beate. 
Anno milleno quingentenoque triceno 
Sclater post Christum murum renovaverat 

istum ; 
Henricus Johnson curatus erat simul hie tune. 

The tower retains much of its old facing, though 
the surface is much decayed. It has a vice at the 

* Local Gleanings Lanes, and Ches. i, 209. 
On p. 214 is his note of the other road 
from Winwick to Wigan as follows : 
' Leaving the church on the left hand, 
half a mile from thence you have a fair 
built house formerly belonging to Charles 

Herle, parson of Winwick. . . . You 
leave Lowton township, passing over Low- 
ton Cop, leaving Byrom not far on the 
right and the New Church, being a paro- 
chial chapel to Winwick. 1 
8 Diet. Nat. Biog. 


* Ibid. ; see also the account of Cul- 
cheth. 8 Lucas, ' Warton ' (MS.). 

6 For the former chancel see Sir S. 
Glynne's account, Ch. of Lanes. (Chet. 
Soc.) 27, 91 ; also generally the Rev. 
W. A. Wickham in Trans. Hist. Soc. 1908. 





south-east angle, which ends with a flat top at the 
level of an embattled parapet at the base of the spire. 
The spire is of stone, and has two rows of spire lights, 
and the belfry windows are of two trefoiled lights with 
quatrefoils in the head. All the work belongs to the 
first half of the I4th century, and in the ground 
story is a three-light west window with modern net 
tracery, flanked by two empty niches, with below it 
a four-centred doorway with continuous wave-mould- 
ings. The tower arch is of three continuous wave- 
moulded orders. On the west face of the tower, to 
the south of the niche flanking the west window on 
the south, is a small and very weathered carving of a 
pig with a bell round his neck, known as the Winwick 
pig. His story is that, like other supernatural 
agencies under similar circumstances elsewhere, he in- 
sisted on bringing all the stones with which the church 
was being built on another and lower site to the pre- 
sent site, removing each night the preceding day's work. 7 

The roof of the Gerard Chapel is modern, but 
that of the Legh Chapel has heavily-moulded timbers, 
ceiled between with plaster panels having moulded 
ribs and four-leaved flowers at the centres. Below 
the beams, at the wall plates, are angels holding 
shields with heraldry. 8 

The roofs of the aisles have cambered tie-beams and 
braces, with panels between the beams divided into 
four by wood ribs. Neither roof is set out to space 
with the arcades or windows, the south aisle roof 
being of seven bays, that in the north aisle of six ; 
they belong probably to c. 1530. 

In the vestry is a very fine and elaborate I Jth-cen- 
tury carved beam, found used up in a cottage. It 
has eleven projecting brackets for images, that in the 
middle being larger than the others, and may have 
been the front beam of the rood-loft. It is 15 ft. 
long. An altar table in the vestry dated 1725 is 
inlaid with mahogany, with a * glory ' in the middle 
and initials at the corners, and a monogram AT. 

In the Gerard Chapel is the fine brass of Piers 
Gerard, son of Sir Thomas Gerard of the Brynn, 
1485, and in the Legh Chapel is a second brass, now 
set against the east wall, with the figures of Sir Peter 
Legh, 1527, and his wife Ellen (Savage), 1491. Sir 
Peter was ordained priest after his wife's death, and is 
shown on his brass tonsured and with mass vestments 
over his armour. Below are figures of children. 
There is a brass plate in the chancel pavement to 
Richard Sherlock, rector, 1689. 

Later monuments in the Legh Chapel are those of 
Sir Peter Legh, 1635, and Richard Legh and his wife, 
1687. On the south side of the chapel some ala- 
baster panels with strapwork and heraldry, from a 
destroyed Jacobean monument, are built into the wall. 9 

There are six bells, re-cast in 1711. 

The church possesses two chalices, patens, and 
flagons of 1786 ; two chalices, four patens, and two 
flagons of 1795 ; and a sifter and tray of the same 
date. Also a pewter flagon and basin, two large 
copper flagons, red enamelled, with gold flower paint- 
ing of Japanese style, a gilded brass almsdish and two 
plates, designed by Pugin, and an ebony staff with a 
plated head, the gift of Geoffrey Hornby, rector, 

In the chancel hangs a brass chandelier, given by 
the Society of Friends of Warrington. 

The registers begin in 1563, the paper book not 
being extant. The first volume contains the years 
1563-1642, the entries to 1598 being copies. The 
next volumes in order are 163077, 1676-95, 
1696-1717, 1716-33. 

