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Full text of "The Victoria history of the county of Lancaster. Edited by William Farrer and J. Brownbill"

GOLDWIN^S \\ITH 
HARRIETS>\ITH 




Dictorfa Ibfstor^ of tbe 
Counties of, Englanb 

EDITED BY WILLIAM PAGE, F.S.A. 



A HISTORY OF 



VOLUME V 



THE 

VICTORIA HISTORY 

OF THE COUNTIES 
OF ENGLAND 



LANCASHIRE 




LONDON 

CONSTABLE AND COMPANY LIMITED 



This History is issued to Subscribers only 

By Constable & Company Limited 

and printed by Eyre & Spottiswoode Limited 

H.M. Printers of London 




INSCRIBED 

TO THE MEMORY OF 

HER LATE MAJESTY 

QUEEN VICTORIA 

WHO GRACIOUSLY GAVE 
THE TITLE TO AND 

ACCEPTED THE 
- DEDICATION OF 
THIS HISTORY 



THE 

ICTORIA HISTORY 

OF THE COUNTY OF' 

LANCASTER 



EDITED BY 
WILLIAM FARRER, D.Lrrr., AND J. BROWNBILL, M.A, 



VOLUME FIVE 




LONDON 
C CONSTABLE AND COMPANY LIMITED 




DA 

670 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME FIVE 

PACK 

Dedication . . . ..... . . . . . . . . v 

Contents ............... ix 

List of Illustrations ...... ....... xi 

Editorial Note ......... ..... xiii 

Topography. General descriptions and manorial descents by W. FARRER, D Litt., and 
J. BROWNBILL, M A. Architectural descriptions by C. R. PEERS, M.A., F.S.A., 
and F. H CHEETHAM. Heraldic drawings and blazon by the Rev E E. DORLING, 
M.A., F.S.A 

Salford Hundred (continued} 

Deane ............... i 

Flixton ............. .42 

Radcliffe 56 

Prestwich-with-Oldham . . . . . . . . . . .67 

Bury 122 

Middleton 151 

Rochdale 187 

Bolton-le-Moors . . . . . . . . . . 2 35 

Index to Volumes III, IV, and V 305 

Corrigenda ............... 409 



C 



ix 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

View of Winander Meer, near Ambleside ......... Frontispiece 

Deane Church from the South-east ....... full-page plate, facing 4 

Halliwell : Smithills Hall : Garden Front ...... 14 

P^n . ......... 15 

,, East Side of Quadrangle . . . . . . . .16 

East Side ........... 17 

.8 

Kenyon Peel Hall, Plan . . . . . . . . . 32 

c. 1 88 1, before restoration . . full-page plate 34 



\ 
j 



} 

} ...... full-page plate, facing 60 

J 



> > ...... ,, ,, 

Gatehouse 

Oak Doors of Gatehouse 
Flixton Church : South-east View . . . . . . . . . . -43 

Shaw Hall .. ............ 49 

Urmston Hall : East Side ............ 53 

North Front ............ 54 

RadclifFe Tower, from the North-west 

, _ , 
the South-west 

Plan . ..... . 61 

Church, Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 

Interior looking East . . . . . . . . .63 

from the West ........... 64 

Prestwich Church, Plan ........... 69 

RadclifFe Church, c. 1850 

Prestwich in 1850 

Alkrington Hall .............. 84 

Tonge Hall ........... full-page plate, facing 86 

Plan . .87 

Oldham : Chamber Hall from the South-west 

Back of Chamber Hall showing old Barn 

Old Plan . ............. 100 

Church in 1824 ) 



) 

\ ........ full-page plate, facm? 70 

J 



) 

} ' ' f^P^ P^, facing 96 



> 



Werneth Old Hal] ' , 4 

Prestwich : Deyne Hall, taken down 1837 1 

TJ TT 11 

Royton Hall J 

Chadderton Hall .............. 1 1 8 

Foxdenton Hall . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 

Middleton Church . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 53 

Plan . -154 

Tower Arch . "I 

?..... fu/i-page plate, facing i c 6 
The Nave looking East J 

The Grammar School . . . . . . - . . .160 

Boar's Head Inn : The Front . . . . . . . . . .162 

xi 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PACK 

Hopwood Hall, from the South-east .... . full-page plate, facing 170 

Dining-room .... 172 

Drawing-room 174 

Great Lever Hall ") 

/"MJ /">l. II" " * * ' " * * " " " 

Old Chapel J 
Rochdale : Amen Corner . . . . . . . . . . . .192 

Church 195 

Castleton Hall 202 

Main Staircase ............ 203 

Butterworth : Belfield Hall, Plan 216 

... full-page plate, facing 216 

Clegg Hall 220 

Blatchinworth : Pike House, Littleborough . . . . . . . . .228 

Bolton : Old Parish Church, taken down 1866) 

_, . . , \ full-page plate, facing 238 
Market Place in 1 8 1 6 . . j 

Little Bolton Hall 253 

Tonge : Hall i' th' Wood ........ full-page plate, facing 256 

,, . . . . . . . . . . . .257 

Plans 258 

Darcy Lever Hall .......... full-page plate, facing 264 

Bradshaw Hall .......... 272 

Turton Tower, c. 1844 ......... 274 

270 

,, Plans 277 

from the South-east ....... full-page plate, facing 278 

Rivington : Seal of School, 1566 ............ 290 

Lostock Hall full-page plate, facing 298 



LIST OF MAPS 



Index Map to the Parish of Deane . . , 

Parishes of Radcliffe and Prestwich 

,i Parish of Bury . . . 

Middleton . . . 

Rochdale 

Bolton 



2 

57 

122 
152 

188 
236 



Zll 



EDITORIAL NOTE 

IN addition to those whose help has been acknowledged in previous 
volumes, the Editors desire to record their obligations to the following : 
Mr. H. Ince Anderton, Mr. S. Andrew, the late Mr. J. Dean, Lieut.- 
Col. Henry Fishwick, F.S.A., Mr. W. Hewitson, Rev. W. Nicholls, 
Mr. S. Partington, Colonel John Pilkington, F.S.A., Mr. J. P. Rylands, 
F.S.A., Mr. Giles Shaw, and the Town Clerks of Bolton, Heywood, 
Middleton, and Rochdale. 

For the use of plans and for information regarding the architec- 
ture of the county, the Editors are indebted to Messrs. Austin and Paley, 
Mr. W. D. Caroe, M.A., F.S.A., Mr. Jonathan Simpson, Mr. C. W. 
Sutton, M.A., Mr. Henry Taylor, F.S.A., Mr. Isaac Taylor, and 
Mr. Edgar Wood. 

For the use of photographs and blocks for illustrations the Editors 
desire to express their obligations to Sir Lees Knowles, Bart., Lieut.-Col. 
Fishwick, F.S.A., Lieut.-Col. Pilkington, F.S.A., Mr. A. B. Sparke and 
the Bolton Library Committee, and Mr. Giles Shaw. 



xni 



A HISTORY OF 
LANCASHIRE 



TOPOGRAPHY 



THE HUNDRED OF SALFORD 



(Continuation) 



DEANE 



RUMWORTH 
HORWICH 
HEATON 
HALLIWELL 



WESTHOUGHTON 
HULTON, LITTLE 
HULTON, MIDDLE 



HULTON, OVER 
FARNWORTH 

KEARSLEY 



This parish, originally the northern half of the 
parish of Eccles, takes its name from the dean or narrow 
wooded valley, on the edge of which the church stands. 1 
A little brook runs down the valley northward to the 
Croal. The whole was held of the lord of Manchester, 
in part directly and in part under the mesne fee of 
Barton. 1 The district measures about 8 miles from 
north-west to south-east, and has a total area of 
20,102 acres. The geological formation consists of the 
carboniferous rocks, the Coal Measures in the southern 
and central parts, the Gannister Beds and Millstone 
Grit in the northern that is, in Heaton, Horwich and 
Halliwell. The church stands as near as may be to 
the centre of its irregularly-shaped district. 

Of recent formation the parish has but little record 
beyond that of industrial progress, being largely in- 
fluenced by Bolton, within which a large portion of 
it is now included. 

The following is the present apportionment of the 
agricultural land : Arable land, 2,375 acres 5 P er ~ 
manent grass, 10,798 ; woods and plantations, 354. 
Details are given as follows : 





Arable 




Acres 


Deane 


2,071 


Deane 


IO 


Horwich 


4 6 


Smithills 


7 


Heaton 


2 


Farnworth 


4 


Kearsley 


235 



Grass 
Acres 

493 



1,811 

1,104 

1,199 

613 

284 



Woods, &c. 

Acres 

190 



5 

144 

15 



For assessment purposes it was divided into four 

quarters Rumworth, Farnworth, and Kearsley ; Hea- 

' ton, Horwich, and Halliwell ; Westhoughton ; the 

three Hultons. Each quarter contributed 1 14*. i\d. 



to the county lay of 1624, when the hundred had to 
raise ioo. 3 To the fifteenth Rumworth, together 
with Lostock in Bolton, paid 1 4*. ; Heaton with Halli- 
well, 1 3/. ; the three Hultons, I o/. ; Westhoughton, 
I5/. \d. ; Horwich was not reckoned, and Farn- 
worth and Kearsley were included with Barton-on- 
Irwell. 4 

The church of ST. MART is pictur- 
CHURCH esquely situated on high ground above a 
small stream that flows past it on the 
west, and consists of a chancel 28 ft. long by 19 ft. 6 in. 
wide, nave 71 ft. 6 in. by 20 ft. gin., north aisle 
1 3 ft. wide, with organ chamber at the east and vestry 
at the west end, south aisle 1 5 ft. wide, south porch 
and west tower 9 ft. square ; these measurements being 
all internal. With the exception of the tower the 
building belongs to different periods of the I5th and 
to the beginning of the i6th centuries, with modern 
additions. The tower is of 14th-century date, and 
probably belongs to an older church which the 15th- 
century building replaced. 

The church is built of rough wall-stones, and has 
battlemented parapets to chancel, nave, and aisles, with 
three crocketed pinnacles on the east end, and leaded 
roofs. The details are poor, the windows all being 
late in style, with rounded uncusped heads to the lights, 
the clearstory consisting of an almost continuous line 
of square-headed three-light windows. 

The church appears to have been originally a small 
14th-century building, the nave covering the area now 
occupied by the two westernmost bays of the present 
nave, probably without aisles and with a chancel and 
western tower. Early in the 1 5th century the church 
was extended eastward by the addition of two bays 
forming a new chancel, probably built round the for- 
merly existing one and taking up the space now occu- 



1 Rochdale is another parish taking its 
name from the position of the church ; 
Wilmslow in Cheshire, is another. There 
are no townships so named, but each of 



them gives its name to the village around 
the church. 

2 Part at least of Hulton was held in 
thegnage with Worsley, and the mesne 



lordship of Barton and therefore of Man- 
chester was usually ignored. 

8 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 22; 
also 15. 4 Ibid. 1 8. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



pied by the third and fourth bays of the nave. The 
next alteration to this 14th-century church, which 
had a steep-pitched roof, the line of which was re- 
vealed against the east wall of the tower in 1878 
and is still preserved in the plastered face, seems to 
have been the pulling down of the north side of the 
new chancel in the 1 5th century and extending it 
northward to the width of the present aisle. The 
two arches on this side are the oldest in the church, 
and are of different section from the others. Later 
the chancel and its northward extension were further 
extended by a bay, and the south side rebuilt with 
three arches opposite those on the north side. The 
original 14th-century nave appears to have been 
standing till the beginning of the 1 6th century, 4 when 
it was pulled down and the present nave arcade con- 
structed and the clearstory added, leaving a small 
portion of the 14th-century walls on the west end 
immediately to the east of the tower. The area of 
the original building and these three extensions now 
form the extent of the nave and aisles, a later exten- 
sion of the chancel having apparently taken place 
shortly afterwards, early in the i6th century. The 
chancel was lengthened a further loft, in 1884. 
The organ chamber north of the chancel was added 
in 1887. 

The chancel has a large seven-light pointed window 
on the east with central transom and plain perpen- 



dicular tracery in the head. The lights have rounded 
heads and are uncusped. On the north side is a 
modern arch to the organ chamber, and the south wall 
has a five-light flat-pointed window with double tran- 
som and rounded heads to the lights. The chancel 
is open to the nave, and is only less in width by the 
projection of the chancel walls in front of the nave 
piers. Both chancel and nave are under one continuous 
flat-pitched oak panelled roof of modern construction 
(1884), but following the old lines. 

The nave has an arcade of five pointed arches resting 
on octagonal piers, with moulded capitals, the arches 
of two plain chamfered orders, except to the earlier 
third and fourth bays on the north side, where the 
chamfers are hollowed. The second pier on the 
north side shows the junction of this earlier work with 
the later 15th-century work of the nave in the clumsy 
thickening out of the pier and the awkward way in 
which the western arch springs from it. The capitals 
of the first pier from the west on the north side and 
those of the later half of the thickened pier are carved 
with rude stone heads. The nave is lighted by an 
almost continuous row of square-headed clearstory 
windows, each of three lights with rounded heads, 
The aisles have lean-to roofs and wood and plaster 
ceilings, lighted by a double row of square-headed 
windows of three and four lights, the walls apparently 
having been raised and the upper windows intro- 



INDEX MAP 
to the 

PARISH 




6 The date 1510 is inscribed on one of the roof timbers ; Raines, Lanes. 

2 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



duced to light the galleries. The galleries were put 
up in 1849 and removed in 1884. The aisles extend 
the length of the nave, but the north aisle now ter- 
minates at the east with an open arch to the new 
organ chamber. There is an ancient piscina in the 
south-east corner, and a good pointed doorway of 14th- 
century date at the west end of the north wall opposite 
the first bay. This doorway, however, seems to have 
been originally on the west side of the tower and to 
have been removed to its present position when the 
new western tower entrance was constructed. The 
south aisle has a five-light transomed window under a 
flat-pointed arch at its east end. The south porch is 
modern. 

The tower, the ground floor of which is used as 
a vestry, has walls 4 ft. thick and opens to the 
nave by a pointed arch, above which, within the 
line of the old roof, is a doorway 4 ft. 6 in. high and 
2 ft. wide. The ringing chamber above is gained by 
a ladder, there being no vice, and the upper part of 
the arch is filled by a glazed screen. Externally the 
tower is very plain, with diagonal buttresses and a new 
west doorway and a window above. There is a clock 
in the south side, and the upper stage on each face has 
a square-headed two-light louvred belfry window, the 
lights with trefoiled heads. The tower finishes with 
an embattled parapet and angle pinnacles. 

The fittings are mostly modern, but there is a good 
1 6th-century black oak pulpit with back and canopy, 
the renaissance detail of which is rather elaborate. 6 
The interior of the church is plastered and painted, 
the walls of the chancel and nave having a series of 
figures of great English churchmen, principally leaders 
of the Protestant Reformation. In a glass case at the 
end of the nave are preserved the works of Bishop 
Jewell and other 16th-century Protestant books. 

The churchyard is very extensive and lies on the 
north, east, and south sides of the building, being 
entered from the road on the south through a stone 
lych-gate erected in 1903. It has been extended at 
different times, the last extensions being in 1876 and 
1893. The ancient yew tree on the south side is 
now dead, but the trunk and branches remain with a 
picturesque covering of ivy. On the same side is the 
base of a stone cross which formerly stood in Junction 
Road, before which it is stated that George Marsh 
spent a night in prayer before he gave himself up at 
Smithills. A new shaft has been erected on the old 
base with an inscription recounting the tradition. 63 



There is also a pedestal sundial on an octagon shaft 
with the name of the maker (W. Leigh, Newton) and 
the latitude and longitude. In the churchyard there 
were formerly effigies of a knight and a lady, but these 
have disappeared. 7 

There is a ring of six bells, rehung in 1873. 

The plate consists of a chalice of 1607 ; a chalice 
of 1655, incribed 'The guift of Mr. John Aynsworth 
unto the Parish Church of Deane in Lancasheire in 
the yeare of our Lord, 1655 '; a cover paten of the 
same year, inscribed ' The guift of Mrs. Judeth 
Hulton unto the Parish Church of Deane in Lan- 
casheire in the yeare of our Lord, 1655,' and with 
the arms of Hulton of Hulton ; a credence paten of 
1729, inscribed ' Ex donatione Annae Kenyon Viduae 
Georgii Kenyon, nuper de Peel in Com. Lane. 
Armigeri 1729,' with the arms of Kenyon impaling 
Egerton in a lozenge, and the mark of William 
Atkinson ; two patens of 1782, with the mark of 
Daniel Smith and Robert Sharpe 73 ; two small flagons 
of 1 80 1, inscribed 'Presented ist January 1828 to 
the Parish Church of Dean, by Jane Daughter of 
Peter Brooke, Esqre. of Mere Hall, Cheshire, and 
Relict of William Hulton, Esqre. of Hulton Park, 
who Died 24th June 1800'; a credence paten of 
1846, given by the parish in that year ; and a paten 
of 1901, Birmingham make, inscribed 'The gift of 
Mrs. Elizabeth Marsh unto the Parish Church of 
Dean, in Lanes., on the Coronation of Ed. VII, 
June 26, 1902.' 

The registers begin in 1637, but there are earlier 
transcripts at Chester. 

Although St. Mary's, Deane, is 
dDPOWSON mentioned in 13th-century deeds, 
and its chaplain described as ' parson,' 8 
it was not until 1541 that an independent parish was 
assigned to it. Until that year the chaplain had been 
nominated by the vicar of Eccles, within whose parish 
Deane was included, and had received from him 4 
a year as stipend. 9 Henry VIII, having after the 
suppression of Whalley Abbey constituted Deane a 
parish by letters patent, assumed the patronage, which 
till recently remained in the Crown, the vicar being 
appointed by the Lord Chancellor. The present 
patrons are Simeon's Trustees, by purchase in 1877.' 

Inquiries made in 1546 and 1549 showed that 
apart from the glebe the vicar had no fixed income 
beyond the 4 paid by the vicar of Eccles. 11 

In 1650 the vicar of Deane received, besides an 



6 The reredos and organ fronts were 
designed by the present vicar (Rev. H. S. 
Patterson), and the screen under the tower 
arch was made in the vicarage by village 
talent. 

6a Marsh's known doctrinal standpoint 
is adverse to the 'tradition.' 

' Glynne, Lanes. Churches, 95-6. 

" a These are not ecclesiastical plate, 
being really salvers or waiters on three- 
fhaped feet. 

8 ' Thomas, persona de la Dene,' at- 
tested a Great Lever deed, in favour of 
Siward son of Robert the chaplain of 
Deane ; Lever Chartul. (Add. MS. 32103), 
no. i. Waldeve was another of the early 
chaplains ' capellano de valle Sancte 
Marie ' ; Hulton Evidences, 3. 

Thomas de Perpoint granted to the 
monks of Stanlaw, holders of the church 
of Eccles, all his land by the chapel of 
St. Mary, Deane, the boundaries given 
showing the land to be the glebe land of 



the church ; viz. from the chapel ceme- 
tery on the west side as far as the Kirk 
Brook, then by the Muckle Brook to the 
ditch, and by a hedge to the east side of 
the cemetery. This grant was confirmed 
by Robert Grelley, lord of Manchester, in 
1276; Whalley Coucher (Chet. Soc.), i, 
6o-2. 

Farnworth in the parish of the Deane 
is so described in a charter of 1292 ; 
Lever Chartul. no. 52. 

Piers Crompton and Thomas Street 
were ' parish priests ' of Deane at dif- 
ferent times between 1505 and 1522 ; 
Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 104, 107. 

9 The vicar of Deane in 1544 claimed 
the pension of 4 a year, which the vicar 
of Eccles refused to pay on the ground 
that Deane having been made an inde- 
pendent parish he had no responsibility 
for it and received no dues from it. The 
appointment of a separate chaplain for 



Deane was referred back to an ordinance 
by the Bishop of Lichfield in 1277. The 
letters patent of Henry VIII ordered that 
the vicar of the new parish ' should have 
the cure of souls, say mass, and administer 
the sacraments, and bear all the charges 
belonging to the said vicarage, provided 
always that the said vicar should not 
receive of the king any higher stipend 
than the late chaplain had' ; ibid, ii, 
197-9. 

10 The advowson was sold by the Lord 
Chancellor under the Act 26 & 27 Viet, 
cap. 1 20, known as the Lord Chancellor's 
Augmentation Act ; information of Messrs. 
Sandilands & Co., solicitors to Simeon's 
Trustees. 

11 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 234. In 
the inquiry of 1546 the value of the 
glebe was stated as 1 31. \d., and it was 
said that the 4 was paid by the farmer 
of the tithes ; this was corrected in the 
later inquiry. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



old stipend of jlo, lla a share of the rectorial tithes, 
sequestered from a * delinquent,' Mr. Anderton of 
Lostock. 12 Bishop Gastrell recorded the income as 
18 1 9/., of which 5 was from surplice fees and 
10 was paid by the impropriator of the tithes; 

The following is a list of the vicars : 



20 



Institution 

Feb. 1541-2 
oc. 1563 . . 

15 Oct. 1575 . 
31 Mar. 1593 

- 1597 . . . 
i Mar. 1636-7 . 
Aug. 1643. . . 
19 Nov. 1662 

2 June 1663 
22 Nov. 1673 

4 Dec. 1673 
13 Jan. 1712-3 . 
29 May 1767 
13 June 1776 

16 April 1818 . 

6 Feb. 1830 . 

7 April 1855 . 
May 1868 . 

7 April 1877 . 



Name 

William Rothwell 16 . 

Richard Ormishaw K . 

David Dee, M.A. IS . 

Lancelot Clegge 19 . . 

James Pendlebury 10 . 
Richard Hardy, M.A." 
John Tilsley, M.A. 

I John Angier, M.A. n . 

[Richard Hatton 14 . . 

James Rothwell, B.A. K 
Thomas Withnell, M.A. 



but in 1714 money and lands to the value of 700 
were given in augmentation. 13 The value of the 
benefice is now stated as 400 a year." 

In 1724 there were eleven churchwardens, each 
hamlet choosing one by house-row. 15 



Patron Cause of Vacancy 

King d. last inc. 



Queen d. last inc. 



King 



King 



. . . Queen d. R. Hatton 

. . . King d. J. Rothwell 

Robert Lathom, M.A. " , ...:.. d. last inc. 

Thomas Brocklebank l8 . . . . d. R. Lathom 

Edward Girdlestone, M.A. w . . res. T. Brocklebank 

Francis Henry Thicknesse, D.D. so . Queen res. E. Girdlestone 

William Bashall, M.A. S1 . . . . res. F. H. Thicknesse 

Henry Sheridan Patterson M . . . Simeon's Trustees . . . res. W. Bashall 



lla It does not seem to be known when 
this 10 was granted by the tithe owner. 

12 Commoniv. Cb. Stint. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 37. The remainder 
of the parochial tithes was divided among 
the chapelries. 

In 1723 Sir Lawrence Anderton sold to 
Francis Loggin (Colston) the rectory (i.e. 
the tithes, &c.) ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 289, m. 93. Francis Coulston sold 
it to James Edge in 1734; Piccope MSS. 
(Chet. Lib.), iii, 250 (from Roll 5, Geo. II 
at Preston); and in 1735 Ralph Banks pur- 
chased it from James Edge ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 313, m. 39. By 1782 a 
moiety seems to have been acquired by the 
Kenyons ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 635, m. 2. 

18 Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 37, 38. 
The augmentation consisted of 107 in 
money and a house and lands worth 420, 
held for that or other charitable use at the 
discretion of the trustees ; 200 was added 
by Queen Anne's Bounty. 

Giles Marsh, by his will of 1615, left 
10 towards the procuring of a yearly 
stipend for the curate at the Deane 
Church, for a school; Harl. MS. 2176, 
fol. 32. 

14 Munch. Dioc. Dir. 

15 Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 39. 

16 Act Bks. at Chester. Paid first- 
fruits 28 June 1542; Lanes, and Ches. 
Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 
408. William Rothwell was one of the 
king's chaplains ; Ch. Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 
28. He was still vicar in 1552 ; ibid. 

*' Nothing is known of the clergy at 
Deane between 1552 and 1563, when 
Richard Ormishaw's name is recorded in 
the visitation list. A Richard Ormishaw, 
vicar of Acton in Cheshire, died 1559. 

18 The Church P. at Chester Dioc. 
Reg. begin here. The surname is other- 
wise given as Dewhurst. He was ' no 
preacher* in 1590; S.P. Dom. Eliz. 
xxxi, 47. 19 Church Papers. 

20 In 1 60 1 he was charged with drunken- 
ness, fornication, and other offences ; he 
was in addition ' suspected not to be of 
sound religion ' ; Visit. P. at Chester. 



About 1612 he was described as 'a lewd 
(i.e. unlearned) minister, neither preacher 
himself, nor will suffer any other to 
preach ' ; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. 
iv, 12. Nothing is said of any chapelries. 

He contributed 131. 4</. to a subsidy in 
1622, the lecturer (or curate), Mr. Hor- 
rocks, paying 3 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 66. 

81 The institutions from 1636 to 1776 
are taken from the Inst. Bks. P.R.O. as 
printed in Lanes, and Cbes. Antiq. Notes. 

Richard Hardy signed the Protestation 
early in 1642 but is said to have been 
expelled as a Royalist. 

22 Educated at Edinburgh, laureated 
1637 ; a minister at Deane under Alex- 
ander Horrocks of Westhoughton in 1641 5 
married Margaret daughter of Ralph 
Chetham and niece of Humphrey Chet- 
ham ; showed himself a zealous and in- 
tolerant Presbyterian on the outbreak of 
the Civil War ; promoted to the vicarage 
of Deane in August 1643 ; signed the 
'Harmonious Consent,' 1648; described 
as ' a painful, godly, preaching minister ' 
in 1650, about which time he, like many 
other Presbyterians, refused to take the 
engagement and suffered a temporary loss 
of his benefice. He assisted in the forma- 
tion of the Chetham Library, having been 
nominated a trustee by the founder. 
Ejected from the vicarage in 1662, he was 
allowed to reside in the house, and with 
the goodwill of the new vicar and the 
tolerance of Bishop Wilkins afterwards 
preached in Deane Church, as the 
'lecturer,' until Bishop Pearson silenced 
him in 1673. After this he retired to 
Manchester, where he died in Dec. 
1684. From a full account by J. E. 
Bailey in Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 
191, 205 ; ii, 102 ; see also Diet. Nat. 
Biog.) ; will in ffills (Chet. Soc. new ser.), 
i, 169. 

28 Only son of the celebrated John 
Angier of Denton (see Diet. Nat. Biog.] ; 
born 1629 ; sent to Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, and being (as it is supposed) 
expelled, went to New England, graduat- 



ing M.A. at Harvard in 1655. Return- 
ing to England he was ordained in 1657 
and placed at Ringley. Conforming he 
was made vicar of Deane in 1663, where 
it is supposed he stayed till his death ; 
Manch. Classis (Chet. Soc.), 408-10. 

24 This vicar seems to have been a 
Presbyterian at heart ; the second institu- 
tion was necessary because he had not re- 
nounced the Covenant. He connived at 
the occupation of Horwich Chapel by 
a Nonconformist ; Notitia Cestr. (Chet. 
Soc.) ii, 42, 43 ; Ch. P. at Chester. He 
was, of course, 'conformable' in 1689; 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 229. 
His will was proved at Chester, 1712. 

25 Son of Ralph Rothwell of Bolton ; 
educated at Brasenose College, Oxford ; 
B.A. 1711 ; Foster, Alumni Oxon. He 
purchased the advowson of Sefton, to 
which his son and grandson succeeded. 
He died 1 6 May 1766. 

26 Educated at Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford ; M.A. 1755; Foster, Alumni; 
Manch. Sch. Reg. (Chet. Soc.), i, 31. His 
presentation is dated 2 June 1766. 

27 Son of Nicholas Lathom of Wigan ; 
educated at Brasenose College, Oxford ; 
M.A. 17763 Foster, Alumni. 

28 He had been curate of Bradshaw. 

89 Educated at Balliol College, Oxford ; 
M.A. 1829. In 1854 he was appointed 
residentiary canon of Bristol, and resigned 
Deane. He was beneficed in the west of 
England, and distinguished himself by 
his interest in the condition of the agri- 
cultural labourers. He died at Bristol in 
1884; see Diet. Nat. Biog.; Baines, 
Lanes, (ed. Croston), iii, 131. 

80 Educated at Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford ; M.A. 1854; hon. canon of Man- 
chester 1863 ; vicar of Brackley 1868 ; 
Bishop of Leicester (suffragan of Peter- 
borough), 1888. 

81 Educated at St. John's College, Ox- 
ford ; M.A. 1855 ; left Deane to be curate 
at St. Barnabas's, Kensington. 

32 Educated at the Church Missionary 
College, Islington, and served in India 
1862-6 ; rector of Bartlow, 1872-7. 




p 
a 

u 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



There does not seem to have been any regularly 
founded chantry at Deane, but in 1522 Richard 
Heaton stated that he had caused an aisle to be built 
in the church, which he calls a * parish church,' and 
paid most of the charge ; and had, in addition, 
* edified a chapel of timber ' in the aisle, wherein was 
an altar, with images of the Holy Trinity and 
St. Anne. 31 In 1552 Lambert Heaton claimed a 
chalice and suit of mass vestments in Deane Church 
as heirlooms. 34 

The Clergy List of 1541-2 shows that there were, 
in addition to the vicar, two priests whose stipends 
were paid by two of the squires ; 35 there were pro- 
bably at least two more attached to the chapels at 
Westhoughton and Horwich, for in 1548 the vicar 
and six others were recorded in the bishop's visitation 
list. There is no entry in 1554. The staff had 
dwindled to three by I563 36 the vicar and the 
curates of the two chapels ; and two years later one of 
the curates had gone, the vicar, Richard Ormishaw, 
and the curate of Horwich, Peter Makinson, being 
those recorded. 37 In 1592 it was reported that the 
curate did not catechize, and that the annual per- 
ambulations were neglected. 38 



In the I yth century some improvement was 
effected, but the normal staff does not seem to have 
risen above three, even under the Commonwealth. 39 
From the account of the vicars it will be seen that 
clergy and people were of the Puritan school, one of 
the chapels after the Restoration being held by Non- 
conformists for many years. Here, as elsewhere in 
South Lancashire, the growth of the population has 
led in recent times to the erection of many new 
churches and the subdivision of the parish. 

Reports on the charities of Deane 
CHARITIES have been made m 1828 and I9O2. 40 
For the whole parish there is a small 
endowment supposed to be part of a greater sum ; the 
interest has been added to the church poor's money. 41 
Farnworth shares in several charities. 41 Kearsley also 
shares some. 43 A special benefaction for Little Hulton 
has been lost. 44 The poor of Horwich receive 84 
from the legacy of Joseph Ridgway, and there are 
some other charities. 45 For Westhoughton there are 
no endowments for the poor. 46 Middle Hulton has a 
share in two Worsley gifts. 47 Rumworth receives 60 
a. year from a farm given by Ralph and James Cromp- 
ton. 48 



83 Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes. 
and Ches.) i, in. Certain evildoers had 
entered the church by night and destroyed 
the timber work of his chapel. John 
Hulton of Farnworth in 1486 bequeathed 
20 marks to the building of a north aisle, 
and a missal for the use of the chapel 
there to be ' bygget ' ; Wills (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 23. 

M Ch. Gds. 27. 

84 Clergy List (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), 13. 

86 John Heaton in 1559 was in danger 
of losing house and goods for taking away 
a mass book from the curate of Deane 
* since the Queen's Majesty's proceedings '; 
all the books were burned ; Ch. Gds. 30, 
quoting S.P. Dom. Eliz. x, 286, &c. 

8 7 From the Visit. Lists at Chester. 
The list of ornaments in Cb. Gds. 26, 27, 
shows that the church was well supplied, 
there remaining in 1552 eight sets of 
vestments ; others had disappeared. There 
were also ' sixteen pieces of old linen used 
about the sepulchre.' 

88 Lanes, and Cbes. Antiq. Soc. xix, 60. 
Sir Gilbert Gerard, farmer of the bene- 
fice, did not provide quarterly sermons. 

89 The ' lecturer ' at Deane was also 
curate of Westhoughton. 

40 For the later inquiry there are two 
reports one for the part of the ancient 
parish now within the borough of Bolton, 
and the other for the remainder. 

41 Deane was entitled to a share of 500 
bequeathed by John Guest, for Bury and 
other places. This is supposed to have 
been represented by ,63, which in 1786 
was in the hands of John and James Edge 
of Moss, who paid 3 31. as interest. 
About 1 8 1 8 payment ceased on the death 
of the last of that branch of the family, but 
the vicar of Deane afterwards succeeded 
in recovering 100 from its representa- 
tives for principal and interest. This was 
invested in a plot of land and a house, the 
rent of which was for a long time 9 a 
year. Owing to disputes as to the exact 
area of the site, and the dilapidation of 
the building, the income has declined. 

A sum of money formerly producing 4 
a year had been lost before 1828. 

48 George Seddon in 1664 left ,100 
for the poor of Farnworth and Kearsley, 



to be spent on linen and woollen cloth. 
The overseers of the townships now receive 
z los. a year, which is distributed in 
doles of cloth. 

Farnworth, Little Hulton, Middle Hul- 
ton, and Westhoughton participate in the 
1,100 memorial fund raised to comme- 
morate the Hon. Algernon Egerton ; the 
interest is given towards scholarships. 

43 See last note. Kearsley also shares 
in the charities of William Baguley, 
founded in 1728 ; the income is distri- 
buted in doles of calico, &c. Jonathan 
Greenhalgh gave 20 to build a culvert, 
on condition that the township should 
give i a year to the poor in linen cloth. 
This was still in operation in 1828, but 
had ceased long before 1862. Anne Cross 
in 1814 left 200, the interest of which 
was to be divided yearly among ten aged 
and infirm poor men and women. The 
capital is now represented by 193 con- 
sols. The interest is distributed accord- 
ing to the testator's wishes. 

44 About 1828 there was a rent-charge 
of i, which had been paid for forty 
years at least for the poor from some un- 
known source. The payment was after- 
wards discontinued, apparently on the 
death of a trustee. The trustees of the 
charity of Adam Mort of Astley used to 
give us. a year to the poor of Little 
Hulton, but this was judged irregular and 
discontinued. 

45 Joseph Ridgway, by his will of 1841, 
left about 15,000 for charitable uses in 
Horwich and a large sum for a school in 
Bolton. The sum apportioned to the poor 
is distributed in articles of clothing or 
bedding, the average value of the dole 
being 71. 

Richard Pilkington in 1786 left 50, 
and Morris left 15 for the poor of 
Horwich. In 1828 it was found that 
the trustees had built a cottage on Kit- 
field with the money, and the rent, 5 101., 
was distributed in linen cloth. The gross 
rent is now over 7 a year, and is distri- 
buted every few years in doles of calico, 
&c., preference being given to poor persons 
attending the New Chapel. Robert 
Greenhalgh in 1807 left two cottages 
partly for the minister of this chapel and 
partly for the poor ; the latter portion of 



the income now amounts to 9 131. a 
year, and is distributed periodically in 
calico, &c. The benefactor desired a 
preference to be given to those attending 
the chapel. 

From the estate of Richard Shaw, who 
died 'm 1897, a net sum of 185 has 
been received by the trustees of Lee 
Congregational Chapel for the benefit of 
the poor ; the interest is given in food and 
clothing. 

In 1802 Thomas Schofield conveyed a 
piece of land for the benefit of the land- 
owners of the township. He is ' believed 
to have been a defaulting overseer, and to 
have given this land in payment of a debt 
of 79 due to the parish.' The Lee Mill 
has been built upon the land, for which a 
rent of 6 zs. %d. is paid. At one time 
this money was distributed among the 
poor ; then it was allowed to accumulate 
for many years, and has been applied to 
the provision of a free library. 

4S In 1828 3 was paid by the over- 
seers out of the rates, and distributed to 
the poor in doles of linen cloth, in respect 
of a gift by Ann Rycroft and France, 
which was supposed to have been used for 
the repair of the workhouse. The work- 
house was sold, and the payment of the 
3 ceased, there being no proof of the 
advance of charity money towards it. 

4 7 The Algernon Egerton Memorial Fund 
has been mentioned. The other is the 
charity of Dame Dorothy Legh, who in 
1656 gave money for the minister of 
Ellenbrook Chapel and the poor of Wors- 
ley and Middle Hulton. A place called 
Common Head in Tyldesley was pur- 
chased, and in 1828, according to old 
custom, a quarter of the rent was reserved 
for the poor, one-third of the sum (about 
5 IOJ.) being given to the overseer of 
Middle Hulton, who distributed it at his 
discretion. The share for this township 
is still one-twelfth, but now amounts to 
30 a year. Doles of blankets, &c., to 
the value of 51. or ioj. are distributed. 

43 Ralph Crompton, M.D., by his will 
of 1623, and James Crompton his brother 
in 1636 left a sum which with interest 
amounted to 442 by 1653, chiefly for 
the school at Deane, but in part for the 
poor. In 1828 the estate appropriated to 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



RUMWORTH 

Rumh worth, 1242 ; Rumworth, 1278 ; Rum- 
\vrth, 1292 ; Romeworthe, 1346. 

Rumworth is the central township, and contains the 
parish church. It measures about 2^ miles from east 
to west, but the average breadth is a little over a mile ; 
the area is 1,244 acres. The River Croal forms the 
northern boundary, and from it the surface rises to 
the south. In the western part of the township is the 
reservoir called Rumworth Lodge. 

The main road is that from Bolton to Wigan, 
passing by Deane Church ; to the east is that from 
Bolton to Tyldesley, on which is the hamlet or suburb 
of Daubhill. The London and North Western 
Company's line from Bolton to Kenyon crosses the 
eastern end, with a station called Rumworth and 
Daubhill. 

In 1901 the population of Rumworth and Middle 
Hulton was 14,053. 

Agriculture is still an important industry ; there are 
collieries ; and cotton manufactures and bleach works 
are carried on. 

The Bolton Industrial School is in Rumworth. 

Part of the township was incorporated with Bolton 
in 1872 ; the remainder was added in 1898. 

RUMWORTH was in 1212 joined 
M4NOR with Lostock in Bolton as the third part 
of a knight's fee, held of the lords of 
Manchester. 1 In later times the Andertons of Lostock 
claimed a manor in Rumworth,* but the Hultons of 
Hulton and Farnworth were usually said to hold the 
third part of a fee in Rumworth and Lostock, per- 
forming suit of court and rendering for sake fee 4*. 6</., 
for ward of Lancaster Castle 3/. 6d., and puture of 
the serjeant and foresters. 3 The last-named service 
was commuted into payments of zSs. and i6s. re- 



spectively from the fourteen oxgangs of land in Rum- 
worth, and the eight oxgangs of Lostock. 4 

With Farnworth the manor of Rumworth was pur- 
chased by the Hultons of Over Hulton, and has 
descended in this family. 5 Sir Charles Tempest, the 
heir of the Andertons, had a large estate in the town- 
ship. 

The local surname occurs, 6 but nothing is known of 
the family. 

The Hospital of the Savoy had a rent-charge of 
5 marks out of the manor of Rumworth. 7 

The contributors to the land tax in 1789 were 
Henry Blundell, who paid nearly five-sixths, Black- 
burne, and William Hulton. 8 

The inclosure award is preserved at Preston. 

The parish church of Deane has been described 
above. St. George the Martyr's, Daubhill, was built 
in 1880 ; the patronage is vested in trustees. 9 

The school at Deane was endowed in 1636 ; it 
probably existed already. 



HORWICH 

Harewych, 1277 ; Horewyche, 1327. 

The township of Horwich has an area of 3,254^- 
acres, 1 and measures about 3 miles from north to 
south, by 2 miles across. The highest point, 1,475 ft., 
is in the extreme north ; from this the ground slopes 
downward to the south, but most rapidly to the west, 
where about 3 50 ft. is reached. Along the south- 
western border the Coal Measures occur, on Wilders 
and Horwich Moors the Millstone Grit, and in the 
intermediate slopes the Gannister Beds or Lower Coal 
Measures. 

A little to the south of the Rivington Reservoirs 
lies the town of Horwich, built at the junction of two 



the latter service was a copyhold farm 
(Bannister's) in Tottington Lower End, 
let at 38 a year, which sum was distri- 
buted in gifts of money from lot. to 2os. 
each. The rent has increased to 60 a 
year, and is now distributed in doles of 
blankets, sheets, and flannel of the value 
of js. each. 

John Laithwaite in 1728 left 10 for 
a bread charity. For some time IQJ. a 
year, afterwards increased to 2OJ., was 
given in bread out of the rents of the 
Crompton Charity, it being understood 
that the capital had been expended in 
improvements of that estate. The special 
payments for bread had ceased by 1828, it 
being thought better to use the rent other- 
wise. 

1 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 5 5. The heirs of Thomas de 
Pierpoint then held them, and Richard de 
Pierpointin 1242 ; ibid. 154. Rumworth 
and Lostock together had three plough- 
lands. 

a See for instance Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 156, m. 174, relating to a settle- 
ment in 1654. The Andertons' title was 
derived from the Athertons of Atherton, 
who had lands in the township, held (with 
Lostock, &c.) by a rent of nd^ but do 
not appear to have claimed a manor ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, 39 ; viii, 
40. 

Richard son of Thomas de Pierpoint 
was defendant to a claim for a tenement 
in Rumworth in 1276 ; Assize R. 1238, 
m. 31. In 1 282 and 1302 William son of 
William de Anderton and Almaria his 



wife held Rumworth [and Lostock] for 
the third part of a knight's fee ; Lanes. Inq. 
and Extents, i, 248, 314. In 1292 William 
de Anderton and Almarica his wife were 
defendants jointly with John de Bradshaw 
and Cecily his wife, in a claim put forward 
by Robert de Sunderland respecting land 
and a share of the waste in Rumworth ; 
Almarica was the daughter and heir of 
Thomas de Pierpoint, while Cecily had 
dower ; Assize R. 408, m. 9. 

The Athertons' holding in Lostock and 
Rumworth was the subject of disputes in 
1337 and 1347 ; ibid. 1424, m. 8 ; 1435, 
m. 1 8. 

8 The title of the Hultons appears to 
have been derived from a purchase made 
by Richard de Hulton in 1310, Almarica 
or Ameria, widow of William de Anderton, 
selling the manor ; Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 4. 

The details in the text are from the 
survey of 1320, Richard de Hulton being 
tenant ; Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), 288, 
341. In 1331 Richard de Hulton claimed 
certain tenements in Rumworth from 
John la Warre and Joan his wife, but did 
not proceed ; Assize R. 1404, m. 27. 

John de Hulton, of Manchester and of 
Farnworth, received lands in Rumworth 
from Richard de Hulton, who made a 
division of his estates about 13 34; ibid. 
1435, m - 4- In 1346 the heirs of 
John son of Henry de Hulton were re- 
turned asholdingthe third part of a fee in 
Rumworth and Lostock which the Pier- 
points had formerly held ; Feod. of 20 Edw. 
Ill in Harl. MS. 2042, fol. 181. In 1473 



John Hulton held the lordship of Rum- 
worth by the ancient services, rendering 
for sake fee 31., and for castle ward 
2J. 4</. two-thirds of the earlier pay- 
ments; Mamecestre, 480, 496. The manor 
remained with the Farnworth branch of 
the family till the middle of the I7th 
century. Thus William Hulton of Farn- 
worth was in 1556 found to have held it 
of the lord of Manchester by the third 
part of a knight's fee and the rent of 
4*. 6d. ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. x, 32 ; 
see also Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), iii, 470. The manors of 
Farnworth and Rumworth were subjects 
of fines in 1658 and 1659 ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 163, m. 67 ; 164, m. 52. 

4 Extent of 1322 in Mamecestre, 377, 
401 ; the remaining two oxgangs in Rum- 
worth must have been the glebe of Deane 
Chapel. 

5 The manor of Rumworth is expressly 
included with Over Hulton in a settle- 
ment of 1738 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 321, m. 3. 

6 In 1292 Ellen, widow of Richard de 
Lostock, alleged that Mabel, wife of 
Henry de Rumworth, was keeping two 
charters from her; Assize R. 408, m. 13. 
Richard son of Henry de Rumworth had 
lund in Middleton near Bury in 1317; 
Final Cone, ii, 22. 

"' Ch. Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 30. 

8 Land tax returns at Preston. 

9 For a legacy to it see End. Charities 
Rep. (Bolton Borough) for 1904, p. 129. 

1 3,257, including 39 of inland water ; 
Census Rep. 1901. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



roads from Bolton, which are the principal ones tra- 
versing the township. To the south-east of the town 
are the great locomotive works of the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Railway Company, the main industry of 
the place. The company has a short branch from 
the Bolton and Preston line, with a terminus at 
Horwich, opened in 1870. There is an electric 
tramway to Bolton. The Thirlmere aqueduct passes 
through the township. 

To the hearth tax of 1666 the largest house con- 
tributing was that of Thomas Anderton, with six 
hearths ; the total number was seventy-six.* 

The population in 1901 numbered 15,084. 

Great bleach works and cotton mills have long been 
carried on here, also calico printing. There are fire- 
brick and tile works, important stone quarries, and 
several collieries. The northern part of the township 
is moorland ; the chief crop is grass. 

A local board was formed in 1872 ; 3 this in 1894 
became an urban district council, the township being 
divided into four wards, each returning three mem- 
bers. The meetings are held in the Public Hall, 
built in 1878. The Railway Mechanics' Institute 
was built in 1887-8. 

There is a weekly newspaper. 

The moor was inclosed in i8i5-i8. 4 The Hor- 
wich race meetings lasted from 1837 to 1847.* Pace- 
eggs used to be collected by the children on the 
Sunday before Easter. 6 



The two pyramidal cairns called the Two Lads are 
variously supposed to mark the resting-places of two 
sons of early kings, or of two boys who lost their way 
on the moor and died of exposure. 7 

HQRW1CH was the forest or chase of 
MJNOR the barons of Manchester, 8 by whom it 
had been afforested perhaps as early as the 
reign of Henry I. Hence it first appears in the re- 
cords as the scene of poaching raids, headed some- 
times, it would appear, by neighbouring gentry. 9 
Various surveys have been preserved, 10 that of 1322 
being very full. It states that in Horwich there were 
sixteen plots of pasture, not measured because of their 
extent in wood and open ground, and two of these 
plots made a vaccary or booth. After describing the 
eight vaccaries, the extent proceeds : ' The wood of 
Horwich contains a circuit of sixteen leagues, and is 
yearly worth in pannage, aeries of eagles, herons and 
goshawks, in honey, millstones, and iron mines, in 
charcoal-burning, and the like issues, 6os. ; of which 
the vesture in oaks, elms, and wholly covered with 
such, 1 60 marks. The said wood is so thoroughly 
several that no one may enter there without licence, 
and of every beast found there without licence the 
owner shall give for that trespass 6</., by fixed cus- 
tom.' " 

In course of time the woods were cleared and Hor- 
wich became an ordinary agricultural township ; but 
the survey of 1473 gives only four tenants' holdings. 18 



3 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 
8 Land. Gaz. 20 Aug. 1872. 

4 Hampson, Harwich, 191 ; by Act of 
55 Geo. Ill, cap. 31 (private). 

5 Hampson, op. cit. 229-35. 

6 Ibid. 239. 

7 Ibid. 36, 37. On pp. 67-70 is related 
the story of a ghost-laying exploit of the 
Rev. S. Johnson, curate of Horwich. 

8 Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xix, 1 7. 

9 In 1 246 John de Blackburn gave a 
mark for licence to concord with Thomas 
Grelley in a plea ' as to why they chased 
in his forest ' ; Richard de Ollerton and 
Henry de Whalley also giving a mark for 
a similar licence. The three acknow- 
ledged that they had no right to chase in 
the forest of Horwich, and that in future 
neither they nor their heirs should chase 
therein without the leave of Thomas 
Grelley and his heirs ; Assize R. 404, 
m. 8. 

Eight years afterwards a number of men, 
with dogs, bows, and cross-bows, entered 
Thomas Grelley's parks in Manchester 
and his forest of Horwich and took and 
carried off the wild animals therein ; like- 
wise seizing the forester and abducting 
him ; Lanes. Inj. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 193. 

Again in 1277 Robert Grelley pro- 
secuted Martin de Rumworth and Robert 
son of Robert de Leigh for carrying off 
the deer of Horwich Wood ; De Banco 
R. 21, m. 57 d. 

A century later Sir John La Warre 
impleaded Nicholas de Worthington and 
others for cutting down trees and breaking 
closes at Horwich ; ibid. 459, m. 38, 
10 d. ; 463, m. 6. 

10 A brief extent of 1282 is printed in 
I<ancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 247 ; there were 
then eight vaccaries, worth 19 yearly ; 
pannage and the eyries of sparrow-hawks 
were worth 40*. There wete three 
foresters. 

In 1322 it was stated that these three 
foresters gave to the lord for their 



bailiwick, one year with another, 4. 
They answered to the lord for all agist- 
ments and trespasses, pannage, honey, vert 
and venison, &c. They were sustained 
by the townships lying adjacent to the 
forest ; this being charged on Lostock as 
8 oxgangs of land ; Rumworth, 14 ; Hea- 
ton, 4 ; Halliwell, 3 ; Sharpies, 4 ; Long- 
worth, 2 ; and Anderton, 7 ; the total 
being (inaccurately) given as 40 oxgangs. 
At the hawks' nesting time the people of 
these townships, being warned by the 
foresters, gathered at Horwich Lee, and, 
after being sworn, were sent through the 
forest to see what nests had been made ; 
from this time until St. Barnabas the 
foresters themselves had to keep watch in 
the forest day and night. When the 
young hawks were hatched the villagers 
were again sent through the forest to 
collect the nestlings, which they had to 
deliver to the foresters or bailiffs of the 
lord ; see Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), 376, 

377- 

11 Ibid. 366, &c. 

The eight vaccaries are thus described: 

1. Aquous Booth Lee (wood) and Little 
Hordern (moor), together with 531.4^. a 
year, furnished also ten carts of hay ; 

2. Ridley (wood) and Sharpen Lee 
(moor), 6oj. and twelve loads of hay ; 

3. Calverley (wood) and Wild Boars 
Clough or Great Hordern (moor), 53*. 4^.5 

4. Wilderhurst (wood) and Brodned 
(moor), 66s. %d. and twelve loads of hay ; 

5. Lestold (meadow and pasture), 6oj. 
and twenty loads ; 

6. Hardersollins (moor) ; 

7. Horwich Lee (wood) and Egberden 
or Haghead (moor), 66s. 8J. and one load 
of hay ; 

8. Oaken Lee (wood) and Egberden or 
Withinrod (moor), 66s. 8</. and twenty 
loads. 

In 1430 Lord La Warre granted to 
feoffees lands called Oaken Lee Wood, 
Wilderswood, Calverley Wood, &c., with 
all oaks growing at Horwich Lee, at a 



rent of 26^ marks ; Anderton of Lostock 
Evidences (Mr. Stonor), no. 2. 

A traditional story of the vengeance of 
a band of foresters and outlaws, the wife 
and three children of the lord being mur- 
dered by them, is told in Hampson's 
Harwich, 18-21. 

12 Mamecestre, 484; viz. : Ralph Rad- 
cliffe, holding a pasture at the rent of 
,8 1 6s. So 1 .; Edward Greenhalgh, four 
messuages in Horwich Lee at ^3 131.4^.5 
Edward Hulme, six messuages in Oaken 
Lee at 10 41. id. ; and William Heaton, 
three messuages at Ridley Wood at zos. 

In 1425 the feoffees restored to James 
son of Geoffrey Greenhalgh a messuage 
with the lands adjacent, called Horwich 
Lee Wood, within bounds beginning near 
the Roodgate, by the division between the 
wood and the moor, as far as the head of 
the Clough between the Strinds and 
Ridley Head ; by the Clough to Olton 
Brook to boundary stones between Los- 
tock and Horwich Lee Wood ; by these 
stones and others between Blackrod and 
the same wood to the stones between the 
wood and Oaken Lee Wood, and so to the 
starting point ; Anderton Evidences, no. i. 

In the reign of Henry VIII disputes 
arose between Richard Heaton and Bryan 
Heaton concerning Ridley Wood and 
Park Wood, Bryan claiming by a grant 
from his brother William son and heir of 
Richard Heaton, deceased. The bounds 
of Ridley Wood began at the head of the 
Clough between the Strinds and Ridley 
Head, went down the Clough to Holton 
Brook to the bounds of Lostock, by these 
to the water of Yaresworth, up this to 
Greenwall Syke and so to a paling between 
Ridley Head and Horwich Moor. The 
evidences produced showed that the land 
had been granted originally by the ances- 
tors of Lord La Warre ; Duchy Plead. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 121 ; ii, 
219. 

For some other disputes see Ducatus 
Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 130, 189, 183. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Among the tenants were the Heatons of Heaton and 
other neighbouring families. 13 In the Subsidy Lists 
of 1541 " and 1622" no landowners are named in 
Horwich. 

At the Court Leet of Manchester in 1598 the 
constables of Horwich presented a number of persons 
for tithing men. 16 

The Andertons of Lostock, successors of the Heatons, 
acquired the manor of Horwich and held it in the 
1 7th century and onwards. 17 Henry Blundell was 
the chief landowner in lj8S. lB The minor family of 
Anderton of Horwich sprang from Thomas Anderton, 
a younger brother of Christopher Anderton of Los- 
tock (1592), who settled in this township. His son 
Lawrence, who became a Jesuit, was the author of 
the famous hymn, ' Jerusalem, my happy home,' and, 
under the alias of John Brereley, of various controver- 
sial works, such as The Protestant's Apology for the Roman 
Church, printed at the secret press at Lostock. 19 Law- 
rence's brother Christopher was prothonotary of the 
common pleas at Lancaster by patent dated 1607. 
Administration of the goods of Thomas Anderton of 
Horwich, apparently son of Christopher, was granted 
in 1 669 to his brother William. The horrible death 
of this William (Dr. Anderton of Wigan) is described 
by Oliver Heywood (Diaries, iii, 211). His will was 
proved in 1675 ; his executors were to bring up his 
son Thomas, aged eight, in the * knowledge of the 
true Catholic church.' The guardianship was en- 
trusted to Anne Anderton, widow (grandmother), 
and Anne Tootell (aunt). 

Thomas Willoughby, a descendant of the second 
Lord Willoughby of Parham, married Eleanor daugh- 
ter of Hugh Whittle of Horwich, and lived at Shaw 
Place in Charnock. Being erroneously supposed to be 
the heir male he was summoned to Parliament as 
Lord Willoughby of Parham. He died in 1692, and 
was buried at Horwich. His son, two grandsons, and 
a great-grandson followed him in the title. They 
were Presbyterians. The last of them, Hugh Wil- 



loughby, enjoyed the title from 1715 to 1765; he 
was president of the Society of Antiquaries in 1754.* 

In 1322-3 the herbage of the wood called Le 
Twecheles, now Twitchills, could not be agisted, 
through the deficiency of cattle in the district, owing 
to the Scottish raid at midsummer, 1322." 

Among those whose estates were sequestrated for 
* delinquency ' by the Parliament in the time of the 
Civil Wars was Philip Martindale of Horwich, chap- 
man." 

A chapel of ease existed at Horwich 
CHURCH before the Reformation, for in 1552 it 
was found provided with the ornaments 
for saying mass. There were also three bells, * which 
are the poor men's of the town, bought with their 
own money, and the said bells not yet hanged up.' n 
In 1565 the commissioners for removing superstitious 
ornaments reported to the Bishop of Chester that they 
had taken from this chapel * vestment, alb, altar-cloth, 
corporas, and other idolatrous gear.' " There was 
then a curate there," but the chapel seems afterwards 
to have fallen into obscurity and is not mentioned 
again 16 till the survey of 1650, when Mr. Henry 
Pendlebury usually preached there on Sunday without 
any stipend beyond the people's offerings. 17 The re- 
commendation to make Horwich a separate parish 
was not acted upon, and it is probable that down to 
the Revolution nothing more than a Sunday service 
was performed by the vicar or curate of Deane. In. 
1669 numerous meetings of Nonconformists were re- 
ported in this parish, and at Horwich Chapel there 
was a * conventicle,' but the ringleaders had been 
prosecuted.* 8 

After the Revolution, with the connivance of the 
vicar, the chapel was used by Nonconformists, but in 
1716 Bishop Gastrell recovered it for the Established 
Church, and it has since been retained. There was 
a chapel stock of ^190, in the hands of Nonconforming 
trustees, who refused to pay the interest when the 
chapel was taken from them. In 1723, however, 



18 The inquisitions show the following 
to have held lands in Horwich : Barton 
of Smithills, Hulton of Farnworth, Hul- 
ton of Over Hulton, and Greenhalgh of 
Brandlesholme. 

Andrew Barton was in 1549 said to 
have held a moiety of the manor of Hor- 
wich, eight messuages, &c., of Lord La 
Warre by a rent of 8 161. 8</.; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. ix, no. 27. He was the 
heir of Ralph Radcliffe of 1473. 

Thomas Greenhalgh was in 1577 found 
to have held eight messuages, &c., in 
Horwich (not called a manor), of the lord 
of Manchester by a rent of ^3 131. ^d. 5 
ibid, xii, no. 10. 

14 Mite. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 139 ; the contributors for 'goods' were 
Bryan Heaton and four others. 

14 Ibid. 151; James Urmston and James 
Stones were the contributors. 

16 Mane A. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 140. The 
constables of Horwich seem to have been 
summoned to the court till 1733, but had 
ceased to appear ; ibid, vii, 25. 

17 In the inquisition of Christopher An- 
derton in 1593 his tenement in Horwich 
is mentioned incidentally only as an ap- 
purtenance of Lostock and Heaton held 
of the manor of Manchester ; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. xvi, no. 41. James Ander- 
ton his son and heir purchased the manor 
of Horwich from Nicholas Mosley and 



Elizabeth his wife and Rowland Mosley 
and Anne his wife in 1599 ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 61, no. 351 ; Anderton 
D. no. 76. 

In 1620 part of Andertons' land in 
Horwich was held of the king by knight's 
service, and the remainder of the lord of 
Manchester ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 164. The manor is 
named in an Anderton settlement of 1654; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 156, m. 
174. Later it descended in the same 
manner as Anderton to the Blundells and 
Stonors. 

18 Land tax returns at Preston. 

19 Foley, Recs. S. J. iv, 7 1 3 ; he had a 
nephew Thomas, also a Jesuit. A list of 
his works is given by Gillow, Bill. Diet. 
of Engl. Cath. i, 34 ; v, 204 (pedigree 
erroneous). See also Diet. Nat. Biog. In 
1630 Thomas Anderton of Horwich com- 
pounded by an annual fine of 8 for the 
two-thirds of his estate liable to sequestra- 
tion for recusancy ; Lucas, ' Warton ' 
MS. (from Thoresby). Dorothy Walton 
compounded similarly by 2. 

20 G.E.C. Complete Peerage, viii, 156-8, 
referring to W. D. Pink in Gen. (old 
ser.), iv, 34-9, and to the Hist. MSS. 
Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv (Kenyon MSS.) ; 
see also Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. ii, 
14, 38. The co-heirs of the last of this 
line were his sisters Helena wife of 



Baxter Roscoe of Anglezarke in Bolton, 
and Elizabeth widow of John Shaw of 
Heath Charnock. 

21 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc.), ii, 
185 n. 

22 Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes. 
and Ches.), iv, 121. 

33 Ch. Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 27 ; see also 
Raines, Chantries (Chet Soc.), 273, for 
the sale of two bells. 

84 Gastrell, Notitia (Chet. Soc.), ii,. 
41. 

25 Peter Mackinson ; he was one of 
the Marian priests, having been ordained 
by Bishop Scott in 1558, on the title of 
Robert Barton of Smithills ; Ordination Bk. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 101. 

26 There is no mention of Horwich in 
the list of the Kenyon MSS. or the Clerical 
Subs. (Rec. Soc.). 

2 ? Commoniv.Ch. Surv, (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), 37. An allowance of 20 
was made to him out of the tithes, and 
it was said that ,100 had been sub- 
scribed ' by the well affected ' of the chap- 
elry, but no interest had been received for 
five or six years from Richard Holt of 
Ashworth, who held the principal. 

James Walton, ejected from Shaw 
Chapel in 1662, is said to have preached 
at Horwich in 1648 ; Nightingale, Lanes. 
Nonconf. iii, 99. 

28 Visit. P. at Chester. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



100 was given by the vicar of Deane and 100 by 
Lady Moyer, and in the following year 200 for the 
old chapel stock was recovered from the trustees by a 
decree of the Commissioners for Charitable Uses. 29 

The old chapel was rebuilt in I779, 30 and the new 
one having fallen into decay was taken down when 
the present church of the Holy Trinity was opened 
in 1831 sl on an adjacent site. It is in the decorated 
Gothic style, with western tower. A separate ecclesi- 
astical district was assigned to it in 1853." The 
patronage is vested in the vicar of Deane, and the in- 
come is 370 a year. 

The following is a list of curates and vicars 3S : 

00.1671. John Barton 

1702. John Horobin, B.A. (Jesus College, 
Cambridge) 

1720. Nathan Pierpoint, B.A. 

1724. Robert Harvey, B.A. 34 

1732. John Norcross, B.A." (St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge) 

1765. John Norcross, B.A. 16 

1788. Samuel Johnson, M.A. 37 (Brasenose 
College, Oxford) 

1826. David Hewitt, B.A. (Trinity College, 
Cambridge) 

1853. Henry Septimus Pigot, M.A.* 8 (Brase- 
nose College, Oxford) 

1901. George Henry St. Patrick Garrett 39 

1908. Samuel Sheppard 

A school church was erected in 1889, and enlarged 
in 1 897 ; this was in 1 902 replaced by St. Catherine's, 
a chapel of ease. St. Elizabeth's iron mission church 
was built in 1902. 

Methodism was introduced into Horwich by a 
preacher from Bolton about the beginning of last 
century. A room in a mill at Wilderswood was used 
for a time ; but a chapel was opened in or about 
i8io. 40 The Independent Methodist chapel in Lee 
Lane was built in 1867, the congregation having 
originated some years earlier in a gathering of tee- 
totallers. 41 The Primitive Methodists once had a 
chapel on Horwich Moor, 42 and the Independent 
Methodists also have a place of worship. 

A Baptist church was built in 1890. 

A large proportion of the population refused to 



conform at the Restoration, but nothing is known as 
to their ministers or organization, 43 until, as stated 
above, the chapel at Horwich came into their hands 
about the Revolution. 44 On being ejected in 1716 
the Dissenters erected a meeting-house called the New 
Chapel ; this was enlarged in 1805, and other altera- 
tions have been made more recently. It is now in 
the hands of the Congregationalists, though for a short 
period in the 1 8th century the ministers are said to 
have been Unitarian/ 5 A second Congregational 
church, known as Horwich Lee Chapel, was erected 
in 1856, replacing one built in I774- 46 

A Unitarian church was erected in 1 896. 

The Roman Catholic church of Our Lady of the 
Rosary was built in 1886. 



HEATON 

Heton, 1302 ; Heyton, xvi cent. 

This township is usually known as Heaton-under- 
Horwich to distinguish it from the other Heatons in 
the neighbourhood. It has an area of 1,743^- acres. 
The highest point, just over 1,000 ft., is in the 
north-west corner. The River Croal forms the 
southern boundary. 

Two roads between Bolton and Horwich cross 
Heaton from east to west. The Lancashire and York- 
shire Company's railway from Bolton passes along the 
southern boundary, and has a station called Lostock 
Junction at the western end, where there is a junction 
of the Preston and Wigan branches. 

The most thickly populated part of the township is 
the eastern end, it being a suburb of Bolton. In 1901 
the population was returned with Halliwell. 

Coal and slate-flags are found, but not in great 
abundance. 

A School Board was formed in I883. 1 

The township was incorporated with the borough 
of Bolton in 1898. 

Fifty-six hearths were liable to the tax in 1666 ; 
the largest house was that of ^Thomas Lomax, with 
five hearths. 1 

In the 1 2th century HE4TON, 

M4NOR assessed as one plough-land, appears to have 

been held in moieties by knight's service of 



M Notitia Cestr. ii, 41-4. The letter of 
the vicar of Deane states that he had put a 
conformable clergyman into the chapel as 
soon as the Nonconformists had left ; he 
allowed him the surplice fees and 2 
besides, which with offerings gave an in- 
come of about ,14. As to the chapel 
stock, he had witnesses to prove that the 
interest had been paid to ' episcopal con- 
forming clergymen ' in the reigns of 
Charles II and James II, and till some 
time after the Revolution. 

Gastrell states that a curate was licensed 
to Horwich in 1702. There was one 
warden for the chapel, chosen by house 
row. 

Lady Moyer was Rebecca daughter of 
Alderman Sir William Joliffe and wife of 
Sir Samuel Moyer of Pitsea Hall in Essex, 
who died in 1716 ; Canon Raines in Gas- 
trell, loc. cit. 

80 See Hampson, Harwich, 55. A brief 
for collections was issued in 1777. 

81 The building was assisted by a Par- 
liamentary grant. Joseph Ridgway of 
Ridgmont, one of the principal land- 

5 



owners, contributed. An account of this 
family is given in Hampson, op. cit. 181 
203. 

82 Lond. Gaz. 10 Jan. 1854. 

88 Church Papers at Chester. 

84 Also curate of Westhoughton. 

85 R. F. Scott, Admissions to St. John's 
College, iii, 44, 311. John Norcross was 
also master of Rivington School. 

86 Son of the preceding ; ibid, iii, 121, 
565. Succeeded his father as master of 
Rivington School. An abstract of his 
will is given by Hampson, op. cit. 
62. 

87 Foster, Alumni Oxon. For his father 
Henry see James Hall, Nantwich, 349. 

88 Son of a former incumbent of St. 
Helens. 

89 Formerly vicar of St. Paul's, Prince's 
Park, Liverpool. 

40 Hampson, Harwich, 98-102. 

41 Ibid. 1 02. For a charity in connexion 
with this chapel see Endowed Charitiet 
Rep. (Deane) of 1903, p. 39. 

42 Hampson, op. cit. 103. 

48 A preaching-place at the house of 



Thomas Welsby was licensed in 1672, 
during the brief Indulgence ; Nightingale, 
op. cit. iii, 99. Bishop Gastrell in 1717 
recorded that half the small population 
were Dissenters ; Notitia, ii, 41. 

44 In 1689 Horwich Chapel was already 
in the hands of the Nonconformists, and 
was so certified and recorded ; Hist. A/55. 
Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 231. 

45 Nightingale, op. cit. iii, 98-1 10. The 
first minister ejected from the old chapel 
was John Walker, who is said to have 
received 100 a year from the govern- 
ment on account of his services at the 
rising of 1715. An account of the en- 
dowments and charities may be seen in 
the Endowed Charities Rep. (Deane) of 

I93 PP- 33- 6 - 

46 Nightingale, op. cit. iii, 110-15. 
The erection of this second meeting-place 
is supposed te have been due to the 
Unitarianism of the older chapels at Hor- 
wich and Rivington. For endowment, 
&c., see Endowed Charities Rep. 39. 

1 Lond. Can. 26 Oct. 1883. 

2 Subs. R. bdle. 250. no. 9, Lanes. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



the barons of Manchester. One moiety was included 
in the Barton fee, 5 the Hulton family being the 
under-tenants ; 4 while the other half was held with 
Worthington, 5 but afterwards severed, and held as 
the tenth part of a knight's fee by a family which 
assumed the local name. 

The earliest known is a Randle de Heaton, 6 
followed in hereditary succession by Ellis, John, and 
John. 7 The younger John made a settlement in 
1332, from which it appears that he had sons John, 
Adam, and others. 8 He or his son John was living 
in 1355.' The son is said to have married a daughter 
and co-heir of Robert de Huyton of Billinge, and thus 
acquired the Birchley estate. 10 Richard de Heaton 
was in 1385 appointed a keeper of the peace in Sal- 
ford Hundred. 11 Richard's son and heir William 
married Joan daughter and heir of Gilbert de 



Billinge, 12 and thus increased the family estate in 
Billinge. William and Joan were living in 1 422," 
but for the succeeding century little is known of the 
family. 13a William Heaton 
was holding the manor in 
1473 by the ancient ser- 
vice. 14 

The next to occur is Richard 
Heaton who recorded a pedi- 
gree in 1533, from which it 
appears that he had been twice 
married. 15 William, his eldest 
son, left two daughters, Jane 
and Alice ; and by his second 
wife Elizabeth, daughter and 
eventual co-heir of Sir Richard 
Aughton of North Meols, he 




HEATON of Heaton. 
Argent on a bend en- 
grailed sable three bulls' 
heads erased of the feld. 



9 Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 54. By 1241 the four oxgangs of 
land in Heaton seem to have become 
separated from Barton and held by Richard 
son of Christiana de Alreton ; Final 
Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 88. 

4 From the later descent it is probable 
that the above Richard son of Christiana 
was the younger Richard de Hulton, who 
was quickly succeeded by his brothers 
William and David, the latter continuing 
the line. Thus in 1256 David de Hulton 
was holding half a plough-land in Heaton, 
in which his brother's widow was claiming 
dower; Final Cone, i, 122. In 1302 
Richard de Hulton son of David was 
holding the tenth part of a fee in Heaton 
of Thomas Grelley ; Inq. and Extents, 
i, 314.. In 1324 Richard de Hulton was 
returned as holding half a plough-land in 
' Davyd Heton ' by a thegnage rent of 
6s. %d. ; Duchy of Lane. Rentals and 
Surv. 379, m. 13. In the later division 
of the Hulton lands this probably went to 
the families of Farnworth and Halliwell ; 
and some part was obtained at a later time 
by the Hultons of Over Hulton. Thus 
William Hulton of Farnworth was in 
1613 in possession of lands in Heaton ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 266 ; and Randle Barton of 
Smithills, who died in 1611, also had 
lands in Heaton ; ibid, i, 208. 

5 Inq. and Extents, i, 54. Thomas de 
Worthington was holding half a knight's 
fee of Robert Grelley in 1212. In 1282 
the manor was called Worthington, 
Coppull, and the appurtenances ; ibid. 
250. Later Worthington is called 'half 
a fee, except the tenth part," the tenth part 
being Heaton. It is unlikely that there 
was only one manor in Heaton and that 
it was held in succession by the Hultons 
and Heatons ; for Richard de Hulton 
and John de Heaton are mentioned 
together in 1320, when, however, only 
the latter is stated to have held the tenth 
part of a fee, the former holding by the 
rent of a pair of spurs or zd., and puture 
of the Serjeants and foresters ; Mamecestre 
(Chet. Soc.), 288, 290. 

6 The Heaton family were perhaps the 
successors in title of Henry de Bolton, 
who in 1 22 1 offered himself against 
Robert Grelley in a plea concerning the 
fixing of boundaries between Henry's 

ands in Heaton and Robert's in Hor- 
wich ; Cur. Reg. R. 79, m. 24. Li- 
cence of deafforestation in Heaton was 
in 1225 granted by the king to Robert 
Grelley for Henry de Bolton ; Cal. Pat. 
1216-25, P- 576. By fine in 1227 
Robert Grelley acknowledged Henry's 



right to land within the following boun- 
daries : from Yaresworth Brook up by 
Ridley Syke to the middle point between 
two brooks falling into the syke towards 
the west, and so up between the brooks to 
the great road between Halliwell and 
Rivington, and to the High Edge, then by 
the Edge around Helmshead to the 
boundary of Halliwell ; Yorks. Feet of F. 
file 1 8, no. i. 

Randle de Bolton was plaintiff in 1246 
respecting lands in Heaton ; Assize R. 
404, m. lod. 

7 In 1278 Adam son of Richard de 
Heaton was non-suited in a claim for com- 
mon of pasture brought against Ellis son 
of Randle de Heaton ; ibid. 1238, m. 
31 d. Ellis de Heaton appears as plaintiff 
in 1292, alleging that Randle his father 
was disseised of two parts of 4 acres of 
wood and 3 acres of pasture in Heaton 
by one Roger de Pendlebury, who demised 
them to William de Pendlebury, from 
whom they appear to have been acquired 
by Richard son of David de Hulton ; ibid. 
408, m. 49. He made a similar claim 
against Hugh de Halliwell (ibid.), but 
failed in both cases. 

In 1301 John son of Ellis de Heaton 
was defendant in a claim made by John 
del Shaw for reasonable estovers in Hea- 
ton, without view of the foresters, for 
housebote and heybote ; ibid. I32i,m. 9 d. 

According to the surveys of 1320 and 
1322 John de Heaton owed homage and 
fealty for the tenth part of a fee in 
Heaton under the Forest, and rendered 
yearly for sake fee 8</. and for ward of 
Lancaster Castle izd., and puture of the 
Serjeants and foresters ; Mamecestre, 288, 

379- 

At that time four oxgangs in Heaton 
contributed proportionally to the main- 
tenance of the foresters of Horwich ; ibid. 

376, 377- 

8 Final Cone, ii, 89. The children of 
John son of John de Heaton named in 
the remainders are John, Adam, Roger, 
Robert, Richard, Joan, and Agnes. The 
estate was the 'manor' of Heaton-under- 
Horwich ; no other estate there seems to 
have been so described. 

In 1362 Richard Langtree and Margaret 
his wife brought a suit against Henry son 
of Adam de Heaton for waste, &c., in 
Heaton by Horwich ; De Banco R. 411, 
m. 217 d. 

9 Hugh de Worthington and John de 
Heaton held of John La Warre half a 
knight's fee in Worthington and Heaton- 
under-Horwich, which William de Worth- 
ington formerly held ; Feud. Aids, iii, 89. 

10 There does not seem to be any direct 

IO 



proof of this marriage, but it agrees with 
the descent of the estate. 

Thomas son of Roger Banastre of 
Wrightington in or before 1361 married 
Aline daughter of John de Heaton ; John 
was a witness to the grant of lands then 
made ; Piccope's MSS. iii, 2 (communi- 
cated by Mr. J. H. Partington). 

11 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 523. 
Richard de Heaton and Isolda his wife 
held a fourth part of Billinge in 1374 ; 
De Banco R. 454, m. 141. 

12 Raines MSS. xxxvii B, 61. Dis- 
pensation granted in 1398. 

18 Final Cone, iii, 81. 

18a A petition addressed to the Lord 
Chancellor in 1440 seems to refer to this 
family. In it Richard Barton of Middle- 
ton alleged that he had purchased the 
marriage of William son of Richard son 
of William Heaton, intending to wed 
him to his daughter Agnes. The younger 
William, under fourteen years of age, had 
been hidden away by Alexander Standish 
and his sister Isolda Heaton, who desired 
to procure a divorce between him and 
Agnes ; Early Chan. Proc. bdle. 9, no. 204. 

Richard is described as ' the heir of 
Heaton' in a document of 1461 relating 
to a corrody in the priory of Marrick on 
Swale, granted by Richard to his cousins 
William and Oliver Entwisle successively, 
and then by William son of Richard 
Heaton to his uncle Robert Heaton ; Ch. 
Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 29 (from the Weld 
Blundell D.). 

14 Mamecestre, 480. It was held by 
' the service of the tenth part of a knight's 
fee and puture, and the rent of &d. a 
year, with izd. for ward of the castle." 

Katherine daughter of William Heaton 
married Henry son of Nicholas Blundell 
of Little Crosby in 1488-9 ; Kuerden, 
iii, C, 34, no. 580. 

15 Visit, of 1533 (Chet. Soc.), p. 194 ; 
the arms seem to be those of Billinge and 
Heaton quarterly. 

In 1530 Richard Heaton of Heaton 
gave to feoffees his manor of Billinge 
with lands, &c., in Billinge, Birchley, 
Rumworth, Lostock, and Ulverston. His 
will mentions his son William and Joan 
his wife and their children Alice and 
Jane ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 151, m. 8. 
He died after the Statute of Uses (1536), 
and his will was held to be void ; Duchy 
of Lane. Dep. xxxiv, G, la. 

For pleadings regarding the woods in 
Horwich, between two of the younger 
sons, Richard and Bryan, see Duchy Plead. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 119 ; ii, 
219 ; the former seems to be wrongly 
dated. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



had no issue. 16 He died in 1542, when family dis- 
putes, which had already begun, were continued with 
energy. Miles Gerard of Ince, who had married 
William's daughter Jane, claimed the manors of 
Heaton and Birchley, Alice, the other daughter, 
having died without issue. 17 The manors, however, 
passed to the heir male, William Heaton son of Ralph, 
half-brother of the William named above. A settle- 
ment was made in I55z, 18 but the new owner appears 
very soon to have fallen into difficulties and mort- 
gaged his possessions. 19 

Christopher Anderton, said to be descended 
from the lords of Anderton, obtained an interest in 
the matter. In 1562 he purchased the adjoining 
manor of Lostock, with lands in Rumworth and 
Heaton, 20 but it was not till 1572 that he actually 
obtained the manor of Heaton, and many years more 
elapsed before his estate was secure. 11 It is stated 
that the mortgage money was offered to him by the 
Heatons just after the expiry of the term, and, to the 
great scandal of the neighbours, he refused it and kept 
the manors." Heaton descended in the same way as 
Lostock to the Blundells of Ince. Henry Blundell, 
who died in 1810, annoyed that his only son refused 



to marry, bequeathed the Anderton properties to his 
two daughters. A division took place, and the manor 
of Heaton, with lands in Heaton and Rumworth, fell 
to the share of Elizabeth wife of Stephen Tempest of 
Broughton near Skipton. By a family arrangement 
Henry Tempest, a younger son, received this moiety, 
and his son Charles Robert, on being created a 
baronet in 1 866, gave Heaton as his seat. 23 Sir Charles 
died in 1 894, leaving a daughter, Mary Ethel, as heir ; 
she married Miles Stapleton, tenth Lord Beaumont, 
who was accidentally killed in 1895, and has two 
daughters. 

In 1789 the lands of Henry Blundell paid five- 
sixths of the land tax. Mr. Starkie had a small 
estate. 24 

From the old Heaton family descended Martin 
Heaton, Bishop of Ely from 1599 to i^og. 25 

In the Subsidy Rolls of 1541 and 1622 Heaton is 
joined with Halliwell. 

The estate called ROGERSTEJDcan be traced back 
to the time of Edward III.* 53 It was held early in the 
1 5th century by Roger de 'Walmersley,' J5b and de- 
scended by 1591 to Roger * Walmesley. 56 In 1726 
it was sold by Roger Walmsley of Bolton to Pierce 



16 Duchy of Lane. Dep. liv, H, i ; 
it was alleged that the feoffees of Richard 
Heaton the father of William in 1532 
conveyed the manor of Heaton, with mill 
and messuages in Heaton and Horwich, 
to the use of Richard for life, and then 
to the use of William his son and heir for 
life, and then of Ralph Heaton and heirs 
male. (This feoffment is among the 
Anderton D. no. 4.) On behalf of Eliza- 
beth daughter of Sir Richard Aughton, 
widow of William Heaton, and before 
1 549 remarried to John Bold, it was stated 
that William was seised in his demesne as 
of fee, and therefore she claimed as jointure. 

*7 Ibid, xxxiv, G, I. Miles Gerard son 
and heir of Thomas Gerard of Ince 
alleged that by his marriage settlement 
it was arranged that if William Heaton 
died without male issue one half of all 
the manors, &c., in Billinge, Birchley, 
Rumworth, Lostock, Horwich, and Ulver- 
ston, was to go to the said Jane ; and if 
Alice, the other daughter of William 
Heaton, should die without issue, the 
other half should also be Jane's. Heaton 
was otherwise settled. The disputes 
began before William's death, which took 
place on 25 November 1542, for his 
answer to some of the pleadings is pre- 
served. His widow Elizabeth immediately 
after his death complained that the 
Gerards had expelled her from Birchley. 

Humphrey Winstanley, who had 
married Jane, in 1560 complained that 
Christopher Anderton, William Heaton, 
and Ralph Heaton had entered his wife's 
inheritance. William Heaton claimed as 
heir male, under a settlement made in 
1 540 by William the father of Jane, 
apparently on his marriage with Elizabeth 
Aughton ; Duchy of Lane. Plead, xlvii, 
W, 13. 

18 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 14, 
m. 142; and ibid. m. 103. The defor- 
ciants in the latter were John Bold and 
Elizabeth his wife, William Heaton, 
and Lambert Heaton. The fine con- 
cerned two messuages, &c., 60 acres of 
land, with meadow, pasture, wood, moor, 
and moss in Heaton. An annuity of 541. 
for life was granted to Elizabeth Bold, 
with ultimate reversion to William 
Heaton ; the messuages, &c., being given 



to Lambert Heaton and Katherine his 
wife and their male issue ; in default to 
Fernando Heaton and Richard, Geoffrey, 
Bryan, and Vane Heaton. 

19 Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 50. 

In 1560 Roger Heaton as son and 
devisee of Richard Heaton, one of the 
younger sons of the Richard Heaton of 
1533, claimed the manor of Heaton 
against William Heaton and Mary his 
wife by virtue of a lease ; and later Alice 
the mother of Roger, who had married 
Thomas Aughton, was joined in the suit ; 
Duchy of Lane. Plead. Ixiii, H, ga ; 
cxvii, H, 1 6. William Heaton was 
plaintiff or defendant in other suits in 
the early part of Elizabeth's reign ; Ducatus, 
ii, 243, 311, 323, 363. Ralph the son 
and heir of William Heaton of Birchley 
occurs several times from 1568 to 1574; 
ibid, ii, 363 ; iii, 13. 

William Heaton, merchant tailor of 
London, of the parish of St. Martin 
Orgar, acquired an interest, by purchase 
or mortgage, from the above William 
Heaton, in the lands and manor of 
Heaton ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdles. 
24, m. 158 ; 27, m. 145 ; Duchy of Lane. 
Plead. Ixiii, H, 9 ; Anderton D. no. 20, 

24, 35- 

20 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 24, 
m. 96 ; and further in the account of 
Lostock. 21 Lydiate Hall, 55. 

As early as 1572 an agreement was 
made for the sale of the manors and lands 
between Christopher Anderton, William 
Heaton of London, and Ralph son and 
heir of William Heaton 5 Pal. of Lane. 
Plea R. 232, m. 5. Two years afterwards 
Christopher Anderton procured Heaton 
from Humphrey Winstanley and Jane 
his wife and William Gerard probably 
only their reversionary rights in it ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 38, m. 80. In 
1583 he made a settlement of the manor ; 
ibid. bdle. 45, m. 25 ; while in 1589 he 
and his sons James and Thurstan seem 
to have made a further agreement or new 
purchase ; ibid. bdle. 51, no. 25. 

Christopher Anderton died in 1592, 
holding the manor of Heaton under Hor- 
wich, &c., of the lord of Manchester ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvi, no. 41. 
The bargain, however, was not even then 

II 



secure, for three years later his son and 
heir, James Anderton, procured the manor 
(or reversionary rights in it), from Richard 
the son and heir apparent of Fernando 
Heaton, late of London ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 59, m. 17. Besides the 
manor the estate embraced eighty mes- 
suages, two water-mills, &c. 

Katherine widow of Lambert Heaton 
and Fernando their son surrendered land 
in Heaton in 1581 ; in 1593 Richard 
Heaton son of Fernando, described as ' of 
Alone in Westmeath,' sold his claim on 
the manors to James Anderton ; Anderton 
D. no. 43, 67, 68. 

22 Harland and Wilkinson, Lanes. Le- 
gends, 44 ; some evidence in its favour 
is printed in Lydiate Hall, 56. 

28 Lydiate Hall, 134, 135. In Baines' 
Dir. of 1825, 'Henry Tempest, coal 
proprietor, of Broughton Hall, Yorkshire,' 
occurs under Heaton. 

24 Land Tax Ret. at Preston. 

25 He was the son of George Heaton, 
of London, whose kinship to the parent 
stock has not been ascertained. His 
mother Joan daughter of Sir Martin 
Bowes, lord mayor in 1545, died in giving 
him birth, having dedicated him ' to God 
and the Reformed Church.' He was 
educated at Westminster and Oxford, 
held various preferments, and was in 1599 
promoted to the see of Ely in order to 
make certain alienations of its lands. 
He was the 'proud prelate' whom Eliza- 
beth threatened to ' unfrock,' according 
to the story. He made the alienations ; 
see Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. ii, 171 
(from Strype's Annals, iv, 490) ; Foster, 
Alumni , White, Elizabethan Bishops, ^Ql; 
Cooper, Athen. Cantab, i, 442. 

253 In 1364 Hugh Thirlewinde and 
Katherine his wife, daughter of Alice 
daughter of Stephen de Cockerham, mort- 
gaged a tenement in Heaton ; Starkie of 
Huntroyde D. 

25b He had it in 1419, when it was 
called Rogersted ; ibid. 

26 See Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 16, &c. Roger Walmes- 
ley died 31 May 1624 holding two 
messuages, &c., in Heaton of Christopher 
Anderton ; Towneley MS. C, 8, 13 
(Chet. Lib.), p. 1287. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Starkie of Huntroyde. 17 It has now become a 
cemetery belonging to the Bolton Corporation. 

For the worship of the Established Church Christ 
Church was consecrated in 1896 ; the vicar of Deane 
is the patron. 

HALLIWELL 

Haliwell, 1246; Harywal, 1273; Halewell, 
Haliwelle, 1277-8. 

Halliwell is divided into two portions by a brook 
which runs east into the Tonge ; the southern por- 
tion, Halliwell proper, adjoins Bolton, of which it is 
becoming a suburb ; the north-western, Smithills, is 
still rural. The whole has an area of 2,479^ acres. 1 
Halliwell proper has a breadth of about two miles ; 
the surface rises a little from east to west. Smithills 
stretches about three miles in a north-westerly direction, 
rising steadily from under 5006. to over 1,475, on 
the border of Horwich. To the north of Deane Brook, 
almost to the limit of the township towards Bolton, 
the geological formation consists of the Millstone 
Grit. The town of Halliwell and Smithills Hall lie 
upon the Lower Coal Measures. 

The principal road is that from Bolton to Horwich 
and Chorley, on both sides of which dwelling-houses 
are spreading ; another road leads more northerly 
through the Smithills portion. 

The population in 1901 was 25,849, but this 
includes Heaton also. 

Halliwell has for a century been famous for its 
bleach works ; there are also cotton mills. 

A local board was formed in 1863.* In 1877 
part of the township was taken into the borough of 
Bolton. In 18943 separate civil parish was formed 
for Smithills, but four years later this also was absorbed. 



Tokens issued in 1652 and 1666 are extant. 3 
In the latter year seventy-five hearths were assessed 
to the tax ; the manor-house at Smithills (Sir Row- 
land Bellasyse) had nineteen hearths, but no other 
dwelling had more than four. 4 

The manor of HALLIWELL was 
MANORS originally a member of the lordship of 
Barton, 5 and seems at first to have been 
part of the possessions of the Pendlebury family. 6 
William son of Roger de Pendlebury in 1289 granted 
to Richard son and heir of David de Hulton the 
whole vill of Halliwell with its appurtenances, with 
the homages of Robert de Shoresworth and Hugh de 
Halliwell for the lands they held ; an annual rent of 
a silver penny was payable. 7 In 1302 it was held by 
Richard de Hulton of the lord of Manchester by the 
tenth part of a knight's fee. 8 Three oxgangs of land 
here contributed to the sustenance of the foresters of 
Horwich. 9 In 13256 Richard de Hulton granted 
to his brother John land in Hulton and Westhough- 
ton, 10 and this is supposed to be the John de Hulton 
of Halliwell, whose son and heir Richard was in 1351 
contracted to marry Margery daughter of Adam the 
Ward of Sharpies. 11 Nothing further is known of 
this branch of the Hulton family, but in 1473 Robert 
Hulton held the lordship of Halliwell by the ancient 
service. 11 Adhering to the Yorkist side his lands 
were confiscated in 1487 and conferred by Henry VII 
on the Earl of Derby. 13 The manor descended regu- 
larly for a century ; in 1601 it was held by Edward 
Stanley. 14 About that time it seems to have been 
sold, part going to Robert Marsh of Halliwell, 15 whose 
son-in-law Samuel Shipton, clerk, was in possession in 
1638 ; 16 afterwards it descended to Samuel Aspinall, 17 
and then disappears from notice. 18 

SMITHILLS was held by the Hospitallers, and 



*7 Huntroyde D. ; PaL of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. 295, m. 89. It descended 
with Huntroyde till 1879, when it was 
sold to the Bolton Corporation. 

1 The Census Report of 1901 gives the 
area of Halliwell (with Heaton) as 4,229 
acres, including 1 24 of inland water. 

a Land. Gaz. 27 Nov. 1863. 

8 Lanes, and Cbes. Antiq. Sac, v, 78 ; 
William Boardman issued one. 

4 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

* Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 54. 

6 Roger de Pendlebury in 1246 re- 
covered seisin of lands in Halliwell against 
Randle de Bolton, Mabel widow of Henry 
de Bolton, Adam de Heaton, Robert and 
Matthew his brothers, and others ; Assize 
R. 404, m. i. 

Amabel widow of Elias son of Roger 
the Clerk was in 1273 petitioner respect- 
ing lands in Pendlebury and Halliwell 
Roger de Pendlebury being defendant ; 
De Banco R. 5, m. 102. 

7 Towneley MS. GG, no. 1808. In 
1 303 Alice widow of William de Pendle- 
bury claimed dower in nineteen messuages, 
180 acres of land, &c., against Margery 
widow of Richard de Hulton, and against 
Roger and William, sons of Richard ; De 
Banco R. 164, m. 206. 

8 Lana. Inq, and Extents, i, 3 14. 

9 Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), 377. 
11 Hulton Pedigree, 5. 

11 Ibid. ; three parcels of land, called 
Farnegoy, Rethfield, and Broxope in Halli- 
well, were granted to Richard and Mar- 
gery and their issue, with remainder to 
Richard's brother Roger. 



12 Mamecestre, 480 ; the service was 
the tenth part of a knight's fee, puture, 
a rent of %d., and 8</. for ward of the 
castle. 

18 Robert Hulton had taken part in the 
Simnel rising, and was attainted after the 
battle of Stoke ; Rolls of Parl. vi, 397. 
Early in 1489 his manors of Halliwell 
and Smithills and various lands were 
granted to the Earl of Derby ; Pat 4 Hen. 
VII, 25 Feb. 

14 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 63, no. 
281. William, Earl of Derby, and Edward 
Stanley, esq., were the deforciants, the 
property being described as the manor of 
Halliwell, with twenty messuages, &c., 
300 acres of land, &c., and 21. rent in 
Halliwell and Smithills. 

15 The plaintiffs in the fine were the 
feoffees of Robert Marsh. He died in 
1 6 24 holding lands in Atherton of Thomas 
Ireland and the reversion of a messuage, 
40 acres of land, &c., in Halliwell after 
the death of Alice, Countess of Derby, 
widow of the fifth earl, held of the king 
as the hundredth part of a knight's fee ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxv, no. 14. 

A rent of 13 91. 6d. continued to be 
payable from the manor of Halliwell to 
the Earl of Derby, and in 1653 it was 
sold, together with the manor of Bolton, 
as part of the confiscated estates of the 
seventh earl, to Charles Worsley ; Royalist 
Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
ii, 240. This rent was recovered, and in 
1715 formed part of the estate of the 
Derby family ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 276, m. 75. 

16 Ibid. bdle. 129, no. 1 3 ; the manor of 

12 



Halliwell and land, &c., there and in 
Atherton were held by Samuel Shipton, 
clerk, and Abigail his wife, daughter and 
heir of Robert Marsh. An inquiry re- 
specting it was made in 1641, after the 
death of Abigail, when her estate was 
described as three-twentieths of the manor, 
held of the Earl of Derby by a rent of 
33*. $4. ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxix, 
no. 69. 

Samuel Shipton, M.A., of Brasenose 
College, Oxford, was rector of Alderley, 
Cheshire, from 1630 to 1643, when he 
was ejected as a Royalist ; he was rein- 
stated in 1660 and held this benefice till 
his death in 1670. He recorded a pedigree 
in 1663. Abigail, his first wife, was born 
in 1614 and died in 1640, and bore a son 
and three daughters, who all died young. 
Shortly afterwards the husband married 
again ; Earwaker, East Ches. ii, 633, 634. 

l ? According to the Inq. p.m. of 1641 
Abigail Shipton's heir was her aunt Mar- 
garet's son, Samuel Aspinall, who received 
the manor of Halliwell and lands there 
and in Atherton in 1651 from Samuel 
Shipton and Elizabeth his (second) wife, 
and Sir Henry Delves, bart., and Roger 
Wilbraham, junior, these being probably 
trustees ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
147, m. 135. 

18 A fine of 1747 concerning lands in 
Halliwell, Wigan, &c., also included the 
chief rents of the township ; the defor- 
ciants were Edward Hurst, John Rothwell 
and Margaret his wife, William Battersby 
and Jane his wife ; while the plaintiffs 
were Richard Rothwell and Thoma 
Marsh ; ibid. bdle. 339, m. 93. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



appears to have been held under them by the Hulton 
family, passing with the manor of Blackburn to the 
Radcliffes in 1335." The Radcliffes of Smithills 
occur during the I5th century, having made the 
place their chief manor.* Sir Ralph Radcliffe, the 
third of the same name in succession, dying about 
1460," the estates went to the heir male, Ralph son 
of Sir Ralph's brother Edmund ; and he leaving a 
daughter and heir Cecily, they passed to her husband 
John Barton of Holme, near Newark,* 3 and they and 
their descendants retained possession until the i8th 
century. 



John Barton, having made a settlement of his 
manors and lands in 1514, and seen his son Andrew 
married to Anne or Agnes daughter of Sir William 
Stanley of Hooton, renounced the world, and in July 
1516 entered the monastery of the Observant Friars 
at Richmond in Surrey, and was there professed." 
Andrew Barton added a moiety of the manor of 
Oswaldtwisle 24 to the family possessions, recorded a 
pedigree at the visitation of I533,* 4a and died in 
1549, l eavm g a son an d heir Robert, then twenty- 
four years of age.* 6 Robert Barton, who succeeded, 
was the justice to whom George Marsh surrendered 



19 This seems the most probable account 
of the matter, as Smithills and Blackburn 
afterwards descended together, but there 
are no charters concerning Smithills avail- 
able, and it may, of course, have been held 
by the Radcliffes under the Hospitallers. 

20 Some family deeds, relating chiefly 
to the manor of Oswaldtwisle, are pre- 
served in Towneley MS. OO, no. 
1645-76. See also Abram, Blackburn, 
251-5. 

21 The first Sir Ralph was knight of the 
shire in 1397 and 1404 ; Pink and Beaven, 
Parl.Rcpre. of Lanes. 44, 46. The writ of 
Diem daunt extr. af er his death was issued 
12 May 1406 ; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, 
App. 5. Ralph his son had livery soon 
afterwards; Abram, op. cit. 251. He 
was knighted by the Duke of Bedford 
at Leicester in 1426 ; Metcalfe, Bk. of 
Knights, I. 

Sir Ralph Radcliffe II was a knight of 
the shire in 1413, 1423, and 1427 ; Pink 
and Beaven, op. cit. 49, 52, 53. In 1424 
Ralph son of Sir Ralph Radcliffe made 
a feoffment of lands in Salford, &c., in 
which his brother George, rector of Hough- 
ton, is named ; Towneley MS. OO, 
no. 1656. This was in connexion with 
the proposed marriage of his son Ralph 
with Ellen daughter of John Massey of 
Tatton, as appears by the above-cited in- 
quisition, in which is also given a settle- 
ment of 1431 in favour of Cecily, Sir 
Ralph's second wife. There are named 
her son Edmund Radcliffe, and daughters 
Emma and Douce. Sir Ralph's brother 
Nicholas is named among the remainders. 
He died in Jan. 1432-3, but Smithills is 
not named in the inquisition after his 
death, though Ralph, his son and heir, 
then twenty-nine years of age, is described 
as 'of Smithills' ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. 
Soc.), ii, 34-6. 

In the same year (1433) the feoffees 
delivered to Ralph son of Sir Ralph Rad- 
cliffe the manor of Smithills, and lands in 
Much Hoole, Croston, Leyland, Ulnes 
Walton, Edgeworth, Bradshaw, Turton, 
Halliwell, Egburden, Sharpies, Harwood, 
Bolton, Blackburn, Flixton, Lostock, 
Tonge, &c. ; Towneley MS. OO, no. 
1658. The escheator also was ordered to 
deliver lands to Ralph Radcliffe of Smith- 
ills, son and heir of Ralph son and heir of 
Sir Ralph, and Ellen his wife, daughter of 
John Massey of Tatton ; Dep. Keeper's 
Rep. xxxiii, App. 34. Two years later 
Cecily widow of Sir Ralph de Radcliffe 
was indicted for felony; ibid. 35. In 
1436 Ralph Radcliffe granted to feoffees 
various lands, with the reversion of the 
lands in Heaton and Horwich, which 
Cecily widow of Sir Ralph had held in 
dower. This was for the benefit of his 
wife Janet, and there were a remainder to 
Edmund his brother and a dowry of 
So marks for his sister {Catherine. Ed- 



mund was still a minor ; Towneley MS. 
OO, no. 1657. 

The third Sir Ralph left a daughter and 
heir Joan and a widow Katherine ; and 
disputes quickly arose between them and 
Elizabeth widow of Edmund Radcliffe 
and Ralph son of Edmund, the heir male ; 
OO, no. 1645, ^646. The date of the 
former of these (29 Hen. VI) is uncertain ; 
perhaps it should be 39, for it quotes deeds 
of 37 Hen. VI. The writ of Diem clausit 
txtr. was issued 4 Aug. 1460 ; Dep. Keeper's 
Rep. xzxvii, App. 177. 

The daughter Joan is said to have mar- 
ried Ralph Barton of Holme. 

82 Ralph Radcliffe died in Oct. 1485, 
his daughter Cecily being then twelve 
years of age ; she was immediately mar- 
ried to John Barton. At the inquisition 
taken in 1506 it was found that Ralph 
Radcliffe had held the manor of Tingreave 
and various lands, but of whom the lands 
in Smithills, Heaton, and Halliwell were 
held the jury did not know. In 1475, as 
Ralph son and heir of Edmund Radcliffe, 
he had granted the manor of Smithills and 
all his lands in Lancashire to feoffees, 
and by his will directed them to make an 
estate to Agnes his wife of specified lands 
in Flixton and Lostock ; to others he 
granted the mill of Smithills, the park, and 
a close called Croftliff, with lands else- 
where. Provision was made for Ellen, 
Ralph's sister ; also for Elizabeth daughter 
of Sir Ralph Radcliffe ; and 7 marks a 
year was to be paid ' to an honest priest 
to celebrate divine service in the church 
of Bolton.' Denis Haworth was the priest 
chosen, and he prayed for twenty years in 
Bolton Church for the said Ralph and his 
ancestors. 

As heir male of the Radcliffes Nicholas 
Radcliffe of Worsley in 1498-9 sought to 
regain the manors of Smithills and Tin- 
greave against John Barton and Cecily his 
wife. He was son and heir of Ralph son 
and heir of the Nicholas Radcliffe named in 
the inquisition of his brother Sir Ralph in 
1433 ; and claimed under a settlement by 
which Oliver and Nicholas, the brothers 
of Sir Ralph, should have succeeded in 
tail male ; Pal. of Lane. Writs Prot. 
14 Hen. VII ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), 
ii, 34. 

A change of feoffees was made in 
1503, the manor of Smithills being then 
held for the use of John Barton and 
Cecily his wife ; Towneley MS. OO, no. 
1647. In 1504 there was a recovery of 
the manor, John Barton and Cecily being 
tenants ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, 
no. 12, 97. 

John Barton was son of the above- 
named Ralph Barton and Joan ; see Visit. 
of 1533 (Chet. Soc.), 198, where is an 
account of the origin of the family, from 
Thoroton, Nottt. (ed. Throsby), iii, 157. 

23 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iv, 82. 



The manor of Smithills and lands there 
and in the neighbourhood were stated 
to be held of Thomas West, Lord La 
Warre, but the services were unknown. 
Andrew Barton, the heir, was aged eigh- 
teen. The father's will is very lengthy ; 
it provides that Smithills shall be given 
to his son Andrew on attaining his ma- 
jority, with remainders to his younger 
sons Alexander, Leonard, and Francis ; 
then to the heirs of Sir Ralph Radcliffe 
his grandfather. His brother, Stephen 
Barton, had an annuity of ^4 to enable 
him to study at Cambridge or the Inns of 
Court. James Bolton, priest, was to have 
7 marks a year, 'provided that he say 
divine service in the chapel of the manor 
of Smithills and pray for me, for the soul 
of Cecily sometime my wife and for the 
souls of all our ancestors,' and execute 
other duties assigned to him by the testa- 
tor. By a later deed he gave 10 to 
Nicholas Clerk, priest, to study art or 
divinity at Cambridge or teach grammar 
at Bolton-le-Moors ; money to the re- 
pairs of the Friars Preachers' house at 
Lancaster ; to Bolton and Deane churches 
money for pixes, altar cloths, &c., 'so 
that the most high and excellent sacra- 
ment of the altar may be more reverently 
ministered there ; ' money to his brothers 
Stephen and Christopher, his sister Eliza- 
beth Ardern, and his bastard brother John 
Barton ; lastly he willed ' that a table of 
alabaster be bought and given to the 
chapel of Our Lady in the church of 
Holme, and that the table now being 
there be restored to the chapel of Smithills; 
the said chapel in Holme to be repaired 
and necessary ornaments to be given to 
the same.' 

24 In 1 547 a general pardon was granted 
to Andrew Barton of Deane and of the 
Inner Temple ; Various Coll. (Hist. MSS. 
Com.), ii, 2. 

2 ^ Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 197. 

24 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. ix, no. 27 ; 
he had held the manor of Smithills and 
lands there of the king, as of the late 
Prior of St. John of Jerusalem, in socage 
by a rent of izd. He was a commissioner 
for levying the subsidy of 1541 ; Misc. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 141. His 
will with an inventory is printed in Pic- 
cope's Wills (Chet. Soc.), ii, 98-103. 
He desired to be buried in Bolton Church; 
left 5 a year for the free school at Win- 
wick, 12 marks to his chaplain, John 
Pincock, and 10 a year for some years 
to Ralph Barton (a younger son) ' towards 
his exhibition and learning.' Certain 
plate was given to his son Robert as an 
heirloom, and ' all the chapel gear except 
one suit of vestments, the best but one.' 

Various deeds of Andrew Barton's, 1538 
to 1548, relating to Blackburn, are pre- 
served in Towneley MS. OO, no. 1648, 
1652, 1674-8. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



in 1554 ; the story went that Marsh, in his emphatic 
denial that his teaching was heretical, stamped so 
forcibly on the hall pavement at Smithills that the 
mark of his foot remained in the stone. 26 Robert 
Barton dying childless in 1580," the manors went to 
his brother Ralph, reader in Gray's Inn. Ralph, 
who died in 1 592, 28 was succeeded by his son Randle 29 
and grandson Sir Thomas. 30 

Grace, the daughter and heir of Sir Thomas, 
married Henry Belasyse son of Thomas, first Viscount 






BARTON. Azure a 
fesse between three harts' 
heads caboshed or. 



BELASYSE, Viscount 
Fauconberg. Argent a 
che-veron gules between 
three fours de Us azure. 



Fauconberg. 31 Henry died during his father's life- 
time, leaving among others two sons, Thomas, second 



Viscount and first Earl Fauconberg, who died with- 
out issue in 1 700 ; 3 * and Sir Rowland Belasyse, who 
seems to have resided at Smithills, 33 and whose son 
Thomas in 1700 succeeded his uncle as third viscount. 34 
Thomas, his son, the fourth viscount, sold Smithills 
in 1722 to the Byroms of Manchester. 35 About a 
hundred years later it was purchased by Richard 
Ainsworth, owner of extensive bleach works in the 
neighbourhood, 36 and has descended to his grandson, 
Colonel Richard Henry Ainsworth, the present 
owner. 

Smithills Hall stands on high ground 2 miles 
north-west of Bolton, on the slopes of the moors from 
which the town takes its name which, less than 
2 miles away, attain a height of over 1,200 ft. The 
hall itself is situated just above the 500 ft. contour 
line, well outside the town radius, protected by trees 
on the north and set in picturesque grounds, but with 
a view southwards from the house embracing the 
smoke and chimneys of Bolton. The site is a 
naturally defensive one, being close to the junction 
of two streams, one the Astley Brook, a quarter of 
a mile to the south, and the other the Raveden Brook, 
more immediately to the east. 37 The other sides 
were protected by a moat which existed at no very 
remote period, and the moors behind the house would 
form a natural protection in that direction. 



26 The story is given in Fuller's Worthies. 

2 ? Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 24. ; 
the estates were unchanged. Ralph Bar- 
ton, brother and heir, was fifty-seven years 
of age. A settlement was made in 1565 ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 27, m. 100. 
A pedigree was recorded in 1567; Visit. 
(Chet. Soc.), 21. Robert's will is printed 
in Wills (Chet. Soc. new ser.), i, 39-42; 
Margery, his wife, was the executrix ; she 
afterwards married Richard Shuttleworth 
of Gray's Inn ; Towneley MS. OO, no. 
1654-6; Ducatus (Rec. Com.), iii, 118, 
139. Some deeds by Robert Barton and 
Thurstan his brother are in Towneley 
MS. OO, no. 1649-51, 1653, 1674-6. 

For the muster of 1574 Robert Barton 
was required to equip two light horses, 
&c., being third on the list of gentry of 
the hundred ; Gregson, Fragments, 30. 

28 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvii, 50. 

29 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 207-12. Randle Barton 
died at Smithills 10 Dec. 1611. By an 
indenture of 1607 there given, he settled 
the capital messuage called Smithills, the 
lands, meadows, &c., in Heaton, Halliwell, 
and Sharpies, known as the demesne lands 
of Smithills, the water-mill in Halliwell 
called Smithills mill, and all pools, waters, 
water-courses, multure, toll, and suit there- 
to belonging ; certain messuages and 
lands in Halliwell and Horwich, the coal- 
mines found or to be found in the said 
tenements, &c., to the use of himself and 
Elizabeth his wife for life, for jointure of 
Elizabeth, and then to the use of Thomas 
Barton for life and heirs male. The 
tenure is stated as above of the king, 
as of the late priory of St. John of Jeru- 
salem, by i zd. rent ; the clear annual 
value was ^10. 

Thomas Barton the son and heir was 
twenty-eight years of age. 

For an Edward Barton who died in 
1598 near Constantinople, see Pal. Note 
Bk. ii, 82. 

80 Sir Thomas was knighted in 1619 ; 
Metcalfe, Knights, 176. He was one 
of the commissioners for the subsidy of 



1622 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 16 1. He made a settlement in 
1627, probably on his daughter's marriage; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 1 1 1, no. 24. 
A further settlement was made in 1652, 
the deforciants being Sir Thomas Barton, 
Grace Belasyse, widow, and Thomas Be- 
lasyse ; ibid. bdle. 152, m. ^7. Sir 
Thomas does not appear to have taken 
any active part in the Civil War, being 
probably disabled by age, and his estates 
were not interfered with by the Parliament. 
There is a pedigree of the family in 
Whitaker's Whalley,i\, 319, 320. 

81 Henry Belasyse and his family were 
strong Royalists, and adherents of the 
ancient faith or favourable to it. Henry 
died in 1647; his epitaph is printed 
in Collins' Peerage (ed. 1779), v, 359. 
He had seven sons and seven daughters. 
His lands having been seized by the Par- 
liamentary authorities, his widow Grace 
and her father in 1651 petitioned for the 
restoration of the manor of Oulston, the 
lease of which had been assigned to her 
on her marriage ; Cal. of Com. for 
Advances, i, 421. 

A meeting of Roman Catholic gentry 
at Smithills in 1666 led to a disturbance, 
the Bolton women being convinced that 
they were met to cut the Protestants' 
throats ; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xii, App. 
vii, 41. 

82 He was born in 1628. Though 
married to a daughter of Oliver Crom- 
well and a member of his House of Peers, 
he favoured the Restoration. He was 
put out of the lord lieutenancy of the 
North Riding by James II, and afterwards 
took part in the Revolution; in 1689 
he was advanced to an earldom by Wil- 
liam III; G.E.C. Complete Peerage, iii, 323. 

A settlement of the manors of Smithills, 
Quarlton, &c., was made in 1679 ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 202, m. 4. 

88 Sir Rowland was made a Knight of 
the Bath at the coronation of Charles II. 
He died in 1699, and like his wife (heiress 
of Davenport of Sutton) was buried at 
Bolton ; Earwaker, East Cbes. ii, 442. 

14 



He professed the old religion ; Gillow, 
Bib!. Diet, of Engl. Cath. i, 179. 

84 In 1717 as a 'papist' Thomas Lord 
Fauconberg registered an estate in the 
manors of Sharpies, Quarlton, &c., sub- 
ject to annuities to his brothers ; Engl. 
Cath. Nonjurors, 113, 114, 149. He 
died in 1718. 

85 He was born in 1699 ; sold Smithills 
and other estates after coming of age ; 
conformed to the Established religion in 
1737, and was advanced to an earldom in 
1756. He died in 1774; G.E.C. utsup.; 
Abram, Blackburn, 255. 

Some further particular* are given in 
the account of Pendleton, of which he 
had a moiety in right of his wife. The 
deed of sale is enrolled at Preston (Roll 8 
of Geo. I), and recites that Thomas, Lord 
Fauconberg, had for 11,057 6s. sold to 
Thomas Eyre of Stockport and Thomas 
Foxley of Manchester his manors of Halli- 
well, with Smithills Hall and lands, Hor- 
wich (with lands there), Sharpies and 
Quarlton ; Piccope MSS. (Chet. Lib.), 
iii, 220. Joseph Byrom of Salford pur- 
chased Smithills in 1722 for 4,688; 
Raines, Byrom Ped. (Chet. Soc.), 38. 

Edward Byrom in 1779 paid 2s. 6d. 
to the duchy for Smithills ; Duchy of 
Lane. Rentals, 14/25 m. 

86 Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), iii, 46; 
here it is stated that traditionally Smithills 
was dependent on Sharpies, the service 
being a pair of spurs and the use of the 
cellars at Smithills by the lord of Sharpies 
for a week in each year. 

In 1749 the owner of Sharpies Hall 
had a chief rent of 6s. <)d. issuing from 
Smithills Hall, and the demesne and other ' 
lands in Halliwell, then the inheritance 
of Edward Byrom of Manchester, mercer; 
Bolton Hist. Glean, ii, 188 (from Pic- 
cope MSS.). In Burke, Landed Gentry, is a 
pedigree of the Ainsworth family. 

8 ? The Astley Brook joins the Eagley 
Brook (above which is situated Hall-i'-th'- 
Wood) a little more than a mile east of 
Smithills, the two streams together form- 
ing the River Tonge. 




< 

o 



a 

CTJ 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



There is a tradition of a house on the present site 
as far back as the year 680, and that date is rather 
humorously carved on a stone over the door to the 
great hall, 38 but the oldest part of the present building 
probably belongs to the early part of the I5th cen- 
tury, and may be even later. The rest of the house 
is of different dates continually altered and added to. 
The western part has been so much altered that it is 
difficult to reconstruct the original plan, but the north 
and east wings of the older part of the house yet 
constitute one of the most interesting examples of 
timber construction in Lancashire, though much 
changed in appearance by later additions in stone. 

With its modern extensions at the west, the house, 
which is of two stories, has a long frontage facing south 
of over 270 ft., well broken up both as regards plan 
and skyline, and forming a composition of great pic- 
turesqueness. The walls are variously of stone and 
timber, these materials being used in the modern 
work, and all the roofs have stone slates. Almost the 
whole of the walling to the old part of the house, 
however, has been restored or otherwise renewed, 
whether in stone or timber and plaster, but portions 



of the ancient construction are preserved and show in 
several places. The greatest part of the ancient work, 
however, is best seen from the inside. 

The oldest part of the house lies to the east and is 
built on three sides of a quadrangle about 60 ft. wide 
and 70 ft. from north to south, open on the south 
side. The great hall occupies the north wing, with 
the great chamber at its east end, and the kitchen and 
offices on the west. The east wing, containing the 
family apartments, terminates at the south with the 
domestic chapel, approached by a corridor next the 
courtyard. The staircase is in the north-east angle, 
forming an external bay with a gable facing west. 
Between the chapel and the great chamber is a large 
room, possibly a withdrawing - room, with a large 
bay window looking east. The north and east wings 
being no longer inhabited retain the original charac- 
teristics of the ancient plan, though much altered 
from time to time ; but the old west wing has been so 
much modernized that the original arrangement ot 
rooms has been to a great extent lost, though the 
kitchen and offices occupy pretty much their old 
position. The house seems to have been extended 



* so to TO to p w 




15 

16 . 

I6 1 * - REBUlLl 
1579. REBUILT 
MODERN 



88 The stone bearing this date is said 
to have been found about 1820 at Smith- 



PLAN OF SMITHILLS HALL 
(The modern west wing is not shown) 

ills and 'placed over the portico to be 
more conspicuous.' See Bolton Reflector, 

15 



16 Aug. 1823, quoted in Hist. Ghan. of 
Bolton and District (First Series, 1881), 15. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



westward beyond this at different times, but chiefly 
probably about the year I579, 39 by the addition of 
a stone gabled wing facing south, which now forms 
the central portion of the main front. The whole 
of the building west of this again, with frontages both 
north and south, is modern work executed within the 
last twenty-five years, 40 but in harmony with the 
older parts. 

The original house seems to have been confined to 
the three sides of the existing quadrangle, there being 
no indications of buildings having existed on the 
south side, except that a former gateway which stood 
at the south end of the west wing would seem to 
suggest that the courtyard might have been inclosed 
all round, or was intended to be so. It existed, 
however, in this position (where the south end of 



and the front is now formed of the remaining three 
sides.' 

Very little of the black and white work facing the 
quadrangle is original, and much of it the quatrefoil 
panel to the great hall and the gable in the north- 
east corner facing south is paint on plaster. On the 
west of the quadrangle it is all modern, and only that 
on the east wing between the chapel and the great 
hall has any semblance of old work. The walls on 
the north and east are of stone up to half their height, 
above which is a wide band of quatrefoils with a 
cove above under the eaves. The west wing was 
originally built without any corridor, but in the 
iyth century a passage was made on the first floor 
supported on an arcade of oak columns, forming a 
verandah to the lower rooms. This has been retained, 




the modern drawing-room now is, immediately opposite 
the west door of the chapel) till a comparatively 
recent time, and is so shown in old illustrations of the 
house. 41 

Against this, however, must be quoted Nathaniel 
Hawthorne's description of the place in his note- 
books, 25 Aug. 1855, in which he says : 'The house 
formerly stood around all four sides of a quadrangle, 
enclosing a court, and with an entrance through an 
enclosure. One side of this quadrangle was removed 
in the time of the present Mr. Ainsworth's father, 



and in a reconstructed form is one of the most pic- 
turesque features of the courtyard. 

The great hall, which is 346. 6 in. long (including 
the screens) by 25 ft. wide, has been a very fine 
apartment, but is now much mutilated, though for- 
tunately the screen and original open-timber roof still 
remain, and the restoration of the room to its original 
appearance would not be difficult. Towards the end 
of the 1 8th century the hall was used as a brewhouse,. 
and the outer walls are then supposed to have been 
raised and a new roof of flatter pitch was added above 



89 This date with the initial* R. B. is 
on a stone in one of the gables. 

40 From designs by George Devey, 
architect. 

41 A writer in 1824 says : 'The court- 



gate which you observe on entrance 
exhibits nothing remarkable. .... On 
entering through this gate I came into a 
square courtyard partly paved and partly 
overgrown with moss and weeds. On 

16 



the left hand is the principal entrance to 
the house, and this part of it is all that 
has not been altered by the present pro- 
prietors.' John Brown, Hist, of Great 
and Little Bo/ton (1824), 289. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



the old one, the original ridge-line being retained. 48 
A floor was probably also inserted, but the hall is now 
open to the roof for a little more than half its length 
at the east end, the present floor being over the 
screens and the first bay beyond a distance of about 
1 6 ft. From the evidence of the timber framing of 
the roof and screens the hall would appear to have 
been erected during the first half of the 1 5th cen- 
tury, 43 and therefore before the Bartons came to 
Smithills, but the original timber-framed walls seem 
to have been rebuilt in stone about a century later. 
The walls have been again largely rebuilt in recent 
times and are about 3 ft. thick to their original height, 
above which they are set back on the inside. All the 
windows are modern, replacing older square-headed 
ones of plainer type. The screens are at the west 



of the principal spring. The roof (which is about 
2 7 ft. to the ridge) is divided into five bays of un- 
equal size, the disposition of the principals giving a 
short bay at each end (6 ft. over screens and 4 ft. 
over dais), and in the centre, with larger bays of 
8 ft. between. The two central coupled principals 
probably indicate the presence of a louvre, as there is 
no fireplace in the hall or sign of there having been 
one. The timbers of the roof are very massive and 
plain, the chief ornament consisting of shaped wind 
braces forming quatrefoil panelling along the whole 
length. At the east end of the room the original 
timber construction of the wall behind the dais remains, 
but the dais and canopy over have disappeared. The 
roof over the short eastern bay is modern. The 
whole of the wall west of the screens preserves its 




SMITHILLS HALL, EAST SIDE 



end and the dais at the east, but a brick wall and the 
floor above at the west effectually hide from view the 
old arrangement at that end. The screen or ' speeres,' 
is however still in position, and the passage way 
remains intact with its original oak outer doors at 
each end and a stone porch on the north, and with the 
three usual openings (two of which are built up) 
opposite to the hall, leading to the kitchen passage, 
buttery, and pantry. The ' speeres ' stand 4 ft. 6 in. 
from the walls, on a low stone base, with octagonal 
angle posts 1 2 in. in diameter having moulded caps, 
from which the curved braces forming the underside 



ancient timber construction and is enriched with 
curved braces to its full height, those in the upper part 
forming large quatrefoil panels. The roof of the 
hall is carried on stone corbels about I oft. from the 
floor, one of which is carved with an eight-leaved 
rose. One of the middle principals, however, is 
continued on the south side down to the floor, which 
was most likely the case with the others before the 
rebuilding of the walls in stone. The west end of 
the hall between the * speeres ' was probably occupied 
by a standing screen and without a minstrels' 
gallery, but there are traces of one having been 



n This may have been done before, 
when the corridor was added on the west 
side and the eaves of both roofs brought 
into line. 



48 The hall is very similar in construc- 
tion and design to that of Baguley in 
Cheshire, and is sometimes said to have 

17 



been copied from it. Smithills, however, 
is much less in height, Baguley being 
37 ft to the ridge. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



inserted later, the floor of which would probably be 
about the height of the present modern floor over 
the screens. 44 

The great chamber at the east end of the hall is 
now cut up and hardly recognizable, but was formerly 
a room 33 ft. long by 14 ft. 6 in. wide with windows 
north and south and a large fireplace on the east side, 
all of which features still remain though difficult to 
distinguish. The ceiling is low and crossed by four 
moulded beams and a single one its full length form- 
ing ten square panels, and there is a room over. The 
window at the south end under the gable facing the 
quadrangle is an original square-headed one with 
moulded wood mullions and diamond quarries. 

Beyond the great chamber a small lobby marks the 
junction of the north and east wings, with a door to 
a small open court on the north. From this court 
some external timber construction can be seen on the 
north and west sides, together with the massive stone 
chimney of the great chamber one of the few parts 
of the building that have not been much restored. 
On the floor of the lobby itself is shown the footprint 
of George Marsh, the Protestant martyr, carefully 
preserved under a grating. 

The large room at the north end of the east wing 
may have been used as a dining-room after the aban- 
donment of the great hall, or possibly as a withdraw- 
ing-room. It is 33 ft. in length and 1 9 ft. wide, and 
at its south-east corner is a large bay window 1 1 ft. 
square separated from the room by an arched opening 
with carved spandrels. The great distance of the 
room from the kitchen is rather against its having 
been used as a banqueting hall, though there appears 
to have been a doorway to a cellar (at a lower level) 
at the north-east end. The ceiling is divided into 
four bays by three richly moulded oak beams with 
moulded brackets supported on wood corbels and longi- 
tudinally by three smaller beams, similarly moulded, 
making twelve squares, each square being enriched by 
moulded joists about a foot apart. The ceiling of the 
bay is boarded, with thin moulded ribs nailed on 
forming a star-shaped panelling. The bay itself 
preserves its old timber construction, and goes up two 
stories, finishing in a gable; but the windows are only 
old on the north and south sides, where the original 
diamond quarries and moulded mullions and transoms 
remain. 45 On the east the window frame is modern with 
square chamfered detail and large square quarries. The 
north and east walls of the room have been rebuilt in 
brick, but the west and south walls show the old 
timber and plaster construction, but are otherwise 
plain. The fireplace on the east side and the win- 
dows near it are modern. Originally the room was 
richly panelled in oak, 46 and must have presented a 
very handsome appearance, but a good deal of the 



oak panelling is now in the modern dining-room on 
the other side of the house. The room over was 
called the Green Chamber, and is that in which the 
examination of George Marsh is said to have been 
held. 

The domestic chapel is 42 ft. long and 2 1 ft wide 
at the west end, tapering to 1 8 ft. at the east. In 
1856 a fire did much damage, entirely destroying the 
roof and all the furniture, and the interior has there- 
fore little archaeological interest, all the fittings being 
modern. The entrance from the house corridor is at 
the north-west corner, and there is a door at the 
west end opening to the garden. There is a large 
square-headed mullioned and transomed window at 
each end, three smaller windows of three and four 
lights in the south side, and one of four lights at 
the east end of the north side. The coloured glass 
is all new, except in the east window, where por- 
tions of the original heraldic glass are preserved, 
with the Stanley arms and badge conspicuous among 
them. 

On the north side, separated from it by a wall, 
a room was formerly used as a vestry, 47 1 8 ft. by 
1 4 ft., above which, open to the chapel, was the 
family pew approached by a door from the corri- 
dor above. The vestry has now been thrown into 
the chapel as a kind of transept, and the pew turned 
into a gallery. The chapel is still used for public 
worship. 

The rooms in the ancient west wing have been 
wholly modernized and have no particular interest. 
They consist of an ante-room and a modern drawing- 
room of irregular shape, with a narrow staircase on 
the west side adjoining the fireplace, which, carried 
up with an external timber gable next to the chimney, 
makes a rather happy feature in the garden front. 
In the ante-room is a good carved oak mantel with 
the date 1694 and the initials A.B. West of these the 
house is more or less modern, the lyth-century addi- 
tions which immediately adjoin the old west wing 
having been a good deal reconstructed and restored. 
The dining-room and library, however, are interesting 
rooms on account of their oak wainscot, that of the 
dining-room being, as before stated, the original 
panelling from the later hall on the other side of the 
house. It consists chiefly of long linen pattern panels, 
with square panels below and an elaborate cornice above. 
On the west wall is a series of fourteen panels 
carved in the top part with heads within circles, and 
below with various designs, four having the Barton 
oak leaf and acorn, three the buck's head, two a 
molet, and the rest various patterns of interlaced work. 
A central additional panel has the sacred monogram 
" I.H.S." as an interlaced pattern under an ogee 
head. 48 The library adjoining (between the dining 



44 ' At some subsequent period, but 
still in Gothic times, a minstrels' gallery 
was inserted, the mortices for which are 
still conspicuous.' Henry Taylor, Old 
Halls in Lanes, and Ches. (1883). 

45 There is also a moulded sill on the 
south side, but that on the north is 
modern. 

46 Dr. Aikin, writing in 1795, says: 
'At Smithells is still remaining a wain- 
scotted room, the panels of which are 
adorned with upwards of fifty heads cut 
in the wood which are supposed to repre- 
sent different persons of the family ' 



(Descr. of the Country from thirty to fifty 
miles round Manchester). By 1824. a great 
part of the panelling had been taken 
away, some of it being in the room 
above, but the walls of the room 
were still ' particularly curious for con- 
taining carvings in wood ' ; John Brown, 
Hist, of Great and Little Bolton. 

*7 According to the description in 
Brown's Hist, of Bolton (1824), this room 
originally formed part of the hall or with- 
drawing-room on the north side, which 
apartment had been thus curtailed by the 
then owner. 



48 On either side of the bay window in 
this room are painted the arms of the dif- 
ferent families connected with Smithillg, 
as follows : 

1. Radcliffe impaling Norley, 1330 

2. Barton impaling Radcliffe, 1505 

3. Barton impaling Stanley, 1567 

4. Belasyse impaling Barton, 1641 

5. Byrom impaling Bradshaw, 1723 

6. Ainsworth impaling Aspinall, 

1801 

7. Ainsworth impaling Noble, 1807 

8. Ainsworth impaling Byrom, 

1833. 




HALLIWELL : SMITHILLS HALL, c. 1845 

(From a Drawing by J. G. DoJJJ 



r*- 

'Sbrv- 



LITTLE HULTON : WHARTON HALL 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



and drawing-rooms), is also elaborately fitted up with 
black oak but mostly of later date than that of the 
dining-room, the detail being of very pronounced 
renaissance type, and consisting of scriptural and other 
subjects with quaint inscriptions. The wall between 
the library and the ante-room contains an old fireplace 
now built up and completely hidden, and north of 
the library is a room lit from the ceiling, now called 
the dome-room, which is in the site of a former open 
area. It has a good carved oak I yth-century mantel 
and door, 49 and contains a sideboard dated 1642. 

The rooms on the first floor have no points of 
interest. 

Externally the north front of the house is almost 
entirely modern, the only old portions being at the 
east end, where some of the old stone windows and a 
moulded string-course remain. The east elevation is 
the least altered, showing as it does the old timber 
and plaster bay and gable over in an almost unrestored 
condition. 

The gardens lie on the south and east of the house, 
a terrace wall extending along the whole length of 
the south and east fronts, the coping of which is on a 
level with the grass of the lawn so as to keep the view 
over the park uninterrupted from the ground-floor 
windows. The terrace staircase enhances the general 
effect of the external elevation by increasing its height, 



and the long terrace walk, which is 1 5 ft. wide and 
extends the full length of the south front, is below 
the level of the lawn. At its west end is a raised 
mound approached by three flights of steps. 

Egburden, later Egbert Dene, seems to have 
included the whole north-western part of Halliwell, 
known as Smithills Dene and Smithills Moor. 50 It 
was part of the lands of the barons of Manchester, 51 
and was held of them by the Bartons of Smithills. 52 

In addition to the Hospitallers the Canons of 
Cockersand had land in alms in Halliwell. 53 

The local surname occurs. 54 Richard Lees was a 
freeholder in i6oo. 55 Adam Mort of Astley M and 
others are recorded to have held lands here in the 
times of Charles I." 

William Swinburne, a Halliwell recusant, in 1653 
petitioned to be allowed to contract for his sequestered 
estate. 58 

The principal landowner in 1788 was Miss Byrom, 
others being Roger Dewhurst, Aspinall, and 
Escrick. 59 

The most notable man springing from the town- 
ship is the George Marsh, already mentioned, who 
was condemned and burnt to death at Chester on 
24 April 1555 for teaching Protestant doctrines, and 
refusing to compromise. 60 

In recent times several places of worship have been 



49 No doubt brought from the other side 
of the house. 

50 In 1322 it seems to have been divided 
into two portions ; one was called Hag- 
head and joined with Horwich Lee ; and 
the other was called Withinrod, a parcel 
of moorland ; they were vaccaries. See 
Mamtcestre, ii, 366, 367. 

61 Thomas La Warre, lord of Man- 
chester, in 1404 made a feoffment of 
1,000 acres of waste and pasture in the 
town of Heaton called Egburden ; Chan. 
Inq. p.m. 5 Hen. VI, no. 54. From 
this and the preceding note it will be seen 
that the district was in or bordering upon 
Horwich and Heaton ; it also adjoined 
Sharpies, as is seen from a charter by 
Thurstan de Holland in 1429, quoted in 
the account of that township. It is marked 
in Halliwell, as Egbert Dene, in the 
ordnance map of 1848. It may have 
been attached to this township through 
being owned by the Smithills family. 

61 It is named in the Barton inquisi- 
tions, but the tenure is not stated ; Duchy 
of Lane. Inq. p.m. iv, 82 ; xiv, 24 ; xvii, 
50. 

43 Eight charters are recorded in the 
Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 698- 
702. Nesta de Westhoughton granted 
land next to the assart of the Hospital- 
lers, the hedge of Crosscliff's End being a 
boundary; in 1268 Roger son of Robert 
held this land at a rent of 6d., half a 
mark being payable at death. The same 
Nesta gave another part of her land, held 
in 1268 by Roger son of William, at a 
rent of %d. and half a mark at death. 
Thomas the Clerk of Eccles, Margery de 
Pendlebury, Ellis de Pendlebury, William 
Moscrop, and Robert his son, and Robert 
de Sharpies were also benefactors. Among 
the field and boundary names there occur 
Tahaureise, Swinbodeslache, Lanulache, 
Brentspert, and Longlands End. 

In 1294 Joan daughter of Austin de 
Crosscliff granted to Richard de Hulton all 
the land in Halliwell she had held of the 
Abbot of Cockersand ; Hulton Fed. 5. 

In 1461 a Cockersand rental shows 



that Richard Hal ton held the abbey lands 
freely at a rent of zs. He would prob- 
ably be of the Halliwell branch of the 
family. 

54 In 1292 Richard de Houlton and 
Hugh de Halliwell claimed a tenement 
against Ellis de Heaton, but were non- 
suited ; Assize R. 408, m. I4d. 

66 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 250. 

66 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxv, 33 ; 
the property was held of the king. 

6 ? John Harper, who died in 1628, 
held three messuages and lands of the 
king as the two-hundredth part of a 
knight's fee ; his son John, a clerk, was 
thirty-three years of age ; ibid, xxvii, 72. 

Richard Johnson, who died in 1629, 
leaving as heir his ten-year-old grandson 
John (son of John) ; also held land in 
Halliwell of the king ; ibid, xxviii, 33, 
77- 

Thomas Worthington, chapman, held 
the Little House of the king ; Thomas 
his son and heir was fifteen years of age ; 
ibid, xxviii, 6. 

Robert Sharpies alits Ward similarly 
held land of the king ; dying in 1623 he 
left a son and heir Robert, aged thirty-one; 
Towneley MS. C, 8, 13 (Chet Lib.), 
1089. Martin Taylor, also a tenant, 
had a son Robert, aged twenty-eight, 
in 1636 ; ibid. 1178. 

58 Cal. of Com. for Compounding^ v, 

3178. 

59 Land tax returns at Preston. Roger 
Dewhurst purchased an estate in Halli- 
well in 1715, and died in 1728, aged 
fifty-six. His son Roger was born at 
Halliwell Hall in 1716, and died in 1806 ; 
his diary (1784-6) has been printed ; 
Bolton, 1 88 1. 

60 The only account is in Foxe's Act* 
and Man. (ed. Cattley, vii, 39-68) ; see 
also Ches. Sheaf (3rd Ser.), iii, 37, &c.; 
iv, 89. It is derived mainly from his own 
record of his earlier examinations ; the 
source of the later portion of the story is 
not given. The Marsh family continued 
to reside at Halliwell ; one of them, as 

19 



shown above, acquired part of the manor ; 
another, James Marsh, who died in 1637, 
held lands there of the king by the thir- 
tieth part of a knight's fee ; his son and 
heir Thomas was twenty-three years of 
age ; Towneley MS. C, 8, 13, p. 859. 

George Marsh was born about 1520, 
and worked his farm till after the death 
of his wife, about the beginning of 
the reign of Edward VI. Embracing the 
Reformed doctrines he went up to Cam- 
bridge, and graduated in 1551 or 1552 
from Christ's College. He became curate 
to Lawrence Sanders, who had benefices 
in London and Leicestershire, and was 
ordained deacon in London in May 1552, 
and priest later by the Bishop of Lincoln. 

On the accession of Mary, he returned 
to Lancashire, and had thoughts of going 
abroad; but in Jan. and Feb. 1553-4, 
seeing the overthrow of the reforms, he 
could not refrain from denouncing it, and 
was reported to have spoken ' most hereti- 
cally and blasphemously . . . against the 
Pope's authority and Catholic church of 
Rome, the blessed Mass, the sacrament of 
the altar,' &c. 

This outburst being coincident with 
Wyatt's rebellion, attracted the attention 
of the court, and the Earl of Derby re- 
solved to seize the preacher. Marsh, 
however, was a brave and resolute man ; 
and after a mental struggle on the moors, 
he decided to surrender himself. He was 
sent to Lathom and examined by the earl 
and his council, while Dr. Brassey ana 
others argued with him, endeavouring 
to induce him to recant. This was in vain, 
and he was in April sent to Lancastet 
to await trial. At the sessions Marsh 
was brought up, but no civil offence being 
proved against him he was at last handed 
over to the bishop, and about the end of 
the year taken to Chester. It is signifi- 
cant of his doctrine that ' children-con- 
firming,' 'mass-hearing,' &c., were all 
classed by him as ' blasphemous idolatry ' 
and 'heathenish rites forbidden by God." 

After four months at Chester the bishop 
(George Coates) finding his arguments and 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



erected in the township. For the Established Church 
St. Peter's was built in 1 84O, 61 followed by St. Paul is 
in 1848 ; 61 in 1874 and 1875 respectively St. Luke s 
and St. Thomas's M were added. The patronage is in 
the hands of trustees, except in the case of St. Paul s, 
to which Colonel R. H. Ainsworth presents. 
is a chapel at Smithills, 65 and a Wesleyan chapel at 

Delph Hill. , . , 

The Roman Catholic church of St. Joseph, which 
originated in 1881, was opened in 1900." 



WESTHOUGHTON 

Westhalghton, 1292, and usually ; Westhalton, 
1302 ; the Wat is often omitted. Westhaughton 
and Westhoughton, xvi cent. 

This township, the largest in the parish, has an 
area of 4,341 acres, 1 having an average breadth of 
over 2 miles from north-east to south-west, and an 
extreme length of nearly 3$ miles from north- 
west to south-east. The highest ground is that 
along the north-eastern border, over 480 ft. being 
reached in one place ; the surface slopes generally 
downwards to the south-west, the lowest point, about 
120 ft., being in the extreme southerly corner. 
Borsdane Brook separates it from Aspull ; another brook 
divides it from Hindley, and joins a stream rising on 
the northern edge of Westhoughton and flowing south 
through Leigh to Glazebrook. 

The road from Manchester to Chorley goes through 
the northern side of the township, passing the hamlets 
of Chequerbent, Wingates, and Fourgates. West- 
houghton village is near the centre of the township, 
on the crooked road from Wigan, through Hindley 
and Hart Common, to Bolton. From the village 
roads go north to Wingates, east to Chequerbent, and 
south to Daisy Hill and Leigh ; there are numerous 
cross roads. The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway 
has several lines ; the main line from Liverpool to 
Manchester crosses the township north-easterly, with 
a station, called Westhoughton, to the north of the 
village ; a branch runs north to join the Bolton and 
Preston line, and has stations called Dicconson Lane 
and Hilton House ; a second branch runs east to 
Pendleton, and has a station at Daisy Hill. The 
London and North-Western Company's Kenyon and 
Bolton line crosses the eastern corner of the town- 
ship, with a station called Chequerbent. 
The population in 1901 was 13,339. 
Agriculture is still one of the principal industries 



of the township ; the soil is clay, and oats and pota- 
toes are the chief products. Cotton and other goods 
are manufactured, and there are coal mines. Bobbin, 
spindle, and shuttle making, and nail manufacturing 
were engaged in in 1825. A once flourishing trade 
is now extinct. 

It appears to have been at Westhoughton that 
Adam Banastre and others made their confederacy in 
October 1315.* 

A battle was fought on the common in 1642 be- 
tween Lord Derby's forces and the Parliamentary 
levies ; 3 and Prince Rupert is stated to have mustered 
his troops there prior to the attack on Bolton in 1 644. 
A token was issued at Daisy Hillock in 1652.* 
The hearths liable to the tax in 1 666 numbered 
98. The largest house was that of William Worth- 
ington, having six hearths ; Ralph Brown and William 
Leigh had five each. 5 

A local board was formed in 1872.' In 1894 an 
urban district council was formed, having twelve 
members elected by four wards. In 1898 part of 
Over Hulton was added, Hulton ward returning 
three members to the council. Mr. Carnegie has 
given a library building. 

Westhoughton gives its name to one of the Parlia- 
mentary divisions of South-east Lancashire. 

Peter Dodd's Well was regarded as an indicator of 
the weather. 7 

It is difficult to trace the early descent 
M4NOR of WESTHOUGHTON. The whole 
township seems to have been held of the 
lords of Manchester, chiefly by the Barton family, 8 
but partly by the Pendleburys. The latter also held 
lands in the Barton portion. About the middle of 
the 1 3th century Sir Gilbert de Barton granted to 
Henry de Sefton, clerk, and his heirs or assigns the 
whole lordship of Westhoughton, with escheats, ward- 
ships, &c. ; the homages of Roger de Pendlebury and 
others ; escheats and liberties of the tenement of 
Thomas the Small ; with all liberties of the lordship 
in pastures, woods, and plain, sor-hawks and deer, 
waters and pools, ways and paths, mill pools, and 
others. Further, he granted that Henry and his 
successors should be quit of all suit of the court at 
Barton as well for Westhoughton as for Aspull. 9 

Henry de Sefton quickly bestowed the lordship 
upon the abbot and canons of Cockersand, who had 
already come into possession of a considerable estate 
in the township by a series of grants beginning about 
1 200. Beside the lordship he granted them the 
third part of the vill, which he must have held in 



persuasions of no avail, proceeded to trial, 
and there being no recantation, con- 
demned him. There was a pathetic scene 
in the Lady Chapel of the cathedral, the 
old bishop pausing at times in reading 
the sentence in hopes of signs of yielding, 
and the people praying the accused to give 
way. Marsh, however, remained steadfast, 
and was burned at Boughton accordingly. 

81 For endowment see Land. Gaz. 
% Aug. 1873. 

M Ibid. 24 July 1874, and 1 1 Aug. 

1876, for endowments. 

M Ibid. 31 Oct. 1876, district ; 16 Nov. 

1877, ii June 1880, and n Nov. 1881, 
endowments. There is a mission chapel, 
St. Margaret's. 

M Ibid, i July 1879, district ; 25 Mar. 
1 88 1, endowment. 



65 The above-quoted will of John 
Barton, 1514 shows that he had a chapel 
there. 

66 Kelly, Engl. Catb. Millions, 199. 

1 4,344, including 14 of inland water, 
according to the census of 1901. 

8 Coram Rege R. 254, m. 52 ; the place 
is called Haulton, near Blackrod. 

8 Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 125; 
the Parliament's men were beaten through 
their magazine exploding. 

4 Lanes, and Cbes. Antiq. Soc. v, 93 ; 
the initials H. D. M. may indicate Henry 
Molyneux. 

* Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 
'Nether Hulton,' with 103 hearths, was 
probably part of it, for Nathaniel Moly- 
ncux's house was there, with six hearths. 

6 Land. Gax. 24 Sept. 1872. 

20 



7 Local N. and Q. (Mane h. Guardian), 
no. 791. 

8 Lanct. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 54. 

9 Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
690 ; the consideration named for this 
grant is three marks of silver given me 
in my great need,' but no doubt there had 
been previous loans or assistance. 

Thomas the Small, whose share is men- 
tioned specially, afterwards killed a certain 
Thomas de Byron ; he was outlawed, and 
his lands were taken into the king's hands, 
the abbot making fine and recovering the 
lands. In 1292 his son John claimed them 
from the abbot, who called Richard [de 
Ince] son of Henry de Sefton to warrant 
him, and John was non-suited ; Assize R. 
408, m. 26 d. 






SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



demesne, with all its appurtenances, including fish- 
ponds, honey, and hawks. For this the canons gave 
him 50 marks. 10 

SRINSOP, in the extreme north-western corner of 
the township, also came into the possession of Cock- 
ersand. In 1235 it was granted by Gilbert de Barton 
to Richard de Bracebridge, being reckoned as three 
oxgangs of land. 11 Probably it reverted to the Bartons 
and was included in the grant of Henry de Sefton. 
The manor-house of the canons seems to have been at 
this place. 



In a suit of some seventy years later it was declared 
that in 12612 Adam, Abbot of Cockersand, had 
held half the oxgang at which the vill was assessed ; 
and Roger son of Ellis de Westhoughton and John 
de Rylands each held a moiety of the remainder. In 
the year named the said Roger granted his fourth 
part to the abbot, so that three parts of the lordship 
were in the hands of the canons in 1 3 34.^ It is 
probable that the Rylands' share was subsequently 
acquired by the canons; but this family long after- 
wards continued to hold land in the township. 13 



10 Cockersand Chart, ii, 688 ; for Henry 
de Sefton see further in the accounts of 
Ince and Aspull in Wigan. The abbot 
-was to render i%d. to the chief lord for 
all services and customs. 

The Cockersand estate had been derived 
from variou* benefactions. Hugh son of 
William son of Nest granted ' the whole 
third part of the vill,' with the homages 
and services appurtenant, for which he 
received 31 marks ; ibid, ii, 678. It 
is possible that this was the ' third part ' 
afterwards held and surrendered by Henry 
de Sefton. William son of Nest had 
granted to Thomas son of Ellis de Pendle- 
bury land in Ballesley, bounded by the road 
from Houghton to Aspull, Ridley brook, 
Green lache, and Aldersnape head, &c. ; 
and Thomas, in turn, granted it to the 
canons ; ibid. 679. 

Thomas de Houghton, clerk, made 
aeveral grants of land ; between Well 
brook and Town brook, and between the 
latter and Ballsdean brook ; in Birchley 
and by his grange at Conware ; and all 
his land of Birchley and Sandeveshurst. 
Cecily his wife confirmed these grants ; 
he appears to have received the lands 
from Austin de Houghton, being confirmed 
in them by Robert the rector of Winwick; 
ibid. 680-3. This may be the land of 
Thomas son of Swain for which Gilbert 
<le Notion and Edith his wife also granted 
a confirmation ; ibid. 687. 

Roger son of Adam de Pendlebury gave 
all his lands in Westhoughton, except 
Snydale ; ibid. 677. There were also 
donations from the Rylands family ; ibid. 
685. Ellis de Pendlebury granted the 
Priest's croft ; its bounds followed the 
Town brook as far as the road to Aspull, 
then by a syke by Recingpool moss to the 
lache going into Bradley brook, across 
from this brook beyond the carr, and as 
far as the Town brook ford lying on the 
north side of Hugh's house ; ibid. 688. 
Robert the mercer of [West] Derbyshire 
afterwards surrendered his claim to this 
croft ; ibid. 687. 

Several rentals of the abbey are known ; 
ibid, iii, 1232, &c. In 1251 and 1260 
the farms of Westhoughton amounted to 
91. 8^f. ; Thomas de Whittleswick was 
the chief tenant. The rentals of 1451 
and 1461 give long lists of tenants ; John 
Rigby held Ballsdean ; Thomas Laith- 
waite, Brinsop ; and James Holden, Wind- 
yates. 

11 Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 61. A service of four barbed 
arrows, or i</., was due from it. The 
place is not named in the Cockersand 
Chartulary, though it occurs in the rentals; 
and the Cockersand manor seems always 
to have been reckoned as one oxgang. 

la Coram Rege R. 297, m. 121, printed 
in Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 6. The 
rating of the township at one oxgang of 
hide land seems an instance of beneficial 
assessment ; two plough-lands would have 



been more reasonable. It appears, indeed, 
that in 1296 Margaret widow of Ellis de 
Turton claimed against the Abbot of 
Cockersand dower in a messuage and 
plough-land in Westhoughton ; De Banco 
R. 1 14, m. 86. 

The abbot's moiety must have been the 
result of the grants recorded in the pre- 
vious note ; nothing is said in the suit as 
to his lordship of the whole vill granted by 
Henry de Sefton. Roger son of Ellis de 
Westhoughton granted to Cockersand all 
his claim in the waste in return for 8 acres 
lying near his land of Birchley and another 
8 acres lying near his land of Rylands. 
This is the only grant in the Chartul. 
(691), and is no doubt that mentioned in 
the text. 

John son of Thomas de Houghton in 
1331 did not prosecute a claim he made 
against the abbot in Westhoughton ; As- 
size R. 1404, m. 19. 

18 An account of the family, with illus- 
trative deeds, by Mr. J. Paul Rylands, was 
printed in the Gen. (1880), iv, 170-8. 
The fields now called 'Ryelands' lie to 
the south-west of the Quakers' meeting- 
house on the road from Westhoughton to 
Hindley. 

John son of Robert de Rylands granted 
to the canons of Cockersand all his land 
in Ballesley, and followed this by a sur- 
render of his claim in the waste, founded 
on a charter by Adam de Pendlebury, in 
return for 14 acres by the Wallbrook and 
Warcock Hill ; Chartul. ii, 685, 686. 

In Fine R. 80, 10 E i, m. 10, he is 
called John del Rylondes de Halughton. 

He was a juror at Manchester in 1282 
to inquire into the value of knights' fees, 
&c. ; Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), i, 1 68. 

The abbot and canons of Cockersand 
about 1280 leased to John the Jew the 
land which they had from Richard de Ry- 
lands in Westhoughton ; John also held 
the land granted by John de Rylands, and 
another portion bought from William de 
Rylands ; Cbartul. ii, 694. 

Richard son of John de Rylands (Duchy 
Misc. 3/9) was probably a clerk, as he is 
styled Master Richard in 1282 ; Assize 
R. 10 Edw. I (Rec. Soc. xlvii, 175). He 
is named in 1302 ; Assize R. no. 418, m. 
2. He was the first witness to a settle- 
ment, dated at Hulton 3 Nov. 1338, of 
Adam de Hulton's lands in Westhoughton; 
Mr. Hulton's D. Richard de Rylands 
was a juror re Bradshagh in 1317. He 
had at least two sons, William de Rylands, 
named in Duchy of Lane. Misc. 3/9 and 
Misc. R. div. 25, bdle. 2, no. ii, and 
John de Rylands, who married a kins- 
woman of Adam de Hindley, and in 1306 
was wounded in an affray at Wigan ; As- 
size R. no. 421, m. i d. 

William and Robert de Rylands of 
Westhoughton contributed to the subsidy 
in 1327 and 1332. 

In the Coram Rege Roll of 1334 (R. 
297, m. 83) it is recorded that the Abbot 

21 



of Cockersand successfully claimed 14 
acres of wood against John son of John de 
Hulton, Robert son of Robert de Pendle- 
bury, Richard de Bradshagh and Roger and 
Adam his sons, and William de Rylands. 
The jurors stated that the abbot was sole 
lord. In the same roll (m. 121), how- 
ever, it is also recorded that William de 
Rylands and Agnes his wife claimed com- 
mon of pasture in 100 acres of wood, and 
200 acres of moss and pasture against the 
abbot, Robert de Rylands, and Roger 
Walet. 

In this action William claimed as son 
of Thomas son of the above-named John 
de Rylands, the abbot admitting that in 
1262 John de Rylands had held one-fourth 
part of the lordship, and that the same had 
devolved by descent upon William. It 
therefore appears that in the year 1334 
the Rylands family still retained their 
right to one-fourth part of the lordship, 
and the finding of the jury was in accord- 
ance with the abbot's evidence. But it 
seems probable that they were in fact 
mesne tenants of the Abbot of Cocker- 
sand, though in all probability their tenure 
of their lands in Westhoughton com- 
menced at a period anterior to the acqui- 
sition of the manor by the abbey. 

In the De Banco Rolls of 1333 and 
1334 (296, m. 387, and 300, m. 232) 
there are records of a dispute between 
Ellen and Margery, daughters of Maurice 
de Rylands, and Adam son of Richard de 
Bradshagh regarding a messuage and land 
in Westhoughton, from which it appears 
that Ellen and Margery were sisters and 
heirs of Richard de Rylands. 

In 1348 Agnes widow of William de 
Rylands granted to her nephew (nepos] 
Adam son of Richard del Grange her part 
of a messuage, water-mill, and horse-mill, 
&C., held of the Abbot of Cockersand ; 
Thomas Hodgeson de Rylands is men- 
tioned ; Chart, ii, 755 (Add. MS. 32107, 
fol. 190^). 

In 1371-2 Robert de Maunton, chap- 
lain, and John le Mort, executors of the 
will of William son of Robert de Rylands 
appeared against the Abbot of Cockersand 
claiming that 30 acres of land and 10 
acres of wood demised by the abbot to 
William were unjustly held against the 
said executors ; De Banco R. 443, m. 

122. 

The Abbot of Cockersand in 1395-6 
leased to William Rylands and Thurstan 
and Thomas his sons a tenement 'upon 
condition that if they die within the term 
[19 years] the abbot may re-enter, and 
that they shall not alien without licence, 
and that they shall repair the houses dur- 
ing the term, and after the death of every 
one to pay 1 3*. 4</.' ; and in the next year 
the abbot gave a reversion to Thomas, 
Lawrence, and John Rylands ; Local 
Glean. Lanes, and Cbes. ii, 225, from 
Duchy of Lane. Misc. R. div. 25, Z./u. 

Lawrence de Rvlands of Wexham 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



The Byrons also had lands in the township. 14 In 
1320 the Abbot of Cockersand was said to hold the 
fortieth part of a fee in Westhoughton, paying id. 
for sake fee and 6<t. for ward of the castle ; " and the 
same tenure continued in I473. 16 

As in the case of most monastic estates, possession 
by the canons was marked by few disputes or inci- 
dents of note. In 1272 they procured a delimita- 
tion of the boundary between Westhoughton and 
Lostock on the north. 17 The abbot made complaints 
in 1343 and 1359 concerning the cutting down of 
his trees. 18 An inquiry was made in 1385 concern- 
ing the surrender of lands to find a lamp to burn for 
ever in the choir of the abbey church. 19 A few 
years before the Dissolution disputes broke out be- 
tween the abbot and his tenants as to the right of 



renewing their nineteen-year leases.* The manor 
was farmed to Sir Thomas Langton in I 538.*' 

Some years after the suppression the manor of 
Westhoughton was granted by the king to James 
Browne, citizen and haberdasher of London, for 
1,035 I is. %d., to be held by the tenth part of a 
knight's fee and a rent of $ 14.*. 8^. M His 
descendants continued to hold it for about a century. 13 
They resided at Brinsop. 

The Brothertons of Hey seem to have succeeded 
them. 84 The ' manor ' was in 1836 said to be held 
by Lord Skelmersdale ; but none is now claimed by 
Major Lionel Wilbraham, to whom this estate has 
descended. 25 

Brinsop Hall was in the first half of the 1 8th cen- 
tury in the possession of John Widdowes, who mar- 



Bucks., had protections on going into 
France in the retinues of Sir William 
Philip, Sir Thomas Beaumont, and 
others, between 1429 and 1439 ; Def. 
Keeper's Rep. xlviii, App. The will of 
Alice Rylands of London, proved in 1442, 
contains a bequest to Wexham Church ; 
Commissary of Lond. fol. 96. 

Nicholas Rylands in 1474, when 
seventy-eight years of age, in Leigh parish 
church, swore upon a book that he had 
never made a feoffment to Thomas 
Stanley and Piers Legh, or to Roger Hul- 
ton of the Park, sen., of his lands, &c., 
within Westhoughton ; nor had he made 
a feoffment to his son William of his 
father Robert's lands in Westhoughton, 
Lowton, and Pemberton ; Gen. iv, 1 74. 
The MS. containing this is now in the 
Grosvenor Museum, Chester. Nicholas 
had, in 1430, married Margery daughter of 
Sir Thomas Gerard ; ibid. 172. 

Ralph Rylands in 1503-4 released to 
Anne widow of Geoffrey Shakerley, and 
Peter son and heir of Geoffrey, all claim 
on lands, &c., in the parishes of Winwick, 
Leigh, and Deane ; ibid. 175. 

Members of the Rylands family appear 
in the rentals of Cockersand as tenants of 
the abbey. In 1451 and 1461 Peter and 
Hugh Rylands each held a tenement, pay- 
ing what was then a substantial rent. In 
1501 Peter's tenement was apparently 
held by the wife of Geoffrey Shakerley, 
and Hugh's tenement by Humphrey Ry- 
lands ; and the latter one was held by 
another Peter Rylands in 1537. Another 
Peter was living at Westhoughton in 
1587 ; Co. PaL Plea R. 29 Eliz. no. 261, 
m. 19. 

Ralph Rylands of Westhoughton re- 
moved to Culcheth at the beginning of 
the 1 7th century, and his descendants sub- 
sequently settled at Warrington, with 
which town they are still identified. One 
of them, Mr. Peter Rylands, of Warring- 
ton, was the Parliamentary representative 
of that town in the latter part of the last 
century ; Ped. in the Coll. of Arms. 

Other members of the family continued 
to reside in Westhoughton and neighbour- 
ing townships. Peter Rylands of Daisy 
Hillock, Westhoughton, agent for seques- 
trations under the Parliament, died in 
1663, leaving a son Peter, M.A. Trin. 
ColL Dublin, who became treasurer and 
vicar-choral of Limerick Cathedral, and 
died without issue in 1695, having mar- 
ried Diana daughter of Sir Drury Wray, 
bart. who was remarried to Archdeacon 
Twigge of Limerick ; Gen. iv, 177-8. 

14 Geoffrey son of Geoffrey de Byron 
for 1 5 marks released to the canons of 
Cockersand all the land he had held of 



them at a rent of I2</.; and Richard son 
of Robert de Worsley gave a quitclaim 
also; Chart, ii, 690. In 1292 Richard 
du Boulton, Richard son of Roger de 
Worsley, William de Aintree, and others 
claimed a tenement in Westhoughton 
from the Abbot of Cockersand, but were 
non-suited ; Assize R. 408, m. 46. 

14 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, ii, 71. 

18 Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), 480. It 
appears, however, that the abbot paid a 
rent of 1 3*. $d. to the lord of Manches- 
ter ; Duchy of Lane. Rentals and Surv. 
bdle. 5, no. 2. 

V Chart, ii, 675-6. The bounds 
followed Bishop's lache to Buckshaw 
brook, up this brook to its head, then 
along Mother lache, between the rushy 
land and the deep moss, to Winyates carr 
and then to the head of Redshaw, crossing 
the moss from this point in a straight 
line to the syke between Rumworth and 
Suynul (? Snydale). 

18 Assize R. 430, m. 6d.; Duchy of 
Lane. Assize R. 7, m. i d. 

19 Sir John de Ipre and John de Titter- 
ington, vicar of Mitton, desired to give a 
messuage and 40 acres in Westhoughton, 
held of the Abbot of Cockersand, for the 
purpose named. The premises paid a 
rent of -id. a year to the abbot, who held 
them of Sir John La Warre as of the 
fee of the barony of Manchester in free 
alms, and by the service of id. yearly ; 
Chan. Inq. p.m. 8 Ric. II, no. 69. 

20 Some of the tenants it appeared had 
held their lands without taking the trouble 
to renew their leases; but in 1530 it 
was ruled that they must renew at the 
expiration of the term, paying a penny to 
the abbot as 'earnest penny,' or 'God's 
penny,' and another penny to the steward 
as 'entry penny,' according to the cus- 
tom ; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 192-4. 

About 1520 Richard Urmston, who had 
married Ellen daughter of Nicholas Hoi- 
den, claimed on her behalf a tenement in 
Westhoughton. The actual holder, Peter 
Williamson, claimed in right of his wife, 
who was a widow and married him with- 
out the abbot's consent, whereby, it was 
alleged, her right was forfeited ; ibid, ii, 
1 50. The claim of Ellen Gorton, made 
about the same time, has some interesting 
details ; ibid, i, 99. 

21 Local Gleanings Lanes, and Ches. i, 
181. 

22 Pat. 37 Hen. VIII, pt. 4, m. 24. 

The lands of the monastery of Cocker- 
sand, including the manor of Westhough- 
ton, were recovered in 1821, Richard 
Dashwood being vouchee ; Pal. of Lane. 
Assize R. Lent, 2 Geo. IV, rot. 12. 

22 



28 It was found in 1588 that James 
Browne at his death in 1587 had held the 
manor of Westhoughton and various lands 
of the queen by the twentieth part of a 
knight's fee ; its value was 10 a year. 
In 1562 he had granted it to his son 
Robert, who had married Anne daughter 
of John Langtree, with remainder to 
Robert's son James ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. xiv, 37. 

Anne daughter of William Banaster 
married Browne of Brinshope ; Dug- 
dale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 25. Anne wife 
of James Browne, and Mary wife of Jame* 
Browne, both of Westhoughton, were re- 
cusants in 1619 ; Manch. Sess. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 82. 

In 1622 James and Robert Browne 
made a settlement of the manor of West- 
houghton and seventy messuages, &c., 
1,000 acres of land, 300 acres of meadow, 
&c., in the township ; Pal. of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. 101, no. 6. 

James Browne held the manor by the 
twentieth part of a knight's fee at his 
death in 1633 ; Robert his son and heir 
was forty years of age ; Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. xxvii, no. 2. The will of James 
Browne was proved at Chester in 1633. 

In 1636 Robert Browne of Brinsop and 
Richard Browne his son and heir conveyed 
to Christopher Anderton certain messuages 
on the north side of the king's highway 
between Manchester and Chorley ; An- 
derton D. no. 1 1 6. In 1 6 5 5 Westhoughton 
was counted among the Anderton of Los- 
tock manors, but does not appear later ; 
ibid. no. 123. 

In 1665 Ralph Browne obtained a ver- 
dict against James Browne for depastur- 
ing; Exch. of Pleas, Hil. 16 & 17 Chas. II, 
m. 39. The will of Ralph Browne of 
Brinsop was proved at Chester in 1689. 

Kuerden about 1690 speaks of the 
Browne of Ince near Wigan being brother 
of the Browne of Brinsop ; Local Glean. 
Lanes, and Cbes, i, 214. 

The deforciants in 1650 were Sir 
Thomas Smith, Dr. Edmund Mainwaring, 
and Peter Leycester, all Cheshire men, and 
probably trustees ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 149, m. 103. 

M Recovery at the Lent Assizes, 1812 ; 
William Brown Brotherton and wife, and 
Thomas William Brown Brotherton, 
vouchees. 

Disputes concerning the inclosing of 
the commons had occurred in the I7th 
century between Atherton and Brotherton; 
Lanes, and Cbes. Rec. ii, 247, 293. 

25 Baines, Lanes, iii, 49, and informa- 
tion of Mr. William Roper. The Wil- 
braham estate consists of a number of 
farms acquired in various ways. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



ried Margaret Roby. Their daughter Esther inherited 
it, and by marriage in 1 749 conveyed it to her hus- 
band James Milnes of Wakefield ; their son, also 
James Milnes, bequeathed it in 1805 to his cousin 
Benjamin Gaskell of Clifton in Eccles, whose grand- 
son, Mr. Charles George Milnes Gaskell of Thornes 
House, Wakefield, is the present owner.* 6 

The change of tenure from monastic to secular 
lords was accompanied by a number of lawsuits 
respecting the customs of the manor." 

The Pendlebury family, already mentioned, held 
SNFD4LE of the lord of Manchester as early as 1 2 1 2, zs 



and appear to have retained it 
down to the end of the i6th 
century, 39 when it passed to 
the Worthingtons, who re- 
mained in possession for a 
century and a half. 30 On 
the bankruptcy of William 
Worthington in 1744 it 
was purchased by the Starkies 
of Huntroyde, who still re- 
tain it. No manorial rights 
are exercised. 31 




STARKIE of Hunt- 
royde. Argent a bend 
sable between six storks 



2S Information of Mr. Milnes Gas- 
kell. 

87 Numerous references to these suits 
will be found in the Ducatus Lane. 

I n X 553 James Browne complained 
that William Reeve and others had forcibly 
entered two messuages and 100 acres of 
land, parcel of his manor of Westhoughton, 
* by reason of a feigned custom they call 
tenant right.' The defendants claimed 
common of pasture and turbary for fuel to 
be burnt in their tenement. William 
Pendlebury deposed that his father Nicholas 
had had a messuage and land for the 
' town's term ' of nineteen years, paying 
to the Abbot of Coekersand 14*. lod. 
He had succeeded his father, and paid an 
'earnest penny or God's penny,' and an 
entry penny, and was one of those affected 
by the settlement between the abbot and 
his tenants already mentioned. Others 
said that plaintiff was 'very covetous, 
cumbersome, insatiable, and extreme' with 
his tenants and farmers, and was trying 
to evade or upset the settlement. Plain- 
tiff, who lived at Brinsop, denied this, and 
said that defendants, acting on bad advice, 
were troubling him needlessly. One of 
them had admitted that a scholar in his 
house, since gone to Cambridge, had ad- 
vised him to say that 8*. he had paid was 
for a fine for his house, whereas it was 
for arrears of rent. Ralph Browne, brother 
of James, acted as his bailiff"; Duchy 
Plead. Hi, 14.5-51. 

James Browne was again plaintiff in 
1556, Adam Hulton and others being 
defendants. He claimed to have suc- 
ceeded the Abbots of Coekersand as lords 
of the manor, and of the waste. Many 
approvements had been made, cottages and 
mills built, mostly long before the Disso- 
lution. The abbots had held courts, taken 
perquisites and profits, and appointed con- 
stables and other officers. The defence 
attempted was that the lord of Manchester 
was the true lord of the manor and of the 
wastes, and that the Abbot of Coekersand 
had paid a chief rent of i8i/. a year for 
his lands in Westhoughton ; Duchy of 
Lane. Dep. Ixxiv, B. 2. 

Probably as a consequence of this the 
jury at Manchester Court Leet in 1557 
found that a rent of i8</. was due from 
the township of Westhoughton, but had 
been withheld ; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 
35. Nothing further is heard of this 
claim, James Browne having no doubt 
justified his title. The constables of 
Westhoughton were summoned to attend 
the Manchester court down to the end of 
the 1 7th century, but had ceased to ap- 
pear ; ibid, vi, 254. 

From a summary of depositions made in 
1588 it appears that the manor-house had 
been the grange of the Abbots of Cocker- 
sand. The decrees previously made against 
the alleged ' tenant right ' were recited, 
and it was stated that the old name was 



' town term.' Against the claim of custom 
the following reasons were alleged : Most 
of the tenants had taken leases from James 
Browne the grandfather of the James 
Browne of 1588 ; a great part of the 
tenants were not the heirs in blood of the 
old tenants ; many of the tenements had 
been inclosed from the waste ; some ten- 
ants had assigned their tenements without 
the leave of the lord ; most of them had 
committed waste ; and many of the wives 
of deceased tenants and their heirs had 
not taken up their tenements within the 
prescribed twelve months; Duchy of Lane. 
Misc. bdle. 3, no. 9. 

28 Snydale has taken many forms. 
Albert Grelley, jun. gave Ellis de Pen- 
dlebury ' Sliuehale ' by i zJ. or by a sor- 
hawk a year, and Ellis held the land in 
1 21 2 ; Inq, and Extents, i, 58. From its 
position it appears to be the Suynul or 
Suinhul (? Sniuhul) of the Coekersand 
Char, (ii, 676-7), which Roger son of 
Adam de Pendlebury excepted from his 
grant to the abbey. 

It should be noticed that the Pendle- 
burys had lands also in Halliwell, of which 
there is a part called Smithills. 

In 1320 Robert de Pendlebury held 
' Smythell ' for one sparrow-hawk or izd. ; 
Mamecestrtj 290. 

Isabel Hulton and {Catherine her 
daughter in 1449 received 39 from the 
lands called Snydale in Westhoughton for 
the marriage of {Catherine, from Sir Geof- 
frey Massey of Worsley and Margery his 
wife ; Ellesmere D. no. 221. 

Henry son of Robert de Pendlebury 
and Joan his wife had in 1363 and 
later years disputes with Hugh de Leigh, 
John de Leigh, and John son of Rich- 
ard de Leigh, concerning messuages, 
&c., in Westhoughton ; De Banco R. 
413, m. 100 ; 418, m. 315 d. ; 438, m. 
209 d. 

In 1532 Roger Pendlebury of West- 
houghton was murdered in his house. An 
inquest was held, but, as his brother and 
heir William averred, by the favour and 
contrivance of Ralph Bradshagh the cor- 
oner, the jury found the crime had been 
committed in self-defence ; Duchy Plead, 
ii, 51. 

29 Adam son of Roger Pendlebury in 
1531 granted a lease of Snydale to Adam 
Hulton of the Park ; Towneley MS. 
RR, n. 58. 

In 1574 a settlement was made of a 
messuage, windmill, 40 acres of land, 
&c., in Westhoughton, by Roger and 
Ralph Pendlebury ; after these the re- 
mainders were to William, Nicholas, 
Adam, Richard, and Lawrence Pendle- 
bury in succession ; Pal. of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. 36, no. 83. 

A sequel to this arrangement is given 
in Duchy of Lane. Plead, clxv, P. 8. 
William, a son of Robert Pendlebury of 
'Snythyll,' in 1595, alleged that Roger 

2 3 



proper. 

P e n d lebury, 
the son and 

heir of Robert, had been seised of the capital 
messuage called ' Snythull,' with barns, or- 
chards, fishings, &c., in the parish of Deane. 
Having no sons, Roger settled the estate 
on his brothers successively Ralph, Wil- 
liam (plaintiff), Nicholas, Adam, Richard, 
and Lawrence. Ralph having died, Roger 
sold to Christopher Anderton the mar- 
riage of his daughter Anne, afterwards 
wife of James Worthington, with the re- 
version of the estate should Anne die 
childless. In 1613 James Worthington of 
Sneithell and Anne his wife had a son 
Ralph, twelve years of age ; Visit, of 1 6 1 3 
(Chet. Soc.), 126; also Visit, of 1567 
(Chet. Soc.), 28. 

There was a recovery of Snydale in 
1585, Christopher Anderton being tenant 
and Roger Pendlebury vouchee ; Ander- 
ton D. no. 48. The marriage of Anne 
Pendlebury the daughter had been granted 
in 1580 as appears by an exemplification 
at the request of James Worthington ; 
ibid. no. 74. 

80 The sale, or more probably mort- 
gage, referred to in the last note, was 
made in 1584, ten years after the settle- 
ment, when Christopher Anderton ac- 
quired from Roger Pendlebury and Anne 
his wife the capital messuage called Sny- 
thell, with lands in Westhoughton and 
Golborne ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
46, m. 190. 

James Worthington, of ' Snithell ' and 
Barnard's Inn, a younger son of Lawrence 
Worthington of Crawshaw, married Anne, 
daughter and sole heir of Roger Pendle- 
bury ; Visit, of 1613 (Chet. Soc.), 126. 
He contributed to the subsidy as a land- 
owner in 1622 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 1 60. 

His son and heir Ralph was twelve 
years of age in 1613. Ralph Worthing- 
ton of ' Smithells ' was a member of the 
Presbyterian classis in 1646 ; Baines, 
Lanes, (ed. 1868), i, 227. 

In 1690 William Worthington and 
Ralph, Peter, and John Worthington made 
a settlement of the 'manor of West- 
houghton ' and of messuages and lands 
there and in Thornton ; Pal. of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. 225, m. 53. 

From William Worthington the tithes 
of ' Snydle or Snythill,' &c., were pur- 
chased in 1726-7 by William Leigh ; 
Piccope MSS. (Chet. Lib.), iii, 234, from 
Rolls I & 2 of Geo. II at Preston. 

William son of William Worthington 
of Bolton matriculated at Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxford, in 1739, being fifteen years 
of age ; he proceeded to the B.A. degree ; 
Foster, Alumni Oxon. 

William Worthington was vouchee in 
a recovery of the manor in 1745 ; Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 560, m. 8 d. 

81 Information of Mr. Daniel Howsin 
of Padiham. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Other families holding land here were the Brad- 
shaghs," Hultons," Leighs, 14 Reeves, 35 and Moly- 
neuxes. 16 Many other names may be gathered from 
rentals and inquisitions. 87 

The only freeholders named in 1600 were James 
Browne, Robert Leigh, William Molyneux, and 
Thomas Richardson.* 8 James Browne, James Worth- 
ington, and William Leigh contributed to the subsidy 
of 1622 as landowners.* 9 In 1786 the principal 



owners were the Duke of Bridgewater, Milne,. 
R. Wilbraham Bootle, William Hulton, Starkie, 
Worthington, the Misses Molyneux, and Thomas 
Green. 40 

There was a dispute as to inclosures in 1631 2. u 
The inclosure award, with two plans, may be seen at 
Preston." 

Westhoughton was the scene of Luddite riots in 
1812; four men were executed for joining in them. 4 *" 



* Adam son of Richard de Bradshagh 
in 1331 acquired a messuage and land ; the 
remainders were to his brother Henry, and 
to Richard son of John de Bradshagh ; 
Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
ii, 80. 

88 In 1311-12 Richard son of Richard 
de Hulton released to the abbey of Cocker- 
sand all his claim to wastes and pastures 
within Westhoughton, reserving common 
of pasture and reasonable estovers for 
himself and his tenants ; Hulton Fed. 6. 

Ellen daughter of John de Hulton 
granted to Hugh de Hulton and Agnes 
his wife her toft and croft called the Park 
and her meadow with appurtenances in 
Westhoughton ; Towneley MS. RR., no. 
103. 

John son of Adam de Heaton m 1337 
claimed a messuage and lands against 
Adam son of Richard de Hulton. The 
defendant said he held jointly with Roger 
his son, not named in the writ. The 
claim was not pursued ; Assize R. 1424, 
m. 9 ; 1425, m. 2. 

In later times lands in Snydale in West- 
houghton were held also by the Hultons 
of Farnworth ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
iii, no. 26. 

An agreement was made in 1521 be- 
tween Adam Hulton of Hulton and 
William Hulton of Farnworth respecting 
lands in Westhoughton, Manchester, Bar- 
ton, Lever, and Bolton ; Pal. of Lane. 
Plea R. 132, m. 6. 

Adam Hulton, a tenant in 1556, men- 
tioned in a previous note, was son of 
William and grandson of Adam Hulton. 
In 1597 Adam Hulton and Alice his wife 
made a grant of their messuage, &c. ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 58, m. 275. 

84 Kucrden has preserved short notes of 
some deeds of this family, but they are 
very unsatisfactory, dates being seldom 
given and no details of the lands con- 
cerned ; iii, H. 4. Among them are grants 
from Hugh de Leigh to John his son and 
Margery daughter of Henry de Ains- 
worth, Edw. Ill (no. i) ; from Henry 
son of Laucoc son of Ranne (?) de West- 
houghton to Richard son of John de Leigh, 
I2(?) Edw. Ill (6) ; from Mabel de Leigh 
to John de Leigh of Cheetham and his son 
Richard de Leigh of Westhoughton (9) ; 
from Robert de Pendlebury of West- 
houghton to Richard de Leigh, 9 Hen. VI 
(16) ; from the trustee to Richard de 
Leigh, with remainders to his sons James, 
William, Roger, Thomas, Thurstan, and 
John, 23 Hen. VI (18) ; from the trustees 
to James Leigh, with remainders to Agnes 
daughter of Henry Hindley, for her life, 
and to Robert son and heir of John Leigh, 
?Hen. VII (21, 22) ; from John Leigh, 
senior, to Robert his son and heir, 6 Hen. 
VIII (27) ; from Robert son and heir of 
John [Leigh] to trustees, with remainder 
to John his son (29) ; Robert Leigh was 
living in the reign of Philip & Mary (35). 

From the Cockersand rentals it may be 
seen that Richard Leigh was a free tenant 
in 1451, his rent being zid. ; James 



Leigh in 1461 ; and John Leigh in 1501 
and 1536. John Leigh of Westhough- 
ton, aged sixty and more, was witness in a 
tenant-right dispute in 1521 ; Duchy 
Plead, i, 1 08. 

Robert Leigh son of John Leigh, and 
John Leigh grandson of John Leigh, were 
among the defendants in the dispute of 
1556. 

In 1571 ten messuages and land m 
Westhoughton, Duxbury, Chorley, and 
Hindley were the subject of a fine, the de- 
forciants being John Leigh and Robert 
his son and heir, the latter's wife being 
named Anne ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 33, m. 49. 

John Leigh of Westhoughton, who 
died in 1 6 1 8, held lands of the lord of 
Westhoughton in socage by izd. rent, the 
estate being six messuages, a water-mill, 
&c. ; he also had lands in Hindley, Dux- 
bury, and Chorley. William Leigh, his 
son and heir, was twenty-seven years of 
age ; I. ana. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 133. 

This son was afterwards rector of 
Standish, and ancestor of the Leighs of 
Singleton Grange; Dugdale, Visit. 183. 
A later William Leigh occurs in 1686 ; 
Excb. Dtp. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
67. 

85 James Reeve of Westhoughton, aged 
fifty-four, was a witness in 1521 ; Duchy 
Plead, i, 101. William Reeve, as al- 
ready stated, was a defendant in 1553 ; 
ibid, iii, 145. Robert Reeve was fre- 
quently a juror in the time of James I ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. i, 36, &c. He is prob- 
ably the Robert Reeve who died in 1 640, 
holding a messuage, &c., in Westhough- 
ton of the lord of the manor, and another 
at Penketh ; Richard his son and heir 
was fifty-three years of age ; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. xxx, 37, 

86 From the Rentals it appears that in 
1451 John Sale was one of the free ten- 
ants, paying 6s. \od. ; the wife of John 
Sale held the same in 1461 ; the wife of 
John Molyneux in 1501 ; and Henry 
Molyneux in 1536. 

Robert Molyneux, who died in July 
1545, held one messuage, &c., of James 
Browne as of his manor of Westhough- 
ton, by services unknown, and another of 
the same by a rent of 6s. loo 1 . ; he had 
married Anne daughter of Thomas Ma- 
kand, and left a son and heir William, 
about four years old. Robert's father, 
William Molyneux of Mouldsworth, Che- 
shire, had held the above tenement, and 
another called Warcock Hill, which he 
sold to Roger Urmston of Lostock ; Duchy 
of Lane. Inq. p.m. ix, no. 32. In a later 
inquisition (1561) the service is called 
'knight's service and the rent of 6s. io</.'; 
Anne, the widow, was then living at 
Haigh, and William the son was nine- 
teen years old and more ; ibid, xi, no. 
50. 

William Molyneux, perhaps his son, 
was frequently a juror in the time of 
James I ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. i, 28, &c. 

24 



Henry Molyneux of Westhoughton 
was in 1646 a member of the Presby- 
terian classis ; Baines, Lanes, (ed. iS68),. 
i, 227. His will was proved at Chester 
in 1662. 

A number of allusions (about 1690) to- 
Nathaniel Molyneux of Daisy Hill in 
Westhoughton and some of his letters 
will be found in Kenyon MSS. (Hist. AfSS. 
Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv). He used ' to ex- 
change broad money for narrow ' (p. 1 74), 
according to an informer. His son Thomas- 
matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, in 
1683, and entered Gray's Inn ; Foste^ 
Alumni. He was afterwards knighted. He 
married Margaret More, heiress of the 
Mores of Loseley, and died in 1719 ; see- 
G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, ii, 176. 
His son, Sir More Molyneux, knighted 
in 1724, entered Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, in 1709, aged nineteen; became 
a commissioner of excise, and died in 
1769. His son, Thomas More Molyneux, 
of Wadham College, died in 1776 ; Foster, 
Alumni Oxon. In 1750 John Probyn 
purchased from Sir More Molyneux, 
Richard Wyatt and Susannah his wife, 
and Jane Molyneux, spinster, twelve mes- 
suages, 50 acres of meadow, &c., in West- 
houghton and Great Bispham, and the 
manor and rectory of Westleigh ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 345, m. 85. For 
the later descents of the More Molyneux 
family see Burke, Landed Gentry. 

87 There were nine free tenants in 
1251. In 1451 there were only five 
John Sale, Richard Leigh, Richard Hodg- 
kinson, Henry Isherwood, and Margery 
Chaddock. This arrangement was un- 
altered down to the Dissolution. Deeds 
of Richard Hodgkinson, in 1457, are re ~ 
corded in Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. 

175- 

The inquisitions post mortem of Isabel 
Harrington (1519), Alexander Osbaldes- 
ton (1543), Roger Downes of Worsley 
(1639), and Ralph Holden (1634) show 
that they had had some lands in the town- 
ship, but the tenures are not stated ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. v, no. 2 ; xxvii, 
no. 54 ; xxvii, no. 39. The heir of the 
last-named was his nephew James Holden, 
son of Richard ; but Ralph had a son 
William. Francis Locker was in 1631 
found to have held a messuage and land* 
of the king by the two hundredth part of 
a knight's fee ; Francis, his son and heir, 
was just of age ; Janet, the widow, wa* 
living at Chorley ; ibid, xxv, no. 40. 

Some particulars of the Hart family's 
holding are given in Duchy Plead, ii, 
157- 

88 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 
246-9. 

89 Ibid, i, 1 60. 

40 Land-tax returns at Preston. 

41 Pleas of Crown, Lane. bdle. 330. 

43 The Inclosure Act is 1 1 Geo. I, 
cap. 32. 

48 See Lanes, and Ckes. Hist, and Gen. 
Notes, iii, 80 ; Manch. Guardian N. and Q. 
no. 638, 660. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



The canons of Cockersand probably 
CHURCH maintained a chaplain on their manor. 
A chapel existed in 1552." It was a 
small thatched building, which in 1731 gave place to 
a brick church ; 44 this again was replaced in 1869-70 
by the present church, known as St. Bartholomew's, 
built at the expense of John Seddon. 46 There was 
* no service ' there in i6o5, 47 but this may have been 
a temporary cessation. The Commonwealth surveyors 
recommended that it should be made a parish church, 48 
but nothing seems to have been done until 1860, when 
a district chapelry was formed. 49 The income is given 
as 442. The vicar of Deane is patron. The fol- 
lowing have been curates and incumbents : M 

oc. 1627 John Ridgeley" 

oc. 1630 Alexander Horrocks" 

1651 John Isherwood 5I 

oc. 1671 John Edleston 

1696 Wood 

1700 Joseph Leese, B.A. (Christ's College) 

1720 William Orme, B.A. 

1732 Robert Harvey, B.A. 44 

1755 J ohn Chisnall, B.A." 

1782 Thomas Whitehead, M.A. (Glasgow) 66 

1788 Thomas Heys, M.A. (Oxford) a 

1 8 1 6 Chris. Bateson, B.A. (Pembroke Coll.) 

1825 Thomas Fogg, B.A. (St. John's College, 
Oxford) M 

1842 James Richard Alsop, B.A. (Brasenose 
College, Oxford) 

1868 William Henry Rankin, M.A. (Corpus 

Christi College, Oxford) " 

1869 Kinton Jacques, M.A. (Brasenose Col- 

lege, Oxford) " 

1890 Christopher Cronshaw 6t 
1908 George Henry St. Patrick Garrett, 

M.A., B.D. (T.C.D.) 

Also in connexion with the Established Church, 
St. John the Evangelist's, Wingates, was built in 
1858, and had a separate district assigned to it in 
1 860 ; the vicar of Deane is the patron. 63 St. James's, 
Daisy Hill, was opened in 1 88 1; the Bishop of Man- 
chester presents to it. 64 



The Wesleyan Methodists have had a place of 
worship since 1785. The Primitive Methodists also 
have a chapel. 

The Congregational Church at Westhoughton 
originated from preaching begun in 1 8 1 1 ; a room 
was built in 1817, and another in 1826 ; after which 
a church was formed. In 1853 a chapel was built. 64 

The Society of Friends began meetings here in 
1806 ; 6 the meeting-house was built in 1823. A 
graveyard is attached. 

In 1586 the vicar of Deane presented that 'divers 
priests ' were harboured at the house of Ralph Holme 
of Chequerbent, 67 but apart from this there seems no 
record of the survival of the old religion in the town- 
ship. The church of the Sacred Heart was built in 
1894, replacing one opened in I873. 68 

A school was founded about 1 740 ; another at 
Wingates in 1818. 



OVER HULTON, MIDDLE HULTON, 
LITTLE HULTON 

Helghetun and Hulton, 1235 (same document) ; 
Hilton, 1288, 1292 ; Hulton, 1292 ; the form Hilton 
continued in use till the xvii cent. 

The ancient district of Hulton, having an area of 
4,540 acres, in time became three townships. QVER 
HULTON, the western portion, has an area of 1,316 
acres, 1 and measures about 2 miles from north to 
south, by a mile and a half across. Hulton Park 
occupies much of the southern part of the area. The 
ground slopes from about 500 ft. in the north to 
300 ft. in the south. 

The road from Deane and Bolton to Atherton and 
Warrington runs along the eastern boundary, and is 
crossed about the centre by that from Manchester 
and Walkden to Westhoughton and Blackrod. 
The crossing is marked by the hamlet of Hulton 
Lane Ends. To the north of the road are several 
collieries. The London and North Western Com- 
pany's line from Bolton to Kenyon Junction passes 
along the north-western boundary. There is no 



44 The Royal Commissioners in 1552 
found at the chapel ' a chalice and other 
ornaments for a priest to say mass in ' ; 
Ch. Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 27. The build- 
ing itself was redeemed from the king's 
hands for 1 3*. d. or zos. ; Baines, Lanes. 
Chantries (Chet. Soc.), ii, 277-8. 

In Mary's reign tenants of Westhough- 
ton complained that James Browne had 
caused an interruption of the service in the 
chapel ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 296. 

45 Gastrell, Nofitia (Chet. Soc.), ii, 45. 
Bishop Gastrell found the certified income 
to be only 41*. 6d. ; about 50 stock be- 
longed to it, and the contributions had 
been as much as 20 a year. In 
1719 it was augmented with land to the 
value of 200, taken from the common 
at inclosure ; and there was a good house 
for the curate. 

48 Bolton Journ. 7 May 1887. 
4 ? Visit. P. at Chester. 

48 Commonwealth Cb. Suri>. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 38 ; 40 a year had 
been appropriated to it from the tithes of 
Deane sequestered from Mr. Anderton. 

49 Land. Gaz. 25 Jan. 1860 ; for endow- 
ments, ibid. 3 Mayi844, and 14 Nov.i873. 



40 The Church Papers at Chester Dioc. 
Reg. only begin in 1 700. There was a curate 
summoned to the Visitation of 1562, but 
he had disappeared by 1565. There was 
'a minister* there in 1635 ; his name is 
not recorded, but he would be Alexander 
Horrocks ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 112. 

61 Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 200 ; 
he was ' unlicensed and illiterate, and 
would not allow a Common Prayer book 
to lie in the chapel.' 

M Calling himself ' minister of the Gos- 
pel at Deane' he subscribed the 'Har- 
monious Consent' in 1648. Two years 
later he was described as a ' godly, orthodox 
divine'; Commonwealth Ch. Surv. ut sup. 
He is often said to have been vicar of Deane, 
but this seems to be a mistake ; he was 
curate of Westhoughton (and Deane) and 
lecturer at the parish church. He died at 
Turton in 1650. See a notice of him, 
with his will, in Pal. Note Bk. iii, 23. 

ss Plund. Mint. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lanes. 
and Ches.), i, 104. After the Restoration 
James Bradshaw, formerly rector of Wigan 
and expelled from Macclesficld in 1662, 
used to preach in Westhoughton Chapel 

25 



occasionally ; Bridgeman, Wigan Ch. 
(Chet. Soc.), 470. 

64 Will proved at Chester, 1755. He 
left ,100 for the benefit of the township ; 
this was applied to the school. He was 
curate of Horwich for part of the time. 

i& He had been curate of Walmsley in 
Turton and lecturer at Bolton ; Scholes 
and Pimblett, Bolton, 330. 

48 He also had been lecturer at Bolton ; 
ibid. 

47 Was curate also of Culcheth (q.v.), 
but resided at Westhoughton. 

68 Afterwards incumbent of Hornby. 

49 Author of Faith and Practice, &c. ; 
afterwards vicar of Bednall. 

60 Rector of Meysey Hampton, 1869. 

81 Afterwards rector of Brindle. 

82 Previously vicar of St. Matthew's, 
Bolton. M Land. Gam. 31 Mar. 1860. 

84 Ibid. 10 Feb. 1882 for district. 

84 Nightingale, Lanes. Nonconf. iv, 123. 

86 Life of Jos. Buckley, 97. 

87 Baines, Lanes, quoting Harl. MS. 360, 
fol. 32. 

68 Kelly, Engl. Cath. Missions, 425. 
1 1, 2 1 6, including 12 of inland water, 
according to the census of 1901. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



village. The population in 1901 was 1,038.* Some 
portion of the area was in 1898 incorporated in the 
borough of Bolton, the remainder being added to 
Westhoughton. 

MIDDLE HULTON, over 2 miles from north to 
south, and a mile and a quarter from east to west, 
has an area of 1,517 acres. In the northern half of 
the township a height of over 500 ft. is attained, but at 
the southern boundary the land is below the 300 ft. line. 

The principal road is that from Manchester and 
Swinton to Westhoughton, which is joined by one 
from Farnworth passing west through the hamlets of 
Hollins and Edgefold. Several roads run from north 
to south. There is no village, but on the northern 
boundary dwellings are being built, which are an 
extension of Bolton. In 1901 its population was 
included with Rumworth. 

This township was in 1898 added to the borough 
of Bolton. 

LITTLE HULTON is of irregular shape, part of 
it cutting Walkden off from Farnworth. Its area is 
1,707 acres. 3 The surface slopes generally from 
380 ft. in the north-west to less than 200 ft. above 
sea level in the south-east. 

The principal road, through the centre of the 
township, is that from Manchester to Westhoughton 
on the line of an old Roman road ; from it others 
spread off to Farnworth on the north and Tyldesley 
on the south. Along it are dwelling-houses almost 
the whole way. The district called Peel occupies 
the centre of the southern half; Wharton lies in the 
south-west corner. The London and North Western 
Company's Bolton and Eccles line crosses the centre 
of the township, and has a station on the main road, 
called Little Hulton. There are a number of col- 
lieries in the township, and these are served by special 
railways. The population was 7,294 in igoi. 4 

A local board was formed in 1872,* and this was 
in 1894 replaced by an urban district council, the 
twelve members being elected by two wards. 



There are extensive collieries in Little Hulton and 
Middle Hulton. 6 

The hearth tax return of 1666 yields the following : 
In Over Hulton 41 hearths, with only one large house, 
that of William Hulton, 9 hearths ; Middle Hulton, 
66 ; Little Hulton, 102, the largest houses being those 
of Roger Kenyon, Margaret Mort, and Robert Mort, 
with 15, 14, and 6 respectively. 7 

The early history of the manor ot 
M4NOR HULTON is obscure. It was held by 
the Barton family, for the most part in 
conjunction with Worsley in thegnage. 8 This was held 
under them by the Worsley family, who, as to part 
at least, came into possession about 1200.' Their 
manor was described as three-fourths of Hulton ; 10 the 
remainder, two oxgangs, being the lordship of the 
Hulton family, in Over Hulton. 

This last family is obviously of Welsh origin ; the 
first Lancashire members of it lorwerth and Madoc, 
sons of Bleiddyn are sup- 
posed to have been among 
the faithful vassals of Robert 
Banastre, expelled from Wales 
about 1 1 67." lorwerth de 
Hulton held two oxgangs in 
Hulton, and received from 
King John, when Earl of 
Mortain, Broughton and Ker- 
sal Wood in Manchester. 11 
lorwerth was living in 1212, 
when he held in chief the vill 
of Pendleton, in exchange for 
Broughton. 13 He had a nu- 
merous family, 14 and dying in 1215" was succeeded 
by his son Richard, who in 1219 had a lease of the 
Worsley portion of Hulton, 16 and about the same time 
secured from Edith de Barton a confirmation of the 
two oxgangs in Hulton which his father had held of 
her ; a rent of zs. was payable. 17 Richard also had 
a grant of land in Little Hulton from Richard de 




HULTON of Hulton. 
Argent a lion rampant 
gules. 



s The Westhoughton portion only. 
8 1,699, including 39 of inland water ; 
Census Rep. 1901. 4 Pop. Ret, 1901. 

* Land. Gaz. 25 June 1872. 

8 Baines' 1825 Directory shows acotton- 
spinner in Little Hulton, a muslin manu- 
facturer in Middle Hulton, and dimity 
and fustian manufacturers in Over Hulton. 

7 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 65. 

9 Hugh Putrell granted to Richard, son 
of Elias de Worsley half a plough-land 
in Worsley at the rent of 101., and half a 
plough-land in Hulton at 61. So". ; ibid, 
i, 65 (from the Ellesmere D.). Hugh 
Putrell was the grantee of Edith de Barton 
in 1195 (Lanes. Pipe R. 94); but by 1212 
the manors seem to have reverted to Edith 
and her husband Gilbert de Notion ; 
Lanes. Inq. and Extrnts, loc. cit. 

The Hulton 6s. Sd. was in the time of 
Elizabeth supposed to be the rent of 
Middle Hulton ; Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1870), 
',447- 

10 In 1323 the whole service of the 
manor of Worsley due to the chief lord 
was 201. ; and in 1385 it was stated that 
the manor of Worsley was held in socage by 
i 31. tfd. rent, and three-fourths of Hulton 
by 6s. -jd. ; Ellesmere D. no. 162, 172 ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 23. 

u A pedigree of the Hulton family, con- 
taining illustrative documents, prepared by 



the late William Adam Hulton of Pen- 
wortham and printed privately about 1 840, 
has been used in these notes. 

lorwerth de Hulton and Madoc his 
brother were witnesses to a grant by 
Gilbert de Lymme ; Hulton Ped. 48. 
Robert son of lorwerth, son of Bleiddyn 
de Hulton, released lands to David de 
Hulton ; ibid. 2. See Final Cone. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 216. 

By a deed undated Llewelyn son ot 
Madoc de Eueras granted to Griffith his 
firstborn son land in Hulton ; Towneley 
MS. DD. no. 1288. Six of the witnesses 
have Welsh names, thus affording addi- 
tional evidence of a foreign colony in the 
place. la Chart. R. (Rec. Com.), 27*. 

18 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 65. 

14 Robert, one of his sons, has been 
mentioned above. Robert de Hulton and 
his son Robert attested a grant by Gilbert 
de Barton ; Wballey Couch. (Chet. Soc.), 
i, 50. Ellen daughter of Robert de Hul- 
ton remitted all her right in 8 acres in 
Barton ; Hulton Fed. 2. Jordan, a brother 
of Robert de Hulton (probably the younger 
Robert), was rector of Warrington ; 
Wballey Couch, iii, 919. 

Meuric and Meredith de Hulton are 
said to have been sons of lorwerth. Roger 
son of Elias de Halton granted to John 
son of Meuric de Hulton land between 
Willamhespittes and Bradebroch ; Hulton 
Ped. z. William son of Meredith de 

26 



Hulton released certain lands to Richard 
son of David de Hulton in 1297 ; ibid. 3. 
Paulinus de Haughton granted to 
Cecily, daughter of lorwerth de Hulton, a 
third part of Haughton ; ff 'bailey Couch. 

'. 59- 

15 Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 252, 256. 
Richard, his son, owed 20 marks for relief 
of his father's lands. 

16 Final Cone, i, 41. The six oxgangs 
had been pledged to lorwerth de Hulton 
for a term which had expired in 1219. 
On Richard de Hulton acknowledging the 
title of Richard de Worsley, the latter 
leased them to him for seventeen years, at 
the end of which term the land was to re- 
turn quietly to the Worsleys, ' unless in the 
mean time Richard de Hulton or his heirs, 
with good intent towards Richard de 
Worsley or his heirs, should do something 
whereby the land ought finally to remain 
to them.' An earlier suit respecting the 
matter, in which lorwerth was defendant, 
is mentioned in Curia Regis R. 42 (i 206), 
m. 1 8. 

At a later time David son of Richard 
de Hulton gave to Richard son of Geof- 
frey de Worsley a formal release of any 
claim he might have in the six oxgangs ; 
Ellesmere D. no. 41, 47. 

l " Hulton Ped. i. It should be noticed 
that the service due from Over Hulton to 
the lord of Manchester was in the i6th 
century a rent of 4^. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



Worsley. 18 He was Serjeant of Salfordshire in 

I222. 19 

Richard de Hulton died before 1230, leaving as 
heir his son Richard, then a minor. 20 This son 
appears to have died without issue, and was succeeded 
in turn by his brothers William and David, who 
married Beatrice and Agnes, daughters and co-heirs of 
Adam de Blackburn." To David de Hulton William 
de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, in 1251, granted his lands 
in Flixton and the manor of Ordsall. 22 David had 
several children, and was still living in 1282." About 
1285 he died," being succeeded by his son Richard, 25 
who in 1304 obtained from Edward I a grant of free 
warren in all his lands of Hulton and Ordsall, also in 
Flixton and Heaton, outside the bounds of the royal 
forests. 26 The ' Park ' long continued to be the 
distinctive name of the estate. Before 1312 he was 
followed by his son, another Richard." At this point 



there is some uncertainty in the succession. Richard 
son of the last-named Richard, being childless, effected 
a partition of the estates. 28 Farnworth and Rum- 
worth went to one branch of the family, while Hulton, 
with lands in Westhoughton and Rumworth, were 
bestowed upon Richard de Hulton's uncle Adam, 29 
from whom the hereditary succession is continuous to 
the present time ; Ordsall with Flixton and Halli- 
well with Blackburn passed to different branches of 
the Radcliffe family. 

Adam de Hulton was in possession in 1335, about two 
years after the grant by his nephew, 30 and a settlement 
was then made of his park in Hulton and Westhoughton, 
and his lands in Rumworth, Denton, and Manchester, 
with the manors, mills, and appurtenances. The 
occasion was the marriage of Adam's son Roger with 
Aline daughter of Adam de Lever. sl Roger had by 
1355" been succeeded by his son Roger, a minor, 13 



M Hulton Ped.T,. The grant included all the 
land between Holesyke and Wholewhics- 
waghe Brook and between Farnworth and 
Tyldesley, the service being a rent of iz</.; 
it was made when Sir William de Vernon 
was sheriff of Lancaster, apparently as 
early as 1204 ; P.R.O. List, 72. 

19 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 133. 

M Final Cone, i, izi, quoting Curia 
Regis R. 107, m. 29 d., from which it ap- 
pears that Robert de Hulton, being sum- 
moned to justify his assarts in the woods 
near Pendleton, adduced a charter of 
Richard de Hulton, and called Richard, 
son of the said Richard, to warrant him. 
Richard the son being a minor and in 
ward to the Earl of Chester, the case was 
adjourned. 

This younger Richard is probably the 
Richard son of Christiana de Alreton who 
had four oxgangs of land in Heaton under 
Horwich in 1241. 

21 Final Cone. loc. cit. ; Abram, Black- 
burn, 251. As Beatrice widow of Wil- 
liam de Hulton in 1256 claimed dower 
in the Hulton lands in Salfordshire, it 
would seem that William was the elder 
brother and that David had succeeded him. 
In Hulton itself he held two oxgangs of 
land, one in demesne and one tenanted 
by David son of AugereL 

David is said to have had two other 
brothers Roger and John ; the latter was 
rector of Radcliffe ; Hulton Fed. 4. 

22 Gregson, Fragments, 347. 

23 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, \, 249. His 
children are stated to have been Richard, 
Adam, Cecily, and John ; Hulton Fed. 4. 
Cecily Daykins daughter of Hulton was 
a defendant in 1348 ; Assize R. 1444, 
m. 4. 

84 Agnes, David's widow, claimed dower 
in 1285 ; De Banco R. 59, m. 75. 

85 In 1297 Richard son and heir of 
David de Hulton made an agreement 
with Richard son and heir of Henry de 
Worsley, concerning an exchange of a 
mediety of Little Haughton for lands and 
easements in Hulton. The former re- 
ceived 5 acres in the Gulnecroft, lying 
next to his own land, and release of a road 
leading to his mansion ; Eilesmere D. 
no. 53. 

Richard de Hulton acted as a juror in 
1299 ; Inq. and Extents, i, 305. In 1301 
he withdrew a claim against Richard de 
Worsley and others respecting common of 
pasture in 100 acres of land, &c., in Hul- 
ton ; Assize R. 1321, m. I2</. He granted 
land in Farnworth to William de Priest- 
croft ; Hulton Fed. 4. 



His wife Margery is said to have been 
a daughter of Robert de Radcliffe, and to 
have married secondly Geoffrey de Chad- 
derton ; ibid. 5. 

88 Chart. R. 97 (32 Edw. I), m. 2, no. 
40. 

27 As early as 1294 Richard son of 
Richard son of David de Hulton received 
from Joan daughter of Austin Crosscliff 
lands in Halliwell, which she held of the 
Abbot of Cockersand ; Hulton Fed. 5. 

Richard, John, and Roger, sons of 
Richard de Hulton, attested a Sharpies 
charter about 1307; Harl. MS. 2112, 
fol. 145/181. 

In 1 3 1 i-i 2, when Richard was evidently 
in possession of the lands, he released to 
the Abbot of Cockersand all his right in 
the wastes and pastures of Westhoughton, 
reserving, however, common of pasture 
and reasonable estovers for himself and his 
tenants ; Hulton Fed. 6. He gave his 
brother John in 1325-6 certain lands in 
Hulton with reversion of the dower of 
his mother Margery in Westhoughton ; 
ibid. 5. 

In June 1311 agreements as to bounds 
and an exchange of lands in Hulton were 
made by Richard de Hulton (probably the 
son of Richard) and Richard de Worsley ; 
Cartelache is named as the ' true division 
between Salfordshire and Derbyshire ' ; 
Eilesmere D. no. 56-7. 

28 In 1331 Richard son and heir of 
Richard de Hulton, in making a grant to 
Robert son of Adam de Hulton in Irlam, 
mentions his grandfather Richard ; De 
Traffbrd D. no. 267. 

In 1334 Richard de Hulton of Ordsall, 
convicted with others of having broken 
into the king's park at Ightenhill, re- 
ceived a pardon ; Coram Reg. R. 298, 
Rex m. 2. 

Richard de Hulton had a wife Maud, 
from whom he was divorced ; Assize R. 
438, m. 15 d. 

Sir Nicholas de Langford in 1344 at- 
tempted to unsettle the disposition of the 
estates, alleging that Richard de Hulton 
had in 1334 granted him a rent of 200 
marks, in case that he made an aliena- 
tion without Nicholas's consent ; Assize 
R. 1435, m. 40. Among the defendants 
were John de Hulton of Manchester and 
Roger de Atherton, who had received lands 
in Rumworth ; Adam de Hulton and 
Avice his wife, who had twelve messuages, 
200 acres of land, &c., in Hulton, two 
messuages, 40 acres of land, &c., in West- 
houghton, and a messuage and land in 
Rumworth. The defence was that Richard 

27 



had made an enfeoffment of his lands with 
the advice of Sir Nicholas. 

29 In 1333 Richard de Hulton, lord of 
Ordsall, granted to his uncle Adam de 
Hulton and his heirs all the grantor's land 
in Westhoughton,with his manor and tene- 
ment in Hulton, and that part of his lands 
in Rumworth formerly held for life by 
Richard del Meadow; Hulton Fed. 6. The 
armorial seal shows the lion rampant, with 
the legend : si . RICARDI . DE . HILTVN. 

Richard son of Richard de Hulton 
(perhaps of the Farnworth family) and 
Adam his brother attested a local charter 
in 1293 ; Eilesmere D. no. 49. 

80 Adam de Hulton was a plaintiff in 
1333 ; Cal. Pat. 1330-4, p. 498. 

In 1334 Richard son of Alexander de 
Denton claimed a fourth part of the manor 
of Denton against Adam son of Richard 
de Hulton and Avice his wife; De Banco 
R. 338, m. 126 d. 

Adam and his sons Roger and Robert 
occur in 1343 ; Cal. Close, 1343-5, p. 82. 

81 Hulton Fed. 7. There were remainders 
to Robert and Hugh, brothers of Roger. 
The lands in Denton and Manchester 
seem to have come to Adam de Hulton 
with his wife Avice ; ibid. ; a deed of 
1316-17 being quoted. 

Although the marriage of Roger the 
son was arranged in 1335, it does not 
seem to have taken place until 1346, when 
the parents of the parties agreed as to 
dower and maintenance ; ibid. 8. Roger 
de Hulton was in 1343 found guilty of 
overthrowing John de Hulton's house at 
Rumworth ; Assize R. 430, m. 1 8. 

Adam de Hulton had two other sons 
named in a grant of 1347, by which 
Roger and Robert, already named, gave 
the reversion of a rent from Tyldesley to 
their brothers Adam and Lowe ; Hulton 
Fed. 9. 

82 Roger son of Roger de Hulton is 
found claiming the manor as early as 
1356; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 5, m. 
14, 1 8. He was called to warrant in 
1355, being then a minor ; ibid. R. 4, 
m. 4. 

88 Roger son of Roger de Hulton had 
the king's protection from all actions in 
1371, on his setting out for Calais, in the 
retinue of Nicholas de Tamworth, captain 
of the town ; De Banco R. 444, m. 34 d. 

Roger de Hulton was living in 1389, 
when Hugh de Ince and others released 
all actions to him, his son Roger, William 
son of Adam de Hulton, &c. ; Hulton 
Fed. 9. 

In 1396-7 the feoffees of Roger de 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



and his grandson Adam,* 4 and Adam's son and heir 
Roger married Ellen daughter of John Hulton of Farn- 
worth. 1 * Their son Roger x had a son and successor, 
also Roger, who married Katherine, a daughter and 
co-heir of Sir James Harrington of Wolfage," and had 
a son Adam, who married Alice, the daughter and heir 
of John Hulton of Farnworth.* 8 From this time, and 
perhaps partly in consequence of the marriages named, 
the Hultons of the Park became more prominent, and 
soon outstripped their namesakes of Farnworth. 



Adam Hulton was in 1523 summoned to take part 
in the Scottish expedition led by the Earl of Surrey. 39 
Ten years later a short pedigree was recorded at the 
herald's visitation. 40 He was succeeded by his son 
William, who died in September 1555,*' leaving a son 
and heir Adam, married in infancy to Clemency 
daughter of Sir William Norris of Speke." Adam 
Hulton died in September 1572," leaving a son and 
heir William, then of full age, who died in 1624," 
having survived his son Adam 4i and grandson Wil- 



Hulton restored to him his manor of 
Hulton, and lands there and in West- 
houghton, &c., with remainder to Adam 
his son ; and in 1404 Richard son of 
John de Hulton of Halliwell resigned to 
Roger son of Roger de Hulton various 
lands in Hulton, Westhoughton, and 
Rumworth which had belonged to Roger's 
father, Roger, and his grandfather Adam; 
Hulton Fed. 10. 

William de Hilton, who, as a witness 
of the French wars, was called upon to 
give evidence in the Scrope-Grosvenor 
trial, was perhaps son of this Roger ; 
ibid. ; Scrope-Grosvenor R. 309. 

84 In Dec. 1417 the feoffees of Adam 
de Hulton restored to him the manor of 
Hulton, &c., with remainder to his son 
Roger, and a further remainder to the 
heirs male of Adam's father Roger ; 
Hulton Fed. II. 

Adam's daughter Alice married Thomas 
de Culcheth in or about 1420 ; ibid. 

84 Ellen daughter of John Hulton and 
* lately wife ' of Roger Hulton of the Park, 
had lands in Nether Darwen, Bolton, and 
Rivington in 1459 (3 June 37 Hen. VI) ; 
ibid. 12. 

In 1432 a settlement of boundaries was 
made between the lands of Sir Geoffrey 
Massey and those of Roger Hulton in 
Hulton and James Hulton in Rum- 
worth ; Def>. Keeper' t Rep, xxiii, App. 33. 

In 1437 Roger Hulton of the Park 
agreed with Thomas Tyldesley for the 
marriage of his daughter Alice with James 
son and heir apparent of Thomas ; and in 
J 459 ('7 Au S- 37 Hen. VI) Alice widow 
of James Tyldesley granted certain lands 
to Roger Hulton her father, Roger Hulton 
her brother, and Thurstan Tyldesley ; 
Hulton Fed. 11-12. The last deed is per- 
haps dated 37 Hen. VI instead of 36 in 
error; in which case Roger Hulton, senior, 
died between 17 Aug. 1458 and 3 June 
1459. 

86 From a deed quoted in the last note 
it is clear that Roger Hulton had a son 
Roger, perhaps the Roger Hulton who 
in 1458-9 arranged for the marriage of 
his daughter Agnes to Richard son of 
William Heatou ; ibid. 14. Roger son 
and heir apparent of Roger Hulton of the 
Park was a trustee for Thomas Tyldes- 
ley in 1465 ; Yates Evidences. 

7 Hulton Fed. 14. A dispensation for 
the marriage of Roger Hulton and Kather- 
ine Harrington, related in the fourth de- 
gree, was granted by Paul II, and issued 
by the Bishop of Lichfield in Aug. 1469 ; 
Lich. Epis. Reg. xii, fol. 149 A. 

In 1500 Katherine, widow of Roger 
Hulton, had her dower in Denton. 

In 1473 Roger Hulton held the manor 
of Middlewood in Hulton of the lord of 
Manchester by the twentieth part of a 
Tcnight's fee and puture, a rent of qj. and 
castleward jd. ; Mamccettre, 497. 

88 Hulton Fed. 15. The contract of 
marriage, made 20 Oct. 1485, shows that 
Roger, Adam's grandfather, was still liv- 



ing ; the father is described as Roger 
Hulton the younger of Hulton Park, and 
the mother Katherine is named. Adam 
was to be ready to wed Alice within ten 
years from the date of the contract; Roger 
promised to make an estate of 10 marks 
a year clear value in favour of Alice, and 
John Hulton would pay 80 marks to the 
parents of Adam. 

The parties being related in the fourth 
degree through the marriage of Roger and 
Ellen Hulton above recorded, a dis- 
pensation was obtained from John de 
Giglis, papal commissary in England, in 
1489, a competent donation being made 
to the crusade ; ibid. 16. 

89 Ibid. 1 6 ; Adam Hulton had engaged 
to provide forty able men for the expedi- 
tion. 

40 Vmt. of 1533 (Chet. Soc.), 209; 
three descents are recorded Adam, his 
son William, and his grandson Adam, 
with a record of the marriages and the 
younger children. 

Adam Hulton, squire, contributed to 
the subsidy of 1541 as for '30 in 
lands '; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.}, 
i, 141. 

41 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. x, 40 ; 
Hulton Fed. 19. William Hulton died 
seised of the manor of Over Hulton, with 
messuages, lands, &c., in Over Hulton, 
Westhoughton, Manchester, and Denton: 
he had also possessed certain lands of the 
inheritance of William Hulton of Farn- 
worth lying in Harpurhey, Denton, Open- 
shaw, and Chorlton. The manor of Over 
Hulton and the lands in Westhoughton 
and Manchester were held of the lord of 
Manchester by a rent of q.d. Adam the 
son and heir was thirty-six years of age. 

In 1556 after 'certain variances and 
debates' between Elizabeth widow of 
William Hulton and Adam Hulton the 
son and heir, Lord Mounteagle and his 
son were chosen to arbitrate concerning 
the widow's dower ; among other things 
they decided that ' sixteen quarters of coals 
yearly [should] be laid upon the bank of 
the same coalpit, at [Adam's] own proper 
costs, to the use of the said Elizabeth for 
her natural life ; and it [should] be law- 
ful for the said Elizabeth to command her 
said tenants to lead yearly four quarters of 
coal to her house if she be resident within 
ten miles of Hulton Park '; Hulton Fed. 1 8. 

48 The agreement for this marriage was 
made early in 1530, messuages, &c., in 
Wigan, Westhoughton, Hulton, and Den- 
ton to the value of 10 being given to 
trustees ; ibid. 17 ; Norris D. (B.M.). 

In 1561 Norroy King of Arms granted 
a crest to Adam Hulton ; Hulton Fed. 21. 

In 1565 Adam Hulton and Sir William 
Norris assigned lands in Harpurhey and 
Gotherswick for the use of Adam's 
daughter Margaret, she ' being very tender 
and young,' with reversion to Adam son 
of William son of Adam Hulton the 
grantor, and to William brother of the 
younger Adam ; Norris D. (B.M.). 

28 



43 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xiii, 4 ; 
Hulton Fed. 21. There was no change in 
the lands recorded. 

44 Mane A. Ce. Leet Rec. iii, 122 ; the 
date given in the Inq. p.m. of his grand- 
son (7 Chas. I) is 2 Jan. 1628, which must 
be erroneous. He is said to have been 
eighty- four when he died, and had therefore 
seen the important changes in religion and 
dynasty which distinguished the times. 
William Hulton of the Park and his wife 
were in 1586 reported to be 'obstinate' 
in their adherence to the ancient faith ; 
Baines, Lanes, from Harl. MS. 360, fol. 

33-. 

Six years later one of the Government 
informers stated that ' Mr. Hulton of the 
Park hath this day a recusant to his school- 
master whom he hath kept in house many 
years ' ; Lydiate Hall, 259 (from S.P. Dom. 
Eliz. ccxv). Margaret Hulton and Cuth- 
bert her son, Mary Hulton and Elizabeth 
her daughter were presented as recusants 
in 1592 ; Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xiii, 
60. William Hulton of Hulton, esq. 
(' infirm') and Cuthbert Hulton were recu- 
sants in 1619 ; Manch. Sest. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 82. 

In 1574 he was required to furnish a 
light horse, a caliver, and a morion for the 
county muster ; Gregson, Fragments, 30. 

A settlement of the manor of Over Hul- 
ton and the family lands was made by him 
in 1582 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
44, m. 22. 

William Hulton of Park was the only 
freeholder in the township named in 1600 
and 1622 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 246, 1 60. 

In his will, made in Aug. 1624, he con- 
fessed ' to die a true Christian Catholic,' 
and desired to be buried in his chapel in 
Deane Church, near the burial-place of 
Margaret his late wife. In fulfilment of 
a covenant made i Apr. 1557 between 
his father Adam and his mother-in-law 
Elizabeth Kighley of Lightshaw, he di- 
rected that certain of his goods should be 
regarded as heirlooms ; they included two 
standing beds in Pendlebury chamber, 
valued at 5 ; Hulton Fed. 22. 

The writ of Diem clausit extr. after the 
death of William Hulton is dated 1 6 June 
1625 ; ibid. 25. 

45 Adam Hulton, of Brasenose College, 
Oxford, matriculated in 1579, aged fifteen; 
and his brother William two years later ; 
Foster, Alumni Oxon. There is a reference 
to him in Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 
504. 

Adam died in Dec. 1 597, and was buried 
in the collegiate church at Manchester ; 
he had married Alice daughter of William 
Baguley, of Manchester, clothier, and his 
son and heir William, then ten years old, 
came of age in or before 1612; Manch. 
Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 275 ; Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. xvii, 80. He had a messuage 
in Deansgate, Manchester, in right of his 
wife, whose mother Ellen Baguley was a 
widow in 1587 ; Hulton Fed. i, 24. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



liam ; 46 his successor was his great-grandson Adam, 
born in 1607. 

Adam Hulton had livery of his lands in November 
1632," and died in 1652.** He does not appear to 
have taken any part in the Civil War on one side or 
the other. 49 His son and heir William contested the 
borough of Clitheroe in April 1660 ; he had a majority 
of the free burgesses in opposition to William White, 
elected by the freemen at large, and the latter being 
unseated on petition, William Hulton represented the 
borough from July to December i66o. M He re- 
corded a pedigree at the visitation of i664. 51 He 
died thirty years later, 5 * being succeeded by his son 
Henry, 53 who died childless in 1737. The manor 



then passed to William son of Jessop Hulton, Henry's 
younger brother, 44 who was in turn succeeded by his 
son, grandson, and great-grandson, each named Wil- 
liam. 55 The last of these, sheriff of Lancashire in 
1810, and constable of Lancaster Castle, died in 
1864; his son and heir, William Ford Hulton, 56 
dying in 1879, was followed by his son Sir William 
Wilbraham Blethin Hulton, also constable of Lancaster 
Castle, created a baronet in 1905." He died in 1907, 
and was succeeded by his son Sir William Rothwell 
Hulton, the present lord of the manor. 

A number of deeds and other records have been 
preserved, showing how the Worsleys and their suc- 
cessors dealt with their estate in Hulton. 58 It has 



46 William Hulton the younger, described 
as 'of Manchester, gentleman," died 6 Sept. 
1613 holding Harpurhey and other lands 
near Manchester, as well as some in Hul- 
ton, Farnworth, Heaton, and Wigan ; those 
in Hulton and Farnworth were held of the 
lord of Manchester by the hundredth part 
of a knight's fee. In 1610 he engaged 
that before Whitsuntide 1612 he would 
provide for the jointure of his wife {Cather- 
ine daughter of Robert Hyde of Norbury 
in Cheshire, mention being made of 
* mines of coal and cannel ' on his land. 
Adam Hulton the son and heir was six 
years of age on 5 July 1613 ; Land. Inq. 
p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 

265. 

Some time after the death of William 
Hulton a further inquisition was taken 
(1631), and it was found that the manor 
of Over Hulton, with a capital messuage 
called the Park, with messuages, orchards, 
lands, dove-house, two water-mills, &c., 
was held of Rowland Mosley as of his 
manor of Manchester ; there were other 
lands in Westhoughton and Rumworth, 
also held of the manor of Manchester. In 
default of hein male of William Hulton 
the grandson, the remainders were to 
William, Robert, Henry, and Rowland 
Hulton, younger sons of William Hulton 
the grandfather ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. xxv, 20. {Catherine widow of Wil- 
liam Hulton the grandson was living at 
Todmorden in 1631. She married Saville 
Radcliffe, called ' father ' in Adam Hul- 
ton's will. 

4 7 Hulton Fed. 26. The endorsement of 
the writ has ' Adamus Hulton, infra eta- 
tem,' though if the inquisition of 1613 
is correct he must in 1632 have been 
twenty -five years of age. 

48 Ibid, where his will is printed in full; 
his son William was the principal legatee, 
but his ' mother Radcliffe ' and other re- 
lations are mentioned. 

49 Either Adam or his brother Edward 
(stated to have died in 1645) was a cap- 
tain in the Parliamentary army, for in 
Jan. 1643-4 a correspondent of George 
Rigby of Peel mentions that ' Captain 
Hilton, your brother-in-law," was then a 
prisoner at Chester ; it was proposed to 
exchange him 'for one Mr. Browne, a 
minister, now prisoner at Manchester' ; 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 61. 
John Hulton of Darley also stated about 
the same time that ' the last man living 
upon my land that was able to bear arms 
is with Captain Hulton's company'; ibid. 
63. 

Pink and Beaven, Parl. Rep. of Lanes. 

*53 

51 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 159; 
this records William Hulton's age as thirty- 
eight, and states that his son William 



(not entered in the printed Pedigree) was 
then five years of age. 

sa He seems to be the Mr. Hulton ' 
frequently mentioned in Henry Newcome's 
Diary and Autobiography (Chet. Soc.). He 
sympathized with the persecuted Noncon- 
formists of the time ; Oliver Heywood, 
Diaries, i, 197. By his will he devised 
all his estates at Hulton and elsewhere 
in Lancashire and at Bryanstown in West- 
meath to his eldest son Henry and heirs 
male ; then to his other sons Jessop, 
Charles, Francis, and Edward successively 
in tail male ; Hulton Fed. 28. 

43 His name occurs in the list of 
' Papists' ' estates returned in the time 
of George I ; Lanes, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 195. 

M Upon the death of William the 
testator his eldest son Henry entered on 
the several estates devised to him as afore- 
said and continued in possession thereof 
till his death, which happened in the end 
of the year 1737, when he died without 
issue, having a short time before his 
death married Eleanor Copley. Jessop, 
the second son, died in the life of his 
brother, and left issue one son, William. 
Charles, Francis, and Edward also died 
in the life of Henry, without issue. Upon 
the death of Henry the said William 
Hulton the son of Jessop entered into 
possession of the several estates descended 
to him, and his uncles Charles, Francis, 
and Edward having all died without issue, 
the remainder in fee expectant, as well 
as the estate tail, vested in him ' ; Hulton 
Fed. quoting an old abstract of title. 

In 1740 he made a settlement of the 
manors and lands of Over Hulton, Rum- 
worth, Farnworth, Kearsley, Denton, 
Longworth, and Clegg Hall in Butter- 
worth ; ibid. 29 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 321, m. 3. 

William Hulton died in April 1741, 
aged twenty-five. 

55 William Hulton, only son of the 
last-named William, matriculated from 
Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1757, being 
seventeen years of age ; Foster, Alumni. 
In 1763 he made an arrangement with 
his mother and her second husband (Ed- 
ward Clowes of Manchester) regarding 
lands in Hulton and Westhoughton ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 369, m. 89. 

In 1772 an Act was passed to enable 
him to charge his settled estates in Lanca- 
shire as a provision for his wife (Ann 
Hall) and younger children. The tim- 
ber growing upon the manors of West- 
houghton, Harpurhey, and Denton was 
valued at 4,200 ; Hulton Fed. 29. He 
died in the following year. 

One of his sons, Henry (born 1765, 
died 1831), entered Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, in 1784, and became Captain ist 

2 9 



Royals and afterwards lieutenant-colonel 
commandant of Lower Blackburn local 
militia, and treasurer of the county, had 
a son William Adam Hulton (180287), 
barrister and judge of the county court, 
who compiled the Hulton Pedigree already 
quoted, and edited the Wballey Coucher 
for the Chetham Society ; a notice of 
him will be found in the Diet. Nat. Biog. 

William Hulton son of the above- 
named William was sheriff of Lancashire 
in 1789, and died in 1800. His son 
and heir William matriculated from Brase- 
nose College in 1804, aged seventeen, 
and was created M.A. in 1807 ; Foster, 
Alumni. For recoveries of the Hulton 
manors in 1783 and 1809 see Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 638 ; Assize R. Lent 49 
Geo. Ill (R. 9). 

86 Of Christ Church, Oxford, 18305 
Foster, Alumni. 

57 See also Foster, Lanes. Pedigrees ; 
Burke, Commoners, iv, 29 ; Burke, Landed 
Gentry , and Baines, Lanes, (ed. Croston), 
iii, 138. 

58 In 1292 Joan daughter of Richard 
de Worsley claimed the manor of Hulton 
against Henry de Worsley and John de 
Brunscales. Her right being acknow- 
ledged it was agreed that ' Henry should j 
find all necessaries, as in sustenance and 
clothing, for the said Joan at his house 
during the term ' of two years, for which 
he had a lease of the manor, and then pay 
her 80 marks, ' for which she granted that 
the manor should wholly remain to him 
and his heirs in perpetuity'; Assize R. 408, 
m. 30 d. 

In 1305 Margaret widow of Henry de 
Worsley claimed dower in Hulton from 
Henry son of Richard son of Henry de 
Worsley ; she had married Robert son of 
Richard de Radcliffe ; De Banco R. 153, 
m. 124 ; R. 156, m. 92 ; R. 159, m. 98 ; 
182 d.; R. 161, m. 92, 155. 

In May 1341 Geoffrey son of Henry 
de Worsley came to Hulton with force 
and arms, entered his father's house, and 
broke the beer barrels, consuming beer to 
the value of 41.; he also broke the hedges 
of Richard de Hulton of the Wich ; Assize 
R. 430, m. 16. 

In 1350 Alice widow of Henry de 
Worsley sought dower in Hulton against 
Amabel widow of Geoffrey de Worsley ; 
Geoffrey, the kinsman and heir of Henry, 
though a minor, warranted Amabel, and 
it was ordered that Alice should have 
equal lands as her dower ; De Banco R. 
363, m. 107. See also Duchy of Lane. 
Assize R. 7, m. 7 (Lent 1359), at which 
time Amabel was the wife of John le 
Comyn of Newbold. 

The Worsley family acquired lands 
from the smaller holders. Thus Richard 
de Worsley repurchased from Richard 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



come down, in the same manner as Worsley, to the 
Earl of Ellesmere. 59 

In this part of the manor were several subordinate 
estates or manors. WHARTOX or Warton gave its 
name to the family owning it, 60 and was afterwards 
held by the Asshetons of Great Lever and the 
Morts. 61 It was sold to a colliery company," and is 
now owned by the Earl of Ellesmere. 63 Wharton Hall 
is a two-story farm-house of brick and timber and 
plaster construction, facing south. The plan follows 
the usual type of a central block with gabled pro- 
jecting wings east and west. The house is in a moder- 
ate state of repair, and the half-timber work in the 
lower part of the east wing, which is coved at the level 
of the first floor, is original. The north wing is faced 



in brick, the upper part of which is painted to repre- 
sent half-timber work, and the gable and upper part 
of the east wing is similarly treated. The west wing 
has been extended westward and the pitch of the roof 
altered, but the line of the old gable still remains at 
each end. The house has been almost entirely re- 
faced in brick, but the original timber construction 
shows at both ends of the west wing. With its 
yellow-washed walls, grey stone slate roofs and red 
brick chimneys, the house has rather a picturesque if 
tumble-down appearance, emphasized to some extent 
on the back by the addition of low modern out- 
buildings. 

PEEL, or Wicheves, was in the I3th century 
acquired by a branch of the Hulton family, 64 who 



son of John de Hulton land, called the 
Meres, which his father Geoffrey had sold 
to John de Hulton, and of which the 
latter's son Robert was the tenant. The 
purchase included all the vendor's rights 
in Hulton except housebote and heybote 
in the wood for 'his man* dwelling in 
Baldman's Head ; Ellesmere D. no. 46. 
This also was acquired by Henry son of 
Richard de Worsley in 1293 ; ibid. no. 39. 
The above-named Robert son of John 
de Hulton left a widow Maud and daugh- 
ters Margaret, Ellen, Maud, and Margery; 
and a part of his land was given to Mar- 
garet in 1293 on her marriage with 
Richard ' called the Legate ' of Ince ; in 
1334 Margaret daughter of Robert de 
Hulton released to Henry de Worsley all 
her right in Hulton ; ibid. no. 49, 58. 

Geoffrey de Worsley granted to David 
son of Henry the Knight lands within 
bounds starting at David's house and go- 
ing by the Out Lane (Hot Lane) to the 
brook coming down from the hall ; then 
by the brook and clough and ditch to the 
starting-point ; also land called Cookman 
Croft ; the rent for all to be 2J.; ibid. no. 
48. David afterwards gave the land to his 
eldest son Adam ; no. 42. 

John son of Richard de Bradshaw gave 
all his lands in Hulton to Geoffrey son of 
Thomas son of Litkoc de Salford ; and in 
1 307 Geoffrey sold it to Henry de Wors- 
ley ; ibid. no. 44, 55. 

Henry de Worsley in 1296 gave the 
mill of Hulton to his son and heir 
Richard and Margaret his wife; ibid. no. 51. 
Alice widow of Henry de Worsley in 
1 3 54 gave her life interest in the demesne 
of Wood Hall in Hulton (viz. in Wood Hey 
and Moor Hey) to Thomas Thirlwind and 
Alice his wife at a rent of 231.; the grant 
included pasturage, mast, profits of spar- 
row-hawks, bees, &c., and wood for build- 
ing and burning; ibid. no. 59. She had 
a further rent of 121. from land tenanted 
by William de Shakerley and Margaret his 
wife ; ibid. no. 60. 

Hulton Hey, a piece of inclosed 
pasture, was the subject of grants in 1467 
and 1484 by William Massey and Sir 
Geoffrey Massey respectively; ibid. no. 70, 

7 1 - 

The lessees in 1484 had leave to build 
and marl on the ground 'at their own 
oversight,' while Sir Geoffrey undertook 
to maintain the hedges and ditches. The 
rent was a peppercorn for four years, and 
then 5 marks a year. See also Ducatus 
1 Lane. (Rec. Com.), ii, 21. 

In 1556-7 Richard Brereton and Joan 
his wife and Adam Hulton, as holders of 
Hulton Moor, were summoned to answer 
lobert Grundy of Rumworth for a seizure 
jjj cattle on what he alleged to be Rum- 




worth Moor ; PaL of Lane. Plea R. 201, 
m. n. 

69 See the account of Worsley. 
60 Some early deeds of the Wartons (or 
Wauertons) are given in Towneley' 
MS. DD, no. 939-44. Gilbert de Warton 
was witness to an early Worsley charter ; 
no. 951. William son of John de War- 
ton about 1310 gave lands to John son of 
William de Warton. In 1335 William's 
son and heir Thomas married Margaret, 
daughter of John de Chisenhale. 

In 1356 John de Warton claimed a 
messuage and land in Wharton by Eccles 
against Hugh de Rylands ; Duchy of Lane. 
Assize R. 5, m. 4. Denis de Warton 
attested deeds in 1407 ; De Traffbrd D. 
no. 302, 303 ; and one of the same name, 
if not the same person, a Hulton yeoman, 
occurs in 1444 ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 
3, m. 1 6. 

Denis Warton in 1446 granted to 
feoffees, including his son John, all his 
lands in Tyldesley and Hulton. He had 
received them in 1440 from the trustee of 
his brother John, the heir apparent being 
Ralph son of Denis. Ralph Warton in 
1469 granted to Katherine his wife, 
daughter of John Bradshagh, deceased, 
various lands in Hulton lying to the north 
of the highway from Blacklow to Walk- 
den Moor and between Hollow Syke and 
Goodrich Brook ; together with the 2s. 
service of William Warton for the Intake. 
These notes are from the Yates Evi- 
dences. 

Robert Langton in 1587 purchased 
from William Warton five messuages, a 
windmill, dovecote, lands, &c. ; and four 
years later Richard Ashton of Mawdsley 
and Jane his wife were in possession ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 49, m. 44 ; bdle. 
53, m. 87 

William Warton's difficulties are said 
to have arisen from his adhesion to the 
old religion. He is described as ' attainted ' 
in leases of his possessions by the Crown 
in 1593 and 1595 ; Pat. 35 Eliz. pt. iv ; 
37 Eliz. pt. ix. 

61 Ralph Assheton of Great Lever, 
who died in 1616, held ' the manor, lord- 
ship, or capital messuage called Warton 
hall ' of Sir Peter Legh and Dorothy his 
wife (heiress of Worsley), by fealty and 
the rent of a pair of gloves, price ^d. 
each of them ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 289. 

Robert Mort, a strict Nonconformist, 
owned it in the second half of the I7th 
century. He was about to leave for 
America in 1688, when the Revolution 
occurred and promised a cessation of the 
persecutions to which he had been sub- 
jected for religion. Matthew Henry 
called him ' one of the greatest examples 

30 



of humility, charity, and primitive 
Christianity that our age has known.' 
He was followed by his son Nathan, whose 
son John, born in 1 702, removed to Chow- 
bent, where he carried on a fustian cutting 
business ; he was ' an active member of the 
society of Unitarian Christians at Chow- 
bent, and was noted for his piety and bene- 
volence' ; Pal. Note Bk. iii, 251, where is 
a notice of his funeral sermon. 

Nathan Mort, who died about 1723, 
was succeeded by his son Adam, who 
died about 1730, leaving his daughter 
Mary his heiress. She married Thomas 
Earle of Liverpool and died in 1785, 
leaving two daughters to inherit Wharton 
Hall and the other Mort estates. The 
elder daughter Maria married her cousin 
Thomas Earle of Spekelands ; and the 
younger married Richard Gwillym of 
Bewsey ; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), vi 

7 6 > 39. 44- 

62 It was about 1870 sold by the Earles 
and Gwillyms to John Gerard Potter and 
others, who formed the Wharton Hall 
Collieries Co., Ltd., and worked the 
mines. 

68 The Bridgewater Trustees purchased 
it from the Colliery Company in 1881. 
The information in this and the preceding 
note is due to Mr. Strachan Holme, 
Walkden. 

64 Gilbert de Lymme, with the assent of 
his wife Jocasta, granted to Maurice son 
of Ithel land in the Wich, with bounds 
beginning at Fairhurst Brook and going 
up to the middle of Wichiard, thence by 
the bounds of Farnworth to Alrenehead, 
and down Wichshaw to the bounds of 
Tyldesley ; Hultor. Fed. 48 (from the Yates 
Evidences). Alice daughter of Gilbert re- 
leased her right in the same to Richard 
de Wicheves ; Yates Evidences. 

Henry de Tyldesley granted to Richard 
son of John de Hulton [of Farnworth] 
certain lands in Tyldesley, the bounds of 
which began at Herbertsclough, followed 
Cartlache to Wich Brook, and by this to 
Cartlache and Fairhurst Syke, and thence 
back by the marked oaks to the starting 
point; Hulton Fed. 33. This land in 
Tyldesley adjoined Wicheves, the estate 
which gave a surname to Richard. 

Henry de Worsley in 1299 granted to 
Richard son of Richard son of John de 
Hulton all his land in the Wyt [Wich] 
between Hulton and Worsley as described 
in the charter from Gilbert de Lymme 
and Jocasta his wife to Thomas their son ; 
Ellesmere D. no. 54. 

Thomas de Lymme granted land in 
Wicheves to John son of Meuric, at a 
rent of zs. ; Yates Evidences. 

Henry son of Henry de Tyldesley 
granted a rent of 1 8J. from the hey called 






SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



appear to have sold it to the Tyldesleys. 66 From these 
it passed to Edmund Fleetwood of Rossall, 66 and after- 
wards to the Morts. About 
the middle of the 1 8th cen- 
tury Joseph Yates of Man- 
chester purchased it, 67 and 
about seventy years later his 
descendants sold it to Ellis 
Fletcher of Clifton, a colliery 
proprietor. 68 Peel Hall is a 
modern house erected in 1840 
by Matthew Fletcher, from 
the designs of Sir Charles 
Barry. It stands in the site 
of an older hall which was a 
stone building consisting of a 

centre and two wings with three gables to the front. 
All that is left of the old hall is part of the moat, 
which has been made into an ornamental lake. 68 * 
Another PEEL, known as Kenyon Peel Hall, 69 was 




RIGBY. Argent on a 
cross fiory azure ji-ve 
mullets or. 



about 1600 in the possession of Alexander Rigby ; he 
gave it to a younger son George, 70 whose daughter and 
heir, Alice, 71 brought it to her husband Roger Kenyon 
of Parkhead and his descend- 
ants, the present owner being 
Lord Kenyon of Gredington. 72 
Kenyon Peel Hall is situated 
about a quarter of a mile south 
of the ancient highway, run- 
ning from Manchester in a 
north-west direction towards 
Bolton, and is on the southern 
slope of the high ground lying 
between the valley of the Ir- 
well on the north and Chat 
Moss on the south. Before 
the locality was given over 
to collieries and manufacture 




KENYON, Lord Ken- 
yon. Sable a che-veron 
engrailed or between thret 
crosses fiory argent. 



the situation must have been a pleasant one, but to-, 
day the house lies amidst surroundings which have 



the Ral to Richard son of John son of 
Meuric ; Hulton Fed, 48. Henry son of 
Henry de Tyldesley was defendant in a 
Hulton suit in 1313-14 ; Assize R. 424, 
m. 4 d. 

Hawise, as widow of Richard de Wich- 
eves, demised to Henry son of John de 
Hulton her right in the Hope Hey in 
Wicheves in the vill of Worsley ; Hulton 
Fed. 34. Hawise is said to have been 
a daughter of Gilbert de Lymme. 
Richard son of Richard son of John de 
Hulton in 1295 released to the same 
Henry de Hulton all his right in the 
Hope Hey, held of Gilbert de Lymme 
and his heirs by the rent of a rose ; ibid. 
At the same time John son of Hugh de 
Hulton released to Henry his uncle his 
land in Wicheves in the Hope Hey, the 
bounds touching those of Farnworth at 
one point ; ibid. Joan widow of Adam 
son of Richard de Hulton of the Wich- 
eves in 1336 released to her father-in- 
law all her dower lands in Worsley and 
Tyldesley ; ibid. 35. 

5 The Peel of Hulton is named as 
early as 1395 among the lands of Thomas 
son of Henry de Tyldesley, whose son Peter 
appears to have married Maud daughter of 
Richard Mort ; Yates Evidences. 

In 1465 Thomas son and heir of James 
Tyldesley, who was son and heir of Thomas 
Tyldesley, was a minor in ward to Sir 
Geoffrey Massey of Worsley; ibid. James 
Tyldesley had married Alice daughter of 
Roger Hulton of the Park ; the contract 
is dated 1437 ; Hulton Fed. 12. 

Thomas Tyldesley of the Peel in 1501 
leased the Fennyslack in Worsley to James 
son of Thomas Mort; ibid. In 1523 
the feoffees of Thomas Tyldesley made 
provision for an annuity for Elizabeth his 
wife ; ibid. 

The wardship and marriage of Thomas 
son and heir of James Tyldesley of Peel 
was claimed by Sir John Brereton in 1530 ; 
Ellesmere D. no. 76. 

To Lora Browne, widow, formerly 
wife of the above-named James Tyldesley, 
dower was assigned in 1546 from the 
lands of William Tyldesley of the Peel 
of Hulton, or Wicheves Hall, with ten 
messuages, a water-mill, &c.; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 12, m. 278. 

84 In 1550 William Tyldesley seems to 
have mortgaged or sold his estate, Robert 
Fleetwood and John Stokes being plaintiffs 
in a fine of that year ; ibid. bdle. 14, m. 
153. Thirty years later Edmund Fleet- 



wood, esq. was in possession ; ibid, 
bdle. 42, m. 39. From the Yates deeds 
it is evident that Edmund Fleetwood was 
owner in 1574, Thomas Mort of Dam- 
house being in possession. Edmund Fleet- 
wood of Rossall died in 1622, holding a 
capital messuage with 120 acres in Wors- 
ley and Little Hulton of the lord of Wors- 
ley ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), iii, 316. 

6 7 For a notice of this family see Ab- 
ram, Blackburn, 408, 409 ; also Baines, 
Lanes, (ed. Croston), iii, 150. Joseph 
Yates of Manchester married Ellen 
daughter and co-heir of William Maghull 
of Maghull; he died in 1773, and his 
eldest son having left three daughters 
the Peel estate passed to the heir of his 
younger son, Sir Joseph Yates, justice of 
the King's Bench, and afterwards of the 
Common Pleas. Sir Joseph had settled 
at Cheam in Surrey, and was buried there 
in 1770; Foss, Judges ; Diet. Nat. Biog. 
His son Joseph sold Peel to Ellis Fletcher. 
Some deeds relating to the estate are given 
in Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 147. 

The Rev. William Allen, author of 
Collectanea Latina, at one time resided in 
the house. He was minister of Peel 
Chapel, and had a boarding school. 

68 From Ellis Fletcher it has descended 
to his granddaughter, Mrs. Wynne Corrie. 
She married the Hon. Robert Wellington 
Stapleton Cotton, son of Lord Comber- 
mere, but was divorced in 1 879. There 
was no issue of this marriage. She 
afterwards married Mr. Wynne Corrie ; 
Burke, Family Rec. 181. See also the 
account of Clifton in Eccles. 

68a Trans. Antiq. Soc. xvii, 242. 

69 For a view see N. G. Philips, Old 
Halls of Lanes, and Ches. 57. 

7 Leonard Asshaw of Shaw in Flixton 
was in 1595 found to have held lands in 
Hulton of the lord of Worsley ; Duchy of 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. xvi, n. A daughter 
married Alexander Rigby, who appears to 
have had her portion in Hulton ; Ducatus 
Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 332, 350. 

Alexander Rigby of Goosnargh, who died 
in 1621, held a messuage and lands in Hul- 
ton and Tyldesley, which with land in 
Turton he gave to his younger son, George 
Rigby; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.) iii, 458. 

7 1 Alice Rigby, spinster, made a settle- 
ment of the manor of Peel, with lands in 
Over Hulton, Little Hulton (otherwise 
Lowest Hulton), Worsley, Goosnargh, 
Turton, Wigan, Hopwood, Thornton near 

3 1 



Chadderton, Clayden, Manchester, Hun- 
dersheld, Rochdale, and Rivington ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 160,01.63. A 
further settlement was made in 1680 by 
Roger Kenyon, Alice his wife, Leftwich 
Oldfield, Alice his wife, and Jane Ha- 
worth, widow ; ibid. bdle. 202, m. 101. 

? a Dugdale, Vhit. 166 ; Abram, Black- 
turn, 752. Roger Kenyon made Peel his 
residence. He represented Clitheroe in 
Parliament from 1690 to 1695 as a Tory ; 
Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 257. He 
was also clerk of the peace for Lancashire 
and Governor of the Isle of Man ; a very 
large amount of information about him is 
contained in the Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. 
xiv, App. iv, passim. His eldest son Roger, 
named at the Visitation of 1664, died 
before him, and George Kenyon, a younger 
son, Tory representative of Wigan from 
171010 1714 (Pink and Beaven, 232) suc- 
ceeded to Peel. A third son, Thomas, 
was grandfather of Lloyd Kenyon, suc- 
cessively Attorney General, Master of the 
Rolls, and Lord Chief Justice, created a 
baronet in 1784, and raised to the peerage 
as Baron Kenyon of Gredington in 1788 ; 
see Kenyon MSS. ; Life, by the Hon. 
George Kenyon ; Foss, Judges ; Diet. 
Nat. Biog. 

George Kenyon married his cousin Ann 
daughter of Edward Kenyon, rector of 
Prestwich, and dying in 1728, was suc- 
ceeded by his son and grandson, both 
named George. Roger and George Ken- 
yon sons of George Kenyon, a lawyer, 
entered St. John's College, Cambridge, in 
1719, being aged seventeen and sixteen 
respectively ; R. F. Scott, Admissions, iii, 
17. The last George Kenyon, who died 
in 1770, left several daughters, co-heirs, 
of whom the eldest married Sir Thomas 
Hanmer, bart. The first Lord Kenyon 
married Mary daughter of the second 
George Kenyon cousin by both father 
and mother ; and his son, the second lord, 
also married a cousin, Margaret Emma, 
daughter of Sir Thomas and Lady Han- 
mer. Their grandson, the present Lord 
Kenyon, is the owner of Peel Hall. Alice 
Kenyon, sister of Mary, Lady Kenyon, 
held' Peel Hall till her death in 1836, 
when it passed to her nephew, the second 
Lord Kenyon. For an account of the 
family see G.E.C. Complete Peerage, iv, 
3 5 8-60 ; also pedigree, Baines, Lanes, (ed. 
Croston), iii, 148, and Piccope's MS. Pedi- 
grees (Chet. Lib.), i, 218. See also Pal. 
Note Bk. iv, 56, 143. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



robbed the country of any of the beauties it formerly 
possessed. 

The house appears to have been built about the 
years 1631 to 1634. Both dates are on the build- 
ing, and probably it was in course of construction for 
some time prior to the latter year. The gatehouse 
and other detached buildings were erected shortly 
after. The house is a highly picturesque half-timbered 
building on a low stone base, two stories in height, 
facing the south, and occupies the north side of a 
small courtyard, to the south of which is a larger 
courtyard, on to which the stables and outbuildings 
open. Behind the stables to the south is the stable 
yard the whole forming a symmetrical arrangement 
of three quadrangles which gives to the hall and its 
outbuildings an appearance of size and importance 
which with less systematic planning it would not 
have possessed. Though retaining a great many of 
the characteristics of the older Lancashire houses, both 
as regards plan and elevations, Kenyon Peel at the 
same time exhibits the influence of new ideas, these 
buildings showing evidences everywhere of a well 
thought-out plan, and a desire for balance and sym- 
metry. In its general arrangement and appearance 
the hall is not very much altered from the time it was 
built, though there was a good deal of work done in 
the interior in the way of fittings and decorations in 
the 1 8th century, and a brick wing was added at the 
back on the west side of the house at the same period. 
A later extension at the north-east was made as late 
as 1870. 

Owing to mining operations many settlements 
have occurred and at one time the house was 
allowed to fall into disrepair and had to be shored up. 
It was restored, however, in the early eighties, but 
the work then done has destroyed a good deal of the 
original detail and has substituted a rather hard fresh- 
ness in place of picturesque decay. The half-timber 
front has been renewed in a manner which does not 
strictly carry out the design of the old work. All the 
barge-boards and hip-knobs are new, and the old grey- 
stone roof coverings have been replaced by blue slates. 
The building nevertheless retains a picturesqueness 
which it owes to its arrangement and plan as well as 
to its more strictly architectural features. 

The house itself consists of a main block standing 
east and west, with three projecting gabled bays, the 
middle one of which contains the porch. At either 
end of the main front is another projecting bay, 
the whole forming a kind of irregular r'H shape. 
The principal front thus has seven gables, five facing 
south and one at each end facing inward to the court- 
yard. These many gables, especially when seen at a 
distance from the south-east in conjunction with the 
gatehouse, give a broken and irregular skyline which 
is very pleasing. The return ends of the two outer 
wings are faced with stone, and the remainder of the 
sides and the whole of the back elevation is in brick. 
A portion of the timber framing, however, shows at 
the back of the hall. A lead spout-head on the west 
side of the house bears the date 1741 and the 
initials G ^ P . 

The plan of the house itself shows the influence of 
the old ideas, the great hall occupying the central 
position, with a passage answering to the screen at 
the west end opposite the porch. The porch and bay 
window of the hall are under the central projecting 
gable, the unusual position of the bay being due to 



considerations of symmetry in the external arrange- 
ment. The great hall, which is in no way emphasized 
in the exterior elevation, is a low room, 30 ft. in 
length (including the passage) by about 20 ft. wide, 
with a bay window 6 ft. wide and 8 ft. deep at the 
south-west corner, and mullioned windows on the 
north and south with a fireplace at the north-west. 
The room was probably used much as a modern dining- 
room, but is now the drawing-room. The ingle 
nook in the north-west is now built up and a modern 
fireplace inserted. There are windows on both sides 
of the room. The hall is panelled all round, with 
classic pilasters to the bay window and to the door- 
cases at the east end. Most of the panelling is 
the original oak wainscot, but it has been repaired 
with pitch pine, and the whole is now painted white. 
The ceiling, which is only 8 ft. 6 in. high, is crossed 
by four beams and is quite plain. Beyond the hall on 
the east end of the house is the present dining-room, 
a small room 17 ft. square, looking on to the inner 
courtyard. It is lined with 18th-century panelling 
and has a semicircular recess on each side of the fire- 
place. Beyond is the main staircase, with twisted 
balusters and square newels, and half balusters against 
the walls. Behind the dining-room is another smaller 
room looking east, also lined with 18th-century 
panelling and now called the housekeeper's room. At 
the other side of the staircase, at the end of the east 
wing, is the oak parlour, or smoke room, which, as its 
name implies, is also panelled, and has a fine Jacobean 
chimney-piece, the upper part being divided into three 
panels by four allegorical female figures. The centre 
panel has the arms of Kenyon quartering Rigby. 

To the west of the great hall are rooms correspond- 
ing to the dining-room and oak parlour, called respec- 
tively the pomegranate room and the library. The 
pomegranate room takes its name from the plaster 
ornamentation of the ceiling, but is otherwise plain. 
The library is lined all round with deep bookshelves 
with wooden fronts of 18th-century date, and there 
are cellars under these two rooms. Upstairs there are 
portions of oak panelling in some of the bedrooms, 
but nothing of special note except in Lord Kenyon's 
bedroom, over the oak parlour. This room contains 
some very good 17th-century oak panelling, with 
richly carved upper panels and cornice. Over the 
fireplace, forming part of an elaborately carved mantel- 
piece, are two painted armorial panels with the date 
1637. The ceiling, which is plain, is arched in 
section, and the door is 18th-century work. The 
bedroom over the drawing-room has also an arched 
ceiling with plaster ornamentation near the springing. 
The floors all over the house are very uneven owing 
to the settlements. There is a second staircase on 
the west side of the house with old oak treads but 
modern varnished balusters. The whole plan indicates 
the period of transition in manners which in other parts 
was much earlier than 1630, but which was necessarily 
delayed in the country districts. There are no corridors 
in the house, most of the rooms being more or less , 
passage rooms. 

In a document dated 1783, now at the house, the 
courtyards are called the ' green court ' and the * flag 
court,' the former being apparently the outer. The 
portion of the grounds between the house and the 
road on the east side is called the ' wilderness,' and 
mention is made of ' barns, stables, shippons, fold, &c.,' 
on the south side. The wilderness was an irregularly- 




3- 



s- 



ffi 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



shaped triangular piece of ground bounded on two 
sides by the road, and on the west by a fence wall, 
with gateways leading to the entrance-way from a 
lane at the back of the house. In the outer angle of 
the wilderness was a brick * arbour,' built presumably 
in the i8th century, and a small pond. The gardens 
proper lay along the full length of the west side of 
the house and outbuildings, with a private walled-in 
garden directly to the west of the hall. 

The courtyard in front of the house is about 80 ft. 
by 5 oft. It is partly inclosed on the east and west 
by the projecting wings of the house, and beyond, by 
a high stone wall. In the middle of the south side is 
the gatehouse, a two-story building with a central 
gateway, and one room on each side. The upper 
floor consists of one apartment, said to have been a 
court-house, but now used as a servants' dormitory. 
The gatehouse is a solidly built structure of stone with 
mullioned windows, a grey stone-slated roof finishing 
with a stone gable at each end, and at each corner of 
the building is a tall brick chimney, square at the 
bottom and set diagonally above. On the ridge of the 
roof is a bell-cote, now boarded up, and till lately 
containing a bell reputed to be of silver. It was 
made by Abraham Rudhall of Gloucester in 1731, 
and was inscribed, ' Come away make no delay,' but 
was stolen some years ago at the time when repairs to 
the house were being made. The two bottom rooms 
of the gatehouse are entered from the inner court only, 
and not from the gateway passage. The oak doors 
hung midway in the gateway passage are double 
hung, and have a wicket. On their top rail is carved 
*G R B Peace be within these walles 1637.' The 
initials are those of George Rigby and Beatrix (Hulton) 
his wife. On each side of the inner quadrangle 
leading to the gardens beyond are stone doorways 
with picturesquely stepped gables of good early 
Renaissance type, with spiked finials. The gateway 
on the east side of the court has the date 1631 
with the arms of Rigby on the lintel, and the 
initials c R on a panel in the gable above. The door- 
way of the opposite side has the initials G R B on both 
sides, and facing the courtyard the date 1634. These 
little stone gateways flanking the inner courtyard, 
taken in conjunction with the rather severe mass of 
the gatehouse and the black-and-white work of the 
house, are very effective, and seem to put a touch of 
refinement into the building which it otherwise 
would lack. The courtyard itself, crossed in each 
direction by flagged paths between squares of grass, 
has a formality quke in keeping with the Renaissance 
spirit of the gateways. 

The outer courtyard is 1 30 ft. long from west to 



east and about 70 ft. wide, its area being thus more 
than double that of the inner courtyard. It extends 
up to the road on the east side, having a wide entrance 
gateway with massive stone piers surmounted with 
balls, and narrow side gates, facing to the road. 
There is a mounting-block outside the side gate 
nearest the house. On the west side is a wall with 
a central stone alcove, surmounted by a figure of a 
boy, and in front of this a sundial on a pedestal. 
The court is partly turfed, and has a curved carriage 
drive, which takes away somewhat from the formality 
which the classic style of the alcove would suggest as 
necessary. The range of stable buildings which 
bounds the quadrangle on the south side is a massive 
stone structure with a gable at each end facing north, 
and good mullioned windows with hood-moulds. 
There has been a good deal of alteration, and the old 
flat-arched doorways are built up. But generally the 
building retains its original appearance, and in the 
part now called the Shippon is a central stone pillar. 
On its eastern gable is the date 1668 with the arms of 
Kenyon impaling Rigby. The roofs at this end of 
the building, together with the great barn, are of grey 
stone slates, while the rest of the buildings are 
covered with blue slates. The south front of the 
stables faces the lower or stable-yard, which has a fine 
stone-built barn with massive buttresses on its east side. 
The west side of the yard is bounded by a high brick 
boundary wall separating it from the house gardens, 
and the south-west corner is occupied by a picturesque 
brick dove-house presumably of 18th-century date, 
with stone dressings and grey stone-slated pyramidal 
roof. The west end of the stable range facing the 
garden was erected in 1722 by Lloyd Kenyon, and 
rebuilt again in 1864, as an inscription sets forth. 
On this side of the building also is an elaborate shield 
of arms with helm, crest, and mantling, carved in 
stone. The Rigby arms occur again on the head 
of a gate in the fence wall to the north-east of 
the house. 

Among the former proprietors in the townships 
were the Farnworth 73 and Valentine families. 74 

The land tax returns of 1789 show that in Middle 
Hulton the chief contributors were the Rev. Mr. 
Bagot and his tenants, who paid over one-fifth ; the 
Duke of Bridgewater, Miss Killer, and others paid 
smaller sums. In Little Hulton in 1788 Joseph 
Yates and his tenants paid more than half, the re- 
mainder being contributed by Mrs. Ann Kenyon, the 
Duke of Bridgewater, the Rev. Walter Bagot, Peter 
Shakerley, and others. In Over Hulton in 1802 
the trustees of William Hulton seem to have been 
the sole proprietors. 75 



7* Geoffrey de Worsley granted to Hugh 
rector of Standish land called the Edge 
and Hope Croft, at a rent of i id. ; Elles- 
mere D. no. 45. Rector Hugh afterwards 
gave all his land that which Richard the 
clerk of Irlam farmed and Hope Croft to 
Adam de Farnworth ; a pair of white 
gloves was to be paid yearly to the grantor 
and I2</. to the chief lord of the fee ; ibid, 
no. 43. William son of Hugh de Standish 
claimed a messuage and lands in Hulton 
from Roger son of Adam de Farnworth in 
1292, alleging that Hugh had demised 
them to Adam. The claim failed ; Assize 
R. 408, m. 48 d. Adam son of Roger de 
Farnworth in 1301 sought estovers in 60 
acres in Hulton against Richard son of 




Henry de Worsley and others ; Assize R. 
321, m. 8 d. 

In 1370 Henry de Farnworth leased 
lands in Hulton Edge (except Hopecroft), 
which were part of his mother Maud's 
dower ; Ellesmere D. no. 63. Another 
lease was made by Richard son of Henry 
de Farnworth in 1397; no. 65. Eight 
years later the Hulton lands were granted 
to Richard son of Richard de Farnworth 
and Alice his wife, daughter of Thomas 
the Roper ; no. 69. Nicholas Farn- 
worth and Margery his wife in 1494 
assigned to trustees an annual rent of 
71. 3</. from the Edge in Hulton ; 
no. 74. A few years later this and other 
Farnworth lands were sold to Joan Dame 

33 



Stanley, the heiress of Worsley ; no. 
110-14. 

A family named Edge resided on this 
estate. In 1551 there was a suit between 
George Grundy and Ellen widow of John 
Edge respecting Hobb Croft in Hulton, 
held under the manor of Worsley ; Duchy 
Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 
119). In 1564 John Edge sought lands 
in Middle Hulton from Dame Jane Brere- 
ton and others; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), 
ii, 281 ; iii, 4158. 

7< In 1487 Thomas Valentine and John 
his son and heir apparent granted to 
George Valentine son of Thomas for life 
lands in Hulton called Woodcroft, Herber- 
croft, Dowers, and Wood Hey ; Vaudrey D. 

7* Land Tax Ret. at Preston. 



In connexion with the Established Church Peel 
Chapel, St. Paul's, was built in 1760 by Joseph 
Yates ; several of the Yates family are buried there. 76 
It was rebuilt in 1828 and in 1876, a district 
chapelry having been formed in 1874." The patron- 
age is vested in Lord Kenyon. Services are held in 
St. Andrew's School, Over Hulton. 

The Presbyterian Church of England has the old 
Wharton Chapel, the congregation originating with 
the Nonconformists of 1662, under the protection of 
the Mort family; the chapel was rebuilt in 1723. 
The Moravians held services in it from 1755 till about 
1800; afterwards the Congregationalists used it till 
in 1 860 it was given to the Presbyterians. It had 
been very poorly attended. 78 A new church was 
built in 1901. 

The Wesleyan Methodists' Chapel dates from 
1817, and that of the Primitive Methodists from 
1823. Each denomination has since added another. 

The Roman Catholic Church of St. Edmund, King 
and Martyr, was opened in Little Hulton in i876, 79 
and rebuilt in 1899. 



FARNWORTH 

Farnworth, Farneworth, Farnewrth, 1278-9. 

Farnworth, anciently a hamlet in Barton, after- 
wards became a separate township, and in modern 
times has grown into a small town, with numerous 
industries. 

It measures about 2 miles from east to west, with 
a breadth of a little over a mile. The area is 1,502 
acres. 1 The surface slopes generally from west to 
east, the lowest ground being in the north-east corner, 
where the River Croal forms the boundary ; this 
part is called Darley. Will Hill Brook, part of which 
has been utilized to form reservoirs, forms the northern 
boundary. The town has grown chiefly in the 
eastern half of the area, on both sides of the great 
road from Manchester to Bolton, and the main road, 
which here joins the former, leading north from 
Eccles. A third important road, known as Plodder 
Lane, goes westward through the centre of the town- 
ship, the hamlet called Dixon Green lying upon it. 
Highfield lies in the south-west corner ; to the east 
of it is Blindsill, and the hamlet of New Bury is near 
the middle of the southern boundary. Presto Street, 
near the eastern boundary, indicates the position of 
Prestall, which stood on the boundary of Kearsley, 
perhaps partly within it. Halshaw Moor is in the 
same quarter. Birch House is situated on the north- 
east side of the Manchester and Bolton road, there 



called Market Street. Moses Gate is the district on 
the northern boundary, through which the same road 
passes, and Harper's Green lies to the south-west. 
The population in 1901 numbered 25,925.* 

The Lancashire and Yorkshire Company's line from 
Manchester to Bolton s goes through the north-eastern 
corner of the township, and has a station called Farn- 
worth and Halshaw Moor and another called Moses 
Gate on the southern and northern limits respectively. 
The London and North Western Company's line 
from Bolton through Eccles to Manchester crosses the 
centre of the township from north to south, and has 
a station called Plodder Lane, close to Dixon Green. 

In 1666 there were ninety-one hearths liable to 
the tax ; the largest houses were those of Urian Leigh 
and Jonathan Doming, with six hearths each. 4 

There were large paper mills, 5 iron foundries, 6 and 
cotton mills ; 7 brick and tile works, and extensive 
collieries. A newspaper is published on Fridays. 

A local board was formed in i863. 8 The town- 
ship is now divided into six wards, denoted by points 
of the compass, each returning three members to the 
urban district council, which replaced the local board 
in 1894. 

Gas is now supplied by a company formed in 1854.' 
There are market, park, baths, and cemetery under 
public control. Monday and Saturday are the mar- 
ket days. There is a fair held on the third Monday 
in September. 10 The Bolton Workhouse is built in 
the north-west corner of the township. 

For a few years there were races on the moor. 11 

Doming Rasbotham, writing in 1787, recorded 
that the Croal was * extremely subject to floods,' by 
which * great quantities of paving stones and gravel ' 
were carried down. It then produced * trout, 
shoulers, dace, gudgeons, and eels.' Farnworth Hall, 
the property of the Duke of Bridgewater, was then 
standing ; butter had been churned by a late tenant 
by means of a water-mill. The farms were small, 
and occupied by manufacturers, willing to pay some- 
thing from the labour of their looms for the con- 
venience of a few acres to support two or three 
cows. Oats and potatoes were grown. Coal was 
worked and conveyed to Worsley by subterranean 
canals. In all the cloughs or dingles the alder grew 
spontaneously ; charcoal was made of it ; oak and ash 
also grew. 11 

Coins have been found. 13 

Originally merely a hamlet in Barton, 

M4NOR FARWVQRTH does not seem to have 

been recognized as a manor or lordship 

till late in the I3th century. At that time, it was 

divided, being held partly of the lords of Manchester 



7* Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), iii, 42. 

77 Land, Gaz. 20 Mar. 1874. 

7 s Nightingale, Lanes. Nonconformity, iv, 
1 08. An account of its endowments may 
be seen in the Endowed Charities Rep. 
(Deane) of 1903, p. 32. 

7 Kelly, Engl. Catb. Missions, 252. 

1 1,504* including 42 of inland water, 
according to the census of 1901. 

3 Pop. Returns, 1901. 

8 Opened 29 May 1838 ; Dixon Fold 
Bridge, Stoneclough Bridge, Tunnel (now 
Farnworth), and Moses Gate were the 
stations in Kearsley and Farnworth. 

4 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9. 

5 At Darley Mill in 1783 two vats 
were employed, making six packs of coarse 



paper weekly ; Doming Rasbotham in 
B. T. Barton's Farnworth and Kersley 
(Bolton, 1887), 9. This work gives a 
good account of the history of the town- 
ships during the i gth century. The story 
of the Crompton family and their paper 
and cotton factories is related ; p. 266, &c. 
The old Pack Horse Road is described on 
p. 30. 

6 Ibid. 263 ; the first foundry started 
in 1838. 

7 For an account of James Rothwell 
Barnes (who died 23 Mar. 1849), and the 
foundation of the Farnworth cotton mills 
see the above-quoted work, pp. 83-6, 272 
87. 

8 Land. Gaz. \\ Sept. 1863. 

34 



9 Barton, op. cit. 60-6. From 1835 it 
had been supplied by James Berry, a 
brazier, who, without authority, ran pipet 
from his own apparatus. 

10 It is said that the ' wakes ' owe their 
date to the opening of St. John's Church 
in Sept. 1826; ibid. 74. A fair, how- 
ever, had been held in July for some time 
before 1783 ; ibid. 14. 

" Ibid. 79. 

12 Ibid. 9-15. 

Farnworth Hall had been purchased 
from Lord Semple, who had it with his 
wife, Miss Gaskell, of Manchester. Raines 
says that in 1849 it was occupied as 
cottages. 

u Ibid. 7, 15 ; mediaeval and later. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



directly and partly of those of Barton. 14 Thus in 
1282 'a certain plat' rendered $s. a year to Robert 
Grelley. 16 In 1278 Richard de Redford and Richard 
the Chief of Farnworth were described as lords of the 
place. 16 Soon afterwards the heir of Richard the 
Chief seems to have disposed of his share to the Hul- 
ton and Lever families. 17 

At the Manchester Barony Survey of 1320 Adam 
de Lever of Great Lever, Henry de Hulton, and 
Richard de Redford held Farnworth by homage and 
fealty, a rent of 6s. , and puture of the Serjeants. 
Henry de Hulton further paid 3/. a year for the 
Mossyhalgh ; and John son of Adam de Farnworth 
held lands by a rent of 6d. and puture ; the total rent 
was thus 9/. 6d. w In 1326 three parts of the manor 
of Farnworth was settled on the heirs of Adam de 
Lever. 19 In 1473 it was found that the Lever por- 
tion of the manor paid a rent to Manchester of 3*. 6</., 
the Hulton portion 4^. 6d., and the Redford portion 
divided between Adam Prestall and Richard Seddon 
is. ; a total of g/. 10 The 6d. from Geoffrey de 
Farnworth has been omitted. 11 

Of these different shares of the manor the principal 
was that of the Hultons, and was usually described 



absolutely as * the manor.' The Lever share has 
descended with Great Lever to the Earl of Bradford ; 
the descent of the Redford part, which seems to have 
been diminished by many alienations, is given under 
Kearsley. 

The Hultons of Farnworth descended from John, 
said to have been a younger son of David de Hulton." 
Henry son of John de Hulton is frequently mentioned 
about the end of the I3th century, 23 and, as stated 
above, held a share of the manor in 1320. John the 
son and successor of Henry " had a grant of Harpur- 
hey in Manchester from John La Warre in I327, 25 
and a few years later had Oakenley in Horwich. 26 
He was followed by William de Hulton, who, appar- 
ently as a child, had a lease of Mulwardscroft in 
Manchester in 1337," and made a settlement on his 
heirs male of the manors of Rumworth and Farnworth, 
and various messuages and lands in Farnworth, Rum- 
worth, Lostock, Kearsley, Irlam, Barton, Breightmet, 
Snydale, Westhoughton, Middleton, Great Lever, 
Bolton, and Lower Hulton ; also in Worsley, Man- 
chester, Harpurhey, Denton, Gorton, and Gothers- 
wick. 18 

William lived on till late in the century, 29 and was 



14 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 54. Sir Gilbert de 
Barton afterwards released his right in the 
' vill ' of Farnworth to Thomas Grelley ; 
De Trafford D. no. 298. 

15 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 245. A 
Leinsig de Farnworth occurs in 1184-5 5 
Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 5 5. 

16 Assize R. 1238, m. 34. They were 
defendants in a plea for common of pas- 
ture brought by Roger de Farnworth ; 
Adam son of John de Lever, Adam son 
of Eve de Prestall, Henry de Blindsill 
(Blyndeshull), and Matthew son ofSiward 
de Farnworth, were the other defendants. 
They asserted that Roger held of them, 
but the jury found that he held most of 
his land of Robert Grelley, only 6 acres 
being held of John father of Richard (? the 
Chief), still surviving ; thus a verdict was 
given for the plaintiff. 

J 7 Adam the Chief of Farnworth was 
living in 1 246 ; Assize R. 404, m. 6. The 
same Adam granted to Adam son of 
Robert land in Farnworth beginning at 
Walkden Brook; Ellesmere D. no. 78. 
To John son of Emma de Lever he quit- 
claimed all right in the lands of Leising 
de Lever except one oxgang in Farnworth; 
Lever Chartul. (Add. MS. 32103), no. 15. 

Richard the Chief, already mentioned, 
is the next of the family to occur. He 
seems to have died before 1295, leaving 
sons Richard and William. Richard son 
of Richard, ' called the Chief,' made seve- 
ral grants to Adam son of John de Lever 
at the beginning of 1295 ; in one of them 
Farnworth is described as ' a hamlet in 
the vill of Barton,' the land being held of 
the chief lord of the honour of Manches- 
ter; but in another a share of ' the liberties 
and easements of the vill of Farnworth ' 
was included ; ibid. no. 54-6. 