The octagonal bowl of a 14th-century font found in 
1877 beneath the floor of the church now lies outside 
the east end of the chancel, in company with the 
piece of an early cross-head described in a previous 
volume. 10 It is much worn, but has had four-leaved 
flowers on each face, with raised centres, and must 
have been a good piece of work when perfect. 11 

' St. Oswald had two plough-lands 
ADrOWSON exempt from all taxation ' in 1066, 
so that the parish church has been 
well endowed from ancient times. 11 Possibly the 
dedication suggested to Roger of Poitou the pro- 
priety of granting it to St. Oswald's Priory, Nostell, 13 
a grant which appears to have been renewed or con- 
firmed by Stephen, Count of Mortain, between 1114 
and 1 12 1. 14 In II 23 Henry I 
wrote to the Bishop of Ches- 
ter, directing that full justice 
should be done to the prior 
and canons of Nostell, whose 
clerks in Makerfield were de- 
priving them of their dues. 15 
From this time the prior and 
canons presented to the church, 
receiving certain dues or a fixed 
pension ; but beyond the state- 
ment in the survey of 1 2 1 2 16 
nothing is known until 1252, 
when Alexander, Bishop of 

Lichfield, having been appealed to by the prior and 
the canons, decreed that on the next vacancy they 
should present ' a priest of honest conversation and 
competent learning ' as vicar, who should receive the 
whole of the fruits of the church, paying to Lichfield 
Cathedral and to Nostell Priory a sum of money as 
might be fixed by the bishop. In the meantime the 
annual pension of $os. then paid to Nostell from the 
church of Winwick was to be divided equally, half 
being paid to the church of Lichfield. 17 A century 

Gules a cross beKveen 
four lions rampant or. 

1 Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxiii, 213. 
The niche may have held an image of 
St. Anthony. 

8 These shields have been repainted, 
and it is evident that this has been done 
incorrectly. They seem, however, to be 
intended for the arms of the following 
families : Butler of Merton, Croft of 
Dalton, Legh of Lyme, Boydell, Boydell 
and Haydock. 

9 The inscriptions on the various monu- 
ments are given in Beamont, Win-wick, 
119-25 ; see also Thornely, Brasses, 61, 
169. Notes of the arms, &c. found in 
the church in the i6th and ijth centuries 

are printed in Trans. Hist. Soc. (new 
ser.), vi, 265 ; xiv, 210. 

10 y.C.H. Lanes, i, 262. 

11 Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. ii, 113 ; 
Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xvii, 69. 

For a traditional rhyme ' When a 
maid is married there the steeple gives 
a nod' see Lanes, and Ches. Hist, and Gen. 
Notes, iii, 10. la V.C.H. Lanes, i, 286. 

18 Lanes. Inq. and Ext. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 72. 

14 Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 301. 

15 Ibid. 300. 

16 Lanes. Inq. and Ext. loc. cit. 

17 Lich. Epis. Reg. v, fol. 6ib. It may 


perhaps be inferred from the notices of the 
rectors that the prior and canons had 
farmed out the church to a family of here- 
ditary ' clerks ' ; and when this arrange- 
ment was terminated, opportunity wag 
taken to secure a certain payment to the 
priory, and also an equal sum to Lichfield 
Cathedral. In future the actual holder of 
the rectory was to be styled a 'vicar,' 
though he received all the revenues ; and 
for a century and a half accordingly he 
was usually so called, though ' parson ' 
also occurs frequently. The poverty of 
both priory and cathedral was alleged as 
the reason for the pensions. 


later it appears that a pension of 24 marks was due 
from the vicarage to the monastery. 18 

In 1291 the annual value was estimated as 
26 i$s. 4</., 19 while in 1341 the ninth of the corn, 
wool, &c. was valued at 50 marks. 20 

The first dispute as to the patronage seems to have 
occurred in I 307, when John de Langton claimed it 
in right of his wife Alice, heiress of the lords of Maker- 
field. The priors of Nostell, however, were able to 
show a clear title, and the claim was defeated. 81 
About fifty years later the patronage was acquired by 
the Duke of Lancaster." In 1381 the king was 

patron,* 3 and the Crown retained the right until 
Henry VI granted it to Sir John de Stanley, reserving 
to the prior an annual pension of ioo/. 24 From this 
time it has descended with the main portion of the 
Stanley properties, the Earl of Derby being patron. 

In 1534 the net value was returned as 1 02 9/. %d., K 
but in 1650 the income was estimated at over 660, 
and Bishop Gastrell reckoned it at about j8oo after 
the curates had been paid.* 7 At the beginning of last 
century, before the division of the endowment, the 
benefice was considered the richest in the kingdom, 23 
and its gross value is still put at ^i,6oo. S9 

The following have been rectors : 


oc. 1191 . . 

OC. I 2 I 2 . 

oc. 1232 . . 
c. 1250 . . 

oc. 1287 . . . 

8 Feb. 1306-7. 

1325 . . 


Hugh 80 


Robert 81 

N 33 

Alexander de Tamworth M 
Augustine de Darington K 
John de Mosley 36 . . . 
John de Bamburgh 37 

Presented by 

Priory of Nostell 

John de Chisenhale M Bishop of Lichfield 

Cause of Vacancy 

d. of J. de Bamburgh 

18 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, 125 b. 