William son of Richard the Chief suc- 
ceeded his brother very quickly. In Sept. 
1295 he enfeoffed Richard de Redinall, 
clerk, of Whitcroft, formerly held by his 
uncle William, and Hawkley, held by 
Henry de Hulton, as well as of his lands 
in Kearsley ; they were held of the lord of 
Manchester by a rent of 3^.; ibid.no. 61-3. 
These were soon afterwards restored to him 
by the feoffee ; no. 65. He sold his lands 
to Adam de Lever and Avice his wife in 
1277, with all buildings and gardens, 



corn and hay, homages, rents, reliefs, 
&c. ; ibid. no. 64. Avice was probably the 
widow of Richard the brother of William 
the Chief ; she had already granted lands 
to Adam ; no. 66. William sold some of 
his estate to Henry de Hulton ; no. 45. 
He does not appear again except in releases 
of actions in 1299 and 1304 ; in the for- 
mer case to Adam de Lever and his sons, 
Henry de Hulton and his son Henry, 
Adam de Heaton, and others ; in the 
latter case also to the parties named 
(except the younger Henry de Hulton) ; 
no. 70, 74. John the Chief made a similar 
release of actions in Oct. 1303 ; no. 73 ; 
There does not seem to be any later notice 
of the family. 

It seems very likely that this was the 
family which held the 'plat' in Farn- 
worth of the lord of Manchester by a rent 
of 5*. 

18 Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), 289, 290. 
From the later rental it would seem that 
Adam de Lever paid 3;. 6</. of this sum, 
Henry de Hulton is. 6d. t and Richard de 
Redford it. The two former amount to 
51., the rent from the 'plat' in 1282, of 
which 3;. 6</. is about three-quarters. 

19 Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), ii, 62. Adam son of John de Lever 
had married Agnes daughter of Henry de 
Hulton, and in 1322 had settled upon her 
son John various lands in the hamlet of 
Farnworth, the bounds beginning at Lam- 
ford Brook ; Hulton Fed. 36. 

20 Mamecestre, 478. At this time John 
Hulton of Farnworth was life tenant of 
the Lever portion in right of his wife 
Joan, previously wife of Adam Lever ; 
Henry Grundy and Richard Halliwell 
were the actual occupiers. 

21 The list of free foreign tenants 
made about the same time includes 
Ralph Ashton, John Hulton, and Richard 
Redeworth (? heirs of Richard Redford) 
for Farnworth ; John Hulton for Moss- 
hulme in Farnworth ; and Geoffrey de 
Farnworth for tenements in Farnworth ; 
ibid. 517. 

22 Hulton Fed. 5. For Richard de 
Wicheves, younger son of John de Hulton, 
see the account of Little Hulton. 

23 Henry son of John de Hulton granted 
to Adam son of John de Lever the White- 
croft with the sparth adjacent, and his part 

35 



of the hey between Whitecroft and Walk- 
den ; Lever Chartul. (Add. MS. 32103), 
no. 25. This had been purchased by 
Henry de Hulton from William son of 
Richard the Chief; no. 45. Henry de 
Hulton was a witness in 1297 and 1302 
(no. 64, 75), and made a grant in 1299 
(no. 72). 

24 In 1316 John son of Henry de Hul- 
ton granted to his father all his lands in 
Farnworth, Great Lever, and the Wich- 
eves ; ibid. no. 80. John de Hulton made 
a grant in 1341 ; no. 93. 

25 Hulton Fed. 36. The grant was made 
to Adam son of Robert de Radcliff and 
Alice his daughter, wife of John son of 
Henry de Hulton, and to the heirs of Alice. 

26 Ibid. 20 Jan. 1333-4. In 1341 
John de Hulton gave his son Adam and 
his issue certain land in Manchester, lying 
on Thourishul ; ibid. 37. 

Margaret daughter of John de Hulton 
in 1332 released to her brother William 
all her claim to a burgage in Manchester 
lying between burgages of Adam de Chorl- 
ton and Roger de Radcliffe ; ibid. 

2 ? Ibid. The lease was for nine years. 
It is possible there is some error as to the 
William de Hulton to whom this lease 
was granted. William son of John de 
Hulton in 1353 had a dispute with Wil- 
liam son of Robert de Worsley, who had 
married Ellen, next of kin to the plaintiff, 
concerning Harpurhey and lands in Hul- 
ton and elsewhere ; it appeared that Alice, 
William de Hulton's mother, was a bas- 
tard, and that William had been left a 
minor; Assize R. 435, m. 9 d. 

28 This was quoted in the 16th-century 
suits narrated below. In 1369 William 
de Hulton and John de Lever made an 
agreement by which the former granted 
to the latter the homage, relief, and rent 
of 2s. due from John son of Adam Quin- 
neson ; and John de Lever in exchange 
released all claim for the spoiling and cut- 
ting down of woods and timber in Wil- 
liam's several tenements in Farnworth 
and Great Lever ; Lever Chartul. no. 99. 

29 William de Hulton died in Oct. 1392; 
his son John was of full age and married 
to Elizabeth daughter of Sir William de 
Atherton ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), 
i, 48 (the editor points out that there is 
some error in the dates). 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



followed by his son John so and his grandson James, 
who came into possession at the beginning of the 
reign of Henry VI. 31 He had two sons, William and 
John, whose descendants enjoyed the manor. Wil- 
liam Hulton 31 had a son John, whose only child 
Alice married Adam Hulton of Over Hulton. The 
manor and entailed lands on John's death in 1487 " 
passed to his brothers and their heirs ; Richard, the 
eldest, was an idiot ; M Christopher, who married 
Margaret one of the daughters and co-heirs of Sir 
James Harrington of Wolfage, was one of the feoffees 
of his brother John ; 33 and James left a son William, 
who succeeded to Farnworth. 36 His son John died 



before him, leaving an infant son William as heir to 
his grandfather, who died in 1 556,^ and two daughters, 
Christian and Katherine. 38 

The estates went to the descendants of John the 
younger son of James Hulton, named above. John, 
it is stated, had a son Alan, whose eldest son John 
Hulton 39 was a clerk, and the right descended to a 
grandson Alan son of John's brother Alexander. 40 
The younger Alan had several sons Thomas, John, 
George, and William ; George is stated to have 
received the larger share of the inheritance. 41 George 
Hulton, who was the issue of a second marriage, left 
sons and daughters ; a they sold the manors of Farn- 



80 The writ of Diem clautit extr, after 
the death of John de Hulton of Farn- 
worth was issued on 12 Mar. 1422-3 ; 
Dtp. Keeper'* Rep. xxxiii, App. 24. The 
Inquisition, as printed by the Chetham 
Society (ii, 5), states that he died 28 Dec. 
I422,leaving a son and heir James, twenty- 
six years of age. He had held ' certain 
lands in Barton called Farnworth ' of the 
lord of Manchester ; also in Rumworth 
and elsewhere. 

An arbitration in 1417 between John 
de Hulton, John Valentine, and Richard 
Valentine on the one part, and Adam de 
Hulton and Richard his son on the other, 
respecting lands in Tyldesley, resulted in 
favour of the former ; Adam de Hulton 
was to pay 10 marks to John and restore 
to Richard Valentine a horse and three 
cows which he had wrongfully seized ; 
Hulton Fed. 38. 

Ellen daughter of John de Hulton 
married Roger de Hulton of the Park ; 
ibid. 12. 

81 A bond by James de Hulton of 
Farnworth, dated 1427, is printed in 
Hulton Ped. 39. 

83 In 1445 Randle Hulton of Man- 
chester and another were acquitted of the 
charge of shooting Richard Whitehead 
and giving him a mortal wound ; among 
the accessories were John Hulton, Wil- 
liam son of James Hulton, and Edward, 
William's brother, all of Farnworth ; Pal. 
of Lane. Plea R. 8, m. 23^ ; 9, m. 29. 

88 Hulton Ped. 41, where is printed the 
inquisition, not taken till 1496. This 
states that he held the manor of Farn- 
worth, and lands there and in Kearsley, 
Westhoughton, Manchester, Harpurhey, 
and Lostock of Thomas West, Lord La 
Warre, and other lands in Breightmet and 
Bolton. Alice, his daughter and heir, in 
1489 married Adam de Hulton, she being 
then fifteen years of age, and he fourteen. 
Christopher Hulton, brother of John, had 
taken the profits since his brother's death. 

In 1500 Christopher Hulton made a 
settlement of Farnworth Hall, &c., in 
favour of Margaret his wife, with re- 
mainders to the heirs male, &c. ; Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 89, m. 3 ; see also R. 95, 
m. 6 d. A feoffment by him in 1503 
concerning the dower lands of Joan, the 
widow of John Hulton, is printed in the 
Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 543 ; she was 
the -widow of Adam Lever; see Lever 
Chartul. no. 194, 195. 

Christopher Hulton seems to have died 
in i $09, when Richard Radcliffe, as trus- 
tee, claimed lands in Rumworth and West- 
houghton for the benefit of Margaret his 
wife ; other trustees had taken possession 
of Farnworth Hall 5 Pal. of Lane. Plea 
R. 1 08, m. 1 8. 

In depositions taken in 1559 (Ander- 
ton D. no. n) it was stated that Christo- 



pher Anderton had confessed to making 
untrue depositions in a Chancery suit 
brought by Adam Hulton of the Park, 
and so had retained possession of lands in 
Snydale in Westhoughton, &c. ; repent- 
ing on his death-bed, he desired his wife to 
restore the deeds and the lands to the true 
owner, but she also retained them till her 
death, in spite of the counsel of ' divers 
of her ghostly fathers.' She died at 
Mobberley in 1516, and then desired her 
sister, Eleanor Leycester, and others to 
see that restitution was made. 

84 Hulton Ped. 39 ; his wardship was 
granted to his wife Elizabeth and to 
Thomas Hulton his cousin, 40 a year 
being payable to the Crown during his life. 
See Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, 26. 

85 Hulton Ped. 40. 

86 In 1521 William Hulton, in order 
to end the disputes with Adam Hulton 
of the Park respecting the inheritance of 
Alice daughter and heir of John Hulton, 
released his lands in Snythill (Snydale) in 
Westhoughton, Harpurhey, Denton,Open- 
shaw, and Gorton, with reversion to Wil- 
liam in the event of the failure of male 
heirs of Alice. Adam Hulton, on the 
other hand, allowed that the lands in Bar- 
ton, Lever, and Bolton should remain to 
William and to the heirs male of James 
Hulton his father, according to the will 
of John Hulton, elder brother of James 
and father of Alice ; Hulton Ped. 41-3. 

After William Hulton's death Adam 
Hulton claimed the fulfilment of the 
agreement Christian, the widow, and 
Alan, the heir, being defendants ; Duchy 
of Lane. Plead, xxxviii, H. 21. 

W Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. x. 32 ; he 
held the manor of Farnworth and lands 
there and elsewhere in the neighbourhood, 
of the lord of Manchester, by a rent of 
561. He also held the manor of Rum- 
worth and other lands. His grandson and 
heir was four years of age. 

The agreement for the marriage of 
John, son and heir of William Hulton of 
Farnworth, and Alice, daughter of Sir 
William Radcliffe of Ordsall, was made 
in December 1 548 ; there was some dis- 
puting concerning it ; Duchy of Lane. 
Plead, xxxiii, H. n. 

88 Numerous references to the litigation 
which ensued will be found in the Duca- 
tus Lane. 

Christian Hulton, widow of William, 
aged seventy, stated that he had entrusted 
to her certain lands in Farnworth, &c., 
which he had received under the will of 
John Hulton his uncle fifty years before, 
to enable her to keep and educate William 
Hulton the grandson, also Christian and 
Katherine ; and to find two priests to say 
mass daily for the souls of William her 
husband and John his uncle ; Duchy of 
Lane. Plead, xxxviii, H. 6. Francis 



Tunstall and Alice his wife, the widow of 
John Hulton the younger, also claimed 
the custody of her three children against 
the grandmother, as well as Farnworth 
Hall and certain parts of the estate from 
which they had been ejected ; ibid, xl, 
T. 1 6, 21, 2in. 

89 Vicar of Blackburn 1561 to 1580 ; 
died 1582 ; Abram, Blackburn, 287. 

40 These details are from the pedigree 
recorded in 1567 ; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), n. 
Alan is called 'son and heir* of Alex- 
ander, and also ' base son ' ; probably he 
had been born before marriage, the second 
son, George, being legitimate. 

A claim was put forward by James 
Hulton of Chorley, as son of Edward, son 
of John Hulton, the great-grandfather of 
Alan, citing the feoffment by William de 
Hulton in the time of Richard II. John 
Hulton, clerk, and Alan Hulton were the 
defendants ; Duchy of Lane. Plead, xxxviii, 
H. 19 ; xlii, H. 10. John Hulton gave 
his pedigree as son of Alan Hulton, son 
of John Hulton, son of James Hulton, 
in reply to James Hulton ; ibid.lix, H. 19. 

Katherine and Christian Hulton, the 
daughters, in 1564 laid claim to some or 
all of the Farnworth manors and lands as 
co-heirs ; but John Hulton, clerk, as heir 
male, justified his title ; ibid, lix, H. iga ; 
Ixxxii, H. 2. It was stated that Adam 
Hulton of the Park had claimed the 
manors of Farnworth and Rumworth as 
heir general. 

In 1560 there was a recovery of the 
manors of Farnworth and Rumworth, fifty 
messuages, a water-mill, &c., John Hul- 
ton, clerk, and Alan Hulton being the 
holders ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 207, 
m.3. 

Alan Hulton was living in 1581 \Duca- 
tus Lane, iii, 79. 

41 Hulton Ped. 43, 44 ; also contem- 
porary pedigree in Lever Chartul. fol. 51. 
No reason is given for the preference 
shown to the younger son. 

As early as 1574 Alan Hulton became 
bound to Christopher Anderton and others 
not to disinherit his son John, but power 
was reserved to alter this, provided a ma- 
jority of those to whom he became bound 
consented ; and this power he exercised 
in 1587 when he bestowed all his manors 
and lands (with a small exception) on his 
second son George Hulton ; Anderton 
D. no. 29, 49. 

43 George Hulton complained in 1598 
that certain persons were intruding on his 
lands in Farnworth and Kearsley, and 
digging coal pits there ; Dueatus Lane. 
iii, 376. He died 19 March 1609-10,3! 
Farnworth, holding the manor of Farn- 
worth, with the capital messuage and 
various lands, &c., there, of Sir Nicholas 
Mosley as of his manor of Manchester in 
socage, by the rent of 41. 6d. 5 the manor 




LITTLE HULTON : KENYON PEEL HALL 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



worth and Rumworth, and the rest of the inherit- 
ance. 43 The manors were acquired by the Hultons 
of Over Hulton. 44 

John the elder brother of George Hulton was 
seated at Darleys in Farnworth. He died at Black- 
burn 2 1 July 1 606, holding also lands in the Fylde 
and at Over Darwen. Darleys was held of Nicholas 
Mosley as of the manor of Manchester, and was 
entailed on John Hulton's male issue, with remainder 
to George Hulton of Farnworth ; John Hulton the 
son and heir was thirteen years of age. 45 

The small part of the manor held by a family 
which adopted the local name, appears as early as 



1 246, when Emma de Farnworth mother of Adam 
claimed half an oxgang of land then in possession of 
Adam the Chief. 46 Nine years later Adam de Farn- 
worth claimed that Gilbert de Barton, as mesne lord, 
should acquit him of the service for his oxgang and a 
half demanded by the superior lord, Thomas Grel- 
ley. 4r It was probably about this time that Gilbert 
de Barton released his claim to half of the ^s. rent 
due from Adam's land. 48 Adam left two sons, Richard 49 
and Roger. 50 Of these the former left issue, 51 but 
the inheritance, or the chief part of it, appears to have 
descended to the heirs of Roger. 52 By the end of the 
1 5th century the heir was Nicholas Mitchell alias 



of Rumworth, of the same, by the third 
part of a knight's fee and the rent of 
41. 6d. ; and various lands in Kearsley, 
Bolton, and Lever. Thomas, his son and 
heir, was born in 1601. The inquisition 
recites the agreement made in 1593 on 
his marriage with Margaret, daughter of 
Robert Hyde of Norbury ; gives the 
names of the children as Thomas, George, 
Richard, Elizabeth, Mary, and {Catherine ; 
and adds his will ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 468. 

The Hulton Pedigree gives an elder son 
William, born in 1594, who left issue, but 
this seems to be erroneous. 

48 In 1649 Judith Hulton, widow (of 
Thomas, the heir above-named), was 
plaintiff, and William Hulton (younger 
brother of George, father of Thomas) and 
Elizabeth his wife were deforciants of the 
manors of Farnworth and Rumworth, and 
houses, mill, lands, and common rights 
there and in Lever ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 146, m. 76. In 1658 Richard 
Bradshaw was plaintiff and Judith Hulton 
and George Hulton (probably the younger 
brother of Thomas) deforciants of the 
manors, &c. ; ibid. bdle. 163, m. 67. A 
year later the same Richard Bradshaw 
was plaintiff and William Hulton and 
Elizabeth his wife deforciants of the 
manors ; ibid. bdle. 164, m. 52. 

William son of George Hulton of 
Farnworth became minister of Ringley 
Chapel ; Barton, Farnivortb, 156. 

44 Farnworth and Rumworth appear 
among the manors of William Hulton 
of Over Hulton in 1738 ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 321, m. 3. 

In 1787 it was recorded that 'William 
Hulton, esquire, of Hulton Park, claims 
the lordship of the waste of this town- 
ship ; hath frequently exercised the right 
of driving the commoners and hath gotten 
coal under Halshaw moor ; but he holds 
no court, nor is there any tradition of a 
court having ever been held ; and, except 
the instances I have given, and a few ap- 
plications to him for liberty of making 
brick upon the waste, I can find no traces 
of any manorial title ; ' Doming Ras- 
botham in Barton's FarnwortA, 1 1. 

43 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 68. During last century 
Darley was a seat of Benjamin Rawson 
of Nidd Hall, Yorkshire, and his daughter 
Elizabeth. 

46 Assize R. 404, m. 6 ; Adam the 
Chief gave J mark for licence to agree. 

4 " Final Cone, i, 1 1 6 ; Thomas Grelley 
had claimed 31. from Adam de Farnworth 
for Gilbert's default. Gilbert promised 
to acquit him. The case proves that the 
Farnworths* land was held under Barton. 

48 Lever Chartul. no. 34, 35 ; Adam's 
mother Emma was a daughter of Leising 
de Lever, and she had had the oxgang and 
a half from her father on her marriage 



with Siward de Middleton. From a char- 
ter quoted below (Ellesmere D. no. 85) it 
appears that Adam's father was named 
Robert de Farnworth. Adam de Farn- 
worth may therefore be identified with the 
Adam son of Robert son of Wrgem, to 
whom Adam the Chief and John de Lever 
granted land in Farnworth at a rent of 
id. ; Ellesmere D. no. 78, 79, the latter 
deed being endorsed ' service of Richard 
de Farnworth.' 

49 Richard de Farnworth in 1277 
brought an action to compel John son 
of Gilbert de Barton to adhere to the 
above-cited fine respecting acquittance 
of the service demanded by Thomas Grel- 
ley ; De Banco R. 21, m. 10 ; R. 27, m. 
87 d. ; R. 29, m. 10. In 1295 Richard 
son of Adam de Farnworth granted to 
Adam de Lever land which he had re- 
ceived from Roger son of Meredith de 
Hulton ; Lever Chartul. no. 57. This 
Roger son of Meredith de Hulton was 
also called Roger son of Meredith or 
Marmaduke de Hulton, and was engaged 
in suits with the Levers in 1301 onwards 
concerning lands in Farnworth ; Assize R. 
1321, m. 4, 11, 13 ; 418, m. II d. 

12. 

50 In 1283 Adam de Lever granted to 
Roger son of Adam de Farnworth the 
moiety of three parts of 1 2 acres, approved 
by Henry de Blindsill by the high road 
through Walkden to Manchester, and re- 
leased all claim to certain homages and 
services from lands which Adam de Farn- 
worth had purchased from John de Lever, 
a rent of i %d. being due ; Lever Chartul. 
no. 48. This Roger is no doubt the Roger 
de Farnworth, clerk, who in 1278 was 
suing Adam de Lever for common of pas- 
ture in Farnworth; Assize R. 1238, m. 
33d. Some grants by Roger are pre- 
served : To Adam de Lever he gave a 
moiety of the wood inclosed adjoining 
Kearsley ; and to Richard de Redford an 
approvement of the waste ; Lever Chartul. 
no. 28, 38. 

61 In 1298 Roger son of Meredith de 
Hulton gave to Richard (? Robert) son of 
Richard de Farnworth land which had 
been formerly held by Henry son of 
Robert de Hulton ; ibid. no. 71. 

52 In 1292 Adam son of Roger de 
Farnworth gave a mark for licence to 
agree with Roger de Farnworth respecting 
the warranty of a charter ; Assize R. 
408, m. 7. Nine or ten years later 
Adam son of Roger de Farnworth and 
John the son of Adam made claims, as 
by inheritance, for lands held by Robert 
son of Richard de Farnworth ; Assize R. 
1321, m. 4 ; 418, m. 6a, 1 1 d. 

A dispute of some interest occurred in 
1313-14, when Robertson of Richard de 
Farnworth claimed a messuage and lands 
in Farnworth and Walkden against John 
son of Adam de Farnworth and Hawise 

37 



his wife, who alleged an enfeoffment by 
Roger de Farnworth. The places named 
had been called 'towns' in the writ, but 
the jury decided that Walkden was neither 
town nor hamlet, but only a place within 
Farnworth ; Assize R. 424, m. 3. 

The family contentions appear to have 
been settled in 1328 by Robert son of 
Richard de Farnworth releasing to John 
son of Adam the lands in Hulton and 
Farnworth formerly held by Roger de 
Farnworth, Robert's uncle ; Ellesmere D. 
no. 80. 

John de Farnworth, whose wife was 
named Mabel (no. 62), had a son Henry, 
living in 1373 when Adam son of John 
de Lever granted an inspeximus of a 
charter granted by his ancestor John de 
Lever to Adam son of Robert de Farn- 
worth, the lands having come into Henry's 
possession ; ibid. no. 85, and see no. 79. 
The witnesses' names prove that this 
Adam de Farnworth must be the Adam 
son of Emma already named. In 1366 
Henry de Farnworth had granted lands 
to Richard de Farnworth (probably his 
son, though not so described), with re- 
mainders to Richard son of Agnes 
daughter of Henry Atkinson de Heaton, 
and to Richard son of Mabel daughter 
of Ellis de Ridley ; to this deed Henry 
affixed his own seal and that of the said 
Richard de Farnworth ; no. 84. In 1393 
Henry de Farnworth of Worthington and 
Joan his wife were re-enfeoffed of lands in 
Hulton and Farnworth, with remainders 
to Henry's children, Richard, Avice, and 
Joan ; no. 87. Henry was dead in 1394 ; 
no. 2. 

A William Tasker had had a bond from 
Henry de Farnworth in 1376, and received 
one from Henry's son Richard in 1394, 
while in 1397 he and his wife Emma had 
a grant of Mabotsfield in Farnworth ; 
ibid. no. 86, 88, 89, 25. In 1426 Richard 
son and heir of William Tasker sold to 
Sir Geoffrey Massey of Tatton all his 
right in the lands of Richard de Farn- 
worth ; no. 92. 

Richard de Farnworth in 1405 gave to 
trustees his lands in Farnworth and Hul- 
ton ; his father's widow Joan was still 
living ; ibid. no. 90. Richard left a son 
Richard, who married Alice, daughter of 
Thomas Roper (no. 69), and two daughters 
Alice and Margery. Geoffrey son of 
the younger Richard in 1454 granted to 
feoffees his lands in Farnworth and Hul- 
ton, gave to Sir Geoffrey Massey Tasker's 
Place in Farnworth, formerly the property 
of his grandfather Richard, and also 
granted to Sir Geoffrey the marriage of 
Hugh Farnworth, his son and heir ap- 
parent ; ibid. no. 93-5. In 1459 and 
1466 various arrangements respecting 
Tasker's Place were made among the 
Masseys ; no. 97-100. An arbitration in 
1474 between Lawrence Farnworth and 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Farnworth, 53 who, in conjunction with his mother, 
sold it to Dame Joan Stanley, the heiress of Worsley, 54 
and it has since remained part of the Worsley estate, 
now owned by the Earl of Ellesmere. 

Some of the Lever estate in Farnworth was granted 
to the Byroms on the marriage of John Byrom with 
Margaret daughter of William Lever in 1437." Part 
was sold to Adam Crompton in 15 84." 

The Hospitallers had lands in Farnworth before 
1292." It was held under them by the Worsleys of 
Booths, 58 who, however, did not long retain it. After 
the suppression of the order their Farnworth estate 
became the property of the Earls of Derby, under 
whom the Rishton family held it, having, it is said, 
purchased from the Worsleys in I573- 59 The 
mansion-house, known as Birch House, has passed 
through many hands. In the latter half of the 
1 8th century it was the property and residence of 



Doming Rasbotham, a man of literary tastes, who- 
made collections for the history of Lancashire ; he 
died in 1791, and there is a mural tablet to com- 
memarate him in Deane Church. 60 

George Hulton and Henry Schoolcroft were free- 
holders in 1 6oo. 61 Among earlier landowners appear 
the names of Lynalx 62 and Dutton. 63 

The land-tax returns of 1789 show that the town- 
ship was divided among a great number of proprietors. 
Of these the Duke of Bridgewater contributed the 
largest individual share of the tax about a twelfth. 64 

The commons were inclosed in I798. 65 

There are four churches in the township in con- 
nexion with the Established religion ; of these All 
Saints', Moses Gate, opened in 1881, is a chapel 
of ease to St. John's, Halshaw Moor. 66 St. James's,. 
New Bury, was built in 1862-5 5 the patronage is 
vested in trustees. 67 St. Peter's, consecrated in 1886,. 



Alice daughter of Geoffrey Farnworth 
and wife of Nicholas Ashton, resulted in 
the latter's favour ; it appeared that Geof- 
frey's lands had been tailed to the heirs 
general ; Ellesmere D. no. 101. In 1485 
Thomas Ashton, son and heir of Sir John 
Ashton, as his father's executor, granted a 
discharge of all claims on the Farnworth 
estate, having received 20 from Alice, 
widow of Robert Brown, Margery, widow 
of Robert Mitchell, Peter Bradshaw, and 
Ralph Brown ; no. 103. 

Alice Ashton cannot long have survived, 
for in 1478 another arbitration was ar- 
ranged in order to determine the heirship 
of the lands of Richard Farnworth, father 
of Geoffrey, lying in Deane parish ; his 
issue had all died out, and therefore his 
heirs were his sisters, then still living 
Alice Farnworth and Margery Mitchell, 
wife of Robert Mitchell, sometime of 
Nantwich ; they were the lawful daughters 
of Dicon de Farnworth by Janet daughter 
of Dicon del Ford of Swinley in Wigan ; 
ibid. no. 28. 

58 Nicholas Mitchell was the son of 
Margery above mentioned ; he seems to 
have adopted his mother's maiden name on 
succeeding to the Farnworth inheritance. 

M There are a large number of deeds 
among the Ellesmere collection relating 
to the transfer of the Farnworth lands in 
Farnworth and Hulton. In 1480 Robert 
Mitchell and Margery his wife and Robert 
Browne and Alice his wife released to 
Nicholas the son and heir of Margery 
the inheritance of the said Margery and 
Alice ; Nicholas had married Margery 
daughter of James Hulme of Blackrod ; 
no. 1 02. In 1498 Margery Mitchell alias 
Farnworth and her son Nicholas granted 
to feoffees all their lands in Hulton, 
Kearsley, Farnworth, and Barton, and the 
feoffees transferred to Richard Baron of 
Wigan, with remainder to his brother 
Ralph ; ibid. no. 105, 1 06. In the fol- 
lowing year Margery, widow of Robert 
Mitchell, and daughter and heir of Richard 
Farnworth, released to Joan Stanley, 
widow, daughter and heir of Sir Geoffrey 
Massey, the inheritance which had been 
sold to her by Margery's son Nicholas in 
1490 ; Nicholas Mitchell confirmed the 
same; no. 111-13. Dame Joan after- 
wards (1504), as widow of Sir Edward 
Pickering, granted a lease of land in Over 
Hulton to Margery and Nicholas ; no. 114. 
x ** Lever Chartul. no. 124, 126-8, 
13.1-3. The lands, to which an addition 
was fnade in 1561, were in the possession 
of HetfT on and heir apparent of John 



\ 



Byrom at the beginning of 1582 ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdles. 23, m. 18 ; 46, 
m. 1 60. 

56 Ibid. bdle. 46, m. 46 ; Henry Byrom 
was the vendor. There is no mention of 
lands in Farnworth in his Inq. p.m. of 
1614. The Milnehouses or Milneheys 
was part of the Byrom property ; Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 227, m. 3. 

Adam Crompton at his death in 1590 
held a messuage, &c. in Farnworth and 
Middleton of John Lacy, lord of Man- 
chester, in socage, by a rent of 4^. ; James, 
his son and heir, was twenty years of age 
in 1594 ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvi, 
1 8. James Crompton died 30 Aug. 
1631 holding a messuage and land in 
Farnworth of the lord of Manchester ; 
John, his son and heir, was thirty years of 
age ; Towneley MS. C. 8, 1 3 (Chet. Lib.), 
244. 

*7 Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), 375. 

58 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. vii, 5, of 
Robert Worsley, 1533 ; a rent of izd. 
was paid. See also Kuerden, v, fol. 84. 
In 1787 a rent of is. a year was still 
paid to Bamber Gascoyne, lord of the 
manor of Much Woolton, as successor in 
title to the Hospitallers ; Barton, Farn- 
zvortb, 12. 

59 John Rishton, who died 22 Dec. 1633, 
held a messuage, garden, two orchards, 10 
acres of land, &c. in Farnworth, of the 
Earl of Derby, as of the suppressed Hos- 
pital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. 
William Rishton, his son and heir, was 
thirty-five years of age ; Towneley MS. 
C. 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 997. 

60 Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), iii, 44 ; his 
collections were used by Baines. A por- 
trait of Doming Rasbotham is given. 
His father, Peter, married Hannah, one 
of the daughters and co-heirs of John 
Doming of Birch House, by whom he ac- 
quired the estate. Doming was born in 
1730 ; in 1754 he married Sarah daugh- 
ter of James Bayley of Manchester, and 
had five children Anne, Dorothy, Peter, 
Doming, and Frances. He wrote a tragedy 
called CoJrus and various essays, and was 
also an artist. He was high sheriff in 
1769. He died 7 Nov. 1791. 

After his death Birch House was sold 
to John Bentley, whose son again sold it ; 
James Carlton and William Barton Whit- 
tarn (who died in 1888) were successively 
owners; Bolton Journ. Aug. 1885. 

61 Misc. {Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 
246,251. 

Henry Schoolcroft of Farnworth died 
in 1614 holding of the lord of Manches- 

38 



ter a messuage and lands in Farnworth, 
Kearsley, and Worsley by 6d. rent ; these 
he devised to Anne his wife on condition 
that she maintained Henry Towneley and 
Ellen his wife and their issue in food and 
clothing. Ellen was the daughter and 
heir, and of full age ; Land. Inj. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 283. 

Henry Tong of Farnworth died about 
the same time seised of messuages and 
lands held of the lord of Manchester j 
John, his brother and heir, was twenty- 
six years of age ; ibid. 

Evan Grundy died 15 Mar. 1630-1,. 
holding a messuage and lands in Farn- 
worth of the lord of Manchester ; Robert, 
his son and heir, was fifteen years of age - T 
Towneley MS. C. 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 
463. Robert Grundy died two years later, 
leaving a brother John, aged thirteen, as 
heir ; ibid. 461. 

62 In 1342 William de Lynalx received 
lands in Farnworth and Barton from 
Robert, son and heir of Robert de Walk- 
den ; Ellesmere D. no. 81. These he re- 
leased to John Maunton, chaplain (proba- 
bly as trustee), in 1380 ; Manch. Corp. D. 

68 Richard Dutton in 1569 sold lands in 
Farnworth and Worsley to Christopher 
Anderton ; five years later he sold others to 
Alan Hulton ; the former parcel appears 
to have been sold in 1592 to George Hul- 
ton, who thus acquired the Dutton lands ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdles. 31, m. 136 j 
36, m. 197 ; 54, m. 3 ; see also Ducatut 
Lane, iii, 449, 490. 

64 Land tax returns at Preston. Among- 
the other contributors were : Edward 
Whitehead, Leighs, Richard Entwisle, 
John Green, Doming Rasbotham, Richard 
Entwisle, jun., Abraham Lowton, and John 
Barnes. i 

65 Barton, Farn-wortb, 383. In the Act 
William Hulton of the Park was de- 
scribed as lord of the manor, and the 
principal landowners were the Duke of 
Bridgewater, the Earl of Derby, Lord 
Bradford, Sir John Parker Mosley, Le 
Gendre Pierce Starkie, Rev. Walter Bagot, 
Peter Rasbotham, &c. 

There is a copy of the award, with a 
plan, at the County Council offices, 
Preston. 

66 Barton, Farnivortb, 244. 

'" For the repair fund see End. Char. 
Rep. (Deane), 1903, p. 25 ; for district 
assigned, Land. Gats. II May 1866. The 
schools were built in 1839, the colliers 
of the neighbourhood making the start, and 
services were held there until the church 
was built ; Barton, op. cit. 221-7. 




LITTLK HULTON : KENVON PEEL HALL : GATEHOUSE 




LITTLE HULTON : KENVON PEEL HALL : OAK DOORS OF GATEHOUSE 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



is in the gift of the vicar of Farnworth. 68 Of St. 
Thomas's, Dixon Green, built in 1879, the Bishop 
of Manchester is patron. 69 The Church Army has a 
mission hall. 

The Wesleyan Methodists have five churches 
Wesley, in Church Street, Moses Gate, Long Cause- 
way, Plodder Lane, and New Bury. 70 The Primitive 
Methodists and Independent Methodists also each 
have one. 71 The New Connexion formerly had a 
preaching room at New Bury, but gave it up in 
1846." 

The Baptists opened a chapel in 1879 ; ra this was 
succeeded by the present church in 1907. 

The Congregationalists were the first to esta- 
blish a place of worship in Farnworth, the old 
chapel being built in 1808. Now they have three 
churches. 74 

There is a Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Chapel. 

The Catholic Apostolic church has an iron build- 
ing. 

There is also a barracks of the Salvation Army. 

The Roman Catholic church of St. Gregory the 
Great originated in 1852. After using an old ware- 
house and other buildings a small chapel was built, 
which in twenty years' time proving too small, the 
present church in Presto Street was erected, and 
opened in 1876. 

Dixon Green School was founded in 1715. 



KEARSLEY 

Kersleie, 1268 ; Keyresley, 1443 ; Kyrsley, Kerse- 
ley, xvi cent. Kersley continues in use as an alterna- 
tive spelling. 

Kearsley, formerly a part of Farnworth, has become 
a separate township. Its north-eastern boundary is 
formed by the Irwell, and the road from Manchester 
to Bolton passes north-west through the centre, having 
a length of a mile and a half within the boundaries. 
The total area of the township is 997 acres. 1 The 
surface in general slopes from the higher land on the 
south-west border to the steep banks of the Irwell. 



Lower Kearsley, by the bridge over that river, is often 
called Ringley, being considered part of Ringley in 
Pilkington. 

Kearsley proper clusters along the south-east end 
of the main road mentioned ; but Farnworth is ex- 
tending over the Kearsley borders in the north, and 
Stoneclough is a hamlet near the Irwell on the road 
to Radcliffe. Clammerclough is a district to the 
north-west of the last - named, and lies between 
Darley in Farnworth and the Irwell. Kearsley Moss 
formerly occupied the south-west quarter of the town- 
ship. The Manchester and Bolton line of the Lanca- 
shire and Yorkshire Company passes through Kearsley 
parallel to the high road, and has a station near Stone- 
clough called Kearsley. 

In 1901 the population recorded was 9,218.* 

The township is a busy industrial place. There 
are collieries, iron foundries, paper mills, power- 
loom mills, spindle works, and chemical works ; * 
bricks and tiles are made and cotton-spinning car- 
ried on. 

A local board was formed in 1865 ;* in 1894 this 
was replaced by an urban district council of twelve 
members elected by two wards, east and west. 

William Hulme's house, with seven hearths, was 
the only large one in the township in 1666, when 
the total number of hearths liable to the tax amounted 
to thirty-nine. 5 

Doming Rasbotham in 1787 wrote thus : 'Oak 
and alder trees have been found deeply embedded in 
the turf upon Kearsley moor. The timber was as 
black as ebony,' but not so well preserved as usual. 6 

There was anciently no manor of 
M4NOR KEARSLET, which was merely a part 
of Farnworth, itself a hamlet in Barton. 
The earliest deed relating to it is a grant of the whole 
by Edith de Barton to Cockersand Abbey. 7 A num- 
ber of the neighbouring families had lands and common 
rights in Kearsley, and one of the lords of Farnworth 
appears to have been specially associated with it, so 
that it will be convenient to give the descent of his 
family in this place. 

Richard son of Adam de Redford, who was living 
in 1276, is the earliest on record. 8 He was succeeded 



68 Barton, Farn-worth t 246-50. 

89 Mancb. Dioc. Dir. For district see 
Land. Gaz. 14 Sept. 1880. Barton, op. 
cit. 241-4 ; schoolroom services had been 
held from 1867. 

7 Barton, op. cit. 227, 234. Assem- 
blies for public worship began at Dixon 
Green about 1810. A chapel was built 
in Market Street in 1830, and a larger 
one in Church Street in 1860-1. A 
school chapel at Moses Gate was opened 
in 1872, and a chapel built five years 
later. 

7* Ibid. 232. A mission was begun in 
1835 and the first chapel in Queen Street 
built in 1840, succeeded by a larger in 
1860. 

7 J Nightingale, Lanes. Nonconf. iii, 143. 

78 Barton, op. cit. 409 ; services had 
begun in hired rooms and then in a 
cottage in 1873. 

74 Ibid. 162 ; the old chapel was en- 
larged in 1837, and the present Market 
Street Chapel opened in 1850, the old 
building continuing in use for class- 
rooms, &c. Schools were established at 
Dixon Green and New Bury. Albert 
Road Chapel, originating at the former 



centre in 1856, was opened in 1862 ; the 
first Francis Street Chapel in 1869, and 
the second in 1884; ibid. 182-90; 
Nightingale, op. cit. iii, 135-49, views of 
the four churches are given. There is 
also a mission-room. 

1 1,005, including 25 of inland water, 
according to the 1901 Census Report. 

Pop. Returns, 1901. 

8 Clammerclough Cotton Mill was built 
about 1828 ; Barton, Farnvuorth, 84. Ben- 
jamin Rawson's Alkali Works were esta- 
blished earlier. 

4 Lond. Gaz. 17 Oct. 1865. In Barton's 
Farnivorth, pp. 89-101, are printed extracts 
from the township books from 1809 on- 
wards. The constables and burley men 
were officials. 

5 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

6 Barton, Farn-worth t 1 6. 

7 Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
709. This charter gives a portion of her 
land in Farnworth, ' the whole of Kearsley 
with all its appurtenances' within bounds 
as follows : Up the deep lache from Irwell 
towards Stockbridge, then going down Fle- 
thithaleth to the Irwell again ; for the 
health of the soul of Edith's son John. 

39 



Kearsley is not named in the Cockersand 
Rentals, so that the grant may have been 
revoked or exchanged. 

8 Assize R. 1238, m. 34. 

In 1294 Richard son of Adam de 
Redford released to Adam son of John 
de Lever all his claim to lands held by 
the latter in Farnworth and Great Lever ; 
Towneley's LeverChartul.(Add.MS.3 2103 
no. 1-260), no. 53. The same Richard 
gave to Adam de Lever, for the service 
of an arrow, land which Henry de Blinds- 
hill had approved beyond Walkden ; no. 27. 
To his brother Henry he granted all the 
land of Hassumbottom, the Hokensnape 
and Ritherake being among the boun- 
dary marks, no. 40. To Richard son of 
John de Hulton he granted 6 acres on 
the north side of Walkden Bank, at a 
rent of a pair of white gloves, Richard 
de Hulton at the same time allowing 
certain approvements of the waste of 
Farnworth ; no. 43. The elder Richard 
was still living in 1297 when, as Richard 
de Redford the elder, he released to Robert 
son of Jordan (de Hulton), rector of War- 
riugton, all his right in land in Barton 
and Farnworth ; no. 69. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



regularly by his descendants, Richard, 9 John, 10 and 
another Richard. The last-named, who married 
Alice daughter of Robert de Worsley, 11 left two 
daughters as co-heirs Ellen, who married Adam son 
of Henry de Prestall, 1 * and Alice, who married a 
Standish, and left a daughter and heir Joan, wife of 
Richard Seddon." 



The Prestalls' share descended to a son Richard u 
and granddaughters Joan and Isabel. Joan Prestall 
was three times married. Her first marriage, in 
infancy, was not ratified ; her second husband was 
John Leigh, by whom she had a son Thomas, 15 whose 
son Richard sold the inheritance to Ralph Assheton of 
Great Lever ; 16 her third husband was Edmund Bolton,. 



Richard de Redford the younger at- 
tested a charter in 1295 ; Towneley'g 
Lever ChartuL (Add. MS. 32102, no. 
1-260), no. 60 ; and another in 
1297 as Richard son of Richard de Red- 
ford ; no. 69. In the year before he 
had made an agreement with Adam de 
Lever respecting the mediety of three 
parts of approvements in Hope Hey and 
opposite Blindeshill and Whitecroftjno.59. 
From Henry de Worsley he procured a 
confirmation of his common of pasture 
within bounds beginning at Hope Lache, 
at the Farnworth end of it, then by the 
Hope Hey to Wicheshaw Lydiate in Wich- 
eves in Worsley (Little Hulton), by the 
highway to Longshaw, and straight to the 
Edge in Lepar Lache, by Black Lache to 
Walden Brook, and up the brook to the 
Hope and the starting-point ; no. 67. He 
made an exchange with Henry son of 
John de Hulton in 1 299 ; no. 72. Richard 
de Redford was one of the lords of Farn- 
worth in 1 320; Mamcestre (Chet. Soc.),289. 

10 John de Redford was a witness in 
13165 Lever ChartuL no. 8 I. To John son 
of Henry de Hulton he in 1321 released all 
his right in the mill and land called Peck 
in the hamlet of Farnworth and in all 
land of the mill within the lanes by which 
the king's highway went on to Manches- 
ter, John de Hulton allowing him to grind 
freely at the mill ; no. 86. From Adam 
son of Henry de Blindishill, he in 1326 
acquired the land called Ashinbottom (no 
doubt the Hassumbottom of a previous 
charter) ; no. 88. In 1341 he agreed to 
an exchange of lands in the Newfield, 
the Marsh, and Black Bottom with John 
de Hulton ; no. 93. 

11 Richard son of John de Redford in 
1350 received from his feoffee all his lands 
in Farnworth, with remainders to his heirs 
by Alice ; ibid. no. 94. At the same time 
a rent-charge of 1 31. 4^. out of the Farn- 
worth lands was settled on Alice daughter 
of Robert de Worsley ; no. 95. 

18 The Prestall family occur in the 
1 3th century ; Adam son of Eve de 
1 Presthall ' being named in 1278 and 
1392; Assize R. 1238, m. 34; 418, 
m. 3 d. The same Adam was witness to 
a Farnworth charter; LeverChartul. no. 24; 
in 1299 he had a release of actions from 
William son of Richard the Chief ; no. 70. 
Probably he is the same as Adam son of 
Henry de Prestall who received from the 
first Richard de Redford a grant of a 
mediety of three parts of Farnworth, the 
boundaries following Rodenden to the 
Irwell, by this stream to Greenlache, up 
the lache to the highway, and so back to 
the starting-point ; no. 21. This land he 
gave to Adam de Lever ; the rent of ftd. 
was due to the chief lords ; no, 22. 

Early in 1330 Henry de Prestall, per- 
haps the son or grandson of Adam, received 
from Adam de Lever the mediety of three 
parts of Prestall Banks, a rent of -j\d. 
being payable ; ibid. no. 90. Richard de 
Farnworth, as trustee, in 1350 restored to 
Henry de Prestall all his lands in the 
hamlet of Farnworth in the vill of Barton, 
with remainder, after his death, to Agnes 
daughter of Robert de Walkden, for her 



life, and then to Agnes' children Adam, 
Philippa, and Maud, and their heirs, in 
succession, and in default to the right 
heirs of Henry de Prestall ; Lord Elles- 
mere's D. no. 82. In 1364 Henry de 
Prestall gave to Adam son of Agnes, 
daughter of Robert de Walkden, all his 
lands in Farnworth, with similar remaind- 
ers ; ibid. no. 83. From its terms this grant 
was probably made on Adam's marriage. 

An indenture of 1394 has been pre- 
served, made between Ellen and Alice, 
daughters and co-heirs of Richard de Red- 
ford, concerning land called Herefield in 
Kearsley; from this agreement for par- 
tition it appears that Ellen was then the 
widow of (Adam) de Prestall and Alice 
the widow of Jordan de Tetlow ; Lever 
Chartul. no. 260. 

18 The pedigrees of the Redford heirs 
were compiled in 1598 by Ralph Assheton 
of Great Lever ; but as to the Seddon 
portion he is careful to state : ' I had it 
but by the report of Thomas Marcroft, 
without the sight of his evidence,' though 
for the other portion * I set it down by 
the sight of my own evidence ' ; ibid. fol. 
7<D/>. From the deed last quoted it is 
plain that Alice married a second time. 

In 1473 Adam Prestall held of the 
lord of Manchester his capital messuage 
with the appurtenances, value 10 a year, 
by a rent of 6J. ; and Richard Seddon 
held a message, &c., value 5 marks, also 
by a rent of 6d. ; Mamecestre, 478. 

14 The paternity of Richard is not stated 
in the deeds preserved. 

Among the De Trafford deeds are some 
relating to Farnworth. The land to which 
they refer had belonged to Robert son of 
Robert de Walkden in 13805 he granted 
it to Robert de Walkden, bastard son of 
Cecily de Hough, who, with his brother 
John, sold it to Richard de Prestall in the 
beginning of the reign of Henry VI 5 no. 
299-308. Adam de Prestall was a witness 
in 1380 5 no. 300. Richard' smother was 
named Ellen, his wife was Elizabeth, and 
his son and heir Adam was in 1425 es- 
poused to Margaret, daughter of Otes de 
Holland 5 no. 308, 309. 

In 1419 Richard Prestall leased to 
Hugh son of Jack Hulton land then 
occupied by Hugh in Farnworth, with re- 
mainder to Hugh's brother Roger ; Ellcs- 
mere D. no. 91. In 1426 William and 
Roger Lever were bound to Richard 
Prestall, and he to them, in 100 to 
abide an arbitration as to certain disputes ; 
Lever Chartul. no. 116. In 1445 Richard 
Prestall complained that Giles Lever 
of Barton and a number of others had 
broken into his close and destroyed his corn 
and grass ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 7, m. 5 b. 
A little later John Lever made a similar 
complaint, Richard Prestall, William 
Prestall, and Richard, William's son, 
being among the accused ; ibid. R. 8, 
m. 3. 

Another arbitration took place in 1478, 
Alice widow of Richard Prestall and Sir 
Geoffrey Massey being on one side, and 
Sir Ralph Assheton, Ralph his son, and 
others named on the other side ; the 
latter had to pay to the former a certain 

40 



sum of money ' in the chapel of St. James- 
the Apostle in the parish church of Man- 
chester between the hour of ix of the clock 
afore noon and the third hour after noon ' 5. 
Ellesmere D. no. 226. 

15 Lever Chartul. no. 239-59,^6 record 
of a long series of disputes concerning this, 
portion of the Prestall inheritance, arising 
from the child marriage of Joan with 
Adam Prestall. It may be observed that 
the Leighs are described as of Highfield ' 
in Farnworth, for the Redford properties 
were not confined to Kearsley. 

In 1 510 John Ashley of Ashley in 
Cheshire agreed with Edward Bolton and 
Joan his wife, late wife of John Leigh of 
Highfield, one of the daughters and heirs 
of Richard Prestall, concerning the mar- 
riage of Thomas Leigh, son and heir of 
John and Joan, with Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Ashley 5 no. 229. Alice, the 
mother of Joan, and Isabel her sister, 
wife of Henry Southworth, are mentioned. 

In 1527 Thomas Leigh of Prestall and 
James son of Edmund Bolton of Highfield, 
referred their disputes to arbitration, which 
resulted in favour of the former 5 no. 240. 
An exchange was made. 

About 1555 the contention as to the 
legitimacy of the Leighs was brought to a 
trial. James Bolton alleged that Joan 
Prestall married (i) Adam Prestall, who 
died without issue, and (2) Edmund Bolton, 
father of the petitioner (who was only 
twelve years old at his mother's death 
and under age at his father's) ; the Leigh 
marriage was adulterous; no. 245. Thomas 
Leigh, one of the six children of John and 
Joan Leigh, made reply ; he had been in 
possession for twenty-six years, viz. from 
the death of Edmund Bolton ; no. 246. 
About 1557 Cuthbert, Bishop of Chester, 
certified that the disputed marriage was 
lawful, no. 254 ; but on the accession of 
Elizabeth a new petition was made, and 
in 1 56 1 the queen ordered the new Bishop 
of Chester to make inquiry as to the dis- 
puted marriage 5 no. 247. This was favour- 
able to its legality, and in 1562 an award 
was made between James Bolton and 
George, his son and heir apparent, on the 
one side, and Thomas Leigh and Richard, 
his son and heir apparent, on the other. 
The latter were adjudged in the right, but 
directed to make a lease of certain lands 
at a rent of 6s. %d. to James Bolton ; no. 
248-52. 

In 1575 Thomas Leigh of Highfield 
and Richard his son, with Richard's wife 
Katharine, sold Prestall to James Bolton ; 
no. 253. This seems to have been followed 
by a fine in 1578, Thomas Leigh being 
dead ; PaL of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 40, 
m. 38. 

16 The fact of sale is stated in the pedi- 
gree compiled by Ralph Assheton, but the 
deeds are not transcribed. In the in- 
quisition the lands in Kearsley are grouped 
with those in Farnworth ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 287. A 
'manor* of Kearsley is mentioned in 1628; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 1 14, no. 8. 

The Leigh family continued to hold 
property in Farnworth down to the end of 
the 1 8th century; Barton, Farnworth, 159. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



DEANE 



whose great-grandson, Robert Bolton, was living 
in 1598, and had Prestall. 17 Isabel, the other 
Prestall co-heir, married Henry Southworth, but 
had no children, and her share was sold to the 
Traffords. 18 

The Seddons' share descended to Giles, 19 Ralph, 
and Thomas Seddon, son, grandson, and great-grand- 
son respectively of Joan and Richard. Thomas Seddon, 
who died during his father's lifetime, left two daughters 
as co-heirs. Elizabeth, the elder, married Thomas 
Marcroft, 20 and had a son Robert ; Cecily, the younger, 
married Peter Seddon, and left a son Ralph, described 
as of Pilkington.' J1 

Of all these the Boltons and Marcrofts are specially 
associated with Kearsley. There does not appear to 
be any record of their history. Robert Marcroft sold 
his lands to Richard Ashton, who in 1651 sold to the 
Starkies of Huntroyde ; Kearsley Hall is still in the 
possession of this family." In 1836 Ellis Fletcher of 
Clifton owned the waste. 23 The only ' manor * of 
Kearsley claimed in recent times is that of the 
Hultons of Over Hulton, apparently as part of the 



Farnworth estate acquired from the Hultons of 
Farn worth. 84 

Kearsley occurs as a surname. 25 

In 1790 the principal landowners wereLe Gendre 
Starkie, Sir John Mosley, and Jonathan Doming. 26 

Kearsley Hall was in the I jih century the residence 
of William Hulme, the founder of the Hulmeian 
exhibitions at Brasenose College, Oxford." 

In connexion with the Established Church, St. 
John's, Halshaw Moor, on the boundary of Farn- 
worth, was built in 1826, and had a district assigned 
to it in i829. 28 The incumbent, with the designa- 
tion of vicar of Farnworth, is appointed by Hulme's 
trustees. St. Stephen's, Kearsley Moor, was built in 
1871 ; the vicar of Farnworth is patron. 19 

The Wesleyan and Primitive Methodists each have 
chapels. 10 

The Congregational Church, built in 1901, replaces 
a school-chapel. A Sunday school had been held as 
early as 1845." 

The Swedenborgians have a place of worship known 
as New Jerusalem. 31 



*' See previous note. Robert Bolton of 
Kearsley frequently served on juries in 
the time of James I. He died 30 Aug. 
1638, holding a house and lands in Kears- 
ley, Farnworth, and Worsley of the lord 
of Manchester ; Robert his son and heir 
was twenty-eight years of age ; Towneley 
MS. C. 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 65. 

18 This statement is taken from the 
pedigree compiled by Ralph Assheton. Sir 
Edmund Trafford and Edmund his son 
and heir in 1582 joined in selling twenty 
messuages, a water-mill, &c., in Prestall, 
Kearsley, and Farnworth to Nicholas 
Mosley ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
44, no. 39. These lands subsequently 
appear in the Mosley inquisitions ; Lanes. 
Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 
66. 

19 In 1494 Joan widow of John Hulton 
of Farnworth granted to Giles Seddon of 
Kearsley all the lands which Oliver Seddon 
had held of her in Kearsley and Rudaden; 
Lever Chartul. no. 197 ; and in 1 506 Ralph 
Assheton the younger likewise demised to 
Giles Seddon of Kearsley, Katherine his 
wife, and John, Adam, and Arthur Seddon 
their sons, lands tenanted by Oliver Sed- 
don ; no. 198. 

In 1553 Thomas Marcroft and Eliza- 
beth his wife and Peter Seddon and Cecily 
his wife sought lands in Kearsley and 
Farnworth from Giles and William Seddon; 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 279. 

20 Richard Leigh of Highfield and 
Thomas Marcroft of Kearsley were 
among the proprietors of Farnworth in 
1598 ; Lever Chartul. no. 204. Thomas 



Marcroft of Kearsley was living in 1 600 ; 
Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 
249. 

21 A division of a tenement in Kearsley 
held in common by Henry, Earl of Derby, 
Ralph Assheton of Great Lever, and Ralph 
Seddon of Pilkington, was made in 1589. 
The tenement had been Oliver Seddon's, 
and the following rents were due from it : 
To the Earl of Derby, ^^d. ; to Ralph 
Assheton, lot. and four hens; and to Ralph 
Seddon, 6;., two hens, and two days' 
' shearing ' (reaping). The lands held by 
Thomas Marcroft in right of his wife 
Elizabeth are mentioned ; Lever Chartul. 
no. 205. 

A 'manor' of Kearsley is mentioned 
among the Earl of Derby's possessions in 
163 1 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 1 18, 
no. i. 

Peter Seddon of Prestolee in Prestwich, 
and Ralph Smith of Unsworth, trustees of 
Hugh Parr of Kearsley, and John Parr, 
his only son and heir apparent, settled 
lands in Kearsley and a house in Man- 
chester in 1654 ; Hulme D. in. 

For the Seddons of Outwood and Kears- 
ley see Nathan WalivortKs Correspondence 
(Chet. Soc.). 

23 Information of Mr. Daniel Howsin 
of Padiham. 

28 Baines, Lana. iii, 42. 

34 Kearsley was usually named among 
the Hulton manors ; e.g. Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 321, m. 3. 

25 Richard de Redford, Adam de Lever, 
and Richard the Chief granted to John 
son of Adam de Kearsley 3 acres of the 



waste in Backbottom, with housebote, hey- 
bote, and other liberties ; Lever Chartul. 
no. 30. The compiler has added a note 
that the land was (in 1607) supposed to 
be the Little Keys, part held by Thomas 
Marcroft and part by Oliver Seddon. 

See Lanes, and Ches. Hist, and Gen. 
Notes, i, 249. 

28 Land tax returns at Preston. 

a ? Barton, Farnivortb, 143. See the 
account of Reddish. 

88 Loud. Gaz. 13 Jan. 1829. It 
was built under the 'Million Act,' by 
which several Lancashire districts bene- 
fited. For an account of the origin and 
progress of this church see Barton, 
Porn-worth, 191-216. The foundation 
stone was laid in 1824; the church was 
opened in 1826, and greatly enlarged in 
1871. 

29 For district, Lond. Gas. 6 Feb. 1872. 
The foundation stone was laid in 1870, and 
the church was consecrated in July 1871 ; 
Barton, op. cit. 236-40. 

80 Ibid. 231, 365. The Wesleyans be- 
gan to hold Sunday services in 1835 ; the 
chapel was built in 1870. Meetings had 
begun even earlier in Lower Kearsley ; 
schools were built in 1836 and a chapel 
in 1865. 

81 B. Nightingale, Lanes. Nonconf. iii, 
142. 

82 Barton, op. cit. 372-5 ; services 
were begun in 1827, and a chapel erected 
in 1836; the present church was dedi- 
cated in 1878. The Rev. Woodville 
Woodman, pastor from 1837 to 1872, 
was a man of some note. 



! 



4 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 
FLIXTON 

FLIXTON URMSTON 



The parish of Flixton, 1 a compact area of three 
plough-lands ancient assessment lying in the tongue 
between the Irwell and Mersey, appears to have been 
cut off from Barton ; the boundary between them is 
a straight line running east and west, while the 
eastern boundary is merely a part of that between 
Barton and Stretford, also a straight line running 
south from the boundary of Whittleswick to the 
Mersey. Similarly the division between the com- 
ponent townships of Flixton is a straight line running 
southwards. The area is 2,581 acres, and the popu- 
lation in 1901 was 10,250. The geological forma- 
tion consists of the Upper Mottled Sandstone (Bunter 
series) of the New Red Sandstone. 

From its position the parish has had a quiet and 
uneventful history. It lies out of touch with the 
old main roads from Manchester to Warrington and 
to Chester, and only one of its local gentry has taken 
any prominent part in the movements of the day, 
namely Peter Egerton of Shaw, an active partisan 
of the Parliament during the Civil War. 

To the ancient 'fifteenth' Flixton paid 14*. 6d. 
and Urmston 8/. 6</., the hundred in all paying 
41 I4_f. \d? For the county lay of 1624 Flixton 
was assessed at 3 js. ^\d. when the hundred paid 
jioo, the townships of Flixton and Urmston con- 
tributing in the proportions of seven and four. 8 

The parishioners of Flixton making the Protes- 
tation in 1641 numbered 171, being headed by the 
two squires and the curate. 4 

To the hearth tax of 1666 eighty-nine hearths 
were found liable in Flixton, where the only house 
with more than four hearths was that of Leonard 
Egerton, with eleven ; and sixty hearths in Urmston, 
where the chief houses were those of Roger Rogers 
and Richard Starkie, with nine and six hearths 
respectively. 4 

There are at present 863 acres of arable land in 
the parish, 8 1 3 devoted to permanent grass, and 3 to 
woods and plantations. 

The church of ST. MICHAEL stands 
CHURCH at the east end of the village on high 
ground about 250 yds. north of the 
River Mersey with a very extensive view from the 
churchyard southward over Carrington Moss. It 
consists of chancel 2 7 ft. by 1 7 ft., with north vestry 
and organ chamber, nave 36ft. 6 in. by 17 ft. 6 in. 
with north and south aisles, and west tower 1 3 ft. 
square. These measurements are all internal. The 
south aisle extends the whole length of the nave and 
chancel, and is 6 1 ft. 4 in. long by 1 2 ft. 3 in. wide. 
The north aisle is the same width and 37ft. loin, 
in length. Though the foundation is a very ancient 
one, and a church is known to have existed here 
since the 1 2th century, the present structure retains 



so little ancient work that little or nothing can be 
said of the development of the plan. Two fragments 
of what appear to be 12th-century stones with 
lozenge ornament are built into the east wall on the 
outside, but apart from these the oldest work in the 
building is contained in the chancel, which, in some- 
thing of its present form, dates from the i 5th century. 
It has been so much rebuilt, however, that little or 
nothing of the original work remains except in the 
reconstructed walling, the lower part of which appears 
to be old or entirely rebuilt of ancient masonry. 

The 15th-century church apparently occupied 
pretty much the same area as at present, with the 
exception of the north vestry, and stood in all prob- 
ability till the 1 8th century. In 1731 the parish 
rebuilt the tower 6 in the style of the day, and in 
1756 the nave and aisles. The chancel had to be 
partly rebuilt in 1815, when one of the piers gave 
way and the wall fell in. 7 In 1851 the north-east 
vestry was built ; and in 1863, the tower, of which 
there had been a partial restoration in 1824, was 
declared unsafe, and the ringing of the bells was 
stopped. A general restoration took place in 1877, 
when the galleries which had been erected in the 
1 8th century were removed, the ceiling opened out, 
new seats put in, and two doors, one at the west end 
of the north aisle and the other at the east end of the 
south aisle, were built up. In 1888 the tower was 
entirely rebuilt and the ringing of the bells resumed. 
The church is built of red sandstone, the roofs of the 
chancel, nave, and aisles being covered with stone 
slates, and that of the vestry with green slates. 

The chancel of two bays is open to the nave without 
structural division and has an east window of late 
15th-century style, of three cinquefoiled lights under a 
four-centred head in modern stonework. Its east 
wall stands slightly in front of those of the vestry 
and south aisle, and has diagonal buttresses at the 
angles. On the north are the vestry and organ 
chamber, and on the south an aisle. Before the 
building of the vestry the north wall was solid, with 
an external buttress, 8 but has now an arcade of two 
low arches of two chamfered orders springing from 
an octagonal shaft and responds with moulded capitals. 
The west respond is built against a 3 ft. length of 
old walling which marks the extent of the north 
aisle. The vestry and organ chamber are built in 
15th-century style, and are separated from the aisle 
by an arch constructed when the east wall of the 
aisle was taken down. On the south side the chancel 
has an arcade of two pointed arches of two chamfered 
orders, the crowns of which come immediately under 
the wall plate. They spring from octagonal shafts 
21 in. in diameter with moulded capitals and cham- 
fered bases, and are probably a modern copy of the 



1 For map of this parish, see Eccles. 

9 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 
1 8. 

8 Ibid. 15, 22. 

4 Richard Lawson, Hist, of Flixton 
(1898), 148, 149. This work, containing 



a large amount of information regarding 
the parish, has been freely drawn upon 
in the present account. A similar work, 
published in the same year by David 
Herbert Langton, has also been used. 
5 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9. 

4? 



6 Inscription on tower ' This steeple 
was rebuilt at ye sole charge of ye Parish 
Anno Domini 1731.' 

7 Baines, Lanes. (1836), iii, 164. 

8 See drawing of building in 1731, in 
Lawson, Hist, of Flixton, 5. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



original 15th-century arcade, erected after the accident 
of 1815. The height of the pillars to the top of the 
capitals is 7 ft. 9 in., but on the north side the pier to 
the new arcade is only 5 ft. 3 in., and the arch above 
of corresponding height, leaving a wide extent of wall 
space above, which has lately been decorated with a 
frieze of painted figures. This difference in height 
is accounted for by the roof of the vestry being con- 
siderably lower than the roofs of the chancel or aisle. 
The nave arcade of the I 5 th-century church was a 
continuation westward of that on the south side of 
the chancel, but in the 1 8th century it was swept 
away and the present classic nave and aisles erected 
between the newly-built tower and the older chancel. 
The nave has three semicircular arches on each side, 
springing from circular stuccoed columns of the Tus- 
can order standing on pedestals 3 ft. high. There 
are three columns on the north side and two on the 
south, with a half column against the upper part of 
the octagonal stone pier at the east end. The junc- 
tion of the 18th-century work with that of the 
chancel is clumsily effected, and 
indicates the evident intention 
to carry the rebuilding east- 
ward. The spacing of the bays 
on the north and south is un- 
equal, the columns not coming 
opposite each other, and on the 
north the beginning of a fourth 
semicircular arch butts against 
the wall at the west end of 
the chancel. The north aisle 
extends slightly further west- 
ward than the south, and is 
lighted by three high round- 
headed windows on the north 
side and one at the west, with 
moulded sills, architraves, im- 
posts, and keystones. The 
south aisle is lighted along its 
side by four similar windows 
and one at each end. In the 
south-west corner is a semi- 
circular-headed doorway with 
pilasters and pediment, and a 
smaller round-headed window 
over. The nave and aisles 
have open timbered roofs of plain king-post type. 

The tower, as previously stated, is a modern re- 
building of the 18th-century one, and has a round 
arch towards the nave. It is of three stages marked 
i by string-courses, with a vice in its south-west corner 
entered from the outside, and is a mixture of classic 
and 18th-century Gothic detail of no particular archi- 
tectural interest, but a fair example of its kind. The 
angles, like those of the aisles, have drafted quoins, 
and at the corners of the embattled parapet are urn 
ornaments. The lower stage has a round-headed 
west doorway with a three-light debased Gothic 
window breaking the string-course above, and over it 



FLIXTON 

the inscription recording the rebuilding of the tower 
in I73 1 - The upper stage on each side has a round- 
headed three-light window with stone louvres and 
label over. The window head has a keystone round 
which the cornice above breaks, and which is carried 
up as an intermediate pilaster in the middle of the 
parapet surmounted by an urn. In the second stage 
on the north side is an inscription to the effect that 
the tower was rebuilt in 1888 in commemoration of 
Queen Victoria's Jubilee. There is a clock presented 
in 1889 in the second stage on the north and east 
sides. 

There is a 17th-century oak chest in the vestry, 
but generally speaking all the fittings of the church 
are modern, mostly dating from 1877 or ^ ater - The 
font is under the tower, and an oak screen separating 
the baptistery from the nave was erected in 1903. 

At the west end of the south aisle was formerly a 
brass to the memory of Richard Radcliffe of Newcroft 
(died 1602), but during a recent decoration of the 
church it has been removed to the vestry. It bears 




FLIXTON CHURCH : SOUTH-EAST VIEW 

the figures of Radcliffe in armour and his two wives, 
kneeling at each side of a book desk, with the three 
sons of the first wife, and the two sons, three daugh- 
ters, and three infants (swaddled) of the second. 
The first wife Bridget (Caryll) widow of W. Molyneux, 
kneels with her three sons opposite to Radcliffe, while 
the second wife and her children kneel behind him. 
Over the desk is a shield with the arms of Radcliffe 
of Ordsall with helm, crest, and mantling, and on 
each side a shield with the arms of Radcliffe impaling 
those of his wives. 8a 

There is no ancient stained glass. 

Until 1 806 there were four bells, of which one r 



83 The inscription is as follows : ' Here 
lyeth y e bodie of Richard Radclyff Esquire 
of Newcroft, yongest sonne to S r William 
Radclyff of Ordsall, whoe in his life was 
Captaine over CC. foote at y* siege of 
Leeghte, & at y* rebellion in y north, hee 
had first to wife Brigett y* daught : of 
Thomas Carell of Warnam in y e County 



of Sussex y 8 widowe of W. Mollynex 
sonne & heyre of S r Richard Mollinex 
and had issue by her 3 sonnes. He had 
to his 2 wife Margret y 6 daught : & 
heyre of John Radclyffe of Foxdenton, & 
had issue by her 2 sonnes & 6 daughters 
whereof 5 daughters are deceased. He 
being of the age of 67 years departed this 

43 



life the I3th of lanuaire in Ano. Dom, 
1602.' The two last lines have been re- 
newed in modern lettering on a separate 
strip of brass. They formerly read ' where 
of v daughters are deceased. He beinge 
of the age of 67 years, deceased the I3th 
of lanuarie in Ano Dom 1602.' 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



known as the poor folks' bell, was subscribed for by the 
villagers. Three of them bore the motto ' Jesus be our 
speed,' and the fourth ' Leonard Asshawe, Peter Eger- 
ton, Esq. 1624.' 9 These were recast in 1 806 by John 
Rudhall of Gloucester, and four new ones added by 
public subscription, the first peal being rung on 
25 January 1808. On arrival at Flixton the tenor 
bell was placed mouth upwards in a field and ten 
guineas' worth of double strong ale put in for the popu- 
lace to regale themselves with. 10 Some of the bells 
were recast by Taylor of Loughborough in 1887. 

The curfew is rung between 29 September and 
25 March, and a bell, locally called the 'Pudding 
bell,' is rung every Sunday at one o'clock and again 
at two, the origin of which is said to have been to let 
the people of Carrington know that there would be 
service at Flixton in the afternoon. 

The plate consists of a flagon, 1776 (the gift of 
William Allan, esq., Davyhulme), a chalice and two 
patens, and a large almsdish, 1875. 

The registers begin in 1570. There is a loose 
leaf of the churchwardens' accounts for the year 
1690-91, but the account books do not begin till 
1707." 

Additions to the churchyard were made in 1868 
and 1887. The oldest gravestone is dated 1669, and 
there is a pedestal sundial on the south side of the 
church with the names of the churchwardens and 
maker (James Sandiford, a Manchester clock-maker), 
and the date 1772. 

The advowson of the church be- 

4DVOWSON longed to the Grelley moiety of 

Flixton, and was granted with it to 

Henry son of Siward. On the foundation of Bur- 



scough the church was granted to the priory, 1 * and 
appears to have remained in its possession till far on 
into the I3th century." Then, by some unknown 
means, the rectory was acquired by Bishop Roger 
Meuland about 1290 and transferred to the cathedral 
of Lichfield, becoming the portion of one of the pre- 
bendaries, who took his title from it. 14 William 
Burnell died possessed of the prebend of Flixton in 
I3O3, 15 but nothing is stated as to any appropriation 
in the Taxation of Pope Nicholas in 1291, when the 
annual value was returned as 4 13*. 4^. 18 The 
prebendaries, who leased out the tithes, &c., 17 ap- 
pointed a resident curate, this system continuing until 
the patronage was about 1860 transferred to the 
Bishop of Manchester, as representing the Bishop of 
Lichfield, who had collated to the rectory-prebend. 18 
The incumbents are styled rectors, and have the tithe 
rent-charge and glebe. 19 The value of the ninth of 
the wool, &c., in 1341 was 4.* In 1534 the 
prebend was valued at j or jio." The Common- 
wealth surveyors in 1650 found that the farmer of 
the tithes, Peter Egerton of Shaw, had assigned a 
house to the curate, worth 20 a year, and also, by 
order of the Committee of Plundered Ministers, paid 
him the 16 rent due to the prebendary. 82 Bishop 
Gastrell, about 1717, recorded that the lessee paid 
the curate 30 a year, and surplice fees and other 
dues amounted to ^4 more. 23 The present income 
is .300 with a house." 

The following have been curates * 5 and rectors : 
oc. 1541 Nicholas Smith K 



oc. 1547 
oc. 1552-4 



Ralph Birch" 
Edward Smith l8 



9 In 1558 Leonard Asshawe left money 
in his will for the purchase of bells for 
the church. His intention seems to have 
been carried out and the bells recast in 
1624 at the expense of Peter Egerton of 
Shaw. 

10 Manch. Guard. Local N. and Q. no. 
1095, 1108. 

11 Lawson, Flixton, 24, 43 ; the accounts 
for 1708 and 1724 are printed in full. 
Copious extracts will be found also in 
Langton, Flixton, 53-71. For briefs, p. 
24; and for the constables' accounts, see 
Lawson, op. cit. 64. The register for 
1688-9 is printed in Pal. Note Bk. iii, 28. 

12 Documents relating to it are printed 
in the Dep. Keeper" t Rep. xxxv, App. 35 ; 
and ibid, xxxvi, App. 200 ; also in Farrer, 
Lanes. Pipe R. 350-5. From these it 
appears that Robert son of Henry de 
Lathom granted the church of Flixton 
and its appurtenances to the priory about 
1189. A little later Roger son of Henry 
and Henry son of Bernard granted the 
church in pure alms to Henry the Clerk, 
*on of Richard, for his life. This presen- 
tation appears to have been opposed by 
the canons, but by a local inquiry it was 
found that Henry son of Siward had last 
presented in the time of peace, and that 
Roger and Henry were his heirs. Henry 
the Clerk, of the Tarbock family, about 
1230 resigned all his claim to the prior 
and canons, receiving a pension of 2 marks, 
payable by Master Andrew the physician, 
the rector. 

13 Flixton Church was included in 
charters of confirmation received from 
William, Bishop of Lichfield, in 1216 ; 
and from his successor Alexander in 1232, 
the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield and 



the Prior and Convent of Coventry as- 
senting ; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxv, loc. cit. 

Robert de Hulton released his claim to 
the patronage, but in 1269 the Prior of 
Burscough asserted his right to the patron- 
age against Jordan de Hulton ; Dep. 
Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, loc. cit. ; Curia Regis 
R. 194, m. 36 ; 196, m. 10 ; 215, m. 5. 

Few names of the earlier rectors are 
known. Master Andrew is named in the 
last note. In 1246 William, rector of 
Flixton, claimed Gilbert de Nutchil and 
Adam the Earl as his ' natives," but did not 
appear in court ; Assize R. 404, m. 7. 
Adam the Earl (comes] attested several 
Barton Charters. 

14 Le Neve, Fasti (ed. Hardy), i, 602. 
The most notable name in the list of pre- 
bendaries which is given is that of William 
de Wykeham, afterwards Bishop of Win- 
chester, who exchanged this stall for other 
preferment in 1361. 

In 1387 the king claimed the right of 
presentation to the church of Flixton, 
then vacant. This probably refers to the 
prebend; William Boule was the defendant 
while William de Borel is given as preben- 
dary by Le Neve ; Coram Rege R. Hil. 
10 Ric. II, pt. ii, m. z d. 

15 Le Neve, Fasti. 

16 Pope Nick. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 249. 
V See Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 

312, 513. Sometimes the right to nomi- 
nate a curate was included in the lease. 

18 'In 1756 the nomination of the in- 
cumbent was claimed by the Warden and 
Fellows of Manchester, but without suffi- 
cient title ' ; Raines, in Notitia Cestr. 
(Chet. Soc.), ii, 56. 

19 In 1863 the benefice was endowed 
with the tithe rent-charge formerly pertain- 

44 



ing to the prebend of Offley with Flixton in 
Lichfield Cathedral ; and three years later 
it was declared a rectory ; Land. Gae. 
20 Nov. 1863 ; 3 April 1866. 

20 Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 39. Flixton 
answered for 53*. 4</. and Urmston for 
z6s. %J. 

21 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 132 ; v, 
226. 

32 Commonwealth Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 16. The commis- 
sioners approved of the situation of the 
church ' about the middle of the parish, 
very convenient for the parishioners to 
resort unto.' The tithes were worth about 
42 a year ; and those of Urmston about 
27. Peter Egerton had secured a lease for 
three lives from the late Stockett Lutwich, 
prebendary. See also Plund. Mins. Accts. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 37, 63, 87. 

23 Notitia Cestr. ii, 5 5 ; the total value 
of the prebend seems to have been 65 a 
year. In 1673 the church had three 
wardens and three assistants. 

24 Manch. Dioc. Dir. In 1833 the en- 
dowment was stated to be 600 private 
benefaction, ,200 royal bounty, and 
1,400 Parliamentary grant. 

25 John del Wood of Flixton, chaplain, 
occurs in 1367 ; P.R.O. Anct. D. C. 1 196. 

26 Clergy List (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), 13 ; he was paid by Mr. 
Nicholas Darington, the prebendary. 

2 ? Visit. List of 1 548 in the Chester 
Dioc. Registry. Birch's name is erased, 
and 'Edward Smith, curate,' inserted. 
This may have been done in preparation 
for the next visitation. 

28 Ibid. 1554; also Ch. Gds. 1552 
(Chet. Soc.), 10, and Piccope, Will* 
(Chet. Soc.), iii, 57. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



FLIXTON 



00.1563 Robert Radcliffe I9 

1565 Richard Smith so 
oc. 1588 Nicholas Higson " 
oc. 1604 William Hodgkinson" 
c. 1 6 1 o Jones 33 
oc. 1613 George Byrom" 
oc. 1622 Edward Woolmer, 35 B.A. (Oriel 
College, and All Souls, Ox- 
ford) 

1660 Thomas Ellison M 
oc. 1663 Barrett" 
oc. 1664, 1691 John Isherwood, B.A. W 
oc. 1709 Edward Sedgwick* 9 
1723 John Jones, M.A. 40 
1752 Samuel Bardsley, B.A.* 1 
1756 Humphrey Owen, B.A." (St. 

John's College, Oxford) 
1764 Timothy Lowten, M.A. 48 (St. 

John's College, Cambridge) 
1771 Thomas Beeley " 
1807 Samuel Stephenson, M.A. 
(Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge) 
1816 Henry Burdett Worthington, 46 

M.A. 

1823 William Asteley Cave Brown 
Cave, 46 M.A. (Brasenose Col- 
lege, Oxford) 47 

1842 Arthur Thomas Gregory, 43 B.A. 
(Lincoln College, Oxford) 



RECTORS 



1863 Charles Barton, 49 B.A. (Dublin) 
1873 Richard Marsden Reece, 50 B.A. 
(St. John's College, Cambridge) 
1906 Arthur William Smith 

The ecclesiastical history calls for little comment. 
There were no chantries, and the curate appears to 
have been the only resident ecclesiastic. At the 
Reformation the prebendaries of Flixton were con- 
formists," but the curates seem to have changed with 
each visitation. The church was fairly well provided 
with 'ornaments' as late as 1552." 

In 1592 the only charges against the curate and 
wardens were that no collectors for the poor were 
appointed and that the \^d. fine for not attending 
church was not levied. 53 In 1641 the curate reported 
that there were no * delinquents ' in the parish, the 
people ' being all protestants and no papist ' among 
them. 64 The curate in 1680 was suspended for three 
years for refusing to read the prayer for the queen, 
the Duke of York, and the royal family." 

Land for a schoolhouse was leased in 1643, but 

the school seems to have been built in 1662 upon a 

patch of land by the roadside." It was sold in 1 86 1 . M 

Each of the townships in the parish 

CHARITIES has some small charitable endowment, 

the total income being li ii/. 8</., 

of which 7 1 5/. zd. is for the poor. A few old 

benefactions have been lost. 69 



89 Visit. List, 1 563. A Robert Radcliffe 
was made subdeacon at Bishop Scott's last 
ordination, 1558; Ordin. Bk. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 113. 

80 Visit. List, 1565; T. Jerman, the 
prebendary, is duly given as rector. 

81 Buried at Flixton 9 July 1588 ; Reg. 
sa Buried 12 Feb. 1603-4. 

88 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 12; 
he was ' a preacher.' Possibly the John 
Jones who about this time was made 
vicar of Eccles. 

84 From a list prepared by the late Mr. 
Earwaker. 

84 He was 'lecturer' at Flixton in 
1622 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 66 ; curate in 1634-6 ; ibid. 95. He 
took the Parliamentary and Presbyterian 
side, and signed the ' Harmonious Con- 
sent' of 1648. In 1647 he was accused 
of celebrating ' clandestine marriages' 
i.e. possibly according to the Prayer Book 
form ; Mane A. Classis (Chet. Soc.), i, 79. 
About the same time the churchwardens 
were ordered to remove the font; ibid, i, 46. 
Woolmer was described as 'an able and 
godly minister' in 1650; Commonwealth 
Ch. Sur-v. 17. He remained in charge 
till his death, just before the Restoration, 
being buried 8 May 1660. 

86 Manch. Classis, iii, 342-7 ; after- 
wards rector of Ashton under Lyne. 

W Named by Baines. 

88 He signed the registers as minister 
in 1664. He was 'conformable* in 
1689 ; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 
229. He appears in the Visitation List 
1691. He was buried at Eccles as 'late 
minister of Flixton,' 8 May 1715. 

89 Buried at Flixton, Oct. 1722 ; see 
also Noritia Cestr. ii, j6n. One of these 
names was of Jesus College, Cambridge ; 
B.A. 1685. 

40 He died 8 Sept. 1751, having been 
more than twenty-eight years the ' faith- 
ful and diligent pastor ' of the place ; 



M.I. The Church Papers at Chester 
begin with him. 

41 Probably the Samuel Bardsley of 
University College, Oxford, B.A. 1 748 ; 
Foster, Alumni. 

42 Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 102. 
Also rector of St. Mary's, Manchester, 
1756-89 ; died 1790. 

48 Scott, Admissions St. John's C. iii, 1 50. 
He graduated as second wrangler in 1761, 
and afterwards settled in America; Baines, 
Lanes, (ed. Croston), iii, 308. ' There 
appears to have been some difference of 
opinion between Mr. Lowten and some 
of the parishioners, according to an un- 
dated copy of a document I have seen, and 
which appears to be a petition . . . that as 
Mr. Lowten, to end the matter, was 
willing to resign, Mr. Beeley might be his 
successor. Mr. Lowten was evidently the 
possessor of a large amount of land in 
Davyhulme, as i ,070 was yielded from the 
sale of it in 1769' ; R. Lawson, Flixton, 20. 

44 Died 25 Feb. 1807, aged 69 ; M.I. 
Probably the Thomas Beeley of Stock- 
port, who matriculated at Oxford (Trinity 
College) in 1760, aged 21, but did not 
graduate ; Foster, Alumni. For notice 
of John Sudlow, curate about 1794, see 
R. Lawson, 20. 

4i Became vicar of Grinton, Yorkshire, 
in 1822. 

48 Son of Sir William Cave, ninth 
baronet ; born 1799. 

4 ? Educated at Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford; M.A. 1824; rector of Stretton en 
le Field, Derbyshire, 1843 ; died 1862. 

48 Exchanged Flixton for the rectory of 
Trusham, Devon. 

49 Previously incumbent of Brom- 
borough, 1850 ; and rector of Trusham 
1860. Exchanged for Cheselbourne, Dor- 
set, in 1873. 

60 Rector of Cheselbourne, 1872. In- 
hibited 17 June 1884, the church being 
served by curates in charge. 

45 



81 They were Nicholas Darington 
1530-53 (?), and Thomas German 1553- 
68 ; Le Neve. 

sa Ch.Gdt. (Chet. Soc.), 9, 10. There 
were two bells in 1552 ; the number was 
afterwards doubled, two of the bells bear- 
ing date 1624 and 1633 ; ibid. ii. 

83 Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xiii, 63. 
A piper and his host were censured for 
playing in a house at evensong on a holi- 
day and giving the sworn man ' bad 
words.' 

54 R. Lawson, op. cit. 149. 

65 Ibid, quoting ' Raines MS.' 

*7 Lawson, Flixton 48 ; Gastrell, 
Noticia, ii, 57. James Birch was licensed 
as the master in 1684 ; Stratford's Visit. 
List. 

68 Endowed Charities Rep. Flixton, 1900, 
p. 5. 

59 An official inquiry was made in Dec. 
1899 ; the report, issued the following 
year, includes a reprint of the report of 
1826. The following is a summary : 

For Flixton Peter Warburton in 1769 
left 60, half for the schoolmaster and 
half for the poor. This was laid out on 
the workhouse at Flixton, and in 1826 
the overseers paid 3 as interest, 1 los. 
going to the poor. On the sale of the 
workhouse in 1861 the guardians paid 
,60 to the official trustees ; the interest, 
now only 351. %d. t is paid to the national 
school. The workhouse building still 
exists in 'Moorside Road. Three other 
benefactions of 10 each, made at the 
end of the I7th century, were lost by 
1807; and 30 for the school by John 
Wood in 1779 was lost in 1815 in law 
expenses. 

Peter Gregory, before 1786, left 10 
for bread for the Urmston poor; land, now 
called Manchet Field, was purchased with 
it, and in 1828 the rent of 2 a year was 
distributed according to the benefactor's 
wishes under the superintendence of the 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



FLIXTON 

Flixton, c. 1200. 

The township of Flixton measures about 2^ miles 
from east to west, with an average breadth of nearly 
i^ miles. Its area is 1,564^ acres. 60 The general 
slope of the surface is from the north and east towards 
the opposite boundaries, the Mersey and Irwell, but 
nowhere is a greater height than 65 ft. above sea-level 
attained. The village and church lie near the centre 
of the southern boundary, with Shaw in the south- 
eastern corner. The population in 1 901 was 

3,6 5 6. 61 

The principal road is that from Irlam where 
formerly there was a ferry over the Irwell, as now 
over the ship canal to Urmston and Stretford. 
From that road another runs southward to the church 
and then to the side of the Mersey ; there is a bridge 
over the river at Carrington. 6 * From the church a 
second road runs east to join the former one at Urms- 
ton. The Cheshire Lines Committee's railway from 
Manchester to Liverpool crosses the township diagon- 
ally, and has a station at Flixton, opened in I873. 6 * 
The Manchester Ship Canal passes along the western 
border, between large embankments, and has recently 
been adopted as the boundary of the township. 64 It 
should be observed that as the Mersey's course has 
varied from time to time, its stream as at present is not 
everywhere the exact boundary of the township and 
county. The land by the river on the south is called 
the Eea. In the south-west corner the land was 
assigned partly to Irlam and partly to Flixton. 

The annual wake was held on the Sunday next 



after St. Michael's Day ; it was noted for eel 
pies. 65 

The government of the place since 1894 has been 
in the hands of a parish council. 

A company of the 1st Volunteer Battalion Man- 
chester Regiment, formed in 1872, practises at the 
drill hall. 

Thomas Wood, a Methodist minister and writer, 
was born at Flixton in 1761 , 66 

The well between Shaw Hall and Shawtown is. 
never known to fail. 67 

Thralam, Cawdoe, and other field-names are re- 
corded in a deed of i6^g. 69 

A stone celt was found in 1846 near Shaw Hall. 69 

The stocks in the village were taken down about 
1823." 

The land in the township was formerly to a great 
extent in the hands of yeomen," who also were hand- 
loom weavers. 73 

Throwing at cocks on Shrove Tuesday, pace-egging 
at Easter, and other customs, were practised. 74 

The place first appears in the records 
MANORS as contributing a mark to the aid on the 
vills and men of the honour of Lancaster 
in 1176-7." 

From surveys of 1212 and 1226 it appears that t.t 
that time, and probably for a century before, FLIX- 
TON was held in moieties, one half belonging to the 
demesne of the Crown, the other to the barony of 
Manchester. 76 The former or Salford moiety was 
granted with Ordsall to David de Hulton, 77 and passed 
to two branches of the Radcliffe family of Ordsall and 
of Smithills, 78 descending with these estates till the 



minister of the parish and the churchwar- 
den for Urmston. In 1870 a portion was 
sold to the railway company in considera- 
tion of a rent-charge of 1 151., and the 
remainder produces 4 a year. A month- 
ly distribution of bread is made at the 
church ; attendance at the service is not 
required, but the recipients are supposed 
to be members of the Established Church. 
The balance is distributed at Christmas. 
A later bequest for the same purpose 
had been lost before 1826. David Higgin- 
son in 1854 left 250 in augmentation of 
this charity ; only about 40 was realized, 
which was paid in 1890 to the minister 
and churchwardens of Urmston, but 
nothing had been done with it up to 1899, 
as it was thought that no further distribu- 
tion of bread was required. 

Richard Newton in 1800 left ^100 to- 
wards the education of ten poor children 
of Urmston ; the capital is now represented 
by 107 consols, and the income, 
2 i8j. 8</., is paid to the Urmston 
National School. Some other bequests 
for education have been lost. A charge 
of 201. for this purpose, recognized by the 
owner of Newcroft in 1826, was repudi- 
ated after the sale of the Shawtown 
school in 1861. 

Two other charges on the Newcroft 
Estate zs. 6d. for a sermon and zs. 6d. 
for ringing the bells on 5 Nov. have 
also ceased to be recognized. 

60 1,458, including 44 of inland water ; 
Census Rep. 1901. The changes of boun- 
dary made in 1896 resulted in a loss to 
the township. 

C1 Population Ret. 

88 Old Carrington Bridge, pulled down 
about 1 840, was a foot bridge, and carts 
had to cross by the ford. Another ford 



the Stone ford was opposite Flizton 
Church, and others by Shaw Hall and 
Hillam Farm ; Langton, Flixton, in. 

63 The station is known as ' the best 
laid out on the C.L.C. system ' ; R. Law- 
son, Flixton, 135. 

64 In 1896 by Local Govt. Bd. Order 
34989. 

60 Lawson, op. cit. 87-92. 

66 Ibid. 114, quoting obituary notice in 
Meth. Mag. 1826 ; Local Gleanings Lanes, 
and Ches. i, 235. Robert Costerdine, 
17261812, was another; Preston Guardian, 
quoting Meth. Mag. 1814. 

67 Lawson, op. cit. 58 ; Langton, Flix- 
ton, 91. 

68 Local Gleanings Lanes, and Cbes. ii, 3 ; 
see also Langton, Flixton, 104-5, f r a 
full list. 

69 Arch. Journ. vii, 389. 

71 Langton, op. cit. 99 ; the scold's 
bridle was also in use. 

78 For list of landowners and tenants in 
1818 see ibid. 142, &c. 

78 Lawson, op. cit. 96. 

74 Ibid. 83 ; Langton, op. cit. 95, &c. 

75 Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 34. This no 
doubt refers to the Salford moiety. See 
also 151, 202. 

78 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 57, 138. 

77 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 
347. The old farm of this moiety of 
Flixton had been raised by zs. 6d. about 
1199, Lanes. Pipe R. 131, 148. In 1226 
it produced los. ; the Hultons held it 
with Ordsall as the sixth part of a knight's 
fee ; Inq. and Extents, i, 138, 312. Agnes 
widow of David de Hulton in 1292 had 
dower in Flixton ; Assize R. 408, m. 92 d. 
Some Hulton disputes are noted below in 
the account of the Valentine family. In 



1335 Richard de Hulton of Ordsall granted 
a piece of waste in Flixton to Thomas 
son of Adam de Hulme ; De Traffbrd D. 
no. 295, endorsed 'Hulme demesne.' 

The tenure is stated variously at dif- 
ferent times. In 1346 John de Radcliffe 
held a moiety of Flixton in socage, pay- 
ing a rent of zos., and double rent as 
relief; Add. MS. 32103, foL 1466. 
Richard son of John de Radcliffe in 1369 
claimed the moiety of the manor of Flix- 
ton (except 20 acres and the moiety of 
the mill) against Ralph son of William de 
Radcliffe, under a grant of Richard de 
Hulton of Ordsall to John son of Richard 
de Radcliffe ; De Banco R. 435, m. 63. 

78 Richard de Radcliffe, who died in 
1380, held three parts of the moiety of 
Flixton by knight's service and a rent of 
IDS. ; it contained six messuages and 80 
acres of arable land, worth u. an acre 
yearly ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 8. 

Sibyl widow of Richard, afterwards 
wife of Sir Roger de Fulthorp, held as 
dower ten messuages, 100 acres of land, 
&c., in Flixton, by knight's service and 
the rent of 171. 6d. ; Chan. Inq. p.m. 
1 6 Ric. II, no. 15 ; also Dtp. Keeper's Rep.. 
xl, App. 528. (Sibyl's husband is called 
Ralph de Radcliffe in Fine R. 192, m. 1 1.) 

Sir John de Radcliffe died in 1422 
holding a moiety of Flixton of the king 
as duke by the service of ioj. ; Lanes. Inq. 
(ut sup.), i, 148. A settlement of the 
Ordsall moiety of Flixton was made in 
1431 by Sir John de Radcliffe and Joan 
his wife, upon his son Alexander and 
Agnes his wife ; Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 96. John Rad- 
cliffe in 1442 held the moiety of the 
manor of Flixton of the king as duke in 
socage, by a rent of 101. ; its clear value 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



FLIXTON 



century, when the Radcliffe of Ordsall moiety 
was sold to the Asshaws of Shaw 79 and the RadclifFe 
of Smithills moiety, which had in the meantime 
descended to the Bartons and their heirs, was sold to 
a number of proprietors. 80 In 1779 a total rent of 
2O/. was paid to the duchy by Greatrix (13*. 9</.) 
and a number of others. 81 

The Manchester moiety, which included the church, 
was granted as one plough-land by Albert Grelley 
senior to Henry son of Siward, to be held by the 
yearly service of io/. 82 It did not, however, descend 
like Lathom, having become parted among younger 
branches of the family, so that about 1200 Roger son 
of Henry and Henry son of Bernard were in possession 
* by hereditary right.' ffl The descent is obscure, but 
the whole seems to have been acquired by the Hulton 
family, 84 who held the other moiety. After the partition 



of their estates about 1330 one half, called SHAW, 
was held by the Hultons of Farnworth, and of them 
by the Valentines, 85 while the other half was divided 
between the two RadclifFe families, like the Salford 
moiety, and was in like manner disposed of in the 
1 7th century. 86 

Thus about 1500 the manor of Flixton was held in 
a number of fractions, viz., the Salford moiety by 
RadclifFe of Ordsall and RadclifFe (or Barton) of 
Smithills ; and the Manchester moiety as to two- 
fourths by the same families, and as to the other half 
by Valentine, of Hulton of Farnworth as mesne 
tenant. 87 

The Valentine family appear early in the I 3th cen- 
tury. 88 In 1292 William Valentine secured from 
Richard de Urmston and Siegrith his wife the third 
part of two messuages and two oxgangs in Flixton ; 89 



was IOCM. ; Towneley MS. DD, no. 1480. 
William Radcliffe held it in like manner 
in 1498 ; Lanes. Inq. (ut sup.), ii, 124. 
Sir Alexander Radcliffe in 1549 held it 
by knight's service and a rent of ioi. ; his 
son, Sir William, in 1568, held it by the 
sixth part of a fee and IQJ. ; and this is 
the statement in later inquisitions ; Duchy 
of Lane. Inq. p.m. ix, 26 ; xiii, 33 ; xv, 
45 ; xvii, 35. From the above it would 
seem that the Ordsall family's holding was 
at some time divided, half being given to 
the Smithills family, the rent payable 
being reduced from 201. to lew. 

William son of William de RadclifFe 
was plaintiff in 1 368 respecting the moiety 
of Flixton and lands in Blackburn ; De 
Banco R. 431, m. 408 d. Sir Ralph de 
Radcliffe claimed a moiety of Flixton in 
1401 ; Dtp. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 530. 
Ralph Radcliffe of Smithills, who died in 
1485, held lands in Flixton of the king 
by knight's service ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. iii, 97. On the other hand the tene- 
ment of his heir, John Barton, in Flixton 
was in 1517 said to be held of the lord of 
Manchester; ibid, iv, no. 82. The later 
Barton inquisitions state that the moiety 
of the manor of Flixton was held of the 
Duchy by the sixth part of a knight's fee 
and the rent of IQJ., the same as for the 
Ordsall part ; ibid, ix, no. 27, &c. Among 
the Duchy rents paid to Queen Elizabeth 
occurs Richard Barton for half of Flix- 
ton, ID*.' ; Baines, Lanes, (ed. Croston), 
i, 447. A similar finding was recorded in 
1612 after the death of John Barton ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 211. 

See also Lanes, and Cbes. Recs. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 323, 325, 327. 

' 9 In 1 608 Leonard Asshaw purchased 
from Sir John Radcliffe the manor of 
Flixton, with messuages, dovecote, lands, 
&c., in Flixton and Shaw, and free fishings 
in the Mersey and Irwell ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 71, no. 26. From the in- 
quisition quoted later it would seem that 
this included only the Manchester manor, 
but nothing further is known of the Ordsall 
holding. 

80 In an account of Flixton by Dr. 
Leech (Lanes, and Cbes. Antiq. Soc. iv, 
187) it is stated that the Bartons' estate 
' seems to have been settled on Henry 
Bellasys and his wife Grace [Barton], 
but the greater part was sold off before the 
death of Thomas Barton [her father], 
One of the deeds in the possession of Mr. 
Royle of Flixton . . . sets forth that in 
consideration of ,240 Thomas, Lord Fau- 
conbridge, Sir Thomas Barton, Henry Bel- 
lasys, and Grace his wife conveyed to John 



Hyde of Urmston certain lands in Flixton 
in the occupation of tenants named Platt, 
Wright, and Harper. This sale took place 
in 1628 ; and a second deed shows that in 
the following year a portion of land was 
conveyed by John Hyde to one John 
Harper, a shoemaker.' A further sale 
took place in 1631, the purchaser being 
Thomas Walkden ; Loc. Gleanings Lanes, 
and Cbes. ii, 45. The manor of Flixton 
was included in Barton settlements of 
1615 and 1627, but does not occur later; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdles. 88, no. 34 ; 
in, no. 24. 

81 Duchy of Lane. Rentals, bdle. 14, no. 
25 m. 

88 Inq. and Extents, i, 57. Albert Grelley 
died about 1162. The 'heir' of Henry 
son of Siward, who held in 1212, is not 
named, but the manor seems to have been 
given to the Parbold branch of the Lathom 
family. 

88 Lanes. Pipe R. 353, 355. These 
deeds concern the church, but the manor 
no doubt descended in the same way. 

In 121 2 William de Flixton was de- 
fendant against Henry son of Bernard in 
a plea of land, but there was no trial as 
Henry did not appear ; Curia Regis R. 
56, m. 15. 

84 It must have been this moiety which 
wasini255 held by Jordan de Hulton, when 
he assigned dower in seven oxgangs and i 5 
acres of land in Flixton to Amiria, widow 
of Robert de Hulton ; Final Cone. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 150. Richard 
son of David de Hulton in 1292 success- 
fully defended his title to the manor of 
Flixton probably the Manchester moiety 
against Henry Whythoud of Coppull, 
Almarica his wife, William de Anderton, 
Almarica his wife, and others ; Assize R. 
408, m. 48 d. 

A rent from Flixton is named in the 
inquisition after the death of William 
Hulton of Farnworth in 1557 ; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m., x, no. 32. 

85 See the account of the Valentines 
later ; the mesne lordship of the Hultons 
of Farnworth was often ignored. In 1 320 
Richard de Hulton and Richard Valentine 
held a moiety of Flixton in serjeanty, ren- 
dering iSd. for sake fee and puture of 
the Serjeants ; and Richard de Hulton 
[? alone] rendered IQS. and puture for a 
moiety of Flixton ; Mamecestre (Chet. 
Soc.), ii, 289. The word 'moiety' may 
refer to the whole of the Manchester part 
of Flixton, or to two parts of it held by 
different services. The total rent was 
us. 6d. The sake fee for the moiety of 
Flixton occurs about 1300 j Inq. and Ex- 
tents, i, 301. 

47 



86 In the above cited inquisition after 
the death of Sir Richard de Radcliffe in 
1380 he was found to have held a fourth 
part of a moiety of Flixton of John La 
Warre, lord of Manchester, by knight's 
service and the rent of zod. a year ; in 
this part, as in the other part he held, 
there were six messuages and 80 acres of 
arable land, each worth is. a year. It is 
mentioned once again as ' a messuage in 
Flixton,' in 1569, after the death of Sir 
William Radcliffe ; it was held of Lord 
La Warre in socage by a rent of zod. ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xiii, no. 33. 

Ralph Barton of Smithills was in 1593 
recorded to have paid zod. to the lord of 
Manchester for a 4 moiety ' of Flixton ; 
Maneb. Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 69. 

87 The Manchester moiety was thus de- 
scribed in 1473 : Thomas Valentine, half, 
by a rent of 8s. zd. and puture ; Ralph 
Radcliffe, a quarter, by zod., and Alex- 
ander Radcliffe of Ordsall, a quarter, by 
zod. ; in all, in. 6d. t the same total as 
that in 1320 above recorded ; Mamecestre, 
iii, 479. The division as thus described 
has been followed in the text, but as the 
rent for one oxgang was ie,d. it would 
appear that the Radcliffes had one ox- 
gang each and Valentine six, i.e. perhaps 
the original moiety together with two 
oxgangs acquired in 1292. The sake fee 
seems to have been divided thus : 5 d., </., 
and 8d. 

88 William le Valentine attested a Bar- 
ton deed in 1222; De Trafford D. no. 
250. In 1261 William Valentine of 
Flixton, in a suit against Jordan de Hul- 
ton in a plea of land, made William his 
son his attorney ; Curia Regis R. 171, m. 
84 d. Somewhat later William son of 
Valentine de Flixton attested another 
Barton deed ; De Trafford D. no. 206. 

In 1278 Richard de Urmston convicted 
Jordan de Hulton and William son of 
William son of Valentine de Flixton of 
levying a ditch in Urmston to the hurt 
of his free tenement, the passage of his 
cattle being impeded; Assize R. 1238, 
m. 33. The defence was that it was in 
Flixton. Six years later in another suit 
in which the same plaintiffs and defen- 
dants occur Richard the brother of Wil- 
liam Valentine was among the latter ; 
Assize R. 1265, m. 5 d. 

89 Final Cone, i, 1 74. Richard and Sieg- 
rith also in 1292 recovered two parts of 
two messuages and two oxgangs against 
Richard de Hulton and Thomas the Pro- 
vost ; Assize R. 408, m. 30 d. In the 
preceding year there had been suits between 
William Valentine on the one side and 
Richard de Urmston and Siegrith his wife, 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



and in 1 308 Richard Valentine obtained from William 
Valentine an acknowledgement of his title to certain 
messuages and lands in Flixton, which William was to 
hold for life. 90 Richard Valentine was a tenant in 
I320, 91 and Richard and Robert his son were among 
the defendant landholders of Flixton in I338. 92 

Richard de Langley and Joan his wife at Pentecost 
1352 claimed the wardship of John son and heir of 
Robert Valentine, against Thomas del Booth and 
John son of Robert de Worsley, on the ground that 
Robert had held a messuage and 80 acres in Flixton 
of Joan La Warre in socage, and Joan the plaintiff 
was next of kin to the heir on his mother's side, * to 
whom the inheritance could not descend.' The heir 
had already been married to a Worsley, and the 
plaintiffs' claim being upheld damages were awarded 
to them. 93 If this refers to the main line of the 
family the heir must have died shortly afterwards, for 
in 1355 William son of John de Hulton successfully 
claimed the rent due from John son of Richard 
Valentine and heir of his ' ancestor ' Robert Valentine, 
for lands in Flixton held of the plaintiff, who in turn 
held of the lord of Manchester in socage by a rent of 
8s. a year. Plaintiff and defendant were both minors 
and had been taken into ward by the Lady La Warre, 
on the allegation that they held by knight's service, 
and the wardship of John Valentine had been granted 
by her to William son of Robert de Worsley. 94 



John Valentine died in 1395-6 holding land called 
the Shaw in Flixton, and leaving as heir his grandson 
John son of Richard Valentine, fourteen years of 
age. 95 

Nearly eighty years later Thomas Valentine held a 
moiety of the Manchester part of Flixton of Lord La 
Warre in socage by a rent of 8/. 2</., giving puture 
of one serjeant and doing suit 
to the court of Manchester. 96 
In 1476 John son and heir 
apparent of Thomas Valentine, 
on his marriage with Joan, 
apparently a daughter of Wil- 
liam Holland of Clifton, made 
a settlement of the estate in 
Flixton granted him by his 
father. 97 Joan the daughter 
and eventual heiress of John 
Valentine is stated to have 
married Lawrence Asshaw of 
Shaw ; she had no children 
by him, but made him a grant 
of her lands, which he in turn bequeathed to his 
nephew Leonard, a younger son of Roger Asshaw 
or Ashall of Hall on the Hill in Charnock. 98 

The younger Leonard died on 31 December 1594 
holding the manors of Astley and Shaw, and various 
lands in Flixton, Tyldesley, Worsley, Hulton, Barton, 




ASSHAW. Argent on 
a che-veron between three 
martlets vert at many 
crosses formy Jitchy of the 
field. 



and Richard de Hulton and others ; Assize 
R. 1294, m. 8. 

In 1290 Richard de Urmston and Sieg- 
rith his wife had claimed a third of two 
oxgangs against William son of William 
de Flixton no doubt Valentine ; Coram 
Rege R. 122, m. 9. 

Richard son of David de Hulton in 
1292 was non-suited in a claim respect- 
ing a tenement in Flixton against William 
Valentine, William Valentine, and Rich- 
ard son of William Valentine ; Assize R. 
408, m. 32 d., 21. On the other hand 
William Valentine also was non-suited in 
a claim against Richard de Hulton and 
Thomas de Urmston for throwing down a 
dyke in Flixton, &c. ; ibid. m. 32 d. 

A fine in 1303 between Richard de 
Hulton and William Pyke of Flixton and 
Alice his wife may refer to the Valentine 
holding ; Final Cone, i, 202. 

90 Final Cone, ii, i. Richard Valen- 
tine, clerk, attested an Irlam deed of about 
1310; De Trafford D. no. 263. Later 
(in 1351) there is mention of a Joan 
wife of John son of Robert de Worsley, 
who was sister and heir of a Richard Va- 
lentine, who had had lands in Urmston ; 
Duchy of Lane. Assize R. i, m. i. 

91 Mamecestre, ii, 289. Richard le Valen- 
tine contributed to the subsidy of 1332 ; 
Exch. Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), 38. 

93 Hugh de Walkden claimed and re- 
covered a rent of zos. and robe with hood 
(worth 201.) granted him by Richard de 
Hulton the elder out of his lands in Flix- 
ton. The defendants included the said 
Richard and Maud his wife, also Robert 
de Legh, Richard de Hulton the younger 
and Margaret his wife, John de Radcliffe 
the elder (holding half the mill), and Rich- 
ard de Radcliffe (holding the other half) ; 
Assize R. 1425, m. 3, 3 d. 

Six years later Adam de Hulton made 
a similar claim against John son of Rich- 
ard de Radcliffe, holding a moiety of the 
manor, Richard the son of John, William 



son of Robert de RadclifFe, Robert Valen- 
tine and Agnes his wife, John son of Henry 
de Hulton and Alice his wife, and many 
others; Assize R. 1435, m. 34 d.; also 
m. 39. 

The above-named Maud wife of Richard 
de Hulton afterwards married Robert de 
Legh, and made a number of claims in 
1351 and later against the Radcliffes re- 
specting the moiety of the manor and the 
mill of Flixton ; Duchy of Lane. Assize 
R. I, m. 5 d. ; R. 2, m. i ; R. 4, m. 6 d., 
m. 29. John de Radcliffe, as holding the 
estate of Robert son of Roger de Rad- 
cliffe, defended by producing a quitclaim 
by the Leghs to the said Robert ; ibid. R. 
5, m. 25 d. ; see also Dep. Keeper' t Rep. 
xxxii, App. 332, 336, 33 8. 

The rent of a robe, or 20*., was claimed 
again in 1360 by Thomas son of Henry 
de Trafford ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 8, 
m. 1 3. He had in 1 3 34 claimed 20 marks 
rent from Richard de Hulton ; Coram 
Rege R. 297, m. 1 1 5 d. 

93 Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 2, m. 5 d. 
Joan was daughter of Jordan [de Tetlow] , 
brother of Agnes wife of Robert Valen- 
tine the father. A ' de ' is here and in 
some other cases inserted before Valen- 
tine ; usually ' le ' is inserted. 

94 Ibid. R.4, m. 13. William de Wors- 
ley stated that the service due was 241. a 
year, but William de Hulton corrected 
this. Damages of 6or. were granted and 
a fine of io*. imposed. 

95 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 69 ; 
the tenure is not stated. John Valentine 
attested an Urmston deed in 1445 ; Had. 
MS. 21 12, foL 1 60. 

96 Mamecestre, ut supra. 

97 Vawdrey D. One field was named 
the Broadhey. 

Another Vawdrey deed is the decision 
of the arbitrator in 1508 regarding close* 
within the demesne of the Shaw, in con- 
sequence of disputes between Joan widow 
of Gilbert Langtree and Katherine widow 
of John Valentine. 

48 



From deeds cited in the account of 
Bentcliffe in Eccles it appears probable 
that Joan Langtree was the widow of the 
John Valentine of the text, and Katherine 
the widow of his elder son John. The 
other son Thomas left two illegitimate 
children, one of whom was the ancestor of 
the Valentines of Bentcliffe, so that on 
Thomas's death about 1550 the Shaw 
estate went to his sister or her heirs. 

There is a legend of a ' Sir Ralph 
Valentine ' who in setting out for Bos- 
worth field vowed that he would return 
alive or dead. He was slain, and his wife 
on receiving his body at Flixton fell down 
dead ; R. Lawson, op. cit. 52. 

98 Piccope's Wills (Chet. Soc.), i, 81 n, 
quoting Harl. MS. 1987, fol. 2, 5. The 
will of Lawrence Asshaw ' of the Shaw,' 
here printed, dated 4 July 1558, directed 
that he should be buried at Flixton, and 
that 20 marks should be spent on bells 
for the church, and in making a parclose 
within it, requiring the parish priest and 
parishioners there to pray for the souls of 
himself and others ; and that other sums 
should be given to the poor of the neigh- 
bourhood and expended on the paving of 
the highway between the tithe barn and 
the church. There are numerous be- 
quests, but nothing is said as to the descent 
of the manor. Settlements of his estates 
had, however, been made in 1521 (when 
Joan his wife was joined with him) 
and in 1554; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. ii, m. 197 5 bdle. 15, m. 82. 

Lawrence Asshaw had before his death 
to defend his title to lands in Flixton ; 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 279. 

The feoffees complained that Thomas 
Asshaw, nephew of Lawrence, and others 
came to the Shaw just before Lawrence's 
death and took away a number of deeds, 
and afterwards Thomas obtained possession 
of the house and demesne lands. One of the 
defendants alleged that he took the deeds 
at the desire of Joan wife of Lawrence ; 
Duchy of Lane. Pleadings, xxxvi, M. 4. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



&c. In 1587 he had settled the manor of Shaw and 
various lands upon his second son, Lawrence, who, 
however, died without issue two years later, and then 
a fresh settlement was made in 1591 in favour of the 
third son, Leonard, and his heirs male." The eldest 
son, Edward, was still living, thirty-four years of age, 
in April 1595. Shaw and the lands in Flixton were 
stated to be held of George Hulton by fealty and a 
rent of 1 6/. 100 

Leonard, who thus inherited Shaw, died there 
12 April 1633, holding the manors of Shaw and 
Flixton, with views of frank- 
pledge, the former of Tho- 
mas Hulton of Farnworth 
in socage, and the latter of 
Edward Mosley, as of his 
manor of Manchester, also 
in socage by a rent of 1 8</. 
Elizabeth, his daughter and 
heir, thirty years of age, was 
the wife of Peter, son of Sir 
Ralph Egerton of Ridley in 
Cheshire. 101 

Peter Egerton, who thus 
became lord of Shaw and 
Flixton in right of his wife, 
was one of the most pro- 
minent men in the county 
during the Civil War period. 
He was sheriff in l64l. 1M 
On the outbreak of the war 
he embraced the side of the 
Parliament, taking part in 
the defence of Manchester 
in 1642 10S and the sieges of 



FLIXTON 

Lathom House ; as General Egerton he received the 
surrender of this place in December i645. 104 He 
died in 1656 by the accidental administration of 
poison. 105 

He was succeeded by his son Leonard and grand- 
son Peter. 106 The family appear to have become im- 
poverished, and their lands were gradually sold in the 
latter part of the i yth century. Peter Egerton died 
in 1712, and his son John sold the Shaw Hall estate 
in 1722 to William Latus. 107 On the new owner's 
death in 1 764 it was advertised for sale. 108 It passed 




SHAW HALL 



99 Leonard Asshaw matriculated at Ox- 
ford (Brasenose College) in 1584, being 
fifteen years of age ; B.A. 1588 ; Foster, 
Alumni. 

100 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvi, no. 
II j see also M.anch. Court Leet Rec. ii, 91, 
121. In the settlement of 1587 Edward the 
son and heir was associated with his father ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 49, m. 4. 
He was buried at Flixton 4 May 1611. 

The Asshaw estates also came to this 
family on the death of Lawrence's elder 
brother Thomas. 

101 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxviii, no. 
39. As stated above he had purchased 
the RadclirFe manor of Flixton in 1608, 
but the tenure stated in the inquisition it 
that for the quarter of Flixton held of the 
lord of Manchester, the rent being i8</. 
instead of 2O</. as in 1473. The inquisi- 
tion recites a fine, Lent, 8 Jas. I. Jane 
the widow was living at Shaw. Peter 
Egerton and Elizabeth Asshaw were mar- 
ried at Flixton 28 April 1610. 

A pedigree was recorded in 1613 ; Visit. 
(Chet. Soc.), 6. Leonard Asshaw in 1631 
paid 25 fine on refusing knighthood ; 
Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 21 5. 
His funeral certificate is printed in the 
Record Society's volume, p. 198. 
^ 1M P.R.O. List, 73. 

108 Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 45, 
52, 333. Soon afterwards the Parliament 
appointed him a magistrate ; ibid. 60. In 
1 the following year he was placed on the 
committee for sequestering 'delinquents' 
estates' ; ibid. 90; and in 1645 on the 
military committee; ibid. 210. 

104 Ibid. 167, 212; also Lanes. War 
(Chet Soc.), 62. 



105 He was buried at Flixton 22 May 
1656. Henry Newcome states that he 
4 used to take flour of brimstone for some 
distemper he had ; and he sent the maid 
into the closet, and she mingled it with 
milk and he drank it, and it proved mer- 
cury ; and by this woeful mistake he was 
poisoned and died within a few hours ' ; 
Autobiog. (Chet. Soc.), i, 79. 

108 A settlement was made in 1662 of 
the manors of Shaw and Flixton, with 
views of frankpledge, free fishery, &c., by 
Leonard Egerton, Mary his wife, and 
Peter son and heir apparent ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 168, m. 100. A deed of 
sale to John Lowe in the same year is 
printed in Local Glean. Lanes, and Ches. 
1,276. 

A pedigree was recorded in 1664 ; Dug- 
dale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 102. Leonard's 
age is given as forty-seven, Peter's as 
twenty-two ; and that of Peter's daughter 
Mary as one year. 

Leonard Egerton was buried at Flixton 
15 Jan. 1679-80; and Mary his widow 
2 April 1681. Peter Egerton was buried 
26 Mar. 1699. Soon afterwards, 3 Aug. 
1699, an annuity of 25 a year was 
charged on Shaw Hall in favour of Mary 
Egerton, widow, by her son Peter Egerton 
and Anne his wife ; Local Glean. Lanes, 
and Ches. ii, 3. 

107 These particulars are from Dr. 
Leech's paper already quoted, 191 ; he 
states that the last Peter Egerton was one 
of the leading florists of the county. 

Peter Egerton was sheriff in 1703 ; 
P.R.O. List, 74. 

In 1707 Peter Egerton and Anne his 
wife made a settlement of the manor of 

49 



Shaw, and a messuage and lands in Shaw 
and Flixton ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 258, m. 37. 

For the fine accompanying the sale to 
William Latus the deforciants were John 
Egerton, Anne Egerton, widow, Henry 
Leigh, and Thomas Ashton ; and the es- 
tate is described as the manor of Shaw, 
seven messuages, dovecote, 40 acres of 
land, &c., free warren in Shawtown, Flix- 
ton, and Urmston, and free fishery in the 
Mersey and Irwell ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 289, m. 105. There is a further 
deed in Piccope MSS. (Chet. Lib.), iii, 
216 (from Roll 7, Geo. I at Preston), re- 
citing a mortgage in 1707 and the sale in 
1722. 

In 1748 the manor of Shaw, with the 
free fishery, was held by Peter Leigh and 
Elizabeth his wife ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R_ 
569, m. 9 ; and they conveyed a moiety 
to John Girardot of Chaucour, esquire,, 
together with a moiety of the prebend or 
parsonage of Flixton and the tithes and 
oblations belonging thereto ; Pal. of Lane, 
Feet of F. bdle. 351, m. 138, 175. 

Peter Leigh, of the West Hall, High 
Legh family, married a daughter of Wil- 
liam Latus of Manchester. He was chief 
justice of South Carolina, and his son 
Egerton Leigh was made a baronet ia 
1773 ; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, 456. 

Some of the Egertons continued to live 
at Shaw, for in 1757 widow Egerton of 
Shaw Hall married Humphrey Owen, the 
curate of Flixton. 

los The advertisement from the Man- 
chester Mercury is printed in R. Lawson's 
Flixton, 53 ; it mentions the capital mes- 
suage of Shaw, with the demesne lands, 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



through various hands, and was in December 1845 
purchased by Colonel George John Miller Ridehalgh 
of Fell Foot near Ulverston, and on the death of his 
widow became the property of Mr. George Ride- 
halgh. 109 

Shaw Hall lies to the east of the parish church about 
a quarter of a mile north of the River Mersey, and 
is said to have been built in the reign of James I. 
The house, however, has been almost entirely mod- 
ernized, and on the outside no ancient features 
remain. It is a two-story gabled building the walls 
of which are now covered with modern rough-cast 
(except at the back, or west side, where they are of 
brick), and the roofs with blue slates, and the 
general appearance is uninteresting. The gables, of 
which the building possesses no less than fifteen, are 
rough-cast like the walls, and have either modern 
barge boards or copings, and all the windows are late 
insertions. A cupola, formerly containing a bell, 
which was originally a feature of the building on the 
outside, has disappeared. 

The house is now divided into two separate dwell- 
ings, and contains some of its original fittings, though 
tthe plan has been a good deal altered. There is some 
jgood oak panelling in two of the lower rooms of the 
south house, but it has been patched with pitchpine, 
and painted and varnished. A lower room in the 
north house is also panelled in oak, similarly patched, 
but painted white. The hall is now divided, but 
there is an interesting staircase in the south house 
the balusters of which take the form of Tuscan, Ionic, 
and Corinthian columns, repeating in threes, with a 
thicker Corinthian column as newel. The handrail 
is modern. The other house has a good Jacobean 
staircase with twisted balusters, square newels, and 
original wide handrail. 

The chief interest now attaching to the interior of 
Shaw Hall, however, lies in two pieces of tapestry in 
one of the upper rooms representing scenes from the 
life of Alexander, and a painting on the cove of the 
hall ceiling representing the wife of Darius kneeling 
before Alexander, together with a smaller allegorical 
circular painting on the ceiling of what is now the 
entrance porch to the north house. The paintings 
and tapestry are part of the original furniture of the 
house, and are said to be coeval with the building. 

There was formerly a good deal of lyth-century 
heraldic glass in the windows, but most of this was 
taken out when the present sashes were inserted. It 
is still preserved, however, in the house, and though 
much broken and mutilated could easily be put to- 
gether again and replaced. 

Some fragments are still in position in the staircase 
window in the south house, the two upper lights of 



which contain two shields, one bearing the royal 
arms of the Stuart sovereigns, encircled by a garter, 
and the other being a quartered shield of the arms of 
Trafford with the crest of a man and flail. In the 
lower lights is a quarry with floral ornamentation and 
the words * Asshawe de Shawe,' and another with a 
shield of Asshawe with five quarterings. The house 
is said formerly to have had a moat, but this had 
partially disappeared in 1 847 nu and is now planted 
over. 

There is a stained-glass window in the church 
commemorating Arthur William Whitnal, 'lord of 
the manor of Flixton,' who died in 1890. 

No courts have been held for a long period. As 
in other townships within the barony the constable 
of Flixton was in the 1 7th and 1 8th centuries sum- 
moned to attend the Court Leet at Manchester, but 
no attention was paid to the summons. 111 

The Booths of Barton also held land in Flixton. 1 " 
The surname Flixton occurs, but was not used by a 
local family. 118 

Flixton House was formerly the residence of Ralph 
Wright, who died in 183 1. 114 His estate, partly in- 
herited and partly purchased, he endeavoured to make 
more compact and secluded by the closing and divert- 
ing of footpaths. This roused great opposition in the 
neighbourhood, ?.nd after several years of expensive 
litigation the attempt was defeated. 114 

The land tax return of 1787 shows that the land 
was then much divided ; the largest contributor was 
William Allen, who paid about a sixteenth. 116 

The Wesleyan Methodists have a chapel at 
Flixton. 

URMSTON 

Wermeston, 1 1 94 ; Urmeston, 1212; Urmestone, 
1302. 

This township, measuring about a mile from north 
to south and a mile and a half across, has an area of 
993 acres. 1 The land slopes gently from north to 
south, where the Mersey forms the boundary. The 
village lies in the centre of the township. The popu- 
lation in 1901 numbered 6,594.* 

From the village a road leads east to Stretford and 
Manchester ; to the west two roads diverge, one to 
Irlam, the other to the village of Flixton. The 
Cheshire Lines Railway from Manchester to Liverpool 
crosses the township, with a station at Urmston, 
opened in 1873. 

* Tim Bobbin,' the Lancashire dialect writer, whose 
true name was John Collier, is said to have been born 
here, but is more closely associated with Milnrow in 
Rochdale. 1 



.also messuages, chief rents, tithes, &c., in 
Flixton 5 the yearly value was ,500, sub- 
ject to a deduction of 48 21. out of the 

. tithes. 

In 1768 the manor of Shaw, with mes- 

suages, malthouse, dovecotes, lands, and 
appurtenances was sold by Lucy Latus, 

: spinster, to John Salmon ; Pal. of Lane. 

. Feet of F. bdle. 380, m. 47. 

lu9 Information of Messrs. Taylor, 
Kirkman & Co., Manchester, solicitors 

-of Mr. Ridehalgh. It was in 1836 the 
property of Miss Warburton ; Baines, 

.Lanes, (nt ed.). See also R. Lawson, loc. 

ck. 

110 Raines, notes to Gastrell's Notitia. 



111 Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. iv, 148, &c. 
The latest instance is in 1733 (vii, 25). 

iia The tenure is not stated ; see the 
inquisitions of John Booth of Barton, 
Katherine Booth, and John Molyneux ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xii, 8 ; xiv, 13; 
xvii, 24. Margery Barton in 1581 
claimed lands in Flixton against Ralph 
Barton and others } Ducatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), iii, 91, 107. 

Jane widow of Richard Eltorhead 
claimed dower in Shaw, Hulton, and Tyl- 
desley in 1591 ; ibid, iii, 500. 

118 Agnes widow of German de Flixton 
was a plaintiff in 1246 ; Assize R. 404, 
m. 7. The Valentines seem occasionally 

50 



to have been known as 'de Flixton,' but 
this use did not continue. 

114 The mural tablet in the church states 
that his life was one of ' unwearied exer- 
tion and usefulness and devoted attach- 
ment to his church, his king, and his 
country.' The Wright mausoleum is the 
most conspicuous object in the churchyard. 
See also Langton, Flixton, 20, for this 
family. 

115 A. Prentice, Recollections of Manch. 
290-3; the cases lasted from 182410 1827. 

116 Returns at Preston. 

1 992, including 10 of inland water ; 
Census Rep. 1901. 

2 Pop. Ret. Diet. Nat. Eiog. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



FLIXTON 



Urmston is governed by an Urban District Council 
formed in 1894 ; there are twelve members. 4 

The cemetery was formed in 1892. The Man- 
chester Jews have three separate cemeteries for the 
Spanish and Portuguese synagogue, the New syna- 
gogue, and the Polish Jews. 

The field- names* include Hillam, Barrowfield, Blake- 
well Meadow, Twinose, Treeley, Rant, and Woefield. 6 
The manor of URMSTON was origi- 
M4NORS nally part of the Marsey fee, and held of 
the lord as one plough-land by a family using 
the local surname. It was held by the eighth part of a 
knight's fee, rents of 8/. and zt. being paid for castle 
ward and sake fee. 7 The earliest known holder of it 
is Richard de Urmston, who in 1193-4 gave 40*. for 
having the king's good will after the rebellion of John 
Count of Mortain. 8 Adam de Urmston held it in 
I2I2. 9 After this there is a period of uncertainty. The 
superior lordship was acquired by the.Trafford family, 10 



who continued to hold it, at least nominally, down to 
the 1 6th century, though their mesne tenancy is often 
ignored. 11 The Urmston family and the lordship also 
appear to have been divided," one branch settling in 
Westleigh. 13 In 1305 Adam de Urmston conferred 
all his lands in Urmston, together with the lordship 
of the whole town, upon Gilbert de Ashton. 14 The 
latter had several daughters, and Urmston became the 
portion of Hawise wife of Henry son of John de 
TrafFord. Her heir was again a daughter, Aline, who- 
married Ralph son of John de Hyde of Hyde in. 
Cheshire. 15 In this family and its descendants the 
manor continued till the 1 8th century. 

From a suit of 1 3 1 7, in which Isabel widow of 
Adam de Urmston claimed dower, it appears that the 
land was then divided thus : Gilbert de Ashton held 
3 oxgangs ; Richard, son of Adam de Urmston, 3 ; 
and William son of William the Serjeant, I ; leaving 
an oxgang not accounted for. 16 The manor, however, 



4 Loc. Govt. Bd. Order. 

6 A list is given in R. Lawson, Flixton, 

122. 

6 The following occur in a deed of 
1300: Woodfalls, WhiterirFos, Welcome 
Ridding, Merulache, Stilley, Omerland, 
Simond Ridding, Hillum Carr, Merebutts. 

7 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 71. 

8 Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 77. 

9 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, loc. cit. 

10 Jordan de Worsley granted to Geof- 
frey son of Henry de Trafford all the lands 
which he had had by the gift of Adam de 
Urmston, and the reversion of the dower 
of Adam's widow, Isabel ; De TrafFord 
D. no. 292. In 1305 Jordan had, as 
creditor for 10, claimed the minor of 
Urmston against Adam de Urmston, Isabel 
his wife, Gilbert de Ashton, his children, 
and others, except four messuages, 4 
oxgangs and 60 acres of land, and the 
moiety of a mill ; Assize R. 420, m. i, 7. 

11 Sir Edmund TrafFord in 1445-6 held 
3 oxgangs of land in Urmston and the 
heir of GeofFrey de Urmston 5 oxgangs, 
for the eighth part of a knight's fee, ren- 
dering us. 6d. yearly. The said Edmund 
stated that he was mesne between the 
king, &c., and was in ward ; hence there 
was no relief; Duchy of Lane. Knights' 
Fees, 2/20. 

Sir Edmund TrafFord, who died in 
1563, held Urmston of the queen by the 
eighth part of a knight's fee and 8*. 4</.; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m., zi, n. 

Robert Worsley of the Booths in the 
time of Henry VIII held lands in Urms- 
ton of Edmund TrafFord, but the service 
due was not known ; ibid, vii, 5. 

Sir Robert Lovell in 1600 held lands 
in Urmston, probably purchases from 
members of the TrafFord family ; ibid, 
xviii, 32 ; see also Ducatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), iii, 421, 46$, and the accounts of 
Chorlton and Didsbury. 

Richard Scott in 1547 claimed a mes- 
suage, &c., against Sir Edmund TrafFord 
and James Hampson ; ibid, i, 229. 

11 Richard de Urmston is named in 
1265, 1278, 1284, and again in 1288 ; 
perhaps there were two of the name ; 
Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 232, 273 ; 
Assize R. 1238, m. 34 d.; 1265, m. 5 d. 

Nigel son of Roger son of Adam de 
Urmston in 1288 demanded the manor 
against Adam son of Richard de Urms- 
ton, claiming as heir ; De Banco R. 73, 
m. 49, 87 d. Thus Richard must have 
died in that year. 



In 1284, however, there was another 
Adam de Urmston, the son of William and 
Constance ; in reply to a charge of novel 
disseisin in 'Ormiston,' he said there 
was no such vill, but the tenements 
claimed were in 'Urmiston,' and he held 
them as his father's heir. Thomas de 
Urmston claimed under a grant from the 
father ; Assize R. 1268, m. 19. In the 
same year Richard de Urmston claimed 
eight messuages in Urmston against Adam 
and Alexander de Hulme, John son of 
Wymark, and others. Robert Grelley 
had held them, and his son and heir 
Thomas being under age, the escheator 
had taken possession ; ibid. 1265, 
m. 22 d. 

18 See the account of Westleigh ; a 
Richard de Urmston and Siegrith his wife 
held it and lands in Flixton in 1292 ; 
Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.) ; 
i, 169, 174; ii, 20, 127. Siegrith, lady 
of Urmston, also occurs in 1311 ; Lich. 
Epis. Reg. i, fol. 114/1. 

Adam de Urmston, probably the Adam 
son of Richard above mentioned, seems 
to have been the chief man in the town- 
ship in 1292, when he was involved in 
several pleas. William son of William 
de Flixton (probably a Valentine), was 
nonsuited in a claim against Adam de 
Urmston and William his brother ; Assize 
R. 408, m. 44 d. The same plaintiff was 
also nonsuited in a claim against William 
son of Thomas de Urmston ; ibid. m. 
48 d. Henry son and heir of Henry de 
TrafFord was nonsuited in his demand 
that Adam de Urmston' s mill-pool should 
be destroyed, having been formed by 
Adam's father, Richard, to the injury of 
the TrafFords' estate ; ibid. m. 56 d. ; De 
Banco R. 92, m. I2gd. 

14 In 1301 Adam de Urmston made 
claims, which he did not prosecute, against 
Robert de Ashton and others, respecting 
tenements in Urmston; Assize R. 418, 
m. 12 d. These Ashtons were of the 
adjacent township of Ashton on Mersey. 
In the same year Richard son of Adam 
de Urmston, and Cecily his wife, made 
a similar claim against Adam and 
others ; ibid. 419, m. 3 ; 420, m. 7. 
Richard son of Adam son of Richard de 
Urmston in 1333 and up to 1342 claimed 
eighteen messuages, &c., in Urmston, 
against Henry son of John de TrafFord of 
Urmston ; De Banco R. 295, m. 28 ; 
332, m. 100 d. 

14 The story is told fully in a document 
compiled about 1430, in Harl. MS. 2112, 

51 



fol. 158, printed in Coll. To fog. et Gen. 
viii, 146. 

Adam de Urmston granted all his lands 
of Urmston, with the demesne, wards, 
reliefs, &c., to Gilbert de Ashton, who in 
return granted the moiety of Ashton on 
Mersey, and lands in Sale and Altrincham. 
These being more valuable than Urmston 
Adam granted a rent of 3 a year from 
them. After this Adam sold the Ashton 
lands to John de Leigh and Ellen his 
wife, who gave them to William Venables 
and Katherine his wife. [This was in 
1307-8 ; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxvii, App. 
94]. William not paying the rent of ^3, 
Gilbert de Ashton made a distraint and. 
proved his right in open court. 

Gilbert married Margaret daughter of 
Roger de Cheadle, and their daughter 
Hawise was married in childhood to' 
Henry son of John de TrafFord of New- 
croft, the father giving her the manor of 
Urmston. Afterwards a divorce took, 
place ; Henry married Joan de Worsley,. 
and Hawise married John son and heir of 
the above-mentioned William Venables, by 
whom she had a daughter and heir Alice 
(elsewhere Aline). After the death of 
Hawise John married Joan, sister of the- 
said Henry de TrafFord, and had a daughter 
Cecily, wife of Robert de Ashton. 

Meantime John de TrafFord had killed 
Gilbert de Ashton at Urmston, hiding his 
body in a * rindle ' and taking the deeds 
of the manor. Henry de TrafFord also 
arranged with Richard son of Adam de 
Urmston that the latter should recover the 
lands and then grant them to him. Thus- 
Aline's inheritance was in great danger. 
Her father also was against her ; he 
wished her to marry Adam de TrafFord,, 
his second wife's brother, and shut her up> 
in the ' city of Brvnuegg,' till she escaped 
one night and found refuge in Timperley, 
on which her father, in his anger, burnt 
the deed securing to her the rent of 3. 
Next, Hamon Massey of Timperley mar- 
ried her to Ralph de Hyde, who managed 
to regain the manor of Urmston against 
Henry de TrafFord and Richard de Urms- 
ton ; after which the stolen deeds were 
given up to him. 

A copy of the grant by Adam de Urms- 
ton to Gilbert de Ashton follows. 

Some illustrative references will be 
found in the following notes. 

16 De Banco R. 217, m. 183 d. It is 
possible that the oxgang not mentioned! 
was Newcroft, the possession of Henry 
de TrarFord. Gilbert de Ashton after- 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



appears always to have descended with the Ashton 
share. 

Henry de Trafford was in possession in 1324 in 
right of his wife. 17 She afterwards married John 
Venables, of Ashton-on-Mersey, by whom she had the 
daughter and heir Aline mentioned above. From 
1343 onward Ralph de Hyde and Aline his wife were 
engaged in suits respecting her inheritance. 18 Ralph 
and Aline were living in 1360, when they and their 
son William successfully defended their title to half the 
mill. 19 By 1 370 Thomas son of Ralph appears to have 
succeeded his father,* and he is no doubt the same 
Thomas de Hyde who died in 1433, leaving as heir his 
son George's child Thomas, then fourteen years of age. 21 

The younger Thomas died in 1444, holding the 
manor of Urmston of Sir Edmund Trafford by 
knight's service ; the clear value was loo/. George 
the son and heir was about three months old." 
Margaret the widow had certain messuages and lands 



assigned to her as dower in I445.* 3 George died in 
or before 1500, in which year his widow Isabel 
claimed dower, Thomas Hyde being then in posses- 
sion.* 4 In 1517 John the son and heir of Thomas 
was contracted to marry Elizabeth daughter of Sir 
John Booth of Barton.* 5 Thomas died early in 1 5 34, 
holding the manor of Urmston of Edmund Trafford 
by knight's service and a rent of 8s. He had made 
provision for his wife and younger sons, and the heir 
was his grandson William, son of the above-named 
John, then about fourteen years of age.* 8 

William Hyde in 1548 arranged for the marriage 
of his son and heir William with Margaret daughter of 
John Arderne ; she was to have a jointure out of the 
Urmston lands of 4 clear value. 17 He died in 1 5 74, 
holding the manor of Edmund Trafford by the eighth 
part of a knight's fee and 8/. rent ; the clear annual 
value was 5. The heir was his said son William, 
then twenty-nine years of age.* 8 A pedigree was 



wards proffered a charter of Isabel's, but 
she denied it to be hers ; De Banco R. 
218, m. 30. 

Adam de Urmston in 1300 granted to 
his son Richard and Cecily his wife, 
daughter of Thomas de Hulme, 3 oxgangs 
of land in Urmston, &c.; De Trafford D. 
no. 294. Richard and Cecily in 1305 
accordingly claimed three messuages, 
3 oxgangs, 12 acres of land, i acre of 
heath, and the moiety of the mills in 
Urmston, against Adam de Urmston, 
Gilbert de Ashton, Robert, Thomas, 
Richard, and William his sons, Hawise, 
Margery, Lettice, and Margery his daugh- 
ters, and Roger Plat. One writ was 
abstracted, and William son of the rector 
of Lee sent to gaol. Gilbert pleaded a 
quitclaim of the same year, but Richard 
was then a minor ; Assize R. 420, m. 7, 
5 d. ; 423, m. 3 i 

The Serjeant family occurs several 
times in the pleadings, &c. William the 
Serjeant in 1346 called John de Radcliffe, 
rector of Bury, to warrant him in the 
possession of his estate in Urmston ; De 
Banco R. 345, m. 113 d. Joan daughter 
of William, in 1352 released to Thomas 
del Booth her right in her father's lands, 
Ac. ; P.R.O. Anct. D., A, 8175. Later, 
however, she seems to have recovered all 
or part of them ; Duchy of Lane. Assize 
R. 3, m. 2. 

V Duchy of Lane. Rentals and Surv. 
379, m. 13 ; he paid for ward 8*. and 
sake fee zt. In the copy in Dods. MSS. 
cxx-xi, foL 37/', the sake fee is given as 
zt. 6J., making ioj. 6</. in all. 

In the same year Robert de Hulme 
claimed land in Urmston against Henry 
san of John de Trafford, Hawise his wife, 
and John de Trafford the elder 5 Assize 
R. 425> m - 5 d - 

John de Trafford contributed to the 
subsidy of 1332; Exch. Lay Subs. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 41. 

Thomas son of Adam de Hulme, in 
virtue of a grant made to his grandfather 
Thomas in 1302 by Adam de Urmston, 
successfully claimed leave to get turves on 
the moor of Urmston in 1334; Adam 
de Hulme was brother and heir of Robert, 
eldest son of Thomas the grandfather. 
The defendants were Henry son of John 
Trafford of Newcroft and Isabel 

idow of Adam de Urmston, the latter 
ght of her dower ; Coram Rege R. 
297, m. 125. 

18 The earliest statement (1343) recites 
the possession of the manor of Urmston 



by Gilbert de Ashton, with remainder to 
his daughter Hawise and her issue ; and 
by Henry son of John de Trafford of 
Newcroft, in right of Hawise, after Gil- 
bert's death, and by Henry after the 
death of Hawise. It alleges that Henry 
and others in 1340 conspired with 
Richard son of Adam son of Richard de 
Urmston, so that the latter might sue 
Henry for the manor ; he did so, and in 
1342 recovered it by Henry's wilful 
default. Henry and Richard defended, 
hut the jury found that Adam alienated 
the manor in exchange for other tene- 
ments, so that his son Richard had never 
any right in it, and upheld Aline's claim. 
They assessed the damages as 4 instead 
of the 2,000 claimed ; Assize R. 430, 
m. lod. In the following year Ralph 
and Aline were nonsuited in a claim for 
ten messuages, 40 acres of land, &c., 
against John de Trafford of Newcroft, 
Joan his wife, and John, Richard, Robert, 
and Adam his sons; ibid. 1435, 
m. 42. 

A further statement of the case was 
made in 1347, in the king's writ to the 
justices ; herein Geoffrey de Urmston and 
Roger de Chisnall are named as the 
partners of Henry de Trafford in the 
conspiracy ; De Banco R. 351, m. 435 d.; 
352, m. 227 d. ; 356, m. 412 d. In 
July 1351 Ralph and Aline proceeded 
against Richard de Urmston, Geoffrey and 
Adam his brothers and others, but the 
writ was adjudged bad, having quettus for 
questi ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. i, m. 2. 
At the same time Amice daughter of 
Henry son of John de Trafford did not 
prosecute her claim against Ralph and 
Aline ; a mistake was found in her writ, 
more tenants being named in it than 
were shown on the endorsement ; ibid, 
m. 4 d, 5. This dispute, however, had 
not been confined to the courts ; for in 
Aug. 1350, Richard de Urmston, Adam 
his brothers and others, had with bows, 
arrows, swords, and shields, taken some 
of Ralph de Hyde's cattle a horse worth 
40*., four oxen worth 501., and two cows 
worth 131. 4</. and committed other 
enormities, treading down his corn to 
the value of 6 31. $d. ; whereupon, 
being convicted, Richard was sent to 
gaol; Assize R. 431, m. id. In 1351 
Richard son of Geoffrey de Urmston re- 
leased to Ralph de Hyde all his right to 
the lands in dispute; Harl. MS. 2112, 
fol. 159. The suits went on for some 
years after this, with varying success. 

52 



19 Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 8, m. 4. 

20 De Banco R. 440, m. 244 ; he was 
plaintiff in a continuation of the old suits, 

21 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 40 ; 
he is stated to have held no lands. 

Thomas de Hyde of Urmston and 
Margaret his wife granted to feoffees their 
manor of Urmston with the appurten- 
ances ; the date is uncertain ; Harl. MS. 
21 1 2, fol. 1 60. 

In 1419 Thomas de Hyde of Urmston 
and Margaret his wife empowered John 
de Bamford to give seisin of all their 
lands, &c., in Stockport, Offerton, and 
Marple to George their son and Alice 
daughter of Robert de Stockport ; Bram- 
hall D. 

Arrangements were made in 1429 for 
the marriage of Thomas son of George 
de Hyde with Margaret daughter of 
Thomas de Leigh of Baguley. The 
marriage portion was 40 marks, the 
jointure 6 marks, and lands in Urmston 
to the clear value of 6 marks were set 
out for the purpose; Harl. MS. 2112, 
fol. 1 60. 

22 Lanes. Inq. p.m. ii, 50. 

23 Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 160 ; the lands 
assigned were those in Urmston tenanted 
by Henry Johnson, Agnes Milner, Richard 
Gefferson, Robert Gefferson, and Richard 
Sherlock. 

24 Ibid. fol. 161 ; Sir John Booth wa 
the arbitrator. 

George Hyde was at Chester outlawed 
for debt in Sept. 1487, and his lands at 
Offerton and Marple were seized ; Ches. 
Inq. 3 Hen. VII, no. 2. 

25 Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 161, 177 ; the 
contract was made between Thomas Hyde 
and Ellen, widow of Sir John Booth ; 
Elizabeth's portion was 85 marks, and a 
jointure of 4 marks was provided for. 

26 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. viii, 37. 
To Thomas his son he granted pastures 
called Cobrysshes and Medylst Rayn- 
shaghe for life ; to James, another son, 
the Horsecroft, Newhey, and Formeste 
Raynshaghe for life ; to Hamnet, another 
son, lands in Cheshire. Margaret his 
wife survived him. 

2 7 Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 161 d. In the 
following year William the father married 
Douce, 'cousin' of John Warburton; ibid. 

28 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xii, 31. By 
his second wife he had a daughter Ellen, 
who married Thomas Boydell of Pulford. 
The latter, shortly after his father-in-law's 
death, had disputes with the son; Ducatus, 
, 3 2 33- 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



recorded in 1567, but some of the earlier steps are 
omitted or wrongly given. 29 

William Hyde died 26 August 1587, holding the 
manor, with messuages, windmill, and 
lands in Urmston of the queen, as of 
her Duchy of Lancaster, by the eighth 
part of a knight's fee and a rent of 
8/. 2</.; he also held a burgage in 
Stockport and lands in Cheshire. John 
his son and heir was ten years of age. 30 
John Hyde was married in 1598-9, 
his wife, Susan daughter of William 
Ashton of Clegg, bringing him a por- 
tion of j40O. 31 A pedigree was re- 
corded in 1613, the eldest son George 
being then six years of age. 31 A set- 
tlement of the manor had been made 
the year before. 33 A further settle- 
ment was made in 1642, by John 
Hyde, Susan his wife, George Hyde 
and Margaret his wife. 34 John Hyde 
died in 1644, his wife having died 
the year before ; and George died two 
years after his father. 35 

In 1642 Susan the daughter and 
heir of George Hyde married Richard 
Hulme of Davyhulme, 36 by whom she 
had a son William, the heir of Urms- 
ton. She afterwards married Richard 
Starkie, 37 and in 1670 a settlement was 
made by Richard Starkie and Susan his 
wife, William Hulme, Thomas Lucas, 
and Hannah his wife. 38 William 
Hulme, high sheriff in 1701," died 
in November 1708,* and his mother 
followed him in February. 41 John, the 
eldest surviving son of William Hulme, 
succeeded, 41 and left a daughter Anne, 



FLIXTON 

who as ' heiress of Davyhulme and of the lordship and 
manor of Urmston,' was married at Flixton 3 Sep- 
tember 1735 to Thomas eldest son of the celebrated 




URMSTON HALL : EAST SIDE 



M Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 14. 

80 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xiv, 49 ; 
a third of the manor was devoted to the 
use of the son John, another third to the 
widow, Margaret, and the remaining third 
to the daughters Bridget and Anne until 
the son should come of age. His will is 
printed in full in Piccope, Will* (Chet. 
Soc.), ii, 189-91 ; he desired to be buried 
in the chancel at Flixton. His harness, 
with his bow and arrows, was to be kept 
for the use of his son. Margaret, the 
widow, was in 1593 concerned in a 
suit respecting the Old Hall in Urmston 
with a tenant of the RadclifFes ; Ducatus, 
iii, 304. 

In 1589 Richard Gerard, rector of 
Stockport, surrendered to the widow the 
wardship of her son; Had. MS. 2112, 
foL 162. 

81 Ibid. A settlement of the manor, 
Ac., was made at the same time by the 
widow, her son and his wife ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 61, no. 343. 

81 Viiit. (Chet. Soc.), 53 ; two deeds 
are quoted in it. 

88 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 82, 
no. 27. M Ibid. bdle. 141, no. i. 

84 These dates, and later ones for which 
no other authority is quoted, are taken 
from the Flixton registers. 

John Hyde in 1631 paid 10 on 
refusing knighthood ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 215. In his will 
of 12 Mar. 1643-4, he mentioned his 
wife Margaret, his grandchild Sarah and 
her husband Richard Hulme, also two 



grandchildren, sons of George Griffith of 
Prescot. 

84 He was the son of William Hulme 
of Davyhulme, buried at Eccles 20 Jan. 
1640-1 ; he was himself baptized at 
Eccles I Aug. 1624, and buried there 
5 June 1 649 ; Hulme pedigree in Pic- 
cope's MS. i, 327. The surname of 
Margaret, George Hyde's wife, is un- 
known. The Urmston halmote in 1642 
was that of John Hyde, the next (in 
1647) was that of Richard Hulme, the 
next (in 1651) was that of Richard Star- 
kie, the next (in 1673) was that of 
William Hulme. 

8 ? Richard Starkie of Urmston was 
summoned by the heralds at the Visitation 
in 1664 ; Dugdale, fisit. (Chet. Soc.), v. 

In 1650 Richard Starkie's mother seems 
to have been living at Warrington ; Crof- 
ton, Stretford (Chet. Soc.), iii, 204. 

88 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 1 84, 
m. 81. 

William Hulme, baptized at Flixton 
5 April 1649, married Hannah daughter 
of Samuel Blackleach at Macclesheld, 
where her father was alderman, on 9 Dec. 
1668 ; James, the eldest son, was born 
30 Aug. 1669. Hannah Hulme the wife 
was buried at Flixton 6 Oct. 1684. 

In 1673 William Hulme in a petition 
to the Chancellor of the Duchy set forth 
his descent and claim to the lordship of 
Urmston, and lands, &c., in Urmston, 
Hulme, and Newcroft, reciting the settle- 
ments and stating that his mother had 
surrendered her estate therein, and he had 

53 



taken peaceable possession ; but Peter 
Holford of London, Elizabeth his wife, 
Charles Moore of London, and Alice his 
wife had obtained certain deeds and sought 
to oust, alleging in particular that George 
Hyde, his grandfather, was ' a mad and 
distracted person ' at the time of the settle- 
ment in 1642 ; Lanes. Chan. Bills, P.R.O., 
vol. xxx. 

There was a recovery of the manor in 
1705, William Hulme being a vouchee j 
Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 482, m. 2 d. 

He is several times mentioned in the 
Kenyon MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, 
App. iv), and some of his letters are 
printed. In 1694 he wrote to Roger 
Kenyon respecting ' an impudent conven- 
ticle ' held just by him ; he desired to 
suppress it ; ibid. 290. 

39 P.R.O. List, 74. 

40 His will, dated 26 Mar. 1707, men- 
tions John his son and heir, and his daugh- 
ters Mary (wife of Thomas Shaw of Man- 
chester), Hannah, Elizabeth, Frances, 
Jane, and Susannah. 

41 She is described in the register as 
' mother of the late Captain Hulme.' 

48 John Hulme was baptized at Flixton 
20 Feb. 1679-80, and was married there 
on 1 9 April 1711 to Elizabeth Bate. She 
was buried there on i June 1724. A 
lease by John Hulme to John Dewhurst 
in 1718 is recited in a deed in Manches- 
ter Free Library, no. 113. 

There was a recovery of the manor, 
&c.,in 1736, John Hulme being a vouchee; 
Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 542, m. 5. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



antiquary Browne Willis of Bletchley. 43 Thomas 
Willis, perhaps the son, was lord of the manor in 
1765," but soon afterwards it was sold, together with 
Davyhulme, and has since passed through several 
hands." It was in March 1822 purchased from Wil- 
liam Marsden's trustees by John Miller, who bequeathed 
it for life to George Lewis Ridehalgh. The last-named 
was succeeded by his son, Colonel George John Miller 
Ridehalgh; after his death in 1892 his widow held 
it, and on her death recently it passed to Mr. George 
Ridehalgh, the present lord of the manor. 46 

A rental of 1779 shows that the Duchy of Lan- 
caster then received lo/. 4</. from Urmston ; of this 
sum 8/. 3</. was paid by William Allen and <)d. by the 
owner of Newcroft. 47 

Manor courts were held up to about the time of 
Colonel Ridehalgh's death, but had degenerated into 
an annual dinner. 48 

Urmston Hall stands a little to the west of the 
church and is a two-story timber and plaster building 




URMSTON HALL : NORTH FRONT 



on a stone base, now used as a farm-house. The 
principal front, which faces north, is entirely of wood 
and plaster under a single gable about 2 1 ft. wide, and 
on the east side are two timber gables with a good 
brick chimney between. The whole of the west and 
south fronts, together with an addition at the south- 
east, are built of brick. The house is probably of late 
16th-century date, but has been a good deal altered 
since, and is in only a moderate state of repair. Two- 
windows, each of seven lights, in one of the side 
gables are now made up, and all the windows have 
lost their original glazing, or are otherwise modernized. 
The gables are without barge-boards, but that on the 
north front has a good hip knob on which is the date 

1721 and the initials jH E - Probably a good deal of 

repair and renovation was done at this time, and the 
south-west sides rebuilt in brick. From the north- 
east the house, which stands back from the road amid 
trees, has a very picturesque appearance, the two fronts- 
being well broken up with 
gables and chimneys. The 
quatrefoils along the front 
elevation and other portions 
of the black and white work, 
however, are only painted on 
the plaster, but the main 
timber construction of the 
building remains, and what 
restoration there has been 
follows the original lines. 
The half-timber work con- 
sists of a simple design with 
horizontal pieces and straight 
uprights and a central band 
of ornament. The entrance 
door on the north side is the 
original one of thick oak, 
nail-studded, and with good 
ornamental hinges and ring 
handle. 

Of the other portions of 
the manor no proper account 
can be given. The Urmston 
family continued to hold 
theirs for some time. 49 The 
principal estate was NEW- 



43 Pedigree m Burke, Commoners, ii, 
37 2 ~5- J onn Willis brother of Thomas 
was rector of Bletchley, but was buried at 
Flixton 24 July 1741. 

Anne Willis daughter of Thomas was 
born ii Aug. 1736 ; Thomas the son was 
born ii Feb. 1737-8 ; and Hulme, an- 
other son, was buried 4 Mar. 1738-9 ; 
Flixton Reg. 

44 Lawson, Flixton, 104, quoting an ad- 
vertisement in the Manchester Mercury, 
9 July 1765. 

There was a recovery of the manor of 
Urmston, &c., in 1759, Thomas Willis 
and Arthur Trollope being vouchees ; 
Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 591, m. 3. 

45 In 1773 Roger Sedgwick was plain- 
tiff and William Allen and Ellen his wife 
defendants in a fine respecting the manor 
of Urmston, with messuages, dovehouse, 
lands, common of pasture, and turbary, 
&c., in Urmston, Davyhulme, Newcroft, 
Shaw, Flixton, Lostock,^ Bent Lanes, Bar- 
ton on Irwell, and Manchester ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 389, m. 48. Wil- 



liam Allen, a Manchester banker, became 
bankrupt in 1788, and his estates were 
sold. 

46 From information of Mr. Ridehalgh's 
solicitors, Messrs. Taylor, Kirkman & 
Co. 

4 7 Duchy of Lane. Rentals, bdle. 14, 
no. 25 m. 

48 Lawson, op. cit. 105. A volume 
containing the Urmston Halmote Re- 
cords from 1613 to 1699 is in the care of 
the solicitors above named. 

49 They have been noticed already in 
the account of the claims of Ralph de 
Hyde and his wife Aline. A Geoffrey de 
Urmston contributed to the subsidy of 
1332 ; Exch. Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), 41. 

Richard the son of Adam de Urmston 
was succeeded about 1352 by his son Ro- 
bert, who in July of that year was plaintiff 
against Thomas de Trafford ; Duchy of 
Lane. Assize R. 2, m. 4 ; R. 3, m. 3 d. 5. 
Robert also continued the family suits 
against the Hydes ; ibid. R. 2, m. 4 ; 

54 



R. 3, m. 3 d. 4 d. ; R. 8, m. 4. Richard 
son of Geoffrey de Urmston was also con- 
cerned in this litigation ; Assize R. 435, 
m. 6 d. Robert de Urmston did not pro- 
secute his writ in 1353 against Richard 
and Geoffrey sons of Geoffrey de Urmston; 
ibid. m. 22. 

One of the disputes concerned a fishery 
in the Mersey as far as the thread of the 
water, taking salmon, bream, pike, &c., 
with nets or otherwise. Robert, quoting 
the charter of 1 300, stated that Adam his 
grandfather had given to Richard his son 
and heir, on his marriage with Cecily 
daughter of Thomas de Hulme, three ox- 
gangs in Urmston, with the buildings upon 
them, a moiety of the mills and fishery 
within all his limits (defensis), except his 
vivaries ; but Ralph de Hyde and Aline 
his wife had disseised him. They denied 
that the proffered charter was Adam's ; 
ibid. m. 30 d. Afterwards they objected 
that the wording of the writ was wrong, 
as it read ' de libero tenemento suo ' instead 
of ' de communa piscarie sue,' and this 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



FLIXTON 



CROFT, regarded as a manor, held at one time 
by the Traffords, 50 then by the Warburtons, 51 and in 
the 1 6th and iyth centuries by the Radcliffes of 
Ordsall. 52 Sir Alexander Radcliffe of Ordsall, who 
died in 1 549, held three-fourths of the manor of 
Newcroft and 100 acres of land, &c., there of the 
king (as duke) in socage by a rent of gd. for all 
services. 52 * By the end of the i8th century it had 
come into the possession of William Allen, then lord 
of the manor of Urmston, 53 and on his bankruptcy in 
1788 was purchased by the Taylors of Hulme in 
Reddish, and remained in their possession nearly a 
century, being sold in 1888 by the trustee of Samuel 



Taylor to Herbert Bannister. The estate was then 
supposed to be subject to some charitable rent-charges 
and also to a duchy rent of gd., but it was stated that 
none of them had been demanded or paid for many 
years. 54 Newcroft is a plain brick building once sur- 
rounded by a moat, of no architectural beauty what- 
ever. 55 Roger Rogers of Newcroft was summoned by 
the heralds to attend the visitation of 1664 ; no 
pedigree appears. 553 

Hillam, 56 the Lodge, 57 and Brook House M represent 
old estates. A ghost story was told of Gamershaw, a 
house at the east side of the township. 49 The Newton, 60 
Gregory, 61 and Hey 6S families were freeholders. 



seems to have been fatal ; Assize R. 43 5, 
m. 1 7. In another case, in which Robert 
claimed 10 acres of land and pasture for six 
cows, they tried a technical objection, but 
did not succeed ; ibid. m. 31 d. 

In a document of about the same time 
John de Trafford of Urmston is said to 
hold two and a half oxgangs lately belong- 
ing to Geoffrey de Urmston, and five and 
a half oxgangs, by the eighth part of a 
knight's fee ; Duchy of Lane. Misc. Bks. 
no. 130, fol. i6d. With this may be 
compared the statement of the Traffords' 
holding quoted in an earlier note. 

60 The Traffords of Newcroft have been 
frequently mentioned in the preceding 
notes. There seem to have been three 
generations John, Henry, and Amice ; 
but John and Thomas de Trafford are also 
mentioned. The Hydes were in 1354 
and later involved in disputes with Cecily 
widow of John de Trafford of Newcroft 
regarding lands of which Roger son of 
Roger de Barlow was tenant. Cecily called 
Amice daughter of Henry de Trafford to 
warrant her ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 
3, m. 3 (July), ^ (East.) ; 4, m. 29 ; 5, 
m. 1 8 d. 20 d. &c. 

41 William de Warburton in 1357 was 
the husband of Amice the above-named 
daughter of Henry de Trafford, and they 
were called to warrant Cecily the widow 
of John in the suit with Ralph de Hyde 
and his wife ; ibid. R. 6, m. 4 d. Later, 
at Michaelmas 1359, William and Amice 
claimed a messuage and lands against 
Richard de Hill, chaplain ; ibid. R. 7, m. i. 

Disputes were still going on in 1370 ; 
De Banco R. 440, m. 244 ; 446, m. 200 d. 

Geoffrey de Warburton of Newcroft in 
1389-90 acknowledged a debt of 20 due 
to Adam de Lever ; PaL of Lane. Chan. 
Misc. 1/3. He and Katharine his wife, 
widow of Thomas de Knoll, sent up a 
petition concerning lands in Chipping in 
1425 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 

73 i " 9- 

William de Warburton of Newcroft in 
1429-30 made a grant of land in Urms- 
ton to Richard his son on the occasion 
of his marriage with Marion daughter of 
Maud Ashton ; Newcroft and Foxdenton 
D. (Chet. Lib.). 

Thomas Warburton in 1531 disputed 
the title to Newcroft against Sir Alexander 
Radcliffe and others ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), i, 149. 

In 1566 Peter Warburton, who had 
married Katherine daughter and heir of 
John Cowper, and claimed under a grant 
from William Hyde, proceeded against 
the last-named and others for divers tres- 
passes ; ibid, ii, 334. 

53 Richard Smith and Randle Ryder of 
Flixton in 1532 sold to Sir Alexander 
Radcliffe of Ordsall their moiety of New- 
croft, late the inheritance of Richard 
Warburton, and later in the same year 



Thomas Warburton of Tabley Hill, 
Cheshire, sold his moiety to the same ; 
Newcroft D. (Chet. Lib.). 

52d Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. ix, 26. 
Similar statements are made in the in- 
quisitions after the death of Sir William 
Radcliffe (i 568), Sir John Radcliffe (i 590), 
and Sir Alexander Radcliffe (1599) ; ibid. 
x'i' 33 5 *v, 45 ; xvii, 35. 

Richard Radcliffe, youngest son of Sir 
William, lived at Newcroft, holding it on 
lease from his brother Sir John Radcliffe 
(Newcroft D.), and was buried at Flixton. 
His memorial brass states that he was 
' captain over 200 foot at the siege of 
Leith and at the rebellion in the north.' 
By his second wife he acquired the estate 
of Foxdenton in Chadderton. He had also 
an estate in Altcar. 

In 1605 Sir John Radcliffe of Ordsall 
made a settlement (or a sale) of the manor 
of Newcroft, with messuages, gardens, lands, 
and common of pasture ; PaL of Lane. 
Feet, of F. bdle. 68, no. 16. 

About 1632 there was a dispute as to 
Newcroft between Greenhalgh and Rad- 
cliffe ; Lanes, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 246. 

48 From references already given it 
would appear that Newcroft had been pur- 
chased by the Hulmes, and from their 
heirs by William Allen. 

64 End. Char. Rep. for Flixton (1900), 
pp. 3, 6. The price paid in 1888 was 
4,000 ; Lawson, Flixton, 105. 

4i D. H. Langton, Hist, of Flixton, 30. 

*5a Dugdale, Visit, v. Roger Rogers, 
gent., in Nov. 1690 became steward of 
the Urmston halmote, and appears among 
the free tenants at the same court. He 
ceased to hold the office between 27 Aug. 
and 26 Sept. 1695, when William Rogers 
succeeded him. In 1699 Peter Egerton 
of Shaw Hall granted Shaw Manor House 
to Richard Tonge and William Rogers of 
Stretford ; Baines, Lanes, (ed. Croston), 
iii, 307. In 1701 William Rogers became 
steward of Stretford Court Baron. 

46 The title to Hylland was in 1548 
disputed by Giles and William Parting- 
ton ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), ii, 88 ; 
see also i, 228, ii, 94, for other references 
to the family ; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 34. In 1559 John 
Partington of Manchester, mercer, sold 
all his lands in Urmston to Edmund 
Trafford ; he inherited from his uncle 
James Partington, and another uncle, 
Ralph, is named. The tenants were John 
Gregory, Thomas Gregory, George Gre- 
gory, William Holland, and Thomas 
Gregory of Hillam ; De Trafford D. no. 
115, 1 1 6. In 1546 William Partington 
had purchased from John Gregory and 
John his son six messuages, &c., in Urms- 
ton ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 12, 
m. 256. 

*7 Lawson, op. cit. 108 ; known as 

55 



' Pine apple hall ' from a carving over the 
door. 

48 Ibid. ; now known as the ' Grange." 

49 Ibid. 109 ; the house called the 
' Anchorage ' stands on the site. Gamer- 
shaw is a corruption of Grimelshagh ; sec 
D. of 1554 in Crofton, Stretford, ii, 42. 

60 John Newton, who died in 1597, 
held a messuage in Urmston of the queen; 
John his son and heir was about sixteen ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 82. 
Newton of Urmston occurs in the list of 
freeholders in 1 600 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 249. Robert New- 
ton of Urmston had land in Barton on 
lease in 1676-7 ; De Trafford D. no. 112. 

Mr. Crofton adds the following further 
information: In 1673 John Newton 
paid hearth tax in Stretford for one hearth; 
Stretford, iii, 212. On 21 Nov. 1684 
' John son of Mr. John Newton of Stret- 
ford ' married Sarah daughter of Mr. 
Francis Brown of Manchester ; Stretford 
Reg. John Newton was steward of Stret- 
ford Court Baron. He was also a high- 
way overseer for Stretford in 1691, and 
chapelwarden in 1700. He was buried 
at Bowdon 3 June 1701, and the entry in 
the Stretford registers calls him 'gentle- 
man.' The will of 'John Newton of 
Stretford, yeoman,' was proved at Chester 
the same year. On 27 Sept. 1690 letters 
of administration had been granted to 
John Newton of Stretford, yeoman, as 
kinsman of Winifred wife of Thomas 
Barlow of Barlow, who was daughter of 
Anthony Meinell of N. Kilvington, 
co. York. She had been wife of Kil- 
lingbeck of Ellerton Grange, co. York, 
and was buried at Manchester Collegiate 
Church in 1690. Thomas Newton was 
John Newton's executor. In Oct. 1620 
the Urmston Halmote Recs. mention 
Thomas Newton senr. and junr., John 
Newton, gent., free tenant, and William 
Newton, inhabitant. 

61 Robert de Moston of Chester and 
Cecily his wife in 1402 gave to William 
son of Robert Gregory all their lands 
in Urmston ; De Trafford D. no. 296. 
Thomas de Hyde in 1418-19 contracted 
to marry his daughter Maud to William 
Gregory the younger of Leigh ; Harl. 
MS. 2 1 12, fol. 1 60. John Gregory of 
Newcroft was by Richard Radcliffe in 1593 
called upon to pay a debt due to Sir 
Edmund Trafford for fine and gressum ; 
Ducatus Lane, iii, 289. Henry Gregory 
contributed to the subsidy in 1622 for 
lands ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 1 54. A pedigree recorded in 1 567 shows 
that the Gregorys claimed by descent from 
Adam Urmston of Urmston ; Visit. (Chet. 
Soc.), 7. 

62 Hugh Scott of Wigan and Alice his 
wife had lands in Urmston in 1576; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 38, m. 119. Edmund 
Hey in 1590 purchased a messuage, &c., 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



The most considerable contributor to the land tax 
of 1 796 was William Marsden ; after him came John 
Gregory, Stevenson's trustees, and Patten ; these in 
all paid about a third of the tax. 63 

Robert Barlow of Urmston joined Prince Rupert 
when he invaded the county in 1 644 took part in 
the battle at York, and continued in arms with that 
force ; his property seems to have been confiscated. 64 

In connexion with the Established Church a school- 
chapel was opened in 1858 ; this was followed within 
ten years by St. Clement's Church, consecrated in 
January 1868. The site of church and churchyard 
was the gift of Colonel Ridehalgh. A separate dis- 
trict was assigned to it, and the patronage is vested in 
the Bishop of Manchester. 65 



The Wesleyan Methodists have had a meeting- 
place here since about 1813, but services were dis- 
continued for some years after 1850. They were 
resumed about 1868, and in 1872 the present church 
was opened. The Primitive Methodists had a chapel 
in 1825, but the present one dates from 1873. The 
Independent Methodists have had services since 
1838." 

A Congregationalist minister preached occasionally 
in Urmston about 1 840, but the present church dates 
only from 1880, services having begun in a school- 
room the previous year. 67 The Baptists have a church. 

The Unitarians have held services since I894- 68 

The Roman Catholic church of the English Martyr* 
was opened in 



RADCLIFFE 



Radeclive,Dom. Bk., 1193,1202, 1212,1311 ; Rad- 
clive, 1227 ; Radeclif, 1309, 1360. The place is 
said to take its name from a cliff of red sandstone on 
the side of the Irwell. 

The township and parish of Radcliffe lies in a bend 
of the River Irwell, which bounds it on the east and 
south, except in a few places where the difference of 
boundary may be explained by changes in the course 
of the river or other causes. The principal ancient 
buildings, the church and the tower, are situated in 
the south-east corner, at which point the Roch, flow- 
ing from the east, joins the Irwell. The township 
measures ^\ miles from erst to west, and has an area 
of 2,533 acres. 1 The hig'iest land, about 500 ft. 
above sea level, is in the north-west, and from it the 
surface gradually descends to the east and south, the 
land by the river being of course the lowest. The 
population in 1901 was 20,590.* The Coal Measures 
underlie the entire parish. There is a large area in 
the valley of the Irwell, both above and below the 
confluence with the River Roch, covered by alluvial 
deposit. The principal road is that passing north- 
west through Pilkington and crossing the river by a 
bridge about a mile west-south-west of the church. 
Around this point a hamlet called Radcliffe Bridge 
gradually formed, and has in modern times become 
the centre of trade and population. The road, after 
crossing the bridge, goes northerly to join the Bury 
and Bolton road, passing through the hamlet called 
Black Lane. To the north of the Bury and Bolton 
road is the Radcliffe portion of Cockey Moor. From 
the bridge roads go eastward to the church, and then 
cross the Irwell to join the Manchester and Bury road. 
Other roads go west through Little Lever to Bolton. 



The Lancashire and Yorkshire Company's Liver- 
pool and Bury line crosses the north of the township,, 
going east and north-east, and has a station at Black 
Lane. The company's East Lancashire section, with 
a station at Radcliffe Bridge, runs through the town- 
ship, and is joined by the line through Prestwich to 
Manchester, which has a station called Radcliffe. The 
Bury Canal crosses the township on the north-west 
side of the town, and then goes west near the Irwell 
till it joins the Manchester and Bolton Canal in Little 
Lever. 3 

Dr. Aikin in 1795 found the 400 houses in the 
township for the most part ' of an inferior sort,' and 
the inhabitants chiefly weavers, crofters, or employed 
in the coal works which abounded in the neighbour- 
hood ; those who lived by farming being very few.* 
The village has now grown into a town, and gives a 
name to one of the Parliamentary divisions of the 
county. 5 Part of the area was incorporated in Bury 
in 1876, and the remainder was governed by a local 
board formed in i866. 6 The town, together with a 
portion of Whitefield in Pilkington, is under the Act 
of 1894 governed by an Urban District Council of 
twenty-four members, elected from four wards Rad- 
cliffe Hall, Radcliffe Bridge, Black Lane, and Stand 
Lane ; the last is in Pilkington. 7 The council-room 
is at the public baths, built in 1899. The market 
house and market rights were purchased from Lord 
Wilton in 1897. Technical schools were opened in 
1896, a public park in 1902, and a free library, the 
gift of Mr. Carnegie, in 1907. A museum has been 
given by the Literary and Scientific Society. 

Gas is supplied by a company formed in 1846. 
Electric lighting works have been established recently. 



from Hugh Scott, Gilbert his son and heir, 
and Margaret wife of Gilbert, Richard 
brother of Hugh, and Roger brother of 
Gilbert ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F.bdle. 54, 
m. 1 5 6. John Hey, who died in 1 596, held 
messuages in Urmston and Culcheth, and 
left as heir his son Edmund, six years of age; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 90. 

Mr. Crofton adds : At Urmston hal- 
mote 19 Oct. 1613 (when Edmund Hey 
would be twenty-three) the free tenants 
who are recorded were Alexander Rad- 
cliffe, gent., John Newton, gent., and the 
heirs of John Hey each fined 6d. for not 
appearing. This is the only record re- 
lating to Hey. At next Court, 16 Apr. 



1614, only Radcliffe and Newton are 
named, as if Hey had sold to someone. 

63 Returns at Preston. 

64 Royalist Comf. Papers {Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 137. 

65 Lawson, Flixton, 98-102; Land. 
Gaz, 31 Mar. 1868 (district). 

66 Lawson, op. cit. 130, 131. 

'7 Nightingale, Lanes. Nonconf. v, 74, 
77-9 ; Lawson, op. cit. 131. 

68 Ibid. Ibid. 

1 2,473, including I2O of inland water, 
according to the census of 1901. Various 
alterations in the boundaries were made 
in 1894 and 1896. In the former year 
part of Radcliffe on the east of the Irwell 

56 



was included in Bury, while a fragment of 
Elton was placed in Radcliffe (Local 
Govt Bd. Orders 31671 and 30905) j 
and later Whitefield in Pilkington had a 
portion of Radcliffe added to it ; ibid, 

338SS. 

2 Including Stand Lane, the population 
was 25,368. 

8 The canal has a large reservoir on the 
border of Radcliffe and Elton. 

4 Country round Mane b. 259. 

5 Radcliffe-cum-Farnworth Division. 
8 Land. Gaz. 2$ May 1866. 

1 The bounds of each ward are given in 
detail in the official year-book issued by 
the council. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Tramways, constructed by the district council, are 
leased to the Corporation of Bury. 

A market-house was erected by the Earl of Wilton 
in 1851 ; Friday is the market day. 8 The wakes 
begin on the third Saturday in August. 

A convalescent hospital was presented to the town 
in 1903 by Mr. Adam Crompton Bealey in memory 
of his parents. 

A weekly newspaper, 'The Radcliffe Times, founded 
in 1 899, is printed at Bury. 

A Roman road, commemorated by Blackburn Street, 
passed northwards through RadclifFe Bridge. 

There was a cross to the north-west of the church. 9 

There were 108 hearths liable to the tax in 1666. 
The rectory had only five hearths, but there was one 
larger house, that of James Holland, with six. 10 

The following is the apportionment of agricultural 
land in the parish: Arable land, 561 acres; permanent 
grass, 1,221; woods and plantations, 75. 

There are several collieries, with cotton mills and 
factories, the trades of the town including cotton- 
spinning, the weaving of ginghams, scarves, handker- 
chiefs, sarongs, &c., and the making of small-wares ; 
bleaching, finishing, dyeing, paper-making, iron-found- 
ing, and machine-making ; there are also chemical 
manufactories. 

At his death in 1 066 Edward the Con- 
M4NOR fessor held R4DCLIFFE as one hide. 11 
The extent of the royal manor must have 
been much greater than that of the present township, 
which was in 1212 assessed as one plough-land only. 
Allowing for a reduction of the assessment by a 
third, it is clear that the later manor of RadclifFe can 
have been but a fourth part of the original one. At 
the later date mentioned it formed part of the 
Marsey fee, and was held of Ranulf son of Roger 
by William de RadclifFe." William was in possession 
in 1193, when he proffered 5 marks for having the 
king's favour after the rebellion of John, Count of 
Mortain. 13 In 1 199 he paid 10 marks for an inquiry 
concerning land in Hartshead, 14 and later he contri- 
buted to tallage and scutage. 15 In 1202 he secured 




RADCLIFFE of Rad- 
cliffe. Argent a bend- 
let engrailed table. 



an acknowledgement of his right to the advowson of 
RadclifFe Church. 16 He was one of the 'trusty 
knights' who made the great Survey of 1212, at 
which time he was found to hold, in addition to 
RadclifFe, 1 2 oxgangs in Edge- 
worth. 17 He died before 1221, 
when his widow Eugenia sued 
Adam de RadclifFe for her 
dower in a plough-land in 
RadclifFe, a plough-land in 
Edgeworth, and 4 oxgangs of 
land in Little Lever. 18 

Adam de RadclifFe is men- 
tioned in 1223," and in 1227 
acknowledged the service due 
to the lord of Manchester 
for Little Lever. 10 In 1246 
as Adam son of William de 
RadclifFe he was acquitted of having disseised Adam 
son of Alexander de RadclifFe and Peter son of Adam 
of 4 acres of common of pasture in RadclifFe, where 
he had dug a mine ; but he was convicted of other 
disseisin. 11 Adam had also to answer Cecily de 
Gorhull, who claimed an oxgang in RadclifFe, of 
which she alleged William father of Adam had 
disseised her, but he alleged that Hugh son of 
Spraging, Cecily's father, had exchanged that oxgang 
for other land in Gorhull. 11 GeofFrey son of Hugh de 
Gorhull in 1284 claimed a messuage and lands in 
RadclifFe against Richard son of Robert de RadclifFe." 

Richard de RadclifFe was in 1 302 holding the eighth 
part of a fee in RadclifFe of the Earl of Lancaster. 14 
Two years later he had from the king a grant of free 
warren in his demesne lands of RadclifFe and Quarl- 
ton. 16 William son of Richard de RadclifFe is next 
found in possession. He married Margaret daughter 
and heir of Adam de Hindley, and with her had 
Peasfurlong, a fourth part of Culcheth. 16 In 1324 he 
held the manor of RadclifFe by homage and the yearly 
service of 6s. for castle-ward and zs. 6d. for sake fee, 
and by the service of the half and the tenth part of a 
knight's fee.* 7 



8 There were unchartered fairs held at 
the end of April and September ; Baines, 
Lanes, (ed. 1868), i, 533. 

9 Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxii, 139. 

10 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

11 V.C.H. Lana. i, 287. 

18 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 71. The service 
mentioned is 6;. ; in later inquisitions it 
is described as the eighth part of a knight's 
fee, held of the Earl or Duke of Lancaster 
directly. 

The parentage of William de Radcliffe 
is not known. One Henry de Radcliffe 
attested a charter in 1189 ; Farrer, Lanes. 
Pipe R. 350. Alexander son of Uvieth 
received 2 oxgangs in Little Lever from 
Albert Grelley the younger (1162 to 
1 1 So), and as Adam de Radcliffe was in 
possession in 1227, it is possible that 
Alexander was the father of William ; 
Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 57, 130. It 
will be seen that an Adam son of Alex- 
ander occurs in 1246. 

William de Radcliffe and Hugh his son 
attested a Withington charter about 1200 ; 
Hulme D. no. i. 

13 Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 77. 

14 Ibid. 117, 129, &c. He had given 
Nicholas of the Oak the two plough-lands, 
and seems to have desired to withdraw the 



grant, alleging it to have been made under 
compulsion of confinement while in prison. 

15 Ibid. 151, 153, 176, &c. 

16 Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.),i, 10. 

*7 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, \, 2, 67. 

18 Ibid. 129 ; Curia Regis R. 78, m. 
14 d. 

19 Final Cone, i, 44 n. 

30 Ibid, i, 47. This may be a different 
Adam. 

31 Assize R. 404, m. 6 d. Adam son of 
Alexander at the same time claimed, as 
heir of his grandfather Simon de Rad- 
cliffe, certain land in Radcliffe held by 
Henry de Oswaldtwistle ; ibid. m. 12 d. 

aa Ibid. m. 1 1 d. 

39 Assize R. 1268, m. 12 d. Robert 
de Radcliffe was probably the Robert son 
of Adam, who had land in Oswaldtwistle 
in 1241 ; Final Cone, i, 85. Robert was 
a juror in 1269, and Richard in 1282; 
Lanes. Inq. and Extents, \, 235, 244. 

John son of Adam son of William de 
Radcliffe was nonsuited in a claim against 
Roger de Middleton in 1292 ; Agnes 
widow of Adam de Radcliffe was also non- 
suited in a claim of dower ; Assize R. 
408, m. 32 d. 30 d. 

24 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, \, 314. 

85 Chart. R. 97 (32 Edw. I), m. 2, no. 

58 



17; dated 23 July 1304. The 'park* 
at Radcliffe used to be to the south of the 
Tower. 

In the same year and up to 1307 
Richard de Radcliffe had to defend his 
title to a messuage and land in Radcliffe 
which were claimed by William de Mark- 
Ian, rector of Prestwich, as the free alms 
of his church ; De Banco R. 149, m. 

2S5i R- i$5i m- 137 d -i R- 163. m - 
162. Robert son of Richard de Rad- 
cliffe, and William his brother were de- 
fendants in 1306 and 1307 ; Coram Rege 
R. 185, m. i d. ; R. 188, m. 38. Richard 
de Radcliffe, Robert his son (dead in 1 309), 
and Adam brother of Robert about the 
same time seized the lands of Adam de 
Lever in Little Lever, pretending a right 
of wardship ; Assize R. 423, m. I d. 

26 They were married in or before 1303; 
De Banco R. 148, m. 71 ; Margery was 
a widow in 1333 ; Had. MS. 2112, fol. 
1 5 2/'/ 1 88 A. See further in the account 
of Culcheth. 

*7 Duchy of Lane. Rentals and Surv. 
379, m. 13 ; Lanes. Inq. and Extents, ii, 
102. 

In the elaborate pedigree in Whitaker, 
Whalley, ii, 292, said to have been pre- 
pared by William Radclyffe, Rouge Croix, 
and verified by deeds in the Townelejr 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



RADCLIFFE 



Richard son of William succeeded, and in 1346 
held Radcliffe by the half and tenth part of a knight's 
fee, the service of zs. 6d. a year, and puture. 28 He 
occurs in various ways down to I37i,* 9 and appears to 
have been followed by his grandson 80 James, who in 
1403 received the king's licence to rebuild the manor- 
house at Radcliffe, erecting a hall and two towers of 
stone, and fortifying them with crenellation and battle- 
ments. 81 He died in 1409, holding the manor of 
Radcliffe, the fourth part of Culcheth, and other 
lands ; Richard his son and heir was thirty years of 
age. 31 Livery was at once granted to the heir," who 
was knight of the shire in 1425." He died in or 
before 1442," and was succeeded by his son James, 86 
whose son John followed and died in 1485, holding 
the manor of Radcliffe and the advowson of the church, 
and various other manors and lands ; the heir, his 
son Richard, was thirty-one years of age." 



Richard Radcliffe died 8 June 1502, holding the 
manors of Radcliffe, Oswaldtwistle, and Moston, the 
moiety of Crumpsall, the fourth part of Culcheth, 
and the advowson of Radcliffe Church, with houses, 
mills, lands, and rents in those places, and in Low- 
ton, Bolton, and Manchester. In 1500 he made a 
feoffment of his estates, with reversion after his male 
issue to his brothers John and Roger. The manor of 
Radcliffe was held of the king as Duke of Lancaster 
by the fourth part of a knight's fee and the yearly 
rent of 8/. 6</., and its clear annual value was 10. 
John his brother and next heir was forty years of age. 89 
John Radcliffe, who thus succeeded, died 4 April 
I5l3,leaving two daughters, and the manor passed to 
his nephew John son of Roger Radcliffe, fourteen 
years of age. 83 The wardship of the heir was early 
in the next year given to Queen Katherine, 40 but he 
died in 1517, before attaining his majority." There- 



MSS. it is stated that Ralph, the eldest 
son of Robert, elder brother of William, 
dying childless, left Radcliffe to his uncle 
William. It appears, however, that in 
1309 the family manors of Radcliffe, Os- 
waldtwistle, and Quarlton were settled on 
William son of Richard de Radcliffe by 
Richard son of Robert de Radcliffe, with 
remainder to Richard son of William ; 
Final Cane, ii, 5. 

In 1323 William son of Richard de 
Radcliffe was defendant in a claim by John 
son of Richard de Radcliffe regarding a 
tenement in Radcliffe ; Assize R. 425, 
m. i. He was returned by the sheriff 
in 1324 as one of those having lands over 
15 annual value ; Palgrave, Part. Writs, 
ii, 1319. As appears by a previous note, 
he died before 1333. 

"8 Add. MS. 32103, fol. 146. 

In 1344 it appears that Richard de Rad- 
cliffe was the husband of Isabel daughter 
and co-heir of John son of Michael de 
Harcla ; De Banco R. 340, m. 400. 

In 1347 William son of Robert de 
Radcliffe and Richard de Reddish com- 
plained that Richard son of William de 
Radcliffe and his feoffees had disseised 
them of the manors of Radcliffe and 
Prestwich, and various lands there and in 
Edgeworth and Oswaldtwistle. It appeared 
that the plaintiffs had been enfcoffed by 
Richard in 1342, and that he had recently 
made a new feoffment ; Assize R. 1435, 
i8d. See farther under Prestwich. 

29 About 1355 livery was granted to 
Richard de Radcliffe of a messuage and 
12 acres in Radcliffe seized into the 
duke's hands, because Adam de Radcliffe, 
who had held them of Richard, was 
hanged for felony, the duke having had 
his year and day and waste therein ; Dtp. 
Keeper" i Rep. xxxii, App. 344. In 1365 
licence was granted by the bishop for the 
oratories of Richard de Radcliffe at Rad- 
cliffe and elsewhere ; Lich. Epis. Reg. v, 
fol. lib. In 1369 Richard son of William 
de Radcliffe and Isabel his wife were 
concerned in a settlement of Prestwich 
manor ; Final Cone, ii, 176. 

80 So in the pedigree referred to above. 
Whitaker gives the descent as follows, 
from a deed in the church chest at Black- 
bum, written about 1514 : Richard de 
Radcliffe the old s. William s. 
Richard s. William s. James s. 
Richard s. James s. John s. 
Roger s. John (then under age) ; 
Wballey, ii, 290. A William de Rad- 
cliffe, perhaps the father of James, was 
sheriff in 1357-8; Duchy of Lane. 
Assize R. 6, m. 3. 



81 Cal. Pat. 1401-3, p. 255 ; it is 
printed in full by Whitaker ; ffhalley, ii, 
291. The hall is the alleged scene of 
the events related in ' Lady Isabel's 
Tragedy, or the Stepmother's Cruelty,' a 
ballad in Percy's Reliquet ; the stepmother 
is said to have made the cook kill her hus- 
band's only daughter (Ellen or Isabel) and 
serve her up in a pie, which was ready on 
his return. A scullion boy, who had 
offered himself as a substitute, revealed 
the iniquity and was made heir ; Lanes, 
and Ches. Antiq. Soc. vii, 282. 

83 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 94. 
The service for Radcliffe was the half and 
tenth part of a knight's fee, and 81. 8</. a 
year. Lands in Harwood went to Henry 
de Radcliffe. From a later inquisition it 
appears that Henry was the son of James, 
and ancestor of the Radcliffes of Frams- 
den in Suffolk, who became extinct in 
the male line in 1527. The heir male 
was then Robert Radcliffe, Lord Fitz 
Walter, who also inherited Radcliffe, his 
pedigree being given as son of John Lord 
Fitz Walter, son of Sir John Radcliffe, 
son of John Radcliffe, son of James and 
brother of Henry; ibid, ii, 152. In 
another version of inquisition the grant 
to Henry de Radcliffe is recited ; the re- 
mainders, after Henry son of James, were 
to Richard, John, Peter, William, and 
Roger, brothers of Henry, and then to 
Richard son of Thomas de Radcliffe of 
Winmarleigh ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
vi, 45. 

48 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 8. 

84 Pink and Beaven, Part. Repre. of 
Lanes. 52. This seems to have been about 
the only service of the kind rendered 
by this family. 

85 The inquisition, taken in 1441-2, 
shows him to have held the manors of 
Radcliffe, Oswaldtwistle and Culcheth 
(part), and the advowson of Radcliffe ; 
Harl. MS. 2085, fol. 446 b. 

86 In 1445-6 James son of Richard 
de Radcliffe held the half and the twen- 
tieth part of a knight's fee, viz. the manor 
of Radcliffe ; Duchy of Lane. Knights' 
Fees, 2/20. 

87 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
1 20-2. The manor of Radcliffe was said 
to be held of the king as duke by knight's 
service and a rent of icu. Robert Rad- 
cliffe and others held lands of Richard 
Radcliffe by a rent of 1 3*., and Richard 
held of the crown by knight's service and 
id. rent. The other manors were Os- 
waldtwistle and part of Culcheth. 

Shortly afterwards Isabel widow of 
John Radcliffe, and John Radcliffe her 

59 



son, and Henry Radcliffe, another son of 
the deceased, as executors, complained 
that George Ainsworth and others had cut 
down and carried off 200 thraves of oats 
at Oswaldtwistle ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 
63, m. 4. 

Richard Radcliffe was in 1498 called 
upon to show by what warrant he claimed 
waifs and strays, &c., and free warren on 
his manors of Radcliffe and Oswaldtwistle ; 
Pal. of Lane. Writs Proton. 1 3 Hen. VII. 

A feoffment of the manors was made 
by Richard Radcliffe in 1500; Final 
Cone, iii, 149. For some reason a special 
licence of entry on all his lands was given 
him in 1501 ; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxix, 
App. 558. 

88 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, 98. 
His will is given. Bequests were made 
to his wife Alice and his brothers ; an 
honest chaplain was to be provided to 
celebrate divine service in the church of 
Radcliffe for seven years next after his 
death. The widow received as dower 
lands in Culcheth, Crumpsall, Moston, and 
Lowton of the yearly value of 40 3*. 

89 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iv, 7. 
In 1505-6 he made a settlement of his 
manors and lands, and in 1511 pro- 
vided for the jointure of his wife Anne. 
His will, dated 24 November 1512, is 
given in full ; by it he set apart 6 J marks 
a year for ' a sad, discreet and well-dis- 
posed ' priest to pray in Radcliffe Church 
for the souls of the testator, his parents 
and brothers, &c., during the nonage of 
the heir male. He provided for his bas- 
tard son John, and his two daughters 
Ellen and Agnes ; also for the four 
daughters of his brother Roger Ellen, 
Isabel, Agnes, and Elizabeth. Should his 
nephew John die without male issue, the 
manors, &c., were to descend in succession 
to the male heirs of Robert Radcliffe 
(son of) the late Lord Fitz Walter, which 
deceased at Calais ' having been attainted 
for participating in the Perkin Warbeck 
attempt, and beheaded in 1496 ; of 
Thomas Radcliffe, lately lord of Frams- 
den ; of Thomas Radcliffe, sometime 
lord of Winmarleigh ; and of William 
Radcliffe, sometime lord of OrdsalL The 
clear annual value of Radcliffe Manor was 
40 ; the tenure is stated as in previous 
inquisitions. 

It appears from the inquisitions that 
the Radcliffes of Ordsall held a few acres 
in Radcliffe, but the tenure is not stated. 

40 On I Feb. 1513-14 ; Dep. Keeper's 
Rep. xxxix, App. 558. 

41 Writ of Diem clausit extr. issued 
3 Sept. 1517; Towneley MS. CC. no. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



nnn 



upon the family manors, in accordance with the 
settlement made by his uncle John, came into the 
hands of Robert Radcliffe, Lord Fitz Walter, created 
Viscount Fitz Walter in 1525 and Earl of Sussex in 
1529." Radcliffe descended to his son Henry 43 and 
grandson Thomas, second and third earls, but the last- 
named, who died without surviving issue in 1583," 
sold Radcliffe and the other Lancashire manors and 
lands. Radcliffe was in 1561 purchased from him 
by Richard Assheton, lord of the adjoining manor of 
Middleton, 48 and descended with the latter until 
1 765, when the Assheton estates were divided between 
the two daughters of Sir Ralph Assheton. 46 One of 
these, Eleanor, married Sir Thomas Egerton of 
Heaton, afterwards Lord Grey de Wilton, and the 
manor of Radcliffe appears to have been included 
in her share. 47 It has since descended with the 
Wilton estates, the present 
lord being Sir Frederick John- 
stone, by demise of the Earl 
of Wilton. 48 A court-baron 
used to be held on the first 
Friday in April. 49 

The ruins of Radcliffe Tower 
stand about 200 yds. south- 
west of the church and in- 
closed within a farmyard. The 
house was of timber construc- 
tion, and seems to have con- 
sisted of a main block standing 
east and west, with a west 
wing, which may have been an 
addition to the original build- 
ing, and a stone tower at 
the east. No authentic record of the plan of the 
building, however, remains, the chief source of in- 
formation concerning the structure being the descrip- 
tion of it given by Whitaker in his History ofWkalley, 
together with a view of the north or principal front 
of the hall made in lySi. 50 This latter shows a 
two-storied house of timber and plaster with gabled 
roofs of the usual type. The stone-built wing, or 
tower, then in a state of ruin, is the only part of the 
building now remaining. The rest of the house was 




JOHNSTONE, Baronet. 
Argent a saltire sable, 
on a chief gules three 
cushions or, in base a 
man's heart ensigned "with 
an imperial crown pro- 
per. 



allowed to fall into decay, and was taken down in the 
early part of the igth century. 

The position of Radcliffe Tower, like that of the 
church, is one naturally of defence, being built in the 
centre of a bend of the River Irwell. The ground 
within the bend is flat and low-lying, but the river 
itself, being on three sides of the house at a distance 
of only about quarter of a mile, would afford sufficient 
protection to account for the absence of a moat to the 
house. The present stone-built tower probably be- 
longs to 1403, being erected in accordance with the 
licence recorded above, and had a contemporary 
timber building adjoining it on the west side. It 
is difficult to reconcile the provisions of the licence 
of 1403 with the existing remains, as it seems clear 
that there was no stone hall in connexion with this 
tower. Of the second tower nothing can be said, and 
if it was ever built, no trace or tradition of it remains. 

The great hall, which was doubtless the building 
which left its roof-line on the ruined tower, occupied 
the east part of the main block, and according to 
Whitaker was 42 ft. 2 in. in length, and in one part 
26ft. and in another 28 ft. in width. 51 It had an 
open-timbered roof supported by two massive princi- 
pals, which are described by Whitaker as the 'most 
curious specimens of carved oak work I have ever 
seen.' They appear to have been, however, of a not 
unusual type. At the east end of the hall was a door, 
which still remains, opening into the basement of the 
tower, and higher up in the wall another door, also 
still in existence, which led into the chamber above. 
At the west end of the hall were the kitchen and 
servants' apartments, and in Whitaker's time there 
were still to be seen ' the remains of a doorway 
opening into what was once a staircase, and leading 
to a large chamber above the kitchen, the approach to 
which beneath was by a door of massy oak pointed at 
the top. The kitchen and apartment above stood at 
right angles to the top of the hall, and are separated 
from it by a wall of oak work. The chamber is 3 8 ft. 
long by 1 8 ft. 5 in., and has two massy arches of oak 
without mouldings, but an oaken cornice mould like 
those in the hall, the floor of thick oaken planks.' 
On the south side of the hall were the remains of a 



802. He held the manors, &c., as before ; 
the heirs general were his four sisters 
named above, and the heir male was 
Robert Radcliffe, Lord Fitz Walter; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iv, 8. 

Lord Fitz Walter on succeeding found 
that many of the charters were in the 
hands of Thurstan Tyldesley, as executor 
of the John Radcliffe who died in 1513 ; 
but Thurstan professed his willingness to 
deliver them up, as soon as he was assured 
as to the heir ; Duchy of Lane. Plead. 
xiz, R. i. 

43 The descent has been given in a 
preceding note. For this branch see 
G.E.C. Complete Peerage, iii, 371, 372 ; 
vii, 334-6. There are accounts of John 
Radcliffe, Lord Fitz Walter, and of the 
Earls of Sussex in Diet. Nat. Biog. 
Robert, Earl of Sussex, was Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Lancashire in 1537 and high 
steward of the Duchy in 1539 and 1540. 
He died in 1542, holding the manors of 
Radcliffe at Tower, Moston, and Crump- 
sail, and leaving a son and heir Henry, 
aged twenty-five and more ; Chan. Inq. 
p.m. 66 (38), E. file 643 (18). 
, * He died 17 Feb. 1556-7 ; ibid. 

** Ibid. His second wife, Frances 



Sidney, survived him and bequeathed funds 
for the foundation of Sidney-Sussex Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

48 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 33, 
m. 3. The estate is described as the 
manor of Radcliffe, otherwise 'Radcliffe 
Tower,' with the appurtenances, and of 100 
messuages, 100 cottages, 40 tofts, 4 water- 
mills, a fulling-mill, four dovecotes, 200 
gardens, 2,000 acres of land, 1,000 acres 
of meadow, 2,000 acres of pasture, 100 
acres of wood, 200 acres of marsh, 1,000 
acres of furze and heath, and ^10 rent in 
Radcliffe, Bolton, and Manchester, and 
the advowson of the church of Radcliffe. 
The sum named in the fine is 2,000 
marks. 

In 1 5 64 Richard Assheton had to make 
a further arrangement with Richard Blunt 
and Margaret his wife regarding the manor 
of Radcliffe, he paying them 1,000 ; 
ibid. bdle. 26, m. 256. A deed between 
Richard Blunt and Gilbert Gerard con- 
cerning Radcliffe was enrolled in the 
Common Pleas, Easter, 1564. 

The manor of Radcliffe or Radcliffe 
Tower was in 1582 included in a settle- 
ment of the Middleton estates made by 
Richard Assheton and Mary his wife ; 

60 



Pal. of Lane. Feet of F., bdle. 44, m. 73. 
Similar settlements were made later, down 
to 1721; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 512, m. 3. 
See also Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 105-7. 

46 See the account of Middleton. 

*7 In 1766 there was a settlement 
of a moiety of the manors of Middleton 
and Radcliffe upon Harbord Harbord 
and Mary his wife; Pal. of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. 375, m. 153. This was fol- 
lowed in 1771 by a similar settlement 
of the other moiety upon Sir Thomas 
Egerton and Mary his wife ; ibid, bdle, 
385, m. 246. Shortly afterwards a 
division was arranged, Lord Grey de 
Wilton alone presenting to the rectory 
in 1784. 

48 See the account of Heaton in Prest- 
wich. 

49 Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), iii, 7. 

60 Drawn by H. Wyatt, lithographed 
by J. Ford, Manchester, 1823. 

81 His view of the interior, however 
(1801), exaggerates the length, but this 
defect of the drawing was afterwards 
remedied, and a view ' with the erroneous 
perspective corrected ' published in the 
Gent. Mag. for July 1 840. 




RADCLIFFE TOWER FROM THE NORTH-WEST 




RADCLIFFE TOWER FROM THE SOUTH-WEST 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



square-headed window - frame in oak with Gothic 
tracery. 

In 1833 the fabric, except the tower, was described 
as of 'brick inclosed in squares of wood,' 51 and the 
large chamber above the kitchen had been converted 
into two rooms. The building was then supported 
by ' substantial buttresses ' ; but where such supports 
were wanting the walls had fallen. The great hall 
was then used as a hayloft and cowshed. The ancient 
timber framework had apparently by that time been 
filled in with brick, and the whole structure was in a 
state of ruin and dilapidation. It had been taken 
down before 1844, and the materials, described as 
* chiefly beams and planks of solid black oak,' used for 
building purposes. 

The stone tower, the bottom part of which is 
still standing, is 50 ft. in length and 28 ft. in width. 
These measurements are external, the greater length 




PLAN OF RADCLIFFE TOWER 

being from north to south. The walls are 5 ft. thick 
all round above the plinth, which has a projection of 
1 2 in. The tower was probably of two stories, with 
an embattled parapet ; but the upper part has now 
almost entirely disappeared, only portions of the walls 
above the level of the first floor being still in situ, the 
rest having crumbled away in comparatively recent 
years. The walls being quite exposed to the weather 
at the top this process of gradual disintegration of the 
structure is likely to continue. The lower room of 
the tower was originally covered by a semicircular 
barrel vault, the springing of which at each side may 
still be seen. Some portion of this vault was standing 
as late as 1 844, when Samuel Bamford, who visited 
the tower in that year, described it as hanging by a 
single stone, and ' unless it be protected from further 
wanton outrage must soon share the fate of the hall.' 53 
The spring of the vault is about 5 ft. from the ground, 
which would make the height of the apartment about 
1 5 ft. It was lit at each end by a window high up 
in the wall, and on the east side by two smaller win- 
dows nearer the ground. The entrance on the west 
side is through a pointed doorway, 4 ft. wide, the 
jambs and head of which have a continuous double 
chamfer. The chief feature of this lower room of 
the tower, however, consists of three large arched 
openings about 10 ft. in width, one at each end and 
the other in the middle of the east wall opposite the 
entrance. They have an inner and outer arch, 1 5 in. 



RADCLIFFE 

in thickness at the wall faces, with a space between of 
2 ft. 6 in., from the centre of which a square flue is 
carried up in the thickness of the wall. The outer 
arch was built up on the outside, the plinth being 
carried across the blocking wall at the line of the 
springing, about 4 ft. 3 in. from the ground. From 
the evidence of the masonry this is part of the original 
work done at the time of building. The height to 
the top of the arch, which is pointed and built of 
voussoirs, is about 9 ft. It seems most reasonable to 
regard these openings as fireplaces, and that at the 
north end of the room is still in its original state. 
The other two have been opened out, and are now 
open archways, that in the south side forming the 
principal entrance to the tower, which is used for 
store purposes in connexion with the adjoining farm 
and roofed with wood. The east archway now gives 
access to a wooden shed built along that side of the 
tower. The north and south fireplaces are not in the 
middle of the end walls, but immediately against the 
west side of the building. The presence of three 
such fireplaces in so comparatively small an apartment 
would at first sight suggest that the room had been 
used as a kitchen, but this is unlikely if the tower 
were used, as it appears to have been, as the part of 
the house allotted to the family. The three square 
flues are still well preserved in the walls, the stones 
of that on the south side yet showing a calcined 
surface. 

The room above was approached by a stone stair- 
case in the thickness of the wall at the south end of 
the west wall, leading out of the great hall at a height 
of about 7 ft. 6 in. above the floor. The doorway 
to this staircase has a pointed head, and the wall is 
thickened to 6 ft. at this point to allow of room for 
the stairs. The steps are still in position, along with 
the sill of a small two-light window which lit the 
landing at their head. There is an ordinary fireplace 
opening on the first floor 7 ft. wide in the centre of 
the west wall. 

The outer walls of the tower are constructed of 
heavy blocks of coursed stone on the north, south, 
and east sides, and for a distance of about 1 2 ft. on 
the north end of the west side. At this point the 
plinth stops, and the coursed masonry leaves off at the 
height of the sill of the doorway of the upper room. 
The point where the ashlar ceases marks the line of 
the front of the timber-built hall, the line of the roof 
of which may still be seen on the rough walling at 
the west side of the tower. On this side the centre 
portion of the wall yet stands nearly 30 ft. above the 
ground, though the end walls of the building are 
reduced to something like half that height. About 
midway in the height of the west wall, 1 5 ft. 3 in. 
from the ground, and formerly the end wall of the 
great hall, is a projecting string-course, which stops at 
either end at the line of the ancient roof. 

In 1592 the Earl of Derby sent certain widows, 
who were recusants, to prison in the tower, it being 
'withinland and in the hundred where the people 
are well affected.' M 

Junior branches of the local family occur from time 
to time. In 1357 Robert son of Adam de Radcliffe 
made a claim against Adam son of William de 
Radcliffe. 55 



58 Butterworth for Baines, Land. 
58 A woodcut in The Pictorial Hittory 
of Lane. 260 (1844), shows part of the 



vault still standing. The stairs to the 
chamber were cut from solid blocks of 
oak ; Mane A. Guard. 1844 and 1888. 

61 



54 Cal. S.P. Dam. 1591-4, p. 288. 
Mrs. Anne Hoghton was one of them. 
85 Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 5, m. 10 d. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Robert Radcliffe had messuages and lands in Rad- 
cliffe and Sharpies in 1 5 Sg, 56 and a further estate in 
the same places was the subject of agreement between 
James Radcliffe and Robert Radcliffe the elder in 
1595." The elder and younger Robert were free- 
holders in i6oo. 68 It was probably the younger 
Robert who died in 1617, holding messuages in 
Radcliffe of Sir Richard Assheton in socage by I zd. 
rent, and having other property in Manchester and 
Salford. 59 Edward Radcliffe, the son and heir, was 
twelve years of age, and was living in 1665, when a 
pedigree was recorded Radcliffe of Radcliffe Bridge. 60 

Alexander Radcliffe of Leigh, who recorded a pedi- 
gree at the same visitation, in 1680 purchased Edward 
Radcliffe's estate in Radcliffe, which his descendants 
continue to hold. 61 The land-tax return of 1788 
shows that Mr. Radcliffe paid about a thirtieth of the 
tax. Lord Grey de Wilton paid nearly half. The 
rest of the land was in small holdings. 6 * 



<O 30 



S 




1 








-a* 






NORTH 








TRANSEPT 




VESTRY 


1 MORTH AISLE 






r 




PLAN OF RADCLIFFE CHURCH 



A few other families occur from time to time 
Openshaw, 63 Wroe, 64 and Hardman. 65 In 1688 the 
principal inhabitants were Gervase Staynrod, Henry 
Coulborne, John Allen, and Roger Walker. 66 

Land called Nickerhole in the south-west of the 
township was in the i6th century the subject of 
several disputes. 67 

An Inclosure Act for Radcliffe and Ainsworth was 
passed in 1809, and an award made in I8I2. 68 

The church of ST. S4RTHOLO- 
CHURCH MEW* stands at the east side of the 
town in the centre of a bend of the 
River Irwell, the ground between which and the 
church on the south side still remains open as field 
and pasture. The building consists of chancel 23 ft. 
by 1 9 ft., with vestry on the north side and chapel 
on the south, each 22 ft. 6 in. by 21 ft.; nave 36 ft. 
by 20 ft., north and south transepts each 2 1 ft. 6 in. 
by 1 8 ft., north aisle 1 2 ft. 6 in. wide, south aisle 
2 1 ft. wide, and western tower 

^ 1 2 ft. 6 in. by 1 2 ft. All these 

measurements are internal. 

A great deal of alteration 
and rebuilding, done in the 
1 9th century, has made the 
whole of the outside of the 
church, with the exception 
of the tower, of modern date ; 
but it still preserves to a large 
extent its ancient appearance. 
The history of this later work 
may be thus summarized : In 
1817 the chancel and vestry 
were rebuilt ; in 1 846 the 
north transept was recon- 
structed, an organ chamber 
built on the north side of the 
chancel, the south porch re- 
moved, and a west door opened 
out in the tower ; in 1870-3 
the building underwent a very 
thorough restoration, when 
the clearstory was taken down 
and rebuilt and a new roof 
constructed, the south aisle 



68 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 51, 
m. 125. 6 7 Ibid. bdle. 57, m. 23. 

68 Mite. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 247. 

49 Lanes. Inq, p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 75. James Radcliffe of 
Sharpies was one of the jurors. 

60 Dugdale, Vhit. (Chet. Soc.), 239. 

61 Richard Radcliffe of Leigh s. 
Thomas . Alexander, d. 1 646 s. 
Alexander, d. 1700 s. John, d. 1700 

s. John, Recorder of Liverpool, d. 1 744 

. Alexander, Recorder of Wigan, d. 
1786 s. John, d. 1799 s. Thomas 
Hayward, d. 1829 t. John, d. 1845 
dau. Frances, d. 1897. She married 
James Darlington and had several sons 
and daughters ; information of Mr. R. D. 
Radcliffe. 

68 Land Tax returns at Preston. This 
Radcliffe family is named in Baines, 
Lanes, (ed. 1836), in, 7. 

68 James Openshaw appears to have 
sold lands in Radcliffe in 1558, and pur- 
chased others in 1565 ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 20, m. 69 ; 27, m. 115 ; 
Lanes, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 250. 



John Openshaw, who died in 1638, 
held two messuages and lands in Rad- 
cliffe of Ralph Assheton of Middleton ; 
John, his son and heir, was thirty-nine 
years of age ; Towneley MS. C. 8, 13 
(Chet. Lib.), 949. 

64 Richard Wroe was a freeholder in 
1 600 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 249. Dr. Richard Wroe, warden of 
Manchester, a benefactor of the poor of 
Radcliffe, was probably a descendant of 
this family, though said to have been born 
in Unsworth ; his grandson will be found 
among the rectors. 

65 John and James Hardman had a 
dispute with Richard Assheton, lord of the 
manor, in 1 600 ; Dueatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), iii, 409. Roger Hardman of 
Radcliffe was a member of the Bury 
Class! s in 1646. 

64 Hiit. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 
196. The Aliens and Walkers are later 
found among the landowners. 

7 John Harrison leased ' Niberhole ' 
to Geoffrey Hulme, son of Roger, for 
sixty years, but afterwards expelled him 
and his family, whereupon Geoffrey in 
1557 complained to the Chancellor of the 

62 



Duchy ; Duchy of Lane. Plead, xxxv, H. 
4. A few years later James Harri- 
son, as heir of his father John, claimed 
land from Geoffrey and John Hulme, 
who held by lease from the father ; Du- 
catus Lane. (Rec. Com.), ii, 243, 286. 
In 1602 John Harrison of Breightmet was 
the owner of ' Nytheroll,' and sold it to- 
William Petto of Bury, as the latter 
alleged ; but John Harrison, together 
with Henry Aspinall, Alice Harrison 
widow, and Elizabeth Hulme widow, 
having obtained divers charters, &c., would 
not allow him possession ; Duchy of 
Lane. Plead, ccvii, P. 4. 

Henry Aspinall of Radcliffe died in 
1620 holding a messuage and lands called 
' Nicolhole ' of Richard Assheton in socage, 
by zi. rent 5 John, his son and heir, was 
forty years of age ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 208. 

68 Act 49 Geo. Ill, cap. 8. Copies of 
the award are preserved at the parish 
church and the County Offices, Preston. 

69 In 1459 the church was called 'St. 
Mary of Radcliffe' ; Lich. Epis. Reg. xii, 
fol. ib. 'St. Mary' has been readopted; 
lately. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



RADCLIFFE 



was enlarged, and a new chapel was added on the 
south of the chancel; in 1903 the north vestry was 
enlarged, the plaster stripped from the walls, and the 
interior refaced with Runcorn stone, the floor, which 
had been raised 19 in. in 1846, reduced to its original 
level, and the arches between the transepts and vestry 
and chapel reconstructed. Since then the outside 
wall of the south transept has been refaced in red 
sandstone and the tracery renewed. The exterior of 
the church is built of sandstone, with slated gabled 
roofs to all parts except the nave, the roof of which is 
of flat pitch and covered with lead. The clearstory, 
south aisle, and chapel are finished with square para- 
pets, the north aisle, transept, and vestry having over- 
hanging eaves. 

The oldest details of the building are the piers 
supporting the chancel arch, which are of 13th-cen- 
tury date, but it is possible that the four angles of the 
nave may belong to an older church dating from the 
1 2th century. The south wall of the south transept 
belongs to the 1 4th century, while the tower arch and 
west wall of the nave are probably a century later ; 
the nave arcade is of 16th-century date, and the 
tower was rebuilt in 1665. 

The original church may 
have been a rectangular 12th- 
century building covering the 
area of the present nave, with 
a small square-ended chancel. 
In the 1 3th century a new 
chancel, of which the western 
arch still remains, was built 
round the former one, and in 
the 1 4th century transepts were 
added to the nave, their length 
suggesting that the nave may 
by this time have had aisles. 
A tower may have been built 
towards the end of the I4th or 
beginning of the I5th century 
against the end of the original 
nave. In the early years of 
the 1 6th century the present 
nave arcades of two bays, with 
the clearstory, were erected, 

and the tower, as before state:!, having apparently 
become insecure, was rebuilt in 1665, many of the 
old stones being used. 

The chancel has an east window of three lights 
with modern 14th-century tracery, and an open arch 
on the north and south sides to the organ chamber 
and the south chapel respectively. The chancel arch 
is of two plain chamfered orders with a label of 1 3th- 
century masonry recently reset, and springs from 
half-round piers with a fillet on the face, the capitals 
of which have been renewed. The wall above the 
chancel arch is probably of I 3th-century construction, 
and shows the line of the older roof, which strikes the 
side walls at the level of the crowns of the present 
nave arches. 

The nave arcades are of two bays with pointed 
arches resting on responds, and central piers of 16th- 
-century date consisting of engaged clustered shafts 
with coarsely-moulded capitals and bases, the arch 
mouldings being composed of two rounds and a 
Jiollow. Over each arcade is a clearstory of square- 
headed four-light windows, three on each side. The 
nave roof is modern, of flat pitch, but preserving the 



features of the older one. It consists of four princi- 
pals, one against the tower wall, and one close to the 
chancel arch, with moulded ridge and wall pieces and 
intermediate ribs in the panels. The corbels carrying 
the roof have figures of eight prophets, and the four 
central bosses are carved with (i) a ship, (2) the 
five wounds, (3) a dove, and (4) a hand. 

The north transept, which is entirely rebuilt, has a 
pointed window of three lights with curious tracery 
of flowing type with an external label. It is appa- 
rently original, or at any rate not of recent reproduc- 
tion ; but the jambs and head of the window have 
been restored. The transept has diagonal angle but- 
tresses of two stages, with gabled heads. The north 
aisle has a modern three-light square-headed window 
on the north with net tracery, and a similar flat- 
pointed window at the west end, also modern. 

The south transept is now open to the church for 
its full depth both on the east and west sides, but its 
south wall is of 14th-century date, and has a three- 
light pointed window with peculiar tracery into 
which two human heads are introduced. The whole 
of this wall has been refaced on the outside with red 




RADCLIKFE CHURCH : INTERIOR LOOKING EAST 



sandstone, and the window tracery renewed. On the 
interior the wall retains its ancient facing, and there 
is a 14th-century piscina in the south-east corner. 

The new south aisle replaces one about I o ft. wide 
which was pulled down in the rebuilding of 1872, 
and had a south porch over its doorway. It is lighted 
at the west end by two two-light windows, and on 
the south side by three square-headed traceried win- 
dows of two lights each. Similar windows light the 
modern south chapel, and there is an external door- 
way at its south-west angle. 

The tower, which has a vice in the south-west 
corner, was rebuilt in the 1 7th century, presumably 
carrying out more or less the style of the earlier tower. 
The internal arch is of 15th-century date, and consists 
of two plain chamfered orders, and the two-light west 
window appears to be old work retained in the re- 
building. Externally the tower has a rather stumpy 
appearance, and its three stages are unmarked by any 
horizontal line or string-course. It has diagonal but- 
tresses of seven stages, with plain weatherings, and is 
finished with an embattled parapet with angle pin- 
nacles, and a conical slated roof with a good 1 8th- 

63 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



century vane. In the top stage on the north, west, 
and south sides are three-light windows. Over the 
west door is an ornamental panel with the date 1665, 
and the arms of Beswick 70 inscribed RECTOR CAROLUS 
BESWICKE. The north side has a two-light square- 
headed window on the second stage, immediately 
above which is a stone inscribed EDWARD RATCLIFFE 
1665, and on the south side of the tower is a stone 
bearing the name of Sir Ralph Assheton with the same 
date. The clock-dials on the north and west sides 
dated 1786 were replaced in 1908. The putlog 
holes are a very conspicuous feature. 

The fittings are all modern, but at the west end 
are two oak seats incorporating portions of the 17th- 
century pulpit and reading desk. That on the south 
of the tower arch has five inlaid panels : (i) the 
date 1606 with the Assheton molet below, (2) the 
initials s. R. A. with the Assheton crest (a boar's head 

L. s. 
erased), (3) the Assheton molet with the letters p. 

R. w. 
(probably denoting Leonard Shaw and Robert Walk- 



den, rectors during the 17th-century alterations), (4) 
the initials 1. 1. with a molet between, and (5) the 

letters ' ' probably the initials of churchwardens. 
On the back of the seat on the north side are the 



initials 



R. 
C. B. 




RADCLIFFE CHURCH : FROM THE WEST 



and the date 1665, denoting Charles 

Beswick, rector, and the inscription, which probably 
ran along the upper part of the desk (now in two 
lines), ' All my words that I speak unto thee, receive 
into thine heart with thine ears. Ezekiel III Chap. 
10 verse . . .' The font, which is early modern 
Gothic, has a canopy (dated 1858) raised by a chain 
pulley and cannon-ball weight. There is no ancient 
glass, but Baines, writing in 1833, notices in one of 
the north windows the arms of Radcliffe and the head 
of a queen. Another window on the north side had 
the head of a king, and one of the east windows had 
a boar's head in a shield, and in a window to the 
west was a painting of St. John the Evangelist with a 
chalice in his right hand and a palm in his left. 71 
All this glass has now disappeared. 

Under the altar is an alabaster slab, now very 
much defaced, said to be that of James Radcliffe the 
builder of Radcliffe Tower, but probably that of the 
founder's grandson, the first of the line of Radcliffe 
of Langley. 7 * The figures of a knight and lady 
with the heads of their children below can still 
be traced, and two shields in the upper part, but 
the inscription is illegible. The slab had been 
lost when Baines wrote in 1833, but was recovered 
in the restorations of 1870-3. One of the shields 
has the arms of Radcliffe, and the other is defaced, 
but is said to have had those of Langley. 73 

There are eight bells ; six of these are by Rud- 
hall, but were recast in 1 86 1, and two more added. 
There is a tradition that they came from Middleton. 
The plate consists of a chalice and flagon of 
1754, with the maker's mark T.W. ; and a Bir- 
mingham paten of 1 898 and'cruet of 1 906. There 
is also a chalice similar in design to the first made 
by Oliver and Botsford of Manchester, and two 
silver-plated patens the gift of Anne Bealey, 1868. 
The registers begin in 1559." The tithe maps 
are kept in the vestry. 

The church existed in the 1 2th 
ADVOWSON century, and is first mentioned in 
1 202, when William de Radcliffe, 
lord of the manor, secured from Roger de Middle- 
ton an acknowledgement of his right to present. 75 
From this time the advowson appears to have 
descended with the manor. The only dispute 
recorded took place in 1514, when the feoffees of 
John Radcliffe were hindered in their right, prob- 
ably because the wardship of the heir had been 
granted to Queen Katherine. 76 

The income being very small the benefice was 
omitted in the taxation of 1291, but fifty years 
later the value of the ninth of the sheaves, wool, 
&c., was returned as 33*. 4^." In 1534 the gross 
value was found to be 2 1 ^i. 4^., of which 2/. was 



7* Gules three bezants, a fesse in chief 
or. 

7 1 A drawing of this is given in Baines, 
op. cit. (1836), iii, 8 ; (ed. 1889) ii, 429. 

73 See note in Baines, Lanes. (1889), ii, 
429. 

" 8 There is an illustration of the slab in 
Baines, Lanes. (1836), iii, 9; (1889) ii, 



429. Dr. Whitaker gave what he could 
decipher of the inscription as ' Orate pr. 
aia. Jacobi de RadclifF ... qu ... 
p'pietur Deus.' 

74 For extracts see W. Nicholls, Hist. 
and Trad, of Radcltff?, 92-106. 

7 s Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 10. An assize of 'last presen- 

64 



tation ' had been summoned, so that it 
would appear at least one rector had been 
appointed. On the other hand, as the 
parish and manor boundaries coincide, it 
is unlikely that the former is older than 
the latter. 

7 6 Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 117, m. 7. 

77 Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 39. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



RADCLIFFE 



paid to the archdeacon for synodals and procurations/ 8 
The Commonwealth Commissioners in 1650 found the 
income to be about 50 a year ; in addition Colonel 
Assheton, lord of the manor and patron, had demesne 



At the beginning of the next century the value had 
risen to .90, of which more than a third was the 
rent of the glebe. 80 It is now 950 a year ; 81 Sir 
Frederick Johnstone, by purchase from the Earl of 



lands worth _i 50 a year for which he paid no tithe. 79 Wilton, is at present the patron. 



The following is a list of the rectors : 

Institution Name 

Robert 89 

John de Hulton M . . 
Richard de Radcliffe M 
Roger de Freckleton M 
Thomas de Clipston M , 



c. 1240 . . . 
oc. 1292 . 
14 June 1310 
14 Jan. 1318-19 
1 8 May 1322 
21 Jan. 1363-4 . 

i Apr. 1367 
1 8 Feb. 1367-8 . 
oc. 1374 . . . 



Patron 



William de Radcliffe 



13 Nov. 1389 

9 Mar. 1407-8. 
31 Jan. 1437-8 
23 May 1459 

6 Aug. 1481 

23 Feb. 1483-4 . 
1 8 July 1486. . 

7 Dec. 1496 

14 Nov. 1534 

4 Apr. 1538 . 

1559 . . . 

4 Feb. 1583-4 , 



Robert de Newton 87 Richard de Radcliffe 

Alexander de Pilkington M . . . " 

Richard de Radcliffe 89 .... Richard de Radcliffe 

Richard de Clipston * 

John Fitheler 91 

Roger de Lache B * James de Radcliffe . 

Christopher Walker M 

Richard Forth M Richard Radcliffe . 

Oliver Smethurst 9S James Radcliffe . . 

John Bendelouse 96 John Radcliffe . . 

Thomas Blakelowe 97 ,, . 

Hugh Radcliffe 98 Richard Radcliffe . 

Roger Longworth 99 . 

Richard Beswick 10 

Thomas Mawdsley 10! Earl of Sussex . . 

Robert Ashton 10> . . 

John Ashton m 



Cause of Vacancy 



d. J. de Hulton 
exc. R. de Radcliffe 
d. R. de Freckleton 
d. T. de Clipston 
d. R. de Newton 
res. A. de Pilkington 



exc. with J. Fitheler 
d. R. de Lache 

d. R. Forth 
res. O. Smethnrst 
d. J. Bendelouse 
d. T. Blakelow 
d. H. Radcliffe 



d. R. Beswick 
res. T. Mawdsley 



Leonard Shaw 1M Richard Assheton 



d. Joh. Ashton 



7 8 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 226. 
The total -was made up of the value of 
the glebe-land, 401.; tithe of grain, 8 10*.; 
tithe of lambs, &c., linseed and hemp, 
and Easter roll, 52*. 40". ; oblations, 

& 

' 9 Commonwealth Ch. Sur-v. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 29. The glebe-lands 
were -worth 20 a year ; rents, 30*. ; 
tithes, ^28 ioj. There was no need of 
another church, but part of Pilkington 
might be joined to the parish, as a number 
of the inhabitants used to attend Radcliffe 
Church. 

80 Gastrell, Notitia Ceitr, (Chet. Soc.), 
ii, 158. The glebe, 24 acres, let for 33, 
and ten cottages brought in 311. 8</. 
There were three churchwardens and two 
assistants ; the retiring churchwardens 
used to nominate six for the following 
year, of whom the rector chose one and 
the parishioners two. 

81 Mancb. Dioc. Cal. 

82 Robert, rector of Radcliffe, attested a 
Lacy charter printed by Whitaker, 
Wballey, ii, 226, but it may not be the 
Lancashire parish. 

88 John de Hulton, rector of Radcliffe, 
attested a family charter in 1292 ; Hulton 
Fed. 2. In 1298 was cited a quitclaim 
by John son of David de Hulton, rector 
of Radcliffe, to his brother Richard ; De 
Banco R. 125, m. nod. 

84 Lich. Epis. Reg. i, 8, fol. 58 5 the 
bishop granted him 'the custody of the 
sequestration ' on 8 May. The previous 
rector died on the eve of Palm Sunday. 
The new rector was an acolyte ; he was 
ordained subdeacon early in the following 
year, and deacon in 1315 ; ibid, i, fol. 
114, i3 

85 He exchanged Bury for Radcliffe 
with Richard de Radcliffe ; ibid, i, fol. 
86. 



88 Ibid, ii, fol. 99; the new rector was a 
priest. 

87 Ibid, iv, fol. 81* ; he is called ' chap- 
lain.' He died on the Monday after 
St. Gregory, 13667. 

88 Ibid, iv, fol. 83 ; 'son of Thomas de 
Pilkington ; having the first clerical 
tonsure." In the following January the 
Bishop of Lichfield granted letters dimis- 
sory to Alexander de Pilkington, acolyte, 
rector of Radcliffe, for his promotion to 
all holy orders ; ibid, v, fol. i8. Alex- 
ander resigned a few days afterwards. 

89 Ibid, iv, fol. 83 ; he was a priest 

90 He may be the same as Richard de 
Radcliffe. He was rector in 1374, and 
one of the feoffees of Ralph de Langton ; 
De Banco R. 456, m. 243 ; Dtp. Keeper" t 
Rep. xxxiii, App. 6. 

91 He became vicar of Rochdale, and 
died in 1402. 

98 Lich. Epis. Reg. vi, fol. 54; here called 
Roger son of William de Manchester, but 
elsewhere Roger de Lache. He had been 
vicar of Rochdale since 1369. His will, 
dated 28 February 1407-8, and proved a 
year later, is printed in Various Coll. (Hist. 
MSS. Com.), ii, 16 ; he desired to be 
buried at Radcliffe, and in addition to 
legacies to friends, he left bequests to the 
churches of Radcliffe, Rochdale, Saddle- 
worth, and Manchester, and to Upholland 
Priory. His books included Stimulus 
Conscience, Vite Patrum, Homilies, the 
Breviaries, an Ordinale, and a Manuale. 

98 Lich. Epis. Reg. vii, fol. 96* ; a 
' chaplain.' 

94 Ibid, ix, fol. 23* ; a priest. 

95 Ibid, xii, fol. i b ; a chaplain. 

98 Ibid. fol. 113*5 a chaplain. He 
granted an annual pension to his prede- 
cessor for life ; ibid. fol. 1 14. 

W Ibid. fol. 1 1 6b. 

98 Ibid. fol. 1 2o. 

65 



99 Ibid, xiii, fol. 230; a priest. He 
died in or before 1514, when the above- 
recorded dispute as to the advowson 
occurred ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 117, m. 7. 

The succession of rectors is given in 
the Coekey Moor Examinations (Chet. Soc. 
Misc.), 10. 

100 He may have succeeded Longworth 
in 1514. His will is printed in Piccope, 
Wills (Chet. Soc.), ii, 144; he made a 
number of bequests to Middleton Church, 
but none to Radcliffe ; his father, Roger 
Beswick, is named as executor, together 
with John Cowope his brother-in-law, 
and Edward and Ralph his brothers. 

101 Lich. Epis. Reg. xiii-xiv, fol. 34. 
He was chantry priest at Middleton. His 
predecessor left him, among other priests, 
i6</. to say dirge and mass and pray for 
his soul. His own will, dated 1554, is 
printed in Raines' Chant, i, 1 24 ; he left 
to Radcliffe Church a vestment of baudekin 
and flowers. He may have been put into 
Radcliffe until his successor was old 
enough to be instituted. 

103 Lich. Epis. Reg. xiii-xiv, fol. 36^ ; an 
acolyte. He became rector of Middleton 
in 1541, and is supposed to have resigned 
in 1559. 

108 Also rector of Middleton, compound- 
ing for first-fruits for both on 29 Nov. 
1559; Lanes, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 409. He was 
buried at Middleton 9 Oct. 1584. 

104 Act Bks. at Chester. Shaw com- 
pounded for first-fruits 12 Mar. 1584-5 ; 
Lanes, and Ches. Rec. ii, 410. He contri- 
buted to the clerical subsidies in 1620, 
1622, and 1624; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 54, 66, 80. There is an 
unsatisfactory notice of him in Chet. Misc. 
( Chet. Soc.), v. He married Mary daugh- 
ter of Peter Heywood ; O. Heywood, 
Diaries, i, 1 1 6. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Institution 
24 May 1624 

4 Feb. 1637-8 
c. 1644 . . 
27 Oct. 1662. 

8 June 1698 
23 Jan. 1698-9 

5 Oct. 1716. 
1 8 Mar. 1719 

14 July 1724. 

6 Apr. 1757 

15 Oct. 1757 
i Oct. 1784 
i Feb. 1839 

1867 . . 
26 June 1896 



Name 
Robert Walkden 10S . . . . 

Peter Shaw, 106 M.A 

Thomas Pyke, lor B.A 

Charles Beswick 108 

Charles Pinkney, 109 B.A. . . . 

Roger Dale 110 

Edward King, 111 M.A. . . . 

Henry Lister, 11 * M.A 

William Lawson, 113 B.A. . . . 
Richard Assheton, 114 M.A. . . 
Richard Wroe (Walton), 1 " M.A. 
Thomas Foxley, 116 M.A. . . . 
Nathaniel Milne, 117 M.A. . . 
Henry Arthur Starkie, 118 M.A. . 
Stanley Swinburne, 119 M.A. . . 



Patron 

Robert Holt, &c. . 
Ralph Assheton 

>> 

Sir Ralph Assheton 



Lord Grey de Wilton 
Earl of Wilton . 



Cause of Vacancy 
d. Leon. Shaw 
d. R. Walkden 

exp. T. Pyke 
d. C. Beswick 
depr. C. Pinkney 
d. Roger Dale 
d. E. King 
d. H. Lister 
d. W. Lawson 
res. R. Assheton 
res. R. Wroe Walt 
d. T. Foxley 
res. N. Milne 
res. H. A. Starkie 



As the benefice was of small value and the people 
few, it is probable that even before the Reformation 
the clerical staff consisted of the rector and his curate 
only. 1 * There was no endowed chantry. Little is 
known of the rectors, but some of them may have 
been pluralists. The church does not seem to have 
been very well furnished in I552. 1 * 1 About this time 



the rectors of Radcliffe were also rectors of Middle- 
ton, 12 * but there seems usually to have been a resident 
curate. The later resident rectors seem to have 
managed without a curate. 1 * 3 As at Middleton a new 
rector, a Protestant, appears in 1559, but the reason 
is not ascertained. 1 * 4 The later history has been un- 
eventful, with the exception of the Commonwealth 



105 Compounded for first-fruits 25 May 
1624. The institutions from this time 
are printed in Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Notes, 
from the Inst. Bks. P.R.O. The patrons 
in 1624 were Robert Holt, John Grccn- 
halgh, and Robert Heywood, by grant 
of Sir Richard Assheton ; the Earl of 
Nottingham was impropriator. There 
must be some error in the last state- 
ment. 

Robert Walkden was schoolmaster at 
Middleton in 1599. He contributed ship- 
money, &c., in 1634, and later; Misc. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 95, 

112. 

106 The Church P. at Chester begin 
here. Compounded for first-fruits 9 Mar. 
1637-8. He was of Trinity Hall and 
Magdalene College, Cambridge ; Cooper, 
A then. Cantab, ii, 493. 

There is a very unfavourable account 
of him, alike as to character and conduct, 
by Canon Raines in Manch. Fellows (Chet. 
Soc.), ii, 135-7. He was fellow from 
1634 till 1645, when the chapter was 
dissolved by Parliament. Nothing is 
known of his subsequent career. 

W Possibly of New Inn Hall, Oxford, 
B.A., 1634 ; Foster, Alumni. In 1650 it 
was recorded that ' about six years ago ' 
Ralph Assheton of Middleton, patron, had 
bestowed the parsonage of Radcliffe, ' with 
the benefices and appurtenances thereunto 
belonging,' on Mr. Thomas Pyke, B.A., 
who was ' a godly preaching minister, well 
qualified in life and conversation ' ; Com- 
monwealth Ch. Suri>. 29. He was a mem- 
ber of the Bury Classis from its forma- 
tion in 1647. The first-fruits, however, 
were not paid till 31 Jan. 165x5 Lanct. 
and Ches. Rec. ii, 414. He signed the 
'Harmonious Consent' of 1648. 

After his expulsion from the rectory in 
1662 he continued to minister to Non- 
conformist congregations in the neigh- 
bourhood until his death in 1672 ; Night- 
ingale, Lanes. Nonconf. iii, 216. See also 
Manch. Classis (Chet. Soc.), iii, 444 ; Bury 
Classis, ii, 251, and passim. 'Good Mr. 
Pyke' is mentioned in O. Heywood's 
Diaries. 

108 He had been ordained deacon and 
priest on 13 Dec. 1656 by the Bishop of 



Ardfert and Aghadoe, and must therefore 
have been an episcopalian on principle. 
Before his presentation to Radcliffe he had 
received the Archbishop of York's licence 
to preach in the province ; Stratford's 
Visit. List, 1691. He was, however, 
found ' conformable ' in 1689 ; Hist. MSS. 
Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 230. See Raines, 
Byrom Fed. (Chet. Soc.). He rebuilt the 
tower and did other reparation in the 
church. 

In 1665 he made 'bitter complaints' 
to the justices regarding 'conventicles,' 
but they ' put him off" ; Oliver Heywood, 
Diaries, i, 197. He was suspended by the 
bishop in 1671, for, though' a scholar and 
no mean poet,' he was ' a dissipated and 
immoral man ' ; Raines MSS. (Chet. 
Lib.), iv, 203. He was again in trouble 
in 1685, sentence of deprivation being 
pronounced ; Church P. at Chester. 

Administration of his effects was granted 
in 1703. 

109 Of Christ's College, Cambridge, B.A. 
1683. 

110 In 1691 Roger Dale was curate of 
Northenden ; he had been curate of Den- 
ton ; Booker, Demon, 88. Administration 
of his effects was granted in 1716 ; see 
Earwaker, East Ches. i, 418. 

111 As B.A. of Trinity College, Dublin, 
he was admitted a pensioner of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, in 1715; M.A. Cam- 
bridge, same year ; Admissions St. John's C. 
ii, 220. There is a monument to him in 
the church. 

112 Educated at University College, Ox- 
ford, M.A. 1718 ; Foster, Alumni. He 
was buried at Radcliffe 21 June 1724. 

118 Educated at Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford ; B.A. 1711. He bequeathed 10 
to the poor. His will shows that he had 
a brother Richard, vicar of Bosham, Sus- 
sex ; Mr. W. F. Irvine's note. 

114 Resigned this benefice for Middleton; 
see the account of the rectors of that 
parish. 

115 Of Brasenose College, Oxford ; M.A. 
1725 ; Foster, Alumni. Only son of 
Thomas Wroe, fellow of Manchester, and 
grandson of Richard Wroe, warden of 
Manchester. He succeeded in 1784 to 
Marsden Hall, Whalley, and resigned his 

66 



benefice ; see If ardent of Manch. (Chet. 
Soc.), ii, 155. In 1763 he wrote as 
follows to George Kenyon : ' My friend 
Smethurst plays his old game ; he has 
sowed his grain in so many different fields 
that he has in some of them only nine 
riders a rider is ten sheaves- in others 
nineteen, and *e on. Another litigious 
fellow has bound up all his oats into nine 
large riders. They will say corn has 
usually been set up in riders in this coun- 
ty ; but if I do not gather it of these 
people in the sheaf I am precluded from 
receiving tithe ' ; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. 
xiv, App. iv, 499. 

116 Son of Thomas Foxley, fellow of Man- 
chester. Educated at Manchester Gram- 
mar School and Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford ; M.A. 1780. He also held the 
curacy of Chowbent in Leigh and the 
vicarage of Batley, Yorkshire ; Foster, 
Alumni. He resided at Unsworth. In 
1824 the parsonage at Radcliffe was 
occupied by the Rev. Thomas Parkinson, 
who had a school there. 

U 7 Educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge ; M.A. 1835. He restored the 
church, adding the north transept. He 
died at Leamington in 1892. 

U8 Educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 
M.A. 1869. Vicar of Padiham 1863 to 
1865 ; and of Stainforth 1865 to 1867. 

119 Educated at Worcester College, Ox- 
ford ; M.A. 1883. Vicar of St. Mar- 
garet's, Prestwich, 1885 to 1891 ; rector 
of St. John's, Broughton, Manchester, 
1891. 

no The Clergy List of 1541-2 (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), and the Visit. Lists 
1548 to 1565 mention only a curate in 
addition to the rector. 

121 Ch. Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 18. There 
were three sets of vestments, three bells, 
two hand-bells, &c 

1W From 1547 to 1584. 

183 E.g. there was no assistant minister 
in 1650. There was one in 1620; Misc. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 54. 

124 The Visitation List names Laurence 
Pilkington as curate in 1563, while in 
1565 the rector was at Durham, so that 
John Ashton appears to have been of the 
extremer sort of Protestants 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



RADCLIFFE 



period ; at the beginning of this the rector, Peter 
Shaw, disappeared ; at the end of it his successor, 
Thomas Pyke, was ejected. 

There was a school of some kind in the I 7th cen- 
tury, for the schoolmasters are mentioned. 125 

During the last century a number of places 
of worship were erected to accommodate the in- 
creasing population. For the Established worship 
St. Thomas's, Radcliffe Bridge, was built in 1819 
and rebuilt in l86^., lK and St. Andrew's, Black 
Lane, in iSyy; 117 the patronage of the first is 
now vested, like that of the parish church, in Sir 
F. Johnstone, and that of the second in the rector 
of Radcliffe. 

The Wesleyans, 1 * 8 Primitive Methodists, and Metho- 



dist New Connexion have chapels. The Congrega- 
tionalists have a chapel, built in iSjz. 129 The Baptist 
chapel dates from 1880. 

The Society of Friends has a meeting-place, erected 
in 1892." 

The Roman Catholic church of St. Mary and 
St. Philip Neri was built in i894. 131 

The principal charity is that 
CHARITIES founded by James Walsh Howarth 
in 1886 ; he bequeathed 3,000, 
partly for church purposes, but as to half for the 
benefit of the poor. 133 The poor also receive 7 from 
the benefaction of John Guest, 133 and the highways 
have 1 5^. from a quarry allotment. 134 Some older 
gifts have been lost. 134 



PRESTWICH WITH OLDHAM 1 



I. 

PRESTWICH 
GREAT HEATON 



LITTLE HEATON 

ALKRINGTON 

TONGE 



PILKINGTON 

II. 
OLDHAM 



CROMPTON 

ROYTON 

CHADDERTON 



This large parish, stretching for 1 3 miles from east 
to west, was probably in earlier times still larger, as 
the receipt of tithes from part of Tottington in Bury 
and the claim to church land in Radcliffe suggest that 
Bury and Radcliffe, and therefore Middleton also, 
were at one period under the care of the priest or 
colony of priests who gave a name to Prestwich. 
Not only did the three parishes just named become 
independent, but Oldham also, though remaining 
nominally a chapelry to the present day, early secured 
a practical independence for the eastern part of 
the parish. 1 Oldham Church is 7 miles from the 
parish church. The area of the whole is 22,022^ 
acres, including Prestwich 9,983 acres, and Oldham 
12,039^. The geology of the entire parish is repre- 
sented by the Coal Measures, and on the eastward 
side of a line drawn from High Crompton to Green- 



acres, of the Lower Coal Measures or Gannister 
Beds. 

The Roman road from Manchester to Ribchester 
passed through Prestwich and Pilkington ; that from 
Manchester to York passed through the southern part 
of Oldham, where Roman coins have been found. 5 

The parish has no united history. In the western 
portion the Pilkingtons ranked among the great 
families of the county, until their adherence to 
Richard III and the Yorkist side brought about their 
overthrow. The other manorial families were either 
non-resident or of only local importance. 

Though the Elizabethan reformation found the 
rector of Prestwich at first reluctantly compliant and 
then an avowed opponent, there is little evidence of 
opposition to the change of religion ; recusants were 
few, and the district soon became strongly Puritan. 



145 Dr. Bon (?) ' in 1639 ; Mite. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 125. Abraham 
Mather was licensed in 1662, and re- 
mained till his death in 1699 ; Stratford's 
Visit. List, 1691. There was no per- 
manent endowment ; Gastrell, Notitia, ii, 
1 60. 

126 A district was assigned to it in 1839 ; 
Lond.Gaz,$ July 1839. The old church 
was ' on the model of an eastern pagoda ' ; 
Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), iii, 10. 

137 A district was assigned in 1878; 
Land. Cast. 24 May. 

1! The Wesleyan Chapel, Radcliffe 
Close, erected about 1 800, benefited under 
the will cf Richard Bealey, conditionally 
on 'the usual morning prayers of the 
Church of England ' being read ; End. 
Char. Reft. 1901, p. 4. St. Paul's Wes- 
leyan Chapel, Black Lane, commenced in 
hired rooms in 1881 ; church built 1901. 

129 Preaching had begun in 1838, but 
the present church represents a secession 
from Stand Chapel in 1 847 ; a school- 
room was opened the following year and 
a church formed in 1849 ; Nightingale, 
Lanes. Nonconf. iii, 233-7 

180 Information of Mr. Robert Mus- 
champ, who states that the first meeting 
of the Society of Friends at Radcliffe 
began in 1676 ; the present one began 



in 1886. In 1689 there was a meeting 
at John Townson's house in Radcliffe ; 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiy, App. iv, 230. 

181 The first chapel wa opened in 
1865, the mission being served from 
Ramsbottom. A second chapel was 
opened in 1878 ; Kelly, Engl. Cath. 
Missions, 326. 

us T nc account of the charities is from 
the Endowed Charities Report for Rad- 
cliffe, 1901 ; in it is reprinted the re- 
port of 1828. Mr. Howarth's other gifts 
were 1,500 for the choir and 500 for 
the Sunday school treat. The income 
of the gift to the poor is called the Aged 
Poor Fund, and is distributed by the 
churchwardens. 

188 An estate in Buersill and Castleton 
was left in 1653 by John Guest for the 
benefit of the poor of Radcliffe and Middle- 
ton. A moiety of the net income, now 
6 141., is paid to the rector of Rad- 
cliffe, who gives z each to the vicars 
of St. Thomas's and St Andrew's, and 
pays the residue to the poor fund of the 
parish church. Formerly the income was 
disposed of, according to the testator's 
wish, in a distribution of linen to the 
poor, and this course is closely followed 
by the vicar of St. Andrew's, who gives 
flannel. 

6 7 



184 At the inclosure made in 1 8 1 2 an acre 
of land was appropriated from the common 
for a public stone quarry for the repair of 
the roads. The suitable material has long 
been exhausted, and the land is let at 
8 51. a year, the district council as the 
highway authority claiming it. 

185 Charities founded by Nicholas Gas- 
kell and by William Brown at the 
beginning of the iSth century are men- 
tioned by Bishop Gastrell in 1718 ; Notitia, 
ii, 1 60. 

Dr. Wroe in 1718 gave 10 to the 
poor, the income to be distributed on 
Christmas Day, and William Lawson, 
rector, in 1757 bequeathed a further 
sum. In 1828 it was supposed that the 
capital had been expended in improve- 
ments of the Guest estate, 1 of the in- 
come from this having for long been 
treated separately, but the charities are 
now regarded as lost. In 1798 William 
Yates left 5 to augment the Christ- 
mas charity ; it was lent to Mrs. Bealey 
of Worth, who in 1828 paid 5*. a year, 
but her representatives had discontinued 
the payment before 1862. 

1 For parish map see Radcliffe. 

9 In the Charity Rep. of 1826 Oldham 
is treated as a separate parish. 

8 Watkin, Rom. Lanes, 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 






Nevertheless, it is one of the few parishes in which 
any resistan:e was made, with a show of popular 
support, to the abolition of the Prayer Book and 
Episcopacy ; but even this resistance seems to have 
been due less to principle than to a strong antipathy 
to the domination of the Manchester Classis. In 
1662 the rector complied, but the curate of Oldham 
was expelled. The chapels at Stand and Greenacres 
bear testimony to the existence of convinced Non- 
conformists, as does also the Quaker meeting-house at 
Royton. 4 

The Young Pretender's march through the district 
has left a trace in the story of the arrest of two of 
his officers in Prestwich. 5 Volunteers were raised in 
1779 and 1803, and again in 1859.* 

Under the Redistribution Act of 1885 Prestwich 
gives a name to one of the Parliamentary divisions of 
south-east Lancashire, returning one member. 

The Prestwich part of the parish remained com- 
paratively rural till recently ; but some sections have 
now become manufacturing, and others have practi- 
cally merged in Manchester. The Oldham part, on 
the other hand, early felt the manufacturing impulse, 
and has steadily gone on increasing its mines and 
mills, till it has become the predominant partner. 
The following is the present apportionment of agricul- 
tural land in the whole parish : Arable land, 3,683 
acres ; permanent grass, 11,395 ; woods and planta- 
tions, 367. The details are thus given 7 : 



Prestwich . 
Alkrington . 
Tonge 
Outwood 
Unsworth 
Unsworth 
Whitefield . 
Oldham . . 
Crompton . 
Royton . 
Royton . 
Chadderton . 



For the County Lay of 1624. Prestwich proper 
was divided into two parts, each paying equally, so 
that Prestwich and Pilkington each paid 2 12s. \\d. 
when the hundred paid jioo. Oldham township 
paid l 1 8s. 8</., Royton 19*. 4^., Chadderton and 
Crompton i gs. each, or a fourth part of the con- 
tribution from Oldham, which for this purpose was 
considered a parish. 8 To the more ancient fifteenth, 
out of 4.1 I4_r. \d, for the hundred, Prestwich con- 
tributed i8/., Pilkington 23*., Oldham ijs., Royton 
I is. 4<, Crompton 13^., and Chadderton 2 is. 8</. 9 

The church of Sr. MART is situated 

CHURCH on the south-west side of the town on 

an eminence overlooking the valley of 



\ 



Arable 


Grass 


Woods, &c. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


506 


1,697 


125 


113 


556 


IO 


IO 


139 





580 


886 


213 


679 


708 


16 


1,207 


294 


2 


431 


622 


I 


3 


1,562 





3 


2,002 





5* 


574 





ii 


748 





88 


1,607 






the Irwell, set in very picturesque surroundings. It 
consists of a chancel with organ chamber and quire 
vestry on the north, and a chapel on the south side, 
nave with north and south aisles, each with a chapel 
at its east end, north and south porches, and west 
tower. The main body of the church belongs to the 
1 6th century, and the tower to the 1 5 th, while the 
whole of the east end, including the chapels at the 
end of the aisles, is modern. 

The tower presumably belongs to a 15th-century 
building whose east wall was about where the chancel 
arch now is, and whose width was the same as at 
present. This 1 5 th-century church had a chancel 
about 34 ft. long occupying the space of the two 
eastern bays of the present nave, and a nave of three 
bays, the lines of the arcade of which are still re- 
tained. The aisles were probably of the present 
width, but whether the chapels at their east ends 
belonged to this building in the first instance it is 
impossible to say. The aisles probably overlapped 
the chancel for about 1 5 ft., and may have been 
extended and carried further eastward when the 
chantries were founded. At some time in the first 
half of the 1 6th century the chancel, both arcades of 
the nave, and the north and south aisles were rebuilt, 
destroying all traces of the former work. The 1 6th- 
century church also had a south porch and a low 
vestry east of the chancel. There is no record as to 
when this rebuilding took place, and the work itself 
is of a very plain description, and does not help much 
in fixing a date. At first sight the clearstory seems 
to be of later date than the arcade, but the evidence 
of the building appears to indicate that they were 
built at the same period. The rebuilding left the 
church pretty much as it was till the restorations and 
additions of the igth century, with chapels the full 
length of the chancel on each side, and 6 ft. wider than 
the north and south aisles. The chancel had a traceried 
window of seven lights under a pointed head, possibly 
belonging to the 15th-century church. The east 
vestry was a low building whose roof was below the 
sill of the chancel window and was entered from the 
church, as at Sefton, by a door on the south side of 
the altar. The south porch was rebuilt in 1756, and 
at the same time, according to an inscription upon 
the porch, the church ' was raised.' This probably 
refers to the raising of the aisle walls in order to 
obtain light for the galleries, though there is only 
record of one gallery being erected at that time, and 
that probably in the north chapel. 11 The line of the 
original aisle roofs may still be seen outside at the 
west end. In 1782 there were some repairs done to 
the tower, which was reported to be decaying fast. 
In 1803 the east vestry was rebuilt, but it seems to 
have been destroyed about 1860 in order to effect a 
lengthening of the chancel on its site, having a vestry 
on the north side. In the same year the body of the 
church was repewed, and in 1872 a new chapel (the 



* See also the account of Shaw Chapel. 

* See p. 8 1 of the Hist, and Traditions 
of Prestivscb (1905), by the Rev. W. 
Nicholls, Congregational Minister, who 
has also written accounts of Ravenstone- 

. dale and Mallerstang Forest. 
\ Ibid. 59-66. 
" N 7 Inf. from Bd. of Agric. (1905). 

8 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 15, 
**.. \ Ibid. 1 8. 

10 The supposed dedication to St. Bar- 



tholomew was an error which arose in 
the 1 8th century; Booker, Mem. of the 
Ch. in Prestvticb, 54 ; Nicholls, op. cit. 
67. 

11 1756 ; faculty granted to Sir Thomas 
Grey Egerton to erect a gallery 26 ft. by 
14 ft. at his own expense. 1791 ; faculty 
granted to twelve parishioners for erect- 
ing a gallery on the north side of the 
church 28 ft. front by 15 ft. at east and 
12 ft. at west end, and to raise the roof 

68 



of the north aisle. 1 800 ; faculty granted 
to Rev. J. Lyon and others who had 
erected [the previous year] a south-west 
gallery 1 6 ft. by 12 ft. to let and sell 
same, Church-wardens' AccK. (Booker). 
None of these measurements fits the 
present galleries. The gallery in the 
north (Wilton) chapel was taken down 
when the chapel was rebuilt. The west 
gallery, erected in 1760, was taken down 
in 1882. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



Birch chapel) was built south of the extended chancel 
and at the east end of the south (Lever) chapel, which 
was rebuilt two years later. In 1882-3 the tower 
was underpinned and repaired, the roof of the nave 
restored, and new roofs put on the north and south 
aisles, and in 1888-9 the Wilton (north) chapel was 
rebuilt, and a chancel with organ chamber and vestry 
on the north side erected, eastward of the line of the 
original church. 11 

The building is constructed of red sandstone, which 
has been considerably renewed from time to time, and 
the roofs are covered with stone slates. Those of the 
original structure, including the aisles, have over- 
hanging eaves, but the north and south chapels had 
straight parapets, and these have been retained in the 
rebuilding, and are also used in the new chancel and 
buildings north of it. The chancel has a clearstory, 
and the roof is slightly higher than that of the nave. 
The organ-chamber on the north is of the full height 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

orders, on octagonal piers with chamfered bases but 
without capitals, the inner order dying into the pier 
at a height of 1 5 ft. from the floor. The two eastern 
bays of the nave occupy the position of the old 
chancel, and the third pier from the west on the 
north side is wider than the other two, marking the 
position of an ancient pier containing the staircase to 
the rood-loft. It has been entirely rebuilt, and has a 
capital on the south side of which is carved a shield held 
by two angels. The original staircase pier was 3 ft. 7 in. 
square, and the present pier retains this dimension 
from east to west, but is only 2 ft. deep, the width of 
the other piers of the nave." In the 16th-century 
rebuilding this pier seems to have been left standing 
and the new arcade set out westward between it and 
the tower. There being no corresponding wide pier 
on the south side of the chancel it resulted that in the 
setting out of the south arcade the spacing of the 
arches was slightly different, and that the piers did 



BIRCH 

LEVER CHAPEL CHAPEL 




PLAN OF PRESTWICH CHURCH 



of the chancel, forming a kind of transept, and the 
vestry in the angle thus formed north of the chancel 
is a lower building of two stories. 

The chancel, which measures 40 ft. by 22 ft. 6 in., 
together with the whole of the eastern part of the 
building, has no archaeological interest. The east 
window is one of seven lights under a segmental 
head and with straight uncusped bar tracery above. 
A modern pointed arch of two moulded orders 
without capitals now divides the chancel from the 
nave, and the west half of the chancel has an arch 
on each side, that on the north opening to the 
organ-chamber, and that on the south to the Birch 
chapel. 

The nave now consists of five bays with an arcade 
of pointed arches on each side, of two chamfered 



not come opposite to those on the north side. The 
nave, which is about 80 ft. long and 20 ft. 6 in. 
wide, 14 has a continuous range of two-light square- 
headed clearstory windows, and a flat panelled roof 
much restored but retaining a good deal of its original 
16th-century timber. The Wilton chapel occupies 
the two eastern bays of the aisle on the north side, 
and being entirely rebuilt in 1888 is of no particular 
interest. Its walls are considerably higher than those 
of the aisle, and its windows loftier, and it has a 
separate open timbered gable roof. The chapel is lit 
by three windows of three lights, with plain tracery, 
and has a door at its north-west corner. The eastern- 
most arch of the nave is new, and springs from 
corbelled shafts on each side. The first pier from the 
east seems to be the west portion of a former length 



13 A plan of the church as it was in 
1852 is in Booker, Mem. of the Cb. in 
Presftvicb, 54. 



18 In the middle of the igth century 
the pulpit stood on the south side of this 

6 9 



pier, through which access was gained to 
it by means of a staircase. 

14 The original nave was 48 ft. 6 in. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



of straight wall to the original chancel, and measures 
3 ft. loin, on the face, its east half being new. The 
west half and the arch on that side are old, and the 
pier has on its north face a recess with a pointed head 
sunk in the stone above, which was perhaps a cupboard 
in the original chapel at the end of the north aisle. 
On the south side of the nave a similar pier also marks 
the end of the outer wall of the old chancel. The 
arch to the east of it is much lower than the other 
arches of the nave, and springs from moulded half 
capitals on each side, that on the east forming a respond, 
and that on the west being set in the eastern part of 
the pier. Both capitals are new, but appear to have 
been suggested by a mutilated fragment at the back of 
the first pier, which may be seen from the gallery in 
the Lever chapel. The arch, though apparently of 
16th-century date, must have been a later insertion 
when the chapel was extended eastward, a blocked 
window still visible in the wall above proving it to 
have been at one time an outside wall. 

The Lever chapel, the floor of which is a foot 
above that of the nave, occupies a position on the 
south side similar to that of the Wilton chapel on 
the north, but has a lean-to roof, plastered between the 
spars. It retains its gallery, which has a front of 
poor early 19th-century gothic panelling, and is lit 
by two four-light windows on the south side. There 
is a door with a semi-octagonal porch and gallery stair- 
case in the south-west corner, an addition to the plan 
of the chapel in its rebuilding of 1874. The nave 
aisles proper are 1 2 ft. wide, and have each two 
pointed windows opposite the second and third bays 
respectively of three cinquefoiled lights with hollow 
chamfered mullions running up to the heads. The 
north aisle has a doorway opposite the first bay from 
the west, with a modern north porch, and at the 
west end is lit by a two-light pointed window with 
trefoiled lights and quatrefoil over in the style of 
the 1 4th century, with external chamfered jambs and 
head and without a label, said to be a copy of an old 
window formerly in the same position. The south 
aisle has a doorway with a four-centred arch, under an 
open porch, opposite the first bay, and a three-light 
window at the west end. The porch which, as 
already stated, was rebuilt in 1756, has a semicircular 
arch on imposts, and a stone gable with date and in- 
scription. There is a stone bench on each side, and 
the door is an old one studded with nails. There are 
iron gates to the outer doorway. Each aisle has a 
second set of three square-headed windows of three 
lights each, placed high up in the wall to light the 
galleries. The galleries themselves are good specimens 
of 1 8th-century woodwork, with panelled fronts above 
a classic cornice. The aisle roofs are modern with 
exposed rafters and purlins and curved wind braces. 
A stone half-arch is carried across each aisle at the 
east end between the chapels and the aisle proper, and 
opposite the piers from which the old chancel arch 
would spring. 

The tower, which is of three stages, is 19 ft. 
square outside, and rises 42 ft. above the ridge of the 



roof, its total height being 86 ft. It has buttresses of 
seven stages with moulded set-offs set square at the 
angles, the top and bottom stages having panelled 
fronts, and the buttresses finish in gablets under an 
embattled parapet. There is an external vice in the 
north-east corner to the height of the ringers' story, 
finished with an embattled top lighted by quatrefoil 
openings. It is entered from the outside, but is a 
modern addition, the original staircase having been in 
the south-west angle. The tower arch is now opened 
out to the nave and the west window exposed. The 
arch has two chamfered orders of original masonry, 
but the jambs, which have moulded bases and capitals, 
are new. 1 * The west door is a restoration with con- 
tinuous mouldings to jambs and head, and a string- 
course over. Above there is a new window in the 
style of the 1 5th century, of three lights with traceried 
head. Above this again in the ringing chamber is a 
modern square-headed window of two trefoiled lights, 
replacing a smaller single-light window which formerly 
lit the chamber already mentioned in the note. The 
ringers' room also has a single-light window on the 
south side, and above this, facing north, south, and 
east, is a clock, placed here in 1 8 1 1 . The north and 
south sides of the tower are plain and unrelieved up 
to this height, but above the clock is a moulded string- 
course on each face. The belfry stage above has a 
three-light louvred window on each side with traceried 
head and hood-mould, and the tower is crowned by 
an embattled and panelled parapet, originally with 
angle and intermediate pinnacles, above a moulded 
string-course with gargoyles at the angles. 16 The 
tower has a pyramidal roof covered with grey stone 
slates, and a good 18th-century weather vane." 

The fittings, including the font and pulpit, are all 
modern, but there is an oak chest of 16th-century 
date in the vestry with three locks and strong iron 
bands, and a good 18th-century brass chandelier in 
the nave. The gallery fronts have already been men- 
tioned. Booker mentions a penance form in I743. 18 
The chancel has a carved oak screen and canopied 
stalls of good modern workmanship. The organ was 
not introduced till i825. 19 

The church contains but few monuments, and these 
for the most part of little interest. The Wilton 
chapel was the burial place of the family of the Earl 
of Wilton, but the vault was finally closed in 1885. 
There was formerly a conspicuous monument to the 
first Earl of Wilton (died 1814) and members of his 
family in the chapel, but during the rebuilding and 
restoration it was removed, and has not been re- 
erected. 10 The chapel contains memorials to other mem- 
bers of the Egerton family, but all are of modern date.* 1 

In the vestry safe are kept fourteen old deeds re- 
lating to the church, eleven on parchment and three, 
in the nature of memoranda, on paper. They mostly 
refer to relations between the churches of Prestwich 
and Oldham, and one is a very interesting contract 
for the building of the nave of Oldham Church. 
These were recovered by the Rev. J. Booker when 
writing his ' Memorials of Prestwich Church/ they 



15 Formerly the ringers' chamber 
occupied the upper part of the lower stage 
of the tower, and there was a smaller 
chamber above it from which access was 
obtained to the roof of the church. 

16 During some repairs in ij%z the 
pinnacles were taken down, and have not 
been replaced ; Booker, Prestwich. 



17 On the battlement is cut : Thit 
roof was repaired in 1763 by the parish.' 

18 Op. cit. 37. 

19 Booker, op. cit 44. In 1761 Sir 
John Prestwich had promised an organ, 
but the parishioners were not unanimous 
as to accepting it, and it was not given. A 

7 



bassoon, hautboy, and bass viol were in 
use ; ibid. 39, 40. 

80 The inscription is given by Booker, 
op. cit. 63. 

21 A list of all the monumental inscrip- 
tions in the church is given in Booker, 
pp. 60-70, and the more recent ones in 
Geo. Middleton, Annals of Prettwich^ 1902. 




RADCLIFFE CHURCH, c. 1850 

(From a Drawing by Selim Roth-well) 




PRESTWICII CHURCH IN 1850 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



having been parted with by a former rector and their 
existence forgotten. 

There is a ring of six bells. Originally there were 
four, but in 1721 they were recast into five by 
Abraham Rudhall and a sixth by the same founder 
added. Of these, two still bear the date 1721, and 
four have since been recast, three in the years 1742, 
1761, and 1788 respectively, and one, the second bell, 
again recast in 1884 by Taylor of Loughborough. 

The plate, which is all modern and silver gilt, 
consists of a chalice of 1883, another of 1887, and a 
third of 1897 ; three patens of 1885, and a flagon of 
1880. 

The registers begin in 1603, and are complete to 
the present time, with the exception of the registers 
of marriages, the entries of which cease in October 
1658 and are not resumed till January 1661. The 
churchwardens' and overseers' accounts begin in 
1647 and are continued to the present time." 

The churchyard, which is almost encircled by a 
number of fine beech trees, lies principally on the 
south and west, and was extended in 1824 and again 
in 1886. In it is buried Charles Swain, the poet 
(died 1874) ; also Henry Wyatt, an artist, who died 
in 1840. The oldest gravestone is 1641. 

The tithe map is kept at the office of Messrs. 
Marchant, Bury. 

The old rectory house, called The Deyne, or 
Deyne Hall, which stood a little to the north of the 
present rectory, was a timber and plaster building, 
said to have been originally quadrangular in plan, but 
at the time of its demolition in 1837 it consisted of a 
centre and two wings, on the H'tyP 6 f plan. In 
1 644, when rector Allen was ejected, a portion of the 
house was pulled down,* 3 and it was never restored to 
its original dimensions. The present rectory took its 
place in 1840."* 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

The rectory is mentioned early 
in the I3th century, and in 1291 
its annual value was given as 
1$ I3/. 4</. M Fifty years later the ninth of the 
sheaves, wool, &c., was only ten marks. 24 At this 
time the tithes of half of Tottington in the parish 
of Bury were paid to the rector of Prestwich. This 
may have been the result of some grant by the lord 
of Tottington, or may indicate that originally the 
parish also included Bury, Middleton, and Radcliffe. 16 
The income of the benefice in the time of Henry VIII 
was estimated at 46 \s. ^.J.* 7 This was probably 
much below the real value, for in 1650 the glebe and 
tithes of Prestwich were 120 a year, and the tithes 
of the chapelry of Oldham, which had then been 
made an independent parish, ji4O. 18 By 1720 the 
income had risen to 400," by 1792 to 700,* 
and by 1834 to l > 2 3* 1 ^ ls now returned as 
2,000." 

The patronage was vested in the lords of Prestwich 
until the death of Sir Robert Langley in 1561, when 
on the division of his estates it was given to one of 
the co-heirs, Dorothy, wife of James Ashton of 
Chadderton. 33 In 1710 William Ashton, rector of 
the parish and heir male, sold it to Thomas Watson 
Wentworth of Wentworth Woodhouse," whose son 
Thomas, Earl of Malton, in 1 744 sold it to Dr. John 
Griffith, rector from 1752 to 1763. In 1755 it was 
sold to James Collins of Knaresborough, and by him 
in 1758 to Levett Harris, rector from 1763 to 
1783. Two years before his death this rector sold 
the advowson to Matthew Lyon of Warrington, whose 
son James became rector in 1783. In 1815 the 
Marquis of Westminster purchased it and gave it to 
his son Thomas, Earl of Wilton. 35 It was again sold, 
by the present earl, Sir Frederick J. W. Johnstone, 
bart., being the patron. 36 



The following is a list of the rectors : 
Institution Rector 

c. 1 200 . . . Thomas jr .... 
0.1230 . . . Robert 38 



Patron 



Cause of Vacancy 



M G. Middleton, op. cit. Numerous 
extracts are given in Booker, Prcstwiicb. 
See also an article in Manch. Guardian 
Local N. and Q. no. 351. 

38 Ten or fourteen bay* of buildings ' ; 
Walker, Sufferings of the Clergy. 

2Sa Nicholls, Prestiuich, 139; for view 
of the old house see Booker, op. cit. 88. 

84 Pope Nicb. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 249. 

K Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 39. The 
details are as follows : Prestwich, zos. ; 
Pilkington, zzs. zd. ; half of Tottington, 
311. zd. (the other half going to Bury) ; 
Chadderton, i6s. 6d. ; Oldham, 23*. zd. ; 
Royton, 71. ; Crompton, 1 3*. 4</. It will 
be noticed that Heaton, Alkrington, and 
Tonge are not named. 

86 The upper end of Tottington, with 
Musbury, Cowpe Lench, Newhall hey, 
Duerdon, Clough, and Graine continue to 
pay a moiety of the tithe (or rent charge) 
to Prestwich. 

Traditionally the gift of these tithes 
is attributed to John of Gaunt, who on 
one occasion desired the rector of Bury 
to say mass for the success of his journey. 
Being refused, he asked the same of the 
rector of Prestwich, and in return for 
his compliance gave the moiety of the 
tithes ; W. Nicholls, Prestwicb, 29. John 



of Gaunt was only two years old in 
1341. 

*> Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 226. 
The rents of the glebe lands were lozs. jd.\ 
tithes of grain, 24 5. qJ.; other tithes, 
6 os. 8</.; mortuaries, ioj.; Easter offer- 
ings, &c., 11 is. The fee of the bailiff 
and the synodals and procurations amount- 
ed to 151. 4</. 

88 Commonwealth Ch. Survey (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 15, 22. 

29 Gaitrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), 
ii, 107. There was an established com- 
position of ioj. in Ringley and 41. zd. in 
Prestolee for corn tithes. 

There were then six churchwardens ; 
each on retiring nominated two, the rector 
choosing one as successor. 

80 Aikin, Country round Manch. 235 ; 
1 the tithes are for the most part paid by 
a moderate composition : zos. per Cheshire 
acre for wheat ; 15*. for barley (of which 
very little is grown) ; and los. for oats.' 

81 Booker, Prestwich, 52. 

82 Manch. Dioc. Dir. 1905. 

83 See the presentations in 1569 and 
later years ; also Ducatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), ii, 318. About 1610, however, it 
was stated that 'the patrons in several 
courses are Mr. Holland, Mr. [James] 

71 



Ashton of Chadderton, and Mr. Reddish ' ; 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, II. 
The advowson of Prestwich was included 
in a fine of 1562, James and Dorothy 
Ashton being deforciants. Dorothy died 
without issue ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
xvi, 22. Her husband died in 1612. He 
appears to have had an absolute gift of the 
advowson, for in 1607, he stood 'lawfully 
seised of an estate of inheritance in fee 
simple or fee tail of and in the advowson,' 
and had granted the next presentation in 
1593 to trustees, who were to present 
James Ashton of Moulton in Lincoln- 
shire ; Raines, D. (Chet. Lib.). 

84 Notitia Cestr. loc. cit. ; the price was 
,1,000 in hand and 100 a year for ten 
years. A piece of ground called Salters 
Croft was conveyed with the advowson. 

85 Booker, Prestwich, 53. 

86 Manch. Dioc. Dir. 

87 He attested a grant of half Denton 
by Matthew de Reddish ; Lord Wilton's 
deeds. 

88 Robert rector of the church of Prest- 
wich granted to Richard son of Gilbert 
de Scolecroft half the land which Sir 
Gilbert de Barton granted to God and B. 
Mary the Virgin of Prestwich in the vill 
of Chadderton ; Hornby Chap. D. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Institution 
oc. 1301 . . 

4 May 1301 j 
23 Oct. 1302 J 

7 Aug. 1316 
1 1 Dec. 1320. 
15 Oct. 1332 . 

26 July 1334. 

15 April 1347 
29 June 1357 
1362-5 
13 Sept. 1400 



1 8 Mar. 1401-2 
28 April 1417 
12 Dec. 1417 
1 6 Feb. 1435-6 
20 Aug. 1445 
I May 1493 
4 Sept. 1498 



Rector 
Mr. Matthew de Sholver 39 

Mr. William de Marklan 40 



Patron 



Adam de Prestwich 



John called Travers 4I . 