19 Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 249. 

80 Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 40. The 
separate townships stood thus : Ashton, 
8 6s. 8</. ; Haydock, 311. 8< ; Newton, 
4 31. 4</. ; Golborne, ^3 is. %d. ; Low- 
ton and Kenyon, ^4 ; Middleton and 
Houghton, i ; Culcheth, 5 i6s. %d. ; 
Croft and Southworth, 2 6s. %d. ; Win- 
wick and Hulme, ^3. 

81 De Banco R. 162,01.4. The canons 
had presented on the three preceding 
vacancies, viz., Alexander de Tamworth, 
Augustine de Darington in the time of 
Henry III, and John de Mosley. These 
were probably all that had been appointed 
since the termination of the old arrange- 

Again in 1325, on the death of John 
de Bamburgh, the Prior of Nostell had to 
defend his right, the Bishop of Lichfield 
claiming on the ground that the prior 
having presented an unfit person (Roger 
de Atherton, Canon of Nostell) the right 
had devolved on himself as ordinary, and 
he had conferred the vicarage on one John 
de Chisenhale. The prior vindicated his 
right, but the bishop's presentee retained 
possession ; De Banco R. 258, m. 4 d. 

In 1 349 it was agreed that a canon of 
Nostell should thenceforward be appointed 
to the vicarage; Cal. Pat. 1348-50, p. 423. 

82 In 1360, and later, the king and 
John of Gaunt claimed the advowson, 
the church being then vacant ; De Banco 
R. 404, m. 3 ; 406, m. 252 ; 409, m. 18 d. 

All charters relating to Winwick have 
been omitted from the Nostell chartulary. 

83 See the appointments in 1384 and 
later years. One of those nominated was 
a Boteler, as if the claim of Sir William 
Boteler had been recognized in some way. 

At this time, however, the prior of 
Nostell sold to Robert de Morton an an- 
nuity of 8 marks for 240, which sum 
the prior was to employ in procuring the 
appropriation of Winwick ; he misspent 
the money and involved the house in a 
debt of 1,200 marks; Beamont, Wmtvick, 
12, quoting Batty, Nostell Priory, 20. 

84 Close, 12 Hen. VI, m. 13 d. which 
records a grant (undated) of the advowson 
made by John, Prior of Nostell, to Sir John 

de Stanley, Sir Thomas de Stanley, and 
Henry de Byrom. It will be seen that 
Sir John de Stanley was patron earlier, 
having presented Thomas Bourgchier at 
the beginning of 1433. The Bishop of 
Lichfield had presented, by lapse, ten years 
before; and as the rector then appointed 
was a Stanley, it is probable that this 
family had already acquired the patronage, 
or the promise of it. In 1 5 1 8 the Prior 
of Nostell claimed the IOQJ. rent and ^30 
arrears from the executors of Bishop Stan- 
ley ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 123, m. 9. 

8S Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 220. 
The gross total was made up thus : Rents, 
44 8j. j.d. ; great tithes, 58 161. %d. ; 
small tithes, oblations, and Easter roll, 
15 in all 118 41. Gowther Legh 
(the steward) and the bailiff had each a 
fee of 5 ; the same amount was paid to 
Nostell Priory ; and i$s. \d. was paid to 
the Archdeacon of Chester. 'A good 
benefice ' is Leland's note on Winwick ; 
Itin. vii, 47. 

84 Common-wealth Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 46. The parsonage 
house and glebe lands were worth 160 a 
year ; three water corn-mills, ^30 ; rents 
of tenants, 28 ; tithes, 445 zs. all of 
which the rector then had to his own use. 

8 ? Not. Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 260-4 5 
the tenants of the glebe renewed with 
every new rector, and once in twenty-one 
years if he continued so long ; what was 
paid by the tenants upon each renewal 
amounted to about 1,000, but the rector 
was not obliged to renew. There were 
four churchwardens and four assistants, 
serving for the four quarters they lived in. 

88 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 
340. In 1835 its value was said to be 
^7,000 a year, of which ,3,000 was from 
tithes ; Baines, Lanes, (ist ed.), iii, 623. 
The Winwick Church Acts authorizing 
the division are 4 & 5 Vic. cap. 9 (pri- 
vate), and 8 & 9 Vic. cap. 9 (private). 

89 Liverpool Dioc. Cal. 

80 Wballey Coucher (Chet. Soc.), i, 40. 

81 Lanes. Inq. and Ext. i, 72. 

88 Lich. Epis. Reg. Stavenby, v, fol. 6 1*; 
rector named as then living in the ordi- 
nance concerning a vicarage at Winwick. 
Robert is mentioned also in a suit in 


1277 as having made a grant of land ; De 
Banco R. 19, m. 54 d. In 1271 Robert 
son of the rector of Winwick, and Amaria 
and Juliana his sisters accused Henry de 
Sefton of taking their goods and chattels ; 
Cur. Reg. R. 204, m. 1 1 d. He was a 
son of Robert the rector ; see Beamont, 
Winiuick, 16. William son of Robert the 
rector also occurs ; Towneley MS. HH, 
no. 1699. 