Richard de Parr u Sir Ric. de Holland . 

Nicholas de Traffbrd" .... Thos. son of Adam 

Prestwich 

Richard de Warton M Thos. son of Adam 

Prestwich 

Robert de Donington " . . . . Ric. de Radcliffe . . 

John de Radcliffe " 

Richard de Pilkington " . . . . Ric. de Radcliffe, sen. . 

Geoffrey del Fere 48 Rob. de Langley . 

Thurstan de Atherton 4 * . . 

Nicholas de Tyldesley* .... The King . . . . 
Philip Morgan, J.U.D." .... . . . . 

Thurstan Langley M Robert Langley . . 

Peter Langley w . . 

Ralph Langley M . . 

Ralph Langley, B.Decr." .... 

Thomas Langley ** . l . 



de 
de 



Cause of Vacancy 



d. W. de Marklan 
res. John Travers 
d. R. de Pan- 
res. N. de Trafford 

d. R. de Warton 
d. R. de Donington; 



d. R. de Pilkington 



d. T. Langley 
d. P. Langley 
d. R. Langley 
d. R. Langley 



89 In Feb. 1300-1 the bishop granted 
him leave to take part in the obsequies 
(stand't in obsequiis) of Roger de Pilkington 
until the following Pentecost ; Lich. Epis. 
Reg. i, fol. 23. Long afterwards it was 
alleged that he had without licence appro- 
priated to the church of Prestwich a mes- 
suage called Palden in Oldham, and in 
1397 and 14.04 his successors were called 
upon to account for 10.1. rent which should 
have accrued to the Crown for the same ; 
L.T.R. Mem. R. 163, xiiij. 

40 On 4 May 1301 the bishop entrusted 
the church of Prestwich to him for a fort- 
night ; and again on 23 Oct. 1302 the 
administrators of the bishopric granted 
him the custody of Prestwich, revocable at 
their good pleasure; Lich. Epis. Reg. i, fol. 
23^, 24. The peculiar licence may have 
been due to his illegitimate birth see the 
account of the rectors of Wigan or to 
his possession of another benefice ; for in 
1311 Clement V, reciting that William 
de Marklan had already been dispensed on 
account of illegitimacy so as to be ordained 
and hold a benefice, granted him a further 
dispensation to hold the rectories of Castle 
Donington and Prestwich and the deanery 
of Chester in Durham ; Cal. Papal Letters, 
ii, 82. 

He appears as rector in a suit of 1 304 ; 
De Banco R. 149, m. 255. 

41 Lich. Epis. Reg. i, fol. 6^b. A John 
Travers was about the same time rector of 
Broughton Astley in the diocese of Ely, 
resigning it in 1322 ; Cal. Pat. 1321-24, 
pp. 84, 112; the same or another was 
Canon of York in 1332; Cal. Papal 
Letters, ii, 358. Another John Travers 
was a prominent public official ; see Foss, 
Judges. 

42 Lich. Epis. Reg. i, fol. 87^; the bene- 
fice had been vacant for a month. The 
new rector was an acolyte. In 1324 he 
had permission to let his church to farm 
for two years ; ibid, ii, fol. jb. He was 
plaintiff in 1325 ; De Banco R. 258, m. 
418 d. 

48 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. io8i ; he 
was a clerk. 

44 Ibid, ii, fol. 1 09 b ; he was a priest, 
and had been vicar of Bolton. The 
name is spelt Wauerton at institution and 
Wareton at death. He was probably one 
of the Wartons of Little Hulton, being a 
trustee for William de Warton in 1335 ; 



Towneley MS. DD, no. 943. Complaint 
was made in 1346 that he had broken 
into the close of Henry de Bold at Prest- 
wich ; De Banco R. 345, m. 113. At 
the same time he claimed an account from 
his bailiff William de Parr, who made a 
counterclaim, for moneys received in 
Prestwich, Middleton, and Bolton-le- 
Moors ; ibid. m. 232. 

45 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. 120. 

46 Ibid, ii, fol. 134; he was a clerk, 
ordained sub-deacon in 1358, deacon in 
1360, and priest in 1361; ibid, i, fol. 162; 
v, fol. 82-3. 

4 " At Michaelmas 1362 Richard son 
of William de Radcliffe claimed against 
Richard de Langley the right to present a 
fit parson to the church of Prestwich, 
then vacant, but was nonsuited for failing 
to appear; De Banco R. 411, m. 214 d. 
On 7 Nov. 1362 the bishop gave leave to 
Richard de Pilkington, rector of Prest- 
wich, to be absent for four years attending 
the studium generate, and dispensed him in 
the form of the constitution ; Lich. Epis. 
Reg. v, fol. 7 b. Then on ' 16 KaL Apr. 
1365.' Richard de Pilkington, priest, was 
admitted to the rectory, vacant by the re- 
signation of John de Pilkington, priest ; 
ibid, iv, fol. 83. The last name is probably 
an error for John de Radcliffe ; but, if so, 
the incoming rector had deferred his in- 
stitution for three or four years. 

He was defendant in a suit for debt at 
the end of the reign of Edward III ; De 
Banco R. 456, m. 10, 453 ; R. 457, m. 
1 86 ; in one place he is called Randle. 
He was a brother of Sir Roger de Pilking- 
ton ; ibid. R. 460, m. 361 d. 323 d. 

Richard de Pilkington died in Aug. 
1400. 

48 Lich. Reg. vii, fol. 87. 

49 Ibid. ; on 24 Jan. 1400-1 the king 
sent his mandate to the Bishop of Lich- 
field that Thurstan de Atherton should 
not be molested in his occupancy of the 
church of Prestwich until the king's claim 
to the patronage had been proved by pro- 
cess of law. From the account of Pendle- 
bury it will be seen that though Robert 
de Langley came of age in June 1400 he 
did not give formal proof of this till 1403, 
so that though he was patron of the 
rectory and of age, the presentation was 
the legal right of the king. 

In the record of a suit as to the right of 

72 



presentation Thurstan is said to have been 
the nominee of Robert de Langley. The 
pleading, though of some length, it im- 
perfect. It gives, but inaccurately, the 
rectors from 1302 ; Pal. of Lane. Plea 
R. i, m. 13, 14. 

80 Lich. Epis. Reg. vii, fol. 87^ ,- he was 
a clerk. For the presentation see Lanes. 
Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 53. 

In 1404 he had to defend a claim made 
by the Crown to a rent of i oj. from Palden 
in Oldham, said to have been acquired 
without licence by Master Matthew, a 
former rector. Inquiry had been made in 
1371, and account had been demanded 
from the executors of Robert de Doning- 
ton, John de Radcliffe, and Richard de 
Pilkington ; L.T.R. Mem. R. 163, xiiij 
(21 Ric. II), and 169, xij (5 Hen. IV). 

61 Again there was a dispute as to the 
presentation. The king presented first ; 
Dr. Morgan, one of the royal officials, 
afterwards Bishop of Worcester (14 19-3 5), 
being put in for the time ; Lich. Epis. Reg. 
viii, foL 19. 

53 Ibid ; he was a clerk. 

63 Ibid, ix, fol. 123 ; a clerk. In or 
about 1448 Katherine, widow of Robert 
de Langley, and mother of Peter de Lang- 
ley late rector of Prestwich, as executor 
of the said Peter's will claimed debts from 
certain persons ; Pal. of Lane. Writ* of 
Assize. 

64 Lich. Epis. Reg. ix, foL 127^ ; a clerk. 
He was also Warden of Manchester from 
1465 to 1481. He rebuilt the chapel at 
Oldham. He was brother of the pre- 
ceding rector ; see Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. 
Soc.), ii, 147, and the account of Agecroft. 
His will is in P.C.C. i Vox. 

*.* Lich. Epis. Reg. xiii, fol. 157. In 1497 
he was one of the visitors appointed to 
inquire into disorders in the monastery of 
Upholland ; ibid, xiii, fol. 236^. Ralph 
Langley graduated at Cambridge in 1490 
as Bachelor of Decrees (Canon Law) ; he 
had had five years' study at Oxford and 
Cambridge ; Grace Bk. B (Luard Mem.), 
7, 15, 20. 

86 Lich. Epis. Reg. xiii, fol. 23153 clerk. 
He was ordained priest in 1500 : ibid, 
fol. 286*. 

It is noticeable that Thomas Langley is 
called 'late parson of Prestwich,' and 
William Langley 'now parson,' both being 
alive, in 1523 ; Raines, Chantries, 43 note. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 



Institution Rector Patron Cause of Vacancy 

5 April 1525 . William Langley, M.A. 47 .... Rob. Langley . . . . d. T. Langley 

28 May 1552 . William Langley 58 W. Davenport . . . . d. W. Langley 

19 July 1569 . . William Langley, M.A. 69 .... James and Dorothy Ashton depr. W. Langley 

I o May 1 6 1 1 . John Langley, M.A. 60 James Ashton .... res. W. Langley 

26 Sept. 1632 . Isaac Allen, M.A. 61 Edm. Ashton .... d. J. Langley 

30 Oct. 1660. . Edward Kenyon, B.D. M .... .... d. I. Allen 

1668 . . . John Lake, D.D. 63 d. E. Kenyon 

19 Nov. 1685 . William Ashton, B.D. 64 .... Edward Ashton . . . res. Bp. Lake 



W Raines, Rectors of Prestwich (Chet. 
Soc.), 29, quoting ' Reg. Blythe, Lichfield." 
This William Langley was rector in 1534; 
Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 226. He was 
the son of Robert Langley of Agecroft ; 
Piccope, frills (Chet. Soc.), ii, 17. 

58 Raines, 30, quoting 'Reg. Brid. 
Chester," where it is recited that Robert 
Langley of Agecroft had in 1542 granted 
the next presentation to William Daven- 
port of Bramhall, Thomas Holt of Gristle- 
hurst, and Geoffrey Shakerley, of whom 
the first nominated. First-fruits were 
paid on 8 June 1552 ; Lanes, and Ches. 
Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 408, 
where will be found dates of payment by 
following rectors. Though at first William 
Langley conformed to the religious 
changes made by Elizabeth, he grew bolder 
at length, and was deprived as a recusant 
in 1569; Chet. Misc. (Chet. Soc.), v, 
17-19, and below. 

He had a number of suits respecting 
the property of his church, of which the 
following short notes may be given here. 
At Michaelmas 1555 he complained that 
though the rectors had always been seised 
of thirteen messuages, two barns, and 
1 60 acres of land, meadow and pasture, in 
Prestwich and Oldham, Sir Robert Lang- 
ley had recently caused the tenants to pay 
rents to him and had taken away the 
tithe corn in Alkrington and Royton ; 
Duchy of Lane. Plead, xxxix, L II ; and 
again, xxxvi, L 6. A little later he com- 
plained that Sir Robert had broken into 
the tithe-barn at Cowleyshaw and seized 
the corn therein ; ibid, xxxv, L 3. In 
reply to a further complaint by the rector 
the tenants in Oldham averred that the 
lands claimed belong to Sir Robert, to 
whom they had always paid their rents ; 
ibid, xxxv, L4, and xxxix, L6. Sir Robert 
Langley also appeared as plaintiff respect- 
ing the two tithe-barns at Cowleyshaw in 
Crompton ; the rector said the barn had 
been erected on the waste about 1521, by 
his uncle, William Langley, the preceding 
rector, with the consent of the owners, 
and had always been used for the tithe 
corn ; ibid, xxxix, L 9, Liz; Depos. 
Ixxv, L i . With respect to the lands in 
Oldham the disputes went on after Sir 
Robert's death, James Ashton and Dorothy 
his wife being defendants ; Duchy of 
Lane. Plead, xlix, L 5. Some of these 
statements are printed in Duchy Plead, 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 222, 249. 

59 Raines, loc. cit. quoting ' Reg. Down- 
ham,' where it is stated that James 
Ashton of Chadderton and Dorothy his 
wife, daughter and co-heir of Sir Robert 
Langley, presented. He was 'a preacher ;' 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App.iv, 1 1 . First- 
fruits were paid 24 Aug. 1 569. Though or- 
dained by Bishop Scott in 1558 (Ordin. Bk. 
Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches. 109), he became 
a zealous Protestant of the Genevan 
school ; Chet. Misc. v, 19-27. He was 
buried at Prestwich 14 Oct. 1613 ; and 
his widow Anne, on 12 Jan. 1627-8. 

The autobiography of the son of his 
curate in 1596 (who was a cousin) is 



printed in Chet. Misc. (Chet. Soc.), vi, 
with introduction and notes by Canon 
Raines. 

60 Raines, loc. cit. quoting * Reg. Lloyd." 
First-fruits were paid 25 Oct. 1611. 

He contributed to the clergy subsidies 
of 1620 and later; Misc. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 54, 66. He was 
buried at Prestwich 16 Aug. 1632. 

61 Raines, loc. cit. quoting ' Reg. Bridge- 
man.' First-fruits were paid 6 Oct. 1632. 

He was educated at Oxford Queen's 
and Oriel Colleges graduating as M.A. 
in 1618 ; Foster, Alumni. In 1622 he 
married Anne, daughter of Richard Ashton 
of Chadderton, and thus was connected 
with the patron. His wife was buried at 
Prestwich 17 Oct. 1634. He contributed 
to various subsidies levied from the clergy; 
Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches,), i, 95, 

112. 

In politics he was Royalist, and objected 
to the religious changes made by the 
Parliament. His benefice was sequestered 
in 1645. From the evidence given before 
the committee it appears that he had dis- 
suaded his parishioners from bearing arms 
for the Parliament, had refused to allow 
the bells of the church to be rung as a 
signal for the people to assemble to resist 
Lord Derby's attack on Manchester, 
would not sign the Covenant, as being 
against his oath of allegiance ; had objected 
to the removal of the font, and defended 
the ceremonies in the Book of Common 
Prayer. It was fully admitted that his 
life was unblamable and his doctrine 
sound, that he faithfully discharged his 
ministerial functions, and was ' indifferent ' 
as to the best mode of church govern- 
ment ; and that the majority of the 
parishioners would prefer him to any other. 
In June 1645 he had endeavoured to 
secure a vote by the people as to whether 
he or Mr. Furness should be rector, but 
the churchwardens opposed. In December 
the sequestration took effect, but 40 a 
year was allowed for his maintenance. 
His books and goods were also allowed 
him. The document* are given fully in 
Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 18-34. He took refuge at 
Ripponden in Yorkshire, preaching to a 
congregation which ' loved him well ' ; 
O. Heywood, Diaries, iv, 7. In 1648 he 
made an attempt to regain his church, but 
was defeated. About 1650 he petitioned 
for the removal of the sequestration, urging 
that he had shown 'his good affection to 
the Parliament ' by subscribing to its 
funds, and had taken the Solemn League 
and Covenant ; Manch. Classis, iii, 402-5. 
The sequestration seems to have been re- 
moved about 1653 ; he returned to Prest- 
wich in 1656, and died there just before 
the Restoration, being buried 2 Feb. 
1659-60. Elizabeth, his widow, was 
buried there on 7 April 1661. Some 
further notes are given in Local Gleanings 
Lanes, and Ches. i, 119. For pedigree see 
Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 2. 

The dates of institution from this time 
have been compared with those in the 

73 



Institution Books, P.R.O. printed in 
Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Notes. 

62 Son of Roger Kenyon of Parkhead, 
Whalley, educated at Manchester and St. 
John's College, Cambridge ; fellow, 1653; 
B.D. 1663 ; see Admissions St. John's C. i, 
92. 

He was appointed before the Restora- 
tion ; writing to his mother from London 
on 4 May 1660, he says : 'The commis- 
sioners having heard counsel on both 
sides, were fully satisfied with my patron's 
right, and proceeded to make trial of my 
fitness for the ministry, and thereupon did 
approve of me and give me the instru- 
ment ' ; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. 
iv, 67. Another of his letters is printed, 
ibid. 80. 

His connexions and training would put 
him on the Presbyterian side, but he seemt 
to have conformed readily to the restora- 
ation of episcopacy and the Prayer-book 
services, and held the rectory till his 
death. He was buried at Prestwich, 
1 8 July 1668. Tablets commemorate 
him and his wife Anne, daughter of 
Richard Holland of Heaton ; she died 
23 Sept. 1706. 

88 Son of Thomas Lake, grocer, of 
Halifax ; entered St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1637, when thirteen years of 
age ; D.D. (by royal mandate), 1661 ; Ad- 
missions St. John's C. i, 38. Though a reso- 
lute adherent of the king and episcopacy, 
he accepted various charges during the 
Commonwealth period, including those of 
Prestwich and Oldham for a few years, 
and the vicarage of Leeds in 1659. In 
addition to Prestwich Dr. Lake had other 
preferments, becoming Bishop of Sodor and 
Man in 1682, and of Bristol in 1684, 
when he resigned the rectory. Charles II 
in 1682 granted letters patent allowing 
the Bishop of Sodor and Man to hold in 
commendam the rectory of Prestwich and 
the prebend of Fridaythorp in York Min- 
ster ; Lanes. Charters (Turner and Coxe), 
7. The patron had expected him to resign 
on appointment to Sodor and Man, but this 
he refused to do for reasons given at length 
in a letter to Roger Kenyon ; Hist. MSS. 
Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 147 5 see also 153. 
He did resign Carlton-in-Lindrick, being 
succeeded by William Ashton, who also 
followed him at Prestwich. 

Later as Bishop of Chichester he refused 
to publish the Declaration of Indulgence by 
James II, and was one of the famous seven 
bishops sent to the Tower in 1688. On 
the Revolution he refused the oaths to 
William and Mary and was suspended, 
but died in Aug. 1689, before the depriva- 
tion he anticipated ; see Diet. Nat. Biog. 
and a contemporary account in T. Baker's 
Hist, of St. John's, Camb, (ed. Mayor), ii, 
681-97. 

64 He was presented also by the king ; 
Act Bks. at Chester. He was son of the 
patron ; educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, of which he was elected 
fellow; B.D. 1684. He was also rector 
of Carlton-in-Lindrick. His name does 
not occur in the list of 'conformable 

10 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Institution Rector 

6 April 1732 . Richard Goodwin, D.D. 65 . . . 

28 Oct. 1752. . John Griffith, D.D. 66 . . . . 
9060.1763 . Levett Harris, M. A. 67 . . . . 

22 Mar. 1783 . James Lyon, M.A. 68 . . . . 

I Feb. 1837 . Thomas Blackburne, M.A. 69 . . 

1 847 . . John Rushton, D.D. 70 .... 

1852 . . . Henry Mildred Birch, M.A. 71 . 

1884 . . . William Thomas Jones, M.A. 78 . 

29 Jan. 1900 . . Frederic Wilson Cooper, M.A." 

As in the case of most ' family livings,' the incum- 
bents of Prestwich call for little notice. Before the 
Reformation the most distinguished seems to have 
been the Ralph Langley who was also Warden of 
Manchester ; and of the later ones, Dr. Lake, one of 
the Seven Bishops of 1688. Others, no doubt, like 
Isaac Allen and James Lyon, were useful in their time 
and place. 

The Clergy List of 154.1-2 shows that, in addition 
to the rector and one or two chantry priests, there 
were five other priests in the parish of Prestwich with 
Oldham, two paid by the rector and the others by 
private persons. 74 The Visitation List of 1548 shows 
the rector, his curate, and four other priests at Prest- 
wich, one of them a chantry priest dying about 
that time ; and the curate and three priests at Old- 
ham. There was, therefore, a full staff of ten. In 
1554 the same nine priests were in the list, but all 
do not seem to have attended the visitation. In 1563 
the rector and his curate appeared at Prestwich, and 
two other priests lived there, but were ' decrepit,' and 
are not named again ; and there was a curate at 
Oldham. The same three names recur in I565- 75 
Prestwich at that time is of interest because its rector, 



Patron 

Lord Malton 
John Simpson . 
Abraham Balme 
James Lyon 
Earl Grosvenor 
Earl of Wilton . 



Sir F. Johnstone 



Cause of Vacancy 

d. W. Ashton 
d. R. Goodwin 
d. J. Griffith 
d. L. Harris 
d. J. Lyon 
d. T. Blackburne 
res. J. Rushton 
res. H. M. Birch 
res. W. T. Jones 



appointed in 1552, continued under the restora- 
tion of the old religion in the following reign, and 
then again conformed to the changes made by 
Elizabeth. 76 However, he did so ' against his con- 
science very sore,' and ' grievously repenting ' was 
summoned before the Bishop of Chester's commis- 
sioners in 1569, and refusing to tamper further 
with his convictions, was deprived. 77 His successor 
was a zealous Protestant. In 1591 he was con- 
victed of uttering * unadvised, untrue, and undutiful 
speeches ' regarding the queen's ecclesiastical authority, 
but protested that he had not intended to suggest 
that * the sincere professors of religion ' were per- 
secuted by her. 78 In the following year he was 
under censure for not catechizing and for neglecting 
the perambulations. 79 He was, however, held in high 
respect by the Puritans. 80 

During the Commonwealth period the parish was 
prominent in its opposition to the newly-established 
Presbyterian system. The rector was forbidden to 
minister and his benefice was sequestrated, but the 
ministers who were placed in charge were changed 
rapidly ; and the schoolmaster was said to baptize 
children according to the old form. 81 Rector Allen 



clergy* of 1689 (Hist. AfSS. Com. Rep. 
xiv, App. iv, 230), nor in the Chester 
Visitation List of 1691, the curate, 
Archippus Kippax, answering for the 
parish. Probably therefore he did not 
reside. Ultimately he became the heir of 
his family, and, as already stated, he sold 
the advowson of Prestwich in 1710. For 
his benefactions see Booker, Prestwich, 
115. He died 25 Feb. 1731-2, and was 
buried three days later in the family 
chapel. 

55 Son of Samuel Goodwin, farmer, of 
Shirland, Derbyshire ; entered St. John's 
College, Cambridge, in 1696 ; became 
fellow; M.A. 1703; D.D. 1727; Ad- 
missions, St. John's C. ii, 140. He gave 
zoo to Shaw Chapel in 1732 ; Booker, 
op. cit. 1 1 6. He was a prebendary of 
York from 1720 until his death ; Le Neve, 
Fasti, iii, 175. 

86 Probably of Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge ; D.D. 1741 : was also rector of 
Eckington in Derbyshire. 

87 Of Trinity College, Cambridge ; M.A. 
1753. Being in difficulties, and the bene- 
fice deeply mortgaged (Baines), he sold the 
advowson in 1781. He died at Bradford, 
Yorkshire, 17 Dec. 1782. 

68 Son of Matthew Lyon, who had 
purchased the advowson ; educated at 
Warrington and Brasenose College, Oxford; 
M.A. 1783. In 1833, to mark the com- 
pletion of the fiftieth year of his ministry, 
his parishioners held a series of festivities 
and made him a presentation of plate ; 
his former curates also made a presenta- 
tion, and a marble tablet was pkced in the 
church, recording ' the affectionate regard 
and attachment' he had aroused by 'a 



character distinguished alike for simplicity 
of manners and integrity of principle,' 
and by the conscientious discharge of his 
duties. 

In 1792 an Act was passed enabling the 
rector to grant leases of the glebe for 
building purposes. 

69 Of Brasenose College, Oxford ; M.A. 
1815 ; son of John Blackburne, M.P., of 
Hale and Orford. He was vicar of Eccles 
from 1818 to 1836. 

70 He had been incumbent of New- 
church in Pendle from 1825 ; he was 
made Archdeacon of Manchester in 1843 
and honorary canon in 1849. He resigned 
the archdeaconry in 1854 on becoming 
vicar of Blackburn. 

71 Of King's College, Cambridge; fellow; 
M.A. 1847. He was also made a resi- 
dentiary canon of Ripon in 1868. He had 
been a tutor to the Prince of Wales, and 
was chaplain in ordinary to Queen 
Victoria. He died soon after resigning 
the benefice. 

78 Of Pembroke College, Oxford ; M.A. 
1858 ; vicar of Tilford, Surrey, 1865-79; 
rector of St. Nicholas, Guildford, 1879-84; 
hon. canon of Manchester, 1891. He 
enlarged the church in 1888-9. He died 
in June 1903. 

73 Of Keble College, Oxford; M.A. 
1888 ; vicar of Longbridge Deverell, 
1890 ; vicar of St. Paul's, King Cross, 
Halifax, 1897. 

74 Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches. 12. 

75 From the Visitation Lists at Chester. 
Even as late as 1552 the church seems 

to have been well provided with bells, 
vestments, and other church furniture ; 
Church Goods (Chet. Soc.), 41. 

74 



76 He, however, refused to appear at 
the Visitation in 1559 ; Gee, Elizabethan 
Clergy. He subscribed to the queen's 
supremacy in 1563 ; Ches. SAeaf(^rd Ser.), 

', 34- 

77 See Canon Raines in Chet. Misc. 
above quoted. William Langley averred 
' that he would neither minister nor re- 
ceive the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, 
because it is administered and given against 
the order of the Catholic Church.' 

78 Ibid. 21, 22. Thomas Cartwright 
and other Puritan ministers were im- 
prisoned in 1590. 

79 Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xiii, 69. 

80 Chet. Misc. v, 23 ; 'old Mr. Langley, 
that holy man of God and faithful servant 
of Christ in the House of God.' He was 
presented at the Visitations of 1601 and 
later for not wearing the surplice. 

81 See the account of Isaac Allen above. 
The following ministers were placed in 
charge during his enforced absence : 

1646. Toby Furness, 'a godly and 
orthodox divine ' ; Plund. Mins. Accts. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 36. The 
popular opposition was manifested by a 
number of charges as to his character and 
conduct ; these were, at his request, in- 
vestigated by the Classis and he was 
acquitted ; Booker, Prestwicb, 94-101. 
Nevertheless he soon afterwards removed 
to Bury. 

1649. John Lake, afterwards (1668) 
rector ; he was an opponent of the Presby- 
terian system, and therefore in constant 
trouble with the Classis. About 1651 he 
took charge of Oldham, but complaints were 
soon made against him for 'malignancy,' 
and he left about 1654 ; Mane A. Classis, 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



regained his place before 1660, and his successor 
appears to have become a zealous adherent of the epis- 
copal discipline then restored. 82 

For the next century there is little to record. 
Many of the rectors appear to have been non-resident, 
a curate having charge. A view of the condition of 
the parish in 1778 states that the rector had for 
twenty years constantly resided and had kept a curate, 
also in constant residence. Seven chapels of ease were 
regularly served, each having its minister. At the 
parish church there was divine service twice each 
Sunday, with sermon each time, and ' on stated 
holidays.' Catechizing took place for eight Sundays 
in the summer. ' The Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper was duly administered every first Sunday of 
the month, besides the great festivals and Good 
Friday.' There were chapels for the Presbyterians 
and the Methodists, and a few Quakers were known ; 
but these Nonconformists were mostly of the lower 
ranks. ' Popery ' was represented by eight or ten per- 
sons, ' all of lower rank ' ; there was no resident 
priest, meeting-place, or school. 88 Since then the 
conditions have greatly changed, owing especially to 
the growth of Oldham, Middleton, and Radcliffe ; 
but it is of interest to have this statement of what an 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

18th-century rector thought was an orderly and well- 
equipped parish. 

Among the curates of Prestwich should be named 
the Rev. John Booker, whose histories of this and 
other churches are of great value. 84 

There were formerly two endowed chantries in the 
church. At the altar of St. Margaret, on the south 
side of the chancel, was the Langley chantry, founded 
by Agnes daughter of John Langley of Agecroft, 
and wife of Sir Thomas Holt and then of Thomas 
Manne. 85 The other chantry was founded by Ellis 
Hulton. 86 At the confiscation the priests were cele- 
brating according to their several foundations. 

Schools were founded at Oldham in 1606 ; at 
Ringley in 1626 ; and at Stand in Pilkington in 
1696 ; the last-named belonged to the Protestant 
Nonconformists in 1 7 1 8. 87 

Various charitable endowments ex- 
CH4RITIES isted at the date just named. 88 For 
the Prestwich half of the parish 10 
for the poor represents a gift by Sir Thomas Egerton in 
I756. 89 For the township of Prestwich the principal 
endowments are those of the Earl of Wilton in 1814 
and Lewis Novelli in 1 844, producing nearly 60 ; 
there are also a poor's stock and some special funds. 90 



iii, 375-95 ; also ii, 1 34, &c. Hisitipend 
at Prestwich was 80 a year ; Commonw. 
Ch. Sur-v. 15. From this record it ap- 
pears that other ministers had been tried 
at Prestwich Langley, Porter, and 
Brierley. 

1652. Nehemiah Rathband ; Booker, 
Prest-wich, 104. In 1656 he moved to 
Keighley in Yorkshire ; Manch. Classis, 
ii, 227 ; iii, 444. 

After Rathband's departure Rector 
Allen seems to have regained his church ; 
in October 1656 a letter was sent to him 
desiring his appearance at the class, but 
he paid no attention ; ibid, ii, 252-3. 
He thus replied to the summons of the 
Classis in 1658: 'We are unsatisfied what 
you mean by your church, whether you 
mean your church at Manchester, where 
your classis is, .or you mean the church 
of England. If you mean the church of 
Manchester of your association, it is estab- 
lished not so much by an ordinance of the 
Lords and Commons in Parliament as by 
later acts granting the free exercise of reli- 
gion in doctrine and worship to all churches 
and congregations in their own way. . . But 
if your meaning be of the Church of Eng- 
land, you are certainly mistaken and dare 
not maintain it that the Protector or his 
Council own presbytery and none but that 
government'; Booker, Presnvich, 92, 
quoting his Excommunicatio Excommunicata, 
294-5. An accommodation was attempted; 
Manch. Classis, iii, 296-9. 

Mr. Birch, the schoolmaster, who said 
he was a deacon, continued to defy the 
Classis down to 1649, baptizing children 
and performing other ministerial acts ; 
Manch. Classis, i, 47 ; ii, 101, 109, &c. 

In August 1657 John Angier and 
William Coulburne were ordained at 
Prestwich church ; ' Mr. Meeke began 
with prayer, Mr. Newcome preached, 
Mr. Harrison prayed after, Mr. Newcome 
(for Mr. Heyrick) propounded the ques- 
tions and gave the exhortation ' ; Manch. 
Classis, ii, 269. It does not appear that 
Mr. Allen was present. 

82 Edward Kenyon is mentioned a 
number of times in Newcome's Diary 
(Chet. Soc.), showing that he was friendly 
with the Nonconformist divine ; but in 



the case of Mr. Constantine of Oldham, 
ejected in 1662, he gave no satisfaction. 
'Some men have a strange measure of 
stiffness ; alas, what a temptation is this 
wretched world ! " remarks Newcome, 

220. 

The churchwardens' accounts show that 
the king's arms were set up in 1660 ; 
while a surplice and linen table-cloth were 
purchased in 1662, when also a ttone 
font was again set up ; Booker, Preitivich, 
23, 24. 

88 Booker, Prestwich, 82-8. The 
curate's salary was c,o a year. A list 
of the curates is given in the same work, 
118-31. 

84 He was of Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge ; B.A. 1844, M.A. 1855. He was 
ordained in the former year, and after 
serving various curacies, including Prest- 
wich from 1848 to 1858, was appointed 
perpetual curate of Benhilton, Surrey, in 
1863. He published Mem. of the Ch, in 
Prestwicb in 1852 ; a Hist, of the Ancient 
Chapel of Blackley, 1854; and through the 
Chetham Society, Hist, of the Chapelt of 
Denton, Didsbury, Chorlton, and Birch, 
1855-8. He married the daughter of 
Dr. Lee, first Bishop of Manchester. He 
resigned his benefice in 1895, and died 
two years later. 

8i Raines, Chantries (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
190-3. The endowment consisted of 
burgages in Manchester, and tenements 
in Halifax and Altrincham ; the net 
revenue was j6s, %d. The priest, John 
Hall, is named in the Visitation List of 
1 548, but as moreuus is written against him, 
he probably died about that time, being 
succeeded by Lawrence Wallwork. The 
chapel, as 'newly built,' is mentioned in 
the wills of Robert Langley of Agecroft 
and Eleanor his wife. 

86 Ibid, ii, 193 ; no particulars of the 
endowment are given, but Canon Raines 
found that lands in Hundersfield had be- 
longed to it. The income was 4 IQJ. zd. 
and the incumbent was Thomas Dodson, 
who was still living in the parish in 1554- 

87 Gastrell, Notilia, ii, in, 116, 119. 

88 Ibid, ii, in, 116. An acre of land 
at Rainsough in Prestwich, bought by the 
inhabitants, brought in 4 a year, distri- 

75 



bated in linen cloth. The land seems 
afterwards to have been used as the site 
of the workhouse, occupied till 1869, 
and sold in 1875. 

89 The following details are taken from 
the report of the Endowed Charities in- 
quiry, held in 1903 ; in it the report of 
1826 is reprinted. 

In 1826 the 200 bequeathed by Sir 
T. Grey Egerton was invested in a mort- 
gage on land in Chadderton, and produced 
10 a year, distributed by the church- 
wardens at Christmas time. The capital 
now consists of 333 railway stock, pro- 
ducing 9 igs. gd. a year; the benefits 
have long been restricted to the poor at- 
tending the parish church of St. Mary. 

90 The poor's money in 1826 amounted 
to 101 5*., having been contributed by a 
number of benefactors from 1698 onwards. 
There is a list in Booker, Prestwich, 75. 
The money was in 1819 expended in 
building the workhouse mentioned above, 
and the overseers paid 5 a year as in- 
terest ; this was expended on linen cloth 
given to the poor. In 1846 the auditor 
disallowed this payment ; but when the 
workhouse was sold in 1875 107 of the 
proceeds was set apart for the benefit of 
the poor. The income, 2 i$s. 8*/., is 
distributed with Sir Thomas Egerton's 
charity. 

Sir Holland Egerton in 1730 left 20 
to the poor of Prestwich and Great and 
Little Heaton ; in 1826 the interest was 
distributed in loaves once a month at 
Prestwich Church, but being paid out of 
the rates was afterwards disallowed by 
the auditor and lost. 

Thomas, Earl of Wilton, in 1814 left 
500 to trustees for the benefit of the 
poor of the three townships named above, 
and another $oo for the poor of the 
Heatons ; the possessor of Heaton Hall 
was to determine the manner of distribu- 
tion. In 1826 a distribution of clothing 
and blankets to the value of over ,100 
(of which about 40 was the interest of 
Lord Wilton's legacies) was made at the 
hall to the poor of the district. The 
capital is now ^1,117 consols, giving an 
income of 27 181. %d. ; this is distri- 
buted at Polefield Hall by the rector of 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



The stock for Great and Little Heaton has been 
lost. 91 Pilkington has a share in the benefaction 
of William Baguley, 1728 ; its poor's fund has been 
lost, but for the hamlet of Unsworth Miss Jane 
Margaret Birkett, daughter of a former incumbent of 
the church there, in 1872 left 500 for the sick 
poor. The other endowments of this township are 
for churches and schools. 91 



PRESTWICH 

Prestwich, 1194; Prestwic, 1202; Prestewic, 
1203. 

The township of Prestwich extends about 2 miles 
in a north-east direction from the Irwell, which forms 
one boundary, to the border of Heaton near Poppy- 
thorn. The area is 1,917^ acres. 1 The old village 
is situated on the north-west side of the township, 
with the parish church to the south, and the old hall 
to the north. Two picturesque cloughs distinguish 
the western half. One of these the Mere clough 
begins near the old hall and goes south-west to the 
Irwell, forming, as might be gathered from the name, 
a boundary between Prestwich and Outwood in Pilk- 
ington. The other begins to the south of the church 
and winds along, first west and then south, to the 
Irwell. Near Mere dough, and about half a mile 
apart, are the two great buildings of one of the county 
lunatic asylums. 1 In the southern corner is Rainsough, 
and to the east lie the residential districts of Hilton 
Park and Sedgeley Park, suburbs of Manchester. Near 
the boundary is Castle Hill, and Singleton's lies to the 
north of it. Singleton Brook divides this township 
from Broughton. On the eastern side, on the border 
of Heaton Park, is the hamlet of Rooden Lane, and 
to the north, on the highest land within the boun- 



daries, is Polefield. The population numbered 1 2,839 
in 1901.* 

The principal roads are those from Manchester to 
Bury, the Old Road to the east, near the border, the 
New Road, formed in 1827, through the centre. 
There are numerous cross roads ; one runs north-east 
from Agecroft Bridge to Heaton. The Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Railway has its Manchester and Bury 
line through the township, with stations called Heaton 
Park and Prestwich. A tramway, connected with the 
Salford system, runs along the Bury New Road. 

A botanist of note, Richard Broxton, was born at 
Sedgeley Hall Farm in 1786. He died in 1865.* 

In 1867 a local board of twelve members was 
elected; 4 replaced in 1894 by an urban district 
council, of fifteen members, from five wards. 

At Diggle Hill, near the centre of the township, 
are reservoirs of the Manchester Water Works. 

There are several bleach works in the township, 
and two small-ware manufactories. Rooden Lane was 
formerly a great centre of the hand-loom weaving, 
which died out about 1882." 

The wakes were formerly held in August. 7 

The stocks have disappeared, but were in use in 
i8oo. 8 

The hearth tax return of 1666 records ninety-seven 
hearths in the township, the largest houses being the 
rector's with ten hearths, James Wilson's with seven, 
and John Glover's with six. 9 

From the survey of 1212 it appears 
M4NOR that PRESTfTICH was held of the king in 
thegnage, and was assessed as four oxgangs 
of land ; the service was a rent of io/. 10 Robert de 
Prestwich occurs in 1 193," and his son Adam agreed 
to pay 5 marks as relief on succeeding in or before 
I2o6. 11 Adam de Prestwich was in possession in 
1212, holding Prestwich, Great Heaton, and Fails- 



Prestwich and Lord Wilton's agent, a gift 
of the value of "jt. being made to each 
chosen recipient. 

Lewis Novelli in 1844 bequeathed 
ji,ooo for poor, aged, or sickly inhabi- 
tants 'being regular attendants at some 
Protestant Established Church' in the 
parish, the rector and churchwardens 
having the distribution. After some 
difficulties the money was paid to the 
official trustees in 1857, and is repre- 
sented by 1,246 consols, producing 
3 l 3*- yearly- The benefits are now con- 
fined to poor persons attending the parish 
church and St. Margaret's, Holyrood. 

The same Lewis Novelli left about 
1,500 for the choir and organ fund of 
the parish church. A fund of 500 
raised in 1890 to commemorate John St. 
Lawrance Beaufort, postmaster of Man- 
chester, is invested for exhibitions for 
the scholars of Bury New Road National 
Schools. 

James Davenport in 1882 left money 
for the parish church and St. Margaret's 
and the schools. William Bradbury in 
1882 left money for St. Margaret's 
Church, a Liberal Club, &c.; but these 
gifts are not yet available, his widow sur- 
viving. The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel 
has an endowment of 58. 

91 In 1826 it was supposed that some 
ancient benefactions were deposited in Sir 
Holland Egerton's hands and formed part 
of the 20 he left to the poor ; but, as 
above stated, all this has now been lost. 

M Various donations from 1698 to 



1737 established a poor's fund of 112 
for Pilkington. It is supposed the fund 
was given to the overseers for the work- 
house ; they in 1826 paid 5 as interest, 
linen cloth being given to the poor. The 
Pilkington Workhouse was demolished 
about 1850, and the interest ceased to be 
paid. 

George Hardman in 1762 left 40 for 
linen for the poor; by 1826 half the 
capital had been lost, but the remainder 
produced 1 81. a year, distributed according 
to the benefactor's desire. Nothing, how- 
ever, is now known of it. 

A share of a gift by William Baguley 
in 1728 was received by the poor of Out- 
wood ; this amounted to 401. io</. in 
1826, and was distributed in linen cloth. 
This charity survives, and doles of calico 
and winsey are made in January. 

Miss Birkett' s bequest brings i i 81. %d. 
a year, which is distributed in money gifts 
to poor persons of all religious denomina- 
tions. 

The schools at Stand, Ringley, and 
Unsworth have endowments, as also the 
chapel at Ringley, and the Sunday school 
at Cinderhill. The Hollins Young Men's 
Institute is also noticed in the report. 

1 The census report of 1901 gives 
3,167 acres, including 57 of inland water; 
but in 1894 the boundaries of Prestwich 
proper were extended to include the rural 
portions of the adjacent townships of 
Great and Little Heaton ; Local Govt. 
Bd. Order 32103. A small part of the 
township lies to the south of the Irwell. 

76 



a The asylum in Prestwich Wood was 
opened in 1851, being built to accommo- 
date 500 patients. It has been several 
times enlarged, and the annexe, for 1,100 
patients, was built in 1884. There is 
now accommodation for 2,600. There is 
a church attached ; see W. Nicholls, 
Prestwicb, 1 1 6-20. 

8 This is for the extended area, but the 
addition made in 1894 had only 461 
inhabitants. 

4 Diet. Nat. Biog. 

5 Land. Gax. 21 Dec. 1866. 

6 W. Nicholls, Prestwicb, 55. 

Ibid. 67. A programme of the sports 
in 1832 is reprinted. 

8 Ibid. 78. 

9 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

10 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 67. In later times the 
tenure was by knight's service and a rent. 

11 Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 77. He paid 
4 marks for having the king's good will, as 
one of the men of the rebellious John, Count 
of Mortain. He occurs again in 1201 and 
1205 as a contributor to the tall age and 
scutage ; ibid. 151, 205. 

12 Ibid. 203. This entry is in the same 
roll as the last-mentioned payment by 
Robert de Prestwich, showing that the 
father died in the year 1205-6. The 
Robert de Prestwich recorded in the farm 
of the county in 1226 is probably the same 
man, the name being taken from an old 
roll like Augustine de Barton but it 
may be the successor of Adam ; Lanes. 
Inq. and Extents, i, 137. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



worth. 18 For over sixty years there is scarcely any 
mention of the manor, another Adam de Prestwich 
appearing in 1278." He was probably the same 
Adam who was plaintiff in 1292,'* and who in 1297 
settled his manors of Prestwich, Alkrington, and Pen- 
dlebury on John his son and heir and Emmota his 
wife. 16 This arrangement was not permanent, for he 
appears to have married about the same time one 
Alice de Wolveley, whose children became his heirs. 17 
In 1311 he gave the manor of Pendlebury to her son 
Robert, 18 and in 1313 settled the manors of Prestwich, 
Alkrington, and Pendlebury, and the advowson of the 
church of the manor of Prestwich upon Thomas his 
son by Alice, with remainders to her other children. 19 
In virtue of this Alice his widow succeeded him, 10 
and was in turn followed by her son, Thomas de 
Prestwich. He very quickly granted his manors to 
Richard son of William de Pvadcliffe for life, and then 
in fee. 21 In 1346, therefore, Richard de Radcliffe 
was returned as holding the manor of Prestwich with 
the advowson of the church. 11 Two years afterwards 
he made a feoffment of the manor and advowson, 
probably on his marriage with one Isabel.* 3 What- 
ever may have been the meaning of this transfer to 
the Radcliffes, it appears that in 1362 new feoffments 
were made," and the trustees regranted the manor of 
Prestwich and the advowson of the church for the 
lives of Richard and Isabel, and for a year and a day 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

after their decease, paying to Richard de Langley 50 
marks a year, and also performing the services due to 
the chief lords, the manor to revert to Richard de 
Langley or his heirs. 25 The right of the Langleys 
under the settlement of 1 3 1 3 was thus fully acknow- 
ledged. 

What became of Thomas de Prestwich is unknown. 26 
He had two daughters and co-heirs Margaret and 
Agnes. 27 The former took the 
veil at Seaton in Cumberland 
in 1360, but afterwards left 
the convent and married Ro- 
bert de Holland ; and Agnes, 
*who had married John son of 
William de Radcliffe, and who 
was considered the heir after 
her sister's veiling, died with- 
out issue about I362. 28 In 
1367 a further agreement was 
made between the Radcliffes 
and Langleys for securing the 
succession of Richard de Lang- 
ley and Joan his wife and the 
heirs of Joan. 29 About the same time Robert de 
Holland put forward his claims to the manor as the 
right of Margaret, and in 1371 Richard de Radcliffe 
the elder and Isabel his wife released to Robert and 
Margaret all their claim to the manor and advowson,* 




LANGLEY. Argent a 
cockatrice sable, crested, 
beaked and numbered 
gules. 



18 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, 67. Heaton 
and Fails-worth were held by under-tenant*. 

14 Thomas, lord of Prestwich, made a 
grant in Heaton about 1260 ; Harl. MS. 
2112, fol. 148/1 84. A John de Prestwich, 
rector of Whitwell, occurs about the same 
time; ibid. fol. 145^/181*. Robert son 
of Robert de Nettleham was non-suited 
in a claim for a tenement in Prestwich 
made against Adam de Prestwich in 1278; 
Assize R. 1238, m. 33d. 

15 Assize R. 408, m. 25 ; Adam de 
Prestwich claimed arrears of customs and 
services for a tenement in Prestwich held 
by John Byron, but was non-suited. This 
probably refers to Failsworth. 

16 Agecroft D. 4. 

17 A fuller account of Adam de Prest- 
wich and his descendants is given under 
Pendlebury, Agecroft in that township 
having become the principal seat of his 
heirs. Other descendants of his are named 
in the account of Whittleswick in Barton. 

18 Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), ii, 12; the grant included 40 acres 
in Prestwich also. 

Alice, the sister of Robert, succeeded ; 
she married Jordan de Tetlow, and her 
heir was her daughter Joan, who married 
Richard de Langley ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Chet. Soc.), i, 53. 

19 Final Cone, ii, 1 6 ; Agecroft D. II. 
After the children of Alice the remainder 
was to Roger de Prestwich. Claims were 
put in by Alice, sister of John de Byron ; 
John son of John de Prestwich, Adam de 
Worley, and Emma his wife, and John and 
Thomas sons of Emma possibly the Em- 
mota of 1297. 

At the beginning of 1319 Adam de 
Prestwich claimed a messuage, etc., in 
Prestwich held by Roger de Prestwich and 
Thomas his son ; De Banco R. 226, m. 
24. Adam and Alexander de Prestwich 
were also plaintiffs as executors of the will 
of John, rector of Whitwell ; ibid. m. 65. 
At Easter in the same year Adam com- 
plained that certain persons had cut down 
and carried off some of his trees at Oldham, 



to the value of i o ; ibid. R. 229, m. 70 d. 
Soon afterwards he died, for in July 1319, 
Thomas son of John de Prestwich released 
to Alice, widow of Adam de Prestwich, all 
his claim on the family manors ; Agecroft 
D. 1 3 (dated at Pontefract). 

20 She held Prestwich, Heaton, and 
Alkrington in 1324. Her holding was 
called one plough-land, and the service due 
was 2os. ; Lanes. Inq. and Extents, ii, 104, 
135, 204. She appears to have died about 
1330. 

21 Thomas son of Adam de Prestwich 
and Alice de Wolveley in 1331 granted his 
manors of Prestwich, Alkrington, and Pen- 
dlebury, and the land he had acquired 
from John son of Alexander de Prestwich, 
to Richard son of William de Radcliffe for 
his life, at a yearly rent of 26 and 19 J. 
in silver for the first three years, and 100 
marks of silver for the rest of the term ; 
Agecroft D. 14. The rents seem to show 
that this was a grant in trust. A little 
later he gave the same Richard all his right 
in the manor of Prestwich and the demesne, 
including the park, and a pasture called 
the Denehead ; ibid. 1 5. The grantee was 
the lord of Radcliffe. 

In 1333 he granted to Richard and his 
heirs his manor of Prestwich, with the 
park and the Denehead, at a yearly rent of 
a rose for the first twenty years and of 
10 marks afterwards ; ibid. 17, 18. This 
was soon followed by a release of all ac- 
tions touching his fermes of Prestwich, 
Pendlebury, and Alkrington ; ibid. 1 9. He 
presented to the rectory in 1334, but soon 
afterwards made over the advowson to 
Richard de Radcliffe (ibid. 6, 20, 21), who 
presented from 1347 to 1365. 

Thomas gave a release to his brother 
Robert in 1345 ; ibid. 22. 

22 Add. MS. 32103, fol. 146; Dods. 
MSS. Ixxxvii, fol. 59*. 

23 Agecroft D. 23, 24. The trustees 
regranted to Richard de Radcliffe and Isabel 
his wife and their issue ; ibid. 25, 26. 

24 Ibid. 28-30. In one grant a place 
called the ' Fohcastel ' was reserved. In 

77 



1479 't was attested that * Foyecastell ' 
moor belonged to the lordship of Prest- 
wich, and not to that of Crumpsall ; ibid. 
83. Castle Hill lies in the south-east 
corner of the township, in the borders of 
Broughton and Crumpsall. 

24 Ibid. 31, 32, dated 9 Dec. 1362. The 
feoffees made a final release in 1364 ; ibid. 

33- 

86 He had an illegitimate son who re- 
ceived land in Tonge and took the local 
name, as will be seen in the account of 
that township. Thomas was living in 
1348, when he claimed certain lands in 
Prestwich against his sister Alice and 
against Robert and Thurstan sons of Jordan 
de Tetlow ; De Banco R. 356, m 384 d. 
Alice, widow of Thomas de Prestwich, 
was a defendant in 1356, respecting lands 
in the township ; Duchy of Lane. Assize 
R. 5, m. 4. 

^ Margaret de Prestwich and Agnes her 
sister were in 1357 plaintiffs respecting a 
tenement in Prestwich, Richard, son of 
John de Radcliffe being defendant ; Duchy 
of Lane. Assize R. 6, m. 2 d. 

28 The story is told in Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Chet. Soc.), i, 50-3, and in a more com- 
plete record in the Agecroft D. 66. See 
also Pal. of Lane. Misc. bdle. i, no 8, m. 
25, 26. The dates of Margaret's entrance 
into religion and her sister's death seem 
to be marked by the feoffments above 
related. 

29 Agecroft D. 44 ; in this the rent 
payable by Richard de Radcliffe is stated as 
5 (not 50) marks. It was confirmed by 
a fine in 1369 ; Final Cone, ii, 176. 

Sir John de Radcliffe, of Ordsall, in 
1412 quitclaimed to Robert de Langley 
all his right to the Prestwich manors ; 
Agecroft D. 59. 

80 Ibid. 34. Thurstan son of John de 
Prestwich in 1375 released to Robert de 
Holland all his claim on the manors of 
Prestwich, Alkrington, and Pendlebury and 
the advowson of Prestwich ; ibid. 37. In 
1416 he gave a similar release to Robert 
de Langley ; ibid. 72. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



while in 1374 Robert de Holland and Margaret his 
wife made a feoffment of their manor of Prestwich, 31 
and two years later granted to Peter their son all 
their lands and tenements in Prestwich, Alkrington, 
and Pendlebury, together with the advowson of 
Prestwich. 31 

Roger de Langley the son and heir was a minor in 
1372, and in ward to the Duke of Lancaster, 33 when 
Robert de Holland assembled a troop of armed men, 
and by force took possession of the manor, holding it 
till 1389." The Langleys, however, had not been 
neglectful of their claim. As early as 1371 a certifi- 
cate had been procured stating that Margaret de 
Prestwich had been duly professed, 84 and Roger as son 
and heir of Richard and Joan appears to have put 
forward his claim in due form, 36 but it was not till 
1394, after his death, that a final decision was made. 37 
The heir, his son Robert, being a minor, the manor 
of Prestwich, with a parcel of Alkrington and the 
advowson of the church, were taken into the duke's 
hands, livery being granted in i^o^. 39 

The manor then descended peaceably in the same 
way as Pendlebury, 39 the most notable feature of the 



family's tenure being the succession of Langleys to 
the rectory for 200 years. 

On the death of Sir Robert Langley in 1561 and 
the consequent partition, the manor of Prestwich be- 
came the share of his daughter Margaret, who married 
John Reddish of Reddish, 40 and afterwards Richard 
Holland, of Denton. 41 Her son, Alexander Reddish, 
left two daughters as co-heirs, Sarah and Grace. 4 * The 
former, who married Clement, a younger son of Sir 
Edward Coke, the famous lawyer and chief justice, 
had the manor of Prestwich. It descended in the 
Coke family, though Sarah's issue died out, until 
1777, when Thomas William Coke, the famous 
' Mr. Coke of Holkham,' in Norfolk, a leader in the 
agricultural revolution which took place in the latter 
part of the 1 8th century, wishing to increase his Nor- 
folk estates, began to sell Prestwich in parcels. 4 * 
T. W. Coke in 1779 P a '^ 9 s - 4^- to ^ e duchy for 
Prestwich. 44 The manor was, in 1 794, acquired by 
Peter Drinkwater, who resided at Irwell House in 
Prestwich, and it descended to his son Thomas. 
Thomas died in 1861, leaving two daughters ; and 
Irwell House, with land called Drinkwater Park, has 



81 Agccroft D. 36. 

"Ibid. 38. In 1375 Robert de Hol- 
land appeared as plaintiff, certain persons 
having cut down his trees at Prestwich ; 
De Banco R. 459, m. 10. 

88 On 13 Nov. 1372 John Duke of 
Lancaster directed the sheriff to take into 
the duke's hands the manor of Prestwich, 
because of the minority of Roger de Lang- 
ley, the heir, the tenure being stated to be 
by knight's service ; Duchy of Lane. Misc. 
Bks. xiii, 163. In a plea of 1390 the date 
of the sherirFs entry is given as I 5 May, 
1374 ; possibly the father died in one year 
and the mother in the other ; Lanes. Inq. 
p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 52. 

84 Ibid., and more fully in an exempli- 
fication of the pleas of 1390 made in 
1414 ; Agecroft D. 66. Robert de Hol- 
land denied that Margaret was a nun or 
professed. The suit quoted was in form 
a claim by the duke for the profits which 
should have accrued to him from the 
wardship of Roger de Langley, but lost 
through the forcible occupation by the 
Hollands. 

85 Agecroft D. 35. ' Dame Margaret de 
Prestwich, one of the nuns of Seaton, of 
the age of fifteen years and more, was 
professed on the morrow of St. {Catherine 
the Virgin and Martyr, A.D. 1360, in the 
presence of Sir John Cragge, prior of the 
Abbey of Furness, Sir John de Huddleston, 
knight and lord of Millom, Richard de 
Coupland of Furness, Richard de Huddles- 
ton and others . . . and the said Margaret 
on the said day confessed before the said 
persons that she was not coerced or com- 
pelled, but voluntarily entered the order of 
St. Benedict in the said house and was 
professed.' A similar certificate was pro- 
cured in 1388 ; ibid. 39,40. 

86 See the statements in the inquisition 
and plea above cited. 

8 < Agecroft D. 66. When the Duke of 
Lancaster called upon the Archbishop of 
York to make inquiry as to Margaret's 
profession, he gave no reply, Seaton being 
outside the duke's regality ; so that appli- 
cation had to be made to the king, in reply 
to whom the archbishop in June 1394 du'.y 
certified that ' Margaret, daughter of 
Thomas, son of Alice de Wolveley . , . 
was a nun and professed in the house of 
the nuns of Seaton.' On this judgement 



was given for the duke in his claim against 
Robert de Holland. 

Dower was in the same year (1394) 
granted to Margaret widow of Roger de 
Langley, from the manor of Prestwich 
together with the hamlet of Alkrington 
appertaining to the manor ; it included 
the Hallfield and Denehead, part of the 
demesne, and the chapel chamber with the 
chapel at Prestwich, a stable and haybarn ; 
ibid. 56. 

The Hollands did not immediately re- 
sign their claims. In 1395 the feoffees of 
Robert and Margaret granted to Edmund 
their son the manor and advowson of 
Prestwich for the life of Robert de Holland, 
on whose death it was to go to Peter the 
son of Robert and his issue, with succes- 
sive remainders to Peter's brothers and 
sisters, Nicholas, John, Edmund, Marion, 
ICatherine, and Alice ; ibid. 42. 

At the end of 1401 Robert de Holland 
released to Robert de Langley all his claim 
upon the manors of Prestwich, Alkrington, 
and Pendlebury, and his sons were to do 
the same when they should come of age ; 
an annuity of 5 marks a year was granted 
in return for this ; the parties were sworn 
upon the sacrament of the altar to hold to 
this agreement; ibid. 57*. In 1416 Peter 
de Holland agreed to give up all his deeds 
relating to the Prestwich manors, and for- 
mally gave 'his manors' up to trustees (for 
the Langleys) in 1418 ; ibid. 69, 73. 

The settlement was not arrived at with- 
out violence. In May 1402 the king 
granted his pardon to Robert de Langley 
for capturing and detaining Robert de 
Holland. The latter had, it seems, at 
various times invaded the manor of 
Prestwich and carried away the cattle and 
goods of Langley and his tenants into 
Cheshire, not restoring them without 
payment. He had also come by night 
and carried some of Langley's cattle as far 
as Glossop ; being pursued, he entered the 
house of Master Wagstaffe and defied 
Robert de Langley, wounding one of his 
servants with an arrow. The brother of 
the wounded man threw fire into the 
house, so that it was burnt down and Hol- 
land had to surrender, and was taken into 
Lancashire. He had already been out- 
lawed for treason ; ibid. 58. 

88 Inq. p.m. above cited, and Towneley 

78 



MS. DD, no. 1466. In 1398 the Duke of 
Lancaster released to his ward Robert de 
Langley a rent of 1 1 marks due as the 
farm of his lands in Prestwich and Alkring- 
ton, and this because of Robert's 'good 
and agreeable service,' rendered to the 
duke, who had retained him in his service 
for life ; Agecroft D. 57. 

89 But little is known of the manor 
during this period. In 1410 it appears 
that Edmund de Prestwich and Margaret 
his wife had received from Robert de Lang- 
ley certain lands in Prestwich as Margaret's 
portion ; ibid. 34. In 1468 there was a 
dispute between the Langleys and the 
Radcliffes of Ordsall ; ibid. 79 ; and in 
1484 between them and the Radcliffes of 
Radcliffe, as to the bounds of Crumpsall 
and Prestwich ; ibid. 86, 87. 

In 1472 it was found that Thomas 
Langley, deceased, had held the manor of 
Prestwich of the king as Duke of Lancas- 
ter, by the sixteenth part of a knight's fee 
and a rent of izs. a year ; its clear annual 
value was 10 ; Agecroft D. 80. At the 
death of Sir Robert Langley in 1561 the 
tenure was called socage, by a rent of 
131. \d. ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xi, 16. 

40 Land in Prestwich is named in a 
settlement of the lands of John Reddish 
and Margaret his wife in 1569 ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 31, m. 164. 

41 In a list of chief rents paid to Queen 
Elizabeth occurs ' Richard Holland for 
another fourth part [of Sir R. Langley's 
lands], 95.4^.' ; Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1870), 

i> 447- 

4a Margaret Holland died in September 
1625, and was buried at Prestwich; thus 
surviving her son Alexander Reddish, who 
died in 1613 when his daughter Grace was 
aged twenty-five, and wife of Sir Robert 
Darcy, while Sarah was only twelve ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 254. 

Sarah Coke died in 1623-4 and Clemnt 
her husband in 1630, leaving a son and 
heir Edward, aged twelve, on 17 Feb. 
1630; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxvi, 53. 
See further in the account of Reddish. 

48 W. Nicholls, Prestwich, 33-6. 'No 
trace can be found of a [ manor J court 
being held here' ; ibid. 37. 

44 Duchy of Lane. Rentals, bdle. 14, no. 
25 m. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



been sold to the Corporation of Salford on a ground 
rent, and a further part of the land to the Prestwich 
District Council. 45 

The manor of Prestwich i.e. a mesne lordship be- 
tween the Earl of Lancaster and the local family 
seems to have been granted to Sir Robert de Holland 
early in the I4th century, but the claim to it failed. 46 

The other daughters of Sir Robert Langley also had 
lands in Prestwich, on a division of the estate. Thus 
William Dauntesey of Agecroft held 1 6 acres as appur- 
tenant to his manor-house. 47 James Ashton, of Chad- 
derton, in right of his wife Dorothy had a much larger 
estate. 48 Part of it was the Polefield estate, since 
divided into three portions, one of which Polefield 
Hall and lands is now owned by the Earl of Wilton. 49 

Poppythorn is an ancient part of the glebe land. 50 

Sedgeley was, in 1788, purchased from T. W. Coke 
by Thomas Philips, a Manchester merchant. His son 
George was created a baronet in 1826. The house, 
called Sedgeley Hall, was from 1848 to 1854 the 
residence of Dr. Prince Lee, the first bishop of Man- 
chester. The estate has been utilized for building 
purposes. 51 

Rooden was, in the I4th century, owned by the 
Hollands." It has been included in the Heaton Park 
estate, purchased by the Corporation of Manchester." 

Henry de Traffbrd of Prestwich occurs in 1348 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

and later years. 54 No landowners were assessed to the 
subsidy in 1541, but in 1622 Edward Holland, Robert 
Leigh, and Richard Tonge contributed. 45 The land 
tax returns of 1787 show the effect of the Coke sale ; 
the largest contributor was James Chapman, who paid 
about a ninth of the sum collected. 66 

Sir John Prestwich, some of whose antiquarian col- 
lections are in the Chetham Library, claimed to repre- 
sent the old Prestwich family ; he died in Dublin, 
I 5 August 1 796." He had no territorial connexion 
with the township. 

The parish church has already been described. 
St. Margaret's, Holyrood, was opened in 1851 and 
consecrated the following year ; it has had several 
additions. A separate district was assigned to it in 
1 885." St. Hilda's, a chapel of ease at Rooden Lane, 
was consecrated in 1904, but services had been con- 
ducted there for some years previously. 

Wesleyan Methodism was introduced as early as 
1805, a cottage in Rooden Lane being used for Sunday 
meetings. A small chapel was built in 1820, which 
was replaced by the existing building in 1865.** In 
Prestwich village services began in 1812, but the 
Rooden Lane chapel accommodated this congregation 
also for a time. In 1830 a new start was made; a 
school -chapel was built in 1835, anc ^ a chapel in the 
main street followed in 1840. The present church 



45 Nicholls, op. cit. 34, 39 ; and Burke, 
Commoners, iii, 669. 

46 Maud, widow of Sir Robert de Hol- 
land, in 1 346 claimed dower in the manor 
of Prestwich against Richard de Radcliffe; 
the defence was that Robert was never in 
seisin, and no more is heard of the claim ; 
De Banco R. 347, m. 158 ; 350, m. 250. 

*7 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), iii, 349. Among the Age- 
croft deeds are leases of land in Prest- 
wich to Hopwood and to Astley in the 
1 8th century. 

48 Ibid, i, 225. In 1587 James Ashton 
and Dorothy his wife granted to William 
Dauntesey an annuity of 10 from lands 
in Prestwich called Over Fleams, Lower 
Fleams, Showebrode, and the Rodes ; ibid. 
229. 

49 W. Nicholls, Prestwich, 37, 38 ; the 
other portions are known as Polefield 
House and Pippintree (or Polefield). 
The pole from which it took its name was 
used for signals, standing on the highest 
ground in the parish ; ibid. 93. 

40 In the early years of Elizabeth's 
reign William Langley, then rector, being 
seised of a messuage and lands called 
* Popethorne,' demised to Robert Holt of 
Prestwich a messuage lately built there 
and called the New Chamber, together 
with 4 acres of land and meadow and 
housing for his corn, hay, turves, and 
cattle. The rector afterwards refused to 
carry out the agreement, and Robert Holt 
appealed to the Chancellor, Sir Ambrose 
Carr ; Duchy of Lane. Plead, cxi, H. nj 
see also Nicholls, Prestwich, 31. 

It was the residence of a family named 
Wilson, one of whom was summoned to 
attend the Visitation of 1664 ; Dugdale, 
Visit. (Chet. Soc.), v. A pedigree is 
given in Booker, Prestwicb, 216. 

51 Nicholls, Prestwich, 34, 94-7 ; it is 
related that Sydney Smith frequently 
visited Sir George Philips at Sedgeley, 
preaching at the parish church. Lawrence 
Fort, calico printer, of Blackburn, the 
next owner, is said to have committed 
suicide in one of the rooms of Sedgeley 



Hall in 1837, and 'curious lights are 
sometimes observed in the window of 
that room.' The house was ruined by a 
fire in 1902. 

58 The following deeds of the year 
1341 in Lord Wilton's possession show 
something of the origin of the Holland 
estate : 

Grant by John de Prestwich the 
younger to Thurstan de Holland of a 
piece of land called Broadclough (Brade- 
clache) in Prestwich, as inclosed by hedges 
and ditches in the time of its former 
owner, the grantor's grandfather, John 
son of Adam de Prestwich, a rent of 31. 4</. 
to be paid. 

Release by Richard de Radc iffc to 
Thurstan son of Sir William de Holland 
of land in Prestwich. 

Release by John de Prestwich the 
younger of all his right in his grand- 
father's land called Rodoun, granted to 
Thurstan by Richard de Radcliffe. 

Grant of a rent-charge of 31. 4^. on 
Rodoun by Thurstan de Holland to John 
de Prestwich. 

This John de Prestwich appears to be a 
descendant of the ' son and heir ' of Adam 
in 1297. Ralph, son of John son of 
John de Prestwich, occurs in 1353 ; 
Assize R. 43$, m. 18 d. ; he and his wife 
Ellen claimed lands at Walton on the 
Hill ; ibid. m. 33. 

Thurstan de Holland acquired further 
lands in Prestwich in 1 360, the vendors 
being William de Blakelow and Margery 
his wife ; William de Beswick and Cecily 
his wife, and Alice widow of Henry the 
Falconer; Final Cone, ii, 165. 

By an arbitration made in 1520 
between Robert Langley of Agecroft and 
Richard Holland of Denton, it was de- 
cided that the former should enjoy all the 
messuages, lands, &c., which he or his 
ancestors had built and inclosed on the 
waste of Prestwich, and might also ap- 
prove 4 acres of the moor adjoining the 
Fohcastle, but no more. The Hollands 
and their tenants of Heaton Hall, the 
ground called Rooden, and tenements near 

79 



Heaton Gate lying on the north and south 
side of Terrebrook, were to enjoy com- 
mon of pasture on the wastes in Prest- 
wich, and to drive their cattle to the high 
moor of Prestwich to common there. 
Robert Langley was to take down the 
gate he had erected in Rooden Lane end ; 
Agecroft D. 100. 

53 Nicholls, Prestwich, 93. 

54 Assize R. 1444, m. 4 ; he was son of 
Alan. In 1356 Gilbert de Urmston com- 
plained that Henry de Traffbrd of Prest- 
wich, Richard and Nicholas his brothers, 
and John de Traffbrd, bastard, had assaulted 
him at Wigan, so that his life was despaired 
of; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 5, m. 8. 

85 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 143, 155. Thomas Leigh of Alkring- 
ton and {Catherine his wife made a set- 
tlement of their estate, including lands in 
Prestwich, in 1571 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. 33, m. 184. Christopher 
Tonge made a settlement respecting his 
twelve messuages and lands in Prestwich 
in 1585 ; ibid. bdle. 47, m. 17. 

In 1586 Geoffrey Hardman acquired 
lands in Denton, Heaton, and Prestwich 
from Robert Holt ; ibid. bdle. 48, m. 227. 
Thomas Hardman contributed to the sub- 
sidy in 1622 for 'goods' ; Misc. ut sup. 
Hardman's Green and Hardman's Fold 
exist in the northern part of the town- 
ship. Adjacent is Kirkhams, commem- 
orating Thomas Kirkham, who built the 
house in 1733 ; he was buried in the 
church in 1788 ; Booker, Prestwich, 38. 

56 Returns at Preston. 

*' Pal. Note Bk. ii, 249. For his as- 
sumption of the Prestwich baronetcy see 
G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, ii, 222. 

58 Holyrood is a fancy name, derived 
from Rooden Lane. For the church and 
a strange story as to the laying of the 
foundation stone see Nicholls, Prestwich^ 
142-4. 

59 Nicholls, Prestwich, 121. The rec- 
tor (Lyon) was asked to interfere to stop 
the meetings, but said, ' Let them do 
good amongst us if they can,' and sub- 
scribed to the school. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



was built in i877. 60 There is a small chapel at Rain- 
sough. The Primitive Methodists began services in 
a cottage at Kirkhams, and have since erected an iron 
chapel ; the first minister was appointed in iSgj. 61 

The Congregational Church, Rooden Lane, origi- 
nated in anight school begun in 1862. TheChetham 
Hill church took the work up ; a school-chapel was 
opened in 1865, and the present church in i88i. M 

The Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady of Grace 
was opened in 1891. Mass had been said for two 
years previously in the Co-operative Hall. 63 

There is a Jewish cemetery, opened in 1 84-O. 64 

GREAT AND LITTLE HEATON 

Heton, 1212 usual; Heiton, 1226; Hetun, 
Heethon, c. 1250 ; Heetun, 1319 ; Hoi ton, Hoton, 
1331-2 ; Hey ton, 1447 ; Heaton (xvi cent.). 

Faefeld, c. 1280 ; Faghefeld, 1331 ; Faufeld, 1344; 
Fawfeld, 1368 ; Falefelde, 1447 ; Faughfyld, 1586 ; 
Fallowfield, modern. Pronounced Fawfield. 

These townships, mostly on high ground, which 
slopes away to the south-east to the River Irk, have 
areas respectively of 875 and 532 acres. Great 
Heaton has two detached portions lying on the 
border of Middleton, and Little Heaton has a small 
isolated part, occupying the extreme north-east corner 
of the townships. Formerly the district was called 
Faghfield, and the places were Heaton upon Fagh- 
field, but in time the present Great Heaton became 
known as Over Heaton or Heaton Reddish, from the 
lords of the manor, while Little Heaton was called 
Heaton Fallowfield. The population in 1901 was 
not returned separately, but partly with Prestwich and 
partly with Middleton. 

The surface is undulating, varying from 200 ft. 
to 350 ft. above sea level. The most prominent 
feature is the large park around Heaton House, now 
the property of Manchester. The chief road is that 
from the north of Manchester to Middleton, along 
the right bank of the Irk. From it roads branch off, 
making a circuit of the park, and another great high- 



way leads to Heywood. The Lancashire and York- 
shire Company's railway from Manchester to Bury 
passes through the southern corner of Great Heaton, 
mostly by a tunnel under the park. 

The townships have ceased to exist as such. 
In 1894 the greater part of the area was added to 
Prestwich for purposes of local government ; the 
small urban district on the east, known as Rhodes, 
together with the detached portion of Little Heaton 
above mentioned, were taken into the borough of 
Middleton. 1 A further change was made in 1901, 
Heaton Park being added to Manchester, on its 
purchase by the Corporation. 

Fifty years ago silk-weaving gave prosperity to the 
villages of Simister and Bow Lee, but th industry 
has long been extinct.* 

There is a well called the Danes' Well in Simister 
in Little Hulton. 8 A place called Clark's Cross is 
on the highest ground, 350 ft., in Corday Lane in 
Great Heaton. A curious inn sign, 'The Same Yet,' 
was noticeable at Great Heaton. 4 

In 1666 there were fifty hearths in Heaton liable 
to the tax ; William Holland's house had thirteen, 
and Edmund Hey wood's six. In Heaton Fallowfield, 
out of thirty-five hearths in all James Pilkington's 
house had six. 5 

Heaton, held in thegnage of the king, 
MANORS had before 1212 become divided into 
two portions, held by different families 
at different rents. One moiety, GREAT HEATON t 
as 4 oxgangs of land, was then held by Adam de 
Prestwich, and of him by Adam de Heaton, by a rent of 
io/. The other moiety, LITTLE HEATON, also 
4 oxgangs, was held by William de Radcliffe, and 
of him by Gilbert de Notion, of Barton, by a rent of 
6/. SJ. 6 

It is difficult to trace the descent of these separate 
portions. Of the Prestwich moiety 7 one portion 
seems to have been acquired by the Hultons, 8 and thus 
passed to the Reddish family, being held by a rent of 
6s. 8</. ; 9 the other 3/. \d. may have been due from 
Rooden Lane in Prestwich, which seems anciently 



60 Nicholls, Preifwich, 122. 

Ibid. 124. 

82 Ibid. 125 ; Nightingale, Lanes. Non- 
tonf. v, 26-7. 

Nicholls, op. cit. 128 ; Kelly, Engl. 
Cath. Missions, 323. 

M Nicholls, loc. cit. 

1 Local Govt. Bd. Orders, 31625, 
32103. 

3 Nicholls, Prestwich, 55. 
8 Ibid. 147. 

4 Pal. Note Bk. iii, 260. 

5 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

6 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 87. 

^ Thomas, lord of Prestwich, granted 
to Joan his daughter, about 1 260, half of 
Heaton, formerly held by Thomas son of 
Alexander ; Harl. MS. 21 12, fol. 148/1 84. 
In 1 346 Richard Radcliffe, then in posses- 
sion of the Prestwich manors, held ' Prest- 
wich' by a rent of 20*., &c. The rent 
shows that Prestwich included Heaton. 

In 1325 it was found that Joan, wife of 
William de Holland and later of William 
de Multon, held the third part of a mes- 
suage and lands, and ros. rent, in Heaton 
near Fallowfield, of Alice widow of Adam 
de Prestwich by the service of the third 
part of 2s. ; Inq. p.m. 19 Edw. II, no. 96. 
Hugh the chaplain, brother and heir of 



Thomas de Heaton, granted to William 
de Holland in 1309 all his manor of 
Heaton, together with the service of John 
son of Adam de Prestwich ; Harl. MS. 
21 1 2, fol. 148/184. 

Heaton is not mentioned in the later 
Langley inquisitions. 

8 In 1301 Richard son of David de 
Hulton brought an action concerning dis- 
seisin of 4 oxgangs of land in Over Hea- 
ton against Richard de Hulton the elder 
(brother of David), Richard and John his 
sons, Adam de Radcliffe, and William and 
Thomas sons of Thomas de Urmston ; 
the plaintiff claimed under a charter of 
his uncle Richard, who denied that it was 
genuine; Assize R. 418, m. 5. At the 
same time Agnes, David's widow, claimed 
dower in certain messuages and lands in 
Over Heaton, which were held by Richard 
de Hulton, senr. ; ibid. m. I. 

In 1331 Richard son of Richard de 
Hulton of Reddish claimed the manor of 
Heaton super Fallowfield against William 
son of Richard de Hulton ; De Banco R. 
287, m. 236 d. In a further pleading 
the plaintiff, who recovered, stated that 
Richard son of David de Hulton had 
granted the manor to his brother David, 
with remainder to Richard brother of 
David ; and as David died without issue, 

80 



it should descend to Richard son of Richard; 
De Banco R. 294, m. 242 d. Richard son 
of Richard de Hulton [of Hulton] was 
fined for opposing. 

Richard de Reddish held five messuages, 
100 acres of land, &c., in Heaton, for- 
merly part of the estate of Richard de 
Hulton of Ordsall ; Assize R. 1435, m - 
40. 

9 The township was called Heaton 
Reddish in 1522 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 144. 

Richard de Reddish died in 1404 seised 
of the manor of Heaton on Fallowfield, 
held of the king in chief by knight's ser- 
vice and a rent of 6s. %d. ; Lanes. Inq. 
p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 80. In 1522 the 
tenure was called socage, the rent being 
6s. 8./. ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. v, 48. 
This statement was repeated in 1559, 
when the manor was called Over Heaton 
on Fallowfield ; ibid, xi, 60. 

In 1613, however, the rent due from 
the Reddish estate (not called a manor) in 
Heaton was id. only ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 253. By 
this time probably the main part of their 
inheritance had passed to the Hollands. 
It appears from the inquisition after the 
death of Sarah Coke in 1630 that lands in 
Crumpsall and Heaton Fallowfield, known 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



to have been charged with that rent, 10 or from lands 
purchased by Adam de Prestwich and given to his son 
John," whose descendants sold it to the Hollands of 
Denton. 1 * This family also acquired a moiety of the 
Radcliffe part of Heaton, 13 the other half apparently 
descending with Radcliffe ; M thus in 1346 Richard de 
Radcliffe and Thurstan de Holland held Heaton Fal- 
lowfield in socage by a rent of 6s. 8</., paying double as 
a relief ; puture also was due. 15 In later inquisitions 
the tenure is called knight's service. 16 

The Heaton family appear throughout the I3th 
century, but sold their lands to the Prestwiches and 
others ; and part was obtained by the Hollands. 17 
This family became the principal one in the two 
townships. Their original house, known as the Old 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

Hall, was in Little Heaton, but about 1750 the 
present Heaton Hall in Great Heaton was built, and 
remained the seat of the family until its purchase by 
Manchester. A junior branch of the family was 
seated at Rhodes in Pilkington. 18 

At the beginning of the I Jth century the Hollands 
of Denton seem to have acquired the inheritance of 
the Reddish family in Great Heaton, 19 and from that 
time chose Heaton for their principal residence. 10 In 
1684 Elizabeth, sister and heir of Edward Holland, 
married at Prestwich Sir John Egerton of Wrinehill, 11 
and her son Holland, born two years afterwards," in- 
herited the manors of Heaton and Denton.* 3 He 
was succeeded in turn by his sons, Sir Edward and Sir 
Thomas Grey Egerton, 24 and his grandson Sir Thomas 



as the manor of Crumpsall, had recently 
been purchased from William Sedley 
probably in 1608; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. xxvi, 53 ; PaL of Lane. Feet of F. 
bdle. 70, no. 82. 

The ' manor of Heaton ' continued to 
descend with Reddish, and is named in a 
settlement by Sir Robert Coke in 1685 ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 217, m. 20. 

10 See the account of Prestwich. 

11 A grant by Robert son of Robert de 
Nettleham to Adam de Prestwich in 
1297 is given in Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 
164/200. In the same year Adam de 
Prestwich granted to John his son all the 
lands in Heaton, a hamlet of the vill of 
Prestwich, which he had acquired from 
Adam son of the widow of Heaton, and 
from Robert de Nettleham, with common 
of pasture, &c., in Awekeshowe ; a rent 
of $.od. was payable to the grantor ; Lord 
Wilton's D. By earlier deeds Alexander 
son of Adam de Heaton had granted part 
of his land to Christiana daughter of Alan 
de Harwood ; the bounds touched Sandy- 
ford, Teribrook, the ancient mill-site, 
Ithek, Mereshawbrook, and the great 
road ; and Thomas the son of Alexander 
de Heaton gave to Robert de Nettleham 
the same piece of land, described as lying 
in the vill of Heaton upon Fallowfield, a 
member of Prestwich ; ibid. 

13 John de Prestwich in 1321-2 granted 
to John his son certain lands in Heaton 
in Prestwich; and in 1329 the younger 
John granted to his son, also John, all 
his lands in Heaton, Salford, and Man- 
chester ; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 164/200. 
A few years later (1338) John son of John 
de Prestwich gave a rent of 401., charged 
on his lands in Salford and Heaton, to 
Margaret, who had been the wife of 
Henry de Worsley ; ibid. fol. 146^/1 82^. 
This was followed in 1 343 by a grant to 
her of all his lands in Heaton ; ibid. fol. 
148/184. In 1368 and later Thurstan 
son of John de Prestwich made several 
grants and releases to Thurstan de Hol- 
land ; ibid. 148/184, i^^h/igoh, 164/200. 

18 How they acquired it is not clear, 
but in 1402 Richard de Holland of Den- 
ton died seised of a moiety of the manor 
of Heaton upon Fallowfield, holding it of 
the king in chief by the service of 40^. a 
year ; Towneley MS. DD, no. 1461. The 
difficulty of distinguishing between the 
various parts of Heaton is increased by 
this rent being the same as that for the 
lands of John de Prestwich, as recorded 
in a preceding note. 

Sir Robert de Holland in 1319 granted 
to Thurstan de Holland son of Margaret 
de Shoresworth all his lands and tene- 
ments in demesne and lordship in Heaton 
on Fallowfield, and the services of all the 



free tenants and others, rendering 5 marks 
a year for ten years and then only i</., 
and rendering to the chief lords the ser- 
vices due ; Lord Wilton's D. 

About 1348 Margaret de Shoresworth 
recovered seisin of her free tenement in 
Heaton, Denton, &c., of which she alleged 
that Thurstan son of Sir William de Hol- 
land (and her son also) had disseised her ; 
Assize R. 1444, m. 7 d. 

14 It is not mentioned in the Radcliffe 
inquisitions, but from that after the death 
of Sarah Coke, quoted above, it appears to 
have been included with the Radcliffe 
manor of Crumpsall, and purchased by 
Alexander Reddish. 

In 1329 Roger de Reddish made com- 
plaint against a number of persons who 
had carried away his goods from Heaton ; 
De Banco R. 279, m. 391 d. 

"Add. MS. 32103, fol. 146 ; it is called 
6 plough-lands instead of 4 oxgangs. 
This seems to prove that Thurstan de 
Holland held part of the Radcliffe manor ; 
the charters above quoted refer to the Prest- 
wich moiety. 

16 Thus in the inquisition of Robert 
Holland, taken in 11514, his seven mes- 
suages, 60 acres of land, &c., in Heaton 
were stated to be held of the king, as of 
his duchy of Lancaster, by knight's ser- 
vice ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iv, 58. 
So also a century later ; Lanes . Inq. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 141. 

V The charters previously quoted show 
this. 

To Cockersand Abbey Alexander son of 
Edward de Prestwich, with the assent of 
Adam his heir, about 1200 gave an acre 
and toft of his land in Heaton, between 
Terebrook and Mereshaw, next to his 
mill ; Cockermnd Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
723. This heir was no doubt the Adam 
de Heaton of 1212. One charter of Alex- 
ander son of Adam de Heaton has been 
noticed ; by another he gave to Peter son 
of Adam de Radcliffe his part of Puchlin- 
cheles in Heaton, the boundaries begin- 
ning at the brook and going across to the 
bounds of Middleton, thence to Hich and 
down to Puchlissale brook, and up the 
brook to the starting point ; the rent was 
4<D</., and a third part of the forinsic ser- 
vice for the vill was also due ; Wilton D. 
Thomas de Prestwich was a witness to 
this grant. To Alexander, Thomas his 
son succeeded. In 1292 Thomas de 
Heaton and Joan his wife secured two 
messuages, a mill, and lands in Prestwich 
and Heaton from William son of William 
de Hopwood ; Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 171. 

There is one other early fine relating 
to this township ; ibid, i, 66. 

18 A number of entries in the parish 

81 



registers referring to them are printed by 
Booker, PrestwicA, 176, 177. There is a 
reference to them in Vitit. of 1533 (Chet. 
Soc.), 218. 

19 In 1619 Richard Holland's estate in 
Heaton was described as seven messuages, 
60 acres of arable land, &c., in Heaton on 
Fallowfield, held of the king by knight's 
service ; and 12 acres of land, meadow, 
and pasture in Over Heaton lately pur- 
chased from Oswald Mosley, tenure un- 
known ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 142, 146. A like state- 
ment was made as to his brother Ed- 
ward's estate in 1636 ; Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. xxvii, 42. 

20 See the account of Denton for this 
family ; also Booker, Denton (Chet. Soc.), 
16. 

The Prestwich registers began in 1603, 
and the Hollands of Heaton seem to have 
been buried in the church from 1616 on- 
wards. Thomas Holland, of the Old Hall 
in Heaton, had a son baptized in 1627, 
and was buried in 1651 ; Booker, Prest- 
<wicb, 176, 177. As 'Holland of Hea- 
ton' they recorded a pedigree in 1664; 
Dugdale, Vhit. (Chet. Soc.), 146. 

21 Booker, op. cit. 178. Sir John Eger- 
ton and Elizabeth his wife were the defor- 
ciants in a fine concerning the manors of 
Denton, Heaton, &c., in 1685 ; PaL of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 214, m. 41. For 
Sir John Egerton and his family see G.E.C. 
Complete Baronetage, i, 108. Lady Eliza- 
beth died in 1701. 

22 Baptized at Prestwich 6 Jan. 1686-7, 
having been born 18 Dec. 1686 ; the 
younger children of the marriage do not 
appear in the Prestwich registers. On 
entering Brasenose College, Oxford, in 
1704, he was called fifteen years of age ; 
Foster, Alumni. He succeeded his father 
as fourth baronet in 1729. 

23 In 1711 a settlement of the manors 
of Heaton, Denton, &c., had been made, 
Holland Egerton and his brother Edward 
being deforciants in the fine ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 267, m. 34. Sir 
Holland was a distinguished antiquary. 
He appears to have resided usually at 
Heaton Hall, as his children were baptized 
at Prestwich. He died at Heaton, 25 Apr. 
1730, and was buried at Madeley. 

24 Sir Edward Egerton, the fourth son, 
was baptized 2 June 1719 ; matriculated 
at Oxford (Brasenose College), 1736 ; 
Foster, Alumni. He died of smallpox, un- 
married, on 1 6 Feb. 1743-4; his monu- 
ment in Prestwich Church records the 
virtues by which he adorned an ancient 
and illustrious family. 

His brother and successor, Sir Thomas 
Grey Egerton, was baptized 7 Nov. 1721, 
and entered Brasenose College in 1740. 

II 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Egerton, created Earl of Wilton in iSoi. K His 
daughter and sole heir Eleanor married Robert, Earl 
Grosvenor, afterwards Marquis of Westminster, and 
the Heaton estates went to her second son, Thomas, 
born in 1799, who by a special remainder succeeded 
his maternal grandfather in 1814 as second Earl of 
Wilton. He assumed the name of Egerton, and 
dying in 1882,* was succeeded by his eldest surviving 
son, Arthur Edward Holland Grey Egerton, who 
died without issue in 1885. His heir was his brother, 
Seymour John Grey Egerton, fourth earl. He died 
in 1898, and his son, Arthur George Egerton, in 
1901 sold Heaton Park and some adjacent lands 
to the Corporation of Manchester, the price being 
230,000. All rights, such as minerals, &c., were 
included in the purchase. The park was opened to 
the public on 24 September, 1902." 

Heaton House stands on an elevated situation in 
Heaton Park, and was built in 1772 by Sir Thomas 
Egerton (afterwards first Earl of Wilton), James 
Wyatt being the architect. It is a lew classic struc- 
ture facing south with a circular projection in the 
centre surmounted by a dome, and east and west 
wings connected with the main building by colon- 
nades.* 8 There is a circular temple to the south-east 
of the house, and later extensions were made on the 
east side by the addition of conservatories. The 
building, in which the Ionic order is used, is a good 
specimen of the early work of Wyatt, and is now 
used by the Manchester Corporation for exhibition 
and other purposes in connection with the park. 

The land tax returns of 1787 show that Lord Grey 
de Wilton paid about half the sums collected from 
Great and from Little Heaton.* 9 

In 1852 the whole of the land in Great Heaton 
belonged to the Earl of Wilton, except one cottage 



with its garden plot ; ' this cottage, situated at Catty 
green, is claimed by the township as the representative 
of its former owner, who upwards of a century ago, 
mysteriously disappeared, leaving no traces of his 
destination, and, what is more remarkable, no heirs 
to succeed to his property.'* This lies on the edge 
of a detached portion of Great Heaton, as also do 
parts of Bow Lee and Rhodes. 31 Of Bow Lee, how- 
ever, it is said that the cottages built there about 1800 
stood on neutral ground, no decision being given as to 
whether they were in Prestwich or in Middleton ; 
hence they escaped local rates, and no relief was given 
by either parish." 

In Little Heaton the hamlet of Simisters Lane takes 
its names from James Somister, who about 1730 pur- 
chased a small farm there, and prospering, afterwards 
added three others, his estate reaching 52 acres. He 
died in i78o. M 

From a feoffment of 1681 it appears that Robert 
Lever of Alkrington owned the old hall of Heaton, 
with its demesne lands. 14 

For the worship of the Established Church All 
Saints' was built at Rhodes in 1864 ; the rector of 
Middleton is the patron. There is attached the 
school church of St. Thomas, Bow Lee. 

ALKRINGTON 

Alkinton, 1212 ; Alkeryngton, 1313 ; Alcrinton, 
1324; Alkryngton, 1443. 

This township is bounded on the south-west by a 
brook running into the Irk, and by the Irk itself and 
its affluent the Wince Brook for the most part on the 
north. The surface is mostly above the 300 ft. level, 
but slopes downwards to the bounding brooks. 1 The 
highest ground, 350 ft., is in the south-east and north- 



He was one of the Tory members for 
Newton, 1747 to 1754 ; Pink and Beaven, 
Part. Repre. of Lanct. 289. He died at 
Heaton 8 July 1756, and was buried at 
Prestwich, his epitaph stating that he was 
pressed to continue to represent Newton, 
* but preferring the satisfaction of a private 
station declined it and retired to his 
country seat, where he made great im- 
provements, and lived usefully, hospitably, 
and charitably amongst his neighbours.' 
Some of his benefactions are recorded in 
the account of the charities. His widow 
Katherine, a daughter of the Rev. John 
Copley, fellow of Manchester, lived till 
1791. 

25 He was baptized 10 June 1749, at 
Prestwich ; educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford; M.A. 1769; Foster, Alumni} 
knight of the shire for Lancashire, 1772 
to 1784, being a Tory ; Pink and Beaven, 
op. cit. 86-7 ; created Baron Grey de Wil- 
ton in 1 784, and Viscount Grey de Wilton 
and Earl of Wilton of Wilton Castle, 
Herefordshire, in 1 80 1, this creation having 
a special remainder, failing his issue male, 
to the second and younger sons of his 
daughter in tail male ; G.E.C. Complete 
Peerage, viii, 161. In 1779 he paid a 
rent of 6s. %d. for the manor of Heaton ; 
Duchy of Lane. Rentals, 14, 25 m. In 
the same year he raised a corps of in- 
fantry the Royal Lancashire Volunteers 
the expenses being borne by himself and 
other private persons ; Drill Field, between 
High Bank and Sedgeley Park, being used 
for one of the companies for drill. He 
was commander of the regiment as lieut.- 
colonel. It was disbanded in 1783, but 



another was afterwards raised, of which 
Lord Wilton was colonel ; he accom- 
panied it to Ireland, and was stationed at 
Dublin Castle in 1801, at the proclama- 
tion of the Union ; Nicholls, PrestwicA, 
57-63. He died 23 Sept. 1814, and was 
buried at Prestwich ; his countess, Eleanor, 
a daughter and co-heir of Sir Ralph Asshe- 
ton of Middleton, died 3 Feb. 1816. 

38 G.E.C. Complete Peerage, loc. cit He 
was a keen sportsman, being fond of hunt- 
ing and yachting ; for a few years, 1827 to 
1838, races were held at Heaton Park. 
He was also devoted to music, encouraged 
glee-singing, and was a good organist ; 
Nicholls, PrestwicA, 42-8, with por- 
trait. He composed the tune called ' Prest- 
wich.' His countess, a daughter of the 
twelfth Earl of Derby by his second wife, 
Miss Farren, was the Lady Bountiful of 
the district, 'idolized by the gentry and 
tenantry, as well as by the poorest.' 

Private Acts of Parliament concerning 
the disposition of the estates were passed 
in 5 Geo. IV, cap. 1 1, and I Viet. cap. 37. 

^ Nicholls, op. cit. 111-15. The full 
extent of the purchase is 693 acres. There 
is a herd of deer in the park. 

28 There is a brief description of the 
hall, with a view (1795), in Aikin, Country 
Round Manch. 236. 

29 Returns at Preston. There was no 
other considerable holder, but in 1784 
Sir Assheton Lever had paid a quarter of 
the tax for Little Heaton. 

80 Booker, Prestwich, 78. 

81 Richard son of Thomas the Choffer 
of the Rhodes (Rodis) demised for life to 
John the Keuer a house with inclosed 

82 



curtilage and a piece of land on which 
Richard's chamber formerly stood ; this 
was in 1336 ; Lord Wilton's D. 

83 Booker, op. cit. 81. Bow Lee Com- 
mon is in a detached part of Little Heaton; 
Bow Lee Farm in Middleton. 

In 1587 Richard Holland of Denton, 
being by descent seised of a moiety of the 
manor of Heaton and a third part of a 
certain waste ground called the ' Balle 
Lye,' parcel of the said manor, in the 
parishes of Prestwich and Middleton, 
complained that while certain of his 
tenants dug turves in the Balle Lye, ac- 
cording to custom, John Hopwood, Isabel 
Hopwood, and others had entered Balle 
Lye by night and cut those turves in 
pieces, claiming the ground, or at least 
common of turbary therein, by certain 
deeds of which they had possessed them- 
selves ; Duchy of Lane. Plead, cxlii, H. 4. 
The Hopwoods of Rhodes Green are 
noticed in Booker, op. cit. 230. 

88 Ibid. 80. 

84 Raines D. (Chet. Lib.). In a later 
deed (1699) in the same collection Robert 
Lever speaks of the dwelling house pur- 
chased from Thomas Hilton, the lands 
purchased from (i) James Lightbown, 
(2) John Dauntesey, Otho Holland, and 
Robert Ravald, and (3) Robert Johnson, 
all in Heaton ; as well as others in Prest- 
wich, purchased from Edmund Ashton. 
As early as 1621, however, Robert Lever 
of Darcy Lever had held lands in Heaton 
Fallowfield of the king in socage ; Lanes. 
Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
ii, 255-7. 

1 Ordnance Survey. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



east. The area is 797. V acres. The population in 
1901 was returned with Middleton.* 

The principal road is that leading north from Man- 
chester to Middleton ; the hall is in the triangle to 
the west of this road. Part of the White Moss occu- 
pied the south-east corner. There is a colliery. 3 

For local government the township was in 1 894. 
added to the borough of Middleton.* 

In 1839 a house in the 'Spaw' at Alkrington 
was said to be haunted. 5 Some extracts from the 
diary of a local farmer, 1774 to 1778, have been 
printed. 8 

No house had as many as six hearths in 1666; 
the total number of taxable hearths in the township 
was twenty-seven. 7 

The survey of 1212 gives the earliest 
MANOR account of the manor of ALKRINGTON. 
At that time it was a member of the 
Montbegon fee of eight knights, and was held by 
Adam de Prestwich as 4 oxgangs of land ' of ancient 
tenure ' by 4*. ; while placed among the manors held by 
knight's service, it thus appears as a thegnage estate. 8 
The Montbegon fee was some twenty years later 
alienated to the Lacys, and thus passed to the Crown ; 
but the manor of Alkrington continued to descend 
with Prestwich, 9 the tenure being changed to the 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

twenty-fourth part of a knight's fee, with a rent of 
lo</. The inquisitions, however, do not state the 
tenure quite uniformly. 10 

On the death of Sir Robert Langley, in 1561, this 
manor was given to his daughter Katherine, who 
married Thomas Legh of 
Lyme, but died in 1591 with- 
out issue." The Leghs, how- 
ever, appear to have retained 
the manor, for it was sold in 
1627 by Thomas Legh, Alice 
his wife, and John Legh, to 
Robert and John Lever." 
The purchasers were probably 
younger sons of Robert Lever 
of Darcy Lever, who died in 
1620." Robert Lever, his 
son, was a clothier in Lon- 
don, and died unmarried about 
1642 ; John Lever, another son, was ' of Alkrington,' 
and died in 1645, being buried at Middleton. 14 His 
eldest son Robert married Anne the daughter and 
heir of Nicholas Mosley of Collyhurst, and died in 
1710, a very aged man. 14 His son John died in 
1718, and was succeeded by his son Sir Darcy Lever, 
who served as high sheriff in 1736, and was 




LEVER. Argent tvto 
bendlets sable, the under- 
meit engrailed. 



8 Pop. Rep. 1901. 

3 For an accident in 1774 see Lanes. 
and Chet. Antiq. Soc. vii, 68. 

4 Local Govt. Bd. Order 31625; the 
population was given as $65. 

5 Mancb. Guardian Local N. and Q. 
DO. 739. 

6 Ibid. no. 1244. 

7 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

8 Lanes. Inq. and Extentt (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 61. 

9 It was included in the settlement of 
the Prestwich estate in 1313; Final Cone. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 16. 

In 1276 and later years Adam son of 
Thomas de Prestwich had to defend his 
right to certain land in Alkrington, to 
which Robert Grelley laid claim ; De 
Banco R. 15, m. 36 d. ; 18, m. 29 ; 24, 
m. 20. 

10 In the De Lacy Inq. of 1311 (Chet. 
Soc.) Adam de Prestwich was returned 
as holding of the Earl of Lincoln the 
manor of Alkrington by the service of the 
fourth part of a knight's fee, and suit to 
the court; p. 19. From later notices it 
appears that 'fourth' is an error for 
4 twenty-fourth.' 

Alice de Prestwich was in 1324 said to 
hold half a plough-land in Alkrington by 
the service of i zd. a year ; Duchy of 
Lane. Rentals and Surv. 379, no. 13. 
In 1346 the heirs of John de Radcliffe 
and Alice de Prestwich were said to hold 
it in socage by a rent of 1 2</. ; Dods. MSS. 
Ixxxvii, fol. 6o/>. A similar return was 
made a century later, Margaret wife of 
Roger (Thomas) Langley then holding it 
in socage, rendering i zd. a year ; she said 
she held it by joint feoffment and showed 
a charter ; Duchy of Lane. Knights' 
Fees, 2/20. In explanation of this the 
inquisition taken in 1447 after the death 
of Robert Langley of Agecroft states that 
he had held a moiety of the manor of Al- 
krington of the king as Duke of Lancaster 
in socage by a rent of zod. t and that he 
had enfeoffed Thomas his son and Mar- 
gery his wife of two parts of the said 
moiety ; Lanes. Rec. Inq. p.m. no. 34, 
35. After the death of Thomas Langley, 



twenty-five years later, he was said to 
have held nine messuages and tenements, 
' parcel of the manor of Alkrington,' by 
the twentieth part of a knight's fee, the 
manor being held by knight's service and 
a rent of zod. ; Agecroft D. Thus both 
the tenure and the rent are variously 
stated at different times ; but the latest 
by knight's service and zod. was re- 
peated after the death of Sir Robert Lang- 
ley in 1561 ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
xi, 1 6. The clear value at this time was 

& 

11 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xv, 12. 
This recites that Katherine married 
Thomas Legh (who survived her) at 
Alkrington on i Aug. 1564. She had 
twenty-two messuages, &c., in Alkring- 
ton and Prestwich, held of the queen as 
of the Duchy of Lancaster by knight's 
service, those in the former place also 
rendering 61. and those in the latter s)s. 
a year. The heirs were her sisters Anne 
Dauntesey and Margaret Holland, aged 
fifty-four and fifty-two years. A settle- 
ment was made in 1571 ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 3 3, m. 1 84. 

In 1581 Thomas Legh and Katherine 
his wife, setting forth that they were 
seised in fee tail of the manor of Alkring- 
ton, &c., complained that Robert Langley 
of Prestwich was detaining some of the 
deeds of the estate. Langley replied that 
the deeds were in the keeping of Alexander 
Reddish, son of Margery, then wife of 
Richard Holland, and that Katherine had 
agreed to this ; Duchy of Lane. Plead. 
cxxii, L. 4 ; cxvii, L. 4. 

12 Thomas Legh seems to have married 
a second time, for in the pedigree recorded 
in 1613 four sons are given him Robert, 
John, Roger, and Thomas ; Vitit. (Chet. 
Soc.), 51. Robert Legh of Alkrington 
appears among the freeholders of 1600 ; 
Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 
246. He was buried at Middleton 
19 Aug. i6z3. The vendors in 1627 
were, perhaps, his brothers ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. m,no. 38. Further 
particulars of the family are given in the 
will of Thomas Legh of Alkrington, dated 

83 



22 Oct. 15974 It recites an indenture of 
25 March 1596-7 between himself and 
Edmund Trafford of Trafford, that the 
latter was to pay him 700. Of this sum 
300 was left to Thomas Legh, 'my 
reputed son,' while John and Roger Legh, 
two other reputed sons, had 400 between 
them. He also names his daughters 
Creature and Margaret Legh and Elizabeth 
reputed daughter of his son Robert Legh. 
Brother James Legh was to have a dapple 
dunn nagge and son Robert Legh his gold 
chain. The executrix was his wife 
Katherine, who was guardian of the chil- 
dren, with his loving brother-in-law, Sir 
Ric. Shuttleworth. Probate was dated at 
Chester 7 Feb. 1597-8; Huntroyde D., 
v, 20 (by Mr. H. Ince Anderton). 

18 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 186 ; a 
full pedigree of the Lever family is con- 
tained in Piccope's MS. Pedigrees (Chet. 
Lib.), i, 348, and has been followed here. 
There is also an account of the family, 
with extracts from the registers, in Booker, 
Prestwicbj 204-8. 

14 Ibid. 206. John Lever paid iz los. 
in 1631 on declining knighthood ; Misc. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 215. 

15 Booker, loc. cit. He was dispensed 
from attendance at Prestwich Church and 
allowed to go to Middleton ; Gastrell, 
Notitia, ii, 109. 

A feoffment made in 1681 shows that 
Robert Lever held the manor of Alkring- 
ton, with the hall, the Old Hall of Heaton 
in Prestwich, Gorton Hall, Collyhurst 
Hall, and lands in a number of the sur- 
rounding townships. In 1699 he made a 
settlement of his estates with remainders 
to his children Robert, John, Catherine, 
and Jane. The deeds are among the 
Raines collection in the Chetham Library. 

A Captain Lever of ' Olerington ' is 
mentioned in 1689 ; Hist. MSS. Com. 
Rep. xiv, App. iv, 222. 

Robert and John sons of Robert Lever 
of Alkrington entered Brasenose College, 
Oxford, in 1691, aged eighteen and fif- 
teen respectively ; they were afterwards of 
Gray's Inn ; Foster, Alumni. Robert died 
in his father's lifetime, unmarried. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



knighted. 16 He married Dorothy, a daughter and co- 
heir of the Rev. William Ashton, rector of Prest- 
wich. 17 

Their eldest son, Sir Ashton Lever, was high sheriff 
in 1 77 1, 18 and made a knight in 1778, and died ten 
years later without issue. He collected a large 
museum of curiosities, wh ch was exhibited at his 
residence at Alkrington. Wishing at length to dis- 
pose of it, he obtained an Act of Parliament author- 
izing him to do so by a lottery, and in 1785 the 
drawing took place. The winner afterwards exhibited 
the collection in London, and it was not dispersed 
until l8o6. 19 Sir Ashton was succeeded by his 
brother the Rev. John Lever, who left several child- 
ren.* The younger son, John, settled at Alkrington, 
and died in 1834, aged sixty-two. The estate then 



passed to his nephew Doming Rasbotham, who in 
I 844 sold it to John Lees and his brothers of Clark's 
Field near Oldham." Their representatives continue 
to hold the manor and most of the land, but the hall 
has been sold. It is a plain but well-designed brick 
house erected in 1736 on the site of an older build- 
ing by Sir Darcy Lever. The situation was formerly 
one of much picturesqueness, being on elevated ground 
in the midst of woods and overlooking Heaton Park, 
and despite many changes in the surroundings it still 
retains some of its former characteristics. The general 
effect of the principal front is now somewhat spoiled 
by the removal of the old window bars and the 
substitution of plate glass, but it is still one of much 
dignity. The hipped roof is partly concealed by a 
high brick parapet. 




ALKRINGTON HALL 



18 Darcy Lever entered Brasenose Col- 
lege in 1722, being seventeen years of 
age; he was created D.C.L. in 1733; 
Foster, Alumni. He made a settlement of 
the manor of Alkrington in Mar. 1725, 
previous to his marriage ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 293 ; ibid. Plea R. 520, 
m. 5, 7. He was appointed sheriff 3 1 Dec. 
1735, and his successor on 20 Jan. 1737 ; 
P.R.O. List, 74. 

The pedigree of the family is set out in 
the case of Lever v. Hunt, which was 
carried up to the House of Lords in 1736-7. 
It appeared that John Hunt of Manchester 
had in 1 6 1 2 leased premises in Market Street 
Lane, Manchester, for 120 years to Robert 
Lever of Darcy Lever, clothier, who left 
it to his son John. In 1642 and 1644 
John Lever obtained the reversion of the 
premises, and died intestate in 1645 > n ' s 
widow Catherine afterwards entered into 
possession and left them to a younger son 
John, who had them for life, and was fol- 
lowed by his son, who died without issue. 
Robert the eldest son was followed by his 
only son John, who gave the premises to 



a younger son John Revel ; on his death, 
without issue, Sir Darcy Lever claimed as 
brother and heir. John Andrews claimed 
as the heir of the Robert Lever of 1612. 

17 The marriage took place at Prest- 
wich 3 May 1725 ; and Sir Darcy Lever 
was buried thereon 15 Aug. 1742; Booker, 
207. 

18 P.R.O. List, 74. 

Ashton Lever was vouchee in a recovery 
of the manor in 1753 ; Pal. of Lane. 
Plea R. 579, m. 2. 

19 There is an engraving of him in 
Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), ii, 565, a 
verbal portrait in Booker, op. cit. 205, 
and a biography in Diet. Nat. Biog. 

He was educated at Corpus Christ! 
College, Oxford, matriculating in 1748, 
at nineteen years of age ; Foster, Alumni. 
He died at Manchester, not without sus- 
picion of having poisoned himself. 

His collection began with live birds, 
and went on to shells, fossils, &c., and to 
the weapons, &c., of savage tribes. In 
1773, 'being tired out with the insolence 
of the common people,' he restricted admis- 

8 4 



sion to his acquaintance and those who 
came provided with a ticket from some one 
known to him ; Booker, op. cit. 204. On 
29 Aug. 1774 the visitors to the museum 
numbered 3,320; Manch. Guardian Local 
N. and Q. no. 1 244. The collection was 
removed to London in October and shown 
at Leicester House; in 1782 the sum of 
,2,253 was received for entrance fees. 
Sir Ashton wished it to be kept together, 
and having failed to induce the Govern- 
ment to purchase it for the British 
Museum he fell back on the lottery ; 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 516. 
See also Pal. Note Bk. ii, 55, 85 ; Wai- 
ford, Old and New Land, iii, 165. For 
an account of the sale in 1 806 see Baines, 
ut sup. 

A poem on the collection, dated 1774, 
is reprinted in Oldham Notes and Glean. 
ii, 99. 

20 The eldest son Darcy Lever, who 
died at Edinburgh in 1839, wrote on 
navigation ; see Diet. Nat. Biog. 

21 Canon Raines in Gastrell, Noeitia 
(Chet. Sic.), ii, no. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



Bradshaw Hall lies in the north-east part of the 
township, in a plot cut off from the main area by 
Wince Brook. It was anciently part of the lands of 
the Hospitallers, and was afterwards granted to the 
Earls of Derby, of whom it was held in the early part 
of the i yth century by a branch of the Chadderton 
family. 22 



TONGE 

Tonge, 1392, usual ; Tong, 1482. 

This township occupies, as its name implies, a 
tongue of land between the Irk on the north and its 
affluent, the Wince Brook, on the south. The area 
is 392 acres. The surface is mostly above the 300 ft. 
level 360 ft. is reached at Mills Hill l sloping down 
to the streams named. The population in 1901 was 
included with Middleton.* 

The principal roads are those branching out from 
Middleton, to the east to Oldham and to the south- 
east to Hollinwood and Failsworth. Dwelling-houses 
have spread out along these roads, so that the town- 
ship has long been a suburb of Middleton, to which 
borough it was added for local government purposes 
in 1 86 1 , 3 In 1 894. Tonge lost its status as a township 
or civil parish, and became completely merged in 
Middleton. Sa 

The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company's 
line from Manchester to Rochdale passes through 
the eastern side, with a branch to Middleton, opened 
in 1857. From this the part of Tonge called Middle- 
ton Junction takes its name, though the junction itself 
is in Chadderton. Middleton station is in Tonge. 
A light railway is laid along the road from Middleton 
to Oldham. The Manchester and Rochdale canal 
touches the eastern border. 

In this township there were only fifteen hearths 
liable to the tax in 1666 ; no house had more than 
two. 4 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

Originally TONGE seems to have been 
M4NOR a part of Alkrington, and is not called 
a manor. It was, therefore, part of the 
Prestwich lands, and does not come into notice for 
some time after these lands had descended to the 
Langleys of Agecroft. In 1 390 a Henry de Alkrington 
died, holding of the king by knight's service two mes- 
suages and certain lands in Alkrington called Tonge. 5 
From the inquisition and subsequent pleadings it 
appears that Henry was descended from Thomas the 
son of Adam de Prestwich, whose daughters and 
heirs left no legitimate offspring. 6 It would appear 
that Thomas had a natural son named Henry 
for whom he made provision by granting this out- 
lying part of his manor of Alkrington. Henry's son 
Henry died, as stated, in 1390, leaving a son Henry, 
only eighteen months old. 7 He proved his age in 
1412, and had livery of his lands; 8 afterwards he 
took Tonge as his surname, and his descendants con- 
tinued in possession until the i8th century. 

Henry de Tonge in 1437-8 laid claim to the 
Prestwich inheritance, but illegitimacy was asserted 
as a defence. 9 He died before 1470, when his son 
Richard had to claim his inheritance against Thomas 
Langley of Agecroft, who had expelled him. 10 The 
suit was still proceeding in 1482, when John Langley 
and Richard Tonge stated their claims. 11 In 1498 
Richard assigned a portion of his lands in Tonge to 
feoffees in view of the marriage of his son Thomas 
with Margaret daughter of Thomas Newton ; he died 
two years afterwards, holding various lands of the 
king as Duke of Lancaster, by knight's service. His 
son and heir Thomas was then eighteen years of age. 11 

Thomas duly proved his age in I5O4. 13 Three 
years later it was awarded that Robert Langley and 
his tenants in Alkrington should enjoy common of 
pasture in Tonge Moor, but turbary was denied ex- 
cept to certain tenants named. 14 In 1527 Thomas 
Tonge granted to Robert Langley a part of the moor, 
with common of pasture, turbary and marl. 15 The 



w Children of Edmund Chadderton aliat 
Bradshaw appear in the Middleton registers 
from 1615. 

Robert Chadderton, yeoman, died 8 Mar. 
1638-9, holding a messuage and land 
called Bradshaw in Alkrington, of William, 
Earl of Derby, as of the dissolved priory of 
St. John of Jerusalem ; he also held lands 
in Audenshaw and in Manchester. By a 
fine levied two years earlier the lands 
were settled on Robert for his life, after 
his decease a third part to Elizabeth his 
wife, then to Edmund and Robert his 
sons. Edmund the son and heir was 
thirty-one years of age in 1639 ; Inq. 
p.m. in Towneley MS. C. 8, 13 (Chet. 
Lib.), p. 248. 

Robert Chadderton alias Bradshaw was 
buried at Middlcton on 8 Mar. 1638-9 ; 
an abstract of his will is given in Munch. 
Ct. Lett Rec. iv, 114. 

Thomas Chadderton of Alkrington paid 
to the land tax in 1787. 

The Hospitallers had lands in Acrington 
{? Alkrington) in 1292 ; Plac.de Quo War. 
(Rec. Com.), 375. 

iQ.S. 

* Pop. Ret. 1901. 

8 By the Middleton and Tonge Im- 
provement Act. 

*a By Local Govt. Bd. Order 31625 of 
1894. 

4 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

5 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 57, 



58, where several illustrative documents 
are printed. 

In Feb. 1356-7, Henry son of Henry 
son of Thomas demanded against John 
de Radcliffe the elder and Joan his wife, 
24 acres in Prestwich ; and against Alice, 
widow of Thomas de Prestwich, 12 acres 
in the same town ; Duchy of Lane. 
Assize R. 5, m. 4. 

* See the account of Prestwich. 

~' Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 57. 
Henry the son was baptized in Middleton 
Church, 5 Oct. 1388. 

8 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. 1 74. 

9 Lanes. Inq. p.m. i, 5 8. 

10 PaL of Lane. Plea R. 37, m. 12 d ; 
Henry Tonge, father of Richard, was 
seised of two messuages, 50 acres of land, 
6 acres of meadow, and 4 acres of wood 
called Tonge, in the vill of Prestwich, 
and of 100 acres of moor called Tonge 
Moor. After the death of Henry, 
Richard entered, until Thomas Langley, 
John Langley, and others expelled him. 
The Langleys, in reply, quoted the fine of 
1313 respecting the descent of the Prest- 
wich lands. 

In 1450-1 Richard Tonge, 'yeoman,' 
had been charged with felony by Thomas 
Langley ; ibid. R. 17, m. 1 6. Later, 
Richard had to complain that Edmund 
Ashton and various others of Chadderton 
had taken turf in his several turbary ; 
ibid. R. 5 1, m. 7 d. 

85 



Abstracts of the Tonge title deeds are 
contained in Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), 
xiii, 172-81. 

11 Agecroft D. 85; the fine of 1313 
was again referred to, and Richard Tonge 
asserted the legitimacy of his descent from 
Thomas son of Alice de Wolveley. See 
also Pal. of Lane. Writs Proton, file 
22 Edw. IV, a. 

19 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, 81 ; 
the estate is described as three messuages, 
50 acres of land, &c., and 100 acres of 
moss and moor called Tonge Moor alias 
Tonge in Prestwich. The bounds of the 
portion given to the daughter-in-law's 
trustees mentioned the 'little oak 
marked," the 'water of Irk,' and the 
Fyne meadow in Middleton. Richard 
died 19 Apr. 1500; his son reached 
eighteen years of age on the following 
Michaelmas, and was already married. 

13 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 544. 

14 Agecroft D. 95. 

15 Ibid. 102. In 1556 Sir Robert 
Langley granted an acre of Tonge Moor, 
at a rent of I2</. to Mary, widow of 
Ralph Standish, and Edward, brother of 
Ralph ; ibid. 122. 

The date of Thomas's death is given 
as 1 6 Feb. 1542; the estate remained 
unchanged ; the son and heir was John 
Tonge, aged thirty ; H. Fishwick in 
Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. x, 28, quoting 
the Inq. p.m. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 




next of the family known is John Tonge, the son of 
Thomas, who died in 1551, holding various lands in 
Tonge of the king by the hun- 
dredth part of a knight's fee ; 
Richard his son and heir was 
only two years of age. 16 
Richard died at the end of 
1568, being still in ward- 
ship ; he left a son Christo- 
pher, two years of age, about 
whose legitimacy there was 
some doubt, and apart from 
whom the heirs were Ric- 
hard's sisters Ellen, Jane, and 
Dorothy, aged twenty - one, 
nineteen, and nineteen years. 17 

Christopher's right must have been established, for 
he held possession of the estates in Prestwich, Mid- 
dleton, Tonge, and Alkrington. 18 In 1590 he made 
provision for the jointure of Jane daughter of William 
Bamford, whom he married. He died 10 February 
1600 i, and was buried at Middleton. Richard the 
son and heir was not quite three years old. 19 In 
1631 he paid jio after refusing knighthood. 10 From 
this time little can be said of the family, except the 
details in the pedigree ; " its members do not appear 
to have taken any conspicuous part in the Civil War 



TONGE. Azure a bend 
between two cotises argent 
and tix martlets or. 



or the Revolution. Richard Tonge, who died in 
1713, bequeathed his newly-purchased lands in Hop- 
wood to his elder son Jonathan, subject to an annuity 
of 20 a year to his wife Alice, and a sum of 500 
to his younger son Thomas, then a minor." In spite 
of this bequest he appears to have died insolvent, and 
the executors refusing to act, administration of his 
estate was granted to creditors. By his second 
wife he left two sons, Jonathan and Thomas, of 
whom the latter had issue. The son Jonathan 
in 1725 demised his estate to his brother Thomas, 
with instructions to sell it. w In the following year it 
was purchased by John Starky of Heywood,* 4 whose 
grandson James Starky in 1846 left it to his rela- 
tives, Mrs. Hornby of St. Michael's, and Joseph 
Langton of Liverpool. 24 The trustees of the late 
Charles Langton are stated to be the present lords 
of the manor and chief landowners. 

Tonge Hall passed through several hands. About 
1890 it was purchased by Mr. Asheton Tonge of 
Alderley, stated to be a descendant of the old family. 26 
The hall, a picturesque fragment of a black and 
white timber and plaster house standing on a low 
stone base, is now completely dismantled, and in a 
sad state of decay and dilapidation. The house was 
originally of much greater extent, and a drawing of 
the building as it was about 1845 i7 shows that the 



16 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. ix, 7 ; 
the will of John Tonge is recited, as well 
as the provision for his wife, Dorothy 
daughter of Roger Downes. His wife, 
son, and three daughters are mentioned 
in the will ; his half-brother Richard was 
to have sufficient turf from the moss in 
Tonge to burn in his house, and thirty 
loads of thorns. 

In 1547 there had been a dispute be- 
tween Edmund Chadderton and John 
Tonge (and others), as to turbary on the 
moor ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 223. 

John Tonge died 31 July 1551, and 
was buried at Middleton on 6 Aug. The 
wardship and marriage of Richard, the heir, 
were granted to Thurstan Rawstorne ; 
Dtp. Keeper's Rep. xxxix, App. 561. 

17 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xii, 9. 
No reason is given for the qualification 
'if not admitted by law,' respecting 
Christopher. 

Richard died 10 Nov. 1568, and im- 
mediately afterwards Margaret his widow, 
the daughter of James Heywood, made 
a claim under a marriage settlement against 
Elizabeth Heywood, widow ; Ducatus 
Lane. (Rec. Com.), ii, 371. 

18 During his minority the wardship 
was granted to Gilbert Sherington, and 
by him transferred to Thomas Legh of 
Alkrington. The latter gave Christopher 
to understand that his uncle Peter Hey- 
wood would do nothing for him, whereby 
his lands would be lost, and prevailed on 
the youth of fifteen to marry 'a notorious 
harlot,' Katherine Jackson, by whom 
Thomas Legh had had several children. 
A divorce was granted in 1583 ; H. Fish- 
wick as above (p. 29), quoting a deed in 
Raines MSS. xiii, 174. 

19 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xviii, 14, 
in which the marriage settlements are set 
forth. The estate is described as twelve 
messuages, a cottage, twelve gardens, two 
orchards, 80 acres of lands, &c., in Tonge, 
&c. The remainders after Christopher's 
issue were to Jane, his aunt, Gervase 
Utterus son of Ellen, another aunt, and 
Margaret sister of Gervase. Some field 



names are given, as Bent Meadow, Cross 
Field, and Rye Hill. Besides his sons 
Richard and Ashton he had daughters 
Mary, Jane, and Winifred. 

Immediately after his death disputes 
arose as to lands leased to the Hiltons ; 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 461. 

Richard son of Christopher Tonge was 
baptized at Middleton 7 May 1598. 

20 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 215. 

Richard Tonge was buried at Middle- 
ton 3 Apr. 1678. 

21 A pedigree wat recorded in 1664; 
Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 303. It 
begins with Christopher Tonge, and shows 
the descent through Richard to his son 
Jonathan, aged 28, who had a son Richard, 
aged six. 

Jonathan son of Mr. Richard Tonge 
was baptized at Middleton, 12 Aug. 1636. 
He was married to Sarah White-head, at 
Prestwich, on 27 June 1655, and was 
buried at Middleton 25 May 1680. His 
son Richard is named in the text. 

22 Booker, Presnvich, 209, 210. The 
author remarks : 'Though a family of 
note it does not appear that arms were 
ever granted to them. . . . From an im- 
pression of the seal of Richard Tonge in 
the latter part of the I7th century he 
appears to have borne a bend cotised 
between six martlets." These arms were 
recorded in 1664 according to the printed 
Visitation, which is not quite trustworthy 
from the letter S onward. 

28 Col. Fishwick's article, as above 

(P- 30- 

24 The deed is enrolled at Preston, 
R. 12 of Geo. I; see Piccope MSS. 
(Chet. Lib.), iii, 230. The price named 

^4.350- 

The pedigree is thus given : John 
Starky, d. 1749 s. John, d. 1780 s. 
James, high sheriff, 1791, d. 1846 ; Hey- 
wood N. and Q. (ed. Green), iii, 35. 

James Starky in 1795 paid more than 
half the land tax for Tonge ; there was 
no other considerable holder ; Returns at 
Preston. 

86 



88 Canon Raines in Gastrell, Notitia 
Cestr., ii, no. From the pedigree of the 
Langton family in Foster, Lanes. Pedigrees, 
it appears that Joseph Starky, M.D., of 
Redvales, Bury, younger son of John 
Starky, the purchaser of Royton, had two 
daughters Mary, who married William 
Langton, and was succeeded by her son 
Joseph and grandson Charles ; and Anne, 
who married the Rev. Hugh Hornby of 
St. Michael's. 

26 Fishwick, loc. cit. 

For the pedigree see Booker, op. cit. 
212, and Gen. Mag. iii, 349, 406, 
where it is shown that the last Richard 
Tonge was thrice married (i) in 1681 to 
Esther daughter of William Richardson of 
Crompton ; (ii) in 1691 to Jane daughter 
of Thomas Percival of Royton and widow 
of John Gilliam ; (iii) in 1699 to Alice 
daughter of Benjamin Wrigley of Chamber 
Hall. 

The Tonge family had several branches. 
Henry Tonge of Farnworth died in 1614, 
holding lands in Farnworth, Kearsley, and 
Worsley, leaving his brother John as heir; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 283. 

In 1722 administration of the goods of 
Richard Tonge of Middleton was granted 
to his brother Ashton Tonge. In the 
following year administration of the goods 
of Ashton Tonge of Tonge, weaver, were 
granted to his widow Dorothy. In 1772 
administration of the goods of Ashton 
Tonge of Worsley, carpenter, were granted 
to his widow Jane. The will of Richard 
Tonge of Worsley, yeoman, was proved 
in 1798 ; it mentions his shares in ships, 
a blacklead pencil factory at Worsley, and 
various lands, including a house in Deans- 
gate, Manchester ; Mary his wife, and 
Thomas Fletcher his brother-in-law, were 
two of the executors. Jane Tonge of 
Worsley, widow, by her will of 1808 left 
her estate to her four daughters. 

2 ' Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc, x. ; in 
Booker, Presnvicb, is another view, dated 
1852. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



whole of the west end, including a projecting porch 
and gable in front of the present brick-faced portion 
of the principal elevation, has been destroyed. 

The house is situated on high ground above the 
valley of the Irk, facing north, and overlooking the 
town of Middleton. It was probably erected in the 
latter part of the i6th century, and is an interesting 
specimen of the timber architecture of the county. 
What remains consists of the central and eastern 
wings, two stories in height, which preserve their 
original timber and plaster construction on the north 
and east sides. The south and west sides have been 
rebuilt in brick. The exterior timber-work consists 
of roughly-shaped beams and posts with a filling-in of 
square quatrefoil panels. The continuous repetition 
of the quatrefoils, broken only by the shallow plaster 
coves which mark the lines of the first floor and 
eaves, gives a somewhat rich and ornamental appear- 
ance to the building, though the detail is poor. The 
oak pegs are left projecting about an inch all round 
the panels, and form a characteristic feature of the 
building, which, however, has a very dilapidated 
appearance, the gables being without barge boards, 
the windows without glass, and portions of the front 
of the house boarded up. In other parts the walls 




OF TONGE HALL 



are broken through, and open for anyone to enter. 
The west end of the principal or north elevation has 
been refaced in brick in front where the porch origin- 
ally stood, and there is some brick patching in other 
parts of the front of the house. The roofs are 
covered with grey stone slates, and the chimney shafts 
are of brick set diagonally on a square base. 

The interior is in an even worse state than 
the outside, and very little of interest remains. 
The principal apartment, or great hall, which is paved 
with stone flags, occupies the whole of the west (or 
what was the centre) wing, but has been divided in 
later times unequally across its length by a partition. 
It measures about 27 ft. in length and 21 ft. in width, 
and had a large bay window 9 ft. square at the north-east 
end. The position of the screens seems to be indicated 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

by the present passage at the west end of the room, 
which is now separated from it by a brick wall. The 
usual arrangement of the great hall was, however, 
probably not strictly adhered to. The fireplace is at 
the west end, in the position of the screen, and block- 
ing up any way to the passage, except on the north 
side. The ceiling is crossed by four massive beams. 
When the building was occupied as a farmhouse the 
part of the hall on the south side of the partition 
was used as a kitchen, and modern windows and a 
door were inserted in the south wall. The bay 
window with the portion of the great hall on the 
north side of the partition is now a separate apart- 
ment. The east wing contains a square staircase, 
with solid oak steps, and seems to have had originally 
two rooms, one on each side of a central chimney. 
One of these rooms, however, has again been divided, 
and a small apartment, measuring about 1 2 ft. by 1 1 ft., 
formed. This parlour, which has a window on the 
east side, is panelled all round with 18th-century 
wainscot, and has had a picture over the fireplace, half 
of which still remains. In the room at the back 
there is still a good 17th-century oak table. There 
are five rooms on the first floor, but they offer no 
points of interest, and there is a cellar under the front 
portion of the east wing. There was appa- 
rently a restoration or alteration of the house 
in 1703, that date, with the initials R T A. 
(Richard Tonge and Alice his wife) being on 
three lead spout-heads in different parts of the 
building. The initials R. T. were also on a 
latch-plate in one of the barns, and in yellow 
stain on one of the leaded quarries of the win- 
dows. The house was tenanted by a farmer 
for some years previous to 1 890 ; since then it 
has been unoccupied, and allowed to decay. 
During its occupancy as a farm modern win- 
dows were inserted on the south and east sides, 
and a new brick porch built at the south-east 
corner. The owner recently offered it as a 
gift to the town of Middleton for use as a 
museum, but the offer was not accepted. 18 
The inquisitions show that the Radcliffes of Smi thills 
held land in Tonge of the king, but no details are 
given. 19 About 1400 William del Dam and Margery 
his wife had lands in Tonge. 30 Richard Assheton of 
Middleton died in 1618, holding land in Tonge of 
the king by knight's service, as part of the manor of 
Middleton. 11 

Several places of worship have during the last 
century been erected in Tonge. In connexion 
with the Established religion St. Michael's, in the 
west, was built in 1839, anc ^ rebuilt in 1902; the 
rector of Prestwich is patron ; and St. Gabriel's, 
Middleton Junction, was built in 1885, the Bishop 
of Manchester collating. In connexion with the 
former is the iron mission church of the Holy In- 
nocents. 



28 Manch. Guard. I Dec. 1 906. 

29 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, 12. 

80 In 1392 William son of John del 
Dam granted to Sir Ralph de Radcliffe all 
his messuages and lands in Tonge in the 
vill of Prestwich, at a rent of one pepper- 
corn for eight years, and 401. afterwards ; 
Agecroft D. 41. 

The custody of two messuages called 
Tonge in Alkrington was in 1401 granted 



to William del Dam and Margery his 
wife ; Dtp. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 530. 

In 1481 at Prestwich Church sworn 
declarations were made before a notary, 
concerning the lands of John Langley and 
Robert his son. Robert Stork, aged So, 
said that formerly at the Barkhouses in 
Tonge dwelt William Dam, at another 
place John Barlow both houses levelled 
with the ground at Gunthorp Hugh Hob- 
son, and later Ralph Hilton, and at another 

8? 



place Joan Bradshaw. The rent of Bar- 
low's and Hobson's houses had been paid 
to Richard Barton of Middleton and not 
to Henry Tonge. Other witnesses cor- 
roborated. Richard Withington had lived 
at Gunthorp for thirty-seven years, and 
never paid rent except to Richard Barton ; 
Agecroft D. 84. 

81 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc, Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 107. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



PILKINGTON 

Pilkiton, Pilkinton, Pulkinton, 1200; Pilketon, 
1 22 1 ; Pilkinton, Pynkelton, Pynkilnton, 1277 ; Pil- 
kington, 1282. The forms with and without the g 
are common from this time. 

This township is bounded on two sides, the south- 
west and north, by the River Irwell, which makes an 
acute bend at the western corner, and its tributary the 
Roch ; on the north-east the Whittle Brook, running 
into the latter stream, cuts it off from Pilsworth and 
Heap. The southern boundary is formed by the high 
land towards Heaton, and the clough towards Prest- 
wich. The highest ground is near the centre, a ridge 
about a mile from east to west reaching the 400-6. level. 
The township measures about 4 miles by 2, and has an 
area of 5,469 acres. 1 The population in 1901 was 
15,578, including 324 in the area added to Unsworth. 

For a long time there were three recognized divi- 
sions, or hamlets, in the township Unsworth * in the 
east, Whitefield in the centre, and Outwood in the 
west. Unsworth village lay in the centre of its divi- 
sion on the higher ground between two brooks run- 
ning north to Whittle Brook and to the Roch. The 
hamlets of Rollins and Blackford Bridge are near the 
Roch. Whitefield, also centrally placed, has grown 
into a town, stretching along the high road from 
Besses o' th' Barn 3 on the south to the Irwell. To 
the north-west is a suburb of Radcliffe, at the bridge 
over the Irwell. To the south of these, on the highest 
ground, is the hamlet of Stand, with Pilkington and 
Stand Halls. Outwood still has the park on the 
border of Prestwich and a number of wooded cloughs. 
At the west end are Cinder Hill, part of Ringley the 
other part being across the river, in Kearsley and 
Prestolee. 4 

The principal road is that from Manchester to 
Bury. Two branches of it unite at the southern 
border, and go north through Thatchleach, Besses o' 
th' Barn, Four Lane Ends, and Whitefield. Here 
the road divides again ; one branch goes north to 
Bury, crossing the Irk at Wackford Bridge, and another 
goes north-west to Radcliffe Bridge. From Whitefield 
also roads branch off north-east to Unsworth,south-west 
to the Irwell, and west to Stand and Ringley, where 
there are bridges over the Irwell. The Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Company's Manchester, Radcliffe, and 
Bury Railway passes north and north-west through 
the centre, with a station at Whitefield, opened in 
1 879.* The same company's branch from Clifton to 
Radcliffe and Bury winds west and north through 
Outwood, with stations called Molyneux Brow and 



Ringley Road. The Manchester and Bolton Canal 
also passes through Outwood, crossing the Irwell 
from Clifton, keeping close to the river most of the 
way, and crossing it again near Prestolee. 

A dragon story is told of Unsworth. 6 

Pilkington has since 1894 ceased to exist as a town- 
ship. Whitefield, the central portion, which ob- 
tained a local board in l866, 7 has been in part added 
to Radcliffe ; a new township has been made on the 
south-west called Outwood, while Unsworth has given 
its name to a township on the other side, made up of 
the old Unsworth and Pilsworth, with the detached 
part of Heap which adjoined it. 8 The new townships 
are governed by parish councils. 

In 1666 there were as many as 245 hearths liable 
to be taxed. The three hamlets showed the follow- 
ing : Outwood, 70 hearths, no house having six 
hearths; Whitefield 135, Margaret Sergeant's house 
having eight ; and Unsworth 40, no house having six 
hearth?.' 

The view from Stand Hall was thus described in 
1 806 : ' The large town of Manchester spreads along 
the valley in front of the house at some miles distance, 
and the less one of Bury is seen distinctly to the left, 
surrounded by villages, with simple cottages dispersed 
along the plain. The hills of Lancashire, Derbyshire, 
Cheshire, and Yorkshire rising in succession, spread in 
a vast amphitheatre, till lost in the immensity of 
space ; while the rugged tops of the Welsh moun- 
tains, which I gazed upon as old friends, hide their 
heads in the clouds, of which they seem to form a 
part. . . . The neighbourhood abounds with families 
of immense wealth, and reminds me of what Clapham 
Common is to London. The villas of the gentry are 
handsome, and their pleasure grounds are tastefully 
laid out. The rich woods and green park of Heaton 
House, the seat of the Earl of Wilton, appear from 
the terrace of Stand Hall to much advantage ; but the 
most prominent feature in this landscape is the pretty 
church of Prestwich.' I0 

Stand Hall, a large timber and plaster house, was 
taken down in 1835, and a new house built. 11 A large 
wooden barn belonging to the old house has been the 
subject of much attention because of an absurd theory 
that it was built of the timbers of a wooden prede- 
cessor of the present Cathedral church of Manchester. 
The manor of PILKINGTON was 
M4NOR held of the lords of Manchester by the 
fourth part of a knight's fee, 11 by a 
family which took the local name, and its dependence 
on Manchester continued, at least in name, till the 
1 8th century. 13 The first of the local family known 



1 Including Outwood, 1,939 ; White- 
field, 2,058$; and Unsworth, 1,471!. 
The census report of 1901 gives : Out- 
wood, 1,938 acres, including 80 of inland 
water ; Whitefield, 1,406, including 9 ; 
the part taken into Radcliffe, 625, in- 
cluding 23 ; Unsworth (enlarged), 3,067, 
including 27. 

2 Hundeswrth, 1292. 

8 The name is said to have originated 
from the innkeeper about 1750 5 Manch. 
Guard. Local N. and Q. no. 448. 

* Perhaps Prestall Lee, from Prestall 
on the other side of the Irwell in Farn- 
worth and Kearsley. 

5 Electric tramways connect Whitefield 
with Manchester and Bury. 

6 Harland and Wilkinson, Traditions of 
Lanes. 63. 



7 Land. Gax, 19 Jan. 1866. 

8 Local Govt. Bd. Order, 30905 ; a 
slight alteration in Whitefield boundary 
was made in 1896 ; ibid. 33855. 

9 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

10 Pal. Note Bk. ii, 55, quoting E. I. 
Spence's Summer Excursions, i, 123. 

11 A description of the remaining part of 
Stand Old Hall by E. W. Cox, with 
several views, is given in Col. J. Pilking- 
ton' s Pilkington Family. 

12 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 55. In addition to 
the knight's service the lord of Pilkington 
had to find ' one judge for the king, of 
ancient tenure.' The manor had there- 
fore probably been held by the same family 
all through the I2th century. 

In 1282 the vill of Pilkington was 



held of Robert Grelley by the fourth part 
of a fee, and was worth 10 a year clear; 
ibid. 250. In 1322 the lord of Pilking- 
ton was one of those who owed suit to 
the three-weeks court at Manchester, of 
ancient custom, being called a judge of 
the court; Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), ii, 375. 

An oxgang in Pilkington ' was in 
1311 stated to be held by a rent of i zd. of 
the manor of Rochdale ; De Lacy Inq. 
(Chet. Soc.), 20. Nothing further is 
known of it, and the name given is prob- 
ably an error of transcription. 

18 As late as 1733 the jury of Man- 
chester court leet amerced the constable 
of Pilkington (among others) for not 
appearing, though owing suit and ser- 
vice to the court ; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. 
vii, 25. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



is Alexander de Pilkington, who appears about 1200 
as contributing to the tallage ; 14 he held the manor 
in I2I2, 14 and was living in I23I. 16 He was followed 
by Roger de Pilkington, presumably his son. Roger 
was defendant in I22I, 17 and held the manor in 
I242. 18 Alexander de Pilkington, who, it is reason- 
ably conjectured, increased the family possessions by 
his marriage with Alice, sister and co-heir of Sir 
Geoffrey de Chetham, lord of Chectham and Cromp- 
ton, 19 occurs between 1260 and 129033 witness to 
charters ; 20 he was the tenant of the manor in i 282." 
His son Roger* 2 succeeded, and obtained from the 
king a grant of free warren in Pilkington and his other 
manors in 1 291 ; M a year before he had had a grant of 
i oo for his services in Gascony. 24 In other ways 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

Roger took his part in the public affairs of the time, 
serving as knight of the shire in 1 3 1 6. 25 He sided 
with the Earl of Lancaster, 
and after the battle of Bo- 
roughbridge was imprisoned 
and fined, dying shortly af- 
terwards. 16 

In 1312 he had made a set- 
tlement of his manors of Pil- 
kington and Cheetham in 
favour of his son Roger, with 
remainder to a younger son 
William." Roger accordingly 

, , , . - , <m i PILKINGTON. Arpent 

succeeded his father; 28 but a cross fatonce vg ^ ej 
little is known of him except gules. 




14 Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 151. 

In 1 202 Alexander de Pilkington, 
William his brother, and Alice his sister 
were concerned in a settlement of lands 
in Rivington and Worsthorne ; Final Cone. 
i, 1 8, 22. 

The Pilkington crest, a mower with 
his scythe, with the motto, ' Now thus, now 
thus,' similar to that of the Trafford 
family, has a legend of unknown origin 
related by Fuller, who had it from William 
Ryley, Norroy, to the effect that the 
ancestor of the family, being sought for 
at the time of the Norman invasion, 
disguised himself as a mower and so 
escaped. The crest is found on a seal of 
1424. 

Accounts of the family have been 
printed by John Harland, 1875, and by 
Lieut-Colonel John Pilkington, F.S.A., in 
Trans. Hist. Soc. 1891, and separately, 
1894 ; this, with corrections and additions 
supplied by the author, has been utilized in 
this place. See also Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 35-8. A num- 
ber of illustrative documents are printed 
in Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
175-86. 

16 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 55. He 
also held Rivington ; ibid. 67. 

16 Alexander de Pilkington attested a 
number of early charters ; e.g. Lanes. 
Pipe R. 329-30 ; Final Cone, i, 216. He 
served on a jury in 1225-6 ; ibid, i, 145. 
The latest occurrence of his name seems 
to be as witness to a charter in 1231 ; 
Lord Ellesmere's D. no. 215. 

17 Roger de Pilkington, Geoffrey son of 
Luke, and others were summoned by 
Henry de Bolton ; Curia Regis R. 78, 
m. 4 d. Roger attested an early 13th- 
century charter to Stanlaw ; Whalley 
Coucber (Chet. Soc.), i, 49. 

18 Inq. and Extents, i, 1 54. In 1 246 he 
was concerned in suits about Sholver ; 
Assize R. 404, m. 2, 7, 9. 

19 See the account of Cheetham, and 
E. Axon, Chetham Gen. (Chet. Soc. New 
Sen), 2. 

20 Alexander was probably the son of 
Roger. In 1277 it was found that Adam 
de Prestwich, Richard son of David de 
Hulton, Thomas de Heaton, Roger de 
Prestwich, and others had thrown down 
a ditch in Pilkington and Prestwich, 
whereby the tenants of Alexander de 
Pilkington had been damaged, through the 
depasturing of their corn, &c. Alexander 
said his father and ancestors had always 
been wont to raise that ditch for the pro- 
tection of their corn and meadow. In 
the end Adam de Prestwich and the others 
were ordered to pay for the repair of that 
part of the ditch which lay in Pilkington ; 
Assize R. 1235, m. ii d. For a charter 



attested by him see Final Cone, i, 218 ; 
there are others among the Ellesmere 
Deeds, e.g. no. 135 (1267), 216 (1271), 
and 137 (1276). 

21 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 248. He is 
also mentioned in 1284; Cal. Close, 
1279-88, p. 251. 

Alice, widow of Alexander de Pilking- 
ton, is named in 1302; Assize R. 418, 
m. 2, 12. 

22 Alexander de Pilkington and Roger 
his son were witnesses to Lever charters 
about 1270; Add. MS. 32103, no. 16, 
20. Richard, another son of Alexander, 
received the manor of Rivington. 

"Chart. R. 84 (19 Edw. I), m. 10, 
no. 41 ; a grant to Roger de Pilkington of 
free warren in his demesne lands of Pil- 
kington, Whitefield, Unsworth, Cheetham, 
Crompton, Sholver, and Wolstenholme. 
In the following year he was called upon 
to justify his claim of free warren, and 
produced the charter ; Plat . de Quo War. 
(Rec. Com.), 369. 

Cal. Pat. 1281-90, p. 352. He 
had the king's protection in 1296 on 
going beyond the seas in the retinue of 
William de Louth, Bishop of Ely ; ibid. 
1292-1301, p. 177. 

In 1302 he contributed 101. to the aid, 
as holding the fourth part of a knight's fee 
in Pilkington ; Lanes. Inq. and Extents, 
i, 313. In 1322 it was found that he owed 
homage, fealty, and suit of court for the 
fourth part of a fee in Pilkington, and paid 
sake-fee 41. 8</., castle ward 2s. 8</., and 
puture ; Mameeestre, ii, 289. 

His seal, showing the cross patonce, is 
attached to a Crompton deed of 1307; 
Clowes D. no. 96. 

K Parl. Writs (Rec. Com.), i, 1292 ; in 
1313 he had a pardon for his part in the 
rising which led to the death of Piers 
Gaveston, and another in 1318. See also 
Rot. Scotiae, and Pink and Beaven, Parl. 
Repre. of Lanes. 18. 

In 1298,31 Bolton, Henry son of Alex- 
ander de Pilkington (otherwise del Wood) 
came with a sword made of iron and steel, 
worth 2i., and wounded Adam de Pilking- 
ton in the neck 4 in. from the right ear, 
with a wound 3 in. deep, 3 in. long, and 
2 in. wide, of which the said Adam lan- 
guished for seven days, and died at dawn 
on the eighth day at Pilkington in the 
house of his brother Roger ; Assize R. 
417, m. 2 ; 422, m. i d. ; see further Cal. 
Pat. 1292-1301, p. 550. 

26 Parl. Writs, loc. cit. ; he was com- 
mitted prisoner to Tickhill Castle, and 
afterwards released on agreeing to pay a 
fine of 200. His widow Margaret mar- 
ried Adam de Swillington ; Cal. Pat. 



"7 Final Cone, ii, 9 ; he made further 



settlements in 1319 and 1320, when hit 
wife's name is given as Margery ; ibid, ii, 

33. 35- 

A Roger de Pilkington in 1295 espoused 
Alice daughter of Sir Ralph de Otteby, and 
received with her the manor of Otteby in 
Lincolnshire ; Roger joined in the insur- 
rection of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and 
the manor was taken into the king's 
hands; but in 1324 Alexander, the son 
and heir of Roger and Alice, both then 
dead, petitioned for its restoration, and 
appears to have succeeded. An Alexander 
de Pilkington of Lincolnshire occurs a little 
later. See Inq. a.q.d. 1 7 Edw. II, no. 97 ; 
Anct. Pet. P.R.O. 133/6639; Pat. 18 
Edw. II (6 Sept. 1324). As there can 
scarcely have been two Rogers taking part 
with the Earl of Lancaster and dying 
before 1324, it follows that Roger must 
have been married three times, the heir 
to Pilkington being a son by the first 
wife. 

His widow, Margery, as stated, almost 
immediately after his death married Sir 
Adam de Swillington, who had also taken 
part with Earl Thomas. On 13 Nov. 
1322 she had livery of the lands settled 
upon her in 1319; Cal. Close, 1318-23, 
pp. 610, 648 ; and in 1327 Adam de Swil- 
lington was acquitted of the fine of /"zoo 
incurred by Roger; ibid. 1327-30, 
p. 21. 

Richard and William, sons of Roger de 
Pilkington, are mentioned in 1333 ; Cal. 
Pat. 1330-4, p. 498. William de Pil- 
kington was in 1344 presented to the 
rectory of Swillington by Margery, relict 
of Sir Adam de Swillington ; Col. J. Pilk- 
ington, quoting Torre MSS. 

28 About 1324 Roger de Pilkington 
appears as holding seven parts of the manor 
of Rivington ; Lanes. Inq. and Extents, ii, 
103. 

In 1324 it was stated that a Roger 
de Pilkington had had to pay ,100 to 
Robert de Holland after the death of 
Adam Banastre ; Coram Rege R. 254, 
fol. 61. 

Roger de Pilkington in 1325 was sum- 
moned to serve in Guienne, such service 
having been a condition of his pardon ; 
Parl. Writs, i, 1292. He must therefore 
have taken part with his father in the 
rebellion. In 1341 he was one of the 
jury to inquire into the assessment of the 
ninths ; Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 39. In 
1343 Roger de Pilkington perhaps the 
son was charged by the jurors of West 
Derby with having ' brought a great crowd 
to the terror of the people ' ; Assize R. 
430, m. 29. 

In the aid 1346-55 Roger held the 
fourth part of a knight's fee in Pilking- 
ton ; Feud. Aids, iii, 89. 

12 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



his marriage with Alice, sister and heir of Henry de 
Bury, by which the important manor of Bury was 
acquired by the family. 79 He died about I347, 30 
being followed by his son, the third Roger in succes- 
sion. The new lord, who was made a knight before 
1365, attended John of Gaunt on the expedition 
to France in 1359;" he served as knight of the 
shire in six Parliaments between 1363 and 1384.*' 
He died in 1407, holding the manor of Pilkington of 
the lord of Manchester by knight's service. His son 
and heir, Sir John, was thirty-four years of age." 

Sir John de Pilkington, whose age must have been 
understated 84 at the inquisition just quoted, is first 
heard of as marrying Margaret, widow of Hugh de 
Bradshagh, and heiress of Sir John de Verdon ; she 
was a ward of the duke, and her husband procured a 
pardon in 1383 for having married her without per- 
mission. 35 He was one of those who were appointed 
to attend the king in the Scottish expedition of 14.00.** 
In 1413 he obtained a confirmation of the grant of 
free warren in Pilkington and other manors. 87 He 
was one of the Lancashire knights who fought at 
Agincourt, 38 and he continued to serve in the French 
wars, 39 dying early in 1421. His son and heir, Sir 
John, was then twenty-eight years of age. 40 



The younger Sir John also fought in the French 
wars. 41 He was knight of the shire in 1416, and in 
141 8, as a reward for his services, he was made escheator 
in Ireland ; 4I this office was confirmed to him in 1 42 3 . 4I 
He died without issue in 1451, and his honours 
descended to Thomas, son of Edmund Pilkington. 44 
The elder Sir John and Margaret his wife had a son 
Edmund, on whom the manor of Stagenhoe in Hert- 
fordshire was settled in 1399 for his life ;" Thomas 
was no doubt the son of this Edmund, who was living in 
I438. 46 Thomas Pilkington enjoyed the favour of 
Edward IV ; in 1469 he obtained licence to fortify 
his manor-house at Bury, 47 and was several times 
sheriff of the county. 48 He was made a knight of the 
Bath in 1475, and a banneret at the capture of 
Berwick in 148 1. 49 As a zealous adherent of 
Richard III he fought on his side at Bosworth ; 50 
was attainted by the victorious Henry, and his confis- 
cated manors in Lancashire were given to the newly- 
created Earl of Derby. 51 Sir Thomas Pilkington 
does not seem to have become reconciled at once to the 
new king, for in 1487 he fought at Stoke for Lambert 
Simnel." His son and heir Roger contrived to obtain 
or retain the manors of Brisingham and Clipston ; ** 
he left six daughters as co-heirs. M 



33 See the account of Bury. 

80 Alice, widow of Roger de Pilkington, 
occur* in 1350; Assize R. 1444, m. 4. 
There were various suits in later years in 
which she and Roger son of Roger de 
Pilkington were concerned ; e.g. Duchy 
of Lane. Assize R. i, m. 7 ; Def. Keeper's 
Rep. xxxii, App. 342. 

The Bishop of Lichfield in 1 360 granted 
Alice, lady of Pilkington, licence for an 
oratory there for two years ; Lich. Epis. 
Reg. v, foL 3. 

In 1375 Henry de Pilkington, adminis- 
trator o? the goods of Alice de Pilkington 
deceased, called upon Roger son of Roger 
de Pilkington for account ; it appears that 
he had brothers Richard and Robert, and 
that all were brothers of Sir Roger ; De 
Banco R. 456, m. 598 ; 458, m. 80 d. ; 
460, m. 323 d. 

81 The grant of protection given him on 
this occasion was shown in court in Sept. 
1359 ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. 7, m. 4 ; 
*ee Dtp. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 334. 

sa Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 34-40. 
He is called 'chivaler* in the return of 
Jan. 1364-5, p. 35. 

When over sixty years of age, in 1386, 
lie appeared at the Scrope-Grosvenor trial ; 
Nicolas, Scrape R. 289. 

88 Lana. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 86. 
The manor of Bury had been given to his 
on, Sir John, before his death. 

Isabel daughter of Roger de Pilkington 
married (i) Thomas son of Sir Thomas 
<le Lathom, and (2) Sir John de Dalton ; 
ibid. 10, 20. 

84 As he was married, apparently of his 
own will, in 1 3 8 3, he would probably not be 
far from twenty years of age. He was over 
twenty years of age, and a knight, on ap- 
pearing at the Scrope-Grosvenor trial in 
1386 ; Scrape R. 290. 

85 He paid a fine of 20 marks for him- 
self and his wife for the pardon of the 
Duke of Lancaster ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Chet. Soc.), i, 86 ; Def. Keeper's Rep. 
xl, App. 522 ; also ibid, xxxii, App. 
356. 

86 Cal. Pat. 1399-1401, p. 353. In 
1402 he went to Germany in the retinue 
of the Lady Blanche ; Rymer, Feed. (Syl- 



labus, ii, 544) ; see also Rolls 'of Par!. 
iii, 634. 

8 ? Cal. Rot. Pat. (Rec. Com.), 262. 

88 Sir H. Nicolas, Agincourt, 360 ; he 
had with him three esquires, ten lances, 
and forty-five archers. 

89 Norman rolls in Def. Keeper's Rep, 
xli, App. 711, 71$, 788 ; ibid, xlii, App. 

39 2 393- 

40 Lanes. Rec. Inq. p.m. no. 25, 26 ; the 
jury did not know by what service the 
manor of Pilkington was held of the lord 
of Manchester, but gave its clear annual 
value as 60. He died 16 Feb. 1420-1. 

His widow Margaret died in Nov. 
1436 ; her next heir was her grand- 
daughter Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William 
Bradshagh and wife of Sir Richard Har- 
rington ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 
181-4. 

41 He is perhaps the John de Pilking- 
ton who had Cheshire archers in his 
retinue ; Def. Keeper's Rep. xlii, App. 
392. He occurs in 1427 as in debt to 
his tailor ; Cal. Pat. 1422-9, p. 430. 

He held the manor of Pilkington in 

1431 ; Feud. Aids, iii, 96. 
Immediately after his father's death 

Sir John granted his mother the pasture 
called Outwood and Ringleys, the tene- 
ment of William Walwork in Pilkington, 
and various rents and lands as dower ; 
Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, 3. In 

1432 he granted to feoffees manors and 
lands in Bury, Pilkington, and Cheetham ; 
ibid. 7. Three years later he married, at 
the door of Manchester church, Elizabeth 
daughter of Sir Edmund Traffbrd, and 
made a settlement in her favour ; ibid, 
7, 9. In 1438 he again made a settle- 
ment of his manors and lands in Lanca- 
shire, and his brother Edmund confirmed 
it ; ibid, n, 15. Sir John made his will 
in Oct. 1446, in which he mentions 
Elizabeth his wife, and desires a fit priest 
to be procured to celebrate for him, and 
two years later he confirmed the arrange- 
ments made ; ibid. 15, 17. 

42 Def. Keeper's Rep. xli, App. 727, 
760 ; Rot. Norm. (Rec. Com.), 234. 

48 Cal. Pat. 1422-9, p. 51. 

44 The inquisition relating to the Lanca- 

9 



shire estate is not known to exist ; but 
that relating to Bricklesworth in North- 
amptonshire is printed in Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Chet. Soc.), ii, 184. It had been settled 
on him by his mother in 1430, with re- 
mainders to Edmund and Robert Pilking- 
ton, and to her granddaughter Elizabeth 
Bradshagh; ibid. 180. Sir John died 
23 Feb. 1450-1 ; his heir was Thomas 
son of Edmund Pilkington, then of full 
age. Two later writs of Diem clausit 
extremum were issued in 1456 and 1459 ; 
Def. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. 175, 177. 

45 Lanes. Inq. p.m. ii, 176. By a fine of 
1430 Stagenhoe was settled on Edmund 
Pilkington and his heirs male, with rever- 
sion to Elizabeth daughter of Sir William 
Bradshagh ; ii, 181. 

46 A difficulty is created by the state- 
ment in a plea in the Rolls of Parl. (vi, 
34, 35) that Thomas was the son of 
Edmund son of Katherine, sister of John 
Ashton (of Ashton-under-Lyne). The 
solution may be that Edmund was son-in- 
law of Katherine, i.e. that she was his 
wife's mother. 

47 Def. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. 179. 

48 From 1467 to 1473 and from 1480 
to 1484; P.R.O. List, 72. In his first 
term he was esquire," and in the second 
knight.' 

49 Metcalfe, Knights, 4, by the Prince in 
1475, and p. 5, by the Duke of Glou- 
cester, 1481. 

40 Pilkington, Pilkington Family, 26, 
quoting Harl. MS. 542, fol. 31. 

51 Rolls of Parl. vi, 276. 

M Harland, Pilkington, 2 (quoting Blom- 
field's Norf. i, 33, x, 42), erroneously states 
that he was killed at the battle of Stoke. 
He was pardoned in 1508; Towneley MS. 
GG, no. 2041. 

53 Cal. Inq. Hen. VII, i, 220 ; Sir 
Thomas Pilkington, attainted in 1485, 
had in 1467 granted his manor of Clip- 
ston to his son Roger, who had been in 
possession from that time until 1487. In 
1502 it was alleged that the grant to 
Roger was made without the knowledge 
of Sir Thomas ; PaL of Lane. Plea R. 
95, m. 5. 

64 Harland, ut sup. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



Pilkington, as already stated, was granted in 1489 
to Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby," and has descended 
with the title in the same manner as Knowsley to the 
present earl. 56 No courts are held, but ' suit and ser- 
vice ' at the manor court still exist in name. 

In 1541 there were no freeholders in the township 
contributing to the subsidy, but in 1622 Thomas 
Lever and Richard Fogg contributed." Thomas 
Heape, a leaseholder under the Earl of Derby, com- 
pounded for his estate in Pilkington in 1649, his 
* delinquency ' being that he had borne arms against 
the Parliament. 58 

Though Unsworth gave a surname to a family 
which occurs in various other places, it does not seem 
to have had any prominent residents of that name. 
The estate of Rhodes 59 was held by the families of 
Foxe and Holland as heirs of Parr. 60 The families of 
Barlow, 61 Crompton, 61 Molyneux, 63 Seddon, 64 Ser- 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

geant, 65 Walworth, 66 and Wroe 67 occur in the 1 6th 
and I jth centuries. 

The land tax returns of 1786 show the principal 
proprietors to have been : In Whitefield, the Earl of 
Derby, the executor of Geoffrey Richardson, Benjamin 
Blinkhorn, and Richard Walker ; in Outwood, Smith, 
Mrs. Watson, Tomkinson, James Fields, Egerton 
Cross ; and in Unsworth, Thomas Butterworth Bay- 
ley, Thomas Chadwick, and Richard Meadowcroft. 68 

Philips Park, on the border of Prestwich, derives 
its name from Robert Philips, who bought it about 
i8oo. 69 

Digging for coals in Pilkington is mentioned in 
I 599 . re 

Nathan Walworth, a native of Ringley in Out- 
wood, built the chapel of St. Saviour in 1625," in 
conjunction with his Puritan friends in the neigh- 
bourhood. It was consecrated in 1634," and rebuilt 



ss Pat. 4 Hen. VII, 23 Feb.; the grant 
included the manors of Pilkington, Bury, 
Cheetham, and Cheetwood, and lands, &c. 
in these places and in Tottington, Uns- 
worth, Salford, Shuttleworth, Shuffle- 
bottom, Middleton, and Hundersfield. 

M The manor of Pilkington was in 1652 
part of the life estate of Charlotte Countess 
of Derby ; the old rents in 1640 were 
116, and the turbary was worth 4; 
Royalist Camp, Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes. 
and Ches.), ii, 184, 185. Various lands in 
the neighbourhood seem to have been 
treated as appurtenances of the manor, 
e.g. a messuage in Salford and messuages 
in Cheetham ; ibid, ii, 240, 241 ; also Com. 
Pleas Recov. Rolls, Trin. 1653, m. 21 ; 
Mich. 1653, m. 39. 

The manor has been included in the 
Derby settlements ; e.g. PaL of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 199, m. 55 (1677) ; ibid. 
Aug. Assizes, 1797 (recovery). 

*7 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 

'43, 155- 

58 Royalist Comp. Papert, Hi, 174; he 
stated that 'he was threatened from his 
dwelling house into service as a common 
trooper' under the earl. He was the son 
of Richard and Jane Heape. Thomas and 
John Heape contributed to the subsidy in 
1622. 

59 A family of the local name was for- 
merly settled there ; Booker quotes a deed 
by which Richard de Rodes, clerk, in 1280 
granted all the fruits in his land at the 
Rhodes to Richard de Budellisholme and 
Agnes his wife ; Prest-wicb, 214. 

The legend as to the fraud by which 
Sir John Pilkington acquired the estate is 
given in Raines, Lanes, (ed. 1870), {,448. 
Sir John is said to have caused some of 
his own cattle to be locked up in a shelter 
on the Rhodes property, and having ' found ' 
them there, charged the owner with steal- 
ing them, and thus compelled him to sell 
his estate. 

60 ' From the old local family it passed 
in marriage with an heiress into the family 
of Parr, from whom it was conveyed by 
two sisters and co-heiresses one portion 
to William son of William Holland of 
Clifton in right of his wife Jane Parr, and 
the remainder to Foxe of Lathom, who 
had espoused the other sister ' ; Booker, 
loc. cit. no references being given. 

In 1541 John Foxe contributed to the 
subsidy. His son William died about 1595, 
having, besides the Rhodes, an estate in 
Toxteth. By his will he gave to his son 
his title and interest in ground 'late parcel 
of the waste and common in Pilkington 



aforesaid, called Whitefield moor' ; and 
10 metts of barley to be divided equally 
among twenty of the poorest people of 
Pilkington and the neighbourhood ; Pic- 
cope, ffills (Chet. Soc.), iii, 113-15. The 
inventories of his goods at Pilkington and 
Toxteth amounted respectively to ^295 
and 127. For the will of Jane widow 
of John Foxe, 1581, see Will* (Chet. Soc. 
new ser.), i, 210 ; also i, 236. There is 
a picture of the family life at Rhodes in 
H alley, Lanes. Puritanism, i, 193-4. 

The name Foxe occurs in the Prestwich 
registers down to 1746 ; Booker, loc. 
supra cit. See also Waltuortb Corresp, 
(Chet. Soc.), 8. 

The statement quoted above, that 
William Holland of Rhodes was son of 
William Holland of Clifton, is incorrect; 
see W. F. Irvine, Hollands of M obberley, 
37-8. The will of William Holland of 
Rhodes, 1613, is printed ibid. 123. 
The Hollands of Rhodes occur in the 
Prestwich registers down to 1672 ; Booker, 
op. cit. 176-8. 

61 Robert Barlow contributed to the 
subsidy in 1541 and Thomas Barlow in 
1622. 

62 Thomas Crompton contributed to the 
subsidy in 1541. Of another family was 
Joshua Crompton of Old Hall in Stand, 
baptized at Hoi ton in 1650 and buried 
there in 1728 ; he was succeeded by co- 
heiresses, whose representatives in 1847 
were George Ormerod, the historian of 
Cheshire ; Hornby Roughsedge of Fox- 
ghyll ; George Tomline of Riby ; and 
Harriet Maltby of Bath ; Booker, op. cit. 
233-5 ; also 245. 

63 This family gave its name to a por- 
tion of the Park in Pilkington. Moly- 
neux occurs in the Prestwich registers 
from 1630 to 1745 ; Booker, op. cit. 
236, 237. 

64 For the Seddons of Prestolee, a yeo- 
man family, see the Waliuorth Corresp. 
where a tabular pedigree is given, extend- 
ing from 1550 to 1870. The family were 
in the main Puritans, and adhered to the 
Parliamentary side in the Civil War, 
though one or two took part with the 
king ; op. cit. pp. x-xiv. Peter Seddon 
was in 1646 a member of the Manchester 
Classis ; his son Peter was a captain in 
the Parliamentary army ; another son, 
Robert, a minister, was ejected from 
Langley in 1662 ; Manch. Classis (Chet. 
Soc.), i, 7 ; iii, 445. 

65 This family lived at Stand in the 
1 7th century. Peter Sergeant of Pilking- 
ton was another member of the Classis ; 

9 1 



ibid, i, 7, 16. Extracts from the Prest- 
wich registers relating to them are given 
by Booker, pp. 221-3. 

66 For an account of the family see 
J. S. Fletcher, Waltvortb Corresp. above 
quoted, v-ix ; PaL Note Bk. i, i. Ellis 
Walwork or Walworth was curate of 
Prestwich in 1563 onwards; Visit. Lists 
at Chester. Nathan Walworth founded 
the chapel of Ringley in 1624. 

7 The will of Robert Wroe of Prest- 
wich was proved in 1566 ; Wilh (Chet. 
Soc. new ser.), i, 232. James Wroe of 
Unsworth was an elder of Prestwich in 
1647 ; Manch. Classis, 16. 

68 Returns at Preston. 

69 W. Nicholls, Presfwicb, 91, 92. It 
was part of the ancient Park of Pilkington. 
The Philips family have monuments in 
the old Presbyterian chapel at Stand. The 
house was built by Robert Philips in 
1800; his eldest son Mark, a Liberal, 
was one of the first members of Parlia- 
ment for Manchester, 1832 to 1847 ; Pink 
and Beaven, op. cit. 295-8. Another son, 
the late Robert Needham Philips, wat 
member for Bury from 1857 to 1885; 
ibid. 329. 'Through the generosity 
of the resident family much of the 
most beautiful part of the estate has been 
open for years and is still open to the 
public every Saturday and Sunday.' For 
a pedigree of the family see Burke, Landed 
Gentry Philips of Heath House. 

' Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 400, 
401, 420. 

Robert Massey, mercer, of Warrington, 
in 1651 desired to purchase thirty-eight 
score of timber trees and poles on the 
Earl of Derby's land at Pilkington, some 
being much decayed and of no use, ' be- 
cause coals are gotten within a mile or 
two ' ; Cal. of Com. for Compounding, i, 492. 

7 1 Nathan Walworth mentions it in a 
letter of 1623, and hopes the building will 
go forward in the following spring ; Wal- 
'worth Corresp. 2. The date of erection is 
given in Commoniuealth Ch. Sur-u. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 15. 

" a The delay in the consecration seems 
to have been due to the want of an endow- 
ment for the minister. A description of 
the consecration is given in a letter of 
Peter Seddon's ; he saw nothing in the 
ceremony but what was 'godly, lawful, 
and expedient, without any superstition ' ; 
he was aware that ' some calumniators ' 
objected, but, as he thought, ' because they 
like not bishops' ; IValwortb Corresp. 

30-3* 

Walworth afterwards endowed it with 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



in 1824. The patronage, by the founder's desire, is 
vested in the rectors of Prestwich, Bury, and Middle- 
ton, or the majority of them. The present church of 
St. Saviour was built in 1851, and consecrated in 
1854. Holy Trinity Church, Prestolee, was built 
in 1863, and had a district assigned to it in 
1 883 ; n the Lord Chancellor presents. St. George's, 
Unsworth, was built in 1730, and rebuilt in 1843 ; 
the rector of Prestwich is patron. 74 All Saints', Stand, 
was built in 1826 ; Sir Frederick Johnstone is patron 
at present. 75 St. John the Evangelist's, Stand Lane, 
built in 1866, has also a small mission church ; the 
patronage is vested in three trustees. 

In addition to the chapel Nathan Walworth also 
founded a school at Ringley in 1626. 

There are Wesleyan chapels at Radcliffe Bridge 
and Unsworth the former dating from 1815 and 
a Primitive Methodist one at Chapel Field. 

The Congregational Church at Stand represents a 
division in the old Presbyterian congregation caused 
by opposition to the newly introduced Unitarian 
doctrine. The first chapel was built in 1791. It 
was demolished in 1885, and the present ornate 
church built ; being on rising ground the spire can be 
seen for some distance. 77 There is another church at 
Besses o' th' Barn. 

At the same place is a Swedenborgian Church 
called New Jerusalem. 

The Unitarian chapel at Stand is said to owe its 
origin to a congregation formed after 1662 by 
Mr. Pyke of Radcliffe, and other ejected clergy. 78 
After the toleration of Nonconformity Robert Eaton, 
who had been rector of Walton on the Hill till 1660, 
was registered as preaching in William Walker's barn 
at Pilkington ; 79 and a chapel was built for him in 
I693. 80 As in other cases the teaching became 
Unitarian towards the end of the i8th century. The 
building was restored in 1 8 1 8, and a bell tower was 
added in 1867 ; the bell is dated ijog. 81 There is a 
school in connexion with it. 



OLDHAM 

Kaskenemore, 1212 ; Haskesmores, 1226. 
Aldholm, 1226 ; Aldhulm, 1237 ; Oldhulme in 
Oldham, 1622. . 

Oldum, Oldom, Holdum, Olduum, Oldun, 1292 ; 



Oldome, 1427 ; Oldam, Oldham, Ouldham, 1 xvi 
cent. 

This township, with an extreme length from south- 
west to north-east of over 4 miles, has an area of 
4,665 acres. 7 The River Beal, flowing northwards, 
forms the boundary between Oldham on one side and 
Royton and Crompton on the other. To the east of 
it the surface rises, a height of 1,225 & being attained 
at Woodward Hill on the Yorkshire border. The 
rest of the surface is hilly, the average height decreas- 
ing towards the south-west. The ridge called Old- 
ham Edge, 800 ft. high, comes southward from Roy- 
ton into the middle of the town. The town of Old- 
ham has spread over the whole of the centre of the 
township and beyond its borders ; particularly along 
the road to Manchester. The population in 1901 
was 137,246. 

The old open Market Place may be taken as centre. 
From this High Street and Yorkshire Street the latter 
running parallel with the old Goldburne went east- 
wards through Mumps and Greenacres ; a little off 
this road, on the northern side, is the church, to 
which Church Lane leads up from High Street. 
South-west from the Market Place the old Manchester 
road went out, crossed some 200 yds. away by King 
Street, going south to Ashton under Lyne, and west- 
south-west goes out the present road to Manchester. 
From King Street George Street goes north-east to the 
Market Place, and Union Street east to Mumps. 
West Street leads from the Market Place towards 
Chadderton, and from it, as a continuation of King 
Street, Royton Street goes north to Royton and Roch- 
dale. 

Yorkshire Street, proceeding eastward, branches out 
into two great roads to Holmfirth and to Hudders- 
field ; the latter has also a branch leading north-east 
to Halifax. The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway 
Company has cross lines through the township. That 
from Manchester, opened in 1 842, enters the town- 
ship from the west, where it is joined by the line 
from Middleton, at Werneth Station, and goes 
through and under the town to the Central station ; 
near here it is joined by the London and North 
Western, the Oldham, Ashton, and Guide Bridge, and 
the Great Central Companies' line, running north- 
wards from Ashton-under-Lyne, the stations being 
called Clegg Street and Glodwick Road. The com- 
bined railways run north-east to another station, 



lands at Benton in Yorkshire ; in 1650 
the value was 16 a year, but had in- 
creased to a nominal 24. by 1718, by 
which time other benefactions had been 
made, raising the income to about 30 ; 
Gastrell, Notitia (Chet. Soc.), ii, 117-19. 
The chapel was then used by the inhabi- 
tants of Kearsley and Clifton, as well as 
Outwood. About 1735 a gift from 
Queen Anne's Bounty added another 20 
a year to the income ; Booker, Prest-wich, 
84. In 1671 the curate, William Dennis, 
was presented for not wearing the surplice 
and omitting the holidays, particularly 
29 May ; he promised obedience ; Visit. 
Rec. In 1778 the chapel was regularly 
served every Lord's Day ; the Sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper was administered 
once a quarter ; Booker, loc. cit. 

'* Lond. Gaz. 6 Mar. 1883. 

" 4 It was regularly served every Lord's 
Day in 1778 ; the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper was administered once every quar- 
ter ; Booker, loc. cit. 



78 It was endowed with the tithes of 
Unsworth and made a rectory in 1848 ; 
Lond. Gam. 10 Mar. 

78 Notitia Cestr. ii, 119. The endow- 
ment consisted of land at Flamborough. 

T> Nightingale, Lanes. Nonconf. iii, 226- 
33. In spite of the reason given for the 
division, the first minister was 'strongly 
Unitarian ' ; the cause declined in con- 
sequence. 

' 8 Mane /i. Socinian Controversy, 156, 
where it is claimed as 'originally ortho- 
dox,' though 'part of the endowments 
were not of orthodox origin.' For the 
endowments of chapel and school see 
Endowed Charities Rep. for Prestwich, 
1904, pp. 4, 1 8. 

7 9 Hist, MSS. Com. Rep. iv, App. iv, 
232. 

80 The Charities' Report shows that 
Henry Siddall, a tailor, of Radcliffe Bridge, 
in 1666 left land in Whitefield which his 
trustees in 1688 applied to the use of a 
school. The building raised was used 

9 2 



both as chapel and school ; Notitia Cestr, 
ii, in. 

81 For a full account see Nightingale, 
op. cit. iii, 215-26. About 1720 there 
were 338 persons in the congregation, of 
whom thirty-one had county votes ; O, 
Heywood, Diaries, iv, 316. 

The chapel was wrecked by a ' Church 
and King ' mob from Manchester in June 
1715 ; Pal. Note Bk. ii, 243. 

A school advertisement of 1769 is 
printed in Loc. Gleanings Lanes, and 
Ches. i, 253. 

1 A number of local place-names are 
collected in Mr. G. Shaw's Oldham Notes 
and Gleanings, i, 101, &c. 

2 4,7 3 6, including 32 of inland water, 
according to the census of 1901 ; of this 
Oldham Below Town has 1,946 acres, 
and Oldham Above Town 2,790. The 
increase is probably due to the inclusion 
of the detached portion of Chadderton, to 
the south of the town, which took place 
in 1880. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



Mumps, where a division takes place ; the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire line goes northward to Shaw and Roch- 
dale, with a station at Royton Junction, at which the 
Royton line goes off to the north-west, and the 
London and North Western's line runs eastward into 
Yorkshire. 3 A canal, joining with the Medlock, 
starts from Hollinwood, where a reservoir was formed 
in 1801. 

The ancient divisions of the township were Shol- 
ver, 4 Glodwick, 5 and Werneth, 6 in the north-east, 
south-east, and south-west respectively ; the modern 
divisions are Below Town and Above Town. Shol- 
ver lies near the middle of the Oldham part of the 
Beal valley ; Broadbent Moss is to the south ; in this 
division are Fulwood, Besom Hill, Moorside, Water- 
sheddings, and Springhill. The town has spread 
south-east to include Glodwick ; to the south are 
Fenny Hill and Keverlow, and to the west Alexandra 
Park, replacing the older name of Swine Clough. 
Werneth Park marks the site of Werneth Hall. 
About half a mile to the north of this stood Lees 
Hall and Bent Hall, and about the same distance to 
the south-east was Chamber Hall. Near this last are 
Hathershaw and Copster Hill. Hollinwood lies in 
the south-west corner of the township on the Man- 
chester road. 

There were 215 hearths liable to the hearth tax in 
1666. The largest dwellings were those of Benjamin 
Wrigley (Chamber Hall), with eight hearths ; Thomas 
Kay (Lees Hall), the same ; Joshua Cudworth 
(Werneth Hall), six ; and Bent Hall, six also. 8 

Defoe in 1727 thus records his impressions of the 
Oldham district : * This country seems to have been 
designed by Providence for the very purposes to which 
it is now allotted for carrying on a manufacture 
which can nowhere be so easily supplied with the 
conveniences necessary for it. Nor is the industry of 
the people wanting to second these advantages. 
Though we met few people without doors, yet within 
we saw the houses full of lusty fellows, some at the 
dye vat, some at the loom, others dressing the cloths ; 
the women and children carding or spinning ; all em- 
ployed, from the youngest to the oldest, scarce any- 
thing above four years old but its hands were suffi- 
cient for its own support. Not a beggar to be seen, 
not an idle person, except here and there in an alms- 
house, built for those that are ancient and past work- 
ing. The people in general live long ; they enjoy a 
good air, and under such circumstances hard labour is 
naturally attended with the blessing of health, if not 
riches. The sides of the hills were dotted with 
houses, hardly a house standing out of a speaking 
distance from another ; and the land being divided 
j into small inclosures, every three or four pieces of 
land had a house belonging to them. . . In the 
course of our road among the houses we found at 
every one of them a little rill or gutter of running 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

water ; . . . and at every considerable house was a 
manufactory, which not being able to be carried on 
without water, these little streams were so parted and 
guided by gutters and pipes that not one of the houses 
wanted its necessary appendage of a rivulet. Again, 
as the dyeing houses, scouring shops, and places where 
they use this water, emit it tinged with the drugs of 
the dyeing vat, and with the oil, the soap, the tallow, 
and other ingredients used by the clothiers in dress- 
ing and scouring, &c., the lands through which it 
passes, which otherwise would be exceeding barren, 
are enriched by it to a degree beyond imagination. 
Then, as every clothier necessarily keeps one horse at 
least, to fetch home his wool and his provisions from 
the market, to carry his yarn to the spinners, his 
manufacture to the fulling mill, and when finished, to 
the market to be sold, and the like, so every one 
generally keeps a cow or two for his family. By this 
means the small pieces of inclosed land about each 
house are occupied ; and by being thus fed, are still 
further improved by the dung of the cattle. As for 
corn, they scarce grow enough to feed their poultry.' 9 

The assessment for the house duty in 1779 shows 
only twelve dwellings of 10 rent and upwards. 
Chamber Hall was rented at j and the curate's house 
at 6" 

Dr. Aikin in 1793 found Oldham 'pleasantly 
situated on a high eminence, commanding an exten- 
sive and delightful prospect.' " 

The modern history of the township is mainly 
that of the progress of its mining and manufacturing 
industries, beginning from the early part of the 1 7th 
century. The great extension of them occurred at 
the end of the i8th century, on the introduction of 
machinery ; the growth of the place from a few 
scattered hamlets to a large well-organized town has 
since been rapid. The story is told in detail in Edwin 
Butterworth's Historical Sketches of Oldham Hat- 
making was formerly an important industry, but de- 
cayed early last century, after the introduction of the 
silk hat. 13 Machine-making was introduced about 
1794. Cotton-mills, however, are the most promi- 
nent business establishments. The mills in the district 
are said to consume over a million bales yearly, nearly 
a third of the cotton used in the kingdom. 

As in most of the unenfranchised towns, the people 
of Oldham became Radical in politics in the early 
part of last century, and some movements suspected 
of sedition found patronage in the town." John Lees, 
an operative cotton spinner, was one of the victims 
of the ' Peterloo massacre ' of 1 8 1 9, and the 'Oldham 
inquest ' which followed was anxiously watched ; the 
Court of King's Bench, however, decided that the 
proceedings were irregular, and the jury were dis- 
charged without giving a verdict. 15 Apart from 
politics the district was frequently disturbed by bread 
and labour riots, occasioned by periods of scarcity and 



8 The original line was extended from 
Werneth to Mumps in 1 847 ; the Oldham 
and Guide Bridge line was opened in 
1 86 1 ; the line to Royton and Rochdale 
in 1863 ; and that to Newton Heath in 
1880. 

4 Solhher, 1202 ; Solwere, 1275 ; Shol- 
ver, 1278 ; Sholuere, 1291. 

5 Glothic, 1 21 2; Glotheyk, 1307, 1346; 
Glodyght, 1474. 

6 Vernet, 1226 (?) ; Wernyth, 1352. 
8 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 



' Quoted in E. Butterworth's Oldham 
(ed. 1856), 99, 100, from the Tour 
through Gt. Brit. 

10 Oldham Notes and Gleanings, i, 1 90. 

11 Country around Manch. 236. Hats 
and strong fustians were then the staple 
manufactures of the place. 

12 Pp. 92 onwards ; a list of the early 
mills is given, p. 117. An account of the 
state of trade in 1 846 is printed in Oldham 
Notes and Gleanings, iii, 74-83. 

13 E. Butterworth, op. cit.izi, 188, 247. 

93 



14 Three Oldham men were sentenced 
to transportation in 1801 ; ibid. 148. 
The first public meeting in favour of 
reform was held on Bent Green in Sept. 
1816, ibid. 167. John Knight, a local 
Radical, was several times imprisoned on 
charges of sedition and treason ; ibid. 

173- 

15 Ibid. 170-2. A full report of the 
proceedings at the inquest was published 
by William Hone in 1820. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



the disturbance of employment following the intro- 
duction of machinery. 16 

Periodical literature began with the Oldham Observer 
in 1827. The first newspaper was the Chronicle, 
published weekly from May 1854. At present there 
are two newspapers the Chronicle and the Standard 
issued daily and weekly. 17 

The Oldham Rushbearing or Wakes are on the last 
Saturday in August ; at Glodwick on the first Satur- 
day in October. 

The people have long been distinguished for their 
love of vocal music. 18 

The Oldham dialect has many peculiarities. 10 

Portions of the Roman road from Manchester into 
Yorkshire are recognizable in the southern part of the 
township. Some coins have been found. 11 

Lawrence Nuttall of Oldham issued a halfpenny 
token in 1669." 

Lawrence Chadderton, a Puritan divine, was a 
native of the town, 13 as was Samuel Ogden, one of 
the clergy ejected in 1662 for Nonconformity.* 4 In 
more recent times Thomas Henshaw, the founder of 
the Bluecoat Hospital, was an inhabitant and trades- 
man here. 15 The Butterworths, father and son, ren- 
dered great services to students of local history. 16 Sir 
John Mellor, judge, was born at Hollinwood House 
in 1809, and died in 1887." James Whitehead, 
M.D., 1812-85, son of John Whitehead, a herbalist 
of local fame, became a distinguished physician. 28 
Thomas Oldham Barlow, R.A., 1824-89, was a 
famous engraver ; the Oldham Corporation in 1891 
secured an almost complete collection of his works.* 9 
Sir John Tomlinson Hibbert was born at Oldham in 
1824, and was member of Parliament for his native 
town 1862 to 1874 and 1878 to 1895, holding 



minor offices in different Liberal ministries. He was 
made K.C.B. in 1893. On the formation of the 
Lancashire County Council in 1888 he was chosen 
to be its chairman, and retained this position till his 
retirement in February, 1908. He was appointed 
Constable of Lancaster Castle in 1907. He died at 
his house at Grange-over-Sands on 7 November, 1908. 
There should also be mentioned James Wolfenden of 
Hollinwood, a mathematician, who died in 1841 
aged 87 ; John Whitehead, a botanist, who died in 
1896 ; and James Dronsfield, of Hollinwood, 
1826-96. Some prodigies are on record. 80 

In the 1 2th century KASKENMOOR, 
MANORS including Oldham and most of Cromp- 
ton, was a thegnage estate held of the 
royal manor of Salford as 2 5 or 26 oxgangs of land by a 
rent of 2O/., and sending a judge to the hundred 
court. Adam Fitz Swain was the tenant, and left 
two daughters, between whom the inheritance was 
divided. Maud married Adam de Montbegon, lord 
of Tottington, and her son Roger was the tenant of a 
moiety in 1212. Amabel, the other daughter, 
married William de Nevill, but this moiety was in 
1 2 1 2 in the king's hands, ' because the heirs had not 
spoken with the king.' 31 Each of the heiresses left 
issue, but the later inquisitions omit any reference to 
them, the descendants of their sub-tenants being 
stated to hold directly of the Earl or Duke of 
Lancaster as of his manor of Salford. 

In 1 2 1 2 the sub-tenants were Gilbert de Notton, 
for Crompton ; Reyner de Wombwell, for Werneth 
and Oldham ; Adam de Glodwick, for Glodwick ; 
Ralph Tagun, for Sholver ; and Henry de Scholefield, 
for Birshaw. Gilbert, Reyner, and Adam held a 
moiety under each lord ; Ralph and Henry held 



16 Especially in 1795, I799 1812, 
1826, and 1834; . Butterworth, op. 
cit. 138, 144, 162, 190,213. 

17 Oldham Notes and Gleanings, i, 1 94 ; 
iii, 10. 

18 Notes on the musicians in the neigh- 
bourhood are given by Edwin Butter- 
worth, op. cit. 251-5. 

Elias Hall, born in Oldham, published 
a Ptalm-singer't Compleat Companion in 
1708. It was written at Oldham and 
dedicated to the Rev. H. Pigot, rector of 
Brindle and vicar of Rochdale. 

20 Pal. Note Bk. i, 1 3, &c. ; Lanes, and 
Ches. Antiq. Soc. vi, 182. 

81 Ibid, viii, 155, 156 ; x, 251. 

M Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. v, 87. 

33 See the account of Lees Hall. 

a< See below, under Horsedge. 

25 He was a native of Prestbury, but 
apprenticed in Oldham, and became hat 
manufacturer there. He drowned himself 
in 1 8 10, having been for some years of 
unsound mind, and his will was therefore 
contested ; E. Butterworth, op. cit. 153-5, 
*3<5 *37- 

M James Butterworth, the father, was 
born in Ashton in 1771. His account of 
the Oldham district was published in 
1817 ; it contains a plan of the town 
and map of the chapelry, together with 
pedigrees and a directory. A second 
edition appeared in 1826. The author 
died in 1837. 

Edwin Butterworth, his son, born in 
1^12 at Oldham, published a brief history 
Of the town in 1832. He compiled the 
local accounts for Baines' Hist, of Lanes. 
1836. His Historical Sketches was begun 
in 1847 ; the instalments were inter- 



rupted by his death in April 1848, but 
were reprinted with a supplement in 
1856. 

For notices of them see the account of 
Edwin by Mr. Giles Shaw in Lanes, and 
Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxii ; Manch Guardian 
N. and Q. no. 584, 648 ; Oldham Notes 
and Gleanings, i, 35, 205, 209. 

Their works and the Oldham Annals 
and Oldham Notes and Gleanings have 
proved of great assistance to the editors. 

7 Diet. Nat. Biog. Ibid. a Ibid. 

80 Elizabeth Bradbury; Manch. Guardian 
N. and Q. no. 520 ; Daniel Newton, ibid, 
no. 1237. 

81 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 63, 64 ; where it is 
stated that Roger de Montbegon held 
1 3 oxgangs in thegnage by gs. 2^d. and by 
half a judge ; and that William de Nevill 
had held, in right of his wife, 13 oxgangs 
by lOi. 9j</. and by half a judge. Roger's 
under-tenants held only 1 2 oxgangs ; 
while his share of the thegnage rent is 
apparently intended for i oxgang less than 
half, being 9^. less than 101. William's 
tenants held 1 3 oxgangs, and his thegnage 
rent indicates that he held an oxgang more 
than half. His holding was ten years after- 
wards called 14 oxgangs ; it had escheated 
to the king ; ibid. 132. Possibly an even 
division had at first been made, account- 
ing for the 13 oxgangs each of the 1212 
survey, and then i oxgang transferred to 
the Nevills, the thegnage rent being altered 
accordingly. 

Ailric held lands in Yorkshire in the 
time of Edward the Confessor ; his son 
Swain succeeded and died in 1131, being 
followed by his son Adam, a benefactor of 

94 



Pontefract, who died in 1159. Maud, 
one of his daughters, married Adam de 
Montbegon, and by him had a son Roger, 
the holder of Kaskenmoor in 1212, who 
died in 1227 without issue ; she married, 
secondly, John Malherbe, and their 
daughters Mabel and Clemence respec- 
tively married William de la Mare, a 
feudatory of the honour of Richmond 
(having an heiress, wife of Geoffrey de 
Nevill) and Eudo de Longvilers ; thirdly, 
she married Gerard de CanvilL Amabel, 
the other daughter, by her first husband 
had a daughter Sarah, who married Thomas 
de Burgo and had issue ; and by her second 
husband, Alexander de Crevequer, left a 
daughter Cecily, who by her husband, 
William de Nevill, was ancestor of the 
Nevills of Mirfield. These particulars 
are from the account of the family by the 
late Richard Holmes in his edition of the 
Chartul. of St. John of Pontefract (Yorks. 
Arch. Soc.), i, 95 ; ii, 306, 307, with 
some correction. 

William de Nevill occurs in 1201 as 
contributing 401. to the tallage ; Lanes. 
Pipe R. 151. The sheriff in 1210 ren- 
dered account of I2s. 6d. for the mediety 
of William de Nevill' s pasture in Kasken- 
moor ; ibid. 236. 

For grants to William de Nevill and 
Amabel his wife see also Cal. Pat. 131 7-2 1, 
p. 245. 

Oldham, Crompton, and Royton con- 
tinued to be fees of the court leet of the 
manor and hundred of Salford down to 
1856; Edwin Butterworth, Oldham (ed. 
1856), 13. 

The name Kaskenmoor does not seem 
to have come down to modern times. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 



under Nevill. The combined services due from 
them amounted exactly to the service required by 
the king. 

There does not seem to have been any manor of 
QLDHAM but in later times it was usually supposed 
to be attached to WERNETH, the holder of this por- 
tion bearing the local name ; thus in 1222-6 Alward 
de Oldham held 2 oxgangs in Werneth by a rent of 
ig^d. 33 Though a number of Oldhams appear in 
pleadings, &C., 34 nothing is known of the descent of 
Werneth until the latter part of the I4th century, 
Margery daughter of Richard de Oldham and 
wife of John de Cudworth dying in October 



1383 holding the manor of 
Oldham of the Duke of Lan- 
caster by knight's service and 
by the rent of 6s. 6d. K Her 
son and heir, John de Cud- 
worth, was born early in 
1379, and proved his age in 
1 40 1. 36 The descent of the 
manor in the Cudworth fa- 
mily is fairly clear from this 
time 37 until 1683, when it 
was sold by Joshua Cudworth 
to Sir Ralph Assheton of 





CUDWORTJI. Azure a 
fesse erminoit between 
three demi-lions rampant 



88 Nothing further is known of Reyner 
de Wombwell, who held 6 oxgangs of land 
under Montbegon and 2 oxgangs under 
Nevill ; Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 63, 64. 
The latter part, as appears by the next note, 
was Werneth. His name occurs as witness 
to deeds in the Pontefract Chartulary 
above referred to. 

83 Ibid. 133. The rent for 2 oxgangs 
agrees more nearly with 25 than 26 for 
the whole of Kaskenmoor. The other 6 
oxgangs of Reyner may have been held by 
Alward, but not of the king. 

84 In the 1324 Feodary (Dods. MSS. 
cxxxi, fol. 3 8 A) the Oldham family's hold- 
ing is stated to have been formerly that 
of Adam de Eccles. Among the Hop- 
wood charters is a deed by Adam de 
Eccles, granting land in Oldham to Henry 
de 'Oldulm,' and another making a grant 
to Jordan de Crompton. 

In 1275 Adam de Oldham and Geoffrey 
de Chadderton jointly took action against 
John de Byron respecting tenements in 
Oldham and Chadderton ; Assize R. 405, 
m. 3<7. Probably the boundaries of Royton 
were in dispute. 

Adam de Oldham, William de Oldham, 
and Adam son of Adam de Oldham ap- 
pear in 1292 in suits about tenements in 
Oldham of which no particulars are given; 
Assize R. 408, m. 18, 58; Cal. Close, 
1288-96, p. 40. At the same time 
Christiana daughter of Peter de Oldham 
claimed a messuage and land against 
Robert son of Warine de Marcheden ; the 
latter had received them from Christiana's 
next of kin Cecily daughter of William 
son of Peter, whose mental soundness was 
the point in dispute. Finally Robert gave 
a mark for licence to agree, and received 
a quitclaim ; Assize R. 408, m. 15 ; see 
also De Banco R. 108, m. 12; no, m. 
7. Isabel daughter of Adam de Oldham 
claimed 20 acres and half an oxgang of 
land against her father in 1297; De 
Banco R. 1 1 8, m. 1 24. 

Among the Hopwood charters are 
grants from Adam son of Adam de Old- 
ham to William his brother ; one is dated 
1300. 

Adam de Oldham occurs again in 1302; 
Assize R. 418, m. 1 1. In 1310 he granted 
to Sir John de Byron of Clayton part of 
his waste in Oldham and Werneth ; Shaw, 
Oldham, 7. Adam and his son Richard 
in 1319 granted Sir Richard de Byron 
land and wood in Menewood ; and next 
year Richard son of Adam de Oldham 
released to Sir Richard son of Sir John de 
Byron all claim in the portion of waste 
granted by the charter of 1310 ; ibid. 8 ; 
Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxv, 36. 

From a suit of 1315 it appears that the 
Earl of Lancaster had granted the manor 
to Sir Robert de Holland, for Geoffrey de 
Chadderton then appeared against Adam 
de Oldham on the plea that Adam as 



mesne tenant should acquit him of the 
service demanded by Sir Robert ; De 
Banco R. 212, m. 51 d. No more is 
known of the Holland lordship. 

Richard son of Richard de Oldham in 
1324 paid 61. 6d. for an oxgang (no doubt 
for Werneth) ; Duchy of Lane. Rentals 
and Surv. 379, m. 13. A William de 
Oldham contributed to the subsidy in 
1332 ; Exch. Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and dies.), 31. 

Richard de Oldham was lord of the 
town in 1354; Duchy of Lane. Assize 
R. 3, m. 6 d. The heirs of Richard de 
Oldham in 1378 held part of Oldham by a 
rent of 6s. 6d. ; Harl. MS. 2085, fol. 422. 

A later Richard de Oldham is named in 
1427 in two of the Raines deeds (Chet. 
Lib.), bdle. 3, no. 36, 37 ; his daughters 
Ellen and Margery quitclaimed the lands 
called * Hasellenshagh,' which had be- 
longed to their father, to William son of 
Richard de Aspenhalgh ( Aspinall), who had 
married Alice, another daughter. William 
de Aspenhalgh and John his son were in 
1438 bound in 251. to John de Colyn ; 
ibid. no. 39. 

85 Towneley MS. DD, no. 1455 ; the 
clear value was 3 131. 6d. The date of 
the inquisition is 1401, when John de 
Cudworth had come of age. 

86 Ibid. no. 1500. Richard de Tetlow 
gave evidence that John the heir was born 
March 1378-9, and baptized in Oldham 
by John de Blackburne, chaplain, the god- 
parents being John del Forth and Margery 
del Helde. 

The inquisition taken after the death 
of his father in October 1384 is printed 
in Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 13. It 
differs in some details from the above. 
The tenure is more fully stated by 
knight's service and by a rent of 6s. 8J. ; 
and by doing suit to the county from six 
weeks to six weeks, and to the wapentake 
from three weeks to three weeks ; also by 
finding a bailiff for the duke in the wapen- 
take of Salford. The custody of the heir 
was given to Richard de Tetlow. 

See also Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 2. 

8 7 Pedigrees were recorded in 1567 
(Visit. Chet. Soc. 15), 1613 (ibid. 80), 
and 1664 (ibid. 90). There is another 
in Butterworth, Oldham (ed. 1817), 69. 

John Cudworth made a feoffment of 
his lands in Oldham in 1405 ; Dods. MSS. 
cxvii, fol. 165. 

In 1445-6 John Cudworth held the 
twentieth part of a knight's fee in Old- 
ham, but did not pay 51. for relief, as 
being in ward ; Duchy of Lane. Knights' 
Fees, 2/20. 

John Cudworth of Werneth contributed 
to the subsidies of 1523 and 1541 ; Shaw, 
Oldham, 15, 18. 

John Cudworth, who according to the 
pedigrees was great-grandson of the John 
of 1401, died 22 June 1555, holding a 

95 



mansion-house called Werneth, eight mes- 
suages, &c., in Oldham, 41. jd. free rent, 
viz. zo^</. from lands late of John Hop- 
wood in Nether Horsedge, 2i/. from land 
called Hazelshaw belonging to John 
Aspenhalgh, and zd. from Robert Butter- 
worth's land next Cowhill (Coohill) ; all 
held of the Duchy of Lancaster by knight's 
service and a rent of 6s. 8</. He had 
granted certain lands to Agnes daughter 
of Alexander Lees (who married his son 
Ralph), and the rest of his estate as ' the 
manor of Werneth,' &c. to his son and 
heir Ralph, who at the taking of the 
inquest in 1556 was fifty years of age; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. x, 36. 

Ralph Cudworth died 28 Nov. 1558, 
holding much the same estate. The de- 
tails of the 41. jd. rents are more fully 
given : zi^J. from Edmund Ashton for 
land in Greenacres ; yd. from John Taylor 
in Over Horsedge and Redlees, ij</. from 
John Hopwood in Nether Horsedge, 2 id. 
from Haslinshaw, and id. from the land 
next Cowhill. Ralph, the son and heir, 
was twenty-six years of age ; ibid, xi, 62. 

The descent of Redlees is given by 
Edwin Butterworth ; it was owned in 
1856 by John Bradshaw Greaves ; Oldham, 

43- 

Ralph Cudworth made a settlement of 

the manor of Werneth, ten messuages, 
&c., in Oldham in 1561 ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 23, m. 117. He died 
22 Aug. 1572 holding the manor or 
capital messuage of Werneth, &c., as 
before, and six burgages, &c., at Wake- 
field. By his will he set apart a third of 
the profits of his lands for thirteen years 
for the education and marriage of his 
daughters Alice, Margery, and Anne. 
The heir was his son John, then eight 
years of age ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. 
xii, no. i. By his will he desired to be 
buried in the chapel on the north side of 
the parish church. His wife Jane, his 
son and daughters, and William Ashton 
his brother-in-law are mentioned. He 
set apart 30 a year for life for his bastard 
son Ralph, and gave 401. to this Ralph's 
son Ralph ; Shaw, Oldham, 26. He also 
made provision for a posthumous son of 
his own, who was baptized as Ralph at 
Oldham, 2 Sept. 1572. He was the Dr. 
Ralph Cudworth, fellow of Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, who was father of the 
celebrated author of the True Intellectual 
System of the Universe ; note by Mr. J. C. 
Whitebrook. See Diet. Nat. Biog. 

John Cudworth occurs in various ways 
in the early part of the I7th century. He 
was one of the first governors of Oldham 
Grammar School in 1606. His eldest son 
John was twenty-eight years of age in 
1613, and died in 1652, leaving as heir 
his son Joshua, who in 1 664 was fifty-one, 
and had a son, also Joshua, aged eighteen; 
see Visitations. The curious inscription 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Middleton. 88 The new owner gave it with his daughter 
and co-heir Catherine to Thomas Lister of Gisburn 
Park, Yorkshire ; the Listers sold it for 25,500 to 
Parker & Sidebottom of London, by whom it was 
sold in 1795 to John Lees, cotton manufacturer, for 
j^OjOOO. 39 It is now owned by Mrs. Charles Lees 
of Werneth Park. 

Werneth Hall is said to have been originally a 
timber and plaster building, but this was destroyed 
by fire in I456, 40 and no trace of it now remains. 
The present house, which is built of stone, stands on 
sloping ground on the south-west side of the town 
facing south at the corner of Werneth Hall Road and 
Frederick Street, the original portions dating probably 
from the beginning or middle of the I yth century. The 
house, however, has been so much altered and rebuilt 
both inside and out that its ancient appearance is 
almost wholly lost, but it was probably a building 
with a centre and end wings at the east and west. 
A portion only of the line of the old frontage remains ; 
the west gable is still intact, but the centre portion 
has been replaced by a brick cottage, and the east 
wing appears to have been extended, and mutilated at 
the top, but whether it ever was a gabled building 
like the west wing is uncertain. There is an original 
entrance doorway in the east wing facing south, and 



the old five-light mullioned and transomed windows 
with labels still remain in both wings, except that 
the mullions in the lower windows have been cut 
away. The old west wing runs through to the back 
of the house, where there are two five-light mullioned 
and transomed windows with label mouldings, but a 
modern stone extension has been made to the house 
at the west, which effectually hides the old work on 
that side. The existing portion of the old hall is 
now used as a nurses' home. 

CHAMBER HALL, to the south-east of Wer- 
neth, was for some centuries 
the residence of the Tetlows 
of Werneth, said to be de- 
scended from the Oldham fa- 
mily. 41 Lawrence Tetlow died 
26 December 1582 seised of 
three messuages, &c., in Ash- 
ton under Lyne, held of the 
queen in socage by a rent of 

$d. ; and twelve messuages, 
o r\\ JL LIJ r T> i i_ 

&c., in Oldham, held of Ralph 

Barton in socage, by a barbed 

arrow at Christmas, and a pair 

of gloves (or id.) at St. Oswald's. Richard, his son 

and heir, was about thirty-seven years old. 41a Early 




TETLOW. Ar 

w tngralled 
tited gulet. 



nt a 

. 



on John Cudworth's monument (died 7 
June 1652, aged sixty-eight) in Oldham 
church, erected by his sons Richard and 
Thomas, is printed in Butterworth's 
Oldham (ed. 1817), 26. Thomas had 
been ' vitae et necis civilis arbiter class! s, 
non nimis felicis, quae petiit Jamaicam.' 

The will of Joshua, the father, made in 
1 66 1 and proved in 1667, is printed in 
Shaw, Oldbam, 167. 

88 It was the younger Joshua who in 
1683 sold Werneth ; ibid. 191. A settle- 
ment of the manors of Werneth and Old- 
ham had been made in 1668 by Joshua 
Cudworth and Anne Cudworth, widow ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 181, m. 146, 

John Smith, clerk, who died at Cam- 
bridge 22 Aug. 1638, held a messuage, 
Ac., in Oldham of John Cudworth ; 
Thomas Smith, the brother and heir, was 
sixty years of age ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. xxx, no. 38. 

89 Butterworth, op. cit. 69 ; 'It is only 
about 100 acres, but contains an invalu- 
able quantity of coal, and much common 
right.' 

In 1773 there was a recovery of the 
manors of Oldham and Werneth, the 
tenant being Thomas Lister ; Pal. of Lane. 
Plea R. 617, m. 9 d. He was father of 
Thomas Lister, Lord Ribblesdale, who 
sold Werneth in 1792. John Lees, son of 
Daniel Lees of Barrowshaw, began busi- 
ness about 1775 in Church Lane. He 
aroused great indignation, as lord of the 
reputed manor of Oldham, by claiming 
tolls on the market stalls ; this claim he 
withdrew. He died in 1823, was suc- 
ceeded by his son Edward, who died in 
1835, and was in turn succeeded by his 
sons John Frederick Lees and George 
Lees, the former of whom was member 
for the borough (Conservative) from 1835 
to 1837, and died in 1867 ; E. Butter- 
worth, Oldham (ed. 1856), 24, 129, 159 ; 
Pink and Beaven, Par/. Repre. of Lanes. 
310. 

Lord Ribblesdale' s deeds contain a 
number relating to Oldham from 1552 
onwards 5 they concern the Cudworth and 
Crompton families. 



40 Shaw, Oldbam) 13. For description 
of remains in 1890, see Lanes, and Cbes. 
Antiq. Sot. viii, 147. 

41 In 1292 Adam son of Adam de 
Oldham bound himself to repay 4 marks 
borrowed from Adam de Prestwich, or 
instead grant him land called the North- 
hey ; Agecroft D. 3. 

In 1332 Richard de Tetlow and others 
did not prosecute their claim against 
Richard de Byron respecting lands in Old- 
ham and Chadderton ; Assize R. 1411, 
m. 1 2 d. 

Thomas son of Adam de Prestwich in 
1335 granted to Richard son of Adam de 
Tetlow all his part of Adamhey in the 
Northwood in Oldham perhaps the 
Northhey of the above-cited bond j 
Raines D. (Chet. Lib.), bdle. 3, no. 28. 

In 1337 the sheriff was ordered to 
inquire whether Richard de Tetlow was 
seised of 80 acres of land and 20 acres 
of wood in Oldham and Crompton ; Alice 
his widow claimed a third of it as dower 
against Amabel widow of Adam de 
Tetlow. She further claimed dower in 
other lands in Oldham and Cheetham ; 
De Banco R. 310, m. i6od. ; Cal. Close, 

*337-9> P- " 6 - 

Another Tetlow family is shown in 
pleadings of 1480, in which the grant of 
a messuage, &c., in Oldham by Eva 
daughter of William de Oldham to 
Richard son of Adam de Tetlow, with 
remainder to Richard's brother Adam, 
was claimed by the descendants of Adam's 
three daughters George Chadderton, 
Ralph Belfield, Bernard Butterworth, and 
Elizabeth his wife ; Pal. of Lane. Writs 
of Assize, 20 Edw. IV. 

Hugh son of Adam de Tetlow in 1340 
gave lands in the Coppedhurst and Payre- 
halghus to his mother, Anabil, for life, 
with remainder to his brother Roger ; 
Raines D. no. 29. 

Adam son of Richard de Tetlow in 
1347 successfully claimed eight messuages, 
&c., in Oldham, held by Adam son of 
Adam de Tetlow ; Assize R. 1435, m. 39. 

In 1375 Roger son of Richard de 
Langley gave to Richard son of Richard 

9 6 



de Tetlow all his lands in Manchester, 
Crompton, and Oldham, with remainder* 
to Richard bastard son of Adam de 
Tetlow, and to John son of Richard de 
Oldham ; Agecroft D. no. 48. In the fol- 
lowing year Richard son of Richard de 
Tetlow occurs as plaintiff; De Banco R. 
462, m. 121 d. Richard de Tetlow in 
1390 confirmed to Robert Walker, chap- 
lain, a burgage and messuage in Oldham 
and Manchester; Shaw, Oldham, n. 

Cases of cow-stealing and trespass in 
1441 and 1443 bring in other members 
of the family Robert and Alexander, 
sons of Robert de Tetlow ; Robert son of 
Richard de Tetlow and Isabel his wife ; 
Robert Tetlow of Oldham and Richard 
his son ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 3, m. 31; 
5, m. 1 5 b. 

Richard Tetlow of Werneth granted to 
John Langley 5 acres in Oldham in 1474; 
the bounds mention Hunwalgate, Glod- 
wick Brook, the Clough Bottom, the old 
kiln, the lime-pits, Hollinwood, and 
Northwood ; John Langley resigned his 
claim to the Spurfield land ; Raines D. 
bdle. 3, no. 43. 

Arthur Tetlow, of Chamber Hall, con- 
tributed to the subsidy in 1523 ; Shaw, 
Oldham, 1 5. John Tetlow contributed for 
goods in 1541 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 145. Lawrence Tetlow in 
1551 made a feoffment of messuages and 
lands in Oldham and Ashton under Lyne ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 14, m. 178. 
He was among those summoned in 1574 
to provide equipment for the muster ; 
Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 3 i. 

41a Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xiv, 56. 
The inquisitions of the Bartons of Smithills 
do not mention any lands in Oldham, but 
the Butterworths of Butterworth also held 
lands of them by ' an arrow with an iron 
barb ' ; ibid, xiii, 2. 

Richard Tetlow, in return for the 
surrender of a lease granted by his father 
Lawrence, gave a new lease of a messuage 
in Oldham in 1596 ; the rent was to be 
821. a year, with four hens at Christmas, 
two capons at Easter, and four days' shear- 
ing (reaping) in harvest. Richard further 




OLDHAM : CHAMBER HALL FROM THE SOUTH-WEST 




OLDHAM : BACK OF CHAMBER HALL SHOWING OLD BARN 



SALFORD HUNDRED 




GREGGE. Or three 
trefoils between two che- 
verons table. 



in the I 7th century the estate passed by sale to the 
Woods," and from them in 1646 to the Wrigleys. 43 
Henry Wrigley served as high sheriff in 1651," and 
in local matters was a zealous supporter of Robert 
Constantine in the disputes 
as to the church of Oldham. 45 
By marriage Chamber Hall 
passed to the Gregges of Ches- 
ter, who in 1773 succeeded to 
Hopwood, and took this sur- 
name. 46 Edward Gregge Hop- 
wood died in 1 798, and left 
the Chamber Hall estate in 
equal portions to his three 
daughters. The eldest died 
unmarried ; Elizabeth mar- 
ried James Starkey of Hey- 
wood ; and the other married 
Maj. -General Peter Heron, Tory member for Newton 
in Makerfield from 1806 to 1814; and the estate 
was recently held by their heirs. 47 

Chamber Hall lies on the south side of Oldham at 
the bottom of Chamber Lane, but on an eminence 
formerly commanding a very extensive prospect of the 
country to the south. 48 The building belongs to two 
periods. The older part at the back was apparently 
erected in 1640, along with the barn to the south, 
and is a stone-built house of two stories and an attic 
with mullioned windows and gables, and the roofs 
covered with grey stone slates. Some of the windows 
are built up and others modernized, but many of the 
original 17th-century windows with the labels over 
remain. The walling is of long thin coursed stones with 
squared quoins, many of great length, at the angles. 

The front of the house was pulled down in 1752, 
when the present block facing the street was erected. 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

It is of three stories, built in stone in the plain classic 
style of the period, with central door and two square- 
headed windows on each side of it. There are five 
large windows on the first floor with small attic win- 
dows over. The ground floor windows have archi- 
traves and keystones, but the upper ones architraves 
only, and the sashes retain their original wood bars. 
The front is faced with large squared coursed stones, 
with chamfered quoins at the angles, the chimneys are 
of brick, a"nd the roof is covered with blue slates. On 
the south-west of the house is a large stone barn, with 
stone slated roof and wide end gables. The entrance 
doorways in each side of the barn have also smaller 
stone gables, that facing the house bearing the initials 
G. w., i. w., and the date 1640 on a stone over a 
blocked three-light mullioned window. The initials 
are probably those of George Wood and his wife Jane 
(Tetlow), the builders of the house. The barn is a 
fine specimen of the stone-built barns of the I7th 
century. At the other side of the house, to the 
south-east, is a range of stone buildings, two stories 
high, now a cottage and stable, with outside stone 
steps at the north end. It has low mullioned windows 
and a stone-slated roof, and over the stable door is 
the date 1648 and the initials H. w., being those 
of Henry Wrigley, who bought the hall from the 
Woods in 1 646. He is said to have ' employed 
numerous artisans in the trade of fustian weaving, and 
converted part of the outbuildings of his hall into a 
warehouse.' 49 The door with his initials may be an 
insertion in one of the original outbuildings, but it is 
more probable that he erected this range of buildings 
himself for workshops. 

A portion of the Tetlow estate passed by marriage 
to the Langleys of Agecroft, and long continued in 
that family. 50 Another Tetlow family was settled at 



agreed that Robert his son and heir 
apparent should confirm it on coming of 
age; Shaw, Oldham, 40. In 1610, in 
conjunction with Katherine his wife, he 
made a settlement of his ' manors of Old- 
ham and Werneth,' with thirty messuages, 
mill, lands, &c. ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle. 78, no. 5. He died in 1611, and 
his will and inventory are printed by Shaw, 
op. cit. 51, 52; he mentions his wife 
Katherine, son Robert, daughter Jane wife 
of William Bradshaw, grandson Adam 
Pilkington, and others, and desired to be 
buried in the ' chapel church of Oldham.' 
The only book was ' a great old Bible ' ; 
the arms were a caliver, two great bills, 
a yew bow and a quiver, and a broken 
cross-bow ; ' a pair of playing tables ' was 
valued at it. 

Robert Tetlow contributed to the sub- 
sidy in 1622 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 157. Nine years later he paid 
10 on refusing knighthood ; ibid. 216. 
As a convicted recusant he paid double to 
the subsidy of 1626-7 (Lay Subs. bdle. 
131, no. 312), and in 1630 compounded 
for his sequestered two-thirds by an annual 
fine of 10. 

42 By indenture dated 14 September 
1635 Robert Tetlow of the Chamber Hall 
in or near Oldham, and William Horton 
of Barkisland, Yorks., conveyed to George 
Wood of Groby and John Wood 
of London, for 2,120, the capital 
messuage in Werneth, with lands, &c., 
there and in Greenacres, the names and 
rents of the occupiers being given ; 
Raines D. (Chet. Lib.), bdle. 5, no. 77. 
This was accompanied by a fine, Robert 



Tetlow and Mary his wife, William Horton 
and Elizabeth his wife, being deforciants ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 128, no. 33. 

George Wood, who is said to have 
married Jane the daughter and heir of 
Robert Tetlow, contributed to the subsidy 
of 1641 for his lands ; Shaw, op. cit. 87. 
In the following year George and John 
Wood gave a lease of the messuage, &c., 
called Broad Heys in Oldham ; ibid. 93. 

48 Ibid. 102. 

44 P.R.O. Lilt, 73. 

45 See the correspondence in Manch. 
Classit (Chet. Soc.), App. Henry Wrigley 
died in London, and was buried there 26 
July 1658 ; Shaw, op. cit. 152. 

Henry Wrigley the younger, son of 
Henry Wrigley of the Chamber in Old- 
ham, at Ashton under Lyne on 5 April 
1654 married Susannah daughter of 
Samuel Jenkinson of Woodhouses. A 
son, Henry, was buried at Ashton 23 
Mar. 1654-5. 

Benjamin Wrigley, the next owner of 
Chamber, was summoned to attend the 
Herald's Visitation in 1664, but no pedi- 
gree is recorded ; Dugdale, Visit, (Chet. 
Soc.), p. v. 

46 E. Butterworth, Oldham (ed. 1856), 
from which this account of the descent is 
mainly taken. By his will, 1671, Benja- 
min Wrigley devised his property in Old- 
ham, &c., to his eldest daughter Martha 
and her issue ; and she married Joseph 
Gregge. 

In 1681 Joseph Gregge and Martha 
his wife made a settlement of the manors 
of Werneth and Oldham ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 207, m. 84. In 1682 

97 



Joseph Gregge granted a lease of a mes- 
suage at a rent of ios., a heriot at every 
death, two fat hens at Christmas, a fat 
capon at Easter, a day's harrowing with 
two harrows, and three days' reaping as re- 
quired ; Shaw, op. cit. 187. Joseph 
Gregge died in 1705 ; ibid. 241. 

In a recovery of the manors of Werneth 
and Oldham in 1712 the tenants were 
Benjamin Gregge, Elizabeth his wife, 
and Henry Ashton ; PaL of Lane. Plea 
R. 496, m. 4. Benjamin Gregge was 
high sheriff in 1722 ; P.R.O. List, 74. 

A settlement was made of the manors 
of Werneth and Oldham in 1773 by Ed- 
ward Gregge Hopwood and Judith his 
wife ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 389, 
m. 28. 

47 In 1856 these heirs were : Edmund 
John Gregge Hopwood, Catherine Heron, 
Mary Felicia Barry, (Rev.) George Heron, 
Henry Heron, (Rev.) Frank George Hop- 
wood, and Hervey Hopwood ; Butter- 
worth, op. cit. 28. On the same page is 
an account of the haunting of Chamber 
Hall. 

In 1890 Chamber was stated to be the 
property of the Gregge Hop woods ; see an 
account of the place in Lanes, and Ches, 
Antiq. Soc. viii, 150-4, where is printed 
an ungallant couplet written on a window 
pane of the hall. 

48 J. Butterworth, op. cit. 1826. 

49 Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. viii. 

* In 1352 lands in Crompton, Oldham, 
and Werneth were part of the Tetlow 
estate settled upon Richard de Langley 
and Joan his wife ; Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 132. Disputes had 

'3 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



COLDHURST," which was formerly an estate of the 
Hospitallers." 

LEES HALL was long the residence of the Chad- 
derton family of Oldham and Crompton. 53 George 
Chadderton, living in 15 15, held Rowdefields, Magot 
Fields, and Lees in Oldham of John Cudworth by 
knight's service and a rent of 4^. His widow 
{Catherine died 10 April 1543, and their grandson 



Thomas (son of Thomas son of George) was the 
heir, and twenty-two years of age. 53a In the latter 
part of the iyth century it was acquired by the 
Lyon family, 54 and passed through various hands. 
Lawrence Chadderton, a famous Puritan divine, first 
master of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, is said to 
have been born here." The site is now occupied 
by saw-mills. Bent Hall, in the same neighbour- 



occurred already with other lords of Old- 
ham, for in 1351 Adam de Chadderton and 
Alice his wife claimed a messuage and 
land against Richard de Langley and Joan 
his wife, William son of Robert de Rad- 
cliffe, Anabil de Tetlow, and Thomas de 
Parr, and though the first writ was dis- 
missed for the error of questus est instead 
of questi tunt the suit continued ; Duchy 
of Lane. Assize R. i (July), m. 4 d.; (Lent), 
m. 2, 2 d. One Hugh de Tetlow had 
been seised of the disputed tenement, 
which on his death descended to Joan 
de Langley as daughter of Jordan, elder 
brother of Hugh ; but while Joan was a 
minor in the duke's wardship, and living 
at Pontefract, Adam de Tetlow, a younger 
brother, took possession, and granted to 
Adam and Alice, the plaintiffs. On the 
other hand it was said that Adam de 
Tetlow had been in seisin during Hugh's 
lifetime, and had granted it to one Robert 
de Oldham for life, and after his death to 
the plaintiffs. 

At Easter 1354. the Langleys claimed 
common of pasture in 8 acres of moor and 
pasture, as pertaining to Joan's inheritance 
(a messuage and 20 acres) in Oldham, 
against Richard son of Richard de Tet- 
low, Adam son of Alice de Pussh", and 
Richard de Oldham, lord of the town, who 
had made an approvement of the waste. 
Sufficient pasture had been left, but the 
Langleys had previously had greater free- 
dom of entry by a certain lane, in which 
Richard de Oldham had made a lydiate 
{lideata} and a ditch to shut out the beasts 
coming there. Though the lydiate could 
ibe opened at will a certam amount of 
injury had been caused, and the defendants 
made fines of mark, mark, and 10*. 
respectively. One security for Richard de 
Tetlow was Richard de Cudworth ; Duchy 
of Lane. Assize R. 3, m. 6 d. A decree 
respecting common of pasture in favour 
of Robert Langley was made in 1440 
.against Robert Tetlow ; Dep. Keeper's 
Rep. xxxiii, App. 39. 

This tenement continued to descend 
-with Agecroft until 1561, when, on Sir 
"Robert Langley's death, it became part of 
vthe portion of his daughter Dorothy, who 
married James Ashton of Chadderton ; the 
deed of settlement speaks of 'manors, 
messuages, lands, &c., in Oldham and 
Crompton ' ; Raines D. (Chet. Lib.), bdle. 
4, no. 63 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
24, m. 3 ; 47, m. 93. 

The Ashton family held already a con- 
siderable estate in Oldham, and in 1612 
James Ashton died seised of ten 
messuages, 100 acres of land, fee,, in Old- 
ham and Glodwick, by inheritance from 
his father Edmund, and of twenty-four 
messuages, &c, of his wife's inheritance ; 
the former were held partly of John 
Cudworth by knight's service and a rent 
of 5</., and partly of the king (for the 
Knights Hospitallers) in socage by a rent 
of (>\d. ; the latter were held together 
with lands, &c., in Alkrington, Tonge, 
and Crompton, by the twentieth part of a 
knight's fee and yd. rent ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 225, 230. 



Richard Ashton purchased a messuage, 
&c., in 1596 from George Towers, 
William and John Aspinall ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle 59, m. 237. This land 
was that called Hardshaw, as may be seen 
by comparing its rent of zid. with that 
in the Inq. p.m. of Richard Ashton; (Rec. 
Soc.), i, 145. 

51 Edmund Tetlow of Coldhurst con- 
tributed to the subsidy of 1523 ; Shaw, 
Oldham, 15. The will of John Tetlow 
of Coldhurst, 1598-9, mentions Ellen his 
wife, Edmund, George, John, and Anne 
Tetlow his children, Abraham Taylor and 
Ambrose Jackson his sons-in-law ; ibid. 
41. Edmund Tetlow of Coldhurst was a 
freeholder in 1600, and contributed to the 
subsidy in 1622 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 248, 157. In 1639, on a 
complaint being made of the destruction 
of the timber, &c., on the moors of Old- 
ham and Crompton, he stated that he and 
his ancestors were seised of a capital 
messuage called Coldhurst and about 60 
acres of land ; also of two messuages in 
Crompton and 40 acres, with rights of 
common on Crompton Moor, Greenacres 
Moor, Edge Moor, North Moor, and 
Hollinwood, but not on Sholver Moor. 
He was not aware that the king was the 
owner of the soil or had ever granted 
leases of the commons ; Shaw, 77-81. In 
the following year Edmund Tetlow the 
elder and Edmund Tetlow the younger 
sold the Great Meadow near Fogg 
Lane for a poor's field ; Char. Com. Rep. 
(1826), xvi, 227. 

Anne, the eldest of three daughters and 
co-heirs of Edmund Tetlow, in 1709 
married Edmund Radcliffe, and though 
she died without issue her inheritance 
appears to have descended to the Rad- 
cliffe's heirs ; E. Butterworth, Oldham (ed. 
1 8 5 6), 45 . Coldhurst itself, however, was 
sold to Sir Ralph Assheton, and descended 
like Werneth until 1804, when Lord 
Ribblesdale sold it to Abraham Crompton 
of High Crompton ; ibid. 34. 

M Lanes, and Ches.Antiq. Soc.viii, 149- 
50. A rent of $\d. was payable, which 
ceased to be demanded about eighty years 
ago. 

53 Of the earlier generations of this 
family some account will be found under 
Crompton. 

Robert son of Adam de Impetres, by 
Margaret daughter of Richard del Lees, 
claimed a messuage and lands in Oldham 
in 1351 and 1352; and as Adam de 
Chadderton warranted, and Thomas son 
of Thomas de Chadderton was summoned, 
it is probable the land was in or near 
Lees Hall ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. i, 
m. 5 d.; 2, m. 8. 

68a Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. vii, 31. 
In 1537 Thomas the heir had married 
Joan daughter of John Tetlow (who 
survived him), and lands, &c., in Lees 
and Crompton were then settled upon 
him by his grandparents. He died 16 
Aug. 1572 holding Lees of Ralph Cud- 
worth by the sixtieth part of a knight's 
fee and a rent of $d. a year ; George his 
son and heir was twenty-four years of 



age. The estate had been increased by 
messuages in Manchester ; ibid, xiii, 7. 
His will is printed in Piccope's Wills 
(Chet. Soc.), ii, 130 ; to his son Lawrence 
he left 40*. a year from his inheritance at 
Foulfyn in Staffordshire till the son should 
have an income of 100 marks a year 
from benefices. The Manchester burgages 
seem to have been acquired in 1561 ; 
Mancb. Ct. Lett Rec. i, 63, 149. 

George Chadderton died in 1606 hold- 
ing lands in Staffordshire as well as in 
Crompton, Oldham, and Manchester. He 
had in 1576 espoused Mary daughter of 
John Kuerden, who survived him ; they 
had several children, the heir being the 
son Thomas, fourteen years of age on 25 
Sept. 1606 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 62-4. 

Thomas Chadderton contributed to the 
subsidy in 1622 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 157. Two of his leases, 
dated 1621 and 1662, are given in Shaw, 
Oldham, 75, 76 ; a day's 'shearing' was 
required of the tenants. 

A pedigree of three generations 
Thomas, George, Thomas was recorded 
in 1613 ; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 5. Alice, 
co-heiress of George Chadderton, married 
John Greenhalgh of Brandlesholme, but 
died without issue. 

54 The northerly portion of the estate 
passed to the family of Lingard ; a large 
part of it is said to have been sold to the 
ancestors of the Cleggs of Bent. In 1 747 
a third of the estate was held by Thomas 
Percival of Royton. The hall and land 
around it became vested in the family of 
Lyon, of whom were Henry Lyon (living 
1681), John Lyon (1702), and Nicholas 
John Lyon (1747). Thehall was in 1752 
owned by James Bowden ; in 1765 by 
John Winterbottom, who died in 1794 ; it 
was then sold to John Lees of Werneth, 
and in 1856 was held by the executors of 
James Whitehead ; from E. Butterworth's 
OIdAam(ed. 1856), 30. Canon Raines in 
Notitia Cestr. ii, 116, gives a somewhat 
different account of the descent. It appears, 
however, that Thomas Chadderton sold 
Lees Hall and his whole estate to John 
Plumpton of Warrington. In 1681 there 
was a suit respecting it, under the pur- 
chaser's will, between Henry Lyon and 
Sarah his wife (widow of John Plumpton), 
William Denton and Mary his wife, and 
William King v. John Davy, clerk, and 
Susan his wife ; Exch. Dep. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), 59. 

William Denton resided at Lees Hall 
in 1684; Shaw, op. cit. 193. In 1696 
Henry Lyon of Lees Hall was an overseer, 
and in that year ' old Mrs. Lyon of Lees ' 
was buried ; ibid. 217,218. 

55 Lawrence Chadderton was the 
younger son of Thomas Chadderton, who 
died in 1572, and is mentioned in his 
father's will, as already stated. He is 
usually said to have been born in 1536, 
but did not enter Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, until 1562. He would probably 
be about fourteen at that time. He em- 
braced Protestantism, to the great scandal 
of his father, who is said to have sent 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



hood, was at one time occupied as a hat manufac- 
tory. 56 

HORSEDGE, like Coldhurst, belonged to the 
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. 67 The tenants 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

were families named Taylor M and Hopwood. 49 The 
inheritance of the former passed to the Nuttalls and 
Radclyffes of Foxdenton. Whetstone Hill and Derker 
lie to the north-east of Horsedge. 60 



him a shilling as his whole share of the 
inheritance ; if so, the father must have 
relented very quickly. He was appointed 
master of Emmanuel in 1584, took part 
in the Hampton Court Conference in 
1604, and in the translation of the Bible 
in 1611. He resigned the mastership in 
1622, and died in 1640. He wrote a 
treatise on Justification ; see Diet. Nat. 
Biog. 

56 It is named by Bishop Gastrell in 
1717, and was taxed for nineteen windows 
in 1728 ; Shaw, op. cit. 293. 

Edwin Butterworth (Oldham, 32) states 
that Bent Hall was in 1747 the property of 
the Rev. Samuel Sidebottom, who married 
Mary daughter of Alexander Radclyffe of 
Foxdenton ; and that in 1758 it was 
occupied by John Clegg, hat manufacturer. 
The owner in 1856 was John Rowbottom. 

An illustrated sheet pedigree of the 
Cleggs of Bent House was issued in 1840 ; 
Richard Clegg son of James, son of the 
above-named John, being the head of the 
family. The Cleggs acquired Westwood, 
formerly the property of the Whitehead 
family ; E. Butterworth, op. cit. 48, 49. 

There was also a Lower Bent Hall, 
owned by a family named Taylor ; Butter- 
worth, ut sup. 

67 This appears from the inquisition cited 
below. The land lay on the north side 
of High Street and Yorkshire Street, and 
the name is preserved in Horsedge Street. 
There were seven crosses around it, and it 
was deposed in 1620 : 'I did very well 
know seven crosses called Seven Holy 
Crosses, and also called St. John's Crosses, 
to be bounds and meres at Horsedge lands. 
I did know them all, either broken or 
whole, and do yet know the places where 
every of them stood. As first, a stone 
cross stood at the end of Greenacres Moor ; 
the next, a wooden cross, stood at Hors- 
edge stile ; the next, a stone cross, upon 
the north-east side of the Edge, called the 
Cross under the Edge ; the next, a wooden 
cross in Grimby, Called Grimby Cross ; the 
next, a stone cross, called Pighill Stile 
Cross ; the next, a wooden cross, in the 
Town end ; and the last and seventh, a 
stone cross in the end of the Shoot, being, 
as I judge, very mean of distance from the 
first cross of Greenacres moor with the 
rest of all the crosses, which be one from 
another of equal distance ' ; from the will 
of John Newton, collier, printed in Old- 
ham Notes and Gleanings, ii, ui,from the 
Raines MSS. xxiv, 88. 

58 Horsedge Hall was to the north-east 
of the church. The inquisition of John 
Cudworth (1556) already cited shows 
rents from John Taylor of Over Horsedge 
and John Hopwood of Nether Horsedge. 

John Taylor died in 1574 holding land 
called Redleigh of Robert Tetlow and 
John Cudworth by fealty and <)d. rent, 
an acre at Okeden in Chadderton of the 
three lords of the town ; also the capital 
messuage called Horsedge in Oldham with 
40 acres of land, &c., of Queen Elizabeth 
by fealty and -j\d. rent. The inquisition 
was not taken until 1619 by which time 
the Hospitallers' lands had been granted to 
the Earl of Derby and Edmund Taylor, 
the son and heir, was sixty-seven years of 
age ; his son Edmund was living ; Lanes, 
nq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 
'53- 



Edmund Taylor in 1596 granted a 
kase of a close called the Pighill (J acre) 
in Horsedge to Roger Taylor, clothier, at 
a rent of 5*. and a day's ' shearing ' in har- 
vest ; 40 marks was paid ; Shaw, Oldham, 
39. Edmund Taylor was returned as a 
freeholder in 1600 ; Mite. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 247. 

In 1622 Robert Tetlow of Werneth 
and Edmund Taylor of Horsedge claimed 
an estate in 'so much of the open land 
called Oldhulme at Oldham as it is 
divided within the crosses,' as also wastes, 
&c., within Oldham, Werneth, and Green- 
acres. They wished to inclose and im- 
prove the lands, and had agreed with the 
freeholders to allow them reasonable 
shares, but the lords of the adjoining 
manors of Chadderton and Royton ob- 
jected ; Shaw, Oldham, 59. 

In the time of Charles I it was stated 
that Edmund Taylor, who had leased his 
capital messuage and demesne lands of 
Horsedge, John his son, John Heap 
(brother-in-law of the latter), and John 
Jackson had broken down a stable belong- 
ing to Horsedge Hall, taken the tenant's 
cows and horses kept there, and driving 
them into Derbyshire, sold them at Ash- 
bourne Fair. John Bretland, who had 
married Katherine daughter of Richard 
Nuttall another daughter was Elizabeth, 
perhaps the wife of John Taylor became 
surety for them, and they were acquitted, 
but 35 had to be paid as compensation 
to the tenant. The value of Horsedge 
was given as 30 a year ; Duchy of 
Lane. Plead, ccix, B, 26. See also Lanes, 
and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
ii, 249. 

Elizabeth, widow of John Taylor, in 
1649 compounded for her husband's 
delinquency ; he had assisted the king in 
the ' first war ' ; Cal. of Com. for Com- 
pounding, iii, 2043. She was concerned in 
a dispute as to the tithes of Horsedge in 
1659 ; Exch. Dep. 32. 

In 1663 an agreement was made as to 
the purchase of a third part of Horsedge 
Hall, with its common of pasture, tur- 
bary, mines of coal, slate, &c., by Eliza- 
beth Taylor, widow, from her daughter 
Katherine wife of Adam Bankes of Wigan, 
mercer ; it appears that Katherine was 
daughter and co-heir of John Taylor son of 
Edmund; Shaw, op. cit. 161. A further 
agreement in 1668 shows that the other 
daughters, then unmarried, were named 
Elizabeth and Eleanor ; ibid. 170. Eliza- 
beth soon afterwards married William 
Langley of Whittle ; ibid. 173, 175. By 
1674 Eleanor had married Thomas Nuttall 
of Tottington ; 181. William Langley of 
Horsedge was buried at Oldham in 1689 ; 
204. In 1697 Elizabeth Langley, widow, 
mortgaged her moiety of Horsedge ; 219, 
229,232. In 1705 William Langley of 
Netherwood Hall, Darley, son and heir of 
Elizabeth, sold his moiety of Horsedge to 
Thomas Nuttall of Tottington, who thus 
acquired the whole ; 240. By his will, 
dated 14 Mar. 1726-7, he gave his estates 
to his granddaughter Margaret daughter of 
Adam Bagshaw by Margaret, only child 
of the testator ; with remainder to his 
kinsman Thomas son of William Langley 
of Thornscow, Yorkshire. He also left 
money for the poor of Oldham and the 
school there ; ibid. 286-89. Margaret, 

99 



the heiress, married in 1731 Robert Rad- 
clyffe of Foxdenton, and conveyed Hors- 
edge to that family 5 Burke, Commoners, iv, 
403. 

Canon Raines states that the Langleys 
continued to have a moiety of the estate, 
which was in 1 849 the property of Joseph 
Jones of Walshaw House ; Notitia Cestr. 
ii, 116. Some Horsedge deeds from 
Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxiv and 
xxxvii, are printed in Oldham Notes and 
Gleanings, ii, 164, 165, 169 ; iii, 29. 

69 In 1517 James son and heir of John 
Hopwood of Horsedge sold to Edmund 
Ashton of Chadderton a close of land 
called the Pighill, near Horsedge Moor ; 
and a little later sold other lands, includ- 
ing Walshaw, Lower Raude, and the 
Spring ; Raines D. (Chet. Lib.), bdle. 4, 
no. 49-57. 

It has been stated above that James 
Ashton in 1612 held lands, formerly the 
Hospitallers', by a rent of 6 \d. The Rad- 
cliffes of Foxdenton held another portion 
by a rent of ^d. 

Edmund Hopwood and Joan his wife 
in 1570 and 1587 sold small pieces of 
land to Ralph Walker ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 32, m. 13 ; 49, m. n. 

There was in the i8th century a family 
of Hopwood at Bent Brow ; E. Butter- 
worth, Oldham (ed. 1856), 33. At Lower 
Horsedge, Greenacres, and Swineclough 
lived the Ogden family, of whom came 
Samuel Ogden, a celebrated Nonconformist 
minister, ejected from Mackworth in 
1622 ; he died in 1697 ; ibid. 55 ; Diet. 
Nat. Biog. 

The New House in Greenacres was, with 
other property, granted on lease by Isaac 
Ogden in 1698 to Katherine Percival of 
Royton ; Manch. Free Lib. D. 108. 

Edmund Ogden in 1702 purchased from 
Henry Lyon, John Lyon, Isaac Lyon, and 
Sara his wife two messuages and lands 
with appurtenances in Crompton and 
Oldham; Hulme D. 116-17. 

60 Whetstone hill is one of the most 
ancient homesteads in the township. The 
Kershaw family have been seated here a 
considerable period ' ; E. Butterworth, Old- 
ham, 60. Dirtcar, now Derker, was 
owned by John Buckley in 1758, and by 
James Greaves in 1856 ; ibid. 42. 

Broadbent's and Hopkin Fold were other 
houses in the vicinity. Some Hobkin 
deeds from the Raines MSS. xxiv, are 
printed in Oldham Notes and Gleanings, ii, 
171, 181 ; they relate the marriage of 
Edmund son of Edward Hobkin, 1526-9. 
Richard Hobkin of Oldham contributed 
to a subsidy in 1523 for lands; Shaw, 
Oldham, 15. A settlement of two 
messuages, &c., in Oldham was made by 
Edward Hopkin in 1537, Margaret and 
Edmund Hopkin being tenants for life ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 1 1, m. 59. 
For disputes as to their lands see Duchy 
Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 
83-7, 216-18. Edmund Hobkin occurs 
in 1552; Shaw, Oldham, 19. He sold 
four messuages, &c., to Thomas Radcliffe 
in 1556 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
1 6, m. 36. Arthur Hopkin of Hopkin 
Fold in 1649 leased or mortgaged the 
Great Hardfield to Henry Wrigley of 
Chamber; Shaw, op. cit. no. Hop- 
kin Green was formerly near Oldham 
Church. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Hollinwood, 61 Hathershaw, 6 * and other lands in the 
southern part of Werneth have left no trace in the 
records. Hathershaw Hall is a long low two-story 
stone building dating from the end of the 1 6th 
century, but with its eastern end rebuilt a century 
later, and what remains is probably but a fragment. 
It is divided into five cottages, and stands back from 
the road, facing south with an open space in front, in 
the midst of mills and small house property. The 
older portion is about 54 ft. in length with a slightly 
projecting wing at the west end, and is described as 




OLD PLAN OF OLDHAM 



having quite gone to decay in l826. 63 There have 
been sufficient repairs since to keep the building 
habitable, but nearly all trace of its original appearance 
has gone. There is a built-up stone doorway with 
a moulded head at one end, and a three-light stone 
mullioned window on the first floor at the other, but 
all the other windows are modern, and the building is 
of little or no architectural interest. The east end 
appears to have been rebuilt in 1 694,** and is loftier 
than the older part, with quoins at the angles and 
square-headed two-light windows with centre mullion 
and transom. The win- 
dows are of good design, 
3 ft. 6 in. wide, and 5 ft. 
9 in. high, with double 
chamfered heads and 
jambs, and placed with an 
almost 18th-century re- 
gularity. The floor-line 
is marked by a string- 
course, below which the 
walling is of large square- 
coursed blocks, and above 
of rough narrow-coursed 
stones. This portion of 
the building, which is 
about 38 ft. long, con- 
sists of two cottages, in 
one of which the mul- 
lions and transoms of the 
windows have been cut 
away and modern case- 
ments inserted. Two of 
the upper windows are 
built up, and a new door- 

<\\ ~te Wa y ^ as k een ma de to 
CAxfce< the second cottage. The 
roofs of the two portions 
of the building are of 
different levels, and are 
covered with old grey 
stone slates, with stone 
ridge tiles. The end ga- 
bles yet preserve their 
ball ornaments, though the 
copings are gone. Some 
of the old stone orna- 
ments of the house now 
lie in front of one of the 
cottages in a small in- 
closed garden. 

Clarksfield, on the eas- 
tern border, was held of 
the Cudworths by the 
Ash tons of Ashton-under- 
Lyne ; it descended to 
the Booths. 65 It was in 
1625 purchased by the 



81 Hollinwood was formerly part of 
Chadderton ; Shaw, Oldham, 253. Hol- 
linwood Green, Oak, and Lyme House 
are noticed by E. Butterworth, op. cit. 49, 
50. 

62 Hathershaw Hall was the residence 
of the Sandfords in the 1 7th century, of 
whom Edward Sandiford was a member 
of the classis in 1646 ; in the next cen- 
tury it had been acquired by the Side- 
hottoms, and Alexander Radclyffe Side- 



bottom was the owner in 1856 ; ibid. 
35. The name is said to be a corruption 
of Hazleshaw, mentioned above as belong- 
ing to the Aspenhalghs and Ashtons. 
Copster Hill, Pauletts, and Hollins are 
also noticed ; ibid. 51, 52. 
68 Jas. Butterworth, Oldham. 

64 Lanes, and Chet. Antiq. Soc. viii. 

65 Sir John de Ashton, who died in 
1428, held a messuage and land called 
Copthurst ; Lanct. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), 

IOO 



ii, 22. Coppedhurst has been mentioned 
in a previous note regarding the Tetlow 
family. In 1507 the same was said to be 
held of John Cudworth, as cousin and 
heir of William son of Adam de Oldham, 
by the service of zs. 6d. and an iron 
arrow; ibid, ii, 138. The service seems 
to have been compounded for, and is not 
mentioned in the inquest after the death 
of George Booth in 1543 ; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. vii, 7. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



occupier, John Lees, and has 
descended in the family to the 
present time. 65 The Cud- 
worths also had the whole or 
part of Greenacres. 67 

Roundthorn was part of the 
estate of Sir Ralph Assheton 
of Middleton, and on his 
death in 1716 passed to Sir 
Nathaniel Curzon of Kedle- 
ston, in right of his wife Mary, 
a co-heir of Sir Ralph's, and 
descended to Earl Howe. 68 
Waterloo, formerly Sheep- 
washes, was in the 1 7th and 
1 8th centuries the residence of the Brierley family. 6 




LEES. Argent tivo 
bars raguly bet-ween three 
crosslets Jitchy in chief 
and a falcon belled in 
base all gules. 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

GLODWICK, another of the ancient divisions of 
Oldham, 70 came by 1301 into the possession of Hugh 
de Atherton, 71 and descended to the Nevills of 
Hornby. 72 The later history is uncertain. In the 
1 6th century the Radcliffes of Foxdenton paid the 
chief rent of T,S. id. due to the duchy, but the Standish 
and Ashton families also had shares." During the 
1 7th century the estate appears to have been sold in 
parcels. 74 The duchy rent of 3/. \d. was in 1779 
paid by the Rev. Richardson. 75 

SHOLFER was in 1212 found to have been 
held by Ralph Tagun as 4 oxgangs of land ; it 
was part of the Nevill estate then in the king's 
hand. 76 By 1 246 it seems to have become divided ; 77 
but in 1324. Robert (or Roger) de Ashton paid 
the chief rent due for it, holding in right of his wife, 



66 E. Butterworth, Oldham (ed. 1856), 
38-40. The family were actively engaged 
in the business of the district as bankers, 
cotton spinners, and coal owners. John 
Lees of Fairfield in 1824 built Salem 
Moravian chapel and schools at Clarks- 
field. There is a pedigree in Burke, 
Landed Gentry Lees of Thurland Castle, 
near Kirkby Lonsdale. 

6 ' Greenacres is mentioned as early as 
1266, when Margery widow of Jordan de 
la Leye claimed dower, a messuage, and 
30 acres there against Richard de la Leye. 
Margery had a son Adam ; Curia Regis 
R. 176, m. 5 d. 

In the inquisition of Ralph Cudworth, 
above cited, Edmund Ashton is stated to 
have paid a rent of 2 1 \d. for land in Green- 
acres in 1558. Some was bought from 
George Chadderton in 1537 ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. n, m. 43. 'In 1702 a 
Mr. Rainshaw possessed much property 
here, which in 1725 was in the hands of 
Mr. Rothwell, and in 1752 of the Rev. 
James Rothwell, vicar of Deane ' ; E. 
Butterworth, op. cit. 41, 58. 

Dowry Mill and Wellyhole were in 
Greenacres. The latter of these was 
purchased from John Mayall by Edmund 
Ogden in 1748 ; ibid. 62. 

68 Ibid. 44. Curzon Street is on the 
east of this Roundthorn ; there was 
another place of the same name near 
Glodwick ; information of Mr. S. Andrew. 

69 Ibid. 56. The Brierleys or Brearleys 
were also seated at Barrowshaw, which 
became the property of the Radcliffes of 
Royton ; ibid. 6 1 . The last-named family 
also purchased Priest Hill ; ibid. 45. 

70 In 1 21 2 Adam de Glodwick held two 
oxgangs of land of Montbegon and two of 
Nevill ; Inq. and Extents, i, 63, 64. The 
latter portion escheated to the Crown, and 
about ten years later Agnes de Glodwick 
should have been in ward to the king in 
respect of two oxgangs held by a rent of 
i<)\d. and by finding the sixth part of a 
judge; ibid. 128. Jordan de Glodwick 
gave land in Oldham to his son Richard ; 
id. rent was due to the king ; Hopwood 
Chart. 

> l Final Cone, i, 210; a fine (1307) 
between Alexander Atherton, plaintiff, and 
Hugh de Atherton and Joan his wife, de- 
forciants, of a messuage, 100 acres of land, 
&c., in Oldham and Glodwick. 

In 1292 Joan relict of Adam de 
Holdene was in possession of a messuage 
and 100 acres of land in Oldham, inherited 
from her mother Agnes, who had married 
one Ralph de Astone (or Ashton). It is 
just possible that this Agnes was identical 
with Agnes the heiress in 1222-6. Being 
left a widow she married Jordan de 



Crompton, and Joan was their daughter. 
Later a claim to the estate was made on 
behalf of Jordan's son Adam, then a 
minor, probably the son of a later marriage, 
whom the father wished to benefit out of 
his former wife's estate. The jury, how- 
ever, held that Jordan had never been 
seised as of fee, so that Joan's claim was 
upheld ; Assize R. 408, m. 7, 1 2. This 
Joan seems afterwards to have married 
Hugh de Atherton, for the claim of Adam 
de Crompton was prosecuted in 1301 
against Hugh de Atherton and Joan his 
wife, who was seised when he married 
her; Assize R. 419, m. \^d. 

Hugh de Atherton in i 324 paid 31. I id. 
for two oxgangs in Glodwick ; Duchy of 
Lane ; Rentals and Surv. 379, m. 13. 
In other versions the rent is given as 
3*. id. or 3*. 4.d. ; Lanes. Inq. and Extents, 
ii, 105. Richard de Oldham, clerk, and 
others, were in 1343 charged with having 
broken into Hugh de Atherton's houses in 
Glodwick ; Assize R. 430, m. 32 d. For 
this Atherton family see further under 
Hindley and Aintree. 

72 In 1 346 Sir Robert de Nevill was 
holding two oxgangs in Glodwick by the 
service of 31. zd. rent, puture of the 
Serjeants, and double rent at death ; Add. 
MS. 32103, fol. 146. 

In the following year the estate in 
Oldham and Glodwick 3 messuages, 140 
acres of land, &c. was settled by Sir 
Robert de Nevill of Hornby and Joan his 
wife (whose inheritance it was) upon his 
son John and Isabel his wife, with remain- 
ders to John's brothers ; Final Cone, ii, 
12$. As a result of this a claim was 
made in 1363 by John de Nevill and 
Isabel his wife against Sir John (? Robert) 
de Nevill of Hornby, and Joan his wife ; 
De Banco R. 416, m. 396 d. 

7" The Nevill estates passed to the 
Harringtons, and Sir William de Harring- 
ton is recorded to have paid the chief rent 
in 1378 ; Harl. MS. 2085, fol. 442. In 
1445-6 William de Strangeways held the 
two oxgangs of land in Glodwick in socage, 
rendering 31. zd. yearly, in right of his 
wife, who held by conjoint feoffment ; 
Duchy of Lane. Knights' Fees, bdle. 2, 
no. 20. 

In 1526 the Radcliffes of Foxdenton 
paid 31. as the chief rent due for Chadder- 
ton and Glodwick (Shaw, Oldbam, 16) ; 
but about the end of the century Richard 
Radcliffe was responsible for 31. zd. rent 
for Glodwick; Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1868), 
i, 447. The inquisitions are not clear. 
Thomas Radcliffe, who died in 1567, held 
fifty messuages, &c., in Oldham of the 
queen, as of the late Priory of St. John of 
Jerusalem, by a rent of ^.d. ; Duchy of 

IOI 



Lane. Inq. p.m. xi, 25. In 1589 the 
tenure was stated more in detail ; four 
messuages, &c., in Oldham, were held of 
the queen as of the dissolved priory by a 
rent of 4</. ; another messuage, &c., was 
held of John Cudworth by a rent of $d. ; 
the rest of the lands, &c. in Oldham were 
held of the queen as of her Duchy of 
Lancaster, by a rent of 6d. ; but of whom 
the lands in Glodwick were held the jury 
did not know; ibid, iii, 13. William 
Radcliffe, the disinherited, held two 
messuages in Glodwick of the queen in 
socage by a rent of 6d. ; ibid, xv, 23. 
Lands in Glodwick were included in a 
mortgage or sale by William Radcliffe in 
1627 ; the tenants were Pollit, Heap, 
and others ; Shaw, op. cit. 73. John 
Pollit in 1666 sold his interest in the 
lease to Edward Taylor ; ibid. 166. 

Edward Standish of Standish died in 
1610 holding six messuages, 60 acre* of 
land, &c., in Glodwick of the king in 
socage, by 1 1 ^d. rent ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 190. 

James Ashton of Chadderton, who died 
in 1612, as above stated, held messuages 
and lands in Glodwick; ibid, i, 230. 

" 4 Swineclough was leased in 1570 by 
James Ashton and Dorothy his wife to 
Adam Ogden ; it had lately been occupied 
by his father Adam Ogden, and the new 
lease was for the lives of Adam, Anne his 
wife, and Adam his son ; Raines D. 
(Chet. Lib.). It was sold in 1670 to 
Adam Ogden by Edmund Ashton ; E. 
Butterworth, op. cit. 37. The Dawsons 
and other owners of land at Glodwick are 
also named ; and others, including Andrew 
of Lowside, at pp. 54, 56. 

75 Duchy of Lane. Rentals, bdle. 14, 
no. 25 m. 

76 Lanes. Inq. and Extents, i, 64 ; the 
thegnage rent in later times is usually 
given as 3.1. zd. 

Ten years earlier, Maud widow of Ralph 
Tagun made an agreement as to her 
dower with various tenants in Sholver ; 
Final Cone, i, 20. Alward Tagun was on 
the jury for Salfordshire in 1 242-3 ; Inq. 
and Extents, i, 153. 

77 In 1246 Andrew de Sholver com- 
plained that the Abbot of Roche and 
others had disseised him of his free pasture 
of Sholver; Assize R. 404, m. i. In 
another plea respecting a mine Andrew 
was joined by Alward Tagun and Roger 
de Pilkington ; ibid. m. 2. The three 
occur in other suits respecting lands in 
Sholver ; ibid. m. 7, 9. 

Margery widow of Geoffrey de Chatham 
in 1275 claimed dower in a messuage and 
plough-land in Sholver against Geoffrey de 
Bracebridge ; De Banco R. 9, m. 32 d. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



it being of the inheritance of Gilbert de Hulme. 78 
In 1346 it was held in moieties by Richard de Pil- 
kington and Cecily de Hulme. 79 From the Hulmes 
it descended to the Prestwich family, 80 who held it 
till the middle of the 1 7th century. It was sold to 
various persons about 165 7." 

Count Hill, 8 * Polden, 83 Crowley, 84 Watershed- 
dings, Barrowshaw, Broadbent, Peacote, Fullwood, 
and Hodgeclough, lie in this portion of the town- 
ship. 

The growth of the town at the beginning of last 
century induced some of the inhabitants to procure 
an Act of Parliament, 1802-3, for the inclosure 
of the moors ; the commissioners appointed had by 
1807 completed the division of the lands among 
the landowners and occupiers. 84 

The government of the town ap- 
BOROUGH pears to have been formerly in the 
hands of the vestry or the county 
magistrates. 86 In 1826 a board of Improvement 
Commissioners was constituted, who governed the 
town for twenty-two years. 87 During this time the 
Reform Act was passed, and in 1832 Oldham was 



made a parliamentary borough, the limits for this 
purpose including the whole chapelry. Two members 
were assigned to it. One of the first elected was 
the celebrated William Cob- 
bett, who represented the 
place till his death in I835. 88 
The ratepayers becoming dis- 
contented with the adminis- 
tration of affairs by the com- 
missioners, 89 petitioned for 
incorporation, and a charter 
was granted on 13 June 
1849, constituting the inhabi- 
tants of the township a muni- 
cipal borough ; 90 the town 
was divided into eight wards, 
each having an alderman and 
three councillors. 91 William 
Jones, a representative of 
Werneth Ward, was the first 
mayor. 91 A town hall had been built in 1 840 ; the 
present town hall succeeded in 1879. One of the 
first acts of the new council was to create a police 




BOROUGH OF OLDRAM. 
Sable a cheveron itrvccted 
and plain cotised or be- 
tween three oivls argent, 
on a chief engrailed of 
the second a rose between 
two annulets gules. 



Lands in Sholver were among the moiety 
of the Trafford Estate given to Geoffrey 
de Chadderton before 1278 ; Final Cone. 
i, 153. In 1290, Ellen widow of Geoffrey 
de Bracebridge claimed lands in Oldham 
against Alexander de Pilkington and 
Geoffrey de Chadderton ; De Banco R. 81, 
m. 64. In 1291 his demesne lands in 
Sholver were among the places named in 
the grant of free warren to Roger de 
Pilkington; Chart. R. 84, m. 10, 41. 
From suits of the same time or a year 
later it appears that Geoffrey de Brace- 
bridge had held a messuage, 60 acres of 
land, &c. in Sholver, which should have 
descended to his sister Christiana, wife of 
William son of Robert de Stanringes ; 
but Geoffrey de Chadderton and Roger de 
Pilkington (perhaps as heirs of Chetham) 
had taken possession of the messuage and 
lands, Adam de Impetres had refused the 
i^d. rent, and Robert Attehill the rent of 
four barbed arrows. Geoffrey and Roger 
showed a charter from the plaintiffs 
releasing all claim to the tenements in dis- 
pute, and though it was repudiated, the 
jury decided for the defendants, ordering 
William to gaol because he had denied his 
deed. Afterwards he made fine by two 
marks ; Assize R, 407, m. 2 ; 408, m. 12. 

Margery the niece of Geoffrey de 
Bracebridge was in 1305 plaintiff and 
defendant in several pleas regarding her 
uncle's lands in Oldham ; in one case the 
plaintiffs included Geoffrey de Chadderton 
the elder, Roger de Pilkington, Adam de 
Impetres, &c. ; Assize R. 420, m. 8 ; 
also m. i, 8, 9. 

In 1317-8 Geoffrey de Chadderton 
granted to Gilbert son of Cecily daughter 
of William le Bagher land in Sholver 
which he had had of the gift of Adam de 
Impetres and William son of Henry de 
Oldham, with remainder to Thomas the 
brother of Gilbert ; Hyde of Denton D. 
Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 153, &c. 

Robert son of Adam de Impetres was a 
claimant of lands in Oldham in July 
1351 ; Duchy of Lane. Assize R. i, m. 
5 A 

' 8 Duchy of Lane. Rentals and Surv. 
379, m. 13, where the tenant is called 
Robert de Ashton and the rent given as 
Us. &d, ; and Lanes. Inq. and Extents, ii, 
105, where the rent is given as 3$. id. 



In 1322 Robert de Ashton and Margery 
his wife (in her right) appeared against 
Gilbert son of Cecily daughter of William 
the Baggere concerning a messuage and 
land in Oldham by writ of Quare cessa- 
iiit per blennlum ; De Banco R. 244, 
m. 45. 

" 9 Add. MS. 32103, fol. 146 ; each 
held one oxgang in socage, by a total rent 
of zs. zd. (for 31. zd.), providing puture, 
and paying a double rent at death. A 
note in the manuscript adds : 'The heirs 
of Richard de Pilkington, 31. zd.' 

80 The Hulme family perhaps bought 
the Pilkington share. In 1445-6 Ralph 
Prestwich held one oxgang in Sholver in 
socage, rendering 31. zd. yearly ; Duchy of 
Lane. Knights' Fees, bdle. 2, no. 20. Thus 
the full rent is paid, though only one 
oxgang is ascribed to him out of the 
original four. 

A dispute as to Sholver occurred in 
1529, Ralph Prestwich being plaintiff; 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 138. 

Edward Prestwich paid the chief rent 
of 3*. zd. in the time of Elizabeth ; 
Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1868), i, 447. In 
1639 Edmund Tctlow of Coldhurst dis- 
claimed any right of common on Sholver 
Moor, conceiving that it belonged to 
Thomas Prestwich, as parcel of his lord- 
ship of Sholver ; Shaw, Oldham, 8 1. 

81 E. Butterworth, op. cit. 42. 

82 In 1657 Joseph Clegg purchased 
land at Count Hill from Sir Thomas Prest- 
wich ; this and other purchases descended 
to Joseph Clegg, who died in 1835 ; ibid. 

83 Palden in Oldham was at one time 
owned by the rectors of Prestwich ; 
L.T.R. Mem. R. 169 (5 Hen. IV), m. 
xii. Later it was ' the abode of a most 
eccentric rustic wit named John Brierley, 
a carrier, who from his long connexion with 
this place was called "Old Poden,' and 
who was buried 17 Mar. 1688'; E. 
Butterworth, op. cit. 62. 

84 Once die residence of a family of 
Byrom ; ibid. 

85 E. Butterworth, 156; 'these pro- 
ceedings were not popular amongst the 
body of the people, for the rights of unre- 
strained pasturage for cattle and fowl, and 
the advantages of the moors as places of 
recreation and exercise, had rendered them 
spots deeply endeared to successive genera- 

102 



tions.' The Acts were 42 Geo. Ill, cap. 
59 ; 43 Geo. Ill, cap. 44 ; a copy of the 
award may be seen at the County Offices, 
Preston. See also an award in 1804 in 
King's Bench Plea R. Trin. 44 Geo. Ill, 
m. 393. Another Act was passed in 
7 Geo. IV, cap. 67. For the moors in 
1640, with a plan, see Oldham Notes and 
Gleanings, ii, 53 ; also 145, 204. 

86 Some of the Constables' accts. (from 
1697) are printed in Shaw's Oldham Notes 
and Gleanings, i, 5, &c. From these it 
appears that they used to attend Salford 
Leet Court. 

W E. Butterworth, Oldham, 227. The 
qualification for assuming the office was 
the possession of property worth 50 or 
the occupation of premises rented at 30 
a year. The commissioners numbered 360 
in 1848. 

The Act (7 Geo. IV, cap. 117) was 
known as the Oldham Police Act. Its 
powers were transferred to the corporation 
in 1850. 

88 Pink and Beaven, Par!. Refre. of 
Lanes. 307. John Morgan Cobbett, son 
of William, represented the borough from 
1852 to 1859 as a Liberal, and from 1874 
till his death in 1877 as a Conservative. 
Sir John Tomlinson Hibbert was member 
from 1862 to 1874, 1877 to 1886, and 
1892 to 1895. John Platt, member from 
1865 to 1872, has a statue near the 
town hall. 

89 In 1847 'a disagreement arose be- 
tween the political parties in the borough 
with regard to the conduct of the police, 
which was then under the management of 
the Commissioners, and the result was the 
introduction, by the magistrates, of the 
county force,' to the dissatisfaction of the 
people ; E. Butterworth, op. cit. (ed. 
1856), 227. 

90 Confirmed by Act of Parliament 1 3 
& 14 Viet. cap. 42 ; the boundaries were 
extended in 1880 by 43 & 44 Viet. cap. 
147. An Improvement Act was obtained 
in 1865, 28 & 29 Viet. cap. 311. 

91 The area of the borough remains un- 
changed, but has been divided into twelve 
wards Clarksfield, Coldhurst, Hartford, 
Hollinwood, Mumps, St. James's, St. 
Mary's, St. Paul's, St. Peter's, Waterhead, 
Werneth, and Westwood. 

92 E. Butterworth, op. cit. 228-9. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



force. 93 In 1854 the gas and water works, established 
by an Act passed in 1825,'* were purchased. 95 The 
paving and lighting of the town were attended to, 
and public baths were opened. 96 

Markets and fairs had grown up, 97 and in 1855 a 
covered market was built by a private company. 
This was in 1865 purchased by the corporation ; the 
fish market, adjoining it, was built in i873. 98 The 
Lyceum, in the hands of trustees, was erected in 1856 
as a library and reading room ; " attached to it is a 
school of science and art, erected in 1864, and en- 
larged in 1 8 8 0-8 1 . 10 In the free library, art gallery, 
and museum is a reference and lending library, and 
an exhibition of pictures is held annually ; the build- 
ing was opened from 1883 to 1887. A school 
board was formed in 1871 ; 101 its offices were built in 
1893. Alexandra Park was opened in i865. 1M 
There are cemeteries at Greenacres, 103 Hollinwood, 
and Chadderton. The Corporation Electric Tram- 
ways and others provide services in the borough, and 
connect it with Middleton and Ashton. 104 

The infirmary was built in 1870, and has been 
several times enlarged. There is a medical mission 
hall. 

The other public buildings include the county 
court, post office, and theatres. 105 The workhouse is 
in Rochdale Road. 

The 6th Volunteer Battalion of the Manchester 
Regiment has its head quarters at Oldham ; 106 there 
is also a squadron of yeomanry. 

The church of ST. MART stands 
CHURCH on high ground east of the market-place 
on an ancient site, but is a modern build- 
ing belonging to the early part of the igth cen- 
tury. In 1476, Ralph Langley, parson of Prest- 
wich, built * a body of a church ' there. This 
seems to impiy the existence of a chancel at that date. 
The indenture between Rector Langley and the 
masons he employed is still preserved in Prestwich 
Church, and sets forth that the building is to be of 
four arches on each side, of hewn stone, 1 2 ft. wide 
between the pillars and 1 8 ft. high, with a width in 
the nave of 20 ft., and a cross arch at each end, that 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

at the west * according for a steeple with two but- 
tresses.' The aisles were to be I o ft. wide, and the 
outer walls 1 2 ft. high, with five windows to the south 
aisle, one at each end and three upon the side, and a 
door and porch. The north aisle was to have four 
windows, one at each end and two in the north wall, 
and a door, but apparently no porch. Four of the 
windows were to be of three lights and the rest of 
two lights, and there were to be three buttresses to 
the south aisle and four to the north. This work, 
with later restorations 108 and additions, apparently 
lasted till the beginning of the last century. 

Illustrations of the old church as it existed towards 
the close of the i8th century 109 show a building con- 
sisting of chancel with north and south chapels, nave 
with north and south aisles, south porch, and west 
tower, and a vestry added at the east end under the 
chancel window in 1777." 

James Butterworth, writing in 1817, says that the 
north wall had been built at three distinct periods, 
the portion eastward from the tower to the fourth 
buttress being the most ancient and containing the 
original windows, * each window on the north side 
being composed of two pointed arches and on the 
south side of three, each compartment of equal height 
divided by mullions and with trefoiled heads.' This 
would tolerably well agree with the description of the 
15th-century work set out in Langley's indenture, 
and presumably refers to his work. It suggests that 
the four three-light windows of the contract were all 
in the south aisle. Butterworth goes on to say, ' from 
the fourth to the fifth and from the fifth to the 
sixth buttress ... are successive enlargements . . . 
other marks of enlargements are visible in the interior, 
which is a plain, simple, unadorned specimen of the 
early (sic) gothic style consisting of a body and two 
side wings or aisles.' The two chapels north and 
south of the chancel, and at the east end of the aisles, 
were clearly added after the completion of Lang- 
ley's nave, which had eastern windows to both of its 
aisles, but whether the chancel was of later or earlier 
date than 1476 is uncertain. The chapel north of 
the chancel was known as the Cudworth chapel, being 



93 E. Butterworth, op. cit. 231. 

94 The first Act was 6 Geo. IV, cap. 
171. The original reservoirs were at 
Strinesdale on the Yorkshire border ; but 
many others have since been formed in 
the hills. 

95 E. Butterworth, op. cit. 233. 

96 Ibid. 231-5. The baths were en- 
larged in 1880. In 1894 new baths were 
built at Waterhead. 

97 A 'sort of market' on Saturday 
evenings, with standings in the main 
streets, was held before 1790 ; but became 
fully established about 1804. The fair 
held on 2 May began probably in the 
1 8th century ; that in Oct. a little later ; 
while that on 8 July began in 1807 ; ibid. 
1 60- 1. At present fairs are held on the 
Thursdays after 2 Feb., 2 May, and 
8 July, and the Wednesday after 1 1 Oc- 
tober. 

98 The Public Health Act 1848 and 
Local Government Acts 1858 and 1861 
were adopted in part in 1863 ; LonJ. Gas. 
4 Sept. 

99 It began in a very humble way in 
1839, a few young men, chiefly of the 
working classes, starting it to provide a 
library, news room, and evening classes. 
In 1845 the institution was removed from 



Queen Street to Clegg Street, near the 
Town Hall. Funds for the present build- 
ing in Union Street were raised by an 
exhibition in 1854. The Butterworth 
Library was presented by James I'latt, 
then president ; Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1868), 
i, 462. 

180 Ibid. Among smaller institutions of a 
similar kind may be named the Glodwick 
Mutual Improvement Society's building, 
erected in 1857, Werneth Mechanics' 
Institute, opened 1867, and the Hollin- 
wood Working Men's Club and Institute, 
built in 1868. The Horsedge Assembly 
Rooms, formerly the Working Man's Hall, 
date from 1844. A Botanical Society 
was formed about 1775 ; Oldham Notes 
and Gleanings^ ii, 46. 

The followers of Robert Owen built a 
Hall of Science, purchased by the Temper- 
ance Society in 1852, and thenceforward 
known as the Temperance Hall. 

101 Land. Gae. 22 Dec. 1871. 

102 For an account of the opening see 
Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1868), i, 461. A 
great boulder, found near Ashton Road, 
is placed in it. 

108 Opened in 1857. 
104 A tramway from Hollinwood to 
Waterhead was opened in 1880, and a 

103 



steam tramway from Oldham to Rochdale 
in 1885. 

104 The first theatre was opened in 
1807 ; the new theatre in 1810. 

lu6 Bodies of volunteers were formed in 
1798, and again in 1803, on fears of 
French invasions ; E. Butterworth, op. cit. 
144, 150. 

10 ? In J. Butterworth's Oldham (ed. 
1817), 20-30, is quoted a local couplet : 
' Old I am Old is my name, 
The oldest church in Christendom.' 

The popular belief was that it should 
be called St. Paul's ; E. Butterworth's 
Oldham (ed. 1856), 70. 

108 20 April 1558, injunction of the 
Bishop of Chester to the residents and 
inhabitants of Oldham to undertake 
(amongst other things) the reparation of 
the said chapel. 

109 Shaw, Oldham Notes and Gleanings, 
ii, 67, 131. A gallery was erected, chiefly 
for the singers, in 17034 ; Shaw, Oldham^ 
235. For other notices of the singers at 
that time see ibid. 225, 245. 

110 In a return for the visitation of the 
Bishop of Chester in 1778 the rector of 
Prestwich mentions Oldham Chapel as a 
* very old edifice.' 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



associated with the Cudworth family of Werneth Hall, 
and contained a marble monument to John Cudworth 
(d. 1652), with a long Latin inscription in the form 
of question and answer. 111 The south chapel was 
associated with the Radcliffe, Ashton, and Horton 
families, and was probably erected by Edmund Ash- 
ton of Chadderton in the beginning of the reign of 
Henry VIII. 11 ' 

The old church was pulled down in 1827, and the 
present structure erected between that date and 
i83o lis in the Gothic style of the period. It con- 
sists of a chancel 20 ft. wide by 14 ft. long, with 
small north and south vestries, nave of six bays 90 ft. 
by 26 ft., with north and south aisles each 17 ft. 
wide, and west tower I oft. square inside with walls 
5 ft. thick. There are galleries on three sides, ap- 
proached by wide stone staircases at the west end of 
the aisles north and south of the tower, and none of 
the fittings of the old building has been preserved. 
It has twice been restored, the last time being in 
1897-9, when many improvements were effected in 
the interior, including the removal of the old square 
pews and the substitution of oak benches, and the 
placing of stalls in the first bay of the nave. The 
exterior is of stone, now gone black, and is of no 
architectural merit. 114 

In the vestry is an old oak chest with three locks, 
without date or inscription, but probably belong- 
ing to the end of the 1 6th or beginning of the I7th 
century. 