38 ' N. rector of Winwick ' attested a 
deed made about 1250; Dods. MSS. liii, 
fol. 176. 

84 De Banco R. 162, m. 4. 

85 Ibid. ; appointed in the time of 
Henry III, and vicar for thirty years. He 
appears as plaintiff in the early years of 
Edward I down to 1279, an( ^ ' s some- 
times called Augustine de Winwick ; De 
Banco R. 18, m. 15 ; 23, m. 21. 

86 De Banco R. 162, m. 4 ; his death 
was the occasion of a dispute as to the 
patronage early in 1307. He was vicar 
as early as 1287 and in 1292 ; Harl. MS. 
21 12, fol. 1586-1946; Assize R. 408, 
m. 58 d. 

In a plea of 1352 it was asserted that 
' John de Warnefield, vicar of the church 
of Winwick,' granted the lands in dispute 
in the time of Edward II ; Duchy of 
Lane. Assize R. 2, m. 6 (Mich.). Bea- 
mont, however, states that his name 
occurs in 1292 (Winivick, 17) ; in which 
case he must be identical either with 
John de Mosley, who died a short time 
before the accession of Edward II, or 
with John de Bamburgh. 

8 ' Lich. Epis. Reg. Langton, i, fol. 
lob ; he was ordered to reside in the 
parish. Nothing further is known of him 
except that he was defendant in a case in 
1307 ; De Banco R. 164, m. 324. 

88 For the circumstances of his pre- 
sentation see a preceding note. He gave 
a bond to the prior of Nostell for 316 ; 
Nostell Reg. fol. 23 (B.M. Cott. Vesp. E. 
xix). He occurs as vicar in 1332 as 
defendant in a suit concerning land in 
Culcheth : De Banco R. 290, m. 3 ; and 
Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
ii, 86, and in later cases, e.g. Coram 
Rege R. 297, m. 6 d. (where he is called 
' parson '). 



Instituted Name Presented by 

12 Dec. 1349 Geoffrey de Burgh 39 Priory of Nostell . 

. . William de Blackburn 40 .... 

oc. 13845 . . John de Harwood 41 

23 Jan. 1384-5 . Thomas le Boteler u The King . . . 

- 1386 . . Walter de Thornholme 43 . ... . . . 
1388 . . Robert le King " The Pope . . . 

6 May 1389 William Daas 45 . . . . {ThePope. * ' 

(The King . . . 

3 April 1423 . Mr. Richard Stanley 46 Bishop of Lichfield 

ii Mar. 1432-3 Thomas Bourchier 47 Sir John Stanley . 

oc. 1436 . . George Radcliffe, D. Deer. 48 . . . 

19 June 1453 . Edward Stanley 49 Sir Thomas Stanley 

22 Nov. 1462 . James Stanley 50 Henry Byrom . . 

25 Aug. 1485 . Robert Cliff 51 Lord Stanley . . 

27 Feb. 1493-4. Mr. James Stanley, D.Can.L. " . . Earl of Derby . . 

2 1 June 1515 . Mr. Thomas Larke S3 ... 

1525 . . Thomas Winter 54 The King . . . 

23 Dec. 1529 . William Boleyne" . . . 

10 April 1 5 52 . Thomas Stanley 56 Earl of Derby . . 

Cause of Vacancy 
d. J. de Chisenhale 

d. R. Stanley 

d. G. Radcliffe 
d. E. Stanley 
d. J. Stanley 
res. R. Cliff 
d. Bp. of Ely 
res. T. Larke 
res. T. Winter 
d. W. Boleyne 

89 Lich. Epis. Reg. Northburgh, ii, fol. 
I2$. He was a canon of Nostell. His 
institution was confirmed eight years 
later, viz., 28 Nov. 1357 ; ibid, ii, fol. 
126. In the following year he was 
described as ' lately vicar ' ; Raines MSS. 
(Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, 425. The church 
was vacant in 1360 ; De Banco R. 404, 
m. 3. 

40 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 523. It 
is not known whether Blackburn and his 
immediate successors were ever insti- 

41 Ibid. A protection for John de Har- 
wood, vicar of Winwick, against William 
de Blackburn, late usurper of the benefice ; 
dated 22 Jan. 1384-5. 

43 Cal.Pat. 1381-5, p. 528. It will be 
noticed that he was presented the day 
after the protection to John de Harwood 
was granted. 

48 Ibid. 1385-9, p. 127 ; this was only 
a ' ratification of his estate.' He was to 
have accompanied John of Gaunt into 
Aquitaine in 1388, but stayed behind in 
London ; ibid. pp. 497, 518. 