An octagonal font, formerly belonging to the 
church, is now in the Oldham Museum. 115 

The churchyard, which is on the north, east, and 
south sides, sloping from west to east, is paved with 
flat gravestones, 116 but is in a neglected condition. 117 

There is a ring of twelve bells, 118 cast by Mears in 
1830. They were rehung in 1897. In 1486 Ralph 
Langley gave three bells to Oldham Chapel, 119 and in 
1553 'four great bells' are recorded. 1 * In 1722 
the four bells were recast, and two new ones added," 1 



but on the erection of the new church it was pro- 
vided with an entirely new ring. 1 " 

The plate consists of a chalice of 1663, inscribed 
with the initials c. H. and A. H., and with the maker's 
mark H N over a bird ; another 1 7th-century chalice ; 
a flagon of 1770, inscribed with date and church- 
wardens' initials, and bearing the mark of Francis 
Crump; a flagon of 1788, inscribed with the date 
1790 and initials of churchwardens, maker's mark 
TW ; a paten of 1789-90, inscribed with the names 
of the minister (Rev. Thos. Fawcett) and church- 
wardens, 1 790 ; two chalices of 1873, and two chalices 
and two patens of 1877. 

The registers begin in 1558, and are contained in 
eighty-one volumes. The earlier ones have been trans- 
cribed by Mr. Giles Shaw. 1 ' 3 

The parochial chapel of St. Mary is 
4DVOWSON of unknown antiquity." 4 In 1406, 
on the complaint of the parishioners 
of Prestwich, the Archdeacon of Chester ordered the 
inhabitants of the chapelry of Oldham to contribute 
towards the blessed bread at Prestwich, as also bread, 
wine, and altar lights, the chapel at Oldham being 
' notoriously dependent ' upon the parish church."* 
Thomas Wild, curate of Oldham, is mentioned in a 
deed of 141 1," 6 but though he and other curates 
probably retained their charge for life, their names 
do not occur in the Lichfield books. In 1447 the 
then Archdeacon of Chester addressed the chaplain 
celebrating in Oldham Chapel, enforcing his prede- 
cessor's decree as to the provision of blessed bread, 
&c., on pain of suspension ; the chapelry then, as 
now, comprised the townships of Oldham, Crompton, 
Royton, and Chadderton." 7 It was found necessary 
to issue similar orders from time to time ; " 8 but in 
spite of the desire of the people of Oldham to make 
their chapel a parish church, the parish has never been 
divided, except for a few years under the Common- 
wealth," 9 and though many ecclesiastical parishes have 
been created from 1835 onwards, Prestwich still 



111 Given by James Butterworth, op. 
cit. 

112 The Story of the ancient parochial 
chapelry of St. Mary's, Oldham, by George 
Perry-Gore (vicar), 1906, from which 
much in the present account of Oldham 
Church is taken. 

A complaint as to the Chadderton Chapel 
and the encroachment by a parclose in the 
time of Henry VIII may be seen in Raines, 
Chantries (Chet. Soc.), ii, 274. 

118 A plan of the new church, published 
by H. G. James, and signed by the archi- 
tect, R. Lane, is dated 28 Oct. 1829. 

114 (Sir) Charles Barry submitted a 
design for a new church, some of the 
drawings for which are now in the pos- 
session of the vicar. Barry would have 
retained the old chancel and end chapels, 
which are shown in his drawings, but 
acquaintance with his Gothic churches of 
that period makes it doubtful whether his 
design, with its lofty clearstory, would 
now be considered any more successful 
than the one adopted. 

115 There is a description of the font, 
and an account of its history subsequent 
to the year 1829, in Trans. Lanes, and 
Ches. Antiq. Soc. viii, 158-9. 

116 The oldest stone is dated 1672. 

117 An effort is being made by the 
vicar to have it dedicated as an open space 
under the control of the corporation. 

118 Oldham is one of three churches in 



Lancashire having 1 2 bells ; the others 
being Ashton-under-Lyne and St. Nicho- 
las', Liverpool. 

119 The people seem to have subscribed 
^24 for the bells ; they gave the money 
to the rector, who undertook to buy the 
bells and place them ready for ringing. 
Should the cost be greater he was to de- 
fray it, and if less, to return the sur- 
plus. 

lao The king seized three ; his collector 
could not obtain possession, and for a time 
at least they remained safely in the church 
tower ; Ducatut Lane. (Rec. Com.), ii, 
163. 

Three bells were 'new cast' for the 
steeple in 1617 for ^60 by William Old- 
field of Nottingham ; Pal. of Lane. Plea 
R. 319, m. 1 6 d. 

121 One of them is now in use at 
St. Peter's, and another at St. James', 
Oldham. 

122 Perry-Gore, op. cit. 

128 The earlier volumes (to 1661), in 
which are many gaps, have been printed 
in Oldham Notes and Gleanings, where also 
may be seen extracts from the church- 
wardens' accounts, beginning 1734; the 
church ley, 1682, the constables' accounts, 
1697 ; and the surveyors' accounts, 
1765. 

124 Its existence seems implied in the 
record of the baptism of John de Cudworth 
in 1379. 

IO4 



125 The decree, preserved at Prestwich, 
is printed by Booker, Prestwich, 252. 

126 Chadderton deed in Raines, Langley 
Autobiog. (Chet. Soc. Misc. vi), p. viii. 

ia ? Booker, op. cit. 254. 

128 In 1488 and 1558 ; ibid. 257. By 
the last decree Bishop Scott ordered the 
inhabitants of Oldham to contribute their 
share to the lights about the sacrament 
and the sepulchre yearly, and the candles 
on the Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday 
in Holy Week used in ' the service, as it 
is called, in tenebris ; ' also the wax can- 
dles at the Purification ; they were also 
to contribute to the nave and belfry of the 
parish church, and the maintenance of the 
cemetery there. 

Edmund Ashton of Chadderton in 1517 
gave to trustees a messuage and close at 
Oldham Pighill, near Horsedge Moor 
out of which 41. 4</. was to.be paid yearly to 
the clerk of Prestwich in lieu of the ' holy 
bread silver' due from the people of Old- 
ham ; Raines D. (Chet. Lib.), bdle. 4, no. 5 1 . 

129 There does not appear to have been 
any statute passed to effect the separation, 
but in the documents of the time Oldham 
is uniformly treated as a separate parish 
and rectory ; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 39 ; ii, 239. 

A petition to Parliament in 1664 for 
the erection of Oldham into a parish, 
complaining of the ' mendicant preachers ' 
supplied by the rectors of Prestwich in 




OLDHAM CHURCH IN 1824. 

(From a Draiuing on Stone by C. Cal-vert) 




OLDHAM : WERNETH OLD HALL 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



includes Oldham, and the rector receives the commu- 
tation for the tithes of the chapelry. Even in official 
documents, however, Oldham has from time to time 
been styled a parish. 

There was no endowment, and the chapel is there- 
fore not mentioned in the Valor Ecclesiasticus of 
I534. 130 The list of ornaments in 1552 shows that it 
was well supplied at that time, there being at least three 
altars. 131 Under the Commonwealth, Edmund Ashton, 
farmer of the tithes, as the price of his peace with 
the Parliamentary authorities, agreed to give 140 to 
the chapels of Oldham and Shaw, of which jioo 
went to the former. 132 On the lapse of this arrange- 
ment at the Restoration, the curate again became 
dependent on whatever stipend the rector of Prestwich 
might assign him. 133 In the i8th century grants were 
made by the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty, the 
lands therewith purchased yielding a rent of 22 in 
I778. 13 * At this time, in addition to the ancient 
Shaw chapel, three new churches had been built in 
the neighbourhood, at Oldham, Hollinwood, and 
Roy ton. 

The chapel became the head of an ecclesiastical 
district in i835. 13i The rector of Prestwich presents 
the incumbent, and the income is now $ 30 a year. 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

The following have been the parochial chaplains 
and vicars : 



oc. 1379 John de Blackburne 136 

oc. 1411 Thomas Wild 

oc. 1517 N. Cowper 137 

oc. 1540 Thomas Sherock m 

oc. 1563 Roger Wrigley 139 

oc. 1585 Richard Bateson 14 

oc. 1589 Thomas Hunt m 

1619 Isaac Allen, M.A. 142 (Queen's and 

Oriel Colleges, Oxford) 
oc. 1619 Hall 143 
oc. 1 64 1 William Langley 144 

1 646 Humphrey Barnett 145 

1647 John Worthington, 146 B.A. (St. Catha- 

rine's Hall, Cambridge) 

1 647 Robert Constantine 147 

1650 John Lake, B.A. (St. John's College, 
Cambridge) 148 

1654 Robert Constantine H9 

1662 Loben 150 
oc. 1664 John Walworth 151 

1669 Isaac Harpur, 152 B.A. (St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge) 



return for the tithes, is printed in Shaw, 
Oldham, 163. 

In 1704 the rector, at the request of 
the inhabitants, agreed to the separation 
of Oldham, but the necessary Act of Par- 
liament was not procured ; Raines papers 
in Chet. Lib. 

iso There were no endowed chantries. 

In 1458 the 'tithes, oblations, and 
emoluments belonging to the chapel of 
Oldham ' were leased by the rector of 
Prestwich to Lawrence Ashton, priest, 
for 43 marks. The rector was to find a 
parish priest for the chapel ; Raines D. 
(Chet. Lib.) 3/41. 

181 Ch. Gds. 1552 (Chet. Soc.), 43. 

182 Plund. Mint. Accts. i, 3 9 ; Commontv. 
Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 22. 

133 Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), 
ii, in, 112 ; 'the chapelry is very large,' 
he notices, and 'the congregation very 
numerous." There was an endowment of 
2oj. per annum for the Haward Charity 
sermon. There were four churchwardens, 
one chosen by the rector, the others by 
the parish. 

184 Booker, Prestwich, 85. An account 
of the income in 1808 was given by 
Thomas Fawcett, then chaplain ; he had 
30 from the rector, about 40 from the 
lands, and about 20 from surplice fees ; 
Oldham Notet and Gleanings, iii, 93. 

135 Land. Gaz. 5 May 1835. 

186 Towneley MS. DD, no. 1500. 

18 ' Langley Autobiog. p. viii. He occurs 
again in 1529. 

188 fj e was a lessee of Edmund Ashton 
of Chadderton in 1540; Raines D. (Chet. 
Lib.), bdle. 4, no. 59. 

As paid by the rector of Prestwich he 
appears in the Clergy List of 1 541-2 (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 12. He is named 
again in the Visitation Lists of 1548 and 
I554-. 

139 Probably the Roger Wrigley who 
was curate of Prestwich in 1541-2. He 
occurs at Oldham in the Visitation Lists 
of 1563, 1565, and 1567. He was still 
curate in 1575 ; H. Pennant's Acct. Bk. 

140 Shaw, Oldham, 32. In the list of 
curates, where no other reference is given, 
this book should be consulted under the 
date named. 



141 A Lancashire Thomas Hunt gradu- 
ated B.A. at Oxford (Brasenose College) 
in 1586; Foster, Alumni; but the Old- 
ham curate is stated to have been ap- 
pointed in 1580. He preached before 
the Earl of Derby in 1589. Next year 
he was summoned before the Bishop of 
Chester to give evidence of conformity, 
and Edmund Hopwood wrote to the arch- 
bishop desiring that there should be no 
interference with him as a 'discreet, 
peaceable, and honest man.' In 1604 he 
was again summoned before the bishop, as 
one of the ringleaders of nonconformity ; 
in the next year is a note in the register 
of baptisms that three children were 
' christened with the cross by Mr. Masson,' 
as if this were an exceptional ceremony. 
Shortly afterwards Thomas Hunt became 
master of the newly-founded grammar 
school, so that he had the confidence of 
the people. He retained his curacy, and 
at a visitation in 1608 it was stated that 
he did not wear the surplice, omitted the 
cross in baptism, and at a burial did not 
meet the corpse at the church stile. He 
died in 1611. Perhaps Thomas Jackson, 
master of the grammar school, also suc- 
ceeded to the curacy ; Shaw ; see also 
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 1 1, 1 6. 

Thomas Hunt, preacher of the Word 
of God at Oldham, in 1609 received 
12 IOJ. from James Ashton of Chadder- 
ton as a half year's rent for ' all the white 
tithes in the parish of Oldham ; ' Raines 
Papers, Chet. Lib. 

143 Afterwards rector of Prestwich. In 
1622 he was called 'lecturer,' while a 
Mr. Dickonson was ' curate at Chadder- 
ton ; ' Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i,6 7 . 

148 Named in the Visitation List. He 
did not wear the surplice, and was sus- 
pected of incontinency. 

144 Shaw, op. cit. 88, 90 ; he resided at 
Chadderton. The Protestation was signed 
by 553 people. 

145 He was a member of the Manchester 
Classis in 1646 ; Mane A. Classis (Chet. 
Soc.), i, 6. 

146 He was ordained and appointed in 
1647 ; ibid, i, 35, 38 ; afterwards at 
Tockholes. 

105 



14 7 He had officiated at Fairfield and 
Buxton in Derbyshire ; was ' presented 
by the people at Oldham for allowance to 
be their minister' in Nov. 1647, and 
approved by the classis ; ibid, i, 59, 64. 
He signed the 'Harmonious Consent' in 
1648, but refused the Engagement, and 
was suspended ; in 1654 he was restored, 
and continued at Oldham until 1662, 
when he was ejected for nonconformity. 
He then ministered privately during the 
twenty years' proscription, and was the 
founder of the Independent chapel at 
Greenacres. He died at Manchester in 
1699 ; ibid, iii, 424, 425. 

148 Afterwards rector of Prestwich, and 
Bishop of Chichester. During his tenure 
of the curacy at Oldham he resisted the 
Classis as much as possible ; ibid, iii, 

375-95- 

149 Reinstated by an order of the Com- 
mittee of Plundered Ministers 15 Oct. 
1654 ; Plund. Mint. Accts. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 54. 

After the Restoration he was summoned 
to answer the Bishop of Chester's official 
on charges that he was ' not a lawful 
ordained minister,' and had refused to read 
the Book of Common Prayer, &c. ; the 
churchwardens supported him, and had 
refused to 'set up the old font in the 
place where it anciently stood according 
to the ancient custom of the Church,' 
suffering it ' to lie indecently in the belfry 
in scorn and derision.' Alexander Potter 
of Foxdenton had endeavoured to procure 
the resumption of the Prayer-book ser- 
vices ; Chest. Consistory Ct, Rec. 1661. 

iso Mentioned by Calamy as a confor- 
mist at Oldham. 

151 The name is also spelt Walwork. 

152 Admissions to St. John's College, i, 
145 ; his tutor was Mr. Kenyon, after- 
wards rector of Prestwich. He was or- 
dained in 1664 and 1665. The date of 
his appointment to the curacy is from 
Stratford's Visitation List, 1691 ; but 
from Harpur's list of preachers at Oldham, 
printed in Pal. Note Bk. iv, 54-6, it is 
clear that he was in charge from early in 
1665, for on 5 Apr. of that year he 
states that ' Mr. John Walworke, my pre- 
decessor,' preached. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



1696 Richard Sugden, M.A. (Clare College, 

Cambridge) 
1712 John Halliwell, 153 M.A. (Brasenose 

College, Oxford) 
1730 James Sugden, 15 ' B.A. (St. Catharine's 

Hall, Cambridge) 
1732 Samuel Towson ls5 
1773 Thomas Fawcett 1S6 
1818 John Fallowfi eld 
1842 Thomas Lowe 
1861 David Mitchell Alexander, 157 M.A. 

(Brasenose College, Oxford) 
1864 William Walters, 153 M.A. (Christ 

Church, Oxford) 
1873 William Francis Wilberforce, 159 M.A. 

(University College, Oxford) 
1876 Alfred Julius James Cachemaille, 160 

M.A. (Gonville and Caius College, 

Cambridge) 
1892 George Perry-Gore 161 

In 1548 four priests at Oldham were summoned to 
the bishop's visitation ; one of them, Lawrence Hall, 
was attached to the chapel at Shaw in Crompton. 
In 1563 onwards only one appeared. 1 " The curate 
at the end of the century (T. Hunt) was a strong 
Puritan, who refused to wear the surplice and to 
comply in other respects with the statutory require- 
ments. His successor was in 1625 presented to the 
Bishop of Chester for not wearing the surplice ; he 
said he would do so as soon as the churchwardens 
should provide one. 163 During the Commonwealth 1M 
the Presbyterian incumbent appears to have been 
popular; he was ejected in 1662. From this time 
there is little to record. 165 In 1778 the church was 
'regularly served every Sunday and two sermons 
preached, and prayers read on Wednesdays and 
Fridays throughout the year ; and the Sacrament of 



the Lord's Supper administered the second Sunday in 
every month . . . and the younger part of the con- 
gregation catechised every Wednesday and Friday 
between Easter and Whitsuntide.' 166 The provision 
made in the two other Oldham churches was not so 
liberal. 167 

The growth of the town in modern times has led 
to a great increase in the number of places of wor- 
ship. In connexion with the Established Church the 
two buildings just named, St. Peter's in Chapel 
Street 168 and St. Margaret's, Hollinwood, 169 were 
erected in 17658 and 17669 respectively; the 
rector of Prestwich is patron. The former, after 
being enlarged, was rebuilt in 1901 and the latter in 
1879. St. James's, Greenacres Moor, followed in 
1829;" Christ Church, Glodwick, in i844; 171 
St. John's, on the border of Chadderton, in the same 
year ; 17f Holy Trinity, Waterhead, in 1 847 ; 17i 
Holy Trinity, Coldhurst, 174 was consecrated in the 
next year ; St. Thomas's, Leesfield, consecrated also 
in 1 848 ; 175 St. Thomas's, Werneth, 176 which has a 
mission-room called St. Michael's, was built in 1855 : 
St. Thomas's, Moorside, 177 in 1872 ; St. Stephen and 
All Martyrs', Lower Moor, in 1873 ; 178 St. Andrew's, 
Werneth, in the same year ; 179 St. Mark's, Glod- 
wick, 180 in 1876; St. Paul's, Ashton Road, in 
1880 ; 181 and All Saints', Northmoor, in 1891. 
The patronage of these is in various hands ; the 
Crown and the Bishop of Manchester present alter- 
nately to Coldhurst, Leesfield^ Waterhead, Chadderton 
St. John, Werneth St. Thomas, and Glodwick Christ 
Church ; the bishop alone to St. Paul's ; the rector 
of Prestwich to St. James's ; five trustees to Werneth 
St. Andrew, St. Stephen's, St. Mark's, and North- 
moor ; Thomas Mellodew and John Lees to Moor- 
side St. Thomas. Another church St. Matthew's, 
Roundthorn is a chapel-of-ease to St. Thomas's, 
Lees. 



158 Previously at Milnrow and Shaw. 
He was of the Halliwells of Pike House ; 
Fishwick, Rochdale, 441. His will is given 
in Shaw, Oldham, 300. He was buried 
21 July 1730 at Oldham. 

lo4 The church papers at Chest. Dioc. 
Reg. begin at this time. 

144 ' He was one of those clergymen 
who distinguished themselves in the last 
[i8th] century by the diminished interest 
they manifested in the political affairs of 
their localities. Not deficient in intel- 
lectual acquirements, he was tolerant in 
his views and refined and pacific in his 
conduct. He exerted himself, in conjunc- 
tion with the wealthy of the parish, in 
doing all the good he could to the deserv- 
ing poor in an unobtrusive way. For 
want of practising the art of speaking 
"with the proper ornaments of voice and 
gesture," many of his hearers were at- 
tracted to dissenting congregations, " for 
no other reason in the world but because 
the sermons were spoken extempore ; " ' 
E. Butterworth'i Oldham (ed. 1856), 
78. 

158 He had been curate of St. Peter's, 
Oldham. 

"7 Incumbent of Hanover Chapel, 1864 
to 1870. 

us Vicar of Pershore, 1873 to 1894 ; 
Archdeacon of Worcester, 1889 ; rector 
of Alvechurch, 1894. 

159 Previously vicar of Royston, Yorks. 
1862 to 1873 5 afterwards vicar of St. 
John, Micklegate, York, 1876 to 1882 ; 



of Fulford, York, 1882 to 1889; and of 
Brodsworth, 1889. 

160 Rector of Cheriton, Hants, 1892 to 
1894 ; vicar of All Saints', Forest Gate, 
1894. 

lei Previously vicar of St. Matthias', 
Sneinton, 1890 to 1892. 

163 Visitation Lists at Chester. 
168 Ibid. 

164 A ' monthly exercise ' was arranged 
for Oldham in 1653, an arrangement 
modified two years later ; Shaw, op. cit. 
145, 148. 

165 Presentments for ecclesiastical of- 
fences made in 1684 are printed ibid. 191. 
Two men were charged ' for sitting in the 
church, with their hats on, in sermon 
time.' 

166 Booker, Prest-wich, 85. 

16 ' At St. Peter's, where the curate's 
salary was wholly derived from seat-rents, 
there were two Sunday services with ser- 
mon, and the Lord's Supper was adminis- 
tered once a quarter. At St. Margaret's, 
which had received a grant from Queen 
Anne's Bounty, only the Sunday services 
are mentioned ; ibid. 85, 86. 

168 Consecrated 2 June 1768, see Old- 
ham Notes and Gleanings, i, 85. It became 
head of a district chapelry in 1835 ; Lond. 
Gaz. 5 May. 

It was erected by voluntary contribu- 
tions, and enlarged in 1804. About 1817 
the congregation subscribed for a Thursday 
evening sermon in the summer months ; 
Butterworth, Oldham, 38. 

106 



169 Consecrated 8 July 1769. It became 
a district chapel at the same time as the last. 

1 7 Consecrated 19 Sept. 1829. There is 
a full account of the church in Oldham Notes 
and Gleanings, ii, 97, &c. ; the Million 
Fund of 1818 made grants towards the 
building. It also became a district chapel 
in 1835. A chancel has been added. 

V 1 Consecrated 20 Nov. 1 844 ; for the 
district see Lond. Gaz. 22 Oct. 1844. 

172 Consecrated 27 Nov. 1845. A dis- 
trict was assigned to it at the same time 
as to the last. 

W Consecrated 5 July 1847. Services 
had been begun in 1845 in two rooms in 
the Grove, off Sidebottom Street ; see the 
full history of the church in Oldham Notes 
and Gleanings, 5, 195, 210, &c. A district 
vras assigned in 1 844 ; Lond. Gaz. 3 Dec. 

V* Consecrated 12 Feb. 1848. The 
district was formed in 1 844 ; Lond. Gaz. 

22 Oct. 

175 For district, ibid. 14 July 1846. 

l ' 6 Consecrated 21 Nov. 1855. The 
district had been assigned at the same 
time as Coldhurst. 

*77 Consecrated 20 Apr. 1872. For 
district see Lond. Gaz. 29 Nov. 1870. 

V* Consecrated 9 May 1873. For dis- 
trict see Lond. Gaz. 8 Aug. 1873. 

179 Consecrated 14 May 1873. For dis- 
trict see Lond. Gaz. 16 Dec. 1873. 

180 Consecrated 14 June 1876. For 
district see Lond. Gaz. 30 May 1876. 

181 Consecrated 26 May 1880. For 
district see Lond. Gaz. 3 Aug. 1880. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



The Free Church of England has a place of worship 
in Hollinwood. 

The Wesleyan Methodists' first chapel was built in 
1775 ; the church in Manchester Street was opened 
by John Wesley in 1790, and enlarged in iSjo. 182 
There are also chapels at Greenacres Road (Wesley), 
Glodwick, Watersheddings, Moorside, and Northmoor. 
There are two circuits. 

The Primitive Methodists have four circuits in the 
Oldham district, with nine chapels in the township. 
The Methodist New Connexion has six chapels ; the 
Methodist Free Church four, and the Independent 
Methodists five. 153 

The Baptists have four churches, and the Particular 
Baptists four. 184 

Robert Constantine, on being ejected from the 
curacy of Oldham in 1662, continued to minister in 
the village and neighbourhood. Before 1695 he was 
living in a house at Greenacres, which also did duty 
as a place of worship ; he removed to Manchester, 
and for a time nothing is known of his congregation, 
but a barn converted into a chapel was used from 1 699 
till 17845, when the Independents erected the chapel 
which served till 1854, the date of the present building. 184 
Union Street represents an effort made in 1 807 ; the 
first chapel was opened in 1823, and after a fluctuating 
history the congregation built the present one in 1855. 
Hope Chapel was built by Samuel Lees, of the Soho 
Iron Works, in 1823 ; it was replaced by the present 
one in 1866. Providence Chapel is the result of a 
secession from Hope in 1829. Townfield Chapel 
began as an undenominational meeting-place in 1850, 
then it was Methodist, and from 1874 Congrega- 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

tional. A secession from it in 1883 led to the 
erection of Derker School-chapel in 1886. The 
history of Werneth Chapel begins in 1868, but the 
school-chapel was not built till 1874. A cottage 
meeting in 1878 led to the school-chapel in Ashton 
Road in 1880. At Hollinwood, then 'a much 
neglected village,' work began in 1850, but the chapel 
was not built till 1866. At Water head services 
commenced in cottages in 1837 ; other buildings 
succeeded, and a chapel was built in 1870. The 
chapel at Pastures was built in i856. 186 

The Presbyterian Church of England was founded 
in 1883, the building being opened four years later. 187 
Salem Moravian Church, Clarksfield, was built in 
1 824, becoming an independent congregation in 1836; 
on the other side of the town Westwood Church was 
opened in 1869, after some years' preparatory work. 188 
There are Catholic Apostolic (or Irvingite), Welsh 
Calvinistic, Salvation Army, and Church of Christ 
chapels, and some mission rooms. The Society of 
Friends has long had a meeting-house here. 189 The 
Unitarians have a chapel. 190 The Latter Day Saints 
(Mormons) also have services. 191 

There are four Roman Catholic churches : St. 
Mary's, built in 1 838 ; 19J Our Lady of Mount Carmel 
and St. Patrick's, 186270; St. Anne's, Greenacres, 
1880-1903 ; and Corpus Christi, Hollinwood, 1878. 

The Grammar School was founded in 1606 ; the 
building was erected in 1 6 1 1 . 

The report of 1826 is the latest 
CHARITIES official record. 195 The principal en- 
dowments at that time were educa- 
tional, 194 but some were for the poor of Oldham, 195 



182 Butterworth, Oldham (1817), 40; 
an extract is given from the Life of John 
Murlin, a preacher ; the Methodists came 
to Oldham, 'a place famous through all 
that country for daring and desperate 
wickedness,' and experienced 'heavy per- 
secution for a season.' 

183 The Independent Methodists had a 
chapel in 1817 at a place formerly called 
Jackson's Pit ; Butterworth, op. cit. 45. 
In 1824 the chapels were Independent 
Methodists in George Street, and Primi- 
tive Methodists in Grosvenor Street. 

184 The first Baptist Chapel, at the top 
of Manchester Street, was purchased in 
1 8 1 6 from the Methodist New Connexion, 
who built it in 1805; the opening services 
included the baptism of fourteen persons 
in the reservoir at Hollinwood ; Butter- 
worth, op. cit. 43. 

The chapels in Chamber Road, at Glod- 
wick and at Hollinwood (Beulah), date 
from 1863, 1876, and 1891, respectively; 
Baft. Tear Bk. In 1856 the Particular 
Baptists had three chapels, two in Hollin- 
wood, and one in Horsedge Street. 

185 A History of the chapel, by its minis- 
ter, the Rev. George Gaunt Waddington, 
was published in 1854; it gives views of 
the houses and chapels successively used, 
and an account of the various ministers. 
One or two of them had adopted the Uni- 
tarian doctrine prevalent among the Non- 
conformists in the latter part of the 1 8th 
century, but stayed only a short time, and 
Calvinism was the rule ; see the account 
in Nightingale's Lanes. Nonconf. v, Z3O-45. 

The chapel at Greenacres was one of 
those wrecked by the ' Church and King ' 
mob from Manchester in 1715 ; see works 
above quoted ; and for the names and 
fines of some of the delinquents (1716), 
Raines Papers in Chet. Lib. 



186 Nightingale, op. cit. v, 245-64, 
268-74. 

lf 7 Official Handbook of the Presb. Ch. 
of Engl. 

188 The United Brethren began preach- 
ing at Greenacres in 1772, and continued 
at Lees. Salem Chapel was built at the 
expense of John Lees of Fairfield, James 
Lees of Clarksfield, and Joseph Lees of 
Plymouth Grove, the owner of the estate 
undertaking to discharge all taxes, &c. ; 
from Short Sketches of Moravian Work 
(1888), 26-31. 

189 Heyside in Royton had been the 
meeting-place since 1665. In 1784 a 
meeting-house was opened in Oldham ; in 
1802 the present site was acquired, and 
the house was built in 1869. 

190 ' A small but comparatively hand- 
some structure ' in Lord Street, erected in 
1816 ; Butterworth, op. cit. 44. 

191 These existed in 1856. In that year 
there was also a New Jerusalem or Swe- 
denborgian Church in Lees Road. 

192 It was attacked by an anti-Catholic 
mob in 1861, when much damage was 
done ; Kelly, Engl. Cat A. Miss. 304. 

198 Char. Com. Rep. xvi, 1826, pp. 
222-34. Oldham is called a parish, and 
treated separately from Prestwich. 

194 Oldham Grammar School, 1606 ; 
Hollinwood School, 1786, to which also 
John Walker's Charity of 1755 was ap- 
plied ; and the Bluecoat School, founded 
by Thomas Henshaw in 1807. Samuel 
Scholes in 1747 gave rent-charges of 12 
on lands in Glodwick, and ,4 on mes- 
suages in Oldham for the education of 
poor children; and in 1826 there were 
thirty-nine being taught out of the pro- 
ceeds at different schools. 

195 The Great Meadow, near Fogg Lane, 
was in 1640 granted by Edmund Tetlow 

I0 7 



the elder, and Edmund Tetlow the younger, 
charged with rents of 28*. %d. and 31. 4^. 
for the poor of Oldham and Royton re- 
spectively. Though these sums are named 
it seems to have been the practice from 
the first to give the whole rent of the 
field to the poor, and this was established 
by the later trusts. In 1804, on the divi- 
sion of the common lands, a small allot- 
ment was made in respect of the Poor's 
Field. In 1826 the gross rents were 
20 21., distributed with the following. 

John Tetlow in 1704 left land in 
Honeywell Lane, near Broadway Lane in 
Oldham, for the benefit of the poor ; one 
boy was to be apprenticed each year. An 
allotment on North Moor was added in 
1804; and the gross rents in 1826 
amounted to 33 a year. This and the 
preceding charity money were distributed 
in blankets, linen, and calico. No ap- 
prenticeships had been made for many 
years. 

Samuel Haward in 1704 gave rent- 
charges on his lands in Salford, Thorpe in 
Royton, Hollinwood in Oldham, Fails- 
worth, and Gorton for the poor of Salford 
and Oldham, 'who should constantly on 
the Lord's Day go to church or some 
legal assembly for divine worship, and 
there reverently behave themselves, morn- 
ing and evening.' The three rent-charges 
of ,25 in all were duly paid in 1826, and 
the money distributed according to the 
founder's intent, in Bibles, Catechisms, 
and clothing ; the minister had 201. for a 
sermon on the first Wednesday after 
Michaelmas Day. 

Timothy Eyre of Hollinwood in 1728 
left ,100 for the poor. In 1826 the 
capital was in the hands of the incumbent 
of Oldham, who distributed ^"4 ICM. as 
interest in linen cloth. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Crompton, 1 * 8 and Royton. 197 Chadderton had no 
special fund. 

CROMPTON 

Cromton, 1278 ; Crompton, 1292.* 

The township of Crompton has an extreme length 
of about 3 miles from east to west, with a breadth of 
a mile and a half. The River Beal runs northward 
through a central valley ; to the east the ground, 
broken by one or two cloughs, rises continually till 
1,300 ft. is attained on Crompton Moor on the border 
of Yorkshire ; while on the west the highest points 
near High Crompton and Whitfield, which are 
separated by a valley, rise to 700 and 825 ft ; from 
them the surface slopes away in all directions, but 
most rapidly to the north. The Irk rises on the 
boundary between Crompton and Royton. The 
area is 2,864^ acres ;* the population in 1901 was 



Two roads from Oldham meet near the southern 
boundary at Shaw Side and Cowlishaw, and go north 
along the Beal Valley, passing through the small town 
of Shaw and Woodend. From Shaw the road to 
Rochdale goes west to High Crompton, thence de- 
scending north-west by Burnedge to Rochdale ; to 
the east a winding road goes through Clough into 
Yorkshire. Crompton Fold lies above Woodend to 
the east ; and Whitfield Hall above the same hamlet 
to the north-west. The Lancashire and Yorkshire 
Company's Oldham and Rochdale branch railway line 
runs northward along the valley, crossing and re- 
crossing the road, and has a station at Shaw, called 
Shaw and Crompton. Electric tramways connect 
the place with Oldham. To the south-east of Shaw 
is Birshaw, anciently a separate manor. 



The soil is clay, with veins of sand ; the land is 
mostly in pasture. There are numerous cotton mills, 
and some collieries, 8 with quarries, and some minor 
industries. 

A local board was formed in 1863,* and was in 
1 894. replaced by an urban district council of twelve 
members, chosen by four wards North, East, South 
and West. The town hall, situated in Shaw High 
Street, was built in 1894. There are public baths. 
Gas and water are supplied to Shaw by the Corpora- 
tion of Oldham. There is a cemetery between 
Shaw and High Crompton, formed in 1891. 

Wakes at Shaw were held on the first Saturday 
after Old Lammas Day. 

In 1666 no house had as many as six hearths liable 
to the tax, the largest being James Buckley's, with five. 
The total number of hearths was seventy-nine. 5 

Philip Gilbert Hamerton, painter, art critic, and 
essayist, 6 was born at Shaw in 1834 ; he died at 
Boulogne-sur-Seine in 1894. 

Like Oldham, from which probably it 
MANORS was only gradually separated, CROMP- 
TON formed part of the thegnage estate 
of Kaskenmoor held of the king by Roger de Mont- 
begon and William de Nevill in 1212, and under 
them by a number of tenants. Gilbert de Notion, lord 
of Barton, held 4 oxgangs of land of Roger and 4 of 
William, the annual services being 3-f. and p. \d. re- 
spectively ; while Henry de Scholefield held I ox- 
gang by a rent of lad. 7 

No proper account can be given of the descent of 
these manors or portions of manors. From the in- 
quisitions of the 1 5th and 1 6th centuries it appears 
that the Trafford family held WHITFIELD in Cromp- 
ton of the king as Duke of Lancaster, as of his manor 
of Salford, by fealty and the rent of 3/. 4</. 8 Whitfield 



196 James Wyld in 1672 left a rent- 
charge of 5 on his house and land for 
the poor of Crompton. In 1826 this was 
distributed by the churchwarden and over- 
seer in gifts of linen cloth. 

19 7 Royton in 1826 received 371. 3</. a 
year from the rents of the Poor's field in 
Oldham. It was distributed every two 
years by the overseer ; linen cloth, blankets, 
and flannel being given. 

1 On the place-names in Crompton see 
Oldham Notes and Gleanings, i, 156. 

2 2,865, including 12 of inland water, 
according to the census of 1901. 

8 In the Chetham rental of 1524 
(Clowes D.) i6J. appears as paid by 
Richard Wild ' for getting coals in Len- 
nardine.' 

4 Land. Gax. 23 Oct. 1863. 

5 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

6 Diet. Nat. Biog. 

7 Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 63,64. It appears that Gilbert de 
Notion's share descended to his son Roger, 
and after the latter's death in 1241 to 
Gilbert de Barton, son of William son of 
the former Gilbert 5 ibid. 61. 

In 1246 Gilbert de Barton, Brun de 
Crompton, and Jordan his brother, Simon 
de Lee and Hugh his son, and Adam son 
of Ellis complained that the Abbot of Roche 
and others had disseised them of a certain 
mine in Crompton. The jury found that 
the defendants had dug in the mine and had 
excluded the plaintiffs from their right to 
enter it. It was probably a quarry on the 
border of Yorkshire, to which county the 
defendants belonged ; Assize R. 404, m. i. 

Gilbert de Barton probably sold the 



manor to Geoffrey de Chetham, which 
would explain tke descent of one moiety 
(Whitfield) in the Traffords of Stretford, 
and of the other moiety in the Chadder- 
tons. It is possible, however, that Whit- 
field was a distinct grant to the Traffords, 
made after 1212, and that the Chadderton 
and Chetham moieties of High Crompton 
and Beal Moor represent Gilbert de Net- 
ton's estate. Geoffrey de Chadderton of 
Chadderton in 1278 laid claim to a moiety 
of the manor of Crompton, and had it 
settled on him ; Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 154. This moiety 
again was alienated, and the inheritance of 
the Chaddertons of Lees and the Chethams 
appears to represent it. 

At one time the Pilkingtons, also heirs 
of Geoffrey de Chetham, had a share in 
the manor called one-seventh in 1319 
(Final Cone, ii, 35) and the grant of free 
warren made to Roger de Pilkington in 
1291, included his estate in Crompton ; 
Chart. R. 19 Edw. I, pt. i, m. 41. The 
later Pilkington inquisitions do not men- 
tion Crompton ; the estate was, in part at 
least, alienated to the Chaddertons. 

This descent is put forward only as a 
conjecture. The rents subsequently paid 
by the tenants of Crompton show an 
increase on that paid by Gilbert de Notion, 
unless Whitfield was an independent estate. 

The renls payable to the Crown in 
1324 in righl of ihe Earl of Lancas- 
ler were thus staled : Henry de Traf- 
ford for 2 oxgangs in Whitfield, 3$. $.d. ; 
John de Chetham, i oxgang in Cromplon, 
3*. id. ; Roger de Chadderton, the moiety 
of Beal Moor, 3*. id. ; William son of 

108 



Peter, a certain assarl in Crompton, zs. (?) ; 
Adam de Tetlow, i oxgang in Birshaw, 
lod. ; Duchy of Lane. Rentals and Surv. 
379, m. 13. Aboul 1565 ihey were For 
Whilfield farm, 3*. 4</. ; Low Crompton 
farm, zs. id. ; Edmund Chadderton for 
High Crompton, 3*. 4^. ; James Ashton 
for Birshaw, \\d. ; Baines, Lanes, (ed. 
1868), i, 447. The renl of 31. payable 
by Chetham of Nuthurst is omitled. 

8 From a suil in 1292 it appears that 
Henry son of Henry de Trafford demised 
to John de Halliwell a moiety of all his 
tenements in Whitfield for sixteen years al 
141. 6d. renl ; and ihe olher moiety to 
Robert de Halliwell for ten years at the 
same rent. Afterwards Henry granted the 
whole to Richard his brother for life, which 
led to the ejeclion of John and Robert. 
It was ordered thai ihe granl lo Richard 
should stand good, and lhal ihe plainliffs 
should do feally to him ; Assize R. 408, 
m. 39, 93. 

In 1324 Henry de Trafford held 2 
oxgangs in Whitfield by a service of 31. ^d. 
for all ; see last nole. This slatement is 
varied in 1346 by ihe subslitulion of 'four 
plough-lands ' for ' Iwo oxgangs ' ; a 
double renl was payable as relief; Add. 
MS. 32103, fol. 146. 

Margery, ihe widow of Sir Ralph Rad- 
cliffe, died in 1417 holding four plough- 
lands in Whitfield as her dower, by assign- 
ment of Henry son of Henry Trafford, 
who held of ihe king as Duke of Lan- 
casler in socage by a service of 31. $.d. ; 
ihe clear value was zos. ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Chet. Soc.), i, 127. 

In 1556-7 Sir Edmund Trafford granted 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



Hall was in 1787 in the possession of John Milne 
and brothers. 8 * The Chaddertons of Lees in Oldham 
held High Crompton of the king as duke by knight's 
service and the rent of 3/. zd? The Chethams of 
Nuthurst also had an estate in Crompton of similar 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

tenure, the rent being 3/. 10 The Langleys of Agecroft 
also had an estate, including Birchhaw or BIRSH4W, 
in Crompton and Oldham, 11 of which the tenure is 
variously stated, though it is identified with the un- 
named estate of Henry de Scholefield lla in 1212. 



to John Chetham, of Nuthurst, all his part 
of Deal water in Crompton, with lease to 
make a dam, for I zd. rent ; John was 
making a water-mill ; Clowes D. Ed- 
mund Traffbrd, who died at the end of 
1563, held messuages, &c., in Whitfield in 
socage, as of the queen's manor of Salford, 
by a rent of 31. 4*?. ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. xi, n. In the following year John 
Chetham purchased four messuages, &c., 
in Whitfield from Edmund Traffbrd and 
Elizabeth his wife ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of 
F. bdle, 26, m. 87. This seems to mark the 
end of the Traffbrd tenure in Crompton. 

Edward Milnes of Whitfield was a free- 
holder in 1600 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 250. 

83 Land Tax Returns. 

9 In 1301 and 1302 there was a dispute 
between Richard de Traffbrd, rector of 
Cheadle, and Geoffrey de Chadderton (and 
others), respecting lands in Crompton ; 
Assize R. 1321, m. 9 ; 418, m. 12 d. 

Crompton seems to have been given to 
younger branches of the Chadderton family, 
and other lands were acquired by them. In 
1307 Roger de Pilkington granted all his 
lands in Crompton to Adam son of Geoffrey 
de Chadderton, together with the homage 
of Adam son of John de Birshaw and his 
service of zs. a year, reserving the homage 
of John de Furness and a piece of land 
bounded partly by the Wrobrooks and the 
Wallsyke. This grant was by way of ex- 
change for lands in Cheetham held by Adam, 
who is called also Adam de Crompton. 
The mill is mentioned ; Clowes D. no. 
96, 97. Alice, the widow of Alexander de 
Pilkington, confirmed the grant made by 
her son Roger, of lands in Crompton by 
the Beal ; ibid. Cecily widow of Adam 
de Chadderton, in 1324 released her lands 
on the west side of the Beal, and Richard 
de Oldham granted them to John her son ; 
ibid. The moiety of Beal Moor was then 
held by Roger de Chadderton at 31. zd. 
rent ; see preceding note. 

The receiver for the forfeited Holland 
estates about the same time rendered ac- 
count of 26:. 8i/. as the issues of two-thirds 
of a messuage and plough-land, the lands of 
Roger, son and heir of John de Chadderton, 
who was in ward ; L.T.R. Enr. Accts. 
Misc. no. 14, m. 76 d. 

In 1346 John de Chetham held i ox- 
gang and Agnes, Joan, Alice, and Cecily, 
the daughters and heirs of Roger de Chad- 
derton, held the twentieth part of a knight's 
fee in Crompton and Beal Moor, paying 
together a rent of 6s. 8d. ; Add. MS. 
32103, fol. 146. 

The descent is again uncertain, but the 
two families do not appear to have re- 
mained on friendly terms. One Thomas 
de Chadderton granted lands in High 
Crompton to his son Alexander, with re- 
mainder to a younger son Thomas. The 
elder son died without issue, and the 
younger had to fly for felony, being con- 
cerned in the death of Thomas de Chetham; 
he died in July 1391, and his son and heir 
Thomas was then about sixteen years of 
age. The lands were held of the Duke of 
Lancaster by knight's service and a rent of 
3*. id. ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 
54. The custody of the lands escheated 
was granted by the duke to John de Rad- 
cliffe of Foxdenton in 1392, and then to 



Richard de Chadderton, in whose hands 
they remained till 1414, at a total rent of 
301. ; ibid. See also Dep. Keeper's Rep. 
J\j App. 527, 532. 

Probably the lands were restored to the 
heir ; for Oliver, son of Thomas de Chad- 
derton, was in possession in 1428 ; Clowes 
D. no. 105. In 1445 J orin Chetham and 
Roger son of Oliver Chadderton were 
holding the twentieth part of a knight's 
fee in Crompton and Beal Moor, paying 51. 
rent ; John was charged with zs. 6d., but 
pleaded that he was in ward, and Roger, 
charged with the other half, said that he 
held as feoffee ; Duchy of Lane. Knights' 
Fees, 2/20. The feoffees of Thomas son 
of Roger Chadderton were in possession in 
1463 ; Clowes D. 

George Chadderton of Lees in Oldham 
had in 1515 four messuages, &c., in Cromp- 
ton, held of the king (as duke) by the 
thirty-second part of a knight's fee and a 
rent of 31. zd. yearly, which he settled on 
hit wife Katherine. On her death in I 543 
the tenement went to their grandson 
Thomas, then of full age ; Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. vii, 31. A similar return was 
made after the death of this Thomas Chad- 
derton in 1572 ; ibid, xiii, no. 7. George 
the son and heir died in 1606, and the 
tenement in Crompton was then found to 
be held by the twentieth part of a knight's 
fee and 31. Sd. rent ; the clear annual 
value was 5 ; Land. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 64. The estate was 
sold by Thomas Chadderton to John 
Plumpton of Warrington ; Exch. Dep. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 59. In the 
time of Charles I a decree between Chad- 
derton and Walker had been made touch- 
ing lands in Crompton, Whitfield, and Old- 
ham ; Lanes, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 248. 

10 From the last note it will be seen that 
the Chethams at first held jointly with the 
Chaddertons. The increase of rent may 
have been due to the grant of Beal Moor. 

In 1334 John de Chetham held half of 
Beal Moor and an oxgang in Crompton, 
which had belonged to William de Weston ; 
Lanes. Inq. and Extents^ ii, 104-5. Jhn 
de Chetham in 1342 granted to his son 
Adam, with remainders to other sons, all 
his lands on the east side of the Beal, 
together with the fourth part of the mill of 
Crompton, &c., at the same time granting 
to his son Robert, with like remainders, 
all his lands on the west side of Beal, the 
fourth part of the mill, lands in Royton and 
Ashworth, and a burgage in Manchester ; 
regrants followed ; Clowes D. no. 98-101. 
As already stated John de Chetham was 
tenant when the extent of 1346 was made. 

Later Chetham deeds mention the lands 
in Crompton in feoffrnents for different 
purposes. Thomas de Chetham, who died 
(or was killed) in September 1383, held a 
messuage in High Crompton of the Duke 
of Lancaster by knight's service and a rent 
of 31. ; its clear value was 231. ; Towne- 
ley MS. DD, no. 1463. In 1428 an ex- 
change of lands in High Crompton was made 
between John Chetham and Oliver Chad- 
derton ; the bounds mention Crosshillgate, 
Bolastree rand, the ' great within ' growing 
in John's garden, Hallhillgate, Bealmoor- 
hey, Kenyon croft, lands of Sir Edmund 
Traffbrd, Robert Langley, Thomas Wild, 



and Robert Taylor, the two Gosnorhills, 
Hathershaw Moor, Crawlache, Small- 
brook, Ringyard ; also in Mosshey ; Clowes 
D. no. 105-7. Lands including Gosard 
hills, Small brook meadow, and the Mill 
croft, were in 1472 leased to Thomas 
Chetham by Katherine the widow, and 
Thomas, the son and heir of Roger Chad- 
derton ; ibid.no. 127. In the same col- 
lection arc rentals of the Chetham estates, 
including Crompton, beginning in 1520. 

The tenure by knight's service and a rent 
of 31. is again recorded in the inquisitions 
made after the death of Thomas Chetham 
and John Chetham, in 1504 and 1515 ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, 62 ; iv, no. 6. 
In 1614 the estate consisted of twelve 
messuages, half a water-mill, 1 20 acres of 
land, &c., held by the fourth part of a 
knight's fee and the ancient rent of 31. ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), ii, 16-18. 

The will of Ralph Chetham of Cromp- 
ton, dated 1537, is printed in Cbet. Gen. 
(Chet. Soc.), 16. 

11 In 1324 Adam de Tetlow held an ox- 
gang in Birshaw which Richard de Bir- 
shaw had formerly held ; the service was 
lod. a year ; Lanes. Inq. and Extents, 
ii, 104-5. In 1346 Robert de Tet- 
low held Birshaw in socage at a rent of 
lod. ; Add. MS. 32103, fol. 146. 

From the Tetlows it descended to the 
Langleys. Roger de Langley, who died in 
1393, held by inheritance a parcel of land 
4 in Oldham ' called Birshaw, the rent 
being lod. as before ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Chet. Soc.), i, 51. In 1445 Margaret 
wife of Roger Langley held it at lod. rent ; 
Duchy of Lane. Knights' fees, bdle. 2, 
no. 20. 

In the inquisition after the death of 
Thomas Langley six messuages and tene- 
ments in Crompton and Oldham were 
stated to be held of the king (as duke) in 
socage, by the rent of id. for all services ; 
Agecroft D. 80. The 16th-century in- 
quisitions join together messuages &c., 
in Crompton, Oldham, Middleton, and 
Broughton or Crompton and Oldham 
alone as held in socage by a rent of 
zs. I id. ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. vi, 7 ; 
xi, 1 6. 

On the division of Sir Robert Langley's 
estates, the Crompton and Oldham lands 
fell to his daughter Dorothy, wife of 
James Ashton, of Chadderton ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 24, m. 3 ; Duchy 
of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvi, 22 ; Lanes. Inq. 
p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 
225. Sir Watts Horton had a small estate 
in Crompton in 1787. 

A dispute about Towe carr and Birshaw 
meadow in Crompton occurred in 1564 ; 
Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), ii, 284. 

lla The surname long continued in the 
township. Thus in 1426 the escheator 
was ordered to give Hugh, next of kin and 
heir of Henry Scholefield i.e. son of 
John brother of Henry livery of four 
messuages, 80 acres of land, &c., in Cromp- 
ton, and two messuages, &c., in Oldham, 
which had been taken into the king's 
hands in consequence of the felony of 
Thomas de Chadderton, who had formerly 
owned them ; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, 
App. 27 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), 
i, 56. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



The Hospitallers 1J and the Abbeys of Whalley 
and Cockersand 14 had small estates in the township, at 
Whitfield, Gartside, and Crompton Park respectively. 
The Byron estate in Crompton seems to have been 



regarded as part of Royton. 14 There was thus no 
resident lord of the manor, and little is known of the 
other holders of land, but the names of Buckley, 16 
Crompton, 17 Prestwich, 18 Scholefield, 19 and Wild 20 



12 The Prior of the Hospitallers in 1243 
called upon Gilbert de Barton to warrant to 
him 80 acres of land in Crompton, and 
the same in Barton, held by charter ; 
Curia Regis R. 130, m. 2$d. Crompton 
is named among the r laces in which the 
order had lands in 1292 ; Plac. de Quo 
War. (Rec. Com.), 375. Forty years later 
the prior claimed due service from John 
de Traffbrd for a messuage and 20 acres 
in Crompton ; De Banco R. 292, m. 
354d. 

The Hospitallers' land, which was at 
Whitfield, was in 1639 tenanted by James 
Buckley, as may be seen in the inquisition 
quoted later ; see also Lanes, and Chcs. 
Antlq. Soc. viii, 156, 157. 

18 Charles, Abbot of Stanlaw, granted 
to Adam de Windhill in Blackburnshire 
the land in Crompton called Gartside, 
lying on the west of Aspiwallesyke, near 
the Hospitallers' land, which they had 
had from Gilbert de Barton at a rent of 
iz</. Adam seems to have sold his right 
to Geoffrey de Chetham, who regranted 
it to him. Then Adam released his right 
to the Abbot of Stanlaw for 14 marks of 
silver, and Clarice his widow afterwards 
released her claim ; Whalley Coucber 
(Chet. Soc.), i, 163-5. 

This land was probably among the 
other Whalley lands granted to Holt of 
Gristlehurst ; in 1580 Thomas Holt and 
Constance his wife sold a messuage in 
Crompton to Francis Entwisle, Alice his 
wife, and John his son ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 42, m. 43. 

14 Gilbert de Notion granted part of 
his land in Crompton to the canons of 
Cockersand, the bounds being the Bathe 
(or Bache) brook, the Heal, Hullilache, and 
the Black lache. Roger de Notion (his 
son and successor) granted a land in 
Gholmerscliff called Hesseneslac, to wit, 
from Lovenath-denebrook to Heneces- 
clough ; together with the Cliff on which 
stood the buildings of Geoffrey de Man- 
chester ; Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), 
ii, 726-9. It appears from the margin 
that Geoffrey son of Luke de Manchester 
held both pieces of land in 1268, by in- 
heritance, rendering for the former 2s. a 
year and J mark at death, and for the 
latter 6d. 

In 1246 Simon son of Thomas de 
Chaydock did not prosecute a claim for 
warranty made against Geoffrey son of 
Luke de Crompton ; Assize R. 404, m. 
13 d. It appears that John son of Thomas 
de Chaydock had a grant from William 
son of Adam de Crompton of half his 
lands in the township ; Clowes D. no. 
94. 

In 1259 Geoffrey son of Lukede Man- 
chester leased for ten years to Sir Geoffrey 
de Chetham all the land he held of the 
Abbot of Cockersand in Crompton at a 
rent of 2s. 6d. ; ibid. no. 95. 

Part of this land afterwards came to the 
Chethams. Thomas de Chetham in 1383 
held lands called Crompton Park of the 
abbot in socage by the rent off*/. ; worth 
21*. clear ; Towneley MS. DD, no. 1463. 
Crompton Park is mentioned in 1461 ; 
Clowes D. no. 123. It was leased in 1475 
to Edmund Brereley for the life of James 
\Chetham; ibid. no. 1285 but is not 
named in the later inquisitions of the 
fani^y. 

\ 



15 It is not separately mentioned in the 
inquisitions. 

In 1551 the tenants of Crompton had 
a dispute with Sir John Byron regarding 
common of pasture ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. 
Com.), i, 250. Sir John Byron in 1561 
purchased lands in Castleton and Cromp- 
ton from Robert and James Stott ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 23, m. 6. 

16 The Buckleys occur from the be- 
ginning of the 1 5th century, when James 
Chetham married Eleanor daughter of 
Ellis Buckley ; Clowes D. no. 102. 

An estate in 1346 held by William the 
Parson (alias Pereston) by a rent of izd. 
and i^d. for castle ward, was a century 
later held by James Buckley, by the same 
services; Add. MS. 32103, fol. 146; 
Duchy of Lane. Knights' Fees, bdle. 2, 
no. 29. 

In 1463 the feoffees of Thomas Chad- 
derton granted lands in Crompton to 
Bernard Buckley ; Clowes D. The wife of 
Robert Buckley of Whitfield contributed 
to the subsidy of 1526 for 'goods' ; Shaw, 
Oldham, 1 6. Lawrence Buckley in 1564 
purchased from Edmund Trafford and 
Elizabeth his wife two messuages, two 
dovecotes, &c., in Crompton and Butter- 
worth ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 26, 
m. 43. John Chetham in 1565-6 sold 
land in Whitfield to William Buckley ; 
Clowes D. In 1590 a settlement was 
made of three messuages, &c., in Cromp- 
ton and other places, by James Buckley 
and Elizabeth his wife ; Pal. of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. 52, m. 83. 

James Buckley died in 1608, holding 
nine messuages and lands in Whitfield of 
the king as of the dissolved priory of St. 
John of Jerusalem in socage by 3^. rent ; 
his son and heir George was over thirty 
years of age ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 145. James Buckley, 
who died in 1627, had the same or a simi- 
lar holding in Whitfield and land in But- 
terworth held by a ginger root ; James, 
his son and heir, was five years of age ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxvii, 51. 

Another James Buckley died in Sep- 
tember 1638 holding a messuage and 
lands in Whitfield as above, and a cot- 
tage, &c., also of the king, by the 200. h 
part of a knight's fee. James, the son and 
heir, was seventeen years of age. A set- 
tlement made in 1637 is recited in the in- 
quisition ; ibid, xxviii, 72. James Buckley 
was in ward to the king in 1641 ; Shaw, 
Oldham, 92. James Buckley of Whitfield 
occurs in 1673 an d 1681, and was buried 
at Oldham, 24 January 1699-1700 ; John 
Buckley is named in 1708 ; ibid. In 
1713 the estate was sold by James Buckley 
to John Lever of Alkrington and was after- 
wards (in 1849) in severalties ; Raines, in 
Notitia Cestr. ii, 115. In the Clegg 
Pedigree (1840) the succession is given as 
Lawrence Buckley, s. James, s. George, 
s. James, s. James, s. James, who died in 
1726, leaving his sisters as heirs. 

*7 From some of the preceding notes it will 
be seen that a family or families using the 
local surname had existed in the I3th 
century. Among the Agecroft deeds 
(334) is a grant of homages and services 
from Adam son of Hugh de Goledene and 
Eve his wife to Adam son of Jordan de 
Crompton, but the place is not men- 
tioned. 

IIO 



Disputes as to bounds and right of way 
between Thomas Chetham and William 
Crompton were in 1481 and 1482 settled 
by arbitration, bounds being 'preket be 
iiij men' ; Clowes D. no. 131, 132. 

From 1451 to 1537 one John Crompton 
after another was a free tenant of the 
Abbot of Cockersand, paying izd. rent ; 
Chartul. iii, 1238-41. 

Robert Crompton of Crompton Hall 
contributed to the subsidy of 1523 for 
his lands; Shaw, Oldham, 15. 

William Crompton died in 1587, hold- 
ing a capital messuage called Whetstone 
Hill in Oldham of Edmund Prestwich of 
Hulme, and messuages in Crompton of 
James Browne of Westhoughton (the pur- 
chaser of the Cockersand lands), by a rent 
of 12 d. Thomas, his son and heir, was 
thirteen years of age ; Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. xiv, 25. About the same time 
died Edmund Crompton, whose will is 
printed in Shaw, op. cit. 32. 

Thomas Crompton's name is on the 
list of freeholders, 1600; Misc. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 247. He died 
in 1607, leaving three young daughter* 
as heirs ; the lands in Crompton were 
stated to be held of the king (as duke) by 
the twentieth part of a knight's fee ; Lanes. 
Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 
92. His will is printed in Shaw, op. 
cit. 45 ; it mentions brothers Abel and 
Samuel. 

Some deeds relating to the Cromptons 
of Crompton and Oldham are contained 
in the Hyde of Denton charters, Harl. 
MS. 21 12, fol. 153, &c.; for Robert Hyde 
in 1630 married Alice, one of the daugh- 
ters and co-heirs of Thomas Crompton. 
Deborah, another daughter, married Sa- 
muel Hamer. 

Crompton Hall, perhaps at first so 
called from its tenants under the Abbey 
of Cockersand, was in 1672 owned by 
William Richardson, and in 1696 and 
later by Hugh Yannes ; Shaw, op. cit 
176, 218, 264. 

Hugh Yannes of Crompton Hall died 
in 1746 or 1747, having made a settle- 
ment in 1732. His heirs were his daugh- 
ter Alice wife of the Rev. Samuel Town- 
son and the children of his other daughter 
Esther, who had married John Buckley ; 
note of his will by Mr. W. F. Irvine. 

18 Edmund Prestwich of Hulme in 1577 
held lands in Oldham and Crompton of 
the heirs of Robert Chadderton ; Duchy 
of Lane. Inq. p.m. xii, no. 4. 

19 This family has been mentioned 
above. Cuthbert Scholefield of Shaw was 
a freeholder in 1 600 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 249. 

80 The Wilds seem to have lived at 
Low Crompton and Cowlishaw. Robert 
Wild contributed to the subsidy of 1523 
for lands; Shaw, Oldbam, 15. Ottiwell 
Wild in 1571 made a settlement of his 
messuage, burgage, lands, &c. ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 33, m. 156. His 
name, as ' of Cowlishaw,' appears among 
the freeholders of 1 600 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 249. Henry Wild 
of Low Crompton, Henry Wild of Dog- 
hill, and William Wild, senior, a recusant, 
contributed to the subsidy of 1641 ; Shaw, 
op. cit. 88. James Wild in 1672 left a 
rent-charge of 5 for the poor ; Char. Rep. 
1826, xvi, 233. 






SALFORD HUNDRED 



occur. A survey of the township was made in 1623." 
The moors were surveyed in 1640." 

In 1787 the principal individual owner was 
Mr. Pickford of Royton, who contributed about a 
seventh part of the land tax. 23 

SHAW seems to have given a name to a landowner 
in 1370.** The people of the place are noted for 
their love of vocal music ; a musical society was 
formed in 1 740, and continued almost to the present 
time. 15 

The 'free chapel' at Shaw, now 
CHURCH known as Holy Trinity, is said to have 
been called anciently St. Patrick's Chapel- 
on-the-Moor. J6 Its origin is unknown, and the orna- 
ments found there in 1552 show it to have been but 
poorly furnished.* 7 There was no endowment, but 
after the Reformation it appears to have remained in 
occasional use, a 'reading minister' being supplied, and 
a lecturer being added, probably by the contributions 
of the people. 28 The Commonwealth authorities took 
advantage of the 'delinquency ' of Edmund Ashton 
of Chadderton, who had the tithes of Oldham, to 
make him settle an endowment on the chapel.* 9 This 
of course lapsed at the Restoration. 

The Nonconformist Oliver Heywood preached at 
Shaw Chapel several times between 1663 and 1669 ; 
but ten years later he was molested after the conclu- 
sion of the services and brought before the magistrate. 30 
At the Bishop of Chester's visitation in 1669 it was 
reported that considerable numbers of Nonconformists 
assembled constantly at Shaw Chapel, forcing the 
doors open when locked. On one Sunday, being 
prevented, they adjourned to Royton Hall. In 1671 
Joshua Wilde, ' pretended clerk,' was presented for 
presuming to preach. 

In 1719 it was recorded that ' no certain salary be- 
longs to the curate, but the rector generally allows 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

5 per annum, and the neighbouring inhabitants 
about 13 ; augmented 1718 with 200 given by 
Mr. Ashton, rector of Prestwich.' 31 Grants from 
Queen Anne's Bounty were secured and laid out in 
lands, which in 1778 were producing 46 a year ; 
the chapel was then regularly served every Lord's 
Day. 3 * The chapel was rebuilt in 1739 and enlarged 
in I798, 33 and again rebuilt in 1870. A district was 
assigned to it in l835. 31 The following have been 
curates and vicars, the rector of Prestwich present- 
ing : 

1693 Jas. Lawton 

1699 James Makon 35 

1 701 John Halliwell, M.A. 36 (Brasenose Coll. Oxf.) 

1712 John Kippax, 37 M.A. (St. John's Coll. Camb.) 

1727 Joshua Stopford, B.A. (Brasenose Coll. Oxf.) 

1761 James Wild, B.A. (Brasenose Coll. Oxf.) 

1766 James Mashiter 38 

1 795 Joseph Hordern, M.A. (Brasenose Coll. Oxf.) 39 

1819 Joseph Hordern, M.A. (Brasenose Coll. Oxf.) 40 

1823 James Hordern, B.A. (St. Mary's Hall, Oxf.)" 

1841 Daniel Brammall, B.A." 

1866 Samuel Edwin Bartleet, M.A. 4S (Trin. Coll. 

Camb.) 

1875 James Hamer Rawdon, M.A. 44 

1877 Samuel Edwin Bartleet, M.A. 

1878 George Allen, M.A. (St. John's Coll. Camb.) " 
1902 James Wilkinson Pinniger, M.A. (Wadham 

Coll. Oxf.) 

1907 Walter Muirhead Hope, M.A. (Hertford 
Coll. Oxf.) 

The registers date from 1704. 

St. James's, East Crompton, 46 was built in 1 847 ; 
the Crown and the Bishop of Manchester present 
alternately ; there are auxiliary services at Crompton 
Fold and St. George's Schools. St. Mary's, High 



21 The principal proprietors were : 
Chatham, 259 acres ; Chadderton, 
225 ; Sir John Byron, 169 ; Edmund 
Ashton, 161 ; Lever, 1345 Cromp- 
ton, 114 ; the others, holding from 30 to 
50 acres, were : Wrigley, Prestwich, 
Scholefield, Kershaw, Buckley, Wild, and 
Tetlow. The total, 1,124 acres (large 
measure), corresponds nearly with the 
2,865 acres of the township. Details of 
Sir John Byron's holding were: Inland 
no acres ; on Shaw and Hathershaw 
Moor, 16 ; Beal Moor, 6 ; High Moor, 
30, with turbary on 6 acres ; and I acre 
stone and coal ; Shaw, Oldkam, 63, 66. 

M Oldham Notts and Gleanings, ii, 5 3-5 ; 
they were : Shaw Moors (4), High 
Moor, Beal Moor, and Hathershaw. 

23 Land-tax returns at Preston. The 
proportion is about the same as the Byron 
holding in 1623. 

24 In 1370 Thomas de Shaw settled 
lands in Crompton on his son Alexander, 
with remainders to Thomas and Henry, 
brothers of Alexander ; Raines in Gastrell's 
No tin a, ii, 119. 

25 Oldham Notes and Gleanings, i, 125. 

26 Canon Raines in Gastrell's Notitia, 
ut supra. He states : 'The chapelry is 
parochial, and a chapel rate is levied 
[1849] and collected independent either 
ot Prestwich or Oldham.' 

W Ch. Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 43 ; Lawrence 
Hall was the priest there. The chapel 
was valued at 135. 4</. on its confiscation 
by the king, and purchased by the in- 
habitants ; Raines, Chantries (Chet. Soc.), 
ii, 277. 



28 Hugh Burdman, literate, was licensed 
to be the reader at Shaw in July 1575 ; 
Pennant's Note-book (Chest. Reg.), foL 
4. John Yareley was there in 1587, and 
William Plant in 1636 ; Mr. Earwaker's 
notes. It was ' supplied by a curate ' 
about 1610; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, 
App. iv, n. A Mr. Worthington was 
lecturer there in 1622 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 66. Lemuel Allen 
was curate in 1625 ; Shaw, Oldham, 70. 

29 Out of the impropriate rectory of 
Oldham, part of his estate, 40, was in 
1646 ordered to be paid for 'increase of 
the maintenance of a minister in the 
chapel of Shaw ' ; Plund. Alins. Accti. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 39. This 
was afterwards agreed to by Edmund Ash- 
ton and James his son and heir ; ibid, ii, 
117. 

In 1650 the Commissioners recom- 
mended that it be made a parish church ; 
Commoniv. Ch. Sur-v. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), 22. 

In 1649 Robert Symonds had been the 
minister, but like his superior, the rector 
of Prestwich, he did not pay much respect 
to the Manchester Classis, and left in 
1650; he was rector of Dalbury from 
1652 to 1662, and then, conforming, be- 
came rector of Middleton ; Manch. Classis 
(Chet. Soc.), ii, 134, 137; iii, 446; 
Raines, in Gastrell, Notitia, ii, 120. James 
Walton was minister in 16556 ; Plund. 
Mins. elects, ii, 118. He remained till 
1662, when he was ejected ; Mane A. 
Classis, iii, 449. 

The following is mentioned as curate 

III 



in Shaw's Old/tarn : 1674, Benjamin Gil- 
body, B.A. No curate is named in Strat- 
ford's Visitation List, 1691. 

80 O. Heywood's Diaries, i, 184, 259, 
264, 265 ; ii, 90. 

81 Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. ii, 119. 

82 Rector Harris in Booker, Prestwich, 
8 5 . 

88 An account of Shaw Chapel, by John 
Higson, is printed in Oldbam Nous and 
Gleanings, i, 1 1 2, 122. 

84 Land. Gas. J May 1835. 

85 The church papers at Chest. Dioc. 
Reg. begin at this time. 

36 Afterwards curate of Oldham. Ox- 
ford degrees are taken from Foster, 
Alumni. 

W Admissions to St. John's Coll. ii, 148. 

88 There was a Richard Mashiter, of 
Pembroke College, Oxford; B.A. 1742. 
For his son see E. Butterworth, Oldham 
[ed. 1856], 60. 

89 Father of his two successors, and of 
Rev. Peter Hordern, librarian of the 
Chetham Hospital. 

40 Afterwards vicar of Rostherne (1821) 
and Burton Agnes (1855). 

41 Senior magistrate of Oldham Ses- 
sions ; had a school at Royton Hall and 
then at Failsworth Lodge ; vicar of Dod- 
dington, Kent, 1841. 

42 Vicar of Chislet, Kent, 1833. 

48 Perp. curate of Ringley 1875-7 > ' n 
1878 exchanged Shaw for Brockworth, 
Glos. ; of St. Mark's, Gloucester, 1885. 

44 Vicar of Preston, 1877. 

45 Vicar of Brockworth, Glos., 1871-8. 
44 For district, Land. Gam. 14 Jan. 1845. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Crompton, built in 1872, consecrated in 1878, and 
since enlarged, is in the Bishop of Manchester's 
patronage. 47 

There are Wesleyan, Primitive, and Free Methodist 
churches. 

The Congregational church at Shaw originated in 
services begun in 1847, but suspended for a time. 
A small chapel, purchased from the Wesleyans, was 
opened in 1856 to serve for Shaw and Roy ton. Shaw 
became separate in 1 86 1, but afterwards the work 
ceased. Afresh start was made in 1886, an iron 
chapel being erected, followed by the present build- 
ing. 48 

The Roman Catholic Church of St. Joseph, Shaw 
Edge, built in 1874, was rebuilt in 1896. 

In 1856 the Mormons had a meeting-place at 
Shaw. 

ROYTON 

Ruhwinton, 1212 ; Ritton, 1226 ; Ryton, 1260 
usual ; Ruyton, 1332. 

The extreme measurements of Royton are about 
2 miles from east to west, and ij from north to 
south ; the area is 1,372 acres. 1 The general slope 
of its hilly surface is from east to west, the limits 
being 825 ft. on Oldham Edge and 400 ft. at Street 
Bridge. The old village of Royton, which has now 
become a small town, is situated in a deep valley in 
the north-west quarter of the township ; to the south- 
west of it are the hamlets of Haggate, Royley, and 
Holdenfold ; to the north-west lies Thorpe ; to the 
north, Dogford ; to the east are Luzley Brook and 
Heyside ; and to the south Longsight. The River 
Irk rises on the northern border, and flows west along 
it, Oldham has begun to spread over the southern 
border. The population in 1901 was 14,881, in- 
cluding part of that of Thornham. 1 

The principal road is that from Oldham to Roch- 
dale, which passes through the town. A branch of it 
goes north-east to Shaw, to which place another road 
from Oldham passes through the township. Another 
important road is that from Royton to Middleton. 
The Oldham and Rochdale branch of the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Railway passes through one corner of 
the township ; a branch line from the north of Old- 
ham runs north-west to Royton, its terminus. The 
Oldham electric tramway to Crompton passes through 
the township. 



The soil is sand, with subsoil of clay. Hay is the 
chief crop. There are large cotton factories ; fustian 
cutting is carried on, and there is a colliery. 3 

About 1780 Royton village 'contained only a few 
straggling and mean-built cottages,' but with the 
introduction of the weaving of fustians and other 
branches of the cotton manufacture it increased 
rapidly. 4 A local board was formed in 1863, and 
the bounds were extended by the addition of part 
of Thornham in 1879.* A town na ll an d market 
were built in 1880. The local board gave place in 
1894 to an urban district council of fifteen members, 
chosen for five wards Dogford, Dryclough, Hag- 
gate, Heyside, and Thornham. There is a cemetery 
in Rochdale Road, opened in 1879. 

The ' wakes ' are held on the first Saturday in 
August. 

At Whitebanks, near Oldham Edge, there was *a 
good chalybeate spring.' r 

An account of Royton, its chapel, politics, and 
celebrities, written by John Higson, is printed in 
Oldham Notes and Gleanings. 6 John Butterworth, a 
noted mathematician, who died in 1845, is buried in 
the churchyard. George Travis, born at Royton in 
1741, became vicar of Eastham and Archdeacon of 
Chester, dying in 1797. He distinguished himself by 
his knowledge of the law of tithe, which he used to 
advance the value of his benefice from 30 to 100 
a year. He also had a bitter controversy with Gibbon 
and Porson, defending the authenticity of I John v. 
7.' Richard Dean, 172778, was another divine 
and author. 10 

A local saying, of unknown origin, refers to * the 
seven that came from Royton.' u 

The residence of Richard and Thomas Percival in 
1666 had twelve hearths liable to the tax ; the rest 
of the township brought the total up to 54." 

In 1 21 2 ROTTON was held of the 
MdNOR king in thegnage as twelve oxgangs of land 
by a rent of 24^., the tenant being Wil- 
liam Fitz William. 13 William died about the end of 
1223, and was succeeded by his son Thomas, 14 who 
was still living in I254- 15 Thomas had a daughter 
Margery, who married Alexander Luttrell of Somer- 
set, and in or before 1260 they sold nine oxgangs in 
Royton and 60 acres in Thorpe and Healey to John 
de Byron. 16 It appears, however, that Alice de 
Byron, mother of Roger, had ' the whole town ' in 
1246, and had farmed it out to Roger Gernet. 17 



4 7 For district, Land. Gaa. 9 July, 1878. 

48 Nightingale, Lanes. Nonconf. v, 264-6. 
1 2,145, including n of inland water, 

according to the Census Rep. 1901 ; this 
includes the added portion of Thornham. 

3 Pop. Ret. 1901. 

8 In 1795 the farms were small; the 
land was mostly pasture, but oats, potatoes, 
and a few turnips were grown. There 
were then ' a great number of cotton mills 
and a fulling mill, chiefly for the Rochdale 
baize.' The collieries had been worked 
for a century. Freestone was obtained ; 
Aikin, Country Round Manch. 238, 239. 

4 Butterworth, Oldham, 97. The people 
were formerly very Radical in their politics. 
In 1794 they held a reform meeting, but 
were put to flight by a mob from Oldham ; 
the episode was called the ' Royton Races ' ; 
ibid. 137. 

4 Land. Gais. 16 Oct. 1863. 

6 Local Govt. Bd. Order 31625; the 



population of the included portion was 
939. 7 Butterworth, op. cit. 107. 

8 Vol. i, 181-5. A list of curates is 
given. It is mentioned that a botanical 
society was formed there in 1794. 

9 Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Scott, Admissions to 
St. 'John's Coll. Camb. iii, 159, 671. 

10 Diet. Nat. Biog. 

11 Lanes, and Ches. Antij. Soc. vi, 182. 

12 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

18 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 69. For pedigree see 
Collins, Peerage (1779), v, 160-1. 

14 On 23 Feb. 1223-4 the sheriff was 
ordered to take security for his relief, and 
give seisin ; Thomas had already done 
homage and fealty ; Fine R. 8 Hen. Ill, 
m. 9. William's name, however, is re- 
tained in the roll of 1226 ; Lanes. Inq. and 
Extents, i, 138. 

15 The sheriff was in 1254-5 ordered 
to make a perambulation between the 

112 



lands of Thomas Fitz William in Royton 
and Geoffrey de Chetham in Crompton ; 
Close R. 70, m. 8 d. 

In 1253 Alice de Sar" and her sisters 
Cecily and Agnes charged Cecily widow 
of Richard de Royton with being con- 
cerned in the burning of their houses, &c.; 
Curia Regis R. 150, m. 8 d. 

William de Royton contributed to the 
subsidy in 1332; Exc h. Lay Subs. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 31. 

16 Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 133. See also the agreement 
of 1270, from Close R. 91, m. 5 d., printed 
in the same volume, 216. The grant by 
the Luttrells is given in the Black Bk. 
of Clayton, no. 62/47 5 a rent ^ *d. was 
due to the grantors. 

*' Assize R. 404, m. rod. ; the record 
is corrupt, there being some confusion be- 
tween Alice and a Margery perhaps the 
above-named wife of Alexander Luttrell. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 




From 1260 or 1270 to the beginning of the I7th 
century the manor descended in the Byron family, 18 
and during the later part of 
this period seems to have been 
their chief residence. 19 In 
or about 1622 it was sold to 
the Standishes of Standish, 20 
and was again sold in 1662 
to Thomas Percival, probably 
a trader of Manchester." It 
continued in this family for 
a century," when Catherine 
daughter of a later Thomas 
Percival of Royton, who died 
in 1763, carried it in mar- 
riage to Joseph Pickford 23 of Althill. She died in 
1765, leaving an only son William Percival Pick- 
ford. He died in 1815 without issue, and gave 
Royton to his father, who had married again, and 
in 1795 took the name of Radcliffe on inheriting the 
etates of his mother's brother, William Radcliffe of 
Mills Bridge, Yorkshire. He was created a baronet 
in 1813, having taken a prominent part in suppressing 
the Luddite riots of the previous year. 14 Royton has 



BYRON. Argent three 
bendlets enhanced gules. 




PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

descended with the issue of this second marriage to 
the present baronet, Sir Joseph Edward Radcliffe, of 
Rudding Park, Knaresborough. 

Royton Old Hall was de- 
scribed in 1795 as 'a firm, 
well-built stone edifice of an- 
cient date . . . pleasantly 
seated in a deep valley, sur- 
rounded by high grounds. In 
front of the house runs a small 
stream dividing the gardens 
from rich meadows.' K This 
description was substantially 
repeated thirty years later, 16 the 
meadows being still ' fertile ' 
and ' luxurious,' but the sur- 
roundings have since so much 
changed that the original 
aspect of the building is somewhat difficult to recon- 
stitute, though the stream, now much polluted, still 
runs at the bottom of the garden. The park and 
grounds have long disappeared, and the surroundings 
are now purely industrial. 

The hall was largely rebuilt in the i8th century, 



RADCLIFFE of Royton, 
baronet. Argent a bend 
engrailed table charged 
"with a crescent of tht 
fold for difference. 



18 The 241. paid by Richard de Byron 
(in Royton) appears in the extent of the 
lands of Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, in 
1297 ; Inq. and Extents, i, 301. Richard 
de Byron in 1 3 24 held a plough-land and 
a half by a rent of 241. ; Duchy of Lane. 
Rentals and Surv. 379, m. 13. The mesne 
lordship of the Luttrells was still remem- 
bered in 1346, when it was recorded that 
Andrew Luttrell held 1 2 oxgangs of land 
in Royton in socage, and by his tenants, 
Sir James Byron and John his brother, 
rendered 241. rent, puture, &c. ; Add. 
MS. 32103, fol. 146. In the inquisition 
taken soon after the death of Sir Richard 
Byron of Clayton in 1397 it was stated 
that he had held four messuages and twelve 
oxgangs in Royton of the Duke of Lancas- 
ter by knight's service ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Chet. Soc.), i, 65. 

In an extent of 1445-6 Sir John Byron 
was said to hold twelve oxgangs of land 
in socage by a rent of 24.5. yearly ; he 
stated that he held of Andrew Luttrell, 
and also by feoffment ; Duchy of Lane. 
Knights' Fees, bdle. 2, no. 20. The tenure 
was less correctly stated in 1498 after the 
death of Sir John Byron, the four mes- 
suages and twelve oxgangs being held of 
the king as of his duchy of Lancaster in 
socage, by the service of 24*., being worth 
10 marks clear; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. iii, 48. Royton occurs down to 
1608 in Byron settlements, e.g. Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 15, m. 147 ; 61, 
m. 347 ; 71, no. 2. 

In 1310 John de Byron granted to 
Adam de Chadderton 4 acres of the waste 
in Royton ; Clowes D. 

19 In 1432 a release to Sir John Byron 
was made by the feoffee concerning lands 
in Royton and Butterworth ; the deed is 
dated at Royton ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. iii, 70. 

Sir John Byron in 1588 addressed a 
letter to the Salford justices, dated at 
Royton ; Lanes. Lieutenancy (Chet. Soc.), 
ii, 215. Described as 'of Royton,' he 
heads the list of freeholders in Salford 
Hundred in 1600; Misc. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 246. 

20 In a petition of 1622-3 Sir John 
Byron the younger is described as ' lord 
and owner of the manor and lordship of 



Royton'; Shaw, Oldham, 60. In 1622, 
however, Ralph Standish contributed to 
the subsidy for lands in Royton ; Misc. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 158. 
Ten years later there is further evidence 
that Ralph Standish was in possession ; 
Shaw, op. cit. 75. 

21 On 27 Mar. 1662 Thomas Percival 
and Richard his brother purchased Royton 
of Edward Standish and William his son 
and heir apparent for 2,530. The pur- 
chase included cottages, &c., and all their 
interest in Royton and Chadderton ; the 
rents amounted to 120 a year; Shaw, 
op. cit. 157. 

23 There is an erroneous pedigree in 
Burke's Commoners, iv, 612, stating that 
Thomas's son Richard was baptized in 
Drogheda in 1675, and Thomas was him- 
self made an alderman of that corporation 
in 1690 by William III. It is further 
stated that his will was made in 1702 and 
proved in Dublin in 1703 ; but Thomas 
Percival of Royton was buried at Man- 
chester 10 Dec. 1694; Shaw, Oldham, 
214. At Royton he apparently acted as 
banker for the neighbourhood ; see the 
list of his loans in Shaw, 196, 197. 
Thomas's elder brother Richard Percival 
purchased the manor of Allerton in Child- 
wall. In 1664 Thomas Percival of Royton 
was summoned to attend the Herald's 
Visitation, but no pedigree is recorded ; 
Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), p. v. He was 
a trustee of Oldham Grammar School in 
1673 ; Shaw, op. cit. 1 80. By his will, 
dated 1693, he gave 150 to the poor of 
Manchester, to be laid out by his execu- 
tors and his cousin Richard Percival ; in 
1826 this was supposed to be represented 
by an estate of 10 acres in Royton ; 
Char. Rep. (1826), xvi, 148. 

In 1682 John Gilliam of Manchester 
married Jane daughter of Thomas Percival 
of Royton ; he was buried 20 July 1688, 
and an account of the funeral expenses, 
&c., is printed by Shaw, Oldham, 187, 200. 
Their daughter Jane married John Greaves 
of Culcheth in Newton. 

Richard Percival of Royton married 
Katherine daughter of Thomas Norris of 
Speke, and their sons Thomas, William, 
and Richard were baptized in 1688, 1690, 
and 1696, the two former at Manchester ; 

"3 



ibid. 199, 203, 205, 217. Richard was 
buried 27 Apr. 1697 ; 220. His widow 
Katherine appears as granting a lease in 
the next year ; 221 ; see also 229. 

Thomas Percival, ' of Royton, esquire,' 
was buried 19 Mar. 1710-1 ; his father 
and grandfather had been described as 
' gent.' ; ibid. 248. His brother William 
succeeded, and in 1713 took part in the 
settlement of the boundaries of Hollin- 
wood in Oldham, but did not sign the 
agreement; 253. He married Dorothy 
daughter of Thomas Kenyon of Salford 
(Butterworth, op. cit.) ; his son Thomas 
was born i Sept. 1719 ; Shaw, op. cit. 269. 
William was buried 12 July 1721 ; 275. 

Letters from Thomas Percival to one 
of the Kenyon family, 1759-61, are 
printed in Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. 
iv, 496-8. In one he speaks of himself 
as ' enlisted among the men of speculative 
learning' ; in another, though 'sincerely 
for the good of the Church of England,' 
he objected to the interference of the 
clergy in state affairs, and affirmed, 'when- 
ever you want a key to a priest's conduct, 
that interest is his ruling motive.' James 
Butterworth in his history of Oldham (ed. 
1817) states: 'To Sir Joseph Radcliffe, 
Bart., of Mills Bridge in the county of 
York, I owe all my most material in- 
formation, chiefly collected by his father- 
in-law, T. Percival, Esq., of Royton Hall 
(who appears to have been a great lover 
of antiquity) ; his pedigrees of the Lanca- 
shire families, collected by himself, with 
the great additions made by the before- 
mentioned worthy baronet, are an in- 
valuable treasure, and with them I have 
been kindly favoured by him ' ; p. xi. In 
the same work (102) is a Percival-Radcliffe 
pedigree. 

There are monuments in St. Paul's 
Church to Katherine Pickford, 1765, and 
to Sir Joseph Radcliffe, 1819. 

23 Joseph Pickford in 1779 paid 241. to 
the Duchy for Royton ; Duchy of Lane. 
Rentals, bdle. 14, no. 25m. 

24 Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xiv, 1 6 1. 

25 Aikin, A Description of the Country 
from Thirty to Forty Miles round Man- 
chester, 239. 

26 Corry, Lanes. 1825, ii, 527 ; Butter- 
worth, Oldham, 1826. 

15 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



but part of the lyth-century structure remains at the 
east end, consisting of a wing running north and south 
with a gable at each end. The house is built of 
stone, with stone slated roofs and brick chimneys, and 
has a long frontage facing south, with a slightly 
recessed middle portion two stories high and loftier 
gabled wings. The site slopes from north to south, 
so that in the south or principal front the ground 
floor is raised well above the level of the garden, 
allowing for a good basement. A double flight of 
stone steps leads from an outer door on this side to 
the garden. 

The 1 8th-century rebuilding, together with subse- 
quent additions and alterations on the north side, has 
made it very difficult to determine the lines of the 
original plan, but the whole of the later work on the 
south front is built on an older basement apparently 
of the same date as the east wing, which goes to show 
that the extent of the original house on this side was 
the same as that of the present one. The buildings 
are grouped round a quadrangle of irregular shape, 
longer from west to east, but those on the north and 
part of the west side are of modern date, which makes 
it impossible to say how far they carry out the original 
arrangement. The east wing, as before stated, is part 
of the lyth-century building with mullioned and 
transomed windows and a square projection on the 
west side to the courtyard containing a radiating oak 
staircase.* 7 The south and south-west parts of the 
building are of plain 1 8th -century work with little or 
no architectural detail. The older wing has a good 
stone chimney on its east side with brick shafts set 
diagonally, and at the north end has string-courses 
marking the first and second floors, which are not 
continued round the south end. The gable is with- 
out coping, and the general appearance of the wing 
at this end suggests that it had formerly been the 
back of the house or that some of its features have 
been removed in later times. It is probable that the 



original house was built on three sides of the court- 
yard only, the north, which would be the principal 
front of the building, being left open. 

The 18th-century rebuilding appears to have been 
done at two different times, there being a straight 
joint on the south front about the middle of the centre 
wing, between the door and the window east of it. 
The spacing of the windows also points in the same 
direction. They are of the usual tall square-headed 
type, with stone architraves, and originally had case- 
ments and wooden millions, but these have been 
replaced by sashes, which detract from the appearance 
of the house. The walls of the older wing are of 
rough masonry, but the later work is built in squared 
coursed stones, with projecting quoins, and at its west 
end is faced with brick. Against the brick wall at 
the south-west corner is a spout-head with the initials 
T p M and the date 1 768. 

There is some good iSth-century panelling with 
classic cornice, now painted over, in a room in the 
middle wing, and a large room in the east wing, 
which was altered in the i8th century and has two 
windows of that date on its east side, preserves a 
portion of its decoration, though the oak dado has 
recently been taken away. 

The house has been for a long time divided into 
two. The western part is now a private residence, 
and the east wing is used as a Church Institute. 

There was recently a pedestal sundial in the garden 
with many facets, but it has been taken away by the 
owner. A wall sundial on the south side over the 
door is still in position. 

Other local families may be named. The Shaws of 
Heyside recorded a pedigree in 1664, and occur in 
various ways for a century longer. 18 The Tetlows of 
Royley 19 seem to have been succeeded in the iyth 
century by the Rhodes family. 30 Holdens of Holden- 
fold occur.* 1 At Thorpe the Taylors had a resi- 
dence." Dryclough was once held by the Mellors.** 



*7 The local but foolish tradition is that 
the stairs are built round the trunk of a 
tree which grew on the spot, and now 
forms the newel. 

88 Dugdale, Visit. 260 ; they had only 
recently settled in Royton. The epitaph 
of Oliver Shaw, who died I Aug. 1706, 
'after various conditions of life,' is given 
by Butterworth, op. cit. 29. 'Old Mrs. 
Shaw, from Heyside,' was buried at O_ld- 
hatn, i Nov. 1710. She was probably 
Alice daughter of Thomas Chetham, of 
Heyside, and wife of Oliver. 

For the Chetham family's connexion 
with Royton see Ernest Axon's Chit. 
Genealogies (Chet. Soc. new ser.), 6, 9, 
12. A Ralph Chetham, who died in or 
about 1538, left his 'take and farmSold ' 
in Royton to his sons Adam and Robert, 
and part of the Moor Hey to his son 
James; ibid. 17. In 1541 James Chetham 
contributed to the subsidy ' for goods ' ; 
Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 145. 

The Shaws had disappeared before 1817, 
when Butterworth wrote. 

Heyside was in 1842 'notorious for 
wickedness of the vilest description ' ; 
Nightingale, Lanes. Nonconf. v, 267. 

39 Sir John Byron (about 1270) granted 
to Robert the Falconer lands in Royton, 
within bounds beginning at Royton wall 
and following the bounds of the oxgangs 
of the vill of Royton as far as Eliclough 
on the south, by the edge to Wallsyke 
{where was Robert's house) and to the 



Mill Brook ; up this to Royley Brook, 
and so to the starting-point ; at a rent of 
6s. 6d. ; Black Bk. of Clayton, 81/241. 
Two Falconers, Adam and Robert, con- 
tributed to the subsidy of 1332 ; Exch. 
Lay Suit. 30, 31. 

The charter cited is headed ' Copy of 
the Charter of Adam de Tetlow, of Royley 
in Royton.' Alexander son of Adam de 
Tetlow complained that a number of men 
had seized his goods at Royton in 1372, 
taking his linen and woollen cloth, maser 
bowls, and silver, brass, wood, and pewter 
utensils, &c.; Coram Rege R. 463, m. 55. 
John Tetlow of Royley is mentioned in 
1541 ; Shaw, Oldham, 18. Mary Tetlow 
widow seems to have been the principal 
resident in 1641, having an income of 
20 a year ; ibid. 92. 

80 In 1653 John Rhodes (Roades) of 
Royley in Royton leased land in the Ryott 
and the Gorsey Hill in Hartingstead Yate 
to Edmund Taylor ; ibid. 145. A further 
lease was made in 1655 ; 149. Edward 
Shacklock of Moston in 1666 bequeathed 
lands he had purchased of Henry Wrigley 
and John Rhodes to John Rhodes, the 
younger son of the last-named ; ibid. 1 66. 

Royley is mentioned by Butterworth 
(op. cit. 115) as noted for its coal. At 
the adjacent hamlet of Streetbridge there 
were in 1817 a paper mill and collieries; 107. 

81 Holdenfold, it is supposed, took its 
name from the proprietors. Ralph Holden 
contributed to the subsidy in 1622 ; 

114 



Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 158. 
Ralph Holden died 23 Aug. 1625, leaving 
a son and heir Ralph, about nine years of 
age. His lands in Royton were held of 
the king. By his will he left them to his 
son, then to his wife, and to his brothers 
Edmund and Ralph in succession. If 
Edmund or the other brother should suc- 
ceed he was to pay a rent of 4 a year 
to the poor of Oldham ; Towneley MS. 
C. 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), p. 518. 

83 Butterworth, op. cit. 1 08. James 
Taylor died 19 Dec. 1624 holding lands 
in Heaton Fallowfield, Castleton, and 
Royton ; the last estate was two mes- 
suages, &c., held of the king. All was left 
to his son John, then over fifty ; then a 
division was to take place among John's 
daughters Elizabeth Hayward, Susan 
Butterworth, and Mary Ogden. The 
Royton lands were to go to Elizabeth, 
then wife of Thomas Heaward or Hay- 
ward, and their son Robert ; Townele 
MS. C. 8, 13, p. 1,187. For another 
John Taylor of Thorpe (1654) see Oldham 
Notes and Gleanings, iii, 53. 

Ralph Taylor is said to have had a small 
cotton mill at Thorpe Clough as early as 
1764; E. Butterworth, Oldham (ed. 1856), 
119. 

88 Ibid. 113 ; they were in 1817 'regu- 
lar carriers to different parts of the king- 
dom.' Mr. Andrew had there a large malt 
kiln. The only windmill in the parish 
stood there, and there were collieries. 



Cifi&& 



PRESTWICH : DEYNE HALL, TAKEN DOWN 1837 




ROYTON HALL 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



There are incidental notices of other estates in the 
township. 34 

Royton Moss has long been inclosed. 35 

For the Established Church St. Paul's was built in 
1 7 54 s6 and consecrated in 1757 ; it was restored and 
enlarged a century later, and was rebuilt between 
1883 and 1889. An ecclesiastical parish was assigned 
to it in I835. 37 There is a mission church, All 
Saints', in connexion with it. The rector of Prest- 
wich is the patron. St. Mark's, Heyside, was built in 
1878 ; M the patronage is vested in five trustees ; it 
has a mission room called St. Chad's. 

The Wesleyan Methodists have a chapel built in 
1804. The Primitive and Independent Methodists 
also have chapels 

The Baptist Church dates from 1873. 

From 1847 to 1861 Royton and Shaw were 
worked together by the Congregationalists. In the 
last-named year a separation was made, and a church 
was built at Royton in 1864. At Heyside, where 
services began in 1842, a school-room was built in 
1851 and a chapel in l88o. 19 

The Society of Friends have had a meeting-place at 
Turf Lane, Heyside, from about 1665 ; 40 the first 
burial took place in that year. The house was rebuilt 
in 1885, but is used only occasionally. 41 

The Roman Catholic school-chapel of SS. Aidan 
and Oswald was built in 1880." 

The Calvinistic Methodists and the Mormons had 
meeting-places in 1856. 



CHADDERTON 

Chaderthon, Chaderton, c. 1250; Chaterton, 1291; 
Chatherton, 1304; Chadderton, 1468. 

This township measures about 3 miles from north 
to south, and less than 2 miles across ; its area is 
3,138 acres. 1 The surface is hilly, but the general 
slope is from east to west ; the highest points, 500 ft., 
are in the extreme north-east. The Irk and some 
tributary brooks flow through the township. The 
growth of Oldham has given an urban character to 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

the east and south-east borderland ; and on the west 
a small town has grown up round Middleton Junc- 
tion. The population in 1901 was 24,892. 

The road from Manchester to Oldham passes near, 
and sometimes within the south-eastern boundary. 
Three roads from Middleton to Oldham go through 
the township from east to west, with numerous cross- 
roads. 2 The Lancashire and Yorkshire Company's 
line from Manchester to Rochdale, opened in 1839, 
traverses the western half of it, going northwards, 
and has a station about the centre, called Middleton 
Junction, from which lines branch off west and east to 
Middleton and to Oldham. The same company's 
Manchester and Oldham line runs along the eastern 
boundary, and has a station at Hollinwood. The 
Rochdale Canal also passes through the township. 

Chadderton Heights, Chadderton Fold, and Brichin 
Lee are hamlets in the northern part of the town- 
ship ; Foxdenton lies to the east of Middleton 
Junction ; Black Lane, Nimble Nook, Butler Green, 
and Coldshaw 8 on the south-east border ; Hale Moss 
and White Moss on the south. 4 Here also was the dis- 
trict called Theale Moor. 5 

The boundaries of Chadderton have varied from 
time to time. Butterworth, writing in 1817, calls 
attention to the then ancient bounds, shown on his 
map, as contrasted with his verbal description ; Hollin- 
wood had in 1713 been taken into Oldham. 8 There 
was also a small detached portion, lying under Copster 
Hill on the southern border of Oldham, into which 
it has now been absorbed. 

There is a tumulus close to Chadderton Hall. Re- 
mains of Roman roads are found. 

The soil is sand, with subsoil of clay and gravel. 
The land ii mostly pasture, the dairies being the 
chief agricultural industry. There are numerous 
cotton mills on the Oldham side ; also collieries, iron 
works, chemical works, and brick works. The coal 
pits are mentioned frequently in the 1 7th century. 8 
In 1833 hats were made. 

A local board was formed in 1873 ; 9 this has be- 
come since 1 894 an urban district council of eighteen 
members, chosen by three wards North, Central, and 



M In 1369 William son of John de 
Chadwick and Agnes his wife had 2 mes- 
suages, 24 acres of land, &c., in Royton ; 
Final Cone, ii, 176. 

Robert Wyld died in 1625 holding lands 
of the king ; Robert his son and heir was 
fourteen years of age ; Towneley MS. C. 8, 
13, p. 1291. 

Humphrey Booth in 1635 held a mes- 
suage, &c. in Royton of the king ; Duchy 
of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxvii, 44. 

85 A moiety of the fields lately en- 
closed ' from Royton Moss was sold in 
1626 ; Shaw, 72. In 1817 there was no 
waste land, and only a few acres needed 
draining. There were no woods ; Butter- 
worth, 104, 105. 

86 Butterworth, op. cit. 99, 100. The 
ground was given by Thomas Percival 
and the cost of the building defrayed by 
subscription. 

For its endowments and services in 
1778 see Booker, Prestwich, 85 ; and in 
1808, Oldham Notes and Gleanings, iii, 94, 
95 ; see also iii, 205. 

e ? Land. Gaz. 5 May 1835. 

88 For district, ibid. 25 Mar. 1879. 

89 Nightingale, Lanes. Nonconf. v, 264-8. 
The barn of Robert Wild of Heyside was 
in 1672 licensed as a Presbyterian meet- 



ing-place ; Shaw, Oldham t 176. Some of 
the Wilds were Quakers. 

40 Meetings of Quakers were reported 
at the Bishop of Chester's Visitation, 
1669. 

41 Sylvester Sykes was buried at Hey- 
side in 1665, and the place was used on 
sufferance till 1 6 86, when a lease was 
secured, and a house built. This was 
pulled down in 1832. 

John Lees, a Royton Quaker, made an 
improvement in the carding machine in 
1772 ; E. Butterworth, Oldham (ed. 1856), 
116. 

43 Kelly, Engl. Cat A. Missions, 337. 

1 3,082 including 39 of inland water, 
according to the census of 1901. 

8 'This township is truly remarkable as 
containing a great number of roads, on 
the borders of which are erected numerous 
cottages, which are all denominated lanes, 
viz., Burnley Lane, Stock Lane, Block 
Lane, Old Lane, Denton Lane, Thomp- 
son Lane, Dowry Lane [Drury Lane], 
Mought Lane, Turf Lane, Tonge Lane, 
and Bawtry Lane ' ; Butterworth, Oldham 
(ed. 1817), 163. 

8 The right of way through Coleshaw 
Lane, on payment of \d. a year, was re- 
cognized in 1672 ; Shaw, Oldham, 178. 



4 'This township extends to a white 
stone, which formerly was fixed near the 
middle of White Moss ' ; Butterworth, 
op. cit. 163. A perambulation of the 
bounds between Chadderton and Nuthurst 
was ordered in 1520 ; Towneley MS. CC, 
no. 834. 

* See further in the account of Moston. 
Leases of land in Theale Moor are given 
in Shaw, Oldham, 50, 173, 174, 193. 

6 Butterworth, 167 ; the boundary here 
was : ' From Werneth old mill to Collier 
stone, near Cash yate, from thence in a 
direct line, cutting off about five yards of 
the south-east corner of the chapel yard 
[St. Margaret's], by Grace well, to the 
corner house above Grocock's, and so on 
by the Bowling green aforesaid." Collier 
Hill indicates one of these boundaries ; 
Grace Well has perhaps been absorbed in 
the canal reservoir. 

A survey of Hollinwood was made in 
1614 ; Shaw, op. cit. 56. The bounds as 
settled in 1713 are given in Oldham Notes 
and Gleanings, ii, 220-2, from the Raines 
MSS. in Chet. Lib. xxiv, 255. 

8 See a letter from Mrs. Byrom and; 
Mrs. Potter in 1683, printed in Shaw, 
Oldham, 190. 

9 Land. Gass, 21 June 1873. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



South. The public library, built by Mr. Carnegie, 
was opened in 1904. The other public buildings 
include town hall, baths, and isolation hospital. 

One of the Oldham cemeteries is at Springbrook, 
on the Middleton road. 

There were 121 hearths liable to the tax in 1666. 
The largest houses were those of Edmund Ashton, 
thirteen hearths, and Alexander Potter, seven. 10 

From the earliest record of it, the 
MANORS survey of 1 2 1 2, it appears that CHAD- 
DERTON was a member of the Mont- 
begon or Tottington fee, 11 and so passed to the Lacys 
and the Crown. At the date mentioned, having 
been given to the * ancestors ' of Gilbert de Notton, 
lord of Barton in right of his wife, it was held by 
him as 12 oxgangs of land, by the service of the 
fourth part of a knight's fee." It is supposed to have 
been held under him or his immediate successor by 
Geoffrey de Chetham, thus passing to the Traffords." 
About 1255 Gilbert [de Barton] son of Sir William 
de Notton, released to Sir Edmund de Lacy the 
homage and service of Richard de Trafford for the 
manor of Chadderton and its appurtenances. 14 From 



this time, therefore, the TrafFords held directly of the 
lords of Tottington and Clitheroe. 14 

Richard de Trafford made a partition of his estates, 
and thus Chadderton came into the possession of his 
younger son Geoffrey, who 
adopted the local surname. 16 
It is difficult to decide as to 
the succession at this point ; a 
Henry de Chadderton seems 
to have been in possession in 
1 292," yet Geoffrey de Chad- 
derton, either the same or his 
son, held the manor in I3O2. 19 
William de Chadderton, son 
of Geoffrey, followed ; he was 
living in I332. 19 His son 
Geoffrey left a daughter and 
heir Margery, who in or before 1367 married John 
de Radcliffe, 10 illegitimate son of the rector of Bury. 
The husband died in 1407, having survived his wife 
and their son John, but continuing to hold Chadder- 
ton by the courtesy of England until his death. The 
tenure was described as of the king as Duke of Lan- 




CHADDERTON. Ar- 
gent a griffin ttgreant 
gules. 



10 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

11 Lanes. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 61. In 1324 it was 
returned that Thomas Earl of Lancaster 
had held the fee in right of Alice his wife ; 
the sake fee due from Chadderton was 31.; 
ibid, ii, 102. 

12 Inq. and Extents, loc. cit. It descended 
to Gilbert's son Roger (who died in 124.1), 
and was in 1234-5 granted by Roger to 
Gilbert de Barton (his nephew) as the 
manors of Chadderton and Denton in Lan- 
cashire with mills and the land of Cfomp- 
ton; Feet of F. Hen. Ill, Div. Cos. no. 
66. 

Gilbert de Notton granted to Stanlaw 
Abbey land in Chadderton within bounds 
beginning at the Constable's Oak, and 
going by Netherlee Brook and the Moss, 
' as the moss and the dry land divide,' to 
Tache Lache and the bounds of ' Caule 
Shaw" (Coldshaw), and by a lache on 
the south back to the oak ; fPhalley 
Coucher (Chet. Soc.), i, 48. In 1549 two 
^arts of a messuage in Chadderton were 
held by James Ashton of the king, by 
.reason of the attainder of the Abbot of 
Whalley, the service being $.d. yearly ; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. ix, 29. A 
house called Thatch Leach lies about a 
quarter of a mile to the south-east of 
Foxdenton Hall. 

la 1242 Gilbert de Barton held the 
fourth part of a knight's fee in Chadderton, 
of the Earl of Lincoln's fee of Tottington ; 
it belonged to the dower of the countess ; 
Land. Inq. and Extents, i, 153. 

In 1324 the judge of Chadderton paid 
41. to the steward of the court at Totting- 
ton in respect of a fine for respite of suit ; 
Lanes. Ct. R. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
9. In 1626 three constables were required 
to attend the Tottington court ; Shaw, 
Oldham, 70. 

13 See the account of Cheetham. 
"Duchy of Lane. Anct. D. L.I22I ; 

the date is fixed by the name of the first 
witness 'Henry de Wingeham, Chan- 
cellor of the King,' 1255-8. 

Gilbert de Barton's succession had been 
in 1224 disputed by Roger de Notton ; 
Cal. Pat. 1216-25, p. 488. 

ls The Traffbrd tenure is that recognized 
in the feodaries, &c. In the De Lacy Inq. 



of 1311 (Chet. Soc. p. 1 9) it was stated 
that Henry de Trafford held of the earl 
the manor of Chadderton by the service of 
one knight's fee, and suit of court. 

In 1346 Isabel Queen of England held 
it of the heirs of Alice de Lacy as the 
fifth of a knight's fee, paying 31. by the 
hands of Henry de Trafford her tenant, 
and 21. for castle ward ; Add. MS. 32103, 
fol. 146. 

In 1445-6 Sir Edmund Trafford held 
Chadderton for the fifth part of a knight's 
fee ; the relief due for it was 20*., but he 
said that he was in ward, and no relief 
was paid ; Duchy of Lane. Knights' Fees, 
bdle. 2, no. 20. 

The reduction from the fourth part of 
a knight to the fifth may have been due 
to the separation of Foxdenton. 

In 1856 Chadderton still owed suit and 
service to the court baron of the honour 
of Clitheroe ; E. Butterworth, Oldham 
(ed. 1856), 13. 

18 Margery, widow of Geoffrey de Chet- 
ham, in 1275 claimed dower in 20 acres 
in Moston and Chadderton against Geoffrey 
de Chadderton ; De Banco R. 10, m. 35. 
Chadderton is not noticed in the settle- 
ment of Geoffrey de Chadderton's estate 
in 1278, unless the 'Couentre' is a mis- 
take for it ; Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 153. Geoffrey de Chadder- 
ton was a juror in 1282 ; Inq. and Extents, 
i, 244. In 1291 Thomas de Cowlishaw 
complained that Geoffrey de Chadderton, 
the chief lord, had deprived him of com- 
mon of pasture in 100 acres of moor in 
Chadderton, appertaining to Thomas's free 
tenement in Foxdenton ; but he did not 
succeed ; Assize R. 1294, m. 9. In the 
same year Geoffrey de Chadderton made 
a claim against William son of Robert de 
Staynringes, and Christiana his wife, re- 
specting his hereditary estate ; ibid. m. 
1 1 d. The defendants may have been the 
William de la Hacking and Christiana his 
wife of the fine above referred to. 

V Henry son of Henry son of Richard 
de Trafford claimed the manor of Chad- 
derton against Henry de Chadderton, on 
the ground that his grandfather had de- 
mised it to the defendant while of unsound 
mind. As in relating he claimed against 
Geoffrey de Chadderton, the defendant 

116 



Henry was acquitted ; Assize R. 408, m. 
40 d. 

18 Inq. and Extents, i, 313. 

In 1301 Geoffrey de Chadderton was 
one defendant to a plea of novel disseisin ; 
and Geoffrey son of Geoffrey de Chadder- 
ton, was a defendant in another case ; 
Assize R. 1321, m. 3. In 1304 Geoffrey 
de Chadderton the elder claimed certain 
lands as his inheritance against Adam de 
Rossendale and Margery his wife ; Assize 
R. 419, m. 4. In the following year 
Geoffrey de Chadderton called upon Henry 
son of Henry de Trafford to warrant him 
in the possession of certain lands in Chad- 
derton claimed by the rector of Prestwich ; 
De Banco R. 153, m. 292 d. 

Between 1301 and 1305 Geoffrey de 
Chadderton and Joan his wife acquired an 
estate in An coats ; Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), 
ii, 250 ; Final Cone, ii, I. Geoffrey de 
Chadderton and Geoffrey his son attested 
a Royton charter in 1310. Geoffrey, 
perhaps the younger, was living in 1318, 
when Richard his son is mentioned ; 
Mamecestre, loc. cit. He died before 1320, 
in which year his son William held Fox- 
denton ; ibid. 279. 

19 The descent here followed is that re- 
corded in the inquisition of 1408, recited 
in 1511 ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iv, 
96. Geoffrey de Chadderton had several 
other sons, e.g., Alexander and Roger ; 
Assize R. 1435, m. 37. They had lands 
in Moston and Nuthurst in 1320 ; Mame- 
cestre, 279. Alexander was living in 1329 ; 
Assize R. 427, m. 3. 

William de Chadderton, who, as shown 
above, succeeded before 1320, was in 1332 
among the plaintiffs regarding land in 
Chadderton and Oldham ; Assize R. 1411, 
m. I2d. In the same year Margery, 
widow of William de Chadderton, contri- 
buted to the subsidy ; Exch, Lay Sub. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 30. 

^John de Radcliffe, 'the parson's son 
of Bury,' and Margery his wife were 
plaintiffs respecting waste in Chadderton 
against John de Huxley and Beatrice his 
wife in 1367, and against Sir Henry de 
Trafford in 1369 ; De Banco R. 426, m, 
35 5 435> m - I2 6- Margery seems to 
have been living in 1386 ; Def. Keeper's 
Rep. xl, App. 525, 526. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 




caster by the fourth part of a knight's fee, and by 3/. 
yearly (for sake fee) and zs. for ward of Clitheroe 
Castle. 21 

The heir, John, grandson of Margery, was only 
fourteen years of age in 1407. He proved his age 
in 141 5, 22 was made a knight, and was living in 1431 
when he made a settlement 
of his manor of Chadderton, 
his wife at that time being 
Elizabeth. 23 His heir, a son 
Richard, died in 1436," leav- 
ing a son a little over a year 
old, "and three daughters, Joan, 
Margery, and Elizabeth, who 
succeeded their brother and 
divided the inheritance among 
them. Joan married Edmund 
Ashton, of the Ashton-under- 
Lyne family; their descendants, 
the Ashtons of Chadderton 
Hall, held the manor till the end of the 1 7th century. 
Margery married Ralph Standish of Standish, and a 
third of the manor long remained in the possession of 
this family. Elizabeth married Robert Radcliffe of 
the Ordsall family, and their descendants settled at 
Foxdenton. 

Joan Ashton died in August 1478 ; her husband 
Edmund continued in possession of her third part of 
the manor until his death in March 148990 ; their 
grandson Edmund son of John was then eleven years 
of age. The mesne lordship of the Traffords, ignored 



ASHTON of Chadder- 
ton. Argent a mullet 
sable pierced of the field. 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

in some preceding inquisitions, was now exercised, 
Sir John Traffbrd taking the wardship of the heir. 16 
Edmund Ashton married Janet, one of the daughters 
and co-heirs of Sir James Harrington," and died on 
5 March 1542-3, leaving a son and heir James, then 
forty-eight years of age. In addition to the third 
part of Chadderton, he held the manor of Shuttle- 
worth, and lands in Chadderton, Shuttleworth, 
Oldham, and Rochdale. 28 James Ashton died 
25 August 1549 ; his son Edmund, married in his 
grandfather's lifetime to Anne daughter of Ralph 
Prestwich, was over twenty-eight years of age. 29 
This son Edmund left the family estate unaltered at 
his death in August 1584, and was succeeded by his 
son James, forty-nine years old. 30 A pedigree was re- 
corded in I567. 31 

James Ashton married Dorothy, one of the four 
daughters and co-heirs of Sir Robert Langley of 
Agecroft, and received with her the advowson of 
Prestwich and various lands ; and although they died 
without issue, the Ashton family appear to have re- 
tained Dorothy's share of the Langley property. 
James Ashton was sheriff in 1590-1." At his death 
in 1612, he was succeeded by his brother Richard's 
son Edmund, only eleven years of age. S3 He served 
as sheriff in 1627-8." He fought on the king's 
side in the Civil War, being one of those who sur- 
rendered at Oxford in 1646, and afterwards com- 
pounded for his estate." He died early in 1650, 
leaving a son James, 38 who had a family of nine chil- 
dren. The eldest son, Edmund, was stated to be 



31 Inquisition recited, as above stated, 
in Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 96. 
The clear value was 20 marks. The 
other Chadderton estate named is a plough- 
land in Witton. 

John de Radcliffe seems to have mar- 
ried a second time ; for the feoffees of 
John son of Roger de Barlow in 1405 
granted lands in Manchester and Spotland 
to John de Radcliffe for life, with remain- 
ders to Robert, Alice, Jemima, Joan, 
Ellen, and Elizabeth, his children prob- 
ably by Margery de Barlow, after whose 
death the trustees had them. 

22 He was born 26 Jan. 1392-3, at 
Medecroft, and baptized in Bury Church, 
the sponsors being John de RadclifFe of 
Chadderton and Margaret del Heap ; Dtp. 
Keeper's Rep. xxxix, App. 543. 

23 Final Cone, iii, 97. Elizabeth, the 
widow of Sir John, died 1 5 Aug. 1442 ; 
her daughter and heir was Margaret, wife 
of Sir Geoffrey Radcliffe, then aged about 
thirty years ; Towneley MS. DD, no. 1489. 

24 The writs of Diem clausit extr. after 
the deaths of Sir John de Radcliffe of 
Chadderton and of Richard his son were 
respectively issued on 7 Oct. and 13 Nov. 
1436 ; Dtp. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 37. 

25 The inq. p.m. is in Towneley MS. 
DD, no. 1487 ; in this the mesne lordship 
of Sir Edmund Trafford is recognized ; 
the clear value of the manor wa 30. 
Richard and Elizabeth his wife had jointly 
held messuages and lands in Spotland. 

26 Two records remain ; Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. iii, 74, 80. In the former, Edmund 
Ashton is stated to have died 20 Mar. 
1489-90 ; in the latter, on 29 Aug. 1488. 
The third part of the manor and lordship 
of Chadderton, with ten messuages, 200 
acres of land, &c., were held of the king 
as Duke of Lancaster by the third part of 
the fourth part of a knight's fee, and were 
worth 20 a year clear Sir John Traf- 



ford sold the marriage of the heir to Ed- 
ward Ashton, clerk, and other members 
of the family, for 46 13*. d. The 
inquisitions seem to have been taken, on 
the heir's coming of age, in 1500 and 
1501, and to have been connected with 
the Traffords" mesne lordship and its 
appurtenant right of wardship and mar- 
riage. This mesne lordship having been 
ignored in the inquisition the king, as 
duke, put in a claim to the 4.6 131. $d. ; 
to the ' utter undoing ' of the said Edward 
Ashton and the others ; Duchy Plead. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 47. The mat- 
ter again came up in the cases of Thomas 
Radcliffe and Ralph Standish, in 1511 and 
1512 ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iv, 96 ; 
iii, 2. 

V The agreement for the marriage was 
made in 1491 ; Raines D. (Chet. Lib.), 
bdle. 3, no. 47. On the division of the 
Harrington of Wolfage estates' in 1517 
James Ashton of Chadderton, son of Janet, 
received lands in Brixworth valued at 
15 151. a year, as his portion ; Norris 
D. (B.M.). 

28 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. viii, 4 5 
the rent of i zd. for sake fee is mentioned. 
Edward Ashton, brother of Edmund, had 
the manor of Shuttleworth for life. 

James Ashton had special livery of his 
lands in 1545 ; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxix, 
App. 550. A detailed account of his 
possessions at the time is among the Raines 
D. (Chet. Lib.), bdle. 4, no. 60. 

29 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. ix, 29. 
The provision for the son's wife is recorded 
in the previous inquisition. 

Edmund son of James Ashton had 
special livery in 1550 ; Dep, Keeper's Rep. 
xxxix, App. 550. 

80 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xiv, 66. 
A settlement of the manor, &c., was im- 
mediately made by James Ashton ; Pal. 
of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 56, m. 33. 



The will of Edmund Ashton, dated 
1583, is printed in Piccope, Wills (Chet. 
Soc.), ii, 169, 170. 

. 81 Visit, of 1567 (Chet. Soc.), p. 20; 
this records the marriage of James Ashton. 

82 P.R.O. List, 73. 

88 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 224. 

Annuities of 10 each were settled 
on Richard Ashton in 1569, and on Ed- 
mund Ashton in 1577, by their father 
Edmund and elder brother James ; Raines 
D. (Chet. Lib.), bdle. 4, no. 65, 66. The 
will of James Ashton is printed in Shaw, 
Oldham, 53. Richard Ashton died in May 
1609, holding lands in Oldham ; his wife 
Anne survived him, and his son Edmund 
was eight years of age ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 145. 

In addition to their lands the Ashtons 
had a lease of the tithes of Oldham cha- 
pelry, and presented to the curacy ; Misc. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 112. 

84 P.R.O. List, 73. A settlement of 
his third part of the manor was made in 
1624; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 103, 
no. 1 8. He paid ^25 in 1631 on declin- 
ing knighthood ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 216. An early will (1623) 
of his is printed in Shaw, Oldham, 63. 

84 Roy. Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 91 ; he had taken the 
National Covenant and the Negative 
Oath. 

86 James Ashton of Chadderton was 
buried at Oldham I May 1651. John 
Vicars in Dagon Demolished says about 
Mr. Ashton that he was ' once a desperate 
Malignant in the first war against the 
Parliament, but afterwards, having made 
his peace, taken the Engagement, and 
turned a great stickler for the present 
times, was made a justice of peace and 
became one of Mr. Constantine's greatest 
enemies,'sequestered his benefice(Oldham), 



seventeen years of age in 1664, when a pedigree was 

recorded. 37 The ultimate heir of the Chadderton 

estates was the youngest son, 

William, born about 1649, 

who was rector of Carlton in 

Lindrick and of Prestwich till 

his death in 1731. He sold 

the family inheritance, but left 

a considerable fortune, divided 

between his daughters, Kathe- 

rine, wife of John Blackburne 

of Orford, and Dorothy, wife 

of Sir Darcy Lever of Alk- 

rington.* 8 

Chadderton Hall, with its 
third part of the manor, was 
purchased in 1684 by Joshua 
Horton of Sowerby, Yorkshire, 
who came to reside here. 39 




HORTON of Chadder- 
ton, baronet. Gules a 
lion rampant argent 
charged on the breast 
ivith a boar's head coup- 
ed azure, a bordure en- 
grailed of the second. 



His son Thomas, sometime Governor of the Isle of 

Man, was succeeded by his 

son William, high sheriff in 

1 7 64,* when he was made a 

baronet. He died ten years 

later, his son Sir Watts Horton 

succeeding. 41 On his death 

in 1811, Chadderton went 

to his brother, the Rev. Sir 

Thomas Horton, 42 and on his 

death without sons to Sir 

Watts's only daughter, Harriet 

Susanna Anne, who married 

Major Charles Rees of Kil- 

maenllwyd, Carmarthenshire, 

and died in 1827, leaving a 

son Horton and two daughters. 

Major Rees or Rhys retained 

Chadderton till his death in 

1852. It was sold to the Lees 

of Clarksfield family in 1865, 

and the trustees of the late 

Colonel Edward Brown Lees 

are the present owners. No 

manor is now claimed. 43 



Chadderton Hall 44 is a brick-built 18th-century 
house with stone dressings, the principal front facing 
south with projecting end wings, connected on the 
ground story by a well-designed classic screen of 
coupled Tuscan columns carrying entablature and 
balustrade. The design is one of some merit, and 
together with the stables and other outbuildings which 
are built at right angles on either side, forms a good 
architectural whole. The roofs have flat hips and 
are covered with green slates, and the window bars 
and the sashes remain. The interior contains a good 
staircase with rich renaissance detail. Of the appear- 
ance of the former old hall nothing is known, but the 
house was probably rebuilt in its present form about the 
middle of the 1 8th century by Sir William Horton. 44 * 
The grounds are now used as pleasure gardens. 

Of the third part of the manor held by the 
Standishes of Standish little can be said. The 
family do not seem to have resided here, but the 
share is duly mentioned in inquisitions 44 and settle- 




CHADDERTON HALL 



banished him,and otherwise persecuted him. 
His death, by ' such a languishing sickness 
as made him daily pine away, so as no 
means or physic could help him,' was 
regarded as a divine punishment, and it 
happened the day before or day after 
Mr. Constantine was to have appeared 
before him, as justice 5 Local Gleanings 
Lanes, and Cbes. ii, 17. 

7 Dugdale, Vhit. (Chet. Soc.), 18. 

Edmund Ashton is said to have been 
killed in a duel 17 March 1664-5 > he 
was gentleman of the bedchamber to the 
Duke of York, and lieut.-colonel in the 
Horse Guards ; Butterworth, Oldham, 157. 
The story must be false, for Edmund 
Ashton, having attained his majority, 
appeared by proxy at Ightenhill manor 
court on 15 April 1665, to be admitted 
to lands at Padiham previously held by 
his grandfather Edmund ; Raines D. 
(Chet. Lib.), bdle. 8. The age, as re- 
corded by Dugdale, may therefore be some 
years too little. 

Edmund Ashton was still living in 1684, 
when he concurred with the other lords 
of the manor in granting leave 'to dig, 
delve, search for and get coals, to sink, 
tunnel, and make pit shafts,' &c., on the 



North Moor, on the west side of the Mere 
Ditch; Shaw, Oldham, 188. 

88 See the account of him among the 
rectors of Prestwich. By his will (1728) 
he made provision for the payment of 
,4,000, the marriage portion of his daugh- 
ter Dorothy ; and by a codicil (1731) left 
to her and her son Ashton Lever, and 
the heirs male, his chapel in Prestwich 
Church. 

89 These particulars are from the Horton 
pedigrees in Burke's Commoners, i, 284, 
with later particulars from Landed Gentry, 
under De Ferry of Kilmaenllwyd ; G.E.C. 
Complete Baronetage, v, 128 ; Shaw, Old- 
ham, 193, &c., and Canon Raines in 
Notitia Cestr. (1849), "> rl 4" 

William, son of Joshua Horton of 
Chadderton and Mary his wife, was bap- 
tized at Oldham 12 October 1686. Other 
children were also baptized there, showing 
that the family resided. 

40 P.R.O. List, 74. 

41 He was high sheriff in 1775. There 
was a recovery of the third part of the 
manor in 1778, Sir Watts Horton being 
tenant ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 628, m. 
7<j. Sir Watts Horton's conciliatory con- 
duct at a time of bread riots in Oldham is 

118 



described in E. Butterworth's Hist, of 
Oldham (ed. 1856), 138. 

43 Sir Thomas was the owner in 1817 ; 
Butterworth, Oldham, 155. He died in 
1821. 

A large number of letters and papers of 
the Ashton and Horton families came 
into the possession of Canon Raines, and 
are now in the Chetham Library, vols. 
xxxii-xxxv of his MSS. 

48 Information of Mr. Thomas Hey- 
wood. 

44 A view of the hall (1794), with a 
short description, is given in Dr. Aikin's 
Country Round Manch. 24 1 . 

44a Raines" notes to Gastrell's Notitia 
(Chet. Soc. xix). 

45 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 126; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, 76 ; 
after the death of Margery, wife of Ralph 
Standish and then of Thomas Radcliffe, 
one of the daughters and heirs of Richard 
Radcliffe of Chadderton, who died in May 
1476 seised of the third part of the manor 
and various lands and messuages held of 
the king as of his duchy of Lancaster by 
knight's service, Sir Alexander her son 
was heir. Sir Alexander died in 1507 
holding the same third by the same ser- 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



ments down to 1660.** Two years later it was sold, 
with Royton, to Thomas Percival and his brother 
Richard, and descended with 
Royton for some time. 47 

In 1787 Thomas Butter- 
worth Bayley of the Hope 
in Pendleton was one of the 
chief landowners. 48 

FOXDENTON,^ the fami- 
ly seat, gives a name to the 
third of the manor which be- 
longed to Elizabeth Radclyffe 
and descended to her son 
William, who died in 1507, 
leaving as heir his son Thomas, 
then six months old. In this 
case also the wardship was 
claimed by the Traffords in right of their mesne 




RADCLYFFK of Fox- 
denton. Argent nvo 
bends engrailed sable, a 
label of three points gules. 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

manor. 50 In 1567 Thomas Radcliffe made a settle- 
ment of his manor, and dying in the same year was 
succeeded by his son William, then forty years of 
age." William, who forfeited the manor to his brother 
John in ten years," died in 1 590 without issue. John, 
dying in 1587, was succeeded by his daughter Mar- 
garet, 53 who at her death in I 590 was also the heir of 
her uncle William ; she married Richard Radcliffe 
of Newcroft, a younger son of Sir William Radcliffe of 
Ordsall, and left as heir a son William, nine years of 
age in I59I. 54 He was living in 1642, when he 
made a settlement of his estates.* 5 He left three sons, 
one of whom, Sir William, fought on the king's side 
in the Civil War, and was knighted. 56 He was with 
Lord Hopton's force when it capitulated at Truro 
in l646. 57 He died soon afterwards, and was 
succeeded by his brother Alexander, 58 but the 
ultimate heirs were two daughters Mary, who 



vice ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, 25. 
Ralph his son and heir in 1512 came 
forward to correct the finding of the in- 
quest, stating the descent of the manor 
and establishing the Traffords' mesne 
lordship ; ibid, iii, 2. 

In 1540 the king granted the Earl of 
Derby an annual rent of 20 marks issuing 
from the third part of the manor of Chad- 
derton, together with the wardship and 
marriage of Ralph son and heir of Alex- 
ander Standish, a minor ; Duchy of Lane. 
Misc. Bks. xxii, 161 d. Edward Standish 
in 1556 sought a division of 100 acres of 
land, &c., which he held in Chadderton 
jointly with Thomas Radcliffe of Fox- 
denton ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 202, m. 
13. About the same time Mary Standish, 
widow, complained of the interruption of 
a road between Chadderton and Alkring- 
ton ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), i, 305. 
Edward Standish, who died in 1610, held 
the third part of the manor ; Lanes. Inq. 
p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 18$. 
In this and other inquisitions the service 
is erroneously stated as the third part of a 
knight's fee, instead of the third part of a 
fourth part. 

44 E.g. Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 75, 
no. 1 1 (1610); bdle. Si, no. 8 (1613); bdle. 
121, no. 5 (1632); bdle. 165, no. 8 (1660). 

*1 Shaw, Oldham, 157. The Standish 
inheritance seems to have been sold piece- 
meal. In 1668 Edward Standish sold land, 
&c., to various tenants ; ibid. 169. 

48 Land Tax returns at Preston. The 
other principal contributors were Sir Watt* 
Horton and Mr. Radclyffe's executors. 

49 As above stated, Gilbert de Barton 
sold his right in Chadderton to the superior 
lord, Edmund de Lacy, about 125$. Fox- 
denton, however or Denton simply, as it 
was anciently called was not included in 
this sale, but transferred to the Grelleys, 
lords of Manchester, and held of them by 
the Chadderton family e.g. by Geoffrey 
de Chadderton in 1282, and by William 
de Chadderton in 1320, as i oxgang, by 
the rent of id. ; Lanes. Inq. and Extents, 
i, 247 ; Mamecestre, 279. From this time 
Foxdenton seems to have merged again in, 
Chadderton, its connexion with Man- 
chester being forgotten. 

Gilbert de Barton granted to the canons 
of Coekersand land in Denton, with the 
usual easements in the vills of Chadderton 
and Denton, and acquittance of pannage 
for their pigs in the wood of Lyme. The 
bounds recited mention Ridley Syke, 
Blacklache, the Church land, Hazelhead 
Brook, and Ripley Brook ; Coekersand 
Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 732. 



50 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 139; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, 36 ; iv, 96. 
From this it appears that Elizabeth had 
married again, and in 1497 a ve John 
Duncalf for life a messuage and 40 acres 
in Chadderton. William Radcliffe's feoff- 
ment, made shortly before his death, is 
recited, making provision for his various 
children. Two of these, John and Roger, 
were illegitimate, and their lands reverted 
at their death in 1527 and 1528 to 
Thomas Radcliffe ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. 
p.m. vi, 60. 

The inquisition after William Radcliffe 
is also recorded in Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 
113, m. 19, in connexion with the Traf- 
ford claim to the wardship of the heir. 
At m. 1 8 is the Standish case. 

Margery Kirke, widow of William 
Radcliffe of Chadderton, died in 1521, 
Thomas the son and heir being then 
described as over sixteen years of age ; 
she had held eight messuages, 40 acres of 
land, &c., in the township ; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. v, 38. 

61 Ibid, xi, 25. The settlement re- 
cited in it granted the manor, after the 
death of Thomas, to the use of his eldest 
son William for sixty years, then to the 
use of any wife of William for her life, 
then to any son of the said William and 
his heirs male ; then to the second and 
third sons of Thomas in the same way. 
William was to 'leave and forbear the 
company of Margery Hawkirk, with 
whom he was suspected to lead an un- 
godly life,' and within ten years marry 
' such gentlewoman or other woman being 
of honest name and fame,' approved by 
the trustees ; see ibid, iii, 13. 

The will of Thomas Radcliffe is 
printed in Piccope's Wills (Chet. Soc. ),ii, 
163-4 ; his sons William and John, and 
daughters {Catherine, Ellen, Margaret, 
Elizabeth, and Anne, are named, and three 
bastard children. He desired to be buried 
in Oldham Church, near his wife. 

52 In accordance with the father's set- 
tlement. 

53 Inq. p.m. last cited, and xiv, 54. 
John Radcliffe, who was ' of Gisburn,' in 
1580, in consideration of the marriage 
between his daughter Margaret and 
Richard Radcliffe of Newcroft, gave his 
manor and lands in Chadderton to trus- 
tees for their benefit. John had various 
disputes with his elder brother William 
(see Ducatus Lane. [Rec. Com.], iii, 177, 
512), who in 1589 laid claim to the 
estate, but seems to have been defeated. 
William made settlements of the third 
part of the manor, with various mes- 



suages, water-mills and dovecotes, lands, 
&c., in Chadderton, Foxdenton, Oldham, 
and Glodwick, in 1587 and 1588 ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 49, m. 54 ; 50, m. 
118. 

William Radcliffe died 30 June 1590, 
holding two messuages, &c., in Glod- 
wick, his heir being his niece Margaret ; 
ibid, xv, m. 23. His nuncupative will is 
printed in Wills (Chet. Soc. new ser.), i, 
108. He left his goods to his wife and 
his son Walter. 

54 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xv, 25. 
She died 28 November 1590. There were 
a younger son and six daughters, of whom 
one grew up. Her husband died 13 
January 1602-3, an( * was buried in Flix- 
ton Church, where there is a brass. 

45 He granted to Sir Alexander Rad- 
cliffe of Ordsall and other trustees his 
capital messuage of Denton and the manor 
of Chadderton, with the demesne lands ; 
the coal mines at Huntclough ; part of a 
water corn - mill and two kilns, and 
various tenements ; the capital messuage 
called Newcroft in Urmston ; for the use 
of his son and heir Robert, with remain- 
der to younger sons William and Alexan- 
der. The father reserved to himself 
rooms at Foxdenton and an annuity of 
40, and made provision for his younger 
sons and his daughters Margaret, Eliza- 
beth, Susan, and Mary ; Shaw, Oldham, 

93- 

56 He was made a knight in the field, 
at the pursuit of Essex's army, i Septem- 
ber, 1 644 ; Metcalfe, Knights, 202. 

*7 He had a colonel's commission from 
Prince Charles. After the surrender he 
had leave to return to Foxdenton, Lord 
Fairfax reporting that he was ' very civil 
and fair in his demeanour,' the country 
commending him 'for preserving them 
often from the injuries which they were 
subject unto by the unruly soldiers.' His 
estates were, of course, sequestered by the 
Parliament, but he compounded, stating 
the annual value of the estates as 235, 
and claiming a mitigation of the fine on 
the ground that he was neither ' a papist 
in arms,' nor a participant in the ' rebel- 
lion of Ireland.' He made his will in 
1647, desiring to be buried in Oldham 
Church, and making provision for his 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Rowland 
Egerton of Farthinghoe ; Shaw, Oldham 
96-8, 103-8. Dame Elizabeth's will, 
dated 1650, is printed ibid. 116, 117. 