44 Robert le King is named as ' per- 
petual vicar" of Winwick, in July 1388 ; 
Towneley MS. OO, no. 1539. 

45 Cal. Pat. 1388-92, pp. 32, 363. 
After the disputes and unsettlement in- 
dicated by these rapid changes came a 
time of rest, this rector remaining for 
about thirty years. 

It was the pope who presented William 
Daas to the rectory, the advowson being 
in his hands ; but the Statute of Provisors 
causing difficulty the king presented the 
same clerk, and afterwards ratified his 
title. These facts appear from a petition 
by the rector, about 1398, complaining 
that a certain Robert de Hallam had in- 
formed the king that the church was 
vacant, and procured a presentation for 
himself; P.R.O. Anct. Pet. file 220, 
no. 10999. 

William Daas had licence for an ora- 
tory in 1393 ; Lich. Epis. Reg. Scrope, 
vi, fol. i29/>. From this and other evi- 
dences he appears to have been resident. 
A complaint was made by him in 1393 
that having closed a path through one of 
his glebe fields, Sir John le Boteler and 
others had forcibly broken through. The 
verdict was in his favour ; Pal. of Lane. 
Misc. bdle. i, file 8, m. 6, 7. He is 
al*o mentioned in 1404 and 1405 ; 
ibid, file 9, m. 71, 68. In 1407 he pur- 
chased from Sir William Boteler the right 

to make a weir or attachment for captur- 
ing fish in Sankey water ; Beamont, 
Winiuick, 19 (quoting Butler Deeds). He 
with Thomas de Longley (late Archdeacon 
of Norfolk), Eustace Daas, and John 
Drewe, gave fine for a writ in 1411-12 ; 
Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. i, 173. 

46 Lich. Epis. Reg. Heyworth, ix, fol. 
uzb. As the bishop collated, the 'vicar- 
age,' as it is still called, must have been 
vacant for some time, but the reason is not 
given. Master Richard Stanley was ap- 
pointed archdeacon of Chester in 1426 ; 
Le Neve, Fasti, i, 567. 

47 Lich. Epis. Reg. Heyworth, ix, izib. 
The new ' rector ' probably held the bene- 
fice till his consecration as Bishop of 
Worcester in 1435 ; he became Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury ; Diet. Nat. Biog. 

48 Dr. George Radcliffe, son of Sir 
Ralph Radcliffe of Smithills, was Arch- 
deacon of Chester in 1449; Le Neve, op. cit. 
He held a canonry in St. John's, Chester, 
till his death ; Ormerod, Cbes. (ed. Hels- 
by), i, 310. He is mentioned as rector 
in 1436 ; Kuerden MSS. Hi, W. 6, no. 79. 
He had been rector of Wilmslow and 
Longford in succession ; Earwaker, East 
Cheshire, i, 88. For pedigree see Whi- 
taker, Whalley (ed. Nichols), ii, 319. 

49 Lich. Epis. Reg. Boulers, xi, fol. 37^. 
He was also appointed Archdeacon of 
Chester ; Le Neve, loc. sup. cit. 

60 Lich. Epis. Reg. Hales, xii, fol. ioob. 
Henry Byrom was patron for this turn. 
James Stanley was a son of the first Lord 
Stanley ; Archdeacon of Chester 1478, 
Warden of Manchester 1481, and Rector 
of Warrington 1482, holding all these 
till his death ; see Le Neve. 

61 Lich. Epis. Reg. Hales, xii, fol. 120 ; 
he engaged to pay a pension of 24 marks 
a year to the dean and chapter of Lich- 
field. One Robert ClifFe was priest of a 
chantry in St. John's, Chester, from 1478 
to 1516 ; Ormerod, op. cit. i, 313. 

62 Lich. Epis. Reg. Smith, xii, fol. 157^. 
He was son of the patron, and had suc- 
ceeded his uncle as Warden of Manches- 
ter in 1485. He became Bishop of Ely 
in 1506, retaining Winwick till his death. 
An account of him will be found in Diet. 
Nat. Biog. 

53 Lich. Epis. Reg. Blyth, xiii-xiv, fol. 
59. He held various benefices, being one 
of Cardinal Wolsey's chaplains, and his 
confessor. He continued faithful to Wolsey 
on his fall and died just before him in 
1530 ; see L. and P. Hen. VIII , iv, 2936, 

I2 7 

&c. The scandal of the times alleged 
that his sister had been the cardinal's 

In July 1515 Thomas, Earl of Derby, 
granted to Sir William Pole and others 
the advowson of Winwick, with instruc- 
tions to present Randle Pole, clerk, at the 
next vacancy ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
v, no. 68. Randle Pole was rector of 
Hawarden in 1516. 

54 L. and P. Hen. VIII, iv, 3095 ; the 
king presented on account of the minority 
of the patron. 

Thomas Winter is usually stated to 
have been the son of Cardinal Wolsey, 
but was perhaps his nephew. He appears 
at this time to have been only a boy, and 
in 1519 was learning Latin. In 1528 
he was living in Paris, continuing his 
studies. The manner in which benefices 
and dignities (e.g. the deanery of Wells, 
the archdeaconries of York, Richmond, 
Suffolk, and Norfolk) were heaped upon 
this non-resident youth is a singular illus- 
tration of the zeal for Church reform 
sometimes attributed to Cardinal Wolsey. 
Winter appears to have resigned his pre- 
ferments at or soon after the cardinal's 
fall, and nothing more is known of him. 
See L. and P. Hen. VIII, iii, iv, and Le 

55 Lich. Epis. Reg. Blyth, xiii-xiv, fol. 
65^. The presentation, dated 20 Nov., 
was made by the king, the Earl of Derby 
being still a minor ; L. and P. Hen. VIII, 
iv, 2710. He received other church pre- 
ferments about this time, being probably 
William Bolen, Archdeacon of Win- 
chester, 1529 ; Le Neve, op. cit. iii, 26. 

For the bells, plate, and other orna- 
ments in 1552 see Ch. Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 

56 Act Bks. at Ches. Dioc. Reg. He 
paid his first-fruits 5 Apr. 1552 ; Lanes, 
and Ches. Recs. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), ii, 408. A fuller account of him 
will be found under Wigan, of which 
church, as also of North Meols, he was 
rector ; Bishop of Sodor and Man ; see 
Diet. Nat. Biog. 

In Oct. 1563 Bishop Stanley leased 
the rectory, including the manor and 
glebe, for ninety-nine years at a rent of 
120 to Sir Thomas Stanley. The Earl 
of Derby, father of the lessee, and the 
Bishop of Chester were consenting parties. 
This lease appears to have caused much 
difficulty and loss, and in 1618 the rector 
endeavoured to have it cancelled ; by a 



19 Mar. 1568-9 
7 Jan. 1575-6- 

1 8 Feb. 1596-7. 
27 Mar. 1616 . 
27 June 1626 

19 Oct. 1660 . 
24 July 1689 

30 July 1692 

9 Sept. 1725 . 

13 Sept. 1740 . 

18 May 1742 . 

24 Aug. 1764 . 


Christopher Thompson, M.A. 
John Caldwell, M.A. M . . 

Presented by 
Thomas Handford. 

Earl of Derby . . 

John Ryder, M.A. . . 
Josiah Home w . . . . 
Charles Herle, M.A. 61 . 
Thomas Jessop * . . . 
Richard Sherlock, D.D. G3 . 
Thomas Bennet, B.D. 64 . 
Hon. Henry Finch, M.A. 6i 
Francis Annesley, LL.D. M 
Hon. John Stanley, M.A. 6r 
Thomas Stanley, LL.D. 68 
Hon. John Stanley, M.A. * 

The King . . . 
Sir Edward Stanley 

Cause of Vacancy 
d. Bp. Stanley 
fdepr. or removal of 
{ Chr. Thompson 

prom. Bp. Ryder 
d. J. Home 

Earl of Derby .... 

John Bennet . . . . d. R. Sherlock 

Earl of Derby . . . . d. T. Bennet 

Trustees res. H. Finch 

Charles Stanley . . . d. F. Annesley 

Earl of Derby .... res. J. Stanley 

. . . . d. T. Stanley 

compromise the hall and manor were given 
to the rector, but the remainder continued 
to be held by the Earl of Worcester, Sir 
John and Dame Frances Fortescue, and 
Petronilla Stanley, representatives of Sir 
Thomas Stanley, whose son, Sir Edward, 
had left four daughters as co-heirs. It 
continued to give trouble until its expiry 
in 1662. See Beamont, Win-wick, 32, 
37, 41, 56 ; alio references in Lanes, and 
Cbes. Recs. ii, 263, 346. 

' Church Papers at Chester Dioc. Reg. 
Thomas Handford presented by grant of 
the Earl of Derby. The new rector paid 
his first-fruits 31 March 1569; Lanes, 
and Ches. Recs. ii, 409. He afterwards 
renounced Protestantism, went to Douay, 
and being ordained priest, was sent on the 
English mission in 1577; Knox, Douay 
Diaries, 8, 25, 276. He was very soon 
apprehended by the Earl of Derby ' as a 
vagrant person and one suspected of some 
lewd practices by reason of his passing to 
and fro over the seas ' ; Acts of Privy C. 
I 577~8, p. 309. After suffering seven 
years' imprisonment in the Marshalsea 
and Tower he was sent into exile in 
1585; Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc.), i, 70; 
ii, 228 ; Knox, op. cit. 288. 