58 In 1652 a settlement was made by 
Alexander Radcliffe and Mary his wife ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 152, m. 6$. 
The remainders, after his issue, were to 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



married John Byrom of Salford, and Susan, who 
married Alexander Potter of Manchester. 59 These 
ladies bequeathed Foxdenton to their distant cousin 
Alexander Radcliffe, great-great-great-grandson of the 
Sir William Radcliffe of Ordsall from whom they 
were descended. 60 

In this branch of the family the spelling Radclyffe 
being used Foxdenton has descended to the present 
time. 61 Alexander was duly succeeded by his son, 
grandson, and great-grandson, each named Robert. 
The last of them, dying in 1854, had a son and heir 
Charles James, who was in 1882 followed by his son 
Mr. Charles James Radclyffe, born in 1839, of Fox- 



denton and Hyde near Wareham. 61 Foxdenton ceased 
to be the family residence about a century ago. 63 

The hall is a plain classic building with projecting 
end wings and steep hipped roofs, erected probably 
about the beginning of the i8th century. The first 
hall was described as a ' noble and lofty edifice of the 
1 6th century fronting northerly, with two wings, 
overlooking a beautiful lawn.' ^ Of this house, how- 
ever, nothing remains, and a stone under the steps of 
the present hall on the north side, which bears the 
date 1620, together with the initials W.R. and the 
Radcliffe coat of arms, seems to indicate a rebuilding 
of some portion of the house at the date mentioned. 631 * 




FOXDENTON HALL 



Susan, then wife of Alexander Potter of 
Foxdenton, to Mary Radcliffe, to Sir 
Alexander Radcliffe of Ordsall, &c. ; 
Raines D. (Chet. Lib.), 4/72. See also 
Cal. Com. for Compounding, ii, 1445. He 
died about eighteen months after this, for 
his widow Mary joined in a mortgage of 
Foxdenton in 1654; Shaw, Oldham, 146. 
By this time his sister Mary was the wife 
of John Byrom of Salford. 

A fine respecting a third part of the 
manors of Glodwick, Oldham, and Chad- 
derton in 1662 may relate to the Radcliffe 
inheritance ; the deforciants were John 
Deane and Magdalen his wife ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 168, m. 118. 

59 Major Byrom and Dr. Potter were in 
possession in 1667, when the manor court 
allowed John Hall, with their permission, 
to build a cottage, which might stand 'so 
long as those who live therein do not beg, 
but labour for their living ' ; Shaw, op. 
cit. 169. 

60 The Potters resided at Foxdenton. 
In 1681 Alexander Potter was assessed 
there; ibid. 186. He and his wife made 
a demise of their moiety of Foxdenton in 



1684 ; ibid. 192. He died in 1691, aged 
eighty-eight, and was buried in Oldham 
Church ; ibid. 205. His widow was buried 
there 25 January 1696-7 ; ibid. 218. 

In 1692 there was a recovery of Mary 
Byrom's moiety of the manor ; Pal. of 
Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 228, m. 97. 

On ii May 1693 Susan Potter of Fox- 
denton and Mary Byrom of Salford, widows, 
made their wills, devising Foxdenton and 
other estates to trustees, for the benefit of 
John, grandson of Sir Alexander Radcliffe 
of Ordsall, and then of Alexander, elder 
son of Captain Robert Radcliffe, late of 
Withenshaw he was killed in a duel in 
1686 ; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), iii, 
617 and his sons in tail male ; then of 
Edward, younger son of Robert, &c. ; 
Shaw, Oldham, pp. 210-13. Alexander 
was at this time about fifteen years of age. 

Abstracts of a number of Radclyffe 
leases from 1707 onwards are printed in 
Shaw's Oldham, pp. 243, &c. On 6 Janu- 
ary 1725-6 Alexander Radclyffe of Fox- 
denton leased to Edmund Radclyffe the 
messuage called Cowper's Tenement, 
wood and timber and mines of coal 

J2O 



and stone being excepted, but with 
reasonable hedgebote, &c. The rent was 
to be 2 if., one day's ploughing (or 
41. dd,\ the carriage of twenty baskets 
of coal to Foxdenton Hall (or 21. fid.), one 
day leading dung (or 21. 6</.), four days' 
' shearing ' in harvest (or 21. 8^.), three 
days' harrowing (or 35.), two fat hens (or 
ii. 4</.), at death the best beast ; two young 
oaks or ashes were to be planted each 
year ; ibid. 284. A ' fifteenth ' levied in 
1720 is printed on p. 272. 

A settlement was made in 1730 by 
Alexander Radclyffe, Elizabeth his wife, 
and Robert Radclyffe ; Pal. of Lane. Feet 
of F. bdle. 305, m. 97. 

61 Robert Radclyffe paid a duchy rent of 
21. in 1779 ; Duchy of Lane. Rentals, 
14/25 m. 

62 For pedigrees see Burke's Commoners, 
iv, 399 ; Landed Gentry , Foster, Lanes. 
Pedigrees. 

63 Butterworth says ' some time since,' 
writing in 1817 ; Oldham, 146. 

63a Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Sac. xi, 1 62. 
63b Ibid. The stone was probably a 
doorhead. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



The sash windows retain their wooden bars, and the 
elevation has a certain dignity now much impaired by 
neglect and change of surroundings. A gatehouse, 
named in the year 1651, has now disappeared. eae 

Manor courts were held in the iyth century by 
the three lords jointly, as it would appear. 64 

The church at Prestwich had land in Chadderton 
of the gift of Gilbert de Barton ; a moiety of it was 
granted by Robert the rector to Richard son of Gil- 
bert de Scolecroft. 65 The Hospitallers also had land 
in the township, 65 and grants to Stanlaw and Cocker- 
sand Abbey will be found recorded in the notes. 67 

Apart from the lords of the manor there were not 
any freeholders of note before the I7th century. 68 
About that time the Scholes family came into notice ; 
they held land in Okeden or Ogden of the lords of the 
manor. 69 The mills are mentioned in several ancient 
deeds. 70 Matthew Fold is mentioned in 1691." 



PRESTWICH WITH 
OLDHAM 

John Ashton of Cowhill was one of the victims of 
the ' Peterloo Massacre' in 1819." 

There are several places of worship in Chadder- 
ton. 73 The earliest in connexion with the Established 
Church St. Margaret's, Hollinwood is now in Old- 
ham. It was followed by St. Matthew's, 1 848-5 7 ; 
the Crown and the Bishop of Manchester present 
alternately. 74 Then came Christ Church in 1870, 
the patronage being vested in five trustees ; it has a 
chapel of ease called Emmanuel, and some mission 
rooms. 75 St. Luke's, to which the Bishop of Man- 
chester collates, was built in 1888 : the district was 
taken from St. Matthew's. 

The Wesleyan Methodists have churches at Chad- 
derton Fold and Middleton Junction, and a preach- 
ing room at Cowhill. 

The Baptists have a chapel at Mills Hill, on the 
border of Tonge. 



63C Raines* notes to Gastrell's Notitia 
(Chet. Soc. xix). Raines notes in 1849 
that numerous family portraits still hung 
in the house. 

64 Oldham Notes and Gleanings, ii, 223, 
from Raines MSS. xxiv, 107. 

65 Hornby Chapel D. The bounds de- 
scribed began on the east side of the springs, 
and mention the land of Robert de Hulton, 
the lache under Lonesedge, Romesdene, 
Hennerode; Ytheyc; andTinte Carr. The 
rent payable was id. 

By another grant the parson of Prest- 
wich gave to Robert son of Gilbert de 
Scolecroft and his heirs by Amaria daugh- 
ter of Peter de Hopwood all the land in 
Chadderton granted in pure alms by 
Gilbert de Barton to God and B. Mary of 
Prestwich at a rent of zs. ; Booker, Prest- 
ivich, 250 ; Agecroft D. 5. 

Richard de Scolecroft, son of Gilbert 
son of Wllet, granted to his son Alan the 
half of the land he had purchased from 
Sir Gilbert de Barton, and to hold as 
freely as the grantor had held it of the 
rectors of Prestwich ; Booker, op. cit. 252. 
The bounds of this land ate identical with 
those of the first-mentioned deed, so that 
Gilbert de Barton, after selling to the 
Scolecrofts, had granted his lordship to 
Prestwich Church. Then Alan son of 
Richard de Scolecroft gave this land to his 
brother Robert ; ibid. 251. 

William de Scolecroft in 1415 demised 
his lands in Chadderton to Robert de 
Buckley for five years ; Raines D. (Chet. 
Lib.), 3/35. 

The family took their name from a 
place in the north-west corner of the 
township, now Scowcroft. 

In 1304 Master William de Marklan, 
the rector, claimed two messuages, 31 
acres of land, and 7 acres of meadow in 
Chadderton and Radcliffe as the free alms 
pertaining to the church of Prestwich ; 
the defendants, who held it as a lay fee, 
were Richard de Radcliffe, Geoffrey de 
Chadderton, Margery de Scolecroft, and 
Adam her son ; De Banco R. 149, m. 255; 
R. 158, m. 158 d, &c. Adam de Scole- 
croft and Adam son of Amaria contributed 
to the subsidy of 1332 ; Exch. Lay Subs. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 30. 



66 It is mentioned in the list of their 
lands in 1292 ; Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. 
Com.), 375. 

67 These monastic lands are probably 
the lands in Chadderton held by Thomas 
Holt of Gristehurst in 1560; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. xi, 46. 

68 In 1537 the free tenants numbered 
12, 13, and 19 in the Standish, Ashton, 
and Radcliffe lordships; Shaw, Oldham, 13. 

An assessment for the fifteenth in 1577 
is printed in Oldham Notes and Gleanings, 
iii, 61-3, from the Raines MSS. xxiv, 
275. It gives the names of the contribu- 
tors ranged under the three lordships. 

69 ' For goods ' James Scholes contri- 
buted to the subsidy of 1526 ; Shaw, Old- 
ham, 1 6. William Scholes contributed to 
that of 1541 ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), i, 145. Various members of 
the family holding under the Standish 
part of the manor paid to the fifteenth in 
1577, John Scholes contributing as a 
' mesne tenant ' ; Shaw, 29. John Scholes 
died in 1589, holding a messuage and 
23 acres called Okeden of the lords of the 
manor in socage by a rent of 6J. t leaving 
a son and heir John, aged over thirty- 
eight in 1619 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 147. This 
John Scholes died in 1630, holding the 
same lands, and leaving as heir his son 
William, over twenty-three years of age ; 
Towneley MS. C. 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 
p. 1 08 1 -2. Robert Scholes contributed 
to the subsidy in 1622 ; Misc. (ut sup.), 
i, 157. Richard and William Scholes 
were two of the four presenting the names 
of those liable to be assessed in Chadderton 
in 1641 ; Shaw's Assessment, 14 ; see 
also Shaw, Oldham, 153, 155, 171. 'The 
late Mr. S. Scholes' s estate, near Earn- 
shaw Lane,' which separates Moston and 
Chadderton, is mentioned in Butterworth's 
Oldham (1817), 165. 

James Scholes, 1671, issued a half-penny 
token ; Lane, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. v, 75. 

With regard to their holding it may be 
noted that Richard de Okeden paid zs. zd. 
to the subsidy of 1332; Exch. Lay Subs. 
30. 

The other 'mesne tenants' in 1577 
were the Mill, James Whitehead, Henry 



Brearley, and Francis Buckley. The 
Whiteheads and Buckleys occur in other 
lists. John son and heir of Richard 
Chadderton in 1507 demised his tenement 
called Colesha (Coldshaw) for twenty-one 
years to Nicholas Whitehead and Margery 
his wife ; Raines D. (Chet. Lib.), 4/48. 

Stockfield (Hibbert) and Birchen Bower 
(Robinson) are mentioned in 1817 as 
recently seats of the owners ; Butter- 
worth, op. cit. 162, 163. 

7 In 1448 John Huntington, warden 
of Manchester, was arbitrator in a dispute 
between the rector of Prestwich and the 
lords of Chadderton as to tithe of th mill. 
Elizabeth daughter of Richard de Rad- 
cliffe, one of the co-heirs, was not then of 
full age ; Raines D. (Chet. Lib.), 3/40. 

Twenty years later an agreement wag 
made for the leasing of the ' old mill ' ; 
Edmund Ashton, Thomas Radcliffe, and 
Thomas Duncalf also agreed to make no 
new mill during the term, but would re- 
quire their tenants to grind at the old 
one, as before ; ibid. 3/42. 

The three lords in 1581 ordered their 
tenants to grind at the Chadderton mill 
and not elsewhere, under a fine of 6s. 8</.j 
Shaw, Oldham, 31. Further orders were 
made in 1 5 99 and 1617; Oldham Notes 
and Gleanings, ii, 163 (from Raines MSS. 
in Chet. Lib. xxiv, 58). 

Edmund Ashton in 1 669 leased to James 
Wilson of Poppythorn in Prestwich, 
clothier, the fulling mill in Chadderton ; 
Raines D. 

7* James Taylor was the owner or 
lessee ; Shaw, Oldham, 209. 

7 2 E. Butterworth, Oldham (ed. 1856), 
170. 

73 The ' curate at Chadderton,' men- 
tioned in 1622, was perhaps the curate of 
Oldham ; later curates lived in Chadder- 
ton ; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
i, 67. The name of the place may be 
wrongly given. 

7 4 Lond. Gam. 22 Oct. 1844. The 
original building of 1848 a temporary 
one, of wood was burnt down ; the pre- 
sent church was consecrated 9 November 
1857. 

75 For district assigned, ibid. 28 Mar. 
1871. 



121 



16 




122 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



BURY 



BURY 

ELTON 

HEAP 



BURY 

WALMERSLEY - WITH 

SHUTTLEWORTH 
TOTTINGTON HIGHER END 



TOTTINGTON LOWER END 
MUSBURY 

COWPE, LENCH, NEWHALL 
HEY, HALL CARR 



The parish of Bury, of which two townships 
Cowpe-Lench and Musbury lie in the hundred of 
Blackburn, has an area of 24,915 acres. The Irwell 
flows southward through the middle of it, and it is 
bounded by hills on the east, west, and north, those 
in Tottington attaining elevations of 1,200 to 
1, 500 ft. The Carboniferous Rocks occur through- 
out the parish. At Bury, Elton, and Red vales the 
Coal Measures cover a considerable area ; elsewhere 
the Lower Coal Measures occur, except between 
Walmersley and Birtle, where the Millstone Grit is 
thrown up by faults. 

Anciently there were only two manors or town- 
ships in the parish, but these were later subdivided, 
the old ' hamlets ' becoming townships ; and in recent 
years great changes have been made in the boundaries 
to accord with the changes that have taken place in 
the distribution of the population and the resulting 
progress of local government. To the county lay of 
1624 Bury and its hamlets paid 6 i6s. 6V., and 
Tottington 3 8/. ^d., when the hundred contributed 
j^ioo. 1 To the fifteenth the payments respectively 
were z $*. ^d. and 15^. 8</. out of 41 \\s. \d? 

There is evidence in the history of the town of 
Bury of the disturbances raised by Adam Banastre in 
the time of Edward II, Henry de Bury being killed by 
his emissaries. Many people of the district no doubt 
accompanied the Pilkingtons, whose fortified dwelling 
stood in the town, to the foreign wars, as well as to 
the fatal fields of Bosworth and Stoke. There were 
also domestic wars nearer home ; for about 1447 a 
number of the people of Butterworth and Spotland, 
having gathered a company of sixty ' malefactors,' came 
to Bury arrayed in manner of war, with a white 
banner carried before them ; they then marched off 
to Hundersfield in Rochdale, where the demonstra- 
tion ended in the death of one Roger Smethley. It 
seems to have been intended to intimidate the Holts.* 

The Reformation appears to have passed by with- 
out any resistance or opposition, the people here, as 
in the neighbourhood, soon becoming favourable to 
the Puritans. On a certain Sunday of July 1588 
the town was disturbed by a number of Oldham men, 
who, in time of divine service, made * foul disorders ' 
by galloping horses in the street, shouting and piping ; 
*a lamentable spectacle in the place of preaching 
ministry,' as the narrator remarks. 4 About the same 
time the mining industry comes into notice, by a 
dispute concerning ' mines, delphs, and pits of coal.' ' 



The making of woollen yarn had been mentioned by 
Leland fifty years earlier. 

In the Civil War the lord of Bury took the lead on 
the king's side, and the rector was also a Royalist, 
while John Greenhalgh and Edward Nuttall dis- 
tinguished themselves in the same cause. A conflict 
is reported to have taken place close to the town of 
Bury on 14 August i648. 6 The restoration of 
Charles II was cordially welcomed in Bury, 7 but the 
revolution appears to have been acquiesced in as 
readily, and nothing is known of any Jacobite sym- 
pathizers in the risings of the 1 8th century. 

In 1798, during the French War, a volunteer 
force was created under the name of the Loyal Bury 
Volunteer Association. 8 A rifle corps was formed in 
1859, an ^ l ^ e town is now ^e head quarters of the 
5th Battalion Lancashire Fusiliers (Territorials). 9 

Bury has had its share in the great development of 
Lancashire manufactures, and here, as elsewhere, dis- 
tress in times of bad trade produced disturbances, of 
which the most notable examples were the riots of 
l826, 10 and the ' plug drawing ' of 1842. The agri- 
cultural land in the parish is now apportioned thus : 
Arable land, 1,315 acres; permanent grass, 12,691 ; 
woods and plantations, 61. The following are 
details : 





Arable 
acres 

180 


Grass Woods, &c. 
acres acres 

1,248 8 


Elton 


14-3 


7 T 

1,721 14- 


Heywood .... 
Tottington . . . 
Ramsbottom . . . 
Walmersley 


T J 

93 
26 

7 
56 


* / J 

1,435 
2,032 

3,533 39 
2,720 



1 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 22. 

2 Ibid. 1 8. 

8 Pal. of Lane. Plea. R. n, m. 32. 
4 Hist. AfSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 

572- 

* Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 258. 

6 B. T. Barton, Hist, of Bury, 35. The 
writer admits that the story is merely 
traditional; the 'castle' is said to have 
been finally destroyed at this time. It 
was said that for many successive years 
all the grain grown on the place of con- 



flict in Bury Lane (now Bolton Street) 
was ' streaked as if with gore,' due to the 
blood shed there. Butcher Lane is said 
to have been named from a butcher who, 
being pursued in the fighting, made his 
horse leap across both the hedges border- 
ing the lane ; ibid. 44. The name, how- 
ever, occurs earlier. 

It may be added that the History quoted 
was a compilation from earlier writers and 
was issued in 1874. The author died in 
1896. 

123 



The worthies of the parish include Henry Dunster, 
1609-59, the first president of Harvard ; Captain 
William Kay, who took part in the defence of Lathom 
House in 1644, and died a prisoner for debt in 
Lancaster Castle in 1670 ; Edward Rothwell, a Non- 
conformist divine, who ministered in Bury, Holcombe, 
and the district, and died in 1731 ; John Warburton, 
1682-1759, book collector ; Josiah Nuttall, naturalist, 
1771-1849; John Ainsworth, local historian, born 
near Chamber Hall, 1777-1858 ; 10a James Bateman, 
botanist, born at Redvales in 1811, and died at 
Worthing in 1897 ; Sir James Phillips Kay-Shuttle- 
worth, bart., a founder of the system of school inspec- 
tion, 1804-77; his brother, Sir Edward Ebenezer 
Kay, judge, 1822-97 ; Sir John Holker, politician 

7 For an account of the festivities see 
Manch. Guardian Local N. and Q. no. 
577, quoting Parl. Intelligence, no. 27 
(2 July 1660). 

8 Barton, Bury, 71. 

9 There is a full account of the local 
force in T. H. Hayhurst, Bury and 
Rossendale Volunteer Movement (Bury 
1887). 

lu Barton, op. cit. 163. 

lOa Bury Library Quart. July 1906, 

P-55- 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



and judge, 1828-82 ; and Sir William Hardman, 
1828-90, sometime Recorder of Kingston and editor 
of the Morning Post. Lives of most of them will be 
found in the Dictionary of National Biography. Others 
are noticed in the different townships. 

The church of ST*. MART stands in 
CHURCH the centre of the town, to the north of 
the market-place, on an ancient site, but 
is itself a modern building erected entirely in the 
I gth century. A church is said to have been built 
here in the 1 3th century, and restored or rebuilt 
about 1535; but it had fallen into a state of decay 
by the middle of the i8th century, and in the year 
1773 was taken down, with the exception of the tower, 
and a new building erected between the years 1773 
and 1780. Old prints show this church to have been 
rectangular in plan, with a square projecting chancel, 
built in pseudo-Gothic style, with two tiers of pointed 
windows, straight parapets, and drafted angle quoins. 
The tower, which is described in 1829 as an 'old 
small semi-spire steeple ' detracting from the appear- 
ance of the church," having been damaged in 1839, 
was taken down four years later, and the present 
tower and broach spire built in 18445. The i8th- 
century church stood till 1870, when the chancel 
was taken down and the present one begun ; but in 
the course of reconstruction the whole of the old 
building was declared to be unsafe, and was pulled 
down in 1872. The present handsome church was 
erected between 1870 and 1876, Mr. F. S. Crowther 
being the architect, and consists of an apsidal chancel 
56 ft. 6 in. long by 27 ft. 8 in. wide, with south chapel 
and north vestry, nave 84ft. 6 in. long by 3 oft. wide, 
with north and south aisles and south porch. The 
tower of 1 845 was retained at the west end, and is 
joined on to the new church by a wide narthex ex- 
tending the whole width of the nave and aisles, to 
which it is open by three arches. The building is of 
stone, in the style of the I4th century, with lofty 
clearstory and roof, quite overshadowing the tower 
and spire, which, though too big for the church as it 
was before 1870, is now too small. The interior is 
partly lined with bricks, and is a fine example of 
modern Gothic work. The height of the chancel is 



Institution 

oc. 1189 . . 
bef. 1226 . 



Name 

Peter the Chaplain * 
Henry" .... 



63 ft., and that of the nave 76ft. The fittings, like 
the structure, are all modern, and there is nothing 
about the building of antiquarian interest. 

The churchyard was enlarged in 1843, and closed 
for interments in 1855. It is paved with headstones 
laid flat, and has an 18th-century pedestal sundial on 
the north side. 

There is a ring of eight bells, six by A. Rudhall of 
Gloucester, 1722, recast by Mears & Stainbank, and 
the two trebles by Taylor & Co., of Loughborough, 
1892."* 

The plate is all modern, and consists of two chalices 
of 1 8 60- 1, two patens of the same date, and a silver 
bread-box given by Archdeacon Blackburne. One of 
the patens is inscribed ' The gift of Elizabeth Plant, 
relict of Thomas Plant, to the church of Bury,' and 
the other * The gift of Mary Hutchinson, relict of 
William Hutchinson, to the church of Bury.' There 
are also two large plated flagons given by the Rev. 
James Bankes (rector 171043), and a plated paten. 

The registers date from 1590 (baptisms 1590, 
marriages and burials 1591), and have been printed, up 
to 1698, by the Lancashire Parish Register Society." 

There is a clock and chimes in the tower, given in 
1903 by Mr. Henry Whitehead, High Sheriff of 
Lancashire. 

The church of Bury is known to 
ADVQWSQN have existed at the end of the I2th 
century. The patronage has always 
descended with the lordship of the manor, 13 the Earl 
of Derby now having the right of presentation. In 
1291 the income was taxed at 20 marks, 14 but fifty 
years later the ninth of sheaves, wool, &c., was only 
worth half that sum, Bury proper contributing 
IO2/. 2^., and the moiety of Tottington 3 1/. 2<^. 15 
The gross value of the rectory in 1534 was returned 
as 30 6s. 8</. 16 Nearly two centuries later it was 
given as about 250.^ A large amount of the glebe 
lying in the town of Bury, the rector was empowered 
in 1764 to grant building leases for ninety-nine 
years. 18 This greatly enhanced the rector's income, 
which in 1834 was nearly 2,000, and afterwards 
increased. It is now given as 2,000. 19 

The following is a list of the rectors : 



Patron 



Cause of Vacancy 



11 Jas. Butterworth, Bury, 1829. 

The church of 1775 was thus described 
in 1824 : 'The new building is spacious 
and handsome, but the old small half- 
spire steeple detracts from its appearance 
and ought to have shared the fate of the 
body of the church ; ' Baines, Lanes. Dir. 
i, 577. Canon Raines on the other hand 
says : 'In 1773 the nave of the church 
was rebuilt in a debased style, and in 
1843 the fine old tower and spire were 
with difficulty razed and rebuilt ; ' Notitia 
Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 28. 

An organ was first placed in the church 
in 1752 5 Barton, Bury, 298. This work 
has a view of the church of 1775 as 
frontispiece. 

1] These are recastings of two bells 
added to the original ring of six in 1843. 
The sixth and seventh bells are inscribed 
with the initials of A. Rudhall, the 
date 1722, and the names of the church- 
wardens of that year. 

12 Vols. i, x, and xxiv, transcribed 
by Rev. W. J. LOwenberg and Henry 



Brierley, the third vol. by Archibald 
Sparke. 

18 It was so in 1287 ; De Banco R. 
67, m. 56. Sir Roger de Pilkington 
claimed the presentation in 1367, Henry 
son of Margery de Radclift'e being defen- 
dant ; De Banco R. 429, m. 127 d. 

14 Pope Nick. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 249. 

15 Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 39. The 
other half of Tottington paid to Prestwich. 

" Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 226. 
The glebe lands returned 481. \d. ; tithe 
of grain and hay, 15 ; of lambs and 
wool, 4 ; of calves, &c., 20*.; Easter 
roll, offerings, &c., 7 us. 8<; mor- 
tuaries, 6s. %d. The Archdeacon of 
Chester received 151. ^d. for synodals and 
procurations. 

V Bishop Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. 
Soc.), ii, 27, 28. In 1673 there were 
five wardens and five assistants ; about 
1718 there were six churchwardens, viz. 
one for Bury, chosen by the rector ; one 
each for Heap, Walmersley, and Elton, 
chosen by the rector out of three pre- 

124 



sented for each of these hamlets ; and 
two named by Tottington. In 1552 
there were four churchwardens for Bury, 
and a warden for each of the three 
chapels-of-ease ; in 1850 it was the cus- 
tom for the rector to nominate a warden 
and sidesman without any parish meeting, 
the other townships sending in three 
names, of which the rector chose two ; 
Cb. Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 45, 47. 

18 Raines, op. cit. ii, 28 ; the Act is 
printed in Barton, Bury, 149. In 1824 
half the town was said to be glebe, the 
other half being the Earl of Derby's 
leasehold. 

19 Mancb. Dioc. Dir. 1910. 

20 He was one of the witnesses to the 
foundation charter of Burscough Priory ; 
as his name stands third, after the Arch- 
deacon and the Prior of Norton, he could 
not have been a mere stipendiary chap- 
lain ; Farrer, Lanes. Pipe .8.350. 

91 Henry, parson of Bury, attested a 
grant by Roger de Montbegon before 
1226 ; Hopwood D. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



BURY 



Institution 

oc. 1275 . . 



Name 



Patron 



14 Jan. 1318-19. 
23 Dec. 1323 

12 Dec. 1331 

13 Mar. 1334-5 . 

17 May 1335 
22 Oct. 1367 
28 Aug. 1406 
17 July 1442 
9 May 1462 
1 6 Feb. 1482-3 . 

19 Oct. 1507 

4 Feb. 1554-5 
21 Aug. 1568 



Geoffrey" 

Roger de Freckleton * 3 

Richard de Radcliffe S4 Margery, lady of Bury 

Adam de Radcliffe 5 

John de Radcliffe w Margaret de Radcliffe . . 

Henry de Over " Henry s. of Sir Henry de 

Bury 

John de Radcliffe ts Henry de Bury . . . 

John de Pilkington 59 Sir Roger de Pilkington . 

Thomas de Hulton M Sir John de Pilkington . 

Roger Bradeley 31 

George Pilkington S2 Thos. Pilkington 

John Nabbs, B.Can.L. 33 . . , 

Richard Smith, LL.B. 34 . . 

Richard Jones, M.A. 3S . . . , 

Gowther Kenyon K 

John Shireburne, B.D." . . . 



Cause of Vacancy 



Sir T. Pilkington 
f John Ireland . 
\Thos. Stanley . 
Hugh Jones . 
Earl of Derby . 



res. R. de Freckleton 
d. R. de Radcliffe 
d. A. de Bury 
res. John 

res. H. de Over 
d. J. de Radcliffe 



d. R. Bradeley 
d. G. Pilkington 

res. J. Nabbs 

d. last rector 
d. R. Jones 



82 There was in 1275 a dispute as to 
2 acres of land between Geoffrey, rector 
of Bury, and Richard son of Robert, the 
former claiming them as the free alms of 
his church, and the latter as his lay fee ; 
De Banco R. 7, m. 33. 

About the same time a Geoffrey de 
Bury, not described as parson or clerk, 
was witness to a grant to Stanlaw Abbey; 
Wballey Coucber (Chet. Soc.), ii, 481. 

23 He was ordained deacon in 1311 on 
the presentation of Siegrith, lady of Urms- 
ton ; Lich. Epis. Reg. i, fol. 1 14,6. 

24 Ibid, i, fol. 86 ; he was a priest, 
and exchanged the rectory of Radcliffe 
for that of Bury. He took part in the 
rebellion of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 
in 1322, being present with Robert de 
Holland at Ravensdale after the king had 
forbidden the assembly. He was fined 
10 marks ; Coram Rege R. 254, m. 6 1 
(where he is called Richard de Bury, 
parson of the church of Bury). 

25 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. ioo&; he 
was a clerk. He is no doubt the Adam 
de Bury of the next presentation. Adam, 
rector of Bury, was ordained subdeacon 
in Sept. 1325, and priest a year later; 
ibid, i, 150, 152. 

26 Ibid, ii, fol. 107^ ; a clerk. In 
1334 John son of Robert de Radcliffe, 
rector of Bury, was accused of mainten- 
ance ; Coram Rege R. 8 Edw. Ill, 
m. 3. He was among those charged 
with complicity in the death of Sir Wil- 
liam de Bradshagh ; Cal. Fat. 1330-4, 
PP .498, 572. 

2 ' Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. no ; a 
priest. It is probable that John de Rad- 
cliffe had failed to comply with the canons, 
or had incurred censure through the pro- 
ceedings mentioned in the last note, and 
that he resigned, Henry de Over taking 
his place for three months, so that he 
might secure a fresh presentation. 

It should be noted that an Adam, par- 
son of Bury, and Roger his brother are 
named in 1337; Cal. Pat. 1334-8, p. 452. 

28 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. no; an 
acolyte. John de Radcliffe, as a trustee, 
is frequently mentioned. In 1343 he 
was charged with trespasses against the 
peace, including a part in the murder of 
Adam de Lever at Liverpool ; Assize R. 
430, m. i8d. ; Coram Rege R. 344, 
m. 8 ; and two years later secured a 
pardon by offering to go to Gascony, or 
elsewhere, for a year at his own charges 
on the king's service; Cal. Pat. 1343-5, 
p. 53 1 ' He died on 22 Aug. 1367. His 



son John became lord of Chadderton, but 
was illegitimate, the next-of-kin and 
heir of John the rector being Ralph ton 
of William de Radcliffe ; De Banco R. 
426, m. 35 ; R. 435, m. 139. 

29 Lich. Epis. Reg. iv, fol. 83 ; a priest. 
He was still rector in 1394, and perhaps 
in 1402 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), 
ii, 38. 

80 Lich. Epis. Reg. vii, fol. 95*; he 
had only the first tonsure. A Thomas 
de Hilton was prebendary of York in 
1401 and 1404 ; Le Neve, Fasti, ill, 171, 
224. 

Thomas de Hulton in 1427 agreed to 
allow Thurstan de Langley, rector of 
Prestwich, to receive all the tithes, mor- 
tuaries, oblations, &c., within the town 
of Tottington and Tottington Frith, ac- 
cording to the sentence given in the 
Court Christian at Warrington, before 
Richard de Stanley, Archdeacon of Ches- 
ter, or his official ; Agecroft D. 75. 

81 Lich. Epis. Reg. ix, fol. 126 ; a 
priest. 

82 Ibid, xii, fol. ioo ; a priest. 
George Pilkington, chaplain, was a 
younger son of Robert Pilkington, and 
was about 1462 a defendant with his 
brothers, Thomas, Edmund, &c., in a 
charge of robbery made by Peter Legh ; 
Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 24, m. 27 d. In 
1481 George Pilkington, rector of Bury, 
Robert Pilkington, late of Little Lever, 
and others, were summoned to answer for 
aiding and abetting divers felonies ; Pal. 
of Lane. Writs Proton, file 22 Edw. IV b. 

83 Lich. Epis. Reg. xii, fol. 116 ; he is 
called Master John Nebbe. 

34 Ibid, xiii-xiv, fol. 55. Richard 
Smith appears to have been presented a 
second time, on 21 Oct. 1507, by Sir 
Henry Halsall and Sir John Ireland ; 
Act Bks. at Chester. He held the rec- 
tory for fifty years, appearing at the 
bishop's visitation in 1554. In 1523 it 
was reported to the Chancellor of the 
Duchy that he had been presented by the 
Earl of Derby, and that the rectory was 
worth 40 marks. 

A few years later Richard Smith com- 
plained that he had appointed a parish 
clerk, but John Greenhalgh and others, 
probably as claiming a voice in the nomi- 
nation, had combined against the new 
clerk and the rector. On the Sunday 
before All Saints' Day 1526, they came 
to church in the morning, 'making 
semblance as though they had come to 
hear there divine service,' but bearing 

125 



weapons concealed under their clothes. 
The rector, having said his hours, went in 
procession, the clerk preceding him with 
the crucifix as usual, when the confede- 
rates sprang up and attacked them, 
snatching the crucifix from the clerk's 
hands and casting it down, using them- 
selves more like Jews and Paynims than 
otherwise.' There was 'no mass nor 
other divine service ' in church that Sun- 
day. On Hallowmass itself the rector, 
' fearing to come abroad in the daylight, 
came into the said church early in the 
spring of the day, intending to have served 
Almighty God as to him of duty did apper- 
tain," but found John Greenhalgh and the 
others lying in wait, and had to refrain 
' from saying of mass and other service.' 
This seems to have gone on until the 
following January ; Duchy Plead. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 151-3. 

In 1542 Smith was official of 
Chester ; Duchy Plead, ii, 154. He built 
a chapel on the north aisle of his church, 
no doubt intending to found a chantry 
there, but lived to see the spoliation of 
these endowments and the restoration of 
the old religion under Mary. Hugh 
Watmough, rector in 1614, allowed 
Roger Kay of Widdell to make a seat 
in the north chapel, which chapel had 
been erected by Richard Smith, formerly 
rector, and repaired by his successors ; 
Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxi, fol. 265. 

84 Act Bks. at Chester Dioc. Reg. 
Hugh Jones presented by grant of the 
Earl of Derby. The new rector paid 
first-fruits I Oct. 1557 ; Lanes, and Ches. 
Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 
409. He was probably one of the Jones 
family of Middleton. His will, made in 
1568, is printed in Piccope, Wills (Cher, 
Soc.), ii, 223. To the curate, Sir Roger 
Hodgkinson, he bequeathed, among other 
goods, his surplice and 5. 

86 Church Papers at Chester Dioc. Reg. 
Paid first-fruits 26 Nov. 1568 ; Lanes. 
and Cbes. Rec. ii, 409. 

87 In 1572 there was a disputed pre- 
sentation to the rectory. One John Shire- 
burne, brother of Roger Shireburne of 
Chipping, claimed to be admitted, but had 
to submit to a searching examination. 
He professed himself ' obedient to the 
Queen's Majesty's proceedings in religion.' 
He had been in the company of Sir John 
Southworth. Though he had not preached 
at Blackburn denouncing the ' nakedness of 
the Church of England for want of cere- 
monies,' he had extolled good works in a 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



Institution 

1572 
6 July 1608 . 

23 Aug. 1623 
1 6 Mar. 1632-3 

1654 . . 

1654-6 . 

2 Mar. 1660-1 
26 Feb. 1674-5 
19 May 1710 
19 July 1743 . 

6 Feb. 1778 



Name 



Patron 



Peter Shaw, B.D. 38 .... 
Hugh Watmough, B.D. 39 . . 
George Murray, B.D. 40 . . 
Peter Travers, B.D. 41 . . . 
William Alt, M.A." . . . 
John Lightfoot 43 . . . . 
John Greenhalgh, D.D. 44 . 
Thomas Gipps, B.D. 45 . . . 
James Bankes, M.A. 46 . . . 
Hon. John Stanley, D.D. 47 . 
Sir William Henry Clerke, 
B.C.L. 48 



Cause of Vacancy 



John Favour 
Earl of Derby 



bart., 



Oliver, Protector 
Countess of Derby 

Earl of Derby . 
Thos. Bankes . 
Earl of Derby . 



d P. Shaw 

d. H. Watmough 

d. G. Murray 



sermon. Robert Cottam, a priest, once 
curate of Longridge, had paid him a visit 
when he lay sick. As being resident in 
Lord Derby's house he did not himself 
teach the Catechism to the youth of the 
parish. The Communion, he believed, 
was administered once a year only, unless 
sick folk asked for it. He had never 
been at burials or wakes ; Raines MSS. 
(Chet. Lib.), xxii, fol. 531. From these 
replies it would appear that he had actu- 
ally been in charge for some time, though 
not instituted. The admission asked for 
was no doubt refused, but Shireburne be- 
came rector of Brindle (q.v.). 

88 Paid first-fruits 20 Nov. 1572 ; Lanes, 
and Ches. Rec. ii, 410. Collated to the 
sixth prebendal stall at Durham, 1572 ; 
Le Neve, Fasti, iii, 313. He was plain- 
tiffin a tithe case in 1598 ; Ducatus Lane. 
(Rec. Com.), iii, 386. The ' wife of John 
Shaw, old Mrs. Shaw, the parson's 
mother,' was buried 4 May 1597, and the 
parson himself on n July 1608 ; Bury 
Reg. His son became rector of RadclifFe. 

8 Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, fol. 
72 ; the patron for this turn was vicar of 
Halifax. The rector had been educated 
at University College, Oxford ; M.A. 
1586; B.D. 1594; rector of Thornton- 
in-Craven, 1599-1623 ; Foster, Alumni ; 
Whitaker, Craven. Paid first-fruits 17 
Dec. 1608 ; Lanes, and Ches. Rec. ii, 411. 
He was buried 21 Aug. 1623 ; Bury Reg. 
There is an allusion to him in N. Asshe- 
ton's Journ. (Chet. Soc.), 6. 

40 The dates of institution, &c., from 
this time onward to 1800 are taken from 
the Inst. Bks. P.R.O., as printed in 
Lanes, and Cbes. Antiq. Notes. For 
fuller accounts of the modern rectors see 
Baines, Lanes, (ed. Croston), iii, 98101. 

George Murray was of Queens' College, 
Cambridge, and had been tutor of Lord 
Strange ; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 
fol. 72. He paid first-fruits 17 Nov. 
1623 ; Lanes, and Ches. Rec. ii, 412 
(where the name is given as Massye). He 
was a prebendary of Lichfield from 1623 
to 1633 ; Le Neve, Fasti, i, 590, 602. 
Buried 12 Mar. 1632-3 ; Bury Reg. His 
will was proved at Chester in 1633. 

41 Paid first-fruits 31 May 1633 ; Lanes, 
and Ches. Rec. ii, 413. The name is also 
spelt Travis. Shortly afterwards he was 
appointed rector of Halsall, retaining both 
benefices till ejected by the Parliamen- 
tarians, on account of his zealous adhesion 
to the royal side in the war. On 24 April 
1641; it was ordered that as Peter Travers 
was ' disaffected to the Parliament and the 
proceedings thereof,' and was actually at 
Lathom House, a hostile garrison, his 
rectory should be sequestered ; and that 
William Alt and Andrew Lathom, 'godly 
and orthodox divines,' should ' officiate the 
cure ' and take for their pains the rectory 
house, tithes, and other profits. Mr. La- 
thom dying, Mr. Toby Furness, another 



' godly and orthodox divine,' was ' settled 
in the rectory' in his place. A tenth 
part of the profits was paid to Mrs. Doro- 
thy Travers, wife of the sequestered rector, 
for the maintenance of herself and her 
children ; Common-wealth Cb. Surv. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 38-40. It is 
clear that the three ministers named were 
rather curates in charge during the seques- 
tration than rectors. Toby Furness had 
had a similar charge at Prestwich ; he 
signed the ' Harmonious Consent" in 1648, 
and continued to minister at Bury till his 
death about 1653 ; Bury Classis (Chet. 
Soc.), i, 90, 135. For Andrew Lathom, 
see ibid, ii, 2424 ; his will is printed. 

An incident of the time should be re- 
corded: The Manchester Parliamentarians 
took from the church of Bury 'the sur- 
plice, and put it on the back of a soldier, 
and caused him to ride in the cart the 
arms were carried in, to be matter of sport 
and laughter to the beholders ' ; Lanes. 
War (Chet. Soc.), ix. 

43 Rector Travers appears to have died 
by 1654, for Halsall as well as Bury was 
filled up in that year ; Plund. Mins. Accts. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 49, 60. 
William Alt, as ' minister of Bury,' signed 
the 'Harmonious Consent' of 1648. He 
had been a curate of Bury for many years, 
his name appearing in the registers from 
1628. He died 5 April 1656, and was 
buried at Bury. See the account of him 
in Bury Classis (Chet. Soc.), ii, 208. 

43 Paid first-fruits 4 July 1656 ; Lanes, 
and Cbes. Rec. ii, 414. He was presented 
in July 1654 by the Countess of Derby 
(Plund. Mins. Accts. ii, 46) ; but the Pro- 
tector's presentation appears to have pre- 
vailed, though Lightfoot succeeded after 
William Alt's death. He is identified by 
Dr. W. A. Shaw with John son of the 
celebrated Dr. John Lightfoot ; Bury 
Classis, ii, 246. He was Episcopalian in 
his leanings, and was in 1655 denounced 
by the congregation of Bury for ' certain 
mistakes and miscarriages in point of 
doctrine and practice' ; ibid. 142. From 
the date it would appear that he took up 
his residence at Bury in the lifetime of 
Mr. Alt, and also ministered there. In 
1659 ne was engaged in suits respecting 
tithes ; Excb. Dep. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), 32, 33. He became vicar of Bow- 
don in 1660, and died in 1661. He had 
been an advocate of the Restoration, and 
is said to have been deprived of his bene- 
fice for praying publicly for the king at 
the time of Sir George Booth's rising ; 
Mancb. Guardian Local N. and Q. no. 577. 

44 He was a son of John Greenhalgh of 
Brandlesholme, and educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge ; Admissions St. John's 
Col. i, 9; Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 126. 
He was elected fellow of his College in 
1632, but expelled by the Earl of Man- 
chester (for the Parliament) in 1644 ; 
Baker, Hist, of St. John's Col. (ed. Mayor), 

126 



res. J. Lightfoot 
d. J. Greenhalgh 
d. T. Gipps 
d. J. Bankes 
res. J. Stanley 



i, 294, 296. He was a Royalist, and 
attended the Earl of Derby on his way to 
Bolton in 1651, being afterwards chaplain 
at Knowsley ; Stanley Papers (Chet. Soc.), 
iii, pp. ccxxxix, cclxxvii. He took the 
D.D. degree in 1672. He died 27 Oct. 
1674; Bury Reg. Hi will was proved 
at Chester. 

45 He was a correspondent of John 
Walker, author of The Sufferings of the 
Clergy ; Bury Classis, ii. He was edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Cambridge, of 
which he became fellow ; M.A. 1662. In 
1674 he received a faculty to preach 
throughout England and Ireland from 
James, Duke of Monmouth, then Chan- 
cellor of the University ; Stratford, Visit. 
List, Chester. Hi sermon at the Preston 
Gild of 1682 was published, and in 1697 
he printed a sermon Against Corrupting 
the Word of God, directed against the 
Presbyterians, which roused some contro- 
versy ; Fishwick, La. Lib. 391-2. His 
will was proved at Chester in 1710. 

A terrier compiled by this rector in 
1696 for the benefit of his successor is in 
the possession of W. Farrer. There is a 
copy in Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 
fol. 368. It contains a full account of the 
rector's dues and the tenants of the glebe, 
with advice as to dealing with the people, 
especially those of Tottington. The Easter 
dues were as follows : House and offering, 
$d. ; every communicant, \d. ; garden, 
id. ; hen, id. ; cow, \d. ; calf, \d. (ex- 
cept there be seven); plough, 4</.; foal, id. ; 
sheep, each id. ; every lamb, id. (except 
there be seven) ; every loom, id. ; every 
swarm of bees, id. ; wintering only sheep, 
each \d. ; or summering them only, \d. 

46 Church P. at Chester. Thomas 
Bankes had the right of presentation for 
that turn only. The date in the text is 
that of presentation. There was probably 
some dispute as to title, for the new rector 
was not instituted till 5 March 1712-13. 

The rector was of the Winstanley 
family, and founded a charity for the poor. 
An anecdote of him is in Raines MSS. 
(Chet. Lib.),xxxi, fol. 278. 

James Bankes, of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, M.A. 1686, became rector of 
Lilley 1 706 ; Foster, Alumni Oxon. 

4 < Also rector of Winwick, under which 
church he is noticed. At Bury he founded 
a charity school, and started a dispensary. 
Some anecdotes of him will be found in 
Raines MSS. xxxi, fol. 335, 355. 

48 Educated at Oxford ; fellow of All 
Souls ; B.C.L. 1778. Succeeded his 
brother as eighth baronet in the same 
year ; G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, iii, 8 1. 
He is said to have been a charitable man, 
but incapable of managing his affairs ; his 
creditors came upon him, the benefice was 
sequestrated, and he died in the Fleet 
Prison ; Raines MSS. xxxi, fol. 344. 

A further account of his speculations is 
given in Barton, Bury, 106, 107. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



Institution Name 

23 Sept. 1818 . Geoffrey Hornby, LL.B." . . . 

28 Mar. 1850 . Edward James Geoffrey Hornby, 

M.A. 40 

10 Sept. 1888 . Frank Edward Hopwood, M.A." . 

13 Feb. 1894 . Foster Grey Blackburne, M.A. 51 . . 

27 Apr. 1909 . John Charles Hill, M.A. i:i . . . 



Patron 

Earl of Derby . 



Little is known of the condition of the pre-Refor- 
mation clergy. There was no endowed chantry at 
the parish church, but probably each of the chapels of 
ease, at Holcombe, Edenfield, and Heywood, had a 
curate of its own. Richard Smith, rector in 1 542, 
paid a curate, and the stipend of another assistant 
priest was contributed by Charles Nuttall and others. 53 
In 1548, however, only the rector and these two 
assistants are named in the bishop's visitation list ; in 
1554 there were four, a curate having been found for 
Edenfield; the same names reappear in 1563, when 
the rector was ' excused,' perhaps for absence, and two 
years later there are five names in the list showing 
an increase in the number. This extraordinary state- 
ment is somewhat modified by the fact that two of 
those named did not appear, and that another's name 
was marked out, the active clergy being reduced to 
the rector and his curate, Roger Hodgkinson. 44 It 
was reported to the royal commissioners in 1559 that 
the curate of Bury did not read the Gospel, Epistle, 
Lord's Prayer, and Ten Commandments, according to 
the proclamation. 45 A similar indifference or hostility, 
though perhaps from other causes, appears in 1592, 
when the rector and curate were ordered to use the 
Catechism, go the perambulations, and * observe her 
majesty's injunctions in all things ' ; the church- 
wardens were to provide Jewell's Reply and Apology:* 
About 1 6 10 the incumbent was 'a preacher,' and the 
three chapels were ' maintained by the inhabitants.' w 



BURY 

Cause of Vacancy 

d. Sir W. H. Clerke 
d. G. Hornby 

d. E. J. G. Hornby 
d. F. E. Hopwood 
d. F. G. Blackburne 



During the sequestration under the Commonwealth 
the curates in charge preached constantly every Sabbath 
day and once every Thursday, the market day, keeping 
a constant lecture there, as had been accustomed ; 
they lived in the parsonage house. 48 The Restoration 
appears to have been quietly accepted in Bury itself, 
where the two landowners, the Earl of Derby and the 
rector, were both Royalists. Nonconformists, however, 
were numerous, and in 1669 the vicar reported to the 
Bishop of Chester that he heard that several con- 
venticles were 'constantly kept at private houses of 
Independents, Presbyterians, Dippers and other such 
like jointly, of the bset rank of the yeomanry and 
other inferiors.' 49 The matter became evident after 
the Revolution, 60 and Bury has now, like other Lanca- 
shire parishes, provision for a great variety of worship 
and doctrine. 

Apart from the grammar school at 
CHARITIES Bury, founded in 1625 and refounded 
in 1 726,' and some other endowments 
for ecclesiastical and educational purposes, the general 
charitable funds have an income of about 190 a 
year. 61 Some ancient benefactions have been lost. 
The whole parish participates in the sums given by 
John Guest in 165 3," Thomas Rothwell in 1737,** 
and Rector Bankes in I743. 64 The old manor or 
township of Bury, including Bury, Heap, Elton, and 
Walmersley, benefits under the will of Samuel 
Waring, I742. 66 Bury proper had in 1828 two small 



49 Son of Geoffrey Hornby, rector of 
Winwick ; educated at Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge ; LL.B. 1809; rector of Felbrigg- 
with-Moulton in Norfolk, 1813. 

60 Son of the preceding rector ; edu- 
cated at Merton College, Oxford ; M.A. 
1843 ; incumbent of Christ Church, Wal- 
mersley, 1841 ; vicar of Ormskirk, 1846; 
Hon. Canon of Manchester, 1855. 

81 Son of Canon Hopwood, rector of 
Winwick ; educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford; M.A. 1 868; incumbent of 
St. James's, Congleton, 1869 ; rector of 
Badsworth, 1879. 

88 Son of Rev. Thomas Blackburne, 
rector of Prestwich ; educated at Brase- 
nose College, Oxford ; M.A. 1864 ; rector 
of Nantwich, 1872 ; Hon. Canon of Man- 
chester, 1898 ; Archdeacon of Manchester, 
1905 ; died I Feb. 1909. 

63a Educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge ; honorary canon of Worcester. 

48 Clergy Litt (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), 12. 

84 From the visitation lists at Chester. 

The church ornaments existing in 1552 
included four sets of vestments for the 
priest to say mass in, three great bells in 
the steeple and a little sanctus bell, a veil 
to hang before the altar in Lent, &c. ; 
Cb. Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 45, 46. 

Roger HoHgkinson was one of the old 
clergy, having been ordained priest in 
1547 ; Ordin. Bk. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), 80. He was still curate in 1575 ; 
Pennant's Acct. Bk. Thomas Duerden 
was curate in 1599. 



54 Ck. Gds. 47, quoting S.P. Dom. 
Eliz. x, 288. The depositions of John 
Shireburne in 1572, already cited, have 
some suggestive features. 

88 W. F. Irvine in Lanes, and Chtt. 
Antij. Soc. xiii, 57. 

*7 Hitt. MSS. Com. Rep. v, App. iv, 12. 
Each chapel had its own curate in 163.4 ; 
Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 95. 

58 Commonw. Ch. Sur-v. 40. At this 
time there were no ministers at Holcombe 
and Edenfield, 'for want of mainten- 
ance' ; 44. 

i9 Visit. P. at Chester Dioc. Reg. 

60 Quakers were presented at the 
bishop's visitation of 1671 ; ibid. 

81 The original founder, Henry Bury 
(d. 1636), who was a native of the place, 
also gave a number of books, three or four 
of which are still preserved ; Old Lanes. 
Libraries (Chet. Soc.), 139. A school 
magazine called the CLi-vian is published. 

62 The details given are from the End. 
Char. Rep. for Bury, published in 1901 ; 
the county borough of Bury was not in- 
cluded. The report of 1828 is reprinted. 

63 John Guest gave rent - charges of 
3 15*. each to the ministers of the 
parish churches of Winwick, Leigh, Wi- 
gan, Deane, RadclifFe, Bolton, Bury, and 
Middleton, to be spent in linen cloth for 
the poor. His estate being insufficient 
for the fulfilment of the bequests, an Act 
was passed in 1663 under which this 
parish received 60, Bury having 40 and 
Tottington the rest. The rectors appear 
to have had charge of the capital, but 

I2 7 



owing to the insolvency of one of them 
only 30 remained in 1828, for which 
Rector Hornby allowed 30.1. interest, ex- 
pended in linen cloth. It appears that 
3 131. 4t/. was then independently held 
for the benefit of the township of Cowpe 
Lench in the Hundred of Blackburn ; it 
has since been lost. 

64 As in the preceding charity, half of 
the capital of 10 had been lost before 
1828, and the 51. given as interest by the 
rector was expended on fourpenny loaves 
for poor persons attending church. The 
testator had named ' sixpenny jannocks.' 

The Guest and Rothwell Charities are 
now represented by 64 consols, and by a 
scheme approved in 1863 the income, 
351. 4</., is spent on clothing or other 
necessaries for the poor of the ancient 
parish. 

65 The capital of 60 is represented by 
a rent-charge of 3 still paid by the owner 
of the Winstanley estate. The income is 
distributed in flannels, &c., by the incum- 
bents of the different ecclesiastical parishes. 

A benefaction of the Rev. John Lo- 
max, 1694, had been lost by 1786. 

65 He left 20, which was increased by 
unknown benefactors to 84. In 1828 
George Ormerod, the historian of Cheshire, 
as heir of Thomas Johnson, who had held 
the capital, granted a rent-charge of 4 41. 
a year ; this is still paid, and a guinea each 
is sent to the rector of Bury, and the 
vicars of Elton All Saints, Walmersley, and 
Heywood St. Luke, for distribution to the 
poor. The original gift was for linen cloth. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



charities. 67 In Heap, in addition to Heywood School, 
1737, is the foundation of John Nuttall, ij6^^ 8 with 
the more substantial recent gifts of William Clegg, 
1887, and others. 69 Walmersley had a school at 
Baldingstone, founded in \j\6, and over 22 for 
the general benefit of the poor, the gifts of Richard 
Haworth,i76o, 71 and John Hall, 1867." The most 
considerable single charity is that founded in 1892-6 
by Miss Nancy Ha worth for the poor of Walshaw, 
partly in Tottington Lower End and partly in Elton. 7 * 
Tottington has old school endowments and some gifts 
for the poor, including ^35 a year from Miss Jane 
Brennand's bequest in iSSz. 74 The township of 
Cowpe Lench participates in Mrs. Alice Martha 
Crabtree's bequest. 75 

BURY 

Biri, 1194; Buri, 1212 ; Bury, 1227, and usual; 
Byry, 1292 ; Bery, 1323. 

The township of Bury lies principally in the narrow 
tongue of land between the Irwell and the Roch, 
stretching north for over 4 miles from the conflu- 
ence of these streams. The surface is generally level, 
but rises on the north-east border to a height of 600 ft. 
The area is 2,329^ acres. 1 The population of the town- 
ship in 1901 was 44,032 and of the borough 58,029. 

The town of Bury occupies the centre of the town- 
ship. The church is situated above what was the old 
course of the Irwell, the ground falling rapidly to the 
north of the Bolton and Rochdale road leading past 
the church. Just at the south-west corner of the 
church this road is joined by that from Manchester, 



and the open space or Wylde 2 at that point is still 
known as the Market-place. The statue of Sir Robert 
Peel, erected in 1852, stands here ; and to the west 
was formerly the fortified manor-house of the Pilking- 
tons. The road leading west to Bolton descends to 
cross the Irwell at Bury Bridge ; the district to the 
south of it is called Tentersfield. Going east from the 
church it passes through Freetown and Pits o' th' 
Moor, to the north-east of the last-named being 
Woodgate Hill. One branch of this road takes a more 
southerly course, crossing the Roch at Heap Bridge 
and leading to Heywood ; to the south of it lies Pirn- 
hole. Another branch runs almost due north, passing 
Chesham and its park on the right, and going through 
Little Wood Cross and Limefield to Walmersley and 
Haslingden. The Manchester road goes southerly 
from the church, passing through Buckley Wells, Fish- 
pool, and Redvales, to Blackford Bridge over the Roch. 

The Lancashire and Yorkshire Company's railway 
from Manchester to Accrington passes north through 
the township, with a station (Bolton Street) near the 
church. A line to Tottington branches off from this. 
The same company's line from Bolton to Rochdale 
crosses the other at right angles, with a station (Knows- 
ley Street) to the south of the former. 3 Electric tram- 
cars run along the main thoroughfares in all directions. 

Bury has .long been a seat of the woollen manu- 
facture ; Bury blankets are known everywhere. 
Leland, about 1535, speaks of 'yarn sometime made 
about Bury, a market town on Irwell ' ; 4 a deputy 
aulnager was appointed in 1564 to stamp woollen 
cloth.* Defoe, writing about 1730, observed that at 



6 ? Robert Shepherd in 1666 granted to 
trustees a rent-charge of 9 arising from 
his messuage called Hall-de-Hill in Elton; 
they were to expend 7 IQJ. for the bene- 
fit of poor householders in Bury, and in 
apprenticing children. In 1828 the 9 
was paid by the then owner of the pro- 
perty, and was distributed in sums of from 
5*. to 15*. among poor persons selected by 
the trustees. 

William Yttes in 1810 bequeathed 
400 for the benefit of the poor. This was 
in 1828 invested in Government stock, 
and the income 16 3*. lod. was distri- 
buted in sums of I or. each. 

Thomas Openshaw, who died in 1869, 
left 4,000 for the poor; Barton,5ary,io6. 

68 His 10 was lent to James Starky, 
whose descendant, James Starky of Hey- 
wood, in 1828 paid 81. a year interest ; it 
was given on Good Friday to poor com- 
municants. The capital was, in 1863, 
given to the official trustees ; the in- 
come, 5$. 8</., is distributed as formerly. 

Samuel Haworth in 1767 left a charge 
of 2 los. a year for linen or woollen 
cloth for the poor ; but his property being 
leasehold, the charge expired when the 
lease ran out, before 1828. 

Heywood School was discontinued in 
1891. 

Bequests by Ann Bamford in 1778 for 
education were void under the Mortmain 
Acts. 

69 William Clegg gave 1,000 to com- 
memorate Queen Victoria's Jubilee ; it is 
now invested in consols, and the total in- 
come is 27 ii. %d. a year. In 1890 the 
sons of the Rev. Robert Minnitt gave 150 
in fulfilment of their father's intention ; 
this produces 4 6s. The two charities 
are worked together ; tickets for 5*. each 
are given to poor persons to be expended 
on clothing or the like necessaries. 



'-The school was discontinued in 1883. 
In this and similar cases the interest on 
the capital is now applied to provide prizes, 
&c., for school-children of the district. 

7 1 The residue of the testator's estate 
produced 481 ; this sum was in 1828 in 
the hands of Thomas Kay, and the in- 
terest, 19 4*. g^d., was distributed in 
doles of money. In 1831 the capital was 
expended in the purchase of a copyhold 
farm in Musbury ; this was sold in 1887 
for 720, now represented by 649 con- 
sols. The income, 17 i6s. %d. t is still 
given in money doles to about ninety re- 
cipients. 

? 2 His bequest was not available till 
1876, when it was invested in 48 1 51. 8</. 
consols, of which a third was allotted to 
Walmersley. The income, 4 145. 8</., 
is distributed in money doles and gifts of 
flannel. 

' 8 Her will was proved in 1897. She 
left 2,000, increased by a codicil to 
3,000, to the minister and churchwar- 
dens of the Jesse Haworth Memorial 
Church for the benefit of workpeople at 
her brother's mills at Walshaw, and of 
the poor of the district. The income, 
82 js. 4</., is distributed in money gifts. 

Thomas Howard in 1808 left a rent- 
charge of 5 5.$. for the poor of Elton ; it 
was distributed in blankets, but the charity 
expired with the lives of the persons named 
in the lease. 

?* She left 1,000 to the vicar and 
churchwardens of St. Paul's, Ramsbottom, 
to keep her gravestone in good order, and 
to distribute the remainder of the income 
to the poor. An additional amount of 
41 8i. from other sources was invested 
with it, and the total income is 35. All 
but about 4*. for the care of the grave it 
spent upon the poor in various ways, 5 
being subscribed to the cottage hospital. 

128 



John Hall's benefaction has been de- 
scribed above. A third of the amount was 
allotted to Tottington Lower End, and 
the income is distributed in payments to 
the sick. 

The Rev. Thos. Bridge, rector of Mai- 
pas ( 1 625-80), left 200 to the ' township' 
of Holcombe ; as there was no such town- 
ship the executors refused to pay, but gave 
100 to Tottington. In 1828 the in- 
come was applied, according to the testa- 
tor's wish, in apprenticing children. The 
capital has long been lost ; see Gastrell, 
Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 32. 

John Buckley in 1737 gave 10 for 
the poor of Tottington Lower End, but 
nothing was known of it in 1828. 

Lawrence Rostron in 1812 directed that 
his executors and their assigns should 
distribute to the poor any interest they 
might receive from the trustees of the 
turnpike road from Rochdale to Edenfield. 
Nothing is known of this charity since 
1867. 

7* She in 1877 bequeathed 500 for 
the ' deserving poor ' of St. James's, Water- 
foot ; the ecclesiastical district includes 
part of Cowpe Lench. See the End. Char. 
Rep. for Whalley (Newchurch in Rossen- 
dale), 1901, p. 22. 

1 3,828 acres, including 104 of inland 
water. This is the area of the borough. 

2 B. T. Barton, Bury, 40. 

8 The Liverpool and Bury line was 
opened in 1848. 

4 Itin. vii, 49 ; he also remarks that 
Bury had ' but a poor market.' Camden, 
on the other hand, calls it a market town 
' not less considerable than Rochdale ' ; 
Brit. (ed. 1695), 745. 

6 8 Eliz. cap. 12 ; Bury is one of the 
five towns named. For a Bury ulnage 
case in 1547-9 see Duchy Plead. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 6-10. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



BURY 



Bury ' the manufacture of cotton . . . was ended, 
and the woollen manufacture of coarse sorts, called 
half-thicks and kerseys, begun ; which employs this 
and all the villages about it.' 6 There are also extensive 
cotton mills, iron and brass foundries, paper mills, 
and bleach works. Bury is also noted for simnel 
cakes, and the fourth Sunday in Lent is kept as a 
festival ; 7 parkin, a corruption of Tharcake, was made 
at the beginning of November. 8 

The old festivals were those of the Royal Oak, 
Robin Hood, and ' Maying Night.' 9 Football games 
were played at certain seasons. 10 Otter-hunting was 
one of the sports of the district. 11 

Fairs are held on 5 March, 3 May, and 1 8 Septem- 
ber. The wakes begin on the Saturday after August 
Bank Holiday. 

The dungeon, 13 pillory, 13 and town cross 14 have 
disappeared. The ghosts or * boggarts ' have also 
gone. 15 

The printing press was introduced in ijSg. 16 The 
first newspaper was the Bury Mercury, issued in 
1 83 1. 17 There are now four the Times (begun in 
1855) and the Guardian (1857), published twice a 
week, and the Visitor and the Advertiser, each once. 18 

There is a theatre. 19 



A halfpenny token was issued in 1667. 
In Bury town there were 114 hearths liable to the 
tax ; John Greenhalgh's rectory had ten hearths, 
John Brook's house eight, Richard Tootell's seven, 
those of John Eckersall and John Redferne six each. 
In Bury Upper End were fifty-two hearths. 21 

Various changes in the boundaries have taken place 
in recent years, 22 and the present township or civil 
parish of Bury contains not only the ancient hamlet 
or township, but parts of Elton, Walmersley-with- 
Shuttleworth, and Heap. 23 

The manor of BURT was held of the 
MANORS lord of Tottington as one knight's fee. 24 
The tenant bore the local surname, and 
in 1193-4 Adam de Bury offered 5 marks for having 
the king's good will after the rebellion of John, 
Count of Mortain.* 5 Under Roger de Montbegon 
Adam de Bury, son of Ailward de Bury by his wife 
Alice de Montbegon, 26 in 1212 held the fee of one 
knight ' of ancient tenure ' ; 27 the formation of this 
. holding may therefore date from the early part of the 
1 2th century. In 1302 Henry de Bury held the fee 
of the Earl of Lincoln. 28 In 1313 he made a settle- 
ment of the manor, 29 and two years later was killed 
in some of the disturbances raised by Adam Banastre. 30 



6 Tour through Great Britain (ed. 1738), 
iii, 182. 

7 Barton, Bury, 23. 

8 Ibid, 109. 9 Ibid. 10-13. 

10 Ibid. 41 ; Christmas, Shrovetide, and 
Good Friday each had special matches, 
the final games being played in Easter 
week. 

11 Ibid. 45. 

12 Ibid. 42. The old court house stood 
near the cross ; ibid. 44. 

18 Ibid. 43 ; it was used for the last 
time about 1800. 

14 Ibid. 43, 300. It stood near the 
centre of the market-place, and was taken 
down in 1818. 

16 Ibid. 13, 34; one of them was like 
a white rabbit. 

18 Ibid. 7 ; Local Gleanings, Lanes, and 
Ches. i, 71, gives ' in or before 1798.' 

V Manch. Guardian N. and Q. no. 490. 

18 In 1867 they were the Times, Guar- 
dian, and Broadsheet. 

19 An early theatrical performance in a 
barn in Moss Lane in 1787 ended in the 
collapse of the building and death or injury 
to many of the spectators ; Barton, Bury, 
18-23 ; see also 32. 

20 Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. v, 75 ; 
it was issued by Samuel Waring, other- 
wise notable as a prosperous Noncon- 
formist ; ibid., and Ormerod, Parentalia. 

21 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lane. ; for 
1666. 

22 By the Bury Improvement Acts, 1872 
and 1885. The bounds are described in 
the Bury Times Business Directory. 

28 The county borough includes Bury 
and parts of Elton, Tottington Lower 
End, Walmersley - with - Shuttleworth, 
Birtle-with-Bamford, Heap, Pilsworth, 
Pilkington, and Radcliffe. It was made 
a single civil parish or township in 1894 
by Local Gov. Bd. Order 31671. 

24 Lanes, Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 59, 60, 145. After 
the Montbegons sold Tottington to the 
Lacys, Bury was held of the Earl of 
Lincoln, as in 1242, when it was part 
of the dower of the countess (ibid. 153) ; 
and afterwards of the Earls and Dukes of 
Lancaster. Sake fee of 81. and castle- 
ward lot. were payable for Bury ; Extent 



of 17 Edw. II ; Sheriff's Compotus of 
22 Edw. III. 

25 Farrer, Lanes. Pipe R. 77. A little 
later Henry de Bury is named ; ibid. 

355- 

It was probably another Henry de Bury 
who about 1240 attested a surrender of 
part of Rochdale rectory ; Whalley 
Coucber (Chet. Soc.), i, 143. 

26 In 1 244-5 Adam de Bury laid claim 
to the Montbegon inheritance on the 
strength of this descent ; the jury did 
not allow it, so that Alice may have been 
illegitimate ; Assize R. 482, m. 17. 
Alice, wife of Eward (or Ailward) de 
Bury, received from her father, Adam de 
Montbegon, land in Tottington ; Lanes. 
Inq. and Extents, i, 6 1. 

*7 Ibid. 60. Robert de Bury and 
Adam de Bury attested an Eccles 
Charter about 1205 ; JPhalley Coucher 
(Chet. Soc.), i, 57. It is impossible to 
say how many Adams there were. Adam 
de Bury secured an acknowledgement of 
his right to a moiety of Shuttleworth in 
1227 ; Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), i, 49. He was one of the twelve 
knights engaged in the perambulation of 
the forest in 1228 ; Lanes. Pipe R. 420. 
A little later he confirmed land in Mar- 
land to Stanlaw Abbey ; W 'bailey Coucher, 
ii, 593. He held the knight's fee in 
1242 ; Inq. and Extents, i, 153. Four years 
later he recovered a small strip of land, 
probably on the boundary, against Geoffrey 
de Radcliffe ; Assize R. 404, m. 3. 

An Adam, son of Adam de Bury, ap- 
pears in 1246 at Bradley, near Chipping, 
but he may be of another family ; Final 
Cone, i, 1 02. 

The king in 1250 ordered the sheriff 
not to place Adam de Bury on juries so 
long as he continued to be coroner ; 
Close R. 64, m. i. In 1251 Adam was one 
of the knights attesting the grant of 
Ordsall to David de Hulton ; Gregson, 
Fragments (ed. Harland), 347. 

The rights of Adam's mill were in 1256 
acknowledged by two of the tenants, who 
agreed to grind corn growing on the 
lands they held of him to the twentieth 
measure ; but should Adam allow his 
mill to fall into decay then they were to 

129 



be at liberty to grind elsewhere, without 
giving any multure to him ; Final Cone, i, 
1 2O. Two years before this Adam had 
claimed suit of mill against various 
tenants ; Curia Regis R. 154, m. 16, 17. 

An Alexander de Bury made a grant 
of Gollinroyd about 1260 ; Ormerod, 
Parentalia, 43. 

Adam de Bury was plaintiff and de- 
fendant in suits of 1277 and 1278 ; Assize 
R. 1235, m. 13; R. 1238, m. 31, 32; 
R. 1239, m. 37, 39. He was again plain- 
tiff in 1281 ; Pat. 9 Edw. I, m. 14 d. 
Sir Adam de Bury and Adam his son 
attested a Barton charter before or about 
that time ; De Traffbrd Deeds, no. 192. 

In 1287 Anabel, widow of Adam de 
Bury, claimed a third part of the manor 
of Bury and advowson of the church, 
against Henry de Lacy ; De Banco R. 
67, m. 56. 

28 Inq. and Extents, i, 313. Already in 
1300 he had been charged by Alexander 
son of Henry del Hurst with unjust dis- 
traint on cattle and corn at the Rhodes in 
Bury, but in reply urged that Alexander 
was his villein ; De Banco R. 131, m. II. 
He occurs as plaintiff in 1306 and 1309 ; 
De Banco R. 161, m. 437 d. ; R. 179, 
m. 206 d. In 1311 Sir Henry de Bury 
held the manor of Bury by the service of 
one knight and suit to the court of Tot- 
tington from three weeks to three weeks; 
De Lacy Inq. (Chet. Soc.), 19. 

29 Final Cone, ii, i 3 ; Geoffrey son of 
Robert de Bury acted as deforciant. The- 
advowson of the church was included 
with the manor ; after the death of Henry 
de Bury they were to remain to Margery 
daughter of Richard de Radcliffe for life j 
after her decease to Henry son of Henry 
de Bury and his issue, and in default suc- 
cessively to Alice, Agnes, and Isabel, 
daughters of the elder Henry ; finally to 
Adam son of Matthew de Bury and his 
heirs. This fine was frequently cited in 
the subsequent disputes as to the manor. 
Henry son of Adam de Bury was plaintiff 
in 1313 ; De Banco R. 198, m. 36 d. 

80 At an inquiry in 1323 it was stated 
that Sir Adam Banastre and others made 
their confederacy on the Wednesday before 
St. Wilfrid's Day, 1315, and a few days 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 




PILKINGTON. Argent 
a cms patonce voided 
gules. 




STANLEY, Earl 
Derby. Argent on a 
bend azure three hart? 
heads cabossed or. 



His son Henry died without issue, on which his 
daughter Alice, wife of Roger de Pilkington, and her 
son Roger succeeded in establishing their right to the 
manor, although her mother Margery, daughter of 
Richard de Radcliffe, had endeavoured to secure 
it or a portion of the estate for her younger son 
Henry. 31 

The Pilkingtons remained in possession till I485, 3U 
when all the manors and lands of Sir Thomas 
Pilkington were forfeited for his adherence to 
Richard III, the new king granting them to the Earl 
of Derby in 1489." The manor of Bury then de- 



later sent Nicholas de Singleton and 
others to capture Adam de Radcliffe and 
his brothers. Adam was seized at the 
parsonage house at Radcliffe, and his 
captors then went to Sir Henry de Bury's 
house to find the brothers, who, however, 
were not there. Henry de Bury was 
thereupon taken, and John de Croston, 
Stephen Scallard, and others slew him, 
and stole his horse and other goods and 
chattels, for which death they were 
hanged ; Sir William de Bradshagh and 
many others of the confederates were out- 
lawed ; Coram Rege R. 254, m. 52. 
From these particulars it would seem that 
the confederacy was made on 9 Oct. and 
the murder was done on or about the 
1 2th. On the following Wednesday (16 
Oct.) the king ordered Robert de Lathom 
and others to inquire into it (Cal. Pat. 
1313-17, p. 419), and another record of 
the trial states that John de Walton, 
Stephen Shaw, and Adam son of Adam 
de Freckleton were the guilty ones, while 
a large number of others were with them, 
and Adam Banastre, Henry de Lea, and 
William de Bradshagh knowingly received 
them after the felony was committed ; 
Coram Rege R. 299, Rex m. 20. This re- 
cord gives 1 6 Oct. as the date of the death, 
and a number of particulars are given as 
to the fate of the guilty persons. 

81 By the fine above referred to Margery 
de Radcliffe (as she was usually called) 
had the manor for her life. In 1318 and 
1319 certain lands were settled by fine, 
the remainders being the same as in the 
earlier one 5 Final Cone, ii, 29, 34. No 
mention is made of younger sons of Sir 
Henry. In the latter year Margery was 
plaintiff in a suit respecting Bury mill ; 
De Banco R. 299, m. 66 d. In a feodary of 
a little later date it is stated that Mar- 
gery de Radcliffe and Henry her son held 
3 plough-lands and 6 oxgangs in Bury for 
a knight's fee ; Duchy of Lane. Knights' 
Fees, bdle. i, no. 1 1 . Margery daughter of 
Richard de Radcliffe appeared against Wil- 
liam de Rawstorn and Adam son of Robert 
de Middleton to enforce them to do suit 
at her mill ; De Banco R. 229, m. 66 d. 
In 1322 she charged Robert de Walkden 
with having come with other malefactors 
and disturbers of the peace probably in 
connexion with the rising of Earl Thomas 
and taken from her manor of Bury 
sixty cows, twenty-nine oxen, two horses, 
ten heifers, &c. ; and Robert was com- 
mitted to prison ; Coram Rege R. 254, 
m. 69 d. Margery was living in 1334; 
Coram Rege R. 298, Rex m. i d.; she was 
also living in 1336 as appears by a later 
case cited. She presented to the rectory 
in 1319, 1323, and 1331 ; and Henry 
son of Sir Henry de Bury in 1335, as 
will be seen by the list of rectors. This 
presentation is almost the only recorded 
act of the younger Henry. In 1348 Alice, 
then widow of Roger de Pilkington, ap- 



pears to have been in undisputed posses- 
sion ; De Banco R. 354, m. 3 d. 

In Oct. 1351 Henry son of Margery de 
Radcliffe made his claim to the manor of 
Bury, except twenty-one messuages, 300 
acres of land, 300 acres of meadow, 300 
acres of wood, and 2s. rent. The defend- 
ants were Alice and Roger, widow and 
son of Roger de Pilkington, and a number 
of others holding lands within the manor. 
The fine of 1313 was adduced ; Henry de 
Bury, Margery, and the younger Henry 
were all dead ; but Margery had alienated 
the manor to Henry, the plaintiff; Henry 
had also secured a release from one Adam 
de Bury, described as the true heir of 
Henry the elder ; Duchy of Lane. Assize 
R. i, m. 7. Henry son of Margery de 
Radcliffe also claimed forty messuages, 
600 acres of land, &c., in Bury, Totting- 
ton, and Middleton ; ibid. m. 7 d. Similar 
statements as to the succession were made 
in reply to a claim to messuages and houses 
in Bury put forward at the same time by 
John de Radcliffe, the defendants being 
Alice and Roger de Pilkington and John 
son of William de Bury ; ibid. m. 2 d. 
In this case the jury found that Henry 
son of Sir Henry died before Margery ; 
and that Adam, the true heir, was a 
younger son of Sir Henry. 

The name of the plaintiff Henry's 
father is not given in these suits, but he 
is called Henry de Bury, and may have 
been, like Adam, a son of Sir Henry born 
after the fine of 1313 ; see Dep. Keeper' t 
Rep. xxxii, App. 348. 

A further claim made by Henry son of 
Margery in 1353 was defeated, the jury 
again finding that Henry son of Henry de 
Bury died before Margery, and that the 
plaintiff was not ;" rerum natura in 1313 ; 
Assize R. 435, m. 21 d. In the following 
year Henry son of Margery did not pro- 
secute a claim he made against John de 
Radcliffe the elder; Duchy of Lane. Assize 
R. 3, m. i. John de Radcliffe was more 
successful in 1355 against the Pilking- 
tons, it being found that the lands he 
claimed were his free tenement, and that 
Alice de Pilkington had wrongly entered 
into possession; ibid. R. 4, m. 27 d. About 
the same time Henry son of Margery was 
also successful in a claim to certain lands, 
it being found that these were in Totting- 
ton and not in Bury ; ibid. m. 28 d. It 
is here stated that the quitclaim by Adam, 
the son and true heir of Sir Henry de 
Bury, was dated in 1336. The dispute 
still continued in the following year ; ibid. 
R. 5, m. 19 d., 20 d. See Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
{ Chet. Soc.), ii, 175. 

81a In spite of the claims put forward 
Roger de Pilkington appears to have re- 
tained possession, contributing to the aid 
of 1 346-5 5 as lord of Bury ; Feud. Aids, 
iii, 87. He probably made a settle- 
ment of the manor in 1350, a fine of 
,100 being recorded in that year for an 

130 



alienation ' ; Accts. (Exch. Q.R.), bdle. 
108, m. 34. From a suit of July 1354, 
it appears that lands in the Rhodes which 
William the Baxter of Stockport had 
granted to Margery de Radcliffe de- 
scended to Roger de Pilkington, who 
obtained a quitclaim from Almarica, 
William's widow ; Duchy of Lane. Assize 
R. 3, m. 3d. In 1368 Sir Roger de Pil- 
kington again made a formal statement of 
his title ; De Banco R. 431, m. 351. 

An account of the family is given under 
Pilkington in Prestwich. In 1421 it was 
found that Sir John de Pilkington had 
held a moiety of the manor and the ad- 
vowson of the church in conjunction with 
Margery his wife, and also a fourth part 
of the manor by grant of his father, while 
he had given the other fourth part to his 
ion Sir John de Pilkington and Margaret 
his wife ; the whole manor was held of 
the king as of his duchy of Lancaster ; 
Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc. ii, 179). A 
number of the Pilkington charters of the 
period 1420-50 are copied in Raines MSS. 
(Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, fol. 117. 

In 1431 Sir John Pilkington was in 
possession ; Feud. Aids, iii, 96. So also 
in 1445-6, the reliefbeing stated as 1001.5 
Duchy of Lane. Knights' Fees, bdle. 2, no. 
20. In 1443 Sir John Pilkington com- 
plained that the bailiff of Salfordshire had 
unjustly distrained his cattle at Redvales 
(Redyuals). The bailiff asserted that 
Bury was held of the king by knight's 
service, to wit, by homage, fealty, and 
scutage, and by the service of doing suit 
at the king's wapentake of Salford every 
three weeks, by the rent of 10*. called 
castle ward, and by the rent of 8*. ; and 
the castle ward rent being in arrear for 
four years, he had taken four oxen. Sir 
John denied that this rent was due from 
him ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 5, m. i6b. In 
1483 it was returned that Sir Thomas 
Pilkington paid 8*. yearly for Bury and 
los. for ward of Lancaster Castle ; Duchy 
of Lane. Misc. 130. 

88 Pat. 4 Hen. VII, 23 Feb. In the 
inquisition after the death of Thomas, the 
second earl, in 1521, it was found that he 
had held the manor of Bury and tene- 
ments there of the king, as of his duchy of 
Lancaster by the service of one knight's 
fee and by the rent of 8*. ; it was worth 
30 clear per annum. Sir Henry Halsall 
was appointed steward of Bury and Pil- 
kington in 1509, with an annuity of 10; 
Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. v, no. 68. 

At that time (1519-20) there were four 
constables of Bury, appearing at the court 
of Tottington. The bailiff of the latter 
manor complained that he had not been 
allowed to distrain within the lordship of 
Bury for several amercements, and that 
stray sheep seized within Tottington had 
been driven off by servants of the Earl of 
Derby. The earl had liberty of waif and 
stray within Bury, and after the sheep 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



BURY 



scended regularly to the fifteenth earl, 33 who in 1872 
sold his rights, the advowson excepted, to the Improve- 
ment Commissioners, who have been succeeded by 
the present corporation. He remained the principal 
landowner, as his successor, the present earl, still is. 

The principal incidents of the tenure by the 
Pilkingtons were the grant of a weekly market and 
two fairs about 1440," and the licence in 1465 to 
fortify the manor-house of Bury, afterwards known as 
the Castle. 35 

At the beginning of last century three courts leet 
were held annually for the manor of Bury in April, at 
Whitsuntide, and in October ; a court baron was held 
every three weeks for the recovery of debts under 4O/. 36 



A family bearing the local surname long continued 
to have lands within the parish ; 37 they may have 
been descended from the former lords of the manor. 
The bridge appears to have given a surname to a 
resident family. 38 CHESH4M, sometimes called a 
manor, was once owned by the Holts of Stubley. 39 
A family named Allen formerly lived at Redvales. 40 
Haslum also occurs. 41 The Hulmes of Davyhulme 
had property in Bury." 

A petition for the delimitation of the bounds of 
Bury and Middleton was addressed to the Chancellor 
of the Duchy about 1 520." 

The custom of the county as to the distribution of 
the goods of intestates led to disputes in the latter 



had been recovered by his servants pro- 
clamation was, as usual, made in the 
market of Bury, and they were delivered 
to their owners ; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), i, 84-8. The earl 
was said to hold the manor of Bury, 
'to be one of the four judgers' at 
every court held within the lordship of 
Tottington ; Duchy of Lane. Dep. xii, 
Gia. 

The manors of Bury and Pilkington 
with the advowson of Bury were among 
the dower lands of Charlotte, Countess of 
Derby, in 1652, and she was allowed to 
compound for them. The ' old rents ' of 
Bury in 1640 amounted to ,163 81. gd., 
and the tolls of fairs and markets to 10; 
Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 182, 184. 

M The manor of Pilkington, the ad- 
vowson of Bury, &c., were included in a 
settlement by William, Earl of Derby, in 
1677; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 199, m. 
55. The advowson of Bury and other pro- 
perties were in the hands of John, Earl of 
Anglesey, and Henrietta Maria his wife 
in 1708 ; ibid. bdle. 260, m. 53. The 
manors of Bury and Pilkington, with the 
advowson of Bury, were included in a 
general arrangement in 1715 ; ibid. bdle. 
276, m. 71. The manors of Bury and 
Pilkington and the ' perpetual advowson, 
presentation, donation, and the free dis- 
position of the church of Bury' were like- 
wise included in a recovery of the estates 
of Edward, Earl of Derby, the first of 
the Bickerstaffe line, in 1 747 ; Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 567, m. 3. There were 
similar recoveries in 1776 and 1797 ; 
ibid. R. 623, m. ia ; Assize R. 10, Aug. 
Assizes, 37 Geo. III. 

84 Henry VI about 1440 granted to Sir 
John Pilkington a weekly market on 
Friday and two fairs of three days each at 
the feasts of St. George and the Nativity 
of Our Lady ; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), 
xxxviii, fol. i. 

Edward IV seems to have confirmed 
or varied this grant to Thomas Pilkington; 
Lanes, and Cbes. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, 
and Ches.), ii, 299. In the ijth and l8th 
centuries Thursday was the market day. 

Thomas Chetham of Nuthurst com- 
plained that having been appointed 
(Fin 1521) bailiff of the manors of Bury and 
Pilkington for eighteen years during the 
minority of the heir, he had exercised his 
office till 22 April, ' on which day yearly 
time out of mind hath been a fair within 
the said manor of Bury' ; but John 
Greenhalgh and about six score ' misruled 
and riotous persons,' provided with bills, 
gleaves, batts, staves, swords, and bucklers, 
assaulted at the toll booth, commanded 
him ' not to be so hardy nor further to 
intermeddle in the said office of baili- 
wick,' and made a solemn cry in the fair 
that all should obey only the orders of 



John Greenhalgh, as deputy bailiff of Sir 
Richard Tempest ; Clowes D. 

In 1826 the Thursday market had long 
been obsolete, but custom had established 
one on Saturday. Fairs were held on 
5 March, 3 May, and 1 8 September ; 
Baines, Lanes. Dir. i, 581. 

85 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. 179 ; 
licence to Thomas Pilkington to build, 
fortify, and caste-Hate a mansion within his 
manor of Bury. It appears to have fallen 
into decay very quickly, as Leland about 
1535 speaks of it as a ruin ; I tin. vii, 49. 

It ' stood in Castle croft, close to the 
town, on the banks of the old course of 
the Irwell' ; Baines, Dir. i, 576. The 
* old course ' is represented by the boun- 
dary of the township of Elton. There is 
a plan in Aikin's Country Round Manches- 
ter, 269 ; and a description of remains 
found in 1864 in Trans. Hist. Soc. xx, 
1 7-20 ; and see Lanes, and Cbes. Antiq. 
Soc. xxii, 152. Some of the stones, show- 
ing the masons' marks, have been built 
into the walls of the volunteer drill hall. 

86 Baines, Dir. i, 580. 

7 Alan son of William de Bury it 
named in 1357 ; Duchy of Lane. Assize 
R. 6, m. i d. 

James Bury, who died about 1515, had 
various messuages and lands in Bury, 
Middleton, and Tottington, held of the 
king as of his duchy of Lancaster by the 
sixth part of a knight's fee ; Ralph, the 
son and heir, aged forty in 1521, had been 
an idiot from his birth, and his uncle 
Rawlin, brother of James, was the next 
heir ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. v, no. 34. 
Ralph died in 1539, and was succeeded by 
his cousin Gilbert, son of Rawlin ; ibid. 
viii, no. 24. 

There is nothing to show in what part 
of the manor (or parish) of Bury their 
lands were situated. 

88 Henry de Bury in 1309 claimed 4 
acres of land and half an acre of meadow 
against Robert del Bridge ; De Banco R. 
1 79, m. 206 d. ; and three years after- 
wards the defendant called upon John son 
and heir of John de Heaton to warrant 
him; ibid. R. 195, m. 219 d. It was 
found that John, the heir, was a minor, 
and the case was adjourned till he should 
be of age ; ibid. R. 198, m. 36 d. 

Geoffrey del Bridge in 13 13-14 claimed 
common of pasture in Bury against Henry 
de Bury, Hugh son of Thomas de Long- 
worth, and others ; but it was shown 
that Geoffrey had no land except an ap- 
provement from the waste, to which 
common of pasture did not pertain ; Assize 
R. 424, m. i. 

89 Geoffrey son of John del Holt in 
1345 purchased a messuage and lands 
from Henry de Broxop (Broksoppe) and 
Margery his wife ; Final Cone, ii, 121. 

Robert del Holt of ' Chesum ' is named 
in 1428-9 ; ibid, iii, 125. 



In the inquisition (1555) after the 
death of Robert Holt of Stubley, his lands 
in Bury are stated to have been held of 
the Crown by knight's service ; Duchy of 
Lane. Inq. p.m. x, no. 48. Robert Holt, 
his nephew and heir, who died two years 
later, settled a part of his land in Ches- 
ham and Bury on his wife Cecily for her 
life ; ibid, x, no. 7. The succeeding 
Robert Holt, who died 1561, held his 
lands in Bury of the Earl of Derby in 
socage by a rent of 41. $d. for all services; 
ibid, xi, no. 15. John Holt of Stubley, 
who died in 1622, held the 'manors' of 
Naden and Chesham ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 336. 

Chesham for over a century descended 
with Naden (and Stubley) ; Pal. of Lane. 
Feet of F. bdle. 63, no. 177 ; 198, m. 92. 
In 1708 the manor of Chesham, with 
lands, houses, water-mill, horse-mill, 
dovecote, &c., in Chesham, Bury, Tot- 
tington, Elton, Middleton, &c., were the 
subject of a settlement by James Holt, 
Dorothy [Grantham] his wife, Vincent 
Grantham, and Edward Jodrell the elder ; 
ibid. bdle. 261, m. 84. 

40 Captain John Allen was summoned 
by the heralds in 1664 ; Dugdale, Vith. 
p. v. There is a pedigree in Raines' MSS. 
(Chet. Lib.), xxxi, fol. 84, 85, from which 
it appears that John Allen had a soa 
Richard, whose daughter Elizabeth married 
William Dawson of Manchester, and was 
the mother of James Dawson, executed 
for participation in the rebellion of 1745. 
Captain Allen's daughter Dorothy was 
mother of John Byrom of Kersal. 

41 Isabel wife of John de Wakefield in 
1313-14 claimed Haslum against Henry 
de Bury and Richard Spacald ; Assize R. 
424, m. i. 

Robert Nevill, son and heir of Sir 
Thomas, by William Bradford his guardian, 
complained in 1429 that Sir John Pil- 
kington had disseised him of three mes- 
suages, 200 acres of land, &c., in Bury 
and Haslum, held of Sir John in socage, 
by the service of id. a year, and grinding 
his corn without multure at the mill of 
Bury. Sir John replied that the tenure 
was knight's service, and that Robert, 
being a minor, was his ward. The jury, 
however, found for the plaintiff ; Pal. of 
Lane. Plea R. 2, m. 21. 

Adam de Haslum occurs in 1256 ; 
Final Cone, i, 120. The surname con- 
tinued to be common in the district. 
Haslam Brow lies to the south of Bury ; 
Haslem Hey is in Elton. 

42 Final Cone, iii, 102 ; Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. xviii, no. 9. The land was 
called Quistondene, and was perhaps in 
Walmersley ; there are deeds about it 
(1276 and 1427) in Court of Wards, 
Deeds and Evidences, box 153, no. i, 7. 

48 Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), ii, 239. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 




part of the same century. 44 There were also disputes 
as to the mills. 45 

The township was formerly governed 
BOROUGH by the constables appointed at the 
manor court at Whitsuntide. 46 In 
1846, however, the inhabitants obtained an Improve- 
ment Act, under which the 
^* /ff\ government was entrusted to 
| ^/yiU twenty-seven commissioners 
elected by the ratepayers ; 47 
and after thirty years a royal 
charter was granted incorpo- 
rating a borough. 48 The 
council consists of a mayor, ten 
aldermen, and thirty council- 
lors. The area, more exten 
sive than the old township, 4 " 
is divided into five wards 
Church, Redvales, East, Moor- 
side, and Elton, each electing 
six councillors. Bury became 
a parliamentary borough on 
the passing of the Reform Act 
of 1 8 3 2 ; it returns one mem- 
ber. 50 The municipal and 
parliamentary boroughs are conterminous. Bury 
became a county borough in 1888. A coat of arms 
was granted in 1877. 

Gas 51 and water" were formerly supplied by 
private companies, but are now under public control. 
The corporation have established electric lighting 
works and work the electric tramways. The market, 
formerly held in the open square by the church, was 
in 1841 transferred to an inclosure erected by the 
Earl of Derby, who received the tolls ; it was roofed 
with glass in i867, 53 and, with the market rights, 
became the property of the town in 1872. The 
present market was built in 1901. The Town Hall 
was erected by the Earl of Derby in 1850. The 
Improvement Commissioners and Corporation have 



BOROUGH OF BURY. 
Quarterly argent and azure 
a cross double parted, fret- 
ted and counter changed be- 
tween, in the fir it quarter 
an anvil sable, in the second 
a fleece or, in the third t-wo 
shuttles crossed saltirewise 
of the fourth, and in the 
fourth quarter a papyrus 
plant proper. 



provided baths, recreation grounds, art gallery, 54 
library, and technical schools, 55 fire brigade, 
abattoirs, a cemetery, opened in i866-9, 56 and an 
infectious diseases hospital. The Bury Hospital and 
Dispensary are due to private benevolence. 57 

The Athenaeum, began in 1836 as a mechanics' in- 
stitution, was built in 1850 ; it has a library, reading 
and other rooms, and a large hall for meetings. 58 

Bury County Court district was formed in 1 847- 89 

The parish church was adequate for the established 
worship until 1770, when St. John's was built on 
glebe land called Listerfield ; a district was assigned 
to it in i86o. 60 St. Paul's, built in 1841, had a 
district assigned two years later. 61 Holy Trinity, 
opened in 1863, had also to wait two years for a 
legal district. 6 * St. Thomas's was built by Thomas 
Openshaw, a local benefactor, in i866, M St. Peter's, 
Redvales, in 1872," and St. Mark's, Freetown, in 
l883- 65 The rector of Bury holds the patronage of 
all these churches except St. Paul's, which is in the 
gift of five trustees. 

John Wesley visited Bury seven times, the first in 
1 7 74, the last in 1778. The Wesleyan Methodists have 
two churches, the Primitive Methodists one, and the 
United Methodist Church six, of which Brunswick, the 
principal, was opened in 1837 and rebuilt in I862. 66 

The Baptists have three churches. 67 

The Congregationalists began services about 1 790, 
the first chapel, now known as New Road Chapel, 
being opened in 1793 ; it was rebuilt in 18845. A 
second, Bethel, was started by a secession from the 
former in 1804, due probably to a desire for more 
liberal doctrine ; the chapel was built in 1 807, and 
enlarged in 1882. A second secession led to the 
building of Castlecroft Church in 1837-40. The 
chapel at Blackford Bridge originated with services in 
1869 ; a school chapel was opened in 1875, and on 
this being destroyed by fire, the present building was 
erected in i888. 63 

There are also a Welsh Calvinistic Methodist 



44 Lawrence Grime of Shropshire al- 
leged that children of intestate parents in 
Lancashire ought to have the clear estate 
divided equally among them, except an 
heir had been declared or some promo- 
tion or advancement had been made to 
some of the children during the parents' 
lives. The custom was denied by Oliver 
Grimes ; Duchy of Lane. Plead, civ, G, 
8 ; cvii, G, 4. 

4& Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 325 ; 
Lanes, and Cbes. Rec. ii, 267. These dis- 
putes appear to have been renewed in the 
latter part of the I7th century; Raines 
MSS. xxxi, fol. 342-4. 

The will of James Greenhalgh (1524), 
lessee of Bury Mill, is printed in Piccope, 
Wills (Chet. Soc.), ii, 203. 

46 Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1836), ii, 673. 

4 ? 9 & 10 Viet. cap. 293. The Local 
Government Act of 1858 was adopted 
Between 1864 and 1870; Land. Gaz. 
*6 Aug. 1864; 20 Nov. 1866; 8 July 
1870. Other Improvement Acts were 
passed in 1872 (increasing the number of 
commissioners to thirty, and giving further 
powers) and 1882; 35 & 36 Viet. cap. 
146 ; 45 & 46 Viet. cap. 170. 

^ 8 Dated 9 Sept. 1876. 

* 9 See a former note. 

50 The members have almost invariably 
1>een Liberals ; Pink and Beaven, Par/. 
Rep re. of Lanes. 327-30. In the early part 
of last century there was a great variety 



of political parties Painites, Jacobins, 
Rumpers, Republicans, Carlilites, and 
Chartists ; Barton, Bury, 7. The story 
of the earlier elections is told in the same 
work, 165-91. 

61 Gas was made as early as 1818 ; 
Barton, Bury, 101. The gasworks, first 
erected by a private company formed in 
1828, were purchased by the Improve- 
ment Commissioners in 1857. The 
streets had been lighted with gas from 
1836. 

5a The Bury and Radcliffe Waterworks 
Company, formed in 1838, supplied water, 
but its works were acquired by the Im- 
provement Commissioners, and passed to 
the corporation. The Bury and District 
Joint Water Board, formed in 1900, now 
owns the works, which have numerous 
reservoirs. 

58 Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1868), i, 522. A 
Market Act was passed in 1834. 

54 It contains the Wrigley collection of 
pictures, &c. 

55 Opened in 1894. 

56 The Commissioners became the 
burial board in 1864 (Lond. Gaz. 14 June). 

57 The first dispensary is said to have 
been due to Rector John Stanley ; the 
present institution was founded in 1829. 
The hospital was built in 1882, and en- 
larged in 1893. 

58 Baines, Lanes, (ed. 1868), i, 522; 
Barton, Bury, 127. 

132 



89 Lond. Gaz. 10 Mar. 1847. 

60 Ibid. 25 Jan. 1860. The original 
provisions as to the pews are given in 
Barton, Bury, 150, 152. 

61 For endowment see Lond. Gaz. 
28 July 1863. The site was given by 
Lord Derby; Barton, Bury, 153, 154. 

M Lond. Gaz. 6 Feb. 1866; endow- 
ments, ibid, ii May 1866, and 30 July 
1869. The schools were erected about 
1 849, and service was held in them from 
1 86 1 ; Barton, Bury, 154. 

63 For district see Lond. Gaz. 21 May 
1867 ; Barton, Bury, 155. 

64 For district see Lond. Gaz. 1 1 Feb. 
1873 ; Barton, Bury, 156. 

65 The Sunday school began in a room 
in Hudcar Mill in 1826 ; in 1850 a school 
building was erected and service was held 
in it; Barton, Bury, 156, 157. 

66 The Wesleyan Methodist chapel in 
Union Street was built in 1815-17; it has 
a burial-ground. The New Connexion 
had a chapel in Bury Lane in 1813 ; the 
Primitive Methodists opened a preaching- 
room in 1824 ; Baines, Lanes. Dir. i, 577. 
The present Primitive Methodist chapel 
was opened in 1866. For particulars as 
to the United Methodist Free Church see 
Barton, Bury, 159. 

*7 That in Tenterden Street dates from 
1845 ; that at Chesham from 1881. 

68 Full details are given in Nightingale, 
Lanes. Nonconf. iii, 185-210. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



church and a Free Christian church ; this last 
originated in a change of the views of the Rev. 
Franklin Howorth, the Unitarian minister. 69 The 
Salvation Army has a barracks. 

In Bury, as in many other places, the earliest 
chapel opened by Protestant Nonconformists is now 
held by Unitarians. Silver Street Chapel was erected 
in lyig, 70 and the teaching became Arian or 
Unitarian about 1790, this no doubt leading to 
the first Congregational meeting above recorded. 
The old chapel was replaced by another in Silver 
Street in 1837, and this again having been injured 
by the construction of the railway, by the present 
one in Bank Street in 1852." The Unitarians have 
also a cemetery and mortuary chapel at Hole Bottom. 

The followers of Joanna Southcote had a meeting- 
room in Bury in 1829." The Swedenborgians 
opened a New Jerusalem chapel in 1 860, but it has 
been abandoned. 

The Roman Catholic church of Our Blessed Lady 
was built in 1842," and St. Joseph's in 1871. 

ELTON 

Elton, 1275. 

This L-shaped township stretches westward from 
Bury for about 3 miles, and northward for z\ miles, 
and has an area of 2,553 ac 1 " 68 - 1 The part near Bury 
has long been urban, and indistinguishable from Bury 
proper except by the Irwell's course. The surface in 
the western limb rises gradually till 800 ft. is attained 
in the north-west corner at Bowstone Hill ; in this 
portion are Elton proper and Walshaw Lane. The 
northern limb, bounded on the east by the Irwell, 
also rises to the west, over 400 ft. being attained ; 
this portion contains Brandlesholme in the centre, 
with Woodhill to the south and Summerseat to the 
north. The population of the registration district 
was 13,997 in 1901. 



BURY 

From Bury Bridge the roads spread out to the north, 
north-west, west, and south-west, to Haslingden, 
Blackburn, and Bolton. The Lancashire and York- 
shire Company's Bolton and Bury line crosses the 
south-eastern corner. The Bury and Bolton Canal, 
opened in 1796, starts in this township near Bury 
Bridge, and proceeds along the western bank of the 
Irwell ; there is a large reservoir for it on the border 
of Elton and Radcliffe. 

In 1666 there were seventy-five hearths to con- 
tribute to the tax, including Thomas Greenhalgh's 
house with twelve, Thomas Symonds's, six, and Roger 
Kay's of Woodhill, six.' 

The cotton manufacture is the chief industry, with 
bleaching and dyeing ; there are iron-foundries and 
paper-works. 

The Wellington Barracks are the ddp6t of the 
2Oth Regimental District Lancashire Fusiliers. 

The recreation ground was the gift of Mr. Henry 
Whitehead of Haslem Hey. 

Elton has now disappeared as a township, the greater 
part having been added to the borough of Bury, but 
part to Ainsworth and other townships.* 

There does not appear to have been 
MANORS any manor of ELTON, although in the 
1 3th century a family occurs bearing the 
local surname.* Elton was considered a hamlet of 
Bury, and its manorial history is involved in the 
latter's. 5 

The estate of BRANDLESHOLME in Elton, 
however, was called a manor. Its early possessors 6 
gave way to the Greenhalghs, who retained it till 
the beginning of the i8th century. But little is 
known of this family, who are said to have sprung up 
in Tottington, 7 until the i6th century. Henry de 
Greenhalgh and Alice his wife made settlements of 
their estate in Bury and Tottington in 1397 and 
1398." Thomas Greenhalgh died at Brandlesholme 



89 Lanes. Noneon. iii, 182, 183 ; he 
became a Trinitarian. 

< The expenses of the building are 
given in Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxi, 
fol. 436. 

71 Nightingale, op. cit. iii, 178-84. 

72 J. Butterworth, Bury (reprint, 1902), 
II. 

78 There was, however, a chapel about 
1829; ibid. 'In 1821 there were not 
more than five Catholic families in the 
town, when mass was said once a month 
in the upper room of a wool warehouse. 
In 1834 the first resident priest was ap- 
pointed ' ; Kelly, Engl. Cath, Mission, 1 1 1. 

1 2,079, including 77 of inland water ; 
Census Rep. 1901. 

3 Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9, Lanes. 

8 The final change was made in 1894 ; 
Local Govt. Bd. Order 31671. 

4 Alexander de Elton and Richard his 
son were defendants to a claim made by 
Adam de Bury in 1278 ; it was shown 
that Adam was never in seisin of the 
tenement in dispute; Assize R. 1238, 
m. 32. 

5 Elton Carr is named in a Pilkington 
feoffment of 1435 ; Raines MSS. (Chet. 
Lib.), xxxviii, fol. 9. 

6 The name appears to be BrandulPs 
holme. Gilbert son of Brandulf and 
Matthew his brother were in 1253-4 
among a number of Bury people who had 
evaded the suits of mill claimed by Adam 
de Bury; Curia Regis R. 154, m. i6d., 
17. John son of Richard de Brandles- 
holme (?) had a grant of fruits at the 



Rhodes in 1281; Harl. MS. 2112, 
fol. 155/191- 

Henry de Hull and Margaret his wife 
claimed messuages and lands in * Brandol- 
festone' in 1305 against Richard, son of 
Juliana, daughter of Richard de Brandies- 
holme ; De Banco R. 154, m. 146 d. 

Richard son of Henry del Hill in 1343 
gave all his land in Cecilyhalgh and 
Woodridding in the hamlet of Brandies- 
holme in the vill of Bury to Henry de 
Bury ; Towneley MS. DD, no. 847. 

7 They were the hereditary bailiffs ; 
Whitaker, Whalley, i, 327. 

Maud de Greenhalgh contributed to 
the subsidy in Tottington in 1332 ; Excb. 
Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 

37- 

John de Greenhalgh, Serjeant of Tot- 
tington, occurs in 1351 and later in the 
disputes concerning the succession to Sir 
Henry de Bury's manor and lands ; Duchy 
of Lane. Assize R. I, m. 7 d. ; R. 4, 
m. 28 d. John de Greenhalgh was 
wounded at Bury in 1343 by John de 
Buckden ; Assize R. 430, m. 16. 

The surname has a great variety of 
spellings Grenehalgh, Greneholl, Gren- 
oll, Greenall, Greenhaugh, Greenhough, 
Greenough, &c. It is probably de- 
rived from some place in Tottington, 
as stated in the pedigree recorded in 
1664. Another branch of the family 
had lands in Tottington, as will appear 
later. 

8 Final Cone. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), iii, 50, 52. The estate consisted 

33 



of three messuages, 48 acres of (arable) 
land, &c., in Bury and Tottington ; the 
remainders were to John and to Geoffrey, 
sons of Henry and Alice ; to Alice and 
Margery, daughters of Thomas son of 
Thomas de Barlow (in moieties), and to 
John son of William de Elton ; and to the 
right heirs of Alice the wife of Henry. 

Henry de Greenhalgh and Alice his 
wife in 1401 unsuccessfully claimed the 
guardianship of the heir of Robert del 
Holt, Robert's wife having been Alice 
daughter of Alice by a former husband, 
Thomas de Barlow. John, the son of 
Henry and Alice, is named ; Pal. of Lane. 
Plea R. i, m. 24^. Henry was a juror in 
1387 and 1394 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. 
Soc.), i, 27, 49. Robert de Greenhalgh 
occurs similarly in 1406 ; ibid, i, 88. 

Geoffrey de Greenhalgh, aged forty, was 
a witness to the age of John de Radcliffe 
of Chadderton in 1415 ; Lanes. Rec. Inq. 
p.m. no. 19, 20. James son of Geoffrey 
de Greenhalgh the elder was interested 
in the succession to lands in Moston in 
1427 ; Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.) ii, 
18 ; while in 1419 James the son 
and heir of Geoffrey de Greenhalgh 
no doubt the same person had claimed 
lands in Bury, with appurtenances at 
Blackburn (perhaps in Tottington), and 
obtained an Inspeximus of the record in 
1444-5 5 Dtp. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 538. 

In 1425 the trustees of James sons of 
Geoffrey Greenhalgh granted him lands 
in Horwich with successive remainders 
as follows : To John son of Henry 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



on 1 8 July 1576, holding the manor, with various 
messuages and lands, of Henry, Earl of Derby, as lord 
of Bury, in socage by a rent of ^s. a year. John his 
son and heir was about twenty-six years of age. 9 John 
Greenhalgh was buried on 
21 January 1614-15 ; 10 but 
his son Thomas had died in 
1591," leaving an infant son 
John to succeed his grand- 
father. The family were in 
the service of the Earls of 
Derby," and John Greenhalgh 
was in 1 640 appointed Gover- 
nor of the Isle of Man ; ls and 
holding this office at the time 
of the Civil War, his estates in 
Lancashire were seized by the 
Parliamentary authorities. He 
died in the island 16 September 1651," and was 




GREENHALGH of Bran- 
dlesholme. Argent on a 
tend sable three hunting- 
bornt stringed of the ftld. 



succeeded by his grandson Thomas, son of Richard 
Greenhalgh, born in i633. 15 

Thomas Greenhalgh recorded a pedigree in i664, 18 
and married Elizabeth elder child of Dr. Henry 
Bridgeman, Dean of Chester and Bishop of Man, by 
whom he had a large family. 17 He was sheriff of the 
county in 1 667-8. 18 In his will, dated 1692, John 
his son is named as the heir, 19 but appears to have died 
without issue, as Henry, another son, is described as 
of Brandlesholme in 1728. On his dying intestate, 
administration was in that year granted to his daugh- 
ters Fanny and Anne. 10 The manor descended to 
Elizabeth wife of Samuel Matthews, who in 1732, 
and again in 1742, made settlements of it.* 1 In 
1770 Joseph Matthews and Elizabeth Matthews, 
widow, were two of the vouchees in a recovery of 
Brandlesholme and the other estates. 1 * About 
that time it was sold to Richard Powell of Heaton 
Norris, a merchant. In 1849 Brandlesholme 



Greenhalgh ; Henry son of the said John ; 
Rayner Greenhalgh and Thurstan his 
brother ; Robert and Thomas, sons of 
William Greenhalgh ; Geoffrey son of 
John Greenhalgh ; Thomas and Ralph, 
sons of Roger Greenhalgh ; and Robert 
ton of Thomas Greenhalgh ; Anderton 
Evidences (Mr. Stonor), no. i. 

Edmund Greenhalgh attested a charter 
in 1462 ; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 164^, 
no. 1 8. He in 1479, being described as of 
Brandlesholme, obtained a general pardon ; 
Add. MS. 32108, no. 1443. He seems 
to have been charged with a share in the 
death of Thurstan Kay 5 Pal. of Lane. 
Plea R. 32, m. 7 d. In 1500 he was re- 
lieved from attendance on juries ; Towne- 
ley MS. CC, no. 690. In the same year 
Thomas Greenhalgh, son and heir appa- 
rent of Edmund, became bound in ,200 
to Robert Langley of Agecroft, probably 
in connexion with the marriage between 
his son John and Anne Langley recorded 
in the pedigree ; Agecroft D. 93. 

In 1519 John Greenhalgh, as bailiff 
of Tottington, made a complaint of 
various trespasses and offences against the 
customs of the fee ; Duchy Plead, (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 84 ; see also 
ii, 1 08. In 1525 he complained that 
Thomas Buckley, who had a lease of 
lands from him in Tottington, had made 
waste therein ; Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 145, 
m. 4 d. He was the leader in disturb- 
ances in Bury Church in 1526; Duchy 
Plead, i, 151. He died in 1555 or 1556, 
leaving a son and heir Thomas of lawful 
age ; Mancb. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 29. John's 
widow Anne died at the beginning of 
1567 ; her will contains a number of 
family bequests, including some to her 
son Thomas. To John Greenhalgh (prob- 
ably her grandson) and his wife she left, 
among other things, a chalice with a 
paten and all things belonging unto the 
chapel, which were to descend as heir- 
looms with Brandlesholme ; Hugh Hard- 
man (not named in the Visitation Lists) 
seems to have been the resident priest ; 
Piccope, frills (Chet. Soc.), ii, 136-8. 

A settlement of the manor of Brandles- 
holme, with lands in Bury, Moston, New- 
ton, Collyhurst, Horwich, and Spotland, 
was made by Thomas Greenhalgh in 
1556 ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 17, 
m. 137. 

9 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xii, no. 10 ; 
it is recited that the recovery of 1556 was 
in consideration of a marriage between 
John son and heir of the said Thomas 



Greenhalgh, and Alice daughter of Robert 
Holt of Stubley, the remainder being to 
John and Alice and their heirs. See 
Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 180, where 
there is a note of Thomas's will. John 
Greenhalgh, the heir, did not attend the 
Manchester court to do his service until 
1585 ; ibid, i, 184, 235, 253, 

A settlement of the Brandlesholme 
estate, including three fulling mills, was 
made in 1591 by John Greenhalgh, Alice 
his wife, and Thomas the son and heir 
apparent ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 
53, m. 295. 

10 Bury Reg. 

11 He was buried 17 Sept. ; ibid. An 
inquisition was made in 1599, when it 
was found that John the father was seised 
of the manor of Brandlesholme and other 
estates, and had in 1585 made a settle- 
ment on the marriage of his son Thomas 
with Mary daughter of Robert Holt. 
Thomas died 16 Sept. 1591, leaving a 
son John, two years of age ; John the 
father and Alice his wife were in 1599 
living at Brandlesholme, and Mary the 
widow of Thomas was living at Middle- 
ton ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvii, 
no. 61. 

13 The seventh earl, in his praise of 
Captain John Greenhalgh, says : ' His 
ancestors have formerly dwelt in my 
house. . . . This certainly might breed 
a desire in the man that the house where 
his predecessors have served might still 
flourish ' ; Stanley Papers (Chet. Soc.), iii 
(B), 12. 

18 Ibid, n, 12; the earl praises him 
for his government of the island, stating 
that he was 'a gentleman well born,' 
having ' a good estate of his own,' which 
he had managed well ; also that he had 
done ' his king and country good service ' 
and been 'approved valiant." He con- 
cludes : ' He is such that I thank God for 
him.' See further accounts by Canon 
Raines, ibid. pp. cxxxii-cxxxiv, and Assbe- 
ton's Journ. (Chet. Soc.), 6. He paid 
25 in 1631 on refusing knighthood ; 
Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 
216. 

14 He is traditionally supposed to have 
fought at Worcester, distinguishing him- 
self by his bravery ; see Diet. Nat. Stag. 

16 Royalist Corap. Papers (Rec. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches.), iii, 107-15 (John 
Greenhalgh), 115-27 (Thomas Green- 
halgh). Alice Greenhalgh, widow of 
John, had been the wife of Richard Burgh 
of Larbreck, and was sister of Thomas 



Chaderton of Lees ; she petitioned for 
her lands. Nothing is said about her 
husband having fought at Worcester. The 
agreement for the marriage of Richard 
son of John Greenhalgh with Alice 
daughter of Edward Rawstorne was 
made in 1631, and is printed at length. 
Richard died in Jan. 1635-6, being 
buried at the parish church on the igth. 
Thomas Greenhalgh, the son and heir, 
petitioned for a declaration of his title to 
the manor, his grandfather's name having 
been included in the third of the Acts of 
Sale, 1652 ; Peacock, Index of Royalistt 
(Index Soc.), 41. 

16 Dugdale, Vint. (Chet. Soc.), 124-6. 

W Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, 
267. In 1682 Thomas Greenhalgh of 
Brandlesholme and his sons John, Henry, 
Orlando, and Richard, were made bur- 
gesses at the Preston Gild ; Pres. Guild 
Rolls (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), 
1 86. 

Adam Martindale relates that having 
about 1670 kept 'a day of preaching and 
prayer' in 'a dark corner' of the parish, 
Dean Bridgeman being at his son-in-law's 
house, and hearing of it, caused an arrest 
to be made. ' I was carried before the 
reverend Dean, who, knowing me well, said 
he wondered that I would expose myself 
to the lash of the law for conventicling, 
and that under his nose.' However, 
' after some other discourse in a loving 
and familiar way he dismissed me, pre- 
tending kindness to me for my Lord 
Delamere's sake.' On a trial the charge 
was dismissed ; Adam Martindale (Chet. 
Soc.), 104-5. ' 

Oliver Heywood also has allusions to 
Thomas Greenhalgh's relations with the 
Nonconformists ; Diaries, i, 253 ; ii, 223. 

18 P.R.O. Litt, 73. 

Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xvi, fol. 
389 ; in 1705 Henry and Orlando were 
the sole surviving executors. Henry 
Greenhalgh of Brandlesholme acquired 
Dauntesey Warth in 1704 ; ibid, xxii, 
453. Thomas Greenhalgh died 15 Jan. 
1691-2 ; Bury Reg. 

80 Raines MSS. xvi, 391. 

21 Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 307, 

m. IS35 3 2 9- "I- 

M Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 612, m. 6; 
Robert Nuttall, merchant, was the other 
vouchee. The estate is described as the 
manor or lordship of Brandlesholme and 
lands, &c., in Elton, Tottington, Walmers- 
ley, Kersal, Pendlebury, Preesall, Stal- 
mine, Hackinsall, and Stainall. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



BURY 




POWELL of Brandies- 
holme. Gules a lion 
rampant within a bar Jure 
engrailed or. 



belonged to his grandson, Captain Henry Folliott 
Powell. 23 

BRANDLESHOLME HALL stands on high ground 
a mile and a half north of Elton, to the west of the 
road to Holcombe Brook, and 
is now a house of little or no 
interest, modern rebuilding and 
repairs having deprived it of 
all its architectural features. It 
was formerly a good specimen 
of the half-timber gabled houses 
of the district, built on a low 
stone base, and erected prob- 
ably in the i6th century with 
a later stone wing with mul- 
lioned windows at the north 
end. The greater part of the 
external timber-work, however, 
appears to have perished or 

have been otherwise destroyed before the middle of the 
last century, when the house seems to have been in a 
more or less dilapidated state, the principal front, which 
faces the east, being then patched with plaster and 
modern sash windows introduced.'* 1 In 1852 the 
south end was taken down and rebuilt in brick and 
stucco, no attempt being made to reproduce the former 
style, and the rest of the building being very much 
dilapidated was repaired in 1908 in a manner more 
resembling in style the work of 1852 than that of the 
original building. Externally, therefore, the house, 
which has long been divided into two, preserves 
nothing of its ancient appearance, a portion of stone 
walling on the north, some brickwork at the back 
(west), and a few stone slabs on the roofs, which 
have been renewed with blue slates, being all the old 
work now left. The interior, however, exhibits a 
good deal of the timber construction, and the hall 
preserves its wide open fireplace and original oak 
ceiling beams. In another room is a portion of a 
ceiling with well-moulded oak beams, and other 
portions of old timber-work still remain. But the 
general aspect of the house, inside as well as out, is 
wholly modernized, and new rooms have been added. 
On the north-east is a stone barn, and in a corner of 
the grounds on the south-west side at the end of a 
terrace approached by eight stone steps are the re- 
mains of a small stone building, locally said to have 



been a chapel, but more probably a summer-house, 
with the initials H.G. (Henry Greenhalgh) and the 
date 1709 on the door-head. 

The Hospitallers owned Haslem Hey, which about 
1540 was tenanted by Edward Earl of Derby, at a 
rent of 1 zd. u The Holts of Stubley held it of the 
earl. 15 

CHAMBER HALL, on the border of Bury, appears 
to have been at one time the residence of a Green- 
halgh family, 16 and then of the Kays. 27 The place 
was leased to Robert Peel, who there established his 
great cotton-printing works. His son, the celebrated 
statesman, was born in the house or in an adjacent 
cottage. 18 It is a question debated locally whether 
Sir Robert or his younger brother was born in this 
cottage during some repairs or additions at the hall ; 
these additions, which were probably the new brick 
front, may not have been begun till after Sir Robert's 
birth. 19 The hall was used as a Baptist college from 
1866 to I874. 30 

It was situated about 400 yds. directly north 
of Bury market-place, on low ground at the 
foot of the plateau on which the old town of Bury 
was built, and not far from the left bank of the 
Irwell. The railway, going north from Bury, passed 
close to it on the east, and its surroundings, which 
had been growing less attractive for the last 
thirty years, were somewhat squalid. In 1825, 
however, the house is described as standing * amid 
fertile fields,' Sl and the position was no doubt origi- 
nally a pleasant one. Of the lyth-century house only 
a small portion remained, at the back or north side ; 
the front part, which was built of brick and dated 
from the latter part of the i8th century, forming the 
larger and principal portion of the building. The 
old house was of three stories, was built of thin rough 
coursed stones with dressed angle quoins, and retained 
its old mullioned and transomed windows with label 
mouldings, one at the east end on the third floor 
having eight lights. The roof was covered with stone 
slates, and in the north wall was a stone with an 
inscription very much worn, dated 1611. The later 
addition was of the same height but of two stories, 
breaking the west gable of the old building, and 
had a very plain brick elevation, with a central door- 
way and two sash windows on each side on the ground 
floor, and five similar windows above. 8 * The house 



28 There are rival accounts in the notes 
in Assbeton's Journ. 5, 6 ; see also 
Notitia Cestr. ii, 29. Francis Mathew, 
created Earl of Llandaff in 1797, who is 
stated to have sold Brandlesholme, was 
the son of Thomas Mathew (who died in 
1777) by a daughter of Richard Mathews 
of Dublin; G.E.C.Complete Peerage, v, 1 26. 

** Pictorial Hist, of Lanes. 1844, p. 
247, where there is an illustration of the 
building at that date. The writer says : 
* The gables seem to have formerly been 
adorned with tracery, some vestige of 
which still remains. The chimneys are 
both very ancient and very ample. Modern 
repairs detract from the uniformity and 
beauty of the edifice.' 

24 Kuerden MSS., v, fol. 84. 

25 Lanes. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and 
Ches.), iii, 336. 

26 Thomas and James Greenhalgh of 
Chamber occur in the early part of the 
1 7th century ; Bury Reg. A Bury family 
also lived there ; ibid. 



*7 James Kay of Chamber Hall in 
Elton in 1711 sold land in Castlecroft to 
Robert Nuttall ; Raines MSS. (Chet. 
Lib.), xxxi, fol. 350. 

38 The history of the Peel family be- 
longs to Blackburn. A description of the 
works in 1795 is given in Aikin, Country 
round Manchester, 268-9. 

Robert Peel was selected by Messrs. 
Haworth (his uncle) and Yates as their 
junior partner and manager of the 
works established at Bury about 1770. 
He acquired a large fortune. He was 
made a baronet in 1800, and died in 
1830; Abram, Blackburn, 220 ; Bar- 
ton, Bury, 4996 ; Lanes, and Ches. 
Hist, and Gen. Notes, i, 1 30 ; Local Glean- 
ings Lanes, and Ches. i, 205 ; Diet. Nat. 
Biog. 

Sir Robert Peel, the statesman, was his 
eldest son, and was born in 1788. His 
public career, which was not directly con- 
nected with Lancashire, began when he 
was twenty-one, his father having bought 

135 



for him the representation of Cashel, for 
which he sat as a Tory. In 1 8 1 7 he was 
elected for the University of Oxford, and 
afterwards represented other constituencies. 
In 1810 he was under-secretary for war 
and the colonies, and was in office almost 
continuously for twenty years ; prime 
minister, 1834-5 ; built up the Conserva- 
tive party ; prime minister, 1841-6, when 
he pursued the policy of repealing duties ; 
continued in his great work of the repeal 
of the corn laws, 1846. He refused the 
Garter. He died 29 June 1850, having 
been thrown from his horse ; Diet. Nat. 
Biog. 

29 See letter by Viscount Peel in a Bury 
newspaper, June 1899, quoted by Manch. 
Guardian, i Feb. 1908. 

80 Barton, Bury, 95. The college is 
now at Rusholme. 

81 Corry, Hist, of Lanes, ii, 658. 

82 There is an illustration of the old 
part of Chamber Hall in The Pictorial 
Hist, of Lanes. 1844, p. 250. 



A HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE 



was pulled down in February 1909, the inscribed 
stone above referred to being placed in the Bury 
Museum. 

Somerset, now Summerseat, was held by the Raw- 
stornes under the lord of Brandlesholme. 88 

Woodhill was long the residence of a family named 
Kay. 54 Roger Kay, the refounder of the grammar 
school, was of this family. 343 

The principal landowners in 1789 were : Powell 
for Brandlesholme, Peel for Chamber Hall, Richard 
Bridge, Mrs. Nuttall for Woodhill, and Mrs. Johnson 
for Seddon's." 

In connexion with the Established Church, All Saints' 
was built in 1843, and had a separate district assigned 
to it in I844- 36 St. Stephen's, built in 1881, had a 
district assigned to it three years later. 37 The patron- 
age of these churches is vested in the rector of Bury 
and the vicar of All Saints' respectively. Christ 
Church, Walshaw Lane, was built in 1892 as a 
memorial to Jesse Haworth of Walshaw Mill, who 
died in 1897, by his sister Miss Nancy Haworth and 
his nephew the Rev. John Gorell Haworth. 

The Wesleyan Methodists have two churches in 
Elton ; the United Methodist Church one ; and 
the Primitive Methodists also one, built in I868. 38 

For Roman Catholics the school-chapel of Our 
Lady of Good Counsel and the Guardian Angels was 
built in 1886, and a church in 1892. 

HEAP 

Hepe, 1278 ; Hewood, 1292. 

The greater part of the township of Heap lies on 
the south bank of the Roch, and has a detached 
portion, called Whittle, between Pilsworth, Uns- 
worth, and Middleton ; but there is also a consider- 
able area to the north of the stream, containing 
Little Bridge, Bridge Hall, and Broad Oak on the 



west, and part of Bamford with Jowkin and Meadow- 
croft on the east. There are several detached portions,, 
due probably to a division of the wastes between 
Heap on the one side and Birtle on the other. The 
area of the whole is 2,938^ acres. 1 The population 
of the borough of Hey wood in 1901 was 25,458. 

The principal road is that eastward from Bury 
across the Roch at Heap Bridge, through Charles- 
town and Heady Hill, 2 and the town of Heywood,. 
where it divides, to Rochdale on the north-west and 
Middleton on the south. Another road from Bury 
to Rochdale keeps on the northern side of the Roch, 
and is joined by a cross road from Heywood through 
Hooley Bridge. 3 

At Heywood all branches of cotton spinning 
and manufacture are carried on, and there are iron 
and brass foundries, saw mills, boiler and wagon 
works ; power looms are made. At Heap Bridge 
there are great paper mills, and woollen and cotton 
mills. 

An urn containing a large number of Roman coins 
was found at Plumpton House near Hooley Bridge in 
I856. 4 

There were 126 hearths liable to the tax in 1666. 
The largest dwellings were those of Robert Heywood 
(with nine hearths), Roger Holt (seven), and William 
Bamford (six). 5 

Heap has disappeared as a township ; the borough 
of Heywood has taken the larger part within it, and 
other parts have been added to the neighbouring 
townships. 6 

The manorial history of Heap is in- 
M4NORS volved with that of Bury, but there are 
some estates in the hamlet or township 
which appear to have been considered as manors. 7 

BRIDGE H4LL, on the north bank of the Roch, 8 
where the road from Bury to Heywood and Middle- 
ton crossed the stream, was long held by a branch 



88 Thurstan Rawstorne in 1583 had two 
messuages and land in Elton, which he 
sold or mortgaged to Thomas Warburton ; 
Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 45, m. 58. 
He was a juror in 1 604 ; Lanes. Jnq. p.m. 
(Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ch.es.), i, 28. 

Children of William Rawstorne of Sum- 
merseat occur in the Bury Registers, 
1610 to 1616, and he was buried 8 Dec. 
1618. He also occurs as a juror. 

Lawrence Rawsthorne of Summerseat 
died early in 1630.; administration of his 
effects was granted to his widow Ellen ; 
Will* (Chet. Soc. new ser.), i, 239. 

Thurstan Rawstorne, gentleman, died 
at Summerseat i Dec. 1634, holding 
three messuages, &c., in Elton of John 
Greenhalgh of Brandlesholme by the 
twentieth part of a knight's fee and a 
yearly rent of \d. Ellen his daughter and 
heir wa seven years of age. Ellen his 
widow lived at Bolton ; Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. xxviii, no. 38. 

A right of way over Summerseat was 
claimed by Thomas Greenhalgh in 1576 
against Thurstan Rawstorne and Lawrence 
Bury ; Ducatus Lane. (Rec. Com.), iii, 

43- 

The Old Hall, Summerseat, was about 
a century ago the residence of Christopher 
Roberts, an inventor and mathematician ; 
' in his disposition calm and philosophical 
he kept aloof from the pursuit of wealth, 
and died, as he had lived, blameless.' He 
was a Swedenborgian ; Barton, Bury, 245. 

84 The name occurs constantly in the 
Bury Registers. The will of Roger Kay 



of 'Wyddall,' dated 1563, mentions his 
son Arthur ; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), 
xvi, fol. 383. Susan daughter of Richard 
Kay of ' Widdell ' in 1724 married Robert 
Unsworth of Elton ; ibid, xxxi, 290. 

843 Roger was the son of Roger Kay, 
husbandman, of Bury, and entered St. 
John's College, Cambridge, in 1684, as 
sizar attending on John the son of Thomas 
Greenhalgh, who was at the same time 
admitted as a fellow-commoner ; Admis- 
sions St. John's Col. ii, 97. He became 
fellow of the college (1689-92), rector of 
Fittleton and prebendary of Sarum, and 
died in 1731 ; Baker, Hist. St. John's 
Col. (ed. Mayor), i, 300, 301; Le Neve, 
Fasti, iii, 666, 669. In 1726 he en- 
dowed the grammar school of Bury with 
Chadwick Hall and other estates in Spot- 
land, a rent-charge on Ewood Hall in 
Haslingden, &c. ; and by his will of 1729 
left Ewood and other lands to his nephew 
Roger Kay ; the Warth in RadclifFe to his 
niece Rachel, wife of Richard Allen, 
surgeon ; his other nieces were Dorothy 
Sudell, widow, and Susan wife of Roger 
Kay of Widdall; Char. Rep. of 1828, 
xix, 217,221. 

From the Bury Registers it appears that 
Roger Kay of Widdall had sons Richard 
and Roger, born in 1650 and 1663 re- 
spectively ; the latter is the benefac- 
tor. Richard Kay of Widdall had a son 
Roger, born in 1692, who is the nephew 
referred to. 

88 Land tax returns at Preston. 

86 Lond. Gam. 23 Feb. 1844; for en- 

136 



dowments, ibid. 3 May 1844 and 10 Aug. 
1866. The site was known as Goose 
Hill Bank. 

8 ? The schools were erected in 1870. 

88 Barton, Bury, 204. 

1 The area of Heywood in 1901 was 
3,660 acres, including 51 of inland water, 
according to the Census Rep. 

8 Here was the old district or hamlet 
of Lumhalghs or Lomax. 

8 For the mill at this place, stopped in 
1 86 1 through disputes in the Fenton 
family, see Heywood N. and Q. (ed. 
J. A. Green), i, 37. This publication 
gathers up a number of notes about per- 
sons and places in the district. 

4 Lanes, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. ix, 166. 

6 Subsidy R. bdle. 250, no. 9 Lanes. 

8 Under the Divided Parishes Act, 1882, 
Diggles was transferred from Heap to 
Birtle-cum-Bamford. The final change 
was made in 1894 by Local Govt. Bd. 
Order 31671 ; Heap is now divided be- 
tween Heywood, Bury, Birtle-with-Bam- 
ford, and Unsworth. 

7 Heap as a surname occurs, but the 
connexion of the family with the place is 
not known. 

8 In 1278 William son of William del 
Bridge successfully claimed a messuage 
and an oxgang of land in Bury against 
Adam de Bury, Henry son of Cecily de 
Heap, and others. Roger de Bolton was 
the plaintiffs predecessor in title ; Assize 
R. 1238, m. 31. It is not clear whether 
or not this was the Bridge family already 
noticed in Bury proper. 



SALFORD HUNDRED 



BURY 



of the Holt family, 9 who were succeeded by the 
Nuttalls ; 10 after whom came the Grundys and the 
Wrigleys, now owners. 

B4MFORD, also on the north bank of the stream, 11 
gave its name to the family which owned it from the 
1 3th to the I gth century. Adam de Bury granted 
all his lands in Bamford to Alexander de Bamford at 
a rent of 40^." There is but little record of the 
family. 13 Henry son of Thomas de Bamford was 



outlawed for debt in 1389, and it was found that he 
had one messuage at Bamford, held of Sir Roger de 
Pilkington in socage by the rent of 3*. 6d. y and 
another in Spotland, held of John de Wolstenholme 
by a rent of i\d Samuel Bamford, who died on 
10 June 1629, held the manor of Bamford, with 
messuages in Bamford and Bury, of the Earl of Derby 
by a rent of 3/. 4^., and also the manor of Wolsten- 
holme. The heir was his nephew William Bamford 



9 Some deeds of the family may be seen 
in Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxi, fol. 
280, &c. 

In 1445-6 John Holt of the Bridge, 
who also had Stake Hill m Thornham, 
agreed with John Clegg of the Mill-house 
concerning the marriage of his son Henry 
with Margery daughter of John Clegg. 
The deed mentions lands formerly held by 
Henry Holt and Margery his wife in Bury 
and Middleton ; ibid. 1 8 1. 

Roger Holt of Bury, son of Henry Holt 
of Bridge, occurs in 1490 ; Pal. of Lane. 
Writs Proton, file 5 Hen. VII. 

Roger Holt died 5 Sept. 1594, holding 
the capital messuage called Bridge Hall, a 
water-mill adjoining, and messuages, &c., 
in Heap, of the Earl of Derby in socage, 
by a rent of 2s. a year. He also had lands at 
Stake Hill in Middleton, Feilden in Hund- 
dersfield, and Whittaker in Clegg. His 
son Richard having died before him, the 
heir was Richard's son Roger, eleven years 
of age ; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xv