48 Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 52. 
It appears that the Bishop of Chester 
claimed the presentation, perhaps by lapse, 
John Shireburne, B.D., being nominated 
by him (see Brindle). The Earl of Derby's 
nomination prevailed, and Caldwell paid 
his first-fruits on 20 Feb. 1575-6 ; Lanes, 
and Cbes. Recs. ii, 410. He was also 
rector of Mobberley ; Ormerod, Ches. 
(ed. Helsby), i, 412,428. He was one 
of the earl's chaplains, and a favourite 
preacher ; Derby Household Bks. (Chet. 
Soc.), 132, 133. 

49 Lanes, and Ches. Recs. ii, 411. He 
was born at Carrington in Cheshire, and 
educated at Jesus Coll. Oxf. ; M.A. 
1583. He had a number of preferments 
in England and Ireland, and does not 
seem to have resided at Winwick. On 
being made Bishop of Killaloe in 1613 
he was allowed to hold Winwick 'in 
commendam ' ; but resigned it in 1615 ; 
Foster, Alumni Oxon. ; Diet. Nat. Biog. 

John Andrews, M.A., was presented by 
the Earl of Worcester in 1609 ; Act 
Bks. at Ches. 

60 Lanes, and Cbes. Recs. ii, 412 ; Pat. 
13 Jas. I, pt. xxiii. The king presented 
on the ground that the previous rector 
had been appointed to a bishopric ; but 
the claim was challenged, and Thomas 
Bold, M.A., was presented by the Earl 
of Worcester ; later still John Mere, a 
prebendary of Chester, was presented. 
Home, however, retained the rectory till 
his death in 1626. There was a lecturer 

at Winwick, Mr. Golty, who paid 1 to 
a subsidy in 1622 : Misc. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 53, 65. 

61 From this point the dates of institu- 
tion have been taken from those in the 
Inst. Bks. P.R.O. printed in Lanes, and 
Cbes. Antiq. Notes. Herle paid his first- 
fruits I July 1628 ; Lanes, and Ches. Recs. 
ii, 412. This, the most distinguished of 
the modern rectors of Winwick, was born 
at Prideaux Herle, in Cornwall ; educated 
at Exeter Coll. Oxf.; M.A. 1618 , had 
various preferments, and was chaplain to 
the Countess of Derby ; was a zealous 
Puritan, and became president of the 
Westminster Assembly, 1643. He was 
not resident at Winwick during the war, 
but returned in 1650, and was buried at 
Winwick in 1659. See Diet. Nat. Biog.} 
Fuller, Worthies ,- Foster, Alumni Oxon. 
For his conduct in 1651 see Royalist 
Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
iii, 175. 

62 As early as 20 June 1660 Dr. Sher- 
lock petitioned for admission to the 
rectory, stating that he had been pre- 
sented by the true patron, whereas Mr. 
Jessop had only 'an illegal grant from 
the commissioners of the pretended Great 
Seal, after the interruption of the late 
Parliament so called ; ' Hist. MSS. Com. 
Rep. vii, App. 500. Mr. Jessop conformed, 
and in Oct. 1662 became vicar of Cog- 
geshall in Essex ; Baines, Lanes, (ed. 
Croston), iv, 359. 

68 Dr. Sherlock was a kinsman of 
Richard Sherlock, rector of Woodchurch, 
Cheshire ; educated at Trinity Coll., Dub- 
lin ; M.A. 1633 ; he was a zealous ad- 
herent of the royalist party during the 
Civil War, and employed by the Earl of 
Derby in the Isle of Man. He published 
various works, including Mercurius Chris- 
tianus ; the Practical Christian, in 1673 ; 
Diet. Nat. Biog. The 6th edition of the 
Practical Christian, printed in 1713, con- 
tains a portrait of Sherlock and a memoir 
by Bishop Wilson. He did not obtain full 
possession of Winwick for some time, 
owing to the disputes with his predecessor. 
He received a presentation or confirmation 
of the rectory from the king in 1663 ; 
Pat. i 5 Chas. II, pt. iv, no. 27. He con- 
stantly resided on his benefice and em- 
ployed three curates ; Beamont, Winwick, 
6 1. His will is printed in Wills (Chet. 
Soc. new ser.), i, 173. The inventory 
shows a library valued at 64. The 
funeral sermon, preached by his curate 
Thomas Crane (see Newburgh in Lathom), 
was printed ; N. and Q. (2nd Ser.), ii, 

2 33- 

M He was the son of John Bennet of 
Abingdon, Cambridgeshire ; educated at 
University Coll. Oxf. ; M.A. 1681 ; B.D. 


1689. He became master of the college 
in 1690, and died there 12 May 1692 ; 
Foster, Alumni Oxon. The patron for 
this turn was probably the John Bennet 
of Abingdon, who was one of the mem- 
bers for Newton from 1691 to 1695, and 
afterwards a master in Chancery ; Pink 
and Beaven, Lanes. Parl. Representation, 

65 A son of Sir Heneage Finch, Earl of 
Nottingham. He was educated at Christ's 
Coll. Camb., of which he was fellow ; 
M.A. 1682. His brother Edward was for 
a time rector of Wigan. Henry was in 
1702 made Dean of York, but held Win- 
wick also until 1725 ; Le Neve, Fasti, 
iii, 127. 

66 The patrons were the Earl of Angle- 
sey and Francis Annesley, trustees of the 
Hon. Henrietta Ashburnham, granddaugh- 
ter and heir of William, ninth Earl of 
Derby. Annesley was educated at Trinity 
Coll. Dublin ; LL.D. 1725 ; married 
Elizabeth Sutton, divorced 1725 ; and 
secondly, Anne, daughter and co-heir of 
Sir Robert Gayer, by whom he had a son 
Arthur, ancestor of the present Viscount 
Valentia ; Baines, op. cit. iv, 361. 

67 The patron exercised his right ac- 
cording to the wish of James, Earl of 
Derby. The earl's will reads ; ' To the 
same Charles Stanley (eldest son of 
Thomas Stanley, of Cross Hall, deceased), 
the first and next turn of presentation 
and right of nomination to the rectory 
of the parish church of Winwick, when- 
soever vacant ; providing he instituted 
the said Thomas Stanley (younger brother 
of Charles) if of age and ordained ; if 
not, then to appoint some other clerk 
who should give security to resign the 
said rectory when the said Thomas was 
of age, if then ordained.' 

The new rector was a younger son of 
Sir Edward Stanley of Bickerstaffe, who 
became Earl of Derby in 1735 ; educated 
at Sidney-Sussex Coll. Camb. of which he 
became a fellow ; M.A. 1717. He held 
many benefices Liverpool, 172610 1740; 
Winwick, 1740 to 1742, and 1764 to 
1781 ; Bury, 1743 to 1778 ; Halsall, 
1750 to 1757. For his character see 
Beamont, op. cit. 67. He took Winwick 
till his successor was ready. 

68 Of Trinity Hall, Camb.; LL.B. 1744; 
LL.D. 1757. Second son of Thomas 
Stanley of Cross Hall, Lathom ; from 
his son James descends the present owner. 
This was the relation the late earl had 
wished to appoint, but in 1735 he was at 
Cambridge, and had not been ordained 
when Dr. Annesley died ; Gregson, Frag- 
ments (ed. Harland), 285. 

69 He died 16 May 1781, and there is a 
tablet to his memory in Winwick Church. 




7 June 1781 

19 Dec. 1812 

Nov. 1855 

29 April 1890 


Presented by 

Geoffrey Hornby 70 

James John Hornby, M.A. 71 . . 
Frank George Hopwood, M.A. " . 
Oswald Henry Leycester Penrhyn, 

Earl of Derby 

Cause of Vacancy 
d. J. Stanley 
d. G. Hornby 
d. J. J. Hornby 
d. F. G. Hopwood 

As in the case of other benefices the earlier rectors 
were probably married ' clerks,' enjoying the principal 
part of the revenues of the church, and paying a 
priest to minister in the parish. Two sons of Robert, 
rector in 1232, are known. After the patronage had 
been transferred to the Stanleys the rectory became a 
' family living,' in the later sense. 

In the Valor of 1535 the only ecclesiastics men- 
tioned are the rector, two chantry priests at Winwick, 
and a third at Newton. 74 The Clergy List of I 5 4 1 -2 75 
shows three others as residing in this large parish, in- 
cluding the curate, Henry Johnson, paid by Gowther 
Legh, the rector's steward. The list is probably 
incomplete, for at the visitation of 1548 the names 
of fourteen were recorded the rector, his curate, 
Hugh Bulling, who had replaced Henry Johnson ; 
the three chantry priests and two others just named, 
and seven more. By 1554 these had been reduced 
to six the rector, his curate, Richard Smith, two of 
the chantry priests still living there, but only two of 
the others who had appeared six years earlier. In 
1562 a further reduction is manifest. The rector, 
Bishop Stanley, was excused from attendance by the 
bishop ; three others appeared, one being a surviving 
chantry priest, but the fifth named was absent. In 
the following year the rector was again absent ; the 
curate of Newton, the former chantry priest, did not 
appear ; but the curates of Ashton and Culcheth 
were present, and another is named. The improve- 
ment was only apparent, for in 1565 the rector, 
though present, non exhibuit, and only two other 
names are given in the Visitation List, and they are 
crossed out and two others written over them. It 
seems, therefore, that the working staff had been 
reduced to two Andrew Rider and Thomas Collier. 76 

How the Reformation changes affected the parish 
does not appear, except from these fluctuations and 
reductions in the staff of clergy. The rector was not 
interfered with on the accession of Elizabeth ; his 

dignity and age, as well as his family connexions, 
probably saved him from any compliance beyond em- 
ploying a curate who would use the new services. His 
successor became a